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The public hearing process : public participation in municipal planning : a case study of the Terra Nova… Callow, Kathleen Ann 1990

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THE PUBLIC HEARING PROCESS: PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN MUNICIPAL PLANNING A CASE STUDY OF THE TERRA NOVA LANDS DECISION, RICHMOND, B.C. by KATHLEEN ANN CALLOW B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h ' C o l u m b i a , 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1990 (c) K a t h l e e n Ann C a l l o w , 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of School of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date October 10th, 1990  DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s a c a s e s t u d y o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s d e c i s i o n i n t h e T o w n s h i p o f Richmond, B.C. w h i c h a n a l y s e s t h e use o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as a means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m u n i c i p a l r e z o n i n g a s p e c t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w o f d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s no s i n g l e a c c e p t e d t h e o r y o f democracy o r t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . C l a s s i c a l d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y , l i k e n e d t o p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y , o u t l i n e s t h e need f o r w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s w h i l e c o n t e m p o r a r y d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i s t s c r i t i z e t h i s as u n r e a l i s t i c i n a modern s o c i e t y . I n s t e a d , c o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o r i s t s s t r e s s t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c i s t o c r e a t e an e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o v ernment t h a t w i l l d e c i d e i s s u e s on t h e i r b e h a l f . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y i s d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o f o u r p r i n c i p l e s i n c l u d i n g : p o p u l a r c o n t r o l , p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y , e f f e c t i v e c h o i c e , and m a j o r i t y r u l e . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e p r e s e n t s a movement a l o n g t h e d e m o c r a t i c c o n t i n u u m f r o m p a r t i c i p a t o r y t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y t o w a r d s a more p a r t i c i p a t o r y f o r m o f g o v e r n i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been v i e w e d as a l e g i t i m a t e means t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g q u e s t i o n n e d as a p p r o p r i a t e . The T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were a n a l y s e d u s i n g t h e e v a l u a t i v e framework o f G l a s s e r , Manty, and Nehman b a s e d on s i x c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s i x p a r t i c i p a t i o n i i i o b j e c t i v e s . The d a t a was c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t w e l v e key p a r t i c i p a n t s u s i n g a p r e - d e s i g n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s was i n h e r e n t l y f l a w e d i n i t s a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e m e a n i n g f u l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and a l s o t h a t p r e c e p t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . I t was a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s must be v i e w e d i n an h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o d e v e l o p t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s had been made p r i o r t o t h e r e z o n i n g h e a r i n g s w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n and t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l members were f i r m l y s p l i t a l o n g p o l i t i c a l l i n e s i n f a v o u r o f and o p p o s e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . The a n a l y s i s , however, d i d n o t p r o v i d e a c o n c l u s i v e answer r e g a r d i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as a means f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n r e s t s on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o s i t i o n on t h e c o n t i n u u m o f democracy between r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c a n be made t o enhance o r s u p p l e m e n t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s t o overcome t h e i n h e r e n t f l a w s and p e r c e p t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h u s moving p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c l o s e r t o p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y . T h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s i n c l u d e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s and t h e u s e o f an i n d e p e n d e n t , n o n - p o l i t i c a l , r e z o n i n g c o m m i s s i o n . , i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS . . i v L I S T OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . . v i i 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 P r o b l e m S t a t e m e n t 1 1.2 P u r p o s e 3 1.3 Scope and L i m i t a t i o n s 3 1.4 S i g n i f i c a n c e 6 1.5 R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y 7 1.6 O r g a n i z a t i o n 9 2.0 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION: DEMOCRATIC THEORY AND THE PLANNING PROCESS 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 11 2.2 An O v e r v i e w o f D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y 12 2.2.1 C l a s s i c a l D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y 13 2.2.2 C o n t e m p o r a r y D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y 14 2.2.3 P r i n c i p l e s o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Democracy.16 2.3 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s . 2 0 2.3.1. D e f i n i t i o n o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 21 2.3.2 P u r p o s e o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a n n i n g 22 2.3.3 E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t i n P l a n n i n g 23 2.3.4 R o l e s o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 27 2.3.5 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 30 2.3.6 E v a l u a t i o n o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 31 3.0 A CASE STUDY OF RICHMOND'S TERRA NOVA LANDS 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . 34 3.2 H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d 34 3.3 The O f f i c i a l Community P l a n P r o c e s s and t h e P u b l i c 36 3.4 The R e z o n i n g P r o c e s s and t h e P u b l i c 45 4.0 AN ANALYSIS OF TERRA NOVA'S PUBLIC HEARING PROCESS 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 52 4.2 A n a l y s i s : C o m m u n i c a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 53 4.2.1 Degree o f P u b l i c C o n t a c t A c h i e v e d 53 4.2.2 Degree o f Impact on D e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . . . . 57 4.2.3 Degree o f U s e r S o p h i s t o c a t i o n 62 4.2.4 E a s e o f Use and P r e p a r a t i o n 65 4.2.5 A b i l i t y t o Respond t o V a r i e d I n t e r e s t s . 6 7 4.2.6 Degree o f Two-way C o m m u n i c a t i o n 70 4.3 A n a l y s i s : P a r t i c i p a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s 72 4.4 A n a l y s i s : A l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e P u b l i c H e a r i n g P r o c e s s 75 4.5 Summary o f A n a l y s i s ..82 5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 85 5.2 C o n c l u s i o n s 85 5.3 Recommendations 92 5.4 F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 96 BIBLIOGRAPHY 98 APPENDICES A p p e n d i x One: L i s t o f Key I n f o r m a n t s I n t e r v i e w e d . 1 0 2 A p p e n d i x Two: Copy o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 103 VI LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e One 5 v i i AC KNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e t o t h a n k my a d v i s o r , Brahm Wiesman, f o r h i s c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t my g r a d u a t e programme and f o r h i s en c o u r a g e m e n t t o w a r d s t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I wou l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e o t h e r members o f my d e f e n s e c o m m i t t e e : H e n r y H i g h t o w e r , J u l i a G a r d n e r , and Ray Young. L a s t l y , I would l i k e t o t h a n k my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and s u p p o r t . 1 C h a p t e r One: I n t r o d u c t i o n  1.1 P r o b l e m S t a t e m e n t P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as a c o n c e p t , i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d by p l a n n e r s as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e o v e r - a l l m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n f a c t , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n t h e f o r m o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , has been e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s by p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s i n c e t h e f i r s t p l a n n i n g a c t i n 1924 and i s now a r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t ( R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C h a p t e r 290, 1 9 7 9 ) . In B.C., m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d u n d e r t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t t o h o l d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s when c o n s i d e r i n g O f f i c i a l Community P l a n B y l a w s , Z o n i n g B y l a w s o r any s u b s e q u e n t amending b y l a w s ( S e c t i o n 9 5 6 ) . I n e f f e c t , any l a n d - u s e d e s i g n a t i o n a n d / o r any change t o a l a n d - u s e d e s i g n a t i o n must be s u b j e c t t o a p u b l i c h e a r i n g b e f o r e a f i n a l d e c i s i o n by c o u n c i l c a n be r e n d e r e d and a b y l a w a d o p t e d . In a d d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h n o t a r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t , t h e A c t a l s o g i v e s a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l t h e o p t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h i n g an A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , made up by a t l e a s t t w o - t h i r d s o f r e s i d e n t s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , t o a d v i s e c o u n c i l on " . . . a l l m a t t e r s r e s p e c t i n g l a n d - u s e , (and) community p l a n n i n g . . . " ( S e c t i o n 9 5 5 ) . I n c r e a s i n g l y , however, t h e s e s t a t u t o r y mechanisms f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a n d - u s e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s , a r e b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d as e f f e c t i v e , c o n s t r u c t i v e , and a p p r o p r i a t e means o f i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f l a n d - u s e c o n f l i c t s by a l l o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s - w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n c l u d i n g p l a n n e r s . 2 d e v e l o p e r s , c o u n c i l members, and t h e p u b l i c ( n o t e s , j o i n t P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Urban Development I n s t i t u t e m e e t i n g , November, 1989) . P r a c t i c i n g p l a n n e r s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , as w e l l as t h e o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o f f e r a wide r a n g e o f o p i n i o n on s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n : t h e t y p e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r medium f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e t i m i n g o f p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , and t h e l e v e l o f i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d have on t h e d e c i s i o n . P u b l i c h e a r i n g s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , a r e u n d e r a t t a c k . A t a m e e t i n g i n November 1989 o f t h e Urban D e v e l o p m e n t I n s t i t u t e and t h e P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , c a l l e d t o d i s c u s s t h e p u b l i c ' s r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s , t h e v i e w s o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s were c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d . D e v e l o p e r s c r i t i c i z e d t h e p r o c e s s as o n e - s i d e d -d o m i n a t e d by t h o s e t h a t oppose t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h o s e t h a t would b e n e f i t f r o m t h e d e v e l o p m e n t . C o u n c i l members, c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o s t s i n terms o f t i m e , e f f o r t , and money, v i e w e d t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s as an i n e f f i c i e n t method o f i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c i n p u t . P l a n n e r s e x p r e s s e d f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h t e n d s t o c r e a t e a c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l r a t h e r t h a n c o n s u l t a t i v e a t m o s p h e r e . G i v e n t h a t much p r i o r t i m e and e f f o r t o f p l a n n e r s and t h e . p u b l i c i s d e v o t e d t o s o l i c i t i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n and comments on g e n e r a l p l a n s and p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on a s p e c i f i c r e z o n i n g a p p e a r t o be an i n e f f i c i e n t u s e o f r e s o u r c e s . And f i n a l l y t h e p u b l i c 3 c r i t i c i z e d t h e p r o c e s s as i n e f f e c t i v e , b e l i e v i n g t h a t l a n d - u s e d e c i s i o n s a r e i n e f f e c t a l r e a d y made p r i o r t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s w h i c h a r e n o t i n t e n d e d t o g a i n r e a l p u b l i c i n p u t t o t h e p r o c e s s . I n s t e a d , t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c o u n c i l i s m e r e l y f u l f i l l i n g i t s l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l A c t . I n d e e d , few m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r have n o t e x p e r i e n c e d , i n t h e r e c e n t p a s t , w e l l - o r g a n i z e d , v o c a l community g r o u p s who o p p o s e d b o t h t h e s u b s t a n c e o f a l a n d - u s e d e c i s i o n and t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e d e c i s i o n was made, s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e community's p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f e f f e c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t and i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e c i s i o n . 1.2 P u r p o s e In l i g h t o f g r o w i n g community c o n f l i c t o v e r t h e c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a n d use d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and t h e f a c t t h a t s t a t u t o r y p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e o f t e n t h e o n l y means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o i n f l u e n c e l a n d - u s e d e c i s i o n s i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as t h e means f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . In d o i n g s o , t h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s p o t e n t i a l a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e c u r r e n t s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . 1.3 Scope and L i m i t a t i o n s T h i s t h e s i s i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f one a s p e c t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l g overnment p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s - t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s - and t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n - s p e c i f i c a l l y , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s - w i t h i n t h i s p r o c e s s . 4 T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by a s t u d y o f t h e i s s u e s and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e c e n t d e c i s i o n by t h e Richmond M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l t o r e z o n e a p a r c e l o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , commonly r e f e r r e d t o as t h e " T e r r a Nova L a n d s " , and p e r m i t r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . The T e r r a Nova l a n d s i s a p a r c e l o f l a n d l o c a t e d i n t h e N o r t h - W e s t c o r n e r o f t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond (see F i g u r e O n e ) . T h i s c a s e s t u d y o f t h e T e r r a Nova Lands d e c i s i o n i s u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r o l e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p l a y s w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e c a s e s t u d y i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as i t i s e x e r c i s e d by t h e s t a t u t o r y mechanism o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . The d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s w h i c h c o m p r i s e t h e c a s e s t u d y i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o be a s t u d y o f t h e i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o r n o n - p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d o r t h e i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t o f u r b a n l a n d i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r r e g i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s e i s s u e s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s d e c i s i o n as a h i g h - p r o f i l e , c o n t r o v e r s i a l c a s e o f l a n d - u s e c o n f l i c t , t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s r e m a i n s t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . The T e r r a Nova Lands d e c i s i o n as a c a s e s t u d y i s j u s t one means, a l b e i t a c o n t r o v e r s i a l one, t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s theme. As b a c k g r o u n d t o t h i s s t u d y , a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w o f v a r i o u s d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i e s and t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was u n d e r t a k e n . T h i s r e v i e w e s t a b l i s h e s t h e c o n t e x t f r o m w h i c h t o v i e w t h e T e r r a Nova c a s e s t u d y . 5 F i g u r e One: Map o f Richmond, B . C . , showing t h e T e r r a Nova Lands ( S o u r c e : V a n c o u v e r Sun, A u g u s t 16, 1990, p., B l ) 6 1.4 S i g n i f i c a n c e A l t h o u g h o t h e r c a s e s t u d i e s and a c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h have f o c u s e d on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods, t h e s e s t u d i e s have t e n d e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programmes and p r o c e s s e s t h a t have been v o l u n t a r i l y s e t up by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o s o l i c i t p u b l i c i n p u t on b r o a d , g e n e r a l p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s . Among t h e v a r i o u s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n schemes a r e e x p e r i m e n t a l l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s o r r o u n d t a b l e c i t i z e n w o r k i n g c o m m i t t e e s a s s i g n e d t o c a r r y o u t a s p e c i f i c t a s k o r work t o w a r d s a s p e c i f i c g o a l . Few c a s e s t u d i e s , however, have s p e c i f i c a l l y e xamined t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t a t u t o r y measures o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h a r e o f t e n t h e o n l y means a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c f o r i n p u t i n t o s p e c i f i c l a n d - u s e d e c i s i o n s t h a t w i l l p r o f o u n d l y i m p a c t t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d and l a r g e r community. F u r t h e r , t h e r e i s w i d e s p r e a d use o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , o f t e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h some f o r m o f a d v i s o r y c o m m i s s i o n , by a l l l e v e l s o f g o v ernment on a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s . R e c e n t l y , on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e , t h e f e d e r a l government c o n d u c t e d a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e Goods and S e r v i c e s Tax and B i l i n g u a l i s m i n Canada. On a more l o c a l l e v e l , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r r e g u l a r l y c o n d u c t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on a . v a r i e t y o f l a n d - u s e i s s u e s . I n s p i t e o f t h e w i d e s p r e a d use and s c o p e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i t r e m a i n s u n c e r t a i n what i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s have on e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s when t h e y d e l i b e r a t e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p u b l i c p o l i c i e s and make a f i n a l d e c i s i o n . 7 T h i s t h e s i s i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f a s t a t u t o r y measure o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as o u t l i n e d i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s p e c i f i c a l l y p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , by u s i n g a c a s e s t u d y a n a l y s i s o f Richmond's T e r r a Nova Lands d e c i s i o n . 1.5 R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y The r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y employed i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t o f a C a s e S t u d y A p p r o a c h . The c a s e s t u d y a p p r o a c h t o a n a l y s i s o r i g i n a t e s f r o m t h e Common Law t r a d i t i o n o f c a s e law and p r e c e d e n t and has been a d a p t e d as a l e g i t i m a t e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o a n a l y s i s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s d i s c i p l i n e s . In t h i s t h e s i s , t h e T e r r a Nova c a s e s t u d y r e p r e s e n t s an a t t e m p t t o a b s t r a c t f r o m a s p e c i f i c s e r i e s o f e v e n t s and i n t e r a c t i o n s s o m e t h i n g o f v a l u e t h a t c a n be a p p l i e d i n a more g e n e r a l s e n s e . The c a s e s t u d y d a t a u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s c o m p r i s e d o f two p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t u s e s documents c o n s i s t i n g o f m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l r e p o r t s and f i l e s as w e l l as newspaper a r t i c l e s . T h i s d o c u m e n t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s , t h e i s s u e s , and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e c a s e s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h key i n f o r m a n t s . T h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s were c h o s e n on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r u n i q u e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e c a s e g i v i n g them a p o s i t i o n o f s p e c i a l knowledge o f e v e n t s and i n s i g h t i n t o a s s o c i a t e d i s s u e s . The i n f o r m a n t s were a l s o c h o s e n t o be s amples o f t h e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h t o o k p a r t i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . F o u r key g r o u p s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e T e r r a Nova p r o c e s s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d : m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s , i n c l u d i n g p l a n n e r s , c o u n c i l members, t h e d e v e l o p e r s as r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e 8 T e r r a Nova Group, and t h e members o f t h e p u b l i c who a t t e n d e d t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , i n c l u d i n g t h e Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e T e r r a Nova p r o c e s s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d , s u c h as t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land C o m m i s s i o n , t h e P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t , and t h e j u d i c i a l s y s t e m , t h e f o u r g r o u p s i d e n t i f i e d above r e p r e s e n t t h o s e c l o s e s t t o t h e m u n i c i p a l r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . I n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g e a c h o f t h e g r o u p s were c h o s e n t o be i n t e r v i e w e d i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s and t h e r e z o n i n g o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . A l l t h o s e s e l e c t e d a g r e e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . A l i s t o f t h e t w e l v e p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d i s f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x One. They were a s k e d t o p r o v i d e o p i n i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e i T e r r a Nova l a n d s c a s e s t u d y . A c o p y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x Two. F o r t h e most p a r t , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e l i v e r e d p r i o r t o m e e t i n g t o a l l o w t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o c o m p l e t e s e c t i o n A and r e f l e c t on q u e s t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n B. The i n t e n t i o n was t o c o n d u c t p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , b u t f o r t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , and b e c a u s e one o f t h e T o w n s h i p ' s p l a n n e r s i s now e mployed i n c e n t r a l Canada, an a l l o w a n c e was made f o r m a i l - i n r e s p o n s e s . G e n e r a l l y , t h o s e t h a t m a i l e d t h e i r r e s p o n s e s p r o v i d e d l e n g t h y , w e l l t h o u g h t answers t o s e c t i o n B. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s i n s e c t i o n B were n o t intended, as a r i g i d q u e s t i o n and answer f o r m a t , b u t more as a l o o s e o u t l i n e f o r a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w , as w e l l as t o p r o v i d e a f o c u s on p u b l i c 9 p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d o v e r a f i v e week p e r i o d f r o m m i d - J u l y , 1990. To s e r v e as a t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e c a s e s t u d y and t o p r o v i d e an a n a l y t i c a l framework f r o m w h i c h t o v i e w t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c a s e s t u d y , a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w was c o n d u c t e d . The r e v i e w f o c u s e d on d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i e s and t h e r o l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n them as w e l l as t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . O v e r a l l , t h i s m e t h o d o l o g y e m p l o y i n g b o t h e m p i r i c a l c a s e s t u d y r e s e a r c h and a c a d e m i c l i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h p e r m i t s a d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f a s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g i s s u e and a l l o w s f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e o f s t a t u t o r y p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and t h e m u n i c i p a l r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . 1.6 O r g a n i z a t i o n T h i s t h e s i s i s c o m p r i s e d o f f i v e c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r one i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s t u d y and e s t a b l i s h e s b o t h t h e p u r p o s e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e work u n d e r t a k e n . C h a p t e r two i s a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w o f d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i e s and work r e l a t e d t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s c h a p t e r e s t a b l i s h e s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f a r e c e n t example o f t h e use o f t h e s t a t u t o r y measure o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n - t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g - i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and p r o v i d e s an a n a l y t i c a l framework f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c a s e s t u d y ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e . C h a p t e r t h r e e p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e c a s e s t u d y and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i s s u e s and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d . In d o i n g 10 s o , t h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s b o t h an h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g f o r t h e c a s e s t u d y and a c h r o n o l o g y o f e v e n t s . C h a p t e r f o u r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s . T h i s c h a p t e r a l s o p r o v i d e s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g u s i n g G l a s s e r , Manty, and Nehman's framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n as a d a p t e d by M a r g a r e t S i n c l a i r ( S i n c l a i r , 1977, p. 1 0 5 ) . C h a p t e r f i v e summarizes t h e f i n d i n g s and r e s u l t s o f t h e c a s e s t u d y a n a l y s i s and c o n c l u d e s w i t h .some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r c h a n g e s t o t h e e x i s t i n g p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as t h e m u n i c i p a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 11 C h a p t e r Two; P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n :  D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y and t h e P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s  2 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Arguments on t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y a r e p a r t o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g d e b a t e i n t h e s t u d y o f d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y . T h e r e i s n o t one u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d t h e o r y o f d e m o c r a c y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e i s no u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d t h e o r y o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . B o t h a d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y and t h e c o n c e p t o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e b e c a u s e d e m o c r a c y , w i t h i t s a s s o c i a t e d p r i n c i p l e s and c o n d i t i o n s , i s o f t e n c o n f u s e d w i t h e m o t i o n a l c o n n o t a t i o n s : f o r example, a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y i s e q u a t e d w i t h a C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y o r a W e s t e r n s o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h t h e f o c u s o f some d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i s t s i s t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , o t h e r t h e o r i s t s e x p r e s s i n g t h e m e r i t s o f a l t e r n a t e d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i e s c r i t i c i z e t h i s l e v e l o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as u n r e a l i s t i c and e v e n d a n g e r o u s t o t h e s t a b i l i t y o f a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . Some b e l i e v e t h a t t h e o n l y b e n e f i c i a l f o r m o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s on e l e c t i o n day a t t h e b a l l o t box. The f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l b r i e f l y examine t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f two d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s o f d e m o c r a c y : c l a s s i c a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y . P a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s w i l l be p l a c e d on t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i e s . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l a l s o i n c l u d e a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f • r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y t h a t a r e f u n d a m e n t a l t o i t s o p e r a t i o n , 12 as w e l l as a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d u t i e s and o b l i g a t i o n s o f e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l f o c u s on t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n r e v i e w s t h e r i s e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and o u t l i n e s t h e v a r i o u s r o l e s t h e p u b l i c c a n p l a y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e G l a s s e r , Manty, and Nehman s y s t e m f o r e v a l u a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be o u t l i n e d . T h i s s y s t e m f o r e v a l u a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s t h e framework f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e r e z o n i n g o f t h e T e r r a Nova L a n d s . 