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A qualitative analysis of native child welfare : an identification of the cultural and structural dimensions.. Kuperis, Stanley Ronald 1990

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A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NATIVE CHILD WELFARE. AN IDENTIFICATION OF THE CULTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DIMENSIONS PROPOSED MUSQUEAM IDNIDAN BAND FAMILY AND CHILD SERVICES  By S t a n l e y Ronald  Kuperis  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK  We a c c e p t  this  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1990 STANLEY  RONALD KUPERIS, 1990  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  or  publication  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  University  of  British  Columbia,  I  agree  for  this  department  thesis  of  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  study.  scholarly  or  her  for  I further  purposes  financial  gain  permission.  ~  .  Department  .  ,  of  Graduate  Studies  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  November23.1990  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  requirements  be  It not  that  the  be  Library  an  advanced  shall  permission for  granted  is  for  by  understood allowed  the  make  extensive  head  that  without  it  of  copying my  my or  written  i  STAN KUPERIS A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NATIVE CHILD WELFARE. AN IDENTIFICATION OF THE CULTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DIMENSIONS OF PROPOSED MUSQUEAM INDIAN BAND FAMILY AND CHILD SERVICES.  ABSTRACT The Musqueam I n d i a n agreement the  with  the province  Musqueam I n d i a n Band  towards d e v e l o p i n g on r e s e r v e . well  band h a s no f o r m a l of B r i t i s h  based c h i l d  Musqueam I n d i a n Band.  relating  to child  the s p e c i f i c  s e r v i c e s a t t h e band.  importance  of k i n s h i p , l i n g u i s t i c ,  experimental community.  This study  a qualitative  community f a m i l y and  i d e n t i f i e s the  geographic,  into a funding  goes on t o p r o v i d e  for culturally  s e r v i c e s a t t h e band.  Band.  a t the  religious,  a n d c o n t e m p o r a r y d i m e n s i o n s w i t h i n t h e Musqueam  recommendations  government  This study  f a c t o r s as  welfare  d i m e n s i o n s t h a t would be t h e b a s i s f o r autonomous child  Recently  and f a m i l y s e r v i c e s  This research u t i l i z e d  paradigm t o i d e n t i f y  welfare  a d e s i r e t o work  T h i s r e s e a r c h examines t h e h i s t o r i c a l  as contemporary f a c t o r s  research  Columbia.  has expressed  community  child  proposal  specific  f a m i l y and c h i l d  This research w i l l put forward  p o l i c y and p r o g r a m  be i n c o r p o r a t e d  t o the p r o v i n c i a l  f o r programs and s e r v i c e s a t t h e Musqueam  Indian  il TABLE  OF C O N T E N T S o  Abstract  i i  I.  Introduction  1  II.  Contemporary on A. B.  111.  IV.  V.  VI.  and  Historical  Perspectives  Indian Child Welfare The Dimensions of t h e Problem Historical Factors i The European F u r Trade ii Colonization i i i The Reserve System iv Residential Schools v Government J u r i s d i c t i o n a n d I n d i a n  Child  3 3 6 6 7 8 10 W e l f a r e 12  D e s c r i p t i o n of Methodology A. Statement of Research Question  15 21  Research Findings A. L i n g u i s t i c Connectedness B. Geographic Connectedness C. Kinship Connectedness D. S p i r i t u a l andCeremonial Connectedness . . E. E x p e r i e n t i a l Connectedness F. C o n t i n u i n g E v o l u t i o n o f t h e Musqueam C u l t u r e  . .  22 23 25 27 . 30 33 . 37  Child Welfare P o l i c y Implications of The R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s  39  C h i l d and F a m i l y Program Recommendations f o r t h e Musqueam I n d i a n Band A. S p e c i f i c Band B a s e d P r o g r a m s i K i n s h i p Homes i i S a f e Homes i i i Group Homes. i v F a m i l y and C h i l d S e r v i c e s . v F a m i l y DayCare v i P a r e n t Support Group v i i Community R e s o u r c e Worker v i i i Funding Sources ix P l a n n i n g Future Program Development  43 46 46 48 50 51 51 52 52 52 53  .  .  .  .  VII.  Conclusion  56  VIII  Endnotes  57  IX.  Bibliography  59  X.  Appendix  "A"  62  XI.  Appendix  "B"  68  XII.  Appendix  "C"  69  XIII  Appendix  "D"  79  XIV.  Appendix  "E"  80  1 INTRODUCTION I became i n t e r e s t e d i n n a t i v e contact and of  with  F o r t Ware.  isolated  children  and  from t h e i r  and  ceremonial  removal of n a t i v e  disturbances, experienced  I a l s o became aware o f t h e necessary to a l l e v i a t e experiencing. and  are  not  developed allow  welfare  f o r bands and and  communities. for  Chah N u l t h  the  reserves to the  tribal  should  needs o f  This  be the  research  issues surrounding  locally  and  programs  f a m i l i e s are  not  culturally  are  not  In c o n t r a s t  appropriate  effective  in  Carrier-Sekani  own.  These  specific the  welfare  that c h i l d  staff,  programs  exception,  services in welfare  programs  not  in  their  the  rule  native  services  c o n t r o l l e d , autonomous and  on specific  community. will  begin  native  with  child  and  S p a l l u m c h e e n bands have  develop c u l t u r a l l y  I have f e l t  children  cultural  c o u n c i l s to acquire  T h e s e programs a r e  family,  behavioral  of r e s o u r c e s  programs o f t h e i r  p r o v i s i o n of c h i l d  communities.  and  those  territory.  Native  native  therefore  community p r o b l e m s .  child  resources,  lack  E x i s t i n g programs are  McLeod L a k e , Nuu  familiar  of  native  them.  difficulties  b a n d - b a s e d and  alleviating  to  Ministry  removal of  a d j u s t i n g to routines,  norms u n f a m i l i a r  Ingenika  I became  well-being  depression.  in  the  from k i n s h i p t i e s ,  p r a c t i c e s , and  a l i e n a t i o n , and  and  the  by  children often results in  difficulty  practices,  B.C.,  worker.  e f f e c t s the on  while  employed  a social  community has severed  welfare  in northern  I was  negative  C h i l d r e n are  religious  time  H o u s i n g as  aware o f t h e  children.  reserves  During t h i s  Social Services  shockingly  The  two  child  a general  welfare.  overview of  Issues  s u c h as  the the  2  number  of  native  apprehension family, the  and  children  and  placement  community  related  loss  of  Nation  Peoples  as  arisen  between  the  Provincial This factors Nation  Peoples  based be  In  utilize  rearing  be  cultural as  First  care  and  on n a t i v e  identity  the  the  I  and  will its  jurisdictional  Nation  Peoples  effects  children,  explored.  the  loss  of  and  the  need  for  context  cultural  practices  and  welfare  incorporated  Musqueam  proceed  qualitative  bands'  child  will  to  the  recommendations the  has  will  well  research  related  Musqueam  state  and  their  also  examine  impact  on  disputes the  that  First  that  Federal  have  and  governments.  autonomy. will  in  into for  Indian  of  to  cultural native  this  program. policy,  Findings practice a  historical  picture  as  to  child  this  explore  First  basis  this  and  research the  traditional  the  from and  by  determination  values,  structure  implementing  self  methods  uniqueness,  key  identity  broad  research  social  Band.  examine  for  child a  band-  research  will  projects  at  program welfare  3  Chapter  II  CONTEMPORARY  AND H I S T O R I C A L  PERSPECTIVES  ON  INDIAN  of  native  CHIhP WELFARE The  Dimensions There  children  is  in  Of  The  Problem  and  has  been  the  care  of  Family  and  Child  books,  and  government  about  child  Johnston  in  following  disproportionate  British  Services.  welfare his  a  In  my r e v i e w  documents  services  book  Columbia's  this  in  on n a t i v e  is  native child  number  Superintendent  of  studies,  the  most  reports,  striking  communities.  welfare  of  point  Patrick  states  the  statistics: " I n 1955 t h e r e were 3 , 4 3 3 c h i l d r e n i n t h e care of B . C . ' s c h i l d w e l f a r e b r a n c h . Out o f t h a t n u m b e r i t was e s t i m a t e d 29 c h i l d r e n or l e s s than 1 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l , were of Indian a n c e s t r y . B y 1964 h o w e v e r 1,446 c h i l d r e n i n c a r e of B . C . were of Indian extraction. T h a t number r e p r e s e n t e d 34.2 p e r c e n t of a l l c h i l d r e n in c a r e . Within ten y e a r s , i n other words, the representation of n a t i v e c h i l d r e n in B . C . ' s c h i l d w e l f a r e s y s t e m had jumped f r o m n i l t o a t h i r d . " (1.)  Recently native have  First  sovereignty  negotiated  Provincial  Nation over  child  which  importance  native  children the  of  remaining  in  native  have  found  this  not  were  approximately  other 1989  number words were  of  This  is  to  and  6,900 Family  the  in  children and  Child  2,300  33  the  native  of  children.  the the  in  In  bands  the  Federal  and  a  new  of  in  Indian in  care  northern  native would  have  care  assume  decreased.  of  of  social  and  of  January  the  children the  several  One  would  Services  were  and  necessity  In  in  pursuing  uniqueness  care  case.  approximately percent  with  own c o m m u n i t i e s .  children be  been  matters  reflected  recognized  their  have  agreements  culture,  of  Superintendent  welfare  welfare  has  numbers  that  child  governments.  consciousness  communities  1989  there  the  B.C.  Out  of  ancestry.  In  in  of  January  regions  of  British  I  4 Columbia  this  children  in  about  percentage  care.  4 percent  of  The  native  the  total  (Personal  Communication,  of  S e r v i c e s and  Social The  A d m i s s i o n of  continues their  have  a  wide  deemed  to  parents.  Child  to  not  that The  Welfare  in  may  child's System,  by  permit  negative  families  the  required  would  is  and  the  Patrick  In  Columbia  offer to  this the  or  who  provide  remain  with  perceived  C h i l d r e n and the  his  on  immediate,  J o h n s t o n makes  and  Columbia  practice  Native  care  are  children  British  child  outweigh  being.  to  to  children  remove In  of  Ministry  children  British  law  impact  far  well  Columbia  Gremm,  on n a t i v e  protection.  or  benefit  impact  of  are  the  1989)  native  be  services  and  of  apprehend  family  children  numbers  to  workers  of  British  Rick  15,  discretion  social  her  Housing, Dec.  need  in  Manage,  S o c i a l workers  in  percent  population.  District  large  60  population  devastating  communities.  afforded are  to  increases to  the  following  comment: "The e f f e c t s o f a p p r e h e n s i o n on a n i n d i v i d u a l n a t i v e c h i l d w i l l o f t e n be more traumatic than for his non-native counterpart. When the n a t i v e c h i l d i s taken from h i s p a r e n t s , he i s a l s o r e m o v e d f r o m a t i g h t l y knit c o m m u n i t y o f e x t e n d e d f a m i l y members a n d neighbors. I n a d d i t i o n , he i s r e m o v e d f r o m a u n i q u e , d i s t i n c t i v e and f a m i l i a r c u l t u r e . " The a  loss  a p p r e h e n s i o n and  of  cultural  cultural  identity  children  who a r e  Consulting, British from In  1986)  identity. is  a  raised (3.)  C o l u m b i a has  their  native  of  This  native  struggle  children for  a  common d y n a m i c a m o n g m a n y in  non-native  homes.  My own e x p e r i e n c e confirmed  communities  addition,  removal  results  children  as  of  in  loss  cultural  also  experience  and  Populi  s o c i a l worker  removal of  in  native  that a  results  personal  (Amicus a  (2.)  native  in  children identity.  behavioral  5  disturbances, their  supportive  rather their  a l i e n a t i o n , and communities.  that a l l e v i a t e d communities.  Among N a t i v e  depression  when removed  Problems are  when n a t i v e  Mark C o l l i n s  P e o p l e makes t h e  often  c h i l d r e n are  from  magnified  removed  from  i n h i s paper, C h i l d Welfare  following  point:  "The r e m o v a l o f a c h i l d f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l community, t o a p l a c e m e n t i n a w h i t e u r b a n a r e a , c a n o f t e n damage t h e c h i l d ' s s e l f concept. The b a r r a g e o f s t e r e o t y p e d 'negative image' and t r a n s a c t i o n b a s e d on t h e s e images o f t e n become i n t e r n a l i z e d i n t h e c h i l d ' s behavior." (4.) A p p r e h e n s i o n and  the  removal of n a t i v e  o n l y damaging t o c h i l d r e n , b u t communities.  The  weaken n a t i v e  f a m i l i e s as  that the  a whole.  parents  removal of a c h i l d  who  i s but  of w o r t h l e s s n e s s .  Women s t a t e t h e  f a m i l i e s and  a p p r e h e n s i o n of n a t i v e  f o r many n a t i v e  feelings  a l s o to  another The  not  native  c h i l d r e n serves  P a t r i c k Johnston  already  (5.)  children is  have low  to  states  self-esteem,  confirmation  of  Alberta Council  their of  Treaty  following:  " E a c h t i m e an I n d i a n c h i l d i s s p i r i t e d away f r o m our r e s e r v e s , t h e f a m i l y u n i t y i s b e i n g d e s t r o y e d and we a r e b e i n g d e p r i v e d o f our f u t u r e g r e a t l e a d e r s . I n d i a n c h i l d r e n have an i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t t o keep t h e i r p a r e n t s . T h e y have an i n h e r e n t r i g h t to r e t a i n t h e i r language and c u l t u r e . We do n o t condone t h e s y s t e m t h a t p i r a t e s away our c h i l d r e n and e v e n e x p o r t s them t o f o r e i g n l a n d s . We a r e s a y i n g t h i s planned process of c u l t u r a l g e n o c i d e must c e a s e . " (6.) The resulted  removal of n a t i v e in a  l o s s of c u l t u r a l  acculturation, The  cohesive  b r o k e n as to t h e i r  c h i l d r e n from t h e i r  and  native cultural  generational  c h i l d r e n do  not  i d e n t i t y and  has  identity, assimilation,  a w e a k e n i n g of t h e  n a t u r e and  community  unique n a t i v e  heritage.  c o n n e c t e d n e s s has  u n d e r s t a n d and  heritage.  This  been  cannot r e l a t e fact  of  the  6 disproportionate undermines  the  number  of  stability  native  of  children  both  native  in  care  families  therefore  and  native  communities. In  addition  children  from  factors  have  Include  the  to  the  their led  fur  communities,  to  a  loss  trade,  of  schools,  federal  provincial  other  and  order  problems  as  to  are  community,  it  influences  on West  exploring Indians there  the  as  chosen  a no  to  North  Coast  West  Interior. Columbia  River  to  not  between  and  today  in  understand as  a  child the  the  the  whole.  The  in  does  indicate,  similar  key  rationale  West  to  historical  is  the  that  Musqueam  however,  experiences  for  Coast  particular,  literature shared  Musqueam  affecting  Musqueam  welfare  historical  relate  fur  First  European Fur  trade  1824 was  was  Nation  Company f o u n d e d In  disputes  and  influences.  that  I  have (Lewis,  Hawthorn)  European  upon West  factors  system,  that  The The  family  influences  on t h e s e  and  These  reserve  documents  Indians  expand  Manuel  and  The  Coast  the  Indians  historical  specific  historical  Factors  experienced  Coast  group,  the  native  governments.  essential  history.  West  Duff,  the  are  band's  is  of  identity.  jurisdictional  understand  they  removal  significant  cultural  Historical In  and  colonization,  residential and  apprehension  Fort  the  Trade first  Peoples.  trading  Vancouver  established  as  In  posts near the  significant the in  the  early  British mouth  of  headquarters  influence  1800's  the  Columbia's the for  coastal  7  trade. and  The  began  coastal  trading  trinkets,  cloth  Indians  at  greater  wealth,  economic and  in  and  a  The  brought  about  Alcohol  result  Potlaches for  emergence  of  the  this of  also  this  trade  introduced  trade  social  was  and  increasingly  fur  to  initially  existing  wealth  European  to  ammunition,  was  became  displaying  of  oblivious  muskets,  strengthening  (7.)  occasions  gifts.  The  not  iron,  blankets.  time.  systems.  were  copper,  and  that  became  Indians  common  and  presenting  trade,  however,  soon  colonization.  Colonization The  lower  Columbia  in  mainland  1858.  With  created  problems  with  Douglas  asserted  the  British  crown  to  approval  intent over to  of  the  use  James  Douglas  while  asserting  remaining  included such  as  or  set  crown  of  framework  to  of  to  of  a  minimum and  to  Law.  of  also  Governor  held  the for  this  James to  the  subject  with  the  conflict  made  colony.  attempts Governor  Indians  adopted  to  dispose  three These  harmful  emphasized  bring  land  created  interfering  third  residence,  Douglas  to  British  colonists  conflict.  gradually His  of  of  belonged  authority  access  not  1859  lands  James  and  up  Indians  Douglas  They  In  ownership,  laws  reduce  by  the  colony  taking  all  reserves  Indian  arms.  British  the  James  and  Indians  land  colony. to  the  arrival  ownership  policies  liquor  The  aside  (8.)  restriction  disturbances affairs  also  that  that  private the  of  ownership.  crown.  conform  lands.  principles  land  part  colonists  principle  within  Indians  the  implied  acquiring  land  have  which  by  became  in  general policies  commodities,  measures the  them under  policy  of  assertion  to  keep  internal the entailed  8  promoting  civilization  missionaries. the  policies The  of  of  result  cultural  Europeans  Indian  Governor of  regarding  current  undermined  a  land  system of the  was  unique  way  First  the use  and  and  its'  beginning  of  life.  further  the  in  With North to  coming of  America Act  enact  for  the  altered life  (11).  The  Indian  status  (British  Indian and  the  governance  Indians  reserves  characterized removal in  the  of  with by a  Indian  lives  the  of  the  the  of  This  spiritual from  many F i r s t  and  Indians  style.  (10.)  break  in  land  People.  reserved  91  the  left  with  on  assignment  their  the  (24).  deals  residing  traditional  their  British  lands  that  and  oneness with  Nation  and  jurisdiction  Section  statute  reserves  first  land.  people  of  The  government  Indians  federal  establishment was  1867,  America A c t ,  is  The  relationship  with  North  in  federal  Act  reserves. to  dealing  about  System  confederation  assigned the  legislation  Indians.  Reserve  of  life.  brought  Peoples t r a d i t i o n a l  loss  innumerable  " W h a t we d o n ' t l i k e a b o u t t h e G o v e r n m e n t is their saying this: 'We w i l l g i v e y o u t h i s m u c h l a n d ; how c a n t h e y g i v e i t when i t i s o u r own? We c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d it. T h e y have n e v e r b o u g h t i t f r o m us o r o u r forefathers. They have never f o u g h t and conquered our people and taken the land t h a t w a y , a n d y e t t h e y s a y now t h a t they w i l l g i v e u s s o m u c h l a n d - o u r own l a n d "  The  in  arrival  native  ownership  which  of  The  customs and  land  infancy  1858.  u n i q u e n e s s of  reserves, Nation  had  in  the  many a b o r i g i n a l  and d e s t r o y e d  agents  administration  James D o u g l a s  and  undermined  Conflicts  government  colonization  identity  way a l t e r e d  the  (9.)  through  traditional  relationship land a  of  and  the  spiritual  Many b a n d s  was  void  still  9  utilize spirit  their dances.  enforced  the  for  traditional  Due  to  the  regulation  of  life  ceremonies they  lands  have  the  Indian  now o n l y a  shadow of  been  changed to  suit  the  purposes such  lengthy  government  Reserves,  what more  they  as  traditional  once were  limited  lands  and  within  reserve.  native  culture  longer  did  fishing  as  with  support.  gradually those  was  native  areas  stricken,  to  on  of  are  A second important  for  legacy  spiritual  it  people  the  Federal  took  the  access  Life  these  of  programs  economic d e t e r i o r a t i o n ,  support  system.  In  the  in  served  promote  words  the  to  and  of  livelihood.  hunting  is  typically  on o u t s i d e these  larger  increase  undermine  one  recent  No  and poverty  systems issues  a s s i s t a n c e programs  persons  only  vast  placed  influenced  of  responses to  social  destitute  to  way  on r e s e r v e s  government  form  system  changed t h e i r  have  before.  reserve  increasing reliance  offered  However,  that  way  similar  society. dependency,  the  traditional  observer:  "The c u r r e n t s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p o l i c y i s a problem by v i r t u e of the dependency it fosters. C u l t u r a l v a l u e s such as r e c i p r o c i t y , which c o n t r i b u t e both e c o n o m i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y to the c o l l e c t i v e , a r e e r o d e d s e v e r e l y , and the community as a l i v i n g organism i s rendered d y s f u n c t i o n a l . " (12). By  1983  across areas  a  well  publicized  Parliamentary  Report  on r e s e r v e s  averaged  Canada unemployment was  as  available  for  the  of  cycle  high  as  90%.  (13.)  By l i m i t i n g  economic development poverty  and  i n c r e a s e s the  potential  studies  have  British  Columbia's reserves  (14.)  for The  have  child  that  35% a n d  the  reserve  increases stress  Poverty  indicated.  the  noted  maintains  families.  maltreatment  as  socioeconomic conditions  directly  some  resources  system  within  in  contributed  to  on  family  10  and  community It  some It  is  has  also  First  has  difficulties.  Nation  allowed  given  band  tribal  some  Importantly  to  system  gains  is  have  to  family  kin  autonomy,  and  with  been a c h i e v e d  culture  and  the  family  school  system.  always  to  Indian  and  for  greatest life  The  and  residential  schools  provide  the  land  potential  for  Even though native  the  values,  system.  a  on F i r s t  result  of  the  the  the  native  point  schools  peoples.  their in  Nations residential  residential  Commission in  states  of  It  established  impact  acculturate  Eskimo Welfare  system.  Schools  p h i l o s o p h y of  assimilate  security  traditional  negative as  reserve  system has  this  values  associations.  control.  through  arose  positive  the  relative  which  Residential Perhaps  and  reserve  incongruent  the  in  and  the  note  identified  administrations  self-government,  reserve  have  geographic s t a b i l i t y Most  local  People  however,  easy access  tenure. and  important  The  training  the  was  manual  following  way:  "Ever s i n c e the f i r s t permanent European settlement i n C a n a d a , e f f o r t s have been made t o s c h o o l t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e A b o r i g i n e s i n t h e ways o f t h e n e w c o m e r s . B o t h C h u r c h a n d S t a t e f e l t i t was t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to C h r i s t i a n i z e as w e l l as c i v i l i z e the poor ignorant d w e l l e r s of the North America F o r e s t s . " (15.) Residential some  residential  1970's.  