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'Keepers of Morale' : the Vancouver Council of Women, 1939-1945 Rose, Ramona M. 1990

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*KEEPERS OF MORALE': THE VANCOUVER COUNCIL OF WOMEN, 1939-1945. By RAMONA MARIE ROSE (Hons.), Memorial U n i v e r s i t y o f Newfoundland,1980. M.M.St., U n i v e r s i t y Of Toronto, 1984. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1990 © R a m o n a Marie Rose, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. HISTORY Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada _ „ OCTOBER 5 » 1 9 9 0 Date DE-6 (2/88) i i Abstract H i s t o r i a n s d i f f e r as to whether World War II brought about major changes i n women's public and private r o l e s . Using the Vancouver Council of Women as a case study, t h i s thesis argues that i t s war-time a c t i v i t i e s were conducted in terms of a continuing ideology about women's ro l e s , which enabled the VCW to adapt to the war-time s i t u a t i o n requiring women to take on duties outside t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l sphere, while l i m i t i n g i t s a b i l i t y to perceive a wider s o c i a l r ole for women. The VCW's response to the war was a concerted e f f o r t to promote government p o l i c i e s at home while further-ing the tenets of i t s maternal feminist philosophy. Relying on what i t considered to be women's feminine talents the VCW maintained that women's e f f o r t s were best put to use i n war fund drives and the protection of the home front. T^he VCW's assistance i n the mobilization of women into paid war work that i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l work experiences r e -vealed the narrow perception that i t had of women's public srjhjtr_e-r-|Its r e s o l u t i o n s for post-war planning f a i l e d to o f f e r broadening p o s s i b i l i t i e s for women i n the post-war world. Patriotism, the preservation of the ideals of home l i f e and the promotion of women's feminine q u a l i t i e s were more important to the VCW than the pursuit of broad feminist goals. The war was not to a l t e r the VCW's views regarding women's proper sphere; i t s b e l i e f s and a c t i v i t i e s s i g n i f i e d a continuation of prewar views regarding women's public and private status. Women's proper sphere was s t i l l domestic. i i i Table o f Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f Tables. ..... i v Acknowledgement v Chapter I : I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter I I : The Vancouver C o u n c i l o f Women: i t s O r i g i n s , I n f l u e n c e s and Ent r y i n t o the World War II E f f o r t 15 Chapter I I I : The Vancouver C o u n c i l o f Women's War-time S o c i a l and C i v i c Reform A c t i v i t i e s 35 Chapter IV: The Vancouver C o u n c i l o f Women on the Home Fr o n t 49 Chapter V: The Vancouver C o u n c i l o f Women's Views o f Women i n Pa i d War Work 66 Chapter VI: The Vancouver C o u n c i l o f Women and the Post-War World 86 Chapter V I I : C o n c l u s i o n 100 Sources 106 Appendix I. 112 Appendix I I 114 i v L i s t o f Tables Table I: Vancouver C o u n c i l o f Women Executive Members, 1939-1946; T o t a l Years o f S e r v i c e . 20 Table I I : Vancouver C o u n c i l o f Women Convenors, 1939-1946; T o t a l Years o f S e r v i c e 21 Table I I I : Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Workers i n Recorded Employment i n Vancouver, 1942-1946 70 V Acknowledgement This t h e s i s c o u l d not have been completed without the a s s i s t a n c e o f many people, too many to mention i n one page. I would l i k e to thank my s u p e r v i s o r . Dr. Peter Ward f o r h i s wise comments and e d i t o r i a l e x p e r t i s e ; to K e i t h and M o l l y R a l s t o n f o r t h e i r encouragement and f o r making t h e i r computer a v a i l a b l e t o me; to Dr. A r t h u r J . Ray f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and kindness; to P a u l e t t e F a l c o n , a c o l l e a g u e and f r i e n d , f o r her h e l p f u l suggestions and continued support, and to my other f e l l o w graduate students f o r t h e i r support and a d v i c e , i n c l u d i n g J e n n i f e r Fox, Pamela Fox and Ruth Gumpp. Also a thank you i s r e q u i r e d to Margaret Hardwick f o r her s t a t i s t i c a l e x p e r t i s e . To my f a m i l y i n Newfoundland I am f o r e v e r g r a t e f u l f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u e d l o v e and encouragement o v e r what o f t e n seemed l i k e an e n d l e s s t a s k . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s to the memory o f my mother, Laura Rose. I t was because of her war-time experiences t h a t I i n i t i a l l y became i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f e c t s o f war on women's l i v e s . To her I am f o r e v e r indebted. 1 Chapter I: Introduction This study addresses one of the major questions posed by feminist historians of women i n Canada during World War II : why, i n spite of the advances made during the war years, > did women's s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic status not change s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n post-war Canadian society? Feminist his-J torians generally agree that women's war-time mobilization was a necessity for both the Canadian and American govern-ments i n pr o s e c u t i n g t o t a l war. Yet they d i f f e r as to whether the war brought about major changes i n women's public and private r o l e s . Some see the post-war changes i n women's st a t u s as a r e v e r s a l of war-time gains. Others claim that, as such, no permanent gains were achieved for women during war-time because of the persistence of underly-ing attitudes about women's po s i t i o n i n society, and because the temporary war-time changes were accommodated through ex i s t i n g ideologies. Vllsing the Vancouver Council of Women (VCW) as a case study, th i s thesis w i l l argue that i t s war-time a c t i v i t i e s were conducted i n terms of a continuing ideology about women's roles^J. This ideology enabled the Council to adapt to the war-time s i t u a t i o n requiring women to take on duties outside t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l sphere, while l i m i t i n g i t s a b i l i t y to perceive a wider s o c i a l role for women. 2 Several American h i s t o r i a n s have paved the way for h i s t o r i c a l inquiry into the e f f e c t s of the war on Canadian women. Indeed, many observations on American females' ex-periences are relevant to Canadian women. The war p r e c i p i -tated an unprecedented entry of women into both the American and Canadian labour forces,1 p a r t i c u l a r l y i n industry, so that women took jobs previously held only by men. Once h o s t i l i t i e s ceased women on both sides of the border were expected to leave their war-time work and return to t r a d i -t i o n a l female employment, or to the home as wife and mother. The impact of t o t a l warfare permeated American and Canadian s o c i e t y from the workplace to the home, determining the duties and roles of American and Canadian women whether as housewives, mothers, employees, consumers or c i v i l i a n s . William Chafe's ground-breaking work set the tone for h i s t o r i c a l debate about the impact of World War II on women's status. Chafe argues that the unprecedented entry of married women into the American war-time labour force advanced women's fi g h t for independent economic status and 1 William Chafe notes that during the course of the war the proportion of American women employed rose from 25 per cent to 36 per cent, an increase greater than that of the preceding 40 years. The American Woman; Her Changing S o c i a l ,  Economic, and P o l i t i c a l Roles. 1920-1970. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972), p.145. The proportion of women i n the Canadian n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l labour force rose from 25% (686,000 out of a t o t a l of 2,741,000 persons with jobs) to 36% ( 1, 199,000 out of a t o t a l of 3,349,000 persons with jobs) between 1939 and 1944. F.H. Leacy, ed. H i s t o r i c a l  S t a t i s t i c s of Canada. 2nd e d i t i o n , (Ottawa: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1983), S e r i e s D260-D265. 3 he concludes that t h i s happened s p e c i f i c a l l y because of the war. 2 But Chafe's a n a l y s i s of the e f f e c t s of war-time p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the American women's post-war status has been c r i t i c i z e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y by feminist hi s t o r i a n s . In a reassessment of women's experience during World War I I , American h i s t o r i a n s such as Karen Anderson and Maureen Honey, and to a l e s s e r extent, Susan Hartmann and D'Ann Campbell, question claims that the war had a l i b e r a t i n g e f f e c t on women's l i v e s . According to Anderson the debate has centered around one major issue: "whether to stress the widening of oppor-t u n i t i e s for women i n paid work or the persistence of sexist values and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s i n the economy, the family, and the society i n general. "3 She argues that the e f f e c t of war on women's status was not pos i t i v e . In a study of American women i n the Puget Sound area, Anderson shows that women's employment i n non-traditional f i e l d s did not r e s u l t i n a re-evaluation of women's c a p a b i l i t i e s , but only i n a r e a l l o c a t i o n of roles during war-time. She argues that by a l t e r i n g tasks to "conform to t r a d i t i o n a l 2 Chafe, The American Woman: Her Changing S o c i a l ,  Economic, and P o l i t i c a l Roles. 1920-1970, Chapter 6. 3 Karen Anderson, Wartime Women: Sex Roles. Family  Relations. And The Status Of Women During World War I I . (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981), p.3. 4 preconceptions regarding women's [work] "4 the war allowed most people to r e t a i n "conventional notions on what women should do."5 During the war years, inherited c u l t u r a l norms continued to determine women's roles and i n Anderson's view " f a c i l i t a t e d an a n a c h r o n i s t i c retreat into the xfeminine mystique' of the post-war period."6 Although Susan Hartmann agrees with Anderson that "conventional standards survived and reasserted themselves afte r the war", her conclusions about women's struggle for increased e q u a l i t y are more p o s i t i v e . Hartmann analyzes women's post-war status from a longer time perspective than Anderson and maintains th a t , during the 1940s, "women's behavior i n the p u b l i c realm had undergone considerable change and would continue to develop i n altered patterns."7 She argues that "feminism was very much a l i v e during the war years"8 p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n women's organizations where 4 Karen Anderson, "The Impact of World War II i n the Puget Sound Area on the Status of Women and the Family", Ph.d. d i s s . , ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1975), p.72. 5 Anderson, "The Impact of World War II i n the Puget Sound Area", p.80. 6 Anderson, Wartime Women, p. 64. 7 Susan Hartmann, The Home Front and Beyond: American  Women i n the 1940s. (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1982), p.27. 8 Susan Hartmann, "Women's Organizations During World War I I : The Interaction of Class, Race, and Feminism" i n Woman's Being. Woman's Place: Female Identity and Vocation i n American History, ed. Mary Kelley, (Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1979), p.313. 5 women's groups provided "active vehicles for engagement i n the p o l i t i c a l process."9 Hartmann does point out, however, that American women's organizations were divided i n p h i l o -sophy and p r i o r i t y , e s p e c i a l l y on issues of class and race. She d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between what she sees as two strai n s of war-time feminism. "Status-oriented feminism" was mani-fested " p r i n c i p a l l y i n the movement for female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n policy-making" whereas "survival-oriented feminism" dealt with more p r a c t i c a l issues such as labour standards, c h i l d care and domestic service.10 D'Ann Campbell argues that t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s towards women remained intact during the 1940s, not only because of the overriding influence of ideological forces and the power of pa r e n t a l c o n t r o l , but more importantly because of women's ove r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n with their gender r o l e s . Campbell maintains that women's basic conservatism not only determined their public and private roles during war-time but continued to a f f e c t them i n the post-war years. War may have o f f e r e d new challenges, but women, Campbell maintains, responded with "the norms of inherited values." In her view, American women during the war "did not change t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e i r primary r o l e s " and she concludes that "gender norms - and, even more, gender 9 Hartmann, The Homefront and Beyond, p. 144. 10 Hartmann, "Women's Organizations During World War II " , p. 315. 