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Judeo-Spanish : an example from Rhodes Clewlow, David Frederick 1990

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JUDEO-SPANISH: AN EXAMPLE FROM RHODES By DAVID FREDERICK CLEWLOW B. A. (Hons.), The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n S t u d i e s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1990 © David F r e d e r i c k Clewlow, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t i i T h i s study e x p l o r e s the Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t through the a n a l y s i s of an o r a l sample pr o v i d e d by two n a t i v e speakers from Rhodes. A twenty-minute segment has been t r a n s c r i b e d p h o n e t i c a l l y and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the t h e s i s . A p r e l i m i n a r y s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s the n ecessary h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c background f o r the a n a l y s i s of the sample. D i s t i n c t i v e phonetic, m o r p h o l o g i c a l , l e x i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l f e a t u r e s of the i n f o r m a n t s 1 speech are p o i n t e d out and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e demonstrated both s y n c h r o n i c a l l y , i n r e l a t i o n t o E a s t e r n Judeo-Spanish and modern H i s p a n i c Romance, and d i a c h r o n i c a l l y , showing s u r v i v a l of Old Spanish elements. In the c o n c l u s i o n , the w r i t e r s t a t e s t h a t the development of the d i a l e c t was the r e s u l t of the unique s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n the Sephardic communities of the Ottoman Empire and h i g h l i g h t s both the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y of Judeo-Spanish as w e l l as i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the common h e r i t a g e of Hispano-Romance. He notes the presence or l a c k of c e r t a i n f o r e i g n elements i n t h e i r speech and a l l u d e s t o W e s t e r n i z a t i o n and t h e i r e d u c a t i o n on Rhodes. He mentions d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i o n . The w r i t e r concludes t h a t the segment of the d i a l o g u e r e c o r d e d and t r a n s c r i b e d i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of Judeo-Spanish and t h a t , as such, i t i s a good i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the d i a l e c t . i v Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgement v i A b b r e v i a t i o n s Used v i i P h o n e t i c Symbols Used x D i a c r i t i c a l Marks and Conventions x i i i 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.1. The Present Study 1 1.2. Terminology 1 2. H i s t o r i c a l Background 3 2.1 From A n c i e n t times t o the E x p u l s i o n 3 2.2. The Sephardim A f t e r the E x p u l s i o n 10 2.3. General L i n g u i s t i c Development 11 2.4. Rhodes 14 3. The O r a l Sample 18 3.1. The Informants 18 3.2. The Recording Session 20 3.3. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the T r a n s c r i p t i o n 20 3.4. T r a n s c r i p t i o n 21 4. A n a l y s i s of the T r a n s c r i p t i o n 38 4.1. P h o n e t i c s 38 4.1.1. Vowels 38 4.1.2. Consonants 43 4.2. Morphology 52 V 4.3. L e x i c o n 58 4.3.1. Old Spanish 58 4.3.2. H i s p a n i c Languages and D i a l e c t s 60 4.3.3. I t a l i a n 60 4.3.4. French 62 4.3.5. E n g l i s h 63 4.3.6. Hebrew 65 4.3.7. T u r k i s h 65 4.3.8. A r a b i c 66 4.3.9. Greek 66 4.4 Semantics 67 5. G l o s s a r y 68 6. C o n c l u s i o n s 80 Notes B i b l i o g r a p h y 85 97 Acknowledgement v i I would l i k e t o express my deepest g r a t i t u d e t o E l i and Rosa F e r e r a , the informants f o r t h i s study, who so c o r d i a l l y welcomed me i n t o t h e i r home, shared t h e i r n a t i v e c u l t u r e , and gave so f r e e l y of t h e i r time. T h e i r i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm i n t h i s study and t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o s a t i s f y my c u r i o s i t y about t h e i r language and background have g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o my knowledge and a p p r e c i a t i o n of Judeo-Spanish language and Sephardic c u l t u r e . S i n c e r e thanks and a p p r e c i a t i o n go t o my mentor i n H i s p a n i c languages and d i a l e c t s , Dr. K a r l Kobbervig of the Department of H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n S t u d i e s of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, under whom i t has been a p r i v i l e g e t o study, f o r a l l h i s a d v i c e and encouragement. I am indebted a l s o t o Dr. A r s e n i o Pacheco ( H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n S t u d i e s , UBC) and t o Dr. R i c h a r d Menkis ( R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s , UBC) f o r t h e i r guidance. I wish t o thank Rabbi David Bassous of the Beth Hamidrash (Sephardic) c o n g r e g a t i o n i n Vancouver f o r having r e f e r r e d me t o Mr. and Mrs. F e r e r a . v i i A b b r e v i a t i o n s Used a d j . a d j e c t i v e adv. adverb Angel Marc D. Angel, The Jews of Rhodes: The h i s t o r y of Sephardic Community Ara. Aragonese A s t . A s t u r i a n Baer Y i t z h a k Baer, A H i s t o r y of the Jews i n C h r i s t i a n Spain Bunis "Toward a L i n g u i s t i c Geography of Judezmo: Pu b l i s h e d Sources" (see B i b l i o g r a p h y ) Cat. C a t a l a n Cfd. D. L i n c o l n C a n f i e l d , Spanish P r o n u n c i a t i o n i n the Americas c o n j . c o n j u n c t i o n Cor. Joan Corominas and Jose A. P a s c u a l , D i c c i o n a r i o c r i t i c o e t i m o l o q i c o c a s t e l l a n o e h i s p a n i c o Crews C. M. Crews, Recherches sur l e judeo-espagnol dans l e s pays balkaniques CSp. C a s t i l i a n Spanish d i a l . d i a l e c t a l dim. d i m i n u t i v e EF E l l F e r e r a (informant) Eng. E n g l i s h esp. e s p e c i a l l y V l l l fam. f a m i l i a r F r . French G a l . G a l i c i a n Ger. German Gr. Greek Heb. Hebrew impf. imperfect tense i n f . i n f i n i t i v e I t . I t a l i a n j S p . Judeo-Spanish L a t . L a t i n Leo. Leonese l i t . l i t e r a l l y Lur. Max A. L u r i a , "A Study of the M o n a s t i r D i a l e c t of Judeo-Spanish ..." mod. modern n. noun; note Neb. Antonio de N e b r i j a , Gramatica c a s t e l l a n a Neh. Joseph Nehama, D i c t i o n n a i r e du iudeo-espacmol nf . feminine noun nm. masculine noun OSp. Old Spanish p. person p. p. pa s t p a r t i c i p l e phr. phrase p i . p l u r a l IX pop. prep. p r e s . p r e t . pm. Ptg. RF s. S a l a SAm. Sp. s t d . Trk. V a l . vb. v i . v r . v t . Wagner ZamV. popular p r e p o s i t i o n p r e s e n t tense p r e t e r i t e tense pronoun Portuguese Rosa F e r e r a (informant) s i n g u l a r Marius S a l a , Phonetique e t phonologie du Judeo-espagnol de Bucarest Spanish American Spanish standard T u r k i s h Juan de Valdes, Dialoqo de l a lengua verb i n t r a n s i t i v e verb r e f l e x i v e verb t r a n s i t i v e verb C a r a c t e r e s generales d e l iudeo-espanol de  O r i e n t e Alonso Zamora V i c e n t e , D i a l e c t o l o g i a espanola X Phonetic Symbols Used Vowels [a] open /a/ Sp. "casa" Ptg. "fado" [ a e ] low central vowel between [a] and [a] Eng. "land" [a] neutral low central vowel Ptg. " f a l a " [e] close mid front vowel Sp. 11 seco" [e] open low front vowel Ptg. " f e s t a " [i] unrounded high front vowel Sp. "recibo [ i ] lax high front vowel Eng. " l i s t " [ i ] semivowel /if Sp. "hay" [o] close high back vowel Sp. "comer" [=>] open low back vowel Ptg. "agora" [u] rounded high back vowel Sp. "uva" [A] lax low back vowel Eng. "but" [0] lax high back vowel Eng. "good" [u] semivowel /u/ Sp. "pausa" [y] rounded high front vowel Fr. "lune" [3] neutral mid central vowel ("schwa") Ptg. "dever" Fr. "lecon" Consonants [b] v o i c e d b i l a b i a l p l o s i v e Sp. "ambos" [6] v o i c e d b i l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e Sp.. "hubo" [d] v o i c e d d e n t a l p l o s i v e Sp. "hablando [6] v o i c e d i n t e r d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e Sp. "pudo" Ptg. "ouvido" [dz] v o i c e d d e n t a l a f f r i c a t e I t . "mezzo" [d_] v o i c e d p a l a t a l a f f r i c a t e I t . " g i u s t o " Eng. " j o y " [ f ] u n voiced l a b i o d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e Sp. " f u e n t e " [g] v o i c e d v e l a r p l o s i v e Sp. " g a l l o " [Y] v o i c e d v e l a r f r i c a t i v e Sp. "hagp" [h] u nvoiced g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e Eng. "hand" Ger. "haben" [fi] v o i c e d g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e Eng. "aha" [ j ] v o i c e d p a l a t a l f r i c a t i v e Sp. "ya" Eng. "Yes" [5] v o i c e d p r e p a l a t a l f r i c a t i v e u nvoiced v e l a r p l o s i v e Sp. "cosa" F r . "cruel" [1] v o i c e d l a t e r a l continuant Sp. " v a l e r " Eng. " l e a f " [*] v o i c e d p a l a t a l l a t e r a l continuant CSp. " o l l a " Ptg. " i l h a " Cat. " m i r a l l " [_] sound between [1] and [r] [m] b i l a b i a l n a s a l continuant [n] d e n t a l n a s a l continuant [n] p a l a t a l n a s a l continuant [rj ] v e l a r n a s a l continuant [p] unvoiced b i l a b i a l p l o s i v e [<p] unvoiced b i l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e [r] v o i c e d a l v e o l a r v i b r a n t ("flap") [r] s i n g l e a l v e o l a r f r i c a t i v e [r] m u l t i p l e v o i c e d a l v e o l a r v i b r a n t [ f ] m u l t i p l e a l v e o l a r f r i c a t i v e [s] unvoiced d e n t a l s i b i l a n t [s] unvoiced a l v e o l a r s i b i l a n t [J] unvoiced p a l a t a l s i b i l a n t [ t ] u nvoiced d e n t a l p l o s i v e x i i Sp. " m i l " Eng. "moon" Sp. "ni d o " Eng. "any" Sp. "ano" Ptg. "vinho" Sp. " e l e n c o " Eng. " i n k " Sp. " p i s t a " Sp. "nora" ( L i k e Eng. " d a i r y " but wit h the tongue c l o s e r t o the a l v e o l a r r i d g e ) Sp. " r i o , " " c e r r o " Sp. " h a s t a " Ptg. "cem" CSp. " s e l l o " Cat. " c i n e " Ptg. " f a i x a " Cat. " a i x i " Sp. "tono" Ptg. " o i t o " X l l l [ts] unvoiced dental a f f r i c a t e [ t j ] unvoiced p a l a t a l a f f r i c a t e [v] voiced labiodental f r i c a t i v e [w] b i l a b i a l semiconsonant [z] voiced dental s i b i l a n t [2] voiced alveolar s i b i l a n t [2] voiced p a l a t a l s i b i l a n t [6] unvoiced interdental f r i c a t i v e [X] unvoiced uvular f r i c a t i v e I t . " z i o " Eng. " i t s " Sp. "ocho" Eng. "chin" Ptg. "vos" Fr. " v in" Sp. "bueno" Eng. "we" Sp. "desde" CSp. "rasgo" Ptg. "gelo" Cat. "pujar" CSp. "zumo" "hacer" CSp. "ajo," "gesto" D i a c r i t i c a l Marks and Conventions • following s y l l a b l e i s stressed (never indicates apheresis, syncope or apocope) nasalization of vowel : lengthening of preceding vowel i n phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n n, u, 6 sounds weakly-articulated or loseable /a/, /d/ phonemic representations 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.1. The Present Study The purpose of t h i s study i s t o approach Judeo-Spanish through the l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s of the speech of two Sephardim from Rhodes. There i s no attempt t o make a d e f i n i t i v e statement on the Rhodian v e r n a c u l a r , although c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn based on o c c a s i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s found p e r t a i n i n g t o the Judeo-Spanish spoken on Rhodes. To t h i s w r i t e r ' s knowledge, no in - d e p t h a n a l y s i s o f the speech of the i s l a n d has been undertaken. S i n c e i t i s i n e a s t e r n Judeo-Spanish t h a t the most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of the d i a l e c t are t o be observed, I was f o r t u n a t e t o o b t a i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of two informants from Rhodes. 1.2. Terminology 1.2.1. The d i a l e c t i s known by s e v e r a l names, some of which a r e : " e spanol," "espanol muestro," " e s p a n o l i t , " " s e f a r d i , " "judezmo," " d j u d i o , " " d j i d i o . " 1 1.2.2. What the Sephardim c a l l t h e i r language i s r e v e a l i n g . Names such as "espanol" and "espanol muestro" a s s e r t t h e i r H i s p a n i c i d e n t i t y among the peoples of the lands i n which they s e t t l e d . Others, "judezmo" ( i . e. "Judaism"), " j i d y o , " c o n f i r m 2 t h e i r i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Spanish language w i t h the v e r y c o n d i t i o n of being Jewish. T h i s w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t the term "Ladino" (< L a t . " l a t i n u [ m ] " ) , i s best avoided when r e f e r r i n g t o spoken Judeo-Spanish i n s c h o l a r l y work s i n c e i t meets w i t h a c e r t a i n amount of o p p o s i t i o n . Although the word i s f a m i l i a r t o many and w i d e l y used t o r e f e r t o the d i a l e c t spoken by the Sephardim, i t appears t h a t i t should, s t r i c t l y speaking, d e s i g n a t e o n l y the type of language used t o t r a n s l a t e l i t e r a l l y the S c r i p t u r e s from Hebrew i n t o Spanish. Such language was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s c a i q u e s on S e m i t i c syntax and never spoken by Spanish Jews. Lapesa, A l v a r , Zamora V i c e n t e , G a r c i a de Diego, S a l a , Wagner, Crews, B a l d i n g e r , Armistead, Silverman, V i d a l Sephiha, Angel, C a n f i e l d , e t c . , p r e f e r "Judeo-Spanish" or i t s e q u i v a l e n t i n o t h e r languages. I t h e r e f o r e use "Judeo-Spanish" throughout t h i s study, b e l i e v i n g i t t o be more t e c h n i c a l l y , and u n i v e r s a l l y , a c c e p t a b l e . 2 1.2.2. "Ea s t e r n Judeo-Spanish" r e f e r s t o the d i a l e c t s of Judeo-Spanish spoken i n the lands of the former Ottoman Empire ( e s p e c i a l l y the Balkans, Turkey, the L e v a n t ) . 2. H i s t o r i c a l Background 3 2.1. From A n c i e n t Times t o the E x p u l s i o n 3 Jews were a l r e a d y l i v i n g i n the I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a i n a n t i q u i t y , where t h e i r s ettlements, as elsewhere throughout the Roman Empire, were a consequence of the a n c i e n t D i a s p o r a . E a r l y i n the C h r i s t i a n e r a, although the Church sought s p e c i a l laws t o r e s t r i c t c o n t a c t between Jews and C h r i s t i a n s — c e n t u r i e s p r i o r t o the harsh e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n enacted under the V i s i g o t h s — , t h e r e was r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e p e r s e c u t i o n of the Jews, who were s t i l l judged under Roman law (embodied i n a c o m p i l a t i o n e n t i t l e d the "Lex Romana Vis i g o t h o r u m , " e f f e c t e d i n 506). However, a f t e r t he c o n v e r s i o n of Reccared from A r i a n i s m i n 589, the monarchy began t o oppress Jews thereby b r i n g i n g t h e i r p o l i c y i n l i n e w i t h t h a t p r e v a i l i n g i n o t h e r C a t h o l i c kingdoms. The op p r e s s i o n was i n t e n s i f i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g century by the severe p e r s e c u t i o n i n i t i a t e d under K i n g S i s e b u t . D i s c r i m i n a t o r y economic and p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s , t r a v e l r e s t r i c t i o n s , f o r c e d conversions, the death p e n a l t y f o r p r o s e l y t i z a t i o n and other b r u t a l measures aimed t o d e s t r o y the Jewish community. I t should h a r d l y be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the Jews e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y welcomed the Muslim invaders i n 711. 4 From 755 on, the l o t of the Jewish communities improved g r e a t l y . During the C a l i p h a t e , which l a s t e d u n t i l the e a r l y 4 e l e v e n t h century, they enjoyed a l a r g e measure of communal autonomy, economic p r o s p e r i t y , and a t t a i n e d p o s i t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l importance; t h e r e was a f l o u r i s h i n g of the a r t s . T h i s p e r i o d under Muslim r u l e has been c a l l e d the "Golden Age" of H i s p a n i c Jewry. With the f a l l of the C a l i p h a t e , r e p r e s s i o n was once aga i n i n f l i c t e d on Jewish communities: f i r s t , by the Almoravides (as w e l l as by the p l u n d e r i n g C h r i s t i a n s ) i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y ; subsequently by the Almohades i n the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y . Jewish communities i n A n d a l u s i a were d e s t r o y e d . The Almoravides and Almohades were f a n a t i c a l peoples who had c r o s s e d over from North A f r i c a i n defence of Islam, which was i m p e r i l e d by the l a c k of Muslim u n i t y i n the P e n i n s u l a . The Jews f l e d t o the C h r i s t i a n n o r t h where they were s e t t l e d i n f o r t r e s s e s which would form the n u c l e i of the Jewish q u a r t e r s ( " j u d e r i a s " ) . The Reconquest, t e m p o r a r i l y h a l t e d f o r s e v e r a l decades, r e g a i n e d i t s momentum, v i g o r o u s l y pushing south. The i m p r e s s i v e t e r r i t o r i a l g a i n s marked a t r a n s i t i o n f o r the Jews from Muslim t o C h r i s t i a n r u l e . I t was "during the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y [ t h a t ] Jewish s e t t l e m e n t s began, f o r the f i r s t time, t o dot the e n t i r e P e n i n s u l a . They now spread out i n t o the remote c o r n e r s of P o r t u g a l and Navarre, p l a c e s unknown i n the annals o f Jewish h i s t o r y b e f o r e the C h r i s t i a n reconquest." 5 The Jews* p r o s p e r i t y and p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y as a r e s u l t of the important r o l e they p l a y e d i n the Reconquest. The C h r i s t i a n kings sought t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n 5 the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e s e t t l e m e n t of the newly-conquered t e r r i t o r i e s , as they were esteemed f o r t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , commercial and l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s — m a n y had been brought up i n the Muslim s t a t e s , spoke A r a b i c , and were f a m i l i a r w i t h the l a n d and i t s customs, where they had occupied important p o s t s i n government. Many Jews were h i g h l y regarded and enjoyed important government p o s i t i o n s ; c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e was w i e l d e d by Jewish c o u r t p h y s i c i a n s . Jews, deemed t o be r o y a l s e r f s , were p r e f e r r e d t o Muslims or even C h r i s t i a n s f o r such p o s t s — t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d more r e l i a b l e and, s i n c e they were l e g a l l y s e c o n d - c l a s s c i t i z e n s , as i n the r e s t of C h r i s t i a n Europe, were viewed as expendable. The monarchy p r o t e c t e d the Jews i n i t s s e r v i c e f o r p r a c t i c a l r easons: they were not o n l y l o y a l and capable a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , f i n a n c i e r s and diplomats, but c o u l d a l s o be counted on t o p r o v i d e a r e l i a b l e source of revenue. A k i n g ' s d e a l i n g s w i t h the Jews t h e r e f o r e depended, i n l a r g e measure, on p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Although i t was f o r b i d d e n under c a n o n i c a l law t o promote Jews t o p o s i t i o n s of t r u s t i n which they had a u t h o r i t y over C h r i s t i a n s , t h i s p r o h i b i t i o n was l a r g e l y i g n o r e d by the monarchy, f o r reasons of p o l i t i c a l expediency, r i g h t up u n t i l the p e r i o d immediately preceding the E x p u l s i o n . Alphonse the Wise, p a r t i c u l a r l y , a v a i l e d h i m s e l f of Jewish s c h o l a r s and employed them as a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Yet d e s p i t e t h a t k i n g ' s r e p u t a t i o n of benevolence toward the Jews, i t would appear t h a t h i s treatment of them was governed, as had 6 t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the case, by p o l i t i c a l expediency. Even under h i s r u l e , Jews s u f f e r e d r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l p e r s e c u t i o n . 6 By the mid t h i r t e e n t h century, v i r t u a l l y a l l o f the I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a , w i t h the exce p t i o n of the Kingdom of Granada, was i n C h r i s t i a n hands. With the Reconquest l a r g e l y completed, the p e n i n s u l a r C h r i s t i a n s t a t e s , secure w i t h i n t h e i r b o r d e r s , began t o implement harsher d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p o l i c i e s toward the Jews resembling those i n e f f e c t i n the r e s t of C h r i s t i a n Europe. 7 T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of Aragon, whose r o l e i n the Reconquest came t o an end long before C a s t i l e ' s , which had c l o s e r l i n k s w i t h the south of France and the Papacy. In Aragon, the I n q u i s i t i o n ( a lready i n e x i s t e n c e i n Provence) began t r i a l s of "conversos" (Jewish converts t o C h r i s t i a n i t y ) . "The Jews s a t on the c r a t e r of a volcano s e e t h i n g with r e l i g i o u s and n a t i o n a l i s t t e n s i o n s . 1 , 8 In the f o u r t e e n t h century, Jews made up a good p a r t o f the p o p u l a t i o n of many Spanish c i t i e s and l i v e d , v o l u n t a r i l y , i n the " j u d e r i a s , " which enjoyed c o n s i d e r a b l e autonomy. The p o l i t i c a l and socio-economic s t a t u s of the "aljamas" (communities) was g r a d u a l l y eroded as p r i v i l e g e s gained d u r i n g the Reconquest were taken away. The post s of the s k i l l e d , h i g h l y - p l a c e d Jewish c o u r t i e r s were coveted by ambitious C h r i s t i a n nobles, r e s e n t f u l t h a t Jews h e l d power over C h r i s t i a n s , i n v i o l a t i o n o f c a n o n i c a l law. A n t i - J e w i s h sentiment was i n t e n s i f i e d by the C o r t e s , c i t y c o u n c i l s and the Church; demands made t o reduce Jewish r i g h t s were r e s i s t e d , w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of success, by the monarchy. 