Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Design patterns for an urban waterfront--a case study : designing the sea-walk of West Vancouver 1990

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1990_A6_7 L52.pdf [ 28.23MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0098350.json
JSON-LD: 1.0098350+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0098350.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0098350+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0098350+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0098350+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0098350.ris

Full Text

DESIGN PATTERNS FOR AN URBAN WATERFRONT -A CASE STUDY: DESIGNING THE SEA-WALK OF WEST VANCOUVER By BAOZHAHG LI B. Arch . Tsinghua U n i v e r s i t y , B e i j i n g , 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF PLANT SCIENCE) We accept t h i s thes i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 (c) Baozhang L i , 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT The paper consists of f i v e steps. The f i r s t step i s to study and explore theories of order, time image, and meaning of place. A hypothetical equation i s proposed which defines a place as having three basic components: time, order and meaning. Special attention i s paid to the time image of a place through the t h e s i s . The second step i s to organize the theories as a set of systematic design ideas. Twelve design categories are further introduced, which include Rhythm, Season, Celebration, Layer, Future, Sequence, D e r e l i c t , Night, Center, Boundary, and Sacred Places. The t h i r d step i s to generate a set of patterns for the waterfront design under twelve design topics. Pattern i s a bridge between p r i n c i p l e and design. The conversion of a design idea into a design pattern can be seen as a procedure to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of design ideas. The fourth step i s to apply the design patterns to a s p e c i f i c s i t e on the West Vancouver Waterfront. In a sense, the a p p l i c a t i o n of the patterns i s an experiment, aimed at t e s t i n g the patterns, hence the whole thesis as a hypothesis. The f i n a l step i s to review and evaluate the thesis and the proj ect. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS T i t l e Page i Abstract i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Figures v i i L i s t of Analysis Drawing x L i s t of Design Drawing x i Acknowledgement x i i Introduction x i i i CHAPTER ONE PLACE AND ITS TIME, ORDER AND MEANING 1 1.1 PLACE 2 1.1.1 Concept of Place 2 1.1.2 Towards a Phenomenological Understanding of 3 Place 1.2 TIME IMAGE OF PLACE 7 1.2.1 Time and Time Image of Place 8 1.2.2 Physical Time and Its Design Application 9 Natural Recurrence, Season, Night, Future, Sequence 1.2.3 Psychological Time and Its Design Application 12 Celebration and F e s t i v a l , Layers of History D e r e l i c t i o n and Ruin 1.2.4 Phenomenological Time 13 1.3 ORDER AND MEANING OF PLACE 16 1.3.1 Mechanistic Order and H o l i s t i c Order 17 1.3.2 Center and Boundary 19 1.3.3 Genius Loci 21 1.3.4 Three Typical Meanings of Places: Sacredness, 2 4 Intimacy, Mystery i v CHAPTER TWO PATTERN 27 INTRODUCTION 28 What i s a Pattern; 2 8 How to f i n d a Pattern; 3 0 The Essence of a Pattern; 3 0 A L i s t Patterns 3 2 2.1 RHYTHMICAL RECURRENCE 3 4 2.1.1 Displaying Natural Rhythms 3 6 2.1.2 Things Floating 37 2.1.3 Time Devices as Decorations 37 2.2 SEASON 3 9 2.2.1 F r u i t Trees 41 2.2.2 Seasonal Decoration 41 2.3 CELEBRATIONS 42 2.3.1 Place with F e s t i v a l and Celebration 44 2.3.2 Birthday Marks 4 5 2.4 LAYERS OF HISTORY 4 6 2.4.1 Heritage Preservation 48 2.4.2 B u i l d i n g - i n Traces of Previous Occupancies 48 2.5 NIGHT 5 0 2.5.1 Night L i f e and Night Park 51 2.6 FUTURE 52 2.6.1 Small Scale Development 53 2.6.2 Making Changes V i s i b l e 53 2.6.3 Empty Lot 2.7 DERELICT SITES AND RUINS 54 2.7.1 D e r e l i c t S i t e 57 2.7.2 Garden Growing Wild 57 2.7.3 Adventure Playground 57 2.8 SEQUENCE 58 2.8.1 S i t e Context 58 2.8.2 Path and Resting 59 V 2.9 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION 60 2.9.1 Timeless Material 62 2.9.2 Timeless Way of Construction 63 2.10 CENTER 64 2.10.1 Hierarchy of Centers 66 2.10.2 Something Roughly in the Middle 66 2.11 BOUNDARY 67 2.11.1 Boundaries i n Landscape 68 2.11.3 Thick Walls 68 2.12 SACRED PLACES 70 2.12.1 Finding Sacred Places 73 2.12.2 Geological Advantaged Place 73 2.12.3 Graves of Famous Citizens 73 2.12.4 Imaginative and Si t e S p e c i f i c Signs 74 CHAPTER THREE PATTERN APPLICATION AND DESIGN EVALUATION 75 3.1 INTRODUCTION 7 6 3.1.1 The Choice of Si t e 76 3.1.2 History of West Vancouver and Its Waterfront 77 3.1.3 S i t e Zoning 77 3.2 SITE PLAN FOR THE SEAWALK OF WEST VANCOUVER 79 3.2.1 S i t e Analysis 79 1) Sequence 79 2) Rhythmical Recurrence 8 0 3) Special Event 80 4) Layers of History 81 5) Night Image 81 6) D e r e l i c t S i t e 81 7) Boundary 8 2 8) Sacred Place 82 9) Other Patterns from A Pattern Language 82 10) The Topology of Seawalk 83 11) S i t e C i r c u l a t i o n 84 3.2.2 Design Drawings for the Seawalk 84 Design Drawing No.l Si e Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver (Ambleside Park) 5 vx Design Drawing No.2 S i t e Plan for the Seawalk of 86 West Vancouver (From 13th to 18th Street) Design Drawing No.3 S i t e Plan for the Seawalk of 87 West Vancouver (From 18th to 25th Street) 3.3 DESIGNING DUNDARAVE PARK 88 3.3.1 Si t e Description 89 Clachan Hotel; Dundarave Pier; Marr Creek; Vegetation 3.3.2 Si t e Analysis 90 1) Sequence 90 2) Rhythmical Recurrence 90 3) Special Event 91 4) Layers of History 91 5) Wheel-chair A c c e s s i b i l i t y 92 6) Boundary 92 7) De r e l i c t S i t e 93 8) Night Image 93 9) Seasonal Image 93 3.3.3 Design Explanation 93 Design Drawing No.4 Si t e Design of Dundarave Park 94 Design Drawing No.5 Axonometric Drawing of the 95 Design Design Drawing No.6 Sections 96 3.4 DESIGN EVALUATION 97 3.4.1 Patterns: Which of Them are more Powerful 98 3.4.1 Patterns: Levels of Workability 99 Appendix A A C o l l e c t i o n of H i s t o r i c and Current 100 Photographs of the S i t e Appendix B Analysis Drawings 114 Bibliography 131 Reference of Figures 133 Part of Design References 134 v i i LIST OF FIGURES 1. Combines Flay F i e l d s of Rice, Texas, USA (National 1 Geographic, A p r i l , P 465) 2. The Big Ben, 1964, h u i l e sur r o i l e (Jean D a l l a i r e , 7 1979) 3. Vegetable Tissue: Hard Maple Under 315 Microscope 16 (Lewis R. Wloberg, Plate 49) 4. The S p i r i t of Place (Hakan Petterson, 1989, P97) 21 5. Animal Tissue: Internal Ear of Guinae Pig (enlarged 27 250 times), (Lewis R. Wolberg, 1970, Plate 145) 6. A Natural Stream (Howard Hibbard, 1980, P121) 34 7. The Japanese painting shows how to make the wind 3 6 v i s i b l e by using a " f l y i n g f i s h " (Art Museum at Indiana University, 1980, P206). 8. A f l o a t i n g amphitheatre--the park's most popular 37 uni t i n the summer, Columbus, Ohio (Ann Breen ed, Urban Waterfronts 85', 1986). 9. Spring, Summer, and Winter (Royal LePage Calender 39 1989) 10. Copacabana, B o l i v i a : Jam-packed pilgrims, many 42 from foreign lands, crowed Copacabana each year to honour her famous V i r g i n (National Geographic, February 1966, P171). 11. Christos wrapping of the Pont Neuf Created a major 44 event i n Paris, bringing hundreds of thousand of people out to celebrate at the water's edge (Urban Waterfronts '85, 1986, P125). 12. Apartment towers loom over a lonely t a i l o r i n g shop 46 on Parliament Street, Toronto (Boris Spremo, 1983, P141) 13. Old Wagon, Waskatenau (Royal LePage Calendar, 1989) 54 14. Roof (Photography Yearbook '78, P79, by Beverly Bean) 60 15. An Old Window (Howard Hibbard, 1980, P 172) 63 16. Dwelling as a Center i n the Landscape, County 64 Tipperay, Ireland (National Geographic, September 1969, P375). V l l l 17. Wailing Wall, Women's Section, Jerusalem (Max Yavno, 71 1981, P64) 18. Sky World of the Himalayas (National Geographic, 72 October 1966, P567). 19. A Panoramic View of West Vancouver 75 20. A Panoramic View of Dundarave Park 88 21. Picture 1, Looking up Lawson Avenue (Now 17th Street) 101 from Hollyburn Wharf i n Winter, c i r c a 1913 22. Picture 2. P.G.E. Railway T r e s t l e 19 to 20 th Street, 101 In Use 1914-1928. Circa 1915 23. Picture 3, The Beach West of 14 th Street, Ferry 101 No. 5 Approaching Pier, c i r c a 1917 24. Picture 4, Swimming at the East Side of Ambleside 102 Wharf, at the Foot of 14th Street, 1919 25. Picture 5, P.G.E. Railway Tracks, Bellevue Ave 102 . Between 2 2 to 2 3 th Street, c i r c a 19 25 26. Picture 6, Looking East from 23 rd Street, Along 102 Shoreline, 1936 27. 'Picture 7, A e r i a l View of W.Vancouver Showing 103 Ambleside, Hollyburn Mountain, Sentinel H i l l , Capilano River, Delta and the Lions, 1934 28. Picture 8, A e r i a l View of Dundarave, Hollyburn, 103 Ambleside, Park Royal B r i t i s h Properties, 1948 29. Picture 9, The Clachan Hotel, 1912 (Rambey, P81, 104 1986) 30. Picture 10, Dundarave Pier and Clachan Hotel, 1912 104 (Ramsey, P114, 1986) 31. Picture 11. Dundarave Regatta, c i r c a 1920 (Ramsey, 104 P135, 1986) 32. Picture 12. Beginning of the Capilano Walkway, 106 Looking Towards North 33. Picture 13, End of the Seawalk and Before Entering 106 the Capilano Walkway, Looking Towards North-East 34. Picture 14. Seawalk at the East End of Ambleside 106 Park, Looking Towards West i x 3 5 . Picture 15, Tree Grove at the East End of Ambleside 107 Park, Looking Towards North 36. Picture 16, Seawalk i n the Middle Part of Ambleside 107 Park, Looking Towards East 37. Picture 17, Seawalk i n the Middle Part of Ambleside 107 Park, Looking Towards West 38. Picture 18, Hollyburn Shipyard, Looking Towards 108 North-West 39. Picture 19, The 13th Street, Looking Towards North 108 40. Picture 20, A Preserved H i s t o r i c a l Building i n the 108 Heritage Square at the Foot of the 14th Street, Looking Towards South 41. Picture 21, The 14th Street, Looking Towards North 109 42. Picture 22, B.C. Railway at the End of 16th Street, 109 Looking Towards West 43. Picture 23, John Lawson Park with a Picnic Shelter 109 i n the Middle, Looking Towards West 44. Picture 24, Lawson Creek on the Beach, Looking 110 Towards North 45. Picture 25, Beginning of the Centennial Seawalk 110 at the Foot of 18th Street 46. Picture 26, The 19th Street, Looking Towards North 110 from the Seawalk 47. Picture 27, Argyle Park, Looking up Towards the 111 North 48. Picture 28, Seawalk and the High-rise Condominiums, 111 Looking from the Foot of 24th Street Towards East 49. Picture 29, Seawalk and Dundarave Park, Looking from 111 the Foot of 24th Street Towards West 50. Picture 30, The 24th Street, Looking from the 112 Seawalk Towards North 51. Picture 31, Looking up the 25th Street from 112 Dundarave Pie r 52 Picture 32, Looking Down Dundarave Park at the 112 X Cross-Point of the 25th Street and Lower Bellevue Ave 53. Picture 33, A Panoramic View of Dundarave Park, 113 Looking Towards East LIST OF ANALYSIS DRAWINGS Drawing No. 1 Si t e Context— Si t e Location and S i t e Zoning 114 Drawing No. 2 Si t e Analysis--Sequence 115 Drawing No. 3 S i t e Analysis--Rhythmical Recurrence 116 Drawing No. 4 S i t e Analysis--Special Events 117 Drawing No. 5 S i t e Analysis--Layers of History 118 Drawing No. 6 Si t e Analysis--Night Image 119 Drawing No. 7 Si t e Analysis--Boundary and Sacred Place 120 Drawing No. 8 S i t e Analysis--Patterns from Alexander 121 Drawing No. 9 E x i s t i n g Statues of Dundarave Park 122 Drawing No. 10 S i t e Analysis--Sequence 123 Drawing No. 11 S i t e Analysis--Rhythmical Recurrence 124 Drawing No. 12 S i t e Analysis--Special Events 125 Drawing No. 13 S i t e Analysis--Layers of History 126 Drawing No. 14 S i t e Analysis--Handicapped Access 127 Drawing No. 15 S i t e Analysis--Boundary and D e r e l i c t S i t e 128 Drawing No. 16 S i t e Analysis--Night Image 129 Drawing No. 17 S i t e Analysis--Seasonal Image 130 LIST OF DESIGN DRAWINGS Design Drawing No.l S i t e Plan for the Seawalk of 85 West Vancouver (Ambleside Park) Design Drawing No.2 S i t e Plan for the Seawalk of West 86 Vancouver (From 14 th Street to 18 th Street) Design Drawing No.3 Design Drawing No.4 Design Drawing No.5 Design Drawing No.6 S i t e Plan for the Seawalk of West 87 Vancouver (From 18th to 25 th Street) S i t e Design of Dundarave Park 94 Axonometric Drawing of the Design 95 Sections 96 x i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I t i s quite a challenge to f i n i s h a master thesis i n another major, i n another language, and i n another country. I t would be impossible for me to achieve t h i s accomplishment without consis- tent help from the professors and a l l other people. I owe my thanks to: Professor Patrick Mooney, the chairman of my t h e s i s committee, for h i s patient supervision; Professor Moura Quayle, for her enthusiastic guidance; Professor Ronald B. Walkey f o r h i s i n s t r u c t i v e ideas; and Professor Douglas D. Paterson for a l l of his kind help i n my two years of study. I also owe my thanks to: Gram S t a l l a r d from the Planning Department of West Vancouver and E r i k Lees and Karen Christerson from West Vancouver Park Department f o r t h e i r help on my design proj ect. My l a s t thanks go to my two good friends, graduate students i n the Department of Plant Science, Ms. Kate Sircom and Mr. Ted Herrington for t h e i r persistent help with my English. x i i i INTRODUCTION The objectives of t h i s study are: f i r s t , to study and explore theories of order, time image, and meaning of place; second, to organize them as a set of systematic and p r a c t i c a l design patterns; to apply the patterns i n an urban waterfront design project; and f i n a l l y to evaluate pattern a p p l i c a t i o n . To begin with, the paper proposes a hypothetical equation. It defines a place as having three basic components: time, order and meaning. Time r e f e r s to the temporal image of place. Every place has a temporal context. For example, place has past, present, and future. And everything happening i n a place, such as human a c t i v i t i e s , also has a time context. Order indicates the physical order of place. Order harmonizes a place, making i t a "whole". An i d e a l order i s the one which brings a " l i v i n g " wholeness to the design. F i n a l l y , the meaning of place reveals our emotional involvement with a place. I t i s a part of our conscious mind to seek meaning behind the physical appearance. The research e f f o r t s , however, are not spent evenly on each of the three basic components. Special attention i s paid to the time image of a place, and the generation and application of time patterns i n design. Time pattern i s an untouched topic i n the f i e l d of pattern study. In a sense, the t h e s i s w i l l be a complement to Christopher Alexander's A Pattern Language (Town * Building * Construction), since most of i t s patterns only concerning the order of place. The meaning of place i s a very x i v complicated issue i n design. I t i s highly personal and subjec- t i v e ; i t i s related to mood, emotion, education and c u l t u r a l background of people; and cannot be judged as good or bad. Nevertheless, the paper explores the meaning of place, so that a l l three components of place can be integrated. The second step i s to elaborate on each basic component. The f i r s t basic component of place studied i s the time image of place. Most of the ideas on the time image of place i n t h i s paper are evolved from Kevin Lynch 1 s book What Time i s This Place? (Lynch, 1972). The paper expands and categorizes Lynch 1s ideas, which give r i s e to seven topics on the creation of the time image. The seven topics are Rhythmical Recurrence, Seasons, Celebrations, Layers of History, Night Image, Future Image, D e r e l i c t Sites and Ruins, and Sequence i n Space. The second basic component i s the order of place, an idea mainly from Christopher Alexander's unpublished manuscript The Nature of Order and the Art of Building, (Alexander, Unpublished manuscript, 1989). In t h i s book, he seeks the l i v i n g q u a l i t i e s i n a r t work, including painting, sculpture, pottery, and architecture. He i d e n t i f i e s f i f t e e n ways in which order i s created. This paper chooses two topics from the book—Center and Boundary, both of which are most relevant to the creation of the place order. Center is.where the l i v i n g q u a l i t y of place begins, and where our attentions are focused in a place; Boundary i s the point from which a place i s forming, and from which a place becomes d i s t i n c t i v e . XV The t h i r d basic component i s the meaning of place. The ideas on the meaning of place are derived from a number of people, including Norberg-Schulz (Architecture: Meaning and Place, 1988), E. Relph (Place and Placelessness, 1976) and F r i t z Steele (The Sense of Place, 1981). Three design topics on creating the meaning of place are i d e n t i f i e d . These are sacredness, intimacy, mystery. The t h i r d step i s generating a set of patterns for the waterfront design under twelve design topics. Pattern normally ref e r s to a diagram, a model, or archetype. A pattern has at l e a s t two q u a l i t i e s : revealing the basic components of a "thing", and i n d i c a t i n g the stable r e l a t i o n s between the components. To see a place and human a c t i v i t i e s i n a place as patterns i s to understand a higher l e v e l place experience. Pattern i s also a bridge between p r i n c i p l e and design. The process of converting a design idea into a design pattern can be seen as the f i r s t step towards the design a p p l i c a t i o n of the idea and also as a procedure to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of design ideas. The fourth step i s to apply the design patterns to a s p e c i f i c s i t e on the West Vancouver Waterfront. There are two projects i n the w a t e r f r o n t — a s i t e plan f o r the Seawalk and a design for Dundarave Park. In a sense, the a p p l i c a t i o n of the patterns i s an experiment, aimed at t e s t i n g the patterns, hence the whole thesis as a hypothesis. I f the hypothesis (that a place i s composed of the three basic components, which can be used as a guideline i n the creation of place) i s legitimate, the f i n a l xv i design should bring out something successful and d i s t i n c t i v e . Pattern generation and experimental design are conducted simul- taneously, i n the hope that the generation and application of patterns would help to shape one another. And f i n a l l y , the l a s t step i s to review and evaluate the t h e s i s and the project. Pattern generation and pattern applica- t i o n are the two central issues i n the paper, and are the major topics of evaluation. The following table depicts the general structure of t h i s research: x v i i DESIGN PATTERNS FOR AN URBAN WATERFRONT — A Case Study: Design the Seawalk of West Vancouver FIRST STEP: (three components of place) SECOND STEP: (twelve topics) THIRD STEP: (27 patterns) PLACE l l I i PHYSICAL + TIME + MEANING ORDER l l CENTRE I I I I RHYTHM I I INTIMACY + + + BOUNDARY SEASON MYSTERY + + CELEBRATION 1 SACREDNESS 1 LAYER + NIGHT + . FUTURE + DERELICT + SEQUENCE PATTERN GENERATION FOURTH STEP: (2 Projects) PATTERN APPLICATION: Sit e Plan f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver Design of the Dundarave Park FIFTH STEP EVALUATION OF THE THESIS ) 1 CHAPTER ONE PLACE AND ORDER, TIME AND MEANING OF PLACE 1.1 PLACE Combines Flay F i e l d s of Rice, Texas, USA (National Geographic, A p r i l , P 465) 2 1.1.1 THE CONCEPTION OF PLACE Our i d e n t i t y i s inseparable from the i d e n t i t y of place. Our l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y i n early years, strongly r e l a t e s to places; and places, i n turn, characterize a l l aspects of our l i f e . As Relph says:" To be human i s to l i v e i n a world that i s f i l l e d with s i g n i f i c a n t places; to be human i s to have and to know your place" (Relph, 1980, P3). We can see that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a cer t a i n group of people often stem from the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r p l a c e — t h e i r l i v i n g area. Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are obvious, for example, the language and the costume of d i f f e r e n t countries and regions; others are subtle, perhaps d i f f i c u l t to describe, l i k e accent, f a c i a l expression, and the look i n the eye. The look i n a person's eye, i f you pay attention, can be an accurate way to t e l l whether or not a person belongs to a ce r t a i n place. In my home-town, a regional center, I noticed that one can t e l l how far a v i s i t o r ' s v i l l a g e i s from that town by the way he says "mom". In our town, we use "mar [ma:]" , a r e l a t i v e l y new form of address derived from the western "mom"; i n the suburbs, "ma1r" [ma:r]; i n the next v i l l a g e , "nar [na:]"; s t i l l further, "nia [ n i a : ] " , and "niang", t r a d i t i o n a l addresses; and i n the remote mountain areas, the word "nie [ni e ] " . We can hear these related yet d i f f e r e n t pronunciations as the distance from the centre changes. In a place with history, t h i s kind of subtle difference pervades a l l aspects of l i f e . The examples show that people and places are intertwined—people's i d e n t i t y depends on 3 t h e i r belonging to the place. As the French philosopher Gabriel Marcel concludes: "An i n d i v i d u a l i s not d i s t i n c t from h i s place; he i s that p l a c e " ( c i t e d by Relph, 1980, P43). . "Place" i s a common word i n English. I t s d a i l y meanings cover most aspects of place as i t i s used i n design. According to The American Heritage Dictionary (Berube, Margery S., et a l , P946, 1982), i t f i r s t r e f e r s to a portion of space b i g or small, including: 1. A setting for a person to s i t or stand, e.g., a place at a table; 2. A d e f i n i t e l o c a t i o n , such as a house, an o f f i c e , or a c i t y square; 3. An area, such as a p a r t i c u l a r town or c i t y ; and 4. A region, such as a country or a part of a country. I t also means physical or s o c i a l order, which may imply that order i s an essential part of place. For examples, "everything i s i n place" and "he overstepped h i s place". As a verb, "to place" means to give something a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n , to find a l i v i n g quarter for some one, or to rank i n a order or sequence. The best of a l l i s the verb phrase "take place", which means "happen" and "occur". This suggests that a place i s essential for any happening or occurrence. 1.1.2 TOWARDS A PHENOMENOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF PLACE From a phenomenological point of view, conception of place i s more fundamental, re l a t e d to our existence and being. Phenom- enology i s now often used as a philosophical foundation f o r the study of place. I t i s a philosophical t r a d i t i o n that takes as i t s s t a r t i n g point the phenomena of the lived-world, of immediate 4 experience, and then seeks to c l a r i f y these phenomena i n a rigorous way by ca r e f u l observation and description (Relph, Preface, 1980). As i t i s understood by F. Lukermann, a geographer, place i s a complex integration of nature and culture which has developed and i s developing i n p a r t i c u l a r locations, and which i s linked by flows of people and goods to other places. A place i s not just a l o c a t i o n of something; i t i s the loc a t i o n as well as everything that occupies that l o c a t i o n seen as an integrated and meaningful phenomenon (cited by Relph, 1980, P3). Written as an equation, place = loc a t i o n + events. However, two issues are missing i n t h i s equation. One i s time. I t i s the context within which the events happen. The other i s meaning. Meaning i s our emotional connection with a place. A place i s characterised by the b e l i e f s of man. The hypothetic equation proposed i n t h i s paper i s : PLACE = TIME + ORDER + MEANING. F i r s t , every place has temporal images. As Lynch r e f l e c t s : "The q u a l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s temporal image of a cer t a i n place i s a basic component of the sense of the place, and i s a c r u c i a l factor for a designer i n managing environmental changes. On the other hand, the external physical environment plays a ro l e i n bui l d i n g and supporting that image of time" (Kevin Lynch, 1972, P l ) . To understand the temporal image of place, i t i s important to notice: a) a place i s emerging and becoming--it has a past, a present, and a future. For example, Vancouver c i t y i s growing on an area of land, which was covered by untouched forests before; 5 b) a place displays the rhythms of natural and human occurrences. For example, every winter the Ottawa River becomes an i c y "road", on which people can walk; c) a place has the q u a l i t y of allowing a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s to happen at s p e c i a l times. For example, the beach i s a place for summer. There are two kinds of temporal measurement, physical time and psychological time. Physical time i s to perceive time as something objective and evenly continuous. Psychological time i s subjective to people's mind, broken, and discontinues. Secondly, place has physical orders. A place i s a location c o n s i s t i n g of a variety of physical elements. Order implies a) A structure: a place i s related to other things and places. I t i s located at a p a r t i c u l a r point i n a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l of a structure. Each place i s connected to a l l other places by a system of s p a t i a l interactions and t r a n s f e r s ; they are part of a framework b) An Entity: a place i s a unique e n t i t y . Each place i s i t s e l f separate and complete with i t s own boundary and centre. For examples, a c i t y square, a f i r e place, or a window place. (E Relph, 1980, P3). F i n a l l y , a place has meaning. If we only view place i n a purely l o g i c a l way, perhaps, order and time are enough. However, place i s not only what i t i s , but also what we sense or want i t to be. Every place has some qu a l i t y which allows us to develop an emotional attachment, perhaps evoke a f e e l i n g of mystery, sacredness, or intimacy, and i d e n t i t y . 6 Relph defines place as centre of action and intention, "the essence of place l i e s i n the larg e l y unself-conscious inten- t i o n a l i t y that defines places as profound centers of human exis- tence" (1980, P 43). Place i s the space where l i f e occurs; i s a space which has a d i s t i n c t character (Norberg-Schulz, 1979, P5) . Therefore, place has meanings (also c a l l e d the character, and the s p i r i t of place), which are characterized by the b e l i e f s of people. Up to now, we have defined place as phenomenon rela t e d to our fundamental experience of the world. I t has three major components: time, order, and meaning. The following w i l l elaborate these components i n d i v i d u a l l y . 1.2 TIME IMAGE OF PLACE The Big Ben, 1964, huile sur r o i l e (Jean D a l l a i r e , 1979) 8 1.2 .1 TIME AND TIME IMAGE OF PLACE Time i s a short and ordinary word. We take time for granted, l i k e the a i r we breathe. No matter what we do and where we are, we are immersed i n the sea of time. Time i s embodied everywhere i n the physical world. The time image of place i s c r i t i c a l for the creation of place. As Lynch says i n What Time i f This Place?: "The q u a l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s temporal image of a c e r t a i n place i s a basic component of the sense of the place, and i s a c r u c i a l factor for a designer i n managing environmental changes" (1972, P l ) . Since time i s abstract and i n v i s i b l e . The key point i n the creation of temporal place images i s to reveal the time images with the help of the changes i n the s p a t i a l context. A clock i s a perfect example—its face and hands tra n s l a t e time into s p a t i a l a l t e r n a t i o n (Lynch, 1972, P14). In fact, time images are created by f i n d i n g a r e l a t i v e , s p a t i a l measurement f o r a temporal measurement. The work of De Long, a psychologist and professor of architecture at the University of Tennessee, v i v i d l y demonstrates t h i s temporal-spatial r e l a t i o n s h i p . Since 1976, de Long has been conducting precise observation under c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d conditions on how d i f f e r e n t people experience the passage of time when they are i n t e r a c t i n g with environments of d i f f e r e n t scales (Edward H a l l , P136, 1983). 9 De Long finds that time and space are fu n c t i o n a l l y i n t e r r e - lated. His conclusion i s that the brain speeds up i n di r e c t proportion to environment. The smaller the environmental scale, the slower the time (Edward H a l l , 1983). This conclusion f i t s our d a i l y experience too. The smaller the scale, the more intimate the space; an intimate space makes us f e e l more comfortable, and time consequently slows down. Using small scale structures' and buildings i s an e f f e c t i v e way to slow down time. Giving place a cle a r time image i s a conventional practice i n Chinese urban design. Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l l y named and ranked scenic s i t e s i n and around a c i t y . The name of a place always has a sp e c i a l time attached, at which time the place i s at i t s best i n terms of poetic experience and v i s u a l beauty. For example, the Eight Most Prominent Sites around Bei j i n g were named by one of the emperors of the Qing Dynasty (A.D. 1644 —1911). These are: Lush-green mountains outside the Great Wall Trees outside Gate Jee i n the Fog Luogo Bridge under the Dawn Moon Rainbow over Jade Spring Snow-covered West Mountain under Blue Sky Jeon Island i n the Shadow of Spring Trees Autumn Waves of Taiyie Lake Golden Fort i n the Setting Sun Beiji n g : Yesterday and Today, Chou, 1980 Re l a t i v e l y , the t r a d i t i o n a l site-seeing also had a time q u a l i t y — p e o p l e v i s i t e d a spe c i a l s i t e at a special time to get a s p e c i a l kind of place experience. 10 1.2.2 Physical Time and Its Design Application There are many kinds of time conceptions such as clock time, calendar time, or r e l a t i v e time. But i n r e l a t i o n to design, we deal mainly with two kinds of time: physical time and psycho- l o g i c a l time. Physical time i s perceived as something objective and evenly continuous. Psychological time i s subject to person's mind. I t i s broken and discontinuous. Some points i n time are more meaningful and important than some others. Physical time and psychological time are two parts of the time image of a place. Both are c r i t i c a l i n the creation of that place. Throughout history, many philosophers and s c i e n t i s t s focused t h e i r attention on physical time. Two of the most distinguished are Isaac Newton and Albert E i n s t e i n . Isaac Newton perceived time (and space) as a homogeneous and continuous absolute—one of the basic absolutes of the universe. In his conception, time was abstract, absolute, and independent of objects. I t was l i n e a r , uniform i n flow, i r r e v e r s i b l e , and d i v i s i b l e , which meant that time could be used as a standard for measuring events (Edward Hall,1984, P21). The t y p i c a l examples of physical time are clock and calender time. This temporal paradigm i s s t i l l the dominant way i n which most people's conception of time operates. Although they are very accurate, and sophisticated human inventions, the clock and calendar are abstract i n t e l l i n g us the flow of time. The flow of time i s more v i v i d l y sensed with the help of natural or man-made rhythms. People perceive rhythm better than 11 the abstracted clock time 1. Evolving i n the rhythmic world, a l l forms of l i f e seem to exhibit some degree of temporal coordina- t i o n . We can conclude that temporal nature i s an e s s e n t i a l part of the universe, and of a l l l i f e forms. In the creation of place, the revealing of physical time, and hence creating a time image of a place i s an important issue. In creating the physical time image of a place, the guide- l i n e should be to display environmental change by transforming the scene, or s h i f t i n g the viewpoint of the observer, so that the change can be made s u f f i c i e n t l y palpable to be perceived i n the e x p e r i e n t i a l present (Lynch, 1972, P168). There are a number of methods avail a b l e to us for shaping the image of physical time i n a c e r t a i n place. 1) Accentuating natural rhythms i n a place, such as a creek, a water spring, or a f l o a t ; 2) revealing seasonal changes, l i k e winter gardens, autumn trees; 3) creating a special night image, such as a f i r e p l a c e , or l i g h t fountain; 4) considering the p o s s i b i l i t y of future development; and, 5) putting the emphasis on the sequence of space, e s p e c i a l l y the sequences along the major approaches to the s i t e . A f t e r Newton, there came another and new time concept— Einstein's theory at r e l a t i v e time. To Ein s t e i n , time was r e v e r s i b l e , heterogeneous, and discontinuous. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the heterogeneity and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of time are also true i n our minds. To humans i n every-day l i f e , time i s not D i g i t a l clock displays precise time, but i t gives us l i t t l e sense of time structure or movement. Better, the b a l l topping the Greenwich tower r i s e s slowly, then drops j u s t at noon, to give exact observatory time to the ships i n the r i v e r (Lynch, P67, 1972). 12 perceived as r i g i d physical time. Some points i n time are more s i g n i f i c a n t than others. Later when dealing with Mircea Eliade's sacred time form his The Sacred and the Profane, we w i l l f i n d an amazing s i m i l a r i t y between the two (Mircea Eliade, 1959). 1.2.3 PSYCHOLOGICAL TIME In h i s Time and Timelessness, Peter H a r t o c o l l i s comments that time i s conceivable i n two broad ways: as a subjective experience, or what i s known as psychological time, and as objective experience, or clock, and calendar time ( H a r t o c o l l i s , P3, 1983). However, the use of physical time concepts i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of human events i s often a r t i f i c i a l and misleading i n our d a i l y l i f e . Simply to view time i n the same units and dimensions as the p h y s i c i s t employs i n describing events ignores the l i v i n g q u a l i t y of time. In f a c t , s o c i e t i e s and indiv i d u a l s demonstrate vast differences i n t h e i r constructions and uses of time; temporal perceptions and attitudes change within an i n d i v i d u a l both during a s i n g l e day and throughout his or her l i f e span (Bernard Gorman, 1977 P v i i ) . We have a l l experienced a c e r t a i n d i s c o n t i n u i t y and heterogeneity of time. "There i s the comparatively monotonous time of our work, and time of celebration and s p e c t a c l e s — i n short, ' f e s t a l time'" (Mircea Eliade, 1959, P71) . This l i v i n g q u a l i t y of time i s studied by psychologists, who regard time as subjective personal experience—the human sense of time. In contrast to physical time, which i s r e l a t i v e l y fixed and regular, psychological time i s more subjective, obviously influenced by i t s context, or setting, and the emotional and psychological states of i n d i v i d u a l s (Edward H a l l , 1983, P19). Some days i n a year are chosen for the annual celebrations and f e s t i v a l s i n every society. In China, a t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l society, most f e s t i v a l s stem from people's emotional response to seasonal patterns of farming. The most important f e s t i v a l — t h e Spring F e s t i v a l (Chinese New Year), also the f i r s t day of Spring i n Chinese lunar calendar, i s a e x c i t i n g reaction to the beginning of another year-long challenge. The second most important f e s t i v a l , the Moon F e s t i v a l , on the 15th of August i n the Chinese Lunar Calendar, i s a celebration of the harvest. Every society has i t s own special times i n i t s c o l l e c t i v e psychological time image. Another s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of psychological time i s i t s strong attachment to place. No event can occur without a context. Whenever a celebration takes place, i t has a great influence on the time image of the place i n which i t occurs. 