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Three piano sonatas by Friedrich Kuhlau Dawe, Edmund Noel 1988

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THREE PIANO SONATAS BY FRIEDRICH KUHLAU by EDMUND NOEL DAWE B.Mus., B.Mus. Ed., Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1982 M.Mus., The University of Western Ontario, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Music) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 (6) Edmund Noel Dawe, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of /** US/C  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A / / / / DE-6f3/81) i i ABSTRACT F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau (1786-1832) ranks as a minor master of the early nineteenth century. As a composer of keyboard music he i s perhaps best known for his sets of sonatinas, but the twenty-two sonatas he composed from 1809 to 1831 form a s i g n i f i c a n t part of his extensive output. This study examines three of his sonatas—Op. 4, Op. 46 No. 2 and Op. 127—and places them i n h i s t o r i c a l context through a discussion of the importance of t h i s genre i n the repertoire of that era. A survey of contemporary keyboard performance practices i s also included, as well as an introductory biographical sketch. Kuhlau's st y l e i s undeniably conservative, with phrases of regular and predictable length i n evidence throughout, and his music i s often derivative of that of e a r l i e r composers from C.P.E. Bach through Beethoven. However, his works also r e f l e c t numerous t r a i t s of early Romanticism. They are melodically r i c h , widely spaced sonorities are frequently employed, and his textures range from delicate nuances to t h i c k l y scored passages. From a purely p i a n i s t i c point of view, he displays a fondness for scalewise and arpeggiated passages so often used to excess by lesser composers of his era, but he also c l e a r l y demonstrates that he was aware of more innovative approaches to keyboard writing. i i i Throughout history, countless minor composers such as Kuhlau were highly respected during t h e i r l i f e t i m e s ; nevertheless, most of t h e i r compositions, including those under consideration here, have not survived on the concert stage. Consequently, there exists a vast body of l i t e r a t u r e of which l i t t l e or nothing i s known. It i s both necessary and useful to study such works i n order to gain a more complete understanding of music of t h e i r period. Moreover, a closer examination of them might well lead to a reassessment of t h e i r worth, which i n turn may encourage more frequent performances. i v CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i CONTENTS. i v LIST OF FIGURES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i CHAPTER I. FRIEDRICH KUHLAU (1786-1832) 1 CHAPTER I I . SONATA IN E-FLAT MAJOR, OPUS 4 10 Largo assai - Allegro con brio 10 Moderato - Thema con v a r i a z i o n i 16 Adagio 20 Vivacissimo 24 CHAPTER I I I . SONATA IN D MINOR, OPUS 4 6 NUMBER 2 26 CHAPTER IV. GRANDE SONATE BRILLANTE IN E-FLAT MAJOR, OPUS 127 35 Allegro 35 Adagio con molto espressione ..41 Finale - Allegro con s p i r i t o 46 CONCLUSION 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY 54 V LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.1-39 11 Figure 2. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.47-49 12 Figure 3. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.64-69 12 Figure 4. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.40-46 12 Figure 5. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.47-51 13 Figure 6. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.95-98 13 Figure 7. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.133-140.... 13 Figure 8. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.133-140.... 14 Figure 9. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.162-165....14 Figure 10. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.309-320.... 15 Figure 11. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Second Mvt.,mm.1-24 16 Figure 12. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Second Mvt., mm.24-32 17 Figure 13. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Second Mvt., mm.33-37 17 Figure 14. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Second Mvt., mm.38-47. 17 Figure 15. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Second Mvt., mm.57-61 18 Figure 16. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Second Mvt., mm.73-108.... 19 Figure 17. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Third Mvt., mm.1-11 20 Figure 18. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Third Mvt., mm.22-26 21 Figure 19. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Third Mvt., mm.33-36 21 Figure 20. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Third Mvt., mm.37-49 23 Figure 21. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Fourth Mvt., mm.1-8 24 Figure 22. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.4, Fourth Mvt., mm.34-39 24 v i Figure 23. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, Fourth Mvt., .25 Figure 24. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46, No.2, mm.1-29 , 30 Figure 25. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46, No.2, Rondo, . 31 Figure 26. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46, No.2, Rondo, mm.44-55. . . .32 Figure 27. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46, No.2, Rondo, mm.7 6-9 3... .32 Figure 28. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46, No.2, Rondo, mm.174-181. .33 Figure 29. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46, No.2, Rondo, mm.224-233. .33 Figure 30. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46, No.2, Rondo, mm.234-248. .33 Figure 31. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46, No.2, Rondo, mm.249-263. .34 Figure 32. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.1-24.... . 36 Figure 33. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.25-43 . . . 36 Figure 34 . F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.66-75... .37 Figure 35. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.7 6-8 7.. . .38 Figure 36. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.112-132. .39 Figure 37. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.133-143. .39 Figure 38. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.149-159. .40 Figure 39. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.169-174. .40 Figure 40. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.336-355. .40 Figure 41. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt. , 41 Figure 42. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt. , mm.10-17.. .42 Figure 43. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt. , mm.17-39.. .42 Figure 44. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt. , mm.40-44.. .43 Figure 45. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt. , mm.45-53.. .43 Figure 46. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt. , mm.54-57.. .44 Figure 47 . F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt. , mm.5 8-61.. .44 Figure 48. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt. , mm.62-76.. .45 v i i Figure 49. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.127, Third Mvt., mm.1-31 46 Figure 50. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.127, Third Mvt., mm.43-50....47 Figure 51. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.127, Third Mvt., mm.158-173..47 Figure 52. F. Kuhlau, Sonata. Op.127, Third Mvt., mm.195-207..48 Figure 53. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.127, Third Mvt., mm.228-240..48 Figure 54. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op.127, Third Mvt., mm 328-350..49 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my sincere gratitude to Professors Gregory Butler and Robert Silverman for t h e i r valuable insights into t h i s study and to Professor Paul Douglas for providing scores of the three sonatas under consideration here. The assistance of Mrs. Margaret Weber and Ms. Renate Zenker i n providing English translations of the German sources i s also greatly appreciated. F i n a l l y , I am deeply grateful to my wife Karla for her constant encouragement and support throughout my doctoral studies. 