6 i d e n t i t i e s - change i n the long, rather than the short, term."11 Maureen Honey has d e a l t with the e f f o r t s of the government to propagate a p a r t i c u l a r image of American womanhood and argues, as does Karen Anderson, that such an image continued segregated gender i d e n t i t i e s , as well as segregating women into d i f f e r e n t classes. She examines the U.S. O f f i c e of Har Information's co-o p e r a t i o n with the magazine i n d u s t r y i n creating a myth emphasizing women's domestic q u a l i t i e s . Honey concludes that war propaganda not only i n t e n s i f i e d class differences i n the portrayal of women war workers, but also prevented the development of any model that would have helped women form "non-traditional concep-tions of women's work."12 Scholarly consideration of Canadian women during World War II i s mainly confined to one feminist h i s t o r i a n , Ruth Roach Pierson.13 Like American feminists, she concludes 11 D'Ann Campbell. Women at War with America: Private  L i v e s i n a P a t r i o t i c Era. (Cambridge: University Press, 1984), p.236. 12 Maureen Honey, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class.  Gender and Propaganda During World War I I . (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1984), pp.7 and 213. 13 See "They're S t i l l Women After A l l " : The Second  World War and Canadian Womanhood. (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1986); "*Home Aid': A Solution to Women's Unemploy-ment A f t e r World War I I " , A t l a n t i s . Vol.2, No.2, Spring 1977, pp.85-97; Canadian Women and the Second World War. (Ottawa: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association, H i s t o r i c a l Booklet #37), 1983. that the assumption of "great gains" for women and "the bewilderment over the postwar reversals"14 i s a gross error i n judgement. She argues that war-time s o c i a l attitudes s t i l l emphasized that Canadian women's proper sphere was domestic, and only the exigencies of war required women tem-p o r a r i l y to assume masculine job role s . In Pierson's view, t r a d i t i o n a l preconceptions of women's c a p a b i l i t i e s deter-mined their roles i n the public sphere during war-time and a f f e c t e d Canadian government p o l i c y on women's post-war status. As an example, Pierson points to the assumption of the Canadian government's Advisory Committee on Reconstruc-t i o n that the majority of working womenl5 would v o l u n t a r i l y return to the home at the war's end. Even the Women's Sub-Committee on Reconstruction did l i t t l e to address the con-cerns of female workers;16 i t saw working c l a s s women pr i m a r i l y i n domestic service!7 and married women only as secondary wage earners. War-time gains f o r women were temporary because, i n Pierson's assessment, they were made 14 Pierson, "Women's Emancipation and the Recruitment of Women into the Labour Force i n World War I I " p.125. 15 P i e r s o n notes t h a t the A d v i s o r y Committee on Reconstruction reported that 45 to 55% of the 600,000 women who had entered war-time work would return to marriage and family after the war. 16 Pierson Canadian Women And The Second World War, p. 21. 17 P i e r s o n , "'Home A i d e ' : A S o l u t i o n to Women's Unemployment After World War II?", A t l a n t i s . Vol.2, No. 2, Spring 1977 - Part I I : Conference Issue, pp.95-96. 8 on a "non-feminist basis".18 She argues that "the seeds of backlash were already present during the war i t s e l f . "19 This explains why women adopted a " f u l l s k i r ted and redomes-t i c a t e d post-war model" and why "for more than a decade feminism was once again s a c r i f i c e d to femininity."20 Only one h i s t o r i a n has attempted to reassess some aspects of Pierson's thesis; G a i l Cuthbert Brandt i s highly c r i t i c a l of Pierson's analysis of the Women's Sub-Committee on Reconstruction, arguing that i t takes no cognizance of the circumstances and attitudes of Canadian society at the time of the report.21 Taking a more sympathetic view of i t s findings, Brandt contends that, although the Committee was plagued by administrative problems, such as u n r e a l i s t i c time constraints and the complex nature of reconstruction bureau-cracy, i t did o f f e r women a choice between various careers and marriage.22 Yet she does concede that there was a "lack of s i g n i f i c a n t change i n public attitudes towards women's roles"23 and that "most Canadians simply wanted to see women 18 Pierson."They're S t i l l Women After A l l " , p.218. 19 Pierson, "They're S t i l l Women After A l l " , p.219. 20 Pierson, "They're S t i l l Women After A l l " , p.220. 21 Gai l Cuthbert Brandt, " xPigeon-Holed and Forgotten': The Work of The Sub-Committee on the Post-War Problems of Women, 1943", H i s t o i r e - s o c l a l e - S o c i a l H i s t o r y . Vol. XV, No.29, (May 1982), p.253. 22 Brandt, ""Pigeon-Holed and Forgotten'", pp.239 and 253. 23 Brandt, " xPigeon-Holed and Forgotten'", p.239. 9 r e t u r n home a f t e r the war".24 Similar conclusions were reached by two other Canadian f e m i n i s t h i s t o r i a n s who analyzed the e f f e c t s of war-time propaganda on women's 1ives.25 One of the major issues of intere s t to feminist war historians i s the existence of continued gender segregation i n the p u b l i c sphere during and afte r the war. [American feminist war historians emphasize the overriding influence of culture and ideology, rather than economic f a c t o r s ^ They argue that long-standing norms regarding gender roles con-tinued to influence society i n general, and the family i n p a r t i c u l a r , and that such norms either were w i l l i n g l y em-braced by women or were imposed upon them by parents, governments and the media. Canadian studies of war-time society have concentrated on the analysis of the i n s t i t u t i o n s of government, the armed forces and the media i n assessing women's status and they 24 Brandt, ""Pigeon-Holed and Forgotten'", p.253. 25 Susan Bland's q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of war-time a d v e r t i s i n g i n Maclean's Magazine concludes that the i n -crease i n the number of advertisements directed to home-makers i n the post-war years i s proof that attitudes towards women's roles had not changed. "Henrietta the Homemaker, and "Rosie the Riveter': Images of Women i n Advertising 1939-50", A t l a n t i s . Vol.8, No.2, Spring 1983, pp.61-86. Yvonne Malmeous-Klein's study of c o n f l i c t i n g images of Canadian women i n war-time National Film Board productions argues that women were unlikely to fin d new roles after the war by viewing NFB films and that the industry was a male preserve i n the executive and d i r e c t i o n a l spheres. "How They Saw Us: Images of Women i n National Film Board Films of the 1940's and 1950»s", A t l a n t i s . Vol.4, No.2, Spring 1979, pp.32-33. 10 too suggest the dominance of culture and ideology i n the continued gender segregation of the post-war years. Pierson's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the "fear of loss of feminity"26 and, to a lesser extent, Brandt's argument for s t a b i l i t y i n public attitudes towards women's roles a l l suggest the per-s i s t e n c e of pre-war views of Canadian women's public and private status during the post-war years. The o v e r - r i d i n g question r a i s e d by these h i s t o r i e s -whether ideologies and norms about women's roles remained intact or changed during war-time - should be examined i n r e l a t i o n to attempts by women's pressure groups during the war to address problems related to women's public and p r i v -ate status. Among American historians only Susan Hartmann has attempted to l i n k women's organized war-time a c t i v i t i e s to the growth of feminist activism. In Canada, Ruth Roach P i e r s o n and G a i l Cuthbert Brandt have looked only at the women's federal committee which studied the long-term e f -f e c t s of World War II on women's status. Therefore, the extent of f e m i n i s t a c t i v i s m within women's organizations during World War II remains to be assessed. This thesis w i l l focus on the a c t i v i t i e s and philosophy of the Vancouver Council of Women during the 1940s i n order to learn more about how women's organizations t r i e d to i n -fluence the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s and s o c i a l views that affected women's l i v e s during war-time. Such an assessment 26 Pierson, "They're S t i l l Women After A l l " , p.219. of women's organized a c t i v i t i e s can provide greater insight into the evolution of s o c i a l structures and b e l i e f s than can the study of individuals.27 A major question to be examined i s the e f f e c t of the b e l i e f i n segregated gender r o l e s on the programmes of organized women's groups during war-time. I f the b e l i e f that women could best achieve recognition i n the public sphere through the private virtues of being feminine, peace-loving, maternal and s a c r i f i c i a l continued to be accepted by a large segment of Canadian society during the war i n spite of temporary changes i n women's roles, then this might off e r an explanation of the so-called reversal of gains a f t e r the war. Such an ex p l a n a t i o n has been suggested but not documented. The t h e s i s w i l l examine how perceptions of women's p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r o l e s were r e f l e c t e d i n the war-time programmes of the Vancouver Council of Women and i n i t s p o s i t i o n on the post-war roles of women. It reveals that the VCW's philosophical b e l i e f s and maternal feminist nature determined the stance that the Council would take regarding Canada's part i n the war and the types of war-time service i t deemed appropriate f o r women. The VCW believed that 27 In a recent study s o c i a l psychologist Mike Robinson, pointing to the power of group activism, observes that the capacity of a single person to achieve on his or her own i s , in general, far less than that of the group. He maintains that the "s o c i a l power of the individual i s mediated by the groups to which he or she belongs." Mike Robinson, Groups, (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1984), p . l . women's war-time e f f o r t s should be confined to a c t i v i t i e s that r e l i e d on t h e i r feminine s k i l l s , and i t therefore encouraged the view of women as nurturers and men as pro-v i d e r s i n s p i t e of war-time abberations. The Council's support for continued gender segregation during the war, and i t s e f f o r t s to propagate t r a d i t i o n a l views regarding women's p u b l i c and private status, limited i t s a b i l i t y to promote broaden opportunities and alternative choices for women. By encouraging women to maintain t h e i r feminine nature while a s s i s t i n g i n the prosecution of war, the VCW sustained pre-war views of Canadian women's public and private status and transmitted them into the post-war years. Founded i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century, the VCW operated as an umbrella organization for Vancouver women's volunteer groups and t r a d i t i o n a l l y espoused s o c i a l and c i v i c reform causes. By the 1940s the Council had over 80 a f f i l -i a t e s . With a combined membership of a f f i l i a t e s of between 8,000 and 10,000 the VCW prided i t s e l f on being the "most powerful women's organization i n Vancouver."28 This makes i t an excellent vehicle to study women's activism. Although the Council's a c t i v i t i e s were confined mainly to s o c i a l and c i v i c issues, from i t s inception i t expressed a concern about the status of women. The preamble to the VCW's con s t i t u t i o n emphasized i t s goal of "the betterment of 28 "Women of 1938", Vancouver Sun, January 7, 1939, p.15. women's [and ch i l d r e n ' s ] p o s i t i o n i n society". 29 To the extent that feminism has been a s s o c i a t e d with " p u b l i c , organized campaigns" to further women's status30 the VCW can be c o n s i d e r e d a f e m i n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n . The Co u n c i l ' s rationale for women's entry into the public sphere points to the VCW's commitment to maternal feminism, a philosophy which maintained that women's ro l e as mothers required that they p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p u b l i c sphere. This philosophy encompassed the b e l i e f that women's s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s (maternal, nurturing, s a c r i f i c a l and peace-loving) should encourage them to enter public l i f e and promote reforms not achievable by men. | Also known as social-reform feminism, i t argued that women's l i v e s were d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l upheaval, such as poverty and war, and therefore i t was women's duty to address these issues.31 The middle-class composition of the VCW also influenced i t s perceptions of women's roles and shaped i t s p o l i c i e s . Previous studies of the VCW and i t s parent organization, the 29 Preamble to VCW Constitution. Vancouver Council of Women, Manuscript C o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver, UBC, Special Collections. 30 Early women's historians saw the suffrage campaign as the focus of women's history. For a discussion see Linda Kealey, ed. A Not Unreasonable Claim: Woman and Reform i n  Canada, 1880s-1920s. (Toronto: The Women's Educational Press, 1979), pp.7-8. 31 For a d i s c u s s i o n of maternal feminism see Linda Kealey, A Not Unreasonable Claim: Woman and Reform i n  Canada, 1880s-1920s, p. 7 and Josephine Donovan, Feminist  Theory: The I n t e l l e c t u a l Traditions of American Feminism. (New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company, 1985), p.55. 