Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Planning for social and psychological needs at a Canadian Arctic military installation Moore, William R. 1990

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1990_A8_3 M66.pdf [ 7.94MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0098475.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0098475-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0098475-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0098475-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0098475-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0098475-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0098475-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0098475-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0098475.ris

Full Text

PLANNING FOR SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS AT A CANADIAN ARCTIC MILITARY INSTALLATION by W i l l i a m R. Moore BEng ( C i v i l ) , The R o y a l M i l i t a r y C o l l e g e o f Canada A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE (PLANNING) i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Sc h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Oc t o b e r 1990 (c) W i l l i a m R. Moore In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of British Columbia \J The University of Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The Canadian Arctic is a region that greatly contrasts with the remainder of Canada, particularly the main area of settlement: the thin strip of land in southern Canada along the United States boundary. Since Canadian military personnel come primarily from southern Canada, being sent to an arctic installation places them in an unfamiliar, confined, isolated and potentially threatening environment that may expose them to social and psychological stresses that they are unprepared to encounter. Planning of an arctic military installation must consider physical design constraints such as construction in areas of permafrost and physical protection from the harsh natural environment. However, planning should also consider the social and psychological needs of the inhabitants. The purpose of this thesis is to identify measures that should be considered in planning a Canadian arctic military installation in order to alleviate the social and psychological stresses of this unique environment. The scope is limited to investigating primarily the military environment, although relevant material i s drawn from other sources through a literature review. In order to identify the stresses of this environment, to understand their potential effects, and to suggest measures to alleviate these effects, a explicit concept of stress is required. - i i i -A literature review is used to discuss the concept of stress and define a model of stress that is applied in the subsequent analysis in the thesis. This model, the transactional or interactional model, emphasizes the individuality of the experience of stress. Stress is a dynamic phenomenon that includes the capacity of an individual to not only cope with stress, but also learn from the coping experience. The experience of stress is a process affected by the characteristics of the environment, the characteristics of the individual and the relationship between the individual and his natural, man-made and social environment. A second literature review is conducted to discuss the potential social and psychological stresses that could apply to military personnel posted to the unique environment of a Canadian arctic military installation. The more salient characteristics of this environment that imply social and psychological stresses are those of isolation and confinement. Efforts suggested in the literature aimed at either avoiding or ameliorating the incidence of stress in an isolated and confined environment include actions that would be taken: a. in the design of the station built environment; b. in the screening and selection of station personnel; c. during the indoctrination training of personnel prior to deployment; and - iv -d. throughout the operation of the station. These measures were applied, via a case study of Canadian Forces Station Alert, to gauge their relevancy in planning a Canadian arctic military installation. Many of these measures are currently in practice; however, particular characteristics of the Canadian military and an arctic military station make changes in specific emphasis. Characteristics which apply are those of: a. the differences in station size; b. the differences in climate and natural environment; c. the need to maintain continuous station operation without the disruption of complete member rotation; d. the limited source population from which to select members for service in the Arctic; e. a station composed of service persons of the Canadian military is typically more homogeneous in composition; f. the differences in the circumstances under which the members are employed, as Canadian service members in the Arctic are less likely to be volunteers; g. the members of the Canadian Forces have already had some experience in postings to isolated environments; and h. the marital status of members has particular importance due to the added d i f f i c u l i t i e s for service families. - v -TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF FIGURES x i 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Rationale 5 1.3 Purpose s 8 1.4 Methodology 9 1.5 Organization 10 2. THE EFFECTS OF STRESS 12 2.1 Introduction 12 2.2 The Concept of Stress 12 2.2.1 Stimulus-Based Approach .13 2.2.2 Response-Based Approach 13 2.2.3 Deficiencies of the Stimulus- and Response- Based Approaches 14 2.2.4 Interactional-Based Approach 15 2.3 Implications for the Reduction of Stress . . . . 21 2.4 Summary 23 - v i -3. STRESSES OF AN ISOLATED AND CONFINED ENVIRONMENT . . . 2 4 3. 1 Introduction 2 4 3.2 Isolation and Confinement 2 5 3. 3 Antarctic Studies 3 0 3 . 3 . 1 Antarctic Environment 3 3 3 . 3 . 1 . 1 The Physical Environment . . . . 3 3 3 . 3 . 1 . 2 The Social Environment 3 9 3 . 3 . 2 Demands of ^Wintering Over' 4 7 3 . 3 . 3 Coping 5 3 3 . 3 . 4 Effects of Stress in the Antarctic . . . 6 1 3 . 3 . 3 . 1 Negative Effects 62 3 . 3 . 3 . 2 Positive Effects 64 3 . 3 . 5 Factors Which Appear to Influence Coping and Stress Effects . 6 6 3 . 3 . 5 . 1 Group Morale and Goals 6 7 3 . 3 . 5 . 2 Period of Service at the Station 6 9 . 3 . 3 . 5 . 3 Group Size 7 1 3 . 3 . 5 . 4 Occupational Differences . . . . 7 2 3 . 3 . 5 . 5 Marital Status 7 3 3 . 3 . 5 . 6 Presence of Women 7 4 3.4 Planned Efforts to Reduce Stress Effects . . . . 7 5 3 . 4 . 1 Design of the Built Environment 7 6 3 . 4 . 1 . 1 Recreational Facilities . . . . 7 6 3 . 4 . 1 . 2 Places for Solitary Activities . 7 7 - v i i -3.4.1.3 Distinct Areas for Work and Recreation 78 3.4.1.4 Flexible Environments 79 3.4.1.5 Means of Communication With Home 80 3.4.1.6 Diversity of Interior Decor . . 82 3.4.1.7 Fitness F a c i l i t i e s 83 3.4.2 Screening and Selection 84 3.4.2.1 Undesirable Qualities 85 3.4.2.2 Desirable Qualities 87 3.4.2.3 Station Leadership 90 3.4.2.4 Limitations of Screening . . . . 91 3.4.3 Pre-deployment Indoctrination Training . 92 3.4.3.1 Developing a Team 93 3.4.3.2 Antarctic Survival Trainng . . . 94 3.4.3.3 Familiarization With Group and Individual Roles 94 3.4.3.4 Behaviour Training 95 3.4.3.5 Training for Station Leaders . . 96 3.4.3.6 Training i n Coping With Stress . 98 3.4.4 Station Operation 98 3.4.4.1 Station Member Rotation . . . . 99 3.4.4.2 Allocation of Duties 99 3.4.4.3 Providing a Varied Diet . . . . 101 3.4.4.4 Social A c t i v i t i e s 101 3.4.4.5 Organizational Framework . . . . 102 - v i i i -3.4.4.6 Duration of Stay 104 3.4.4.7 Enhancing Social Support . . . . 105 3.4.4.8 Monitoring Psychological Welfare 106 3.4.4.9 Group Dynamics 106 3.5 Summary 108 4. CASE STUDY 110 4.1 Introduction 110 4.2 Overview of Canadian Forces Station Alert . . . 111 4.2.1 Location I l l 4.2.2 History 113 4.2.3 Environment 115 4.2.4 Climate 116 4.2.5 Station Organization and Operation . . . 120 4.2.6 Station Facilities 125 4.2.7 Selection of Personnel 128 4.3 Comparison of CFS Alert to Antarctic Studies . . 128 4.4 Discussion 136 4.4.1 Design of the Built Environment 137 4.4.2 Screening and Selection 139 4.4.3 Pre-deployment Indoctrination Training . 143 4.4.4 Station Operation 162 4.5 Summary 166 - ix -5. CONCLUSIONS 168 5.1 Introduction ; 168 5.2 Summary 168 5.3 Main Findings 172 5.4 Suggestions For Further Research 173 BIBLIOGRAPHY 175 - x -LIST OF TABLES I. Typical Sizes of Studied Antarctic Installations . . . 44 II. Demands of L i f e at an Antarctic Installation 48 III. Comparison of Natural Environments of the A r c t i c and Antarctic 130 IV. Comparison of Antarctic Studies to Canadian Forces Station A l e r t 133 - x i -LIST OF FIGURES 1. The Extent of the Canadian A r c t i c 3 2. The Interactional (Transactional) Model of Stress . . . 20 3. Locations of Antarctic Installations, 1987 37 4. Location of Canadian Forces Station Alert . . . . . . . 112 5. Patterns of Daylight and Darkness at Canadian Forces Station Alert 117. - 1 -Chapter 1 - Introduction 1 1.1 Background The Canadian Department of National Defence has 35 military installations across Canada and Europe that range from 200 to 6 ,000 inhabitants. These installations may be thought of as towns or communities as they typically consist of industrial, commercial/ educational/ recreational and residential f a c i l i t i e s . They are located in a wide range of environments that vary from one extreme of large urban settings such as Toronto or Montreal to another extreme of isolated settings such as Alert or Masset. The planning, provision and management of Defence f a c i l i t i e s i s guided by central Departmental and Federal policies; however, these must be adapted to the special environment of each ins t a l l a t i o n . One such environment involves military f a c i l i t i e s in the Canadian Arctic. Presently, there i s one arctic communications installation, Canadian Forces Station Alert; however, planning i s under way to locate an additional installation in the Arctic. 2 xThe views and opinions expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the o f f i c i a l policies of the Canadian Department of National Defence. 2K.C. Eyre, "Forty Years of Military Activity in the Canadian North, 1947-87," Arctic, December 1987, p. 298. - 2 -The Canadian Arctic i s approximately 2.6 million square kilometres in area, and i s the largest polar area under the control of one country. 1 The extent of the Arctic may be defined in a number of ways, such as latitude, patterns of sunlight and darkness, temperature gradients, vegetation or ranges of permafrost. Sugden suggests the use of the northern tree line to define the natural boundary of the Arctic: The natural boundaries of the Arctic are effectively delimited to the south by the tree line which swings down from the v i c i n i t y of the arctic coast in the northwest, round most of Hudson Bay and across the northern Ungava Peninsula. This boundary i s closely paralleled by the southern lim i t . of continuous permafrost. It also effectively separates Inuit-occupied land to the north from Indian-occupied land to the south. 2 The boundary of the Canadian Arctic, using this definition, i s shown in Figure 1. The arctic region of Canada i s a unique environment, one which the typical Canadian finds quite unfamiliar. Areas in the high northern latitudes experience patterns of daylight and darkness that vary considerably from southern Canada. Complete darkness prevails for approximately four months in the winter, while the summer months are a period of t o t a l daylight. 3 *D. Sugden, Arctic and Antarctic: A Modern Geographical  Synthesis (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1982), pp. 290-291. 2Ibid. *M.A. Baird, The Polar World (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1964), p. 1. - 3 -Figure 1: The Extent of the Canadian A r c t i c Source: D. Sudgen, A r c t i c and A n t a r c t i c : A Modern Geographical  Synthesis (Oxford: B a s i l Blackwell, 1982), p. 291. - 4 -The overall annual climate i s predominantly cold with a long, very cold winter of continuous frost and a brief, but cool, summer. Baird emphasizes this by remarking that an "...old traditional saying of the Arctic i s , 'It's always winter up there, but July i s bad sledging'." 1 Winter temperatures may get as low as 50 degrees Centigrade below zero. Winds can be high at any time of the year and, coupled with the cold temperatures, may cause an extreme windchill effect which poses a considerable threat of freezing to exposed flesh. Precipitation i s particularly low, due to the low moisture-carrying capacity of the cold a i r . 2 Despite the low levels of precipitation, winds can cause a great deal of d r i f t i n g and obstruction to v i s i b i l i t y . The Canadian Arctic i s very sparsely populated compared to the rest of Canada. Despite i t s large size, including a l l of the Yukon and Northwest Territories, only 0.25 percent of the Canadian population l i v e there. In contrast, 90 percent of the Canadian population l i v e within 300 kilometres of the border with the United States. 3 xIbid., p. 2. 2M.R. Dawson, "Arctic Environments: The Physical Setting," in Arctic L i f e : A Challenge to Survive, eds. M.M. Jacobs and J.B. Richardson (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Institute, 1983), p. 23. 3Sugden, pp. 291-293. - 5 -The Inuit comprise the bulk of the native population in the Canadian Arctic. As of 1979, roughly 20,000 Inuit people l i v e there, mostly in small, isolated settlements that are scattered along the coasts. The population of these settlements normally range between 50 and 900 persons with a mean size of around 400 to 500.1 In summary, the Canadian Arctic i s a region that greatly contrasts with the remainder of Canada, particularly the main area of settlement: the thin 300 kilometre strip of land in southern Canada along the United States boundary. Since Canadian military personnel come primarily from southern Canada, being sent to an arctic installation places them in an unfamiliar, confined, isolated and potentially threatening environment. The characteristics of this environment may expose the military personnel to social and psychological stresses that these personnel are unprepared to encounter. 1.2 Rationale Planning of an arctic military installation must consider physical design constraints such as construction in areas of permafrost and physical protection from the harsh ^ b i d . , pp. 295-299. - 6 -natural environment.1 However, planning should also consider the social and psychological needs of the inhabitants. For example, Canadian Forces Station Alert i s located at the northern, uninhabited end of Ellesmere Island, the most northern island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. It is manned continuously throughout the year and access to the site i s only by airplane. The 220 personnel at the Station must serve there for a period of six months, leaving their families at their home bases across Canada. This isolation, both from their families and from c i v i l i a n settlement, combined with the confinement of l i v i n g in this alien environment, places Station personnel under unique stresses. The experience of stress has been linked to a variety of behavioural, physiological and health effects. The following l i s t includes some of the effects that have been attributed to the general experience of stress: 2 a. Subjective Effects: anxiety, aggression, depression, boredom, or apathy; \J.E. Slater, The Arctic Basin (Washington: Arctic Institute of North America, 1969), pp. 309-322. 2C. Bradley and T. Cox, "Stress and Health," in Stress, ed. T. Cox (London: MacMillan, 1978), pp. 91-92. - 7 -b. Behavioural Effects: accident proneness, excessive eating, drinking or smoking, emotional outbursts, or restlessness; c. Cognitive Effects: indecisiveness, forgetfulness, lack of concentration, hypersensitivity to criticism, or mental blocks; d. Physiological Effects: increased heart rate and blood pressure, d i f f i c u l t y breathing, hot and cold spells, or sweating; e. Health Effects: Asthma, chest pains, dizziness, headaches and migraines, heart disease, insomnia, skin rashes, ulcers, or nightmares; and f. Organizational Effects: absenteeism, poor productivity, high accident rates,, lower employee retention rates, job dissatisfaction, or poor organizational climate. It i s clear that i t i s in the interests of an employer to be concerned with the effects of stress on the employees.1 The Department of National Defence i s concerned with the quality of the working and l i v i n g environments of i t s personnel for reasons of individual work performance and of overall organizational efficiency. Also, the Department XJ.G. Bruhn and S. Wolf, "Stress, Satisfaction, and Morale in Relation to Health and Productivity," in Occupational Stress:  Health and Performance at Work, eds. S. Wolf and A.J. Finestone, (Littleton, Mass: PSG Publishing, 1986), p. 1-10. - 8 -recognizes that.it i s in i t s interest to ensure that "...the quality of l i f e in the Canadian Forces i s v i s i b l y of a type which w i l l attract new recruits, maintain high standards of total fitness and morale, and influence trained personnel to remain in the Canadian Forces". 1 The planning of f a c i l i t i e s at a Canadian arctic military installation should be undertaken to better meet the needs of i t s inhabitants. To do so, specific measures, based on the unique psychological and social stresses of the environment, should be identified and developed. 1.3 Purpose The purpose of this thesis to identify measures that should be considered in planning a Canadian arctic military i n s t a l l a t i o n in order to alleviate the social and psychological stresses of this unique environment. The scope i s limited to investigating primarily the military environment, although relevant material w i l l be drawn from other sources through a literature review. Only the stresses arising from the physical, social and working environments at an arctic military installation w i l l be *Canada, Department of National Defence, Canadian Forces Publication A-PS-110-001/AG-002, Policy Governing Operation of  Personnel Support Programs in the Canadian Forces: Public Support of Personnel Support Programs, p. 3-2. - 9 -considered. M i l i t a r y requirements f o r the existence of the i n s t a l l a t i o n and i t s s p e c i f i c m i l i t a r y operations w i l l not be questioned or discussed. It i s assumed that any future Canadian a r c t i c m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n would be manned and operated i n a s i m i l a r manner as the present i n s t a l l a t i o n , Canadian Forces Station A l e r t . Canadian Forces personnel would serve there temporarily, f o r a period of up to s i x months, leaving f a m i l i e s i n permanent home bases across southern Canada. I t i s also assumed that such an i n s t a l l a t i o n would not be i n an area where there i s s i g n i f i c a n t e x i s t i n g permanent settlement. 1.4 Methodology The content of t h i s t h e s i s i s p r i m a r i l y based on a l i t e r a t u r e review of stress, of the psychological and s o c i a l stresses of m i l i t a r y personnel and of l i f e i n the a r c t i c , or a n t a r c t i c , environment. This l i t e r a t u r e review w i l l be supplemented by a case study of Canadian Forces Station A l e r t . The case study w i l l involve: an overview of the natural environment, personnel, organization and f a c i l i t i e s of the s t a t i o n ; information c o l l e c t e d during a s i t e v i s i t to the s t a t i o n ; interviews of persons f a m i l i a r with problems associated with l i f e at the s t a t i o n ; and an a p p l i c a t i o n of the findings of the l i t e r a t u r e review to Canadian Forces Station Alert. - 10 -1.5 Organization Chapter 1 introduces the background of this thesis, including the reasons for planning a Canadian arctic military installation and the environment of the Canadian Arctic. The rationale, purpose, methodology and organization of the thesis are also presented. Chapter 2 consists of a literature review to discuss the concept of stress and define a model of stress that w i l l be applied in the subsequent literature review of the social and psychological stresses of polar l i f e and the case study analysis of the Canadian Arctic Forces Station Alert. Chapter 3 i s a literature review to discuss the potential social and psychological stresses that could apply to Canadian Forces personnel posted to the unique environment of a Canadian arctic military i n s t a l l a t i o n . The chapter consists of three sections. The f i r s t section discusses the characteristics of isolation and confinement. The second section i s a review of literature pertaining to social and psychological stresses of l i f e in a polar environment for persons originating in a more temperate climate. The third section summarizes various recommendations, given in the literature, for measures aimed - 11 -at e i t h e r avoiding or ameliorating the incidence of stress i n an i s o l a t e d and confined environment. As the bulk of the research presented i n the l i t e r a t u r e review has been based on the A n t a r c t i c , and since the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to i d e n t i f y measures that should be considered i n planning a Canadian a r c t i c m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n i n order to a l l e v i a t e the s o c i a l and psychological stresses of t h i s unique environment, i t i s necessary to investigate the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of measures i d e n t i f i e d f o r a n t a r c t i c research stations to an e x i s t i n g Canadian a r c t i c m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n . Therefore, Chapter 4 introduces Canadian Forces Station A l e r t as a case study. Chapter 4 consists of: an overview of Canadian Forces Station A l e r t , a comparison of the s i t u a t i o n of Canadian Forces Station A l e r t to that of the a n t a r c t i c stations studied i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and a discussion of the measures proposed i n the l i t e r a t u r e , measuring t h e i r relevancy, and adapting them with respect to the circumstances of a Canadian a r c t i c m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n . Chapter 5 i s the conclusion of the t h e s i s . This includes: a summary of the work, the major findings, and suggestions f o r further research. - 12 -Chapter 2 - The Effects of Stress 2.1 Introduction Central to th i s thesis i s the assumption that stresses have the potential to negatively affect m i l i t a r y personnel l i v i n g i n an a r c t i c environment. In order to id e n t i f y the stresses of t h i s environment, to understand t h e i r potential effects, and to suggest measures to a l l e v i a t e these effects, a e x p l i c i t concept of stress i s required. 1 This chapter consists of a l i t e r a t u r e review to discuss the concept of stress and define a model of stress that w i l l be applied i n the subsequent analysis i n th i s thesis. 2.2 The Concept of Stress The term 'stress' i s commonly used; however, there i s no one, clear d e f i n i t i o n of stress. Godwin states that: Stress i s seen as both cause and effect, something i n t h e i r environment to which individuals are exposed, and something from which they suffer. Consequently there i s confusion associated with the meaning, and usage, of the term.2 XA. Monat and R.S. Lazarus, eds., Stress and Coping: An  Anthology (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), p. 3. 2J.R. Godwin, A Preliminary Investigation Into Stress i n  Australian Antarctic Expeditioners (Turner ACT: Psychological Research Unit, 1985), p. 5. Cox i d e n t i f i e s three approaches to define stress. 1 These are: the stimulus-based approach, the response-based approach and the interactional-based approach. 2.2.1 Stimulus-Based Approach The stimulus-based approach treats stress " . . . i n terms of the stimulus characteristics of environments which are recognized as disturbing or disruptive i n some way."2 Stress i s viewed as the external, independent variable of the environment that i n f l i c t s a corresponding response, or strain, within the individual. This approach i s analogous to the concept of stress and strain i n engineering. An external stress i s applied to an individual, who experiences s t r a i n . I t i s assumed that individuals have l i m i t s to which they can. re s i s t t h i s stress "...thereafter permanent damage, either physiological or psychological, results". 3 2.2.2 Response-Based Approach Conversely, the response-based approach i s : ...concerned with the specification of the particular response or pattern of responses which may be taken as evidence that the person i s , or has *T. Cox, Stress (London: MacMillan, 1978), pp. 3-25. 2Ibid., p. 12. 3T. Cox and C. MacKay, "A Transactional Approach to Occupational Stress," i n Stress, Work Design, and Productivity, eds. E.N. Corlett and J. Richardson (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1982), p. 97. - 14 -been, under pressure from a 'disturbing' environment. That response or pattern of response i s either actually treated as the stress or, at least, i s treated as i t s defining parameter.1 Stress i s defined as a dependent variable, the response to an external stimulus. The occurrence of the response i n the individual to an external stimulus i s the occurrence of the stress i t s e l f . 2.2.3 Deficiencies of the Stimulus- and Response-Based  Approaches The stimulus- and response-based approaches have been c r i t i c i z e d for being too simple i n t h e i r application. These approaches f a i l to take account of the active role that individuals take i n relation to t h e i r environments. 2 The stimulus- and response-based approaches treat the individual as the passive recipient of stress and do not give adequate consideration to individual, temporal, situational or psychological processes. 3 For example, the response-based approach to stress i s inadequate since a stress response pattern (such as anxiety or ^ox, p. 4. 2Ibid., pp. 17-18. 3Cox and MacKay, pp. 98-99.; R.S. Lazarus and J.B. Cohen, "Environmental Stress," i n Human Behaviour and Environment: Advances  i n Theory and Research, Vol. 2, eds. I. Altman and J.F. Wohlwill (New York: Plenum Press, 1977), pp. 106-108. - 15 -increased heart rate) may arise from very different demand conditions. 1 Also, the stimulus-based approach i s inadequate, since a particular situation (such as being alone or on a busy c i t y street) may cause either positive or negative effects depending on the characteristics of the person and the meaning of the situation for the person. 2.2.4 Interactional-Based Approach The interactional-based approach i s based upon the opinion that "... stress should be approached from a standpoint of the interaction of the individual and the environment".2 The environment includes the physical (natural and man-made) and so c i a l systems.3 The interactional-based approach draws from both of the previous approaches and emphasizes the transactional nature of the process. Lazarus and Cohen have described t h i s approach as a relationship between two systems, person and environment, or between two or more intra-individual systems. Lazarus and Cohen state that: ...the sources of stress reactions are complex, ar i s i n g out of adaptive commerce between an individual of a particular sort and a given environment that engenders certain demands, constraints, and resources, so that to speak of *Monat and Lazarus, p. 2. 2Godwin, p. 8. 3Lazarus and Cohen, p. 90. - 16 -environmental or person-centred sources of stress reaction i s always simplistic. Ultimately we must view the problem in transactional rather than in solely situational or person-centred terms.1 Cox describes the interactional- (or transactional) based approach as a cyclical system with feedback components between the environment and the individual. 2 He proposes that this system consists of five stages: a. Stage One. A demand is applied to an individual. This demand is a request or requirement for physical or mental action, with an implied time constraint. Demands may originate either externally, or internally, to the person. External demands are those placed on the person by the environment. Internal demands relate to the psychological and physiological needs of an individual, the fulfilment of these is important in determining his behaviour. The environment may or may not give the individual an opportunity to satisfy his internally generated demands.3 b. Stage Two. The person forms perceptions of the demand and of his ability to cope with the demand. Through a cognitive appraisal process, he matches the perceived demand with his perceived ability to 'Ibid., pp. 100-101. 2Cox, p. 18. 3Cox and MacKay, p. 102. - 17 -cope with the demand. The "...cognitive appraisal represents an evaluative perception of person-environment transactions, a judgement about the significance of an event, or a flow of events for the persons well-being. 1 , 1 This appraisal process refers to the evaluation of the competing elements i n the person's situation, and depends upon learning and past experience. 2 A person's appraisal and subsequent actions are constrained by his situation, his own value system or the support offered by others. 3 The appraisal process does not necessarily involve only conscious mental a c t i v i t y , but can also occur at an unconscious l e v e l , c. Stage Three. Imbalances between the perceived demand and perceived a b i l i t y to cope with the demand result i n psychophysiological changes. These changes represent the attempt of the individual to cope with the demand. Coping i s defined "...as the person's constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage s p e c i f i c external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the person's resources." 4 Coping may be 'Lazarus and Cohen, p. 111. 2Ibid., p. 99. 3Cox and MacKay, p. 103. 4S. Folkman, R.S. Lazarus, C. Dunkel-Schetter, A. DeLongis and R.J. Gruen, "Dynamics of a Stressful Encounter: Cognitive Appraisal, Coping, and Encounter Outcomes," i n Journal of Personality and  Social Psychology, 1986, Vol. 50, No. 5, p. 993. - 18 -either problem-focused or emotion-focused. 