1.3.4 PHENOMENOLOGICAL TIME Phenomenology, which originated about 1905 with the German philosopher Edmund Husserl, i s "the study of a l l appearances i n human experience, during which considerations of objective r e a l i t y and of purely subjective response are temporarily l e f t out of account "(Margery Berube, ed.,1982). 14 In h i s The Sacred and the Profane (Eliade, Mircea, 1959), Mircea Eliade shows the differences i n t o t a l human experience of time between a r e l i g i o u s person and a nonreligious man. A r e l i g i o n s person experiences "sacred time", while a nonreligious person only experiences "profane time". Mircea Eliade contends that time has a d i f f e r e n t meaning for r e l i g i o u s people: For r e l i g i o u s man time, l i k e space i s neither homogeneous nor continuous. On the one hand there are the i n t e r v a l s of a sacred time, the time of f e s t i v a l s (by fa r the greater part of which are p e r i o d i c a l ) ; on the other hand there i s profane time, ordinary temporal duration i n which acts without r e l i g i o u s meaning have t h e i r s e t t i n g " The Sacred and the Profane, 1959, P68 We can see that sacred time i s repeatable and r e v e r s i b l e and does not change. In mythical time people do not age, for they are magic; by putting themselves i n sacred time, people subconsciously r e a f f i r m and acknowledge t h e i r own d i v i n i t y (Edward H a l l , 1983, PP24-25). This temporal q u a l i t y i s inaccessible to nonreligious people, fo r whom, time can present neither break nor mystery; time constitutes man's deepest e x i s t e n t i a l dimension; i t i s linked to hi s own l i f e , hence i t has a beginning and an end, which i s death, the a n n i h i l a t i o n of l i f e . We see sacred time as a s a n c t i f i e d psychological time. Understanding sacred time, helps us to understand psychological time at a higher l e v e l . Psychological and phenomenological time reveal the time image of place with the r e l a t i o n of sp e c i a l human events—celebrations and f e s t i v a l s . Such events provide accents of f a n t a s t i c imagery and high energy to the d a i l y cycle of l i f e . These special times often give s p e c i a l looks to places, and make places remarkable. The f i n a l issue on the time image of place i s the creation of d e r e l i c t s i t e . Allowing a s i t e to gently s l i p into such a state i s a simple, e f f e c t i v e , and inexpensive way to carry a sense of past landscapes into the future (Paterson, 1989, P 30). In conclusion, there are two ways to perceive the passage of time, physical time, psychological time (which includes "sacred time"). There are seven issues considering the creation of time images of place. A l l of these seven topics w i l l be used as guide-lines for the generation of temporal patterns i n the next chapter. To l i s t them: FIVE ISSUES ON THE IMAGES OF PHYSICAL TIME: 1) Natural Recurrence 2) Seasonal Image 3) Night Image 4) Future Image 5) Sequence in Space THREE ISSUES ON THE IMAGES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TIME: 1) Celebrations and F e s t i v a l s 2) Layers of Previous Occupancy 3) D e r e l i c t Sites and Ruins 1 6 1.3 THE ORDER AND MEANING OF PLACE 1.3 . 1 — 1.3.2 THE ORDER OF PLACE Vegetable Tissue: Hard Maple Under 315 Microscope (Lewis R. Wloberg, Plate 49) 17 1.3.1 Mechanistic Order and H o l i s t i c Order We l i v e i n an ordered world. Our universe i s an ordered universe. The galaxy, the milky way, the solar system, the earth and the moon a l l have t h e i r positions i n regulated o r b i t s . Order i s r e l a t e d to our perception of goodness i n our l i f e . Order means health to our body, e f f i c i e n c y to our d a i l y work, and power and strength for an army. In these cases, we i n fact understand order as a functional and mechanistic o r d e r — a good arrangement, as a state i n which a l l components or elements are arranged l o g i c a l l y , comprehensively or nat u r a l l y (Cayne, ed., 1988, P705). Mechanistic order has been a dominant world view for centuries, and s t i l l i s today. According to Christopher Alexander i n h i s unpublished The Nature of Order, the mechanistic idea of order originated with Descartes about 1600. Descartes explained that one can f i n d out how something works by pretending that i t i s a machine (Alexander, Chapter 1, P7, 1988). However, one important r o l e — t h e observer i s missing i n t h i s mechanistic view. Therefore, t h i s philosophy f a i l e d to perceive the lived-experience of the world. We can take as an example, the design of beaux-arts architecture of l a t e r 18th century i n France. Everything i n the design, from the proportions of the facade, and the order (of the p i l l a r s ) , to the lay-out of the d e t a i l s , has been r a t i o n a l i z e d and regulated i n order. In beaux-arts architecture, a l l of the rules from Greek and Roman architecture are further made absolute, the 18 r e s u l t i s that, although we can f e e l happiness behind Greek architecture, and powerfulness and glory behind Roman architecture, we only f e e l r i g i d i t y and coolness behind the, usually heroic, beaux-arts architecture. The same evolution occurred i n the o f f i c i a l Chinese architecture. Style did not change for about 2 000 years, but was always being refined and re-refined. Volume af t e r volume of rules were written and re-written. By the time of the Qing Dynasty (A.D. 1644-1911), everything from the form and colour of t i l e s to the procedure for making a small beam was regulated. Comparing a b u i l d i n g i n the Tong Dynasty (A.D. 618-907) with a bui l d i n g of the same type i n the Qing Dynasty, we f i n d boldness and unconstrained o r i g i n a l i t y from the former, but the r i g i d perfection, and l i f e l e s s gorgeousness i n the l a t t e r . The conclusion i s simple. In the early time i n both cultures, parts of a bu i l d i n g were defined out of the consideration that a bu i l d i n g i s a whole; i n the l a t e r time, a building was constructed out of the well-regulated parts, and the wholeness was missing. In other words, we can say that f o s s i l i z e d mechanistic order causes l i f e l e s s n e s s , and human-intervened, "rough", and h o l i s t i c order brings out l i f e . Alexander understands order as having an es s e n t i a l r e l a t i o n to " l i f e " and "wholeness". He says that we must see things i n t h e i r wholeness, not as parts or fragments, and we must recognize every thing, even an apparently inanimate thing l i k e a building, as something r e a l (Alexander, 1988, Chpt-1, P16). His view of 19 h o l i s t i c order has three components. F i r s t , the elements of an ordered l i v i n g subject are "wholes", for example, the root, trunk and branch, and the le a f of a tree are such h o l i s t i c elements. To be elements, they must be distinguishable, v i s i b l e and recognizable, because at the same l e v e l they are coherent or v i s i b l e wholes. Second, the l i v i n g subject (the tree) i s an order among wholes, and a l i v i n g single whole. And f i n a l l y , t h i s l i v i n g single whole i s a part of a larger whole (for example the landscape). In conclusion, he r e f l e c t s : "What we c a l l order i s any condition i n which r e l a t i v e l y coherent wholes are b u i l t out of other wholes" (Alexander, Chpt-1, P18, 1988). 1.3.2 Center and Boundary From about 1967 to about 1985, Alexander looked at things or parts of t h i n g s — b u i l d i n g s , t i l e s , stones, windows, and so o n — comparing them, and t r y i n g to f i n d out the common features i n them, which were the most deeply whole and most a l i v e . He i d e n t i f i e d f i f t e e n ways in which order i s created, i n which l i f e - g i ving wholes emerge. These f i f t e e n ways are Levels of Scale, Centers, Boundaries, Alternating Repetition, P o s i t i v e Space, Good Shape, Local Symmetries, Deep Interlock, Ambiguity, Contrast, Graded Variation, Roughness, Echoes, the Void, Inner Calm, and Not Separateness ((1988, Chpt-5, P 80). Center and Boundary, the most relevant two to landscape design, are chosen i n t h i s paper as a part of guidelines for the pattern generation: Center and Boundary. 20 1. A Center develops a s p e c i a l f i e l d - l i k e e f f e c t between the centers which surround i t , to achieve i t s own f i e l d - l i k e unity. In design, Center i s normal understood to deal with the things i n the middle of a place. However, a more profound understanding of center i s to view i t as a place where a qual i t y instead of something (e.g. meaning, function, or experience) i s concentrated. Therefore, a place not only has a physical center (which i s not necessarily i n the middle), but also has a functional center, a center of experience, or a center of a c t i v i t i e s . 2. Boundary shows how the f i e l d - l i k e e f f e c t can be introduced by the creation of a r i n g - l i k e center, made of smaller centers which surround and i n t e n s i f y the f i r s t and also unite i t with the centers beyond i t . Boundary can be anything that supports the formation of center. A strong boundary i s esse n t i a l to the insideness of place 2. Insideness i s the sense of being inside a place. "To be inside a place i s to belong to i t and to i d e n t i f y with i t , and the more profoundly inside you are the stronger i s t h i s i d e n t i t y with the place" (Relph, P49, 1979). 21 1 . 3 .3—1 . 3.4 MEANING OF PLACE The S p i r i t of Place (Hakan Petterson, 1989, P97) 22 1.3.3 G E N I U S LOCI The l a s t basic component i s the meaning of place. The ideas on the meaning of place come from the work avariety of people, including Norberg-Schulz, E. Relph, F r i t z Steele and Laurie O l i n (Landscape Journal, P.149—P168, 1988). Every place has meaning. Place speaks to us in a non-verbal way; i t conveys to us ideas, very often symbolically; and s t i r s our emotions by i t s ambience. The meanings of place are the basic mode in which the world i s "given". To quote Laurie O l i n , "consistently, landscapes have induced feelings of fascination, awe, fear, contemplation, amusement, and d e l i g h t — i n short, v i s u a l and sensory i n t e r e s t and stimulations of a l l sort" (P195, 1988) . On the other hand, we may say that place i s simply place, i t i s only that humans by t h e i r nature experience place i n a meaningful way. In the words of Norberg-Schulz: "It i s one of the basic needs of man to experience h i s l i f e - s i t u a t i o n s as meaningful" (1980, P5). In h i s book GENIUS LOCI (Norberg-Schulz, 1979), Norberg- Schulz uses a Roman conception, "Genius Loci", to r e f e r to the meaning of place. According to ancient Roman b e l i e f , every "independent" being has i t genius, i t s guardian s p i r i t . This s p i r i t gives l i f e to people and places, accompanies them from b i r t h to death, and determines t h e i r character or essence (Norberg-Schulz, P18, 1979). Thus, the genius denotes what a thing i s , or to use the words of Louis Kahn, the genius i s "what a thing wants to be". I t i s s i m i l a r as a character i n a novel, once his/her s p i r i t has been established, even the author can not change the character's fate. Several q u a l i t i e s are related to the meaning of place. F i r s t l y , the meaning of place i s a non-verbal expression, i t cannot t e l l a story as l i t e r a t u r e does. However, i t creates a general "atmosphere", a property of place which everybody can perceive immediately. "They (landscapes) can express c e r t a i n things, can possess symbols and refer to ideas, event, and objects e x t r i n s i c to t h e i r own elements and locus, and i n ce r t a i n circumstances can be d i d a c t i c and/or highly poetic (Laurie Olin, Landscape Journal, P185, 1988). Second, the meaning of a place i s a complex t o t a l i t y , which often i s so d i s t i n c t that one word seems s u f f i c i e n t to grasp i t s essence (Norberg-Schulz, P16, 1980). However, place always has one meaning. I t i s possible that place has d i f f e r e n t meanings at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . For example, we may be able to f i n d a intimate corner i n a sacred place. Even more, meanings at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s might be contradictory; or a place may have exactly opposite meanings for d i f f e r e n t people. F i n a l l y , the meaning of place does not have an obvious r e l a t i o n s h i p to the size or scale of a place. Sometimes, a small d e t a i l can mean more than a whole s i t e . "In the pr i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s we f i n d that even the smallest environmental d e t a i l s are known and meaningful, and that they make up complex s p a t i a l s t r u c ture" (Norberg-Schulz, P21, 1980). Unfortunately, i n our 24 modern time we often neglect the effectiveness of using d e t a i l s and decorations to i n t e n s i f y the meaning of place. 1 . 3 . 4 THE TYPICAL MEANINGS OF PLACE Although the meaning of a place i s complicated and subtle, place generally does share several representative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : sacredness, mystery, and intimacy. Sacred landscapes are among the oldest and incontestably most meaningful landscapes. They are associated with s p i r i t u a l values, e s p e c i a l l y those of the o r i g i n a l myths of ancient peoples (Laurie Olin, Landscape Journal, V7(2), P159, 1988). Inspiration for the sacredness of place may come from the following aspects of l i f e : 1) The r e l i g i o u s and philosophical views of the world; 2) the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s towards dwelling and place creation; 3) the v i s i o n towards the future of a place; 4) the attitudes and b e l i e f s towards l i f e ; and, 5) the deep emotional involvement, and profound attachment with a place Intimate landscapes characterize the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y of dwelling, which i s mostly related to the d a i l y and personal l i f e of people. An intimate place usually has several q u a l i t i e s : 1. Roughness: An intimate place tends to have more vari e t y than unity; i t i s more i n t r i c a t e and entangled than p l a i n and pure. 2. Highly personalized and c l o s e l y related to d a i l y l i f e : intimate places are mostly marked with the taste and character of a person, or a small group of people. I t i s generally true that the more the p u b l i c i t y a place has, the less i t i s intimate. 3. Smallness of scale: Because of the close r e l a t i o n with every-day l i f e , an intimate place always has a small scale. It i s a place of p l a i n immediacy and e f f i c i e n c y . 25 Mysterious landscapes are always related to the unknown rules or powers, something within comprehension, but ( p a r t i a l l y ) beyond understanding. There are a wide range of techniques for creating mystery: 1. play with distance/ moongate, frame, view to f a r away places "here and there". 2 . depth: thick wall, thick woods 3 . layering of objects 4 . l i g h t : cathedral-rose window 5. d e t a i l and pattern 6. play with contradiction 7. anthropomorphizing 8 . the obscure i n sequence 9 . things out of place 10. things that are incomplete 11. things that are sudden, unexpected and surprise 12. limited access Note from Lecture of Professor Douglas Paterson, 1989 These three meanings can be found i n the basic categories of our landscapes, which include landscapes of work, mysticism and worship, dwelling (both i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y ) , authority, and pleasure. Sacredness i s common to landscapes of work, worship, and authority; intimacy i s found i n landscapes of work, dwelling, and pleasure; while mystery occurs i n landscapes of mysticism and worship, and authority (Laurie O l i n , Landscape Journal, V 7-2, P150, 1988). Methods of i n j e c t i n g meaning into a designed landscape range from creating tableaus with recognizable creatures and figures to abstract references implied by the structure or arrangement of non-representational elements t o t a l l y unrelated to those to which the design ref e r s (Laurie Olin, Landscape Journal, V 7-2, P160). Generally, there are three ways: Denotation, Connotation, and expression. Denotation i s a d i r e c t display of the subject through other forms of v i s u a l arts, for example, sculpture, story c a l l i g r a p h y , and poems, and architecture. Connotation i s "the reference of the work to things not present but invoked" (Laurie O l i n , P160, 1988). Often-used methods include symbols and metaphor. The l a s t one i s expression, which i s to create a mood or f e e l i n g through s t y l e . We can conclude that order i s an essence of place, and Center and Boundary are two important issues i n the creation of ordered landscape. We can also make conclusions that meaning of place reveals a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between place and people, and basic place meanings include sacredness, mystery, and intimacy. 