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Wealth and power in Yayoi Period Northern Kyushu Stark, Ken 1989

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WEALTH AND POWER IN YAYOI PERIOD NORTHERN KYUSHU by KEN STARK A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Anthropology) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 18 July 1989 © Ken Stark, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date Au*jJ*i-£J1<Uft DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT This thesis is concerned with the analysis of grave goods, from Yayoi period cemetery sites in northern Kyushu, to test for the presence of status rivalry and competition between leaders of different . communities. The study consists of a test of two major hypotheses that were derived from a model that links economic and political success of chiefs with wealth display and the mortuary ritual. Hypothesis 1 stated that status rivalry was present in the development of social ranking within communities in northern Kyushu. The key pattern in this case is that change in political authority is indicated by change in patterns of wealth distribution and display. Since there was a trend toward a lack of change in the number of separate wealth rank levels among burials, meaning a lack of change in patterns of wealth distribution, the analysis results disproved Hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 2 stated that status rivalry and competition ensured short-term political success and fluctuations in patterns of wealth distribution between sites in a regional exchange hierarchy. As a result, major structural changes occurred in the organization of the existing wealth exchange network. Since the analysis revealed that regions with the most developed hierarchy experienced the greatest upheaval and change in organizational structure, Hypothesis 2 was not disproven. Overall, the results show that structural change in wealth exchange systems occurred on a regional scale more than change in internal rank ordering and wealth control within sites. If wealth possession was an indicator of power, political control in Yayoi period northern Kyushu was of a very precarious nature. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter II. THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU 10 1. Northern Kyushu: The Environment 10 2. The Archaeology of Yayoi Period Japan 14 Chapter III. STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER 31 1. Political Control in Complex Societies 32 2. The Base of Political Power in Ranked Societies 33 3. The Display of Chiefly Power 36 4. Wealth Display and the Mortuary Ritual 37 5. Elite Interaction and the Display of Power 40 6. Prestige Good Systems and Social Evolution 43 7. A Model of Status Rivalry and Change in Regional Power Structure 51 8. Major Hypotheses to be Tested 57 Chapter IV. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY 59 1. Introduction 59 2. Analysis of Intra-Site Ranking 59 3. Results of Test For Intra-Site Ranking 81 4. Conclusions 85 5. Analysis of Change in Regional Wealth Hierarchies 90 6. Wealth Hierarchy During the Early Yayoi Phase 97 7. Wealth Hierarchy During the Middle Yayoi Phase 101 8. Wealth Hierarchy During the Late Yayoi Phase 104 9. Change in Regional Wealth Hierarchy 108 10. Analysis Results I l l 11. Conclusions 115 Chapter V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 120 REFERENCES CITED 129 iii L i s t of Tables Table 1. Summary of Percentage Values for Burials with 66 Grave Goods out of Total Sample f o r Sites used i n Analysis of Intra-Site Ranking. Table 2. Kanenokuma Site Grave Good Tabulations. 69 Table 3« Yoshitake Oishi Site Grave Good Tabulations. 71 Table 4. Yoshitake Takaki Site Grave Good Tabulations. 72 Table 5. Toshitake Hiwatashi Site Grave Good 74-Tabulations. Table 6. Tate'iwa Site Grave Good Tabulations. 76 Table 7. Mikumo Site Grave Good ^ Tabulations. • 79 Table 8. Suku Okamoto (Sugu Yamanokuchi) Site Grave 80 Good Tabulations. Table 9- Summary of Test Results f o r the Degree of 82 Ranking at the Intra-Site Level Within Seven Yayoi Period Cemetery S i t e s . Table 10. Summary Table of Bronze Index of Accumulation 98 Values f o r each of the Five Regional Samples During the Early Yayoi Period. Table 11. Summary Table of Bronze Index of Accumulation 102 Values f o r each of the Five Regional Samples During the Middle Yayoi Period. Table 12. Summary Table of Bronze Index of Accumulation 105 Values f o r each of the Five Regional Samples During the Late Yayoi period. Table 13- Number of Sites Possessing Each Wealth Rank 109 Type f o r Five Regional Samples During the Yayoi Period. Table 14-. Summary of Test Results f o r Inter-Site - 112 Ranking Within the Five Regional Samples During ?• the Yayoi period i n Northern Kyushu. i v L i s t of Figures Figure 1. The Location of Northern Kyushu Within Japan. ' 3 Figure 2. Hap of Basic Physiographic Features i n 11 Northern Kyushu. Figure 3. The Fukuoka P l a i n i n Northern Kyushu. 12 Figure 4-. Diagram of a Model of Status Rivalry and 52 Change i n Regional Power Structure. Figure 5. Locationssof the seven Sites used i n Analysis. 67 of Intra-Site Ranking. Figure 6. The Five River Drainage Basins i n Northern 92 Kyushu. Figure 7» Map Showing the Locations of Sites Containing 99 Wealth Ranks 1, 2 and 3 During the Early Yayoi Period. Figure 8. Map Showing the Locations of Sites Containing 103 Wealth Ranks 1, 2 and 3 During the Middle Yayoi Period. Figure 9. Map Showing the Locations of Sites Containing 106 Wealth Ranks 1, 2 and 3 During the Late Yayoi Period. Figure 10. Diagram Showing Change i n Regional Wealth 110 Hierarchy Structure Between the Five Regions i n Northern Kyushu. V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My greatest thanks go to Professor Richard Pearson, my thesis advisor, who suggested the topic of my thesis after initially sparking my interest in Japanese archaeology at the undergraduate level. Dr. Pearson was a constant source of information and support throughout the initial designing, writing and production of the thesis. I am most grateful to Dr. Pearson for his many contributions to my development as an undergraduate and graduate student in archaeology and as a person. The other members of my committee also played major roles in the completion of the thesis. Dr. Michael Blake was a constant source of new and interesting theoretical insights on the subject of complex societies and cultural evolution through graduate seminars and discussions. Dr. Blake was also kind enough to assist me in determining the appropriate methods of visual display for the data presented in this thesis. Dr. David Pokotylo was a constant source of support and was instrumental in assisting me in selecting the appropriate methods of analysis to use. This was a long and complicated task and Dr. Pokotylo's many valuable insights and suggestions were very much appreciated. This project was also initiated through the interest I developed during a two month stay in Japan during the summer of 1987. After Professor Pearson arranged for the trip, I was taken care of by many people in Tokyo, Fukuoka and Ogori City that all contributed to making my stay in Japan a very pleasant and rewarding experience. In particular, Professor Kobayashi Tatsuo of Kokugakuin University and Professor Nishitani Tadashi were very generous and helpful in taking me to see many archaeological sites and museums. I deeply appreciate the hospitality and assistance provided by the the archaeologists and staff at the Ogori City Center for Buried Cultural Relics. In particular, Mr. Kataoka Koji was very gracious in sponsoring me while I excavated in Ogori for several weeks. I also greatly appreciate the assistance of Dr. Brian Chisholm who met me at Narita Airport in Tokyo and helped me get over the initial shock that lasted for the first few days. Special thanks go to Kazue Pearson for translating all 244 Japanese site names in the data set used in this thesis. Without her kind assistance, I would probably still be translating today! A large number of the tables presented in this thesis were done by Andrew Mason. Without his assistance the thesis production work, especially in Chapter 4, would have been extremely difficult and time consuming. Many friends and colleagues provided support throughout the writing of this thesis, for which I am very grateful. I deeply appreciate all the help and v i support I have received from my mom, dad and brother over the past five years while I have been at U B C . Together, they housed me, fed me, drove me, put up with my bizarre schedules and basically kept me alive so I could come out on campus to work another day. They deserve just as much credit as I do for the completion of this thesis. v i i CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION This thesis is concerned with political power and the material rewards that come to those who possess it. In particular, this study looks at the role of competition or status rivalry between chiefs in the development of complex society in prehistoric Japan during the Yayoi period. I have developed this topic through research on Yayoi period archaeology and fieldwork in the Fukuoka Plain of northern Kyushu in Japan. Through research work on the Jomon and Yayoi cultures of ancient Japan, I became aware of the vast number of works that dealt with prehistoric subsistence and paleoenvironmental reconstruction in the Japanese archipelago. In particular, the number of articles documenting the beginnings of wet rice agriculture in the Yayoi period is staggering. Many articles on Yayoi period food production explain the introduction of rice agriculture in terms of the diffusion of an entire subsistence complex that originated in the Yangtze River Valley of China through the Korean peninsula to the island of Kyushu in southwestern Japan. Once in Kyushu, change in the development of the complex is explained in terms of further diffusion northward through the Japanese archipelago. In most articles internal development within the island of northern Kyushu is overlooked with the exception of palynological studies which document the destruction of the dense Laurilignosa forest in this area. Due to this particular focus, research on political or social change within this region is rare. The exceptions to this pattern are the works of Pearson (1976) and Barnes (1986; 1 INTRODUCTION / 2 1988). Pearson presents various classes of data which document the existence of multiple levels of interaction between China, Japan and Korea during the Jomon and Yayoi periods (Pearson 1976:185). Pearson states that it is useful to view the Yellow Sea region between these countries as an interaction sphere at this time (Pearson 1976:184). Barnes looks at the interaction of peer polities between continental elites of East Asia and elites within the Kinai region of southwestern Japan that participated in the exchange of prestige goods. This exchange network symbolized the existence of a homogeneous elite culture within this area (Barnes 1986:91). This thesis, which is concerned with political development on the island of Kyushu, shown in Figure 1, the result of an interest in explaining social change in prehistoric Japan and a need to complement other research that has dealt with this problem. Another feature that has led to this particular topic is an interest in the ceramic jar burials and the bronze objects found within them. Apart from their interesting appearance, looking like cracked egg shells, jar burials were located only within this small region of the entire Japanese archipelago. The obvious question that I considered was why? This interest in the Yayoi period jar burials of northern Kyushu led to a perusal of the archaeological literature on mortuary analysis. In reading the works of processual archaeologists, who related mortuary patterning to levels of social organization, and the symbolic archaeologists, who were concerned with specific cultural attitudes towards death, I became interested in the relationship between change in mortuary patterning and changes within society at large. INTRODUCTION / 3 INTRODUCTION / 4 Some researchers argue that such a link exists to the point that changes in the social order are indicated through changing patterns in the mortuary ritual and its material offerings. Others argue that there may be a link, but it is difficult to decode the nature of this relationship without first hand observation of the behavior involved. With thoughts of burials and social change floating around my head, I was able to see, first hand, the particular area I was interested in through two months of excavation and assorted festivities in the Fukuoka area of northern Kyushu in Japan. While working under the supervision of the Kyushu University Department of Archaeology and the Ogori City Board of Education, Center of Buried Cultural Relics, I became more familiar with the environmental context, artifact assemblages and the internal structure of Yayoi period, village and cemetery sites in the area. I also benefited greatly from discussions with the Ogori City archaeologists and students and professors in the Archaeology Department of Kyushu University. Due to the rapid pace of development, the major concern of local archaeologists is the excavation, conservation and protection of buried cultural relics. Still, when not trying to stay one step ahead of a back-hoe, the archaeologists and students were very receptive to discussions of a more theoretical nature. Topics of discussion around the dinner table ranged from the effects of interaction and assimilation between prehistoric Japan and Korea, symbolism in Jomon and Bell Beaker pottery to Marxist approaches in archaeology. Population pressure, competition and warfare are all thought to have been key processes in INTRODUCTION / 5 the development of Yayoi society in northern Kyushu, by local archaeologists. Unfortunately, there is no time or space in the excavation reports published by the Board of Education to dwell on these topics. I was impressed by the amount of data, as yet unpublished, present in sites throughout northern Kyushu, that support the notion of competition and warfare in the Yayoi period. I was taken to several sites that contained huge cemeteries, sometimes containing up to 1,000 jar burials, within large circular ditches. I was also shown several excavation photographs of decapitated individuals that were unearthed in these cemeteries. Researchers thought that warfare was the only explanation for this method of interment to have occurred on such a wide scale. My experiences in Japan sparked an interest in the role of competition and warfare in social change which was nurtured through further research and discussion with the members of my thesis committee. The data base for this thesis was also provided by my colleagues in Japan. After meeting with the archaeologists at the Fukuoka City Center for Buried Cultural Relics, I was graciously offered two shopping carts full of excavation reports that had been printed within the past five years. The spectacle created by a foreigner, together with two very helpful and understanding students from Kyushu University, wheeling two shopping carts full of excavation reports down the streets of Fukuoka City to the post office was large, to say the least! Included within this large collection of reports was a volume on the INTRODUCTION / 6 archaeology and nature of Yayoi period society in the Sawara District of Fukuoka, which is an area located southwest of the city center. This volume contained a summary table of cemetery sites in northern Kyushu that contained burials with grave goods. The burials and associated grave goods were tabulated in the appendix of this volume. The information provided in this table is the primary data base on which the analysis in this thesis takes place. Through consultation with Professor Richard Pearson, my thesis advisor, it was decided that the data in this volume would be appropriate for a study of social complexity in Yayoi period Japan. The thesis topic represents the culmination of several activities that I have experienced over the past few years. The work represents not only a piece of research, but also a barometer of my development as an archaeology student over the past three years. In this thesis, I provide further information on the material discussed in the works mentioned previously using mortuary data from 244 cemeteries in northern Kyushu that date from the Early to Late Yayoi Phases. The model that provides the framework for the analysis has been developed from a theoretical perspective that places emphasis on political motives leading to the development of complex society. There are two major goals for this particular thesis. First, I wish to make a contribution to the work of archaeologists, both Japanese and foreign, who do research on the Yayoi period in northern Kyushu. As I mentioned earlier, most work in this area deals with rice agriculture, cultural diffusion from the Asian continent and paleoenvironmental degradation. By looking at internal INTRODUCTION / 7 political development within northern Kyushu during the Yayoi period, I hope to complement the work of previous archaeologists and stress the need for further research of this nature. I also wish to make a theoretical contribution to archaeological studies that look at status rivalry, wealth control and socio-political change. From the model I have developed, I have presented some expected patterns to look for in mortuary data from the archaeological record and ways to document and explain changes in these patterns within the context of status rivalry. I also stress the need for a diachronic approach to the analysis of mortuary data. Instead of searching for a particular social organization and its various stages, it is important to begin looking at the internal dynamics involved between these stages and how mortuary data can help us achieve this goal. The framework of the present thesis is as follows. A discussion of the culture history of northern Kyushu during the Japanese Yayoi period is presented in Chapter 2. The first section contains a discussion of the rice agricultural complex that was introduced to northern Kyushu at the beginning of the Early Yayoi Phase. Evidence for population growth in northern Kyushu from the Early to Late Yayoi Phases is presented in the next section. This is followed by a discussion of evidence for social ranking and craft specialization in Yayoi society. The next section deals with the development of competition and conflict during the Middle and Late Yayoi Phases. Finally, Chapter 2 concludes with a discussion of interaction between the Yayoi peoples of northern Kyushu and continental cultures. The goal of this chapter is to provide background information INTRODUCTION / 8 on Yayoi society and the context within which the processes outlined in the model presented in Chapter 3 occurred. Chapter 3 provides the theoretical basis for the present research problem which is concerned with several topics. First, a brief discussion of the political model used for the explanation of social evolution is presented. This is followed by a discussion of status rivalry and the struggle for power. Status rivalry often leads to interaction between elites of distant societies, which is the next topic of discussion in Chapter 3. Several examples of elite interaction are presented that are based on both archaeological and ethnographic research. In the next section of Chapter 3, I discuss the internal dynamics involved in wealth exchange, or prestige good, systems and their evolutionary potential. In the following section, I present a model of status rivalry and change in community power structure. This involves a presentation of two hypotheses and a description of how I plan to operationalize the theoretical components of Chapter 3 with the analysis of the data in Chapter 4. In Chapter 4, the hypotheses and model are tested against burial data from northern Kyushu. The chapter begins with a discussion of the data used in this thesis in terms of major artifact classes and the regional sample boundaries used. This is followed by the analysis of ranking at the intra-site level using burial data from seven cemetery sites. The methodology consists of grouping burials into separate classes, based on the amount of wealth present, in each cemetery. The goal of this particular study is to establish a wealth rank scale INTRODUCTION / 9 of burials based on the amount of wealth present to test for social ranking. The second part of the test is an analysis of inter-site ranking using data from 244 cemetery sites in northern Kyushu. The goal of this analysis is to establish a rank ordering of sites, based on the concentration of wealth present, to establish a possible site hierarchy within the northern Kyushu area. The next section of Chapter 4 contains an analysis of change in the wealth exchange network hierarchy. By plotting the time trajectory lines, for each region, which shows the number of wealth ranks, or exchange levels, present, I show how the hierarchical structure of the regional wealth exchange network changes through time in northern Kyushu. Chapter 5 consists of a summary of the work carried out in the 3 previous chapters. This includes an evaluation of the hypothesis test results, a conclusion of the test results and a discussion of their implications for the explanation of cultural evolution within northern Kyushu during the Yayoi period. This is followed by a discussion of the possibilities for future research, using this particular line of inquiry, into studies of this nature on prehistoric Japan. C H A P T E R II. THE YA Y O I PERIOD IN NORTHERN K Y U S H U In this chapter, I describe some of the major features of Yayoi period society in northern Kyushu. The chapter begins with a brief discussion of the local environment, followed by a section on Yayoi period food production in the area. This is followed by a discussion of evidence for population growth, social ranking and specialization. The chapter ends with a discussion of competition, warfare and interaction with the Asian continent. 1. Northern Kyushu: The Environment The island of Kyushu, like most of Japan, consists of rugged, high mountains with few sizable plains. Northern Kyushu, which is the least mountainous portion of the island, contains the Tsukushi mountain range which is disconnected and low with a complex series of faults (Noh and Kimura 1983:30). This and the other basic physiographic features of northern Kyushu are shown in Figure 2. This mountain system extends west to the Hizen Peninsula and to the Amakusa and Goto Islands (Noh and Kimura 1983:30). The remainder of northern Kyushu is covered by a series of numerous, small alluvial plains that are well developed with thick deposits, located between the Sea of Genkai and the Onga River basin to the east (Minato 1977:48; Noh and Kimura 1983:31). Two of these smaller northern plains are the Fukuoka Plain and Sawara Plain located south of Hakata Bay. The larger Tsukushi Plain to the south is bordered by Ariake Bay to the west. This low flat delta is composed of deltaic material 10 THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 11 from the Chikugo River which empties into Ariake Bay. F i g u r e 2 . Map of B a s i c P h y s i o g r a p h i c F e a t u r e s of N o r t h e r n Kyushu. THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 12 Figure 3. The Fukuoka P l a i n Region of Northern Kyushu. THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 13 These plains are the product of rivers created by the heavy rains that fall on the Kyushu mountains to the south. The northern Kyushu coast, which borders Iki Strait and the Genkai Sea to the north, consists of sandy deposits. In areas where low coast faces open sea, dune and beach ridges are common. These coastal features obstruct the natural seaward movement of drainage waters, which leads to the development of marsh and swamp land (Trewartha 1960:20). This geomorphic characteristic of northern Kyushu may have had some effect on the movement and settlement of early rice growers in prehistoric Japan, who searched for wet lands suitable for growing rice, before the use of irrigation systems. With natural swampy lands being utilized for the earliest rice cultivation, little energy expenditure would have been required for initial land clearance (Hitchins 1976:146). As a result, intensive fallow techniques would not have been necessary at this early stage of development in the rice agricutural complex of northern Kyushu. The northwest and western boundaries of northern Kyushu consist of a coast characterized by indented bays, sea cliffs and tiny islands resistant to erosion made up of hard crystalline schists and older sedimentary structures that have been greatly folded (Minato 1977:65; Hall and Beardsley 1965:15). This portion of northern Kyushu consists of few low plain areas compared to northern Kyushu's central and eastern regions. Northern Kyushu is situated in the warm temperate broad-leafed evergreen forest zone, like the southern tip of Korea, the Ryukyu Islands and central THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 14 China. This zone contains bamboos, oaks, camellias, tea, chestnuts and many other edible and useful plant resources (Pearson 1976:176). Northern Kyushu forests underwent transformation as early as the Late Jomon period while even more drastic changes occurred during the Middle Yayoi period. Pollen records show that the ratio of pine to evergreen trees increased rapidly during this stage indicating that the Yayoi peoples of northern Kyushu cleared land for rice cultivation (Kanaseki and Sahara 1976:19; Tsukada 1986:50). This particular topic will be discussed at greater length in the following section of this chapter which looks at the archaeological record of northern Kyushu during the Yayoi period. 