1 Problem-focused coping refers to a behavioural response to change the person-environment relationship, such as seeking information, physically a l t e r i n g the demand, or avoidance behaviour. Emotion-focused coping refers to a cognitive defence to a l l e v i a t e the emotional impact of the stress, such as reappraising the effects of f a i l u r e or changing one's perception of the demand. Coping methods "...may depend on the source of stress, the options available and the individual's personality and circumstances". 2 d. Stage Four. The perceived and actual consequences of the coping behaviour represent the effectiveness of the individual's coping response and the actual degree of stress that the individual experiences. The stress experience "...consists of demands that tax or exceed the resources of the system. .. demands to which there are no readily available automatic adaptive responses." 3 e. Stage Five. Feedback, which can occur at any stage of the stress system, i s effective i n shaping the outcome of each of those stages. Lazarus and Cohen argue that ".. .most or perhaps even a l l adaptive *Monat and Lazarus, p. 5. 2P. Dewe, D. Guest and R. Williams, "Methods of Coping With Work Related Stress," i n Response to Stress: Occupational Aspects, eds. C. MacKay and T. Cox (East Kilbride: Thomson Litho Ltd, 1979), p. 69. 3Lazarus and Cohen, p. 109. transactions involve two-way cause-and-effeet relationships v i a a complex set of feedback processes. 1 , 1 The model of the interactional-based approach, as developed by Cox and his colleagues, i s shown at Figure 2. It i s the interactional (transactional) model that w i l l be used i n subsequent analysis i n t h i s thesis. Godwin states that: The important feature of the model i s the proposition that stress arises as a result of an imbalance following the individual's appraisal of the demand that he perceives as being placed upon him, and his perceived capability to meet that demand. Feedback loops allow the continual reappraisal of perceived capability versus perceived demand as the system attempts to achieve balance, and thereby emphasize the transactional nature of the system. From the model, the transactional, or interactional, character of stress i s evident. Given t h i s c y c l i c a l process, temporal dimensions become important. 3 The frequency, duration, or pattern of demands interplays with the process of succeeding rounds of perception, appraisal and coping. Coping p r o c e s s e s are e q u a l l y c r u c i a l factors...people are not entir e l y passive victims of environmental demands. They are constantly assessing t h e i r environment to find conditions suitable to t h e i r needs and resources or to avoid inimical ones. Most persons demonstrate remarkable adaptive a b i l i t i e s . . . t h e y u t i l i z e a variety of coping strategies, anticipating and evaluating what lIbid., p. 114. ^Godwin, p. 10. 3Lazarus and Cohen, p. 106. - 20 -Figure 2: The Interactional (Transactional) Model of Stress Actual Capabi1f ty Perceived C a p a b i l i t y .11 feedback Emotional Experience Actual Demand Perceived Demand Cognitive Appraisal Congnitive Defence Imbalance m Stress feedback Stress Response Psychological Response Physiological Response Behavioural Response Source: T. Cox, Stress (New York: MacMillan, 1978), p. 19. - 21 -might happen and what has to be done, planning and preparing, changing the environment, retreating when necessary, postponing action for maximum effect, tolerating frustration and pain, and even deceiving themselves i n order to f e e l better and to maintain hope and a sense of s e l f worth.1 Wohlwill defines adjustment "as a change i n behaviour which has the effect of modifying the stimulus or stimulus conditions to which the individual i s exposed." He draws a d i s t i n c t i o n between adjustment and adaptation. Wohlwill characterizes adaptation as a change i n response, over time, to the same set of stimuli. 2 2.3 Implications for the Reduction of Stress Based on the preceding review of the process of stress, a number of s i g n i f i c a n t factors emerge which have an impact upon th i s study: a. each individual, i s by d e f i n i t i o n , very different from other persons and thus has his own set of values, attitudes, and needs. The individual also has his own a b i l i t i e s to deal with demands placed upon himself. What would constitute a stress demand for one person may vary a great deal from that of another. Indeed, what one person may f i n d s t r e s s f u l , another may f i n d rewarding; 'Ibid., pp. 111-112. 2J.F. Wohlwill, "Human Adaptation to Levels of Environmental Stimulation," i n Human Ecology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1974, pp. 134-135. - 22 -b. various individuals may react d i f f e r e n t l y to the same stress demand with a wide range of coping techniques, based on the individual's knowledge and experience i n dealing with stress; c. planned interventions to avoid, or lessen, the effects of stress on individuals may occur before, during, or after the experience of the stress; d. because the stress process involves many stages, simply attempting to deal with the source of the stress misses the many opportunities to intervene i n other stages of the process. Other opportunities to intervene include: (1) a l t e r i n g the individual's environment to either remove the stress demand or to provide additional ways of allowing the individual to cope with the stress demand, (2) changing the individual's perception of the demand, (3) improving the individual's a b i l i t i e s to cope with the demand, (4) changing the individual's perception of his a b i l i t i e s to cope with the demand, (5) helping the individual to learn from the successful coping with demands, and (6) training others to recognize stress effects in individuals and to assist the individual to cope with the demand. - 23 -2 . 4 Summary In summary, this chapter discusses the concept of stress and defines a model of stress that will be used in the subsequent analysis. This model emphasizes the individuality of the experience of stress. Stress is a dynamic phenomenon that recognizes the capacity of an individual to not only cope with stress, but also learn from the coping experience. The experience of stress is a process affected by the characteristics of the environment, the characteristics of the individual and the relationship between the individual and his natural, man-made and social environment. At a polar installation this environment includes other individuals, social groups, man made f a c i l i t i e s , the outside world and the natural environment.1 A study of the experience of stress at a Canadian arctic military installation should consider these components of the environment and the relationship between them. The next chapter consists of a literature review of isolated and confined environments. These remote and monotonous environments characterize the conditions under which a person stationed in the Arctic must live. 'A.J.W. Taylor, Antarctic Psychology (Wellingon: Science Information Publishing Centre, DSIR, 1987), pp. 89-91. - 24 -Chapter 3 - The Stresses of an Isolated  and Confined Environment 3.1 Introduction This chapter consists of a literature review to discuss the potential social and psychological stresses that could apply to military personnel posted to the unique environment of a Canadian arctic military ins t a l l a t i o n . The more salient characteristics of this environment that imply social and psychological stresses are those of isolation and confinement. The chapter consists of three sections. The f i r s t section discusses the characteristics of isolation and confinement. The second section i s a review of literature pertaining to social and psychological stresses of l i f e in a polar environment for persons originating in a more temperate climate. The th i r d section summarizes efforts suggested in the literature aimed at either avoiding or ameliorating the incidence of stress in an isolated and confined environment. - 25 -3.2 Isolation and Confinement Antarctic installations are typically viewed as being isolated and confined environments. These environmental characteristics are similar to those experienced by persons in: underwater (submarine), remote mining, or outer space (space capsule) environments.1 These environments have been described as being 'exotic' 2 or 'extreme and unusual' 3. It i s important to note that the characterization of such an environment i s a relational one based on perception, since i t i s the perceived degree of contrast from an individual's accustomed environment that characterizes the other environment as exotic, extreme or unusual. For example, what may be considered extreme for the urban dweller of Toronto may be very normal for a native hunter-gather in the Arctic, and vice versa. XA.A. Harrison and M.M. Connors, "Groups in Exotic Environments," in ed. L. Berkowitz, Advances in Experimental  Social Psychology (Orlando: Academic Press, 1984), p. 50. 2Ibid. 3P. Suedfeld, "Extreme and Unusual Environments," in eds. D. Stokols and I. Altman, Handbook of Environmental  Psychology (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.), pp. 863-864. Suedfeld 1 l i s t s three parameters (physical, i n t e r a c t i v e and psychological) that could be used to i d e n t i f y extreme and unusual environments: a. The f i r s t parameter r e l a t e s to p h y s i c a l conditions of the environment such as temperature, t e r r a i n , or l i g h t c y c l e s . The degree of r i s k associated with s u r v i v a l i s c e n t r a l to t h i s parameter. This r e l a t e s , on one hand, to the r e l i a n c e upon s p e c i a l technology to provide a safe environment (such as submarine, space capsule, or a n t a r c t i c camp), and, on the other hand, to the degree of d i s r u p t i o n of normal l i f e (such as earthquake, hurricane or war) . b. The second parameter deals with the i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s environment. This includes aspects such as: degree of mobility, contact with the outside world, duration, privacy, or p h y s i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n . c. The t h i r d parameter i s i n t e r n a l to the i n d i v i d u a l . This r e l a t e s to how the i n d i v i d u a l perceives of and copes with the environment. Examples of t h i s are: r e l a t i o n s with other s t a t i o n members, motivation, morale or a t t i t u d e . x I b i d . , p. 864. - 27 -Nelson 1 gives the following d e f i n i t i o n s of i s o l a t i o n and confinement: I s o l a t i o n i s the extent to which group members are r e s t r i c t e d , e i t h e r by p h y s i c a l l y or s o c i a l l y prescribed l i m i t s , from communicating with others outside the immediate group or from r e c e i v i n g information d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y . Confinement i s the extent to which group members are p h y s i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to a f i x e d space or geographical area by v i r t u e of man-made or natural b a r r i e r s , t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries, or h o s t i l e surrounds of environment; within a confin i n g environment, personal space, as a function of group s i z e and of the p h y s i c a l l y or prescribed boundaries l i m i t i n g movement, can be a most important dimension. In a s i m i l a r manner as Nelson, Rasmussen defines i s o l a t i o n as a psychological, rather than p h y s i c a l concept; however, Rasmussen emphasizes the "...reduction i n the l e v e l of normal sensory and s o c i a l input without ne c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v i n g a l i m i t a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l space or freedom of movement...the psychological implications of the concept res t p r i m a r i l y with the i n d i v i d u a l ' s own perception of and emotional response to h i s p h y s i c a l environment." 2 'P.D. Nelson, "The Indirect Observation of Groups Under Confinement and I s o l a t i o n , " i n ed. J.E. Rasmussen, Man i n  I s o l a t i o n and Confinement (Chicago: Aldine, 1973), p. 170. 2J.E. Rasmussen, "Introduction," to J.E. Rasmussen, ed. Man i n I s o l a t i o n and Confinement (Chicago: Aldine, 1973), p. 3. - 28 -I s o l a t i o n , therefore, may be thought of as a psychological phenomenon, whereby the receipt of information may be r e s t r i c t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y from outside one's immediate environment. Confinement, on the other hand, i s the p h y s i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n of movement to that within a l i m i t e d environment. Each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c may e x i s t i n d i v i d u a l l y for a p a r t i c u l a r environment, or act i n combination. Examples of each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c may e x i s t i n any s e t t i n g , i n c l u d i n g a busy c i t y . In t h i s t h e s i s , the concern regarding i s o l a t i o n and confinement centres on polar i n s t a l l a t i o n s : small groups of i n d i v i d u a l s from a temperate climate that are l i v i n g f o r various.durations i n an unfamiliar environment with reduced contact with t h e i r family, home and accustomed c u l t u r e . Rasmussen was concerned with conditions i n which there was a unique combination of: 1 a. prolonged t o t a l i s o l a t i o n i n a sensory-poor environment; b. intensive enforced i n t e r a c t i o n between members of small groups; c. t o t a l interdependence of a l l i n d i v i d u a l s f o r group s u r v i v a l ; x I b i d . , p. 2. - 29 -d. t o t a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y of removing an i n e f f e c t i v e crew member; and e. sustained demands f o r v i g i l a n c e and f o r reaching r a p i d and often irrevocable decisions. Suedfeld discusses the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s of i s o l a t i o n : What can we say about un i v e r s a l e f f e c t s of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n ? B r i e f l y , there appears to be trustworthy evidence that i s o l a t i o n disrupts the ordinary everyday coping procedures, and leads to s p e c i a l kinds of psychological events. One promising conceptual approach to these phenomena i s a view of the human being as an organism which needs a constant flow of information to guide h i s behaviour. When he encounters a novel s i t u a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r y one which has p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous consequences, h i s f i r s t concern i s to i d e n t i f y informational anchor points and develop a set of adaptive responses. The more unfamiliar the environment, the more intense the need f o r such anchors, and the greater the anxiety and general arousal which stem from that need. Furthermore, the l e s s information i s a v a i l a b l e , the more the i n d i v i d u a l attends to and elaborates r e s i d u a l s t i m u l i , whether i n t e r n a l or ext e r n a l . 1 As stated e a r l i e r , a n t a r c t i c i n s t a l l a t i o n s are t y p i c a l l y viewed as being i s o l a t e d and confined environments. These environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d when considering l i f e i n an a n t a r c t i c s t a t i o n ; however, t h e i r meaning, i n terms of psychological 1P. Suedfeld " S o c i a l I s o l a t i o n : a Case for I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Research," i n The Canadian Psychologist, V o l . 15, No. 1, January 1974, pp. 10-11. - 30 -or physical restrictions, are quite distinct. The next section w i l l , in detail, investigate the phenomena of isolation and confinement within the context of the antarctic installation using an understanding of stress as developed in Chapter 2. 3.3 Antarctic Studies The bulk of the literature regarding isolated and confined environments originates in research conducted in the Antarctic. Much of research in the Canadian Arctic i s concerned primarily with the physiological, rather than psychological, effects of l i f e in the cold. 1 Also, Canadian arctic research in social and psychological stresses focuses mainly on the problems of the Canadian Inuit population. It i s assumed that polar stress research concerning the Inuit people does not directly apply to arctic military installations, since the social and psychological backgrounds of the persons involved are very different. Antarctic stations provide an situation where small groups of individuals are brought together into an unusual and challenging environment: l A . Rode, Cold: Special Aspects in the Canadian North (Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada, NRCC Associate Committee on S c i e n t i f i c C r i t e r i a For Environmental Quality, 1983) - 31 -Wintering over i s regarded generally as a stressful experience for even the most well balanced of men. It deprives men of the comfort of their normal surroundings/ and confines them indoors for substantial periods of time. It restri c t s their daily working a c t i v i t i e s and limits their recreational pursuits. Most of a l l i t reduces their choice of friends to people in their immediate social group, and i t necessitates a degree of interdependence that i s rarely experienced among groups that are not in isolation. 1 Why have antarctic stations received this attention from behavioural scientists? Shurley notes that studies of small groups in the Antarctic can provide many circumstances for unique observational and experimental studies of human behaviour. 2 According to Gunderson, "...the Antarctic offers many advantages as a laboratory for human biology. No other situation exists where groups of healthy individuals are isolated for several months and are available for physiological examinations on a regular XA.J.W. Taylor, "The Adaptation of New Zealand Research Personnel in the Antarctic," in eds. O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, Polar Human Biology (Great Britain: William Heinemann Medical Books, 1973), p. 428. 2J.T. Shurley, "Antarctica i s also a Prime Natural Laboratory for the Behaviourial Sciences," in eds. O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, Polar Human Biology (Great Britain: William Heinemann Medical Books, 1973), p. 430. - 32 -basis." 1 Lugg states that "...the study of psychological problems and the adaptation of men on Antarctic expeditions i s important both for the successful running of the expeditions as well as for an insight into man's behaviour in t o t a l isolation." 2 In addition to studies of psychological behaviour in a general situation of isolation, studying antarctic stations provides information regarding social isolation and sensory deprivation applicable to manned space f l i g h t . 3 This section w i l l be primarily based on research conducted in the Antarctic, and focuses on the social and psychological stresses of antarctic l i f e . The section w i l l discuss: a. the environment of persons involved in the Antarctic; b. the stress demands of antarctic 'wintering over'; ^.K. Eric Gunderson, Human Adaptability to Antarctic  Conditions (Washington: American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 22, 1974), p. 2. 2D.J. Lugg, "The Adaptation of a Small Group to Life on an Isolated Antarctic Station," in eds. O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, Polar Human Biology (Great Britain: William Heinemann Medical Books, 1973), p. 401. 3Rasmussen, p. 1. - 33 -c. observed methods of coping with the stress that have been used by antarctic personnel; d. the effects of i n a b i l i t i e s to cope with the stress demands; and e. factors which appear to influence the incidence of stress coping and effects. 3.3.1 The Antarctic Environment The environment of antarctic stations has both physical and social elements. The physical environment refers to the natural environment of the Antarctic and the man made f a c i l i t i e s in which the personnel l i v e . The social environment relates to the group of people brought together to work and share the 'winter over' experience. Both elements interact with the individual and have distinct implications for the experience of stress in this environment. 3.3.1.1 The Physical Environment Gunderson points out that there are two aspects to the physical environment at the Antarctic. The f i r s t consists of what we typically visualize as the Antarctic, the climate and external natural landscape. These characteristics are what we normally attribute to 'being stressful' to polar - 34 -vi s i t o r s . The second, and equally as important, physical environment i s made of up the man made interior environment of the station i t s e l f . 1 The Antarctic i s a large continent with a natural environment consists of three zones: the coast, the hinterlands, and the high altitude plateau. 2 Vegetation i s vi r t u a l l y non-existent, except for a few simple forms such as mosses or lichens along the coast lines. No l i f e can exist beyond the narrow coastal region without a r t i f i c i a l support. 3 There has been no aboriginal human settlement in the Antarctic. 4 The climate i s adverse: extremely cold and dry, an absence of accustomed diurnal light-dark stimuli, and high 'Gunderson, Human Adaptability to Antarctic Conditions, p. 3. 2O.G. Edholm, "Introduction," to eds. O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, Polar Human Biology (Great Britain: William Heinemann Medical Books, 1973), p. 4. 3K. Natani and J.T. Shurley, "Sociopsychological Aspects of a Winter V i g i l at South Pole Station," in ed. E.K.E. Gunderson Human Adaptability to Antarctic Conditions (Washington: American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 22, 1974), p. 91. 4G.A. Llano, "Polar Research: A Synthesis with Special Reference to Biology," in ed. M.A. McWhinnie, Polar Research: To the Present, and the Future, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1978). p. 28. - 35 -elevation (on the high altitude plateau)- 1 The Antarctic continent: .... i s the most hostile environment continuously inhabited by man. The Amundsen-Scott station at the South Pole i s located at the exact geographical pole at about 10,000 feet above sea level on top of an ice sheet almost 10, 000 feet thick. Temperatures have fallen below 100 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, and winds of more than 100 miles per hour have been recorded. At the South Pole there i s one day and one night per year. 2 There i s no, or extremely limited, access to the Antarctic stations in the winter months. The climate i s potentially fa t a l to unprotected personnel. Special supplies, buildings and operating procedures are required for the maintenance of l i f e . 3 There were 46 antarctic stations operating in 1987.4 Their locations are shown at Figure 3. It must be noted that the majority of these stations are either on the xNatani and Shurley, p. 91. 2E.K.E. Gunderson and L.A. Palinkas, A Review of  Psychological Studies in the U.S. Antarctic Programme (San Diego: Naval Health Research Center, 1988), p. 3. 3G.W. Evans, D. Stokols and S. Carrere, Human  Adaptation to Isolated and Confined Environments (Irvine: University of California, Program in Social Ecology, 1987), p. 7. S c i e n t i f i c Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), "Bulletin No. 87, September 1987," in the Polar Record, Vol. 23, No. 147, p. 751. - 36 -antarctic coast, or on islands close to the coastline. Only two stations, Amundsen-Scott (United States) and Vostok (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), are actually in the interior of the Antarctic. The harsh climactic conditions of the interior (consistently very low temperatures, high altitude, and high winds), combined with the inaccessibility, are what are typically attributed to a l l antarctic stations. While not as extreme, the conditions of the other stations can be almost as inhospitable to man.1 Palinkas gives a description of the history of antarctic installations: Although there are no permanent inhabitants of Antarctica, since World War II there have been more or less permanent habitation in the form of s c i e n t i f i c research stations. Flying the flags of fourteen countries at last count, some of these stations operate only during the summer months while 52 are currently [1985] operated on a year-round basis. Ranging i s size from a half-dozen to over 1,000 members, each station i s said to possess a distinct microculture serving as a model of as well as a model for the processes of adaptation to the stressors associated with this extreme, isolated environment.2 xGunderson and Palinkas, p. 3. 2L.A. Palinkas, Soclocultural Influences on Psychosocial Adjustment in Antarctica (San Diego: Environmental Medicine Department, Naval Health Research Center, 1985), p. 4. Source: S c i e n t i f i c Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), "Bulletin No. 87, September 1987," in the Polar  Record, Vol. 23, No. 147, pp. 752-753. - 38 -The b u i l t environment of antarctic stations i s typically spartan, as the f a c i l i t i e s emphasize the physical safety of the personnel, the s c i e n t i f i c objectives of the station, and economy of materials and operation. The buildings are generally of temporary hut-like construction with limited dedicated free space and amenities. Recreational areas are usually combined with work or eating areas. Antarctic stations are "...often s t e r i l e due to the lack of personalization, few aesthetically pleasing building materials, typically inflexible furnishings, and the general absence of a home-like ambience."1 Evans, Stokols and Carrere suggest a number of reasons to account for this ' s t e r i l i t y ' : a. the cost of bringing in materials only to improve the comfort of the stations may be considered excessive; b. design and safety constraints may limit the use of more aesthetic or flexible furnishings; c. the public nature of the stations often require that personnel stay for short durations, ranging from a few weeks to several years; ^ b i d . , p. 46. - 39 -d. there may be l i t t l e opportunity to make i t 'home-lik e ' because the next crew w i l l have to use i t when the current crew leaves; and e. there may be rules imposed that a r t i f i c i a l l y limit the degree of changes that can be made. 3.3.1.2 The Social Environment In considering the applicability of the antarctic social and psychological research to a Canadian arctic installation, i t i s important to understand the characteristics of the individuals studied in the antarctic literature. As discussed in Chapter 2, individual attitudes and values are extremely important in the experience of stress. Men who have 'wintered over' in the Antarctic are not typical or representative of the general population, as they normally have undergone rigorous screening examinations. Gunderson1 and Taylor 2 summarize the typical characteristics of personnel who have served at antarctic installations: xGunderson, Human Adaptability to Antarctic Conditions, p. 2. 2A.J.W. Taylor, Antarctic Psychology (Wellington: DSIR Science Information Publishing Centre, 1987), p. 54. - 40 -a. male; b. highly motivated volunteers; c. good physical health; d. specialized educational or occupational backgrounds; e. above average s t a b i l i t y , self control, intelligence, and achievement orientation; and f. youthful, ranging in age from 20 to 45, but most are under 35. Natani and Shurley 1; and Evans, Stokols and Carrere 2 give some of the incentives for men who volunteer for Antarctic duty: a. earning and saving money, b. eating good food, c. belonging to a special group of individuals who have the 'right s t u f f and to be able to go to such a place, d. self-selecting to belong to a social group that shares common values, e. l i v i n g in an environment that moves at a slower xNatani and Shurley, p. 90. 2G.W. Evans, D. Stokols and S. Carrere, Human  Adaptation to Isolated and Confined Environments (Irvine: University of California, Program in Social Ecology, 1987), p. 12. - 41 -pace without a l l the pressures found in most urban settings, f. having free time to focus on growth and special projects, g. broadened experience, h. advancement, i . prestige, j . i ntellectual curiosity, k. increased technical knowledge, 1. independent action, m. adventure and challenge, n. separation from family and social pressures, o. escape, p. opportunity to view magnificent scenery, and q. need to find, or prove, oneself. It can be seen, therefore, that the individuals typically exposed to the antarctic isolation and confinement are indeed a specialized group. It i s presumed that the demands placed on them w i l l be representative of those for any group in isolation; however, their experience of stress coping and effects w i l l not necessarily be representative of any group randomly brought together from a general population. This i s due to the unique characteristics and capabilities of these persons. It i s only when there i s a large number of highly motivated and trained persons, from - 4 2 -which i t i s possible to screen and select the best candidates, that a similar group could be formed. As the source population becomes smaller, and as the number of volunteers becomes proportionately less, which i s the case for groups of personnel brought together from the Canadian military, the resulting arctic team becomes less characteristic of the antarctic study groups. The observed patterns of stress coping and effects in the antarctic situation may, therefore, vary from what i s the case in a Canadian arctic military ins t a l l a t i o n . The importance of this w i l l be discussed later. Personnel at an antarctic station are removed from the direct influence and support of their home environment and placed in a closed, novel social environment. They are: spatially isolated, given l i t t l e privacy, grouped with strangers, and forced to intermingle with an extremely heterogeneous group. Each individual represents a separate culture, as no h o l i s t i c station culture exists i n i t i a l l y . 