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Judeo-Spanish : an example from Rhodes Clewlow, David Frederick 1990

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JUDEO-SPANISH: AN EXAMPLE FROM RHODES By DAVID FREDERICK CLEWLOW  B.  A.  (Hons.),  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n  We a c c e p t to  THE  this  Studies  t h e s i s as conforming  the required  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t 1990  © David  F r e d e r i c k Clewlow, 1990  1976  In  presenting  degree  this thesis  in partial fulfilment of  requirements  for  an  of this thesis for scholarly  department  or  by  his  or  her  I further agree that permission for  purposes  representatives.  may be granted It  is  permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  extensive  by the head of  understood  that  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  DE-6 (2/88)  advanced  at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. copying  the  copying  my or  my written  ii Abstract  This  study  a n a l y s i s o f an Rhodes.  A  and  section  and  sample.  Distinctive  syntactical  relation and  features  Eastern  the  the  dialect  conditions  informants  the  1  was  the  the  prevailing  writer result  in  the  the  Sephardic  h i g h l i g h t s both the  Judeo-Spanish  well  heritage He  of  as  education  its  of  lexical  and  pointed  synchronically,  Spanish  that  the  unique  participation  out in  Romance,  elements. development  sociological  communities  historical  the  of  the  continuity  in  the  of  common  Hispano-Romance.  notes the  their  as  analysis  modern H i s p a n i c  states of  historical,  speech are  both  J u d e o - S p a n i s h and  from  transcribed  morphological,  O t t o m a n E m p i r e and  in  been  necessary  for  demonstrated  conclusion,  speakers  the  thesis.  the  background  significance  to  provides  the  native  has  i n t o the  phonetic, of  two  d i a c h r o n i c a l l y , showing s u r v i v a l o f O l d In  of  linguistic  by  segment  incorporated  preliminary  their  Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t through  o r a l sample p r o v i d e d  cultural  and  the  twenty-minute  phonetically A  explores  speech on  presence or and  lack  alludes  Rhodes.  He  of  to  certain foreign  Westernization  mentions  differences  elements  and  their  in  their  pronunciation. The recorded  writer and  concludes  transcribed  that  the  segment  i s representative  of  of the  the  dialogue  distinctive  features  of  introduction  Judeo-Spanish t o the  and  dialect.  that,  as  such,  i t is  a  good  iv Table  of  Contents  Abstract  i i  Acknowledgement Abbreviations Phonetic  2.  3.  4.  Used  v i i  Symbols U s e d  Diacritical  1.  vi  M a r k s and  x Conventions  xiii  Introduction  1  1.1.  The  1.2.  Terminology  Historical  Present  Study  1 1  Background  3  2.1  From A n c i e n t  2.2.  The  2.3.  General  2.4.  Rhodes  14  O r a l Sample  18  The  times  to the Expulsion  Sephardim A f t e r the  Expulsion  L i n g u i s t i c Development  3 10 11  3.1.  The  Informants  18  3.2.  The  Recording  3.3.  I n t r o d u c t i o n to the T r a n s c r i p t i o n  20  3.4.  Transcription  21  Session  A n a l y s i s of the T r a n s c r i p t i o n 4.1.  20  38  Phonetics  38  4.1.1. V o w e l s  38  4.1.2. C o n s o n a n t s  43  4.2.  Morphology  52  V  4.3. L e x i c o n  4.4  58  4.3.1. O l d S p a n i s h  58  4.3.2. H i s p a n i c L a n g u a g e s and D i a l e c t s  60  4.3.3. I t a l i a n  60  4.3.4. F r e n c h  62  4.3.5. E n g l i s h  63  4.3.6. Hebrew  65  4.3.7. T u r k i s h  65  4.3.8. A r a b i c  66  4.3.9. G r e e k  66  Semantics  67  5. G l o s s a r y  68  6. C o n c l u s i o n s  80  Notes  85  Bibliography  97  vi Acknowledgement  I Rosa  would  like  Ferera,  welcomed me gave so this  express  informants  into their  freely  study  their  the  to  their  language  knowledge  and  and  deepest  for  this  home, s h a r e d  of t h e i r  and  my  time. T h e i r  willingness to background  appreciation  have of  gratitude  study, their  who  so  native  i n t e r e s t and s a t i s f y my greatly  to  Eli  cordially  culture,  and  enthusiasm  in  curiosity  contributed  Judeo-Spanish  and  about to  language  my and  Sephardic culture. S i n c e r e t h a n k s and l a n g u a g e s and  dialects,  Dr.  Hispanic  and  Columbia,  u n d e r whom i t has  his  advice  Pacheco Menkis thank  and  and  Studies  Rabbi  Ferera.  of  David in  Bassous  Vancouver  The  Studies,  UBC) of for  indebted UBC)  for their the  Beth  having  to  Hispanic  Department  University  been a p r i v i l e g e  Italian  (Religious Studies,  mentor i n  K a r l Kobbervig of the  e n c o u r a g e m e n t . I am  (Hispanic  congregation Mrs.  Italian  a p p r e c i a t i o n go t o my  of  of  British  study,  for a l l  a l s o t o Dr.  Arsenio  and  to  Dr.  guidance.  Hamidrash  referred  me  Richard  I wish  to  (Sephardic) to  Mr.  and  vii Abbreviations  adj.  adjective  adv.  adverb  Angel  M a r c D. of  Angel,  The  Sephardic  Used  Jews o f R h o d e s : The  Community  Ara.  Aragonese  Ast.  Asturian  Baer  Y i t z h a k B a e r , A H i s t o r y o f t h e Jews i n Christian  Bunis  Spain  "Toward a L i n g u i s t i c G e o g r a p h y o f Published  Cat.  Catalan  Cfd.  D.  Sources"  conjunction  Cor.  J o a n C o r o m i n a s and critico C.  M.  Judezmo:  Bibliography)  Pronunciation  in  Americas  conj.  Crews  (see  L i n c o l n C a n f i e l d , Spanish the  history  J o s e A.  Pascual, D i c c i o n a r i o  etimoloqico castellano e  Crews, R e c h e r c h e s s u r  dans l e s pays CSp.  Castilian  dial.  dialectal  dim.  diminutive  EF  E l l Ferera  Eng.  English  esp.  especially  balkaniques  Spanish  (informant)  le  hispanico  judeo-espagnol  V l l l  fam.  familiar  Fr.  French  Gal.  Galician  Ger.  German  Gr.  Greek  Heb.  Hebrew  impf.  imperfect  inf.  inf initive  It.  Italian  jSp.  Judeo-Spanish  Lat.  Latin  Leo.  Leonese  lit.  literally  Lur.  Max  A.  tense  Luria,  Dialect  "A S t u d y o f t h e M o n a s t i r  of Judeo-Spanish  mod.  modern  n.  noun;  Neb.  A n t o n i o de N e b r i j a ,  Neh.  J o s e p h Nehama, D i c t i o n n a i r e  nf.  f e m i n i n e noun  nm.  m a s c u l i n e noun  OSp.  Old Spanish  p.  person  p. p.  past p a r t i c i p l e  phr.  phrase  pi.  plural  ..."  note Gramatica du  castellana iudeo-espacmol  IX  pop.  popular  prep.  preposition  pres.  present  pret.  preterite  pm.  pronoun  Ptg.  Portuguese  RF  Rosa F e r e r a  s.  singular  Sala  Marius  tense tense  (informant)  Sala,  espagnol  Phonetique e t phonologie de  du  Bucarest  SAm.  Spanish  Sp.  Spanish  std.  standard  Trk.  Turkish  Val.  J u a n de V a l d e s , D i a l o q o de  vb.  verb  vi.  intransitive  vr.  reflexive  vt.  transitive  American  l a lengua  verb  verb verb  Caracteres generales d e l iudeo-espanol Wagner  de  Oriente Alonso  ZamV.  Judeo-  Zamora V i c e n t e , D i a l e c t o l o g i a  espanola  X  Phonetic Symbols Used  Vowels  [a]  open /a/  Sp.  "casa"  Ptg. "fado" [ae]  low c e n t r a l vowel between  [a]  and [a]  Eng. " l a n d "  [a]  n e u t r a l low c e n t r a l vowel  Ptg. " f a l a "  [e]  c l o s e mid f r o n t vowel  Sp.  [e]  open low f r o n t vowel  Ptg. " f e s t a "  [i]  unrounded h i g h f r o n t vowel  Sp.  [i]  l a x h i g h f r o n t vowel  Eng. " l i s t "  [i]  semivowel /if  Sp.  "hay"  [o]  c l o s e h i g h back vowel  Sp.  "comer"  [=>]  open low back vowel  Ptg. "agora"  [u]  rounded h i g h back vowel  Sp.  [A]  l a x low back vowel  Eng. "but"  [0]  l a x h i g h back vowel  Eng. "good"  [u]  semivowel /u/  Sp.  "pausa"  [y]  rounded h i g h f r o n t vowel  Fr.  "lune"  [3]  n e u t r a l mid c e n t r a l vowel ("schwa")  11  seco"  "recibo  "uva"  Ptg. "dever" Fr. "lecon"  Consonants  [b]  voiced b i l a b i a l  plosive  Sp.  "ambos"  [6]  voiced  fricative  Sp..  "hubo"  [d]  voiced dental  Sp.  "hablando  [6]  voiced  Sp.  "pudo"  Ptg.  "ouvido"  It.  "mezzo"  It.  "giusto"  Eng.  "joy"  Sp.  "fuente"  bilabial  plosive  interdental  [dz]  voiced dental  [d_]  voiced p a l a t a l  fricative  affricate affricate  [f]  unvoiced  labiodental  fricative  [g]  voiced velar plosive  Sp.  "gallo"  [Y]  voiced velar  Sp.  "hagp"  [h]  unvoiced g l o t t a l  Eng.  "hand"  Ger.  "haben"  Eng.  "aha"  Sp.  "ya"  Eng.  "Yes"  Sp.  "cosa"  Fr.  "cruel"  Sp.  "valer"  Eng.  "leaf"  CSp.  "olla"  Ptg.  "ilha"  Cat.  "mirall"  fricative fricative  [fi]  voiced g l o t t a l  [j]  voiced palatal fricative  [5]  fricative  voiced prepalatal  fricative  unvoiced velar plosive  [1]  [*]  voiced  lateral  continuant  voiced palatal lateral  continuant  xii [_]  s o u n d between  [m]  bilabial  [n]  [n]  [rj ]  nasal  dental nasal  palatal  velar  [1] and [ r ]  continuant  nasal  nasal  continuant  continuant  continuant  Sp.  "mil"  Eng.  "moon"  Sp.  "nido"  Eng.  "any"  Sp.  "ano"  Ptg.  "vinho"  Sp.  "elenco"  Eng. " i n k " [p]  unvoiced  bilabial plosive  [<p]  unvoiced  bilabial  [r]  voiced alveolar vibrant  [r]  single alveolar  ("flap")  fricative  multiple voiced alveolar vibrant  [f]  multiple alveolar  [s]  unvoiced  [s]  [J]  [t]  unvoiced  unvoiced  unvoiced  palatal  Sp.  "nora"  ( L i k e Eng.  " d a i r y " but  with the tongue  closer  to  ridge)  the a l v e o l a r  Sp.  "rio,"  Sp.  "hasta"  Ptg.  "cem"  CSp.  "sello"  fricative  sibilant  alveolar  "pista"  fricative  [r]  dental  Sp.  sibilant  sibilant  dental plosive  Cat.  "cine"  Ptg.  "faixa"  Cat.  "aixi"  Sp.  "tono"  Ptg.  "oito"  "cerro"  Xlll  [ t s ] unvoiced  dental  affricate  It.  "zio"  Eng. " i t s " [ t j ] unvoiced  [v]  palatal  affricate  voiced labiodental f r i c a t i v e  Sp.  "ocho"  Eng.  "chin"  Ptg.  "vos"  Fr. " v i n " [w]  b i l a b i a l semiconsonant  Sp. Eng.  [z]  voiced dental  [2] [2]  sibilant  "bueno" "we"  Sp.  "desde"  voiced alveolar s i b i l a n t  CSp.  "rasgo"  voiced p a l a t a l  Ptg.  "gelo"  Cat.  "pujar"  sibilant  [6]  unvoiced  interdental fricative  CSp.  "zumo"  "hacer"  [X]  unvoiced  uvular  CSp.  "ajo,"  "gesto"  •  fricative  D i a c r i t i c a l Marks and  Conventions  following syllable  i s stressed  (never  i n d i c a t e s a p h e r e s i s , syncope or apocope) n a s a l i z a t i o n of vowel :  lengthening of preceding vowel i n p h o n e t i c transcription  n  , , u  6  /a/, /d/  sounds w e a k l y - a r t i c u l a t e d or l o s e a b l e phonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  1 1.  1.1.  The P r e s e n t  The  Introduction  Study  purpose  of t h i s  through the l i n g u i s t i c  study  analysis  i s t o approach  Judeo-Spanish  o f t h e s p e e c h o f two  Sephardim  f r o m R h o d e s . T h e r e i s no a t t e m p t t o make a d e f i n i t i v e  statement  on t h e R h o d i a n v e r n a c u l a r , a l t h o u g h c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn b a s e d on o c c a s i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s f o u n d p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e J u d e o - S p a n i s h spoken  on  Rhodes.  To  this  writer's  a n a l y s i s o f t h e speech o f t h e i s l a n d Since  i t  distinctive fortunate  is  in  features  to obtain  eastern  knowledge,  has been  Judeo-Spanish  of the dialect  no  in-depth  undertaken. that  the  a r e t o be o b s e r v e d ,  the participation  o f two  informants  most I was from  Rhodes.  1.2.  Terminology  1.2.1. The d i a l e c t are:  "espanol,"  i s known by s e v e r a l names, some o f w h i c h  "espanol  "judezmo," " d j u d i o , "  muestro,"  "djidio."  1.2.2. What t h e S e p h a r d i m Names  such  as  "espanol"  Hispanic  identity  settled.  Others,  and  "espanolit,"  "sefardi,"  1  c a l l t h e i r language "espanol  muestro"  i s revealing. assert  among t h e p e o p l e s o f t h e l a n d s i n w h i c h "judezmo"  ( i . e. " J u d a i s m " ) ,  "jidyo,"  their they  confirm  2 their  indentification  condition  of  the  Spanish  language  with  the  very  of being Jewish.  This  writer  feels  (< L a t . " l a t i n u [ m ] " ) , Judeo-Spanish  that  the  term  "Ladino"  i s b e s t a v o i d e d when r e f e r r i n g  i n scholarly  work s i n c e  i t meets w i t h  to a  spoken certain  amount o f o p p o s i t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e word i s f a m i l i a r t o many widely used t o r e f e r t o the d i a l e c t appears  that  i t should, s t r i c t l y  spoken  by t h e S e p h a r d i m ,  speaking, designate only  type o f language used t o t r a n s l a t e l i t e r a l l y the S c r i p t u r e s Hebrew  into  Spanish.  caiques  on  Lapesa,  Alvar,  Crews,  Semitic  syntax  language and  Zamora V i c e n t e ,  Baldinger,  Canfield,  Such  Armistead,  etc., prefer  and  was  never Garcia  characterized  spoken de  by  Diego,  Silverman, V i d a l  "Judeo-Spanish"  or  Sephiha,  the from  by i t s  Spanish Sala,  Jews.  Wagner, Angel,  i t s equivalent  o t h e r languages. I t h e r e f o r e use "Judeo-Spanish" t h r o u g h o u t study,  believing  acceptable. 1.2.2.  i t to  be  more  technically,  and  i t  in this  universally,  2  "Eastern Judeo-Spanish"  Judeo-Spanish  spoken  refers  to  the  dialects  i n t h e l a n d s o f t h e f o r m e r Ottoman  ( e s p e c i a l l y t h e Balkans, Turkey,  the Levant).  of  Empire  3 2.  2.1.  Historical  Background  From A n c i e n t T i m e s t o t h e E x p u l s i o n  Jews  were  already  living  3  i n the  Iberian  Peninsula  in  a n t i q u i t y , where t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t s , a s e l s e w h e r e t h r o u g h o u t t h e Roman E m p i r e , were a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e a n c i e n t Early special  i n the Christian laws  to  e r a , although  restrict  Christians—centuries  prior  contact to  the  Diaspora.  t h e Church between  harsh  sought  Jews  and  ecclesiastical  l e g i s l a t i o n enacted  u n d e r t h e V i s i g o t h s — , t h e r e was r e l a t i v e l y  little  persecution  o f t h e Jews,  Roman  l a w (embodied  Visigothorum," of Reccared  in  other  were  i n a compilation  effected  i n 506).  from A r i a n i s m  Jews t h e r e b y  who  still  entitled  judged  under  t h e " L e x Romana  However, a f t e r  the conversion  i n 589, t h e monarchy b e g a n t o o p p r e s s  bringing their policy  C a t h o l i c kingdoms.  i n l i n e with that  The o p p r e s s i o n  prevailing  was i n t e n s i f i e d i n  t h e f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y by t h e s e v e r e p e r s e c u t i o n i n i t i a t e d King  under  Sisebut. Discriminatory  restrictions, proselytization Jewish  economic  forced  political  conversions,  and o t h e r  community.  and  greatly.  I t should  h a r d l y be s u r p r i s i n g invaders  755 on, t h e l o t o f t h e J e w i s h During  death  travel  penalty  for  b r u t a l measures aimed t o d e s t r o y t h e  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y welcomed t h e M u s l i m From  the  policies,  the Caliphate,  which  t h a t t h e Jews  i n 711.  communities  lasted  until  4  improved the early  4 eleventh  century,  they  enjoyed  autonomy,  economic  prosperity,  political  importance;  t h e r e was  period  under  Hispanic  Muslim  rule  has  a  large and  measure  attained  a flourishing been  called  of  positions  of the a r t s .  the  "Golden  the  inflicted  fall  o f t h e C a l i p h a t e , r e p r e s s i o n was  on J e w i s h  communities:  first,  w e l l a s by t h e p l u n d e r i n g C h r i s t i a n s )  by  Jewish  communities  over from North A f r i c a lack  i n the l a t t e r part  i n A n d a l u s i a were  of Muslim  unity  i n t h e P e n i n s u l a . The  regained  Reconquest,  g a i n s marked a t r a n s i t i o n  Christian rule.  I t was  imperiled  Jews f l e d  for  several  impressive  f o r t h e Jews f r o m  Muslim  "during the t h i r t e e n t h century  [that]  Peninsula.  the  Portugal history The greatly  and  spread  Navarre,  as  Reconquest.  a  prosperity  result  The  of  out  into  p l a c e s unknown  before the C h r i s t i a n Jews*  kings  sought  annals  entire  corners of  of  Jewish  5  political  important  remote  i n the  reconquest."  and  the  Christian  which  decades,  time, t o dot the  now  to  ("juderias").  J e w i s h s e t t l e m e n t s began, f o r t h e f i r s t They  The  had c r o s s e d  i t s momentum, v i g o r o u s l y p u s h i n g s o u t h . The  territorial to  temporarily halted  following  in fortresses  would form t h e n u c l e i of the Jewish q u a r t e r s  (as  of the  destroyed.  i n d e f e n c e o f I s l a m , w h i c h was  t h e C h r i s t i a n n o r t h where t h e y were s e t t l e d  The  of  again  the Almoravides  A l m o r a v i d e s and Almohades were f a n a t i c a l p e o p l e s who  the  This  Age"  once  e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y ; s u b s e q u e n t l y by t h e A l m o h a d e s i n t h e  by  of  Jewry.  With  century.  communal  role  influence they  their  increased  played  in  collaboration  the in  5 the  administration  territories, commercial  as  and  and  they  resettlement  were  linguistic  esteemed  i t s customs,  where  for  skills—many  t h e Muslim s t a t e s , spoke A r a b i c , and  of  they  the their  had  Jewish  court  preferred were  positions;  occupied  to  Muslims  even  considered  second-class v i e w e d as The  more  citizens,  important  deemed t o Christians  reliable as  they  were n o t  and  only  diplomats,  serfs,  such  they  but  and  by  were  posts—they  were  legally  could  capable  administrators,  also  counted  be  a r e l i a b l e source of revenue. A king's  therefore  Christians,  monarchy,  depended,  this  f o r reasons  period  in  large  and  political  king's  reputation  of  appear  that  treatment  his  dealings with  the  on  the  largely  of  to  authority  ignored  by  r i g h t up  availed himself  toward them  law  the until  Expulsion.  administrators.  benevolence  practical  under c a n o n i c a l  expediency,  Wise, p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  e m p l o y e d them as  to  t r u s t i n w h i c h t h e y had  p r o h i b i t i o n was of  on  measure,  forbidden  immediately preceding  Alphonse the scholars  since  important  wielded  royal  for  in  r e s t o f C h r i s t i a n E u r o p e , were  loyal  p r o m o t e Jews t o p o s i t i o n s o f  the  and,  i n the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h i t was  over  be  was  land  posts  enjoyed  influence  in  expendable.  financiers  Jews  or  up  monarchy p r o t e c t e d t h e Jews i n i t s s e r v i c e f o r p r a c t i c a l  reasons:  provide  considerable Jews,  brought  and were f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e  had  physicians.  administrative,  been  g o v e r n m e n t . Many Jews were h i g h l y r e g a r d e d and government  newly-conquered  was  the  Yet  of  Jewish  despite  Jews,  governed,  i t as  that would had  6  t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n t h e c a s e , by p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n c y . his  rule,  Jews s u f f e r e d r e l i g i o u s  and p o l i t i c a l  Even under  persecution.  6  By t h e m i d t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , v i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e Kingdom o f G r a n a d a , was i n Christian  hands.  With  t h e Reconquest  peninsular Christian states, to  implement  resembling  harsher  those  largely  secure w i t h i n t h e i r borders,  discriminatory policies  i n effect  completed,  i n the rest  toward  the began  t h e Jews  of Christian  Europe.  7  T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f A r a g o n , whose r o l e i n t h e R e c o n q u e s t came  t o an end l o n g  with  t h e south  of  before  Castile's,  France  and  which  had c l o s e r  t h e Papacy.  In  Inquisition  ( a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e i n Provence)  "conversos"  (Jewish converts t o C h r i s t i a n i t y ) .  the c r a t e r tensions.  of a volcano  links  Aragon,  the  began t r i a l s o f "The Jews s a t on  seething with r e l i g i o u s  and n a t i o n a l i s t  1 , 8  I n t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Jews made up a g o o d p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f many S p a n i s h c i t i e s a n d l i v e d , v o l u n t a r i l y , "juderias," and  which enjoyed  socio-economic  g r a d u a l l y eroded taken  away.  The  c o n s i d e r a b l e autonomy. T h e p o l i t i c a l  status  of t h e "aljamas"  posts  of the s k i l l e d ,  councils  sentiment  and t h e Church;  highly-placed  C h r i s t i a n nobles,  t h a t Jews h e l d power o v e r C h r i s t i a n s , Anti-Jewish  (communities)  was  a s p r i v i l e g e s g a i n e d d u r i n g t h e R e c o n q u e s t were  c o u r t i e r s were c o v e t e d by a m b i t i o u s  law.  i n the  i nviolation  was i n t e n s i f i e d  resentful  of canonical  by t h e C o r t e s ,  demands made t o r e d u c e  were r e s i s t e d , w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s  Jewish  Jewish  city  rights  o f s u c c e s s , by t h e monarchy.  7 Churchmen p r e a c h e d biblical  grounds,  n o t o n l y was but  i t was  hatred  of  the  for practising  usury,  The  d e c l i n e continued  a  fanatical both  severe  Pedro  sharply,  i n the  the  i n S e v i l l e and  were  severely  risk  French and  The the  the  that  occupation,  his  Civil  disrupted of  plague  were in  growth  brought  devastated,  Anti-Jewish  then  i n to  brother  1391,  century,  1348,  Henry  their  the  members  Jews c o n v e r t e d  to  of rose  which broke  Andalusia, to C a s t i l e During  by  support  sentiment  and  pogroms, were  c o n v e r s i o n s under d u r e s s  out then  aljamas  murdered  Christianity  or  rather  continued  for  t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , even a f t e r t h e p e r s e c u t i o n had  s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n was had  the  fourteenth  rebellious  War.  as  lost,  aljamas  mercenaries  f o l l o w i n g year.  m a r t y r d o m and  A  Jews who of the  of  the  Thousands  approximately ceased.  outbreak  spread throughout  i n the  dispersed. than  half.  