7 Churchmen preached h a t r e d of the Jews whom they condemned, on b i b l i c a l grounds, f o r p r a c t i s i n g usury, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t not o n l y was moneylending not an e x c l u s i v e l y Jewish o c c u p a t i o n , but i t was f a r from being t h e i r u s u a l means of l i v e l i h o o d — m o s t Jews were a r t i s a n s . As p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e was l o s t , the growth of Jewish communities came t o a h a l t . The d e c l i n e continued throughout the f o u r t e e n t h century, a c c e l e r a t i n g i n the l a t t e r h a l f . The aljamas were deva s t a t e d , f i r s t by a severe outbreak of the plague i n 1348, then by f a n a t i c a l E n g l i s h and French mercenaries brought i n t o support both Pedro the C r u e l and h i s r e b e l l i o u s b r o t h e r Henry of Trastamara d u r i n g the C i v i l War. A n t i - J e w i s h sentiment r o s e s h a r p l y , c u l m i n a t i n g i n the massacres of 1391, which broke out i n S e v i l l e and spread throughout A n d a l u s i a , t o C a s t i l e and then t o Aragon i n the f o l l o w i n g year. During the pogroms, aljamas were s e v e r e l y d i s r u p t e d as t h e i r members were murdered or d i s p e r s e d . Thousands of Jews converted t o C h r i s t i a n i t y r a t h e r than r i s k martyrdom and conversions under duress c o n t i n u e d f o r approximately t w e n t y - f i v e years, even a f t e r the p e r s e c u t i o n had ceased. A s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n was the number of Jews who had converted; another was the o p p o s i t i o n on the p a r t of the c i t i e s . The r e s u l t i n g v ery l a r g e "converso" p o p u l a t i o n had s e r i o u s r e l i g i o u s and socio-economic consequences i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; i t would be the major u n d e r l y i n g cause of the E x p u l s i o n . A f t e r a p e r i o d of l a x i t y , the magnitude of the 8 problem manifested i t s e l f when, i n the l a t e 1440*s, s e r i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e s broke out between Old and New C h r i s t i a n s which l a s t e d f o r t w e n t y - f i v e years u n t i l order was r e s t o r e d twenty-f i v e y e a r s l a t e r . The Jews c e l e b r a t e d the r i s e t o power of F e r d i n a n d and I s a b e l l a b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g depended on p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y . However, a f t e r the monarchs had put down the r e b e l l i o u s nobles and c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e i r power, they moved d e c i s i v e l y t o achieve t h e i r g o a l of p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s u n i t y by e l i m i n a t i n g the l a s t remaining b a s t i o n of Muslim power i n the P e n i n s u l a , the Kingdom of Granada, and by s t r i v i n g t o e r a d i c a t e heresy. With regard t o the l a t t e r o b j e c t i v e , the presence of Jews was p e r c e i v e d as an o b s t a c l e . In 1480, the order (a reenactment of a law of 1412) was g i v e n f o r the s e g r e g a t i o n of Jews and Muslims from C h r i s t i a n s . Three y e a r s l a t e r , the I n q u i s i t i o n ( f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n C a s t i l e i n the e a r l y s i x t i e s ) decreed the e x i l e of a l l Jews from A n d a l u s i a — a p a r t i a l e x p u l s i o n , but one which ominously foreshadowed the looming tragedy. A l s o i n 1483, Tomas de Torquemada, c o n f e s s o r t o the Queen, was appointed t o head the I n q u i s i t i o n i n a l l t e r r i t o r i e s under the Crowns of C a s t i l e and Aragon, thereby c e n t r a l i z i n g the power of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l t r i b u n a l f o r g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y . Most of the "conversos" were C h r i s t i a n i n name onl y , t h e i r p a r e n t s and grandparents having converted when f o r c e d t o choose between baptism or death. They p r a c t i s e d Judaism s e c r e t l y , some 9 even openly, a i d e d by t h e i r Jewish b r e t h r e n who were n a t u r a l l y d e s i r o u s t o have them r e t u r n t o t h e i r a n c e s t r a l f a i t h . Not o n l y b a c k s l i d i n g "conversos" ( " r e l a p s i " ) but a l s o Jews who had been found g u i l t y o f a s s i s t i n g them, were swept up i n the f u r y of i n q u i s i t o r i a l proceedings. The I n q u i s i t i o n went about i t s t a s k of r o o t i n g out heresy with a vengeance, i n t e r r o g a t i n g thousands and p e r f o r m i n g many executions. In 1492, w i t h i n t h r e e months a f t e r the conquest of Granada, the C a t h o l i c Monarchs signed the e d i c t f o r the e x p u l s i o n o f a l l Jews from t h e i r dominions. Immediately f o l l o w i n g the promulgation of the e d i c t , a widespread campaign r e s u l t e d i n many Jews' renouncing t h e i r f a i t h t o become C h r i s t i a n s and ther e b y remain i n t h e i r homeland. Perhaps as many as 170,000, however, chose e x i l e over apostasy. Thus began a new d i a s p o r a f o r the Jews, a f t e r f i f t e e n hundred years of a r i c h and v a r i e d h i s t o r y i n the I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a . During most of t h a t long p e r i o d , Jewish l i f e had been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the i n s e c u r i t y of being a t the mercy of a h o s t i l e m a j o r i t y , always c o n d i t i o n e d by the s t r u g g l e between C h r i s t i a n i t y and Judaism. I n c r e d i b l y , they s u r v i v e d a l l attempts t o d e s t r o y them as a community, h e l d t o g e t h e r by what Y i t z h a k Baer has c a l l e d "the inn e r l i g h t c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n the h e a r t of the s m a l l persecuted people." 9 10 2.2. The Sephardim a f t e r the E x p u l s i o n Most of those f o r c e d t o leave Spain sought r e f u g e i n n e i g h b o u r i n g P o r t u g a l (where Jews would a l s o no l o n g e r be welcome a few years l a t e r ) . France's borders were a l l but c l o s e d t o Jews; o n l y "conversos" who intended t o embrace C h r i s t i a n i t y were admitted. Others went t o North A f r i c a , I t a l y , and the E a s t e r n Mediterranean b a s i n . 1 0 S i n c e Turkey was the only country t h a t r e a d i l y accepted the Spanish Jews i n i t s dominions and imposed r e l a t i v e l y few r e s t r i c t i o n s , most e x i l e s e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e d i n the lands of the Ottoman Empire, e i t h e r immediately or i n the decades f o l l o w i n g the E x p u l s i o n . The Sephardim j o i n e d e x i s t i n g Jewish communities, g e n e r a l l y Greek-speaking and of the Romaniot t r a d i t i o n , throughout the T u r k i s h dominions i n the East. Where they formed a m i n o r i t y , they were a s s i m i l a t e d and, w i t h i n a couple of g e n e r a t i o n s , ceased t o speak Spanish; i f they c o n s t i t u t e d a m a j o r i t y , however, they a g r e s s i v e l y maintained t h e i r language and c u l t u r e . Large Spanish-speaking Jewish communities grew up, n o t a b l y 'in S a l o n i k a and other c i t i e s i n the n o r t h of Greece, and A s i a M i n o r — p a r t i c u l a r l y C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and Smyrna. 1 1 For a w h i l e , i n t h e i r d i s t a n t communities, the Sephardim maintained t h e i r r e g i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s and t h e r e were Leonese, Aragonese and C a s t i l i a n synagogues. Even Ashkhenazic and Romaniot Jews e v e n t u a l l y adopted the language of the Sephardim so t h a t Spanish, t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree, became the language of Jews of the Ottoman Empire. 2.3. General L i n g u i s t i c Development The e x p e l l e d Jews took with them the c u l t u r e and language of l a t e - f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Spain. In t h e i r new communities, most of them f a r from t h e i r homeland, synagogues bore the names of n a t i v e r e g i o n s and even c i t i e s , thus r e f l e c t i n g the c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y of Sephardic c e n t r e s . The language spoken by e x i l e d C a s t i l i a n Jews would not have been a p p r e c i a b l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of t h e i r C h r i s t i a n countrymen except f o r the o c c a s i o n a l archaism or word p e c u l i a r t o t h e i r speech, u s u a l l y Hebrew, the l o g i c a l r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n c e s i n custom and i d e o l o g y and of the r e l a t i v e s e g r e g a t i o n from C h r i s t i a n speakers of the language. 1 2 F i f t y y e a rs a f t e r the mass e x p u l s i o n of Jews from Spain, the S p a n i a r d Gonzalo de I l l e s c a s wrote about the Spanish of the Sephardim who had s e t t l e d i n Turkey: L l e v a r o n de aca nuestra lengua, y t o d a v i a l a guardan y usan de l a buena gana, y es c i e r t o que en l a s ciudades de S a l o n i c o , C o n s t a n t i n o p l a , A l e x a n d r i a y E l C a i r o y en o t r a s ciudades de c o n t r a t a c i o n y en Venecia, no compran n i negocian en o t r a lengua, s i n o en e s p a n o l . Y yo c o n o c i en Venecia h a r t o s j u d i o s de S a l o n i c o que 12 hablaban c a s t e l l a n o , con s e r b i e n mozos, t a n b i e n o mejor que yo. 1 3 I n t o the seventeenth century, the speech of the d i s p e r s e d Sephardim was becoming n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of P e n i n s u l a r speakers. In Spain, the important changes of what has been c a l l e d the "phonetic r e v o l u t i o n " had r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d s t a n d a r d p r o n u n c i a t i o n d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y . The Sephardim, however, l i v i n g i n t h e i r d i s t a n t communities and p r o g r e s s i v e l y i s o l a t e d , continued t o pronounce fundamentally as had t h e i r e x i l e d f o r b e a r s . A ko i n e developed as a r e s u l t of unique s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s which c o u l d not e x i s t i n the P e n i n s u l a . The Jews who came t o g e t h e r i n the c e n t r e s of the Ottoman Empire were from a l l over the I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a : most were from C a s t i l e , but a g r e a t many were from o t h e r p a r t s of the P e n i n s u l a i n c l u d i n g Aragon, Leon, P o r t u g a l , where other d i a l e c t s and languages were spoken. In the s p e c i a l m u l t i c u l t u r a l H i s p a n i c environment of the Sephardic c e n t r e s o f the East, the phon e t i c s , morphology, l e x i c o n and syntax of P e n i n s u l a r C a s t i l i a n was g r a d u a l l y m o d i f i e d and a d i s t i n c t i v e Jewish d i a l e c t was formed. Communications wi t h Spain were not l o s t immediately a f t e r 1492, but a f t e r a few genera t i o n s i s o l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d . The Sephardic communities of the East, although c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h one another were maintained, were e v e n t u a l l y c u t o f f from the l i n g u i s t i c norms p r e v a i l i n g i n the P e n i n s u l a . Although f o r a ce n t u r y or so a f t e r the E x p u l s i o n works i n Spanish were w r i t t e n 13 and e f f o r t s were made t o keep the language pure, t h e r e was a gr a d u a l impoverishment o f the vocabulary and many words were adopted from the languages of the host c o u n t r i e s as w e l l as from Hebrew and many were r e t a i n e d which had di s a p p e a r e d i n the sta n d a r d language of the P e n i n s u l a . Whereas Sephardim l i v i n g i n Western European c e n t r e s e v e n t u a l l y l o s t t h e i r Spanish through c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n , those i n the Ottoman Empire v i g o r o u s l y maintained t h e i r language and c u l t u r e thanks t o the fa v o u r a b l e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c l i m a t e and e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e i r i n t e n s e p r i d e i n t h e i r c u l t u r e . The Sephardim of the East c l u n g t o t h e i r language and l i t u r g y , t o t h e i r i d e n t i t y . With an a i r of s u p e r i o r i t y , they a g r e s s i v e l y a s s e r t e d themselves over the l o c a l Jews, a s s i m i l a t i n g them and l a y i n g the foundations f o r a c u l t u r e which was t o f l o u r i s h f o r t h r e e hundred y e a r s . In the n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s , the q u a l i t y and ve r y s u r v i v a l of the language t h e r e was undermined by r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l change. The d i s s o l u t i o n o f the Ottoman Empire saw the emergence of new s t a t e s which compelled the Sephardim t o educate t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the n a t i o n a l language and imposed m i l i t a r y c o n s c r i p t i o n . I n c r e a s i n g W e s t e r n i z a t i o n was l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of the e d u c a t i o n a l endeavours of the " A l -l i a n c e I s r a e l i t e U n i v e r s e l l e . " The profound i n f l u e n c e of French t h r e a t e n e d t o tr a n s f o r m the language i n t o what V i d a l Sephiha has c a l l e d " j u d e o f r a g n o l . " 1 4 L a r g e s c a l e e m i g r a t i o n i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s r u p t e d the f a b r i c of t r a d i t i o n a l Sephardic s o c i e t y i n which 14 the language had been kept a l i v e . Two c a t a s t r o p h i c wars t h i s c e n t u r y have devastated Sephardic communities. Judeo-Spanish, l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o home l i f e f o r a t l e a s t two c e n t u r i e s , i s now b e i n g f o r g o t t e n by the younger Sephardim. The f u t u r e of the d i a l e c t as a l i v i n g language looks bleak. 2.4. Rhodes 1 5 The informants f o r t h i s l i n g u i s t i c study o r i g i n a t e from the i s l a n d of Rhodes, l o c a t e d i n the s o u t h e a s t e r n Aegean j u s t o f f the c o a s t of Turkey. In a n c i e n t times, the i s l a n d was v a r i o u s l y under the sway of competing Greek c i t y s t a t e s and P e r s i a u n t i l i t achieved independence i n the l a t e f o u r t h century B. C. Rhodes then became an important c e n t r e of l e a r n i n g , the a r t s and commerce ( i t i s presumed t h a t i t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of g r e a t n e s s , d u r i n g the t h i r d c e n t u r y B. C. , t h a t the Colossus of Rhodes was b u i l t ) . From the mid second century B. C. , the i s l a n d was p a r t of the Roman Empire and came under Byzantine r u l e when the Empire was d i v i d e d up i n 395 A. D. From the l a t t e r p a r t of the e i g h t h century, i t was governed f o r a few y e a r s by Muslims then by a s e r i e s of l o c a l l o r d s , f o r a time by the Genoese and then again became p a r t of the Byzan-t i n e Empire. At the i n v i t a t i o n of the Byzantine government, the K n i g h t s of S t . John H o s p i t a l l e r s occupied the i s l a n d i n the e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h century i n order t o defend i t from the Turks. 15 Jews e x i l e d from Spain i n 1492 were not welcome t o e s t a b -l i s h themselves on Rhodes. In f a c t , i n the e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the r u l i n g C h r i s t i a n Knights s u b j e c t e d the Jewish community of the i s l a n d t o p e r s e c u t i o n r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h a t which had o c c u r r e d i n Spain and elsewhere: the c h o i c e between baptism or e x p u l s i o n and f o r c e d baptism of Jewish c h i l d r e n . 1 6 L i f e f o r the Jews of Rhodes changed f o r the b e t t e r when the Turks conquered Rhodes a t the end of 1522. The Jews l i v i n g on the i s l a n d h a i l e d a Muslim v i c t o r y j u s t as t h e i r b r e t h r e n i n Spain had done e i g h t c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e . The S u l t a n encouraged Jewish settlement of the i s l a n d and o f f e r e d i n c e n t i v e s . As a r e s u l t , Jews, mainly Spanish e x i l e s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , began t o emigrate t o Rhodes from o t h e r p a r t s o f the e a s t e r n Mediterranean under T u r k i s h r u l e . The development of the Sephardic community of Rhodes r e f l e c t s , i n many ways, what took p l a c e elsewhere i n the Ottoman Empire. 1 7 The l a r g e , c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u x of Spanish-speaking s e t t l e r s r e s u l t e d i n the l o c a l Jewish p o p u l a t i o n ' s adopting Sephardic customs and language; Spanish was, " w i t h i n a genera-t i o n o r two [ ] c e r t a i n l y the u n i v e r s a l language o f the Jews i n Rhodes. " 1 8 Judeo-Spanish c u l t u r e f l o u r i s h e d due, i n l a r g e measure, t o c o n s i d e r a b l e communal autonomy. There were o f f i c i a l s who were mediators between the community and the c e n t r a l government and those who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n t e r n a l government of the community. Self-government meant t h a t communities c o u l d f u n c t i o n governed by Jewish law with very l i t t l e i n t e r f e r e n c e from the T u r k i s h government. Spanish was the language of d a i l y communica-t i o n , of e d u c a t i o n and, along with Hebrew, the v e h i c l e of t h e i r c u l t u r e . The p r i v i l e g e of u s i n g Spanish and Hebrew i n e d u c a t i o n and the l e g a l system i n s t e a d of T u r k i s h was an important f a c t o r i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the Sephardim's l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . The c i t y of Rhodes, where v i r t u a l l y a l l Jews on the i s l a n d l i v e d , came t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e among the s c a t t e r e d Sephardic communities of the Ottoman Empire through i t s r a b b i n i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and s c h o l a r s and was r e f e r r e d t o by i t s i n h a b i t a n t s as " l i t t l e J erusalem." 1 9 Jews were an o f f i c i a l l y - p r o t e c t e d people, h e l d important p r i v i l e g e s and l i v e d i n a s o c i e t y which was g e n e r a l l y t o l e r a n t , though they d i d not possess the r i g h t s of f u l l c i t i z e n s h i p , which o n l y Muslims enjoyed, and were s u b j e c t e d t o annoying d r e s s r e s t r i c t i o n s , the purpose of which was t o remind them t h a t they were c o n s i d e r e d i n f e r i o r and t o i s o l a t e them. 2 0 The T u r k i s h , and e s p e c i a l l y the Greek C h r i s t i a n , p o p u l a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y h o s t i l e toward the Jews so t h a t members of the community went out of t h e i r way t o keep a low p r o f i l e and a v o i d t r o u b l e w i t h the non-Jewish p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s was another important s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r which helped t o maintain a t i g h t l y - k n i t , s e l f - r e l i a n t community, as i t had throughout the h i s t o r y of Jewish s e t t l e m e n t on the P e n i n s u l a . Rhodes was governed by the Turks u n t i l 1912, when i t was l o s t t o I t a l y d u r i n g a war fought between the two c o u n t r i e s . The 17 o c c u p a t i o n l a s t e d u n t i l 1923 when the i s l a n d o f f i c i a l l y became I t a l i a n t e r r i t o r y . The l i v e s of the Jews of Rhodes took a t u r n f o r the worse when the F a s c i s t government a l i g n e d the cou n t r y w i t h N a z i Germany i n 1936. Two years l a t e r , r e p r e s s i v e a n t i -Jewish laws were e s t a b l i s h e d . A f t e r M u s s o l i n i ' s f a l l from power i n the summer of 1943 and the ensuing a r m i s t i c e between I t a l y and the a l l i e s , German f o r c e s o c c u p i e d the i s l a n d . In J u l y , 1944, the N a z i s deported v i r t u a l l y every Jew on the i s l a n d ( T u r k i s h c i t i z e n s h i p saved a handful) t o the c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps—not even t e n per cen t of the more than seventeen hundred s u r v i v e d . 2 1 A f t e r the war, attempts t o r e o r g a n i z e the community proved u n s u c c e s s f u l . Hardly any Jews remain on Rhodes t o d a y . 2 2 Most Sephardim o r i g i n a t i n g from the i s l a n d now l i v e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 18 3. The O r a l Sample 3.1. The Informants E l l and Rosa F e r e r a , who o b l i g i n g l y (and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y ) agreed t o p r o v i d e a sample of t h e i r speech f o r a n a l y s i s , o r i g i n a t e from Rhodes, where they spent t h e i r f o r m a t i v e y e a r s . Mr. F e r e r a , born i n 1916, l i v e d on the i s l a n d u n t i l the b e g i n n i n g of 1938 when he l e f t t o j o i n other f a m i l y members then l i v i n g i n Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, which had a l a r g e community of Sephardim from Rhodes. He worked as a wh o l e s a l e r merchant, i n b u s i n e s s w i t h h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w f o r t h i r t y of the f o r t y y e a r s he l i v e d t h e r e . Mrs. F e r e r a (nee I s r a e l ) was born i n 1924 and remained on Rhodes u n t i l 1944 when she was deported t o Auschwitz w i t h the r e s t of the Jewish community. L i b e r a t e d i n 1945, she made her way t o Rome where she remained f o r e i g h t months u n t i l her de p a r t u r e f o r Rio de J a n e i r o . There she l i v e d w i t h her u n c l e and h i s f a m i l y f o r two years, from 1946 t o 1948, when she went t o Rhodesia t o see her s i s t e r . During the t h i r t y y e a r s Mrs. F e r e r a spent i n Rhodesia, where she met her husband, she worked as a bookkeeper i n the accounting department of an I t a l i a n f i r m . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r d i a l e c t of Spanish, both informants are f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h , I t a l i a n and French; Mr. F e r e r a a l s o speaks Greek. The informants have had t o use t h e i r f o r e i g n languages i n the workplace (Mr. F e r e r a , mainly I t a l i a n , French 19 and a l i t t l e E n g l i s h ; h i s wife, p r i m a r i l y I t a l i a n ) . They have not l o s t touch w i t h French and I t a l i a n and watch t e l e v i s i o n programmes i n those languages. The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t exposure t o Standard Spanish, other than t h e i r h o l i d a y i n Spain a few years ago, were t h e two ye a r s Mrs. F e r e r a spent i n Rio with her u n c l e and h i s f a m i l y , Sephar-dim who had come from A r g e n t i n a ( t h e i r language had a s s i m i l a t e d t o Standard Spanish). She has a l s o corresponded w i t h her South American Sephardic r e l a t i v e s with the a i d of an E n g l i s h - S p a n i s h d i c t i o n a r y t o ensure t h a t her language i s standard. The couple do not have the h a b i t of r e a d i n g S p a n i s h — M r s . F e r e r a has, a t some p o i n t , read a work i n Spanish; her husband, perhaps p a r t of one. They have had o c c a s i o n a l exposure t o w r i t t e n Judeo-Spanish (the p r e s s , books). Both informants have always spoken t h e i r mother tongue a t home. During most of t h e i r l i f e , they have formed p a r t o f a l a r g e Judeo-Spanish-speaking community. In Vancouver, however, they appear t o be the onl y members of the Sephardic community who s t i l l speak the d i a l e c t . Mr. and Mrs. F e r e r a have two daughters, aged t h i r t y - s e v e n and f o r t y , both o f whom understand Judeo-Spanish; n e i t h e r o f them speaks i t . The younger can communicate w i t h her p a r e n t s i n Standard Spanish, having s t u d i e d the language a t u n i v e r s i t y . 