1 While antarctic stations can range from six to over 1,000 persons, the sizes of groups under study typically range from 10 to 35 persons. A summary of some of the 'Natani and Shurley, p. 96. - 43 -research conducted, showing the sizes of station, i s l i s t e d in Table I. Therefore, there i s a lack of social research regarding the larger stations and the stress processes may-be different. For the purpose of this thesis, i t i s presumed that most of the conclusions drawn from study of the smaller stations also apply to larger ones. This would have to be confirmed by further research. Winter over groups normally spend 6 to 12 months in the Antarctic. Each group i s brought in during the summer months before the winter climate and darkness makes access impossible. During this time the station members, get to know each other and form interpersonal contacts. A station culture evolves with i t s own informal norms and values. Natani and Shurley state that: ...the social environment of each station and the microculture that develops appear to change significantly from year to year...Both science and individuals suffer when there i s no common subculture at the station extensive enough and sensitive enough to regulate strong counter motives, promote task accomplishment, harmonize social relationships, and rejuvenate i t s e l f whenever the conditions demand.1 Gunderson notes that "...the wide range of s k i l l requirements in Antarctic groups results in heterogeneity in xNatani and Shurley, p. 97. - 44 -Table I; Typical Size of Antarctic Installations Studied Authors Country of Station Range in Size Year of Study Rivolier Crocq, Rivolier and Cazes Natani and Shurley Gunderson et. a l . Godwin Evans, Stokols and Carrere France France United States United States Australia United States 12 to 27 20 to 90 16 to 20 6 to 37 20 to 30 9 1956 to 1970 1971 1950's and 1960's 1963 to 1969 1980 to 1983 1985 to 1987 (Source: Rivolier; Crocq, Rivolier and Cazes; Natani and Shurley; Gunderson; Godwin; and Evans, Stokols and Carrere 1) Sj. Rivolier, "Physiological and Psychological Studies Conducted by Continental European and Japanese Expeditions," in ed. E.K.E. Gunderson Human Adaptability to Antarctic  Conditions (Washington: American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 22, 1974), p. 56.; L. Crocq, J. Rivolier and G. Cazes, "Selection and Psychological Adjustment of Individuals Living in Small Isolated Groups in the French Antarctic Stations," in eds. O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson Polar Human Biology, (Great Britain: William Heinemann Medical Books, 1973), p. 362.; Natani and Shurley, p. 90.; E.K.E. Gunderson, "Psychological Studies in Antarctica," in E.K.E. Gunderson, ed. Human Adaptability to Antarctic Conditions (Washington: American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 22, 1974), p. 117; Godwin, p. 33; Evans, Stokols and Carrere, p. 23. - 45 -social and educational backgrounds, interests, and values. The individual's adjustment to problems are complicated by these differences, and interpersonal conflicts are more l i k e l y where viewpoints and attitudes are so varied." 1 Therefore, due to the constant, c y c l i c a l rotation, personnel at antarctic stations are continually presented with challenges i n adaptation. Natani describes the antarctic installation as a 'total i n s t i t u t i o n ' : The small Antarctic station i s a total institution. A total institution has been defined as a place of residence and work where a number of individuals lead an enclosed l i f e cut off from wider society for an appreciable period of time. Long-term examples of total institutions include ships at sea, boarding schools, military academies, some university settings, military bases, work camps, prisons, and monasteries. The feature common to them a l l i s that they change people — for some this i s the primary task. 2 It i s the way that this change i s manifested that affects the success of personnel in adapting to the environment. The individual's morale and attitudes and the station's effectiveness as a whole are dependent upon the successful ^.K.E. Gunderson, "Individual Behaviour in Confined or Isolated Groups," in ed. J.E. Rasmussen, Man in Isolation  and Confinement (Chicago: Aldine, 1973), p. 151. 2K. Natani, "Future Directions for Selecting Personnel," in eds. T.S. Cheston and D.L. Winter Human  Factors of Outer Space Production (Boulder: Praeger, 1980), p. 45. - 46 -adaptation. Work has exaggerated importance for personnel at isolated antarctic stations because many normal social roles are either eliminated or restricted. The job may therefor become more important and the person's self-esteem may depend upon his doing a good job as well as his knowing that he i s doing a good job. This leads to a requirement for some sort of performance evaluation and relative standards because of the jobs's dual value as a source of personal satisfaction and social status. 1 Since the reason for bringing a team together i s based on some operational task, and since work i t s e l f becomes much more prominent with regard to individual meaning and status, the social organization becomes much more focused and intense, without opportunity for diversity and distraction. The social environment must evolve with each new group that arrives at the station. This i s i n i t i a l l y an extremely diverse group, with an increased propensity for social c o n f l i c t . The station, as a total institution, has a heightened impact on the social welfare of the members. XK. Natani, J.T. Shurley and A.T. Joern, "Interpersonal Relationships, Job Satisfaction, and Subjective Feelings of Competence: Their Influence Upon Adaptation to Antarctic Isolation," in eds. O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson Polar  Human Biology (Great Britain: William Heinemann Medical Books, 1973), p. 384. - 47 -Given the focus of the social environment upon the work environment, the situation can become more intense. The unique physical and social environment places, individually and in combination, many demands on station members. These demands are discussed next. 3.3.2 The Demands of 'Wintering Over' The demands of l i f e in antarctic installations are well documented, albeit somewhat anecdotally. A summary of these demands i s shown at Table II. This l i s t i s a consolidation of the demands given in the work of: Evans, Stokols and Carrere; Natani; Palinkas; Taylor; Rivolier; and Natani and Shurley 1. The demands are grouped under two c r i t e r i a , whether they are physical or social in origin, and whether they result from pressures internal or external to the station i t s e l f . Understanding these demands, and the corresponding 1, Evans, Stokols and Carrere, pp. 7-11.; Natani, p. 45.; L.A. Palinkas, Group Adaptation and Individual  Adjustment in Antarctic: A Summary of Recent Research (San Diego: Occupational Medicine Department, Naval Health Research Center, 1987), pp. 5-6.; Taylor, 1987, pp. 45-46.; J. Rivolier, "Physiological and Psychological Studies Conducted by Continental European and Japanese Expeditions," in E.K.E. Gunderson, ed. Human Adaptability to Antarctic  Conditions (Washington: American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 22, 1974), p. 110.; Natani and Shurley, p. 110. - 48 -Table II: Demands of Life at an Antarctic Installation 4J Cn <0 u 3 4J (9 a a 3 O 0 M 3 09 a 0 M a U fl H 03 ffl 5» en x <P a) n o M H J S S •H U U A I O I I 0) a S a) •U a> e <u M a> X "H 0 r H M O O +J T J 4J C <fl (0 0) t-t 0>.G C 4J •H •U r H <o <o 0 - H 3 O H T J 4J - H - H C 0 09 U 3 3 > i 0 O r H Si +J M <M & 03 W 3 1 I I » 0) Cn C 0 O « a a flj c o a 14 0 a 4J 4J <0 * 0 C C • d 0 0 *H M O U C 1 I O 0 n 3 O c o o c §* M O * ^ 0 2 a 4 3 - r l a a 0 <M O* •r l O 0 a to a a.c a - H +J 3 J 3 -H n n * TJ C U 03 03 - H (0 0 " • H O »4J 4J 0 rH rH 0 . -H cn « 3 H C (0 O O H £ 3 4J i H tH M . 4J M (0 <M 0 (H O > 0 H 4-> rH O J3 Si -H a oi a*o a i o I I I u o o 0 a ft a o r H nl •H o o 09 09 U 9. n 0 o a<«H G *i 3 >io « 2 c > « o ii ao-w 0 TJ a-H M 4J M S o 09 a c <u § 09 > | © G H O B M -H C g 0 a O H ° 4-> X C - H O (fl 0 O -4 +J r l <O +J T J H 4J ® N G 0 0 (0 O O -H " T J C 3 M rH fl) O T J n (0 C 03 0 " H •H M U < w O 0 O 1 a I I 03 0 09 CO 0 r H m •H o o 09 O 0 4J O 09 «} o 2 c o <H M H -O D»<M 5 G C 4 J O O O U c •U -H >i4J m 4J c 3 03 -H O 4J H 3 *J O -H (fl JJ C e 03 > <o 0 0 -H T J 0 -P T J C <-H 0 T J 03 -H 0 1 I C I I I 0 O c 0 c o 0 > C -H m o 4-> -H -H 03 4J G C U Cn 03 03 0 0 0 ^ 0 O n O A H 0 O 1 U I I M 0 > 0 o G C ®<w <u O ' M n . * (fl O > (fl -H rH M 01 a 3 - 0 0 03 TJ 3 0 C 4JrH •H (0 (fl 4- t-H 3 C O X O O 0 U 03 03 03 1 (fl I - 49 -coping and stress effects experienced by station personnel, may highlight opportunities to improve the l i v i n g conditions for the station inhabitants. Given the broad range of demands, as shown at Table II, there may be variance in the relative importance of these with respect to the welfare of the station members. Natani and Shurley caution against placing too much emphasis upon the crude f a c i l i t i e s at antarctic stations. 1 Both Lantis 2 and Natani 3 state that the social environment is the most potent source of stress in the antarctic stations. Law noted that "...the main stresses at such a station are psychological . stresses - those between individuals, those between groups and those between the leader and his party." 4 Strange and Youngman reiterate t h i s : It may come as a surprise that the bitter temperatures, the long polar night, and other physical problems of antarctic l i v i n g are not the most significant stress causing human adjustment problems. The physical deprivations and dangers xNatani and Shurley, p. 91. 2M. Lantis, "Environmental Stresses on Human Behaviour," in the Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 17, Oct., 1968. p. 578. Natani, p. 45. 4P. Law "Some Psychological Aspects of Life at an Antarctic Station," in Discovery, Vol. 21, No. 10, October 1960, p. 432. - 50 -of antarctic l i v i n g are remarkably well tolerated by almost everyone. It i s the isolation - with i t s related social and psychological stresses -that requires the greatest adaptive effort. 1 The primacy of psychological and social reasons for the incidence of stress i s reinforced by Gunderson, who notes that since research in the Antarctic has started, improved l i v i n g and working conditions have not significantly reduced the occurrence of physical complaints and symptoms at antarctic stations. 2 Lugg also argued that psychological and behaviourial factors were more important than physiological factors in the overall adaptation. 3 MacPherson states that "...despite massive advances in technology and, hence, in material comforts and communications over the period, the element of prolonged social isolation remains as a dominant psychological problem. "* Natani and Shurley state that "...social stresses appear to be the most important agents of change; they ^.E. Strange and S.A. Youngman, "Emotional Aspects of Wintering Over," in the Antarctic Journal, November-December, 1971, p. 255. 2Natani and Shurley, p. 91. 3Lugg, p. 408. 4N. MacPherson, "The Adaptation of Groups to Antarctic Isolation," in the Polar Record, Vol. 18, No 117, 1977, p. 581. - 5.1 -include: devaluation of the self, social deprivation, enforced socialization, status incongruency, sociocultural complexity, inadequate opportunity for personal expression, development of identity conflicts, cognitive dissonance, and constant threat of social rejection. 1 , 1 Somewhat surprisingly, Taylor states that providing "...more spartan quarters often produce fewer complaints." 2 Crocq, Rivolier and Cazes find that "...problems of psychological adjustment are s t i l l unsolved and paradoxically, appear to increase with greater physical comfort. " 3 As social and psychological pressures appear to be more significant than the physical pressures in the Antarctic environment, i t begs the question of the value in trying to improve the physical condition of such an ins t a l l a t i o n . Godwin4 suggests that: ...the assumption that the environment i s stressful i s a reasonable one. Whilst the existence of fixed length expeditions, regular re-supply, better l i v i n g conditions and improved communication f a c i l i t i e s may lead to the comment xNatani and Shurley, p. 92. 2Taylor, 1987, p. 18 3Crocq, Rivolier and Cazes, p. 362. 4Godwin, p.3. - 52 -that expeditioners 'have i t easy' in comparison with their predecessors, i t i s unlikely that comment has much impact for current expeditioners. Their frame of reference i s more l i k e l y to be the environment from which they have departed, and i t is therefore argued that the conditions of isolation and confinement with which they are so suddenly confronted, have the potential to create an environment which some may find stressful, despite the enthusiasm and commitment with which they face the expedition. Despite the relative improvement in physical l i v i n g conditions at antarctic stations, they s t i l l contrast greatly to the person's accustomed environment. It i s the contrast from normal accustomed l i f e , not past stations, that lead to the development of stress. As these differences s t i l l continue, there i s l i k e l y to s t i l l be room for improvement. In addition, the significance of social stresses presents an ongoing problem to the station members. This suggests that further efforts are warranted. This section presented the many demands of antarctic station l i f e . Attempts by station members to cope with these demands and the associated stress effects are be discussed in the next sections. The effects of the stress give evidence of the real impact on station members. - 53 -3.3.3 Coping By being isolated at an antarctic station, the absence of normal social support groups (spouse, family and friends) reduces accustomed coping resources. This, in combination with the novel exposure to the demands l i s t e d above, challenges the station member's coping a b i l i t i e s . In order to deal with these demands, the individual must adapt his own established coping s k i l l s , or develop new s k i l l s . The following l i s t describes coping a c t i v i t i e s reported at antarctic stations: a. participation in f i e l d t r i p s , hobbies, frequent showings of films, and parties 1; b. humour2; c. resenting and being c r i t i c a l of v i s i t o r s 3 ; d. physical withdrawal*; e. t e r r i t o r i a l behaviour 5; xLugg, p. 405; Gunderson, "Psychological Studies in Antarctica," p. 128. 2Taylor, 1973, p. 425. 3Taylor, 1973, p. 425; Harrison and Connors, p. 72. 4P. Suedfeld, "Isolation, Confinement, and Sensory Deprivation," in the Journal of the B r i t i s h Interplanetary  Society, Vol. 21, 1968, pp. 227-228. 5Harrison and Connors, pp. 70-71; Natani and Shurley, p. 99; Suedfeld, 1968, pp. 227-228. - 54 -f. daydreaming1 ; g. social and psychological withdrawal (cocooning)2; h. impersonal interaction with others 3; • d r i f t i n g or staring 4; • consumption of alcohol 5; k. repression 6; 1. social comparison7; and m. social regulations and norms8. During the winter months, work a c t i v i t i e s are reduced for most station members and more spare time i s l e f t i n the day. "The use made of this time and the satisfaction of ^.M. Smith, "Observations Over the Lifetime of a Small Isolated Group: Structure, Danger, Boredom and Vision," in Psychological Reports, Vol. 19, 1966, p. 504. 2Harrison and Connors, pp. 70-72; Sommer, p. 41; Natani and Shurley, p. 99; Suedfeld, 1968, pp. 227-228. 3Suedfeld, 1968, pp. 227-228. 4M.K. Popkin, M.D.V. Sti l l n e r , L.W. Osborn, CM. Pierce, and J.T. Shurley, "Novel Behaviors in an Extreme Environment," in the American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 131, No. 6, June 1974, p. 651. sLaw, pp. 434-435; Strange and Klein, p. 413. SI.A. McCormick, A.J.W. Taylor, J. Rivolier and G. Cazes, "A Psychometric Study of Stress and Coping During the International Biomedical Expedition to the Antarctic (IBEA)," in the Journal of Human Stress, Vol. 11, No. 4, Winter 1985, p. 155. 7Natani and Shurley, p. 110. 8R. Sommer Personal Space: the Behavioral Basis of  Design (Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall, 1969), p. 41. - 55 -boredom experienced by the individual may significantly affect his psychological adjustment."1 Evans, Stokols and Carrere suggest that persons who are capable of balancing their work with recreational a c t i v i t i e s are able "...to step away from work and enjoy the unusual nature of the Antarctic... These recreational a c t i v i t i e s may buffer the anxiety producing effects of the work."2 The recreational outlets consist of both solitary and group a c t i v i t i e s . A person may select other individuals to share his recreational a c t i v i t i e s from others than those with whom he works, expanding his range of stimulation. A c t i v i t i e s that involve humour have an effect of 'letting of steam,' allowing what could otherwise be disruptive emotions to vent themselves in a socially acceptable manner. Station members could, through humour, resolve interpersonal problems in a way that would not be considered threatening to others. Occasionally this humour i s focused at the outside world, or v i s i t o r s to the station, unifying station members. This humour can lead to resentment and being c r i t i c a l of the v i s i t o r s . Not only does the v i s i t o r invade the close knit Gunderson, "Psychological Studies in Antarctica," p. 128. 2Evans, Stokols and Carrere, p. 41. - 56 -group of the station, but he reminds the station members that he w i l l leave as quickly as he arrives. The v i s i t o r w i l l be able to return home, while the station members have to wait for the f u l l duration of their stay. Being c r i t i c a l of the v i s i t o r s allows the station members to vent frustrations and pent up emotions. Through physical withdrawal and t e r r i t o r i a l behaviour station members attempt to achieve a measure of privacy within the close nature of the station. By physically withdrawing the person removes himself from contact with other, persons. Suedfeld notes an example of physical withdrawal i s to "...spend less and less time in active interaction and more and more time in solitary or independent pursuits such as watching television." 1 By establishing his personal territory, a station member develops barriers to keep others from invading this privacy. "A man's bed and i t s v i c i n i t y become inviolable, a place of refuge from constant social interaction. 1 , 2 Establishing personal territory becomes more d i f f i c u l t when station operation demands that individuals work interdependently and when the station i t s e l f i s small, has 'Suedfeld, 1968, pp. 227-228. 2Ibid. - 57 -few interior partitions or sleeping areas are shared. Isolation and confinement can lead to increasing withdrawal and increased t e r r i t o r i a l behaviour. " T e r r i t o r i a l i t y appeared f i r s t with respect to relatively fixed personal areas (beds, work spaces) and then extended to movable objects (chairs)... These findings suggest that the early but slow evolution of norms regarding personal space serves an adaptive function for isolated and confined groups."1 The a b i l i t y to achieve a sense of territory, as related to available personal space, may also be a significant factor in determining the level of adjustment attained by groups.2 "Personal space refers to an area with invisible boundaries surrounding a person's body into which intruders may not come."3 In addition to physical withdrawal, there are many observed ways of emotional withdrawal. This includes such a c t i v i t i e s as daydreaming, 'cocooning' and 'long eye.' Each of these i s a form of emotional escape, whereby the individual removes himself emotionally while s t i l l in the physical presence of others. Smith observes that Harrison and Connors, pp. 70-71. 2Natani and Shurley, p. 99. 3Sommer, p. 26. - 58 -"...daydreaming, as a way of f i l l i n g time, has been shown to be prevalent as a response to monotony and boredom..."1 Crowding can also give rise to ^cocooning', or mutual withdrawal from social intercourse. 2 Conversation can become impersonal with relatively l i t t l e intimate information discussed. Privacy is partially attained by the withholding of information. 'Long eye' is a phenomenon whereby the individual stares and isolates himself from the group. Popkin et. a l . describe two versions of 'long eye'.3 These are called 'drifting' and ' staring' and Popkin et a l . suggest that these seem to be related to alterations in consciousness. Staring is a transient and episodic activity of mental blanking that appears to be associated with leisure activity in the evening. Drifting often appears as a more continuous, fixed behavioural change with alterations in attention, memory, speech, and emotional control. Both behaviours seem to be limited to the latter part of the antarctic year. Popkin et a l . do not identify causes for these phenomena; however, they suggest that "one could 'Smith, p. 504. 2Sommer, p. 41. 3Popkin et. a l . , p. 651. - 59 -argue that staring constitutes a regression from a boring, monotonous, and yet physically threatening environment and that a regression such as d r i f t i n g might have a restitutive function." 1 From this perspective, staring and d r i f t i n g can be seen as forms of coping. Law suggests that the use of "...alcohol in moderation has certain advantages: i t decreases tension and helps men to relax; i t removes inhibitions and lets men with grievances 'blow off steam'. With a good party and a strong leader there i s usually no trouble." 2 Strange and Klein note that using alcohol in an attempt at self-medication i s not uncommon. They state that such use of alcohol has caused two types of problems. These problems relate to over-indulgence by older, more senior personnel interfering with their leadership capability, and "...acute intoxication causing release of aggressive behaviour, particularly in the younger men, and stimulating violent conflict in the group."3 A l l 'successful' wintering parties at small stations appear to have attained some degree of group homogeneity Popkin et a l . , p. 654. 2Law, pp. 434-435. 3Strange and Klein, p. 413. - 60 -based on social comparison processes and sociocultural reorganization. 1 Natani and Shurley suggest that intense social comparison, mentally comparing oneself to others during social interaction, may be in response to the many stressors of the antarctic station l i f e 2 Anxiety arouses a desire to be with others experiencing similar problems because they serve a direct anxiety-reducing function. When objective c r i t e r i a are absent, individuals in groups under stress have been found to use social comparisons to evaluate their own feelings of fatigue, annoyance, satiation, performance, and appropriate reactions to novel stimuli. Social comparisons are sometimes used to manage close mutual involvement in isolation, as the subjects learned more about each other. 3 The other person may have become the only source of varied stimulation and some interaction i s necessary for environmental diversity. "Crowding gives rise to the need for social regulations that limit the unwanted intimacy which would be l i k e l y to arise in the absence of physical barriers. Under crowded conditions, social norms for maintaining privacy p a r t i a l l y 'Natani and Shurley, p. 96. 2Ibid., p. 110. 3Ibid., p. 105-106. - 61 -substitute for the lack of physical devices." 1 These social regulations evolve as part of the station social environment. Successful group adaptation, in part, depends upon the smooth development of these norms. As discussed earlier, the social demands of a station usually present the most stressful experience for the members. The development of group norms not only reduces the creation of demands, but also gives individuals additional means of coping with the demands. 3.3.4 Effects of Stress in the Antarctic Gunderson2 and Law3 note that the number of recorded cases of severe mental il l n e s s in persons at antarctic stations i s very low; however, "...neuroses of varying degrees of severity...are f a i r l y common and some severe anxiety states have been recorded." 4 The low incidence of extreme emotional problems may be attributed either to the motivational or educational characteristics of the station members, or to rigorous pre-selection 5 and training of 1Sommer, p. 41. 2Gunderson, "Individual Behaviour in Confined or Isolated Groups," p. 150. 3Law, p. 435. 4Ibid., p. 435. 5Blackburn, Shurley and Natani, p. 378. - 62 -candidates; however, i t i s important to observe that most antarctic station members experience stress to some degree. While the bulk of the literature focus on negative effects of stress, some positive effects have been noted. In addition, certain factors appear to mitigate in the incidence of stress. This section discusses the negative effects of stress, factors which effect the experience of stress, and some positive aspects of stress at antarctic stations. 3.3.3.1 Negative Effects Negative effects indicate the failure of coping (the difference between perceived demand and perceived a b i l i t y to deal with the demand). A summary of these effects, compiled from the work of Natani and Shurley 1; Gunderson2; Strange and Klein 3; Blackburn, Shurley and Natani 4; and Taylor 5, are *Natani and Shurley, pp. 92-93. 2Gunderson, "Psychological Studies in Antarctica," p. 127. 3Strange and Klein, p. 412. 4A.B. Blackburn, J.T. Shurley and K. Natani, "Psychological Adjustment at a Small Antarctic Station: an MMPI Study," in O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, eds., Polar Human Biology, (Great Britain: William Heinemann Medical books, 1973), p. 372. 5Taylor, 1987, p. 20. - 63 -as follows: a. insomnia, popularly known as 'big eye', b. i r r i t a b i l i t y , c. headaches, d. nightmares, e. anxiety, f. mild depression, g. boredom, h. fatigue, i . d ecline i n personal hygiene, j . reduced motivation combined with i n t e l l e c t u a l i n e r t i a , k. impaired memory, 1. impaired concentration, decline i n alertness, and a general apathetic state, m. increased appetite, frequently accompanied by weight gains, n. d i f f i c u l t to maintain a sense of time, o. d i g e s t i v e ailments, p. rheumatic aches and pains, q. increased s e n s i t i v i t y to ph y s i c a l and s o c i a l s t i m u l i , r . sleep disturbances, s. easy annoyance, t . soreness of muscles, and - 64 -u. moodiness. The incidence of these negative stress effects greatly affect individual and overall group welfare in antarctic stations. The manifestation of these effects could potentially jeopardize the health of the individuals and the operational effectiveness of the station. 3.3.3.2 Positive Effects While i t i s natural for the study of stress in antarctic stations to focus upon the negative effects of such stress, Natani and Shurley 1 also note some positive aspects of the isolation of antarctic wintering: a. develop greater self discipline, adaptability, tolerance, patience, self-understanding and understanding of others; b. more sel f - s u f f i c i e n t , more self-controlled, and calmer, and have a tendency to be silent but open to fresh ideas. Palinkas conducted research with regard to the medical history of 2,724 U.S. Navy personnel who wintered-over in 2Natani and Shurley, pp. 93-94. - 65 -the Antarctic between 1963 and 1974. His research indicated that there were no significant long-term effects of prolonged isolation with respect to health and performance, indeed, positive benefits may result, such as becoming more independent and s e l f - r e l i a n t . 1 These positive effects represent successful efforts in coping over the period of the stay at the Antarctic. This adaptation process has improved the individual's a b i l i t i e s in dealing with a variety of stress demands. This "successful" station member may be better prepared to deal with new demands. While being generalized in this chapter so far, the means of coping with demands and the experience of stress effects in antarctic stations may vary widely between individuals, as discussed in Chapter 2. It i s expected that coping and stress effects w i l l vary between persons due to the individual a b i l i t i e s and attitudes brought to the Antarctic. The literature does give some indication of factors that appear to influence coping and stress effects. These factors are discussed in the next section. XL.A. Palinkas, Group Adaptation and Individual  Adjustment in Antarctica: A Summary of Recent Research (San Diego: Occupational Medicine Department, Naval Health Research Center, 1987), p. 30. - 66 -3.3.5 Factors Which Appear to Influence Coping and  Stress Effects It has been~ found that throughout the stay at the isolated and confined environment of an antarctic station, patterns of coping and the degree of stress effects experienced appeared to be influenced by certain factors. Evans, Stokols and Carrere suggested that factors that may mediate the level of stress experienced at antarctic stations include: day length, weather, ar r i v a l of new people, novelty of the situation, length of stay, and special events occurring at the study si t e . "Each of these factors interacts with the others to create an ICE [Isolated and Confined Environment] setting that changes in quality over the course of the winter season."1 In contrast to those factors which appear to affect the experience of stress, i t has been found that the variations in the levels of stress experienced by members of antarctic stations have not correlated with "...biometeorological factors such as severity of blizzards and changes of temperature and l i g h t . " 2 Variations in the effects of stress have been identified in the literature with respect xEvans and Stokols and Carrere, p. 21. 2Lugg, p. 403. - 67 -to the following factors: group morale and goals, period of station service, group size, occupational differences, marital status and presence of women. 3.3.5.1 Group Morale and Goals The development of strong group morale and clear group goals i s v i t a l to the smooth functioning of the station. As discussed earlier, the social system of the station starts to evolve with the a r r i v a l of the station inhabitants. The quality of this social system has c r i t i c a l importance to the welfare of the members "...the most important basic d i f f i c u l t y facing those in any way involved in human adaptation in Antarctica i s how to achieve high morale groups. Whether an isolated group has high or low morale can effect both the quality of the group's work and i t s attention to safety." 1 The negative effects of stress are "...inversely related to the motivation, satisfaction and co-operation of the station groups, the symptoms increasing in frequency and severity when group morale factors decrease." 2 The more eff i c i e n t and positive the functioning of the groups, the ^acPherson, p. 584. 