2.2 Art O v e r v i e w o f D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y The d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e t e r m 'democracy' i s 'the r u l e o f many' for m e d by t h e Gr e e k words 'demos' meaning 'the p e o p l e ' and ' k r a t e i n ' meaning ' t o r u l e ' . The Gr e e k c i t y - s t a t e o f A t h e n s , i n F i f t h C e n t u r y B.C., was t h e f i r s t s o c i e t y t h o u g h t t o have u s e d d e m o c r a c y as t h e method o f s t r u c t u r i n g t h e i r g overnment and d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r p u b l i c p o l i c i e s . The A t h e n i a n d e m ocracy o p e r a t e d as a s y s t e m o f d i r e c t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n where a l l p e o p l e w i t h a f r a n c h i s e were b o t h p e r m i t t e d and e x p e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s o f t h e s t a t e . I n d e e d , an A t h e n i a n c i t i z e n was d e f i n e d as "one who p a r t i c i p a t e s " by t h e G r e e k h i s t o r i a n H e r o d u t u s , who i s a l s o t h o u g h t t o have c o i n e d t h e t e r m d e m o c r a c y . The A t h e n i a n democracy c a r r i e d w i t h i t many o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l e l e m e n t s o r p r i n c i p l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e m ocracy t o d a y , s u c h as m a j o r i t y v o t e , e q u a l i t y b e f o r e t h e law, and p o p u l a r c o n t r o l o f p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s . However, t h e s y s t e m o f 13 g o v ernment o p e r a t e d by t h e A t h e n i a n s c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a s m a l l s c a l e v e r s i o n o f modern, W e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s . T o d a y ' s W e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s o p e r a t e t h r o u g h a s y s t e m o f i n d i r e c t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n by e l e c t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l f r a n c h i s e d c i t i z e n s w h i c h was n e c e s s a r y t o s u s t a i n A t h e n i a n d e m o c r a c y . R e g a r d l e s s o f i t s d e v i a t i o n s f r o m modern day d e m o c r a c y , t h e p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s o f A t h e n i a n democracy have been t r a n s f o r m e d and t r a n s l a t e d t h r o u g h t h e c e n t u r i e s t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e c u r r e n t forms o f d e m ocracy t h a t e x i s t i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d : s u c h as t h e r e p u b l i c s y s t e m t h a t e x i s t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r t h e b i c a m e r a l p a r l i a m e n t a r y s y s t e m t h a t f u n c t i o n s as a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l monarchy i n Canada. 2.2.1 C l a s s i c a l D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y The c l a s s i c a l d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y i s a n o r m a t i v e t h e o r y o f d e m o c r a c y w h i c h d i c t a t e s t h a t c e r t a i n v a l u e s o r norms must be p r e s e n t i f a p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d d e m o c r a t i c . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l v a r i a n t s t o t h e c l a s s i c a l t h e o r y o f d e m o c r a c y , t h i s t h e o r y i s g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s u b s t a n c e o f a government d e c i s i o n and more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e d e c i s i o n i s r e a c h e d . The c l a s s i c a l d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y e m p h a s i z e s t h e v a l u e o f w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s t h r o u g h t h e e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y o f a l l members o f t h e p u b l i c t o i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , w h i c h p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a f u l l r a n g e and d e p t h o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s t o be h e a r d . To r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s , t h e c l a s s i c a l d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y r e l i e s upon t h e 14 p r i n c i p l e o f m a j o r i t y r u l e i n w h i c h e a c h v o t e c a r r i e s e q u a l w e i g h t . In f a c t , c l a s s i c a l t h e o r i s t s , s u c h as J . S . M i l l and J . J . R o u s s e a u , b e l i e v e t h a t d e m o cracy does n o t e x i s t w i t h o u t t h e w i d e s p r e a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d as p a r t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f g o v e r n m e n t . I n s t i t u t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d o n l y one p a r t o f d e m o c r a c y b u t n o t d e m o c r a c y i t s e l f . Government i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a c r e a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c , n o t an e n t i t y s t a n d i n g above t h e p u b l i c : t h e g o v e r n i n g s t r u c t u r e i s d e r i v e d f r o m and r e s p o n d s t o t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p u b l i c . In t h i s way, c l a s s i c a l d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y c a n be l i k e n e d t o p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o cracy w h i c h demands a h i g h d e g r e e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . C l a s s i c a l t h e o r i s t s v i e w t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m as e d u c a t i o n a l . I n d e e d , c l a s s i c a l t h e o r i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t o n l y t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s c a n t h e d e m o c r a t i c mind s e t o f t h e c i t i z e n r y be c u l t i v a t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a b e t t e r e d u c a t e d e l e c t o r a t e a b l e t o o f f e r c o n s t r u c t i v e a d d i t i o n s t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . 2 . 2 . 2 C o n t e m p o r a r y D e m o c r a t i c T h e o r y The c l a s s i c a l d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y has been a t t a c k e d by c o n t e m p o r a r y o r e l i t i s t t h e o r i s t s , s u c h as S c humpeter, D a h l , and L i p s e t t , who v i e w t h e c l a s s i c a l t h e o r y as b o t h n a i v e and u n r e a l i s t i c . S p e c i f i c a l l y , c o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o r i s t s q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r w i d e s p r e a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e m o c r a t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c a n become a r e a l i z e d i d e a l g i v e n t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f a modern s o c i e t y w h i c h g e n e r a t e s a c o m p l e t e r a n g e and d e p t h o f i n t e r e s t s . 15 E v e n more i m p o r t a n t , c r i t i c s q u e s t i o n t h e v e r y i d e a l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t s e l f as a d e s i r a b l e a s p e c t o f d e m o c r a c y . C o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o r i s t s see g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e a d i n g t o t h e d e s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y due t o t h e s y s t e m ' s i n h e r e n t i n a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s . I n d e e d , c o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o r i s t s s u g g e s t t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d n e v e r r i s e above t h e minimum t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t i n u e w i t h e l e c t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , c o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o r i s t s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y t h a t a t t e m p t s t o a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e e x i s t i n g e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t i n an o p e r a t i n g d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . The c o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o r y i s d e r i v e d f r o m an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f f u n c t i o n i n g d e m o c r a c i e s where a l l . m e m b e r s o f t h e p u b l i c dp n o t p a r t i c i p a t e ( e . g . , low v o t e r t u r n o u t s f o r m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s ) . G e n e r a l l y , c o n t e m p o r a r y d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i s t s v i e w d e mocracy as a p o l i t i c a l method o r a s e t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s and i t i s t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , as a w h o l e , t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m o f g o v e r n i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y t h e o r y , d e m ocracy i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as. " r e s p o n s i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e " g o vernment: r e s p o n s i b l e b e c a u s e i t i s a n s w e r a b l e t o t h e e l e c t o r a t e and r e s p o n s i v e b e c a u s e i t i s w i l l i n g t o meet t h e demands o f t h e p u b l i c . In t h i s c o n t e x t , a r e s p o n s i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e government does n o t . r e f e r t o s e l f -g o v e r nment o r s e l f - r u l e by t h e p e o p l e b u t , i n s t e a d , t o t h e p o p u l a r c o n t r o l o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s as e x e r c i s e d t h r o u g h t h e e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . 16 U n l i k e t h e c l a s s i c a l t h e o r y o f de m o c r a c y , t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c i s n o t t o d e c i d e i s s u e s d i r e c t l y b u t t o p r o d u c e a government t h a t w i l l d e c i d e i s s u e s on t h e i r b e h a l f . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t h e o r y , t h e f u n c t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o t h e p e r i o d i c r i g h t o f t h e p u b l i c t o e x e r c i s e c h o i c e on e l e c t i o n day. In t h i s way, c o n t e m p o r a r y d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y c a n be l i k e n e d t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y . H.B. Mayo o f f e r s a d e f i n i t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y . Mayo d e f i n e s d e m o c r a c y as a " p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m ... i n w h i c h p u b l i c p o l i c i e s a r e made, on a m a j o r i t y b a s i s , by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s u b j e c t t o e f f e c t i v e p o p u l a r c o n t r o l a t p e r i o d i c e l e c t i o n s w h i c h a r e c o n d u c t e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y and u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l f r e e d o m . " (Mayo, 1970, p. 7 0 ) . F o u r d i s t i n c t , y e t i n t e r w o v e n , p r i n c i p l e s o f democracy c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m Mayo's d e f i n i t i o n . T hese p r i n c i p l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as t h e c o r n e r s t o n e s o f a modern r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m . 2.2.3 P r i n c i p l e s o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Democracy The f i r s t p r i n c i p l e i s p o p u l a r c o n t r o l o f p o l i c y - m a k e r s t h r o u g h f r e e e l e c t i o n s . The e l e c t i o n r e s u l t p r o v i d e s t h e a u t h o r i t y f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o make d e c i s i o n s on b e h a l f o f t h e p u b l i c . The p r i n c i p l e o f p o p u l a r c o n t r o l i s b a s e d on t h e b e l i e f t h a t p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y f l o w s w h o l l y and s o l e l y f r o m t h e p e o p l e w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e s e l e c t e d t o s e r v e . The s e c o n d p r i n c i p l e o f democracy i s p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y and i s e x e r c i s e d t h r o u g h t h e f r a n c h i s e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e may be..-, v a r i o u s s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c b a r r i e r s t o p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y , t h e 17 p r i n c i p l e o f u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e among a d u l t s i s b o t h a c c e p t e d and u p h e l d . P o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y i s a l o g i c a l s t e p f o l l o w i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p o p u l a r c o n t r o l b e c a u s e g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c h o o s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f government d e c i s i o n s , made on b e h a l f o f t h e e l e c t o r s , s i n c e a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c w o u l d have v o t e d f o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n power. The t h i r d p r i n c i p l e o f d e m o c r a c y r e f e r s t o a v a r i e t y o f p o l i t i c a l f r e e d o m s , among them e f f e c t i v e c h o i c e . T h i s p r i n c i p l e i s g u a r a n t e e d t h r o u g h a r e f i n e d s y s t e m o f p r o c e d u r e s , s u c h as t h e s e c r e t b a l l o t , w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o p r e v e n t c o e r c i o n and undue p e r s u a s i o n o f t h e v o t i n g p u b l i c . The f o u r t h p r i n c i p l e o f d e m o c r a c y i s m a j o r i t y r u l e . T h i s p r i n c i p l e e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t a c o n f l i c t i s r e s o l v e d by t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a t a g i v e n t i m e . The p r i n c i p l e o f m a j o r i t y r u l e , however, does n o t d i c t a t e t h a t t h e w i l l o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f v o t e r s w i l l p r e v a i l , o n l y t h a t t h e w i l l o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w i l l p r e v a i l . I n d e e d , i n a s y s t e m o f government b a s e d on r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e u n a b l e , w i t h any d e g r e e o f c e r t a i n t y , t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o p u l a r s u p p o r t b e h i n d s p e c i f i c p u b l i c p o l i c i e s between e l e c t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s s e e n as t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f d e m o c r a c y . The e l e c t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s as d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i s n e c e s s a r y due t o t h e i m p r a c t i c a l i t y o f d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g by a l l members o f t h e p u b l i c i n a l a r g e , modern, complex s o c i e t y . 18 However, i n s p i t e o f t h i s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s t i l l v a l u e d as t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m . I n d e e d , p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i s t h a t e l e m e n t o f a g o v e r n i n g d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t f r o m a l l o t h e r f o r m s o f go v e r n m e n t . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n government d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s g u a r a n t e e d t h r o u g h t h e p u b l i c ' s e l e c t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , w h i c h a l s o s e r v e s t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h o s e e l e c t e d . Thus, i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y , t h e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y t o make d e c i s i o n s r e s t s w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who a r e p o p u l a r l y c o n t r o l l e d t h r o u g h t h e e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o Cohen i n h i s book Democracy ( 1 ^ 7 1 ) , however, a dilemma f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c a n r e s u l t when t h e r e i s a d i v e r g e n c e between what t h e p u b l i c wants and what t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s b e l i e v e i s i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p u b l i c . T h i s dilemma i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d u a l d u t i e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s : e i t h e r (a) t o a c t i n t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c d e p u t y and o r (b) t o a c t i n t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c t r u s t e e . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w o u l d be a c t i n g as d e p u t i e s o f t h e p u b l i c i f t h e y saw t h a t i t was t h e i r d u t y t o e n d o r s e t h e w i l l o f t h e p u b l i c . On t h e o t h e r hand, i f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y were c h o s e n t o a c t i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f p u b l i c t r u s t e e s , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w o u l d b e l i e v e t h a t i t was t h e i r d u t y t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n and a p p l y i t t o t h e i s s u e w i t h a t h o r o u g h n e s s t h a t t h e p u b l i c would be u n a b l e t o do. In t h i s c a s e , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w o u l d e n d o r s e p o l i c i e s t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e w o u l d be i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e community, r e g a r d l e s s o f what t h e p u b l i c may want. 19 Cohen s u g g e s t s t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s o l v e t h e dilemma p o s e d by t h e i r d u a l r o l e s by d e t e r m i n i n g i f t h e d e c i s i o n t o be made i s one o f p o l i c y o r one o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I f t h e d e c i s i o n i s one o f p o l i c y t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w o u l d have a d u t y t o a c t as a d e p u t y o f t h e p u b l i c and v o t e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p u b l i c . On t h e o t h e r hand, i f t h e d e c i s i o n i s one o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e must a c t as a p u b l i c t r u s t e e and v o t e a c c o r d i n g t o what i s i n t h e community's b e s t i n t e r e s t s . A l t h o u g h t h i s a p p e a r s t o be a c l e a r c u t way t o s o l v e t h i s dilemma, t h e l i n e between a p o l i c y d e c i s i o n and an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e c i s i o n i s o f t e n b l u r r e d and t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s s t i l l f a c e d w i t h a dilemma o f o p p o s i n g d u t i e s . In any c a s e , i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e mocracy, whether r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a c t as d e p u t i e s o r t r u s t e e s , t h e i r r o l e i s one o f d e c i s i o n - m a k e r . . The r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c , t h e r e f o r e , r e s t s somewhere i n t h e p r o c e s s p r i o r t o t h e d e c i s i o n b e i n g r e n d e r e d i n b o t h (a) c h o o s i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a t e l e c t i o n s and (b) p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a l l t h e o t h e r o c c a s i o n s between e l e c t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c i n p u t . I t i s t h e s e o t h e r o c c a s i o n s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n beyond t h e e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r movement a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m o f democracy f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d emocracy t o a more p a r t i c i p a t o r y f o r m o f d e m o c r a t i c g o v e r n i n g . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e o c c a s i o n s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n b eyond t h e e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s have tremendous s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e p u b l i c t o d a y as t h e modern s t a t e assumes i n c r e a s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l and g r o w i n g i n f l u e n c e o v e r community l i f e . 20 In t h e f i e l d o f p l a n n i n g , where v a r i o u s government a g e n c i e s have c o n t i n u e d t o expand t h e i r r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b o t h t h e b u i l t and n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e o c c a s i o n s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I n d e e d , t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g r e p r e s e n t s a p o s i t i v e movement a l o n g t h e d e m o c r a t i c c o n t i n u u m t o w a r d s a more p a r t i c i p a t o r y f o r m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a t i c g o v e r n m e n t . 2.3 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s Edmond B u r k e d e f i n e s p l a n n i n g i n h i s book A P a r t i c i p a t o r y  A p p r o a c h t o Urban P l a n n i n g as " . . . a c o n s c i o u s and d e l i b e r a t e means f o r a c h i e v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e o r g o a l " ( B u r k e , 1979, p . 1 9 5 ) . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , and o t h e r s s i m i l a r t o i t , i m p l i e s t h a t p l a n n i n g i s an a c t i v i t y o r p r o c e s s w h i c h i n v o l v e s a t h o u g h t f u l , s t e p - b y - s t e p , a p p r o a c h t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o P e t e r B o o t h r o y d , t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c a n be v i e w e d as s e v e n d i s t i n c t , y e t i n t e r - r e l a t e d , s t e p s f l o w i n g f r o m an i n i t i a l s t e p o f d e f i n i n g t h e t a s k t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d , s t e p one, t o t h e f i n a l s t e p o f making a d e c i s i o n , s t e p s e v e n (Wiesman, 1990, p . l ) . F o l l o w i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p l a n n i n g t a s k , s t e p two o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e g o a l o r g o a l s t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . S t e p t h r e e i n v o l v e s g a t h e r i n g f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g t h e p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d p l a n n i n g t a s k . I n s t e p s - f o u r and f i v e , p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e p l a n n i n g t a s k a r e g e n e r a t e d and d i s t i n c t o p t i o n s , drawn f r o m t h e r a n g e o f r e l e v a n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s g e n e r a t e d i n s t e p f o u r , a r e c r e a t e d . The o p t i o n s , . 21 t h e r e f o r e , a r e b a s e d upon t h e t a s k t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d , t h e d e f i n e d g o a l s , and t h e f a c t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i s s u e . S t e p s i x i s an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f e a c h o f t h e o p t i o n s . I t i s a t t h i s s t a g e , t h a t t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y a r e a n a l y z e d . F i n a l l y , i n s t e p s e v e n , a d e c i s i o n i s made by c h o o s i n g one o f t h e o p t i o n s w h i c h has been a n a l y z e d . A f t e r t h e s e v e n s t e p p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s c o m p l e t e d , t h e outcome o f t h e p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y i s m o n i t o r e d and an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p l a n and p r o c e s s i s c a r r i e d o u t . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s p r o c e s s has l o n g been c o n s i d e r e d a v i t a l and e s s e n t i a l component o f p l a n n i n g . However, b o t h e c o n o m i c and t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s l i m i t t h e amount o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t c a n o c c u r a t any g i v e n s t a g e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t i m e and b u d g e t a r y c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e r e a r e o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . F o r example, p l a n n e r s c a n be f a c e d w i t h a r a n g e o f v a r i e d r e s p o n s e s , f r o m i n t e n s e o u t r i g h t o p p o s i t i o n t o p l a n s t o c o m p l e t e a p a t h y . I n d e e d , t h e s e p r o b l e m s s t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c e a r l y , and t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 2.3.1 D e f i n i t i o n o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n T h e r e i s no c o n s i s t e n t , w i d e l y - a c c e p t e d , s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n means d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e and e v e n d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o t h e same p e o p l e d e p e n d i n g upon t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d o r t h e s i t u a t i o n b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s e v e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n be f o u n d i n t h e 22 l i t e r a t u r e and a r e u s e f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g some p a r a m e t e r s f o r what i s meant by t h e c o n c e p t . A r n s t e i n s t a t e s t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n " . . . i s t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power t h a t e n a b l e s t h e h a v e - n o t c i t i z e n s , p r e s e n t l y e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c p r o c e s s e s , t o be d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e f u t u r e " ( A r n s t e i n , 1969, p.40-4 1 ) . S i m i l a r l y , F a g e n c e d e f i n e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n as " . . . a means t o w a r d s power e q u a l i z a t i o n " ( F a g e n c e , 1977, p. 7 2 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g v a r y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g c a n be s e e n as a c a l l f o r t h e s h a r i n g o f power between t h e p u b l i c and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d e c i s i o n -m akers. P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a c a l l f o r t h e i n v o l v e m e n t i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o f t h e p e o p l e who w i l l be a f f e c t e d by t h e p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y . 2.3.2 P u r p o s e o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a n n i n g T h r e e b r o a d p u r p o s e s f o r i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( B u r k e , 1979, p. 8 9 ) . The f i r s t p u r p o s e o f i n c l u d i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s t o p r o v i d e p l a n n e r s w i t h a s o u r c e o f wisdom and i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c a n o n l y come f r o m t h e community f o r whom t h e p l a n s a r e t o s e r v e . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s w i l l be i m p r o v e d b e c a u s e t h e p u b l i c p r o v i d e s p l a n n e r s w i t h a d d i t i o n a l d a t a on w h i c h t o base, t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . T h i s a s s e r t i o n f o r m s a p r a c t i c a l argument t h a t stems f r o m t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i t h p u b l i c 23 p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l ' more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e needs o f t h e community. The s e c o n d p u r p o s e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o a c t as a means t o o r g a n i z e s u p p o r t f o r p l a n s . T h i s i s an a t t e m p t t o l e g i t i m i z e p l a n s t h r o u g h p u b l i c a p p r o v a l . In t h i s s e n s e , t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s i s u s e d as a means t o e n a b l e c o n s e n s u s b u i l d i n g r a t h e r t h a n as a d e v i c e t o m e r e l y m a n i p u l a t e c o n s e n t . The t h i r d p u r p o s e o f i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s t o p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n f o r b o t h t h e c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s o f t h e p u b l i c . By p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p u b l i c ' s v o i c e t o be h e a r d , i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e p u b l i c w i l l n o t d e l i b e r a t e l y , o r i n a d v e r t e n t l y , be s u b j e c t t o m i s u s e . T h i s p u r p o s e stems f r o m t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e - t h a t c i t i z e n s have t h e r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I n d e e d , t h i s b e l i e f goes b e y o n d t h e t h e o r y o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g t o t h e b a s i c i d e a l o f d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t t h e p u b l i c has a r i g h t t o be b o t h i n f o r m e d o f and h e a r d on i s s u e s t h a t w i l l a f f e c t them. 2.3.3 E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t i n P l a n n i n g R e g a r d l e s s o f how p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e f i n e d o r what t h e s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e o f a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x e r c i s e may be, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as a c o n c e p t , has emerged as an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . However, t h e s y s t e m a t i c and u n q u e s t i o n e d i n c l u s i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s o f p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s has n o t o c c u r r e d q u i c k l y , b u t 24 stems f r o m a g r a d u a l e v o l u t i o n , o v e r t h e p a s t f o r t y t o f i f t y y e a r s , o f e v e r - e x p a n d i n g r o l e s f o r t h e p u b l i c . D u r i n g t h e 1950's, p l a n n e r s were u n q u e s t i o n e d as e x p e r t s i n t h e i r f i e l d and p l a n n i n g was v i e w e d as a h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s t h a t was b e s t l e f t t o t h e p l a n n i n g e x p e r t s . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a t t h i s t i m e , was l i m i t e d t o a s e l e c t g r o u p o f e l i t e community l e a d e r s , u s u a l l y l e a d i n g b u s i n e s s m e n , whose o p i n i o n s were d i r e c t l y s o l i c i t e d by p l a n n e r s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e i n f l u e n t i a l b a c k i n g f o r t h e i r p l a n s . The 1960's and 1970's was a t i m e o f a w a k e n i n g f o r t h e p u b l i c , a q u e s t i o n i n g o f a u t h o r i t y and e x p e r t i s e . A whole r a n g e o f i s s u e s were b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f s o c i e t y , s u c h as t h e p e a c e and d i s a r m a m e n t movements, t h e p o v e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s movements, t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l movement, and t h e women's r i g h t s movement. W i t h t h e s e came an a c c o m p a n y i n g c a l l f o r i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n government d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . W i t h i n p l a n n i n g , a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , t h e 1960's and 1970's saw d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d , e c o n o m i c a l l y p o o r g r o u p s i n c i t i e s r a l l y f o r a v o i c e i n d e c i s i o n s t h a t were a f f e c t i n g them. T h i s o c c u r r e d as p l a n n e r s t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n f r o m d e v e l o p i n g l a r g e - s c a l e , t w e n t y - y e a r m a s t e r p l a n s , t o s o l v i n g g r o w i n g s o c i a l p r o b l e m s f o u n d i n t h e i n n e r - c i t y . U rban r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s and m a s s i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o j e c t s became p o p u l a r p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s as a means t o r e b u i l d d e c a y i n g p a r t s o f t h e c i t y (Se-well, Coppock, 1977, p . 