Cruel  during  throughout  c u l m i n a t i n g i n the massacres of  Aragon  fact  halt.  latter  E n g l i s h and  Trastamara  to  i n f l u e n c e was  c o m m u n i t i e s came t o a  by  despite the  on  f a r f r o m b e i n g t h e i r u s u a l means o f l i v e l i h o o d — m o s t  accelerating first  condemned,  m o n e y l e n d i n g n o t an e x c l u s i v e l y J e w i s h  Jews were a r t i s a n s . As p o l i t i c a l of Jewish  Jews whom t h e y  converted;  another  was  the  the  number  o p p o s i t i o n on  the  of  part  cities.  The  r e s u l t i n g very  religious century; Expulsion.  and i t  l a r g e "converso"  socio-economic would  After  a  be  the  period  p o p u l a t i o n had  consequences major  of  in  underlying  laxity,  the  the  serious  fifteenth  cause  magnitude  of  the  of  the  8 problem  manifested  disturbances lasted  itself  broke  out  when,  between  f o r twenty-five years  f i v e years The  the  late  Old  and  New  until  order  1440*s,  serious  Christians  was  which  r e s t o r e d twenty-  later.  Jews  Isabella  in  c e l e b r a t e d the  believing  that  stability.  However,  rebellious  nobles  decisively  to  rise  to  power  of  Ferdinand  t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g d e p e n d e d on  after  and  the  monarchs  consolidated  achieve  their  goal  had  their  of  put  political down  power,  political  and  they  and  the moved  religious  u n i t y by e l i m i n a t i n g t h e l a s t r e m a i n i n g b a s t i o n o f M u s l i m power in  the  Peninsula,  eradicate presence In  the  heresy.  With  o f Jews was 1480,  the  given  f o r the  Three  years  Kingdom  of  regard  Granada,  to  the  by  latter  striving  objective,  the  (a r e e n a c t m e n t  s e g r e g a t i o n o f Jews and the  Inquisition  of  a  law  Muslims  of  from  (formally  1412)  was  Christians.  established  C a s t i l e i n t h e e a r l y s i x t i e s ) d e c r e e d t h e e x i l e o f a l l Jews Andalusia—a foreshadowed  partial the  expulsion,  looming  confessor t o the  Inquisition  in a l l territories  tribunal  thereby  but  tragedy.  Torquemada,  Aragon,  to  p e r c e i v e d a s an o b s t a c l e .  order  later,  and  centralizing  one  Also  Queen, was  which  in  from  ominously  1483,  Tomas  the  u n d e r t h e Crowns o f C a s t i l e  and  power  of  the  to  de  head  the  appointed  in  ecclesiastical  for greater efficiency.  Most o f t h e p a r e n t s and  " c o n v e r s o s " were C h r i s t i a n  grandparents  between b a p t i s m  i n name o n l y ,  their  h a v i n g c o n v e r t e d when f o r c e d t o c h o o s e  o r d e a t h . They p r a c t i s e d J u d a i s m  secretly,  some  9 even openly,  a i d e d by t h e i r  Jewish  b r e t h r e n who were  d e s i r o u s t o h a v e them r e t u r n t o t h e i r a n c e s t r a l backsliding found  "conversos"  guilty  faith.  them, were  proceedings.  swept  up  i n the fury of  The I n q u i s i t i o n went a b o u t  o f r o o t i n g o u t h e r e s y w i t h a vengeance, i n t e r r o g a t i n g and  i t s task thousands  p e r f o r m i n g many e x e c u t i o n s . I n 1492, w i t h i n t h r e e months a f t e r t h e c o n q u e s t  t h e C a t h o l i c Monarchs s i g n e d t h e e d i c t Jews  from  their  promulgation many  Jews'  thereby  dominions.  of the edict, renouncing  remain  exile  Thus  a  hundred  began years  of  a  t o become  hostile  by  majority,  a s many  f o r t h e Jews,  and v a r i e d  the insecurity always  C h r i s t i a n i t y and Judaism.  history  of being  after  fifteen  i n the Iberian l i f e h a d been  a t t h e mercy  of a  between  I n c r e d i b l y , they s u r v i v e d a l l attempts h e l d t o g e t h e r b y what  "the inner l i g h t  of t h e small persecuted  and  a s 170,000,  c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e s t r u g g l e  d e s t r o y them a s a community,  Baer has c a l l e d  resulted i n  Christians  P e n i n s u l a . D u r i n g most o f t h a t l o n g p e r i o d , J e w i s h characterized  the  apostasy.  diaspora  rich  following  campaign  homeland. P e r h a p s  over  new  Immediately  faith  o f Granada,  f o r the expulsion ofa l l  a widespread  their  i n their  however, c h o s e  to  Not o n l y  ( " r e l a p s i " ) b u t a l s o Jews who h a d b e e n  of assisting  inquisitorial  naturally  people."  Yitzhak  concentrated within the heart 9  10 2.2.  The  Sephardim a f t e r the E x p u l s i o n  Most  of  neighbouring  those  forced  Portugal  to  leave  (where  Jews  Spain  sought  would  also  no  refuge  in  longer  be  welcome a few y e a r s l a t e r ) . F r a n c e ' s b o r d e r s were a l l b u t t o Jews; o n l y were  " c o n v e r s o s " who  admitted.  Others  Eastern Mediterranean  S i n c e T u r k e y was Spanish  Jews  in  went  i n t e n d e d t o embrace to  basin.  North  Africa,  closed  Christianity  Italy,  and  the  1 0  the only country that r e a d i l y accepted  its  dominions  and  imposed  relatively  the few  r e s t r i c t i o n s , most e x i l e s e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e d i n t h e l a n d s o f t h e Ottoman E m p i r e ,  either  immediately  or i n the decades  following  the Expulsion. The  Sephardim j o i n e d e x i s t i n g Jewish communities, g e n e r a l l y  Greek-speaking Turkish they  and  of  dominions  were  ceased  i n the  assimilated  to  speak  the  Romaniot East.  and,  tradition,  Where  within  Spanish;  if  a  they  they  throughout  formed  couple  of  Spanish-speaking  Salonika  and  other  Minor—particularly their  distant  regional Castilian  Jewish  constituted  cities  communities  in  the  north  a  of  Greece,  affiliations synagogues.  and  the there  Even  Sephardim were  11  culture.  n o t a b l y 'in and  and  Asia  For a while, i n  maintained  Leonese,  Ashkhenazic  majority,  and  grew up,  C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and Smyrna.  communities,  a minority, generations,  however, t h e y a g r e s s i v e l y m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r l a n g u a g e Large  the  Aragonese Romaniot  their and Jews  eventually Spanish, of  adopted  language  of  the  Sephardim  so  t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e , became t h e l a n g u a g e  t h e Ottoman  2.3.  the  that  o f Jews  Empire.  General L i n g u i s t i c  Development  The e x p e l l e d Jews t o o k w i t h them t h e c u l t u r e and l a n g u a g e o f late-fifteenth-century them  far  native  their  regions  diversity The been  from  and  S p a i n . I n t h e i r new homeland,  even  synagogues  cities,  thus  l a n g u a g e s p o k e n by e x i l e d  the  reflecting  names  the  of  cultural  different  C a s t i l i a n Jews w o u l d n o t h a v e  from  that  countrymen  except f o r the occasional  to  speech,  their  differences segregation Fifty  Sephardim  bore  most o f  of Sephardic centres.  appreciably  Spaniard  communities,  in  usually  custom  from C h r i s t i a n  their  Christian  a r c h a i s m o r word  Hebrew,  and  of  the  ideology  and  speakers of the  logical of  peculiar  result  the  language.  of  relative 1 2  y e a r s a f t e r t h e mass e x p u l s i o n o f Jews f r o m S p a i n , t h e Gonzalo who  had  Llevaron y  usan  de  Illescas  settled de de  wrote  the  Spanish  of  the  i n Turkey:  aca nuestra la  about  buena  c i u d a d e s de S a l o n i c o ,  lengua, y t o d a v i a  gana,  y  es  cierto  l a guardan que  en  las  Constantinopla, Alexandria y E l  C a i r o y en o t r a s c i u d a d e s de c o n t r a t a c i o n y en V e n e c i a , no compran n i n e g o c i a n en o t r a l e n g u a , s i n o en e s p a n o l . Y yo  conoci  en V e n e c i a h a r t o s j u d i o s  de  Salonico  que  12 hablaban  c a s t e l l a n o , con s e r b i e n  m e j o r que y o . Into  was  been  called  standard  however,  exiled  A koine which  together  the  radically  previous  i n their  that  of  distant  altered  century.  The  communities  and  continued t o pronounce fundamentally  as  forbears.  developed  could  during  from  c h a n g e s o f what h a s  r e v o l u t i o n " had  living  progressively isolated,  o  of the dispersed  different  In Spain, t h e important  pronunciation  their  t h e speech  noticeably  the "phonetic  Sephardim,  had  century,  becoming  P e n i n s u l a r speakers.  tan bien  1 3  t h e seventeenth  Sephardim  mozos,  as a r e s u l t  not exist  of unique  i n the Peninsula.  social  The  conditions  Jews  who  came  i n t h e c e n t r e s o f t h e Ottoman E m p i r e were f r o m a l l o v e r  t h e I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a : most were f r o m C a s t i l e , were f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e P e n i n s u l a  b u t a g r e a t many  including  Aragon,  Leon,  P o r t u g a l , where o t h e r d i a l e c t s and l a n g u a g e s were s p o k e n . I n t h e special  multicultural  Hispanic  centres  o f the East,  the phonetics,  syntax  of Peninsular  distinctive  Jewish  was  of  the  morphology, gradually  Sephardic  lexicon  modified  and  and a  d i a l e c t was f o r m e d .  Communications after  Castilian  environment  with  Spain  were  not  lost  immediately  1492, b u t a f t e r a few g e n e r a t i o n s i s o l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d . T h e  Sephardic another  c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e E a s t , a l t h o u g h c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h one were  linguistic century  maintained,  norms  were  prevailing  eventually  c u t o f f from  i n the Peninsula.  Although  the  for a  o r s o a f t e r t h e E x p u l s i o n works i n S p a n i s h w e r e w r i t t e n  13 and  efforts  gradual  were made t o keep  impoverishment  t h e language  of the vocabulary  pure,  there  a n d many  was a  words  were  adopted from t h e languages o f t h e host c o u n t r i e s as w e l l as from Hebrew  a n d many  standard  eventually  and  retained  Sephardim lost  living  their  Spanish  had disappeared  in  Western  culture  through  cultural  thanks  to  the favourable  i d e n t i t y . W i t h an a i r o f s u p e r i o r i t y ,  asserted  themselves over  t h r e e hundred  survival  political Empire  social  culture.  they a g r e s s i v e l y  Jews, a s s i m i l a t i n g  them a n d  f o r a c u l t u r e w h i c h was t o f l o u r i s h f o r  and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s , t h e q u a l i t y a n d  o f t h e l a n g u a g e t h e r e was u n d e r m i n e d  and s o c i a l  saw  and  years.  In t h e nineteenth very  language  language and l i t u r g y ,  to their  the foundations  their  intense pride i n t h e i r  the local  centres  assimilation,  political  Sephardim o f t h e East clung t o t h e i r  laying  i n the  European  i n t h e Ottoman E m p i r e v i g o r o u s l y m a i n t a i n e d  c l i m a t e and e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e i r The  which  language o f t h e Peninsula.  Whereas  those  were  change.  t h e emergence  The d i s s o l u t i o n  o f new  states  by  radical  o f t h e Ottoman  which  compelled  the  Sephardim t o educate t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e n a t i o n a l language and imposed  military  conscription. Increasing  largely  the result  of the educational  Westernization  endeavours  l i a n c e I s r a e l i t e U n i v e r s e l l e . " The p r o f o u n d  was  of the " A l -  i n f l u e n c e of French  t h r e a t e n e d t o t r a n s f o r m t h e l a n g u a g e i n t o what V i d a l S e p h i h a h a s called  "judeofragnol."  disrupted  the fabric  1 4  Largescale  of t r a d i t i o n a l  emigration Sephardic  increasingly  s o c i e t y i n which  14 the  language  century  have  had  been  kept  devastated  alive.  Sephardic  l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o home l i f e being  forgotten  dialect  2.4.  as  island the  the  a living  Rhodes  The  by  communities.  younger  Sephardim.  Rhodes,  coast of  important  l o c a t e d i n the  Greek  centre  century mid  B.  the  city  southeastern  i s l a n d was  states  up  of  and  l e a r n i n g , the  the  Persia until  A.  B.  century  years  a time  t h e Genoese and  arts  and  S t . John  achieved  commerce  B.  C. , t h e  of  Rhodes  island  was  was  r u l e when t h e  (it is the  built) .  part  of  the  Empire  was  i t was  by M u s l i m s t h e n by a s e r i e s o f l o c a l  t i n e Empire. At the  early  i t  sway  D.  f o r a few  of  off  C. Rhodes t h e n became  From t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y ,  Knights  just  v a r i o u s l y under the  Colossus  came u n d e r B y z a n t i n e  i n 395  by  Aegean  during t h i s p e r i o d of greatness, during  C. , t h a t  second  Roman E m p i r e and divided  the  f o r t h i s l i n g u i s t i c study o r i g i n a t e from the  p r e s u m e d t h a t i t was  From t h e  of  Turkey.  competing  third  future  now  bleak.  independence i n the l a t e f o u r t h century an  Judeo-Spanish,  centuries, i s The  this  15  In a n c i e n t times, of  c a t a s t r o p h i c wars  f o r a t l e a s t two  language looks  informants  of  Two  then  lords,  a g a i n became p a r t o f t h e  i n v i t a t i o n of the Byzantine Hospitallers  fourteenth century  governed  occupied  i n order t o defend  the  Byzan-  government, island  i t from t h e  for  in  the the  Turks.  15 Jews lish  exiled  themselves  century,  from on  S p a i n i n 1492 were n o t welcome  Rhodes.  the ruling  In f a c t ,  Christian  t o estab-  i n the early  Knights  subjected  sixteenth the  Jewish  community o f t h e i s l a n d t o p e r s e c u t i o n r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h a t had or  which  o c c u r r e d i n S p a i n and e l s e w h e r e : t h e c h o i c e b e t w e e n b a p t i s m e x p u l s i o n and f o r c e d  the  Jews  of  conquered  Rhodes  baptism  changed  of Jewish  children.  f o r the better  when  as t h e i r  encouraged  children,  Jewish  As a r e s u l t ,  settlement of the i s l a n d  began t o e m i g r a t e  The  development  of  t o Rhodes Turkish  the  from  just  Sephardic  community  Empire.  The  settlers  large,  resulted  continuing  i n the local  S e p h a r d i c c u s t o m s and l a n g u a g e ;  and t h e i r of the  rule.  i n many ways, what t o o k p l a c e e l s e w h e r e  1 7  and o f f e r e d  other parts  reflects,  influx Jewish  of  of  Rhodes  i n t h e Ottoman  Spanish-speaking  population's  S p a n i s h was, " w i t h i n  o r two [ ] c e r t a i n l y t h e u n i v e r s a l  language  adopting a  genera-  o f t h e Jews i n  1 8  Judeo-Spanish considerable mediators those  Turks  victory  Jews, m a i n l y S p a n i s h e x i l e s  e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n under  Rhodes. "  the  b r e t h r e n i n S p a i n h a d done e i g h t c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e . The  incentives.  tion  Life for  Rhodes a t t h e e n d o f 1522.  The Jews l i v i n g on t h e i s l a n d h a i l e d a M u s l i m  Sultan  1 6  c u l t u r e f l o u r i s h e d due, i n l a r g e m e a s u r e , t o  communal  autonomy.  between t h e community  who were  responsible  There  were  officials  and t h e c e n t r a l  f o r the internal  who  were  g o v e r n m e n t and  government o f t h e  community. S e l f - g o v e r n m e n t meant t h a t c o m m u n i t i e s  could  function  governed  by  Jewish  law  with very  T u r k i s h g o v e r n m e n t . S p a n i s h was tion,  o f e d u c a t i o n and,  culture. and in  The  little  interference  the language  of d a i l y  system  The  city  lived,  scattered  i n s t e a d o f T u r k i s h was  an i m p o r t a n t  o f Rhodes, where v i r t u a l l y  Sephardic  rabbinical  its  i n h a b i t a n t s as  communities  authorities  Jews were p r i v i l e g e s and they  their  and  factor  cultural  a l l Jews on  an  and  "little  of  the  Ottoman  s c h o l a r s and  Jerusalem."  possess  the  was  people,  i n a s o c i e t y w h i c h was  not  Empire  through  referred  to  rights  held  important  generally  tolerant,  of  full  citizenship,  w h i c h o n l y M u s l i m s e n j o y e d , and were s u b j e c t e d t o a n n o y i n g the purpose  o f w h i c h was  t o remind  were c o n s i d e r e d i n f e r i o r and t o i s o l a t e t h e m . e s p e c i a l l y t h e G r e e k C h r i s t i a n , p o p u l a t i o n was toward  the  t h e i r way Jewish factor  Jews  so  that  members o f  the  20  dress  them t h a t  The  generally  community  which  helped  This to  was  another  maintain  a  they  T u r k i s h , and  went  hostile out  t o k e e p a low p r o f i l e and a v o i d t r o u b l e w i t h t h e  population.  by  1 9  officially-protected  lived  did  restrictions,  the  came t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e among t h e  its  though  communica-  a l o n g w i t h Hebrew, t h e v e h i c l e o f  t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e Sephardim's l i n g u i s t i c  island  the  p r i v i l e g e o f u s i n g S p a n i s h and Hebrew i n e d u c a t i o n  the l e g a l  identity.  from  of non-  important  sociological  tightly-knit,  self-reliant  community, a s i t had t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s t o r y o f J e w i s h s e t t l e m e n t on t h e P e n i n s u l a . Rhodes was  governed  l o s t t o I t a l y d u r i n g a war  by  the  Turks  until  1912,  f o u g h t between t h e two  when  i t  countries.  was The  17 occupation Italian for with  lasted  until  territory.  1923 when t h e i s l a n d  The l i v e s  became  o f t h e Jews o f Rhodes t o o k  a turn  t h e w o r s e when t h e F a s c i s t Nazi  Jewish  Germany  l a w s were  i n 1936. Two  ensuing  forces  armistice  occupied  virtually handful)  every  later,  unsuccessful.  the country  repressive  anti-  f r o m power i n t h e summer o f 1943 and  between  the island.  Italy  In July,  Jew on t h e i s l a n d  seventeen  and  the  Hardly  originating  any from  allies,  1944, t h e N a z i s  German deported  (Turkish c i t i z e n s h i p  hundred s u r v i v e d .  A f t e r t h e war, a t t e m p t s  States.  years  t o t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a m p s — n o t even  t h e more t h a n  Sephardim  government a l i g n e d  established.  After Mussolini's f a l l the  officially  saved  ten per cent of  2 1  t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e community  Jews  remain  the island  a  on now  Rhodes live  today.  proved 2 2  Most  i n the United  18 3. The O r a l Sample  3.1.  The  Informants  Ell  a n d R o s a F e r e r a , who o b l i g i n g l y  agreed  to  originate Mr.  provide from  a  sample  of  (and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y )  their  speech  Rhodes, where t h e y s p e n t t h e i r  Ferera,  born  i n 1916, l i v e d  for  analysis,  formative years.  on t h e i s l a n d  until  the  b e g i n n i n g o f 1938 when he l e f t t o j o i n o t h e r f a m i l y members t h e n l i v i n g i n Rhodesia, Sephardim  from  now Zimbabwe, w h i c h h a d a l a r g e community o f  Rhodes. He worked  as a w h o l e s a l e r  business with h i s brother-in-law f o r t h i r t y he  lived  Ferera  Rhodes u n t i l  way  of the forty  years  there.  Mrs.  rest  merchant, i n  (nee I s r a e l )  was b o r n  i n 1924 a n d r e m a i n e d  1944 when s h e was d e p o r t e d  of the Jewish t o Rome  where  community.  t o Auschwitz  on  with the  L i b e r a t e d i n 1945, s h e made h e r  she remained  f o r eight  months  until  her  d e p a r t u r e f o r R i o de J a n e i r o . T h e r e s h e l i v e d w i t h h e r u n c l e a n d his  f a m i l y f o r two y e a r s ,  Rhodesia spent  from  t o see her s i s t e r .  i n Rhodesia,  1946 t o 1948, when s h e went t o  During t h e t h i r t y y e a r s Mrs. F e r e r a  where s h e met h e r h u s b a n d ,  she worked  bookkeeper i n t h e a c c o u n t i n g department o f an I t a l i a n In are  addition  fluent  speaks  i n English,  Greek.  languages  to their  The  dialect Italian  informants  i n t h e workplace  of Spanish, and  have  French;  had  both  firm. informants  Mr. F e r e r a  t o use t h e i r  (Mr. F e r e r a , m a i n l y  as a  Italian,  also  foreign French  19 and  a little  not  lost  English;  touch  with  programmes i n t h o s e The  only  h i s wife, French  primarily  and I t a l i a n  Italian). and w a t c h  They  have  television  languages.  significant  exposure  t o Standard  Spanish,  other  t h a n t h e i r h o l i d a y i n S p a i n a few y e a r s ago, were t h e two y e a r s Mrs. dim to  F e r e r a spent  i n R i o w i t h h e r u n c l e and h i s f a m i l y , Sephar-  who h a d come f r o m A r g e n t i n a Standard  (their  S p a n i s h ) . She h a s a l s o  language  had a s s i m i l a t e d  corresponded  w i t h h e r South  American S e p h a r d i c r e l a t i v e s w i t h t h e a i d o f an E n g l i s h - S p a n i s h dictionary do  t o ensure  t h a t h e r language  n o t have t h e h a b i t  i s s t a n d a r d . The c o u p l e  of reading Spanish—Mrs.  Ferera has, a t  some p o i n t , r e a d a work i n S p a n i s h ; h e r h u s b a n d , p e r h a p s one.  They have had o c c a s i o n a l exposure  (the  press, Both  i n f o r m a n t s have a l w a y s s p o k e n t h e i r  During  large  Judeo-Spanish-speaking appear  who s t i l l Mr. and  most  of their  life,  they  community.  have  mother tongue a t formed  part  In Vancouver,  t o be t h e o n l y members o f t h e S e p h a r d i c  of a  however, community  speak t h e d i a l e c t . a n d M r s . F e r e r a have two d a u g h t e r s ,  forty,  them s p e a k s Standard  Judeo-Spanish  books).  home.  they  to written  part of  both  o f whom u n d e r s t a n d  aged  Judeo-Spanish;  thirty-seven neither of  i t . The y o u n g e r c a n communicate w i t h h e r p a r e n t s i n  Spanish,  having s t u d i e d t h e language  at university.  20 3.2.  The R e c o r d i n g  Mrs.  Session  On A p r i l  24, 1990, t h i s w r i t e r r e c o r d e d  Ferera s  speech a t t h e i r  1  transcription  adequate,  home i n V a n c o u v e r . T h e f o l l o w i n g  i s of a continuous  minutes o f t h e i r and  forty-minute  manageable,  a s a m p l e o f Mr. a n d  segment  dialogue,  length  of just  under  w h i c h was f e l t  twenty  t o be a n  f o r the purposes  of  this  about  life  analysis. I n t h e r e c o r d i n g , Mr. and M r s . F e r e r a r e m i n i s c e on  Rhodes.  