2Strange and Klein, p. 412. - 68 -fewer i s the noted incidence of stress effects. This interplay between stress effects and group morale may be due, in part, to: a. the stress demands placed on individuals by interpersonal or group conflict may be reduced; or b. higher levels of group support for i t s members may lead to successful coping and adaptation with stress. It has already been noted that social aspects are usually more stressfully demanding than physical aspects. The level of group support, cooperation and morale, therefore, may be pivotal in determining the quality of station l i f e . The quality of motivation i s highly correlated with adjustment ' to l i v i n g in small groups at isolated stations. Task motivation i s one of the primary factors in determining the quality of l i f e at antarctic stations during wintering duty. 1 Natani and Shurley state that the absence of clearly defined station and group goals i s one of the major problems influencing each new station party: xNatani and Shurley, p. 1 1 0 ; Gunderson, "Psychological Studies in Antarctica," p. 1 2 1 . - 69 -The absence of clearly specified group goals for the antarctic station party tends to focus the primary mode of group functioning upon a soci a l -emotional orientation instead of task orientation. Thus the formation of a group microculture characterized by a wide distribution of friendship choices/ attitudes of mutual cooperation, and cohesiveness, which foster positive interpersonal relationships, becomes more important for both ef f i c i e n t task performance and maintenance of individual feelings of well-being. 1 3.3.5.2 Period of Service at the Station The effects of stress appear to vary over the duration of stay at an antarctic station. "It seemed clear that emotional disturbances and somatic complaints tended to increase during the winter months."2 Blackburn, Shurley and Natani note that patterns develop with respect to various emotional problems throughout the year: 3 a. a prevalence of anxiety during the i n i t i a l months of isolation at the station; b. depression during the dark winter months with more frequently reported symptoms such as moodiness, headaches, sleep disturbances, hypersensitivity xNatani and Shurley, p. 98. 2Gunderson, "Psychological Studies in Antarctica," p. 127. 3Blackburn, Shurley and Natani, p. 372. - 70 -and withdrawal; and c. increased agitation during the period following the start of daylight due to the expectation and preparation for leaving. It i s not clear, however, whether this i s due to the cy c l i c a l changes in light or weather over the long antarctic winter, or whether this i s due to the phasing of the actual stay of the individual. If the patterns of stress effects varied primarily with the period of service at the station (in effect regardless of weather or lack of daylight), then the i n i t i a l anxiety may be due to the adjustment to station l i f e , boredom may be due to the lack of novelty and stimulus once i n i t i a l adjustment has been made1, and increased agitation may be due to anticipation of the end of station service and the return home. Suedfeld notes that polar crews at the Antarctic display increased sociability, conversation and self disclosure towards the end of their stay. Rather than improvements in weather or increased hours of daylight, Suedfeld attributes the improved attitudes to "...imminent return, to the group's more careful selection and training, and their self-perception as e l i t e volunteers." 2 Suedfeld, 1987, p. 874. 2Ibid., p. 875. - 71 -It i s suggested that the phasic changes in stress effects are due to the period of stay at the station. This factor may be more significant for personnel that may i n i t i a t e their service in isolation and confinement out-of-schedule from the natural environment. 3.3.5.3 Group Size Harrison and Connors suggest that group size has an effect on the degree of emotional and interpersonal problems experienced by groups in isolation. In general, they found that large groups fare better than small groups; however, they suggest that this may be in part due to the normally better amenities at the larger stations where the larger groups are. 1 Doll and Gunderson investigated the possible influence of group size on certain psychological symptoms experienced by members of U.S. antarctic stations between 1964 and 1968. The sizes of stations ranged between 8 and 30 members.2 In contrast to the findings of Harrison and Connors, Doll and xHarrison and Connors, pp. 62-63. 2R.E. Doll and E.K.E. Gunderson, "Group Size, Occupational Status and Psychological Symptomatology in an Extreme Environment," in the Journal of C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1971, Vol. 24, p. 197. - 72 -Gunderson found l i t t l e relationship between group size and psychological stress symptoms. "It might be surmised that the larger stations, with their less restricted environment and larger number of interpersonal relationships, provided a postponement of h o s t i l i t i e s . However, with time these advantages lost much of their amelioration influence." 1 It is suggested that i f Doll and Gunderson studied a larger range of size of station, they may have identified more significant group size effects. 3.3.5.4 Occupational Differences Doll and Gunderson also investigated the possible influence of occupational status on certain psychological symptoms.2 Doll and Gunderson focused on occupational differences between two subgroups at the stations: the c i v i l i a n scientists and military support staff. They found l i t t l e relationship between group size and psychological stress symptoms, except when some hostile feelings arose between the two different occupational groups. Differences in psychological symptoms of depression and insomnia related much more to occupational status. Doll and 'Ibid., p. 198. 2Ibid., p. 197. - 73 -Gunderson suggest that different occupational subgroups are characterized by different motivation and personal values, personality t r a i t s , job satisfaction and performance, and d i f f e r e n t i a l performance predictability. 1 3.3.5.5 Marital Status The marital status of station members tends to have a significant effect on the degree of stress experienced in polar isolation. Marital status was related to overall performance, "...suggesting that prolonged separation from family affected emotional adjustment."2 It i s presumed that this effect i s not so much a characteristic of being in the Antarctic i t s e l f , as i t i s a characteristic of being separated from one's family. "Unpleasant events at home, either real or fancied, are indeed one of the most common precipitating stresses for many emotional symptoms."3 Strange and Klein recorded that "...personnel who reported feelings of anxiety were the same personnel who reported problems in their families, most often concerning health, marriage or ch i l d rearing." 4 'Natani and Shurley, p. 97. 2Gunderson, "Individual Behaviour in Confined or Isolated Groups," p. 147. 3Strange and Klein, p. 413. 4Ibid., p. 414. - 74 -The a v a i l a b i l i t y of means to communicate with families at home i s an important factor. Family problems, while being independent of the person in the Antarctic, were "...exacerbated by the family separation and enforced total lack of communication, and they had a negative effect on the expeditioners, i f not their partners." 1 3.3.5.6 Presence of Women Taylor notes that women have increasingly begun to "...join some of the male bastions of Antarctica..." since 1970. . "At f i r s t they were mostly single, professional, and sc i e n t i f i c , but later they were from different marital and occupational groups."2 Taylor states that at locations where women have s t i l l been excluded the strained social environment and the strain of separation of married men from their families has continued, suggesting that the presence of women has improved the overall station environment. Regardless of whether women are present, Taylor recommended the exclusion of married men or family groups for antarctic service. While some problems may decrease with the service XA.J.W. Taylor and I.A. McCormick, "Reactions of Family Partners of Antarctic Expeditioners," in the Polar Record, Vol. 23, No. 147., 1987, p. 694. 2Taylor, 1987, p. 16. - 75 -of women in the Antarctic, new problems w i l l arise: Obviously, as more women are able to go to the Antarctic, the composition of the parties w i l l change, the attractions of Antarctica w i l l change, and those selected w i l l need to have sufficient emotional resilience to be able to work with the opposite sex without creating emotional problems.1 3.4 Planned Efforts to Reduces Stress Effects This chapter has consisted of a literature review to discuss the potential social and psychological stresses that could apply to military personnel posted to the unique environment of a Canadian arctic military inst a l l a t i o n . So far, the chapter has covered the discussion of the demands, coping a c t i v i t i e s , and effects of stress of antarctic station l i f e . This section w i l l include a synthesis of the measures proposed in the literature to ameliorate or avoid some stress associated problems. These measures include actions that would be taken: a. in the design of the station bui l t environment; b. in the screening and selection of station personnel; 'Ibid., p. 17. - 76 -c. during the indoctrination training of personnel prior to deployment; and d. throughout the operation of the station. 3.4.1 Design of the Built Environment Long before•any personnel are required to deploy to a polar environment, the station f a c i l i t i e s must be planned, designed and constructed. The design of these f a c i l i t i e s , as part of the physical environment of the station, could be undertaken to ameliorate the stress processes encountered by personnel. This section i s a summary of methods proposed in the literature to plan the b u i l t environment, and w i l l include the provision of: recreational f a c i l i t i e s , places to be alone, distinct areas for work and recreation, flexible environments, means of communication with home, diversity of interior decor, and fitness f a c i l i t i e s . 3.4.1.1 Recreational F a c i l i t i e s A variety of amenities, such as a library, games, cinema, etc. are required for recreation. 1 The research of Evans, Stokols and Carrere "...suggests variety in recreational a c t i v i t i e s may help individuals successfully xLaw, pp.435-437. - 77 -adjust. It implies that Isolated and Confined Environments should have a broad spectrum of personal outlets that can be carried out alone or with different numbers of people." 1 Evans, Stokols and Carrere recommend that areas in which large group socializing takes place should be:2 a. located near high personnel circulation areas; b. separated both visually and aurally from private quarters, particularly any area that i s used for sleeping; c. equipped with items that f a c i l i t a t e socializing (music, food, game tables, videos, comfortable furniture, etc.); and d. separated from other socializing areas that might have conflicting use. 3.4.1.2 Places for Solitary A c t i v i t i e s Evans, Stokols and Carerre observed the importance of providing a place for people to be by themselves, as indicated by the extensive number of hours station members ^vans, Stokols and Carrere, p. 44. 2Ibid., pp. 79-83. - 78 -spent in a solitary manner.1 The high proportion of ac t i v i t i e s carried out alone, and the extensive use of the bedrooms for solitary purposes indicate the need for spaces which provide privacy. 2 Because the avenues of escape at a remote station are very restricted, i t i s essential to provide some private and personal refuge to which a person can retire to be apart from his companions.3 Private spaces need to be provided, spaces that are visually and, just as important, aurally private. 4 In addition, areas should be provided, distinct from the private rooms and the large group socializing areas, to be used for casual conversation of two to three persons. 5 3.4.1.3 Distinct Areas for Work and Recreation Suedfeld states that environmental design "...should make both their tasks and their recreation to a great extent 'Ibid., p. 44. 2Ibid., p. 78. 3Law, pp.435-437. 4Evans, Stokols and Carrere, pp. 79-83. 5Ibid. - 79 -independent rather than cooperative or interdependent." 1 This would allow a clear break between the events of each day. This i s particularly important when work orientated a c t i v i t i e s become very stressful. It also allows the individual to spend the day in a variety of physical environments with persons other than those with whom he works. 3.4.1.4 Flexible Environments The design of flexible environments i s significant within an isolated and confined state because i t may allow for novelty and personalization in what could otherwise be a s t e r i l e and low stimulus setting. By designing environments for flexible use, individuals have an opportunity to personalize the setting and change i t throughout their stay: 2 a. occupants should be allowed to personalize their rooms such as by painting or moving around furniture (which therefore cannot be fixed or b u i l t - i n ) ; 'Suedfeld, 1968, pp. 227-228. 2Evans, Stokols and Carrere, pp. 78-83. - 80 -b. common areas should also have moveable objects such as wall hangings or furniture; c. station personnel should not be overly restricted on the amount of personal effects that they can bring to the station. Such effects would personalize their own rooms and could also be shared with other station members; and d. provide materials for decorations for parties or special events that would permit the creation of novel environments throughout the station tour. The new environment, the activ i t y i t s e l f and the collective efforts to organize and set up the activity would a l l be worthwhile. 3.4.1.5 Means of Communication With Home Some form of radio communication between the men and their families i s essential to prevent anxieties arising (particularly amongst the married men) concerning families and loved ones.1 Not only i s there a need for the maintenance of contact between expeditioners and their partners, the contact must be on a regular basis. 2 A communications link to the outside world provides "real 'Law, pp.435-437. 2Taylor and McCormick, p. 694. - 81 -time" information on a l l world events, not just simply family matters. This would provide a constant source of new discussion subjects and would also reduce feelings of lost contact with the outside world. Suedfeld notes that, for the isolated and confined environments of space travel: Contact with the ground can be a source of variety, and a way to reduce the feeling of isolation. If communication with family members as well as with the ground crews can be routined, the emotional atmosphere within the spacecraft should be considerably less stressful. The i n i t i a t i o n of contact should usually rest with the crew, since the interruption of ongoing a c t i v i t i e s by 'outsiders' frequently arouses anger..1 Harrison and Connors state that " . . . i n general, communications links with family and friends are presented as beneficial, and the common prescription i s to encourage frequent and extended personal communication. However, there are also some potential disadvantages associated with external communication."2 The reasons given for this are: a. there may be individuals that attempt to monopolize the communications system, provoking xSuedfeld, 1968, pp. 227-228. 2Harrison and Connors, pp. 73-74. - 8 2 -conflicts with other station personnel; b. the failure of someone at home to communicate on schedule may cause excessive fear and worry for station personnel; c. other duties may be neglected by anxious people who may hover around the telephone, waiting for cal l s from home; d. the messages received by the personnel tend to be bland and unsatisfying, compared to the expectation leading up to the communication; e. the pleasure of a conversation with family members may be offset by post communication letdown or depression; and f. not a l l conversations are necessarily pleasant. Despite these potential negative effects, they are greatly outweighed by the positive benefits. Most of the negative effects may avoided by exercising good management and providing sufficient communications resources. 3.4.1.6 Diversity of Interior Decor Diversity of the interior decor could be enhanced with more creative use of a range of lay out, colours, textures, lighting, or construction materials. Suedfeld notes that the "...interior decor of different parts of the confinement - 83 -area should be diversified. In fact, the illumination of non-work compartments can be randomly varied." 1 The enhanced diversity of interior decor, as opposed to monotonous schemes, may help prevent the incidence of stress due to boredom. 3.4.1.7 Fitness F a c i l i t i e s The provision of fitness f a c i l i t i e s would be extremely beneficial. 2 Exercise would become a viable alternative to other a c t i v i t i e s , such as drinking alcohol, to f i l l spare time. Exercise has, for many years, been commonly recognized as being good for the s p i r i t in addition to the body. Physical exertion also helps to relieve tension and frustration, although expanded fitness f a c i l i t i e s to include team sports would have to be well managed so that rough and safety threatening act i v i t y i s avoided. This i s particularly due to the limited local medical personnel and f a c i l i t i e s and, at times, the impossibility of medical evacuation. Evans, Stokols and Carrere suggest that the interest of station members in physical fitness may be enhanced by providing windows to the outside and/or video and music equipment for entertainment during exercise. Suedfeld, 1968, pp. 227-228. 2Evans, Stokols and Carrere, pp. 79-83. - 84 -3.4.2 Screening and Selection I n i t i a l l y , the primary consideration in selection of antarctic personnel was occupational competence.1 Subsequently, rigorous selection procedures were developed in an attempt to weed out individuals with deviant tendencies. Strange and Klein state that on only a few occasions have disabling emotional problems occurred. They emphasize that the disabling emotional problems have not occured simply due to the antarctic experience, but have resulted from: ...latent disorders precipitated into over disturbances by social-emotional factors in the current situation. The stress of isolated Antarctic duty does not make psychiatrically healthy people psychiatrically i l l . It may, however, exacerbate or make apparent emotional problems which already exist. Obviously, this means that psychiatric screening i s extremely important.. . 2 Psychosocial factors become important when prolonged confinement and isolation leads to increased stresses among personnel, potentially decreasing work performance. Research on such individuals by E.K.E. Gunderson has lead to Gunderson, "Psychological Studies in Antarctica," p. 2. 2Strange and Klein, p. 411. - 85 -the development and modification of methods used to screen the best qualified candidates with an emphasis on t r a i t s necessary for coping with prolonged isolation. 1 This section w i l l discuss the undesirable and desirable qualities of personnel candidates for selection for antarctic station duty, as identified in the literature. In addition, the desirable qualities of station leaders and the limitation of pre-selection screening w i l l be discussed. 3.4.2.1 Undesirable Qualities The literature has identified personal character attributes that are undesirable in individuals selected for the Antarctic. The recognition of these attributes should be applied during selection in aiding in identifying candidates who are more l i k e l y to experience problems in an isolated and confined station. Gunderson found that personnel that had claimed interests in many hobbies tended to do poorly at small antarctic stations. He suggests that persons with needs for high activity levels have d i f f i c u l t y in adjusting to antarctic confinement.2 In addition, de Monchaux, Davis and Edholm found that unsatisfactory ^alinkas, 1987, p. 5. 2Gunderson, "Individual Behaviour in Confined or Isolated Groups," p. 159. - 86 -candidates for antarctic duty were "...more socially mistrustful and intolerant, more anxious about emotion and sensual enjoyment, had more rebellious attitudes to authority, were more lacking in independence, and had high scores for exhibitionism and social extraversion. 1 , 1 Further to personality characteristics, Taylor states that personal circumstances other that personality were also important for screening. He suggested that i t would pointless i f the applicants had the potential but were unable to express i t because of their preoccupation with family problems at home.2 Taylor and McCormick make the argument that i t i s important to include both spouses in the selection procedure, and of encouraging them to engage more f u l l y in discussion with each other about the implications of any prolonged separation, particularly on hazardous assignments.3 In this manner potential problems, other than personality, may be identified. 'C. de Monchaux, A. Davis and O.G. Edholm "Psychological Studies in the Antarctic," in the B r i t i s h Antarctic Survey Bulletin, No. 48, 1979, p. 94. 2Taylor, 1987, p. 13. 3Taylor and McCormick, p. 694. - 87 -3.4.2.2 Desirable Qualities A great deal of the behavioural research in the Antarctic has focused on identifying qualities in individuals who are considered to be successful in their adaptation to this environment. The primary reason for doing this was to identify the desirable qualities and use these as a guide in selecting those who would l i k e l y be better candidates for future expeditions. For example, Natani and Shurley suggest that the unique acculturation process occurring each year at antarctic stations tends to favour men who are "...reserved, controlled, diffident but agreeable, and above average in intelligence and socioeconomic status." 1 Natani and Shurley state that these individuals, described as 'social isolates', are emotionally healthy and mature individuals with active, imaginative minds who can become absorbed in such pastimes as reading and who can structure their thoughts and a c t i v i t i e s . 2 These 'social isolates' were better adjusted, were more tolerant of others, used their leisure time more profitably, and made significantly fewer sick c a l l s . 'Natani and Shurley, p. 110. 2Ibid., p. 95. - 88 -Harrison and Connors state that research on exotic environments (those defined by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i s o l a t i o n , confinement and r i s k , i n c l u d i n g environments such as undersea, polar and outer space 1) indicates that ...people who show high work and mastery needs but low competitiveness perform best. Noncompetitive achievers may be of p a r t i c u l a r value i n exotic environments where a premium i s placed upon accomplishment, but where competition might increase a l e v e l of c o n f l i c t that i s already high due to environmentally imposed s t r e s s . 2 De Monchaux, Davis and Edholm also i d e n t i f i e d b e n e f i c i a l q u a l i t i e s of personnel more l i k e l y to be successful i n the A n t a r c t i c . They stated that several c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n these persons were: more t o l e r a n t of others, perceptive of and s e n s i t i v e to emotional aspects, recognized authority, not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n hobbies, l i k e d change and r i s k , were independent, and had a high emotional attachment to others. Persons with these q u a l i t i e s appear to be i n d i v i d u a l s "...with strong emotion who are i n good con t r o l of themselves, not acting out childhood c o n f l i c t s over parental authority or compensating for inadequacies by showing o f f to others at a s u p e r f i c i a l 'Harrison and Connors, pp. 50-51. 2 I b i d . , p. 60. - 89 -level. Gunderson states that the following personality attributes for antarctic service have been preferred: agreeableness, leadership, self-reliance, group cooperation, and openness.2 Gunderson, with associates, has conducted a series of studies that identified three essential behavioural components for effective individual performance: emotional s t a b i l i t y , task motivation, and social compatibility. Taylor states that ...more recently, the selectors have focused on the three c r i t e r i a of a b i l i t y , s t a b i l i t y , and compatibility. 3 [working] A b i l i t y concerns an individual's level of competence at a specific occupational task while having sufficient v e r s a t i l i t y to ' overlap on other tasks when necessity demands. [emotional] Stability concerns the degree of self awareness, self acceptance, and se l f control that allows an individual to moderate and express impulses and needs without loss of functional efficiency. [social] Compatibility concerns the degree of respect, support and tolerance an individual has for others in the party and without which there i s insufficient group cohesion and group morale to counter adversity. 4 *de Monchaux, Davis and Edholm, p. 94. 2Gunderson, "Individual Behaviour in Confined or Isolated Groups," p. 147. 3Taylor, 1987, p. 17. 4Ibid., pp. 17-18. - 90 -Considerable research effort has been directed at identifying the personality attributes of the 'social isolates' or 'noncompetitive achievers' who are more l i k e l y to succeed in antarctic stations. These attributes have been summarized as being working a b i l i t y , emotional s t a b i l i t y and social compatibility. 3.4.2.3 Station Leadership In addition to the general qualities that are desirable or undesirable of any candidate for antarctic service, special characteristics of successful station leaders have been noted. Gunderson has indicated that certain personality characteristics seem to be significant predictors of leadership success: these are emotional control, f l e x i b i l i t y , concern for the individual, neutrality toward controversial issues, and an intangible quality called ' l i k e a b i l i t y . ' Strange and Youngman1 state that the leader of an antarctic station must have great inner security, self-confidence, and f l e x i b i l i t y . In addition, the leader must possess an a b i l i t y to tolerate intimacy and levelling of status without losing authority and the respect of the group, and self-reliance in the lonely responsibility of command. 'Strange and Youngman, p. 257. - 91 -Taylor 1 argues that the leaders should be mature, and well balanced, have an established record for working with people towards common goals, be perceptive, energetic, have ideals and judgment, and be capable of seeing advice, of listening to ideas, and of formulating policy on a consultative, participative basis before taking action. These characteristics can be considered beneficial for leaders in any situation, not simply that of the antarctic station. What i s important, however, i s that the closed, confined social environment of the antarctic station i s particulary sensitive to bad leadership. 3.4.2.4 Limitations of Screening After early research in identifying desirable attributes, and applying them in selection of candidates for antarctic duty, the men in the present research have been carefully selected, but "...even they displayed transient reactions to their chosen isolation. Some among them reacted poorly, and, in retrospect now, they raise questions for the selectors and for those who may be able to modify the various deprivations to which they are subject." 2 Baylor, 1987 pp. 91-92. 2Taylor, 1973, pp. 428-429. - 92 -Natani, Shurley and Joern note that screening procedures can assist in reducing the number of undesirable group situations which might occur in antarctic stations, but "...screening appears to have limited application in c l a r i f y i n g the various aspects of interpersonal compatibility involved in social adaptation. 1 , 1 In addition, selection measures do not necessarily apply equally to a l l candidates. Doll and Gunderson found that the particular occupational groups wanted different behaviour characteristics in their peers: the military personnel looked for emotional s t a b i l i t y , while social compatibility was the most important t r a i t for the c i v i l i a n scientists. 2 Therefore, personnel that have been screened normally s t i l l experience problems while on antarctic duty. Screening may continue to be a necessary precaution in staffing antarctic stations; however, screening i s not an 'end-all', and additional measures are s t i l l required. 3.4.3 Pre-deployment Indoctrination training Once the preferred candidates have been screened and selected, indoctrination training prior to deployment may be 'Natani, Shurley and Joern, p. 386. 2Doll and Gunderson, 1970, p. 236. - 93 -undertaken to improve the likelihood of successful adaptation to the isolation and confinement of antarctic station duty. A c t i v i t i e s that may be included in pre-deployment indoctrination training are: developing a team, conducting antarctic survival training, familiarizing a l l team members with group and individual roles, conducting behaviour training, training specially orientated for station leaders, and training for coping with stress. 3.4.3.1 Developing a Team Since a l l the members of an Antarctic station are replaced at the same time, the opportunity may exist to bring the team members together before going to the Antarctic. As many of the stress demands in the Antarctic are associated with the social environment and the evolution of the station culture, forming a team in the home environment may potentially remove such stresses. The group could build up team cohesiveness and s p i r i t based upon understanding and mutual respect. 1 xLaw, pp.435-437. - 94 -3.4.3.2 Antarctic Survival Training Non-occupation specific training could be conducted on the general s k i l l s necessary for l i f e in the Antarctic, such as the use of clothing and f i e l d rations, methods of survival, and f i r s t aid techniques. 1 A secure understanding of the physical threat of the antarctic environment and the knowledge of how to deal safely with this threat may help to reduce the anxiety of the hostile environment. Taylor notes that in New Zealand "...the selection interviews were followed by a one week, preliminary training course in rigorous winter conditions in New Zealand high country for those candidates who had been provisionally accepted for Antarctica." 