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The practical knowledge of a fine arts supervisor in educational change : a case study Irwin, Rita Louise 1988

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THE PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE OF A FIHE ARTS SUPERVISOR IF EDUCATIONAL CHANGE: A CASE STUDY By RITA LOUISE IRVIH B.Ed., The University of Lethbridge, 1977 D.P.E., The University of Lethbridge, 1964 M.Ed., The University of Victoria, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IF PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Curriculum and Instructional Studies: Art Education Ve accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1988 © Rita Louise Irwin, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of \ | JSU / t l CKy\(k ^bsfanuna rVfc in. ^AjULCOtio^ The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 i i ABSTRACT Few n a t u r a l i s t i c s t u d i e s e x i s t t h a t t a k e an i n - d e p t h l o o k a t t h e l i f e w o r l d s o f c o n s u l t a n t s and s u p e r v i s o r s . T h i s s i n g l e c a s e s t u d y d e s c r i b e s and i n t e r p r e t s t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f an e x e m p l a r y F i n e A r t s S u p e r v i s o r . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a c t e d a s a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r w h i l e " shadowing" R u t h B r i t t e n (a pseudonym) o v e r a f o u r month p e r i o d . D a t a were d e r i v e d t h r o u g h f i e l d r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s , and were s u b j e c t e d t o d a t a a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . D r awing upon a body o f l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge, t h i s s t u d y c o n c l u d e s t h a t a s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m a t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n two i m p o r t a n t ways. F i r s t , c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e p l a c e s c u r r i c u l u m development i n t h e f i v e commonplaces f o u n d i n t e a c h e r p r a c t i c a l knowledge: s e l f , i n s t r u c t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m development, s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and m i l i e u . Second, t h e p o l i t i c a l knowledge c o n t e x t f o r m s a major a d d i t i o n t o t h e f i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s d e f i n e d by E l b a z r e g a r d i n g t e a c h e r p r a c t i c a l knowledge: t h e o r e t i c a l , s o c i a l , p e r s o n a l , s i t u a t i o n a l , e x p e r i e n t i a l . A t h i r d c o n c l u s i o n u n d e r l i e s t h e above: E l b a z ' s c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r a t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge p r o v e d t o be a u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g a s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge. P r a c t i c a l knowledge i s c o n s t r u c t e d upon r u l e s o f p r a c t i c e , p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , and images. I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e s e forms r e v e a l e d t h e d i a l e c t i c a l n a t u r e o f much o f R u t h ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge. Two c o n s t r u c t s o r l a n d s c a p e s o f imagery became a p p a r e n t , one b e i n g t h e empowerment and power o f t e a c h e r s , and t h e o t h e r , b u r e a u c r a t i c power and c o n t r o l and e d u c a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y . A n a l y s i s o f R u t h ' s s t y l e a s a s u p e r v i s o r examined f u r t h e r d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a s she c o n t i n u o u s l y r e s o l v e d c o n t r a r i e s w h i l e i m p l e m e n t i n g f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l a . The f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t among o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s , s u p e r v i s o r s need t o d e v e l o p a u n i q u e f o r m o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge g e a r e d t o t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t of c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , S c h o o l B o a r d s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t e n u r e c o n t r a c t s f o r s u p e r v i s o r s r a t h e r t h a n l i m i t e d t e r m c o n t r a c t s , and s h o u l d promote s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r s u p e r v i s o r s i n c u r r i c u l u m change s t r a t e g i e s r a t h e r t h a n assume t h a t m a s ter t e a c h e r p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s s u f f i c i e n t . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE A b s t r a c t T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s L i s t o f F i g u r e s • Acknowledgements . . i v . x i i x i i i CHAPTER I THE SUPERVISOR IN EDUCATIONAL CHANGE 1 The R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m 1 Background o f t h e P r o b l e m 1 R a t i o n a l e : F o r m a t i o n o f t h e P r o b l e m 3 Statement o f t h e P r o b l e m 6 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 7 The R e s e a r c h S t u d y 8 Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r D e v e l o p i n g t h i s R e s e a r c h : A P e r s o n a l Ground ...8 S u b j e c t : Ruth a s S u p e r v i s o r 10 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 11 Summary 13 O v e r v i e w o f t h e D i s s e r t a t i o n 13 II THE SUPERVISOR IN EDUCATIONAL CHANGE: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE 15 The Need f o r a D i a l e c t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e 15 Opposing C u r r i c u l u m O r i e n t a t i o n s 15 I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t O r i e n t a t i o n 15 R e c o n c e p t u a l i s t O r i e n t a t i o n 16 V The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Theory and P r a c t i c e 18 The L o g i s t i c a l Method 19 The P r o b l e m a t i c Method 20 The O p e r a t i o n a l Method 20 The D i a l e c t i c a l Method 20 P e r s o n a l P r a c t i c a l Knowledge 22 F o r m a t i o n o f P r a c t i c a l Knowledge 23 S u p e r v i s o r s In C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 26 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n I s s u e s 26 The T e c h n o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e 30 The P o l i t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e 30 The C u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e 30 S u p e r v i s o r s R o l e i n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 31 The T e c h n o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e A p p l i e d t o t h e R o l e o f S u p e r v i s o r 31 The C u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e A p p l i e d t o t h e R o l e o f S u p e r v i s o r . . 3 3 The P o l i t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e A p p l i e d t o t h e R o l e of S u p e r v i s o r 34 The Feed f o r D e s c r i p t i v e and I n t e r p r e t i v e R e s e a r c h 34 S u p e r v i s o r s ' I m p l i c i t T h e o r i e s o f Change 35 A l t e r n a t e Views o f C o n s u l t i n g 36 A r t S u p e r v i s o r s i n A r t C u r r i c u l u m Change 39 S u p e r v i s o r s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n 41 S h i f t s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n T h e o r e t i c a l Frameworks 41 The C h i l d - C e n t e r e d Approach 41 The D i s c i p l i n e - C e n t e r e d Approach 42 v i S u p e r v i s o r s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n 44 Summary 45 I I I THE FIELD RESEARCH ORIENTATION 48 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o F i e l d R e s e a r c h . • . 48 O v e r v i e w t o F i e l d R e s e a r c h 48 T h e o r e t i c a l U n d e r p i n n i n g s 50 A D e s c r i p t i o n o f F i e l d R e s e a r c h Used i n T h i s S t u d y 54 The P i l o t S t u d y 54 Case S t u d y R e s e a r c h 54 The S u p e r v i s o r ' s E x p e r i e n t i a l World: A B i o g r a p h i c a l S k e t c h 56 G a i n i n g E n t r y 62 The R e s e a r c h e r a s P a r t i c i p a n t - O b s e r v e r 64 Q u a l i t a t i v e Data C o l l e c t i o n and Ongoing A n a l y s i s 66 F i e l d N o t e s 66 Formal and I n f o r m a l O b s e r v a t i o n s 67 I n t e r v i e w s 68 Documents 69 T r i a n g u l a t i o n 70 Data A n a l y s i s 70 V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y 71 Summary 72 IV THE BASIS AND CONTENT OF RUTH'S PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE 73 I n t r o d u c t i o n 73 The F i v e C o n t e n t A r e a s o f Ruth's P r a c t i c a l Knowledge 73 Knowledge o f S e l f 73 v i i I n t h e R o l e o f S u p e r v i s o r 73 As I n f l u e n c e d by Mentors 74 In R e l a t i o n s h i p t o O t h e r s 76 As a C h r i s t i a n 77 As an A r t i s t 81 Knowledge of S u b j e c t M a t t e r 85 As a S p e c i a l i s t 85 As a G e n e r a l 1 s t 87 Knowledge o f I n s t r u c t i o n 89 The L e a r n i n g C y c l e 89 P a s s i o n i n T e a c h i n g 92 S t u d e n t s 93 A d u l t L e a r n e r s 95 Teacher o f T e a c h e r s 96 T e a c h i n g T e a c h e r s 97 T e a c h e r s 103 A r t i s t s 104 The A r t o f T e a c h i n g V e r s u s t h e S c i e n c e o f T e a c h i n g 105 Knowledge o f C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 107 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R o l e i n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 107 The C l i e n t Program Model 110 N e t w o r k i n g o f Secondary T e a c h e r s 112 F i n e A r t s C e n t r e R o l e i n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n A f t e r Budget C u t b a c k s 113 U n d e r s t a n d i n g C u r r i c u l u m Development 118 The A l t e r n a t i v e F i n e A r t s S c h o o l 119 v i i i E v a l u a t i o n o f C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 121 Knowledge o f t h e M i l i e u 122 S c h o o l s 122 The F i n e A r t s C e n t r e and i t s S t a f f 125 The S c h o o l System: The S u p e r v i s o r a s t h e I n t e r f a c e Between T e a c h e r s and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 129 The Community 136 The Department o f E d u c a t i o n 137 U n i v e r s i t y L i a i s o n 138 Commercial Resource S u p p l i e r s 139 Summary 139 V THE CONTEXTS OF RUTH'S PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE AS FINE ARTS SUPERVISOR 148 I n t r o d u c t i o n 148 The S i x Knowledge C o n t e x t s Found i n Ruth' s P r a c t i c a l Knowledge ....149 T h e o r e t i c a l Knowledge C o n t e x t 149 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Theory and P r a c t i c e 149 Use o f L i t e r a t u r e t o S u p p o r t A r t i c u l a t i o n 153 S i t u a t i o n a l Knowledge C o n t e x t 155 C o l l e a g u a l Model 155 In R e l a t i o n t o S u b o r d i n a t e s 160 Ruth's P r e s e n c e 160 T a k i n g Advantage o f S i t u a t i o n s 164 P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g i n S i t u a t i o n s 166 D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g i n S i t u a t i o n s 168 Use o f Humor i n S i t u a t i o n s 171 i x S o c i a l Knowledge C o n t e x t 173 S o c i a l Views 173 Women's I s s u e s 175 P o l i t i c a l Knowledge C o n t e x t 177 The System Has a L i f e o f I t s Own 177 L a c k o f I n t e r e s t i n B u r e a u c r a t i c Power 178 P e r s o n a l Knowledge C o n t e x t 182 Reason and P a s s i o n 182 Courage o f C o n v i c t i o n s 183 H e u r i s t i c A b i l i t y Comes From E x p e r i e n c e 184 E x p e r i e n t i a l Knowledge C o n t e x t 186 Temporal P e r s p e c t i v e 186 S p a t i a l P e r s p e c t i v e 192 T e n s i o n o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s 193 In C o n c l u s i o n 195 VI RUTH AS A SUPERVISOR IN EDUCATIONAL CHANGE: A DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS 199 I n t r o d u c t i o n 199 Restatement o f t h e P r o b l e m 199 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e F i n d i n g s .200 R u t h ' s P r a c t i c e a s I n t e r p r e t e d Through F r e i r e , Schon, A o k i 200 Humanizing S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e s 200 B u r e a u c r a t i c C o n t r o l and Teacher Power i n E d u c a t i o n a l Change 203 R u t h ' s P r a c t i c e a s I n t e r p r e t e d Through R e s e a r c h on C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 209 T e a c h e r s i n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 210 X A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 212 R u t h ' s P r a c t i c a l Knowledge 213 I n t r o d u c t i o n 213 A Landscape o f Imagery 217 Power and Empowerment i n Tea c h e r Change 217 B u r e a u c r a t i c C o n t r o l and E d u c a t i o n a l S t a b i l i t y 223 The I n t e r f a c e Between T e a c h e r s and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 225 Image a s a C o n c e p t u a l T o o l 226 Ruth's C o n s u l t a t i v e S t y l e 228 Ruth's S t y l e a s a F i n e A r t s S u p e r v i s o r D u r i n g I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f A r t E d u c a t i o n I n n o v a t i o n s 228 P e r s o n a l S t y l e 228 C o n s u l t i n g S t y l e 229 The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s R e v i s i t e d 234 In Answer t o t h e R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s : The F i n d i n g s 234 V I I REFLECTIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORY, PRACTICE AND RESEARCH 236 R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e R e s e a r c h 236 R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e R e s e a r c h P r o c e s s 236 R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e R e s e a r c h S t u d y 240 C o n c l u s i o n s 242 C o n c l u s i o n s D e r i v e d From t h e S t u d y 242 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Theory, P r a c t i c e , and R e s e a r c h 243 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Theory 243 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e 243 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 247 In C o n c l u s i o n 248 REFERENCES 250 APPENDIX ONE: THE PILOT STUDY 259 APPENDIX TWO: SAMPLE DATA COLLECTION: FORMAL OBSERVATION TRANSCRIPT #4 266 APPENDIX THREE: MUSIC SUPERVISORS COURSE FINAL EXAM 284 APPENDIX FOUR: A COMPILATION OF RUTH'S IMAGES, PRACTICAL PRINCIPLES, AND RULES OF PRACTICE 286 x i i L IST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE I C o n s u l t i n g i n C u r r i c u l u m I n s e r v i c e : Three Paradigms 37 I I C o n s u l t i n g i n C u r r i c u l u m I n s e r v i c e : Three Paradigms ( C o n t i n u e d ) 38 I I I C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : S u p e r v i s o r s Must R e s o l v e S e v e r a l D i a l e c t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n s From a P o l i t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e 46 IV An O v e r v i e w o f t h e C o n t e n t o f R u t h ' s P r a c t i c a l Knowledge ...142 V An O v e r v i e w o f t h e Knowledge C o n t e x t s o f Ruth's P r a c t i c a l Knowledge 196 VI A D e s c r i p t i o n o f R u t h ' s C o n s u l t a t i v e S t y l e U s i n g F a v a r o ' s Three P a r a d i g m a t i c P e r s p e c t i v e s 231 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. James Gray f o r t h e g u i d a n c e , s u p p o r t , and i n s p i r a t i o n o f f e r e d t o me t h r o u g h o u t my d o c t o r a l s t u d i e s . Thanks s h o u l d a l s o be e x t e n d e d t o Dr. Ron MacGregor f o r h i s p a t i e n c e , h o s p i t a l i t y , and encouragement, and t o Dr. Ian Housego f o r h i s many v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s . T h i s s t u d y would n o t be p o s s i b l e , however, w i t h o u t t h e t r u s t , p a t i e n c e and g e n e r o s i t y o f t h e r e a l " Ruth B r i t t e n . " T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n f o r t h e most p a r t i s Ruth. Even t h o u g h I c o u l d o f f e r l i t t l e i n r e t u r n , Ruth c o n t i n u o u s l y gave o f h e r s e l f t o me. I n many ways, she has been one o f my most p o w e r f u l mentors. I am s u r e she has impact e d my l i f e i n ways I have y e t t o r e a l i z e . To t h e r e s t o f " t h e c a c t u s c l u b , " I e x t e n d a s i n c e r e t h a n k you. They made t h e s t u d y even more c o m p l e t e . To a l l t h e o t h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d a t " M o u n t a i n v i e w S c h o o l D i s t r i c t " I am a l s o i n d e b t e d . A s p e c i a l t h a n k s goes t o my c l o s e s t f r i e n d s who s t a y e d by my s i d e t h r o u g h o u t t h e r o l l e r c o a s t e r o f g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s . To Ann Manuel, Don B e r g l a n d , R a i s s a Cipywnyk, G a b r i e l e A i l e y , I l o n a B a r a k s o , and K a t h Hanrahan, I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l . I am c o n v i n c e d t h e f r i e n d s h i p s made and s u s t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s degree and d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l s u r v i v e a l i f e t i m e . I must e x t e n d a deeper tha n k you t o my f a m i l y . W i t h o u t my f a t h e r ' s u n d y i n g s u p p o r t , Leona's encouragement, and my b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s b e l i e f i n me, I may not have even t a k e n t h e f i r s t s t e p . To my l a t e mother, who I b e l i e v e has watched t h e whole p r o c e s s f r o m a n o t h e r s t a g e i n l i f e , I send a k i s s o f a f f e c t i o n . Thank you everyone. 