3.3.  Introduction t o the Transcription  The  following  brackets brief  ([ ] ) , r a r e l y  omission  omission  conventions found  should  be  empty  i n the transcription,  due t o i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y  i s explained  noted:  i n the notes);  2 3  three  indicate a  (the nature dots  square  (...)  o f each indicate  pauses,  i n d e c i s i o n and p a r t i a l l y - e x p r e s s e d t h o u g h t s p r e s e n t i n  natural  speech; an a p o s t r o p h e  syllable  precedes a t o n i c  (as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , i t never denotes  apheresis,  syncope  "RF"  Ferera."  = "Rosa The  (•) i m m e d i a t e l y  symbol  or  apocope).  [s] represents  "EF" = " E l i  any d e n t a l  alveolar  i n some  employed] i n EF's speech;  words,  although  Ferera";  articulation  ( a p i c a l e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c a s e o f RF; more c o r o n a l even  designates  the  of /s/  [or, perhaps,  same  [6] may o f t e n be a d e n t a l  symbol  is  fricative.  21 3.4.  Transcription  1  EF:  vo amp  2  RF:  3  EF:  j o s o mas  4  RF:  abso'lutli.  5  EF:  ra:at.  1  ... vo am'psar j=> a a ' v l a r ,  'roza.  ooke.  grand  so  di ti,  s o v o am'psar j o , oo'ke?  .. . e ' l i f e ' r e r a ,  6  e ' l ife'rera,  na'sido  f  7  fevri'e  8  ' t u v i a'ywera s e ' t e n t ... s o  9  'anos.  el  'nombri;  'ro6is.  na'si  'padre  i  mi  mu'Jon  10  fe'rera.  11  ' t j i k o : bi'viamuz  12  d2u6a'ria  13  'kaza  14  l a d_uda'ria  15  'kaza  16  d_u'dia. I a k a ' l e 2 a  17  a'ywera en l a d 2 u d a ' r i a , n a t u r a l ' m e n t e .  18  j  nu  l u k i ma'ko6ru d i l a ... de  ma'kofiru  dos 'kwa2i  ma'kodru  'kazaz.  s  'kwando ' e r a  la,  la,  la  20  'unu  doz  0  a  ,  'klaro  'klaro,  mwi  a'serka  6e  'prima en  'klaro.  la  la  'skola  'ande mo'ravamuz ' e r a 'una k a ' l e . a  j a en  'deos  mwi  'kaza  nu s e d i ke l a  J  a'via  ki  ro'zina  a*mavan. ma'kodro ke l a a'mavan l a k a ' l e _ a d i 'purke  zir  di  'kwatro  i  'na6a. l a sa'yunda  'propriu api'yafia  19  amo  c n l a d S u o a ' r i a n a t u r a l ' m e n t e . en l a  tru'kimuz  'era  'ki2u  'terjgo s e ' t e n t a i  'maore,  ,J  i n si'yundu  mil i nyvi'sjentuz i d i z i ' s e j .  mi  j o mi  si  'suptu  'intre  alvan'tava  la  'entre  'notje la  •lokus a'via 'notji,  22 21  kami'navan  22  'poko,  23  RF:  24  EF:  d a ' r i v a *baJ"u i ' t j a n d u  'grituz,  a  no  ' e r a n ...  nor'mal.  nor'mal,  de'retjoz,  ...  aend Am,  'esta  25  la'koSru  26  ' a s t a ke j o t i ' n i a  27  i natural'me nte l a , 'era, l a 'skola  28  a  29  'era,  30  api'yaQa  31  'eramuz, k i 2 z i r , 'kwatru ar'manuz i  32  ' e r a i l ... i l , i l k w a r ' t e n u de l o z i r ' m a n o z  33  'una er'mana mas  34  ' e r a n ura  'kornu k i 'fwera ... o, j a b i ' v i m u z  l a 'kaza la  'tfe 2i, ka'torze  'mia—no sma'goya  a'ja,  aend Am,  RF:  no,  36  EF:  f l a kae  37  RF:  f  38  EF:  a s i .  n  j o mo'rava i n l a k a e  l a kae  i l a sma'goya  ta'mjen la  'propriu  fa'mia  'mwesa,  'una er'mana. j o i  ti'nia  ' t j i k a 6 i m i . t u , t u t a ' m j e n mu'rava,  n a t u r a l ' m e n t ... t u 'onde t u  35  'era  'eramuz,  'p=>di s e r  ' e r a p j i n a p i *ya6a  l a 'sk=>la:  'grandi  me  'anoz b i ' v i a ' j a .  d  'solu  'kaza  'ant/a.  ' a n t / a ...  ...  ' a n t / a ...  23 39  RF:  40  ... i j o t e ' n i a mi  1  41  EF:  42  RF:  kwatr  ... t r e z  'madre k i b i ' v i a n  a l 'nombri,  jo  so  er'manas, i mi  'padre  ...  ' r o z a ...  'roza  fe'rera.  na'si  in  el  venti'trez  de  43  de'sembro m i l i n o v i s j e n t o z i v e n t i ' k w a t r o , i ... 'komo  44  'diji  1  45  EF:  46  RF:  ...  'kwantaz er'manaz  'era/?  t r e z er'manas. e f e l i z ' m e n t e l a z doz s e m u r i ' e r o n  47  'kampo  48  'padrez  in  49  tam'bjen  i d i t u fa'mia  50  fa'mias,  'pero  51  sola'mente  52  pla'zer di'rjkon'trarti  53  EF:  des'pwes  ke  'fweramoz  'dSuntus.  depor'tados  a?nd Am,  mi  'kwando  'vine  a  de, de,  55  i  56  en'trada  57  sa'liamuz  58  i r  59  'andi  al  'purke  de  6  p u r dal 'todo.  'lafrika  e t u 'madre,  t u mu'ravaz  'propriu  de  l a dSuda'ria  man'draki, ... k w a l ' s i a s i  di t i  ke  ez  'tuvi i l  i des'pwez d i ...  . . . de t u 'padre,  'todu  mis  a'miyoz l a s  o w e l , ... j a , j a , j o t a ' m j e n ma'kodro mwi  54  kon  ari'kodro  ' p u r k i ' e r a n mwi  a t i no t e k o n o ' s i a  en e l  'para  la  en  l a kae  dSuda'ria,  'para i r a  lu'yar,  6 e  ' k l a r o de,  t u z er'maaz 'antfa sorj  'kwand  i r al tjar'/i, la  pla2,  de'viamuz i  r  a la u  'para  'para  i r  pa'sar  por  24  60 61  t u 'kaza ... 'proprju. fle  62  aend a, natural'me nte  ma'kodro  'to6oz, de 'toooz uz 'otros. n=> ' s o l u 'estu, ke t u ar'mana ' r i k a  'era ...  63  RF:  'stava en l a ...  64  EF:  e'sta am z v  en l a 'mizma 'klasa,  u  'iamuz a l a 'skola en  65  'd2untus, a'sta m z  66  Qe,  67  'skola  68  'skola d 2 u ' Q i a — e r a 'skola d2u'Qia en e l 'tjempo 'mio:  69  'era, 'era d i l a l i ' a s  70  la, la  71  f r a ' s e z a , ma s i mise'nava 'muntju i n i ' b r e o ta'mje i ,  72  a l empa'J"i o, itae'ljaeno, ma  73  fra'sez.  74  i ' S i k a z : l a z a'Sikaz 'era d i 'una ' p a r t i i l u z i ' 2 i k u z  75  d i ' l o t r a 'parte, ma, du, du'rante l a r i k r e a ' s j o n , muz  76  enkon travamus  77  'afiu  78  vera'me n t e — a  79  ska'pavamuz:  80  'skola,  81  'd2untus.  82  va  6e  la ...  e l a 'mizma ' k l a s a . a'vlandu 6e,  u  'skola, di  ki2  z i r , 'iamuz  tjiki'tikus,  ki  RF:  ja.  pa'Jin  l o mas  ser,  e  ra  'una  la  'era f  d  a'via  maz;  'mwesra  i  11  i  'ultimu  'skola elemen'tara,  l a e'dad d i ' t r e 2 i ,  l a 'klasa  a  'era 'skola av . . . d i i ' 2 i k u z  l a 'skola—ke  no  la  'era l a  prf s i ' p a l  'tofloz a a i n 'd2untuz, ma  1  a  i z r a e ' l i t y n i v e r ' s e l — , i a'ja  j  6e  • iamus  'lirjgwa p r f ji 'pal 'era, pwed  'era 'una,  pi'Jin  2 4  ka'torzi  ' lultimu  'era i * 2 i k o z  'afiu  'anus, Qe  la  i i'2ikaz i n  25 83  EF:  'aend a ...  84  laz  85  'aend a  86  RF:  'estu ma a'kodru ' k l a r o , ' k l a r o de l a z , de l  i'z"ikaz  i  6a  luz  i*2iku  loz  'nombres  ...  'pero mo'zotroz 'era d i f e ' r e n t i . j o e e l ... komen'si  87  la  88  a ' k e l 'tjempo; 'era 'skola i t a ' l j a n a . muz  89  e l f r a ' s e z tam'bjen i l e ' b r e o , ma  90  'era  91  EF:  92  93  e'skola  ita'ljana  ...  no  e'skola  fra'seza  ambi'zavamuz  l a 'lirjgwa p r i s i ' p a l  lita'ljano.  o kiz" z i r , d  tu  no  fwedz a  la  RF:  j e s , a l a 'skola dSu'Qia en  'skola  d2u'dia  erj l a  l a d2uoa*ria, ma  no  'era  lali'asa!  95  EF:  a, no  96  RF:  no  97  EF:  ...  'era o l ' r e d i i t a ' l j a n a .  98  RF:  ...  'era  100  a'via  dzuda'ria?  94  99  'toduz,  'era maz  lali'asa,  'era l a l i ' a s a ,  ...  ...  'skola i t a l i ' a n a  i t a l i ' a n o z j a 'eran, mas  'era  'purke, a ' k e l  'stavan en  'tjempo,  ' r o d i z , aend a ,  'kwalo ... apren'diamuz 'toflaz 'estas  m  loz  ...  'lirjgwas!  i  26 101  EF:  wel  a, d e l , 3f k o r s ,  102  de  103  doz  104  ma'koSro j o de  105  'tjiko,  106  'turka  'purke  107  sa'vian  todz  108  Sa'inda  109  aparte'nia  110  pur  111  RF:  112  EF:  l a e'dad  'stamoz a ' v l a n d o j a e d i f c ' r e s i a z  'tuja i  'epokaz  um  'mia,  'poko  la, mi  a'vlar,  Sflu'es'a  ke  lo  25  a'vlavan  ke  bjen  mis in  i  pari'entes  'turku  i  o  'yrandi  'dod_i  'purke 'rodis  l  'rodis  'afiu . z  si .  k  e:  zir,  en  mil'nuv ' s j e n t s  i'taelia  i  1  i t a ' l j a n u z oku'paro  115  'dod2i,  EF:  iflu'es'a,  u  114  117  do,  'tjempo  a l a t u r ' k i a ; a t u r ' k i a e ' s t u v o en  kwatru'J"entuz  o,  'kwando ' e r a t j i ' k i  mil'nyv'' s j e n t z  go'verno  RF:  de  ama'koSro  el  erj e l  1  'era  113  116  d i f e r e n t i z.  la tji'kez,  'era  'asta  'stamuz a ' v l a n d o da,  ...  'uvo la  la  'dod2i  'gera  'izla  luz,  i l  i litae'ljaeafi,  luz  i , di 1  ki  milnuv ' s j e 1  uz  i  ' r o d i s s i ' i z u itaa'ljaana.  si.  aend am,  ma  'mizmo l o s p r o f i ' s o r i s  k i ti'niamuz  118  'skola  119  ke  'era profa'sor  Q i i ' b r e o . a ' v i a um  120  de  la  se  121  a* a J  'mwesra, ma'koSro ka a ' v i a um  ' r u s i a . no muz  d i ke  ambi'zava  'lirjgwa  i'breo,  en  la  profe'sor  vi'dal  profe'sor  'mizmu  ' e s i prufa'sor  a'via  ...  profe'sorez  27 122  i t a s ' l j a e n o z ; e l ... i l , i l d e r e k ' t o r  123  itae'ljaeno.  Qe l a ' s k o l a ' e r a  124  RF:  itae'ljaeno, Qe l a i ' t a l j a .  125  EF:  itae'ljaeno, s i , i a ' v i a p r o f i ' s o r e z Qitae'ljaeno. l a ,  126  p r o f i ' s o r a mas k i , k i u s  127  ' d i a d i o i , k i Ise'no  128  'una maQmwa'zel  b  129  RF:  130  EF:  ako'Qramuz d a ' i n a  2 6  d  2e era n  1  sjones  Qi  'asta e l  'mwesas ' e r a  t a ' r a n t u ka ...  OU!  ... a s a ' y u n t a : ' k o Q r a s ,  [],  'kwandu v i ' n i m u s  2 7  a'ki a  131  la'merika,  132  ta'rantu  13 3  va2a*tar  134  a'zer  135  f  136  muz  137  'una p r o f a ' s o r a mwi  'stri ta,  mwi s e ' v e r a ,  ma  138  'bwena  i  'kayza  k i , ki  139  amba'zimuz  140  ' d i a de o i , k i , p u r 'afiuz i  141  te'niamuz  142  d a ' i n d a e l ' d i a de o i , sa'vemuz e l f r a ' s e z  143  la  'antas 2a ' d o d 2 i 'afiuz s u ' p i m u s k i mamwa'zel  bi'via  a s i ' a e t a l , l a 'prima  'ez a v i 2 ' t a r l a l  'faektu,  bje.  a ' k i 1 si'aetal,  l a 'fwemuz,  i  'kwandu  a  a  'koza k i , k i b u ' J k i m u z Q i  a ' e s t a ma°mw'zel t a ' r a n t u . i , l a va'rimuz,  l a viSa'timuz  28  ' i z u 'una r i s i v i ' d u r a a ' j a mwi, mwi  prufa'sora,  ' f we muz  k  ez  a  i  'yrande. 'era  'Qea  ' e r a mwi muz  v e r a ' m e n t e a ' v l a r e l f r a ' s e z , k i 'mizmu a l  'nurjka  okazi'on  'afiuz,  nu t u ' v i  d i a'vlar  ... no  al fra'se , 2  i  ba'stante  28 144  RF:  'era  'una  p r r j f a ' s o r a mwi  145  'era,  146  'purki, vera'menti,  147  'ea  148  ambi'zarti,  149  EF:  'era  no  so,  'strikta  a'via  [],  a  no  mas  ka'rida  'nada  'eramuz  'todos  di  a'via  'pirko bjen,  ...  . ..,  al  'una  152  mu'zotruz  153  kom'pro  154  'era  155  v e r a ' m e n t i mwi  156  'kwandu,  157  mus  158  a mu'rar a l m a ' r a j ,  159  a  160  koti'nwar loz e'studioz  161  ' p a r t i , p ^d  162  miu  163  ita'ljana;  164  l a e v o ' r a r . a l a , a l a e'dad d i ' t r e d 2 i , k a ' t o r z i  165  'kizi  166  ' a s t a k,  167  ja,  168  milnuvi'sjents a venti'kwatru,  mus  'una  'una  sa'limuz 'kaza  'kaza,  31  di  a'keus  sa'limuz  e l ma'raj,  'skola  aend a,  i  'otrus  la  mas  'todus  'parti  'asta ' k e l  ir'manu  a  'ke  'una  'kaza  'tredSi  'anus,  mu*zo ru 6  i mus  ma'raj,  da'ja  ko si  si  mi  al, al,  mi  fwe  j  o  e  la  'mio,  ae  'anus,  laevo'rar.  a,  er'manuz  'd2ako,  'kwandu j o  mas  'skola  pi'Jin  'tjempo _ ' r e d i miz  'yrandi  a  l u s kum'panuz  'fweron  'fwero  z  'fwemuz  e l a ' s k o l a itae'ljaena. l a  koti'nwaro  i  'pa°re  a'fwera,  d2u'dia,  ka,  3 0  'afiuz,  mi  'era  l a d2uda'ria  m a ' r a j ka,  a'fwera,  luz  a en, 1  'tredSi  dz"uda*ria.  'tjempuz  la de  al  'klasa  'anus,  3  'fwera en  di  s e r t r e s , 'kwatro 'deos, de  w  i  la  di  'kwatru i r ' m a n u z  'bwena, i a l a e ' d a d d i  srj'borbz,  di,  e'dad  de  'kwandu s k a ' p i  *f"emus,  los  la  kun  imp'Jio  151  a  i  a'zer.  ' d i j i k i te  jo,  fa'mia d i  ...  di'viaz  di, di  di  'purki  150  er'mana.  'una  mwi  spes  ' o t r a ma'jiera  'diji,  tam'bjen  de  n  a'zer  t i  di  f s e ' f i a v a mwi  a'via  jo  2 9  eksepsio'nal  'era  en  al  da'inda  29 169  tjiki'tiko,  170  ro'dezia  171  ro'dezia?  172  ki  173  i n i l m i l n y v ' s j e n t z i 'sirjku, m i l n y v ' s j e n t z i ' s e j ,  174  par'tjo di  175  ro'dezja,  176  'antiz  6e  177  tur'no  a  178  sirj k a ' z a r ,  179  s i kae'zo,  180  dus'pwez Q i  181  ba'stant'i  182  'yrandi,  183  milnov 'sjentz  184  'afiu  185  ta'mje  186  ...  j a p a r ' t j o 'para, a ' v i a p a r ' t i O u ,  na,  a  l a ro'dezia,  jo ta'nia u  'vers  ...  ' t i u , un  ... nu se  0  k  d i ke  'kwa o eyzaekta'menti,  ' r o d i s , s i fwe  'prima  'roQis,  j  a'mar,  'era  'vinu a i tur'no 'unus  ma'sevo  di  'kwantuz  'd2ako,  lo i  mi  ...  'purke  a'kel  la  si  [],  189  la'merika  Qel  190  i  191  'and2alaz, i  192  ' l a f r i k a , i a l 'kongo b e l 2 ,  193  a'ywera zim'babwe, i l 'korjgo be 12  la'merika,  njy  de J  at'bertu,  a'via  e'stavan  sur,  '""ia  3 4  a  l  a  'una  'mu t/os n  ken  al bra'zil,  ...  fwe  al'redi  a'merika,  at'lanta,  'muntjuz a ' v i a a a l a  si  l o man'do  'yrande.  lard2en'tina, ork,  fwe  ar'mano  un  ba'stante  si  m'  ' k r e i u . Qus'pwez Q i  188  n  a  'et/o  e  emiyra'sjon  ke  aend a,  a'ja  187  3 3  'novia,  ro'dezia.  ja'mar  a,  a'stava  3 2  r  ' t i u l e ' o , ka  'tjempo  ba'stanti,  [ a]  a,  t u ' k o una  i l s i ' y u n d u ar'manu 'mio, i mi  'vinu  d 3  ar'manu  i venti'kwatro,  l a ro'dezia  a la  'aenuz, j a t e ' n i a un  man'do  ye  Y  s i fwe  ki  '6ain ,  'mwevo a  'pa°re,  'afiuz i , i p i ' J i n  'kreiu,  'rodis, tu  'bweno,  doz, a  'gera,  la  u  a l a ro'dezja.  e ' s t u v o a i 'unus 'kwantuz  a  'kre o  fl  1  1  u  s i fwe  i r ' m a n o d i mi  1  la  'para l a  a a'ki  si'aetel,  loz  a ro'dezia,  in  k i a'ywera l a r o ' d e z i a  ez  a'ywera ez  za'ir.  30  194  RF:  s i , ez, ez m t e r c ' s a n t i  d i v e r 'komo s i 'fweron di  195  'to6a, a 'todafi l a s 'partez di 1 'mundu, i s p c s i a l ' m e n t e  196  des'pwez d i k i ... d e l ' t r e i n t a i 'otfo  197  ra'sizmo:  la i'talja  198  en'tonsiz  s i 'fwero" maz  199  ke'daedo 'unuz doz m i l par'sonas i ' r o o i s  200  i 'estaz doz m i l , e l ... n e l 'ano kwarenta kwatro,  201  'fweron depor'tados  202  ' a u j v i t s 'ondi s i muri'e  s i eli'o  'kwandu 'uvo  kun l a d2er'manja  'muntjuz di ' r o d i s .  1  'toous,  i 'fweron depor'tadoz a  l a mas  'parti.  203  EF:  ma ...  204  RF:  l o ke ke'daron 'fweron do'zjentas par'sonas,  205  206  ae'viaen  sola'menti,  d  ro  i  and easts,  'eso f e 'to6o. w  E F : ma ... d i ' r o d i z , n a t u r a l ' m e n t i , j o , 'kwando s a ' l i da  207  'rodiz,  j a te'nia  al'reQi,  'era un  208  ma'sevu d i v e n t i ' u n  209  'unaz me'morias f a n ' t a s t i k a z  210  de, de, de l a t j i ' k e z de  211  'nurjka,  212  d2e eral'menti  213  ma 'era 'una 'vida 'bwe a ... kum ... pa'savamoz 'kumu  214  'tjikos,  215  ka'leSa,  216  d2u'ywavamoz  'anufi, so, de ma'nera ke de ' r o d i s . 'rodiz  'nurjka o l v i ' d a r . ez var'dad  n  'ombri,  a'vlandu,  'era  u  'terjgu  l o z a'miyoz  no me  l _ s 'pwedo  k i nu t i ' n i a m u z ,  no a ' v i a r i ' k e z a z ,  no a ' v i a ,  n  l o s pasa'tjempoz i l a ka'le2a a  'eran  vera'menti  I la  d2u'ywavamoz a ' j a kon l o ...  laz 'bijaz,  d2u'ywavamoz  a  ko'rer,  31 217  d_u  ywavamufi  218  'p_op iu  ...  219  'iamuz  a  la  220  se  a,  221  a  222  'kumu  da'ida  i'Siku  223  a'kel  'tjempu  i l ,  224  'mizmu  urj  225  'stavan  ...  226  de,  227  e'2iptu,  del  228  l  abi 'si a  . . .  1  r  . . . las  RF:  s i .  230  EF:  .. .  231  a  kae a  'zersin  vi  la  en  aend a m ,  di  232  RF:  profe'sores.  233  EF:  ... p r o f a ' s o r e z 'komu i ' l e v a z  235  a'ja  al  236  d i ,  6i  237  z>f k o r s  238  ke  mar  'komu  a'vian  []  ma  'anus,  6e,  'pefiaz,  k i  'mizmu  'tre 2i  'afiuz,  en  'mizmu  []  la  dSuda'ria  no  a'via  'esti  'ondi  ma'sevuz,  3 6  6a,  nu  las  ko*led2o  6a,  a  ...  d  a'vjertu  vi'Rendu  a  ma'ko6ro  'dz"enti  3 5  fut'bol,  'iamuz  a ' i ,  ra'biniko,  'era  um  se  . . .  del  'pretu  ko'ledSo  i  de  'para  ...  di  di  ko'ledSo  i'breu,  'skola,  ' b i b l i a ,  'era  una ...  0  del  ' v i 6 a mwi, laz  o  ra'binuz,  ma'kodro,  ra'binik  la  k i  p i ' l o t a z ,  'dod2i  nor'tafrika,  e'stava  cn'tera  dSu'ywavamos  la  ma  'rodiz  'tit/rs  234  6e  di  ...  ... las  'pwerta  emp'saron  . . .  'sesiu?  'era  ko'led2o  'solo  k i  pasa'tjempo  'antja  'kozaz,  no  el  a'ziamoz  a,  J  229  ...  ...  a  loz  to'mar  tal'mud, ta'mje, e l ,  el  i  mu'zotros,  Ja'batis  l i s i ' o n e z ma  'solo  mwi d _ u ' d i a ko'mersju  de  'iamuz 6 i ,  6 i ,  'estu, . .. erj la  i a J  32 239  ' e r a erj [] erj l a f i  240  una  241  "e'gosjos,  242  'stava  243  ae'vrian.  244  'pa°rez,  245  'era do'vere.  246  ma'nana,  247  sina'yoya,  248  muz  249  b  250  al Ja'bata,  2 51  RF:  'viQa  mwi  'manuz Qe l o z d S u ' d j o z i , i , i ' e r a  dzu'dia  i n Qaet  i l 'dia 6 i Ja'bat,  se'radu,  ma  ja 'bat muz  al'/ad,  muz  a  'stavan,  la, a  a bi'zar  'todo  kon  'todu 'mwesos  sina'yoya—'era,  'jenaz  i , duj'pwez a l a s 'tiaz  l a , las 'tiaz,  a  Qe l a a'ja i  los 'tioz,  tam'bje  ke  ' e r a una  a Qz> n=>, te'nemoz  i mwi,  253  mwi  254  vi'nia  l a , le ve'rano,  255  'banus  a l a pla2,  256  'kwando  257  marya'ritaz  258  ' e r a ... muz  259  l a kam'pafia, e,  260  ayra'Qavle.  2 61  'tjene  262  tro'ko,  s i z v i l u ' p o mwi  263  'kreyu,  ' p a r a m i , ' e r a maz, maz e r ' m o z a . des'pwez,  er'mozos i ... d i , d i l a ' i z l a , n  k i muz  a l a ma .  d i , da  'floriz  'iamuz a z e r a  suve'nires  a  tu'mar l u z  la  prima'vera  s i 3'tj" i a n di  la  a' a J  kam'pafia  l u s ' p i k n i k s kun  l a 'izla  ermo'zura  Qe  ez mwi ar'moza  a'kel  'tjempo  Qi ke  'toQoz i  'kwalo ... ' e r a , ' e r a 'una ' v i Q a  da'inda, a  'iamuz  'kampos  mwi  d i l a z , d i 'kwandu  des'pwez,  r  los  'unos  'viQa  trarj'kila  a'ke  a  ...  252  i  38  e l 'dia Qi Ja'bat d i  a vi2i'tar  a'koQru  'to°oz  3 7  l a 'manu a t o ' Q u z i a s a l u ' d a r m u z p u r  aend Am,  w e l a, j o mi  la  luz  Ja'bat,  'era, al'xad,  'todus,  'sjempri  'iamuz  a  3 9  ke  l a s sina'yoyaz,  'stavan,  'Qavan  'sabato,  mu'zotrus  iamus  1  laz bu'tikaz,  d  'pero  mwi nu  'purke s i  'munt/o; a ' k e a v e z ' e r a mas, en  33 264  la  2 65  t i 'niarauz,  266  en  267  ayra'Qavle,  268  po'di  269  ke  270  'tjempo,  271  d2udi'oz—'esto  272  ' o t j o 'kwando, 'kwando l a i ' t a l j a kome'so a ' z e r l a s ,  273  laz leiz  274  e'skola  las  kun mus  no  ...  Y  ...  'puQi  1  munt/o,  a'miyos,  'sjempre  d2o • wavamus  'munt/o  Y  'era,  'era  sola'menti  4 0  e l r e ' y r e t o maz  konti'nwar  laz  luz  a i Qa nao,  'kre o.  jo  kun  'viamuz  'kaes  ...  la,  e'skolas fwe  e  n  di sa  una  ke  'viQa  mwi  'kwa Qo  no  n  ' y r a n d e ye  estudi'ar  se'raron  'terjgo  'purke,  'para  e l milnove•sjentoz  a'kel  'todo i  es  loz  z  'trenta  i  a  EF:  ma,  r a ' s j a l e s ...  a ' p a r t i d i 'eso,  275  di  'est ,  del  276  kwa'renta  277  tji'kes  278  ita'ljana,  k  279  ita'ljana  'para  280  'muntjuz  281  o  282  'kwantaz  283  mu'zo°roz  284  irj'glez,  285  'avlo  286  'era  287  a'vlavamus  u  i  tam'bjen.  a'ywera, a  ...  milnuvi' sjentz  doz,  a'vlandu  i  de  a'vlandu d i kwa'renta  la,  se  a'ki,  e  'stuvi  1  'kwatro  ska'par  'keQan k u r i ' o z u z  se  'keQan  a'vlamuz 'greyu,  'una  en  'skola  la  'skola  ro'dezia  'kwandu [ ]  a'vlamoz d i ' v c r s a z ...  a'ywera  la  'komu  s  la  4 1  'lirjgwaz.  e  fra'sez,  a'viamuz  en  ata'ljano,  a'vlamuz  aspa'fiol,  jo  i se  'koza ...  e  Qe  i 'studiuz.  w  'unu,  a la  in  k a  kuri'ozu  ' l i r j g w a z , a ke a'viamuz  'afiuz  luz  i  'propriu  . . . a ' i , ma'koQru k i 'kwando j o fwe  'antiz  'keQa,  'komu es  natu'ral:  aspa'fiol.  e,  mu'zo roz a  po'sivli?  e, no,  e,  e no,  wel, 'kaza a'kel  34 288  'tjempo  nu  'dziamus  ki  289  dz"udeoespa'fiol, a'vla'Mz  a'vlavamuz  ispa'fiol,  290  RF:  si .  291  EF:  . . . ' p a r a m u ' z o t r o , a'vlavamus 2  a ' v l a v a n aspa'fiol,  293  'mwesos  294  a'vlavan 'spa'fiol,  295  vera'mente,  296  ma'"era k e n ' t j e n d u j o , l a ' d i n u  297  aspa'fiol  298  []  299  pa'r  300  d i l a ...  6  'mwesoz  k e a'ywera  l a ...  'kwal  e  u  se a'vlava  i  z  e  ... a l p a r a ' s e r ,  301  RF:  o,  302  EF:  ... i r j k w i z i ' s j o n d i  n  la'din , 3  la'dino,  ez a s p a ' f i o l  kwatru•Jentuz  de  2a ara' s j o n e f i  la'dino?  d  la  'vje2u,  'afiuz  'esoz d S u ' d j o z de ' r o d i z . w e l , d 2 u  4 2  6  l o 1, ja'mamuz  e  ke  'mwesos ' p a r e s  ... l o s 'pa°rez  2enera' s j o n e z  pur  u  d i ' z i a m u s ...  spa'fiol:  292  'pa res,  l o , 1,  la'dino  'antiz,  ... e  'rodiz  es ke a ' v i a dSu'djoz d i ' a n t i z  'antis.  ma l a ' y r a n d i  ... f f u ' z j o fwe  303  'kwandu, d u ' r a n t e l a e k s p o l ' s j o n d i , d i , d i , ... de l a  3 04  inkwizi'sjon  305  'fweron o b l i ' y a d o z da ' i r s e da l a 'spafia.  306  par'tida  'fweron  307  im'pero  oto'man ,  308  a ' j a , pur  309  k o n t u n i ' a a , kontu'nimuz  de  0  l a 'spana,  ki  'todoz  l o z d2u'djos 'una ' y r a n d i  p i r ' m e r o a, a, a l a t u r ' k i a , i da'ja,  2e ara'sjon n  i  s i ' eron a v n  2e ara'sjon n  a a'vlar  i  'rodifi  an a l i , i  2e ara'sjon, n  an a s p a ' f i o l .  so, i  35 f ispa'noi.  310  'kaza  311  t/iki'tikuz,  312  fra'ses  313  f a l 'tjempo 'mio. s i ' k o m u l a ma  314  6e l a [ ]  315  ambi*zava  316  'yreyu t  317  e 'greyu. so, d i t j i k i ' t i k u f i ,  318  'dod2i  319  RF: jae:.  320  EF:  a'vlavamuz  ' e r a p / i n j a muz  ambi'zavan  e  4  'enan  3  'greyus  44  en l a ' k a j e ,  z  a  a ,  vlar  i  natural'mente,  1  l a , l a ma2ori'ta  'todus,  'greyus  tam'bjc  te  ' t a n t u a ' s t a r ko  'greyu,  kS  a m b i ' z a v a n , m u ' z o t r u z muz amb'zavamz a ' v l a r a  d i kwan  'afiu s a ' v i a m u z a ' v l a r ^ ' r e o i 8  a'vlavamuz i,  i n i spa'noi, i  i , i , i  3 22  ba'stante, ba'stante bjen.  RF:  a l a 'skola 6 i  ... i , i , i i t a l j a n o t a r n ' b j c n ,  321  323  'fwemuz  j o 'kreyo  sa'viamuz  'rodiz  d i ...  325  'afioz  326  fa'mia  3 27  pur du'zjentoz  328  irj 'kaoa  329  ra'bino 6 i 'ro6is,  3 30  * lultimu  331  Ja'bat  332  ver 'esti  'antis  'terjgo  i,  mil'dar  di  k i 'stavan  izfa'el  'debe  i siij'kwenta  2enera'sjon  ra'binu  de  i,  i n irj'glez,  i'breu  'unos  en  tre'zjentos  spesial'mente l a  'anos t u ' v j e r o n r a ' b i n o s  'roois.  'purke  ta'mje  ser k i bivi'o  fa'mia,  i  k i ' e r a i l ' t i u Q i mi 6i  'lirjgwaz.  