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Design patterns for an urban waterfront--a case study : designing the sea-walk of West Vancouver Li, Baozhang 1990

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DESIGN PATTERNS FOR AN URBAN WATERFRONT -A CASE STUDY: DESIGNING THE SEA-WALK OF WEST VANCOUVER By BAOZHAHG L I B. A r c h .  Tsinghua U n i v e r s i t y ,  Beijing,  1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF PLANT  SCIENCE)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 (c) Baozhang L i , 1990  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives.  It is understood that copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  ii ABSTRACT The paper c o n s i s t s of f i v e s t e p s .  The f i r s t s t e p i s t o study  and e x p l o r e t h e o r i e s of o r d e r , time image, and meaning of p l a c e . A  h y p o t h e t i c a l equation  i s proposed  h a v i n g t h r e e b a s i c components: time,  which  defines  a  place  order and meaning.  as  Special  a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o the time image of a p l a c e through the t h e s i s . The  second  systematic introduced,  step  is  design which  to  organize  ideas.  theories  Twelve d e s i g n  i n c l u d e Rhythm,  Future, Sequence,  the  as  a  set  of  c a t e g o r i e s are f u r t h e r  Season,  D e r e l i c t , Night, Center,  Celebration,  Layer,  Boundary, and Sacred  Places. The  third  step  i s t o generate  a s e t of p a t t e r n s  w a t e r f r o n t d e s i g n under twelve d e s i g n t o p i c s . between p r i n c i p l e into  a design  and  design.  p a t t e r n can  v a l i d i t y of d e s i g n i d e a s .  be The  The seen  Pattern i s a bridge  conversion as  f o r the  of a d e s i g n  a procedure  to  test  the  f o u r t h step i s t o apply the d e s i g n  p a t t e r n s t o a s p e c i f i c s i t e on the West Vancouver W a t e r f r o n t . a sense,  idea  In  the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p a t t e r n s i s an experiment, aimed  a t t e s t i n g the p a t t e r n s , hence the whole t h e s i s as a h y p o t h e s i s . The  final  proj ect.  step  i s to  review  and  evaluate  the  thesis  and  the  iii TABLE OF  CONTENTS  T i t l e Page  i  Abstract  i i  T a b l e o f Contents  i i i  L i s t of Figures  vii  L i s t o f A n a l y s i s Drawing  x  L i s t o f Design Drawing  xi  Acknowledgement  xii  Introduction CHAPTER ONE 1.1  PLACE AND ITS  TIME, ORDER AND MEANING  PLACE 1.1.1 1.1.2  1.2  xiii 1 2  Concept of P l a c e Towards a Phenomenological Understanding of Place  TIME IMAGE OF PLACE  2 3 7  1.2.1  Time and Time Image of P l a c e  8  1.2.2  P h y s i c a l Time and I t s Design A p p l i c a t i o n  9  N a t u r a l Recurrence, Season, Sequence 1.2.3  Night, Future,  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Time and I t s Design A p p l i c a t i o n  12  C e l e b r a t i o n and F e s t i v a l , Layers of H i s t o r y D e r e l i c t i o n and Ruin 1.2.4 1.3  Time  13  ORDER AND MEANING OF PLACE  16  1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4  Phenomenological  M e c h a n i s t i c Order and H o l i s t i c Order Center and Boundary Genius L o c i Three T y p i c a l Meanings o f P l a c e s : Sacredness, Intimacy, Mystery  17 19 21 2 4  iv CHAPTER TWO  PATTERN  INTRODUCTION  28  What i s a P a t t e r n ; How t o f i n d a P a t t e r n ; The Essence of a P a t t e r n ; A L i s t Patterns 2.1  RHYTHMICAL 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3  2.2  2.3  2.4  2.5  2.7  2.8  RECURRENCE  D i s p l a y i n g N a t u r a l Rhythms Things F l o a t i n g Time Devices as D e c o r a t i o n s  SEASON  28 30 30 32 34 36 37 37 39  2.2.1  F r u i t Trees  41  2.2.2  Seasonal  41  Decoration  CELEBRATIONS  42  2.3.1  P l a c e w i t h F e s t i v a l and C e l e b r a t i o n  44  2.3.2  B i r t h d a y Marks  45  LAYERS OF HISTORY  46  2.4.1  Heritage Preservation  48  2.4.2  B u i l d i n g - i n Traces of P r e v i o u s Occupancies  48  NIGHT 2.5.1  2.6  27  Night L i f e and Night Park  FUTURE 2.6.1 2.6.2  Small S c a l e Development Making Changes V i s i b l e  2.6.3  Empty Lot  DERELICT SITES AND RUINS  50 51 52 53 53  54  2.7.1 2.7.2  Derelict Site Garden Growing W i l d  57 57  2.7.3  Adventure Playground  57  SEQUENCE 2.8.1 2.8.2  S i t e Context Path and R e s t i n g  58 58 59  V  2.9  MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION  60  2.9.1  Timeless M a t e r i a l  62  2.9.2  T i m e l e s s Way o f C o n s t r u c t i o n  63  2.10  CENTER  64  2.10.1  H i e r a r c h y o f Centers  66  2.10.2  Something  66  2.11  Roughly  i n the M i d d l e  BOUNDARY  67  2.11.1  Boundaries i n Landscape  68  2.11.3  Thick Walls  68  2.12  SACRED PLACES  2.12.1 2.12.2 2.12.3 2.12.4  F i n d i n g Sacred P l a c e s G e o l o g i c a l Advantaged P l a c e Graves o f Famous C i t i z e n s I m a g i n a t i v e and S i t e S p e c i f i c Signs  CHAPTER THREE 3.1  PATTERN APPLICATION  AND DESIGN EVALUATION  INTRODUCTION  3.1.1 3.1.2  The Choice o f S i t e H i s t o r y o f West Vancouver  3.1.3  S i t e Zoning  3.2  70 73 73 73 74 75 76 and I t s W a t e r f r o n t  SITE PLAN FOR THE SEAWALK OF WEST VANCOUVER  3.2.1 S i t e A n a l y s i s 1) Sequence 2) Rhythmical Recurrence 3) S p e c i a l Event 4) Layers o f H i s t o r y 5) Night Image 6) D e r e l i c t S i t e 7) Boundary 8) Sacred P l a c e 9) Other P a t t e r n s from A P a t t e r n Language 10) The Topology o f Seawalk 11) S i t e C i r c u l a t i o n e P Seawalk l a n f o r the Seawalk of 3.2.2 Design Drawings Design Drawing N o . l f oSri tthe West Vancouver (Ambleside Park)  76 77 77 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 84 85 84  vx  3.3  Design Drawing No.2  S i t e P l a n f o r the Seawalk o f West Vancouver (From 13th t o 18th S t r e e t )  86  Design Drawing No.3  S i t e P l a n f o r the Seawalk o f West Vancouver (From 18th t o 25th S t r e e t )  87  DESIGNING DUNDARAVE PARK  3.3.1  Site Description  89  Clachan H o t e l ; Dundarave Marr Creek; V e g e t a t i o n 3.3.2 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 3.3.3  88  Pier;  Site Analysis  90  Sequence Rhythmical Recurrence S p e c i a l Event Layers o f H i s t o r y Wheel-chair A c c e s s i b i l i t y Boundary Derelict Site Night Image Seasonal Image  90 90 91 91 92 92 93 93 93  Design E x p l a n a t i o n  93  Design Drawing No.4  S i t e Design o f Dundarave Park  94  Design Drawing No.5  Axonometric Drawing o f t h e  95  Design Design Drawing No.6  Sections  96  3.4 DESIGN EVALUATION 3.4.1 P a t t e r n s : Which o f Them are more Powerful 3.4.1 P a t t e r n s : L e v e l s o f W o r k a b i l i t y  97 98 99  Appendix A  A C o l l e c t i o n o f H i s t o r i c and Current Photographs o f t h e S i t e  100  Appendix B  A n a l y s i s Drawings  114  Bibliography  131  Reference o f F i g u r e s  133  P a r t o f Design References  134  vii LIST OF FIGURES 1.  Combines F l a y F i e l d s o f R i c e , Texas, USA ( N a t i o n a l Geographic, A p r i l , P 465)  1  2.  The B i g Ben, 1964, h u i l e s u r r o i l e 1979)  7  3.  V e g e t a b l e T i s s u e : Hard Maple Under 315 Microscope (Lewis R. Wloberg, P l a t e 49)  16  4.  The S p i r i t o f P l a c e  21  5.  Animal T i s s u e : I n t e r n a l E a r o f Guinae P i g (enlarged 250 t i m e s ) , (Lewis R. Wolberg, 1970, P l a t e 145)  27  6.  A N a t u r a l Stream (Howard Hibbard, 1980, P121)  34  7.  The Japanese p a i n t i n g shows how t o make t h e wind v i s i b l e by u s i n g a " f l y i n g f i s h " ( A r t Museum a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , 1980, P206).  36  8.  A f l o a t i n g amphitheatre--the park's most p o p u l a r u n i t i n t h e summer, Columbus, Ohio (Ann Breen ed, Urban W a t e r f r o n t s 85', 1986).  37  9.  S p r i n g , Summer, and Winter (Royal LePage Calender 1989)  39  10.  Copacabana, B o l i v i a : Jam-packed p i l g r i m s , many from f o r e i g n l a n d s , crowed Copacabana each year t o honour h e r famous V i r g i n ( N a t i o n a l Geographic, February 1966, P171).  42  11.  C h r i s t o s wrapping o f t h e Pont Neuf Created a major event i n P a r i s , b r i n g i n g hundreds o f thousand o f p e o p l e out t o c e l e b r a t e a t t h e water's edge (Urban W a t e r f r o n t s '85, 1986, P125).  44  12.  Apartment towers loom over a l o n e l y t a i l o r i n g shop on P a r l i a m e n t S t r e e t , Toronto ( B o r i s Spremo, 1983, P141)  46  13.  O l d Wagon, Waskatenau  54  14.  Roof  15.  An O l d Window (Howard Hibbard, 1980, P 172)  63  16.  D w e l l i n g as a Center i n t h e Landscape, County T i p p e r a y , I r e l a n d ( N a t i o n a l Geographic, September 1969, P375).  64  (Jean D a l l a i r e ,  (Hakan P e t t e r s o n , 1989, P97)  (Royal LePage Calendar, 1989)  (Photography Yearbook  '78, P79, by B e v e r l y Bean)  60  V l l l  17.  W a i l i n g Wall, 1981, P64)  18.  Sky World of the Himalayas October 1966, P567).  19.  A Panoramic View of West Vancouver  75  20.  A Panoramic View of Dundarave Park  88  21.  P i c t u r e 1, Looking up Lawson Avenue (Now 17th from H o l l y b u r n Wharf i n Winter, c i r c a 1913  Street)  101  22.  P i c t u r e 2. P.G.E. Railway T r e s t l e 19 t o 20 t h S t r e e t , In Use 1914-1928. C i r c a 1915  101  23.  P i c t u r e 3, The Beach West of 14 t h S t r e e t , F e r r y No. 5 Approaching P i e r , c i r c a 1917  101  24.  P i c t u r e 4, Swimming at the E a s t S i d e of Ambleside Wharf, at the Foot of 14th S t r e e t , 1919  102  25.  P i c t u r e 5, P.G.E. Railway T r a c k s , B e l l e v u e Between 2 2 t o 2 3 t h S t r e e t , c i r c a 19 25  26.  P i c t u r e 6, Shoreline,  27.  Women's S e c t i o n ,  Looking East 1936  Jerusalem  (Max  Yavno,  ( N a t i o n a l Geographic,  Ave  71 72  102 .  from 23 r d S t r e e t , Along  ' P i c t u r e 7, A e r i a l View of W.Vancouver Showing Ambleside, H o l l y b u r n Mountain, S e n t i n e l H i l l , C a p i l a n o R i v e r , D e l t a and the L i o n s , 1934  102 103  28.  P i c t u r e 8, A e r i a l View of Dundarave, H o l l y b u r n , Ambleside, Park Royal B r i t i s h Properties, 1948  103  29.  P i c t u r e 9, 1986)  104  30.  P i c t u r e 10, Dundarave P i e r and (Ramsey, P114, 1986)  31.  P i c t u r e 11. Dundarave Regatta, c i r c a 1920 P135, 1986)  32.  P i c t u r e 12. Beginning o f the C a p i l a n o Walkway, Looking Towards North  106  33.  P i c t u r e 13, End of the Seawalk and Before E n t e r i n g the C a p i l a n o Walkway, Looking Towards North-East  106  34.  P i c t u r e 14. Seawalk at the E a s t End Park, Looking Towards West  106  The  Clachan H o t e l ,  1912  (Rambey, P81,  Clachan H o t e l ,  1912  (Ramsey,  of Ambleside  104 104  ix 35.  P i c t u r e 15, T r e e Grove a t t h e E a s t End of Ambleside Park, Looking Towards North  107  36.  P i c t u r e 16, Seawalk i n t h e M i d d l e P a r t o f Ambleside Park, Looking Towards E a s t  107  37.  P i c t u r e 17, Seawalk i n t h e M i d d l e P a r t of Ambleside Park, Looking Towards West  107  38.  P i c t u r e 18, H o l l y b u r n S h i p y a r d , Looking Towards North-West  108  39.  P i c t u r e 19, The 13th S t r e e t , Looking Towards North  108  40.  P i c t u r e 20, A P r e s e r v e d H i s t o r i c a l B u i l d i n g i n the H e r i t a g e Square a t the Foot o f the 14th S t r e e t , Looking Towards South  108  41.  P i c t u r e 21, The 14th S t r e e t ,  109  42.  P i c t u r e 22, B.C. Railway a t t h e End o f 16th S t r e e t , Looking Towards West  109  43.  P i c t u r e 23, John Lawson Park w i t h a P i c n i c S h e l t e r i n t h e M i d d l e , Looking Towards West  109  44.  P i c t u r e 24, Lawson Creek on t h e Beach, Looking Towards North  110  45.  P i c t u r e 25, Beginning o f t h e C e n t e n n i a l Seawalk a t the Foot o f 18th S t r e e t  110  46.  P i c t u r e 26, The 19th S t r e e t , Looking Towards North from the Seawalk  110  47.  P i c t u r e 27, A r g y l e Park, Looking up Towards t h e North  111  48.  P i c t u r e 28, Seawalk and t h e H i g h - r i s e Condominiums, Looking from t h e Foot o f 24th S t r e e t Towards E a s t  111  49.  P i c t u r e 29, Seawalk and Dundarave Park, Looking from the Foot o f 24th S t r e e t Towards West  111  50.  P i c t u r e 30, The 24th S t r e e t , Seawalk Towards North  112  51.  P i c t u r e 31, Looking up t h e 25th S t r e e t from Dundarave P i e r  112  52  P i c t u r e 32, Looking Down Dundarave Park a t t h e  112  Looking Towards North  Looking from the  X  C r o s s - P o i n t of t h e 25th S t r e e t and Lower B e l l e v u e Ave 53.  P i c t u r e 33, A Panoramic View of Dundarave Park, Looking Towards E a s t  113  LIST OF ANALYSIS DRAWINGS Drawing No. 1  S i t e C o n t e x t — S i t e Location  Drawing No. 2  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Sequence  115  Drawing No. 3  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Rhythmical Recurrence  116  Drawing No. 4  S i t e A n a l y s i s -- S p e c i a l Events  117  Drawing No. 5  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Layers of H i s t o r y  118  Drawing No. 6  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Night Image  119  Drawing No. 7  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Boundary and Sacred P l a c e  120  Drawing No. 8  S i t e A n a l y s i s -- P a t t e r n s from Alexander  121  Drawing No. 9  E x i s t i n g Statues o f Dundarave Park  122  Drawing No. 10  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Sequence  123  Drawing No. 11  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Rhythmical Recurrence  124  Drawing No. 12  S i t e A n a l y s i s -- S p e c i a l Events  125  Drawing No. 13  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Layers of H i s t o r y  126  Drawing No. 14  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Handicapped Access  127  Drawing No. 15  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Boundary and D e r e l i c t  Drawing No. 16  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Night Image  129  Drawing No. 17  S i t e A n a l y s i s --Seasonal Image  130  and S i t e Zoning  Site  114  128  LIST OF DESIGN DRAWINGS Design Drawing No.l  S i t e Plan f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver (Ambleside Park)  85  Design Drawing No.2  S i t e Plan f o r the Seawalk o f West Vancouver (From 14 t h S t r e e t t o 18 th Street)  86  Design Drawing  No.3  S i t e P l a n f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver (From 18th t o 25 t h S t r e e t )  87  Design Drawing  No.4  S i t e Design o f Dundarave Park  94  Design Drawing  No.5  Axonometric Drawing  95  Design Drawing  No.6  Sections  o f the Design  96  xii ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I t i s q u i t e a c h a l l e n g e t o f i n i s h a master t h e s i s i n another major,  i n another language, and i n another country.  I t would be  i m p o s s i b l e f o r me t o a c h i e v e t h i s accomplishment without c o n s i s t e n t h e l p from t h e p r o f e s s o r s and a l l o t h e r people. I owe my thanks t o : o f my t h e s i s committee,  P r o f e s s o r P a t r i c k Mooney, the chairman f o r h i s patient supervision;  Professor  Moura Quayle, f o r h e r e n t h u s i a s t i c guidance; P r o f e s s o r Ronald B. Walkey  for his instructive  ideas;  and  Professor  Douglas  D.  P a t e r s o n f o r a l l o f h i s k i n d h e l p i n my two years o f study. I a l s o owe my thanks t o : Department  Gram S t a l l a r d  from the P l a n n i n g  o f West Vancouver and E r i k Lees and Karen C h r i s t e r s o n  from West Vancouver  Park Department  f o r t h e i r h e l p on my d e s i g n  proj ect. My l a s t thanks go t o my two good f r i e n d s , graduate s t u d e n t s i n t h e Department  o f P l a n t S c i e n c e , Ms. Kate Sircom and Mr. Ted  H e r r i n g t o n f o r t h e i r p e r s i s t e n t h e l p w i t h my E n g l i s h .  xiii  INTRODUCTION The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study a r e : f i r s t , t o study and t h e o r i e s o f order,  time image, and  organize  a  them  patterns;  to  apply  p r o j e c t ; and To  as  set  the  of  begin  with,  and meaning. has  pr es en t,  temporal  and  future.  "whole".  context. And  design  equation. order  An  ideal  emotional  For  example,  place  Every  has  past,  e v e r y t h i n g happening i n a p l a c e ,  a l s o has  a time c o n t e x t .  such  Order i n d i c a t e s  Order harmonizes a p l a c e , making i t  order  wholeness t o the d e s i g n .  The  urban w a t e r f r o n t  Time r e f e r s t o the temporal image of p l a c e .  a  conscious  design  t h r e e b a s i c components: time,  the p h y s i c a l o r d e r of p l a c e .  our  practical  the paper proposes a h y p o t h e t i c a l  as human a c t i v i t i e s ,  a  i n an  and  to  f i n a l l y to evaluate pattern a p p l i c a t i o n .  I t d e f i n e s a p l a c e as having  place  meaning of p l a c e ; second,  systematic  patterns  explore  i s the  one  Finally,  involvement w i t h  which b r i n g s  "living"  the meaning of p l a c e  a place.  mind t o seek meaning behind  reveals  I t i s a part  of  our  the p h y s i c a l appearance.  r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s , however, are not spent  of the t h r e e b a s i c components.  a  evenly on each  S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o the  time image of a p l a c e , and the g e n e r a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of time patterns field  i n design.  of  pattern  Time p a t t e r n  study.  complement t o C h r i s t o p h e r *  Building  concerning  * the  In  sense,  Alexander's  Construction), order  a  i s an untouched t o p i c i n the  of p l a c e .  since The  the  thesis  will  be  a  A P a t t e r n Language (Town  most  of  i t s patterns  meaning of p l a c e  is a  only very  xiv  complicated tive;  issue i n design.  i t i s related  background  of  t o mood,  people;  Nevertheless,  I t i s h i g h l y p e r s o n a l and  and  the paper  emotion,  cannot  be  e d u c a t i o n and judged  as  subjeccultural  good  or  bad.  so  that  e x p l o r e s the meaning of p l a c e ,  a l l t h r e e components o f p l a c e can be  integrated.  The second step i s t o e l a b o r a t e on each b a s i c component. The  first  place. are  b a s i c component o f p l a c e s t u d i e d  i s the time image of  Most o f the i d e a s on the time image o f p l a c e i n t h i s paper  e v o l v e d from  (Lynch, 1972).  K e v i n Lynch s book What  Time  i s This  Place?  The paper expands and c a t e g o r i z e s L y n c h s  ideas,  1  1  which g i v e r i s e t o seven t o p i c s on the c r e a t i o n of the time image. The seven t o p i c s are Rhythmical Recurrence, Seasons, C e l e b r a t i o n s , Layers o f H i s t o r y , N i g h t Image, F u t u r e Image, D e r e l i c t S i t e s and Ruins, and Sequence i n Space. The mainly  second b a s i c  from  component  i s the o r d e r of p l a c e ,  C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r ' s u n p u b l i s h e d manuscript  Nature o f Order and the A r t o f B u i l d i n g , manuscript, in  art  1989).  work,  architecture. created.  He  painting,  identifies  fifteen  paper chooses two  idea The  (Alexander, Unpublished  In t h i s book, he seeks the l i v i n g  including  This  and Boundary, the p l a c e  an  sculpture, ways  topics  pottery,  i n which  from the  qualities and  order i s  book—Center  both o f which are most r e l e v a n t t o the c r e a t i o n of  order.  Center i s . w h e r e the l i v i n g  quality  b e g i n s , and where our a t t e n t i o n s are focused i n a p l a c e ;  of p l a c e Boundary  i s the p o i n t from which a p l a c e i s forming, and from which a p l a c e becomes d i s t i n c t i v e .  XV  The t h i r d b a s i c component i s the meaning of p l a c e . on  the  meaning  of  place  are  derived  from  a  number  The of  ideas  people,  i n c l u d i n g Norberg-Schulz ( A r c h i t e c t u r e : Meaning and P l a c e , 1988), E. Relph Sense  of  (Place and Place,  Placelessness,  1981).  Three  1976)  design  meaning of p l a c e are i d e n t i f i e d .  and  Fritz  Steele  (The  on  creating  the  topics  These are sacredness,  intimacy,  mystery. The  third  waterfront refers  to  step  design  i s generating  under twelve d e s i g n  a diagram,  l e a s t two q u a l i t i e s : and  i n d i c a t i n g the  see  a place  and  a  a model,  set  of  patterns  topics.  