2. The Archaeology of Yayoi Period Japan The Yayoi period (300 B.C.-300 A.D.) represents a key era in the development of Japanese society. It is characterized by agricultural intensification, the development of ranked society, rapid population growth, intercommunity conflict and increased interaction with the Asian mainland. Each of these processes was linked to the growth of social complexity in Yayoi society. The beginning of the Yayoi period is marked by the introduction of wet rice agriculture. Some researchers have argued that the Yayoi rice agricultural complex spread originally from the Yangtze River region of central China (Akazawa 1982; Aikens and Higuchi 1982). Others agree that rice cultivation spread from China, but this spread could have occurred over more than one route (Kim 1982:516; Choe 1982:520). It is possible that rice was brought into THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 15 southwestern Korea across the Yellow Sea, either directly from the Yangzte River area or from the Shantung and Liaotung Peninsulas further north. Evidence for the early proliferation of the rice agricultural complex has been found in Early Yayoi Phase sites in northern Kyushu, such as Itazuke, located in the city of Fukuoka by Hakata Harbour (Aikens and Higuchi 1982:200). Features such as ditches, charred rice grains and ground-stone semi-lunar reaping knives reminiscent of those found in early rice growing regions in southern Korea make up the Itazuke assemblage. Itazuke remains the type site for all rice agricultural villages of the Early Yayoi Phase in northern Kyushu. One of the key artifact types involved in the diffusion of the rice agricultural complex from China through Korea to Japan was the ground stone knife. There were four basic types of stone knives found in Bronze Age and Neolithic sites of coastal East Asia and Japan: (1) rectangular polished, (2) straight edge with convex back, (3) convex edge with convex back, (4) convex edge with straight back (Choe 1982:523; Kim 1982:515). Type 1, which represents the oldest form, originated in the Yangshao Culture of northern China and was subsequently introduced to the Yangtze River area of central China (Choe 1982:523). Type 4, convex edge with straight back, is the typical semi-lunar knife which is regarded as a rice harvesting tool. This type was concentrated mainly in the Yangtze River area, the western part of North Korea, South Korea and the northern Kyushu region of Japan (Choe 1982:523). This is the only one of the four types that is commonly found in northern Kyushu THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 16 Yayoi period assemblages. The tool is made from a smooth, flat stone by striking off a number of flakes from both sides, followed by trimming and shaping the edge, and finished by grinding all surfaces (Choe 1982:521). Most knives show wear patterns around holes, usually two, located near the straight back. Fiber string was possibly attached to the holes in order to hold the tools with fingers or handles (Choe 1982:521). These particular tools are significant since their appearance in China, Korea and Japan seems to correlate with the spread of the rice agricultural complex which entered northern Kyushu and developed into one of main modes of subsistence in this area by the beginning of the Early Yayoi Phase. Rice agriculture was one of the methods of food production at this time. Still, it made up only a small portion of the Early Yayoi peoples' diet. Excavation reports from Early Yayoi sites, such as Itazuke, indicate that shells from Corbicula japonica, oysters and Japanese carpet shells have been found. Remains of wild boar, deer and fish also provide evidence that the inhabitants of the Itazuke site ate more than rice (Hitchins 1976:145). Pollen profiles indicate that rice yields from Itazuke, and many other Early Yayoi sites, were low. To offset these low rice yields, Yayoi settlements in the Early Phase maintained a diversified subsistence base (Hitchins 1976:145). While the rice complex was still in its early stages of development in northern Kyushu, other subsistence practices were used in conjunction with rice agriculture. THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 17 There is good evidence to suggest that rice agriculture was introduced to Japan from the Asian mainland; however, it is important to remember that reliance on lines of diffusion to explain similar patterns of development between regions often obscures significant local developments within each area. Nelson states that using such an argument to explain similar patterns of development between regions is insufficient to explain how past human systems operated at this time (Nelson 1982:531). Nelson's comments follow the same argument provided earlier by Pearson and Pearson who state that paddy rice cultivation of the Yayoi period represents an intensive technique that could not "diffuse" from the continent without requisite population density, social organization and integration and prior agricultural knowledge (Pearson and Pearson 1978:23). I would also add that it is important to avoid discussion of the rice agricultural complex as the "key" feature of Yayoi period Japan. Agricultural intensification-was linked to several other processes, mentioned above, that all contributed to the development of Yayoi society. Agricultural intensification is tied in with several indicators of rapid population growth in southwestern Japan during the Middle Yayoi Phase. In the Early Yayoi Phase, site densities in northern Kyushu were roughly the same as the earlier Jomon period. At the beginning of the Middle Yayoi Phase, there was a rapid increase in the number of sites and in their areal distribution (Bleed 1972:12). These sites were still located in alluvial areas but were much larger than Early Yayoi and Jomon period sites in the same areas. Tsukada (1986:50) uses pollen profiles and archaeological evidence from THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 18 several areas in northern Kyushu to argue that the activities of Yayoi agriculturalists led to population increase with a subsequent shortage of land to accomodate this growth. As a result, Yayoi peoples migrated in search of wetlands for agricultural use. When swampland was unavailable, they cleared forests in dry lowlands to make paddy fields. When prime lands were overexploited, movement into marginal areas occurred. This pattern is confirmed in the archaeological record of Kyushu. In the Early Yayoi Phase, sites tended to cluster in lowland swampy areas containing alluvial deposits while many Middle and Late Yayoi village sites are found in drier upland areas away from the major floodplains. Population pressure provides one possible explanation for this change in regional settlement pattern. Yasuda states that pollen profiles from Late Jomon sites, located on alluvial plains in the Kyushu district, show high percentage values for Castanopsis and Cyclobalanopsis (evergreen oak-like trees) suggesting a dense forest cover at this time (Yasuda 1978:241). However, pollen profiles from sites such as Itazuke and Kashiwada, located in Fukuoka prefecture, show a substantial decrease in the amount of Castanopsis and Cyclobalanopsis with a sudden increase in Oryza, Pinus and Graminiae around 3,200 years B.P. (Yasuda 1978:242). Yasuda argues that pollen spectra from several sites such as these provide evidence for the destruction of the dense Laurilignosa forest in northern Kyushu at this time. Although Yasuda (1978) and Tsukada (1986:22) disagree on some of the THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 19 finer distinctions in the overall sequence, based on methodological differences, both would agree that extensive forest clearance began in northwestern Kyushu with the introduction of agriculture around 3,000 years B.P. This pattern shows that population pressure was becoming an important factor in Late Jomon society and became even more prevalent in the lives of the Yayoi peoples in northern Kyushu. Tsukada (1986:50) provides a population estimate of between one to two million people present during the Yayoi Period. It is very difficult to determine the accuracy of this estimate from the archaeological record of southwestern Japan. Still, the density of sites in this region is many times greater than for Jomon sites of the previous period, despite the fact that the Yayoi Period was much briefer (Aikens and Higuchi 1982:244). Different kinds of evidence point to a period of rapid population growth during the Yayoi Period. Evidence for social ranking and craft specialization is found in burial remains and material traces left from the production of durable goods. Ranking was poorly developed during the Early Yayoi Phase while the existence of elite burials throughout northern Kyushu, during the Middle Yayoi Phase suggests the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few individuals (Bleed 1972:7; Ikawa-Smith 1985:393). Bronze mirrors, jade and glass beads, carriage fixtures, iron swords and axes, all of Former and Later Han manufacture, plus Korean made bronze mirrors and weapons have been excavated in great numbers, as grave goods, in northern Kyushu (Sahara 1987:38). What is most important, is that these rich burials represent a very small proportion of the total cemetery THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 20 sample which was characterized mainly by individuals without grave goods. (Fukuoka Shiritsu Rekishi Shiryokan 1986:129-148). This pattern provides evidence for the existence of social ranking in which elites control the acquisition and distribution of wealth objects. The fact that most Yayoi period burials do not contain any wealth objects provides some insight into the limited access of these items that was given to the majority of the people in northern Kyushu. To acquire these luxury goods, one would have to exchange equally desirable goods in return. If this scheme did not work, one would have to provide support, through labor or other means, to an elite already possessing luxury goods and hope to receive one as a token of this relationship (See Chapter 3 Page 43). The homogeneous nature of these wealth assemblages and their sparse distribution in the archaeological record provides a picture in which the general population had limited access to these wealth networks, while a select few enjoyed the enviable position of being participants. Other evidence for status differences between Yayoi peoples comes from historical records compiled by foreign observers who travelled to Japan at this time. The Wei Chih, compiled in 297 A.D., contains records and occurences of the Wei Dynasty in northern China. This document contains a section which describes the foreign country of Wa (Japan). Located within this country, is the kingdom of Yamatai ruled by Queen Himiko (Ledyard 1983:305). It is said that Himiko maintained special relations with both gods and demons to legitimize her rule (Wheatley and See 1978:24). According to the Wei Chih, Wei Dynasty officials recognized Himiko as the legitimate ruler of Wa, and there was THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 21 considerable commerce between this country and the coastal towns of Korea and China (Ledyard 1983:305). This description of Wa and Yamatai also contains a reference to the level of social complexity attained by the people of this foreign land. There is much evidence which points to the existence of political and social stratification in Yayoi society. Passages in the chronicle refer to class distinctions, rulers, vassals, ambassadors, foreign missions, taxes and markets supervised by officials (Aikens and Higuchi 1982:247). Tattoo designs on the bodies of local inhabitants are said to differ from community to community and in accordance with social positions (Lu 1974:9). There are many problems in using data from the Wei Chih, and other historical chronicles, to explain the nature of Yayoi society in northern Kyushu. In spite of the useful description provided, it is very difficult to ascertain Yamatai's exact location in relation to China and Korea (Young 1958:38). Most scholars (Young 1958; Ledyard 1983) tend to place the location of Yamatai either in northern Kyushu or the Kinai region of central Honshu, but its exact location remains uncertain. Another problem stems from a lack of archaeological evidence for many of the elaborate descriptions of the material culture associated with the country of Yamatai. It is stated that Himiko had 1,000 women as attendants, resided in a palace surrounded by towers and stockades and ruled over a major political center of 70,000 households (Ledyard 1983:306). Most scholars emphasize the fact THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 22 that there has been no archaeological discovery of this magnitude from the Yayoi period of northern Kyushu. However, recent excavations of the Yoshinogari site located on the Saga Plain near the Seburi mountains in northern Kyushu may change this current view. The Yoshinogari site, which was occupied from the end of the Early to the Late Yayoi Phases, is a large hilltop community surrounded by two large moats (Takakura 1989). The inner moat, which runs 70 metres from east to west and 150 metres from north to south, has a V-shaped cross section and is 6.5 metres wide and more than three metres deep. The outer moat, which extends 900 metres from north to south, is filled with thousands of intact and fragmented pottery vessels (Takakura 1989). Inside the moat, more than 100 pit houses have been discovered along with over 2,300 burials. A large burial mound 40 metres in diameter has also been unearthed which contains a jar burial with one bronze sword and ten tubular shaped beads (Takakura 1989). Further excavation has revealed evidence that researchers think may suggest the erection of a watch tower during the Late Yayoi for defensive purposes. There is no conclusive evidence that the Yoshinogari site is Yamatai, however, its discovery does suggest the existence of a large major political centre located on the Saga Plain between the late part of the Early and Late Yayoi Phases. Evidence for specialization has been found in many forms in Yayoi period Japan. The production of many artifacts found in Yayoi sites would not have THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 23 been possible without some degree of craft specialization. Kidder argues that there was a tendency toward specialization in pottery making (Kidder 1977:49). In particular, the large double jars for burials in the Middle Yayoi were not the work of ordinary potters. Pottery was not the only artifact class that required skills beyond those of an ordinary laborer to make. The bronze and iron weapons and tools found in elite burials of northern Kyushu also provide good evidence for craft specialization in metallurgy. There are three major classes of bronze weapon found in grave assemblages throughout the Yayoi period; each has imported and native examples. The continental ones are distinguishable from local objects by size and the quality of the material. Bronze weapons from Japan were cast with less tin than those from the Asian mainland (Kidder 1959:110). The bronze sword of Yayoi Japan was double-edged with a slender blade and narrow handle with a shape resembling a lanceolate point (Kidder 1959:110; Robinson 1961:15). This object belonged to a very early age in the introduction of bronze into Japan between the first and second centuries B.C. (Kidder 1959:110). As with other bronze weapons, swords first appeared in their original narrow forms that they possessed in northeast Asia (Egami 1973:120). The form was gradually broadened and elongated to the extent that later examples were probably used as weapons of war and symbols for visual display. Halberds and tanged and socketed spears also follow this pattern. In its earlier continental form, the socketed spear began as a short, sturdy, slender THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 24 blade roughly 20 cm. in length. Through time, it was changed into a metre long implement with a very wide, flat blade shaped like a canoe paddle. Obviously, visual display and ceremony would be main use for such a large, unwieldy object cast in a raw material of high wealth value. The earliest bronze weapons entered Kyushu at the end of the Early Yayoi Phase. Through the study of lead isotope ratios, researchers have shown that bronze objects in Japan's prehistoric and proto-historic ages were, without exception, of continental origin (Mabuchi, Hirao and Nishida 1985:151). In fact, virtually all bronze in Japan, prior to the 7th Century has been demonstrated to be of continental origin (Barnes 1988:258). As a result, Yayoi elites in northern Kyushu would have been dependent on foreign exchange links for wealth. Until recently, Kyushu had been interpreted as an area where bronze weapons predominate while the Kinki district was referred to as the center for bronze bells in Yayoi period Japan (Aikens and Higuchi 1982:246; Sahara 1987:50). Recent discoveries on the island of Kyushu have forced many archaeologists to reconsider their position on this particular topic. In 1979, bronze bell moulds were discovered at the Yasunagata site in Saga Prefecture, northern Kyushu (Sahara 1987:51). Excavations in 1982 at the Akonoura site, in Fukuoka prefecture, led to the discovery of a bronze bell mould (Sahara 1987:51). Moulds for smaller bells have been recovered from the Okamoto 4 chome and Otani sites, both in Fukuoka prefecture (Sahara 1987:52). Evidence such as this now clearly shows that bronze bells were cast at several THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 25 locations in Kyushu, and it is quite likely that the custom of using bronze bells also extended into this region (Sahara 1987:51). More archaeological discoveries of this nature in the Kyushu and Kinki Districts will provide further evidence for interaction between these two areas. Much like their bronze counterparts, iron weapons were also exported to northern Kyushu from the Asian mainland. Iron weapons are found in forms similar to bronze weapons, such as swords, spears and halberds, however, unlike bronze objects, utilitarian tools were cast in iron. The most important metal for the production of agricultural tools in Yayoi period Japan was iron. At the beginning of the Yayoi period, iron woodworking tools (knives, adzes) were used to manufacture the wooden spades and hoes used for rice cultivation. Iron-tipped agricultural implements only became popular in the Late Yayoi Phase when rice growing was expanded into the higher dry areas where sharper, sturdier tools were needed to work the harder soil (Barnes 1981:46). It appears that these iron implements were used for more than utilitarian purposes. Iron planeheads, chisels, sickles, hoes and many other tools for agriculture and woodworking, along with iron weapons, are found in Yayoi burial assemblages (Fukuoka Shiritsu Rekishi Shiryokan 1986:129-148). In this particular context, these utilitarian objects were probably used to indicate the occupational status of the deceased or emphasize the importance of subsistence-related labor to the maintenance and stability of village life. THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 26 The iron objects found in Yayoi Period sites in northern Kyushu are different from those in China and Korea. Japanese examples are usually wrought iron while those from the continent are cast iron (Hashiguchi 1974:1). Iron objects are not as dominant as their bronze counterparts in Yayoi Period burial assemblages in northern Kyushu. Kidder points to the rapid deterioration of iron in marshy Yayoi sites as one possible explanation for this scanty distribution (Kidder 1964:16). The iron tools and weapons may have also had to withstand more frequent use, due to their value as functional implements. Bronze objects, on the other hand, would have had a much less rigorous cycle of utilization since their primary function was that of decoration or visual display. Metallurgy provides evidence not only for craft specialization, but also social ranking since it appears that elites would have initiated the production of these wealth objects to be competitive with other elites who required status objects for exchange or their own consumption. Competition and conflict appear to have played important roles in the development of Yayoi society. Evidence for this is provided by large numbers of bronze and iron weapons found in burials which shows the importance of power and authority in the maintenance of social order. Decapitated war victims were not an uncommon feature in many of the large cemetery sites, such as Yoshinogari, in Saga prefecture (Hayami: personal communication). There are also many examples, like the Nejikome site in Nagasaki prefecture, where bronze arrowheads have been found imbedded in the skull of an individual interred in a burial jar (Kanaseki and Sahara 1976:25). Weapons of war and the victims are not the only form of evidence for intercommunity conflict. THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 27 There is evidence to suggest that measures were taken to enhance the defensibility of villages in the Middle and Late Yayoi Phases with the construction of fortification ditches around hilltop settlements (Aikens and Higuchi 1982:244). The large ditches and possible watchtower at the Yoshinogari site provide further evidence for this pattern. Kanaseki and Sahara point to the simultaneous appearance of highland settlement with evidence for the mass production of weapons in the Kinki district of central Honshu (1976:25). Perhaps, further excavation will also reveal the existence of this pattern in northern Kyushu. Kanaseki argues that fighting may have occurred among villages over water rights, harvests and cultivated land (1986:318). Kanaseki states that stronger villages came to control others, and eventually, entire local areas were unified as result of this competition. This notion of unification and hierachy is an intriguing idea . which Barnes (1988) tests on data from the Nara Basin during the Yayoi and Kofun periods. I am unaware of any attempts to test for this pattern through the analysis of Yayoi