20 3.2. The Recording S e s s i o n On A p r i l 24, 1990, t h i s w r i t e r recorded a sample of Mr. and Mrs. F e r e r a 1 s speech a t t h e i r home i n Vancouver. The f o l l o w i n g t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s of a continuous segment of j u s t under twenty minutes of t h e i r f o rty-minute d i a l o g u e , which was f e l t t o be an adequate, and manageable, l e n g t h f o r the purposes of t h i s a n a l y s i s . In the r e c o r d i n g , Mr. and Mrs. F e r e r a r e m i n i s c e about l i f e on Rhodes. 3.3. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the T r a n s c r i p t i o n The f o l l o w i n g conventions should be noted: empty square b r a c k e t s ([ ] ) , r a r e l y found i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n , i n d i c a t e a b r i e f o m i s s i o n due t o i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y 2 3 (the nature o f each o m i s s i o n i s e x p l a i n e d i n the n o t e s ) ; t h r e e dots (...) i n d i c a t e pauses, i n d e c i s i o n and p a r t i a l l y - e x p r e s s e d thoughts p r e s e n t i n n a t u r a l speech; an apostrophe (•) immediately precedes a t o n i c s y l l a b l e (as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , i t never denotes d e s i g n a t e s a p h e r e s i s , syncope or apocope). "EF" = " E l i F e r e r a " ; "RF" = "Rosa F e r e r a . " The symbol [s] r e p r e s e n t s any d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of / s / ( a p i c a l e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of RF; more c o r o n a l [or, perhaps, even a l v e o l a r i n some words, although the same symbol i s employed] i n EF's speech; [6] may o f t e n be a d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e . 21 3.4. T r a n s c r i p t i o n 1 EF: vo amp ... vo am'psar j=> a a ' v l a r , 'roza. 2 RF: 1 ooke. 3 EF: j o so mas grand d i t i , so vo am'psar j o , oo'ke? 4 RF: a b s o ' l u t l i . 5 EF: ra:at. so .. . e ' l i f e ' r e r a , e l 'nombri; j o mi ,Jamo 6 e ' l i f e ' r e r a , na'sido f ' r o 6 i s . n a ' s i i n si'yundu d i 7 f e v r i ' e m i l i n y v i ' s j e n t u z i d i z i ' s e j . 'ki2u s z i r k i 8 ' t u v i a'ywera s e ' t e n t ... so 'terjgo s e ' t e n t a i 'kwatro 9 'anos. mi 'padre i mi 'maore, mu'Jon i r o ' z i n a 10 f e ' r e r a . l u k i ma'ko6ru d i l a ... de 'kwando 'era mwi 11 ' t j i k o : bi'viamuz cn l a dSuoa'ria natural'me nte. en l a 12 d2u6a'ria tru'kimuz dos 'kazaz. l a , l a , l a 'prima 13 'kaza nu ma'kofiru 'kwa2i 'na6a. l a sa'yunda 'kaza en 14 l a d_uda'ria ma'kodru 'k l a r o ' k l a r o , mwi ' k l a r o . l a 15 'kaza 'era ' p r o p r i u api'yafia a'serka 6e l a 'skola 16 d_u'dia. I a k a ' l e 2 a 'ande mo'ravamuz 'era 'una k a ' l e . a 17 a'ywera en l a d2uda'ria, natural'mente. nu se d i ke l a 18 ja*mavan. ma'kodro ke l a Ja'mavan l a k a ' l e _ a d i •lokus 19 'purke a ' v i a a , j a en 'suptu ' i n t r e l a 'notje a ' v i a 20 'unu 0 doz 'deos s i a l v a n ' t a v a 'entre l a ' n o t j i , 22 21 kami'navan d a ' r i v a a*baJ"u i ' t j a n d u ' g r i t u z , 'eran ura 22 'poko, no 'eran ... 23 RF: nor'mal. 24 EF: nor'mal, d e ' r e t j o z , ... aend Am, 'esta 'kaza me 25 l a ' k o S r u 'kornu k i 'fwera ... o, j a bi'vimuz 'p=>di s e r 26 'asta ke j o t i ' n i a ' t f e d 2 i , k a ' t o r z e 'anoz b i ' v i a ' j a . 27 i natural'me nte l a , 'era, l a 'skola 'era p j i n api *ya6a 28 a l a 'kaza 'mia—no 's o l u l a 'sk=>la: i l a sma'goya 29 'era, l a sma'goya 'grandi 'era ta'mjen ' p r o p r i u 30 api'yaQa a ' j a , aend Am, 'eramuz, l a fa'mia 'mwesa, 31 'eramuz, k i 2 z i r , 'kwatru ar'manuz i 'una er'mana. j o 32 'era i l ... i l , i l kwar'tenu de l o z ir'manoz i t i ' n i a 3 3 'una er'mana mas ' t j i k a 6 i mi. t u , t u ta'mjen mu'rava, 34 natural'ment ... t u 'onde t u ... 35 RF: no, j o mo'rava i n l a kae 'ant/a ... 36 EF: f l a kae 'ant/a. 37 RF: f n l a kae 'ant/a ... 38 EF: a s i . 23 39 RF: ... i j o t e ' n i a kwatr ... t r e z er'manas, i mi 'padre 40 1 mi 'madre k i b i ' v i a n ... 41 EF: al 'nombri, 'roza ... 42 RF: j o so 'roza f e ' r e r a . n a ' s i i n e l v e n t i ' t r e z de 43 de'sembro m i l i n o v i 1 s j e n t o z i venti'kwatro, i ... 'komo 44 ' d i j i ... 45 EF: 'kwantaz er'manaz 'era/? 46 RF: t r e z er'manas. e f e l i z ' m e n t e l a z doz se muri'eron en e l 47 'kampo des'pwes ke 'fweramoz depor'tados kon mis 48 'padrez i n 'dSuntus. a?nd Am, mi a r i ' k o d r o d i t i 49 tam'bjen i d i t u fa'mia 'purki 'eran mwi a'miyoz l a s 50 fa'mias, 'pero a t i no t e kono'sia pur dal 'todo. ez 51 sola'mente 'kwando 'vine a ' l a f r i k a ke ' t u v i i l 52 p l a ' z e r d i ' r j k o n ' t r a r t i i des'pwez d i ... 53 EF: o wel, ... ja, ja, j o ta'mjen ma'kodro mwi ' k l a r o de, 54 de, de, . . . de t u 'padre, 6e t u 'madre, 6 e tuz er'maaz 55 i 'todu 'purke t u mu'ravaz en l a kae ' a n t f a a l a 56 en'trada ' p r o p r i u de l a dSuda'ria, sorj 'kwandu 57 sa'liamuz de l a dSuda'ria 'para i r a l t j a r ' / i , 'para 58 i r a l man'draki, 'para i r a l a p l a 2 , 'para i r 59 'andi ... k w a l ' s i a s i l u ' y a r , de'viamuz i r pa'sar por 24 60 tu 'kaza ... 'proprju. aend a, natural'me nte ma'kodro 61 fle 'to6oz, de 'toooz uz 'otros. n=> 'solu 'estu, ke tu 62 ar'mana 'rika 'era ... 63 RF: 'stava en l a ... 64 EF: e'stavamuz en l a 'mizma 'klasa, 'iamuz a l a 'skola en 65 'd2untus, a'stavamuz e l a 'mizma 'klasa. a'vlandu 6e, 66 Qe, 6e l a 'skola, ki2 z i r , 'iamuz p i ' J i n a l a 67 'skola ... d i t j i k i ' t i k u s , k i • iamus pa'Jin a l a 68 'skola d2u'Qia—era 'skola d2u'Qia en e l 'tjempo 'mio: 69 'era, 'era d i l a l i ' a s i z r a e ' l i t y n i v e r ' s e l — , i a'ja 70 l a , l a 'lirjgwa prf ji 'pal 'era, pwed ser, 'era l a 71 fra'seza, ma s i mise'nava 'muntju i n i'breo ta'mje i , 72 a l empa'J"ijo, itae'ljaeno, ma lo mas prf s i ' p a l 'era f 73 fra'sez. 'era 'una, 'era 'skola av . . . d i i'2ikuz i 74 i'Sikaz: laz a'Sikaz 'era d i 'una 'parti i luz i'2ikuz 75 d i ' l o t r a 'parte, ma, du, du'rante l a rikrea'sjon, muz 76 enkon 1travamus 'tofloz a ain 'd2untuz, ma 11 'ultimu 77 'afiu 6e l a 'skola—ke e r a 'una 'skola elemen'tara, 78 vera'me n t e — a l a e'dad d i ' t r e d 2 i , 2 4 k a ' t o r z i 'anus, 79 ska'pavamuz: no a'via maz; i ' lultimu 'afiu Qe l a 80 'skola, l a 'klasa 'mwesra 'era i*2ikoz i i'2ikaz i n 81 'd2untus. 82 RF: j a . 25 83 EF: 'aend a ... 'estu ma la'kodru 'klaro, 'klaro de l a z , de 84 laz i'z"ikaz i 6a luz i*2iku loz 'nombres 'toduz, 85 'aend a ... 86 RF: 'pero mo'zotroz 'era d i f e ' r e n t i . jo e e l ... komen'si 87 l a e'skola i t a ' l j a n a ... no a'via e'skola fra'seza 88 a'kel 'tjempo; 'era 'skola i t a ' l j a n a . muz ambi'zavamuz 89 e l fra'sez tam'bjen i le'breo, ma l a 'lirjgwa p r i s i ' p a l 90 'era l i t a ' l j a n o . 91 EF: o kiz" d z i r , tu no fwedz a l a 'skola d2u'dia erj l a 92 dzuda'ria? 93 RF: jes, a l a 'skola dSu'Qia en l a d2uoa*ria, ma no 'era 94 l a l i ' a s a ! 95 EF: a, no 'era maz l a l i ' a s a , 'era ... 96 RF: no 'era l a l i ' a s a , ... 97 EF: ... 'era o l ' r e d i i t a ' l j a n a . 98 RF: ... 'era 'skola i t a l i ' a n a 'purke, a'kel 'tjempo, loz 99 i t a l i ' a n o z ja 'eran, 'stavan en 'rodiz, aend am, ... i 100 mas 'kwalo ... apren'diamuz 'toflaz 'estas 'lirjgwas! 26 101 EF: wel a, d e l , 3f kors, 'stamoz a'vlando j a e d i f c ' r e s i a z 102 de l a e'dad ' t u j a i 'mia, 'stamuz a'vlando da, o, do, 103 doz 'epokaz um 'poko di f e 1 r e n t i z. erj e l 'tjempo ke 104 ma'koSro j o de l a t j i ' k e z , de 'kwando 'era t j i ' k i o i 105 ' t j i k o , 'era l a , 'era i f l u ' e s ' a , S f l u ' e s ' a 'yrandi 106 'turka 'purke mi ama'koSro 2 5 l o ke mis p a r i ' e n t e s 107 s a ' v i a n todz a ' v l a r , a'vlavan bjen i n 'turku 'purke 108 Sa'inda 'asta e l mil'nyv'' s j e n t u z i 'dod_i ' r o d i s 109 a p a r t e ' n i a a l a t u r ' k i a ; la t u r ' k i a e'stuvo en ' r o d i s 110 pur kwatru'J"entuz 'afiu z. 111 RF: s i . 112 EF: ke: z i r , en mil'nuv 1' s j e n t s i 'dod2i k i l u z , i l 113 go'verno i ' t a e l i a ... 'uvo l a 'gera i litae'ljaeafi, l u z 114 i t a ' l j a n u z oku'paro l a ' i z l a i , di 1 milnuv 1' s j e u z i 115 'dod2i, ' r o d i s s i ' i z u itaa'ljaana. 116 RF: s i . 117 EF: aend am, ma 'mizmo l o s p r o f i ' s o r i s k i t i ' n i a m u z en l a 118 'skola 'mwesra, ma'koSro ka a ' v i a um p r o f e ' s o r v i ' d a l 119 ke 'era profa'sor Qi i ' b r e o . a ' v i a um p r o f e ' s o r 'mizmu 120 de l a ' r u s i a . no se d i ke 'lirjgwa ' e s i prufa'sor ... 121 a* Ja muz ambi'zava i ' b r e o , a ' v i a p r o f e ' s o r e z 27 122 itas'ljaenoz; e l ... i l , i l d e r e k ' t o r Qe l a 's k o l a 'era 123 itae'ljaeno. 124 RF: itae'ljaeno, Qe l a i ' t a l j a . 125 EF: itae'ljaeno, s i , i a ' v i a p r o f i ' s o r e z Qitae'ljaeno. l a , l a 126 prof i 'sora mas k i , k i b u s 2 6 ako'Qramuz d a ' i n d a 'asta e l 127 ' d i a d i o i , k i Ise'no 2 e n e r a 1 sjones Qi 'mwesas 'era 128 'una maQmwa'zel t a ' r a n t u ka ... 129 RF: O U ! 130 EF: ... asa'yun ta:'koQras, [ ] , 2 7 'kwandu vi'nimus a ' k i a 131 la ' m e r i k a , 'antas 2a 'dod2i 'afiuz su'pimus k i mamwa'zel 132 t a ' r a n t u b i ' v i a a ' k i 1 si'aetal, i 'kwandu 'f we muz a 13 3 va2a*tar a si'aetal, l a 'prima 'koza k i , k i bu'Jkimuz Qi 134 a'zer 'ez a v i 2 l ' t a r l a a 'esta ma°mw'zel t a ' r a n t u . i , 135 f 'faektu, l a 'fwemuz, l a va'rimuz, 2 8 l a viSa'timuz i 136 muz ' i zu 'una r i s i v i ' d u r a a ' j a mwi, mwi 'yrande. 'era 137 'una profa'sora mwi ' s t r i k t a , mwi se ' v e r a , ma 'era mwi 138 'bwena prufa'sora, i ez a 'kayza 'Qea k i , k i muz 139 amba'zimuz a vera'mente a ' v l a r e l f r a ' s e z , k i 'mizmu a l 140 ' d i a de o i , k i , pur 'afiuz i 'afiuz, nu t u ' v i ... no 141 te'niamuz 'nurjka okazi'on d i a ' v l a r a l f r a ' s e 2 , i 142 da'inda e l 'dia de o i , sa'vemuz e l f r a ' s e z b a ' s t a n t e 143 b j e . 28 144 RF: 'era 'una prrjfa'sora mwi e k s e p s i o ' n a l tam'bjen 'purki 145 'era, 'era ' s t r i k t a mas ka'rida d i 'todos ' p i r k o ... 146 ' p u r k i , vera'menti, f nse'fiava mwi de mwi b j e n , i kun 147 'ea no a ' v i a a a'zer 'nada d i spes ... d i ' v i a z d i 148 a m b i ' z a r t i , no a ' v i a 'otra ma'jiera d i , d i a ' z e r . 149 EF: so, [ ] , 2 9 j o t i ' d i j i , a ' v i a d i . .., a l i m p ' J i o 3 0 150 ' d i j i k i t e 'eramuz 'una fa'mia d i 'kwatru ir'manuz i 151 'una er'mana. j o , a l a e'dad d i ' t r e d S i 'afiuz, 152 mu'zotruz mus sa'limuz de l a dz"uda*ria. mi 'pa°re 153 kom'pro 'una 'kaza 'fwera en e l ma'raj, a'fwera, 'ke 154 'era 'una 'kaza, a'keus 'tjempuz 'era 'una 'kaza 155 vera'menti mwi 'bwena, i a l a e'dad d i ' t r e d S i 'anus, 156 'kwandu, 'kwandu s k a ' p i l a 'skola d2u'dia, mu*zo 6ru z 157 mus *f"emus,31 sa'limuz de l a d2uda'ria i mus 'fwemuz 158 a mu'rar a l ma'raj, al ma'raj ka, ka, ma'raj, a l , a l , 159 a l o s srj'borbz, a'fwera, aend a, i d a ' j a mi fwe jo a 160 koti'nwar l o z e ' s t u d i o z e l a 'skola itae'ljaena. l a mas 161 ' p a r t i , p w^d s e r t r e s , 'kwatro 'deos, de l u s kum'panuz 162 miu d i , d i 'klasa koti'nwaro ko mi e l a 'skola 163 i t a ' l j a n a ; l u z 'otrus 'todus s i 'fweron p i ' J i n ae 164 laevo'rar. a l a , a l a e'dad d i ' t r e d 2 i , k a ' t o r z i 'anus, 165 ' k i z i 'anus, l a mas ' p a r t i s i 'fwero laevo'rar. a, 166 'asta k, a en, 'asta a ' k e l 'tjempo _ ' r e d i miz er'manuz 167 j a , i 31 ir'manu 'yrandi 'mio, 'd2ako, en al 168 m i l n u v i ' s j e n t s a venti'kwatru, 'kwandu j o 'era da'inda 29 169 t j i k i ' t i k o , j a p a r ' t j o 'para, a ' v i a p a r ' t i O u , 'para l a 170 r o ' d e z i a na, a l a r o ' d e z i a , k ... d i ke s i fwe a l a 171 r o ' d e z i a ? j o t a ' n i a u ' t i u , un ir'mano d i mi 'pa°re, 172 k i ... ' v e r s 0 ... nu se 'kwaflo eyzaekta'menti, 'kre Yo ye 173 i n i l milnyv 1' s j e n t z i 'sirjku, m i l n y v 1 ' s j e n t u z i ' s e j , 174 p a r ' t j o d i ' r o d i s , s i fwe a l a r o ' d e z j a . s i fwe a l a 175 r o ' d e z j a , e'stuvo a i 'unus 'kwantuz 'afiuz i , i p i ' J i n 176 ' a n t i z 6e l a 'prima 'gera, ' k r e i u , k i 'vinu a, a, 177 t u r ' n o a 'roQis, 'era ma'sevo '6 a i n d 3 , [ a ] 3 2 a'stava 178 sirj ka'zar, 'vinu a ' r o d i s , t u ... t ru'ko una 'novia, 179 s i kae'zo, i tur'no d i 'mwevo a l a r o ' d e z i a . aend a, 180 dus'pwez Qi 'unus 'kwantuz 'aenuz, j a t e ' n i a un 'et/o 181 b a ' s t a n t ' i 'bweno, l o man'do ja'mar a m' ar'mano 182 ' y r a n d i , 'd2ako, i mi ar'manu s i fwe a ' j a e 183 m i l n o v 1 ' s j e n t z i venti'kwatro, ' k r e i u . Qus'pwez Qi un 184 'afiu u doz, i l si'yundu ar'manu 'mio, a t ' b e r t u , s i fwe 185 ta'mje a l a r o ' d e z i a i mi ' t i u l e ' o , ka l o man'do a 186 ja'mar, 'purke a ' k e l 'tjempo a ' v i a a l ' r e d i 'una 187 emiyra'sjon b a ' s t a n t i , ba'stante 'yrande. 'mu nt/os 188 e'stavan [ ] , 3 3 ke n s i ' " " i a 3 4 a la'merika, ken a 189 la'merika Qel sur, de l a r d 2 e n ' t i n a , a l b r a ' z i l , a ' k i 190 i la'merika, n j y Jork, a t ' l a n t a , s i ' a e t e l , l o z 191 'and2alaz, i 'muntjuz a ' v i a a a l a ... a r o ' d e z i a , i n 192 ' l a f r i k a , i a l 'kongo bel2, k i a'ywera l a r o ' d e z i a ez 193 a'ywera zim'babwe, i l 'korjgo be 12 a'ywera ez z a ' i r . 30 194 RF: s i , ez, ez mterc ' s a n t i d i ver 'komo s i 'fweron di 195 'to6a, a 'todafi las 'partez di 1 'mundu, i spcsial'mente 196 des'pwez d i k i ... del 'treinta i 'otfo 'kwandu 'uvo 197 ra'sizmo: l a i ' t a l j a s i e l i ' o kun l a d2er'manja i 198 en'tonsiz s i 'fwero" maz 'muntjuz di 'rodis. ae'viaen 199 ke'daedo 'unuz doz mil par'sonas i 'roois sola'menti, 200 i 'estaz doz mil, e l ... dn e l 'ano kwarenta 1kwatro, 201 'fweron depor'tados 'toous, i 'fweron depor'tadoz a 202 'aujvits 'ondi s i muri'e r o l a mas ' p a r t i . 203 EF: ma ... 204 RF: l o ke ke'daron 'fweron do'zjentas par'sonas, and easts, 205 'eso f we 'to6o. 206 EF: ma ... d i 'rodiz, natural'menti, jo, 'kwando s a ' l i da 207 'rodiz, j a te'nia al'reQi, 'era un 'ombri, 'era u 208 ma'sevu d i venti'un 'anufi, so, de ma'nera ke 'terjgu 209 'unaz me'morias fan'tastikaz de 'rodis. loz a'miyoz 210 de, de, de l a t j i ' k e z de 'rodiz no me l _ s 'pwedo 211 'nurjka, 'nurjka olvi'dar. ez var'dad k i nu ti'niamuz, 212 d2e neral'menti a'vlandu, no a'via ri'kezaz, no a'via, 213 ma 'era 'una 'vida 'bwena ... kum ... pa'savamoz 'kumu 214 ' t j i k o s , los pasa'tjempoz 'eran vera'menti I l a 215 ka'leSa, i l a ka'le2a d2u'ywavamoz a'ja kon l o ... 216 d2u'ywavamoz a laz 'bijaz, d2u'ywavamoz a ko'rer, 31 217 d _ u 1 y w a v a m u f i . . . e l p a s a ' t j e m p o c n ' t e r a ' e r a 218 ' p _ o p r i u . . . a ' z i a m o z ' e r a . . . d S u ' y w a v a m o s f u t ' b o l , 219 ' i a m u z a l a k a e ' a n t j a e n l a s p i ' l o t a z , ' i a m u z . . . n u 220 s e . . . a , a , a l a ' p w e r t a 6 e l a m a r a ' i , a l a s ' p e f i a z , 221 a l a s ' k o z a z , aend am, m a ' k o m u m a ' k o 6 r o k i ' m i z m u 222 ' k u m u d a ' i d a i ' S i k u d i ' d o d 2 i ' a n u s , ' t r e d 2 i ' a f i u z , 223 a ' k e l ' t j e m p u i l , . . . a ' v i a n a ' v j e r t u e n l a d S u d a ' r i a 224 ' m i z m u urj k o ' l e d 2 o r a ' b i n i k o , k o * l e d 2 o ' o n d i 225 ' s t a v a n . . . e m p ' s a r o n [ ] 3 5 ' d z " e n t i [ ] 3 6 m a ' s e v u z , i 226 d e , n o ' s o l o d i ' r o d i z m a 6 e , 6 a , 6 a , n o s e . . . d e l 227 e ' 2 i p t u , d e l n o r ' t a f r i k a , ' m i z m u a ' v i a u m ' p r e t u d e 228 l a b i ' s i J a . . . 229 RF: s i . 230 EF: . . . k i v i . . . e ' s t a v a v i ' R e n d u a ' e s t i k o ' l e d S o ' p a r a 231 a ' z e r s i n ' t i t / r s . . . 232 RF: p r o f e ' s o r e s . 233 EF: ... p r o f a ' s o r e z d i i ' b r e u , o r a ' b i n u z , i m u ' z o t r o s , 234 ' k o m u i ' l e v a z d i ' s k o l a , m a ' k o d r o , l o z J a ' b a t i s ' i a m u z 235 a ' j a a l k o ' l e d S o r a ' b i n i k 0 a t o ' m a r l i s i ' o n e z 6 i , 6 i , 236 d i , 6 i l a ' b i b l i a , d e l t a l ' m u d , m a ' s o l o ' e s t u , 237 z>f k o r s ' e r a u n a ' v i 6 a m w i , t a ' m j e , m w i d _ u ' d i a . .. erj 238 k e ' s e s i u ? k i . . . l a z . . . e l , e l k o ' m e r s j u d e l a i J a 32 239 'era erj [] erj lafi 'manuz Qe l o z dSu'djoz i , i , i 'era 240 una 'viQa mwi dzu'dia i n dQaet l a z b u ' t i k a z , l u z 241 "e'gosjos, i l 'dia 6 i J a ' b a t , 'sabato, J a ' b a t , 'todo 242 'stava se'radu, ma a l ' / a d , ke 'era, a l ' x a d , 'todu 3 7 243 ae'vrian. ja 'bat mu'zotrus 'todus, kon 'mwesos38 244 'pa°rez, muz 1 iamus 'sjempri a l a s i n a ' y o y a — ' e r a , 245 'era do'vere. l a s sina'yoyaz, e l ' d i a Qi J a ' b a t d i 246 ma'nana, 'stavan, 'stavan, 'jenaz i , duj'pwez Qe l a 247 sina'yoya, muz 'iamuz a v i 2 i ' t a r a l a s ' t i a z a ' j a i 248 muz 'Qavan a l a , a l a , l a s ' t i a z , a l o s ' t i o z , a 249 b a b i ' z a r l a 'manu a to'Quz i a salu'darmuz pur 250 al J a ' b a t a , 3 9 aend Am, ... 2 51 RF: wel a, j o mi a'koQru tam'bje ke 'era una 'viQa mwi 252 t r a r j ' k i l a i mwi, a Qz> n=>, te'nemoz 'unos s u v e ' n i r e s 253 mwi er'mozos i ... d i , d i l a ' i z l a , d i l a z , d i 'kwandu 254 v i ' n i a l a , le nve'rano, k i muz 'iamuz a tu'mar l u z 255 'banus a l a p l a 2 , a l a mar. des'pwez, l a prima'vera 256 'kwando 'to°oz l o s 'kampos s i 3'tj" i a n a' Ja Qi 257 m a r y a ' r i t a z i d i , da ' f l o r i z d i l a kam'pafia ke 258 'era ... muz 'iamuz a a z e r l u s ' p i k n i k s kun 'toQoz i 259 l a kam'pafia, e, 'kwalo ... 'era, 'era 'una 'viQa mwi 260 ayra'Qavle. da'inda, l a ' i z l a ez mwi ar'moza 'pero nu 2 61 'tjene a'ke a ermo'zura Qe a ' k e l 'tjempo 'purke s i 262 t r o ' k o , s i z v i l u ' p o mwi 'munt/o; a'kea vez 'era mas, 263 'kreyu, 'para mi, 'era maz, maz er'moza. des'pwez, en 33 264 l a e ' s k o l a kun l a , kun l u z a'miyos, 'sjempre 2 65 t i 'niarauz, mus 'viamuz 1munt/o, d2o • Ywavamus 'munt/o 266 en l a s 'kaes ... ai Qa nao, 'era, 'era una 'viQa mwi 267 ayra'Qavle, 'kre Yo. 4 0 sola'menti ke 'kwanQo no 268 p o ' d i ... j o ... e l r e ' y r e t o maz 'yrande ye 'terjgo es 269 ke no 'puQi konti'nwar d i e s t u d i ' a r 'purke, a ' k e l 270 'tjempo, l a z e'skolas sa s e ' r a r o n 'para 'todo z l o z 271 d 2 u d i ' o z — ' e s t o fwe e n e l m i l n o v e • s j e n t o z i ' t r e n t a i 272 ' o t j o 'kwando, 'kwando l a i ' t a l j a kome'so a a ' z e r l a s , 273 l a z l e i z r a ' s j a l e s ... tam'bjen. 274 EF: ma, a ' p a r t i d i 'eso, a'ywera, a ... a'vlandu d i ' a n t i z 275 d i ' e s t u , d e l m i l n u v i ' s j e n t z i kwa'renta i 'unu, 276 kwa'renta i doz, a'vlandu de l a , ' p r o p r i u Qe l a 277 t j i ' k e s . . . a ' i , ma'koQru k i 'kwando j o fwe a l a 'skola 278 i t a ' l j a n a , k 1 ' s t u v i 'kwatro 'afiuz i n l a 'skola 279 i t a ' l j a n a 'para ska'par l u z i ' s t u d i u z . a'ywera 280 'muntjuz se 'keQan k u r i ' o z u z k wa en l a r o ' d e z i a 281 o a ' k i , se 'keQan k u r i ' o z u s 'komu 'kwandu [ ] 4 1 282 'kwantaz 'lirjgwaz, a ke a'vlamoz d i ' v c r s a z 'lirjgwaz. 283 mu'zo°roz a'viamuz e ... e f r a ' s e z , a'viamuz en 284 i r j ' g l e z , a'vlamuz a t a ' l j a n o , a'vlamuz aspa'fiol, j o 285 'avlo e 'greyu, i se 'keQa, 'komu es p o ' s i v l i ? wel, 286 'era 'una 'koza n a t u ' r a l : e, e, e, e 'kaza 287 a'vlavamus ... aspa'fiol. mu'zo aroz no, no, a ' k e l 34 288 'tjempo nu 'dziamus k i a'vlavamuz l a ' d i n o u 289 dz"udeoespa'fiol, a'vla'Mz i s p a ' f i o l , di'ziamus ... 290 RF: s i . 291 EF: . . . 'para mu'zotro 2, a'vlavamus s p a ' f i o l : 'mwesos 'pa 6res 292 a'vlavan aspa'fiol, l o , 1, 'mwesoz ... l o s 'pa°rez de 293 'mwesos 'pa 6res, pur 2enera' sjonez i 2a nara' sjonefi 294 a'vlavan 'spa'fiol, ke a'ywera l o 1, ja'mamuz l a ' d i n 3 , 295 vera'mente, l a ... 'kwal u e z l a ' d i n o ? l a ' d i n o , l a 296 ma'"era ke e n ' t j e n d u j o , l a ' d i n u ez aspa'fiol 'vje2u, 297 aspa'fiol ke se a'vlava kwatru•Jentuz 'afiuz ' a n t i z , 298 [ ] 4 2 'esoz dSu'djoz de ' r o d i z . wel, d2u d ... e ' r o d i z 299 p a ' r e ... a l para'ser, es ke a ' v i a dSu'djoz d i ' a n t i z 300 d i l a ... 301 RF: o, ' a n t i s . 302 EF: ... i r j k w i z i ' s j o n d i ma l a 'yrandi ... f f u ' z j o fwe 303 'kwandu, du'rante l a ekspol'sjon d i , d i , d i , ... de l a 3 04 i n k w i z i ' s j o n de l a 'spana, k i 'todoz l o z d2u'djos 305 'fweron o b l i ' y a d o z da ' i r s e da l a 'spafia. 'una 'yrandi 306 p a r ' t i d a 'fweron pir'mero a, a, a l a t u r ' k i a , an al 307 im'pero oto'man 0, i da'ja, s i ' v n e r o n a ' r o d i f i i , i 308 a ' j a , pur 2 e nara'sjon i 2 e nara'sjon i 2 e nara'sjon, 309 kontuni'aa, kontu'nimuz a a ' v l a r an aspa'fiol. so, i 35 310 'kaza a'vlavamuz f i s p a ' n o i . 'fwemuz a l a 's k o l a 6 i 311 t / i k i ' t i k u z , 'era p / i n j a muz ambi'zavan a a , v l a r i 312 f r a ' s e s ... i , i , i i t a 1 l j a n o tarn'bjcn, natural'mente, 313 f al 'tjempo 'mio. si'komu l a ma l a , l a ma2ori'ta 314 6e l a [ ] 4 3 'enan 4 4 'greyus 'todus, 'greyus tam'bjc t e 315 ambi*zava z en l a 'kaje, 'tantu a'star ko 'greyu, kS 316 'yreyu t e ambi'zavan, mu'zotruz muz amb'zavamz a a ' v l a r 317 e 'greyu. so, d i t j i k i ' t i k u f i , d i kwan d ta'niamuz ' o z i , 318 'dod2i 'afiu8 sa'viamuz a ' v l a r ^ ' r e o i 'kwatru 'lirjgwaz. 319 RF: jae:. 320 EF: a'vlavamuz i , i n i spa'noi, i f r a ' s e z , i , i n i r j ' g l e z , 321 i , i , i sa'viamuz m i l ' d a r i , i n i ' b r e u ta'mje 3 22 ba'stante, ba'stante bjen. 323 RF: j o 'kreyo k i ... mi fa'mia 'debe 4 5 s e r k i b i v i ' o en 324 ' r o d i z d i ... 'terjgo di se'yuro 'unos t r e ' z j e n t o s 325 'afioz ' a n t i s k i 'stavan e ' r o d i s . s p e s i a l ' m e n t e l a 326 fa'mia i z f a ' e l 4 6 'purki t i * n i a n l o z r a ' b i n o s , j u : no, 3 27 pur du'zjentoz i siij'kwenta 'anos t u ' v j e r o n r a ' b i n o s 328 irj 'kaoa 2enera'sjon de 'esta fa'mia, i ' l u l t i m o 329 r a ' b i n o 6 i ' r o 6 i s , k i 'era i l ' t i u Qi mi 'padre, fwe 3 30 * l u l t i m u r a ' b i n u 6 i ' r o o i s . e s t . . . a 'ka6a s ... 