Pattern  o r archetype.  for  the  normally  A p a t t e r n has  at  r e v e a l i n g the b a s i c components of a " t h i n g " , s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s between the components.  human a c t i v i t i e s  understand a h i g h e r  level  b r i d g e between p r i n c i p l e  place and  i n a place experience.  design.  The  as  patterns  Pattern  process  To  i s to  i s also a  of  converting  a d e s i g n i d e a i n t o a d e s i g n p a t t e r n can be seen as the f i r s t  step  towards the d e s i g n a p p l i c a t i o n of the i d e a and a l s o as a procedure t o t e s t the v a l i d i t y o f d e s i g n  ideas.  The f o u r t h s t e p i s t o apply the d e s i g n p a t t e r n s to a s p e c i f i c s i t e on the West Vancouver W a t e r f r o n t . the  waterfront—a  Dundarave Park. an  experiment,  thesis  as  a  plan  f o r the  Seawalk  and  projects in  a  design  for  In a sense, the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p a t t e r n s i s aimed  at  testing  hypothesis.  composed of the guideline  site  There are two  three  i n the  If  the  the  patterns,  hypothesis  hence the (that  b a s i c components, which can  creation  of  place)  be  a  whole  place used as  i s l e g i t i m a t e , the  is a  final  xv i design  should  b r i n g out  P a t t e r n g e n e r a t i o n and taneously,  i n the  something experimental  hope t h a t the  p a t t e r n s would h e l p t o shape one And  finally,  the  last  t h e s i s and the p r o j e c t . t i o n are the two  central  t o p i c s of e v a l u a t i o n .  s u c c e s s f u l and  step  distinctive.  d e s i g n are conducted  generation  and  simul-  application  of  another. i s to  review  and  evaluate  the  P a t t e r n g e n e r a t i o n and p a t t e r n a p p l i c a i s s u e s i n the paper, and The  s t r u c t u r e of t h i s r e s e a r c h :  are the major  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e d e p i c t s the g e n e r a l  xvii DESIGN PATTERNS FOR AN URBAN WATERFRONT — A Case Study: Design the Seawalk of West Vancouver FIRST STEP: (three components of p l a c e )  SECOND STEP: (twelve t o p i c s )  PLACE l l I i  PHYSICAL + ORDER  TIME I I I I  l l  CENTRE + BOUNDARY  +  RHYTHM + SEASON + CELEBRATION  MEANING I I  INTIMACY + MYSTERY + SACREDNESS  1 1  LAYER + NIGHT + . FUTURE + DERELICT + SEQUENCE THIRD STEP: (27 p a t t e r n s ) FOURTH STEP: (2 P r o j e c t s )  FIFTH STEP  PATTERN GENERATION  PATTERN APPLICATION: S i t e P l a n f o r t h e Seawalk of West Vancouver Design o f t h e Dundarave Park EVALUATION OF THE THESIS  )  1  CHAPTER ONE PLACE AND ORDER, 1.1  TIME AND MEANING OF PLACE  PLACE  Combines F l a y A p r i l , P 465)  F i e l d s of R i c e ,  Texas,  USA  (National  Geographic,  2  1.1.1 THE CONCEPTION OF PLACE Our life,  i d e n t i t y i s i n s e p a r a b l e from t h e i d e n t i t y o f p l a c e . Our  e s p e c i a l l y i n e a r l y y e a r s , s t r o n g l y r e l a t e s t o p l a c e s ; and  p l a c e s , i n t u r n , c h a r a c t e r i z e a l l a s p e c t s o f our l i f e . says:"  To be human i s t o l i v e  i n a world  that  As Relph  i sfilled  with  s i g n i f i c a n t p l a c e s ; t o be human i s t o have and t o know your p l a c e " (Relph,  1980, P3).  We c a n see t h a t  certain  group of people o f t e n  t h e i r p l a c e — t h e i r l i v i n g area.  the characteristics  stem from t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e obvious,  for  example, the language and t h e costume o f d i f f e r e n t  and  regions;  others  of a  a r e s u b t l e , perhaps d i f f i c u l t  countries  t o describe,  l i k e accent, f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , and t h e l o o k i n t h e eye.  The look  in  a person's eye, i f you pay a t t e n t i o n , can be an a c c u r a t e way  to  tell  whether o r n o t a person belongs t o a c e r t a i n p l a c e .  In my home-town, a r e g i o n a l c e n t e r , tell  I n o t i c e d t h a t one can  how f a r a v i s i t o r ' s v i l l a g e i s from t h a t town by t h e way he  says "mom".  In our town, we use "mar [ma:]" , a r e l a t i v e l y new  form o f address d e r i v e d  from t h e western "mom"; i n t h e suburbs,  "ma r" [ma:r]; i n t h e next v i l l a g e , 1  "nia  [nia:]",  and "niang",  "nar [ n a : ] " ; s t i l l  traditional  addresses;  remote mountain areas,  t h e word " n i e [ n i e ] " .  related  pronunciations  centre  yet different changes.  In a place with  and i n  We can hear  as t h e d i s t a n c e  history, this  d i f f e r e n c e pervades a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e .  further,  kind  the  these  from t h e of subtle  The examples show t h a t  people and p l a c e s a r e i n t e r t w i n e d — p e o p l e ' s  i d e n t i t y depends on  3  t h e i r belonging t o the place. Marcel he  concludes:  As t h e French p h i l o s o p h e r  "An i n d i v i d u a l i s not d i s t i n c t  Gabriel  from h i s p l a c e ;  i s t h a t p l a c e " ( c i t e d by Relph, 1980, P43). . "Place"  i s a common word  cover most aspects  i n English.  Its daily  o f p l a c e as i t i s used i n d e s i g n .  t o The American H e r i t a g e  Dictionary  meanings According  (Berube, Margery S., e t a l ,  P946, 1982), i t f i r s t r e f e r s t o a p o r t i o n o f space b i g o r s m a l l , including: 1. A s e t t i n g f o r a person t o s i t o r stand, e.g., a p l a c e a t a table; 2. A d e f i n i t e l o c a t i o n , such as a house, an o f f i c e , o r a c i t y square; 3. An area, such as a p a r t i c u l a r town o r c i t y ; and 4. A region, such as a country  or a part of a country.  I t a l s o means p h y s i c a l o r s o c i a l order, which may imply t h a t o r d e r is  an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f p l a c e .  p l a c e " and "he overstepped As  a verb,  F o r examples,  "everything  i s in  h i s place".  " t o p l a c e " means t o g i v e something a p a r t i c u l a r  p o s i t i o n , t o f i n d a l i v i n g q u a r t e r f o r some one, o r t o rank i n a order  o r sequence.  The b e s t  o f a l l i s t h e verb  p l a c e " , which means "happen" and "occur".  phrase  "take  T h i s suggests t h a t a  p l a c e i s e s s e n t i a l f o r any happening o r o c c u r r e n c e . 1.1.2  TOWARDS A PHENOMENOLOGICAL  UNDERSTANDING  OF PLACE  From a phenomenological p o i n t o f view, c o n c e p t i o n  of place  i s more fundamental, r e l a t e d t o our e x i s t e n c e and b e i n g .  Phenom-  enology i s now o f t e n used as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n  f o r the  study  of place.  I t i s a philosophical tradition  t h a t takes as  i t s s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h e phenomena o f t h e l i v e d - w o r l d , o f immediate  4  experience,  and then  rigorous  way  by  Preface,  1980).  seeks  careful  to c l a r i f y  observation  As i t i s understood  these  phenomena  and d e s c r i p t i o n  in a  (Relph,  by F. Lukermann, a geographer, p l a c e i s  a complex i n t e g r a t i o n o f nature  and c u l t u r e which has developed  and i s d e v e l o p i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s , and which i s l i n k e d by flows o f people  and goods t o o t h e r p l a c e s .  A p l a c e i s not j u s t  a l o c a t i o n o f something; i t i s t h e l o c a t i o n as w e l l as e v e r y t h i n g t h a t o c c u p i e s t h a t l o c a t i o n seen as an i n t e g r a t e d and meaningful phenomenon  ( c i t e d by Relph,  p l a c e = l o c a t i o n + events.  1980, P3). W r i t t e n as an equation, However,  two i s s u e s a r e m i s s i n g i n  t h i s equation.  One i s time.  events happen.  The o t h e r i s meaning.  connection with a place. of man.  I t i s t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n which t h e Meaning i s our emotional  A p l a c e i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by t h e b e l i e f s  The h y p o t h e t i c e q u a t i o n proposed  = TIME + ORDER + First,  i n t h i s paper i s : PLACE  MEANING.  every p l a c e has temporal  images.  "The q u a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s temporal  As Lynch r e f l e c t s :  image o f a c e r t a i n p l a c e  i s a b a s i c component o f t h e sense o f t h e p l a c e , and i s a c r u c i a l f a c t o r f o r a d e s i g n e r i n managing environmental  changes.  other  plays a role i n  hand,  building Pl).  the external physical  environment  and s u p p o r t i n g t h a t image o f time"  To understand  t h e temporal  On t h e  (Kevin Lynch, 1972,  image o f p l a c e , i t i s important  t o n o t i c e : a) a p l a c e i s emerging and becoming--it  has a p a s t , a  p r e s e n t , and a f u t u r e . F o r example, Vancouver c i t y i s growing on an area o f l a n d , which was covered by untouched f o r e s t s b e f o r e ;  5 b) a p l a c e d i s p l a y s the rhythms of n a t u r a l and human  occurrences.  For example, every winter the Ottawa R i v e r becomes an i c y "road", on which people can walk; c) a p l a c e has the q u a l i t y of a l l o w i n g a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s t o happen at the beach i s a p l a c e f o r summer. measurement, p h y s i c a l time and  s p e c i a l times.  There are two  For example,  k i n d s of temporal  p s y c h o l o g i c a l time.  P h y s i c a l time  i s t o p e r c e i v e time as something o b j e c t i v e and evenly  continuous.  P s y c h o l o g i c a l time i s s u b j e c t i v e t o people's mind, broken,  and  discontinues. Secondly, p l a c e has p h y s i c a l o r d e r s .  A place i s a location  c o n s i s t i n g of a v a r i e t y of p h y s i c a l elements. structure: located  Order i m p l i e s a) A  a p l a c e i s r e l a t e d t o other t h i n g s and p l a c e s . I t i s  at  a  structure.  particular  Each p l a c e  point  in  a  i s connected  particular  to  a l l other  level  of  a  places  by  a  system of s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and t r a n s f e r s ; they are p a r t of a framework  b) An E n t i t y :  a p l a c e i s a unique e n t i t y .  is itself  separate and complete with i t s own  Each p l a c e  boundary and c e n t r e .  For examples, a c i t y square, a f i r e p l a c e , or a window p l a c e . Relph, 1980,  (E  P3).  Finally,  a p l a c e has  p u r e l y l o g i c a l way,  meaning.  I f we  o n l y view p l a c e  perhaps, order and time are enough.  in a  However,  p l a c e i s not o n l y what i t i s , but a l s o what we sense or want i t t o be.  Every  emotional sacredness,  p l a c e has  some q u a l i t y which allows us t o develop  attachment, or intimacy,  perhaps and  evoke  identity.  a  feeling  of  an  mystery,  6 Relph d e f i n e s p l a c e as c e n t r e of a c t i o n and i n t e n t i o n , "the essence  of  place  lies  i n the  largely  t i o n a l i t y t h a t d e f i n e s p l a c e s as profound tence"  (1980, P 43).  unself-conscious  inten-  c e n t e r s of human e x i s -  P l a c e i s the space where l i f e o c c u r s ; i s a  space which has a d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r  (Norberg-Schulz,  1979, P5) .  T h e r e f o r e , p l a c e has meanings ( a l s o c a l l e d the c h a r a c t e r , and the spirit  of  place),  which  are  characterized  by  the  beliefs  of  people. Up t o now, we have d e f i n e d p l a c e as phenomenon r e l a t e d t o our fundamental  experience  components:  time,  of  order,  e l a b o r a t e these components  the and  world.  meaning.  individually.  It  has  The  three  following  major will  1.2 The  TIME IMAGE OF PLACE B i g Ben, 1964, h u i l e s u r r o i l e  (Jean D a l l a i r e , 1979)  8  1.2.1  TIME AND Time  TIME IMAGE OF PLACE  is a  short  and  ordinary  granted, l i k e the a i r we breathe. we  a r e , we  everywhere critical  are immersed  word.  We  time  for  No matter what we do and where  i n the sea of time.  i n the p h y s i c a l  take  world.  f o r the c r e a t i o n o f p l a c e .  The  Time i s embodied  time  image of p l a c e i s  As Lynch says i n What Time  i f T h i s P l a c e ? : "The q u a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s temporal image of a c e r t a i n p l a c e i s a b a s i c component of the sense o f the p l a c e , and i s a c r u c i a l f a c t o r f o r a d e s i g n e r i n managing environmental changes"  (1972, P l ) .  S i n c e time i s a b s t r a c t and i n v i s i b l e . creation  o f temporal  The key p o i n t i n the  p l a c e images i s t o r e v e a l  the time  w i t h the h e l p o f the changes i n the s p a t i a l c o n t e x t .  images  A clock i s  a p e r f e c t e x a m p l e — i t s f a c e and hands t r a n s l a t e time i n t o s p a t i a l alternation by  finding  (Lynch, 1972, a  P14).  relative,  In f a c t , time images are c r e a t e d  spatial  measurement  for  a  temporal  measurement. The  work  of  De  Long,  a  psychologist  and  professor  a r c h i t e c t u r e a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Tennessee, v i v i d l y t h i s temporal-spatial relationship. conducting  precise  c o n d i t i o n s on how  observation  S i n c e 1976, under  demonstrates  de Long has been  carefully  controlled  d i f f e r e n t people e x p e r i e n c e the passage o f time  when they are i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h environments (Edward  of  H a l l , P136,  1983).  of d i f f e r e n t  scales  9 De Long f i n d s t h a t time and space are f u n c t i o n a l l y lated.  His conclusion  i s that  p r o p o r t i o n t o environment. the slower t h e time  the brain  speeds  interre-  up i n d i r e c t  The s m a l l e r t h e environmental s c a l e ,  (Edward  Hall,  1983).  This conclusion  fits  our d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e t o o . The s m a l l e r t h e s c a l e , the more i n t i m a t e the space; an i n t i m a t e space makes us f e e l more comfortable, and time c o n s e q u e n t l y slows down.  U s i n g s m a l l s c a l e structures' and  b u i l d i n g s i s an e f f e c t i v e way t o slow down time. G i v i n g p l a c e a c l e a r time image i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n Chinese urban d e s i g n . scenic has  sites  i n and around a c i t y .  a special  best  Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l l y named and ranked  i n terms  The name o f a p l a c e  always  time a t t a c h e d , a t which time t h e p l a c e i s a t i t s of p o e t i c  e x p e r i e n c e and v i s u a l  beauty.  For  example, t h e E i g h t Most Prominent S i t e s around B e i j i n g were named by  one o f t h e emperors o f t h e Qing  Dynasty  (A.D. 1644 — 1 9 1 1 ) .  These a r e : Lush-green mountains o u t s i d e t h e Great Wall Trees o u t s i d e Gate Jee i n t h e Fog Luogo B r i d g e under the Dawn Moon Rainbow over Jade S p r i n g Snow-covered West Mountain under Blue Sky Jeon I s l a n d i n t h e Shadow o f S p r i n g Trees Autumn Waves of T a i y i e Lake Golden F o r t i n t h e S e t t i n g Sun B e i j i n g : Yesterday and Today, Chou, 1980 Relatively,  the t r a d i t i o n a l  quality—people visited  a special  site-seeing  also  had a  time  s i t e a t a s p e c i a l time t o g e t  a s p e c i a l kind of place experience.  10  1.2.2  P h y s i c a l Time and I t s Design A p p l i c a t i o n There a r e many k i n d s o f time c o n c e p t i o n s such as c l o c k time,  c a l e n d a r time, o r r e l a t i v e deal  time.  But i n r e l a t i o n  m a i n l y w i t h two k i n d s o f time: p h y s i c a l  l o g i c a l time.  time  Some p o i n t s i n time a r e  more meaningful and important than some o t h e r s . time a r e two p a r t s  Both a r e c r i t i c a l  objective  P s y c h o l o g i c a l time i s s u b j e c t t o person's  I t i s broken and d i s c o n t i n u o u s .  psychological  and psycho-  P h y s i c a l time i s p e r c e i v e d as something  and e v e n l y continuous. mind.  t o d e s i g n , we  o f the time  P h y s i c a l time and image o f a p l a c e .  i n the c r e a t i o n of that place.  Throughout h i s t o r y , many p h i l o s o p h e r s and s c i e n t i s t s focused t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on p h y s i c a l time.  Two of t h e most d i s t i n g u i s h e d  are I s a a c Newton and A l b e r t E i n s t e i n . (and basic  space) as a homogeneous and continuous a b s o l u t e — o n e o f t h e absolutes  abstract, uniform time  Isaac Newton p e r c e i v e d time  of the universe.  a b s o l u t e , and independent  i n flow,  could  irreversible,  be used  In h i s c o n c e p t i o n , time was of objects.  I t was l i n e a r ,  and d i v i s i b l e , which meant  as a s t a n d a r d f o r measuring  events  that  (Edward  Hall,1984, P21). The t y p i c a l examples of p h y s i c a l time a r e c l o c k and c a l e n d e r time.  T h i s temporal paradigm  isstill  t h e dominant  way i n which most people's c o n c e p t i o n o f time operates.  Although  they a r e v e r y a c c u r a t e , and s o p h i s t i c a t e d human i n v e n t i o n s , t h e c l o c k and c a l e n d a r a r e a b s t r a c t The  flow o f time  i n t e l l i n g us t h e flow o f time.  i s more v i v i d l y  n a t u r a l o r man-made rhythms.  sensed  with t h e h e l p o f  People p e r c e i v e rhythm b e t t e r than  11 the  a b s t r a c t e d c l o c k time . 1  forms o f l i f e tion. of  seem t o e x h i b i t some degree of temporal c o o r d i n a -  We can conclude t h a t temporal nature i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t  the u n i v e r s e , and o f a l l l i f e  the of  E v o l v i n g i n the rhythmic world, a l l  forms.  In the c r e a t i o n o f p l a c e ,  r e v e a l i n g of p h y s i c a l time, and hence c r e a t i n g a time image a p l a c e i s an important i s s u e . In  line the  c r e a t i n g the p h y s i c a l time image of a p l a c e , the g u i d e -  s h o u l d be  to display  environmental  change by t r a n s f o r m i n g  scene, or s h i f t i n g the v i e w p o i n t o f the observer, so t h a t the  change can be made s u f f i c i e n t l y p a l p a b l e t o e x p e r i e n t i a l p r e s e n t (Lynch, 1972,  P168).  be p e r c e i v e d i n the There are a number of  methods a v a i l a b l e t o us f o r shaping the image of p h y s i c a l time i n a certain place. 1) A c c e n t u a t i n g n a t u r a l rhythms i n a p l a c e , such as a creek, a water s p r i n g , or a f l o a t ; 2) r e v e a l i n g seasonal changes, l i k e w i n t e r gardens, autumn trees; 3) c r e a t i n g a s p e c i a l n i g h t image, such as a f i r e p l a c e , o r l i g h t fountain; 4) c o n s i d e r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u t u r e development; and, 5) p u t t i n g the emphasis on the sequence of space, e s p e c i a l l y the sequences along the major approaches t o the s i t e . After Einstein's  Newton, theory  there at  came  relative  r e v e r s i b l e , heterogeneous, to  another time.  and To  new  time  Einstein,  and d i s c o n t i n u o u s .  concept— time  was  It i s interesting  note t h a t the h e t e r o g e n e i t y and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of time are a l s o  true  i n our minds.  To  humans  i n every-day  life,  time  i s not  D i g i t a l c l o c k d i s p l a y s p r e c i s e time, but i t g i v e s us l i t t l e sense o f time s t r u c t u r e or movement. B e t t e r , the b a l l t o p p i n g the Greenwich tower r i s e s s l o w l y , then drops j u s t a t noon, t o g i v e exact o b s e r v a t o r y time t o the s h i p s i n the r i v e r (Lynch, P67, 1972).  12 p e r c e i v e d as r i g i d p h y s i c a l time. s i g n i f i c a n t than o t h e r s .  Some p o i n t s i n time are more  L a t e r when d e a l i n g w i t h M i r c e a E l i a d e ' s  s a c r e d time form h i s The Sacred and the Profane, we w i l l amazing s i m i l a r i t y between the two 1.2.3  (Mircea E l i a d e ,  find  an  1959).  PSYCHOLOGICAL TIME In h i s Time and Timelessness, P e t e r H a r t o c o l l i s comments t h a t  time i s c o n c e i v a b l e i n two broad ways: as a s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , or  what  is  known  as  psychological  time,  e x p e r i e n c e , or c l o c k , and c a l e n d a r time  and  as  objective  ( H a r t o c o l l i s , P3,  1983).  