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Perceived instructor effectiveness in Canadian prison adult basic education Stewart, Heather M. 1990

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PERCEIVED INSTRUCTOR IN CANADIAN PRISON ADULT EFFECTIVENESS BASIC EDUCATION by r HEATHER M. STEWART B.A., The University of Manitoba, 1958 B.Ped., The University of Manitoba, 1961 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The Department of Administrative, Adult, and Higher Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1990 0 Heather M. Stewart, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Administrariva. A r l i i l r a n d H - i g W Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT In the l a t t e r part of the 1980's, c o n t r a c t i n g by the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada with p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s a c c e l e r a t e d . This c o n t r a c t i n g included p r o v i s i o n of educational programs. Therefore, as a r e s u l t of a new emphasis upon Canadian l i t e r a c y education during the same period, there arose a need to s e l e c t numbers of contract personnel who would be e f f e c t i v e i n pr i s o n adult b a s i c education teaching. Subsequently, eighteen teachers i n the Ontario and P a c i f i c Regions of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada were subjects of a study that sought information about e f f e c t i v e n e s s c r i t e r i a to a s s i s t i n the s e l e c t i o n of teachers for p r i s o n adult b a s i c education teaching. The  Ev a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors r a t i n g instrument e s t a b l i s h e d an upper q u a r t i l e that i d e n t i f i e d f i v e p r i s o n adult b a s i c education teachers perceived as most e f f e c t i v e , and a lower q u a r t i l e of f i v e p r i s o n adult basic education teachers perceived as le a s t e f f e c t i v e . Teachers completed the Demographic Data Questionnaire, p r o v i d i n g information about academic education, teaching experience, a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and education, and c e r t i f i c a t i o n . They then p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s t r u c t u r e d , o r a l i n t e r v i e w , the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey, responding to questions about t h e i r teaching s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r personal b e l i e f s regarding the e f f e c t s of p r i s o n education. Three experienced c o r r e c t i o n a l educators rated these responses according to c r i t e r i a that i i i suggested possession of q u a l i t i e s such as sense of mission, s t r u c t u r e , and empathy. Three teachers from the high group a l s o responded to the Supplementary Questionnaire, which asked for t h e i r perceptions of t h e i r own s c h o o l i n g , relevant l i f e experiences, and a t t i t u d e s to t h e i r students as i n d i v i d u a l s . A n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s of the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors i n d i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the two groups on each of eleven c r i t e r i a , with greatest d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n for the c r i t e r i a o r I g i n a l . o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e , adaptable, and s t i m u l a t i n g . A n a l y s i s of responses to the Demographic Data Questionnaire showed that i n the high group there was a greater percentage of teachers who had r e c e n t l y been involved i n supplementary t r a i n i n g and co n t i n u i n g education experiences. The low group of teachers possessed more years of experience i n p u b l i c / p a r o c h i a l school teaching than d i d teachers i n the high group. The three c o r r e c t i o n a l educators who rated the subject teachers' responses to the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teachers Interview Survey found that the teachers i n the high group scored b e t t e r on the charac-t e r i s t i c s c l a r i t y . d e s i r e to help students grow, s t r u c t u r e , and empathy than d i d teachers i n the low group. A n a l y s i s revealed that both the students who rated the eighteen teachers on the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher  Behaviors instrument and the three c o r r e c t i o n a l educators who rated the responses of the same teachers to the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview  Survey had, according to these r a t i n g s , s i m i l a r l y placed eight of the ten subject teachers i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e high and low groups. The i v Supplementary Questionnaire revealed that three teachers from the high group possessed s i m i l a r experiences i n t h e i r personal and pro-f e s s i o n a l backgrounds and c u r r e n t l y employed s i m i l a r teaching s t r a t e g i e s . Findings from t h i s study have suggested that teachers who are perceived e f f e c t i v e may possess behavioral c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l i f e and work experiences, and s i m i l a r teaching s t r a t e g i e s that d i s t i n g u i s h them from those who are perceived to be low i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Appropriate a p p l i c a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w techniques could be designed to e l i c i t i nformation about these d i s t i n g u i s h i n g elements. V Table of Contents Page Abstract 11 L i s t of Tables v i i L i s t of Figures v i i i Acknowledgement i x Dedication x Chapter I. I n t r o d u c t i o n A. General Comments 1 B. Purpose of the Study 4 C. Research Questions 5 D. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 6 E. D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms 8 F. Organization of the Study 12 Chapter I I . Review of the L i t e r a t u r e A. Development and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of C o r r e c t i o n a l Education i n Canada: The Federal Perspective . . 13 B. Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s 28 C. Adult and Adult Basic Education 1. Adult Education Concepts 44 2. Adult Basic Education Teaching 46 D. P r i s o n Teaching i n the United States and Canada 50 Chapter I I I . Methodology A. P o p u l a t i o n and Sample 61 B. Instruments Used 1. E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors (ETB) 63 2. Demographic Data Questionnaire (DDQ) 64 3. C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey (CTIS) 64 4. CTIS Guide 64 5. Supplementary Questionnaire (SQ) 65 6. Modified CTIS Guide . . 66 C. Data Gathering Procedures 67 D. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y 72 v i Chapter IV. Findings Page A. E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors (ETB) 1. Methods of A n a l y s i s 73 2. Range and Frequency of Scores 73 3. Rankings of Behaviors 76 4. Teacher Behaviors 76 a. Ranking of Diffe r e n c e s 79 b. Item K 81 5. Summary of Findings from ETB 83 B. Demographic Data Questionnaire (DDQ) 1. Methods of A n a l y s i s 85 2. Years of Teaching Experience 85 3. Education and Types of T r a i n i n g Received 89 4. C e r t i f i c a t i o n of C r e d e n t i a l s 92 5. Personal Data 93 6. Summary of Findings from DDQ 94 C. C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey (CTIS) 1. Methods of A n a l y s i s 95 2. Group Mean Ratings with the CTIS Guide 95 3. A n a l y s i s of Ratings and Responses Content 99 4. Frequency of "No Response" by Raters on the CTIS Guide . 104 5. Summary of Findings from CTIS and CTIS Guide 105 6. Comparisons of Rankings on the ETB and CTIS 107 D. Supplementary Questionnaire (SQ) 1. Methods of A n a l y s i s 110 2. Themes i n Responses to the SQ 110 3. Ratings on the Supplementary Questionnaire for Items 3 to 6 118 4. Summary of the Supplementary Questionnaire Findings . . . 121 E. Summary of Findings from E n t i r e Study 123 Chapter V. Conclusions A. Restatement of the Problem 128 B. Conclusions 129 C Im p l i c a t i o n s and Recommendations 132 Chapter VI. References 135 Appendices A. E v a l u a t i o n Form (ETB) 142 B. M i l l e r ' s Demographic Data Questionnaire 146 C. Modified Form of DDQ 149 D. M i l l e r ' s C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey 151 E. M i l l e r ' s C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey Guide . . . . 152 F. Supplementary Questionnaire 154 G. Modified CTIS Guide 155 H. Permission to Do Study ( M i l l e r ) 157 I. Informed Consent Form 158 J . Paraphrased Responses to the CTIS 159 vii L i s t of Tables Page 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n of T o t a l Mean Scores from the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors for a l l subject teachers . . 75 2. Rank order of v a r i a b l e s on the Ev a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors for group of a l l subject teachers 77 3. Rank order of d i f f e r e n c e s between behaviors of high and low groups according t o E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behavior r a t i n g s . . . 80 4. Rate of responses to Item K on the Ev a l u a t i o n of Teacher  Behaviors; High and low groups 81 5. Rank order of v a r i a b l e s on E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors f or t o t a l , low, and high groups 84 6. Comparison of education and t r a i n i n g received by teachers i n the high group and teachers i n the low group according to the Demographic Data Questionnaire 88 7. Comparison of education and t r a i n i n g received by teachers i n the high group and teachers i n the low group 90 8. Comparison of group mean r a t i n g s on the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher  Interview Survey Guide 96 9. Frequency of No Response (N) by r a t e r s on the CTIS Guide . . . . 105 10. Ranking of high/low group mean d i f f e r e n c e s according to the CTIS Guide 106 11. Comparison of rankings on the ETB and the CTIS . . 109 12. Teachers' mean scores f o r each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c according to the Modified C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey Guide on the Supplementary Quest i o n n a l r e 120 13. An overview of q u a l i t i e s I d e n t i f i e d by the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors 125 14. An overview of information r e l a t e d to teachers perceived high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s from the Demographic Data Questionnaire . . . . 125 15. Q u a l i t i e s rated highest on the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview  Survey for teachers perceived most e f f e c t i v e 125 16. Response patterns demonstrated on the CTIS 126 17. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e c e i v i n g r a t i n g s of 6.0 and above with the Modified CTIS Guide for three h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e teachers who v i i i L i s t of Figures Page 1. Comparison of item mean scores for teachers perceived to be i n the high and low groups on the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors 78 2. Comparison of mean length of teaching experience f or high and low groups i n c o r r e c t i o n s , p u b l i c / p a r o c h i a l schools, and other teaching s e t t i n g s 86 i x Acknowledgements My s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n goes out f i r s t to Helen M i l l e r , who gave me permission to use her instruments and methodology. Thanks a l s o to a l l those who completed one or s e v e r a l of the forms connected with t h i s study: students, s u p e r v i s o r s , and teachers. S p e c i a l thanks as w e l l to the ad m i n i s t r a t o r s and s t a f f members of the Kingston Learning Centre. I could not have completed t h i s work without the help of Frank Wise, John Burton and Susan M i l n e r , who a s s i s t e d me with the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses, and V i c t o r i a Nowell, who designed the f i g u r e s and typed the f i n a l document. I am a l s o a p p r e c i a t i v e of the three p a t i e n t and learned members of my th e s i s committee: Drs. John Oennison, Daniel P r a t t , and Stephen Duguid. Keeping me, and t h i s study, on course must have been a t r y i n g task at times. F i n a l l y , I wish to acknowledge here the u n f a i l i n g support that I have received, e s p e c i a l l y during the past year, from my Fraser V a l l e y College colleagues, many of them i n the P r i s o n Education Program. Their words of encouragement c e r t a i n l y helped me through s e v e r a l arduous months. S p e c i a l t r i b u t e to Wendy Burton, who was always there to o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e or i n s p i r a t i o n , and to V l c k i Grieve and Trudle Archie, who took turns to keep the Fraser V a l l e y College P r i s o n Program coordinated during my s e v e r a l absences. X DEDICATION This work i s dedicated to my daughter, Melanie Margaret, and my son, Gregory John, for whom I have both a mother's love and a f r i e n d ' s admiration. I pray that your l i v e s w i l l continue to be ones of l e a r n i n g and of adventure and that you w i l l always f i n d ways to make s p e c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h i s p l a n e t . 1 Chapter I: I n t r o d u c t i o n A. General Comments Canadian p r i s o n documents from the nineteenth century c o n t a i n some evidence of educational a c t i v i t y i n Canada's f i r s t p e n i t e n t i a r i e s where clergymen were some of the f i r s t teachers of what i s now termed l i t e r a c y education. Subsequently, a f t e r the P e n i t e n t i a r y Commission Report of 1849 a teacher was h i r e d to work under the s u p e r v i s i o n of a c h a p l a i n . From that time, some forms of adult b a s i c education i n s t r u c t i o n continued i n Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s ( C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada, 1987). By the 1950s, most of these i n s t i t u t i o n s had personnel who were designated as teaching s t a f f although many of them were v o c a t i o n a l or trades teachers. However, by the 1970s, educational and t r a i n i n g s e r v i c e s were a l s o provided by teachers from school boards, c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , or by i n d i v i d u a l s under the terms of personal s e r v i c e contracts with the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada. The 1980's brought co n s i d e r a b l y more p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n to Canadian p r i s o n education. P a r t i a l l y as a r e s u l t of a co n t i n u i n g p u b l i c demand for improvements to the e n t i r e Canadian J u s t i c e system, the f e d e r a l government declared i n 1986 (Leblanc, 1986) that the achievement of f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y by a l l f e d e r a l p r i s o n e r s was a p r i o r i t y goal f or the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada (CSC). In order to meet t h i s goal, the procedure of c o n t r a c t i n g with agencies for educational s e r v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n adult b a s i c education, was a c c e l e r a t e d . The Involvement of contract agencies In p r i s o n education was based on s e v e r a l assumptions, i n c l u d i n g one which Indicated that these agencies would provide more e x p e r t i s e at less cost to 2 the CSC than s e r v i c e s provided through Increases i n the d i r e c t h i r i n g of teachers by the CSC (McKenzie, 1986). Therefore, school d i s t r i c t s , community c o l l e g e s , and p r i v a t e agencies became more h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d . This involvement made i t necessary for these groups e i t h e r to o r i e n t current personnel to c o r r e c t i o n a l education or to h i r e new persons for t h i s work. Thus, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of teachers who would prove to be e f f e c t i v e as educators i n a c o r r e c t i o n s s e t t i n g became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h i n these educational agencies. Challenges encountered i n the accomplishment of t h i s task arose from s e v e r a l c o n d i t i o n s . F i r s t , many of these a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had had l i t t l e f i r s t - h a n d experience i n c o r r e c t i o n a l education. Moreover, there was a dearth of relevant research to which they could r e f e r for guidance i n making p r i s o n programming d e c i s i o n s . Although the accumulated wisdom i n the f i e l d s of p u b l i c school, a d u l t , and s p e c i a l education was a v a i l a b l e to them, these areas di d not n e c e s s a r i l y provide, even c o l l e c t i v e l y , d e f i n i t i v e answers to a l l p r i s o n adult b a s i c education i s s u e s . As I w i l l review i n the l i t e r a t u r e , there had already been c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d for the s e l e c t i o n of adult b a s i c education i n s t r u c t o r s . Moreover, most agencies that became involved i n adult b a s i c education a c t i v i t y i n c o r r e c t i o n s had had s u c c e s s f u l experiences i n the f i e l d of adult b a s i c education p r i o r to t h e i r p r i s o n involvement. However, the question p e r s i s t e d : Do teachers i n t h i s new environment r e q u i r e some d i f f e r e n t or a d d i t i o n a l behaviors or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for e f f e c t i v e p r i s o n teaching? Moreover, these a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were unable to r e l y on h i r i n g teachers with t r a i n i n g that had been designed e s p e c i a l l y for the new endeavour. No c o r r e c t i o n a l teacher t r a i n i n g program e x i s t e d at that time i n Canada. A 3 p r o f e s s i o n a l group, the C o r r e c t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , included Canadians i n i t s membership, but i t s growth i n Canada up to t h i s time had been slow. Indeed, the growing numbers of teachers being h i r e d for work i n Canadian prisons represented a l l types of t r a i n i n g a c t i v i i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . This v a r i e t y had c o n t r i b u t e d a broad range of e x p e r t i s e , but i t had a l s o i n j e c t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t o the process i n terms of teachers' values, a t t i t u d e s , expectations, and behaviors. In f a c t , the only c r i t e r i o n for h i r i n g provided by the CSC i n t h e i r c o n t r a c t s w i t h educational agencies was one that e l i m i n a t e d a number of educators with adult education experience: Adult b a s i c education teachers were required to have a v a l i d teaching c e r t i f i c a t e . Another s i t u a t i o n that formed part of t h i s e n t i r e scenario was the general perspective toward education held by many personnel i n c o r r e c t i o n s . In f a c t , t h e i r primary i n t e r e s t s included the s e c u r i t y and good order of t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s , not education. Therefore, any advice on h i r i n g that came from t h i s group would u s u a l l y be influenced by those i n t e r e s t s . Perhaps f o r t u n a t e l y , the formal i n c l u s i o n of CSC employees i n any process for the s e l e c t i o n of teachers who were employees of another agency was u s u a l l y discouraged to avoid any suggestion of an employer/employee r e l a t i o n s h i p between CSC and the contract agency. In a d d i t i o n , as the l i t e r a t u r e review w i l l i n d i c a t e , c o r r e c t i o n a l p o l i c y regarding the o v e r a l l purpose of prisons was r o u t i n e l y changing and was r o u t i n e l y a f f e c t i n g the expectations of p r i s o n education i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Although such p o l i c y was often subject to p o l i t i c a l and economic pressures, i t appeared to many who were concerned about p r i s o n education that i t s best i n t e r e s t s would be served when program s t r a t e g i e s were 4 developed with reference to well-researched data on educational endeavours i n p r i s o n s . i n t h i s way, c o r r e c t i o n a l education might have an opportunity to be educational as w e l l as c o r r e c t i o n a l . In p a r t i c u l a r , the establishment of c r i t e r i a for the s e l e c t i o n of p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e teachers for pr i s o n programs required the a t t e n t i o n of Canadian educators and researchers. Even i n the United States, where c o r r e c t i o n a l education had had a longer and more extensive h i s t o r y , there had not been a large body of data on teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r i s o n s . Therefore, M i l l e r ' s work, A Study of  Maryland P r i s o n Teachers Perceived to be E f f e c t i v e , was intended as a response to that lack (1987a). At the time of M i l l e r ' s research, the Maryland State Department of Education had a n t i c i p a t e d increased a c t i v i t y i n p r i s o n education. M i l l e r ' s purpose was to i d e n t i f y s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a and to develop a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w guide to a i d i n the h i r i n g of teachers for the Maryland program. B. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the current study was to b u i l d on M i l l e r ' s work by using the Instruments of her study, as wel l as some of her methods, and by applying them to a Canadian s e t t i n g : adult b a s i c education programs i n two regions of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada. The undertaking of the current study was r a t i o n a l i z e d a l s o i n terms of the general need for some kind of s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w for h i r i n g p r i s o n teaching personnel. The l i t e r a t u r e on e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g had i n d i c a t e d that s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a , e s p e c i a l l y those covering items of a non-factual nature, ought to be asked w i t h i n s t r u c t u r e d , not in f o r m a l , i n t e r v i e w s . When intervi e w e r s ask the same questions i n a ro u t i n e manner, there i s not only 5 less chance of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , but a l s o more chance of consistency between r a t e r s than i n non-structured Interviews. In a d d i t i o n , c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r v i e w c r i t e r i a used i n tandem with c o n s i s t e n t e v a l u a t i o n procedures could a s s i s t agencies to continue to r e f i n e t h e i r s e l e c t i o n procedures (Stewart and Cash, 1978). Under these c o n d i t i o n s , q u a l i t y - c o n t r o l i n the recruitment and placement of p r i s o n adult b a s i c education teachers could become a r e a l i t y . Although M i l l e r was able to f i n d behaviors and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that d i s c r i m i n a t e d between the high and low groups i n her study, she was unable to generate s u f f i c i e n t data from which to develop a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w guide. For example, r a t e r s of responses to the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher  Interview Survey(CTIS) were unable to rate for patience and f l e x i b i l i t y by means of the CTIS Guide; the i n t e r v i e w questions d i d not seem to generate responses that adequately Indicated those q u a l i t i e s . Therefore, I designed s i x a d d i t i o n a l questions which were used to i n t e r v i e w three of the teachers from the group rated h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e on the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher  Behaviors. The purpose of i n c l u d i n g these a d d i t i o n a l questions i n t h i s study was to see If these questions, r e l a t e d to the a c t u a l experiences of the s u b j e c t s , generated responses that could be rated i n terms of s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as empathy, f l e x i b i l i t y , pat ience. e t c . , by three independent r a t e r s . C Research Questions The current study sought information p e r t a i n i n g to these questions: 1. What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s / b e h a v i o r s d i f f e r e n t i a t e between two groups of Canadian adult b a s i c education p r i s o n teachers, one that i s rated high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and one that i s rated low In e f f e c t i v e n e s s on the EvaluatIon  of Teacher Behaviors s c a l e ? The E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors i s a s c a l e 6 of perceived e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n ten sets of v a r i a b l e s — harsh / k i n d l y , p a r t i a l / f a i r , d u l l / s t i m u l a t i n g , cursory/probing, i n f l e x i b l e / a d a p t a b l e , auto-c r a t i c / s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d , evading/responsible, limited/knowledgeable, s t e r e o -t y p e d / o r i g i n a l , disorganized/systematic — as w e l l as i n o v e r a l l e f f e c t iveness. 2 . What d i f f e r e n c e s are there between these high and low groups i n terms of t h e i r length of experience i n c o r r e c t i o n a l , p u b l i c school, or other kinds of teaching; t h e i r education and t r a i n i n g ; t h e i r other work experiences that were preparatory to teaching; and t h e i r recent p r o f e s s i o n a l development experiences? 3 . What d i f f e r e n c e s are there between these high and low groups i n terms of s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that have been found to be relevant to p r i s o n teaching, such as the f o l l o w i n g : sense of mission, g e s t a l t , sense of s t r u c t u r e , patience, f l e x i b i l i t y , rapport d r i v e , d e s i r e to see students grow, investment, sense of e f f i c a c y , self-awareness, concern about s o c i a l j u s t i c e , empathy, understanding of disadvantaged students, c l a r i t y , c a p a c i t y for goal s e t t i n g , and p o s i t i v e expectations of students? 4 . What past experiences relevant to t h e i r teaching, and what perceptions about t h e i r students and t h e i r work, do some teachers have i n common who are i n the group rated high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s ? D. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The most obvious l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study i s the s i z e of both the i n i t i a l sample, eighteen, and the s i z e of the low and high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s groups: f i v e . The time of year a v a i l a b l e for data c o l l e c t i o n i n the Ontario Region, J u l y and August, had meant that s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l subject teachers 7 had been replaced with s u b s t i t u t e s who d i d not q u a l i f y as subjects because of l i m i t e d time served. In a d d i t i o n , the l e v e l of classroom a c t i v i t y i n adult b a s i c education diminished during these months i n some of the i n s t i t u t ions... Only three of these teachers were i n charge of classrooms of female students, so that no g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s or comparisons can be made regarding female students' perceptions as compared to male students' perceptions. The i n c l u s i o n of subject teachers from only two regions i s a l s o a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r , i n terms of the a p p l i c a t i o n s of the f i n d i n g s to other p r i s o n adult b a s i c education classrooms i n the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada, desp i t e the fact that the o v e r a l l program o b j e c t i v e s for that e n t i r e system are the same. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s study i s l i m i t e d to only contracted teachers: teachers who are employed by educational i n s t i t u t i o n s that hold contracts to d e l i v e r educational s e r v i c e s for the CSC. P a r t i c u l a r l y with the demographic data, the small sample precluded any extensive s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . In a d d i t i o n , respondents to t h i s q uestionnaire were not always able to remember s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s p e r t a i n i n g to t h e i r past experience or t r a i n i n g , so that inaccuracy may be a f a c t o r i n t h i s s e l f - r e p o r t e d data. My own involvement i n some of the adult b a s i c education programming under study as w e l l as i n the conduct of t h i s research may a l s o present l i m i t a t i o n s . As t h i s was an independent study, without research funding that might have permitted a s s i s t a n c e i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the ETB r a t i n g form or i n the i n t e r v i e w s , time and finances l i m i t e d a s s i s t a n c e of t h i s k i n d . However, the p r a c t i c e of i n t e r v i e w i n g by colleagues who are themselves involved i n these a c t i v i t i e s was an element common to both regions involved i n the study; that i s to say, a a p p l i c a n t i s not u s u a l l y 8 interviewed only by an outsider who i s unknown to the a p p l i c a n t . Moreover, the cooperative and supportive way i n which a l l respondents entered Into t h i s study has suggested that the q u a l i t y of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was not a f f e c t e d i n a negative way by my a c t i v e involvement and that they viewed the study as an important venture l n t h e i r f i e l d of work. With reference to the Supplementary Questionnaire, the open and e n t h u s i a s t i c manner of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s was r e f l e c t e d In t h e i r responses. The Supplementary Questionnaire was administered i n an attempt to provide a d d i t i o n a l Information about three teachers who had been perceived as e f f e c t i v e by t h e i r students, t h e i r head teachers, and themselves. Their perspectives of t h e i r students, t h e i r working environments, and t h e i r own experiences are, of course, l i m i t e d to t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s alone. Nevertheless, the wealth of Insights from these subjects could add to e a r l i e r i nformation on the same t o p i c s (Munby, 1983; Duguid, Ed., 1985). E. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Adult b a s i c education: r e f e r s i n t h i s study to b a s i c l i t e r a c y , academic upgrading for high school completion or i t s equivalency, E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g , and employment o r i e n t a t i o n . Adult education: " . . . describes a set of organized a c t i v i t i e s for mature men and women c a r r i e d on by a wide v a r i e t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s for the accomplishment of s p e c i f i e d educational o b j e c t i v e s " (Malcolm Knowles) Adult l e a r n e r : " . . . an autonomous, experience laden, goal seeking, 'now' o r i e n t e d , and problem-centred I n d i v i d u a l " (Adult Basic Education, 1987, p. 241) 9 Canadian J u s t i c e system: the p o l i c i e s , I n s t i t u t i o n s , and procedures for d e a l i n g with c r i m i n a l offenders from the time of t h e i r a r r e s t to t h e i r r e lease from custody or s u p e r v i s i o n . Case management team: " p r i s o n personnel d i r e c t l y involved with the offender i n developing, r e v i s i n g , reviewing, and c o o r d i n a t i n g his/her scheduled plan of program a c t i v i t y " (Plecas, 1986, p. 87) C o g n i t i v e s k i l l s : according to Ross and Fabiano, aspects of the t h i n k i n g process that may be of e i t h e r an impersonal nature ("dealing with the p h y s i c a l world and with time, movement and space") or an Interpersonal one ("the c a p a c i t y to understand people, and to solve i n t e r p e r s o n a l problems") (1985, pp. 35-36). Contracted personnel: p r i s o n personnel who are not employed d i r e c t l y by the CSC, but who d e l i v e r s e r v i c e s under the terms of a l e g a l agreement e i t h e r as i n d i v i d u a l s (personal s e r v i c e c o n t r a c t i n g ) or through n o n - p r o f i t (e.g., an academic i n s t i t u t i o n ) or p r o f i t (e.g., a consultancy firm) o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Core programming: term used by CSC to r e f e r to programming that i s considered fundamental to t h e i r o f f e r i n g s and, t h e r e f o r e , under n a t i o n a l J u r i s d i c t i o n . C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada (CSC): the f e d e r a l government agency re s p o n s i b l e for a d m i n i s t e r i n g the p r i s o n terms and c o n d i t i o n a l release of persons sentenced to two years or more (Plecas, 1986). Corr e c t i o n s (lower case " c " ) : term commonly used p r o v i n c l a l l y and f e d e r a l l y to r e f e r to the system assigned with the task of i n c a r c e r a t i n g a l l persons assigned to them by the c o u r t s . C o r r e c t i o n s (upper case " c " ) : used to r e f e r to the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada. 10 Education and t r a i n i n g programs: academic s e r v i c e s ranging from l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g to post-secondary courses and a c c r e d i t e d v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . These s e r v i c e s are d e l i v e r e d e i t h e r by a c c r e d i t e d CSC or contracted personnel. F e d e r a l : i n t h i s study, r e f e r s to the Government of Canada. Fu n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y : "the reading, w r i t i n g , and a r i t h m e t i c s k i l l s necessary to f u n c t i o n adequately i n h i s or her environment" (Thomas, 1976). Head teacher: a teacher w i t h i n a group of colleagues i n one campus or p r i s o n l o c a t i o n who i s given r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for communication w i t h i n that group, for l i a i s o n with p r i s o n personnel, as w e l l as with the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the contract agency. In t h i s study the term i s used interchangeably w i t h the term senior i n s t r u c t o r . I n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n : "Implies some degree of planned d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n In the treatment of students i n the same c l a s s " (Good & Brophy, 1984, p. 248). In the classrooms of t h i s study, students work at t h e i r own r a t e , toward l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s e s t a b l i s h e d by the developers of the adult b a s i c education program, although some i n s t r u c t o r s have developed l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s and o b j e c t i v e s relevant to I n d i v i d u a l student needs. L i f e s k i l l s : program a c t i v i t y that may include t r a i n i n g i n post-release s u r v i v a l s k i l l s , communication s k i l l s , problem s o l v i n g , anger management, parenting s k i l l s , and so on. L i v i n g s k i l l s : the term used to r e f e r to a l l programming i n f e d e r a l Corrections that involves some kind of t r a i n i n g i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s that equip an i n d i v i d u a l to l i v e and communicate i n a productive manner and which may have been formerly r e f e r r e d to as l i f e s k i l l s (Fabiano, 1989). 11 P r i s o n : any i n s t i t u t i o n which holds adults committed by the courts for i l l e g a l behavior for periods longer than a few days (Canadian Committee on C o r r e c t i o n s , 1969, p. 307). P r i s o n education: o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s for inmates who wish to improve l i t e r a c y , obtain v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s , or achieve u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t s . P r i s o n e r s : term used to r e f e r to, and u s u a l l y p r e f e r r e d by, i n d i v i d u a l s who have been assigned to a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n by the c o u r t s . The term i s used interchangeably with the terms inmate and offender. Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n : a teaching process i n which the c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s contain both d i r e c t i o n s to the student and subject content. P r o v i n c i a l : i n t h i s study, p e r t a i n s to one or a l l of the ten provinces of Canada. S e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g : a process i n which i n d i v i d u a l s take the i n i t i a t i v e , with or without the help of others, i n diagnosing t h e i r l e a r n i n g needs, formulating l e a r n i n g goals, i d e n t i f y i n g human and m a t e r i a l resources for l e a r n i n g , choosing and implementing appropriate l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , and e v a l u a t i n g l e a r n i n g outcomes (Knowles, 1975, p. 18). Senior i n s t r u c t o r : a teacher w i t h i n a group of colleagues i n one campus or p r i s o n l o c a t i o n who i s given r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for communication w i t h i n that group, for l i a i s o n with p r i s o n personnel, as w e l l as with the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the contract agency. The term i s used Interchangeably i n t h i s study with the term head teacher. S p e c i a l programming: term used by CSC to r e f e r to programming that responds to l o c a l or other s p e c i a l needs and, t h e r e f o r e , under l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n ( i . e . , under e i t h e r a region or an i n s t i t u t i o n ) . 