27 CHAPTER TWO PATTERN GENERATION Animal Tissue: Internal Ear of Guinae Pig (enlarged 250 times), (Lewis R. Wolberg, 1970, Plate 145) 28 INTRODUCTION The word "pattern" normally r e f e r s to a stable, represen- t a t i v e plan (or diagram, idea, model, and sample), which i s worth following, or imitating. With respect to a place, pattern means "the consistent combinations of environmental elements, such as things, structure, a c t i v i t i e s or recurring events" (Steele F, 1971, P139). Noticeably, there are only a few a c t i v i t y patterns behind a great number of our d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . Let us analyze the a c t i v i t y patterns of f u l l t i m e students. Throughout the year, there are a great number of a c t i v i t i e s happening i n our l i v e s , but the patterns behind them are only few, i n fact, only three. F i r s t , the weekday pattern: i t includes preparing (getting up, taking a shower, and having breakfast), studying (attending classes and seminars, going to the l i b r a r y , and t a l k i n g to classmates and professors), and relaxing (going home again, having dinner, watching t e l e v i s i o n , and going to bed). Second, the weekend pattern: the events include entertaining, s o c i a l i z i n g , cleaning and shopping. And f i n a l l y , the yearly pattern: as students, we b a s i c a l l y study at school when school i s i n session (with middle and f i n a l term exams), work i n the summer, v i s i t home at C h r i s t - mas time. There are also some other high spots happening occasionally, l i k e camping i n the summer, and s k i i n g i n the winter. Notice that i t i s not simply the a c t i v i t i e s but the patterns of our a c t i v i t i e s that decides who we are. There are only two p a t t e r n s — t h e weekday pattern and the yearly p a t t e r n — that are exclusively for f u l l t i m e students. Almost a l l people share the weekend pattern. I t i s only these two patterns which d i s t i n g u i s h f u l l t i m e students from other people. The same things happen to a place. Although a d i v e r s i t y of events happen at a place every day, there are r e l a t i v e l y fewer patterns behind the events. Our experiences therefore depend not simply on the physical environment, but on the patterns of events. To quote Alexander: "In order to define t h i s l i f e q u a l i t y i n buildings and towns, we must begin by understanding that every place i s given i t s character by c e r t a i n patterns of events that keep on happening there" (1979, P55). I f the patterns are good, the place i s a l i v e ; i f not, the place dead. I t i s c l e a r that patterns play a concrete and objective r o l e i n determining the l i v e d q u a l i t y of any given place. To see a place i n pattern i s a higher-level place experience. Chapter One deals with place, time image of place, and physical order and meaning of place. This chapter, Chapter Two, i s intended to convey the design ideas of time, order, and meaning of place into design patterns. Pattern generation i s , i n a sense, a procedure to t e s t the e l i g i b i l i t y of the ideas. HOW TO FIND PATTERN A pattern must be deep and capable of generating l i f e . I t must also be shared by many people. Alexander has several rules for discovering a q u a l i f i e d pattern: 1. We must f i r s t define some physical feature of the place, which seems worth abstracting. 2. Next, we must define the problems, or the f i e l d of forces which t h i s pattern brings into balance. 3 0 3. F i n a l l y , we must define the range of contexts where t h i s system of forces e x i s t s and where t h i s pattern of physical r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l indeed a c t u a l l y bring i t into balance. The Timeless Way of Building, 1979, P243-53 In summary, every pattern must be formulated i n the form of a r u l e which establishes a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a context, a system of forces which arises i n that context, and a configuration which allows these forces to resolve themselves i n that context. THE ESSENCE OF A PATTERN A pattern l i n k s the theory of p r i n c i p l e s with the ap p l i c a - tions of design. Its aim i s to bring out and enlighten design ideas, but i t cannot be understood as a s i t e s p e c i f i c design concept i n i t s e l f . I t should not be too ambiguous for a designer to apply i t on a s i t e , and not so narrow as to l i m i t the designer's imagination. As Alexander indicates, a pattern must have the following major components to act as a bridge between ideas and designs. 1. To s t r i k e the balance between being too narrow and too loose, you must express and v i s u a l i z e a pattern as a kind of f l u i d image, a morphological f e e l i n g , a swirling i n t u i t i o n about form, which captures the invariant f i e l d which i s the pattern. 2. Then, once you discover a f l u i d f i e l d of relationship l i k e t h i s , you must redefine i t , as an entity, to make i t operational. 3. For the same reason you must be able to draw i t . 4. And f i n a l l y , for the same reason too, you must give i t a name. The Timeless Way of Building, Alexander, PP 263-67, 1979, Through h i s works A Pattern Language, The Timeless Way of Building, and The Nature of Order (unpublished), Christopher Alexander consistently searches for the explanation and re- creation of the " l i v e d q u a l i t y " i n architecture, landscape, and other art works. He says that t h i s q u a l i t y can be sensed but cannot be named. He makes a continuous e f f o r t to re-create t h i s q u a l i t y i n a h o l i s t i c way. His A Pattern Language (Christopher Alexander et a l , 1977) represents t h i s e f f o r t . In fact, what he desires i s to create a place that i s comfortable and intimate, l i k e the old towns and old buildings he often mentions and analyzes. By following his patterns, we can create an ordered place with an intimate character. But intimacy i s only one of many good q u a l i t i e s of places. There are many other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , or Genius Loc i , such as sacredness, d e r e l i c t i o n , and mystery. We need places with d i f f e r e n t characters, and do our best to create these places. (This i s why the topic "intimate", as well as, "sacredness", and "mystery" are chosen as the guidelines for the pattern generation.) As i s indicated above, every pattern must have a s i t e con- text. A s i t e context includes the name and function of the s i t e , the size (or shape) of the s i t e , and the location of the s i t e i n a larger structure. Under each topic i n t h i s paper, there are usually three lev e l s of pattern. One i s i n the general landscape context; the others are i n s i t e and design d e t a i l contexts. The following l i s t provides a b r i e f view of the patterns at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s under the twelve t o p i c s . 32 A LIST OF PATTERNS FOR A WATERFRONT DESIGN CATEGORY OF PATTERN: TIME Rhythm Season Celebration Layer Future Sequence D e r e l i c t Night Materials and Constructions ORDER Center Boundary MEANING Sacred Places Scale Landscape Context Site Context Design Det a i l s 2 .1 RHYTHM 2.1.1 Displaying Natural Rhythms 2.1.2 Things Af l o a t 2.1.3 Time Devices as Decorations 2.2 SEASONS 2.2.1 F r u i t Trees 2.2.2 Seasonal Decoration 2 . 3 CELEBRATIONS 2.3.2 Fe s t i v a l s and Celebrations 2.3.3 Birthday Marks 2 . 4 LAYER 2.4.1 Heritage Preservations 2.4.2 Bui l d i n g - i n Old Traces 2 . 5 NIGHT 2.5.1 Night L i f e i n the City 2 . 6 FUTURE 2.6.1 Incremental Development 2.6.2 Making Changes V i s i b l e 2 . 7 DERELICT 2.7.1 De r e l i c t Site 2.7.2 Gardens Growing Wild 2 . 8 SEQUENCE 2.8.1 Site Context 2.8.2 Move and Rest 33 2.9 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION 2.9.1 Timeless Materials 2.9.2 Timeless Way of Constructions 2.10 CENTER 2.10.1 Hierarchy of Centers 2.10.2 Something Roughly i n the Middle 2 . 11 BOUNDARY 2.11.1 Waterfront Boundary 2.11.2 Thick Walls 2 .12 SACRED PLACE 2.12 .1 Theme Park 4.12 .1 Graves i n the Park 4.13 . 3 Si t e S p e c i f i c Signs 34 . 1 RHYTHMICAL RECURRENCE Natural Stream (Howard Hibbard, 1980, P121) 35 2 . 1 RHYTHMICAL RECURRENCE Many good places d i sp lay rhythmical recurrences of sounds or views, such as the r i s e and f a l l of t ides and the chiming of a c lock b e l l . These recurrences generate a quiet and comfort ambience. Rhythmic action i s enjoyed by young children. I t appears to be a fundamental way of orien t i n g themselves to the world about them. Rhythm i s often connected with mental health, with learning and memory, and with states of security. Our bodies are f i l l e d with rhythms: heartbeat, breathing, sleeping and waking, the increasing and decreasing of hormones, and the a c t i v i t y and i n a c t i v i t y of the brain. But not a l l of these rhythms can be perceived e a s i l y . There are also many rhythmical processes i n the landscape. Some of them are natural, such as cycles of sun and moon, waves and t i d e s of the sea, and periods of wind and r a i n . Others, l i k e clocks, drums, and b e l l s , are a r t i f i c i a l . Most rhythms can be displayed d i r e c t l y . There are simple and fascinating natural cycles of change, such as flames, clouds, sunsets, flowing water, surf, grass r i p p l i n g and r e f l e c t i n g sun l i g h t . Making the rhythms more perceivable i s the c r u c i a l for the creation of the time image of place. To do t h i s , we can either amplify a hidden change or tr a n s f e r i t to a more v i s i b l e one. A good landscape architect knows how to amplify the sight and sound of flowing water in the s i t e . For example, the lotus i s a t r a d i - t i o n a l aquatic plant i n Chinese gardens, whose large leaves amplify the rhythm of the r a i n i n the summer. 36 We can also create v i s u a l - v i s u a l , visual-sound, and sound- sound transformations. For example, the moment of sunset can be heightened by sound or by surfaces to catch and i n t e n s i f y the s h i f t i n g colour. B e l l s might be rung at the moment of high or low t i d e , or at the r i s i n g or set t i n g of the sun or the moon. Surfaces that catch the l i g h t and change character as the sun angle s h i f t s , or plants that transform themselves with the seasons are ways to emphasis rhythm. Therefore, in the design of waterfront parks, make sure to do the following: 2.1.1 DISPLAYING NATURAL RHYTHMS In the landscape of a l l sizes and types, make sure to f i n d , define, or create natural recurrences, instead of neglecting and eliminating them. For example, when there i s a creek or pond, t r y to preserve i t . In a place where wind i s strong, reveal i t by f l a g s , or wind instruments. The natural recurrences include: sun, moon, wave and t i d e , wind, and weather of the day, to name only a few. The Japanese painting shows how to make the wind v i s i b l e by using a " f l y i n g f i s h " (Art Museum at Indiana University, 1980, P206). 37 2.1.2 THINGS FLOATING Tides and waves are enjoyable natural rhythms. People l i k e to be near water and on the water to enjoy the motion of the sea. Along the edges of a water body, whether the shore of the sea, the banks of the r i v e r and lake, or the border of pond, b u i l d docks, paths, f i s h i n g p i e r s , and flower gardens which are a f l o a t on the water. A f l o a t i n g amphitheatre—the park's most popular unit in the summer, Columbus, Ohio (Ann Breen ed, Urban Waterfronts 85', 1986) . 2.1.3 TIME DEVICES AS DECORATIONS Time devices, such as clocks, b e l l s , and sundials are s a t i s - fying outdoor sculptures. They not only t e l l time, but also are symbols of time. Do not l i m i t the concept of the time device as something that t e l l s us the hours of a day, but think of i t as 38 anything that measures and v i s u a l i z e s rhythmic occurrences. For example, a b e l l may ri n g at the high and low tides to accentuate the t i d e ; a chair may t e l l you how many people have used i t before you; a new tree may be planted i n a plaza every year, so people can t e l l the age of the place by the number and s i z e of trees. Therefore, i n a corner of a park, along a path, and on a s t r e e t , where a "something" i s needed as a f o c a l point, or decora- t i o n , think of using a time device. 39 2 . 2 SEASON SPRING, SUMMER, AND WINTER (Royal LePage Calender 1989) 4 0 2 .2 SEASONS Every place has i t s own seasonal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which should be emphasized i n our designs. As we spend more of our l i v e s i n i n t e r i o r environments, we are deprived of many natural clues to the passage of seasons. We i s o l a t e ourselves i n glass boxes, or i n buildings without windows. Seasons play important roles i n our l i v e s and emotions. In the l i t e r a t u r e of many cultures, spring i s considered as a beginning of a new year, a symbol of b i r t h and r e v i v a l . Summer implies growing and developing, autumn harvesting and celebration, and winter r e s t i n g and rewarding. Every place i s a s i t e of seasonal a t t r a c t i o n , simply because of i t s geographic location. The seashore i s a place for summer. Snowy mountain-peaks are special i n winter. There are also many seasonal signs i n a place. Plants transform themselves with the seasons. Flowers and trees, especially deciduous trees, are very obvious seasonal signs. Human a c t i v i t i e s i n places are also d i f f e r e n t . Seasonally oriented a c t i v i t i e s have clear a r e l a t i o n with places. Consequently, parks should be planned and designed with consideration of the seasons, and seasonal a c t i v i t i e s . Here i s a l i s t of seasonally oriented a c t i v i t i e s : winter park: snow, ice sculpture f e s t i v a l s , skiing, and skating, walking i n the r a i n . Summer park: swimming, surfing, water-games, boating, canoeing, sunbathing. Spring park: seeing flowers, trees, p i c n i c k i n g Autumn park: watching the colours changes of plants, and picnicking. 41 2 .2 .1 FRUIT TREES F r u i t trees are d i s t i n c t i v e l y seasonal p lant s . Plant small orchards of f r u i t trees i n parks and gardens; p lant f r u i t tree grove, or i n d i v i d u a l f r u i t trees i n small yards and along paths and s t r e e t s . 2.2.2 SEASONAL DECORATION Each of the four seasons has i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , and poe t i c meanings. Just as people change t h e i r c lothes when seasons change, the decorations for each place should also change with the season. By doing t h i s , we give places a p a r t i c u l a r seasonal look. There should be the d e t a i l s designed for at taching decora- t ions (such a s posters and f lags) on the wal ls of b u i l d i n g s , or on l i g h t posts . Some elements of a b u i l d i n g , or a s t ruc ture , such a s roof of a she l t er , surface of steps can be designed to change with seasons. A. L ight Post at Christmas B. The L ight Post of Time, Macon, Georgia, USA Vancouver, BC, Canada 42 2.3 CELEBRATIONS Copacabana, B o l i v i a : Jam-packed pilgrims, many from foreign lands, crowed Copacabana each year to honour her famous V i r g i n (National Geographic, February 1966, P171). 43 2.3 CELEBRATIONS Urban environments o f f er endless p o s s i b i l i t i e s for theatre and a l l sort of spaces can be incorporated into the energy of a c e l e b r a t i o n . Urban Waterfronts '85, 1986, P125 A place without a sp e c i a l time i s l i k e a society without a f e s t i v a l , and a person without a birthday. The sp e c i a l time makes a place easy to name, and clear to remember. The Vancouver Expo '86 s i t e would have been much less noticeable, i f there had not been a sp e c i a l event. In t h i s case, the presence of the place has been enlarged by the sp e c i a l event of celebration. This enlargement of presence can be stronger, i f a s p e c i a l time i s given r e p e t i t i v e l y . Because the presence of a place w i l l connect with both past and future. The sp e c i a l moment may be at various i n t e r v a l s , eg., monthly, annually, or biannually. The event can be p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , or a f e s t i v a l occasion. I t may have connections with a c i t y , a community, a neighbourhood, or a s p e c i a l person. Since the beginning of time, people i n cultures everywhere have found the need to express communally t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the earth and the passage of seasons. This expression involves confronting t h e i r demons and exorcising t h e i r fears and anxieties; as well as, celebrating t h e i r gods and acknowledging t h e i r connec- t i o n with each other and the universe. These wonderful occasions provide accents of f a n t a s t i c imagery and high energy to the d a i l y cycle of l i f e . (Breen, 1986, PP 117-125). F e s t i v a l s and celebrations have always been geared towards comprehensive p a r t i c i p a t i o n . They r a i s e the energy l e v e l of the en t i r e community by taking place i n public space and transforming the ordinary environment into the location for a magical ex- perience. These d i s t i n c t i v e events always give places a special look, as the flowers are on display, temporary structures are b u i l t . The temporary structure, i f favoured by the public can be replaced by a permanent one, as the tomb of Lenin. Besides the old f e s t i v a l s we have, such as New Year's Eve, Halloween Day, Christmas, and Thanksgiving, many new "vocabularies" have been created f o r celebrations. For example, huge balloons of a l l colours, cold f i r e s (low temperature chemical f i r e ) f o r building decoration, wrapping for a bridge, and skating and sk i i n g fes- t i v a l s are a l l new manifestations (Breen, 1986, PP 117-125). Functionally, celebration and f e s t i v a l are times when a place i s in i t s maximum usage. Accordingly, i f a place i s designed for a sp e c i a l event, i t s functional capacity undoubtedly can meet the usage i n normal times. 