1 CHAPTER I THE SUPERVISOR IN EDUCATIONAL CHANGE The R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m Background o f t h e P r o b l e m The 1970s and 1980s u s h e r e d i n a p e r i o d f e a t u r i n g q u e s t i o n s about t h e f a i l u r e o f many c u r r i c u l u m development p r o j e c t s i n i t i a t e d i n t h e 1950s and 1960s. These developments w i t h i n t h e f i e l d o f c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s a l s o f o s t e r e d t h e g r o w t h o f v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n s u b f i e l d s s u c h a s c u r r i c u l u m development, c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y (Carson, 1985). R e s u l t s o f c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e s e a r c h p r o d u c e d c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about change ( F u l l a n , 1979, 1982; H a l l & L o u c k s , 1977; J o y c e & Showers, 1980; L o u c k s & Lieberman, 1982). I t was shown, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t t h e a d o p t i o n o f e x t e r n a l l y d e v e l o p e d c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s does not n e c e s s a r i l y g u a r a n t e e s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . What s t u d i e s s u c h a s t h e D i s s e m i n a t i o n E f f o r t s S u p p o r t i n g S c h o o l Improvement o r DESSI ( C r a n d a l l & Lo u c k s , . 1983) and Rand S t u d i e s (Berman & M c L a u g h l i n , 1975, 1978) r e v e a l i s t h a t many f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o and i n f l u e n c e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n n o v a t i o n s . One c r i t i c a l f a c t o r t h e s e s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e i s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f on g o i n g i n t e r n a l d i s t r i c t a s s i s t a n c e f o r s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The s t u d i e s r e c o g n i z e d t h e need f o r s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a s s i s t a n c e i n s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new i n n o v a t i o n s w i t h i n s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . One r o l e d e s i g n a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n many s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o a s s i s t 2 t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new s u b j e c t - s p e c i f i c p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i s t h a t o f change agent, v a r i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o a s c o n s u l t a n t , s u p e r v i s o r , d i r e c t o r , o r s p e c i a l i s t , d e p e n d i n g upon s c h o o l j u r i s d i c t i o n and a s s o c i a t e d s c h o o l b o a r d p o l i c y . The n e c e s s i t y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r o l e o f s u p e r v i s o r i s r e i n f o r c e d i n s e v e r a l r e c e n t C a n a d i a n s t u d i e s s u c h a s t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment ( A o k i , e t a l , 1977) and t h e O n t a r i o P u b l i c S c h o o l T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n s u r v e y (Dow, e t a l , 1984). The f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r s need t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g new c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s ; by i m p l i c a t i o n , s u p e r v i s o r s p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e i n t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n o f change e f f o r t s . I r o n i c a l l y , c o n s u l t a n t s and s u p e r v i s o r s have become a t h r e a t e n e d s p e c i e s d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f t o u g h economic r e s t r a i n t i n t h e 1980s. The r o l e o f t h e s c h o o l b o a r d a p p o i n t e d d i s t r i c t c o n s u l t a n t o r s u p e r v i s o r has r e c e i v e d l i m i t e d s t u d y i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . Much o f t h e r e s e a r c h and l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e p o r t r a y s t h e " r o l e s " , " f u n c t i o n s " , o r " s k i l l s " o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s i n a f r a g m e n t e d way <Havelock, 1973; B u t l e r & P a i s l e y , 1978; C r a n d a l l , 1977; Nash & C u l b e r t s o n , 1977; L e i t h w o o d , 1982). T h i s l i t e r a t u r e d e l i n e a t e s s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s e x p e r t "change a g e n t s " o r " c u r r i c u l u m managers" use a s t h e y p r o c e e d w i t h change e f f o r t s . The l i t e r a t u r e has c o n t r i b u t e d t o knowledge o f what s u p e r v i s o r s do i n t h e i r r o l e s and how t h i s r e l a t e s t o t h e change p r o c e s s , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . However, t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y encourage p r e d e t e r m i n e d i n t e n t i o n s , g o a l s o r i d e a l s , frames t h e whole n o t i o n o f change a g e n t r y w i t h i n a v e r y t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The a s s u m p t i o n c o n n o t e s i n p u t s and o u t p u t s , f l o w d i a g r a m s and 3 s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t a s k s i n a r e l a t i v e l y m e c h a n i s t i c p r o c e s s . A o k i , C a r s o n , F a v a r o , and Berman (1984), have chosen t o i n v e s t i g a t e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h i n s e r v i c e and c o n s u l t i n g f r o m a more c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The a u t h o r s a r e c o n c e r n e d f o r t h e I n d i v i d u a l , and more p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e t e a c h e r - c o n s u l t a n t d i a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Through d i a l o g u e , t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e r e s p e c t and d i g n i t y a s i n d i v i d u a l s , w i t h c r e d i b l e i d e a s r e g a r d i n g c u r r i c u l u m development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e would not s u p p o r t t h e t e r m "change ag e n t " a s a d e s c r i p t o r f o r c o n s u l t a n t s o r s u p e r v i s o r s . R a t h e r , t erms s u c h as " c o l l e a g u e " o r " c o - p a r t i c i p a n t " i n e d u c a t i o n a l change would be more a p p r o p r i a t e . The f o r m e r v i e w p o i n t r e p r e s e n t s s u p e r v i s i o n f r o m a management p e r s p e c t i v e ; t h e l a t t e r , f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e . F o r t h e s u p e r v i s o r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e two p e r s p e c t i v e s , t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f change agent may i m p l y a p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f change e f f o r t s (House, 1981) between t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h f a i l s t o a d d r e s s how i n s i d e r s , be t h e y c o n s u l t a n t s o r s u p e r v i s o r s , p e r c e i v e s one's r o l e , e s p e c i a l l y a s one r e s o l v e s t h e d i a l e c t i c between t h e two o p p o s i n g r o l e s . R a t i o n a l e ; F o r m a t i o n o f t h e P r o b l e m One way t o examine t h e i n s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e i s t o s t u d y t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l knowledge g a i n e d by a s u p e r v i s o r i n h i s o r h e r work. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e Regan and W i n t e r s t u d y (1982) r e v e a l e d t h a t c o n s u l t a n t s had no s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g o r e x p e r i e n c e p r e p a r i n g them f o r c o n s u l t i n g o t h e r t h a n t h e i r i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g and c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e . The a s s u m p t i o n i s made t h a t c o n s u l t a n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o use whatever e x p e r t i s e may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o , o r has been c o n c e p t u a l i z e d from, t h e i r l i f e h i s t o r i e s , o r 4 p e r s o n a l t e a c h e r knowledge. R e c e n t l y , q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have sought t o d e s c r i b e and i n t e r p r e t j u s t what t e a c h e r knowledge o r " p r a c t i c a l knowledge" might l o o k l i k e and how i t i s c o n s t r u c t e d ( C l a n d i n i n , 1986; C o n n e l l y & C l a n d i n i n , 1985). C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s come t o t h e i r r o l e s w i t h a t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge, one may a s k how t h a t p r a c t i c a l knowledge might be a l t e r e d g i v e n t h e change o f r o l e s : t h e i n t e r f a c e between a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t e a c h i n g . T h i s becomes even more i m p o r t a n t i f we c o n s i d e r t h e t r e n d , because o f budget c u t b a c k s , t o r e t u r n c o n s u l t a n t s o r s u p e r v i s o r s t o c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . T h i s s t u d y w i l l s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s f a l l a c i o u s t o assume t h a t a s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e same way a s a t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge. To examine a s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge, i t i s b e n e f i c i a l t o acknowledge t h o s e r e c e n t r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s d e s c r i b i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g what a t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge might l o o k l i k e and how i t i s c o n s t r u c t e d . E l b a z (1981, 1983), f o r i n s t a n c e , sought t o d e s c r i b e t h r o u g h a c a s e s t u d y method, t h e c o n t e n t o f one t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge, t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s f r o m w h i c h t h a t knowledge was d e r i v e d , t h e s t r u c t u r e s upon w h i c h t h e knowledge was c o n s t r u c t e d , and l a s t l y , t h e c o g n i t i v e s t y l e o f t h e t e a c h e r . By u n d e r t a k i n g s u c h a q u a l i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h , E l b a z was a b l e t o p o r t r a y t h e m u l t i p l e e x p e c t a t i o n s demanded o f a s i n g l e t e a c h e r t h r o u g h l e n s e s t h a t f o c u s e d on t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f a p r a c t i c a l knowledge p r e v i o u s l y u n a r t i c u l a t e d . Case s t u d i e s s u c h a s h e r s i l l u m i n a t e t h e r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , and means and ends, r a t h e r t h a n t h e t e c h n i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y o f a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m means t o ends. Her use o f imagery r e i n f o r c e d t h e 5 c o n t e n t i o n t h a t " p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s not j u s t c o n t e n t , n o r i s i t o n l y s t r u c t u r e - i t i s a c o n t e x t u a l l y r e l a t i v e e x e r c i s e o f c a p a c i t i e s f o r i m a g i n a t i v e l y o r d e r i n g o u r e x p e r i e n c e " (Johnson 1984, p.465), In t h e p a s t , t h e v i e w o f what c o n s t i t u t e d v a l i d knowledge was s e e n as b e i n g t h e o r e t i c a l , one h e l d p r i m a r i l y by e x p e r t s . The e x p e r i e n t i a l knowledge o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s was g e n e r a l l y not acknowledged as b e i n g v a l i d even though s u c h eminent t h i n k e r s a s John Dewey (1938) e q u a t e d knowledge w i t h e x p e r i e n c e . I n s t e a d , p r o f e s s i o n a l s were vi e w e d s i m p l y a s p o s s e s s i n g e x p e r i e n c e . U s i n g t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , a s u p e r v i s o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e c o u l d be downgraded t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f s e r i e s o f f a c t o r s o b s e r v e d i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . However, i f e x p e r i e n t i a l knowledge were t o be a c c e p t e d t h e n s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s c o u l d n o t be a p p r e c i a t e d o f t h e c o n t e x t o f s i t u a t i o n s o r e v e n t s ( S t e r n b e r g & Caruso, 1985), R a t h e r , t h e c o n t e n t and r e l e v a n t c o n t e x t s o f a l l p r e v i o u s s i t u a t i o n s o r f a c t o r s would be r e g a r d e d whenever new s i t u a t i o n s a r o s e . I t t h e r e f o r e becomes i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d what t h e c o n t e n t might l o o k l i k e f o r s u p e r v i s o r s a s w e l l a s p e r c e i v i n g what c o n t e x t s i n f l u e n c e t h e use o f t h a t c o n t e n t w i t h i n g i v e n s i t u a t i o n s . P r a c t i c a l knowledge r e s e a r c h has o f f e r e d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l community a m i c r o - l o o k a t t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s . I n d o i n g so, we a r e reminded o f t h e i n c r e d i b l e c o m p l e x i t y o f human e x p e r i e n c e t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f w h i c h i s d i f f e r e n t t o a c h i e v e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t h r o u g h r e d u c t i o n i s t models and l i n e a r a n a l y s i s . However, what p r a c t i c a l knowledge r e s e a r c h i s u n a b l e t o do i s s u g g e s t whether o r n o t o t h e r a c t o r s i n e d u c a t i o n , s u c h a s s u p e r v i s o r s , who a r e f i r s t t e a c h e r s and l a t e r assume s e c o n d r o l e s , r e t a i n o r a d j u s t t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l framework o f p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge. G i v e n t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s 6 a r e g r a n t e d a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f autonomy and a c q u i r e u n i q u e e x p e r i e n t i a l knowledge i n t h e i r r o l e s , i t becomes i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . To d a t e , s u p e r v i s o r s ' r o l e s have been c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o b e h a v i o u r s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n o f c e r t a i n r o l e s , f u n c t i o n s , and s k i l l s would improve t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e i r r o l e s a r e v i e w e d i n d i a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h o s e o f t e a c h e r s . I n c o n t r a s t , t h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e s t h e v i e w o f s u p e r v i s o r a s an i n s t r u m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n a l change w i t h an a c t i v e r o l e shaped by c l a s s r o o m and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e s c r i b e , c h a r a c t e r i z e , and i n t e r p r e t t h i s r o l e w i t h an emphasis on t h e u n i q u e knowledge used by a s u p e r v i s o r i n h e r work. The s t u d y a d d r e s s e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t e a c h e r ' s and s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge by e x a m i n i n g t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f a f i n e a r t s s u p e r v i s o r d u r i n g o n g o i n g c u r r i c u l u m change i n t h e f i n e a r t s w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m As r e s e a r c h e r s c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f t e a c h e r s , one c a n b e g i n t o q u e s t i o n how p r a c t i c a l knowledge c a n be u n d e r s t o o d f o r o t h e r a c t o r s i n e d u c a t i o n . F o r t h i s s t u d y , t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge and  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l change a r e d e s c r i b e d and i n t e r p r e t e d t h r o u g h a c a s e s t u d y a p p r o a c h t o answer t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r q u e s t i o n s : 1) what a r e t h e c o n t e n t a r e a s o f t h e f i n e a r t s s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge? 2) i n what c o n t e x t s may t h e s e c o n t e n t a r e a s be found? 3) how i s t h i s p r a c t i c a l knowledge made e v i d e n t o r c o n s t r u c t e d ? 4) what c o n s u l t i n g s t y l e < s ) a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s c r i b e t h e f i n e a r t s 7 s u p e r v i s o r ? The purpose o f t h e s t u d y i s t o d e s c r i b e , c h a r a c t e r i z e , and i n t e r p r e t one s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge. I n s o d o i n g , p r e sumably t h e f i e l d may b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r f a c e between a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t e a c h i n g . We c a n a l s o l e a r n how one p e r s o n r e s o l v e s t h e " t e n s i o n s " between t h e two w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e e n c o u r a g i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l change, a s f o u n d i n one's own t h e o r i e s - i n - a c t i o n , o r r u l e s o f p r a c t i c e , p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , and images. D o i n g s o may o f f e r a u s e f u l p e r s p e c t i v e on f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . In r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , c o n t e n t d e f i n e s what t h e s u p e r v i s o r knows, b e l i e v e s , and works w i t h r e g u l a r l y . C o n t e x t i s d e f i n e d a s t h a t w h i c h s u r r o u n d s and i n f l u e n c e s t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e i n change e f f o r t s . Her knowledge w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d o r r e c o l l e c t e d upon and a r o u n d p a r t i c u l a r themes, r u l e s o f p r a c t i c e , p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , and images. Her s t y l e a s a s u p e r v i s o r w i l l be c h a r a c t e r i z e d and d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o F a v a r o ' s (1984) t h r e e p aradigms f o r c o n s u l t i n g i n c u r r i c u l u m i n s e r v i c e . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Through t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y , s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t t e r m s w i l l be used f r e q u e n t l y and t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d t o be d e f i n e d f r o m t h e o u t s e t . The p r i m a r y p a r t i c i p a n t , t h e f i n e a r t s s u p e r v i s o r , r e f e r s t o an i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b l e t o a s c h o o l b o a r d f o r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s . O t h e r t i t l e s may be a s s i g n e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s s u c h a s c o n s u l t a n t , c o o r d i n a t o r o r d i r e c t o r . In c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s , one may p i c t u r e f i n e a r t s e d u c a t i o n e x p e r t s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e . 8 The p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f t h e f i n e a r t s s u p e r v i s o r i s assumed t o be d e r i v e d f r o m f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e w o r k i n g w i t h l e a r n e r s , t e a c h e r s , e x p e r t s , p o l i c y m a k e r s and t h e community, though i t i s a l s o i n f o r m e d by a t h e o r e t i c a l and a p r o f e s s i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a and g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n . These u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and e x p e r i e n c e s a r e assumed t o be i n t e g r a t e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u p e r v i s o r i n terms o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s , and become p a r t i c u l a r l y o r i e n t e d t o t h e p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . The meaning o f change f r o m t h e a u t h o r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w w i l l r e f e r t o an a l t e r a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s , p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s f o r t h e purpose o f i m p r o v i n g s t u d e n t achievement. F i n a l l y , t h i s s t u d y has been n o t o n l y g u i d e d by t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , and p r a c t i c a l knowledge, b u t i t was a l s o p e r s o n a l l y grounded i n t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s own e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e r o l e o f c o n s u l t a n t . G u i d i n g t h i s s t u d y were some p r e l i m i n a r y n o t i o n s I h e l d a s t o t h e i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n t h e r o l e o f s u p e r v i s o r . The R e s e a r c h S t u d y Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r D e v e l o p i n g t h i s R e s e a r c h : A P e r s o n a l Ground My i n t e r e s t i n s t u d y i n g t h e p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f a f i n e a r t s s u p e r v i s o r stemmed f r o m my e x p e r i e n c e a s an a r t c o n s u l t a n t between 1984 and 1986. F o r t h e s e v e n y e a r s p r e v i o u s t o t h a t , I was an a r t s s p e c i a l i s t i n s e v e r a l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . I n 1983, I became a p i l o t t e a c h e r f o r t h e new A l b e r t a e l e m e n t a r y a r t c u r r i c u l u m , w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y was s u b j e c t e d t o major r e v i s i o n s a s a r e s u l t o f t h a t p i l o t s t u d y . The r e v i s e d e l e m e n t a r y c u r r i c u l u m and t h e accompanying s e c o n d a r y c u r r i c u l u m s were f i n a l l y r e l e a s e d i n 1986 9 ( A l b e r t a E d u c a t i o n , 1985, 1986a, 1986b). My e x p e r i e n c e a s an a r t s t e a c h e r , p i l o t t e a c h e r and a r t c o n s u l t a n t a f f o r d e d me an i n t e n s e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m documents mentioned above, a t r i a l r u n w i t h a p i l o t c u r r i c u l u m document, and f i n a l l y t h e a d o p t i o n and i n i t i a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m . The p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e was compounded by a change o f r o l e s t h a t I h e l d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a r e n a . Two c o n f l i c t s emerged f o r me a s I p u r s u e d my new r o l e i n e d u c a t i o n a l change and may be s i m i l a r l y f o u n d by o t h e r n e o p h y t e s i n t h e r o l e . F i r s t l y , I had been t r a i n e d a s a g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r w i t h a s p e c i a l i t y i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . By a c c e p t i n g t h e r o l e o f a r t c o n s u l t a n t , I was e s s e n t i a l l y a ssuming a p a r t i c u l a r placement i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d e s i g n e d t o s t a b i l i z e o r m a i n t a i n c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s , p o l i c i e s o r a f f i l i a t i o n s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d f r o m e i t h e r t h e l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l Department o f E d u c a t i o n . S p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r t h i s r o l e was n o n - e x i s t e n t . The c o n f l i c t a r o s e a s I had t o r e l y on my p r e v i o u s p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and knowledge base w i t h o u t any a p p r e n t i c e s h i p f o r my new r o l e . Y e t , t h e r o l e was d i f f e r e n t and r e q u i r e d me t o a l t e r , s h i f t and sometimes r e i n f o r c e my frame o f r e f e r e n c e a c c o r d i n g t o p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . I n summary, I had t o a c q u i r e a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l framework f r o m w h i c h t o p r o c e e d . S e c o n d l y , what q u i c k l y became e v i d e n t was t h e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and c r e d i b i l i t y I needed t o embody i n t h e e y e s o f my c l i e n t s and p u b l i c s t a k e h o l d e r s . The l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l government b o d i e s assumed I would implement t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s a s f a i t h f u l l y a s p o s s i b l e . The t e a c h e r s on t h e o t h e r hand assumed I u n d e r s t o o d t h e p r e d i c a m e n t g e n e r a l i s t a r t t e a c h e r s were i n , o r a s w i t h s p e c i a l i s t s , would r e a l i z e t h e i r commitment t o a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t o f view, and would a d j u s t my e x p e c t a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g l y . The m i d d l e ground posed a c o n f l i c t o r c o n t r a d i c t i o n . T h i s c a n b e s t be d e s c r i b e d a s a d i a l e c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n w h e r e i n I c o u l d n o t i g n o r e e i t h e r p o s i t i o n . As t h e a r t c o n s u l t a n t , I had t o r e d u c e t h e c o n f l i c t s f o r m y s e l f p e r s o n a l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y , i n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e i n my a d o p t e d r o l e . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e two c o n f l i c t s o r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s has prompted me t o r e f l e c t upon t h e r o l e o f c o n s u l t a n t s and s u p e r v i s o r s i n e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l and i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r . I r e c o g n i z e t h e s u c c e s s f u l and u n s u c c e s s f u l a c c o u n t s I might s h a r e r e g a r d i n g t e a c h e r change, and I a l s o r e c o g n i z e t h e d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , b e l i e f s , and i n t e n t i o n s I now c a r r y a s a r e s u l t o f h a v i n g been a c o n s u l t a n t . A l l o f t h i s I know i n t u i t i v e l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a s I a t t e m p t t o ground t h i s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p r a c t i c a l knowledge, I r e a l i z e t e a c h e r p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d but examples o f s u p e r v i s o r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge a r e c o n s p i c u o u s l y a b s e n t . The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e s c r i b e and i n t e r p r e t t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f one F i n e A r t s S u p e r v i s o r t o d e t e r m i n e how knowledge i s c o n s t r u c t e d , d e v e l o p e d , o r o t h e r w i s e used by a s u p e r v i s o r i n h e r work p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o h e r r o l e a s a change agent. S u b j e c t : Ruth as S u p e r v i s o r Of prime i n i t i a l i m p o r t a n c e i n t h i s s t u d y was s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o be s t u d i e d . On t h e s t r e n g t h o f my p r e v i o u s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h c o n s u l t a n t s and s u p e r v i s o r s f r o m a c r o s s Western Canada, I l i s t e d t h o s e w i t h whom I f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e w o r k i n g , who had a number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , who had e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n r e s e a r c h , and who had enough i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h me p r e v i o u s l y t o a c c e p t my c r e d i b i l i t y a s an a r t c o n s u l t a n t . A f t e r p r i o r i t i z i n g t h e s e names, one p e r s o n was i d e n t i f i e d , c o n t a c t e d , and e n l i s t e d . I t was e s s e n t i a l t h a t she u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f q u a l i t a t i v e f i e l d r e s e a r c h and s u c h o b l i g a t i o n s a s t h e d a i l y shadowing o f h e r a c r o s s a v a r i e t y o f e v e n t s a s w e l l a s t h e need f o r a c o n t i n u a l d i a l o g u e . I t was a l s o c r u c i a l t h a t t h e two o f us d e v e l o p a r a p p o r t t h a t would a l l o w f o r a d e e p e n i n g o f d e s c r i p t i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s , because i n an e f f o r t t o be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s p o s i t i o n , n e g o t i a t i o n needed t o o c c u r . L a s t l y , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s i m p o r t a n t : Ruth B r i t t e n i s a pseudonym. In t h i s way, she and h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s i d e n t i t y a r e k e p t c o n f i d e n t i a l . M o u n t a i n v i e w i s a l s o a f i c t i o u s name r e p r e s e n t i n g a l a r g e c i t y i n Western Canada. G i v e n t h a t Ruth has been i n h e r p o s i t i o n f o r many y e a r s , h e r p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge a s a s u p e r v i s o r i s d e v e l o p e d , y e t w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new c u r r i c u l a i n t h e l a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s , one c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y assume t h a t h e r g u i d i n g n o t i o n s o f change would be more o b v i o u s . By c o n d u c t i n g a c a s e s t u d y o v e r a g i v e n p e r i o d i n t i m e , not o n l y t h e s t a b i l i t y o f h e r p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge c o u l d be u n c o v e r e d but a l s o h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how she p r o c e e d s w i t h change e f f o r t s a t a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a . The r e s e a r c h was n o t c o n d u c t e d a s an a t t e m p t t o s t u d y o r e v a l u a t e t h e s u c c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o v e r t i m e r e l a t i v e t o e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y That t h e r e w i l l be change i s a c o n s t a n t e x p e c t a t i o n p l a c e d upon o u r s c h o o l s and s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . R a t h e r t h a n r e l y i n g upon what s u p e r v i s o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r change s h o u l d be d o i n g i n t h e f o r m o f s u g g e s t i o n s by t h e o r i s t s o u t s i d e o f a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , o r f r o m t h o s e who b e l i e v e t h e y know how t o 12 p r o c e e d d i r e c t l y through, c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d how i n s i d e r s p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e s and s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l i f we c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e y have a c e r t a i n degree o f autonomy, w o r k i n g f r o m a u n i q u e p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f s c h o o l i n g , and t h a t t h e y use an e x p e r i e n t i a l knowledge o r i e n t e d t o t h e i r r o l e and purpose. Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s may e n a b l e one t o r e f l e c t upon t h e complex n a t u r e o f t h i s r o l e and how t h e s u p e r v i s o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r change a t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l e v e l c o n s t r u c t s a p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f change w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r frame o f p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge. G i v e n t h a t t h e s e p e r s o n s assume t h e i r p o s i t i o n s w i t h s u b j e c t m a t t e r and p e d a g o g i c a l e x p e r t i s e and l i t t l e o r no o t h e r t r a i n i n g f o r t h e r o l e o f s u p e r v i s o r , i t becomes i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d what p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e s e p o s i t i o n s may h o l d , i n i t i a l l y , and o v e r t i m e . C h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h i s knowledge may i l l u m i n a t e how one e d u c a t o r c o n s t r u c t s meaning a s s o c i a t e d w i t h change and how she p r o c e e d s i n d e p e n d e n t l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y w i t h change e f f o r t s . R e c o g n i z i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t e a c h e r p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r s a g r o u n d i n g t o t h i s s t u d y , a l t h o u g h t h e r e w i l l be no a t t e m p t t o d i r e c t l y compare a t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge w i t h t h a t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r . However, d i f f e r e n c e s between t e a c h e r and s u p e r v i s o r p r a c t i c a l knowledge may be s u g g e s t e d . F i n a l l y , t h i s s t u d y may h e l p c l a r i f y t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . By s o d o i n g , t h e r e s e a r c h community and p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t h e f i e l d c a n b e n e f i t f r o m t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f a s i n g l e s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge a s i t r e l a t e s t o c u r r i c u l u m change. T h i s r e n d e r i n g s h o u l d p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e l i f e w o r l d o f s u p e r v i s o r s , o r more p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e l i f e w o r l d o f one e x e m plary 13 f i n e a r t s s u p e r v i s o r , and i n so d o i n g , o f f e r some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i s s u e s c o n f r o n t i n g f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n e f f o r t s . Summary In r e v i e w , t h i s s t u d y w i l l d e s c r i b e , c h a r a c t e r i z e , and i n t e r p r e t t h e p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f a f i n e a r t s s u p e r v i s o r d u r i n g a s p e c i f i c f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n e f f o r t . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t w i l l d e s c r i b e t h e b a s i s and c o n t e n t o f t h a t knowledge, and t h e v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s w h i c h appear t o i n f l u e n c e i t s e v o l u t i o n . Embedded w i t h i n t h i s p o r t r a y a l w i l l be an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r u l e s o f p r a c t i c e , p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , and images t h a t a r e used by t h e s u p e r v i s o r a s she c o n s t r u c t s and u s e s h e r p r a c t i c a l knowledge. In many ways, t h e s e c a n be v i e w e d a s t h e o r i e s - i n - a c t i o n . T h i s w i l l a l s o o f f e r t h e f i e l d an o v e r a l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s i n g l e f i n e a r t s s u p e r v i s o r ' s s t y l e and how t h a t i n f l u e n c e s e d u c a t i o n a l change e f f o r t s i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . O v e r v i e w o f t h e D i s s e r t a t i o n The r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s document i s o r g a n i z e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. C h a p t e r I I w i l l r e v i e w t h e r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i n o r d e r t o s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e s t u d y . C h a p t e r I I I w i l l i n t r o d u c e f i e l d r e s e a r c h and i d e n t i f y t h e s t r a t e g i e s u s e d i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . I t w i l l a l s o o f f e r t h e r e a d e r a b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t , R u t h B r i t t e n . C h a p t e r s IV and V w i l l d e s c r i b e and i n t e r p r e t t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i e l d r e s e a r c h , o r t h e a n s w e r i n g o f t h e c o n t e n t and c o n t e x t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . These c h a p t e r s w i l l d i s p l a y o r r e p o r t t h e r u l e s o f p r a c t i c e , p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , and images, a s t h e y answer t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h how Ruth c o n s t r u c t e d her 14 p r a c t i c a l knowledge. C h a p t e r VI w i l l d i s c u s s t h e f i n d i n g s a s t h e y compare w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w and c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g i n t h e f i e l d . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a l s o d i s c u s s t h e l a s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s i n g Ruth's s t y l e a s a s u p e r v i s o r . I t w i l l end w i t h a summary o f t h e answers t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . F i n a l l y , C h a p t e r V I I w i l l t a k e a l o o k back a t t h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s b e f o r e f o r m u l a t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h i s s t u d y has f o r t h e o r y , f o r c o n s u l t a n t s and s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e and f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 15 CHAPTER I I THE SUPERVISOR IS EDUCATIONAL CHANGE: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE I n t r o d u c t i o n S u p e r v i s o r s a r e vie w e d w i t h i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a s c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r t s , d e a l i n g w i t h t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a s t h e y implement new i n n o v a t i o n s . O f t e n , t h e y a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r e x p e r t i s e . Each o f t h e s e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a r e a s p r e s e n t s d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t must be r e s o l v e d w i t h i n t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u p e r v i s o r . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , a r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be c a s t i n l i g h t o f t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d y . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e v i e w w i l l i n c l u d e an i n - d e p t h l o o k a t t h e d i a l e c t i c s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s u p e r v i s o r s i n o p p o s i n g c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n s and i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . T h i s i s meant t o p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e f o r s t u d y i n g t h e d i a l e c t i c a l n a t u r e o f p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s s u e s . The r o l e o f s u p e r v i s o r s i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i l l t h e n be e x p l o r e d . There i s a p a u c i t y o f d e s c r i p t i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e f i e l d r e s e a r c h on c o n s u l t a n t s and s u p e r v i s o r s . A l t e r n a t e v i e w s o f c o n s u l t i n g w i l l be d e l i n e a t e d s o t h a t we may l a t e r come t o u n d e r s t a n d R u t h ' s s t y l e a s a s u p e r v i s o r . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i s o f a s i n g l e F i n e A r t s S u p e r v i s o r whose s p e c i a l t y i s i n a r t , s h i f t s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks w i l l be e x p l a i n e d . I n i t i a l l y , v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n s w i l l be examined, p a r t i c u l a r l y a s t h e y s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e s t u d y . 16 The Need f o r a D i a l e c t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e O p p o sing C u r r i c u l u m O r i e n t a t i o n s I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n . K e c o n c e p t u a l i s t s P i n a r and Grumet (1980) d e s c r i b e t h e emergence o f " c u r r i c u l u m " a s a d e s i g n a t i o n f o r an a r e a o f a c t i v i t y t h a t c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y i n t h i s way: The c u r r i c u l u m f i e l d d i d not b e g i n a s a f i e l d a t a l l . U n l i k e e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y , p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n , t h e f i e l d o f c u r r i c u l u m d i d not o r i g i n a t e as an e x t e n s i o n o r a p p l i c a t i o n o f an e x t a n t d i s c i p l i n e . R a t h e r , t h e f i e l d i s u s u a l l y s a i d t o have begun i n Denver i n t h e 1920's due t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e "need". E v i d e n t l y Denver S u p e r i n t e n d e n t J e s s e Newlon d e c i d e d t h a t someone i n t h e c e n t r a l o f f i c e ought t o be a t t e n d i n g t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m , i n s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s , i n s p e c i f i c s c h o o l s , and t h r o u g h t h e d i s t r i c t o v e r a l l . (Cremin, 1975). So he h i r e d a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , p e r h a p s one who had i n d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t i n c u r r i c u l u m m a t t e r s , a s t h e f i r s t c u r r i c u l u m d i r e c t o r o r c o - o r d i n a t o r . T h i s o r i g i n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g why t h e A m e r i c a n c u r r i c u l u m f i e l d d e v e l o p e d a s i t d i d , and why i t i s u n d e r g o i n g what i t i s now u n d e r g o i n g ( c i t e d i n A o k i , 1983, p. 4 ) . The o r i g i n o f c u r r i c u l u m a s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e s i g n a t i o n s u g g e s t s a management o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h s u c h r o l e s a s c o n s u l t a n t s , s u p e r v i s o r s and o t h e r s who do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t a c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s management o r i e n t a t i o n i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n many e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m w r i t i n g s , t h e most n o t a b l e o f w h i c h i s T y l e r ' s (1949) development o f an i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t ends-means model. In h i s r a t i o n a l e , T y l e r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a d v o c a t e s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s o f t h e s c h o o l , t h e a s s o c i a t e d s e l e c t e d l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s . I t i s c l e a r l y an ends-means r a t i o n a l i t y t h a t has r e c e i v e d w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t and use a c r o s s N o r t h A m e r i c a but i t s e r i o u s l y n e g l e c t s t h e meanings i n d i v i d u a l s c r e a t e and h o l d f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n a s i t u a t i o n o r i e n t e d w o r l d . R e c o n c e p t u a l l s t o r i e n t a t i o n . A o k i (1983) c r i t i c i z e s t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t c u r r i c u l u m , o r as he r e f e r s t o i t , e m p i r i c a l a n a l y t i c o r i e n t a t i o n , f o r i t s 17 i n a b i l i t y t o acknowledge t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l w o r l d a s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e o r y . He s u g g e s t s a s i t u a t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n , a dominant t r e n d among c u r r i c u l u m r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t s , w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t o f view. The c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t i s i n t h e co m m u n i c a t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f meaning a s g i v e n by p e o p l e who l i v e w i t h i n t h e s i t u a t i o n . The r u l e s f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f meaning a r e c o n s t r u c t e d a c t i v e l y by t h o s e who d w e l l w i t h i n t h e s i t u a t i o n <p.14). T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n o f f e r s a r e f l e c t i v e l o o k a t t h e i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e s o c i a l meanings p e o p l e g i v e t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . "The r o o t a c t i v i t y i s d i a l o g u e w i t h i n a community o f p e o p l e . The f o r m o f knowledge i s not n o m o l o g i c a l ( f a c t s , laws, and t h e o r i e s ) but r a t h e r i t i s s i t u a t i o n a l meaning" (p.15). The r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t n o t i o n q u e s t i o n s t h e meaning-making between i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n o r e v e n t , and how t h a t e x p e r i e n c e i s t r a n s f o r m e d a s a r e s u l t o f d i a l o g u e . E s s e n t i a l l y , i t i s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e p e o p l e w i t h i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s t h a t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t s . The r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t n o t i o n has r e c e i v e d l i m i t e d s u p p o r t i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t e d u c a t i o n a l system. W i t h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a s i t s d e s i r e d end, i t l i e s i n c o m p l e t e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t g o a l f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n . To t h e s u p e r v i s o r , t h e s e t e n s i o n s i n c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y become t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f h e r p r a c t i c e . As h e r e m p l o y e r s i n government a p p l y i n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i o n , h e r c l i e n t s r e m i n d h e r t o i n t e r p r e t a s i t u a t i o n on i t s own m e r i t . The dilemma i s s h a r p e n e d i f we r e c o g n i z e t h e c o n f l i c t i m p l i c i t i n t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e s k i l l s o f a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n t o a m a n a g e r i a l r o l e , a s t h e y i m p l y f a c i l i t a t i o n and c o n t r o l r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e o r i s t s who u p h o l d one v i e w p o i n t 18 s e r i o u s l y n e g l e c t what p r a c t i t i o n e r s s u c h a s s u p e r v i s o r s a r e f a c e d w i t h i n p r a c t i c e . I t i s out o f t h i s dilemma t h a t an a l t e r n a t e c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n has emerged. The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Theory and P r a c t i c e These c o n f l i c t s w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y be p r e s e n t e d t o t h e f i n e a r t s s u p e r v i s o r a s she t r i e s t o r e s o l v e t h e p r a c t i c a l c o n f l i c t between h e r knowledge o f what i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e i n t e n d e d c u r r i c u l u m and i n c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . I n o r d e r t o f i n d r e s o l u t i o n , t h e main u n d e r l y i n g t e n s i o n needs t o be u n d e r s t o o d . I n e f f e c t , t h i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e n a t u r e o f t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l knowledge. Schwab (1969) has c r i t i c i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h t h a t f a i l s t o make t h e t h e o r y / p r a c t i c e d i s t i n c t i o n and has s u g g e s t e d t h i s i s a major impediment t o e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s . In Schwab's view, t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge s e e k s t o p r o v i d e u n i v e r s a l s t a t e m e n t s t h a t w i l l w i t h s t a n d c l o s e s c r u t i n y i n many s i t u a t i o n s o v e r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e . P r a c t i c a l knowledge on t h e o t h e r hand, s e e k s t o a i d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and g u i d e a c t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s and, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge, p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s not e s s e n t i a l l y d u r a b l e o r a p p l i c a b l e o v e r v a r y i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Schwab b e l i e v e d t h e f i e l d o f c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y c o u l d n o t make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n a l change a s l o n g a s t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge c o n t i n u e d t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y a p p l i e d i n p l a c e o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p r a c t i c a l knowledge. Theory by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , c a n n o t a c c o u n t f o r t h e complex d e c i s i o n making c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . O f t e n , t h e o r i e s t h a t do emerge a r o u n d c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e d e r i v a t i v e s o f o t h e r f i e l d s and c a n o n l y be a p p l i e d t o 19 v e r y s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s i f a t a l l . Schwab's t h e o r y / p r a c t i c e d i s t i n c t i o n i n i t i a t e d an e r a o f r e f l e c t i o n upon t h e p r a c t i c a l w o r l d o f t e a c h e r s but u n f o r t u n a t e l y c a u s e d an a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , p o r t r a y i n g r e a l i t y a s c o n t a i n i n g s e p a r a t e p a r t s r a t h e r t h a n an i n t e g r a t e d whole. A t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o d e c i s i o n making and d e l i b e r a t i o n . E l b a z <1983), u s i n g t h i s c o n c e p t i o n , acknowledged t h e autonomous d e c i s i o n making f u n c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n a d o p t i n g , a d a p t i n g , and sometimes d e v e l o p i n g c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s t o s u i t c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s ; a v i e w p r e v i o u s l y i g n o r e d by c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n m a s tery o f i n t e n d e d outcomes, McKeon (1952), a p h i l o s o p h e r , d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o b l e m o f r e l a t i n g t h e o r y t o p r a c t i c e i n t h i s way: In t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s , t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e p r e s e n t two p roblems - t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h o u g h t , and t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e consequences o f t h o u g h t , d o c t r i n e , and p h i l o s o p h y i n t h e a l t e r a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s (p.79). In d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s emerge f o r w h i c h McKeon a p p l i e s t h e f o l l o w i n g terms: l o g i s t i c , p r o b l e m a t i c , o p e r a t i o n a l , and d i a l e c t i c a l . The l o g i s t i c a l method. T h i s method v i e w s p r a c t i c e a s a p p l i e d t h e o r y w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e m o t i v e s f o r a c t i o n a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f knowledge. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e l o g i s t i c a l method c o n s t r u c t s f o r m a l s y s t e m s o f t h e o r y on t h e model o f mathematics, w i t h r a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s t o p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s b e i n g sought t h r o u g h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e o r y i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o t h e way e n g i n e e r i n g and m e d i c i n e a p p l y s c i e n t i f i c laws t o w a r d t h e s o l u t i o n o f p r o b l e m s i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and d i s e a s e . C u r r i c u l u m 20 r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g i t s e l f w i t h t h i s method would seek t o d e v e l o p knowledge aimed a t c o n t r o l l i n g what and how t h e o r y i s put i n t o p r a c t i c e . U s i n g t h i s a p p roach, e d u c a t o r s p r o m o t i n g change d e v e l o p models f o r p l a n n e d change ( B e n n i s , Benne & C h i n , 1961). The p r o b l e m a t i c method. P r i m a r i l y , t h e p r o b l e m a t i c method i s used t o r e s o l v e p r o b l e m s a s t h e y o c c u r and i n t erms o f t h e i s s u e s t h e y r e p r e s e n t . W i t h i n t h i s view, t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , a s knowledge i s v i e w e d a s e n t e r i n g p r a c t i c e t h r o u g h p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . S i n c e t h e p r o b l e m a t i c method i s u n i q u e l y a d a p t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r p r o blems, knowledge i s m o d i f i e d , a d j u s t e d , and used s e l e c t i v e l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i c t a t e s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m e x p e r i e n c e d . The n o t i o n o f " m u t u a l a d a p t a t i o n " i n c u r r i c u l u m change l i t e r a t u r e i s an a p t e x e m p l a r o f t h i s method (Berman & M c L a u g h l i n , 1978). The o p e r a t i o n a l method. A p p l y i n g t h e t e s t o f c o n c r e t e a c t i o n by t r a n s l a t i n g t h e o r i e s i n t o a c t i o n w h i l e s e e k i n g v e r i f i c a t i o n i n o b s e r v a b l e r e s u l t s would be c o n s i d e r e d an o p e r a t i o n a l method. Knowledge i s t h e r e f o r e d e r i v e d t h r o u g h p r o c e s s and t h e p r a c t i c a l i s c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h what a p p e a r s t o work. O p e r a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h needs a s s e s s m e n t s and u s e r o p i n i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a t t i t u d e s o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The n o t i o n of "change o r l i n k i n g a g e n t " , a s one a p p l y i n g t h e o r y i n t o a c t i o n , i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e o p e r a t i o n a l method ( H a v e l o c k , 1973). The d i a l e c t i c a l method. The d i a l e c t i c a l method v i e w s t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a s i n s e p a r a b l e s i n c e " a c t i o n , l i k e t h o u g h t , c o n s i s t s i n r e c o n c i l i n g c o n t r a r i e s i n dynamic o r g a n i c wholes" (McKeon, 1952, p.84). The e s s e n t i a l t a s k o f t h e d i a l e c t i c i s t o r e s o l v e o p p o s i t i o n s i n t h e o r y , i n p r a c t i c e , and 21 between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . T heory i s assumed t o change and m o d i f y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s h i f t i n g e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e p r a c t i c a l w o r l d . P r a c t i c e i s r e g a r d e d as t h e o r y - i n - a c t i o n and i f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e seem i n c o m p a t i b l e , i t i s t h e t h e o r y r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r a c t i c e t h a t i s v i e w e d a s d e f i c i e n t . A o k i (1984) d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between " t h e o r i a " and " p r a x i s " i n an e f f o r t t o a l t e r t h e common dic h o t o m y o f t h e o r y s e p a r a t e f r o m p r a c t i c e . T h e o r i a " i s a way o f knowing i n w h i c h a s u b j e c t comes t o know t h r o u g h a c o n t e m p l a t i v e non-engaged p r o c e s s , a s a s p e c t a t o r a s i t were, g u i d e d by t h e t e l o s o f t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge i t s e l f " (p.10). P r a x i s , on t h e o t h e r hand, " i s a way o f knowing i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t w i t h i n a p e d a g o g i c s i t u a t i o n ( l i k e a c l a s s r o o m ) r e f l e c t i v e l y engages t h e o b j e c t i v e w o r l d g u i d e d by t h e t e l o s o f o r d e r i n g human a c t i o n . Here, t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a r e s e e n t o be i n d i a l e c t i c a l u n i t y " ( p .10). T h e r e f o r e , p r a x i s would be an a c t i v i t y s e e k i n g t o i n t e g r a t e t h e whole p e r s o n , w h i l e a c c o u n t i n g f o r an e t h i c a l v i e w p o i n t w i t h i n a p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . " R a t h e r t h a n see t h e o r y l e a d i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e , we need now more t h a n e v e r t o see i t a s a r e f l e c t i v e moment i n p r a x i s " ( p.13). Knowing t h e r e f o r e a r i s e s f r o m e x p e r i e n c e and i n t e n t i o n a l engagement w i t h one's l i v e d r e a l i t y , o r , a p r a c t i c a l way o f knowing. The d i a l e c t i c a l method i s not w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , t h o u g h r e c e n t l y t h e r e s e a r c h done i n t h e a r e a s o f t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge ( E l b a z , 1981) and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s s i t u a t i o n a l p r a x i s ( A o k i , 1984) r e f l e c t s t h i s p o i n t o f view. E d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m e r s o v e r t h e l a s t t w e n t y y e a r s have been p r i m a r i l y g u i d e d by t h e l o g i s t i c a l method, w i t h p r o b l e m a t i c and o p e r a t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n s used s p o r a d i c a l l y , p e r h a p s a n t i t h e t i c a l l y t o t h e l o g i s t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n . U s i n g 22 t h e r e c e n t r e s e a r c h r e f l e c t i n g t h e d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n r e g a r d t o t e a c h e r knowledge, one may q u e s t i o n what f o r m p r a c t i c a l knowledge might t a k e i n t h e minds o f o t h e r a c t o r s i n e d u c a t i o n . I f forms o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge c a n be d e s c r i b e d , p e r h a p s t h e c o n c e p t i o n s o f change a g e n t r y , change models and mutual a d a p t a t i o n , w h i c h commonly i g n o r e t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s i n s i d e p e r s p e c t i v e , may be more c l e a r l y c r i t i c i z e d and t h e d i a l e c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n g i v e n more e d u c a t i o n a l m e r i t . P r a c t i c a l Knowledge R e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g t h e s u p e r v i s o r s ' r o l e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l change p r o c e s s d e l i n e a t e s t h e i r f u n c t i o n s a s e n t a i l i n g complex a c t i v i t y , y e t r e s e a r c h i g n o r e s how s u p e r v i s o r s i n d i v i d u a l l y d e a l w i t h o r d i s c o v e r u n i t y i n m a t t e r s o f c o m p l e x i t y and c o n f u s i o n . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o d e s c r i b e t h e p a r t i c u l a r knowledge h e l d by i n d i v i d u a l s u p e r v i s o r s . T h i s n o t i o n may be r e f l e c t i v e o f , o r c o n s o n a n t w i t h , r e c e n t s t u d i e s ( E l b a z , 1983) i n t h e a r e a o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r . S i n c e r e s e a r c h has o f t e n t r i e d t o r e d u c e t h e m a n i f o l d r e a l i t i e s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t o a few s i m p l e f a c t o r s w i t h i n one p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e t e a c h e r i s v i e w e d " i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e s u b s t a n c e o f what she t e a c h e s , t h a t w h i c h g i v e s much o f i t s meaning and d i r e c t i o n t o h e r work" (p.10). S a r a s o n (1981) s t r e s s e s t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s need t o s e e k c o n s c i o u s l y an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t o f view. A t t e m p t s t p p r o v i d e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y o b j e c t i v e r e n d i t i o n s o f r e a l i t y t e n d t o i g n o r e t h e need t o s t u d y h o l i s t i c a l l y t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r - i n - a c t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, d e s c r i p t i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e s t u d i e s may i l l u m i n a t e how e d u c a t o r s c o n s t r u c t a b l e n d i n g o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . P r a c t i c a l knowledge has been d e f i n e d by S t e r n b e r g and C a r u s o (1985) a s 23 " p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s u s e f u l i n one's e v e r y d a y l i f e ( p . 1 3 4 ) . " P r a c t i c a l knowledge i s t h u s c o n s t i t u t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e knower and t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e knower l i v e s . Because o f t h e p r o c e d u r a l and p r o p o s i t i o n a l n a t u r e o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t r a n s m i t t h i s f o r m o f knowledge t h r o u g h d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n . The p r o c e d u r a l n a t u r e o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge means, a l m o s t a p r i o r i , t h a t i t i s knowledge a c q u i r e d by d o i n g , not j u s t by l i s t e n i n g o r r e a d i n g (p.143). T h i s p r o b l e m i s compounded by t h e f a c t t h a t much o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s i n a c c e s s i b l e t o c o n s c i o u s t r a n s f e r e n c e . One would not be s u r e what t o t e a c h a n o t h e r , u n l e s s o f c o u r s e one a c t e d a s a " m e d i a t i n g a g e n t " (p.144) o r mentor. In s o d o i n g , t a c i t i n s t r u c t i o n and t h u s t a c i t knowledge might be a c q u i r e d , m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , t h r o u g h " o s m o s i s . " I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t "one's a b i l i t y t o a c q u i r e t a c i t knowledge on t h e j o b w i l l be a key f a c t o r i n one's s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e a s a t e a c h e r ( p . 1 4 8 ) . " T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e more p r a c t i c a l knowledge a p e r s o n has, t h e more a b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y t h e p e r s o n may have t o meet s i t u a t i o n a l needs and t o a c h i e v e d e s i r e d g o a l s . F o r m a t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge. D e s p i t e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n e v e r y d a y l i f e , i t i s o f t e n d i s r e g a r d e d a s a f o r m o f knowledge. E l b a z (1981, 1983) b e l i e v e d t h a t t e a c h e r s d i d i n d e e d h o l d knowledge u n i q u e t o t h e m s e l v e s and d e s c r i b e d t h r o u g h a c a s e s t u d y method, t h e c o n t e n t o f one t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge, t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s f r o m w h i c h t h a t knowledge was d e r i v e d , t h e s t r u c t u r e s i n w h i c h t h a t knowledge was c o n t a i n e d , and l a s t l y , t h e c o g n i t i v e s t y l e o f t h e t e a c h e r . I n h e r s t u d y , t h e c o n t e n t o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge f o c u s e d on knowledge o f s e l f , s u b j e c t m a t t e r , c u r r i c u l u m 24 development, i n s t r u c t i o n , and t h e m i l i e u o f t e a c h i n g (Schwab, 1969). The o r i e n t a t i o n s o f t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge were a l s o m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l and were i l l u s t r a t e d a s p e r t a i n i n g t o s i t u a t i o n a l , p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , e x p e r i e n t i a l and t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w p o i n t s . The s t r u c t u r e s o r how t h e p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge was h e l d i n a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e w o r l d , were i n t e r p r e t e d t h r o u g h r u l e s o f p r a c t i c e w h i c h a r e s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i v e s d e f i n i n g what t o do o r how t o do i t i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . P r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s a r e a t t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i t y i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r ' s p u r p o s e s embedded i n t h e r u l e , a r e more e v i d e n t and more e x p r e s s i v e o f t h e p e r s o n a l c o n t e x t o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge. O f t e n t h e y p r o v i d e r e a s o n s f o r c e r t a i n a c t i o n s . Images a r e a p p a r e n t l y broad, d e s c r i p t i v e , m e t a p h o r i c s t a t e m e n t s s e r v i n g a s g u i d e s t o t h e e v e r y d a y c o n t i n u u m o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge. O f t e n t h e y combine t h e t e a c h e r ' s f e e l i n g s , v a l u e s , needs and b e l i e f s t o w a r d s s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . The f o l l o w i n g o f r u l e s o f p r a c t i c e i n v o l v e s t h e t e a c h e r i n a m e t h o d i c a l and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d c a r r y i n g out o f h e r g o a l s (which may be a r t i c u l a t e d o r n o t ) . The use o f p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , however, i s l a r g e l y a r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y , w h i l e images a r e used by t h e t e a c h e r i n an i n t u i t i v e way t o a i d i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f p u r p o s e s ... a g i v e n s t a t e m e n t may l o o k l i k e a mere d e s c r i p t i o n , y e t f u n c t i o n a s a r u l e , p r i n c i p l e , o r image, o r sometimes i n s e v e r a l ways s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ( E l b a z , 1983, p.135). U s u a l l y r u l e s and p r i n c i p l e s e x p r e s s i n s t r u c t i o n a l knowledge w h i l e images o r d e r a l l o t h e r a s p e c t s o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge. E l b a z ' f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e i s based upon S c h u t z (1962 - 1973) who s u g g e s t s s t y l e i s t h e q u a l i t y w h i c h u n i f i e s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e : p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n use. E l b a z b rought a l l o f t h e s e components t o g e t h e r i n a u n i f i e d framework i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f t h e t e a c h e r i n a c u r r i c u l u m development p r o j e c t . E l b a z (1983) p r o v i d e d a way of v i e w i n g p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s a s a p r o b l e m 25 i n t e a c h e r knowledge when she i n t r o d u c e d t h e n o t i o n o f image as an e n t r y p o i n t i n t o r e t h i n k i n g how p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s c o u l d have g u i d e d a t e a c h e r , t h u s a n a l y z i n g how p r a c t i c a l knowlege was c o n s t r u c t e d . C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n (n.d.) have r e i n f o r c e d t h e n o t i o n o f image a s a k i n d o f knowledge, embodied i n a p e r s o n and c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e . Image draws b o t h t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e i n t o a p e r s o n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l nexus o f e x p e r i e n c e f o c u s s e d on t h e immediate s i t u a t i o n w h i c h c a l l e d i t f o r t h . I t r e a c h e s i n t o t h e p a s t g a t h e r i n g up e x p e r i e n t i a l t h r e a d s m e a n i n g f u l l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t . And i t r e a c h e s i n t o t h e f u t u r e and c r e a t e s new m e a n i n g f u l l y c o n n e c t e d t h r e a d s a s s i t u a t i o n s a r e e x p e r i e n c e d , and new s i t u a t i o n s a n t i c i p a t e d f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e image ( p . 3 ) . Images emerge f r o m i m a g i n a t i v e p r o c e s s e s , a c t i n g a s a g l u e t o b i n d t o g e t h e r a p e r s o n ' s d i v e r s e e x p e r i e n c e s , c r e a t i n g p e r s o n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l and p r a c t i c a l l y u s e f u l p a t t e r n s w h i c h i n t u r n become g u i d e s f o r t h e p e r s o n t o make sen s e out o f f u t u r e e v e n t s . In C l a n d i n i n ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n (1983), t h e n o t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s used t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e u n i t y she s e n s e d i n h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l i v e s b u t w h i c h was not c o m p l e t e l y r e n d e r e d i n t h e images o f h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n (n.d.) have used t h e m o r a l p h i l o s o p h e r M a c l n t y r e ' s (1981) n o t i o n o f n a r r a t i v e u n i t y t o d e v e l o p t h i s f u r t h e r : " o n g o i n g l i f e e x p e r i e n c e c r e a t e s t h e n a r r a t i v e u n i t y out o f w h i c h t h e images a r e c r y s t a l l i z e d and formed when c a l l e d upon by p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s ( p . 1 4 ) . " T h i s n a r r a t i v e u n i t y o r c o n t i n u u m w i t h i n a p e r s o n ' s e x p e r i e n c e p o r t r a y s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s a s m e a n i n g f u l because o f t h e u n i t y t h e y a c h i e v e f o r t h e p e r s o n . Those l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s f o r m p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge f o r t h e a c t o r . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s body o f l i t e r a t u r e l i e s i n i t s q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e dominant v i e w s o f t e a c h e r s ' knowledge, a s w e l l a s t h e t e a c h e r s ' p l a c e i n 26 c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y , E l b a z d e s c r i b e s t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t a p p r o a c h t o c u r r i c u l u m development a s p r o b l e m a t i c , f o r i t assumes t e a c h e r s a r e mere d e l i v e r y a g e n t s of i n t e n d e d c u r r i c u l a when i n f a c t t h e y a r e t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , s t r i v i n g human b e i n g s h o l d i n g t h e i r own p r a c t i c a l knowledge. T h i s s t u d y c o n s i d e r s t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t a p p r o a c h t o c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l n o t i o n o f change a g e n t r y a s p r o b l e m a t i c . L i k e w i s e , s u p e r v i s o r s a r e not mere d e l i v e r y a g e n t s o f i n t e n d e d c u r r i c u l a . They h o l d a s p e c i a l f o r m o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge. A l t h o u g h t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y grounded i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p r a c t i c a l knowledge, i t a l s o a d d r e s s e s t h e d i a l e c t i c a l r o l e o f a s u p e r v i s o r and h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l change w i t h i n h e r p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The l i t e r a t u r e i n b o t h p r a c t i c a l knowledge and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n does n o t a d d r e s s what p r a c t i c a l knowledge might l o o k l i k e f o r s u p e r v i s o r s . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s - i n - a c t i o n f o u n d w i t h i n a s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e f i r s t o f a l l t h e v a r i o u s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s s u e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s i n f l u e n c i n g one's p r a c t i c e . S u p e r v i s o r s i n C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n I s s u e s The p r o c e s s o f change i s an a r e a o f human l e a r n i n g t h a t i s o f t e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e s i s t e d and e x p e c t e d . U n d e r s t a n d i n g what i s meant by change i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g i s e s s e n t i a l i f we v a l u e t h e n o t i o n o f e f f e c t i n g change once p r o v i n c i a l i n n o v a t i o n s have been adopted. F u l l a n ' s (1982) t h e o r y o f change i n c l u d e s f i f t e e n f a c t o r s t h a t may a f f e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , o r t h e a c t u a l use o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n , w i t h i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s . 