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Knowledge of marriage and family concepts and perceived competence of marriage educators conducting marriage.. Farnden, Rosan 1990-12-31

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KNOWLEDGE OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY CONCEPTS AND PERCEIVED COMPETENCE OF MARRIAGE EDUCATORS CONDUCTING MARRIAGE PREPARATION IN TWO PROTESTANT DENOMINATIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by ROSANNE FARNDEN B.H.E., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1985  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  DEPARTMENT OF FAMILY  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the required  THE  STUDIES  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  1990  (c) Rosanne F a r n d e n , 1990  In presenting degree  this  at the  thesis  in partial  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  thesis by  British Columbia, and study.  for scholarly  his  publication of this thesis  or  her  C  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2788)  the  requirements  I agree that the  for  an  purposes  representatives.  may be It  is  granted  advanced  Library shall make it  I further agree that permission for  for financial gain shall not  permission.  Department of  fulfilment of  by the  understood  that  extensive  head  of my  copying  or  be allowed without my written  Abstract M a r r i a g e i s perhaps i n s t i t u t i o n i n Canadian  the most popular v o l u n t a r y  society.  F i f t y - s i x percent of B r i t i s h  Columbians choose t o be m a r r i e d i n a C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h . these couples w i l l  Most of  f i n d t h a t they are r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n  a m a r r i a g e p r e p a r a t i o n program.  Little  i s known about these  m a r r i a g e p r e p a r a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t e s , or about the i n d i v i d u a l s p r o v i d e these o p p o r t u n i t e s . S i n c l a i r , 1981;  Recent s t u d i e s  (Bader, R i d d l e &  R i d l e y , Avery, H a r r e l l , L e s l i e & Dent,  have begun t o demonstrate  who  1982)  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the f i e l d  of  m a r r i a g e p r e p a r a t i o n , but no s t u d i e s examine the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of  educators.  T h i s s t u d y had two o b j e c t i v e s : 1) to measure the  knowledge of m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y concepts of marriage  educators  p r o v i d i n g marriage p r e p a r a t i o n and 2) to r e - t e s t Wright's f i n d i n g t h a t c l e r g y do not p e r c e i v e themselves p r o v i d e r s of marriage p r e p a r a t i o n . A n g l i c a n Church  t o be competent  A random sample of 25% of  i n Canada and U n i t e d Church of Canada  c o n g r e g a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  (n=117) r e s u l t e d i n 62  educators responding to t h i s study. r a t e of 57.7%.  (1976)  The  This represents a  marriage  response  respondents were asked t o complete a s e l f -  a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e which a l l o w e d f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of demographic i n f o r m a t i o n about the c o n g r e g a t i o n s and  respondents  as w e l l as the measurement of the dependent v a r i a b l e p e r c e i v e d competence, s i x independent  v a r i a b l e s and four c o n t r o l  As no i n s t r u m e n t s t o measure knowledge of marriage and c o n c e p t s were a v a i l a b l e , and  a measure was developed  (KMFC).  family  for t h i s study  i s known as the Knowledge of M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y  Instrument  variables.  Concepts  Respondents were found t o have moderate  ii  scores  on  KMFC and  competent results  providers  were  dependent analysis of  found  and  preparation.  Further  f o r the  determined  competence  themselves  of m a r r i a g e  v a r i a b l e s and  m a r r i a g e and  training  perceived  preparation.  the  independent  in content research  number  study  of  significant  implies  are  variables.  g e n d e r , and  hours spent  areas r e l e v a n t  studies  No  Post  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  f a m i l y c o n c e p t s and  This  reasonably  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e i t h e r o f  significant  total  t o be  that  iii  hoc  knowledge  between  perceived  i n marriage  c l e r g y need  to marriage  suggested.  the  increased  preparation.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  L I S T OF TABLES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION  CHAPTER  1  Purpose  4  Definitions  5  Limitations  5  Basic  6  Assumptions  Significance  of the Study  6  Organization  o f t h e Remainder o f t h e T h e s i s . . . . . 7  TWO  REVIEW  OF THE LITERATURE  8  Introduction  8  Rationale  9  History  f o r Marriage Preparation  of Marriage P r e p a r a t i o n  Approaches t o Marriage P r e p a r a t i o n Qualifications  of M a r r i a g e  17  Preparation  Providers Independent  13  20 Variables  24  Control Variables...  26  R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s : Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e And F a m i l y C o n c e p t s R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s : P e r c e i v e d Competence  28 29  iv  CHAPTER THREE METHODS  30  Introduction  30  Subjects  30  Procedure  32  Development  o f Demographic Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Development  o f Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e and  F a m i l y Concepts  Instrument  33  34  Reliability  39  Validity  40  Analysis  o f t h e Data  42  CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS AND RESULTS  43  R e s p o n s e Rate  .43  Description  o f Sample C o n g r e g a t i o n s  43  Description  of Marriage Educators  45  Dependent V a r i a b l e s Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y Instrument Results:  48 Concepts  Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y  Concepts  50  Results:  P e r c e i v e d Competence  Research  Hypotheses:  and  Post  Hypotheses:  52  Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e  F a m i l y Concepts  Research  48  54  P e r c e i v e d Competence  Hoc A n a l y s i s  60 64  v  CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION  72  AND CONCLUSIONS  72  Summary D i s c u s s i o n : Knowledge of Marriage .and Family  73  Concepts  D i s c u s s i o n : Perceived Conclusions  Competence  and I m p l i c a t i o n s  Recommendations  for Further  77 80  Research  81  REFERENCES  84  APPENDIX A  92  APPENDIX B  103  vi  LIST  OF TABLES  TABLE  PAGE  1  Marriage  2  Alpha  3  Group Means and T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e Subscales  4  5  P r e p a r a t i o n Program Content  Coefficients  Areas  36  f o r KMFC S u b s c a l e s  Demographic D e s c r i p t i o n Demographics  o f Sample  40 f o r KMFC 41  Congregation 44  F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s  o f Sample  Congregation  Demographics  44  6  Demographic D e s c r i p t i o n  7  F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s  8  Reliability  9  Factor Analysis Greater  of Respondents of Respondent  46 D e m o g r a p h i c s . . . . 47  o f KMFC S u b s c a l e s  49  o f KMFC Items:  Eigenvalue  Than 1.0  50  10  Distribution  o f KMFC S u b s c a l e s and I n d i v i d u a l  11  Distribution  o f P e r c e i v e d Competence  12  Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y C o n c e p t s by Denominat i o n Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y C o n c e p t s by Level of Education  13 14  Items  Subscales  ..51 53  55 57  Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and Ranges o f Independent V a r i a b l e s : T h e o l o g i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n , Number o f Weddings and Number o f Y e a r s i n Ministry  59  15  P e r c e i v e d Competence  by D e n o m i n a t i o n  62  16  P e r c e i v e d Competence  by L e v e l  63  17  P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x : Dependent, I n d e p e n d e n t , C o n t r o l and S e l e c t D e s c r i p t i v e V a r i a b l e C o r r e l a t i o n Under P r o b a b i l i t y .2000  of E d u c a t i o n  vii  66  TABLES 18  19  20  PAGE  M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n of M a r i t a l S t a t u s , T h e o l o g i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n , G e n d e r , Number o f Weddings p e r Y e a r , Age, # o f Y e a r s i n M i n i s t r y and It o f Y e a r s M a r r i e d on Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y C o n c e p t s  68  M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n of L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n , G e n d e r , Age and Number o f Y e a r s M a r r i e d on P e r c e i v e d Competence  69  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : # of Years i n M i n i s t r y by Gender  71  viii  Acknowledgements I am i n d e b t e d t o Dr. M a r g a r e t A r c u s f o r h e r g u i d a n c e and s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . t r u e m e n t o r , she has t a u g h t me much a b o u t b e i n g a p r o f e s s i o a n a l and a s c h o l a r . My s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o D r . P h y l l i s J o h n s o n , Dr. J i m White and Dr. R i c h a r d Young who s e r v e d on my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , f o r t h e i r c r i t i q u e o f my work. To my p a r e n t s and f a m i l y who a l w a y s t h a n k s and l o v e f o r s e e i n g me t h r o u g h .  believed  i n me,  my  My t h a n k s t o D i c k C h r i s t i a a n s e whose g e n e r o u s l o a n o f a c o m p u t e r e n a b l e d me t o make i t t h r o u g h t h e f i n a l months. To my f r i e n d s , and c o l l e a g u e s go many t h a n k s f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t , e n c o u r a g e m e n t and p r a y e r s d u r i n g my y e a r s i n g r a d u a t e school. And  now, l e t t h e weak s a y I am s t r o n g , L e t t h e poor s a y I am r i c h , Because o f what t h e L o r d has done, Give thanks.  ix  A  CHAPTER  ONE  Introduction It Canadian year  i s estimated men  will  86%  1989). T h e s e  in divorce,  very popular. 64%  married church  fact,  that  to p a r t i c i p a t e  Columbia of  in  churches  marriage  couples  to p a r t i c i p a t e group  remaining  who  divorce,  marriages  76%  (Adams & Nagnur,  as  of marriage  have f o r m a l p o l i c i e s  was  jurisdictions  a survey  in  chose  that  i n formal marriage  strongly  i n Canada  that  participate  by t h e  1,550  amount  Ninety-five  they required  couples  the  1990).  1  in  British  the  preparation  preparation opportunites offered  and  which r e q u i r e  (i.e.,  i n t e r v i e w s or g r o u p e d u c a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s ) ,  5% s t r o n g l y recommended  a  p r e p a r a t i o n . In  i n order to i d e n t i f y  indicated  were  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  r e c e n t l y conducted  and  1987  (56%)  p r e p a r a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e .  responded  still  1989).  r e q u i r e d or  the A n g l i c a n Church  in their  will  o f t h e men  c o u p l e s , 11,750  of marriage Family,  Each  is apparently  t h e y were e i t h e r  In 1989,  of t h o s e  structured  who  these  C o u n c i l f o r the F a m i l y  activity  institution  i n some form  Church,  percent  the  Of  such  preparation. Columbia  of C a n a d i a n  21,094 c o u p l e s were m a r r i e d  that  a l l couples married  British  that despite  c e r e m o n y . Most o f t h e c o u p l e s who  some c h u r c h e s ,  marriage  28%  marry a g a i n  1988).  t h e Roman C a t h o l i c  that  of t h o s e  ceremony f o u n d  advised  indicate  as an  Columbia,  i n a church  lifetime.  Statistics  Indeed,  Statistics,  of  figures  o f t h e women w i l l  (Vital  their  83%  (Adams &  marriage  In B r i t i s h  women and  r e p r e s e n t s some 176,00 c o u p l e s  Canada's c u r r e n t p r e d i c t i o n end  of Canadian  m a r r y sometime d u r i n g  i n Canada, t h i s  Nagnur,  that  (B.C.  take  while  advantage  Council for  There marriage  may  be a number of reasons why  preparation.  demonstrate  churches  Such p r e p a r a t i o n may  support  be seen as one way  to  the high regard t h a t C h r i s t i a n churches have f o r  marriage.  By r e q u i r i n g marriage  preparation,  churches  indicate  to engaged couples and to t h e i r congregations that they see the m a r i t a l commitment t o be a s e r i o u s one, lightly.  T h i s p r e p a r a t i o n may  the growing  not to be entered  be i n c r e a s i n g l y important  s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y  with  (Bibby, 1987), as many  c l e r g y f i n d they are asked t o conduct marriage c o u p l e s t h e y do not know.  into  ceremonies  Marriage p r e p a r a t i o n may  for  provide an  o p p o r t u n i t y to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p with these couples and communicate t o them some of the church's b e l i e f s and v a l u e s  to  about  marriage. C h r i s t i a n churches do not o n l y value marriage, however; they value l a s t i n g marriages. r e q u i r i n g marriage  Churches may  p r e p a r a t i o n may  perceive that  be seen as one way  to lower  the d i v o r c e r a t e and to reduce m a r i t a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . (1988) has noted t h a t , a t l e a s t can be  in part, marital  l i n k e d to u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s about  Through marriage  p r e p a r a t i o n , churches  may  Larson  dissatisfaction marriage.  b e l i e v e that they can  a s s i s t c o u p l e s to examine such e x p e c t a t i o n s and to assess t h e i r r e a d i n e s s f o r marriage. There effective.  i s growing  evidence that marriage  Bader, R i d d l e and S i n c l a i r  (1981) r e p o r t that  f i v e year f o l l o w - u p study of couples who preparation  program, couples i n the  p r e p a r a t i o n can in a  had taken a marriage  experimental group had  less  c o n f l i c t , used more c o n s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p a t t e r n s ,  2  be  made fewer  hostile  to  help s e e k i n g behaviours than d i d couples i n the  exhibit  control  group.  skills Dent the  program,  Ridley,  (1982) d e t e r m i n e d t h a t problem  solving,  resolution  effective  that  positive  and  effectively  communication  (1989)  PREPARE, a  125-  was  c o u p l e s , while Wolfe Encounter  on t h e m a r i t a l  skills  Olson  relationships,  a weekend Engaged  effect  Leslie  using  (1981) f o u n d t h a t  with premarital  (1988) r e p o r t e d  a significant  Olson  likely  week  L a r s e n and  used t o a s s e s s p r e m a r i t a l  i n working  Harrell,  and  i n t h e c o u r s e . In o t h e r s t u d i e s ,  inventory  Kokes  Avery,  c o u p l e s were s t i l l  conflict  Druckman, Waxman and  item  a n o t h e r and were more  In a s i x month f o l l o w - u p o f an e i g h t  development  learned and  comments t o one  and  event  adjustment  had  of the  participants. Despite success  of  remain. and  the growing  marriage preparation,  First,  Denton,  programs  number o f s t u d i e s w h i c h  the f i e l d  1979).  The  lack  studies  demonstrate Denton,  and  longitudinal  (1979)  continues  completed, studies.  there  Such  (Schumm  base means t h a t  few  regarding  effectively"  p . 2 2 ) . Second,  support the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  q u e s t i o n s have been  qualifications  Denton  have been  concerns  framework  "convergence be done  the  a l t h o u g h some  is s t i l l  a  lack  of  s t u d i e s a r e needed  to  of the f i e l d  (Schumm  1979).  Finally, and  i t could  N u n n a l l y and Wackman, 1976,  comprehensive,  and  of a t h e o r e t i c a l  demonstrate  what s h o u l d be t a u g h t o r how  evaluation  i s s u e s and  lacks a theoretical  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  (Miller,  several  indicate  t o be  raised  about  the  preparation  of m a r r i a g e e d u c a t o r s (Leger, 1988).  state  that  neglected  " the t r a i n i n g  of p r e m a r i t a l e d u c a t o r s  i n the l i t e r a t u r e "  3  Schumm  (p. 26).  Rolfe  and  (1985) the  believes that  area  of m a r r i a g e  pastoral the  c l e r g y must work t o e s t a b l i s h c r e d i b i l i t y  skills  training  preparation  are  and  necessary.  of m a r r i a g e  indicates that  It i s these  educators  in  particular  concerns  regarding  which g i v e s  rise  to  this  (1976) f o u n d  that  ministers  study. In a n a t i o n a l s t u d y , involved  i n marriage  perceive  t h e m s e l v e s t o be  provide  marriage  perceived  lack  preparation their or  not  been  preparation  these  leads  preparation  on  to a  the  marriage  or  not  competent  to  of the  a  marriage  l a c k o f consumer c o n f i d e n c e Little  accurate.  f o u n d w h i c h have examined t h e  provide  States did  (1985) b e l i e v e s t h a t  part  skills.  are  United  prepared  Rolfe  o f competence  perceptions  i n the  adequately  preparation.  provider  marriage  Wright  i s known as  To  date,  no  qualifications  to  in  whether  studies  of t h o s e  have who  preparation.  Purpose The the  purpose  qualifications  Since  i n the  marriage  Columbia. of  this  that  church  educators The  study  study  Q0%  ministers themselves  and  2)  in British  1980), t h i s  has  two  o b j e c t i v e s : 1)  study  i n marriage  adequately  to assess  f a m i l y concepts held  prepared  education.  4  by  is focused  in  do  not  or c o m p e t e n t  British  the  level  marriage  (1976) f i n d i n g  preparation  of  Columbia.  i n s e l e c t e d C h r i s t i a n churches  t o re-examine Wright's  involved t o be  t o examine s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s  of m a r r i a g e p r e p a r a t i o n  (Fournier,  knowledge o f m a r r i a g e and  educators,  was  of marriage e d u c a t o r s  i t i s estimated  conducted on  of  that  perceive to provide  such  Definitions The in  following  this  are d e f i n i t i o n s  While  Canada c o n g r e g a t i o n s  not  include  more t h a n  the  offical  term  i s 'pastoral  Marriage  including marriage  enrichment,  3. M a r r i a g e experiences  in this  in this  study.  study to  p r e p a r a t i o n and  which h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s  i n marriage  i s 'parish',  be used  courses, marriage  Educator.  to assist  i n Canada u n i t s  A l l formal educational experiences  One who  understand  conducts  marriage.  formal e d u c a t i o n a l  education.  4. Marr i a g e P r e p a r a t i o n . One intended  body under one c l e r g y , a n d  b o d i e s sampled  family studies  Church  w h i c h may o r may  1  congregation w i l l  Education.  f o r United  charge ,  one w o r s h i p p i n g  to the worshipping 2.  the o f f i c i a l term  f o r A n g l i c a n Church  t h e more g e n e r i c t e r m refer  a r e used  study:  1. C o n g r e g a t i o n . of  o f terms t h a t  form  engaged c o u p l e s  of marriage  t o prepare  education  for their  own  marr i a g e . 5. intended  Premarital Counselling. to resolve  specific  Therapeutic  relationship  intervention  issues  b e f o r e a wedding  occurs. 6. intended  Marriage  Enrichment.  to assist  One  form  of marriage  m a r r i e d c o u p l e s t o enhance  education  their  relationships. Limitations This 1). provide  of the Study s t u d y has t h e f o l l o w i n g  This investigation marriage  was  limitations:  limited  t o those  Individuals  p r e p a r a t i o n i n t h e B.C. C o n f e r e n c e  5  who  of the U n i t e d  Church of Canada and  four B r i t i s h Columbia Dioceses  A n g l i c a n Church i n Canada (Westminster, B r i t i s h Caledonia  and  Cariboo). Permission  marriage educators  was  of  the  Columbia,  not obtained  to  contact  i n the Kootenay Diocese of the A n g l i c a n Church  i n Canada. 2).  Only two  educators  of the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of marriage  are examined: p e r c e i v e d competence and  marriage and aspects  aspects  f a m i l y concepts.  knowledge of  This study does not examine other  of competence such as a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s or  training.  B a s i c Assumptions T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was 1) . and  The  instruments  provided  based on the f o l l o w i n g assumptions:  used were a p p r o p r i a t e  adequate data  f o r the purposes of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  2) . A l l respondents i n the w i l l i n g l y and  T h i s study  Study  i s perceived  of f a m i l y s c i e n c e and  had  little  which  or no a t t e n t i o n i n the study of marriage  providing i n i t i a l  provide  t r a i n i n g and  education  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o v i d e r s of marriage p r e p a r a t i o n .  6  field  i n f o r m a t i o n of  continuing  have  educators.  