2.3.1 PLACE WITH FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS Every park should be a place for s p e c i a l events. Every event should be programmed for i t s highest po in t , which are ce l ebra t ion . I f there are no h i s t o r i c a l events to remember, a design can create new "vocabularies" of c e l ebra t ion . Give a s p e c i a l look to the place at t h i s spec ia l time by f l a g s , f lowers, temporary s t r u c t u r e s , other re la ted decorat ions . 45 Christos wrapping of the Pont Neut Created a major event i n Paris, bringing hundreds of thousand of people out to celebrate at the water's edge (Urban Waterfronts '85, 1986, P125). 2.3.2 BIRTHDAY MARKS The birthday of anything, structures, furniture, trees, even bri c k s and t i l e s are the same importance as people's birthdays. From time to time, remember to give them a birthday mark. A tree with the date of planting on the campus of the Unive- r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 4 6 2.4 LAYERS OF HISTORY Apartment towers loom over a lonely t a i l o r i n g shop on Parliament Street, Toronto (Boris Spremo, 1983, P141) 47 2.4 LAYERS OF HISTORY We prefer to select and create our past and to make i t a part of our l i f e . What Time i s This Place, 1972, P37 The s u r v i v a l of the past conveys a sense of security and continuity. I t i s a p a i n f u l experience to v i s i t a place and f i n d out everything i n one's memories has gone or changed. In Genius Loci, there i s a story from the German-born American ar c h i t e c t Gerhard Kallmann which i l l u s t r a t e s what the experience means: V i s i t i n g at the end of the Second World War his native B e r l i n a f t e r many years of absence, he wanted to see the house where he had grown up. As must be expected i n B e r l i n , the house had disappeared, and Mr. Kallmann f e l t somewhat l o s t . Then he suddenly recognized the t y p i c a l pavement of the sidewalk: the f l o o r on which he had played as a c h i l d . And he experienced a strong f e e l i n g of having returned home. Genius Loci, 1979, P 21 Deep i n our mind, a portion of the past that has been saved as good i s not merely a promise that we are l i v i n g both i n present and past; further, i t i s a promise that the future w i l l save our present. This i s one reason that c i t i e s with a long h i s t o r y are more comfortable place for "dwelling" than new c i t i e s . In an old c i t y , where streets, buildings and plazas display v i s i b l e accumulation of h i s t o r i c a l events, we can f e e l the depth of time. Layers, l i k e annual rings of a tree, are a v i s i b l e accumula- t i o n of overlapping traces from successive periods. In the landscape, "Layers" can be a gathering of buildings, parts of a b u i l d i n g or pieces of structures of d i f f e r e n t periods. 48 Coexistence of the old and the new heightens the contrast and complexity and makes v i s i b l e the process of change. To many people, saving the past merely means preserving the h i s t o r i c a l s i t e , the place with a s i g n i f i c a n t past. They tend to neglect the importance of many small things i n the previous place, such as a seat, a threshold, or an old path. In fact these apparently t r i v i a l things convey a more intimate sense of a past. A society needs to notice the p o t e n t i a l of special s i t e s , which may be often neglected. 1. h i s t o r i c routes; 2. a g r i c u l t u r a l and h o r t i c u l t u r a l landscapes; 3. i n d u s t r i a l landscapes; 4. unique l i t t e r places and spaces; 5. heritage trees; and 6. famous views (Paterson, 1990, P3). 2.4.1 HERITAGE PRESERVATION Layers of the past and the present must be considered i n landscape design, e s p e c i a l l y , i n heritage s i t e s . Try to save the evidence of the previous occupation of a place. Preserving the signs of d i f f e r e n t times, and arranging them together as layers. Choose an area that represents the past of the place, d i f f e r e n - t i a t e i t from the surroundings by giving i t a boundary, and making a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the place. 2.4.2 BUILT-IN OLD TRACES In the d e t a i l design of h i s t o r i c a l places, use the method "l a y e r " by: 1. preserving former buildings, or parts of b u i l d - ings. For example, a former base, i f strong enough, can s t i l l be used as the base of new structure. 2. making use of old b u i l d i n g material i n the new construction. For example, pieces of old 49 b u i l d i n g s , boats , machines can be enjoyable sculptures i n the landscape. F u n c t i o n a l l y , i r o n chains from an o ld boat can be used as a par t of a fence; a wheel of a wagon as a part of gate. The wal l of an o l d b u i l d i n g could be the pavement by simply being l a i d down. An Old Facade as Fence Made of a New Platform Used Car Wheals 50 2.5 NIGHT In the Modern world night i s a place of bright c i t y l i g h t s for most c i t i z e n s . Night skies, black waters, moonlight shadows or a f i e l d of clover glowing i n the night, distant l i g h t from kerosene lamp, and dark woods with the sounds of the night are r a r e l y experienced. Heritage Landscapes i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Paterson, 1989, P31 Experiencing a place at night can enrich people's sense of the place. Places without a s a t i s f y i n g night image are less welcoming to people. People enjoy going out at night. Under the dark sky, night i s the time to enjoy loneliness and quiet. Watching stars and the moon, we think of our existence and p o s i t i o n i n the universe. In darkness, the earth i s covered by a mist of uncertainty and secretness, which u n i f i e s the whole space. However, the secretness and uncertainty of night also causes fear, which prevents people from places such as parks. Therefore, e f f o r t s must be made to help people to overcome the fear, otherwise they w i l l not use the park at night. The following facts should be considered to solve the dilemma. 1. Proper Distance: distance often overwhelms the intentions of people. I f a park i s too f a r from residents, they won't use i t . According to Alexander, people intend to use a park more frequently, when i t i s within three-minute walk distance, or 750 feet from t h e i r home or working place (Alexander, P308, 1977); 2. Adequate Population Density: i n parks, l i k e other public places, users brings about more using; abusers a l l u r e more abusing. 3. Pattern of Light: i f the l i g h t i n a park i s too strong, there i s no privacy; i f the l i g h t i s too dim, the darkness frighten people. 4. Safety: safety i s a major concern of people i n deciding whether or not they w i l l use a park. • . Ignorance about night use of a urban park often comes from the thought that there are not enough a c t i v i t i e s happening at night. In fact, the night a c t i v i t i e s can give more character to a place. Obviously, a night park should not be too far from a r e s i d e n t i a l area, or town-centers. The night park should not be too large nor the space too i n t r i c a t e . Hidden corners i s o l a t e d from a open space should be avoided. I t i s not necessary to design a l l of the parks for night l i f e , but we must open some urban parks i n the central area for night use. 2.5.1 NIGHT LIFE AND NIGHT PARK Choose the s i t e of a night park i n a populous area. Give i t more l i g h t s than i t s surroundings. Program one or several spec ia l a c t i v i t i e s for the park. The fo l lowing are for design reference: 1. r e s t i n g , s t r o l l i n g , and jogging; 2. s tar-watching, l antern d i s p l a y i n g ; 3. f ire-works d i s p l a y , music, l i g h t - f o u n t a i n , laser-show, music b ind , p lay and drama; 4. res taurant , and coffee , and tea; 5. campfire s t o r i e s , evening cand le l i gh t c e l e b r a t i o n . 52 2.6 FUTURE The s p a t i a l environment need not be subjected to plans of awesome future extent. I t i s more r a t i o n a l to c o n t r o l the present , to act for near-future ends and to keep the longer future open, to explore new p o s s i b i l i t i e s , to maintain the a b i l i t y to respond to change. What Time i s This Place ?, Lynch, 1972, P95 The future seems to be something that l i e s ahead of us, some- thing to be explored with hope and e f f o r t , or i t may seem to be rushing toward us, beyond our control (Lynch, 1972, P90) . A place i s bound to change, but when i t changes too fast, we lose the hint about the future image of the place. In fact, our problem today i s severe, "the pace and scale of current development has increased to the point at which e n t i r e landscapes can be o b l i t e r a - ted quickly and without much thought" (Paterson, 1989, P 1). We should manage the changes, to make a place seem continuous with the near future j u s t as each place should be continuous with the past. Place should always been seen as "developing", charged with predictions and intentions (Lynch, 1972, P98). The cleare r the future image of a place, the better the sense of the place. Lynch even thinks of using environment to display change instead of permanence, fo r example, using temporary structures to r e f e r the structure i n the near-future. A most important r o l e for the near-future i s to make the future predictable and c o n t r o l l a b l e . From t h i s point of view, any development that i s too large i n scale, and b u i l t too quickly w i l l not be able to accommodate to the past or future of the place. Making changes v i s i b l e i s another way to t e l l people the immediate future of a place, otherwise, the event appears un- predictable and frightening to people. I t i s better to announce projects i n the environments where they occur, the more tangible the clues connected to the future objects the more e f f e c t i v e . 2.6.1 SMALL SCALE DEVELOPMENT When a development i s too large i n sca le , or b u i l t too q u i c k l y , i t overwhelms the land and i t s people. A large scale development must be d iv ided in to comprehensible p ieces , and contracted to d i f f eren t designers and construct ion companies. 2.6.2 MAKE CHANGE VISIBLE Make changes v i s i b l e by informing the community about the plan and design by using models, boards, hoardings or temporary s tructures on the s i t e . 2.6.3 THE WAITING LAND There i s something we should do for the land wai t ing to be developed instead of l e t t i n g i t become a p l o t of l o s t land . We can use wait ing lands f o r : a. p l a n t i n g t rees , b. temporary s t r u c - tures , or c. temporary d i s p l a y s . 54 2.7 DERELICT SITES AND RUINS Old Wagon, Waskatenau (Royal LePage Calendar, 1989) 55 2.7 DERELICT SITES AND RUINS D e r e l i c t places and ruins appeal to the romance i n a l l . Al lowing a s i t e to gent ly s l i p in to such a state i s a s imple, e f f e c t i v e , and inexpensive way to carry a sense of past l and- scapes into the future . Heritage Landscape In B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989, P 30 We often think of our urban parks as t i d y and neat places. We t r e a t them a r t i f i c i a l l y , the flower beds are trimmed l i k e table cloths or painted designs. The paths are clean, fresh from the department store. However, nature has i t s own law that most times we cannot comprehend thoroughly. There i s a large piece of forest i n Vancouver's Stanley Park that i s grown by man a f t e r a s e l e c t i v e logging about 70 years ago. In that forest, there are large evergreen trees grown on a continuous lawn—very neat and pleasant to our eyes. Beside i t , there i s another piece of forest grown without any human intervention. There are deciduous trees, evergreen trees, shrubs and a l l kinds of grasses, which looks messy and out of order. The difference between the two i s that the natural forest i s f u l l of l i f e . Birds and animals l i k e the place, but they seldom v i s i t the ordered land, although they are very close. Our ordered attitude towards place also brings d i s c i p l i n e s upon ourselves by the signs "keep out of the lawn!" and "No danc- ing, No loud Music!". We l e t the place manipulate us instead of the opposite. We s a c r i f i c e our opportunity of moving and behaving f r e e l y , i n favour of the v i s u a l order. We should have as many places as our states of mind. People enjoy v i s u a l order, but sometimes they also enjoy a place that has less rules. Children, e s p e c i a l l y , want a place to explore to s a t i s f y t h e i r curious minds. They want a place where they can dig the ground, climb trees, hide t h e i r own "Treasures"—a place such a marsh, a neglect wood, a back lane, a wild garden. If we do not give people places to s a t i s f y t h e i r destructive needs, they create i t anyway—most times, through vandalism and in the wrong place. Why not give them a leg a l place for t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s instead of denying t h e i r needs under the name of educa- t i o n . In Holland, there are escape towns, where laws are looser, youth can go there to escape for awhile, i f they want to take the r i s k . In Japan, a s p e c i a l area i s assigned for teenagers where they can dance i n public. These are a l l d e r e l i c t s i t e s which are healthier, and more capable of stable growth than the more clipped and a r t i f i c i a l parks. The s i t e can be l e f t alone without too many cares. Dere- l i c t s i t e s are also economically sound, because they have minimal maintenance and operation costs. A simple s o l u t i o n : designate pieces of d e r e l i c t land, and propose minimal to no intervention. Do not use a r t i f i c i a l means to change the place. Perhaps, good design i s not to design at a l l , or to suggest deliberate community neglect of the place. Land appropriate for these purposes could be one of the followings (Paterson, lecture, 1989) : a. land belonging to nobody b. abandoned s i t e s — f a r m s , industry, building c. plants growing wild d. land unsuitable for any other use, for example, swamp, r i v e r - s i d e , beaches. 57 2.7.1 DERELICT SITE Every community3 should have at l eas t one d e r e l i c t s i t e for c h i l d r e n and teenagers, where there would be no regulat ion of correc t usage, furn i ture that otherwise would be abandoned could be used to furnish the s i t e . Users could f r e e l y reorganize the p l a c e , and further manipulation would be appreciated. People should have the r i g h t to dance, make f i r e s , and play loud music. 2.7.2 GARDEN GROWING WILD In some parts of a park, grow grass , mosses, shrubs, f lowers, and trees i n a way which comes c lose to the way that they occur i n nature: intermingled, without b a r r i e r s between them, without bare earth , without formal flower beds, and with a l l boundaries and edges made i n rough stone, b r i c k or wood which become a part of the natural growth. 2.7.3 ADVENTURE PLAYGROUND A c a s t l e , made of cartons , rocks , and o l d branches, by a group of ch i ldren for themselves, i s worth a thousand p e r f e c t l y d e t a i l e d , exactly f in i shed c a s t l e s , made for them i n a fac tory . Set up a playground for the c h i l d r e n i n the park, make i t a place with raw materials of a l l k inds—nets , boxes, b a r r e l s , t rees , ropes, simple t o o l s , frames, grass , and water—where c h i l d r e n can create and re-create playgrounds of t h e i r own. 3According to Alexander, the population of a community should be around 7,000 people. "Decentralize c i t y governments i n a way that gives l o c a l control to communities of 5,000 to 10,000 persons" (Alexander, P73, 1977). 58 2.8 SEQUENCE The basic function of a path i s to l i n k d i f f e r e n t spots together. But t h i s i s far from enough. A good path i n a park should compose good views into a "symphony". Time has played some role i n the environmental design of the past but usually a secondary or accidental one. The great excep- tions are the processional settings: the approaches to gods, kings and the dead. Most other examples of time i n architecture are the product of chance. Landscape architecture, on the other hand, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the s t r o l l gardens of Japan and i n the Engl- i s h romantic gardens, has developed a method of exhib i t i n g a large landscape as a series of contrasting pictures, seen i n sequence (Lynch, 1972, P167). The l i n e a r nature of the path provides the opportunity to organize views and events along the path thorough time. When designing a path, the key point i s to consider observer motion, to arrange the environmental change while traversing i t . Lynch refers to t h i s as a temporal meshing. The example he gives i s a road that may expose the h i s t o r i c a l layers of a c i t y , so that "baroque squares i n contrast to new shopping centres, ancient foundations at the skyscraper's foot. Paths can l i n k places of contrasting episodic quality, as i n the s t r o l l garden" (Lynch, 1972, P184). 2.8.1 SITE CONTEXT The context of a s i t e can be studied by considering the sequences along the approaches to the side. Be sure that the following sequences are considered: 59 1. The sequences along the major approaches to the park, which include considerations of beginning, climax, and end of the sequence; and of the experiences along the sequences, f o r example, immediacy, high and low, and outside and inside. 2. The sequence of a l l parks and other open spaces i n the c i t y . How does the park r e l a t e to other parks and open spaces. 3. The sequences experienced by d i f f e r e n t people. For example, how do the people on the car f e e l the sequence? How does the c y c l i s t f e e l the sequence? 