The  between  of  the  the  were  schools  residential  various  government into  schools  in  regular  remained schools  C h u r c h e s and  p o l i c y at  dominant  residential  that  culture. school  the  time In was  in  from  federal to  a  well  1957  the  and  into  the  partnership  assimilate  in  to  government.  government  defined  1892  existence  represented  was a  use  The  native  document  Indians  the  following  role  way:  11  "It was t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s who f i r s t saw the n e c e s s i t y of e d u c a t i o n for the I n d i a n s a n d made s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t s to e s t a b l i s h s c h o o l s and k e e p them w e l l attended. They a l s o endeavored to i n c u l c a t e the white man's n o t i o n s of h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g , good h o u s i n g and proper d i e t . The v a r i o u s m i s s i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d showed t h e r e s u l t s of this t e a c h i n g a n d c r e a t e d many n u c l e i o f c i v i l i z a t i o n in a wilderness." (16.) Children for  ten  were months  of  away  from  distance schools very  often  was  that  little  removed  the  year  their  from and  their  sent  homes.  families  to  schools  One r e s u l t  four  generations  of  experience  with  traditional  Indian  MacDonald  puts  following  way:  the  experience  of  the  Indian  residential  community  located  of  up t o  and  a  residential people  life.  loss  most  distressing aspect  of'the  t r a n s m i s s i o n of  traditionally children.  been  When c h i l d r e n identity  was  lost  the  meaning  and more  spirit  school  need  for  children however  residential  culture.  were  lost.  times  away  issue a  for  First  at  in  the  to want  become Indian  has  native  religious  therefore People.  curriculum that  prepared  for  todays  culture  and  their  was  to school  language  lost.  In  and  They r e a l i z e assists Native  traditions  was  ceremonies,  was  become  life.  the  had  elders  language  (17.)  school  residential  legends,  Nation  s p e c i f i c school  from  Traditional  of  education  Culture  orally  d a n c i n g p a s s e d on t h r o u g h  recent  important  full  the  transmitted  cultural and  of  had  J.A.  "The e x p e r i e n c e f o r most I n d i a n c h i l d r e n was o n e i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e e n c o u r a g e d to devalue t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s , customs, and l a n g u a g e . The a b s e n c e o f c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i r homes f o r m o s t o f t h e y e a r a l s o reduced p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e and a u t h o r i t y and c o n t r i b u t e d t o c o n f l i c t s between the o l d e r and younger g e n e r a t i o n s . " The  great  to  the  their people be  a  12  supplement important  to  the  that  current  education  acculturation,  but  curriculum. not  rather  a  be  a  For  means  means  of  them  of  It  Is  very  assimilation  regaining  and  cultural  identity.  Government The loss can  of be  past  last  historical  cultural  years  there  and  provincial  has  the  Patrick  to  people  levels  by a r g u i n g party. at  that  More  least  of the  and  autonomy,  and  self  about  who  the  the  to  resolved  Indians  both  Federal  government  registered child  to  on and  the  Ministry  Indian  welfare  assumes the  authorities.  in  The  responsibility  government  been an  resting  the  the  of with  mixture  of  care  been  Social Family  Columbia.  result  incongruent  has  British  to  the  other  services  cost  in  of  of  under  the  themselves  the  levels  in  native  that  welfare  financial  admitted  jurisdictional has  child  reserves  children  mandate  for  question  Columbia  services.  question  with  two  provide  off  rested  federal  welfare  of  absolve  the  a  child  He n o t e s to  the  government  cost  between  Housing exercises Act  sought  the  situation  jurisdictional  Services  Services  the  appalling.  In  Child  British  of  provide  welfare  responsibility this  to  level  a  Over  between  jurisdictional  child  government. and  which  to  determination  question.  s h o u l d pay  governments  recently  partly  contributed  responsibility  unsatisfactory  both  has  been disagreement  reserves  Welfare.  that  has  He d e s c r i b e s as  Child  jurisdictional  Johnston discusses  1980's.  Indian  the  governments  legislative  services  factor  identity,  d e s c r i b e d as  30  past  J u r i s d i c t i o n and  to The  maintaining of  provincial  primary the of  and  provincial very  limited  13  programs child  and  services  welfare  services  non-existent. typically  Child  culturally  Indians  welfare  Until in  services  services.  removal  inappropriate  and  have  preventive  been  on r e s e r v e s of  of  Services  recently  B.C.  investigation  apprehension,  mainstream  in  to  c o n s i s t e d of  complaints, to  on r e s e r v e s .  child  been  perceived  by  have  protection  children,  have  almost  and  referral  inadequate,  natives  as  nature. The  been not  issue  settled  the  jurisdictional First  Nation  jurisdictional  level  notion  of  for  accepted  either  of  of  Peoples.  Native  responsibility  government.  native  responsibility  Many F i r s t  sovereignty  in  never  peoples  resting  Nation  child  has  These  historical  native  culture  a  of  loss  native  cultural  groups  sovereignty Nation will  have  refers  People  respond  sovereignty hold  and  to to  in  leaving  identity.  In  People  welfare  pursuing  to  recognition  communities.  a  govern,  issues  within  sphere  for  of  their child  welfare  sovereignty  First to  native  remedy  support  matters.  (18.)  and  Nation  devalued  People  the  the  right  welfare and  refers  resource  concerns within incorporates  the  of  with  situation  sovereignty.  communities.  administrative,  child  Native  of  undermined  order  been  self  the  have  traditions  legislative,  responsibility  influences  have  with  "This alternative does not r e q u i r e a change i n e i t h e r f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n a s much a s i t ignores both. It would e n t a i l a unilateral d e c l a r a t i o n of bands e x c l u s i v e authority to provide c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s to members o f t h e b a n d . It is essentially the o p t i o n taken by the Spallumcheen B a n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d i t may foe the p r e f e r r e d o p t i o n for other I n d i a n s . "  to  punitive  Native First  J  Native to  the  right  development native right  to  14 establish  laws, r e s o u r c e s ,  culturally welfare  cultural  r e l e v a n t and community s p e c i f i c  concerns.  governing  Native  in this identity  In t h i s critical  sovereignty  that are  in alleviating  child  and the r i g h t  t o be s e l f -  w r i t e r s o p i n i o n w i l l promote and  re-establish  f o r F i r s t Nation  chapter  People.  I have p r o v i d e d  a summary s k e t c h  components o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y N a t i v e  welfare  problem  outline  come s a l i e n t  to  problem.  this  and I n t e r v e n t i o n s  i n B r i t i s h Columbia. historical  f o r c e s w h i c h have  i s s u e s as p e r c e i v e d  i n researching  child  I have a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o  In t h e next chapter  methodology u t i l i z e d  Indian  o f some  contributed  I w i l l describe the  current  child  b y members o f t h e Musqueam  welfare  Band.  15 CHAPTER This research in  research  III was  paradigm.  understanding  situations,  events,  or  people,  information  instruments  used  produced  qualitative  by  Musqueam B a n d . put  forward  the  Department  a  band  to  based  to  the of  Indian  identifies  familial  patterns,  Musqueam  Band.  the  and  mean a  that  whole.  I  community are  unique  related  to  conceptual of  social  researcher concept.  of  methods  qualitative want  life  to  at  the  model  I  research. seeks This  to  or  will The  and  on  incorporated  they  are  make  an  the  and  proposal community.  of  research  are  holistic Within  specific  be  this  parts,  entirety  of  utilizing  dimensional the  the  model  the  they  the foundation to  of  I  situations  there  always  context.  utilized some of  as  and  view are  dimensions  the  By t h i s  dimensional is  begin  data  family  social  dimensions  identifies  of  holistic but  the is  of  explicate  and  traditional  holistic.  view  to  specific  Musqueam  a  be  The  culture  the  Housing  will  essential  to  a  and  the  strive  data  proposal  current  local  of  the  into  of  the  than  of  for  Services intent  kinds  useful  dimensions and  the  type  especially  The  of  observed  rather  The  Social  useful  context.  Musqueam.  identify  research  especially  at  present  and  is  program  methods  whole,  be  of  Musqueam.  entities  is  qualitative  focuses  data.  dimensions  since  values  Qualitative  the  a  descriptions  collected  Affairs.  values,  proposal,  structure  the  These  is  will  Welfare  produced  for  that  methods  data  detailed  research  Ministry  Child  of  social  interactions,  collect  The  paradigm  their  consists  Qualitative  (1.)  the  in  OF METHODOLOGY  utilizing  research  phenomena  research  data  conducted  This  Qualitative  behavior.  DESCRIPTION  The model  when  global the  a  16  structure  of  patterns global each  the  and  Musqueam c o m m u n i t y ,  local  concepts,  concept.  and  does  rejected  via  builds  are  assert  a  statistical  general is  identifies  core  concepts  and  core  by  the  raw  literature  and  ensure  final  product  community concern  that  that  a  mapping  of  relating  data  is  are  the  or  to  or  to  a  the  and  the  accepted  research  within  of  are  of  the  begins  the  social  Musqueam  are  refined  of  in  the  child  and  and  grounded  significant  based  or  material,  interviews  description  band  be  systematically  dimensions  reflects  important  will  content  through  or  This  dimensions  concepts  mapping  adequately  or  dimensions  collected  that a  which  descriptive  concepts  nature.  Rather  patterns  research  These  in  observations,  The  The  is  family  subareas  inductive  hypothesis  situation.  defined  result or  analysis.  specific  towards  community.  end  dimensions  methods  not  by documenting and  the  The  values,  (2.)  Qualitative research  culture.  its  data.  Musqueam  areas  of  welfare  project. Data  for  literature, band,  and The  the  analysis  have  been  interviews  with  an  the  following  research  Indians overview West  in of  Coast  context  Musqueam B a n d ' s  for  resource  findings.  B.C. the  written impact  Native  issues,  programs,  child  welfare  materials  of  W. the  issues  A second resource major  by  book and  Duff  were  by  book  the  a  at  the  force.  in of  supporting native  crucial  colonization  provided  Musqueam  policies  task  history  man a n d  Patrick  relevant elders  key  provided  white  This at  from  anthropologist,  A comprehensive  Groups.  current  collected  a  upon  historical  band.  Johnston highlights  that  are  currently  the  part  of  17 native in  child  bringing  its  impact  provides native  welfare t o light  on  s p e c i f i c  as a  examples  sovereignty  This  t h e number  communities  s p e c i f i c  applicable  i n B.C.  on  of native  e s p e c i a l l y  c h i l d r e n  useful  i n care  and  Patrick  of current  programs  that  promote  Canada.  This  book  reserves  and c h i l d  was  whole.  to the formulation  family  book  across  of the research  welfare  services  Johnston  question  outlined  was  and t o  i n  this  thesis. A Lewis in  a  third  resource  portrays native  u t i l i z e d native  home  on  t o portray  values.  resource  books  key  the content.  i n each  content  elders.  informants Interviews  from  allow  each  Indian  Band.  who  member  of the elders  Band.  A  purpose,  presentation methodology  was  elder  made  of this  schedule  with  group  areas the I i s  i n interviews  with  interviewing  i n Appendix I I .  four  elders  defined  as an  a t t h e Musqueam  t o a l l the elders  and benefits  study  i n Appendix  i n  the  to  determined  u t i l i z e d  i s found  c a n be  thesis.  to, d e f i n e  topical  u t i l i z e d  i nthe  f o r this  Outlined  guide  conducted  Musqueam i s a  guide  and  three  the respondent  respondents  t h e community  An  These  s p e c i f i c  topic.  was  are outlined  the interviewer  with  interview  also  resource  ceremonies,  thesis.  interview  interview  were  This  l i f e  enabling  The  Claudia  experience  s p i r i t u a l  this  i n nature  The  Coast.  of native  while The  under  of her  Lewis.  i n the Bibliography  interview.  semi-structured  Musqueam  by Claudia  t i e s ,  of  interviews  semi-structured  important the  chapter  of the interview,  covered  West  kinship  are l i s t e d  Qualitative  was  B.C.'s  The aspects  findings  determine  book  the day t o day l i f e  research  focus  i s a  of conducting  of the individual Indian  explaining the this  research  18 at  t h e band.  research  and  Four  interviews  individuals. experiences  elders  These and  volunteered  were  conducted  interviews  l i f e ,  both  t o take with  provided  past  and  part  these  much  this  four  data  present,  In  about  o f members  of the  band. Interviews regarding number  proved  a t  content.  I  Cues  who of  of  each  Key  began.  concepts  c l o s e l y  s c r u t i n i z i n g  conveyed interview coding  of  a  the  process.  an  step  child  topic  welfare  information,  influencing  the  u t i l i z e d  social  and an  to  the data, concept  to  The  Anthropologist  the elders analysis  of  the  the process was  by  of open  the  following excerpts w i l l  be  consisted  of  coding  used  data. the  coding, This  paragraph,  reflected  and  interview  f i t the data.  paragraph that  Abstracts  "E".  with  conducted  two  anthropologist  transcription  analysis  coding  worker,  band.  i n data  The  complete  i n the paragraph. with  interviews  developed  tentative  force  tapes.  was  were  s t a t i s t i c s ,  interviews  were  i n Appendix  the f i r s t  i n i t i a l  whereby  develop  from  t h e Musqueam  f o r careful  data  of a  relevant  t h e band  task  with  the audio  the transcribing  to  with  are located  Once  questions  the interviews.  welfare  informants,  The  v i s i o n  Semi-structured  possible  interviews  allowed  their  of  demographic  elaborative questions  completion  interviews  as  associated  transcribing  and  i n e l i c i t i n g  within  interview  consisted  history,  Band.  much  the child  After  of  and  content  i s c l o s e l y  other  as  conducted  members  i n care,  effective  refraining  force  Band's  t h e Musqueam  t o be  c l a s s i f y  the task  t h e Musqueam  of children  program  while  with  involved i n  order  information from  t o c l a r i f y  and the  19 "There are l a r g e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and c a t e g o r i e s of k i n f o l k by g e n e r a t i o n , (named person) would use those terms and know some of the s p e c i f i c s of i t , but what i t c r e a t e s i s a framework of k i n , of r e l a t e d n e s s i n v e r y l a r g e c a t e g o r i e s f o r everyone to plug i n t o . " The  open code u t i l i z e d  connectedness*. or sense  f o r t h i s statement  i s 'kinship  T h i s concept a l l u d e s to the connected  of belonging among i n d i v i d u a l s and  Musqueam community.  The  open codes are one  f a m i l i e s w i t h i n the l e v e l of  a b s t r a c t i o n above the content conveyed i n the t e x t . coding r e f l e c t e d  nature,  Open  the content, or embodies the meaning of the  t e x t i n terms of a concept.  Another  example from the r e s e a r c h  i s the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t . "You i n h e r i t e q u a l l y from e i t h e r parent, names, r i g h t s , or k i n a s s o c i a t i o n s . The patronymic b a t t l e r y i s not a t a l l meaningful, but i t i s s t i l l used." The  concept  descent*. verified  formulated f o r t h i s thought  Both k i n s h i p connectedness  was  'double  and double descent were  i n subsequent coding of i n t e r v i e w s as v a l i d  grounded concepts occurred u n t i l new were r e f l e c t e d  i n the d a t a .  and  T h i s process of i n i t i a l  coding  concepts d i d not appear and c u r r e n t concepts  i n the subsequent d a t a .  The  end r e s u l t of t h i s  process i s r e f e r r e d t o as conceptual d e n s i t y .  Strauss r e f e r s  to conceptual d e n s i t y as a m u l t i p l i c i t y of c a t e g o r i e s and p r o p e r t i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . ( 3 . )  Due  t o the time  f o r conducting the r e s e a r c h conceptual d e n s i t y was  frame  not  achieved.  Nevertheless s e v e r a l of the major concepts and  the  dimensions  of these concepts were i d e n t i f i e d r e f l e c t i n g f a m i l y  and community i n t e r a c t i o n a t the Musqueam Band. The  second  stage of coding u t i l i z e d  a x i a l coding or second  order c o d i n g .  i n the r e s e a r c h  was  Open coding r e f e r r e d to  20  the  core  categories  analysis coding  done a r o u n d  defined  category.  category.  of k i n s h i p  of t h e concept or  identified  A x i a l coding  the linkages  of data  t h e community  relatedness,  defined  together,  an o b l i g a t i o n t o f a m i l y  k i n , c o n t i n u i t y o f f a m i l y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y  f a m i l y and d i f f u s e e x t e n d e d  kin.  defined  the concept  and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d  Axial  " k i n s h i p c o n n e c t e d n e s s " was  i n terms o f c o n n e c t i n g  inclusiveness and  F o r example  as a core  concept  coding  c o n s i s t s of  or c o n c e p t s .  the aspects  I n many c a s e s a x i a l  identified  A x i a l coding  these categories  and d e t e r m i n e d  between c o n c e p t s .  this  or concepts.  A x i a l coding  of people t o in effect  of k i n s h i p  connectedness. Axial interview  Codes t h a t data.  relatedness interview  defined  F o r example,  as an a x i a l  core  categories  inclusiveness  code was d e r i v e d  were d e r i v e d  from  of k i n s h i p  from t h e f o l l o w i n g  quotes. " E v e r y o n e i s r e l a t e d t o somebody, and many a r e r e l a t e d t o someone on d i f f e r e n t r e s e r v e s . We a r e a l l one b i g f a m i l y . I t i s important f o r c h i l d r e n t o know who t h e i r r e l a t i v e s a r e . E a c h c h i l d h a s a b i g f a m i l y who t h e y b e l o n g t o . A t Musqueam i t s l i k e one b i g f a m i l y . We a r e a l l r e l a t e d i n one way o r a n o t h e r . " " T h e r e i s a f a r and l a r g e r r e c o g n i t i o n o f k i n t h a t i s s t a b l e and h a s a h i s t o r y o f f a m i l y inter-relationships. I f y o u want t o f i n d a c o n n e c t i o n t h e r e w i l l be a c o n n e c t i o n between people a t t h e band."  An  exhaustive  c o d e s and r e l a t e d The  last  list  of core  interview  form o f c o d i n g  categories,  q u o t e s c a n be f o u n d utilized  This  entails selectively analyzing  only  t o my c o r e  and  broadened  categories.  the core  their  i n A p p e n d i x A.  was s e l e c t i v e  interview  S e l e c t i v e coding  categories  corresponding  data  coding.  that  further  relates defined  and made them " r i c h i n  21  meaning". The f i n a l chapter  of t h i s r e s e a r c h seeks t o apply the core  c a t e g o r i e s and s p e c i f i c codes to p o l i c y recommendations which may be i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n t o a proposal  t o the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l  S e r v i c e s and Housing and the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s r e g a r d i n g a band based c h i l d welfare p o l i c y recommendations w i l l serve  project.  These  t o d i r e c t the Musqueam Band  i n e n t e r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n s with both l e v e l s of government f o r c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t and community  specific  programs.  STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH QUESTION The c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s t a t e d the f o l l o w i n g way: and  t h a t my r e s e a r c h w i l l address can be "What are the s t r u c t u r a l ,  familial  c u l t u r a l dimensions of the Musqueam people t h a t are the  foundation  f o r a l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d , autonomous,  s p e c i f i c n a t i v e c h i l d welfare  and c u l t u r a l l y  program a t the band?"  As o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y n a t i v e c h i l d welfare  i s not w e l l  d e f i n e d and operates i n an unplanned and i n c o n s i s t e n t manner i n the p r o v i n c e .  In e f f o r t s t o formulate  programs t h a t are  c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t , a f i r m understanding of the v a l u e s , beliefs,  family l i f e ,  and c u l t u r e i s r e q u i r e d .  Once these  v a l u e s , t r a d i t i o n s and customs have been i d e n t i f i e d they can be a p p l i e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n p r i n c i p l e t o guide  current  programs being developed a t the Musqueam Band. In the next chapter findings, concentrating social  I w i l l summarize the major  research  on the h i s t o r i c a l , demographic, and  f a c t o r s t h a t are s p e c i f i c t o the Musqueam Band and  r e l e v a n t to development of band-based p o l i c i e s f o r c h i l d  22 welfare. CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS The r e s e a r c h f i r s t area  f i n d i n g s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two a r e a s .  i s general o v e r - r i d i n g f i n d i n g s d i s c o v e r e d  l i t e r a t u r e and i n t e r v i e w s .  The  from the  These f i n d i n g s can be I n t e r p r e t e d  as general themes emerging from the r e s e a r c h .  The focus of  these  c a t e g o r i e s and  f i n d i n g s i s on i d e n t i f y i n g core thematic  t h e i r corresponding  a x i a l codes.  One g e n e r a l theme t h a t emerged from the r e s e a r c h was t h a t the Musqueam community p l a c e s value both on the t r a d i t i o n s and h i s t o r y of the Musqueam people as w e l l as i t s unique contemporary c u l t u r e In place today.  The Musqueam people  value  t h e i r community and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s i n e x i s t e n c e now as w e l l as t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s , and c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s .  The  Musqueam r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r community, f a m i l i e s , and contemporary c u l t u r e a r e v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t society.  