l o z r a ' b i n o s , j u : no,  n  'esta  'iamuz a v i 2 i ' t a r l o , ' =>mbri  45  'rodis.  'purki t i *nia  4 6  'kwatru  in  se'yuro e  ta'niamuz ' o z i ,  fra'sez,  k i ... mi f a ' m i a  324  d  est . . .  e, i  ' e r a un  a  ' e r a um 'ombri  ' lultimo  'padre, 'ka6a  fwe s ...  pla'zer d i  k i vera'menti  36 333  diman'dava  334  ti'nia  3 35  komuni'kava  336  'tjikuz  337  EF:  ri'spektu:  'era  'tantu  'una, 'una ' y r a s j a s p e ' s j a l , mwi  bjen  kun  wel, a'vlandu  de  338  'era ' t i u 'tuju,  3 39  la'kodru  340  'andi  'tantu  'klaru  ' i a e l ra'bino,  kun,  kun  i , i  'todus,  d e l ' t i u ke  ra'binu  'purke  di  e  'rodiz,  s , 'ke jo  ...  RF:  a si.  342  EF:  ... e l r a ' b i n o  izra'el,  'una s i n a ' y o y a  ' t j i k a ; s e a'mava i l t i ' k u r j x - ' - ^ t  i n l a 'mizma s i n a ' y o y a . ' e r a J  344  RF:  a'fia.  345  EF:  ... l a a'mavan l a s i n a ' y o y a  34 6  'rikoz  347  frekwen'tavan  348  ba'stant  'tjika,  fa'binu,  'kwandu ... 'kwandu f ' t r a v a a l a s i n a ' y o y a ,  349  e  350  ta'nia  351  in'trava  352  'todus  3 53  ri'spektu,  'muntjoz  •••  da l u z ' r i k u s 'purke, l o z  J  'purke  me  j o ' i a a l a sina'yoya  341  343  ...  'todo.  'ese r a ' b i n o , i l gran  'bweno  vera'menti,  'todus,  i ' y r a n d i s en ... i  ...  'esa  'sjempre  49  i  sina'yoy  ...  i ma'kodro ' t a n t u ,  vi 'Jtidu  ti'nia <pji  da l o z ' r i k o z  muz el  un  4 8  d  a  'blarjk  a'spektu  shi'via  v  5 0  a  la  l a s i 'dad  47  'una  sina'yoya  'tantu  ' k l a r u ke  5'sina,  'tantu  al van'ta amos a  0  de  ko  'kwandu  impo'nente, n  te'va  u  'semi a'ja i  i di el  37 354  kondu'zia  355  'dava  356  f i ' y u r a v e r a ' m e n t i d i k i 'to6uz  357  kon  358  RF:  359  EF:  360  RF:  una  par'tiSa  o i l ser'visju.  'sjempr' u ser'mon i  u ri'spektu  n  , i  n  ispa'fiol,  dus'pwez i  'era  muz 'una  l u , l u m i ' r a v a m u s ko,  ...  s i .  ... f a n ' t a s t i k u ,  vera'mente, 'era  fenome'nal,  ' e r a un, un  361  jo  mwi  'tjika  362  'tantu  363  Q e ' l a n t r e 6e miz  'klaru:  'era,  aaa  * ^mbre mwi  Sa'inda,  ...  s p c ' s j a l , 'mezmu k i mi  lu  'era, vera'menti,  lo  'o2us!  'pero  ri'kodro 'terjgo  e  38 4.  4.1.  Phonetics  This  Analysis  section  historical  informants' eastern  4.1.1  Transcription  5 1  examines p h o n e t i c  from both a d i a c h r o n i c the  of the  and  synchronic  development  speech  and  features  of  J u d e o - S p a n i s h and  within  the  standpoint  phonemes  situating  of  recording  by  presenting  characteristic  them w i t h i n  the  Hispano-Romance  of  the  framework  of  generally.  Vowels  4.1.1.1. recording, timbre  A  prominent  e s p e c i a l l y Mr.  of  atonic  feature  of  Ferera's,  v o w e l s compared  the  speech  i s the  to  that  heard  frequently of  those  in  the  different  in  Standard  Spanish.  also  4.1.1.2. T h i s o c c u r s n o t o n l y i n s y l l a b l e s w i t h i n w o r d s  but  i n monosyllabic  and  articles  which,  w i t h i n the and  /o/  as  words they  sentence. For  are  often  such  are  as  prepositions,  generally  proclitic,  example, p r e t o n i c and  raised  to  pronouns  [i]  and  are  atonic  [u]  atonic  final  /e/  respectively:  [api'yada]  (15),  [bi'zar]  (249)  ['nombri]  (5),  ['grandi]  (29),  [mu'ravaz]  (55),  [tu'mar]  (254),  ['lokus]  (18),  ['kwatru]  (31),  ['solu]  (28).  articles, [lu]  Monosyllabic  atonic  by  nature,  words  such  f o l l o w the  as  prepositions  same p a t t e r n :  (10). T h i s d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of the informants'  [di]  and (3),  speech i s  39 characteristic  not  (Levy,  13 5 ) ,  and  Angel  5 2  [u]  "en  Servia, i n any in  the  Final  5 4  pronunciation  /e/  todas l a s regiones  eastern  raised  and  /o/  of  are  occidentales  occidental)."  these  can  Rhodian  (Macedonia,  In  the  lax:  [mi]  (24),  occurs Thus, a'via]  as  (9),  the  [e]  and  ['poko]  >  [a]:  (118),  a'2ikaz]  (315)  a p p e a r t o be  [la  J  and  ['padre]  (Sp.  rapid  (56),  "con"), /e/  [a'vlamuz  reduced to  of  dialects, the  /o/  one  a  hand  are  quite  [ke]  (18),  ['klaro]  (14),  (9),  (8),  al  become more o p e n : (1),  [n=>]  [prufa'sora]  speech  and  fra'se ] z  or  l a s t example, a vowel ([a]).  This  e s p e c i a l l y with  /e/.  /e/ (141);  (284);  (61);  (137).  be r e d u c e d t o "schwa"  ata'ljano] [a].  [ja]  i n the  a'mavan] ( 3 4 5 ) ;  [a'vlar  (74),  a t o n i c /e/  [o]:  [de]  i n a t o n i c p o s i t i o n may  /a/  5 6  (22).  (47),  in  is  treatment  Judeo-Spanish  ['kwatro]  with pretonic  particularly  they  there  i s protonic.  although  t i m b r e o f a t o n i c v o w e l s may  [ku]  where  other.  (78);  [des'pwes]  4.1.1.5. As falling  that  among  recording,  [e'dad]  4.1.1.4. The (11),  shown  raised  preserved  Salonika,  o b s e r v e d among w e s t e r n d i a l e c t s on  pronounced  [de'ret/oz]  In  [ i ] e v e n when /e/  varies  d i a l e c t s on  (10),  position.  therefore  vowels  4.1.1.3.  [en]  pretonic  [i]  Bosnia,  These a t o n i c vowels a r e  5 5  Jews  pronounced  including Constantinople,  [e] and  has  be  eastern  often  in  between  atonic  pattern  dialects,  only  Research  [de]  of  p o s i t i o n i n the western d i a l e c t s but are b e t t e r  hesitation  and  53  Bulgaria  the  are  only  >  [a]:  [ma'kodro  /if  >  /of  and  [a]: /u/  ka  [laz do  not  4.1.1.6. E l i s i o n commonly c a u s e s v o w e l s t o d i s a p p e a r , a s i n colloquial found  Spanish  e v e r y w h e r e . Some o f t h e many e x a m p l e s t o  i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n a r e : ['deos]  'kauza  'Sea]  (138),  Sp.  a r r i b a " . In [ta:*ko6as]  "de  ella";  (130), Sp.  ( 2 0 ) , Sp.  be  "de e l l o s " ;  [ d a ' r i v a ] (21),  "te acuerdas,"  the  r e f l e x i v e p r o n o u n has b e e n a s s i m i l a t e d t o t h e i n i t i a l  Sp.  [a "de  [e] o f t h e [a] o f  the  verb but the  l e n g t h o f t h e v o w e l shows t h a t t h e v o w e l s h a v e  not  become f u l l y  elided  as  i n [ma'kodru]  ( 1 0 ) , Sp.  "me  acuerdo".  4.1.1.7 A t o n i c v o w e l s , c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n s t d . may  be  eliminated  empezar";  [pwed s e r ]  interesting Sp.  posttonic  / i f of  has  amp'sar]  (107),  [fwedz]  "fuiste")  cluster  [en  through  liaison  Spanish,  Sp.  (OSp.  /'fwetis/ in  (1), 'suptu]  (91)  developed  metathesized  consonant  preposition.  [vo  (70), [todz]  form  s t d . mod.  resulting  entirely:  "voy  (19).  voicing  with  5 8  timbre  tonic  /e/  and  nasals  (OSp.  the  the  of  the  following  5 9  as  very  in  the  standard  modern  f r e q u e n t l y opens t o with  "agora,"  [•eramuz]  reasonable s t d . mod.  4.1.1.9.  language,  [e], especially  consistency: Sp.  (107),  the  although before / r /  [a'ywera]  "ahora"),  (30), [ p l a ' z e r ] (52); [bjen]  [dife'renti]  (8),  ['era]  (15),  [tam'bjen]  (312),  (86). Initially,  the  distribution  of  open/close  l a x / t e n s e vowels, which are o f t e n i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n , chaotic.  The  of  4.1.1.8. V o w e l s i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y o f same  a  "fueste,"  apocope  and  5 7  Patterns  do  emerge,  however,  when  one  may  and  appear  discerns  the  41 s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e p l a y e d by s y n t a c t i c p h o n e t i c s ; t h e t i m b r e o f a vowel  i s f r e q u e n t l y determined 4.1.1.10.  will the  A  few  examples  serve to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s Sp.  atonic,  by  drawn  often  i s always  [ke]  as  from  environment.  Mr.  Ferera's  important f e a t u r e .  c o n j u n c t i o n "que," heard  i t s phonetic  pronounced immediately  before  [ke ' r a ] (77) , [ke 'terjgu]  to  instead  environment  e  [e]  and  following  a'mavan]  (18),  [ ' a s t a ke  jo]  [ i ] may  o f m i d t o low v o w e l s ,  preceding J  of  (103-104).  The  the jo]  same s o r t  For  instance,  [ki] since  through a s s i m i l a t i o n : assimilation,  6 0  speech  be  i t is  [e] o r  [e]  (208) ; a l s o  due  pronounced  in  e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y a r e  conjunction: (26),  [erj e l  [ma'kodro  'tjempo k e  of a r t i c u l a t o r y  the  'intre  repeated  influence  la  •not/ij.]  'not/e  ma'kodro  approximation  seconds  later,  of t h e i r a'via]  can  take  atonic  distribution  The  fact  (19);  that  of atonic  vowels  p o s s i b l e t h a t a determined  [si  aIvan'tava  timbre  appears  [en  the forms  'suptu  'c n t r e  la  i n the recording  i s not t o t a l l y  l e x i c a l element  cited  may  be  may  The  free.  to  words a r e m e n t i o n e d  I t i s also  / - e / . An  i n which  of  example  /'madre/  several  be the  become a k i n d  / ' p a d r e ( s ) / and  by A n g e l a s an example o f a word  would t a k e p l a c e ) .  sometimes  therefore suggests that  p h o n e t i c u n i t which p r e v e n t s r a i s i n g of a t o n i c this  different  p h o n e t i c environment:  c o n d i t i o n e d by p h o n e t i c e n v i r o n m e n t  former  can  (20) .  4.1.1.11.  of  la  t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e c o r d i n g . In t h e f o l l o w i n g examples,  same w o r d s , under  both  ke  be p e r c e i v e d i n t h e r a i s i n g o r l o w e r i n g o f t h e t i m b r e o f vowels  the  (the  raising  times,  each  time with  /-e/  o t h e r example:  p r e s e r v e d . Conforming  to the p a t t e r n i s Angel's  ['nombri] ( 5 ) .  4.1.1.12. D i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n t h e r e c o r d i n g i s g e n e r a l l y in  Std. Spanish.  In terms of t h e  number  of d i f f e r e n t  words  as in  w h i c h t h e r e i s d i v e r g e n c e from S t d . S p a n i s h p h o n e t i c s , t h e s e a r e rather who  few.  T h e y a r e o f t e n r e p e a t e d , however. Many o f t h e  settled  sixteenth  i n the  eastern Mediterranean  centuries  spoke  w h i c h d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n was or  i n which  guese,  Latin  /§/  i n the  Hispanic dialects  fifteenth  and  languages  e i t h e r u n s t a b l e (Leonese,  and  /6/  were  not  Jews and in  Aragonese)  diphthongized  (Portu-  Catalan).  4.1.1.13. The d i p h t h o n g i z e d S t a n d a r d S p a n i s h f o r m " e s c u e l a " never  appears  [a'skola]. above, (cf.  Sp.  i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,  Forms s u c h as  also "me  through  show  an  acuerdo,"  analogy  [ako'dramuz] or I t a l i a n  only ['skola], [e'skola] or  [ma'kooru] and  [ta:'ko6ras],  undiphthongized " t e acuerdas")  with  (126), and/or  the  stressed  w h i c h may  first  the i n f i n i t i v e  mentioned  stem  have  developed  person or through  vowel  singular Portuguese  influence.  4.1.1.14. The absence  of  present  i n Standard  form  [dizi'sej]  (7) i s w o r t h y o f n o t e f o r t h e  d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n both  4.1.1.15.  When  strongly  nasalized  [ta'mje]  (71),  Spanish a  vowel  and  the  [prfsi'pal]  syllables  ("dieciseis"). precedes consonant (72),  i n which  i t is  6 1  /n/,  i t often  disappears [koti'nwaro  becomes  completely: ko]  (162),  [u  ' t i u ] (171),  (OSp.  [ ' k i z i ] (165),  "mancebo") , 4.1.1.16.  pronounced ("e") [f  before  fra'ses  by  dissimilation  An  (180)  [u]  initial  example  /if  as  (Sp.  in  / i / :  of  (Wagner, 73,  a n t i c i p a t i n g the  the  "y")  is  standard  language  [i'2ikuz i i'2ikaz]  dissimilation n.  11)  labial  in  is  which  form  pretonic  /e/  semiconsonant.  Phonetically,  and  historically,  one  of  the  f e a t u r e s of Judeo-Spanish, c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d  recording,  is  sibilants  the  and  "phonetic  general  their  preservation  phonemic  revolution"—during  which  previously  widespread  u l t i m a t e l y triumphed  and  largely  transformed  pronunciation—lasted century  to  the  first  latent  into  or  what  of  Old  The  scope,  may  medieval be  from the  f o r t h e most p a r t , r o u g h l y  C e r v a n t e s and  L o p e de  question  mid  the  for there  were n o t  only  modern  sixteenth and  was  lifetime  of  i s n a t u r a l l y complex:  c a n n o t m e a s u r e p r e c i s e l y when a c e r t a i n c h a n g e i n took place  became  pronunciation  seventeenth, during  the  standard  considered the  in  so-called  limited  in  most  Spanish  from  accomplished,  Vega. The  the  deviations  and  approximately quarter  of  distinctions.  pronunciation,  tion  (73),  the  distinctive  one  not  Consonants  4.1.2.1.  was  (208)  . . . i i t a ' l j a n o ] (311-312).  [dus'pwez]  4.1.2  conjunction  words w i t h  4.1.1.17.  becomes  [ma'sevu]  6 2  The  [e]  [ f f u ' z j o ] (302),  pronuncia-  c h r o n o l o g i c a l but  also  geographical  and  sociological  taken  into  c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A p h o n e t i c change p r o b a b l y t o o k r o o t i n one  area  then i n another, likely  d i d not  first  among one g e n e r a t i o n o r s o c i a l c l a s s ,  affect  a l l words o f t h e c l a s s  When Jews were c o m p e l l e d and A r a g o n i n t h e s p r i n g and S p a n i s h had  summer o f 1492,  revolution"  [/]/[_];  entailed  distinction  w i t h i n and  among t h e s e  relaxation  for  of  ease  pairs  element of each  and  the  and  time.  Castile  Castilian  c o n s i s t i n g of a [§]/[_].  loss  through  pronunciation—very  c o n s o n a n t a l development i n S p a n i s h — a n d voiced  same  Standard  each p a i r  contrast: [ts]/[dz];  "phonetic  at the  t o abandon t h e k i n g d o m s o f  three p a i r s of s i b i l a n t s ,  voiced/unvoiced subsequent  f a c t o r s w h i c h must be  of  The  phonemic  articulatory  important  for  through d e v o i c i n g of the  pair.  4.1.2.2. U n t i l t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , o r t h o g r a p h i c " g " b e f o r e /e/ and  / i / ) and  [dz] r e s p e c t i v e l y . of  the  plosive  6 3  " z " were a f f r i c a t e s , p r o n o u n c e d  The  element  w e a k e n i n g and  subsequent  (the v o i c e d a f f r i c a t e  in  the  Spanish  Standard  southern  Portuguese,  Spanish, [kono'sia] weakened  of  become (50)  a  t h e OSp.  [sin•kwenta]  corresponding  voiced  [pla'zer]  ['izu]  The  resulting  voiced  of  (327), the  (Sp.  fricative  the  [ s ] and  a f f r i c a t e has,  ['una  and  "hizo"),  [na'sido]  of  produced [di'ziamus]  preserved  in  i n Judeo-  element  [dz]  to  [ z ] . As  'yrasja] (334).  plosive  has  first  America,  [na'si] (6),  affricate (136)  Spanish  unvoiced  fricative:  articulation  (52),  Spain,  [ t s ] and  disappearance  was  u n d e r g o change) l e f t d e n t a l s i b i l a n t s p r o n o u n c e d  ("c"  the  (6), 6 4  The the [z]:  (289). old  voiced/unvoiced  contrast  h u n d r e d y e a r s ago. in  a  limited  affricate. heard  in  a  in  the  standard  of  words,  some J S p .  limited  of  the  plosive  dialects,  the  affricate  number  of  words,  [ dod2i]  (108)  f  t o a f r i c a t i v e has and  ['kizi]  nounced  [J].  Old  Spanish,  Judeo-Spanish,  v a t i v e n a t u r e , has  kept  i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y and Spanish  t h i s unvoiced  (16),  [d2uQa'ria] shift  the  [d2]  or  (73),  [dzu'dia] c f . Sp.  was  palatal  voiced  (149).  (212) ;  "g"  before  ['vjezu]  (16),  "judios,"  (296),  [dzu'djoz] but  /e/  As  can  be  [pur  6 7  seen,  maintained,  2e ara'sjon n  however,  (239)  i  2e ara'sjon n  case without  / i / :  (363);  (note  the  i t s preservation in  the  the o l d voiced/unvoiced  in this  [2]  and  ['o2us]  plosive  i  (218),  n  c o n t r a s t has  can  i n medial  2e ara'sjon]  a change i n  the  element  d i s a p p e a r e s p e c i a l l y when t h e phoneme i s s y n t a c t i c a l l y position:  The  phoneme,  1  n  pro-  fricative,  f e m i n i n e a d j e c t i v e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g ) , [ d z u ywavamos] [d2e eral'menti]  (78)  i n i t i a l l y or a f t e r a consonant, i n Old  [i'Sikuz]  (11),  in stress,  /dz/  [ka'torzi]  [ t i 'Qi/i]  corresponding  orthographically " j , "  [ka'leSa]  and  i n keeping with i t s h i g h l y conser-  maintained  also  still  /'dodzi/  o r t h o g r a p h i c "x"  a ,  has  is  i n o t h e r s , as i n t h e  (317),  h e a r d i n t h e r e c o r d i n g i n [ b a / u ] (21) and dialect  /dz/  this  6 5  In  6 6  of  [ ' t r e d S i ] (151). R e d u c t i o n o f  taken p l a c e i n ['ozi]  (165) .  4.1.2.3.  and  four  survival,  element  including  / ' t r e d z i / ; t h e phoneme i s h e a r d p a l a t a l i z e d recording:  language  Of e v e n g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e  number  In  lost  (308) .  again  articulation.  6 8  been 6 9  46 4.1.2.4. I n J u d e o - S p a n i s h , they  had been i n O l d Spanish,  which began i n t h e l a s t  [2] and [d_] were a l l o p h o n e s , a s until  century.  French  and I t a l i a n words w i t h i n t e r v o c a l i c e n t e r e d t h e d i a l e c t . As a r e s u l t , appear  i n t h e same  becoming s e p a r a t e 4.1.2.5. represented  positions,  t h e mid  by o r t h o g r a f i c  as w e l l  sibilant  (/§/),  words w i t h  /d_/(e.  initial  g. [ko'led2o]  [224])  s i n c e [2] a n d [d2] c o u l d  they  ceased  t o be  /2/  then  allophones,  phonemes.  Until  position  the intense Westernization  sixteenth  "s" i n i n i t i a l  a s by m e d i a l which  century,  " s s " , was  i t remains  t h e phoneme  and a b s o l u t e an u n v o i c e d  i n central,  final  alveolar  northern  e a s t e r n S p a i n , n o r t h e r n P o r t u g a l and s o u t h e r n F r a n c e .  and  I n Judeo-  S p a n i s h , however, a s i n t h e s p e e c h  o f much o f s o u t h e r n S p a i n , o f  Spanish  America  and i n S t a n d a r d  Portuguese,  become  dental  due  [prufa'sora] of  (138),  the corresponding  has m a i n t a i n e d contrast. again  to  ['esi]  the  influence  (120),  of  / s f (< / t s / ) :  [ s e r ] ( 2 5 ) . The p r e s e r v a t i o n  v o i c e d phoneme / z / , o r t h o g r a p h i c a l l y " s , "  i n Judeo-Spanish  dialects the old voiced/unvoiced  As o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e u n v o i c e d  a shift  t h e phoneme h a s  i n articulation  from  c o u n t e r p a r t , t h e r e was  alveolar  to dental  due t o  p h o n e t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e f r o m t h e phoneme r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e f o r m e r dental [kae'zo]  affricate (179),  ([z]  [bi'zar]  syntactic phonetics,  occurs  d  < [dz]):  ['kaza] ( 1 3 ) ,  (249).  4.1.2.6. T h e s i b i l a n t of  < [ z]  / s / i s v o i c e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e laws  a s i t was i n O l d S p a n i s h .  This  n o t o n l y where i t d o e s i n t h e s t a n d a r d modern  voicing  language,  i.  e. p r e c e d i n g  the  word—[sa'limuz  de]  voiced  [152],  consonant  ['estaz  doz  of  a  following  [200]—but  mil]  also  in  l i n k i n g w i t h t h e v o w e l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g word: ['kwantaz er'manaz •era/?]' (45),  [i'2ikoz  4.1.2.7. The to  modern  i i'2ikaz  The  of  the  accounts  f o r the  pronunciation  concerns  preservation, to  features  Old  Spanish  and,  in  this  Galician,  the  a  (80-81).  7 0  system  makes  of  of  of the  the  essential  i s what  archaic nature respect,  medieval  transformation  l a r g e degree,  phonetic  distinctive,  c l o s e r t o s i s t e r languages guese,  'd2untus]  fundamental a s p e c t of t h e change from  pronunciation  sibilants.  m  largely  Judeo-Spanish dialect  seem  and d i a l e c t s o f t h e P e n i n s u l a — P o r t u -  Leonese,  Aragonese,  Catalan—than  to  Modern  Castilian. 4.1.2.8.  Documentary  evidence  gathered  by  Amado  Alonso  7 1  r e v e a l s t h a t t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f o r t h o g r a p h i c "v" was,  i n the  l a t e Middle  weaker  A g e s , more o r  articulation. between t h e  It  also  articulation  l e s s a s E n g l i s h /v/,  indicates of  "v"  that  and  but  there  of  "b",  with  was  not  confusion  surprisingly,  which began i n t h e n o r t h , i n t h e r e g i o n of Burgos, c l o s e t o Basque that  country—this  the  Basques  emes—whence 1492,  the  the  existed  but  pronunciation [v], is  much  (327),  in  for  testimony  articulation  i t spread to the Centre  labiodental  [tu'vjeron]  significant,  confused  confusion  Spanish,  is  was  and  then  not  yet  preserved  evidence  of  in  [mo'ravamuz]  in the  (16),  the  to the  the  indicates two  phon-  South.  general.  The  Eastern  In old  Judeo-  transcription: ['dava]  (355),  48 [a'via]  ( 7 9 ) , ['uvo]  ( 1 1 3 ) . I n c a s e s where Sp.  o c c u r s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a a b r e a t h group, is  almost  heard mod.  heard:  [vo]  Sp.  [b] [b]  or of  norm,  [bi'vimuz]  pletely,  [6])  or  "b"  forms  of  Sp.  can (25),  4.1.2.9. as  be  [bi'vi]  Initial  (vb.)  "flores")  [a'vlandu] [a'vlava]  (65),  [a'zer] < p.  (26),  [b]  (178).  When  "nino")  (134), p.)  [e r m o ' z u r a ]  i n s t d . mod.  Nebrija:  [v]  [bi'vian]  is  [a'vlavan]  (107),  (180),  kept  (153),  i t is  [i»2ikuz] (115),  [er'moza]  to  (11),  or  lost  com-  [fa'mia] (91),  lost  (282), [ i ' 2 i k u ]  1  exception  phoneme i s p r e s e r v e d i n :  (257);  [ i z u ] (vb.)  The  (40).  (Sp. " f u i s t e " )  (222),  an  Sp.).  [bi'viamuz]  " f - " i s either  [fwedz]  (297), [a'vlamoz]  = Sp.  in  (25)/(prep.)  [•floriz]  in:  (30),  [fwe]  (159),  [a'vlar]  (1),  [a'vlavamus]  (287),  (dim. o f Sp.  "hijo";  (73),  [i'2ikaz]  [a'ziamoz] (263),  (218),  [er'mozos]  (74),  ['et/o] (253),  (261).  4.1.2.10.  Luria  reported the  Rhodes a s w e l l a s n e a r b y also  [v] i n s t e a d o f  although  S p a n i s h . The  (46),  (Sp.  [B]  "vivir,"  Latin  [efeliz'mente]  (n.  ['vinu]  (when  found  i n s t d . mod.  [•fwe r a j "  here  (1),  "v"  i n t h e r e c o r d i n g , i t r e p r e s e n t s Sp. o r t h o g r a p h i c "v" ( s t d .  