However, the use of p h y s i c a l time concepts i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of human events life.  i s often  artificial  and  misleading  i n our  Simply t o view time i n the same u n i t s and dimensions as the  p h y s i c i s t employs i n d e s c r i b i n g events i g n o r e s the l i v i n g of  daily  quality  time. In  fact,  differences  societies  in their  and  individuals  constructions  and  uses  demonstrate of time;  vast  temporal  p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s change w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l both d u r i n g a s i n g l e day and throughout h i s or her l i f e span 1977  Pvii).  We have a l l experienced a c e r t a i n d i s c o n t i n u i t y  heterogeneity time  of  short,  our  (Bernard Gorman,  of time. work,  'festal  and  time'"  "There time  i s the c o m p a r a t i v e l y monotonous  of  celebration  (Mircea E l i a d e ,  q u a l i t y of time i s s t u d i e d by  and  1959,  psychologists,  and P71) .  spectacles—in This  living  who  r e g a r d time as s u b j e c t i v e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e — t h e human sense of time.  In c o n t r a s t t o p h y s i c a l time, which i s r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d regular,  psychological  influenced  by  psychological  time  i t s context, states  Some days i n a year  of  is  or  more  subjective,  setting,  and  i n d i v i d u a l s (Edward  are chosen f o r the  f e s t i v a l s i n every s o c i e t y .  the  1983,  patterns  Spring F e s t i v a l  P19). and  In China, a t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l  of farming.  (Chinese New  and  annual c e l e b r a t i o n s  s o c i e t y , most f e s t i v a l s stem from people's emotional seasonal  obviously  emotional  Hall,  and  The  most important  response to festival—the  Year), a l s o the f i r s t day  of  Spring  i n Chinese l u n a r calendar, i s a e x c i t i n g r e a c t i o n t o the  beginning  of  important  another  year-long  challenge.  The  second  most  f e s t i v a l , the Moon F e s t i v a l , on the 15th of August i n the Chinese Lunar Calendar,  i s a c e l e b r a t i o n of the  Every  i t s own  s o c i e t y has  psychological  time  image.  special  harvest. times  Another  in i t s collective  significant  aspect  p s y c h o l o g i c a l time i s i t s s t r o n g attachment t o p l a c e . can occur without i t has it  a context.  No  of  event  Whenever a c e l e b r a t i o n takes p l a c e ,  a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on the time image of the p l a c e i n which  occurs.  1.3.4  PHENOMENOLOGICAL TIME Phenomenology, which o r i g i n a t e d about 1905  philosopher  Edmund H u s s e r l ,  i s "the  study  with  the German  of a l l appearances i n  human experience, d u r i n g which c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y and  of  purely  s u b j e c t i v e response  are  account "(Margery Berube, ed.,1982).  temporarily  left  out  of  14 In  h i s The Sacred and t h e Profane  (Eliade, Mircea,  1959),  M i r c e a E l i a d e shows t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l human e x p e r i e n c e of time  between  a  religious  person  and a  nonreligious  man.  A  r e l i g i o n s person experiences " s a c r e d time", w h i l e a n o n r e l i g i o u s p e r s o n o n l y e x p e r i e n c e s "profane time".  Mircea E l i a d e  contends  t h a t time has a d i f f e r e n t meaning f o r r e l i g i o u s people: For r e l i g i o u s man time, l i k e space i s n e i t h e r homogeneous nor c o n t i n u o u s . On the one hand t h e r e a r e t h e i n t e r v a l s of a s a c r e d time, t h e time of f e s t i v a l s (by f a r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of which a r e p e r i o d i c a l ) ; on t h e other hand t h e r e i s profane time, o r d i n a r y temporal d u r a t i o n i n which a c t s without r e l i g i o u s meaning have t h e i r s e t t i n g " The Sacred and t h e Profane, 1959, P68 We can see t h a t s a c r e d time i s r e p e a t a b l e and r e v e r s i b l e and does not  change.  In m y t h i c a l time people  do n o t age, f o r they are  magic; by p u t t i n g themselves i n s a c r e d time, people s u b c o n s c i o u s l y r e a f f i r m and acknowledge t h e i r own d i v i n i t y  (Edward H a l l , 1983,  PP24-25). T h i s temporal q u a l i t y i s i n a c c e s s i b l e t o n o n r e l i g i o u s people, for  whom,  time  can p r e s e n t  neither  break  nor mystery;  c o n s t i t u t e s man's deepest e x i s t e n t i a l dimension; his  time  i t i s linked to  own l i f e , hence i t has a b e g i n n i n g and an end, which i s death,  the a n n i h i l a t i o n psychological understand  of l i f e .  time.  Understanding  sacred  time,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l time a t a h i g h e r l e v e l .  and phenomenological relation  We see s a c r e d time as a s a n c t i f i e d  of s p e c i a l  helps  us t o  Psychological  time r e v e a l t h e time image of p l a c e w i t h the human  e v e n t s — c e l e b r a t i o n s and  festivals.  Such events p r o v i d e accents of f a n t a s t i c imagery and h i g h energy  t o the d a i l y c y c l e of l i f e . These s p e c i a l times o f t e n g i v e s p e c i a l l o o k s t o p l a c e s , and make p l a c e s  remarkable.  The f i n a l i s s u e on the time image of p l a c e i s the c r e a t i o n of derelict site. is  a simple,  past  A l l o w i n g a s i t e t o g e n t l y s l i p i n t o such a s t a t e  effective,  and  inexpensive  landscapes i n t o the f u t u r e  way  (Paterson,  to c a r r y a sense of 1989,  P  30).  In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e are two ways t o p e r c e i v e the passage of time, p h y s i c a l time, p s y c h o l o g i c a l time time"). images  of  place.  A l l of  To  these  seven  topics  will  of temporal p a t t e r n s  be  IMAGES OF PHYSICAL TIME:  N a t u r a l Recurrence Seasonal Image Night Image Future Image Sequence i n Space  THREE ISSUES ON THE  IMAGES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TIME:  1) C e l e b r a t i o n s and F e s t i v a l s 2) Layers of Previous Occupancy 3) D e r e l i c t S i t e s and Ruins  used  i n the  l i s t them:  FIVE ISSUES ON THE 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)  "sacred  There are seven i s s u e s c o n s i d e r i n g the c r e a t i o n of time  g u i d e - l i n e s f o r the g e n e r a t i o n chapter.  (which i n c l u d e s  as  next  16  1.3 THE ORDER AND MEANING OF PLACE 1.3.1—1.3.2 THE ORDER OF PLACE V e g e t a b l e T i s s u e : Hard Wloberg, P l a t e 49)  Maple  Under  315 Microscope  (Lewis R.  17 1.3.1  M e c h a n i s t i c Order and H o l i s t i c We  live  i n an ordered  world.  Order Our u n i v e r s e  i s an ordered  u n i v e r s e . The galaxy, t h e m i l k y way, t h e s o l a r system, t h e e a r t h and t h e moon a l l have t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n r e g u l a t e d o r b i t s . i s r e l a t e d t o our p e r c e p t i o n o f goodness i n our l i f e .  Order  Order means  h e a l t h t o our body, e f f i c i e n c y t o our d a i l y work, and power and s t r e n g t h f o r an army. as a f u n c t i o n a l and  I n these cases, we i n f a c t understand  m e c h a n i s t i c o r d e r — a good arrangement, as a  s t a t e i n which a l l components o r elements a r e arranged comprehensively  or naturally  Mechanistic  order  order  has  c e n t u r i e s , and s t i l l i s today.  logically,  (Cayne, ed., 1988, P705). been  a  dominant  world  view f o r  A c c o r d i n g t o C h r i s t o p h e r Alexander  i n h i s u n p u b l i s h e d The Nature o f Order,  the mechanistic idea of  o r d e r o r i g i n a t e d w i t h Descartes about 1600.  Descartes e x p l a i n e d  t h a t one can f i n d out how something works by p r e t e n d i n g t h a t i t is  a machine  (Alexander,  Chapter  1, P7, 1988).  However, one  important r o l e — t h e observer i s m i s s i n g i n t h i s m e c h a n i s t i c view. T h e r e f o r e , t h i s p h i l o s o p h y f a i l e d t o p e r c e i v e the l i v e d - e x p e r i e n c e of  t h e world. We  can take  as an  example,  the  design  a r c h i t e c t u r e o f l a t e r 18th c e n t u r y i n France.  of  beaux-arts  Everything i n the  d e s i g n , from t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e facade, and t h e order (of t h e p i l l a r s ) , t o t h e l a y - o u t o f t h e d e t a i l s , has been r a t i o n a l i z e d and regulated i n order.  In beaux-arts a r c h i t e c t u r e , a l l o f t h e r u l e s  from Greek and Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e a r e f u r t h e r made a b s o l u t e , t h e  18 result  i s that,  architecture,  although and  architecture,  we  we  can f e e l  powerfulness  only  feel  happiness  and  rigidity  glory  behind  Greek  behind  Roman  and c o o l n e s s behind t h e ,  u s u a l l y h e r o i c , beaux-arts a r c h i t e c t u r e . The  same  architecture.  evolution  occurred  in  (A.D. to  official  Chinese  S t y l e d i d not change f o r about 2 000 y e a r s , but was  always b e i n g r e f i n e d and r e - r e f i n e d . were w r i t t e n  the  and r e - w r i t t e n .  Volume a f t e r volume o f r u l e s  By t h e time  1644-1911), e v e r y t h i n g from  of t h e Qing  Dynasty  the form and c o l o u r o f t i l e s  t h e procedure f o r making a s m a l l beam was r e g u l a t e d .  Comparing  a b u i l d i n g i n t h e Tong Dynasty  (A.D. 618-907) w i t h a b u i l d i n g o f  the  Dynasty,  same  type  unconstrained  i n the  Qing  originality  from  the  p e r f e c t i o n , and l i f e l e s s gorgeousness  we  find  former,  boldness  but  the  and rigid  i n the l a t t e r .  The c o n c l u s i o n i s simple. In t h e e a r l y time i n both c u l t u r e s , p a r t s o f a b u i l d i n g were d e f i n e d out of t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t a b u i l d i n g i s a whole; i n t h e l a t e r time, a b u i l d i n g was c o n s t r u c t e d out In  of the well-regulated parts, o t h e r words,  we  causes l i f e l e s s n e s s ,  can say t h a t  and the wholeness fossilized  and human-intervened,  was m i s s i n g .  m e c h a n i s t i c order  "rough", and h o l i s t i c  o r d e r b r i n g s out l i f e . Alexander understands o r d e r as having an e s s e n t i a l to  "life"  and "wholeness".  t h e i r wholeness,  relation  He says t h a t we must see t h i n g s i n  not as p a r t s o r fragments, and we must r e c o g n i z e  every t h i n g , even an a p p a r e n t l y inanimate t h i n g l i k e a b u i l d i n g , as something  real  (Alexander, 1988, Chpt-1,  P16).  H i s view o f  19 holistic ordered trunk  o r d e r has t h r e e components. living  and  subject  branch,  elements.  and  F i r s t , the elements of an  are "wholes", the  leaf  of  a  f o r example, tree  are  the  such  root,  holistic  To be elements, they must be d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e ,  visible  and r e c o g n i z a b l e , because a t the same l e v e l they are coherent o r v i s i b l e wholes.  Second, the l i v i n g s u b j e c t (the t r e e ) i s an order  among wholes, and a l i v i n g s i n g l e whole. single  whole  landscape).  is a  part  of  a  larger  And f i n a l l y , t h i s l i v i n g whole  In c o n c l u s i o n , he r e f l e c t s :  any c o n d i t i o n i n which r e l a t i v e l y  "What we  call  the  order i s  coherent wholes are b u i l t out  of o t h e r wholes" (Alexander, Chpt-1, P18, 1.3.2  ( f o r example  1988).  Center and Boundary From about 1967 t o about 1985, Alexander looked a t t h i n g s or  parts of t h i n g s — b u i l d i n g s ,  tiles,  comparing  to find  them,  them, and t r y i n g  which  were  the most  deeply  stones, windows, and so  on—  out the common f e a t u r e s i n whole  and  most  alive.  He  i d e n t i f i e d f i f t e e n ways i n which o r d e r i s c r e a t e d , i n which l i f e g i v i n g wholes emerge.  These f i f t e e n ways are L e v e l s of S c a l e ,  Centers, Boundaries, A l t e r n a t i n g R e p e t i t i o n , P o s i t i v e Space, Good Shape,  Local  Symmetries,  Deep  Interlock,  Ambiguity,  Contrast,  Graded V a r i a t i o n , Roughness, Echoes, the V o i d , Inner Calm, and Not Separateness ((1988, Chpt-5, P 80).  Center and Boundary, the most  r e l e v a n t two t o landscape d e s i g n , are chosen i n t h i s paper as a part  of  Boundary.  guidelines  for  the  pattern  generation:  Center  and  20  1. A  Center  develops  a  c e n t e r s which surround  special  field-like  i t , to achieve  In d e s i g n , Center i s normal understood the middle o f a p l a c e . center  i s t o view  effect  i t s own f i e l d - l i k e  where  a  understanding o f  quality  something (e.g. meaning, f u n c t i o n , o r experience) Therefore,  i n the middle),  c e n t e r o f experience,  instead of  i s concentrated.  a p l a c e not o n l y has a p h y s i c a l c e n t e r  necessarily  unity.  t o d e a l with the t h i n g s i n  However, a more profound  i t as a p l a c e  between t h e  (which i s not  but a l s o has a f u n c t i o n a l c e n t e r , a  or a center of a c t i v i t i e s .  2. Boundary shows how t h e f i e l d - l i k e  e f f e c t can be i n t r o d u c e d by  the c r e a t i o n o f a r i n g - l i k e c e n t e r , made o f s m a l l e r c e n t e r s which surround  and  c e n t e r s beyond formation  intensify it.  the f i r s t  and a l s o  Boundary can be anything  of center.  A  strong  boundary  unite  i t with  the  t h a t supports t h e  i s essential  to the  insideness of place . 2  I n s i d e n e s s i s t h e sense o f b e i n g i n s i d e a p l a c e . "To be i n s i d e a p l a c e i s t o belong t o i t and t o i d e n t i f y with i t , and the more p r o f o u n d l y i n s i d e you a r e t h e s t r o n g e r i s t h i s i d e n t i t y with the p l a c e " (Relph, P49, 1979).  21  1.3.3—1.3.4 The  MEANING OF PLACE  S p i r i t of Place  (Hakan P e t t e r s o n , 1989, P97)  22  G E N I U S LOCI  1.3.3  The on  l a s t b a s i c component i s the meaning of p l a c e . The  the meaning of p l a c e  come from the work a v a r i e t y of  ideas  people,  i n c l u d i n g Norberg-Schulz, E. Relph, F r i t z S t e e l e and L a u r i e O l i n (Landscape J o u r n a l , P.149—P168, 1988).  Every p l a c e has meaning.  P l a c e speaks t o us  i t conveys t o us  i n a non-verbal  v e r y o f t e n s y m b o l i c a l l y ; and The  way;  s t i r s our emotions by i t s ambience.  meanings of p l a c e are the b a s i c mode i n which the  i s "given". induced  feelings  of  fascination,  awe,  s t i m u l a t i o n s o f a l l s o r t " (P195, 1988) . say t h a t p l a c e i s simply experience  place  Norberg-Schulz: experience In Schulz meaning  fear,  birth  and  On the o t h e r hand, we  may  i t i s o n l y t h a t humans by  i n a meaningful way. of  LOCI  of  place.  gives  According  being life  death,  (Norberg-Schulz,  has  (Norberg-Schulz,  P18,  "Genius L o c i " , to  ancient  i t genius,  to people and  the  the  (1980,  GENIUS  one  In  h i s l i f e - s i t u a t i o n s as m e a n i n g f u l " book  is  uses a Roman c o n c e p t i o n ,  to  interest  needs  his  "It  place,  and  determines 1979).  have  contemplation,  basic  "independent" spirit  world  To quote L a u r i e O l i n , " c o n s i s t e n t l y , landscapes  amusement, and d e l i g h t — i n s h o r t , v i s u a l and sensory  nature  ideas,  their  Thus, the  words  of  man  to  of P5).  1979),  Norberg-  to refer to  Roman  i t s guardian  places,  their  the  belief,  every  spirit.  This  accompanies character  them or  from  essence  genius denotes what a  t h i n g i s , or t o use the words of L o u i s Kahn, the genius i s "what a t h i n g wants t o be".  I t i s s i m i l a r as a c h a r a c t e r i n a n o v e l ,  once h i s / h e r s p i r i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d , even t h e author can not change t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s Several Firstly,  qualities  t h e meaning  cannot t e l l general  are r e l a t e d of p l a c e  does.  a property  immediately.  "They  t o t h e meaning  i s a non-verbal  a s t o r y as l i t e r a t u r e  "atmosphere",  perceive  fate. of place.  expression, i t  However, i t c r e a t e s a  of p l a c e  which  (landscapes)  everybody can  can express c e r t a i n  t h i n g s , can possess symbols and r e f e r t o i d e a s , event, and o b j e c t s extrinsic  to their  circumstances  own  elements  and  locus,  and  i n certain  can be d i d a c t i c and/or h i g h l y p o e t i c ( L a u r i e O l i n ,  Landscape J o u r n a l , P185, 1988). Second, t h e meaning of a p l a c e i s a complex t o t a l i t y ,  which  o f t e n i s so d i s t i n c t t h a t one word seems s u f f i c i e n t t o grasp i t s essence  (Norberg-Schulz,  one meaning.  P16, 1980).  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p l a c e has d i f f e r e n t meanings a t  different levels.  For example, we may be a b l e t o f i n d a i n t i m a t e  c o r n e r i n a sacred p l a c e . might  be c o n t r a d i c t o r y ;  meanings f o r d i f f e r e n t Finally,  However, p l a c e always has  Even more, meanings a t d i f f e r e n t or a place  may have  exactly  levels  opposite  people.  the meaning  of p l a c e  does  not have  an  obvious  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s i z e or s c a l e of a p l a c e .  Sometimes, a s m a l l  detail  "In t h e p r i m i t i v e  can mean more  than  a whole  site.  s o c i e t i e s we f i n d t h a t even t h e s m a l l e s t environmental d e t a i l s a r e known  and meaningful,  structure"  and t h a t  (Norberg-Schulz,  they  P21, 1980).  make  up  complex  Unfortunately,  spatial i n our  24 modern time we and  o f t e n n e g l e c t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of u s i n g  decorations  1.3.4  THE  details  to i n t e n s i f y the meaning of p l a c e .  TYPICAL MEANINGS OF PLACE  Although the meaning of a p l a c e i s complicated  and  subtle,  p l a c e g e n e r a l l y does share s e v e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : sacredness,  mystery, and  intimacy.  Sacred  landscapes  the o l d e s t and i n c o n t e s t a b l y most meaningful landscapes.  are among They are  a s s o c i a t e d with s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s , e s p e c i a l l y those of the o r i g i n a l myths of a n c i e n t peoples P159,  1988).  ( L a u r i e O l i n , Landscape J o u r n a l ,  I n s p i r a t i o n f o r the  from the f o l l o w i n g aspects of  V7(2),  sacredness of p l a c e may  come  life:  1) The r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l views of the world; 2) the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s towards d w e l l i n g and p l a c e creation; 3) the v i s i o n towards the f u t u r e of a p l a c e ; 4) the a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s towards l i f e ; and, 5) the deep emotional involvement, and profound attachment with a place Intimate  landscapes  c h a r a c t e r i z e the  e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y of  d w e l l i n g , which i s mostly r e l a t e d t o the d a i l y and p e r s o n a l of people.  An  i n t i m a t e p l a c e u s u a l l y has  life  several q u a l i t i e s :  1. Roughness: An i n t i m a t e p l a c e tends t o have more v a r i e t y than u n i t y ; i t i s more i n t r i c a t e and entangled than p l a i n and pure. 2. H i g h l y p e r s o n a l i z e d and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o d a i l y l i f e : i n t i m a t e p l a c e s are mostly marked with the t a s t e and c h a r a c t e r of a person, or a s m a l l group of people. It is g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t the more the p u b l i c i t y a p l a c e has, the l e s s i t i s i n t i m a t e . 3. Smallness of s c a l e : Because of the c l o s e r e l a t i o n with every-day l i f e , an i n t i m a t e p l a c e always has a s m a l l scale. I t i s a p l a c e of p l a i n immediacy and e f f i c i e n c y .  25  M y s t e r i o u s landscapes are always r e l a t e d t o the unknown r u l e s or powers, something w i t h i n comprehension, but ( p a r t i a l l y ) beyond understanding. creating  There are a wide range of t e c h n i q u e s f o r  mystery:  p l a y w i t h d i s t a n c e / moongate, frame, view t o f a r away p l a c e s "here and t h e r e " . 