from the l a r g e r  These d i f f e r e n c e s a r e valued and d i s t i n g u i s h what  being a Musqueam Indian  i s today.  What I d i s c o v e r e d  i s that  Musqueam people have a d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e based both on contemporary f a c t o r s as w e l l as h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s . ' T h i s I b e l i e v e i s e s s e n t i a l i n understanding  the Musqueam  f a m i l y and community s t r u c t u r e . A second theme t h a t emerged was t h a t of connectedness. The concept of connectedness i s d e f i n e d as a community sense of belonging,  a p e r s o n a l and community i d e n t i t y t h a t  i t s e l f through language, r e l i g i o u s experience, s i m i l a r i t y of experience, c u l t u r a l climate.  expresses  kinship t i e s , a  geographic l o c a t i o n and a changing  Connectedness i s the u n d e r l y i n g core theme  t h a t provides belonging,  c u l t u r a l uniqueness, and community  23 s t r e n g t h f o r the Musqueam people. The second area of f i n d i n g s r e l a t e s t o the s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r a l dimensions of the community.  In the f o l l o w i n g  s e c t i o n I w i l l provide d e f i n i t i o n s of concepts or the s p e c i f i c dimensions t h a t emerged from the i n t e r v i e w s .  These concepts  i n c l u d e l i n g u i s t i c connectedness, geographic connectedness, k i n s h i p connectedness, r e l i g i o u s and ceremonial connectedness, e x p e r i e n t i a l connectedness and changing c u l t u r a l  climate.  Interviews with key informants, e l d e r s , and Musqueam c h i l d welfare committee  members q u i c k l y r e v e a l e d the Important  s t r u c t u r a l dimensions of the Musqueam community.  Structural  dimensions r e f e r s t o the s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s ,  values,  and e x p e r i e n c e s that make the Musqueam community unique and distinct  from other communities.  No one s t r u c t u r a l dimension  s e t s apart the community from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , or other n a t i v e communities.  When these s t r u c t u r a l dimensions are  combined, however, the Musqueam band stands out as unique from the surrounding contemporary  society.  LINGUISTIC CONNECTEDNESS L i n g u i s t i c connectedness r e f e r s t o both the language of Halkomelem t h a t was t r a d i t i o n a l l y spoken and t r a n s m i t s the Musqueam c u l t u r e i n a f u l l and r i c h meaningful way, and contemporary  language and i t s a t t r i b u t e d meaning.  The  Halkomelem language p r o v i d e s the sense of i d e n t i t y and c u l t u r a l separateness from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y and other west coast n a t i v e groups.  Very few Musqueam people b e s i d e s some of the  e l d e r s speak Halkomelem. "No one knows the Halkomelom language anymore, i t s a d i f f i c u l t language to l e a r n . There i s  24  no one who can teach the younger  ones anymore."  (Personal Cumraunlcations - Musqueam e l d e r ) It  became c l e a r through the i n t e r v i e w s that the e l d e r s were  v e r y angry a t the l o s s of t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l system.  language through the  The e l d e r s value Halkomelem  t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and ceremonial p r a c t i c e s take on t h e i r r i c h meaning when conducted  i n Halkomelem.  Halkomelem has t i e d the community t o g e t h e r . language  because full  Historically Now that the  i s l o s t the Musqueam band i s more e a s i l y a s s i m i l a t e d  i n t o the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . "I was t e l l i n g my g r e a t granddaughter before you got here that they wanted us to f o r g e t to t a l k I n d i a n . I f a nun heard you t a l k i n g to another g i r l i n Indian you got punished... our language i s important f o r p a s s i n g on the t r a d i t i o n s and so on." (Personal Communication - Musqueam E l d e r ) Despite t h i s l o s s of the Halkomelem language  i t still  a f f e c t s how the Musqueam people a t t r i b u t e meaning t o E n g l i s h words.  For the Musqueam people some E n g l i s h words take on  broader meaning than the commonly held E n g l i s h meaning.  The  term f a m i l y , f o r example takes on the Halkomelem meaning of kin,  which  i n c o r p o r a t e s most people r e s i d i n g i n the band.  Family i s t h e r e f o r e not merely a n u c l e a r f a m i l y or even extended to  f a m i l y i n the narrow E n g l i s h sense.  the wide range of k i n s h i p networks  Rather i t r e f e r s  w i t h i n the community.  " E n g l i s h people w i l l use the term uncle or aunt. They (Musqueam) have hundreds of aunts and uncles not i n the narrow E n g l i s h sense. There i s a new s e t of k i n terms used c o l l o q u i a l l y , but they're used with f i t t i n g some of the s t r u c t u r e t h a t comes through e a r l i e r times." (Personal Communication - Anthropologist-UBC) L i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e and word d e f i n i t i o n are t h e r e f o r e i n the Musqueam community.  unique  Word meaning and d e f i n i t i o n i s  25 d e r i v e d from the l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e of the Halkomelem language and has adapted  t o the changing  community.  The  meanings attached t o E n g l i s h words p r o v i d e uniqueness a p a r t the Musqueam community both from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y and from other n a t i v e  and s e t s  surrounding  groups.  GEOGRAPHIC CONNECTEDNESS I d e f i n e geographic  connectedness  as the p h y s i c a l land and  the Musqueams' view of t h i s land as having a s p i r i t t h a t g i v e s d i r e c t i o n , a v i s i o n , and u n i f i e s the Musqueam people nature.  with  The l o c a t i o n of the Musqueam band i s v e r y important t o  the community.  Access t o the ocean f o r f i s h i n g , f o r e s t s and  mountains f o r hunting was important t o the l i v e l i h o o d of t h e i r ancestors. to  Today hunting and f i s h i n g s t i l l  the band.  Musqueam e l d e r s s t i l l  animals, f i s h e t c . as s p i r i t u a l lands as having a s p i r i t  provide  livelihood  view the l a n d , ocean,  forces.  The e l d e r s view the  t h a t g i v e s d i r e c t i o n and help to them.  Human beings and nature are u n i f i e d - the c r e a t o r u n i f i e s the creation.  Therefore i f one i s t o understand  the world he must  seek a v i s i o n through nature and look t o the land f o r direction. spiritual  The land t h e r e f o r e , while p h y s i c a l , a l s o takes on significance.  "The land g i v e s us a v i s i o n , a d i r e c t i o n f o r our people. Each f a m i l y i s represented by an animal and t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s what each f a m i l y w i l l be l i k e . " "We used t o can f i s h and b e r r i e s We used to can enough salmon t o in the w i n t e r . F a m i l i e s helped out by doing t h a t . " (Personal CommunicationThe for,  and a l l t h a t . keep us going each other Musqueam E l d e r )  land surrounding the band i s to be r e s p e c t e d and cared  not owned and e x p l o i t e d .  H i s t o r i c a l l y the Musqueam people  26 have had d i f f i c u l t y m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r connections surrounding  area.  t o the  In 1860 the c o l o n i s t s e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y t o  e s t a b l i s h Indian Reserves and compensation was given f o r n a t i v e people  to surrender  surveyed  land.  and d e f i n e d .  In 1870 the Musqueam r e s e r v e was  T h i s a c t i o n c o n f i n e d the Musqueam  to 416 a c r e s of r e s e r v e land adjacent Endownment Lands.  people  t o the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C.  Previous t o 1870 the Musqueam people moved  about i n f a m i l y groups i n what i s now E n g l i s h Bay, Burrard I n l e t and the lower F r a s e r R i v e r d e l t a . was passed t o r e s t r i c t  f i s h i n g by Indian People.  l e g i s l a t i o n c u r t a i l e d an important Musqueam people with the ocean.  In 1888 l e g i s l a t i o n This  economic a c t i v i t y of the  and f u r t h e r removed them from t h e i r  connections  In 1913 a proposal was i n i t i a t e d t o r e l o c a t e  the Musqueam band and t r a n s f e r t h e i r r e s e r v e land to the M u n i c i p a l i t y of P o i n t Grey.  In 1913 the Musqueam  people  r e f u s e d t o r e l o c a t e and remained i n t h e i r c u r r e n t l o c a t i o n . 1973,  1977, and 1984 the Musqueam Indian Band submitted  c l a i m s t o the foreshore area  i n P o i n t Grey.  In  land  In summary the  Musqueam People have been c o n f i n e d to 416 acres and connections with the l a r g e r area have been destroyed. Musqueam people  u n i f i e d with t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l  C o l o n i z a t i o n and the expansion resulted the  No longer are the lands.  of the P o i n t Grey Community has  i n a l o s s of r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l connectedness t o  land. "The land i s too small f o r the group. The r e s e r v e keeps s h r i n k i n g and s h r i n k i n g . We are g e t t i n g squeezed out. We used t o be on land a l l the way t o what i s now Marpole. We're g e t t i n g j i p p e d . " (Personal Communication - Musqueam e l d e r ) "Elements of t r a d i t i o n a l land use s t i l l p e r s i s t , but they are i n a new s e t t i n g . They are not what they once were a t 100 or even 40 years ago.  27  T r a d i t i o n a l land use and ceremonies are changing, and the Musqueam people recognize i t . They are s t i l l v i t a l and important to the community." (Personal Communication - A n t h r o p o l o g i s t ) Geography a l s o connects  the community through  c o n t i n u i t y of r e s i d i n g on the same c o a s t a l lands many g e n e r a t i o n s . Coast  The Musqueam people  a sense of throughout  have l i v e d on the West  f o r thousands of years and t h e i r l o c a t i o n has  s t a b i l i t y and a home base f o r the community. band's c u r r e n t l o c a t i o n was  provided  Traditionally  the  the main winter v i l l a g e which  provided s e c u r i t y and a home base d u r i n g the winter months. T h i s l o c a t i o n has remained constant through  the  generations.  The geographic  l o c a t i o n provides p r o x i m i t y to f a m i l y and c l o s e  kinship t i e s .  The  band's l o c a t i o n a l s o allows r e g u l a r c o n t a c t  with other West Coast bands.  T h i s i s important  for potlaches,  s p i r i t dancing, and smoke house ceremonies.  KINSHIP  CONNECTEDNESS  K i n s h i p connectedness I have d e f i n e d as the d i f f u s e connections between i n d i v i d u a l s and most of the Musqueam community. of a r e l a t i o n s h i p and through  relationships.  f a m i l i e s which encompass  K i n s h i p r e f e r s to the  quality  the extent that support and help i s g i v e n K i n s h i p t h e r e f o r e extends beyond f a m i l y  i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l meaning to other i n d i v i d u a l s or groups i n the community. . " I f you want to f i n d a connection, between people there w i l l be a c o n n e c t i o n . There i s a much l a r g e r r e c o g n i t i o n of k i n and r e l a t e d n e s s than i n white s o c i e t y . Family networks are d i f f u s e , q u i t e l a r g e and q u i t e variable. Everyone has a connection they can plug i n t o . " (Personal Communication - A n t h r o p o l o g i s t ) The  value of k i n s h i p and the extended f a m i l y network i s  28 still  i n place today and i s e s s e n t i a l i n understanding the  Musqueam community.  Family t o the Musqueam means blood  not only to an i n d i v i d u a l , but a l s o t o the band. to  A blood t i e  any band member means a t i e to every band member.  band membership and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e f i n e s who i s a b r o t h e r . and who are a c t i v e i t s members.  ties  It i s  i n the community t h a t  I n d i v i d u a l s who are t i e d t o the band  i n the community a r e valued and respected by  T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l i n understanding  k i n s h i p i n the  Musqueam community. "Everyone i s r e l a t e d t o somebody, and many are r e l a t e d to someone on d i f f e r e n t r e s e r v e s . We are one b i g f a m i l y . I t i s important f o r c h i l d r e n to know who they belong t o . At Musqueam i t s l i k e one b i g f a m i l y , we are a l l r e l a t e d i n one way or another." (Personal Communication - Musqueam E l d e r ) Unique to the Musqueam band i s the b i l a t e r a l nature of s t a t u s and belonging.  There are no c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and  d i s t i n c t i o n s between grandparents  and t h e i r s i b l i n g s , between  u n c l e s , aunts and parents, or between c o u s i n s , brothers and sisters.  T h i s lack of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  instills  a sense of  belonging t o , r a t h e r than e x c l u s i o n from k i n . "No matter how f a r out the generations extend; a l l u n c l e s , aunts, f a t h e r s , b r o t h e r s , mothers, s i s t e r s and f i s t cousins are a l l under one term. It covers a l l of them." ( A n t h r o p o l o g i s t - U.B.C.) C l a u d i a Lewis i n her book, Indian F a m i l i e s of the North West Coast, has the f o l l o w i n g to say about c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . "Status and belonging were passed on t o c h i l d r e n bilaterally. Grandparents on both s i d e s were c a l l e d by a s i n g l e term, i n c l u d i n g a l s o grandparent's siblings. Cousins were equated with b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , and there were no d i s t i n c t i o n s made between parent's s i b l i n g s . " 1. A very s i g n i f i c a n t  f e a t u r e about the k i n s h i p network i s a  sense of o b l i g a t i o n to f a m i l y , k i n and the band.  In speaking  29 to  the e l d e r s and other band members, they r e l a t e d how support  i s g i v e n among members of the band. "When someone i s s h o r t of food or the welfare money has run out there w i l l always be food and money a v a i l a b l e . E v e r y t h i n g i s shared." ( E l d e r - Musqueam Band) T h i s support becomes e s p e c i a l l y meaningful and  i n times of c e l e b r a t i o n s .  i n times of c r i s i s  For example a t s p i r i t  dancing  c e l e b r a t i o n s f a m i l i e s and k i n a s s o c i a t i o n s come together t o support and c e l e b r a t e . support each o t h e r .  A l s o a t f u n e r a l s k i n networks come t o  F a m i l i e s support through  their  attendance,  t a k i n g p a r t i n the ceremonial a s p e c t s , and by p r o v i d i n g food and money t o the f a m i l y .  The networks are v e r y much a l i v e and  a c t i v e l y support each other i n times of c r i s i s .  These k i n s h i p  networks a r e one of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t s e t the Musqueam community apart from the l a r g e r  society.  "At longhouse dancing, a t f u n e r a l s , or weddings, f a m i l i e s come t o support each o t h e r . F a m i l i e s help each other when they see someone i n t r o u b l e . Everyone has some k i n t h a t they can go t o . C h i l d r e n have many uncles and aunts, grandparents, or cousins t h a t they can go t o . I n f a n t s are looked a f t e r , f a m i l i e s a r e r i g h t away there t o h e l p . " (Personal Communication - Musqueam E l d e r ) A unique p o i n t about k i n s h i p networks i s the r o l e e l d e r s p l a y i n the community.  The e l d e r s have a r o l e  In passing on  the t r a d i t i o n s , c o u n s e l l i n g younger f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n and g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n t o the band c o u n c i l .  The e l d e r s provide the  i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n t i n u i t y between the g e n e r a t i o n s . "Every morning, the o l d man would get up and just talk. I t seemed l i k e he was p a s s i n g something on t o us. We d i d n ' t take i t i n or l i s t e n t h a t good. The o l d e r people pass on the t r a d i t i o n s a n d the knowledge they had ... We t r y t o t e l l some of the younger people, but I'm not sure i f they l i s t e n . With my g r a n d c h i l d r e n I t r y to t e l l them what I l e a r n e d when I was growing up." (Personal Communication - Musqueam E l d e r )  30  The  quote above denotes the o r a l t r a d i t i o n of p a s s i n g on  the c u l t u r e through  the g e n e r a t i o n s .  community there i s a resurgence  Within the Musqueam  of i n t e r e s t  i n knowing the  r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of e a r l i e r Musqueam practices.  The e l d e r s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y being c a l l e d upon to  r e l a y what i n the past was the Musqueam's h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e . E l d e r s t h e r e f o r e have a v i t a l r o l e  i n k i n a s s o c i a t i o n s as they  are the connection between the g e n e r a t i o n s .  SPIRITUAL AND CEREMONIAL CONNECTEDNESS S p i r i t u a l and ceremonial s p i r i t u a l and ceremonial  connectedness r e f e r s t o the  p r a c t i c e s t h a t f o r the Musqueam people  i n c l u d e s p i r i t dances, s p i r i t names and longhouse ceremonies. These p r a c t i c e s provide a commonality of s p i r i t u a l i t y t h a t binds the community t o g e t h e r .  In a d d i t i o n t o connecting the  community together these s p i r i t u a l and ceremonial p r a c t i c e s provide c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s .  I found t h a t I had t o  r e s p e c t the i n d i v i d u a l wishes of the e l d e r s and o n l y probed i n so f a r as they f e l t comfortable  disclosing.  The a c t i v i t i e s and  p r a c t i c e s of the long house and s p i r i t dances are not open to the o u t s i d e r . " I t i s not proper f o r me t o t e l l you about s p i r i t dancing and i n i t i a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n the long house because they have o n l y been r e v e a l e d t o Indian people. I will t e l l you t h i s . Young People get i n i t i a t e d . They get a v i s i o n . You a r e i n a dream land u n t i l your song comes. You i n i t i a t e the v i s i o n and power comes t o you. We don't t e l l everyone what happens i n our s p i r i t u a l g a i n s . I f you t e l l , whatever power you g a i n leaves you." (Personal Communication - Musqueam E l d e r ) In s p i t e of t h i s r e l u c t a n c e to d i s c l o s e t h i s area of t h e i r community l i f e  I was able t o achieve glimpses  of t h e i r  31 traditions. and s p i r i t  I t appears  t h a t s p i r i t dancing, long house dancing  names c o n s t i t u t e the m a j o r i t y of ceremonial  celebrations.  S p i r i t power i s c e n t r a l to the Musqueam  religious beliefs. power of s p i r i t direction  S p i r i t power r e f e r s to a b e l i e f  i n the  f o r c e s that s u s t a i n s an i n d i v i d u a l and g i v e s  i n choosing d i f f e r e n t paths  in l i f e .  This s p i r i t  power endows a person with a s p e c i a l song, c r y or s p i r i t Musqueam people r e f e r to t h i s s p i r i t  dance.  power as a s p i r i t h e l p e r .  The Musqueam people b e l i e v e t h a t young people can be i n i t i a t e d or endowed with a s p i r i t song, dance or c r y .  This  i n i t i a t i o n process i s d e s c r i b e d as a four day a f f a i r where a young person  i s attended by s e v e r a l e l d e r s i n the long house.  The young person must keep a v i g i l of drumming, r a t t l i n g s i n g i n g u n t i l h i s s p i r i t song or dance comes out. e l d e r s r e f e r r e d t o t h i s w e l l i n g up of a s p i r i t a person's  "Indianness" coming out.  process i s complete  Once t h i s  there are ceremonies  of the  song or dance as initiation  and c e l e b r a t i o n s i n  the winter where a l l those i n i t i a t e d conduct or  One  and  their s p i r i t  song  dance. "Young People get i n i t i a t e d . They are i n the longhouse f o r four days. C e r t a i n t h i n g s go on. They get a v i s i o n ; you can't get out of the longhouse. You are i n a dreamland u n t i l your song comes. You i n i t i a t e the v i s i o n that you see. Your v i s i o n power comes to you." (Personal Communication - Musqueam E l d e r ) "Every winter we have s p i r i t dancing where we g i v e Indian names t o our c h i l d r e n or grand children. I t s r e a l l y j u s t the s p i r i t dancing and s p i r i t names t h a t s t i l l goes on." (Personal Communication - Musqueam E l d e r )  Young people p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n these ceremonies  and  they  provide the on going r e l i g i o u s c o n n e c t i o n between r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s of e a r l i e r and those of today.  At the band there i s  32 growing  i n t e r e s t by s e v e r a l young people i n i n v o l v i n g  themselves  i n these ceremonies.  show no i n t e r e s t .  Many young people, however  Young people who are i n i t i a t e d  i n t h i s way  are valued and promote a unique c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y among the Musqueam  community.  Young persons who have been i n i t i a t e d a l s o take on a s p i r i t  name.  i n t o the long house  T h i s name c h a r a c t e r i z e d who they  are and who t h e i r s p i r i t h e l p e r i s . Within the Musqueam community s p i r i t  names are passed on from one g e n e r a t i o n t o the  next. "We s t i l l pass on the Indian names we had from way back. Every f a m i l y has t h e i r own names. Your c h i l d r e n grow up and take up those Indian names. There are a l o t of names that have been lost. Many of the o l d e r people are gone and have not passed on t h e i r names. There i s h a r d l y anyone now t h a t would go back, so a l o t of the names were l o s t . " (Personal Communication - Musqueam E l d e r ) S p i r i t names are t h e r e f o r e a r e f l e c t i o n of f a m i l i e s i n the community.  S p i r i t names a l s o provide a c o n n e c t i o n f o r Musqueam  young people t o t h e i r whole.  f a m i l y as w e l l as the community as a  I t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l t h a t Musqueam c h i l d r e n and young  people remain t i e d t o t h e i r community r e l i g i o u s practices continue.  i n order t h a t these  T h i s i s one of the reasons why  Musqueam c h i l d r e n are important and valued i n the community. S p i r i t u a l and ceremonial t r a d i t i o n s p r o v i d e s o c i a l experiences t h a t are rewarding f o r the community as a whole. The whole community becomes i n v o l v e d i n the r e l i g i o u s experiences w i t h i n the community and connects and binds the community t o g e t h e r . the seasons,  I t i s the u n i f i e d sacredness of the e a r t h ,  i n d i v i d u a l s and the s u p e r n a t u r a l that i s a  connecting f o r c e i n the Musqueam community.  