14 National Council of Women of Canada (NCWC), of which i t was part, have underlined t h i s middle-class character, p a r t i c u -l a r l y at the Executive level.32 The VCW's promotion of community service among women o f f e r s another insight into i t s views of women's war-time rol e s . Few academic studies have focussed on women's volun-teerism, p a r t i c u l a r l y during war-time, or on volunteer a c t i -v i t i e s as promoting women's awareness of the need for change i n their p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l status. While the h o s t i l i t i e s continued, the VCW h e a r t i l y endorsed war charity events and c i r c u l a t e d war-time propaganda urging c i v i l i a n s to accept rationing and other r e s t r i c t i o n s . [But such advocacy did not d_ivert the Council from i t s main inter e s t - the promotion of so c i a l and c i v i c reform.^ While the VCW proceeded with r e -newed vigour to promote s o c i a l change under i t s war-time banner, at the same time, i t s attitudes and perception of women's roles i n society remained consistent with i t s pre-war ideology. The war-time s i t u a t i o n was not to a l t e r the Council's views regarding women's proper sphere i n Vancouver society. 32 G i l l i a n Weiss, ""As Women and as Citizens':Clubwomen i n Vancouver,1910-1928" (Ph.d. d i s s . , UBC.,1984) and Veronica Strong-Boag, The Parliament of Women; The National C o u n c i l of Women of Canada 1893-1929, (Ottawa; National Museums of Canada, 1976). 15 Chapter I I : The Vancouver Council of Women -i t s Origins, Influences and Entry into the World War II E f f o r t . The Vancouver Council of Women's response to World War II was not mere token support, but an enthusiastic, con-c e r t e d e f f o r t to promote Canadian government p o l i c i e s at home while furthering the tenets of i t s maternal feminist b e l i e f s . The VCW's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n war fund drives and salvage e f f o r t s , i t s p r o - B r i t i s h sympathies and support of l o c a l industries, i t s lobbying e f f o r t s on behalf of armed forces personnel and i t s attempts to secure the home front from " a l i e n " i n t e r e s t s were signs of i t s patriotism and na t i o n a l i s m as well as i t s b e l i e f i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of women's i n i t i a t i v e s . These views on the VCW's part did not originate i n 1939 i n r e a c t i o n to Canada's entry into the European c o n f l i c t . The Council's patriotism, maternal feminism and e l i t e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e had been fundamental elements of i t s i d e n t i t y since November 1894, when a group of Vancouver's concerned women c i t i z e n s banded together to work towards the reform of society. 16 As a chapter of the newly formed National Council of Women, a community service organizational the VCW adopted i t s federal counterpart's c o n s t i t u t i o n and philosophy, pro-claiming i t s e l f a "non-sectarian and non-partisan movement of women" i n order to avoid p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s s t r i f e with i t s various a f f i l i a t e s . In addition, to maintain each a f f i l i a t e ' s independence, the VCW guaranteed that i t had ""no power over...[ them]...beyond that of suggestion and sympathy.'" The federal pledge, adopted by the VCW at the time o f i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , s et the framework f o r the Vancouver Council's future a c t i v i t i e s : We, Women of Canada, sincerely believing that the best good of our homes and n a t i o n w i l l be advanced by our own greater unity of thought, sympathy, and purpose, and that an organized movement of women w i l l best conserve the greatest good of the family and the State, do h e r e b y band o u r s e l v e s t o g e t h e r to f u r t h e r the a p p l i c a t i o n of the Golden Rule to society, custom and law.2 The b e l i e f that the prosperity and s t a b i l i t y of the family and the state were inextricably bound together served as the VCW's rationale i n the early 20th century for i n -cluding both private and public concerns i n women's sphere 1 Lady Ishbel Aberdeen became the president of the International Council of Women i n 1883 and established i n Canada i n 1893 a Nation a l C o u n c i l , d e c l a r i n g that i t s mission was " i n one word, mothering". "Presidential Address" NCWC 1894, p . l c i t e d i n Terence R. Morrison ""Their Proper Sphere': Feminism, The Family And Child-Centered Reform In Ontario, 1875-1900", Ontario History. Vol.68, Part I I , p. 65. 2 See copy i n VCW Manuscript C o l l e c t i o n , Box 3, F i l e No. 14. 17 of i n f l u e n c e . The Council argued that to end the s o c i a l i l l s a f f l i c t i n g the family, women must move beyond the home and into the public realm. Espousing the view of an x i d e a l of true womenhood'3 the VCW maintained that woman's maternal s k i l l s , d o m e s t i c i t y and unique moral authority could be d e c i s i v e i n s o l v i n g the community's s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l problems, {in doing so, the Council a r t i c u l a t e d a stereotyped view of woman as an a l t r u i s t i c , nurturing and maternal being whose guidance would surely bring about much needed reforms! Believing that women were morally superior to men, and therefore able to achieve reforms where men had f a i l e d , the VCW r a l l i e d i t s supporters to combat the e v i l s of early 20th century society. I t proclaimed that by providing women with a "common meeting p l a c e " and by standing "shoulder to shoulder" the Council could attack "any outstanding e v i l or i n j u s t i c e " i n society.4 fits i n i t i a l lobbying e f f o r t s to win p r o t e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n f or mothers and children,5 better working hours for women and g i r l s i n fac t o r i e s and stores,6 and the suppression of "pernicious l i t e r a t u r e " which, i t 3 Terence R. Morrison, "'Their Proper Sphere': Femin-ism, The Family And Child-Centered Reform In Ontario, 1875-1900". Ontario History. Vol.68, Part I, pp.47-48. 4 VCW Minutes. 1912, Box 6, F i l e s 1-2, Special C o l l e c t i o n s . 5 In 1904 the VCW endorsed both the Infants Protection and Mothers Pensions. 6 In 1915 the VCW inaugurated the Women's Employment League and provided the i n i t i a l funding before handing i t s administration over to the c i t y . 18 argued, c o n t r i b u t e d to c h i l d delinquency,7 r e f l e c t e d the ma t e r n a l i z i n g aspects of the VCW's a c t i v i t i e s and p h i l o -sophy. As for those women leading these campaigns, only those who were f i n a n c i a l l y secure and had l e i s u r e time would make up the ranks of s o c i a l reformers; other women had no such resources or opportunities. A study by G i l l i a n Weiss of Vancouver clubwomen8 from 1910 to 1928 shows that the ty p i c a l member of the VCW during the 1920s was married, of B r i t i s h o r i g i n , u s u a l l y middle-aged and of middle-class background9 and that such women's organizations i n the early 20th century were an "accepted and e f f e c t i v e medium for maternal feminist activism."10 Despite the VCW's claim to speak with "the t a c i t approval of a large membership", Weiss 7 Doris H e l l i s h , e t . a l . , Vancouver's Women: 1894 to  1986. based on a b r i e f history of the Vancouver Council of  Women. (Vancouver: Vancouver Council of Women, 1986). 8 For a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of a l l the clubs, see G i l l i a n Weiss, ""As Women and as Ci t i z e n s ' " , Chapter 2. 9 Weiss reported that 70% of Vancouver clubwomen were married, 26% were single and 4% were widowed or otherwise. She a l s o noted that 12% of clubwomen were employed f u l l -time. Weiss determined the members' class status by the members' husbands' background and their place of residence. 10 Weiss, "The Brightest Women of Our Land: Vancouver Clubwomen 1910-1928" i n Not Jus t P i n Money. ( V i c t o r i a : Camosum College, 1984), p.199. 19 maintains that "only a small core of women were involved i n generating policy and opinion."11 Weiss's characterization of the VCW i s also borne out by the World War II evidence. The Council's Executive12 and the members of the Standing Committeesl3 "formled] the active core" of the Council of Women.14 Twenty-one women served on the Executive during the war period, twelve of whom served four or more years. [See Table I ] . 11 Weiss notes that the great majority of VCW members were members of a f f i l i a t e s o c i e t i e s who often did not attend the business meetings. '"As Women and as Ci t i z e n s ' " , pp.45-46. Mary P a t r i c i a Powell makes s i m i l a r observations i n "Response to the Depression: Three Representative Women's Groups i n B r i t i s h Columbia" M.A. Thesis, Dept. of History, U.B.C., 1967. 12 The Executive consisted of eleven o f f i c e r s ; Standing Committees varied each year. Most of the a c t i v i t y centered around the approximately 100 women who were Executive and Standing Committee members. 13 These Committees were: A g r i c u l t u r e ; A r t s and L e t t e r s ; C h i l d and Family Welfare; Cinema and P r i n t e d Matter; Citizenship; Economics; Education; Housing and Town Planning; Laws f o r Women and Children; Migration; Mental Hygiene; Moral Standards; League of Nations; N a t i o n a l Recreation; Natural Resources; Publications and P u b l i c i t y ; S o c i a l Health; Soldiers-Sailors-Pensioners and Dependents; Taxation; Trades and Professions for Women; and A f f i l i t i o n s . S p e c i a l Committees were set up for Radio i n 1941 and for National Defence i n 1945. 14 Weiss, "'As Women and as Ci t i z e n s ' " , pp.49-50. 20 TABLE I: VCW EXECUTIVE MEMBERS. 1939-1946 TOTAL YEARS OF SERVICE NUMBERS OF MEMBERS 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 2 5 2 1 6 21 - Compiled from VCW Executive Reports, 1939-1946. Thus, VCW p o l i c y during the war was executed and administered by a small core of women leaders. Members of the Council's war-time Executive were a s o c i a l l y p r i v i l e g e d group, since 90 per cent were drawn from Vancouver's middle-c l a s s l 5 and had both the economic security and le i s u r e to devote to reform causes. Many were women of e l i t e s o c i a l s tanding, well-known p r o f e s s i o n a l s or p o l i t i c a l l y active citizens,16 most were married and p r a c t i c a l l y a l l were 15 The members' class status was determined by the i r place of residence and s o c i a l and economic background and, when known, t h e i r husbands background. Calculations show that 19 of the 21 women l i s t e d as Executive members of the VCW from 1939-45 resided i n the West End or West side of Vancouver; 2 women l i v e d on the East side. 16 Harriette Porter, VCW President (1939-40) was a past member of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , C r i p p l e d C h i l d r e n ' s H o s p i t a l ; Ada Crump, VCW President (1940-41) was a School Trustee; Helen Smith (1886-1955), VCW President (1942-44) was a former MLA (Vancouver-Burrard) ( L i b . ) (1933-41); Helena Gutteridge, Convenor for Housing and Town Planning (1939-42) was a former Alderwoman; Judge Helen McGill was Convenor of Laws f o r Women and C h i l d r e n ( 1939-40;41-46); L i l l i a n Patterson, VCW Vice-President (1939-40) was wife of the l a t e Dr. Frank Porter Patterson, former MLA (Cons.) (1937). Laura Jamieson (1888-1964), Convenor for League of 21 involved i n more than one voluntary organization.17 Those who served as convenors came from much the same s o c i a l back-ground. At least 70 per cent of the women who served as Convenors of the Standing Committees were drawn from Vancouver's middle-class.18 [See Table I I ] . TABLE II; VCW CONVENORS. 1939-1946 TOTAL YEARS OF SERVICE 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 NUMBERS OF MEMBERS 1 3 5 3 9 16 22 59 - Compiled from VCW Executive Reports, 1939-1946. Nations, (1939-40) was a juvenile court judge and MLA (Van-couver Centre) (1939-45;52-53); Dorothy Steeves (1895-1978), Convenor for Taxation, (1939-40) was a MLA (CCF), (North Vancouver) (1934-45). 17 H a r r i e t t e P o r t e r , VCW's delegate of the Crippled Children's Hospital, was Past President of the Point Grey Women's Insti t u t e and L i f e member of the New Westminister A n g l i c a n Diocesan Board. Ada Crump, VCW delegate for the League of Women Voters, was a member of the Parent-Teachers Association, the Kings Daughters, the WCTU and President of the Child Welfare Association. Susan Lane Clark, VCW Vice-President (1939-40) was the President of the New Era League and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the Mothers Pensions Board. E l l a Bingham, Past President 1939-40 and Convenor for the VCW Radio Committee, 1941 was f i r s t V i c e - P r e s i d e n t of the Women's Educational A u x i l i a r y of the United Church and Vice-President of the Elizabeth Fry Society. 18 Of the 59 other women l i s t e d as Convenors from 1939-1945, addresses were located for 49. Out of these 49 women, a t o t a l of 41 l i v e d on the West side or the West End, while only 8 l i v e d on the East Side. The m i d d l e - c l a s s composition of the VCW was to have l o n g - l a s t i n g e f f e c t s on the p o l i c i e s t hat i t endorsed because the Co u n c i l was drawn from the more conservative elements of society and protected the interests of i t s own c l a s s . This became p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent i n the VCW's campaigns to support the f e d e r a l government's war-time p o l i c i e s and a c t i v i t i e s . The VCW had watched international events i n the late 1930s with great concern and, believing that women had a s p e c i a l duty to preserve peace, i t often urged government o f f i c i a l s to condemn acts of violence by aggressor nations. In 1937, the VCW recommended that news reels which g l o r i f i e d war be censored and suggested that the "parade of cadets and so l d i e r s " used to introduce new films be replaced with less m i l i t a r i s t i c images.19 In i t s condemnation of Japanese aggression that same year, the Council demanded that the Prime M i n i s t e r impose economic sanctions on Japan and recommended that Canada a l l y i t s e l f with other nations to punish those who broke i n t e r n a t i o n a l law.20 L a t e r , the Council's League of Nations Committee argued that an embargo on war m a t e r i a l s sent to Japan was necessary so as to "disassociate our country from the barbarous bombingI. . . ]of 19 R e s o l u t i o n presented by the Cinema Committee, VCW General Meeting. Carried. A p r i l 5, 1937, Minutes. 