1 0 ) . However, t h e s e p r o j e c t s soon became s e e n as d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s , d e s t r o y i n g v i a b l e e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . I n t e r e s t g r o u p s r o s e i n d e f i a n c e o f t h e p l a n n i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t 25 and t h e d e c i s i o n s t h a t were b e i n g made w i t h o u t them. In V a n c o u v e r , f o r example, c o n c e r n o v e r t h e i m p a c t s o f t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o p o s a l f o r t h e S t r a t h c o n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d b r o u g h t o u t o r g a n i z e d community o p p o s i t i o n , as d i d c o n c e r n o v e r t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e S p a d i n a E x p r e s s w a y i n T o r o n t o . T h e s e g r o u p s n o t o n l y e x p r e s s e d o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p l a n s f o r t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s b u t a l s o i d e n t i f i e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g means o f c o n s u l t i n g t h e p u b l i c ( L ey, p. 7 ) . As a r e s p o n s e t o t h i s g r a s s - r o o t s e x p r e s s i o n o f o p p o s i t i o n , b r o a d e r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a n e x i s t e d b e f o r e was i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . However, t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c was n o t one o f p a r t n e r s h i p o r even one o f c o n s u l t a t i o n ; • i n s t e a d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was i n i t i a l l y i n t r o d u c e d as a means t o i n d u c e t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i n s u c h p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s as u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s . As p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n came t o be v i e w e d by p l a n n i n g b o d i e s as a n e c e s s i t y i n o r d e r t o g a i n p o p u l a r a c c e p t a n c e o f p l a n s and, u l t i m a t e l y , t o l e g i t i m i z e p l a n s , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was f o r m a l l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n d e e d , t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s has become so e n t r e n c h e d t h a t i t has come t o f o r m a b a s i c p a r t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e . I t i s no l o n g e r a q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t o have p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n b u t r a t h e r how t o a c h i e v e e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Beyond p r o f e s s i o n a l e t h i c s and p r a c t i c e , however, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s has been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t seek t o l e g a l l y 26 e n s u r e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p u b l i c t o be h e a r d . . F o r example, t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e q u i r e s t h a t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s be h e l d when a m u n i c i p a l i t y c o n s i d e r s a r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n o r an amendment t o t h e i r O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . In a d d i t i o n , many f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s r e q u i r e t h a t v a r i o u s g o v ernment a g e n c i e s and d e p a r t m e n t s c o n d u c t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s o r f o r m a d v i s o r y c o m m i s s i o n s i n o r d e r t o e n c o u r a g e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n c r e a s e d l e v e l s and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n F e d e r a l Government e n v i r o n m e n t a l l e g i s l a t i o n . F o r example, when t h e F e d e r a l D e p a r t m e n t o f E n v i r o n m e n t h o l d s p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as p a r t o f i t s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t r e v i e w , members o f t h e p u b l i c who f i n d t h e m s e l v e s f i n a n c i a l l y d e t e r r e d f r o m p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r v i e w s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h f u n d s t o f a c i l i t a t e a c c e s s i f t h e y meet e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a . The 1980's saw a c o n t i n u a t i o n and r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e i s s u e s and c a u s e s r a i s e d i n p r e v i o u s d e c a d e s . T h i s i s e v i d e n t w i t h t h e r e s u r g e n c e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l movement. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n u r b a n p l a n n i n g t h e 1980's and 1990's have s e e n s u b u r b a n r e z o n i n g and h o u s i n g i s s u e s become an o v e r w h e l m i n g c o n c e r n o f members o f t h e p u b l i c . N e i g h b o u r h o o d p r e s e r v a t i o n has become t h e watchword o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s r e s i d i n g i n s u b u r b a n l o c a t i o n s and,, i n c r e a s i n g l y , t h e s e members o f t h e p u b l i c a r e demanding a g r e a t e r i n p u t i n t o m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l d e c i s i o n s . The demand f o r more i n p u t i s o c c u r r i n g i n s p i t e o f t h e s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t p r e v i o u s l y seem t o have p r o v i d e d a d e q u a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t has been a r g u e d 27 t h a t t h i s r i s e i n p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n t o p l a n s f o r change and t h e demand f o r a g r e a t e r r o l e f o r t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s a r e s u l t o f c h a n g i n g s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s s u c h a s : g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f t h e a v e r a g e c i t i z e n , a d v a n c e s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s t h a t have h e l p e d t o c r e a t e a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s , i n c r e a s e d c o n c e r n by t h e p u b l i c o v e r t h e i m p a c t s t h a t d e c i s i o n s have on t h e i r l i v e s and c o m m u n i t i e s , g r o w i n g d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h e x p e r t s and t h e a b i l i t y o f e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s t o r e n d e r d e c i s i o n s i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , and f i n a l l y , t h e i n c r e a s i n g t e n d e n c y o f government b o d i e s t o d e l e g a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g powers t o n o n - e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s who a r e , t h e r e f o r e , n o t d i r e c t l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c ( L a n g t o n , 1978, p . 4 0 ) . 2.3.4 R o l e s o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n P e r h a p s t h e l a c k o f a s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e v a r i e t y o f r o l e s t h e p u b l i c has p l a y e d as p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n has e v o l v e d t o f o r m an e s s e n t i a l component o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Edmond B u r k e i d e n t i f i e s f i v e r o l e s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( B u r k e , p . 7 4 ) . The r o l e s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n be s e e n as a c o n t i n u u m s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e l e a s t p u b l i c i n f l u e n c e o v e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , i n c r e a s i n g t o t h e most p u b l i c i n f l u e n c e o v e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . B u r k e ' s f i v e s t a g e c o n t i n u u m i s a d a p t e d f r o m t h e t h e o r i e s o f S h e r r y A r n s t e i n as o u t l i n e d i n h e r a r t i c l e "A L a d d e r o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n " . T h e s e r o l e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e l i s t e d b e l o w i n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f g r e a t e r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : 28 r e v i e w and comment c o n s u l t a t i o n a d v i s o r y s h a r e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c o n t r o l l e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The f i r s t r o l e f o r t h e p u b l i c i s " r e v i e w and comment". T h i s i s a p a s s i v e r o l e w h i c h i s l i m i t e d t o a one-way p r o c e s s where t h e p l a n n i n g a g e n c y p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c . A l t h o u g h t h e p u b l i c i s a f f o r d e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e , t h e i r r o l e i s so l i m i t e d t h a t t h e y have no r e a l i m p a c t on t h e d e c i s i o n s b e i n g made. An example o f t h i s t y p e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h e p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g where p l a n n e r s e x p l a i n p r o p o s e d p l a n s and d i s t r i b u t e i n f o r m a t i o n l e a f l e t s . T h i s r o l e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s t h e l e a s t i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h a t i t m a i n t a i n s t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m ocracy w h i c h g i v e s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h e s o l e a u t h o r i t y t o r e n d e r d e c i s i o n s . The n e x t s t e p a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m i s " c o n s u l t a t i o n " and i n v o l v e s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n measures where i n p u t i s a c t i v e l y s o l i c i t e d f r o m t h e p u b l i c by p l a n n e r s . The c o n s u l t a t i o n r o l e s u g g e s t s more o f a two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a n t h a t o f t h e p r e c e d i n g r o l e y e t f a l l s s h o r t o f p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i a l o g u e t o d e v e l o p between t h e p u b l i c , p l a n n e r s , and d e c i s i o n -makers. In o t h e r words, m u l t i p l e l o o p s o f i n f o r m a t i o n e xchange between t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e n o t e n c o u r a g e d w i t h i n t h i s r o l e . The r e s u l t i s a ' o n e - s h o t ' i n j e c t i o n o f p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . An example 29 o f t h i s r o l e i s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r o t h e r s u c h s u r v e y o f p u b l i c a t t i t u d e o r o p i n i o n on a p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e . The f o l l o w i n g s t e p on t h e c o n t i n u u m i s t h e " a d v i s o r y " r o l e . T h i s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s a f o r m a l r o l e f o r t h e p u b l i c where s e l e c t c i t i z e n s a r e r e c r u i t e d by t h e p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y w i t h t h e e x p r e s s e d p u r p o s e t h a t t h e s e c i t i z e n s w i l l f o r m an a d v i s o r y body f o r t h e p l a n n e r s and d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . The m u n i c i p a l A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n i s an example o f a f o r m a l body, made up o f c i t i z e n s o f t h e community, a s s i g n e d t h e t a s k o f a d v i s i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l on p l a n s d e v e l o p e d by t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . The " s h a r e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g " s t e p on t h e c o n t i n u u m i s a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n r o l e t h a t i n v o l v e s a p a r t n e r s h i p between members o f t h e p u b l i c and p l a n n e r s . T h r o u g h t h e i r work as a team i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d r e a c h d e c i s i o n s t h a t w i l l r e f l e c t m u t u a l l y a g r e e d upon p l a n s . T a s k f o r c e s o r w o r k i n g g r o u p s made up o f p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s and p l a n n e r s , a s s i g n e d t o work on s p e c i f i c t a s k s o r s o l v e s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s , a r e examples o f s h a r e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . T h i s t y p e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n o f t e n o c c u r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g o f f i c e s where p l a n n e r s a r e p l a c e d w i t h i n c o m m u n i t i e s and work w i t h members o f t h e p u b l i c t o d e v e l o p p l a n s t h a t w i l l s e r v e c o m m u n i t y - d e f i n e d o b j e c t i v e s . The f i n a l r o l e on t h e c o n t i n u u m , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e f o r t h e p u b l i c , i s " c o n t r o l l e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g " . I n t h i s r o l e , t h e p u b l i c e x e r c i s e s u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y i n making t h e f i n a l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n . P l a n n e r s , i n t h i s c a s e , a c t as a r e s o u r c e t o t h e c i t i z e n g r o u p c h a r g e d w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t y t o make 30 d e c i s i o n s . B e c a u s e c o n t r o l l e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e p r e s e n t s a h i g h d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y t h e r e a r e few examples o f c o n t r o l l e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i t h i n government b o d i e s i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c i e s . Referendums c o u l d be se e n as an example o f c i t i z e n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; however, i f government i n s t i t u t i o n s d e t e r m i n e i f and when an i s s u e i s p u t f o r w a r d t o r e f e r e n d u m , a d e g r e e o f c i t i z e n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s l o s t ; 2 . 3 . 5 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i v e r o l e s t h e p u b l i c p l a y s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o u t l i n e d some o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a r e employed i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s c a n be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s e x c h a n g e d . A n t h o n y C a n t a n e s e d e s c r i b e s t h r e e t y p e s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s : i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g , i n f o r m a t i o n - r e c e i v i n g , and i n t e r a c t i o n o r i n f o r m a t i o n - e x c h a n g i n g ( C a n t a n e s e , 1974, p. 9 5 ) . I n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g t e c h n i q u e s r e f e r t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b r o c h u r e s and r e p o r t s , g r a p h i c d i s p l a y s , and p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s . O t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e a d v e r t i s i n g and media c o v e r a g e . I n f o r m a t i o n - r e c e i v i n g t e c h n i q u e s r e f e r t o v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s u r v e y s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and comment forms w h i c h a r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e p u b l i c and c o l l e c t e d by t h e p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y . I n f o r m a t i o n - e x c h a n g i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d e . o p e n h o u s e s , s e m i n a r s , and l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . T h e s e t e c h n i q u e s r e p r e s e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s where a d i a l o g u e o r i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i s p o s s i b l e . C a n t a n e s e a l s o 31 l i s t s p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n t e c h n i q u e , a l t h o u g h o t h e r s w o u l d p l a c e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as a l o w e r - o r d e r , i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g d e v i c e . I n s p i t e o f t h e r a n g e o f a l t e r n a t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o a c h i e v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s has been t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . I n d e e d , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , by t h e i r l o n g t r a d i t i o n , have become a l e g i t i m a t e f o r m o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and a r e o f t e n t h e o n l y a v a i l a b l e f orum f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 2 . 3 . 6 E v a l u a t i o n o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s V a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s and p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s have d e v e l o p e d s y s t e m s t o e v a l u a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s o r programmes. An e v a l u a t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programmes o r t e c h n i q u e s i s an a t t e m p t t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d , and t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e p u b l i c ' s w i s h e s were t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The e v a l u a t i v e framework o f G l a s s e r , Manty, and Nehman t h a t was u s e d t o a n a l y s e t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s was c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t seemed t o be t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e e v a l u a t i v e framework a v a i l a b l e t o a s s e s s t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . A t t h e same t i m e t h e framework o f f e r e d a c l e a r and c o m p r e h e n s i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n any a s s e s s m e n t o f t h i s k i n d . I n S i n c l a i r ' s a r t i c l e "The P u b l i c H e a r i n g as a P a r t i c i p a t o r y D e v i c e " ( S e w e l l / C o p p o c k , 1977, p. 1 0 5 ) , she e v a l u a t e s t h e p u b l i c 32 h e a r i n g s h e l d by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n w h i c h s t u d i e s w a t e r - r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s a l o n g t h e C a n a d i a n / A m e r i c a n b o r d e r . S i n c l a i r employs t h e e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e d e v i s e d by G l a s s e r , Manty, and Nehman w h i c h b a s e s t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a c c o r d i n g t o (a) t h e i r a b i l i t y t o communicate and (b) t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( S i n c l a i r , 1977, p . 1 0 7 ) . • T h e r e a r e s i x c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . They a r e as f o l l o w s : d e g r e e o f p u b l i c c o n t a c t a c h i e v e d , d e g r e e o f i m p a c t on d e c i s i o n makers, d e g r e e o f u s e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , e a s e o f use and p r e p a r a t i o n , a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d t o v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s , and d e g r e e o f two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , t h e r e a r e s i x p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . The o b j e c t i v e s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e as f o l l o w s : t o i n f o r m o r e d u c a t e , t o i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m s and v a l u e s , t o g e t i d e a s and s o l v e p r o b l e m s , t o r e c e i v e f e e d b a c k , t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t o r r e a c h c o n s e n s u s , and, l a s t l y , t o implement s o l u t i o n s . T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r F o u r . A c c o r d i n g t o M a r g a r e t S i n c l a i r ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e I . J . C . p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t h e r e a r e b o t h a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g as a means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The a d v a n t a g e s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s r e l a t e t o i t s e a s e as a q u i c k and r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e way f o r p u b l i c ' a u t h o r i t i e s t o g a i n p u b l i c i n p u t . F u r t h e r , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t e n d t o a t t r a c t l a r g e g r o u p s and, t h u s , a r e s e e n as h a v i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l t o r e a c h numerous p e o p l e w i t h a b r o a d - b a s e o f i n t e r e s t s . 33 The d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g r e l a t e t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a c t i v i t y i t s e l f . P u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e c r i t i c i z e d as t o o f o r m a l t o a l l o w f o r m e a n i n g f u l d i s c u s s i o n t o d e v e l o p . I n a d d i t i o n , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c r e a t e c o n f r o n t a t i o n s i n c e t h e y o f t e n a t t r a c t o n l y t h o s e members o f t h e p u b l i c who a r e o p p o s e d t o p l a n s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s l a c k t h e a b i l i t y t o a t t r a c t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a u d i e n c e . F i n a l l y , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e c r i t i c i z e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e more open t o m a n i p u l a t i o n by b o t h t h e p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y and t h e p u b l i c t h a n o t h e r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . P l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s c a n use p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s t o o l t o s e l l p l a n s t o t h e p u b l i c and n o t as a s i n c e r e means t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , p u b l i c g r o u p s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t s c a n use t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s t o m a n i p u l a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g by c r e a t i n g t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n . The s t a t u t o r y p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l be analyzed, as a t e c h n i q u e f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n terms o f t h e s i x c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e s i x p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d a b o v e . T h i s a n a l y s i s i s b a s e d on t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t was d i s t r i b u t e d t o t w e l v e o f t h e k e y p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w and an a n a l y s i s o f t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , C h a p t e r T h r e e , p r o v i d e s t h e b a c k g r o u n d and d e s c r i p t i o n o f e v e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c a s e s t u d y o f t h e T e r r a Nova Lands r e z o n i n g h e a r i n g s . 34 C h a p t e r T h r e e : A C a s e S t u d y o f Richmond's T e r r a Nova Lands 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The T o w n s h i p o f Richmond has b o t h a l o n g h i s t o r y as a r i c h , v i a b l e f a r m i n g community and, more r e c e n t l y , as an a t t r a c t i v e l o c a t i o n f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . However, t h e s e two c o m m u n i t i e s have d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t l a n d use needs and, as a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond has been f a c e d w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g r u r a l - u r b a n l a n d use p r i o r i t i e s . A t t h e p r e s e n t , t h i s l a n d - u s e c o n f l i c t i s so r e - f i n e d t h a t any u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , be i t c o m m e r c i a l , r e s i d e n t i a l , o r i n d u s t r i a l , i s met w i t h i m p a s s i o n e d r e s i s t a n c e by Richmond r e s i d e n t s . C h a p t e r t h r e e i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a c a s e s t u d y o f t h e most r e c e n t , h i g h p r o f i l e , u r b a n - r u r a l l a n d use c o n f l i c t i n t h e T o w n s h i p o f Richmond: t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e - d e s i g n a t e t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d known as T e r r a Nova and p e r m i t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f d w e l l i n g s . C h a p t e r t h r e e p r o v i d e s a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e T o w n s h i p s i n c e f i r s t s e t t l e m e n t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c o n t e x t f r o m w h i c h t o v i e w t h e c a s e s t u d y . F o l l o w i n g t h e b a c k g r o u n d , C h a p t e r T h r e e o u t l i n e s t h e p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s d e c i s i o n was made, f r o m t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n p r o c e s s s t a r t e d i n 1984 t h r o u g h t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada d e c i s i o n on t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g b y - l a w s i n 1990. 3.2 H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d Richmond was r e c o g n i z e d e a r l y by t h e C o l o n i a l Government o f t h e 1800's as p o s s e s s i n g v a l u a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and was f i r s t s e t t l e d i n 1860. The government e n c o u r a g e d s e t t l e m e n t by f a r m e r s 35 t o p r o v i d e f o o d f o r t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s and, as a r e s u l t , t h e n e x t t w e n t y y e a r s b r o u g h t a s t e a d y m i g r a t i o n o f f a r m e r s t o t h e a r e a . Richmond was o f f i c i a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d as a T o w n s h i p i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1879. F o l l o w i n g i n c o r p o r a t i o n , an o r g a n i z e d s y s t e m o f c i v i c improvements was e s t a b l i s h e d , i n c l u d i n g i r r i g a t i o n and dyke schemes, w a t e r and sewer s y s t e m s , a n e twork o f r o a d s and c o n n e c t i n g b r i d g e s t o t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , and an e l e c t r i c r a i l w a y . T h e s e improvements i n c r e a s e d t h e m a r k e t a b i l i t y o f Richmond's f a r m l a n d p r o d u c e and t h e community c o n t i n u e d t o p r o s p e r . In t h e 1940's Richmond's M u n i c i p a l E n g i n e e r d r a f t e d t h e T o w n s h i p ' s f i r s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e town p l a n d e l i n e a t i n g p a r k l a n d , r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , and i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s i n t o z o n e s . I t was a t i m e l y u n d e r t a k i n g s i n c e t h e demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n began t o i n c r e a s e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g W o r l d War I I . I n d e e d , Richmond, n o t u n l i k e o t h e r u r b a n f r i n g e l o c a t i o n s a c r o s s Canada, e x p e r i e n c e d u n p r e c e d e n t e d r e s i d e n t i a l g r o w t h i n t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g W.W.II. E n j o y i n g c l o s e and c o n v e n i e n t a c c e s s t o V a n c o u v e r due, i n p a r t , t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Oak S t r e e t B r i d g e i n 1957, Richmond was an a t t r a c t i v e l o c a t i o n f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . P e o p l e were drawn t o Richmond b e c a u s e o f an abundance o f i n e x p e n s i v e , m u n i c i p a l l y - s e r v i c e d l a n d . S u b d i v i s i o n a f t e r s u b d i v i s i o n s p r e a d a c r o s s t h e T o w n s h i p i n t h e 1950's and 1960's. F u r t h e r improvement t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m , s u c h as t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e K n i g h t S t r e e t B r i d g e , . g u a r a n t e e d c o n t i n u e d h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e T o w n s h i p i n t o t h e 36 1970's and e n c o u r a g e d b o t h c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . W i t h e v e r y new u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t , Richmond e x p e r i e n c e d t h e l o s s o f p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , as w e l l a s , t h e f u r t h e r m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f a r m l a n d t h a t r e m a i n e d due t o p r e s s u r e s p l a c e d on i t by i t s p r o x i m i t y t o u r b a n l a n d u s e s . A l t h o u g h some r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n t o o k p l a c e i n t h e e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e T o w n s h i p , t h e m a j o r i t y o f u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t was l i m i t e d , a c c o r d i n g t o m u n i c i p a l l a n d - u s e p o l i c y , t o w e s t e r n Richmond. In s p i t e o f t h i s , some l a r g e p o c k e t s o f l a n d i n t h e w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f Richmond were n o t c o n v e r t e d t o r e s i d e n t i a l use d u r i n g t h e h o u s i n g boom and were a c t i v e l y f a r m e d , s u c h as t h e a r e a known as T e r r a Nova. T h e s e l a n d s r e m a i n e d zoned by t h e T o w n s h i p as " a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d " (Ross, 1979, p . 1 - 1 5 ) . In a d d i t i o n t o m u n i c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g , i n 1973, t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s , l i k e o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d so d e s i g n a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e o f B.C., were p r o t e c t e d f r o m u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t as p a r t o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e . The Land R e s e r v e was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d C o m m i s s i o n A c t (R.S.B.C., C h a p t e r 9, 1980), a p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o s t o p what was s e e n t o be t h e r a p i d c o n v e r s i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r u r b a n u s e s t h r o u g h o u t B.C. The T e r r a Nova l a n d s r e m a i n e d as p a r t o f t h e A.L.R. u n t i l i t s r e m o v a l i n 198.7. 3.3 The O f f i c i a l Community P l a n P r o c e s s and t h e P u b l i c I n s p i t e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s as p a r t o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e and t h e l a n d ' s m u n i c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g , d i s c u s s i o n on t h e f u t u r e use o f 37 t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s began f o r m a l l y i n 1984 w i t h t h e T o w n s h i p ' s p r e p a r a t i o n o f an O f f i c i a l Community P l a n (O.C.P). An O f f i c i a l Community P l a n i s d e f i n e d i n S e c t i o n 945(1) o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t as " . . . a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t o f t h e b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s o f t h e l o c a l g overnment r e s p e c t i n g t h e f o r m and c h a r a c t e r o f e x i s t i n g and p r o p o s e d l a n d u s e and s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e a r e a c o v e r e d by t h e p l a n . " A s e r i e s o f b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s were c o m m i s s i o n e d as p a r t o f t h e T o w n s h i p ' s p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e i r O.C.P. Th e s e r e p o r t s were i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e key i s s u e s t h a t were f a c i n g Richmond. Over t h e c o u r s e o f t h e O.C.P. p r e p a r a t i o n s t w e n t y - f o u r b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s were c o m p l e t e d . Among t h e i s s u e s s t u d i e d was t h e f u t u r e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n Richmond. In a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d " A g r i c u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e " , I s s u e P a p e r No. 3, (C P 6 . 