An a n t h r o p o l o g i s t  33  who i s c l o s e l y connected  t o the Musqueam community r e f e r s t o  the r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s and c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s  i n the  f o l l o w i n g way: "Elements to t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n s t i l l p e r s i s t , but they are i n a new s e t t i n g , and are not what they were 100 or even 40 years ago. They're changing and people r e c o g n i z e i t , but they are s t i l l v i t a l . They a r e important i n t h a t community t h e r e . They have to do with what being Indian i s t h e r e . I t s e t s them o f f d r a m a t i c a l l y from the surrounding people. They value them f o r t h a t reason p a r t l y , and they a l s o value them because they are tremendously rewarding p e r s o n a l l y and i n s o c i a l experience. I t i s a p o s i t i v e rewarding aspect of t h e i r contemporary c u l t u r e . " ( A n t h r o p o l o g i s t - U.B.C.) EXPERIENTIAL CONNECTEDNESS E x p e r i e n t i a l connectedness  r e f e r s t o the commonality of  experiences t h a t are a p a r t of both the recent h i s t o r y and contemporary l i f e a t the Musqueam Indian Band. experiences  These  i n c l u d e the r e s e r v e system, band membership,  r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s and a dependence on the Department of Indian A f f a i r s . of  These four areas are very common experiences  the m a j o r i t y of Musqueam people.  Coding and a n a l y z i n g the  data r e v e a l e d t h a t these areas have both p o s i t i v e and negative aspects f o r those e x p e r i e n c i n g them. The Musqueam r e s e r v e came i n t o being i n 1870, which i n e f f e c t c o n f i n e d the Musqueam people t o 416 a c r e s . e l d e r s r e f e r t o the r e s e r v e with ambivalence. d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and poverty.  Many of the  I t promotes  I t s e t s a p a r t the Musqueam people  from the surrounding community.  One e l d e r r e f e r r e d t o the  negative aspects of the r e s e r v e i n the f o l l o w i n g way: "You can never be t o t a l l y happy with the r e s e r v e s . They c r e a t e c o n f l i c t among our people. We have to l e a r n about how t o get along with each other, not f i g h t about band membership or l a n d . The  34 r e s e r v e makes us dependent on the department. We have t o l e a r n not t o depend on the department, but be s e l f - r e l i a n t . " (Musqueam E l d e r - P e r s o n a l Communication) The above quote r e f e r s to a kind of dependence and c o n f l i c t t h a t the r e s e r v e system c r e a t e s . Indian and Northern  Affairs  The Department of  provides the funding t o the band  for a l l programs, housing and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . an unhealthy Affairs.  T h i s has c r e a t e d  r e l i a n c e on the Department of Indian and Northern  There i s ongoing c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g funding  welfare programs on r e s e r v e .  child  The c h i l d welfare task f o r c e i s  seeking a p p r o v a l f o r funding c h i l d welfare programs t h a t enhance s e l f - r e l i a n c e  and autonomy f o r Musqueam  people.  F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments however, have r e f u s e d funding these programs a t the Musqueam band. "The band, a t present i s l o o k i n g a t p r e v e n t a t i v e programs. We would l i k e p a r t i a l c o n t r o l and j u r i s d i c t i o n over c h i l d welfare a t the band. For example we would l i k e a group home f o r our teenagers, so that they do not have to go t o f o s t e r homes o u t s i d e the band. We however can't get money f o r t h i s . " (Personal Communication - Musqueam C h i l d Welfare task f o r c e member) Although  the reserve may be seen as negative and  d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , the e l d e r s a l s o have i d e n t i f i e d r e s e r v e system has provided housing, a community  i t s value.  The  residence, a  l o c a l band c o u n c i l and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , resources and s e r v i c e s f o r the community, and c o a s t a l l a n d .  These a s p e c t s of the  r e s e r v e system a r e valued because they are the b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g autonomy and l o c a l c o n t r o l over community  affairs.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the valued aspects of the r e s e r v e system as most of the l i t e r a t u r e  comments on the negative  i n f l u e n c e the r e s e r v e system has had on the n a t i v e  community.  35 The  Musqueam c h i l d welfare task f o r c e has recognized  this  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r e n g t h and a r e u t i l i z i n g the s t r u c t u r e of the r e s e r v e system to develop  p o l i c i e s which w i l l address  f a m i l y community problems.  Rather than becoming  with the c u r r e n t system and attempting  frustrated  t o change the reserve  system through c o n f l i c t , the task f o r c e has decided change v i a engaging the system from w i t h i n . attempting  c h i l d and  to produce  How they are  to b r i n g about t h i s change i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d i s c u s s e d  i n the f i n a l chapter  of the t h e s i s .  A second experience  t h a t has connected the community  together as a whole i s the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s were c l e a r l y harmful  Although the  and eroded n a t i v e  c u l t u r e , they a l s o provided common experiences  f o r the a d u l t  members c o n t r i b u t i n g to a kinds of camaraderie amongst the band members. and  A l l those  interviewed attended  l i v e d the experience  contemporary c u l t u r e . important  negative  residential  schools,  which has become a p a r t of t h e i r  A l l those  interviewed mentioned two  outcomes of the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s .  The  f i r s t was a l o s s of language and c u l t u r e , and second was the s e p a r a t i o n from f a m i l y and k i n s h i p t i e s . e l d e r s confirmed  with  the government's p o l i c y of a s s i m i l a t i n g and  - a c c u l t u r a t i n g n a t i v e peoples. experience  Interviews  One n a t i v e e l d e r e x p l a i n e d her  i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n the f o l l o w i n g way:  "They wanted us t o f o r g e t to t a l k Indian. If a nun heard you t a l k i n g t o another g i r l i n Indian you got punished. They d i d n ' t a l l o w us to do Indian dance. They used t o t e l l us i t was from the d e v i l . Lots of e l d e r s don't know the h i s t o r y or t r a d i t i o n s anymore because they went t o r e s i d e n t i a l school." (Personal Communication - Musqueam E l d e r ) Musqueam e l d e r s d i s c u s s r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s with an  36 underlying  f e e l i n g of anger and r e g r e t .  e l s e the r e s i d e n t i a l schools have erased and  c u l t u r e of previous g e n e r a t i o n s .  More than  anything  much of the h i s t o r y  The Musqueam e l d e r s a r e  very s u s p i c i o u s of the c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l system and f e a r t h a t their culture w i l l  be f u r t h e r eroded.  A second negative  outcome r e l a t e d t o r e s i d e n t i a l  was the s e p a r a t i o n from a network of k i n .  For ten months of  the year c h i l d r e n were s p i r i t e d away to r e s i d e n t i a l around the' lower mainland. their  schools  schools  C h i l d r e n became estranged  immediate f a m i l i e s , community and c u l t u r e .  from  Among members  of the Musqueam community there was a l o s s of i d e n t i t y . A c c u l t e r a t i n g t o the c l i m a t e of Roman C a t h o l i c s o c i e t y was difficult  f o r most n a t i v e c h i l d r e n .  The e l d e r s a l s o r e p o r t e d  t h a t a r e t u r n t o the s e t t i n g and c l i m a t e of the reserve months was a l s o d i f f i c u l t .  f o r two  There was no sense of belonging or  s e c u r i t y f o r n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n or out of the r e s e r v e . the e l d e r s d e s c r i b e d h i s experience  One of  i n r e s i d e n t i a l schools i n  the f o l l o w i n g way. "I don't know the h i s t o r y very w e l l because I went t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l . I went t o C o q u i t t a which was a f e d e r a l s c h o o l . A l o t of our people went t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s i n Coquitlam, on the I s l a n d , S t . Pauls, or across the border. We were only home f o r a few months i n the summer. We weren't allowed t o speak our language or p r a c t i c e our t r a d i t i o n s . " (Personal Communication - Musqueam E l d e r ) With c h i l d r e n being absent from f a m i l i e s t h i s i n t e r r u p t e d and  undermined both the n a t i v e c u l t u r e and f a m i l y l i f e .  More  r e c e n t l y the apprehension and removal of n a t i v e c h i l d r e n a l s o threatens  t o break apart the n a t i v e c u l t u r e .  F i e l d r e s e a r c h would i d e n t i f y more common experiences Musqueam people.  of  The r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , r e s e r v e system band  37  membership and a dependence on the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s were the common experiences of Musqueam people. CONTINUING EVOLUTION OF THE MUSQUEAM CULTURE The  Musqueam e l d e r s and members of the task  recognize  the changing c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e .  negative,  but r a t h e r a p o s i t i v e aspect  T h i s changing c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e acculturating  community values  T h i s i s not seen as  of Musqueam community.  i s not seen as conforming or  i n t o the l a r g e r s o c i e t y .  Musqueam community s t i l l  force  Rather the changing  remains unique and the Musqueam  t h i s contemporary unique c u l t u r e .  "Why the Musqueam people a r e d i s t i n c t has p a r t l y t o do with t h e i r r o o t s , but o n l y p a r t l y , i t a l s o has t o do with s o c i a l and economic dynamics of t h a t p l a c e . There has been an a d a p t a t i o n , or e v o l u t i o n of c u l t u r e . I t i s a d a p t a t i o n and change that f i t s people i n t o the circumstances they are i n . " (Personal Communication - A n t h r o p o l o g i s t ) The  Musqueam people value  both t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and ceremonial  t r a d i t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e i r c u r r e n t s t r i v i n g t o become an autonomous, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t community. elders revealed increased  The i n t e r v i e w s  with the  that the contemporary c u l t u r e emphasized  autonomy and community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n c l u d e s  educational,  s p i r i t u a l , administrative aspects.  Several  of the  Musqueam young a d u l t s are e n r o l l e d i n programs a t the Native Educational leadership  Centre.  These programs include t r a i n i n g f o r  i n band a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and s o c i a l development.  Musqueam e l d e r s view education and  c o n t r o l over band programs.  as a way of assuming autonomy Band members a l s o have been  i n v o l v e d with the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n developing educational  programs and c u r r i c u l u m  on r e s e r v e .  Expertise i s  beginning t o be developed by band members themselves i n t h i s  38 area and  should  promote autonomous indigenous  native  leadership. " C h i l d r e n and young people today have to educated themselves and become s e l f reliant. They can't depend on the department. We are beginning to l e a r n not to depend on the department. (Personal Communication - Musqueam E l d e r ) Autonomy and Musqueam people.  self-reliance  Is an important  T h i s i s not the kind of autonomy or  i n d i v i d u a l i t y found i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y .  Autonomy and  r e l i a n c e r e f e r to community or band autonomy. use  theme f o r  of l o c a l e x p e r t i s e , r e s o u r c e s , and  develop s o c i a l programs.  The  cultural  I t r e f e r s to the  community s t r e n g t h s  program development.  autonomy i s experience P r o v i n c i a l and programs.  to  climate  at Musqueam today appears to focus on ownership and both band p o l i c y and  self-  c o n t r o l of  This struggle for  through n e g o t i a t i o n s with  various  F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r s r e g a r d i n g ownership of  I n c r e a s i n g l y l o c a l community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l  programs i s r e q u i r e d .  L o c a l band members are beginning  to  develop e x p e r t i s e i n s o c i a l work, band a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , education,  f a m i l y therapy and  e a r l y childhood  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community l i f e  i s valued and  l a r g e part of what i t means to be a Musqueam  educations. i s becoming a Indian.  In summary the c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e i s unique to the Musqueam. However i t now  i n c o r p o r a t e s both t r a d i t i o n a l  r e l i g i o u s customs, and aspects.  k i n s h i p networks as w e l l as contemporary  These contemporary aspects  t h a t promote autonomy and The  encompass those  activities  l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community.  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c h i l d welfare  be explored  language,  i n the next and  final  p o l i c y and chapter.  programming  will  39 CHAPTER V  CHILD WELFARE POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH FINDINGS  In the s e c t i o n I w i l l o u t l i n e the i m p l i c a t i o n f o r c h i l d welfare  p o l i c y of the f o r e g o i n g  research  p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s can then be u t i l i z e d  findings.  i n g u i d i n g the  development of Musqueam band's f a m i l y and c h i l d programs.  The r e l e v a n t  responsiveness,  band autonomy,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . incorporate  welfare  implications for p o l i c y include  programs which enhance community physical well-being,  These  the components  local  s p i r i t u a l and  community  T h i s chapter  will  i n s p e c i f i c recommendations f o r  c u l t u r a l l y congruent f a m i l y programs f o r the Musqueam Band.  These s p e c i f i c band-based programs i n c l u d e  Indian  kinship  homes, s a f e homes, group homes, f a m i l y day care, and a parent support group. I t becomes apparent t h a t the process of a p p l y i n g the c u l t u r a l thematic content w i t h i n the Musqueam r e q u i r e s both r e f l e c t i o n and community and  community  participation.  Child  Family programs such as k i n s h i p homes, group homes, or  supportive band.  s e r v i c e s must have input from a l l segments of the  T h i s process of a p p l y i n g  c u l t u r a l content to programs  must be an ongoing process to examine whether  developing  programs r e f l e c t k i n s h i p , l i n g u i s t i c , geographic, s p i r i t u a l and e x p e r i e n t i a l dimensions w i t h i n the band. beginning of such a process, c h i l d welfare  task  T h i s s e c t i o n i s the  and w i l l need to be pursued by the  f o r c e and band members as a whole.  P r i o r to d i s c u s s i n g p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s i t i s e s s e n t i a l to c l a r i f y the f u n c t i o n of the c h i l d welfare in existence been mandated  a t the band.  task  The c h i l d welfare  force  task  presently  f o r c e has  by the band c o u n c i l to develop and implement  band-based c h i l d welfare the task  programs on r e s e r v e .  f o r c e has only engaged i n l i m i t e d d i s c u s s i o n s  r e g a r d i n g programs a t the band. chapter  Up t o t h i s p o i n t  I provide  In the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s  recommendations r e g a r d i n g f u r t h e r  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the task f o r c e ' s mandate and recommendations for  immediate a c t i v i t i e s The f i r s t  f o r the task  force's consideration.  i m p l i c a t i o n f o r p o l i c y a r i s i n g from the r e s e a r c h  f i n d i n g s i s the need t o ensure community Musqueam program. delivered manner.  responsiveness  i n the  C h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s are c u r r e n t l y  i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c and uniform Mainstream programs and s e r v i c e s g e n e r a l l y  do not meet n a t i v e c h i l d welfare  needs.  speaking,  The locus of c o n t r o l  has always been o u t s i d e of the Musqueam band f o r the development of s o c i a l programs. c h i l d welfare However,  these  P r e s c r i b e d s o c i a l programs and  s e r v i c e s have been a v a i l a b l e t o the band. s e r v i c e s are not c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c t o the  needs of n a t i v e people and have not met the s p e c i f i c needs of the Musqueam community.  In my o p i n i o n there must be " e q u i t a b l e  i n e q u i t i e s " i n c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s .  In other words  there  must be a p r e f e r e n t i a l or a community s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y system t h a t responds t o the needs of the Musqueam In order  community.  f o r programs and s e r v i c e s to be responsive  t o the  community they must be community s p e c i f i c , c u l t u r a l l y based and i n v o l v e community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . t h a t are r e s p o n s i v e  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  t o the community must  programs  i n c o r p o r a t e the k i n  networks i n e x i s t e n c e a t the band, s p i r i t u a l and  ceremonial  p r a c t i c e s , contemporary language and i t s a t t r i b u t e d meaning, geographic p r o x i m i t y , and the changing c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e a t the band.  41 The  second p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n  i s that c h i l d  welfare  programs on r e s e r v e should emphasize both the s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of consumers.  T h i s s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l  w e l l - b e i n g must be d e f i n e d by the Musqueam Indian Band members, not the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and Housing, or the Department of Indian and Northern  Affairs.  The  question a r i s e s  then as to what an adequate, c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e , and community s p e c i f i c model of c h i l d welfare would be f o r the Musqueam band.  In order to e s t a b l i s h a sense of p h y s i c a l and  s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g , I b e l i e v e the f o l l o w i n g areas should incorporated  i n t o the model.  they are found resource  F i r s t of a l l k i n networks, as  i n the Musqueam community, must be the main  f o r f a m i l i e s and  children.  assures c h i l d r e n remain connected h e r i t a g e , and  be  family.  The  U t i l i z i n g k i n networks  to t h e i r community, t h e i r  e l d e r s must p l a y a v i t a l a d v i s o r y  r o l e f o r the d i r e c t i o n s of programs and s e r v i c e s .  Elders  provide the connection with the past and promote community of s p i r i t u a l values i n proposed programs of the band'.  Programs  and s e r v i c e s must recognize valued t r a d i t i o n a l ways and contemporary community s t r e n g t h s .  valued  Programs must t h e r e f o r e  incorporate s p i r i t u a l aspects, l i n g u i s t i c aspects, kinship t i e s , and e x p e r i e n t i a l aspects of l i f e at the Musqueam band. As noted  i n the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s autonomy and  r e l i a n c e through  l o c a l community p a r t i c i p a t i o n  Musqueam community.  The  i s valued  third policy implication  the need to i n c o r p o r a t e elements of autonomy and community p a r t i c i p a t i o n The  selfi n the  i s therefore local  i n the band's c h i l d welfare program.  p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s to the Musqueam people through  M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and  the  Housing has been c e n t r a l i z e d  42 and  planned  In V i c t o r i a , or In r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s without  f o r Musqueam p r i o r i t i e s or community c o n d i t i o n s .  regard  Many of the  f a m i l y s e r v i c e programs i n place a t the band a r e i r r e l e v a n t . Musqueam f a m i l i e s p a r t i c i p a t e  i n these programs o n l y as a means  of conforming t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s of s o c i a l workers i n order t o have t h e i r c h i l d r e n returned t o t h e i r c a r e . The Musqueam band has had l i t t l e  input t o date  i n t o the  c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s they r e q u i r e and would support community. autonomy  in their  The band's c h i l d welfare task f o r c e i s seeking  i n d e v e l o p i n g resources  i n t h e i r community.  The task  f o r c e recognized t h a t any program or p o l i c y must be supported and  s a n c t i o n e d by the community as a whole.  This w i l l involve  p u b l i c meetings r e g a r d i n g new programs and i n i t i a t i v e s proposed by the band.  The task f o r c e i s c a l l i n g  f o r a t r a n s f e r of  d e c i s i o n making a u t h o r i t y from o u t s i d e governmental a u t h o r i t i e s to the members of the band.  The band must have autonomy and  d e c i s i o n making a u t h o r i t y i n the areas of p r e v e n t i o n , development, and placement of c h i l d r e n .  resource  L o c a l d e c i s i o n making  power and c o n t r o l of programs w i l l guarantee access to s e r v i c e s and w i l l - e n s u r e programs are responsive t o community needs. In summary, the p o l i c y and program components  f o r Musqueam  c h i l d and f a m i l y s e r v i c e s must i n c l u d e community r e s p o n s i v e n e s s , s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , s e l f r e l i a n c e , community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and autonomy making power.  i n decision  A l l s i x components must be d e f i n e d by Musqueam  band members through p u b l i c meetings which provide f o r community p a r t i c i p a t i o n welfare programs on r e s e r v e .  opportunity  i n p l a n n i n g and implementing c h i l d  43  CHAPTER VI  CHILD AND FAMILY PROGRAM RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE  MUSQUEAM I N P I M BANP Family and c h i l d s e r v i c e s a t the band must have the u n d e r l y i n g g o a l of keeping c h i l d r e n connected t o the band, k i n networks, and community e x p e r i e n c e .  