initial this  always  orthographic  disappeared  in  C h i o s and  other  areas  loss  of  / f / < Lat. " f - " i n  Smyrna and of  the  noted t h a t  East  of  the  i t had former  Ottoman E m p i r e i n c l u d i n g C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , S o f i a , P a l e s t i n e , C a i r o and  A l e x a n d r i a . He  indicated  that,  i n the  phoneme had b e e n r e t a i n e d i n M o n a s t i r Bosnia,  for  example.  The  treatment  Western  region,  the  ( Y u g o s l a v i a ) , S a l o n i k a and of  Lat. " f - " therefore  49  d e p e n d e d on g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , sociological phoneme.  factors  also  influenced  The o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n  of Monastir  t h e phoneme b u t y o u n g e r p e o p l e in  imitation  modern  o f t h e speech  centre  where  would  e v e n mock  there  i s aspiration  the  tended  treatment  generally  that  of the preserved  t o e l i m i n a t e t h e phoneme  of Salonika,  an i m p o r t a n t  / f / was n o t m a i n t a i n e d  a n d more  consistently.  i t s r e t e n t i o n (Lur. 428-429). of i n i t i a l  he f o u n d  In other  They  areas,  L a t . " f - , " a s c a n be h e a r d  in  s o u t h a n d w e s t e r n S p a i n and S p a n i s h A m e r i c a . The t h r e e s t a g e s o f retention, current  aspiration  and  dialects.  and l o s s  historical  of / f / are a r e f l e c t i o n  situation  of  Hispanic  of the  languages  and  7 2  4 . 1 . 2 . 1 1 . P a l a t a l i z a t i o n o f / s / (> [J*]) may o c c u r b e f o r e an unvoiced  plosive,  [du/'pwez] occurs  the  7 4  This  phonetic  sixteenth-century  (Monastir  [bu'/kimuz]  environment 1  [e/]: [dizi'sej]  /insi/  also  occurred  in  i t i s common i n  7 3  be h e a r d i n  i s also palatalization i n front  > [fji]:  ( 7 ) . With regard  (133),  palatalization  [ L u r . 4 3 7 ] ) and c a n s t i l l  o f "yod" o r a h i g h (110);  change  Spanish;  I n a few i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e  [kwatru Jentuz] >  word).  and  Judeo-Spanish dialect.  injective:  ( 2 4 6 ) (Sp. " d e s p u e s , " t h e o n l y p l a c e  i n this  fifteenth-  i . e. when  vowel:  / s j / > [/]:  [prf/i'pal]  to the last  (70); /eis/  example,  there  i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p h o n e t i c i n f l u e n c e from Portuguese both i n the p a l a t a l i z a t i o n in  the f i r s t  Portuguese,  o f / - s / and i n t h e l a c k o f d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n  syllable sibilants  (cf. Ptg. "dezasseis" are  palatal  in  [ d a z a s a i j ]) . I n 1  word-final  position.  Cf.  also  ['era/]  ([•erajj]).  ['ki2u  heard  in  [va2a'tar]  [ja] and  (Sp. Sp. that the tion  zir]  this  (7) ( S p a n i s h  verb  (133) .  America  7 6  form  Cf. also  i n the  third  which forms p a r t o f t h e s t o c k would  as  use t h e p r e s e n t  tense:  t h e phoneme /2/ was  well  as  in  also  / viz" i ' t a r / :  [ «kwa2i] ( 1 3 ) .  In Judeo-Spanish,  a s i n much o f t h e S p a n i s h o f  and t h e P e n i n s u l a ,  palatal  t o " y o d " ( [ j ] ) ("yeismo") :  (311),  / l /  ([A]) h a s  [ j o ] ( 3 ) , [ja'mar]  7 7  been  (181),  [ a ' j a ] ( 6 9 ) . However, when [ j ] < [A] i s i n t e r v o c a l i c  not a t the beginning  group,  c f .Ptg. "ereis"  palatalized  [que]"). In O l d Spanish,  4.1.2.13.  reduced  / z / i s heard  o f Sp. " q u e r e r , " fl  "quiere decir  Latin  Voiced  singular  phrase  (Sp. " e r a i s " ) ,  7 5  4.1.2.12. person  (45)  of a  i t often disappears  "ella"),  [a'keus]  entirely:  (154)  " a q u e l l a . " The f o r m  stressed syllable [*kae]  with,  same p h o n e t i c d e v e l o p m e n t t o h a v e t a k e n i s found  [a'kea]  (30) (Sp. " f a m i l i a )  [ l j ] has t o have been i d e n t i f i e d  breath  ( 3 5 ) , [*ea] (147)  (Sp. " a q u e l l o s " ) ,  [fa'mia]  or a  (262),  indicates  o r become, [A] f o r place.  i n [ ' b i j a z ] (216) (< F r . " b i l l e s "  7 8  The excep-  [bij]).  4.1.2.14. The m u l t i p l e a l v e o l a r v i b r a n t / f / i s r e d u c e d a  single  vibration  position: ['roza]  [fe'rera]  (42), ['rika]  4.1.2.15. for  ("flap") (5),  (/r/) i n b o t h ['rodis]  ( 6 2 ) , ['gera]  English  initial  (6),  and  to  medial  [da'riva] (21),  (113).  interference  i s probably  [ r ] i n s t e a d o f [ r ] : ['propriu] (15).  responsible  51 4.1.2.16. V o i c e d corresponding  fricatives  pronunciation: [ra'binos] di]  gera] the  [b] :  (327),  (78),  beginning  a  a survival  from  i n a few  the  8 0  of  (48)  prosthetic  [to  form  "a"  Another  [fwedz],  dSu'Qia  ...]  and  8 1  [pir'mero]  [d]:  [a  language. has  i s common  a  (306) .  e'dad  (28),  [la  other than  nasal,  could  at  very  7 9  played  a  undergoes the shown  (the be  same k i n d  above:  latter  the  in  the  "fueste"  of metathesis  lu  ri'kodro]  evidence  later]  i s the  phrase  [mi  form  discussed  example  i n popular  role  or  the  (361),  either  of with  previously-mentioned  verb  [...  t u no  (Neb.  114,  fwedz 125)  a  la  has  'skola  undergone  / ' f w e t i s / . " F u e s t e ( s ) " c a n be f o u n d i n  resulting  /ts/ >  as  confusion  Through syncope of the p o s t t o n i c vowel,  vowel:  la  Judeo-  ( 9 1 ) . OSp.  of  (40),  forms which a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  cluster  /tis/  in liaison  [dz]. Metathesis  is  also  > /ts/  with  evident  the in  8 2  4.1.2.18. I n i t i a l adjectival  bi'vian]  [sma'goya]  after  Spanish  today,  p a r t of  then v o i c i n g  following  [ki  the  speech  m e t a t h e s i s t o become J S p . Leonese.  (25),  or  where  i n Modern  (142-143);  which  and  "acordar"  [[mi a r i ' k o o r o ]  "acordar").  the o l d  Spanish  "Recordar"  forms  expected  [g]:  group  Metathesis,  can  Spanish.  (69);  breath  of  seen  be  a r t i c u l a t i o n of voiced p l o s i v e s ,  development be  would  f r e q u e n t l y heard  [ j a bi'vimuz]  di]  of  4.1.2.17.  are  [ba'stante bje]  ['era  ( 1 1 3 ) . The  w e l l be  plosives  /n/  i s pronounced  forms of the f i r s t  [m]  person p l u r a l :  i n pronominal [mu'zotrus]  and  (243),  52 [mus]  (152),  ['mwesas] (127) ;  and  8 3  [ t u r ' n o d i 'mwevo a l a r o ' d e z i a ] 4.1.2.19. Sp.  An i n t r u s i v e  "mucho,"  (Sala,  and  in  148-149, 24.3.,  istically  in  the  a d j . ['mwevo] :  (179).  nasal  i s heard  "ambi'zava"  n. 1 2 1 ) . B o t h  i n ['munt/u]  (121) forms  (71),  (see §4.3.1.3) are character-  Judeo-Spanish.  4.1.2.20. T h e v e l a r i z a t i o n o f f i n a l /n/ a s i n [erj e l ] (103) is  common i n v a r i e t i e s 4.1.2.21.  [ke r a ' b i n u ] e  Standard  o f Modern  Assimilation  (348-349),  Spanish  Spanish. of  / l / to / r /  occurs  in  Sp. "que e l r a b i n o . " T h e same o c c u r s i n  i n which  initial  / r / , however,  is a  multiple  vibrant. 4.1.2.22. I n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n p l u r a l o f t h e i m p e r f e c t t e n s e of  Sp. " j u g a r , "  [-'ya-]  p h o n e t i c c h a n g e commonly (e.  4.2.  > [-ywa]:  [d2u*ywavamos]  (218).  This  o c c u r s i n o t h e r words i n J u d e o - S p a n i s h  g. [ l u ' y w a r ] ) .  Morphology  4.2.1. language  Grammatical  during  forms  t h e course  which  died  out i n the standard  of the sixteenth  and  seventeenth  c e n t u r i e s l i v e on i n P e n i n s u l a r d i a l e c t s a n d i n S p a n i s h but  8 4  Judeo-Spanish  apparent  exhibits  a f a r g r e a t e r number  America,  of archaisms,  i n c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f i t s morphology. I n t h e r e c o r d i n g  one  hears:  Sp.  [soi].  [ v o ] (1) i n s t e a d  o f Sp. [ b o i ] ,  T h e I i / o f Modern S p a n i s h became  and  [ s o ] (3) f o r  the standard  after  53 the  Expulsion probably  emphatic first  "soy  person  yo"  and  then  singular  4.2.2. O t h e r  through  false  spread,  forms ending  verb  veiamos," the  (Wagner, 110,  / i / o f Sp. 4.2.3.  forms.  The  third, Sp.  n. 4 )  The  preterite  first  person  [mi  "fuimos,"  fwe  of  J  o]  •andi  tense  tive:  the  other  8 5  recording also (265) , Sp.  ['era/]  shows  take  (45),  "nos  without  language. some  interesting  [ s i fwe]  i s heard.  (170). As  the  Instead  of  mentioned  above,  / ' f w e t i s / becomes [ f w e d z ]  through  8 7  voicing. first  of the  ['iamus]  [*iSa],  and  persons  are  (339-340);  ['ia]:  singular  of the  [jo ' i a a  the p l u r a l  imper-  l a sina'yoya  o f t h e same v e r b i s  ( 6 7 ) . T h e r e i s no t r a c e o f t h e S t d . Sp.  ['iBamos].  4.2.5. The  third  same v e r b  ' i a e l ra'bino]  h e a r d as  "ir"  to  common  i s e v e r y w h e r e t h e same a s  (159),  [•fwemuz] (132)  4.2.4. The fect  Sp.  the  /o/.  'viamuz]  and  8 6  singular  t h e c u r i o u s m e t a t h e s i z e d JSp. and  i n the  [mus  of  analogy,  " e r a i s , " were common i n t h e o l d  e. g.  syncope  by  i n stressed  forms heard  t h e l i s t e n e r back t o O l d S p a n i s h :  division  frica-  88  preterite  endings  of the f i r s t  person  singular  and p l u r a l o f " - a r " v e r b s a r e a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f J u d e o Spanish: they  a r e t h e same a s  ir."  h a v e come a b o u t  T h i s may  preterite  of the  first  f o r verbs ending  i n " - e r " and  through a need t o d i s t i n g u i s h  person p l u r a l  which then  of  t h e r e c o r d i n g d e a l s w i t h t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' l i f e on Rhodes, tense  is  used  frequently.  person  Some  the  the present, the / i /  of  past  spread to the f i r s t  from  "-  singular.  "-ar"-verb  8 9  S i n c e most  forms  the are:  54 [komen'si]  ( 8 6 ) , [ s k a ' p i ] (156) ( s t d . Sp. " t e r m i n e , "  [tru'kimuz] (std.  (12),  [bu'/kimuz]  Sp. " a p r e n d i m o s " ) , [ v i 2a t i m u z ]  ['kreyu] "creyo" Cat.  (263)  [amba'zimuz]  (139)  (135).  1  4.2.6. The f i r s t  p e r s o n s i n g u l a r o f Sp. " c r e e r " i s h e a r d a s  or  as  (ZamV. 262)  and  ['kreiu] the  (176).  unvoiced  Cf. Ara. "crego," velar  plosive  in  "crec." 4.2.7.  spread in  (133),  "acabe"),  The p r e f i x i n g  i n O l d Spanish  several  prefixed  than  nonstandard to  [api'yaoa]  a  past  o f / a - / and / e n - / ,  much  i n t h e modern l a n g u a g e ,  forms.  The  preposition  participle,  used  an  to  a  conjunction:  Sp.  "levantar:  [asa'yun]  (130),  [ s i alvan'tava  'entre  is  found  adjective:  [a'serka] (15);  Sp. " s e g u n " ; la  wide-  i s revealed  "a"  as  ( 1 5 ) , Sp. "pegada"; t o a p r e p o s i t i o n :  more  'notji]  to  verbs:  (20),  [muz  a l v a n ' ta amos]  (352) ; Sp. " r e c o r d a r " : [mi a r i ' k o f i r o d i t i ] ( 4 8 ) ,  although  t h e / a / may  a  v  here,  t h e commonly u s e d tion  "en"  [le ve'rano] n  analogy  /akodrarse/  appears (254) ,  9 0  'klaru]  prefixed  w i t h Sp. " i n v i e r n o . "  before (348),  never  adjectives ['tantu  of I t a l i a n .  confusion  with  to  Sp. " v e r a n o "  in  f o r m w h i c h h a s d e v e l o p e d by  9 1  t h e apocopated, and  impo'nente]  w i t h t h e a d j e c t i v a l use of the f u l l influence  through  (< Sp. " a c o r d a r s e " ) . The p r e p o s i -  a Judeo-Spanish  4.2.8. The f u l l , used  have a r i s e n  adverbs: (351),  form  of "tanto" i s  ['tantu probably  form o r , perhaps,  by  'tantu analogy  due t o t h e  55 4.2.9. A s c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e f o r m required  after  t h e semivowel  /i/  [leiz]  ( 2 7 3 ) , no / e / i s  t o make t h e p l u r a l ,  as i n the  modern, more s t a n d a r d i z e d l a n g u a g e  ( c f . Sp. [ ' l e j e s ] ) ,  the  i n the singular,  semivowel,  semiconsonant  i n final  position  i n medial p o s i t i o n  i n which  becomes  a  i n the plural.  4.2.10. One a l s o n o t i c e s d i v e r g e n c e f r o m  Standard  Spanish  c o n c e r n i n g noun s u f f i x e s . From t h e Sp. " c h i c o , " f r e q u e n t l y h e a r d in  the recording,  adjective  and  [t/i'kez]  frequently heard  i n the recording  a  derived  noun,  is  the  Sp. " r e c i b i m i e n t o , " 4.2.11.  [i'2iku]  The  (222),  diminutive  Peninsula  diminutive  [ t / i k i • tikus] /-iko/  9 2  suffix  used  (73), [i'2ikaz]  is  /-iko/:  (74); the  (67), has t h e i n f i x  /ti/  double  as i n  i s nowadays l a r g e l y d i a l e c t a l  and i s c o n s i d e r e d a t y p i c a l  language  by i t s c o n t e n d e r ,  4.2.12. The o r d i n a l /-eno/  ordinal  suffix  common  [kwar'tenu]  feature  Std.  i n the  o f Aragonese. I t  the  /-ito/. ( 3 2 ) , Sp. " c u a r t o , "  i n pop. O l d S p a n i s h ,  used  to  shows form  numbers f r o m t h r e e t o t e n .  4.2.13. The s u f f i x / ' i 2 o / to  (136) c o n t r a s t s  v e r y common i n O l d S p a n i s h b u t was e v e n t u a l l y o u s t e d i n t h e  standard  the  "recepcion."  [_'_ikuz]  S p a n i s h . The s u f f i x  was  nonstandard  ( 1 0 4 ) , c f . Sp. " n i f i e z , " f o r m e d f r o m " n i f i o " i n t h e same  manner. The f o r m a t i o n o f t h e noun [ r i s i v i ' d u r a ] with  b o t h a s an  stem  (/empe'si_o/)  of  /empe'sar/  ( c f . Sp. " - i j o " to  form  [(al)  ['ixo])  i s added  empa'Ji o] J  (Wagner 104, n. 1 ) , Sp. " ( a l ) p r i n c i p i o . "  (72)  56  The  4.2.14. I n s t e a d o f  Sp.  Standard  form  (Wagner, 81,  Spanish n.  3;  Lur.,  "conmigo" one is  467,  not  shows  hears  used  [ko ml]  in  "[kun  (162).  Judeo-Spanish  mi],  [kun t i ] "  for  Monastir). 4.2.15. By a n a l o g y become / a / of  in  w i t h most f e m i n i n e n o u n s , f i n a l  ['klasa]  (65).  The  analogical  /e/  has  transformation  / - e / t o / - a / i n f e m i n i n e nouns and a d j e c t i v e s , v e r y common i n  Judeo-Spanish, (cf. Ara.  is  a  feature  of  Aragonese  "granda").  4.2.16. The ning  also  with  definite  "a",  [la'merika]  whether  (189),  article  before  stressed  or  feminine  nouns  unstressed,  [ l a r d 2 e n ' t i n a ] (189),  begin-  is "la":  ['lafrika]  (191).  9 3  4.2.17. The m a s c u l i n e p e r s o n a l d i r e c t o b j e c t i s n e v e r " l e , " as  i t i s commonly  e Q e ' l a n t r e Qe 4.2.18.  i n Spain,  miz  The  'o2us] suffix  I t a l i a n morphological  a l w a y s / l o / ( " l o i s m o " ) : [ l o 'terjgo  (362-363). of  the  noun  [ma2ori'ta]  i n t e r f e r e n c e ( c f . Sp.  (313)  "mayoria"),  shows 9 4  4.2.19. The u s e o f p r e p o s i t i o n s sometimes d i f f e r s f r o m t h a t of Standard  Modern  4.2.20. "De" with  the  'una  er'mana  Spanish. appears  disjunctive mas  instead of  instead of  't/ika  Qi  mi]  the  "que"  subject  (32-33) . T h i s  l i k e a c a i q u e on t h e I t a l i a n c o m p a r a t i v e i n s t e a d o f " p o r que" (170-171).  i s heard  i n the  comparative,  pronoun:  very  much  c o n s t r u c t i o n . "De  que"  i n [ d i ke s i fwe  looks  [ti 'nia  a l a ro'dezia?]  -  57 4.2.21. found  but  where  employed, ver]  There one  contrary  (133-134),  an i t a l i a n i s m fare  i s not to  because  standard  la  i'2ikoz  addition  standard •dSuntuz]  'skola  [ l a 'prima  kon en  [ez  Italian  "De"  is  mtere'santi  6i  certainly  (cf. "cercare  replaces the  mis  'padrez  in  'd2untus]  'd2untus] ( 6 4 - 6 5 ) ,  "en"  where  language;  [muz  native  no  [ l a 'klasa  (80-81);  preposition  (47-48), 'mwesra  "a" i s a l s o  i s required  enkon'travamus  'todoz  found in  a  the ain  (75-76). With  "acordarse  when t h e o b j e c t p r o n o u n la'kodru]  (24-25),  ( c f . Sp.  "esta  preposition  i s also  absent  is  i n the standard  required 4.2.23.  differently (20)  Other from and  in  de,"  the  preposition  i s omitted  i s used, which precedes t h e v e r b :  "recordar"  •not/i]  in  Spanish.  is  'koza k i . . . bu/'kimuz d i  i i ' 2 i k a z i n 'd2untus] to  4.2.22.  me  usage,  preposition  "En" i s h e a r d w i t h " j u n t o s " i n [des'pwes k e  ['iamuz  a  a  i n Standard  q u a l c o s a " ) . T h i s c a i q u e on  depor'tados  'kaza  used  i n which  of t h e v e r b i t accompanies  •fweramoz  in  cases  the use of the p r e p o s i t i o n i s almost  S p a n i s h " t r a t a r de."  •era  also  (194). In the phrase  a'zer]  di  are  p r o b a b l y by casa  i n [a'kel  [ p u r dal  with  the  verb  acuerdo  de  ella").  The  'tjempo]  ( 8 8 ) , where  "en"  language.  examples the  me  analogy  ['esta  of  standard 'todo]  prepositions language  (50)  i n the  being  are:  ['entre  sense  of  Sp.  used la "en  absolute " 4.2.24. "Muy" in  [mwi  'muntjo]  i s u s e d a s an i n t e n s i f i e r i n s t e a d o f " - i s i m o " (262)  ( c f . Sp.  "muchisimo").  58 4.2.25. E n g l i s h i n t e r f e r e n c e i s e v i d e n t i n t h e non-Romance use  o f t h e o r d i n a l number, a s w e l l a s t h e p r e p o s i t i o n p r e c e d i n g  it,  f o r the date: 4.2.26.  [na'si i n si'yundu  On  occasion,  a  subject,  b u t w i t h t h e sense  uncommon  i n popular  speech  does  not  o f what i s b e i n g  said.  with i t s  This i s not  4.2.27. Examples from t h e r e c o r d i n g a r e : [ l a mas  'parti s i  4.2.28. final  /n/  conjugated  analogy  forms.  invariable,  'parti]  (202),  (305-306), and [ l o k e k e ' d a r o n  i n ['para with  a ,  zersin  the t h i r d  Grammatically,  b u t agreement  utterance.  l a mas  r o  ['una  'fweron  (204).  The v e r b  by  [ s i muri'e  'fweron]  d o ' z j e n t a s par'sonas]  i n the Peninsula  agree  TAmericas.  •yrandi par'tifla  4.3.  verb  (6-7).  and t h e  •fwero l a e v o ' r a r ] ( 1 6 5 ) ,  the  d i fevri'e]  person  the  i s sought  'tit/rs]  (231)  plural  infinitive  shows  marker  must  of  remain  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e sense  of  9 5  Lexicon  4.3.1 O l d S p a n i s h  4.3.1.1. fallen has  Much  of  the  lexicon  out o f use i n the standard  been p r e s e r v e d  4.3.1.2. OSp. [ma'sevu] ['pretu]  i n t h e everyday  of  Old Spanish  language over speech  (227),  as  is  Sp. " n e g r o , "  the here  the centuries,  i n the recording:  OSp. a d j e c t i v e used  has  o f t h e Sephardim.  "mancebo," Sp. " j o v e n , " i s h e a r d  (208);  which  as a noun.  96  "prieto":  59 4.3.1.2. 24.3., n. in  The  121)  < OSp.  the recording  Sp.  el  "abezar"  "ensefiar":  a 'vlar]  (311) .  a  [muz  9 9  back  to  recording: (55).  1 0 1  en  la  restricted  in  the  commercial)  general  meaning  [tru'kimuz]  amba'zimuz  (sic)  can  el  fra'sez  vera'mente  a  also  "to  [muz  (12),  Spanish.  language  Sp.  by  "vivir"  dSuQa'ria std. of  "to of  OSp.  "morar,"  "vivir,"  ambi'zavan  Sp.  to  "cambiar"  [ s i t r o ' k o ] (261-262) ;  has  in 1 0 2  and  J  centuries,  OSp.  i s h e a r d as  not  [a'ywera]  used  d i p h t h o n g i z e d by a n a l o g y w i t h t h e s t r e s s e d forms  i n the  language.  1 0 4  Only  i n t h e r e c o r d i n g . A n o t h e r OSp.  /we/  sense:  sense the  Judeo-Spanish: Sp. " h e n c h i r s e "  /o/  ['to oz fl  1 0 3  Spanish  for  h a v i n g been  o f s o many o t h e r  the d i p h t h o n g i z e d form adverb,  the  retained  i n Standard  (8), s t r e s s e d  in  the  6i m a r y a ' r i t a z ] (256-257) .  "agora,"  the  semantically  convey  change,"  in  (35),  i n t h e same  "trocar,"  language  exchange,  heard  [mo'rava]  i s a l s o used  mod.  replaced  i s often  (16),  (11).  Sp.  'kampos s i 3 ' t f i a n a * a 4.3.1.4.  te  teach,"  i s u s e d where S t a n d a r d S p a n i s h w o u l d r e q u i r e " l l e n a r s e " : los  a'vlar  tam'bje  mean  i ' b r e o ] (121);  [mo'ravamuz]  [bi'viamuz  (esp.  ambi'zavamuz  learn,"  i n which c e r t a i n v e r b s a r e used t a k e s t h e  Old  colloquial  [mu'ravaz]  or "to teach"  1 0 0  4.3.1.3. The way listener  [muz  verb  ambi'zava  148-149,  i n the sense of " t o  ['greyus The  9 8  Sala,  means " t o l e a r n "  [muz  (138-139),  (314-315) .  2  (Lur. §169;  When i t i s u s e d  i l e ' b r e o ] (88-89),  ambi'zava ]  modern  /ambi'zar/  i t i s reflexive:  fra'sez]  Sp.  9 7  "aprender,"  tam'bjen  verb  "onde," i s h e a r d  i s heard several  times: Ptg.  ['ondi]  (202). T h i s p r i m i t i v e form has been p r e s e r v e d i n  "onde." I n mod. S p a n i s h ,  however,  i t h a s b e e n r e p l a c e d by  "donde," t h e p r e p o s i t i o n w h i c h o f t e n p r e c e d e d lost  t h e adverb  having  i t s meaning. 4.3.1.5.  Modern S p a n i s h  The Sp. c o n j u n c t i o n b u t no l o n g e r u s e d  "mas,"  employed  colloquially,  i n written  i s heard  i n t h e r e c o r d i n g : [ ' e r a ' s t r i k t a mas k a ' r i d a d i ' t o d o s ] in the f i l l e r  phrase  [mas 'kwalo]  (100).  twice  (145) a n d  1 0 5  4.3.2 H i s p a n i c L a n g u a g e s and D i a l e c t s  4.3.2.1. T h e noun [ k a * l e _ a ] (16) i s h e a r d in  i n Judeo-Spanish  a r e a s a s f a r a p a r t a s B o s n i a and M o r o c c o . T h e f o r m  reduction Cf.  o f /A./ t o / l /  Gal. "calexa,"  1 0 6  ( c f . Sp. " c a l l e j a "  Salamancan  "caleja,"  shows t h e  [= " c a l l e j u e l a " ]) . A s t . " c a l e y a " (see  ZamV. 356, 3 7 1 ) . 4.3.2.2. prefixed input mean  heard  i s the  with the preposition  ( a s i n mod. Sp. " d o n d e " ) : not only  these  Gal./Ptg. adverb  "de" w h i c h h a s l o s t [da'inda]  Sp. " t o d a v l a " b u t a l s o  s t a n d a r d forms i s encountered  4.3.3.  /a'inda/  i t s semantic  ( 1 4 2 ) . The a d v e r b c a n  "ademas;  1,107  neither of  i n the recording.  Italian  4.3.3.1. Mr.  Often  Understandably,  and Mrs. F e r e r a • s l e x i c o n  there as both  i s Italian  influence  i n f o r m a n t s were  on  educated  61 in that  language,  i n w h i c h t h e y h a v e worked a n d w i t h w h i c h  have m a i n t a i n e d c o n t a c t . 4.3.3.2. (It. Sp. (<  Nominal  "dovere,"  Sp.  "segno,"  zvilu'po]  [laevo'rar] [tur'no] (cf.  Sp.  forms  (262),  (164),  (177),  [kum'pafiuz] (161)  [im'pero]  ['sefiu]  (307)  (352)  ( I t . "impero,"  Sp. Sp.  used  come d i r e c t l y "se  ha  "trabajar"; in  the  from  Italian are:  desarrollado"; and,  1 1 0  sense  1 0 9  probably,  of  Sp.  "volvio"  I t . "tornare").  pure  Italian  'kaza]  (13),  •gera]  (176).  as  often  (146)  "verdaderamente"). adverbially  'prima  Very  [vera'menti]  [kwal'siasi]  i s ['prima],  [la  4.3.3.5.  which  'koza]  ( 5 9 ) , Sp. appears  (13 3)  encountered  from I t a l i a n  i n [ l a 'prima  and  [la  is  ( I t ."veramente,"  Also  "cualquier,"  Sp.  