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A qualitative analysis of native child welfare : an identification of the cultural and structural dimensions.. 1990

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A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NATIVE CHILD WELFARE. AN IDENTIFICATION OF THE CULTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DIMENSIONS PROPOSED MUSQUEAM IDNIDAN BAND FAMILY AND CHILD SERVICES By S t a n l e y Ronald Kuperis A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1990 STANLEY RONALD KUPERIS, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. ~ . . , G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date November23.1990 DE-6 (2/88) i STAN KUPERIS A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NATIVE CHILD WELFARE. AN IDENTIFICATION OF THE CULTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DIMENSIONS OF PROPOSED MUSQUEAM INDIAN BAND FAMILY AND CHILD SERVICES. ABSTRACT The Musqueam Indian band has no formal c h i l d welfare agreement with the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. R e c e n t l y the Musqueam Indian Band has expressed a d e s i r e to work towards d e v e l o p i n g community based c h i l d and f a m i l y s e r v i c e s on r e s e r v e . T h i s r e s e a r c h examines the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s as w e l l as contemporary f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to c h i l d welfare a t the Musqueam Indian Band. This r e s e a r c h u t i l i z e d a q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h paradigm to i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c community dimensions t h a t would be the b a s i s f o r autonomous f a m i l y and c h i l d s e r v i c e s a t the band. T h i s study i d e n t i f i e s the importance of k i n s h i p , l i n g u i s t i c , geographic, r e l i g i o u s , experimental and contemporary dimensions w i t h i n the Musqueam community. T h i s study goes on to provide p o l i c y and program recommendations f o r c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c f a m i l y and c h i l d s e r v i c e s a t the band. T h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a funding proposal put forward to the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r programs and s e r v i c e s a t the Musqueam Indian Band. il T A B L E OF CONTENTS o A b s t r a c t i i I. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I . C o n t e m p o r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on I n d i a n C h i l d W e l f a r e 3 A . The D i m e n s i o n s o f t h e P r o b l e m 3 B . H i s t o r i c a l F a c t o r s 6 i The E u r o p e a n F u r T r a d e 6 i i C o l o n i z a t i o n 7 i i i The R e s e r v e S y s t e m 8 i v R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l s 10 v G o v e r n m e n t J u r i s d i c t i o n a n d I n d i a n C h i l d W e l f a r e 12 1 1 1 . D e s c r i p t i o n o f M e t h o d o l o g y 15 A . S t a t e m e n t o f R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 21 I V . R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s 22 A . L i n g u i s t i c C o n n e c t e d n e s s 23 B . G e o g r a p h i c C o n n e c t e d n e s s 25 C . K i n s h i p C o n n e c t e d n e s s 27 D. S p i r i t u a l a n d C e r e m o n i a l C o n n e c t e d n e s s . . . . 30 E . E x p e r i e n t i a l C o n n e c t e d n e s s 33 F . C o n t i n u i n g E v o l u t i o n o f t h e Musqueam C u l t u r e . . 37 V . C h i l d W e l f a r e P o l i c y I m p l i c a t i o n s o f The R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s 39 V I . C h i l d a n d F a m i l y P r o g r a m R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e Musqueam I n d i a n Band 43 A . S p e c i f i c Band B a s e d P r o g r a m s 46 i K i n s h i p Homes 46 i i S a f e Homes 48 i i i G r o u p Homes . 50 i v F a m i l y a n d C h i l d S e r v i c e s . 51 v F a m i l y Day C a r e 51 v i P a r e n t S u p p o r t G r o u p 52 v i i C o m m u n i t y R e s o u r c e W o r k e r 52 v i i i F u n d i n g S o u r c e s 52 i x P l a n n i n g F u t u r e P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t . . . . 53 V I I . C o n c l u s i o n 56 V I I I E n d n o t e s 57 I X . B i b l i o g r a p h y 59 X . A p p e n d i x " A " 62 X I . A p p e n d i x " B " 68 X I I . A p p e n d i x " C " 69 X I I I A p p e n d i x " D " 79 X I V . A p p e n d i x " E " 80 1 INTRODUCTION I became i n t e r e s t e d i n n a t i v e c h i l d welfare while i n c o n t a c t with two i s o l a t e d r e s e r v e s i n northern B.C., Ingenika and F o r t Ware. During t h i s time I was employed by the M i n i s t r y of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and Housing as a s o c i a l worker. I became s h o c k i n g l y aware of the negative e f f e c t s the removal of n a t i v e c h i l d r e n from t h e i r community has on the w e l l - b e i n g of those c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n are severed from k i n s h i p t i e s , f a m i l y , r e l i g i o u s and ceremonial p r a c t i c e s , and f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y . The removal of n a t i v e c h i l d r e n o f t e n r e s u l t s i n b e h a v i o r a l d i s t u r b a n c e s , a l i e n a t i o n , and d e p r e s s i o n . Native c h i l d r e n experienced d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g to r o u t i n e s , c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s , and norms u n f a m i l i a r to them. I a l s o became aware of the lack of r e s o u r c e s and programs necessary to a l l e v i a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s n a t i v e f a m i l i e s are e x p e r i e n c i n g . E x i s t i n g programs are not c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e and are not band-based and t h e r e f o r e are not e f f e c t i v e i n a l l e v i a t i n g community problems. In c o n t r a s t C a r r i e r - S e k a n i and McLeod Lake, Nuu Chah Nulth and Spallumcheen bands have developed c h i l d welfare programs of t h e i r own. These programs a l l o w f o r bands and t r i b a l c o u n c i l s to a c q u i r e s t a f f , r e s o u r c e s , and develop c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c programs i n t h e i r communities. These programs are the e x c e p t i o n , not the r u l e f o r the p r o v i s i o n of c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n n a t i v e communities. I have f e l t t h a t c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s on r e s e r v e s should be l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d , autonomous and s p e c i f i c to the needs of the community. Th i s r e s e a r c h w i l l begin with a general overview of the i s s u e s surrounding n a t i v e c h i l d w e l f a r e . Issues such as the 2 number o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n s t a t e c a r e a n d t h e e f f e c t s t h a t a p p r e h e n s i o n a n d p l a c e m e n t h a s on n a t i v e c h i l d r e n , t h e i r f a m i l y , a n d c o m m u n i t y w i l l be e x p l o r e d . I w i l l a l s o e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t e d l o s s o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d i t s i m p a c t on F i r s t N a t i o n P e o p l e s a s w e l l a s t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s t h a t h a v e a r i s e n b e t w e e n t h e F i r s t N a t i o n P e o p l e s a n d t h e F e d e r a l a n d P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . T h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l p r o c e e d t o e x a m i n e k e y h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o t h e l o s s o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y b y F i r s t N a t i o n P e o p l e s a n d t h e n e e d f o r n a t i v e s e l f d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d a u t o n o m y . In t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s b r o a d p i c t u r e t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l u t i l i z e q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s t o e x p l o r e t h e Musqueam b a n d s ' c u l t u r a l u n i q u e n e s s , v a l u e s , t r a d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e a s t h e b a s i s f o r a b a n d - b a s e d c h i l d w e l f a r e p r o g r a m . F i n d i n g s f r o m t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o p o l i c y , p r a c t i c e a n d p r o g r a m r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g a c h i l d w e l f a r e p r o j e c t s a t t h e Musqueam I n d i a n B a n d . 3 C h a p t e r I I CONTEMPORARY AND H ISTORICAL P E R S P E C T I V E S ON INDIAN CHIhP WELFARE The D i m e n s i o n s Of The P r o b l e m T h e r e i s a n d h a s b e e n a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n t h e c a r e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f F a m i l y a n d C h i l d S e r v i c e s . In my r e v i e w o f s t u d i e s , r e p o r t s , b o o k s , a n d g o v e r n m e n t d o c u m e n t s t h i s i s t h e most s t r i k i n g p o i n t a b o u t c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s . P a t r i c k J o h n s t o n i n h i s book on n a t i v e c h i l d w e l f a r e s t a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c s : " I n 1955 t h e r e were 3 , 4 3 3 c h i l d r e n i n t h e c a r e o f B . C . ' s c h i l d w e l f a r e b r a n c h . O u t o f t h a t number i t was e s t i m a t e d 29 c h i l d r e n o r l e s s t h a n 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l , were o f I n d i a n a n c e s t r y . By 1964 however 1 , 4 4 6 c h i l d r e n i n c a r e o f B . C . were o f I n d i a n e x t r a c t i o n . T h a t number r e p r e s e n t e d 3 4 . 2 p e r c e n t o f a l l c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . W i t h i n t e n y e a r s , i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n B . C . ' s c h i l d w e l f a r e s y s t e m had jumped f r o m n i l t o a t h i r d . " ( 1 . ) R e c e n t l y F i r s t N a t i o n c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e b e e n p u r s u i n g n a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r c h i l d w e l f a r e m a t t e r s a n d s e v e r a l b a n d s h a v e n e g o t i a t e d c h i l d w e l f a r e a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e F e d e r a l a n d P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n a new s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h h a s r e c o g n i z e d t h e u n i q u e n e s s a n d i m p o r t a n c e o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e , a n d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n r e m a i n i n g i n t h e i r own c o m m u n i t i e s . One w o u l d assume t h e numbers o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n c a r e w o u l d h a v e d e c r e a s e d . I h a v e f o u n d t h i s n o t t o be t h e c a s e . In J a n u a r y o f 1989 t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 , 9 0 0 c h i l d r e n i n t h e c a r e o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f F a m i l y a n d C h i l d S e r v i c e s i n B . C . O u t o f t h a t number a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 , 3 0 0 were o f I n d i a n a n c e s t r y . In o t h e r w o r d s 33 p e r c e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n c a r e i n J a n u a r y o f 1989 were n a t i v e c h i l d r e n . In t h e n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s o f B r i t i s h 4 C o l u m b i a t h i s p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e s t o 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . The n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s a b o u t 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . ( P e r s o n a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n , D i s t r i c t M a n a g e , R i c k Gremm, M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s a n d H o u s i n g , D e c . 1 5 , 1989) The A d m i s s i o n o f l a r g e n u m b e r s o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n t o c a r e c o n t i n u e s t o h a v e a d e v a s t a t i n g i m p a c t on n a t i v e c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . S o c i a l w o r k e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e a f f o r d e d w i d e d i s c r e t i o n t o a p p r e h e n d a n d r e m o v e c h i l d r e n who a r e deemed t o be i n n e e d o f p r o t e c t i o n . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e n o t r e q u i r e d b y l aw t o o f f e r o r p r o v i d e f a m i l y s e r v i c e s t h a t w o u l d p e r m i t t h e c h i l d t o r e m a i n w i t h h i s o r h e r p a r e n t s . The n e g a t i v e i m p a c t o f t h i s p r a c t i c e on c h i l d r e n a n d f a m i l i e s may f a r o u t w e i g h t h e i m m e d i a t e , p e r c e i v e d b e n e f i t t o t h e c h i l d ' s w e l l b e i n g . In N a t i v e C h i l d r e n a n d t h e C h i l d W e l f a r e S y s t e m , P a t r i c k J o h n s t o n makes t h e f o l l o w i n g comment : " T h e e f f e c t s o f a p p r e h e n s i o n on a n i n d i v i d u a l n a t i v e c h i l d w i l l o f t e n be more t r a u m a t i c t h a n f o r h i s n o n - n a t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t . When t h e n a t i v e c h i l d i s t a k e n f r o m h i s p a r e n t s , he i s a l s o r e m o v e d f r o m a t i g h t l y k n i t c o m m u n i t y o f e x t e n d e d f a m i l y members a n d n e i g h b o r s . In a d d i t i o n , he i s r e m o v e d f r o m a u n i q u e , d i s t i n c t i v e a n d f a m i l i a r c u l t u r e . " ( 2 . ) The a p p r e h e n s i o n a n d r e m o v a l o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n r e s u l t s i n a l o s s o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . T h i s s t r u g g l e f o r a p e r s o n a l a n d c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i s a common d y n a m i c among many n a t i v e c h i l d r e n who a r e r a i s e d i n n o n - n a t i v e h o m e s . ( A m i c u s P o p u l i C o n s u l t i n g , 1986) ( 3 . ) My own e x p e r i e n c e a s a s o c i a l w o r k e r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s c o n f i r m e d t h a t r e m o v a l o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s r e s u l t s i n a l o s s o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . In a d d i t i o n , n a t i v e c h i l d r e n a l s o e x p e r i e n c e b e h a v i o r a l 5 d i s t u r b a n c e s , a l i e n a t i o n , and d e p r e s s i o n when removed from t h e i r s u p p o r t i v e communities. Problems are o f t e n magnified r a t h e r t h a t a l l e v i a t e d when n a t i v e c h i l d r e n are removed from t h e i r communities. Mark C o l l i n s i n h i s paper, C h i l d Welfare Among Native People makes the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t : "The removal of a c h i l d from the t r a d i t i o n a l community, to a placement i n a white urban area, can o f t e n damage the c h i l d ' s s e l f - concept. The barrage of s t e r e o t y p e d 'negative image' and t r a n s a c t i o n based on these images o f t e n become i n t e r n a l i z e d i n the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r . " (4.) Apprehension and the removal of n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i s not o n l y damaging to c h i l d r e n , but a l s o to f a m i l i e s and n a t i v e communities. The apprehension of n a t i v e c h i l d r e n serves to weaken n a t i v e f a m i l i e s as a whole. P a t r i c k Johnston s t a t e s t h a t f o r many n a t i v e parents who a l r e a d y have low s e l f - e s t e e m , the removal of a c h i l d i s but another c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e i r f e e l i n g s of worthlessness. (5.) The A l b e r t a C o u n c i l of T r e a t y Women s t a t e the f o l l o w i n g : "Each time an Indian c h i l d i s s p i r i t e d away from our r e s e r v e s , the f a m i l y u n i t y i s being destroyed and we are being d e p r i v e d of our f u t u r e g r e a t l e a d e r s . Indian c h i l d r e n have an i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t to keep t h e i r p a r e n t s . They have an inherent r i g h t to r e t a i n t h e i r language and c u l t u r e . We do not condone the system t h a t p i r a t e s away our c h i l d r e n and even exports them to f o r e i g n lands. We are s a y i n g t h i s planned process of c u l t u r a l genocide must cease." (6 . ) The removal of n a t i v e c h i l d r e n from t h e i r community has r e s u l t e d i n a l o s s of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , a s s i m i l a t i o n , a c c u l t u r a t i o n , and a weakening of the unique n a t i v e h e r i t a g e . The cohesive nature and g e n e r a t i o n a l connectedness has been broken as n a t i v e c h i l d r e n do not understand and cannot r e l a t e to t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and h e r i t a g e . T h i s f a c t of the 6 d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n c a r e t h e r e f o r e u n d e r m i n e s t h e s t a b i l i t y o f b o t h n a t i v e f a m i l i e s a n d n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n a n d r e m o v a l o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s , o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s h a v e l e d t o a l o s s o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . T h e s e f a c t o r s I n c l u d e t h e f u r t r a d e , c o l o n i z a t i o n , t h e r e s e r v e s y s t e m , r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , a n d j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . H i s t o r i c a l F a c t o r s In o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f a m i l y a n d c h i l d w e l f a r e p r o b l e m s a s t h e y a r e e x p e r i e n c e d t o d a y i n t h e Musqueam c o m m u n i t y , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e h i s t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e s on West C o a s t I n d i a n s a s a w h o l e . The r a t i o n a l e f o r e x p l o r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t i n g West C o a s t I n d i a n s a s a g r o u p , a n d n o t Musqueam i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s t h a t t h e r e a r e no s p e c i f i c d o c u m e n t s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e Musqueam b a n d ' s h i s t o r y . The l i t e r a t u r e d o e s i n d i c a t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e West C o a s t I n d i a n s s h a r e d s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s a n d I h a v e c h o s e n t o e x p a n d on t h e s e k e y h i s t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e s . ( L e w i s , D u f f , M a n u e l a n d H a w t h o r n ) The E u r o p e a n F u r T r a d e The E u r o p e a n f u r t r a d e was t h e f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e u p o n West C o a s t F i r s t N a t i o n P e o p l e s . In t h e e a r l y 1 8 0 0 ' s t h e N o r t h West Company f o u n d e d t r a d i n g p o s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s I n t e r i o r . In 1824 F o r t V a n c o u v e r n e a r t h e mouth o f t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r was e s t a b l i s h e d a s t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r c o a s t a l 7 t r a d e . The c o a s t a l I n d i a n s were n o t o b l i v i o u s t o t h i s t r a d e a n d b e g a n t r a d i n g i n c o p p e r , i r o n , m u s k e t s , a m m u n i t i o n , t r i n k e t s , c l o t h a n d b l a n k e t s . A l c o h o l was a l s o i n t r o d u c e d t o I n d i a n s a t t h a t t i m e . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s t r a d e i n i t i a l l y was g r e a t e r w e a l t h , a n d a s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f e x i s t i n g s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s . ( 7 . ) P o t l a c h e s became i n c r e a s i n g l y common a n d became o c c a s i o n s f o r d i s p l a y i n g w e a l t h a n d p r e s e n t i n g g i f t s . The e m e r g e n c e o f t h e E u r o p e a n f u r t r a d e , h o w e v e r , s o o n b r o u g h t a b o u t c o l o n i z a t i o n . C o l o n i z a t i o n T h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d became p a r t o f t h e c o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1 8 5 8 . W i t h t h e c o l o n i s t s t a k i n g up r e s i d e n c e , t h i s c r e a t e d p r o b l e m s w i t h l a n d o w n e r s h i p . In 1859 G o v e r n o r James D o u g l a s a s s e r t e d t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a l l l a n d s b e l o n g e d t o t h e B r i t i s h c r o w n w h i c h i m p l i e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s h e l d l a n d s u b j e c t t o a p p r o v a l b y t h e c r o w n . The a r r i v a l o f c o l o n i s t s w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f a c q u i r i n g p r i v a t e l a n d o w n e r s h i p , c r e a t e d c o n f l i c t o v e r l a n d u s e w i t h i n t h e c o l o n y . James D o u g l a s made a t t e m p t s t o h a v e I n d i a n s c o n f o r m t o t h e l a w s o f t h e c o l o n y . G o v e r n o r James D o u g l a s a l s o s e t a s i d e r e s e r v e s f o r I n d i a n s w h i l e a s s e r t i n g c r o w n o w n e r s h i p and a u t h o r i t y t o d i s p o s e o f r e m a i n i n g l a n d s . ( 8 . ) James D o u g l a s a d o p t e d t h r e e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o r p o l i c i e s t o r e d u c e c o n f l i c t . T h e s e p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e d r e s t r i c t i o n o f I n d i a n a c c e s s t o h a r m f u l c o m m o d i t i e s , s u c h a s l i q u o r a n d a r m s . T h e y a l s o e m p h a s i z e d m e a s u r e s t o k e e p d i s t u r b a n c e s t o a minimum b y n o t i n t e r f e r i n g i n t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f I n d i a n s a n d t o g r a d u a l l y b r i n g them u n d e r t h e f r a m e w o r k o f B r i t i s h L a w . H i s t h i r d p o l i c y a s s e r t i o n e n t a i l e d 8 p r o m o t i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h g o v e r n m e n t a g e n t s a n d m i s s i o n a r i e s . ( 9 . ) I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had i t s ' i n f a n c y i n t h e p o l i c i e s o f G o v e r n o r James D o u g l a s i n 1 8 5 8 . The r e s u l t o f c o l o n i z a t i o n was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e l o s s o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d a u n i q u e way o f l i f e . The a r r i v a l o f E u r o p e a n s u n d e r m i n e d many a b o r i g i n a l c u s t o m s a n d i n i n n u m e r a b l e way a l t e r e d a n d d e s t r o y e d t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f n a t i v e l i f e . C o n f l i c t s r e g a r d i n g l a n d u s e a n d l a n d o w n e r s h i p b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e c u r r e n t s y s t e m o f r e s e r v e s , w h i c h f u r t h e r a l t e r e d a n d u n d e r m i n e d t h e F i r s t N a t i o n P e o p l e s t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e . "What we d o n ' t l i k e a b o u t t h e G o v e r n m e n t i s t h e i r s a y i n g t h i s : 'We w i l l g i v e y o u t h i s much l a n d ; how c a n t h e y g i v e i t when i t i s o u r own? We c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d i t . T h e y h a v e n e v e r b o u g h t i t f r o m us o r o u r f o r e f a t h e r s . T h e y h a v e n e v e r f o u g h t a n d c o n q u e r e d o u r p e o p l e a n d t a k e n t h e l a n d t h a t way , a n d y e t t h e y s a y now t h a t t h e y w i l l g i v e us s o much l a n d - o u r own l a n d " ( 1 0 . ) The R e s e r v e S y s t e m W i t h t h e c o m i n g o f c o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1 8 6 7 , The B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t a s s i g n e d t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n t o e n a c t l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h I n d i a n s a n d l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r I n d i a n s . ( B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , S e c t i o n 91 ( 2 4 ) . ( 1 1 ) . The I n d i a n A c t i s t h e f e d e r a l s t a t u t e t h a t d e a l s w i t h I n d i a n s t a t u s a n d t h e g o v e r n a n c e o f I n d i a n s r e s i d i n g on r e s e r v e s . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e s e r v e s a n d t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f I n d i a n s t o r e s e r v e s was t h e f i r s t b r e a k i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e l a n d . T h i s t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a s p i r i t u a l o n e n e s s w i t h t h e l a n d a n d t h e r e m o v a l o f I n d i a n p e o p l e f r o m t h e i r l a n d l e f t a s p i r i t u a l v o i d i n t h e l i v e s o f many F i r s t N a t i o n P e o p l e . Many b a n d s s t i l l 9 u t i l i z e t h e i r l a n d s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l s p i r i t u a l p u r p o s e s s u c h a s s p i r i t d a n c e s . Due t o t h e l e g a c y o f t h e l e n g t h y g o v e r n m e n t e n f o r c e d r e g u l a t i o n o f l i f e on I n d i a n R e s e r v e s , t r a d i t i o n a l c e r e m o n i e s a r e now o n l y a shadow o f what t h e y o n c e were a n d t h e y h a v e b e e n c h a n g e d t o s u i t t h e more l i m i t e d l a n d s w i t h i n t h e r e s e r v e . A s e c o n d i m p o r t a n t way t h e r e s e r v e s y s t e m i n f l u e n c e d n a t i v e c u l t u r e was t h a t i t c h a n g e d t h e i r way o f l i v e l i h o o d . No l o n g e r d i d n a t i v e p e o p l e h a v e a c c e s s t o v a s t h u n t i n g a n d f i s h i n g a r e a s a s b e f o r e . L i f e on r e s e r v e s i s t y p i c a l l y p o v e r t y s t r i c k e n , w i t h i n c r e a s i n g r e l i a n c e p l a c e d on o u t s i d e s y s t e m s f o r s u p p o r t . F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e i s s u e s g r a d u a l l y t o o k t h e f o r m o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f f e r e d d e s t i t u t e p e r s o n s i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . H o w e v e r , t h e s e p r o g r a m s o n l y s e r v e d t o i n c r e a s e d e p e n d e n c y , p r o m o t e e c o n o m i c d e t e r i o r a t i o n , a n d u n d e r m i n e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t s y s t e m . In t h e w o r d s o f one r e c e n t o b s e r v e r : " T h e c u r r e n t s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p o l i c y i s a p r o b l e m b y v i r t u e o f t h e d e p e n d e n c y i t f o s t e r s . C u l t u r a l v a l u e s s u c h a s r e c i p r o c i t y , w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e b o t h e c o n o m i c a l l y a n d s p i r i t u a l l y t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e , a r e e r o d e d s e v e r e l y , a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y a s a l i v i n g o r g a n i s m i s r e n d e r e d d y s f u n c t i o n a l . " ( 1 2 ) . By 1983 a w e l l p u b l i c i z e d P a r l i a m e n t a r y R e p o r t n o t e d t h a t a c r o s s C a n a d a u n e m p l o y m e n t on r e s e r v e s a v e r a g e d 35% a n d i n some a r e a s was a s h i g h a s 90%. ( 1 3 . ) By l i m i t i n g t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h e r e s e r v e s y s t e m m a i n t a i n s t h e c y c l e o f p o v e r t y a n d i n c r e a s e s s t r e s s w i t h i n f a m i l i e s . P o v e r t y i n c r e a s e s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c h i l d m a l t r e a t m e n t a s s t u d i e s h a v e i n d i c a t e d . ( 1 4 . ) The s o c i o e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s on B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s r e s e r v e s h a v e d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o f a m i l y 10 a n d c o m m u n i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t h o w e v e r , t o n o t e t h e p o s i t i v e v a l u e s some F i r s t N a t i o n P e o p l e h a v e i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e r e s e r v e s y s t e m . I t h a s a l l o w e d e a s y a c c e s s t o f a m i l y a n d k i n a s s o c i a t i o n s . I t h a s g i v e n g e o g r a p h i c s t a b i l i t y a n d r e l a t i v e s e c u r i t y o f l a n d t e n u r e . M o s t I m p o r t a n t l y t h e r e s e r v e s y s t e m h a s e s t a b l i s h e d band a n d t r i b a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s w h i c h p r o v i d e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r l o c a l s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , a u t o n o m y , a n d c o n t r o l . E v e n t h o u g h t h e r e s e r v e s y s t e m i s i n c o n g r u e n t w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e v a l u e s , some g a i n s h a v e b e e n a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h i s s y s t e m . R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l s P e r h a p s t h e g r e a t e s t n e g a t i v e i m p a c t on F i r s t N a t i o n s c u l t u r e a n d f a m i l y l i f e a r o s e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s y s t e m . The p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s was a l w a y s t o a s s i m i l a t e a n d a c c u l t u r a t e n a t i v e p e o p l e s . The I n d i a n a n d E s k i m o W e l f a r e C o m m i s s i o n i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g m a n u a l f o r r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s s t a t e s t h e p o i n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: " E v e r s i n c e t h e f i r s t p e r m a n e n t E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t i n C a n a d a , e f f o r t s h a v e b e e n made t o s c h o o l t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e A b o r i g i n e s i n t h e ways o f t h e n e w c o m e r s . B o t h C h u r c h a n d S t a t e f e l t i t was t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o C h r i s t i a n i z e a s w e l l a s c i v i l i z e t h e p o o r i g n o r a n t d w e l l e r s o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a F o r e s t s . " ( 1 5 . ) R e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s were i n r e g u l a r u s e f r o m 1892 t o 1957 a n d some r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s r e m a i n e d i n e x i s t e n c e w e l l i n t o t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s . The r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s r e p r e s e n t e d a p a r t n e r s h i p b e t w e e n v a r i o u s C h u r c h e s a n d t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . The g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y a t t h a t t i m e was t o a s s i m i l a t e n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n t o t h e d o m i n a n t c u l t u r e . In a g o v e r n m e n t d o c u m e n t t h e r o l e o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l was d e f i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: 11 " I t was t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s who f i r s t saw t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e I n d i a n s a n d made s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h s c h o o l s a n d k e e p them w e l l a t t e n d e d . T h e y a l s o e n d e a v o r e d t o i n c u l c a t e t h e w h i t e m a n ' s n o t i o n s o f h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g , g o o d h o u s i n g a n d p r o p e r d i e t . The v a r i o u s m i s s i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d showed t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s t e a c h i n g a n d c r e a t e d many n u c l e i o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n a w i l d e r n e s s . " ( 1 6 . ) C h i l d r e n were o f t e n r e m o v e d f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s a n d c o m m u n i t y f o r t e n m o n t h s o f t h e y e a r a n d s e n t t o s c h o o l s l o c a t e d a g r e a t d i s t a n c e away f r o m t h e i r h o m e s . One r e s u l t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s was t h a t up t o f o u r g e n e r a t i o n s o f I n d i a n p e o p l e had v e r y l i t t l e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n l i f e . J . A . M a c D o n a l d p u t s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: " T h e e x p e r i e n c e f o r most I n d i a n c h i l d r e n was one i n w h i c h t h e y were e n c o u r a g e d t o d e v a l u e t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s , c u s t o m s , a n d l a n g u a g e . The a b s e n c e o f c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i r homes f o r most o f t h e y e a r a l s o r e d u c e d p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e a n d a u t h o r i t y a n d c o n t r i b u t e d t o c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n t h e o l d e r a n d y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n s . " ( 1 7 . ) The most d i s t r e s s i n g a s p e c t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l was t h e l o s s o f ' t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f c u l t u r e . C u l t u r e h a d t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n t r a n s m i t t e d o r a l l y f r o m e l d e r s t o c h i l d r e n . When c h i l d r e n were away a t r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y was l o s t . T r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e l a n g u a g e was l o s t a n d t h e f u l l m e a n i n g o f l e g e n d s , r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n i e s , a n d s p i r i t d a n c i n g p a s s e d on t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e was l o s t . In more r e c e n t t i m e s e d u c a t i o n h a s t h e r e f o r e become a n d i m p o r t a n t i s s u e f o r F i r s t N a t i o n P e o p l e . T h e y r e a l i z e t h e n e e d f o r a s p e c i f i c s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m t h a t a s s i s t s t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o become p r e p a r e d f o r t o d a y s l i f e . N a t i v e p e o p l e h o w e v e r want I n d i a n c u l t u r e a n d t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s t o be a 12 s u p p l e m e n t t o t h e c u r r e n t c u r r i c u l u m . F o r them I t Is v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t e d u c a t i o n n o t be a means o f a s s i m i l a t i o n a n d a c c u l t u r a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r a means o f r e g a i n i n g c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . G o v e r n m e n t J u r i s d i c t i o n a n d I n d i a n C h i l d W e l f a r e . The l a s t h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r t h a t h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o a l o s s o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , a u t o n o m y , a n d s e l f d e t e r m i n a t i o n c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l q u e s t i o n . O v e r t h e p a s t 30 y e a r s t h e r e h a s b e e n d i s a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s a b o u t w h i c h l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t h a s t h e l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t o r e s e r v e s a n d who s h o u l d p a y t h e c o s t o f s e r v i c e s . P a t r i c k J o h n s t o n d i s c u s s e s t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s . He d e s c r i b e s t h e c h i l d w e l f a r e s i t u a t i o n f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e a s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o a p p a l l i n g . He n o t e s t h a t i n t h e p a s t b o t h l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t s s o u g h t t o a b s o l v e t h e m s e l v e s b y a r g u i n g t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t e d w i t h t h e o t h e r p a r t y . More r e c e n t l y t h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l q u e s t i o n h a s b e e n a t l e a s t p a r t l y r e s o l v e d b e t w e e n t h e two l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s a n d H o u s i n g e x e r c i s e s a mandate u n d e r t h e F a m i l y and C h i l d S e r v i c e s A c t t o p r o v i d e c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t o I n d i a n s b o t h on and o f f r e s e r v e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a s s u m e s t h e f i n a n c i a l c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g r e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n c h i l d r e n a d m i t t e d t o t h e c a r e o f p r o v i n c i a l c h i l d w e l f a r e a u t h o r i t i e s . T h e r e s u l t o f p r i m a r y j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t i n g w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s b e e n a n i n c o n g r u e n t m i x t u r e o f v e r y l i m i t e d 13 p r o g r a m s a n d s e r v i c e s on r e s e r v e s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y p r e v e n t i v e c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t o I n d i a n s i n B . C . h a v e b e e n a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t . C h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s on r e s e r v e s h a v e t y p i c a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n t o m a i n s t r e a m s e r v i c e s . S e r v i c e s h a v e b e e n i n a d e q u a t e , c u l t u r a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e a n d p e r c e i v e d b y n a t i v e s a s p u n i t i v e i n n a t u r e . The i s s u e o f j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y h a s n e v e r b e e n s e t t l e d f o r F i r s t N a t i o n P e o p l e s . N a t i v e p e o p l e s h a v e n o t a c c e p t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t i n g w i t h e i t h e r l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t . Many F i r s t N a t i o n P e o p l e s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n o f n a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y i n c h i l d w e l f a r e m a t t e r s . " T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e d o e s n o t r e q u i r e a c h a n g e i n e i t h e r f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n a s much a s i t i g n o r e s b o t h . I t w o u l d e n t a i l a u n i l a t e r a l d e c l a r a t i o n o f b a n d s e x c l u s i v e a u t h o r i t y t o p r o v i d e c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t o members o f t h e b a n d . I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e o p t i o n t a k e n b y t h e S p a l l u m c h e e n Band i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d i t may foe t h e p r e f e r r e d o p t i o n f o r o t h e r I n d i a n s . " ( 1 8 . ) T h e s e h i s t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e s h a v e u n d e r m i n e d a n d d e v a l u e d n a t i v e c u l t u r e a n d t r a d i t i o n s l e a v i n g F i r s t N a t i o n P e o p l e w i t h a l o s s o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . In o r d e r t o r e m e d y t h e s i t u a t i o n n a t i v e g r o u p s h a v e b e e n p u r s u i n g n a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y . N a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y r e f e r s t o a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r i g h t o f F i r s t J w i l l r e s p o n d t o i s s u e s w i t h i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . N a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y i n t h e s p h e r e o f c h i l d w e l f a r e r e f e r s t o t h e r i g h t t o h o l d l e g i s l a t i v e , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , a n d r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d w e l f a r e c o n c e r n s w i t h i n n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s . N a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e r i g h t t o c o m p l a i n t s , a p p r e h e n s i o n , r e m o v a l o f c h i l d r e n , a n d r e f e r r a l N a t i o n P e o p l e t o s e l f g o v e r n , 14 e s t a b l i s h laws, r e s o u r c e s , and I n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a t are c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t and community s p e c i f i c i n a l l e v i a t i n g c h i l d w elfare concerns. Native s o v e r e i g n t y and the r i g h t t o be s e l f - governing i n t h i s w r i t e r s o p i n i o n w i l l promote and r e - e s t a b l i s h c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y f o r F i r s t Nation People. In t h i s chapter I have provided a summary ske t c h of some c r i t i c a l components of the contemporary Native Indian c h i l d w e l f a r e problem i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I have a l s o attempted to o u t l i n e come s a l i e n t h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s which have c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s problem. In the next chapter I w i l l d e s c r i b e the methodology u t i l i z e d i n r e s e a r c h i n g c u r r e n t c h i l d w e l f a r e i s s u e s as p e r c e i v e d by members of the Musqueam Band. 15 CHAPTER I I I DESCRIPT ION OF METHODOLOGY T h i s r e s e a r c h was c o n d u c t e d u t i l i z i n g a q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h p a r a d i g m . T h i s r e s e a r c h p a r a d i g m i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g phenomena i n t h e i r s o c i a l c o n t e x t . Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h c o n s i s t s o f d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s i t u a t i o n s , e v e n t s , p e o p l e , i n t e r a c t i o n s , a n d o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r . (1.) Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h f o c u s e s on t h e k i n d s o f d a t a o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s c o l l e c t e d r a t h e r t h a n t h e i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d t o c o l l e c t t h e d a t a . The t y p e o f d a t a p r o d u c e d b y q u a l i t a t i v e m e t h o d s i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l f o r t h e Musqueam B a n d . The d a t a w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a p r o p o s a l p u t f o r w a r d t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s a n d H o u s i n g a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . The i n t e n t w i l l be t o b e g i n a b a n d b a s e d C h i l d W e l f a r e p r o g r a m a t Musqueam. The d a t a p r o d u c e d i d e n t i f i e s t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f c u r r e n t a n d t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l i a l p a t t e r n s , v a l u e s , a n d t h e l o c a l c u l t u r e o f t h e Musqueam B a n d . T h e s e d i m e n s i o n s a r e a n e s s e n t i a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e p r o p o s a l , s i n c e t h e y make t h e p r o p o s a l s p e c i f i c t o t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d v a l u e s o f t h e Musqueam c o m m u n i t y . Q u a l i t a t i v e m e t h o d s o f r e s e a r c h a r e h o l i s t i c . B y t h i s I mean t h a t q u a l i t a t i v e m e t h o d s s t r i v e t o e x p l i c a t e s i t u a t i o n s a s a w h o l e . I want t o p r e s e n t a h o l i s t i c v i e w o f f a m i l y a n d c o m m u n i t y l i f e a t M u s q u e a m . W i t h i n t h i s h o l i s t i c v i e w t h e r e a r e u n i q u e e n t i t i e s a n d s p e c i f i c p a r t s , b u t t h e y a r e a l w a y s r e l a t e d t o t h e w h o l e , o r e n t i r e t y o f t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t . The c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l I w i l l be u t i l i z i n g i s t h e d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l o f s o c i a l r e s e a r c h . The d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l i s u t i l i z e d when a r e s e a r c h e r s e e k s t o i d e n t i f y t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f some g l o b a l c o n c e p t . T h i s r e s e a r c h i d e n t i f i e s t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e 16 s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Musqueam c o m m u n i t y , i t s v a l u e s , f a m i l y p a t t e r n s a n d l o c a l c u l t u r e . The e n d r e s u l t i s a m a p p i n g o f g l o b a l c o n c e p t s , a n d t h e d i m e n s i o n s o r s u b a r e a s r e l a t i n g t o e a c h c o n c e p t . ( 2 . ) Q u a l i t a t i v e m e t h o d s a r e i n d u c t i v e i n n a t u r e . T h i s r e s e a r c h d o e s n o t a s s e r t a h y p o t h e s i s w h i c h w i l l be a c c e p t e d o r r e j e c t e d v i a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . R a t h e r t h e r e s e a r c h b e g i n s b y d o c u m e n t i n g s p e c i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n s , o r c o n t e n t o f m a t e r i a l , a n d b u i l d s t o w a r d s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s o r d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h i s d e s c r i p t i v e a n d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e s c o r e c o n c e p t s and d i m e n s i o n s w i t h i n t h e Musqueam c o m m u n i t y . T h e s e c o r e c o n c e p t s o r d i m e n s i o n s a r e r e f i n e d a n d d e f i n e d b y t h e raw d a t a c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s a n d l i t e r a t u r e a n d e n s u r e t h a t t h e c o n c e p t s a r e g r o u n d e d i n d a t a . The f i n a l p r o d u c t i s a m a p p i n g o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Musqueam c o m m u n i t y t h a t a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s o f c o n c e r n t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t t o a band b a s e d c h i l d w e l f a r e p r o j e c t . D a t a f o r a n a l y s i s h a v e b e e n c o l l e c t e d f r o m r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a n a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , e l d e r s a t t h e b a n d , a n d t h e Musqueam B a n d ' s c h i l d w e l f a r e t a s k f o r c e . The f o l l o w i n g r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s were k e y i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e h i s t o r y o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n B . C . w r i t t e n b y W. D u f f p r o v i d e d a c r u c i a l o v e r v i e w o f t h e i m p a c t o f t h e w h i t e man a n d c o l o n i z a t i o n upon West C o a s t N a t i v e G r o u p s . T h i s book p r o v i d e d a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t f o r c u r r e n t i s s u e s a t t h e Musqueam b a n d . A s e c o n d r e s o u r c e book b y P a t r i c k J o h n s t o n h i g h l i g h t s t h e m a j o r i s s u e s , p r o g r a m s , a n d p o l i c i e s t h a t a r e c u r r e n t l y p a r t o f 17 n a t i v e c h i l d w e l f a r e i n B.C. T h i s b o o k was e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n b r i n g i n g t o l i g h t t h e n u m b e r o f n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n c a r e a n d i t s i m p a c t o n c o m m u n i t i e s a s a w h o l e . P a t r i c k J o h n s t o n p r o v i d e s s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s o f c u r r e n t p r o g r a m s t h a t p r o m o t e n a t i v e s o v e r e i g n t y o n r e s e r v e s a c r o s s C a n a d a . T h i s b o o k was a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n a n d t o s p e c i f i c f a m i l y a n d c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . A t h i r d r e s o u r c e i s a b o o k b y C l a u d i a L e w i s . C l a u d i a L e w i s p o r t r a y s t h e d a y t o d a y l i f e o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e i n a n a t i v e home o n B . C . ' s W e s t C o a s t . T h i s r e s o u r c e was u t i l i z e d t o p o r t r a y k i n s h i p t i e s , s p i r i t u a l c e r e m o n i e s , a n d n a t i v e v a l u e s . T h e a s p e c t s o f n a t i v e l i f e a r e o u t l i n e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s . T h e s e t h r e e r e s o u r c e b o o k s a r e l i s t e d i n t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y o f t h i s t h e s i s . Q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r v i e w s a l l o w t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t o , d e f i n e t h e f o c u s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , w h i l e e n a b l i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n t e n t . T h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e f o r t h i s s t u d y was s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n n a t u r e w i t h s p e c i f i c t o p i c a l a r e a s c o v e r e d i n e a c h i n t e r v i e w . T h e r e s p o n d e n t s d e t e r m i n e d t h e i m p o r t a n t c o n t e n t u n d e r e a c h t o p i c . O u t l i n e d i n A p p e n d i x I i s t h e s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w g u i d e u t i l i z e d i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h M u s q u e a m e l d e r s . T h e i n t e r v i e w g u i d e u t i l i z e d i n i n t e r v i e w i n g k e y i n f o r m a n t s f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y i s f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x I I . I n t e r v i e w s w e r e a l s o c o n d u c t e d w i t h f o u r e l d e r s o f t h e M u s q u e a m I n d i a n B a n d . A n e l d e r c a n b e d e f i n e d a s a n i n d i v i d u a l who i s a member o f t h e e l d e r s g r o u p a t t h e M u s q u e a m I n d i a n B a n d . A p r e s e n t a t i o n was made t o a l l t h e e l d e r s e x p l a i n i n g t h e p u r p o s e , m e t h o d o l o g y a n d b e n e f i t s o f c o n d u c t i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h 18 a t t h e b a n d . F o u r e l d e r s v o l u n t e e r e d t o t a k e p a r t I n t h i s r e s e a r c h a n d i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e s e f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e s e i n t e r v i e w s p r o v i d e d much d a t a a b o u t e x p e r i e n c e s a n d l i f e , b o t h p a s t a n d p r e s e n t , o f members o f t h e b a n d . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e t a s k f o r c e c o n s i s t e d o f q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e M u s q u e a m B a n d ' s h i s t o r y , d e m o g r a p h i c s t a t i s t i c s , n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n i n c a r e , a n d t h e i r v i s i o n o f a c h i l d w e l f a r e p r o g r a m a t t h e M u s q u e a m B a n d . S e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s p r o v e d t o b e e f f e c t i v e i n e l i c i t i n g r e l e v a n t t o p i c i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i l e r e f r a i n i n g a s much a s p o s s i b l e f r o m i n f l u e n c i n g t h e c o n t e n t . C u e s a n d e l a b o r a t i v e q u e s t i o n s w e r e u t i l i z e d t o c l a s s i f y c o n t e n t w i t h i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s . I c o n d u c t e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e b a n d s o c i a l w o r k e r , t w o m e m b e r s o f t h e c h i l d w e l f a r e t a s k f o r c e a n d a n a n t h r o p o l o g i s t who i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e M u s q u e a m b a n d . A b s t r a c t s o f e a c h i n t e r v i e w a r e l o c a t e d i n A p p e n d i x " E " . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e e l d e r s a n d o t h e r K e y i n f o r m a n t s , t h e f i r s t s t e p i n d a t a a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d o f t r a n s c r i b i n g t h e a u d i o t a p e s . T h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f i n t e r v i e w s a l l o w e d f o r c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a . O n c e t h e t r a n s c r i b i n g was c o m p l e t e t h e p r o c e s s o f c o d i n g t h e d a t a b e g a n . T h e i n i t i a l c o d i n g c o n d u c t e d was o p e n c o d i n g , w h e r e b y c o n c e p t s w e r e d e v e l o p e d t o f i t t h e d a t a . T h i s i n v o l v e d c l o s e l y s c r u t i n i z i n g t h e d a t a , p a r a g r a p h b y p a r a g r a p h , i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a t e n t a t i v e c o n c e p t t h a t r e f l e c t e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n v e y e d i n t h e p a r a g r a p h . T h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s f r o m a n d i n t e r v i e w w i t h a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t w i l l b e u s e d t o c l a r i f y t h e c o d i n g p r o c e s s . 19 "There are large c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and categories of kin folk by generation, (named person) would use those terms and know some of the s p e c i f i c s of i t , but what i t creates i s a framework of kin, of relatedness in very large categories for everyone to plug into." The open code u t i l i z e d for t h i s statement i s 'kinship connectedness*. This concept alludes to the connected nature, or sense of belonging among individuals and families within the Musqueam community. The open codes are one l e v e l of abstraction above the content conveyed in the text. Open coding r e f l e c t e d the content, or embodies the meaning of the text in terms of a concept. Another example from the research is the following excerpt. "You i n h e r i t equally from either parent, names, ri g h t s , or kin associations. The patronymic b a t t l e r y i s not at a l l meaningful, but i t is s t i l l used." The concept formulated for t h i s thought was 'double descent*. Both kinship connectedness and double descent were v e r i f i e d in subsequent coding of interviews as v a l i d and grounded concepts in the data. This process of i n i t i a l coding occurred u n t i l new concepts did not appear and current concepts were re f l e c t e d in the subsequent data. The end r e s u l t of t h i s process i s referred to as conceptual density. Strauss refers to conceptual density as a m u l t i p l i c i t y of categories and properties and their relationships.( 3.) Due to the time frame for conducting the research conceptual density was not achieved. Nevertheless several of the major concepts and the dimensions of these concepts were i d e n t i f i e d r e f l e c t i n g family and community interaction at the Musqueam Band. The second stage of coding u t i l i z e d in the research was a x i a l coding or second order coding. Open coding referred to 20 the core c a t e g o r i e s or concepts. A x i a l coding c o n s i s t s of a n a l y s i s done around these c a t e g o r i e s or concepts. A x i a l coding d e f i n e d and determined the aspects of the concept or category. In many cases a x i a l coding i d e n t i f i e d the l i n k a g e s between concepts. For example " k i n s h i p connectedness" was i d e n t i f i e d as a core category. A x i a l coding of data d e f i n e d t h i s concept i n terms of connecting the community together, i n c l u s i v e n e s s of k i n s h i p r e l a t e d n e s s , an o b l i g a t i o n to f a m i l y and k i n , c o n t i n u i t y of f a m i l y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of people to f a m i l y and d i f f u s e extended k i n . A x i a l coding i n e f f e c t d e f i n e d and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d the concept of k i n s h i p connectedness. A x i a l Codes t h a t d e f i n e d core c a t e g o r i e s were d e r i v e d from i n t e r v i e w d a t a . For example, i n c l u s i v e n e s s of k i n s h i p r e l a t e d n e s s as an a x i a l code was d e r i v e d from the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v i e w quotes. "Everyone i s r e l a t e d t o somebody, and many are r e l a t e d to someone on d i f f e r e n t r e s e r v e s . We are a l l one b i g f a m i l y . I t i s important f o r c h i l d r e n to know who t h e i r r e l a t i v e s a r e . Each c h i l d has a b i g f a m i l y who they belong t o . At Musqueam i t s l i k e one b i g f a m i l y . We are a l l r e l a t e d i n one way or another." "There i s a f a r and l a r g e r r e c o g n i t i o n of k i n t h a t i s s t a b l e and has a h i s t o r y of f a m i l y i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I f you want to f i n d a connect i o n there w i l l be a connection between people a t the band." An exhaustive l i s t of core c a t e g o r i e s , t h e i r corresponding codes and r e l a t e d i n t e r v i e w quotes can be found i n Appendix A. The l a s t form of coding u t i l i z e d was s e l e c t i v e coding. T h i s e n t a i l s s e l e c t i v e l y a n a l y z i n g i n t e r v i e w data t h a t r e l a t e s o n l y t o my core c a t e g o r i e s . S e l e c t i v e coding f u r t h e r d e f i n e d and broadened the core c a t e g o r i e s and made them " r i c h i n 21 meaning". The f i n a l chapter of t h i s research seeks to apply the core categories and s p e c i f i c codes to policy recommendations which may be incorporated into a proposal to the Ministry of Social Services and Housing and the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s regarding a band based c h i l d welfare project. These pol i c y recommendations w i l l serve to d i r e c t the Musqueam Band in entering negotiations and discussions with both levels of government for c u l t u r a l l y relevant and community s p e c i f i c programs. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH QUESTION The central question that my research w i l l address can be stated the following way: "What are the s t r u c t u r a l , f a m i l i a l and c u l t u r a l dimensions of the Musqueam people that are the foundation for a l o c a l l y controlled, autonomous, and c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c native c h i l d welfare program at the band?" As outlined previously native c h i l d welfare i s not well defined and operates in an unplanned and inconsistent manner in the province. In e f f o r t s to formulate programs that are c u l t u r a l l y relevant, a firm understanding of the values, b e l i e f s , family l i f e , and culture i s required. Once these values, t r a d i t i o n s and customs have been i d e n t i f i e d they can be applied either d i r e c t l y or in p r i n c i p l e to guide current programs being developed at the Musqueam Band. In the next chapter I w i l l summarize the major research findings, concentrating on the h i s t o r i c a l , demographic, and s o c i a l factors that are s p e c i f i c to the Musqueam Band and relevant to development of band-based p o l i c i e s for c h i l d 22 welfare. CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS The research findings can be divided into two areas. The f i r s t area i s general over-riding findings discovered from the l i t e r a t u r e and interviews. These findings can be Interpreted as general themes emerging from the research. The focus of these findings i s on id e n t i f y i n g core thematic categories and thei r corresponding a x i a l codes. One general theme that emerged from the research was that the Musqueam community places value both on the tr a d i t i o n s and history of the Musqueam people as well as i t s unique contemporary culture In place today. The Musqueam people value th e i r community and s o c i a l structures in existence now as well as t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s , and c u l t u r a l patterns. The Musqueam r e a l i z e that their community, families, and contemporary culture are va s t l y d i f f e r e n t from the larger society. These differences are valued and di s t i n g u i s h what being a Musqueam Indian i s today. What I discovered i s that Musqueam people have a d i s t i n c t i v e culture based both on contemporary factors as well as h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n a l factors. ' This I believe i s essential in understanding the Musqueam family and community structure. A second theme that emerged was that of connectedness. The concept of connectedness i s defined as a community sense of belonging, a personal and community id e n t i t y that expresses i t s e l f through language, r e l i g i o u s experience, kinship t i e s , a s i m i l a r i t y of experience, geographic location and a changing c u l t u r a l climate. Connectedness i s the underlying core theme that provides belonging, c u l t u r a l uniqueness, and community 23 strength for the Musqueam people. The second area of findings relates to the s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r a l dimensions of the community. In the following section I w i l l provide d e f i n i t i o n s of concepts or the s p e c i f i c dimensions that emerged from the interviews. These concepts include l i n g u i s t i c connectedness, geographic connectedness, kinship connectedness, r e l i g i o u s and ceremonial connectedness, experiential connectedness and changing c u l t u r a l climate. Interviews with key informants, elders, and Musqueam c h i l d welfare committee members quickly revealed the Important s t r u c t u r a l dimensions of the Musqueam community. Structural dimensions refers to the s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l practices, values, and experiences that make the Musqueam community unique and d i s t i n c t from other communities. No one st r u c t u r a l dimension sets apart the community from the larger society, or other native communities. When these st r u c t u r a l dimensions are combined, however, the Musqueam band stands out as unique from the surrounding contemporary society. LINGUISTIC CONNECTEDNESS L i n g u i s t i c connectedness refers to both the language of Halkomelem that was t r a d i t i o n a l l y spoken and transmits the Musqueam culture in a f u l l and r i c h meaningful way, and contemporary language and i t s attributed meaning. The Halkomelem language provides the sense of i d e n t i t y and c u l t u r a l separateness from the larger society and other west coast native groups. Very few Musqueam people besides some of the elders speak Halkomelem. "No one knows the Halkomelom language anymore, i t s a d i f f i c u l t language to learn. There is 24 no one who can teach the younger ones anymore." (Personal Cumraunlcations - Musqueam elder) It became clear through the interviews that the elders were very angry at the loss of t h e i r language through the r e s i d e n t i a l school system. The elders value Halkomelem because the i r r e l i g i o u s and ceremonial practices take on their f u l l r i c h meaning when conducted in Halkomelem. H i s t o r i c a l l y Halkomelem has t i e d the community together. Now that the language i s l o s t the Musqueam band is more e a s i l y assimilated into the larger society. "I was t e l l i n g my great granddaughter before you got here that they wanted us to forget to talk Indian. If a nun heard you tal k i n g to another g i r l in Indian you got punished... our language is important for passing on the t r a d i t i o n s and so on." (Personal Communication - Musqueam Elder) Despite t h i s loss of the Halkomelem language i t s t i l l a f f e c t s how the Musqueam people attribute meaning to English words. For the Musqueam people some English words take on broader meaning than the commonly held English meaning. The term family, for example takes on the Halkomelem meaning of kin, which incorporates most people residing in the band. Family i s therefore not merely a nuclear family or even extended family in the narrow English sense. Rather i t refers to the wide range of kinship networks within the community. "English people w i l l use the term uncle or aunt. They (Musqueam) have hundreds of aunts and uncles not in the narrow English sense. There is a new set of kin terms used c o l l o q u i a l l y , but they're used with f i t t i n g some of the structure that comes through e a r l i e r times." (Personal Communication - Anthropologist-UBC) L i n g u i s t i c structure and word d e f i n i t i o n are therefore unique in the Musqueam community. Word meaning and d e f i n i t i o n i s 25 derived from the l i n g u i s t i c structure of the Halkomelem language and has adapted to the changing community. The meanings attached to English words provide uniqueness and sets apart the Musqueam community both from the larger surrounding society and from other native groups. GEOGRAPHIC CONNECTEDNESS I define geographic connectedness as the physical land and the Musqueams' view of thi s land as having a s p i r i t that gives d i r e c t i o n , a v i s i o n , and u n i f i e s the Musqueam people with nature. The location of the Musqueam band is very important to the community. Access to the ocean for f i s h i n g , forests and mountains for hunting was important to the l i v e l i h o o d of their ancestors. Today hunting and f i s h i n g s t i l l provide l i v e l i h o o d to the band. Musqueam elders s t i l l view the land, ocean, animals, f i s h etc. as s p i r i t u a l forces. The elders view the lands as having a s p i r i t that gives d i r e c t i o n and help to them. Human beings and nature are unified - the creator u n i f i e s the creation. Therefore i f one is to understand the world he must seek a v i s i o n through nature and look to the land for d i r e c t i o n . The land therefore, while physical, also takes on s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . "The land gives us a v i s i o n , a d i r e c t i o n for our people. Each family i s represented by an animal and that characterizes what each family w i l l be l i k e . " "We used to can f i s h and berries and a l l that. We used to can enough salmon to keep us going in the winter. Families helped each other out by doing that." (Personal Communication- Musqueam Elder) The land surrounding the band i s to be respected and cared for, not owned and exploited. H i s t o r i c a l l y the Musqueam people 26 have had d i f f i c u l t y maintaining t h e i r connections to the surrounding area. In 1860 the colonists established p o l i c y to estab l i s h Indian Reserves and compensation was given for native people to surrender land. In 1870 the Musqueam reserve was surveyed and defined. This action confined the Musqueam people to 416 acres of reserve land adjacent to the University of B.C. Endownment Lands. Previous to 1870 the Musqueam people moved about in family groups in what is now English Bay, Burrard Inlet and the lower Fraser River de l t a . In 1888 l e g i s l a t i o n was passed to r e s t r i c t f i s h i n g by Indian People. This l e g i s l a t i o n c u r t a i l e d an important economic a c t i v i t y of the Musqueam people and