20 VCW Special General Meeting, Oct. 21, 1937, Minutes. l i f e i n China by Japan."21 In 1939, even as the c r i s i s was building i n Europe, the VCW maintained that women's special moral authority could save the world from war. In June, VCW Pre s i d e n t H a r r i e t t e Porter expressed hope that there was s t i l l time l e f t for a l l women ""to mobilize for peace just as men get together i n the race f o r armament and the building of battleships.'"22 However, once war broke out, the VCW, l i k e most Canadian women's organizations, adopted a fervently pro-war stance, a r e f l e c t i o n of the views of that portion of i t s membership drawn from p a t r i o t i c s o c i e t i e s and veterans a u x i l i a r i e s . [See Appendix I ] . Two days aft e r Canada's entry into the war, the VCW's Sub-Executive sent a reso l u -t i o n to the federal government vowing "to place themselves at the disposal of His Majesty's Government".23 Again and again throughout the war the VCW displayed i t s p a t r i o t i c support of Dominion Government p o l i c i e s . Its support for c o n s c r i p t i o n f o r overseas s e r v i c e i s merely one example among many.24 21 VCW General Meeting, January 9, 1939, Minutes. 22 "Can Women Preserve Peace? - The Views of Leading Clubwomen", The Vancouver Clubwoman, Vol.1, No.1, June 1939, p.13. Its ed i t o r . Amy Kerr, was a VCW member. 23 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, September 12, 1939, Minutes. 24 The NCWC President reminded women that they should stand " s t r o n g l y behind every e f f o r t to increase Canada's po s i t i o n and strengthen the cause of the United Nations.'" 24 The Council's p a t r i o t i c fervour was most evident i n i t s support of the "boys" at the front. Since the VCW drew almost one-quarter of i t s membership from p a t r i o t i c s o c i -e t i e s and veterans groups, i t s a f f i l i a t e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned with problems a f f e c t i n g Canada's armed forces. In one resolution, for example, the VCW c r i t i c i z e d the Mayor of Vancouver f o r remarks made suggesting that s o l d i e r s were being used as cannon fodder. 25 Most of i t s resolutions, however, dealt with matters concerning the ri g h t s of men i n the armed forces personnel and their p o s i t i o n as family men. The Council lobbied for free medical aid for the forces and their dependents26 and i t attempted unsuccessfully to change the Sunday boat schedule to V i c t o r i a to lengthen the s o l -diers • day t r i p s to the i r families.27 S i m i l a r l y , while the VCW supported a proposal that members of the Merchant Marine be exempt from taxation,28 i t also established committees to help new wives of soldi e r s adjust to l i f e i n the c i t y . 29 "Women's National Head Asks "Yes' Vote on P l e b i s c i t e " , Van- couver Sun, A p r i l 11, 1942, p.12. 25 "Women's Institute Raps Telford On "Cannon Fodder'", unidentified newspaper, Nov. 8, 1939, Sessional Clippings Book. 26 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, Oct.5, 1942, Minutes. 27 Despite the VCW's e f f o r t s the Department of National Defense informed the Council that s a i l i n g times could not be a l t e r e d due to a shortage of steamers. VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, January 5, 1942, Minutes. 28 Mellish, Vancouver's Women: 1894 to 1986. 29 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting January 5, 1942, Minutes. 25 Showing concern for war veterans' widows, It also requested that t h e i r $20 monthly allowance be continued for the r e -maining years of the i r l i f e t i m e , 30 and also asked that pay allowances to the wives and chi l d r e n of naval o f f i c e r s and petty o f f i c e r s be equal to that of c i v i l i a n s . 3 1 The Council showed a special i n t e r e s t i n the s i t u a t i o n of widowed mothers of soldiers,32 and one a f f i l i a t e argued that t h e i r needs are often "equal to the wife of a man i n the S e r v i c e " because they o f t e n "must maintain a home, whereas the wife does not always do so. "33 C r i t i z i n g the conditions of the Dependents Mothers' Allowance, the League argued that mothers' benefits should be equal to those of wives and that they should receive them "within six weeks of the enlistment of t h e i r men." The women's concerns for s o l d i e r s ' mothers may i n fact have r e f l e c t e d the circum-stances of some of i t s members who had sons i n the ser-v i c e s . 34 However, the VCW's main objective i n addressing the needs of s o l d i e r s ' mothers stemmed from i t s b e l i e f i n the s a n c t i t y of motherhood and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t s high 30 VCW Resolution to Minister of Pensions and National Health, General Meeting, March 4. 1941. Minutes. 31 VCW General Meeting, May 4, 1942, Minutes. 32 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, June 7, 1940, Minutes. 33 VCW General Meeting, Sept.8, 1941. Minutes. 34 Members of the C i v i l i a n Pensioned Mothers' Associa-t i o n and the Point Grey Women's Ins t i t u t e intimated t h i s at separate meetings i n the f a l l of 1939. 26 regard for those women who had produced sons who were o f f e r -ing t h e i r l i v e s for the freedom of th e i r country. Further-more, the u n d e r l y i n g o b j e c t i v e of many of the Council's resolutions concerning the armed forces was to ensure that family l i f e was not adversely affected by the absence of the men. The Council hoped that armed forces personnel would r e s t assured that l i f e at home was carrying on as usual while they were overseas. The VCW s u p p o r t e d the Canadian government's war campaigns and believed that Vancouver women could support the war while performing their domestic duties. Suggestions ran the gamut from c o l l e c t i n g discarded toothpaste tubes35 to encouraging housewives to "buy British"36 goods only. Even the Council was not exempt from such domestic tasks, as i t s members k n i t t e d goods for servicemen "while racfing] through a minimum of resolutions" so i t could hear speeches from c i v i c candidates at i t s Executive meetings.37 A l l of these e f f o r t s reveal the Council's perception that women's war-time service should conform to t r a d i t i o n a l female ro l e s . 35 Suggested by the Convenor of Natural Resources, Agreed. VCW Meeting, A p r i l 1, 1940. Minutes. 36 Suggested by the Ladies Guild to B r i t i s h S a i l o r s Society, June 4, 1940 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting. Minutes. 37 Vancouver Daily Province. December 5, 1939. Theresa Galloway, Convenor f o r Trades and Professions for Women reca l l e d that she often placed k n i t t i n g projects i n a basket at the entrance to her beauty parlour during the war and that c l i e n t s knitted while getting t h e i r hair done. Inter-view with Theresa Galloway, Vancouver, January 1989. 27 In the early months of the war the VCW did l i t t l e to en-courage women to seek paid war work or a c t i v e m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . I t s support f o r t h i s type of war-time service would come only l a t e r , as the mobilization of women became a necessity. The Council also raised money for war-related purposes, an a c t i v i t y f a m iliar to clubwomen with l e i s u r e time and a good cause. The leaders of l o c a l war fund campaigns valued the VCW's expertise, p a r t i c u l a r l y because of the prominent s o c i a l status of i t s members and t h e i r long experience with philanthropic works. In addition the Council urged i t s a f -f i l i a t e s to s t a r t their own fund-raising projects.38 By the end of 1940 the VCW established i t s own War Savings Stamps Committee and, for the f i r s t time, i t s President was ap-pointed to the Welfare Federation Drive Committee.39 VCW l e a d e r s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s to other war-time fund-raising i n i t i a t i v e s ; for example, Ada Crump, E l l a Bingham and Helen Smith, well-known VCW 38 Vancouver Sun. Oct.5, 1939, p.6. 39 Ada Crump was appointed to the Board of Directors i n 194 3 and was a member of the Budget Committee. The VWF d i s t r i b u t e d grants to i t s 45 member agencies. During the war i t s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e d p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l services for children and youths and a s s i s t i n g the popula-t i o n dislocated due to the war. Vancouver Welfare Federa-ti o n , Annual Report. 1941 & 1943. 28 members,40 a l l a s s i s t e d the October 1941 campaign i n Greater Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and New Westminister. The C o u n c i l ' s s u p p o r t f o r n a t i o n a l government fund r a i s i n g campaigns r e s u l t e d i n the f e d e r a l government a c c e p t -i n g i t s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t War Savings Stamps h o l i d a y f o l d e r s be p r i n t e d as Christmas g i f t s . 4 1 The VCW argued t h a t war-c h a r i t y f u n c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d to the s u c c e s s f u l outcome of the war. As Helen Smith, L i b e r a l MLA member f o r Bu r r a r d (1933-1941) and a f u t u r e VCW P r e s i d e n t , maintained, " x I t i s a l l very w e l l to s i t and k n i t and do other war work, but i t i s more important s t i l l to pay f o r t h i s war and to f i n a n c e Canada's war e f f o r t . ' " 4 2 F u n d - r a i s i n g was synonymous with war-time l i v i n g and by 1941 the number of c h a r i t y events i n Vancouver had r i s e n so d r a m a t i c a l l y t h a t the C o - o r d i n a t -i n g C o u n c i l f o r War Work and C i v i l i a n S e rvices43 a d v i s e d c h a r i t i e s to post the dates o f l a r g e welfare p a r t i e s 40 Mrs. Bingham served as VCW P r e s i d e n t from 1937-38, Mrs. Crump was P r e s i d e n t from 1940-41 and Mrs. Smith served on v a r i o u s VCW committees i n the 1930s and l a t e r was VCW P r e s i d e n t from 1942-43. "Women's Help In v a l u a b l e In N a t i o n a l War D r i v e s " , Vancouver Sun, Sept.27, 1941, p.13. 41 "Local C o u n c i l Women S t a r t Christmas Shopping E a r l y " Vancouver Sun. Sept.10,1940, p.8. 42 Vancouver News-Herald. December 3, 1940 i n VCW Scrapbook. 43 The C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l f o r War Work and C i v i l i a n S e r v i c e s , s e t up i n October 1939 by the Vancouver C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l A g e n c i e s , r e p r e s e n t e d o v e r 60 welfar e and p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The VCW was a c t i v e on i t s Wartime Health Measures and S p e c i a l Problems i n C h i l d Care Committees. " C i t i z e n s C o u n c i l W i l l C o - o r d i n a t e War E f f o r t " Vancouver  Sun. November 11, 1939, p.36. 29 in t h e i r o f f i c e s to prevent overlapping events.44 In order not to overshadow other war-time campaigns, the VCW urged the p u b l i c to p a r t i c i p a t e i n other war-time volunteer a c t i v i t i e s , such as the A i r Raid Precaution (ARP) Training Seminars at the Vancouver F i r e Department.45 The VCW also believed that women must secure the home from p o s s i b l e e v i l and no other war-time a c t i v i t y did i t take so seriously as potential a l i e n i n f i l t r a t i o n . At the beginning of the war one a f f i l i a t e , the Point Grey Women's Ins t i t u t e , recommended that the VCW do a l l i t could to "curb a n t i - B r i t i s h propaganda i n our midst", a view which received a mixed response from the Council. Although Mrs. D.E. Humphreys, the VCW Convenor of Agriculture, favoured the p o l i c y , arguing that such propaganda was "preventing our boys from volunteering"46, Laura Jamieson, a prominent CCF member, maintained that t h i s issue should only be dealt with through the Criminal Code.47 Appearing to respond to her concerns, the VCW agreed instead to "ask those i n authority to curb a n t i - B r i t i s h propaganda".48 However, other than 44 "Co-ordinating C o u n c i l to Prevent Overlapping", Vancouver Sun. June 17, 1941, p.6. 45 See VCW General Meeting Minutes. March 21, 1942 and Vancouver Sun. "Local Council To Take ARP Lecture", Jan.6, 1942, p.6. 46 Vancouver Dally Province. Sept.12, 1939 i n VCW Scrapbook. 47 Vancouver Daily Province. Sept. 12, 1939 i n VCW Scrapbook. 48 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, Sept.12, 1939, Minutes. 30 Jamieson's reservations, there i s no evidence that any other VCW a f f i l i a t e expressed a dissenting opinion on the issue. Meanwhile, the VCW d i s p l a y e d i t s p a t r i o t i c support of B r i t a i n through other means, including the o f f e r of "homes and hospitality"49 to B r i t i s h evacuee children, and through p r o - B r i t i s h fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s , such as teas for v i s i t i n g members of the Royal Family.50 As further evidence of i t s role i n securing the home f r o n t from f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s , the VCW supported protec-t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s which would promote the growth of domestic i n d u s t r i e s and r e s o l v e d that imported products of cotton goods should be la b e l l e d with their country of origin.51 As p a r t of a widespread campaign i n support of l o c a l and Canadian industries, the VCW presented members of the B.C. Products Bureau of the Board of Trade as guest speakers at i t s general meetings.52 Towards the end of the war, the Bureau tendered the Council a luncheon to "keep before the public the importance of buying B.C. goods."53 In a 1942 49 Resolution to NCWC, June 4, 1940, VCW Minutes. 