'prima  the  adverb  "realmente,"  i s ['propriu] (276), used  i n t h e s e n s e o f Sp. "mismo."  4.3.3.6. "hacia":  The I t . p r e p o s i t i o n ['vers  milnyv ' sjentz 1  4.3.3.7. It.  ( I t . "campagna,"  "compafieros"),  that  4.3.3.4. The a d j e c t i v e  il  a r e : [ d o ' v e r e ] (245)  "imperio").  [si  Sp.  Italian  (241) ( I t . " s a b a t o " ) ,  Sp. " s e f i a l " ) ,  4.3.3.3. V e r b  is  from  Sp. " d e b e r " ) , [kam'paha] (257)  I t . "compagno,"  (It.  1 0 8  forms  "campo"), [ ' s a b a t o ]  they  "siccome."  i s heard  instead  of  ... nu s e 'kwa o eyzaekta'menti, ' k r e o y e i n a  Y  i 'sirjku, m i l n y v ' s j e n t z  The In  0  "verso"  1  conjunction accordance  with  u  i s e j ] (172-173).  [si'komu] the  (313)  dialect's  is  from  phonology,  62 g e m i n a t i o n h a s been r e d u c e d t o a s i n g l e consonant.  Final  replaced  heard  /e/ by a n a l o g y  conjunction place  ' r o d i z  nor'tafrika,  4.3.4  i t also  1 1 1  ma  .  .  ...] (226-227) .  takes the  r e p l a c e s Sp. " s i n o " : .  i s the  [no  'solo  d e l  e '2 ip t u ,  d e l  influence  c a n be o b s e r v e d  i n the  1 1 2  French  4.3.4.1. nouns  French  [fevri'e]  [ p l a . ]  (58)  [suve'nires] [i'levaz] ['bijaz]  lexical  (7) < F r . " f e v r i e r "  <  F r .  (Sp. " f e b r e r o " ) ;  " p l a g e "  ( S p .  (252) < F r . " s o u v e n i r " (234)  <  l a z  [re'yreto] < Fr. "regret": . . .] (268-269)  (Sp.  (Sp. " b o l a s , "  a  "p 1a y a " );  (Sp. " r e c u e r d o s " ) ;  F r . "eleve"  < Fr. "billes"  [d2u'ywavamoz  ke  /'komu/. R e p e a t e d l y  [ma] (71) ( I t . "ma"), w h i c h a l m o s t a l w a y s  o f Sp. " p e r o " ;  d i  with  [u] h a s  "alumnos");  Eng. "marbles")  ' b i j a z ]  (216);  in and  [ e l r e ' y r e t o maz ' y r a n d e y e 'terjgo e s  ( c f . Sp. "de  lo  que  mas  me  arrepiento  e s que ...") 4.3.4.2. [aparte'nia] 4.3.4.3. be 12]  A  g a l l i c i z e d  verb  form  (109) < F r . " a p p a r t e n i r " (Sp. " p e r t e n e c i a " ) . The  Fr. adjective  "beige"  i s heard  i n [ 'korjgo  ( 1 9 2 ) , Sp. "Congo B e l g a . " S i n c e t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' s c h o o l i n g  was n o t i n S p a n i s h and t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d has  i s :  been  limited,  t h e y may n o t know t h e S p a n i s h  language  names o f some  countries  that  Sephardic  c o m m u n i t i e s and  4.3.4.4.  came i n t o b e i n g a f t e r  The  relations  t h e P e n i n s u l a were l a r g e l y  phrase  [ l a mas  'parti]  (165)  s y n t a c t i c c a i q u e on F r . " l a p l u p a r t " ( c f . Sp. "la  mayoria").  vera'menti  sense  di'mandava  suggests Eng.  The  a  of  on  un  that  Ultimately,  4.3.5  be  a  'ombri k i  (Sp. " e x i g l a " )  F r . "demander"  and/or  113  4.3.4.5. The s t r e s s e d f i n a l s y l l a b l e o f [ f u t ' b o l ] indicate  to  " l a mayor p a r t e , "  [diman'dava] i n ['era  caique  severed.  seems  r i ' s p e k t u ] (332-333)  semantic  "demand."  between e a s t e r n  the  noun  of course,  entered  the  language  (218)  via  may  French.  i t i s an a n g l i c i s m .  English  4.3.5.1. E n g l i s h p l a y s a much l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e dialogue than w o r d s and  Italian  and  French.  phrases heard are e i t h e r  p l a c e o f a pause w h i l e the speaker  The  vast majority of  filler  i n the English  words, w h i c h t a k e  gathers h i s thoughts,  or  the are  c h a t t y r e m a r k s commonly made i n t h e c o u r s e o f a c o n v e r s a t i o n . 4.3.5.2. E x a m p l e s o f f i l l e r anything meaningful jo]  to the dialogue, are:  (3), immediately Am]  5a nau]  "I don't  [o  wel]  (53);  Eng.  [ s o ] i n [ s o v o am'psar  f o l l o w e d , i n ( 2 0 8 ) , by t h e t r a n s l a t i o n  ma'nera ke] ; ['and (266),  words, w h i c h do n o t c o n t r i b u t e  [ j u : no]  (24)  and  i t s many p h o n e t i c v a r i a n t s ; [ a i  know";  (326).  [de  [wel]  (285)  ['wel  a]  (101),  64 4.3.5.3. Common r e m a r k s i n E n g l i s h ,  l i k e the f i l l e r  a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y h e a r d : [ j e s ] ( 9 3 ) , [ jae: ] (319) and quick EF:  succession:  [ra:at]  EF:  performing  a  variety  (101);  instantly  translated:  of  [al'redi]  English  has  functions, (207);  turn  [ i n daet] w  a  Spanish  slipped  out,  [f  interesting to  their  •faektu] ( 1 3 5 ) ;  al'redi] meaning  (207); of  hybrid  the  English  [su'burbz]  [ma'raj]  with  (159)  (158), which  the  daets] ,  (204-205.  may  be  such  a n a t u r a l part of  their  usually  of  an  English  native  redundant  is  [and  since  a  is  repeatedly:  once  consisting  speech  phrases,  given  not  commonly-used words and p h r a s e s a r e now An  'todo]  equivalent  i t is  up  (240);  d  [and daets, 'eso f e  4.3.5.5. A l t h o u g h  adapted  [abso'lutli]/  f r e q u e n t l y - u s e d E n g l i s h w o r d s and  [3f k o r s ]  speech.  RF:  ... t h r e e i n  (3-5).  4.3.5.4. O t h e r  the  [...oo'ke?]/  words,  phrase  suffix  in  [ja  is  te'nia  supplied  to  explain  the  speaker  had  already  used  spontaneously. 4.3.5.6. G i v e n t h a t b o t h i n f o r m a n t s a r e f l u e n t its  presence  surprising;  in their both  as  i n f o r m a n t s have  a r e a s where E n g l i s h 4.3.5.7.  speech,  The  described s p e n t most  i s the o f f i c i a l interference  is  E n g l i s h word t a k e s t h e p l a c e o f one example latter Sp.  in may  ['titjrs] almost  "Nueva Y o r k , "  (231)  be  or  j  above, of  is  hardly  their  lives  in  significant  when  an  language. more  i n the native  language.  For  [ ' p i k n i k s ] (258),  although  the  considered  [njy ork]  i n English,  (190)  international. i s heard.  Rather  than  65 4.3.6  Hebrew  4.3.6.1. The  f o l l o w i n g examples f r o m t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Jewish r e l i g i o u s observance most Sp.  of  the  Hebrew  "s&bado"  [Ja'bat]  (from  borrowings Hebrew  Judeo-Spanish.  114  t h e i n f o r m a n t p r o v i d e s n o t Sp.  (Wagner, 82, n. "sabado"  4)  as  Instead  t h r o u g h L a t . "sabbStum")  "nilVJ"  (241) < Heb.  in  and c u s t o m s ,  are  one  are of  hears  Interestingly,  but I t . ['sabato]  (241)  as t h e e q u i v a l e n t f o r [ J a ' b a t ] . Spanish i s not used t o d e s i g n a t e either  Saturday  Arabic  f o r the  [Ja'batis] suffix  Sunday:  latter  Hebrew  i s used  ( s e e § 4 . 3 . 8 ) . The  f o r the  plural  (353)  < Heb.  [Ja'bat]  1 1 5  is  Another  "il2ri,"  Hebrew  borrowing  is  the r e a d i n g c h a i r i n t h e synagogue.  Turkish  4.3.7.1. Crews, n.  The  862;  noun  Wagner, 87,  [t/ar'/i]  n.  15)  (57)  (< T r k .  sold.  (Lur.,  "carsi")  m a r k e t where many k i n d s o f g o o d s — a l t h o u g h  not  §176;  i s a kind  of  provisions—are  1 1 6  4.3.7.2. Crews, n. Nehama under  of  former,  ( 2 3 4 ) , a r e g u l a r S p a n i s h f o r m a t i o n ( t h e Hebrew p l u r a l i s "-im").  [te'va]  4.3.7  or  The  588),  lists which  "'maintenant,  adverb  Sp.  "en  "/pi'Jin/" he de  gives suite,  [pi'Jin]  seguida," but  refers  the  is the  following  tout  de  (66)  heard  several  reader to primary  suite,  (Wagner  66;  times.  "/pe'Jin/," definition:  sur-le-champ,  a  1 ' i n s t a n t 'todus muz  si  1  1  T h i s i s the  7  'fweron  ambi'zavan  tam'bjen] 5  Occasionally  he  "mismo," Eng. 'kaza  d2u'5ia] 'gera]  4.3.8  a  a  'vlar  Only  gives  "just,"  'mia]  (175-176).  (163-164);  fra'ses in  Mr.  i t  the  "right":  (27-28);  (67-68);  i  and  (352).  v  la  p i ' J i n as l a s v o ' r a r ]  (311-312);  al van'ta amos]  meaning e x p r e s s e d i n [ l u z ' o t r u s  1 1 8  . . .  i  ita'ljano  ['toSus  Ferera sense  uses  of  ['iamus  <pji this  Sp.  [ l a 'skola  [pi'Jin  ['era p j i n j a  adverb.  "precisamente,"  'era p j i n  pa'Jin  'antiz  muz  api'ya6a a  a  6e  la la  'prima  1 1 9  Arabic  4.3.8.1. The o n l y A r a b i c c o n t r i b u t i o n w h i c h a p p e a r s transcription [al'/ad]  (242)  c o n s o n a n t may the  is  perhaps  (Crews,  nn.  be d e v o i c e d >  the 45,  best-known 203),  Sp.  in  as t o o  i n the  Judeo-Spanish:  "domingo."  The  final  [ t ] i n J u d e o - S p a n i s h . Even p r i o r  E x p u l s i o n , t h e A r a b i c i n s t e a d o f t h e S p a n i s h word  4.3.9  'skola  to  (perceived  Christian).  Greek  4.3.9.1. "meldar"  Characteristically  (Wagner 8 3 ) ,  Sp.  "leer":  Judeo-Romance [sa'viamuz  i ' b r e u ta'mje b a ' s t a n t e , b a ' s t a n t e b j e n ]  the  verb  mil'dar . . .  ( 3 2 1 ) , Sp.  v e r b e n t e r e d t h e s p e e c h o f S p a n i s h Jews p r i o r  is  "leer"  to the  in  . The  Expulsion  67 (< l a t e  L a t . " m e l e t a r e " < G r . "/xeAeTav" < "ntk$T ")  . I t exists  n  i n o t h e r Romance l a n g u a g e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  t h e Jews and  t h e b a s i c m e a n i n g o f Eng. " t e a c h , " " s t u d y , " " r e a d . " o r i g i n a l l y meant  1 2 0  has  "Meldar"  " t o r e a d t h e J e w i s h s a c r e d t e x t s " and l a t e r ,  by  e x t e n s i o n , s i m p l y " t o r e a d " (Wagner, 32, n. 1 ) . The l a t t e r , more general  meaning  recording  since  4.3.9.2.  i s suggested " i n Hebrew"  The noun  b o r r o w i n g from Greek.  4.4.  by  the  above  example  from  the  i s specified.  [man'draki]  (58) a p p e a r s t o be a  I t i s " t h e p o r t o f Rhodes"  (Angel  direct 112).  1 2 1  Semantics  4.4.1. /a'zer/,  The  i s used  'asnuz, j a t e ' n i a 4.4.2. hears  un  Instead  ka'torzi  ['etjo],  'et/o b a ' s t a n t ^ i  (279).  the  past  participle  (Wagner, 'anus,  e. g. 70,  ska'pavamuz: dSu'dia]  "terminar, n. 1 1 ) : no  (156);  a'via ['para  1 2 2  "acabar,"  [a  l a e'dad maz]  of  'kwantuz  'bweno] (180-181) .  o f t h e Sp. v e r b  ['kwandu s k a ' p i l a ' s k o l a i'studiuz]  from  a s Eng. " j o b " i n [dus'pwez S i 'unus  /(e)skapar/  'tre 2i, d  noun  one di  (78-79);  ska'par  luz  68 5.  The lexical  Glossary  f o l l o w i n g glossary i s intended guide  t o the t r a n s c r i p t i o n .  p r i m a r i l y as  Proper  a  names h a v e  g e n e r a l l y been i n c l u d e d ; nor have forms which a r e t h e predictable phonetic the  appropriate  and  morphological  the  list  from t h e i r  lexical  phonemically. orthographic definitions  d o e s sometimes c o n t a i n f o r m s  Standard  Modern S p a n i s h  i n the  items  in  and  differ  equivalents  to  s e l e c t e d have been t r a n s c r i b e d  E q u i v a l e n t Standard  Spanish  s c r i p t h a v e been p r o v i d e d a p p e a r on  equivalences  and  the r i g h t .  d e f i n i t i o n s are  transcription  terms/expressions  under the  /a'gwera/  (8)  adv.  (< OSp.)  i n context.  i n w h i c h an  item  The  first  "now"  "ahora" (154)  "aquellos"  adj.  entries.  in English  A l l descriptive categories,  brackets.  /a'keus/  of  inclusion.  The  line  result  developments, d e s c r i b e d  c o n s t r u c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Judeo-Spanish or which  warrant  not  s e c t i o n s of the a n a l y s i s .  Nevertheless,  sufficiently  basic  "those"  number o f  the  appears i s i n  /ako'drarse  (de)/  "acordarse  (de)  /ma'kodru/  vr.  "remember"  11  (10)  /ta:'kodras/ /ali'ansa/  (10)  (130)  (94)  (=  nf.  "Alliance  Israelite  Univer-  selle")  /al'xad/  (242) nm.  (Ar.)  "Sunday"  "domingo" /al(e)van tarse/  (20)  1  11  vr.  "get  up"  levant arse"  /si  alvan'tava/  /ambi zar(se)  (88)  1  "aprender"; /muz  (20) vr., vt.  (138-139) 1 s t pi.  see  /an'sina/  OSp.)  "learn";  "teach"  "ensenar"  ambi'zimus/  /•andi/:  (<  p.  pret.  /onde/  (350)  adv.  (OSp.)  "thus,"  "like  "asi" /aparte'nia/  (109)  v i . (<  Fr.)  "it  belonged"  "pertenecia" /ariko drarse 1  (de)/  (48)  vr.  "remember"  "recordar" /mi  ari'kodro  /asa'gun/  (130)  "segun"  di/ prep.  (48) "as"  that"  70 /bel_/  (192) a d j .  /'kongo b e l z / "Congo /'bijas/  (192)  "Belgian  Congo"  Belga"  (216) n f . (< F r . )  "marbles"  "bolas" /bi'zar/  (249) v .  "kiss"  "besar" /buj'kimus/  (133) 1 s t p . p i . p r e t .  "we  tried"  ( c a i q u e on I t . "abbiamo c e r c a t o " ) "tratamos" /bu'tikas/  (240) n f . (< F r . o r OSp.)  "stores,"  "shops"  "tiendas"  /da'inda/  (108) adv.  "todavia"; /•dea/  /(en)  "still";  "moreover"  "ademas"  (138) p r e p .  "de  (Gal./Ptg./Ast.)  + prn.  "of her"  ella"  de'lantre  de/  (362-363) p r e p .  "before," " i n front of"  " d e l a n t e de" /•deos/ "de  (20) p r e p .  + prn.  " o f them"  ellos"  /de'sembro/  (43) nm.  (< F r . ? )  "December"  "diciembre" /diman'dar/  (333) v t . (< F r . / I t . / E n g . ? )  "exigir" / d i m a n ' d a v a r i ' s p e k t u / (333)  "demand"  71 /'diji/  (44)  1 s t p . s. p r e t .  "dije" /•dodSi/  (OSp.  "I  said"  sibilant) "twelve"  (131) a d j .  "doce" /do'vere/  (245)  nm.  "duty"  (It.)  "deber"  /empe*si2o/ /al "al  (72)  nm. "in  empe'siSo ( 7 ) /  "at  principio"  /enve'rano/  the beginning,"  (254)  first"  "summer"  nm.  "verano" /'era//  (45)  "you  2nd p . p i . impf.  were"  "erais" /eska'par/  "terminar," /eska'pi/  (180)  1 s t p. s.  pret.  "I  finished,"  "acabe" "job"  nm.  "empleo"  /fevri'e/ 11  (7) nm.  "February"  (Fr.)  f ebrero"  /fwedz/  (91)  "fuiste"  "complete"  "acabar"  (156)  "termine," /'et/o/  "finish,"  (79) v t .  2nd p. s.  pret.  "you  went"  "completed"  /'fwemus/  (132)  "fuimos"  /•ia/  (339)  "we  1 s t p. p i . p r e t . (< OSp.;  l s t / 3 r d p.  went"  dial.)  s. i m p f .  "I/he went/would  go"  "iba" /'iamus/  (64)  1 s t p. p i . impf.  "we  went/would  "ibamos" /i'leves  ( d i 'skola)/  (234)  nm.  (< F r . )  "pupils"  "alumnos" /im'pero/  (307)  nm.  (It.)  "empire"  "imperio" /i'_ika/  (74)  n f . dim.  "nifia" /i'Siku/  (OSp.  (73)  nm.  dim.  "nifio"  /•kae/  ( A r a . / L e o . dim.)  (35)  nf.  girl"  "(little)  boy"  sibilant)  ( A r a . / L e o . dim.) (OSp.  "(little)  sibilant)  "street"  "calle" /ka'le_a/  (16)  nf.  (dial.)  "street"  "calle" /kam'pafia/  (257)  nf.  (It.)  "country (side) "  "campo" /ken/  (188)  /ken  prn.  ... k e n /  "quien  (188)  ... q u i e n "  "(some)one another  ...  (one)  go"  73 /'ki2u  de'zir/  "quiere /'klasa/  (7) 3 r d p . p i . p r e t .  decir"  "that  i s t o say"  + inf. "class"  (64) n f .  "clase" /ko'ledgo/  (224) nm.  "colegio," /komen'si/  (It.)  (here) " s e m i n a r i o "  (86) 1 s t p . s.  "empece," /kontu'nimus/  "college,"  "I began,"  (172)  "we  1 s t p. s. p r e s .  "I t h i n k , " . . . d i 'klasa/  "companeros de c l a s e " (100)  "believe"  (161-162) nm.  /•kwalo/  continued"  (Ara.)  "creo" /kum'panus  "started"  1 s t p. p i . p r e t .  "continuamos" /'krego/  "seminary"  pret.  "comence" (309)  (here)  classmates"  (< I t . ) "which"  "cual" /mas  'kwalo/  (98)  lit.  cual"  as a f i l l e r  lit.  "pero  (cf.  t h e SAm.  filler  (cf.  "but which,"  /kwal'siasi/  (59) a d j . ( I t . )  "any"  "cualquier" /kwar'tenu/ "cuarto"  (32) a d j . (OSp.)  phrase  "anyway,"  "esteee")  "fourth"  used  "so")  /•kwa_i/  "almost"  (13) a d v .  "casi"  /lavo'rar/  (165) v i .  "work"  (It.)  "trabajar" /lisi'on/  "lesson"  (235) n f .  "leccion"  /ma/  "but"  (71) c o n j . ( I t . ) "pero"  /man'draki/  /man'sevo/  (177) nm.  "joven," /ma'raj"/ "las  (OSp.)  (Angel  112)  "young  man"  "mozo"  (153) nm.  "suburbs"  (< T r k . ? )  afueras"  /ma2ori'ta/  (313) n f .  " l a mayoria," /mil'dar/  "the p o r t o f Rhodes"  (58) nm.  "the m a j o r i t y , "  (It.)  " l a mayor  parte"  (321) v t . (< Gr.)  "read"  "leer" /mo'zotros/  (86)  prn.  "we," " u s "  "nosotros" /'munt/u/  (71) a d j . , adv.  (dial.)  "much," " a l o t "  "mucho" /mu'rar/  (33) v i . (OSp.)  "vivir"  "live"  "most"  /mus/  (75) p r n .  " u s , " "one o t h e r , " e t c .  "nos" /'mweso/  (30) a d j . (OSp., d i a l . )  "our"  "nuestro" /•mwesro/: s e e /'mweso/ /'mwevo/ /di  (179)  'mwevo/  adj. (179) a d v . p h r .  "again"  "de n u e v o "  /'onde/  (16) a d v . (OSp.)  "where"  "donde" /'o2us/  (363) nm.  (OSp. s i b i l a n t )  "eyes"  "ojos"  /'parti/ nf. /la  mas  'parti/  (165) (< F r . )  "most,"  "the majority"  " l a mayor p a r t e , " " l a m a y o r i a " /par'tida/  (306) n f . (< F r . )  "part"  "parte" /'una  'grandi p a r ' t i d a /  (305-306)  "muchos" /'pefias/  (220)  "many"  (< F r . ) (here)  nf.  large  sticking (elicited /pi'lotas/ (here)  (219)  nf.  "cantos  rodados"  (here)  rocks  out o f t h e sea f r o m EF)  " b o u l d e r s " (EF)  /pir'mero/  "first"  (306) adv.  "primero" /pi'Jin/ "en /pla2/  "immediately";  (27) a d v . (< T r k . ) seguida";  (58) n f .  "right"  "mismo" "beach"  (Fr.)  "playa" /'pretu/  (227) n.  (< a d j . )  (< OSp.,  "negro" /'prima/  "negro"  Ptg.?)  (12) a d j .  (It.)  "first"  "primera" /'propriu/  (15) a d v .  (It.)  "just,"  "exactly"  "mismo"  /regre'to/  (268) nm. ( F r . )  "sentimiento," /rikrea'sjon/  "regret"  "pesar"  (75) n f .  "recess"  (school)  (136) n f .  "welcome,"  "recreo" /risivi'dura/  "(buena) a c o g i d a , " /•rodis/  "bienvenida" "Rhodes"  (6) n f .  "Rodas"  /'sabato/  (241) nm. ( I t . )  "Saturday"  "sabado" /•sensiu/  (238) nm.  "sentido"  (< I t . , F r . ? )  "sense"  "reception"  77 /si'komu/ 11  (313)  y a que,"  /ska'par/:  see  /ska'pi/: /so/  (3)  conj.  (< I t . )  "puesto  que"  "as,"  "since"  /eska'par/  see / e s k a ' p i /  1 s t p.  s. p r e s .  (OSp.)  "I  am"  "soy" /•suptu/ /en  (19)  adj.  'suptu/  "de  (19)  a d j . phr.  "all  of a  sudden"  repente"  /suve'nires/  (252)  nm.  (<  Fr.)  "memories"  "recuerdos"  /Ja'bat/  (241)  nm.  "Saturday,"  (Heb.)  (Jewish) /Ja'batis/  (234)  p i . of  //a'bat/  "sabado"  "Sabbath"  "Saturdays"  "sabados"  /te'va/  (353)  (el  /no  (the r e a d i n g c h a i r  (Heb.)  e s t r a d o de la  /'todo/  nf.  lectura  de  synagogue)  sinagoga)  nm. ... p u r  "en  del  absoluto"  'todo/  (50)  prep.  phr.  not  ...  at a l l  i n the  /tur'nar/  (177) v i .  /tur'no/  (177)  1 s t p. s.  pret.  back,"  "returned"  "volvio" /'tred_i/  "he went/came  "thirteen"  (26) a d j .  "trece" /tru'kar/  (12) v t . , v r .  /trukimus/ lit.  (12) 1 s t p. p i . p r e t .  lit.  "we  changed"  "cambiamos"  /tjar'/i/  (57) nm.  "market"  (Trk.)  "mercado" /tji'kez/  "childhood"  (104) n f .  "nifiez  1 1  /t/iki'tiko/  (169) a d j . , d o u b l e  "chiquititito, "  /vera'mente/  (172)  "just  a small k i d "  "nifiito"  "really,"  (78) adv. ( I t . )  "verdaderamente, /•verso/  dim.  11  "truly"  "realmente" (time)  prep.  "around"  "hacia" /'viamus/ /mus  (265)  'viamus/  "nos /vi2i'tar/  1 s t p. p i . impf. "we  (265)  another"  veiamos" (133) v t . (OSp.  /vi2i'timus/ "visitamos"  (135)  saw/would s e e  sibilant)  1 s t p. p.  pret.  "we  visited"  one  79 /•vjezu/  (296)  adj.  (OSp.  sibilant)  "old"  "viejo" /vo/  (1)  1 s t p.  s. p r e s .  (OSp.  "voy"  /zvilu'po/ /si  lant)  3rd  p.  zvilu'po/  "se  ha  sibi-  s. p r e t . (262)  desarrollado"  " I am  going"  (It.) "it  has  (been)  developed"  80 6 . Conclusions  Eli  and Rosa  Ferera,  Sephardim  from Rhodes, belong t o a  l o n g H i s p a n i c t r a d i t i o n i n t h e E a s t e r n Mediterranean B a s i n . The language  they  speak  has been  passed  on from  generation t o  g e n e r a t i o n by descendents of those Jews who were e x p e l l e d from Spain  towards  t h e end of t h e f i f t e e n t h  c e n t u r y , o f t h e many  o t h e r s who l a t e r j o i n e d them, and t h e Jews who were a s s i m i l a t e d into  the  Sephardic  Sephardim  lives  on  culture.  several home.  This  of  yet their  i s precisely  the  Eastern  areas  and i n  communities.  many, perhaps most,  languages  language  i n the o r i g i n a l l y - s e t t l e d  w i d e l y - s c a t t e r e d emigrant Like  The  Sephardim,  native  where  my  i n f o r m a n t s speak  language  prevails  the d i a l e c t  i n the  has managed t o  survive. In t h i s study, I have explored d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' speech which, w h i l e s e t t i n g them a p a r t from speakers of t h e Modern Standard Spanish, a t the same time u n i t e them w i t h all  f e l l o w speakers o f Hispano-Romance. I approached t h e o r a l sample I chose as t h e corpus o f t h i s  study w i t h a knowledge of H i s p a n i c languages and d i a l e c t s , and was  immediately  informants'  struck  speech.  by  the phonetic  I t reminded  richness  me of Portuguese,  of t h e  a language  w i t h which I am very f a m i l i a r ; many o f t h e phonemes t h a t might seem  to  typify  Judeo-Spanish  pronunciation  are, i n  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , o f P e n i n s u l a r speech from P o r t u g a l r i g h t  fact, across  81 t h e n o r t h o f t h e I b e r i a n P e n i n s u l a t o C a t a l o n i a — S t a n d a r d Modern Castilian  i s , phonetically,  transcription  of  the  a  interest  fascinating  the  palatal  closely  languages  aspect  out."  narrow  I  wanted  enough t o  my  reflect  complexity.  of Judeo-Spanish: and  the d i a l e c t  and  man  i n h i s t o r i c a l p h o n e t i c s has  sibilants  link  "odd  r e c o r d i n g t o be  accurately t h i s phonetic My  the  the  In  voiced/unvoiced  the  to dwell  the p r e s e r v a t i o n of  to Old Spanish  dialects.  l e d me  and  recording,  on the  c o n t r a s t , which  t o modern H i s p a n i c those  phonemes  are  ever-present. The p h o n e t i c s o f t h e d i a l e c t a s w e l l a s v a r i o u s d i s t i n c t i v e morphological both  lexical  i t s conservatism  created  in  the  precipitated of a koine, That  and  this  raising  by  based  on  effects last  Judeo-Spanish by  lexical  and  the  last  similarity  to  the  and  sociological of  and  t h e common  dialect.  result  of  conditions  Ottoman  l e d to the  Empire, creation  language.  impact  can  i n forms such  the  be as  seen  i n the  ['kreyu]  and  Italian  The  and  This fact  m u l t i l i n g u a l i s m of  i n the r e c o r d i n g e s p e c i a l l y  Judeo-Spanish  half.  t o Western i n f l u e n c e  resulting  i s evidenced  a  the  which  an  the  examples.  