12 Teacher/Instructor: for purposes of t h i s study, these terms are used as synonyms; however, the term i n s t r u c t o r i s used more f r e q u e n t l y i n community c o l l e g e l i t e r a t u r e than Is the term teacher. Teacher: one who i n s t r u c t s , educates, t r a i n s , imparts knowledge; i n s t r u c t o r : a c o l l e g e teacher ranking below an a s s i s t a n t professor. F. Organization of the Study Chapter II includes reviews of the f o l l o w i n g : the l i t e r a t u r e on the development of c o r r e c t i o n a l education i n Canada; and research and l i t e r a t u r e on teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s , adult and adult b a s i c education and pr i s o n teaching i n the United States and Canada. Chapter I I I describes the methodologies used i n the study. Analyses of a l l data are made i n Chapter IV. Chapter V Includes a summary of a l l f i n d i n g s , and, from these, conclusions and recommendations are made. 13 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE This review i s d i v i d e d i n t o four p a r t s . The f i r s t part focusses on the development and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f e d e r a l c o r r e c t i o n a l education i n Canada. The second part reviews contemporary l i t e r a t u r e and research on teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The t h i r d part examines l i t e r a t u r e on both adult education and adult b a s i c education teaching from Canada and the United S t a t e s . F i n a l l y , current l i t e r a t u r e and research p e r t a i n i n g to United States and Canadian p r i s o n teaching at both the adult b a s i c education and the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l s are reviewed. A. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CORRECTIONAL EDUCATION IN CANADA: THE FEDERAL PERSPECTIVE M i l l e r (1987a) c i t e d the work of Michael Reagen and Donald Stoughton i n t h e i r School Behind Bars(1976) and of A l b e r t R. Roberts i n Sourcebook on  P r i s o n Education (1971) to review the h i s t o r y and development of c o r r e c t i o n a l education i n the United S t a t e s . Although these works have not been discussed here, the background provided by her review was relevant to t h i s study because, while Canadian law has been influenced by E n g l i s h precedent, Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d according to the concepts o r i g i n a l l y set f o r t h by American Quakers who saw prisons as a s u b s t i t u t e for c a p i t a l and c o r p o r a l punishment. Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r y development, and i n d i r e c t l y the development of educational and s o c i a l programming, has been recorded at frequent i n t e r v a l s by s e v e r a l Royal Commission and sub-committee reports to the Canadian Parliament s i n c e the B r i t i s h North America Act of 1867 put p e n i t e n t i a r i e s 14 under f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , documents prepared by the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada, i n c l u d i n g conference, p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , and planning documents, offer e d considerable information on the development of p o l i c y regarding education w i t h i n the Canadian system. F i n a l l y , an h i s t o r i c a l framework for t h i s development was described i n the work of Owens (1984). F o l l o w i n g the 1832 Report of the Commissioners on P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , and the P e n i t e n t i a r y Act of 1834, Canada's f i r s t p e n i t e n t i a r y opened at Kingston i n 1835. The theme of the Act had been both deterrence and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , but i n Kingston the p u n i t i v e character of prisons p r e v a i l e d , as d i d the r u l e of s t r i c t s i l e n c e for the ma j o r i t y of a pr i s o n e r ' s days and n i g h t s . During the 1840's, when overcrowding i n the Kingston p e n i t e n t i a r y was followed by r i o t s and f i r e s , the f i r s t i n q u i r y i n t o the prison's operations took place i n 1848 and 1849 (Canadian Committee on Co r r e c t i o n s , 1969). A f t e r t h i s i n q u i r y , a teacher was employed, under a chaplain's d i r e c t i o n , to give i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n during evening hours; however, t h i s a c t i v i t y was designed to be only a facet of a prisoner's t o t a l education, which was to be r e l i g i o u s , moral, i n d u s t r i a l and v o c a t i o n a l . (Sub-Committee on the P e n i t e n t i a r y System i n Canada, 1977). As Owens (1984) pointed out, however, even p r i s o n inspectors saw very e a r l y that t h i s t o t a l education concept was not a r e a l i t y . R e c i d i v i s m at 25% was taken as an i n d i c a t i o n that reformation through education was f a i l i n g ; only the chaplains remained champions of t h e i r i d e a l : reform through r e l i g i o n . A f t e r Confederation i n 1867, the p e n i t e n t i a r y system was expanded i n t o the 1900's through the c o n s t r u c t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s across Canada: i n New Brunswick, Quebec, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h Columbia. 15 P r o l i f e r a t i o n of educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s d i d not f o l l o w t h i s , however, e i t h e r i n academic or v o c a t i o n a l areas. Although new Inspector Reports advocated more education, the prisons were mainly i n s t i t u t i o n s that emphasized hard labor, e i t h e r i n make work or contract a c t i v i t y (1984). At the beginning of the 1900's, the p u n i t i v e nature of prisons s t i l l dominated: the b a l l and chain, hosing, and handcuffs were s t i l l used. Reading was then permitted at night i n c e l l s , however, for those who had d i s p l a y e d good behavior. L i m i t e d group i n s t r u c t i o n for education was a l s o introduced i n Kingston at the turn of the century (Sub-Committee Report, 1977). The same report showed that the period from 1914 to 1939 was a t r a n s i t i o n a l period with respect to education and r e c r e a t i o n i n p r i s o n s ; some s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , such as v i s i t s from f r i e n d s , was increased. By the l a t e 1930's, pri s o n e r s were allowed to pursue higher education i n t h e i r c e l l s during l e i s u r e hours, although any costs of t h i s were borne by the prisoner or his f a m i l y . A f t e r s e v e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y disturbances, a 1936 Royal Commission issued The Archambault Report i n 1938, which encouraged more edu c a t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y outside of working hours. Higher education by means of correspondence courses was a l s o permitted at t h i s time. (Sub-Committee Report, 1977) The Archambault Report seemed to r e f l e c t a s o c i e t y that was more concerned with r e h a b i l i t a t i o n than r e t r i b u t i o n , and education was seen as the key to t h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . However, World War II postponed the e f f e c t of t h i s new a t t i t u d e upon the Canadian penal system. In 1947 The Gibson Report on prisons echoed the same conclusion as the Archambault document, the m a j o r i t y of whose recommendations had not been followed (Owens, 1984). 16 In t h i s p o s t - w a r p e r i o d , d i s t u r b a n c e s , o v e r c r o w d i n g and r i s i n g numbers of i n c a r c e r a t e d men i n Canadian prisons prompted another i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the Fateaux Committee i n 1953. In t h i s committee's report, the concept of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was defined more c l e a r l y and the system was r e f e r r e d to as " c o r r e c t i o n s " i n a statement that explained that the new goal of t h i s system was " "the t o t a l process by which s o c i e t y attempts to cor r e c t the a n t i - s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s or behavior of an i n d i v i d u a l . . . ' " ( c i t e d i n C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada's Beyond the Walls. 1987, p.9). During t h i s p eriod, behavioral s c i e n t i s t s became involved i n developing s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l programs that focussed on the c r i m i n a l ' s a c t s , viewed as outcomes of h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l or s o c i o l o g i c a l background. Behind t h i s Involvement and t h i s new concept of c o r r e c t i o n s was what has been r e f e r r e d to as the medical model, with i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l emphasis on the c r i m i n a l mind and i t s d e f i c i e n c i e s . Educational and s o c i a l programming r e f l e c t e d t h i s model. P o l i c y during t h i s period emphasized v o c a t i o n a l programming, but i t s development was spotty throughout the system (Owens, 1984). The reforms a r t i c u l a t e d i n the Fateaux Committee report were advocated during the next decade. In 1960 the MacLeod Committee, which had been e s t a b l i s h e d by the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e , E. Davie Fu l t o n , presented the C o r r e c t i o n a l Planning Report. As a r e s u l t of t h i s document, The P e n i t e n t i a r y  Act was r e v i s e d i n 1961. The Act introduced wide spread change i n t o Canadian p r i s o n s , r e s u l t i n g at f i r s t i n considerable unrest among both p r i s o n populations and p r i s o n employees (Sub-Committee, 1977). In 1969 the Report of the Canadian Committee on Corrections (The Ouimet Report), was submitted to the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l of Canada. This report d i d not deal i n d e t a i l with the education of p r i s o n e r s , but d i d present a broad p i c t u r e of c o r r e c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , from p o l i c i n g to parole. A b r i e f reference 17 suggested that the new emphasis on using adult education techniques i n prisons might be b e n e f i c i a l : "Changing an inmate's educational l e v e l from grade 4 or 5 to high school m a t r i c u l a t i o n may f r e q u e n t l y have more e f f e c t on his f uture than t r a d e - t r a i n i n g or s i m i l a r programs" (p. 37). The report a l s o r e f e r r e d to the c o n f l i c t between the main functions of the system: treatment and s e c u r i t y . This report went on to s t r e s s the value of treatment i n the community and the re-education of a l l persons who are part of the system, such as judges and p r i s o n s t a f f , regarding the purposes of the system. The 1977 Report To Parliament contained s i g n i f i c a n t comments concerning the e f f e c t s of the wide spread reforms that had been i n i t i a t e d by the 1961 P e n i t e n t i a r y Act, e s p e c i a l l y upon maximum s e c u r i t y p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . It suggested that the reforms were incomplete because they had merely reached the surface of the system, but had not changed a t t i t u d e s of personnel w i t h i n i t . The report's most sc a t h i n g indictment appeared to be t h a t : There i s l i t t l e i n the system to s t i m u l a t e inmates to reform, to cor r e c t the behavior and m o r a l i t y that brought them i n t o p r i s o n . Thus the Canadian Penetentiary Service has f a i l e d the Canadians who paid h i g h l y and must continue to pay for the reformative processes that they can only hope can succeed i n s i d e the b i g w a l l . (Sub-Committee, 1977, p. 18) No doubt with the purpose of encouraging the penetration of t h i s b i g  wa l l from the outside, t h i s report recommended the " a i d and cooperation of the education o f f i c i a l s i n every community near a p e n i t e n t i a r y " (p. 113). Other recommendations encouraged s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between inmates, between inmates and s t a f f , between inmates and v i s i t o r s , and between inmates and outside groups such as s o c i a l agencies and community groups. Soon a f t e r t h i s document, a study more s p e c i f i c to p r i s o n education and t r a i n i n g was conducted i n 1978 by the Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n 18 Education( O.I.S.E.). The document r e s u l t i n g from t h i s study revealed that educational studies other than higher education focussed only on v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and preparation for the General Education Development (G.E.D.) te s t and that these s t u d i e s were o f f e r e d mainly by i n s t r u c t o r s employed by the C o r r e c t i o n a l Services of Canada (CSC). However, a questionnaire administered to inmates, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and i n s t r u c t o r s revealed that they agreed that any p r i s o n c u r r i c u l u m should be developed outside the p r i s o n system, but adapted to prisoner needs, i f necessary ( G r i f f i n , 1978). At t h i s time, programming w i t h i n the Canadian prisons appeared to have been d r i v e n by yet another concept, r e f e r r e d to i n the l i t e r a t u r e as the o p p o r t u n i t i e s model. No d i s t i n c t time l i n e was drawn between the l a t t e r and the medical model; however, i n the seventies there was the p r o v i s i o n of the opportunity for education and t r a i n i n g to those who wished to access these programs. P r i s o n e r s were expected to take on r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r stay i n p r i s o n and to plan with s t a f f for t h e i r education and t r a i n i n g while i n c a r c e r a t e d . In other words, the offender's sentence was based on h i s c r i m i n a l behavior, rather than on some kind of diagnosed d e f i c i e n c y that required c u r i n g by personnel i n the system. Since the 1970's, both American and Canadian educators, l i k e Yarborough (1981) and Dennison (1979), have advocated the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of community c o l l e g e s i n p r i s o n education programming with the view to b r i n g i n g the outside to the i n s i d e of p r i s o n w a l l s . The growth i n numbers of community co l l e g e s i n Canada In the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's supported such a p o s s i b i l i t y . The O.I.S.E. report had documented the working together of a community c o l l e g e and a f e d e r a l p r i s o n for the f i r s t time to give a c r e d i t program of i n s t r u c t i o n . 19 During that period i n Canada, however, educational programming for prisoners at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l received greater a t t e n t i o n from the p u b l i c as well as from some u n i v e r s i t i e s and researchers. Under contract with CSC, u n i v e r s i t i e s such as Queen's i n Kingston and the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a offered courses and degree study to p r i s o n e r s . The c u r r i c u l a of these u n i v e r s i t i e s f i r s t emphasized the humanities, and the u n i v e r s i t i e s ' a d m i n i s t r a t o r s argued that such c u r r i c u l a a s s i s t e d p r i s o n e r s to gain i n s i g h t s Into themselves. Stephen Duguid, who i n 1984 began d i r e c t i n g the Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y (SFU) P r i s o n Education Program i n the P a c i f i c Region, soon included the s o c i a l sciences along with the humanities In the SFU curriculum, and s t a t e d : "The assumption underlying t h i s emphasis i s that p r i s o n e r s who are l a t e r confronted with s o c i a l and/or p o l i t i c a l Issues w i l l be better equipped to t o l e r a t e a l t e r n a t e views, Issues and p o l i t i c s " (Duguid, 1985, p.9). In 1984, during the f i n a l months of a L i b e r a l government i n Ottawa, a new CSC task force was formed, whose mandate was to develop a statement of values, to propose amendments and changes to CSC p o l i c i e s , p r a c t i c e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t s , as w e l l as to propose mechanisms for improvement to the system. This committee, chaired by Ole Ingstrup, made i t c l e a r that the system should no longer be influenced by an o p p o r t u n i t i e s model, but by an a c t i v e motivation ideology. This Task Force on the Mission and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Development of CSC prepared the Report on the Statement of  CSC Values, The proposed Mission s t a t e d : "The C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada, as part of the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system, co n t r i b u t e s to the p r o t e c t i o n of s o c i e t y by e x e r c i s i n g safe, secure and humane c o n t r o l of offenders while helping them become law-abiding c i t i z e n s (Task Force on the Mission and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Development of CSC, 1984, p.46). 20 Although the implementation of t h i s report was not immediate, changes i n programming emphases soon became evident. The Minutes of the 1985 Annual CSC Conference for Education and T r a i n i n g i n Ottawa included an account of statements by the D i r e c t o r of Education, Dr. Lawrance I s a b e l l e , whose words were summarized: ( I s a b e l l e ) . . . r e f e r r e d to the accumulated l i t e r a t u r e on education i n c o r r e c t i o n s and crime prevention which must continue to be used i n the planning of future educational programs for offenders. The essence of these has been to s t r e s s the Importance of the development of c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s and exposure to moral i s s u e s . (Annual Conference of Education and T r a i n i n g D i v i s i o n , 1985, p . l ) This conference a l s o addressed the t o p i c of i l l i t e r a c y i n the p r i s o n s , s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g , l i b r a r i e s , use of contract s t a f f , Native Indian education, and v o c a t i o n a l programs. Of s p e c i a l relevance to the current study was the preponderance of negative arguments recorded i n these minutes toward the employment of contract s t a f f [at that time mainly those who were on personal s e r v i c e c o n t r a c t s ] by CSC i n c o r r e c t i o n a l education and t r a i n i n g . For example, i t was s t a t e d : " A t t i t u d i n a l problems of permanent s t a f f e x i s t , among a l l d i v i s i o n s , but the a t t i t u d i n a l problems created among contract s t a f f are more s e r i o u s , since they f e e l under-valued and have a weak status w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n " (p. 14); and a l s o : "Education i n c o r r e c t i o n s represents a form of work which i s extremely demanding; research has shown that when very demanding work i s required of people with no job s e c u r i t y , they tend to develop a t t i t u d e s which are h o s t i l e to the host o r g a n i z a t i o n ; t h i s i s i n evidence among our contract s t a f f " (p.14). Also i n 1985, the Commissioner for the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada received the Education and T r a i n i n g Program Review. This document examined the nature of current expenditures, which, i t s t a t e d , then approximated $25 21 m i l l i o n per year for the education of f e d e r a l Inmates. Major conclusions made i n the Review included: C o r r e c t i o n a l research has e s t a b l i s h e d that many of the c o r r e c t i o n a l programs which have been demonstrated to be e f f e c t i v e i n reducing r e c i d i v i s m are of an educational nature. These have been programs which have been aimed at the development of t h i n k i n g s k i l l s , and at the improvement of s o c i a l and i n t e r -personal knowledge and s k i l l s . (Education and T r a i n i n g , p.9) and... It i s estimated that an a d d i t i o n a l $3 m i l l i o n needs to be spent i n these two areas: $.8 m i l l i o n for l i t e r a c y , and $2.2 more for L i f e S k i l l s . Meeting these needs can be a t t a i n e d through the a l l o c a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l resources, or through a process of r e - a l l o c a t i n g e x i s t i n g funds. These funds would be obtained e i t h e r as a d d i t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n s or through c a n c e l l a t i o n or r e v i s i o n of some e x i s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , (p. 14) This Review a l s o recommended : Pending the completion and review of a study that w i l l take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l of the relevant f a c t o r s ( i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , s t a f f "burnout", program relevance, and program focus) i t i s recommended that I n s t i t u t i o n s r e t a i n e x i s t i n g person years and use them according to t h e i r own c r i t e r i a . Once the l a r g e r review has been completed, a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y w i l l be implemented regarding the d e l i v e r y of educational programs by contracted or by permanent s t a f f , (p. 17) The reported 1984-85 costs for major educational s e r v i c e c o n t r a c t s t o t a l l e d $9,195,038. The P a c i f i c Region, for example, had contracted with Fraser V a l l e y College to the amount of $640,000 and with Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y for $548,952. In Ontario, the Frontenac Board of Education and L o y a l i s t College had received a t o t a l of $1,918,023 while Queen's U n i v e r s i t y programming t o t a l l e d $203,528. (Annual Conference, Appendix 2.) In December of 1985, as part of a number of reviews that had completed st u d i e s of components of CSC operations, the Report of Task Force #8 presented a Review of Offender Support Programs. This "Sawatsky Report", r e f e r r i n g to Task Force #8 leader Terry J . Sawatsky (1985) , made s e v e r a l 22 recommendations, based on c o n s u l t a t i o n s with a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s t a f f i n a l l CSC regions, that had s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s for p r i s o n education: Recommendation #24: That CSC place greater emphasis on bas i c l i t e r a c y programs and consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of making l i t e r a c y "compulsory" (p.4). Recommendation #25: that educational programs should be considered "core" up to and i n c l u d i n g secondary l e v e l (p. 4). Recommendation #33: that CSC place greater emphasis on " l i v i n g s k i l l s programs" as a "core" programming requirement (p.5). Recommendation # 34: That CSC accept that a l l s t a f f have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a s s i s t offenders i n c o r r e c t i n g t h e i r behavior and to develop t h e i r " l i v i n g s k i l l s " through day to day "common sense" i n t e r v e n t i o n s (p.5). This review a l s o s t a t e d , however, that opinion i n the f i e l d toward u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l courses was "that t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of t h i s educational experience to the outside community i s minimal" (p.34). Some f i e l d s t a f f had expressed the opinion that u n i v e r s i t y courses, because of t h e i r c o s ts, are not a c c e s s i b l e to a l l c i t i z e n s outside p r i s o n . Therefore, i t was stated i n the review: "...while u n i v e r s i t y Is a' nice to have' program, It Is not e s s e n t i a l - not "core" and could be reduced If necessary" (p.35). By the middle of the 1980's, the problem of i l l i t e r a c y i n both the United States and Canada had been r e c e i v i n g widespread a t t e n t i o n . The need to combat i l l i t e r a c y i n Canada was brought to the a t t e n t i o n of the Canadian taxpayer i n the Speech from the Throne i n the f a l l of 1986. The p u b l i c ' s a t t e n t i o n was a l s o d i r e c t e d at the i l l i t e r a c y of p r i s o n p o p u l a t i o n s . In December of 1986, the Commissioner of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada, Rheal J . Leblanc, made a presentation to the S o l i c i t o r 23 General of Canada, James Kelleher, based on extensive assessment and study of literacy levels in Canadian federal prisons. This study had shown: "Approximately one-half of inmates tested did not achieve a grade 8 equivalency score on standardized testing during the reception process" (Leblanc, 1986, p.2). Additionally, it pointed out: "Based on the 1981 Canada Census, it is estimated that between 20-30% of Canadians have less than grade 9 education. Therefore, the rate of i l l i t e r a c y among inmates is roughly twice that of the general public" (p. 2). This concern for raising literacy levels in prisons was emphasized by a National Conference on Offender Literacy, sponsored by the Correctional Service of Canada and held in Ottawa in May of 1987. James Kelleher pointed out in his address at this gathering: "In the last year, only about 150 inmates completed the Adult Basic Education program. The program is available; inmates are free to enroll; they have not done so, at least not in the numbers that the need indicates they should" (Kelleher, 1987, p.3). He went on to indicate major changes in educational programming for federal prisoners: 1. A literacy competency level would be established at grade eight equivalency, rather than grade five, for a l l inmates, (p. 4) 2. Completion targets for the next three years were now set with the goal of achieving "a level of literacy among inmates comparable to that of the Canadian public in general." In numbers this was to be 600 grade eight completions in 1988; 1200 in 1989; 1800 in 1990. (p. 4) 3. Incentives to encourage inmate participation would be introduced, such as making participation a prerequisite for inmate employment and including literacy achievement in parole planning, (p.5) 24 Although the budget for programs of Adult Basic Education had now been more than doubled for 1987-88, K e l l e h e r s t a t e d that "...the resources required for t h i s I n i t i a t i v e w i l l be found through a l l o c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g resources w i t h i n the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service, such as t r a v e l r e d u c t i o n and cutbacks i n research and c o n s u l t i n g fees" (p. 7). The comprehensive and d e t a i l e d Education Plan d r a f t e d for the P r a i r i e and P a c i f i c Regions i n September of 1988 r e f l e c t e d a c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s CSC focus on p r i s o n education (Education and Personal Development D i v i s i o n , 1988). The o b j e c t i v e s of the education program sta t e d i n the 1988 plan included the f o l l o w i n g statements i n Objective 2.1: "Criminal behavior i s an Issue e v o l v i n g from a lack of personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to which a sound education can c o n t r i b u t e . Education serves to inform people so as to a s s i s t t h e i r d e c i s i o n making, p a r t i c u l a r l y when choosing r i g h t from wrong" (2.1). Within t h i s o b j e c t i v e , the document a l s o s t a t e d the o v e r a l l mission of the Education and Personal Development D i v i s i o n : "To help offenders to develop personal and s o c i a l s k i l l s , to acquire educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and to l e a r n r e s p o n s i b l e behavior" (2.1). Tied to t h i s mission statement was the o b j e c t i v e : "To encourage offenders to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r o v i n c i a l l y a c c r e d i t e d educational programs which w i l l help them to Improve t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s " (2.1). The sub-objective a l s o stated was the f o l l o w i n g : "To enable inmates to develop a sense of self-esteem through personal accomplishment" (2.1). Success c r i t e r i a for the ABE program were a l s o s t a t e d : "Success i s measured by the average grade l e v e l advancement i n each i n s t i t u t i o n and more s i g n i f i c a n t l y by the number of inmates who complete Grade 8 i n language and mathematics" (2.4). The plan for the e n t i r e f e d e r a l system with regard to the ABE or f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y l e v e l was that 2000 inmates would achieve that l e v e l i n 25 a l l of Canada's f e d e r a l prisons during the period 1987-89 (2.4). Another c l e a r message w i t h i n t h i s document was a l s o that other personnel i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e would be involved i n these a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Case Management Team. Also of relevance to t h i s study was an issue centred on c o n t r a c t i n g : "Contracts for the appointment of teachers w i l l be of up to three years d u r a t i o n where p o s s i b l e , but not exceeding four years d u r a t i o n " (3.2). Supporting t h i s educational plan, and, i n f a c t , appearing to i n t e g r a t e i t i n t o the wider mandate of the Canadian c o r r e c t i o n s system, was the announcement, i n February 1989, of the M i s s i o n of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada, which read as f o l l o w s : The C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada, as part of the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system, c o n t r i b u t e s to the p r o t e c t i o n of s o c i e t y by a c t i v e l y encouraging and a s s i s t i n g offenders to become law-abiding c i t i z e n s while e x e r c i s i n g reasonable, safe, secure and humane c o n t r o l . ( C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada, 1989, p.4) This pronouncement had been preceded by the appointment of a new Commissioner for the CSC, Ole Ingstrup, who had chaired the 1984 Task Force  on the Mission and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Development of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of  Canada. This statement, along with i t s f i v e Core Values, i t s Guiding P r i n c i p l e s and i t s S t r a t e g i c Objectives, appeared to r e f l e c t not only the s p i r i t but a l s o the language of the 1984 Task Force document. The key emphases i n t h i s new document included s t a f f development and the i n t e g r a t i o n of the offender Into the community. It was met with optimism by most program and education personnel w i t h i n Canadian p r i s o n s , but by c y n i c i s m from other, such as some s e c u r i t y - o r i e n t e d personnel and the press (Makin, 1989, pp. A l , A8). 26 However, t h i s document had been issued at a time of f e d e r a l budget cuts, so that i t s o b j e c t i v e s were not supported by a d d i t i o n a l funding, but rather by a renewed emphasis on programming. A c r i t i c a l point i n p r i s o n education h i s t o r y appeared to have a r r i v e d : Educational i n i t i a t i v e s , coming to a large extent from the system i t s e l f , appeared t o be supported by c o r r e c t i o n a l p o l i c y and t o p - l e v e l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n that system. In a d d i t i o n , program developers, both CSC and contract personnel, continued to recognize s e v e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n the f i e l d s of c o g n i t i v e and moral development, Including Kohlberg (1975), deBono (1981), and Ross (1985; with Fabiano, 1988). As a r e s u l t of t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n , another concept had become part of c o r r e c t i o n a l t h i n k i n g , and part of i t s language as w e l l : the c o g n i t i v e model, which according to C o l l i n s : " . . . r e s t o r e s an e t h i c a l dimension of education and provides a p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e to the medical model's f i x i n g techniques" (Education and Personal Development, 1988, p. 105). By means of t h i s model, c o r r e c t i o n s at the f e d e r a l l e v e l had re-assumed the task of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , through education. Although the Canadian p u b l i c seemed to be presenting a get-tough a t t i t u d e toward p r i s o n e r s , and although c y n i c i s m surrounding CSC's new Mission had been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the system as w e l l as without (Makin, 1989, p. A8), the new Commissioner of CSC, Ole Ingstrup, s t a t e d : "We must a c t i v e l y encourage offenders to b e n e f i t from the o p p o r t u n i t i e s provided, as we b e l i e v e that long-term p r o t e c t i o n of s o c i e t y cannot be accomplished by i n c a r c e r a t i o n alone" (p. A l ) . With t h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i v e r o l e , however, came renewed emphasis upon program a c c o u n t a b i l i t y l n the f e d e r a l c o r r e c t i o n s system, i n c l u d i n g the education programs w i t h i n that system. For example, i n 1989, a proposal was approved to c a r r y out a f i v e year l o n g i t u d i n a l study, from 1990 to 1995, of 27 o f f e n d e r s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d In a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l programming (Fabiano, 1989). Expectations of c o r r e c t i o n a l teachers would continue to be defined, at le a s t i n part, by the changing values of the system i n which they worked, just as for over one hundred and f i f t y years the values of Canadian s o c i e t y have helped define expectations of i t s education system. In summary, the review of the l i t e r a t u r e on the development and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f e d e r a l c o r r e c t i o n a l education i n Canada has i l l u s t r a t e d many attempts to make education a s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t y of the system, but each e a r l y attempt was met with l i m i t e d success. Nevertheless, the l a s t f i f t e e n years have seen some i n i t i a t i v e s upon which succeeding ones have been b u i l t : the G r i f f i n report for the Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education; the c o n t r a c t i n g out of teaching p o s i t i o n s ; the incresed involvement of c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ; the various task forces and reviews; and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Canadian c o r r e c t i o n a l education leaders i n the l i t e r a c y movement. In the l a t t e r part of the 1980's, s c r u t i n y of the system provided by various s e c t o r s of s o c i e t y , such as r i g h t s groups, p o l i t i c i a n s , and educators, appeared to motivate c o r r e c t i o n a l planners to develop new p o l i c i e s and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s for educational programming. These p o l i c i e s and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s , with the i n c l u s i o n of many references to t h e o r i e s and reserach r e l a t e d to moral and c o g n i t i v e development (Ross and Fabiano, 1985), now appear to have provided d i r e c t i o n for the f u t u r e . However, the l i t e r a t u r e has a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d the co n t i n u i n g presence of c o n f l i c t i n g or changing purposes of prisons and of the educational e n t e r p r i s e s t h e r e i n . Such c o n d i t i o n s have influenced and w i l l continue to Influence the expectations formed of p r i s o n educational programs and t h e i r 28 teachers j u s t as the current or accepted s o c i e t a l d e f i n i t i o n s of education i n f l u e n c e expectations of any educational program i n any sector of s o c i e t y . B. TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS In t h i s s e c t i o n I have traced the development and changes i n the modern perspectives of teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s , employing as a framework the four phases of research, from 1939 to the 1980's, that were i d e n t i f i e d by Evertson and Green (1986). These phases overlap i n time, and, i n the case of Phase I I I and IV, p a r a l l e l each other. Unfortunately, most of the research c i t e d w i t h i n t h i s framework has a r i s e n from st u d i e s w i t h i n p u b l i c schools, not adult b a s i c education classrooms; so that g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from the p u b l i c school to the adult b a s i c education context i s u n l i k e l y . However, since p r i s o n adult b a s i c educational research i s i n i t s infancy, such an examination could provide relevant suggestions for f u r t h e r development In terms of e i t h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s v a r i a b l e s or methods of research. Research examples which could suggest some relevant approaches for p r i s o n adult b a s i c education research have been included i n each phase. The d e s c r i p t i o n of each phase concludes with comments that r e f e r to the degree of relevancy to p r i s o n education the phase might have. F i n a l l y , t h i s s e c t i o n i s not intended as a d e f i n i t i v e catalogue of e f f e c t i v e n e s s research. Instead, for a recent inventory and review of contemporary e f f e c t i v e n e s s studies since the 1970's, one i s r e f e r r e d to an a r t i c l e by G. P a t r i c k O ' N e i l l (Canadian Journal of  Educat ion 13:1, 1988). Upon c o n s i d e r i n g 150 primary and secondary sources, he I d e n t i f i e s "The 20 most promising I n s t r u c t i o n a l research f a c t o r s on teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s " (p. 164). O ' N e i l l a l s o provides h i s own c a t e g o r i z a t i o n as w e l l as d e f i n i t i o n s for these 20 factors. 