2 . depth: t h i c k w a l l , t h i c k woods 3 . l a y e r i n g of o b j e c t s 4 . l i g h t : c a t h e d r a l - r o s e window 5. d e t a i l and p a t t e r n play with c o n t r a d i c t i o n 6. anthropomorphizing 7. 8 . the obscure i n sequence 9 . t h i n g s out of p l a c e 10. t h i n g s t h a t are incomplete 11. t h i n g s t h a t are sudden, unexpected and s u r p r i s e 12. l i m i t e d access Note from Lecture of Professor Douglas Paterson, 1989 1.  These t h r e e meanings can be found i n the b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s of our  landscapes, which i n c l u d e landscapes of work, m y s t i c i s m  and  worship, d w e l l i n g (both i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y ) , a u t h o r i t y , and  pleasure.  worship,  Sacredness  is  common  to  landscapes  of  work,  and a u t h o r i t y ; intimacy i s found i n landscapes of work,  dwelling,  and  p l e a s u r e ; w h i l e mystery  occurs  mysticism  and  worship,  (Laurie  J o u r n a l , V 7-2,  P150,  and  authority  i n landscapes Olin,  of  Landscape  1988).  Methods of i n j e c t i n g meaning i n t o a designed landscape  range  from c r e a t i n g t a b l e a u s w i t h r e c o g n i z a b l e c r e a t u r e s and f i g u r e s t o abstract  r e f e r e n c e s i m p l i e d by the  structure  or arrangement of  n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l elements t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d t o those t o which the d e s i g n r e f e r s Generally,  there  ( L a u r i e O l i n , Landscape J o u r n a l , V 7-2, are  three  ways: Denotation,  P160).  Connotation,  and  expression. other  Denotation  forms  of  calligraphy,  and  i s a d i r e c t d i s p l a y of the s u b j e c t through  visual  arts,  poems, and  for  example,  architecture.  sculpture,  Connotation  r e f e r e n c e of the work to t h i n g s not present  but  Olin,  include  P160,  metaphor.  1988). The  Often-used  l a s t one  methods  We  can  conclude  that  essence of p l a c e , and Center and Boundary are two the  creation  of  is  "the  (Laurie  symbols  and  i s e x p r e s s i o n , which i s to c r e a t e a mood  or f e e l i n g through s t y l e .  in  invoked"  story  ordered  landscape.  We  order  is  important can  an  issues  also  make  c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t meaning of p l a c e r e v e a l s a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between  place  sacredness,  and  people,  mystery, and  and  basic  intimacy.  place  meanings  include  27  CHAPTER TWO  PATTERN GENERATION  Animal T i s s u e : I n t e r n a l E a r o f Guinae P i g (enlarged (Lewis R. Wolberg, 1970, P l a t e 145)  250 t i m e s ) ,  28 INTRODUCTION  The  word  t a t i v e plan  " p a t t e r n " normally  With r e s p e c t t o a p l a c e , p a t t e r n means  structure,  activities  or  r e c u r r i n g events"  g r e a t number of our d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . patterns  of f u l l t i m e students.  a  number  great  of  p a t t e r n s behind  shower,  and  seminars,  F,  happening few,  going  breakfast),  to  and  the  library,  relaxing  i n our  in fact,  watching  television,  pattern:  the  and  studying and  (going  going  to  are  but  the  lives,  only t h r e e . ( g e t t i n g up,  (attending  talking  home  there  to  again,  bed).  And  b a s i c a l l y study  finally,  First, taking a  classes  classmates having  Second,  and and  dinner,  the  events i n c l u d e e n t e r t a i n i n g , s o c i a l i z i n g ,  shopping.  a  Let us analyze the a c t i v i t y  Throughout the year,  activities  them are o n l y  having  professors),  mas  (Steele  a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s behind  the weekday p a t t e r n : i t i n c l u d e s p r e p a r i n g  and  as  P139). N o t i c e a b l y , t h e r e are o n l y a few  and  represen-  c o n s i s t e n t combinations of environmental elements, such  things, 1971,  a stable,  (or diagram, i d e a , model, and sample), which i s worth  f o l l o w i n g , or i m i t a t i n g . "the  r e f e r s to  weekend cleaning  the y e a r l y p a t t e r n : as students,  we  at s c h o o l when s c h o o l i s i n s e s s i o n (with middle  f i n a l term exams), work i n the summer, v i s i t home a t C h r i s t time.  There  occasionally, winter.  like  Notice  are  also  camping  that  patterns  of our  only two  patterns—the  some in  i t i s not  activities  the  other  high  summer,  and  spots  happening  skiing  in  the  but  the  There  are  simply  the  activities  that decides  who  we  weekday p a t t e r n and the  are.  yearly p a t t e r n —  that  are  share  exclusively for fulltime  the weekend p a t t e r n .  from o t h e r  same t h i n g s happen t o a p l a c e .  events happen a t a p l a c e  Almost a l l people  I t i s only these  d i s t i n g u i s h f u l l t i m e students The  students.  every  p a t t e r n s behind the events.  day,  two  p a t t e r n s which  people. Although a d i v e r s i t y of  there  are  Our experiences  relatively  fewer  t h e r e f o r e depend not  simply on the p h y s i c a l environment, but on the p a t t e r n s of events. To  quote  buildings place  Alexander: and  "In  towns, we  i s given  patterns lived  is alive; play  a higher-level place One  define  must begin  by  and  this  life  that  in  every  of events t h a t  I f the p a t t e r n s are good,  the p l a c e dead. objective role  given place.  quality  understanding  certain patterns  (1979, P55).  i f not,  a concrete  q u a l i t y of any  Chapter  to  i t s c h a r a c t e r by  keep on happening t h e r e " the p l a c e  order  I t i s clear that i n determining  the  To see a p l a c e i n p a t t e r n i s  experience.  deals  with  place,  p h y s i c a l order and meaning of p l a c e .  time  image  of  T h i s chapter,  place,  and  Chapter  Two,  i s intended t o convey the design ideas of time, order, and meaning of p l a c e i n t o d e s i g n p a t t e r n s .  P a t t e r n g e n e r a t i o n i s , i n a sense,  a procedure t o t e s t the e l i g i b i l i t y HOW  must a l s o be shared  1. 2.  ideas.  TO FIND PATTERN A p a t t e r n must be deep and  for  of the  capable  by many people.  of g e n e r a t i n g  Alexander has  life.  It  several rules  discovering a q u a l i f i e d pattern: We must f i r s t d e f i n e some p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e of the p l a c e , which seems worth a b s t r a c t i n g . Next, we must d e f i n e the problems, or the f i e l d of f o r c e s which t h i s p a t t e r n b r i n g s i n t o balance.  3 0  3.  F i n a l l y , we must d e f i n e the range of c o n t e x t s where t h i s system of f o r c e s e x i s t s and where t h i s p a t t e r n of p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l indeed a c t u a l l y b r i n g i t i n t o balance. The T i m e l e s s Way  of B u i l d i n g ,  1979,  P243-53  In summary, every p a t t e r n must be formulated i n the form of a  rule  which  establishes a  relationship  between  a  context,  a  system of f o r c e s which a r i s e s i n t h a t context, and a c o n f i g u r a t i o n which a l l o w s these f o r c e s t o r e s o l v e themselves THE  i n that context.  ESSENCE OF A PATTERN A p a t t e r n l i n k s the t h e o r y o f p r i n c i p l e s with the  tions  of d e s i g n .  ideas,  but  I t s aim  i t cannot  concept i n i t s e l f . to  apply  i t on  be  i d e a s and 1.  2. 3. 4.  understood  as  a  enlighten design  site  specific  design  I t should not be too ambiguous f o r a d e s i g n e r a  site,  designer's imagination. have the  i s t o b r i n g out and  applica-  and  not  so  As Alexander  narrow  as  indicates,  to  limit  the  a p a t t e r n must  f o l l o w i n g major components t o a c t as a b r i d g e between designs.  To s t r i k e the balance between being too narrow and too l o o s e , you must express and v i s u a l i z e a p a t t e r n as a k i n d of f l u i d image, a m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e e l i n g , a s w i r l i n g i n t u i t i o n about form, which c a p t u r e s the i n v a r i a n t f i e l d which i s the pattern. Then, once you d i s c o v e r a f l u i d f i e l d of r e l a t i o n s h i p l i k e t h i s , you must r e d e f i n e i t , as an e n t i t y , t o make i t operational. For the same reason you must be a b l e t o draw i t . And f i n a l l y , f o r the same reason too, you must g i v e i t a name. The T i m e l e s s Way of B u i l d i n g , Alexander, PP 263-67, 1979, Through h i s works A P a t t e r n Language, The  Building,  and  The  Nature  Alexander  consistently  of  Order  searches  Timeless Way  (unpublished),  f o r the  of  Christopher  explanation  and  re-  c r e a t i o n of t h e " l i v e d q u a l i t y " i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , landscape, other  a r t works.  cannot be named.  He says t h a t t h i s  q u a l i t y can be sensed but  He makes a continuous  q u a l i t y i n a h o l i s t i c way.  e f f o r t to re-create  H i s A P a t t e r n Language  Alexander e t a l , 1977) r e p r e s e n t s t h i s e f f o r t . desires like  i s t o create  the o l d towns  a place that  and  he  (Christopher  In f a c t , what he  i s comfortable  and o l d b u i l d i n g s  this  often  and i n t i m a t e , mentions and  analyzes. By with  following h i s patterns,  an i n t i m a t e c h a r a c t e r .  good q u a l i t i e s of p l a c e s .  we can c r e a t e  But i n t i m a c y  place  i s o n l y one of many  There a r e many other  or Genius L o c i , such as sacredness,  an ordered  characteristics,  d e r e l i c t i o n , and mystery.  We  need p l a c e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s , and do our best t o c r e a t e these  places.  "sacredness", pattern  i s why t h e t o p i c  "intimate",  as w e l l as,  and "mystery" a r e chosen as t h e g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e  generation.)  As text.  (This  i s i n d i c a t e d above, every  p a t t e r n must have a s i t e  con-  A s i t e context i n c l u d e s t h e name and f u n c t i o n o f t h e s i t e ,  the s i z e  (or shape) o f t h e s i t e ,  a larger structure.  and t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s i t e i n  Under each t o p i c i n t h i s paper, t h e r e a r e  u s u a l l y t h r e e l e v e l s of p a t t e r n .  One i s i n t h e g e n e r a l  landscape  c o n t e x t ; t h e others a r e i n s i t e and d e s i g n d e t a i l c o n t e x t s .  The  f o l l o w i n g l i s t p r o v i d e s a b r i e f view of t h e p a t t e r n s a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s under t h e twelve t o p i c s .  32  A L I S T OF PATTERNS FOR A WATERFRONT DESIGN CATEGORY OF PATTERN: TIME  Rhythm Season Future Sequence M a t e r i a l s and C o n s t r u c t i o n s  ORDER  Center  Celebration Derelict  Layer Night  Boundary  MEANING Sacred P l a c e s Scale  Landscape Context  2 .1 RHYTHM  2.1.1 Displaying Natural Rhythms  2.2  SEASONS  Trees  2.3.2 F e s t i v a l s and Celebrations  2 . 4 LAYER  2.4.1 Heritage Preservations  2 . 5 NIGHT  2.5.1 Night L i f e i n the C i t y  2 . 6 FUTURE  2.6.1 Incremental Development  2 . 8 SEQUENCE  Design Details 2.1.2 Things A f l o a t 2.1.3 Time Devices as Decorations  2.2.1 Fruit  2. 3 CELEBRATIONS  2 . 7 DERELICT  Site Context  2.2.2 Seasonal Decoration 2.3.3 B i r t h d a y Marks 2.4.2 Building-in Old Traces  2.6.2 Making Changes Visible 2.7.1 Derelict  Site  2.8.1 S i t e Context  2.7.2 Gardens Growing Wild 2.8.2 Move and Rest  33 2.9 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION  2.9.1 T i m e l e s s Materials 2.9.2 T i m e l e s s Way of Constructions  2.10 CENTER  2.10.1 H i e r a r c h y of Centers  2 . 11 BOUNDARY  2.11.1 Waterfront Boundary  2 .12 SACRED PLACE  2.12 .1 Theme Park  2.10.2 Something Roughly i n the M i d d l e 2.11.2 Thick Walls 4.12 .1 Graves i n the Park  4.13 . 3 Site Specific Signs  34  . 1 RHYTHMICAL RECURRENCE N a t u r a l Stream  (Howard Hibbard, 1980, P121)  35  2 . 1 RHYTHMICAL RECURRENCE Many good p l a c e s d i s p l a y r h y t h m i c a l r e c u r r e n c e s o f sounds o r views, such as the r i s e and f a l l of t i d e s and the chiming of a c l o c k b e l l . These r e c u r r e n c e s generate a q u i e t and comfort ambience. Rhythmic a c t i o n i s enjoyed by young c h i l d r e n . be  a fundamental way o f o r i e n t i n g themselves t o t h e world about  them. and with  Rhythm i s o f t e n connected w i t h mental h e a l t h , w i t h l e a r n i n g  memory, and with s t a t e s o f s e c u r i t y . rhythms:  heartbeat,  increasing  and d e c r e a s i n g  inactivity  o f the b r a i n .  perceived  breathing,  t i d e s o f t h e sea,  and waking, t h e  and t h e a c t i v i t y and  But n o t a l l o f these  rhythms can be  directly.  p r o c e s s e s i n t h e landscape.  such as c y c l e s o f sun and moon, waves  and p e r i o d s  drums, and b e l l s ,  displayed  sleeping  easily.  Some o f them a r e n a t u r a l ,  clocks,  Our bodies a r e f i l l e d  o f hormones,  There a r e a l s o many r h y t h m i c a l  and  I t appears t o  o f wind and r a i n . Others,  are a r t i f i c i a l .  There a r e simple  c y c l e s o f change, such as flames, c l o u d s ,  like  Most rhythms can be  and f a s c i n a t i n g  natural  sunsets, f l o w i n g water,  s u r f , g r a s s r i p p l i n g and r e f l e c t i n g sun l i g h t . Making t h e rhythms more p e r c e i v a b l e c r e a t i o n o f t h e time image o f p l a c e . amplify  i s the c r u c i a l  To do t h i s , we can e i t h e r  a hidden change o r t r a n s f e r i t t o a more v i s i b l e one. A  good landscape a r c h i t e c t knows how t o a m p l i f y o f f l o w i n g water i n t h e s i t e . tional amplify  for the  aquatic  plant  t h e s i g h t and sound  F o r example, t h e l o t u s i s a t r a d i -  i n Chinese  gardens,  t h e rhythm of t h e r a i n i n t h e summer.  whose  large  leaves  36  We  can a l s o c r e a t e v i s u a l - v i s u a l , v i s u a l - s o u n d , and sound-  sound t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . heightened shifting low t i d e , Surfaces  by  F o r example,  can be  sound o r by s u r f a c e s t o c a t c h and i n t e n s i f y t h e  colour.  B e l l s might be rung a t t h e moment o f h i g h o r  or at the r i s i n g that  t h e moment o f sunset  catch  or s e t t i n g  the l i g h t  o f the sun or t h e moon.  and change  character  as t h e sun  angle s h i f t s , o r p l a n t s t h a t t r a n s f o r m themselves with t h e seasons are  ways  to  emphasis  rhythm.  Therefore,  i n the design  of  w a t e r f r o n t parks, make sure t o do t h e f o l l o w i n g : 2.1.1 DISPLAYING NATURAL RHYTHMS In the landscape  o f a l l s i z e s and types, make sure t o f i n d ,  d e f i n e , o r c r e a t e n a t u r a l r e c u r r e n c e s , i n s t e a d of n e g l e c t i n g and e l i m i n a t i n g them. t r y t o preserve i t .  F o r example, when t h e r e  i s a creek  o r pond,  I n a p l a c e where wind i s s t r o n g , r e v e a l i t  by f l a g s , o r wind i n s t r u m e n t s .  The n a t u r a l r e c u r r e n c e s i n c l u d e :  sun, moon, wave and t i d e , wind, and weather o f the day, t o name o n l y a few. The Japanese p a i n t i n g shows how t o make t h e wind v i s i b l e by u s i n g a " f l y i n g f i s h " ( A r t Museum a t Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1980, P206).  37 2.1.2  THINGS FLOATING T i d e s and waves are e n j o y a b l e n a t u r a l rhythms.  People l i k e  to be near water and on the water t o enjoy the motion of the sea. A l o n g the edges of a water body, whether the shore of the sea, the banks o f the r i v e r and l a k e , o r the border of pond, b u i l d paths, f i s h i n g p i e r s ,  docks,  and f l o w e r gardens which are a f l o a t on the  water. A f l o a t i n g amphitheatre—the summer, Columbus, Ohio (Ann 1986) .  2.1.3  park's most popular u n i t i n the Breen ed, Urban Waterfronts 85',  TIME DEVICES AS DECORATIONS Time d e v i c e s , such as c l o c k s , b e l l s , and s u n d i a l s are s a t i s -  fying  outdoor s c u l p t u r e s .  symbols of time. something  They not o n l y t e l l  time, but a l s o are  Do not l i m i t the concept of the time d e v i c e as  that t e l l s  us the hours  of a day,  but t h i n k of i t as  38 a n y t h i n g t h a t measures and v i s u a l i z e s rhythmic o c c u r r e n c e s . example, a b e l l may the t i d e ; a c h a i r may you;  a new  can  tell  t r e e may the  age  r i n g a t the h i g h and  low t i d e s t o  For  accentuate  t e l l you how many people have used i t b e f o r e be p l a n t e d i n a p l a z a every year, so of  the  place  by  the  number  and  people  size  of  trees. Therefore,  i n a corner of a park,  along a path,  and  on  a  s t r e e t , where a "something" i s needed as a f o c a l p o i n t , or decorat i o n , t h i n k of u s i n g a time d e v i c e .  39  2.2  SEASON  SPRING, SUMMER, AND WINTER (Royal LePage Calender 1989)  40  2 .2  SEASONS Every p l a c e has i t s should be emphasized i n As we  own seasonal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which our d e s i g n s .  spend more of our  lives  i n i n t e r i o r environments,  we  are d e p r i v e d of many n a t u r a l c l u e s t o the passage of seasons.  We  i s o l a t e o u r s e l v e s i n g l a s s boxes, or i n b u i l d i n g s without windows. Seasons p l a y important  r o l e s i n our l i v e s and  emotions.  In the  l i t e r a t u r e of many c u l t u r e s , s p r i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d as a beginning of  a new  year,  growing and  a symbol of b i r t h  and  revival.  developing, autumn h a r v e s t i n g and  w i n t e r r e s t i n g and  Summer i m p l i e s  celebration,  and  rewarding.  Every p l a c e i s a s i t e of seasonal a t t r a c t i o n , simply because of i t s geographic  location.  The seashore  i s a p l a c e f o r summer.  Snowy mountain-peaks are s p e c i a l i n w i n t e r . seasonal signs i n a place. seasons. obvious  There are a l s o many  P l a n t s t r a n s f o r m themselves  with the  Flowers and t r e e s , e s p e c i a l l y deciduous t r e e s , are very seasonal  different.  signs.  Human a c t i v i t i e s  i n places  are  S e a s o n a l l y o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s have c l e a r a r e l a t i o n  with places.  Consequently,  parks should be planned and  designed  w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the seasons, and s e a s o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . is a l i s t  also  of s e a s o n a l l y o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s :  w i n t e r park: snow, i c e s c u l p t u r e f e s t i v a l s , s k i i n g , and s k a t i n g , walking i n the r a i n . Summer park: swimming, s u r f i n g , water-games, b o a t i n g , canoeing, sunbathing. S p r i n g park: seeing f l o w e r s , t r e e s , p i c n i c k i n g Autumn park: watching the c o l o u r s changes of p l a n t s , and p i c n i c k i n g .  Here  41 2.2.1  FRUIT TREES F r u i t t r e e s are d i s t i n c t i v e l y s e a s o n a l p l a n t s .  o r c h a r d s of grove, and 2.2.2  fruit  trees  or i n d i v i d u a l  Plant small  i n parks and gardens; p l a n t f r u i t  fruit  tree  t r e e s i n s m a l l yards and along paths  streets. SEASONAL DECORATION Each  of  the  p o e t i c meanings.  four  seasons  has  its  own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , and  J u s t as people change t h e i r c l o t h e s when seasons  change, the d e c o r a t i o n s f o r each p l a c e s h o u l d a l s o change w i t h the season.  tions  By doing t h i s , we g i v e p l a c e s a p a r t i c u l a r s e a s o n a l l o o k .  There should be the d e t a i l s  designed f o r a t t a c h i n g d e c o r a -  (such a s p o s t e r s and f l a g s )  on the w a l l s of b u i l d i n g s , o r on  l i g h t posts.  Some elements of a b u i l d i n g , o r a s t r u c t u r e , such a s  r o o f of a s h e l t e r , s u r f a c e of steps can be designed t o change w i t h seasons. A. L i g h t Post at Christmas Time, Macon, G e o r g i a , USA  B. The L i g h t Post of Vancouver, BC, Canada  42 2.3  CELEBRATIONS  Copacabana, B o l i v i a : Jam-packed p i l g r i m s , many from f o r e i g n lands, crowed Copacabana each year t o honour her famous V i r g i n ( N a t i o n a l Geographic, February 1966, P171).  