1 CHAPTER I F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau (1786-1832) Daniel F r i e d r i c h Rudolph Kuhlau was born at Uelzen, near Hanover on September 11, 1786. His father was a m i l i t a r y bandsman and thus, from an early age, F r i e d r i c h was exposed to a great deal of music. L i t t l e i s known about his early childhood other than he was the youngest of several children and his family l i v e d a simple existence. 1 At the age of ten, Kuhlau l o s t the sight i n his right eye i n an unfortunate accident. Although most sources do not provide any d e t a i l s concerning t h i s mishap, Dan Fog states that Kuhlau was blinded i n "an accident on the s t r e e t . D u r i n g his long convalescence his family discovered his musical a b i l i t i e s when i t became his favourite pastime to play a small clavichord which could be placed across his bed.3 Reinhold Sietz asserts that Kuhlau received early i n s t r u c t i o n from his father and that there i s no documentation concerning his -'-William Behrend, "Weyse und Kuhlau. Studie zur Geschichte der danischen Musik," Die Musik III, 12 (Berlin: Schuster und Loeffl e , 1904):281. ^Dan Fog, Kompositionen von F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau: Thematisch- bibliographischer Katalog (Copenhagen: Dan Fog Musikverlag, 1977), 7. William Behrend, op. c i t . 2 other piano teachers. 4 However, i t was not u n t i l he completed school at the age of fourteen that F r i e d r i c h received regular i n s t r u c t i o n . In 1801 he went to Hamburg to study theory and composition with C.F.G. Schwenke, Kantor of the Katherinenkirche and a learned scholar and pupil of Marpurg and Kirnberger.^ Kuhlau's e a r l i e s t known works—songs and compositions for f l u t e and piano were published during his studies i n Hamburg. In 1810, Hamburg was invaded by Napoleon's troops. Kuhlau's name was placed on a conscription l i s t . Fearing that his a r t i s t i c career would be interrupted, he f l e d to Copenhagen, where his success as a p i a n i s t and composer was immediate. As early as January 1811, he appeared as "Mr. Kuhlau of Hamburg" in a concert at the Royal Theatre.^ This program featured his C major Piano Concerto which he l a t e r dedicated to Weyse. The success that Kuhlau enjoyed i n Copenhagen convinced him to take up permanent residence there, and i n 1813, he became a Danish c i t i z e n . That same year, he was appointed Court Chamber Musician at the Royal Theatre, a position without salary. The following 4Reinhold Sietz, " F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau," Die Musik i n Geschichte  und Geaenwart, 7 (Basel: Barenreiter Kassel, 1958): 1875. Sources however, undoubtedly document Kuhlau's outstanding s k i l l s as a p i a n i s t even though l i t t l e information i s available concerning his teachers. 5Carsten Hatting, " F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau," The New Grove  Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 6th ed., Stanley Sadie, ed., 10 (London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980): 294. ^Behrend, op. c i t . 3 year, his f i r s t stage success, the Singspiel Roverborgen ("The Robber's Castle") was produced at the Royal Theatre. This work was also well received i n l a t e r years i n German theatres.^ Kuhlau's music was considered fresh, l i v e l y , and extremely colo u r f u l and was highly regarded by most of his contemporaries. Some older musicians, however, found many of his works extremely r a d i c a l . According to Behrend, the composer F.L.A. Kunzen, for example, was apparently h o r r i f i e d by much of Kuhlau's music.^ In 1816, Kuhlau was appointed Chorus Master at the Royal Theatre and during the 1816-17 season, his f i r s t opera Trylleharpen ("The Magic Harp.")—based on a l i b r e t t o o r i g i n a l l y intended for F.L.A. Kunzen^, was produced with less success than Roverborgen.1® Kuhlau asked to be relieve d as Chorus Master and instead be paid a salary as a chamber musician for which he was w i l l i n g to play at the Royal Court. He also suggested that on alternate years he would compose and play at both the Royal Court and Royal 'Carsten Hatting, op_. c i t . ^Behrend, op_. c i t . F r i e d r i c h Ludwig Aemilius Kunzen (1761-1817) was a successful keyboard performer, composer, and organizer of concerts i n Copenhagen from 1784-1789. He l e f t Copenhagen i n 1789 and moved to B e r l i n . In 1795 he returned to Copenhagen as Royal Kappellmeister. See George Karstadt, "F.L.A. Kunzen," The New Grove Dictionary, 10:311-312. ^Carsten Hatting, op_. c i t . 1 0 I b i d . 4 Theatre. His request was granted. 1 1 Kuhlau appeared as a piano s o l o i s t u n t i l 1822. It was no small accomplishment that he premiered a l l of Beethoven's piano concertos at the Danish courts. Kuhlau's reputation as a concert p i a n i s t spread i n Scandinavia, es p e c i a l l y Sweden, which he v i s i t e d four times. He became a member of Stockholm's Music Academy and through his public appearances there acquired many pupils among the Swedish n o b i l i t y . After 1822, however, composing occupied most of his time and he v i r t u a l l y abandoned his concertizing. He t r a v e l l e d to Vienna i n 1821 and again in 1825 when he met Beethoven. A v i v i d account of the meeting i s given i n Thayer's The L i f e of Ludwig van Beethoven. Apparently, after consuming a great deal of food and wine at a nearby inn, the two composers returned to Beethoven's house where a l i v e l y evening followed i n which they exchanged impromptu canons: Kuhlau improvised a canon on B-A-C-H, to which Beethoven r e p l i e d with the same notes as an opening motive on the words "Kuhl, nicht lau." ("Cool, not lukewarm") a feeble play on the Danish musician's name but one which served to carry the music. Beethoven's r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the evening are recorded i n a l e t t e r which he sent to Kuhlau: 1:1-Behrend, 282. However, Reinhold Sietz states that Kuhlau made numerous other requests for sa l a r i e s or salary increases which were denied.' (Sietz, op. c i t . ) • ^ E l l i o t Forbes, ed., Thayer's L i f e of Beethoven (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964), 204. 5 To Herr Kuhlau September 3, 1825 I must confess that i n my case also the champagne went too much to my head and that again I had to experience the fact that such indulgence hampers rather than promotes my a b i l i t y to work. For though I am usually well able to reply on the spot, yet I haven't the fai n t e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n of what I wrote yesterday. Remember now and then your most devoted Beethoven. In 1828, Kuhlau was made an honorary professor at the Royal Conservatory i n Copenhagen and he continued to enjoy a successful career. Two events during the l a s t year of his l i f e , came as a severe blow to Kuhlau. The f i r s t was the death of his parents and the second, a f i r e which swept through his home, destroying a l l of his unpublished manuscripts, including a second piano concerto and a textbook on thorough bass playing, only fragments of which survive. Apparently, he had delayed the publication of these manuscripts by choice i n order to have f i n a n c i a l backing in bad t i m e s . 1 4 This misfortune led to a decline i n his health and he was admitted to ho s p i t a l . He contracted a chest ailment from which he never recovered and he died i n Copenhagen on March 12, 1832. Kuhlau's large and varied output that s u r v i v e s 1 ^ includes three operas, one si n g s p i e l , i n c i d e n t a l music, one piano concerto, and 112 songs. A substantial amount of chamber music 1^Emily Anderson, ed., The Letters of Beethoven, 3 (London: Macmillan and Company, Ltd., 1960): 1245. 1 4Behrend, 283. 