50 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, A p r i l 7, 1941 Minutes. The VCW held a tea for Princess A l i c e at the Georgian Room. 51 Resolution presented by the VCW's Natural Resources Committee, Sub-Executive Meeting, Feb.5, 1940. Minutes. 52 "Cure for the Blues, to Buy Something New" Vancouver  Sun. Oct.19, 1939, p.7. 53 This luncheon was held i n May 1944. Report by the VCW President, Annual Address, March 1945 Annual General Meeting. b r i e f the VCW r e i t e r a t e d i t s p r o t e c t i o n i s t views and r e -quested that the federal government "prohibit the importa-t i o n of any products which can be produced i n Canada i n quantities s u f f i c i e n t for our re a l needs."54 The VCW a l s o c r i t i c i z e d what i t considered foreign i n t e r e s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia;55 at i t s February 1941 general meeting a guest speaker warned of the penetration of some t h i r t y Japanese fa c t o r i e s into the l o c a l dress manufac-turing industry. A suggestion by Helena Gutteridge, a well known s o c i a l i s t and former alderwoman, that the VCW halt such attacks and instead encourage the purchase of l o c a l and Canadian goods without showing r a c i a l discrimination56 was ignored. Instead, i t s membership gave overwhelming approval for action against l o c a l Japanese businesses. In March 1941 the VCW's Trades and Professions for Women Committee r e -solved that employers should be encouraged when possible to hire " B r i t i s h Columbians" only.57 A f t e r the Japanese attack on P e a r l Harbour B r i t i s h Columbia's 23,000 residents of Japanese o r i g i n became sub-54 R e s o l u t i o n , Emergent Executive Meeting, Nov.28, 1941, VCW Minutes, February 1942. 55 The VCW Standing Committee on Trades and Profession, NCWC Yearbook. 1941. 56 VCW G e n e r a l M e e t i n g , Feb.3, 1941 Minutes and Vancouver Sun. Feb.4, 1941, p.8. 57 VCW General Meeting, March 4, 1941, Minutes. 32 jects of further suspicion and discrimination. Due to the p u b l i c outcry i n the province, the Canadian government announced plans i n February 1942 to remove a l l persons of Japanese ancestry from the West Coast. Acting on behalf of i t s a f f i l i a t e s , the VCW c a l l e d for an even more stringent evacuation p o l i c y and demanded that i t s members report subversive a c t i v i t i e s to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, s t a t i n g that "'anyone knowing of such incidents without reporting them, i s just as g u i l t y as the one concerned.'"58 The Council requested that the Minister of National Defence immediately remove " a l l Japanese from the Coast"59 and one month l a t e r , i t added "other a l i e n s " to their l i s t . 6 0 In May the VCW r e i t e r a t e d i t s demands once more, noting that Vancouver "has now become the pooling centre for Japanese i n the province. "61 Fearing that the NCWC members were not f u l l y aware of the seriousness of the Japanese problem i n B r i t i s h Columbia,62 the VCW President vowed to travel to the NCWC's next statutory meeting to present Western views. The 58 Vancouver Daily Province. March 4, 1942 i n VCW Scrapbook. 59 VCW Annual Meeting, March 2, 1942. Minutes. 60 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, A p r i l 13, 1942. Minutes. 61 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, May 21, 1942, Minutes. 62 "Council Scor[n]es Eastern Attitude Towards Coast Japanese Problem ' s Vancouver Daily Province. A p r i l 14, 1942, VCW Scrapbook. As one member commented, " ' i t won't hurt them to take the aliens to work for them, they are not i n danger as we are on the P a c i f i c Coast.'" 33 C o u n c i l ' s p u b l i c a c c u s a t i o n t h a t the NCWC was slow i n r e a c t -i n g to the " a l i e n " problem r e v e a l e d i t s s t r o n g l y r a c i s t views, which continued even a f t e r the war to cause t e n s i o n between the two Councils.63 That the VCW's p o s i t i o n on the Japanese, i t s p a t r i o t i c s u p p o r t o f the f o r c e s and i t s p r o - B r i t i s h sympathies r e -f l e c t e d the b e l i e f s o f most Canadians a t the time can not be denied. Yet, the C o u n c i l ' s war-time p o l i c i e s and programmes a l s o m i r r o r e d those o f m i d d l e - c l a s s Vancouver s o c i e t y . I t s war-time a c t i v i t i e s were conducted by a small group o f s o c i -a l l y prominent women, who repr e s e n t e d the views o f a white, p r e d o m i n a n t l y A n g l o - C a n a d i a n m i d d l e - c l a s s . As such, they were overwhelmingly s u p p o r t i v e o f the f e d e r a l government's war-time p o l i c i e s and campaigns. The VCW's philosophy and programmes a l s o r e f l e c t e d i t s l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n o f women's war-time r o l e s . The C o u n c i l ' s maternal f e m i n i s t l e a n i n g s gave credence to the view t h a t i t was women's moral duty to p r o t e c t the home and the n a t i o n d u r i n g times o f p e r i l , and i n keeping with these b e l i e f s . 63 The NCWC l a t e r became a member of the Co-operative Committee on Japanese Canadians and denounced the Supreme Court's d e c i s i o n t h a t upheld the f e d e r a l government's r i g h t to deport Japanese Canadians under the War Measure Act. NCWC Annual Meeting, March 4, 1946 Minutes. VCW Scrapbook. The VCW adv i s e d the NCWC th a t i t r e j e c t e d i t s p o l i c y which i t saw as "a t h r e a t to the r i g h t s o f a l l Canadian c i t i z e n s r e g a r d l e s s o f r a c i a l o r i g i n " and a l s o denounced i t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o n l y o f the "NCWC e x e c u t i v e i n Toronto" and not o f "the c o n s i d e r e d o p i n i o n o f the LC's of Canada." The VCW demanded t h a t the NCWC l e t the media know t h a t "we d i s a s s o c i a t e o u r s e l v e s with" the NCWC r e s o l u t i o n . VCW Sub-Execu t i v e Meeting, February 27, 1946. Minutes. 34 women were to f u l f i l l such expectations. The VCW's declara-tions urged i t s members to accept the exigencies of war-time l i v i n g and confirmed i t s b e l i e f that women's actions would protect "the greatest good of the Family and the State". 64 The war-time d u t i e s of women envisioned by the VCW were those of the t r a d i t i o n a l female domestic experience: women would secure the home from outside negative influences and cre a t e a s t a b l e home l i f e while the men were away. The Council never l o s t sight of t h i s v i s i o n throughout the war. 64 Excerpt from VCW Pledge. 35 Chapter I I I : The Vancouver Council of Women's War-time Social and C i v i c Reform A c t i v i t i e s During World War II the Vancouver Council of Women believed that s t r i c t e r s o c i a l controls were a necessary part of the s a c r i f i c e required to ensure security on the home front. In the Council's opinion, war-time l i v i n g with i t s consequent s o c i a l d i s o r d e r c a l l e d f o r stronger s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y through l e g i s l a t i v e measures and moral i n s t r u c -t i o n . The e f f o r t s of the VCW to further these ends were re f l e c t e d i n the types of s o c i a l and c i v i c reform for which i t lobbied. Yet, a closer analysis reveals that although the VCW's reform e f f o r t s attempted to address war-time problems, they, i n e f f e c t , also promoted greater i n s t i t u -t i o n a l c o n t r o l , preserved the VCW's c l a s s interests and confirmed the Council's middle-class feminism. The VCW believed that the sanctity of home l i f e must be pro.tected at a l l costs and therefore i t attacked juvenile delinquency, alcohol consumption, and promiscuous sexuality, a l l reported to be on the r i s e during the war. One of the main causes of such problems, the Council argued, was the lack of parental supervision because, owing to war-time circumstances, both parents often were away from home during the day and even at night. In addition, war-time prosperity increased the chances of irresponsible behaviour, which the VCW l i n k e d to a l c o h o l abuse and the spread of venereal 36 diseases. The Council therefore argued for extended police s u p e r v i s i o n , s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , and moral and c i v i c i n -struction for c i v i l i a n s and children. The VCW's campaign for a Women's Protective D i v i s i o n i n the Vancouver Police Force dated back to 1918, but received increased attention during World War II because the Council believed that women police held special moral authority i n combatting e v i l influences i n war-time society. In 1942, the Council's Moral Standards Committee requested that the force add more women with f u l l police status, that i s , with the power of arrest. Although the VCW stressed that women and men should be treated equally as police o f f i c e r s , i t had a preconceived image of an appropriate female candidate: someone who was older and unmarried, who was a stern d i s c i -p l i n a r i a n and who had "knowledge of Vancouver's condi-t i o n s " . ! The VCW's prerequisites were questioned by one former c i t y policewoman. Acknowledging that the Council had secured women's pos i t i o n on the force twenty-five years previously, Evelyn LeSueur accused the VCW of discriminating against married women and demanded that the Council "wake up, get women on the force again, and support them a l l the way."2 The VCW then sent a delegation to the Police Commis-sion which assured the Council that estimates for a Women's Div i s i o n would be included i n the upcoming budget. Though 1 Vancouver Daily Province. October 6, 1942. 2 Vancouver Dally Province, October 6, 1942. 37 the VCW vowed to c o n t i n u e a study o f wage d i s c r e p a n c i e s between policemen and women,3 i t s i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n the campaign seems to have been prompted mainly by the r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e i n j u v e n i l e delinquency4 and p r o m i s c u i t y , p a r t i c -u l a r l y among young women. The C o u n c i l endorsed an emergency r e s o l u t i o n i n December 1943, as k i n g t h a t more policewomen be pla c e d on duty because o f r e p o r t s " t h a t many young g i r l s are on the s t r e e t l a t e a t n i g h t i n t o x i c a t e d i n the v i c i n i t y o f Dance H a l l s . "5 To the VCW, on l y the s t e r n d i s c i p l i n e o f a p o l i c e woman c o u l d c o u n t e r a c t what i t c o n s i d e r e d to be the negative e f f e c t s o f the war on home l i f e and i t continued, u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , to t r y to get more p o l i c e women.6 The t h r e a t o f s e x u a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d d i s e a s e s a l s o r e c e i v e d the C o u n c i l ' s c l o s e a t t e n t i o n , and i t supported the NCWC's recommendation t h a t the f e d e r a l government educate Canadians on the subj e c t . 7 Encouraged by the CCF Women's Group, the VCW e s t a b l i s h e d i t s own study group w i t h i n i t s P u b l i c Health Committee to analyze venereal d i s e a s e 3 I n 194 3 Vancouver policewomen's monthly wages were $105, while policemen r e c e i v e d $135 per month. 4 "Women P o l i c e For C i t y Seen", Vancouver News-Herald, February 10, 1943, S e s s i o n a l C l i p p i n g s Book. 5 VCW G e n e r a l Meeting, Emergency R e s o l u t i o n from the Women's I n s t i t u t e , Dec. 6, 1943, Minutes. 6 A l a n d a Lewis concluded t h a t the VCW's campaign had r e c e i v e d "poor c o - o p e r a t i o n " from the C i t y . P r e s i d e n t i a l  Address, VCW Meeting, March 1946. 7 NCWC S t a t u t o r y Meeting, May 5, 1941 d i s c u s s e d i n VCW Minutes. 1941. 38 treatment f o r pregnant women and i n 1942 asked t h a t blood t e s t i n g l a b o r a t o r i e s be s e t up a t U.B.C. Although the p r o v i n c i a l government a g r e e d t h a t such f a c i l i t i e s were needed, none were b u i l t d u r i n g the war.8 As v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e cases e s c a l a t e d , 9 the VCW c a l l e d f o r more s t r i n g e n t measures: more p o l i c e on the s t r e e t s , enforcement o f p r e -m a r i t a l b l o o d t e s t i n g , c a n c e l l a t i o n o f l i c e n s e s o f h o t e l s and rooming houses o f i l l - r e p u t e and suspension o f l i c e n s e s of beer p a r l o u r s which encouraged immoral behaviour.10 The C o u n c i l saw a d i r e c t l i n k between a l c o h o l consump-t i o n and venereal d i s e a s e , and. so i t s campaigns f o r s o c i a l o r d e r c a l l e d f o r s t r i c t e r l i q u o r l e g i s l a t i o n . The a n t i -l i q u o r campaign r e c e i v e d most o f i t s support from those VCW's a f f i l i a t e s which s u p p o r t e d the c o n s e r v a t i v e s o c i a l b e l i e f s o f the Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union. W i t h i n weeks o f the proc l a m a t i o n o f war, the WCTU urged Canada i n i t s f i g h t a g a i n s t "German H i t l e r i s m " to r e s t r i c t the s a l e and advertisement o f l i q u o r and e l i m i n a t e canteens i n a r m o u r i e s . i l Although the VCW decided to leave the i s s u e o f wet canteens to the d i s c r e t i o n o f the m i l i t a r y , i t d i d urge 8 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, Oct.5, 1942, Minutes. 