further removed them from th e i r connections with the ocean. In 1913 a proposal was i n i t i a t e d to relocate the Musqueam band and transfer their reserve land to the Municipality of Point Grey. In 1913 the Musqueam people refused to relocate and remained in their current location. In 1973, 1977, and 1984 the Musqueam Indian Band submitted land claims to the foreshore area in Point Grey. In summary the Musqueam People have been confined to 416 acres and connections with the larger area have been destroyed. No longer are the Musqueam people unified with t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l lands. Colonization and the expansion of the Point Grey Community has resulted in a loss of r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l connectedness to the land. "The land i s too small for the group. The reserve keeps shrinking and shrinking. We are getting squeezed out. We used to be on land a l l the way to what is now Marpole. We're getting jipped." (Personal Communication - Musqueam elder) "Elements of t r a d i t i o n a l land use s t i l l p e r s i s t , but they are in a new set t i n g . They are not what they once were at 100 or even 40 years ago. 27 Traditional land use and ceremonies are changing, and the Musqueam people recognize i t . They are s t i l l v i t a l and important to the community." (Personal Communication - Anthropologist) Geography also connects the community through a sense of continuity of residing on the same coastal lands throughout many generations. The Musqueam people have l i v e d on the West Coast for thousands of years and their location has provided s t a b i l i t y and a home base for the community. T r a d i t i o n a l l y the band's current location was the main winter v i l l a g e which provided security and a home base during the winter months. This location has remained constant through the generations. The geographic location provides proximity to family and close kinship t i e s . The band's location also allows regular contact with other West Coast bands. This is important for potlaches, s p i r i t dancing, and smoke house ceremonies. K I N S H I P C O N N E C T E D N E S S Kinship connectedness I have defined as the diffuse connections between individuals and families which encompass most of the Musqueam community. Kinship refers to the qu a l i t y of a relationship and the extent that support and help is given through relationships. Kinship therefore extends beyond family in i t s t r a d i t i o n a l meaning to other individuals or groups in the community. . "If you want to find a connection, between people there w i l l be a connection. There is a much larger recognition of kin and relatedness than in white society. Family networks are d i f f u s e , quite large and quite variable. Everyone has a connection they can plug into." (Personal Communication -Anthropologist) The value of kinship and the extended family network is 28 s t i l l in place today and is essential in understanding the Musqueam community. Family to the Musqueam means blood t i e s not only to an indi v i d u a l , but also to the band. A blood t i e to any band member means a t i e to every band member. It i s band membership and active p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the community that defines who i s a brother. Individuals who are tie d to the band and who are active in the community are valued and respected by i t s members. This is essential in understanding kinship in the Musqueam community. "Everyone i s related to somebody, and many are related to someone on d i f f e r e n t reserves. We are one big family. It i s important for children to know who they belong to. At Musqueam i t s l i k e one big family, we are a l l related in one way or another." (Personal Communication - Musqueam Elder) Unique to the Musqueam band is the b i l a t e r a l nature of status and belonging. There are no c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and d i s t i n c t i o n s between grandparents and their s i b l i n g s , between uncles, aunts and parents, or between cousins, brothers and s i s t e r s . This lack of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n s t i l l s a sense of belonging to, rather than exclusion from kin. "No matter how far out the generations extend; a l l uncles, aunts, fathers, brothers, mothers, s i s t e r s and f i s t cousins are a l l under one term. It covers a l l of them." (Anthropologist - U.B.C.) Claudia Lewis in her book, Indian Families of the North West Coast, has the following to say about c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . "Status and belonging were passed on to children b i l a t e r a l l y . Grandparents on both sides were ca l l e d by a single term, including also grandparent's s i b l i n g s . Cousins were equated with brothers and s i s t e r s , and there were no d i s t i n c t i o n s made between parent's s i b l i n g s . " 1. A very s i g n i f i c a n t feature about the kinship network i s a sense of obligation to family, kin and the band. In speaking 29 to the elders and other band members, they related how support is given among members of the band. "When someone is short of food or the welfare money has run out there w i l l always be food and money av a i l a b l e . Everything i s shared." (Elder - Musqueam Band) This support becomes e s p e c i a l l y meaningful in times of c r i s i s and in times of celebrations. For example at s p i r i t dancing celebrations families and kin associations come together to support and celebrate. Also at funerals kin networks come to support each other. Families support through their attendance, taking part in the ceremonial aspects, and by providing food and money to the family. The networks are very much a l i v e and a c t i v e l y support each other in times of c r i s i s . These kinship networks are one of the distinguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that set the Musqueam community apart from the larger society. "At longhouse dancing, at funerals, or weddings, families come to support each other. Families help each other when they see someone in trouble. Everyone has some kin that they can go to. Children have many uncles and aunts, grandparents, or cousins that they can go to. Infants are looked a f t e r , families are right away there to help." (Personal Communication - Musqueam Elder) A unique point about kinship networks is the role elders play in the community. The elders have a role In passing on the t r a d i t i o n s , counselling younger families and children and giving d i r e c t i o n to the band council. The elders provide the intergenerational continuity between the generations. "Every morning, the old man would get up and just t a l k . It seemed l i k e he was passing something on to us. We didn't take i t in or l i s t e n that good. The older people pass on the traditionsand the knowledge they had ... We t r y to t e l l some of the younger people, but I'm not sure i f they l i s t e n . With my grandchildren I t r y to t e l l them what I learned when I was growing up." (Personal Communication - Musqueam Elder) 30 The quote above denotes the oral t r a d i t i o n of passing on the culture through the generations. Within the Musqueam community there is a resurgence of interest in knowing the re l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l s ignificance of e a r l i e r Musqueam practices. The elders are increasingly being c a l l e d upon to relay what in the past was the Musqueam's history and culture. Elders therefore have a v i t a l role in kin associations as they are the connection between the generations. SPIRITUAL AND CEREMONIAL CONNECTEDNESS S p i r i t u a l and ceremonial connectedness refers to the s p i r i t u a l and ceremonial practices that for the Musqueam people include s p i r i t dances, s p i r i t names and longhouse ceremonies. These practices provide a commonality of s p i r i t u a l i t y that binds the community together. In addition to connecting the community together these s p i r i t u a l and ceremonial practices provide c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . I found that I had to respect the individual wishes of the elders and only probed in so far as they f e l t comfortable d i s c l o s i n g . The a c t i v i t i e s and practices of the long house and s p i r i t dances are not open to the outsider. "It i s not proper for me to t e l l you about s p i r i t dancing and i n i t i a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s in the long house because they have only been revealed to Indian people. I w i l l t e l l you t h i s . Young People get i n i t i a t e d . They get a v i s i o n . You are in a dream land u n t i l your song comes. You i n i t i a t e the v i s i o n and power comes to you. We don't t e l l everyone what happens in our s p i r i t u a l gains. If you t e l l , whatever power you gain leaves you." (Personal Communication - Musqueam Elder) In spite of thi s reluctance to disclose t h i s area of the i r community l i f e I was able to achieve glimpses of the i r 31 t r a d i t i o n s . It appears that s p i r i t dancing, long house dancing and s p i r i t names constitute the majority of ceremonial celebrations. S p i r i t power is central to the Musqueam re l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . S p i r i t power refers to a b e l i e f in the power of s p i r i t forces that sustains an individual and gives d i r e c t i o n in choosing d i f f e r e n t paths in l i f e . This s p i r i t power endows a person with a special song, cry or s p i r i t dance. Musqueam people refer to t h i s s p i r i t power as a s p i r i t helper. The Musqueam people believe that young people can be i n i t i a t e d or endowed with a s p i r i t song, dance or cry. This i n i t i a t i o n process i s described as a four day a f f a i r where a young person is attended by several elders in the long house. The young person must keep a v i g i l of drumming, r a t t l i n g and singing u n t i l his s p i r i t song or dance comes out. One of the elders referred to t h i s welling up of a s p i r i t song or dance as a person's "Indianness" coming out. Once this i n i t i a t i o n process i s complete there are ceremonies and celebrations in the winter where a l l those i n i t i a t e d conduct their s p i r i t song or dance. "Young People get i n i t i a t e d . They are in the longhouse for four days. Certain things go on. They get a v i s i o n ; you can't get out of the longhouse. You are in a dreamland u n t i l your song comes. You i n i t i a t e the v i s i o n that you see. Your v i s i o n power comes to you." (Personal Communication - Musqueam Elder) "Every winter we have s p i r i t dancing where we give Indian names to our children or grand children. Its r e a l l y just the s p i r i t dancing and s p i r i t names that s t i l l goes on." (Personal Communication - Musqueam Elder) Young people play a v i t a l role in these ceremonies and they provide the on going r e l i g i o u s connection between r e l i g i o u s practices of e a r l i e r and those of today. At the band there i s 32 growing interest by several young people in involving themselves in these ceremonies. Many young people, however show no inte r e s t . Young people who are i n i t i a t e d in th i s way are valued and promote a unique c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y among the Musqueam community. Young persons who have been i n i t i a t e d into the long house also take on a s p i r i t name. This name characterized who they are and who the i r s p i r i t helper i s . Within the Musqueam community s p i r i t names are passed on from one generation to the next. "We s t i l l pass on the Indian names we had from way back. Every family has their own names. Your children grow up and take up those Indian names. There are a l o t of names that have been l o s t . Many of the older people are gone and have not passed on their names. There is hardly anyone now that would go back, so a l o t of the names were l o s t . " (Personal Communication - Musqueam Elder) S p i r i t names are therefore a r e f l e c t i o n of families in the community. S p i r i t names also provide a connection for Musqueam young people to their family as well as the community as a whole. It i s also essential that Musqueam children and young people remain t i e d to their community in order that these r e l i g i o u s practices continue. This i s one of the reasons why Musqueam children are important and valued in the community. S p i r i t u a l and ceremonial t r a d i t i o n s provide s o c i a l experiences that are rewarding for the community as a whole. The whole community becomes involved in the r e l i g i o u s experiences within the community and connects and binds the community together. It i s the unified sacredness of the earth, the seasons, individuals and the supernatural that is a connecting force in the Musqueam community. An anthropologist 33 who i s c l o s e l y connected to the Musqueam community refers to the r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s and c u l t u r a l practices in the following way: "Elements to the i r t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n s t i l l p e r s i s t , but they are in a new sett i n g , and are not what they were 100 or even 40 years ago. They're changing and people recognize i t , but they are s t i l l v i t a l . They are important in that community there. They have to do with what being Indian i s there. It sets them off dramatically from the surrounding people. They value them for that reason par t l y , and they also value them because they are tremendously rewarding personally and in s o c i a l experience. It i s a positive rewarding aspect of the i r contemporary culture." (Anthropologist - U.B.C.) EXPERIENTIAL CONNECTEDNESS Experiential connectedness refers to the commonality of experiences that are a part of both the recent history and contemporary l i f e at the Musqueam Indian Band. These experiences include the reserve system, band membership, r e s i d e n t i a l schools and a dependence on the Department of Indian A f f a i r s . These four areas are very common experiences of the majority of Musqueam people. Coding and analyzing the data revealed that these areas have both positive and negative aspects for those experiencing them. The Musqueam reserve came into being in 1870, which in ef f e c t confined the Musqueam people to 416 acres. Many of the elders refer to the reserve with ambivalence. It promotes discrimination and poverty. It sets apart the Musqueam people from the surrounding community. One elder referred to the negative aspects of the reserve in the following way: "You can never be t o t a l l y happy with the reserves. They create c o n f l i c t among our people. We have to learn about how to get along with each other, not fight about band membership or land. The 34 reserve makes us dependent on the department. We have to learn not to depend on the department, but be s e l f - r e l i a n t . " (Musqueam Elder - Personal Communication) The above quote refers to a kind of dependence and c o n f l i c t that the reserve system creates. The Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s provides the funding to the band for a l l programs, housing and administration. This has created an unhealthy reliance on the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s . There i s ongoing c o n f l i c t regarding funding c h i l d welfare programs on reserve. The c h i l d welfare task force i s seeking approval for funding c h i l d welfare programs that enhance s e l f - r e l i a n c e and autonomy for Musqueam people. Federal and Pr o v i n c i a l governments however, have refused funding these programs at the Musqueam band. "The band, at present i s looking at preventative programs. We would l i k e p a r t i a l control and j u r i s d i c t i o n over c h i l d welfare at the band. For example we would l i k e a group home for our teenagers, so that they do not have to go to foster homes outside the band. We however can't get money for t h i s . " (Personal Communication - Musqueam Child Welfare task force member) Although the reserve may be seen as negative and discriminatory, the elders also have i d e n t i f i e d i t s value. The reserve system has provided housing, a community residence, a l o c a l band council and administration, resources and services for the community, and coastal land. These aspects of the reserve system are valued because they are the basis for developing autonomy and l o c a l control over community a f f a i r s . It i s interesting to note the valued aspects of the reserve system as most of the l i t e r a t u r e comments on the negative influence the reserve system has had on the native community. 35 The Musqueam c h i l d welfare task force has recognized t h i s administrative strength and are u t i l i z i n g the structure of the reserve system to develop p o l i c i e s which w i l l address c h i l d and family community problems. Rather than becoming frustrated with the current system and attempting to change the reserve system through c o n f l i c t , the task force has decided to produce change v i a engaging the system from within. How they are attempting to bring about th i s change i s s p e c i f i c a l l y discussed in the f i n a l chapter of the thesis. A second experience that has connected the community together as a whole i s the r e s i d e n t i a l schools. Although the r e s i d e n t i a l schools were c l e a r l y harmful and eroded native culture, they also provided common experiences for the adult members contributing to a kinds of camaraderie amongst the band members. A l l those interviewed attended r e s i d e n t i a l schools, and l i v e d the experience which has become a part of their contemporary culture. A l l those interviewed mentioned two important negative outcomes of the r e s i d e n t i a l schools. The f i r s t was a loss of language and culture, and second was the separation from family and kinship t i e s . Interviews with elders confirmed the government's p o l i c y of assimilating and - acculturating native peoples. One native elder explained her experience in r e s i d e n t i a l school in the following way: "They wanted us to forget to talk Indian. If a nun heard you tal k i n g to another g i r l in Indian you got punished. They didn't allow us to do Indian dance. They used to t e l l us i t was from the d e v i l . Lots of elders don't know the history or t r a d i t i o n s anymore because they went to r e s i d e n t i a l school." (Personal Communication - Musqueam Elder) Musqueam elders discuss r e s i d e n t i a l schools with an 36 underlying f e e l i n g of anger and regret. More than anything else the r e s i d e n t i a l schools have erased much of the history and culture of previous generations. The Musqueam elders are very suspicious of the current educational system and fear that their culture w i l l be further eroded. A second negative outcome related to r e s i d e n t i a l schools was the separation from a network of kin. For ten months of the year children were s p i r i t e d away to r e s i d e n t i a l schools around the' lower mainland. Children became estranged from the i r immediate families, community and culture. Among members of the Musqueam community there was a loss of i d e n t i t y . Acculterating to the climate of Roman Catholic society was d i f f i c u l t for most native children. The elders also reported that a return to the setting and climate of the reserve for two months was also d i f f i c u l t . There was no sense of belonging or security for native children in or out of the reserve. One of the elders described his experience in r e s i d e n t i a l schools in the following way. "I don't know the history very well because I went to r e s i d e n t i a l school. I went to Coquitta which was a federal school. A l o t of our people went to r e s i d e n t i a l schools in Coquitlam, on the Island, St. Pauls, or across the border. We were only home for a few months in the summer. We weren't allowed to speak our language or practice our t r a d i t i o n s . " (Personal Communication - Musqueam Elder) With children being absent from families t h i s interrupted and undermined both the native culture and family l i f e . More recently the apprehension and removal of native children also threatens to break apart the native culture. F i e l d research would i d e n t i f y more common experiences of Musqueam people. The r e s i d e n t i a l schools, reserve system band 37 membership and a dependence on the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s were the common experiences of Musqueam people. CONTINUING EVOLUTION OF THE MUSQUEAM CULTURE The Musqueam elders and members of the task force recognize the changing c u l t u r a l climate. This i s not seen as negative, but rather a positive aspect of Musqueam community. This changing c u l t u r a l climate i s not seen as conforming or acculturating into the larger society. Rather the changing Musqueam community s t i l l remains unique and the Musqueam community values t h i s contemporary unique culture. "Why the Musqueam people are d i s t i n c t has par t l y to do with their roots, but only pa r t l y , i t also has to do with s o c i a l and economic dynamics of that place. There has been an adaptation, or evolution of culture. It i s adaptation and change that f i t s people into the circumstances they are i n . " (Personal Communication - Anthropologist) The Musqueam people value both their r e l i g i o u s and ceremonial t r a d i t i o n s , as well as their current s t r i v i n g to become an autonomous, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t community. The interviews with the elders revealed that the contemporary culture emphasized increased autonomy and community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and includes educational, s p i r i t u a l , administrative aspects. Several of the Musqueam young adults are enrolled in programs at the Native Educational Centre. These programs include t r a i n i n g for leadership in band administration, and s o c i a l development. Musqueam elders view education as a way of assuming autonomy and control over band programs. Band members also have been involved with the Ministry of Education in developing educational programs and curriculum on reserve. Expertise i s beginning to be developed by band members themselves in thi s 38 area and should promote autonomous indigenous native leadership. "Children and young people today have to educated themselves and become s e l f - r e l i a n t . They can't depend on the department. We are beginning to learn not to depend on the department. (Personal Communication - Musqueam Elder) Autonomy and s e l f - r e l i a n c e Is an important theme for Musqueam people. This is not the kind of autonomy or i n d i v i d u a l i t y found in the larger society. Autonomy and s e l f - reliance refer to community or band autonomy. It refers to the use of l o c a l expertise, resources, and community strengths to develop s o c i a l programs. The c u l t u r a l climate at Musqueam today appears to focus on ownership and control of both band p o l i c y and program development. This struggle for autonomy i s experience through negotiations with various P r o v i n c i a l and Federal Ministers regarding ownership of programs. Increasingly l o c a l community p a r t i c i p a t i o n in s o c i a l programs is required. Local band members are beginning to develop expertise in s o c i a l work, band administration, education, family therapy and early childhood educations. P a r t i c i p a t i o n in community l i f e is valued and i s becoming a large part of what i t means to be a Musqueam Indian. In summary the c u l t u r a l climate i s unique to the Musqueam. However i t now incorporates both t r a d i t i o n a l language, r e l i g i o u s customs, and kinship networks as well as contemporary aspects. These contemporary aspects encompass those a c t i v i t i e s that promote autonomy and l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n in community. The implications for c h i l d welfare p o l i c y and programming w i l l be explored in the next and f i n a l chapter. 