43  2.3  CELEBRATIONS Urban environments o f f e r endless p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h e a t r e and a l l s o r t of spaces can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o energy of a c e l e b r a t i o n . Urban Waterfronts '85,  1986,  for the  P125  A p l a c e without a s p e c i a l time i s l i k e a s o c i e t y without a f e s t i v a l , and a person without a b i r t h d a y .  The s p e c i a l time makes  a p l a c e easy t o name, and c l e a r t o remember. The Vancouver '86 s i t e would have been much l e s s n o t i c e a b l e , been a s p e c i a l event. has  been  In t h i s  of presence  given r e p e t i t i v e l y .  connections  The s p e c i a l  moment  a city,  or a f e s t i v a l a community,  This  time i s connect  may be a t v a r i o u s  a n n u a l l y , or b i a n n u a l l y .  religious,  with  of celebration.  Because t h e presence of a p l a c e w i l l  i n t e r v a l s , eg., monthly, political,  event  can be s t r o n g e r , i f a s p e c i a l  w i t h both p a s t and f u t u r e .  be  i f t h e r e had not  case, t h e presence of t h e p l a c e  e n l a r g e d by t h e s p e c i a l  enlargement  Expo  The  event can  o c c a s i o n . I t may have a neighbourhood,  or a  s p e c i a l person. S i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g of time, people i n c u l t u r e s  everywhere  have found t h e need t o express communally t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the e a r t h and the passage  of seasons.  This expression involves  c o n f r o n t i n g t h e i r demons and e x o r c i s i n g t h e i r f e a r s and a n x i e t i e s ; as w e l l as, c e l e b r a t i n g t h e i r gods and acknowledging t h e i r t i o n w i t h each o t h e r and t h e u n i v e r s e .  connec-  These wonderful o c c a s i o n s  p r o v i d e a c c e n t s of f a n t a s t i c imagery and h i g h energy t o t h e d a i l y c y c l e of l i f e .  (Breen, 1986, PP 117-125).  F e s t i v a l s and c e l e b r a t i o n s have always been geared towards comprehensive p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  They r a i s e  the energy l e v e l of t h e  e n t i r e community by t a k i n g p l a c e i n p u b l i c space and t r a n s f o r m i n g the  ordinary  perience.  environment  i n t o t h e l o c a t i o n f o r a magical  ex-  These d i s t i n c t i v e events always g i v e p l a c e s a s p e c i a l  look,  as t h e flowers  a r e on d i s p l a y , temporary  structures are  built.  The temporary s t r u c t u r e , i f favoured by t h e p u b l i c can be  r e p l a c e d by a permanent one, as the tomb o f L e n i n . old  f e s t i v a l s we have, such as New Year's Eve,  Christmas, created  and Thanksgiving,  f o r celebrations.  colours,  cold f i r e s  decoration,  For example,  wrapping f o r a b r i d g e ,  t i v a l s a r e a l l new m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  event,  usage i n normal 2.3.1  huge b a l l o o n s  (Breen,  Accordingly,  of a l l  fire) for building  and s k a t i n g and s k i i n g  F u n c t i o n a l l y , c e l e b r a t i o n and f e s t i v a l  special  Halloween Day,  many new " v o c a b u l a r i e s " have been  (low temperature chemical  i n i t s maximum usage.  Besides the  fes-  1986, PP 117-125).  a r e times when a p l a c e i s  i f a p l a c e i s designed  for a  i t s f u n c t i o n a l c a p a c i t y undoubtedly can meet t h e times.  PLACE WITH FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS Every park should be a p l a c e f o r s p e c i a l e v e n t s .  Every event  s h o u l d be programmed f o r i t s h i g h e s t p o i n t , which are c e l e b r a t i o n . If  t h e r e a r e no h i s t o r i c a l events to remember, a d e s i g n can c r e a t e  new " v o c a b u l a r i e s " of place  at  structures,  this  celebration.  special  other r e l a t e d  time  by  Give a s p e c i a l flags,  decorations.  flowers,  look to  the  temporary  45 C h r i s t o s wrapping of the Pont Neut Created a major event i n P a r i s , b r i n g i n g hundreds of thousand of people out t o c e l e b r a t e a t the water's edge (Urban Waterfronts '85, 1986, P125).  2.3.2  BIRTHDAY MARKS The b i r t h d a y of anything, s t r u c t u r e s , f u r n i t u r e , t r e e s , even  b r i c k s and  tiles  are the same importance  as people's  From time t o time, remember t o g i v e them a b i r t h d a y A t r e e w i t h the date of p l a n t i n g on the campus of the University of British Columbia.  birthdays.  mark.  46  2.4  LAYERS OF HISTORY  Apartment towers loom over a l o n e l y t a i l o r i n g shop on P a r l i a m e n t S t r e e t , Toronto ( B o r i s Spremo, 1983, P141)  47 2.4  LAYERS OF HISTORY We p r e f e r t o s e l e c t and c r e a t e our p a s t and to make i t a p a r t of our l i f e . What Time i s T h i s P l a c e , 1972, P37 The  survival  continuity. out  the  past  conveys a  I t i s a p a i n f u l experience  everything  Loci,  of  there  i n one's memories has  i s a s t o r y from the  sense  of  security  t o v i s i t a p l a c e and  and find  gone or changed. In Genius  German-born American a r c h i t e c t  Gerhard Kallmann which i l l u s t r a t e s what the experience  means:  V i s i t i n g at the end of the Second World War h i s n a t i v e B e r l i n a f t e r many years of absence, he wanted t o see the house where he had grown up. As must be expected i n B e r l i n , the house had disappeared, and Mr. Kallmann f e l t somewhat lost. Then he suddenly r e c o g n i z e d the t y p i c a l pavement of the sidewalk: the f l o o r on which he had p l a y e d as a c h i l d . And he experienced a s t r o n g f e e l i n g of having r e t u r n e d home. Genius L o c i ,  1979,  P 21  Deep i n our mind, a p o r t i o n of the p a s t t h a t has been saved as good i s not merely a promise t h a t we are l i v i n g both i n p r e s e n t and p a s t ; f u r t h e r , i t i s present.  T h i s i s one reason t h a t c i t i e s w i t h a l o n g h i s t o r y are  more comfortable city,  a promise t h a t the f u t u r e w i l l save our  where  accumulation  p l a c e f o r " d w e l l i n g " than new  streets,  buildings  of h i s t o r i c a l  events,  and we  cities.  plazas can  display  In an o l d visible  feel  the depth of time. Layers, tion  of  overlapping  landscape, building  l i k e annual r i n g s of a t r e e , are a v i s i b l e accumula-  "Layers" or  traces can be  pieces  of  from  successive  a gathering structures  periods.  In  the  of b u i l d i n g s , p a r t s of a of  different  periods.  48 Coexistence complexity  of  the  o l d and  the  new  heightens  contrast  and  s a v i n g the p a s t merely means p r e s e r v i n g  the  and makes v i s i b l e the process  To many people,  the  of change.  h i s t o r i c a l s i t e , the p l a c e w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t p a s t . They tend  to  n e g l e c t the importance of many s m a l l t h i n g s i n the p r e v i o u s p l a c e , such  as  a  seat,  a  apparently t r i v i a l  threshold,  or  an  old  path.  In  be o f t e n n e g l e c t e d .  horticultural  2.4.1  1990,  sites,  which  1. h i s t o r i c r o u t e s ; 2. a g r i c u l t u r a l  landscapes;  l i t t e r p l a c e s and (Paterson,  these  t h i n g s convey a more i n t i m a t e sense of a p a s t .  A s o c i e t y needs t o n o t i c e the p o t e n t i a l of s p e c i a l may  fact  3.  spaces;  industrial  landscapes;  5. h e r i t a g e t r e e s ; and  6.  4.  and  unique  famous views  P3).  HERITAGE PRESERVATION Layers  of  the  past  and  the  present  must be  landscape d e s i g n , e s p e c i a l l y , i n h e r i t a g e s i t e s . evidence  o f the p r e v i o u s  occupation  s i g n s of d i f f e r e n t times,  and  Choose an area t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t i a t e i t from the surroundings  of a place.  considered  in  Try to save the Preserving  the  a r r a n g i n g them t o g e t h e r as l a y e r s . the p a s t o f the p l a c e ,  differen-  by g i v i n g i t a boundary, and making  a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f the p l a c e . 2.4.2  BUILT-IN OLD In the  " l a y e r " by:  detail  TRACES design  1. p r e s e r v i n g  of h i s t o r i c a l places,  use  the method  former b u i l d i n g s , or p a r t s of  build-  i n g s . For example, a former base, i f s t r o n g enough, can s t i l l used as the base of new material  in  the  new  structure.  construction.  2.  be  making use of o l d b u i l d i n g  For  example,  pieces  of  old  49 buildings,  boats,  machines  landscape.  F u n c t i o n a l l y , i r o n c h a i n s from an o l d boat can be used  as a p a r t of a fence;  can be  enjoyable  sculptures  in  a wheel of a wagon as a p a r t of g a t e .  the  The  w a l l o f an o l d b u i l d i n g c o u l d be the pavement by simply b e i n g l a i d down. An O l d Facade as a New P l a t f o r m  Fence Made o f Used Car Wheals  50 2.5  NIGHT In the Modern w o r l d n i g h t i s a p l a c e of b r i g h t c i t y l i g h t s f o r most c i t i z e n s . Night s k i e s , b l a c k waters, moonlight shadows or a f i e l d of c l o v e r glowing i n the n i g h t , d i s t a n t l i g h t from kerosene lamp, and dark woods w i t h the sounds o f the n i g h t are r a r e l y experienced. H e r i t a g e Landscapes i n B r i t i s h Paterson, 1989, P31 Experiencing  the  place.  a place  Places  welcoming t o people. the dark sky, Watching  night  stars  p o s i t i o n i n the  and  a t n i g h t can  without  secretness,  secretness  and  p r e v e n t s people  e n r i c h people's sense of  satisfying  People enjoy going  night out  image are  at n i g h t .  the  moon,  we  think  of  our  less  Under  i s the time t o enjoy l o n e l i n e s s and  quiet.  existence  and  universe.  In darkness, the e a r t h and  a  Columbia,  i s covered by  which u n i f i e s  the  a mist  whole space.  uncertainty  of  night  from p l a c e s  such as  also parks.  of  uncertainty  However,  causes  fear,  Therefore,  the which  efforts  must be made t o h e l p people t o overcome the f e a r , otherwise they will  not  use  considered 1.  2. 3. 4.  the  park a t n i g h t .  t o s o l v e the  The  f o l l o w i n g f a c t s should  be  dilemma.  Proper D i s t a n c e : d i s t a n c e o f t e n overwhelms the i n t e n t i o n s of people. I f a park i s too f a r from r e s i d e n t s , they won't use i t . A c c o r d i n g t o Alexander, people i n t e n d t o use a park more f r e q u e n t l y , when i t i s w i t h i n three-minute walk d i s t a n c e , or 750 f e e t from t h e i r home or working p l a c e (Alexander, P308, 1977); Adequate P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y : i n parks, l i k e other p u b l i c p l a c e s , u s e r s b r i n g s about more u s i n g ; abusers a l l u r e more abusing. P a t t e r n of L i g h t : i f the l i g h t i n a park i s too s t r o n g , t h e r e i s no p r i v a c y ; i f the l i g h t i s too dim, the darkness f r i g h t e n people. Safety: s a f e t y i s a major concern of people i n d e c i d i n g whether or not they w i l l use a park. •.  Ignorance about n i g h t use o f a urban park o f t e n comes from the  thought  night.  that  t h e r e a r e not enough  activities  happening a t  I n f a c t , t h e n i g h t a c t i v i t i e s can g i v e more c h a r a c t e r t o  a place.  Obviously, a n i g h t park s h o u l d not be t o o f a r from a  r e s i d e n t i a l area, o r town-centers.  The n i g h t park should not be  too l a r g e nor the space t o o i n t r i c a t e .  Hidden c o r n e r s i s o l a t e d  from  I t i s not necessary t o  a open  design  space  s h o u l d be a v o i d e d .  a l l o f the parks  f o r night  life,  but we must open some  urban parks i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a f o r n i g h t use. 2.5.1  NIGHT LIFE AND NIGHT PARK Choose the s i t e o f a n i g h t park i n a populous a r e a . Give  more l i g h t s than i t s activities 1. 2. 3.  s u r r o u n d i n g s . Program one or s e v e r a l  f o r the p a r k .  The f o l l o w i n g are f o r design  it  special  reference:  r e s t i n g , s t r o l l i n g , and j o g g i n g ; star-watching, lantern displaying; f i r e - w o r k s d i s p l a y , music, l i g h t - f o u n t a i n , laser-show, music b i n d , p l a y and drama; 4. r e s t a u r a n t , and c o f f e e , and t e a ; 5. campfire s t o r i e s , evening c a n d l e l i g h t c e l e b r a t i o n .  52  2.6  FUTURE The s p a t i a l environment need not be s u b j e c t e d to p l a n s of awesome f u t u r e e x t e n t . I t i s more r a t i o n a l to c o n t r o l the p r e s e n t , to a c t f o r n e a r - f u t u r e ends and to keep the l o n g e r f u t u r e open, to e x p l o r e new p o s s i b i l i t i e s , to m a i n t a i n the a b i l i t y to respond to change. What Time i s The  ?,  Lynch,  1972,  P95  f u t u r e seems t o be something t h a t l i e s ahead o f us, some-  t h i n g t o be e x p l o r e d rushing  T h i s Place  w i t h hope and e f f o r t ,  o r i t may seem t o be  toward us, beyond our c o n t r o l (Lynch, 1972, P90) . A p l a c e  i s bound t o change, but when i t changes t o o f a s t , we l o s e t h e h i n t about t h e f u t u r e image o f t h e p l a c e . is  severe,  "the pace  and  scale  In f a c t , our problem today of current  development  has  i n c r e a s e d t o t h e p o i n t a t which e n t i r e landscapes can be o b l i t e r a t e d q u i c k l y and without much thought" (Paterson, should  manage t h e changes, t o make a p l a c e  the near f u t u r e j u s t as each p l a c e should  1989, P 1).  We  seem continuous w i t h  be continuous w i t h t h e  past. P l a c e should  always been seen as "developing",  p r e d i c t i o n s and i n t e n t i o n s  charged w i t h  (Lynch, 1972, P98). The c l e a r e r t h e  f u t u r e image o f a p l a c e , t h e b e t t e r t h e sense o f t h e p l a c e . Lynch even  thinks  of using  environment  to display  change  instead of  permanence, f o r example, u s i n g temporary s t r u c t u r e s t o r e f e r t h e s t r u c t u r e i n the near-future. A most future  important  predictable  role  f o r the near-future  and c o n t r o l l a b l e .  From t h i s  i s t o make t h e point  o f view,  any development t h a t i s t o o l a r g e i n s c a l e , and b u i l t t o o q u i c k l y  will  not be a b l e  t o accommodate t o t h e p a s t  or f u t u r e  of the  place. Making immediate  changes v i s i b l e  future  i s another way t o t e l l  of a p l a c e ,  otherwise, t h e event  p r e d i c t a b l e and f r i g h t e n i n g t o p e o p l e .  people t h e appears un-  I t i s b e t t e r t o announce  p r o j e c t s i n t h e environments where they occur, t h e more t a n g i b l e the c l u e s connected t o t h e f u t u r e o b j e c t s t h e more e f f e c t i v e . 2.6.1  SMALL SCALE DEVELOPMENT When  quickly,  a it  development overwhelms  development  must  be  is the  too  l a n d and i t s  divided  into  c o n t r a c t e d to d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n e r s 2.6.2  in  scale,  people.  comprehensible  or  built  A large  too scale  pieces,  and  and c o n s t r u c t i o n companies.  MAKE CHANGE VISIBLE Make changes  p l a n and d e s i g n s t r u c t u r e s on the 2.6.3  visible  by i n f o r m i n g the  community about  the  by u s i n g models, b o a r d s , hoardings o r temporary site.  THE WAITING LAND There i s  something we should do f o r the  developed i n s t e a d of l e t t i n g can  large  l a n d w a i t i n g to be  i t become a p l o t of l o s t  land.  We  use w a i t i n g lands f o r : a. p l a n t i n g t r e e s , b . temporary s t r u c -  tures,  o r c.  temporary d i s p l a y s .  54  2.7  DERELICT SITES AND RUINS  Old Wagon, Waskatenau  (Royal LePage Calendar, 1989)  55 2.7  DERELICT SITES AND RUINS D e r e l i c t p l a c e s and r u i n s appeal to the romance i n a l l . A l l o w i n g a s i t e to g e n t l y s l i p i n t o such a s t a t e i s a s i m p l e , e f f e c t i v e , and i n e x p e n s i v e way to c a r r y a sense o f past l a n d scapes i n t o the f u t u r e . H e r i t a g e Landscape In B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989, We o f t e n t h i n k o f our urban parks  as t i d y and neat  P 30  places.  We t r e a t them a r t i f i c i a l l y , t h e flower beds a r e trimmed l i k e t a b l e c l o t h s or painted designs. department s t o r e .  The paths a r e c l e a n , f r e s h from t h e  However, nature has i t s own law t h a t most times  we cannot comprehend  thoroughly.  There i s a l a r g e p i e c e o f f o r e s t i n Vancouver's S t a n l e y Park t h a t i s grown by man a f t e r a s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g about 70 y e a r s ago. In  that  forest,  continuous there  there  are large  evergreen  trees  grown  l a w n — v e r y neat and p l e a s a n t t o our eyes.  i s another  intervention.  piece  of  forest  grown  on a  Beside i t ,  without  any  human  There a r e deciduous t r e e s , evergreen t r e e s , shrubs  and a l l k i n d s o f g r a s s e s , which looks messy and out o f o r d e r .  The  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two i s t h a t t h e n a t u r a l f o r e s t i s f u l l o f life.  B i r d s and animals l i k e t h e p l a c e , but they seldom v i s i t t h e  ordered  l a n d , although  Our  ordered  they a r e very c l o s e .  a t t i t u d e towards p l a c e a l s o b r i n g s  disciplines  upon o u r s e l v e s by t h e s i g n s "keep out o f t h e lawn!" and "No dancing,  No l o u d Music!".  the o p p o s i t e . freely, places  We l e t the p l a c e manipulate us i n s t e a d o f  We s a c r i f i c e our o p p o r t u n i t y o f moving and behaving  i n favour  of the v i s u a l  as our s t a t e s o f mind.  order. People  We should enjoy  have as many  visual  sometimes they a l s o enjoy a p l a c e t h a t has l e s s r u l e s .  order, but Children,  especially, minds.  want  a place  t o explore  They want a p l a c e where they  t r e e s , h i d e t h e i r own " T r e a s u r e s " — a  to satisfy  their  curious  can d i g t h e ground,  climb  p l a c e such a marsh, a n e g l e c t  wood, a back l a n e , a w i l d garden. I f we needs, they in  do not g i v e people p l a c e s t o s a t i s f y t h e i r d e s t r u c t i v e c r e a t e i t anyway—most times,  t h e wrong p l a c e .  through vandalism and  Why not g i v e them a l e g a l p l a c e  for their  a c t i v i t i e s i n s t e a d o f denying t h e i r needs under the name of education.  In H o l l a n d , t h e r e a r e escape towns, where laws a r e l o o s e r ,  youth can go t h e r e t o escape f o r awhile, risk.  In Japan, a s p e c i a l  area  i f they want t o take t h e  i s assigned  f o r teenagers where  they can dance i n p u b l i c . These a r e a l l d e r e l i c t capable  o f s t a b l e growth  parks.  s i t e s which a r e h e a l t h i e r , and more  than  t h e more c l i p p e d and a r t i f i c i a l  The s i t e can be l e f t alone without  l i c t s i t e s are a l s o economically  t o o many c a r e s .  Dere-  sound, because they have minimal  maintenance and o p e r a t i o n c o s t s . A  simple  s o l u t i o n : designate  pieces  propose minimal t o no i n t e r v e n t i o n . to  change t h e p l a c e .  all,  of d e r e l i c t  land, and  Do not use a r t i f i c i a l means  Perhaps, good d e s i g n  i s not t o design a t  o r t o suggest d e l i b e r a t e community n e g l e c t  of the place.  Land a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s e purposes c o u l d be one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s (Paterson,  l e c t u r e , 1989) :  a. l a n d b e l o n g i n g t o nobody b. abandoned s i t e s — f a r m s , i n d u s t r y , b u i l d i n g c. p l a n t s growing w i l d d.  l a n d u n s u i t a b l e f o r any other use, r i v e r - s i d e , beaches.  