331 Ja'bat 'iamuz a v i 2 i ' t a r l o , e, i 'era um p l a ' z e r d i 332 v e r ' e s t i ' =>mbri 'purke 'era un 'ombri k i vera'menti 36 333 diman'dava r i ' s p e k t u : 'era 'tantu ... 'bweno ... 334 t i ' n i a 'una, 'una ' y r a s j a s p e ' s j a l , vera'menti, i , i 3 35 komuni'kava mwi bjen kun 'todus, kun, kun 'todus, 336 ' t j i k u z i 'yrandis en ... i 'todo. 337 EF: wel, a'vlandu de 'ese r a ' b i n o , d e l ' t i u ke e s , 'ke 338 'era ' t i u ' t u j u , i l gran r a ' b i n u d i ' r o d i z , j o me 3 39 l a ' k o d r u 'tantu ' k l a r u 'purke j o ' i a a l a sin a ' y o y a 340 'andi ' i a e l r a ' b i n o , ... 341 RF: a s i . 342 EF: ... e l r a ' b i n o i z r a ' e l , i n l a 'mizma s i n a ' y o y a . 'era 343 'una sina'yoya ' t j i k a ; se Ja'mava i l ti ' k u r j x-'-^t ••• 344 RF: a'fia. 345 EF: ... l a Ja'mavan l a sina'yoya da l u z ' r i k u s 'purke, l o z 34 6 ' r i k o z 'purke 'muntjoz da l o z ' r i k o z de l a s i 'dad 4 7 347 frekwen'tavan 'esa sina'yoy ... 'una si n a ' y o y a 348 ba ' s t a n t ' t j i k a , i ma'kodro 'tantu, 'tantu ' k l a r u ke 349 e f a ' b i n u , 'kwandu ... 'kwandu f ' t r a v a a l a sina'yoya, 350 t a ' n i a 'sjempre v i ' J t i d u 4 8 da 'blarjk 0 5 ' s i n a , 'kwandu 351 i n ' t r a v a t i ' n i a un a'spektu 'tantu impo'nente, i 352 'todus <pji 4 9 muz al avan'ta vamos ko n u 'semi d i 3 53 r i ' s p e k t u , i e l s h i ' v i a 5 0 a l a t e ' v a a ' j a i e l 37 354 kondu'zia una p a r ' t i S a o i l s e r ' v i s j u . dus'pwez muz 355 'dava 'sjempr' u ser'mon i n , i n i s p a ' f i o l , i 'era 'una 356 f i ' y u r a vera'menti d i k i 'to6uz l u , l u mi'ravamus ko, 357 kon u r i ' s p e k t u ... 358 RF: s i . 359 EF: ... f a n ' t a s t i k u , fenome'nal, aaa ... 360 RF: vera'mente, 'era un, un * ^ mbre mwi s p c ' s j a l , 'mezmu k i 361 j o 'era mwi ' t j i k a Sa'inda, 'pero mi l u r i ' k o d r o 362 'tantu ' k l a r u : 'era, 'era, vera'menti, l o 'terjgo e 363 Q e ' l a n t r e 6e miz 'o2us! 4. A n a l y s i s of the T r a n s c r i p t i o n 38 4.1. P h o n e t i c s 5 1 T h i s s e c t i o n examines phonetic f e a t u r e s of the r e c o r d i n g from both a d i a c h r o n i c and synchronic s t a n d p o i n t by p r e s e n t i n g the h i s t o r i c a l development of phonemes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the i n f o r m a n t s ' speech and s i t u a t i n g them w i t h i n the framework of e a s t e r n Judeo-Spanish and w i t h i n Hispano-Romance g e n e r a l l y . 4.1.1 Vowels 4.1.1.1. A prominent f e a t u r e of the speech heard i n the r e c o r d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y Mr. F e r e r a ' s , i s the f r e q u e n t l y d i f f e r e n t timbre of a t o n i c vowels compared t o t h a t of those i n Standard Spanish. 4.1.1.2. T h i s occurs not o n l y i n s y l l a b l e s w i t h i n words but a l s o i n m o n o s y l l a b i c words such as p r e p o s i t i o n s , pronouns and a r t i c l e s which, as they are g e n e r a l l y p r o c l i t i c , are a t o n i c w i t h i n the sentence. For example, p r e t o n i c and a t o n i c f i n a l /e/ and /o/ are o f t e n r a i s e d t o [ i ] and [u] r e s p e c t i v e l y : [api'yada] (15), [ b i ' z a r ] (249) ['nombri] (5), ['grandi] (29), [mu'ravaz] (55), [tu'mar] (254), ['lokus] (18), ['kwatru] (31), ['solu] (28). M o n o s y l l a b i c words such as p r e p o s i t i o n s and a r t i c l e s , a t o n i c by nature, f o l l o w the same p a t t e r n : [ d i ] (3), [ l u ] (10). T h i s d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of the informants' speech i s 39 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c not o n l y of the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of Rhodian Jews (Levy, 5 2 Angel 13 5 5 3) , 5 4 F i n a l /e/ and /o/ are pronounced [ i ] and [u] "en todas l a s regiones o c c i d e n t a l e s (Macedonia, Bosnia, S e r v i a , B u l g a r i a o c c i d e n t a l ) . " 5 5 These a t o n i c vowels are r a i s e d i n any p o s i t i o n i n the western d i a l e c t s but are b e t t e r p r e s e r v e d i n the e a s t e r n d i a l e c t s , i n c l u d i n g C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , where they are r a i s e d o n l y i n p r e t o n i c p o s i t i o n . In S a l o n i k a , t h e r e i s h e s i t a t i o n between [e] and [ i ] even when /e/ i s p r o t o n i c . 5 6 Research has t h e r e f o r e shown t h a t although treatment of t h e s e a t o n i c vowels v a r i e s among Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s , a p a t t e r n can be observed among western d i a l e c t s on the one hand and e a s t e r n d i a l e c t s on the other. 4.1.1.3. In the r e c o r d i n g , a t o n i c /e/ and /o/ are q u i t e o f t e n pronounced as [e] and [ o ] : ['padre] (9), [ke] (18), [de] (10), [e'dad] (78); ['kwatro] (8), ['klaro] (14), [ d e ' r e t / o z ] (24), ['poko] (22). 4.1.1.4. The timbre of a t o n i c vowels may become more open: [en] (11), [des'pwes] (47), [de] (56), [ja] (1), [n=>] (61); or l a x : [mi] (9), [ku] (315) (Sp. "con"), [prufa'sora] (137). 4.1.1.5. As w i t h p r e t o n i c /e/ i n the l a s t example, a vowel f a l l i n g i n a t o n i c p o s i t i o n may be reduced t o "schwa" ( [a ] ) . T h i s o c c u r s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r a p i d speech and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h /e/. Thus, /a/ > [a]: [ l a Ja'mavan] (345); /e/ > [a]: [ma'kodro ka a ' v i a ] (118), [ a ' v l a r al f r a ' s e z ] (141); / i f > [a] : [ l a z a'2ikaz] (74), [a'vlamuz ata'ljano] (284); /of and /u/ do not appear t o be reduced to [a]. 4.1.1.6. E l i s i o n commonly causes vowels t o d i s a p p e a r , as i n c o l l o q u i a l Spanish everywhere. Some of the many examples t o be found i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n are: ['deos] (20), Sp. "de e l l o s " ; [a 'kauza 'Sea] (138), Sp. "de e l l a " ; [ d a ' r i v a ] (21), Sp. "de a r r i b a " . In [ta:*ko6as] (130), Sp. " t e acuerdas," the [e] of the r e f l e x i v e pronoun has been a s s i m i l a t e d t o the i n i t i a l [a] of the verb but the l e n g t h of the vowel shows t h a t the vowels have not become f u l l y e l i d e d as i n [ma'kodru] (10), Sp. "me acuerdo". 5 7 4.1.1.7 A t o n i c vowels, c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n s t d . Spanish, may be e l i m i n a t e d e n t i r e l y : [vo amp'sar] (1), Sp. "voy a empezar"; [pwed ser] (70), [todz] (107), [en 'suptu] ( 1 9 ) . 5 8 The i n t e r e s t i n g f o r m [ f w e d z ] (91) ( O S p . " f u e s t e , " s t d . mod. Sp. " f u i s t e " ) has developed through apocope of the p o s t t o n i c / i f of metathesized / ' f w e t i s / and v o i c i n g of the r e s u l t i n g consonant c l u s t e r i n l i a i s o n w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p r e p o s i t i o n . 5 9 4.1.1.8. Vowels i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s are g e n e r a l l y of the same timbre as i n the standard modern language, although t o n i c /e/ v e r y f r e q u e n t l y opens t o [ e ] , e s p e c i a l l y b e f o r e / r / and n a s a l s w i t h reasonable c o n s i s t e n c y : [a'ywera] (8), (OSp. " a g o r a , " s t d . mod. Sp. " a h o r a " ) , [ ' e r a ] ( 1 5 ) , [•eramuz] (30), [ p l a ' z e r ] (52); [bjen] (107), [tam'bjen] (312), [ d i f e ' r e n t i ] (86). 4.1.1.9. I n i t i a l l y , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of open/close and l a x / t e n s e vowels, which are o f t e n i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n , may appear c h a o t i c . P a t t e r n s do emerge, however, when one d i s c e r n s the 41 s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e p l a y e d by s y n t a c t i c p h o n e t i c s ; the timbre of a vowel i s f r e q u e n t l y determined by i t s p h o n e t i c environment. 4.1.1.10. A few examples drawn from Mr. F e r e r a ' s speech w i l l s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s important f e a t u r e . 6 0 For i n s t a n c e , the Sp. c o n j u n c t i o n "que," o f t e n pronounced [ k i ] s i n c e i t i s a t o n i c , i s always heard as [ke] immediately b e f o r e [e] or [e] through a s s i m i l a t i o n : [ke ' e r a ] (77) , [ke 'terjgu] (208) ; a l s o due t o a s s i m i l a t i o n , [e] i n s t e a d of [ i ] may be pronounced i n the environment of mid t o low vowels, e s p e c i a l l y when they are both p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g the c o n j u n c t i o n : [ma'kodro ke l a Ja'mavan] (18), ['asta ke jo] (26), [erj e l 'tjempo ke ma'kodro jo ] (103-104). The same s o r t of a r t i c u l a t o r y approximation can be p e r c e i v e d i n the r a i s i n g or lowering of the timbre of a t o n i c vowels throughout the r e c o r d i n g . In the f o l l o w i n g examples, the same words, repeated seconds l a t e r , can take d i f f e r e n t forms under the i n f l u e n c e of t h e i r p h o n e t i c environment: [en 'suptu ' i n t r e l a 'not/e a'via] (19); [ s i aIvan'tava 'c n t r e l a •not/ij.] (20) . 4.1.1.11. The f a c t t h a t timbre appears sometimes t o be c o n d i t i o n e d by p h o n e t i c environment t h e r e f o r e suggests t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a t o n i c vowels i s not t o t a l l y f r e e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t a determined l e x i c a l element may become a k i n d of p h o n e t i c u n i t which prevents r a i s i n g of a t o n i c /-e/. An example of t h i s i n the r e c o r d i n g may be / ' p a d r e ( s ) / and /'madre/ (the former c i t e d by Angel as an example of a word i n which r a i s i n g would take p l a c e ) . The words are mentioned s e v e r a l times, each time w i t h /-e/ preserved. Conforming t o the p a t t e r n i s Angel's o t h e r example: ['nombri] (5). 4.1.1.12. D i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n the r e c o r d i n g i s g e n e r a l l y as i n Std. Spanish. In terms of the number of d i f f e r e n t words i n which t h e r e i s divergence from Std. Spanish p h o n e t i c s , t h e s e are r a t h e r few. They are o f t e n repeated, however. Many of the Jews who s e t t l e d i n the e a s t e r n Mediterranean i n the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s spoke H i s p a n i c d i a l e c t s and languages i n which d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n was e i t h e r u n s t a b l e (Leonese, Aragonese) or i n which L a t i n /§/ and /6/ were not d i p h t h o n g i z e d ( P o r t u -guese, C a t a l a n ) . 4.1.1.13. The diphthongized Standard Spanish form " e s c u e l a " never appears i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n , o n l y [ ' s k o l a ] , [ e ' s k o l a ] or [ a ' s k o l a ] . Forms such as [ma'kooru] and [ t a : ' k o 6 r a s ] , mentioned above, a l s o show an undiphthongized s t r e s s e d stem vowel ( c f . Sp. "me acuerdo," " t e acuerdas") which may have developed through analogy with the f i r s t person s i n g u l a r [ako'dramuz] (126), and/or the i n f i n i t i v e or through Portuguese or I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e . 4.1.1.14. The form [ d i z i ' s e j ] (7) i s worthy of note f o r the absence of d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n both s y l l a b l e s i n which i t i s p r e s e n t i n Standard Spanish ( " d i e c i s e i s " ) . 6 1 4.1.1.15. When a vowel precedes /n/, i t o f t e n becomes s t r o n g l y n a s a l i z e d and the consonant d i s a p p e a r s completely: [ta'mje] (71), [ p r f s i ' p a l ] (72), [koti'nwaro ko] (162), [u ' t i u ] (171), [ ' k i z i ] (165), [ f f u ' z j o ] (302), [ma'sevu] (208) (OSp. "mancebo") , 6 2 4.1.1.16. The c o n j u n c t i o n / i f (Sp. "y") i s not pronounced [e] by d i s s i m i l a t i o n as i n the s t a n d a r d language ("e") b e f o r e words with i n i t i a l / i / : [ i ' 2 i k u z i i ' 2 i k a z ] (73), [f f r a ' s e s . . . i i t a ' l j a n o ] (311-312). 4.1.1.17. An example of d i s s i m i l a t i o n i s the form [dus'pwez] (180) (Wagner, 73, n. 11) i n which p r e t o n i c /e/ becomes [u] a n t i c i p a t i n g the l a b i a l semiconsonant. 4.1.2 Consonants 4.1.2.1. P h o n e t i c a l l y , and h i s t o r i c a l l y , one of the most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of Judeo-Spanish, c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n the r e c o r d i n g , i s the g e n e r a l p r e s e r v a t i o n of the O l d Spanish s i b i l a n t s and t h e i r phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n s . The s o - c a l l e d " p h o n e t i c r e v o l u t i o n " — d u r i n g which d e v i a t i o n s from standard p r o n u n c i a t i o n , p r e v i o u s l y l a t e n t or l i m i t e d i n scope, became widespread and u l t i m a t e l y triumphed and medieval p r o n u n c i a t i o n was l a r g e l y transformed i n t o what may be c o n s i d e r e d modern p r o n u n c i a t i o n — l a s t e d approximately from the mid s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o the f i r s t q u a r t e r of the seventeenth, and was accomplished, f o r the most p a r t , roughly d u r i n g the l i f e t i m e of Cervantes and Lope de Vega. The q u e s t i o n i s n a t u r a l l y complex: one cannot measure p r e c i s e l y when a c e r t a i n change i n p r o n u n c i a -t i o n took p l a c e f o r t h e r e were not only c h r o n o l o g i c a l but a l s o g e o g r a p h i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s which must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A p h o n e t i c change probably took r o o t i n one area then i n another, f i r s t among one g e n e r a t i o n or s o c i a l c l a s s , and l i k e l y d i d not a f f e c t a l l words of the c l a s s a t the same time. When Jews were compelled t o abandon the kingdoms of C a s t i l e and Aragon i n the s p r i n g and summer of 1492, Standard C a s t i l i a n S panish had t h r e e p a i r s of s i b i l a n t s , each p a i r c o n s i s t i n g of a v o i c e d / u n v o i c e d c o n t r a s t : [ t s ] / [ d z ] ; [ / ] / [ _ ] ; and [§]/[_]. The subsequent "phonetic r e v o l u t i o n " e n t a i l e d the l o s s of phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n w i t h i n and among these p a i r s through a r t i c u l a t o r y r e l a x a t i o n f o r ease of p r o n u n c i a t i o n — v e r y important f o r c o n s o n a n t a l development i n S p a n i s h — a n d through d e v o i c i n g of the v o i c e d element of each p a i r . 4.1.2.2. U n t i l the s i x t e e n t h century, o r t h o g r a p h i c "g" ("c" b e f o r e /e/ and / i / ) and " z " were a f f r i c a t e s , pronounced [ t s ] and [dz] r e s p e c t i v e l y . 6 3 The weakening and subsequent disappearance of the p l o s i v e element (the v o i c e d a f f r i c a t e was the f i r s t t o undergo change) l e f t d e n t a l s i b i l a n t s pronounced [s] and [ z ] . As i n the Spanish of southern Spain, Spanish America, and i n Standard Portuguese, the OSp. unvoiced a f f r i c a t e has, i n Judeo-Spanish, become a f r i c a t i v e : [ n a ' s i ] (6), [na'sido] (6), [kono'sia] (50) [sin•kwenta] (327), ['una ' y r a s j a ] (334). 6 4 The weakened a r t i c u l a t i o n of the p l o s i v e element of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o i c e d a f f r i c a t e [dz] produced [ z ] : [ p l a ' z e r ] (52), ['izu] (136) (Sp. " h i z o " ) , [di'ziamus] (289). The r e s u l t i n g v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e has p r e s e r v e d the o l d v o i c e d / u n v o i c e d c o n t r a s t l o s t i n the standard language f o u r hundred y e a r s ago. Of even g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the s u r v i v a l , i n a l i m i t e d number of words, of the p l o s i v e element of t h i s a f f r i c a t e . In some JSp. d i a l e c t s , the a f f r i c a t e /dz/ i s s t i l l h eard i n a l i m i t e d number of words, i n c l u d i n g / ' d o d z i / and / ' t r e d z i / ; the phoneme i s heard p a l a t a l i z e d i n o t h e r s , as i n the r e c o r d i n g : [ f d o d 2 i ] (108) and ['tredSi] (151). Reduction of /dz/ t o a f r i c a t i v e has taken p l a c e i n ['ozi] (317), [ k a ' t o r z i ] (78) and [ ' k i z i ] (165) . 6 5 4.1.2.3. In Old Spanish, o r t h o g r a p h i c "x" was pro-nounced [ J ] . 6 6 Judeo-Spanish, i n keeping w i t h i t s h i g h l y conser-v a t i v e nature, has maintained t h i s unvoiced p a l a t a l f r i c a t i v e , heard i n the r e c o r d i n g i n [ a ,ba/u] (21) and [ t i ' Q i / i ] (149). The d i a l e c t has a l s o kept the corresponding v o i c e d phoneme, [ 2 ] i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y and [ d 2 ] i n i t i a l l y or a f t e r a consonant, i n Old Spanish o r t h o g r a p h i c a l l y " j , " or "g" b e f o r e /e/ and / i / : [ ka'leSa] (16), [ i ' S i k u z ] (73), ['vjezu] (296), [ ' o 2 u s ] (363); [ d 2 u Q a ' r i a ] (11), [dzu'dia] (16), [dzu'djoz] (239) (note the s h i f t i n s t r e s s , c f . Sp. " j u d i o s , " but i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n i n the feminine a d j e c t i v e immediately preceding) , [dzu 1 ywavamos] (218), [ d 2 e n e r a l ' m e n t i ] (212) ; 6 7 however, the p l o s i v e element can d i s a p p e a r e s p e c i a l l y when the phoneme i s s y n t a c t i c a l l y i n medial p o s i t i o n : [pur 2 e n a r a ' s j o n i 2 e n a r a ' s j o n i 2 e nara'sjon] (308) . 6 8 As can be seen, the o l d voiced/unvoiced c o n t r a s t has a g a i n been maintained, i n t h i s case without a change i n a r t i c u l a t i o n . 6 9 46 4.1.2.4. In Judeo-Spanish, [2] and [d_] were a l l o p h o n e s , as they had been i n Old Spanish, u n t i l the i n t e n s e W e s t e r n i z a t i o n which began i n the l a s t century. French words w i t h i n i t i a l /2/ and I t a l i a n words wi t h i n t e r v o c a l i c /d_/(e. g. [ko'led2o] [224]) e n t e r e d the d i a l e c t . As a r e s u l t , s i n c e [2] and [d2] c o u l d then appear i n the same p o s i t i o n s , they ceased t o be a l l o p h o n e s , becoming separate phonemes. 4.1.2.5. U n t i l the mid s i x t e e n t h century, the phoneme r e p r e s e n t e d by o r t h o g r a f i c " s " i n i n i t i a l and a b s o l u t e f i n a l p o s i t i o n as w e l l as by medial " s s " , was an unvoiced a l v e o l a r s i b i l a n t (/§/), which i t remains i n c e n t r a l , n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n Spain, n o r t h e r n P o r t u g a l and southern France. In Judeo-Spanish, however, as i n the speech of much of southern Spain, of Spanish America and i n Standard Portuguese, the phoneme has become d e n t a l due t o the i n f l u e n c e of / s f (< / t s / ) : [prufa'sora] (138), ['esi] (120), [ser] (25). The p r e s e r v a t i o n of the co r r e s p o n d i n g v o i c e d phoneme / z / , o r t h o g r a p h i c a l l y " s , " has maintained i n Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s the o l d v o i c e d / u n v o i c e d c o n t r a s t . As oc c u r r e d with the unvoiced c o u n t e r p a r t , t h e r e was a g a i n a s h i f t i n a r t i c u l a t i o n from a l v e o l a r t o d e n t a l due t o p h o n e t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e from the phoneme r e s u l t i n g from the former d e n t a l a f f r i c a t e ([z] < [ dz] < [ d z ] ) : ['kaza] (13), [kae'zo] (179), [ b i ' z a r ] (249). 4.1.2.6. The s i b i l a n t / s / i s v o i c e d a c c o r d i n g t o the laws of s y n t a c t i c p h o n e t i c s , as i t was i n Old Spanish. T h i s v o i c i n g o c c u r s not o n l y where i t does i n the standard modern language, i . e. p r e c e d i n g the v o i c e d consonant o f a f o l l o w i n g w o r d — [ s a ' l i m u z de] [152], ['estaz doz m i l ] [ 2 0 0 ]— b u t a l s o i n l i n k i n g w i t h the vowel of the f o l l o w i n g word: ['kwantaz er'manaz •era/?]' (45), [ i ' 2 i k o z i i ' 2 i k a z m 'd2untus] (80-81). 7 0 4.1.2.7. The fundamental aspect of the change from medieval t o modern p r o n u n c i a t i o n concerns the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the s i b i l a n t s . The p r e s e r v a t i o n , t o a l a r g e degree, of e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of the Old Spanish p h o n e t i c system i s what l a r g e l y accounts f o r the d i s t i n c t i v e , a r c h a i c nature of Judeo-Spanish p r o n u n c i a t i o n and, i n t h i s r e s p e c t , makes the d i a l e c t seem c l o s e r t o s i s t e r languages and d i a l e c t s of the P e n i n s u l a — P o r t u -guese, G a l i c i a n , Leonese, Aragonese, C a t a l a n — t h a n t o Modern C a s t i l i a n . 4.1.2.8. Documentary evidence gathered by Amado Al o n s o 7 1 r e v e a l s t h a t the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of o r t h o g r a p h i c "v" was, i n the l a t e M i d d l e Ages, more or l e s s as E n g l i s h /v/, but w i t h weaker a r t i c u l a t i o n . I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was c o n f u s i o n between the a r t i c u l a t i o n of "v" and of "b", not s u r p r i s i n g l y , which began i n the north, i n the r e g i o n of Burgos, c l o s e t o the Basque c o u n t r y — t h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r testimony i n d i c a t e s t h a t the Basques confused the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the two phon-emes—whence i t spread t o the Centre and then t o the South. In 1492, the c o n f u s i o n e x i s t e d but was not y e t g e n e r a l . The o l d l a b i o d e n t a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n [ v ] , preserved i n E a s t e r n Judeo-Spanish, i s much i n evidence i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n : [ t u ' v j e r o n ] (327), [mo'ravamuz] (16), ['dava] (355), 48 [ a ' v i a ] (79), ['uvo] (113). In cases where Sp. o r t h o g r a p h i c "v" o c c u r s a t the beginning of a a breath group, [v] i n s t e a d of [b] i s almost always heard: [vo] (1), ['vinu] (178). When [v] i s heard i n the r e c o r d i n g , i t r e p r e s e n t s Sp. o r t h o g r a p h i c "v" ( s t d . mod. Sp. [b] or [6]) or "b" (when [B] i n s t d . mod. Sp.). The i n i t i a l [b] of forms of Sp. " v i v i r , " although an e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s norm, can be found i n N e b r i j a : [bi'viamuz] (11), [bi'vimuz] (25), [ b i ' v i ] (26), [ b i ' v i a n ] (40). 