1 5Fog, 12-15 6 may be divided into two categories: with and without f l u t e . The former includes duos, t r i o s , quintets, variations, rondos, and fantasias. The l a t t e r consists of v i o l i n sonatas and piano and s t r i n g quartets. The l i s t of piano works i s equally extensive and spans his entire career. There are sonatinas, sonatas, rondos, and variations for piano duet. As well as sets of variations, rondos, waltzes and ecossaises, the solo l i t e r a t u r e includes sixteen sonatinas which, because they are easy to play and well written, have deservedly gained a widespread reputation as e f f e c t i v e teaching pieces. The twenty-two sonatas represent Kuhlau's larger works for the instrument. They are v i r t u a l l y unknown and have not been examined previously i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to ensure a greater understanding of t h e i r structure and s t y l e . The three works chosen for t h i s study: Op. 4 i n E - f l a t major, Op. 46, No. 2 i n d minor, and Op. 127 i n E - f l a t major demonstrate the s a l i e n t features of Kuhlau's p i a n i s t i c s t y l e . In order to place these sonatas in t h e i r proper h i s t o r i c a l context, i t i s necessary to give a b r i e f description of important developments i n the early nineteenth century which greatly affected music and the a r t s . 1 ^ F i r s t , with a growing European population, there was a l b F o r a more detailed presentation see Williams S. Newman, The Sonata Since Beethoven, 3d. ed. (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1983), 41-66. Also F r i e d r i c h Blume, Clas s i c and  Romantic Music A Comprehensive Survey, trans. M.D. Herder Norton (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1970), 94-99. 7 greater proportion of composers,performers, amateur musicians and music lovers than i n previous eras. More music was published and d i s t r i b u t e d throughout Europe than ever before. That newly published compositions were more readily available i s r e f l e c t e d by the fact that, even i n the r e l a t i v e l y small and i s o l a t e d c i t y of Copenhagen, Kuhlau had access to a diverse body of l i t e r a t u r e . His variations for piano, for example, are based on compositions by Beethoven, B e l l i n i , Cherubini, Hummel, Mozart, Rossini and Weber. 1 8 Similarly, the r i s e of the public concert had important ramifications. Although such events had been organized i n the eighteenth century, the nineteenth century witnessed a more marked increase which fundamentally changed the relationship between the composer, performer and the consumer. With a larger middle class population, the public concert s i g n a l l e d a d i s t i n c t s h i f t from a r i s t o c r a t i c to public patronage of music with a new interdependence of a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y and commercial marketability. A r t i s t s now depended more and more on public acceptance for t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . In turn, greater support of music enabled numerous minor masters such as Kuhlau to enjoy successful careers. The nineteenth century saw the r i s e of the piano as the most popular concert and domestic instrument. Enlarged, ^Newman points out that his comprehensive study deals with some 625 composers i n the nineteenth century as opposed to 400 i n the C l a s s i c a l and 300 i n the Baroque eras. (Newman, 15). 1 8Fog, 12. 8 mechanically improved, and now spanning a wide dynamic range, the piano became a highly a t t r a c t i v e medium for composers and v i r t u o s i a l i k e . Evlyn Howard-Jones describes the era: The pianoforte became i n very truth the household orchestra, capable of a compass, resonance, a dynamic variety, a r a p i d i t y of execution, and (with pedal) a continuance and c o l l e c t i n g of sonorities that made i t the ideal instrument for the study and enjoyment and the bringing of a l l and every kind of music under the control of one pair of hands.^ The increasing significance of the piano coincided with the beginning of the great age of the piano v i r t u o s i . This period produced numerous composers who did l i t t l e performing and p i a n i s t s who gained a reputation and l i v e l i h o o d c h i e f l y by playing the works of other composers. Pianists were judged primarily by t h e i r s k i l l s as v i r t u o s i : a v i r t u o s i t y that sometimes reached to such an extent that i t came to be regarded as something awe inspiring,even supernatural or demonic, so that the performing a r t i s t was also able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the advantages that came to the creative a r t i s t . ^ 0 In the 1790s, there had been a great e f f o r t to improve music education and the sonata was recognized for i t s did a c t i c as well as i t s a r t i s t i c m e r i t s . ^ Undoubtedly, i t s a r t i s t i c merits were equally v i t a l . Beethoven had unquestionably set the i y E v l y n Howard-Jones, "Arrangements and Transcriptions," Music and Letters, 16 (1935): 307. 20.F.E. Kirby, A Short History of Keyboard Music (New York: Schirmer Books, 1966), 300. 21-Newman, 51. 9 masters of the Romantic era avoided the genre and concentrated t h e i r main e f f o r t s on the character piece. However, as William S. Newman points out, the number of extant sonatas by nineteenth-century minor masters i s sig n i f i c a n t . ^ 2 Thus, the sonata was the technical and musical ideal to which many lesser composers such as Kuhlau aspired. Newman, 15. 10 CHAPTER II Sonata i n E - f l a t Major, Opus 4. I. Largo assai - Allegro con brio II. Moderato - Thema con v a r i a z i o n i III . Adagio IV. Vivacissimo Composed i n 1809, the Sonata i n E - f l a t major was F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau's f i r s t work i n t h i s genre. The exuberance exhibited throughout the sonata undoubtedly r e f l e c t s that of a youthful composer but more importantly, the s k i l f u l writing found i n Opus 4 attests to an impressive knowledge of the piano and i t s sonorous p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The f i r s t movement opens with a s t r i k i n g 39 measure introduction, Largo assai, i n the tonic minor, i n which an underlying dramatic quality i s e f f e c t i v e l y created. The introduction conveys the impression of a piano reduction of an orchestral French overture. Dotted and double-dotted rhythms, octaves, t h i c k l y scored chords and wide leaps are extensively employed. Kuhlau's pedalling indications and expression markings i n t e n s i f y the drama. 11 In the sonata-allegro that follows, the keyboard style exhibits the composer's fondness for virtuoso sixteenth-note passages as well as t h i c k l y textured chords i n dotted rhythm reminiscent of the slow introduction. These two alternate throughout the movement. Figure 2. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.47-49. Figure 3. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.64-69. Two main musical ideas contrasting i n character dominate the entire movement. Both are found i n the f i r s t subject area. The f i r s t (motive "a") i s capricious in nature. Figure 4. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.40-46. con, 6ru> - *w~ The second (motive "b") i s characterized by a strong dotted rhythm and possesses a more stately q u a l i t y . A (1 (j (I 13 The col o u r f u l contrasts found i n t h i s movement resu l t primarily from Kuhlau's juxtaposition of these disparate musical ideas. The secondary theme combines the p l a y f u l and majestic features of motives "a" and "b" respectively. Although the second theme i s not markedly contrasting i n nature, i t creates variety by fusing the opposing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the two motives. Figure 6. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.95-98. An unusual technical problem exists i n two p a r a l l e l passages. The f i r s t occurs at the end of the exposition and the second immediately preceding the coda. The l e f t hand i s scored above the right and, in the f i n a l measure of the section, moves to a more conventional arrangement. Figure 7. F. Kuhlau, Sonata. Op. 4, First_Mvt., mm.133-140. If performed i n t h i s manner, the p i a n i s t must quickly s l i p the right hand over the l e f t for one measure. No doubt the vi s u a l e f f e c t of t h i s manner of execution would be impressive and perhaps Kuhlau s p e c i f i c a l l y intended the passages as a vehicle for virtuoso display. However, the hand crossing here i s unnecessary and the following suggestion provides a more comfortable alter n a t i v e . Figure 8. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.133-140. Most of the development section consists of transpositions of motive "b" accompanied by scale passages or arpeggios. The climax at measure 162 i s achieved by employing the most densely scored chords found in the movement and a dynamic in d i c a t i o n of fortissimo. Figure 9. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.162-165. The f i r s t appearance of a new accompaniment figure i n broken octaves at measure 165 adds greater energy to t h i s dramatic portion of the movement. (See Figure 9 above.) 15 Worthy of mention i s a highly virtuoso passage found immediately before the coda. Beginning i n measure 309, the l e f t hand i n i t i a t e s a chromatic scale. When the right hand enters, the l e f t r e i t e r a t e s the accompaniment figure which f i r s t appeared at measure 165. This leads to a double t r i l l i n the right hand l a s t i n g for six measures while the l e f t employs hand crossing with fragments of the second subject. At the end of the double t r i l l , the right hand leaps to a scale passage and the l e f t to a chord. This represents one of the most d i f f i c u l t passages found in the movement, an example of e f f e c t i v e virtuoso writing. Figure 10. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, F i r s t Mvt., mm.309-320. 16 II. Moderato - Thema con v a r i a z i o n i The theme, with i t s f o l k - l i k e ^ l y r i c i s m and charm i s divided into two sections, the second repeated. Figure 11. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, Second Mvt., mm.1-24 The variations which follow present further examples of adept keyboard writing. In v a r i a t i o n 1, espressivo e l i q a t o , the gently r o l l i n g t r i p l e t s temporarily smooth the edge of the dotted rhythms prevalent thus f a r . " I t i s possible that t h i s work i s based on a folk song since such settings were common practice of the day and c e r t a i n l y abound i n Kuhlau's varied keyboard output. (See Fog, 12-14). 17 Figure 12. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, Second Mvt., mm.24-32 In the second section, the music once more assumes i t s rhythmic v i t a l i t y i n a va r i a t i o n of the dotted rhythm where colour i s ingeniously created through the juxtaposition of high and low registers i n the right hand. Figure 13. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, Second Mvt., mm.33-37 Variation 2 i s intensely dramatic and set in the r e l a t i v e minor. It opens forte e con fuoco, with chords i n dotted rhythm accompanied by rapid scale passages and marked by sudden dynamic contrasts. Figure 14. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, Second Mvt., mm.38-47. 18 Variation 3 i s s i m i l a r l y cast i n a quick tempo. Here, a legato right hand melodic v a r i a t i o n i s contrasted with broken octaves i n the l e f t hand; a favourite device of Kuhlau. Figure 15. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, Second Mvt., mm.57-61. The grave section immediately following Variation 3 marks the beginning of a free v a r i a t i o n followed by a coda. From t h i s point forward, since there are no variations of the theme i n i t s entirety, the grave indica t i o n not only signals an abrupt change of mood but c l e a r l y i n i t i a t e s an important st r u c t u r a l turning point i n the movement. The stark forte octaves at the opening firmly set the funereal atmosphere which underlies t h i s section. Near the end, the solemnity tapers to a delicate pianissimo leading to the Allegro scherzando, a v a r i a t i o n of the second half of the f i r s t phrase of the theme. The ornate right hand i s supported by a chordal accompaniment. After a short cadenza, the coda, moderato, brings the movement to a dramatic close with loud and densely scored arpeggiated chords. The following example presents the grave section u n t i l the end of the movement. 19 20 II I . Adagio The t h i r d movement cast in a ternary structure with modified recapitulation, reveals a more r i c h and varied keyboard s t y l e . Here Kuhlau s t r i k i n g l y abandons any t r a d i t i o n a l or stereotype forms of piano writing i n favour of a more innovative approach. Accompanimental devices range from single notes to thi r d s , octaves, and densely scored arpeggiated chords. Equally impressive i s the melodic treatment i n the right hand which includes some of the most diverse and elaborate ornamentation encountered i n t h i s study. A l l of the writing e f f e c t i v e l y heightens the emotional content of the movement. The chorale-like opening displays the s k i l l f u l use of middle r e g i s t e r chords i n closed position which add warmth and richness to the sound. The second section moves to the more p l a i n t i v e r e l a t i v e minor i n a nocturne-like setting. At measure 25, Kuhlau uses an 21 elaborate right hand f i g u r a t i o n suggestive of and predating the music of Chopin yet, composed i n 1809, i s no doubt influenced by current trends i n keyboard writing. Figure 18. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, Third Mvt., mm.22-26. The middle section reaches a climax i n measures 30-33 where thirty-second note passages are i n t e n s i f i e d by the indi c a t i o n cres. e accelerando. After the r a l l e n t . e smorz. the reca p i t u l a t i o n begins. Here one finds a l l the notes of the opening with an added staccato accompaniment creating a thick, dark sound. Figure 19. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, Third Mvt., mm.33-36. 22 Beginning at measure 38, the use of a d i f f e r e n t accompaniment figure adds a sense of rhythmic drive which creates momentum and helps carry the music along u n t i l the quiet ending. 23 IV. Vivacissimo In the f i n a l movement, Kuhlau recaptures the character of the opening sonata-allegro i n a rapid motto perpetuo which places continuous demands on the performer. The f i n a l e u t i l i z e s a predominantly th i n and somewhat r e p e t i t i v e keyboard layout, and the high r e g i s t e r complements the l i g h t hearted nature of the music. Elements of contrast and variety are not as prevalent as i n other movements. However, Kuhlau creates subtle changes by inverting the two voices found i n the right hand. This technique i s employed throughout and commences in the opening measures. Figure 21. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, Fourth Mvt., mm.1-8. Passages s i m i l a r to t h i s alternate with or accompany energetic chromatic runs. Figure 22. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, Fourth Mvt., mmf34~39. However, the most outstanding feature of Kuhlau's f i n a l e i s his extensive use of the high r e g i s t e r which enhances the f r i v o l o u s nature of the movement. Often t h i s involves awkward hand crossing. Figure 23. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 4, Fourth Mvt., mm.9-15, : " * .4-* \-*r*. v*.-; r T\ \f • -1 -In keeping with the character of numerous other f i n a l e s , t h i s movement portrays no profound depth of f e e l i n g but e f f e c t i v e l y relieves any emotional tension which may have resulted from previous movements. Undoubtedly, the f i n a l e presents a f i t t i n g conclusion to a sonata of many variegated moods. From a p i a n i s t i c viewpoint, the technical demands here are pressing. A successful performance requires deftness and c l a r i t y of a r t i c u l a t i o n i n order to successfully depict the character of the movement and the colour of the upper re g i s t e r . 