to the development of the  in that i t w i l l  field  of marriage  i n that i t attempts to explore questions  marriage p r e p a r a t i o n those  to be of importance to the  i n p a r t i c u l a r to the f i e l d  T h i s knowledge i s important  to  investigation participated  honestly.  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the  preparation  research t o o l s  of use  Organlzation  o f t h e Remainder  A review in  Chapter  analysis  In Chapter  are described.  i n Chapter presented  2.  of l i t e r a t u r e  of the T h e s i s relevant  to this  3, t h e methods The  findings  5.  7  i s presented  o f t h e s t u d y and  data  of the study are o u t l i n e d  4 and t h e summary, c o n c l u s i o n s and i n Chapter  study  implications are  CHAPTER  TWO  Review o f L i t e r a t u r e Introduction This  review  informal  socialization  development field  the  Rationale  learning  interactions  i n the  preparation providers i s  The h y p o t h e s e s  t o be t e s t e d  f o r marriage  within  roles  i n peer  groups.  f o r marriage  Hill  begins  Through  family  interactions,  marriage  itself  and a b o u t  As w e l l ,  specific  and A l d o u s  through  i n marriage.  l e a r n about  the importance  through  (1969) n o t e d  l e a r n about t h e  important  children  and i n  i n the family of o r i g i n  individuals  and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  family t i e s .  has been an  i s , i t has o c c u r r e d p r i m a r i l y  i s t h e p r i m a r y means by w h i c h  marital  Issues  e x p e r i e n c e s i n one's f a m i l y of o r i g i n  socialization  about  the h i s t o r i c a l  preparation.  of marriage  socialization  informal  values,  the value of  of c h i l d r e n  observation, children  p r o c e s s e s which a r e a p a r t  of marriage  and o f may  or forms o f a f f e c t i o n .  F o r example, c h i l d r e n  witness their  p a r e n t s as t h e y h a n d l e  conflict  relationship.  While  child  about  nevertheless conflict  the spouses  conflict  learns  resolution  may n o t have  resolution  intended t o teach  i n such s i t u a t i o n s ,  observation.  8  may  i n the m a r i t a l  some o f t h e norms, v a l u e s a n d / o r through t h i s  learn  such as  roles  the  and  f o r Marriage Preparation  process, that  and  formal  presented.  informal  that  and t r a c e s  of  r e v i e w a r e p r e s e n t e d . One o f t h e s e  thesis.  Historically,  one's  examination  of m a r r i a g e  the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  study are also  an  f o r marriage,  out of t h i s  focus of t h i s  this  with  of the f i e l d  arising  issues,  begins  the c h i l d  skills  As w e l l ,  of  through  observation,  c h i l d r e n l e a r n such t h i n g s  as when and  how  to  express a f f e c t i o n . Although H i l l historically  the  and  family  primary s o c i a l i z i n g contemporary  i t able  of  marriage"  and  Contemporary  and  society  t o an  patterns The  industrial  unit,  one.  and  marriage,  change  of s e v e r a l  changes  s o c i e t y and  that  the tasxs  of the  skills  have  particularly  t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m an  monetary system, marriages,and  i n Western  in  agrarian  the t r a n s i t i o n  changes  in  society during  The  of labour  were r e l a t i v e l y  of goods and  learning  9  of a l l  family clear  couple services  As c h i l d r e n grew, t h e y became  family,  last  s o c i e t y t o an  r o l e s of the m a r i t a l  the production  life.  the  s o c i e t y , the c o n t r i b u t i o n s  division  1987).  around  for d a i l y  nor  structure.  t h e r o l e s and  to centre  of  t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m a home  In t h e a g r a r i a n  Rodgers,  task.  family  members were e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e  necessary in  and  the  that  less effective in socializing  been t h e t r a n s i t i o n from an a g r a r i a n  ( A h r o n s and tended  one,  believe  p.89).  i n western  t o companionate  most o b v i o u s  c e n t u r y has  family  because  economy t o an e x t e r n a l  institutional  family  be  include:  industrial  the  on-the-job t r a i n i n g i n the  f a m i l i e s may  These  as  for this  a r i s e s because  A l d o u s , 1969,  are occurring  families.  production  been s u c c e s s f u l  o f s u c h knowledge a b o u t  members f o r m a r r i a g e  western  from  the d i f f i c u l t y  to provide p r a c t i c a l (Hill  that  f o r marriage, they d i d not  " i s not a r e p o s i t o r y  occurred  had  f a m i l i e s were a d e q u a t e l y e q u i p p e d  is  their  (1969) a c k n o w l e d g e d  of o r i g i n  agent  They s u g g e s t e d t h a t origin  Aldous  involved  the r o l e s n e c e s s a r y f o r  family  m a i n t e n a n c e as  enactment  of  most  socialization there next  was  family  change  little roles  translated  i n t o a new r i s e of  transition external  an  i n the  family  at  to  be  or  the  Informal  s u f f i c i e n t . Because  f r o m one families of  generation within  a  to  the  particular  o r i g i n could  be  marriage.  industrial society  from a r e s o u r c e  those  of  members were no essential  w i v e s and  longer  g o o d s , but  brought about  a  home p r o d u c t i o n economy t o  of  ability  came an  i d e a l i z a t i o n of to  i t s former  a  of  production"  idealized  expressive  roles,  m o t h e r . The formal  schooling  direct  i n t e r a c t i o n with  marital  roles;  roles As  B u r g e s s and  home as  an  ( A h r o n s and  and  through  society  i n the  of  i n the  the  of  children a  in  place  and  both w i f e  to  -  These  wife  and  changed  they c a r r i e d  had  out  learn  as less  their about  s o c i a l i z a t i o n processes.  has  important  that  of  result, children  t r a n s i t i o n from an  Locke note  change  p.6).  also  less able  wage  location,  set  above, the had  the  instrumental  roles  p a r e n t s as  were t h u s  informal  an  roles,  of  on  R o d g e r s , 1987,  norm. As  children  production  expressive  the  family  "Along with t h i s  an  e x p e r i e n c e s of  their  These  l e s s dependent  became p a r t  changes  husband/father  well.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as  became the  indicated  industrial  the  roles  and  as  husband/father.  furthering roles  children  co-labourers  the  contrast centre  o n l y the  became more or  earning  mother  families,  family  e a r n money, a f f e c t i n g not  also  these  between  observed  m o n e t a r y s y s t e m . Many husbands began t o work o u t s i d e  home t o but  learned  i n and  In s u c h  in families  difference  community,  The  roles.  f o r marriage appeared  little  and  they p a r t i c i p a t e d  an  t h e r e has  10  impact  also  on  agrarian marital  been a change  to  an  roles. in  the  nature  of m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s :  . . . t h e f a m i l y i n h i s t o r i c a l t i m e s has b e e n , and a t p r e s e n t i s , i n t r a n s i t i o n f r o m an i n s t i t u t i o n t o a c o m p a n i o n s h i p . I n t h e p a s t , t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s u n i f y i n g t h e f a m i l y have been e x t e r n a l , f o r m a l and a u t h o r i t a r i a n s u c h a s t h e law, t h e mores, p u b l i c o p i n i o n , t r a d i t i o n , t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e f a m i l y h e a d , r i g i d d i s c i p l i n e and e l a b o r a t e r i t u a l . In t h e new e m e r g i n g form o f t h e c o m p a n i o n s h i p f a m i l y , i t s u n i t y i n h e r e s l e s s and l e s s i n community p r e s s u r e s and more and more i n such i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s as t h e mutual a f f e c t i o n , the s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , and t h e c o m r a d e s h i p o f i t s members. (1960, p . v i i ) . As  marriages  i n each s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n  institutional variation  and more c o m p a n i o n a t e ,  i n marital  Eshleman  there  and  focus  intimate  children" be  (1974) d e s c r i b e s  the nature  on t h e u n i t y  characterized  that  such a marriage  d e v e l o p s out o f mutual a f f e c t i o n p a r e n t s and  on t h e c o m p a n i o n a t e model may  by: 1) a f f e c t i o n a s t h e b a s i s  2) husband and w i f e  activities  greater  of the companionate  a s s o c i a t i o n o f husband and w i f e ,  3) m a j o r d e c i s i o n s  of  that  (p.125). A marriage based  existence;  has been  less  patterns.  ( o r c o m p a n i o n s h i p ) m a r r i a g e . He b e l i e v e s "would  have become  with equal  for  status  and a u t h o r i t y ;  made by c o n s e n s u s ; and 4) common  c o e x i s t i n g with d i v i s i o n  i n t e r e s t s (Eshleman,  of labour  1974). In c o n t r a s t  its  i n t e r e s t s and  and i n d i v i d u a l i t y  t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  m a r r i a g e where t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p o u s e s d e p e n d s on t h e enactment marriage  of s p e c i f i c  r o l e s , the companionate  i s b a s e d more on t h e " s k i l l e d  interpersonal Mace of  and d e f i n e d  the past  established  management o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p s " (Mace, 1975, p.10)  (1975) s u g g e s t s t h a t required  while  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  no s p e c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n  r o l e s and b e c a u s e c h i l d r e n c o u l d  11  because o f directly  marriage its  observe the  enactment  of  emphasizing  most o f  interpersonal  preparation. skilled  t h e s e r o l e s , the  He  family  of  origin  that  the  the  family  of  i s not  the  skills  necessary  members only  ability  of  power  the  family  is further  Hill  equipped  of  origin  (Hill  model'  and  had  Aldous,  present,  o f m a r r i a g e were not  "interethnic,  interclass,  and  Aldous  to t r a i n  division  the  that  each spouse b r i n g s  of  marriage the  (Hill  other  should  of  1987); the greater  also  career  two  changes  family  & Aldous,  number  the in  roles  the  one  however, much  l i k e l i h o o d that from the  family  be d i f f e r e n t .  the  marital  as  and  i n t e r - r e l i g i o u s unions are  marriage  ability  tasks  l i m i t a t i o n s of  the  Several  reflect  1 9 6 9 ) . When c o u p l e s grew up  p.456), w i t h the  will  for  its  i t can  o f c o n c e r n . Today,  and  that  marriages.  of  1964,  origin  members  i n t e r a c t i o n s such  (Bardis,  of  (1969)  to s o c i a l i z e  more numerous" models of  the  s i m i l a r f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d s , and  than at  the  i t s members. T h u s ,  limited in that  approach to m a r i t a l  same community,  were more r i g i d %  for  making, problem s o l v i n g , the  balance the  of  *model' or  decision  training (i.e.,  i n contemporary companionate  for marriage  one  argument of well  such  relationships) that  i s unable to provide  Mace's v i e w s s u p p o r t  The  i t is this  interpersonal  origin  marriaqe  r e l a t i o n s h i p s does r e q u i r e  believes  management o f  companionate  career  number o f  be  and  1969;  higher  of  i n western  origin  to s o c i a l i z e  n o t e d . These the  families that  include  shortening  of  the  i t s members the  two  incidence  worker m a r r i a g e s of d i v o r c e  s i n g l e parent,  parental  12  for of  career,  growing  (Ahrons & Rodgers,  ( H u f f , 1 9 8 3 ) ; and  binuclear,  the  lengthening  R o d g e r s & W i t n e y , 1981); the or  limit  and  the  stepfamilies  (Ahrons that the  & Rodgers,  the r e a l i t i e s  1987).  origin  and  was  Aldous  observed  "weak i n p r o v i d i n g and  evaluation  of the degree  inadequate  and  abilities  for  formal s o c i a l i z a t i o n  to  this  include: school  has  may  marriage  satisfaction  couples to strengthen their  c o u r s e s which  e d u c a t i o n which History An of  who  skills  t h e r e was  a  need  and  These  interpersonal  relationships 3)  I t i s o n l y the  i s relevant  to this  and  response  of f o r m a l programs  i n f o r m a t i o n on d a t i n g ,  marital  skills;  One  of  Education courses offered  and,  and  i n high  mate  communication; married through  gaining  Marriage P r e p a r a t i o n  latter  for their  form  of  own  marriage  study.  o f Marr i a g e P r e p a r a t i o n examination  marriage  study.  education.  of  and  i n the  i n our s o c i e t y .  h e l p engaged c o u p l e s t o p r e p a r e  forthcoming marriages.  family  systematic supervision  programs d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t  u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and  the  marriage  (p.928),  to  origin.  programs t o p r o v i d e a p e r s p e c t i v e  i n marriage  2) M a r r i a g e E n r i c h m e n t  new  f a m i l y of  o f competence d e v e l o p e d  examine b a s i c  marital  indicate  not c o r r e s p o n d  b e e n t h e emergence o f a v a r i e t y  programs  which  may  knowledge a b o u t  1) g e n e r a l F a m i l y L i f e  selection,  i n the  in providing  knowledge a b o u t  educational  marriage  necessary for marriage"  need  in families  (1969) c o n c l u d e d t h a t b e c a u s e  parenthood  systematic  changes  of contemporary  'model' o f m a r r i a g e Hill  These  o f the h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t  preparation helps to provide a setting  Through  this  have c o n t r i b u t e d  major changes which  examination, to t h i s  one  development  have o c c u r r e d s i n c e  13  of the for  field  this  i s able to i d e n t i f y and  to indicate  i t s inception.  those  the  Sociologist courses in  i n marriage  the  (Huff,  1983). In b o t h  of  these  used  1983).  A  lecture-style  i n d i v i d u a l s who  part  to  be  o f an  Another preparation  preparation  the  preparation on  religious  the  r e f e r r e d to as, they  general  the  called  education.  marriage  the  family  Heibert,  1987).  1983;  an  typical  educational  Levine  The  preparation Small 14  of  first  marriage approach  goals  tended  t o be  appear u n t i l  group approaches  As  conducted  documented example  did not  and  and  & Brodsky, 1949).  e a r l i e r p r o g r a m s , these c o u r s e s l e c t u r e approach.  sexuality  marriage.  1940's, the  t o use  course  essentially  included discussions  for  of  intended  a l s o have  (Huff,  1949).  and  marriage  c o n c e p t s of m a r i t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  & Brodsky,  the  issues regarding  1930's and  group marriage  (Huff,  concerned  program c o n t i n u e d the  were  i n Stahman and  r e l a t e d to preparing  lifestyles  a group  (Levine  may  stability,  have been t a k i n g  t h e s i s as  cited  traditionally  Through the  focused  1957  and  used t o e d u c a t e g r o u p s  opportunites,  in this  c o n t r o l , but  areas  While  1932  educational  family relations  p r e m a r i t a l e x a m i n a t i o n by  (Matheson,  birth  not  in  of p r e v e n t i n g  e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n w h i c h was  was  These v i s i t s  or may  Carolina  education  Institute  increasing family  q u a l i t y of  couple.  been d e f i n e d  physician  goals  a p p r o a c h was may  engaged  marriage  what has  small  the  premarital  e a r l y p r o g r a m s , an  to a d d r e s s the  and  Boston U n i v e r s i t y  U n i v e r s i t y of N o r t h  Merrill-Palmer  m a r i t a l d i s t r e s s and  happiness,  as  the  first university at  community-bas.ed  the  marital  in  first  initially  at  at  alleviating  single  later  developed  a p p r o a c h was  with  preparation,  1964 ). The  p r o g r a m was  other  Groves o f f e r e d the  e a r l y 1920's and  (Kerkhoff,  and  Ernest  1949  allowed  of  opportunites intended  for couple  process  After pastoral  of  World  the  War  interaction  to  occur  as  part  of  the  course.  I I , changes  i n the  field  c o u n s e l l i n g i n f l u e n c e d programs  of p s y c h o l o g y  i n marriage  preparation  (Summers & Cunningham, 1 9 8 9 ) . In p s y c h o l o g y , a t t e n t i o n from a  focus  on  relationships  as w e l l , r e s u l t i n g  o f m a r i t a l and interaction  family therapy.  and  dysfunctional be  i n t r a p e r s o n a l issues to  of c o u p l e s  had  preparation. adjustments focus  couples  a profound  The  this  With from  a  own  development,  focus  on  approach  actual  expectations  roles, 1958;  appear  regarding  and  Tigue,  concerned and  c l e r g y added  the  with  the  this  literature  (Fairchild,  1959).  15  1959;  help  marriage (Huff,  preparation  methods  emotional  also during  to  1950*s  individual  s t u d i e s e v a l u a t i n g marriage preparation i n the  the  i n marriage  and  this  religious  late  instructional  sexual  1 9 5 8 ) . I t was  marriage  in interpersonal  during  the  programs  could  This  i n v e n t o r i e s intended  during  passive  which  1987).  relationships  emerged  experiential  to  teaching  field  marital  development of  of t e s t s and  1983).  first  the  development  experience  the  on  (Stahman & H e i b e r t ,  their  of  approaching marriage.  of m a r r i a g e  examine  of t h e  i n s i g h t s were g a i n e d  effect  traditional  preparation  (Oates,  conflict  t o m a r r i a g e were a l s o e m e r g i n g , and  components  moved  study  In p a s t o r a l c o u n s e l l i n g , i n t e r e s t  to t h e i r  couples  experiencing  shifted  interpersonal  development  Through the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , new  a p p l i e d to teaching  information  In t h e  include  and  to  an  couple's  adjustment period  courses  Mace, 1952;  that began Wiser,  Leadership 1960's as  in  marriage  preparation  changed  i n c r e a s i n g numbers of t h e r a p i s t s and  other  during  the  mental  h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s became i n v o l v e d i n the area  (Summers &  Cunningham, 1989). P h y s i c i a n s no longer provided  d i r e c t marriage  p r e p a r a t i o n but became c o n s u l t a n t s to other p r o f e s s i o n a l s (Schumm & Denton, 1979). Problem-oriented problem s o l v i n g and  conflict resolution s k i l l s  augment the p r e v i o u s (Ellis,  1961;  approaches f o c u s i n g on  i n s t r u c t i o n a l and  Mitchell,  1967;  were developed  to  e x p e r i e n t i a l methods  Rutledge, 1966;  Whitlock,  1961).  Developments d u r i n g the 1970's i n c l u d e d the establishment programs f o r s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n s disabled and  the  (Walker, 1977); the d i v o r c e d or widowed (Huff, 1983);  couples  (Shonick, content  such as the handicapped and  wherein a t l e a s t one  i n d i v i d u a l was  a minor  1975). More s p e c i a l i z e d methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n  and  were a l s o developed, as r e f l e c t e d by the Minnesota  Couples Communication Program ( M i l l e r , Nunally  & Wackman,  1976); The  Conjugal  1976); and  R i d l e y ' s program i n c o n f l i c t management ( R i d l e y ,  R e l a t i o n s h i p Enhancement Program  (Rappaport,  Avery, H a r r e l , L e s l i e & Dent, 1981). As w e l l , e v a l u a t i o n of  the  e f f e c t s of marriage p r e p a r a t i o n on l a t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t i s f a c t i o n and s e c u l a r and Nunally  of  on couple  stability  increased  r e l i g i o u s programs (Microys  & Wackman, 1976;  VanZoost, 1973;  in both the  & Bader, 1977;  Miller,  Walker, 1977).  As t h i s b r i e f review i n d i c a t e s , the major changes i n marriage p r e p a r a t i o n s i n c e the  i n c e p t i o n of the f i e l d  changes i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs and f i e l d s which provided  include  approaches, changes i n the  l e a d e r s h i p i n program d e l i v e r y , and  i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n to s t u d i e s of the 16  impact of marriage  preparation  programs.  development  o f new programs has peaked and t h a t c u r r e n t  development  focuses  (Stahman & H i e b e r t major the  There  i s some i n d i c a t i o n  that the  on t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s 1987; H u f f ,  1983).  l e a d e r s h i p i n the d e l i v e r y  programs  At the p r e s e n t  of these  programs  c l e r g y , by f a m i l y c o u n s e l l o r s , and o t h e r  program  time,  i s p r o v i d e d by  family  professionals. Approaches  t o Marr i a g e P r e p a r a t i o n  Although preparation, preparation relevant 1978;  a brief  Buckner  of d i f f e r e n t  help  types  to c l a r i f y  A review  marriage  of  marriage  the perspective  of the l i t e r a t u r e  1985; G u l d n e r ,  (Beeson,  1970; Mace, 1975; Schumm time  there are s i x  i n t e r v e n t i o n approaches t h a t a r e l a b e l e d as  studies  Marr i a g e E d u c a t i o n . r e c e i v e through  This  i s the type  a high  school  of p r e p a r a t i o n  family  life  unit,  a home e c o n o m i c s c o u r s e  or a u n i v e r s i t y  course.  