9 The VCW r e p o r t e d t h a t 1,750 cases e x i s t e d i n Van-couver i n 1943 and th a t the number had i n c r e a s e d to 2,400 i n 1944. Minutes. June 1945. 10 VCW R e s o l u t i o n , June 1945, Minutes. 11 VCW General Meeting, Oct.2, 1939, Minutes. 39 the NCWC to promote a n t i - l i q u o r l e g i s l a t i o n and recommended th a t the government r e s t r i c t the hours o f o p e r a t i o n and the s a l e o f l i q u o r a t p r o v i n c i a l government-owned stores.12 Yet, the VCW's e f f o r t s d i d l i t t l e to a f f e c t the f e d e r a l government's p o l i c i e s on l i q u o r c o n t r o l and even on a l o c a l l e v e l i t s a n t i - l i q u o r p r o t e s t s were o f l i t t l e a v a i l . When the C i t y approved a new cabar e t l i c e n s e i n 1942, the VCW complained t h a t i t s recommendations were being "passed over l i g h t l y " 1 3 and t h a t i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f "the g r e a t e r p a r t of Vancouver's f a m i l y l i f e " was being ignored. The C o u n c i l blamed l i q u o r c o n s u m p t i o n and s e x u a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d d i s e a s e s on c i v i l i a n women and argued t h a t such problems were ca u s i n g the breakdown of f a m i l y l i f e . The VCW p a r t i c u l a r l y q u e s t i o n e d a l c o h o l consumption and i n c r e a s e d sexual a c t i v i t y among young women which, i t concluded, p r o -duced "drunken g i r l s , u n f a i t h f u l w i v e s , [and t h e r e f o r e ] d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n . "14 The VCW thus recommended i n 1944 t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l government segregate men and women i n d r i n k i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . When one VCW member commented on the " d i s g u s t i n g e x h i b i t i o n s o f d r i n k i n g t h a t the armed f o r c e s a r e p u t t i n g on" i n Canada, the VCW p r e s i d e n t , Ada 12 VCW r e s o l u t i o n sent to the NCWC S t a t u t o r y Meeting with minutes. May 5, 1941, Minutes. 13 "Women P r o t e s t C i t y C o u n c i l "Brush O f f on Cabaret Question", Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 14, 1942, p.7. 14 R e s o l u t i o n from WCTU, VCW General Meeting, A p r i l 3, 1944, Minutes. 40 Crump, a n g r i l y announced t h a t she "resentted] t h a t nasty smack a t our boys who a r e g i v i n g t h e i r l i v e s f o r us. "15 Imp l y i n g t h a t the g u i l t y p a r t i e s were the women i n v o l v e d , she argued t h a t "the c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n i s 10 percent worse t h a n the armed f o r c e s i n the matter o f d r i n k i n g . " Crump announced t h a t " i t i s up to us, to prevent c i v i l i a n s from l e a d i n g our boys down t h i s way o f degradation."16 Questions about the behaviour o f men i n the armed f o r c e s were q u i c k l y s q u e l c h e d as u n p a t r i o t i c . The C o u n c i l ' s i n t e n t i o n was obvious: to teach the e v i l s o f d r i n k . I f t h i s f a i l e d , the VCW hoped to r e l y on the p o l i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the good judgement o f p o l i c e women. The C o u n c i l showed p a r t i c u l a r concern f o r the war's e f f e c t s on c h i l d r e n . M a i n t a i n i n g t h a t war-time working c o n d i t i o n s l e f t c h i l d r e n without s u f f i c i e n t s u p e r v i s i o n , the VCW s t r e s s e d the need f o r maternal i n f l u e n c e s i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e : a s t a b l e home and d i r e c t s u p e r v i s o n . With t h i s i d e a i n mind, the VCW's Committee on N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n argued i n 1941 f o r e x t e n s i o n o f s u p e r v i s e d playground hours from May 24th to mid-September. 17 The C o u n c i l a l s o monitored the f i l m s t h a t c h i l d r e n saw a t the cinema and were q u i t e r e l i e v e d to h e a r , f o r example, t h a t the c h i l d s t a r s o f 15 Vancouver News-Herald. Oct.7, 1941. 16 Vancouver News-Herald. Oct.7, 1941. 17 VCW General Meeting, Feb.3, 1941. Minutes. "Dead-End K i d s " were t a k i n g on more "manly r o l e s . "18 To promote i t s views on the importance o f f a m i l y l i f e , the VCW began a weekly program on a l o c a l r a d i o s t a t i o n . 1 9 The VCW a l s o f e a r e d t h a t the war-time economic boom was l u r i n g o l d e r c h i l d r e n i n t o the labour f o r c e . Concerned about youths with unsupervised time and with money,20 i t reminded p a r e n t s t h a t war-time employment was temporary and argued c h i l d r e n should be kept i n s c h o o l . 21 The VCW argued t h a t the absence o f p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l was one of the main causes of delinquency among j u v e n i l e g i r l s . To a i d i n the r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n o f young female o f f e n d e r s the C o u n c i l recommended th a t the p r o v i n c i a l government segregate them from the more hardened c r i m i n a l s . 2 2 Other VCW a n t i d o t e s to j u v e n i l e delinquency were s t r i c t e r curfews23 and a Family Court with a judge experienced " i n marriage and motherhood."24 These 18 See Vancouver Sun, Nov.8, 1938, p. 6 and " L o c a l C o u n c i l Happy "Dead-End K i d s ' Now " G a l l a n t Sons'", March 4, 1941, p.7. 19 VCW's Radio Committee, Minutes. 1941. 20 " P r o s p e r i t y Cause o f Delinquency Among J u v e n i l e s " , Vancouver Sun. March 3, 1943, S e s s i o n a l C l i p p i n g s Book. 21 Emergency r e s o l u t i o n from the Committee of Trades and P r o f e s s i o n s f o r Women, June 1, 1942, Minutes. 22 VCW G e n e r a l M e e t i n g , Dec. 4, 1944 R e s o l u t i o n from Laws Committee, Minutes. 2 3 P r e s i d e n t i a l Address. VCW Annual General Meeting, March 1945. 24 VCW's Mo r a l Standards Committee, General Meeting, October 4, 1943, Minutes. 42 VCW s o l u t i o n s r a n complementary to those s u g g e s t i n g t h a t j u v e n i l e delinquency be combatted with p o s i t i v e measures, 25 i n c l u d i n g " c i t y - s p o n s o r e d youth a c t i v i t i e s " . 2 6 The C o u n c i l ' s attempt to determine the r i g h t k i n d o f c i t i z e n s 2 7 f o r Canada a l s o e x t e n d e d i n t o o t h e r a r e a s . Before World War II the VCW had argued t h a t women's entrance i n t o the p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e was n e c e s s a r y to b r i n g about e s s e n t i a l reforms, and i t d e p l o r e d women's i n a c t i o n when not e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r v o t i n g r i g h t s or running f o r p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e . 2 8 The C o u n c i l l o b b i e d f o r female r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on v a r i o u s Vancouver c i v i c b o a r d s , b ut f o l l o w e d the NCWC's p o l i c y o f "the r i g h t women i n the r i g h t p l a c e , not any woman i n any place".29 The VCW was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n p l a c i n g Helen 25 "Family Court Is Supported", February 5, 1943, D a i l y  News. S e s s i o n a l C l i p p i n g s Book. "No "Sermonizing Judge' For Domestic Court" Vancouver Sun. February 10, 1943, S e s s i o n a l C l i p p i n g s Book. 26 ""Vancouver's Dead End K i d s ' " The People; Magazine  S e c t i o n . Vol.11., No.47, November 27, 1943, p . l . 27 Report o f VCW P r e s i d e n t Alanda B. Lewis. "$150,000 Youth Foundation O u t l i n e d a t L o c a l C o u n c i l " Vancouver Sun. March 4, 1946, p.13. 28 At the Dec. 1937 G e n e r a l M e e t i n g , the VCW urged women to use t h e i r r i g h t to v o t e and to vote f o r women c a n d i d a t e s . See a l s o ""Vote Women C a n d i d a t e s And Don't Betray Those Who Got Vote For You"', Vancouver Sun, Dec. 7, 1937, p.6. 29 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, Correspondence from NCWC Pr e s i d e n t , Mrs. Spencer, Feb.28, 1941, Minutes. Smith on the Town P l a n n i n g Commission30 or the A i r Raid P r e c a u t i o n E x e c u t i v e , 31 but i t won r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to the f e d e r a l War-time P r i c e s and Trades Board.32 I t was a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d on a S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee with C i t y C o u n c i l f o r the Study o f C i v i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , which was e s t a b l i s h e d under the auspices o f the Vancouver C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l Agencies by the C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l f o r War Work. In 1941 when an unprecendented number o f women were e l e c t e d to the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e , the VCW pressed f o r more s u c c e s s e s . I t s P r e s i d e n t u r g e d women to ask "why ha v e n ' t we a woman i n the c a b i n e t , a woman premier or a woman mayor, "33 and p r e d i c t e d t h a t i n the f u t u r e "the Van-c o u v e r L o c a l C o u n c i l o f Women w i l l b r i n g f o r t h a women's party."34 Yet, i t had only l i m i t e d success i n encouraging women to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c i v i c a f f a i r s d u r i n g the war. Although the VCW supported women attempting to f u r t h e r t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s and h e l d meetings o f i t s members f o r 30 VCW G e n e r a l M e e t i n g , December 7, 1942, Minutes. A l t h o u g h a woman had been chairman o f the Town Pla n n i n g Committee i n 1937, none were added d u r i n g the war. Sub-E x e c u t i v e M e e t i n g , J a n u a r y 4, 1943, Minutes. Susan Lane C l a r k was appointed i n 1945. 31 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, Sept. 14, 1942, Minutes. 32 During the war a woman was appointed to the War-time P r i c e s and T r a d e s Board. The VCW l i a s i o n o f f i c e r , Mrs. Weldon, attended i t s r e g i o n a l meetings. 33 VCW General Meeting, Nov.3, 1941, Minutes. 34 "Women Disapprove Loss o f Leave", Vancouver News- He r a l d . Nov.4, 1941, VCW Scrapbook. 44 candidates d u r i n g c i v i c e l e c t i o n s , the C o u n c i l ' s membership d i s a g r e e d on the breadth o f Vancouver's f r a n c h i s e . U n t i l the 1940s, the m u n i c i p a l f r a n c h i s e was based on p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e d o n l y owners and c e r t a i n t e n a n t s . A l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f the p o p u l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g many women, c o u l d not vote i n municipal e l e c t i o n s . The VCW's l e f t - w i n g members supported f r a n c h i s e e x t e n s i o n , p a r a l l e l i n g arguments put f o r t h i n the L e g i s l a t u r e by the CCF.35 I t was on the recommendation o f the Women's CCF C e n t r a l Group t h a t the VCW agreed i n February 1941 to have i t s C i t i z e n s h i p Committee study a proposal36 to i n c o r p o r a t e the p r i n c i p a l o f one man, one vote i n the C i t y C h a r t e r . When the committee presented i t s f i n d i n g s i n A p r i l 1941, i t s head maintained t h a t v o t i n g by a l l c i t y r e s i d e n t s would run the r i s k o f p u t t i n g the c i t y i n t o the hands o f ine x p e r i e n c e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . "Young people with no p r o p e r t y sense" she f e a r e d , "would vote f o r people with expensive t a s t e s t h a t might not be i n the best i n t e r e s t s o f the community. "37 A year l a t e r the VCW P r e s i d e n t ' s reminder to a f f i l i a t e s to "go out and use our p r i v i l e g e o f voting"38 i n c i t y e l e c t i o n s 35 "Franchise E x t e n s i o n Demanded" The People. December 11, 1943, V o l . 1 1 , No.49, p. 2 and "Vancouver F r a n c h i s e " , Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e . March 15, 1944, S e s s i o n a l C l i p p -ings Book. 36 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, Feb.3, 1941, Minutes. 37 "Women Argue 'One Man, One Vote' P r i n c i p a l f o r C i t y E l e c t o r s " , Vancouver Sun. A p r i l 8, 1941, p.7 38 VCW General Meeting, Dec.7, 1942, Minutes. 45 demonstrated her b e l i e f t h a t v o t i n g r i g h t s were earned. The CCF a f f i l i a t e s proposed f r a n c h i s e e x t e n s i o n a g a i n i n 1943, and 1944,39 but were defeated both years. The C o u n c i l ' s stand on the c i v i c f r a n c h i s e u n d e r l i n e d i t s commitment to i t s own c l a s s i n t e r e s t s . The VCW's c l a i m to r e p r e s e n t the views o f a l l Vancouver women was p a r t i c -u l a r l y d i s c r e d i t e d by i t s r e j e c t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l m u n i c i p a l s u f f r a g e . Such d i s p l a y s o f m i d d l e - c l a s s b i a s prevented the VCW from t a k i n g a more a g g r e s s i v e stand on c i v i c f r a n c h i s e r i g h t s , which might have won i t broader p u b l i c support. The VCW's c a l l f o r s t r i c t e r immigration laws was an at t e m p t t o p r e s e r v e Anglo-Canadian hegemony i n Vancouver s o c i e t y . The C o u n c i l suggested t h a t s e c t s such as the Doukhobors, H u t t e r i t e s and Mennonites be barred because o f s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s which exempted them from b e a r i n g arms. I t a l s o recommended t h a t these and other a l i e n s be prevented from a c q u i r i n g o r l e a s i n g r e a l e s t a t e f o r more than one year, both d u r i n g the war and f o r f i v e years a f t e r , 4 0 recommending t h a t "the best lands and those n e a r e s t t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n [...] be r e s e r v e d f o r B r i t i s h s e t t l e r s . " 4 1 The VCW a g r e e d t h a t Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p be l i m i t e d to "only 39 I t was defeated by a vote o f 177 to 77. VCW General Meeting, May 3, 1943, Minutes and VCW General Meeting, June 5, 1944, Minutes. 