27 F u l l a n i s c a r e f u l t o p o i n t out t h a t a t t e n t i o n t o any one o f t h e f i f t e e n f a c t o r s does not e n s u r e s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , r a t h e r t h e more f a c t o r s a d d r e s s e d , t h e more s u c c e s s f u l t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i l l become. However, one i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e : s t a f f development o r i n s e r v i c e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . To t h i s F u l l a n s t a t e s : I m p l e m e n t a t i o n , whether i t i s v o l u n t a r y o r imposed, i s none o t h e r t h a n a p r o c e s s o f resocialization, The f o u n d a t i o n o f r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s interaction. L e a r n i n g by d o i n g , c o n c r e t e r o l e models, m e e t i n g s w i t h r e s o u r c e c o n s u l t a n t s and f e l l o w i m p l e m e n t o r s , p r a c t i c e o f t h e b e h a v i o r , t h e f i t s and s t a r t s o f c u m u l a t i v e , a m b i v a l e n t , g r a d u a l s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e a l l c o n s t i t u t e a p r o c e s s o f coming t o see t h e meaning o f change more c l e a r l y (1982, p.67). Werner (1987) c h a l l e n g e s F u l l a n ' s n o t i o n o f r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n a s not g o i n g f a r enough. I t i s t r u e t h a t t h r o u g h t h i s c o n c e p t i o n , t e a c h e r s a r e g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r , t o s h a r e b e l i e f s , and t o h e l p one a n o t h e r . I t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e c o n t r i b u t e s t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s u p p o r t t o w a r d t e a c h e r growth. Werner a r g u e s t h a t F u l l a n * s t h e o r y f a i l s t o a d d r e s s " i s s u e s o f t e a c h e r power and i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e i r own t r a i n i n g " (p.43). I t i s i n t h i s p o l i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n t h a t Werner q u e s t i o n s who c o n t r o l s t h e t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s and f o r what pur p o s e s . Werner goes on t o d e s c r i b e two metaphors t h a t may be used t o g u i d e c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The f i r s t a s d e f i n e d by A o k i (1984), i s t h e producer-consumer metaphor borrowed f r o m i n d u s t r y . In t h i s metaphor t h e p r o d u c e r s a r e s p e c i a l i s t s who make a " p r o d u c t " on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r e x p e r t i s e and a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r t r a d e s e c r e t s . . . i n t h i s p r o c e s s t h e p r o d u c e r i s a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d , t h e consumer i s a p a s s i v e "have n o t " r e c i p i e n t , and t h e p r o d u c t f l o w s f r o m t h e g i v e r t o t h e r e c e i v e r (Werner, 1987, p. 4 3 ) , I t i s i n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s and c o n s u l t a n t s a r e viewed a s 28 "change a g e n t s " who a c t a s s a l e s p e r s o n s f o r t h e i n n o v a t i o n . T e a c h e r s , however, a r e g r a n t e d l i t t l e power t o I n f l u e n c e t h e i n n o v a t i o n . Werner's s e c o n d metaphor i s a c o l l e a g u a l 1 metaphor w h e r e i n " e v e r y o n e i s v i e w e d a s h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f e x p e r t i s e and b e i n g i n v o l v e d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s i n t h e development o f i n n o v a t i o n s " <p.44). I n t h i s v i e w p o i n t , i n n o v a t i o n s a r e c o n s t a n t l y i n t e r p r e t e d and a d a p t e d by v a r i o u s a c t o r s w i t h i n t h e s i t u a t i o n . What i s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l about t h e s e metaphors i s t h e s i m u l t a n e i t y o f t h e i r usage i n t h e r e a l m o f s u p e r v i s o r s . The producer-consumer metaphor i s p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h a t i s , i n b r i n g i n g about g r e a t e r c o n t r o l . The c o l l e a g u a l metaphor, on t h e o t h e r hand, s e r v e s a p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n t e r e s t w i t h i n g i v e n s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s and e x p e r i e n c e s . C l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e i s shaped t h r o u g h t h e d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s t a k e n by t e a c h e r s and d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l . T h e i r knowledge, e x p e r i e n c e , and e x p e r t i s e , t h e r e f o r e , c a n be c r i t i c a l l y s h a r e d t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n s t h a t r e c o g n i z e e x p l i c i t l y t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s power t o d e f i n e p r a c t i c e , and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l development p o t e n t i a l o f l e a r n i n g f r o m one a n o t h e r ( p . 4 6 ) . Werner s u g g e s t s t h e r e a r e s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s t o b o t h metaphors, but t h e c o l l e a g u a l metaphor a l l o w s f o r i n t e r p r e t i v e a c c o u n t s s e t w i t h i n u n i q u e c o n t e x t s . I n so d o i n g , t h e a c t o r s may come t o v i e w i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s a r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y . I t i s i n t h i s r e f l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y t h a t A o k i a c knowledges c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as s i t u a t i o n a l p r a x i s and s u g g e s t s t h r e e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s . F i r s t o f a l l , " h u m a n i z a t i o n i s a b a s i c v o c a t i o n " (1984, p.14). T e a c h e r s and ^ h e t e r m " c o l l e a g u a l " ( d e f i n e d as a member o f a p r o f e s s i o n ) , r a t h e r t h a n " c o l l e g i a l " ( d e f i n e d a s b e l o n g i n g t o a c o l l e g e ) , w i l l be used i n t h i s s t u d y a s i t b e t t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e i n t e n t o f Ruth' s model o f change. 29 s u p e r v i s o r s would t h e r e f o r e be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r own and o t h e r s ' becoming. S e c o n d l y , " p e o p l e a r e c a p a b l e o f t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e i r r e a l i t i e s " ( p .14). The t e a c h e r t h e r e f o r e has t h e power t o c r e a t e h i s o r h e r own r e a l i t y . T h i r d l y , " e d u c a t i o n i s n e v e r n e u t r a l " (p.14). T h i s a s s u m p t i o n v i e w s c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as a p o l i t i c a l a c t , an a c t i v i t y a d d r e s s i n g power and c o n t r o l -E s s e n t i a l l y i t would be i m p o r t a n t f o r t e a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s t o be: c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e n ot o n l y o f t h e t r a n s f o r m e d r e a l i t y t h a t i s t h e i r s t o c r e a t e , but a l s o o f t h e i r own s e l v e s . . . t h a t t h e r e e x i s t p o s s i b l i t i e s f o r empowerment t h a t c a n n o u r i s h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e l f and t h e c u r r i c u l u m r e a l i t y ( p .15). I m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s s i t u a t i o n a l p r a x i s would be more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e l i b e r a t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r and t h e s u p e r v i s o r , t h a n i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g b u r e a u c r a t i c power and c o n t r o l . The above l i t e r a t u r e p r e s e n t s two o p p o s i n g v i e w p o i n t s f o u n d w i t h i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s s u e s . Werner b e g i n s t o q u e s t i o n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e n o t i o n o f power and c o n t r o l . To t h e s u p e r v i s o r , t h e need t o r e s o l v e t h e s e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s f orms a d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between them, and t h u s t h e need f o r a t h i r d , s y n t h e s i z i n g p e r s p e c t i v e emerges. House (1981) c o n s i d e r s t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s on i n n o v a t i o n w h i c h o f f e r s e p a r a t e s c r e e n s t h r o u g h w h i c h f a c t s , v a l u e s , and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s a r e vie w e d and p o s s i b l y i n t e g r a t e d . They a r e : t e c h n o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , and c u l t u r a l . I m p l i c i t w i t h i n e a c h i s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f knowledge u t i l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s a s b e i n g c e n t r a l t o t h e improvement o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . Each o f t h e t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s on i n n o v a t i o n t h u s p o r t r a y s a d i f f e r e n t u n d e r l y i n g image upon wh i c h i t draws t o i n t e r p r e t e v e n t s i n t h e i n n o v a t i o n p r o c e s s . 30 The t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . U n d e r l y i n g t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e I s t h e image o f p r o d u c t i o n . Here, i n n o v a t i o n i s a r e l a t i v e l y m e c h a n i s t i c p r o c e s s w i t h c o n c e p t s l i k e f l o w d i a g r a m s i l l u s t r a t i n g i n p u t and o u t p u t o f e s s e n t i a l t a s k s . As w e l l , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y based upon economics and e f f i c i e n c y . A o k i p e r c e i v e s t h i s a p p r a o c h t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s i n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i o n , a p a r a d i g m embedded i n a b u s i n e s s metaphor, and one i n w h i c h " c u r r i c u l u m p r o d u c e r s o f f e r s o m e t h i n g t o c u r r i c u l u m consumers" (1984, p . 5 ) . The p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . U n d e r l y i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h e image o f n e g o t i a t i o n . Such c o n c e p t s a s power, a u t h o r i t y and c o m p e t i t i o n become c e n t r a l and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e v i e w e d a s v o l u n t a r y c o n t r a c t u a l agreements. T h e r e f o r e , I n n o v a t i o n becomes c o n c e r n e d w i t h d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s i n an a c c e p t a b l e manner t h r o u g h an a u t h o r i t y s y s t e m (Berman & M c L a u g h l i n , 1978). The c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . U n d e r l y i n g t h e c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h e image o f community. The i n t e g r i t y o f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , s h a r e d b e l i e f s , and t o l e r a n c e o f o t h e r ' s v a l u e s i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e community (S a r a s o n , 1981). Each o f t h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s , i f a d o p t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , l i m i t s what knowledge may be advanced s i n c e c e r t a i n i s s u e s w i l l c a r r y any s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h i n e a c h framework. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e how e a c h i n f l u e n c e s i n n o v a t i o n and e v e n t u a l change. House c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , though dominant f o r t h e p a s t two decades, i s b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d by t h e p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t I n n o v a t i o n i n v o l v e s not a c o n s e n s u s o f i n t e r e s t s but a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t s . T h i s c o n f l i c t r e s i d e s between t h e 31 t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e d e n o t i n g p r i n c i p l e s and e x p l i c i t knowledge, and t h e c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g s u b c u l t u r e s w i t h i n c u l t u r e s . House s u g g e s t s t h e p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e c h a l l e n g i n g t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , though no i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r , t h e o r i s t , o r p o l i c y maker f i t s p e r f e c t l y i n t o any one. Though i n f e r e n c e s c a n be drawn, what he does n o t a d d r e s s i s what an i n d i v i d u a l ' s knowledge o f change might l o o k l i k e , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h a t i n d i v i d u a l ' s prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were t o i n f l u e n c e change w i t h i n a p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . S u p e r v i s o r s a r e a c r i t i c a l l i n k i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . From a c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t e a c h e r s need i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a s s i s t a n c e i n s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s w i t h i n s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . S e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , government o f f i c i a l s , assume a t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The s u p e r v i s o r on t h e o t h e r hand i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n v o l v e d a s a t e a c h e r and a s an a d m i n i s t r a t o r , c a u s i n g an o b v i o u s c o n f l i c t i n o r i e n t a t i o n s t o change. P e r h a p s t h e p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h e more c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e f o r t h e s u p e r v i s o r . The s u bsequent s e c t i o n a d d r e s s e s t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e on c o n s u l t a n t s ' and s u p e r v i s o r s ' r o l e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l change and s e t s t h e s t a g e f o r t h e need f o r d e s c r i p t i v e f i e l d r e s e a r c h o f s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e f i e l d . S u p e r v i s o r s R o l e i n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n The t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e a p p l i e d t o t h e r o l e o f s u p e r v i s o r s . The r o l e o f t h e i n t e r n a l d i s t r i c t c o n s u l t a n t o r s u p e r v i s o r has r e c e i v e d l i m i t e d s t u d y i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . Much o f t h e r e s e a r c h p o r t r a y s t h e " r o l e s " , " f u n c t i o n s " , and " s k i l l s " o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s i n a f r a g m e n t e d way. H a v e l o c k (1973), f o r i n s t a n c e , was t h e f i r s t t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e c o n s u l t a n t ' s r o l e i n 32 p l a n n e d change. He d e s c r i b e d a s i x s t a g e model o f t h e change p r o c e s s w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g s k i l l s and t r a i n i n g needs f o r t h e change agent. L a t e r , C r a n d a l l (1977) d e v e l o p e d a comprehensive a n a l y s i s o f t h e r o l e s , s k i l l s and needs of t h e change o r l i n k i n g a g e nt, i l l u s t r a t e d i n a n i n e t y - c e l l m a t r i x . S i m p l i f y i n g t h e p r e v i o u s models, B u t l e r and P a i s l e y (1978) choose t o i d e n t i f y t h r e e t h e o r e t i c a l t y p e s o f l i n k i n g r o l e s : r e s o u r c e f i n d e r , p r o c e s s h e l p e r , and s o l u t i o n g i v e r . These have been m o d i f i e d by Madey (1979) i n h e r d o c t o r a l r e s e a r c h t o i n c l u d e f a c i l i t a t o r ( c o m b i n i n g " p r o c e s s h e l p e r " and " s o l u t i o n g i v e r " ) , r e s o u r c e f i n d e r , and communicator. Mann (1981) v e r i f i e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e f a c i l i t a t o r r o l e d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F u r t h e r t o t h i s , F u l l a n (1982) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e main t a s k r e s t s w i t h t h o s e who a r e p r i m a r i l y s o l u t i o n g i v e r s o r t h o s e who a r e f a c i l i t a t o r s . The s o l u t i o n g i v e r s e e k s t o p r o v i d e e x p e r t i s e i n a s p e c i f i c a r e a , w h i l e t h e f a c i l i t a t o r a s s i s t s c l i e n t s i n s a l v i n g t h e i r own p r o b l e m s o r i n h e l p i n g them t o adapt t h e i r programs g i v e n mandated c u r r i c u l u m change. N e i t h e r o f t h e s e r o l e s i s s u p e r i o r , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e i d e a l s u p e r v i s o r would p l a y b o t h r o l e s d e p e n d i n g on t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . L e i t h w o o d (1982) a d d r e s s e s y e t a n o t h e r s e t o f " s k i l l s " and " f u n c t i o n s " and how e a c h i s h e l d w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s o f c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The " c u r r i c u l u m manager" i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m may be e i t h e r i n a s t a f f p o s i t i o n s u c h a s a c o o r d i n a t o r , c o n s u l t a n t , o r r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r , o r i n a l i n e p o s i t i o n s u c h a s a p r i n c i p a l , v i c e - p r i n c i p a l , department head, s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , and much l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , c u r r i c u l u m s u p e r v i s o r . L e i t h w o o d s u g g e s t s t h a t p e r s o n s i n b o t h t y p e s o f p o s i t i o n s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g and i m p r o v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , b u t t h o s e i n l i n e a u t h o r i t y have g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 33 f o r c