f o r example, swamp,  57 2.7.1  DERELICT SITE Every community  children  3  should have at l e a s t one d e r e l i c t  and t e e n a g e r s ,  c o r r e c t usage,  there  would be  f u r n i t u r e t h a t otherwise  be used to f u r n i s h the place,  where  site.  no r e g u l a t i o n  Users c o u l d f r e e l y  and f u r t h e r m a n i p u l a t i o n would be  reorganize  appreciated.  in  GARDEN GROWING WILD  nature:  i n t e r m i n g l e d , without  bare e a r t h , without  of  the  and p l a y l o u d music.  t r e e s i n a way which comes c l o s e to the way t h a t  and  of  People  In some p a r t s of a p a r k , grow g r a s s , mosses, shrubs, and  for  would be abandoned c o u l d  s h o u l d have the r i g h t to dance, make f i r e s , 2.7.2  site  flowers,  they occur  b a r r i e r s between them,  formal flower beds,  and w i t h a l l  without  boundaries  edges made i n rough s t o n e , b r i c k or wood which become a p a r t the n a t u r a l growth.  2.7.3  ADVENTURE PLAYGROUND A castle,  group o f detailed,  made of  cartons,  rocks,  c h i l d r e n f o r themselves, exactly  is  and o l d branches,  worth a thousand  by a  perfectly  f i n i s h e d c a s t l e s , made f o r them i n a f a c t o r y .  Set up a playground f o r the c h i l d r e n i n the p a r k , make i t a p l a c e with  raw m a t e r i a l s  of  all  kinds—nets,  boxes,  ropes,  simple t o o l s , frames, g r a s s ,  create  and r e - c r e a t e playgrounds of t h e i r own.  barrels,  trees,  and water—where c h i l d r e n can  A c c o r d i n g t o Alexander, t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f a community should be around 7,000 people. " D e c e n t r a l i z e c i t y governments i n a way that g i v e s l o c a l c o n t r o l t o communities o f 5,000 t o 10,000 persons" (Alexander, P73, 1977). 3  58  2.8  SEQUENCE The b a s i c f u n c t i o n o f a path i s t o l i n k d i f f e r e n t spots together. But t h i s i s f a r from enough. A good path i n a park should compose good views i n t o a "symphony". Time has p l a y e d some r o l e i n t h e environmental d e s i g n o f t h e  p a s t but u s u a l l y a secondary o r a c c i d e n t a l one. The g r e a t exceptions  are the processional  kings and are  t h e dead.  settings:  t h e approaches  t o gods,  Most other examples o f time i n a r c h i t e c t u r e  t h e product o f chance.  Landscape a r c h i t e c t u r e , on t h e o t h e r  hand, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e s t r o l l gardens of Japan and i n t h e E n g l ish  romantic  large  gardens,  landscape  has developed  as a s e r i e s  a method  of contrasting  of e x h i b i t i n g  pictures,  a  seen i n  sequence (Lynch, 1972, P167). The  linear  o r g a n i z e views  nature o f t h e path p r o v i d e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o and events  along t h e path  thorough  time.  d e s i g n i n g a path, t h e key p o i n t i s t o c o n s i d e r observer to  arrange  t h e environmental  change w h i l e t r a v e r s i n g  When motion,  i t . Lynch  r e f e r s t o t h i s as a temporal meshing. The example he g i v e s i s a road  that  "baroque  may expose t h e h i s t o r i c a l squares  i n contrast  foundations a t t h e contrasting episodic 1972, 2.8.1  t o new  skyscraper's foot.  layers  of a c i t y ,  shopping  so t h a t  centres, ancient  Paths can l i n k p l a c e s of  q u a l i t y , as i n t h e s t r o l l garden"  (Lynch,  P184). SITE CONTEXT The  sequences  context  of a s i t e  can be s t u d i e d  along t h e approaches  f o l l o w i n g sequences  t o the s i d e .  are considered:  by c o n s i d e r i n g the Be sure t h a t the  59  1.  The sequences along t h e major approaches t o t h e park, which i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f b e g i n n i n g , climax, and end o f t h e sequence; and o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s a l o n g the sequences, f o r example, immediacy, h i g h and low, and o u t s i d e and i n s i d e .  2.  The sequence o f a l l parks and o t h e r open spaces i n t h e c i t y . How does t h e park r e l a t e t o o t h e r parks and open spaces.  3.  The sequences e x p e r i e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t people. how do t h e people on t h e c a r f e e l t h e sequence? c y c l i s t f e e l t h e sequence?  2.8.2  For example, How does t h e  PATH AND REST  U s u a l l y , people need a r e s t i n t h e walk w i t h i n the i n t e r v a l of 5 t o 10 minutes. Make sure t o arrange r e s t i n g p l a c e s o r events a l o n g a walk, w i t h a d i s t a n c e o f 5 t o 10 minutes walk, which i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,250 t o 2,500 f e e t . 4  A c c o r d i n g t o Alexander, t h r e e minutes' f e e t i n d i s t a n c e (Alexander, P308, 1977).  walk i s about 75C  2.9  M A T E R I A L AND  CONSTRUCTION  Roof  (Photography Yearbook  '78, P79, by B e v e r l y Bean)  61 2.9  MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION C e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s and form age w e l l . They develop an i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n , a r i c h t e x t u r e , an a t t r a c t i v e o u t l i n e . Others a r e a t t h e i r best o n l y when c l e a n and new; as they grow o l d , they t u r n spotted and i m p e r f e c t . What Time i s T h i s P l a c e , Lynch, 1972, Good  attractive  material  has  an  organic  and more p l e a s a n t  quality.  as i t grows,  I t becomes  decays,  Most t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s have t h i s q u a l i t y .  P44  and  more  scars.  M a t e r i a l s such  as  stone and b r i c k weather handsomely; they i n c r e a s e the v a l u e of o l d b u i l d i n g s through time. However,  many  modern  materials  don't  have  this  quality.  P l a s t i c , s t e e l , and many other man-made m a t e r i a l s , o n l y look e l e g ant and p l e a s a n t when they are new, "As A l e x a n d e r f i n d s :  but d u l l and d r e a r y when o l d .  "modern m a t e r i a l s  tend t o be f l i m s y and hard  t o m a i n t a i n — s o t h a t b u i l d i n g s d e t e r i o r a t e more r a p i d l y than i n a p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y " (Alexander,  1977, P a t t e r n 107).  b u i l d i n g , l i k e modern product, e.g., a TV or a r a d i o , i t s value while  A modern  depreciates  getting old.  Very o f t e n , the q u a l i t y of m a t e r i a l s mainly r e l a t e s t o the s u r f a c e t e x t u r e of the m a t e r i a l i n s t e a d of the m a t e r i a l s themselves.  Most modern m a t e r i a l s have too smooth and s l i c k a s u r f a c e ,  they become i m p e r f e c t when s c a r r e d . On the other hand, m a t e r i a l s with the  o r g a n i c q u a l i t y u s u a l l y have a i n t r i c a t e s u r f a c e t e x t u r e on surface.  Time and use u s u a l l y enhance t h i s  intricacy.  Hence, by improving the t e x t u r e of a c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l , we can u s u a l l y change i t s temporal q u a l i t y .  For example, some types of  c o n c r e t e have a smooth and d u l l exposed over time.  s u r f a c e t h a t becomes u g l y when  However, when the s u r f a c e t e x t u r e i s improved,  t h e r e s u l t can be remarkable. A.smooth c o n c r e t e texture surface  B.  s m a l l stone b u i l t i n the surface  C . s u r f a c e with (UBC, SUB B u i l d i n g )  I n t r i c a t e t e x t u r e s can a l s o be formed i n t h e way we assemble material. possessed  A l a r g e p i e c e of g l a s s r a r e l y has t h e o r g a n i c q u a l i t y by t h e g l a s s window of an o l d church.  Similarly,  a  l a r g e c o n c r e t e path has no o r g a n i c q u a l i t y compared t o a p a v i n g w i t h c r a c k s between t h e concrete b r i c k s . stones paving.  and t h e frames  The c r a c k s between t h e  between the. g l a s s u n i f y  t h e window and  A l a r g e g l a s s with a broken c o r n e r i s unpleasant,  framed window w i t h a broken g l a s s , window can be a p l e a s a n t view.  but a  o r a v a r i e t y o f g l a s s i n the  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c r a c k s between  the b r i c k s a l l o w g l a s s e s and mosses t o grow, t h e edge of t h e b r i c k t o decay, and develop t h e i n t r i c a t e s u r f a c e . 2.9.1  TIMELESS MATERIALS Choose m a t e r i a l s  that w i l l  weather  handsomely.  If  not,  a  d e s i g n e r must t r y to change the s u r f a c e t e x t u r e of t h i s m a t e r i a l , or  use s m a l l u n i t s and c o n s t r u c t them i n the way  the s i g n of use and t i m e . 1.  it will  carry  For example:  Use b r i c k s and t i l e which a r e s o f t baked, low f i r e d — s o t h a t they w i l l wear with time, and show t h e marks of use.  63  2.  Create i n t r i c a t e t e x t u r e on t h e s u r f a c e , by combining o r b u i l d i n g i n o t h e r m a t e r i a l s , o r making t h e s u r f a c e rough so t h a t c a t c h t h e r a i n , and age w e l l .  3.  An a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o use s m a l l u n i t s o f a c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l and p i l e them i n t h e way t o form a r i c h t e x t u r e , l i k e t h e mosaic on t h e I s l a m i c b u i l d i n g s .  A. A Modern Window  2.9.2  B. An O l d Window (Howard Hibbard, 1980, P 172)  TIMELESS WAY OF CONSTRUCTION (Alexander, 1977, P a t t e r n 274) A s p h a l t and c o n c r e t e s u r f a c e s outdoors a r e easy t o wash down,  but they do n o t h i n g f o r us, n o t h i n g f o r t h e paths, and nothing f o r the r a i n w a t e r and p l a n t s .  On paths  and t e r r a c e s ,  l a y paving  stones w i t h a l o o s e j o i n t between stones, so t h a t grass and mosses and  small  flowers  can grow between the stones.  Lay t h e sones  d i r e c t l y i n t o e a r t h , not i n t o mortar, and o f course, use no cement or mortar i n between the s t o n e s .  64  2.10  CENTER  D w e l l i n g as a Center i n the Landscape, County T i p p e r a y , ( N a t i o n a l Geographic, September 1969, P375).  Ireland  65 2.10  CENTER Many n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s have c e n t e r s of a c t i o n : a c t i o n r a d i a t e s outward from some system of c e n t e r s . The Nature o f Order, 1989,  Chpt 6,  the P7  When we view a n a t u r a l p r o c e s s of growth, l i k e the growth of a seed,  or an embryo, the c e n t e r p l a y s an important  c e n t e r i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the t h i n g i n the middle.  role.  The  I t i s the spot  where t h e f o r c e and i n t e n t i o n i s forming or formed.  For example,  a k i n g i s always i n the c e n t e r of a p r o c e s s i o n r e g a r d l e s s of h i s p h y s i c a l p o s i t i o n , whether i n the middle,  a t the f r o n t , or a t the  r e a r , because he i s the focus o f a t t e n t i o n . As Alexander remarks: "the c e n t e r i s the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a powerful  field  that  energy  point,  surrounding The 1989,  life  gathering  concentrating  the  o b j e c t s , and c o n c e n t r a t i n g them, t o form the  comes from the  Chpt  and  e f f e c t at  4,  P  35) .  existence Center  of  is a  this place  center" or  space  of  the  center.  (Alexander, where  the  f o l l o w i n g t h i n g s happen: 1.  Centers a r i s e i n space. T h i s happens f o r reasons which have p u r e l y to do with e x i s t e n c e and presence of other c e n t e r s .  2.  Each c e n t e r i s c r e a t e d by c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of other c e n t e r s .  3.  Each c e n t e r has a c e r t a i n l i f e o r  4.  The l i f e or i n t e n s i t y of one c e n t e r g e t s i n c r e a s e d or decreased a c c o r d i n g t o the p o s i t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of other nearby c e n t e r s , and " c e n t e r s h e l p c e n t e r s " .  5.  The c e n t e r s g i v e s us an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of t h i n g s we l o o s e l y c a l l whole. They are the fundamental elements of wholeness, and. the degree of wholeness, o r l i f e , of any g i v e n p a r t of space depends e n t i r e l y on the presence and s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r centers there.  intensity.  The Nature of Order. Alexander,  1989,  Chpt-4 PP 22-23  Elements s e r v i n g as a c e n t e r i n t h e landscape can be a b u i l d ing,  a tree,  a space,  categories—nodes  o r a pond.  typically  either  character  (Kevin Lynch,  f i t i n t o two  foci  i n t o which t h e observer can e n t e r ,  j u n c t i o n s o f paths,  o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f some  1960, P 72).  Landmarks a r e t h e p o i n t  c o n s i d e r e d t o be e x t e r n a l t o t h e observer; they a r e  simple p h y s i c a l  elements which may v a r y w i d e l y i n s c a l e .  seems t o be a tendency increasingly uniqueness earlier  they  and landmarks, which a r e i d e n t i f i e d by Lynch.  Nodes a r e t h e s t r a t e g i c  references  Basically  There  f o r those more f a m i l i a r with a c i t y t o r e l y  on systems o f landmarks f o r t h e i r g u i d e s — t o  and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ,  (Kevin Lynch,  enjoy  i n place of the c o n t i n u i t i e s  used  1960, P 78) .  2 . 1 0 . 1 HIERARCHY OF CENTERS IN THE WATERFRONT When d e s i g n i n g a l a n d s c a p e , r e g a r d l e s s of i t s s i z e , we s h o u l d identify,  or create centers at a l l l e v e l s .  Keep the i d e a o f the  h i e r a r c h y o f c e n t e r s i n mind. 2.10.2 SOMETHING ROUGHLY IN THE MIDDLE A public empty.  space  without  a middle i s  quite  likely  to  stay  Between the paths which c r o s s a p u b l i c square o r c o u r t y a r d  or a p i e c e o f common l a n d choose something to stand r o u g h l y i n the middle:  a fountain, a tree,  w i n d m i l l , a bandstand.  statue,  a clock-tower with seats,  Make i t something which g i v e s a s t r o n g and  steady p u l s e t o the s q u a r e , drawing people i n toward the Leave  it  impulse  exactly to  put  P a t t e r n 12 6 ) .  where it  a  it  exactly  falls in  between  the  the  middle.  paths;  center.  resist  (Alexander,  the 1977,  67  2.11  BOUNDARY A boundary i s not t h a t a t which something stops but, as the Greeks r e c o g n i z e d , the boundary i s t h a t , from which somet h i n g begins i t s p r e s e n c i n g . Heidegger, c i t e d i n The Genuis L o c i . 1979, Boundary i s an e s s e n t i a l element f o r a l l forms.  borders, walls,  seas  and  have  cells,  shores, basic  rivers  units  have  of l i f e  banks, have  P20  N a t i o n s have  buildings  cell-walls.  have In a  sense, a r c h i t e c t u r e i s "the w a l l between t h e i n s i d e and the outside"  (cited  critical  by Norberg-Schulz, 1979,  for a military  means t o b u i l d a w a l l . design  building  that  P  15).  Boundary  constructing  a fort  i s so only  I t i s s a i d t h a t t h e a r t of Chinese urban  i s mostly the a r t o f u s i n g w a l l s t o d e f i n e urban space.  T h i s image o f boundary i s deeply r o o t e d i n Chinese c u l t u r e ,  even  r e f l e c t e d i n the c h a r a c t e r s : g a r d e n — e a r t h , pond, and b i r d s w i t h i n a boundary  n a t i o n — a jade w i t h i n a boundary stability—something o l d w i t h i n a boundary Every form must have a boundary.  As Alexander says:  "the  need f o r boundaries comes about as a r e s u l t of need f o r f u n c t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n s and t r a n s i t i o n between d i f f e r e n t systems" (Alexander, 1989, Chpt 6, P9).  A boundary has two f u n c t i o n s .  i s to separate a thing  One  function  (a n a t i o n , a b u i l d i n g , o r a c e l l ) from the  o u t s i d e , t o achieve i t s d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s and coherency; the o t h e r is  to contact  functions  of  and connect t h e o u t s i d e . both u n i t i n g  and  Because  separating,  of the unique  a boundary  must  be  68  c o n s i d e r e d as d i s t i n c t ,  and  have the c a p a c i t y of c o n n e c t i n g  area on e i t h e r s i d e of i t (Alexander, A  boundary  can  be  anything  1989,  with  the  Chpt 5, P20) .  these  two  functions,  no  matter i f i t i s two-dimensional  or t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l . I t c o u l d be  a  a  line,  a  plane,  a  mass,  or  space.  Form  with  a  holistic  q u a l i t y , most o f t e n , has a s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e boundary (Alexander, 1989, a  Chpt 5, P 21).  Perhaps,  strong boundary—strong  necessarily boundaries  in  size.  i n mass,  When  in different  i t i s more a c c u r a t e t o say i t has  we  levels,  structure,  view  the  or  world,  density,  not  we  see  must  i n o t h e r words, a h i e r a r c h y of  boundaries. We  can  say t h a t urban edges are the boundaries  In the Image of The  of a  city.  C i t y , Kevin Lynch d e f i n e s edge as one of the  major elements (among path, d i s t r i c t , c e n t e r , landmark) t o decide the image o f c i t y  (Lynch, 1960,  PP 62-66) .  In the c i t y , edges are  u s u a l l y the boundaries between two k i n d s of areas. and  visibility  of edge i s c r u c i a l  to i t s imageability.  edges are not n e c e s s a r i l y impenetrable; r a t h e r than i s o l a t i o n 2.11.1  The c o n t i n u i t y Strong  they are u n i t i n g seams,  barriers.  BOUNDARIES IN LANDSCAPE  A boundary i s e s s e n t i a l f o r any k i n d of landscape t o maintain its  own  boundary spaces,  identifiable around  the  character.  Encourage the  waterfronts,  parks,  and  formation o f a  other  t o s e p a r a t e them from the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s .  boundary by c l o s i n g down s t r e e t s and l i m i t i n g a c c e s s .  urban  open  Form t h i s P l a c e gate-  ways a t those p o i n t s where the r e s t r i c t e d access paths c r o s s the  boundary.  Strong boundaries can be t h i c k hedges, s t r o n g  double-columned s t r e e t t r e e s , 2.11.2 In  or w a l l s .  THICK WALLS many p l a c e s  walls  and fences between outdoor spaces are  too h i g h ; but no boundary a t a l l does an i n j u s t i c e to the of the d i v i s i o n s between the space  a p a r k , o r a p a r t of a park w i t h low w a l l s , wide enough to s i t  subtlety  (Alexander, 1977, P a t t e r n 243).  T h i c k w a l l s i s one type o f s t r o n g boundary f o r a p l a c e .  and  fences,  Surround  about 16 inches h i g h ,  on, at l e a s t 500mm wide.  We can c r e a t e a  t h i c k w a l l by c o n s i d e r i n g the f o l l o w i n g ( P a t e r s o n , l e c t u r e , 1989): 1.  U s i n g l a y e r i n g : make w a l l s o f d i f f e r e n t time o r d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s and c o n s t r u c t them t o g e t h e r . 2. A s s i g n i n g i t a f u n c t i o n : a w a l l can be used f o r s i t t i n g , s l e e p i n g , even a p l a t f o r m . 3. C r e a t i n g a small space i n s i d e the w a l l : a space f o r s t o r a g e , a cave f o r c h i l d , o r a h o l e f o r l i g h t s . T h i c k W a l l , on the campus of U n i v e r s i t y of G e o r g i a , USA  70 2.12  SACRED PLACES  W a i l i n g W a l l , Women's S e c t i o n , Jerusalem  (Max Yavno, 1981,  P64)  71 2.12  SACRED PLACES The world becomes a p p r e h e n s i b l e as world, as cosmos, i n the measure i n which i t r e v e a l s i t s e l f as a s a c r e d world. The Sacred and the Profane, 1959, In  the p a s t , the world has  qualities  and  meanings.  Thus  been experienced as a world of  i t became  a common world,  formed a b a s i s f o r s h a r i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . ribes  a different  picture  P 64  of a r e l i g i o u s  which  M i r c e a E l i a d e desc-  person's  view  of  the  w o r l d i n h i s The Sacred and the Profane (Mircea E l i a d e , 1959). For a religious close  person,  t o the God,  places  or  religious To  p l a c e i s not homogeneous: o t h e r p l a c e s are not.  finding  them  i n nature  was  Hence, making s a c r e d a perpetual e f f o r t  in  societies.  live  as  closely  as p o s s i b l e  deepest meanings of s a c r e d p l a c e . munication  t o God  reveals  one  of  the  A r e l i g i o u s person seeks a com-  between the t h r e e cosmic  underworld.  