The Musqueam Indian band  i s seeking t o develop band-based resources so the above goal can be a c h i e v e d .  The c h i l d welfare task f o r c e maintains  that  Musqueam c h i l d r e n should be p r o d u c t i v e and valued members i n t h e i r community.  I t a l s o b e l i e v e s that t h e i r c u l t u r a l  should be r e i n f o r s e d and t h e i r  identity  connectedness t o k i n maintained.  The c h i l d welfare task f o r c e has t h e r e f o r e purposely  focussed  on p r e v e n t i o n of c h i l d abuse and n e g l e c t and resource development. This section w i l l  focus on the general b e l i e f s and goals  of the c h i l d welfare task f o r c e as w e l l as recommendations f o r s p e c i f i c programs on r e s e r v e .  Incorporated  into this section  w i l l be geographic i n f o r m a t i o n and a d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l programs on r e s e r v e .  Incorporated  Into t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be  demographic i n f o r m a t i o n and a d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l programs t h a t members of the task f o r c e have i d e n t i f i e d community.  i n the Musqueam  In c o n c l u s i o n I w i l l provide comments on n a t i v e  c h i l d welfare  In g e n e r a l and the Musqueam s i t u a t i o n i n  particular. Members of the task f o r c e have recognized t h a t there are times when c h i l d r e n must be removed from t h e i r homes i n order to p r o t e c t them from abuse or n e g l e c t .  The members however  take s t r o n g e x c e p t i o n t o the n o t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n must be removed from the community  i n order t o p r o t e c t them.  The band  has adopted the philosophy t h a t c h i l d r e n must f i r s t be maintained  i n their  own homes.  I f t h i s cannot be achieved,  44 i  then they should be cared f o r i n t h e i r own  communities.  The  s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y s t r u c t u r e , resources and  programs must support  t h i s philosophy.  525 band members of  whom 155  There are approximately  l i v e o f f reserve.  According to members of the task  f o r c e there were a t l e a s t 12 c h i l d r e n apprehended i n the year and who  are i n care p r e s e n t l y o u t s i d e the band.  very d i f f i c u l t  last  It i s  to determine the t o t a l number of band c h i l d r e n  i n the care of the Superintendent  of Family and C h i l d S e r v i c e s .  Since the M i n i s t r y does not r e l e a s e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and band has not kept s t a t i s t i c s , t h i s unavailable.  the  i n f o r m a t i o n remains  I t i s s a f e to assume, however, g i v e n p r o v i n c i a l  s t a t i s t i c s , t h a t numerous Musqueam c h i l d r e n have been apprehended and have permanently been removed from t h e i r homes. The  Musqueam band would l i k e a change i n p r o v i n c i a l  p r o t e c t i o n p o l i c y and  child  law which would r e q u i r e c o n s u l t a t i o n with  the band p r i o r to apprehension t h a t a l l resources designed before removing a c h i l d  of a c h i l d .  T h i s would r e q u i r e  to support the f a m i l y be  from h i s f a m i l y .  I t would r e q u i r e t h a t  placement o u t s i d e the f a m i l y normally be with a c h i l d resource on the reserve and occur  i n circumstances  resource  exhausted  care  placement o f f the r e s e r v e o n l y  where an a p p r o p r i a t e and  essential  i s not a v a i l a b l e on the r e s e r v e .  I t i s my  recommendation t h a t there be a d i s t i n c t  division  between the c h i l d welfare f u n c t i o n s of the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and  Housing and the band.  The  band should assume  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e v e n t i o n , f a m i l y support s e r v i c e s ,  child  w e l f a r e resource development and d e c i s i o n making with r e s p e c t to placement of c h i l d r e n brought i n t o c a r e .  The  M i n i s t r y of  S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and Housing would continue to be r e s p o n s i b l e  45  f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of complaints apprehension Court.  of abuse and n e g l e c t ,  of c h i l d r e n , and p r e s e n t a t i o n of cases  i n Family  The p o p u l a t i o n base a t the Musqueam Indian band i s very  s m a l l , with s t r o n g k i n t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s .  Any n a t i v e  s o c i a l worker h i r e d by the band should not have delegated  A  apprehending a u t h o r i t y , as t h i s would c r e a t e c o n f l i c t of roles/ and  lead to a breakdown of k i n a s s o c i a t i o n s .  The c u r r e n t band  s o c i a l worker does have e x p e r t i s e i n c h i l d w e l f a r e and i s f a m i l i a r with the s t r u c t u r e and k i n networks i n place a t the band.  I n v e s t i n g t h i s person with delegated a u t h o r i t y t o  apprehend c h i l d r e n would c r e a t e c o n f l i c t and undermine person's  credibility  this  i n developing resources and s e r v i c e s .  The  s o c i a l worker a t the band should focus on e a r l y I n t e r v e n t i o n and  p r e v e n t i o n r a t h e r than on i n v e s t i g a t i o n and apprehension of  children. As c l a r i f i e d  i n the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g , the Musqueam see  themselves as connected  together and having shared  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r addressing s o c i a l  i s s u e s i n the community.  C h i l d welfare programs must be reframed  to promote  of the i d e n t i t y of i n t e r e s t between the community f a m i l i e s through  community  acceptance and i t s  shared p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n promoting h e a l t h y and  s t a b l e f a m i l y l i f e and a concerned, community.  community  cohesive, and s u p p o r t i v e  The c h i l d welfare task f o r c e i s t h e r e f o r e e l i c i t i n g support  i n d e v e l o p i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i n c h i l d and  f a m i l y programs on r e s e r v e . Programs on the Musqueam reserve should be comprehensive i n nature; t h a t i s they should o f f e r more than one form of i n t e r v e n t i o n by p r o v i d i n g a range of s e r v i c e s such as home help, support groups, c o u n s e l l i n g and f i n a n c i a l a i d . They must  46 be a c c e s s i b l e i n both l o c a t i o n and philosophy, be f a m i l y focussed and a v a i l a b l e t o a l l band members.  T h i s i s the  i n t e n t i o n of the c h i l d welfare task f o r c e i n g e n e r a t i n g new programs and i n i t i a t i v e s  i n the Musqueam community.  Programs  on r e s e r v e can be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , p r e v e n t i v e f a m i l y and c h i l d support s e r v i c e and c r i s i s  i n t e r v e n t i o n . The  Musqueam Indian band i n program development has focussed on these two a r e a s . SPECIFIC BAND-BASED PROGRAMS K i n s h i p Homes An e s s e n t i a l program needed a t present on the Musqueam reserve e n t a i l s the development of k i n s h i p homes. kin  networks supported  difficult  times.  Historically  i n d i v i d u a l s i n times of c r i s i s , and  T h i s t r a d i t i o n can be maintained  I would c a l l k i n s h i p homes. community involvement  participate  what  Kinship,-homes would promote  i n the care and n u r t u r i n g of t h e i r n a t i v e  c h i l d r e n and ensure t h a t c h i l d r e n remain connected communities.  through  to t h e i r  K i n s h i p homes a l l o w n a t i v e c h i l d r e n t o i n a l l aspects of community l i f e ,  s p i r i t u a l aspects.  especially  C h i l d r e n continue t o i n h e r i t  names and perpetuate  spiritual  the s p i r i t u a l and ceremonial aspects of  the Musqueam community. I would d e f i n e a k i n s h i p home as a home l o c a t e d on the Musqueam r e s e r v e approved by the band and agreed  t o by the  M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and Housing f o r the temporary placement of Musqueam c h i l d r e n .  A k i n s h i p home would  p r e f e r a b l y i n c l u d e the c h i l d ' s grandparents, brother or s i s t e r ,  aunt or uncle,  f i r s t or second c o u s i n or s t e p parent, but  could a l s o i n c l u d e any other f a m i l y which has band membership  47 and  residence  on the r e s e r v e .  P r e s e n t l y the B r i t i s h Columbia Family and C h i l d S e r v i c e Act d e f i n e s  f o s t e r homes as those approved by the  Superintendent or h i s d e l e g a t e . "Foster home means a p r i v a t e home approved by the Superintendent f o r the placement of a c h i l d , whether or not payment i s made f o r the maintenance of the c h i l d . " ( s e c t i o n 1) T h i s same s t a t u t e , however, a u t h o r i z e d delegate  the Superintendent to  any of h i s powers. "The Superintendent may delegate any of h i s powers, d u t i e s , f u n c t i o n s and c a p a c i t i e s under t h i s a c t to any person or c l a s s of person, and t h a t person or c l a s s of person s h a l l be s u b j e c t t o h i s d i r e c t i o n . " ( s e c t i o n 3141)  The  c h i l d welfare  task  o p i n i o n , be given delegated  f o r c e as a committee must, i n my a u t h o r i t y t o e s t a b l i s h and approve  k i n s h i p homes i n the Musqueam community.  T h i s d e l e g a t i o n of  a u t h o r i t y must be e s t a b l i s h e d through a statement of p r o t o c o l between the Musqueam band and the Superintendent of Family and Child Services.  Included  i n t h i s p r o t o c o l should  be c r i t e r i a  f o r k i n s h i p home s e l e c t i o n as agreed to by the band c o u n c i l and the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and Housing. approval  C r i t e r i a for  of k i n s h i p homes must be based on the s t r u c t u r e ,  v a l u e s , c u l t u r e and r e a l i t y of the Musqueam community. order  In  t o e s t a b l i s h t h i s c r i t e r i a p u b l i c meetings must be held  where a l l i n t e r e s t e d community members can have input i n t o these  criteria. The  establishment  of l o c a l k i n s h i p homes a t the Musqueam  band i s an e s s e n t i a l step i n ensuring p r o t e c t i o n remain i n the community.  that c h i l d r e n i n need of K i n s h i p homes would be i n  the place of e x i s t i n g f o s t e r care homes t h a t the M i n i s t r y of  48  S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and Housing p r o v i d e s .  K i n s h i p homes i n e f f e c t  r e f l e c t the Musqueam n o t i o n of k i n s h i p connectedness. e a r l i e r times c h i l d r e n who were unable t o be cared parents,  were cared  responsible  f o r by k i n .  f o r the welfare  In  f o r by t h e i r  The community as a whole was  of i t s c h i l d r e n and c h i l d r e n  remained connected t o t h e i r l o c a l c u l t u r e and community. K i n s h i p homes would t h e r e f o r e a l l o w c h i l d r e n t o remain geographically, ceremonially, connected t o t h e i r  l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and e x p e r i e n t a l l y  community. SAFE HOMES  Within  the Musqueam band many c h i l d r e n a r e apprehended  d u r i n g times of c r i s i s spurred  in families.  Often a l c o h o l abuse has  v i o l e n c e and c h i l d r e n a r e a t r i s k .  Temporary s a f e  homes would meet the need t o p r o t e c t c h i l d r e n d u r i n g times.  these  Temporary accommodation t h a t i s sanctioned and  supported i n the community and approved by the band and agreed to by the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and Housing i s an e f f e c t i v e means to p r o t e c t n a t i v e c h i l d r e n through  voluntary  s h o r t term placements while a v o i d i n g the need f o r apprehension. Safe homes a t the Musqueam band should resources  be designed to be  f o r c h i l d r e n who need emergency s u b s t i t u t e care and  f o r v i c t i m s of f a m i l y v i o l e n c e .  Safe homes must make i t  p o s s i b l e f o r both mother and c h i l d to be accommodated i n circumstances where the f a t h e r i s abusive and  both t o the mother  child. At the Musqueam band the e l d e r s centre  could be u t i l i z e d as a safe home.  i s respected and  Again, p o l i c i e s and  procedures f o r implementing a safe home would need to be e s t a b l i s h e d through community meetings.  I t i s my  49  recommendation that the c h i l d welfare experience of other  task  f o r c e u t i l i z e the  bands i n e s t a b l i s h i n g safe homes.  Resource  people such as G l o r i a Wilson a t the Squamish band, or e x - c h i e f Wayne C h r i s t i a n of the Spallumacheen band can provide assistance  i n o r g a n i z i n g such a resource.  valuable  A safe home i n order  to be s u c c e s s f u l must have f u l l community support.  Native  c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g temporary p r o t e c t i o n due t o c r i s i s may be r e q u i r e d t o be apprehended and then returned  soon a f t e r  apprehension t o the parent once i t i s safe t o do s o . The B r i t i s h Columbia Family and C h i l d S e r v i c e Act under s e c t i o n 9 (5) provides  that,  "Where a c h i l d has been apprehended and before a r e p o r t i s presented to the c o u r t under s e c t i o n I I , the Superintendent may, i f s a t i s f i e d that continued custody i s unnecessary, r e t u r n the c h i l d t o the parent a p p a r e n t l y e n t i t l e d t o custody." B r i e f placement i n the proposed Musqueam safe home can a l l e v i a t e the need to remove a n a t i v e c h i l d community.  from the n a t i v e  A safe home would t h e r e f o r e meet the b a s i c s a f e t y  needs of c h i l d r e n and y e t a l l o w c h i l d r e n to remain geographically  connected t o the community.  would reduce the traumatic  Safe homes a l s o  e f f e c t s that apprehension has on  c h i l d r e n by a l l o w i n g c h i l d r e n to remain i n a f a m i l i a r environment and be cared An  f o r by l o c a l band members.  i n t e g r a l part of safe homes i s f a m i l y s e r v i c e  interviews  that seek to a l l e v i a t e the c r i s i s and promote an  environment where c h i l d r e n may be s a f e l y returned parent.  to their  I t i s my recommendation that c o u n s e l l i n g as w e l l as  home support s e r v i c e s be i n place so that n a t i v e c h i l d r e n can be returned  q u i c k l y to t h e i r parents.  I would a l s o recommend  t h a t an e l d e r be l i n k e d with a f a m i l y i n c r i s i s t o provide  50 support and d i r e c t i o n .  The e l d e r s can p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n  a s s i s t i n g f a m i l i e s to provide a safe environment f o r t h e i r children.  GROUP HOMES The c h i l d welfare task f o r c e has recognized that a group home i s e s s e n t i a l as a temporary r e s i d e n t i a l placement f o r Musqueam youth e x p e r i e n c i n g severe c o n f l i c t with t h e i r and  parents  e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y with a l c o h o l and drug abuse.  The  task f o r c e recognized t h a t Musqueam youth have l o s t a sense of i d e n t i t y and need t o e s t a b l i s h p r i d e i n t h e i r c u l t u r e and i n themselves.  The group home would have three d i s t i n c t  aspects.  F i r s t the program would a s s i s t n a t i v e youth t o l e a r n more about the Musqueam h i s t o r y and unique c u l t u r e .  Language, geography,  s p i r i t u a l i t y , and r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s as p a r t of the program c o u l d provide a sense of i d e n t i t y f o r Musqueam Participation  youth.  i n smoke house dancing and r e l i g i o u s  aspects  would provide l i n k s with the past and a deep sense of belonging. The  l a s t aspect of the group home must be education or  employment focussed.  Youth i n the group home should a t t e n d  s c h o o l or be i n v o l v e d i n p r o j e c t s t h a t b e n e f i t the community. Once again the community must p a r t i c i p a t e by p r o v i d i n g feed back about what they would want and support community.  in their  P u b l i c meetings t h a t a l l o w input from a l l community  members i s e s s e n t i a l  i f a group home i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n the  Musqueam community.  In a d d i t i o n the task f o r c e should  visit  other l o c a l bands t o i n q u i r e about how they e s t a b l i s h e d group homes i n t h e i r n a t i v e communities.  51 Family and C h i l d S e r v i c e s Family and C h i l d S e r v i c e s on the Musqueam band must i n c o r p o r a t e a v a r i e t y of i n t e r v e n t i o n s and programs.  Family  and C h i l d S e r v i c e s must f i t with the s t r u c t u r e and values i n place c u r r e n t l y a t the Musqueam band.  The c h i l d welfare task  f o r c e has recognized s e v e r a l resources  i t wishes to e s t a b l i s h  In the community.  A l l resources must r e f l e c t the f a c t t h a t k i n  networks a r e the b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g u n i t a t the band. K i n networks a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e a t the band must be strengthened and  supported.  In t h i s connection the task f o r c e has  i d e n t i f i e d three resources t h a t i t wishes to develop  over the  next s e v e r a l y e a r s .  a parent  These i n c l u d e a f a m i l y daycare,  support group, and a f a m i l y support  worker.  Family Day Care I would recommend the band e s t a b l i s h a f a m i l y day care f o r parents who r e q u i r e r e s p i t e from t h e i r c h i l d r e n . day care should be a model f o r a p p r o p r i a t e c h i l d  This f a m i l y care  techniques, as w e l l as a model of t r a d i t i o n a l n u r t u r i n g and care of c h i l d r e n .  S e v e r a l band members a r e i n t e r e s t e d  c h i l d h o o d education, and could s t a f f a f a m i l y daycare.  in early The  Musqueam band can a l s o promote community p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the homes of l o c a l band members t o be approved as f a m i l y day care homes.  I would d e f i n e a f a m i l y day  care home as a home approved by the band f o r day care  respite  for c h i l d r e n of f a m i l i e s e x p e r i e n c i n g s t r e s s i n c a r i n g f o r their children.  Family day care i s a p r e v e n t a t i v e measure t h a t  can help a n a t i v e f a m i l y a v o i d unnecessary  apprehension.  52 Parent The  Support  Grou.p  c h i l d welfare task f o r c e i s a l s o seeking to e s t a b l i s h  a parent support group.  T h i s group should provide a s u p p o r t i v e  group environment f o r parents to d i s c u s s i s s u e s concerning t h e i r c h i l d r e n and provide support r o l e s as p a r e n t s .  f o r each other i n t h e i r  An e s s e n t i a l aspect of t h i s group would be  n a t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l s working i n the area of f a m i l y therapy, c h i l d c a r e , or s o c i a l work who t h i s group.  can serve as resource people f o r  A f a m i l y support group i s one means where the  Musqueam community as a whole can share  i n the  responsibility  of s u p p o r t i n g a l l of i t s members.  Community Resource Worker The  c h i l d welfare task f o r c e should a l s o seek appointment  of a community resource worker whose p o s i t i o n would be to e s t a b l i s h resources a t the Musqueam band.  The  primary f u n c t i o n  of t h i s p o s i t i o n would be to a c t as a c o n s u l t a n t to the task f o r c e i n d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d welfare resources f o r the band. i n d i v i d u a l should be a n a t i v e person  This  f a m i l i a r with West Coast  Native groups and competent i n w r i t i n g funding p r o p o s a l s  and  n e g o t i a t i n g c h i l d welfare agreements with the P r o v i n c i a l  and  F e d e r a l governments.  Funding With P r o v i n c i a l spending government spending  cutbacks  r e c e i v e funding through  Spurges  r e s t r a i n t and c u r r e n t F e d e r a l i t is d i f f i c u l t  f o r the Band to  the Department of Indian and  A f f a i r s or the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and  Northern  Housing.  would recommend that the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and  I  53 Housing provide funding f o r the development of k i n s h i p homes and a group home on the r e s e r v e . Northern  Affairs,  The Department of Indian and  I would Suggest, should provide the funding  for f a m i l y and c h i l d s e r v i c e s under the auspices of t h e i r s o c i a l development funding. band must develop  In any event  the Musqueam Indian  s p e c i f i c funding proposals addressed  to both  l e v e l s of government f o r the programs i t seeks to develop reserve.  The exact nature  on  of funding goes beyond the scope of  t h i s paper and i s an i s s u e t h a t the c h i l d welfare task f o r c e must address  with each l e v e l of government.  Planning Future Program Development The Musqueam Indian band i s i n the beginning stages of d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d and f a m i l y s e r v i c e s a t the band.  In the next  year I would recommend t h a t the band pursue four areas i n d e v e l o p i n g community-specific,  band-based programs on r e s e r v e .  These four areas are as f o l l o w s : the establishment  of a C h i l d  and Family Welfare  comparative  Committee; the completion  of a  survey of other n a t i v e c h i l d welfare programs; the o r g a n i z a t i o n of community  meetings focussed on c h i l d welfare  i s s u e s ; and the •  s e c u r i n g of a c o n s u l t a n t to a s s i s t with funding p r o p o s a l s . The band c o u n c i l must e s t a b l i s h a C h i l d and Family Committee with a s p e c i f i c mandate, T h i s C h i l d and Family Welfare  c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s and g o a l s .  Committee should be d i r e c t l y  r e s p o n s i b l e to the band c o u n c i l f o r completing g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s .  Welfare  i t s mandate,  In t u r n t h i s committee must  t a s k s to the task f o r c e f o r completion.  delegate  The c h i l d welfare task  f o r c e should be r e s p o n s i b l e to the committee f o r completion of i t s tasks.  The C h i l d and Family Welfare  Committee must  provide  54 the d i r e c t i o n f o r p o l i c i e s and programs on r e s e r v e , be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e c u r i n g a c o n s u l t a n t and n e g o t i a t i n g program proposals and funding with both  l e v e l s of government.  e f f e c t the C h i l d and Family Welfare  In  Committee should assume the  f u n c t i o n s and r o l e s t h a t the task f o r c e now i s engaged i n . The task f o r c e would t h e r e f o r e become a working committee o r g a n i z i n g community meetings, g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and implementing the p o l i c i e s and programs e s t a b l i s h e d by the committee.  