These u n i t s and c o u r s e s  i n c l u d e t o p i c s such as  mate s e l e c t i o n , careers.  dating, marital satisfaction  The g o a l s  of study  terms of t h e i r education couples  marriage  These i n c l u d e :  one would  education  such  study.  & Salts,  1. G e n e r a l  area  review  1979) i n d i c a t e s t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t  preparation.  which  o f programs a r e c a l l e d  programs w i l l  to this  & Denton, major  many k i n d s  of such  and t o h e l p  courses  an approach  explore  marriages.  i s u s u a l l y not intended  i n preparing  are to present  individuals  own p o t e n t i a l  for their  i s too general  and f a m i l y  this  General  to assist  own m a r r i a g e s .  life  marriage  a s an  information i n  marriage  specific  premarital  As s t a t e d  t o be c l a s s i f i e d  17  family  as  earlier,  marriage  preparation referred Denton, 2.  and i s i n c l u d e d h e r e o n l y b e c a u s e  t o i n some l i t e r a t u r e  as marriage  Therapeutic  Counselling. Therapeutic  a treatment  to  "meet t h e needs o f c o u p l e s  rather  than  presenting  problems"  therapeutic  counselling i s limited  considered  (Schumm & Denton,  t o be i n need  1977). Because t h i s  of c r i s i s method  counselling  p s y c h o l o g i s t r a t h e r than  of  l e c t u r e s on t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o  apply  by  one i n s t r u c t o r ,  covered  building  brought  & than  educator.  area.  approach  design,  together  large  groups  for a series These  i n f o r m a t i o n and u s u a l l y do n o t t o d i s c u s s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n or The l e c t u r e s may be  of t o p i c s t h a t  include planning  by  might  f o r the wedding,  close relationships,  and s e x u a l  presented  s e s s i o n may be p r e s e n t e d  Examples  i n v e s t i n g and i n s u r a n c e , interior  who  i n t e r v e n t i o n (Wright  the marriage  individual  i n that t o p i c  in this  Typically,  m a r r i a g e and w e d d i n g s .  provided.  or each  and m a i n t a i n i n g  budgeting, storage,  t o convey  the information  a specialist be  are t y p i c a l l y  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r couples  to  1979, p . 2 4 ) .  In the group l e c t u r e approach,  p r e m a r i t a l couples  provide  and o f t e n  i t i s t h e domain o f t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t o r  of  sessions are designed  specific  i s therapeutic rather  i n focus,  Group L e c t u r e .  c o u n s e l l i n g i s based  to dysfunctional couples  educational  3.  (Schumm &  an e d u c a t i o n a l model and i s d e s i g n e d  distressing  L'Abate,  preparation  1979).  on  are  i t has been  resolving conflicts  meal p l a n n i n g concerns  and f o o d  i n marriage  (Hoopes  & F i s h e r , 1984 ) . 4. I n s t r u c t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g . A t y p i c a l counselling  i s "preparing  couples  18  to adjust  goal  of i n s t r u c t i o n a l  realistically  their  expectations  of m a r r i a g e  exposure to a v a r i e t y (Schumm & D e n t o n , by  individual  couples. t o be  s u c h as  o f t e n used  Information empirical of  and  own  on  approaches  conducted  the  and  and  1977,  marriage  preparation should  modification  of t h e  be  p.178).  1986a)  (Rolfe,  1983)  couple  and  marriage  the  not  the  19  found  to  conveying The  i n the  basis  in  field  general  confused who  labeled  as and  information  to p r a c t i c e  and  skills  d e c i s i o n making.  enrichment approach with are  I n t e r v e n t i o n . Post-wedding instructional  p.24).  given  opportunity  for those  merely  structured  r e s o l u t i o n and  be  couples  Enrichment  a l s o be  generally  many s i m i l a r i t i e s ,  programs d e s i g n e d  nature.  a transactional  Couples are  conflict  there  Post-Wedding  "can  its theoretical  are  with  these  f o r the  i s more u s e f u l t h a n  p r e p a r a t i o n may  provided  are  Forms  that equipping  i n f o r m a t i o n and  Although  6.  premise  & L'Abate,  communication,  enrichment  with  & Druckman,  information  of enrichment  education  and  out  the  approach.  i n a group s e t t i n g .  instruction  Fournier  (Schumm & D e n t o n , 1979,  instruction  to marriage  preventative  problems"  s k i l l oriented  Assessment  initial  concerns  advice"  (Wright  and  and  o f f e r e d by  carried  enrichment approach to  communication,  background"  s u c h as  The  underpinnings  programmed  systems,  (Olson,  Preparation  i s "based  their  typically  educational  to provide  Enrichment.  with  are  structure for this  preparation deal  p . 2 4 ) . These p r o g r a m s a r e  PREPARE  are  5.  frequently occurring marital  o f an  R o l f e ' s Marriage  provide  information  When o f f e r e d t o g r o u p s of c o u p l e s ,  and  to  p r o v i d i n g them w i t h  c o u n s e l l o r s and  programs tend Instruments  of  1979,  c l e r g y and  by  marriage  already  married.  intervention is a  c o u n s e l l i n g format.  It is  to  unique  i n that  i tutilizes  meeting, a c o n t r a c t  Schumm  belief  that  (Beeson,  premarital  starry the  dynamics  the state that  of t h e i r  couples  need  time  they are ready  to adjust  couples are usually "too  about t h e i r  own f e e l i n g s and  He s u g g e s t s  to the r e a l i t i e s  of marriage  to recognize  education  that  a b s t r a c t , and  the p o t e n t i a l f o r  offered at this  f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p enhancement  preparation,  only  counselling,  e n r i c h m e n t and  to this  the f i n a l  exercises.  Regardless qualifications  approaches ( i n s t r u c t i o n a l  post-wedding  Preparat ion  of the approach of those  A review  i n d i c a t e s 'that  three  marriage  intervention) are  study.  Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f Marr i a g e  concern.  time a l s o c a n  s i t u a t i o n s from t h e c o u p l e ' s e a r l y months o f m a r r i a g e  A l t h o u g h a l l o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s may be c a l l e d  relevant  before  1970), d i f f i c u l t i e s and  r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e no l o n g e r  problems e x i s t s . Marriage  that  i n t e r v e n t i o n . Approximately s i x  (Bullock,  c o u p l e s may be more w i l l i n g  examples  premarital  f o r any e x t e r n a l  i n a marital  as  on t h e  own r e l a t i o n s h i p .  be i n t h e f u t u r e .  months a f t e r t h e wedding  actual  i s based  r e l a t i o n s h i p , e i t h e r as i t e x i s t s a t t h e  or as i t might  use  of t h e i r  (p.115) t o be o b j e c t i v e  present  conflicts  format  1970; G u l d n e r ,  couples a r e u s u a l l y not i n a p o s i t i o n t o  (1971) s u g g e s t s eyed"  o u t l i n i n g a s e t of  1978; B u l l o c k ,  & Denton, 1979). T h i s  examine r e a l i s t i c a l l y Guldner  one p r e - w e d d l n g m e e t i n g . A t t h a t  i s made w i t h t h e c o u p l e  post-wedding s e s s i o n s 1971;  only  t o marriage p r e p a r a t i o n , the  providing  the education  of the Family L i f e  there  Providers  a r e two major  20  Education  issues  i s o f major literature  i n a l l areas  of F a m i l y  Life the  Education - the effectiveness qualifications  Council  of the educators  on F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s ,  literature  suggests  preparation.  that  (e.g., Arcus,  1984).  The m a r r i a g e  these a r e a l s o  major  leaders  i n marriage  with the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  have been u n d e r t a k e n  of the f i e l d  t o examine t h i s  1981; S t u c k e y ,  1986).  The i s s u e  literature  studies  "qualified  success  o f programs  concern  at  a graduate  family  life  i n the  of the marriage evaluation  o f t h e l e a d e r s and 1983).  on F a m i l y  Relations  e d u c a t i o n because  and/or  directly  b y Stahman  to the  they  implementation  w i t h t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e i n preparation,  specific  this  training,  i n the areas of r e l a t i o n s h i p family studies  Columbia  are  o f programs  and H e i b e r t ( 1 9 8 7 ) , who b e l i e v e  1988 c o n s u l t a t i o n British  Smith-  educators are c r i t i c a l  regards t o marriage  interaction,  Vancouver,  Council  life  i n family  level,  studies  1980; H u f f , 1983;  & Guerney,  Council  p r e p a r a t i o n p r o v i d e r s need  A February, in  With  reflected  marital  (Most  f o r t h e development  (p.l).  marriage  (Eggeman,  t o f o c u s on t h e t r a i n i n g  as w e l l as i n t e r a c t i n g  is  and s e v e r a l  and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  by t h e N a t i o n a l  (1984),  them"  more and more  has n o t been a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s e d  o f t h e programs  noted  responsible  (1981),  However, one o f t h e outcomes o f t h e  facilitators As  that  i s t h e need  i n marriage  Eggemann, Smith-Eggeman, M o x l e y , & Schumm,  i s the t r a i n i n g  educators.  education  e d u c a t i o n appear  Eggeman, M o x l e y & Schumm, 1986; F o u r n i e r , Sabey,  1987; N a t i o n a l  issues  A c c o r d i n g t o B a g a r o z z i and Rauen  contemporary concerned  of t h e v a r i o u s approaches and  sponsored  f o r t h e F a m i l y and t h e B r i t i s h  21  that  preferably  counselling,  and r e l a t i o n s h i p  with marriage  concern  assessment.  preparation providers  by t h e B r i t i s h  Columbia  Columbia  M i n i s t r y of  Health  echoed  these  In t h e f i e l d  reported that  qualifications British  of those  Columbia,  investigation (Leger,  1988).  Ensuring do  that  so p r o v i d e s  t h e y were c o n c e r n e d  further  the c e r t i f i c a t i o n  The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  who  preparation in  training  p r o g r a m s and an  of f a c i l i t a t o r s  of marriage  preparation prior  offer  important  professionals  about t h e  marriage  protection  and programs  educators  as more and more c h u r c h e s  i n marriage those  consultation,  i n v o l v e d i n marriage  important  participate  At t h a t  and r e q u e s t e d  into  increasingly to  concerns.  become  require  to their  couples  wedding.  education are q u a l i f i e d to  f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n such  programs.  offer  In s p i t e  of these  training  o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the area of marriage  A review  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  University few  concerns,  field  calendars  and t h e U n i v e r s i t y  secular institutions while  Fuller  however, v e r y few  indicates  of Northern  which o f f e r  Illinois  specific  Theological Institute,  the E a s t e r n B a p t i s t  that  institutions preparation.  Purdue a r e among t h e  training  Biola  i n the  U n i v e r s i t y and  T h e o l o g i c a l S e m i n a r y a r e among t h e few  theological  institutions  which o f f e r  on  f o r marriage  p r e p a r a t i o n . At the present time, the  training  two  major  theological  little  in this  Regent  College offer  counselling. and this  a r e a . Both  While  There  focusing exclusively  in British  t h e Vancouver  a general course  School  Columbia  course  i n the s p r i n g deal d i r e c t l y  have been a number  in pastoral  very and  c a r e or i n Marriage  o f 1987, o n l y 1 1/2 h o u r s i n with marriage  of r e c e n t attempts  22  offer  of Theology  Regent C o l l e g e i n t r o d u c e d a c o u r s e  Family Ministry semester  institutions  courses  preparation. to develop  training Miller,  programs 1976;  for marriage  Mace, 1975;  1 9 8 3 ) . However, t h e r e qualifications  of  approximately provided  by  trained past,  are  no  that  t h e y had  'high  only  of  concerns about  inadequate  examination  of  the  who  the  1,  only  two  providers  aspects  c o n c e p t s and the  be  2)  dependent  Independent  bulk  of  i . e . , the  will  the  the  perceived  variables  1)  will  knowledge  competence.  for this  the to  perceived  that  marriage available the  for  clergy's  competence  stated  that  of  an  those  i n marriage  conducted.  qualifications  studied:  of  of  perceived  be  in  i t i s important  opportunities  clergy,  of  because  better  According  training  preparation,  of  the  literature  have a p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e  section  and  Wright  they are  studied  are  As  of of  noted  marriage  i n Chapter preparation  m a r r i a g e and  T h e s e two  aspects  family become  study.  Variables  A review  of m a r r i a g e  is l i t t l e  knowledge and  1980).  that  provision  the  stated,  t h a n t h e y were  c l e r g y he  providers  Buckner,  opportunities  prepared.  i n the  Because t h e r e  preparation,  the  Salts &  previously  (Fournier,  inadequately 42%  preparation  provide  As  preparation  competence'  preparation. marriage  feel  (Curtis &  w h i c h have examined  w h i l e many c l e r g y r e p o r t  they s t i l l (1986),  1983;  preparation  clergy  for doing marriage  Orthner  studies  educators.  the  providers  & Guerney,  of a l l m a r r i a g e  members of  (1976) f o u n d  Most  marriage  80%  preparation  and  family  describe  on  indicates that  the  dependent v a r i a b l e s  c o n c e p t s and these  perceived  variables.  23  several  variables knowledge  competence.  This  Position  on S t a f f  Individuals so  from  potentially different  British one  Columbia,  clergy  such  person  (United  c a r e and c h r i s t i a n  and a n o t h e r  individuals  these  area  of m i n i s t r y  education. therefore  train  Publishing  specialization  also  counselling  enable  from t h e i r  make use o f p a r a - c h u r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  directly  or marriage  aligned  such as m a r r i a g e  specialized  t o m i n i s t e r and  preparation.  Project  i n B u r n a b y , B.C., a j o i n t  Other  that i s ,  programs s u c h a s p a s t o r a l  w i t h a n y one p a r t i c u l a r  o f s u c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n  those  particular  e d u c a t i o n which a r e f a i t h - c e n t r e d  example  denominations  1988).  congregations t o conduct  churches  counselling  t o conduct  House,  in a  l a y people  programs or s e r v i c e s  which o f f e r  in British  or c h r i s t i a n  specific  organizations  for pastoral  a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s or  such as p a s t o r a l  volunteers  i n preaching  many c h u r c h e s  Church  who have some  Some c h u r c h e s  a r e a . F o r example,  who i s r e s p o n s i b l e  (United  In  on h i s or h e r  other than o r d a i n e d c l e r g y  individuals  paraprofessionals  House, 1 9 8 8 ) .  who s p e c i a l i z e s  e d u c a t i o n . As w e l l ,  some a s p e c t s o f m i n i s t r y Typically,  based  in a particular  employ one m i n i s t e r  employ  In many c h u r c h e s i n  Publishing  i s hired  or t r a i n i n g  administration  Columbia  Church  a person  gifts  a church might  positions.  e d u c a t o r s do  c o n g r e g a t i o n s a r e a b l e t o employ more t h a n  situations,  particular  and  w i t h i n a c h u r c h who a c t a s m a r r i a g e  denomination.  but not One  i s the Interchurch Marriage effort  of several mainline  t o p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e s t o s t r e n g t h e n the marriages of  in their  c o u r s e s as w e l l  churches. This centre o f f e r s as marriage  and f a m i l y  24  marriage p r e p a r a t i o n  counselling.  Denomination Denominalationism of  principles  principles assumed about  or  or  interests.  these p r i n c i p l e s  marriage,  and  institutions unlikely  variables  clergy  they w i l l  of t h i s  concerned considered findings are  clarify  one  Level The  marriage i n Canada  faith.  and  Therefore, i t  on t h e  who  dependent  c o n s i d e r e d themselves  less  training  preparation)  impact  might  expect  would  In c o n t r a s t ,  that  than  of Canadian practice.  further  those  to find  who  that  Orthner's those  (1984) f o u n d  clergy Given  be  were more  be more q u a l i f i e d  s t u d y be  of t h e o l o g i c a l  and  liberal.  Wright  to  in pastoral  was  not a  as that  these d i f f e r e n t  conducted  who  the  significant  i n order  findings, to  orientation.  of E d u c a t i o n  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s (1984)  established  beliefs  theological  significantly  theologically  liberal  of c o u n s e l l i n g  the  those  t o be  orientation  i s important  be  p a s t o r s i n the United S t a t e s ,  marriage  that  educators.  indicator  of  i t s p l a c e i n the church  themselves  theological  it  that  more t h e o l o g i c a l l y  marriage  a t t h e same  i t may  affect  about  i n the  Orientation  (including  suggest  might  beliefs  statements  c o n s e r v a t i v e had  about  theology,  set  study.  (1986) found  counselling  affect  differ  In a s t u d y of M e t h o d i s t  theologically  their  vary  i n the A n g l i c a n Church  have s i m i l a r  that  denominations  interests  of Canada t r a i n  and  Theological  Orthner  that  and  therefore,  However,  the U n i t e d Church  is  Given  i n t e r e s t s w h i c h make up  that  education.  i s d e f i n e d as d e v o t i o n t o a s p e c i f i c  a s e t of c r i t e r i a  f o r the c e r t i f i c a t i o n  25  of  has Family  Life  Educators.  academic  degree  Heibert is  One  of these  training  that  for marriage  in counselling,  relationship  training  Curtis  interaction, and  Miller  conducting marriage  specific  courses.  be  academic  related  Years As  has  t o one's a b i l i t y  indicated  i n the review  as a p r o f e s s i o n  Thus  have had  during their  on m a r r i a g e  level  marriage  of l i t e r a t u r e ,  e v o l v e d over  Denton  many m i n i s t e r s  i t s format  t h o s e c l e r g y who  more e x p o s u r e and  has  may  to marriage  have had  preparation.  do  (1979) s u g g e s t n o t seek  further  that  one  changed trained and  o f the  training  family seminars  training  to suggest  i n any  qualified  that  g i v e n y e a r would as  marriage  i n the a r e a .  t h o s e c l e r g y who  reasons  i n marriage  further  reasonable  years.  Year  weddings to warrant  The  of e d u c a t i o n  specific  not conduct a s u f f i c i e n t  Control  a c o r e of  t h e p a s t 60  t h e y do  well  that  marriage  i s that  weddings  and  preparation.  Schumm and  preparation  that  training  Number o f Weddings per  that  has  i t is possible  more r e c e n t l y may content  family studies  suggests that  made g a i n s i n a c c e p t a b i l t y and  greatly.  specific  (1976) a r g u e  t o conduct  level  in Ministry  preparation It  This  some  p r e p a r a t i o n need  an  and  degree  educators, with at l e a s t  marital  asessment.  Stahman  at a master's  paraprofessionals  may  i s the c o m p l e t i o n of  i n an a p p r o p r i a t e d i s c i p l i n e .  (1987) b e l i e v e  necessary  criteria  conduct  volume o f It is very  n o t p e r c e i v e t h e need  t o become  educators.  Variables four  control  variables  proposed  26  for  this  few  study  included: Age Age effects  was u s e d  i n order t o c o n t r o l  for possible  i n t h e v a r i a n c e of the dependent  cohort  variables.  Gender Some i n t h e f i e l d should  be o f f e r e d  Marriage Enricment,  be  p r o v i d e d by s u c h  marriage from  that  to  are several  conduct  c o u p l e s would  believe  marital  benefit gender  was  that marriage  s t a t u s as a  education should  by t h o s e who have p e r s o n a l m a r i t a l  f o r Couples  marriage  Length  used  premarital  reasons t o include  Some i n t h e f i e l d  control  i n Marriage Enrichment,  only 'successfully'  education. I t i s possible  formarital  about  marriage.  experience  1984).  O t h e r s go  married couples should then that Thus,  t h o s e who  i t i s important  status.  of Marriage  b e i n g m a r r i e d does have an e f f e c t  marriage,  effect.  i n how t h e y  '  m a r r i e d may know more  about  could  t o be an u n d e r l y i n g  Because o f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s ,  f a r as t o s a y t h a t  If  f o r Couples  A s i d e from t h e m o d e l l i n g t h a t  Status  (Association  are  (Association  m a l e s and f e m a l e s d i f f e r  o n l y be c o n d u c t e d  conduct  teams  p r e p a r a t i o n programs  as a c o n t r o l .  There control.  marriage  teams, t h e r e a p p e a r s  p r e p a r a t i o n and t h a t  Mar i t a l  as  1984).  both approaches.  selected  that  by m a l e / f e m a l e  in  assumption  believe  then  length  Therefore, the t o t a l  of marriage length  as a c o n t r o l .  27  on one's  might  knowledge  have an added  of a l l marriages  was a l s o  Hypotheses: Knowledge  of Marrlage and Famlly Concepts  The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses and  f a m i l y concepts w i l l Hypothesis 1.  