29 Phase I: (1939-1963 c a ) . The e a r l y years of t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y phase focussed on whether or not e f f e c t i v e n e s s could be measured. Most studies continued from the previous decades to involve the compiling of l i s t s of teachers whom students considered e f f e c t i v e or good; then, those who were considered experts, such as s u p e r v i s o r s , p r i n c i p a l s , and c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r s , c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s to s i m i l a r i n v e n t o r i e s ( M i l l e r , 1987a, p. 29). Up to the l a t e 1940's, measuring teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s by other means was l e s s common. M i l l e r points out that measuring teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s by changes In students was p r a c t i c e d i n only eighteen of seventy-nine studies that took place between 1905 and 1948. However, some ex p l o r a t o r y , often experimental, research i n these years d i d i d e n t i f y both i n s t r u c t i o n a l and classroom behaviors, i n c l u d i n g teacher-learner I n t e r a c t i o n s . In some e a r l y work on teacher-learner i n t e r a c t i o n , Flanders conducted numerous stu d i e s that included the development and use of an i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s observation system (FIAC), which i s o l a t e d ten verbal responses on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s o c i a l l e v e l , among them d i r e c t n e s s / I n d i r e c t n e s s . More than 100 other researchers made use of t h i s s c a l e i n subsequent research. One of his own experimental s t u d i e s had shown that both a t t i t u d e development and achievement were s i g n i f i c a n t l y better for the c l a s s of i n d i r e c t teachers (Biddle and Anderson, 1986, p. 233). Another example of classroom i n t e r a c t i o n research i s Kounin and Gump's (1961) work i n elementary schools, i n v o l v i n g Interviews of 174 c h i l d r e n , to determine Influence of p u n i t i v e and non-punitive f i r s t grade teachers upon t h e i r p u p i l s ' behaviors and a t t i t u d e s to school work. The fact that they 30 used only three p a i r s of teachers d i d not provide c o n c l u s i v e evidence, but t h e i r study d i d show that teacher behavior i n f l u e n c e s both c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e outcomes. In the e a r l y 1960's Ryans (1964) took another d i r e c t i o n , and conducted an extensive teachers' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s study i n v o l v i n g 6000 teachers. The study involved s e l f - r e p o r t i n g on t r a i t s such as s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and cheerfulness, contact with other people, and childhood experiences. This Information was then c o r r e l a t e d with the teachers' emotional s t a b i l i t y i n d i c a t o r s . Ryans found d i f f e r e n c e s between the s e l f - r e p o r t s of the teachers with high emotional s t a b i l i t y and of the teachers w i t h low emotional s t a b i l i t y ; for example, the high s t a b i l i t y people expressed more s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and had had happier childhood experiences than the low emotional s t a b i l i t y group. Stern (1963), suggested s e v e r a l approaches to the measurement of non-cognitive v a r i a b l e s involved i n teaching, and Indicated that the f i e l d s of s o c i o l o g y , psychology, psychometry, and perception might shed l i g h t on these v a r i a b l e s , such as a t t i t u d e s and values, (pp. 398-447). Stern's review of 34 studies on i n d i r e c t and d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n p o s s i b l y has relevance to t h i s current study because most of what he reviewed contained research i n v o l v i n g c o l l e g e classrooms. Stern b e l i e v e d that h i s review showed that a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge i s l a r g e l y unaffected by whether d i r e c t n e s s or i n d i r e c t n e s s i s employed by the teacher, but that a t t i t u d e change toward s e l f and others Is a f f e c t e d by a democratic teaching s t y l e . Westbury (1988) suggests that the work of Medley and M i t z e l at the end of t h i s period has provided d i r e c t i o n to current research e f f o r t s by i d e n t i f y i n g four types of e f f e c t i v e n e s s v a r i a b l e s : presage; context; process; and product. Furthermore, she points out that these researchers had 31 p r e d i c t e d that the process or classroom behavior v a r i a b l e s were the ones that held the most promise for e f f e c t i v e n e s s research. Evertson and Green (1986) s t a t e that the p u b l i c a t i o n of "Measuring Classroom Behavior by Systematic Observation" by Medley and M i t z e l marked the end of Phase I. P r i s o n adult b a s i c education research appears to have begun i t s development i n much the same way as research began i n other educational areas. Rating instruments have been used i n adult b a s i c education s t u d i e s (as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the review of adult and adult b a s i c education), In the work of M i l l e r , and i n the current study. Whether we s h a l l move through the development of s u i t a b l e observation instruments and from there to an examination of process-product v a r i a b l e s could depend upon c o r r e c t i o n a l as w e l l as educational o b j e c t i v e s . P r e s e n t l y , C o r r e c t i o n s Canada does measure the success of i t s adult b a s i c education programming i n terms of outcomes or products: the number of Fundamental or Grade Eight Equivalency completions per I n s t i t u t i o n , region, and n a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , research at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l of C o r r e c t i o n s has been planned to assess the e f f e c t of a d u l t b a s i c education completion upon the offender and ex-offender (Fabiano, 1989). Phase I I : (1958-73). During t h i s phase, a t t e n t i o n to many aspects of the teaching and l e a r n i n g processes came under s c r u t i n y , for i t was a period of Intense c r i t i c i s m of Canadian and United States educational systems. Terms such as mastery l e a r n i n g , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , programmed l e a r n i n g , and open-area classrooms became f a m i l i a r phrases, as answers were sought to the apparent c r i s i s i n education (Good & Brophy, 1984). There was considerable a t t e n t i o n paid to the development of research instruments. Included i n t h i s phase were d e s c r i p t i v e , experimental and t r a i n i n g s t u d i e s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l 32 development based on the l a t t e r was emphasized. Category systems and paradigms of e f f e c t i v e n e s s were created. Also during t h i s period, Biddle and E l l e n a (1964), w r i t i n g i n Contemporary Research on Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s , i n a pragmatic fashion defined e f f e c t i v e n e s s as "...the a b i l i t y of a teacher to produce agreed upon educational e f f e c t s i n a given s i t u a t i o n or context" (p.20). On the other hand, teacher competence i s described as "...one or more a b i l i t i e s of a teacher to produce agreed upon educational e f f e c t s " (p.18). They went on to assign the task for ensuing research: "The problem w i l l be resolved only when an adequate catalogue of educational contexts i s provided so as to a l l o w assessment of various teacher a b i l i t i e s for t h e i r e f f e c t i n each" (p.20). Biddle and E l l e n a supported the use of observation techniques, a p r i o r i c l a s s 1 f i c a t i o n , and o b j e c t i v e Instruments such as questionnaires and i n t e r v i e w schedules. They d i d not support the use of e x i s t i n g teacher records, s e l f - r e p o r t s or r a t i n g s . Bohlken and G i f f i n (1970) attempted to t i e together the concepts of l e a r n i n g and a t t i t u d e to l e a r n i n g , again s t r e s s i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s as being m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l . They c i t e d the seven point Trust Scale that G i f f i n had developed with Morton Deutsch. The s c a l e allowed a student to rate an i n s t r u c t o r according to 13 c r i t e r i a : s c h o l a r l y , d i s r e s p e c t f u l , unknowledgeable, kind, emphatic, passive, f a s t , meek, expert, bold, dishonest, aggressive, and uninformed. The 1960's work of C a r l Rogers began i t s i n f l u e n c e i n North American education c i r c l e s during t h i s phase. Rogers' concept of the "helping r e l a t i o n s h i p " had Included three c o n d i t i o n s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g , l n t h i s case for helpers or c o u n s e l l o r s : empathy, un c o n d i t i o n a l regard, and 33 congruence (Rogers, 1981). A f t e r the mid-80's, the concept of rapport and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p received considerable a t t e n t i o n i n the educational l i t e r a t u r e . For example, Jack Thompson (1969) examined teacher behavior i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s concept of Rogers, and concluded that r e l a t i o n s h i p s , not behaviors, were the key to perceptions of teachers by students. Innovations i n classroom teaching were in f l u e n c e d by t h e o r i e s i n group dynamics and group processes. Janet C r i s t (1972), of the opinion that the teacher should be a guide and helper rather than the primary source of student information, c i t e d the opinion of Schmandt who r e f l e c t e d on the r o l e of the teacher as influenced by these new t h e o r i e s : The new teacher w i l l have to be more of a master of people than of data. He w i l l have to provide guidance and i n s p i r a t i o n . He w i l l teach what questions to ask and how to ask them. He w i l l b r i n g the students together for d i s c u s s i o n groups, l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s , workshops, and study groups, (p. 3-4) We see i n t h i s phase that there were many questions r a i s e d that are p r e s e n t l y being r a i s e d i n reference to p r i s o n education. For example, s e v e r a l items on the G i f f i n Trust Scale resembled those i n the Vickers instrument used by M i l l e r (1987a). Classroom climate i s a s i g n i f i c a n t concern i n adult education as w e l l as i n p r i s o n education. Furthermore, many of the concepts regarding the r o l e of the teacher (Thompson, 1969; C r i s t , 1972) have become important p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n adult and adult b a s i c education. We now have seen that the parameters of teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s research had extended, and had done so i n s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s . Many methods as w e l l as more kinds of classrooms were considered i n the s t u d i e s of t h i s p e r i o d . In a l l , t h i s was a phase of many unanswered questions, and they remained to be examined, i f not answered, i n what has become known as the post-Sputnick period-the e a r l i e r decade of Phase I I I . 34 Phase I I I : (ca 1973 to present) In the United States, considerable impetus for measurement of e f f e c t i v e n e s s was provided i n t h i s period by s e v e r a l pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r i n g a l l a p p l i c a n t s for a teaching l i c e n c e to demonstrate t h e i r teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s . One example c i t e d by Gage (1975) was the S t u l l Act of 1972 i n C a l i f o r n i a which required a l l school d i s t r i c t s to evaluate t h e i r teachers. Research emphasis concentrated on f i n d i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher behaviors and student achievement. At the same time, another school of thought gave c u r r i c u l a , not methods, more a t t e n t i o n . Proponents of the " c u r r i c u l u m model" viewed the classroom as a g e s t a l t , a system of i n t e r l o c k i n g parts that could not be analyzed i n i s o l a t i o n . Teacher-proof c u r r i c u l a and textbooks were promoted widely for a time, and teacher t r a i n i n g was de-emphasized. Nevertheless, many researchers maintained a process-product approach. Biddle and Anderson (1986) included Ruth Soar and Robert Soar i n t h i s group. The Soars had conducted f i v e major o b s e r v a t i o n a l studies of p u b l i c school c l a s s - rooms. They looked at student outcomes i n terms of emotional c l i m a t e , teacher management, and c u r r i c u l u m emphasis. Seventy classrooms were observed, and the student achievement r e s u l t s were recorded i n terms of gain s i n c e the beginning of the year. Again, there were f i n d i n g s concerned with i n d i r e c t and d i r e c t teaching: "...simple-concrete p u p i l growth was found l i n k e d to ' d i r e c t i v e ' teaching i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner- the more of the l a t t e r , the more of the former. In c o n t r a s t , complex-abstract p u p i l growth reached i t s maximum with a moderate amount of ' d i r e c t i v e n e s s ' but f e l l o f f d r a m a t i c a l l y when ' d i r e c t i v e n e s s ' was f u r t h e r Increased." ( B i d d l e and Anderson, p. 233). 35 However, Dunkln and Biddle (1974), w r i t i n g regarding classroom c l i m a t e , had abandoned the v a r i a b l e of i n d i r e c t n e s s as a u s e f u l v a r i a b l e to be considered: "... our major f i n d i n g concerning both climate and d i r e c t n e s s i s t h a t , as o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n t h i s research t r a d i t i o n , they do not appear as promising concepts for the improvement of teaching" (p.374). Good, and his colleagues Biddle and Brophy,(cited i n M i l l e r , 1987a) reviewed s e v e r a l process-product studies which had l i n k e d teacher behavior to both student achievement and student a t t i t u d e s . According to M i l l e r : Good et a l confirmed the f i n d i n g s of the e a r l i e r reviews by Rosenshine and F u r s t , and Duncan and B i d d l e , as i d e n t i f y i n g teaching behaviors which c o r r e l a t e with student gains and/or student a t t i t u d e s . A r e l a t e d f i n d i n g , however, c i t e d by Good et a l from a 1974 Brophy and Evertson study was that teacher behavior involved i n maximizing student l e a r n i n g was not always the same as the teacher behavior involved i n developing p o s i t i v e student a t t i t u d e s . The former f i n d i n g appeared to be r e l a t e d to classroom management and c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z a t i o n ; the l a t t e r f i n d i n g was r e l a t e d to a f f e c t i v e teacher v a r i a b l e s such as warmth and student or ientat ion.(p.35) Approaches i n Phase I I I a l s o included the subsequent w r i t i n g of Brophy, who s t r e s s e d i n a 1975 paper that the students must be the u n i t s of a n a l y s i s , and that to understand classroom processes t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s must be considered. He s t r e s s e d the need for research that considered i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s by arguing that a p p l i e d behavior m o d i f i c a t i o n s t u d i e s had shown that students d i f f e r i n t h e i r responses to reward and that an i n d i v i d u a l student may change i n his/her preference for a p a r t i c u l a r reward. He a l s o argued that most teacher behavior i s d i r e c t e d at i n d i v i d u a l students; moreover, student d i f f e r e n c e s a f f e c t teacher behavior. His review had included secondary as w e l l as elementary school s t u d i e s . In a l a t e r essay reviewing l i t e r a t u r e on classroom process, L i g h t f o o t (1978) suggested reasons for the e a r l i e r focus upon the teacher, not the student: 36 Exaggerating the dominance of the teacher and n e g l e c t i n g the power and presence of c h i l d r e n i n the classroom research seems to support the i r r e s p o n s i b l e , dependent and powerless r o l e s assigned to c h i l d r e n i n our c u l t u r e . C u l t u r a l perspectives on c h i l d r e n are r e i n f o r c e d by s o c i o l o g i c a l conceptions of the functions and purposes of the schools i n contemporary s o c i e t y . (ERIC ED 166 317, A b s t r a c t ) This kind of c r i t i q u e emerged mainly from the p h i l o s o p h i c a l foundations of ethnography, as M a r i l y n Westbury (1988) points out i n her examination of both process-product and ethnographic research, the l a t t e r being a p p l i e d during t h i s phase to educational s e t t i n g s . L a t e r , F i s h e r and B e r l i n e r (1979) c r i t i c i z e d the educational movement that had supported competency based t r a i n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n of teachers. They enumerated problems with current instrumentation, methodology, and s t a t i s t i c a l procedures i n the study of e f f e c t i v e n e s s , i n s i s t i n g that the a f f e c t i v e domain and the content of the l e a r n i n g must be considered as one e n t i t y . They a l s o pointed out that research had shown that e f f e c t i v e n e s s over time, measured as a c o r r e l a t i v e of student achievement, was unstable, often because an independent v a r i a b l e such as home background was unstable. A p h i l o s o p h i c a l view expressed during the same period suggested that teachers were born, not made, and supported the argument that teachers must f i n d what works for them (Fensterroacher, 1978). Other research examples i n t h i s phase were st u d i e s by Kenny, Hentschel, and Elpers (1972), Gafner, W h i t f i e l d , and Shores (1978), and Jamieson and Brooks (1980). The Kenny et a l study examined student-perceived teacher r o l e s at four d i f f e r e n t school l e v e l s : elementary school, middle school, high school, and c o l l e g e . A l l students were asked to name three q u a l i t i e s of both good and bad teachers. These w r i t t e n responses were coded and scored according to procedures adapted from s t u d i e s at Western Michigan U n i v e r s i t y . Two 37 s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s were that the d i f f e r e n c e s between sexes i n a s s i g n i n g teacher q u a l i t i e s were r e l a t i v e l y few and minor and that the s i n g l e most important teacher q u a l i t y at a l l four school l e v e l s was the " A t t i t u d e Toward Students". Gafner et a l i n v e s t i g a t e d the concept of warmth, p a r t i c u l a r l y with reference to non-verbal behaviors r e l a t e d to i t . Seventy-five high school students p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study, which Included a r a t i n g s c a l e , r e q u i r i n g observations of s p e c i f i e d teacher behavior by means of videos and interviews of students. According to Gafner et a l : "Results show that students perceive teacher warmth p r i m a r i l y through nonverbal channels of communication, and that c e r t a i n behaviors, with a high degree of s t a t i s t i c a l confidence, can be s a i d to c o n t r i b u t e to t h e i r perceptions of teacher "warmth" (p.16). These s i x behaviors were smiles, nods, gestures, body movements, use of time, and laughs (p.15). Jamieson and Brooks (1980) looked at the i n f l u e n c e of students' a b i l i t y l e v e l s upon t h e i r perceptions of 15 teacher presage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and nine behaviors. The Classroom Teacher Inventory was administered to 529 science students. Results of t h i s survey suggested that high a b i l i t y students seemed to value a teacher's subject area t r a i n i n g , but l o w - a b i l i t y students may value a teacher's a b i l i t y to develop rapport with students. Taking a p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach to a r o l e s concept, Fenstermacher (1978) considered three p o s s i b l e r o l e s of teachers, and labeled them The Executive, The Therapist, and The L i b e r a t i o n i s t . While knowledge was the major emphasis i n the f i r s t r o l e , the student was the focus of the second. The L i b e r a t i o n i s t , a p o s s i b l e t h i r d r o l e , considered content that was mind l i b e r a t i n g . In h i s view, each major subject f i e l d had a set of manners appropriate to that f i e l d and without manner, content would not be 38 l i b e r a t i n g . Therefore, the goal of The L i b e r a t l o n i s t approach i s for a learner to acquire both moral v i r t u e s (honesty, i n t e g r i t y , e t c . ) and i n t e l l e c t u a l ones (reasonableness, c u r i o s i t y , e t c . ) . Some of these kinds of approaches were examined by Good and Brophy (1984) and reviewed by them i n Looking In Classrooms. In t h i s work, they discussed the r e l a t i v e merits of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and group i n s t r u c t i o n . They c i t e d t h e i r 1979 review of e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n In b a s i c s k i l l s , which had i n d i c a t e d that a c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n with students by teachers brought b e t t e r r e s u l t s than r e l i a n c e on c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . Then, a f t e r reviewing the e v o l u t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g c a r e f u l examination of research r e l a t e d to mastery l e a r n i n g and the Persona l i z e d System of I n s t r u c t i o n (PSI), they presented t h e i r view that both whole-class i n s t r u c t i o n and I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n could be both b e n e f i c i a l and l i m i t i n g , that i s to say there could be boredom or lack of success i n e i t h e r for some students at some time. In t h e i r view, however, i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n at i t s best was "an attempt to blend i n d i v i d u a l , s m a l l - group, and whole - c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s according to the needs of the students and the goals of the program" (p.259). Many of the v a r i a b l e s considered i n t h i s phase are those which could have considerable relevance for our study of adult b a s i c education i n p r i s o n s : i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s of students; perceptions of teacher r o l e s ; verbal and non-verbal communication; teacher r o l e s ; i n d i v i d u a l , small group, and whole group i n s t r u c t i o n ; student goals v i s - a - v i s program goal s . A l l of these p r e s e n t l y concern us In t h i s f i e l d and present many p o s s i b i l i t i e s for new research. 39 Phase IV: (ca 1972- present; p a r a l l e l s Phase I I I ) The emphasis on the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g processes and on human i n t e r a c t i o n has been continued from the seventies i n t o the present. In a d d i t i o n , a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s phase has been extended from s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n at a behavioral l e v e l to i n t e r a c t i o n at a c o g n i t i v e l e v e l . For example, Winne and Marx (1977) expressed a view that l e a r n i n g and information processing was not just a s o c i o l o g i c a l process and that the mental l i v e s of teachers and students ought to be examined. They suggest i n "Reconcep-t u a l i z i n g Research on Teaching" that research ought to proceed from the stage of knowing that the mental l i v e s of teachers and students do i n f l u e n c e each other to the stage of knowing how they i n f l u e n c e each other. Their p o s i t i o n i s that "Like the teacher, the student a l s o can be depicted as a dynamic d e c i s i o n maker p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i n s t r u c t i o n as he chooses to attend, analyze, or process i n some other way the information impinging on him from the i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment" (p. 669). They a l s o s t r e s s that various environmental and i n t e r p e r s o n a l events modify and maintain the behavior of both students and teachers i n classrooms. The work of Schon and others has provided considerable encouragement for t h i s approach to the study of effectiveness,. Schon r e f e r s to " r e f l e c t i o n i n a c t i o n " as a way of d e s c r i b i n g how members of most professions think and act as they move from s i t u a t i o n to s i t u a t i o n . In h i s conclusion to The R e f l e c t i v e P r a c t i t i o n e r , Schon (1982) describes the c o n s t r a i n t s placed by bur e a u c r a t i c organizations upon r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e . His example i s the urban p u b l i c school, with i t s system of r u l e s and h i e r a r c h i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . He acknowledges the threat inherent i n r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n for such systems. He a l s o speaks i n t h i s chapter of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g , and defines the co n d i t i o n s for such l e a r n i n g : 40 An o r g a n i z a t i o n capable of examining and r e s t r u c t u r i n g i t s c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s and values demands a l e a r n i n g system capable of s u s t a i n i n g t h i s tension and converting i t to a productive p u b l i c i n q u i r y . An o r g a n i z a t i o n conducive to r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e makes the same r e v o l u t i o n a r y demand, (p. 338) The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of Canada's p r i s o n bureaucracies may not be ready to embrace r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n as a means to or a reason for change. However, the teaching p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i t h i n the prisons could f i n d value i n a c t i v i t i e s based on the concept, faced as they are with one problem s i t u a t i o n a f t e r another on a d a i l y b a s i s . A f a c u l t y development project based on t h i s concept i s described by Smith and Schwartz (1988) i n t h e i r paper Improving Teaching by R e f l e c t i n g on P r a c t i c e . Beginning with a d e f i n i t i o n of e f f e c t i v e n e s s as "...the extent to which the consequences of our ac t i o n s match our i n t e n t i o n s " , (p. 5) Smith and Schwartz describe seven steps taken in a three day workshop that examined some issues teachers dealt with i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e . These steps or headings were " i d e n t i f y a s i t u a t i o n . . . , generate data..., b u i l d a d i a g n o s i s . . . , develop and expand i t . . . , move from diagnosis to a c t i o n . . . , surface b a s i c values..., and reframe the s i t u a t i o n (p. 4). In t h i s way, the w r i t e r s contend, the teachers have become classroom researchers and are r e f l e c t i n g i n as w e l l as on a c t i o n (p. 28). Classroom research could provide another i n t e r e s t i n g avenue leading to the examination of teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r i s o n s . In Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for F a c u l t y , K. P a t r i c i a Cross and Thomas A. Angelo (1988), p o s t u l a t e : "The research most l i k e l y to improve teaching and l e a r n i n g i s that conducted by teachers on questions they themselves have formulated i n response to problems and issues i n t h e i r own teaching" (p. 2). While acknowledging that there are some generic teaching methods that are appropriate for a l l teachers, they b e l i e v e that there are some methods that are subject or "domain' s p e c i f i c (p.5) and that the l a t t e r ought to be 41 developed f u r t h e r by means of classroom research, which involves both students and teachers i n an a l y z i n g what goes on i n classrooms. Their handbook provides c o l l e g e f a c u l t y with techniques for assessing academic s k i l l s and knowledge, students' self-awareness and s e l f assessment of l e a r n i n g s k i l l s ; and assessing student r e a c t i o n s to teaching and t h e i r courses (p. 6). Butt (1983) suggests another research approach to understanding teacher behaviors: the examination of "teacher's v o i c e " as a way of f i n d i n g what i s done i n classrooms. By h i s d e f i n i t i o n , teacher's voice i s "...the tone q u a l i t y , the f e e l i n g s that are conveyed by the way a teacher speaks..." (p. 100). He c i t e s Flanders: "Through examining the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l q u a l i t y of s i g n i f i c a n t experiences i n personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l l i v e s , we can apprehend a teacher's formation or development i n an educative as w e l l as a t r a i n i n g sense" (p. 100). Butt sees biography as a way of g e t t i n g to the r e a l f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s that shape the t h i n k i n g of the teacher. Then, he goes on to say that teaching "as experienced" by teachers w i l l help to understand teacher t h i n k i n g and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to teacher behaviors. However, Butt sees various methods of data c o l l e c t i o n as e q u a l l y worthwhile, and he points out the d i f f i c u l t y of i n t e r p r e t i n g data. But he suggests that the researcher ought to look for those moments of i n s i g h t that the subjects themselves perceive. He goes on to suggest that the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s kind of research could be a way of c l a r i f y i n g the t h i n k i n g of c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s , who could then b e t t e r understand c u r r i c u l u m development i n terms of the stages of t h e i r own development. P r a t t (1988a) c i t e s Grimmett et a l who appeared to express a s i m i l a r approach i n terms of the teacher. P r a t t r e f e r s to t h i s perspective as " C r i t i c a l R e f l e c t i o n on Knowledge and Values", which i n Grimmett's words 42 views teachers as " . . . s e t t i n g problems, framing and re-framing s i t u a t i o n s to formulate t e s t a b l e s o l u t i o n s . . . " (p.3). In P r a t t ' s view: " E f f e c t i v e n e s s i s not assessed by p l a c i n g someone's teaching against a set of o b j e c t i v e l y agreed upon standards but rather by c l a r i f y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p a r t i c u l a r set of values and b e l i e f s and a teacher's I n t e n t i o n s , a c t i o n s and judgement w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r teaching context" (p. 5). He concludes by suggesting that experienced teachers are more capable of c o n s i d e r i n g contextual v a r i a t i o n s i n these terms and " . . . f o r h i g h l y experienced and confident teachers the balance may s h i f t f u r t h e r to emphasize the r e l a t i o n s h i p between values and p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e " (p.5). This examination of the development of values and b e l i e f s has a l s o been part of the research and l i t e r a t u r e of Perry, whose model of c o g n i t i v e and e t h i c a l development has been a p p l i e d by him and by others to young and older a d u l t s i n s e v e r a l s e t t i n g s and educational areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c u r r i c u l u m and c o u n s e l l i n g (1970). His t h e o r i e s have a l s o been studied i n connection with f a c u l t y development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s (Parker, 1978, K u r f i s s , 1977). In the l a t e 1980's, i n s t r u c t i o n a l development programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington have included c o n s i d e r a t i o n of his ideas i n t h e i r courses and workshops (Burton, 1989). Perry's model has been a p p l i e d to the development of perspective on m o r a l / s o c i a l issues, as w e l l as to academic tasks, and he suggests that development i n any of these may not always be s t a t i c , but changing according to s i t u a t i o n ; that i s to say there can be r e g r e s s i o n as w e l l as progression. This aspect of h i s theory i s reminiscent of phenomena noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e on long term i n c a r c e r a t i o n (Zamble and Porporino, 1988). The e x p l o r a t i o n of t h i s theory In terms of the p r i s o n environment remains a p o s s i b i l i t y for f u r t h e r research. For example, i t may be valuable to know at 43 what p o s i t i o n a teacher's t h i n k i n g i s , r e l a t i v e to the persons and c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the m i l i e u she/he i s working or w i l l be working. Phase IV has introduced another approach to the research on teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s : the examination of the teacher's t h i n k i n g and values. This approach had been suggested i n the e a r l y part of t h i s phase by such t h e o r i s t s as Dunkin and B i d d l e (1974): ...much of teaching i s presumably coping behavior on the part of the teacher and i s thus subject to b e l i e f s held by the teacher concerning the curriculum, the nature and o b j e c t i v e s of the teaching task, expectations for p u p i l s , and norms concerning appropriate classroom behavior. Thus, a reasonably good p r e d i c t o r of the classroom behavior of the teacher can presumably be obtained by f i n d i n g out what the teacher thinks she prefers to, ought t o , and w i l l do i n the classroom, (p.412) As w i l l be reviewed i n the l i t e r a t u r e from Canadian p r i s o n education, t h i s approach appears appropriate for an examination of e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the context of c o r r e c t i o n a l teaching. This second part of the l i t e r a t u r e review has been a summary of the development of research approaches to teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s from 1939 to the present. Examples of s t u d i e s i n the general f i e l d of teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s have been provided for each of the four phases i n t h i s time p e r i o d . Many stud i e s have been conducted to f i n d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the most e f f e c t i v e teachers. Research designs have included f i e l d s t u d i e s ; presage-process experiments, with a t t e n t i o n given to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the teacher as an independent v a r i a b l e ; process-process ones i n which behavior of both teacher and student have been considered; and process-product, i n which classroom events and the academic or a t t i t u d i n a l r e s u l t s of those events have been examined. The most recent l i t e r a t u r e has 44 Indicated that the s p e c i f i c context of that classroom must be considered, i n c l u d i n g how students and teacher i n t e r a c t on both the a f f e c t i v e and the c o g n i t i v e l e v e l . However, the l i t e r a t u r e has not provided d e f i n i t i v e answers to many of our questions about e f f e c t i v e n e s s In p r i s o n teaching. Is the teacher expected to i n f l u e n c e student's s o c i a l behavior, to help students acquire academic knowledge, to motivate student l e a r n i n g , to create a p o s i t i v e classroom c l i m a t e , to develop rapport w i t h students, or to present a p o s i t i v e r o l e model? One of these? A l l of these? Or do we Ignore a l l of these questions and accept instead the academic's i d e a l as postulated by McCarthy: The philosophy of any education program, i f i t i s t r u l y to be c a l l e d e d u c a t i o n a l , must be based on the assumption that, as an a c t i v i t y , l e a r n i n g i s undertaken s o l e l y for the sake of l e a r n i n g i t s e l f . Education i s not a process with u t i l i t a r i a n purpose, nor i s i t a means to an end, except the end of developing the mind. Neither i s It a process of I n d o c t r i n a t i o n , which e l i m i n a t e s true t h i n k i n g , nor one of t r a i n i n g , which simply reproduces a pre-determined array of thoughts and behaviors. (McCarthy, 1985, p.44) C. ADULT AND ADULT BASIC EDUCATION TEACHING This s e c t i o n contains an examination of s e v e r a l adult education concepts as w e l l as a review of some stu d i e s and surveys that have emphasized the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of competencies for adult b a s i c education teachers and l i t e r a c y teachers. Adult Education Concepts The d e f i n i t i o n of competencies i n t h i s area was again l i n k e d to the p r e v a i l i n g d e f i n i t i o n ( s ) of education. In t h i s regard, s i n c e the 1960's North American p r a c t i c e i n adult education has been g r e a t l y Influenced by adult educators such as Malcolm Knowles of the United States and Roby Kldd 45 of Canada. In a d d i t i o n , Paulo F r e i r e ' s perspectives have c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the l e a r n e r ' s c u l t u r a l context and to the use of the learner's own dialogue and experiences from that context. In the l a t e 1960's Knowles and Kidd emerged as advocates of the adult learner and of andragogy. The adult learner has u s u a l l y been defined by these and other adult educators as "...an autonomous, experience laden, goal seeking, 'now' o r i e n t e d , and problem-centered i n d i v i d u a l (Adult Basic L i t e r a c y Curriculum Guide and Resource Book, 1987, p.241). "Andragogy" was o r i g i n a l l y defined as the teaching of a d u l t s . However, i n 1980, Knowles r e v i s e d t h i s d e f i n i t i o n by s u b s t i t u t i n g the word "people" for " a d u l t s " . In h i s r e v i s e d and updated The Modern P r a c t i c e of Adult Euducatlon (1980), he suggests that pedagogy and andragogy are not dichotomous, but are at two ends of a spectrum of d e p e n d e n t / s e l f - d i r e c t i n g behavior. He a l s o suggests that pedagogy and andragogy are " . . . two a l t e r n a t i v e models for t e s t i n g out the assumptions as to t h e i r ' f i t ' with p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . " (p. 43) Andragogy drew a t t e n t i o n to the developmental aspects of an a d u l t ' s education process and the methods appropriate to his/her development. Developing the student's s k i l l s f or s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g was one of the primary goals of adult education and an important concept of andragogy according to Knowles. Through s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g an i n d i v i d u a l adult could l e a r n whatever he/she needs for complete s e l f - development. To f o s t e r s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g , the adult educator func t i o n s i n many ways: diagnosing; planning; motivating; s e l e c t i n g appropriate methodology; p r o v i d i n g resources; and e v a l u a t i n g (Adult Basic L i t e r a c y , 1987). C r i t i c i s m of adult education p r a c t i c e based on the p r i n c i p l e s of andragogy has been voiced i n s e v e r a l ways. C o l l i n s (1988) employed the metaphor of the p r i s o n i n his c r i t i q u e , suggesting that s e l f - d i r e c t e d 46 l e a r n i n