u r r i c u l u m maintenance and o t h e r m a t t e r s not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m . S t a f f p e r s o n n e l on t h e o t h e r hand, " d e r i v e t h e i r f o r m a l l e g i t i m a c y f r o m t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l i n e p o s i t i o n s " <p.269>. L e i t h w o o d goes on t o s u g g e s t t h a t i n f l u e n c i n g t h e d e c i s i o n making o f o t h e r s i s c o n s i d e r e d a "management f u n c t i o n " and i n c l u d e s s u c h s t r a t e g i e s a s p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , c o o r d i n a t i o n , command, and c o n t r o l , and added more r e c e n t l y , c o m m u n i c a t i o n (p.273). Each one o f t h e s e would be c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g c u r r i c u l u m development, i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n . "Management s k i l l s " a r e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i n t e r f a c e between t h e management f u n c t i o n s and s e v e r a l c l a s s e s o f c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s . The l i t e r a t u r e examined h e r e d e l i n e a t e s s p e c i f i c m a n a g e r i a l o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b e h a v i o r s s u p e r v i s o r s would c a l l upon d u r i n g change e f f o r t s . However, t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n r e m a i n s t i e d t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f c e r t a i n i n t e n t i o n s and i d e a l s i n a v e r y m e c h a n i s t i c f a s h i o n . The c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e a p p l i e d t o t h e r o l e o f s u p e r v i s o r s . A o k i , C a r s o n , Berman, and F a v a r o (1984), r e g a r d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and c o n s u l t i n g f r o m a p e r s p e c t i v e i n wh i c h c o n c e r n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and more p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n c e r t a i n s e t t i n g s o r s i t u a t i o n s p r o v i d e s t h e c o n t e x t f o r d i a l o g u e . To t h i s end, c o n s u l t a n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e n o t a m a t t e r o f b u r e a u c r a t i c power and c o n t r o l , b u t r a t h e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v i n g t o u c h i n g , h e l p i n g , f r e e i n g , and r e a c h i n g . M u t u a l i t y , c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s , i n - d e p t h d i a l o g u e r e p l a c e competency l i s t s , s o f r e q u e n t l y t h e h e a r t o f i n s e r v i c e o r s u p e r v i s o r y programs" (Berman, p.58). Through d i a l o g u e , t e a c h e r s a r e v i e w e d w i t h d i g n i t y and r e c o g n i z e t h e i r w o r t h as i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h c r e d i b l e i d e a s . Indeed, i n a t e a c h e r - c o n s u l t a n t 34 d i a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , a u n i q u e r e a l i t y i s e v o l v e d r a t h e r t h a n imposed a s a p r e d e t e r m i n e d r e a l i t y by t h e c o n s u l t a n t . The p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e a p p l i e d t o t h e r o l e o f s u p e r v i s o r s . The l i t e r a t u r e i l l u m i n a t e s t h e two p e r s p e c t i v e s s u p e r v i s o r s must m a i n t a i n : t h e f i r s t , a manager's o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e ; t h e second, a t e a c h e r ' s r o l e . Y e t s u p e r v i s o r s a r e not o n l y one o r t h e o t h e r , t h e y a r e b o t h , o f t e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h i s s t u d y w i l l show t h a t t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f a s u p e r v i s o r i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m a t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge because o f t h e a d d i t i o n o f a " p o l i t i c a l " c o n t e x t , p r i m a r i l y stemming f r o m t h e a d d i t i o n o f " c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n " a s a f o r m o f c o n t e n t w i t h i n t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge. As w i l l be l a t e r d e s c r i b e d , t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t s e t s t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e a t t h e i n t e r f a c e between a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s . By e x a m i n i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t , we may b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n c e p t s o f power, c o n t r o l , and a u t h o r i t y f o r s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e i r r o l e s , and i n t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The need f o r d e s c r i p t i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e r e s e a r c h . W h i l e t h e above r e s e a r c h has c o n t r i b u t e d t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what s u p e r v i s o r s do i n t h e i r r o l e s , d e s c r i p t i v e a c c o u n t s i n t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e a r e l i m i t i e d . F u l l a n (1981) s t a t e s : There i s s u c h l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h on t h e r o l e o f d i s t r i c t s t a f f t h a t a l m o s t a n y t h i n g would make a c o n t r i b u t i o n . I t would be most h e l p f u l i f some b a s i c d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h were t o be c a r r i e d out (p.250). F u l l a n a l s o c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l r o l e o f c o n s u l t a n t s has been g e n e r a l l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , and c o n s e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t e d t o l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h . He c o n t e n d s t h e i r r o l e s a r e c r i t i c a l t o i m p l e m e n t i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y new i d e a s and methods. T h i s may be f o u n d t h r o u g h t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s ( A o k i e t a l . , 1977; 35 Kormos & Enns, 1979) and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s ( Q r l i c h , 1976). F u l l a n goes on t o s a y t h a t a l t h o u g h c o n s u l t a n t s occupy a c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n , t h e y a r e o f t e n i n e f f e c t i v e because t h e y a r e not an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f d i s t r i c t - w i d e p l a n n i n g o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n e f f o r t s . S u p e r v i s o r s ' i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s o f chanRe. W i t h t h e v a l u e o f c o n s u l t a n t s and s u p e r v i s o r s acknowledged, i t would f o l l o w t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s c o n c e p t u a l i z e how s u p e r v i s o r s u n d e r s t a n d and p r o c e e d w i t h change. L i p p i t t (1961) d i s c u s s e s t h e c o n s u l t a n t ' s r o l e and i m p l i e s t h a t c o n s u l t a n t s have i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s t o w a r d change when he w r i t e s : E v e r y c o n s u l t a n t has a c l u s t e r o f i d e a s , o r a s e t o f c o n c e p t s , w h i c h g u i d e h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f "what e x i s t s " and "what i s g o i n g on" when he comes i n c o n t a c t w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r g r oup o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o r o t h e r s o c i a l u n i t . T h i s c l u s t e r o f i d e a s i s h i s t h e o r y about t h e n a t u r e o f g r o u p s and p e r s o n s i n g r o u p s and what makes them behave t h e way t h e y do. ... Those w i t h o u t much t h e o r y have a h a r d e r t i m e o r g a n i z i n g and comprehending what t h e y see. Those w i t h a more s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r y have a h a r d e r t i m e n o t i c i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s w h i c h a r e not t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t by t h e c o n c e p t s o f t h e i r t h e o r y (p. 157). F u l l a n (1982) s u g g e s t s t h a t change i s n o t a f u l l y p r e d i c t a b l e p r o c e s s and must t h e r e f o r e be s t r u g g l e d w i t h c o n t i n u o u s l y . To r e c o g n i z e " i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s o f change and c h a n g i n g " would n o t j u s t be t h e o r i z i n g but a way o f p e r c e i v i n g change, a way o f a s s i s t i n g f o r p r a c t i c a l f o l l o w - t h r o u g h . To pay a t t e n t i o n t o i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s o f change and c h a n g i n g i s t o t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e t h e o r i e s , e x p e r i e n c e s and knowledge f r o m one's l i f e h i s t o r y and ground them i n a c t u a l change e v e n t s . " P r a c t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l f o r m u l a t i o n s c a n o n l y be d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e and r e f l e c t i o n " ( p . 9 5 ) . However, n e i t h e r L i p p i t t n o r F u l l a n s u g g e s t s how r e s e a r c h e r s might o b s e r v e and d e s c r i b e , o r o t h e r w i s e make e x p l i c i t , what s u p e r v i s o r s ' i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s o f change might l o o k l i k e o r how t h e y might be uncovered. L o o k i n g a t p r a c t i c a l knowledge and how i t i s 36 c o n s t r u c t e d t h r o u g h r u l e s o f p r a c t i c e , p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , and images, we may come t o v i e w s u c h i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s o f change. C a r s o n , i n h i s h e r m e n e u t i c a l s t u d y i n v o l v i n g t e a c h e r s and c o n s u l t a n t s d u r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a new s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t " t h e c o n c e p t o f c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n emerges d i a l e c t i c a l l y - a s b e i n g b o t h h e l p and c o n t r o l , o r improvement and i n c r e a s e d management" (1985, p.10). T h i s o f c o u r s e r a i s e s numerous q u e s t i o n s . I f t h e c o n c e p t o f c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n does emerge d i a l e c t i c a l l y , t h e n what might a s u p e r v i s o r ' s " i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s o f change" l o o k l i k e ? U n c o v e r i n g t h e r u l e s o f p r a c t i c e , p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , and images o f a s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge may i l l u m i n a t e t h e d i a l e c t i c s o f s u c h t h e o r i e s w i t h i n one s u p e r v i s o r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The need f o r d e s c r i p t i v e a c c o u n t s o f a s u p e r v i s o r o r c o n s u l t a n t and one's i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s o f change may be e x t e n d e d t h r o u g h t h e u m b r e l l a c o n c e p t o f i d e a l t y p e s o f c o n s u l t a n t s . A l t e r n a t e Views o f C o n s u l t i n g F a v a r o (1984) has p r e s e n t e d a framework (see F i g u r e I and F i g u r e I I ) w h i c h summarizes t h r e e i d e a l t y p e s o f c o n s u l t a n t s . The i d e a l t y p e o f c o n s u l t a n t - a s - e x p e r t c h a r a c t e r i z e s an o b j e c t i v i s t o r i e n t a t i o n . Here, t h e c o n s u l t a n t would o f f e r e x p e r t i s e i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s , d e c i d e what was m e a n i n g f u l , and i n t e r p r e t and d i a g n o s e d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s . C o n s u l t a n t - a s - c o l l e a g u e i s t h e i d e a l t y p e a l i g n e d w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s , c o n s u l t a n t s and t e a c h e r s a l i k e would come t o g e t h e r t o g i v e p e r s o n a l meanings t o t h e e v e n t s and s i t u a t i o n s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l l y one o f c o l l e a g u a l i t y . CONSULTING IN CURRICULUM INSERVICE: THREE PARADIGMS Orientation Purpose of Consulting Consultant's Interest Methodological Approaches 1. Objectivist For the consultant to interpret, according to his own conceptual framework, the objectified world of the teacher. To find discrepancies between what the teacher is doing and should be doing, to diagnose deficiencies and to prescribe compensatory activities. Explicitly, to improve instruction. Implicitly, to dominate and control by subjecting his intellect and will on the teacher's world and by imposing his world view to ensure that the teacher implements given programs. Efficient problem solving in specified steps and stages. Dictation of instrumental competencies and strategies. Clinical observation and supervisory conferences. 2. Interpretive For the consultant to communicate with the teacher, to understand the teacher's world view by grasping the meaning structure which he gives to his classroom world. Together with the teacher, to uncover the context of the relationship and its relevance and meaning for participants. To understand the practical intersubjective world of the teacher. To further a deeper understanding of the lived worlds of children. To encourage the teacher to express himself. Problematizlng the existential situations of participants, Situational descriptions by participants. 3. Critical For the consultant to provide opportunity for action and reflection by engaging in ongoing dialogue with the teacher. To allow a mutual encounter of world views so that a critical consciousness and a theory of action can emerge. To further a deeper understanding of lived worlds and also to sociocultural, historical roots of participants' worlds. To disclose underlying conditions which cause domination by false conceptions. To facilitate a growing awareness of and emancipation from imposed constraints on the relationship. Problematizing and conscientization. Mutual questioning and dialogue. CO -3 FIGURE I FROM: "Toward a Deeper U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C o n s u l t i n g I n C u r r i c u l u m I n s e r v i c e " by B a s i l F a v a r o , 1984, C u r r i c u l u m P r a x i s Monograph S e r i e s No.9, pp.43-55. Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Department o f Sec o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . Appropriate Data Root Activity Underljing Social View of Social Relations Criteria for Evaluation Theory Outcomes Means-ends data; teach-ing methods, activities and materials to achieve intended outcomes specified in the curriculum. Interpretation and judgment of the teacher by the consultant. C Structural/ Functionalism Behaviourism Systems Theory Ideal type: Consultant-as- How well do the means The teacher is more expert. chosen by the consultant effective in achieving relate to his ends? the goals of given programs. Acceptance of things basically as they are. Continued domination of consultant over teacher and increased alienation. 2. Multiple vantage points and perspectives (of consultant, teacher, students). Communication Phenomenology Phenomonological Sociology. Ideal type: Consultant-as -colleague. How relevant and meaningful is the relationship for partici-pants' personal and professional development? Teacher realization that his interpretations of the world are valid. Recognition of the importance of lived experiences. 3. Underlying assumptions about consulting and teaching. Implicit ideologies of consultant and teacher; views of man and world. The sociocultural and historical realities of consultant and teacher. Mutual critical reflection Critical Social Theory Ideal type: Consultant-as-coparticipant. To what extent does the relationship allow participants to become conscious of their own perceptions of reality and underlying conditions and to deal critically with them? Does the relationship advance the cause of liberation? An understanding of the deeper meaning of consulting. Clarification of part-icipants' perspectives and assumptions. Critical consciousness raising. FIGURE II FROM: "Toward a Deeper Understanding of Consulting in Curriculum Inservice" by Basil Favaro, 1984, Curriculum Praxis Monograph Series No.9, pp.43-55. Edmonton: University of Alberta, Department of Secondary Education. 