40 "Severe Sentence Asked f o r A s s a u l t s " , Vancouver Sun, Nov. 2, 1943, VCW,Scrapbook. 41 R e s o l u t i o n to the P r o v i n c i a l Government, VCW General Meeting, Dec.2, 1940, Minutes. 46 those who can be a s s i m i l a t e d , who w i l l become Canadians with l i k e p r i v i l e g e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . "42 As i n the f r a n -c h i s e i s s u e , the C o u n c i l promoted a r e s t r i c t e d view o f c i t i z e n s h i p i n Vancouver. I t s e t h n o c e n t r i c i s m i l l u s t r a t e s the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the VCW's views o f democracy and i t s r e j e c t i o n o f those t h a t i t c o n s i d e r e d not s u i t a b l e as proper c i t i z e n s . In c o n t r a s t to the VCW, two other o r g a n i z a t i o n s founded d u r i n g the war encouraged broader p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women i n c i v i c l i f e . The Women's School f o r C i t i z e n s h i p , 4 3 o r g a n i z e d i n 1941 by women i n c l u d i n g Laura Jamieson, Helena G u t t e r i d g e and E v e l y n LeSueur, and the Women's School f o r Democracy,44 e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1944, combatted the seeming apathy o f women toward c i v i c a f f a i r s through e d u c a t i o n about the s t r u c t u r e and processes o f government. S t r i c t e r c o n t r o l o f s o c i e t y d u r i n g war-time was neces-sary to c a r r y out the n a t i o n a l government's domestic p o l i -c i e s . The C o u n c i l ' s campaign f o r a Women's P o l i c e D i v i s i o n , curbs on j u v e n i l e delinquency, s t r i c t e r l i q u o r c o n t r o l s and a h a l t to the r i s e i n venereal d i s e a s e was g e n e r a l l y con-s i s t e n t with f e d e r a l government domestic o b j e c t i v e s . But 42 VCW General Meeting, Oct. 2, 1944, Minutes. 43 Vancouver Sun. May 7, 1941, p.7. 44 "Open A p r i l 12 School f o r Democracy", Vancouver Sun. A p r i l 5, 1944, p.11. 47 the C o u n c i l d i d not acknowledge the causes of delinquency, a l c o h o l i s m and v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e ; i n s t e a d i t l o b b i e d f o r gr e a t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l to address these problems. In f a c t , these e f f o r t s were s i m i l a r to those o f e a r l i e r middle-c l a s s women reformers whose e f f o r t s r e s u l t e d i n "a form o f s o c i a l a c t i o n designed to a l t e r not s o c i e t y , but s o c i e t y ' s v i c t i m " and " r e c o n c i l e d the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r own c l a s s i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo with the urgings o f a humanitarian conscience. " 4 5 The VCW's e f f o r t s to defend m i d d l e - c l a s s i n t e r e s t s were a l s o obvious i n i t s response to the que s t i o n s o f munici p a l f r a n c h i s e e x t e n s i o n and the enforcement o f s t r i c t e r immigra-t i o n laws. In both cases the C o u n c i l r e v e a l e d i t s narrow p e r c e p t i o n o f democratic r i g h t s , views based on the hegemony of i t s own c l a s s and e t h n i c group. In p a r t i c u l a r , i t s f a i l -u r e t o support the enlargement o f the munici p a l f r a n c h i s e and widened v o t i n g p r i v i l e g e s e s p e c i a l l y f o r women, while reminding i t s own members to use t h e i r v o t i n g p r i v i l e g e s i n c i v i c e l e c t i o n s , p l a c e d them d i r e c t l y i n o p p o s i t i o n to t h e i r w o rking-class s i s t e r s and, i n e f f e c t , confirmed the middle-c l a s s nature o f i t s feminism. I t s s e l e c t i o n o f nominees f o r c i v i c boards a l s o confirmed the VCW's support f o r the e x c l u s i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c i v i c a f f a i r s o f m i d d l e - c l a s s women w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n p u b l i c l i f e . Thus there were l i m i t s to the VCW's reform mandate: i t s u l t i m a t e goal was 45 T.R. Morrison, "Their Proper Sphere", P a r t I I , p.73. 48 to a t t r a c t the support of women whose views were a c c e p t a b l e to the C o u n c i l and who r e s p e c t e d e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s o f s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y and valued s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . 49 Chapter IV: The Vancouver C o u n c i l o f Women on the Home Fro n t Ruth Roach P i e r s o n notes t h a t the b e l i e f t h a t women's " s o c i a l r o l e was to be e m o t i o n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e o f men, [and] to smooth over d i f f i c u l t i e s " ! took on s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e d u r i n g World War I I . Th i s became p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t as the f e d e r a l government acknowledged that women's t r a d i t i o n a l d u t i e s o f v o l u n t e e r and d o m e s t i c work were necessary to b r i n g about the s u c c e s s f u l p r o s e c u t i o n o f war. By emphasiz-ing woman's war-time r o l e as a v o l u n t e e r , a t h r i f t y house-w i f e and an e f f i c i e n t h o u s e h o l d manager, the Vancouver C o u n c i l o f Women supported the f e d e r a l government's war-time c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f women's v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s and i t s a n t i -i n f l a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n programmes. The VCW d i r e c t e d much of i t s c o l l e c t i v e e n e r g i e s towards r a l l y i n g the support of women i n the home to war-time programmes; i t urged women to r e g i s t e r t h e i r names f o r v o l u n t a r y emergency d u t i e s , i t c a l l e d on them to canvass and gi v e to war fund d r i v e s and i t asked them to support f e d e r a l domestic p o l i c i e s , i n c l u d i n g food r a t i o n i n g . In doing so, the VCW helped to perpetuate the view t h a t women's war-time p a r t i c i p a t i o n would best be put t o use i n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t complimented t h e i r feminine q u a l i t i e s o f c h a r i t y and s a c r i f i c e . 1 Ruth Roach P i e r s o n , "They're S t i l l Women A f t e r A l l " , p.43 50 I t was a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t one o f the C o u n c i l ' s f i r s t campaigns c a l l e d f o r Vancouver women to respond to the war as housewives and preserve food i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r " b a t t l e ' on the home f r o n t . 2 In September 1939 i t suggested t h a t f r u i t s and vegetables c o u l d be preserved and d i s t r i b u t e d by the Red Cross with the a s s i s t a n c e o f the C o u n c i l . The VCW Convenor o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Mrs. D.E. Humphreys, t h e r e f o r e a g r e e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p l a n o f " t u r n t i n g ] B.C. i n t o a va s t k i t c h e n f o r the next s i x weeks" and c a l l e d f o r house-wives to m o b i l i z e as "an army o f women" and can the f r u i t and vegetables to be sent overseas. 3 C l e a r l y , to the VCW, women's domestic s k i l l s would be important i n winning the war both a t home and abroad. F i v e months before the war, the NCWC had announced that i t would co-operate with any movement to have Canadian women r e g i s t e r e d f o r defense s e r v i c e s . 4 When the war s t a r t e d i t s P r e s i d e n t Mrs. Edgar Hardy became the honorary chairman o f the Committee on the V o l u n t a r y R e g i s t r a t i o n o f Canadian Women on the recommendation o f the f e d e r a l government. In s u p p o r t o f the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l , the Vancouver C o u n c i l o f Women agreed to co-operate with the programme to r e g i s t e r women f o r war s e r v i c e . As p a r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia's e f f o r t 2 VCW General Meeting, Sept. 12, 1939, Minutes. 3 "Movies and Working G i r l s ' Problems Concern L o c a l C o u n c i l " , The P r o v i n c e . Sept. 20, 1939, r e p o r t o f the VCW a c t i v i t i e s i n the VCW Scrapbook. 4 Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 22, 1939, p.14. to determine the s k i l l s needed from women i n the event o f a n a t i o n a l emergency, a P r o v i n c i a l Committee f o r the Volu n t a r y R e g i s t r a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n Women (VRCW) was e s t a b l i s h e d i n September 1939 with T i l l y R o l s t o n , a former VCW P r e s i d e n t (1935-37), as P r o v i n c i a l Chairman. A R e g i s t r a t i o n Week was proclaimed beginning October 16th, to encourage the e n l i s t -ment o f a l l f e m a l e s between the ages o f 16 and 65, and booths i n a l l e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s were opened where women c o u l d r e g i s t e r . The f r o n t page h e a d l i n e i n a l o c a l news-paper hoped to remind Vancouver women th a t "Your Name i s f o r Volun t a r y S e r v i c e . " 5 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n the programme was s e t up to determine the a p p l i c a n t s * p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , a b i l i t y to care f o r refugee c h i l d r e n , organ-i z a t i o n a l s k i l l s , and s u i t a b i l i t y f o r v a r i o u s v o l u n t e e r war emergency j o b s , such as n u r s i n g , d r i v i n g , t a i l o r i n g and com m e r c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f food. I t a l s o emphasized t h a t t h e r e was a need f o r women wi t h o u t work experience, i n -c l u d i n g housewives, as we l l as those with p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g and s k i l l s . The s t a t i s t i c s were to be gathered, t a b u l a t e d and sent to Ottawa f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the Volu n t a r y S e r v i c e 5 "Women's R e g i s t r a t i o n Lags", Vancouver Sun. Oct. 19, 1939, p . l . " P r o g r e s s i v e Women Dis c u s s R e g i s t r a t i o n , Van- c o u v e r Sun. Oct. 21, 1939, p. 12 and "Women's War Work", Vancouver Sun. Oct. 24, 1939. 52 R e g i s t r a t i o n Bureau under the aus p i c e s o f the Department o f Labour.6 Although the P r o v i n c i a l R e g i s t r a t i o n Committee expected an e n t h u s i a s t i c response, the numbers were d i s a p p o i n t i n g . O n l y 5000 women i n Vancouver r e g i s t e r e d i n i t i a l l y ? and by November, the number o f Vancouver a p p l i c a n t s had r i s e n to only 10,000. The Committee had hoped t h a t the number would be much high e r , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the t o t a l c i v i c female p o p u l a t i o n between the ages o f 16 and 65 was estimated to be 82,000. Yet i t appears t h a t the Committee may have had un-r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s . In f a c t , women may not have r e -sponded because they thought t h a t r e g i s t r a t i o n meant con-s c r i p t i o n o r v o l u n t a r y work w i t h no monetary reward. Furthermore, many women had a l r e a d y r e g i s t e r e d with v o l u n -t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and others simply " d i d n ' t get around" to r e g i s t e r i n g . 8 Perhaps another reason f o r the poor turn-out was t h a t the Canadian p u b l i c d i d not expect the war to l a s t 6 In 1941 the Department o f N a t i o n a l War S e r v i c e s e s -t a b l i s h e d a Women's V o l u n t a r y S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n . Centres were s e t up i n a l l major c i t i e s and a r o s t e r was kept o f l o c a l c l u b s t h a t r e c r u i t e d v o l u n t e e r s . P i e r s o n , "Thev're  S t i l l Women A f t e r A l l " . p . 3 5 . 7 "Women's R e g i s t r a t i o n to Continue", Vancouver Sun. Oct. 23, 1939, p. 2 and "Women's War Work", Vancouver Sun. Oct. 24, 1939. 8 Vancouver Sun. Oct. 19, 1939, p . l ; "Women's R e g i s t r -a t i o n Lags", Oct. 21, 1939, p.12; "P r o g r e s s i v e Women Discuss R e g i s t r a t i o n " , Nov. 6, 1939, p. 3 and "Women's War Work", Nov. 6, 1939. 53 v e r y long and only with Canada's i n c r e a s e d involvement i n the European c o n f l i c t d i d c i v i l i a n support i n c r e a s e . The P r o v i n c i a l Committee o f the VRCW blamed the low number o f a p p l i c a n t s on the spread o f rumors. Although the Committee d i d not d i r e c t i t s i n s i n u a t i o n s to any s p e c i f i c group, some members of the P r o g r e s s i v e Women's F e d e r a t i o n , a l e f t - w i n g , l a b o u r - o r i e n t e d women's group argued t h a t r e g i s -t r a t i o n "might be co n s i d e r e d as p r e p a r i n g women's minds f o r c o n s c r i p t i o n " . 