g , with Its methods, m a t e r i a l s , and examinations ( I . e . as d e t a i l e d l n the functions of the adult educator i n the preceding paragraph) i s as c o n t r o l l i n g to an adult learner as are the s u r v e i l l a n c e methods of a p r i s o n to an inmate. He c i t e d many other c r i t i c s of current adult education approaches, and then summed up: ...Continued focus ( s u r v e i l l a n c e ) on the adult learner under the r u b r i c of s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g becomes a panoptic technique through which adult educators are themselves able to escape s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n on what i t i s they do and what they are. (p. 106) Pr a t t (1988b) j o i n s i n c r i t i c i z i n g the concept of andragogy as confusing and l a c k i n g i n c r e d i b i l i t y . He focusses h i s c r i t i c i s m on learner c o n t r o l , suggesting that adults can be both s e l f - d i r e c t e d and dependent i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g , and that andragogical p r a c t i c e ought to be c a r r i e d out according to the development of the learner and the requirements of that which i s to be learned. Adult Basic Education Teaching The p r a c t i c e s of adult b a s i c education and l i t e r a c y i n s t r u c t i o n have developed w i t h i n the adult education f i e l d . U n t i l the mid-60's, teachers i n Adult Basic Education (ABE) had come p r i m a r i l y from elementary and secondary schools and had continued with methodologies from those experiences. However, s p e c i a l competencies were i d e n t i f i e d about t h i s time, and t r a i n i n g needs were i d e n t i f i e d (Pearce, 1966; Davison, 1969). Pearce reported on a study made by Modesto Junior College i n which students, teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i d e n t i f i e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an e f f e c t i v e ABE teacher. Methodology In t h i s primary study included group d i s c u s s i o n , brainstorming and questionnaires with students, and a case 47 h i s t o r y approach that included in-depth interviews of teachers. From t h i s study, teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d were as f o l l o w s : 1. understanding; 2. f l e x i b i l i t y ; 3. patience; 4. humor; 5. p r a c t i c a l i t y ; 6. c r e a t i v i t y ; 7. p r e p a r a t i o n . Also from t h i s study, an i n t e r v i e w schedule was designed for screening p o t e n t i a l teachers for employment. Interviews were a l s o to include requests for background information, a t t i t u d i n a l measurement and r e a c t i o n s to p o s i t i o n statements and h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s concerning educat i o n . In Canada, Davison conducted a survey of adult b a s i c education teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and completed a thorough review of the l i t e r a t u r e and research i n the ABE f i e l d to 1969. Based on these, she grouped teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h i s f i e l d i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s . Knowledge r e f e r r e d to knowledge of the f o l l o w i n g : subject matter; the s o c i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s of adult i l l i t e r a t e s ; adult l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s and adult education process; community c o n d i t i o n s ; economics and i t s e f f e c t upon a l l i n d i v i d u a l s ; and i n t e r p e r s o n a l and intergroup dynamics. Davison included the f o l l o w i n g under s k i l l s necessary for adult b a s i c education teachers: developing a program around the needs, i n t e r e s t s and goals of the students; diagnosing problems and adapting i n s t r u c t i o n to the students' needs; motivating student i n t e r e s t and response; and t e s t i n g and e v a l u a t i o n . The a t t i t u d e s that she c i t e d as important were the f o l l o w i n g : enthusiasm for the subject matter; c a p a c i t y to be challenged by t h i s work and readiness for experimentation and innovation; commitment that students can l e a r n ; and empathy. Mocker (1974) c l a s s f i e d and ranked 291 competencies for adult b a s i c education i n s t r u c t o r s i n a way s i m i l a r to Davison's c a t e g o r i e s , but Mocker 48 s u b s t i t u t e d behavior for s k i 11s. His work was intended to a s s i s t i n the development of t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s for prospective teachers. Mocker suggested a l s o that these competencies could be used as c r i t e r i a for h i r i n g new teachers i n t h i s f i e l d . In the same year, Aker (1974) provided A Guide for Competency Based  Teacher T r a i n i n g i n Adult Basic Education, while suggesting that there i s no c o n s i s t e n t o v e r a l l set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which define the "good* teacher. Nevertheless, he proceeded to enumerate approximately twenty-four q u a l i t i e s of ABE teachers, defined i n terms of students' educational gains, changed behavior, and favorable a t t i t u d e s . His somewhat t r i t e summary of the issue was that good teaching i s both a science and an a r t . Much of what has occurred i n North American adult b a s i c education has a c t u a l l y been development i n l i t e r a c y education, so that the d e f i n i t i o n of education as posed by F r e i r e , who has w r i t t e n about l i t e r a c y with eloquence, presented considerable relevancy to t h i s study. In summary, to F r e i r e education i s one of two t h i n g s : a process that dominates people or one that frees I l l i t e r a t e s from t h e i r " c u l t u r e of s i l e n c e ' , t r e a t s them as equals with r i c h experiences and c a p a c i t i e s , and involves them as "subjects' i n a l l aspects of t h e i r education. The former system F r e i r e c a l l s "banking' education; the second he c a l l s " d i a l o g i c a l ' or "problem posing' education, which r e s u l t s i n learners being able to "name' t h e i r world, to r e f l e c t c r i t i c a l l y on the "problems of men i n and with the world' and to act to solve those problems ( Adult Basic L i t e r a c y Curriculum Guide and Resource Book, p.246). With i n f l u e n c e s from educators l i k e those c i t e d i n the preceding, ABE s t u d i e s i n the 1980's continued to focus on i n s t r u c t o r s ' competencies. From others i n t h i s f i e l d , d i r e c t i o n has been given for the t r a i n i n g of adult 49 educators. Examples are Ulmer (1980); Rossman and Powers (1981); and Nunes and H a l l o r a n (1987). Ulmer wrote that s u c c e s s f u l adult b a s i c education teachers r e q u i r e d , as w e l l as content knowledge, the a b i l i t y to r e l a t e to adult l e a r n e r s ; mastery of techniques to transmit that knowledge; and competency i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Rossman and Powers reported somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y i n "Perceptions of Adult Basic Education Administrators and Teachers Regarding S k i l l s of Teaching". In t h e i r f i n d i n g s , perceptions of twenty s k i l l s were not s t a t i s t c a l l y d i f f e r e n t on any s k i l l but Interpersonal r e l a t i o n s . The study of Nunes and H a l l o r a n ranked eight c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e f f e c t i v e ABE teacher: understanding of the adult l e a r n e r ; personal q u a l i t i e s ; knowledge of the f i e l d ; knowledge of teaching techniques; c r e a t i v i t y ( i n n o v a t i o n ) ; communication/interpersonal s k i l l ; p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m ; and management/organization. However, the t r a i n i n g plan a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h i s document then l i s t e d "teachable s k i l l s " . "Personal q u a l i t i e s " and " c r e a t i v i t y " , ranking #2 and #5 r e s p e c t i v e l y , were omitted i n the l i s t . Thus, l t appears we must f i n d a way to look for these, i f teachers cannot be t r a i n e d for them. In summary, a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s have received considerable a t t e n t i o n In the adult and adult b a s i c education l i t e r a t u r e , where much of the focus has centred upon the l e a r n e r s , t h e i r needs, and the kinds of teaching that are required to meet those needs. However, the major part of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s a l a r g e body of informed opinion based on surveys and d e s c r i p t i o n s of current p r a c t i c e rather than on experimental or c l i n i c a l research. 50 The a p p l i c a t i o n of adult education l i t e r a t u r e to current education p r a c t i c e i n Canadian prisons has had some l i m i t a t i o n s . F i r s t of a l l , the p r i s o n system i s c u r r e n t l y q u i t e d i r e c t i v e , employing p o s i t i v e and negative i n c e n t i v e s , designed to persuade an offender who i s below the grade eight l e v e l to e n r o l i n an adult b a s i c education program. The prisoner i s not perceived as s e l f - d i r e c t e d i n terms of his/her educational plans. The s e l f - d i r e c t e d concept of the adult education l i t e r a t u r e appears as more congruent with the o p p o r t u n i t i e s model- now a part of p r i s o n education h i s t o r y . Moreover, some current r e s e r a r c h (Ross & Fabiano, 1985) portrays the offender as d e f i c i e n t , or as possessing developmental lags i n c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s k i l l s of s o c i a l c o g n i t i o n : s e l f - c o n t r o l , reasoning, perception, problem s o l v i n g . This i s not a p o r t r a y a l that matches the popular d e f i n i t i o n of the adult l e a r n e r . On the other hand, the l i t e r a t u r e more s p e c i f i c t o l i t e r a c y and adult b a s i c education focusses as much on the teacher as on the l e a r n e r , and emphasizes the personal q u a l i t i e s of the teacher, p a r t i c u l a r l y good i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , s k i l l s that have received a high l e v e l of a t t e n t i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e on p r i s o n education. PRISON TEACHING IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA This part of the l i t e r a t u r e review w i l l focus on p r i s o n teaching at both the b a s i c and higher education l e v e l s . The review looks f i r s t at the work done i n the United States, where c o r r e c t i o n a l education was f i r s t d e l i n i a t e d as a s p e c i f i c area of p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y , deals In some d e t a i l with some Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s ' work In p r i s o n s , and then concludes with an examination of the current emphasis on teaching for c o g n i t i v e development. 51 As M i l l e r (1987a) In d i c a t e s , s t r u c t u r e d research on c o r r e c t i o n a l teachers' e f f e c t i v e n e s s was i n i t s infancy i n 1987. On the other hand, the prisoners and programs designed for them had been objects of research i n a v a r i e t y of d i s c i p l i n e s . For example, On P r i s o n Education, edited by Lucien Morln and published i n 1981, contained eighteen papers and essays, only one of which examined d i r e c t l y the teacher's r o l e i n p r i s o n education: D.K. G r i f f i n ' s essay, Competencies of C o r r e c t i o n a l Educators. A model for pr i s o n ABE programming i n the United States was presented In 1969 at the National Work Conference on Goals of Adult Basic Education In  Correct ions. This conference o f f i c i a l l y launched ABE i n Corrections (ABEC), and defined the ABEC goals i n terms of i t s c l i e n t e l e : s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , s o c i a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , economic e f f i c i e n c y and c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (Ryan & S i l v e r n , 1969, Eds.). The r o l e of the teacher d i d rece i v e a t t e n t i o n when the need to t r a i n teachers for c o r r e c t i o n s was i d e n t i f i e d . W r i t i n g i n 1973, McAfee r a t i o n a l i z e d that t h i s t r a i n i n g was necessary because the pr i s o n students often had backgrounds d i f f e r e n t from students i n other educational s i t u a t i o n s , the i n s t i t u t i o n s presented u n f a m i l i a r c o n d i t i o n s to teachers; and the Inmates often had previous negative educational experiences. He stressed that the p o t e n t i a l p r i s o n teacher must be knowledgeable i n a wide range of t o p i c s that included the f o l l o w i n g : 1. how to teach various ages; 2. teaching m a t e r i a l s ; 3. psychology and so c i o l o g y of the in c a r c e r a t e d ; 4. h i s t o r y , management and environment of c o r r e c t i o n s ; 52 5. how to handle Inmate aggression and behavior problems; 6. know r o l e s of other s t a f f ; 7. dynamics of the delinquency and crime causation. In a d d i t i o n , he stressed that a t r a i n e e must have a s t a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y , emotional maturity and be able to handle unusual s i t u a t i o n s . Gubser (1977) commented on the s u c c e s s f u l student of t h i s program: "The s u c c e s s f u l c o r r e c t i o n s education major i s a s t r e e t w i s e , mature, s e n s i t i v e and h i g h l y communicative i n d i v i d u a l . Those with a missionary z e a l , with l i t t l e e l s e to o f f e r , are the f i r s t to f i n d the program unacceptable to t h e i r needs." (p.24) M i l l e r ' s review contains themes and emphases s i m i l a r to those contained i n the l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d i n the preceding paragraphs. She c i t e s s t u d i e s by Gunnel (1973), Magee (1974), who a r t i c u l a t e d elements of teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s ; and Arshad (1975) and P o l l a c k (1979), who described t y p i c a l concerns of c o r r e c t i o n a l teachers: lack of communication with p r i s o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ; c o n f l i c t with s e c u r i t y p r i o r i t i e s ; concern for personal s a f e t y ; confusion over functions of p r i s o n s ; and the s t r e s s f u l e f f e c t s of the p r i s o n environment upon both teachers and students ( c i t e d i n M i l l e r , 1987a, pp. 49-51). These c o n d i t i o n s must be met, the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d , by teachers who possess unique q u a l i t i e s and who a l s o prefer m u l t i p l e r o l e s w i t h i n the p r i s o n education program (Pinton, 1981). Pinton summarized hi s views of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviors ( r o l e s ) of the p r i s o n teacher, and i n doing so seems to p r e d i c t the current challenges i n Canadian p r i s o n education: The educator i s expected to help i n the achievement of a l l s o c i a l and academic s k i l l s ; he should be able to be a model i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n and as a c i t i z e n ; he should be p a t i e n t , understanding, ready to l i s t e n and honest enough to c o r r e c t e r r o r s of judgement and maturity as w e l l as those of l o g i c , (p.5) 53 A more recent a r t i c l e by M i l l e r (1987b), based on her own research i n p r i s o n teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s , gives us information about the perceived c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e teachers. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between two groups of teachers was found i n the behaviors s t i m u l a t i n g , o r i g i n a l , and student-centred. The teachers i n the group who were seen as h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e had updated t h e i r teaching s k i l l s during the two years p r i o r to the study, and had had l e s s c o r r e c t i o n a l experience than the group seen as low i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Her study a l s o showed that, although subject teachers, as w e l l as other teachers i n her sample, were rated highest on the behaviors knowledgeable and f a i r , these two behaviors were those that had d i s t i n g u i s h e d l e a s t between the high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and low In e f f e c t i v e n e s s groups. Conversely, a l l subject teachers and teachers i n the low group, were rated lowest on the behaviors s t i m u l a t i n g , and o r i g i n a l . In a d d i t i o n , the high group was rated lowest on s t i m u l a t i n g : the behavior that had d i s t i n g u i s h e d most between the high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and low i n e f e c t i v e n e s s groups. Ratings by experienced c o r r e c t i o n a l teachers of interviews of subject teachers i n d i c a t e d that the responses of the h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e teachers showed evidence of investment, a d e s i r e to help students grow, and self-awareness. M i l l e r had intended that her research would provide her with enough information from which she could design a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w guide capable of s e l e c t i n g p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e p r i s o n educators. However, s e v e r a l of her questions, some posed i n an h y p o t h e t i c a l context, did not generate s u f f i c i e n t information about the interviewees for the r a t e r s to evaluate on the c r i t e r i a w i t h i n the r a t i n g guide. (Appendix D). However, the r a t i n g instrument, E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors, d i d 54 i n d i c a t e behaviors that appeared to d i s t i n g u i s h , based on student, s u p e r v i s o r , and s e l f - perceptions, the h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e from the low i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s p r i s o n teachers (Appendix A). Pinton's (1981) views had a l l u d e d to the concepts of c o g n i t i v e and moral development, major concepts i n Canadian p r i s o n education l i t e r a t u r e i n the l a t t e r part of the 1980's. G r i f f i n (1979, 1980); Duguid (1981, 1985); and Ross (1988) are c i t e d here as proponents of t h i s focus. In a d d i t i o n , the recent work of Zamble and Porporlno suggests that programs with t h i s focus must be d i r e c t e d at pris o n e r s very e a r l y i n t h e i r period of i n c a r c e r a t i o n . Speaking at a time when many c o r r e c t i o n a l teachers i n Canada were s t i l l employed d i r e c t l y by CSC, G r i f f i n (1979) described the i d e a l p r o f e s s i o n a l Image: " C o r r e c t i o n a l educators are compared with other c o r r e c t i o n a l workers and with other educators. When they represent the best aspects of c o r r e c t i o n s , and of education as w e l l , t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l image w i l l be secure" (Summary). In the next year he elaborated on t h i s p o s i t i o n In a paper at the 34th Annual Conference of the American C o r r e c t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n . He described three kinds of competencies, which seemed to elaborate on Pinton's statements: "...they are competencies which enable students... to c o r r e c t d e f i c i e n c i e s i n perception, i n concept-formation, and i n response reper-t o i r e " (1980, p.4). These competencies, he argued, w i l l be understood when the teacher i s w i l l i n g to deal with issues of a s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and e t h i c a l nature. In the same paper, G r i f f i n e laborated: Most of us have not been forced to analyse our own values c l e a r l y enough to be able to deal with t h i s kind of s i t u a t i o n (the need to deal with issues of a s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and e t h i c a l n ature). Some teachers, i n f a c t , hold b a s i c a l l y a n t i - s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s themselves, and should be i n another l i n e of work. Our values, perceptions, and c o g n i t i v e concepts are n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d . 55 None can be neglected without r i s k to the others. The com-petencies required of the c o r r e c t i o n a l educator, then, include personal q u a l t i e s as w e l l . Adequate competencies cannot e x i s t independently of them, for the teacher, and for the l e a r n e r , (p. 10) In a c o l l e c t i o n of w r i t i n g s e d i t e d by Morin (1981), Duguid describes the e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f and students i n the p r i s o n program of the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , and the democratic atmosphere that had evolved w i t h i n the program. Duguid r e f e r r e d to Lawrence Kohlberg's moral reasoning s c a l e and suggested that a d i r e c t i v e educational approach ought to take place w i t h i n p r i s o n . This process would include a core c u r r i c u l u m of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e and h i s t o r y and a v a r i e t y of i n s t r u c t o r s who encourage discourse on s o c i a l and moral Issues. He suggested, however, that for t h i s type of student "...no one course or i n s t r u c t o r i s the key to the developmental process. Instead, the education program as a whole i s r e s p o n s i b l e and the primary cause of change agent may vary w i t h each student" (p. 50). Duguid (1985) a l s o e d i t e d the paper, "The P r i s o n e r As Student", which summarizes p r i s o n u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s ' responses to a questionnaire about t h e i r students' academic a b i l i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s , and career goals. In t h i s paper, i n s t r u c t o r s a l s o comment on the impact of the p r i s o n on t h e i r teaching s t y l e , sometimes comparing t h e i r on-campus teaching experiences with p r i s o n ones. The paper Includes a reference to the challenge to the u n i v e r s i t y teacher concerning the r o l e or p o s i t i o n with respect to the imaginary l i n e that d i v i d e s p r i s o n s t a f f and p r i s o n e r . He points out that while t h i s challenge was greater i n the prisons with higher s e c u r i t y , most of the i n s t r u c t o r s were able to maintain an educational focus; t h e r e f o r e , i n 56 one i n s t r u c t o r ' s words: "The p o s i t i o n taken should not be a middle p o s i t i o n , but should favor the prisoner i n a d i r e c t educational posture. This does not I n v i t e c o n f l i c t with the p r i s o n a u t h o r i t y " (p.17). Other i n s t r u c t o r comments i n t h i s paper were r e v e a l i n g : "The biggest problem i s avoiding appearing two-faced. This i s p r i m a r i l y a s t r u c t u r a l problem; that i s , the c l a s s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between u n i v e r s i t y and s o c i e t y / p r i s o n must be maintained and accepted by the c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s " (p. 17); and "My teaching i s much more personal than on a u n i v e r s i t y campus - ranging from spoon-feeding to harassment... I t r y to get away from a u t h o r i t a r i a n c o n f r o n t a t i o n s and encourage development...(p. 18); ...To be s u c c e s s f u l l n p r i s o n , your teaching s t y l e should be f o r c e f u l and e n t h u s i a s t i c " (p. 18); "The teacher needs to be honest, i n f o r m a l , a c c e s s i b l e to challenge but f i r m . Arrogance i s a d e f i n i t e l i a b i l i t y " (p. 19). Each of these i n s t r u c t o r s sees himself as outside, but not against the in f l u e n c e of the p r i s o n , or i t s a u t h o r i t y ; education Is an a c t i v i t y that puts the i n s t r u c t o r with the student, but not against the i n s t i t u t i o n . Unlike those educators described by G r i f f i n , the i n s t r u c t o r s do not see themselves as part of a " c o r r e c t i o n a l " process. Although Ross's work i n the area of c o g n i t i v e development r e l a t e s more d i r e c t l y to offender behavior and re-education, i t could have i m p l i c a t i o n s for the p r i s o n classroom teacher. Speaking at the Region VI C o r r e c t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n Conference i n Vancouver i n October, 1988, Ross r e f e r r e d to h i s and others' research on offender r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs: "...almost every s i n g l e s u c c e s s f u l program [aimed at offender r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ] shared one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l n common: they Included some technique which could be expected to have an impact on the offender's t h i n k i n g " (p. 1). His search of the l i t e r a t u r e had "...revealed a 57 s u b s t a n t i a l body of e m p i r i c a l studies which i n d i c a t e that many but not a l l offenders evidence developmental delays i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of a number of c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s " (p. 1). Ross concluded his comments with these remarks: Despite what we academics might say about education being a j u s t i f i a b l e goal i n i t s own r i g h t - the p u b l i c and policymakers ( s i c ) are becoming more and more demanding that c o r r e c t i o n a l programs serve not j u s t offender-centred goals but s o c i a l l y -centred goals as w e l l . (p. 4) Ross's view of c o r r e c t i o n a l programs for the future was that " . . . r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i m p o s s i b l e . But l t requires m u l t i - f a c e t e d programs conducted w i t h i n t e g r i t y and honesty by q u a l i f i e d s t a f f and supportive environments" (p. 4). In Time to Think, w r i t t e n by Ross and Fabiano (1985), c o g n i t i v e t r a i n i n g techniques were o u t l i n e d : d i d a c t i c teaching; small group d i s c u s s i o n ; a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques; reasoning e x e r c i s e s and games; r o l e p l a y i n g and modelling; i n d i v i d u a l and group c o u n s e l l i n g . In a p r e s e n t a t i o n at a p r o f e s s i o n a l day for B r i t i s h Columbia C o r r e c t i o n a l Educators A s s o c i a t i o n (BCCEA) members, Fabiano (1989) described how these elements were presented i n c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s t r a i n i n g courses being p i l o t e d i n s e v e r a l f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and c o r r e c t i o n a l centres i n Canada. She a l s o went on to say that these elements are e s s e n t i a l elements of l i v i n g s k i l l s as w e l l as of adult b a s i c education programming. The research work of Zamble and Porporino (1988), Behavior, and  Adaptation i n P r i s o n Inmates, suggests not only that the c o r r e c t i o n a l programs should address the t h i n k i n g patterns and the l i v i n g and coping s k i l l s of inmates, but a l s o that such programs should be introduced immediately upon i n c a r c e r a t i o n , before the Inmate s e t t l e s i n t o a r o u t i n e which d u l l s perceptions or appears to obviate the n e c e s s i t y for change. 58 Their research was conducted over a one and three quarter year period i n ten Ontario p r i s o n s . In Porporino's words: "...a p r i s o n has the e f f e c t of c r e a t i n g a behavioral deep-freeze. The behavior they b r i n g to p r i s o n with them becomes f i x e d and development stops, l i k e a photograph i n a f i x a t i v e " (p. 9). The c o g n i t i v e processes of the teachers i n some Canadian p r i s o n programs have been examined i n e x p l o r a t o r y work by Munby (1986) of Queen's U n i v e r s i t y . His case study, P r o f e s s i o n a l Perspectives of P e n i t e n t i a r y  I n s t r u c t o r s , examines how four teachers i n adult b a s i c education and secondary school p r i s o n programs viewed t h e i r students; the p r i s o n classroom and i t s surrounding environment; and the teacher's r o l e w i t h i n t h i s environment. Munby's i n t e n t i o n had been to make l i n g u i s t i c analyses of Interviews with these teachers, l a r g e l y In terms of the metaphor contained i n the i n t e r v i e w s . While t h i s goal was not achieved, his work has provided an e x c e l l e n t p i c t u r e of the tension and s t r e s s f e l t by the four i n t h e i r classroom, and of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and behaviors under that s t r e s s and t e n s i o n . Because t h i s study was conducted just p r i o r to the current i n i t i a t i v e s i n l i t e r a c y education i n Canadian f e d e r a l p r i s o n s , and was c a r r i e d out when a contract agency other than the Kingston Learning Centre provided the program, the relevance of Munby's work to t h i s current study may only be h i s t o r i c a l i n nature. However, his Interview s t r a t e g i e s have suggested another way to examine more deeply the context of p r i s o n classrooms, p a r t i c u l a r l y the teachers' perspectives of t h e i r work and of t h e i r students w i t h i n that context. Munby conducted from s i x to eight interviews with each of the four teachers, each i n t e r v i e w u s u a l l y one week apart. Each teacher was asked to di s c u s s one of eight t o p i c s that dealt with aspects of his own background, a 59 t y p i c a l day, h i s working environment, his students, and his courses, and was prompted with Munby's comments, based on the l a t t e r ' s observations during a classroom v i s i t . Beyond the u t i l i z a t i o n of these techniques, these inter v i e w s were qu i t e unstructured and f r e e - f l o w i n g . He made no attempt to compare each interview, but was able to analyze each for r e c u r r i n g themes w i t h i n the d i s c o u r s e . What i m p l i c a t i o n s could t h i s research have for teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n prisons? F i r s t , i t may suggest that e x i s t i n g adult b a s i c education programming and c u r r i c u l a should be evaluated i n terms of t h e i r c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s t r a i n i n g content. Second, adult b a s i c education teachers i n Canadian prisons could soon be expected to teach such content, as w e l l as to model the various facets of c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s t r a i n i n g as enumerated by Ross (1988): s e l f - c o n t r o l , meta-cognition, i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , c r i t i c a l reasoning, and s o c i a l perspective t a k i n g . The most recent research, which r e l a t e s to teacher t h i n k i n g and teacher development, could provide d i r e c t i o n to Canadian p r i s o n teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y those involved i n c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s t r a i n i n g . Once again, we have seen that teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s continues to be defined i n terms of both e x t e r n a l as w e l l as i n t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s . When viewed as a whole, the l i t e r a t u r e of t h i s study has traced developments r e l a t e d to teaching i n Canadian p r i s o n adult b a s i c education programs. At f i r s t i n f luenced by B r i t i s h and American t h i n k i n g about pri s o n s , and then c o n t r o l l e d by Canadian government p o l i c i e s , f e d e r a l c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have slo w l y reached a point at which education has become a recognized part of t h e i r mission, t h e i r goals, and t h e i r a c t i v i t y . While the p r i s o n classrooms i n which that a c t i v i t y takes place are d i f f e r e n t i n many ways from the classrooms outside p r i s o n s , p r i s o n teachers have come 60 from the same kinds of t r a i n i n g and experiences as other classroom teachers. Therefore, t h i s review has included an examination of what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , behaviors, values, and a t t i t u d e s are possessed by teachers outside and i n s i d e p r i s o n w a l l s . In a d d i t i o n , some research a c t i v i t i e s , methods, and Instruments, perhaps relevant to the p r i s o n classroom context, have been i d e n t i f i e d . Knowledge of t h i s context, however, i s l i m i t e d to a r e l a t i v e l y small number of educators as w e l l as researchers. This review has i l l u s t r a t e d that improvement i n t h i s regard has been f a c i l i t a t e d by the involvement of outside agencies such as c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the a c t i v i t i e s of p r i s o n s . These i n s t i t u t i o n s , together with p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the C o r r e c t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , w i l l continue to focus on the improvement of teaching and l e a r n i n g i n Canadian p r i s o n s . Supported by enlightened c o r r e c t i o n a l p o l i c y , the future for educational a c t i v i t y t h e r e i n seems promising. Although issues of funding and s e c u r i t y remain, and desp i t e the fact that the d e f i n i t i o n of "education" i s unclear i n s i d e Canadian prisons as w e l l as outside, these prisons do seem to be moving c l o s e r to the concept postulated i n a paper by Morin and Cosman (1985, p. 13), presented at the World Assembly of Adult Education i n Buenos A i r e s , Argentlna: ...The e n t i r e p r i s o n Is educational....Each p a r t i c i p a n t ...has a r o l e to play i n the o v e r a l l p l a n . The educational approach t h e r e f o r e implies that the p r i s o n i t s e l f must be educated before i t can become e d u c a t i o n a l . This means that unless i t i s able to exert i t s Influence throughout the e n t i r e i n s t i t u t i o n , with i t s host of d u t i e s , a t t i t u d e s , r o l e s and b e l i e f s , the educational approach w i l l be an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . 61 Chapter I I I : Methodology The p o p u l a t i o n and sample, the research instruments, the methods of data c o l l e c t i o n , and the procedures taken to protect c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y are described i n t h i s chapter. A. Population and Sample The subjects of t h i s study were adult b a s i c education teachers who were under contract through t h e i r employers to f e d e r a l c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the P a c i f i c Region and the Ontario Region of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada (CSC). At the time of the study, approximately f o r t y contract teachers were employed at t h i s l e v e l of educational a c t i v i t y i n twelve I n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n the two regions. In B r i t i s h Columbia ( P a c i f i c Region), one of two employers was Fraser V a l l e y College (FVC), a community c o l l e g e that had d e l i v e r e d adult b a s i c education programming si n c e the College's opening i n 1974, but which had been involved i n that a c t i v i t y i n Corrections only since 1983. In Ontario the employer was the Kingston Learning Centre (KLC), which had been e s t a b l i s h e d in 1982 as a p r i v a t e school to provide s e r v i c e s for adults and c h i l d r e n with l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , and which a l s o had provided l i t e r a c y programmes i n the Kingston community si n c e that time. In 1987 KLC had received i t s f i r s t contract to d e l i v e r adult b a s i c education programming i n the Ontario Region of the CSC. A l l eighteen subjects had been c e r t i f i e d to teach i n the province i n which they were p r e s e n t l y employed, and most held degrees. A l l were engaged i n teaching students i n programs designed to improve prisoner l i t e r a c y up to the pre-General Education Development (G.E.D.) l e v e l . A l l 62 had been employed a minimum of s i x months, f u l l time or part time, i n t h e i r current p o s i t i o n s . V o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r s were not included i n the sample because, at the time of the study, i n most of the c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada these i n s t r u c t o r s were employees of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada. There are s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n t r a c t u a l o b l i g a t i o n s and i n c e r t i f i c a t i o n between these and contract employees. While c u r r i c u l u m content d i f f e r e d between these two regions, adult b a s i c education program o b j e c t i v e s , as determined by the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada, were the same, as were methods of i n s t r u c t i o n . That i s to say, various combinations of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , l i m i t e d use of computer a s s i s t e d I n s t r u c t i o n , and occasional small group a c t i v i t y were commonly u t i l i z e d . A l l adult b a s i c education teachers from both contract agencies were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e , and a l l those who were a v a i l a b l e when the Interview p o r t i o n of the study was being c a r r i e d out d i d p a r t i c i p a t e . Although at the outset there appeared there would be approximately 40 p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s , l a t e r i t was found that summer schedules, teacher turnover, or non-ABE teaching assignments had prevented the i n c l u s i o n of many of these s u b j e c t s . Twenty-one teachers from both regions were interviewed; however, three subjects were l a t e r e l i m i n a t e d from the study because t h e i r data from a l l instruments was not obtained. Therefore, eighteen teachers made up the subject group: ten from P a c i f i c and eight from Ontario Region. Eight i n s t i t u t i o n s were represented i n the t o t a l sample. The respondents to the Supplementary Questionnaire were three teachers from the group perceived as h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e according to the r e s u l t s of the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors r a t i n g Instrument. 