r e l a t e d to knowledge of marriage  be t e s t e d  i n t h i s study:  Those employed as s t a f f a s s o c i a t e s or i n  p o s i t i o n s other than g e n e r a l c l e r g y w i l l have a higher l e v e l of knowledge of marriage and f a m i l y concepts than g e n e r a l c l e r g y . Hypothesis 2. V o l u n t e e r s t r a i n e d as marriage educators have a g r e a t e r knowledge of marriage and f a m i l y concepts e i t h e r g e n e r a l c l e r g y or other church Hypothesis 3.  Knowledge  marriage  than  staff.  of marriage and f a m i l y concepts  held by marriage educators w i l l Hypothesis 4.  will  not vary by denomination.  The more t h e o l o g i c a l l y l i b e r a l  the i n d i v i d u a l  educator, the higher the knowledge of marriage and  f a m i l y concepts. Hypothesis 5. marriage  The higher the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the  educator, the g r e a t e r the knowledge of marriage and  f a m i l y concepts. Hypothesis 6. ministry,  The g r e a t e r the number of years  i n the  the lower the knowledge of marriage and f a m i l y  concepts. Hypothesis 7. The g r e a t e r the number of weddings  performed  a n n u a l l y , the higher the knowledge of marriage and f a m i l y concepts.  28  Hypotheses: Perceived The  f o l l o w i n g hypotheses  be t e s t e d  in this  Hypothesis  8.  perceived  competence  have a g r e a t e r or other  Hypothesis educators  will  Hypothesis  than  9.  general than  clergy will  general  Volunteers  level  will  staff.  10.  Perceived  not v a r y 11.  a s s o c i a t e s or i n  have a h i g h e r  t r a i n e d as m a r r i a g e  church  competence  competence  competence  i n marriage  marriage  preparation.  the greater  H y p o t h e s i s 13. The g r e a t e r the lower  either  general  by m a r r i a g e  the h i g h e r  l i b e r a l the  the p e r c e i v e d  preparation.  12. The h i g h e r  educator,  than  will  by d e n o m i n a t i o n .  educator,  marriage  l e v e l of  educators  reported  The more t h e o l o g i c a l l y  marriage  ministry,  competence  clergy.  of p e r c e i v e d  individual  Hypothesis  to perceived  Those employed as s t a f f  other  Hypothesis  related  study.  positions  clergy  Competence  the e d u c a t i o n a l the p e r c e i v e d  t h e number  the perceived  level  competence i n  of years  competence  of the  i n the  i n marriage  p r e p a r a t i on. Hypothesis annually,  14. The g r e a t e r  the higher  t h e number  the perceived  preparation.  29  o f weddings  competence  performed  i n marriage  CHAPTER THREE Methods Introduction This knowledge  s t u d y has two o b j e c t i v e s , of marriage  educators, ministers themselves This The be  and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s  and 2) t o r e - e x a m i n e involved  1) t o a s s e s s t h e l e v e l o f  Wright's  i n marriage  t o be competent  held  by m a r r i a g e  (1976) f i n d i n g  p r e p a r a t i o n do n o t p e r c e i v e  i n the p r o v i s i o n  of such e d u c a t i o n .  c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e m e t h o d o l o g y of t h i s specific  procedures  used  that  investigation.  i n conducting this  study w i l l  also  presented. Subjects The  population for this  educators, the  both  British  Church  l a y and o r d a i n e d , from  Columbia  (hereafter  o f C a n a d a , and f o u r  Anglican  Church  Columbia  and C a l e d o n i a ) .  study  because  study included  i n Canada  the p a s t o r a l  B.C.) C o n f e r e n c e  of the f i v e  t h e y were known t o be a c t i v e  i n B.C. They a l s o  populations  i n Canada. A c c o r d i n g t o B i b b y  with  claim  year,  conduct  (B.C. V i t a l  influence"on  British  were c h o s e n f o r  i n marriage  represent the l a r g e s t  This  (1987),  represents close  who d e s i g n a t e a p r o t e s t a n t  denominations  Cariboo,  protestant  10% o f  a f f i l i a t i o n s with the A n g l i c a n Church  the U n i t e d Church.  Canadians  of the U n i t e d  two d e n o m i n a t i o n s  preparation  Canadians  charges of  B.C. d i o c e s e s o f t h e  (New W e s t m i n s t e r , These  a l l marriage  Statistics,  a large  These  i n the province  1986) t h e r e b y h a v i n g  two each  potential  number o f B.C. c o u p l e s p r e p a r i n g f o r  30  16%  t o 60% o f a l l  affiliation.  30% o f t h e weddings  and  marr i a g e . Although  other  preparation, smaller  t h e y were n o t  protestant  Nazarine  and  As  have s m a l l e r  be  because the  numbers o f  of  perceived  variables  sexual  intercourse  status,  preparation  that  since  single  celibate.  the  writing United  individual  that  not  Anglican  congregation  was  who  about the birth  C a t h o l i c educators  are  length  that  size  study  that a majority  required  Secretary  diocese.  of  f r o m the  Lists  of  purpose  It  i n the  sample  of  B.C.  individual  25%  a number. of  31  obtained  Conference  of  each congregations (Anglican  a table  e a c h d e n o m i n a t i o n was  other  both  House, 1 9 8 7 ) .  Then u s i n g  and  marriage  was  Y e a r b o o k s of e a c h d e n o m i n a t i o n  assigned  of  control.  p r i e s t s or  B i s h o p of  Church P u b l i s h i n g  relevant  to remain  the  confound  of marriage  i n d i v i d u a l congregations  Canada and  of  to  sample  in this  C a t h o l i c church are  Executive  United  sample  the  specifically  teachings  Including  i n the  from t h e 1987;  the  thus r e q u i r e  included  ideologies regarding  orders  C h u r c h of  Book C e n t r e ,  numbers, a  would  Differences  include  to c o n t a c t  from the  were o b t a i n e d  and  i n order  i t is likely  providers  Permission  of  Brethren,  a v a i l a b l e to  c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s s u c h as  religious  in  study.  and  members o f and  Li3ts  t h e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s which might  preparation  confound  marital  studied  marriage  denomination.  i n the  also believed  might  study.  in  denominations appear  congregations  be  i n each  protestant  Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h was  to marriage  was  well, these  comparable  involved  in this  S q u a r e G o s p e l were not  entire population  The  included  also  d e n o m i n a t i o n s s u c h as .Mennonite  Four  researcher.  the  denominations are  of  Each random  selected.  The  number  of c o n g r e g a t i o n s  in this  C h u r c h p a s t o r a l c h a r g e s and  60  study  Anglican  included  57  United  parishes.  Procedure After from the data  permission  to conduct  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  were c o l l e c t e d  questionnaire.  by  number  109  117  were s e n t  one  complete copies  i n the  a c o p y of  sent  asked  to e i t h e r  the  one  one  month, r e m i n d e r  had  not  sample was  questionnaire to each  received Committee,  Of  of  which  the  127  letter  entire  who  letters  a  117  was  congregations  would p r o v i d e  of  the sent  were m a i l e d  marriage  that  out each  preparation  If a d d i t i o n a l  number of p r o v i d e r s ,  were s e n t  in  i n t r o d u c t i o n asked  number  by  number  O n l y e i g h t were  provides  The  determined  questionnaires of  A).  i n d i c a t e d the  questionnaire.  d u p l i c a t e the who  sent  (Appendix  location  questionnaire.  f o r the  researcher  E t h i c s Review  i n the  lists  The  the  was  introduction, questionnaire  congregation  were needed  contact  the  of c o p i e s  recipient  necessary  or  additional copies. After  to a l l congregations  who  responded.  Research Two The  of  of t h e  copy. A t o t a l  congregations.  individual  was  copies  to denominational  more t h a n to  letter  i n each c o n g r e g a t i o n .  sample,  study  means of a s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d  of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  reference staff  and  research  Columbia  Each c o n g r e g a t i o n  package c o n t a i n i n g a instructions  the  first  Variables dependent of  level  these  or  the  on  s e l e c t e d content  v a r i a b l e s were  investigated in this  i s knowledge of m a r r i a g e and  of knowledge h e l d areas.  The  by  individual  family  marriage  study. concepts, educators  second dependent v a r i a b l e i s  32  perceived  competence,  educator  perceives  provision  level  on  staff, years  In a d d i t i o n ,  Development The  to p r e m a r i t a l  marriage  and  its policies  individual  marriage  preparation  independent  regarding  The  c o n s i s t s of  of  respondents  two  s e c t i o n s . The  that  were a s k e d  information  f o r the one  personal  their  requested  provided  In a d d i t i o n ,  to provide  i n f o r m a t i o n about  on  training the  measurement  of t h e  i n d i c a t e how  competence was  competent  they  One  felt  measured  s c a l e asked  about  felt  i n e a c h of e i g h t major communication,  about working with  content  conflict  areas  premarital  resolution, marital  (These c o n t e n t  33  to  i n marriage  finance, sexuality, l e i s u r e / l i f e s t y l e , marriage.  the  providing  they  competent  general  the  competence).  how  and  of  dependent  indicate  origin  in  demographic  In a d d i t i o n , r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d  expectations,  first  congregation,  preparation.  preparation:  age,  congregation,  marriage  couples  per  married.  nine-point Likert-type scales.  to  These  of w e d d i n g s  preparation.  dependent v a r i a b l e p e r c e i v e d  a series  study.  i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the  c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s and  (perceived  number  of y e a r s  marriage  questionnaire  and  in this  programs o f f e r e d by  i n f o r m a t i o n and  of t h e  couples.  Questionnaire  demographic  p r e p a r a t i o n . The  variables  number  marriage educators  demographic  i n the  f o u r c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s were m e a s u r e d ,  instrument  requested  the  by  competent  i n m i n i s t r y and  of Demographic  research  marriage  denomination, t h e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n ,  g e n d e r , m a r i t a l s t a t u s and  section  to which the  h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f t o be  of e d u c a t i o n ,  section  extent  i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were used  position  year.  the  of m a r r i a g e p r e p a r a t i o n  Six include  or  areas  family  emerged  of  during  the development  of t h e  knowledge  Independent v a r i a b l e s determine in  position  on  individuals  what c a p a c i t y ( i . e . s o l e  clergy,  volunteer)  they  were a s k e d  i f t h e y were employed  volunteers.  Participants  denominational respondents scale  marriage  affiliation.  To  liberal  education  measured  beyond years  was  h i g h s c h o o l , and i n the  second  designed  specifically  and  to  conservative.  Instrument  by  be  L e v e l of  of f o r m a l  education  t h e number  of  purpose  indicated  t h e Knowledge  (KMFC), an  of t h i s  Knowledge of M a r r i a g e  literature  of m a r r i a g e  s t u d y t o measure and  that while  instruments  purpose  of t h i s  to help p r e m a r i t a l couples  expectations  attitudinal  The  use  Marriage  myths r a t h e r t h a n  Family  Concepts.  there are  Quiz  r a t h e r than  ( L a r s e n , 1988)  knowledge a b o u t  34  marriage.  a  none of  study.  The  ( O l s o n , F o u r n i e r & Druckman, 1976,  1986b.) a r e d e s i g n e d and  of  instrument  p r e p a r a t i o n instruments a v a i l a b l e ,  were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e  statements.  Likert-type  c o n s i d e r e d themselves  number of y e a r s  f o r the  variable  of t h e  ENRICH  on a s e v e n - p o i n t  orientation,  the Knowledge of M a r r i a g e Concepts Instrument  Family Concepts  the dependent  these  their  measure t h e o l o g i c a l  p a r t of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  and  number  they  ministry.  Marriage  A review  lay  or were  to note  m i n i s t r y experience  Development of and Family The  indicate  education. Additionally,  or t h e o l o g i c a l l y by t h e  To  to  associate,  by t h e c h u r c h  to rate  the e x t e n t to which they  theologically  staff  below).  follows.  were a s k e d  were a l s o a s k e d  were a s k e d  described  were measured as  staff,  provided  instrument  explore  PREPARE 1986a,  marital  knowledge focuses The  on  Survey  of C l e r g y  as  P r e m a r i t a l C o u n s e l l o r s Instrument  measure k n o w l e d g e a b o u t m a r r i a g e emphasizes content  parenting s k i l l s  typically  communication  found  skills,  develop  specifically  The review  first  of  Willett,  f o r the  & Fisher, 1975;  1984;  United  Lees  Columbia  or b e c a u s e a f u l l  chapter order  in  because  these  headings  marriage  areas  i n a l l t e n of nutrition) in  and  order  majority  they are  the  & Salts,  commonly u s e d of t h e  in  In e a c h of t h e s e  identified  areas  p r e p a r a t i o n programs. 1.  As  others  i n o n l y one instrument  1985;  Shonick,  and  in this  skills)  (interior  be  the  recorded  courses.  content  noted  or two. to  British  in  This  I t was  areas  for  table,  were design  some  present and  believed that  r e l e v a n t to  p r e p a r a t i o n programs, o n l y those  35  Hoopes  w h i c h were i n c l u d e d  The  communication  programs w h i l e  a  Columbia  programs,  content  i n Table  was  program i s  s i x t e e n key  of marriage  to  These programs were  i n these  research  an  Microys,  British  covered  were p r e s e n t  f o r the  (Bader,  R o l f e , 1983;  description  ( s e x u a l i t y and  Because  Instrument  content  listed  (e.g.  necessary  1985;  Buckner  s u b h e a d i n g s were  the  identified  each program a r e content  1988;  literature.  to determine  process  Barnes,  C h u r c h o f Canada, 1 9 8 6 ) .  i n the  i t was  programs  & Simonsen, 1983;  either  comprehensive  study.  & Conway 1980; 1980,  but i t  problem s o l v i n g ) .  not a v a i l a b l e ,  preparation  Family,  does  p r e p a r a t i o n programs  and  for this  selected  available  t h e more  i n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s  ten marriage  Sinclair, Council  step  was  family concepts,  r a t h e r than  sexuality,  instrument  one  and  i n marriage  appropriate  (Cunningham, 1986)  the  content  X  X  X  u>  X  X  X  X  X  Budgeting & Finances  X  X  X  X  X  X  Communication  X  X  X  X  Family of Origin  X  Future Work & Education  X  Interior Design  X  1—'  N3  X  X  >—'  X  Intimacy  X  Legal Concerns  ~J  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  VO  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  tNJ  X  VO  X  o  X  NJ  X  X  X  •  Lifestyle/ Leisure X  X  Parenting  X  X  X  M a r i t a l Roles & Expectations Nutrition & Meal Planning  X  X  U)  iage P r e p a r a t i o n Programs  X  Bader et al 1980  X  X  Barnes 1985  ««J  X  British Columbia Council on the Family 1980  X  British Columbia Council on the Family 1988  o  Buckner & Salts 1985  i—•  Hoopes & Fischer 1984  Lees & Slmonsen 1983  Rolfe 1983  Shonick 1975  United Church of Canada 1985  No. of programs  X  ~j  te ii  Planning the Wedd ing  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Problem S o l v i n g C o n f l i c t Res. Sexuality  Spirituality  X  X  X  X  36  Values  areas  present  should  be  analysis 40% as  in  at least  included  two t h i r d s  i n the f i n a l  of program c o n t e n t  and 70%.  content  areas  Resolution  (100%),  (90%),  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the  a natural  from t h i s Roles  and  Finances  of a  content  analysis: Expectations  (70%), Family  of O r i g i n  implied  but  as a s e p a r a t e  stages  and m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n .  Important The for  area next  of knowledge,  m a n u a l s and from a r e v i e w family  texts  Gullotta,  1974;  Klemer,  The were  Adams  basic  & Alexander,  1986).  programs  o f knowledge  This pool  t o be an  i n the  instrument.  statements  of statements  of the marriage  preparation  1986; K i r k e n d a l l & Adams,  & Chandler,  1987; S m i t h ,  1970; and  These t e x t s were s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e  f o r the i n c l u s i o n  that the questions  agreement  (Marital  included  i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y  key c r i t e r i a  preparation  area  and  o f s e l e c t e d i n t r o d u c t o r y m a r r i a g e and  1980; M a s t i n  & Devault,  provide  (70%),  ( C l a y t o n , 1979; Cox, 1987; G a r r e t t , 1982; G r e e n ,  1986;  Strong  area  included  a pool  areas.  from a f u r t h e r r e v i e w  Conflict  i t was p e r c e i v e d  i t was a l s o  each of the s e l e c t e d content  was d e v e l o p e d  This  (100%),  m a r i t a l adjustment, m a r i t a l  Since  s t e p was t o g e n e r a t e  Seven major  marriage p r e p a r a t i o n  topic.  i n f o r m a t i o n about marriage,  selected  (90%),  R e l a t i o n s h i p s ) was  i n these  between  Sexuality  ( 7 0 % ) . One a d d i t i o n a l c o n t e n t  general  break  area.  Leisure/Lifestyles  d i d not appear  reviewed  i n 70% o f t h e p r o g r a m s was  f o r the i n c l u s i o n emerged  Communication  Instrument.  indicated  Thus p r e s e n c e  the c r i t e r i o n  of the programs  reflected  programs r e v i e w e d  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  of a s t a t e m e n t the content  and t h a t t h e r e  concerning  37  they  concepts.  in this  pool  of the marriage  was  general  "the answer".  These  " a n s w e r s " or a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e s were  identified  There  was  a  Examples  total  each  of  response,  To  groups. Life  Family  and  Sciences, program  the  group  number  the  The  first and  the  value  In o r d e r  pool. in  other  behaves  systems  is a  the  to avoid question set  i n the  positive  University  g r o u p was  form  and  Family  of B r i t i s h  Psychology,  i n c l u d e d twenty  to construct a  Family  was  drawn from  Science  majors  graduate  Studies, School  and  and  s e t of q u e s t i o n s  S c i e n c e s and  in Family  i n Marriage  initial  recorded.  s e x u a l adjustment  why  of s t a t e m e n t s  entire  Nutritional  Counselling  achieve  were  False)  form.  Education  program  in this  were worded  or M o s t l y  t e x t s and  "Holding d i f f e r e n t  negative  reduce  Family  M.A.  i n c l u d e "To  some q u e s t i o n s  instrument,  two  statements  f o r c e i n marriage".  some i n t h e  final  128  manuals and  p a r t n e r must u n d e r s t a n d  h e / s h e d o e s " and  destructive  to  these  of q u e s t i o n s  marriage, way  from  ( M o s t l y True  and  administered  f o u r t h year i n the  School  students  i n the  of F a m i l y  Columbia  and  i n the  of B r i t i s h  i n d i v i d u a l s and  was  M.  Ed. of  Columbia.  labelled  of  Nutritional  C o u n s e l l i n g , Department  University  valid  This  'Student  Experts'. The fourth  'non-expert'  year  Nutrition U.B.C.  Dietetics program,  This  g r o u p used students School  group a l s o  and  to develop graduate  of F a m i l y  included  labelled  'Student  did  not  vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y  age,  gender  twenty  N o n - e x p e r t s ' . The from  or m a r i t a l s t a t u s .  38  and  the  t h e KMFC i n c l u d e d students  i n the  Nutritional  Sciences,  individuals  'Student 'Student  and  Non-expert' Expert'  M.Sc.  was group  group  in  Individuals statement 'Mostly  in these  i n the  True'  pool  or  the  if  correct  who  the  of  25%  t h a t item  Student  the  correct  was  to Nunnally  this  (1978),  expert  of S t u d e n t  i n the  be  deletion  c o n s i d e r e d as  of t w e n t y - e i g h t  In  Experts  was  where t h e  also  number  number o f c o r r e c t  poor w o r d i n g , a m i s l e a d i n g s t a t e m e n t ,  t h a t c o u l d not  group  designated  statement  cases  the  was  discarded.  number  answer, then  each  unsure  student  N o n - E x p e r t s who the  to  statement  t h e y were  of t h e  a n s w e r s were g r e a t e r t h a n  either  resulted  number  According  incorrect  statement  g r e a t e r than  to respond  whether t h e  F a l s e * or whether  "Don't Know"  designated  suggest  indicating  answer were g r e a t e r t h a n  discarded. of  If  with  addition,  by  'Mostly  ('Don't Know'). responded  g r o u p s were a s k e d  fact.  or  ones  a  T h e s e two  steps  statements.  Reliability The  third  reliabilty,  or  differences the  the  i n the extent  among t h e  to e s t a b l i s h  i t is likely  found  and  one  difference cannot  subscales method items  was  to  and  (Sax,  Family  high a  Concepts  level  one  items  f o r each  of d e t e r m i n i n g  Inventory,  of r e l i a b i l i t y  measurement were t h e n  of the  have s t r o n g and  case  rational  39  and  error.  grouped  alpha  an  be  that a  i n knowledge  into  areas.  