3 a ) , G a r y Runka, t h e a u t h o r , s t a t e s h i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e p o t e n t i a l f u r t h e r l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f r o m Richmond's l a n d b a s e due t o t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y and o t h e r r e l a t e d u r b a n l a n d u s e s . And, as a r e s u l t , Runka i s prompted t o s u p p o r t "... t h e need f o r p o s i t i v e and a g g r e s s i v e p l a n n i n g i n Richmond i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n beyond t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d C o m m i s s i o n and R e s e r v e " (OCP No. 3, p. 5 ) . I n d e e d , Runka s p e c i f i e s t h a t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t o r e m a i n a v i t a l component i n Richmond, a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g must become an i n t e g r a t e d p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . F o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r O.C.P. b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s , i n June 1985, an " I s s u e s and C h o i c e s " 38 s t a t e m e n t was p u b l i s h e d by t h e T o w n s h i p . T h i s r e p o r t o f f e r e d a summary o f t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s and o u t l i n e d v a r i o u s g r o w t h o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o g u i d e t h e f u t u r e o f t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y . W i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f r a i s i n g p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o f t h e o p t i o n s , a h o u s e - b y - h o u s e d e l i v e r y o f b r o c h u r e s o u t l i n i n g t h e o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e and a media a d v e r t i s i n g c ampaign was c o n d u c t e d . The p u b l i c was f u r t h e r i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e by a t t e n d i n g open h o u s e s and p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s , v i e w i n g d i s p l a y s a t s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s , and c o m p l e t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s i n i t i a l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme, t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y i s s u e d a d r a f t o f t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n i n 1986. I n s p i t e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s e n c o u r a g i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o u n d w i t h i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t e n t i t l e d " A g r i c u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e " and t h e comments r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme o p p o s i n g t h e f u r t h e r l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , t h e d r a f t P l a n s u p p o r t e d t h e n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l d e s i g n a t i o n o f o v e r 800 a c r e s o f l a n d h e l d w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e , i n c l u d i n g t h e 465 a c r e T e r r a Nova s i t e . B e c a u s e t h e d r a f t P l a n c o n t a i n e d r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e d e s i g n a t i o n o f l a n d w i t h i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e f o r u r b a n u s e s , i t was s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Land C o m m i s s i o n f o r r e v i e w . A l t h o u g h t h e r e v i e w o f P l a n s by t h e C o m m i s s i o n i s n o t a s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t o f e i t h e r t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t o r t h e . A g r i c u l t u r a l Land C o m m i s s i o n A c t , i t i s s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e f o r t h e C o m m i s s i o n t o r e v i e w community p l a n s i f t h e p l a n s i n v o l v e t h e r e d e s i g n a t i o n o f l a n d w i t h i n t h e Land R e s e r v e . The r o l e o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n i n t h i s 39 r e v i e w i s p u r e l y a d v i s o r y and i s u s e d p r i m a r i l y t o a v o i d i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s between Community P l a n b y - l a w s and t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e . S e c t i o n 31 (1) o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d C o m m i s s i o n A c t s t a t e s t h a t i n c o n s i s t e n t p o r t i o n s o f m u n i c i p a l b y - l a w s t h a t c o n f l i c t w i t h A.L.R. b o u n d a r i e s w i l l be s u s p e n d e d and, t h e r e f o r e , i n v a l i d . The C o m m i s s i o n f i r s t r e v i e w e d t h e d r a f t O.C.P. i n J u l y 1986 and t h e i r o v e r a l l r e s p o n s e t o t h e p l a n was f a v o u r a b l e . The C o m m i s s i o n a g r e e d w i t h t h e O.C.P.'s g e n e r a l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t f a v o u r i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d b u t d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e p l a n s t o e x c l u d e some a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f r o m t h e A.L.R. i n c l u d i n g t h e T e r r a Nova L a n d s . In h i s r e p o r t t o Richmond's M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , Ian P a t o n , t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d C o m m i s s i o n , recommended t h a t t h e T e r r a Nova Lands and o t h e r c r i t i c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a r e a s w i t h i n Richmond r e m a i n as p a r t o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e c i t i n g t h e h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f a r m i n g i n Richmond and t h e u r g e n t need t o p r e s e r v e a d i m i n i s h i n g r e s o u r c e . A s e c o n d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme s i n c e t h e c o m m i s s i o n i n g o f t h e O.C.P. was c o n d u c t e d on t h e d r a f t p l a n i n e a r l y 1986. A l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d and commented on t h e d r a f t p l a n were o p p o s e d t o t h e r e d e s i g n a t i o n i n t h e p l a n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r u r b a n u s e , Richmond's P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t recommended t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n i n F e b r u a r y o f 198.6 w h i c h s p e c i f i e d t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o v e r 700 a c r e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Among t h e l a n d s s c h e d u l e d t o be removed f r o m t h e A.L.R. were t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . W i t h t h e 40 m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s f r o m " a g r i c u l t u r a l " t o " r e s i d e n t i a l r e s e r v e " t h e T o w n s h i p had e a r m a r k e d 320 a c r e s o f l a n d f o r f u t u r e h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t - 145 a c r e s o f t h e 465 a c r e s i t e c o v e r s t h e Q u i l c h e n a G o l f C o u r s e . The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n f o r r e d e s i g n a t i o n by t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t was s u p p o r t e d by Richmond's A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n . In a c c o r d a n c e w i t h B.C.'s M u n i c i p a l A c t , S e c t i o n 956 (1) w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t "a l o c a l g overnment s h a l l n o t a d o p t a community p l a n b y l a w , . . . w i t h o u t h o l d i n g a p u b l i c h e a r i n g on t h e b y l a w f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a l l o w i n g t h e p u b l i c t o make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t r e s p e c t i n g m a t t e r s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e p r o p o s e d b y l a w " , By-law No. 4700, t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , was s u b j e c t t o p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . The p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were a l s o h e l d t o comply w i t h S e c t i o n 11.1 o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d C o m m i s s i o n A c t , s i n c e t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y was p r o p o s i n g t o s u b m i t a b l o c k a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e x c l u s i o n f r o m t h e R e s e r v e . The p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , were h e l d t o c o n s i d e r b o t h t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r b l o c k e x c l u s i o n f r o m t h e A.L.R. The A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d C o m m i s s i o n recommended a g a i n s t t h e h o l d i n g o f t h e s e j o i n t h e a r i n g s b e c a u s e t h e y f e l t t h a t o t h e r v i t a l i s s u e s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e O.C.P. would be l o s t t o t h e s i n g l e a g r i c u l t u r a l i s s u e . In o t h e r words, t h e C o m m i s s i o n was c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c w o u l d n o t be a f f o r d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o comment on o t h e r c r i t i c a l i s s u e s , b e s i d e s t h e l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , a d d r e s s e d i n Richmond's O.C.P. F u r t h e r , t h e C o m m i s s i o n f e l t t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s h o u l d , p r o c e d u r a l l y , be r e v i e w e d a f t e r t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n was i n p l a c e s i n c e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n was 41 c o n s i d e r e d an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n measure o f t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . I n t h e end, t h e j o i n t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were h e l d o v e r f o u r e v e n i n g s , i n O c t o b e r and November 1986. Over t h e c o u r s e o f t h e f o u r e v e n i n g s , 118 p e o p l e spoke a t t h e h e a r i n g s and 132 w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s were r e c e i v e d . A l t h o u g h t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n c o n s i d e r e d many complex i s s u e s and o u t l i n e d a b r o a d , g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t on t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e f u t u r e o f Richmond, t h e f a t e o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , became t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t i s s u e a t t h e s e j o i n t h e a r i n g s . I n d e e d , 65% o f t h o s e t h a t spoke and 69% o f t h o s e t h a t w r o t e were c o n c e r n e d a b o u t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e s t a t e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s f r o m t h e A.L.R. and t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l a n d f o r h o u s i n g . S e v e r a l p e t i t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e l a n d , i n c l u d i n g one p e t i t i o n w i t h o v e r t h r e e t h o u s a n d s i g n a t u r e s , were r e c e i v e d by t h e T o w n s h i p d u r i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s p r o c e s s . C o p i e s o f t h e p e t i t i o n s were a l s o r e c e i v e d by t h e L a n d C o m m i s s i o n . I n t o t a l , 7,172 p e o p l e s i g n e d v a r i o u s p e t i t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e x c l u s i o n . N i n e t y -s e v e n p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e e x c l u s i o n (A.L.C. F i l e No. 20796) . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e o f f i c i a l s u b m i s s i o n s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and p e t i t i o n s r e c e i v e d , t h e p u b l i c a l s o d i r e c t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s i n c l u d i n g t h e P r e m i e r , t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , and Richmond's C o u n c i l Members as w e l l as t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d C o m m i s s i o n . S i x t y - t w o o f t h e 71 l e t t e r s 42 r e c e i v e d by e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s were o p p o s e d t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . One h u n d r e d and s e v e n o f t h e 110 l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n d i r e c t l y were o p p o s e d t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s f r o m t h e R e s e r v e (A.L.C. F i l e No. 20796). In t h e c o u r s e o f t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , a h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d , o p p o s i t i o n g r o u p made up o f Richmond r e s i d e n t s and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s had for m e d c a l l e d t h e "Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y " . The g o a l o f t h e g r o u p was, and i t c o n t i n u e s t o be, t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f Richmond's f a r m l a n d . The S o c i e t y began o u t o f t h e c o n c e r n o f one Richmond r e s i d e n t who saw, d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e O.C.P. p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , t h a t a p r o - d e v e l o p m e n t s t a n c e was f o r m i n g on c o u n c i l and w i t h i n t h e T o w n s h i p ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The Richmond community was m o b i l i z e d t h r o u g h an a d v e r t i s i n g b l i t z w i t h l e a f l e t s i n f o r m i n g Richmond r e s i d e n t s o f t h e p o t e n t i a l l o s s o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s t o u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . A s i x member g r o u p was for m e d o f t h o s e o p p o s e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t o f T e r r a Nova and t h e g r o u p o f f i c i a l l y r e g i s t e r e d as t h e Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y u n d e r B.C.'s S o c i e t i e s A c t i n J a n u a r y 1987. W i t h t h e i r o f f i c i a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n , t h e Save t h e Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y began a p a i d membership b l i t z . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s i d e n t s o f Richmond were c o n t a c t e d t h r o u g h d o o r - t o - d o o r i n f o r m a t i o n f l y e r s a l e r t i n g them t o t h e c u r r e n t d e b a t e and a p e t i t i o n c ampaign w h i c h s o u g h t t o i l l u s t r a t e w i d e - r a n g i n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e T e r r a Nova L a n d s . I t was t h e S.R.F.A. B o a r d ' s i n t e n t i o n t h a t e v e r y o n e who s i g n e d a p e t i t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f T e r r a Nova, 43 w o u l d be f u l l y aware o f t h e o n - g o i n g d e b a t e and would be a b l e t o d i s c u s s t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n an i n f o r m e d manner. The e f f o r t s o f t h e S o c i e t y t o p r e s e r v e f a r m l a n d g a i n e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h g r o u p s s u c h as t h e S i e r r a C l u b and t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law A s s o c i a t i o n o f f e r e d l i t t l e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , t h e i r m o r a l s u p p o r t i n c r e a s e d t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e S o c i e t y ' s c a u s e . In s p i t e o f s e e m i n g l y o v e r w h e l m i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e r e d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e T e r r a Nova Lands i n t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , t h e P l a n , Bylaw 4700, was a d o p t e d , by a f i v e t o f o u r v o t e o f t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , w i t h t h e T e r r a Nova Lands d e s i g n a t e d as " r e s i d e n t i a l r e s e r v e " i n December 1986. A l t h o u g h s m a l l p o c k e t s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n a t e d f o r " r e s i d e n t i a l r e s e r v e " i n t h e d r a f t p l a n , were r e t a i n e d as a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t h e f i n a l P l a n , t h e P l a n was p a s s e d v i r t u a l l y u n a l t e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l d e s i g n a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . W i t h t h e O.C.P. i n p l a c e and t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r o p o s a l t o s u b m i t a b l o c k a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e A.L.C. c o m p l e t e d , i n J a n u a r y o f 1987 Richmond C o u n c i l f o r m a l l y s u b m i t t e d a b l o c k a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e e x c l u s i o n o f s e v e n s e p a r a t e p a r c e l s o f l a n d , one o f w h i c h was t h e T e r r a Nova s i t e . Under S e c t i o n 11 o f t h e A.L.C. A c t , l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s c a n make a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n f o r b l o c k e x c l u s i o n s . U n l i k e i n d i v i d u a l a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e x c l u s i o n where t h e Comm i s s i o n a c t s as t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r , i n t h e c a s e o f b l o c k a p p l i c a t i o n s t h e Co m m i s s i o n m e r e l y p l a y s an a d v i s o r y r o l e and f o r w a r d s t h e 44 a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h t h e i r comments t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e and t h e P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t . The s e v e n l a n d a r e a s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n f o r e x c l u s i o n c o v e r e d e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same l a n d a r e a s t h a t were r e d e s i g n a t e d f r o m a g r i c u l t u r a l t o r e s i d e n t i a l r e s e r v e i n Richmond's O.C.P. and were t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e O.C.P. p r e p a r a t i o n by t h e C o m m i s s i o n i n t h e i r r e v i e w . A f t e r s t u d y i n g Richmond's a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e x c l u s i o n , t h e C o m m i s s i o n a g r e e d w i t h t h e T o w n s h i p on t h e e x c l u s i o n o f f o u r o f t h e s e v e n p a r c e l s . However, t h e C o m m i s s i o n recommended t o C a b i n e t t h a t t h r e e o f t h e p a r c e l s , one o f w h i c h was t h e T e r r a Nova s i t e , n o t be e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e L a n d R e s e r v e . The C o m m i s s i o n c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d an i s s u e t h a t went f a r b eyond t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e v e n a r e a s s u b m i t t e d f o r e x c l u s i o n . They e m p h a s i z e d t h a t u r b a n f o r c e s were p l a c i n g p r e s s u r e on an e s t i m a t e d 30% o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d c u r r e n t l y i n Richmond's A.L.R. and t h a t t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s would s i g n a l t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r u r b a n c o n v e r s i o n . F u r t h e r , t h e C o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t e d t o C a b i n e t t h a t " [ i ] t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e m a g n i t u d e o f p u b l i c i n p u t r e g a r d i n g t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n i s g r e a t e r t h a n any a p p l i c a t i o n d e a l t w i t h by t h e C o m m i s s i o n i n i t s n e a r l y 15 y e a r h i s t o r y " (A.L.C. F i l e No. 20796) . The a p p l i c a t i o n was s u b s e q u e n t l y p a s s e d o n t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t w h i c h a g r e e d w i t h a l l o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e T e r r a Nova s i t e . I n A u g u s t o f 1987, an o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l r e m o v i n g t h e 45 T e r r a Nova l a n d f r o m t h e A.L.R., as w e l l as f o u r o t h e r p a r c e l s a g r e e d upon by t h e Land C o m m i s s i o n , was s i g n e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t . The one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - f o u r a c r e s i t e o f t h e Q u i l c h e n a G o l f C o u r s e was n o t e x c l u d e d and remains" as p a r t o f t h e A.L.R. The r e m o v a l o f t h e l a n d s f r o m t h e R e s e r v e r e m a i n e d a h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e i n Richmond and t h e m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n i n t h e f a l l o f 1987 f o l l o w i n g t h e c a b i n e t o r d e r was f o u g h t , f o r t h e most p a r t , as a s i n g l e i s s u e c a mpaign: on t h e b a s i s o f d e v e l o p m e n t o r n o n - d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T e r r a Nova L a n d s . The n i n e member c o u n c i l e l e c t e d i n November o f 1987 were s p l i t between f o u r C i v i c New D e m o c r a t s - t h e NDP - ("the l e f t " ) and f i v e Richmond I n d e p e n d e n t V o t e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n members - RIVA - ("the r i g h t " ) , i n c l u d i n g t h e Mayor. T h u s , t h e p o l i t i c a l l i n e s were drawn w i t h t h e f o u r C i v i c New D e m o c r a t s o p p o s e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e f i v e RIVA members o f c o u n c i l i n f a v o u r o f r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . 3 . 4 The R e z o n i n g P r o c e s s and t h e P u b l i c The T o w n s h i p o f Richmond employs t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o u n c i l -e n d o r s e d p o l i c i e s f o r r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The p o l i c y w h i c h i s u s e d depends upon t h e t y p e o f r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n . The f i r s t p o l i c y a p p l i e s t o a s i m p l e r e z o n i n g , where t h e o n l y r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i s a b y - l a w t o amend t h e T o w n s h i p ' s Z o n i n g Bylaw. An example w o u l d be t h e r e z o n i n g o f l a n d w i t h i n an i n d u s t r i a l w a r e h o u s i n g zone t o l i g h t m a n u f a c t u r i n g where t h e p o l i c i e s f o r t h e a r e a a r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and d e t a i l e d 46 s t u d i e s have p r e v i o u s l y been c o m p l e t e d . In t h i s c a s e , n o t i f i c a t i o n o f s u r r o u n d i n g p r o p e r t y owners i s g i v e n a c c o r d i n g t o t h a t s p e c i f i e d i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t and a p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s h e l d t o a l l o w f o r i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s t o be h e a r d . The s e c o n d p o l i c y a p p l i e s t o r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s made t o a l t e r l o t s i z e s i n e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . F o r a p p l i c a t i o n s l i k e t h e s e , p r i o r t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , t h e C o u n c i l p r o v i d e s t h e p a r a m e t e r s f o r t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t t o c o n d u c t a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t w o u l d be i m p a c t e d by a change i n l o t s i z e . The s t u d y t h a t i s c a r r i e d o u t i n c l u d e s a r e v i e w o f t h e c u r r e n t z o n i n g as i t a p p l i e s t o l o t s i z e and an i n v e n t o r y o f e x i s t i n g l o t s i z e s w i t h i n t h e a r e a . The s t u d y i s s u p p l e m e n t e d by p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s and s u r v e y s t h a t s o l i c i t o p i n i o n f r o m t h o s e who w o u l d be most a f f e c t e d . The s t u d y a r e a and b o u n d a r y where n o t i c e i s g i v e n t o t h e p u b l i c i s l a r g e r t h a n t h a t s p e c i f i e d i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . The t h i r d p o l i c y r e f e r s t o r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e c h a n g e s t o t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , i n a d d i t i o n t o n e c e s s a r y c h a n g e s t o t h e T o w n s h i p ' s Z o n i n g Bylaw. T h i s p o l i c y i n v o l v e s t h e p u b l i c most i n t e n s i v e l y . In t h i s c a s e , t h e a p p l i c a n t i s c h a r g e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i m p a c t s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t may have on s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . F u r t h e r , t h e a p p l i c a n t i s e n c o u r a g e d t o h o l d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s t o i n f o r m t h e p u b l i c o f t h e i r l a n d - u s e p l a n s and s o l i c i t p r e l i m i n a r y f e e d b a c k . T h i s p r o c e s s i s m o n i t o r e d by t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t w h i c h may a l s o c o n d u c t m u n i c i p a l l y s p o n s o r e d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s b e f o r e s u b m i t t i n g a r e p o r t 47 on b o t h t h e p r o c e s s and r e s u l t s t o t h e P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t S e r v i c e s Committee o f C o u n c i l , w h i c h i s t h e n f o r w a r d e d t o t h e C o u n c i l p r i o r t o p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . The T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d u n d e r t h i s l a t t e r p o l i c y s i n c e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n would n e c e s s i t a t e a change t o t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n amending t h e l a n d s ' d e s i g n a t i o n as " r e s i d e n t i a l r e s e r v e " i n t h e O.C.P. t o " r e s i d e n t i a l " w h i c h w o u l d p e r m i t c o n s t r u c t i o n . I n O c t o b e r o f 1987, t h e c o n s o r t i u m o f d e v e l o p e r s known as t h e T e r r a Nova Group, w h i c h owned between them 212 a c r e s o f t h e 320 a c r e T e r r a Nova s i t e zoned r e s i d e n t i a l r e s e r v e , began t h e p r o c e s s t o r e z o n e t h e l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . A n o t i c e was p l a c e d by t h e c o n s o r t i u m i n t h e l o c a l Richmond p a p e r , The  Richmond T i m e s , i n v i t i n g Richmond r e s i d e n t s t o an open house s p o n s o r e d by t h e d e v e l o p e r h e l d on t h r e e s e p a r a t e d a y s w i t h a f t e r n o o n and e v e n i n g h o u r s . The n o t i c e e x p l a i n e d t h e i r i n t e n t i o n t o d e v e l o p t h e l a n d and o u t l i n e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n c o n c e p t s . A s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l s o a t t a c h e d w h i c h s o l i c i t e d o p i n i o n s f r o m t h e p u b l i c . A t t h e open house d i s p l a y s s h o w i n g t h e c o n c e p t and p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n s were a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c v i e w i n g . I n J a n u a r y 1988, t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T e r r a Nova s i t e was p u r s u e d . A r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n was r e c e i v e d by t h e T o wnship f r o m t h e T e r r a Nova Group and P l a n n i n g s t a f f were d i r e c t e d by t h e P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t S e r v i c e s Committee o f C o u n c i l t o work w i t h t h e T e r r a Nova Group t o d e v e l o p a community p l a n f o r t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d . W o r k i n g w i t h t h e d e v e l o p e r s and t h e i r 48 c o n s u l t a n t s , t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e p l a n . T h r o u g h o u t t h e n e x t f o u r months, v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g P l a n n i n g , E n g i n e e r i n g , L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s , E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h , as w e l l as t h e S c h o o l B o a r d , met w i t h t h e d e v e l o p e r s and t h e i r c o n s u l t a n t s t o d i s c u s s s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a n . The f i n a l d r a f t o f t h e T e r r a Nova S u b - A r e a P l a n was c o m p l e t e d i n A p r i l and s u b m i t t e d t o t h e A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n and t h e P l a n n i n g and D e velopment S e r v i c e s Committee o f C o u n c i l . The s u b - d i v i s i o n p l a n was s u b s e q u e n t l y e n d o r s e d by b o t h C ommittees and p a s s e d on f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . To p r o c e s s t h e r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n , two b y - l a w s were n e c e s s a r y , one t o amend t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , By-law No. 5110 - t h e T e r r a Nova S u b - A r e a P l a n - r e d e s i g n a t i n g t h e l a n d s f r o m r e s i d e n t i a l r e s e r v e t o r e s i d e n t i a l - and t h e s e c o n d , B y-law No. 5115, t o amend t h e Z o n i n g B y -law t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e v i s e d O.C.P. and p e r m i t r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . F i r s t r e a d i n g o f t h e s e two b y - l a w s was g i v e n on A p r i l 26, 1988 by t h e Richmond C o u n c i l and were p a s s e d on t o a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , w h i c h began May 17, 1988 r a n f o r f o r t y -s e v e n h o u r s , o v e r e l e v e n e v e n i n g s . O ver 100 s p e a k e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d and f i v e v olumes o f m i n u t e s were r e c o r d e d i n c l u d i n g 229 w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s . W i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , t h e s p e a k e r s were o p p o s e d t o t h e r e z o n i n g o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s t h a t w o u l d p e r m i t r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . On t h e w h o l e , t h o s e t h a t spoke n o t 49 o n l y s t a t e d t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s b u t e x p r e s s e d t h e i r r e a s o n s and o f f e r e d w e l l - t h o u g h t s u g g e s t i o n s i n an a t t e m p t t o prompt a r e -c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i s s u e s by p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e T e r r a Nova p r o j e c t . A f t e r t h e l o n g e s t r u n n i n g p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i n Richmond's h i s t o r y , t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l gave f i n a l r e a d i n g t o t h e two by-l a w s , t h e f i r s t t o amend t h e O.C.P. and t h e s e c o n d t o r e z o n e t h e T e r r a Nova L a n d s t o p e r m i t r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i n J une 1988. However, t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were n o t w i t h o u t c o n t r o v e r s y and s e v e r a l c o u r t c h a l l e n g e s were l a u n c h e d by t h e Save t h e Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o have t h e b y - l a w s i n v a l i d a t e d . The S.R.F.S. c h a l l e n g e d t h e a d o p t i o n i n 19-86 o f t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n d e s i g n a t i n g t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s as r e s i d e n t i a l r e s e r v e . The O.C.P. was c h a l l e n g e d on t h e b a s i s o f O l g a I l l i c h ' s p o s i t i o n as t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n w h i l e V i c e P r e s i d e n t o f Land D e v e l o p m e n t f o r P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e l e a d d e v e l o p e r i n t h e T e r r a Nova Group. The S o c i e t y a l s o c h a l l e n g e d t h e o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l s i g n e d i n 1987 r e l e a s i n g t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s f r o m t h e A.L.R. A t t h e same t i m e , t h e S o c i e t y c h a l l e n g e d t h e O.C.P. and z o n i n g amendment b y - l a w s c i t i n g p r o c e d u r a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n v o l v i n g m i n o r d e f e c t s i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g n o t i c e s t h a t a p p e a r e d i n t h e newspaper announcements. On December 3, 1988 t h e Supreme C o u r t o f B.C. u p h e l d b o t h Richmond's O f f i c i a l Community P l a n and t h e o r d e r e x c l u d i n g T e r r a Nova f r o m t h e A.L.R., a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e T o wnship t h a t t h e l a n d s 50 were p r o p e r l y removed f r o m t h e A.L.R. and r e d e s i g n a t e d . However, t h e two b y - l a w s , w h i c h had gone b e f o r e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and had been g i v e n f i n a l r e a d i n g were q u a s h e d due t o t h e p r o c e d u r a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . In l i g h t o f t h e c o u r t r u l i n g , t h e b y - l a w t o r e z o n e t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s was i n t r o d u c e d , n o t as t h e T e r r a Nova S u b - A r e a P l a n , b u t r a t h e r as p a r t o f Richmond's r e c e n t l y r e v i s e d C o m p r e h e n s i v e Z o n i n g By-law, By-law 5300. A t t h e same t i m e t h e O.C.P. Bylaw, p a s s e d i n 1986, was r e p e a l e d i n a n o t h e r b y l a w t o l a t e r be r e -e n a c t e d , w i t h t h e T e r r a Nova amendment, i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c h a n g e s t o t h e C o m p r e h e n s i v e Z o n i n g Bylaw. P u b l i c h e a r i n g s were s c h e d u l e d , b e g i n n i n g on December 1 9 t h , 1988, t o c o n s i d e r t h e new z o n i n g b y - l a w o f w h i c h t h e T e r r a Nova p l a n was one p a r t . The s e c o n d s e t o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c o n d u c t e d on t h e r e v i s e d b y l a w were c o m p l e t e d i n f o u r weeks o v e r t w e l v e e v e n i n g s i n December 1988 and J a n u a r y 1989. These h e a r i n g s i n c l u d e d f i f t y -s e v e n h o u r s o f p r o c e e d i n g s , p r o d u c e d f o u r more volumes o f m i n u t e s , and s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d pages o f t r a n s c r i p t s and w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s . T h e s e h e a r i n g s , , l i k e t h o s e i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1988 , were r i d d l e d w i t h c o n t r o v e r s y and. e v e n t u a l l y prompted a n o t h e r c o u r t c h a l l e n g e . T h i s c o u r t c h a l l e n g e by t h e Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y c e n t e r e d a r o u n d a s t a t e m e n t made by A l d e r m a n Hugh Mawby r e g a r d i n g h i s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n i n f a v o u r o f d e v e l o p m e n t p r i o r t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . A l d e r m a n Mawby i s r e p o r t e d t o have s t a t e d t h a t he would n o t a l t e r h i s p o s i t i o n f a v o u r i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e 51 outcome o f t h e h e a r i n g s . The Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y c h a l l e n g e d A l d e r m a n Mawby 1s r i g h t t o v o t e as an u n b i a s e d d e c i s i o n - m a k e r , g i v e n t h a t when he had made h i s s t a t e m e n t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e e d i n g s had n o t been c o m p l e t e d . The B.C. C o u r t s , however, r u l e d t h a t A l d e r m a n Mawby was e n t i t l e d t o v o t e on t h e T e r r a Nova B y - l a w s . As a r e s u l t , f i n a l a p p r o v a l was g i v e n t o t h e B y -law by a f i v e t o f o u r v o t e i n f a v o u r by C o u n c i l on F e b r u a r y 14, 1989. The F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y , n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e r u l i n g , p u r s u e d c o u r t a c t i o n by a p p e a l i n g t h e l o w e r c o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f Canada. The S o c i e t y ' s l a w y e r , Thomas B e r g e r , c h a r g e d t h a t Mawby's s t a t e m e n t f o r m e d an " a p p r e h e n s i o n o f b i a s " on h i s p a r t and on t h i s b a s i s t h e b y - l a w s s h o u l d be d e c l a r e d i n v a l i d . The Supreme C o u r t o f Canada r u l e d , i n December 1989, t h a t i t w o u l d h e a r t h e c a s e o f Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y v e r s u s t h e T o w n s h i p o f Richmond and A l d e r m a n Hugh Mawby. On A u g u s t 16, 1990 t h e Supreme C o u r t handed down a r u l i n g a g r e e i n g w i t h B.C.'s two l o w e r c o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n s t h a t a l l o w e d A l d e r m a n Hugh Mawby t o v o t e on t h e z o n i n g b y - l a w w h i c h p e r m i t t e d r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n on t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . The C o u r t r e j e c t e d t h e arguments f r o m t h e Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y t h a t A l d e r m a n Mawby s h o u l d n o t have been p e r m i t t e d t o v o t e on t h e b y - l a w g i v e n h i s p r o -d e v e l o p m e n t s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h were made p r e c e d i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . The f u t u r e o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s had been d e t e r m i n e d . 