63 B. Instruments The d e c i s i o n to use r a t i n g and i n t e r v i e w instruments designed by M i l l e r (1987a) and Vickers (1979) as w e l l as the M i l l e r methodology was made because of s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s i n the Maryland and the Canadian teaching s i t u a t i o n s : adult b a s i c education programming; recent emphasis on l i t e r a c y programming; employment of subject teachers by c o n t r a c t i n g agencies; s i m i l a r c e r t i f i c a t i o n requirements and working c o n d i t i o n s ; continuous entry and high turnover i n the student populations; a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of various s e c u r i t y l e v e l s w i t h i n the samples; a l a r g e l y , but not e x c l u s i v e l y , male p o p u l a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g instruments were used i n t h i s study: 1. E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors (ETB): This instrument had been designed by Vickers i n 1979 and was tested for i t s v a l i d i t y i n a study that year. With the ETB, Vickers had rated two groups of community c o l l e g e teachers, one of these groups having been i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r as e f f e c t i v e by v i r t u e of t h e i r nomination to the Minnie Stevens Piper Foundation ( M i l l e r , 1987a). In V i c k e r s ' study, three perceiver groups - subject teachers, t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s , and former students - rated, with a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , the nominated teachers and a c o n t r o l group of teachers, s a t i s f y i n g a .05 c r i t e r i o n on s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s (1987a). The v a r i a b l e s i n the ETB of Vickers are ten sets of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : harsh/kindly, p a r t i a l / f a i r , d u l l / s t i m u l a t i n g , cursory/probing, i n f l e x i b l e / adaptable, autocrat ic/student-cent red, evading/responsible, 1imited/know-ledgeable, s t e r o t y p e d / o r i g i n a l , d i s o r g a n i z e d / s y s t e m a t i c . One item was added to these by M i l l e r : an item that asked for a r a t i n g on o v e r a l l teaching  e f f e c t iveness. 64 2. Demographic Data Questionnaire (DDQ) (developed by M i l l e r , 1987a) (Appendix B). This was given minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s for the Canadian subjects in t h i s s l udy. This Instrument included questions about respondents' teaching, e d u c a t i o n a l , and t r a i n i n g experience; a d d i t i o n a l experience i n teaching methodology and curriculum; c e r t i f i c a t i o n and endorsement; and current teaching assignment. A d d i t i o n a l questions for i n f o r m a t i o n a l purposes, such as sex, age, and language, were a l s o part of the modified questionnaire (Modified form: Appendix C). 3. C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey (CTIS) (developed by M i l l e r and administered o r a l l y i n the present s t u d y ) : a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w guide c o n s i s t i n g of seven questions concerning the f o l l o w i n g : why the respondents had chosen teaching as a career; what c o n t r i b u t i o n s they thought they made to Incarcerated students; what personal rewards they received from teaching i n p r i s o n ; what techniques they used to combat the s t r e s s encountered on the job; what techniques the respondents would use to develop i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programs, promote l e a r n i n g , and develop a p o s i t i v e classroom c l i m a t e for a h y p o t h e t i c a l group of f i v e students described i n the Interview form. F i n a l l y , the respondents were asked to describe the two most important goals that these students should have achieved at the end of t h e i r f i r s t term with the i n s t r u c t o r (Appendix D). 4. C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey Guide (by M i l l e r ) : used to ra t e the teachers' responses to the CTIS on a set of three personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for each response. Each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , assumed to be relevant to teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s , was rated on a seven point b i p o l a r r a t i n g s c a l e (Appendix E ) . The items l n t h i s guide were developed on the basis of s i x themes i d e n t i f i e d by E n g l i s h and c i t e d by M i l l e r , together w i t h nine other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e on teaching 65 e f f e c t i v e n e s s with I n n e r - c i t y students and incarcerated learners ( M i l l e r , 1987a, p. 68). The d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or v a r i a b l e s included i n t h i s guide for r a t i n g teachers' responses were as f o l l o w s : sense of mission, investment, d e s i r e to help students grow, sense of e f f i c a c y , concerned about s o c i a l j u s t i c e , empathy, rapport d r i v e , self-awareness, patience, f l e x i b l e , understanding of disadvantaged students, g e s t a l t , sense of s t r u c t u r e , c l a r i t y , p o s i t i v e expectations, c a p a c i t y for goal s e t t i n g . 5. The Supplementary Questionnaire (SQ) was developed so that a d d i t i o n a l information could be e l i c i t e d from three teachers from the h i g h - i n - e f f e e t i v e n e s s group about t h e i r own perceptions of t h e i r kindergarten (K) to grade twelve (12) school i n g ; t h e i r l i f e experiences relevant to teaching i n p r i s o n ; t h e i r a t t i t u d e s to teaching i n a p r i s o n adult b a s i c education program and to s e v e r a l of t h e i r students as i n d i v i d u a l s (Appendix F ) . Questions concerning these r e a l s i t u a t i o n s were developed because the l i t e r a t u r e had revealed that much can be learned from examining the t h i n k i n g that p r o f e s s i o n a l s do about what they do (Schon, 1982; Butt, 1983; Munby, 1986). The CTIS. on the other hand, had contained s e v e r a l questions of an h y p o t h e t i c a l nature, so that comparisons between the responses to these two types of question could be i n s t r u c t i v e . The f i r s t three items of the Supplementary Questionnaire required the respondents to describe past school and l i f e experiences and to r e f l e c t upon those experiences. Questions 3, 4, 5,and 6 were designed to generate responses that could be rated on s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s i n the Modified CTIS Guide by three independent r a t e r s because M i l l e r had been unable, with the questions of 66 the CTIS, to generate s u f f i c i e n t data from which to develop a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w guide. For example, i n M i l l e r ' s study there had been a low frequency of r a t e r response i n d i c a t e d for pat lent and f l e x i b l e . A f i n a l question, "What could be done about the things that you do not l i k e ? " ( i . e . , about teaching i n a p r i s o n ABE program) was included for information purposes. 6. Modified CTS Guide: (Appendix G) This guide i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey Guide. This modified form contained a l l the r a t i n g c r i t e r i a of the o r i g i n a l , with the exception of lacks c l a r i t y / p o s s e s s e s c l a r i t y and good sense of structure/poor sense of  s t r u c t u r e . These c r i t e r i a had not been defined i n M i l l e r ' s o r i g i n a l form and there appeared to be overlap between these and g e s t a l t and focus. In t h e i r place, I added one item: a b i l i t y to get along with others. This item had been c i t e d by M i l l e r as a c h a r a c a t e r 1 s t i c i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e on teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s with i n n e r - c i t y students and in c a r c e r a t e d learners (1987a, p. 68). On t h i s modified form, items were not organized as i n the o r i g i n a l , but they were grouped so that they accompanied p a r t i c u l a r questions on the Supplementary Questionnaire (SQ) (Appendix F ) . Question #3, "What other l i f e experiences do you f e e l may have prepared you for teaching In a p r i s o n ? " was rated on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e l f - awareness, sense of mission and c a p a c i t y for goal s e t t i n g ( f o c u s ) . Question #4, "Describe f i v e students who are e n r o l l e d i n your c l a s s at the present time," was rated on pat l e n t . f l e x i b l e , understanding of d i s - advantaged students, g e s t a l t . p o s i t i v e expectations, d e s i r e s to help  students grow, empathy, and rapport d r i v e . Questions #5 and #6, "What do you l i k e about teaching i n a p r i s o n adult b a s i c education program?" and "What do you d i s l i k e about teaching i n a 67 p r i s o n adult b a s i c education program?," were rated on investment, sense of e f f i c a c y , concerned about s o c i a l J u s t i c e , and a b i l i t y to get along w i t h others. C. Data Gathering Procedures Permission t o conduct t h i s research was provided by the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the two contract agencies involved, Fraser V a l l e y College and the Kingston Learning Centre; by the management of the eight I n s t i t u t i o n s ; and by the personnel r e s p o n s i b l e for approving research a c t i v i t y i n the Ontario and P a c i f i c Regions of The C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada. In a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g a l l teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s with o r a l and w r i t t e n information about t h e i r proposed involvement i n t h i s study, I made personal contact with a l l but one of these persons before they d i d p a r t i c i p a t e . In a d d i t i o n , I v i s i t e d the Kingston Learning Centre and met with many of i t s employees at t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s p r i o r to a second t r i p that involved the a c t u a l data gathering a c t i v i t i e s . Informed consent forms were completed by a l l subject teachers (Appendix I ) ; those who completed the Ev a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors (ETB) were informed i n that document's covering page that t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d t h e i r consent (Appendix A). Data gathering for t h i s study was conducted i n four p a r t s : Part I was the r a t i n g of a l l teachers who were a v a i l a b l e for I n c l u s i o n when t h i s part of the study was conducted. I conducted fourteen of the eighteen r a t i n g s e s s i o n s , assuming that my f a m i l i a r i t y with the p r i s o n classroom dynamic and environment and my ease i n d e a l i n g with students were important to the success of the data c o l l e c t i o n . The r a t i n g for each teacher was done v o l u n t a r i l y by t h e i r students, t h e i r head teachers/senior i n s t r u c t o r s , and 68 themselves. The s i z e of the students' respondent group was determined by the numbers i n attendance on the day of the r a t i n g and by the numbers of students who possessed the r e q u i s i t e reading l e v e l . (In some cases, the l a t t e r f a c t o r had l i m i t e d the s i z e of the student respondent group to l e s s than ten for M i l l e r as w e l l . ) Therefore, student respondent groups ranged i n s i z e from three to f i f t e e n . F ive respondents who spoke E n g l i s h as a second language, but who were l i t e r a t e i n t h e i r own language, received, from a peer t u t o r , an o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of the form i n t h e i r own language. A French t r a n s l a t i o n of the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors had been created and was o f f e r e d for use but was not r e q u i r e d . The subject teacher was not present at the time of the r a t i n g , but welcomed me (or, i n four classrooms, a designated head teacher to whom I had given an o r i e n t a t i o n ) to the classroom. Before l e a v i n g the room, the classroom teacher b r i e f l y explained why the study was being conducted. I (or the other p r o c t o r s ) d i s t r i b u t e d the r a t i n g form, E v a l u a t i o n of  Teacher Behaviors (ETB), to each group of students. On the cover page/directions sheet of each form had been w r i t t e n the name of each teacher; on the other pages had been w r i t t e n a number that designated the subject teacher. Students were i n s t r u c t e d to r e t u r n only the pages c o n t a i n i n g the numbered pages, and not to w r i t e t h e i r names on the pages that were returned to the p r o c t o r . I then read aloud the d i r e c t i o n s on the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher  Behaviors (ETB) and answered student questions about the procedure before and during the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the r a t i n g . When the completed forms were returned, they were placed In an envelope, sealed, and subsequently turned over to a research a s s i s t a n t for computer t a b u l a t i o n . 69 Responses to the Eval u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors by head teachers/senior i n s t r u c t o r s and by the teachers themselves were not proctored. These respondents completed the form e i t h e r at work or i n t h e i r spare time, whatever s i t u a t i o n was more convenient. Each form was i d e n t i f i e d only by number when they were returned to me. I forwarded them to the research a s s i s t a n t for t a b u l a t i n g . Part II was the completion of the Demographic Data Questionnaire by a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers. These forms were l a b e l l e d only by number when returned to me for forwarding for t a b u l a t i o n . Part I I I was the i n t e r v i e w i n g of a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers according to the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey(CTIS). A l l interviews were conducted o r a l l y , not i n w r i t t e n form as i n M i l l e r ' s study. M i l l e r had found that the kind of responses obtained from these w r i t t e n interviews had d i f f e r e d l i t t l e i n substance from the o r a l responses to the same questions, which had been asked of s i x a d d i t i o n a l volunteer respondents outside her study. Each of M i l l e r ' s o r a l interviews had generated s l i g h t l y more information than the w r i t t e n ones had generated (1987a, p. 122). I conducted a l l but three of the interviews w i t h the CTIS used i n the study. Three were done by a head teacher i n Kingston because the schedule of my v i s i t s there had prevented my co n t a c t i n g three of the respondents for whom I had done classroom r a t i n g s . The p o s s i b i l i t y of my i n f l u e n c i n g the responses of the teachers from my own region had been considered; however, the d i f f i c u l t l o g i s t i c s involved i n d i r e c t i n g someone e l s e to conduct a l l the i n t e r v i e w s i n both regions were a l s o considered, and, th e r e f o r e , the l a t t e r s t r a t e g y was elim i n a t e d as a p o s s i b i l i t y . Neither the interviewer i n Kingston nor I had any knowledge of what r a t i n g s from the E v a l u a t i o n of  Teacher Behaviors had been assigned to the interviewees. 70 The i n t e r v i e w s , u s u a l l y l a s t i n g f o r t y minutes, were recorded on audio c a s s e t t e s , which had been numbered to match the numbers on the r a t i n g sheets to protect the respondents' anonymity during the r a t i n g of t h e i r responses. During the questioning, prompting was l i m i t e d to asking for s p e c i f i c examples when one of the the respondents seemed to have missed e n t i r e l y that point of the question. These tapes were rated s e p a r a t e l y according to the CTIS Guide by each of the three independent r a t e r s . These r a t e r s were not employed i n the adult b a s i c education programming at the time of the study but had had previous experience as contract teachers i n the Canadian Federal Corrections system. One of the r a t e r s has had seven years experience p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g for community c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s and was involved at the time of the study i n researching teaaching s t y l e s and s t r a t e g i e s that are appropriate for an adult s e t t i n g . The second independent r a t e r has had extensive teaching and c u r r i c u l u m development experience i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s , as w e l l as i n the p r i s o n s e t t i n g . The t h i r d r a t e r had been involved i n the f i r s t attempts of a contract agency t o e s t a b l i s h adult b a s i c education programs i n two f e d e r a l p r i s o n s , which had involved extensive l i a i s o n with c o r r e c t i o n a l and teaching personnel; t h i s r a t e r had a l s o served as a teacher i n and coordinator of those programs and was teaching i n an adult b a s i c education program at the time of the study. None of the r a t e r s was aware of the r e s u l t s of M i l l e r ' s or V i c k e r ' s research r e l a t e d to teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Nor d i d the r a t e r s know to which group (high or low l n e f f e c t i v e n e s s ) any of the subject teachers had been assigned. Moreover, each tape was i d e n t i f i e d only by number. 71 Part IV Included the use of the Supplementary Questionnaire and the M o d i f i e d C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey Guide and the f o l l o w i n g procedures: a. I Interviewed three teachers from the high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s group. Each teacher was asked the seven questions of the Supplementary  Questlonnaire (SQ) (Appendix F ) . Responses were i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h my comment, but I made no attempt to d i r e c t with t h i s comment; r a t h e r , I allowed the subjects to c o n t r o l the length of each response. Interviews l a s t e d from f o r t y - f i v e minutes to two hours. Actual prompting was l i m i t e d to one i n t e r v i e w when I once asked the respondent to give s p e c i f i c examples to i l l u s t r a t e her/his statement. b. These interviews took place at l e a s t s i x months a f t e r the f i r s t i n terviews for the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey (Appendix D). They were audio-recorded, and each i n t e r v i e w was typed verbatim. c. The three independent r a t e r s evaluated the teachers' t r a n s c r i b e d responses to questions #3 to # 6 i n c l u s i v e on the SQ. by means of the Modified C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Survey Guide. The r a t e r s were not t o l d that the respondents were from the group of teachers who had been rated as h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e . The three sets of responses had been assigned a set of numbers that was d i f f e r e n t from the set that had been assigned for the e a r l i e r responses of the same teachers. d. I c o l l a t e d a l l responses to the Supplementary Questionnaire (SQ) and examined each c o l l a t i o n question by question and examined these c o l l a t i o n s f or themes and other commonalities. 72 D. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y In a d d i t i o n to the measures described i n the procedures, other methods have been employed to protect the anonymity of a l l persons involved i n t h i s study. No i n s t i t u t i o n s , teachers, students, or other personnel have been named. I have taken p a r t i c u l a r care to d e l e t e any information i n the responses to the CTIS and the Supplementary Questionnaire that would i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c students or classrooms, i n c l u d i n g place names, n a t i o n a l i t i e s , b i r t h p l a c e s , and d e t a i l s of p r i s o n e r s ' sentences. 73 Chapter IV: Findings In the f o l l o w i n g chapter, the analyses and r e s u l t s from the use of a l l four instruments w i l l be presented. Figures and ta b l e s have been included to i l l u s t r a t e these f i n d i n g s . A. The E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors 1. Methods of A n a l y s i s The E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors was completed by each of eighteen teachers, each teacher's senior i n s t r u c t o r / h e a d teacher, and from three to f i f t e e n of each teacher's students who possessed a reading l e v e l of approximately grade seven or above. For each of the eleven defined e v a l u a t i o n items f or each teacher, a mean score was c a l c u l a t e d , c o n s i s t i n g of the head teacher's score, the teacher's own score, and a l l his/her students' scores. (This method gave no heavier weighting to the s e l f - r a t i n g or to the head teacher r a t i n g than any one of the student's r a t i n g s . ) From t h i s , a t o t a l mean score f or each teacher was computed combining the means of a l l eleven items. Question K was not included i n the average, but the substance of the responses t o K was compared i n terms of the most and l e a s t e f f e c t i v e groups. 2. Range and Frequency of Scores From a p o s s i b l e score of 77.00 for the eleven rated questions, the lowest mean score (derived from the t o t a l of r a t i n g s by a l l students, head teacher, and the subject's own r a t i n g ) scored by any teacher was 54.93. The highest t o t a l mean score was 71.44. The t - t e s t s were performed to see i f there was any s i g n i f i c a n t 74 d i f f e r e n c e between the teachers' s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s and the evaluations of e i t h e r the s u p e r v i s o r s or the students. The t - t e s t s were a l s o performed t o see i f there was any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the evaluations of the supervisor and the students. The d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n any of these cases (p > .10). These t o t a l mean scores on the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors for each teacher were rank ordered. Five teachers whose mean scores ranked lowest were i d e n t i f i e d as belonging to the group perceived as l e a s t e f f e c t i v e (low group), and f i v e teachers whose mean scores ranked highest were i d e n t i f i e d as belonging to the group perceived as most e f f e c t i v e (high group). A t - t e s t was performed on the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the high and the low groups with t = 10.943; p <.01 for 10 d f . Scores for the low group ranged from 54.93 to 57.84. Scores for members of the high group ranged from 67.84 to 71.44. This sample of eighteen y i e l d e d upper and lower quart l i e s of f i v e subject teachers, as shown i n Table 1. There was l e s s p r o x i m i t y between the upper q u a r t i l e and the middle scores (1.11) than between the lower q u a r t i l e and the middle ones, where there was a 3.16 d i f f e r e n c e . However, there was a greater range d i f f e r e n c e i n the upper q u a r t i l e (3.56) than i n the lower q u a r t i l e (2.91). Scores for i n d i v i d u a l teachers on i n d i v i d u a l items ranged from 0 to 7. A v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n was made of a l l the r a t i n g s from the student who gave the "0" r a t i n g . I t was determined that a l l of the other r a t i n g s by t h i s student were "0" or "1." As t h i s "halo e f f e c t " was absent i n a l l other students' responses, his/her responses could be a t t r i b u t e d to f a c t o r s other than the student's perception of the teacher. Nonetheless, the e x c l u s i o n Table 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of To t a l Mean Scores for A l l Subject Teachers 7 1 . 4 4 7 0 . 9 6 6 9 . 4 3 6 8 . 5 7 6 7 . 8 4 6 6 . 7 3 6 6 . 0 0 6 6 . 0 0 6 3 . 1 0 6 2 . 9 8 6 2 . 7 7 6 2 . 4 4 6 1 . 0 0 5 7 . 8 4 5 7 . 0 0 5 6 . 7 5 5 6 . 5 0 5 4 . 9 3 76 of t h i s score would not have changed the subject teacher's placement l n the low i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s group, although that teacher's ranking would have changed from l a s t to f i r s t w i t h i n the low group. Mean scores f or i n d i v i d u a l teachers on i n d i v i d u a l items ranged from 4.25 to 6.86. Only two teachers received the mean r a t i n g of 4.25, assigned to Item L, o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . One teacher recieved a r a t i n g of 6.86 on two Items: D, f a i r / p a r t i a l : and F, s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d / a u t o c r a t i c . 3. Ranking of Behaviors The mean scores f or the t o t a l group on each e v a l u a t i o n item ranged from 5.38 to 6.16. The lowest mean score, 5.38, for the teachers as a group, was f o r Item C w i t h b i p o l a r opposites of s t i m u l a t i n g / d u l l . The highest mean score, 6.16, was for Item H with b i p o l a r opposites of knowledgeable/1lmlted. The t o t a l group mean scores for the eleven behaviors on the instrument E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors are l i s t e d i n rank order l n Table 2. 4. Teacher Behaviors on I n d i v i d u a l Items Mean scores on i n d i v i d u a l items for the high group ranged from a low mean score of 5.98 for Item C: s t i m u l a t i n g / d u l l to a high mean score of 6.48 for Item L: o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The t o t a l mean score for the low group was 56.57. Mean scores f or the low group ranged from a low score of 4.63 for the item measuring the behavior s t i m u l a t i n g / d u l l (C) to a high score of 5.82 for the item measuring the behavior knowledgeable/1lmited (H). The t o t a l mean score for the high group was 69.02. The lowest mean score r e c e i v e d by both groups and by the t o t a l sample was for the r a t i n g on the behaviors s t i m u l a t i n g / d u l l . Comparisons of item mean scores for teachers i n the low and the high group are depicted i n Figure 1. 77 Table 2 Rank Order of V a r i a b l e s on the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors f o r Group of A l l Subject Teachers Score Behavior 6.158 Knowledgeable/Limited 5.891 Student-Centred/Autocratic 5.873 Kindly/Harsh 5.867 Responsible/Evading 5.771 F a i r / P a r t i a l 5.768 A d a p t a b l e / I n f l e x i b l e 5.701 Systematic/Disorganized 5.685 Probing/Cursory 5.663 O v e r a l l E f f e c t i v e n e s s 5.661 O r i g i n a l / S t e r e o t y p e d 5.377 S t i m u l a t i n g / D u l l 78 Figure 1. Comparison of Item Mean Scores for Teachers Perceived to be i n the Most and Least E f f e c t i v e Groups on the Evaluation of Teacher  Behaviors Note: A) Item means are rounded to the nearest tenth. B) Scale range i s not ab s o l u t e : 3.5 to 6.5. (Adapted from M i l l e r , 1987a) 79 a. Ranking of Diffe r e n c e s Score d i f f e r e n t i a l s between the high and low groups were computed. Dif f e r e n c e s i n scores between high and low groups were Indicated for a l l items, but greatest d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were for the behaviors o r i g i n a l / s t e r e o t y p e d ( I ) : 1.708; o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( L ) : 1.496; and a d a p t a b l e / f l e x i b l e ( E ) : 1.459; and s t i m u l a t i n g / d u l l (C): 1.357. Less d i f f e r e n c e was shown between the behaviors knowledgeable/limited (H): 0.638; syste m a t i c / d i s o r g a n i z e d ( J ) : 0.738; and evading/responsible (G): 0.878. The rank ordering of these d i f f e r e n c e s i s shown i n Table 3. Because o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s not a s i n g l e behavior, the f o u r t h ranked d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g v a r i a b l e , s t I m u l a t I n g / d u l l (G) was included with a d a p t a b l e / f l e x i b l e (E) and o r i g i n a l / s t e r e o t y p e d ( I ) i n the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the high and low groups on the sets of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s st i m u l a t I n g / d u l l (C), a d a p t a b l e / i n f l e x i b l e (E), and o r i g i n a l / s t e r e o t y p e d ( I ) were subjected to a o n e - t a i l e d t - t e s t and found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t : t = 9.032; df = 18; p <.005. The d i f f e r e n c e between the high and low groups on the sets of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s responsible/evading G), knowledgeable/limited (H), and s y s t e m a t i c / d i s -organized (J) were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t : t = 3.636; df =18; p < .005. When the high and low groups' scores were combined, a z-test Indicated a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the scores on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l e t t e r e d C, E, and I and the scores on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l e t t e r e d G, H, and J : z = -2.16; p = .0154. 80 Table 3 Rank Order of Di f f e r e n c e s Between Behaviors of High and Low Groups According to E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behavior Ratings Behaviors Group Mean O r i g i n a l / S t e r e o t y p e High 6.399 Low 4.691 Dif f e r e n c e 1.708 O v e r a l l E f f e c t i v e n e s s High 6.482 Low 4.986 Dif f e r e n c e 1.496 A d a p t a b l e / I n f l e x i b l e High 6.295 Low 4.836 Diff e r e n c e 1.459 S t i m u l a t i n g / D u l l High 5.983 Low 4.626 Dif f e r e n c e 1.357 Probing/Cursory High 6.348 Low 5.099 Dif f e r e n c e 1.249 Student-Centred/Autocrat i c High 6.157 Low 5.129 Di fference 1.028 P a r t i a l / F a i r High 6.174 Low 5.190 Dif f e r e n c e 0.984 Kindly/Harsh High 6.261 Low 5.343 Dif f e r e n c e 0.918 Evad1ng/Respons i b l e High 6.333 Low 5.455 Diff e r e n c e 0.878 Systemat i c / D i s o r g a n i z e d High 6.129 Low 5.391 Diff e r e n c e 0.738 Knowledgeable/Limited High 6.457 Low 5.819 Dif f e r e n c e 0.638 81 b. Item K A l l teachers In both the high and low groups received responses t o Item K, which required the respondent to name one or two a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an e f f e c t i v e teacher and to r a t e the subject teacher on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( s ) . A t o t a l of one hundred responses ((40 students' + 5 s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s + 5 s u p e r v i s o r s ' ] x 2) were p o s s i b l e for the high group and ninety-two ([36 students' + 5 s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s + 5 s u p e r v i s o r s ' ] x 2) were p o s s i b l e f or the low group. F o r t y - s i x (46%) responses were received f or the high group, and forty-seven (51%) for the low group. This response was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s l i g h t l y lower student response (48.75%) for the high than the low (50%) group (Table 4). However, the number of s u p e r v i s o r s ' Table 4 Rate of Responses to Item k on the Ev a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors:  High and Low Groups RESPONSE RATES High Group Low Group Actua l P o s s i b l e % Response Actual P o s s i b l e % Response Students 39 80 48.75 36 72 50.0 S e l f 4 10 40.0 3 10 30.0 Supervisors 3 10 30.0 8 10 80.0 Total 46 100 47 92 TOTAL 46.0 51.0 responses appears to have a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t of t h i s o v e r a l l response to Item K f o r the two groups : only two of f i v e s u p e r v i s o r s responded for the 82 high group, with a t o t a l of three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s named; four of f i v e s u p e r v i s o r s responded i n the low group with a t o t a l of eight of a p o s s i b l e ten c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Only i n the low group d i d one teacher re c e i v e two item r a t i n g s (4.0) that were lower than 5.0 from a s u p e r v i s o r . One teacher i n the low group d i d not complete an ETB. The supervisor responses to Item K Included the behaviors optimism. r e a l i s t i c and sense of humour for the high group and optimlsm. pragmatic. sense of hmour, empathetlc. a c c e s s i b l e and a s s e r t i v e for the low group. For both groups sense of humour was named three times by s u p e r v i s o r s ; optimism and empathetlc were named tw i c e . From the high group, only two subject teachers received a supervisor r a t i n g of 7: one for r e a l i s t i c and another for sense of humour. The student respondents to Item K generated f i f t e e n d i f f e r e n t responses for the high group, with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sense of humour named nine times. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c patience was named four times by these students. For the low group, there were seventeen d i f f e r e n t responses, but only sense of humour was named with any frequency (three t i m e s ) . Several d i f f e r e n t behaviors were named i n response to Item K, but not more than twice; of the t h i r t y - s i x responses named for the low group of teachers, eight behaviors were given a r a t i n g of 3.0 or below: a t t r a c t i v e . encouraging student Ideas, not i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , works with whole c l a s s . c u l t u r a l , t r e a t s students as a d u l t s , provides t r e a t s , knowledgeable. For the high group, only one teacher received a r a t i n g of 3.0 or below on Item K: two students gave a 2.0 r a t i n g for the teaching behavior p r o v i d i n g annuls. 83 5. Summary of Findings from the Ev a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors A group of f i v e teachers perceived as l e a s t e f f e c t i v e and a group of f i v e teachers perceived as most e f f e c t i v e were i d e n t i f i e d by the mean r a t i n g s on the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors f or eighteen subject teachers i n the Adult Basic Education programs w i t h i n two regions of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada: Ontario and P a c i f i c . The t o t a l mean scores for each of the eleven defined s c a l e items were lower for the low group than f or the high group. The t o t a l sample mean score (63.42) was a l s o lower than the t o t a l mean score for the high group (71.44). T o t a l mean scores awarded to i n d i v i d u a l teachers ranged from 54.93 to 57.84 for members of the low group and from 67.84 to 71.44 for members of the high group. The range of d i f f e r e n c e between the items f or the two groups i n t h i s study was narrow: 1.708 to 0.638, r e f l e c t i n g the narrow range of item mean r a t i n g scores. Nevertheless, the behaviors which appear i n t h i s study to be separ a t i n g the two groups of teachers are o r i g i n a l / s t e r e o t y p e d , o v e r a l l  e f f e c t i v e n e s s , a d a p t a b l e / f l e x i b l e , and s t i m u l a t i n g / d u l l • The behaviors that appear l e a s t important i n separating these two groups are knowledgeable/11mlted, s y s t e m a t i c / d i s o r g a n i z e d , and evading/responsible. In terms of d i f f e r e n c e , limited/knowledgeable was ranked eleventh. Although the behavior knowledgeable/1lmlted d i d not appear as a d i s c l m i n a t i n g element of e f f e c t i v e teaching, by contrast i t does rec e i v e a high ranking i n terms of mean scores f or the subject teachers. The low group and the high group ranked f i r s t i n knowledgeable/11mlted and a l s o i n o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s : the t o t a l sample ranked highest i n knowledgeable/limited. 84 Furthermore, while the behavior o r i g i n a l / s t e r e o t y p e appeared as one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t behaviors separating the high and the low groups, t h i s behavior was the one for which the t o t a l group and the low group received mean scores i n the low range. These rankings are shown i n Table 5. Table 5 Rank Order of V a r i a b l e s on E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors for T o t a l , Low, and High Groups RANKINGS Behavior T o t a l Group Low Group High Group Knowledgeable/Limited 1 1 1 Student-Centred/Autocrat i c 2 6 8 Kindly/Harsh 3 4 4 Responsible/Evading 4 2 4 F a i r / P a r t i a l 5 5 8 A d a p t a b l e / I n f l e x i b l e 6 9 4 Systemat ic/Disorgan!zed 7 3 10 Probing/Cursory 8 6 4 Ov e r a l l E f f e c t i v e n e s s 9 8 1 Or i g i n a l / S t e r e o t y p e d 10 10 3 S t i m u l a t i n g / D u l l 11 11 11 85 B. Demographic Data Questionnaire (DD6) 1. Methods of A n a l y s i s From the teachers' responses to the Demographic Data Questionnaire, comparisons were made between the high and the low groups i n terms of teaching experience, p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t y , c e r t i f i c a t i o n c r e d e n t i a l s , and academic background. The responses to most questions were tabulated manually. This procedure revealed that s e v e r a l responses could not be q u a n t i f i e d , d e s p i t e the fact that some of the o r i g i n a l questions on the M i l l e r Instrument had been modified for Canadian p a r t i c i p a n t s . An extensive s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was deemed i n a p p r o p r i a t e , due to the small sample. 2. Years and Types of Teaching Experience Subject teachers were asked about the length of time they had taught i n c o r r e c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , p u b l i c schools, and other s e t t i n g s which included trade schools, c o l l e g e s / u n i v e r s i t i e s , p a r o c h i a l schools, schools for the handicapped, or any other s e t t i n g s . Group means for each item were c a l c u l a t e d f or the high group and tbe low group. The t o t a l mean score for c o r r e c t i o n a l teaching experience for members of the low group was 1.9 years, a d i f f e r e n c e of only 0.6 years from the high group. The maximum experience in the low group was 4.4 years. The t o t a l mean score for c o r r e c t i o n a l teaching experience f or the high group was 2.5 years. The maximum score was 4.7 years. This score a l s o represented the longest c o r r e c t i o n a l teaching experience i n the e n t i r e sample of eighteen teachers. Four of the low group and three of the high group had had two years or le s s i n c o r r e c t i o n a l teaching (Figure 2). 