2.8.2 PATH AND REST Usually, people need a rest i n the walk within the i n t e r v a l of 5 to 10 minutes. Make sure to arrange r e s t i n g places or events along a walk, with a distance of 5 to 10 minutes walk, which i s approximately 1,250 to 2,500 feet 4. According to Alexander, three minutes' walk i s about 75C feet i n distance (Alexander, P308, 1977). 2 . 9 M A T E R I A L AND CONSTRUCTION Roof (Photography Yearbook '78, P79, by Beverly Bean) 61 2.9 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION Certain materials and form age well . They develop an i n t e r e s t i n g pattern, a r i c h texture, an a t t r a c t i v e o u t l i n e . Others are at t h e i r best only when clean and new; as they grow old , they turn spotted and imperfect. What Time i s This Place, Lynch, 1972, P44 Good material has an organic q u a l i t y . I t becomes more a t t r a c t i v e and more pleasant as i t grows, decays, and scars. Most t r a d i t i o n a l materials have t h i s q u a l i t y . Materials such as stone and bri c k weather handsomely; they increase the value of old buildings through time. However, many modern materials don't have t h i s q u a l i t y . P l a s t i c , s t e e l , and many other man-made materials, only look eleg- ant and pleasant when they are new, but d u l l and dreary when old. "As Alexander find s : "modern materials tend to be flimsy and hard to m a i n t a i n — s o that buildings deteriorate more r a p i d l y than i n a p r e - i n d u s t r i a l society" (Alexander, 1977, Pattern 107). A modern bui l d i n g , l i k e modern product, e.g., a TV or a radio, depreciates i t s value while getting old. Very often, the qua l i t y of materials mainly r e l a t e s to the surface texture of the material instead of the materials themsel- ves. Most modern materials have too smooth and s l i c k a surface, they become imperfect when scarred . On the other hand, materials with organic q u a l i t y usually have a i n t r i c a t e surface texture on the surface. Time and use usually enhance t h i s i n t r i c a c y . Hence, by improving the texture of a cert a i n material, we can usually change i t s temporal q u a l i t y . For example, some types of concrete have a smooth and d u l l surface that becomes ugly when exposed over time. However, when the surface texture i s improved, the r e s u l t can be remarkable. A.smooth concrete B. small stone b u i l t C.surface with texture surface i n the surface (UBC, SUB Building) I n t r i c a t e textures can also be formed i n the way we assemble material. A large piece of glass r a r e l y has the organic q u a l i t y possessed by the glass window of an old church. S i m i l a r l y , a large concrete path has no organic q u a l i t y compared to a paving with cracks between the concrete bricks. The cracks between the stones and the frames between the. glass unify the window and paving. A large glass with a broken corner i s unpleasant, but a framed window with a broken glass, or a va r i e t y of glass i n the window can be a pleasant view. In addition, the cracks between the bricks allow glasses and mosses to grow, the edge of the brick to decay, and develop the i n t r i c a t e surface. 2.9 .1 TIMELESS MATERIALS Choose mater ia l s that w i l l weather handsomely. I f not , a designer must t r y to change the surface texture of t h i s m a t e r i a l , or use smal l u n i t s and construct them i n the way i t w i l l carry the s ign of use and time. For example: 1. Use bricks and t i l e which are soft baked, low f i r e d — s o that they w i l l wear with time, and show the marks of use. 63 2. Create i n t r i c a t e texture on the surface, by combining or b u i l d i n g i n other materials, or making the surface rough so that catch the r a i n , and age well. 3. An a l t e r n a t i v e i s to use small units of a ce r t a i n material and p i l e them i n the way to form a r i c h texture, l i k e the mosaic on the Islamic buildings. A. A Modern Window B. An Old Window (Howard Hibbard, 1980, P 172) 2.9.2 TIMELESS WAY OF CONSTRUCTION (Alexander, 1977, Pattern 274) Asphalt and concrete surfaces outdoors are easy to wash down, but they do nothing for us, nothing f o r the paths, and nothing for the rainwater and plants. On paths and terraces, lay paving stones with a loose j o i n t between stones, so that grass and mosses and small flowers can grow between the stones. Lay the sones d i r e c t l y into earth, not into mortar, and of course, use no cement or mortar i n between the stones. 6 4 2.10 CENTER Dwelling as a Center i n the Landscape, County Tipperay, Ireland (National Geographic, September 1969, P375). 65 2.10 CENTER Many natural processes have centers of action: the action radiates outward from some system of centers. The Nature of Order, 1989, Chpt 6, P7 When we view a natural process of growth, l i k e the growth of a seed, or an embryo, the center plays an important r o l e . The center i s not necessarily the thing i n the middle. I t i s the spot where the force and intention i s forming or formed. For example, a king i s always i n the center of a procession regardless of his physical p o s i t i o n , whether i n the middle, at the front, or at the rear, because he i s the focus of attention. As Alexander remarks: "the center i s the fact that there i s a powerful f i e l d e f f e c t at that point, gathering and concentrating the energy of the surrounding objects, and concentrating them, to form the center. The l i f e comes from the existence of t h i s center" (Alexander, 1989, Chpt 4, P 35) . Center i s a place or space where the following things happen: 1. Centers ari s e i n space. This happens for reasons which have purely to do with existence and presence of other centers. 2. Each center i s created by configurations of other centers. 3. Each center has a c e r t a i n l i f e or i n t e n s i t y . 4. The l i f e or i n t e n s i t y of one center gets increased or decre- ased according to the p o s i t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of other nearby centers, and "centers help centers". 5. The centers gives us an accurate picture of things we loosely c a l l whole. They are the fundamental elements of wholeness, and. the degree of wholeness, or l i f e , of any given part of space depends e n t i r e l y on the presence and structure of t h e i r centers there. The Nature of Order. Alexander, 1989, Chpt-4 PP 22-23 Elements serving as a center i n the landscape can be a b u i l d - ing, a tree, a space, or a pond. B a s i c a l l y they f i t into two categories—nodes and landmarks, which are i d e n t i f i e d by Lynch. Nodes are the s t r a t e g i c f o c i into which the observer can enter, t y p i c a l l y e i t h e r junctions of paths, or concentrations of some character (Kevin Lynch, 1960, P 72). Landmarks are the point references considered to be external to the observer; they are simple physical elements which may vary widely in scale. There seems to be a tendency for those more f a m i l i a r with a c i t y to r e l y i n c r e a s i n g l y on systems of landmarks f o r t h e i r g u i d e s — t o enjoy uniqueness and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , i n place of the co n t i n u i t i e s used e a r l i e r (Kevin Lynch, 1960, P 78) . 2.10.1 HIERARCHY OF CENTERS IN THE WATERFRONT When designing a landscape, regardless of i t s s i z e , we should i d e n t i f y , or create centers at a l l l e v e l s . Keep the idea o f the h ierarchy of centers i n mind. 2.10.2 SOMETHING ROUGHLY IN THE MIDDLE A p u b l i c space without a middle i s quite l i k e l y to stay empty. Between the paths which cross a p u b l i c square or courtyard or a piece of common land choose something to stand roughly i n the middle: a founta in , a t r e e , s tatue , a clock-tower with seats , a w i n d m i l l , a bandstand. Make i t something which gives a strong and steady pulse to the square, drawing people i n toward the center . Leave i t exact ly where i t f a l l s between the paths; r e s i s t the impulse to put i t exact ly i n the middle. (Alexander, 1977, Pat tern 12 6) . 67 2.11 BOUNDARY A boundary i s not that at which something stops but, as the Greeks recognized, the boundary i s that, from which some- thing begins i t s presencing. Heidegger, c i t e d i n The Genuis L o c i . 1979, P20 Boundary i s an e s s e n t i a l element f o r a l l forms. Nations have borders, seas have shores, r i v e r s have banks, buildings have walls, and c e l l s , basic units of l i f e have c e l l - w a l l s . In a sense, architecture i s "the wall between the inside and the out- side" (cited by Norberg-Schulz, 1979, P 15). Boundary i s so c r i t i c a l f o r a m i l i t a r y b u i l d i n g that constructing a f o r t only means to b u i l d a wall. I t i s said that the a r t of Chinese urban design i s mostly the a r t of using walls to define urban space. This image of boundary i s deeply rooted i n Chinese culture, even r e f l e c t e d i n the characters: n a t i o n — a jade within a boundary s t a b i l i t y — s o m e t h i n g old within a boundary garden—earth, pond, and birds within a boundary Every form must have a boundary. As Alexander says: "the need f o r boundaries comes about as a r e s u l t of need for functional separations and t r a n s i t i o n between d i f f e r e n t systems" (Alexander, 1989, Chpt 6, P9). A boundary has two functions. One function i s to separate a thing (a nation, a bui l d i n g , or a c e l l ) from the outside, to achieve i t s d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s and coherency; the other i s to contact and connect the outside. Because of the unique functions of both u n i t i n g and separating, a boundary must be 68 considered as d i s t i n c t , and have the capacity of connecting the area on e i t h e r side of i t (Alexander, 1989, Chpt 5, P20) . A boundary can be anything with these two functions, no matter i f i t i s two-dimensional or three-dimensional. I t could be a l i n e , a plane, a mass, or a space. Form with a h o l i s t i c q u a l i t y , most often, has a s u r p r i s i n g l y large boundary (Alexander, 1989, Chpt 5, P 21). Perhaps, i t i s more accurate to say i t has a strong boundary—strong i n mass, structure, or density, not ne c e s s a r i l y i n s i z e . When we view the world, we must see boundaries i n d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , i n other words, a hierarchy of boundaries. We can say that urban edges are the boundaries of a c i t y . In the Image of The City, Kevin Lynch defines edge as one of the major elements (among path, d i s t r i c t , center, landmark) to decide the image of c i t y (Lynch, 1960, PP 62-66) . In the c i t y , edges are usually the boundaries between two kinds of areas. The continuity and v i s i b i l i t y of edge i s c r u c i a l to i t s imageability. Strong edges are not necessarily impenetrable; they are uni t i n g seams, rather than i s o l a t i o n b a r r i e r s . 2.11.1 BOUNDARIES IN LANDSCAPE A boundary i s e s s e n t i a l for any kind of landscape to maintain i t s own i d e n t i f i a b l e character. Encourage the formation of a boundary around the waterfronts, parks, and other urban open spaces, to separate them from the surrounding areas. Form t h i s boundary by c l o s i n g down streets and l i m i t i n g access. Place gate- ways at those points where the r e s t r i c t e d access paths cross the boundary. Strong boundaries can be t h i c k hedges, strong fences, double-columned s treet t r ee s , or w a l l s . 2.11.2 THICK WALLS In many places wal ls and fences between outdoor spaces are too h igh; but no boundary at a l l does an i n j u s t i c e to the subt le ty of the d i v i s i o n s between the space (Alexander, 1977, Pattern 243). Thick wal l s i s one type of strong boundary for a p lace . Surround a park, or a part of a park with low w a l l s , about 16 inches h igh , and wide enough to s i t on, at l eas t 500mm wide. We can create a t h i c k wa l l by considering the fo l lowing (Paterson, l e c t u r e , 1989): 1. Using l a y e r i n g : make wal ls of d i f f e r e n t time or d i f f e r e n t mater ia l s and construct them together. 2. Ass ign ing i t a funct ion: a wa l l can be used for s i t t i n g , s l e ep ing , even a p la t form. 3. Creat ing a small space i n s i d e the w a l l : a space for storage, a cave for c h i l d , or a hole for l i g h t s . Thick Wall, on the campus of U n i v e r s i t y of Georgia, USA 70 2.12 SACRED PLACES Wailing Wall, Women's Section, Jerusalem (Max Yavno, 1981, P64) 71 2.12 SACRED PLACES The world becomes apprehensible as world, as cosmos, i n the measure i n which i t reveals i t s e l f as a sacred world. The Sacred and the Profane, 1959, P 6 4 In the past, the world has been experienced as a world of q u a l i t i e s and meanings. Thus i t became a common world, which formed a basis for sharing and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Mircea Eliade desc- ri b e s a d i f f e r e n t picture of a r e l i g i o u s person's view of the world i n h i s The Sacred and the Profane (Mircea Eliade, 1959). For a r e l i g i o u s person, place i s not homogeneous: some places are close to the God, other places are not. Hence, making sacred places or finding them i n nature was a perpetual e f f o r t i n r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t i e s . To l i v e as c l o s e l y as possible to God reveals one of the deepest meanings of sacred place. A r e l i g i o u s person seeks a com- munication between the three cosmic l e v e l s — e a r t h , heaven, and underworld. The communication i s expressed through the image of "axis mundi", such as a universal p i l l a r , a temple, a niche, or a tree. For them the axis mundi i s at the very center of the universe, for the whole of the habitable world extends around i t (Mircea Eliade, 1959, PP 36-37). Hence there i s a system of the world prevalent i n the t r a d i t i o n a l society: a. A sacred place constitutes a break in the homogeneity of space; b. This break i s symbolized by an opening through which passage from one cosmic region to another i s made possible; c. Communication with heaven i s expressed by one or another of c e r t a i n images, a l l of which r e f e r to the axis mundi: p i l l a r , ladder, mountain, t r e s s , vine, etc; c. around t h i s cosmic axis l i e s the world (=our world), hence 72 the axis i s located i n the middle, at the navel of the earth; i t i s the center of the world. SKY WORLD HIMALAYAS: as big as c a r r i e s a OF THE Boulder a house Buddhist The Sacred and the Profane, 1959, P 37 prayer repeated l i n e upon l i n e "0 the jewel i n the lotus I " The rock•s unknown carver may have sought to commemorate dead r e l a t i v e s or to cure an i l l n e s s . He may have wished to promote the granting of favours or simply to speed himself along the path to nirvana. Regardless of purpose, the massive symbol of devotion l i e s rooted to the path where e a c h B u d d h i s t t r a v e l l e r can earn merit merely by passing i t (National Geographic, October 1966, P567). Today's society, to a c e r t a i n extent, keeps t h i s t r a d i t i o n of sanctifying place. We s t i l l f i n d some places which are more sacred than others. In Athens, Georgia, an old man erected a stone with h i s testament i n front of his big tree, which says no one i s allowed to cut down the tree without h i s permission. His e f f o r t turns t h i s tree into a sacred and famous place. However, instead of r e l a t i n g sacred places with God, we int e r p r e t sacred place as those which occupy a sp e c i a l meaning i n our emotional and s p i r i t u a l l i v e s . They represent the values we place on l i v i n g . These places are i d e n t i f i e d as following i n our times: a. Place of worship; b. Sites of pilgrimages c. Areas of spe c i a l myths and legends; d. Places of b i r t h , love and death; c. Memorials d. Special places i n the landscape such as the top of the highest mountain; and e. Areas of natural disasters. Heritage Landscapes i n B r i t i s h Columbia Paterson, 1989, P15 2.12.1 DEFINING THE SACRED PLACE In landscape of a l l s izes and sca les , i t i s our job to f i n d , or def ine sacred p laces , to make our l i v e s more meaningful and worth l i v i n g . Define a sacred place by naming the p l a c e , g i v i n g i t a center and a boundary. 2.12.2 GEOLOGICALLY ADVANTAGED PLACE . The s p e c i a l geo log ica l locat ions i n a p lace , such as h ighest , and lowest s i t e s , or s i t e s at d i f f e r e n t ends, by t h e i r very natures , are sacred. In the design of a landscape, i d e n t i f y and emphasize these l oca t ions . 2.12.3 GRAVES OF FAMOUS CITIZENS In the urban park, there are should be corners dedicated to people who contr ibuted to the c i t y , such as mayors, or famous c i t i z e n s . Let them l i v e with the people instead of l e t t i n g them sleep i n obscure p laces . Give each of these s i t e s an edge, a path , and a quie t corner where people can s i t . By custom, t h i s i s hallowed ground. 2.12.4 IMAGINATIVE AND SITE SPECIFIC SIGN Signs/ by d e f i n i t i o n , convey messages. Good s igns , such as a small landmarks, should immediately i d e n t i f y the nature of a s p e c i f i c p lace . "Through the a t tent ion to d e t a i l , character , and l o c a t i o n an e f f ec t ive s ign can h in t at the values and a c t i v i t i e s of the times. They can help us appreciate the uniqueness of each p lace and, i n so doing, develop i n us a greater sense of respect and empathy for the place" (Paterson, 1989, P36). 75 CHAPTER THREE PATTERN APPLICATIONS AND DESIGN EVALUATION A Panoramic View of West Vancouver's Waterfront, seen from Lions Gate Bridge (Cover Page, Ramsey, 1986) 76 3.1 INTRODUCTION The application of patterns to design can be seen as an experiment to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the patterns. The s i t e selected for t h i s experiment i s the seawalk of West Vancouver between Ambleside Park and Dundarave Park. Two r e s u l t s are expected from t h i s experiment: F i r s t , exploring a proper procedure of applying patterns to a s p e c i f i c s i t e ; second, modifying and examining the patterns to make them p r a c t i c a l l y usable. Noticeably, the design patterns generated i n t h i s thesis (most of which are temporal patterns) are not s u f f i c i e n t i n themselves for a p r a c t i c a l and comprehensive project. Therefore, several patterns from Alexander's A PATTERN LANGUAGE are used i n the design procedure. 