eight In o r d e r  coefficients  e q u i v a l e n c e ) , the  were s y s t e m a t i c a l y d e l e t e d u n t i l  of  as p o s s i b l e  i n s c o r e s may  major c o n t e n t  significant  true  i t is  able to c l a i m with confidence  e x p l a i n e d as  remaining  internal  reflects  1 9 7 9 ) . In t h e  that only small differences  be  determine  t o w h i c h the measurement  i n s c o r e s measures a d i f f e r e n c e  103  subscales,  as  needs t o be  simply  The  analysis  respondents  Knowledge of M a r r i a g e  necessary as  step  alpha  least  that  (a  reliable  coefficient  of  O.30  ) was o b t a i n e d . While a c o e f f i c i e n t of .30 i s c o n s i d e r e d  low, f o r the purpose of the development of a new i n s t r u m e n t , especially  where the concept  has not been measured b e f o r e ,  alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s are acceptable (Nunnally, 1978). from the s u b s c a l e FINANCE were d e l e t e d before t h i s  lower  A l l 15 items coefficient  was o b t a i n e d . The a l p h a s c o r e s f o r the r e m a i n i n g seven s u b s c a l e s are r e p o r t e d i n Table i d e n t i f y the statement  2. The item numbers l i s t e d  i n Table 2  number on the f i n a l r e s e a r c h  instrument.  Table 2 Alpha C o e f f i c i e n t s  SUBSCALE  AND  f o r KMFC S u b s c a l e s  ITEM #  ALPHA  Communication ( 6 , 1 1 , 24) C o n f l i c t ( 5 , 1 0 , 18) L e i s u r e / L i f e s t y l e ( 9 , 15, 26) S e x u a l i t y ( 2 , 12) E x p e c t a t i o n s (14, 1 9 , 21) F a m i l y of O r i g i n ( 7 , 25) G e n e r a l M a r r . ( 4 , 2 0 , 27)  . 5598 .5194 . 3857 .3620 . 5564 . 5444 . 8732  Validity After  the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e instrument had been  i t was n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h w h i c h the i n s t r u m e n t and G a l l , 1 9 8 3 ) .  determined,  i t s v a l i d i t y or the degree t o  measures what i t p u r p o r t s t o measure  (Borg  To e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a l i d i t y , a t h i r d  group was used. T h i s panel o f n i n e e x p e r t s c o n s i s t e d o f f a c u l t y from the U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia School o f F a m i l y and  N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s , s t a f f o f The B r i t i s h Columbia C o u n c i l f o r  40  the  Family,  marriage  one  faculty  member from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a ' s  of F a m i l y  Studies. A l l experts  studies,  marriage  marriage  education.  completed  i n the p r o v i n c e and  had a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e  and f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g o r an a r e a T h i s group,  were used  Department i n family related to  labeled 'Faculty Experts'  t h e same q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s t h e two s t u d e n t  These r e s p o n s e s Table  preparation s p e c i a l i s t s  t o c r e a t e a second  expert  groups. category.  3  Group Means and T e s t s  SUBSCALE AND ITEM ft  Communication (6, 11, 24) Conflict (5, 10, 18) Leisure/ Li festyle (9, 15, 26) Sexuality (2, 12) Expectations (14, 9, 21) Family Origin (7, 25) General Marr. (4, 20, 27)  o f S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r KMFC  Subscales  FACULTY EXPERT  STUDENT EXPERT  NON EXPERT  MEANS  MEANS  MEANS  0.89  0.77  0. 53  0.008  0.78  0.68  0.50  0.035  0.81  0.77  0.55  0.015  0.83  0.65  0.42  0.020  1.00  0.85  0.73  0.350  0.92  0.82  0.17  0.000  0.96  1.00  0.80  0.016  41  SIGNIFICANCE OF EXPERT VS. NON-EXPERT MEANS  The s e v e n of v a r i a n c e .  remaining  A subscale  when t h e d i f f e r e n c e significant  s u b s c a l e s were i s considered  between e x p e r t  a t t h e 0.050 l e v e l ,  discriminates  between t h o s e  content  measured. T a b l e  being  Analys is  related  t o have c o n t e n t  and n o n - e x p e r t  indicating  3 presents  these  analysis  validity  means i s  that the  who know and t h o s e  t o hypotheses  by means o f a n a l y s i s  6, 7, 11, 13, and 14 were Pearson  using  instrument  who d o n ' t  know t h e  results.  o f t h e Data  The d a t a tested  analyzed  Correlation  3, 8, 9, 10, and 12 were  of v a r i a n c e ,  while  t e s t e d through  coefficients.  Post  level  o f 0.05 was used  42  4, 5,  the c a l c u l a t i o n of  hoc a n a l y s e s  o f Anova and m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n were a l s o significance  hypotheses  carried  consisting  out.  in a l l analyses.  A  CHAPTER 4 F i n d i n g s and In t h i s description reported results  chapter,  of the  results  respondents  in relation of post  the  hoc  to  Results of t h e  i s p r o v i d e d , and  e a c h of t h e  analyses  s t u d y are p r e s e n t e d .  o f the  Response  t o the  117  data are a l s o  contained  more t h a n  i n the one  sample.  returned  more t h a n  one  returned  by Canada P o s t  (57.7%) c o n g r e g a t i o n s useable final  as  not  number  a l l s e c t i o n s had  of c o n g r e g a t i o n s  4 and  5  sample c o n g r e g a t i o n s . of  the  Vancouver Area congregations Region  was  present  (n=10).  locations,  with  Of  i n the  remaining,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were leaving  Columbia  f o l l o w e d by t h e  i n s e m i - u r b a n and  43  not  62  as  of  the  the  Congregations  by t h e M i n i s t r y  by t h e  64  study.  of  largest  a l l regions  Regional  (1988).  The  number  Greater  of  South Vancouver I s l a n d  T h i r t y s i x of the c o n g r e g a t i o n s 15  were  a demographic d e s c r i p t i o n  of B r i t i s h  packages  congregations  those  been c o m p l e t e d ,  in  127  R e s p o n s e s were r e c e i v e d from  represented  (n=22),  of  S i x packages  Two  o f Sample  p r o v i n c e as d e s i g n a t e d  Development, P r o v i n c e  some of t h e  undeliverable.  were  A n g l i c a n Church  However, none o f t h e  responded.  Description Tables  Since  questionnaire. as  presented.  instructions  questionnaire, a total  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m a i l e d .  The  Rate  U n i t e d C h u r c h of Canada and  Canada c o n g r e g a t i o n s  are  f o u r t e e n hypotheses.  P a c k a g e s c o n t a i n i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and mailed  findings  A  11  in rural  were i n u r b a n locations.  Table  4  Demographic D e s c r i p t i o n  o f Sample  Variable  Size  Mean  of Congregations  T o t a l Number o f Weddings per Year  Table  Congregations  S.D.  Range  434.407  296.900  59-1,050  24.050  40.836  0-101  5  F r e q u e n c i e s and P e r c e n t a g e s Demographics  o f Sample  Congregation  Variable  Denomination  Region i n the Province  N  United Anglican Other  27 28 4  45.8 47.5 6.8  G r e a t e r Vancouver Fraser V a l l e y S o u t h Van. I s l a n d Central/North Van. I s l a n d Kootenays Okanagan Cariboo N o r t h e r n B.C.  20 6 9  33.9 10.2 15.3  6 5 4 4 5  10.2 8.5 6.8 6.8 8.5  44  Of  the  received  as  useable  from  remaining where  62  each of the  a worshipping  consisting Anglican  was  two  community,  Church  the  the sample.  The  1000.  one  staff  The  majority  an a v e r a g e  of t h e U n i t e d  size  of the  of 25  Church There  ranged  from  a low  of  (69.4%) employed  c o u p l e s . Of  these,  t h e y use  11%  c o u l d be  an a s s e s s m e n t  sessions. Fifty-two percent  participate  i n group enrichment  t h a t they conducted Description  congregation.  The  instrument request  post-wedding  of Marr i a g e  Seventy  45  during that  instructional their  couples  o n l y one  respondent  Educators  i n age  nine  with  intervention.  educators  They r a n g e d  Forty-five  c o n s i d e r e d as  programs, while  m a j o r i t y of the marriage  years.  from  counselling sessions  counselling  a mean age* of 50.8  ranged  (58.1%) r e p o r t t h a t t h e y p l a n s i x  as  were m a l e .  i n 1988  p r e p a r a t i o n w i t h each c o u p l e .  i n t e r v i e w s or p r i v a t e  questionnaire  Canada,  adherents  w e d d i n g s per  counselling  The  C h u r c h of  congregations  congregation  educators  or more h o u r s of m a r r i a g e  indicated  together  congregation  Most o f the c o n g r e g a t i o n s ,  of t h e m a r r i a g e  premarital  meet  person.  with  held  The  congregations  denomination  congregations  number of w e d d i n g s p e r  101,  from  number o f members and  59  percent  studied.  E v a n g e l i c a l Lutheran  i n the  c h i l d r e n ) i n these  t o over  (n=29) were  l e a d e r s h i p of a U n i t e d Church c l e r g y .  (including  0 to  number  f o r example, a  i n Canada and  the  one  adherents  considerable variation  only  equal  denominations  more t h a n  o f members and  under  within  an  f o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d  I n d i v i d u a l s from  meeting  responses,  who  responded  from  percent  33  to  t o 67,  (n=49)  were  the  with  married never  to their  first  been m a r r i e d ,  remarried.  majority  3 were s e p a r a t e d  The mean t o t a l  marriages) All  was  of the respondents (91.9%) were  one r e s p o n d e n t  Family of  minister.  20 y e a r s  were  number  remaining,  2 had  o r d i v o r c e d and 8 had  of years  married ( a l l  23.69.  (72.3%) r e p o r t e d b e i n g Only  s p o u s e , and o f t h o s e  were e m p l o y e d  employed  full  time.  the sole c l e r g y  r e p o r t e d being  These respondents  by t h e c h u r c h  and t h e  Nearly three-fourths  in their  congregation.  employed a s a M a r r i a g e h a d been o r d a i n e d  an  and average  and 54% (n=31) had o b t a i n e d a m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e .  in their  first  while  21 h a d h e l d  Table  6  p a s t o r a t e , 20  in their  second  or t h i r d ,  f o u r o r more p a s t o r a t e s .  Demographic D e s c r i p t i o n of Respondents  Variable  Mean  Age o f R e s p o n d e n t s  50.759  8.529  33-67  T o t a l Number o f Married  Years 23.431  9.919  0-42  T o t a l Number o f Ordained  Years 20.328  9.729  2-37  5.917  2.132  1-8+  Hours o f M a r r i a g e Preparation Offered  46  S.D.  Range  Four  Table  7  Frequencies  and P e r c e n t a g e s  of Respondent  Demographics  Variable  Gender  Marital  Status  Employment  Position  Level  of  %  N  on  Status  Staff  Male Female  50 9  84.7 15.3  Never M a r r i e d F i r s t Spouse Separated/Divorced  2 46 3  3.4 81.4 5.1  F u l l Time S t a f f 3/4 Time S t a f f 1/2 Time S t a f f L e s s t h a n 1/2 Time S t a f f Volunteer  54 1 2  91.5 1.7 3.4  2 0  3.4 0.0  General Clergy Specialized Ministry  55  93.2  College Bachelor s Master ' s Doctorate  8 16 31 5  14.0 28.1 54.4 8.7  21  35.0  7  11.7  25  41.6  3  5.0  1  1.6  6.8  Education 1  Type o f M a r r i a g e Preparation Offered  Informal Interview Instructional Counsellin I n t e r v i e w and Enrichment I n s t r u c . Coun. and E n r i c h m e n t Enrichment with Post-Wedding Intervention  47  Dependent Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e The  development  Three.  established instrument without  D u r i n g t h a t development,  i n order t o determine  determine  from  Concepts  (KMFC) I n s t r u m e n t  for  sample.  this  s t u d y was  determine alpha  which  subscale  increasing  measure o f knowledge  measure.  o f t h e i t e m s were d e t r a c t i n g  to this  scale.  In subscales  By r e m o v i n g  the subscale  of the s c a l e .  from a  addition,  forthis  8. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  development,  These  conflict  be o b t a i n e d , t h u s 17-item  measure o f knowledge  f o r each  of the  scores are presented i n  i n the o r i g i n a l  instrument  conflict  e x p e c t a t i o n s , general marriage  48  (#10 from t h e  study.  s i x s u b s c a l e s (communication,  lifestyle," marital  Individual  a l p h a s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d  i n t h e KMFC I n s t r u m e n t .  significant  The r e v i s e d  t o be a r e l i a b l e  and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s  in this  In order t o  two i t e m s  an a l p h a s c o r e o f .6890 c o u l d  was t h u s d e t e r m i n e d  used  f o r t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e 19-  was n o t a r e l i a b l e  the r e l i a b i l t y  marriage  Table  s t u d y were a l s o  score f o r the respondents  s e x u a l i t y a n d #12 f r o m  resolution),  of  in this  s c o r e , a l l i t e m s were a n a l y z e d f o r t h e i r  contribution  scale  concepts.  was a r e l i a b l e  suggesting that  i t e m KMFC I n s t r u m e n t  and t h e  Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e a n d F a m i l y  The a l p h a  .2187,  reliability,  between t h o s e w i t h and  and f a m i l y  the respondents  whether t h e  an a l p h a o f .6278 was  internal  was shown t o d i s c r i m i n a t e  data  Instrument  and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s was d e s c r i b e d i n  knowledge o f m a r r i a g e  The to  and F a m i l y C o n c e p t s  o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t t o measure t h e l e v e l o f  knowledge o f m a r r i a g e Chapter  Variables  resolution,  and f a m i l y o f  origin)  were  study,  found  t o be r e l i a b l e  considered Table  f a m i l y of o r i g i n ,  reliable.  8 because  remains  i n this  The s u b s c a l e  i n the r e v i s e d  and g e n e r a l m a r r i a g e a r e  s e x u a l i t y does n o t a p p e a r i n  KMFC i n s t r u m e n t ,  o n l y one Item  subscale.  8  Reliability  o f KMFC  Subcales  Subscale/Item  Numbers  Alpha  Communication  ( 6 , 11, 22)  .4652  Conflict Marital  Resolution  Family  ( 5 , 17)  Expectations  Leisure/Lifestyle of Origin  General  Marriage  A factor Marriage was  measures. F o r t h i s  o n l y t h e s u b - s c a l e s communication, m a r i t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  leisure/lifestyle,  Table  and v a l i d  .1567  ( 1 3 , 18)  .3575  ( 9 , 14, 25)  -.6925  ( 7 , 24)  . 4111  ( 4 , 19, 23, 26)  .6798  a n a y s i s was t h e n  and F a m i l y  Concepts  carried  o u t on t h e r e v i s e d  Instrument.  Knowledge o f  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e KMFC i n v e n t o r y i s a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  (Nie,  Hull,  Jenkins, Steinbrenner  & Bent, 1975).  Components A n a l y s i s f o r t h e R e v i s e d Instrument factors  i s found  are present  i n A p p e n d i x B.  This Table  that i t i s indeed  49  scale  Principal  Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e  i n t h e Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e  Inventory,' i n d i c a t i n g  A  analysis  -  Concepts  reveals that s i x and F a m i l y  a multidimensional  Concepts scale.  Table of  9 presents  the revised  combined would  the Eigenvalue  KMFC.  calculations  These s t a t i s t i c s  f o r the f a c t o r  indicate  analysis  that the s i x factors  e x p l a i n o n l y 67% o f t h e v a r i a n c e , o r t h a t 33% o f t h e v a r i a n c e  be l o s t  i fa factor  KMFC I n s t r u m e n t .  analysis  a p p r o a c h were u s e d  In c o n t r a s t , through  Cronbach Alpha,  o n l y two v a r i a b l e s  inventory developed  through  the establishment  were  the l a t t e r  as a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l measure  to r e v i s e the  lost.  of a strong  Thus t h e 1 7 - i t e m  a p p r o a c h was a d o p t e d  o f knowledge  and u s e d  (KMFC).  Table 9  Factor  A n a l y s i s o f KMFC I t e m s : E i g e n v a l u e  Factor  Item  Results  Percent of Variance  3.12093 2.07366 2.00692 1.65144 1.46386 1.06662  18. 4 12.2 11.8 9.7 8.6 6.3  j_ Knowledge o f Marr i a g e and F a m i l y  Scores Family of  Eigenvalue  1 2 3 4 5 6  6 11 22 5 17 13  Greater  f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e  Concepts ranged  17.  marriage  The h i g h e r  Instrument.  18.4 30.6 42.4 52.1 60.7 67.0  Concepts  Knowledge  of M a r r i a g e and possible score  t h e s c o r e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e knowledge o f  t h a t the average  This variable  respondent  had a mean o f 12.6,  scored  The mode and t h e median were b o t h  s k e w n e s s was -.698.  1.0Q00Q  Cumulative Var i a n c e  7 t o 16, w i t h a t o t a l  and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s .  indicating  standard  from  then  As 69% o f t h e  scores  74% on t h e KMFC 13.00. The  l i e w i t h i n one  d e v i a t i o n (1.994) o f t h e mean and 95% o f t h e s c o r e s l i e  50  Table  10  Distribution  o f KMFC S u b s c a l e s  Subscale/Item#  N  Communication  62  1 11 22 Conflict Resolution  Mar i t a l Expectations  Incorrect  19 25 16  43 37 46  61  9 14 25 of O r i g i n 7 24 Marriage 4 19 23 26  22 1  40 61  62  Le i s u r e / Lifestyle  Mean  .694 . 597 .742  .815  62 61  62 62  Sex  Correct  .677  62 62 62  13 18  General  I n d i v i d u a l Items  61  5 17  Family  and  .645 .984 .863  11 6  41 56  .823 .903 .557  62 62 61  11 44 27  51 18 34  61  .823 .290 .557 .590  62 61  36 15  26 46  62  .419 .754 .844  62 62 62 62  7 16 16 6  55 46 46 56  .887 .742 .742 .903  11  51  .823  NA 62  51  w i t h i n 2 standard d e v i a t i o n s of the mean, t h i s v a r i a b l e be c o n s i d e r e d to f i t a normal curve which a l l o w s one i n t e r p r e t the s t a t i s t i c s c a l c u l a t e d An examination presented  of responses  to the KMFC Instrument  was  The  item with the g r e a t e s t number of c o r r e c t  item #17  "A married couple who  c o n f l i c t are probably e x p e r i e n c i n g a marriage apart"  (n=61).  destructive  Marriage  lowest on s u b s c a l e s L e i s u r e (x=.555) and Family of  (x=.590).  responses  as  scored h i g h e s t on  s u b s c a l e s M a r i t a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (x=.863) and General  Origin  to c l e a r l y  ( K e r l i n g e r , 1973).  i n Table 10 r e v e a l s that respondents  (x=.844) and  can  Item #14  are e x p e r i e n c i n g that i s f a l l i n g  "Holding d i f f e r e n t value systems i s a  f o r c e i n marriages" had the most i n c o r r e c t  responses  (n=44). R e s u l t s : P e r c e i v e d competence The  dependent v a r i a b l e P e r c e i v e d Competence had an alpha  score of .888  f o r t h i s sample.  this variable  Is from 1  The range of p o s s i b l e scores f o r  to 72.  For t h i s v a r i a b l e , the higher  the s c o r e , the lower the l e v e l of p e r c e i v e d competence i n marriage  preparation.  For these respondents,  Competence s c o r e s ranged  from 9 to 54  the P e r c e i v e d  with a mean of 25.8,  standard d e v i a t i o n of 9.893 and a median of 13. p o i n t s c a l e used average  competent and  On the n i n e -  to measure o v e r a l l Perceived Competence,  respondent  r a t e d h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f at 3.7,  a  the  with 1 = v e r y  9 = not very competent.  Table 11 presents respondents'  p e r c e i v e d competence  i n working with p r e m a r i t a l couples on i n d i v i d u a l content a r e a s . These marriage  educators r e p o r t t h a t they f e e l the most competent  52  Table  11  Distribution  of Perceived  Competence  Subscales  Variable  Mean  S.D.  Median  Communicat i o n  2. 871  1. 385  3 .000  Conflict Resolution  3. 328  1. 535  3 .000  Sexuality  3. 590  1. 883  3 .000  Marital Expectations  2. 855  1. 389  3 .000  3. 557  1. 747  3 .000  Origin  3. 210  1. 549  3 .000  Marriage  3. 150  1. 482  3 .000  3. 918  1. 696  4 .000  Leisure/  Lifestyle Family General Finance  of  53  about  working  2.871) and competent  with couples  Marital  E x p e c t a t i o n s (x=  i n the a r e a of F i n a n c e s  Research  Hypotheses:  The  first  educators  objective  providing  hypotheses  (x=  of t h i s and  marriage  knowledge o f m a r r i a g e to p o s i t i o n provider  and  and  s t u d y was  to  Family  held  The  family concepts.  employed  least  by  first  marriage seven  variable  Hypotheses  i s , whether t h e by  Concepts  t o measure  the dependent  that  (x=  3.918).  preparation.  on s t a f f , is  They f e e l  family concepts  of the s t u d y r e f e r  preparation  2.855).  Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e  the knowledge of m a r r i a g e  2 relate  i n the a r e a s of Communication  the church  In  1  and  marriage a  position  of g e n e r a l c l e r g y or  in a specialized  marriage  and  in a lay volunteer capacity.  Hypothesis  f a m i l y or s e r v e s  as  1  T h o s e employed as s t a f f than g e n e r a l c l e r g y w i l l marriage  m i n i s t r y such  and  associates  have a h i g h e r  family concepts  or  level  than g e n e r a l  in positions  other  o f knowledge o f  clergy.  H y p o t h e s i s 2_ Volunteers trained  as m a r r i a g e  greater  knowledge of m a r r i a g e  general  clergy  and  or o t h e r c h u r c h  educators w i l l  family concepts  have a  than  either  staff.  Results. As in  r e p o r t e d In T a b l e  positions  Thus n e i t h e r cannot one  be  other than  5,  only four  g e n e r a l c l e r g y and  h y p o t h e s i s c o u l d be  rejected.  individual  respondents  tested,  It is interesting  In t h e sample  who  54  was  were  employed  none were v o l u n t e e r s .  