39 CHAPTER V CHILD WELFARE POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH FINDINGS In the section I w i l l outline the implication for c h i l d welfare p o l i c y of the foregoing research findings. These po l i c y implications can then be u t i l i z e d in guiding the development of Musqueam band's family and c h i l d welfare programs. The relevant implications for p o l i c y include programs which enhance community responsiveness, s p i r i t u a l and physical well-being, band autonomy, l o c a l community p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . This chapter w i l l incorporate the components in s p e c i f i c recommendations for c u l t u r a l l y congruent family programs for the Musqueam Indian Band. These s p e c i f i c band-based programs include kinship homes, safe homes, group homes, family day care, and a parent support group. It becomes apparent that the process of applying the c u l t u r a l thematic content within the Musqueam community requires both r e f l e c t i o n and community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Child and Family programs such as kinship homes, group homes, or supportive services must have input from a l l segments of the band. This process of applying c u l t u r a l content to programs must be an ongoing process to examine whether developing programs r e f l e c t kinship, l i n g u i s t i c , geographic, s p i r i t u a l and experiential dimensions within the band. This section i s the beginning of such a process, and w i l l need to be pursued by the c h i l d welfare task force and band members as a whole. Prior to discussing p o l i c y implications i t is essential to c l a r i f y the function of the c h i l d welfare task force presently in existence at the band. The c h i l d welfare task force has been mandated by the band council to develop and implement band-based c h i l d welfare programs on reserve. Up to t h i s point the task force has only engaged in limited discussions regarding programs at the band. In the conclusion of thi s chapter I provide recommendations regarding further c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the task force's mandate and recommendations for immediate a c t i v i t i e s for the task force's consideration. The f i r s t implication for po l i c y a r i s i n g from the research findings i s the need to ensure community responsiveness in the Musqueam program. Child welfare services are currently delivered in B r i t i s h Columbia in a bureaucratic and uniform manner. Mainstream programs and services generally speaking, do not meet native c h i l d welfare needs. The locus of control has always been outside of the Musqueam band for the development of s o c i a l programs. Prescribed s o c i a l programs and c h i l d welfare services have been available to the band. However, these services are not c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c to the needs of native people and have not met the s p e c i f i c needs of the Musqueam community. In my opinion there must be "equitable i n e q u i t i e s " in c h i l d welfare services. In other words there must be a pr e f e r e n t i a l or a community s p e c i f i c service d e l iver y system that responds to the needs of the Musqueam community. In order for programs and services to be responsive to the community they must be community s p e c i f i c , c u l t u r a l l y based and involve community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , programs that are responsive to the community must incorporate the kin networks in existence at the band, s p i r i t u a l and ceremonial practices, contemporary language and i t s attributed meaning, geographic proximity, and the changing c u l t u r a l climate at the band. 41 The second policy implication is that c h i l d welfare programs on reserve should emphasize both the s p i r i t u a l and - physical well-being of consumers. This s p i r i t u a l and physical well-being must be defined by the Musqueam Indian Band members, not the Ministry of Social Services and Housing, or the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s . The question arises then as to what an adequate, c u l t u r a l l y appropriate, and community s p e c i f i c model of c h i l d welfare would be for the Musqueam band. In order to es t a b l i s h a sense of physical and s p i r i t u a l well-being, I believe the following areas should be incorporated into the model. F i r s t of a l l kin networks, as they are found in the Musqueam community, must be the main resource for families and children. U t i l i z i n g kin networks assures children remain connected to their community, their heritage, and family. The elders must play a v i t a l advisory role for the directions of programs and services. Elders provide the connection with the past and promote community of s p i r i t u a l values in proposed programs of the band'. Programs and services must recognize valued t r a d i t i o n a l ways and valued contemporary community strengths. Programs must therefore incorporate s p i r i t u a l aspects, l i n g u i s t i c aspects, kinship t i e s , and experiential aspects of l i f e at the Musqueam band. As noted in the research findings autonomy and s e l f - reliance through l o c a l community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s valued in the Musqueam community. The t h i r d p o l icy implication i s therefore the need to incorporate elements of autonomy and l o c a l community p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the band's c h i l d welfare program. The provision of services to the Musqueam people through the Ministry of Social Services and Housing has been centralized 42 and planned In V i c t o r i a , or In regional o f f i c e s without regard for Musqueam p r i o r i t i e s or community conditions. Many of the family service programs in place at the band are irr e l e v a n t . Musqueam families p a r t i c i p a t e in these programs only as a means of conforming to the expectations of s o c i a l workers in order to have their children returned to the i r care. The Musqueam band has had l i t t l e input to date into the c h i l d welfare services they require and would support in the i r community. The band's c h i l d welfare task force is seeking autonomy in developing resources in their community. The task force recognized that any program or po l i c y must be supported and sanctioned by the community as a whole. This w i l l involve public meetings regarding new programs and i n i t i a t i v e s proposed by the band. The task force i s c a l l i n g for a transfer of decision making authority from outside governmental authorities to the members of the band. The band must have autonomy and decision making authority in the areas of prevention, resource development, and placement of children. Local decision making power and control of programs w i l l guarantee access to services and will-ensure programs are responsive to community needs. In summary, the po l i c y and program components for Musqueam c h i l d and family services must include community responsiveness, s p i r i t u a l and physical well-being, s e l f - r e l i a n c e , community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and autonomy in decision making power. A l l s i x components must be defined by Musqueam band members through public meetings which provide opportunity for community p a r t i c i p a t i o n in planning and implementing c h i l d welfare programs on reserve. 43 CHAPTER VI CHILD AND FAMILY PROGRAM RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE MUSQUEAM INPIM BANP Family and c h i l d services at the band must have the underlying goal of keeping children connected to the band, kin networks, and community experience. The Musqueam Indian band is seeking to develop band-based resources so the above goal can be achieved. The c h i l d welfare task force maintains that Musqueam children should be productive and valued members in their community. It also believes that their c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y should be reinforsed and the i r connectedness to kin maintained. The c h i l d welfare task force has therefore purposely focussed on prevention of c h i l d abuse and neglect and resource development. This section w i l l focus on the general b e l i e f s and goals of the c h i l d welfare task force as well as recommendations for s p e c i f i c programs on reserve. Incorporated into t h i s section w i l l be geographic information and a discussion of s o c i a l programs on reserve. Incorporated Into t h i s section w i l l be demographic information and a discussion of s o c i a l programs that members of the task force have i d e n t i f i e d in the Musqueam community. In conclusion I w i l l provide comments on native c h i l d welfare In general and the Musqueam s i t u a t i o n in pa r t i c u l a r . Members of the task force have recognized that there are times when children must be removed from their homes in order to protect them from abuse or neglect. The members however take strong exception to the notion that children must be removed from the community in order to protect them. The band has adopted the philosophy that children must f i r s t be maintained in their own homes. If thi s cannot be achieved, 44 i then they should be cared for in their own communities. The service d e l i v e r y structure, resources and programs must support t h i s philosophy. There are approximately 525 band members of whom 155 l i v e off reserve. According to members of the task force there were at least 12 children apprehended in the l a s t year and who are in care presently outside the band. It is very d i f f i c u l t to determine the t o t a l number of band children in the care of the Superintendent of Family and Child Services. Since the Ministry does not release t h i s information and the band has not kept s t a t i s t i c s , t h i s information remains unavailable. It i s safe to assume, however, given p r o v i n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s , that numerous Musqueam children have been apprehended and have permanently been removed from th e i r homes. The Musqueam band would l i k e a change in p r o v i n c i a l c h i l d protection p o l i c y and law which would require consultation with the band prior to apprehension of a c h i l d . This would require that a l l resources designed to support the family be exhausted before removing a c h i l d from his family. It would require that placement outside the family normally be with a c h i l d care resource on the reserve and placement off the reserve only occur in circumstances where an appropriate and es s e n t i a l resource i s not available on the reserve. It i s my recommendation that there be a d i s t i n c t d i v i s i o n between the c h i l d welfare functions of the Ministry of Social Services and Housing and the band. The band should assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for prevention, family support services, c h i l d welfare resource development and decision making with respect to placement of children brought into care. The Ministry of Social Services and Housing would continue to be responsible 45 for investigation of complaints of abuse and neglect, apprehension of children, and presentation of cases in Family Court. The population base at the Musqueam Indian band i s very small, with strong kin t i e s and associations. Any native s o c i a l worker hired by the band should not have delegated A apprehending authority, as t h i s would create c o n f l i c t of roles/ and lead to a breakdown of kin associations. The current band s o c i a l worker does have expertise in c h i l d welfare and i s familiar with the structure and kin networks in place at the band. Investing t h i s person with delegated authority to apprehend children would create c o n f l i c t and undermine t h i s person's c r e d i b i l i t y in developing resources and services. The s o c i a l worker at the band should focus on early Intervention and prevention rather than on investigation and apprehension of children. As c l a r i f i e d in the research finding, the Musqueam see themselves as connected together and having shared community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for addressing s o c i a l issues in the community. Child welfare programs must be reframed to promote acceptance of the i d e n t i t y of interest between the community and i t s families through shared p a r t i c i p a t i o n in promoting healthy and stable family l i f e and a concerned, cohesive, and supportive community. The c h i l d welfare task force is therefore e l i c i t i n g community support in developing and p a r t i c i p a t i n g in c h i l d and family programs on reserve. Programs on the Musqueam reserve should be comprehensive in nature; that i s they should offer more than one form of intervention by providing a range of services such as home help, support groups, counselling and f i n a n c i a l a i d . They must 46 be accessible in both location and philosophy, be family focussed and available to a l l band members. This i s the intention of the c h i l d welfare task force in generating new programs and i n i t i a t i v e s in the Musqueam community. Programs on reserve can be divided into two categories, preventive family and c h i l d support service and c r i s i s intervention. The Musqueam Indian band in program development has focussed on these two areas. SPECIFIC BAND-BASED PROGRAMS Kinship Homes An ess e n t i a l program needed at present on the Musqueam reserve e n t a i l s the development of kinship homes. H i s t o r i c a l l y kin networks supported individuals in times of c r i s i s , and d i f f i c u l t times. This t r a d i t i o n can be maintained through what I would c a l l kinship homes. Kinship,-homes would promote community involvement in the care and nurturing of their native children and ensure that children remain connected to their communities. Kinship homes allow native children to partic i p a t e in a l l aspects of community l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y s p i r i t u a l aspects. Children continue to in h e r i t s p i r i t u a l names and perpetuate the s p i r i t u a l and ceremonial aspects of the Musqueam community. I would define a kinship home as a home located on the Musqueam reserve approved by the band and agreed to by the Ministry of Social Services and Housing for the temporary placement of Musqueam children. A kinship home would preferably include the child's grandparents, aunt or uncle, brother or s i s t e r , f i r s t or second cousin or step parent, but could also include any other family which has band membership 47 and residence on the reserve. Presently the B r i t i s h Columbia Family and Child Service Act defines foster homes as those approved by the Superintendent or his delegate. "Foster home means a private home approved by the Superintendent for the placement of a c h i l d , whether or not payment i s made for the maintenance of the c h i l d . " (section 1) This same statute, however, authorized the Superintendent to delegate any of his powers. "The Superintendent may delegate any of his powers, duties, functions and capacities under this act to any person or class of person, and that person or class of person s h a l l be subject to his d i r e c t i o n . " (section 3141) The c h i l d welfare task force as a committee must, in my opinion, be given delegated authority to esta b l i s h and approve kinship homes in the Musqueam community. This delegation of authority must be established through a statement of protocol between the Musqueam band and the Superintendent of Family and Child Services. Included in t h i s protocol should be c r i t e r i a for kinship home selection as agreed to by the band council and the Ministry of Social Services and Housing. C r i t e r i a for approval of kinship homes must be based on the structure, values, culture and r e a l i t y of the Musqueam community. In order to es t a b l i s h t h i s c r i t e r i a public meetings must be held where a l l interested community members can have input into these c r i t e r i a . The establishment of l o c a l kinship homes at the Musqueam band is an essential step in ensuring that children in need of protection remain in the community. Kinship homes would be in the place of exis t i n g foster care homes that the Ministry of 48 Social Services and Housing provides. Kinship homes in ef f e c t r e f l e c t the Musqueam notion of kinship connectedness. In e a r l i e r times children who were unable to be cared for by their parents, were cared for by kin. The community as a whole was responsible for the welfare of i t s children and children remained connected to the i r l o c a l culture and community. Kinship homes would therefore allow children to remain geographically, ceremonially, l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and experientally connected to the i r community. SAFE HOMES Within the Musqueam band many children are apprehended during times of c r i s i s in families. Often alcohol abuse has spurred violence and children are at r i s k . Temporary safe homes would meet the need to protect children during these times. Temporary accommodation that is sanctioned and supported in the community and approved by the band and agreed to by the Ministry of Social Services and Housing is an ef f e c t i v e means to protect native children through voluntary short term placements while avoiding the need for apprehension. Safe homes at the Musqueam band should be designed to be resources for children who need emergency substitute care and for victims of family violence. Safe homes must make i t possible for both mother and c h i l d to be accommodated in circumstances where the father i s abusive both to the mother and c h i l d . At the Musqueam band the elders centre i s respected and could be u t i l i z e d as a safe home. Again, p o l i c i e s and procedures for implementing a safe home would need to be established through community meetings. It i s my 49 recommendation that the c h i l d welfare task force u t i l i z e the experience of other bands in establishing safe homes. Resource people such as Gloria Wilson at the Squamish band, or ex-chief Wayne Christian of the Spallumacheen band can provide valuable assistance in organizing such a resource. A safe home in order to be successful must have f u l l community support. Native children requiring temporary protection due to c r i s i s may be required to be apprehended and then returned soon after apprehension to the parent once i t is safe to do so. The B r i t i s h Columbia Family and Child Service Act under section 9 (5) provides that, "Where a c h i l d has been apprehended and before a report is presented to the court under section I I , the Superintendent may, i f s a t i s f i e d that continued custody i s unnecessary, return the c h i l d to the parent apparently e n t i t l e d to custody." Brief placement in the proposed Musqueam safe home can a l l e v i a t e the need to remove a native c h i l d from the native community. A safe home would therefore meet the basic safety needs of children and yet allow children to remain geographically connected to the community. Safe homes also would reduce the traumatic effects that apprehension has on children by allowing children to remain in a familiar environment and be cared for by l o c a l band members. An integral part of safe homes is family service interviews that seek to a l l e v i a t e the c r i s i s and promote an environment where children may be safely returned to their parent. It is my recommendation that counselling as well as home support services be in place so that native children can be returned quickly to their parents. I would also recommend that an elder be linked with a family in c r i s i s to provide 50 support and d i r e c t i o n . The elders can play a v i t a l role in a s s i s t i n g families to provide a safe environment for their children. GROUP HOMES The c h i l d welfare task force has recognized that a group home is esse n t i a l as a temporary r e s i d e n t i a l placement for Musqueam youth experiencing severe c o n f l i c t with their parents and experiencing d i f f i c u l t y with alcohol and drug abuse. The task force recognized that Musqueam youth have l o s t a sense of id e n t i t y and need to establish pride in their culture and in themselves. The group home would have three d i s t i n c t aspects. F i r s t the program would a s s i s t native youth to learn more about the Musqueam history and unique culture. Language, geography, s p i r i t u a l i t y , and r e l i g i o u s practices as part of the program could provide a sense of id e n t i t y for Musqueam youth. P a r t i c i p a t i o n in smoke house dancing and r e l i g i o u s aspects would provide links with the past and a deep sense of belonging. The l a s t aspect of the group home must be education or employment focussed. Youth in the group home should attend school or be involved in projects that benefit the community. Once again the community must participate by providing feed back about what they would want and support in the i r community. Public meetings that allow input from a l l community members i s essential i f a group home i s to be successful in the Musqueam community. In addition the task force should v i s i t other l o c a l bands to inquire about how they established group homes in their native communities. 