2 3.4.3.3 Familiarization With Individual and Group Roles Briefings should be conducted to clearly identify the aim of the expedition and the roles of each team member. Each person should be made to feel that he or she i s an important and indispensable member of the team.3 The importance of each role within the group should be 'Ibid. 2Taylor, 1987, p. 14. 3Law, pp.435-437. - 95 -underscored. 1 Every i n d i v i d u a l must f e e l that he or she i s important to the mission of the s t a t i o n , regardless of how menial t h e i r tasks may seem to be. The breakdown of r e l a t i v e status d i s t i n c t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s should be promoted p r i o r to going to the A n t a r c t i c . 2 The s e l f - i m p o s i t i o n of -status d i s t i n c t i o n s could lead to interpersonal c o n f l i c t and become a s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r to the welfare of a l l s t a t i o n members and the effectiveness of the s t a t i o n as a whole. 3.4.3.4 Behaviour Training Due to the confined nature of the a n t a r c t i c s t a t i o n , and the l i m i t e d opportunities f o r escape, interpersonal problems can become destructive. Most i n d i v i d u a l s have learned how to deal with such problems i n normal day-to-day l i f e , with varying degrees of success. At an a n t a r c t i c s t a t i o n , however, the i n d i v i d u a l may not have s u f f i c i e n t interpersonal s k i l l s , or accustomed coping st r a t e g i e s , such as escape, may not be p o s s i b l e . H a r r i s o n and Connors, p. 7 5 . 2 I b i d . - 96 -Direct t r a i n i n g i n human r e l a t i o n s 1 or the discussion of undesirable patterns of behaviour 2 could be undertaken with selected candidates p r i o r to going to the A n t a r c t i c . Natani and Shurley suggest that " . . . p r i o r to A n t a r c t i c duty, some type of t r a i n i n g i n s e n s i t i v i t y to interpersonal responses and group behaviour...may be usefu l i n ameliorating to some extent the stresses produced by interpersonal processes and inadequate leadership. 1 , 3 By improving an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l s k i l l s and awareness before going to the A n t a r c t i c , fewer s o c i a l l y o r i g i n a t e d stresses are l i k e l y to occur. 3.4.3.5 Trainin g for Station Leaders Station leaders may be designated as such due to t h e i r s e n i o r i t y i n a n t a r c t i c s t a t i o n experience or pr o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l . As a r e s u l t , the leader may lack many of the q u a l i t i e s of a good leader, discussed above. Taylor states that, while most of the leaders have c e r t a i n leadership s k i l l s , "...they might a l l have improved t h e i r performance had there been a s p e c i f i c programme of leadership studies f o r them to undertake before going to 'Ibid. 2Law, pp.435-437. Natani and Shurley, p. 110. - 97 -Antarctica... [with] some emphasis on counselling and problem solving." 1 Taylor also adds that i t would be useful to have knowledge of group interpersonal development. In addition to general leadership training, training could be undertaken from the standpoint of station operational effectiveness and community mental health. Therefore, i t i s most important that the leaders and the medical staff at the isolated stations understand this winter-over syndrome.2 Pre-deployment presentations on leadership and methods which have proven satisfactory in dealing with common stress situations and patterns of undesired behaviour should be given to the designated leaders. 3 The leaders need to be able to recognize evidence of stress experienced by their subordinates, and be able to help the person in the adaptation process. In addition to training in helping subordinates deal with the stresses of antarctic l i f e , the leaders should also receive instruction in how to deal with such stresses themselves. While they are responsible for the welfare of their subordinates, they are also subject to the same, and Baylor, 1987, p. 92. 2Strange and Klein, p. 412. 3Law, pp.435-437. - 98 -additional, demands.1 3.4.3.6 Training in Coping With Stress A l l selected candidates for antarctic station duty should receive pre-deployment training in recognizing and dealing with the stresses they w i l l l i k e l y encounter.2 Enhancing their coping s k i l l s prior to going to the antarctic station could greatly f a c i l i t a t e the adaptation process. Through awareness of the potential demands, individuals could avoid experiencing many problems by earlier recognition of the effects and employing successful coping a c t i v i t i e s . 3.4.4 Station Operation The design of station f a c i l i t i e s , screening and selection, and pre-deployment training are a l l a c t i v i t i e s that may be undertaken at home prior to departure for the Antarctic to reduce the potential stress effects. In addition, measures may be taken during the station deployment to reduce the number of stress induced problems. 'Taylor, 1987, p. 92. 2Palinkas, 1987, p. 5. - 99 -A c t i v i t i e s that may be conducted to reduce stress during the station operation include: the rotation of station members/ the allocation of duties, providing a varied diet, conducting social activities/ setting up a suitable organizational framework, adjusting the duration of stay, enhancing the social support structures, monitoring psychological welfare, and dealing with group dynamics. 3.4.4.1 Station Member Rotation The temporary presence of v i s i t o r s or new personnel on rotation can be very disruptive to the smooth functioning of the station. An influx of new people, with increasingly crowded station conditions and environmental stimuli, i s often perceived by many station inhabitants as an invasion of personal t e r r i t o r y . 1 When planning future stations steps should be taken to minimize crowding and reduce the overlap of two crews in a station. 2 3.4.4.2 Allocation of Duties The careful rostering of general duties, the specification of responsibilities and the printing of xEvans and Stokols and Carrere, p. 28. 2Ibid., p. 33. - 100 -operations procedures show station personnel exactly where they stand and thus prevent unnecessary and quarrels or uncertainty. 1 Since the numbers of support staff may be few, 'menial' tasks such as cleaning or doing laundry must be rostered so as to f a i r l y distribute the responsibility. Each individual's primary l i s t of duties and standard operating procedures must be defined so that each individual clearly knows what i s expected of himself and of others. In addition to the rotation of 'housekeeping duties', Suedfeld suggests that cross-training and the aperiodic rotation of primary tasks would probably keep job interest higher. 2 Harrison and Connors also state that role rotation could help eliminate conflict along occupational lines through encouraging mutual problem solving. 3 This may help to reduce occupational s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and encourage interaction. Suedfeld suggests that, in order to combat boredom and lack of stimulation, continuing challenges should be set. 4 This should not only be in the form of the rotation of xLaw, pp.435-437. 2Suedfeld, 1968, pp. 227-228. 3Harrison and Connors, p. 75. 4Suedfeld, 1987, p. 874. - 101 -duties, but also in the form of new challenges or milestones within one's primary l i s t of responsibilities. 3.4.4.3 Providing a Varied Diet Certainly the potential effect of a poor diet on health, morale and attitude can be imagined. However, novelty may also be provided simply through one's diet. Suedfeld notes that "...a great range of stimulants of a l l sense modalities should be made available. The importance of an interesting diet among both polar and submarine crews has been well established." 1 Good pre-deployment planning i s important in the provision of cooking equipment and foodstuffs and also in the training of station members for cooking and menu planning. Since the l o g i s t i c a l restrictions of isolation impair the a b i l i t y to resupply the station with new foodstuffs, a varied menu and diet must be planned for the station duration prior to deployment. 3.4.4.4 Social A c t i v i t i e s A variety of programmes should be prepared that might change the routine and add social diversity. Theme parties could add novelty and break up the long monotonous tour. In 'Suedfeld, 1968, pp. 227-228. - 102 -addition, social interest could be promoted for interaction with station members other than those directly worked with. Taylor states that a social programme could induce social activity, and increase self esteem and public recognition. 1 Suedfeld suggests that " . . . i f non-hostile competition -debates, quizzes, games - were encouraged, monotony-reducing conflicts might be channelled into acceptable forms."2 Such a c t i v i t i e s would assist the individual in coping with pressures of isolation by acceptably venting frustration and anxieties. 3.4.4.5 Organizational Framework The organizational framework of an antarctic station i s generally set in place by the originating authorities, without the input of the station members. What type of organization, however, better lends i t s e l f to this environment? Within isolated groups, the social organization has generally reflected a hierarchical structure. 3 This structure has normally worked well for military personnel, as this i s the structure they are 'Taylor, 1987, p. 92. 'Suedfeld, 1968, pp. 227-228. 3Harrison and Connors, pp. 65-67. - 103 -accustomed to; however, the structure has not worked as well for other occupations, such as scientists. For these occupations, a more democratic or participative structure may be suitable. Godwin recommends that participative leadership may be the most effective for isolated antarctic stations. 1 Strange and Youngman observe that "...the smaller the station, the more successful seems to be a democratic style of leadership. 1 , 2 Suedfeld suggests that the optimal type of leadership could involve a flexible style, whereby the leader i s expected "...to behave democratically on routine matters, to consult with technical experts on specialized issues, and to react decisively and quickly in emergencies.1,3 Palinkas states that changes in organizational frameworks be made during long-term missions to enhance performance while minimizing any adverse effects of prolonged isolation. 4 XJ.R. Godwin Leadership at Antarctic Stations (Northbourne: l s t Psychological Research Unit, 1987), p. 13. 2R.E. Strange and S.A. Youngman, "Emotional Aspects of Wintering Over," in the Antarctic Journal, November-December 1971, p. 257. 3Suedfeld, 1987, p. 875. 4L.A. Palinkas, Group Adaptation and Individual  Adjustment in Antarctica; A Summary of Recent Research (San Dxego: Occupational Medicine Department, Naval Health Research Center, 1987), p. 5. - 104 -The style of leadership and organization depends upon the size of the group, the circumstances in which direction is required and the characteristics of the personnel. When the situation involves larger groups, formal tasks and emergencies, military organizations or semi-skilled personnel, a more hierarchical structure may be necessary. When the situation involves small groups, routine, personal or technical matters, or highly trained personnel, a participative structure would l i k e l y be more successful. From the onset of a station tour, a preferred style of organization could be defined; however, i t i s l i k e l y that some f l e x i b i l i t y would be necessary throughout the period of service. 3.4.4.6 Duration of Stay By limiting the time in isolation, the potential stress induced problems may be reduced.1 This may comprise of simply making station tours shorter in overall duration, or returning station members home for v i s i t s during the tour. Increased member turnover would have a significant influence upon the amount of training required over a specific period of time, such as a year, because more Harrison and Connors, p. 75. - 105 -persons need to be trained. In addition, the shorter term, coupled with intermediate trips home, greatly increase the transportation requirements to and from the Antarctic. Indeed, transport to very isolated stations in the interior of the continent i s not possible for certain times of the year. 3.4.4.7 Enhancing Social Support Structures Adaptation to the antarctic environment could be assisted through enhancing the social support structure by using veterans of the isolation experience as support personnel. 1 Previous polar experience generally results in lower levels of stress and arousal. 2 While not surprising, this may be based on the successful development of coping methods while on the previous expedition. Veterans could pass on this coping knowledge to individuals unaccustomed to the environment. While such assistance i s natural through any social interaction in the station, a form of 'buddy system' could be established. Such a system would assign a veteran with one or more 'rookies', ensuring a l l newcomers get equal assistance. 'Harrison and Connors, p. 75. 2A.J.W. Taylor and I.A. McCormck, "Prediction of Performance on the International Biomedical Expedition to the Antarctic (IBEA)," in the Polar Record, Vol. 22, No. 141, p. 649. - 106 -3.4.4.8 Monitoring Psychological Welfare Blackburn, Shurley and Natani emphasize the necessity of attention to the psychological welfare of personnel at isolated s c i e n t i f i c outposts. 1 The physical and psychological health of a l l station members, including the leader, need to be periodically monitored. A set program of monitoring should be developed, using qualified personnel to conduct the monitoring, diagnosis and treatment. These personnel must be spe c i f i c a l l y trained in the potential problems associated with antarctic service. 3.4.4.9 Group Dynamics MacPherson emphasizes that most research on antarctic isolation focuses too much on individual t r a i t s which make an individual better suited for antarctic assignment; however, more attention needs to be given to inter-personal relationships that arise. 2 Many of the stressful situations manifest themselves in the social interaction of the station. Indeed, many of the stressful events result because of the group dynamics of the station. Taylor notes xBlackburn, Shurley and Natani, p. 378. 2MacPherson, p. 581. - 107 -that: Group dynamics is the name given to the forces that operate when people come together for specific purposes and for specific periods. The purposes concern work, emotional relationships, and organisational structure. In turn, work concerns the attainment of specified goals, emotional relationships concern the feelings of cohesion, morale, and support that can f a c i l i t a t e group membership, and organizational structure concerns the distribution of responsibility for getting certain stipulated tasks completed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . 1 MacPherson differentiates between two types of social relations, those of formal and informal relations. Formal relations are primarily concerned with e x p l i c i t working roles, and the informal relations are those which emerge outside the formal structure. These informal relations include the friendships, cliques, or conflicts, which are not e x p l i c i t l y part of the formal organization of the station. MacPherson states that a knowledge of the informal structure i s v i t a l in understanding the adaptation to isolation, for "...one result of isolation seems to be that informal relations take up a more prominent part of group l i f e compared with other, more normal situations. The emotional component in relationships between a small isolated group of people i s greatly increased." 2 MacPherson 'Taylor, 1987, p. 93. 2MacPherson, p. 581-582. - 108 -adds that the importance of small groups in the Antarctic with regard to informal relations between individual members and separate social systems, has particular significance for leadership practices which are already challenged by the antarctic isolation alone. 1 The group dynamics, both formal and informal of an antarctic station has a significant effect upon the degree of stress produced and experienced by station members. The station leader must be particularly adept in recognizing and working with the informal dynamics that arise. Previous training in interpersonal relations and group development would be an asset for a l l station members, particularly the leader. 3 . 5 Summary In summary, this chapter discusses, based upon a literature review, the potential social and psychological stresses that could apply to military personnel posted to the unique environment of a Canadian arctic military i n s t a l l a t i o n . The more salient characteristics of this environment that imply social and psychological stresses are those of isolation and confinement. 'Ibid., p. 584. - 109 -The f i r s t section of the chapter discusses the characteristics of isolation and confinement. The second section i s a review of literature pertaining to social and psychological stresses of l i f e in a polar environment for persons originating in a more temperate climate. The third section summarizes planned efforts in the literature aimed at either avoiding or ameliorating the incidence of stress in an isolated and confined environment. Planned efforts can be undertaken in the following ways: a. the design of the physical environment; b. screening and selection; c. pre-deployment indoctrination training; and d. methods of station operation. The following chapter consists of a case study, based on Canadian Forces Station Alert, in which the measures identified in this chapter are applied. Since the purpose of this thesis i s to identify measures that should be considered in planning a Canadian arctic military ins t a l l a t i o n in order to alleviate the social and psychological stresses of this unique environment, i t i s necessary to investigate the applicability of these measures identified in antarctic research stations to an existing Canadian arc t i c military i n s t a l l a t i o n . - 110 -Chapter 4 - Case Study 4.1 Introduction This chapter consists of a case study, based on Canadian Forces Station Alert, in which the possible measures identified in Chapter 3 are applied. Since the purpose of this study i s to identify measures that should be considered in planning a Canadian arctic military in s t a l l a t i o n in order to alleviate the social and psychological stresses of this unique environment, i t i s necessary to investigate the applicability of measures identified in antarctic research stations to an existing Canadian arctic military i n s t a l l a t i o n . This chapter w i l l : present an overview of Canadian Forces Station Alert, compare the situation of Canadian Forces Station Alert to that of the antarctic stations studied in the literature, and discuss the measures proposed in the literature, measuring their relevancy, and adapting them with respect to the circumstances of a Canadian arctic military i n s t a l l a t i o n . - I l l -4.2 Overview of Canadian Forces Station Alert 4.2.1 Location Canadian Forces Station Alert i s the most northern permanently inhabited settlement in the world, situated on the northern end of Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago at 82 degrees, 30 minutes latitude and 62 degrees, 20 minutes longitude. This location i s shown at Figure 4. The region in which Canadian Forces Station Alert i s situated i s known to the Inuit, far to the South, as "Inuit Nunangata Ungata,"1 The Land of the Land Beyond People. 2 The nearest permanent Inuit settlement i s Grise Fiord, located approximately 725 kilometres to the south. The closest contact with outside society i s the United States Air Force Base located 676 kilometres to the southeast at Thule in Greenland. Edmonton, being 3475 kilometres away, i s the closed major Canadian c i t y . In contrast, the distances to Glasgow, Stockholm and Moscow are XG. B a r i l , "Room at the Top," in the Sentinel, Vol. 3, 1980, p. 10. 2M. Stephenson, "High Arctic Watch," in The Beaver, Vol. 23, Spring 1982, p. 22. Source: Canada, Department National Defence, CFS Alert Information Booklet, 1987. - 113 -3322, 3264, and 3898 kilometres, respectively. 1 Canadian Forces Base Alert can only be accessed by a i r . While being close to the Arctic Ocean, the water i s closed year round by ice. The rugged terrain of Ellesmere Island prohibits any overland access by roads. 2 Only two ships have ever reached Canadian Forces Station Alert, the United States Coast Guard icebreaker Staten Island in 1953, and Canadian Coast Guard Ship St. Laurent in 1971. 4.2.2 History Canadian Forces Station Alert was named after Her Majesty's Ship (HMS) Alert which wintered off Cape Sheridan, 9.7 kilometres east of the present station, in 1875 and 1876. This expedition was the f i r s t to northern Ellesmere Island. Alert has since then been the last stepping stone for most expeditions to the North Pole. The Canadian military has been involved in the Canadian North periodically since the Klondike Gold Rush in 1898, xMarani, Rounthwaite and Dick, CFS Alert N.W.T.:  Environmental Study, (Special Report Prepared for the Department of National Defence, Toronto, 1971), p. B.l(2). 2Stephenson, p. 22. - 114 -with the greatest presence being since World War II. 1 Most of the Canadian military operations have been transient and conducted for training purposes. "Those few military elements stationed permanently in the North were ' in the North,' not 'of the North.' The Supplementary Radio System stations at Inuvik and Alert were primarily concerned with communications research. The Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line main sites were primarily concerned with continental ai r defence.2 Alert was f i r s t established in 1950 as a meteorological station in a joint project of the Canadian Department of Transport and the United States Weather Bureau.3 In 1956 the Royal Canadian Air Force set up a post at Alert, near the Canadian-American weather services camp, to carry out communications research. Two years later a permanent military station was established and a steady expansion of f a c i l i t i e s has continued since then. Co-located with the military f a c i l i t i e s i s the High Arctic Weather Station (HAWS), undertaking studies and observation of the extreme weather conditions and atmospheric disturbances peculiar to ^.C. Eyre, "Forty Years of Military Activity in the Canadian North, 1947-87," in Arctic, Vol. 40, No. 4, December, 1987, p. 292. 2Eyre, p. 298. 3 B a r i l , p. 7. - 115 -the arctic environment.1 4.2.3 Environment Canadian Forces Station Alert i s situated on the edge of a plateau on the western shore of a sea flooded remnant of two lakes; one named Dumbell Bay and i t s extension known as Parr Inlet. The mouth of Dumbell Bay i s about four kilometres to the northeast of Alert. Eight kilometres to the north i s the coast of the Arctic Ocean.2 The local terrain i s rugged and undulating with h i l l s , and valleys. The ground consists of slates and shales that breakdown easily and in the summer form a very penetrating fine dust. The area i s in the zone of continuous permafrost. In the brief summer period the top layer of the s o i l melts to create a soft/ wet active layer. This layer supports the growth of various types of vegetation such as miniature flowers and grasses. There i s also a variety of wi l d l i f e in the area; however, the number of animals i s normally small. Arctic hare and fox are found year round, and birds such as arctic terns and sandpipers nest there in the summer. Occasionally Stephenson, p. 23. 2Marani, Rounthwaite and Dick, p. B. - 116 -seen are seals, arctic wolves, muskoxen, caribou, lemmings, and weasels. 4.2.4 Climate The climate differs from that of southern Canada in terms of: 1 a. differing patterns of sunlight and darkness, b. low temperatures, c. low precipitation, d. low humidity, e. occasionally high winds, and f. periods of fog and low v i s i b i l i t y . Due to the high latitude of Canadian Forces Station Alert, the seasonal patterns of daylight and darkness are different from that of southern Canada. Between Apr i l 8 and September 5 there i s absolutely no darkness. In contrast, between October 10 and March 1 there i s no daylight. During the remaining times there are brief transitional periods of daylight and darkness. The annual patterns of daylight and darkness at Canadian Forces Station Alert are shown at Figure 5. Canada, Department National Defence, CFS Alert Information  Booklet, 1987, pp. 1-2. - 117 -Figure 5. Patterns of Daylight and Darkness  at Canadian Forces Station Alert OAYUOHT-OAYLIQHT -APR MAY 0100 -0200 -0300 -0400 -0500 0600 0700 -0800 -0000 1000 -1100 -1200 -1300 -1400-1500 1600 -1700 -1600 -1900 -2000 -2100 -2200 -2300 ww////mM?///////. -OAYUOHTj JUN Source: Canada, Department National Defence, CFS Alert  Information Booklet. 1987. - 118 -The lowest recorded temperature at Canadian Forces Station Alert since 1951 has only been 50 degrees Celsius below zero; however, the year round temperatures are consistently cold. The monthly average temperature from December to March i s at least 30 degrees Celsius below zero, while the average monthly temperature from June to August i s around the freezing mark. Typically, there are 330 days per year in which the temperature i s below freezing: While winter i s certainly the longest and most dominant of the northern seasons, spring and f a l l in the form of break-up and freeze-up also occur, as does a brief summer. North does not mean winter - i t means isolation. This notion i s worth restating, for i t i s fundamental to understanding the military in the North... 1 The area surrounding Canadian Forces Station Alert, as much of the high Arctic, i s c l a s s i f i e d as a desert. Since 1951 the mean annual r a i n f a l l at Alert has been only 17.5 millimetres, f a l l i n g almost exclusively in July and August. Snow can f a l l in any month of the year and the mean annual snowfall since 1951 i s 148 centimetres. September normally has the greatest amount of snowfall with a mean of 33 centimetres. There i s normally at least five centimetres of snow on the ground 270 days of the year. The relative humidity of the arctic a i r i s so low that ^yre, p. 293. - 119 -i t i s unmeasurable due to low levels of moisture in the a i r and the low temperatures of the a i r i t s e l f . This causes high levels of static e l e c t r i c i t y in buildings and station personnel commonly experience sore throats and bleeding noses. Winds vary in pattern throughout the year. In the summer period the prevailing winds are from north to east and are generally below 20 kilometres per hour. During this time, however, winds can gust up to 65 kilometres per hour. In the remaining nine months the prevailing winds are from the west and are somewhat higher in velocity. The maximum observed hourly wind velocity at Alert was 150 kilometres per hour. The combined effect of wind and low temperature cause a wind c h i l l effect which greatly increases the threat of exposure and frost bite. Fog commonly occurs in the Arctic from June to September over waterways and coastal areas, such as at Canadian Forces Station Alert. Blowing snow, however, i s the most frequent cause of low v i s i b i l i t y . The snow particles are typically very small and dry, therefore, relatively light winds can cause blowing snow and d r i f t i n g . When winds exceed 65 km per hour, v i s i b i l i t y can be reduced to only a few yards. An additional arctic phenomenon affecting v i s i b i l i t y i s the 'whiteout'. During the spring and f a l l , when the sun i s near the horizon and the snow - 120 -surface and clouds are of uniform whiteness, i t i s often d i f f i c u l t to distinguish either the horizon or objects close at hand. 4.2.5 Station Organization and Operation Canadian Forces Station Alert presently conducts a standard research program involving radio transmission and reception in the high latitudes, as well as providing a high frequency direction finding capability for search and rescue. The Station consists predominantly of military personnel (approximately 220); however, there are also a few c i v i l i a n employees of the Department of National Defence and the Department of the Environment. Approximately 15 percent of the personnel are female. In 1980 the Canadian Forces i n i t i a t e d a t r i a l employment of service women at Canadian Forces Station Alert. 1 The purpose of this t r i a l was to assess the impact on station operational effectiveness of introducing service women in the previously all-male environment. Results of the t r i a l indicated that the introduction of women into this environment went relatively smoothly and they have been accepted as f u l l y participating station members. The women ^.E. Park, Final Report of the Social/Behavioural Science  Evaluation of the SWINTER Alert T r i a l , Research Report 84-1, (Willowdale: Canadian Forces Personnel Applied Research Unit, 1984), pp. 1-2. - 121 -have worked as hard as their male peers, as well as having participated in a l l supplementary work such as overtime or voluntary duties. Indeed, the women appeared to have an overall positive effect on station morale.1 Spouses of the men, however, were not accepting of the service women's presence at Canadian Forces Station Alert. Park states that the spouses believed their husbands would have problems coping emotionally with the presence of women and the possiblity of relationships would exist. 2 As in typical military fashion, the station i s organized on a hierarchical basis, with clear-cut regulations, responsibilities and chain of command. Park notes that, relative to the military environment in southern Canada, formal military rules were generally relaxed. 3 Parallel to the military hierarchy, the social organization of Alert has: ...a series of time-worn formal rules and informal norms that encourage personal adaptation to the isolated setting as well as station effectiveness. Included in this system i s a greater dependence on the informal group, rather than on the organization, to guide appropriate conduct and behaviours. Considerable reliance i s placed on ^bi d . , p. 25. 2Ibid., p. 16. 