and  the n u l l  t o note employed  hypotheses  however, t h a t In a  the  specialized  ministry  in  marriage and the f a m i l y scored the h i g h e s t  on  the  Knowledge o£ Marriage and Family Concepts instrument. Hypothesis 3_ Knowledge of marriage and f a m i l y concepts held by marriage educators w i l l not v a r y by denomination. Results. An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  (ANOVA) was conducted f o r the  purpose of t e s t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . ANOVA i s a means f o r measuring the d i f f e r e n c e  i n v a r i a b l i t y about the mean.  A t o t a l of 57 cases  were a n a l y z e d t o t e s t the e f f e c t of the independent  variable  denomination on knowledge of marriage and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s . cases were not useable due t o m i s s i n g data or because denomination presented  was  not c l e a r .  The r e s u l t s of t h i s  their  analysis  i n Table 12.  Table 12 Knowledge of Marriage and Family Concepts by Denomination  Category  Mean  N  Total Population  12.47  57  Anglican  12.75  29  12.21  29  United  Church  Church  Variable  Denomination  SS  dF  F  4.2021  1  1.005  55  P  .321  Five  are  While  the c e l l  means i n d i c a t e  denominations concepts,  with regards  this difference  hypothesis  i s supported.  Hypothesis  4_  The more l i b e r a l individual,  the higher  that  a difference  t o knowledge  of marriage  i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  the t h e o l o g i c a l  o c c u r s between t h e two and  family  Therefore, the  orientation  t h e knowledge o f m a r r i a g e  null  of the and  family  concepts. Results. Theological According  to Labovitz  other  statistics  scale  data  may  ordinal-level Correlation was  indicate  that  suggest  direction  originally  be used  Pearson  Intended  correlations  scale  variable.  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and f o r use w i t h  interval  which s a t i s f y the assumptions  For t h i s v a r i a b l e , calculated,  significant.  a  of  Pearson  but t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n  -.1581  S i n c e L o n g , Convey and Chwalek  with a p r o b a b i l i t y of l e s s than  a trend, t h i s correlation  proposed  family  i s an o r d i n a l  on d a t a  measurement.  not  more l i b e r a l and  (1972),  c o e f f i c i e n t was  (p=.120)  may  orientation  suggests  i n t h e h y p o t h e s i s may  then t h a t  be c o r r e c t ,  that  t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e h i g h e r t h e knowledge o f  (1985)  .20 the i s , the  marriage  concepts.  H y p o t h e s i s 5_ The h i g h e r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , of  marriage  and  family  t h e g r e a t e r t h e knowledge  concepts.  Results. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t  56  variable,  level  of  education, computed levels  i s reported  t o determine  score  Concepts  higher  Inventory.  were f o u n d  between  hypothesis  fails  Table  i n Table  7.  i f individuals  An a n a l y s i s who  have h i g h e r  educational  on t h e Knowledge  of Marriage  (See T a b l e  As no s i g n i f i c a n t  educators  t o be  13).  was  and F a m i l y differences  with various educational l e v e l s ,  the n u l l  rejected.  13  Knowledge  of Marriage  and F a m i l y C o n c e p t s by_ L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n  Category  Mean  N  Total  12.50  60  12.60  10  12.13  16  12.69  29  12.40  5  Population  College  Certificate  Bachelor's Master's Doctorate  Degree  Degree Degree  Var i a b l e  Level  of v a r i a n c e  of Education  SS  df  3.443  3  57  F  .268  P  .848  Table  14  Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s and Ranges o f I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s ; Theological O r i e n t a t i o n , Number o f Weddings and Number of Years of E x p e r i e n c e i n the M i n i s t r y .  Variables  Mean  SD  Theological Orientation  4.167  1.638  Number  14.500  16.789  20.328  9.729  o f Weddings  Number o f Y e a r s In t h e M i n i s t r y  58  Range  1 - 7 0-57 2-37  Hypothesis The  6 g r e a t e r t h e number  ministry,  t h e lower  of years  of experience  the knowledge of marriage  and  i n the family  concepts. Results. In number  Table  14, t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e I n d e p e n d e n t  of years  hypothesis  experience  consists  i n the m i n i s t r y  o f two i n t e r v a l s c a l e  Correlation  is  the  of t e s t i n g the h y p o t h e s i s .  purpose  coefficient the  o f -.1130  hypothesis  being  was c o r r e c t ,  that  variables,  a  As t h i s  Pearson  t o be c a l c u l a t e d f o r  While  a correlation  the proposed  d i r e c t i o n of  t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of the c o r r e l a t i o n  i n t h e knowledge o f m a r r i a g e  predicted  individual to  indicates  i s presented.  s i g n i f i c a n t i s low (p=.199). Thus no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences be  the a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c  variable  be  Table  by knowing t h e number  has i n t h e m i n i s t r y .  and f a m i l y  of years  concepts  of e x p e r i e n c e  Thus t h e n u l l  hypothesis  can  an fails  rejected. 14  Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , and Ranges o f I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s : T h e o l o g i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n , Number o f Weddings and Number o f Y e a r s of E x p e r i e n c e i n the M i n i s t r y  Variables  Mean  SD  Range  4.167  1.638  1-7  14.500  16.789  0-57  20.328  9.729  2-37  Theological Orientation Number  o f Weddings  Number o f Y e a r s I n The M i n i s t r y  59  Hypothes Is 1_ The  greater  the  number of weddings performed a n n u a l l y ,  higher the knowledge of marriage and  family  the  concepts.  Results. Again, the  c a l c u l a t i o n of a Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t  i s the a p p r o p r i a t e c o e f f i c i e n t of  t e s t f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The  .1391  correlation  (p=.151) i n d i c a t e s that while  no  s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n the dependent v a r i a b l e knowledge of marriage and  f a m i l y concepts can  by knowing  the  number of weddings performed i n a year, the d i r e c t i o n of  the  hypothesis i s c o r r e c t .  The  be explained  n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , however, f a i l s to  be  rejected. Research Hypotheses; Perceived The  second o b j e c t i v e  Competence  of t h i s study was  to examine  competent these marriage educators perceived the  p r o v i s i o n of marriage p r e p a r a t i o n .  hypotheses examine  the  i n t e r a c t i o n s of the  with the dependent v a r i a b l e perceived and  The  preparation  themselves to be final  in  seven  independent  competence.  9 r e l a t e to the s t a f f p o s i t i o n of the  how  variables  Hypotheses 8  i n d i v i d u a l marriage  providers.  Hypothesis 8 Those employed as s t a f f a s s o c i a t e s  or i n p o s i t i o n s  than g e n e r a l c l e r g y w i l l have a higher perceived general  other  competence than  clergy.  Hypothesis 9_ V o l u n t e e r s t r a i n e d as marriage educators w i l l have a greater church  pe.rceived  competence than e i t h e r g e n e r a l c l e r g y or other  staff. 60  Results. As other the  only  four  of the  t h a n what c o u l d  be  classifed  respondents conducted  (Table  7), these  not  be  tested,  It is interesting  individuals  employed  significantly Hypothesis  not the  general  in specialized  be null  to note,  more c o m p e t e n t  in positions  c l e r g y and as  tested.  lay  however, t h a t  of  volunteers  Because  hypothesis  the  cannot the  m i n i s t r i e s perceived  than d i d g e n e r a l  none  be  four themselves  clergy.  10  Perceived preparation  as  marriage p r e p a r a t i o n  hypotheses could  hypotheses could rejected.  r e s p o n d e n t s were employed  competence  will  not  vary  i n the by  p r o v i s i o n of  marriage  denomination.  Results An  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  hypothesis.  Table  shown i n t h i s competence  can  table, be  marriage educator. is  not  15  presents no  (ANOVA) was  a summary of  significant  predicted  by  Thus, the  conducted this  to t e s t  analysis.  difference in  rejected.  61  hypothesis  as  As  perceived  knowing the d e n o m i n a t i o n null  this  of  predicted  the  as  Table  15  Perceived  Competence by  Denomination  Category  Mean  N  Total  23.63  58  23.38  29  23.89  29  Population  Anglican United  Church  Church  Variable  Denomination  Hypothesis The perceived  SS  df  3.751  1  F  P  .046  .831  11  more t h e o l o g i c a l l y l i b e r a l competence  i n marriage  the  i n d i v i d u a l , the higher  the  preparation.  Results. The  independent  ordinal  scale  Pearson  Correlation  -.1003  variable.  perceived  of  c o e f f i c e n t was  theological  competence  premarital  theological  In order  (p=.227) i n d i c a t e s  perception  to  variable  that  calculated.  orientation  62  an  individual's  will  not h e l p t o  hypothesis  a  This c o e f f i c i e n t ,  marriage education  c o u p l e s . Thus t h e n u l l  rejected.  i s an  to test t h i s hypothesis,  knowing  in providing  orientation  predict  opportunites  f a i l s to  be  Hypothesis  12  The h i g h e r competence  the educational l e v e l ,  i n marriage  the g r e a t e r the p e r c e i v e d  preparation.  Results. As  indicated  individual one  marriage  t o determine  providing  Table  by the a n a l y s i s educator's  t h a t marriage  marriage  level  16, k n o w i n g  of e d u c a t i o n  educator's  by L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n  Mean  N  23.63  61  20.23  10  25.00  15  23.83  31  25.13  5  Category  Population  College  Certificate  Bachelor's Master's Doctorate  Variable  L e v e l of Education  Degree  Degree Degree  ss  df  F  156. 041  3  .661  63  enable  p e r c e i v e d competence i n  education.  Competence  an  w i l l not  16  Perceived  Total  i n Table  P  .579  Hypothesis  13  The  greater  ministry,  t h e number  t h e lower  of years  the perceived  of e x p e r i e n c e  competence  i n the  i n marriage  preparation. Results. As scale  the t e s t i n g  of t h i s  hypothesis  v a r i a b l e s , the c a l c u l a t i o n  coefficient -.0175 cannot  interval  of a Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n  The c o r r e l a t i o n  (p=.448) i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  coefficient  Thus t h e n u l l  of  hypothesis  be r e j e c t e d .  Hypothesis  14  The higher  was a p p r o p r i a t e .  i n v o l v e s two  greater  t h e number  the perceived  of weddings performed  competence  In m a r r i a g e  annually, the  preparation.  Results. The  Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t  between t h e s e hypothesis  nor the d i r e c t i o n  Thus t h e n u l l Post-Hoc  two v a r i a b l e s i s -.1063  hypothesis  guided  failed  Instrument  other  a  are  supported.  i s not r e j e c t e d .  a n a l y s i s , the t h e o r e t i c a l  the development of the hypotheses  or d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s  preparation  f a c t o r s which  educators.  In t h i s  d i f f e r e n c e s i n scores  providers. This  suggests  f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the data  was  t h e s i s have  on t h e KMFC  that there  other  carried  may  be  i n t h e knowledge o f  and t h e p e r c e i v e d  To d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r  views  o f competence o f  e x p l a i n the variance  m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s these  of the h y p o t h e s i s  to the preceding  to explain either  marriage  (p=.211). N e i t h e r t h e  Analyses  According that  f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p  competence o f  factors did exist,  out.  For t h i s  purpose, a Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n included the  the  data  regarding ordinal (an  dependent v a r i a b l e s  independent v a r i a b l e s  well,  m a t r i x was  w h i c h had number o f  scale  ordinal  the  h o u r s per  This  their respective  four  been c o l l e c t e d  variable)  scale  and  and  computed.  control  spent  and  type  of  variable)  were  included  statistic  examined  subscales,  variables.  for descriptive  couple  matrix  As  purposes  in marriage  preparation  marriage preparation i n the  (an  offered  matrix.  Results The the  initial  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e  m a r r i a g e and  family  correlation  two  dependent v a r i a b l e  and  the  control  statistic female  must be  who  of  h o u r s per  reported  couples  to  out  (n=9).  A  found couple  a higher  was  m a r r i a g e and  due  This  found  between  family of  to  concepts  this  the  low  number  competence and  i n marriage p r e p a r a t i o n . competence r e q u i r e d  number  of  of  significant correlation  between p e r c e i v e d  perceived  spend a g r e a t e r  .05)  with caution  spent  knowledge  competence.  Interpretation  further  was  a significant relationship.  (.2135, p=  gender.  carried  (-.3343, p=.005) was  not  knowledge o f  variable  respondents  number  perceived  (-.0477, p=.390) was  the  post-hoc a n a l y s i s  dependent v a r i a b l e s ,  c o n c e p t s and  A significant correlation  i n the  hours  total Those  premarital  in marriage  preparation. From t h e control or  variable  lower  placed  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x , any  (Table  w h i c h had 17)  with  into a multiple  analysis  i s a method o f  independent  a c o r r e l a t i o n p r o b a b i l i t y of  one  of  the  regression studying  equation. the  65  dependent v a r i a b l e s "Multiple  e f f e c t s and  the  or  0.2000 was regression  magnitude  of  of  Table  17  Pearson Correlation Matrix: Select Descriptive Variable  Dependent, Correlation  Independent, C o n t r o l and Under P r o b a b i l i t y . 2 0 0 0 .  Know, o f M a r r . and Fam. Concepts Level  of  Education  Theological  Orientation  # of  Weddings  # of  Years  Marital  & of  -.0377 (57) p=.390  per  1581 (58) P= 120  .1305 (58) p=.164 .1003 (58) p=.227  Year  .1391 (57) p=.151  -.1063 (59) p=.211  in Ministry  1130 (58) P = 199  -.2298 (59) p=.448  1382 (59) P= 148  -.1089 (60) p=.204  1693 (58) P= 102  -.1606 (59) p=.112  -.1144 (58) p=.196  -.1351 (59) p=.154  .2135 (59) p=.052  -.1713 (60) p=.095  . 0041 (57) p=.488  -.3343 (59) p=.005*  Status  Years  Perceived Competence  Married  Age  Gender  # of Hours i n Marriage Preparation  66  the  e f f e c t s o f more t h a n one i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e on t h e  dependent v a r i a b l e regression" provides the in  independent  out  of the values  v a r i a b l e and  the regression  correlations should  on i n t e r v a l  that  s c a l e data,  regression  without  (Labovitz,  1972).  included  i t provides  line  means t h a t i t  of the dependent v a r i a b l e  as a b a s i s  while multiple  t o be i n t e r v a l  Two  This  of estimation  regression  o r d i n a l and b i n a r y  scale  i s best  conducted  well  married,  e q u a t i o n s were c o n d u c t e d . The f i r s t  number  of years  competence w i t h  unstandardized  i n the ministry,  relationship  not a c c u r a t e l y  equation  regression  of weddings number o f consisted  number  of years  standardized  p r o b a b i l i t e s ( p ) , R, and R R square  be r e p o r t e d  portray (Borg  explain  as a p o s i t i v e  & McGall,  only  18  value  1983).  indicate  4% o f  o f m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s .  67  i s also  the d i r e c t i o n of a  r e s u l t s i n Table  combined  family  18 and 19 r e s p e c t i v e l y o u t l i n e  The a d j u s t e d  between v a r i a b l e s  variables  knowledge  equations.  of education,  c o e f f i c i e n t s ( B ) , the  as R-Squared can o n l y  t h u s may  The  regression  c o e f f i c i e n t s (Beta),  f o r these  presented,  seven  level  a g e , and g e n d e r . T a b l e s  regression  and  carried  outcomes t o o g r e a t l y  a s t h e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , number  per year,  perceived  squared  It  s c a l e d a t a c a n be  y e a r s m a r r i e d , age a n d g e n d e r . The s e c o n d e q u a t i o n  the  gives  t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e knowledge o f m a r r i a g e and  concepts as  of  and  involved  f o r the purposes of m u l t i p l e  a f f e c t i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l  regression  from  measures o f e r r o r  t o determine the a s s o c i a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s .  be n o t e d  assumed  p r i n c i p l e s o f c o r r e l a t i o n and  ( K e r l i n g e r , 1973, p . 6 0 3 ) .  estimates  using  using  the  that  the  variance  It is interesting  in to  Table  18  Multiple R e g r e s s i o n of M a r i t a l S t a t u s , Theological Orientation, G e n d e r , # of. Weddings p e r Y e a r , Age, # o f Y e a r s i n t h e M i n i s t r y and £ °JL Y e a r s M a r r i e d on Knowledge o f M a r r i a g e and F a m i l y C o n c e p t s .  Var i a b l e s  Marital  B  Status  Beta  417186  .158846  1.096  .2793  Theological Or i e n t a t i o n  -.262865  .231495  -1.522  .1354  Gender  2.079331  .331741  2.054  # o f Weddings per Year  .019994  .144441  .971  .3370  Age  .002690  .012357  .038  .9698  # of Years In t h e M i n i s t r y  .027565  .131999  .605  .5481  # of Years  .005286  .026704  .095  .9249  Married  Adjusted  R Square  .17442  F= 1.29777  R Square  .04002  P=  68  .2745  .0461*  Table 19 M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n of L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n , Years Married on P e r c e i v e d Competence  Variables  B  L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n Gender Age # of years Married  Gender,  Age and #_ of  Beta  t  .344187  .028432  .186  .8535  -4.030940  -.120994  -.764  .4489  .050545  .043680  .161  .8726  -.290046  -.275682  -.967  .3384  R Square  .05691  Adjusted R Square -.02519  69  F=.69392 P=.6000  P  note  that  even when m a r i t a l  status,  theological  orientation,  t o t a l number of weddings, t o t a l number of years of experience m i n i s t r y and still  i n the  t o t a l number of years married are c o n t r o l l e d , gender i s  a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of v a r i a n c e i n t h i s dependent v a r i a b l e  (.0461).  Again c a u t i o n must be e x e r t e d In the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s  s t a t i s t i c due  to the low number of female  respondents  (n=9).  The r e g r e s s i o n equation i n Table 19 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the independent v a r i a b l e l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n and the c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s gender, age and o n l y 2.5%  t o t a l number of years married combined e x p l a i n  of the v a r i a n c e i n  competence.  the dependent v a r i a b l e p e r c e i v e d  None of the c o r r e l a t i o n s c a l c u l a t e d are  A t h i r d post hoc a n a l y s i s was  conducted  significant.  to determine i f  t h e r e were r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s u b s c a l e s of the dependent v a r i a b l e s , knowledge of marriage and  p e r c e i v e d competence.  found was  The  only s i g n i f i c a n t  f a m i l y concepts correlation  between the subscales of p e r c e i v e d competence i n  working with p r e m a r i t a l couples knowledge of communication Other  i n the area of communication  and  (-.2034, p=.05).  s t a t i s t i c a l analyses were conducted  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among independent reports  and  two  to examine  and c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s .  Table  20  that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o t a l  number of years ordained and gender, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t respondents  female  have been ordained a s i g n i f i c a n t l y s h o r t e r p e r i o d of  time than male respondents.  Significant correlation  coefficients  were a l s o found between t h e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and t o t a l number of years ordained and  (.3126, p=.008) and  t o t a l number of years ordained  70  between l e v e l of education  (-.2298, p=.04).  Table  20  Analysis  of V a r i a n c e : # of Years Ordained  Category  Mean  N  20.43  61  Male  21.89  53  Female  10.75  8  Total  Population  Variable  Gender  SS  df  8.62097  * indicates  F  1  significance  10.756  a t .005  71  by  Gender  P  .002*  CHAPTER 5 Discussion This  chapter  will  discussion  of t h e  from  these  results.  will  be  for  noted.  Conclusions  p r e s e n t a summary of t h e s t u d y ,  results,  The  and  and  conclusions that  In a d d i t i o n , chapter  will  the  can  limitations  conclude  with  a  be  drawn  of t h e  study  recommendations  future research.  Summary The of  purpose  the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  Columbia the  of t h i s  s t u d y were: 1)  Wright's  i n Canada.  