39 The i d e a l t y p e o f c o n s u l t a n t - a s - c o p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e c o n s u l t a n t a s one who n o t o n l y q u e s t i o n s t h e t e a c h e r ' s a c t i o n s , but who i s a l s o s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e . I n t h i s way, t h e r e i s "mutual engagement i n c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n a s b o t h c o n s u l t a n t and t e a c h e r c o p a r t i c i p a t e i n open d i a l o g u e and m u t u a l q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e b a s e s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t o f i n s e r v i c e a c t s " <p.53>. F a v a r o s u g g e s t s t h a t " t o e l e v a t e t h e q u a l i t y o f i n s e r v i c e c o n s u l t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e q u i r e s a change i n emphasis f r o m t e c h n i c a l , c o g n i t i v e knowledge t o a f o c u s on m e a n i n g f u l e x p e r i e n c e s " <p.53). To t h i s end, t h e l a t t e r two f orms o f c o n s u l t i n g o f f e r t h e most hope f o r i n c r e a s e d awareness i n t h e l i f e w o r l d e x p e r i e n c e s o f c o n s u l t a n t s and t e a c h e r s . F o r t h e r e s e a r c h f i e l d , t h i s d e l i n e a t i o n r a i s e s many q u e s t i o n s , one o f w h i c h i s a d d r e s s e d i n d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e need f o r d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o f c o n s u l t a n t s who p r i m a r i l y f a l l i n t o t h e l a t t e r two c a t e g o r i e s . I n t h i s r e g a r d F a v a r o (1984) s a y s : Our a l t e r n a t i v e p a r a d i g m a t i c framework s e r v e s a s an i n s t r u m e n t f o r change i n c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , a l o n g w i t h t h e l i f e w o r l d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h o s e few i n s e r v i c e c o n s u l t a n t s who a r e h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s l i b e r a t e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e i r own h i s t o r i e s by becoming more c o n s c i o u s o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t have g i v e n r i s e t o n e g a t i v e images and d i s t o r t e d c o n c e p t i o n s . I t i s c r u c i a l f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s t o seek o u t and u n c o v e r t h e s e l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e s and t o r a i s e them t o a more p u b l i c , r e f l e c t i v e l e v e l . F o r o n l y t h e n w i l l we move t o a f u r t h e r d i s c l o s u r e o f t h e e s s e n c e t h a t g rounds t h o u g h t and a c t i o n i n c u r r i c u l u m i n s e r v i c e (p.54). I t i s f r o m t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t a d e s c r i p t i o n o f R u t h i s o f f e r e d , t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e r e s e a r c h community a l o o k i n t o t h e l i f e w o r l d o f a s u p e r v i s o r who c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e s t a f f development o f t e a c h e r s i n a m e a n i n g f u l way. In so d o i n g , t h e f i e l d may come t o u n d e r s t a n d what t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f s u c h an i n d i v i d u a l may l o o k l i k e , and i n t u r n , c a use o t h e r s t o r e f l e c t upon t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s , o r a s s u p e r v i s o r s . Even t h o u g h Ruth 40 r e p r e s e n t s a r t , music, and drama i n h e r r o l e a s F i n e A r t s S u p e r v i s o r , h e r p r i m a r y a r e a o f e x p e r t i s e and i n t e r e s t i s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . V e r y l i t t l e d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h e x i s t s r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e o f a r t s u p e r v i s o r . A r t s u p e r v i s o r s i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m change. W r i t i n g i n t h e 1960s, H u r w i t z (1967) and H a r t (1966:1984) b o t h a d d r e s s e d t h e r o l e o f a r t s u p e r v i s o r s , and i n s o d o i n g , i n i t i a t e d a d e s c r i p t i o n on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a r t s u p e r v i s o r s may i n f l u e n c e change i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . More r e c e n t l y , o n l y one r e s e a r c h s t u d y a d d r e s s e d d i s t r i c t a r t s u p e r v i s o r s a c r o s s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (LaTour, 1985). I t s emphasis was g i v e n t o t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n w h i c h s e l e c t i v e " l i n k i n g agent r o l e s and f u n c t i o n s " were s t u d i e d . The s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t a r t s u p e r v i s o r s need t o become more aware o f t h e p r o c e s s e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l change. R e g a r d i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , LaTour s t a t e s t h a t : W h i l e t h i s s t u d y has p r o v i d e d a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e o f t h e a r t s u p e r v i s o r , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d o l o g i e s ( s u c h as e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h ) may g i v e us more s p e c i f i c knowledge f o r d e s i g n i n g s u c c e s s f u l change s t r a t e g i e s . Of • p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t a r e i n t e n s i v e and s i t e - s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s o f t h e m i n o r i t y o f s u p e r v i s o r s who seem t o be s u c c e s s f u l l y p r o v i d i n g t h e l e a d e r s h i p and p r o c e s s e s f o r c h a n g i n g o r i m p r o v i n g c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e s i n t h e i r l o c a l d i s t r i c t s (p.139). P r o v i d i n g d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h o f an e x e m p l a r y s u p e r v i s o r i n t h e f i e l d o f a r t e d u c a t i o n i s needed. S h i f t s i n t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks o v e r t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s have c a l l e d f o r d r a m a t i c changes i n t h e c o n t e n t and methodology o f c l a s s r o o m a r t p r a c t i c e s . F o r s u p e r v i s o r s , knowledge o f t h e s e s h i f t s i s n e c e s s a r y a s e n t r y p o i n t s i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s of t e a c h e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e o f a t e a c h e r i s c l o s e t o f o r t y y e a r s , any s u p e r v i s o r might w e l l l o o k t o see s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s t a n c e s b e i n g t a k e n by t e a c h e r s o f v a r i o u s ages w i t h i n one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . 41 S u p e r v i s o r s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n S h i f t s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n T h e o r e t i c a l Frameworks The c h i l d - c e n t e r e d approach. The 1950s and 1960s c o m p r i s e d a c h i l d - c e n t e r e d e r a o f a n a l y z i n g c h i l d a r t a s a means o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e v a l u a t i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l development o f c h i l d r e n . The n o t i o n t h a t c r e a t i v i t y was b e s t f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h s t u d i o e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , became t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f many p s y c h o l o g i s t s w i t h a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . L o w e n f e l d ' s (1947) t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n a d v o c a t e d t h e v a l u e o f t h e c h i l d ' s i n n a t e a b i l i t i e s t o c r e a t e , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c r e a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f e v e r y c h i l d , and t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p r o c e s s o v e r p r o d u c t . To t h i s e x t e n t , e d u c a t o r s were s t r o n g l y e n c o u r a g e d t o v i e w a r t e d u c a t i o n a s c o n t a i n i n g t h e d o u b l e f u n c t i o n o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and s e l f - a d j u s t m e n t of t h e c h i l d . P e d a g o g i c a l l y , t h i s meant f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e c h i l d ' s needs w i t h o u t u n n e c e s s a r y t e n s i o n , and f o c u s i n g upon "how" t h e image was e x p r e s s e d r a t h e r t h a n "what" was e x p r e s s e d . T e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o p r o v i d e c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o m o t i v a t i o n s i n c e t h e r e was a b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n between t h e c h i l d ' s e m o t i o n a l and m e n t a l l e v e l of c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n . C o n t e n t t o o k on l e s s emphasis, however, s i n c e i t was t h e s u b j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h a t was o f more s i g n i f i c a n c e . As one r e v i e w s t h i s t i m e p e r i o d , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t : Some e d u c a t o r s d u r i n g t h e L o w e n f e l d e r a went ou t on a l i m b i n u n c r i t i c a l l y a d v o c a t i n g t o t a l l y u n s t r u c t u r e d o r h a p h a z a r d e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s t h a t had n e v e r been p r o p e r l y t e s t e d i n t h e f i e l d . O t h e r s a t t e m p t e d f a r - f e t c h e d e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t r a n d i r e c t l y c o u n t e r t o a l l t h e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e . Or t h e y used a " n o - m e t h o d - a t - a l l " a p p r o a c h t h a t L o w e n f e l d h i m s e l f a s s a i l e d a s " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " (Forman, 1973, p.12). 42 Though L o w e n f e l d was o f t e n m i s i n t e r p r e t e d , he r e p e a t e d l y s u g g e s t e d t h a t e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d p u r p o s e l y g u i d e t h e development o f c h i l d r e n ' s c r e a t i v i t y . Though t h i s i m p l i e s s t r u c t u r e and p l a n n i n g , L o w e n f e l d d i d not c l e a r l y a s c e r t a i n how t h e t e a c h e r might a c c o m p l i s h t h i s . I n 1965, a Seminar i n A r t E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h and C u r r i c u l u m Development was h e l d a t P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y (Hamblen, 1984). The p e r v a s i v e theme p r e s e n t e d by s u c h n o t e d s c h o l a r s a s Barkan, Broudy, E i s n e r , and Chapman, c e n t e r e d upon t h e i d e a t h a t a r t o r a r t e d u c a t i o n i s a d i s c i p l i n e i n i t s own r i g h t . A predominant c o n c e r n f o c u s e d upon t h e immense t a s k o f making t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a r t c l e a r s o t h a t c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r s c o u l d b u i l d a s t r u c t u r e o f s e q u e n t i a l c o n c e p t s f o r o r g a n i z e d l e a r n i n g . A r t knowledge had t o be p e r c e i v e d t h e r e f o r e f r o m t h e e x p e r t p o i n t o f view, t h a t i s , f r o m t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o c e s s e s a r t i s t s , h i s t o r i a n s , and c r i t i c s use i n t h e i r work. In t u r n , t h e s e "models" c o u l d be e m u l a t e d by s t u d e n t s a s t h e y p r o c e e d e d t h r o u g h i n q u i r i e s i n a r t . Though t h e 1970s d i d n o t u s h e r i n a d i s c i p l i n e - c e n t e r e d a p p r o a c h t o a r t e d u c a t i o n , t h e p e r i o d d i d u s h e r i n g r e a t e r s u p p o r t f o r t h e n o t i o n o f i n c l u d i n g t h e t h r e e models f o r i n q u i r y under t h e t i t l e o f " a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n , " a p h r a s e a t t r i b u t e d t o B a r k a n ' s a d d r e s s a t t h e Penn S t a t e Seminar. F u r t h e r t o t h i s , E i s n e r (1972) i d e n t i f i e d t h e p r o d u c t i v e , c r i t i c a l , and c u l t u r a l and/or h i s t o r i c a l r e a l m s a s n e c e s s a r y f o r l e a d i n g t h e c h i l d t o a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s . A e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t e d a b a l a n c e among p r o d u c i n g , a p p r e c i a t i n g , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The d i s c i p l i n e - c e n t e r e d approach. W i t h t h e 1980s came a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . The G e t t y C e n t e r f o r E d u c a t i o n i n t h e 43 A r t s was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o m o t i n g a commitment among s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s , e d u c a t o r s , and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o a d i s c i p l i n e - c e n t e r e d a p p r o a c h t o v i s u a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A l t h o u g h Canada does not have a c o u n t e r p a r t , t h e impact i s i n e v i t a b l e . D i s c i p l i n e Based A r t E d u c a t i o n , o r DBAE, encompasses t h e f o u r d i s c i p l i n e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o c r e a t i n g , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and a p p r e c i a t i n g a r t , t h a t i s , a r t h i s t o r y , a r t p r o d u c t i o n , a r t c r i t i c i s m , and a e s t h e t i c s . I n a monograph f r o m t h e G e t t y C e n t e r , E i s n e r <1987) d i s c u s s e s t h e f o u r t h component o f a e s t h e t i c s a s b e i n g " u s e f u l f o r c h i l d r e n t o become r e f l e c t i v e about t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r judgments c o n c e r n i n g t h e q u a l i t i e s o f works o f a r t , a s w e l l a s about t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e v i s u a l w o r l d a r o u n d them" (p.20). S t u d e n t s s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be c o n c e r n e d w i t h h a v i n g a c o n t i n u a l d i a l o g u e about t h e n a t u r e and meaning o f a r t i n t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s d i a l o g u e i s b e s t a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l f i e l d o f a e s t h e t i c s . I m p l i c i t w i t h i n DBAE i s t h e c o n c e r n f o r s e q u e n t i a l p l a n n i n g , not n e c e s s a r i l y d i v i d i n g t h e f o u r s t r a n d s but more l i k e l y i n t e g r a t i n g them a c c o r d i n g t o p e r c e i v e d needs. T e a c h e r s a r e a s k e d t o f o s t e r i n q u i r y s k i l l s by p r o v i d i n g l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a r e p r o b l e m - c e n t e r e d . Though an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l model i s not e v i d e n t , t h e f o u r s t r a n d s s e r v e a s "models" t o p r o v i d e an " e x p e r i e n t i a l " a p p r o a c h t o s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . S u p e r v i s o r s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n change. As t e a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s c o n s i d e r t h e o r i e s e m erging i n t h e f i e l d , t h e c o n f i d e n c e g a i n e d f r o m t h e use o f p r e v i o u s t h e o r i e s and t h e a n x i e t y a t t a c h e d t o a c c e p t i n g new t h e o r i e s and t h u s new p r a c t i c e s p r e s e n t a d i a l e c t i c between and t h e o l d and t h e new. I t a l s o p r e s e n t s t h e need f o r human u n d e r s t a n d i n g about t h e n a t u r e o f change and t h e t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o implement changes i n p r a c t i c e . 44 Hamblen (1984) i n t e r p r e t e d a c h r o n o l o g y o f a r t e d u c a t i o n o v e r t h e l a s t two hundred y e a r s and d i s c o v e r e d s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t p a t t e r n s e m erging a c r o s s t i m e . She s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e : s i g n i f i c a n t t i m e l a g s between t h e o f f i c i a l demise o f a program and when i t a c t u a l l y i s no l o n g e r p a r t o f c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . I t t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 y e a r s f o r F r o e b e l ' s k i n d e r g a r t e n s t o have an impact i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . D e s p i t e e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e , s t a t e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s , and t h e endorsement o f major a r t e d u c a t o r s , a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n has y e t t o be w i d e l y implemented. A f t e r an i n t e r v a l o f 25 y e a r s o f a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s , L o w e n f e l d ' s p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and c r e a t i v i t y a r e s t i l l p o p u l a r r a t i o n a l e s f o r t h e s t u d y o f a r t (p.116). I f Hamblen's s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e p a t t e r n s embedded i n c h a n g i n g a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r i e s and subsequent p r a c t i c e have m e r i t , t h e amount o f t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e n t t h e o r i e s , t o r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p them, and f i n a l l y t o d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s t o implement them, would t a k e some t w e n t y y e a r s . I t would be a n o t h e r t h i r t y b e f o r e t h e y were no l o n g e r a p a r t o f c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . S u p e r v i s o r s e n c o u r a g i n g change i n a r t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e would need t o r e a l i z e s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s may e x i s t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y among a r t t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . R e c o g n i z i n g t h e s e frameworks would o f f e r e n t r y p o i n t s f o r t h e s u p e r v i s o r i n t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l w o r l d . However, i t would a l s o be t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s g o a l t o t r a n s f o r m o u t d a t e d n o t i o n s t o c o i n c i d e w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y c u r r i c u l a . Of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e would be t h e " s c h o o l a r t " s t y l e ( E f l a n d , 1976). T h i s has been s t u d i e d by R a f f e r t y (1987) a s a d i s j u n c t u r e f o r t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s between c u r r e n t a r t e d u c a t i o n n o t i o n s and t h e t y p i c a l p r a c t i c e f o u n d i n many e l e m e n t a r y a r t c l a s s r o o m s . A r t s u p e r v i s o r s s e e k i n g c u r r i c u l u m change would need t o a c c o u n t f o r t e a c h e r b e l i e f s , v i e w p o i n t s , and v a l u e s , i f s i g n i f i c a n t and m e a n i n g f u l change were t o o c c u r . 45 Summary S u p e r v i s o r s a r e p l a c e d a t t h e i n t e r f a c e between t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and a s s u c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be members o f b o t h groups. I n so b e i n g , i n d i v i d u a l s u p e r v i s o r s a r e i n a p o s i t i o n o f r e s o l v i n g t h e d i a l e c t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between p r a c t i c e and t h e o r y , t e a c h i n g and management, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e s (see F i g u r e I I I ) . I n e s s e n c e , t h e y need t o b l e n d o p p o s i n g c o n t r a r i e s . A d i a l e c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o