period sites in northern Kyushu. This would be a useful study to pursue by researchers who have complete Yayoi period site inventories for the northern Kyushu region. The Yayoi period represents a time of increased interaction between Yayoi society and cultures on the Asian mainland. Many features of northern Kyushu culture are directly related to Korea. Stone cist, dolmen and jar burials are found in both regions, although the cists and dolmens tend to be rare and localized in Japan. Bronze weapons are also found in the rich burials of northern THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 28 Kyushu and the Korean peninsula (Okazaki 1975:197). Pearson argues that the dispersal of bronze luxury goods in maritime areas of the Korean peninsula and northern Kyushu marks the beginning of a new level of interaction between the two regions (1976:184). Barnes argues that interaction between Korea and Yayoi period Japan occurred between political groupings that were "peer" or equal to each other (Barnes 1986:82). It was elite interaction, within the centralized political hierarchies, that provided the driving force for social development and organizational elaboration. The elaborate goods made from bronze and precious stone found in rich Yayoi, and later Kofun, burials were more than indicators of wealth; they were the material symbols of group membership (Barnes 1986:83). Barnes argues that Korean and Yayoi rulers formed a large supralocal elite grouping symbolized by a homogeneous material culture denoting group membership. This model seems appropriate for the situation in the Kinai region of Kofun period Japan. There is clear evidence for the existence of a homogeneous body of material objects, stone bracelets, triangular-rim bronze mirrors, large cylindrical beads and curved magatama jewels, deposited in tombs (Barnes 1986:88). Settlement pattern analysis reveals the presence of two hierarchical polities in the Kinai region during the Early Kofun period. Each polity was characterized by a two-tiered settlement hierarchy indicated by the spatial clustering of keyhole-shaped tombs within their boundaries (Barnes 1988:279). The first level contained clusters of medium-sized keyhole tombs, while the higher THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 29 level was represented by clusters of large keyhole tombs. The Transitional and Early Kofun period elite materials found in tombs are distributed at wider intervals across the landscape than during the Late Yayoi in this region (Barnes 1988:281). Barnes argues that this sparse, continuous distribution of wealth materials could mean that they were used only by the elite segment of society (Barnes 1988:281). This argument is well supported by archaeological evidence in the Kinai region; however, the situation in northern Kyushu during the Yayoi period may have been quite different. An alternative argument is presented in the next chapter. As Barnes states, northern Kyushu's relationship with Korea played a role in its development. The model that I test does not focus on interaction as a prime source of social change. Instead, I look at local development and change in the political structure of Yayoi society in northern Kyushu. Status rivalry and the conversion of local subsistence products into tangible wealth items may have also set things in motion. I argue that competition for control over resources (people, subsistence goods, land) and wealth and the power that stems from this control provided the engine that led to political and economic development in the northern Kyushu region. I also argue that this competitive system set a limit on the amount of absolute control one particular leader, or community, could possess. This notion is further developed in the next chapter. Chapter 3 includes a discussion of status rivalry and political power, wealth display and the mortuary ritual. This is followed by a section on wealth exchange systems and their THE YAYOI PERIOD IN NORTHERN KYUSHU / 30 evolutionary potential within the context of status rivalry. I also present a model of status rivalry and change in community and regional power structures and the two major hypotheses to be tested in this thesis. C H A P T E R III. STATUS R I V A L R Y AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER In this chapter, I discuss a model that I have developed to explain the role of status rivalry and competition in the growth of social complexity in ranked societies. The research is based on the work of anthropologists who use political models to explain the rise of social complexity. One model suggests that the control and manipulation of wealth are key factors in building political power (Brumfiel and Earle 1987:3). Within this framework, elites are viewed as prime movers, or causal agents that have a direct influence on social change (Marcus 1983:11). As causal agents behind events, elites represent a way of conceiving power in society and attributing responsibility to persons rather than to impersonal'processes (Marcus 1983:10). Any study of this nature calls for the researcher to deal with wealth control by elites and how they use this wealth to bolster their own political careers and how this affects cultural change. Wealth can come into play in the initial stages of societal ranking. An individual may establish superior social rank by displaying the symbols associated with an already established foreign elite or by monopolizing and manipulating the sacred symbols of his or her own population's cosmology (Brumfiel and Earle 1987:3; Flannery 1968:105; Wheatley 1975:239). Control over wealth, which stems from control over production, can be used to attract clients and allies to compete for political leadership and to cement alliances that enhance existing power (Brumfiel and Earle 1987:3; Healey 1978:206; Helms 1979:77). The main argument of researchers who use this particular perspective is that wealth can be used to attain, strengthen and centralize political control. Political complexity 31 STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 32 results from the elaboration of various means to control wealth which subsequently leads to the strengthening of political and economic control (Earle 1987:67; Webster 1975:469). The model developed in this thesis is concerned with the internal dynamics that lead to the struggle for political power. I argue that status rivalry is a key factor that leads to the growth of political complexity. The quest for power can lead to the strengthening of political and economic control; however, the reverse may also occur. Many built-in contraints, within chiefly societies, often set limits on the amount of control that a chief may possess in a community or that a single community may hold in a regional settlement system. I will now discuss some of the internal dynamics involved in status rivalry. 1. P o l i t i c a l Control i n Complex Societies One of the most important concerns of a ruling body governing a group of individuals is, how does one maintain effective political control? One of the ways this may be accomplished is through force or coercion in which the choice given is to provide support to the ruling aparatus or suffer physical discomfort (Swartz, Turner and Tuden 1966:22). This form of control is possible in state-level societies which are complex systems with a large amount of internal differentiation and specialization (Flannery 1972:409). States are governed by bureaucratic or military rulers that are separated from the rest of society by a number of administrative levels in such a way that the whole system forms a control hierarchy (Flannery 1972:411). Order is maintained by full-time military STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 33 or law enforcement specialists to provide protection for the general population and the ruling government. The civil law and formal government, of state societies, are distinguishable from the usual forms of political control in less complex societies by the fact that they are institutionalized and they employ the actual use of force (Service 1975:14). Law and government can be backed by force rather than public opinion alone or some form of independent personal action (Service 1975:15). This is not the case in the governing systems of ranked societies. 2. The Base of Pol i t i c a l Power i n Ranked Societies Ranked societies are regionally organized and composed of a number of local communities tied by their placement in a regional hierarchy under the rule of a paramount chief (Earle 1978:2). Ranked societies have centralized direction, hereditary hierarchical status arrangements, but no formal, legal apparatus to implement force (Service 1975:16). Unlike the bureaucratic or military rulers that govern state societies, chiefdom elites are linked to the kinship-based organizations that structure their ranked societies. Power rests solely on an hierarchical relationship between persons or groups, so that obedience is not compelled by force but rather by custom, habit, ideas of propriety, benefits or other considerations that effectively reinforce and legitimize the power and make it acceptable (Service 1975:11). Since chiefdoms lack the strong governmental aparatus of state societies, a chiefs use of power is limited by kin-based sanctions (Earle 1978:2; Helms 1987:77; Service 1962:159; Webster 1975:466). A chief may lose support, and thus, his ability to rule, if his actions do not meet STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 34 the approval of his subjects. As a result, chiefs must rule by consensual power in which effectiveness depends on legitimacy (Swartz, Turner and Tuden 1966:22). Legitimacy is a type of support that derives from values held by the individuals involved in the power play between ruler and supporters (Tilley 1984:116). Expectations are that the the chief will, under certain circumstances, meet certain obligations that are held by those who view him as a legitimate ruler (Swartz, Turner and Tuden 1966:11). Legitimacy is support through confidence, on the part of a chiefs followers, that he has the ability to deal with a given situation in which the end result will be desirable to all those involved. Power rests on legitimacy; power may be regarded as the dynamic aspect of legitimacy; as legitimacy put to the test as social action (Swartz, Turner and Tuden 1966:14). Goldman uses this framework to explain the relationship between power and status in Polynesian chiefdoms. In Polynesian society, status was based on hereditary rank, or genealogical descent from a founding ancestor or lineage (Goldman 1970:5; Kaeppler 1971:188). Other principles such as mana, seniority, descent along a male line and a concrete emphasis on ability were also involved (Goldman 1970:13). This emphasis on ability puts the status system in motion (Goldman 1970:13). Status is a given; however, the prerogatives of status must be put into action for one to acquire and consolidate chiefly power (Goldman 1970:9). A chief must exercise and display his powers or the authenticity of his rank is challenged by other elites within the community (Goldman 1970:16). Chiefly status represents a static dimension while chiefly STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 35 power represents a dynamic dimension, or a dynamic aspect of legitimacy (Swartz, Turner and Tuden 1966:14). Swartz, Turner and Tuden provide an example of a chiefs use of legitimacy as a basis for power (1966:13). An official may begin his career in office through providing a service or performing a ritual that serves to establish positive expectations in the minds of those affected by him so that, at the beginning of his career, support is through legitimacy. Through time, this chief may consistently fail to meet these expectations and lose the legitimacy gained through the ritual at the outset of his career (1966:13). If he continues to fail, he will lose support and be ousted by a more capable individual able to meet these expectations (Webster 1975:466). There are many ways, apart from assasination or rebellion, in which a chief may be coerced by his supporters. They may refuse to perform or participate in certain rituals, thus endangering the chiefdom, or they may impose economic sanctions, such as refusing to pay the chief his share of the tribute (Lloyd 1965:76). A chief commands the payment of tribute by virtue of his political power; however, much of the chiefs power rests on his access to vast amounts of tribute (Steponaitis 1981:322). The prestige and sanctity of a chiefly line rests upon the ability to mobilize labor and collect tribute (Kirch 1985:289). If a chiefs control over resources is removed a substantial portion of his power is taken away. S T A T U S R I V A L R Y A N D T H E S T R U G G L E F O R P O W E R / 36 3. The Display of Chiefly Power To defeat the challenge from other elites within the community, chiefs must constantly display personal strength and wisdom. One of the ways in which power m a y be displayed is through the chiefs interpersonal relations wi th others in the community (Goldman 1970:18). A chief can achieve legit imacy through consistently meeting the demands of his supporters, and can thus operate through the use of consensual power. B y providing goods and services to others, a chief w i l l assemble a core of supporters who w i l l provide a large-scale labor or mi l i t a ry force should the need arise (Steponaitis 1981:322). Power is also displayed through symbolic means. House size, insignia, dress, ornamentation, public architecture and various forms of behavior can a l l be used as constant reminders of the power vested in the chiefly position (Goldman 1970:18). The meanings and emotions that are associated wi th part icular rites and symbols m a y also provide a source of indirect support. The aroused feelings and beliefs can be associated wi th various levels of the political system and cause them to be positively evaluated (Swartz, Turner and Tuden 1966:25; Ti l ley 1984:115). A large storehouse stocked wi th food, or images carved to celebrate a successful mi l i t a ry conquest both serve to symbolize the economic and political strength of the community that is the result of the incumbent chiefs policies. Such display provides a constant reminder of chiefly power. Another important measure of power comes from a ch iefs implementation of policies. A chiefs ability must often be proven by success i n warfare or by STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 37 participating in elite exchange networks (Goldman 1970:18; Helms 1979:86). By gaining access to external sources of wealth, a chief displays his ability to provide goods for supporters within his community, which enhances his position. Wealth indicates a chiefs ability or, if it is contributed, the personal following that has accumulated and it guarantees the maintenance of the prestige of the office. 4. Wealth Display and the Mortuary Ritual Mortuary data provide evidence for social ranking and large amounts of wealth (Peebles and Kus 1977:445; Shennan 1975; 1982; Tainter 1978). One of the basic assumptions used in this kind of study is that the differential treatment of an individual in death is an indicator of his or her differential treatment, or status level, in life (Saxe 1970). During the course of life, various social identities of an individual are expressed in different situations. At the death of an individual, the living decide which identities of the deceased are the most important and should be expressed in mortuary ritual. The determining factors in these decisions are the rights and duties of the living to the deceased. Binford expands further on this notion stating that a higher social rank develops out of one's possession of a larger array of status relationships with others (Binford 1971:21). At the time of death, all those who possess some sort of relationship with the deceased will be involved in the funerary ceremony. The higher one's position in society, the more influence one has over a larger number of people. Therefore, the funerary ceremony of a high ranking elite person would STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 38 involve a huge display of corporate involvement, manifest in a greater amount of energy expenditure, leading to the construction of a more elaborate burial facility (Tainter and Cordy 1977:109). The display of the elite individual's high status may occur through the inclusion of large numbers of prestige goods of high wealth value in the burial (Brown 1981; Shennan 1975:283; Tainter 1978). This would show some of the tangible rewards this individual was able to acquire for himself and the rest of the community. Wealth goods may often be used as funerary objects, which makes the mortuary ritual a material manifestation of status rivalry. Lineage members may provide a huge display of wealth at the funeral of a dead leader in an attempt to prevent the leaders of other groups from succeeding to office if the society lacks strict codification on rules of succession. Competition between leaders, and potential leaders, of different communities is also expressed through the mortuary ritual (Shanks and Tilley 1982:134). A community will exhalt and glorify their leader at his death in order to reaffirm the high ranking position he brought to his community, within a regional settlement system, through the implementation of successful policies while in office. Mortuary ritual is used as a form of social advertisement in which a statement is being made concerning the level of power and prestige a dead leader, and his community, attained during his lifetime (Pearson 1982:112). Mortuar3' ritual represents another form of competitive display. To summarize this section, I present the key concepts and discuss their links with one another. Status is a condition or standing to which varying STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 39 degrees of responsibility, privilege and esteem are attached. If one possesses high status, one is a potential candidate for the chiefly position and a potential status rival. High status first comes from having the correct genealogy, but it may also result from one's possession of other skills or personal qualities. Status rivalry, which is the struggle for chiefly power between elites, stems from the emphasis placed on concrete ability as a prerequisite for political power. Power refers to the ability to control and manipulate people, resources and the elements. In ranked societies, political power is based on legitimacy which is supported through confidence, or control through consensus. To be viewed as a legitimate ruler, a chief must actively display his power through interpersonal relations, symbolic display and the implementation of successful policies that ensure the economic well being of his community. The wealth that is drawn into the community, through exchange or conquest, is displayed through the mortuary ritual to show both the level of status achieved by the deceased and to reaffirm the incumbent chiefs success in acquiring the wealth objects used in the mortuary ritual. If a chiefs display of power is deemed inadequate by his supporters, a struggle may occur in which a more capable high status individual, with the proper genealogical background, gains the confidence and support of the population and ascends to power. The display of chiefly power through participation in elite exchange networks is achieved by more than the acquisition of material goods. The fact that a chief is able to participate in an exclusive exchange network of rare wealth items shows that leaders of established foreign governments also recognize STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 40 his power and right to rule (Helms 1979:86). This pattern of local leaders using foreign elites from more complex societies as sources of legitimation seems to have been a common occurrence throughout world history and prehistory. I will now discuss one of the ways in which chiefs attempt to display their power and abilities by entering into exchange relationships with foreign polities. 5. Elite Interaction and the Display of Power This section provides three examples in which local leaders of less complex societies enter into exchange relationships with elites of powerful foreign polities. In all three cases, the result is the enhancement of power and prestige on the part of the elites within the less complex society. It is important to remember that elite interaction and exchange stems from status rivalry; it is not the cause of status rivalry but is one of the end results. It is one of the ways that a chief displays his power to supporters within his local community. Flannery (1968) provides an example in which he argues that elites of highland Oaxaca interacted with elites of the highly stratified Olmecs on the Gulf Coast of southern Mexico (Flannery 1968:101). These elites interacted most strongly on a level of shared concepts about religion, symbolism and status paraphernalia. One of the main mechanisms of communication between the two regions was the exchange of exotic materials (Flannery 1968:101). This exchange was not "trade" in the sense that we use the term, but rather was set up through ritual visits, exchange of wives and the adoption of STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 41 members of one group by the other (Flannery 1968:105). Flannery argues that this form of interaction may have been an attempt by elites of the less sophisticated Oaxacan society to adopt the behavior, status trappings, religion, symbolism or even language of the more sophisticated group to absorb some of their charisma (Flannery 1968:105). The Oaxacan elites would have used these exotic Olmec goods to enhance their power and status within the local political arena. Edmund Leach (1954) provides an example of local interaction between the Kachin and Shan societies of north-east Burma. The Shans occupy the river valleys where they cultivate rice in irrigated fields. They are a relatively sophisticated people with a culture somewhat resembling that of the Burmese (Leach 1954:1). The Kachins occupy the hills where they cultivate rice mainly by slash and burn techniques of shifting cultivation (Leach 1954:1). There are many cases in which elite Kachins can become more sophisticated by establishing marriage relationships with an aristocratic Shan lineage. As a result, their elite or chiefly status as Kachins is enhanced, although the political structure that emerges is precarious (Leach 1954:222). The Kachin chief can with an elevation of status become more like a Shan, but his commoner Kachin followers cannot. In becoming a Shan, the Kachin chief tends to isolate himself from the roots of his power, he offends against the principles of reciprocity, and loses support from his fellow Kachins (Leach 1954:223). As a result, the chiefs actions encourage the development of revolutionary tendencies which may lead to his eventual overthrow. STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 42 This pattern of inherent instability is also found in Southeast Asia where Indian merchants were interacting with local tribes during the beginning of the Christian Era. Wheatley (1975) argues that the chieftain of a local settlement would serve as a mediator of exchange transactions between the tribe and the Indian elites (1975:238). Through his association with foreign elites, the chief would come to share in their prestige. In seeking to further legitimize his authority, based on the Indian pattern, the local chief would continue to acquire the profits of this commerce in the form of ceremonial regalia, beads, textiles and other goods (Wheatley 1975:238). Due to the enhancement of his power and prestige, the chief would acquire a vested interest in the continuation and expansion of the system. This new source of power was not without its problems. Wheatley argues that these chieftains manipulated the new alternatives or inconsistencies and thus created their own prestige and ultimately achieved some freedom from the restrictive bonds of tribal custom (Wheatley 1975:242). For example, a chief interacting with foreign elites may declare himself subject only to foreign laws concerning the powers vested in political office or rules of succession. Instead of allocating lands to kinsmen, perhaps the chief, basing his policy on the foreign polity's system of land tenure, will decide to distribute land as a political favor to supporters or outsiders. The implementation of this policy would disrupt the traditional system of land distribution based on kinship ties and perhaps lead to upheaval on the part of the dissatisfied populace if the paramount chief lacks the political power to successfully impose this change (Goldman 1970:545). As with the case of the Kachin chief in highland Burma, the Southeast Asian STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 43 chieftain would isolate himself from the roots of his power and lose support. Opposition to the successful chiefs policy would also develop from less successful chiefs located in more remote areas who view these procedings as a subversion of their power (Wheatley 1975:246). The local chief, backed by foreign elites, would face competition from dissatisfied individuals within his own community and remote chiefs that have been excluded from the prestige good exchange network. The end result is an inherently unstable political system characterized by local chiefs struggling to gain access to external sources of elite prestige goods. This particular kind of system does possess evolutionary potential, but it may also exceed its limits, leading to political disintegration. 