3R.E. Park, Continuing Personnel Issues Related To Women's  Integration at CFS Alert, Working Paper 83-2, (Willowdale: Canadian Forces Personnel Applied Research Unit, 1983), pp. 5-6. - 122 -individuals cooperating with others and helping each other cope with the effects of isolation. Similarly, a greater intimacy among individuals, than i s typically demonstrated in job settings down south, i s accepted.1 Personnel serve at Canadian Forces Station Alerrt temporarily, for a period of six months on i n i t i a l tours; however, staff who return for their fourth, f i f t h or sixth tour serve for only five, four or three months, respectively. Communication tradesmen "...adjust to the everyday routine at Alert quickly. They make up over half of the station strength. In addition to spending most of their careers in isolated regions, the '291ers' [these communication tradesmen] are v i r t u a l l y guaranteed a return to Alert every four years." 2 The remaining members of the station, consisting of other trades such as administration clerks, cooks, vehicle technicians, electricians, medical assistants and stewards often find i t more d i f f i c u l t to adjust since they are often on their f i r s t and only posting to Alert. Roughly two thirds of the Station personnel are married, representative of the source population. Families of station members are l e f t in permanent home bases across southern Canada: Alert has bred a distinctive six-month l i f e - s t y l e , xPark, 1984, p. 26. 2 B a r i l , p. 8. - 123 -aimed directly at mental survival. In a gradual, almost imperceptible process, the men absorb new concepts, take on new values, a major part of which i s the exclusion of the rest of the world. They refer to i t as the 'outside', and view i t with an agonizingly confused mixture of disdain and longing. By their very isolation they are, in fact, effectively shielded from the usual worries and calamities of the outside. 1 In order to maintain station operations on a 24 hour-per-day, seven day-per-week, basis, personnel replacement occurs on a week-ly basis. This avoids the operational discontinuity of a 100 percent crew turnover once or twice a year. Each week a military air c r a f t brings a replacement crew of four to seven percent of the station strength. "The serviceman on his f i r s t posting to Alert has to dissociate himself from the outside world. He has to learn to li v e in a group and to be concerned with the proper operation of the station." 2 This crew, to be employed throughout the station, have a one week 'handover' period to learn from the predecessor their job as well as station routine. Because the service members employed at the Station are drawn from a relatively small population, only a small number at the station are truly 'volunteers'. Many resign themselves to the separation from their families as an expected, albeit d i f f i c u l t , part of military l i f e . The time Stephenson, p. 24. 2 B a r i l , p. 8. - 124 -at Alert i s l i k e l y to be only one of many extended trips away from families throughout a military career. Indeed, the service person must "...come to grips with the idea that the Canadian Forces expects each of us to do out duty, even when that duty means our families must endure some hardships. 1 , 1 In addition to the weekly arri v a l and return of rotation personnel, varying numbers of short term v i s i t o r s come to the station. These v i s i t o r s , arriving primarily in the late spring and summer months, are at Alert for annual resupply, construction and maintenance operations. During this period l i f e at the Station can get extremely hectic and crowded. Stephenson remarks that these 'short-timers,' anyone who comes to Alert for less than six months, "...are held in disdain. They are ignored, avoided, excluded and, with any luck at a l l , sneered at - which i s at least a recognition of sorts." 2 B a r i l notes that rarely members have to be sent south because they cannot take the pressure and the boredom.3 This does not mean, however, that the stresses of such l i f e are 'Canada, Department of National Defence, "Military Family Study: A Promise," in the Canadian Forces Personnel Newsletter (Ottawa: Office of the Assistant Deputy Minister (Personnel), Issue 6/87), p. 1. 2Stephenson, pp. 24-25. 3 B a r i l , p. 9. not encountered: - 125 -The unbroken, locked-in tour of duty i s a boiler with too few r e l i e f valves, and seems to keep them balanced always on the brink of something strange and tremulous, something that has no single name and can never be f u l l y suppressed. It i s evident in group conversations, when one of them turns imperceptibly away and his eyes film over and, for a short time, he's not there any more.1 Marani, Rounthwaite and Dick remark that the lack of varied entertainment, personal storage space and privacy, combined with the relatively spartan accommodation, overcrowding, and the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with communal ablution f a c i l i t i e s a l l : ...cumulate into a general state of dissatisfaction beyond rational proportions. One perceptive . individual explained his reaction by the statement that he slept, ate and worked with others with the same job and the same background and by the end of six months he was so utterly t i r e d of their repetitive 'shop talk', that six months seemed like as many years. 2 4.2.6 Station F a c i l i t i e s I n i t i a l l y , the f a c i l i t i e s at Canadian Forces Station 'Stephenson, p. 25. 2Marani, Rounthwaite and Dick, p. C.3(12). - 126 -Alert consisted of extremely spartan, temporary buildings that were provided to meet 'minimum military requirements' under constraints of expediency and cost. B a r i l notes that as late as the 1960s new arrivals were accommodated in rooms of seven persons. The few recreational a c t i v i t i e s were limited to reading or playing pool, cards or ping pong. The f i r s t flush t o i l e t was not even installed u n t i l 196511 Gradually, as the Station's role became more established and the i n i t i a l l y temporary buildings were used beyond their effective l i f e , newer f a c i l i t i e s were constructed that were more orientated towards the social needs of the inhabitants. Having once had to share rooms, station personnel now have individual bedrooms in l i v i n g quarters that would be the "...envy of many service members in large bases to the south. The three barrack blocks b u i l t during the past five years have kitchenettes, lounges, washers, dryers and closed-circuit televisions." 2 The barrack blocks are connected to each other, and other newer buildings, by enclosed accessways to permit free access between buildings. In this manner, the domestic f a c i l i t i e s , medical, and station operations are a l l connected to assure that normal l i v i n g routine and operations may continue under a l l weather conditions. 'Baril, p. 8. 2Ibid., p. 7. - 127 -Every floor in each of the three barracks has a small lounge, the use of which i s restricted to the occupants of that area. Over the years each of these lounges have been personalized, becoming centers for small group cohesion, identity and morale. For recreation, residents have: a. video cassette systems and rebroadcast television programs; b. each of the three messes shows a motion picture nightly; c. the weekly a i r link delivers mail and a selection of 120 newspapers and magazines; d. a unit-run FM station plays music 24 hours a day, drawn from a unit record library; e. a HAM radio club provides hobby a c t i v i t i e s and alternate means of contacting families at home, supplementing the telephone link; f. curling rink; g. bowling alleys; h. gymnasium and weight l i f t i n g room; i . during summer: fishing, hiking t r i p s to Mount Crystal or ice caves near the station; and j . many social and recreational a c t i v i t i e s such as a carnival during the last two days of the polar night. - 128 -4.2.1 Selection of Personnel As mentionned earlier, only a relatively small percentage of station members at Canadian Forces Station Alert are true 'volunteers.' Many have simply resigned themselves to going there as i t was their turn to be tasked. Since the source population i s very small, particularly for some occupations such as communications tradesmen, and the number of available candidates are even smaller, screening can only be used to identify individuals with significant problems that may preclude them from going to Alert. Therefore, basic screening i s simply aimed at factors such as health, finance, fitness, discipline or marital s t a b i l i t y . 1 Even under these circumstances, an attempt i s made to correct the individual's circumstances rather than screening him out. 4.3 Comparison of Canadian Forces Station Alert to  Antarctic Studies Since the measures discussed in Chapter 3 to alleviate the social and psychological stresses of the polar environment are based on the research of antarctic stations, i t i s necessary to investigate their applicability to an existing Canadian arctic military i n s t a l l a t i o n . This x B a r i l , p. 9. - 129 -section w i l l compare the major features of the antarctic stations presented in the literature to Canadian Forces Station Alert. Gunderson states that while the overall problems of the harsh environment and isolation are generally similar in both the Arctic and the Antarctic, the Antarctic, "...because i t has neither indigenous populations nor industrial or commercial enterprise and has much more severe environmental conditions, presents different types of physiological and behavioural problems for investigation from those encountered in the Arctic..." 1 Table III presents a summary of the factors which i l l u s t r a t e the contrast between the natural environments of the Arctic and the Antarctic. The extreme climate of the Antarctic protrayed in Table III i s primarily represented by the interior of the continent, such as at Amundsen-Scott station at the South Pole. The climate of the coastal areas of the Antarctic are much more li k e that of the islands of the northern Arctic, since the similar elevation and proximity to the sea are major factors. In addition, Canadian Forces Station Alert is located in an area of the Arctic, where there i s no native settlement and l i t t l e vegetation. XE.K. Eric Gunderson, Human Adaptability to Antarctic  Conditions, p. 2. - 130 -Table III Comparison of the Natural Environments of the A r c t i c and Antarctic A r c t i c Ocean basin enclosed by continents Winds, o c e a n c u r r e n t s r e s t r i c t e d to an internal basin Icebergs derived from glaciers, seasonal, measured i n cubic m Sea ice multiyear, annual thickness to 1.5 m Land ice i n limited areas; largest Greenland ice sheet Elevation at North Pole 1 m of sea" ice; bedrock 4300 m below sea l e v e l North Pole mean annual temperature -18 degrees Centigrade; no research station Beaches and shallow extensive continental shelf Frozen ground extensive, over 500 m deep Tundra w e l l d e v e l o p e d , extensive, marked by a tree/shrubline 90 species of flowering plants at 82 degrees North latitude. 450 species at 66 to 70 degrees North latitude Antarctic Continent surrounded by ocean world Winds, o c e a n c u r r e n t s circumpolar, uninterrupted by land masses Icebergs derived from glaciers and shelf ice; persistent and may measure i n excess of cubic km Sea ice annual, outward growth doubles continental extent, annual thickness to 2.5 m 90 % of land i s ice covered i n almost unbroken South Polar ice cap Elevation at South Pole 2912 m above sea l e v e l ; bedrock 34 m above sea le v e l South Pole mean annual temperature -50 degrees Centigrade; permanent 30 man, meteorological and geophysical research station Beaches rare; narrow deep continental shelf backed by v e r t i c a l ice c l i f f s Frozen ground limited to areas free of ice No tundra, no tree l i n e . Subantarctic zone marked by antarctic convergence Crustaceous lichens at 82 degrees, South latitude; 2 species of flowering plants at 66 to 70 degrees South latitude; vegetation primarily lichens and mosses - 131 -Table III (continued) A r c t i c A r a c h n i d s , c r u s t a c e a n s , insects, and myriapods numerous and common Musk ox, reindeer, caribou, fox, hare, wolf, lemming, bears, etc Whales and porpoises (18), seals (7), amphibious mammals (1) Bird species 107 (70 to 80 degrees North latitude) Primitive man with long r i c h c u l t u r a l record; ethnic groups circumarctic Human population over 60 degrees North latitude i n excess of 2 mi l l i o n , modern s e t t l e m e n t s , w i d e - s p r e a d exploitation and technological development Crossing of A r c t i c C i r c l e prehistoric Antarctic Free l i v i n g arthropods include insects (2), mites (150), Collembolla (6), scarce No t e r r e s t r i a l mammals Whales and porpoises (14), seals (4) Bird species 19 ( 70 to 80 degrees South latitude) No record of primitive man; no native groups Population under 60 degrees South l a t i t u d e s p a r s e , s c a t t e r e d at s c i e n t i f i c stations. No exploitation of t e r r e s t r i a l resources Crossing of Antarctic C i r c l e by James Cook, January 17, 1772 Source: G.A. Llano, "Polar Research: A Synthesis with Special Reference to Biology," i n ed. M.A. McWhinnie, Polar Research: To the  Present, and the Future, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1978), p. 28. - 132 -A comparison of the stations considered in antarctic research to Canadian Forces Station Alert i s presented at Table IV. Significant areas of variation occur with respect to: a. station size; b. personnel rotation; c. screening and motivation; d. organizational structure; e. contact with outside world; and f. recreational f a c i l i t i e s . The group size probably has an effect on the problems encountered by personnel in isolation, although, as discussed, in Chapter 3, there i s no clear consensus among researchers. This i s p a r t i a l l y due to the research interest in small groups in isolation, rather than simply groups of varying sizes in isolation. Because of the small population of the Canadian Forces and the high station percentage of one military occupation, limited opportunities exist to screen personnel. Too few candidates exist to rigorously screen them on the grounds of either preferred or undesirable personality t r a i t s , such as i s done for antarctic stations. Screening for Canadian Forces Station Alert i s only possible for more significant factors such as family, health or monetary problems. This - 133 -Table IV: Comparison of Antarctic Studies to Canadian Forces Station Alert Subject 1. Location 2. Climate 3. Size 4. Mix of Personnel 5. Personnel Rotation 6. Screening 7. Motivation Structure Antarctic Studies Isolated from familiar environment Extremely harsh: cold, windy, dry, low humidity usually 15 to 30 persons mix of c i v i l i a n s c i e n t i s t s and military; almost a l l males 100 percent turnover at start of winter Detailed Psychological and Psychiatric screening tests Highly motivated volunteers CFS Alert same Clear individual tasks with less defined group structure Outside Contact Almost no contact during winter, except occasional radio contact 10. Recreational F a c i l i t i e s 11. Work Routine generally austere, centered on bar and dining h a l l , sometimes limited exercise f a c i l i t i e s less structured, individual task focus 12. Rooms sometimes shared same, but not as cold 220 persons almost a l l military, but around 15 percent female new personnel a r r i v e each week money,family or health problems only less l i k e l y to be volunteer; motivation more directed to m i l i t a r y career hierarchical structure, both work and s o c i a l related. Clear rank structure Weekly f l i g h t with mail, r e p l a c e m e n t s, etc. Telephone l i n e for direct contact home well developed messing, hobby recreational, and lounge f a c i l i t i e s very structured work routine individual rooms - 134 -difference/ combined with the fact that many members at Candian Forces Station Alert are not volunteers/ could result in these personnel having more problems than those in the Antarctic. This presumption i s based, however, on the assumption that rigorous psychology screening and selection for antarctic service results in a better prepared station population. The manner of personnel rotation at Canadian Forces Station Alert i s particularly significant in the way i t differs from antarctic stations. Since a small percentage of new personnel arrive each week, and since they have a one week overlap to learn about their duties, better indoctrination opportunities are presented. Also, the station social organization i s continuous and well defined, without the yearly upheaval that antarctic stations unavoidably go through. This continuous social organization, gradually b u i l t up over the years at Alert, i s orientated to successful coping. The high repetition rate of certain military occupations reinforces the continuity. In addition, the hierarchical structure i s the one in which the military person i s accustomed to, anyway. Therefore, fewer i n i t i a l social challenges of this nature may be experienced by the Canadian Forces military personnel than persons in antarctic stations, and more supporting individuals are available to - 135 -help the adjustment process. Due to the radio and telephone links, as well as the weekly f l i g h t to southern Canada, good communication resources are available to the residents at Canadian Forces Station Alert. Because of the number of station members, use of the telephone i s limited to once per week. During the summer work season, with the increased number of personnel, the frequency of cal l i n g i s reduced and additional tensions are created. Letters and "care packages" from families, as well as magazines, movies and video tapes of television programs, a l l help to reduce the feelings of isolation. At times, however, this contact reinforces the sense of confinement, as the personnel are constantly reminded of their i n a b i l i t y to go home. A l l of this i s significantly different from the antarctic stations, particularly in the interior, since i t is neither possible to travel there in the middle of winter, nor to provide telephone lines. At the Antarctic, contact with the outside world i s limited to intermittent radio transmissions. Due to the size of Canadian Forces Station Alert and due to the many years of re-investment in f a c i l i t i e s , the station has recreational f a c i l i t i e s well beyond those normally found in the Antarctic. Alert has a far greater - 136 -range of recreational and social opportunities to provide diversity in the day to day lives of the residents. These f a c i l i t i e s also provide an outlet for any emotional pressures that may be building up in the individual. The natural and man-made physical environments of the antarctic stations and Canadian Forces Station Alert vary; however, these differences take on a lesser importance to the social environment. As was disussed in Section 3 of Chapter 3, the physical environment, while s t i l l important in i t s e l f , has less impact on the stress experience in an isolated station than the social environment. The dif f e r i n g social factors of: group size, personnel rotation, screening and motivation, station social structure and outside contact probably have greater influence on the measures to alleviate stress proposed in the Antarctic station literature. Based on this discussion, the measures proposed in Chapter 3 w i l l be gauged for applicability to a Canadian arctic military i n s t a l l a t i o n . 4.4 Discussion In this section the planned efforts from the literature review to reduce the stress effects w i l l be discussed with regard to relevancy to a planned Canadian arctic military station. The four primary efforts are: - 137 -a. the design of the station b u i l t environment; b. the screening and selection of station personnel; c. the indoctrination training of personnel prior to deployment; and d. the operation of the station. 4.4.1 Design of the Built Environment The i n i t i a l provision of f a c i l i t i e s for any isolated location i s limited by the high cost of lo g i s t i c s , construction and operation. 1 Canadian Forces Station Alert i s a good example of th i s . The physical fitness and recreation f a c i l i t i e s present today are the culmination of almost 50 years of incrementally improving basic f a c i l i t i e s as limited funds become available. Long before any personnel are required to deploy to a Canadian arctic military installation, the station f a c i l i t i e s must be planned, designed and constructed. The design of these f a c i l i t i e s , as part of the physical environment of the station, could be undertaken to ameliorate the stress processes encountered by personnel. It i s suggested that certain minimum f a c i l i t i e s should be XC. Burgess-Ledbetter, Cold Regions Habitability: A Selected  Bibliography (Hanover, New Hampshire: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 1974), p. 2. - 138 -p r o v i d e d under t h e o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n / and t h a t a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be added as funds a r e made a v a i l a b l e . T h i s i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s a r e i n i t i a l l y o b t a i n e d t o ' g e t i t a l l ' and t h a t c e r t a i n d e s i g n f a c t o r s a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n o t h e r s . The b a s i c f a c i l i t i e s f o r w o r k i n g / e a t i n g and s l e e p i n g must be p r o v i d e d f o r ; however, i s i t recommended/ from t h e i n i t i a l p r o v i s i o n o f t h e f a c i l i t y , t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g must be p r o v i d e d : a. i n d i v i d u a l bedrooms f o r s i n g l e occupancy t h a t p r o v i d e p r i v a c y b o t h v i s u a l l y and a u r a l l y ; b. d i s t i n c t a r e a s f o r e i t h e r work o r r e c r e a t i o n , c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between work and s o c i a l r o u t i n e ; c. f l e x i b l e e n v i r o n m e n t s w i t h moveable f u r n i t u r e and w a l l f i x t u r e s i n a l l rooms, e s p e c i a l l y t h e bedrooms, t h a t a l l o w i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n ; d. a d i v e r s e i n t e r i o r d e c o r t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t a t i o n , w i t h a wide range o f c o l o r , l i g h t i n g and f i n i s h i n g m a t e r i a l s ; and e. a r e l i a b l e means o f communicating w i t h home. The i n i t i a l p r o v i s i o n o f common r e c r e a t i o n and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s a r e a s i s i m p o r t a n t ; however, t h e s e may be modest, - 139 -restricted by funding. As funding would become more available, these f a c i l i t i e s may be expanded to give station residents a broader range of personal a c t i v i t i e s . The recreation and physical fitness f a c i l i t i e s should be developed such that they could accommodate a c t i v i t i e s for solitary persons or small groups. 4.4.2 Screening and Selection As discussed in Chapter 3, the primary consideration i n i t i a l l y i n the selection of antarctic station personnel was occupational competence. However, rigorous selection procedures were later developed in an attempt to weed out individuals with deviant tendencies. Any disabling emotional problems that may have occured did not simply happen due to the antarctic experience, but have resulted from latent disorders brought into obvious problems by social-emotional factors at the station. The stress of isolated antarctic duty does not make psychiatrically healthy people psychiatrically i l l , but may worsen emotional problems which already exist. It i s suggested that screening for serious psychological problems in Canadian Forces personnel has already been conducted during the i n i t a l stages of recruitment and training into the military. In the Canadian Forces a service person's psychological fitness i s assessed - 140 -throughout his or her career; however, the main assessment is conducted during i n i t i a l recruitment and basic training. 1 This i s based upon subjective assessment of the applicant's self-report of behavioural and social history, as well as instructors' behavioural observations and peer evaluations. Wenek evaluated the incidence of serious psychopathology in the Canadian Forces and concluded that the incidence i s much lower than tha't of the Canadian population. While members of the overall Canadian Forces are not immune to mental disorders, the i n i t i a l recruitment screening procedures provides a population that i s more "...psychologically robust than a random sample drawn from the Canadian population." 2 Okros states that "...those who enroll and complete i n i t i a l training are a functional, relatively psychologically healthy group."3 It may be assumed, therefore, that for arctic military service the basic screening to identify latent disorders has already been conducted. Okros emphasizes, however, that ^.C. Okros, A Proposal For The Screening and Monitoring of  Psychological Fitness for Submariners, Working Paper 89-1 (Willowdale: Canadian Forces Personnel Applied Research Unit, 1989), pp. 9-10. 2 K.W .J. Wenek, The Assessment of Psychological Fitness: Some  Options for the Canadian Foreces, Technical Note 1/84 (Ottawa: Directorate Personnel Selection Research and Second Careers, 1984), p. 15. 3Okros, p. 13. - 141 -procedures would s t i l l be required for the assessment of psychological fitness for personnel employed in stressful, demanding environments such as submarines.1 Because of the small population of the Canadian Forces and the high station percentage of one occupation, limited opportunities exist to screen personnel. Too few candidates exist to rigorously screen them for 'social isolates' or 'non competitive achievers' on the grounds of either preferred or undesirable personality t r a i t s , such as i s done for antarctic stations. Screening for Canadian Forces Station Alert i s only possible for more significant factors such as family, health or monetary problems. Even so, the emphasis in this screening i s to identify and correct any problems, rather than reject the individual. The primary t r a i t s identified for successful antarctic service were occupational a b i l i t y , emotional s t a b i l i t y and social compatibility. Occupational a b i l i t y i s assured by the training structure throughout a military person's career. Each tasking for northern deployment i s based upon specific rank and trade qualifications which can clearly be associated with various candidates. As discussed earlier, emotional s t a b i l i t y i s screened during i n i t i a l recruitment into the Canadian Forces; however, screening for problems lIbid., p. 24. - 142 -such as money, health, marital or discipline matters, i s conducted whenever an isolated posting i s considered. No screening i s spec i f i c a l l y conducted for social s t a b i l i t y , although elements of this are identified throughout a person's career. While many of the members of a Canadian arctic military i n s t a l l a t i o n would not be volunteers, these persons are li k e l y to experience more stress effects than a group composed of volunteers. "Self-selection [in the submarine service of Canadian Navy] operates to further screen out those who are not suitable for such employment and shoud result in higher levels of motivation, personal and professional morale, and pride in self and unit." 1 "Employment of non-volunteers should be viewed as an additional stressor which may adversely affect psychological fitness. " 2 Screening and selection for duty in a Canadian arctic military installation can be accomplished through a combination of: a. psychological screening during i n i t i a l recruitment into the Canadian Forces; 'Ibid., p. 23. 2Ibid., p. 22. - 143 -b. further screening for unsuitable candidates during i n i t i a l basic training; and c. isolated posting screening to identify, and i f possible correct, any major problems of financial, health, marital or discipline matters. The greatest constraint on further degrees of screening prior to arctic duty i s the simple limit to the numbers of available personnel. Further effort in this area should not be directed at identifying undesirable candidates for rejection, but be directed at identifying candidates who should receive specialized training in dealing with such employment. This i s reinforced by the finding that screening does not guarantee that the person w i l l not have any problems. Most individuals in the Antarctic s t i l l experience stress effects to some degree. Training should be provided to prepare a l l individuals for the isolation and confinement experience, regardless of how rigorous the screening. This w i l l be discussed in the next section. 4.4.3 Pre-deployment Indoctrination Training Once the preferred candidates have been screened and selected, indoctrination training prior to deployment may be undertaken to improve the likelihood of successful adaptation to the isolation and confinement of duty at a Canadian arctic military i n s t a l l a t i o n . As discussed in - 144 -Chapter 3, a c t i v i t i e s that may be included i n pre-deployment i n d o c t r i n a t i o n t r a i n i n g are: developing a team, conducting a n t a r c t i c s u r v i v a l t r a i n i n g , f a m i l i a r i z i n g a l l team members with group and i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s , conducting behaviour t r a i n i n g , conducting t r a i n i n g s p e c i a l l y orientated f o r s t a t i o n leaders, and conducting t r a i n i n g for coping with the stress of polar duty. The i n i t i a l development of a team s p i r i t before deployment to the A r c t i c i s not possible, as i s for an a n t a r c t i c i n s t a l l a t i o n s , because personnel are rotated i n small numbers on a weekly b a s i s . Once i n the North, however, r e c r e a t i o n a l events or comptetitions may be organized to promote team cohesion and morale. This can be i n i t i a l l y aimed at the smaller sub-group, based on e i t h e r sleeping areas or work teams, and l a t e r aimed at the s t a t i o n as a whole. A r c t i c s u r v i v a l t r a i n i n g has been already conducted to some degree, as basic s u r v i v a l t r a i n i n g i s given to a l l m i l i t a r y personnel. However, s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g f o r the s i t u a t i o n of the a r c t i c s t a t i o n should be given to each i n d i v i d u a l on a r r i v a l at the s t a t i o n . This should include such t r a i n i n g as f i r e d r i l l s or the action i n the event of power outage. Training on the roles and duties of s t a t i o n members, as - 145 -well as the overall purpose and organization of the station, could be undertaken via reading packages provided prior to deployment. I n i t i a l briefings on arrival at the station would elaborate on these packages as well as specify the particular duties of the individual. Prior to deployment, however, meetings between the individual, spouse and military authorities should take place to ensure that the service member's spouse i s aware of support and communication resources available to him or her. Only a small percentage of the military include of what is the common perception: the young, single soldier. Service personnel who are either married or are single parents make up 63 percent of the Canadian Forces. Of these, 4.3 percent were single parents. 