52 C h a p t e r F o u r : An A n a l y s i s o f T e r r a Nova's P u b l i c H e a r i n g P r o c e s s  4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r i s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e r e z o n i n g o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . The b a s i s f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s i s t h e r e s e a r c h d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m t w e l v e i n t e r v i e w s u s i n g , i n e l e v e n o f t h e t w e l v e c a s e s , a p r e - d e s i g n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p r o a c h . T h e s e i n t e r v i e w s i n c l u d e d members o f e a c h o f t h e g r o u p s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g h e a r i n g s : m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s ( i n c l u d i n g p l a n n e r s ) , c o u n c i l members, members o f t h e p u b l i c , and a member o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t community. The framework f o r t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i s d e r i v e d f r o m M a r g a r e t S i n c l a i r ' s a d a p t a t i o n o f a framework f o r e v a l u a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s d e v e l o p e d by G l a s s e r , Manty and Nehman. T h i s framework was i n t r o d u c e d i n C h a p t e r Two and e v a l u a t e s t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s a c c o r d i n g t o s i x c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s i x p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l o u t l i n e t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n c e r n i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , o r s u g g e s t i o n s on how t o im p r o v e t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n r o l e i n l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g , as s e e n t h r o u g h t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s a n a l y s i s t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l o u t l i n e b o t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s as w e l l as a t t e m p t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s r e z o n i n g 'and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a n d - u s e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . 53 4 . 2 A n a l y s i s : C o m m u n i c a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The s i x c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e : d e g r e e o f p u b l i c c o n t a c t a c h i e v e d , d e g r e e o f i m p a c t on d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , d e g r e e o f u s e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , e a s e o f use and p r e p a r a t i o n , a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d t o v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s , and d e g r e e o f two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be d e t a i l e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . T h o s e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were a s k e d t w e n t y - o n e q u e s t i o n s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . The f o l l o w i n g i s an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e r e s p o n s e s f r om t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and r e p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s b a s e d on t h e f r a mework's c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 4 . 2 . 1 D e g r e e o f . P u b l i c C o n t a c t A c h i e v e d The d e g r e e o f p u b l i c c o n t a c t a c h i e v e d r e f e r s t o t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , i n t h i s c a s e t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g , t o r e a c h a l a r g e a u d i e n c e . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e number o f p e o p l e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e a t t r a c t s , t h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l s o i m p l i e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b o t h t h e t i m i n g and t y p e o f n o t i f i c a t i o n t h a t was g i v e n i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t t h e p u b l i c . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h e need f o r a commitment on t h e p a r t o f t h e government t o i n f o r m t h e p u b l i c o f upcoming i s s u e s p u t f o r w a r d t o p u b l i c h e a r i n g , and a t t h e same t i m e , a commitment on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c t o become i n f o r m e d o f t h e i s s u e s . 54 F i n a l l y , t h e d e g r e e o f p u b l i c c o n t a c t a c h i e v e d i s an a s s e s s m e n t o f how w e l l t h o s e t h a t a t t e n d e d t h e h e a r i n g s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r number, d e f i n e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e w i d e r community. I n o t h e r words, t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f t h e p u b l i c t h a t a t t e n d e d t h e h e a r i n g s and p r e s e n t e d s u b m i s s i o n s . T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e a u d i e n c e . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , s u r p a s s e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f D e l t a ' s p u b l i c h e a r i n g s f o r t h e S p e t i f o r e L a n d s , Richmond's T e r r a Nova h e a r i n g s were t h e l o n g e s t r u n n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g h i s t o r y . F o r c o n s e c u t i v e n i g h t s , t h e c o u n c i l chambers, w h i c h c o m f o r t a b l y h o l d s e i g h t y v i s i t o r s , o v e r f l o w e d w i t h members o f t h e p u b l i c . E x t r a c h a i r s were s e t up i n t h e a d j a c e n t h a l l w a y s and t h e m u n i c i p a l c a f e t e r i a t o accommodate t h e l a r g e numbers t h a t had come t o a t t e n d t h e h e a r i n g s . Two t e l e v i s i o n m o n i t o r s were i n s t a l l e d t o a l l o w t h e o v e r f l o w crowd t o f o l l o w t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . The l a r g e s t crowd i n Richmond's p u b l i c h e a r i n g h i s t o r y g e n e r a t e d , o v e r t h e two s e r i e s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , n i n e volumes o f m i n u t e s and h u n d r e d s o f o r a l and w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s . I n d e e d , a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d a g r e e d t h a t t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e a u d i e n c e b o t h o f Richmond r e s i d e n t s and p e o p l e f r o m o u t s i d e t h e T o w n s h i p . N o t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g by t h e To w n s h i p was l i m i t e d t o t h e announcements t h a t were l e g a l l y . r e q u i r e d by t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . S e c t i o n 9 5 7 ( 2 ) ( b ) o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t s t a t e s t h a t n o t i c e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s h a l l "be p u b l i s h e d i n n o t l e s s t h a n 2 c o n s e c u t i v e i s s u e s o f a newspaper c i r c u l a t i n g a t l e a s t 55 t w i c e w e e k l y , i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . . . " (R.S.B.C. C h . 2 9 0 ) . T h i s announcement amounts t o a f o r m a l , l e g a l , a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f t h e h e a r i n g , p l a c e d . i n t h e l e g a l , c l a s s i f i e d s e c t i o n o f t h e l o c a l n ewspaper, The Richmond Review. W r i t t e n n o t i f i c a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t , was a l s o d e l i v e r e d t o p r o p e r t y owners a d j a c e n t t o t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . The M u n i c i p a l C l e r k a d m i t t e d t h a t n o t i f i c a t i o n was t h e " b a r e b o n e s " b u t t h a t t h e n o t i c e s p r o v i d e d b o t h a summary o f t h e p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t and a m u n i c i p a l number t o c a l l f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e r e was t r e m endous d i s a g r e e m e n t among p a r t i c i p a n t s as t o how w e l l t h e a d v e r t i s i n g f o r t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g was c a r r i e d o u t . The p u b l i c f e l t t h e h e a r i n g s were v e r y p o o r l y a d v e r t i s e d w i t h o n l y a f o r m a l , l e g a l announcement i n t h e l o c a l p a p e r ' s c l a s s i f i e d s e c t i o n - a p a p e r n o t e v e r y o n e s u b s c r i b e s t o - and p l a c e m e n t and w o r d i n g w h i c h w o u l d n e c e s s i t a t e t h a t a member o f t h e p u b l i c w o u l d have t o be l o o k i n g f o r t h e announcement i n o r d e r t o f i n d i t . However, s e v e r a l members of t h e p u b l i c s p e c i f i e d t h a t t h e h e a r i n g s were w e l l a d v e r t i s e d , n o t by t h e T o w n s h i p , b u t by t h e Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y whose members a c t i v e l y a d v e r t i s e d t h e h e a r i n g s t h r o u g h d o o r - t o - d o o r and phone campaigns and t h e p l a c e m e n t o f l a r g e , hand-made s i g n s on Richmond r o a d - w a y s . I n d e e d , t h e a d v e r t i s i n g campaign by t h e F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y must have been v e r y e f f e c t i v e s i n c e i t prompted one p r o - d e v e l o p m e n t c o u n c i l member t o comment t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were w e l l a d v e r t i z e d b e c a u s e t h e F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y had. p l a s t e r e d s i g n s a l l o v e r Richmond! In o t h e r words, t h i s s t a t e m e n t s u g g e s t s an a d m i s s i o n t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were p o o r l y a d v e r t i s e d by t h e 56 T o w n s h i p and t h a t t h e p u b l i c had t o a d v e r t i s e t h e h e a r i n g s t h e m s e l v e s . A t v e r y l e a s t , t h i s s t a t e m e n t i g n o r e s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s l i e s w i t h t h e T o w n s h i p . I n d e e d , t h e M u n i c i p a l C l e r k a d m i t t e d t h a t i t was t h e d u t y o f t h e To w n s h i p t o i n f o r m t h e p u b l i c b u t t h a t i t depended on t h e p o l i t i c a l w i l l o f t h e c o u n c i l r e g a r d i n g t o what e x t e n t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y would a d v e r t i s e . However, once t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s became news, wide media c o v e r a g e - i t made t h e h e a d l i n e o f t h e l o c a l p a p e r f o r s e v e r a l weeks - a l s o s e r v e d t o g u a r a n t e e t h a t a wide a u d i e n c e was r e a c h e d . F i n a l l y , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e p u b l i c w h i c h a t t e n d e d t h e h e a r i n g s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e g r e a t e r Richmond community must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . G e n e r a l l y , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d were s p l i t between p r o p o n e n t s and o p p o n e n t s o f t h e T e r r a Nova d e v e l o p m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s t h a t was a c h i e v e d by t h e p u b l i c . The o p p o n e n t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t b e l i e v e d t h a t t h o s e who a t t e n d e d t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f Richmond and e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Richmond r e s i d e n t s , w h i l e p r o p o n e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made were n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e w i d e r community. B o t h s i d e s i n t h e d e b a t e u s e d t h e i s s u e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n - o r t h e l a c k o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n - as f u r t h e r s u p p o r t o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n . And, i n d e e d , t h i s i s s u e s e r v e d t o f u r t h e r e n t r e n c h p e o p l e i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . S e v e r a l c o u n c i l members, i n p a r t i c u l a r , s t a t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were s t a c k e d by t h o s e b i a s e d a g a i n s t d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h a t o t h e r members o f t h e p u b l i c were t o o i n t i m i d a t e d t o a t t e n d t h e h e a r i n g s 57 and make s t a t e m e n t s i n f a v o u r o f d e v e l o p m e n t . The a t t e n d a n c e o f t h o s e s u p p o r t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i s a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e d by one o f t h e members o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r v i e w e d who a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a t t r a c t e d t h e p r o - d e v e l o p m e n t community b u t t h a t t h e y c h o s e n o t t o speak a t t h e h e a r i n g s . S h o r t o f p o l l i n g t h e e n t i r e community by v o t e on t h e i r p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , t o d e t e r m i n e w i t h c e r t a i n t y , i f t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o d e v e l o p m e n t e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f t h e l a r g e r Richmond community. P e r h a p s t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c a n n o t be answered by t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . The M u n i c i p a l C l e r k commented t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e p o l i t i c a l t e s t would, be a r e f e r e n d u m and t h a t c o u n c i l s a r e n a t u r a l l y r e l u c t a n t t o c a l l them b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n as t h e p e o p l e ' s c h o s e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The p r o b l e m o f a c h i e v i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a u d i e n c e s h o u l d n o t be s e e n as an i s o l a t e d f a i l u r e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s s i n c e i t i s a p r o b l e m i n h e r e n t i n a l l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods. I n d e e d , t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v e r s u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n n o t be answered by d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y s i n c e t h i s f o r m s t h e b a s i s o f t h e r a g i n g d e b a t e among d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i s t s . 4 . 2 . 2 Degree o f Impact on D e c i s i o n - m a k e r s The d e g r e e o f i m p a c t on d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s r e f e r s t o t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e had on t h o s e c h a r g e d w i t h t h e d u t y t o make t h e - f i n a l d e c i s i o n . In t h i s c a s e , t h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e f e r s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e s u b m i s s i o n s a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g , b o t h o r a l and w r i t t e n , had on Richmond's m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l members. 58 U l t i m a t e l y , t h e d e g r e e o f i m p a c t on d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s c a n be s e e n as t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s u b m i s s i o n s made a t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , i n o t h e r words, t h e e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c , and t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n t h a t was made. T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , between p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n , h i g h l i g h t s t h e dilemma o f e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s when t h e r e i s o p p o s i t i o n t o a p r o p o s a l , w h i c h i s t o v o t e e i t h e r i n t h e l o n g - t e r m b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p u b l i c , o r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i s h e s e x p r e s s e d by t h e p u b l i c . T h i s dilemma i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e d i f f i c u l t y , d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , i n d e t e r m i n i n g i f t h o s e t h a t a t t e n d e d t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e m a j o r i t y o r m i n o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . A l l o f t h e members o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r v i e w e d f e l t t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n s o f c o u n c i l members, n o r d i d t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y - a l o c a l , v o c a l a d v o c a c y g r o u p - have an i m p a c t on t h e d e c i s i o n s made by i n d i v i d u a l c o u n c i l members. The p u b l i c ' s p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e on d e c i s i o n s and t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i m p l i e s t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r a c t i o n s ( e . g . p e t i t i o n c a m p a i g n s , s t r o n g a t t e n d a n c e a t h e a r i n g s , r e s p o n s e s f r o m s e n i o r l e v e l s o f government and n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s ) , t h e p u b l i c ' s i n f l u e n c e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s v i r t u a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e , l i m i t e d t o making s p e e c h e s and r a i s i n g t h e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The r e s u l t i n g m e s s a g e . t h a t i s s e n t t o t h e p u b l i c i s t h a t t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a f f o r d e d t o t h e p u b l i c i s t h e i r c h o i c e e x e r c i s e d on e l e c t i o n day. However, t h i s a s s e s s m e n t o f p u b l i c i n f l u e n c e o v e r d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , by t h e 59 p u b l i c members i n t e r v i e w e d , d i f f e r s f r o m t h e a s s e s s m e n t made by c o u n c i l - m e m b e r s . A l t h o u g h members o f c o u n c i l were s p l i t on w h e t h e r t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n , and, w h e t h e r t h e F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y made an i m p a c t on t h e i r d e c i s i o n , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e y were n o t s p l i t a l o n g p a r t y l i n e s , o r i n o t h e r words, t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n f a v o u r o r o p p o s e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t . A t t h e v e r y l e a s t , t h i s s p l i t s u g g e s t s t h a t more c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o p u b l i c i n p u t by t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t h a n may be p e r c e i v e d by members o f t h e p u b l i c . I n d e e d , s e v e r a l members o f c o u n c i l s p e c i f i c a l l y commented t h a t d u r i n g p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t h e y do l i s t e n t o what t h e p u b l i c has t o say and t h a t i t does i m p a c t t h e i r d e c i s i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p u b l i c ' s s u b m i s s i o n s and t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d by a r e v i e w o f t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e n e u t r a l i t y o f t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l p r i o r t o t h e commencement o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . A l l o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d d i s a g r e e d t h a t t h e c o u n c i l was a n e u t r a l body. I n o t h e r words, t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d b e l i e v e d t h a t b i a s b o t h p r e - d i s p o s e d f o r and a g a i n s t d e v e l o p m e n t e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e h e a r i n g s were c o n d u c t e d . I n d e e d , t h e 1987 m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n had l a r g e l y been f o u g h t on t h e T e r r a Nova i s s u e and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was w e l l known b e f o r e t h e h e a r i n g s t h a t f o u r c o u n c i l members were o p p o s e d t o and f i v e c o u n c i l members were i n f a v o u r o f d e v e l o p m e n t . The M u n i c i p a l C l e r k s t a t e d , t h a t p a r t o f what made t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s u n i q u e among h e a r i n g s was t h e p r e -d e t e r m i n e d v o t i n g p a t t e r n o f t h e c o u n c i l members. A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , when t h e f i n a l v o t e 60 was t a k e n , t h e s p l i t on c o u n c i l r e m a i n e d t h e same as i t had been a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e e l e c t i o n : f o u r o p p o s e d and f i v e i n f a v o u r o f d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s u p p o r t s th e c o n t e n t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r v i e w e d t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h r o u g h p u b l i c h e a r i n g s u b m i s s i o n s - a t l e a s t i n t h e T e r r a Nova c a s e - p l a y e d no r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n o f c o u n c i l members. However, t h i s must be s e e n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y and C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e . Knowing t h e p o s i t i o n o f p o l i t i c i a n s on v a r i o u s p o l i c y m a t t e r s p r i o r t o e l e c t i o n s i s g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as one o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e . And, s i n c e r e z o n i n g i s s u e s a r e p o l i c y i s s u e s t h e y become p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s and must become p a r t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l agenda o f any m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . I n f a c t , one c o u n c i l member commented t h a t no one i s n e u t r a l i n m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s and, i n d e e d , t h a t no one s h o u l d be! The f i n a l f i v e t o f o u r d e c i s i o n o f c o u n c i l i n d i c a t e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n s made by c o u n c i l members c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f t h o s e a t t e n d i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . Of c o u r s e , t h o s e i n f a v o u r o f d e v e l o p m e n t on c o u n c i l d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s u b m i s s i o n s e x p r e s s e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n and t h o s e on c o u n c i l a g a i n s t d e v e l o p m e n t b e l i e v e d t h o s e who spoke r e p r e s e n t e d t h e m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n . The end r e s u l t a f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g must, i n p a r t , be c o n s i d e r e d as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f , i n w h i c h t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g i s s u e was a d d r e s s e d s t r i c t l y as a y e s o r no p r o p o s i t i o n . I n o t h e r words, t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s p r o v i d e d no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e 61 p u b l i c t o i n f l u e n c e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a n , o r v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s o r t o h i g h l i g h t c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e p l a n , b e f o r e t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n was made. T h i s a l s o may s u g g e s t t h a t t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as a means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n came t o o l a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o a l l o w an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p u b l i c t o i n f l u e n c e t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n o r v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a n . I n t h e c a s e o f T e r r a Nova, i t has been shown t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s came a f t e r t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s a l r e a d y had a f i r m o p i n i o n . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d were d i v i d e d on how d e c i s i o n -makers s h o u l d s o l v e t h e dilemma o f how t o v o t e as e i t h e r p u b l i c t r u s t e e s - i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p u b l i c - o r as p u b l i c d e p u t i e s - i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p u b l i c . N a t u r a l l y , g i v e n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s , a l l o f t h e members o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r v i e w e d b e l i e v e d c o u n c i l members s h o u l d have assumed t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made d u r i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g r e a t e r Richmond community and s h o u l d have v o t e d as p u b l i c d e p u t i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p u b l i c . However, t h e m a j o r i t y o f o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d , i n c l u d i n g p l a n n e r s , t h e M u n i c i p a l C l e r k , and c o u n c i l members o f b o t h p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , d i s a g r e e d . T h i s s p l i t between p u b l i c o p i n i o n and t h e o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s s u g g e s t s t h a t two c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e r o l e t h e p u b l i c p l a y s , o r s h o u l d p l a y , i n t h e p l a n n i n g / d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e x i s t s among t h o s e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . The p u b l i c b e l i e v e s t h e y s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n made, and t h a t 62 u l t i m a t e l y t h e i r w i l l s h o u l d p r e v a i l i n t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n . O t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p e a r t o see p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as one a s p e c t o f t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , b u t t h a t u l t i m a t e l y , b e c a u s e t h e m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m o f d e c i s i o n -making i s b a s e d on a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m ocracy e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s h o u l d r e n d e r f i n a l d e c i s i o n s . 4.2 .3 Degree o f U s e r S o p h i s t i c a t i o n The d e g r e e o f u s e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e l e v e l o f k n o w l e d g e , e d u c a t i o n , o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i s r e q u i r e d by t h e p u b l i c i n o r d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n a s s e s s i n g t h e knowledge r e q u i r e d by t h e p u b l i c , t h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a l s o an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e k i n d o f , and manner i n w h i c h , i n f o r m a t i o n was p a s s e d o n t o t h e p u b l i c . I n t h i s c a s e s t u d y , t h e r e a r e two a s p e c t s o f u s e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t o be c o n s i d e r e d . The f i r s t a s p e c t c o n c e r n s t h e knowledge t h a t was r e q u i r e d by t h e p u b l i c i n o r d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f . The s e c o n d a s p e c t c o n c e r n s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p u b l i c r e g a r d i n g t h e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s and c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e p l a n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e d e g r e e o f u s e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s an a s s e s s m e n t o f how w e l l t h e p u b l i c was i n f o r m e d on how t h e y c o u l d g e t i n v o l v e d and how w e l l t h e p u b l i c was i n f o r m e d by t h e T o w n s h i p a b o u t t h e terms o f t h e p l a n i t s e l f . The d e g r e e o f u s e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n does n o t r e f e r t o t h e f o r m a l , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . A l t h o u g h some v e r y t e c h n i c a l r e p o r t s were p r e s e n t e d by s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s as w i l d l i f e e x p e r t s , a c c o u n t a n t s , and e n g i n e e r s , i t i s n o t g e n e r a l l y 63 c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o be e x p e r t s i n o r d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . The members o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y were n o t w e l l - i n f o r m e d o f t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e , o r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e T e r r a Nova d e v e l o p m e n t i t s e l f . However, t h e s e same r e s p o n d e n t s tempered t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t due t o t h e l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d f r e e l y by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and d e v e l o p m e n t g r o u p , t h e y were f o r c e d t o i n f o r m t h e m s e l v e s on how t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s . T h e s e r e s p o n s e s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e r e s p o n s e s g i v e n by t h e p u b l i c t o q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e a d e q u a c y o f n o t i f i c a t i o n o f h e a r i n g s . (The members o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r v i e w e d s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were o n l y w e l l -i n f o r m e d o f t h e h e a r i n g s b e c a u s e t h e y worked a t b e c o m i n g i n f o r m e d . ) O v e r a l l , t h i s s u g g e s t s a p r o b l e m w i t h t h e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e T o w n s h i p t o t h e p u b l i c , o r a t v e r y l e a s t , a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t t h e T o w n s h i p was n o t as open as i t c o u l d have been w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p l a n o r p r o c e s s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , s e v e r a l o f t h e Richmond r e s i d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t t h e c o n f u s i o n on how t o g e t on t h e s p e a k e r ' s l i s t o r w h e t h e r w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s w o u l d be r e a d i n t o t h e p u b l i c r e c o r d a t t h e h e a r i n g s . The end r e s u l t o f a l l t h i s c o n f u s i o n was a f r u s t r a t e d p u b l i c who f e l t t h a t t h e y were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y b e i n g l e f t o u t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s - t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n goes beyond any f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r s e e m i n g l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e f i n a l . d e c i s i o n . 