3.1 .1 THE CHOICE OF SITE (See Analys i s Drawing N o . l S i t e Context, Appendix B, P114) The s i t e on the waterfront of West Vancouver was c a r e f u l l y selected. To be an appropriate s i t e for te s t i n g the patterns, e s p e c i a l l y , the temporal patterns, the s i t e has to have plenty of human a c t i v i t i e s , as well as, natural rhythmical recurrences. I t has to be i n Greater Vancouver, , so that frequent s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n can be ca r r i e d on, and first-hand information obtained. I t , preferably, should be a s i t e on waterfront, for waterfront i s one of the distinguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Greater Vancouver. F i n a l l y , i t has to be a s i t e requiring improvement, since public p a r t i c i p a t i o n and support for t h i s project are anticipated. The waterfront of West Vancouver, fortunately, meets the above requirements. 77 3.1.2 HISTORY OF WEST VANCOUVER AND ITS WATER FRONT West Vancouver i s located on the north side of Burrard I n l e t west of " F i r s t Narrows", across from Vancouver City. I t i s a sea- oriented community with a lengthy, scenic and rugged shoreline. West Vancouver became a municipality in 1912. The community developed along the waterfront and up the lower slopes of the Coast Mountains. The waterfront between Ambleside and Dundarave was the s t a r t i n g point of the c i t y . H i s t o r i c a l l y , development i n West Vancouver has been p r i m a r i l y waterfront recreation homes. The municipality grew as a r e s i d e n t i a l community with no industry. In 1938, the con- s t r u c t i o n of the Lions Gate Suspension Bridge at the F i r s t Narrows marked the turning point i n West Vancouver's development i n changing the community from recreation oriented to commuter r e s i d e n t i a l . Today, the waterfront from Ambleside to Dundarave s t i l l i s the most developed area i n West Vancouver, and one of the most used and a l i v e waterfronts i n the region. From morning to mid night, there are always people s t r o l l i n g , walking and playing along the seawalk. To improve the landscape qua l i t y requires a continuous e f f o r t by the community. A continuous walkway from Dundarave Pier to Cleveland Dam i s a major goal of the 1980 West Vancouver community Plan. The O f f i c i a l Community Plan Bylaw, 1988 emphasized the enhancement of Waterfront: b. Public access to the waterfront should be encouraged by improved signage, better access and parking f a c i l i t i e s , 78 clearance programmes, and by generally increasing public awareness of waterfront resources. c. In cooperation with the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t and the Squamish India Band, West Vancouver w i l l work to secure completion of the seawalk from Dundarave to the Capilano River and northward along the riverbank to the Cleveland Dam. d. The "Ambleside-by-the-Sea" concept 5 at the foot of 14th Street should become a f o c a l point of public awareness of West Vancouver's Maritime character. e. Council w i l l continue to protect the natural features of the waterfront by r e s t r i c t i n g structures on the foreshore. 3.1.3 SITE ZONING (See Analysis Drawing No.l S i t e Context, Appendix B, P114) The at t r i b u t e s of the function, character, v i s u a l resource, and convenience of design can be used to divide the waterfront between Ambleside and Dundarave into four zones: 1. Ambleside Park—an open urban green space; 2. E x i s t i n g single family residencies(Between 13th and 17th Street). The houses, according to the Community Plan w i l l be removed i n a long run; 3. Centennial Seawalk between 17th-25th S t r e e t — a n e x i s t i n g 12' walk along the sea; and 4. Dundarave Park—an e x i s t i n g disordered park with great enhancement p o t e n t i a l . For more information about the s i t e , see Appendix A, H i s t o r i c and Current Views of the Waterfront. I t i s a photographic c o l l e c t i o n , consisted of 33 old and new pictures. "Ambleside-by-the-Sea" i s an urban design package, approved by the Municipality Council i n 1985. One of the decision i s to reclaim the waterfront residences on 14 to 17 blocks and transfer them into an open space. 3.2 SITE PLAN FOR THE SEAWALK OF WEST VANCOUVER In doing t h i s project, the whole s i t e was analysized accord- ing to the patterns, and suggestions proposed for the further improvements; then, a s i t e plan for the seawalk was completed according to the analysis and proposed improvements. In the following paragraphs, the patterns used to analysis each s p e c i f i c issue are shown between the dashed l i n e s . 3.2.1 SITE ANALYSIS 1) SEQUENCE—SITE CONTEXT (See Anaysis Drawing No.2, Appendix B, P115) 1. NORTH-SOUTH SEQUENCE: a. Reinforcing the connection between waterfront, c i t y , and mountain by considering the sequence along the north-south st r e e t s : from 13th to 25th Street. b. Proposing a new Mountain-to-Sea Walk from Dundarave Park, along the 25th Street, to the top of the Hollyburn Mountain. B. WEST-EAST SEQUENCE: a. River walk (along Capilano T r i a l to Cleveland Dam); Seawalk from Ambleside to Dundarave; b. Sequence of West Vancouver's coas t l i n e : a l l of the parks along coastline can be connected by: a. coast f e r r y ; b. B.C. Railway c. Sequence of a c t i v i t y nodes along the walk, f i v e minute i n t e r v a l s of walk and re s t . PATTERN PATTERN 2.8.1 2.8.2 SITE CONTEXT MOVE AND REST P58 P59 Nodes Level —BC R a i l Bridge —Ambleside Lagoon — C e l e b r a t i o n Park —Entrance and Hollyburn (3) (1) (1) Shipyard — H e r i t a g e Square — J o h n Lawson Park —McDonald Park —Navvy Jark Point Park (2) (1) (2) (3) (2) 80 — T h e High Point Park — The Centennial Seawalk Park — B e l l e v u e Entrance —Dundarave Park (3) (3) (3) (1) 2) RHYTHMICAL RECURRENCE (See Analys i s Drawing No.3, Appendix B, P116) NATURAL WATER BODIES CONSIDERED AS NATURAL RHYTHMS: a. Modifym the Ambleside Lagoon: making i t a reinforced t i d a l pool, and restoring a marsh f o r w i l d - l i f e ; b. accentuate Lawson creek by designing a pond at the end; and c. h i g h l i g h t i n g the experiences of Mcdonald Creek and Marr Creek i n the McDonald Park and Dundarave Park. THINGS AFLOAT: d. Hollyburn Shipyard Marina e. Five f l o a t s along the seawalk—John Lawson f l o a t , Hollyburn Creek, Navvy Jack f l o a t s , Dundarave f l o a t . 3) SPECIAL EVENT (See Ana lys i s Drawing No.6, Appendix B, P117) PATTERN 2.3.2 CELEBRATIONS AND FESTIVALS P4 4 Pattern 2.3.2 helps the programming of sp e c i a l events along and beside the seawalk. The celebrations and f e s t i v a l s on the waterfront w i l l bring l i f e to the waterfront, and provide more opportunities along the seawalk. The places programmed with s p e c i a l events are as follow: a. The east end of Ambleside Park w i l l be a place for Summer Dog F e s t i v a l with events such as, dog racing, dog performance, dog pageant. b. Community Celebration Park i n the middle of Ambleside Park i s designed for outdoor performing, maypole dancing, ballroom dancing, square dancing, picnicking, art work display; c. The area i n front of Hollyburn Shipyard w i l l become a Water Sport Center. The s p e c i a l events happening here include Ambleside to Dundarave boat racing (or dragon boat racing), s a i l i n g , canoeing, Sunday and holiday coastal fe r r y . d. Celebration times assigned to The Centennial Seawalk are PATTERN PATTERN 2.1.1 2.1.2 DISPLAY NATURAL RHYTHMS THINGS AFLOAT P36 P37 81 community walk days and community dressing-up walk day, e. Dundarave Park w i l l be a place for West Vancouver Summer Music F e s t i v a l . Dundarave p i e r w i l l be a destination for the Ambleside to Dundarave boat racing. 4) LAYERS OF HISTORY (See Analys i s Drawing No.5, Appendix B, P118) PATTERN 2.4.1 Heritage Preservations P4 8 PATTERN 2.4.2 Building i n Old Traces P48 A. STRUCTURES CONSIDERED AS "LAYERS" a) The two e x i s t i n g p i e r s i n Ambleside park, b) the pier i n Ambleside Landing Park, c) John Lawson Pier, and d) Dun- darave Pi e r B. BUILDING CONSIDERED AS "LAYERS" a) BC R a i l Bridge, b) Hollyburn Shipyard, and the Ramp c) Heritage Square, d) A reassembled play-house Beside Law- son Creek, and e) Peppi's Restaurant. C. PARKS CONSIDERED AS "LAYERS" a) Heritage Park (Ambleside Landing Park), b) John Lawson Park 5) NIGHT IMAGE (See Ana lys i s Drawing No.6, Appendix B, P119) PATTERN 2.5.1 NIGHT LIFE IN THE PARK P51 NIGHT PARK: Three Parks along the seawalk w i l l be designated as night parks. These are Celebration Park i n the East, Heritage Park i n the middle, and Dundarave park i n the west. The section of seawalk between Celebration Park and Dundarave Park w i l l be li g h t e d f o r night walking. 6) DERELICT SITE (See Ana lys i s Drawing No.7, Appendix B, P12 0) PATTERN 2.7.1 DERELICT SITE P57 PATTERN 2.7.2 GARDENS GROWING WILD P57 PATTERN 2.7.3. ADVANTURE PLAYGROUND P57 a) Marsh, as a t y p i c a l d e r e l i c t s i t e , i s a good habitat for w i l d l i f e . Associated with the improvement of Ambleside Lagoon, a marsh w i l l be restored along the shoreline in the 82 east side of Ambleside Park. b) The s i n g l e family blocks between 14 and 17th Street on the waterfront are planned to be a s i t e of minimal maintenance and operation costs, a place for gardens to grow wild. c) The block between John Lawson Park and John Lawson Creek w i l l be designed as "Adventure Playground". I t i s proposed to use as many as possible old bu i l d i n g materials to bu i l d the playground. 7) BOUNDARY (See Analysis Drawing No. 7, Appendix B, P12 0) PATTERN 2.11.1 WATERFRONT BOUNDARY P68 B. C. Railway, Bellevue Ave, and the double rows of trees serve as a strong boundary to be waterfront section from B.C. Railway Bridge to The 18 th Street. BC Railway with i t s high base help to form a strong boundary for the centennial seawalk. 8) SACRED PLACES (See Analysis Drawing No.7, Appendix B, P12 0) PATTERN 2.12.1 THEME PARK P73 PATTERN 2.12.2 GEOLOGICALLY ADVANTIGED PLACE P74 As an e f f o r t to increase the "sacredness" of the seawalk, a memorial park, the Centennial Seawalk Park i s proposed at the foot of 23 rd Street. The park, which i s twice as wide as the seawalk, also serves as an a c t i v i t y "pocket", where people can stop and r e s t . Twelve red maple trees i n the park represent the provinces and t e r r i t o r i e s of Canada. Special attentions are payed to Navvy Jack P o i n t — t h e most projected point, and Believer Park—the highest point along the seawalk, both of them are special geological places. 9) OTHER PATTERNS FROM PATTERN LANGUAGE (See Analysis Pawing No. 8, Appendix B, P121) PATTERN 3 0 A c t i v i t y Nodes PATTERN 53 Main Gateways PATTERN 72 Local Sport PATTERN 74 Animals PATTERN 102 Family of entrance PATTERN 103 PATTERN 12 0 PATTERN 121 PATTERN 12 4 PATTERN 125 PATTERN 241 Small Parking Lots Path and Goals Path Shape A c t i v i t y Pockets S t a i r Seats Seat Spots 1 0 ) THE TOPOLOGY OF SEAWALK B. STEP C. WALL D. BRIDGE AND TRELLIS 84 IS G. DOUBLE WALK 11) SITE CIRCULATION H. LANDMARK Besides the seawalk, the following c i r c u l a t i o n systems have also been considered: a) Coastal Ferry Route, b) Railway Route, c) Automobile Access, d) The Handicapped Access e) Bike route f) Walk Route, and g) Service Route. 3.2.2 The Site Plan Drawing The above eleven major considerations constitute the mauority of the programming of the design. Pattern analysis i s one step next the "shaping" of a place. To completely shape a place, the following additional design procedures are needed: a. S i t e special information; b. emotional involvement with the s i t e and design; c. a design process to f i n d the ri g h t outcome among the unlimited numbers of "shapes" that f i t s into a same pattern; and d. the intention to create a place with meanings. The most important of these are sacredness, mystery, and intimacy. Three design drawings were completed as a r e s u l t of t h i s design procedure. These are: Design Drawing No. 1 Design Drawing No. 2 Design Drawing No. 3 Si t e Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver (Ambleside Park) S i t e Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver (From 14 th Street to 18 th Street) S i t e Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver (From 18th to 2 5 th Street) 85 i Design Drawing No. 1 Site Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver (Ambleside Park) 8 6 Design Drawing No. 2 Site Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver (From 14 th Street to 18 th Street) 87 Design Drawing No. 3 Site Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver (From ,18th to 25 th Street)  89 3.3 .1 SITE DESCRIPTION (See Analys i s Drawing No.9, Appendix B, P122) The d e l i g h t f u l Dundarave Park comprises six building l o t s . At the beginning of t h i s century, Dundarave area belonged to Mr. R. E. McNaughton, who was one of the "Fathers of West Vancouver". He named hi s subdivision "Dundarave" a f t e r his ancestral home i n Scotland. Seen from Dundarave Park, the view of the outer harbour, Vancouver Island and the shoreline i s better than i t i s at Ambleside Park. A panorama of the foreshore from Point Atkinson i n Lighthouse Park to Navy Jack Point can be appreciated against the back drop of Hollyburn Mountain. CLACHAN HOTEL (PEPPI'S RESTAURANT) One of the f i r s t business establishments in t h i s area was the Clachan Hotel, now Peppi's Restaurant. I t was a one-story building with a broad veranda on two sides and was located on the waterfr- ont (See Picture 9 and 10. Appendiz A, P104) . It was aptly named, the Gaelic t r a n s l a t i o n being "meeting place". DUNDARAVE PIER The municipality f i r s t b u i l t t h i s p i er i n 1914. I t proved to be too exposed for i t s o r i g i n a l purpose, that of a f e r r y s l i p . However, i t became a t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n and an on-shore f i s h i n g f a c i l i t y . I t was i n 1916 that the p i e r came to i t s own, with the beginning of annual Dundarave Regatta, an aquatic event which,, for years, drew the best swimmers i n B r i t i s h Columbia to the competi- t i o n (See Picture 11. Appendix A, P104). 90 MARR CREEK On the east side of the pi e r can be seen a concrete culvert, which i s the discharge point of Marr Creek. This creek takes i t s name from George Marr, who was probably Dundarave's f i r s t o f f i - c i a l l y - r e g i s t e r e d white s e t t l e r . He came to Dundarave around the turn of the century and established a lumber camp close to t h i s creek, which flows underground from just north of Marine drive to i t s exit into the sea. VEGETATION Vegetation i s another natural endowment of Dundarave Park. The trees include three over 40' t a l l cedars, and approximately 2 0 mature plum trees. There i s also a 12' t a l l hedge, over 10 species deciduous and evergreen trees, and shrubs. 3.3.2 SITE ANALYSIS 1) SEQUENCE—SITE CONTEXT (See Analys i s Drawing No. 10, Appendix B, P123) PATTERN 2.8.1 SITE CONTEXT P58 There are two major sequences i n the urban context: con- sidering the park as both the epilogue and the prologue of the se a — w a t e r f r o n t — c i t y — m o u n t a i n sequence; and considering the park as both the prologue and the epilogue of the seawalk from Dundarave to Ambleside. 2) RHYTHMICAL RECURRENCE (See Analys i s Drawing No. 11, Appendix B, P124) PATTERN 2.1.1 DISPLAY NATURAL RHYTHMS P36 Marr creek provides an excellent opportunity for disp l a y i n g natural rhythms. Unfortunately, i t i s covered up and goes 91 underground a f t e r the Marine Drive. According to the pattern DISPLAY NATURAL RHYTHM, the creek should be revealed and "celebrated" i n the park. The experience of a natural creek i s accentuated by a series of w a t e r f a l l s , rapid currents, quiet water ponds, bridges over the creek, and steps and slope down to the creek. There are also plants and flowers beside and over the creek. A l l of these e f f o r t s are intended to "condense" the topographical elements of a natural creek, so that the experience of a natural creek can be recreated i n the park. 3) SPECIAL EVENT (See Analysis Drawing No.12, Appendix B, P125) PATTERN 2.3.2 CELEBRATIONS AND FESTIVALS P44 PATTERN 2.3.3 BIRTHDAY MARKS P4 5 In the design, two s p e c i a l events have been considered, which, to a large extent, shaped the appearance of the park. F i r s t l y , the central part of the park i s considered as a place for summer f e s t i v a l s of d i f f e r e n t performances, such as concerts, rock and r o l l bands, plays and dramas of various kinds, or any large or small performance from the community. An outdoor theatre with three performing areas i s designed for d i f f e r e n t scales of performances. There are three spaces of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s , which can be used for d i f f e r e n t size groups. The s t a i r seats, combined with steps, make a multi-functional use possible. The fountain i n the middle i s preserved. Secondly, Dundarave Pier i s considered as a place of celebra- t i o n — a destination for the Ambleside-Dundarave l i f e boat racing. The design emphasizes t h i s sense of destination providing a 92 welcoming stage for the audience. The t a l l posts with flags serve as an i n d i c a t i o n of a r r i v a l . 