6. Prestige Good Systems and Social Evolution In a prestige good system, power relations are established, consolidated and maintained through the control of prestige objects (objects of high aesthetic and wealth value). These goods, usually made of exotic raw materials by craft specialists, are products which are not necessary for material subsistence, but which are necessary for the maintenance of social relations (Ekholm 1978:119; Frankenstein and Rowlands 1978:76; Haselgrove 1982:82). Still, the subsistence base does play a key role in fueling the. system since resources can be exchanged directly for prestige goods or converted into tangible wealth objects for exchange or other forms of symbolic display. Either way, the wealth objects acquired are used to symbolize the economic success of the local community under the incumbent chief. STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 44 If one chief is able to accumulate and distribute more prestige goods than neighbouring chiefs, his community can assimilate individuals from economically weaker groups, which leads to its own expansion at the latter's expense (Ekholm 1978:120; Haselgrove 1982:81). In most cases in which the existence of prestige good exchange systems has been documented, prestige goods are exchanged for wives and/or slaves by the dominant social system (Ekholm 1978:120; Friedman 1982:184; Kirch 1984:226). Prestige goods are sent outward from the central polity while women and slaves move in the opposite direction. Since wife takers rank higher than wive givers, women tend to move up and marry into a higher ranking, often foreign, lineage (Ekholm 1978:120; Friedman 1982:184; Kirch 1984:226). The engine that runs the system is fueled by the political ambitions of the elites involved. By exchanging prestige goods for people, a paramount chief is able to raise the population level of his community, which leads to an increase in the number of producers, supporters and potential warriors (Ekholm 1978:120; Frankenstein and Rowlands 1978:76). This raises the productive capacity of his group to produce more prestige goods and expand into new territories to help feed and provide for his growing population (Haselgrove 1982:81). Kirch argues that long distance exchanges of chiefly spouses as well as prestige goods between the Polynesian islands of Tonga, Fiji and Samoa was a political strategy that played a vital role in binding the core islands and outliers to the regional central polity (Kirch 1984:235). In this particular case, Tongan paramount lineages served as spouse takers from Fiji and Samoa. Junior brothers STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 45 or kinsmen of the ruling Tongan lines were placed at critical points on the outer islands, where they would marry into the local chiefly lines and take over the position of the local chief (Kirch 1984:235). This strategy removed the direct threat of usurpation of the chiefly title by a junior sibling and offered the junior kinsmen considerable local autonomy (Kirch 1984:235). These kinship alliances, which linked the paramount lines with those of local ruling chiefs in the core and island outliers, were confirmed by marriage relations, for which exotic prestige goods were vital. In turn, the outlying islands affirmed their inferior status to the Tongan paramount line through tribute (Kirch 1984:241). As with Central African prestige systems, there was a circular flow of goods, tribute and wives towards the paramounts, while prestige goods were circulated outwards to the local chiefs. It is important to look not only at the interaction of elites and prestige goods within this system, but also the internal developmental schemes of each separate polity. Closer scrutiny, in the Tongan case, reveals that interaction was not only the result of political strategies on the part of local chiefs searching for political power, but also served as a solution to problems that needed to be rectified for the perpetuation of the traditional Tongan societal system. Power and authority, within the traditional Tongan system, were based on three principles of rank that contained a major flaw. Based on the traditional descent system, a male chiefs children would be outranked by his sister's children. This problem did not matter at most levels; however, it did matter at STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 46 the top of the social scale (Kaeppler 1978:247). To overcome this problem, the highest chiefs sister was married to a Fijian. Because of the patrilineal emphasis of the system, the children of the couple would belong to a Fijian line and therefore would not have to be taken into account in the power structure of the purely Tongan lines (Kaeppler 1978:247). This system of marriage was a convenient way to raise the rank of children of certain chiefs and remove the children of others from the power structure. Fiji was a male "spouse giver" to Tonga and had a direct influence on Tonga's system of status and rank. Samoans also played a necessary role in the Tongan system of power and authority. The Tongan aristocratic system was based on the notion that chiefs were sacred and dangerous for mortals to touch (Kaeppler 1978:248; Sahlins 1985:75). As a result, it was necessary to recruit outsiders to perform certain tasks to ensure the safety of Tongan commoners and to conserve and preserve respect for a chiefs mana. The Samoan social system, which was similar to the Tongan system, had an intermediate class of ceremonial attendants called matapule, in Tongan, and tulafale, in Samoan (Kaeppler 1978:248). These Samoan attendants were recruited for tasks such as tattooing Tongan chiefs, cutting their hair and preparing their bodies for burial. All of these duties were carried out with immunity since the Samoan attendants were outsiders (Kaeppler 1978:248). Samoans were female "spouse givers" to the Tongan paramounts giving high ranking women who brought with them female marriage goods such as fine mats. I have included this discussion for two reasons. First, I stress that wealth STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 47 objects are secondary to the social transactions that lead to the development of prestige good networks. Interaction occurs on multiple levels and prestige goods are a small part of the entire system. Second, long range exchange and interaction occurs as an end result, or a solution, to internal socio-political developments within Tonga. Tongan chiefs do not receive more power directly from interacting with Samoan and Fijian elites, just as contradictions within the Tongan system of rank and power are not solved by elite interaction. Instead, power and the solutions to internal contradictions result when the foreign objects of exchange, whether people or goods, have been reintroduced, reinterpreted and absorbed into the local system. Power and the potential for power reside within the local system not from diffusion from the outside. Political rivalry and internal developments within each polity provide the driving force which leads to this exchange network. Such a system has the potential to stabilize and expand if a paramount chief is powerful enough to conquer other territories and collect the spoils (Haselgrove 1982:81). If a chief is victorious in combat, he may arbitrarily divide up an area into divisions and place loyal chiefs or warriors in control (Goldman 1970:545). In this case, the territorial order of kin-based segmentation or expansion is destroyed by paramount chiefs giving land to appointed chiefs instead of genealogically qualified chiefs (Goldman 1970:548). Strong central authority disturbs the segmentary order of kin-based expansion by imposing a territorial organization out of military or economic necessity (Goldman 1970:544). Kinship unity is disrupted in favor of political power and central authority. STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 48 Absolute control over external sources of wealth is necessary for this kind of growth and expansion to occur. Once a single paramount lineage is in control, all outlying chiefs must be content with their subordinate position and the central polity's growth at their own expense (Haselgrove 1982:81; Kirch 1984:241). This particular scenario rarely occurs, on a long term basis, in a system based on chiefly competition and status rivalry. As mentioned in the previous section, any chief that is able to successfully participate in an elite exchange network is bound to run into opposition from those within his local community. He isolates himself from the community by using goods produced by his supporters for his own political motives and is the object of intense opposition from less successful or peripheral chiefs who watch their own power dwindle at the expense of the successful chief. This pattern of change in the levels of productivity between communities and the ensuing struggle and change in community power structure should show in the archaeological record through mortuary remains. This notion is supported by Kirch's ethnographic study of burial structures and ranking in Vava'u, Tonga. Kirch argues that burials structures do not indicate social rank, but instead, reflect relative socio-political status (Kirch 1980:306). The burial facility displays the power and ability of the deceased chief instead of genealogical rank. Thus, burial wealth is likely to indicate change in intra and inter-community power structures. I will now present a hypothetical example, in schematic form, to briefly illustrate how the system works. First, let us assume that the chiefs of two STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 49 neighboring communities rise to power through displaying their skills and power by performing well in battle and in rituals. To maintain their chiefly positions, they must continue to prove their abilities by implementing successful policies that bring them more wealth and prestige that will be passed down to supporters within their own communities. At this stage, both chiefs are of equal status to each other. Soon, a foreign wealth source is discovered which pumps prestige goods in to the chief of community A in return for wives and slaves that are sent along with tribute to the distant foreign elites. As a result, the status of chief A is enhanced but the loss of several individuals reduces the productive capacity of his community. Chief A can use his position, as a recipient of foreign wealth items, to gain economic advantage over his rivals in the local settlement system. If chief B receives word of chief A's success, he may be forced to redirect his economic surplus to chief A in exchange for prestige goods in order to enhance his own power and status and compete with chief A on even terms (Ekholm 1978:130). To keep the advantage, chief A can make the same demands of chief B that he must comply with in dealing with the foreign elites. In exchange for wives and slaves, chief B will receive foreign elite goods from chief A. Due to the acquisition of foreign prestige articles, chief A becomes economically strengthened at the expense of chief B. However, chief A can extend this relationship to the chiefs of several other peripheral communities, or chief B can extend this relationship to a lower status leader (chief C) of another nearby community (Ekholm 1978:129). The system is characterized by the exchange of prestige goods between STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 50 chiefs of superordinate and subordinate status in exchange for people and goods. This serves to increase the productive capacity of the paramount chiefs community. The network provides a constant flow of wealth to chiefs located at the center. Still, there are many internal constraints that can slow, disrupt or destroy the established network hierarchy. Dissension within the paramount's community may lead to the overthrow of the chief. The community in direct contact with the • foreign elites must produce more than others since each subordinate chief deals with only one paramount chief, while the paramount chief must deal simultaneously with several subordinates (Ekholm 1978:129). As a result, the paramount chief may place too much demand on his supporters to produce, and be toppled out of office if his supporters decide to rebel (Frankenstein and Rowlands 1978:78; Rowlands 1984:153). The hierarchical system may also collapse if a paramount leader's monopoly over external trade is bypassed and his subordinates are able to acquire foreign prestige goods through other channels (Ekholm 1978:131; Frankenstein and Rowlands 1978:79). As the prestige goods are transmitted to local groups from outside and not via the hierarchy, the basis for the hierarchy disappears (Ekholm 1978:131). Once the local hierarchy disappears, leaders may compete for access to the new sources of wealth. The more successful a chief is, the more he extracts from and alienates his followers and the more he becomes an object of rivalry and competition to other chiefs. STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 51 In summary, prestige good systems possess evolutionary potential when paramount chieftains are able to successfully monopolize the control and flow of prestige goods to other core or peripheral areas that send wives, slaves and tribute in return, as in the Tongan case. The Tongan paramount line was able to successfully expand into and incorporate peripheral areas under its centralized authority by sending out junior siblings and prestige goods to establish alliances with local subordinate chiefly lines. Status rivalry and many of the built-in constraints found within prestige good systems can also lead to an entirely different developmental scheme. Fluctuations in external wealth sources, internal unrest and military alliances between hostile secondary chiefs can all lead to the downfall of a paramount chief and the subsequent fragmentation of a hierarchical prestige good system. In Chapter 2, I argue that this particular scenario occurred in northern Kyushu during the Japanese Yayoi period. In the next section, I present a model of status rivalry and change in community power structure. This is followed by a presentation of the major hypotheses to be tested against the data presented in Chapter 4. 7. A Model of Status R i v a l r y and Change i n Regional P o w e r Structure The model begins with the concept of the maintenance of chiefly power and proceeds as a flow chart through a series of interconnected boxes (See Figure 3). The maintenence of chiefly power is based on legitimation which is achieved through enlisting the support of one's constituents. STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 52 Change la Insftmal ?o*«r SCr'jertirs Shawn i a Koi-raary 'Jeaita Cftansro ia 3e$ional Power Hierarchy Shown i a florruarr Wcalta ? i ^ u r e 4. Diagram of Kodel of Status Rivalry and Change i n Regional Power Structure. STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 53 To achieve or maintain power through legitimation, one must perform duties that meet the obligations of the chiefly position, or actively display one's power and abilities. Power is displayed by a chief through interpersonal relationships with others in the community, symbolic display or successful policy implementation. The latter involves the development of schemes which ensure the continued reproductive and economic success of the local community. Economic success is ensured in three ways. First a chiefs performance, in terms of decision-making or rituals, in the local subsistence economy is important for the production of sufficient food resources and surplus. Second, political power and economic success is also displayed through leading successful military conquests or, finally by participation in external exchange networks. Both strategies satisfy local producers since wealth is taken from external sources. This allows the chief to loosen his grip on the resource base of his own community. If abundant resources are produced locally and also appropriated from external groups, the productive capacity of the local group should increase. This speaks well for the policy decisions of the incumbent chief. If minimal resources are produced and the local group is on the short end of its external exchange relationships, then the productive capacity of the group will decrease. In this case, the evaluation of the incumbent chiefs policies will not be favorable. If productivity increases, three potential developments may occur. First, there may be a balance in which the number of resources extracted from local producers and external groups is agreeable to all parties concerned. In this case, surplus resources are converted into tangible wealth in the form of monumental STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 54 architecture or prestige goods. The display of wealth symbolizes the high level of productivity achieved as a result of the local chiefs policies and serves as a constant reminder of his political power. Since many of the wealth objects are placed in the burials of influential and powerful people in the community, the funerary ritual serves as a marker of the economic success of a community. An increase in productivity could also lead to a situation in which the chief overextracts local resources for use in status competition with other high ranking chiefs. If a chief extracts too much, he may isolate himself from his local support base which leads to an internal power struggle and his eventual demise. Increased productivity may also result from the overextraction of wealth from surrounding communities. As a result, external chiefs may form alliances to overthrow a chief whose community is rapidly expanding at their own expense. If decreasing productivity results from a chiefs policies, only one course of action is possible. Dissatisfied followers will look for a new leader who shows that he has the ability to lead the group down the path of economic prosperity. A chief is evaluated by his own supporters within the local community and by surrounding chiefs who face the same problem in their own communities. If the evaluation is favorable from both sides, the chief will maintain his position of power; however, if one of the two sides is dissatisfied, a power struggle may occur. The display of wealth through the mortuary ritual is a good indicator of the level of economic success of a community. The more successful a community STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 55 is, the more resources there are available to convert into tangible wealth products. Thus, a chiefs ability to maintain power is linked closely to the economic success of his community. If a chief is successful in raising the productive level of his community he stays in power. If productivity decreases or the chief extracts too much from within or from external groups, he may lose his power. Since economic success, wealth display and a chiefs political success are closely linked, a change in community power structure should show through change and variability in mortuary assemblages. A large number of rich wealth objects should result from a period of economic prosperity and the political success of an incumbent chief while a lack of wealth objects should indicate a period of decreasing productivity. If a chief is too successful, other chiefs will do their best to ensure that this prosperity is short-lived. As a result, a pattern of short-term prosperity should characterize a regional system with intense status rivalry. Status rivalry leads to the development of social ranking or the enhancement of previously existing ranked positions; however, status rivalry may also ensure short-term political success and oscillations in local power structures. If economic growth occurs, one should see new social positions appear along with a greater spread in the distribution and consumption of wealth between sites. In other words, a pattern of social ranking should develop in which a small number of individuals accumulate large amounts of wealth, and perhaps redistribute small portions of wealth to supporters, while the majority of people are excluded from STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 56 these wealth networks. This pattern of ranking should occur within communities and between communities in such a way that certain chiefs are able to accumulate more wealth objects for themselves and their supporters than less successful chiefs of peripheral communities. The resulting pattern of inter-community ranking is short-term, characterized by patterns of oscillation in wealth control. In following the time trajectory patterns of a site, one should see oscillations in the quantities or presence of wealth objects. The pattern of wealth consumption should change in such a way that different sites within a regional settlement system contain differing quantities of wealth objects at different time periods. As a result, the organizational structure of the regional hierarchy of wealth control should also change. If one or a few communities are at the pinnacle position within a regional wealth exchange network, they should contain the highest concentration of wealth items within this network. If this is the case, a conical pattern should characterize the system in which a few central sites, or perhaps a single site, contain the greatest number of wealth objects in the system. More sites with considerably fewer wealth objects should exist at the next lower level in the regional hierarchy. The lowest level of the conical hierarchy should consist of the largest number of sites in the region that are characterized by a lack of wealth objects due to their exclusion from this wealth exchange network. If competition is intense, communities at the pinnacle of the wealth network hierarchy should eventually fall to a lower level and be replaced by another opportunistic leader and his community. Change on a large scale may STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 5 7 occur if several pinnacle communities are toppled in such a way that the top level is either destroyed, replaced or reworked into the system at a lower level. If this were to occur, there may be a change in the organizational structure of the exchange network and perhaps a reduction in the number of levels in the hierarchy. This pattern would result from various chiefs gaining access to wealth sources for brief periods and then losing out to other chiefs of nearby groups who are able to seize and control the flow of wealth back to their own communities. This pattern would point to a lack of long-term effective political control of local chiefs and conditions of constant tension, sporadic successes and a tendency toward political disintegration. 