4.1.2.9. I n i t i a l L a t i n " f - " i s e i t h e r kept or l o s t com-p l e t e l y , as i n s t d . mod. Spanish. The phoneme i s p r e s e r v e d i n : [•fwe raj" ( vb.) ( 2 5 ) / ( p r e p . ) ( 1 5 3 ) , [ f a ' m i a ] ( 3 0 ) , [ e f e l i z ' m e n t e ] (46), [fwedz] (Sp. " f u i s t e " ) (91), [fwe] (159), [ • f l o r i z ] (Sp. " f l o r e s " ) (257); i t i s l o s t i n : [ a ' v l a r ] (1), [ a ' v l a n d u ] (65), [ a ' v l a v a n ] (107), [a'vlavamus] (287), [a'vlava] (297), [a'vlamoz] (282), [ i ' 2 i k u ] (dim. of Sp. " h i j o " ; here = Sp. "nino") (222), [i»2ikuz] (73), [ i ' 2 i k a z ] (74), [a'zer] (134), [ 1 i z u ] (vb.) (115), [a'ziamoz] (218), ['et/o] (n. < p. p.) (180), [er'moza] (263), [er'mozos] (253), [e rmo'zura] (261). 4.1.2.10. L u r i a r e p o r t e d the l o s s of / f / < L a t . " f - " i n Rhodes as w e l l as nearby Chios and Smyrna and noted t h a t i t had a l s o d i s a p p e a r e d i n other areas of the East of the former Ottoman Empire i n c l u d i n g C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , S o f i a , P a l e s t i n e , C a i r o and A l e x a n d r i a . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n the Western r e g i o n , the phoneme had been r e t a i n e d i n Monastir ( Y u g o s l a v i a ) , S a l o n i k a and Bosnia, f o r example. The treatment of L a t . " f - " t h e r e f o r e 49 depended on g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , he found t h a t s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d the treatment of the phoneme. The o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n of Monastir g e n e r a l l y p r e s e r v e d the phoneme but younger people tended t o e l i m i n a t e the phoneme i n i m i t a t i o n o f the speech of S a l o n i k a , an important and more modern c e n t r e where / f / was not maintained c o n s i s t e n t l y . They would even mock i t s r e t e n t i o n (Lur. 428-429). In o t h e r areas, t h e r e i s a s p i r a t i o n of i n i t i a l L a t . " f - , " as can be heard i n south and western Spain and Spanish America. The t h r e e stages of r e t e n t i o n , a s p i r a t i o n and l o s s of / f / are a r e f l e c t i o n of the c u r r e n t and h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n of H i s p a n i c languages and d i a l e c t s . 7 2 4.1.2.11. P a l a t a l i z a t i o n of /s/ (> [J*]) may occur b e f o r e an unvoiced p l o s i v e , i . e. when i n j e c t i v e : [bu'/kimuz] ( 1 3 3 ) , [du/'pwez] (246) (Sp. "despues," the onl y p l a c e p a l a t a l i z a t i o n o c c u r s i n t h i s word). T h i s p h o n e t i c change a l s o o c c u r r e d i n f i f t e e n t h - and s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Spanish; 7 3 i t i s common i n Judeo-Spanish (Monastir [Lur. 437]) and can s t i l l be heard i n d i a l e c t . 7 4 In a few i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e i s a l s o p a l a t a l i z a t i o n i n the environment of "yod" or a hig h f r o n t vowel: / s j / > [/]: [kwatru 1Jentuz] ( 1 1 0 ) ; / i n s i / > [ f j i ] : [ p r f / i ' p a l ] ( 7 0 ) ; / e i s / > [ e / ] : [ d i z i ' s e j ] ( 7 ) . With regard t o the l a s t example, t h e r e i s t he p o s s i b i l i t y of phonetic i n f l u e n c e from Portuguese both i n the p a l a t a l i z a t i o n of / - s / and i n the l a c k of d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n the f i r s t s y l l a b l e ( c f . Ptg. " d e z a s s e i s " [daza 1 s a i j ]) . In Portuguese, s i b i l a n t s are p a l a t a l i n w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n . Cf. a l s o ['era/] (45) (Sp. " e r a i s " ) , c f . P t g . " e r e i s " ( [ • e r a j j ] ) . 7 5 4.1.2.12. V o i c e d / z / i s heard p a l a t a l i z e d i n the t h i r d p e rson s i n g u l a r of Sp. "querer," which forms p a r t of the stock phrase ['ki2u flzir] (7) (Spanish would use the p r e s e n t t e n s e : " q u i e r e d e c i r [que]"). In Old Spanish, the phoneme /2/ was a l s o heard i n t h i s verb form as w e l l as i n / viz" i ' t a r / : [va2a'tar] (133) . 7 6 Cf. a l s o [ «kwa2i] (13). 4.1.2.13. In Judeo-Spanish, as i n much of the Spanish of L a t i n America and the Pe n i n s u l a , p a l a t a l / l / ([A]) has been reduced t o "yod" ( [ j ] ) ("yeismo") : 7 7 [jo] (3), [ja'mar] (181), [ j a ] (311), [ a ' j a ] (69). However, when [ j ] < [A] i s i n t e r v o c a l i c and not a t the beginning of a s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e or a b r e a t h group, i t o f t e n disappears e n t i r e l y : [*kae] (35), [*ea] (147) (Sp. " e l l a " ) , [a'keus] (154) (Sp. " a q u e l l o s " ) , [a'kea] (262), Sp. " a q u e l l a . " The form [fa'mia] (30) (Sp. " f a m i l i a ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t [ l j ] has t o have been i d e n t i f i e d with, or become, [A] f o r the same p h o n e t i c development t o have taken p l a c e . 7 8 The excep-t i o n i s found i n ['bijaz] (216) (< F r . " b i l l e s " [ b i j ] ) . 4.1.2.14. The m u l t i p l e a l v e o l a r v i b r a n t / f / i s reduced t o a s i n g l e v i b r a t i o n ("flap") (/r/) i n both i n i t i a l and medial p o s i t i o n : [ f e ' r e r a ] (5), ['rodis] (6), [ d a ' r i v a ] (21), ['roza] (42), ['rika] (62), ['gera] (113). 4.1.2.15. E n g l i s h i n t e r f e r e n c e i s probably r e s p o n s i b l e f o r [r] i n s t e a d of [ r ] : ['propriu] (15). 51 4.1.2.16. V o i c e d p l o s i v e s are f r e q u e n t l y heard where the c o r r e s p o n d i n g f r i c a t i v e s would be expected i n Modern Spanish p r o n u n c i a t i o n : [b] : [ j a bi'vimuz] (25), [ k i b i ' v i a n ] (40), [ r a ' b i n o s ] (327), [ba'stante bje] (142-143); [ d ] : [a l a e'dad d i ] (78), ['era d i ] (69); [ g ] : [sma'goya] (28), [ l a gera] (113). The a r t i c u l a t i o n of v o i c e d p l o s i v e s , o t h e r than a t the b e g i n n i n g of a breath group or a f t e r a n a s a l , c o u l d v e r y w e l l be a s u r v i v a l from the o l d language. 7 9 4.1.2.17. Metathesis, which has p l a y e d a r o l e i n the development of Spanish and i s common i n po p u l a r speech today, can be seen i n a few forms which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Judeo-S p a n i s h . 8 0 "Recordar" undergoes the same k i n d of m e t a t h e s i s as the forms of "acordar" shown above: [mi l u r i ' k o d r o ] (361), [[mi a r i ' k o o r o ] (48) (the l a t t e r form evidence e i t h e r of p r o s t h e t i c "a" [to be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ] or c o n f u s i o n w i t h " a c o r d a r " ) . Another example i s the p r e v i o u s l y - m e n t i o n e d verb form [fwedz], p a r t of the phrase [... t u no fwedz a l a ' s k o l a dSu'Qia ...] (91). OSp. " f u e s t e " (Neb. 114, 125) has undergone me t a t h e s i s t o become JSp. / ' f w e t i s / . " F u e s t e ( s ) " can be found i n Leonese. 8 1 Through syncope of the p o s t t o n i c vowel, / t i s / > / t s / and then v o i c i n g of the r e s u l t i n g c l u s t e r i n l i a i s o n w i t h the f o l l o w i n g vowel: / t s / > [ d z ] . Metathesis i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n [pir'mero] (306) . 8 2 4.1.2.18. I n i t i a l /n/ i s pronounced [m] i n pronominal and a d j e c t i v a l forms of the f i r s t person p l u r a l : [mu'zotrus] (243), 52 [mus] (152), ['mwesas] (127) ; 8 3 and i n the a d j . ['mwevo] : [tur'no d i 'mwevo a l a r o ' d e z i a ] (179). 4.1.2.19. An i n t r u s i v e n a s a l i s heard i n ['munt/u] (71), Sp. "mucho," and i n "ambi'zava" (121) (see §4.3.1.3) ( S a l a , 148-149, 24.3., n. 121). Both forms are c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c a l l y Judeo-Spanish. 4.1.2.20. The v e l a r i z a t i o n of f i n a l /n/ as i n [erj e l ] (103) i s common i n v a r i e t i e s of Modern Spanish. 4.1.2.21. A s s i m i l a t i o n of / l / t o / r / oc c u r s i n [ke e r a ' b i n u ] (348-349), Sp. "que e l r a b i n o . " The same occ u r s i n Standard Spanish i n which i n i t i a l / r / , however, i s a m u l t i p l e v i b r a n t . 4.1.2.22. In the f i r s t person p l u r a l of the i m p e r f e c t tense of Sp. " j u g a r , " [-'ya-] > [-ywa]: [d2u*ywavamos] (218). 8 4 T h i s p h o n e t i c change commonly occurs i n other words i n Judeo-Spanish (e. g. [ l u ' y w a r ] ) . 4.2. Morphology 4.2.1. Grammatical forms which d i e d out i n the standard language d u r i n g the course of the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s l i v e on i n P e n i n s u l a r d i a l e c t s and i n Spanish America, but Judeo-Spanish e x h i b i t s a f a r g r e a t e r number of archaisms, apparent i n c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of i t s morphology. In the r e c o r d i n g one hears: [vo] (1) i n s t e a d of Sp. [ b o i ] , and [so] (3) f o r Sp. [ s o i ] . The I i / of Modern Spanish became the st a n d a r d a f t e r 53 the E x p u l s i o n probably through f a l s e d i v i s i o n of the common emphatic "soy yo" and then spread, by analogy, t o the o t h e r f i r s t person s i n g u l a r forms ending i n s t r e s s e d /o/. 8 5 4.2.2. Other verb forms heard i n the r e c o r d i n g a l s o take the l i s t e n e r back t o Old Spanish: [mus 'viamuz] (265) , Sp. "nos veiamos," (Wagner, 110, n. 4 ) 8 6 and ['era/] (45), without the / i / of Sp. " e r a i s , " were common i n the o l d language. 4.2.3. The p r e t e r i t e of Sp. " i r " shows some i n t e r e s t i n g forms. The f i r s t person s i n g u l a r i s everywhere the same as the t h i r d , e. g. [mi fwe Jo] (159), [ s i fwe] (170). I n s t e a d of Sp. "fuimos," [•fwemuz] (132) i s h e a r d . 8 7 As mentioned above, the c u r i o u s metathesized JSp. / ' f w e t i s / becomes [fwedz] through syncope and v o i c i n g . 4.2.4. The f i r s t and t h i r d persons s i n g u l a r of the imper-f e c t t e n s e of the same verb are [ ' i a ] : [ j o ' i a a l a sina'yoya •andi ' i a e l r a ' b i n o ] (339-340); the p l u r a l of the same verb i s heard as ['iamus] (67). There i s no t r a c e of the Std. Sp. f r i c a -t i v e : [ * i S a ] , ['iBamos]. 8 8 4.2.5. The p r e t e r i t e endings of the f i r s t person s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l of " - a r " verbs are a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of Judeo-Spanish: they are the same as f o r verbs ending i n " - e r " and "-i r . " T h i s may have come about through a need t o d i s t i n g u i s h the p r e t e r i t e of the f i r s t person p l u r a l from the p r e s e n t , the / i / of which then spread t o the f i r s t person s i n g u l a r . 8 9 S i n c e most of the r e c o r d i n g d e a l s with the informants' l i f e on Rhodes, the p a s t tense i s used f r e q u e n t l y . Some "- a r " - v e r b forms a r e : 54 [komen'si] (86), [ska'pi] (156) ( s t d . Sp. "termine," "acabe"), [tru'kimuz] (12), [bu'/kimuz] (133), [amba'zimuz] (139) ( s t d . Sp. "aprendimos") , [vi 2a1 timuz] (135). 4.2.6. The f i r s t person s i n g u l a r of Sp. " c r e e r " i s heard as ['kreyu] (263) or as ['kreiu] (176). Cf. Ara. "crego," " c r e y o " (ZamV. 262) and the unvoiced v e l a r p l o s i v e i n Cat. " c r e c . " 4.2.7. The p r e f i x i n g of /a-/ and /en-/, much more wide-spread i n Old Spanish than i n the modern language, i s r e v e a l e d i n s e v e r a l nonstandard forms. The p r e p o s i t i o n "a" i s found p r e f i x e d t o a pas t p a r t i c i p l e , used as an a d j e c t i v e : [api'yaoa] (15), Sp. "pegada"; t o a p r e p o s i t i o n : [a'serka] (15); t o a c o n j u n c t i o n : [asa'yun] (130), Sp. "segun"; t o ve r b s : Sp. " l e v a n t a r : [ s i alv a n ' t a v a 'entre l a ' n o t j i ] (20), [muz a l a v a n ' ta vamos] (352) ; Sp. " r e c o r d a r " : [mi a r i ' k o f i r o d i t i ] (48), although here, the /a/ may have a r i s e n through c o n f u s i o n with the commonly used /akodrarse/ (< Sp. " a c o r d a r s e " ) . The p r e p o s i -t i o n "en" appears p r e f i x e d t o Sp. "verano" i n [ l e n v e ' r a n o ] (254) , 9 0 a Judeo-Spanish form which has developed by analogy w i t h Sp. " i n v i e r n o . " 9 1 4.2.8. The f u l l , never the apocopated, form of " t a n t o " i s used b e f o r e a d j e c t i v e s and adverbs: ['tantu 'tantu 'klaru] (348), ['tantu impo'nente] (351), p r o b a b l y by analogy w i t h the a d j e c t i v a l use of the f u l l form or, perhaps, due t o the i n f l u e n c e of I t a l i a n . 55 4.2.9. As can be seen from the form [ l e i z ] (273), no /e/ i s r e q u i r e d a f t e r the semivowel / i / t o make the p l u r a l , as i n the modern, more s t a n d a r d i z e d language ( c f . Sp. [ ' l e j e s ] ) , i n which the semivowel, i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n the s i n g u l a r , becomes a semiconsonant i n medial p o s i t i o n i n the p l u r a l . 4.2.10. One a l s o n o t i c e s divergence from Standard Spanish c o n c e r n i n g noun s u f f i x e s . From the Sp. " c h i c o , " f r e q u e n t l y heard i n t he r e c o r d i n g , f r e q u e n t l y heard i n the r e c o r d i n g both as an a d j e c t i v e and a noun, i s d e r i v e d the nonstandard [ t / i ' k e z ] (104), c f . Sp. " n i f i e z , " formed from " n i f i o " i n the same manner. The formation of the noun [ r i s i v i ' d u r a ] (136) c o n t r a s t s w i t h Sp. " r e c i b i m i e n t o , " " r e c e p c i o n . " 9 2 4.2.11. The d i m i n u t i v e s u f f i x used i s / - i k o / : [ i ' 2 i k u ] (222), [_'_ikuz] (73), [ i ' 2 i k a z ] (74); the double d i m i n u t i v e [ t / i k i • t i k u s ] (67), has the i n f i x / t i / as i n Std. Spanish. The s u f f i x / - i k o / i s nowadays l a r g e l y d i a l e c t a l i n the P e n i n s u l a and i s co n s i d e r e d a t y p i c a l f e a t u r e of Aragonese. I t was v e r y common i n Old Spanish but was e v e n t u a l l y ousted i n the sta n d a r d language by i t s contender, / - i t o / . 4.2.12. The o r d i n a l [kwar'tenu] (32), Sp. " c u a r t o , " shows the /-eno/ s u f f i x common i n pop. Old Spanish, used t o form o r d i n a l numbers from t h r e e t o ten. 4.2.13. The s u f f i x / ' i 2 o / ( c f . Sp. " - i j o " ['ixo]) i s added t o the stem of /empe'sar/ t o form [ (al) empa'Ji Jo] (72) (/empe'si_o/) (Wagner 104, n. 1), Sp. " ( a l ) p r i n c i p i o . " 56 4.2.14. Instead of Sp. "conmigo" one hears [ko ml] (162). The Standard Spanish form i s not used i n Judeo-Spanish (Wagner, 81, n. 3; Lur., 467, shows "[kun mi], [kun t i ] " f o r M o n a s t i r ) . 4.2.15. By analogy with most feminine nouns, f i n a l /e/ has become /a/ i n ['klasa] (65). The a n a l o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of /-e/ t o /-a/ i n feminine nouns and a d j e c t i v e s , v e r y common i n Judeo-Spanish, i s a l s o a f e a t u r e of Aragonese ( c f . A r a . "granda"). 4.2.16. The d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e b e f o r e feminine nouns b e g i n -n i n g w i t h "a", whether s t r e s s e d or u n s t r e s s e d , i s " l a " : [la'merika] (189), [ l a r d 2 e n ' t i n a ] (189), [ ' l a f r i k a ] (191). 9 3 4.2.17. The masculine p e r s o n a l d i r e c t o b j e c t i s never " l e , " as i t i s commonly i n Spain, always / l o / ("loismo") : [ l o 'terjgo e Q e ' l a n t r e Qe miz 'o2us] (362-363). 4.2.18. The s u f f i x of the noun [ma2ori'ta] (313) shows I t a l i a n m o r p h o l o g i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e ( c f . Sp. "mayoria"), 9 4 4.2.19. The use of p r e p o s i t i o n s sometimes d i f f e r s from t h a t of Standard Modern Spanish. 4.2.20. "De" appears i n s t e a d of "que" i n the comparative, w i t h the d i s j u n c t i v e i n s t e a d of the s u b j e c t pronoun: [ t i 'nia 'una er'mana mas ' t / i k a Qi mi] (32-33) . T h i s l o o k s v e r y much l i k e a caique on the I t a l i a n comparative c o n s t r u c t i o n . "De que" i n s t e a d of "por que" i s heard i n [ d i ke s i fwe a l a r o ' d e z i a ? ] -(170-171). 57 4.2.21. There are a l s o cases i n which a p r e p o s i t i o n i s found but where one i s not used i n Standard Spanish. "De" i s employed, c o n t r a r y t o standard usage, i n [ez m t e r e ' s a n t i 6 i ver] (194). In the phrase [ l a 'prima 'koza k i . . . bu/'kimuz d i a'zer] (133-134), the use of the p r e p o s i t i o n i s almost c e r t a i n l y an i t a l i a n i s m because of the verb i t accompanies ( c f . " c e r c a r e d i f a r e q u a l c o s a " ) . T h i s caique on I t a l i a n r e p l a c e s t h e n a t i v e Spanish " t r a t a r de." "En" i s heard w i t h " j u n t o s " i n [des'pwes ke •fweramoz depor'tados kon mis 'padrez i n 'd2untus] (47-48), ['iamuz a l a 'skola en 'd2untus] (64-65), [ l a ' k l a s a 'mwesra •era i'2ikoz i i'2ikaz i n 'd2untus] (80-81); "a" i s a l s o found i n a d d i t i o n t o "en" where no p r e p o s i t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n the s t a n d a r d language; [muz enkon'travamus 'todoz a a i n •dSuntuz] (75-76). 4.2.22. With "acordarse de," the p r e p o s i t i o n i s omitted when the o b j e c t pronoun i s used, which precedes the verb: ['esta 'kaza me la'kodru] (24-25), probably by analogy w i t h the verb " r e c o r d a r " ( c f . Sp. " e s t a casa me acuerdo de e l l a " ) . The p r e p o s i t i o n i s a l s o absent i n [ a ' k e l 'tjempo] (88), where "en" i s r e q u i r e d i n the standard language. 4.2.23. Other examples of p r e p o s i t i o n s b e i n g used d i f f e r e n t l y from i n the standard language a r e : ['entre l a • n o t / i ] (20) and [pur dal 'todo] (50) i n the sense of Sp. "en a b s o l u t e " 4.2.24. "Muy" i s used as an i n t e n s i f i e r i n s t e a d of " - i s i m o " i n [mwi 'muntjo] (262) ( c f . Sp. "muchisimo"). 58 4.2.25. E n g l i s h i n t e r f e r e n c e i s e v i d e n t i n the non-Romance use of the o r d i n a l number, as w e l l as the p r e p o s i t i o n p r e c e d i n g i t , f o r the date: [ n a ' s i i n si'yundu d i f e v r i ' e ] (6-7). 4.2.26. On o c c a s i o n , a verb does not agree w i t h i t s s u b j e c t , but wi t h the sense of what i s being s a i d . T h i s i s not uncommon i n popular speech i n the P e n i n s u l a and the TAmericas. 4.2.27. Examples from the r e c o r d i n g are: [ l a mas ' p a r t i s i •fwero laevo'rar] (165), [ s i muri'e r o l a mas ' p a r t i ] (202), ['una •yr a n d i p a r ' t i f l a 'fweron] (305-306), and [ l o ke ke'daron 'fweron d o ' z j e n t a s par'sonas] (204). 4.2.28. The verb i n ['para a , z e r s i n ' t i t / r s ] (231) shows f i n a l /n/ by analogy with the t h i r d person p l u r a l marker of conjugated forms. Grammatically, the i n f i n i t i v e must remain i n v a r i a b l e , but agreement i s sought a c c o r d i n g t o the sense of the u t t e r a n c e . 9 5 4.3. L e x i c o n 4.3.1 Old Spanish 4.3.1.1. Much of the l e x i c o n of Old Spanish which has f a l l e n out of use i n the standard language over the c e n t u r i e s , has been p r e s e r v e d i n the everyday speech of the Sephardim. 4.3.1.2. OSp. "mancebo," Sp. "joven," i s heard i n the r e c o r d i n g : [ma'sevu] (208); as i s the OSp. a d j e c t i v e " p r i e t o " : ['pretu] (227), Sp. "negro," here used as a noun. 9 6 59 4.3.1.2. The verb /ambi'zar/ (Lur. §169; S a l a , 148-149, 24.3., n. 121) < OSp. "abezar" means "to l e a r n " or " t o t e a c h " i n the r e c o r d i n g 9 7 When i t i s used i n the sense of " t o l e a r n , " Sp. "aprender," i t i s r e f l e x i v e : [muz ambi'zavamuz e l f r a ' s e z tam'bjen i l e ' b r e o ] (88-89), [muz amba'zimuz a vera'mente a ' v l a r e l f r a ' s e z ] (138-139), ['greyus ( s i c ) tam'bje t e ambi'zava 2] (314-315) . 9 8 The verb can a l s o mean " t o t e a c h , " Sp. " e n s e f i a r " : 9 9 [muz ambi'zava i'breo] (121); [muz ambi'zavan a a ' v l a r ] (311) . 1 0 0 4.3.1.3. The way i n which c e r t a i n verbs are used t a k e s the l i s t e n e r back t o Old Spanish. OSp. "morar," r e p l a c e d i n the modern c o l l o q u i a l language by " v i v i r , " i s o f t e n heard i n the r e c o r d i n g : [ m o ' r a v a m u z ] ( 1 6 ) , [ m o ' r a v a ] ( 3 5 ) , [mu'ravaz] ( 5 5 ) . 1 0 1 Sp. " v i v i r " i s a l s o used i n the same sense: [bi'viamuz en l a dSuQa'ria (11). Sp. " t r o c a r , " s e m a n t i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d i n the s t d . mod. language t o convey the sense (esp. commercial) of "to exchange, change," has r e t a i n e d the g e n e r a l meaning of Sp. "cambiar" i n Judeo-Spanish: [tru'kimuz] (12), [ s i tro'ko] (261-262) ; 1 0 2 and Sp. " h e n c h i r s e " i s used where Standard Spanish would r e q u i r e " l l e n a r s e " : ['to f loz l o s 'kampos s i 3 ' t f i a n a* Ja 6i m a r y a ' r i t a z ] (256-257) . 1 0 3 4.3.1.4. OSp. "agora," not used i n Standard Spanish f o r c e n t u r i e s , i s heard as [a'ywera] (8), s t r e s s e d /o/ h a v i n g been d i p h t h o n g i z e d by analogy with the s t r e s s e d /we/ of so many oth e r forms i n the language. 1 0 4 Only the d i p h t h o n g i z e d form i s heard i n the r e c o r d i n g . Another OSp. adverb, "onde," i s heard s e v e r a l times: ['ondi] (202). T h i s p r i m i t i v e form has been p r e s e r v e d i n Ptg. "onde." In mod. Spanish, however, i t has been r e p l a c e d by "donde," the p r e p o s i t i o n which o f t e n preceded the adverb having l o s t i t s meaning. 4.3.1.5. The Sp. c o n j u n c t i o n "mas," employed i n w r i t t e n Modern Spanish but no longer used c o l l o q u i a l l y , i s heard twice i n t he r e c o r d i n g : ['era ' s t r i k t a mas ka'rida d i 'todos] (145) and i n the f i l l e r phrase [mas 'kwalo] (100). 1 0 5 4.3.2 H i s p a n i c Languages and D i a l e c t s 4.3.2.1. The noun [ka*le_a] (16) i s heard i n Judeo-Spanish i n areas as f a r apart as Bosnia and Morocco. The form shows the r e d u c t i o n of /A./ t o / l / ( c f . Sp. " c a l l e j a " [= " c a l l e j u e l a " ]) . Cf. G a l . " c a l e x a , " 1 0 6 Salamancan " c a l e j a , " A s t . " c a l e y a " (see ZamV. 356, 371). 4.3.2.2. Often heard i s the Gal./Ptg. adverb /a'inda/ p r e f i x e d w i t h the p r e p o s i t i o n "de" which has l o s t i t s semantic i n p u t (as i n mod. Sp. "donde"): [da'inda] (142). The adverb can mean not o n l y Sp. " t o d a v l a " but a l s o "ademas; 1 , 1 0 7 n e i t h e r of these st a n d a r d forms i s encountered i n the r e c o r d i n g . 4.3.3. I t a l i a n 4.3.3.1. Understandably, t h e r e i s I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e on Mr. and Mrs. F e r e r a • s l e x i c o n as both informants were educated 61 i n t h a t language, i n which they have worked and w i t h which they have maintained c o n t a c t . 1 0 8 4.3.3.2. Nominal forms from I t a l i a n a r e : [do'vere] (245) ( I t . "dovere," Sp. "deber"), [kam'paha] (257) ( I t . "campagna," Sp. "campo"), ['sabato] (241) ( I t . "sabato"), [kum'pafiuz] (161) (< I t . "compagno," Sp. " c o m p a f i e r o s " ) , ['sefiu] (352) ( I t . "segno," Sp. " s e f i a l " ) , [im'pero] (307) ( I t . "impero," Sp. " i m p e r i o " ) . 4.3.3.3. Verb forms t h a t come d i r e c t l y from I t a l i a n a r e : [ s i z v i l u ' p o ] ( 2 6 2 ) , Sp. " s e ha d e s a r r o l l a d o " ; 1 0 9 [ l a e v o ' r a r ] ( 1 6 4 ) , Sp. " t r a b a j a r " ; 1 1 0 and, p r o b a b l y , [tur'no] (177), used i n the sense of Sp. " v o l v i o " ( c f . I t . " t o r n a r e " ) . 