51 Family and Child Services Family and Child Services on the Musqueam band must incorporate a vari e t y of interventions and programs. Family and Child Services must f i t with the structure and values in place currently at the Musqueam band. The c h i l d welfare task force has recognized several resources i t wishes to establish In the community. A l l resources must r e f l e c t the fact that kin networks are the basic underlying unit at the band. Kin networks already in existence at the band must be strengthened and supported. In t h i s connection the task force has i d e n t i f i e d three resources that i t wishes to develop over the next several years. These include a family daycare, a parent support group, and a family support worker. Family Day Care I would recommend the band establish a family day care for parents who require respite from their children. This family day care should be a model for appropriate c h i l d care techniques, as well as a model of t r a d i t i o n a l nurturing and care of children. Several band members are interested in early childhood education, and could s t a f f a family daycare. The Musqueam band can also promote community p a r t i c i p a t i o n by providing opportunity for the homes of l o c a l band members to be approved as family day care homes. I would define a family day care home as a home approved by the band for day care respite for children of families experiencing stress in caring for the i r children. Family day care i s a preventative measure that can help a native family avoid unnecessary apprehension. 52 Parent Support Grou.p The c h i l d welfare task force i s also seeking to establish a parent support group. This group should provide a supportive group environment for parents to discuss issues concerning their children and provide support for each other in their roles as parents. An essential aspect of t h i s group would be native professionals working in the area of family therapy, c h i l d care, or s o c i a l work who can serve as resource people for t h i s group. A family support group is one means where the Musqueam community as a whole can share in the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of supporting a l l of i t s members. Community Resource Worker The c h i l d welfare task force should also seek appointment of a community resource worker whose position would be to est a b l i s h resources at the Musqueam band. The primary function of t h i s position would be to act as a consultant to the task force in developing c h i l d welfare resources for the band. This individual should be a native person familiar with West Coast Native groups and competent in writing funding proposals and negotiating c h i l d welfare agreements with the P r o v i n c i a l and Federal governments. Funding Spurges With P r o v i n c i a l spending r e s t r a i n t and current Federal government spending cutbacks i t is d i f f i c u l t for the Band to receive funding through the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s or the Ministry of Social Services and Housing. I would recommend that the Ministry of Social Services and 53 Housing provide funding for the development of kinship homes and a group home on the reserve. The Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , I would Suggest, should provide the funding for family and c h i l d services under the auspices of th e i r s o c i a l development funding. In any event the Musqueam Indian band must develop s p e c i f i c funding proposals addressed to both levels of government for the programs i t seeks to develop on reserve. The exact nature of funding goes beyond the scope of thi s paper and is an issue that the c h i l d welfare task force must address with each l e v e l of government. Planning Future Program Development The Musqueam Indian band i s in the beginning stages of developing c h i l d and family services at the band. In the next year I would recommend that the band pursue four areas in developing community-specific, band-based programs on reserve. These four areas are as follows: the establishment of a Child and Family Welfare Committee; the completion of a comparative survey of other native c h i l d welfare programs; the organization of community meetings focussed on c h i l d welfare issues; and the • securing of a consultant to a s s i s t with funding proposals. The band council must esta b l i s h a Child and Family Welfare Committee with a s p e c i f i c mandate, clear objectives and goals. This Child and Family Welfare Committee should be d i r e c t l y responsible to the band council for completing i t s mandate, goals and objectives. In turn t h i s committee must delegate tasks to the task force for completion. The c h i l d welfare task force should be responsible to the committee for completion of i t s tasks. The Child and Family Welfare Committee must provide 54 the d i r e c t i o n for p o l i c i e s and programs on reserve, be responsible for securing a consultant and negotiating program proposals and funding with both levels of government. In eff e c t the Child and Family Welfare Committee should assume the functions and roles that the task force now is engaged i n . The task force would therefore become a working committee organizing community meetings, gathering information, and implementing the p o l i c i e s and programs established by the committee. The rationale for thi s structure i s to insure a l l a c t i v i t i e s are coordinated and Child and Family services are established according to p o l i c i e s that r e f l e c t the c u l t u r a l uniqueness of the Musqueam people. The Child and Family committee, I would recommend, should v i s i t programs established on other reserves to gather information on comparative native family and c h i l d welfare services. Gathering data on exis t i n g programs on other reserves would give ideas for new i n i t i a t i v e s at the Musqueam band. Other bands have developed expertise that could benefit the Musqueam band's s i t u a t i o n . The Spallumcheen, Squamish, Nuu Chah Nulth, McLeod Lake, and Carrier-Sekani bands can provide examples of how current programs have been developed and may provide ideas or expertise for sharing with the Musqueam band. A t h i r d area the Musqueam band must pursue i s engaging the community in the development of band based family and c h i l d welfare services. Thus far the majority of ideas have been generated through a small number of band members that make up the current task force. It i s important that a l l Musqueam band members have an opportunity to be involved in the planning, development and implementation of services in order for these 55 services to be successful. I n i t i a l investment by Musqueam band members in program development, I believe, w i l l ensure they are u t i l i z e d and supported in the community. The Child and Family Welfare Committee must give ample opportunity for community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and discussion of any p o l i c i e s or programs that i t wishes to implement. Ongoing community meetings provide t h i s opportunity for community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i n a l l y the band, I believe must hire a consultant with expertise in program development and writing program proposals. This consultant must be familiar with West Coast Native Communities, l o c a l culture, the structure of the Musqueam band and the power structures of the Ministry of Social Services and Housing and the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s . This consultant should therefore a s s i s t the band in program formulation and negotiations with both levels of government. If the Musqueam Indian band pursues these four areas they w i l l make positive progress in establishing c u l t u r a l l y relevant, band-based family and c h i l d welfare services at the' band. 56 CONCLUSION Successful c h i l d welfare programs at the Musqueam Indian band w i l l be a mixture of contemporary c h i l d welfare services as well as t r a d i t i o n a l programs based on the current structure \ and values of the community. E f f e c t i v e programs on the Musqueam reserve must have a single purpose; to keep Musqueam children connected geographically, l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and ceremonially to the band. Maintaining t i e s to the band promotes belonging, a sense of ident i t y , and security for Musqueam children. Musqueam c h i l d welfare programs should not merely r e f l e c t t r a d i t i o n a l Indian methods of parenting, or attempt to incorporate t r a d i t i o n a l s p i r i t u a l ceremonies. Rather they should ensure that children remain connected to the i r native community and to the i r kin associations. In short, successful c h i l d welfare programs must empower the l o c a l band members by promoting community p a r t i c i p a t i o n , autonomy, self-determination, and c u l t u r a l relevance. I believe that the research findings strongly support the current e f f o r t s of the Musqueam band to develop a c h i l d welfare program, one that acknowledges the contemporary aspirations of Musqueam band members who l i v e in a setting adjoining a modern urban community. The research also "builds upon positive c u l t u r a l connections with Indian t r a d i t i o n s and kinship networks. There is s pecial emphasis on connectedness in geography, language, s p i r i t u a l i t y , experience, and kinship t i e s . It is my hope that t h i s research accurately r e f l e c t s what Musqueam members have portrayed to me and aids them in securing their own c h i l d welfare programs. 57 ENDNOTES CHAPTER 1 1. Johnston, P., Native Children and the Child Welfare System. Toronto, Ontario: James Lorimer and Company, 1983 p.23. 2. Johnston, P., Native C h i l d r e n and the C h i l d Welfare System. Toronto, Ontario: James Lorimer and Company., 1983 pp.59,60. 3. Amicus Populi Consulting; A Personal and Cultural Identity. Unpublished Manuscript, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver., 1986 p.3. 4. C o l l i n s , Mark., Child Welfare Among Native People. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Unpublished Manuscript., 1977 p.32. 5. Johnston, P., Native Children and the Child Welfare System. Toronto, Ontario: James Lorimer and Company., 1983 p.60. 6. Indian Self Government in Canada - Report of the Special House of Commons Committee, 1983 p.32. 7. Duff, W. The Indian History of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ihe. Impact of the White Man. Vol. 1., V i c t o r i a ; P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1964, p.57. 8. Duff, W. The Indian History of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Impact of the White Man. Vol. 1., V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1964. p.60. 9. Howthorn, H. B., A Survey of Contemporary Indians of Canada: A Report on Economic. P o l i t i c a l , Educational Needs and P o l i c i e s . Vol. 1,2., Ottawa: Department of Indian and Northern Development. 1960 p.50. 10. Duff, W. The Indian History of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Impact of the White Man. Vol. 1., V i c t o r i a ; P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1964. p.60. 11. B r i t i s h North America Act f Section 91(24). 12. Bain,' L. J., Social Assistance P o l i c y Alternatives: Issues and Options as Identified by Bands and T r i b a l Councils of B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished Manuscript, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver., 1986 p.22. 13. Indian Self Government in Canada - Report of the Special House of Commons Committee, 1983 p.15. 14. Pelton, J. Poverty and the Potential for Child Maltreatment. I l l i n o i s : Row, Peterson and Company. 1981 58 15. Residential Education for Indian Acculturation. Indian and Eskimo Welfare Commission, 1958., p.4. 16. Program C i r c u l a r . Department of Indian and Northern Development. 1969. 17. MacDonald, J.A. Child Welfare and Native Peoples of Canada. Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Unpublished Manuascript, 1985., p. 5. 18. Johnston, P. Native Children and the Child Welfare System. Toronto, Ontario: James Lorimer and Company., 1983 p.87. CHAPTER 2 1. Patton, M.Q., Qualitative Evaluation Methods. Sage Publications, Beverly H i l l s . , C a l i f o r n i a . , p. 4. 2. Glaser, B. Theoretical S e n s i t i v i t y . M i l l Valley, C a l i f o r n i a : Sociology Press, p. 20 & 21. 3. Glaser, B. Theoretical S e n s i t i v i t y . M i l l Valley, C a l i f o r n i a : Sociology Press, p. 17. CHAPTER 3 1. Lewis, C , Indian Families of the Northwest Coast: The impact of Change. Chicago, I l l i n o i s , University of Chicago Press; 1970. p.17. 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bailey, Kenneth D. Methods of Social Research. Second Ed i t i o n . The Free Press, New York, 1982. Bain, L.J. Social Assistance P o l i c y Alternative: Issues and Options as Indentifled by Bands and T r i b a l Councils of B.C. Unpublished manuscript, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, School of Social Work, Vancouver, 1986 B e l l , Winnefred. "Obstacles to Ch i f t i n g the Descriptive to the A n a l y t i c a l Approach in Teaching Social Services" Journal of Education for Social Work. (Spring, 1969). Bernard, Russell H. Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology. London, Sage Publication, 1988. Bowles, Richard et. a l . The Indian; ASSlfflUatjon, Integration or Sepeyatjon? Scarborough, Ontario, Prentice H a l l , 1972. Cardinal, H. The Uniust Society. The Tragedy of Canada's Indians. Edmonton, Alberta, M.G. Hurtig Publishers, 1969. Cooke, K. Images of Indians Held by Non-Indians: A Review of Current Canadian Research. Ottawa, Ontario: Indian and Northern A f f a i r s Canada, Research Branch, 1984. Dakota-Ojibway Child and Family Services. Taking Care of Our Own. (Videotape) Available from the Library of the Ministry of Social Services and Housing, 800 Cassiar Street, Vancouver, B.C. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia. An H i s t o r i c a l Review. Indian A f f a i r s Branch, Ottawa, Ontario, 1969. Department of Indian and Northern Development. Program C i r c u l a r : Child Welfare Program Policy, 1982. Douglas, Jack D. Investigative Social Research. London, Sage Publications, 1976. Duff, W. The Indian History of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Impact of the White Man. (Vol.1) V i c t o r i a , B.C. The B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum. Family and Child Services Act. V i c t o r i a , B.C. Queens Pr i n t e r . 1980. F i l s t e a d , W.J., Qualitative Methodology. Chicago, I l l i n o i s , Markham Publishing, 1972. Frideres, J. Native People In Canada. Contemporary C o n f l i c t s . Scarborough, Ontario, Prentice H a l l , 1983. 60 G i l b e r t , Nell and Specht, Harry. Dimensions of Social Welfare Pol i c y . C a l i f o r n i a , Prentice H a l l , 1974. G r i n n e l l , Richard M. Social Work Research and Evaluation. Second E d i t i o n . F.E. Peacock Publishers, I l l i n o i s , 1985. Hawthorn, H.B. A Survey of Contemporary Indians of Canada: A Report on Economic. P o l i t i c a l , Educational Needs and P o l i c i e s . Vol. 1,2. Ottawa: Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Hudson, P. and McKenzie, R. "Child Welfare and Native People: The extension of Colonialism" Social Worker. 49 (2) 1981. Johnston, P. Native Children and the Child Welfare System. Toronto, Ontario: The Canadian Council on Social Develop- ment in Association with James Lorimer and Company, 1983. Kallen, E. E t h n i c i t y and Human Rights in Canada. Toronto Ontario, Gage Educational Publishing, 1982. Kirk, R. Wisdom of the Elders. Native Traditions on the Northwest Coast. Vancouver, B.C. Douglas Mclntyre, 1986. Kluckhohn, C. and Murray, H. Personality in Nature, Society, and Culture. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1961. Kluckhohn, F. and Strodtbeck, F. Variations in Value Orientations. Evanston, I l l i n o i s , Row, Peterson and Company, 1961. Kroeber, A. and Kluckhohn, C. Culture - A C r i t i c a l Review of Concepts and D e f i n i t i o n s . New York, Vintage Books, 1952. L e v i t t , K. and Wharf, B. The Challenge of Child Welfare. Vancouver, B.C. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1985. Lewis, C. Indian Families of the Northwest Coast: The Impact of Change. Chicago, I l l i n o i s , University of Chicago Press, 1970. MacDonald, J.A. Spallumcheen Indian Band and i t s Impact on Child Welfare Policy in B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981. MacDonald, J.A. Report of an Evaluation of the Child Welfare Program of the Spallumcheen Indian Band. Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982. MacDonald, J.A. Child Welfare and Native Peoples of Canada. Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985. McKenzie, B. "Social Work Practice with Native People." An Introduction to Social Work Practice in Canada. Scarborough, Ontario, Prentice H a l l , 1985. 61 McLaughin, Audrey. Native Content In the Social Work Curriculum. A Report funded by the Donner Foundation, School of Social Work, University of V i c t o r i a , 1982. Mignacco, Charlene. Towards Native Control of Child Welfare the Nuu-Chah-Nulth Council "A Case in Point." Vancouver, University of B r i t i s h Columbia: Research for Master of Social Work Program. 1984. Patton, Michael Q. Qualitative Evaluation Methods. London, Sage Publications, 1980. Pimento, B. "Native Families in Jeopardy, The Child Welfare System in Canada." Occasional Papers in Social P o l i c y Analysis No. 11. Toronto, Ontario, Institute for Studies in Education, 1985. Pincus, Alle n and Minahan Anne. Social Work Practice: Model and Method, Madison: Peacock Publishers, 1973. Ponting, J.R. and Gibbons, R. Out of Irrelevance. Scarborough, Ontario, Butterworth and Company, 1980. Redhorse, J. "Indian Family Values and Experiences." T_he_ Psychological Development of Minority Group Children. New York, Brunner Mazel Publishers, 1983. Report of the Special Committee, Indian Self Government in Canada, House of Commons, Canada, 1983. Sheffe, Norman. Issues for the Seventies. Canada's Indians. Toronto, Ontario, McGraw H i l l , 1970. Spallumcheen Indian Band. The Soallumcheen Band Child Welfare Program,. An information a r t i c l e , 1988. Stanbury, W.T. The Social and Economic Conditions of Indian Families in B r i t i s h Columbia. Report prepared for the Royal Commission of Family and Childrens law. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974. Strauss, Anselm L. Qualitative Analysis for Social S c i e n t i s t s . Cambridge University Press, 1987. Tester, Frank. " S t i l l Not Home, The Indian and Native Child and Family Service, Provisions of Ontario's B i l l 77", The Social Worker, Vol. 55 No. 4, Winter, 1986. Wharf, B. Toward F i r s t Nation Control of Child Welfare: A Review of Emerging Development in B.C. University of V i c t o r i a , School of Social Work, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1987. 