levels—earth,  heaven,  and  The communication i s expressed through the image o f  " a x i s mundi", such as a u n i v e r s a l p i l l a r , a tree.  some p l a c e s are  a temple,  a n i c h e , or  For them the a x i s mundi i s a t the v e r y c e n t e r of the  u n i v e r s e , f o r the whole of the h a b i t a b l e world extends around i t (Mircea E l i a d e ,  1959,  PP 36-37).  w o r l d p r e v a l e n t i n the t r a d i t i o n a l a. b. c. c.  Hence t h e r e i s a system of the society:  A s a c r e d p l a c e c o n s t i t u t e s a break i n the homogeneity of space; T h i s break i s symbolized by an opening through which passage from one cosmic r e g i o n t o another i s made p o s s i b l e ; Communication w i t h heaven i s expressed by one or another of c e r t a i n images, a l l of which r e f e r t o the a x i s mundi: p i l l a r , l a d d e r , mountain, t r e s s , v i n e , e t c ; around t h i s cosmic a x i s l i e s the world (=our w o r l d ) , hence  72 the a x i s i s l o c a t e d i n the middle, i t i s the center of the world. The  Sacred  at the navel of the e a r t h ;  and the Profane,  1959,  P  37  SKY WORLD OF THE HIMALAYAS: Boulder as big as a house Buddhist carries a p r a y e r repeated line upon line "0 the j e w e l i n the l o t u s I " The rock•s unknown carver may have sought t o commemorate dead r e l a t i v e s or t o cure an i l l n e s s . He may have wished to promote the g r a n t i n g of f a v o u r s or simply to speed himself along the path to nirvana. Regardless of purpose, the massive symbol of devotion l i e s rooted to the path where each Buddhist traveller can earn merit merely by p a s s i n g i t (National Geographic, October 1966, P567).  Today's  society,  to  t r a d i t i o n of s a n c t i f y i n g p l a c e . are  more  sacred  than  others.  a We In  certain still  extent,  keeps  this  f i n d some p l a c e s which  Athens,  Georgia,  an  old  man  e r e c t e d a stone with h i s testament i n f r o n t of h i s b i g t r e e , which says  no  one  permission. place.  is  allowed  to  cut  down  the  tree  without  H i s e f f o r t t u r n s t h i s t r e e i n t o a s a c r e d and  However, i n s t e a d of r e l a t i n g  his  famous  s a c r e d p l a c e s with God,  we  i n t e r p r e t s a c r e d p l a c e as those which occupy a s p e c i a l meaning i n  our e m o t i o n a l and s p i r i t u a l  lives.  They r e p r e s e n t t h e v a l u e s we  p l a c e on l i v i n g . These p l a c e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d  as f o l l o w i n g i n our  times: a. b. c. d. c. d.  P l a c e of worship; S i t e s of pilgrimages Areas o f s p e c i a l myths and legends; P l a c e s of b i r t h , love and death; Memorials S p e c i a l p l a c e s i n t h e landscape such h i g h e s t mountain; and Areas of n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s .  e.  as t h e t o p o f t h e  H e r i t a g e Landscapes i n B r i t i s h Paterson, 1989, P15 2.12.1  DEFINING THE SACRED PLACE  In or  landscape of a l l s i z e s and s c a l e s ,  define  sacred places,  worth l i v i n g . it  Columbia  i t i s our j o b to  to make our l i v e s  more meaningful and  Define a s a c r e d p l a c e by naming the p l a c e ,  giving  a c e n t e r and a boundary.  2.12.2  GEOLOGICALLY ADVANTAGED PLACE .  The s p e c i a l g e o l o g i c a l l o c a t i o n s i n a p l a c e , such as and  find,  lowest  natures,  sites,  are sacred.  emphasize these 2.12.3  at  different  ends,  by  In the d e s i g n of a landscape,  their  very  i d e n t i f y and  locations.  the urban park,  t h e r e are should be c o r n e r s d e d i c a t e d  who c o n t r i b u t e d to  citizens. sleep  sites  GRAVES OF FAMOUS CITIZENS  In people  or  highest,  the  city,  such as mayors,  or  famous  L e t them l i v e w i t h the people i n s t e a d of l e t t i n g  i n obscure p l a c e s .  Give  each of  these s i t e s  p a t h , and a q u i e t corner where people can s i t . hallowed ground.  to  them  an edge,  By custom, t h i s  a is  2.12.4  IMAGINATIVE AND SITE SPECIFIC SIGN  Signs/ a  small  by d e f i n i t i o n , convey messages.  landmarks, should immediately  specific place.  the t i m e s .  identify  the  n a t u r e of  s i g n can h i n t a t the v a l u e s and  a  activities  They can help us a p p r e c i a t e the uniqueness of each  p l a c e and, i n so d o i n g , develop i n us a g r e a t e r sense o f and  such as  "Through the a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l , c h a r a c t e r , and  l o c a t i o n an e f f e c t i v e of  Good s i g n s ,  empathy f o r the p l a c e "  (Paterson,  1989,  P36).  respect  75  CHAPTER THREE  PATTERN APPLICATIONS AND DESIGN EVALUATION  A Panoramic View of West Vancouver's W a t e r f r o n t , seen from L i o n s Gate B r i d g e (Cover Page, Ramsey, 1986)  76 3.1  INTRODUCTION The  a p p l i c a t i o n of p a t t e r n s  experiment selected between  to test  for this Ambleside  t o design  the v a l i d i t y experiment Park  can be seen  of t h e p a t t e r n s .  i s t h e seawalk  and Dundarave  The  o f West  Park.  Two  as an site  Vancouver  r e s u l t s are  expected from t h i s experiment: F i r s t , e x p l o r i n g a proper procedure of a p p l y i n g p a t t e r n s t o a s p e c i f i c s i t e ;  second, m o d i f y i n g  examining t h e p a t t e r n s t o make them p r a c t i c a l l y Noticeably, (most  o f which  the design  patterns  a r e temporal  generated  patterns)  and  usable. in this  thesis  a r e not s u f f i c i e n t i n  themselves f o r a p r a c t i c a l and comprehensive p r o j e c t .  Therefore,  s e v e r a l p a t t e r n s from Alexander's A PATTERN LANGUAGE a r e used i n the d e s i g n  procedure.  3.1.1 THE CHOICE OF SITE C o n t e x t , Appendix B, P114) The  (See  s i t e on t h e w a t e r f r o n t  selected.  To be an a p p r o p r i a t e  A n a l y s i s Drawing N o . l  Site  of West Vancouver was c a r e f u l l y site  f o r t e s t i n g the patterns,  e s p e c i a l l y , t h e temporal p a t t e r n s , t h e s i t e has t o have p l e n t y of human a c t i v i t i e s , as w e l l as, n a t u r a l r h y t h m i c a l r e c u r r e n c e s . has  to  be  in  investigation obtained.  Greater  can be  Vancouver, , so  carried  on,  I t , p r e f e r a b l y , should  that  frequent  and f i r s t - h a n d  be a s i t e  It site  information  on w a t e r f r o n t , f o r  w a t e r f r o n t i s one o f t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Greater Vancouver. since  Finally,  public  anticipated. the above  i t has t o be a s i t e r e q u i r i n g improvement,  participation  and support  for this  p r o j e c t are  The w a t e r f r o n t of West Vancouver, f o r t u n a t e l y , meets  requirements.  77  3.1.2  HISTORY OF WEST VANCOUVER AND ITS WATER FRONT West Vancouver i s l o c a t e d on t h e north s i d e o f B u r r a r d I n l e t  west o f " F i r s t Narrows", a c r o s s from Vancouver C i t y . oriented West  community with a lengthy, s c e n i c and rugged  Vancouver  developed  I t i s a sea-  became  along  a municipality  the waterfront  Coast Mountains.  i n 1912.  shoreline.  The community  and up t h e lower s l o p e s  of t h e  The w a t e r f r o n t between Ambleside and Dundarave  was t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t of t h e c i t y . Historically,  development  i n West  p r i m a r i l y w a t e r f r o n t r e c r e a t i o n homes. a  residential  community  with  Vancouver  has  The m u n i c i p a l i t y grew as  no i n d u s t r y .  In 1938, t h e con-  s t r u c t i o n o f t h e L i o n s Gate Suspension Bridge a t the F i r s t marked  the turning  changing  point  t h e community  residential.  i n West  from  been  Vancouver's  recreation  Narrows  development i n  oriented  t o commuter  Today, t h e w a t e r f r o n t from Ambleside t o Dundarave  s t i l l i s t h e most developed area i n West Vancouver, and one o f t h e most used and a l i v e w a t e r f r o n t s i n t h e r e g i o n .  From morning t o  mid n i g h t , t h e r e a r e always people s t r o l l i n g , w a l k i n g and p l a y i n g a l o n g t h e seawalk. To improve the landscape q u a l i t y r e q u i r e s a c o n t i n u o u s e f f o r t by t h e community.  A continuous walkway from Dundarave  Pier to  C l e v e l a n d Dam i s a major g o a l of t h e 1980 West Vancouver community Plan.  The O f f i c i a l  Community  Plan  Bylaw,  1988 emphasized t h e  enhancement of W a t e r f r o n t : b. P u b l i c access t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t should be encouraged by improved signage, b e t t e r access and p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s ,  78 c l e a r a n c e programmes, and by g e n e r a l l y awareness of w a t e r f r o n t r e s o u r c e s .  increasing public  c. In c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and the Squamish I n d i a Band, West Vancouver w i l l work t o secure completion of the seawalk from Dundarave t o the C a p i l a n o R i v e r and northward a l o n g the r i v e r b a n k t o the C l e v e l a n d Dam. d. The "Ambleside-by-the-Sea" concept a t the f o o t of 14th S t r e e t should become a f o c a l p o i n t of p u b l i c awareness of West Vancouver's Maritime c h a r a c t e r . 5  e. C o u n c i l w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p r o t e c t the n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the w a t e r f r o n t by r e s t r i c t i n g s t r u c t u r e s on the f o r e s h o r e . 3.1.3 SITE ZONING Appendix B, P114)  (See A n a l y s i s Drawing No.l  Site  Context,  The a t t r i b u t e s of the f u n c t i o n , c h a r a c t e r , v i s u a l and  convenience  of d e s i g n  can  be  used t o d i v i d e the  resource, waterfront  between Ambleside and Dundarave i n t o f o u r zones: 1. 2. 3. 4.  Ambleside P a r k — a n open urban green space; E x i s t i n g s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n c i e s ( B e t w e e n 13th and 17th Street). The houses, a c c o r d i n g t o the Community P l a n w i l l be removed i n a l o n g run; C e n t e n n i a l Seawalk between 17th-25th S t r e e t — a n e x i s t i n g 12' walk a l o n g the sea; and Dundarave P a r k — a n e x i s t i n g d i s o r d e r e d park w i t h g r e a t enhancement p o t e n t i a l .  For more i n f o r m a t i o n about the s i t e , see Appendix A, H i s t o r i c and  Current  Views  of  the  Waterfront.  c o l l e c t i o n , c o n s i s t e d of 33 o l d and new  It  is  a  photographic  pictures.  "Ambleside-by-the-Sea" i s an urban d e s i g n package, approved by the M u n i c i p a l i t y C o u n c i l i n 1985. One of the d e c i s i o n i s t o r e c l a i m the w a t e r f r o n t r e s i d e n c e s on 14 t o 17 b l o c k s and t r a n s f e r them i n t o an open space.  3.2  SITE PLAN FOR  THE SEAWALK OF WEST VANCOUVER  In d o i n g t h i s p r o j e c t , t h e whole s i t e was a n a l y s i z e d a c c o r d ing  t o the p a t t e r n s ,  improvements;  then, a  according  the  to  and site  analysis  s u g g e s t i o n s proposed plan and  f o r the  f o r the seawalk proposed  was  further  completed  improvements.  In  the  f o l l o w i n g paragraphs, the p a t t e r n s used t o a n a l y s i s each s p e c i f i c i s s u e a r e shown between t h e dashed 3.2.1  lines.  SITE ANALYSIS  1) SEQUENCE—SITE CONTEXT (See A n a y s i s Drawing No.2, P115) PATTERN PATTERN 1.  2.8.1 2.8.2  SITE CONTEXT MOVE AND REST  Appendix  B,  P58 P59  NORTH-SOUTH SEQUENCE: a. R e i n f o r c i n g the c o n n e c t i o n between w a t e r f r o n t , c i t y , and mountain by c o n s i d e r i n g the sequence a l o n g the n o r t h - s o u t h streets: from 13th t o 25th S t r e e t . b. P r o p o s i n g a new Mountain-to-Sea Walk from Dundarave Park, a l o n g the 25th S t r e e t , t o the top o f the H o l l y b u r n Mountain.  B.  WEST-EAST SEQUENCE: a. R i v e r walk (along C a p i l a n o T r i a l t o C l e v e l a n d Dam); Seawalk from Ambleside t o Dundarave; b. Sequence o f West Vancouver's c o a s t l i n e : a l l of t h e parks a l o n g c o a s t l i n e can be connected by: a. c o a s t f e r r y ; b. B.C. Railway c. Sequence o f a c t i v i t y nodes a l o n g the walk, f i v e minute i n t e r v a l s of walk and r e s t . Nodes — B C R a i l Bridge — A m b l e s i d e Lagoon — C e l e b r a t i o n Park — E n t r a n c e and H o l l y b u r n Shipyard — H e r i t a g e Square — J o h n Lawson Park — M c D o n a l d Park — N a v v y J a r k P o i n t Park  Level (3) (1) (1) (2) (1) (2) (3) (2)  80 — T h e High P o i n t Park — T h e C e n t e n n i a l Seawalk — B e l l e v u e Entrance — D u n d a r a v e Park 2)  RHYTHMICAL RECURRENCE P116)  PATTERN PATTERN  2.1.1 2.1.2  (See  (3) (3) (3) (1)  Park  A n a l y s i s Drawing No.3,  DISPLAY NATURAL RHYTHMS THINGS AFLOAT  Appendix B,  P36 P37  NATURAL WATER BODIES CONSIDERED AS NATURAL RHYTHMS: a. Modifym t h e Ambleside Lagoon: making i t a r e i n f o r c e d t i d a l p o o l , and r e s t o r i n g a marsh f o r w i l d - l i f e ; b. a c c e n t u a t e Lawson c r e e k by d e s i g n i n g a pond a t the end; and c. h i g h l i g h t i n g the e x p e r i e n c e s o f Mcdonald Creek and Marr Creek i n t h e McDonald Park and Dundarave Park. THINGS AFLOAT: d. H o l l y b u r n S h i p y a r d Marina e. F i v e f l o a t s along t h e s e a w a l k — J o h n Lawson f l o a t , Creek, Navvy Jack f l o a t s , Dundarave f l o a t . 3)  SPECIAL EVENT (See  PATTERN  2.3.2  A n a l y s i s Drawing No.6,  CELEBRATIONS AND  P a t t e r n 2.3.2  opportunities  Appendix B ,  P117)  FESTIVALS P4 4  h e l p s t h e programming of s p e c i a l events along  and b e s i d e t h e seawalk. waterfront w i l l  Hollyburn  bring  The  life  a l o n g the  celebrations  and  t o the w a t e r f r o n t ,  seawalk.  The  places  festivals  on t h e  and p r o v i d e more programmed  with  s p e c i a l events are as f o l l o w : a. b. c.  d.  The e a s t end of Ambleside Park w i l l be a p l a c e f o r Summer Dog Festival with events such as, dog racing, dog performance, dog pageant. Community C e l e b r a t i o n Park i n t h e middle of Ambleside Park i s d e s i g n e d f o r outdoor p e r f o r m i n g , maypole dancing, b a l l r o o m dancing, square dancing, p i c n i c k i n g , a r t work d i s p l a y ; The a r e a i n f r o n t o f H o l l y b u r n S h i p y a r d w i l l become a Water Sport Center. The s p e c i a l events happening here i n c l u d e Ambleside t o Dundarave boat r a c i n g (or dragon boat r a c i n g ) , s a i l i n g , canoeing, Sunday and h o l i d a y c o a s t a l f e r r y . C e l e b r a t i o n times a s s i g n e d t o The C e n t e n n i a l Seawalk are  81 e.  community walk days and community d r e s s i n g - u p walk day, Dundarave Park w i l l be a p l a c e f o r West Vancouver Summer Music F e s t i v a l . Dundarave p i e r w i l l be a d e s t i n a t i o n f o r the Ambleside t o Dundarave boat r a c i n g .  4) LAYERS OF HISTORY P118) PATTERN PATTERN  2.4.1 2.4.2  (See  Analysis  Drawing N o . 5 ,  Heritage Preservations B u i l d i n g i n O l d Traces  Appendix B ,  P4 8 P48  A. STRUCTURES CONSIDERED AS "LAYERS" a) The two e x i s t i n g p i e r s i n Ambleside park, b) t h e p i e r i n Ambleside Landing Park, c) John Lawson P i e r , and d) Dundarave P i e r B. BUILDING CONSIDERED AS "LAYERS" a) BC R a i l B r i d g e , b) H o l l y b u r n S h i p y a r d , and t h e Ramp c) H e r i t a g e Square, d) A reassembled play-house Beside Lawson Creek, and e) P e p p i ' s R e s t a u r a n t . C. PARKS CONSIDERED AS "LAYERS" a) H e r i t a g e Park (Ambleside Landing Park), Park 5)  NIGHT IMAGE (See  PATTERN 2.5.1  A n a l y s i s Drawing N o . 6 ,  b) John  Appendix B ,  NIGHT LIFE IN THE PARK  Lawson  P119)  P51  NIGHT PARK: Three Parks a l o n g t h e seawalk parks. the  be d e s i g n a t e d as n i g h t  These a r e C e l e b r a t i o n Park i n t h e E a s t , H e r i t a g e Park i n  middle,  seawalk  will  and Dundarave  between  park  Celebration  i n the west.  Park  and Dundarave  The s e c t i o n o f Park  will  be  l i g h t e d f o r night walking. 6)  DERELICT SITE  PATTERN 2.7.1 PATTERN 2.7.2 PATTERN 2.7.3. a)  (See A n a l y s i s Drawing N o . 7 , DERELICT SITE GARDENS GROWING WILD ADVANTURE PLAYGROUND  Appendix B, P12 0) P57 P57 P57  Marsh, as a t y p i c a l d e r e l i c t s i t e , i s a good h a b i t a t f o r wildlife. A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e improvement o f Ambleside Lagoon, a marsh w i l l be r e s t o r e d along t h e s h o r e l i n e i n t h e  82 b) c)  e a s t s i d e o f Ambleside Park. The s i n g l e f a m i l y b l o c k s between 14 and 17th S t r e e t on t h e w a t e r f r o n t are planned t o be a s i t e of minimal maintenance and o p e r a t i o n c o s t s , a p l a c e f o r gardens t o grow w i l d . The b l o c k between John Lawson Park and John Lawson Creek w i l l be d e s i g n e d as "Adventure Playground". I t i s proposed t o use as many as p o s s i b l e o l d b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s t o b u i l d the playground.  7) BOUNDARY (See A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 7, Appendix B, P12 0) PATTERN 2.11.1  WATERFRONT BOUNDARY  B. C. Railway, B e l l e v u e Ave, serve  as a s t r o n g  boundary  Railway B r i d g e t o The  P68  and the double rows of t r e e s  t o be w a t e r f r o n t  18 t h S t r e e t .  section  from  BC Railway w i t h  B.C.  i t s high  base h e l p t o form a s t r o n g boundary f o r the c e n t e n n i a l seawalk. 8) SACRED PLACES (See A n a l y s i s Drawing No.7, PATTERN 2.12.1 PATTERN 2.12.2  Appendix B, P12 0)  THEME PARK GEOLOGICALLY ADVANTIGED PLACE  P73 P74  As an e f f o r t t o i n c r e a s e the "sacredness" o f the seawalk, a memorial park, the C e n t e n n i a l Seawalk Park i s proposed a t the f o o t of 23 r d S t r e e t . also  The park, which i s t w i c e as wide as t h e seawalk,  s e r v e s as an a c t i v i t y  rest.  Twelve r e d maple t r e e s i n the park r e p r e s e n t t h e p r o v i n c e s  and t e r r i t o r i e s o f Canada. Jack  "pocket", where people can stop and  Point—the  highest  point  geological  most along  S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s are payed to Navvy  projected the  point,  seawalk,  both  30 53 72 74 102  of  Believer them  Park—the  are  special  places.  9) OTHER PATTERNS FROM PATTERN LANGUAGE 8, Appendix B, P121) PATTERN PATTERN PATTERN PATTERN PATTERN  and  A c t i v i t y Nodes Main Gateways L o c a l Sport Animals Family o f e n t r a n c e  (See A n a l y s i s Pawing  No.  PATTERN PATTERN PATTERN PATTERN PATTERN PATTERN  10)  103 12 0 121 12 4 125 241  Small P a r k i n g L o t s Path and Goals Path Shape A c t i v i t y Pockets S t a i r Seats Seat Spots  THE TOPOLOGY OF SEAWALK  B. STEP  C. WALL  D. BRIDGE AND TRELLIS  84  IS G.  DOUBLE WALK  11)  H. LANDMARK  SITE CIRCULATION Besides t h e seawalk, t h e f o l l o w i n g c i r c u l a t i o n systems have  a l s o been c o n s i d e r e d : a) C o a s t a l F e r r y Route, b) Railway c) Automobile Access, f) Walk 3.2.2  d) The Handicapped Access  Route,  e) Bike  route  Route, and g) S e r v i c e Route.  The S i t e P l a n Drawing The above e l e v e n major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e the mauority  of t h e programming o f t h e d e s i g n . next t h e "shaping" o f a p l a c e .  P a t t e r n a n a l y s i s i s one step  To completely  f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l d e s i g n procedures a. b. c. d.  shape a p l a c e , t h e  a r e needed:  Site special information; emotional involvement w i t h t h e s i t e and d e s i g n ; a d e s i g n p r o c e s s t o f i n d t h e r i g h t outcome among t h e u n l i m i t e d numbers o f "shapes" t h a t f i t s i n t o a same p a t t e r n ; and t h e i n t e n t i o n t o c r e a t e a p l a c e w i t h meanings. The most important o f these a r e sacredness, mystery, and intimacy.  Three d e s i g n d e s i g n procedure.  drawings were completed These a r e :  as a r e s u l t  of t h i s  Design Drawing No. 1  Site Plan f o r t h e Seawalk Vancouver (Ambleside Park)  o f West  Design  Drawing No. 2  Site Plan f o r t h e Seawalk o f West Vancouver (From 14 t h S t r e e t t o 18 t h Street)  Design Drawing No. 3  Site Plan f o r t h e Seawalk o f West Vancouver (From 18th t o 2 5 t h S t r e e t )  85 i  Design Drawing No. 1  S i t e Plan f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver (Ambleside Park)  86  Design Drawing No. 2  S i t e Plan f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver (From 14 t h Street to 18 t h Street)  87 Design Drawing No. 3  S i t e Plan f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver (From ,18th to 25 t h Street)  89 3.3.1 P122)  SITE DESCRIPTION (See  A n a l y s i s Drawing No.9,  Appendix B,  The d e l i g h t f u l Dundarave Park comprises s i x b u i l d i n g At  t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h i s c e n t u r y ,  lots.  