i n f l u e n c e from  century  1492,  /e/ and  w h i c h h a v e most t r a n s f o r m e d the  of  largely  i n t e n s e exposure  century  speakers  unique  f a c t o r had  obvious  of  are  communities  Spanish,  sociological  the  the  the tragedy  [ka'lez'a], t o c i t e  since  and  Sephardic  o f a t o n i c /o/  The  features  is  French,  the  within natural  t h a t both  languages  approximately given  informants  their were  82 educated  i n Rhodes when I t a l i a n  i n f l u e n c e was  very  strong  only  p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n s the i t a l i a n i s m s i n t h e i r speech, s i n c e French and  Italian  cultural  lexical  and  sociological  Judeo-Spanish I  would  of  perhaps  been  phenomenon  their  have  and Mrs.  part  of  affecting  lives  dialogue.  expected  greater  a  general  a l l  Eastern  interference  F e r e r a h a v e by now  in  English-speaking  Hebrew e l e m e n t s h e a r d c a n the  have  dialects.  E n g l i s h , s i n c e Mr. part  borrowings  be e x p l a i n e d  Although  Turkish  spent  the  greater  countries.  by t h e g e n e r a l  has  from  The  few  nature  of  historically  had  a  c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p a c t on E a s t e r n J u d e o - S p a n i s h , i t s i n c o n s i d e r a b l e presence  in  the  Westernization: been  replaced  prestige  of  informants'  formerly by  French  those  speech  used and  languages  Turkish  words  and  the  to  my  observations  state that their  certainly  Lat. /v/  affirm  ease  on my  research  to  a whole,  gradually  the  with  to date,  greater  which  they  languages. I am  "typical"  unable  either  as  the the  raising  characteristic  point  of  Standard  of  /o/  not  of  s p o k e n on Rhodes o r o f t h a t w h i c h i s  t h a t p h o n e t i c a l l y important  from  such  / f / , the are  due  have  to  s p o k e n by R h o d i a n Jews l i v i n g a b r o a d . However, I  pronunciation, phonetics,  attributed  t o t h e same f a m i l y o f  s p e e c h i s , as  t h e J u d e o - S p a n i s h a s i t was at present  to  be  elements  Italian  could enter a d i a l e c t belonging Basing  can  and  only  view  of  Spanish /u/, of the  and  features  of  historical  treatment the  of  their Spanish  initial  preservation  pronunciation  of  can  of  Rhodes  83 but  also,  Eastern  individually  or  in  combination,  must a s k  what c o n s t i t u t e s  i f i t is still  possible to state,  " t y p i c a l " Judeo-Spanish.  norms s u c h a s t h o s e w h i c h g o v e r n  There  a reliable  g u i d e t o t h e spoken language,  since  i t i s characterized  Italian  morphological,  i n f l u e n c e . One historical  by  areas  Crews d i d t h e i r There  between  may  two  originating speech are  of  be  research i n the differences  speakers from  the  of  variations:  she  raises  frequently;  her  articulation  sounds c o r o n a l ,  represented  Ferera  discussion some  is  [ s ] ) ; also,  Relying  definitive Mr.  by  /s/  spoke  much  place.  differing  lexical  the  Overall,  a  French  semantic  f e a t u r e s of the but  the  s i n c e Wagner  vocabulary  same Mrs.  age  and  Ferera's  from h e r husband's, but t h e r e atonic  distinctly  apical  at times a l v e o l a r , does  lexical  on c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s  and  altered  or reduces  more  of  i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n and  /s/  no  1930's.  not  o n l y on t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,  c o n c l u s i o n s on  official  Judeo-Spanish,  approximately  same  detail,  i t s e r v e as  lexical  distinctive  Eastern  i s not r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t  speech.  other  of the p r e s s i s not  a preponderance  syntactic,  can g e n e r a l i z e about  speech  in  a r e no  nor can  d e m o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n h a s been d r a s t i c a l l y and  of  S t a n d a r d Modern S p a n i s h and  modern l i t e r a t u r e t o s p e a k o f ; t h e l a n g u a g e  and  that  dialects.  One  model,  of  his  and  (Mr.  e/  less  Ferera's  although  palatalize  i t is  in  her  i t i s hard to reach  differences  than  /o/  between  wife.  them—  However,  a  heard i n the r e c o r d i n g r e v e a l e d  preferences  and  that  Mrs.  Ferera,  84 when f a c e d w i t h a c h o i c e , would tend toward (see § 3.1). Before the r e c o r d i n g s e s s i o n , Mr.  Standard  Spanish  Ferera jokingly  admonished h i s w i f e not t o use "fancy words." But the p o i n t here i s not t o exaggerate d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r way to  reflect The  on  the  impact  of d i f f e r i n g  levels  of speaking, of  but  exposure.  a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s  123  study  p r o v i d e s the reader with the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of the d i a l e c t . Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ferera s . entertaining 1  example  of  free-flowing  speech i n t h e i r n a t i v e language i s a good i n t r o d u c t i o n t o JudeoSpanish.  85 Notes 1  The  Moroccan Sephardim c a l l  their  language  "haketiya."  E n t w i s t l e c a l l s the d i a l e c t "Jewish Spanish." Bunis, l i k e o t h e r s c h o l a r s , r e j e c t s "Ladino" t o denote the spoken language, f o r w h i c h he p r e f e r s "Judezmo." He r e j e c t s "Judeo-Spanish," w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s a s "an a r t i f i c i a l , h y b r i d t e r m i n v e n t e d by W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n p h i l o l o g i s t s " and, c o n c e r n i n g " (e) s p a n y o l , he s t a t e s : " a l t h o u g h w i d e s p r e a d among n a t i v e s p e a k e r s i n recent y e a r s , [ i t ] a l s o a p p e a r s t o be an i m p o r t , l a c k i n g t r u e r o o t s i n t h e community and f a i l i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h the language from Spanish" (David M. B u n i s , Sephardic Studies: a Research Bibliography I n c o r p o r a t i n g Judezmo Language, L i t e r a t u r e and Folklore, and Historical Background [New Y o r k : Garland, 1981] x i ) . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t e r m " (e) s p a n y o l , " I h a v e n o t s e e n his opinion concerning i t ' s lack of "true roots in the community" e x p r e s s e d e l s e w h e r e . Mr. F e r e r a i n s i s t s t h a t Jews on Rhodes c a l l e d t h e i r l a n g u a g e " e s p a f i o l . " To them, t h e y spoke Spanish. The E n c y c l o p e d i a J u d a i c a i s an e x c e p t i o n t o t h e r u l e i n i t s endorsement o f the use of "Ladino" f o r c o l l o q u i a l J u d e o - S p a n i s h : "The w i d e s p r e a d v i e w t h a t t h e t e r m ' L a d i n o ' i s o n l y a p p l i c a b l e to the ' s a c r e d ' l a n g u a g e o f B i b l e t r a n s l a t i o n s and prayers, w h e r e a s t h e o t h e r names a r e r e s e r v e d s o l e l y f o r t h e spoken language, seems hardly tenable" ("Ladino," Encyclopedia J u d a i c a 1971). F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e above t e r m i n o l o g y , s e e Haim Vidal Sephiha, Le iudeo-espagnol (Paris: Entente, 1986) e s p . Ch. 1; Paloma D i a z - M a s , L o s sefardies: historia. l e n g u a y c u l t u r a ( B a r c e l o n a : R i o p i e d r a s , 1986) 100-103. 2  1 1  T h i s g e n e r a l summary o f t h e h i s t o r y o f S p a n i s h J e w r y up u n t i l t h e E x p u l s i o n o f 1492 i s b a s e d m a i n l y on t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r k s : Y i t z h a k B a e r , A H i s t o r y o f t h e Jews i n C h r i s t i a n S p a i n , v o l s . 1 and 2 ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : The J e w i s h P u b l i c a t i o n S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a , 1961) and S a l o W i t t m a y e r B a r o n , A S o c i a l and R e l i g i o u s H i s t o r y o f t h e Jews, v o l . 10, c h s . 44 and 45 (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). 3  "Book T w e l v e " o f t h e Forum J u d i c u m . o r F u e r o J u z g o , a legal code i n c o r p o r a t i n g many c o n c i l i a r decrees, governed v i r t u a l l y e v e r y a s p e c t o f J e w i s h l i f e . A l t h o u g h t h e l a w s were not fully enforced, their spirit reflects the intensely a n t i s e m i t i c atmosphere of l a t e r V i s i g o t h i c r u l e . Even this e a r l y , a d e c r e e was i s s u e d e x p e l l i n g f r o m t h e c o u n t r y a l l Jews who r e f u s e d t o become C h r i s t i a n , b u t t h i s , a l s o , a p p a r e n t l y c o u l d n o t be f u l l y i m p l e m e n t e d . 4  B a r o n 164. A l t h o u g h t h e r e had l o n g b e e n Jews l i v i n g i n t h e north of Spain, t h e i r l a r g e - s c a l e migration to the C h r i s t i a n s t a t e s o f t h e n o r t h , where t h e y s e t t l e d and a c q u i r e d t h e Romance 5  86 o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n , was t o have m a j o r the l a t e r development of Judeo-Spanish.  significance  in  B a e r , v o l . 1, 128-129. " H i s p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e Jews c h a n g e d s e v e r a l t i m e s . . . . In C a s t i l e , [ ] i n a d d i t i o n t o the various objective f a c t o r s — p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c s , religious i n t e r e s t s , and c l a s s t e n s i o n s — c e r t a i n s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s o f t e n p r o v e d d e c i s i v e , namely, t h e whims and v a g a r i e s o f t h e k i n g ' s m i n d " ( B a e r , v o l . 1, 129). 6  7  Baer,  v o l . 1,  178.  8  Baer,  v o l . 1,  181.  9  Baer,  v o l . 1,  76.  " A c c o r d i n g t o J e w i s h and C h r i s t i a n s o u r c e s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e e x i l e s , n u m b e r i n g between 100,000 and 120,000, e m i g r a t e d t o P o r t u g a l . . . . The r e m a i n i n g e x i l e s , who p r o b a b l y numbered no more t h a n a b o u t 50,000, s a i l e d f r o m t h e s o u t h e r n p o r t s ( A l m e r i a ) f o r N o r t h A f r i c a o r from t h e e a s t e r n p o r t s ( V a l e n c i a and B a r c e l o n a ) f o r I t a l y and t h e E a s t " ( B a e r , v o l . 2, 4 3 8 ) . 1 0  L a r g e S e p h a r d i c c o m m u n i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n v a r i o u s E u r o p e a n c e n t r e s and i n N o r t h A f r i c a , n o t a b l y M o r o c c o . I w i l l be c o n c e n t r a t i n g on h i s t o r i c and l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n , where t h e S e p h a r d i c t r a d i t i o n remained strongest and Judeo-Spanish steadfastly endured over the centuries. 1 1  A t t h e t i m e o f t h e e x p u l s i o n , S p a n i s h Jews s a i d , and s t i l l say, " e l D i o " i n s t e a d of "Dios," i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e form w i t h " s " a s t h e p l u r a l , s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e T r i n i t y ; and " a l h a d " ( [ a l ' x a d ] ) i n s t e a d o f "domingo," a l s o f e l t t o h a v e C h r i s t i a n o v e r t o n e s . The v e r b " m e l d a r " ("to r e a d " ) was a l s o u s e d by Jews p r i o r t o 1492 ( f o r " a l h a d " and " m e l d a r " s e e § 4.3.1.) 1 2  Max L e o p o l d Wagner, C a r a c t e r e s g e n e r a l e s d e l i u d e o e s p a i i o l de O r i e n t e . R e v i s t a de F i l o l o q i a E s p a n o l a , A n e j o 13 ( M a d r i d : 1930) 14. 1 3  1 4  See V i d a l  Sephiha.  The i n f o r m a t i o n i n and c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f f r o m t h e f i n e book w r i t t e n n o t e ) , w h i c h my i n f o r m a n t s 1 5  t h i s b r i e f survey of the h i s t o r i c a l t h e Jews o f Rhodes comes p r i m a r i l y by Marc D. A n g e l ( s e e t h e f o l l o w i n g k i n d l y l e n t t o me.  M a r c D. A n g e l , The Jews o f Rhodes: t h e H i s t o r y S e p h a r d i c Community (New Y o r k : Sepher-Hermon P r e s s and The o f S e p h a r d i c C o n g r e g a t i o n s , 1980) 17-18. 1 6  of a Union  87 17 inphe s e p h a r d i c community o f Rhodes c a n f a i r l y be s e e n a s a m i c r o c o s m o f S e p h a r d i c l i f e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t i e s and towns o f t h e E m p i r e . By f o c u s i n g on t h e h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e o f t h i s community, one may u n d e r s t a n d more c l e a r l y t h e g e n e r a l h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e o f t h e J u d e o - S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g S e p h a r d i m . " A n g e l 2. 1 8  Angel  23.  1 9  Angel  76.  Jews h a d o f t e n been f o r c e d t o wear d i s t i n c t i v e a t t i r e i n S p a i n . S u c h r e g u l a t i o n s were i n f o r c e i n C h r i s t i a n and M u s l i m countries. 2 0  "Of t h e Jews who were d e p o r t e d f r o m Rhodes, o n l y 151 s u r v i v e d . Twenty-two had d i e d on t h e v o y a g e , 1145 a t A u s c h w i t z , and 437 i n the labor camps." A n g e l 152. (Note e x p r e s s i n g i n d e b t e d n e s s t o F r a n c o , G a l a n t e , H i l b e r g and Nehama on p . 183) . 2 1  22 n s e p h a r d i c community i n Rhodes was b o r n a s a r e s u l t o f t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e Jews f r o m S p a i n . I t d i e d i n t h e a s h e s o f t h e German c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps" ( A n g e l 1 5 2 ) . T  n  e  Sometimes t h e s p e a k e r i s probably just c h a n g i n g h i s m i n d a b o u t what he wants t o s a y . 2 3  2 4  Perhaps  a pure  2 5  Initial  / a / by a n a l o g y w i t h  thinking  or  fricative. /ri'kodro/.  /mus/. The b i l a b i a l n a s a l h a s become p l o s i v e p r o b a b l y by a s s i m i l a t i o n t o t h e p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g p l o s i v e /k/. 2 6  2 7  Incomprehensible.  I t sounds l i k e  The p r e t e r i t e o f / v e r / and of the informant: I l a t e r e l i c i t e d 2 8  2 9  [amdz Bwelta]. 1  probably a s l i p /'vimus/.  on  the  part  Incomprehensible.  /empe'siSo/. A s s i m i l a t i o n of the d e n t a l articulation o f / s / t o t h e p a l a t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n o f /z"/ and l o s s o f t h e l a t t e r phoneme. 3 0  Word r a p i d l y a r t i c u l a t e d , /w/ weak, a t o n i c v o w e l i z e d making t i m b r e d i f f i c u l t t o p e r c e i v e . 3 1  3 2  33 3 4  Incomprehensible. Incomprehensible. Or  [ s i 'ia]  I t sounds l i k e  ['jensm].  labial-  88 3 5  Incomprehensible.  I t sounds l i k e  [a  3 6  Incomprehensible.  I t sounds l i k e  [ke e z ] .  3 7  Perhaps  3 8  Possibly  3 9  The  4 0  Or  4 1  [ ] d  ['todufi]. ['mwes os]. r  i s a s u p p o r t i n g vowel.  ['kreio].  Incomprehensible.  4 2  Incomprehensible.  I t sounds l i k e  4 3  Incomprehensible.  O b v i o u s l y t h e word f o r " p o p u l a t i o n . "  4 4  /'eran/. A s s i m i l a t i o n  4 5  of / r / to  [o'ze , dandi staAd]. a  Sounds l i k e [ f ], though / f / t o be r e d u c e d t o / r / .  n/.  the  norm  in  Judeo-Spanish  There i s no trace of the labiodental or f r i c a t i v e a f t e r / i / f o u n d i n t h i s word i n o t h e r J S p . Cf. Ptg. "cidade." 4 7  4 8  1  /deve/?  4 6  for  'ase].  Or  is  bilabial dialects.  [vi'stidu].  / p i ' J i n / . A s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e p l o s i v e o f /p/ t o t h e f r i c a t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n of the s i b i l a n t s immediately preceding and f o l l o w i n g . 4 9  5 0  Intrusive  /t/:  /su'via/  ( S t d . Sp.  [su'Bia]).  The f i g u r e s a p p e a r i n g i n r o u n d b r a c k e t s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s a n a l y s i s r e f e r t o t h e l i n e numbers i n t h e l e f t - h a n d m a r g i n o f the t r a n s c r i p t i o n . 5 1  Isaac Jack Levy, Prolegomena to the Study of the " R e f r a n e r o s e f a r d l . " New Y o r k : L a s A m e r i c a s , 1969. D a v i d B u n i s states that the folk proverbs in this work have been "transcribed f o r t h e most p a r t according to their Rhodes p r o n u n c i a t i o n " ( D a v i d B u n i s , "Toward a L i n g u i s t i c G e o g r a p h y o f Judezmo: P u b l i s h e d S o u r c e s , H i s p a n i a J u d a i c a : S t u d i e s on t h e H i s t o r y . L a n g u a g e , and L i t e r a t u r e o f t h e Jews i n t h e H i s p a n i c W o r l d , e d . J o s e p M. S o l a - S o l e , Samuel G. A r m i s t e a d and J o s e p h H. Silverman. V o l . 3: "Language" [Barcelona: Puvill, (no d a t e ) ] 1 5 ) . 5 2  1  89 T h i s a u t h o r c o n f i r m s t h e r a i s i n g o f /-of t o [u] a n d o f /e/ t o [ i ] : "The Jews o f Rhodes t e n d e d t o p r o n o u n c e w o r d s t h a t e n d e d w i t h an 'o' t o s o u n d l i k e a 'u' e. g., ' m a n u ( s ) instead o f ' m a n o ( s ) , ' b i s c o c h u ( s ) i n s t e a d o f ' b i s c o c h o ( s ) . Words t h a t e n d e d w i t h a s h o r t 'e' sound were p r o n o u n c e d w i t h a l o n g 'e' e. g. 'padree* instead of 'padre,' 'nombree' instead of 'nombre.'" ( I t a k e " e e " t o mean [ i ] : t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s i n t e n d e d for a nonspecialist English-speaking reader.) This i s an accurate account o f what t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e s p e e c h o f my informants. 5 3  1  1  1  1  A n g e l says "tended t o pronounce" c o n c e r n i n g /-o/; t h i s r e f l e c t s what t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e r e c o r d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o Mr. F e r e r a . The a u t h o r a p p e a r s more c a t e g o r i c a l when he d e s c r i b e s t h e r a i s i n g o f / - e / , w h i c h i s , a g a i n , o n l y a tendency i n t h e speech of the informants. This w r i t e r was s u r p r i s e d by c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e p h o n e t i c s o f t h e J u d e o S p a n i s h o f Rhodes made by W i l h e l m G i e s e i n a b r i e f a r t i c l e he p u b l i s h e d i n 1955. (The a u t h o r s t a t e s t h a t , a t t h a t t i m e , t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e J e w i s h f a m i l i e s s t i l l l i v i n g on t h e i s l a n d . ) ( W i l h e l m G i e s e , "Das J u d e n s p a n i s c h e v o n R h o d o s , " O r b i s , v o l . 5 [1956] 407-410.) The a u t h o r ' s c o n c l u s i o n s were b a s e d on h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e s p e e c h o f Abraham G a l i m i d i and h i s d a u g h t e r S u l t a n a . I n t h e b r i e f t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f an o r a l sample p r o v i d e d by t h e l a t t e r , a t o n i c /e/ i s p r o n o u n c e d [ e ] , [ ] o r [e] (once as [ i ] i n d i p h t h o n g : [ k a i ] , Sp. " c a e " ) ; a t o n i c /o/ i s a r t i c u l a t e d a s [o] o r [=>]. T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h what i s o b v i o u s l y a d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f my i n f o r m a n t s ' s p e e c h . My s u s p i c i o n t h a t some o f G i e s e ' s f i n d i n g s m i g h t n o t be r e l i a b l e were s u p p o r t e d by D a v i d B u n i s : " I n 1956, G i e s e b r i e f l y reported on Rhodes Judezmo. The limited and at times q u e s t i o n a b l e d a t a o f f e r e d i n h i s a r t i c l e , b a s e d on m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d by h i m d u r i n g a v e r y s h o r t s t a y i n Rhodes a f t e r t h e a l m o s t c o m p l e t e d e c i m a t i o n o f t h e i s l a n d ' s J e w i s h community by t h e N a z i s , w o u l d a p p e a r t o be o f m i n i m a l u s e f u l n e s s f o r o u r purposes. The s p e e c h of Giese's informants seems t o show evidence of contamination by other regional varieties" (Bunis 14-15). 5 4  e  M. L . Wagner, C a r a c t e r e s g e n e r a l e s d e l i u d e o - e s p a f i o l de Oriente (Madrid: Revista de Filologia E s p a f i o l a — A n e i o 12, 1930) 22. 5 5  M a r i u s S a l a , P h o n e t i q u e e t p h o n o l o g i e du i u d e o - e s p a f i o l B u c a r e s t (The H a g u e - P a r i s : Mouton, 1971) 29, 33. 5 6  de  The d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e /e/ ( / i / ) o f t h e d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e i n [ l i t a ' l j a n o ] (90) s u g g e s t s I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e . However, t h e v o w e l may h a v e b e e n e l i d e d w i t h t h e / a / o f ['era] (90) a s f r e q u e n t l y h a p p e n s t o o t h e r words w i t h i n i t i a l / e / i n a s i m i l a r environment. 5 7  90 Cf. pop. Ptg. "supeto" ([ • sup(a) tu]) , Sp. " s u p i t o " ( " s u b i t o " ) . Nehama's d i c t i o n a r y , based on the Judeo-Spanish of S a l o n i c a , l i s t s "/supeto/: /en supeto/", w i t h a s h i f t i n s t r e s s [erratum?]. Nehama, Joseph, D i c t i o n n a i r e du iudeo-espaqnol. w i t h the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of Jesus Cantera (Madrid: Consejo S u p e r i o r de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s C i e n t i f i c a s , 1977) 526. See Wagner 99, n. 10 ( [ ' s u p i t o ] without a p r e p o s i t i o n ) . 5 8  See below under "Consonants" on "Morphology." 5 9  and e s p e c i a l l y the s e c t i o n  I have chosen t o quote Mr. F e r e r a i n t h i s s e c t i o n on s y n t a c t i c p h o n e t i c s s i n c e the timbre of the vowels i n h i s w i f e ' s speech conforms more t o t h a t of standard Spanish (e. g. a t o n i c /e/ and /of are r a i s e d t o [ i ] and [u] l e s s o f t e n ) . In a d d i t i o n , he has p r o v i d e d much more m a t e r i a l . 6 0  6 1  palatal  The undiphthongized i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e as [/] might e x h i b i t Portuguese i n f l u e n c e .  well  as  the  There i s no need t o p o s t u l a t e French i n t e r f e r e n c e f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n of /n/ i n [ f r a ' s e z ] (72) or i n [ f r a ' s e z a ] (72), s i n c e t h e r e i s o f t e n a tendency i n Judeo-Spanish f o r /n/ t o be l o s t w i t h s t r o n g n a s a l i z a t i o n of the p r e c e d i n g vowel. 6 2  6 3  In standard C a s t i l i a n .  