4.3.3.4. The a d j e c t i v e [ k w a l ' s i a s i ] (59), Sp. " c u a l q u i e r , " i s pure I t a l i a n as i s ['prima], which appears i n [ l a 'prima 'kaza] (13), [ l a 'prima 'koza] (13 3) and [ l a 'prima •gera] (176). 4.3.3.5. Very o f t e n encountered i s the adverb [ v e r a ' m e n t i ] (146) ( I t . "veramente," Sp. " r e a l m e n t e , " "verdaderamente"). A l s o from I t a l i a n i s ['propriu] (276), used a d v e r b i a l l y i n the sense of Sp. "mismo." 4.3.3.6. The I t . p r e p o s i t i o n "verso" i s heard i n s t e a d of Sp. " h a c i a " : ['vers 0 ... nu se 'kwaao eyzaekta'menti, 'kre Yo ye i n i l m i l n y v 1 ' s j e n t z i 'sirjku, milnyv 1' s j e n t u z i s e j ] (172-173). 4.3.3.7. The c o n j u n c t i o n [si'komu] (313) i s from I t . "siccome." In accordance with the d i a l e c t ' s phonology, 62 gemination has been reduced t o a s i n g l e consonant. F i n a l [u] has r e p l a c e d /e/ by analogy with /'komu/. Repeatedly heard i s the c o n j u n c t i o n [ma] (71) ( I t . "ma"), which almost always t a k e s the p l a c e of Sp. "pero"; 1 1 1 i t a l s o r e p l a c e s Sp. " s i n o " : [no 'solo d i ' r o d i z ma . . . d e l e ' 2 i p t u , d e l n o r ' t a f r i k a , ...] (226-227) . 1 1 2 4.3.4 French 4.3.4.1. French l e x i c a l i n f l u e n c e can be observed i n the nouns [ f e v r i ' e ] (7) < F r . " f e v r i e r " (Sp. " f e b r e r o " ) ; [ p l a . ] ( 5 8 ) < F r . " p l a g e " ( S p . " p 1 a y a " ) ; [ s u v e ' n i r e s ] (252) < F r . " s o u v e n i r " (Sp. " r e c u e r d o s " ) ; [ i ' l e v a z ] ( 2 3 4 ) < F r . " e l e v e " ( S p . " a l u m n o s " ) ; [ ' b i j a z ] < F r . " b i l l e s " (Sp. " b o l a s , " Eng. "marbles") i n [ d 2 u ' y w a v a m o z a l a z ' b i j a z ] ( 2 1 6 ) ; a n d [ r e ' y r e t o ] < F r . " r e g r e t " : [ e l r e ' y r e t o maz 'yrande ye 'terjgo es ke . . .] (268-269) ( c f . Sp. "de l o que mas me a r r e p i e n t o es que ...") 4 . 3 . 4 . 2 . A g a l l i c i z e d v e r b f o r m i s : [ a p a r t e ' n i a ] (109) < F r . " a p p a r t e n i r " (Sp. " p e r t e n e c i a " ) . 4.3.4.3. The F r . a d j e c t i v e "beige" i s heard i n [ 'korjgo be 12] (192), Sp. "Congo Belga." Since the informants' s c h o o l i n g was not i n Spanish and t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h the standar d language has been l i m i t e d , they may not know the Spanish names of some c o u n t r i e s t h a t came i n t o being a f t e r r e l a t i o n s between e a s t e r n Sephardic communities and the P e n i n s u l a were l a r g e l y severed. 4.3.4.4. The phrase [ l a mas ' p a r t i ] (165) seems t o be a s y n t a c t i c caique on F r . " l a p l u p a r t " ( c f . Sp. " l a mayor p a r t e , " " l a mayoria"). The sense of [diman'dava] i n ['era un 'ombri k i vera'menti di'mandava r i ' s p e k t u ] (332-333) (Sp. " e x i g l a " ) suggests a semantic caique on F r . "demander" and/or Eng. "demand." 1 1 3 4.3.4.5. The s t r e s s e d f i n a l s y l l a b l e of [ f u t ' b o l ] (218) may i n d i c a t e t h a t the noun entered the language v i a French. U l t i m a t e l y , of course, i t i s an a n g l i c i s m . 4.3.5 E n g l i s h 4.3.5.1. E n g l i s h p l a y s a much l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the d i a l o g u e than I t a l i a n and French. The v a s t m a j o r i t y of E n g l i s h words and phrases heard are e i t h e r f i l l e r words, which take the p l a c e of a pause while the speaker gathers h i s thoughts, or are c h a t t y remarks commonly made i n the course of a c o n v e r s a t i o n . 4.3.5.2. Examples of f i l l e r words, which do not c o n t r i b u t e a n y t h i n g meaningful t o the d i a l o g u e , are: [so] i n [so vo am'psar jo] (3), immediately followed, i n (208), by the t r a n s l a t i o n [de ma'nera ke] ; ['and Am] (24) and i t s many p h o n e t i c v a r i a n t s ; [ai 5a nau] (266), Eng. "I don't know"; [wel] (285) ['wel a] (101), [o wel] (53); [ j u : no] (326). 64 4.3.5.3. Common remarks i n E n g l i s h , l i k e the f i l l e r words, are o c c a s i o n a l l y heard: [ j e s ] (93), [ jae: ] (319) and ... t h r e e i n q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n : EF: [...oo'ke?]/ RF: [ a b s o ' l u t l i ] / EF: [ra:at] (3-5). 4.3.5.4. Other f r e q u e n t l y - u s e d E n g l i s h words and phrases, p e r f o r m i n g a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s , t u r n up r e p e a t e d l y : [3f kors] (101); [ a l ' r e d i ] (207); [ i n ddaet] (240); [and daets] , i n s t a n t l y t r a n s l a t e d : [and daets, 'eso f w e 'todo] (204-205. 4.3.5.5. Although a Spanish e q u i v a l e n t may be g i v e n once the E n g l i s h has s l i p p e d out, i t i s not u s u a l l y s i n c e such commonly-used words and phrases are now a n a t u r a l p a r t of t h e i r speech. An i n t e r e s t i n g h y b r i d c o n s i s t i n g of an E n g l i s h phrase adapted t o t h e i r speech with a n a t i v e s u f f i x i s [f •faektu] (135); the E n g l i s h i s redundant i n [ j a t e ' n i a a l ' r e d i ] (207); [su'burbz] (159) i s s u p p l i e d t o e x p l a i n the meaning of [ma'raj] (158), which the speaker had a l r e a d y used spontaneously. 4.3.5.6. Given t h a t both informants are f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h , i t s presence i n t h e i r speech, as d e s c r i b e d above, i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g ; both informants have spent most of t h e i r l i v e s i n areas where E n g l i s h i s the o f f i c i a l language. 4.3.5.7. The i n t e r f e r e n c e i s more s i g n i f i c a n t when an E n g l i s h word takes the p l a c e of one i n the n a t i v e language. For example i n [ ' t i t j r s ] (231) or ['pikniks] (258), although the l a t t e r may almost be c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l . Rather than Sp. "Nueva York," [njy jork] (190) i s heard. 65 4.3.6 Hebrew 4.3.6.1. The f o l l o w i n g examples from the t r a n s c r i p t i o n are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Jewish r e l i g i o u s observance and customs, as are most of the Hebrew borrowings i n Judeo-Spanish. I n s t e a d of Sp. "s&bado" (from Hebrew through L a t . "sabbStum") one hears [ J a ' b a t ] (241) < Heb. "nilVJ"114 (Wagner, 82, n. 4) I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the informant p r o v i d e s not Sp. "sabado" but I t . ['sabato] (241) as the e q u i v a l e n t f o r [ J a ' b a t ] . Spanish i s not used t o d e s i g n a t e e i t h e r Saturday or Sunday: Hebrew i s used f o r the f o r m e r , 1 1 5 A r a b i c f o r the l a t t e r (see §4.3.8). The p l u r a l of [ J a ' b a t ] i s [ J a ' b a t i s ] (234), a r e g u l a r Spanish formation (the Hebrew p l u r a l s u f f i x i s " - i m " ) . Another Hebrew b o r r o w i n g i s [te'va] (353) < Heb. "il2ri," the r e a d i n g c h a i r i n the synagogue. 4.3.7 T u r k i s h 4.3.7.1. The noun [ t / a r ' / i ] (57) (Lur., §176; Crews, n. 862; Wagner, 87, n. 15) (< Trk. " c a r s i " ) i s a k i n d of market where many kin d s of g o o d s — a l t h o u g h not p r o v i s i o n s — a r e s o l d . 1 1 6 4.3.7.2. The adverb [ p i ' J i n ] (66) (Wagner 66; Crews, n. 588), Sp. "en seguida," i s heard s e v e r a l times. Nehama l i s t s " / p i ' J i n / " but r e f e r s the reader t o " / p e ' J i n / , " under which he g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g primary d e f i n i t i o n : "'maintenant, de s u i t e , t o u t de s u i t e , sur-le-champ, a 1 ' i n s t a n t 1 1 7 T h i s i s the meaning expressed i n [ l u z 'otrus 'todus s i 'fweron p i ' J i n as lasvo'rar] (163-164); ['era p j i n j a muz ambi'zavan a a ' v l a r i f r a ' s e s . . . i i t a ' l j a n o t a m ' b j e n ] ( 3 1 1 - 3 1 2 ) ; and i n ['toSus <pji muz al 5van'ta vamos] (352). Only Mr. F e r e r a uses t h i s adverb. O c c a s i o n a l l y he g i v e s i t the sense of Sp. "precisamente," "mismo," Eng. " j u s t , " " r i g h t " : [ l a 'skola 'era p j i n api'ya6a a l a 'kaza 'mia] ( 2 7 - 2 8 ) ; 1 1 8 ['iamus pa'Jin a l a 'sk o l a d 2 u ' 5 i a ] (67-68); [ p i ' J i n ' a n t i z 6e l a 'prima 'gera] (175-176). 1 1 9 4.3.8 A r a b i c 4.3.8.1. The o n l y A r a b i c c o n t r i b u t i o n which appears i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s perhaps the best-known i n Judeo-Spanish: [ a l ' / a d ] (242) (Crews, nn. 45, 203), Sp. "domingo." The f i n a l consonant may be devoiced > [t] i n Judeo-Spanish. Even p r i o r t o the E x p u l s i o n , the A r a b i c i n s t e a d of the Spanish word ( p e r c e i v e d as too C h r i s t i a n ) . 4.3.9 Greek 4.3.9.1. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Judeo-Romance i s the verb "meldar" (Wagner 83), Sp. " l e e r " : [sa'viamuz m i l ' d a r . . . i n i ' b r e u ta'mje ba'stante, ba'stante bjen] (321), Sp. " l e e r " . The verb e n t e r e d the speech of Spanish Jews p r i o r t o the E x p u l s i o n 67 (< l a t e L a t . "meletare" < Gr. "/xeAeTav" < "ntk$Tn") . I t e x i s t s i n o t h e r Romance languages i n connection w i t h the Jews and has the b a s i c meaning of Eng. "teach," "study," " r e a d . " 1 2 0 "Meldar" o r i g i n a l l y meant "to read the Jewish sacre d t e x t s " and l a t e r , by e x t e n s i o n , simply "to read" (Wagner, 32, n. 1). The l a t t e r , more g e n e r a l meaning i s suggested by the above example from the r e c o r d i n g s i n c e " i n Hebrew" i s s p e c i f i e d . 4.3.9.2. The noun [man'draki] (58) appears t o be a d i r e c t borrowing from Greek. I t i s "the p o r t of Rhodes" (Angel 1 1 2 ) . 1 2 1 4.4. Semantics 4.4.1. The noun [ ' e t j o ] , from the p a s t p a r t i c i p l e of / a ' z e r / , i s used as Eng. "job" i n [dus'pwez S i 'unus 'kwantuz 'asnuz, j a t e ' n i a un 'et/o b a ' s t a n t ^ i 'bweno] (180-181) . 1 2 2 4.4.2. Instead of the Sp. verb "terminar, "acabar," one hears / ( e ) s k a p a r / (Wagner, e. g. 70, n. 11): [a l a e'dad d i ' t r e d 2 i , k a ' t o r z i 'anus, ska'pavamuz: no a ' v i a maz] (78-79); ['kwandu s k a ' p i l a 'skola dSu'dia] (156); ['para ska'par l u z i ' s t u d i u z ] (279). 5. G l o s s a r y 68 The f o l l o w i n g g l o s s a r y i s intended p r i m a r i l y as a b a s i c l e x i c a l guide t o the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . Proper names have not g e n e r a l l y been i n c l u d e d ; nor have forms which are the r e s u l t of p r e d i c t a b l e p h o n e t i c and morphological developments, d e s c r i b e d i n the a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n s of the a n a l y s i s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the l i s t does sometimes c o n t a i n forms and c o n s t r u c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Judeo-Spanish or which d i f f e r s u f f i c i e n t l y from t h e i r Standard Modern Spanish e q u i v a l e n t s t o warrant i n c l u s i o n . The l e x i c a l items s e l e c t e d have been t r a n s c r i b e d p h o n e m i c a l l y . E q u i v a l e n t Standard Spanish t e r m s / e x p r e s s i o n s i n o r t h o g r a p h i c s c r i p t have been p r o v i d e d under the e n t r i e s . E n g l i s h d e f i n i t i o n s appear on the r i g h t . A l l d e s c r i p t i v e c a t e g o r i e s , e q u i v a l e n c e s and d e f i n i t i o n s are i n context. The number of the l i n e i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n which an item f i r s t appears i s i n b r a c k e t s . /a'gwera/ (8) adv. (< OSp.) "now" "ahora" /a'keus/ (154) a d j . "those" " a q u e l l o s " /ako'drarse (de)/ (10) v r . "acordarse (de) 1 1 /ma'kodru/ (10) /ta:'kodras/ (130) / a l i ' a n s a / (94) n f . /al'xad/ (242) nm. (Ar.) "domingo" / a l ( e ) v a n 1 t a r s e / (20) v r . 11 l e v a n t a r s e " / s i a l v a n ' t a v a / (20) / a m b i 1 z a r ( s e ) (88) v r . , v t . (< OSp.) "aprender"; "ensenar" /muz ambi'zimus/ (138-139) 1st p. p i . p r e t . / • a n d i / : see /onde/ / a n ' s i n a / (350) adv. (OSp.) " a s i " / a p a r t e ' n i a / (109) v i . (< Fr.) " p e r t e n e c i a " / a r i k o 1 d r a r s e (de)/ (48) v r . " r e c o r d a r " /mi a r i ' k o d r o d i / (48) /asa'gun/ (130) prep. "segun" "remember" (= " A l l i a n c e I s r a e l i t e U n i v e r -s e l l e " ) "Sunday" "get up" " l e a r n " ; " t e a c h " "thus," " l i k e t h a t " " i t belonged" "remember" "as" 70 / b e l _ / (192) a d j . /'kongo b e l z / (192) "Congo Belga" / ' b i j a s / (216) n f . (< Fr.) " b o l a s " / b i ' z a r / (249) v. "besar" /buj'kimus/ (133) 1st p. p i . p r e t . (caique on I t . "abbiamo cercato") "tratamos" / b u ' t i k a s / (240) nf. (< F r . or OSp.) " t i e n d a s " " B e l g i a n Congo" "marbles" " k i s s " "we t r i e d " " s t o r e s , " "shops" /da'inda/ (108) adv. (Gal./Ptg./Ast.) " s t i l l " ; "moreover" " t o d a v i a " ; "ademas" /•dea/ (138) prep. + prn. "of her" "de e l l a " /(en) d e ' l a n t r e de/ (362-363) prep. " b e f o r e , " " i n f r o n t o f " "d e l a n t e de" /•deos/ (20) prep. + prn. "of them" "de e l l o s " /de'sembro/ (43) nm. (< Fr.?) "December" "diciembre" /diman'dar/ (333) v t . (< Fr./It./Eng.?) "demand" " e x i g i r " /diman'dava r i ' s p e k t u / (333) 71 / ' d i j i / (44) 1st p. s. p r e t . (OSp. " d i j e " s i b i l a n t ) / •dodSi/ (131) a d j . "doce" /do'vere/ (245) nm. ( I t . ) "deber" /empe*si2o/ (72) nm. / a l empe'siSo (7)/ " a l p r i n c i p i o " /enve'rano/ (254) nm. "verano" / ' e r a / / (45) 2nd p. p i . impf. " e r a i s " /eska'par/ (79) v t . " t e r m i n a r , " "acabar" / e s k a ' p i / (156) 1st p. s. p r e t . "termine," "acabe" / ' e t / o / (180) nm. "empleo" / f e v r i ' e / (7) nm. (Fr.) 11 f e b r e r o " /fwedz/ (91) 2nd p. s. p r e t . " f u i s t e " "I s a i d " "twelve" "duty" " i n the b e g i n n i n g , " "a t f i r s t " "summer" "you were" " f i n i s h , " "complete" "I f i n i s h e d , " "completed" " j o b " "February" "you went" /'fwemus/ (132) 1st p. p i . p r e t . "fuimos" (< OSp.; d i a l . ) "we went" / • i a / (339) l s t / 3 r d p. s. impf. "I/he went/would go" " i b a " /'iamus/ (64) 1st p. p i . impf. "we went/would go" "ibamos" / i ' l e v e s ( d i ' s k o l a ) / (234) nm. (< Fr.) " p u p i l s " "alumnos" /im'pero/ (307) nm. ( I t . ) "empire" "i m p e r i o " / i ' _ i k a / (74) n f . dim. (Ara./Leo. dim.) " ( l i t t l e ) g i r l " " n i f i a " (OSp. s i b i l a n t ) / i ' S i k u / (73) nm. dim. (Ara./Leo. dim.) " ( l i t t l e ) boy" " n i f i o " (OSp. s i b i l a n t ) /•kae/ (35) n f . " s t r e e t " " c a l l e " / k a ' l e _ a / (16) nf. ( d i a l . ) " s t r e e t " " c a l l e " /kam'pafia/ (257) nf. ( I t . ) "country (side) " "campo" /ken/ (188) prn. /ken ... ken/ (188) "(some)one ... "quien ... quien" another (one) / ' k i 2 u d e ' z i r / (7) 3rd p. p i . p r e t . " q u i e r e d e c i r " + i n f . / ' k l a s a / (64) nf. " c l a s e " /ko'ledgo/ (224) nm. ( I t . ) " c o l e g i o , " (here) "seminario" /komen'si/ (86) 1st p. s. p r e t . "empece," "comence" /kontu'nimus/ (309) 1st p. p i . p r e t . "continuamos" /'krego/ (172) 1st p. s. pres. (Ara.) "c r e o " /kum'panus . . . d i 'klasa / (161-162) nm. "companeros de c l a s e " (< I t . ) /•kwalo/ (100) " c u a l " /mas 'kwalo/ (98) l i t . "pero c u a l " ( c f . t he SAm. f i l l e r "esteee") / k w a l ' s i a s i / (59) a d j . ( I t . ) " c u a l q u i e r " /kwar'tenu/ (32) a d j . (OSp.) " c u a r t o " 73 " t h a t i s t o say" " c l a s s " " c o l l e g e , " (here) "seminary" "I began," " s t a r t e d " "we c o n t i n u e d " "I t h i n k , " " b e l i e v e " c l a s s m a t e s " "which" l i t . "but which," used as a f i l l e r phrase ( c f . "anyway," "so") "any" " f o u r t h " /•kwa_i/ (13) adv. " c a s i " "almost" / l a v o ' r a r / (165) v i . ( I t . ) " t r a b a j a r " / l i s i ' o n / (235) n f . " l e c c i o n " /ma/ (71) c o n j . ( I t . ) "pero" /man'draki/ (58) nm. /man'sevo/ (177) nm. (OSp.) "jove n , " "mozo" /ma'raj"/ (153) nm. (< Trk.?) " l a s a f u e r a s " /ma2ori'ta/ (313) nf. ( I t . ) " l a mayoria," " l a mayor p a r t e " / m i l ' d a r / (321) v t . (< Gr.) " l e e r " /mo'zotros/ (86) prn. "no s o t r o s " /'munt/u/ (71) a d j . , adv. ( d i a l . ) "mucho" /mu'rar/ (33) v i . (OSp.) " v i v i r " "work" " l e s s o n " "but" "the p o r t o f Rhodes" (Angel 112) "young man" "suburbs" "the m a j o r i t y , " "most" "read" "we," "us" "much," "a l o t " " l i v e " /mus/ (75) prn. "us," "one o t h e r , " e t c . "nos" /'mweso/ (30) a d j . (OSp., d i a l . ) "our" "nuest r o " /•mwesro/: see /'mweso/ /'mwevo/ (179) a d j . / d i 'mwevo/ (179) adv. phr. "again" "de nuevo" /'onde/ (16) adv. (OSp.) "donde" /'o2us/ (363) nm. (OSp. s i b i l a n t ) " o j o s " "where" "eyes" / ' p a r t i / n f . / l a mas ' p a r t i / (165) (< Fr.) " l a mayor p a r t e , " " l a mayoria" / p a r ' t i d a / (306) nf. (< Fr.) " p a r t e " /'una 'grandi p a r ' t i d a / (305-306) "muchos" (< Fr.) /'pefias/ (220) n f . / p i ' l o t a s / (219) nf. (here) "cantos rodados" "most," "the m a j o r i t y " " p a r t " "many" (here) l a r g e r o c k s s t i c k i n g out of the sea ( e l i c i t e d from EF) (here) " b o u l d e r s " (EF) /pir'mero/ (306) adv. "primero" / p i ' J i n / (27) adv. (< Trk.) "en seguida"; "mismo" /p l a 2 / (58) nf. (Fr.) " p l a y a " / ' p r e t u / (227) n. (< adj.) (< OSp., "negro" Ptg.?) /'prima/ (12) a d j . ( I t . ) "primera" / ' p r o p r i u / (15) adv. ( I t . ) "mismo" / r e g r e ' t o / (268) nm. (Fr.) "s e n t i m i e n t o , " "pesar" / r i k r e a ' s j o n / (75) nf. " r e c r e o " / r i s i v i ' d u r a / (136) nf. "(buena) acogida," "bienvenida" / • r o d i s / (6) nf. "Rodas" /'sabato/ (241) nm. ( I t . ) "sabado" / • s e n s i u / (238) nm. (< I t . , Fr.?) " s e n t i d o " " f i r s t " "immediately"; " r i g h t " "beach" "negro" " f i r s t " " j u s t , " " e x a c t l y " " r e g r e t " " r e c e s s " (school) "welcome," " r e c e p t i o n " "Rhodes" "Saturday" "sense" 77 /si'komu/ (313) c o n j . (< I t . ) 11 ya que," "puesto que" /ska'par/: see /eska'par/ / s k a ' p i / : see / e s k a ' p i / /so/ (3) 1st p. s. p r e s . (OSp.) "soy" /•suptu/ (19) a d j . /en 'suptu/ (19) a d j . phr. "de repente" / s u v e ' n i r e s / (252) nm. (< Fr.) "recuerdos" /Ja'bat/ (241) nm. (Heb.) / J a ' b a t i s / (234) p i . of //a'bat/ "sabados" / t e ' v a / (353) n f . (Heb.) ( e l e s t r a d o de l e c t u r a de l a sinagoga) /'todo/ nm. /no ... pur d e l 'todo/ (50) prep. phr. "en a b s o l u t o " "as," " s i n c e " "I am" " a l l of a sudden" "memories" "Saturday," "sabado" (Jewish) "Sabbath" "Saturdays" (the r e a d i n g c h a i r i n the synagogue) not ... a t a l l / t u r ' n a r / (177) v i . /tur'no/ (177) 1st p. s. p r e t . " v o l v i o " / ' t r e d _ i / (26) a d j . " t r e c e " / t r u ' k a r / (12) v t . , v r . /trukimus/ (12) 1st p. p i . p r e t . l i t . "cambiamos" / t j a r ' / i / (57) nm. (Trk.) "mercado" / t j i ' k e z / (104) n f . " n i f i e z 1 1 / t / i k i ' t i k o / (169) a d j . , double dim. " c h i q u i t i t i t o , " " n i f i i t o " /vera'mente/ (78) adv. ( I t . ) "verdaderamente, 1 1 "realmente" /• v e r s o / (172) prep. " h a c i a " /'viamus/ (265) 1st p. p i . impf. /mus 'viamus/ (265) "nos veiamos" / v i 2 i ' t a r / (133) v t . (OSp. s i b i l a n t ) / v i 2 i ' t i m u s / (135) 1st p. p. p r e t . " v i s i t a m o s " "he went/came back," " r e t u r n e d " " t h i r t e e n " l i t . "we changed" "market" " c h i l d h o o d " " j u s t a s m a l l k i d " " r e a l l y , " " t r u l y " (time) "around" "we saw/would see one another" "we v i s i t e d " 79 / • v j e z u / (296) a d j . (OSp. s i b i l a n t ) " v i e j o " /vo/ (1) 1st p. s. p r e s . (OSp. s i b i -"voy" l a n t ) / z v i l u ' p o / 3rd p. s. p r e t . ( I t . ) / s i z v i l u ' p o / (262) "se ha d e s a r r o l l a d o " " o l d " "I am g o i n g " " i t has (been) developed" 6 . Conclusions 80 E l i and Rosa Ferera, Sephardim from Rhodes, belong to a long Hispanic t r a d i t i o n i n the Eastern Mediterranean Basin. The language they speak has been passed on from generation to generation by descendents of those Jews who were expelled from Spain towards the end of the f i f t e e n t h century, of the many others who l a t e r joined them, and the Jews who were assimilated into the Sephardic culture. The language of the Eastern Sephardim l i v e s on i n the o r i g i n a l l y - s e t t l e d areas and i n widely-scattered emigrant communities. Like many, perhaps most, Sephardim, my informants speak several languages yet t h e i r native language p r e v a i l s i n the home. This i s prec i s e l y where the d i a l e c t has managed to survive. In t h i s study, I have explored d i s t i n c t i v e features of the informants' speech which, while setting them apart from speakers of the Modern Standard Spanish, at the same time unite them with a l l fellow speakers of Hispano-Romance. I approached the oral sample I chose as the corpus of t h i s study with a knowledge of Hispanic languages and d i a l e c t s , and was immediately struck by the phonetic richness of the informants' speech. I t reminded me of Portuguese, a language with which I am very f a m i l i a r ; many of the phonemes that might seem to t y p i f y Judeo-Spanish pronunciation are, i n fact, representative, of Peninsular speech from Portugal r i g h t across 81 the n o r t h of the I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a t o C a t a l o n i a — S t a n d a r d Modern C a s t i l i a n i s , p h o n e t i c a l l y , the "odd man out." I wanted my t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the r e c o r d i n g t o be narrow enough t o r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y t h i s p h o n e t i c complexity. My i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r i c a l p h o n e t i c s has l e d me t o d w e l l on a f a s c i n a t i n g aspect of Judeo-Spanish: the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the the p a l a t a l s i b i l a n t s and the voiced/unvoiced c o n t r a s t , which c l o s e l y l i n k the d i a l e c t t o Old Spanish and t o modern H i s p a n i c languages and d i a l e c t s . In the r e c o r d i n g , those phonemes are e v e r - p r e s e n t . The p h o n e t i c s of the d i a l e c t as w e l l as v a r i o u s d i s t i n c t i v e m o r p h o l o g i c a l and l e x i c a l f e a t u r e s are l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of both i t s conservatism and the unique s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s c r e a t e d i n the Sephardic communities of the Ottoman Empire, p r e c i p i t a t e d by the tragedy of 1492, which l e d t o the c r e a t i o n of a k o i n e , based on Spanish, the common language. That t h i s s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r had an impact can be seen i n the r a i s i n g of a t o n