8. Major Hypotheses to be Tested Two major hypotheses have been developed from the previous model for testing against the Yayoi period mortuary data in northern Kyushu. Hypothesis 1± Status rivalry was present in the development of social ranking within communities in northern Kyushu during the Yayoi period. Hypothesis 2\. Status rivalry and competition ensured short-term political success and patterns of oscillation in wealth control between sites in the regional exchange STATUS RIVALRY AND THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER / 58 hierarchy. As a result, major structural changes occurred in the organisation of the existing wealth exchange network. The two major hypotheses are tested in the next chapter using the mortuary data from northern Kyushu during the Yayoi period. The chapter begins with an analysis of intra-site ranking. This is followed by a test for inter-site ranking, based on regional wealth hierarchies, and change in the organizational structure of these hierarchies. The results and conclusions derived from the analyses are presented in the second part of Chapter 4. C H A P T E R I V . A N A L Y S I S O F I N T R A - S I T E R A N K I N G A N D R E G I O N A L W E A L T H H I E R A R C H Y 1. Introduction In this chapter, the major hypotheses and model are tested against the burial data from northern Kyushu. The analysis begins with a test to determine the extent of social ranking, at the intra-community level, using mortuary data from seven cemetery sites located in northern Kyushu. The second portion of the analysis tests for the existence and extent of ranking between sites based on distinct levels of wealth accumulation. This test is based on variation in wealth index values from 244 cemetery sites that have been divided into five regional samples. The analysis tests the validity of Hypothesis 1 which calls for fluctuations in the degree of ranking within sites and change in the internal rank ordering systems. Hypothesis 2 calls for an increase in the degree of inter-site ranking, or hierarchy, at the regional level followed by oscillations in wealth distribution and a collapse of the wealth hierarchy in areas in which it is the most developed. Before the hypotheses are tested, I discuss the nature of the data studied in this present analysis. 2. Ana lys i s of Intra-Site R a n k i n g Introduction 59 ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 60 Burial data from seven Yayoi period cemeteries in northern Kyushu, are used to test for the existence of social ranking. These seven sites were chosen for two reasons. The first five were selected becsuse the total burial sample was known for each site. The last two sites were chosen because of the extremely rich nature of the burials present. Thus, they provided the basis to establish a scale of wealth rank levels that could be used to measure the same variable on other sites. The goal of the analysis is to distinguish between groups of burials and place them into separate categories according to the amount of wealth present. Social ranking will be said to exist if sufficient variation in wealth content between burial groups is displayed and the groups form a conical pattern. The pattern must consist of a few rich burials at the pinnacle of the hierarchy, a larger number of burials with smaller wealth assemblages and the largest number of burials without grave goods at the bottom level. One problem that existed in the selection of the cemetery sites used in the analysis was a lack of evidence on the overall dimensions of each site and a lack of information on internal site structure. When Japanese sites are excavated, the digging usually takes place in one small section of the site during each field season. Each smaller excavation is published in a different volume which presents each yearly excavation as a separate site. It is very difficult to determine whether a group of smaller excavations consist of several separate sites or, in fact, all make up one large site. An example of this is the Yoshitake site case. Each spatially separate cemetery contains Yoshitake as the first name; however, the second word in the name (Oishi, Hiwatashi, Takaki) distinguishes each into a separate site. Yet, site maps of the locality indicate ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 61 that all three sites could represent three separate burial areas within one large community. Since maps are unavailable for the other 241 sites in the total sample, it is difficult to know whether this is the case in other situations. Method The methodology used follows that proposed by Chapman (1975) in which presence/absence tables are used to indicate the unequal distribution of grave goods within a single cemetery. Shennan (1975:284; 1982:29) also investigates social status represented in burials by looking at grave good associations. Shennan groups burials into separate classes on the basis of the number of separate grave good types present, the quantity of particular artifact types and the number of points each type receives from a scale based on units of wealth. Shennan uses both tables and more complicated computer run cluster and scaling programs to achieve this goal. The method I use is the result of initial data exploration using stem and leaf plots, boxplots and tables. This was done to get familiar with the basic characteristics and parameters of the data set. After the initial exploration, I decided that the best strategy would be to look for evidence of burials, within each of the seven cemeteries, which contain a greater concentration of grave goods than others. Burials which contain a considerably larger number of items of high wealth value will be viewed as representing high status individuals. The analysis is based on a test to determine the placement of each burial in a wealth rank scale of 4 to 1. Level four represents the lowest wealth rank, ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 62 which will be assigned to burials without grave goods. Level 3 will be composed of burials which contain a very small number of grave good types, while Level 2 will consist of burials that contain two or more separate grave good types than those in Level 3. Burials which contain two or more separate grave good types than those in Level 2 will be placed into the Level 1 wealth rank category, which represents the highest wealth rank that may be assigned to a burial. I decided to use four wealth rank levels as the maximum number possible after initial data exploration. This study revealed that the richest sites, within this group of seven, contained four clear divisions among burials in terms of wealth content (See Table 7). Once this scale was established on the richest and most diverse site, it was applied in the analysis of the other six for consistency. I use a gap of two or more separate grave good types as the cut-point between different wealth ranks. This method is the result of intensive scrutiny and a lack of success with other methods of analysis for the data in question. A gap of two separate grave good types is sufficient for the following reasons. First, most burials contain a small number of each grave type, while most burial assemblages contain artifacts of the same raw material category. The analysis should include more attention to variation in the raw material categories present. However, it is difficult to distinguish the relative wealth value of each raw material class at anything more than the most general level. Obviously, imported bronze objects would contain the highest wealth value. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 63 However, iron was also imported and possibly of equal importance as bronze. Furthermore, it is difficult to know whether one or four iron objects have the same wealth value as one bronze object. If more contextual imformation was available, such as the age, sex and condition of the individuals, tests of association could have been used between different raw material categories, artifact types and age and sex groups. Since this information was unavailable and the grave good data was taken from a secondary source in which careful analysis of each object was not possible, I decided that the use of cut-points, based on gaps of two or more separate grave types, would provide tha best results in terms of feasibility and consistency. Variation in the separate number of grave types is the best way to distinguish between the wealth content of the burials within this particular sample. Since there is a lack of variation among these burials, two more separate grave good types constitutes a considerable increase in wealth content. Furthermore, two more grave good categories shows a conscious decision, on the part of mourners, to place more wealth in one particular burial than another. I use two separate grave good types, instead of one, as a discriminating cut-point to excercise caution in establishing rank levels. If the test results in the detection of two wealth ranks (Levels 4 and 3) among burials, then a minimal degree of ranking will exist. If three wealth ranks are present (Levels 4, 3 and 2), then a moderate degree of ranking will exist. A moderate degree of ranking refers to a scenario in which individuals without grave goods exist in the cemetery population (Level 4) along with individuals with a small number of grave good types (Level 3) and individuals with a considerably larger number of grave good types, or a greater ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 64 concentration of wealth, than the previous group (Level 2). If four wealth ranks are present among burials in a cemetery, then a high degree of ranking would exist. For this condition to be met, there must be two considerable gaps, or cut-points, within the group of burials with grave goods. A high degree of ranking points to the existence of a mortuary population containing a large number of individuals without grave goods (Level 4), fewer individuals with a small number of separate grave good types (Level 3), individuals with a greater concentration of wealth than the previous group (Level 2) and a very small number of individuals at the pinnacle of the hierarchy that possess an even greater number of separate grave good types of high wealth value (Level 1). Data The data consist of burials from seven Yayoi period cemeteries in northern Kyushu from a total sample of 244. There are four basic classes of grave goods found in burials from these sites consisting of bronze weapons and ornaments, iron weapons and tools, stone weapons and jewelry made of shell and semi-precious stone. As mentioned earlier in Chapter 2, bronze weapons consist mainly of swords, daggers, spears and halberds. The swords are double-edged with a slender blade and a narrow handle. Halberds and spears began as short, sturdy implements and were changed to wide, flat metre long implements. Bronze ornaments consisted mainly of mirrors and bracelets. The mirrors, which average about eight inches in diameter, were cast in molds and contain decorative motifs ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 65 ranging from flowers, animals and clouds or inscriptions. Iron objects consist mainly of swords, spears, halberds and knives. These objects are usually found in a more developed state of decay than bronze goods. There is no decoration and the objects are narrow with no emphasis on visual impressiveness as with those objects cast in bronze. Stone weapons were made from polished stone, sometimes semi-precious, and were often made as copies of weapons that were cast in bronze and iron. Daggers and arrowheads were the two major artifact types made from stone. The main classes of jewelry were shell bracelets, jasper tubular beads and jade magatama beads. The shell bracelets, genus Tricornis and the genus Conus, are cut, polished and made to Fit around the arm of an individual. Both genus types are found off the shores of the Ryukyu Islands in the seas south of Kyushu. The magatama beads are made from polished jade and cut into a comma-like shape. A hole was drilled near the top of the bead, which would have been worn as a necklace. The jasper beads were cut, polished and drilled lengthwise through the center into a cylinder or tube shape. The beads are of roughly uniform size with each measuring about one half inch in length. Overall, a large amount of time and effort would have gone into the making of each artifact type found in these northern Kyushu burial assemblages. Five of these cemeteries have been chosen for the analysis because they contain the most contextual information. More specifically, they were the only cemeteries in which the total burial sample size was known. The last two ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 66 cemeteries were chosen because they contain burials with extremely rich grave good assemblages and sufficient variation in which to test for differences in wealth rank levels. Table 1 shows the number and percentage of burials that contain grave goods, within the entire cemetery sample, for each site. S i t e N o . of Bur i a l s w i t h Grave Goods T o t a l NO. o-f Bur i al s Propor t i ons Kanenokuma 6 343 2X Y . O i s h i 13 2? 45% Y . T a k a k i 12 31 39V. Y . Hi watash i 7 30 23'/. T a t e ' i w a 14 43 337. M i kumo 11 Suku Okamoto 10 — . T a b l e 1. Summary o-f P e r c e n t a g e V a l u e s f o r B u r i a l s w i th Grave Goods out o-f T o t a l Sample -for S i t e s used in A n a l y s i s o-f I n t r a - s i t e R a n k i n g . ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 67 ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 68 Site 1 is the Kanenokuma cemetery, shown in Figure 4, located in the Hakata District of Fukuoka City near Hakata Harbour. This site has been divided into five chronological phases, two of which contain burials with grave goods. The burials and their associated grave goods are shown in Table 2. The burials from the end of the Early Yayoi Phase, shown in Table 2, are the only two from a sample of 29 Early Phase burials that contain grave goods, in the form of polished stone arrowheads and Tricornis shell bracelets. The early half of the Middle Yayoi Phase sample consists of 82 burials without grave goods and four burials with funerary objects which are presented in Table 2. The Middle Yayoi Phase burials contain one and two separate grave good types. Burial 6 contains one Tricornis shell bracelet. This particular species is located near the shores of the Ryukyu Islands to the south of Kyushu. During both the Early and Middle Phases, each grave good type occurs at an average of one or two inclusions per burial with the exception of three ceramic bowls in Burial 3. There is no gap or sufficient cut-point, of two separate grave good type inclusions, to enable one to isolate any burials which contain a greater concentration of grave goods than others. Two wealth ranks are present among burials at the Kanenokuma site during both the end of the Early Yayoi and the early half of the Middle Yayoi Phases. Site 2 is the Yoshitake Oishi cemetery, shown in Figure 4, located in the southwest corner of the Sawara Plain in northern Kyushu. In total, 13 out of 29 burials contain grave goods. This site has been divided into two chronological phases. A N A L Y S I S O F I N T R A - S I T E R A N K I N G A N D R E G I O N A L W E A L T H H I E R A R C H Y / 69 Time Per i od End o-f Early Yayoi E a r l y Half o-f the Middle Yayoi Burial Number Stone Arrowhead Stone Bead T r i c o r n i s Bracelet Ceram i c Vesse1 1 2 Total Number o-f Separate Grave Good Types Table 2. Kanenokuma Site Grave Good Tabulations. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 70 The end of the Early Yayoi Phase sample consists of ten burials with grave goods present which are presented in Table 3. Each grave type occurs at an average of one per burial with the exception of 11 Jasper Tubular Beads found in Burial 4. The values in the bottom row of Table 3 show that Burials 4 and 5 contain two separate grave good types. Burial 3 contains one bronze sword and one bronze spear while Burial 4 contains one bronze sword and 11 Jasper Tubular Beads. There are no gaps or sufficient cut-points, which are the main criteria in this analysis, that exist in the frequency values of the grave goods to isolate any burials that contain a higher concentration of funerary objects than others. The beginning of the Middle Yayoi Phase at Yoshitake Oishi consists of two wood coffin burials (Numbers 11 and 12) and one jar burial. Burial 11 contains one bronze sword and one bronze halberd while burial 12 contains one bronze sword. Burial 13 contains one bronze halberd and four stone daggers. Since each burial contains either one or two separate grave good types, shown in the bottom row of Table 3, there is no gap or cut-point to establish any difference in wealth accumulation between the burials. The two lowest wealth ranks are present among burials at the Yoshitake Oishi site during the end of the Early Yayoi and the beginning of the Middle Yayoi Phases. Site 3 is the Yoshitake Takaki cemetery, shown in Figure 4, located 100 metres southwest of the Oishi cemetery in the Sawara Plain district. In total, 12 out of 31 burials contain grave goods. This site has been subdivided into two chronological phases. Six burials that have grave goods present during the end of ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 71 the Early Yayoi Phase are presented in Table 4. T i me Per i od End o-f E a r l y Y a y o i B e g i n n i n g o-f M i d d l e Y a y o i B u r i a l Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Bronze Sword 1 1 1 1 1 B r o n z e Spear 1 1 B r o n z e H a l b e r d 1 1 1 1 B r o n z e H i l t 1 Stone A r r o w h e a d 1 1 Stone Dagger 1 4 J a s p e r Bead 11 T o t a l Number o-f 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 S e p a r a t e Grave Good T y p e s T a b l e 3.. Y o s h i t a k e O i s h i S i t e Grave Good T a b u l a t i o n s . ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 72 Time P e r i o d End ot Ear 1 y Yayo i Begi nn i ng o-f Mi ddl e Yayo i B u r i a l Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Bronze Sword 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 Bronze Spear 1 Bronze H a l b e r d 1 Bronze M i r r o r . 1 S t . Arrowhead 1 Jono k o s h i Pot 1 1 1 1 1 Jade Magatama 1 . 1 1 1 Bead J a s p e r Bead 10 74 92 42 20 135 95 Bronze B r a c e l e t 2 G l a s s Bead T o t a l Number o-f 1 1 3 1 4 1 1 2 3 4 7 2 Se p a r a t e Grave Good Types T a b l e 4. Y o s h i t a k e T a k a k i S i t e Grave Good T a b u l a t i o n s . ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 73 Each grave type occurs once in each burial with the exception of two bronze bracelets in Burial 3 and large numbers of Jasper Tubular Beads. The bead frequency values are problematic since it is impossible to know whether the presence of 92 beads in a burial signifies higher status than 74 beads. It is best to view these large bead frequencies in terms of presence or absence. Each burial contains a single grave good type with the exception of Burial 3 and Burial 5 which contain three and four separate grave good types. These values are shown in the bottom row of Table 4. This gap between one separate inclusion and three and four separate inclusions satisfies the conditions discussed earlier that allow for a distinction between burials based on levels of wealth accumulation. Burial 3 and Burial 5 both contain a greater concentration of grave goods than the others. The beginning of the Middle Yayoi Phase sample consists of six burials that contain grave goods. These burials and their associated grave goods are presented in Table 4. Since Burial 11 contains seven separate grave good types, while the next highest number is four, it can be distinguished from the others based on a higher concentration of wealth. Three wealth ranks among- burials are present at the Yoshitake Takaki cemetery during the end of the Early Yayoi and the beginning of the Middle Yayoi Phases. Site 4 is the Yoshitake Hiwatashi cemetery, shown in Figure 4, located 100 metres northwest of the Takaki cemetery. The cemetery consists of a 40m in diameter stone lined earthen mound, filled with a group of burials that has been subdivided into three chronological phases. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 74 T i me M i d d l e P a r t L a t e H a l - f p-f L a t e P e r i o d o-f M i d d l e Mi d d l e Y a y o i Y a y o i Y a y o i B u r i a l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N u m b e r B r o n z e S w o r d 1 1 B r o n z e M i r r o r 1 B r o n z e C r o s s - s h a p e d 1 H i l t B r o n z e S w o r d G u a r d 1 I r o n S w o r d 1 1 1 I r o n A r r o w h e a d 1 I r o n K n i - f e 1 1 61 a s s B e a d 36 Q u a r t z B e a d 2 T o t a l N u m b e r o-f 2 1 2 ' 2 2 1 3 S e p a r a t e G r a v e G o o d T y p e s f a b l e 5. Y o s h i t a k e H i w a t a s h i S i t e G r a v e G o o d T a b u l a t i o n s . ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 75 In total, seven out of 30 burials contain grave goods. The middle part of the Middle Yayoi Phase sample consists of four burials that contain grave goods which are presented in Table 5. Three of the four burials contain two separate grave good types while Burial 2 contains a single iron sword. The separate number of grave good types are shown in the bottom row of Table 5. Since no gap in the separate grave good type frequencies exists, there is no basis on which to isolate any burial from the others on the basis of variation in wealth concentration. Two burials with grave goods present, which have been tabulated in Table 5, occur during the late half of the Middle Yayoi Phase. Burial 5 contains two separate grave good types while Burial 6 contains one grave good type. These values are shown in the bottom row of Table 5. There are no sufficient gaps within the separate grave good class frequencies to distinguish one burial from the other on the basis of a greater concentration in wealth. One burial with grave goods, from the Late Yayoi Phase, is presented in Table 5. Since only one burial exists during this phase, there is no basis for any comparison with other burials of the same phase to establish any cut-points based on wealth differences. Two wealth ranks among burials are present at the Yoshitake Hiwatashi cemetery during all three occupation phases. Site 5 is the Tate'iwa cemetery, shown in Figure 4, located west of the Onga River on the Kaho Plain of northeastern Kyushu. This site, which is the best documented of the seven, is subdivided into four chronological phases. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 76 T i m e B e g i nn i n g o-f L a t e H a l t o r E a r 1 y H a l f OT ? ? r i o d M i d d l e Y a y o i M t d d l e Y a y o i L a t e Y a y o i B u r i a l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 ? 10 11 12 13 14 N u m b e r B r o n z e M i r r o r 1 1 1 1 5 B r o n z e S p e a r 1 1 I r o n S w o r d 1 1 1 1 I r o n A r r o w h e a d 1 I r o n P I a n e h e a d 1 1 I r o n Kn i -fe 1 1 1 I r o n H a l b e r d 1 1 I r o n S p e a r 1 Whe t s t o n e 2 S t . A r r o w h e a d 2 J a s p e r B e a d 553* 2 G l a s s B e a d 2 30 T r i c o r n i s 12 B r a c e 1 e t C o n u s 23 23 B r a c e 1e t 61 a s s S t o p p e r 5 O b j e c t T o t a l N u m b e r o-f I 1 2 5 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 2 I 5 S e p a r a t e G r a v e G o o d T y p e s * 553 v a l u e i s - for b u r i a l 4 T a b l e 6. T a t e ' i w a S i t e G r a v e G o o d T a b u l a t i o n s . ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 77 In total, 14 out of 43 burials contain grave goods while three phases contain burials with grave goods present which are shown in Table 6. The beginning of the Middle Yayoi Phase consists of three jar burials which all contain shell bracelets. Burials 1 and 2 contain 28 Conus shell bracelets each while Burial 3 contains one iron sword and 12 Tricornis shell bracelets. Burial 3 contains two separate grave good types while Burials 1 and 2 contain a single grave type. These values are shown in the bottom row of Table 6. Obviously, each burial contains a large number of objects. Still, there is no gap, in terms of the number of separate grave good types present, to distinguish any burial from the others on the basis of a higher concentration of wealth. The late half of the Middle Yayoi Phase sample consists of 22 jar burials. The eight burials from this group that contain grave goods are presented in Table 6. Burial 4 contains one bronze mirror, one iron knife, 553 jasper tubular beads, two glass beads and five glass stopper-shaped objects. Burial 5 contains one bronze mirror, one iron halberd and 14 Tricornis shell bracelets. Burial 6 contains one bronze mirror, one iron sword, one iron halberd and 30 glass beads. There is a continuous increase, from one to three, in the number of separate grave types present within this sample with the exception of Burial 4 which contains five separate grave good types. These values are shown in the bottom row of Table 6. A^ gap of two more types allows this burial to be distiguished from the others on the basis of a greater concentration of wealth. Burials 5, 6 and 7 all contain three separate grave good types, including bronze mirrors; however, these burial assemblages lack the two additional grave good ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 78 categories included in Burial 4. The early half of the Late Yayoi Phase consists of 16 burials of which three contain grave goods. These burials and their associated grave goods are presented in Table 6. Two earthpit burials (numbers 12 and 13) contain a small number of iron and stone objects. However, one very rich jar burial (number 14) contains five bronze mirrors, one bronze spear, one iron sword, one iron planehead and two whetstones. Burials 12 and 13 contain two and one separate grave good types while Burial 14 contains five. These values are shown in the bottom row of Table 5. Also included in the Burial 14 assemblage is a multiple inclusion of five bronze mirrors. In terms of the number of separate grave good type inclusions and raw material content, Burial 14 contains a much larger concentration of wealth objects than the others. This burial can be separated from the other two. Three wealth ranks are present among burials during the late half of the Middle and early half of the Late Yayoi Phases at the Tate'iwa cemetery. Sites 6 and 7 are the Mikumo and Sugu Yamanokuchi sites which are both shown in Figure 4. The total number of burials within these sites is unknown; still, the large variation in wealth that exists provides evidence of social ranking within the burial classes that contain wealth objects. During the late half of the Middle Yayoi Phase, the Mikumo cemetery contained four burials with wealth objects (Table 7). Burials 4 and 5 contain two and one separate grave good types while Burials 6 and 7 each contain a large ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 79 number of wealth objects. The number of separate grave types present in each burial is presented in the bottom row of Table 7. T i m e P e r i o d L a t e H a l f o-f M i d d l e Y a y o i B u r i a l N u m b e r 1 2 3 4 B r o n z e S p e a r B r o n z e H a l b e r d B r o n z e S w o r d B r o n z e P e n d a n t B r o n z e M i r r o r I r o n Kn i -f e I r o n O b j e c t ( u n c l a s s i f i e d ) G l a s s M a g a t a m a B e a d G l a s s B e a d . G L a s s S p h e r e G l a s s P e n d a n t J a d e B e a d C e r a m i c V e s s e 1 2 1 1 8 30 3 60 8 2 2 12 T o t a l N u m b e r o f 2 1 9 4 S e p a r a t e G r a v e G o o d T y p e s T a b l e 7 . M i k u m o S i t e G r a v e G o o d T a b u l a t i o n s f o r t h e L a t e H a l f o f t h e M i d d l e Y a y o i P e r i o d . ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 80 T i m e P e r i o d L a t e H a l f o f Mi d d l e Y a y o i B u r i a l N u m b e r 1 2 3 4 5 6 B r o n z e S w o r d 1 4 1 1 B r o n z e S p e a r 5 B r o n z e H a l b e r d 1 B r o n z e Mi r r o r 3 2 2 S t o n e K n i f e 1 G l a s s S p h e r e 2 C l a s s B e a d 1 1 I r o n S w o r d I r o n K n i - f e A n t l e r B e a d 13 T o t a l N u m b e r o-f 1 7 2 1 1 1 S e p a r a t e G r a v e G o o d T y p e s T a b l e 3 . S u k u O K a m a t o S i t e G r a v e G o o d T a b u l a t i o n s f o r t h e L a t e H a l f o f t h e M i d d l e Y a y o i P e r i o d . ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 81 Burial 3 contains two bronze spears, one bronze halberd, one bronze sword, eight bronze pendants, 30 bronze mirrors, three glass magatama beads, 60 glass beads, eight glass spheres and one ceramic jar which amounts to nine separate grave good types. Burial 4 contains 22 bronze mirrors, one jade magatama bead, 12 glass beads and one glass pendant which which total four separate grave good types. In terms of the number of bronze objects present, these two burials contain among the highest values in northern Kyushu. As a result, they can be distinguished into a separate class from other burials, within the Mikumo cemetery, that contain a small number of wealth objects. A similar argument can be made for a single burial found in the Sugu Yamanokuchi cemetery. During the late half of the Middle Yayoi, there were six burials present that contained a small number of wealth objects (Table 8). One rich burial contains four bronze swords, five bronze spears, one bronze halberd, 32 bronze mirrors, two glass spheres, one glass bead and 13 antler tubular beads. The values in the bottom row of Table 8 show that Burial 2 contained seven separate grave good types while the others contained two. As with the two rich burials at the Mikumo Minamishoji site, this burial contains a substantial number of wealth objects. 3. Results of Test For Intra-Site R a n k i n g The test results are summarized in Table 9. In the Kanenokuma cemetery, there were two wealth ranks among burials during both the end of the Early Yayoi and the early half of the Middle Yayoi Phase. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 82 Site Chronological Phase Wealth Hanks Degree of Hanking Kanenokuma End of Early Yayoi 2 Minimal Early Half of Middle Yayoi 2 Minimal Y. Oishi End of Early Yayoi 2 Minimal Early Half of Middle Yayoi 2 Minimal T. Takaki End of Early Yayoi 3 Moderate Early Half of Middle Yayoi 3 Moderate Y. Hiwatashi Middle Part of Middle Yayoi 2 Minimal Late HaLf of Middle Yayoi 2 . Minimal Late Yayoi 2 Minimal Tate'iwa Early Half of Middle Yayoi 2 Minimal Late Half of Middle Yayoi 3 Moderate Early Half of Late Yayoi 3 Moderate Mikumo Late Half of Middle Yayoi High Suku Okamoto Late Half of Middle Yayoi 3 Moderate Table 9. Summary of Test Results For the Degree of Ranking at. the Intra-Site Level Within Seven Yayoi Period Cemetery Sites. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 83 The two levels consisted of burials without grave goods (Level 4) and burials which contained a small number of separate grave good types (Level 3). As outlined in the discussion on methods, this pattern indicates a minimal degree of ranking among the burials at the Kanenokuma cemetery. This pattern of minimal ranking was also present among the burials in the Yoshitake Oishi cemetery. Two wealth ranks, burials without grave goods and burials with a small number of separate grave good types, existed from the end of the Early Yayoi through to the early half of the Middle Yayoi Phase. The test revealed a change from this previous pattern among the burials at the Yoshitake Takaki cemetery. Three wealth ranks were present from the end of the Early Yayoi Phase to the beginning of the Middle Yayoi Phase. This cemetery contained burials without grave goods, burials with a small number of separate grave good types and burials which contained a considerably larger number of separate grave good types than the previous level. A pattern of minimal ranking was revealed among the burials in the Yoshitake Hiwatashi earthen mound cemetery. Two wealth ranks existed from the middle part of the Middle Yayoi Phase to the late half of the Middle Yayoi through to the Late Yayoi Phase. As with the Kanenokuma and Yoshitake Oishi sites, the Yoshitake Hiwatashi cemetery contained burials without grave goods and burials with a small number of grave good types. The patterning found among Tate'iwa burials is unique in that it was the only cemetery in which there was a change in the degree of ranking through ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 84 time. During the beginning of the Middle Yayoi Phase, two wealth ranks were present among the burials. However, three wealth ranks existed among burials from the late half of the Middle Yayoi Phase. This suggests that a moderate degree of ranking, characterized by three wealth ranks among burials, was present in the Tate'iwa community during this phase. This pattern of a moderate degree of ranking continued into the early half of the Late Yayoi Phase. The Mikumo cemetery is the only one which was characterized by a high degree of ranking, which occurred during the late half of the Middle Yayoi Phase. This cemetery contained four wealth ranks among the burials dating to the late half of the Middle Yayoi Phase. The Sugu Yamanokuchi cemetery contained three wealth ranks among burials during the late half of the Middle Yayoi Phase. As with Yoshitake Takaki and Tate'iwa, this site was characterized by a moderate degree of ranking. Overall, I think the methodology used in the previous analysis has allowed for an intensive study of the burial data in question. The goal of the analysis was to test for different levels of wealth accumulation among burials, which provided a way in which to group burials into different levels on a wealth rank scale. This goal has been accomplished through description and a method establishing gaps, or cut-points, to distinguish between groups of burials based on differential variation in wealth accumulation. A gap of two separate grave good class inclusions was used as the discriminating cut-point. Two classes were sufficient, in this case, due to the small number of inclusions and separate grave good types found in most burials. The number of wealth rank levels among ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 85 burials, derived from these notable gaps, were virtually unchanged for the duration of occupation at each site except one. In terms of the test of Hypothesis 1, this pattern showed a lack of change in the degree of ranking within each cemetery except one. In future studies of this nature, it will be necessary to describe more clearly the relationship between levels of wealth accumulation and wealth ranks. I am quite confident in the different levels of wealth accumulation that have been discovered; however, the wealth ranks that have been attached to each may be too simplistic. In this analysis, I have equated a distinct level of wealth accumulation with a distinct wealth rank. In reality, the situation may not have been quite as simple. 4. Conclusions From the patterning revealed in the test results, the following conclusions have been reached on the nature of intra-site ranking within the seven Yayoi period cemeteries. The Kanenokuma, Yoshitake Oishi and Yoshitake Hiwatashi sites were characterized by a minimal degree of ranking throughout their occupation phases. It seems that a small number of wealth objects filtered into these communities and were available to only a select few. The differences in social rank between individuals with and without grave goods in these communities were probably not considerable. This pattern of minimal ranking did not change through time, suggesting that there was no change or increase in the ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 86 status ordering or ranking systems of these communities. At this stage of the analysis, it is difficult to say whether this pattern resulted from internal competition or competition from other communities. The Yoshitake Takaki cemetery was characterized by a moderate degree of ranking during both the end of the Early Yayoi and the beginning of the Middle Yayoi Phases. This cemetery contained individuals buried without grave goods, individuals with a small number of wealth objects and a few individuals buried with a considerably higher number of wealth objects, or three wealth ranks. If wealth is an indicator of rank, then this community possessed a more developed system of ranking than the previous group of cemeteries. Perhaps the success of the Yoshitake Takaki peoples in production and wealth accumulation kept the other surrounding communities at a slightly lower level of development. The three Yoshitake cemeteries were located quite close together and it is difficult to determine whether they were from three smaller separate communities or one larger community. If the cemeteries represent three smaller communities, then the above scenario may have occurred. If the cemeteries represent one large community, it is possible that the burials within the Yoshitake Takaki cemetery represented a high ranking, perhaps chiefly, lineage group while the other two contained members of subordinate lineage groups. Further excavation and data analysis of village size and structure in this locality would provide more concrete answers to this intriguing question. The Tate'iwa- cemetery is the only one which showed change in the degree of ranking between burials. The beginning of the Middle Yayoi Phase was ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 87 characterized by a minimal degree of ranking which changed to moderate during the late half of the Middle and early half of the Late Yayoi Phases. It would appear, from this pattern, that a change in the community's internal system of status ordering or ranking occurred. It is difficult to determine the cause of this phenomenon. An increase in the productive capacity of the community and a need for coordination may have led to the creation of new social positions. The community's central position in the exchange of bronze mirrors and the production and exchange of ceramic burial jars is an equally probable cause for this change in the degree of ranking within the Tate'iwa community. Due to its central position in these networks, more wealth may have become available during the site's later occupation phases. Data on village structure, house size and form and subsistence would provide more information to explain the nature of this development. Mikumo was the only cemetery to be characterized by a high degree of ranking which was based on the burial assemblages of two individuals. Both contained a considerably larger number of wealth objects than the rest while one contained considerably more than the other. Despite the high degree of ranking, the Mikumo cemetery was similar to the others in that a very small number of individuals possessed wealth objects. This was probably due to the scarce nature of the objects, rules stating that one must occupy a very high position in the community's status ordering system to aquire these goods, or some combination of both. The Mikumo and Sugu Yamanokuchi cemeteries, both located in the same ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 88 region, contained burials which possessed some of the richest Yayoi period burial assemblages in northern 'Kyushu. It is possible that a few strong communities, such as these, were able to control the flow of wealth objects and maintain conditions of scarcity within the region. This may explain the very small burial assemblages that are characteristic of most northern Kyushu cemeteries in the Yayoi period. A more concrete answer to this question will be provided in the next section of this chapter. Another interesting pattern was revealed in the individual burial assemblages. Those burials with a high wealth rank usually contained multiple inclusions of imported bronze mirrors from the Asian continent. Bronze swords were present, in smaller quantities, in more burials while bronze mirrors were present in far greater numbers in fewer burials. From this pattern, it is possible to argue that the multiple inclusion of bronze mirrors in a burial signifies high status. It is this particular artifact, more than any other, that distinguishes rich, or elite, burials from those of low status individuals. Another interesting pattern that has been revealed is a lack of change in the degree of ranking within each cemetery through time; with the exception of the Tate'iwa cemetery. It appears that once a particular status ordering system was in place, it persisted for the duration of occupation. Does this mean that the internal dynamics associated with status rivalry did not lead to change in the degree of ranking within each community? It would appear so from the tests carried out in this section of the chapter. If this is the case, the patterns expected in Hypothesis 1 have not been confirmed in the analysis. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 89 It is important to remember that only seven out of several hundred sites have been tested. These sites were among the richest in northern Kyushu, and it is possible that they enjoyed more political stability than others. It is also quite possible that the changes which occurred were of a much more subtle nature than I was able to detect from the methodology used. Another possibility is that status rivalry and competition, within a community, occurred through feasting or other forms of behavior, besides the mortuary ritual, that may not have left tangible remains in the archaeological record. Still, the above pattern leads to another important question. If internal competition leading to change was minimal at best, did external competition between leaders of different communities provide more of a stimulus for change? An answer to this question will be provided in the analysis carried out in the next section of this chapter. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 90 5. Analysis of Change i n Regional Wealth Hierarchies Introduction This section contains an analysis of inter-site ranking. The goal of the analysis is to establish a rank ordering of cemetery sites within five regions to establish a possible site hierarchy. This does not refer to a hierarchy of settlement but, instead, refers to a hierarchy of sites on the basis of different wealth ranks. The two may be related; however, this study is unable to determine the extent of this possible relationship due to a lack of settlement data. Data The data consist of bronze objects, mainly of ornament and weapon categories, that have been unearthed from burials within 244 cemeteries in northern Kyushu (Table 15 Appendix A). Originally, the grave goods were tabulated according to their specific artifact type and the burial in which they were discovered (Fukuoka Shiritsu Rekishi Shiryokan 1986:129-148). After initial data exploration, it was decided that it would be necessary to group each separate type into its raw material category. This was due to the very small number of inclusions for each grave type and the unknown burial sample size for each site. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 91 I think that this procedure was valid for the following reasons. Since bronze objects were either weapons or ornaments, or non-utilitarian, they would have possessed high wealth value. For the purpose of this study, this is all one needs to know. Secondly, since the total burial sample size was unknown a sound analysis of intra-site burial assemblage variability would not have been possible. The data were transformed in the most consistent manner possible for use in the analysis of regional wealth hierarchy. The analysis relies on the values of bronze objects for several reasons. First, ceramic and stone were locally available and are not considered raw materials of high wealth value. The comparison of numbers of iron and shell objects is hampered by problems of preservation in the highly acidic, swampy soils of northern Kyushu. The semi-precious stone jewelry values are problematic since their frequency of occurence per burial ranges from 1 to 10, 000. Bronze, on the other hand, is well documented, is not subject to rapid deterioration as iron and shell and has widespread mention in the literature on Yayoi period archaeology as a highly prized, exotic foreign material in northern Kyushu. Either a large amount of resources or goods of equal value to bronze would have to be exchanged to receive these prestige goods. The ability to obtain large numbers of bronze objects is a good indicator of the high productive capacity of a community. The cemeteries have been divided into five regional samples shown in Figure 5. The regional subdivisions are as follows: Region 1 is the Onga River drainage basin located in the northeast corner of northern Kyushu. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 93 Region 2 consists of the Fukuoka Plain, a flat (5-20m above sea level) alluvial plain in the central portion of Fukuoka prefecture bordered by two upland plateaus, which are part of the Tsukushi mountain range. This area is drained by four major rivers that flow north through the Fukuoka Plain and empty into Hakata Bay. Region 3 occupies the northwestern corner of northern Kyushu, which is dotted with irregular indented bays, high sea cliffs and small islands along the west coast. This area is drained by the Matsu'ura River which flows north into Karatsu Bay located just south of Iki Strait. Region 4 is the large Chikugo River drainage basin located south of the Fukuoka Plain with Regions 1 and 2 at its northern boundaries. The Chikugo headwaters begin in the foothills of Mount Kuju, located to the east in Oita prefecture, and flow west through the Tsukushi Plain into Ariake Bay. This region represents a transitional zone between the flat alluvial lands of the Tsukushi Plain to the west and the highlands to the east where the foothills of the high Kyushu mountains begin. Region 5 marks the southern half of present-day Nagasaki prefecture. It is bordered by Ariake Bay, to the east, Tachibana Bay, to the south, and Omura Bay, which dissects this huge peninsula from the west. This large block of land extends south from northern Nagasaki and divides into three smaller peninsulas at its southern borders. The Nishi Sona Peninsula to the west is bordered by the Pacific Ocean on its west side and Omura Bay to the east. The smaller Nagasaki Peninsula extends in a southwest direction and is bordered by the Sea of Japan to the west and Tachibana Bay to the east. The larger Shimabara Peninsula, to the west, is surrounded by Tachibana and Ariake Bays. These are the five regions that will be referred to in the analysis. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 94 Method I compare the distribution of prestige goods in sites within each region. Chapman argues that it is possible to establish site hierarchies based on the concentration of wealth objects within a region (1975:259). Sites which contain the highest frequencies of prestige objects would tend to occupy a higher place within a local prestige good network (1975:263). Frankenstein and Rowlands propose a similar methodology in their investigation of the spatial and structural patterning of an Iron Age prestige good network in western Europe (1978). They argue that the structure of each sub-domain, within this network, can be defined by the different ranked status of burials, which indicate different levels in the political hierarchy (1978:83). Both studies involve the analysis of data from cemeteries in which the total number of burials is documented. The data to be used in this particular study are not as complete. All of the sites involved consist of a sample in which the total number of excavated burials is unknown. Only the burials that contain grave goods have been tabulated for each site. To overcome this problem, a slight variation of Chapman's methodology will be utilized to control for sampling error. One index of bronze accumulation value will be used for each cemetery to establish a scale of wealth rank for each regional sample of sites. This method will provide control for sample size within each cemetery, which is necessary ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 95 since the total number of burials is unknown. In this case, I divide the absolute number of bronze objects by the number of burials that contain bronze. For example, if 27 bronze swords are present within a site and they occur in 10 burials, the index of accumulation value is obtained by dividing 27 by 10. This index value provides a measure of wealth concentration which shows the manner in which wealth objects were controlled or hoarded by those able to acquire these goods. A problem may still arise in cases in which the same index value results from different absolute values. For example, a ratio of 27/10 contains the same index value as a ratio of 2.7/1. The index value is the same, yet, obvious differences in the absolute values exist. For cases in which this problem occurs, the raw data tables showing the absolute values should be consulted. Despite this deficiency, this method is necessary to help overcome the even greater problem of unknown sample size which exists for 239 of the 244 sites used in the analysis. The index of accumulation value will be used to determine the wealth rank of each site in a regional hierarchy. A cemetery must have a high accumulation index value to possess a high level of wealth concentration. If a chief is successful in acquiring large amounts of wealth, the wealth should be passed on to other individuals within the community. Further success should be indicated by a continuous channeling of large amounts of wealth to those recipients (index of accumulation). This index value shows the amount of bronze that was collected by the chief and his supporters. The accumulation of large ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 96 amounts of bronze within a site is an indication of high rank within a regional wealth exchange network. The higher the bronze index value for each site, the higher the wealth rank and the higher its position in the regional hierarchy. Wealth accumulation index values are presented in Tables 10, 11 and 12. The total sample of sites has been divided into five regions, based on river drainage systems, and three phases to provide spatial and temporal control. The object of the analysis is to rank sites, according to their bronze index values, into a wealth scale ranging from lowest to highest. To accomplish this goal, cut-points are necessary to distinguish different levels of wealth accumulation, or wealth ranks, between cemeteries. In this particular analysis, the median accumulation index value for each sample will be used. If a gap larger than the median value for a given sample occurs between two index values, then a cut-point will be established at this gap to distinguish two separate levels on the wealth rank scale. The use of the median value as a cut point is valid for the following reason. Since the median represents the center point of a batch of numbers, it provides a measure of central tendency for the sample. A gap larger than the median constitutes a considerable difference between two continuous values in a small sample of numbers. A large gap between index values, such as the median, provides a measurable gap in levels of wealth accumulation and wealth rank. Each gap larger than the median value for a sample of index values will provide a cut point between two levels on the wealth rank scale. The analysis involves a test to determine the placement of each site, within a regional sample, into four possible site types represented by four levels ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 97 on the wealth rank scale. Level 4 represents the lowest level on the wealth rank scale which consists of sites without bronze in each regional sample. Level 3 on the wealth rank scale consists of sites with a very small bronze index of accumulation value. Level 2 sites must possess a considerably higher index value than those of Level 3. The means to establish this cut-point will be provided by the existence of a gap larger than the median between the index values of two sites. Level 1 represents the highest wealth rank that a site can receive. For this to occur, another cut-point must exist that clearly distinguishes a considerably higher level of bronze accumulation than the Level 2 sites within the same sample. The presence of four wealth ranks, or site types, represents the highest level of inter-site ranking or hierarchy that may exist within each regional sample. 6. Wealth Hierarchy D u r i n g the E a r l y Y a y o i Phase The Region 1 sample for the Early Yayoi phase consists of seven sites of which three contain bronze objects. A summary of the index values used in the test for rank ordering is provided in Table 10. The median, high and low extreme values are all 1.0 within this sample. Since the sites all possess the same bronze accumulation index value, there is no basis for establishing a rank order within this group. These three sites can be distinguished as a separate group from the other sites without bronze. As a result, two wealth ranks of sites are present in this sample consisting of Level 3 sites that possess small bronze index values and Level 4 sites without bronze. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 98 The Region 2 Early Yayoi phase sample consists of 19 sites in which nine contain bronze objects. R e g i o n N o . o-f S i t e s M e d i an R a n g e R a n k C u t V a l u e s 1 3 1 . 0 1 . 0 - 1 . 0 1 . 0 , -2 ? 1 . 3 1 . 0 - 7 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 2 1 . 3 3 . 0 7 . 0 3 2 1 .0 1 . 0 - 1 . 0 1 . 0 1 1 4 4 1 . 0 1 . 0 - 1 . 0 1 . 0 5 T a b l e 1 0 . S u m m a r y T a b l e o-f V a l u e s - for e a c h D u r i n g t h e E a r l y B r o n z e I n d e x o-f A c c u m u l a t i o n o-f t h e F i v e R e g i o n a l S a m p l e s Y a y o i P e r i o d ( c u t v a l u e s u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n w e a l t h r a n k V e v e l s a r e s h o w n i n t h e f a r r i g h t c o l u m n ) . ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 99 ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 100 One cut-point exists between the 3.0 and 7.0 index values, shown in Table 10, since the difference between them is larger than the median value of 1.3. A second cut-point exists between 1.3 and 3.0 since this gap is also larger than the median value. Four wealth ranks are present among sites in Region 2 during the Early Yayoi Phase. The Region 3 Early Yayoi Phase sample consists of seven sites, including two that contain bronze. The summary values provided in Table 10 show that the median, high and low values are all 1.0. There are no gaps sufficient to establish any cut-points between the bronze index values for these sites. Two wealth ranks are present among Region 3 sites during the Early Yayoi Phase. Level 3 consists of two sites with small bronze index values while Level 4 consists of five sites without bronze. The Region 4 Early Yayoi Phase sample consists of 12 sites in which four contain bronze objects. Table 10 shows that the median, high and low index values are all 1.0 for this sample. Since all four sites have the same index value, there are no cut-points between different wealth ranks. This sample of sites contains two wealth ranks consisting of those with bronze present in small amounts (Level 3) and sites without bronze (Level 4). The Region 5 Early Yayoi Phase sample consists of a single site that contains bronze which provides no basis for the establishment of cut-points between index values. The significance of a single site containing bronze within an entire region will be discussed in the concluding section of this analysis. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 101 7. Wealth Hierarchy During the Middle Yayoi Phase The Region 1 Middle Yayoi Phase sample consists of ten sites of which five contain bronze objects. A summary of the index values used in the test for rank ordering is provided in Table 11. The high and low index values for this sample are 2.0 and 1.0 while the median value is 1.5. There are no sufficient cut-points, within the index values, that distinguish between between sites based on different levels of wealth accumulation. This sample contains two wealth ranks that consist of sites with small bronze index values (Level 3) and sites without bronze (Level 4). The Region 2 Middle Yayoi Phase sample consists of 27 sites including 16 that contain bronze objects. Table 11 shows that the gaps between 3.0 and 8.0 and 8.0 and 15.0 are much larger than the median value of this sample, which makes the establishment of two cut-points possible. The range is highly skewed to the right of the median value which means that the difference in index values between sites with large amounts of bronze are of a much greater magnitude than for those at the lower end of the scale. Four wealth ranks are present among Region 2 sites during the Middle Yayoi Phase. The Region 3 Middle Yayoi Phase sample consists of 24 sites in which 11 contain bronze objects. The summary values provided in Table 11 show that the range in index values is small which makes the establishment of cut-points difficult. Since there is no gap larger than the median of 2.0 between any pair of index values, two wealth ranks are present in this sample. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 102 R e g i o n N o . o-f M e d i a n R a n g e R a n k C u t V a l u e s S i t e s 1 5 1.5 1.2-2.0 1.0 2.0 I I 2 16 i .9 1.0-15.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 |3.0 15.0 3 11 2.0 1.0-4.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.5 4.7 4 20 2.3 1.0-7.0 1.0 1.5 3.0 |7.o| 5 3 1.2 1.0-1.3 1.0 1.3 | I T a b l e 11. S u m m a r y T a b l e o f B r o n z e I n d e x o f A c c u m u l a t i o n V a l u e s f o r e a c h o f t h e F i v e R e g i o n a l S a m p l e s D u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Y a y o i P e r i o d ( c u t v a l u e s u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n w e a l t h r a n k l e v e l s a r e s h o w n i n t h e f a r r i g h t c o l u m n ) . ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 104 Level 3 consists of 11 sites with small bronze index values while Level 4 consists of 13 sites without bronze. The Region 4 Middle Yayoi Phase sample of 35 sites includes 20 that contain bronze objects. The summary values used as rank cut-points are presented in Table 11. Since a gap larger than the median of 2.3 exists between the 3.0 and 7.0 index values, a single cut-point exists within this sample. As a result, three wealth ranks are present among Region 4 sites during the Middle Yayoi Phase. Level 2 consists of the Oitai site, Level 3 consists of 19 sites with small bronze index values and Level 4 consists of 15 sites without bronze objects. The Region 5 Middle Yayoi Phase sample of seven sites includes three that contain bronze objects. There is no gap larger than the median value of 1.2 within the values provided in Table 11. Since no cut-points are present, two wealth ranks exist among the sites in this sample. Level 3 consists of three sites that contain bronze while Level 4 consists of four sites without bronze objects. 8. Wealth Hierarchy During the Late Yayoi Phase The Region 1 Late Yayoi period sample of 17 sites includes 14 that contain bronze objects. The index values in this sample, shown in Table 12, range from 1.0 to 6.0 and the largest gap between any two values is 2.0. Since the median value is 3.0, no sufficient cut-points exist. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 105 R e g i o n N o . o-f M e d i a n R a n g e R a n k C u t V a l u e s S i t e s 1 14 3 . 0 1 . 0 - 6 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0 4 . 0 6 . 0 2 10 2 . 0 1 . 0 - 3 . 0 1 . 0 3 . 0 I 3 21 3 . 3 1 . 0 - 2 9 . 0 I . 0 4 . 0 5 . 0 6 . 0 2 9 . 0 4 13 1 . 5 1 . 0 - 2 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 0 ' 5 2 1 . 0 1 . 0 - 1 . 0 1 . 0 T a b l e 1 2 . S u m m a r y T a b l e o-f B r o n z e I n d e x o-f A c c u m u l a t i o n V a l u e s - f o r e a c h o-f t h e F i v e R e g i o n a l S a m p l e s D u r i n g t h e L a t e Y a y o i P e r i o d ( c u t v a l u e s u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n w e a l t h r a n k l e v e l s a r e s h o w n i n t h e - fa r r i g h t c o l u m n ) . ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 106 ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 107 Each increasing index value is very close to the previous value which makes their distinction into separate levels of wealth accumulation difficult under the criteria established earlier. As a result, two wealth ranks are present within this sample. The Region 2 Late Yayoi Phase sample of 17 sites includes 10 that contain bronze. The high and low values for this sample, shown in Table 12, are 3.0 and 1.0 while the median is 2.0. There are no gaps of sufficient magnitude to establish any cut-points within this sample. Two wealth ranks are present in which 10 sites with small index values form Level 3 and seven sites without bronze form Level 4. The Region 3 Late Yayoi Phase sample of 35 sites includes 21 that contain bronze objects. The summary values provided in Table 12 show that a gap larger than the median of 3.8 exists between the 6.0 and 29.0 index values. As a result, one cut-point is present in this sample which leads to the establishment of three wealth ranks. Level 2 consists of one site with an extremely high bronze index value. Level 3 is composed of 20 sites with small index values while Level 4 consists of the remaining 14 sites without bronze objects. The Region 4 Late Yayoi Phase sample consists of 20 sites in which 13 contain bronze objects. The summary values in Table 12 show that there is no gap larger than the median value of 1.5 within the sample. As a result, two wealth ranks are present within this group of sites. Level 3 consists of 13 sites ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 108 with small index values while Level 4 consists of seven sites without bronze. The Region 5 Late Yayoi Phase sample consists of six sites in which two contain bronze objects. There is no basis for ranking within this group since both sites have identical index values. Two wealth ranks are present within this sample consisting of two sites with bronze at Level 3 and four sites without bronze at Level 4. 9. Change in Regional Wealth Hierarchy The results for the test of the determination of wealth ranks for each regional sample are shown in Table 13 and presented in graphic form in Figure 9. The goal of this section of the analysis is to test for change in the regional wealth hierarchy structure within each sample in terms of the number of wealth ranks of sites present during each time phase. The expected pattern, derived from the model in Chapter 3, is that a region with the most developed wealth hierarchy should show the most significant change. The time trajectory line for Region 1 shows that two wealth rank levels are present during all three time periods. The Region 2 time line shows that four wealth rank levels are present during the Early and Middle Yayoi Phases; however, the line drops to two wealth ranks during the Late Yayoi Phase. Region 3 has two wealth rank levels during the Early and Middle Phases and three wealth rank levels during the Late Yayoi Phase. The Region 4 time trajectory line shows two wealth rank levels during the Early Phase, three levels ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 109 during the Middle and two levels during the Late Yayoi Phase. E a r 1y Y a y o i P e r i o d Wealth Rank Reg i on 1 O w 4 5 H i g h e s t 1 2 3 Lowest 4 3 4 1 1 7 10 3 4 4 3 1 M i d d l e Yayoi P e r i o d Wealth Rank Reg i on 1 2 3 4 5 H i g h e s t 1 2 3 Lowest 4 5 5 1 1 14 11 11 13 1 19 15 3 4 La t e Yayoi P e r i o d Wealth Rank Reg i on 1 2 3 4 5 H i g h e s t 1 2 3 Lowest 4 14 3 IC 7 1 I 1? 14 13 7 2 4 T a b l e 13. Number.o-f S i t e s P o s s e s s i n g Each Type -for F i v e Regional Samples Wealth Rank D u r i n g the Yayoi Per i od. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 11.0 I — 1 1 I •Early Tayoi Kiddle Yayoi I a t e ^ayoi f i g u r e 1 0 . Diagraa Showing Change i n Regional Wealth Hierarchy Structure 3etween the ?ive Regions i n Northern Kyushu. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 111 Region 5 shows one wealth rank level during the Early Yayoi, which changes to two levels during the Middle and Late Yayoi Phases. Figure 9 shows that Region 2 displays the greatest change in the number of wealth rank levels between the Middle and Late Yayoi Phases. Region 4 also shows a drop in the number of wealth ranks during this time. The implications of this patterning will be discussed in the concluding section of this chapter. 10. A n a l y s i s Results This test for variation in levels of bronze accumulation has resulted in very few cases in which more than two wealth ranks are present among sites. A summary of the test results is provided in Table 14. For the Early Yayoi Phase sample, four wealth ranks among sites were found among only those within Region 2. These levels were composed of sites without bronze, sites with small accumulation index values, sites with large index values and one site with a considerably larger index of accumulation value. This pattern meets the criteria established earlier for the existence of a high degree of ranking between sites or a regional hierarchy of bronze control. Regions 1, 3, 4 and 5 all possessed a minimal degree of inter-site ranking characterized by two wealth rank levels. Level 4 consisted of sites without bronze while Level 3 consisted of sites with small bronze accumulation index values. During the Middle Yayoi Phase, Region 2 contained four wealth rank levels of sites. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 112 Early Yayoi Middle Yayoi Late Yayoi Region Wealth Ranks Degree of Ranking Wealth Ranks Degree of Ranking Wealth Degree of Ranks Ranking 1 2 Minimal 2 Minimal 2 Minimal 2 4- High 4 High 2 Minimal 3 2 Minimal 2 Minimal 3 Moderate 4- 2 Minimal 3 Moderate 2 Minimal 5 1 None 2 Minimal 2 Minimal Table "14. Summary of Test Results For Inter-Site Ranking Within the Five Regional Samples During the Yayoi Period in Northern Kyushu. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 113 Region 4 advanced from two in the Early Phase to three wealth rank levels during the Middle Yayoi Phase. Regions 1, 3 and 5 had two wealth rank levels during the Middle Phase suggesting that the degree of inter-site ranking, or hierarchy, was still minimal. During the Late Yayoi Phase, there was a decrease in the number of regions with more than two wealth rank levels of sites. Region 2, which had four wealth rank levels during the Middle Yayoi, dropped to two wealth rank levels during the Late Yayoi Phase. Region 3 dropped from three wealth rank levels during the Middle Phase to two wealth rank levels during the Late Yayoi Phase. The pattern in Region 3 changed from two wealth rank levels in the Middle phase to three wealth rank levels during the Late Yayoi Phase. Region 3 was the only region during the Late Yayoi phase to contain more than two wealth rank levels among its sites. The patterning discovered in the analysis supports Hypothesis 2 that the greatest change in wealth rank structure should occur in the regions that contained the greatest number of wealth rank levels. I will discuss the cultural significance of this patterning in the concluding part of this section, but, first, I will evaluate the tests results on methodological grounds. Before I discuss the test results, I must provide a cautionary note on the methodology at this stage. The method used was the result of initial data exploration through more conventional means such as box-plots, stem and leaf diagrams and tables. An alternative method was used because of the difficulties ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 114 in receiving adequate output due to the very small number of sites used in each sample. Further data transformation, in terms of the conversion of absolute values to index values, was done to control for sampling error. I would stress that this method was tailor-made for the unique data set in question and should not be adopted wholesale and used indiscriminantly on any other data set. More conventional, statistically sound methods should be attempted first. If this were to prove unsuccessful, then perhaps an alternative method, such as the one used in this thesis, would be useful. The index of accumulation values provided a useful way to control for sampling error and establish rank cut values to determine the wealth rank level of each site within a regional sample. One interesting problem that arose was the difference in the magnitude of wealth accumulation between each separate sample. For example, the Region 3 Early Yayoi Phase sample values ranged from 1.0 to 4.7 while those from the Region 3 Late Phase ranged from 1.0 to 29.0. As a result, the same scale could not be used to establish rank cut points in each sample. By using the median value of each sample to establish sufficient gaps in bronze accumulation values, the original integrity of each sample was maintained without being influenced by the extreme values of others. Overall, the analysis accomplished what it set out to do. Different wealth rank levels between sites were determined in cases in which they were obvious. In some samples, a pattern occurred in which each ascending index value was very close to the preceding one. When this occurred, it was difficult to establish cut-points based on the presence of a gap larger than the median value. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 115 Perhaps, a separate category for this phenomenon could have been established if the range between high and low values was large. Still, this may have diverged too far from the original goal of the analysis, which was to pinpoint obvious gaps in bronze accumulation between sites and establish a regional hierarchy of wealth distribution. 