Cf. mod. Sp. [na'8i6o], [kono'Bia], [8ii] 'kwenta], ['una ' y r a 0 j a ] . T h i s "seseo" a l s o developed i n A n d a l u s i a d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h century, i n i t i a l l y i n the area of S e v i l l e , whence i t spread t o the Americas, and i s a f e a t u r e of standard Portuguese, French and C a t a l a n , although i n the l a t t e r i t i s a l v e o l a r due t o i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the d e n t a l [s] of the a f f r i c a t e (once the / s / had been l o s t ) w i t h the a l v e o l a r [ s ] . 6 4  The treatment of OSp. /dz/ i n the numbers from "one" t o " f i f t e e n " i s i d e n t i c a l i n the d i a l e c t of S a l o n i c a : "/'onze/," "/•dod2e/," "/'tred2e/," " / k a • t o r z e / , " " / ' k i n z e / " (Neh.) 6 5  The /// of Eng. " s h e r r y " and F r . " Q u i c h o t t e , " words taken from Spanish b e f o r e the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the p a l a t a l s i b i l a n t i n t o the v e l a r f r i c a t i v e (/%/) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the modern language, bears witness t o the former p r o n u n c i a t i o n . 6 6  See Marius Sala, "Los fonemas /q/ and /2/ en e l judeoespanol," S t u d i a H i s p a n i c a i n Honorem R. Lapesa. v o l . 1 (Madrid: Gredos-Catedra-Seminario Menendez P i d a l , 1972) 521-524. 6 7  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the p l o s i v e element of the v o i c e d p a l a t a l a f f r i c a t e had a l r e a d y begun t o weaken by the time of the E x p u l s i o n . The r e l a x i n g of i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n and subsequent disappearance had a l r e a d y l e d t o the c r e a t i o n of a f r i c a t i v e i n 6 8  91 m e d i a l p o s i t i o n . The p h o n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f S p a n i s h h a s shown t h a t p l o s i v e s a r e weakened f i r s t i n f i n a l , t h e n m e d i a l , and l a s t l y i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . [ko'ledSo] (224), with intervocalic [ d 2 ] , i s an italianism, as i s , probably, t h e same a r t i c u l a t i o n in n [ l a r d 2 e n * t i n a ] (189) . Of c o u r s e , E n g l i s h may a l s o p l a y a p a r t i n t h e [d2] a r t i c u l a t i o n i n t h e l a t t e r . 6 9  S u c h was t h e c a s e i n o l d S p a n i s h u n t i l d e v o i c i n g o f t h e sibilants took place i n the l a t t e r half of the sixteenth c e n t u r y . A s s t i l l o c c u r s i n J u d e o - S p a n i s h , f i n a l / s / was v o i c e d i n l i n k i n g ( i . e. when n o t i n a b s o l u t e f i n a l p o s i t i o n ) j u s t a s i t was when p r e c e d i n g v o w e l s w i t h i n w o r d s . T h i s s y n t a c t i c r u l e s t i l l operates i n Portuguese ([u|], [uz ' o t r u j ] , [uz ' o t r u z •ame/]) a n d i n F r e n c h , i n which f i n a l / s / i s s i l e n t , b u t p r o n o u n c e d [ z ] d u r i n g liaison w i t h t h e vowel sound o f t h e f o l l o w i n g word ( e x c e p t when s u c h word b e g i n s w i t h so-called " a s p i r a t e 'h'": [ l e ] , [ l e z 'otRd], [ l e z 'otRdz =>m]) . 7 0  See Amado A l o n s o , De l a p r o n u n c i a c i o n moderna e n e s p a n o l ( M a d r i d : G r e d o s , 1967-69). 7 1  medieval  a la  The aspiration and subsequent disappearance of i n i t i a l L a t i n / f - / i n standard Spanish i s a t y p i c a l l y C a s t i l i a n phenomenon, t h e o r i g i n o f w h i c h h a s b e e n t r a c e d t o t h e r e g i o n o f B u r g o s . Documented a s e a r l y a s t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y , t h e s h i f t from / f / t o /h/ had s p r e a d throughout C a s t i l i a n i z e d S p a i n , o r t h e /h/ had been lost, by t h e e a r l y sixteenth century. (Alonso 38-39). 7 2  R a f a e l L a p e s a , H i s t o r i a de l a l e n g u a e s p a f i o l a . c o r r e c t e d a n d e x p a n d e d ( M a d r i d : G r e d o s , 1981) 528. 7 3  9 t h ed.,  E . g . New Mexican "['kajko], [ma'/kar], ['mo/ka], [ p e ' / k a r ] " (Max L u r i a , "A S t u d y o f t h e M o n a s t i r D i a l e c t o f Judeo-Spanish B a s e d on O r a l M a t e r i a l C o l l e c t e d i n M o n a s t i r , Y u g o - S l a v i a . " Revue H i s p a n i q u e 79 (1930) 438. T h e s e same words a l s o have [ J k ] i n Portuguese, i n which i t i s a p h o n e t i c law t h a t p a l a t a l i z a t i o n o f / s / and / z / o c c u r n o t o n l y b e f o r e v o i c e l e s s and v o i c e d p l o s i v e s ( [ ' b i j p u ] [ ' g ^ / t a ] , ['de2dd], [ ' f a X y u ] ) b u t also before fricatives ([d'ffera], [dd2'viu]) and nasals (['mez'mu], [ ' s i 2 n d ] ) . 7 4  Note t h e absence o f d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n t h i s as w e l l .  7 5  form  This p a l a t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of the s i b i l a n t J u a n de V a l d e s : 7 6  by  JSp. verb  was d i s c u s s e d  M a r c i o — . . . no q u i e r o c o n t e n d e r c o n v o s , c o n t a n t o que me d i g a i s q u a l t e n e i s p o r m e j o r , d e z i r  92 "quige" y "quigera" o "quise" y " q u i s i e r a , " y qual os contenta mas, escrivir "vigitar" o " v i s i t a r , " p o r q u e veo algunos, y aun de los cortesanos principales, usar mas l a g" que la "s." Valdes — Y o p o r muy mejor tengo l a " s " y c r e o que l a "g" no l a a v e i s o i d o u s a r a muchas p e r s o n a s discretas, n a c i d a s y c r i a d a s en e l r e i n o de Toledo o en l a c o r t e , s i ya no fuesse por descuido. M a r c i o — e n l a v e r d a d c r e o s e a a s s i , aunque no f u e s s e s i n o p o r q u e e l " v i g i t a r " t i e n e a mi v e r d e l villanesco. . . . 11  ( J u a n de V a l d e s , D i a l o g o de l a Lengua. "Clasicos C a s t e l l a n o s , " e d . J o s e F. M o n t e s i n o s [ M a d r i d : E s p a s a C a l p e , 1964] 77) Of c o u r s e , t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e S p a n i s h Jews e x p e l l e d i n 1492 d i d n o t s p e a k , n o r were t h e y s u b s e q u e n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by, t h e " l e n g u a de l a c o r t e . " F o r t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f /A/ i n S p a n i s h A m e r i c a s e e D. L i n c o l n C a n f i e l d , S p a n i s h P r o n u n c i a t i o n i n t h e A m e r i c a s ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1981) 6-7, 1213, 15, and p a s s i m . 7 7  The w e a k e n i n g and l o s s o f i n t e r v o c a l i c / j / i s n o t j u s t a phenomenon o f J u d e o - S p a n i s h . I n t h a t p o s i t i o n , t h e phoneme (< /A/ o r / j / ) weakens, v o c a l i z i n g t o / i f ) " g e n e r a l l y i n M e x i c a n b o r d e r S p a n i s h ( i n c l u d i n g M o n t e r r e y , N. L. , M e x i c o ) a s w e l l a s a l l o f C e n t r a l A m e r i c a and c o a s t a l a r e a s o f V e n e z u e l a , Colombia, and E c u a d o r " ( C f d . 1 2 ) , a l t h o u g h t h a t a u t h o r l a t e r c o n t r a d i c t s h i m s e l f c o n c e r n i n g t h e l a t t e r two c o u n t r i e s : "/y/ i n t e r v o c a l i c t e n d s t o be [ i ] [ r e f e r r i n g t o s h a d e d a r e a i n t h e s o u t h e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s a l o n g the border with Mexico] ( a l s o heard i n a l l of C e n t r a l A m e r i c a e x c e p t Panama, t h e c o a s t s o f C o l o m b i a , and Ecuador [sic])" ( C f d . 8 3 ) . And i n the d i a l e c t area of New M e x i c o / C o l o r a d o , t h e o n l y one i n t h e s o u t h e r n S t a t e s w h i c h "has maintained linguistic continuity since colonial days," the phoneme c a n d i s a p p e a r e n t i r e l y (as i t d o e s i n t h e s p e e c h o f t h i s writer's informants) and he cites "[ka'pia]" and "['ea]" (Cfd. 80). 7 8  In p a r t s of Spanish America, particularly i n Central A m e r i c a and C o l o m b i a , t h e p l o s i v e s [b] , [d] and [g] a r e h e a r d a f t e r c o n s o n a n t s and s e m i v o w e l s ( s e e C f d . 11) where s t d . CSp. w o u l d r e q u i r e t h e f r i c a t i v e s [ 6 ] , [6] and [ y ] . 7 9  8 0  E. g. ZamV.  Sp. 190.  "peligro" < Lat. "periculu(m)."  93 82  Cf. Gal.  "pirmeiro."  I n 1 7 t h c e n t u r y S p a n i s h t h e a t r e , "mueso" and "mos" were u s e d by r u s t i c s (/n-/ > [m-] by a n a l o g y w i t h "me") . "Mos" and "mosotros" live on in "vulgar" Spanish of the Peninsula ( L a p e s a § 116, 8; § 125, 7 ) . 8 3  The [o] i n t h e p r e t o n i c s y l l a b l e o f [ d _ o wavamus] (265) (Mrs. F e r e r a o n l y ) may be s i m p l y i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h /u/, a survival from OSp. " j o g a r , " or due to Italian influence ( c f . I t . " g i o c a r e " ) . Neh. shows o n l y "/dzu'yar/." 8 4  8 5  "estou,"  1Y  The primitive "vou."  forms  survive  Nor i s there an /e/ in P t g . " v i a m o s " ['viamuj"]). 8 6  (cf.  the  in  Portuguese:  Portuguese  "sou,"  conjugation  T h i s f o r m i s documented by N e b r i j a . H i s c o n j u g a t i o n o f the p r e t e r i t e ("passado acabado") o f ir" and " s e r " shows s t r e s s e d /e/ i n s t e a d of / i / t h r o u g h o u t : "fue/fueste/fue/fuemos/fuestes/fueron." (Antonio de Nebrija, G r a m a t i c a c a s t e l l a n a . V o l . 1. Ed. P a s c u a l G a l i n d o Romeo and L u i s O r t i z Mufioz ( M a d r i d : J u n t a d e l C e n t e n a r i o , 1946) 114. 8 7  11  88  Cf. Ptg.  ['iamuf],  ['ia]  The third person s i n g u l a r and plural forms of the p r e t e r i t e h e a r d i n t h e r e c o r d i n g a r e as i n s t a n d a r d Spanish, e. g. [kom'pro] ( 1 5 2 ) , [ t u r ' n o ] (177) (Sp. " v o l v i o " ) , [si kae'zo] ( 1 7 9 ) , [si t r o ' k o ] (261-262), [kome'so] ( 2 7 2 ) , [ k o t i ' n w a r o ] ( 1 6 2 ) , [emp'saron] ( 2 2 5 ) . 8 9  90  Cf.  [embe'rano]  (Wagner, 77,  n.  1)  I n t h i s s e c t i o n , one m i g h t p o s s i b l y i n c l u d e t h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l [e S e ' l a n t r e ] (Sp. " d e l a n t e " ) , a l t h o u g h t h i s w r i t e r h a s t r a n s c r i b e d two words, u n s u r e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s p e a k e r c o n siders the e x p r e s s i o n t o be one word ( c f . Sp. enfrente," " e n c i m a , " f r o m w h i c h / e n d e l a n t r e / m i g h t h a v e b e e n c r e a t e d by a n a l o g y ) . The i n t r u s i v e / r / q u i t e l i k e l y d e v e l o p e d by analogy w i t h o t h e r p r e p o s i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e o p p o s i t e , Sp. " d e t r a s . " I h a v e l i k e w i s e shown /en "d2untus/ as two w o r d s throughout, admittedly i n f l u e n c e d by t h e o r t h o g r a p h y o f Sp. "en j u n t o s " ( a l t h o u g h , i n S t d . Sp. t h i s a d v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n d o e s n o t mean " t o g e t h e r , " as i t appears t o i n t h e r e c o r d i n g , but " i n a l l , " " a l l t o g e t h e r " ( i . e. when summing u p ) . 9 1  11  Nehama shows n e i t h e r t h e Mr. F e r e r a nor that with "/resep'sjon/." 9 2  f o r m w i t h t h e s u f f i x u s e d by s t d . Sp. " - m i e n t o , " only  94 I e l i c i t e d from the informants not o n l y [ l a a'merika] but [ l a ' a f r i k a ] ( c f . s t d . Sp. " l a A m e r i c a " b u t " e l A f r i c a " ) . T h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n o l d S p a n i s h r e g a r d i n g t h e u s e o f "el" and " l a " before nouns b e g i n n i n g with unstressed and unstressed "a." The Sephardim living in their distant communities remained unaffected by the subsequent s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n o f S p a n i s h grammar w h i c h e l i m i n a t e d v a r i a t i o n s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s t h a t had e x i s t e d i n t h e o l d l a n g u a g e . I t i s also p o s s i b l e t h a t the use of " l a " before any noun with i n i t i a l " a " i s due t o I t a l i a n i n f l u e n c e s i n c e t h e informants' s c h o o l i n g was i n t h a t l a n g u a g e . 9 3  Perhaps "majority."  9 4  Eng.  strengthened  by  Fr.  "majorite"  and  T h i s c o u l d a l s o be an example o f a p e r s o n a l i n f i n i t i v e , w h i c h one c o u l d s p e c u l a t e on P o r t u g u e s e i n f l u e n c e . 9 5  for  9 6  Cf.  Ptg.  This could also be "preto" (['pretu]).  due  to  Portuguese  influence.  C o v a r r u b i a s shows t h e v e r b as " a b e z a r " and g i v e s t h e definition "vale ensefiar y acostumbrar" (Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espafiola, e d . M a r t i n de R i q u e r [ B a r c e l o n a : H o r t a , 1943]) 28; i n V a l d e s , i t a p p e a r s as " v e z a r , " d e f i n e d as "ensefiar" ( V a l . 123). Compare their conflicting etymologies! 9 7  9 8  'to6az  Mrs. F e r e r a l a t e r uses 'estas 'liqgwas] (100).  Sp.  "aprender":  B e f o r e t h e f o l l o w i n g examples, 'munt/u i n i ' b r e o t a ' m j e ] ( 7 1 ) . 9 9  he  says  [apren'diamuz [ s i mise'nava  Cf. F r . "apprendre," which can occasionally be t r a n s l a t e d a s " t e a c h . " I n t h e f o l l o w i n g example, p r o v i d e d by Nehama u n d e r "/ambezar/" t h e i d e a o f " s h o w i n g " o r " t e a c h i n g " i s made p l a i n : " / s i ' f i o , v e n g a l e ambeza're/: 'Pere, v e n e z que j e v o u s m o n t r e comment i l f a u t f a i r e . ' (= C ' e s t g r o s J e a n q u i en r e m o n t r e a s o n c u r e ) " (Neh. 3 5 ) . 1 0 0  101 " M o r a r , " a s e m i l e a r n e d word < L a t . " m S r a r i " (Eng. " t o r e m a i n , s t a y , " e t c . ) , c a n be f o u n d i n S p a n i s h l i t e r a t u r e f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s . I t must have b e e n u s e d c o l l o q u i a l l y d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e A g e s , b u t has been r e s t r i c t e d t o e r u d i t e u s a g e f o r centuries (as a l r e a d y i n Don Quixote) (Joan Corominas and J o s e A. P a s c u a l , D i c c i o n a r i o c r i t i c o e t i m o l o g i c o c a s t e l l a n o e hispanico (Madrid: Gredos, 1980-1983) v o l . 4, 137. C f . P t g . "morar" and, f o r example, i t s d e r i v a t i v e "morada," b o t h still c o l l o q u i a l and f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n t h a t l a n g u a g e . (The L a t . d e p o n e n t v e r b w o u l d n a t u r a l l y have become a c t i v e ["morare"] i n Low L a t i n by a n a l o g y w i t h v e r b s o f t h e f i r s t c o n j u g a t i o n ) .  95 102 j Portuguese as r e s t r i c t e d u s a g e a s i n mod. "mudar(-se)." n  w e l l , " t r o c a r " h a s a b o u t t h e same S p a n i s h , t h e more g e n e r a l v e r b b e i n g  I n mod. S p a n i s h , t h e s e n s e o f " h e n c h i r s e " h a s been n a r r o w e d t o t h a t o f Eng. " t o s w e l l " ( c f . t h e b r o a d m e a n i n g o f the Ptg. cognate " e n c h e r - s e " ) . The v e r b d i s p l e a s e d J u a n de V a l d e s , who u s e d i t o n l y when he had no c h o i c e : 1 0 3  "Henchir" parece feo y grossero vocablo, y algunas veces forzosamente l o u s o p o r no t e n e r o t r o que s i n i f i q u e l o que e l , p o r q u e ' l l e n a r ' no q u a d r a b i e n en t o d a s p a r t e s ; conhortome c o n que l o u s a e l r e f r a n que d i z e : "De s e r v i d o r e s l e a l e s s e h i n c h e n l o s o s p i t a l e s " ( V a l . 112) " A g o r a " (< L a t . "hac h o r a " ) was t h e u s u a l f o r m ( " g e n e r a l o p o c o menos") u n t i l t h e end o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s , was r e g u l a r l y f o u n d i n l i t e r a t u r e up t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and c a n s t i l l be h e a r d i n r u s t i c s p e e c h ( C o r . , v o l . 3, 3 8 7 ) . C f . P t g . " a g o r a . " 1 0 4  I t a p p e a r s o n l y once i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n . B o t h s p e a k e r s u s u a l l y s a y [ma], an I t a l i a n i s m ( s e e " L e x i c o n " ) w i d e l y u s e d i n Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s ; "pero" i s heard i n t h i s r e c o r d i n g t o a much l e s s e r e x t e n t . 1 0 5  Intervocalic sibilants t o Portuguese.  1 0 6  contrast  The s e n s e of Sp. (260).  1 0 7  meaning dr'moza]  are  unvoiced  in  Galician  i s u s u a l l y t h a t o f Sp. " t o d a v i a . " W i t h "ademas": [ d a ' i n d a , la 'izla ez  in the mwi  Mrs. F e r e r a r e c e i v e d her e n t i r e s c h o o l i n g i n I t a l i a n ; Mr. F e r e r a , a l s o , was e d u c a t e d i n t h a t l a n g u a g e e x c e p t f o r t h e v e r y e a r l y y e a r s o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l when he was t a u g h t i n F r e n c h . 1 0 8  Mrs. F e r e r a h a s u s e d t h e p r e t e r i t e where modern S p a n i s h would p r e f e r t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t . T h i s usage i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f J u d e o - S p a n i s h a s w e l l as o f n o r t h e r n S p a n i s h d i a l e c t s and Portuguese. 1 0 9  no j_ Italian derivative /lavo'rar/ i s irreplaceable i n J u d e o - S p a n i s h t o e x p r e s s t h e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t o f " t o work" s i n c e Sp. " t r a b a j a r " i s a v u l g a r t e r m f o r " t o c o p u l a t e . " The v e r b c a n have t h a t meaning ( t h e u s u a l one i n Judeo-Spanish) i n the P e n i n s u l a a s w e l l (Wagner 63, n. 1 ) . T  e  It always does in Mr. F e r e r a ' s speech. The I t . d e r i v a t i v e i s t h e s t a n d a r d e a s t e r n Judeo-Spanish form. In t h e r e c o r d i n g , [ ' p e r o ] , u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y by M r s . F e r e r a , i s h e a r d o n l y f o u r t i m e s (50, 86, 260, 3 6 1 ) . 1 1 1  96  T h e u s e o f " p e r o " i n s t e a d o f " s i n o , " a l t h o u g h nowadays u n g r a m m a t i c a l i n t h e s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e , was q u i t e common i n O l d S p a n i s h . The l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , a l t h o u g h p o s s i b l y a s u r v i v a l f r o m t h e o l d l a n g u a g e , i s most l i k e l y due t o s y n t a c t i c i n a d d i t i o n t o l e x i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e from I t a l i a n . 1 1 2  Here, [diman'dava] may also reveal e s p e c i a l l y semantic, i n p u t from E n g l i s h . 1 1 3  1 1 4  1 1 5  entry)  lexical,  but  (Heb. 'TOY?"). Nehama's d i c t i o n a r y and " / J s a b a t / . "  lists  both  "/sa'ba/"  ( t h e main  I t c a n a l s o be t h e s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t . " ' 1 . marche ou l'on vend toutes sortes de choses (sauf les v i c t u a i l l e s ) ' . . . 2. ' l e q u a r t i e r de l a v i l l e ou s o n t g r o u p e e s l e s b o u t i q u e s ' . . ." (Neh. 1 0 7 ) . 1 1 6  1 1 7  Neh. 432.  118 >phi might be r e n d e r e d i n S t a n d a r d S p a n i s h a s " L a escuela e s t a b a a l l a d o mismo de mi c a s a . " I n a similar c o n s t r u c t i o n , on t h e same t o p i c , / ' p r o p r r i u / h a s a l r e a d y b e e n u s e d a s a synonym o f / p i ' J i n / : [ l a 'kaza ' e r a ' p r o p r i u a p i ' y a f i a a ' s e r k a 6e l a ' s k o l a d 2 u ' d i a ] ( 1 4 - 1 6 ) . s  G i e s e t r a n s c r i b e s t h i s a d v e r b b u t s u p p o s e s t h a t i t comes from OSp. " p u x a r , " Mod. Sp. " s u b i r " : [ i pi'Je 'komo k e me d i ' J e r ^ n : ' s a l e a ' f w e r a ! 2o s a ' l i , l a 'fi^mba k a ' j o i m u ' r j e r ^ n se'senta 2idj=>s ke sa'ljer^n d e l k a l ] ( G i e s e 408-409). O b v i o u s l y , [ p i ' J e ] i s a p h o n e t i c v a r i a n t o f [ p i ' J i n ] a n d means " a s s o o n a s , " Sp. "en c u a n t o . " 1 1 9  1 2 0  See C o r . , v o l . 4, 20.  A t t h e time o f w r i t i n g , I cannot v e r i f y whether o r n o t i s t h e a c t u a l word f o r " p o r t " i n G r e e k .  1 2 1  this  Sp. " n e g o c i o " is later used in the sense of Sp. " t i e n d a " : [ l a z bu'tikaz, luz e'gosjos, i l 'dia d i J a ' b a t , . . . 'todo s t a v a s e ' r a d u ] ( 2 4 0 - 2 4 2 ) . 1 2 2  n  1  The Moroccan dialect, "haketiya," has largely d i s a p p e a r e d through i n c r e a s e d exposure t o P e n i n s u l a r Spanish. N e e d l e s s t o s a y , when S e p h a r d i m who s t i l l s p e a k J u d e o - S p a n i s h move t o a S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e y r a p i d l y a s s i m i l a t e , abandoning t h e i r d i a l e c t . 1 2 3  97 Bibliography A l o n s o , Amado. De l a p r o n u n c i a c i o n m e d i e v a l a l a moderna en espanol. E s p . v o l . 1: 100-102; v o l . 2: 11-13. Madrid: G r e d o s , 1967-1969. Alvar, Manuel. Textos hispcmicos dialectales: antoloqia nistorica. Madrid: Consejo S u p e r i o r de I n v e s t i g a c i o n e s C i e n t i f i c a s , 1960. 2 v o l s . Baer,  Yitzhak. A History o f t h e Jews in Christian Spain P h i l a d e l p h i a : The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1966.  B a r o n , S a l o W i t t m a y e r . A S o c i a l and R e l i g i o u s H i s t o r y o f t h e Jews. V o l . 10. New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. B e n - S a s s o n , H. H. "The M i d d l e A g e s : 38 J e w i s h S e t t l e m e n t and E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y i n t h e S i x t e e n t h and Seventeenth C e n t u r i e s ; 40 Autonomy: I n s t i t u t i o n s and T r e n d s . " A H i s t o r y of the Jewish People. Ed. H. H. B e n - S a s s o n . London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1976. 628-645, 659-690. B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l E s s a y s i n M e d i e v a l J e w i s h S t u d i e s . "The S t u d y o f J u d a i s m . " V o l . 2. New Y o r k : A n t i - d e f a m a t i o n L e a g u e o f B ' n a i B'rith, 1976. B u n i s , D a v i d M. Sephardic Studies: a Research Bibliography: I n c o r p o r a t i n g Judezmo Language. L i t e r a t u r e and F o l k l o r e , a n d H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d . New Y o r k : G a r l a n d , 1981. "Toward a L i n g u i s t i c Geography o f Judezmo: P u b l i s h e d Sources. Hispania Judaica: Studies on the History.Language, and Literature of the Jews in the Hispanic World. V o l . 3: "Language." Ed. S o l a - S o l e , J o s e p M., Samuel G. A r m i s t e a d and J o s e p h H. Silverman. B a r c e l o n a : P u v i l l , [no d a t e ] , 9-36. 1 1  C a n f i e l d , D. L i n c o l n . 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