26 CHAPTER III Sonata in D Minor. Opus 4 6 Number 2 I. Adagio patetico - Allegro agitato. By the time the Sonata Opus 46, No. 2 was composed i n 1822, F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau's career i n Copenhagen was well established. Thirteen years had passed since the completion of Opus 4 and during t h i s period Kuhlau had produced other piano sonatas as well as numerous shorter and simpler pieces for the instrument— waltzes, sonatinas, easy rondos, and easy variations. Many of these works, es p e c i a l l y the sonatinas, are recognized as valuable pedagogical material for young p i a n i s t s and represent the best known compositions of Kuhlau. In contrast to Opus 4, the more f a c i l e nature of Opus 46, No. 2 c l e a r l y exemplifies Kuhlau's easier compositions for piano. It i s a work marked by brevity and more extensive use of thinner textures. It consists of a slow introduction, adagio patetico, followed by a rondo, allegro agitato. By i t s very nature, Opus 46, No. 2 blurs the d i s t i n c t i o n between the terms "sonata" and "sonatina". The Harvard Dictionary of Music defines the former simply as: a composition for piano (piano sonata) or for v i o l i n , c e l l o , f l u t e , etc., usually with piano accompaniment which consists of three of four 27 separate sections c a l l e d movements. In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, William S. Newman provides a more lengthy, broad discussion: a term used to denote a piece of music usually but not necessarily consisting of several movements almost invariably instrumental and designed to be performed by a s o l o i s t or small ensemble. The solo and duet sonatas of the C l a s s i c a l and Romantic periods with which i t i s now most frequently associated generally incorporate a movement or movements i n what has regrettably come to be c a l l e d Sonata-Form (or "first-movement form"), but i n i t s actual usage over rather more than the l a s t f i v e centuries the t i t l e "sonata" has been applied with much broader formal and s t y l i s t i c connotations than t h i s . 2 ^ The Harvard Dictionary of Music states that a "sonatina" i s : a diminutive sonata, with fewer and shorter movements than the normal type and also usually simpler, designed for i n s t r u c t i o n (Clementi, Kuhlau). 2 6 The New Oxford Companion to Music provides a sim i l a r description: a short r e l a t i v e l y undemanding type of sonata, often for piano. Several composers of the late C l a s s i c a l period (e.g. Clementi and Kuhlau) wrote large numbers of keyboard sonatinas for di d a c t i c purposes, and these are s t i l l used today as teaching m a t e r i a l . 2 7 The d e f i n i t i o n s presented above raise a question concerning ^ 4 W i l l i Apel, "Sonata," Harvard Dictionary of Music, (Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1979), 787. 2^William S. Newman, "Sonata" The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 6th ed., Stanley Sadie, ed., 17 (London: MacMillan Publishers Ltd., 1988): 479. 2 ^ W i l l i Apel, op_. c i t . ^'Denis Arnold, ed., The New Oxford Companion to Music, Vol. II (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), 1713. 28 Opus 46, No. 2: namely, whether or not the term "sonatina" i s more applicable to t h i s work. At the outset, one must assume that, with his understanding of form and the established practices of the time as well as his experience as a composer of both sonatas and sonatinas, Kuhlau knew the difference between . the two types. Clearly, he had s p e c i f i c reasons for c a l l i n g t h i s a sonata. Closer examination of Opus 46 No. 2 reveals two important factors. F i r s t , although t h i s work i s indeed shorter than the t r a d i t i o n a l sonata, the emotional depth and int e n s i t y of fe e l i n g found here i s on a more grandiose scale than one would expect i n a sonatina. Second, the technical d i f f i c u l t i e s , though less taxing than most sonatas, are by no means on the elementary l e v e l of a sonatina. Clearly, t h i s work f i t s William S. Newman's broad d e f i n i t i o n i n The New Grove Dictionary of Music and  Musicians where the discussion i s not lim i t e d to s p e c i f i c numbers and types of movements. Like Opus 4, Opus 4 6 No. 2 begins with a slow introduction. In Opus 4, the introduction was followed by a whimsical and p l a y f u l sonata-form in the p a r a l l e l major. In t h i s l a t e r sonata, however, the introduction heralds a solemn event which i s car r i e d through in the following movement. The introduction demonstrates a more clear formal organization r e s u l t i n g i n an o v e r a l l structure of A B A' C A'' Cadenza. The "A" sections p a r a l l e l the more orchestral, dramatic passages which alternate with l y r i c a l , melodic "B" and "C" sections. Throughout the introduction, the drama i s further heightened through more extensive use of diminished chords. The introduction begins with thick, arpeggiated chords i n dotted rhythm marked by sudden dynamic contrasts where Kuhlau, once again, u t i l i z e s the orchestral c a p a b i l i t i e s of the piano. In measure 5, a l y r i c a l p l a i n t i v e melody with quiet accompaniment i s suggestive of a piano interlude and provides contrast with the intense opening. At measure 9, the opening, rhythmically varied and extended, returns u n t i l measure 15 where another l y r i c a l section, now i n E - f l a t major, presents a s t r i k i n g departure from d minor, and i s extended with an elaborate right hand f i g u r a t i o n . From t h i s point forward, the slow introduction functions as an extended Neapolitan preparation for the rondo. The opening section returns once more in measure 23, i n E - f l a t major. Commencing in measure 28, a cadenza-like passage brings the introduction to a close. Figure 24 presents the complete introduction, which, at a glance, reveals a more diverse keyboard approach combined with a t i g h t l y woven formal structure. 30 Figure 24. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46, No. 2, mm.1-29. A i a g i o pa ta t i eo 3 0 M A T A II 1 ^ D *«• aififaai J A M • . 31 The movement which follows complements the character of the introduction. The allegro agitato abandons the t r a d i t i o n a l sonata-allegro design, i n favour of an unusual rondo form. The ov e r a l l structure i s A B C A' C A'' Coda, a r a r i t y i n t h i s genre. Clearly, Kuhlau does not f e e l r e s t r i c t e d by the established formal structures of his time and the r e s u l t i n g work demonstrates freshness i n approach, musical content and, once again, r e f l e c t s a s k i l f u l use of p i a n i s t i c tone colour. Figure 25 presents the rondo theme where the broken chord accompaniment helps create a sense of agitation i n the simple melody.^ 8 Figure 25. F. Kuhlau, Sonata Op. 4 6 No. 2, Rondo, mm.1-30, A l l t g i o agitata . The f i r s t episode, i n the subdominant minor, provides more than a change of key. Here Kuhlau changes the texture by 2^The resemblance to the Rondo of Beethoven's Sonata, Opus 13 i s s t r i k i n g . 32 employing thicker, emphatic chords alternating with subdued, arpeggiated figures. This section i s less tuneful and somewhat more fragmented than the rondo theme and reinforces the agitato character. Figure 26. F. Kuhlau, Sonata. Op. 46 No. 2, Rondo, mm.44-55. It i s in the chorale-like second episode that the music evokes a more s t r i k i n g mood change. Kuhlau achieves greater harmonic interest through more extensive use of chromaticism and his setting i s a more gently l y r i c a l . However, the underlying sense of agitation which has been prevalent thus far i s preserved by the chromaticism. Figure 27. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46 No. 2, Rondo, mm.76-93 33 The f i r s t r e f r a i n i s an exact r e p e t i t i o n of the opening u n t i l near the end, where the texture becomes more fragmented through an extended passage u t i l i z i n g large leaps. Figure 28. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46 No. 2, Rondo, mm.174-181 Beginning i n measure 186, the second episode i s completely restated i n the key of D major, the tonal centre for the remainder of the movement. The section ends i n progressively longer note values and softer dynamics. Figure 29. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46 No. 2, Rondo, mm.224-233 This provides an e f f e c t i v e t r a n s i t i o n to the most s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the movement, the larghetto section, beginning with the anacrusis to measure 234. Figure 30. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46 No. 2, Rondo, mm.234-248 34 Paradoxically, the chords are thicker yet Kuhlau's setting creates an ethereal and harp-like e f f e c t producing a s t r i k i n g transformation of the rondo theme. At measure 242, the low accompaniment adds depth and darkness to the sound, perhaps foreshadowing the energetic coda, Prestissimo. Figure 31. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 46 No. 2, Rondo, mm.249-263 The f i n a l section i s cast i n two parts, each repeated, and consists mainly of rapid scale passages punctuated by broken chords supported by sustained bass notes: an energetic conclusion to the sonata and one which again exemplifies Kuhlau's virtuoso writing. 35 CHAPTER IV Grande Sonate B r i l l a n t e , i n E^ Major, Opus 127 I. Allegro II. Adagio con molto espressione III . Rondo, Allegro con s p i r i t o The Grande Sonate B r i l l a n t e , F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau's l a s t composition for piano, was composed i n 1831. The advanced features of e a r l i e r sonatas are more prominent here than i n Opus 4 and Opus 46, Number 2. Clearly, i t i s the most co l o u r f u l , t i g h t l y organized and convincing work of the three chosen for t h i s study. P i a n i s t i c a l l y , i t presents a greater variety of keyboard figurations and t h i s factor combined with the o v e r a l l length of the work, increases the technical challenge to the performer. Perhaps t h i s accounts for the t i t l e "Grande". 2^ The f i r s t movement i s cast i n a well constructed sonata form where the diverse nature of the keyboard writing demonstrates a mature sense of musicality and s t y l e . The opening measures immediately reveal a d i f f e r e n t aspect of Kuhlau's creative genius. The subdued, waltz-like theme with i t s i n i t i a l t h i n scoring depicts an introspective mood unlike the large orchestral gestures of the introductions to both Opus 4 and Opus ^ y W i l l i a m S. Newman states that, during the nineteenth century, " 'Grande' appears as a q u a l i f i e r i n Sonata t i t l e s too often and variously to have any one connotation." (Newman, 28). 36 4 6 Number 2. In measure 9, the texture thickens yet the phrasing and a r t i c u l a t i o n preserves a d i s t i n c t lightness which enhances the quality of the intimate opening. Figure 32. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.1-24. At measure 25, the music bursts into a lengthy passage of sixteenth notes which p e r s i s t s u n t i l one measure before the second subject; a favorite t r a n s i t i o n a l device of the composer. Kuhlau does not l i m i t himself to t r a d i t i o n a l scalar passages but also incorporates less conventional figurations such as the broken chord figure at measures 27-33. It i s prec i s e l y t h i s keyboard style which distinguishes Opus 127 from the works discussed previously. Figure 33. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.25-43 37 Pedalling indications are sparse throughout Opus 127 and are c a r e f u l l y placed at s p e c i f i c points to produce col o u r f u l e f f e c t s . E s p e c i a l l y noteworthy are Kuhlau's instructions at measures 34-35, and 40-41 (See Figure 33 above). In each case, beginning with the emphatic chords, the pedal i s to be held through the ensuing scale passages u n t i l the f i n a l beat of the following measure. Obviously, Kuhlau's intent i s to add a new sonority here. Although the r e s u l t i n g sound may have been acceptable on a nineteenth-century piano with a less-resonant quality, the l i t e r a l application of these indications on a modern instrument would depend on the acoustics of the p a r t i c u l a r h a l l and the nature of the instrument used. Perhaps some adjustment of Kuhlau's pedalling would be necessary. The treatment of the dolce second subject i s si m i l a r to that of the f i r s t and resembles the character of the opening. Figure 34. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.66-75. H?iJL I • - i 1 y • < . i -' r V ' 1 ' . | s. ' ' - J ' The section beginning at measure 7 6 i s not merely t r a n s i t i o n a l but takes the form of a short development of the second subject. Fragments of the theme are scored i n the l e f t 38 hand while the right provides a varied sixteenth-note accompaniment. Once again, t h i s marks a departure from Kuhlau's usual approach to t r a n s i t i o n a l material. Figure 35. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.76-87. The chorale-like passage beginning at measure 112 acts as a temporary interlude i n a more introspective mood reminiscent of the f i r s t and second subjects. The diminuendo continues u n t i l measure 120 where a sudden crescendo leads to a r i s o l u t o ending of the exposition. Here, Kuhlau i n t e n s i f i e s the drama with fortissimo broken and s o l i d chords, arpeggios and octaves. 39 Figure 36. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.112-132. Although the development section begins i n a contemplative manner sim i l a r to that i n the opening of the movement, Kuhlau's approach at measure 133 i s more s t r i k i n g . The rei t e r a t e d B-f l a t s , gradually reveal the d i r e c t i o n of the music and e f f e c t i v e l y create a sense of improvisation as though a l l of the ensuing material evolves from a single p i t c h . Figure 37. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.133-143. The most arresting technique employed i n the development section i s an inversion of the main theme which i s stated af t e r one bar of silence. Although the texture and regis t e r i s i d e n t i c a l to the opening of the movement, t h i s transformation of the subject creates one of the most s t r i k i n g passages i n the movement. 40 Figure 38. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.149-159, iii1 n^T MI L ' fYtt* ..iit\. i i -f. \ 1. „ f ,Ll n " - ^ . I ' U ' 'I The remainder of the development consists of an ornate version of the main theme supported by a l e f t hand accompaniment, Figure 39.__F_. Kuhljiu^ Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.169-174 ~V f t J -ia^ almost l i t e r a l r e capitulation follows i n which only the ending i s altered. The interplay of high and low registers produces an emphatic conclusion to the movement. Figure 40. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, F i r s t Mvt., mm.336-355 41 II. Adagio con molto expressione The Adagio con molto expressione contains some of the fi n e s t writing i n the three works under consideration here. As in the Adagio of Opus 4, Kuhlau u t i l i z e s a ternary structure containing a digression in the tonic minor followed by a modified re c a p i t u l a t i o n . In Opus 127, however, the restatement i s more extended and the immense variety exhibited here r e f l e c t s Kuhlau's awareness of newer developments i n keyboard writing. In the opening measures, Kuhlau ingeniously makes use of both dynamics and rests to strengthen his emotional statement. An underlying melancholic atmosphere i s emphasized by fp indications i n a theme fragmented by recurring rests. Note, however, the pedalling instructions at measure 5 which del i b e r a t e l y blur the silence, lending a new sonority to t h i s portion of the theme. Perhaps t h i s too foreshadows the gradual dis i n t e g r a t i o n of the rests as the f i r s t section of the movement progresses. Figure 41. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt., mm.1-9 At the anacrusis to measure 11, the theme i s scored an octave higher i n the right hand while the accompaniment f i l l s i n the gaps, thus diminishing the size of the rests so prominent i n 42 the opening. Here also, Kuhlau's pedal markings are meticulously placed so as to c l e a r l y highlight the rests i n measures 12 and 13 which are to be s l i g h t l y more pronounced than those i n measures 11 and 14. Figure 42. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt., mm.10-17. By measure 17, the punctuation by rests gives way to a flowing espressivo which closes the f i n a l section. The digression i s marked not only by an abrupt change of mode but by a d i s t i n c t difference i n keyboard layout. While the accompaniment r e c a l l s the segmented nature of the opening, the melodies are now comprised of longer l i n e s . The use of octave doubling and expressive l e f t hand melodies also adds variety to the keyboard approach. Figure 43. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt., mm.17-39. 43 Measures 40 and 41 provide the t r a n s i t i o n a l material leading to the recapitulation which i s an elaborate modification of the opening and profoundly demonstrates Kuhlau's genius i n t h i s movement. The melody i s scored using thicker chords and placed i n a higher r e g i s t e r while the l e f t hand provides a delicate harp-l i k e accompaniment. Here, despite the continuity of the accompaniment, the pedal indications preserve a fragmented structure i n the right hand melody.. Figure 44. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt., mm.40-44. It i s from the tenuto assai at measure 48 that Kuhlau generates most of the remaining material i n the movement. The right hand moves to the middle regi s t e r and i s supported by a new accompaniment figure. After a fermata t h i s material i s treated sequentially, cadencing on the dominant of G major. Figure 45. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt., mm.45-53 At measure 54, another b r i e f transformation of the opening returns i n G major, far removed from the home key. Here the melody i s stated i n the l e f t hand and decorated with an ornate version of the harp-like accompaniment from measure 42. Figure 46. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt., mm.54-57. A lengthy passage of material derived from the tenuto assai begins at measure 58. From t h i s an agitated mood arises from the fragmented right hand, the crescendo, and the ascending octaves. Figure 47. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Second Mvt., mm.58-61. This pattern continues u n t i l measure 65 where the delicate coda begins and the music winds down to i t s peaceful conclusion. 46 III . Finale: Allegro con s p i r i t o The f i n a l movement i s a lengthy sonata rondo where d i s t i n c t features of e a r l i e r works are combined with novel ideas. The o v e r a l l structure i s A B A C (Development) A Coda. The rondo theme i s scored i n a transparent texture c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Kuhlau's s t y l e . In Opus 124, however, there are two notable differences. The manner in which the theme i s presented and extended departs from any previous procedures. Kuhlau's approach r e c a l l s the Baroque practice of fortspinnung; the steady unfolding or spinning out of a theme. The material expands i n a manner giving the impression that a l l of the music i s generated from the opening measures, thus lending greater motivic and thematic unity to the movement. The theme i s transformed through the use of varied accompaniment figures. At measure 9, the E - f l a t pedal tone adds greater depth to the sound while at measure 13, the accompaniment adds a d i s t i n c t l i l t to the theme. Figure 49. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Third Mvt., mm.1-31 A R O N D O if/.iHTif| • • • f l r i < M— nit 47 The f i r s t digression i s marked by an extreme modification of the movement's previous keyboard s t y l e and depicts a more fo r c e f u l emotional content. Thick r i s o l u t o chords are now u t i l i z e d with d r i v i n g rhythms and sforzando accents. As noted e a r l i e r i n t h i s study, Kuhlau's careful attention to pedalling instructions greatly enhances the sonority. Figure 50. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Third Mvt., mm.43-50 The developmental episode begins at measure 158 and i s made up of two sections. In the f i r s t , Kuhlau transforms the material from the f i r s t episode into a subdued setting of the eighth-note rhythm i n the l e f t hand supported by sustained chords. Later, t h i s i s inverted in measure 166. Figure 51. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Third Mvt., mm.158-173 ) ** o da le . | f u ' l ' n l 1*1 m V.! 48 At measure 195, the use of octaves i n the low reg i s t e r adds depth to the sound and helps create a sense of urgency. The thick chords, wide leaps, fortissimo and con molto fuoco indications render the climax at measure 202 highly e f f e c t i v e . Figure 52. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Third Mvt., mm.195-207. Measure 228 marks the beginning of the second section of the developmental episode, i n which a thinner texture restores the o r i g i n a l character of the movement. Here, Kuhlau manipulates the material from the t r a n s i t i o n a l passage (measure 67) which had been derived from the rondo theme i t s e l f . At measure 228, i t i s given a developmental treatment. This i s the only instance of such a procedure i n t h i s study and greatly enhances the ov e r a l l unity which i s so convincing i n the movement. Figure 53. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Third Mvt., mm.228-240. 49 The f i n a l r e f r a i n i s shortened and leads to the coda and a dramatic change in the pace of the movement. Kuhlau creates an intense rhythmic drive to the f i n a l cadence by switching from the predominant eighth-note rhythm to t r i p l e t s and, la t e r , sixteenths at measures 315 and 337 respectively. The music spans a wide range of the keyboard and thick chords accompany t r i p l e t and sixteenth-note figures i n a f o r c e f u l dynamic setting which brings the movement to an exci t i n g close. Figure 54. F. Kuhlau, Sonata, Op. 127, Third Mvt., mm.328-350. 50 CONCLUSION The three sonatas under consideration here — Opus 4., Opus 46, Number 2, and Opus 127, represent a small portion of the vast amount of nineteenth-century keyboard l i t e r a t u r e of which l i t t l e or nothing i s known. Although F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau was highly respected i n his time, these works have not survived. William S. Newman makes and int e r e s t i n g comment concerning neglected compositions: The number of t o p f l i g h t sonatas alone that has accumulated over some three centuries has far surpassed both the occasions and the outlets, public or private, for hearing them. The same question of neglect keeps coming up even for sonatas that do survive, at least to a degree, such as those by Schubert or Schumann. Whatever more inherent reasons may exist i n such works, when they do get neglected, the answer o r d i n a r i l y i s that they are not being k i l l e d by time but inundated or buried a l i v e by music's own population explosion.30 No doubt, history ultimately determines what i s indeed " t o p f l i g h t " and any attempt to assess the ov e r a l l importance of Kuhlau's sonatas as well as his contribution to the l i t e r a t u r e must be based on the clear r e a l i z a t i o n that these are the works of a nineteenth-century minor master. Yet, just as cl e a r l y , he i s a composer successfully working within his own l i m i t a t i o n s . Newman also makes reference to numerous reviews of Kuhlau's sonatas by his contemporaries: The g i s t of many, progressively b r i e f reviews of his sonatas and sonatinas i s that i n spite of his p r o l i f i c i t y he continued to put out works of noteworthy s k i l l , variety, and Newman, 16. 