11. Conclusions The following conclusions have been reached based on the patterns described in the previous section. During the Early Yayoi Phase, Region 2 showed a high degree of ranking between sites. Four wealth rank levels were present consisting of sites without bronze, sites with small bronze index values, sites with large amounts of bronze and one site with a much higher concentration of bronze. Since the Itazuke Tabata cemetery had the highest bronze index value, it was given the highest wealth rank within Region 2. This value came from the assemblage of a single burial, which means that the burial was for a high status individual. This pattern is different from that of a site such as the Yoshitake cemetery, which contained a moderate number of bronze objects distibuted among more individuals. Perhaps the principles of status, rank and wealth distribution were different between these two communities. Since two wealth rank levels were present in the other four regions (Figure 9), and the bronze index values tended to be much smaller, it is clear that there was greater variation in the relative importance of bronze between sites within Region 2 than the rest. This pattern was probably due to two ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 116 factors. First, evidence shows that this region was the most developed, in terms of population density and subsistence production, during the Early Yayoi Phase. Second, Region 2 appears to be the first to have received bronze goods from the continent. Thus, it is no surprise that this region contained the most developed regional hierarchy based on differences in wealth rank between sites. During the Middle Yayoi Phase, two regions contained more than two wealth rank levels among their sites. Region 2 contained four wealth ranks, which amounts to a high degree of inter-site ranking. The two major sites responsible for this pattern were the Mikumo and Sugu Yamanokuchi sites which contained a much larger number of bronze objects than others within Region 2. These bronze objects were placed into two burials at Mikumo (Table 7) and a single burial at Sugu Yamanokuchi (Table 8). Bronze objects, especially mirrors, were scarce and controlled by a few powerful individuals within Region 2. Perhaps the power and influence of the leaders within these communities kept other settlements in the region at a lower level of development. It is possible that a political system based on a small regional hierarchy of settlements existed during the Middle Yayoi Phase in northern Kyushu. The center of the hierarchy would have been the area occupied by the Mikumo and Sugu Yamanokuchi sites. This political center may have controlled other surrounding communities within this region. Region 4 had three wealth rank levels or a moderate degree of inter-site ranking (Table 14 and Figure 9). The Oitai site possessed the highest bronze index value which shows that this site had the highest wealth rank in the ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 117 region. Another smaller political center may have existed at the Oitai site which would have controlled the flow of bronze objects to other communities in Region 4. Archaeological evidence suggests that if political centers existed in these areas, they would have been quite small. There is no evidence, at this time, to suggest any form of unification between the more powerful communities in Regions 2 and 4. Political control in the Middle Yayoi Phase was probably based on small pockets of power in which leaders of a few communities were able to control bronze and maintain conditions of scarcity at the expense of others. This pattern is of great significance in explaining the nature of political change in Yayoi period northern Kyushu. From the data used in this analysis, the Middle Yayoi Phase contains the most developed wealth hierarchy network. Yet, even at this stage, there is no evidence to suggest any form of political unification between powerful communities in different regions. During the Late Yayoi Phase, Region 3 had three wealth rank levels which suggests a moderate degree of inter-site ranking. Region 2, which had four levels and a high degree of ranking during the Middle Yayoi, contained only two wealth rank levels during the Late Yayoi Phase. Sites within Region 3 possessed the highest concentrations of bronze during this phase. Region 4, which contained three wealth rank levels during the Middle Yayoi, had two levels during the Late Phase. Only one of four regions had more than a minimal degree of inter-site ranking during the Late Yayoi Phase. The Sakura-no-baba cemetery, in Region 3, had the highest bronze index value and wealth rank, and was, perhaps, a small center of political influence. ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 118 Of particular interest are the patterns of change in inter-site ranking on a regional scale. During the Early Yayoi Phase, Region 2 was a center of bronze control while the other four regions had small amounts of bronze. This pattern continued to develop into the Middle Yayoi Phase in which the beginning of a regional hierarchy of bronze control took place. A small area within Region 2 became a center of bronze control, and possibly, political control. This same pattern emerged in Region 4, to a lesser degree, in which the Oitai site came to possess a higher wealth rank than other sites within this region. This general trend changed abruptly in the Late Yayoi Phase when the ranked structures present in the previous two periods disappeared. Region 3 emerged as a dominant consumer of bronze and the only region that possessed a moderate degree of inter-site ranking. Overall, Region 2 was the only area that had a well developed wealth exchange hierarchy during the Early and Middle Phases. This hierarchy was either destroyed or reorganized during the Late Yayoi Phase. In summary, the analysis carried out in this chapter has provided some unexpected results. The analysis of intra-site ranking revealed a trend towards a lack of change in the degree of ranking at each cemetery with the exception of one. Either, the internal dynamics associated with status rivalry did not lead to change in community rank ordering systems, or status rivalry was not prevalent at this level. On the other hand, the analysis of change in inter-site ranking supported Hypothesis 2. A well-developed, regional hierarchy of wealth control was present in only Region 2, during the Early and Middle Phases, and Region 4 to a lesser ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SITE RANKING AND REGIONAL WEALTH HIERARCHY / 119 extent. This hierarchy disappeared during the Late Yayoi showing that the region with the most developed wealth hierarchy experienced the greatest upheaval and change in organizational structure. Competition between communities is one possible way to explain this pattern. Overall, it appears, from this particular analysis, that status rivalry and competition between communities played a more significant role than intra-community competition in the political development of Yayoi society in northern Kyushu. CHAPTER V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This thesis has looked at the possible role of status rivalry in the evolution of Yayoi period society in northern Kyushu. Two major hypotheses, derived from a model of status rivalry and change in community power structure, were tested. Hypothesis 1 stated that status rivalry was present in the development of social ranking within communities and subsequent change in the status ordering system. Tests revealed two major patterns. First, a well-developed, internal ranking system was present in very few cemeteries. Second, there was a trend towards a lack of change in the degree of ranking within each cemetery. There are several possible explanations for this pattern. Sampling error may have biased the results by obscuring the full range of variability among the burial assemblages. This is quite possible, since the total number of burials within all of the cemeteries was not known. Another possible explanation for this pattern may stem from the methodology used to establish wealth ranks among burials. Perhaps large differences in status were indicated by subtle differences in the wealth content of burials. If this was the case, the criteria used for establishing separate wealth rank categories may have been too rigid. However, I thought it was important to exercise caution in this aspect of the analysis, especially since I was using data concerning grave goods. As stated earlier, the method used for the analysis in this thesis has provided a useful way to look at this particular data set. Still, more conventional 120 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS / 121 methods should be tried first. Variation in wealth content among mortuary assemblages was obvious in most cases and easy to pin-point in this particular study; however, this may always be the case for mortuary data sets from different parts of the world. Methodological problems aside, there are other interesting explanations that may account for this lack of change in internal rank structure within these communities. Perhaps the status ordering and ranking systems remained intact in these communities. In this case, status rivalry may not have played a major role in the local power structure. Rules of succession for the leadership position may have been firmly established in such a way that a concrete emphasis on ability was absent form the system. As a result, the opportunities for political advancement, on the part of individuals that were not part of a high ranking lineage, would have been rare. On the other hand, change may have occurred in the form of new chiefs succeeding old chiefs in such a way that the structure of the ranking system remained the same. Status rivalry could have led to a rapid change in leaders while the chiefly office and subordinate postions remained intact. What the test of Hypothesis 1 failed to show was a change in the structure of internal ranking systems within these communities. This does not necessarily mean that other kinds of change did not occur. Another possible explanation is that competition and status rivalry were not carried out through the mortuary ritual. Perhaps power was displayed SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS / 122 through feasting or other forms of ritual activity. If this was the case, evidence of status rivalry and competition would not be preserved in the archaeological record. As mentioned earlier, other classes of data are needed to test this notion more thoroughly. First, greater time control is needed. Instead of placing burials into the three major time divisions of the Yayoi period, the use of radiocarbon dates and close attention to the formation processes involved would provide a tight chronological ordering of burials into more phases of shorter duration. As a result, change in the mortuary patterning over shorter time intervals would be revealed. A finer time scale is necessary in the study of change in rank ordering in mortuary data, especially at the intra-site level. For example, if chiefs were interred in rich burials at an average of • one every 50 years, it is crucial for the archaeologist to know this fact if the research goal is to explain the relationship between status rivalry and chiefly succession in this community. Further information on the internal structure of each community would also be useful. Data on the spatial relationship between households and cemeteries, household size and storage pit capacities would provide a more diverse information base for the analysis. The goal of this particular strategy would be to confirm whether or not patterning in the other classes of data support the patterns within the mortuary data. If this proved to be the case, one's arguments, based on the burial data, would be strengthened. Hypothesis 2 stated that status rivalry between the leaders of different SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS / 123 communities led to short-term political success, oscillations in wealth control and major structural changes in the organization of the existing wealth exchange network. The patterning revealed in the analysis of inter-site ranking supported this hypothesis. For the most part, regional wealth hierarchies were rare and when they did occur, they were confined to a single river drainage basin. A well developed hierarchy was present in only the Fukuoka Plain region during the Early Yayoi Phase. This network developed further during the Middle Yayoi only to disappear in the Late Yayoi Phase. This pattern supports Hypothesis 2 and the model presented in Chapter 3 which call for the greatest structural change in the regional wealth hierarchy to occur in areas where it is the most developed. Structural change in wealth rank and exchange network systems occurred on a regional scale far more than change in rank ordering and wealth control within sites. As mentioned earlier, these results support the notion that status rivalry, and the accompanying oscillations in political and wealth control, occurred more between the leaders of different communities than local elites within the same community. Perhaps, status ordering and rank within a community was still strongly based on rules of kinship, descent and strong lineage ties. As a result, political gamesmanship and maneuvering would not have played a major role in the quest for leadership. As one moved further away from the local community, kinship ties began to disappear. Competitive interaction between communities may have involved a greater emphasis on ability or other more impersonal qualities. If this was the case, competition may have involved outdoing a neighboring community through high productive capacity and the control of more wealth. If SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS / 124 the system of inter-community rivalry was strong enough, limits on the amount of power a single community could hold would have existed. Other peripheral communities would have allied themselves to oust the leader of a successful community at the pinnacle of the hierarchy that extracted wealth and resources at their own expense. This particular pattern was revealed in the analysis in Chapter 4. As mentioned earlier, it is the well developed hierarchies that eventually fall. There is also no evidence for political unification between regions during any time period. The general pattern of change seems to be the rise and fall of small areas or pockets of control. If wealth possession is an indicator of political power, political control in the Yayoi period of northern Kyushu was of a very precarious nature. This thesis supports the ideas of researchers such as Feinman and Neitzel (1984:44) and Steponaitis (1981:321) who argue for the need to abandon classificatory and typological research on ranked societies and the development of social complexity. The typological approach consists of works that search for the proper patterning in archaeological data to place the society in question at one of the major levels in the evolutionary ladder (band, tribe, chiefdom, state). The classification scheme may not only be overly simplistic and incorrect, but it also obscures the processes that led to social change since the typological boundaries act as artificial barriers that break up a natural continuum (Plog 1977:45). This thesis provides a good example of why it is important to stay away from this trap. In this thesis, I have referred to political ambitions on the part of SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS / 125 leaders, wealth display, participation in exchange networks and the control of wealth to gain supporters and further political careers. I also discuss tenuous political alliances, oscillations in political control and the breaking of evolutionary advances. I have presented these ideas within the context of chiefly or ranked societies. However, the exact same characteristics form the basis for political control in Melanesian Big-Man societies (Berndt 1971:393; Healey 1978:205; Meggit 1971:203; Sahlins 1963:292). The key difference between Big-Man and ranked or chiefly societies is the continued existence of the chiefly office. The office, or position, is always present no matter who is in possession. Traditionally, Big-Man leadership is said to result from an individual's abilities and personal power. However, studies show that central places exist in some Big-Man societies, which suggests that leaders do not arise only through personal ambition and strength, but also are as much a function of the central places they inhabit (Terrell 1986:212). The rise to power of a Big-Man may also serve a functional purpose. With the existence of central places, a Big-Man society would look very much like a chiefdom. On the other hand, if chiefly centers of power are in a state of constant flux, they would be difficult to distinguish from the Big-Man situation. In this thesis, I was unable to determine whether or not the evidence pointed to the existence of a permanent chiefly office (In fact, I did not even attempt to do so!). I have left the reader with the question, were these Yayoi polities in northern Kyushu chiefdoms, ranked societies, Big-Man societies or were SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS / 126 they at some level in between? My answer to this question is that it does not matter. The patterning in the data still exists whether it was a Big-Man or chiefly society. In fact, Yayoi society shows some characteristics of both. The main goal of this thesis has been to explain how political change may have occurred in northern Kyushu during the Yayoi period and to test whether or not status rivalry and competition played a role in this development. In terms of the broader implications, several key points have been raised from this study. In light of Goldman's (1970) work on status rivalry and competition in the Pacific Islands, this thesis has provided some interesting insights through the analysis of archaeological data. Both Goldman (1970) and Service (1962) point to the limited base of political power that exists in ranked societies, due to its reliance on kin-based sanctions. The work in this thesis supports this notion; however, it does so with a different twist. Goldman's focus is on competition within the community, while this study has shown that competition from leaders of external groups may cause even more damage to the existing political hierarchy. In this particular example, status rivalry and change in community power structure seems to be manifest more at the regional level than Goldman implies. This thesis also supports the findings of Brumfiel and Earle (1987) and Helms (1979) who state that the control of wealth does play a role in the political success of leaders. The northern Kyushu example shows that those communities which contain burials with large multiple inclusions of bronze objects, especially mirrors, occupy the top levels in the regional wealth hierarchy. The SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS / 127 findings in this thesis also support the work of Pearson (1982) and Shanks and Tilley (1982) who claim that the mortuary ritual is intended more for inter-community competition than intra-community competition. This pattern is clearly shown in the analysis carried out in Chapter 4. Furthermore, oscillations in the wealth rank levels, at the regional level, add support to Kirch's (1980) notion the burial wealth indicates relative socio-political status instead of social rank in Tonga. One would expect a system of political status and power to change much more rapidly than one of ascribed rank (much like a British politician's career would be more precarious than that of a member of the British monarchy). The work of Frankenstein and Rowlands (1978) and Ekholm (1978) is also supported by the findings in this thesis. Both argue that prestige exchange systems are built on a very unstable political base in which collapse and subsequent reorganization are distinct possibilities. In fact, the more successful a community is, the more dangerous its position becomes. The northern Kyushu example clearly shows that the greatest structural change occurred in regions in which the regional wealth hierarchy was the most developed. The broader implications of this pattern for studies on cultural evolution are as follows. It seems that in some areas status rivalry and competition between leaders of different communities is so intense that the system develops an internal breaking mechanism. If one community rises too high above the others, it is pulled back down, possibly through temporary military or exchange alliances, on the part of surrounding communities, to thwart this development. 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Wheatley, Paul 1975 Satyanrta in Suvarnadvipa: from reciprocity to redistribution in ancient Southeast Asia. In, Ancient Civilization and Trade, edited by Jeremy A. Sabloff and C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, pp. 227-283. Wheatley, Paul and Thomas See 1978 From Court to Capital: a Tentative Interpretation of the Origins of the Japanese Urban Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Yasuda, Yoshinori 1978 Prehistoric Environment in Japan. Sendai: Institute of Geography, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University. Young, John 1958 The Location of Yamatai: a Case Study in Japanese Historiography. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press. 136 Arj-oendix I . Table 15. Summary Table Showing the Number of Bronze Objects, the Number of Burials with Bronze Present and the Bronze Index of Accumulation Value f o r Each Cemetery Within the Sample From Northern Kyushu During the Yayoi Period. Site Region Phase Bronze Burials Index Objects Nakayama •1 Early 1 1 1.0 Machiyakuba Kami 1 Early 1 1 1.0 Kakihara 1 Early 1 1 1.0 Tate 1iwa 1 Middle 10 5 2.0 Sasahara 1 Middle 1 1 1.0 Gokoku-no-kami 1 Middle 1 1 1.0 Babayama 1 Middle 3 3 1.0 Shioigake 1 Late 6 6 1.0 Kumano J i n j a Kedidai 1 Late 1 1 1.0 Tate'iwa 1 Late 6 1 6.0 Harada 1 Late 2 2 1.0 Takashima 1 Late . 1 1 1.0 Uenohara 1 Late 1 1 1.0 Meotozuka 1 Late 4 1 4.0 Miyahara 1 Late 2 2.0 Kamitokoroda 1 Late 1 1 1.0 Ishigatsubo 1 Late 2 • 2 1.0 Zokumyoin 1 Late 1 1 1.0 Tsusho-no-Tsutsumi 1 Late 1 1 1.0 Taira 1 •• Late 1 1 1.0 137 S i t e Region Phase Bronze Objects Burials Inde5 Shironokoe 1 Late 1 1 1.0 Yoshitake (isekigun) 2 Early 1 1 1.0 Yoshitake Takaki 2 Early 4 2 2.0 Yoshitake Oishi 2 Early 7 7 1.0 Iikura Maruo 2 Early 1 1 1.0 Nishi-Fukuoka-Koko 2 Early 3 • 3 1.0 Karumeru Shudoin 2 Early 7 3 3.0 Itazuke Tabata 2 Early 7 1 7.0 Morizono 2 Early 1 1 1.0 Mikumo 2 Middle 30 2 15.0 Koso 2 Middle 1 1 1.0 Mukobara 2 Middle 3 1 3.0 Imajuku 2 Middle 1 1 1.0 Nogata Kubo 2 Middle 3 2 1.5 Yoshitake Hiwatashi 2 Middle 5 3 1.7 Yoshitake Takaki 2 Middle 10 6 1.7 Yoshitake Oishi 2 Middle 3 1.3 N i s h i Shinmachi. 2 Middle 1 1 1.0 Maruodai 2 Middle 3 1 3.0 Hie 2 Middle 1 1 1.0 Sugu Yamanokuchi 2 Middle 40 5 8.0 Kadota T s u j i t a 2 Middle 2 2 1.0 T a t e i s h i - 2 Middle 1 1 1.0 Hiogarnizuka 2 Middle 1 1 1.0 138 S i t e Region Phase Bronze Objects Burials Inde? Shikabeyama 2 Middle 2 1 2.0 Ihara Yarimizo 2 Late 3 1 3.0 Mikumo Teraguchi 2 Late 1 1 1.0 Mitsuyoshi 2 Late 1 1 1.0 I i s h i 3aba 2 Late 1 1 1.0 Nogata Nakahara 2 Late 2 2 1.0 Nogata Tsukahara 2 Late 1 1.0 Nagatare 2 Late 1 1 1.0 Osabaru 2 Late 1 1 1.0 Takaramitsuo 2 Late 1 1 1.0 Miyanoshita 2 Late 1 1 1.0 Ukikunden 3 Early 2 2 1.0 Sumiyoshidaira 3 Early 1 1 1.0 Kashiwazaki Ishikura 3 Middle 3 1 3.0 Kuri Omuta 3 Middle 3 1.3 Ukikunden 3 Middle 63 4.5 Taj'ima 3 Middle . 1 • • 1 1.0 Tokusue 3 Middle 1 1 1.0 Sago Shiratake 3 Middle 4- 4.0 Egasaki 3 Middle 2 2.0 Shimogoya-no-ki 3 Middle 5-. 3 1.7 Koshojima 3 Middle 1 1 1.0 Hara-no-tsuji 3 Middle 1 1 1.0 Sahoura Akazaki 3 Middle 2 1 2.0 139 Site Region Phase Bronze Burials Index Objects Tokutake Ishigasaki 3 Late 1 1 1.0 Sakura-no-baba 3 Late 29 1 29.0 Chichiga 3 Late 10 2 5.0 Yamamoto 3 Late 1 1 1.0 Tonokubi 3 Late 11 3 3.7 Ebisuyama 3 Late 2 2 1.0 Kisaka 3 Late 15 3 5.0 Sakadou 3 Late 6 1 6.0 Shinoura 3 Late 1 1 1.0 Takamatsu-no-dan 3 Late 8 2 4-.0 Totogoyama 3 Late 1 1 1.0 Sago Kubiru 3 Late 4- 1 4-.0 Kashiwa-no-ki 3 Late 1 1 1.0 Kan'nonura 3 Late 2 1 2.0 Kuroki Minamibana 3 Late 2 1 2.0 Kofunosai 3 Late 1 1 1.0 Kisurogohama 3 - Late 3 1 3.0 Harou 3 Late 4- 2 2.0 Higashi-no-hama 3 Late 2 1 2.0 To-no-hama 3 Late 1 1 1.0 Nakadodan 3 Late 1 1 1.0 Antoku Dozen 4- Early 1 1 1.0 Kitamuta 4- Early " 1 1 . 1.0 140 Site Region Phase Bronze Objects Burials Index Marayama 4 Early 1 1 1.0 Nagaoka !± Middle 1 1 1.0 Nishioda IX. Middle 1 1 •1.0 Mine 4 Middle 3 2 1.5 Yatsunami 4 ' Middle 1 1.0 Sotokuma 4 Middle 1 1 1.0 Yamada Atoyama 4 Middle 2 2 1.0 K u r i t a 4 Middle 1 1 1.0 B o d a i j i 4 Middle 1 1 1.0 O i t a i 4 Middle 7 1 1.0 Ogawa 4 Middle 1 1 1.0 Kamenoko 4 Middle 1 1 1.0 Kume 4 Middle 1 1 1.0 Motoyoshi 4 Middle 3 1 3.0 Hyotanzuka 4 Middle 1 1.0 Futazukayama 4 Middle 1 1 1.0 Karakami 4 Middle 1 1 1.0 Gohondani 'A Middle 1 1.0 Uechi 4 Middle 1 1 1.0 K i r i d o s h i 4 Middle 1 1 1.0 Shirakabe 4 Middle 1 1 1.0 Yokokuma Kitsenzuka 4 Late 1 1 1.0 N i s h i y a s h i k i 4 . Late 1 1 1.0 Site Region Phase Bronze Burials Index Objects Gionyama 4- late 1 1 1.0 Nishihata Goyozuka 4- Late 2 1 2.0 Higashihata 4- Late 2 ' 1 2.0 Kamenokoko 4- Late 2 2 1.0 Tsubuteishi 4- Late 1 1 1.0 Soza 4- Late 1 1 1 .0 Futazukayama 4- Late 5 5 1.0 Mitsunagata 4- Late 4- 4- 1 .0 Matsuba 4- Late 1 1 1.0 Gohondani 4- Late 1 1 1.0 Eashimayama 4- Late 2 2 1 .0 Kamitaki 5 Middle 1 1 1.0 Tateishi-cho-shozai 5 Middle 1 1 1 .0 Keikan 5 Middle 4- 4- 1.0 Mode 5 Late 1 1 1.0 Gonoki 5 Late 1 1 1.0 

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