1 The military family ...has the following unique and distinguishable features: strong group identification, separation from the general society, a ranked system, uncertainties due to assignments, stressful family situations resulting from mobility and separation, conflicting military and family requirements,, relegation of the family to a secondary position, and heightened family cathexes.2 Unpublished Department of National Defence personnel information. 2J.G. Rienerth, "Separation and Female Centeredness in the Military Family," in E.J. Hunter and D.S. Nice eds., Military  Families: Adaptation to Change (New York: Praeger, 1978), p. 175. - 146 -In selecting personnel for Canadian Forces Station Alert, whether an individual i s married or not has special significance. As discussed in Chapter 3, the marital status of the individual in isolation in the antarctic station significantly affects the potential experience of stress. In the Canadian military, as with any military, extra demands are routinely placed upon families. These demands could become unmanageable particularly for residents of a remote arctic i n s t a l l a t i o n . The special d i f f i c u l t i e s for military families, and the relevance to selection for northern duty, w i l l be discussed. Traditionally work and family have been regarded as independent domains, each occupying separate worlds. "In the ' old' military the saying, ' i f Uncle Sam wanted you to have a wife, he would have issued you one,' had special meaning and served as a warning against family interference with the demands of military l i f e . " 1 It was assumed that neither the work, nor family domain, affected the other. Indeed, the attitude which prevailed was that the family, played a subordinate role in the serviceman's career. 2 "Men who elect career military status must not only accept the risks of separation and mobility but also place their wives 'H.I. McCubbin, B.B. Dahl and E.J. Hunter, "Research on the Military Family: A Review," in H.I. McCubbin, B.B. Dahl and E.J. Hunter, eds., Families in the Military System ( Beverly H i l l s : Sage, 1976), p. 291. 2Ibid., p. 292. - 147 -and children in a subordinate position." 1 Popoff et. a l . state that social changes, such as the participation of women in the workplace or sexual roles in the home, have led to increasing conflicts between workplace and the home.2 They suggest that "...stress i s created between the organization and military families because people l i v e i n both systems simultaneously and one system no longer takes precedence over the other." 3 There are pressures unique to, or more prevalent in, military l i f e that can place stress on service members and their families. As shown in Chapter 3 in the discussion regarding stress in the polar regions, problems at home are very i n f l u e n t i a l in the degree of stress experienced. For this reason, the additional stresses of family l i f e in the military w i l l be discussed. Enrolement into the military results in an uprooting from the home town and the extended family of origin. 4 The xRienerth, p. 174. 2T. Popoff, S. Truscott and R. Hysert, Military Family  Study: An Overview of Life/Work Stress and Its Relationship to  Health and Organizational Morale Operational Research and Analysis Establishment, Directorate of Social and Economic Analysis Report No. 351 (Ottawa: Department of National Defence, 1986), pp. 1-3. 3Ibid., p. 3. 4A. Frances and L. Gale, "Family Structure and Treatment in the Military," in Family Process, Vol. 12, No. 1, March 1973, p. 171. - 148 -most significant characteristics of military l i f e that relate to stress are the periodic absence of one spouse and geographic mobility. The main stresses discussed here include those of: separation, geographic mobility, spouses of foreign origin, single parents, dual career marriages, military communities, and the hierarchical structure of the military. Separations are one example of a chronic stress for which the military has set up norms of appropriate behavior. Entering the armed forces independently, or as a couple, may be viewed as a stressful situation for i t entails adjusting to an entirely new way of l i f e . 1 Frances and Gale 2 state that the stress of separation occurs in two ways: a. the physical separation of the service member from the family, sometimes under threat of death or injury; and b. the consequence of the nature of military duty that requires the father to maintain a high degree of dedication to his work and to the military, often spending long hours and responding to c a l l s at a l l times. He may be required to master new and demanding jobs at frequent intervals, leading Rienerth, p. 176. 2Frances and Gale, p. 172. - 149 -to a preoccupation with work. Research conducted on the military family leads to the conclusion that separations are common the military, and the degree of stress they produce i s dependent on the adaptability, integration, and previous separation experience of the family. 1 When a military spouse i s away, i t may become necessary for remaining partner to assume aspects of the other's role in order to retain a functional family unit, which, in some instances, the restructuring of family roles may become permanent.2 Because military service can involve postings to foreign countries, periodically- service members marry foreign citizens. While these marriages may be functional overseas, upon coming home, the spouses often become depressed, homesick, and overwhelmed by the problems of adjustment to the customs of a new culture and they often find themselves isolated, i f not rejected, by the spouses' parents, friends, or neighbours. Support from their own families i s unavailable. 3 These spouses generally experience greater d i f f i c u l t y due to separation than others. Rienerth, p. 176. 2Ibid., p. 170. 3McCubbin, Dahl and Hunter, p. 309. - 150 -It i s much better for a family separated from a military member to be located in a military community than located in a c i v i l i a n community.1 The military community normally provides an informal support structure to help these families. In most cases, the military family located in the c i v i l i a n community i s unable to benefit in the informal support potentially available within the c i v i l i a n community. The transient nature of military l i f e and separation from families restricts access to c i v i l i a n community informal support. In addition, the children in a military family undergoing the separation of the military parent: 2 a. experience grief, depression lonliness and anxiety; b. feel deprived of a source of comfort, pleasure and security; and c. become socially introverted. The process of reunion of the military member and the family can also be very stressful as the re-establishment of the husband-wife relationship, the division of labor within XF.F. Montalvo, "Family Separation in the Army: A Study of the Problems Encountered and the Caretaking Resources Used by Career Army Families Undergoing Military Separations," in Families In The Military System, H.I. McCubbin, B.B. Dahl and E.J. Hunter, eds. (Beverly H i l l s : Sage, 1976), p. 173. 2McCubbin, Dahl and Hunter, p. 301. - 151 -the home, the reallocation of roles, and the revitalization to the father-child relationship can be a l l very demanding.1 Geographic mobility i s becoming more commonplace for professionals; however, the military continues to be particularly sensitive to these problems because of the frequency of moves. The military family " . . . i s particularly susceptible to the potential stress of moving because of the frequency of the geographical change necessitated by the requirements of military service." 2 Geographic mobility, sometimes out of the country, i s always a significant factor in military family l i f e . This factor i s characterized by frequent moves, as often as every two years, and limited a b i l i t y to choose where the family w i l l l i v e , work, and attend school. 3 In addition to the many basic tasks of moving , such as the packing and sell i n g of a house, there may be: ...unique problems or or intrafamily d i f f i c u l t i e s which increase the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the moving process. For example, the moving process might be further complicated by chronic illn e s s in the family, by a handicapped child who needs special or remedial education, or by the need to sever f close family t i e s . The complexity of geographical mobility may also be affected by mediating 'Ibid. 2J.L. McKain, "Alienation: a Function of Geographical Mobility Among Families," in H.I. McCubbin, B.B. Dahl and E.J. Hunter, eds., Families in the Military System (Beverly H i l l s : Sage, 1976), p. 69. 3Frances and Gale, p. 171. - 152 -variables such as a forced relocation, by a sudden move with limited time to plan the move, or by a relocation to a community viewed by the family members as an undersirable place to l i v e or work.1 There are social-psychological costs of geographic mobility on children of a military family because, not only must the children become accustomed to constantly giving up establishing new friends, they are also faced with the problem of changing from one school to another, forcing the child to adapt to several school programs, teachers, and classmates. 2 As a result, the children may develop a sense of restless transiency and superficial relationships with friends, non-military institutions, and the non-human environment.3 The younger children react primarily to the emotional changes in the parents, rather than the geographic change i t s e l f . 4 The mothers of children who adapted more successfully to family relocation appeared more accepting of frequent relocation, and both parents showed significantly ^.M. Marsh, "Mobility in the Military: Its Effect Upon the Family System," in H.I. McCubbin, B.B. Dahl and E.J. Hunter, eds., Families in the Military System (Berverly H i l l s : Sage, 1976), p. 93. 2McCubbin, Dahl and Hunter, p. 294. 3Frances and Gale, p. 172. 4McCubbin, Dahl and Hunter, pp. 294-295. - 153 -stronger identification with the military community.1 In 1982, approximately nine percent of the Canadian Forces enlisted members consisted of female personnel, an increase from less than two percent at the beginning of the 1960s.2 In addition, in December 1988, 5.3 percent of a l l service married personnel were married to service members.3 With the rise of female participation in the Canadian military, the increase in marriages between male and female members who both remain in uniform has become a managerial problem. This i s l i k e l y to rise s l i g h t l y in the future as more females enter the Canadian Forces. 4 The representation of women in the Canadian military has increased from two percent in 1972 to ten percent in 1988.5 Present Canadian Forces policies state that the Forces w i l l try to keep married service personnel together; however, instances do occur when i t becomes necessary to 'Ibid. 2C.A. Cotton, and F.C. Pinch, "The Winds of Change: Manning the Canadian Enlisted Force," in Life in the Rank and F i l e :  Enlisted Men and Women in the Armed Forces of the United States,  Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, D.R. Segal and H.W. Sinaiko, eds. (New York: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1986), p. 244. 3From unpublished Department of Defence personnel information. 4Cotton and Pinch, p. 247. 5C. Strike, "Profile of the Canadian Armed Forces," in Canadian Social Trends (Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Winter 1989), p. 19. - 154 -post them to different bases. As the number of female personnel and the percentages of intraservice marriages increase, the numbers of families that are separated would l i k e l y increase. Also, from a traditional perspective, complications arise when officers and enlisted ranks intermarry. As the pattern in Canada i s for separate, i.e. segregated social arrangements, married service couples can l i v e rather complex social l i v e s . 1 Such social barriers add significant stresses for these couples. Military l i f e has, traditionally, existed as an isolated and remote institutional community sharply segregated physically from the rest of society. Bases were organized to provide a l l the goods and services for the maintenance of l i f e . 2 At times, this institutional style of community likens to a "...fishbowl within which they l i v e . They reside, work, and attend school in a tightly organized and observant community that demands conformity to conservative and relatively inflexible behavioral standards." 3 In addition, the actions of a l l family members Cotton and Pinch. 2Rienerth, p. 174. 3Frances and Gale, p. 173. - 155 -could influence the service person's chances of promotion.1 The pressures upon military families have become more vi s i b l e since the early 1980s due to the efforts of groups such as the Organizational Society of Spouses of Military Members (OSOMM).2 The Canadian Forces recognize the importance of family morale and well-being and have become more aware of the situation of the military family. In October 1987 the Family Life/Work Military Stress Survey ...showed 50 percent of [Canadian] service spouses are often severely depressed; 33 percent have problems with drug and alcohol addiction and i n f i d e l i t y . It also found 20 percent of children whose fathers are posted away for long periods have behavioural problems and reduced school marks and are sick more often than normal.3 Since 1987 the Family Support Program Project was set up to: identify the individual base and local c i v i l i a n programs that might exist, determine the level of family support that should be provided, and devolop proposals for a Forces-wide family support program.4 The Family Support 'Ibid. 2P. Berton, "A Mutiny Among Military Wives," in Maclean's, October 21, 1985, Vol. 98, No. 42, p. 74. 3C. Cornacchia, "Military Manoeuvres," in The Gazette, Monday, October 3, 1988, p. D-2. 4Canada, Department of National Defence, "Family Support," in the Canadian Forces Personnel Newsletter, Issue 6/88 (Ottawa: Office of the Assistant Deputy Minister (Personnel), 1988), p. 2. - 156 -Program Project has shown that while the Canadian m i l i t a r y family has s i m i l a r needs as the c i v i l i a n family, the needs may be aggravated by factors a r i s i n g out of m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e such as prolonged separations and frequent moves that break up s o c i a l networks. The Family Support Program Project i d e n t i f i e d four basic needs: a. information and r e f e r r a l services f o r e i t h e r m i l i t a r y and l o c a l c i v i l i a n support services, as well as any information of Canadian Forces p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g the m i l i t a r y family l i f e ; b. c r i s i s intervention services whenever d i r e c t p r o f e s s i o n a l assistance i s required; c. c h i l d care services; and d. education and l i f e s t y l e t r a i n i n g designed to help fa m i l i e s cope with m i l i t a r y l i f e s t y l e , i n c l u d i n g : pre-deployment b r i e f i n g s , l i f e s k i l l s t r a i n i n g such as e f f e c t i v e parenting techniques, and money-management seminars. 1 As a r e s u l t of increased emphasis i n s o c i a l support for m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s , Support Centres have been established at most m i l i t a r y bases. For example, i n Canadian Forces Base Halifax, "...the support centre's s t a f f of 20 o f f e r s telephone r e f e r r a l s and co-orinates a b a b y s i t t i n g service, 'Ibid. - 157 -social events and courses from ceramics to budget planning." 1 While service persons are away from home they are assured that the Support Centre i s ready, 24 hours a day, to assist their spouses with any problem from a plugged drain to a medical emergency. The stresses of military l i f e represent a broad problem of the Canadian Forces. Attempting to deal with these stresses i s outside the scope of this thesis, and should be dealt with separately to efforts in planning for stresses of polar l i f e . What i s relevant to this thesis, however, i s that any actions that may mitigate the compounding or unnecessary exaggeration of problems for persons on arctic duty should be undertaken. This i s ti e d to the screening of married personnel for marital problems, as well as the joint training of married personnel, with spouses, prior to northern deployment. Such training would focus on social support structures available to the spouse and familiy and communication resources, as well as alleviated the fears of uncertainty and risk. As discussed in Chapter 3, marital problems that may arise while a person i s in the Antarctic have a significant impact upon the stresses experienced. As many support structures are becoming available for military spouses, pre-^ttawa Citizen, "Support Centres Help Military Families Cope With Long Separations," Friday, March 3, 1989, p. D-10 - 158 -deployment training on the support services with the spouse and military member could help avoid potential problems. Due to the confined nature of the arctic military station, and the limited opportunities for escape, interpersonal problems can become destructive. Most military members have learned how to deal with such problems in normal day-to-day l i f e , with varying degrees of success. At the arctic station, however, the individual may not have sufficient interpersonal s k i l l s , or accustomed coping strategies, such as escape, may not be possible. Direct training in human relations.or the discussion of undesirable patterns of behaviour could be undertaken with selected candidates prior to deployment. L i t t l e direct training in such matters i s conducted by the Canadian Forces in normal training i f i t s personnel. By improving an individual's social s k i l l and awareness before going to the Arctic, fewer socially originated stresses would occur. While training personnel in human relations avoids the creation of stressful incidents, training should also be conducted to prepare the individual in coping with the incidents that unavoidably occur. Such training could be based on dealing with stress in general, and be elaborated upon with regard to the special demands of the isolation and confinement of arctic duty. - 159 -A l l selected candidates for arctic duty should receive pre-deployment training in recognizing and dealing with the stresses they w i l l l i k e l y encounter. Enhancing their coping s k i l l s prior to going to the Arctic could greatly f a c i l i t a t e their, adaptation. Through awareness of the potential demands, individuals could avoid experiencing many problems by ea r l i e r recognition of the effects and employing successful coping a c t i v i t i e s . Pre-deployment training should cover the following areas: a. each individual, i s by definition, very different from other persons and thus has his own set of values, attitudes, and needs. The individual also has his own a b i l i t i e s to deal with demands placed upon himself. What would constitute a stress demand for one person may vary a great deal from that of another. Indeed, what one person may find stressful, another may find rewarding; b. various individuals may react differently to the same stress demand with a wide range of coping techniques, based on the individual's knowledge and experience in dealing with stress; c. planned interventions to avoid, or lessen, the effects of stress on individuals may occur before, during, or after the experience of the stress; d. because the stress process involves many stages, - 160 -simply attempting to deal with the source of the stress misses the many opportunities to intervene in other stages of the process. Other opportunities to intervene include: (1) altering the individual's environment to either remove the stress demand or to provide additional ways of allowing the individual to cope with the stress demand, (2) changing the individual's perception of the demand, (3) improving the individual's abilities to cope with the demand, (4) changing the individual's perception of his abilities to cope with the demand, (5) helping the individual to learn from the successful coping with demands, and (6) training others to recognize stress effects in individuals and to assist the individual to cope with the demand. Leadership at antarctic stations is normally designated on the basis of technical or scientific seniority, rather than leadership ability. Therefore, leaders at antarctic stations may lack many of the qualities of a good leader. A programme of leadership studies, with some emphasis on counselling and - 161 -problem solving and knowledge of group interpersonal development, is recommended for such personnel to undertake before going to the Antarctic. The leaders at an arctic military station have, by virtue of their rank and position, already successfully completed leadership s k i l l s training. No further leadership training for the Arctic i s required; however, training could be undertaken from the standpoint of station community mental health. Therefore, i t i s most important that the leaders and the medical staff at the isolated stations understand the winter-over syndrome. Pre-deployment talks on leadership and methods which have proven satisfactory in dealing with common stress situations and patterns of undesired behaviour should be given to the designated leaders. The leaders need to be able to recognize evidence of stress experienced by their subordinates, and be able to help the person in the adaptation process. In addition to training in helping subordinates deal with the stresses of arctic l i f e , the leaders should also receive instruction in how to deal with the stresses themselves. While they are responsible for the welfare of their subordinates, they are also subject to the same, and additional, demands. - 162 -4.4.4 Station Operation The design of station f a c i l i t i e s , screening and selection, and pre-deployment training are a l l activities that may be undertaken at home prior to departure for the Arctic to reduce the potential stress effects. In addition, measures may be taken during the station deployment to reduce the number of stress induced problems. Activities presented in Chapter 3 that may be conducted to reduce stress during the antarctic station operation include: the rotation of station members, the allocation of duties, providing a varied diet, conducting social activities, setting up a suitable organizational framework, adjusting the duration of stay, enhancing the social support structures, monitoring psychological welfare, and dealing with group dynamics. In order to avoid the operational discontinuity of a 100 percent crew turnover once or twice a year as i s done at antarctic stations, member rotation should be done on a weekly basis with only a small percentage of the whole population replaced at any one time. This would not only maintain station operations on a 24 hour-per-day, seven day-per-week, basis, required for most military operations, but would also provide social stability and continuity. - 163 -The replacement crew, to be employed throughout the station, would have a one week 'handover' period to learn from the predecessor their job as well as station routine. This handover period should be minimized to reduce the overlap of station personnel, resulting in crowding. The careful rostering of general duties, the specification of responsibilities and the printing of operations procedures would show station personnel exactly where they stand and thus prevent unnecessary uncertainty. Since the numbers of support staff may be few, 'menial' tasks such as cleaning or doing laundry must be rostered so as to fa i r l y distribute the responsibility. Each individual's primary l i s t of duties and standard operating procedures must be defined such that each individual clearly knows what is expected of himself and of others. These duties would be identified during the pre-deployment training and presented in documentation for reference throughout station operation. The technical requirements of many station members' duties may prohibit the rotation of individual primary duties; however, duty rotation should1 occur within a group of a particular military occupation. A varied diet as well of a range of recreational activities should be planned to change the routine and add - 164 -div e r s i t y . Theme parties could add novelty and break up the long monotonous tour. In addition, s o c i a l interest could be promoted for interaction with station members other than those d i r e c t l y worked with. As presented i n Chapter 3, the style of leadership and organization depends upon the size of the group, the circumstances i n which direction i s required and the characteristics of the personnel. As antarctic stations t y p i c a l l y involve small groups, routine, personal or technical matters, or highly trained personnel, a p a r t i c i p a t i v e structure i s l i k e l y to be more successful. Because a Canadian a r c t i c m i l i t a r y station would involve larger groups, formal tasks and emergencies, m i l i t a r y organizations or semi-skilled personnel, a more hierarchical structure may be necessary. From the onset of a station tour, a preferred style of organization could be defined; however, i t i s l i k e l y that some f l e x i b i l i t y would be necessary throughout the period of service. Indeed f l e x i b i l i t y would be necessary i n dealing with the informal structures that would develop i n the isolated m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n . Isolated tours i n the Canadian Forces are generally planned on the basis of a six month duration. This time c r i t e r i a has evolved on the basis of acceptability to the individual and the family versus the increased cost of higher - 165 -frequency rotation. Personnel serve at Canadian Forces Station Alerrt temporarily, for a period of six months on i n i t i a l tours; however, staff who return for their fourth, f i f t h or sixth tour serve for only five, four or three months, respectively. This practice should be used for any isolated posting. Individuals, because of their specific trade or availability that are selected for repeated tours on isolated duty, would be somewhat compensated. Canadian Forces Station Alert has a well defined support network based upon an informal social organization. This social network greatly assists new arrivals in the acculturalization process and gives them assistance in developing new coping processes. Personnel experienced in the 'winter-over syndrome' should be paired with new arrivals to ensure each individual is cared for. The physical and psychological health of a l l station members, including the leader, need to be periodically monitored. A set program of monitoring should be developed, using qualified personnel to conduct the monitoring, diagnosis and treatment. These personnel must be specifically trained in the potential problems associated with arctic service. 4.5 Summary - 166 -This chapter presents an overview of Canadian Forces Station A l e r t , compares the s i t u a t i o n of Canadian Forces Station A l e r t to that of the a n t a r c t i c stations studied i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and discusses the measures proposed i n the l i t e r a t u r e , measuring their, relevancy, and adapting them with respect to the circumstances of a Canadian a r c t i c m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n . Planned e f f o r t s from the l i t e r a t u r e review to reduce the stress e f f e c t s are discussed with regard to relevancy to a planned Canadian a r c t i c m i l i t a r y s t a t i o n . The four primary e f f o r t s are: a. the design of the s t a t i o n b u i l t environment; b. the screening and s e l e c t i o n of s t a t i o n personnel; c. the i n d o c t r i n a t i o n t r a i n i n g of personnel p r i o r to deployment; and d. the operation of the s t a t i o n . Currently many of these e f f o r t s are i n p r a c t i c e at Canadian Forces Station A l e r t ; however, p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Canadian m i l i t a r y and an a r c t i c m i l i t a r y s t a t i o n make s l i g h t changes i n s p e c i f i c emphasis. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which apply are those of: a. the differences i n s t a t i o n s i z e ; b. the differences i n climate and natural - 167 -environment; c. the need to maintain continuous station operation without the disruption of complete member rotation; d. the limited source population from which to select members for service in the North; e. a station composed of service persons of the Canadian military i s typically more homogeneous in composition; f. the differences in the circumstances under which the members are employed, as Canadian servicemen in the North are less l i k e l y to be volunteers; g. the members of the Canadian Forces have already had some experience working in isolated environments; and h. the marital status of members has particular importance due to the added d i f f i c u l i t i e s for service families. - 168 -Chapter 5 - Conclusions 5.1 Introduction This chapter i s the conclusion of this thesis and includes: a summary of the work, of the main findings, and suggestions for further research. 