86 Figure 2. Comparison of Mean Length of Teaching Experience for High and Low l n E f f e c t i v e n e s s Groups i n C o r r e c t i o n s , P u b l i c / P a r o c h i a l Schools, and Other School S e t t i n g s . 87 In response to the question on time spent i n regular p u b l i c school teaching, the low group generated four out of f i v e responses and the mean years of experience i n the p u b l i c schools for t h i s low group was 7.5 years. For the high group, the mean for years of experience i n p u b l i c school teaching was 2.4 years. The maximum score for the low group was 23 years; for the high group i t was 12.75 years. The minimum scores for both groups was 0.0. The low group presented a higher mean for experience i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l : 7.5; while the high group had a mean of 2.4. Five teachers l n the low group generated 8 responses to the question on experience i n other s e t t i n g s . Three teachers i n the high group generated f i v e responses to t h i s question. Respondents could check more than one of these c a t e g o r i e s (Table 6). The mean years of experience i n other s e t t i n g s for the low group was 7.8 years, with a maximum of 25.5 years and minimum of 1.0. The mean for years of experience l n other s e t t i n g s f or the high group was only 0.4 years, with a maximum of 1.0 years and a minimum of 0.5 years. The low group a l s o had a higher frequency of p a r o c h i a l school teaching (3), y i e l d i n g a mean of 1.9 p a r o c h i a l teaching years; the high group had no p a r o c h i a l teaching experience. Both groups' experiences were s i m i l a r i n kind outside of p a r o c h i a l schools: c o l l e g e / i n s t i t u t e ; school for the handicapped; and l e a r n i n g centres ( o t h e r ) . The low group's p u b l i c and p a r o c h i a l experience t o t a l l e d 9.4 years. The high group had 2.4 years p u b l i c / p a r o c h i a l experience. 88 Table 6 Comparison of Education and T r a i n i n g Received bv Teachers In the High and Low Groups According to the Demographic Data Questionnaire Frequencies of responses from the low group which Indicated experience i n various s e t t i n g s were as f o l l o w s : (a) v o c a t i o n a l school 1 (b) c o l l e g e / i n s t i t u t e 1 (c) u n i v e r s i t y 1 (d) p a r o c h i a l school 3 (e) school for the handicapped 1 ( f ) other 1 (g) no response 2 Frequencies of responses from the high group i n d i c a t i n g experience i n various s e t t i n g s were as f o l l o w s : (a) v o c a t i o n a l school 0 (b) c o l l e g e / i n s t i t u t e 2 (c) u n i v e r s i t y 1 (d) p a r o c h i a l school 0 (e) school for the handicapped 1 ( f ) other 1 <g> no response 2 89 3. Education and T r a i n i n g Received Respondents provided information which i n d i c a t e d whether or not they possessed c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y degrees, the kinds of degrees they possessed, and what other teacher p r e p a r a t i o n they possessed i f they d i d not have a degree. They were a l s o asked to provide information about the number of education courses i n teaching methodology or c u r r i c u l u m development taken, and the number of c r e d i t hours or u n i t s earned. They were then asked to i n d i c a t e the p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t y they had attended during the two years p r i o r to completion of the survey. Student teaching experience or other d i r e c t teaching p r a c t i c e and the length of time spent l n each were i n d i c a t e d . A comparison of t h i s information l n terms of the low and high groups i s shown i n Table 7. Four of the f i v e teachers i n the low group reported earning c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y degrees; one teacher d i d not possess a degree. F i v e of the teachers i n the high group reported have c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y degrees. Other preparation for teaching reported by members of the low group not possessing degrees was teacher's c o l l e g e . 90 Table 7 Comparison of Education and T r a i n i n g Received by Teachers In the High Group and Teachers i n the Low Group Percentage of Teachers Education and T r a i n i n g High Group Low Group U n i v e r s i t y / C o l l e g e Degree 100 80 Highest Degree - Bachelor's 80 40 Highest Degree - Master's 20 40 Highest Degree - PhD N i l N i l No Degree/Other Preparation 20 Undergraduate Methodology/Curriculum 80 80 Graduate Methodology/Curriculum 20 N i l Continuing Education 80 20 A d d i t i o n a l Courses Last 2 Years 80 60 Mean of These Courses Per Group 2.6 2.0 Other Dir e c t Teaching P r a c t i c e 80 40 Number of Kinds of Other P r a c t i c e 5 1 91 Two of tbe teachers In the low group reported possession of the bachelor's degree as the highest degree held; two teachers In the low group reported having a master's degree. In the high group, four of the f i v e teachers held a bachelor's degree as t h e i r highest degree; one teacher held a master's degree; no teacher i n e i t h e r the low or high groups held a d o c t o r a l degree. Because a v a r i e t y of methods of r e p o r t i n g c r e d i t s and/or c r e d i t hours was r e f l e c t e d i n responses to the item about course work r e l a t e d to teaching methodology and/or c u r r i c u l u m development, these c r e d i t s were not q u a n t i f i e d for purposes of comparison; instead, comparisons for the high and low groups were made between the numbers of teachers t a k i n g methods courses at the undergraduate and graduate l e v e l s and by way of c o n t i n u i n g education courses. Four of the f i v e teachers i n the low group reported that they had taken undergraduate courses r e l a t e d to teaching methodology and /or c u r r i c u l u m development; no teachers reported that they had taken graduate courses. One teacher had taken c o n t i n u i n g education courses. In the high group, four of the f i v e teachers reported that they had taken undergraduate courses r e l a t e d to teaching methodology/curriculum development; one teacher had taken graduate courses r e l a t e d to these areas; four teachers had taken c o n t i n u i n g education courses. P r o f e s s i o n a l development experiences w i t h i n the two years p r i o r to the survey were reported by three of the f i v e teachers i n the low group. In the high group, four of the f i v e teachers reported p r o f e s s i o n a l development experience. The t o t a l number of courses taken by the low group was 10, y i e l d i n g a mean for p r o f e s s i o n a l development courses taken by t h i s group as 2.0. The t o t a l number of courses taken i n t h i s area by the members of the 92 high group was 13, y i e l d i n g a mean of 2.6. These p r o f e s s i o n a l development experiences were s i m i l a r i n kind for both groups: E n g l i s h as a Second Language, L i t e r a c y and Learning Disabled workshops; s t r e s s management seminars; c o u n s e l l i n g and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g . As Table 7 shows, d i f f e r e n c e s between the high and low groups appeared i n the areas of co n t i n u i n g education and i n other d i r e c t teaching p r a c t i c e . There i s only a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e between these groups i n " a d d i t i o n a l courses i n l a s t two years" category. This phenomenon may be a r e f l e c t i o n of the current emphasis on a c t i v i t y i n the l i t e r a c y and E.S.L. areas of educational programming w i t h i n CSC. Responses t o the subject of student teaching i n d i c a t e d that student teaching experience had been provided, i n the provinces or cou n t r i e s from which the subjects had come, i n a v a r i e t y of ways. Therefore, the responses to the questionnaire on t h i s subject were d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i f y , although t h i s a c t i v i t y was common to a l l teachers i n both the high and low groups. The question r e l a t e d to other o p p o r t u n i t i e s f or d i r e c t teaching p r a c t i c e , as part of the preparation for teaching, d i d y i e l d a d i f f e r e n t frequency of response between the high and the low groups. The high group named 6 d i f f e r e n t kinds of other d i r e c t teaching p r a c t i c e and a t o t a l of 7 responses i n t h i s category. These were t u t o r i n g of the l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d , f a c i l i t a t i n g a s t r e s s management group, and teaching i n one of the f o l l o w i n g s k i l l s areas: s k i i n g , s a f e t y procedures, parenting, and music. The low group named 2 kinds of other d i r e c t teaching p r a c t i c e for a t o t a l of 2 responses from one teacher: group f a c i l i t a t i n g and l i f e guarding. 4. C e r t i f i c a t i o n of C r e d e n t i a l s R e f l e c t i n g the requirements of the co n t r a c t s w i t h agencies p r o v i d i n g educational programming for the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada, each teacher 93 In the high and low groups was i n possession of a teaching c r e d e n t i a l from the province i n which she/he was p r e s e n t l y employed, although one of these was a " l e t t e r of a u t h o r i t y " from that province. In a d d i t i o n , three teachers from the low group held c e r t i f i c a t e s from other provinces or c o u n t r i e s ; none of the teachers from the high group possessed c e r t i f i c a t e s from outside the province i n which they were p r e s e n t l y teaching. O i s s i m i l a r i t i e s among provinces i n terms of c e r t i f i c a t e terminology (standard, b a s i c , p r o f e s s i o n a l , e t c . ) made a n a l y s i s of t h i s item d i f f i c u l t . These d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s a l s o were r e f l e c t e d i n the responses to the question about subjects endorsed on these c e r t i f i c a t e s . T h i rteen of the eighteen teachers from the e n t i r e sample d i d not report endorsements. The other part of t h i s l a t t e r question, which dealt w i t h subjects p r e s e n t l y taught, a l s o y i e l d e d i n c o n s i s t e n t responses, p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t i v e of the m u l t i - l e v e l , m u l t i - s u b j e c t , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n nature of the classrooms surveyed i n t h i s study. 5. Personal Data Respondents were d i r e c t e d that t h e i r responses to questions about gender, age, and b i l i n g u a l i s m (French/English) were not o b l i g a t o r y ; nevertheless, a l l of the ten respondents i n the high and low groups provided answers to a l l these questions. There was the same d i s t r i b u t i o n of male and female respondents i n both the low and high groups: four respondents were female and one was male i n each group. In the e n t i r e group of eighteen teachers, t h i r t e e n were female and f i v e were male. The ages of the respondents were surveyed i n terms of groups organized i n ten-year i n t e r v a l s , beginning with 20-29. The f i n a l age group was 65+. The teachers of the low group f e l l i n t o the 30-39, 40-49, and 50-59 94 c a t e g o r i e s . The teachers l n the high group were represented i n the top three c a t e g o r i e s : 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49. The eighteen teachers represented a l l age groups except 69+. The small low and high group samples makes comparison between them d i f f i c u l t , although the e n t i r e sample i n d i c a t e d the heaviest d i s t r i b u t i o n (9) i n the 40-49 age category. One respondent i n the e n t i r e sample i n d i c a t e d that he/she had a t t a i n e d French/English b i l i n g u a l i s m . 6. Summary of Findings from the DDQ As i n d i c a t e d , the small s i z e of the high and low groups has rendered mostly i n c o n c l u s i v e evidence w i t h respect to demographics. The number of years of c o r r e c t i o n a l teaching reported d i d not seem to d i f f e r i n a meaningful way between the high and low groups of teachers. The teachers of both groups were inexperienced i n the f i e l d of c o r r e c t i o n a l teaching. On the other hand, the number of years of p u b l i c / p a r o c h i a l school experience reported by teachers i n the low group was higher than the number of years reported by teachers i n the high group, suggesting an Inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s p u b l i c / p a r o c h i a l school experience and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Only two other areas may have rendered demographic data of any s i g n i f i c a n c e : the frequency of p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t y for both groups i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r , p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t i n g some o r g a n i z a t i o n a l emphasis upon p r o f e s s i o n a l development. Other d i r e c t teaching p r a c t i c e for members of the high group was more v a r i e d than for the low group. 95 C. C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey (CTIS) 1. Methods of A n a l y s i s A synopsis of the responses of a l l eighteen teachers was made. Then the substance and the frequency of kinds of responses, and the r a t i n g s r e c e i v e d by teachers i n the high and low groups, were compared. The data from the CTIS were t r e a t e d i n s e v e r a l ways: 1. The mean for each item for each teacher was c a l c u l a t e d from the three r a t i n g s , a r r i v e d at independently by three experienced c o r r e c t i o n a l educators. 2. The group mean r a t i n g s of responses t o the CTIS for the high, the low, and the e n t i r e group of 18 teachers were c a l c u l a t e d and compared (Table 8 ). 3. The responses of the three r a t e r s to the CTIS Rating Guide were examined for frequency on each of the 21 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Notice was made of the frequency of a "N" or no response (Table 9). 4. The d i f f e r e n c e s between the high and low group mean scores were ranked (Table 10). 5. The content of the responses for the teachers i n the high and low groups was examined for kind and frequency. 6. The c o r r e c t i o n a l educators' rankings on the CTIS of the teachers i n the low and high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s groups were compared with the students' rankings of the same teachers on the ETB (Table 11). 2. Group Mean Ratings The group mean r a t i n g s of the teachers i n the high group were higher than the low group for a l l twenty-one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s evaluated f o r i n the CTIS and according to the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teaqher Interview Survey  Guide. Twenty of the 21 scores for the low group were lower than the 96 corresponding scores for the e n t i r e group; each of the high scores for the high group was higher than the corresponding score f or the t o t a l group of eighteen teachers. A l l group mean r a t i n g s are shown i n Table 7. Table 8 Comparison of Group Mean Ratings on the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview  Survey Item A (1) Why d i d you choose teaching as a career? C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Mean Scores M i s s i o n E n t i r e - 4.89 High - 5.63 Low - 4.90 Investment E n t i r e - 4.69 High - 5.37 Low - 4.47 Desire to help E n t i r e - 4.98 students grow High - 5.87 Low - 4.50 Item A (2) What are the most important c o n t r i b u t i o n s that you as an i n d i v i d u a l can make to i n c a r c e r a t e d students? Character 1 s t i c s Mean Scores Sense of e f f i c a c y E n t i r e - 5.31 High - 5.83 Low - 5.17 97 Table 8 continued Concern for s o c i a l E n t i r e - 4.04 j u s t i c e High - 4.80 Low - 3.87 Empathy E n t i r e - 4.85 High - 5.37 Low - 4.27 Item B (1) Describe the greatest personal reward that you re c e i v e from working with incarcerated students? C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Mean Scores Mis s i o n E n t i r e - 5.17 High - 5.60 Low - 5.03 Rapport d r i v e E n t i r e - 5.03 High - 5.33 Low - 4.83 Investment E n t i r e - 5.12 High - 5.60 Low - 4.83 Item B (2) What techniques do you use to maintain your personal e q u i l i b r i u m and balance while coping with the s t r e s s encountered i n c o r r e c t i o n a l work? C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Mean Scores Self-awareness E n t i r e - 5.44 High - 5.90 Low - 5.10 Table 8 continued Patience E n t i r e - 5.47 High - 5.50 Low - 5.17 F l e x i b i l i t y E n t i r e - 5.87 High - 6.33 Low - 5.47 Item C (1) What techniques would you use to develop a classroom cli m a t e which would enhance l e a r n i n g and promote p o s i t i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n ? C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Mean Scores Understanding of E n t i r e - 4.43 disadvantaged students High -4.50 Low - 4.33 Empathy E n t i r e - 4.97 High - 5.27 Low - 4.60 Ges t a l t E n t i r e - 4.94 High - 5.20 Low - 4.33 Item C (2) How would you organize the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program(s) for these students? C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Mean Scores S t r u c t u r e E n t i r e - 4.61 High - 5.13 Low - 4.00 99 Table 8 continued C l a r i t y E n t i r e - 4.81 High - 5.47 Low - 4.07 G e s t a l t E n t i r e - 4.67 High - 5.03 Low - 4.20 Item C (3) What are the two most important goals the students described above should achieve by the end of your f i r s t term as t h e i r teacher? E x p l a i n why the achievement of these goals i s important. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Mean Scores P o s i t i v e expectations E n t i r e - 5.01 High - 5.33 Low - 4.66 Capacity for goal E n t i r e - 4.77 s e t t i n g High - 5.40 Low - 4.40 Understanding of E n t i r e - 4.81 disadvantaged students High - 5.03 Low - 4.40 3. A n a l y s i s of Ratings and Responses Content Responses to the CTIS were t a l l i e d for frequency, and t h e i r contents were inspected to discover patterns that d i s t i n g u i s h e d the high group from the low group. 100 In responding to Item A ( l ) , "Why d i d you choose teaching as a ca r e e r ? " the high group scored a group mean of 5.63 on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mission. 5.37 on Investment, and 5.87 on d e s i r e to help students grow; the low group scored 4.90, 4.47, and 4.50 r e s p e c t i v e l y on these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The e n t i r e group of eighteen teachers scored 4.89, 4.69, and 4.98 r e s p e c t i v e l y on these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Only on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mission d i d the low group score higher than the e n t i r e group, but only by .001. Respondents provided a v a r i e t y of reasons for choosing teaching as a career. Fourteen of s i x t e e n responses were personal, rather than a l t r u i s t i c i n nature: c h a l l e n g i n g (2); r o l e models (3); av a i l a b l e / a c c e s s i b l e / c o n v e n i e n t p r o f e s s i o n (3); l i k e people (2); and four other s i n g l e responses. Two responses from the high group were "to help others". The fourteen "personal" reasons were evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between the high and low groups. In responding to Item A (2), "What are the most important c o n t r i b u t i o n s that you as an i n d i v i d u a l can make to inc a r c e r a t e d students?" the high group scored a mean of 5.83 on sense of e f f i c a c y , 4.80 on concern  for s o c i a l J u s t i c e , and 4.85 on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c empathy. The low group scored 5.17, 3.87, and 4.27 r e s p e c t i v e l y on these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The e n t i r e group scored 5.31 on sense of e f f i c a c y . 4.04 on concern for s o c i a l  J u s t i c e , and 4.85 on empathy. Responses to t h i s question appeared to f a l l i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s : future o r i e n t e d (2 high, 4 low group), e.g. help them l e a r n s k i l l s for the s t r e e t ; personal development (6 high, 4 low group), e.g. r a i s e d self-esteem; academic development (1 high, 0 low), e.g. to move them academically; and day-to-day p r i s o n s u r v i v a l (3 for high, 2 for low group), e.g. b r i g h t e n people's days. The only d i f f e r e n c e perceived i n these 101 responses was tbe theme of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n that emerged i n the "future o r i e n t e d " responses, more f r e q u e n t l y given i n the low group. In responding to item B (1), "Describe the greatest personal reward that you r e c e i v e from working with i n c a r c e r a t e d students" the high group scored a mean of 5.60 on mission, 5.33 on rapport d r i v e , and 5.60 on investment. The low group scored 5.03 on mission, 4.83 on rapport d r i v e , and 4.83 on Investment. The e n t i r e group scored 5.17, 5.03, and 5.12 r e s p e c t i v e l y on the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Two kinds of responses dominated i n t h i s item: 1. the s a t i s f a c t i o n gained from seeing students l e a r n or accomplish something; and 2. seeing the student's a t t i t u d e change. Four respondents i n the high group i n d i c a t e d the personal reward of seeing students l e a r n or accomplish something; one from the low group sta t e d t h i s reward; one from the high group sta t e d "seeing the student's a t t i t u d e change"; three from the low group a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h i s to be t h e i r greatest personal reward; two others from the low group s t a t e d " f r i e n d s h i p " t o be a reward and one other s t a t e d the c a r r y i n g out of a "mission" to be a personal reward. In responding to Item B (2), "What techniques do you use to maintain your personal e q u i l i b r i u m and balance while coping with the s t r e s s encountered i n c o r r e c t i o n a l work?", the high group scored a mean of 5.90 on self-awareness, 5.50 on patience, and 6.33 on f l e x i b i l i t y . The low group scored 5.10, 5.17, and 5.47 r e s p e c t i v e l y on the same items. The e n t i r e group scored 5.44, 5.47, and 5.87 r e s p e c t i v e l y on these items. The responses to t h i s item f e l l Into f i v e main c a t e g o r i e s ; i n a d d i t i o n there were four miscellaneous responses, a l l from the high group. These main c a t e g o r i e s and frequencies of each for each group are as f o l l o w s : humour (4 high, 4 low); outside a c t i v i t i e s (2 high, 5 low); classroom group 102 techniques (2 high, 1 low); h e a l t h r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s (0 high, 5 low); and support systems ( 1 high, 1 low). In responding to Item C (1), "What techniques would you use to develop a classroom c l i m a t e which would enhance l e a r n i n g and promote p o s i t i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n ? " the high group scored 4.50 on understanding of disadvantaged students. 5.27 on empathy, and 5.20 on g e s t a l t . The low group scored 4.33, 4.60, and 4.33 r e s p e c t i v e l y on these items. The e n t i r e group of eighteen teachers scored means of 4.43, 4.97, and 4.94 r e s p e c t i v e l y on these items. The responses to t h i s item were v a r i e d , but f e l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s ; one category r e l a t e d to academic l e a r n i n g and the other r e l a t e d to classroom c l i m a t e . There was no marked d i f f e r e n c e i n e i t h e r the kind or frequency of responses i n the f i r s t category. Responses and frequency i n the f i r s t category were i n d i v i d u a l assessments and meetings (2 high, 3 low); i n d i v i d u a l c u r r i c u l u m relevancy (1 high, 2 low); team and peer l e a r n i n g (high 1, low 1); i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n (3 high, 1 low); and high expectations (1 high, 0 low). In the category r e l a t e d to classroom c l i m a t e , there emerged a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e between how the high and the low group approached group a c t i v i t y i n t h e i r classroom. Eight of the responses from the high group i n d i c a t e d that group a c t i v i t y ( d i s c u s s i o n s , games, l i f e s k i l l s type of e x e r c i s e s ) were planned by the teacher for the e n t i r e group, although e f f o r t was made to prepare the students ahead i n terms of being comfortable with group a c t i v i t y . Only two of the responses from the low group i n d i c a t e d that group a c t i v i t y was planned; i n s t e a d , four respondents r e l i e d on spontaneous d i s c u s s i o n to a r i s e from the c l a s s , and from there the teacher would d i r e c t t h i s a c t i v i t y , sometimes t u r n i n g i t i n t o the "teachable moment". Other suggestions from the low group included s e t t i n g up a space f o r each student, marked by p i c t u r e s of i n t e r e s t to him. 103 In responding to Item C (2), "How would you organize the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program(s) f or these students?" the high group scored 5.13 on s t r u c t u r e , 5.47 on c l a r i t y , and 5.03 on g e s t a l t . The low group scored 4.00, 4.07, and 4.20 r e s p e c t i v e l y on these items. The e n t i r e group scored 4.61, 4.81, and 4.67 r e s p e c t i v e l y on these items. The responses t o t h i s item were somewhat r e p e t i t i v e of the responses to the preceding question: i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , small group l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , peer t u t o r i n g , regular i n d i v i d u a l meetings, group p r o j e c t s , assessments, group games and c u l t u r a l l y relevant m a t e r i a l s . What d i s t i n g u i s h e d the responses, however, was the presence of more v a r i e t y i n the types of responses (14) from the high group than the low group ( 8 ) . In both, the responses lacked s p e c i f i c i t y and s t r u c t u r e i n terms of the respondents' subject areas. In responding to Item C (3), "What are the two most important goals that the students described above should achieve by the end of your f i r s t term as t h e i r teacher?" the high group scored 5.33 on po s i t ive expectations, 5.40 on c a p a c i t y for goal s e t t i n g , and 5.03 for understanding of disadvantaged students. The low group scored 4.66, 4.40, and 4.40 r e s p e c t i v e l y on these Items. The t o t a l number of eighteen teachers scored 5.01, 4.77, and 4.81 r e s p e c t i v e l y on these items. Because some teachers gave more than two responses to t h i s question, the t o t a l responses for the high group were 14, and the t o t a l for the low group was 13. The goals s t a t e d were academic, i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l , or personal development i n nature, and these were f a i r l y evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between the high and the low groups; academic goal s : 5 high, 3 low; i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l : 4 high; 4 low; and personal development; 5 high, 6 low. 104 In response to "Explain why the achievement of these goals Is Important", teachers gave reasons that were r e l a t e d to the goals' having value on "the s t r e e t " , for the student's own personal development, or for the c r e a t i o n of a good classroom c l i m a t e . Again, the responses w i t h i n these c a t e g o r i e s were d i s t r i b u t e d with r e l a t i v e evenness: 2 high, 2 low, for s t r e e t value; 4 high, 3 low for personal development; and 1 high, 2 low for the c r e a t i o n of a good classroom c l i m a t e . The study showed c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the high and the low groups i n terms of the 21 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r a t e d . When I examined the content of the responses to the CTIS, however, I found that M i l l e r ' s CTIS categories were too narrowly defined for use with the smaller sample i n the present study. There i s i n c o n c l u s i v e evidence that the high group appeared to get s a t i s f a c t i o n from seeing students l e a r n or accomplish something. There was some i n d i c a t i o n that the high group worked to develop classroom c l i m a t e by means of some planned group a c t i v i t i e s . 4. Frequency of a "No Response (N)" by Raters on the CTIS Guide An i n s p e c t i o n of the computer-tabulated r a t i n g s on the CTIS Guide revealed a high frequency of an "N" response by r a t e r s f or three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : concern for s o c i a l J u s t i c e under Item A (2); p a t i e n t and f l e x i b l e under Item B (2 ) . This high frequency was common for the low, high and e n t i r e group of subject teachers. Raters found that these three i n t e r v i e w questions d i d not e l i c i t responses that allowed the r a t e r s to judge them on these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Table 9 shows these frequencies. 105 Table 9 Frequency of No Response (N) by Raters on the CTIS Guide E n t i r e Group High/Low Group Item P o s s i b l e No Response P o s s i b l e No Response (18x3) (10x3) Concerned about 54 23 30 11 s o c i a l j u s t i c e P a t i e n t 54 22 30 13 F l e x i b l e 54 20 30 11 5. Summary of Findings from the CTIS and the CTIS Guide A l l the group mean r a t i n g s f or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the CTIS were higher for the group of teachers rated high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s than for the group rated low i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The rankings of these d i f f e r e n c e s from  greatest to l e a s t are depicted l n Table 10. 106 Table 10 Ranking of High/Low Group Mean Diffe r e n c e s on. thfl CTIS Rank Item C h a r a c t e r i s t i c High/Low Mean P t f f m n p e 1. C (2) C l a r i t y 1.40 2. A (1) Desire to help students grow 1.37 3. C (2) Str u c t u r e 1.13 4. A (2) Empathy 1.10 5 f C (3) Capacity for goal s e t t i n g 1.00 6. A (2) Concern for s o c i a l j u s t i c e * 0.93 7. A (1) Investment 0.90 8. C (1) Ge s t a l t 0.87 9. B (2) F l e x i b i l i t y * 0.86 10. C (2) Ge s t a l t 0.83 11. B (2) Self-awareness 0.80 12. B (1) Investment 0.77 13. A (1) M i s s i o n 0.73 14. C (1) Empathy 0.67 14. C (3) P o s i t i v e expectations 0.67 16. A (2) Sense of e f f i c a c y 0.66 17. C (3) Understanding of disadvantaged students 0.63 18. B (1) Mission 0.57 19. B (1) Rapport d r i v e 0.50 20. B (2) Patience * 0.33 21. C (1) Understanding of disadvantaged students 0.17 * Items r e c e i v i n g high frequency of No (N) response according to CTIS Guide. 107 The greatest d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were shown for the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c l a r i t y , d e s i r e to help students grow, s t r u c t u r e and empathy. A l l d i f f e r e n c e s were greater than 1.00. However, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of empathy, l i k e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of high investment, strong sense of mission, high g e s t a l t , good understanding of disadvantaged students, was rated under two d i f f e r e n t s c a l e items. Empathy was ranked both as a high and low d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups of teachers. The other four c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were not shown to be Important i n d i c a t o r s of d i f f e r e n c e between the high and low groups of teachers. The i n c o n s i s t e n t r a t i n g s for empathy, t h e r e f o r e , d i d not seem to have provided r e l i a b l e information for comparison of the high and low groups. On the other hand, although the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c l a r i t y , d e s i r e to help students grow, and s t r u c t u r e were rated only i n one item of the s c a l e , t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a t i n g s between the high and low groups of teachers may be inportant w i t h respect to s i z e as compared to a l l the other d i f f e r e n c e s shown i n Table 10. F i n a l l y , the lack of evidence for the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s patience,  f l e x i b i l i t y , and sense of s o c i a l J u s t i c e i n teachers' responses could suggest that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e q u i r e e v a l u a t i o n by other methods or by means of d i f f e r e n t questions. 6. Comparison of Rankings on the ETB and the CTIS Because some i n s t i t u t i o n s involved i n the d e l i v e r y of adult b a s i c education programs i n prisons use a teacher performance a p p r a i s a l process that includes students' evaluations of t h e i r teachers, i t could be Informative to compare the students' r a t i n g s derived from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors Instrument with the r a t i n g s according to the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey and i t s 108 Guide. In other words, how do the rankings of r a t i n g s by students on the ETB compare with ranking of teachers' r a t i n g s by three experienced c o r r e c t i o n a l educators on the CTIS and i t s Guide? The rankings of teachers from the high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s group --teachers V, W, X, Y, Z — on the EJTB and the CTIS were compared. Teachers V and W were ranked f i f t h and second r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the group of teachers by both the students and the c o r r e c t i o n a l educators. Students ranked teacher X t h i r d i n the high group on the ETB: the c o r r e c t i o n a l teachers ranked teacher X f i r s t l n the high group on the CTIS. Four of the f i v e teachers (V, W, X, Z) were ranked i n the high group by both t h e i r students and the c o r r e c t i o n a l educators. The rankings of teachers from the low i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s g r o u p — teachers P,Q, R, S, and T — on the ETB and CTS were compared: Teachers P and S were given the same rank i n the group of ten teachers by both t h e i r students and the three c o r r e c t i o n a l educators ( r a t e r s ) . Students ranked teacher T l a s t i n t h i s group; the three c o r r e c t i o n a l educators ranked teacher T i n the middle of the low group on the CTIS. Four of the f i v e teachers (P, R, S, T) were ranked i n the low group by both t h e i r students and the c o r r e c t i o n a l teachers. The average CTIS rankings and the rankings by the students from the ETB are s i m i l a r enough to meet the Wllcoxon Slgned-Rank Test (Table 11: n=8, t=16.5; t > c r i t i c a l t ; same l o c a t i o n ) . 109 Table 11 Comparison of Rankings on the ETB and the CTIS CTIS Score Teacher (average of 21 averages) CTIS Rank ETB Rank* V 5.11 5 5 W 5.87 2 2 X 5.89 1 3 Y 4.88 6 4 Z 5.33 4 1 P 4.47 8 8 Q 5.73 3 7 R 3.72 10 6 S 4.34 9 9 T 4.63 7 10 * r a t i n g by students only; (n = 8; t = 16.5; t > c r i t t ; same l o c a t i o n ) 110 D. Supplementary Questionnaire (SQ) 1. Methods of A n a l y s i s Several methods were used to analyze the responses of three h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e teachers to the Supplementary Questionnaire; a. F i r s t the answers were c o l l a t e d , question by question. Then a t a b u l a t i o n was made of the frequency of the s i x "power themes" c i t e d by M i l l e r (1987a, p. 68): mission, empathy, rapport d r i v e . Investment. g e s t a l t . and focus. b. Responses for questions # 3 to # 6 of the Supplementary  Questlonnalre were rated by the same independent r a t e r s who had rated responses to the CTIS: for the Supplementary Questionnaire they used the Modified CTIS Guide. c. These r a t i n g s were tabulated and mean r a t i n g s for each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c were computed for each of the three teachers. d. The responses to question # 7, which asked what could be done about the things that the respondent d i d not l i k e about working i n a p r i s o n adult b a s i c education program, were analyzed for kinds of responses and t h e i r frequency. 