51 interest within acceptable tastes and idioms and reasonable technical l i m i t s , there being mild objections only to excessive passage work (mostly scales) and overly prolonged endings.31 Thus, during his l i f e t i m e , Kuhlau gained public praise and approval for his e f f o r t s . This study has demonstrated the s a l i e n t features of his style and perhaps revealed why his compositions have since f a l l e n into obscurity. It i s evident that Kuhlau's music frequently looks backward to e a r l i e r practices. Of course, many greater masters have done so on numerous occasions. There i s , however, a fundamental and c r u c i a l difference. For example, when Beethoven incorporated fugal elements into his late piano sonatas, he did so with the utmost sophistication. He imparted his inimitable mark of genius on these compositions and cast his shadow of influence far into the future. On the contrary, Kuhlau often r e c a l l s e a r l i e r styles i n t h e i r most elementary and undeveloped states. The harmonic si m p l i c i t y , clear formal structures, and extensive use of th i n textures, model the p r e - C l a s s i c a l style and off e r l i t t l e that would profoundly influence subsequent generations of composers. Thus, i t i s not surprising that his music became outdated. Nonetheless, these sonatas also contain numerous passages c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of early Romantic music. They are melodically r i c h , with frequent use of widely spaced sonorities and textures that range from delicate nuances to powerful o r c h e s t r a l - l i k e gestures. These compositions display an early Romantic fondness for scalar and arpeggiated passages, often used to the excess. Newman, 604. 52 Numerous passages c i t e d ( p a r t i c u l a r l y from the slow movements) demonstrate Kuhlau's a b i l i t y to keep abreast of current s t y l e s . As a minor master, Kuhlau's influence was li m i t e d to his l i f e t i m e . Assuredly, he was a leading figure i n the c u l t u r a l l i f e of Copenhagen from 1811-1832. A competent craftsman, he not only produced numerous works in accepted styles and forms of the time, but also promoted the compositions of others. He i s yet another example of a talented composer whose works were i n vogue throughout his career but have since f a l l e n into o b s c u r i t y — a man whose contribution has been frozen i n time. To make one f i n a l reference to an e a r l i e r c i t a t i o n from William S. Newman's The  Sonata Since Beethoven, Kuhlau's piano sonatas have not necessarily been "buried a l i v e by music's own population explosion,32 fc>ut, more accurately, assigned to the realm of the lesser known by a greater proportion of more masterful compositions. Nevertheless, t h i s investigation has shown that these works are well crafted and suited to the instrument. Many of Kuhlau's compositions have not been examined previously i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to ensure an understanding of t h e i r structure and s t y l e . It i s hoped that t h i s endeavour has, i n some manner, helped to add new knowledge about his extensive output for piano and demonstrate his mastery of the c r a f t of instrumental composition. There exists a vast amount of nineteenth-century piano music which has not yet been explored. Investigation such as t h i s i s necessary i n order to provide a more complete picture of the •^Newman, 604. music of the period and w i l l prove b e n e f i c i a l to performers,. teachers, and musicologists a l i k e . It i s the writer's hope that closer examination of works such as these w i l l encourage more frequent performances. 54 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Anderson, Emily, ed. The Letters of Beethoven. Vol. I I I . London: Macmillan and Co. Ltd., 1961. Blume, F r i e d r i c h . C l a s s i c and Romantic Music A Comprehensive Survey. Translated by M.D. Herter Norton, New York: W.W. Norton and Company Inc., 1970. Dale, Kathleen. Nineteenth-Century Piano Music: A Handbook for  P i a n i s t s . New York: Da Capo Press, 1972. Fog, Dan. Kompositionen von F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau: Thematisch- bibliographischer Kataloa. Copenhagen: Dan Fog Musikverlag, 1977. Forbes, E l l i o t , ed. Thayer's L i f e of Beethoven. London: MacMillan and Co., Ltd., 1964. Grout, Donald Jay. A History of Western Music. New York: W.W.Norton & Co., Inc., 1973. Horton, John. Scandinavian Music: A Short History. London: Faber and Faber Ltd., 1963. Jones, W. Glyn. Denmark A Modern History. London; Croom Helm Ltd., 1986. Kirby, F.A. A Short History of Keyboard Music. New York: Schirmer Books, 1966. Lang, Paul Henry. Music i n Western C i v i l i z a t i o n . London: J.M. Dent, 1963. Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism i n Music. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1973. Newman, William S. The Sonata i n the Clas s i c Era. 3rd. ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1983. Newman, William S. The Sonata Since Beethoven. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1983. Pauly, Reinhard G. Music i n the Cla s s i c Period. 2nd ed. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1973. 55 P e s t e l l i , Giorgio. The Age of Mozart and Beethoven. Translated by E r i c Cross. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979. Rosen, Charles. The C l a s s i c a l Style Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. New York: The Viking Press, 1971. Schonberg, Harold C. The Great P i a n i s t s . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963. Ul r i c h , Homer and Pisk, Paul A. A History of Music and Musical  Style. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1963. A r t i c l e s Apel W i l l i . "Sonata." Harvard Dictionary of Music. 2nd ed. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1979. Arnold, Denis, ed. "Sonatina." The New Oxford Companion to Music. Vol. II. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Baumann, Ca r l . "The Anthology of Danish Music, Part 2." American Record Guide, Vol. 49 (March/April 1986): 35-37. Behrend, William. "Weyse und Kuhlau. Studie zur Geschichte der danischen Muski." Die Music I I I . Vol. 12. B e r l i n : Schuster und Loe f f l e r , 1904: 281-294. Howard-Jones, Evlyn. "Arrangements and Transcriptions." Music  and Letters. Vol. 15 (1935): 305-311. Lesure, F. "Dan Fog: Kimpositionen von F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau. Thematisch-bibliographischer Katalog." Fontes A r t i s Musicae. Vol. 24. 1977: 193-194. Lunn, Sven. "Danish Music 1750-1865." Canon. Vol. 13 (February 1960): 179-181. Ottenberg, June C. "Kompositionen von F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau: Thematisch-bibliographischer Katalog." Notes The Quarterly  Journal of the Music Library Association. Vol. 35 (September 1978): 84-85. Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 6th ed. London: MacMillan Publishers Ltd., 1980 . . Hatting, Carsten. " F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau." Vol. X, 294-296. 56 . Karstadt, George. "F.L.A. Kunzen." Vol. 10: 311-312 . . Newman, William S.; Tilmouth, Michael; and G r i f f i t h s , Paul. "Sonata." Vol. 17: 479-492. . Roche, Jerome. "Ignaz Moscheles." Vol. 12: 599-600. . Sachs, Joel. "Johann Nepomuk Hummel." Vol. 8: 781-788 . . Spitta, Philipp, and Warrack, John. "Carl Maria von Weber." Vol. 20: 241-264. _. Temperley, Nicholas. "John F i e l d . " Vol. 6: 534-538. Sietz, Reinhold. " F r i e d r i c h Kuhlau." Die Musik i n Geschichte  und Gegenwart. Vol. 7. Basel: Barenreiter Kassel, 1958: 1874-1878. Musical Sources Kuhlau, F r i e d r i c h . Sonate Pour le Piano-Forte, Opus 4. Leipzig: Breitkopf and Hartel, 1809. . Sonate Pour le Piano-Forte, Opus 4 6, Number 2. Copenhagen: C.C. Lose, 1822. . Grande Sonate B r i l l a n t e Pour le Piano-Forte, Opus 127. Copenhagen: C.C. Lose, 1831. 

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