62 APPENDIX "A" THE MEANING OF CONNECTEDNESS FOR MUSQUEAM INDIANS A community sense of belonging, a personal and community id e n t i t y also includes a sense of continuity through the generations. Core Category: Geographic Connectedness - The physical land the Musqueams view of thi s land as having a s p i r i t that gives d i r e c t i o n , a v i s i o n , and uni f i e s the Musqueam people with nature. Sample of Supporting Quotes "Those people have l i v e d there for for 4000 years in one place." "That reserve, i t i s stable and d i f f i c u l t to move away from" "Due to s o c i a l and economic dynamics those people are less mobile and dispersable." "Elements of t r a d i t i o n a l land use s t i l l p e r s i s t , but they are in a new set t i n g . T r a d i t i o n a l land use and ceremonies are changing and the Musqueam people recognize i t . They are s t i l l v i t a l and important to the community." "The key difference between family Musqueam and the larger society is a c c e s s i b i l i t y to family and kin. " "If you want to find a connection between people there w i l l be a connection at (the band) that they can plug in to." "The land gives a v i s i o n a di r e c t i o n for our people." u n i f i e s the Musqueam "Human being and native are People with native u n i f i e d - the creator u n i f i e s the creation." "Each family is represented by an animal, and that characterizes what each family w i l l be l i k e . " Axial Codes l i v e d in one place hundreds of years less mobile and dispersable land importance close proximity of family provides v i s i o n 63 Core Category: Kinship Connectedness - Diffuse connections between individuals and families which Axial Codes kin association encompass most of the Musqueam community. Sample of Supporting Quotes "There i s a much larger recognition of kin and relatedness than in white society. Family networks are d i f f u s e , quite large and quite variable." connects the members together obligation to kin kin support A c c e s s i b i l i t y of people to family Diffuse extended kin Intergenerational continuity B i l a t e r a l Nature of status and belonging "If you want to find a connection there w i l l be a connection." "Everybody is related to somebody ...we are one big family." "There is a very great sense of obligation to kin. Families are right away there to help." "When someone is short of food or the welfare money has run out, there w i l l always be food and money avai l a b l e . Everything is shared." "At longhouse dancing, at funerals, or weddings, families come to support each other. Families help each other when they see someone in trouble." "The key difference between people Musqueam and the larger society is a c c e s s i b i l i t y to family and kin. " "There are over 700 who are my re l a t i v e s there. If you're a blood kin, or born into the band, or marry into i t , you have a large interaction with kin f o l k . " "There is a history of family relationships. Generations extend to the second and t h i r d and fourth generations." "My grandparents were part of the o r i g i n a l people, so I s t i l l have a lo t of r e l a t i v e s today." "Status and belonging are passed on to children b i l a t e r a l l y . Grandparents on both sides were ca l l e d by a single term." " A l l uncles, aunts, fathers, brothers, mothers, s i s t e r s , and f i r s t 64 cousins are a l l under one term." Role of elders "Every morning, the old men would get up and t a l k . The older people pass on the t r a d i t i o n s and the knowledge they had." qpre category; S p i r i t u a l and Ceremonial Connectedness - S p i r i t u a l and ceremonial practices that for the Musqueam people include s p i r i t dances, s p i r i t names and longhouse ceremonies. Axial Code longhouse dancing S p i r i t Names S p i r i t Power Samples of Supporting Quotes "They are in the longhouse for four days. Certain things go on. You get a vision...you're in a dreamland u n t i l your song comes." "Every winter we have s p i r i t dancing where we give Indian names to our children." "We s t i l l pass on the Indian names we had from way back. Every family has their own names. There are alot of names that have been l o s t . " "Our children grow up and take on the s p i r i t names from way back." "You get i n i t i a t e d and get s p i r i t power. This i s c a l l e d s p i r i t u a l gains." "Your s p i r i t power gives you d i r e c t i o n in your l i f e ; which path you should follow." I n i t i a t i o n ceremony "Young people get i n i t i a t e d . They are in the longhouse for four days. Certain things go on. They get a v i s i o n ; you can't get out of the longhouse. You're in a dreamland u n t i l your song comes. You i n i t i a t e the v i s i o n that you see. Your v i s i o n power comes to you. " "The Young people have to keep drumming, r a t t l i n g and singing u n t i l his s p i r i t song or dance comes out." 65 Core Category, L i n g u i s t i c Connectedness - The language of Halkomelem that was t r a d i t i o n a l l y spoken and transmits the Musqueam culture in a f u l l and r i c h meaningful way, and contemporary language and i t s attributed meaning. Samples of Supporting Quotes MXa,l Codes Halkamelom Generalization of F i t s structure of Halkomelem Language transmits culture Language loss "Our language is Halkomelom." "The older elders and e a r l i e r generations would know Halkomelem" "She would generalize English words as i f they were Halkomelem." "Current language r e f l e c t s the structure of e a r l i e r times." " A l l uncles, aunts, fathers brothers, mothers, s i s t e r s , and f i r s t cousins are a l l under one term." "There i s a new set of kin terms used c o l l o q u i a l l y , but they're used with f i t t i n g some of the structure that comes through e a r l i e r times." " S p i r i t u a l ceremonies, longhouse dancing, and s p i r i t names when spoken in Halkomelem are more meaningful." "The Halkomelem language i s important for passing on the tra d i t i o n s and so on. I t r y to talk Indian to my grandchildren so that they w i l l know what we did in the past." "I was t e l l i n g my great grand daughter before you got here that they wanted us to forget to talk Indian. If a nun heard you talk i n g to another g i r l in Indian you got punished." "No one knows the Halkomelem language anymore, i t s a d i f f i c u l t language to learn. There is no one who can teach the younger ones anymore." 66 Core Category: Experiential Connectedness - The commonality that are part of both the recent history and contemporary l i f e at the Musqueam Indian Band. Axial CQflfts Samples of Supporting Quotes Residential Schools "A l o t of our people went to r e s i d e n t i a l schools in Coqultlam, on the Island, St. Pauls, or across the border. We were only home for a few months of the summer. We weren't allowed to speak our language." "Lots of elders don't know the history or t r a d i t i o n s anymore because they went to r e s i d e n t i a l schools." Reserve System Dependence on outside agencies "You can never be t o t a l l y happy with the reserves. They create c o n f l i c t among our people...The reserve makes us dependent on the department. We have to learn not to depend on the department, but be s e l f - r e l i a n t . " Control and Self determination Ceremonial Social Exper ience Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n "We would l i k e p a r t i a l control and j u r i s d i c t i o n over c h i l d welfare and the band. For example, we would l i k e a group home for our teenagers so that they do not have to go to foster homes outside the band." "Children today, have to educate themselves and become s e l f r e l i a n t , they have to learn not to depend on the department." "Musqueam value t r a d i t i o n s and ceremonies because they are tremendously rewarding personally and in s o c i a l experience. "The Ceremonies are an adaptation, but they are a rewarding aspect of that contemporary culture." "To be Indian, is to participate and be a good member of the community." "We have to have community meetings where people can say what they think, and what they would l i k e for programs at the band." Band Membership "If you are a member of the band and l i v e here you belong. You 67 know what i t means to be Musqueam." 68 APPENDIX "B" CODING EXAMPLE 1. Traditions - constant state of change over time. 2. Influence of dominant culture. 3. Idealization of t r a d i t i o n s , c u l t u r a l elements. 4. Inaccuracy of reconstructing past. 5. Uniqueness of current community. 6. Linkage of past to present-connectedness. 7. F a m i l i a l structure. 8. Prestene past. 9. Descriptive account. 10. Encumberment of the past. 11. Cultural d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s . 12. V i t a l i t y and significance of r e l i g i o n . 13. Indianness/Separation 14. Highly valued r e l i g i o u s experience. 15. Religious adaptation to land base. 16. Crosscurrent of opinion about c h i l d rearing. 17. Parameters of c h i l d rearing. 18. Abstractions of memory. 19. Family d e f i n i t i o n . 20. L i n g u i s t i c f a m i l i a l l a b e l s . 21. F a m i l i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . 22. Kinship closeness/distance. 23. Double descent. 24. Diffuse family networks. 25. Kinship support. 26. A c c e s s i b i l i t to kin t i e s . 27. Geographical proximity. 28. contemporary s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l dynamics. 29. Cultural evolution. The above codes refers to open coding by phrase or paragraph. The numbers correspond to the statements numbered in the t r a n s c r i p t . This open coding procedure was conducted with a l l the interviews. From the massive l i s t of open codes, core categories were constructed which incorporated into the core categories and therefore conceptual density was not achieved. Further interviewing, date analysis may reveal other categories leading to conceptual density. This i s beyond the scope of t h i s thesis. 69 APPENDIX "C" TRANSCRIPT OF INTERVIEW WITH A MUSQUEAM ELDER Background to the interview. Interview was conducted on March 3, 1989. Verbal consent was received for p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the research project. ???? has a long history of involvement with Musqueam band. His f i r s t wife, now deceased, was Musqueam, and he has two sons who are members of the band. He has about forty years of contact with the band and is familiar with band members and the i r values and family l i f e . R: T r a d i t i o n a l , you were saying that t r a d i t i o n a l are things of the past and c h i l d rearing that they used to have. You made a nice statement. They used to have and i t s probably changed. 1. I: Changed due to assimilations into the white culture. 2. R: Right. I: That's how I view i t and I think and I have read in the l i t e r a t u r e that they are not going to be able to go back to the ways things were. R: That's r i g h t . I: What I am looking at i s what sort of p r i n c i p l e s and core values that they can incorporate, at least in p r i n c i p l e in their l i f e s tyle now. R: My response to that i s that is going to head us to trouble, and that we need to think d i f f e r e n t l y about that. Two reasons why I guess that's d i f f i c u l t . One reason why that is d i f f i c u l t i s that you are setting out to discover, to f i n d , to id e n t i f y , what i s t r a d i t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l elements or patterns or boundaries that i s of that past time, ide a l i z e d . 3. There i s and empirical problem in that, i t is impossible to reach that time. To discover 70 what was. 4. You can touch the periphery of i t through the memory of old people perhaps, and through some of the l i t e r a t u r e you may touch the edges of that. To bring i t back and reconstruct i t i s v i r t u a l l y impossible. To find i t a l l and reconstruct i t in an a r t i f i c i a l sense. Our view t e l l s us i t s not there; of course i t s not there. Things have changed. They assimilate, they change. We are trying to do something thats incredibly d i f f i c u l t . A second point is why we want to go back to that t r a d i t i o n a l , in the sense of the long past. We are tryin g to find out what i s s p e c i f i c and unique to t h i s group of people that has to do with c h i l d rearing practices, and how these practices might d i f f e r from the surrounding community. To put i t another way, how do we reach back not into the distant past, but what i s s p e c i f i c and d i f f e r e n t about what i s there now? 5. So i f we change the word t r a d i t i o n a l to something that i s - your task becomes not to i d e n t i f y what is t r a d i t i o n a l but what i s the c u l t u r a l value pattern of c h i l d rearing at Musqueam now. There you see what we have done, we have made that realm of phenomena reachable because i t i s there now. You can go out and find something out about i t . It is an interesting question why we are lead to reach way back to the past. I: The question that I have, i s whether the way of looking at l i f e the way the native view themselves, the community, the environment, is that s t i l l intact today? And how has i t changed? R: You don't r e a l l y need to know how i t s changed in great d e t a i l , what you need to know is whats there that is unique 71 and s p e c i f i c to these people that they value. It has Its roots in the past. To puzzle out those connections i s an incredibly hard thing to do because you don't have any re a l ground to get a hold of that data or phenomena. 6. But you can find out by interviewing people, what they want their family l i f e to be, what they want their children to be and you can establish that very empirically. It is there. It i s a matter of c o l l e c t i n g i t and discovering i t . 7. I would suggest that you should get r i d of that word t r a d i t i o n a l and encourage Musqueam to get r i d of that word t r a d i t i o n a l and to think in a model which is d i f f e r e n t . A model that doesn't concern i t s e l f so much with assimilation and c u l t u r a l change over the long run. What I'm saying i s think d i f f e r e n t l y from the mainstream of people l i k e yourself. Anthropology is as g u i l t y as s o c i a l work or any other people in perpetuating t h i s notion of some prestihe past, which i s almost a sacred thin of the t r a d i t i o n a l culture of these people. 8. We s t i l l write descriptive accounts of what Indian culture is l i k e . 9. By reaching back to that thing we say that they l i v e d in wooden long houses and we perpetuate that view of people. It is a view that locks them into that past. It encumbers them with that past l i f e in a way that is not necessary. The past l i f e is great, as long as you're not burdened by i t . If you have to be l i k e that past continually i t ' s a burden. It's a burden and i t ' s u n r e a l i s t i c . 10. I: I think i t is u n r e a l i s t i c . R: Yes, but you sense that. I: From what I hear you saying, is that rather than looking 72 back to the past, l e t s look at and by talking to people at Musqueam band, l e t s find out what they want the i r family l i f e to be right now and how that's d i f f e r e n t from the larger society. 11. R: Exactly, and that things are always changing in every culture, we are not what we were 200 years ago. We are completely d i f f e r e n t in c h i l d rearing than even 50 years ago. In my childhood i t was d i f f e r e n t than in your childhood. It has to do with changing values and s o c i a l structures and so on. Musqueam has been caught up in that form of change as well. They don't want to go back to l i v e in wooden long houses. Elements of their t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n s t i l l p e r s i s t , but they're in a new setting there, not what they were at 100 or even forty years ago. They're changing and people recognize i t , but they are s t i l l very v i t a l , and they're d i f f e r e n t . 12. They are very important in that community there. They have to do with what being Indian i s there. It sets them off dramatically from the surrounding people. 13. They value them for that reason partly, and they also value them because they are tremendously rewarding personally and in s o c i a l experience. 14. It is a positive rewarding aspect of contemporary culture. It is an adaptation, everything i s an adaptation. 15. I: So then, you have been out at the Musqueam band a l o t . I have talked to Faye and she says you're out there quite a l o t . R: Yes. I: Maybe you have some perceptions of what i t means to be an 73 Indian at the Musqueam band right now? R: A l i t t l e but I'm not as close as I would i f I li v e d there. Actually I have two sons that are Musqueam band members. My f i r s t wife who passed away some years ago was from that place. Since she has died b i l l C31 has allowed our sons to become status Indians and are now members of the band. Their Mother would have been very g r a t i f i e d to know. One l i v e s in Vancouver and is a part of the society there. I don't l i v e there so I don't know what the issues and d i f f i c u l t i e s might be in c h i l d rearing right now. You can bounce some questions off me and as an informed outsider I might be able to help you. At the outset, i f you set out what you are going to do is to find out what the current values and wishes and practices are about what c h i l d rearing, you get into the cross currents of opinion about what c h i l d rearing should be and what families ought to be. 16. That is a big job, but one could set to sketch that and show the parameters of that. 17. Now you can also reach back to a b i t of the past which i s s t i l l current and that i s views of the people my age and older. The elders who have views from experience what l i f e should be. You could do some interviews of people that are not about the past. If you ask them to reach into the past they can't do i t too that 100 years ago, and you put them at a disadvantage because you ask them the question as i f you expect them to be able to do that. It asks them to do the Impossible. Often we do that and we don't r e a l i z e what we are doing. Its not productive. What i t does is spin out abstract models that 74 they have picked up on that they manufacture for us. 18. Really they are not very h e l p f u l . Furthermore i t sustains that model of a prestine kind of past, that somehow has to be part of the present. For Musqueam to get the money for this kind of program they have to say they l i v e in long houses, and have t h i s extended family thing in some kind of an a r t i f i c i a l sense. They do have a sense of family that is d i f f e r e n t today and you can get at that. I: My f i r s t question is then from your sense of Musqueam, what i s d i f f e r e n t about the family that you can pick out? R: You need to ask that question too in a sort of way that you can get facts and data about experience from people. There is a sense of family and community there that doesn't exis t in the larger society. For myself I can apply a kin term to everybody at Musqueam. There are 700 people who are my r e l a t i v e s . If you're a blood kin or born into one of these communities, or i f you marry into another community your world of interaction with native people are kin f o l k . 19. That s t i l l l i v e s but i t l i v e s in a s l i g h t l y changed way. People Fayes' age probably know very few kin folk who speak Halkomelem. She would generalize English terms as i f they were Hasqueam. We would get uncle and aunt in the o r i g i n a l e a r l i e r system and in the system that's s t i l l a l i v e for some of the people. There i s in the f i r s t and second generation, Mother and Father are d i s t i n c t . There i s one terra for each of these categories. A l l the rest are the same -blood kin. No matter how far out the generations extend, so that a l l Uncle and Aunts (not t heir spouses) but a l l Fathers, Brothers, Mothers, 75 Sisters and f i r s t Cousins of those people area a l l under one term. It covers a l l of them. 2 0 . They do not dis t i n g u i s h gender. English people w i l l use the term Uncle or Aunt. They have hundreds of Aunts and Uncles not in the narrow English sense. There is a new set of kin terms used c o l l o q u i a l l y but they're used with f i t t i n g some of the structure that comes through e a r l i e r times. There are large c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and categories of kin folk by generation. 2 1 . Faye would use those terms and know some of the s p e c i f i c s of i t , but what i t creates i s a framework of kin, of relatedness, in very large categories for everyone to plug into. I: So then, when you look at the Musqueam band and you talk about kinship i t involves a l o t of the whole community. R: Yes. If they want to find a connection, there w i l l be a connection. That doesn't mean to say that you are the same or as close to everyone as everyone else in the same category. There is a sel e c t i o n within that, to there is a closeness and distance within the same rel a t i o n s h i p . If you have as you can have a 1 0 0 or so grandparents, they're not a l l the same. There i s a closeness to ones' immediate parents parents. 2 2 . There is a much larger recognition of kin and i t s r e l a t i v e l y stable in terms of residence, and i t s grown very much. It has a history of family relationships and a patronim as defined by some but not exclusively because these people t r a d i t i o n a l l y e a r l i e r and s t i l l don't give greater weight to the male or female connection. You in h e r i t equally from either parent names or rights or kin associations. The patronimic bat t l e r y i s 76 not a l l that meaningful, but It is s t i l l used. 23. You can i d e n t i f y the families very well at the ceremonial and r i t u a l events. At smoke house dancing or at funerals families come together to support close kin. They are helped by those who are not quite as close. Families are very large. Those kind of family networks are quite d i f f u s e , quite large and quite variable in the i r d e f i n i t i o n s . 24. Those are very l i v e and active and they support people in times of trouble. Everyone has some kin that they can go to. Children have wide c i r c l e s of older kinfolk who they can go to or some of the infants can be looked a f t e r . 25. There is a very great sense of obligation to kin. Those are some of the things that you w i l l be able to fi n d . People w i l l t e l l you immediately about them and give you concrete examples. Families are right away there to help. 26. What i s there and active and valued i s what i s there now; not what might have been a hundred years in the past. There i s community gatherings of larger networks of extended kin. These extended kin have greater meaning at times of c r i s i s and also in times of celebration. Take for example Christmas or Birthdays.. They're great family gatherings and people come together. Anglo-Saxon networks are not as large and connected as that of native people. Those people have l i v e d here for 4000 years in one place. 27. There i s there a continuity of family and a c c e s s i b i l i t y to family. I: I think thats a key difference from the larger society, that a c c e s s i b i l i t y to family and kin. R: Exactly, Its right there and i t s p e r f e c t l y obvious. 77 You can probably see how you can set out to do t h i s . One thing you're going to have to give the same lecture I'm giving to you to Faye and others who expect you to reach to the past because you're a student and a scholar and you have access to that l i b r a r y out there that has a l l that s t u f f . It doesn't have i t there. We didn't explore that, but I can refer you to a l l the l i t e r a t u r e and ethnographies such as Barnett, Marion Smith, and Wayne Bellows and Claudia Lewis. There i s nothing r e a l l y of very much help to you r e a l l y . I: The problem at hand i s what they want at Musqueam right now, R: Right and what you w i l l have to be on guard for i s when you present to them i s to say this what I can get together for you. What you w i l l have to be prepared for is their doubt that is the t r a d i t i o n a l . To get r i d of the word t r a d i t i o n a l from the s t a r t y o u ' l l be ahead. I am not going to look for what was of the past. I am going to look for what i s c u l t u r a l l y relevant to t h i s community now. They have a d i s t i n c t i v e culture now. And why they are d i s t i n c t has p a r t l y to do with th e i r roots, but only partly, i t also has to do with s o c i a l and economic dynamics of that place. The reserve, that i s stable and d i f f i c u l t to move away from. It has people who are e t h n i c a l l y discriminated against. 28. That makes them less mobile and dispersable. If you can overcome that expectation that the other people who want you to produce t h i s picture of the prestine past you w i l l be ahead. I: I guess i t s not r e a l i s t i c to take the past and f i t i t 78 i n t o the prese n t . R: No and t h a t s what t h e i r l i f e i s . They have done t h a t i n a r e a l sense. T h a t has been the a d a p t a t i o n of c u l t u r e . That i s what i t does, i t takes what i s there and t h a t i s what e v o l u t i o n i s . I t i s a d a p t a t i o n and change that f i t s people i n t o the circumstances they're i n . 