providers  do  not  of m a r r i a g e  Sixty of  four  the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  An two from  equal  denominations. the  Greater  educators  and  t o be  and  of  the  2) t o  and  re-examine  marriage  competent  the A n g l i c a n  congregations incomplete,  The  province.  (n=117).  responded.  the  final  Since  number  two  of  62.  g r e a t e s t number Area  Church  Columbia  of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was  Vancouver  of t h e  objectives  of  t o a random sample of t w e n t y - f i v e  s t u d y was  number  of Canada and  of knowledge of m a r r i a g e  p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h  i n the  British  ministers involved in  were s e n t  i n the  aspects  preparation.  (57.7%) of t h e s e  congregations  level  that  of t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h  congregations  in  specific  p e r c e i v e themselves  Questionnaires percent  the  The  h e l d by m a r r i a g e  (1976) f i n d i n g  preparation  educators  of the U n i t e d Church  to assess  family concepts  t o examine s e l e c t e d  of m a r r i a g e  congregations  A n g l i c a n Church  s t u d y was  of these  f o l l o w e d by  Island  Region  The  varied  c o n s i d e r a b l y , w i t h a mean of  72  size 434  r e c e i v e d from  were r e t u r n e d  the South  of t h e  the  Vancouver  congregations  members or  adherents.  The m a j o r i t y of the respondents  were male (84.7%) with a  mean age of 50.8 y e a r s . T h r e e - f o u r t h s r e p o r t e d that they were the s o l e c l e r g y i n t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n .  Only one respondent  r e p o r t e d being employed as a Marriage and Family M i n i s t e r and none of the respondents  were l a y v o l u n t e e r p r o v i d e r s of  marriage p r e p a r a t i o n . The average  marriage  14 weddings i n 1988.  educator  i n t h i s study o f f i c i a t e d a t  F o r t y - f i v e percent held i n t e r v i e w s or  p r i v a t e c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s with couples approaching and  marriage  11% c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g as an  assessment instrument was used t o guide t h e i r work.  Fifty-two  p e r c e n t requested couples to a t t e n d a group enrichment Only one respondent the c o u p l e s .  conducted  a post-wedding  i n t e r v e n t i o n with  The mean number of hours of marriage p r e p a r a t i o n  these marriage  educators o f f e r e d to p r e m a r i t a l couples was 5.9.  Two dependent v a r i a b l e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d knowledge of marriage competence  study:  (the extent to which one p e r c e i v e s o n e s e l f to be  The s i x independent  p r e p a r a t i o n to p r e m a r i t a l variables  i n c l u d e d p o s i t i o n on s t a f f , denomination, orientation, and  in this  and f a m i l y concepts and p e r c e i v e d  competent i n p r o v i d i n g marriage couples).  program.  used  in this  study  theological  l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , number of years i n m i n i s t r y  number of weddings performed  c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s were proposed.  per year.  In a d d i t i o n , four  These i n c l u d e d  age, gender,  m a r i t a l s t a t u s and number of years married. D i s c u s s i o n : Knowledge of Marr iage and Family  Concepts  Since no a p p r o p r i a t e instruments were a v a i l a b l e ,  73  i t was  necessary  to develop  variable  knowledge o f m a r r i a g e  nineteen-item scale the  initial  in this  educators  knowledge  sample, a r e v i s e d  A  measure d u r i n g  However, f o r t h e  17-item  i n v e n t o r y was  measure o f knowledge o f m a r r i a g e and  in this  of m a r r i a g e  however, t h a t  the average  60% o f t h e i t e m s  respondent  and t h a t  appeared  Marital  surprising  areas that  It  w i t h i n marriage  Marriage,  less many  their that the  i n the areas  as these are  p r e p a r a t i o n , and n o t knowledgeable  and F a m i l y o f O r i g i n ,  new i n m a r r i a g e  that  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  t h e y were t h e l e a s t  had been h y p o t h e s i z e d  marriage  indicates  t o be t h e most k n o w l e d g e a b l e  of L e i s u r e / L i f e s t y l e relatively  26% o f t h e i t e m s  information during  E x p e c t a t i o n s and G e n e r a l  established  l e v e l of  I t i s of concern,  answered  This  incorrect  preparation experience.  respondents  reasonable  that the  a s many as 15% answered  correctly.  may be r e c e i v i n g  marriage  sample had a  indicated  and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s .  t h e KMFC i n c o r r e c t l y  couples  are  t o be a r e l i a b l e  mean s c o r e on t h e KMFC I n s t r u m e n t  marriage  of  and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s .  concepts.  The  than  t o measure t h e d e p e n d e n t  of the instrument.  t o be a r e l i a b l e  family  on  was found  development  respondents found  an i n s t r u m e n t  i n the areas  content areas  preparation. in this  study  that  those  p r e p a r a t i o n p r o v i d e r s who h e l d s p e c i a l i z e d  staff  positions  or who were  l a y v o l u n t e e r s would have a g r e a t e r  knowledge  of marriage  and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s .  respondents clergy,  were employed  in positions  i t was n o t p o s s i b l e  somewhat s u r p r i s i n g  that  which  to test  74  other than  these  most r e s p o n s e s  S i n c e o n l y 4 of the general  hypotheses.  came from  I t was  general  clergy,  since  and  staff  in  British  i t i s known t h a t  associates  involved  It i s unclear i n the  did  not  appear  reason  the  questionnaires  associates The  or  hypothesis not  noted  clergy  earlier,  Anglican  Church  institutions it  vary  by  i n the  United at  t h e y do  knowledge  o f m a r r i a g e and  family  providers  individuals  whether  f o r some  directed appropriately  the  hypothesized  would have a g r e a t e r  not  of  As  Canada and  the  same t h e o l o g i c a l of  faith.  differ  Therefore  significantly  that  marriage  knowledge of  preparation m a r r i a g e and  i f t h e y were more t h e o l o g i c a l l y l i b e r a l ,  had  a  level  education,  in  the  ministry, None of these  and  these  (that  (p=.120), t h e trend The education  years  lack and  of  experience  number  level  k n o w l e d g e ) was  d i r e c t i o n of  of  the  significant  "would be  i t might  be  not  findings  r e f l e c t e d in greater  75  of  would  as  predicted.  of O r t h n e r  f a m i l y concepts that  year.  first  c o r r e l a t i o n between l e v e l  presumed  higher  significant  c o r r e l a t i o n was  knowledge of m a r r i a g e and as  Although the  were more t h e o l o g i c a l l y l i b e r a l of  family  of weddings per  h y p o t h e s e s were s u p p o r t e d .  i s i n agreement w i t h the  disappointing, education  fewer  performed a g r e a t e r  t h o s e who  have a g r e a t e r  This  had  in  concepts.  concepts of  to  family  supported.  Church  have s i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t s  also  or  d e n o m i n a t i o n was  s u r p r i s i n g that  was  these  preparation  knowledge of m a r r i a g e and  i s not  It  marriage  random sample  i n Canada t r a i n  and  volunteers  volunteers.  that  c o n c e p t s would  many l a y  whether  were not  lay  are  in providing  Columbia.  simply  staff  there  (1986). of was  additional  knowledge.  It is  possible,  however,  family concepts levels  specific  important  i t was n o t e d  marriage  attention  t o marriage and  may n o t have been d i f f e r e n t  of education a t t a i n e d  particularly and  that  by t h i s  since  earlier  i n the v a r i o u s  sample.  the respondents  that  little  preparation i n training  programs  between  years  recently family  It i s possible  have  that  between  of marriage  and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s .  a t an e a r l i e r  a g r e a t e r number  a need  for further  knowledge  also  ministry,  and t h e  time.  significant  I t was e x p e c t e d  who p e r f o r m  clergy  more  o f weddings p e r y e a r and knowledge  clergy  as marriage  trained  i n marriage  i s u n c l e a r a s t o why t h e r e was n o t a  correlation  services  A  of c o r r e l a t i o n  t h o s e who were  had no g r e a t e r t r a i n i n g  number  i s given to  i n t h e m i n i s t r y and l e v e l o f  t h a n d i d t h o s e who t r a i n e d It  a l l clergy,  f o r the c l e r g y .  e x p l a n a t i o n may be g i v e n f o r t h e l a c k  knowledge.  were  attention  similar  of experience  This i s  based  educators.  those  o f weddings would r e c o g n i z e on t h e demands f o r t h e i r  However,  have h i g h demands on them  and do n o t have t h e t i m e  that  perhaps  these  i n other areas  t o pursue  same  of t h e i r  specialized  training. The d i r e c t i o n s marriage number  of the c o r r e l a t i o n s  and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s  and t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t  of y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e  weddings  performed  between knowledge o f variables  i n t h e m i n i s t r y and number o f  a n n u a l l y a r e as p r e d i c t e d ,  that  i s , those  w i t h a g r e a t e r number  of y e a r s  KMCF s c o r e s and t h o s e  w i t h a g r e a t e r number o f weddings p e r  year  will  larger  i n t h e m i n i s t r y would have  have h i g h e r KMFC s c o r e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e  sample  size,  these  findings  76  that  lower  with a  would be s i g n i f i c a n t .  It  that  the  lack  between the  d e p e n d e n t and  the  i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s may  function  the  of The  the  is possible  of  small  The  sample  the  s i z e may  the  post  instrument  hoc  number  multiple  regression  significant concepts.  The  of  studies  item  are  i n the  the  on  the  KMFC  because  study.  This  in  the  g e n d e r was  of m a r r i a g e and  a  family  needed, however, t o  further  finding. Perceived  Competence the  marriage educators t o be  preparation  does not  support  American  in this  or  on  with caution  indicated that  knowledge  clergy did  role.  It  r e l a t e d to d i f f e r e n c e s  available one  a n a l y s i s which  higher  similar findings  themselves  competent  be  by  perceived  (1976) t h a t  content  Interpreted  female respondents  finding that  generally  a  nearly a l l  have been a l i m i t a t i o n  i s strengthened  Additional  Discussion:  marriage  of  predictor  examine t h i s  that  be  s i m i l a r denominations.  females scored  t h a n m a l e s must be  small  sample, g i v e n  from two  also  f i n d i n g that  however,  should  the  correlations  study.  finding,  is  of  r e s p o n d e n t s were c l e r g y  outcomes of  of  similarity  of s i g n i f i c a n t  type noted to the  of  program  that  not  in this  competent the  i s unclear  providers  f i n d i n g of  perceive  whether  this  to  d e t a i l s of  researcher,  some o t h e r  to  be  difference in  variable. (It  W r i g h t ' s m e t h o d o l o g y were  but  of  Wright  themselves  i n measurement, d i f f e r e n c e s or  sample  i t appears t h a t  Wright  not  used  a  scale).  These m a r r i a g e competent 'in the  educators perceived  areas  of  t h e m s e l v e s t o be  C o m m u n i c a t i o n and  77  Marital  most  Expectations. essential likely on  This  skills  finding  i n the  have r e c e i v e d  which they  might  i s not  m i n i s t r y , and  considerable  reflected  the  least  have been a n t i c i p a t e d s i n c e  courses  a bank manager  subject  area.  This  lack  individual  preparation  Marriage specialized perceive clergy.  preparation  m i n i s t r y and  These  clergy  and  none of  mentioned sample  associates  confirmed. discussed marriage  i s Finances.  This  is invited  The  were h y p o t h e s i z e d providers  t e s t a b l e as  than  only  i n p o s i t i o n s other  than  to general  four general  were v o l u n t e e r s .  chapter,  that  for this  the  As  i t i s s u r p r i s i n g that  i n c l u d e more  the  staff  no  would  perceived  finding  are  competence  similar  denomination,  t r a i n e d at  that  the  to  who  of  were more  78  was  those of  i s , clergy in  faith.  t h e m s e l v e s t o be  preparation  that  was  same t h e o l o g i c a l  statements  those  perceive  of m a r r i a g e  significant relationship  r e l a t i o n s h i p between knowledge  have s i m i l a r  hypothesis  theologically  Finances,  i n p o s i t i o n s of  more c o m p e t e n t  f a m i l y c o n c e p t s and  and  in  this  sessions.  respondents  reasons  regarding and  preparation  to address  competence  between d e n o m i n a t i o n and  institutions  providers  competence  providers  hypothesis  both denominations are  The  scale  volunteers.  predicted  exist  specific  respondents d i d not  and/or  would  i n s i t u a t i o n s where c l e r g y c o n d u c t  previously in this  group of  The  the  i n which they  i n many m a r r i a g e  h y p o t h e s e s were not  r e s p o n d e n t s were employed  are  The  lay volunteers  t h e m s e l v e s t o be  these  training.  of p e r c e i v e d  concerns  marriage  ones  or a c c o u n t a n t  however, does r a i s e  would  surprising since  not  liberal more competent  supported.  The  as  proposed  direction  findings  of Orthner  o r i e n t a t i o n was  f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was (1986) who  found t h a t  a s i g n i f i c a n t determinant  competence i n p a s t o r a l c o u n s e l l i n g clergy  i n a denomination  However, W r i g h t Canadian effect  clergy  similar  had  hypotheses  performed greater  the  theological of  perceived  in a study  of  t o the U n i t e d  found  that theological  American  Church.  t h a t t h o s e who  fewer  f i n d i n g s of  no  this  in this regard. have a h i g h e r l e v e l  of  y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e m i n i s t r y ,  and  a g r e a t e r number o f w e d d i n g s p e r y e a r w o u l d r e p o r t a  p e r c e i v e d c o m p e t e n c e were a l s o n o t s u p p o r t e d .  proposed  of  o r i e n t a t i o n had  p r a c t i c e . The  t h e s i s s u p p o r t t h e work o f W r i g h t  e d u c a t i o n , had  on  (1984) i n a s t u d y of the p a s t o r a l m i n i s t r y  on p a s t o r a l c o u n s e l l i n g  The  based  r e a s o n s why  The  t h e s e were n o t s u p p o r t e d a r e s i m i l a r  t h o s e d i s c u s s e d f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s k n o w l e d g e o f m a r r i a g e and marriage  p r e p a r a t i o n may  of these  individuals,  family concepts, that n o t have been i n c l u d e d  to to  i s , attention i n the  to  training  r e g a r d l e s s of the time the t r a i n i n g  was  obtained. I n p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s , a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was b e t w e e n p e r c e i v e d c o m p e t e n c e and c o u p l e s p e n t on m a r r i a g e external sources).  the t o t a l  found  number o f h o u r s  per  preparation ( including referrals  This c o r r e l a t i o n  t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n and  (-.3343, p=.008) was  i n d i c a t e s that those  to in  respondents  w i t h h i g h e r p e r c e i v e d c o m p e t e n c e r e q u i r e c o u p l e s t o s p e n d more time p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e i r marriage of p e r c e i v e d competence.  than those w i t h lower  levels  I t i s p o s s i b l e that those w i t h a  79  g r e a t e r l e v e l of p e r c e i v e d competence may p l a c e a h i g h e r on m a r r i a g e p r e p a r a t i o n , thus e n c o u r a g i n g c o u p l e s  value  t o spend more  time p r e p a r i n g  f o r t h e i r married  l i v e s . Conversely,  i t i s also  possible that  those who r e q u i r e couples ,to spend more time i n  m a r r i a g e p r e p a r a t i o n may f e e l the need t o r e p o r t f e e l i n g s of p e r c e i v e d competence i n order t o j u s t i f y t h e i r In  requirements.  the post hoc a n a l y s i s , there was no s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n between the two dependent v a r i a b l e s , knowledge of m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s and p e r c e i v e d competence. c o r r e l a t i o n was i n f a c t so weak t h a t one cannot d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The  comment on the  I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a  c o r r e l a t i o n would e x i s t between these two v a r i a b l e s such t h a t the h i g h e r the knowledge of marriage and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s , the g r e a t e r the p e r c e i v e d competence.  One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r  t h i s l a c k of a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p may be t h a t those  with  a g r e a t e r knowledge of marriage and f a m i l y c o n c e p t s a r e more cognizant  of the c o m p l e x i t y  more moderate p e r c e p t i o n of  of the f i e l d and t h e r e f o r e have a t h e i r competence.  To f u r t h e r examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two measures, the s u b s c a l e s f a m i l y concepts  r e l a t i n g t o knowledge of marriage and  were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  p e r c e i v e d competence s u b s c a l e s . correlation  The o n l y  significant  was between the s c a l e p e r c e i v e d competence i n  working with p r e m a r i t a l couples  i n the area of communication  and t h e s u b s c a l e knowledge of communication, t h a t i s the h i g h e r the knowledge of communication, the h i g h e r the p e r c e i v e d competence i n p r e p a r i n g c o u p l e s This s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n  i n the area of communication.  between the two communication 80  subscales  may r e f l e c t  practice  of m i n i s t r y .  communicators of  their  the post  independent between  not is the  surprising  given  o f gender  t o enter  Conclusions The marriage  than  male  the entry  trend.  Itwill  conclusions  knowledge were used  This  of t h i s  This into  finding i s the ministry to  monitor  o f m i n i s t r y a s women  these  of marriage  have a  and t h a t  i n providing  study  most reasonable they marriage  do n o t s u p p o r t t h e  perceived  competence.  and f a m i l y concepts correlated with  nor perceived  the independent  study.  does r a i s e  educators. scores  scores  are that  i n t h e sample  (1976) c o n c e r n i n g  i n this  moderate  study  and f a m i l y concepts  significantly  study  marriage  obtained  indicating  be i n t e r e s t i n g  t o be c o m p e t e n t  of Wright  variables  found  significantly  o f women  on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s  The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s  competence  a  respondents.  that  of marriage  education.  Neither  and gender,  was  the professional ministry.  themselves  findings  relationship  have been o r d a i n e d  preparation providers  perceive  glance  ordained  among  and I m p l i c a t i o n s  major  knowledge  of  of time  a somewhat r e c e n t effect  significant  of years  respondents  period  continue  a  perception  area.  hoc a n a l y s i s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t h e number  shorter  subject  i n the  t o be g o o d  t h e r e f o r e have an a c c u r a t e  i n this  variables,  female  of communication  Clergy are trained  and should  competence  In  that  the importance  clear  implications f o rthe training  F o r t h e most p a r t , t h e s e o n t h e KMFC I n s t u m e n t .  may a p p e a r  t o be a d e q u a t e .  81  respondents At  first  However,  when  one  c o n s i d e r s the amount  provided of  that  of  to p r e m a r i t a l couples i n f o r m a t i o n was  related  curricula.  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  in  of L e i s u r e ,  Continuing  need  reliable  for Further  A revision  i n c l u d e more in their  and  Finances. including  workshops.  Research  important  b a s e l i n e d a t a and  There  i s a need  Marriage  of t e s t  such  items  that  be  may  one  for continued  and  Family  result  helpful  suggests  Concepts  i n a more  i f standardized  could evaluate scores  on  measure. i t would  competence  of m a r r i a g e  this  contradict  study  nature  might  be  those  be  be  and  beneficial.  the  (1976).  findings  A study  desirability  study with a larger the d i r e c t i o n s  although  A stratified  specialists  the p e r c e i v e d of  of  this  i n order  p e r c e i v e d competence.  of t h i s  were s u p p o r t e d  significant.  