4) LAYERS OF HISTORY (See Ana lys i s Drawing No.13, Appendix B, P126) PATTERN 2.4.1 Heritage Preservations P48 PATTERN 2.4.2 Building i n Old Traces P48 The valuable h i s t o r i c "layers" on the s i t e include Peppi's restaurant, Dundarave p i e r , and old trees. Peppi's restaurant i s located i n the centre of the park. I t s function as a restaurant c o n f l i c t s with the character of the park as a public place. The design propose the conversion of Peppi's into a public building, the West Vancouver History Museum. Columns, balconies, a patio, and ramps are added, which are intended to "root" the building into i t s surroundings. The h i s t o r i c a l appearance of the building i s restored (see Picture 9. Appendix A, P104). A l l valuable trees are enclosed by fences, tree planters, or benches. Lables are added to show the age, name and species of the trees. Additional modification to the Pier includes a small bridge added close to the end of the pier, which emphasizes the the f i n a l ending of mountain-to-sea sequence. 5) WHEEL-CHAIR ACCESSIBILITY AND HANDICAPPED PARKING (see Analys i s Drawing No.14, Appendix B, 127) Handicapped a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s presently a major s o c i a l issue. In West Vancouver, a favourite place for the senior c i t i z e n , a park accessible by wheel-chair i s a necessity. This special need .changes the appearance of the park, e s p e c i a l l y , the steps below the entrance. Wheel-chair audiences also have t h e i r own spec ia l balconies, and ramps to buildings and washrooms i n the design. 6) BOUNDARY (See Analys i s Drawing No.15, Appendix B, P12 8) PATTERN 2.11.1 WATERFRONT BOUNDARY P68 The row of trees along Lower Bellevue Ave i s intended to give a strong boundary to the park. A hierarchy of boundaries are formed by trees, building edges, roads, and other structures. 6) DERELICT SITE (see Analys i s Drawing No.16, Appendix B, P129) PATTERN 2.7.1 DERELICT SITE P57 The beach i n the park has already had a d e r e l i c t quality due to the logs which are scattered here and there. Instead of having f i n e sand, i t has clay and stone, which adds a character of roughness—a v i s u a l q u a l i t y of d e r e l i c t i o n . 8) NIGHT IMAGE (see Analys i s Drawing No.16, Appendix B, P129) PATTERN 2.5.1 NIGHT LIFE IN THE CITY P51 Light posts are designed around the performing area, along the p i e r , and around major functional places, such as washrooms, and parking l o t s . 8) SEASONAL IMAGE (see Ana lys i s Drawing No.17, Appendix B, P130) PATTERN 2.2.2 SEASONAL DECORATION P41 Seasonal decoration f o r the park and the l i g h t posts 94 3.3.3 DESIGN EXPLANATION Design Drawing No.4 Si t e Design of Dundarave Park 9 5 Design Drawing No. 5 Axonometric .Drawing of the Design Design Drawing No.6 Sections 96 97 3.4 EVALUATION 3 . 4.1 WHICH PATTERNS ARE MORE USEFUL AND STIMULATING In the whole design process some patterns worked better than others. The most stimulating and compelling patterns i n the design are under these three categories: A. Rhythmical Rec- urrence; B. Celebrations and F e s t i v a l s ; and C. Layers of History. These concern three major aspects of waterfront parks: the natural elements and natural happenings, the human a c t i v i t i e s , and the ex i s t i n g status. Other categories of patterns are secondarily i n f l u e n t i a l . These are D e r e l i c t Site and Ruins, Night Image, Sacred Places, Sequence, and Boundary. Besides the sequence and boundary, the other three issue are conditional. For example, there might be only be a few d e r e l i c t s i t e s i n t h i s waterfront. The same i s true f o r Night Image and Sacred Places. Order of p l a c e — sequence and boundary i n t h i s c a s e — a r e not s u f f i c i e n t i n themselves to make a place s p e c i a l . In other words, patterns can make a disord e r l y place ordered, but the time and meaning patterns make an ordinary place distinguished. The l e a s t useful categories of patterns are Season, Future, and Center. There i s a great potential i n seasonal patterns, i f more research i s done to re f i n e the pattern for use in the planting plan. The future patterns are more concerned with development planning and administration than with design ideas. Center Patterns most times did not prove useful. This was perhaps because Boundary Patterns are more e f f i c i e n t and 98 powerful i n landscape. In the landscape, center i s often a space, which i s formed by boundary. The following i s a l i s t of the patterns with asterisks to indicate t h e i r l e v e l s of success. The most frequently used patterns, and most compelling patterns are l a b e l l e d with three a s t e r i s k s ; then there are patterns with two and one asterisk; the patterns which are not marked are the l e a s t useful. 2 .1.1*** Displaying Natural Rhythm i n the Waterfront 2 .1.2* Building Things That Are A f l o a t 2 .1.3* Time Devices as Landscape Ornament 2 .2.1* F r u i t Trees i n the Park 2 . 2.2** Seasonal Decoration 2 . 3 . i * * * Park with F e s t i v a l s and Celebrations 2 .3.2* B i r t h Date 2 . 4.1** Heritage Preservation 2 . 4 .2*** Building i n Traces of the Past 2 .5.1* Night Park 2 .5.2 Dancing i n the Park 2 .6.2 Making Changes V i s i b l e 2 .6.3 Empty l o t s 2 .7.1** D e r e l i c t Sites 2 . 7.2** Gardens Growing Wild 2 . 7.3** Adventure Playground 2 .8.1*** S i t e of Sequences 2 .8.2** Path and Resting Place 2 . 9.1** Timeless Materials 2 . 9.2** Timeless Way of Construction 2 . 10 . 1 Hierarchy of Centers 2 .10.2* Something Roughly i n the Middle 2 .11.1** Waterfront Boundary 2 .11.3** Thick Walls 2 .12.1* Theme Park 2 . 12 . 2 Graves i n the Park 2 . 12.3** Imaginative and S i t e S p e c i f i c Sign (27 Patterns In Total: Four Patterns with three a s t e r i s k s ; Eleven patterns with two asterisks; Seven patterns with one a s t e r i s k ; and f i v e patterns without any). 3.4.2 ON THE LEVEL THAT THE PATTERN WORKS WELL A. On the l e v e l of urban context, the patterns do not work well. Perhaps, the lack of the stimulating patterns on the urban l e v e l causes weakness i n the i n t e g r i t y and consistency of the project- - s i t e plan of the seawalk. B. Middle Level, on the l e v e l of a park (for example, Dundarave Park) , the patterns work very well. The four most successful patterns (patterns with four asterisks) deal with the design issues on t h i s l e v e l . C. I t i s hard to say whether or not the patterns work well on the d e t a i l design l e v e l , because the lack of d e t a i l e d design i n t h i s project. As with the seasonal patterns, the two patterns on the materials and construction could be very strong, i f developed further. 100 APPENDIX A HISTORIC CURRENT PICTURES OF THE WATERFRONT This part provides two c o l l e c t i o n s of old and new pictures of the s i t e . The f i r s t eleven photos give h i s t o r i c images, dating back as far as 1913; while the other twenty-one depict the e x i s t i n g status of the waterfront. There i s a map before both c o l l e c t i o n s , showing the locations from which the photographs were taken. COLLECTION I HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE WATERFRONT (Picture 1 to 11) 101 Picture 3, The Beach West of 14 th Street, Ferry No. 5 Approaching Pier, c i r c a 1917 102 Picture 5, P. G.E. Railway- Tracks, Bellevue Ave Between 22 to 2 3 th Street, c i r c a 1925 103 Picture 7 , A e r i a l View of W . V a n c o u v e r S h o w i n g A m b l e s i d e , H o l l y b u r n Mountain, Sentinel H i l l , Capilano River, Delta and the Lions, 1934 Picture 8, A e r i a l View of Dundarave, Hollyburn, Ambleside, Park Royal B r i t i s h Properties, 1948 104 Picture 10, Dundarave Pier and Clachan Hotel, 1912 (Ra- msey, P114, 1986) Picture 11, Dundarave Reg- atta, c i r c a 1920 (Ramsey, P 135, 1986) 105 COLLECTION II EXISTING STATUS OF THE WATERFRONT (Picture 12-3 3) This c o l l e c t i o n gives a present v i s u a l images of the waterfront. While t r y i n g to cover the whole s i t e evenly, the c o l l e c t i o n e s p e c i a l l y focuses on the seawalk and Dundarave Park. 106 Picture 12, Beginning of the Capilano Walkway, Looking Towards North Picture 13, End of the Seawalk and Before Entering the Capilano Walkway, Looking Towards North-East Picture 14, Seawalk at the East End of Ambleside Park, Looking Towards West 107 Picture 17, Seawalk i n the Middle Part of Ambleside Park, Looking Towards West 108 Picture 19, The 13th Street, Looking Towards North Picture 20, A Preserved His- t o r i c a l Building i n the Heritage Square at the Foot of the 14th Street, Looking Towards South 109 Picture 22, B.C. Railway at the End of 16th Street, Looking Towards West Picture 23, John Lawson Park with a Picnic Shelter i n the Middle, Looking Towards West 110 Picture 25, Beginning of the Centennial Seawalk at the Foot of 18th Street Picture 26, The 19th Street, Looking Towards North from the Seawalk I l l Picture 28. Seawalk and the H i g h - r i s e Condominiums, Looking from the Foot of 24th Street Towards East Picture 29, Seawalk and Dun- darave Park, Looking from the Foot of 24 th Street Towards West 112 Picture 30, The 24th Street, Looking from the Seawalk Towards North Picture 31, Looking up the 2 5th Street from Dundarave Pier Picture 32, Looking Down Dundarave Park at the Cross- Point of the 2 5th Street and Lower Bellevue Ave 113 Picture 3 3, A Panoramic View of Dundarave Park, Looking Towards East 114 APPENDIX B ANALYSIS DRAWINGS Analysis Drawing No. 1 Site Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver Site C o n t e x t — S i t e Location and Si t e Zoning Analysis Drawing No. 2 S i t e Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver S i t e Analysis—Sequence 1 1 6 Analysis Drawing No. 3 S i t e Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver Si t e Analysis—Rhythmical Recurrence 117 Analysis Drawing No. 4 Si t e Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver S i t e A n a l y s i s — S p e c i a l Events 118 Analysis Drawing No. 5 S i t e Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver S i t e A n a l y s i s — L a y e r s of History 119 Analysis Drawing No. 6 S i t e Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver S i t e A n a l y s i s — N i g h t Image 1 2 0 Analysis Drawing No. 7 Si t e Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver Si t e Analysis—Boundary, Sacred Places, and D e r e l i c t Sites Analysis Drawing No. 8. Si t e Plan for the Seawalk of West Vancouver Si t e A n a l y s i s — P a t t e r n s From Alexander 122 123 Analysis Drawing No. 10 Design of Dundarave Park S i t e Analysis—Sequence 124 Analysis Drawing No. 11 Design of Dundarave Park Si t e Analysis—Rhythmical Recurrence 125 Analysis Drawing No. 12 Design of Dundarave Park Si t e A n a l y s i s — S p e c i a l Events 126 Analysis Drawing No. 13 Design of Dundarave Park S i t e A n a l y s i s — L a y e r s of History 127 Analysis Drawing No. 14 Design of Dundarave Park Si t e Analysis—Wheel-Chair A c c e s s i b i l i t y Analysis Drawing No. 15 Design of Dundarave Park Si t e Analysis—Boundary 129 Analysis Drawing No. 16 Design of Dundarave Park S i t e A n a l y s i s — D e r e l i c t Site and Night Image Analysis Drawing No. 17 Design of Dundarave Park Si t e Analysis—Seasonal Image 131 BIBLIOGRAPHY: Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa and Murray S i l v e r s t e i n A Pattern Language (Town * Building * Construction), Oxford University Press, New York, 1977 (NA2750 A449 1977 McM) Alexander, Christopher The Timeless Way of Building, Oxford Uni v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1977 (NA2500 A45 1979 FAD) Alexander, Christopher The Nature of Order and the Art of Building, Unpublished manuscript, 1989 Bachelard G, The Poetics of Space, Boston: Beacon Press, 1971 ( C a l l Number: PN1043 B212 MS 4th F. & SED) Berube, Margery S., et a l The American Heritage Dictionary, 2nd College ed., Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1982 Breen, Ann and Dick Rigby (Ed) Urban Waterfronts '83: Balancing Public/ Private Interests, A summary of a conference at George Washington Univ e r s i t y i n Washington, D.C. The Waterfront Press, Washington, D.C. 1984 (HT 167 U754 1893 FAD) Breen, Ann and Dick Rigby (Ed) Urban Waterfronts '85: Water Makes A Difference! . — A summary of a conference on i n Washington, D.C, The Waterfront Press, Washington, D.C. 1986 (HT 167 U754 1895 FAD) Breen, Ann and Dick Rigby (Ed) Urban Waterfronts '84: Toward New Horizons, — A summary of a conference i n Washington, D.C. The Waterfront Press, Washington, D.C. 1985 (HT 167 U754 1894 FAD) Cayne, Bernard ed. Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary, 1988, New York, Oxford University Press. Chou, Sha-Chen Be i j i n g : Yesterday and Today, Hongkong: L i f e , Learning & Knowledge Press, 1980 (Asian Library) Cullen, Gordon The Concise Townscape, Architectural Press, London,1961 (Ca l l Number: NA9030 C8 1971 McM) 132 Eliade, Mircea The Sacred and the Profane, Willard R. Trask, Trans., Harcourt, Brace and World Inc, New York, 1959 E. Relph Place and Placelessness, Pion Limited, London, Great B r i t a i n , 1976 Gorman, Bernard G. and Alden E. Wessman The Personal Experience of Time, Mew York: Plenum, 1977 (BF468 P47 1977 SW) H a l l , Edward T. The Dance of L i f e , The Other Dimension of Time USA: Anchor Press/Doubleday & Company, 1983 (BD638 H275 1983 MS 1ST F. ) H a r t o c o l l i s , Peter Time and Timelessness, New York: International University Press, Inc., 1983 (BF468 H37 1983 MS 1ST F.) Hawking, Stephen W. A Brief History of Time, Toronto: Bantam books, 1988 (QB918 H337 1988 SW) Jackson, J.B. The Necessity of Ruins and Other Topics, Uni v e r s i t y of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1970 (GF91 U6 J32 1980 MS 1ST F.) Lynch, Kevin What Time i s This Place? Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1972 (Call Number: CB155 L95 1972 MS 1ST F.) The Image of the City, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press and the President and Follows of Havard College, 1960 (NA9108 L9 MCM) McGrath, Joseph E. (ed) The Social Psychology of Time, C a l i f o r n i a , USA: Sege Publications, Inc., 1988 (HM299 S585 1988 MS 2ND F.) McGrath, Joseph E. and Kelly, Janice R. (ed) Time and Human Interaction, Toward a Social Psychology of Time, New York:the Guilford Press, 1986 (HM291 M3945 SW) Millward, Celia Handbook for Writers, 2nd ed. New York: CBS College Publish, 1983 Norberg-Schulz, Chr i s t i a n Architecture: Meaning and Place, R i z z o l i , New York, 1988 133 Genus Loci, R i z z o l i , New York, 1988 (NA 2542.4 N6713 1979) O l i n , Laurie "Form, Meaning, and Expression i n Landscape Architecture", Landscape Journal, Board of Refents of the University of Wisconsin Press, F a l l , 1988, V7(2) Paterson, Douglas D. Heritage Landscapes i n B r i t i s h Columbia: A Guide to Their I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Documentation and Preservation, Occasional Paper, Landscape Architecture Program, UBC, Vancouver, 1989 Notes from The Lecture—Landscape Architecture 420, Instructor, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989 F a l l Reitmeister, Louis Aaron A Philosophy of Time, 1962. (BD 638 R 1974 MS 1ST F.) Steele, F r i t z The Sense of Place, CBI Publishing Company, Inc, USA, 1981 (GF 51 S75 FAD) Torre, L. Azeo and Van Nostrand Reinhold Waterfront Development, Van Nostrand Reunhold, New York, 1989 (HT175 T66 1989 FAD) Whitrow, G. J. Time i n the History, the evolution of our general awareness of time and temporal perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, 1988 (D21.3 W47 1988 MS 1ST F.) REFERENCE OF FIGURES: Carver J r , Norman F. I t a l i a n Hilltowns, Michigan: Documan Press, Ltd, 1979 (NH4 3 2 C3 7 9 19 7 8 FAD). D a l l a i r e , Jean Jean Da l l a i r e, Montreal: Ministere Des A f f a i r e s C u l t u r e l l e s , 1979 (ND 249 D3 A4 1979 FAD). Escher, M. C. and J. L. Locher (Ed) The World of M. C. Escher, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Meulenhoff Internation, 1971. Fenton,.Roger Roger Fenton: Photographer of the 1850's, B r i t a i n : South Bank Board and Author, 1988 (NH242 F4 A4 1988Ex FAD). Fountain Press Photography Yearbook, England: Fountain Press Limited, 1986 Godwin, Fay Land: With an Essay by John Fowles and With an Introduction bv Ian Jeffrey, London: J.R. Fowles Ltd, 1985 (NH242 G6 F6 1985 Ex FAD). Hibbard, Howard The Metropolitan Museum of Art, (N610 H52 1980 FAD). Indiana University, Blomington. Art Museum Guide to the c o l l e c t i o n s : H i g h l i g h t s from the Indiana University Art Museum, Blomington, Ind: The Museum, 1980 (N518 B4 15 1980 FAD) . Journal of National Geographic Society National Geographic, A p r i l 1980; September 1969; February 19 66, Washington D.C. Royal LePage Real Estate Royal LePage Calendar 1989. Broker: Royal LePage Real Estate Services Ltd, 1989 Spremo, Boris, and Scott Young (Introduction) Brois Spremo: Twenty Years of Photojournalism. Toronto: The Canadian Publishers, McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1983 (NH143 S69 A4 1983). Wolberg, Lewis R. Micro-Art: Art Images In a Hidden World, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc, 1970 (NH139 W64 A45 1970 FAD). YavnO, Max (photo) and Ben Maddow (text) The Photography of Max Maddow. C a l i f o r n i a , USA: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1981 (NH139 Y3 A 4 1981, FAD) . PART OF DESIGN REFERENCES: Coons, Maggie, and Margaret Milner (ed) Creating an Accessible Campus, USA: the Association of Physical Plant Administrators of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges, 1978 (NA 2545 S85 C73 1978 MCM) De Chiara, Joseph, and Lee E. Koppelman Site Planning Standards, USA: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1978 (NA 2540.5 D4 1978 MCM). White, Edward T. Site Analysis: Diagramming Information for A r c h i t e c t u r a l Design, series of A r c h i t e c t u r a l Media, 1983 (NA 2540.5 W48 1983 MCM) ( F i l e Name: f f f . f f f , 20,600 words, 13 September 1990)

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Australia 8 0
United States 3 0
France 1 0
Canada 1 0
Japan 1 0
City Views Downloads
Sydney 8 0
Ashburn 2 0
Unknown 1 0
Toronto 1 0
Redmond 1 0
Tokyo 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items