The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s t o i n s u r e a l l  a c t i v i t i e s are c o o r d i n a t e d and C h i l d and Family s e r v i c e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d a c c o r d i n g t o p o l i c i e s t h a t r e f l e c t the c u l t u r a l uniqueness of the Musqueam  people.  The C h i l d and Family committee, I would recommend, should visit  programs e s t a b l i s h e d on other r e s e r v e s to gather  i n f o r m a t i o n on comparative n a t i v e f a m i l y and c h i l d services.  welfare  Gathering data on e x i s t i n g programs on other  r e s e r v e s would give ideas f o r new i n i t i a t i v e s a t the Musqueam band.  Other bands have developed  the Musqueam band's s i t u a t i o n .  expertise that could benefit  The Spallumcheen, Squamish, Nuu  Chah N u l t h , McLeod Lake, and C a r r i e r - S e k a n i bands can provide examples of how c u r r e n t programs have been developed provide  and may  ideas or e x p e r t i s e f o r s h a r i n g with the Musqueam band.  A t h i r d area the Musqueam band must pursue i s engaging the community  i n the development of band based f a m i l y and c h i l d  welfare s e r v i c e s . generated  Thus f a r the m a j o r i t y of ideas have been  through a s m a l l number of band members t h a t make up  the c u r r e n t task f o r c e .  I t i s important  t h a t a l l Musqueam band  members have an o p p o r t u n i t y to be i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g , development and implementation  of s e r v i c e s i n order  f o r these  55 s e r v i c e s t o be s u c c e s s f u l .  Initial  investment  by Musqueam band  members i n program development, I b e l i e v e , w i l l ensure they are u t i l i z e d and supported Welfare  i n the community.  The C h i l d and Family  Committee must give ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r community  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of any p o l i c i e s or programs t h a t i t wishes t o implement.  Ongoing community  t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r community  meetings provide  participation.  F i n a l l y the band, I b e l i e v e must h i r e a c o n s u l t a n t with e x p e r t i s e i n program development and w r i t i n g program p r o p o s a l s . T h i s c o n s u l t a n t must be f a m i l i a r with West Coast  Native  Communities, l o c a l c u l t u r e , the s t r u c t u r e of the Musqueam band and  the power s t r u c t u r e s of the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and  Housing and the Department of Indian and Northern  Affairs.  T h i s c o n s u l t a n t should t h e r e f o r e a s s i s t the band i n program f o r m u l a t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n s with both l e v e l s of government. If the Musqueam Indian band pursues these w i l l make p o s i t i v e progress  in establishing  four areas  they  culturally  r e l e v a n t , band-based f a m i l y and c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s a t the' band.  56  CONCLUSION Successful  c h i l d welfare  programs a t the Musqueam  band w i l l be a mixture of contemporary c h i l d welfare  Indian  services  as w e l l as t r a d i t i o n a l programs based on the c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e \ and  values  of the community.  Musqueam reserve  E f f e c t i v e programs on the  must have a s i n g l e purpose; t o keep Musqueam  c h i l d r e n connected g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , ceremonially  t o the band.  l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and  Maintaining  t i e s t o the band  promotes belonging,  a sense of i d e n t i t y , and s e c u r i t y f o r  Musqueam c h i l d r e n .  Musqueam c h i l d welfare  merely r e f l e c t t r a d i t i o n a l attempt t o i n c o r p o r a t e Rather they should  programs should not  Indian methods of p a r e n t i n g , or  traditional spiritual  ceremonies.  ensure that c h i l d r e n remain connected to  t h e i r n a t i v e community and t o t h e i r k i n a s s o c i a t i o n s . s h o r t , s u c c e s s f u l c h i l d welfare  In  programs must empower the l o c a l  band members by promoting community p a r t i c i p a t i o n , autonomy, s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and c u l t u r a l r e l e v a n c e . research  I b e l i e v e that the  f i n d i n g s s t r o n g l y support the c u r r e n t e f f o r t s of the  Musqueam band t o develop a c h i l d welfare  program, one that  acknowledges the contemporary a s p i r a t i o n s of Musqueam band members who l i v e community.  i n a s e t t i n g a d j o i n i n g a modern urban  The research  connections with Indian  a l s o "builds upon p o s i t i v e c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and k i n s h i p networks.  There  i s s p e c i a l emphasis on connectedness i n geography, language, s p i r i t u a l i t y , experience, and k i n s h i p t i e s . t h i s research portrayed welfare  I t i s my hope t h a t  a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s what Musqueam members have  to me and a i d s them i n s e c u r i n g  programs.  t h e i r own c h i l d  57  ENDNOTES CHAPTER 1 1.  Johnston, P., Native C h i l d r e n and the C h i l d Welfare System. Toronto, O n t a r i o : James Lorimer and Company, 1983 p.23.  2.  Johnston, P., Native C h i l d r e n and the C h i l d W e l f a r e System. Toronto, O n t a r i o : James Lorimer and Company., 1983 pp.59,60.  3.  Amicus P o p u l i C o n s u l t i n g ; A P e r s o n a l and C u l t u r a l I d e n t i t y . Unpublished Manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver., 1986 p.3.  4.  C o l l i n s , Mark., C h i l d Welfare Among Native People. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Unpublished Manuscript., 1977 p.32.  5.  Johnston, P., Native C h i l d r e n and the C h i l d Welfare System. Toronto, O n t a r i o : James Lorimer and Company., 1983 p.60.  6.  Indian S e l f Government i n Canada - Report of the S p e c i a l House of Commons Committee, 1983 p.32.  7.  Duff, W. The Indian H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ihe. Impact of the White Man. V o l . 1., V i c t o r i a ; P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1964, p.57.  8.  Duff, W. The Indian H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Impact of the White Man. V o l . 1., V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1964. p.60.  9.  Howthorn, H. B., A Survey of Contemporary Indians of Canada: A Report on Economic. P o l i t i c a l , E d u c a t i o n a l Needs and P o l i c i e s . V o l . 1,2., Ottawa: Department of Indian and Northern Development. 1960 p.50.  10.  Duff, W. The Indian H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Impact of the White Man. V o l . 1., V i c t o r i a ; P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1964. p.60.  11.  B r i t i s h North America A c t  12.  Bain,' L. J . , S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e P o l i c y A l t e r n a t i v e s : Issues and Options as I d e n t i f i e d by Bands and T r i b a l C o u n c i l s of B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished Manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver., 1986 p.22.  13.  Indian S e l f Government i n Canada - Report of the S p e c i a l House of Commons Committee, 1983 p.15.  14.  P e l t o n , J . Poverty and the P o t e n t i a l f o r C h i l d Maltreatment. I l l i n o i s : Row, Peterson and Company. 1981  f  S e c t i o n 91(24).  58 15.  R e s i d e n t i a l Education f o r Indian A c c u l t u r a t i o n . and Eskimo Welfare Commission, 1958., p.4.  Indian  16.  Program C i r c u l a r . Department of Indian and Northern Development. 1969.  17.  MacDonald, J.A. C h i l d Welfare and Native Peoples of Canada. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Unpublished Manuascript, 1985., p. 5.  18.  Johnston, P. Native C h i l d r e n and the C h i l d Welfare System. Toronto, O n t a r i o : James Lorimer and Company., 1983 p.87. CHAPTER 2  1.  Patton, M.Q., Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n Methods. Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , B e v e r l y H i l l s . , C a l i f o r n i a . , p. 4.  2.  G l a s e r , B. T h e o r e t i c a l S e n s i t i v i t y . M i l l Valley, California: S o c i o l o g y P r e s s , p. 20 & 21.  3.  G l a s e r , B. T h e o r e t i c a l S e n s i t i v i t y . Mill California: S o c i o l o g y P r e s s , p. 17.  Valley,  CHAPTER 3 1.  Lewis, C , Indian F a m i l i e s of the Northwest Coast: The impact of Change. Chicago, I l l i n o i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s ; 1970. p.17.  59 BIBLIOGRAPHY B a i l e y , Kenneth D. Methods of S o c i a l Research. Edition. The Free P r e s s , New York, 1982.  Second  Bain, L . J . 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The B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum. Family and C h i l d S e r v i c e s P r i n t e r . 1980.  Act.  V i c t o r i a , B.C. Queens  F i l s t e a d , W.J., Q u a l i t a t i v e Methodology. Markham P u b l i s h i n g , 1972.  Chicago,  Illinois,  F r i d e r e s , J . Native People In Canada. Contemporary Conflicts. Scarborough, O n t a r i o , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1983.  60  G i l b e r t , N e l l and Specht, Harry. Dimensions of S o c i a l Welfare P o l i c y . C a l i f o r n i a , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1974. G r i n n e l l , R i c h a r d M. S o c i a l Work Research and E v a l u a t i o n . Second E d i t i o n . F.E. Peacock P u b l i s h e r s , I l l i n o i s , 1985. Hawthorn, H.B. A Survey of Contemporary Indians of Canada: A Report on Economic. P o l i t i c a l , E d u c a t i o n a l Needs and Policies. V o l . 1,2. Ottawa: Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Hudson, P. and McKenzie, R. " C h i l d Welfare and Native People: The e x t e n s i o n of C o l o n i a l i s m " S o c i a l Worker. 49 (2) 1981. Johnston, P. Native C h i l d r e n and the C h i l d Welfare System. Toronto, O n t a r i o : The Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development i n A s s o c i a t i o n with James Lorimer and Company, 1983. K a l l e n , E. E t h n i c i t y and Human Rights i n Canada. Toronto O n t a r i o , Gage E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i s h i n g , 1982. K i r k , R. Wisdom of the E l d e r s . Native T r a d i t i o n s on the Northwest Coast. Vancouver, B.C. Douglas M c l n t y r e , 1986. Kluckhohn, C. and Murray, H. P e r s o n a l i t y i n Nature, and C u l t u r e . New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1961.  Society,  Kluckhohn, F. and Strodtbeck, F. V a r i a t i o n s i n Value O r i e n t a t i o n s . Evanston, I l l i n o i s , Row, Peterson and Company, 1961. Kroeber, A. and Kluckhohn, C. C u l t u r e - A C r i t i c a l Review of Concepts and D e f i n i t i o n s . New York, Vintage Books, 1952. L e v i t t , K. and Wharf, B. The Challenge of C h i l d Welfare. Vancouver, B.C. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1985. Lewis, C. Indian F a m i l i e s of the Northwest Coast: The Impact of Change. Chicago, I l l i n o i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1970. MacDonald, J.A. Spallumcheen Indian Band and C h i l d Welfare P o l i c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981.  i t s Impact on Vancouver:  MacDonald, J.A. Report of an E v a l u a t i o n of the C h i l d Welfare Program of the Spallumcheen Indian Band. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982. MacDonald, J.A. C h i l d Welfare and Native Peoples of Canada. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985. McKenzie, B. " S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e with Native People." An I n t r o d u c t i o n to S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e i n Canada. Scarborough, O n t a r i o , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1985.  61 McLaughin, Audrey. Native Content In the S o c i a l Work C u r r i c u l u m . A Report funded by the Donner Foundation, of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1982.  School  Mignacco, Charlene. Towards Native C o n t r o l of C h i l d Welfare the Nuu-Chah-Nulth C o u n c i l "A Case i n P o i n t . " Vancouver, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia: Research f o r Master of S o c i a l Work Program. 1984. Patton, Michael Q. Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n Methods. London, Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1980. Pimento, B. "Native F a m i l i e s i n Jeopardy, The C h i l d Welfare System i n Canada." O c c a s i o n a l Papers i n S o c i a l P o l i c y A n a l y s i s No. 11. Toronto, O n t a r i o , I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1985. Pincus, A l l e n and Minahan Anne. S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e : Model and Method, Madison: Peacock P u b l i s h e r s , 1973. Ponting, J.R. and Gibbons, R. Out of I r r e l e v a n c e . Scarborough, O n t a r i o , Butterworth and Company, 1980. Redhorse, J . "Indian Family Values and E x p e r i e n c e s . " T_he_ P s y c h o l o g i c a l Development of M i n o r i t y Group C h i l d r e n . New York, Brunner Mazel P u b l i s h e r s , 1983. Report of the S p e c i a l Committee, Indian S e l f Government i n Canada, House of Commons, Canada, 1983. S h e f f e , Norman. Issues f o r the S e v e n t i e s . Canada's Indians. Toronto, O n t a r i o , McGraw H i l l , 1970. Spallumcheen Indian Band. The Soallumcheen Band C h i l d Welfare Program,. An i n f o r m a t i o n a r t i c l e , 1988. Stanbury, W.T. The S o c i a l and Economic C o n d i t i o n s of Indian F a m i l i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Report prepared f o r the Royal Commission of Family and C h i l d r e n s law. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974. S t r a u s s , Anselm L. Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s f o r S o c i a l Scientists. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1987. T e s t e r , Frank. " S t i l l Not Home, The Indian and Native C h i l d and Family S e r v i c e , P r o v i s i o n s of O n t a r i o ' s B i l l 77", The S o c i a l Worker, V o l . 55 No. 4, Winter, 1986. Wharf, B. Toward F i r s t Nation C o n t r o l of C h i l d Welfare: A Review of Emerging Development i n B.C. U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , School of S o c i a l Work, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1987.  62 APPENDIX "A"  THE MEANING OF CONNECTEDNESS FOR MUSQUEAM INDIANS  A community sense of belonging,  a personal  and community  i d e n t i t y a l s o i n c l u d e s a sense of c o n t i n u i t y through the generations. Core Category:  Geographic Connectedness - The p h y s i c a l land the Musqueams view of t h i s land as having a spirit  that g i v e s d i r e c t i o n , a v i s i o n , and  u n i f i e s the Musqueam people with nature.  A x i a l Codes  Sample of Supporting Quotes  l i v e d i n one place hundreds of years  "Those people have l i v e d there f o r f o r 4000 years i n one p l a c e . "  l e s s mobile and dispersable  "That r e s e r v e , i t i s s t a b l e and d i f f i c u l t t o move away from" "Due to s o c i a l and economic dynamics those people are l e s s mobile and d i s p e r s a b l e . "  land  "Elements of t r a d i t i o n a l land use s t i l l p e r s i s t , but they are i n a new s e t t i n g . T r a d i t i o n a l land use and ceremonies are changing and the Musqueam people recognize i t . They are s t i l l v i t a l and important to the community."  importance  c l o s e p r o x i m i t y of family  "The key d i f f e r e n c e between f a m i l y Musqueam and the l a r g e r s o c i e t y i s a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o f a m i l y and kin." " I f you want t o f i n d a connection between people there w i l l be a connection a t (the band) that they can plug i n t o . "  provides  "The land g i v e s a v i s i o n a d i r e c t i o n f o r our people."  vision  u n i f i e s the Musqueam with n a t i v e  "Human being and n a t i v e are People u n i f i e d - the c r e a t o r u n i f i e s the creation." "Each f a m i l y i s represented by an animal, and that c h a r a c t e r i z e s what each f a m i l y w i l l be l i k e . "  63 Core Category:  K i n s h i p Connectedness - D i f f u s e connections between i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s which encompass most of the Musqueam community.  A x i a l Codes  Sample of Supporting Quotes  kin association  "There i s a much l a r g e r r e c o g n i t i o n of k i n and r e l a t e d n e s s than i n white s o c i e t y . Family networks are d i f f u s e , q u i t e l a r g e and q u i t e v a r i a b l e . "  connects the members together  " I f you want to f i n d a connection there w i l l be a c o n n e c t i o n . " "Everybody i s r e l a t e d t o somebody ...we are one b i g f a m i l y . "  o b l i g a t i o n to k i n  "There i s a v e r y great sense of o b l i g a t i o n t o k i n . F a m i l i e s are r i g h t away there t o h e l p . " "When someone i s s h o r t of food or the welfare money has run out, there w i l l always be food and money a v a i l a b l e . Everything i s shared." "At longhouse dancing, a t f u n e r a l s , or weddings, f a m i l i e s come to support each o t h e r . F a m i l i e s help each other when they see someone i n t r o u b l e . "  kin  support  A c c e s s i b i l i t y of people to f a m i l y  "The key d i f f e r e n c e between people Musqueam and the l a r g e r s o c i e t y i s a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o f a m i l y and kin."  D i f f u s e extended k i n  "There are over 700 who are my r e l a t i v e s there. I f you're a blood k i n , or born i n t o the band, or marry i n t o i t , you have a l a r g e i n t e r a c t i o n with k i n f o l k . "  Intergenerational continuity  "There i s a h i s t o r y of f a m i l y relationships. Generations extend to the second and t h i r d and fourth generations." "My grandparents were p a r t of the o r i g i n a l people, so I s t i l l have a l o t of r e l a t i v e s today."  B i l a t e r a l Nature of s t a t u s and belonging  "Status and belonging are passed on to c h i l d r e n b i l a t e r a l l y . Grandparents on both s i d e s were c a l l e d by a s i n g l e term." " A l l u n c l e s , aunts, f a t h e r s , b r o t h e r s , mothers, s i s t e r s , and f i r s t  64  cousins are a l l under one Role of e l d e r s  qpre category;  term."  "Every morning, the o l d men would get up and t a l k . The o l d e r people pass on the t r a d i t i o n s and the knowledge they had." S p i r i t u a l and Ceremonial Connectedness  -  S p i r i t u a l and ceremonial p r a c t i c e s t h a t f o r the Musqueam people i n c l u d e s p i r i t dances,  spirit  names and longhouse ceremonies.  A x i a l Code  Samples of Supporting Quotes  longhouse dancing  "They are i n the longhouse f o r four days. C e r t a i n t h i n g s go on. You get a v i s i o n . . . y o u ' r e i n a dreamland u n t i l your song comes." "Every winter we have s p i r i t dancing where we g i v e Indian names to our c h i l d r e n . "  S p i r i t Names  "We s t i l l pass on the Indian names we had from way back. Every f a m i l y has t h e i r own names. There are a l o t of names that have been lost." "Our c h i l d r e n grow up and take on the s p i r i t names from way back."  S p i r i t Power  "You get i n i t i a t e d and get s p i r i t power. T h i s i s c a l l e d s p i r i t u a l gains." "Your s p i r i t power g i v e s you d i r e c t i o n i n your l i f e ; which path you should f o l l o w . "  I n i t i a t i o n ceremony  "Young people get i n i t i a t e d . They are i n the longhouse f o r four days. C e r t a i n t h i n g s go on. They get a v i s i o n ; you can't get out of the longhouse. You're i n a dreamland u n t i l your song comes. You i n i t i a t e the v i s i o n that you see. Your v i s i o n power comes to you. " "The Young people have to keep drumming, r a t t l i n g and s i n g i n g u n t i l h i s s p i r i t song or dance comes out."  65  Core Category,  Linguistic  Connectedness  - The language of  Halkomelem that was t r a d i t i o n a l l y spoken and t r a n s m i t s the Musqueam c u l t u r e  i n a f u l l and  r i c h meaningful way, and contemporary  language  and i t s a t t r i b u t e d meaning. MXa,l  Codes  Samples of Supporting Quotes  Halkamelom  "Our language i s Halkomelom." "The o l d e r e l d e r s and e a r l i e r generations would know Halkomelem"  G e n e r a l i z a t i o n of  "She would g e n e r a l i z e E n g l i s h words as i f they were Halkomelem." "Current language r e f l e c t s the s t r u c t u r e of e a r l i e r t i m e s . " " A l l u n c l e s , aunts, f a t h e r s b r o t h e r s , mothers, s i s t e r s , and f i r s t c o u s i n s are a l l under one term."  F i t s s t r u c t u r e of Halkomelem  "There i s a new s e t of k i n terms used c o l l o q u i a l l y , but they're used with f i t t i n g some of the s t r u c t u r e that comes through e a r l i e r times."  Language t r a n s m i t s culture  " S p i r i t u a l ceremonies, longhouse dancing, and s p i r i t names when spoken i n Halkomelem are more meaningful." "The Halkomelem language i s important f o r p a s s i n g on the t r a d i t i o n s and so on. I t r y to t a l k Indian t o my g r a n d c h i l d r e n so that they w i l l know what we d i d i n the p a s t . "  Language l o s s  "I was t e l l i n g my great grand daughter before you got here that they wanted us to f o r g e t to t a l k Indian. I f a nun heard you t a l k i n g to another g i r l i n Indian you got punished." "No one knows the Halkomelem language anymore, i t s a d i f f i c u l t language t o l e a r n . There i s no one who can teach the younger ones anymore."  66 Core Category:  E x p e r i e n t i a l Connectedness  - The  commonality  that are part of both the r e c e n t h i s t o r y and contemporary A x i a l CQflfts  l i f e a t the Musqueam Indian Band. Samples of Supporting Quotes  R e s i d e n t i a l Schools  "A l o t of our people went to r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s i n Coqultlam, on the I s l a n d , S t . P a u l s , or a c r o s s the border. We were o n l y home f o r a few months of the summer. We weren't allowed to speak our language." "Lots of e l d e r s don't know the h i s t o r y or t r a d i t i o n s anymore because they went to r e s i d e n t i a l schools."  Reserve System Dependence on o u t s i d e agencies  "You can never be t o t a l l y happy with the r e s e r v e s . They c r e a t e c o n f l i c t among our people...The reserve makes us dependent on the department. We have t o l e a r n not to depend on the department, but be s e l f - r e l i a n t . "  C o n t r o l and S e l f determination  "We would l i k e p a r t i a l c o n t r o l and j u r i s d i c t i o n over c h i l d welfare and the band. For example, we would l i k e a group home f o r our teenagers so t h a t they do not have to go to f o s t e r homes o u t s i d e the band." " C h i l d r e n today, have to educate themselves and become s e l f r e l i a n t , they have to l e a r n not to depend on the department."  