64 In c o n t r a s t , t h e members o f c o u n c i l i n f a v o u r o f d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t community a g r e e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c was w e l l - i n f o r m e d o f t h e p r o c e s s and p l a n , a l t h o u g h one c o u n c i l member l a m e n t e d t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e T o w n s h i p ' s e f f o r t s , t h e p u b l i c , i n g e n e r a l , f a i l e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The two members o f t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t were d i v i d e d on t h i s i s s u e w i t h one a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e p u b l i c and one a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e p r o - d e v e l o p m e n t c o u n c i l members. A l t h o u g h t h i s s p l i t c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d by d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s by two i n d i v i d u a l s who o b s e r v e d t h e same p r o c e s s , i t c o u l d a l s o i n d i c a t e c o n f u s i o n w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t c o n s i d e r e d how w e l l i n f o r m e d t h e p u b l i c was and t h a t t h e r e may be d i s a g r e e m e n t o v e r how w e l l - i n f o r m e d t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be o f t h e p l a n s and p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n has some i m p l i c a t i o n f o r p l a n n e r s g i v e n t h a t i t i s g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d t o be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p l a n n e r s t o keep t h e p u b l i c i n f o r m e d and e n c o u r a g e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s and t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . I n d e e d , one p l a n n e r commented t h a t b e t t e r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l o n l y happen t h r o u g h e d u c a t i n g t h e p u b l i c a b o u t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and how t h e y c a n p a r t i c i p a t e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d were s p l i t i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n a s k i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p u b l i c needed t o be i n f o r m e d and e d u c a t e d i n o r d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s d i v i s i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e -issue r a i s e d p r e v i o u s l y r e g a r d i n g t h e d i s c r e p a n c y o f o p i n i o n o v e r how t h e p u b l i c became i n f o r m e d - t h r o u g h t h e i r own means o r a d e q u a t e l y t h r o u g h t h e T o w n s h i p ' s methods. Most o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s 65 e l a b o r a t e d on t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t a t i n g t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s a l l o w s r e l a t i v e l y e a s y p u b l i c a c c e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t t h e p u b l i c does r e q u i r e some i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e T o w n s h i p . F u r t h e r , s e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c need n o t be e d u c a t e d i n t h e f o r m a l s e n s e b u t e d u c a t e d on how t h e y c o u l d be i n v o l v e d and i n f o r m e d r e g a r d i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s . In f a c t , t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e S o c i e t y commented on t h e g r a s s - r o o t s n a t u r e o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n i n t h a t " a v e r a g e p e o p l e " came o u t t o v o i c e t h e i r p r o t e s t . 4 . 2 . 4 E a s e o f Use and P r e p a r a t i o n The e a s e o f use and p r e p a r a t i o n c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e f e r s t o t h e r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d by t h e p l a n n i n g / d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a u t h o r i t y t o use a p a r t i c u l a r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . In t h i s c a s e , t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e f e r s t o t h e e a s e o f u s i n g and p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s by Richmond's m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s and o t h e r o f f i c i a l s . The e a s e o f use and p r e p a r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s u l t i m a t e l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g as a p a r t i c i p a t o r y t e c h n i q u e b e c a u s e t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a n be s e e n as a measure o f t h e c o s t s v e r s u s t h e b e n e f i t s o f u s i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e q u i c k e s t and most c o n v e n i e n t ways t o h e a r from t h e p u b l i c . I t i s n o t i n o r d i n a t e l y c o s t l y i n terms o f t i m e and money i n c o m p a r i s o n t o a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n method s u c h as c i t i z e n - b a s e d p l a n n e r - s u p p o r t e d t a s k f o r c e s w h i c h demand b o t h r e s o u r c e s f r o m 66 p l a n n e r s and an enormous amount o f t i m e i n o r d e r t o e v o l v e s o l u t i o n s t o i s s u e s . However, g i v e n t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e o v e r w h i c h t h e h e a r i n g s were c o n d u c t e d (two s e t s o f h e a r i n g s t o t a l l i n g o v e r 100 h o u r s i n t w e n t y - t h r e e s e s s i o n s ) , t h e c o s t s g e n e r a t e d due t o t h e c o u r t c a s e s e t c . , as w e l l a s , t h e a n i m o s i t y t h a t was g e n e r a t e d o v e r t h e whole r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s , i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g r e m a i n s an e a s y t o use p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n method. T h i s a p p e a r s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t f o r l a r g e - s c a l e r e z o n i n g c a s e s l i k e T e r r a Nova. I n d e e d , a l l o f t h e c o u n c i l members i n t e r v i e w e d d i s a g r e e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g was a q u i c k and c o n v e n i e n t way t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g . In f a c t , s e v e r a l s t a t e m e n t s were made c o n c e r n i n g t h e t i m e and money t h a t was w a s t e d h o l d i n g p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o u n c i l , a t l e a s t , must b e l i e v e t h a t a l e s s c o s t l y and more b e n e f i c i a l means t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c , i n c a s e s l i k e T e r r a Nova, s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . S u r p r i s i n g l y , g i v e n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e p r o c e s s and t h e p l a n n i n g f o r T e r r a Nova, a l l o f t h e members o f t h e p u b l i c t h a t were i n t e r v i e w e d a g r e e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g was t h e most c o n v e n i e n t way t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c b u t t h a t t h e p r o c e s s was made cumbersome b e c a u s e o f t h e S o c i e t y ' s h i g h l y - o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n e f f o r t s . The r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s and comments r e c e i v e d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g may be an i n a p p r o p r i a t e f orum f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n when t h e i s s u e i n v o l v e s b r o a d p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s and e n t r e n c h e d , o f t e n e m o t i o n a l l y - c h a r g e d , o p i n i o n s . In o t h e r 67 words, a n a l y s i s o f t h e e a s e o f use and p r e p a r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f may n o t be f a u l t y b u t t h a t t h e i s s u e i n v o l v e d c r e a t e d a s i t u a t i o n whereby t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s was doomed t o be s e e n as f a u l t y , c r e a t i n g a c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l , no-win s i t u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e p u b l i c members i n t e r v i e w e d a g r e e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g was t h e most e f f e c t i v e way o f i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i n c o n t r a s t , t h e p l a n n e r s and t h r e e o f t h e f o u r c o u n c i l members i n t e r v i e w e d d i s a g r e e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g was t h e most e f f e c t i v e method t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c . T h i s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s and c o u n c i l members may s u p p o r t t h e i d e a o f f i n d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s o r a method o f e n h a n c i n g / s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s w i t h o t h e r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods. The p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y , however, commented t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g wrong w i t h t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , t h e p r o b l e m was w i t h t h e c o u n c i l t h a t d i s r e g a r d e d t h e s e n t i m e n t s e x p r e s s e d a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h o s e o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s i d e n t s o f Richmond. 4 . 2 . 5 A b i l i t y t o Respond t o V a r i e d I n t e r e s t s The a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d t o v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e f e r s t o t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e t o d e a l w i t h a r a n g e o f o p i n i o n o r a t t i t u d e . In t h i s c a s e s t u d y , i t r e f e r s t o t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y - ( i . e . , m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l members and p l a n n e r s ) t o accommodate t h e o p i n i o n s and i n t e r e s t s p r e s e n t e d d u r i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n method may be u s e d as a 68 means t o r e a c h c o n s e n s u s o r m e d i a t e t e rms o f d i s a g r e e m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h i s has n o t t r a d i t i o n a l l y been s e e n as t h e p u r p o s e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , i t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d however, t h a t t h e u n d e r l y i n g p u r p o s e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i s t o h e a r f r o m as many members o f t h e p u b l i c as p o s s i b l e w h i c h i n v i t e s c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s and a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t s . In t h e T e r r a Nova c a s e two a s p e c t s o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c must be c o n s i d e r e d . The f i r s t a s p e c t r e f e r s t o t h e c o u n c i l ' s a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h t h e v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s and c o n c e r n s r a i s e d d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s beyond t h e y e a h o r nay p r o p o s i t i o n . The s e c o n d a s p e c t i s t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c o u n c i l t o d e a l w i t h o p p o s i n g v i e w s - f o r o r a g a i n s t d e v e l o p m e n t . I f t h e s u b m i s s i o n s a r e v i e w e d i n a c o n t e x t beyond t h e f o r o r a g a i n s t camps, a l m o s t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s a g r e e d t h a t p e o p l e made p r e s e n t a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g a wide r a n g e o f community i n t e r e s t s . The v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t s h e a r d i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t f r o m t h e s u b m i s s i o n s , b o t h o r a l and w r i t t e n . F o r example, some o f t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d were t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f f a r m l a n d , t h e need f o r p a r k / o p e n s p a c e , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r e s e r v i n g a w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , t h e need f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n , t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n l a n d c l a i m s , as w e l l as t h e need f o r more h o u s i n g i n Richmond, t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c r e a t i n g R i chmond-based j o b s , i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n j o b s , and t h e i n c r e a s e d r e v e n u e t h a t w o u l d be g a i n e d f o r t h e T o w n s h i p ' s t a x b a s e . T h e r e was v i r t u a l l y no r e s p o n s e by t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l members, as a body, t o t h e v a r i e t y and r a n g e o f i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e p u b l i c a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s beyond r e c o r d i n g t h e 69 s u b m i s s i o n s i n t h e p u b l i c r e c o r d and a q u e s t i o n i n g o f s u b m i s s i o n s by i n d i v i d u a l c o u n c i l members. T h i s i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f s i n c e t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s n o t d e s i g n e d as a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n method t h a t e n a b l e s d e c i s i o n -makers t o d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h a v a r i e t y o f c o n c e r n s . To be f a i r , an o f f i c i a l m u n i c i p a l r e s p o n s e t o s e v e r a l o f t h e c o n c e r n s r a i s e d i n t h e s u b m i s s i o n s was c a r r i e d o u t . F o r example, when one member o f t h e p u b l i c p r e s e n t e d an e x t e n s i v e c r i t i q u e o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d y , w h i c h had been c o n d u c t e d by a c o n s u l t a n t on b e h a l f o f t h e d e v e l o p e r , numerous q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d a t a were r a i s e d . The m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l r e s p o n d e d by r e q u e s t i n g t h e T o w n s h i p ' s E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t t o p r e p a r e a r e p o r t r e v i e w i n g and commenting on t h e i s s u e s . A t a s u b s e q u e n t p u b l i c h e a r i n g , t h e E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t r e p o r t e d d i r e c t l y t o c o u n c i l r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p a c t s on Richmond road-ways o f t h e i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c t h a t w o u l d be g e n e r a t e d by t h e T e r r a Nova d e v e l o p m e n t - t h e d a t a b a s e i s s u e was n o t a d d r e s s e d , however. Even t h o u g h t h i s s p e c i f i c s u b m i s s i o n r e c e i v e d a r e s p o n s e , t h e ad hoc n a t u r e o f r e f e r r a l by c o u n c i l t o s t a f f a p p e a r s t o be an i n e f f i c i e n t means o f r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s r a i s e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t g i v e n t h a t t h e i s s u e s r e f e r r e d t o s t a f f a r e l e f t t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e members o f c o u n c i l and t h u s r e s u l t i n a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n s r a t h e r t h a n s y s t e m a t i c a s s e s s m e n t s . 70 B e c a u s e t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s a p p e a r s u n a b l e t o r e s p o n d a c t i v e l y t o v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s , t h e p r o c e s s c r e a t e s two o p p o s i n g i n t e r e s t s , t h o s e i n f a v o u r and t h o s e o p p o s e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t . In f a c t , s i n c e no a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e p r e s e n t e d and e v e r y o n e i n v o l v e d was f o r c e d t o a l i g n t h e m s e l v e s on one s i d e o f t h e i s s u e o r t h e o t h e r t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g became c o m p l e t e l y f o c u s e d on d e v e l o p m e n t o r n o n - d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . As a r e s u l t , an a d v e r s a r i a l , c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g was c r e a t e d . I n d e e d , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t community i n t e r v i e w e d commented t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t g r o u p c o u l d have done, s h o r t o f n o t d o i n g t h e p r o j e c t a t a l l , t h a t w o u l d have p l e a s e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n . The d e v e l o p e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e f o c u s on d e v e l o p m e n t o r non-d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e r e s u l t o f t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d s i n c e t h e p r o p e r t y had. a l r e a d y been s l a t e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t as r e s i d e n t i a l r e s e r v e i n t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . However, t h i s must i n s t e a d be s e e n as an i n d i c t m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e d no o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s i s s u e s s u c h as g r e a t e r p r o v i s i o n o f open s p a c e o r a d i f f e r e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f open s p a c e t h a t may have e n c o u r a g e d a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f v i e w s . 4 . 2 . 6 Degree o f Two-way C o m m u n i c a t i o n The d e g r e e o f two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e t o c r e a t e a d i a l o g u e between t h e v a r i o u s p r o p o n e n t s and o p p o n e n t s o f t h e p l a n , more s p e c i f i c a l l y a d i a l o g u e between t h e p l a n n e r and t h e p u b l i c . However, t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s n o t t o c r e a t e a d i a l o g u e ; i t i s t o h e a r from t h e p u b l i c . The 71 o p p o r t u n i t y t o q u e s t i o n t h e p u b l i c n e v e r t h e l e s s s u g g e s t s t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n c e f u r t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n c a n o c c u r as t h e c o u n c i l d i r e c t s t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t , o r o t h e r m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s , t o r e s p o n d t o q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by t h e p u b l i c . W i t h two e x c e p t i o n s , a l l t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d a g r e e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on T e r r a Nova d i d n o t a l l o w f o r a d i a l o g u e t o d e v e l o p between o p p o n e n t s and p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t . In f a c t , one p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t i n t e r v i e w e d s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o u n c i l d i d n o t want d i a l o g u e , and i n s t e a d i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y on c o u n c i l were o n l y s e e k i n g t o e n d o r s e t h e T e r r a Nova d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were some p o s i t i v e s i g n s t o w a r d s d i a l o g u e when t h e c o u n c i l q u e r i e d t h o s e who made p r e s e n t a t i o n s , more o f t e n t h a n n o t , i n t h e T e r r a Nova c a s e t h i s q u e s t i o n i n g amounted t o a c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t e r ' s i n t e n t r a t h e r t h a n a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n o r i s s u e s . I n d e e d , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o v i d e d l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p u b l i c t o a s k q u e s t i o n s o f t h e p l a n n e r s , c o u n c i l members, o r d e v e l o p e r s e v e n f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n w h i c h may have d i f f u s e d some p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s . As a r e s u l t , i t was s u g g e s t e d by one p a r t i c i p a n t i n t e r v i e w e d t h a t e r r o n e o u s i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t c o r r e c t e d and l e a d s t o a r e p e t i t i o n o f f a l s e i n f o r m a t i o n u n t i l i t becomes a c c e p t e d as f a c t . F u r t h e r , a l l t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d a g r e e d t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n g r o u p , Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y , d i d n o t f a c i l i t a t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d i a l o g u e . T h i s a p p e a r s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n 72 t h a t an i d e n t i f i a b l e g r o u p c a n o f t e n p r o v i d e an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be u t i l i z e d as an i n f o r m a l , c i t i z e n - b a s e d p l a n n i n g body f o r t h e p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y . The f a c t t h a t a h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d g r o u p d i d n o t p r o v i d e a means t o f a c i l i t a t e some s o r t o f t a s k f o r c e p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h i s p r o b a b l y t h e r e s u l t o f a l o n g h i s t o r y o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n s t h a t had d e v e l o p e d between p r o p o n e n t s and o p p o n e n t s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o v e r a number o f y e a r s , e x a c e r b a t e d by e x p e n s i v e c o u r t c a s e s , and h i g h l y v o l a t i l e h e a r i n g s . The i n a b i l i t y o f t h e T o w n s h i p t o work w i t h t h e Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y f u r t h e r p o i n t s t o t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s - a p r o c e s s t h a t f a i l s , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , t o a l l o w f o r d i a l o g u e t o d e v e l o p . The i n a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p d i a l o g u e a l s o p o i n t s t o t h e p o l i t i c a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , and t h e p o l i t i c a l i z a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i s s u e , g e n e r a l l y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e d e g r e e o f d i a l o g u e t h a t w i l l d e v e l o p i s u l t i m a t e l y a t e s t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l w i l l o f t h e c o u n c i l . 4 . 3 A n a l y s i s : P a r t i c i p a t i o n O b j e c t i v e s S i x o b j e c t i v e s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a r e l i s t e d by M a r g a r e t S i n c l a i r f r o m t h e G l a s s e r , Manty, and Nehman p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n framework. They a r e : t o i n f o r m and e d u c a t e , t o i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m s and v a l u e s , t o g e t i d e a s and s o l v e p r o b l e m s , t o r e c e i v e f e e d b a c k , t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t and r e a c h c o n s e n s u s , and t o i mplement s o l u t i o n s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d were a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o two q u e s t i o n s w h i c h s o u g h t t o u n d e r s t a n d what t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t a r e t h e p u r p o s e s o f c o n d u c t i n g p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , g e n e r a l l y , and 73 what o b j e c t i v e s were a c c o m p l i s h e d by t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , s p e c i f i c a l l y . By e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , i n g e n e r a l , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s c o u l d be a s s e s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g i s an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . The f i r s t t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d - t o i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m s , t o i n f o r m and e d u c a t e t h e p u b l i c , and t o r e c e i v e f e e d b a c k , - a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e g a r d e d as t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e s o f c o n d u c t i n g p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e o b j e c t i v e t o i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m s comes t h e c l o s e s t t o d e s c r i b i n g t h e most t r a d i t i o n a l r e a s o n f o r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . G e n e r a l l y t h e r e was agreement among t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d t h a t t h e f i r s t t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s - t o i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m s , t o i n f o r m and e d u c a t e t h e p u b l i c , and t o r e c e i v e f e e d b a c k - r e p r e s e n t e d t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s , as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s a c c o m p l i s h e d by t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . G i v e n t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s came t o o l a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s f o r p u b l i c i n p u t t o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n , t h e o b j e c t i v e o f i d e n t i f y i n g p r o b l e m s c a n n o t be a c h i e v e d . T h a t i s , t h e p r o b l e m s a r e i d e n t i f i e d t o o l a t e t o be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s 74 s h o u l d have o c c u r r e d e a r l i e r i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s i n a f orum p r i o r t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The o b j e c t i v e t o r e c e i v e f e e d b a c k was u n a n i m o u s l y c h o s e n as b o t h t h e p u r p o s e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , i n g e n e r a l , and an o b j e c t i v e t h a t was a c c o m p l i s h e d a t t h e T e r r a Nova h e a r i n g s . However, i t must be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e f e e d b a c k r e f e r r e d t o i s one-way, f r o m t h e p u b l i c , and n o t two-way, between t h e T o w n s h i p and t h e p u b l i c . I n d e e d , t h i s unanimous agreement s u g g e s t s t h a t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s v i e w t h e p u b l i c as l i m i t e d t o t h e r o l e o f " r e v i e w and comment". I f t h e r e was g e n e r a l a greement t h a t t h e f i r s t t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s - t o i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m s , t o i n f o r m and e d u c a t e t h e p u b l i c , and t o r e c e i v e f e e d b a c k - a r e t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and f o r m e d t h e u n d e r l y i n g p u r p o s e o f t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d r e s p o n d e d t h a t t h e l a s t t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s - t o g e t i d e a s , t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s , and t o i mplement s o l u t i o n s - were a l s o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . And i n d e e d , w i t h o n l y a few e x c e p t i o n s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t t h a t t h e s e l a s t t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s were n o t met by t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s have n o t been v i e w e d as t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s b e c a u s e t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g f o r m a t does n o t p e r m i t t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s t o be a c h i e v e d . However, t h o s e t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s as t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g were a l l members o f t h e p u b l i c who a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s were n o t met by t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g . T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y 75 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p u b l i c e x p e c t e d more f r o m p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t h a n what t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g f o r m a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y a c h i e v e . In o t h e r words, t h e p u b l i c ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s were t o o h i g h g i v e n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . T h i s may a l s o be t h e r e s u l t o f a l a c k o f o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , beyond t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e r e s u l t o f t h e T e r r a Nova d e c i s i o n h a v i n g been made e a r l i e r w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e O.C.P. i n 1986. A t v e r y l e a s t , t h i s d i v e r g e n c e between e x p e c t a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s must be s u p p l e m e n t e d i n o r d e r t o come c l o s e r t o s a t i s f y i n g t h e needs o r t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c . In c o n t r a s t , t h e p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e o n l y p u r p o s e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s was. t o r e c e i v e f e e d b a c k . Y e t , t h e s e p l a n n e r s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d t h i s o b j e c t i v e and more, i n c l u d i n g an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s , p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s . I n o t h e r words, a l t h o u g h p l a n n e r s see p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as e x t r e m e l y l i m i t i n g , a t t h e same t i m e t h e y b e l i e v e t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g went beyond what t h e y saw as t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s ! 4.4 A n a l y s i s : A l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e P u b l i c H e a r i n g P r o c e s s F i n a l l y , p a r t i c i p a n t s were a s k e d a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f some o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , o r c h a n g e s t o t h e c u r r e n t s y s t e m o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t h a t may i m prove t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n r e z o n i n g s . 