29. But when you have a c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t people the l a r g e r system looks at them and says, w e l l i t s doing t h i n g s to them t h a t are i n c o n s i s t e n t with those s e t s of values t h a t are there now. And t h a t i s the i n j u s t i c e and u n w o r k a b i l i t y of t h a t kind of s o c i a l s e r v i c e . I: Is there another value or area t h a t r e l a t e s to how they want t h e i r f a m i l y l i f e to be or how they r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n ? R: They want t h e i r c h i l d r e n to be Indian. Very much so. I: What does Indian mean f o r them? R: You should ask them t h a t . I: I plan t o . R: I have a view of t h a t but they w i l l t e l l you what t h a t means. B a s i c a l l y i t means being a good member of the community. APPENDIX "D CONSENT FORM Research Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Native Child Welfare. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Cultural Components of Musqueam Indian Band Child and Family Services. Thank you for considering p a r t i c i p a t i n g in t h i s research project. Please be aware that you are in no way obligated to participate in thi s interview. The information received from t h i s interview w i l l be used for research purposes. No iden t i f y i n g information is required in your answers to these questions. After completion of this project in June 1990, audio taped interview w i l l be.erased. This research w i l l u t i l i z e audio taped interviews with elders at the Musqueam band and other key informants as a means to Identify values and cu l t u r a l patterns of the Musqueam people. This information w i l l be used in developing c h i l d welfare services at the Musqueam band. You have the right to decline to participate in t h i s research. You have the right to withdraw from the research at any time. You have the right to refuse to answer any or a l l questions. The interview w i l l require approximately one hour of your time. Refusal to participate or withdraw would be without prejudice to you. Your signature below indicates your voluntary agreement to participate in this research. If you would l i k e to receive a free summary of the results of the research when i t i s available this f a l l (1989) please print your mailing address in the space provided. I have read the above statement of my rights and I vo l u n t a r i l y consent to participate in this interview and research, and acknowledge a receipt of a copy of thi s consent. Researcher: Stan Kuperis Master of Social Work Candidate, Department of Social Work, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Name: Address: 80 APPENDIX "E" ABSTRACT OF INTERVIEW WITH MUSQUEAM BAND MEMBERS WHO ARE ELDERS. The main theme running through t h i s interview is the intergenerational nature of members in the band. This elder comments on the memories he has of grandparents and parents who were part of the o r i g i n a l people who s e t t l e d in the area. This o r i g i n a l group now is represented in over 700 Musqueam band members. This elder also alludes to the roles that the elders f u l f i l in passing on the history and providing s p i r i t u a l guidance to both adults and children on the band. The effects of the r e s i d e n t i a l school system on l o c a l band members i s a contentious issue with t h i s elder. Some of the e f f e c t s mentioned are the loss of language, loss of t i e s with family, and the loss of s p i r i t u a l ceremonies and s p i r i t power. According to t h i s elder this was the most harmful influence on the Musqueam band In the l a s t 100 years. He comments that there is no one l e f t to speak about the Musqueam history, due to the fact that everyone of the elders spent most of their childhood and youth away from kin and the reserve. This elder discusses s p i r i t u a l i t y and the place of ceremonies within the Musqueam community. The Musqueam people however, believe that i f you t e l l an outsider about s p i r i t power and s p i r i t dances, the power you have received w i l l leave you. This elder was therefore very reluctant to disclose t h i s aspect of the community. In summary; young people are i n i t i a t e d in the longhouse for four days. They receive a v i s i o n and a s p i r i t song. You -remain in a kind of dreamland u n t i l your s p i r i t song comes to you. When you receive t h i s v i s i o n or s p i r i t song, you i n i t i a t e this v i s i o n in your l i f e . In the winter, those who are i n i t i a t e d in the longhouse conduct 81 their s p i r i t dances and s p i r i t songs during longhouse ceremonies. The elder goes on to discuss the reserve system. The reserve he states has created c o n f l i c t among band members. The poor housing, lack of land, alcohol abuse, and a reliance on the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s has created "nagging" and h o s t i l i t y between band members. He states there is no longer a sense of helping one another, but rather competitions and r i v a l r y between kinship groups. His solution to a l l of thi s is gaining control over and assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the i r own s o c i a l problems. He believes education and Musqueam youth learning about the Musqueam and Indian culture w i l l improve l i f e at the band. INTERVIEW WITH ELDER AT THE BAND - RODDIE PETERS Two main themes that emerged from t h i s interview are the strength of kinship t i e s and the extended family parenting within the Musqueam band. Kinship t i e s promote a deep sense of belonging and connects youth to a h i s t o r i c a l lineage of Musqueam ancestry. This elder states that the "strength of native communities is in their extended fam i l i e s " . These extended families have a long history that l i n k s todays youth to the area and land that surrounds them. A second major theme is that of extended family parenting and community p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the l i v e s of a l l Musqueam youth. This elder states that many of the younger people go to the elder" people for advice or just to talk to. The experience and wisdom of the old i s cherished and respected by Musqueam youth. Many of the grandparents also take one of these grandchildren 82 and take a very active role in their parenting. There is a sense of communal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for children and a l l members of the band. INTERVIEW WITH ANTHRQPQLQGIST This Anthropologist has a long history of involvement with the Musqueam Indian Band. He has had 40 years of involvement with the band, and i s fa m i l i a r with band members, their values and family l i f e . The main point that t h i s anthrop*logist makes is that the notions of connecting ceremonies and t r a d i t i o n s of the past to current Musqueam l e f t i s impossible to do. Not only i s i t impossible to do, i t also burdens the Musqueam people by encumbering them to the past. Rather, th i s Anthropologist suggests that i t is important to empirically determine what Musqueam people want the i r family l i f e to be right now, and how that is d i f f e r e n t from the larger society. This Anthropologist goes on to state his d e f i n i t i o n of kin networks at the band. He makes the important point that kin networks are the essential difference between the Musqueam community and the larger society. Kin networks are the large c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and categories of kin folk that creates the sense of relatedness and belonging for band members. This interview was very useful in providing an overview of the Musqueam community and i t s uniqueness from the larger society and other native groups. It provided a framework for c o l l e c t i n g data and approaching the research topic. 83 INTERVIEW TO FEMALE ELDER AT THE BAND This interview begins by providing a h i s t o r i c a l perspective on family l i f e on the reserve. It appears from th i s interview that the day to day caring for children was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of grandparents. Children also became more independent by accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y at an early age. The elder contrasts e a r l i e r times at the band, to contemporary times. She concludes that Musqueam youth today are very much influenced by the surrounding contemporary society. In e a r l i e r times, members were s a t i s f i e d with l i f e at the band. Today members look outside the band for s a t i s f a c t i o n . This elder also comments on another s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of Musqueam culture. S p i r i t names are an important aspect of kinship t i e s at the band. Every kin network has a s p i r i t name that is passed on throughout the generations. These s p i r i t names characterized each family. She states that many of the s p i r i t names were lost when the government would not allow longhouse ceremonies or s p i r i t dancing. This elder also makes note of the importance of the Halkomelem language to the Musqueam band. She confirms that the Halkomelem language is important for providing the. f u l l , r i c h meaning behind ceremonies and s p i r i t u a l i t y at the band. 86 page 3 12 Summary of methodolooy and procedures. (Mult be typ e w r i t t e n i n t h i s apace) The method of analysts w i l l be qualitative analysis of relevant l i t e r a t u r e , anthropological studies, and interviews with Musqueam f i r s t nation people at the Musqueam reserve. A sample of 10 subjects w i l l be interviewed. Six w i l l be elders (age 55 and older) and four w i l l be key informants i n the larger community. The inter- views w i l l be conducted as an informal conversation that covers a set of specified topics rather than a structured formal interview schedule. A l l interviews w i l l be audio recorded and transcribed for analysis. The process of analysis w i l l involve successive coding of detailed interviews, texts, relevant literature and anthropological studies. This coding w i l l lead to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of core themes and categories within the wide areflof Musqueam child rearing practices, family structures, and communication patterns. DESCRIPTION OF POPULATION 13 How many subj e c t s w i n be used? How many In the c o n t r o l oroup? 14 Who Is being r e c r u i t e d and what are the c r i t e r i a f o r t h e i r s e l e c t i o n ? Elders of the Musqueam Indian band. Knowledgeable key informants within Vancouvers' large native community. Participants or respondents should have knowledge of traditional customs, chi l d rearing practices, and family structures that are specific to Musqueam peoples. 87 page 3 15 What subjects w i l l be excluded fro t i p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? 16 How are the subjects being r e c r u i t e d ? ( I f I n i t i a l contact 1s by l e t t e r or If a recruitment n o t i c e i s to be posted, a t t a c h a copy.) NOTE that UBC p o l i c y a b s o l u t e l y p r o h i b i t s I n i t i a l contact by telephone. Initial contact will be by band personel who will explain the purpose and procedures of the research. Once this i n i t i a l contact is complete I will be introduced to the respondents by band personel at the time of the interview. I T I f a c o n t r o l group 1s involved, and If t h e i r s e l e c t i o n and/or recruitment d i f f e r s from the above, provide d e t a i l s . N/ A PROJECT DETAILS IB Where w i l l the project be conducted? (room or area) Musqueam Indian Band, 19 Who w i l l a c t u a l l y conduct the study? Stan Kuperis, Master of Social Work Candidate, University of British Columbia. 20 w i l l the group of subjects have any problems g i v i n g Informed consent on t h e i r own behalf? Consider p h y s i c a l or mental c o n d i t i o n , age, language, or other b a r r i e r s . H/A 21 I f the subjects are not competent to give f u l l y Informed consent, who w i l l consent on t h e i r behalf? N/A 32 What 1s known about the r i s k s and b e n e f i t s of the proposed research? Do you have a d d i t i o n a l opinions on t h i s Issue? This research will assist the Musqueam band to develop culturally based programs for child welfare issues within the community. 88 page 4 23 What discomfort or Incapacity are the subjects l i k e l y to endure as a r e s u l t of the experimental procedures? None ->A I f monetary compensation Is to be o f f e r e d the subjects, provide d e t a i l s of amounts and payment schedules. N/A 25 How much time w i l l a subject have to dedicate to the p r o j e c t ? One hour. 26 How much time w i l l a member of the c o n t r o l 0roup ( I f any) have to dedicate to the pro j e c t ? N/A DATA 27 Who w i l l have access to the data? Musqueam Indian Band Council and U.B.C. School of Social Work 28 How w i l l c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of the data be maintained? Data w i l l only be made avai lable to the Musqueam Band Council and U.B.C. faculty only. 29 What are the plans f o r f u t u r e use of the data (beyond that described In t h i s p r o t o c o l ) ? How and when w i l l the data be destroyed? No future use of data beyond this project w i l l be engaged i n . Data w i l l be destroyed in OofcabcT of -3̂ 89- by erasing the audio taped interviews. M"-^ i**9<J JK 30 W i l l any data which i d e n t i f i e s i n d i v i d u a l s be a v a i l a b l e to persons or agencies outside the U n i v e r s i t y ? no 89 CHECKLISTS page 5 31 Will your project use: (check) f ~ l Questionnaires (submit a copy) tc~l Interviews (submit a sample of questions) I I Observations (submit a brief description) I - ! Tests (submit a brief description) 32 Who will consent? (check) Subject I I Parent/Guardian I I agency Official(s) In the e a s e of projects carried out at other Institutions, the Commitee requires written proof that agency consent has been received. Please specify below: I I Research carried out in a hospital - approval of hospital research or ethics committee. f~| Research carried out in a school - approval of School Board and/or Principal. (Exact requirements depend on individual school boards: check with Faculty of Education Commitee members for details) I I Research carried out in a Provincial Health agency - approval of Deputy Minister f~l Other, specify: 33 USC Policy requires written subject consent in all cases other than questionnaires which are completed bv the sublect. (see Item *34 for consent requirements) Please check each Item in the following list before submission of this form to ensure that the written consent form attached contains all necessary Items. [3 Title of project fv\ Identification of investigators (Including a telephone number) fjjjj Brief but complete description IN LAV LANGUAGE of the purpose of the project and of all procedures to be carried out in which the subjects are Involved. O Assurance that identity of the subject will be kept confidential and description of how this will be accomplished Tv\ Statement of the total amount of time that will be required of a subject t~~l Details of monetary compensation, if any, to be offered to subjects. (̂ ] An offer to answer any inquiries concerning the procedures to ensure that they are fully understood by the subject end to provide deferi»fing if appropriate 0 A statement of the subject's right to refuse to participate or withdraw at any time and a statement that withdrawal or refusal to participate will not Jeopardize further treatment, medical care or influence class standing as applicable. NOTE: This statement must also appear on letters of Initial contact. B3 * place for signature of subject CONSENTING to participate In the research project. ~ investigation or study. f̂ TI A statement acknowledging receipt of a copy of the consent form including all attachments. 1 I Parental consent forms must contain a statement of choice providing an option for refusal to participate, (e.g. *I consent/1 do not consent to my child's participation in this study." 90 QUESTIONNAIRES (completed by subjects) page 6 34 Questionnaires should contain an Introductory paragraph which Includes the following Information. Please check each Item In the following Hat before submission of this form to Insure that the introduction contains all necessary items. I I Title of project f \ Identification of investigators (Including a telephone number) f~l A brief summary that Indicates the purpose of the project I I The benefits to be derived T I A full description of the procedures to be carried out m which the subjects are involved I I A statement of the subject's right to refuse to participate or withdraw at any time without Jeopardizing further treatment, medical care or class standing as applicable NOTE: This statement must also appear on explanatory letters involving questionnaires. I~1 the amount of time required of the subject must be stated r~l The statement that if the questionnaire 1s completed it will be assumed that consent has been given Assurance that Identity of the subject will be kept confidential and description of how this will be accomplished. For surveys circulated by mall submit a copy of the explanatory letter as well as a copy of the questionnaire ATTACHMENTS 35 Check Items attached to this submission if applicable. (Incomplete submissions will not be reviewed) Letter of Initial contact (Item 16) Advertisement for volunteer subjects (item 16) JT1 Subject consent form (item 33) I 1 Control group consent form (If different from above) f~l Parent/guardian consent form (if different from above) Fx? Agency consent (item 32) •fv! Questionnaires, tests. Interviews, etc. (item 31) r~l Explanatory letter with questionnaire (Item 34) • Other, specify: 92 r.j.c.ers in terview schedule INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Objectives 1. Identify the dimensions of traditional child rearing practices of F i r s t Nation Peoples. 2. Identify the dimensions of human interaction with the community, and extended family. 3. Identify the traditions, religious practices, and cultural values and beliefs related to children, family and community. Introduction of Research Purpose and rationale for the research Explanation and isgning of consent form Demographic Information. Relationship of the person to their extended family. (Genogram) Age. Definition of what and elder i s in that community. Role the person has in relation to the community. Child Rearing Practices of Today Could you describe how Musqueam children are being brought up today? - d i s c i p l i n e -transmission of values, r e l i g i o n , traditions -education -role and place of children i n the community -nurture and care -other -examples from their observations or experience Identification of Traditional Child Rearing Practices From what was passed on to you what do you know of the tradi t i o n a l practices of raising children in the past? -place of traditions and religious practices -role of elders -role of community in child rearing -how unacceptable behavior was dealt with in the past -vignettes or examples from memories of how children were reared i n the past -other Integration How car. the values, practices and traditions of the past be incorporated into child care practices of today? 9 3 Letter of I n i t i a l Introduction to key informants. Dear I am a graduate Master of Social Work student at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia who i s conducting research into West Coast F i r s t Nation traditional c h i l d rearing patterns. It i s my intention that establishing a parenting model that i s culturally specific to the Musqueam people would promote strength i n families, and in the community as a whole. In addition the inclusion of traditional Musqueam values and practices would help make furture social programs acceptable to band members. The rationale for identifying the dimensions of traditional child rearing practices i s to provide information to social development workers i n the development of their community based ch i l d welfare program. Part of my research w i l l involve collecting anthro- pological data, and supporting data related to this area. It i s my understanding that you have specialized knowledge and information i n this area. It would aid my research and broaden i t s scope i f I were able to interview you regarding the core dimensions of child rearing practices among F i r s t Nation Peoples.The purpose of this l e t t e r i s to alert you to my research. I wish to follow up with contact by telephone and arrange for an interview i f you are i n agreement. Sincerely, Stan Kuperis Master of Social Work, Candidate Department of Social Work, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 94 CONSENT FORK Research Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Native Child Welfare. An Identification of the Cultural and Structural Dimensions of the Musqueam Indian Band Family and Child Services. Thank you for considering participating i n this research project. Please be aware that you are i n no way obligated to participate i n this interview. The information received from this interview w i l l be used for research purposes. No i d e n t i - fying information i s required i n your answers to these questions. After completion of this project in May 1990 the audio taped interview wil l be erased. This research w i l l u t i l i z e audio taped interviews with elders at the Musqueam band and other key informants as a means to identify values and cultural patterns of the Musqueam people. This inform- ation w i l l be used in developing ch i l d welfare services at the Musqueam band. You have the right to decline to participate in this research. You have the right to withdraw from the research at any time. You have the right to refuse to answer any or a l l questions. The interview w i l l require approximately one hour of your time. Refusal to participate or withdraw would be without; prejudice to you. Your signature below indicates you voluntary agreement to participate i n this research. If you would like to receive a free summary of the results of the research when i t i s completed this spring(1990) please print your mailing address i n the space provided. I have read the above statement of my rights and I voluntarily consent to participate i n this interview and research, and acknowledge a receipt of a copy of this consent. Researcher: Stan Kuperi Name: Master of Social Work Candidate, Department Address: of Social Work, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia.

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