2. Themes i n Responses to the Supplementary Questionnaire As w e l l as the power themes of mission, empathy, rapport d r i v e , Investment, g e s t a l t , and focus, s e v e r a l common elements are present i n a l l of the three teachers' responses. These are grouped according to the question that prompted the response: Q #1. Describe you own school experience from K to 12 i n terms of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , teachers, and c u r r i c u l a . A l l three teachers, while they d i d not a c t u a l l y hate school, d i d not l i k e i t or f i n d i t r e l e v a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y before high school and I l l p a r t i c u l a r l y l n terms of c u r r i c u l a . They remembered the rote l e a r n i n g and the boredom, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the lower grades. Although there were b r i g h t moments, these had come mainly from teachers who had given encouragement, r e c o g n i t i o n f or i n d i v i d u a l t a l e n t , and who were f r i e n d l y and k i n d . Each of the three teachers had experienced c o r p o r a l punishment i n the e a r l y grades, e i t h e r by means of a r u l e r across the knuckles f or work done i n c o r r e c t l y or by means of a s t r a p for misbehavior. The s t r a p hung i n f u l l view of the classroom i n one respondent's elementary school classroom. Their conversation i l l u s t r a t e s some of t h e i r experience: a. "I don't remember anything s p e c i f i c a l l y being a turn on, because I never d i d l i k e school anyway...I was turned on when i t came n a t u r a l l y and I di d w e l l . . . " b. "I t h i n k the most v i v i d memory I have of my sc h o o l i n g i s the f i r s t couple of days i n both kindergarten and grade one. I s t a r t e d with the teacher b a s i c a l l y c a l l i n g me a s t u p i d i d i o t and t e l l i n g me that I didn't know anything..." c. "I remember a couple of teachers that I r e a l l y l i k e d and a couple of teachers who e s p e c i a l l y t e r r i f i e d me who I didn't l i k e , and we moved a l o t too so I th i n k I kind of got screwed up i n a l l of t h a t . . . Q #2. Now, loo k i n g back, can you r e f l e c t on how your school experience may have influenced how you teach ? Comments on the l e a r n i n g process from these teachers i n d i c a t e d that they had a p p l i e d some of the bette r p r a c t i c e s of t h e i r own teachers, e s p e c i a l l y i n the realm of a f f e c t i v e behaviors, such as g i v i n g encouragement and r e c o g n i t i o n and showing c a r i n g when necessary. In 112 a d d i t i o n , while r e c o g n i z i n g that a steady d i e t of rote l e a r n i n g had not helped them, they saw the value of t h i s l e a r n i n g method i n some insta n c e s , but incorporated with other methods. These are some quotations from these responses: a. "I am now able to use what I didn't l i k e i n my ways of teaching i n a way of t r y i n g to understand what students wouldn't l i k e And I ' l l present as many d i f f e r e n t ways (of l e a r n i n g ) as p o s s i b l e of the same concept and make i t as i n t e r e s t i n g u n t i l I am sure that they've got i t and r e - t e s t i t two weeks or months l a t e r . " b. "...another t h i n g , I remember the teachers who could be at a c e r t a i n time, when i t was appropriate, part of our group, l i k e the guy who got down and d i d push ups because he was dared t o , " c. " The other t h i n g I remember from school i s you know when you suddenly become a r e a l person to a teacher, ... when you suddenly take on your character and you are a r e a l i n d i v i d u a l . . . you know that because your r e l a t i o n s h i p with the teacher takes on another dimension . . . I remember r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t i n g that from s e v e r a l teachers i n high school who made me f e e l l i k e an adult...who made me f e e l l i k e my ideas were worth something to them and that they cared about me. So I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to teach to a whole group when I don't know anything about the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the group." Q #3. What other l i f e experiences do you f e e l may have prepared you for teaching i n a p r i s o n ? The r a t e r s had some d i f f i c u l t y r a t i n g f or both focus and mission i n the responses to t h i s question; there were "N" r a t i n g s by two r a t e r s and r e l a t i v e l y low mean scores were given for these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to a l l three teachers. On the other hand, t h i s question y i e l d e d responses from a l l teachers on which the r a t e r s were able judge the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 113 self-awareness, and for which these response received c o n s i s t e n t l y high r a t i n g s . The l i f e experiences of these three are remarkably a l i k e l n many ways: employment i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l work ( both male and female); employment i n a wide v a r i e t y of areas, and world t r a v e l before teaching i n a p r i s o n adult b a s i c education program. Through t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s of these experiences, they explained i n s i g h t s i n t o how these experiences had equipped them to develop rapport, to empathize, or to provide r o l e models to t h e i r students. Some of t h e i r discourse i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r perceptions of these l i f e experiences: a. "I t h i n k probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g i s t h a t . . . I dropped out of school for 10 years and went back as an adult my l i f e , my r o l e change with — ( w i f e ) . To me that's s i g n i f i c a n t . I can see the male macho being played out. With what I know l t helps me i n r e d i r e c t i n g t h i n k i n g when I go through t h a t . b. "So, there were a l l kinds of n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l jobs that I had where I was the token woman. L i k e i n lumber m i l l s . . . w o r k i n g i n f i s h canneries...cooking i n gold mines. It a l s o put me i n touch with...people who come from economically disadvantaged or c u l t u r a l l y disadvantaged backgrounds. c. "We were working with pre-adolescent j u v e n i l e s from age 10 to 12 and we were t r y i n g to get them on the s t r a i g h t and narrow before they became, you know, r e a l hard core j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s . ... j u s t day-to-day meeting people, and r e a l i z i n g that not a l l people come from the same backgrounds that I do. . . l e a r n i n g to accept other peoples values, even though they may be d i f f e r e n t from your own. ...the f i r s t time I went l n teaching with the Native group. In that month I learned more about people 114 and myself than In any other period of time because l t was a group I knew nothing about." Q #4. Describe f i v e of the students e n r o l l e d i n your classroom at the present. The two power themes most f r e q u e n t l y demonstrated i n each of the teachers' responses were empathy, and rapport d r i v e . Their discourse a l s o provided many examples of t h e i r e f f o r t s to i n v o l v e students i n t h e i r own l e a r n i n g , Several of t h e i r students were often withdrawn, i f not i n s t a t e s of depression; angry, i f not threatening; and slow to catch on to b a s i c concepts, i f not l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d . From these accounts are seen frequent examples of patience o f f e r e d when b e l l i g e r e n c e had been the student behavior, or attempts to communicate with a non-communicative newcomer. In a l l cases, the teachers had taken that e x t r a step with these students to f i n d them i n t e r e s t i n g , r e l e v a n t , and c h a l l e n g i n g m a t e r i a l s to work with . They saw good classroom c l i m a t e as important, and developed t h i s i n part by having planned group a c t i v i t i e s such as games or d i s c u s s i o n s . They a l s o encouraged peer t u t o r i n g to improve b e t t e r classroom c l i m a t e , as w e l l as to motivate each i n the t u t o r p a i r by the encouragement that can come from such an arrangement. To a l l these teachers, education i n t h i s s e t t i n g was more than books: i t was s o c i a l i z a t i o n , a p o s i t i v e experience, a time for growth. Quotes: "... so he's working on s t u f f that's relevant to him, to what i s the immediate goal and he shows some commitment to that goal because he's a p p l i e d for a student loan...the main t h i n g I can say with him i s how I use the buddy system to c a p i t a l i z e on the education environment. To make i t p o s i t i v e . " 115 "There's not a heck of a l o t of motivation for him e i t h e r ... . He's under a d e p o r t a t i o n order back to , and w i l l deport him immediately to where he w i l l be shot. And so the motivation i s that he can d i e i n two languages! "I've had to be c a r e f u l not to give him so much (work to do)...because h e ' l l l i t e r a l l y r i p up h i s books and then I ' l l have to a c t . I gave him a card at one point because h i s s i s t e r had died and he was not allowed to go to the f u n e r a l . . . . I th i n k that that d i d more for his education than almost anything e l s e and that was r e a l l y the t u r n i n g point i n our r e l a t i o n s h i p when he s t a r t e d to see me as an i n d i v i d u a l who cared about him as an I n d i v i d u a l . . . " Q #5. What do you l i k e about teaching In a p r i s o n adult b a s i c education program ? This question and question # 6 were grouped together on the Supplementary Qwest 1 Pinna Ire for r a t i n g of responses for the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s high Investment, sense of e f f l c a c y r concerned about J u s t i c e , and a b i l i t y t o  get along with others. There was r e l a t i v e consistency for the r a t i n g s on sense of e f f i c a c y , but i n c o n s i s t e n c y for the r a t i n g s on the other three items. I n c o n s i s t e n c i e s were a l s o present i n the content of these responses. Despite the fact that these three persons had brought very s i m i l a r school and l i f e experiences with them to t h e i r p r i s o n teaching, t h e i r reasons for l i k i n g what they d i d i n p r i s o n were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . One f e l t that the n o n - t r a d l t I o n a l teaching s e t t i n g , u n l i k e the p u b l i c school s e t t i n g , s u i t e d that person's "personal s t y l e " . Two of the teachers l i k e d the v a r i e t y In t h e i r work, One teacher's d e s c r i p t i o n of what he/she l i k e d sounded as though she/he got an emotional "high" from a r r i v i n g at work every day, and 116 wanted to be even more involved, on a day-to-day b a s i s , i n the s o c i a l and educational development of p r i s o n students. One of the teachers l i k e d the fact that she/he was a force for good i n both an academic and a s o c i a l way. The q u a n t i t y of response to t h i s question was d r a m a t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t . When t r a n s c r i b e d , the response of Teacher #12 covered 1 1/2 single-spaced pages; the response of Teacher #11 cons i s t e d of s i x l i n e s ; and the response of Teacher #10 cons i s t e d of ten l i n e s . Some of t h e i r conversation I l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r d i v e r s e views of t h e i r work: a. "I l i k e the fact that when there are rewards, they're p r e t t y dramatic. That you r e a l l y do seem to be good for some inmates, both academically and s o c i a l l y ; that a teacher's i n t e r a c t i o n with inmates can in f l u e n c e them p o s i t i v e l y . b. "I ju s t don't want to teach them how to s p e l l , I want them to remember the day they learned how to s p e l l truck and they learned i t by s p e l l i n g fuck f i r s t because t h e y ' l l never forget how to s p e l l that word." c. "...the p u b l i c school system , i t gets a conservative, middle c l a s s p e r s o n a l i t y . I'm not; I l i k e to be a l l c l a s s e s to a l l people and I thin k that 's my one b i g t h i n g against working i n a p u b l i c school Q #6. What do you d i s l i k e about teaching i n a p r i s o n adult b a s i c education program ? The frequencies of the power theme high investment and of the other three elements that were rated from t h i s question's response have already been discussed i n r e l a t i o n to question # 5 i n the preceding s e c t i o n . Unlike the content of the responses to question # 5, the content of the responses to # 6 showed considerable unanimity. The t o p i c s that were unanimously expressed were the bur e a u c r a t i c processes that got i n the way of teaching and l e a r n i n g , the I n t r u s i o n of p r i s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t o 117 educational matters, the lack of convenient access to teaching resources (such as labs and video equipment), and the o v e r r i d i n g Influence of s e c u r i t y functions ( v i s a v i s educational processes). In a d d i t i o n , Teacher # 12 spoke at length about the s i t u a t i o n he/she saw h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f i n w i t h f e l l o w teachers l n the same p r i s o n . The lack of a shared philosophy toward teaching i n a p r i s o n was a major concern for t h i s teacher. In t h i s teacher's words: " . . . I t ' s not a question of they're bad teachers and I'm a good one or I'm a bad teacher and they're good ones. We're ju s t d i f f e r e n t but I f e e l that I'm c o n s t a n t l y being judged..." Despite these c o n d i t i o n s , however, the responses of a l l three on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sense of e f f i c a c y were rated c o n s i s t e n t l y and r e l a t i v e l y high: Teacher #10: 6.0; Teacher #11: 5.6; Teacher #12: 5.6. Q# 7. What could be done about the things that you do not l i k e ? The responses to t h i s f i n a l question could be q u a n t i f i e d i n the same proportions as the responses to Question # 5. Teacher # 12 spoke i n s p e c i f i c s , the synopsis of which i s as f o l l o w s : a. More e f f o r t on the part of both teachers and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f to understand one another's p e r s p e c t i v e s . b. Impress upon the developers of the p r i s o n contracts ( e s p e c i a l l y the contract agency) that d o l l a r s must be dedicated to the improvement of classroom space. c. More o p p o r t u n i t i e s for science a c t i v i t i e s and other a c t i v i t i e s that w i l l make l e a r n i n g more "hands on". This could Involve a l l a y i n g the fears of s e c u r i t y by making them more aware of what we are doing i n our classrooms with respect to such a c t i v i t i e s . d. The broadened r o l e of a teacher, which would i n v o l v e that teacher i n more than a student's academic requirements. Corrections needs to 118 recognize, for example, that there Is a c o u n s e l l i n g r o l e for teachers or other contract s t a f f who have c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s . This r o l e could be performed In concert with the case management team. e. More e f f o r t on the part of our employers to h i r e persons who share s i m i l a r p h i losophies about the purposes of p r i s o n education. f. The c r e a t i o n and enforcement of a no-smoking r e g u l a t i o n that Is acceptable to everyone, probably by the c r e a t i o n of a designated area. Teacher # 10 spoke of the need to r a i s e the awareness of case managers and other p r i s o n personnel about the problems faced by teachers as they attempt to c a r r y out t h e i r teaching d u t i e s . Personnel at a l l l e v e l s , f or example, need to become committed to " f o l l o w i n g through" i n t h e i r d u t i e s that have an e f f e c t upon students' education. Teacher # 11 summed up s u c c i n c t l y what could be done: "I th i n k that i f Co r r e c t i o n s ' M i s s i o n Statement i s r e a l l y adopted not only Just i n word but in deed that prisons might become happier places and that would make our work a l o t e a s i e r . . . I t h i n k that what could be done Is that p r i s o n e r s could be tre a t e d more humanely by the system." 3. Ratings on the Supplementary Questionnaire f or Items # 3 to # 6 The t o t a l mean r a t i n g s on the Supplementary Questionnaire for each of the three teachers were 5.92 for Teacher #10; 5.9 for Teacher # 11; 5.36 for Teacher # 12. Teacher # 10 had scores ranging from 4.0 on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mission and focus t o a high of 6.6 on po s i t ive  e x p e c t a t i o n s . Teacher # 11 had scores ranging from 4.0 on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c concern for s o c i a l j u s t i c e to 6.6 on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d e s i r e s to help students grow. Teacher # 12 scored a low r a t i n g of 3.0 on mission and a high of 6.6 on concerned about s o c i a l J u s t i c e . 119 There was some consistency among the r a t e r s In t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s f or p a t i e n t , fJjexjfrle, and gets along with others. Scores on patient were as f o l l o w s : Teacher #10; 6,7,5; Teacher # 11: 7,5,6; Teacher # 12: 5,5,5. Scores on f l e x i b l e were as f o l l o w s : Teacher # 10: 7,7,5; Teacher # 11: 6,6,6; Teacher # 12: 5,3,5. On the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c gets along  wit h others. Teacher # 10 scores were 7,6, and 6. Teacher # 11 scores were 5,6,and 6. Teacher # 12 scores were 5,5,and 4. The rankings of the three teachers according to these i n d i v i d u a l scores showed consistency with the rankings of t h e i r t o t a l mean scores on the e n t i r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e : Teacher # 10: 6.0 p a t i e n t ; 6.3 f l e x i b i l i t y ; Teacher #11: 6.0 p a t i e n t : 6.0 f l e x i b i l i t y ; Teacher # 12: 5.0 p a t i e n t : 4.3 f l e x i b l e . Two of the r a t e r s were unable to r a t e on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c concerned  about s o c i a l J u s t i c e for Teacher # 11; one of these r a t e r s was a l s o unable to r a t e Teacher # 10 on t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Two r a t e r s a l s o found i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence on which to rate mission for Teachers #10 and # 12; two r a t e r s a l s o found i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence to r a t e for focus i n the responses of Teachers # 11 and # 12. Ratings f or gets along w i t h others were as f o l l o w s : Teacher # 10: 6.3; Teacher # 11: 5.6; Teacher # 12: 4.6. Again, these teachers were rated on t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n a rank order that i s co n s i s t e n t with the ranking of p a t i e n t , f l e x i b l e , and i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t with the ranking of each teacher's t o t a l mean score. The mean scores for each of the three teachers on each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c on the Supplementary Questionnaire are shown i n Table 12. Table 12 Teachers' Mean Scores for Each C h a r a c t e r i s t i c According to the  Modified CTIS Guide on the Supplementary Questionnaire CHARACTERISTIC TEACHER # IQ TEACHER f 11 TEACHER » 12 Self-awareness 6.3 5.6 6.0 Miss i o n 4.0 4.6 3.0 Focus 4.0 4.5 3.6 Pa t i e n t 6.0 6.0 5.0 F l e x i b l e 6.3 6.0 4.3 Understand disadvantaged students 5.6 4.6 5.0 Ge s t a l t 5.6 5.3 4.3 P o s i t i v e expectations 6.6 5.3 5.6 Empathy 6.6 6.3 6.0 Rapport d r i v e 6.3 5.6 5.3 Investment 5.6 4.6 6.0 Sense of e f f i c a c y 6.0 5.6 5.6 Concerned about s o c i a l j u s t i c e 5.5 4.0 6.6 Gets along with others 6.3 5.6 4.6 Desires to help students grow 6.3 6.6 5.6 121 4. Summary of the Supplementary Questionnaire Findings I interviewed three teachers from the group of teachers who had been rated as h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e on the Ev a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors. A l l three expressed s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s about t h e i r own school experiences such as lack of relevancy, c o r p o r a l punishment, and general d i s i n t e r e s t . However, there were common r e c o l l e c t i o n s of teachers who had been kind, who had shown some s p e c i a l Interest i n the student, or who had taught a course i n which these subjects had done w e l l as a r e s u l t of t h e i r own n a t u r a l a b i l i t y . These three a l s o had shared s i m i l a r l i f e experiences, which they perceived to have had some relevancy for t h e i r p r i s o n teaching: n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l work, t r a v e l , and a v a r i e t y of employment experiences before becoming a p r i s o n adult b a s i c education teacher. On the other hand, reasons given f or l i k i n g t h e i r present work were d i f f e r e n t i n qu a n t i t y and substance. One spoke about l i k i n g the fact of being a force f or good; another f e l t that t h i s Job matched her personal s t y l e ; a t h i r d enumerated the things he l i k e d , with items ranging from the students' sense of humour to the day-to-day v a r i e t y and excitement of p r i s o n work. According to t h e i r responses to the question about what they do not l i k e about p r i s o n teaching, there was common agreement that there were e f f e c t s upon t h e i r work from the negatlveness of the p r i s o n ; b u r e a u c r a t i c procedures, s t a f f h o s t i l i t y , and la c k of humaneness were c i t e d as examples of negative sources. The teacher responses concerning t h e i r students provided a wealth of ma t e r i a l on which to rate for s e v e r a l of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s named on the r a t i n g guide, There was a strong presence of empathy, sense of awareness,  d e s i r e to help students grow, and f l e x i b l e among these teachers, d e s p i t e 122 the fact that they often worked with students who appeared depressed, angry, and unmotivated. Empathy was rated h i g h l y for a l l three teachers. Although r a t i n g s for two teachers were c o n s i s t e n t l y s i m i l a r to each others, Teacher # 12 stood out somewhat as an anomaly. The q u a n t i t y of t h i s teacher's responses, the strong emergence of themes such as concerned about  s o c i a l J u s t i c e . Investment, and empathy, contrasted with lower r a t i n g s for mission, focus, and g e s t a l t . could suggest more involvement with the a f f e c t i v e rather than with the c o g n i t i v e behaviors of students. The r a t e r s d i d f i n d d i f f i c u l t y i n r a t i n g teacher responses for Teachers #10 and #12 on concerned about s o c i a l J u s t i c e . The responses that were received for Question # 7, however, suggest that i t may have been appropriate to have included t h i s question for r a t i n g on t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The responses of the Supplementary Questionnaire present a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the teaching s i t u a t i o n s of three e f f e c t i v e teachers. Their perceptions and r e f l e c t i o n s support some of the f i n d i n g s of M i l l e r and of other parts of the current study. Some of the Supplementary Questionnaire responses have added added to our information about the dynamics of an adult b a s i c education classroom i n a p r i s o n . The o v e r a l l f i n d i n g s from the responses to the Supplementary  Questionnaire provide support for the use of such a questionnaire and the CTIS Guide to r a t e the interviews of teachers who have had experience i n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , adult b a s i c education programmes. Even with persons who have had only student teaching experiences, they could respond with reference to Question #4 about i n d i v i d u a l students whom they had taught. 123 In a d d i t i o n , , the question #3 about l i f e experiences, even i f the person had had no p r i s o n experience, could be questioned about l i f e experiences In r e l a t i o n to teaching disadvantaged or other high r i s k students. E. Summary Of Findings from E n t i r e Study By using the r a t i n g instrument E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors, I have i d e n t i f i e d f i v e teachers (the h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e group) who were rated higher than another group of f i v e teachers (the low i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s group) on eleven c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or behaviors by themselves, by three to f i f t e e n of t h e i r students, and by t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s . The ETB i n d i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between these two groups on each of eleven c r i t e r i a , with greatest d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n for the c r i t e r i a o r i g i n a l , o v e r a l l  e f f e c t i v e , adaptable, and s t i m u l a t i n g . The f i n d i n g s from the Demographic Data Questionnaire, while i n c o n c l u s i v e , suggest teachers i n the h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e group have a higher percentage of teachers who have been involved i n a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g experiences and i n co n t i n u i n g education. The h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e group named s i x d i f f e r e n t kinds of other d i r e c t teaching p r a c t i c e : the low group named only two ki n d s . The high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s group had l e s s p u b l i c / p a r o c h i a l school teaching experience than the low i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s group. A l l of the group mean r a t i n g s for the twenty-one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher I n t e r v i e w Survey were higher for the the h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e group than the low i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s group. Differences greater than 1.00 were shown for c l a r l t y r d e s i r e to help students grow r s t r u c t u r e and empathy. 124 However, the r a t i n g s of the responses of both groups to the C o r r e c t i o n a l , Teacher Interview Survey show that CTIS d i d not generate s u f f i c i e n t information by which to rat e teachers on some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s measured by the CTIS Guide: for example, a low frequency of r a t e r response was i n d i c a t e d for concerned about s o c i a l J u s t i c e , pat l e n t , and f l e x i b l e . Nevertheless, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t consistency between students' rankings of teachers on the Ev a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors (ETB) and the c o r r e c t i o n a l educators' rankings of the same teachers' responses to the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teachers Interview Survey (CTIS). The Supplementary Questionnaire provided a d d i t i o n a l information on three teachers from the h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e group. This information was p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r l i f e experiences p r i o r to p r i s o n teaching. Although they were not asked s p e c i f i c a l l y about t h e i r t r a i n i n g for teaching, they d i d not r e f e r i n any way to that formal t r a i n i n g as preparation for work i n p r i s o n . One of the three d i d say, however, that nothing at u n i v e r s i t y had been a preparation f or t h i s work. On the other hand, a l l three teachers described s i m i l a r kindergarten to grade twelve school experiences. A l l c i t e d n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l employment, and t r a v e l which, i n t h e i r minds, had prepared them for c o r r e c t i o n a l work. Tables 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 provide an overview of the f i n d i n g s of the e n t i r e study. 125 Table 13 An Overview of Q u a l i t i e s I d e n t i f i e d by the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher  Behaviors: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with Greatest D i f f e r e n t i a l l n Ratings Between High and Low Groups O r i g i n a l O v e r a l l E f f e c t i v e Adaptable S t i m u l a t i n g Table 14 An Overview of Information Related to Teachers Perceived High i n Ef f e c t i v e n e s s from the Demographic Data Questionnaire 1. Had v a r i e d kinds of experience l n d i r e c t teaching p r a c t i c e 2. Had l i m i t e d p u b l i c / p a r o c h i a l school teaching than the low group 3. Had high l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g education Table 15 Q u a l i t i e s Rated Higher an iM Correctional Teacher interview Survey (CTIS) for Teachers Perceived Most E f f e c t i v e 1. C l a r i t y 2. Desire to help students grow 3. S t r u c t u r e 126 Table 16 Response Patterns Demonstrated on the CTIS  Item Response P a t t e r n A ( l ) No p a t t e r n A(2) No p a t t e r n ; l i t t l e evidence to r a t e on concern about s o c i a l J u s t i c e B ( l ) Their greatest personal reward: seeing students l e a r n or accomplish something B(2) No p a t t e r n ; l i t t l e evidence ra t e on patient or f l e x i b i l i t y C ( l ) Techniques for developing p o s i t i v e classroom c l i m a t e : by some planned group a c t i v i t y C(2) No p a t t e r n C(3) No p a t t e r n 127 Table 17 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Receiving Ratings of 6,Q and Above with the Modified CTIS Guide for Three Highly E f f e c t i v e Teachers Who Responded  to the Supplementary Questionnaire Teacher #10 P o s i t i v e expectations (6.6) Empathy (6.6) Self-awareness (6.3) F l e x i b l e (6.3) Rapport Drive (6.3) Gets along w i t h others (6.3) Desires to help students grow (6.3) Sense of e f f i c a c y (6.0) Teacher #11 Desires to help students grow (6.6) Empathy (6.3) F l e x i b l e (6.0) Pa t i e n t (6.0) Teacher #12 Concerned about s o c i a l j u s t i c e (6.6) Empathy (6.0) Self-Awareness (6.0) Investment (6.0) 128 Chapter V: Conclusions In t h i s f i n a l chapter, the problem i s r e s t a t e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n . Conclusions based on the data and f i n d i n g s from the four instruments, the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors, the Demographic Data Questionnaire, the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Survey, and the Supplementary Questionnaire are presented. Then, I m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations are suggested for c o r r e c t i o n a l teacher s e l e c t i o n and development. F i n a l l y , suggestions are made for f u r t h e r research. A. Restatement of the Problem C r i t e r i a are required for the s e l e c t i o n of persons who have the p o t e n t i a l to be e f f e c t i v e c o r r e c t i o n a l educators. In a d d i t i o n , information based on such c r i t e r i a i s required for the development of c o n t i n u i n g education courses and teacher t r a i n i n g programs for Canadian c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r s . C r i t e r i a could be used that are based on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviors of p r a c t i s i n g c o r r e c t i o n a l teachers who have been perceived to be h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e . The current study was intended to b u i l d on the work of M i l l e r , who had i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l such personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviors i n "A Study of Maryland P r i s o n Teachers Perceived to be E f f e c t i v e " (1987a). The current study included the use of M i l l e r ' s instruments and some of her methodology w i t h i n a Canadian educational s e t t i n g with c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r to those i n her study. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s a c t i v i t y was supplemented 129 with an a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which was used to Interview three p r i s o n teachers who had been i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e by means of the ETB instruments. B. Conclusions The eighteen c o r r e c t i o n a l teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study were employed by two o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the Kingston Learning Centre and Fraser V a l l e y C o l l e g e . KLC i s a p r i v a t e company and FVC i s a community c o l l e g e . Each of these organizations had been contracted by the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada to d e l i v e r adult b a s i c education programs i n a t o t a l of s i x t e e n f e d e r a l prisons i n two regions of the CSC: Ontario and P a c i f i c . As contract teachers, and not c o r r e c t i o n a l employees, they experience both the p o s i t i v e and negative e f f e c t s of t h e i r contracted p o s i t i o n s . Their working s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v e both students and C o r r e c t i o n s personnel and are u s u a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g and sometimes f r u s t r a t i n g . Nevertheless, t h i s study has shown that these w e l l q u a l i f i e d teachers have accepted the challenges involved i n combatting i l l i t e r a c y among Canada's p r i s o n populations and have dealt with the f r u s t r a t i o n s of t h e i r work with a wide v a r i e t y of s k i l l s and behaviors. This study has shown that t h i s group of teachers i s rated h i g h l y for being knowledgeable and student-centred. However, i t has been able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e , by means of the E v a l u a t i o n of Teacher Behaviors r a t i n g s c a l e , between two groups of teachers w i t h i n t h i s sample of eighteen. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s based on perceived e f f f e e t i v e n e s s according to mean r a t i n g s of eleven behaviors and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Teachers of the group found h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e ranked higher than the low In e f f e c t i v e n e s s group on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o r i g i n a l , o v e r a l l  e f f e c t i v e , adaptable, and s t i m u l a t i n g . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r i g i n a l and 130 ) s t l m u l a t l n g had a l s o been d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g character 1 s t i c s ^ i n the M i l l e r study. When respondents to t h i s r a t i n g instrument were asked to l i s t and r a t e other teacher behaviors that are important, sense of humour was named most fr e q u e n t l y f or the group of f i v e h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e teachers. M i l l e r s ' study had included sense of humour along with r e s p e c t f u l n e s s , s k i 11fulness. and understanding of students as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the high and the low groups. The responses of three e f f e c t i v e teachers on the Supplementary Questionnaire generated high r a t i n g s on empathy. The responses of two of these teachers shared i n generating high r a t i n g s on self-awareness, f l e x i b l e , and d e s i r e s to help students grow. The Demographic Data Questionnaire y i e l d e d data that i n d i c a t e d that the teachers i n the high i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s group had had a greater v a r i e t y of experiences i n d i r e c t teaching p r a c t i c e . However, because a l l subjects i n the current study had been i n c o r r e c t i o n a l teaching l e s s than 4.7 years, t h i s kind of experience was not a d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f a c t o r between the high and low groups. The high group's average c o r r e c t i o n s teaching experience was 2.4 years; the low group's was 1.9 years. The h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e teachers i n t h i s study had le s s p u b l i c school teaching experience than the teachers who were low i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s : high group, 2.4 years; low group 7.5 years. In a d d i t i o n , the mean for years of experience i n other (than p u b l i c school) s e t t i n g s outside c o r r e c t i o n s was lower f or the h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e group (0.4) than for the low group (7.4.). This experience for the low group had included a mean of 1.9 years i n p a r o c h i a l teaching. The high group had no p a r o c h i a l teaching experience. In terms of t o t a l teaching experience outside C o r r e c t i o n s , the high group had a mean of 2.8 years; the low group had a mean of 15.3 years. 131 In the response of these h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e teachers to the C o r r e c t I o n a l  Teachers Interview Survey, r a t e r s gave high r a t i n g s for c l a r i t y , d e s i r e to help students grow, and s t r u c t u r e . M i l l e r ' s study had a l s o given high r a t i n g s for d e s i r e to help students grow as w e l l as for self-awareness and Investment. The Supplementary Questionnaire, with d i f f e r e n t questions than were on the CTIS, but which were rated with a guide c o n t a i n i n g the same r a t i n g s c a l e and a l l but three of the same c r i t e r i a , a l s o y i e l d e d responses from three e f f e c t i v e teachers that received high r a t i n g s on empathy, d e s i r e to help  students grow, f l e x i b l e , and self-awareness. The modified guide d i d not ra t e for c l a r i t y and s t r u c t u r e , but d i d Include the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c gets  along w i t h others. There was no evidence of no response (N) for the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s pat lent and f l e x i b l e as on the CTIS, although r a t e r s found evidence of concerned about s o c i a l J u s t i c e i n the responses of only one teacher to the Supplementary Questionnaire. Thus, the p r o f i l e of the h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e teacher, based on the f i n d i n g s from t h i s study includes elements of o r i g i n a l i t y , a d a p t a b i l i t y . st imulat ing. f l e x i b i l i t y , and sense of humour. The d e s i r e to help students  grow and c l a r i t y were a l s o h i g h l y rated and frequent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among these teachers. Responses to the Supplementary Questionnaire i l l u s t r a t e d that three of these teachers perceive both academic and s o c i a l development as important, and they emphasize relevancy i n how and what they teach. One of the ways the h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e teachers s t r i v e to develop good classroom c l i m a t e i s to conduct some kind of planned group a c t i v i t y , such as d i s c u s s i o n s or group games. The three e f f e c t i v e teachers a l s o revealed i n t h e i r responses to the S_& that there were s e v e r a l other common elements i n 132 t h e i r experiences. Each of them perceived that a v a r i e t y of l i f e experience — i n c l u d i n g n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l work, a v a r i e t y of kinds of employment, and t r a v e l -- had been good preparation for teaching i n p r i s o n s . Although they d i d not perceive t h e i r own school experiences to have been e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , t h e i r responses seemed to i n d i c a t e that they are s t i l l aware of some of the a f f e c t i v e behaviors, l i k e k i n d l i n e s s and encouragement, that worked w e l l with themselves as students. C. I m p l i c a t i o n s and Recommendations The o v e r a l l f i n d i n g s of t h i s study and the l i t e r a t u r e that we have reveiwed have i n d i c a t e d that there are s e v e r a l perceived c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that may d i s t i n g u i s h between e f f e c t i v e and n o n - e f f e c t i v e teachers. Teachers who possess o r i g i n a l i t y , c l a r i t y , s t r u c t u r e , f l e x i b i l i t y / a d a p t a b i l i t y ,  empathy, d e s i r e to help students grow, self-awareness, and a sense of  humour ought to be considered for employment i n p r i s o n adult b a s i c education programs. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s should be combined with some experience with i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m development that includes an emphasis on relevancy, and some f a m i l i a r i t y with group processes. Experience that appears to be relevant to p r i s o n teaching i s not n e c e s s a r i l y that which i s of long d u r a t i o n but which i s va r i o u s , such as a v a r i e t y of teaching s i t u a t i o n s , employment other than teaching, and l i f e experiences that b r i n g persons i n touch with others from many segments of s o c i e t y . The combined f i n d i n g s of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey and the Supplementary Questionnaire have provided support for using the CTIS Guide to r a t e the interviews of teachers who have had some experience i n 133 I n d i v i d u a l i z e d adult b a s i c education programs. Even persons who have had only student teaching experience i n t h i s kind of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g could respond with reference to question #4 about a c t u a l students with whom they have worked on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . In a d d i t i o n , question #3 about l i f e experience, even i f the interviewee has had no p r i s o n experience, could r e f e r to teaching disadvantaged or other high r i s k students. Questions #3 to #7 i n c l u s i v e i n the Supplementary Questionnaire (§£) have y i e l d e d s u f f i c i e n t response from three e f f e c t i v e teachers for r a t i n g s on a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Modified CTIS Guide. Used l n conjunction with an a p p l i c a t i o n form that would include questions r e q u i r i n g information r e l a t e d to academic background, t r a i n i n g , and previous employment, i t could provide a d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e of an a p p l i c a n t for teaching i n a p r i s o n adult b a s i c education program. Use of these procedures under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s could y i e l d r e l i a b l e support for them. Although these c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d from the study's r e s u l t s could be u t i l i z e d f or s e l e c t i o n of p o t e n t i a l p r i s o n adult b a s i c education teachers, the study has a l s o shown, p a r t i c u l a r l y through the CTIS and SQ i n t e r v i e w s , that the environment w i t h i n which these people work has the p o t e n t i a l for rap i d burn-out, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the higher l e v e l s of s e c u r i t y . High turn-over of teachers, coupled w i t h increased demand i n Canada at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l for q u a l i f i e d c o r r e c t i o n a l teachers, gives some i n d i c a t i o n that p r o f e s s i o n a l development and t r a i n i n g for t h i s work ought to be given a higher p r i o r i t y by i n s t i t u t i o n s for teacher education i n Canada. In a d d i t i o n , the current demand for teachers at the p u b l i c school l e v e l s has the p o t e n t i a l for d r a i n i n g an already scarce source of a p p l i c a n t s for c o r r e c t i o n a l teaching. 134 The development of such programs s h a l l r e q u i r e continued research i n the f i e l d of c o r r e c t i o n a l teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s as w e l l as i n the study of t r a i n i n g programs that already e x i s t In other c o u n t r i e s . Research r e l a t e d to the s t r e s s experienced by some teachers i n i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher s e c u r i t y could prove v a l u a b l e . F i n a l l y , perceptions held by c o r r e c t i o n s employees regarding contract teachers' e f f e c t i v e n e s s may a l s o provide another realm for study. 135 Chapter VI: References Adult b a s i c l i t e r a c y c u r r i c u l u m guide and resource book. (1987). V i c t o r i a , BC: M i n i s t r y of Advanced Education and Job T r a i n i n g . Aker, George. (1974). A guide for compentency based teacher t r a i n i n g In  adult b a s i c education. Washington, D.D.: Research and Technology Corporation, Inc. Annual Conference of Education and T r a i n i n g D i v i s i o n . (1985) Minutes. Ottawa, ON: The C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada. Baehre, Rainer. (1977). O r i g i n s of the p e n i t e n t i a r y system i n Upper Canada. The Ontario H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , LXIV. 197-198. 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If the rater had considered the in s t r u c t o r to be extremely unimpressive i n appearance, than a rating of ^  or 1 would have been appropriate. A r a t i n g of 4_ would Indicate a point midway between the two extremes, and a 3 or 5 would be s l i g h t l y below or above the midpoint. If you f e e l you are unable to judge the instructor on a p a r t i c u l a r set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (as In Example I I below), then c i r c l e the N. Example I: Unimpressive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N A t t r a c t i v e Ia the example above, the number £ i s c i r c l e d to indicate that the instructor Is much more a t t r a c t i v e than unimpressive i n appearance. Example I I : Restricted I 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Understanding In Example I I above, the N i s c i r c l e d to in d i c a t e that the rater feels she/he cannot evaluate the in s t r u c t o r on those behaviors. Mozelle Carver Vickers, 1979 Now you are asked Co r a te the I n s t r u c t o r whose name appears on the a t t a c h s l i p on the ten se ts o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that are p r o v i d e d . E V A L U A T I O N A. Harsh 1 2 3 4 (c r o s s ; c u r t ; f a u l t - f i n d i n g ; s a r c a s t i c ; b e l i t t l e s e f f o r t s of students; Is r e j e c t i n g , disapproving toward students) 5 6 7 N K i n d l y (concerned f o r students; understanding; g i v e s students deserved compliments; i s h e l p f u l , c a r i n g , humanitarian) B. P a r t i a l 1 2 3 4 (shows p r e j u d i c e toward some groups or i n d i v i d u a l s ; gives s p e c i a l advantages or more a t t e n t i o n to some) 5 6 7 N F a i r -( p r a i s e s or c r i t i c i z e s on f a c t s , not hearsay; t r e a t s students e q u a l l y ; a l l o w s students to e x p l a i n views, i s i m p a r t i a l ) . C. D u l l 1 2 3 4 ( u n i n t e r e s t i n g ; monotonous; lacks enthusiasm, shows l i t t l e s k i l l i n presenting m a t e r i a l s or motivating students) 5 6 7 N S t i m u l a t i n g ( i n t e r e s t i n g ; h o lds a t t e n t i o n of s t u d e n t s ; provokes t h i n k i n g ; e n t h u s i a s t i c ; c h a l l e n g i n g ) Cursory 1 2 3 4 ( h u r r i e d or s u p e r f i c i a l i n pr e s e n t a t i o n s ; doesn't aim for depth of l e a r n i n g ; gives t e s t s that c o n t a i n mostly t r i v i a l q u e s t i o n s ) 5 6 7 N Probing (asks v a r i e d q u e s t i o n s to promote t h i n k i n g ; examines thoroughly; h e l p s students analyze, e v a l u a t e , and sy n t h e s i z e course m a t e r i a l ) E. I n f l e x i b l e 1 2 3 4 ( r i g i d i n conforming to rou-t i n e ; has t r o u b l e modifying explanations or a c t i v i t i e s to meet classroom s i t u a t i o n s does not adapt m a t e r i a l s to i n d i v i d u a l s ) 5 6 7 N Adaptable ( f l e x i b l e ; i n d i v i d u a l i z e d m a t e r i a l s and adapts a c t i v i t i e s to s t u d e n t s ' needs; Is always a l e r t to need f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of p o i n t s ; meets unusual s i t u a t i o n s competently) F. A u t o c r a t i c 1 2 3 4 ( u n y i e l d i n g ; discourages student o p i n i o n or p a r t i c i -p ation; i n t e r r u p t s students although t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n Is r e l e v a n t ; e x e r c i s e s absolute a u t h o r i t y ) 5 6 7 N Student-centered (responsive to s t u d e n t s ; encour-ages and b u i l d s on student ideas and q u e s t i o n s ; g u i d e s without being mandatory or domineering) 145 Evading 1 2 3 4 (avoids making d e c i s i o n s ; passes the buck; doesn't give students enough help; doesn't i n s i s t on I n d i v i d u a l or group standards) 5 6 7 N Responsible ( c o n s c i e n t i o u s ; punctual; thorough; maintains standards; makes needed d e c i s i o n s ; gives d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n s ) H. Limited 1 2 3 4 (poor background i n s u b j e c t ; narrow i n scope, does not depart from t e x t ; answers questions incompletely or i n a c c u r a t e l y ; uses few i l l u s t r a t i o n s from r e l a t e d areas) 5 6 7 N Knowledgeable (good s c h o l a r s h i p ; knows s u b j e c t ; g i v e s s a t i s f y i n g , complete, and accurate answers to q u e s t i o n s ; draws examples and e x p l a n a t i o n s from v a r i o u s sources and r e l a t e d f i e l d s ) I . Stereotyped 1 2 3 4 (unimaginative and u n o r i g -i n a l ; uses routine procedures without v a r i a t i o n ; not r e s o u r c e f u l i n answering questions or providing explanations) -5 6 7 N O r i g i n a l ( c r e a t i v e ; t r i e s new m a t e r i a l s or methods; r e s o u r c e f u l ; i m a g i n a t i v e ; develops presenta-t i o n s to meet s i t u a t i o n s that a r i s e ) J . Disorganized 1 2 3 4 (doesn't plan f o r classwork; unprepared; wastes time; undecided as to next s t e p s ; o b j e c t i v e s not apparent) •5 6 7 N Systematic ( o r g a n i z e d ; b u s i n e s s l i k e ; w e l l prepared; a n t i c i p a t e s needs; plans procedures c a r e f u l l y ; o b j e c t i v e s c l e a r ) K. L i s t below any other teacher behaviors you t h i n k are important, and r a t e t h i s I n s t r u c t o r on those behaviors, j u s t as you d i d above. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N L. O v e r a l l I n e f f e c t i v e 1 2 3 4 (students do not l e a r n very much; do not Improve s k i l l s ; do not gain confidence) 5 6 7 N O v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e ( s t u d e n t s add to knowledge; improve s k i l l s ; g a i n confidence) 146 Appendix B DEMOGRAPHIC DATA QUESTIONNAIRE Please check the .lpproprlate answers or f i l l In the blanks. 1. How much experience have you had teaching i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l s e t t i n g ? years months 2 . How much experience have you had i n regular p u b l i c school teaching? years months 3 . Have you worked as a teacher i n other s e t t i n g s ? (Check a l l that apply) Check Years a. Trade School b. C o l l e g e / U n i v e r s i t y ____________ c. P a r o c h i a l School d. School f o r Handicapped e. Other ( s p e c i f y ) _ 4. (a ) Do you hold (a ) c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y degree(s)? Please check c o r r e c t answer. Yes No (b) What degree or degrees do you hold? (Please check) Major Minor None A.A. BA/BS MA/MS/M.Ed. Ph.D/D.Ed. Other 147 (c) If you do not hold a degree, please describe other preparation for teaching which you have received. 5 . How many education courses have you taken that r e l a t e to teaching methodology and/or curriculum development? No« of Courses C r e d i t Hrs. or Units a. Undergraduate b. Graduate c. Continuing Education (e) What a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g (e.g. seminars, workshops or i n - s e r v i c e ) r e l a t e d to d e l i v e r y of e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n have you received i n the l a s t two years? 6. Did you have student teaching experience? a . Yes k No b. I f yes, how long? years _____________ O O Q C h s c. Did you receive other o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i r e c t teaching p r a c t i c e as a part of your preparation f o r teaching? (Please describe and Ind i c a t e l e n g t h of time). years months 148 :y ] Yes No 7. (a) Do you hold a teaching c e r t i f i c a t e froa the State of Maryland? (b) Do you hold a teching c e r t i f i c a t e from another s t a t e or f o r e i g n country? Yes No (c ) I f yes, what type of c e r t i f i c a t i o n ? ( P l e a s e Check) (1) Standard P r o f e s s i o n a l (2) Advanced P r o f e s s i o n a l (3) Other (d) Subject(s) Endorsed? (e) Subjects C u r r e n t l y Teaching? 8. The following questions of a personal nature are Included for informational purposes only and w i l l not afect the outcome of the study. Your input on these questions w i l l be appreciated, but feel free to omit them If you wish. Please check appropriate answers: (a) Female Male (b) White (not of Hispanic origin) Black (not of Hispanic origin) Asian or Pacific Islander American Indian or Alaskan Native Hispanic (c) Age: 20 - 29 30 - 39 40 - 49 50 - 59 60 - 69 69 + • 149 Appendix C DEMOGRAPHIC DATA QUESTI0NA1RE P l e a s e chock the a p p r o p r i a t e answer* or f i l l I n the b l a n k s . 1 . How much e x p e r i e n c e have you had t c a c h i n p i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l s e t t i n g ? y e a r s months 2. How much e x p e r i e n c e have you hnd i n r e g u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l t c a c h i n p ? y e a r s months 3. Have you worked as a t e a c h e r i n o t h e r s e t t i n g s ? (Check a l l t h a t a p p l y ) Check Y e a r s a. V o c a t i o n a l ___ b. C o l l e g e / I n s t i t u t e c. U n i v e r s i t y d. P a r o c h i a l School e. S c h o o l f o r Handicapped 4. Other ( s p e c i f y ) 4. (a) Do you h o l d a c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e ( s ) ? P l e a s e check c o r r e c t answer. Yes No '(b) What degree or degrees do you hold? ( P l e a s e check) Major Minor None BEd BA/BSc MA/MS c/M.Ed Ph.D/D.Ed. Other t 150 ( c ) I f you do not h o l d a d e g r e e , p l e a s e d e s c r i b e other p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g w h ich you have r e c e i v e d . How many education courses have you taken that r e l a t e to teaching methodology and/or curriculum development? Ho. of Courses C r e d i t Hrs. or Units a . Undergraduate __________________ b. Graduate c Continuing Education ___________________ (e ) What a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g (e.g. seminars, workshops or i n - s e r v i c e ) r e l a t e d to d e l i v e r y of e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n have you received i n the l a s t two years? Did you have student teaching experience? a • Tes . No b . I f yes, how long? years months c. Did you receive other o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i r e c t teaching p r a c t i c e as a p a r t of your preparation f o r teaching? (Please describe and I n d i c a t e length of time). years months ,150 a 1. (a) Do you hold a teaching certificate fron the Province In which you axe now employed.? Tes No (b) Do you hold a teaching certificate from another Province or foreign country? l e s No (c) If yes, what type of certification? (Please Check) (1) Standard Professional (2) Advanced Professional (3) Other _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (d) Subject(s) Endorsed? (e) Subjects Currently Teaching? 8. The following questions of a personal nature are included for inform-ational purposes only and w i l l not affect the outcome of the study. Your input on these questions w i l l be appreciated, but feel free to omit thee i f you wish. Please check appropriate answers: (a) Female Male (b) Age: 20 - 29 30-39 40 - 49 50-59 60 - 69 65 + (c) Bilingual (French/English) Yes No Appendix D 151 CORRECTIONAL TEACHER INTERVIEW SURVEY Designed by Miller . Administered o r a l l y in this study. Please answer these q u e s t i o n s as i f you were responding to an o r a l i n t e r v i e w . Register your i n i t i a l response, and l i m i t responding time to an absolute maximum of ten minutes f o r each numbered q u e s t i o n , w i t h no more than s i x t y minutes f o r the t o t a l survey. Do not go back and change answers. A. (1) Why did you choose teaching as a career? (2) What are the most important c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t you as an i n d i v i d u a l can make to incarcerated students? B. (1) Describe the g r e a t e s t personal reward that you r e c e i v e from working w i t h i n c a r c e r a t e d students. (2) What techniques do you use to maintain your p e r s o n a l e q u i l i b r i u m and balance while coping with the s t r e s s encountered l n c o r r e c t i o n a l work? C. Imagine that you have a s m a l l c l a s s of S i n c a r c e r a t e d s tudents f o r whom you have two purposes: to provide a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs and to develop t h e i r s k i l l s i n group i n t e r -a c t i o n . The ages, home environments, and grade l e v e l s of the students are as f o l l o w s : Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student S Average Grade L e v e l Achievement 7th Grade 6th Grade 5th Grade 8th Grade 5th Grade Home Age Environment 17 y r s . o l d Inner C i t y 19 y r s . o l d R u r a l Comm. 35 y r s . o l d Inner C i t y 20 y r s . o l d Inner C i t y 25 y r s . o l d Inner C i t y (1) What techniques would you use to develop a c l a s s r o o m c l i m a t e which would enhance l e a r n i n g and promote p o s i t i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n ? (2) How would you o r g a n i z e the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program(s) f o r these students? (Use the s u b j e c t area of your e x p e r t i s e ; f o r example: s o c i a l s t u d i e s , r e a d i n g , auto mechanics, s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , e t c . ) (3) What are the two most important goals the s t u d e n t s d e s c r i b e d above should achieve by the end of your f i r s t term as t h e i r teacher? E x p l a i n why the achievement of these g o a l s i s important. 152 Appendix E C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey (CTIS) Guide Teacher # Rater Date To evaluate the above teacher on each of the questions on the CTIS, please read the d e f i n i t i o n s at the two ends of the s c a l e for each set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C i r c l e the number from 1 (low) to 7 (high) that best evaluates that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c as i n d i c a t e d i n the teacher's response to the question. Three sets of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are to be evaluated for each question on the CTIS. I f you f e e l you are unable to judge the teacher on a p a r t i c u l a r set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , based on the response given, then c i r c l e the N. D e f i n i t i o n s for terms with a s t e r i s k s are provided at the end of the ev a l u a t i o n guide. Quest ion A. 1. Weak sense of mission* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Strong sense of mission Low investment* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N High investment Uninterested i n growth of students 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Desires to help students grow A. 2. Feels I n e f f e c t i v e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Sense of e f f i c a c y L i t t l e concern for jus t i ce 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Concerned about s o c i a l just i c e L i t t l e or no empathy* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Possesses empathy B. 1. Weak sense of mission* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strong sense of mission L i t t l e or no rapport d r i v e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Strong rapport d r i v e Low investment* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N High investment B. 2. Weak self-awareness 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Strong self-awareness Impatlent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Patient I n f l e x i b l e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N F l e x i b l e C. 1. Poor understanding of disadvantaged students 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Good understanding of disadvantaged students L i t t l e or no empathy* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Possesses empathy Low g e s t a l t * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N High g e s t a l t 153 C. 2. Poor sense of s t r u c t u r e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Good sense of s t r u c t u r e Lacks c l a r i t y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Possesses c l a r i t y Low g e s t a l t * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N High g e s t a l t C. 3. Negative expectations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N P o s i t i v e expectations Weak c a p a c i t y f or 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Strong c a p a c i t y for g o a l - s e t t ing g o a l - s e t t ing Poor understanding of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Good understanding of disadvantaged students disadvantaged students *Mlsslon - the b e l i e f that students can le a r n and want to l e a r n , and that teachers can make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the development of other people. *Empathy - a s p e c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y to the f e e l i n g s and st a t e s of mind of others. *Rapport d r i v e - a d r i v e toward r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l d i n g . i n v e s t m e n t - a great sense of reward and reinforcement experienced by the teacher from the response of students. *Gestalt - possession of a unique blend of s t r u c t u r e and f l e x i b i l i t y , viewing o r g a n i z a t i o n as a way to f a c i l i t a t e the l e a r n i n g process. *Focus - possession of goals and a planned d i r e c t i o n for l i f e . D e f i n i t i o n s from Teacher Perce i v e r Academy S e l e c t i o n Research I n s t i t u t e L i n c o l n , Nebraska 154 APPENDIX F Supplementary Questionnaire 1. Describe your own school experience from K-12 i n terms of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , teachers, and c u r r i c u l a . 2. Now, l o o k i n g back, can you r e f l e c t on how your school experience may have i n f l u e n c e d how you teach? 3. What other l i f e experience do you f e e l may have prepared you for teaching i n a prison? 4. Describe f i v e of the students e n r o l l e d i n your classroom at the present t ime. 5. What do you l i k e about teaching i n a p r i s o n adult b a s i c education program? 6. What do you d i s l i k e about teaching i n a p r i s o n adult b a s i c education program? 7. What could be done about the things that you do not l i k e ? 155 Appendix G Modified C o r r e c t i o n a l Teacher Interview Survey Guide Teacher # Rater Date To evaluate the above teacher on each of the attached w r i t t e n responses, please read the d e f i n i t i o n s at the two ends of the s c a l e for each set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C i r c l e the number from 1 (low) to 7 (high) that best evaluates that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l i s t e d under the appropriate question. D e f i n i t i o n s of s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are given on page 2 of t h i s form. Question #3: What other l i f e experiences do you f e e l may have prepared you for teaching i n a p r i s o n ? Weak self-awareness Weak sense of mission Weak c a p a c i t y f or goal s e t t i n g ( l a c k of focus) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Strong self-awareness Strong sense of mission * Strong c a p a c i t y for goal s e t t i n g (focus) * Question #4: Describe present time. Impatlent I n f l e x i b l e Poor understanding of disadvantaged students Low g e s t a l t Negative expectations Uninterested i n growth of students L i t t l e or no empathy L i t t l e or no rapport d r i v e f i v e students who are e n r o l l e d i n your c l a s s at the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N Pa t i e n t F l e x i b l e Good understanding of disadvantaged students High g e s t a l t * P o s i t i v e expectations Desires to help students grow Possesses empathy * Strong rapport d r i v e * Questions #5: What do you l i k e about teaching i n an adult b a s i c education program ? 156 Question # 8: What do you d i s l i k e about teaching i n a p r i s o n adult b a s i c education program ? Low investment Feels i n e f f e c t i v e L i t t l e concern for jus t i ce Lacks a b i l i t y to get along with others 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N High investment * Sense of e f f i c a c y Concerned about s o c i a l j u s t i c e A b i l i t y to get along with others The d e f i n i t i o n s below are from Teacher Perceiver Academy S e l e c t i o n Research I n s i t i t u t e , L i n c o l n , Nebraska (as c i t e d i n M i l l e r , 1987a, p. 169): "Mission - the b e l i e f that students can l e a r n and want to l e a r n , and that teachers can make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the development of other people. "Empathy - a s p e c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y to the f e e l i n g s and st a t e s of mind of others. "Rapport d r i v e - a d r i v e toward r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l d i n g . "Investment - a great sense of reward and reinforcement experienced by the teacher from the response of students. "Gestalt - possession of a unique blend of s t r u c t u r e and f l e x i b i l i t y , viewing o r g a n i z a t i o n as a way to f a c i l i t a t e the l e a r n i n g process. "Focus - possession of goals and a planned d i r e c t i o n for l i f e . A p p e n d i x I INFORMED CONSENT FORM 158 I a g r e e t o be i n t e r v i e w e d by Heather S t e w a r t , p o s t - g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , or her d e s i g n a t e T h i s i n t e r v i e w i s p a r t o f Heather S t e w a r t ' s r e s e a r c h t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n Canadian p r i s o n a d u l t b a s i c • d u c a t i on. on I r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l of t h e i n t e r v i e w , and o f t h e Q_?!!32911§Ebi!__P§i§_Qy§§_;i2DQ§i]lg connected w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w , i s c o n f i d e n t i a l , and t h a t I can withdraw from t h e r e s e a r c h at any t i m e _IIdgyT_PREJUDICE_ SIGNATURE DATE I have r e c e i v e d a copy o f t h i s INFORMED CONSENT FORM YES NO I have r e c e i v e d a copy o f t h e c o v e r i n g page t o "An E v a l u a t i o n Form To Rate Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n Canadian P r i s o n A d u l t B a s i c Educat11 on". YES NO 159 Appendix J Paraphrased Responses to the CTIS: High Group/Low Group A (1) Why d i d you chose teaching as a career? Z: I get energy from watching people l e a r n ; you l e a r n what you teach. Y: Contact with a person who was working with L.D. c h i l d r e n i n a camp moved my goal from medicine to teaching. I saw a woman doing great things with these students. X: To help students and get personal s a t i s f a c t i o n . W: Found i t s u i t e d me when I had taught i n f o r m a l l y i n other occupations; l i k e d l t ; decided to pursue i t academically. V: a v a i l a b i l i t y , a c c e s s i b i l i t y of teaching T: I do i t n a t u r a l l y ; I enjoy i t . S: Thought I could help people l e a r n ; l i k e to work with people. R: Gives me contact with people; v a r i e t y ; escape from boredom. Q: to work with people; to i n f l u e n c e people i n a d i r e c t way; new challenge; had r o l e models of teachers. P: admired teachers from the age of e i g h t ; [layed school w i t h my brother who was a slow l e a r n e r ; the occupation s u i t e d me as a mother so I could spend h o l i d a y s , e t c . , with my c h i l d r e n . A (2) What are the most important c o n t r i b u t i o n s that you as an i n d i v i d u a l can make to i n c a r c e r a t e d students? Z: Help with self-esteem; change negative to p o o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t s . Y: Self-esteem r a i s e d by me; p r o v i d i n g d i f f e r e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s to former l i f e . X: to move them thru something academically, which y i e l d s the by-products of self-esteem; a l s o time i s e a s i e r to do with education. W: to help them become aware of the need to continue i n education as a l i f e l o n g process; to see a need for i t beyond the classroom. V: 1. to give the opportunity for a r e l a t i o n s h i p that i s non-c o r r e c t i o n a l 2. to provide non-sexual female r e l a t i o n s h i p s T: Show them ways to use t h e i r time while i n c a r c e r a t e d ; resources i n the community are modelled by me. S: to help them l e a r n s k i l l s for the s t r e e t ; to help them gain s e l f -respect and a b e l i e f i n being able to succeed i n another way(than i n crime). 160 R: Brighten people's days; give sense of achievement to them. Q: Give students hope for the future and l i f e beyond p r i s o n s , give new chance at l i f e - h o p e - s o they won't come back. P: to show them my honest approach to l i f e ; to t r e a t them as a whole person, l i k e a non-prisoner; show them honesty, t r u s t ; give them confidence B ( l ) Describe the greatest personal reward that you rece i v e from working with i n c a r c e r a t e d students. Z: Watching someone grow i n a personal way. Y: Watching someone achieve something - l i k e seeing a woman read her c h i l d ' s l e t t e r to her for the f i r s t time. X: g e t t i n g the sense that you'vee created something f o r r someone- a quick f l a s h about the l e a r n i n g on both s i d e s . W: to have a sttudent say i helped him; on-going i n s i g h t of hel p i n g someone get from one point to another-academlcally or otherwise. V: to see students accomplish something; T: I watch t h e i r eyes l i g h t up when they l e a r n something. S: to f e e l I've spent time with someone In a p o s i t i v e way; to see a non-beligerent man become accepting of hi m s e l f . R: Sense of r e l a t i o n s h i p ; see them as people as to be seen as people. Q: When I see t h e i r a t t i t u d e change; they have a new openness, a new hope; I can be t h e i r f r i e n d . A mission. P: seeing someone change from angry to being p o s i t i v e about h i m s e l f . B(2) What techniques do you use to maintain your personal e q u i l i b r i u m and balance while coping with the s t r e s s encountered i n c o r r e c t i o n a l work? Z: Have a good support network; t a l k about them; sense of humor-look i n g at the funny side of things i n there. Y: sense of humor; don't take myself too s e r i o u s l y . X: sense of humor to distance myself; keep the b e l i e f that the good I do outweighs the bad of the i n s t i t u t i o n ; keep busy outside; take v a c a t i o n s . W: on-going sense of humor; use group dynamics to improve classroom I n t e r a c t i o n and r e l i e v e classroom s t r e s s . have mutual respect i n the classroom; I have an a b i l i t y to s i z e up a s i t u a t i o n i n a short time. V: Have outside i n t e r e s t s ; leave i t behind. 161 T: A sense of humor; I'm easy going; good d i e t ; enough r e s t . S: f r i e n d ; reading; concerts; movies. R: I do take p r i s o n home; I t a l k to people to whom I f e e l c l o s e to; I t r y to t h i n k of the funny things that happen. Q: Humor l n the classroom; Outside i n t e r e s t s : people; reading; P: r e l a x i n g more; changing own image; backing o f f ; j o k i n g ; l o s i n g weight. C ( l ) What techniques would you use to develop a classroom c l i m a t e which would enhance l e a r n i n g and promote p o s i t i v e group i n t e r a c t i o n ? Z: Use i n d i v i d u a l i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n and group a c t i v i t i e s by focussing on an issue common to everyone. Y: Use independent l e a r n i n g as a base; have a one-to-one s e s s i o n with them; assess i n d i v i d u a l needs; then draw i n p r i s o n - r e l a t e d Issues. X: 1. have high and c l e a r expectations; 2. Incorporate group a c t i v i t i e s as part of the curriculum; 3. don't separate each of these out; but don't push group s t u f f at f i r s t . W: use various relevant m a t e r i a l s ; draw on immediatee environment; e.g. reading m a t e r i a l ; group d i s c u s s i o n s ; games; l i f e s k i l l s - t y p e a c t i v i t i e s . V: I n d i v i d u a l programs; word, e t c . games; discus s on f i l m s . T: use videos to f i n d common i n t e r e s t , spark spontaneous d i s c u s s i o n . S: d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s ; f i n d areas In common; use drama; f i n d out personal i n t e r e s t s . R: Some people can never be included; Games, word games are p o s s i b l e i f people l i k e each other. Q: Meet each on i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s ; show importance to each of what they are doing - to bet t e r themselves, personal discussion-backgrounds-family-why they are here - i f they t e l l me; Gain t h e i r confidence; Relate l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l to t h e i r past work experience; This may lead to t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g - to relevancy of what they are doing i n c l a s s . Group i n t e r a c t i o n u s u a l l y spontaneous; d i s c u s s i o n s develop a closeness, a bond. P: give each student h i s own "space" i n classroom; p i c t u r e s ; w a l l d i s p l a y s ; teachable moments(onlyO for d i s c u s s i o n s ; then, turn these i n t o a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . 162 C(2) How would you organize the i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs for these students? (Use the subject area of your e x p e r t i s e . ) Z: 1. Find two or three students with a common d e f i c i e n c y for small group work or large group work. 2. Spend time with each student i n d i v i d u a l l y on a regular b a s i s . Y: Group i n c i r c l e with me included; move teacher focus around; p a i r s work; group p r o j e c t s ; games; discuss m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g i e s ; us f i l m s to disc u s s i s s u e s . X: Make c l e a r at the f i r s t that the course has an o r a l component; 2. do other work on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . W: assessment f i r s t ; f i n d appropriate text for i n d i v i d u a l ; use peer teaching; f i n d areas for remediation. V: i n d i v i d u a l programs and unrelated group games. T: work on personal agendas - d a i l y - choose subject areas; do group things l a t e r . S: f i n d I n d i v i d u a l areas for improvement; do group p r o j e c t s : newsletter; w r i t i n g for p r i s o n j o u r n a l ; l e t t e r s ; s t o r y w r i t i n g and reading to each other. R: i f we forego c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s (that are b o r i n g ) ; l o t can be done to incorporate c u l t u r a l n e e d s / i n t e r e s t s . Q: use l e a r n i n g s t a t i o n s ; assess; i n d i v i d u a l i z e programs a f t e r i n d i v i d u a l conversations. Place at l e v e l s . D i f f i c u l t to do group work i n academic areas. Current events may work. P: have s p e c i f i c "quiet times" for study. then i work with them i n d i v i d u a l l y ; I do most of the marking; they i n i t i a t e peer t u t o r i n g . C(3) What are the two most important goals the students described above should achieve by the end of your f i r s t term as t h e i r teacher? Z: 1. a f e e l i n g of comfort i n the classroom 2. f e e l i n g s of t r u s t : student to student; student to teacher. Y: 1. beginning to f e e l good about themselves; 2. f e e l that they've learned something. 3. Have Interacted with people on a p o s i t i v e basis X: 1. to have achieved a sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n from the program-enjoyed i t - f o u n d i t worthwhile; 2. has achieved something academically; 3.has p a r t i c i p a t e d ingroup work according to h i s a b i l i t i e s . W: 1. have become s e l f - d i r e c t e d ; 2. have progressed i n s k i l l l e v e l s 3. have acquired and recognized t h e i r new s k i l l s - study and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . V: 1. to r e a l i z e that they can do work. 2. have a f e e l i n g of success 163 T: 1. comfort i n l e a r n i n g environment — wi t h students and teacher; 2. i n t e r a c t i o n between students; 3. personal or content gains S: 1. to r e a l i z e they are group members; 2. that they respect others and themselves; 3. to express themselves l n an acceptable way. R: 1. Self-worth; 2. sense of achievement. Q: 1. complete a c e r t a i n s e c t i o n of work; but more important i s to have a new look at themselves.; 2. have learned to cooperate, l i s t e n , accept advice from each other; each one teach one. P: 1. have e s t a b l i s h e d a need for education i n t h e i r l i v e s ; 2. have been p u t t i n g f o r t h a good e f f o r r t - productive; 3. they are s e l f - m o t i v a t e d . E x p l a i n why the achievement of these goals Is important. Z: no answer. Y: The l a t t e r Is most Important; a c h i e v i n g an amount academically i s secondary. Their improved sense of w e l l being- t h e i r reason for being-can be the key out of here. This may cut down on r e c i d i v i s m , X: goals are important because commitment to the program Is Important for t h e i r completing of i t . The t h i r d goal shows that education should address communication s k i l l s - they are needed as w e l l as academic s k i l l s , W: These goals are Important for l i v i n g . V: Achievement of goals enforces one's self-image so that there i s movement on to the next step. T: Time w i l l be eased by these goals; a l l people need goals; need p o i n t i n g out by others. S: Goals are important i n s i d e and outside the i n s t i t u t i o n . R: Goals important because l t gives them hope for the f u t u r e - new p e r s p e c t i v e . Q: Goals important because they create harmony i n the classroom. P: They haven't taken r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for themselves before; these s k i l l s may t r a n s f e r to other parts of t h e i r l i v e s . LEGEND: HIGHLY EFFECTIVE TEACHERS-V. W, X, Y, Z. LOW IN EFFECTIVENESS TEACHERS- P, Q, R, S, T. 

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