76 The f o l l o w i n g i s a r e v i e w o f t h e i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s b a s e d on t h e q u e s t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n B o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a r i e . S u r p r i s i n g l y , g i v e n t h e amount o f n e g a t i v e p u b l i c i t y and extreme p o i n t s o f v i e w t h a t were g e n e r a t e d by t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g , t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d r e s p o n d e d w i t h few i n s i g h t f u l comments o r o b s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t o r y methods o r improvements t o t h e c u r r e n t p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s l a c k o f r e s p o n s e o c c u r r e d i n s p i t e o f t h e comments and r e s p o n s e s t o t h e c l o s e d i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , w i t h t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f , t h e use o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g f o r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n t r o v e r s i a l r e z o n i n g s , and t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s were c a r r i e d o u t . R e g a r d l e s s , a r e v i e w o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w ( S e c t i o n B q u e s t i o n s ) o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e s some o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and, i n d o i n g s o , a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . Some common g r o u n d among t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d be f o u n d i n t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s o u t l i n e d as a b a s i s f o r an i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w i n S e c t i o n B, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g why, when, and who s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e . A l l t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and s e v e r a l o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d e l a b o r a t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c had a i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y and t h a t i t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y d e s i r a b l e , f r o m t h e p o i n t o f 77 v i e w o f t h e T o w n s h i p , t o i n c l u d e t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As w e l l , a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d a g r e e d t h a t as many p e o p l e , w i t h as many d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s as p o s s i b l e , s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . P r o p o n e n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t , i n p a r t i c u l a r , s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e c e i v i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f o p i n i o n . T h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s were e s p e c i a l l y c o n c e r n e d t h a t o n l y t h o s e a g a i n s t t h e p r o j e c t were h e a r d and t h e r e was a need t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l o p i n i o n s a r e h e a r d d u r i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . However, no s u g g e s t i o n s were made on how t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s . I n a d d i t i o n , a l l o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d a g r e e m e n t t h a t i t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e p u b l i c be i n c l u d e d as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Members o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r v i e w e d s t r e s s e d t h a t p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t had t o be m e a n i n g f u l f o r p u b l i c i n p u t t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n made. Q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s d i s s o l v e d t h e common g r o u n d t h a t had been e x p r e s s e d i n p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n s and i n d i c a t e d a r a n g e o f o p i n i o n . The members o f t h e c o u n c i l i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e means f o r i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s i s , i n g e n e r a l , s a t i s f a c t o r y . G i v e n t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n t e n t i o u s n e s s o f t h e T e r r a Nova d e v e l o p m e n t i s s u e - a s i t u a t i o n t h a t d e g e n e r a t e d i n t o one where t h e p o l i t i c i a n was f a c e d w i t h an u n p o p u l a r c h o i c e (a "no w i n " s i t u a t i o n ) , i t w o u l d seem r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t c o u n c i l members t o be e a g e r t o l o o k f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s - a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t may a l l o w f o r a l e s s 78 p o l i t i c a l l y c o n t e s t e d d e c i s i o n t o be made. I n s t e a d , t h e y s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t open h o u s e s and p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s were c o n d u c t e d o v e r s e v e r a l y e a r s p r i o r t o t h e f o r m a l , l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and t h a t t h e s e e a r l i e r forums f o r p u b l i c i n p u t p r o v i d e d ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s d e c i s i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r . In s p i t e o f t h e l a c k o f c o n c r e t e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s , s e v e r a l members o f t h e c o u n c i l i n t e r v i e w e d d i d s u g g e s t some s m a l l - s c a l e c h a n g e s t o t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e d u r e t h a t may a l l o w i n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y w h i c h may i n t u r n l e a d t o a m i t i g a t i o n o f p u b l i c c o n c e r n s . F o r example, one c o u n c i l member s u g g e s t e d an e x p a n s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e n ewly e s t a b l i s h e d D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d w h i c h w o u l d a l l o w f o r i n c r e a s e d n e g o t i a t i o n s between t h e Township and a p p l i c a n t u s i n g t h e d i s c r e t i o n a r y power o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l c o u n c i l members p o i n t e d t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l s m a l l - s c a l e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o n c e r n i n g r e z o n i n g s and l o t s i z e t h a t was d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . A l l c o u n c i l members v o i c e d o p p o s i t i o n t o any c h a n g e s t o t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t t h a t w o u l d l e g i s l a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any fo r m o t h e r t h a n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . S e v e r a l o f t h e a l d e r m e n p o i n t e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e i r r e z o n i n g s t r a t e g i e s ( o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e ) t o accommodate d i f f e r e n t n e e d s , s t r e s s i n g t h e f a c t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e b e s t l e f t t o t h e i r own d i s c r e t i o n r e g a r d i n g how t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d f a v o u r e d a t a s k f o r c e a p p r o a c h t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s made up o f c i t i z e n s 79 and p l a n n e r s . The p r o c e s s was d e s c r i b e d i n s t a g e s i n i t i a t e d by t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f a c o m p l e t e c o n s u l t a n t ' s p a ckage t h a t w o u l d o u t l i n e i n d e t a i l some o f t h e p l a n n i n g o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s . The n e x t s t a g e i n t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d t h e T o wnship h o l d i n g l a r g e p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s i n an a r e a o f p r o p o s e d change where a l l t h e p u b l i c i s i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d . (The D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s w o u l d have been d i f f i c u l t i n t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g c a s e s i n c e t h e T e r r a Nova s i t e was n o t a p r e - e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d s i t e . ) The p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s w o u l d c o n t i n u e u n t i l a c o r e g r o u p o f h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d , i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s r e m a i n e d . The m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s would work t h r o u g h t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i t h t h i s c o r e g r o u p . T h i s p r o c e s s w o u l d i n v o l v e w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r t o w a r d s c o n s e n s u s - b u i l d i n g and w o r k a b l e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e i s s u e s . The e l e m e n t t h a t was s t r e s s e d f o r t h i s p r o c e s s t o be o p e r a t i o n a l was t h e c o m p l e t e r e m o v a l o f p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . T h i s r e f e r s t o n o t h a v i n g t h e members o f t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l p r e s e n t a t t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s o r i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e t a s k f o r c e c o m m i t t e e . However, t h e p l a n n e r s ' s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and t h e e x c l u s i o n o f p o l i t i c i a n s d i d n o t e l i m i n a t e t h e need f o r t h e p o l i t i c i a n s t o a c t as t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . In t h i s scheme, t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g w o u l d become a f o r m a l i t y t o r a t i f y t h e p l a n s d e v e l o p e d by t h e c i t i z e n - p l a n n e r t a s k f o r c e c o m m i t t e e . A g r e e i n g w i t h t h e c o u n c i l members, t h e p l a n n e r s saw no r o l e f o r i n c r e a s e d - l e g i s l a t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . They e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l e a v i n g as much 80 f l e x i b i l i t y as p o s s i b l e on t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as p o s s i b l e i n t h e hands o f i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The o t h e r m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l i n t e r v i e w e d , t h e M u n i c i p a l C l e r k , commented t h a t beyond t h e h o l d i n g o f a r e f e r e n d u m , s e e n as t h e u l t i m a t e p o l i t i c a l t e s t o f p o l i c y , t h e r e were few a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . However, he d i d s u g g e s t a number o f p r o c e d u r a l c h a n g e s t h a t may make i t a more e f f e c t i v e f o r u m f o r b o t h t h e p u b l i c , and p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e T o w n s h i p . I n d e e d , t h e T o w n s h i p ' s p u b l i c h e a r i n g p o l i c y has been a l t e r e d as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e T e r r a Nova i s s u e . T h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e a number o f p r o c e d u r a l c h a n g e s s u c h as a l l o w i n g s p e a k e r s t o speak o n c e , w i t h no l i m i t , and t h e n p e r m i t t i n g a t e n m i n u t e r e b u t t a l t i m e . As w e l l , t h e T o w n s h i p has s p e c i f i e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g c a n e x t e n d by a m o t i o n beyond 11:00 p.m. t o 1:0.0 a.m., and t h a t t h e h e a r i n g c a n be c o n c l u d e d d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . However, i f e v e r y o n e on t h e s p e a k e r ' s l i s t has n o t b e en h e a r d , t h e T o w n s h i p has a d o p t e d a p o l i c y t h a t t h e h e a r i n g c a n n o t be c o n c l u d e d b u t must r e c o n v e n e . The M u n i c i p a l C l e r k a l s o s u g g e s t e d some c h a n g e s t o t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t w h i c h would a l l o w m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s t o l i m i t t h e s p e a k e r ' s t i m e t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f a P r o c e d u r e By-law. The s u g g e s t i o n was t o l i m i t s p e a k i n g t i m e t o between t e n and f i f t e e n m i n u t e s , w h i c h t h e C l e r k f e l t was r e a s o n a b l e g i v e n t h a t t h i s w o u l d e n c o u r a g e a b e t t e r r a n g e o f o p i n i o n s i n c e , more p e o p l e w o u l d be a f f o r d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e a k . The C l e r k a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t more c l e a r l y d e f i n e t h o s e a f f o r d e d t h e r i g h t t o s p e a k , f o r example t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f s p e a k e r s o r t h o s e 81 who c a n make w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s t o t h o s e e l i g i b l e t o v o t e w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . F i n a l l y , t h e C l e r k s u g g e s t e d t h a t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s s h o u l d n o t t i e up t h e whole c o u n c i l and recommended t h a t some s o r t o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g c o m m i s s i o n be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h r e e o r f i v e members o f c o u n c i l w h i c h c o u l d c o n v e n e t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n more i n t i m a t e s u r r o u n d i n g s e n c o u r a g i n g more d i a l o g u e t o d e v e l o p and a l l o w i n g t h e s e c o u n c i l members t o more e a s i l y d i s c o v e r t h e c o r e o f t h e i s s u e s u nder r e v i e w . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t community e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t no p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e v i c e w o u l d have r e s o l v e d t h e i s s u e t h a t was c r e a t e d by t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g - t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o r n o n - d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l a n d . T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t p o i n t e d t o t h e o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( d e v e l o p e r - s p o n s o r e d open h o u s e s and m u n i c i p a l - s p o n s o r e d p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s ) t h a t f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i s s u e o f d e v e l o p m e n t . In f a c t , she c o n t i n u e d by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g wrong w i t h t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f -t h a t i t was t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s who c r e a t e d t h e c o n t r o v e r s y by m a i n t a i n i n g a o n e - s i d e d d e b a t e a t t h e h e a r i n g s o v e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t v e r s u s n o n - d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l a n d . Two o f t h e members o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r v i e w e d s u g g e s t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g w h i c h l o o k e d t o a more l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h . They e m p h a s i z e d t h e use o f e x i s t i n g community a s s o c i a t i o n s , p e r h a p s t h r o u g h e s t a b l i s h e d community c e n t r e s w h i c h p r i d e t h e m s e l v e s on t h e i r n o n - p a r t i s a n o b j e c t i v i t y . T h e s e members o f t h e p u b l i c saw p l a n n e r s w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e s e community a s s o c i a t i o n s t o d e v e l o p g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s t h a t w o u l d 82 s a t i s f y community n e e d s . T h i s p r o c e s s e m p h a s i z e d t h e a b s e n c e o f p o l i t i c i a n s a t t h e p r o c e s s s t a g e and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n s e n s u s b u i l d i n g . P r e c e d i n g t h e whole p r o c e s s t h e y s t r e s s e d t h e need f o r e x t e n s i v e d e t a i l e d , s t u d i e s t o be c o n d u c t e d by t h e To w n s h i p c o v e r i n g s u c h t o p i c s as c o s t / b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l / s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t s . Beyond t h i s t a n g i b l e s u g g e s t i o n , t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d r e -s t a t e d t h e i r c a l l f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t h a t w o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p u b l i c arid, i n d o i n g s o , s t r e s s e d , t h e i d e a t h a t any amount o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n any f o r m , i s u s e l e s s u n l e s s t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t a k e t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d by t h e p u b l i c i n t o a c c o u n t when r e n d e r i n g t h e i r f i n a l d e c i s i o n . I n d e e d , a l l o f t h e members o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r v i e w e d s u g g e s t e d some change t o t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t t h a t would seek t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e p u b l i c ' s p o s i t i o n on i s s u e s would be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . In o t h e r words, l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t w o u l d n o t o n l y g u a r a n t e e a r i g h t t o be h e a r d , b u t l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t w o u l d e n c o u r a g e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o a c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n p u b l i c s u b m i s s i o n s . A n o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n o f f e r e d by t h e members o f t h e p u b l i c t h a t were i n t e r v i e w e d was a r e f e r e n d u m on c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s o r a p e t i t i o n p r o c e s s w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h e s i g n a t u r e s o f 10 - 20% o f t h e v o t i n g p o p u l a t i o n t o r e q u i r e a r e f e r e n d u m by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . 4.5 Summary o f A n a l y s i s The a n a l y s i s o f the. p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c o n d u c t e d on b e h a l f o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s r e z o n i n g was b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d w i t h t w e l v e key p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r e z o n i n g 83 p r o c e s s . T h e s e t w e l v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e d : members o f t h e p u b l i c , m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s , members o f t h e T o w n s h i p ' s c o u n c i l , and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t community. Q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a s u b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s as a means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o a framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n e d by G l a s s e r , Manty, and Nehman. The framework i s c o m p r i s e d o f s i x c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s i x p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e d e g r e e o f p u b l i c c o n t a c t a c h i e v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e a u d i e n c e , a l t h o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e a u d i e n c e s ' d e g r e e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was n o t answered. A n a l y s i s o f t h e d e g r e e o f i m p a c t on d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c a t t h e h e a r i n g s had no i m p a c t on t h e d e c i s i o n o f c o u n c i l members t o r e z o n e . A n a l y s i s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no c h a n c e f o r t h e p u b l i c t o i n f l u e n c e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . A n a l y s i s o f t h e d e g r e e o f u s e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n d i c a t e d t h a t members o f t h e p u b l i c d i d n o t r e q u i r e s p e c i a l e x p e r t i s e i n o r d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e h e a r i n g s , a l t h o u g h t h e members o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r v i e w e d s t a t e d t h e need t o i n f o r m t h e m s e l v e s due t o t h e l a c k o f e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e T o w n s h i p . A n a l y s i s o f t h e e a s e o f use and p r e p a r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a q u i c k and c o n v e n i e n t way t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n p l a n n i n g , was n o t a q u i c k and c o n v e n i e n t method due t o t h e p r e s e n c e and e f f o r t s o f a v o c a l a d v o c a c y g r o u p . 84 A n a l y s i s o f t h e a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d t o v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s y s t e m i n a t i c r e s p o n s e o f t h e c o u n c i l t o t h e tremendous v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t s r a i s e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e d e g r e e o f two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o u n c i l members' q u e s t i o n s t o t h o s e who made p r e s e n t a t i o n s amounted t o a c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n t e n t r a t h e r t h a n a d i a l o g u e between p a r t i c i p a n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n ' s c o n t e n t . A n a l y s i s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t o i n f o r m and. e d u c a t e , t o i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m s , and t o g e t i d e a s and s o l v e p r o b l e m s were b o t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s - and t h e o b j e c t i v e s a c c o m p l i s h e d a t t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . Members o f t h e p u b l i c , however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t t o r e c e i v e f e e d b a c k , t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t and t o implement s o l u t i o n s were a l s o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s b u t were n o t a c h i e v e d by t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . The i n t e r v i e w s a l s o s o u g h t t o e l i c i t t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s on how t o enhance p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . S u r p r i s i n g l y , t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d made few c o n c r e t e s u g g e s t i o n s , a l t h o u g h p l a n n e r s e m p h a s i z e d t h e need t o d e p o l i t i c a l i z e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s and p u b l i c e m p h a s i z e d t h e need f o r g r e a t e r p u b l i c c o n t r o l . 85 C h a p t e r F i v e : C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s t h e s i s r e v i e w e d t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s as a means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g by i n t e r v i e w i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f e a c h o f t h e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n one r e c e n t c a s e s t u d y i n v o l v i n g t h e r e z o n i n g o f u r b a n l a n d - t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s d e c i s i o n i n Richmond, B.C. C h a p t e r F o u r p r o v i d e d an a n a l y s i s o f t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o G l a s s e r e t a l . ' s e v a l u a t i o n framework as a d a p t e d by M a r g a r e t S i n c l a i r . T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s b a s e d on a r e v i e w o f d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r Two. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r o v i d e some b r o a d r e commendations t h a t s u g g e s t an enhancement o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s t o w a r d s p r o v i d i n g a more e f f e c t i v e means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h p o s s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h w o u l d f u r t h e r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c and t h e u s e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i n t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 5.2 C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s t h e s i s began w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s t a t e m e n t w h i c h d i s c u s s e d t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d by t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e m u n i c i p a l r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as a means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n f o r m e d t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r e m i s e t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s d e c i s i o n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s f a i l e d i n i t s a t t e m p t t o 86 p r o v i d e t h e p u b l i c w i t h an e f f e c t i v e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n p u t i n t o l a n d - u s e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e means t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s must be i n t r o d u c e d i n o r d e r t o overcome t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n between o p p o s i n g i n t e r e s t s t h a t a r e c r e a t e d by t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . In o t h e r words, i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , i t s e l f , i s f l a w e d and c a n n o t a c h i e v e t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , b a s e d on t h e a n a l y s i s u n d e r t a k e n i n C h a p t e r F o u r , t h a t s u p p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s f l a w e d i n i t s a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e m e a n i n g f u l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s r e f e r s t o t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g i t s e l f i s i n h e r e n t l y f l a w e d and t h e r e f o r e , by t h e n a t u r e o f i t s d e s i g n , c a n n o t p r o v i d e f o r a l l t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d as p a r t o f G l a s s e r e t a l . ' s e v a l u a t i o n framework. In t h e c a s e s t u d y , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s p r o v i d e d no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s , s u c h as t h e p r o v i s i o n o r c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f p a r k s p a c e , t o be d i s c u s s e d . As a r e s u l t , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g became f o c u s e d on t h e f o r o r a g a i n s t v o t e o f t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l members. In a d d i t i o n , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g d i d n o t s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m o f e n s u r i n g t h a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s a c h i e v e d . A l t h o u g h , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a r e f e r e n d u m , o t h e r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e v i c e s c a n n o t e n s u r e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 87 sample o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i n p a r t i c u l a r c r e a t e s a b i a s b e c a u s e o n l y t h o s e who f e e l s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d t o , and i n few c a s e s , i n f a v o u r o f , an i s s u e w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e . F u r t h e r , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g d i d n o t c r e a t e a forum t h a t a l l o w s t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l t o d e a l s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i t h t h e v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s t h a t were r a i s e d by t h e s u b m i s s i o n s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e h e a r i n g s . B e c a u s e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g ' s i n a b i l i t y t o promote c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l t h e i s s u e s by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , t h e p u b l i c was l i m i t e d t o v i e w s on t h e r e z o n i n g p e r s e . F i n a l l y , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s c a n be seen as i n h e r e n t l y f l a w e d b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e d no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r m e a n i n g f u l d i a l o g u e between p r o p o n e n t s and o p p o n e n t s o f t h e p l a n t h a t c o u l d l e a d t o w o r k a b l e r e s o l u t i o n s t o c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s . B e f o r e c o n c l u d i n g t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e t h e p u b l i c w i t h an a p p r o p r i a t e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g and t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f i s i n h e r e n t l y f l a w e d t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s as an i n s t r u m e n t o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n must be v i e w e d i n i t s p r o p e r h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . I t i s c l e a r f r o m b o t h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e c a s e s t u d y t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n on T e r r a Nova's f u t u r e l a n d - u s e had a l r e a d y t a k e n p l a c e p r i o r t o t h e r e z o n i n g h e a r i n g s , w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f Richmond's O f f i c i a l Community P l a n i n 1986 d e s i g n a t i n g t h e l a n d as r e s i d e n t i a l r e s e r v e , and t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e T e r r a Nova s i t e f r o m t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e i n 1987. I t i s e q u a l l y c l e a r t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s had a l i g n e d t h e m s e l v e s i n e n t r e n c h e d p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s p r i o r t o t h e p u b l i c 88 h e a r i n g s h e l d f o r t h e r e z o n i n g o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . And, i n d e e d , t h e e l e c t i o n h e l d i n November 1987 gave t h e c i t i z e n s o f Richmond an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r r i g h t t o c h o o s e t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The f i v e p o l i t i c i a n ' s i n f a v o u r o f d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e f o u r a g a i n s t d e v e l o p m e n t were e l e c t e d by a f r e e v o t e , w h i c h , i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , g i v e s them t h e a u t h o r i t y t o make d e c i s i o n s on b e h a l f o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n c y . W i t h t h e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n made r e g a r d i n g t h e l a n d - u s e f o r t h e T e r r a Nova s i t e and t h e p o l i t i c a l l i n e s f i r m l y drawn f o r and a g a i n s t d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e r e z o n i n g o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s were l i m i t e d i n what t h e y c o u l d a c h i e v e . The p u b l i c h e a r i n g s p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s a t i s f y t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t and a t l e a s t a c h a n c e f o r t h e p u b l i c t o change t h e a n t i c i p a t e d v o t i n g p a t t e r n o f t h e i r e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , t h e r e f o r e , p r e s e n t e d a c h a l l e n g e f o r t h e p u b l i c t o i n t r o d u c e new i n f o r m a t i o n o r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t way t h a t would e n c o u r a g e t h e c o u n c i l members t o change t h e i r v o t e s . I n d o i n g s o , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s p r e s e n t e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p u b l i c t o show c o u n c i l members t h e d e p t h and r a n g e o f community o p p o s i t i o n t o d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s t h r o u g h s t r o n g p u b l i c a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e h e a r i n g s and by t h e number and c o n t e n t o f w r i t t e n and o r a l s u b m i s s i o n s . Beyond p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p u b l i c t o change t h e c o u n c i l members' minds, t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s c a l l e d f o r t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g p r e s e n t e d a c h a n c e t o d i s c u s s t h e m e r i t s and d rawbacks o f t h e T e r r a Nova d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n i t s e l f , measured 89 a c c o r d i n g t o community s t a n d a r d s . Thus, t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g r e m a i n s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g beyond t h e e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s t o meet a l l o f G l a s s e r ' s c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s may be s e e n as much a f a u l t o f t h e p e r c e p t u a l l i m i t a t i o n s amongst t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s as t h e i n h e r e n t f l a w s i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f . In o t h e r words, some o f what may be regarded, as p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d by t h e use o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g may i n s t e a d be p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d b e c a u s e d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s have d i f f e r e n t v i e w s on how and why t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h e s e d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w a r e most c l e a r l y s e e n i n t h e o p p o s i n g v i e w s r e g a r d i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s b e h i n d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and t h e r o l e t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d p l a y i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l . The a n a l y s i s o f t h i s c a s e s t u d y has shown t h a t t h e members o f t h e p u b l i c e x p e c t e d f a r more f r o m t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s t h a n what i t c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o a c c o m p l i s h , g i v e n t h e i n h e r e n t l i m i t s o f t h e h e a r i n g d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . T h e s e p e r c e p t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e h i g h l i g h t e d by what c a n be s e e n t o be a d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s among t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . Some p a r t i c i p a n t s v i e w t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c as an a i d t o m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , as one a s p e c t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s where t h e p u b l i c p r o v i d e s f e e d b a c k . O t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s v i e w t h e r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c as f a r more and see t h e p u b l i c as an i m p o r t a n t 90 i n f l u e n c e on d e c i s i o n s . In t h e most extreme c a s e , some p a r t i c i p a n t s saw t h e p u b l i c a c t i n g as t h e u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n -makers t h r o u g h t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f