i c /o/ and /e/ and i n forms such as ['kreyu] and [ka'lez'a], t o c i t e obvious examples. The e f f e c t s of the i n t e n s e exposure t o Western i n f l u e n c e s i n c e the l a s t century and the r e s u l t i n g m u l t i l i n g u a l i s m of Judeo-Spanish speakers i s evidenced i n the r e c o r d i n g e s p e c i a l l y by l e x i c a l i n f l u e n c e from I t a l i a n and French, the languages which have most transformed Judeo-Spanish w i t h i n approximately the l a s t c e n t u r y and a h a l f . T h i s i s n a t u r a l g i v e n t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y t o the d i a l e c t . The f a c t t h a t both informants were 82 educated i n Rhodes when I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e was v e r y s t r o n g o n l y p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n s the i t a l i a n i s m s i n t h e i r speech, s i n c e French and I t a l i a n l e x i c a l borrowings have been p a r t of a g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l phenomenon a f f e c t i n g a l l E a s t e r n Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s . I would perhaps have expected g r e a t e r i n t e r f e r e n c e from E n g l i s h , s i n c e Mr. and Mrs. F e r e r a have by now spent the g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e i r l i v e s i n E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s . The few Hebrew elements heard can be e x p l a i n e d by the g e n e r a l nature of the d i a l o g u e . Although T u r k i s h has h i s t o r i c a l l y had a c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on E a s t e r n Judeo-Spanish, i t s i n c o n s i d e r a b l e presence i n the informants' speech can be a t t r i b u t e d t o W e s t e r n i z a t i o n : f o r m e r l y used T u r k i s h elements have g r a d u a l l y been r e p l a c e d by French and I t a l i a n words due t o the g r e a t e r p r e s t i g e of those languages and t o the ease w i t h which they c o u l d e n t e r a d i a l e c t belonging t o the same f a m i l y of languages. B a s i n g my o b s e r v a t i o n s on my r e s e a r c h t o date, I am unable t o s t a t e t h a t t h e i r speech i s , as a whole, " t y p i c a l " e i t h e r of the Judeo-Spanish as i t was spoken on Rhodes or of t h a t which i s a t p r e s e n t spoken by Rhodian Jews l i v i n g abroad. However, I can c e r t a i n l y a f f i r m t h a t p h o n e t i c a l l y important f e a t u r e s of t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i o n , from the p o i n t of view of h i s t o r i c a l Spanish p h o n e t i c s , such as the Standard Spanish treatment o f i n i t i a l L a t . / f / , the r a i s i n g of /o/ and /u/, and the p r e s e r v a t i o n of /v/ are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c not only of the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of Rhodes 83 but a l s o , i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n combination, of t h a t of o t h e r E a s t e r n d i a l e c t s . One must ask i f i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e , i n d e t a i l , what c o n s t i t u t e s " t y p i c a l " Judeo-Spanish. There are no o f f i c i a l norms such as those which govern Standard Modern Spanish and no modern l i t e r a t u r e t o speak o f ; the language of the p r e s s i s not a r e l i a b l e guide t o the spoken language, nor can i t s e r v e as a model, s i n c e i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a preponderance of French and I t a l i a n m o r p h o l o g i c a l , s y n t a c t i c , l e x i c a l and semantic i n f l u e n c e . One can g e n e r a l i z e about d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of the h i s t o r i c a l speech areas of E a s t e r n Judeo-Spanish, but the demographic s i t u a t i o n has been d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d s i n c e Wagner and Crews d i d t h e i r r e s e a r c h i n the 1930's. There may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n and v o c a b u l a r y between two speakers of approximately the same age and o r i g i n a t i n g from the same p l a c e . O v e r a l l , Mrs. F e r e r a ' s speech i s not r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from her husband's, but t h e r e are v a r i a t i o n s : she r a i s e s or reduces a t o n i c /o/ and e/ l e s s f r e q u e n t l y ; her /s/ i s d i s t i n c t l y a p i c a l (Mr. F e r e r a ' s a r t i c u l a t i o n sounds c o r o n a l , a t times a l v e o l a r , a l t h o u g h i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by [ s ] ) ; a l s o , / s/ does not p a l a t a l i z e i n her speech. R e l y i n g o n l y on the t r a n s c r i p t i o n , i t i s hard t o reach d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s on l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t hem— Mr. F e r e r a spoke much more than h i s w i f e . However, a d i s c u s s i o n on c e r t a i n elements heard i n the r e c o r d i n g r e v e a l e d some d i f f e r i n g l e x i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s and t h a t Mrs. F e r e r a , 84 when faced with a choice, would tend toward Standard Spanish (see § 3.1). Before the recording session, Mr. Ferera jokingly admonished h i s wife not to use "fancy words." But the point here i s not to exaggerate differences i n t h e i r way of speaking, but to r e f l e c t on the impact of d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of exposure. 1 2 3 The analysis of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n contained i n t h i s study provides the reader with the essential features of the d i a l e c t . Mr. and Mrs. Ferera 1s . entertaining example of free-flowing speech i n t h e i r native language i s a good introduction to Judeo-Spanish. 85 Notes 1 The Moroccan Sephardim c a l l t h e i r language " h a k e t i y a . " 2 E n t w i s t l e c a l l s the d i a l e c t "Jewish Spanish." Bunis, l i k e o t h e r s c h o l a r s , r e j e c t s "Ladino" t o denote the spoken language, f o r which he p r e f e r s "Judezmo." He r e j e c t s "Judeo-Spanish," which he d e s c r i b e s as "an a r t i f i c i a l , h y b r i d term i n v e n t e d by Western European p h i l o l o g i s t s " and, concerning " (e) spanyol, 1 1 he s t a t e s : "although widespread among n a t i v e speakers i n r e c e n t y e a r s , [ i t ] a l s o appears t o be an import, l a c k i n g t r u e r o o t s i n the community and f a i l i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h the language from Spanish" (David M. Bunis, Sephardic S t u d i e s : a Research  B i b l i o g r a p h y I n c o r p o r a t i n g Judezmo Language, L i t e r a t u r e and  F o l k l o r e , and H i s t o r i c a l Background [New York: Garland, 1981] x i ) . With regard t o the term " (e) spanyol, " I have not seen h i s o p i n i o n concerning i t ' s l a c k of " t r u e r o o t s i n the community" expressed elsewhere. Mr. F e r e r a i n s i s t s t h a t Jews on Rhodes c a l l e d t h e i r language " e s p a f i o l . " To them, they spoke Spanish. The E n c y c l o p e d i a J u d a i c a i s an e x c e p t i o n t o the r u l e i n i t s endorsement of the use of "Ladino" f o r c o l l o q u i a l Judeo-Spanish: "The widespread view t h a t the term 'Ladino' i s o n l y a p p l i c a b l e t o the 'sacred' language of B i b l e t r a n s l a t i o n s and p r a y e r s , whereas the other names are r e s e r v e d s o l e l y f o r the spoken language, seems h a r d l y t e n a b l e " ("Ladino," E n c y c l o p e d i a  J u d a i c a 1971). For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s on the above terminology, see Haim V i d a l Sephiha, Le iudeo-espagnol ( P a r i s : Entente, 1986) esp. Ch. 1; Paloma Diaz-Mas, Los s e f a r d i e s : h i s t o r i a .  lengua y c u l t u r a (Barcelona: R i o p i e d r a s , 1986) 100-103. 3 T h i s g e n e r a l summary of the h i s t o r y of Spanish Jewry up u n t i l the E x p u l s i o n of 1492 i s based mainly on the f o l l o w i n g works: Y i t z h a k Baer, A H i s t o r y of the Jews i n C h r i s t i a n Spain, v o l s . 1 and 2 ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : The Jewish P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i e t y of America, 1961) and Salo Wittmayer Baron, A S o c i a l and R e l i g i o u s  H i s t o r y of the Jews, v o l . 10, chs. 44 and 45 (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965). 4 "Book Twelve" of the Forum Judicum. or Fuero Juzgo, a l e g a l code i n c o r p o r a t i n g many c o n c i l i a r decrees, governed v i r t u a l l y every aspect of Jewish l i f e . Although the laws were not f u l l y e nforced, t h e i r s p i r i t r e f l e c t s the i n t e n s e l y a n t i s e m i t i c atmosphere of l a t e r V i s i g o t h i c r u l e . Even t h i s e a r l y , a decree was i s s u e d e x p e l l i n g from the c o u n t r y a l l Jews who r e f u s e d t o become C h r i s t i a n , but t h i s , a l s o , a p p a r e n t l y c o u l d not be f u l l y implemented. 5 Baron 164. Although t h e r e had long been Jews l i v i n g i n the n o r t h of Spain, t h e i r l a r g e - s c a l e m i g r a t i o n t o the C h r i s t i a n s t a t e s of the north, where they s e t t l e d and a c q u i r e d the Romance 86 of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n , was t o have major s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the l a t e r development of Judeo-Spanish. 6 Baer, v o l . 1, 128-129. "His p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e toward the Jews changed s e v e r a l times. . . . In C a s t i l e , [ ] i n a d d i t i o n t o the v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s — p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s , and c l a s s t e n s i o n s — c e r t a i n s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s o f t e n proved d e c i s i v e , namely, the whims and v a g a r i e s of the k i n g ' s mind" (Baer, v o l . 1, 129). 7 Baer, v o l . 1, 178. 8 Baer, v o l . 1, 181. 9 Baer, v o l . 1, 76. 1 0 "According t o Jewish and C h r i s t i a n sources, the m a j o r i t y o f the e x i l e s , numbering between 100,000 and 120,000, emigrated t o P o r t u g a l . . . . The remaining e x i l e s , who p r o b a b l y numbered no more than about 50,000, s a i l e d from the southern p o r t s (Almeria) f o r North A f r i c a or from the e a s t e r n p o r t s ( V a l e n c i a and Barcelona) f o r I t a l y and the E a s t " (Baer, v o l . 2, 438). 1 1 Large Sephardic communities were e s t a b l i s h e d i n v a r i o u s European c e n t r e s and i n North A f r i c a , n o t a b l y Morocco. I w i l l be c o n c e n t r a t i n g on h i s t o r i c and l i n g u i s t i c developments i n the e a s t e r n Mediterranean, where the Sephardic t r a d i t i o n remained s t r o n g e s t and Judeo-Spanish s t e a d f a s t l y endured over the c e n t u r i e s . 1 2 At the time of the e x p u l s i o n , Spanish Jews s a i d , and s t i l l say, " e l Dio" i n s t e a d of "Dios," i n t e r p r e t i n g the form w i t h " s " as the p l u r a l , s u ggestive of the T r i n i t y ; and " a l h a d " ( [ a l ' x a d ] ) i n s t e a d of "domingo," a l s o f e l t t o have C h r i s t i a n o v ertones. The verb "meldar" ("to read") was a l s o used by Jews p r i o r t o 1492 ( f o r "alhad" and "meldar" see § 4.3.1.) 1 3 Max Leopold Wagner, C a r a c t e r e s g e n e r a l e s d e l iudeo- esp a i i o l de O r i e n t e . R e v i s t a de F i l o l o q i a Espanola, Anejo 13 (Madrid: 1930) 14. 1 4 See V i d a l Sephiha. 1 5 The i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s b r i e f survey of the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l background of the Jews of Rhodes comes p r i m a r i l y from the f i n e book w r i t t e n by Marc D. Angel (see the f o l l o w i n g n o t e ) , which my informants k i n d l y l e n t t o me. 1 6 Marc D. Angel, The Jews of Rhodes: the H i s t o r y of a  Sephardic Community (New York: Sepher-Hermon Press and The Union of Sephardic Congregations, 1980) 17-18. 87 17 inphe s e p h a r d i c community of Rhodes can f a i r l y be seen as a microcosm of Sephardic l i f e throughout the c i t i e s and towns of the Empire. By f o c u s i n g on the h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e of t h i s community, one may understand more c l e a r l y the g e n e r a l h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e of the Judeo-Spanish-speaking Sephardim." Angel 2. 1 8 Angel 23. 1 9 Angel 76. 2 0 Jews had o f t e n been f o r c e d t o wear d i s t i n c t i v e a t t i r e i n Spain. Such r e g u l a t i o n s were i n f o r c e i n C h r i s t i a n and Muslim c o u n t r i e s . 2 1 "Of the Jews who were deported from Rhodes, o n l y 151 s u r v i v e d . Twenty-two had d i e d on the voyage, 1145 a t Auschwitz, and 437 i n the l a b o r camps." Angel 152. (Note e x p r e s s i n g indebtedness t o Franco, Galante, H i l b e r g and Nehama on p. 183) . 22 n T n e s e p h a r d i c community i n Rhodes was born as a r e s u l t o f the e x p u l s i o n of the Jews from Spain. I t d i e d i n the ashes of the German c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps" (Angel 152). 2 3 Sometimes the speaker i s probably j u s t t h i n k i n g or changing h i s mind about what he wants t o say. 2 4 Perhaps a pure f r i c a t i v e . 2 5 I n i t i a l /a/ by analogy with / r i ' k o d r o / . 2 6 /mus/. The b i l a b i a l n a s a l has become p l o s i v e p r o b a b l y by a s s i m i l a t i o n t o the p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g p l o s i v e /k/. 2 7 Incomprehensible. I t sounds l i k e [amdz 1Bwelta]. 2 8 The p r e t e r i t e of /ver/ and probably a s l i p on the p a r t of the informant: I l a t e r e l i c i t e d /'vimus/. 2 9 Incomprehensible. 3 0 /empe'siSo/. A s s i m i l a t i o n of the d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of / s / t o the p a l a t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of /z"/ and l o s s of the l a t t e r phoneme. 3 1 Word r a p i d l y a r t i c u l a t e d , /w/ weak, a t o n i c vowel l a b i a l -i z e d making timbre d i f f i c u l t t o p e r c e i v e . 3 2 Incomprehensible. 33 Incomprehensible. I t sounds l i k e [ ' j e n s m ] . 3 4 Or [ s i 'ia] 88 3 5 Incomprehensible. I t sounds l i k e [a 'ase]. 3 6 Incomprehensible. I t sounds l i k e [ke e z ] . 3 7 Perhaps ['todufi]. 3 8 P o s s i b l y ['mwes ros]. 3 9 The [ d] i s a s u p p o r t i n g vowel. 4 0 Or [ ' k r e i o ] . 4 1 Incomprehensible. 4 2 Incomprehensible. I t sounds l i k e [ o ' z e a , d a n d i 1 s t a A d ] . 4 3 Incomprehensible. Obviously the word f o r " p o p u l a t i o n . " 4 4 /'eran/. A s s i m i l a t i o n of / r / t o n/. 4 5 /deve/? 4 6 Sounds l i k e [ f ], though the norm i n Judeo-Spanish i s f o r / f / t o be reduced t o / r / . 4 7 There i s no t r a c e of the l a b i o d e n t a l or b i l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e a f t e r / i / found i n t h i s word i n other JSp. d i a l e c t s . Cf. Ptg. " c i d a d e . " 4 8 Or [ v i ' s t i d u ] . 4 9 / p i ' J i n / . A s s i m i l a t i o n of the p l o s i v e of /p/ t o the f r i c a t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n of the s i b i l a n t s immediately p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g . 5 0 I n t r u s i v e / t / : / s u ' v i a / (Std. Sp. [ s u ' B i a ] ) . 5 1 The f i g u r e s appearing i n round b r a c k e t s throughout t h i s a n a l y s i s r e f e r t o the l i n e numbers i n the l e f t - h a n d margin of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . 5 2 Isaac Jack Levy, Prolegomena t o the Study of the  "Refranero s e f a r d l . " New York: Las Americas, 1969. David Bunis s t a t e s t h a t the f o l k proverbs i n t h i s work have been " t r a n s c r i b e d f o r the most p a r t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r Rhodes p r o n u n c i a t i o n " (David Bunis, "Toward a L i n g u i s t i c Geography of Judezmo: P u b l i s h e d Sources, 1 H i s p a n i a J u d a i c a : S t u d i e s on the  H i s t o r y . Language, and L i t e r a t u r e of the Jews i n the H i s p a n i c  World, ed. Josep M. S o l a - S o l e , Samuel G. Armistead and Joseph H. S i l v e r m a n . V o l . 3: "Language" [ B a r c e l o n a : P u v i l l , (no d a t e ) ] 15). 89 5 3 T h i s author confirms the r a i s i n g of /-of t o [u] and of /-e/ t o [ i ] : "The Jews of Rhodes tended t o pronounce words t h a t ended w i t h an 'o' t o sound l i k e a 'u' e. g., 'manu(s) 1 i n s t e a d of 'mano(s), 1 ' b i s c o c h u ( s ) 1 i n s t e a d of ' b i s c o c h o ( s ) . 1 Words t h a t ended w i t h a s h o r t 'e' sound were pronounced w i t h a long 'e' e. g. 'padree* i n s t e a d of 'padre,' 'nombree' i n s t e a d of 'nombre.'" (I take "ee" t o mean [ i ] : the d e s c r i p t i o n i s intended f o r a n o n s p e c i a l i s t E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g reader.) T h i s i s an a c c u r a t e account of what takes p l a c e i n the speech of my inf o r m a n t s . 5 4 Angel says "tended t o pronounce" c o n c e r n i n g /-o/; t h i s r e f l e c t s what takes p l a c e i n the r e c o r d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o Mr. F e r e r a . The author appears more c a t e g o r i c a l when he d e s c r i b e s the r a i s i n g of /-e/, which i s , again, o n l y a tendency i n the speech of the informants. T h i s w r i t e r was s u r p r i s e d by c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s on the p h o n e t i c s of the Judeo-Spanish of Rhodes made by Wilhelm Giese i n a b r i e f a r t i c l e he p u b l i s h e d i n 1955. (The author s t a t e s t h a t , a t t h a t time, t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e Jewish f a m i l i e s s t i l l l i v i n g on the i s l a n d . ) (Wilhelm Giese, "Das Judenspanische von Rhodos," O r b i s , v o l . 5 [1956] 407-410.) The author's c o n c l u s i o n s were based on h i s a n a l y s i s of the speech of Abraham G a l i m i d i and h i s daughter S u l t a n a . In the b r i e f t r a n s c r i p t i o n of an o r a l sample p r o v i d e d by the l a t t e r , a t o n i c /e/ i s pronounced [ e ] , [ e] or [e] (once as [ i ] i n diphthong: [ k a i ] , Sp. "c a e " ) ; a t o n i c /o/ i s a r t i c u l a t e d as [o] or [=>]. T h i s c o n t r a s t s with what i s o b v i o u s l y a d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of my informants' speech. My s u s p i c i o n t h a t some of Giese's f i n d i n g s might not be r e l i a b l e were supported by David Bunis: "In 1956, Giese b r i e f l y r e p o r t e d on Rhodes Judezmo. The l i m i t e d and a t times q u e s t i o n a b l e data o f f e r e d i n h i s a r t i c l e , based on m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d by him d u r i n g a very s h o r t s t a y i n Rhodes a f t e r the almost complete decimation of the i s l a n d ' s Jewish community by the N a z i s , would appear t o be of minimal u s e f u l n e s s f o r our purposes. The speech of Giese's informants seems t o show evidence of contamination by other r e g i o n a l v a r i e t i e s " (Bunis 14-15). 5 5 M. L. Wagner, C a r a c t e r e s generales d e l iudeo-espafiol de  O r i e n t e (Madrid: R e v i s t a de F i l o l o g i a E s p a f i o l a — A n e i o 12, 1930) 22. 5 6 Marius S a l a , Phonetique e t phonologie du iudeo-espafiol  de B u c a r e s t (The Hague-Paris: Mouton, 1971) 29, 33. 5 7 The disappearance of the /e/ (/i/) of the d e f i n i t e a r -t i c l e i n [ l i t a ' l j a n o ] (90) suggests I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e . However, the vowel may have been e l i d e d with the /a/ of ['era] (90) as f r e q u e n t l y happens to other words with i n i t i a l /e/ i n a s i m i l a r environment. 90 5 8 Cf. pop. Ptg. "supeto" ([ • sup(a) tu]) , Sp. "supito" ("subito"). Nehama's dictionary, based on the Judeo-Spanish of Salonica, l i s t s "/supeto/: /en supeto/", with a s h i f t i n stress [erratum?]. Nehama, Joseph, Dictionnaire du iudeo-espaqnol. with the collaboration of Jesus Cantera (Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones C i e n t i f i c a s , 1977) 526. See Wagner 99, n. 10 (['supito] without a preposition). 5 9 See below under "Consonants" and e s p e c i a l l y the section on "Morphology." 6 0 I have chosen to quote Mr. Ferera i n t h i s section on synt a c t i c phonetics since the timbre of the vowels i n h i s wife's speech conforms more to that of standard Spanish (e. g. atonic /e/ and /of are raised to [i] and [u] less often). In addition, he has provided much more material. 6 1 The undiphthongized i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e as well as the p a l a t a l [/] might exhibit Portuguese influence. 6 2 There i s no need to postulate French interference for the elimination of /n/ i n [fra'sez] (72) or i n [fra'seza] (72), since there i s often a tendency i n Judeo-Spanish f o r /n/ to be l o s t with strong nasalization of the preceding vowel. 6 3 In standard C a s t i l i a n . 6 4 Cf. mod. Sp. [na'8i6o], [kono'Bia], [8ii] 'kwenta], ['una 'yra0ja]. This "seseo" also developed i n Andalusia during the sixteenth century, i n i t i a l l y i n the area of S e v i l l e , whence i t spread to the Americas, and i s a feature of standard Portuguese, French and Catalan, although i n the l a t t e r i t i s alveolar due to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the dental [s] of the a f f r i c a t e (once the /s/ had been lost) with the alveolar [s]. 6 5 The treatment of OSp. /dz/ i n the numbers from "one" to " f i f t e e n " i s i d e n t i c a l i n the d i a l e c t of Salonica: "/'onze/," "/•dod2e/," "/'tred2e/," "/ka•torze/," "/'kinze/" (Neh.) 6 6 The /// of Eng. "sherry" and Fr. "Quichotte," words taken from Spanish before the transformation of the p a l a t a l s i b i l a n t into the velar f r i c a t i v e (/%/) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the modern language, bears witness to the former pronunciation. 6 7 See Marius Sala, "Los fonemas /q/ and /2/ en e l judeoespanol," Studia Hispanica i n Honorem R. Lapesa. v o l . 1 (Madrid: Gredos-Catedra-Seminario Menendez P i d a l , 1972) 521-524. 6 8 I t i s l i k e l y that the plosive element of the voiced p a l a t a l a f f r i c a t e had already begun to weaken by the time of the Expulsion. The relaxing of i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n and subsequent disappearance had already led to the creation of a f r i c a t i v e i n 91 medial p o s i t i o n . The p h o n o l o g i c a l development of Spanish has shown t h a t p l o s i v e s are weakened f i r s t i n f i n a l , then medial, and l a s t l y i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . 6 9 [ko'ledSo] (224), with i n t e r v o c a l i c [d2], i s an i t a l i a n i s m , as i s , probably, the same a r t i c u l a t i o n i n n [ l a r d 2 e n * t i n a ] (189) . Of course, E n g l i s h may a l s o p l a y a p a r t i n the [d2] a r t i c u l a t i o n i n the l a t t e r . 