Dundarave area belonged t o Mr.  R. E. McNaughton, who was one of the "Fathers of West Vancouver". He named h i s s u b d i v i s i o n "Dundarave" Scotland.  Seen  from  Dundarave  a f t e r h i s a n c e s t r a l home i n  Park,  the  view  of  the  outer  harbour, Vancouver I s l a n d and the s h o r e l i n e i s b e t t e r than i t i s at  Ambleside  Park.  A  panorama  of  the  foreshore  from  Point  A t k i n s o n i n Lighthouse Park t o Navy Jack P o i n t can be a p p r e c i a t e d a g a i n s t t h e back drop of H o l l y b u r n Mountain. CLACHAN HOTEL (PEPPI'S  RESTAURANT)  One of t h e f i r s t b u s i n e s s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n t h i s area was the C l a c h a n H o t e l , now Peppi's Restaurant. I t was a o n e - s t o r y b u i l d i n g w i t h a broad veranda on two s i d e s and was  l o c a t e d on the w a t e r f r -  ont  (See P i c t u r e 9 and 10. Appendiz A, P104) .  the  G a e l i c t r a n s l a t i o n b e i n g "meeting p l a c e " .  I t was a p t l y named,  DUNDARAVE PIER The m u n i c i p a l i t y f i r s t b u i l t t h i s p i e r i n 1914. be t o o exposed  I t proved t o  f o r i t s o r i g i n a l purpose, t h a t of a f e r r y  However, i t became a t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n and an on-shore facility.  I t was i n 1916 t h a t the p i e r came to i t s own,  slip.  fishing w i t h the  b e g i n n i n g of annual Dundarave Regatta, an a q u a t i c event which,, f o r y e a r s , drew the best swimmers i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o the competition  (See P i c t u r e 11. Appendix A,  P104).  90 MARR CREEK On t h e e a s t s i d e of t h e p i e r can be seen a c o n c r e t e c u l v e r t , which i s t h e d i s c h a r g e p o i n t o f Marr Creek.  T h i s creek t a k e s i t s  name from George Marr, who was p r o b a b l y Dundarave's f i r s t c i a l l y - r e g i s t e r e d white s e t t l e r .  He came t o Dundarave  t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y and e s t a b l i s h e d a lumber  offi-  around t h e  camp c l o s e t o t h i s  creek, which flows underground from j u s t n o r t h of Marine d r i v e t o its  e x i t i n t o t h e sea.  VEGETATION V e g e t a t i o n i s another n a t u r a l endowment of Dundarave Park. The t r e e s i n c l u d e t h r e e over 40' t a l l cedars, and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0 mature plum  trees.  There  i s also  a 12' t a l l  hedge,  over  10  s p e c i e s deciduous and evergreen t r e e s , and shrubs. 3.3.2  SITE ANALYSIS  1) SEQUENCE—SITE CONTEXT (See A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 10, Appendix B , P123) PATTERN  2.8.1  SITE CONTEXT  There a r e two major sidering  P58  sequences  i n the urban  context:  con-  t h e park as both t h e e p i l o g u e and t h e p r o l o g u e o f t h e  sea—waterfront—city—mountain  sequence;  and c o n s i d e r i n g t h e  park as both t h e prologue and t h e e p i l o g u e of t h e seawalk  from  Dundarave t o Ambleside. 2)  RHYTHMICAL RECURRENCE B, P124)  PATTERN  2.1.1  (See A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 11,  DISPLAY NATURAL RHYTHMS  Appendix  P36  Marr creek p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s p l a y i n g natural  rhythms.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s covered  up  and  goes  91 underground a f t e r the Marine D r i v e . DISPLAY  NATURAL  RHYTHM,  the  A c c o r d i n g t o the p a t t e r n  creek  should  be  revealed  and  " c e l e b r a t e d " i n the park. The experience of a n a t u r a l creek i s accentuated of  w a t e r f a l l s , r a p i d c u r r e n t s , q u i e t water ponds,  the creek, and s t e p s and s l o p e down t o the creek. plants  and  flowers  beside  and  over  the  by a s e r i e s bridges  over  There are a l s o  creek.  A l l of  these  e f f o r t s are intended t o "condense" the t o p o g r a p h i c a l elements of a n a t u r a l creek,  so t h a t the experience  of a n a t u r a l creek can  be  r e c r e a t e d i n the park. 3) SPECIAL EVENT (See A n a l y s i s Drawing No.12, Appendix B, PATTERN PATTERN In which,  2.3.2 2.3.3 the to  CELEBRATIONS AND FESTIVALS BIRTHDAY MARKS  design,  a  two  special  l a r g e extent,  shaped  events the  have  P125)  P44 P4 5 been  appearance  considered,  of  the  park.  F i r s t l y , the c e n t r a l p a r t of the park i s c o n s i d e r e d as a p l a c e f o r summer f e s t i v a l s of d i f f e r e n t performances, such as c o n c e r t s , rock and r o l l bands, p l a y s and dramas of v a r i o u s k i n d s , or any l a r g e or s m a l l performance from the three  performing  performances.  areas  is  community. designed  An for  outdoor t h e a t r e different  There are t h r e e spaces of d i f f e r e n t  can be used f o r d i f f e r e n t s i z e groups.  with  scales  sizes,  of  which  The s t a i r s e a t s , combined  w i t h s t e p s , make a m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l use p o s s i b l e .  The f o u n t a i n i n  the m i d d l e i s preserved. Secondly,  Dundarave P i e r i s c o n s i d e r e d as a p l a c e of c e l e b r a -  t i o n — a d e s t i n a t i o n f o r the Ambleside-Dundarave l i f e boat r a c i n g . The  d e s i g n emphasizes t h i s sense of d e s t i n a t i o n p r o v i d i n g a  92 welcoming stage f o r t h e audience.  The t a l l posts w i t h f l a g s serve  as an i n d i c a t i o n o f a r r i v a l . 4) LAYERS OF HISTORY P126) PATTERN PATTERN  2.4.1 2.4.2  The  Analysis  historic  Dundarave p i e r , and o l d t r e e s .  c o n f l i c t s with the character propose t h e c o n v e r s i o n  i s restored  the t r e e s . bridge  is  Peppi's r e s t a u r a n t  The  o f Peppi's i n t o a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g , Columns, b a l c o n i e s , a p a t i o , to "root"  the b u i l d i n g  The h i s t o r i c a l appearance o f t h e b u i l d i n g  (see P i c t u r e 9. Appendix A, P104).  A l l valuable t r e e s are enclosed benches.  Peppi's  I t s f u n c t i o n as a r e s t a u r a n t  ramps a r e added, which a r e intended  i n t o i t s surroundings.  include  o f t h e park as a p u b l i c p l a c e .  the West Vancouver H i s t o r y Museum. and  Appendix B ,  P48 P48  " l a y e r s " on t h e s i t e  l o c a t e d i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e park.  design  Drawing No.13,  Heritage Preservations B u i l d i n g i n O l d Traces  valuable  restaurant,  (See  Lables  by fences, t r e e p l a n t e r s , o r  a r e added t o show t h e age, name and s p e c i e s o f  A d d i t i o n a l m o d i f i c a t i o n t o t h e P i e r i n c l u d e s a small  added c l o s e t o t h e end o f t h e p i e r , which emphasizes t h e  the f i n a l ending o f mountain-to-sea sequence. 5) WHEEL-CHAIR ACCESSIBILITY AND HANDICAPPED A n a l y s i s Drawing No.14, Appendix B, 127)  PARKING  Handicapped a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s p r e s e n t l y a major s o c i a l In West Vancouver, a f a v o u r i t e p l a c e  f o r the senior  park a c c e s s i b l e by w h e e l - c h a i r i s a n e c e s s i t y .  issue.  citizen,  a  T h i s s p e c i a l need  .changes t h e appearance o f t h e park, e s p e c i a l l y , t h e steps the entrance.  (see  Wheel-chair audiences a l s o have t h e i r own  below special  b a l c o n i e s , and ramps t o b u i l d i n g s and washrooms i n the d e s i g n . 6)  BOUNDARY (See  Analysis  PATTERN 2.11.1  Drawing N o . 1 5 , Appendix B, P12 8)  WATERFRONT BOUNDARY  P68  The row o f t r e e s along Lower B e l l e v u e Ave i s intended t o g i v e a  s t r o n g boundary t o t h e park.  A h i e r a r c h y o f boundaries a r e  formed by t r e e s , b u i l d i n g edges, roads, and o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s . 6)  DERELICT SITE (see  PATTERN 2.7.1  A n a l y s i s Drawing No.16, Appendix B ,  DERELICT SITE  P129)  P57  The beach i n the park has a l r e a d y had a d e r e l i c t q u a l i t y due t o t h e l o g s which a r e s c a t t e r e d here and t h e r e . fine  sand,  i t has c l a y  and stone,  which  Instead o f having  adds  a character of  roughness—a v i s u a l quality of d e r e l i c t i o n . 8)  NIGHT IMAGE (see  PATTERN 2.5.1  A n a l y s i s Drawing N o . 1 6 , Appendix B ,  NIGHT LIFE IN THE CITY  L i g h t p o s t s a r e designed  P129)  P51  around t h e performing  area,  along  the p i e r , and around major f u n c t i o n a l p l a c e s , such as washrooms, and p a r k i n g 8)  lots.  SEASONAL IMAGE (see  PATTERN 2.2.2 Seasonal  Analysis  Drawing No.17, Appendix B ,  SEASONAL DECORATION d e c o r a t i o n f o r t h e park and t h e l i g h t  P41 posts  P130)  94 3.3.3  DESIGN EXPLANATION  Design Drawing No.4  S i t e Design o f Dundarave Park  95  Design Drawing No. 5  Axonometric .Drawing  o f the Design  96 Design Drawing No.6  Sections  97 3.4  EVALUATION  3.4.1  WHICH PATTERNS ARE MORE USEFUL AND STIMULATING In  t h e whole  than o t h e r s . the d e s i g n  design  process  some p a t t e r n s  The most s t i m u l a t i n g and c o m p e l l i n g  a r e under these B.  History.  These concern t h r e e major a s p e c t s  natural  activities, Other  Celebrations  elements  categories  other three  can  natural  and  C.  Layers  of waterfront  happenings,  Site  are secondarily  and Ruins, Night Besides  of  parks:  the  human  sites  Image  i n this  t o make a p l a c e  waterfront.  Places. case—are  special.  make a d i s o r d e r l y p l a c e  Image, Sacred  Places,  F o r example, t h e r e might be  i n this  and Sacred  and boundary  influential.  t h e sequence and boundary, t h e  issue are c o n d i t i o n a l .  f o r Night  themselves  Festivals;  of patterns  be a few d e r e l i c t  sequence  and  and  Sequence, and Boundary.  true  patterns i n  and t h e e x i s t i n g s t a t u s .  These a r e D e r e l i c t  only  better  t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : A. Rhythmical Rec-  urrence;  the  worked  Order  of  place—  not s u f f i c i e n t  In other  ordered,  The same i s  words,  in  patterns  b u t t h e time and meaning  p a t t e r n s make an o r d i n a r y p l a c e d i s t i n g u i s h e d . The Future,  least  and Center.  patterns, in  i f more r e s e a r c h  development  ideas.  categories  There  the planting plan.  with  was  useful  perhaps  because  i s a great  patterns  a r e Season,  p o t e n t i a l i n seasonal  i s done t o r e f i n e t h e p a t t e r n f o r use  The f u t u r e p a t t e r n s  planning  Center P a t t e r n s  of  a r e more concerned  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  than  with  most times d i d n o t prove u s e f u l .  Boundary  Patterns  a r e more  design This  e f f i c i e n t and  98 powerful space,  in  landscape.  In  the  landscape,  center  i s often  a  which i s formed by boundary.  The indicate patterns, asterisks;  following i s a l i s t their and  levels  of  success.  most c o m p e l l i n g  then  there  are  o f the p a t t e r n s w i t h a s t e r i s k s The  most  p a t t e r n s are  patterns with  frequently  labelled  two  and  the p a t t e r n s which are not marked are the l e a s t  one  useful.  2 .1.1*** 2 .1.2* 2 .1.3*  D i s p l a y i n g N a t u r a l Rhythm i n the Waterfront B u i l d i n g Things That Are A f l o a t Time Devices as Landscape Ornament  2 .2.1* 2 . 2.2**  F r u i t Trees i n the Park Seasonal D e c o r a t i o n  2. 3 . i * * * 2 .3.2*  Park w i t h F e s t i v a l s B i r t h Date  2 . 4.1** 2 . 4 .2***  Heritage Preservation B u i l d i n g i n T r a c e s of the  2 .5.1* 2 .5.2  N i g h t Park Dancing i n the Park  2 .6.2 2 .6.3  Making Changes V i s i b l e Empty l o t s  2 .7.1** 2 . 7.2** 2 . 7.3** 2 .8.1*** 2 .8.2**  Derelict Sites Gardens Growing W i l d Adventure Playground S i t e of Sequences Path and R e s t i n g P l a c e  2 . 9.1** 2 . 9.2**  Timeless M a t e r i a l s T i m e l e s s Way of C o n s t r u c t i o n  2 . 10 . 1 2 .10.2*  H i e r a r c h y of Centers Something Roughly i n the  2 .11.1** 2 .11.3**  W a t e r f r o n t Boundary T h i c k Walls  2 .12.1* 2 . 12 . 2 2 . 12.3**  Theme Park Graves i n the Park Imaginative and S i t e S p e c i f i c  and C e l e b r a t i o n s  Past  Middle  Sign  with  to  used three  asterisk;  (27  Patterns  Eleven  In  patterns  Total: with  Four  two  Patterns  asterisks;  a s t e r i s k ; and  f i v e p a t t e r n s without  3.4.2  LEVEL THAT THE  ON  THE  with Seven  three  asterisks;  patterns  with  one  any).  PATTERN WORKS WELL  A. On the l e v e l of urban context,  the p a t t e r n s do not work w e l l .  Perhaps, the l a c k of the s t i m u l a t i n g p a t t e r n s on the urban causes weakness i n the i n t e g r i t y  and  level  c o n s i s t e n c y of the p r o j e c t -  - s i t e p l a n of the seawalk. B. M i d d l e L e v e l , on the Park) , the patterns  patterns  (patterns  work very with  i s s u e s on t h i s  level.  C.  t o say  I t i s hard  the d e t a i l this on  design  project. the  As  materials  developed f u r t h e r .  l e v e l of a park  four  well.  ( f o r example, Dundarave  The  asterisks)  whether or not  deal  with  patterns  the  design  work w e l l  on  l e v e l , because the  l a c k of d e t a i l e d d e s i g n  in  with  the  patterns,  the  and  construction  could  very  seasonal  the  f o u r most s u c c e s s f u l  be  two  patterns  strong,  if  100  APPENDIX A  HISTORIC CURRENT PICTURES OF THE WATERFRONT  T h i s p a r t p r o v i d e s two c o l l e c t i o n s of  the  dating the  site. back  existing  both  The  first  eleven  as f a r as 1913;  photos  while  showing  the  give  the o t h e r  s t a t u s of the w a t e r f r o n t .  collections,  of o l d and new p i c t u r e s historic  twenty-one d e p i c t  There i s a map  locations  images,  from  before  which  the  photographs were taken. COLLECTION I to  11)  HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE WATERFRONT ( P i c t u r e 1  101  P i c t u r e 3, The Beach West of 14 th S t r e e t , F e r r y No. 5 Approaching P i e r , c i r c a 1917  102  Picture 5, P. G.E. RailwayTracks, B e l l e v u e Ave Between 22 t o 2 3 t h S t r e e t , c i r c a 1925  103 P i c t u r e 7, A e r i a l View of W.Vancouver Showing Ambleside, Hollyburn Mountain, Sentinel Hill, Capilano River, Delta and the L i o n s , 1934  P i c t u r e 8, A e r i a l View of Dundarave, H o l l y b u r n , R o y a l B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s , 1948  Ambleside,  Park  104  Picture 10, Dundarave P i e r and Clachan H o t e l , 1912 (Ramsey, P114, 1986)  P i c t u r e 11, Dundarave Rega t t a , c i r c a 1920 (Ramsey, P 135, 1986)  105 COLLECTION I I  EXISTING STATUS OF THE WATERFRONT ( P i c t u r e  12-3 3)  This c o l l e c t i o n gives a present v i s u a l images of the waterfront. While t r y i n g t o cover the whole s i t e evenly, the c o l l e c t i o n e s p e c i a l l y focuses on the seawalk and Dundarave Park.  106 P i c t u r e 12, B e g i n n i n g of the Capilano Walkway, Looking Towards North  Picture 13, End of the Seawalk and Before E n t e r i n g the Capilano Walkway, Looking Towards North-East  P i c t u r e 14, Seawalk a t the East End of Ambleside Park, Looking Towards West  107  P i c t u r e 17, Seawalk i n the Middle Part of Ambleside Park, Looking Towards West  108  P i c t u r e 19, The 13th S t r e e t , Looking Towards North  P i c t u r e 20, A P r e s e r v e d H i s torical Building i n the H e r i t a g e Square a t t h e Foot of the 14th S t r e e t , Looking Towards South  109  P i c t u r e 22, B.C. Railway a t the End of 16th Street, Looking Towards West  P i c t u r e 23, John Lawson Park with a P i c n i c S h e l t e r i n the Middle, Looking Towards West  110  P i c t u r e 25, Beginning of the Centennial Seawalk Foot of 18th S t r e e t  at  the  P i c t u r e 26, The 19th S t r e e t , Looking Towards North from the Seawalk  Ill  P i c t u r e 28. Seawalk and the High-rise Condominiums, Looking from the Foot of 24th S t r e e t Towards East  P i c t u r e 29, Seawalk and Dundarave Park, Looking from the Foot of 24 t h Street Towards West  112 P i c t u r e 30, The 24th S t r e e t , Looking from the Seawalk Towards North  P i c t u r e 31, 2 5th S t r e e t Pier  Looking up the from Dundarave  Picture 32, Looking Down Dundarave Park a t the C r o s s P o i n t of the 2 5th S t r e e t and Lower B e l l e v u e Ave  113 Picture East  3 3, A Panoramic View of Dundarave Park, Looking  Towards  114  APPENDIX B  ANALYSIS DRAWINGS  A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 1 S i t e P l a n f o r t h e Seawalk of West Vancouver S i t e C o n t e x t — S i t e L o c a t i o n and S i t e Zoning  A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 2 S i t e P l a n f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver Site Analysis—Sequence  116  A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 3 S i t e P l a n f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver S i t e A n a l y s i s — R h y t h m i c a l Recurrence  117 A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 4 S i t e P l a n f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver S i t e A n a l y s i s — S p e c i a l Events  118 A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 5 S i t e P l a n f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver S i t e A n a l y s i s — L a y e r s of H i s t o r y  119 A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 6 S i t e P l a n f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver S i t e A n a l y s i s — N i g h t Image  120  A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 7 S i t e P l a n f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver S i t e A n a l y s i s — B o u n d a r y , Sacred P l a c e s , and D e r e l i c t  Sites  A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 8. S i t e P l a n f o r the Seawalk of West Vancouver S i t e A n a l y s i s — P a t t e r n s From Alexander  122  123 A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 10 Design of Dundarave Park Site Analysis—Sequence  124 A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 11 Design of Dundarave Park S i t e A n a l y s i s — R h y t h m i c a l Recurrence  125 A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 12 Design of Dundarave Park S i t e A n a l y s i s — S p e c i a l Events  126 A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 13 Design of Dundarave Park S i t e A n a l y s i s — L a y e r s of H i s t o r y  127 A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 14 Design of Dundarave Park Site Analysis—Wheel-Chair  Accessibility  A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 15 Design of Dundarave Park Site Analysis—Boundary  129 A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 16 Design of Dundarave Park S i t e A n a l y s i s — D e r e l i c t S i t e and Night Image  A n a l y s i s Drawing No. 17 Design of Dundarave Park S i t e A n a l y s i s — S e a s o n a l Image  131 BIBLIOGRAPHY: Alexander, C h r i s t o p h e r , Sara Ishikawa and Murray S i l v e r s t e i n A P a t t e r n Language (Town * B u i l d i n g * C o n s t r u c t i o n ) , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1977 (NA2750 A449 1977 McM) Alexander, C h r i s t o p h e r The Timeless Way of B u i l d i n g , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1977 (NA2500 A45 1979 FAD) Alexander, C h r i s t o p h e r The Nature of Order manuscript, 1989  and t h e A r t of B u i l d i n g ,  Unpublished  B a c h e l a r d G, The P o e t i c s of Space, Boston: Beacon P r e s s , 1971 Number: PN1043 B212 MS 4th F. & SED)  (Call  Berube, Margery S., e t a l The American H e r i t a g e D i c t i o n a r y , 2nd C o l l e g e ed., Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1982  Boston:  Breen, Ann and Dick Rigby (Ed) Urban Waterfronts '83: B a l a n c i n g P u b l i c / P r i v a t e I n t e r e s t s , A summary of a conference a t George Washington U n i v e r s i t y i n Washington, D.C. 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