r e f e r e n d u m . T h e s e p e r c e p t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s a r e n o t l i m i t e d t o v i e w s on t h e d i f f e r e n t r o l e s o f t h e p u b l i c i n p l a n n i n g . They a r e a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e d i f f e r e n t v i e w s r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e T o w n s h i p . F o r example, t h e p u b l i c , as w e l l as s e v e r a l c o u n c i l members and m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s , f e l t t h a t i t was t h e d u t y o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o keep t h e p u b l i c f u l l y i n f o r m e d o f t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e z o n i n g and t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e p u b l i c c o u l d become i n v o l v e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d f e l t t h a t l e g a l n o t i f i c a t i o n as r e q u i r e d by t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t was a d e q u a t e and t h a t t h e d u t y r e s t s w i t h t h e p u b l i c t o i n f o r m t h e m s e l v e s . In s p i t e o f t h e p r e c e d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s has n o t p r o v i d e d a c o n c l u s i v e answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e a d e q u a c y o r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s as a means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e unanswered q u e s t i o n a s k e d by d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r i s t s r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . T h i s l a r g e r q u e s t i o n c a n n o t be d e f i n i t i v e l y a n s w e r e d and, i n s t e a d , t h e answer r e s t s on t h e b a l a n c e i n s o c i e t y between r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l o n g t h e d e m o c r a t i c c o n t i n u u m . I n d e e d , t h e d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y w i t h i n w h i c h p l a n n i n g p l a y s a r o l e has l o n g been w r e s t l i n g w i t h t h e answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e p u b l i c ' s r o l e i n 91 i n f l u e n c i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . B e c a u s e s o c i e t y c o n t i n u e s t o s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o r a d e q u a c y o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s as a means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s c a n o n l y be a n swered by e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l v i e w r e g a r d i n g t h e c o r r e c t mix between r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c g o v e r n i n g s y s t e m . T h e r e f o r e , t h e c h a l l e n g e t o a r r i v e a t an d e f i n i t i v e answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f a d e q u a c y o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i s f o u n d i n t h e c h a l l e n g e t o answer t h e l a r g e r q u e s t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . The c h a l l e n g e r e m a i n s t o c r e a t e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a c c e p t a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h w i l l , a t v e r y l e a s t , l e a d t o a c o - o p e r a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and, p e r h a p s , u l t i m a t e l y , t o a c o n s e n s u s i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . M e e t i n g t h i s c h a l l e n g e would c r e a t e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l i n v o l v e d t o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n , e v e n i f t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n i s n o t f a v o u r a b l e t o a l l . I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i s s u e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n o t a n swered by s o c i e t y , and, t h e r e f o r e , u n answered by t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , some c h a n g e s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s as a means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g c a n be recommended t h a t may .enhance o r s u p p l e m e n t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and b r i n g i t c l o s e r t o a more p a r t i c i p a t o r y f o r m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y . A t t h e same t i m e , however, t h e r e i s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e s e 9 2 r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s must be tempered w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 5 .3 Recommendations The c h a n g e s recommended b e l o w r e p r e s e n t enhancements o r s u p p l e m e n t s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . a s an i n s t r u m e n t o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m u n i c i p a l r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t seek t o overcome, o r a t l e a s t m i t i g a t e , i t s i n h e r e n t f l a w s and t h e p e r c e p t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t among p a r t i c i p a n t s , b o t h o f w h i c h s e r v e t o p r e v e n t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s f r o m m e e t i n g t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e a n a l y t i c a l framework u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t and. f o r e m o s t , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h i s c a s e s t u d y has shown a need t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between r e z o n i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s c a l e o f i s s u e s i n v o l v e d b eyond t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t a r e c u r r e n t l y made i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s i n t h e T o w n s h i p o f Richmond. In o t h e r words, t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d - d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s ( i e . d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s ) a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t y p e o f r e z o n i n g t h a t i s i n v o l v e d . F o r example, when t h e r e z o n i n g i n v o l v e s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l l a n d - u s e change t o a l a r g e t r a c t o f l a n d t h a t w i l l have l o n g - t e r m i m p l i c a t i o n s , t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be a f f o r d e d e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p l a n f r o m i n i t i a l c o n c e p t i o n t o f i n a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y should, e n c o u r a g e t h e a p p l i c a n t f o r a proposed, r e z o n i n g t o p r o v i d e as much i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c as r e a s o n a b l y p o s s i b l e and as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e i n t h e p r o c e s s . I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a means t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e c o n t e n t i o u s 93 r e z o n i n g s t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g f o r u m t h a t would see p l a n n e r s w i t h i n c o m m u n i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n an o n - g o i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In o t h e r words, i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s c o u l d be u n c o v e r e d p r i o r t o r e a c h i n g a c o n f r o n t a t i o n between t h e p u b l i c and t h e To w n s h i p a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t a g e o f t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s c o u l d p r o v i d e a f o r u m f o r t h e p u b l i c ' s c o n c e r n s and i d e a s t o be o u t l i n e d and r e v i e w e d e a r l y enough i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s so t h a t t h e y c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o f i n a l p l a n s . Beyond t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s t o enhance t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , i t i s recommended t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y s h o u l d l o o k t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n schemes t h a t w o u l d d i s t a n c e t h e f i n a l , p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s f r o m t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l , d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c . The m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d e s t a b l i s h an i n d e p e n d e n t c o m m i s s i o n made up o f k n o w l e d g e a b l e , w e l l - r e s p e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , b a s e d a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n c i a l R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s , t h a t would be empowered t o h o l d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , h e a r f r o m v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , a n a l y z e p u b l i c r e s p o n s e as w e l l as o t h e r r e l e v a n t d a t a , and make rec o m m e n d a t i o n s t o c o u n c i l . Thus, c o u n c i l c o u l d b a s e t h e i r d e c i s i o n on t h e w e l l r e s e a r c h e d a d v i s e o f an u n b i a s e d , i n d e p e n d e n t c o m m i s s i o n t h a t has h e a r d f r o m a l l . who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d , i n s t e a d o f r e l y i n g s o l e l y on t h e e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g as t h e means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C r i t i c a l 94 t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n , however, i s t h e c a l i b r e o f t h e membership and t h e p e r c e i v e d c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e i r a c t i o n s . T h i s w ould a l l o w c o u n c i l members t o d i s t a n c e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m n e g a t i v e p u b l i c r e a c t i o n and, a t t h e same t i m e , would n o t j e o p a r d i z e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o cracy s i n c e t h e c o u n c i l members would r e m a i n t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n makers i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r a u t h o r i t y d e r i v e d f r o m p u b l i c e l e c t i o n . The p r e c e d i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s may a l l e v i a t e much o f t h e p e r c e p t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t l e a d t o i t s f a i l u r e i n m e e t i n g t h e c r i t e r i a o f G l a s s e r e t a l . ' s e v a l u a t i o n framework. However, t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s h o u l d work t o w a r d s i n c r e a s i n g t h e l e v e l s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p u b l i c and o t h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s r e g a r d i n g b o t h t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e i s s u e s and t h e p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e f o l l o w e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y s h o u l d s p e l l o u t t h e r u l e s o f p r o c e d u r e p r i o r 'to e a c h h e a r i n g and m a i n t a i n p r o c e d u r a l c o n s i s t e n c y t h r o u g h o u t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y s h o u l d p r o v i d e an i n f o r m a l forum, b o t h i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , t o e n c o u r a g e a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f i s s u e s and t h e p a s s i n g a l o n g o f f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n between, s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p u b l i c and t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s . I n s p i t e o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s ' o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e a d d i t i o n o f more r e g u l a t i o n s on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t , t h e rec o m m e n d a t i o n s o u t l i n e d above s h o u l d , i n d e e d , be i n c o r p o r a t e d as c h a n g e s t o t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . E n t r e n c h m e n t i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t would, e n s u r e t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s 95 w o u l d be e n h a n c e d and s u p p l e m e n t e d i n o r d e r t o more c l o s e l y meet t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s o f G l a s s e r ' s e v a l u a t i o n framework. F o r example, t h e A c t s h o u l d s p e c i f y t h a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g c o u l d be a d j o u r n e d i n o r d e r t o a l l o w t i m e f o r i s s u e s t o be c l a r i f i e d and v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s t o be a d d r e s s e d . A l t h o u g h t h e e n a c t m e n t o f c h a n g e s t o t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t may i n d e e d , as some o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d s u g g e s t e d , d e c r e a s e t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o i n s t i t u t e i n n o v a t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n schemes, e n t r e n c h m e n t c o u l d a l s o work t o w a r d s e l i m i n a t i n g p o l i t i c a l e f f o r t s t o u n dermine m e a n i n g f u l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s d e p o l i t i c a l i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m u n i c i p a l r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s would a l s o f u r t h e r s e r v e t o e l i m i n a t e t h e p e r c e p t u a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s t h a t e x i s t among t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . B u t u l t i m a t e l y i t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t l a n d - u s e i s s u e s a r e p o l i t i c a l b e c a u s e t h e y i n v o l v e t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s by an e l e c t e d body. The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r c h a n g e s t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g and t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a p p e a r t o i m p l y a l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e , t i m e c o n s u m i n g and c o s t l y e x e r c i s e ; however, i n t h e end, t h e b e n e f i t s o f more e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l f a r e x c e e d t h e e f f o r t p u t i n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c . 5 .4 F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h e r e a r e c o u n t l e s s examples o f r e c e n t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l w h i c h have seen v o c a l , p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n t o p l a n s p u t f o r w a r d by d e v e l o p e r s o r m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s t h a t w ould p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o b o t h f u r t h e r t e s t t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s as a means f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as w e l l as t e s t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s . However, t h e b e s t example t o t e s t t h e r e s u l t s o f and c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h i s c a s e s t u d y would be a s t u d y o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c o n d u c t e d i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f D e l t a on b e h a l f o f t h e r e z o n i n g p r o p o s a l f o r t h e S p e t i f o r e l a n d s . T h i s c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y w o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t b e c a u s e t h e S p e t i f o r e l a n d s ' r e z o n i n g p r o p o s a l i n v o l v e d some o f t h e same b a s i c e l e m e n t s as t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s r e z o n i n g , s u c h as a s t r o n g v o c a l p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n t o d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e u r b a n i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p r e v i o u s l y f r o z e n w i t h i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e . Y e t , u n l i k e T e r r a Nova, t h e p r o p o s a l was d e f e a t e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . B e c a u s e t h e D e l t a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l v o t e d a g a i n s t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S p e t i f o r e l a n d s i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n j e c t u r e on w h e t h e r an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e S p e t i f o r e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s w o u l d be d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h a t o f t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s as o u t l i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . A n o t h e r a r e a f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w o u l d be a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h i s t h e s i s ' a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g as a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e v i c e i n r e z o n i n g s and an a s s e s s m e n t , u s i n g t h e same framework, o f an i n n o v a t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme t h a t has b e en u s e d by m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s i n c a s e s o f 97 c o n t r o v e r s i a l l a n d - u s e d e b a t e s , s i m i l a r t o T e r r a Nova. In o t h e r words, t h i s s t u d y w o u l d i n v o l v e a c o m p a r i s o n between t h e T ownship o f Richmond's use o f t h e s t a t u t o r y p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s and a n o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s a t t e m p t t o go beyond t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s and seek a m e d i a t e d o r c o n c i l i a t o r y r e s o l u t i o n o f o p p o s i n g v i e w s . In t h i s way, some o f t h e r e commendations o u t l i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d be t e s t e d and a s s e s s e d . 98 BIBLIOGRAPHY A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d C o m m i s s i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F i l e  No. 20796. B u r n a b y , B.C. A r n s t e i n , S h e r r y R. "A L a d d e r o f C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " J o u r n a l  o f A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . Volume 35, 1969, p. 216-224. B u r k e , Edmund. 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P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a n n i n g . J o h n W i l e y & Sons L t d . : London, 1977. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f Two C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n M o d e ls ( D e s i g n ) 55 Y o r k S t r e e t , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , . 1971. S t o n e , R o b e r t . L o c a l A r e a P l a n n i n g : C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n i n P r o v i n c i a l / M u n i c i p a l Land Use D i s p u t e s . M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s . S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : V a n c o u v e r , 1976. T r o u s t i n e , P h i l i p J . , and T e r r y C h r i s t e n s e n . Movers and S h a k e r s :  The S t u d y o f Community Power. S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s : New Y o r k , 1982. Urban D e v e l o p m e n t I n s t i t u t e and P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . J o i n t M e e t i n g . V a n c o u v e r , November, 1982. V a n c o u v e r Sun. C l i p p i n g s F i l e : T e r r a Nova. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , F i n e A r t s D i v i s i o n : V a n c o u v e r . V a n c o u v e r Urban R e s e a r c h Group. F o r e v e r D e c e i v i n g y o u , t h e P o l i t i c s o f V a n c o u v e r Development, V a n c o u v e r , 1972. Va s u , M i c h a e l L e e . P o l i t i c s and P l a n n i n g . The U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s : C h a p e l H i l l , 1979. Wiesman, Brahm. C l a s s N o t e s , S p e c i a l C o u r s e f o r P l a n n e r s f r o m  C h i n a ' s Open C i t i e s . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C e n t r e f o r Human S e t t l e m e n t s and S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g : S p r i n g , 1990. 102 A p p e n d i x One L I S T OF KEY INFORMANTS INTERVIEWED (*) M u n i c i p a l O f f i c i a l s Ron Mann - D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g B r i a n J a c k s o n - ( f o r m e r ) Manager o f Development S e r v i c e s R i c h a r d McKenna - M u n i c i p a l C l e r k (**) C o u n c i l Members G i l B l a i r - Mayor (Richmond I n d e p e n d e n t V o t e r s A s s o c i a t i o n ) C o r a z a n P e r c i v a l - S m i t h - A l d e r m a n (Richmond I n d e p e n d e n t V o t e r s A s s o c i a t i o n ) G r e g H a l s e y - B r a n d t - A l d e r m a n ( C i v i c New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y ) Harold. S t e v e s - A l d e r m a n ( C i v i c New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y ) Members o f t h e P u b l i c Don Cummings - P r e s i d e n t , Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y M a r i o n S m i t h - F o u n d e r , D i r e c t o r , Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y J o h n R o b e r t s - member, Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y S a n d r a Bourque - f o r m e r member A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g C ommission R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e D e velopment Community O l g a I l l i c h - V i c e P r e s i d e n t , Land D e v e l o p m e n t , P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . (*) In a d d i t i o n , Ray Young, o u t s i d e l e g a l c o u n s e l f o r t h e T o w n s h i p o f Richmond, W a l t e r Badun, C.E.O., P e n r e a l A d v i s o r s L t d . , and B a r r y S m i t h , P l a n n e r , A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission were i n t e r v i e w e d f o r b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n . (**) T h i s p a r t i c i p a n t d i d n o t c o m p l e t e t h e w r i t e i n p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a r i e , b u t d i d r e s p o n d t o q u e s t i o n s i n a d i a l o g u e . Appendix Two 103 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s  d e c i s i o n i n t h e Township o f Richmond. Q u e s t i o n s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n A a r e c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s w h i c h ask t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t o r e s p o n d on a s c a l e f r o m " s t r o n g l y a g r e e " t o " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " . S e c t i o n B a r e open q u e s t i o n s w h i c h ask t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o p r o v i d e a s t a t e m e n t b a s e d on t h e i r o p i n i o n s 'of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s d e c i s i o n . S e c t i o n A 1. The p u b l i c was a f f o r d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l s t a g e s i n t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s f r o m i n i t i a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e p l a n t o t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 2 . The o n l y means a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s was t h e s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t o f a p u b l i c h e a r i n g as o u t l i n e d by t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 3 . The T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a t t r a c t e d b o t h a l a r g e number o f Richmond r e s i d e n t s as w e l l as. o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d members o f t h e p u b l i c f r o m o u t s i d e o f t h e T o w n s h i p . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 4. The T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were a d v e r t i z e d i n a manner t h a t w o u l d a t t r a c t a l a r g e a u d i e n c e . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 5 . Those t h a t a t t e n d e d t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s r e p r e s e n t e d a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Richmond. S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 1C4 6. T h o s e t h a t made p r e s e n t a t i o n s a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n s t h a t were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e Township o f Richmond. S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 7 . D u r i n g t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y emerged as a v o c a l , l o c a l a d v o c a c y g r o u p f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e T e r r a Nova f a r m l a n d . The p r e s e n c e o f t h e Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y made a p r o f o u n d i m p a c t on t h e Richmond c o u n c i l members c h a r g e d w i t h making a d e c i s i o n on t h e f u t u r e use o f t h e l a n d . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 8. B o t h t h e w r i t t e n and o r a l s u b m i s s i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c , w h i c h were made d u r i n g t h e T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , i n f l u e n c e d , i n some way, t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 9 . P r i o r t o e n t e r i n g i n t o t h e T e r r a Nova h e a r i n g s , Richmond c o u n c i l members r e p r e s e n t e d a n e u t r a l b o a r d c h a r g e d w i t h t h e d u t y , as e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t o make a d e c i s i o n . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 10. When making t h e i r d e c i s i o n , e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d have assumed t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made d u r i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e g r e a t e r Richmond community. S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 105 11. Members o f Richmond's m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s h o u l d s ee t h e i r d u t y as e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s as one t o a c t i n t h e r o l e o f a p u b l i c t r u s t e e and v o t e i n t h e l o n g t e r m , b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p u b l i c , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p u b l i c . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 12. The p u b l i c was w e l l - i n f o r m e d o f t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e z o n i n g o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don 1 1 Know 13. The p u b l i c was f u l l y aware o f t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e r e z o n i n g o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 14. The p u b l i c was f u l l y i n f o r m e d o f t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e f u t u r e u s e o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s as o u t l i n e d i n t h e r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 15. The n a t u r e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , as i t was u s e d i n t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s d e c i s i o n , n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t t h e p u b l i c who p a r t i c i p a t e s be b o t h h i g h l y i n f o r m e d and e d u c a t e d . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 16. The p u b l i c h e a r i n g was a q u i c k and c o n v e n i e n t way f o r m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s t o h e a r f r o m t h e members -of t h e p u b l i c on t h e i s s u e o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s r e z o n i n g . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 106 17. The p u b l i c h e a r i n g was t h e most e f f e c t i v e manner i n w h i c h t o e n c o u r a g e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o t h e i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e r e z o n i n g o f t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r Ag r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 18. The p r o c e d u r e f o r n o t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e T e r r a Nova l a n d s s o u g h t t o e l i c i t i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e p u b l i c who h e l d a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t s . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 19. The T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s h e a r d s u b m i s s i o n s t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d a wide r a n g e o f community i n t e r e s t s . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 20. The T e r r a Nova p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a l l o w e d f o r a d i a l o g u e t o d e v e l o p between o p p o n e n t s and p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e r e z o n i n g . S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r A g r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 21. The emergence o f an i d e n t i f i a b l e i n t e r e s t g r o u p - Save Richmond F a r m l a n d S o c i e t y - f a c i l i t a t e d a d i a l o g u e t o d e v e l o p e between t h e p u b l i c , p l a n n e r s , d e v e l o p e r s and c o u n c i l members. S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e N e u t r a l o r Ag r e e S t r o n g l y A g r e e Don't Know 107 2 2 . The p u r p o s e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c a l l e d t o h e a r r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e : t o i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m s t o i n f o r m a n d / o r e d u c a t e t h e p u b l i c o f t h e p l a n t o r e c e i v e f e e d back on t h e p l a n t o g e t i d e a s and s o l v e p r o b l e m s t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s and r e a c h c o n s e n s u s t o i mplement s o l u t i o n s 2 3 . The p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c o n d u c t e d on b e h a l f o f t h e T e r r a Nova r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n : i d e n t i f i e d p r o b l e m s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c p r o v i d e d f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e p u b l i c on p r o p o s e d p l a n s p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s i m p l e m e n t e d s o l u t i o n s S e c t i o n B A l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e P u b l i c H e a r i n g 1. When s h o u l d t h e p u b l i c be i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s ? , i e . A t what s t a g e i n t h e p r o c e s s ? , Would d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n mechanisms be u s e f u l a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s i n t h e p r o c e s s ? 2. Who s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s ? , i e . Who s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o a t t e n d ? , who i s t h e p u b l i c ? , eg. a l l members o f t h e community e q u a l l y , f o r m a l i z e d e x i s t i n g g r o u p s , (eg. Chamber o f Commerce, l o c a l c h a p t e r s o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s ) , o r ad•hoc i s s u e - s p e c i f i c g r o u p s ? 3 . L i t e r a t u r e on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e p u b l i c , t o seek a p p r o v a l f o r p l a n s , and t o g a t h e r wisdom and i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e p u b l i c . Why, i n y o u r o p i n i o n , s h o u l d t h e p u b l i c be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ? , xe. What i s t h e purpose, o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g ? 4 . G i v e n t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f o f f i c i a l community p l a n s i n most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e n o t r e l i a n t s o l e l y upon p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , i n s t e a d upon a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r means o f p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t , o f t e n more c o n s u l t a t i v e t h a n p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , and t h e c u r r e n t f u r o r o v e r v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s by t h e p u b l i c , how s h o u l d t h e p u b l i c be i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s ? , i e . What a l t e r n a t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods would b e s t be employed t o maximize t h e b e n e f i t s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and m i n i m i z e t h e c o s t s ? 5 . S h o u l d t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s d i s c u s s e d be s p e c i f i c a l l y l e g i s l a t e d i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t as r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s ? Or, s h o u l d t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t m e r e l y r e q u i r e t h a t " o t h e r f o r m s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n " b eyond " p u b l i c h e a r i n g be u t i l i z e d , l e a v i n g t y p e , t i m i n g and e f f e c t i v e n e s s up t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y ? 

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