Ceremonial S o c i a l Exper ience  "Musqueam value t r a d i t i o n s and ceremonies because they are tremendously rewarding p e r s o n a l l y and i n s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . "The Ceremonies are an a d a p t a t i o n , but they are a rewarding aspect of t h a t contemporary c u l t u r e . "  Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n  "To be Indian, i s to p a r t i c i p a t e and be a good member of the community." "We have to have community meetings where people can say what they t h i n k , and what they would l i k e f o r programs a t the band."  Band Membership  " I f you are a member of the band and l i v e here you belong. You  67 know what i t means t o be Musqueam."  68 APPENDIX "B" 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.  CODING EXAMPLE  T r a d i t i o n s - constant s t a t e of change over time. Influence of dominant c u l t u r e . I d e a l i z a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n s , c u l t u r a l elements. Inaccuracy of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g past. Uniqueness of c u r r e n t community. Linkage of past to present-connectedness. Familial structure. Prestene p a s t . D e s c r i p t i v e account. Encumberment of the past. Cultural distinctiveness. V i t a l i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e of r e l i g i o n . Indianness/Separation H i g h l y valued r e l i g i o u s experience. R e l i g i o u s a d a p t a t i o n to land base. C r o s s c u r r e n t of o p i n i o n about c h i l d r e a r i n g . Parameters of c h i l d r e a r i n g . A b s t r a c t i o n s of memory. Family d e f i n i t i o n . Linguistic familial labels. Familial classifications. Kinship closeness/distance. Double descent. D i f f u s e f a m i l y networks. K i n s h i p support. A c c e s s i b i l i t to k i n t i e s . Geographical proximity. contemporary s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l dynamics. Cultural evolution.  The  above codes r e f e r s to open coding  paragraph.  The  numbers correspond to the statements numbered  i n the t r a n s c r i p t . with a l l the  by phrase or  T h i s open coding  interviews.  From the massive l i s t  core c a t e g o r i e s were c o n s t r u c t e d core c a t e g o r i e s and  procedure was  Further  categories  l e a d i n g to conceptual  of open codes,  which i n c o r p o r a t e d  t h e r e f o r e conceptual  achieved.  density.  i n t o the  d e n s i t y was  i n t e r v i e w i n g , date a n a l y s i s may  scope of t h i s t h e s i s .  conducted  not  reveal  T h i s i s beyond  other the  69 APPENDIX "C"  TRANSCRIPT OF INTERVIEW WITH A MUSQUEAM ELDER  Background t o the i n t e r v i e w . 3, 1989.  Interview  was conducted on March  Verbal consent was r e c e i v e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  research project. Musqueam band.  ????  has a long h i s t o r y of involvement  His f i r s t  with  w i f e , now deceased, was Musqueam, and  he has two sons who are members of the band.  He has about  f o r t y years of c o n t a c t with the band and i s f a m i l i a r with band members and t h e i r values and f a m i l y  R:  life.  T r a d i t i o n a l , you were s a y i n g t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l are t h i n g s of the past and c h i l d r e a r i n g t h a t they used t o have. made a n i c e statement.  You  They used t o have and i t s probably  changed. 1. I:  Changed due t o a s s i m i l a t i o n s i n t o the white c u l t u r e . 2.  R:  Right.  I:  That's how I view i t and I think and I have read  i n the  l i t e r a t u r e t h a t they are not going t o be a b l e t o go back t o the ways t h i n g s were. I:  R:  That's r i g h t .  What I am l o o k i n g a t i s what s o r t of p r i n c i p l e s and core values t h a t they can i n c o r p o r a t e , a t l e a s t in t h e i r  R:  life  style  in principle  now.  My response to t h a t i s t h a t i s going to head us t o t r o u b l e , and t h a t we need t o think d i f f e r e n t l y about t h a t . Two reasons why I guess t h a t ' s d i f f i c u l t . that i s d i f f i c u l t to  One reason  why  i s t h a t you are s e t t i n g out to d i s c o v e r ,  f i n d , t o i d e n t i f y , what i s t r a d i t i o n a l ,  cultural  elements or p a t t e r n s or boundaries that i s of t h a t past time, i d e a l i z e d . 3.  There i s and e m p i r i c a l problem i n  t h a t , i t i s impossible  to reach t h a t time.  To d i s c o v e r  70  what was. 4.  You can touch the p e r i p h e r y of i t through the  memory of o l d people perhaps, and through some of the l i t e r a t u r e you may touch the edges of t h a t . back and r e c o n s t r u c t  i t i s v i r t u a l l y impossible.  i t a l l and r e c o n s t r u c t tells  i t i n an a r t i f i c i a l sense.  us i t s not t h e r e ; of course i t s not t h e r e .  have changed. to  To b r i n g i t  They a s s i m i l a t e , they change.  do something t h a t s i n c r e d i b l y d i f f i c u l t .  the long past.  Our view Things  We a r e t r y i n g A second p o i n t  i s why we want to go back t o that t r a d i t i o n a l , of  To f i n d  i n the sense  We are t r y i n g t o f i n d out what i s  s p e c i f i c and unique t o t h i s group of people that has to do with c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , and how these p r a c t i c e s might differ  from the s u r r o u n d i n g community.  To put i t another  way, how do we reach back not i n t o the d i s t a n t past, but what i s s p e c i f i c and d i f f e r e n t about what i s there now?  5.  So i f we change the word t r a d i t i o n a l to something that i s your task becomes not t o i d e n t i f y what i s t r a d i t i o n a l but what i s the c u l t u r a l value p a t t e r n of c h i l d r e a r i n g a t Musqueam now.  There you see what we have done, we have  made t h a t realm of phenomena reachable because now.  i t i s there  You can go out and f i n d something out about i t .  It  i s an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n why we are lead t o reach way back to the p a s t . I:  The q u e s t i o n that I have, i s whether at the it  R:  the way of l o o k i n g  l i f e the way the n a t i v e view themselves, the community, environment, i s that s t i l l  i n t a c t today?  And how has  changed?  You don't r e a l l y need t o know how i t s changed  i n great  d e t a i l , what you need t o know i s whats there that i s unique  71 and  s p e c i f i c to these people that they v a l u e .  roots  i n the past.  incredibly  To puzzle  I t has  out those connections i s an  hard t h i n g to do because you don't have any  ground to get a hold of t h a t data or phenomena. 6. can  f i n d out by  family l i f e you  Its  real  But  you  i n t e r v i e w i n g people, what they want t h e i r  to be, what they want t h e i r c h i l d r e n to be  can e s t a b l i s h that very e m p i r i c a l l y .  i s a matter of c o l l e c t i n g would suggest that you  i t and  should  and  It i s there.  discovering  i t . 7.  It  I  get r i d of t h a t word  t r a d i t i o n a l and  encourage Musqueam to get r i d of t h a t word  t r a d i t i o n a l and  to think  i n a model which i s d i f f e r e n t .  A  model t h a t doesn't concern i t s e l f so much with a s s i m i l a t i o n and  c u l t u r a l change over the  think d i f f e r e n t l y yourself. other  long run.  What I'm  from the mainstream of people  t h i s notion  past, which i s almost a sacred c u l t u r e of these people. 8.  We  traditional  write d e s c r i p t i v e  accounts of what Indian c u l t u r e i s l i k e . 9. back to t h a t t h i n g we we  say t h a t they l i v e d  t h a t past life you  By  life  i n a way  that  reaching  i n wooden long  perpetuate that view of people.  t h a t l o c k s them i n t o t h a t past.  I t i s a view  I t encumbers them with  i s not necessary.  The  past  i s great, as long as you're not burdened by i t . have to be  any  of some p r e s t i h e  t h i n of the still  is  like  Anthropology i s as g u i l t y as s o c i a l work or  people i n p e r p e t u a t i n g  houses and  saying  If  l i k e that past c o n t i n u a l l y i t ' s a burden.  I t ' s a burden and  i t ' s unrealistic.  I:  I think  R:  Yes,  I:  From what I hear you  10.  i t is unrealistic.  but you  sense t h a t . saying,  i s that r a t h e r than  looking  72 back to the past, l e t s look a t and by t a l k i n g to people a t Musqueam band, l e t s f i n d out what they want t h e i r f a m i l y life  to be r i g h t now  larger society. R:  and how  that's d i f f e r e n t  from  11.  E x a c t l y , and t h a t t h i n g s are always changing  i n every  c u l t u r e , we are not what we were 200 years ago. completely d i f f e r e n t ago.  In my  Elements of t h e i r  up i n t h a t  traditional  p e r s i s t , but they're i n a new  not what they were a t 100  s e t t i n g there,  or even f o r t y years ago.  They're  and people r e c o g n i z e i t , but they are s t i l l  v i t a l , and in  social  They don't want to go back to l i v e  wooden long houses.  changing  values and  Musqueam has been caught  form of change as w e l l .  religion s t i l l  are  d i f f e r e n t than i n your  I t has to do with changing  s t r u c t u r e s and so on.  in  We  i n c h i l d r e a r i n g than even 50 years  c h i l d h o o d i t was  childhood.  the  they're d i f f e r e n t . 12.  t h a t community t h e r e .  Indian i s t h e r e .  They are very  important  They have to do with what being  I t s e t s them o f f d r a m a t i c a l l y from  surrounding people. 13.  very  the  They value them f o r t h a t reason  p a r t l y , and they a l s o value them because they are tremendously 14.  rewarding  p e r s o n a l l y and  I t i s a p o s i t i v e rewarding  culture.  in social  experience.  aspect of contemporary  I t i s an a d a p t a t i o n , e v e r y t h i n g i s an a d a p t a t i o n .  15. I:  So then, you have been out a t the Musqueam band a l o t . have t a l k e d to Faye and she says you're  I  out there q u i t e  alot. R:  Yes.  I:  Maybe you have some p e r c e p t i o n s of what i t means to be an  73  Indian R:  a t the Musqueam band r i g h t now?  A little there.  but I'm not as c l o s e as I would i f I l i v e d A c t u a l l y I have two sons that are Musqueam band  members.  My f i r s t  from that p l a c e . our  Since  she has d i e d b i l l C31 has allowed  sons t o become s t a t u s Indians and are now members of  the band. know.  T h e i r Mother would have been very g r a t i f i e d t o  One l i v e s i n Vancouver and i s a p a r t of the s o c i e t y  there. and  wife who passed away some years ago was  I don't l i v e there  so I don't know what the i s s u e s  d i f f i c u l t i e s might be i n c h i l d r e a r i n g r i g h t now.  can bounce some questions outsider  You  o f f me and as an informed  I might be able t o help you.  At the outset,  i f you s e t out what you are going to do  i s t o f i n d out what the c u r r e n t values  and wishes and  p r a c t i c e s a r e about what c h i l d r e a r i n g , you get i n t o the cross currents  of o p i n i o n about what c h i l d r e a r i n g  be and what f a m i l i e s ought t o be. 16. but  one c o u l d s e t t o sketch  t h a t . 17.  should  That i s a b i g j o b ,  that and show the parameters of  Now you can a l s o reach back t o a b i t of the past  which i s s t i l l c u r r e n t and t h a t i s views of the people my age  and o l d e r .  what l i f e  The e l d e r s who have views from experience  should  be.  You could do some i n t e r v i e w s of  people that are not about the past. reach i n t o the past they can't ago,  do i t too t h a t 100 years  and you put them a t a disadvantage because you ask  them the question that. and  I f you ask them t o  as i f you expect them t o be able t o do  I t asks them to do the Impossible.  we don't r e a l i z e what we are doing.  productive.  Often we do that I t s not  What i t does i s s p i n out a b s t r a c t models t h a t  74 they have picked up on that they manufacture R e a l l y they are not v e r y h e l p f u l .  f o r us. 18.  Furthermore  i t sustains  that model of a p r e s t i n e kind of p a s t , t h a t somehow has t o be p a r t of the p r e s e n t . t h i s kind of program  For Musqueam t o get the money f o r  they have t o say they l i v e  i n long  houses, and have t h i s extended f a m i l y t h i n g i n some kind of an a r t i f i c i a l  sense.  They do have a sense of f a m i l y t h a t  i s d i f f e r e n t today and you can get a t t h a t . I:  My f i r s t  q u e s t i o n i s then from your sense of Musqueam,  what i s d i f f e r e n t about the f a m i l y that you can pick out? R:  You need t o ask t h a t q u e s t i o n too i n a s o r t of way that you can get f a c t s and data about experience from people. There i s a sense of f a m i l y and community there that doesn't exist  i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y .  For myself I can a p p l y a k i n  term t o everybody a t Musqueam. are of  my r e l a t i v e s .  There a r e 700 people who  I f you're a blood k i n or born i n t o one  these communities,  or i f you marry  i n t o another  community your world of i n t e r a c t i o n with n a t i v e people are kin  f o l k . 19.  changed  way.  That s t i l l  l i v e s but i t l i v e s  in a slightly  People Fayes' age probably know v e r y few k i n  f o l k who speak Halkomelem.  She would g e n e r a l i z e  terms as i f they were Hasqueam.  We would  English  get uncle and  aunt i n the o r i g i n a l e a r l i e r system and i n the system that's s t i l l  a l i v e f o r some of the people.  There i s i n the  f i r s t and second g e n e r a t i o n , Mother and Father a r e distinct.  There i s one terra f o r each of these c a t e g o r i e s .  All  the r e s t are the same -blood k i n .  out  the g e n e r a t i o n s extend, so that a l l Uncle and Aunts  (not  No matter how f a r  t h e i r spouses) but a l l F a t h e r s , B r o t h e r s , Mothers,  75 S i s t e r s and f i r s t Cousins of those people area a l l under I t covers a l l of them. 2 0 .  one term.  d i s t i n g u i s h gender. or  Aunt.  They do not  E n g l i s h people w i l l  They have hundreds  narrow E n g l i s h sense.  use the term Uncle  of Aunts and Uncles not i n the  There i s a new s e t of k i n terms used  c o l l o q u i a l l y but t h e y ' r e used w i t h f i t t i n g some of the s t r u c t u r e that comes through e a r l i e r times.  There are  l a r g e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and c a t e g o r i e s of k i n f o l k by generation.  2 1 . Faye would use those terms and know some  of  the s p e c i f i c s of i t , but what i t c r e a t e s i s a framework  of  k i n , of r e l a t e d n e s s , i n v e r y l a r g e c a t e g o r i e s f o r  everyone t o plug I:  into.  So then, when you look a t the Musqueam band and you t a l k about k i n s h i p i t i n v o l v e s a l o t of the whole community.  R:  Yes.  I f they want t o f i n d a c o n n e c t i o n , there w i l l be a  connection. or  That doesn't mean t o say t h a t you a r e the same  as c l o s e t o everyone  category.  as everyone e l s e i n the same  There i s a s e l e c t i o n w i t h i n t h a t , t o there i s a  c l o s e n e s s and d i s t a n c e w i t h i n the same r e l a t i o n s h i p .  If  you have as you can have a 1 0 0 or so grandparents, they're not  a l l the same.  There i s a c l o s e n e s s t o ones'  parents p a r e n t s . 2 2 . kin  immediate  There i s a much l a r g e r r e c o g n i t i o n of  and i t s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e i n terms of r e s i d e n c e , and  i t s grown v e r y much.  I t has a h i s t o r y of f a m i l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a patronim as d e f i n e d by some but not e x c l u s i v e l y because these people t r a d i t i o n a l l y e a r l i e r and still  don't give g r e a t e r weight to the male or female  connection. or  You i n h e r i t e q u a l l y from e i t h e r parent names  r i g h t s or k i n a s s o c i a t i o n s .  The p a t r o n i m i c b a t t l e r y i s  76 not a l l t h a t meaningful, but I t i s s t i l l  used. 23.  You can  i d e n t i f y the f a m i l i e s very w e l l a t the ceremonial and ritual  events.  At smoke house dancing or a t f u n e r a l s  f a m i l i e s come together  to support c l o s e k i n .  helped by those who are not q u i t e as c l o s e . very  large.  They a r e F a m i l i e s are  Those kind of f a m i l y networks a r e q u i t e  d i f f u s e , q u i t e l a r g e and q u i t e v a r i a b l e i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s . 24.  Those are very  l i v e and a c t i v e and they  support people i n times of t r o u b l e . that they can go t o .  Everyone has some k i n  C h i l d r e n have wide c i r c l e s of older  k i n f o l k who they can go t o or some of the i n f a n t s can be looked  a f t e r . 25.  obligation to kin.  There i s a very great  Those a r e some of the t h i n g s t h a t you  w i l l be able t o f i n d .  People w i l l t e l l you immediately  about them and give you concrete r i g h t away there t o help. valued  i s what i s there  26.  examples.  What i s there and a c t i v e and  There i s community  of l a r g e r networks of extended k i n .  gatherings  These extended k i n  meaning a t times of c r i s i s and a l s o i n times  of c e l e b r a t i o n . They're great  F a m i l i e s are  now; not what might have been a  hundred years i n the past.  have g r e a t e r  sense of  Take f o r example Christmas or Birthdays..  f a m i l y gatherings  and people come  together.  Anglo-Saxon networks are not as l a r g e and connected as that of n a t i v e people.  Those people have l i v e d here f o r 4000  years i n one p l a c e . 27.  There i s there a c o n t i n u i t y of  f a m i l y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o f a m i l y . I:  I think t h a t s a key d i f f e r e n c e from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , t h a t a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o f a m i l y and k i n .  R:  E x a c t l y , I t s r i g h t there and i t s p e r f e c t l y obvious.  77 You  can probably see how  you can s e t out to do t h i s .  t h i n g you're going to have to give the same l e c t u r e g i v i n g to you to Faye and  others who  One I'm  expect you to reach to  the past because you're a student and a s c h o l a r and  you  have access to t h a t l i b r a r y out there t h a t has a l l t h a t stuff.  I t doesn't  but I can r e f e r  have i t t h e r e .  We  d i d n ' t explore t h a t ,  you to a l l the l i t e r a t u r e and  ethnographies  such as B a r n e t t , Marion Smith, and Wayne Bellows C l a u d i a Lewis. to you I:  and  There i s nothing r e a l l y of very much help  really.  The problem a t hand i s what they want at Musqueam  right  now, R:  Right and what you w i l l  have to be on guard  f o r i s when  you present to them i s to say t h i s what I can get f o r you.  What you w i l l  have to be prepared  doubt t h a t i s the t r a d i t i o n a l . traditional to  for i s their  To get r i d of the word  from the s t a r t y o u ' l l  look f o r what was  together  of the past.  be ahead.  I am  not  I am going to look f o r  what i s c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t to t h i s community now. have a d i s t i n c t i v e has p a r t l y  c u l t u r e now.  to do with t h e i r  going  And  why  they are  They distinct  r o o t s , but o n l y p a r t l y ,  i t also  has to do with s o c i a l and economic dynamics of that p l a c e . The  r e s e r v e , t h a t i s s t a b l e and d i f f i c u l t to move away  from.  I t has people who  a g a i n s t . 28.  are e t h n i c a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d  That makes them l e s s mobile  and d i s p e r s a b l e .  If you can overcome t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the other who  people  want you to produce t h i s p i c t u r e of the p r e s t i n e past  you w i l l be ahead. I:  I guess i t s not r e a l i s t i c  to take the past and  fit it  78  into R:  the present.  No and t h a t s what t h e i r a real That  sense.  i s what  That  people  into  i t takes  the circumstances  them and s a y s ,  inconsistent And  that  social I:  with  T h e y have done t h a t i n  what  of c u l t u r e .  i s t h e r e and t h a t i s  I t i s a d a p t a t i o n and change t h a t  have a c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t at  is.  has been t h e a d a p t a t i o n  i t does,  what e v o l u t i o n i s .  life  well  they're  people  i t s doing  those  the l a r g e r  But when y o u  system  looks  t h i n g s t o them t h a t a r e  s e t s of values  i s the i n j u s t i c e  i n . 29.  fits  that are there  and u n w o r k a b i l i t y o f t h a t k i n d o f  service.  Is there another want t h e i r  value  family l i f e  or area  that relates  t o be o r how t h e y  t o how  raise  they  their  children? R:  T h e y want t h e i r  I:  What d o e s I n d i a n mean f o r them?  R:  You s h o u l d  I:  I plan t o .  R:  I have a v i e w o f t h a t b u t t h e y means.  now.  children  Very  much s o .  a s k them t h a t .  Basically  community.  t o be I n d i a n .  will  i t means b e i n g  tell  y o u what  a good member  that  of the  APPENDIX "D  Research P r o j e c t :  CONSENT FORM  A Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s of Native C h i l d Welfare. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of C u l t u r a l Components of Musqueam Indian Band C h i l d and Family Services.  Thank you f o r c o n s i d e r i n g p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . Please be aware that you a r e i n no way o b l i g a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w . The i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from t h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l be used f o r r e s e a r c h purposes. No i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n your answers t o these questions. A f t e r completion of t h i s p r o j e c t i n June 1990, audio taped i n t e r v i e w w i l l be.erased. This r e s e a r c h w i l l u t i l i z e audio taped i n t e r v i e w s with e l d e r s a t the Musqueam band and other key informants as a means t o I d e n t i f y values and c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s of the Musqueam people. This information w i l l be used i n developing c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s a t the Musqueam band. You have the r i g h t t o d e c l i n e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s research. You have the r i g h t t o withdraw from the r e s e a r c h a t any time. You have the r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o answer any or a l l questions. The i n t e r v i e w w i l l r e q u i r e approximately one hour of your time. R e f u s a l t o p a r t i c i p a t e or withdraw would be without p r e j u d i c e t o you. Your s i g n a t u r e below i n d i c a t e s your v o l u n t a r y agreement t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n this research. I f you would l i k e t o r e c e i v e a f r e e summary of the r e s u l t s of the r e s e a r c h when i t i s a v a i l a b l e t h i s f a l l (1989) please p r i n t your m a i l i n g address i n the space provided. I have read the above statement of my r i g h t s and I v o l u n t a r i l y consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w and r e s e a r c h , and acknowledge a r e c e i p t of a copy of t h i s consent. Researcher: Name: Address:  Stan  Kuperis  Master of S o c i a l Work Candidate, Department of S o c i a l Work, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  80  ABSTRACT OF INTERVIEW WITH MUSQUEAM BAND  APPENDIX "E" The  MEMBERS WHO  ARE  ELDERS.  