7 0 Such was the case i n o l d Spanish u n t i l d e v o i c i n g o f the s i b i l a n t s took p l a c e i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . As s t i l l occurs i n Judeo-Spanish, f i n a l / s / was v o i c e d i n l i n k i n g ( i . e. when not i n a b s o l u t e f i n a l p o s i t i o n ) j u s t as i t was when p r e c e d i n g vowels w i t h i n words. T h i s s y n t a c t i c r u l e s t i l l o perates i n Portuguese ( [ u | ] , [uz ' o t r u j ] , [uz 'otruz •ame/]) and i n French, i n which f i n a l / s / i s s i l e n t , but pronounced [z] d u r i n g liaison with the vowel sound of the f o l l o w i n g word (except when such word begins w i t h s o - c a l l e d " a s p i r a t e 'h'": [ l e ] , [ l e z 'otRd], [ l e z 'otRdz =>m]) . 7 1 See Amado Alonso, De l a p r o n u n c i a c i o n medieval a l a  moderna en espanol (Madrid: Gredos, 1967-69). 7 2 The a s p i r a t i o n and subsequent disappearance of i n i t i a l L a t i n / f - / i n standard Spanish i s a t y p i c a l l y C a s t i l i a n phenomenon, the o r i g i n of which has been t r a c e d t o the r e g i o n of Burgos. Documented as e a r l y as the n i n t h century, the s h i f t from / f / t o /h/ had spread throughout C a s t i l i a n i z e d Spain, o r the /h/ had been l o s t , by the e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . (Alonso 38-39). 7 3 R a f a e l Lapesa, H i s t o r i a de l a lengua espafiola. 9th ed., c o r r e c t e d and expanded (Madrid: Gredos, 1981) 528. 7 4 E. g. New Mexican " [ ' k a j k o ] , [ma'/kar], ['mo/ka], [ p e ' / k a r ] " (Max L u r i a , "A Study of the Mon a s t i r D i a l e c t of Judeo-Spanish Based on O r a l M a t e r i a l C o l l e c t e d i n Monas t i r , Y u g o - S l a v i a . " Revue Hispanique 79 (1930) 438. These same words a l s o have [ J k ] i n Portuguese, i n which i t i s a p h o n e t i c law t h a t p a l a t a l i z a t i o n of / s / and /z/ occur not onl y b e f o r e v o i c e l e s s and v o i c e d p l o s i v e s ( [ ' b i j p u ] ['g^/ta], ['de2dd], ['faXyu]) but a l s o b e f o r e f r i c a t i v e s ( [ d ' f f e r a ] , [dd2'viu]) and n a s a l s (['mez'mu], ['si2nd]). 7 5 Note the absence of d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n t h i s JSp. verb form as w e l l . 7 6 T h i s p a l a t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of the s i b i l a n t was d i s c u s s e d by Juan de Valde s : Marcio — . . . no q u i e r o contender con vos, con t a n t o que me d i g a i s q u a l t e n e i s por mejor, d e z i r 92 "quige" y "quigera" o " q u i s e " y " q u i s i e r a , " y q u a l os contenta mas, e s c r i v i r " v i g i t a r " o " v i s i t a r , " porque veo algunos, y aun de l o s cortesanos p r i n c i p a l e s , usar mas l a 11 g" que l a " s . " Valdes — Y o por muy mejor tengo l a " s " y c r e o que l a "g" no l a a v e i s oido usar a muchas personas d i s c r e t a s , nacidas y c r i a d a s en e l r e i n o de Toledo o en l a c o r t e , s i ya no f u e s s e por descuido. Marcio — e n l a verdad creo sea a s s i , aunque no f u e s s e s i n o porque e l " v i g i t a r " t i e n e a mi v e r d e l v i l l a n e s c o . . . . (Juan de Valdes, Dialogo de l a Lengua. " C l a s i c o s C a s t e l l a n o s , " ed. Jose F. Montesinos [Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1964] 77) Of course, the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the Spanish Jews e x p e l l e d i n 1492 d i d not speak, nor were they subsequently i n f l u e n c e d by, the "lengua de l a c o r t e . " 7 7 For the c o n s e r v a t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of /A/ i n Spanish America see D. L i n c o l n C a n f i e l d , Spanish P r o n u n c i a t i o n i n the  Americas (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1981) 6-7, 12-13, 15, and passim. 7 8 The weakening and l o s s of i n t e r v o c a l i c / j / i s not j u s t a phenomenon of Judeo-Spanish. In t h a t p o s i t i o n , the phoneme (< /A/ or / j / ) weakens, v o c a l i z i n g t o / i f ) " g e n e r a l l y i n Mexican border Spanish ( i n c l u d i n g Monterrey, N. L. , Mexico) as w e l l as a l l of C e n t r a l America and c o a s t a l areas of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador" (Cfd. 12), although t h a t author l a t e r c o n t r a d i c t s h i m s e l f c o n c e r n i n g the l a t t e r two c o u n t r i e s : "/y/ i n t e r v o c a l i c tends t o be [ i ] [ r e f e r r i n g t o shaded area i n the southern U n i t e d S t a t e s along the border with Mexico] ( a l s o heard i n a l l of C e n t r a l America except Panama, the c o a s t s of Colombia, and Ecuador [ s i c ] ) " (Cfd. 83). And i n the d i a l e c t a r e a of New Mexico/Colorado, the o n l y one i n the southern S t a t e s which "has maintained l i n g u i s t i c c o n t i n u i t y s i n c e c o l o n i a l days," the phoneme can disappear e n t i r e l y (as i t does i n the speech of t h i s w r i t e r ' s informants) and he c i t e s " [ k a ' p i a ] " and " [ ' e a ] " (Cfd. 80). 7 9 In p a r t s of Spanish America, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n C e n t r a l America and Colombia, the p l o s i v e s [b] , [d] and [g] are heard a f t e r consonants and semivowels (see Cfd. 11) where s t d . CSp. would r e q u i r e the f r i c a t i v e s [ 6], [6] and [ y ] . 8 0 E. g. Sp. " p e l i g r o " < Lat. " p e r i c u l u ( m ) . " ZamV. 190. 93 82 Cf. G a l . " p i r m e i r o . " 8 3 In 17th century Spanish t h e a t r e , "mueso" and "mos" were used by r u s t i c s (/n-/ > [m-] by analogy w i t h "me") . "Mos" and "mosotros" l i v e on i n " v u l g a r " Spanish of the P e n i n s u l a (Lapesa § 116, 8; § 125, 7). 8 4 The [o] i n the p r e t o n i c s y l l a b l e of [d_o 1 Ywavamus] (265) (Mrs. F e r e r a only) may be simply i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h /u/, a s u r v i v a l from OSp. " j o g a r , " or due t o I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e ( c f . I t . " g i o c a r e " ) . Neh. shows onl y "/dzu'yar/." 8 5 The p r i m i t i v e forms s u r v i v e i n Portuguese: "sou," " e s t o u , " "vou." 8 6 Nor i s t h e r e an /e/ i n the Portuguese c o n j u g a t i o n ( c f . Ptg. "viamos" ['viamuj"]). 8 7 T h i s form i s documented by N e b r i j a . H i s c o n j u g a t i o n of the p r e t e r i t e ("passado acabado") of 11 i r " and " s e r " shows s t r e s s e d / e / i n s t e a d o f / i / t h r o u g h o u t : " f u e / f u e s t e / f u e / f u e m o s / f u e s t e s / f u e r o n . " (Antonio de N e b r i j a , Gramatica c a s t e l l a n a . V o l . 1. Ed. Pascual G a l i n d o Romeo and L u i s O r t i z Mufioz (Madrid: Junta d e l Centenario, 1946) 114. 88 Cf. Ptg. ['iamuf], ['ia] 8 9 The t h i r d person s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l forms of the p r e t e r i t e heard i n the r e c o r d i n g are as i n s t a n d a r d Spanish, e. g. [kom'pro] (152), [tur'no] (177) (Sp. " v o l v i o " ) , [ s i kae'zo] (179), [ s i tro'ko] (261-262), [kome'so] (272), [koti'nwaro] (162), [emp'saron] (225). 90 Cf. [embe'rano] (Wagner, 77, n. 1) 9 1 In t h i s s e c t i o n , one might p o s s i b l y i n c l u d e the p r e p o s i -t i o n a l [e S e ' l a n t r e ] (Sp. " d e l a n t e " ) , although t h i s w r i t e r has t r a n s c r i b e d two words, unsure whether or not the speaker con-s i d e r s the e x p r e s s i o n t o be one word ( c f . Sp. 11 e n f r e n t e , " "encima," from which /endelantre/ might have been c r e a t e d by a n a l o g y ) . The i n t r u s i v e / r / q u i t e l i k e l y developed by analogy w i t h o t h e r p r e p o s i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the o p p o s i t e , Sp. " d e t r a s . " I have l i k e w i s e shown /en "d2untus/ as two words throughout, a d m i t t e d l y i n f l u e n c e d by the orthography of Sp. "en j u n t o s " (although, i n Std. Sp. t h i s a d v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n does not mean "t o g e t h e r , " as i t appears t o i n the r e c o r d i n g , but " i n a l l , " " a l l t o g e t h e r " ( i . e. when summing up). 9 2 Nehama shows n e i t h e r the form with the s u f f i x used by Mr. F e r e r a nor t h a t with s t d . Sp. "-miento," o n l y " / r e s e p ' s j o n / . " 94 9 3 I e l i c i t e d from the informants not o n l y [ l a a'merika] but [ l a ' a f r i k a ] ( c f . s t d . Sp. " l a America" but " e l A f r i c a " ) . There was c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n o l d Spanish r e g a r d i n g the use of " e l " and " l a " b e f o r e nouns beginning w i t h u n s t r e s s e d and u n s t r e s s e d "a." The Sephardim l i v i n g i n t h e i r d i s t a n t communities remained u n a f f e c t e d by the subsequent s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n of Spanish grammar which e l i m i n a t e d v a r i a t i o n s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s t h a t had e x i s t e d i n the o l d language. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the use of " l a " b e f o r e any noun w i t h i n i t i a l "a" i s due t o I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e s i n c e the i n f o r m a n t s ' s c h o o l i n g was i n t h a t language. 9 4 Perhaps s t r e n g t h e n e d by F r . " m a j o r i t e " and Eng. " m a j o r i t y . " 9 5 T h i s c o u l d a l s o be an example of a p e r s o n a l i n f i n i t i v e , f o r which one c o u l d s p e c u l a t e on Portuguese i n f l u e n c e . 9 6 T h i s c o u l d a l s o be due t o Portuguese i n f l u e n c e . Cf. Ptg. " p r e t o " ( [ ' p r e t u ] ) . 9 7 C o v a r r u b i a s shows the verb as "abezar" and g i v e s the d e f i n i t i o n " v a l e ensefiar y acostumbrar" ( S e b a s t i a n de C o v a r r u b i a s , Tesoro de l a lengua c a s t e l l a n a o espafiola, ed. M a r t i n de Riquer [Barcelona: Horta, 1943]) 28; i n V a l d e s , i t appears as "vezar," d e f i n e d as "ensefiar" ( V a l . 123). Compare t h e i r c o n f l i c t i n g etymologies! 9 8 Mrs. F e r e r a l a t e r uses Sp. "aprender": [apren'diamuz 'to6az 'estas 'liqgwas] (100). 9 9 Before the f o l l o w i n g examples, he says [ s i mise'nava 'munt/u i n i ' b r e o ta'mje] (71). 1 0 0 Cf. F r . "apprendre," which can o c c a s i o n a l l y be t r a n s l a t e d as "teach." In the f o l l o w i n g example, p r o v i d e d by Nehama under "/ambezar/" the idea of "showing" or " t e a c h i n g " i s made p l a i n : " / s i ' f i o , venga l e ambeza're/: 'Pere, venez que j e vous montre comment i l f a u t f a i r e . ' (= C'est gros Jean q u i en remontre a son c u r e ) " (Neh. 35). 101 "Morar," a semilearned word < L a t . "mSrari" (Eng. "to remain, s t a y , " e t c . ) , can be found i n Spanish l i t e r a t u r e from the e a r l i e s t times. I t must have been used c o l l o q u i a l l y d u r i n g the Middle Ages, but has been r e s t r i c t e d t o e r u d i t e usage f o r c e n t u r i e s (as a l r e a d y i n Don Quixote) (Joan Corominas and Jose A. P a s c u a l , D i c c i o n a r i o c r i t i c o e t i m o l o g i c o c a s t e l l a n o e  h i s p a n i c o (Madrid: Gredos, 1980-1983) v o l . 4, 137. Cf. Ptg. "morar" and, f o r example, i t s d e r i v a t i v e "morada," both s t i l l c o l l o q u i a l and f r e q u e n t l y used i n t h a t language. (The Lat.deponent verb would n a t u r a l l y have become a c t i v e ["morare"] i n Low L a t i n by analogy with verbs of the f i r s t c o n j u g a t i o n ) . 95 102 j n Portuguese as w e l l , " t r o c a r " has about the same r e s t r i c t e d usage as i n mod. Spanish, the more g e n e r a l v e r b being "mudar(-se)." 1 0 3 In mod. Spanish, the sense of " h e n c h i r s e " has been narrowed t o t h a t of Eng. "to s w e l l " ( c f . the broad meaning of the Ptg. cognate "encher-se") . The verb d i s p l e a s e d Juan de V a l d e s , who used i t o n l y when he had no c h o i c e : "Henchir" parece feo y g r o s s e r o vocablo, y algunas veces forzosamente l o uso por no t e n e r o t r o que s i n i f i q u e l o que e l , porque ' l l e n a r ' no quadra b i e n en todas p a r t e s ; conhortome con que l o usa e l r e f r a n que d i z e : "De s e r v i d o r e s l e a l e s se hinchen l o s o s p i t a l e s " ( V a l . 112) 1 0 4 "Agora" (< L a t . "hac hora") was the u s u a l form ("general o poco menos") u n t i l the end of the Middle Ages, was r e g u l a r l y found i n l i t e r a t u r e up t o the e i g h t e e n t h century, and can s t i l l be heard i n r u s t i c speech (Cor., v o l . 3, 387). Cf. Ptg. "agora." 1 0 5 I t appears o n l y once i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . Both speakers u s u a l l y say [ma], an I t a l i a n i s m (see "Lexicon") w i d e l y used i n Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s ; "pero" i s heard i n t h i s r e c o r d i n g t o a much l e s s e r e xtent. 1 0 6 I n t e r v o c a l i c s i b i l a n t s are unvoiced i n G a l i c i a n i n c o n t r a s t t o Portuguese. 1 0 7 The sense i s u s u a l l y t h a t of Sp. " t o d a v i a . " With the meaning of Sp. "ademas": [da'inda, l a ' i z l a ez mwi dr'moza] (260). 1 0 8 Mrs. F e r e r a r e c e i v e d her e n t i r e s c h o o l i n g i n I t a l i a n ; Mr. F e r e r a , a l s o , was educated i n t h a t language except f o r the v e r y e a r l y y e ars of primary s c h o o l when he was taught i n French. 1 0 9 Mrs. F e r e r a has used the p r e t e r i t e where modern Spanish would p r e f e r the p r e s e n t p e r f e c t . T h i s usage i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Judeo-Spanish as w e l l as of northern Spanish d i a l e c t s and Portuguese. n o T j _ e I t a l i a n d e r i v a t i v e / l a v o ' r a r / i s i r r e p l a c e a b l e i n Judeo-Spanish t o express the g e n e r a l concept of " t o work" s i n c e Sp. " t r a b a j a r " i s a v u l g a r term f o r "to c o p u l a t e . " The verb can have t h a t meaning (the u s u a l one i n Judeo-Spanish) i n the P e n i n s u l a as w e l l (Wagner 63, n. 1). 1 1 1 I t always does i n Mr. F e r e r a ' s speech. The I t . d e r i v a t i v e i s the standard e a s t e r n Judeo-Spanish form. In t h e r e c o r d i n g , ['pero], used e x c l u s i v e l y by Mrs. F e r e r a , i s heard o n l y f o u r times (50, 86, 260, 361). 96 1 1 2 The use of "pero" i n s t e a d of " s i n o , " although nowadays ungrammatical i n the standard language, was q u i t e common i n Old Spanish. The l a c k of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , although p o s s i b l y a s u r -v i v a l from the o l d language, i s most l i k e l y due t o s y n t a c t i c i n a d d i t i o n t o l e x i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e from I t a l i a n . 1 1 3 Here, [diman'dava] may a l s o r e v e a l l e x i c a l , but e s p e c i a l l y semantic, i n p u t from E n g l i s h . 1 1 4 (Heb. 'TOY?"). 1 1 5 Nehama's d i c t i o n a r y l i s t s both "/sa'ba/" (the main entry) and "/ J s a b a t / . " 1 1 6 I t can a l s o be the shopping d i s t r i c t . "'1. marche ou l' o n vend t o u t e s s o r t e s de choses (sauf l e s v i c t u a i l l e s ) ' . . . 2. ' l e q u a r t i e r de l a v i l l e ou sont groupees l e s b o u t i q u e s ' . . ." (Neh. 107). 1 1 7 Neh. 432. 118 >phis might be rendered i n Standard Spanish as "La e s c u e l a estaba a l lado mismo de mi c a s a . " In a s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n , on the same t o p i c , / ' p r o p r r i u / has a l r e a d y been used as a synonym of / p i ' J i n / : [ l a 'kaza 'era ' p r o p r i u api'yafia a'serka 6e l a 'skola d2u'dia] (14-16). 1 1 9 Giese t r a n s c r i b e s t h i s adverb but supposes t h a t i t comes from OSp. "puxar," Mod. Sp. " s u b i r " : [ i p i ' J e 'komo ke me d i ' J e r ^ n : ' s a l e a'fwera! 2o s a ' l i , l a 'fi^mba k a ' j o i mu'rjer^n se ' s e n t a 2idj=>s ke s a ' l j e r ^ n d e l k a l ] (Giese 408-409). Ob v i o u s l y , [ p i ' J e ] i s a phonetic v a r i a n t of [ p i ' J i n ] and means "as soon as," Sp. "en cuanto." 1 2 0 See Cor., v o l . 4, 20. 1 2 1 At the time of w r i t i n g , I cannot v e r i f y whether or not t h i s i s the a c t u a l word f o r " p o r t " i n Greek. 1 2 2 Sp. "negocio" i s l a t e r used i n the sense of Sp. " t i e n d a " : [ l a z b u ' t i k a z , l u z n e ' g o s j o s , i l ' d i a d i Ja'bat, . . . 'todo 1 s t a v a se'radu] (240-242). 1 2 3 The Moroccan d i a l e c t , " h a k e t i y a , " has l a r g e l y d i s a p p e a r e d through i n c r e a s e d exposure t o P e n i n s u l a r Spanish. Needless t o say, when Sephardim who s t i l l speak Judeo-Spanish move t o a Spanish-speaking environment, they r a p i d l y a s s i m i l a t e , abandoning t h e i r d i a l e c t . 97 B i b l i o g r a p h y Alonso, Amado. De l a p r o n u n c i a c i o n medieval a l a moderna en  e s p a n o l . Esp. v o l . 1: 100-102; v o l . 2: 11-13. Madrid: Gredos, 1967-1969. A l v a r , Manuel. Textos hispcmicos d i a l e c t a l e s : a n t o l o q i a  n i s t o r i c a . Madrid: Consejo S u p e r i o r de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s C i e n t i f i c a s , 1960. 2 v o l s . Baer, Y i t z h a k . A H i s t o r y of the Jews i n C h r i s t i a n Spain P h i l a d e l p h i a : The Jewish P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i e t y of America, 1966. Baron, S a l o Wittmayer. A S o c i a l and R e l i g i o u s H i s t o r y of the  Jews. V o l . 10. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. Ben-Sasson, H. H. "The Middle Ages: 38 Jewish Settlement and Economic A c t i v i t y i n the S i x t e e n t h and Seventeenth C e n t u r i e s ; 40 Autonomy: I n s t i t u t i o n s and Trends." A H i s t o r y  of the Jewish People. Ed. H. H. Ben-Sasson. London: Weidenfeld and N i c o l s o n , 1976. 628-645, 659-690. B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Essays i n Medieval Jewish S t u d i e s . "The Study of Judaism." V o l . 2. New York: Anti-defamation League o f B'nai B ' r i t h , 1976. Bunis, David M. Sephardic S t u d i e s : a Research B i b l i o g r a p h y :  I n c o r p o r a t i n g Judezmo Language. L i t e r a t u r e and F o l k l o r e , a n d  H i s t o r i c a l Background. New York: Garland, 1981. "Toward a L i n g u i s t i c Geography of Judezmo: P u b l i s h e d Sources. 1 1 H i s p a n i a J u d a i c a : S t u d i e s on the History.Language, and L i t e r a t u r e of the Jews i n the  H i s p a n i c World. V o l . 3: "Language." Ed. S o l a - S o l e , Josep M., Samuel G. Armistead and Joseph H. Silverman. B a r c e l o n a : P u v i l l , [no d a t e ] , 9-36. C a n f i e l d , D. L i n c o l n . Spanish P r o n u n c i a t i o n i n the Americas. Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1981. C o l l i n s S p a n i s h - E n g l i s h / E n g l i s h - S p a n i s h D i c t i o n a r y . C o l i n Smith i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with Manuel Bermejo Marcos and Eugenio Chang-Rodriguez. C o l l i n s : London, 1971. Corominas, Joan and Jose A. P a s c u a l . D i c c i o n a r i o c r i t i c o  e t i m o l o g i c o c a s t e l l a n o e h i s p a n i c o . Madrid: Gredos, 1980-1983. 5 v o l s , t o date. C o v a r r u b i a s , S e b a s t i a n de. Tesoro de l a lengua c a s t e l l a n a o  espanola. Ed. M a r t i n de Riquer. Barcelona: Horta, 1943. 98 Crews, C. M. Recherches sur l e Judeo-espagnol dans l e s pays  b a l k a n i g u e s . (Ph. D. t h e s i s ) . P a r i s : S o c i e t e de P u b l i c a -t i o n s Romanes e t F r a n c a i s e s , 1935. Diaz-Mas, Paloma. Los s e f a r d i e s : h i s t o r i a , lengua v c u l t u r a . B a r c e l o n a : R i o p i e d r a s , 1986. E n c y c l o p e d i a J u d a i c a . Esp. v o l . 10: 1342-1353; v o l . 14: 145-148; 1164-1177. Jerusalem: Macmillan, 1972. 16 v o l s . F i g u e i r e d o , Candido de. D i c i o n a r i o da l i n g u a portuguesa. 23rd ed., v o l . 2. Venda Nova: Bertrand, 1973. 2 v o l s . Ford, J . D. M. The Old Spanish S i b i l a n t s . S t u d i e s and Notes i n  P h i l o l o g y and L i t e r a t u r e . V o l . 7. Boston: Ginn, 1900. G a r c i a de Diego, V i c e n t e . Manual de d i a l e c t o l o g i a espanola. Madrid: I n s t i t u t o de C u l t u r a H i s p a n i c a , 1946. Giese, Wilhelm. "Das Judenspanische von Rhodos." O r b i s 5 (1956): 407-410. Kobbervig, K a r l I. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C a t a l a n f o r Students of  Spanish. Unpublished, 1989. Lapesa, R a f a e l . H i s t o r i a de l a lengua espanola. 9th ed. Revised and expanded. Madrid: Gredos, 1981. Lazaro C a r r e t e r , Fernando. D i c c i o n a r i o de t e r m i n o s f i l o l o g i c o s . 3rd r e v i s e d ed. Madrid: Gredos, 1973. Levy, Isaac Jack. Prolegomena t o the Study of the "Refranero  S e f a r d i . " New York: Las Americas, 1968. L u r i a , Max. "A Study of the Monastir D i a l e c t of Judeo-Spanish Based on O r a l M a t e r i a l C o l l e c t e d i n Monastir, Y u g o - S l a v i a . "Revue Hispanique 79 (1930): 323-583. N e b r i j a , Antonio. Gramatica c a s t e l l a n a . V o l . 1. Ed. P a s c u a l G a l i n d o Romeo and L u i s O r t i z Munoz. Madrid: Junta d e l Centenario, 1946. Nehama, Joseph, with the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of Jesus Cantera. D i c t i o n n a i r e du Judeo-espagnol. Madrid: Consejo S u p e r i o r de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s C i e n t i f i c a s , 1977. P e i , Mario. G l o s s a r y of L i n g u i s t i c Terminology. Garden C i t y : Anchor, 1966. 99 Real Academia Espanola. Fuero Juzgo en l a t i n y c a s t e l l a n o ,  c o t e i a d o con l o s mas antiquos y p r e c i o s o s c o d i c e s . Book 12: "De devedar l o s t u e r t o s , e derraygar l a s s e c t a s e sus d i c h o s . " Madrid, 1815. S a l a , Marius. "Los fonemas /g/, /_/ en e l judeoespafiol." S t u d i a  H i s p a n i c a i n Honorem R. Lapesa. V o l . 1. Madrid: Gredos-Catedra-Seminario Menendez P i d a l , 1972. 521-524. . Phonetique e t phonoloqie du judeo-espagnol de Bucar e s t . The Hague-Paris: Mouton, 1971. Singerman, Robert. The Jews i n Spain and P o r t u g a l : a B i b l i o g - raphy . New York: Garland, 1975. Val d e s , Juan de. Dialogo de l a lengua. Ed. Jose F. Montesinos. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1964. V i d a l Sephiha, Haim. Le Judeo-espagnol. P a r i s : Entente, 1986. Wagner, M. L. C a r a c t e r e s generales d e l iudeo-espanol de  O r i e n t e . R e v i s t a de F i l o l o g i a Espanola. Anejo 12. Madrid: Centro de E s t u d i o s H i s t o r i c o s , 1930. W i l l i s , R. C l i v e . An E s s e n t i a l Course i n Modern Portuguese. London: Harrap, 1971. Zamora V i c e n t e , Alonso. D i a l e c t o l o g i a espanola. Esp. "Judeo-e s p a f i o l " : 349-77. 2nd ed. ( g r e a t l y expanded). Madrid: Gredos, 1967. 

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