volunteers  given that  of W r i g h t  valuable given that  hypotheses  to re-test  i n c l u d e a measure of s o c i a l  A replication would  important  educators,  t o more a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s  also  and  situation  need more i n f o r m a t i o n  of O r i g i n  I t would a l s o  were d e v e l o p e d  Secondly,  not  of t h e  family concepts  clergy  of the Knowledge of  measure.  gravity  be  one-quarter  should a l s o consider  for future studies.  Instrument.  the  and  these  Family  study provides  development  scores  the  information in conferences  This the  when a p p r o x i m a t e l y  to marriage  education agencies  Recommendations  could  T h e o l o g i c a l s c h o o l s need t o  information  the a r e a  information that  incorrect,  becomes more o b v i o u s .  content  false  and  the  sample  of a number  findings  I t would be 82  marriage  useful  of  themselves  sample w h i c h s o u g h t female  size  are  out  educators  to study  the  marriage  would  educators as  from  different  s e c u l a r marriage  denominations  educators.  Given  and  the d i f f e r e n c e  theological  orientation  between C a n a d i a n  it  interesting  to  would be  i n the  attention  t o c o v a r i a n c e among  theological  same s t u d y .  found  here  orientation  Finally,  there  marriage skills,  educators attitudes  conducted  couple  Although there this of  were  this  few  marriage  field  as w e l l  as  in studies,  both  need  variables  to give  such  as and  education.  for further and  study  into various  competence  of  p r e p a r a t i o n such  as  Further s t u d i e s should  the v a r i a b l e s  of knowledge and  to s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g satisfaction  as w e l l  as  be  perceived  training,  ethnographic  practice. s t u d y used  provide  a select  findings  important  p r e p a r a t i o n and Such s t u d i e s a r e  can  from  well  number of y e a r s o r d a i n e d  training.  significant  s t u d y does  research. the  and  in addition  examining  between  qualifications  p e r c e p t i o n s and  studies  independent  as  American  studies will  p r o v i d i n g marriage  measuring  competence,  Future  i s a need  a s p e c t s r e g a r d i n g the  and  include respondents  countries  relationships  religions  on  emerge.  83  the  although  hypotheses  baseline data  suggests needed  sample and  directions  proposed,  f o r the  field  for future  b e f o r e adequate t h e o r y i n  REFERENCES Adams, O. report  and Nagnur, D. 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P a s t o r a l P s y c h o l o g y , 33, 161-172. R u t l e d g e , A.L. ( 1966 ). Mass.: Schenkman.  Premar i t a l  c o u n s e l i n g . Cambridge  S a b e y , F.P. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . P r e m a r i t a l and c o u p l e c o u n s e l i n g w i t h CO-SEE: C o u p l e ' s s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of M a s s a c h u s e t t e s , 1 9 8 1 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 41 ( 3 ) , 5020-A. S a l t s , C . J . , & B u c k n e r , L.P. (1983, June). Premarital Counselor Training. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the I l l i n o i s D i v i s i o n o f AAMFT C o n f e r e n c e , Oakbrook, 111.  89  Schumm, W. R., & D e n t o n , W. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T r e n d s i n p r e m a r i t a l counseling. J o u r n a l o f Mar i t a l and F a m i l y T h e r a p y , 5, 23-32. S h o n i c k , H. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . 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P r e m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g by clergy: A k e y l i n k between c h u r c h and f a m i l y . Family S c i e n c e Review, 2, 327-336. T i g u e , A.M. ( 1 9 5 8 ) . The m i n i s t e r ' s r o l e i n m a r r i a g e p r e p a r a t i o n and p r e m a r i t a l c o u n s e l i n g . Marr i a g e and F a m i l y L i v i n g , 5, 61-78. U n i t e d C h u r c h o f C a n a d a . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . L i v i n g t o g e t h e r i n marr i a g e ^ a manual f o r m a r r i a g e e d u c a t i o n l e a d e r s . T o r o n t o : A u t h o r . U n i t e d C h u r c h P u b l i s h i n g House. Toronto: Author. U n i t e d C h u r c h P u b l i s h i n g House. Toronto: Author. Van  (1986). United (1987).  United  Church  Yearbook.  Church  Yearbook .  Z o o s t , B. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . P r e m a r i t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s w i t h u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . The F a m i l y Co-ordinator, 22, 187-191.  education  W a l k e r , P. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . 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A L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f p r e m a r i t a l e n r i c h m e n t p r o g r a m s on s u b s e q u e n t a d j u s t m e n t . Paper p r e s e n t e d at the National Council on Family Relations Conference, P h i l a d e l p h i a , PA. W r i g h t , L., & L ' A b a t e , L. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . F o u r a p p r o a c h e s t o f a m i l y f a c i l i t a t i o n : Some i s s u e s and i m p l i c a t i o n s . The F a m i l y C o o r d i n a t o r , 26, 176-182. W r i g h t , N. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The c h u r c h and r e s e a r c h s t u d y and an o p i n i o n . N e w s l e t t e r , 2, 1-13.  premarital counseling: A Marr i a g e and Family Resource  Wright, P.G. (1984). The counseling activites and referral p r a c t i c e s of C a n a d i a n c l e r g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y and T h e o l o g y , 12, 294-304. W r i g h t , P. G., H a l e y , G., & Moreau, M. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Community m e n t a l h e a l t h and t h e c l e r g y . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t .  91  -Appendix A _  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  S C H O O L O F F A M I L Y A N D N U T R I T I O N A L SCIENCES 2205 EAST M A L L  VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5  DIVISION O F F A M I L Y SCIENCES  A p r i l 3, 1989 Dear S i r or Madam, I am a graduate student i n Family Studies a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia studying i n the f i e l d of marriage preparation. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n marriage preparation as i t i s conducted within r e l i g i o u s communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia. My purpose i n writing i s t o seek the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of your pastoral charge i n a study f o r my master's thesis. Permission to s o l i c i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been obtained from Gordon How a t the B.C. Conference O f f i c e of The United Church of Canada. Your pastoral charge has been selected as part of a random sample. Because the sample i s random, i t i s very important that you choose to p a r t i c i p a t e . I would ask that each person i n your p a s t o r a l chargewho i s a c t i v e l y involved i n the provision of marriage preparation ( i . e . , o f f i c i a t i n g clergy, volunteer couples, s t a f f s o c i a l worker or family minister) complete one copy of the e n t i r e questionnaire. I f any a d d i t i o n a l copies of the questionnaire are required, please duplicate a s u f f i c i e n t number or contact me a t the address above, and I w i l l provide them to you. I expect the questionnaire t o take l e s s than one hour to complete. When each i n d i v i d u a l involved i n marriage preparation has completed the questionnaire, please s e a l i t i n the self-addressed, stamped envelope provided, and return them to me. Any i n d i v i d u a l may, of course, choose not to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study, and may withdraw at any time. I t i s important to note, however, that only f u l l y completed questionnaires are useful f o r a n a l y s i s . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s assured. Individual pastoral charges w i l l not be i d e n t i f i a b l e i n the reporting of data. I wish to thank you f o r your time. I f you would l i k e to receive a summary of the r e s u l t s , please indicate such at the end of the questionnaire. Sincerely,  Rosanne Farnden 92  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  S C H O O L O F F A M I L Y A N D N U T R I T I O N A L SCIENCES 2205 E A S T M A L L  VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5  DIVISION O F F A M I L Y SCIENCES  A p r i l 3, 1989 Dear S i r or Madam, I am a graduate student i n Family Studies a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia studying i n the f i e l d of marriage preparation. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n marriage preparation as i t i s conducted w i t h i n r e l i g i o u s communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia. My purpose i n w r i t i n g i s t o seek the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of your p a r i s h i n a study f o r my master's t h e s i s . Permission t o s o l i c i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been obtained from the appropriate l o c a l Diocese o f f i c e of the Anglican Church i n Canada. Your p a r i s h has been s e l e c t e d as part of a random sample. Because the sample i s random, i t i s very important that you choose to p a r t i c i p a t e . I would ask t h a t each person i n your p a r i s h who i s a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the p r o v i s i o n of marriage preparation ( i . e . , p a r i s h p r i e s t , l a y volunteer couples, s t a f f s o c i a l worker or f a m i l y m i n i s t e r ) complete one copy of the e n t i r e questionnaire. I f any a d d i t i o n a l copies of the questionnaire are required, please d u p l i c a t e a s u f f i c i e n t number or contact me at the address above, and I w i l l provide them t o you. I expect the questionnaire t o take l e s s than one hour t o complete. When each i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e d i n marriage preparation has completed the questionnaire, please s e a l i t i n the self-addressed, stamped envelope provided, and r e t u r n them t o me. Any i n d i v i d u a l may, of course, choose not t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study, and may withdraw a t any time. I t i s important to note, however, that only f u l l y completed questionnaires are u s e f u l f o r a n a l y s i s . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s assured. I n d i v i d u a l parishes w i l l not be i d e n t i f i a b l e i n the r e p o r t i n g of data. I wish to thank you f o r your time. I f you would l i k e t o r e c e i v e a summary of the r e s u l t s , please i n d i c a t e such a t the end of the questionnaire. Sincerely,  Rosanne Farnden 93  MARRIAGE EDUCATORS IN THE CHURCH QUESTIONNAIRE SECTION ONE: PASTORAL CHARGE DEMOGRAPHICS 1.  Denomination of your pastoral charge or parish. 1. Anglican Church in Canada 2. United Church of Canada 3. Other (please specify)  2.  Number of individuals in your pastoral charge. 1. Number of members 2. Number of adherents 3. Number of children (if not included above)  3.  Number of paid ministry and/or program staff in your congregation. 1. One  4. Four  1. Two  5. Five or more  3. Three  4.  Number of staff mentioned above who are full time. 1. One  4. Four  2. Two  5. Five or more  3. Three  5.  Number of weddings celebrated in your parish in 1988. 1. Jan - March  3. July - Sept.  2. April - June  4. Oct. - Dec.  The number of weddings in 1988 was: 1. typical of other years 2. more than other years 3. less than other years  SECTION TWO PERSONAL DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION 6.  Date of Birth  day  month  year  96  7.  Gender.  1. Male 2. Female 8.  Present marital status.  1. never married 2. married to first spouse  »  3. separated or divorced 4. remarried 5. widowed 6. other (please specify) 9.  )  Total number of years married (all marriages).  years. 10.  Your title or position in your pastoral charge (eg.Senior Clergy, Pastoral Care Worker etc.)  11.  If you are ordained or commissioned, please indicate the year in which this occurred. The age you were at that time  12.  13.  Number of pastorates you have held.  1. one  3. four to seven  2. two to three  4. eight or more  If employed by the church, are you considered  1. full  time  2.3/4 to full 14.  time  3. 1/2 to 3/4 time 4. less than 1/2 time  Number of weddings you personally performed in 1988.  Jan. - March  July - Sept  April - June  Oct - Dec.  Not applicable The number of weddings I performed in 1988 was:  1. typical of other years 2. less than other years 3. more than other years 15.  Number of years you have been conducting marriage preparation  16.  The capacity in which you conduct marriage preparation is:  1. Ordained Clergy  3. Lay Staff Associate  2. Commisioned Clergy  4. Lay Volunteer  5. Other (please specify)  97  .  0  17.  How many other individuals conduct marriage preparation in your pastoral charge ?  18.  The number of premarital couples / personally offered marriage preparation to in  19.  l.None  4. 10 to 14  2.1 to 4  5. 15 to 19  3. 5to9  6.20 or more  1988 was:  On a scale of 1 (theologically very liberal),to 9 (theologically very conservative), please place yourself by circling the appropriate number. 1  2  3  4  5 6  7  Very Liberal  8 9  Very Conservative  SECTION THREE: TRAINING AND EDUCATION 20.  The highest degree you have obtained: 1. High School Diploma 2. College Certificate Major 3. Bachelors Degree  Major  4. Masters Degree  Major  5. Doctorate  Major  21.  From what institution did you obtain your highest degree?.  22.  Please indicate the training in the field of marriage preparation you have obtained in the lastfiveyears from the following sources: 1. Number of Marriage Preparation texts read 2. Hours in Marriage Preparation Training workshops or courses 3. Hours in lectures on Marriage Preparation 4. Other (please specify  Please list the three which have been the most beneficial, in the space below.  23.  What other educational experiences have you had in thepast three years that would enhance the marriage preparation you offer?  98  P A R T F O U R M A R R I A G E P R E P A R A T I O N O P P O R T U N I T E S IN Y O U R P A S T O R A L CHARGE 24.  Are you required by your denomination to provide marriage preparation to all engaged couples?  1. Yes 2. No If no, what is the policy of your pastoral charge?  25.  Please indicate the number of hours a typical couple in your pastoral charge or parish will spend on marriage preparation. 1.  hours as an individal couple  2.  hours as part of a group of couples  3.  hours as an individual couple referred to an external source  4.  hours as part of a group of couples referredtoan external source  5.  other (please specify  Of the above hours, how many are spent on wedding ceremony preparation ?  26.  Please outline the typical program of marriage preparation for couples wedded in your charge.  If you are not satisifed with this program of preparation, how would you like to change it ?  27.  For each of the following topic areas that might be a part of marriage preparation, please indicate how competent you feel about working with premarital couples by circling the number on the scale at therightthat seems most applicable to you. Very Competent  Not Very Competent  Communication  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  Conflict resolution  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  Sexuality  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  Marital Expectation  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  Use of Leisure Time  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  Finances  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  The influence of family they grew up in  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  General Marriage Issues  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  Using the same scale, how competent do you feel about providing Marriage Preparation to couples ? 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  For questions 28 and 29, please use the following scale: 1 = not important, 2 = slightly important 3 = moderately important, 28.  4 = very important  Rate the priority of yourself as provider of marriage preparation in relation to your other professional roles ( eg. teacher, adminstrator) 1 2  29.  9  3  4  In marriage preparation, how important is your attention to each of the following: Not important  Very important  a. Education (ie giving information)  1  2  3  4  b. Enrichment (ie relationship enhancement)  1  2  3  4  c. Evangelism (ie enricment or personal faith)  1  2  3  4  d. Moral Teaching (ie the sacred nature of marriage)  1  2  3  4  e. Rehersal (ie preparation for the ceremony)  1  2  3  4  f. Resource Identification (ie to identify clergy  1  2  3  4  g. Screening (ie assessment of preparedness for marriage)  1  2  3  4  h. Facilitator (ie to encourage couple disclosure)  1  2  3  4  others as sources of potential support)  100  The following are statements about marriage and family life which might be included as part of the content in a course on marriage preparation. For each of thestatements, please indicate which of the following you understand to be the best response, based on current knowledge: Circle T (Mostly True) if the statement is true or is true in most situations. Circle F (Mostly False) if the statement is false or is false in most situations. T  F  Happiness has replaced stability as a goal in marriage.  T  F  To achieve sexual adjustment in marriage, each partner must understand why the other behaves the way he/ she does.  T  F  The key to understanding family financial conflict lies more in the concepts of what is valued than in the amount of income.  T  F  A wedding is the same thing as a marriage.  T  F  The solutiontomarital conflict lies more in learning to live with a problem than in eliminating it.  T  F  The desire to communicate means having the desire to talk.  T  F  In-law relationships appear to cause more difficulty in early marital adjustment than do adjustments to sex.  T  F  The tendency to select a person who fulfills an idealized parental image as a mate is the most influential factor in mate selection.  T  F  Social class does not appear to be a significant factor in instances of family violence.  T  F  The elimination of marital conflict is a matter of will and desire; conflict can be avoided if partners are willing to give and take in marriage.  T  F  Frank "confessions" tend to strengthen engagements and help establish a sound basis for marriage.  T  F  The link between sex and affection is more frequendy a problem for men than for women.  T  F  Role expectations in marriages are deteimined more by personal preference than by cultural influences such as socioeconomic status or ethnic background.  T  F  Holding different value systems is a destructive force in marriage.  T  F  There is about a 50% chance that a sexually active, fertile woman will become pregnant within one year if she does not use contraceptives.  T  F  A potential spouse who is a child of an alcoholic parent has at least a 25% greater chance of becoming an alcoholic than if they did not have a parent who was an alcoholic.  T  F  A married couple who are angry with one another are probably experiencing a marriage that is falling apart.  T  F  Over time, the societal views of appropriate masculine and feminine roles are becoming more and more firmly fixed.  T  F  If a couple is really in love, their marriage relationship will have a few problems.  T  F  In the majority of marriages where the wife works outside the home, the husband shares equally in the household chores.  T  F  Most couples know why they manage their resources in the way they do.  T  F  Spouses who love each other develop a "sixth sense" that allows them to know each other's needs and feelings without specific feedback.  101  T  F  Spouses who love one another know instinctively what makes the other happy.  T  F  Ritualistic patterns formed in childhood (ie our family always spends Christmas together) often devlop into inlaw conflcit,  T  F  Marriages between partners from the same cultural group tend to be more stable because the couple has the same values.  T  F  Childless couples are frustrated and unhappy.  If you refer couples to another individual or agency for some aspect of their marriage preparation, please supply me with a contact address below .  THANK YOU  102  Appendix B  Principle Components Anaysis F a c t o r Matrix f o r I n d i v i d u a l of the KMFC Instrument y  Item  Factor 1  6 11 22 5 17 13 18 20 14 9 5 2 7 24 4 19 26  .45651 .34625 . 45221 .52757 .66599 .35654 . 49997 .62668 .18316 .14262 .52757 .09888 .12480 .58200 .60758 .17382 .02775  Factor 2  36447 49350 32749 65077 05715 15192 25196 17123 52978 19671 65077 24415 12295 28136 08509 22702 30305  Factor 3  Factor 4  ,03106 16822 37673 27376 24033 26618 05676 04426 33385 44810 27376 49140 34749 30601 15742 652476 57745  ,39766 00064 05393 41417 22811 17216 35572 06299 16704 01419 41417 43414 12024 13460 33925 47922 58416  103  Factor 5  .17542 ,20765 09712 ,10643 ,18829 31761 ,18583 01472 ,21133 71594 ,10643 ,33707 ,61227 34912 10976 03709 07598  H f L L  Items  Factor 6  .37677 .11068 ,18436 ,16222 ,15253 35196 40521 30711 ,50932 07500 16222 03252 03471 28801 ,15443 20094 07528  

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