main theme running through t h i s  interview  i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l nature of members i n the band. comments on the memories he has  members. fulfil  i s represented  f a m i l y , and According  the  to t h i s e l d e r t h i s was  spirit  years.  youth away from k i n and  the  s p i r i t u a l i t y and  however, b e l i e v e that i f you power and  i n the  the place The  their  of  Musqueam people  an o u t s i d e r about  spirit  have r e c e i v e d w i l l  longhouse f o r four days.  leave  song, you  those who  are  They r e c e i v e a  You -remain i n a kind of dreamland  u n t i l your s p i r i t song comes to you.  In the winter,  due  reserve.  In summary; young people  a s p i r i t song.  v i s i o n or s p i r i t  on  t h e r e f o r e very r e l u c t a n t to d i s c l o s e t h i s  of the community.  v i s i o n and  tell  s p i r i t dances, the power you  T h i s e l d e r was  initiated  power.  He comments t h a t  f a c t t h a t everyone of the e l d e r s spent most of and  the  the most harmful i n f l u e n c e  ceremonies w i t h i n the Musqueam community.  aspect  Some of  l e f t to speak about the Musqueam h i s t o r y ,  This elder discusses  you.  system on l o c a l band  l o s s of language, l o s s of t i e s with  the Musqueam band In the l a s t 100  childhood  elders  c h i l d r e n on the band.  l o s s of s p i r i t u a l ceremonies and  i s no one  This  spiritual  issue with t h i s e l d e r .  e f f e c t s mentioned are the  who  Musqueam band  providing  e f f e c t s of the r e s i d e n t i a l school  members i s a c o n t e n t i o u s  to the  parents  s e t t l e d i n the area.  i n over 700  on the h i s t o r y and  guidance to both a d u l t s and  there  elder  T h i s e l d e r a l s o a l l u d e s to the r o l e s that the  i n passing  The  This  of grandparents and  were p a r t of the o r i g i n a l people who o r i g i n a l group now  i s the  When you  receive  i n i t i a t e t h i s v i s i o n i n your  are  initiated  i n the  this life.  longhouse conduct  81  t h e i r s p i r i t dances and s p i r i t songs d u r i n g  longhouse  ceremonies. The reserve  e l d e r goes on t o d i s c u s s the reserve he s t a t e s has c r e a t e d  system.  The  c o n f l i c t among band members.  The  poor housing, lack of land, a l c o h o l abuse, and a r e l i a n c e on the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s has c r e a t e d "nagging" and h o s t i l i t y between band members.  He s t a t e s  i s no longer  a sense of h e l p i n g one another, but r a t h e r  competitions  and r i v a l r y between k i n s h i p groups.  to a l l of t h i s  Indian  His s o l u t i o n  i s g a i n i n g c o n t r o l over and assuming  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own s o c i a l problems. education  there  He b e l i e v e s  and Musqueam youth l e a r n i n g about the Musqueam and  culture w i l l  improve l i f e a t the band.  INTERVIEW WITH ELDER AT THE BAND - RODDIE PETERS Two main themes t h a t emerged from t h i s i n t e r v i e w are the s t r e n g t h of k i n s h i p t i e s and the extended f a m i l y w i t h i n the Musqueam band. belonging  K i n s h i p t i e s promote a deep sense of  and connects youth to a h i s t o r i c a l  Musqueam a n c e s t r y .  parenting  l i n e a g e of  T h i s e l d e r s t a t e s t h a t the " s t r e n g t h of  n a t i v e communities i s i n t h e i r extended f a m i l i e s " .  These  extended f a m i l i e s have a long h i s t o r y t h a t l i n k s todays youth to the area and land that surrounds them. A second major theme i s t h a t of extended f a m i l y and  parenting  community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l i v e s of a l l Musqueam youth.  T h i s e l d e r s t a t e s that many of the younger people go t o the elder" people f o r advice  or j u s t to t a l k t o . The experience and  wisdom of the o l d i s c h e r i s h e d  and respected  by Musqueam youth.  Many of the grandparents a l s o take one of these  grandchildren  82  and  take a v e r y a c t i v e r o l e  i n their parenting.  There i s a  sense of communal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d r e n and a l l members of  the band.  INTERVIEW WITH ANTHRQPQLQGIST T h i s A n t h r o p o l o g i s t has a long h i s t o r y of involvement the Musqueam Indian Band.  He has had 40 years of  involvement  with the band, and i s f a m i l i a r with band members, t h e i r and  family The  with  values  life.  main p o i n t t h a t t h i s a n t h r o p * l o g i s t makes i s t h a t the  n o t i o n s of connecting  ceremonies and t r a d i t i o n s of the past t o  c u r r e n t Musqueam l e f t  i s impossible t o do.  Not only i s i t  impossible to do, i t a l s o burdens the Musqueam people by encumbering them t o the past. suggests  that i t i s important  Musqueam people that  Rather, t h i s A n t h r o p o l o g i s t t o e m p i r i c a l l y determine what  want t h e i r f a m i l y l i f e  t o be r i g h t now, and how  i s d i f f e r e n t from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . T h i s A n t h r o p o l o g i s t goes on t o s t a t e h i s d e f i n i t i o n of k i n  networks a t the band.  He makes the important  p o i n t that k i n  networks are the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the Musqueam community and the l a r g e r s o c i e t y .  K i n networks a r e the l a r g e  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c a t e g o r i e s of k i n f o l k t h a t c r e a t e s the sense of r e l a t e d n e s s and belonging  f o r band members.  T h i s i n t e r v i e w was very u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g an overview of the Musqueam community and i t s uniqueness from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y and other n a t i v e groups. c o l l e c t i n g data and approaching  I t provided a framework f o r the r e s e a r c h  topic.  83  INTERVIEW TO FEMALE ELDER AT THE BAND This  i n t e r v i e w begins by p r o v i d i n g a h i s t o r i c a l  perspective this  on f a m i l y l i f e  on the r e s e r v e .  I t appears from  i n t e r v i e w t h a t the day t o day c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n was the  responsibility  of grandparents.  independent by a c c e p t i n g elder contrasts e a r l i e r times.  C h i l d r e n a l s o became more  responsibility  a t an e a r l y age. The  times a t the band, t o contemporary  She concludes t h a t Musqueam youth today are very much  i n f l u e n c e d by the surrounding contemporary s o c i e t y . times, members were s a t i s f i e d with l i f e a t the band. members look outside  aspect of  S p i r i t names are an important aspect of  k i n s h i p t i e s a t the band. that  Today  the band f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n .  T h i s e l d e r a l s o comments on another s i g n i f i c a n t Musqueam c u l t u r e .  In e a r l i e r  Every k i n network has a s p i r i t name  i s passed on throughout the g e n e r a t i o n s .  names c h a r a c t e r i z e d each f a m i l y .  These  spirit  She s t a t e s t h a t many of the  s p i r i t names were l o s t when the government would not a l l o w longhouse ceremonies or s p i r i t  dancing.  T h i s e l d e r a l s o makes note of the importance of the Halkomelem language t o the Musqueam band.  She confirms that  the Halkomelem language i s important f o r p r o v i d i n g the. f u l l , r i c h meaning behind ceremonies and s p i r i t u a l i t y a t the band.  86 page 3 12 Summary of methodolooy and p r o c e d u r e s .  (Mult be t y p e w r i t t e n  i n t h i s apace)  The method of analysts w i l l be q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of relevant l i t e r a t u r e , anthropological studies, and interviews with Musqueam f i r s t nation people at the Musqueam reserve. A sample of 10 subjects w i l l be interviewed. S i x w i l l be elders (age 55 and older) and four w i l l be key informants i n the l a r g e r community. The i n t e r views w i l l be conducted as an informal conversation that covers a set of s p e c i f i e d t o p i c s rather than a structured formal interview schedule. A l l interviews w i l l be audio recorded and t r a n s c r i b e d f o r a n a l y s i s . The process of a n a l y s i s w i l l involve successive coding of d e t a i l e d interviews, t e x t s , relevant l i t e r a t u r e and anthropological s t u d i e s . This coding w i l l lead to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of core themes and categories w i t h i n the wide areflof Musqueam c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , family s t r u c t u r e s , and communication patterns.  DESCRIPTION OF POPULATION 13 How many s u b j e c t s w i n be used? How many I n the c o n t r o l oroup? 14 Who I s b e i n g r e c r u i t e d and what a r e the c r i t e r i a f o r t h e i r  selection?  Elders of the Musqueam Indian band. Knowledgeable key informants w i t h i n Vancouvers' large native community. P a r t i c i p a n t s or respondents should have knowledge of t r a d i t i o n a l customs, c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , and family s t r u c t u r e s that are s p e c i f i c to Musqueam peoples.  87 page 3 15 What s u b j e c t s w i l l be e x c l u d e d f r o t i p a r t i c i p a t i o n ?  16 How are the s u b j e c t s b e i n g r e c r u i t e d ? ( I f I n i t i a l c o n t a c t 1s by l e t t e r or If a r e c r u i t m e n t n o t i c e i s to be p o s t e d , a t t a c h a copy.) NOTE t h a t UBC p o l i c y a b s o l u t e l y p r o h i b i t s I n i t i a l c o n t a c t by telephone.  I n i t i a l contact w i l l be by band personel who w i l l explain the purpose and procedures of the research. Once this i n i t i a l contact is complete I w i l l be introduced to the respondents by band personel at the time of the interview. IT I f a c o n t r o l group 1s i n v o l v e d , and provide d e t a i l s .  N/  I f t h e i r s e l e c t i o n and/or r e c r u i t m e n t d i f f e r s from the above,  A  PROJECT DETAILS IB Where w i l l  the p r o j e c t be conducted? (room or a r e a )  Musqueam Indian Band, 19 Who  w i l l a c t u a l l y conduct the  study?  Stan Kuperis, Master of Social Work Candidate, University of British Columbia. 20 w i l l the group of s u b j e c t s have any problems g i v i n g Informed consent on t h e i r own b e h a l f ? p h y s i c a l o r mental c o n d i t i o n , age, language, or other b a r r i e r s .  Consider  H/A 21 I f the s u b j e c t s a r e not competent t o g i v e f u l l y Informed consent, who  w i l l consent on t h e i r b e h a l f ?  N/A  32 What 1s known about the r i s k s and b e n e f i t s of the proposed r e s e a r c h ? Do you have a d d i t i o n a l on t h i s Issue?  opinions  This research w i l l assist the Musqueam band to develop culturally based programs for child welfare issues within the community.  88 page 4 23 What d i s c o m f o r t o r I n c a p a c i t y a r e t h e s u b j e c t s l i k e l y t o endure as a r e s u l t of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l procedures?  None  ->A I f monetary compensation schedules.  I s t o be o f f e r e d t h e s u b j e c t s , p r o v i d e d e t a i l s of amounts and payment  N/A  25 How much time w i l l a s u b j e c t have t o d e d i c a t e t o t h e p r o j e c t ?  One hour. 26 How much time w i l l a member o f t h e c o n t r o l 0roup ( I f any) have t o d e d i c a t e t o t h e p r o j e c t ?  N/A  D A T A  27 Who w i l l  have a c c e s s t o t h e data?  Musqueam Indian Band Council and U . B . C . School of S o c i a l Work  28 How w i l l c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of t h e d a t a be m a i n t a i n e d ?  Data w i l l only be made a v a i l a b l e to the Musqueam Band Council and U . B . C . faculty only. 29 What a r e t h e p l a n s f o r f u t u r e use of t h e d a t a (beyond t h a t d e s c r i b e d In t h i s p r o t o c o l ) ? How and when w i l l t h e d a t a be d e s t r o y e d ?  No future use of data beyond t h i s project w i l l be engaged i n . Data w i l l be destroyed i n OofcabcT of -3^89- by erasing the audio taped interviews. M"-^ i**9<J JK 30 W i l l any data which i d e n t i f i e s i n d i v i d u a l s be a v a i l a b l e t o persons o r a g e n c i e s o u t s i d e the University?  no  89  C H E C K L I S T S  page 5  31 Will your project use: (check) f~l  Questionnaires (submit a copy)  tc~l Interviews (submit a sample of questions) I I Observations (submit a brief description) I ! Tests (submit a brief description) -  32 W h o will consent? (check) Subject I I Parent/Guardian I I agency Official(s) In the e a s e of projects carried out at other Institutions, the Committee requires written proof that agency consent has been received. Please specify below: I I Research carried out in a hospital - approval of hospital research or ethics committee. f~| Research carried out in a school - approval of School Board and/or Principal. (Exact requirements depend on individual school boards: check with Faculty of Education Committee m e m b e r s for details) I I Research carried out in a Provincial Health agency - approval of Deputy Minister f~l Other, specify:  33 U S C Policy requires written subject consent in all cases other than questionnaires which are completed bv the sublect. (see Item *34 for consent requirements) Please check each Item in the following list before submission of this form to ensure that the written consent form attached contains all necessary Items. [3 Title of project fv\ Identification of investigators (Including a telephone number) fjjjj Brief but complete description IN L A VL A N G U A G E of the purpose of the project and of all procedures to be carried out in which the subjects are Involved. O Assurance that identity of the subject will be kept confidential and description of h o w this will be accomplished Tv\ Statement of the total a m o u n t of time that will be required of a subject t~~l Details of monetary compensation, if any, to be offered to subjects. (^] A n offer to answer any inquiries concerning the procedures to ensure that they are fully understood by the subject end to provide deferi»fing if appropriate 0  A statement of the subject's right to refuse to participate or withdraw at any time and a statement that withdrawal or refusal to participate will not Jeopardize further treatment, medical care or influence class standing as applicable. N O T E : This statement m u s t also appear on letters of Initial contact.  B3 * place for signature of subject C O N S E N T I N G to participate In the research project. ~ investigation or study. f^TI A statement acknowledging receipt of a copy of the consent form including all attachments. 1 I Parental consent forms m u s t contain a statement of choice providing an option for refusal to participate, (e.g. *I consent/1 do not consent to m y child's participation in this study."  90  Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S (completed by subjects)  page 6  34 Questionnaires should contain an Introductory paragraph which Includes the following Information. Please check each Item In the following Hat before submission of this form to Insure that the introduction contains all necessary items. I I Title of project f \ Identification of investigators (Including a telephone number) f~l A brief s u m m a r y that Indicates the purpose of the project I I The benefits to be derived T I A full description of the procedures to be carried out m which the subjects are involved I I A statement of the subject's right to refuse to participate or withdraw at any time without Jeopardizing further treatment, medical care or class standing as applicable N O T E : This statement m u s t also appear on explanatory letters involving questionnaires. I~1 the a m o u n t of time required of the subject m u s t be stated r~l The statement that if the questionnaire 1s completed it will be assumed that consent has been given Assurance that Identity of the subject will be kept confidential and description of h o w this will be accomplished. For surveys circulated by mall submit a copy of the explanatory letter as well as a copy of the questionnaire  A T T A C H M E N T S 35 Check Items attached to this submission if applicable. (Incomplete submissions will not be reviewed) Letter of Initial contact (Item 16) Advertisement for volunteer subjects (item 16) JT1 Subject consent form (item 33) I 1 Control group consent form (If different from above) f~l Parent/guardian consent form (if different from above) Fx? Agency consent (item 32) •fv! Questionnaires, tests. Interviews, etc. (item 31) r~l Explanatory letter with questionnaire (Item 34) •  Other, specify:  92  r.j.c.ers i n t e r v i e w schedule  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Objectives 1.  I d e n t i f y the dimensions of t r a d i t i o n a l c h i l d p r a c t i c e s of F i r s t Nation Peoples.  2.  I d e n t i f y the dimensions of human i n t e r a c t i o n with the community, and extended family.  3.  I d e n t i f y the t r a d i t i o n s , r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s , and c u l t u r a l values and b e l i e f s r e l a t e d to c h i l d r e n , family and community.  Introduction  rearing  of Research  Purpose and r a t i o n a l e f o r the research Explanation and isgning of consent form Demographic Information. R e l a t i o n s h i p of the person to t h e i r extended family. (Genogram) Age. D e f i n i t i o n of what and e l d e r i s i n that community. Role the person has i n r e l a t i o n to the community. C h i l d Rearing P r a c t i c e s of Today Could you describe up today?  how Musqueam c h i l d r e n are being brought  -discipline -transmission of values, r e l i g i o n , t r a d i t i o n s -education - r o l e and place of c h i l d r e n i n the community -nurture and care -other -examples from t h e i r observations or experience I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of T r a d i t i o n a l C h i l d Rearing  Practices  From what was passed on to you what do you know of the t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s of r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i n the past? -place of t r a d i t i o n s and r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s - r o l e of elders - r o l e of community i n c h i l d r e a r i n g -how unacceptable behavior was d e a l t with i n the past -vignettes or examples from memories of how c h i l d r e n were reared i n the past -other Integration How car. the values, p r a c t i c e s and t r a d i t i o n s of the past be incorporated i n t o c h i l d care p r a c t i c e s of today?  93  L e t t e r of I n i t i a l  Introduction to key informants.  Dear I am a graduate Master of S o c i a l Work student at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia who i s conducting research i n t o West Coast F i r s t Nation t r a d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e a r i n g patterns. I t i s my i n t e n t i o n that e s t a b l i s h i n g a parenting model that i s c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c to the Musqueam people would promote strength i n f a m i l i e s , and i n the community as a whole. In a d d i t i o n the i n c l u s i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l Musqueam values and p r a c t i c e s would help make f u r t u r e s o c i a l programs acceptable to band members. The r a t i o n a l e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the dimensions of t r a d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s i s to provide information to s o c i a l development workers i n the development of t h e i r community based c h i l d welfare program. Part of my research w i l l involve c o l l e c t i n g anthrop o l o g i c a l data, and supporting data r e l a t e d to t h i s area. It i s my understanding that you have s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge and information i n t h i s area. I t would a i d my research and broaden i t s scope i f I were able to interview you regarding the core dimensions of c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s among F i r s t Nation Peoples.The purpose of t h i s l e t t e r i s to a l e r t you t o my research. I wish t o follow up with contact by telephone and arrange f o r an interview i f you are i n agreement.  Sincerely,  Stan Kuperis Master of S o c i a l Work, Candidate Department of S o c i a l Work, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  94  CONSENT FORK Research P r o j e c t : A Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s i s of Native C h i l d Welfare. An I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the C u l t u r a l and S t r u c t u r a l Dimensions of the Musqueam Indian Band Family and C h i l d S e r v i c e s . Thank you f o r considering p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s research p r o j e c t . Please be aware that you are i n no way obligated to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s interview. The information received from t h i s interview w i l l be used f o r research purposes. No i d e n t i f y i n g information i s required i n your answers to these questions. A f t e r completion of t h i s p r o j e c t i n May 1990 the audio taped interview w i l l be erased. This research w i l l u t i l i z e audio taped interviews with e l d e r s at the Musqueam band and other key informants as a means to i d e n t i f y values and c u l t u r a l patterns of the Musqueam people. This informa t i o n w i l l be used i n developing c h i l d welfare services at the Musqueam band. You have the r i g h t to decline to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s research. You have the r i g h t to withdraw from the research at any time. You have the r i g h t to refuse to answer any or a l l questions. The interview w i l l r e q u i r e approximately one hour of your time. Refusal to p a r t i c i p a t e or withdraw would be without; prejudice to you. Your signature below i n d i c a t e s you voluntary agreement to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s research. I f you would l i k e to receive a free summary of the r e s u l t s of the research when i t i s completed t h i s spring(1990) please p r i n t your mailing address i n the space provided. I have read the above statement of my r i g h t s and I v o l u n t a r i l y consent to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s interview and research, and acknowledge a r e c e i p t of a copy of t h i s consent. Researcher: Stan Kuperi Name: Address:  Master of S o c i a l Work Candidate, Department of S o c i a l Work, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  

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