5.2 Summary The Canadian Arctic i s a region that greatly contrasts with the remainder of Canada, particularly the main area of settlement: the thin 300 kilometre strip of land in southern Canada along the United States boundary. Since Canadian military personnel come primarily from southern Canada, being sent to an arctic installation places them in an unfamiliar, confined, isolated and potentially threatening environment. The characteristics of this environment may expose the military personnel to social and psychological stresses that the personnel are unprepared to encounter. The planning of an arctic military installation must consider physical design constraints such as construction in areas of permafrost and physical protection from the harsh natural environment. However, planning should also consider the social and psychological needs of the inhabitants. - 169 -The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to i d e n t i f y measures that should be considered i n planning a Canadian a r c t i c m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n i n order to a l l e v i a t e the s o c i a l and psychological stresses of t h i s unique environment. The scope i s l i m i t e d to i n v e s t i g a t i n g p r i m a r i l y the m i l i t a r y environment, although relevant material i s drawn from other sources through a l i t e r a t u r e review. Only the stresses a r i s i n g from the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and working environments at an a r c t i c m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n are considered. M i l i t a r y requirements fo r the existence of the i n s t a l l a t i o n and i t s s p e c i f i c m i l i t a r y operations are not questioned or discussed. Central to t h i s t h e s i s i s the assumption that stresses have the p o t e n t i a l to negatively a f f e c t m i l i t a r y personnel l i v i n g i n an a r c t i c environment. In order to i d e n t i f y the stresses of t h i s environment, to understand t h e i r p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s , and to suggest measures to a l l e v i a t e these e f f e c t s , a e x p l i c i t concept of stress i s required. Chapter 2 consists of a l i t e r a t u r e review to discuss the concept of str e s s and define a model of stress that i s applied i n the subsequent analysis i n the t h e s i s . The concept of stress defined i n Chapter 2 emphasizes the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the experience of s t r e s s . Stress i s a dynamic phenomenon that recognizes the capacity of an i n d i v i d u a l to not only cope with stress, but also to learn - 170 -from the coping experience. The experience of stress i s a process affected by the characteristics of the environment, the characteristics of the individual and the relationship between the individual and his natural, man-made and social environment. At an arctic military installation this environment includes other individuals, social groups, man made f a c i l i t i e s , the outside world and the natural environment. A study of the experience of stress at an arctic military ins t a l l a t i o n should consider these components of the environment and the relationship between them. Chapter 3 consists of a literature review to discuss the potential social and psychological stresses that could apply to military personnel posted to the unique environment of a Canadian arctic military i n s t a l l a t i o n . The more salient characteristics of this environment that imply social and psychological stresses are those of isolation and confinement. The chapter consists of three sections. The f i r s t section discusses the characteristics of isolation and confinement. The second section i s a review of literature pertaining to social and psychological stresses of l i f e in a polar environment for persons originating in a more temperate climate. The th i r d section summarizes efforts suggested in the literature aimed at either avoiding or ameliorating the incidence of stress in an isolated and - 171 -confined environment. These measures include actions that would be taken: a. in the design of the station b u i l t environment; b. in the screening and selection of station personnel; c. during the indoctrination training of personnel prior to deployment; and d. throughout the operation of the station. Chapter 4 consists of a case study, based on Canadian Forces Station Alert, in which the possible measures identified in Chapter 3 are applied. Since the purpose of this thesis was to identify measures that should be considered in planning a Canadian arctic military installation in order to alleviate the social and psychological stresses of this unique environment, i t i s necessary to investigate the applicability of measures identified for antarctic research stations to an existing Canadian arctic military i n s t a l l a t i o n . The chapter presents an overview of Canadian Forces Station Alert, compares the situation of Canadian Forces Station Alert to that of the antarctic stations studied in the literature, and discusses the measures proposed in the literature, measuring their relevancy, and adapting them with respect to the circumstances of a Canadian arctic - 172 -military i n s t a l l a t i o n . 5.3 Main Findings The measures identified in the literature to either avoiding or ameliorating the incidence of stress in an isolated and confined environment included actions that should be taken: in the design of the station b u i l t environment; in screening and selection of station personnel; during the indoctrination training of personnel prior to deployment; and throughout the operation of the station. Generally, these measures are currently in practice in the planning and operation of Canadian Forces Station Alert; however, particular characteristics of the Canadian military and an arctic military station make slight changes in specific emphasis. Characteristics which apply are those of: a. the differences in station size; b. the differences in climate and natural environment; c. the need to maintain continuous station operation without the disruption of complete member rotation; d. the limited source population from which to select - 173 -members for service i n the North; e. a s t a t i o n composed of service persons of the Canadian m i l i t a r y i s t y p i c a l l y more homogeneous i n composition; f. the differences i n the circumstances under which the members are employed, as Canadian servicemen i n the North are les s l i k e l y to be volunteers; g. the members of the Canadian Forces have already had some experience working i n i s o l a t e d environments; and h. the mari t a l status of members has p a r t i c u l a r importance due to the added d i f f i c u l i t i e s f o r service f a m i l i e s . 5.4 Suggestions For Further Research It i s suggested that further research could be conducted i n the following areas: a. investigate the e f f e c t s of group and o v e r a l l s t a t i o n s i z e on the experience of s t r e s s ; b. investigate the degree to which the frequency of tour at Canadian Forces Station A l e r t a f f e c t s the patterns of stress e f f e c t s and coping experienced by i t s members; c. investigate the benefits of r o t a t i n g only a small percentage of personnel at any one time, ensuring - 174 -continuity of station social organziation; d. investigate the particular methods used by members of Canadian Forces Station Alert in coping with the isolation and confinement; e. compare the incidence of stress effects between married and single personnel at Canadian Forces Station Alert; f. investigate the formal and informal supportive actions provided by the members of Canadian Forces Station Alert to their peers; g. vary the physical layout, colour and lighting of station f a c i l i t i e s and observe any changes that may occur in the. experience of stress or coping patterns; h. study the recreational a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s used by members at Canadian Forces Station Alert to determine which types may more useful in assisting coping; i . investigate the significance of whether a person volunteers or i s tasked for duty at Canadian Forces Station Alert with regard to the degree of stress experienced; and j . investigate the effectiveness of conducting stress awareness and coping training for personnel prior to deployment to the isolated and confined setting. - 175 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Advisory Board on Quartermaster Research and Development. 1960. Man Living In The Ar c t i c . Nantick, Mass: Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center. Baird, P.D. 1964. The Polar World. London: Longmans, Green and Co. B a r i l , G. 1980. "Room At The Top,11 i n the Sentinel, 1980/3, pp. 7-10. Berton, P. 1985. "A Mutiny Among M i l i t a r y Wives," i n Maclean's, Vol. 98, No. 42, p. 74. Blackburn, A.B. , J.T. Shurley and K. Natani. 1973. "Psychological Adjustment at a Small Antarctic Station: an MMPI Study," i n Polar Human Biology, O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, eds. Great B r i t a i n : William Heinemann Medical Books, pp. 369-361. Bowers, D.G. 1976. "Work-Related Attitudes of M i l i t a r y Personnel," i n The Social Psychology of M i l i t a r y Service, N.L. Goldman and D.R. Segal, eds. Beverly H i l l s : Sage. pp. 89-118. Bradley, C. and T. Cox. 1978. "Stress and Health," i n Stress, T. Cox, ed. London: MacMillan. pp. 91-111. Bruhn, J.G. and S. Wolf. 1986. "Stress, Satisfaction, and Morale i n Relation to Health and Productivity," i n Occupational Stress: Health and Performance at Work, S. Wolfe and A.J. Finestone, eds. L i t t l e t o n , Mass: PSG Publishing, pp. 1-10. Canada, Department of National Defence. 1988. "Family Support," i n the Canadian Forces Personnel Newsletter. Issue 6/88. Ottawa: Office of the Assistant Deputy Minister (Personnel). pp. 1-2. - 176 -1987. "Military Family Study: A Promise," i n the Canadian Forces Personnel Newsletter. Issue 6/87. Ottawa: Office of the Assistant Deputy Minister (Personnel). pp. 1-4. 1987. CFS Alert Information Booklet. Department of National Defence, Ottawa. Policy Governing Operation of Personnel Support  Programs i n the Canadian Forces: Public Support of  Personnel Support Programs. Ottawa. Canadian Forces Publication A-PS-110-001/AG-002. Cornacchia, C. 1988. "Military Manoeuvres," i n The Gazette, October 3, p. D-l. Cotton, CA. and F.C Pinch. 1986. "The Winds of Change: Manning the Canadian Enlisted Force," i n L i f e i n the  Rank and F i l e : Enlisted Men and Women in the Armed  Forces of the United States, Australia, Canada, and  the United Kingdom, D.R. Segal and H.W. Sinaiko, eds. New York: Pergamon-Brassey's. pp. 232-252.. Cox, T. 1978. Stress. London: MacMillan. Cox, T. and C. MacKay. 1982. "A Transactional Approach to Occupational Stress," i n Stress, Work Design, and  Productivity. E.N. Corlett and J. Richardson, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 91-113. Crocq, L. and J. Ri v o l i e r . 1973. "Psychological Selection of Personnel for Employment i n the Antarctic," i n Medicine et Armees, Vol. 1, No. 7 (Translation by G. Dickinson for the Defence Research Information Centre, Orpington, Kent). Crocq, L., J. Rivolier and G. Cazes. 1973. "Selection and Psychological Adjustment of Individuals Living i n Small Isolated Groups i n the French Antarctic Stations," i n Polar Human Biology, O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, eds. Great B r i t a i n : William Heinemann Medical Books, pp. 362-368. - 177 -Dawson, M.R. 1983. "Arctic Environments: The Physical Setting," i n A r c t i c L i f e : A Challenge to Survive, M.M. Jacobs and J.B. Richardson, eds. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Institute, pp. 20-27. deMonchaux, C , A. Davis and O.G. Edholm. 1979. "Psychological Studies i n the Antarctic," i n B r i t i s h Antarctic Survey  Bu l l e t i n . No. 48, pp. 93-97. Dewe, P., D. Guest and R. Williams. 1979. "Methods of Coping With Work Related Stress," i n Response to Stress:  Occupational Aspects, C. MacKay and T. Cox, eds. East K i l b r i d e : Thomson Litho Ltd. pp. 69-84. Doll, R.E. and E.K.E. Gunderson. 1971. "Group Size, Occupational Status and Psychological Symptomatology i n an Extreme Environment," i n the Journal of C l i n i c a l  Psychology, Vol. 24, pp. 196-198. 1970. "The Relative Importance of Selected Behavioural Characteristics of Group Members i n an Extreme Environment," i n the Journal of Psychology, July, pp. 231-237. Dunbar, M. and K.R. Greenaway. 1956. A r c t i c Canada: From The  A i r . Ottawa: Queen's Printer. Edholm, O.G. 1973. "Introduction," to Polar Human Biology. O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, eds. Great B r i t a i n : William Heinemann Medical Books. Edholm, O.G. and E.K.E. Gunderson. 1973. Polar Human Biology. Great B r i t a i n : William Heinemann Medical Books. Environment Canada. 1984. Climatic Atlas of Canada. Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada. Evans, G.W. and S. Cohen. 1987. "Environmental Stress,"in Handbook of Environmental Pvschology. D. Stokols and I. Altman, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 571-610. - 178 -Evans, G.W., D. Stokols and S. Carrere. 1987. Human Adaptation  to Isolated and Confined Environments. Irvine: University of California, Program in Social Ecology. Eyre, K.C. 1987. "Forty Years of Military Activity in the Canadian North, 1947-87," in Arctic, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 292-299. Folkman, S., R.S. Lazarus, C. Dunkel-Schetter, A. DeLongis and R.J. Gruen. 1986. "Dynamics of a Stressful Encounter: Cognitive Appraisal, Coping, and Encounter Outcomes," in Journal of Personality and Social  Psychology, Vol. 50, No. 5, pp. 992-1003. Frances, A. and L. Gale. 1973. "Family Structure and Treatment in the Military," in Family Process, Vol. 12, No. 1, March 1973, pp. 171-178. Godwin, J.R. 1987. Leadership at Antarctic Stations. Northbourne: 1st Psychological Research Unit. 1985. A Preliminary Investigation Into Stress in  Australian Antarctic Expeditioners. Northbourne: 1st Psychological Research Unit. Goldman, N.L. 1976. "Trends in Family Patterns of U.S. Military Personnel During the 20th Century," in The Social  Psychology of Military Service, N.L. Goldman and D.R. Segal, eds. Beverly Hi l l s : Sage. pp. 119-134. Goldman, N.L. and D.R. Segal. 1976. The Social Psychology of  Military Service. Beverly Hi l l s : Sage. Gunderson, E.K.E. 1974. Human Adaptability to Antarctic  Conditions. Washington: American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 22. 1974. "Psychological Studies in Antarctica," in Human  Adaptability to Antarctic Conditions, E.K.E. Gunderson, ed. Washington: American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 22. pp. 115-131. - 179 -•1973. "Individual Behaviour i n Confined or Isolated Groups," i n Man i n Isolation and Confinement, J.E. Rasmussen, ed. Chicago: Aldine. pp. 144-164. 1973. "Psychological Studies i n Antarctica: A Review," i n Polar Human Biology, O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, eds. Great B r i t a i n : William Heinemann Medical Books, pp. 352-361. 1968. "Mental Health Problems i n Antarctica," i n the Archives of Environmental Health, Vol 17, Oct. pp. 558-564. Gunderson, E.K.E. and L.A. Palinkas. 1988. A Review of  Psychological Studies i n the U.S. Antarctic Program. Report No. 88-17. San Diego: Naval Health Research Center. Hakim, C. 1987. Research Design: Strategies and Choices i n the  Design of Social Research. London: Allen & Unwin. Harrison, A.A. and M.M. Connors. 1984. "Groups i n Exotic Environments," i n Advances i n Experimental Social Psychology, L. Berkowitz, ed. Orlando: Academic Press, pp. 50-88. Helmreich, R.L., J.A. Wihelm and T.E. Runge. 1980. "Psychological Considerations i n Future Space Missions," i n Human Factors of Outer Space Production, T.S. Cheston and D.L. Winter, eds. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, pp. 1-23. HUnter, E.J. and D.S. Nice. 1978. M i l i t a r y Families: Adaptation  to Change. New York: Praeger. Lantis, M. 1968. "Environmental Stresses on Human Behavior," i n the Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 17, Oct. pp. 578-585. Laslow, F.W. and R.I. Ridenour. 1984. The M i l i t a r y Family:  Dynamics and Treatment. New York: The Guilford Press. - 180 -Law, P. 1960. "Some Psychological Aspects of Life at an Antarctic Station," in Discovery, Vol. 21, No. 10, October, pp. 431-437. Lazarus, R.S. and J.B. Cohen. 1977. "Environmental Stress," in Human Behaviour and Environment: Advances in Theory  and Research, I. Altman and J.F. Wohlwill, eds. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 89-127. Lazarus, R.S. and S. Folkman. 1984. Stress, Appraisal, and  Coping. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Ledbetter, C.B. 1974. Cold Regions Habitabilitv: A Selected  Bibliography. Hanover, New Hampshire: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. Llano, G.A. 1978. "Polar Research: A Synthesis with Special Reference to Biology," in Polar Research: To the  Present, and the Future, M.A. McWhinnie, ed. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, pp. 27-43. Lugg, D.J. 1973. "The Adaptation of a Small Group to Life on an Isolated Antarctic Station," in Polar Human Biology, O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, eds. Great Britain: William Heinemann Medical Books, pp. 401-409. MacPherson, N. 1977. "The Adaptation of Groups to Antarctic Isolation," in the Polar Record, Vol. 18, No. 117, pp. 581-585. Marani, Rounthwaite and Dick. 1971. CFS Alert, NWT:  Environmental Study (Special Report Prepared for the Department of National Defence). Toronto. Marsh, R.M. 1976. "Mobility in the Military: Its Effect Upon the Family System," in Families In The Military  System, H.I. McCubbin, B.B. Dahl and E.J. Hunter, eds. Beverly Hi l l s : Sage. pp. 92-111. - 181 -McCormick, I.A., A.J.W. Taylor, J. Rivolier and G. Cazes. 1985. "A Psychometric Study of Stress and Coping during the International Biomedical Expedition to the Antarctic (IBEA)," in the Journal of Human Stress, Vol. 11, No. 4, Winter, pp. 150 M16fibbin, H.I., B.B. Dahl and E.J. Hunter. 1976. Families In  The Military System. Beverly Hi l l s : Sage. McKain, J.L. 1976. "Alienation: A Function of Geographical Mobility Among Families," in Families In The Military  System, eds. H.I. McCubbin, B.B. Dahl and E.J. Hunter. Beverly Hi l l s : Sage. pp. 69-91. McTaggart-Cowan, P.D. 1983. "Foreward," to Cold: Special  Effects of the Canadian North, A. Rode. Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada, NRCC Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria For Environmental Quality, pp. 5-23. McWhinnie, M.A. 1978. Polar Research: To The Present. And the  Future. Boulder: Westview Press. Maxwell, J.B. 1982. The Climate of the Canadian Arctic Islands  and Adjacent Waters, Vol. 2. Environment Canada. Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada. Monat, A. and R.S. Lazarus, eds. 1985. Stress and Coping: An  Anthology. New York: Columbia University Press. Montalvo, F.F. 1976. "Family Separation in the Army: A Study of the Problems Encountered and the Caretaking Resources Used by Career Army Families Undergoing Military Separations," in Families In The Military System, H.I. McCubbin, B.B. Dahl and E.J. Hunter, eds. Beverly H i l l s : Sage. pp. 147-173. Natani, K. 1980. "Future Directions for Selecting Personnel," in Human Factors of Outer Space Production, T.S. Cheston and D.L. Winter, eds. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, pp. 25-63. - 182 -Natani, K. and J.T. Shurley. 1974. "Socle-psychological Aspects of a Winter V i g i l at South Pole Station," i n Human  A d a p t a b i l i t y t o A n t a r c t i c C o n d i t i o n s , E.K.E. Gunderson, ed. Washington: American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 22. pp. 89-114. Natani, K., J.T. Shurley and A.T. Joern. 1973. "Interpersonal Relationships, Job Satisfaction, and Subjective Feelings of Competence: Their Influence upon Adaptation to Antarctic Isolation," i n Polar Human  Biology, O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, eds. Great B r i t a i n : William Heinemann Medical Books, pp. 384-400. Nelson, P.D. 1973. "The Indirect Observation of Groups Under Confinement and Isolation," i n Man i n Isolation and  Confinement, J.E. Rasmussen, ed. Chicago: Aldine. pp. 167-193. Okros, A.C. 1989. A Proposal For The Screening and Monitoring  of Psychological Fitness for Submariners, Working Paper 89-1. Willowdale: Canadian Forces Personnel Applied Research Unit. Orthner, D.K. and R.J. Brown. 1978. "Single-Parent Fathers: Implications For the M i l i t a r y Family," i n M i l i t a r y Families: Adaptation to Change, E.J. Hunter and D.S. Nice, eds. New York: Praeger. pp. 88-102. Ottawa Citizen, "Support Centres Help M i l i t a r y Families Cope With Long Separations," Friday, March 3, 1989, p. D-10 Palinkas, L.A. 1987. Group Adaptation and Individual Adjustment  i n Antarctica: A Summary of Recent Research. San Diego: Occupational Medicine Department, Naval Health Research Center. 1985. Long-Term Effects of Environment on Health and Performance of Antarctic Winter-Over Personnel. San Diego: Environmental Medicine Department, Naval Health Research Center. - 183 -1985. Health and Performance of Antarctic Winter-Over  Personnel: A Follow-Up Study. San Diego: Environmental Medicine Department, Naval Health Research Center. . 1985. Sociocultural Influences on Psychosocial Adjustment in Antarctica. San Diego: Environmental Medicine Department, Naval Health Research Center. Park, R.E. 1984. Final Report of the Social/Behavioural Science  Evaluation of the SWINTER Alert Trial. Report 84-1. Willowdale: Canadian Forces Personnel Applied Research Unit. 1983. Continuing Personnel Issues Related To Women' s  Integration at CFS Alert. Working Paper 83-2. Willowdale: Canadian Forces Personnel Applied Research Unit. CM. 1985. "Social Science Research in High Latitudes," in the Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 41, No. 4, July, p. 581. CL. 1979. The Military Family in Canada: Some  Characteristics. Operational Research and Analysis Establishment, Directorate of Social and Economic Analysis Staff Note 1/79. Ottawa: Department of National Defence. M.K., V. Stillner, M.P.H. Lawrence, W. Osborn, CM. Pierce and J.T. Shurley. 1974. "Novel Behaviours in an Extreme Environment," in the American Journal of  Psychiatry, Vol. 131, No. 6, June, pp. 651- 654. Popoff, T. and S. Truscott. 1986. The Emotional Well-Belng of  Canadian Military Families in Relation to the Canadian  Population. Operational Research and Analysis Establishment, Directorate of Social and Economic Analysis Report No. 364. Ottawa: Department of National Defence. Pierce, Player, Popkin, - 184 -Popoff, T., S. Truscott and R. Hysert. 1986. Military Family  Study: An Overview of Life/Work Stress and Its  Relationship to Health and Organizational Morale. Operational Research and Analysis Establishment, Directorate of Social and Economic Analysis Report No. 351. Ottawa: Department of National Defence. Quenneville, S. 1985. "'MEGA' of the North," in Sentinel, 1985/1, pp. 5-7. Rasmussen, J.E. 1973. Man in Isolation and Confinement. Chicago: Aldine. Rioch, D.M. 1960. "Psychiatric Problems of Man in the Arctic," in Man Living in the Arctic, F.R. Fisher, ed., Proceedings of a Conference at the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts. Washington: National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, pp. 103-114. Ridenour, R.I. 1984. "The Military, Service Families, and the Therapist," in The Military Family: Dynamics and  Treatment, F.W. Laslow and R.I. Ridenour, eds. New York: The Guilford Press, pp. 1-17. Rienerth, J.G. 1978. "Separation and Female Centeredness in the Military Family," in Military Families: Adaptation to  Change, E.J. Hunter and D.S. Nice eds. New York: Praeger. pp. 169-184. Rivolier, J. 1974. "Physiological and Psychological Studies Conducted by Continental European and Japanese Expeditions," in Human Adaptability to Antarctic  Conditions, E.K.E. Gunderson, ed. Washington: American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 22. pp. 55-88. Rode, A. 1983. Cold: Special Aspects in the Canadian North. Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada, NRCC Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria For Environmental Quality. - 185 -Rodriguez, A.R. 1984. "Special Treatment Needs of Children of Mi l i t a r y Families," i n The Mi l i t a r y Family: Dynamics  and Treatment, F.W. Laslow and R.I. Ridenour, eds. New York: The Guilford Press, pp. 46-72. Sater, J.E. 1969. The Arc t i c Basin. Washington: A r c t i c Institute of North America. Segal, D.R. and H.W. Sinaiko. 1986. L i f e i n the Rank and F i l e :  Enlisted Men and Women i n the Armed Forces of the  United States, Australia, Canada, and the United  Kingdom. New York: Pergamon-Brassey's. Segal, M.W. 1986. "The M i l i t a r y and the Family as Greedy Institutions," i n Armed Forces and Society, Vol. 13, No. 1, F a l l , pp. 9-38. 1986. "Enlisted Family L i f e i n the U.S. Army: A Portrait of a Community," i n L i f e i n the Rank and  F i l e : Enlisted Men and Women i n the Armed Forces of  the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United  Kingdom, D.R. Segal and H.W. Sinaiko, eds. New York.: Pergamon-Brassey's. pp. 184-211. Shurley, J.T. 1973. "Antarctica i s also a Prime Natural Laboratory for the Behavioural Sciences," i n Polar  Human Biology, O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, eds. Great B r i t a i n : William Heinemann Medical Books, pp; 430-435. Siple, P.A. 1960. "Limitations to Living i n the Polar Regions," i n Man Living i n the Arctic, F.R. Fisher, ed., Proceedings of a Conference at the Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts. Washington: National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, pp. 14-17. Slater, J.E. 1969. The Arc t i c Basin. Washington: A r c t i c Institute of North America. Smith, W.M. 1966. "Observations Over the Lifetime of a Small Isolated Group: Structure, Danger, Boredom and Vision," i n Psychological Reports, Vol. 19, pp. 475-513. - 186 -Sommer, R. 1969. Personal Space: the Behavioral Basis of  Design. Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall. Stephenson, M. 1982. "High A r c t i c Watch," i n The Beaver, Spring 1982, pp. 22-25. Stoddard, E.R. 1978. "Changing Spouse Roles: An Analytical Commentary," i n M i l i t a r y Families: Adaptation to Change. E.J. Hunter and D.S. Nice, eds. New York: Praeger. pp. 157-168. Stoddard, E.R. and C E . Cabanillas. 1976. "The Army Officer's Wife: Social Streses i n a Complementary Role," i n The Social Psychology of M i l i t a r y Service, N.L. Goldman and D.R. Segal, eds. Beverly H i l l s : Sage, pp. 151-174. Strange, R.E. and W.J. Klein. 1973. "Emotional and Social Adjustment of Recent US Winter-Over Parties i n Isolated Antarctic Stations," i n Polar Human Biology, O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, eds. Great B r i t a i n : William Heinemann Medical Books, pp. 410-416. Strange, R.E. and S.A. Youngman. 1971. "Emotional Aspects of Wintering Over," i n the Anarctic Journal, November-December, pp. 255-257. Strike, C. 1989. "P r o f i l e of the Canadian Armed Forces," i n Canadian Social Trends. Ottawa: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Winter 1989. pp. 17-22. Sudman, S. and N.M. Bradburn. 1982. Asking Questions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Suedfeld, P. 1987. "Extreme and Unusual Environments," i n Handbook of Environmental Pvschology, D. Stokols and I. Altman, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 863-887. 1980. Restricted Environmental Stimulation. New York: Wiley & Sons. - 187 -1974. "Social Isolation: A Case for Interdisciplinary Research," i n The Canadian Psychologist, Vol. 15, No. 1, January, pp. 1-15. 1968. "Isolation, Confinement, and Sensory Deprivation," i n the Journal of the B r i t i s h  Interplanetary Society, Vol. 21, pp. 222-231. Sugden, D. 1982. Ar c t i c and Antarctic: A Modern Geographical  Synthesis. Oxford: B a s i l Blackwell. Taylor, A.J.W. 1987. Antarctic Psychology. Wellington: Science Information Publishing Centre, DSIR. 1973. "The Adaptation of New Zealand Research Personnel i n the Antarctic," i n Polar Human Biology, O.G. Edholm and E.K.E. Gunderson, eds. Great B r i t a i n : William Heinemann Medical Books, pp. 417-429. 1969. " A b i l i t y , S t a b i l i t y and Social Adjustment among Scott Base Personnel, Antarctica," i n Occupational  Psychology, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp.. 81-93. Taylor, A.J.W. and I.A. McCormick. 1987. "Reactions of Family Partners of Antarctic Expeditioners," i n the Polar  Record, Vol. 23, No. 147, pp. 691-700. 1985. "Prediction of Performance on the International Biomedical Expedition to the Antarctic (IBEA)," i n Polar Record, Vol. 22, No. 141, pp. 643-652. Truscott, S. 1986. M i l i t a r y Family Survey: Spousal Attitudes  Toward the Employment of Women i n the Canadian Forces. Operational Research and Analysis Establishment, Directorate of Social and Economic Analysis Staff Note 7/86. Ottawa: Department of National Defence. Truscott, S. and S. Flemming. 1986. Occupational Stress Among  Married and Single-Parent Canadian Forces Personnel. Operational Research and Analysis Establishment, Directorate of Social and Economic Analysis Report No. 375. Ottawa: Department of National Defence. - 188 -Vallacher, R.R. and E.K.E. Gunderson. 1974. The Relationship  Between Cohesiveness and Effectivemess in Small  Isolated Groups: A Field Study. Report 74-50. San Diego: Naval Health Research Center. Wenek, K.W.J. 1984. The Assessment of Psychological Fitness:  Some Options for the Canadian Foreces, Technical Note 1/84. Ottawa: Directorate Personnel Selection Research and Second Careers. Williams, J.W. 1978. "Dual-Career Military Families," in Military Families: Adaptation to Change, E.J. Hunter and D.S. Nice, eds. New York: Praeger. pp. 103-110. Woelfel, J.C. and J.M. Savell. 1978. "Marital Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction, and Retention in the Army," in Military  Families: Adaptation to Change. E.J. Hunter and D.S. Nice, eds. New York: Praeger. pp. 17-31. Wohlwill, J.F. 1974. "Human Adaptation to Levels of Environmental Stimulation," in Human Ecology. Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 127-147. Wolfe, S. and A.J. Finestone. 1986. Occupational Stress: Health  and Performance at Work. Littleton, Mass: PSG Publishing. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0098475/manifest

Comment

Related Items