9 The PWF's c o o l response to the war e f f o r t r e v e a l e d the e x i s t e n c e o f a d i v i s i o n o f o p i n i o n among Vancouver women about t h e i r war-time r o l e . The f e d e r a t i o n ' s d e c i s i o n t o schedule a p u b l i c forum on the q u e s t i o n "Are Women E x p l o i t e d i n War Time?" was f u r t h e r proof t h a t they q u e s t i o n e d the m e r i t s o f women's involvement i n war-time s e r v i c e . 9 " P r o g r e s s i v e Women Dis c u s s R e g i s t r a t i o n " , Vancouver  Sun. O c t.21, 1939, p.12. Formed i n 1937, the PWF's aims i n c l u d e d " " b e t t e r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , [...] and e x t e n s i o n o f democratic r i g h t s and l i b e r t i e s f o r men and women.'" The PWF d i d not wish to c o n f l i c t with the VCW's aims b ut s u g g e s t e d t h a t because " t h a t body was i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n nature i t s machinery was o f t e n too cumber-some f o r quick a c t i o n . " "18 Women's Groups J o i n New Pr o g r e s -s i v e Women's F e d e r a t i o n " Vancouver Sun. March 19, 1937, p. 10. Members i n c l u d e d : D o m e s t i c Workers' Club, Nursing S c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n , H o t e l and R e s t a u r a n t A s s o c i a t i o n , U k r a i n i a n Labor and Farmers Group, Women's E d u c a t i o n a l Group o f the CCF, Women's I n t e r n a t i o n a l League f o r Peace and Freedom, P r o g r e s s i v e Jewish Women, West End Cuhma Club, Wom-en's A u x i l i a r y Workers and Democracy, Women's A u x i l i a r y W a t e r f r o n t Workers Union, Women's C e n t r a l CCF Club, Cuhma C l u b J u n i o r s , N u r s e r y A s s o c i a t i o n , Women's I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers A s s o c i a t i o n and Vancouver M o t h e r s ' C o u n c i l , l a t e r The Housewives League. " P r o g r e s s i v e F e d e r a t i o n Would Have Gov'ts Apply War Funds to S o c i a l Use", Vancouver Sun. October, 8, 1938, p. 13. 54 While the more l e f t - w i n g women's groups posed such questions, the VCW took l i t t l e notice of these concerns. Although i t s President reported i n 1944 that she occasion-a l l y received phone c a l l s from women w i l l i n g to support the Council's war a c t i v i t i e s " i f they get paid"10 the VCW f a i l e d to acknowledge that many of Vancouver's women were looking for work and could not afford to o f f e r t h e i r services with-out monetary reward. The fact that the VCW gave no further attention to the comment revealed that i t considered women's war-time service a volunteer e f f o r t and t h i s b e l i e f did not a l t e r , even when women were mobilized for the paid war-time work force. The view that women's war-time role was most appropri-a t e l y f u l f i l l e d i n charitable e f f o r t s was also evident i n the VCW's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n war fund campaigns. When the Vancouver Air Supremacy Drive was set up i n late 1939 the VCW P r e s i d e n t became the vice-chairman of the Drive and s t i p u l a t e d that the "money made stay i n Canada. "11 Over $70,000 was raised through a series of "Tag Days' to buy ten t r a i n e r a i r p l a n e s and t r a i n personnel under the B r i t i s h Commonwealth Air Training Scheme at Vancouver's Municipal Airport, and as a token of appreciation one of the airplanes 10 Ada Crump's report, "Council's Blueprint" Vancouver  Sun, March 8, 1944, p.6. 11 VCW Meeting, November 1939, Minutes. 55 was d e s i g n a t e d with a c r e s t p r o c l a i m i n g t h a t i t had been donated by "The Women of Greater Vancouver."12 Yet not a l l of the VCW's war fund d r i v e s r e c e i v e d the f i n a n c i a l support t h a t i t hoped. E a r l y i n the war C o u n c i l V i c e P r e s i d e n t H e l e n Smith r e p o r t e d t h a t Vancouver women were c o n c e n t r a t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s too h e a v i l y on p r o v i d i n g s o l d i e r s comforts13 and two years l a t e r she expressed the same f e a r s . Although the VCW continued to support V i c t o r y Bond s a l e s , 14 Smith noted t h a t i t was s t i l l d i f f i c u l t to arouse the support of the p u b l i c to f i n a n c e the war, e v i -denced by the f a c t t h a t , by l a t e summer 1941, War Savings C e r t i f i c a t e S a les had dropped c o n s i d e r a b l y . 1 5 Attempting to r e a c t i v a t e the campaign. Smith claimed t h a t c e r t i f i c a t e s would "prevent i n f l a t i o n " and suggested t h a t more might be s o l d i f an honour r o l l were e s t a b l i s h e d . "16 However, by e a r l y 1942, Smith noted t h a t o n l y 30 of the C o u n c i l ' s 77 a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o n t r i b u t i n g to the War Savings Stamps Committee and she warned t h a t "unless we 12 VCW F i l e s , F o l i o 4-19 re A i r Supremacy D r i v e . 13 Vancouver Sun. Oct.5, 1939, p.6. 14 Vancouver Sun. June 3, 1941, p. 8 and "Local C o u n c i l o f Women Buys $50 V i c t o r y Bond" Vancouver Sun, March 4, 1942. 15 For d i s c u s s i o n o f the war s a v i n g s campaign see • VCW General Meeting, A p r i l 7, 1941, Minutes. 16 VCW F u l l E x e c u t i v e Meeting, Sept. 19, 1941, Minutes. A f f i l i a t e s were a s k e d to p u r c h a s e $4 war c e r t i f i c a t e s m onthly, as w e l l as donate $1 monthly to the War Savings Stamps Committee. 56 convert the Canadian payrolls into a fund for the purchase of arms and munitions, no business w i l l be safe."17 A month l a t e r she concluded with disappointment that Vancouver women were "not f u l l y awakened to what our s i s t e r s are putting up with i n the old land!. . . JThis i s the time to save, we w i l l then have money when the war i s over. "18 Vancouver's f a l t e r i n g A i r Raid P r e c a u t i o n Drive also requested that women i n the c i t y take over the canvassing of funds i n i t s R e s i d e n t i a l D i v i s i o n and the Council agreed to of f e r i t s support.19 In A p r i l 1942, VCW Vice President, Mrs. F.H. Lewis c a l l e d a meeting to discuss "ways and means to push t h i s t h i n g through" because "the drive was dragging and returns not coming i n as they should."20 The i n s u f f i c i e n t response of Vancouver women to war fund dri v e s was not however e n t i r e l y a regional problem and in 1943 the Dominion Government even approached the NCWC to use i t s influence to encourage Canadian women to buy more Victory Bonds, War Savings Stamps and Certif i c a t e s . 2 1 17 "Plan Victory Mass Meeting", Vancouver Sun, February 3, 1942, VCW Scrapbook. 18 VCW Meeting, March 4, 1942, Minutes. 19 Special F u l l VCW Executive Meeting, March 21, 1942, Minutes. 20 VCW Meeting, A p r i l 10, 1942, Minutes. 21 NCWC Yearbook (1943) Abridged Report of the NCWC 50th Annual Council, Toronto, Ontario, June 16-19, 1943, p.56. 57 As part of i t s e f f o r t to aid war-time projects, the VCW a l s o endorsed the f e d e r a l government's h e a l t h care program, which offered suggestions about how to safeguard the family's health i n spite of r e s t r i c t i o n s on the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of c e r t a i n consumer products. The Council responded with the establishment of a n u t r i t i o n committee22 and spon-sored a t a l k by Merle Turnbull of the Canadian Nu t r i t i o n Association on "The New Science of N u t r i t i o n and Health".23 One o f i t s a f f i l i a t e s . The Vancouver Women's B u i l d i n g Association, organized n u t r i t i o n classes beginning i n 1942. Meanwhile, courses on n u t r i t i o n a l d i e t e t i c s were offered by the Greater Vancouver Health League and the Extension Department of UBC "with special emphasis on wartime condi-tions"24 and homemakers were given instructions on how to manage a household e f f e c t i v e l y under war-time r e s t r i c -tions. 25 Throughout the war the Council was to remind i t s members that the n u t r i t i o n classes were a war measure and required "our moral support."26 22 "National Council Plans N u t r i t i o n " Vancouver Sun. Dec. 1, 1941, p.6. 23 VCW General Meeting, Nov. 3, 1941, Minutes. 24 "Classes i n S c i e n t i f i c Menu Planning Open This Month", Vancouver Sun. Oct. 5, 1940, p.14. 25 "Homemakers* Class Based on Wartime Restrictions", Vancouver Sun. Feb.11, 1942, p.7. 26 VCW General Meeting, Feb. 9, 1942, Minutes. 58 In i t s attempts to combat war-time i n f l a t i o n , the federal government came to r e l y heavily on the support of women's groups such as the VCW, since i t considered women's sound judgement necessary i n maintaining a well-managed household.27 At a d i s c u s s i o n of the f e d e r a l r a t i o n i n g programme, a member of the Wartime Prices and Trades Board informed the VCW's Executive that i t was "up to a l l women to do the r i g h t thing and buy the r i g h t allowance."28 The VCW responded as a w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a n t i n war-time rationing campaigns: i t a s s i s t e d with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of food coupons, took control of rationing booths and organized 1800 women to d i s t r i b u t e coupons. 29 In doing so, the Council hoped to demonstrate how women could help win the war while s t i l l carrying out the d a i l y routines of normal l i f e . Once i n f l a t i o n , fuel and food shortages and rationing30 became analogous with war-time l i v i n g , the VCW, as an advocate of n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s , urged Vancouver women to accept the challenges as part of the s a c r i f i c e necessary to bring the war to a triumphant conclusion. At the same time the VCW f e l t i t had a duty to protect the r i g h t s of c i v i l i a n s i n t h e i r f i g h t against war-time 27 The Vancouver Daily Province. Jun. 17,1943 i n VCW Scrapbook. 28 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, Feb.2, 1942, Minutes. 29 Mellish, Vancouver's Women 1894 to 1986. 30 Beginning i n January 1942 sugar was rationed and, following a f t e r , so was butter, ham, bacon, beef, tea and coffee. 59 i n f l a t i o n . In the early days of the war the Council f i r s t urged women to spend normally31 and endorsed the action of the P r o v i n c i a l Executive of the Re t a i l Merchants Associa-tio n , which recommended that a Prov i n c i a l Committee to the Wartime P r i c e s and Trades Board be established. Such a committee, the VCW argued, would protect the right s of con-sumers,- producers, wholesale and r e t a i l d i s t r i b u t o r s , as well as p r o t e c t the p u b l i c from u n f a i r p rices.32 The Coun c i l also recommended that the federal government keep down the p r i c e of f oodstuf f s. 33 In October 1939 at a general C o u n c i l meeting the proposed excise tax on tea, c o f f e e , tobacco and canned f i s h was discussed. The VCW Convenor of A g r i c u l t u r e , Mrs. D.E. Humphreys, proclaimed that although she was a member of the "low income" group and would "probably always be" members should pay additional taxes "rather than embarrass the government with re s o l u -t i o n s . "34 In 1941 the VCW established i t s own Consumers Council to discuss ways of dealing with the d i f f i c u l t y of marketing butter during war-time.35 Expressing concern for 31 " C i t i z e n s Urged to Spend Money i n Normal Way", Vancouver Sun, Aug. 8, 1940, p.7. 32 VCW General Meeting, Sept. 12, 1939, Minutes. 33 "Wartime Adjustments Are Discussed by Local Coun-c i l " , The Province. Sept.12, 1939 i n VCW Scrapbook. 34 "No Gavel, No Arguments As Cou n c i l Women Meet" Vancouver News-Herald, Oct. 3, 1939 i n VCW Scrapbook. 35 "Butter Situation Discussed by Women's Consumers Council", Vancouver Sun, Jan. 25, 1941, p.12. 60 the special problems of single people, the VCW's Economics Committee suggested i n June 1943 that the federal government should p r i n t r a t i o n coupons i n smaller monetary values, so that consumers could buy smaller quantities and avoid food wastage.36 Although the VCW was mindful of consumer r i g h t s , for the most part i t did feel that women should obey the federal government's war-time economic p o l i c i e s . When the NCWC was asked to "use [ i t s ] influence to make i t unfashionable to be extravagant"37 the VCW followed s u i t . When sugar became scarce due to hoarding by overzealous buyers, the Council suggested i n February 1942 tha t , as part of a s t r i c t e r rationing plan, future purchasers should be obliged to sign their names upon the purchase of c e r t a i n goods.38 Comment-ing on attempts by some members of the public to by-pass r a t i o n i n g laws. President Ada Crump bluntly stated that, "We're not tryin g to help the war e f f o r t , i f we try to beat the law."39 The VCW therefore recommended that the Justice Department "deal d r a s t i c a l l y " with both the operators and 36 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, June 1943, Minutes. 37 E x e c u t i v e Report read from the NCWC Executive Meeting, VCW General Meeting, Jan.5, 1942, Minutes. 38 "Council Recommends S t r i c t e r Ration Plan" Vancouver  Sun. Feb. 3, 1942, p.6. 39 " L o c a l C o u n c i l Knocks Sugar Purchase System" Vancouver News-Herald. Feb. 3, 1942 in VCW Scrapbook. consumers on the black market;40 i t reminded women that their duty was to abolish the black market, as well as to a s s i s t the Wartime P r i c e s and Trade Board i n curbing inflation.41 Yet, i n spite of the VCW's attempts to arouse public support for the war and educate consumers about the n e c e s s i t y f o r war-time r e s t r i c t i o n s , public c r i t i c i s m of government war-time domestic p o l i c i e s was mounting, and the most vocal came from the p o l i t i c a l l e f t . The Vancouver Housewives League, allegedly Communist influenced,42 i n i t i a l l y supported the actions of the Wartime Prices and Trade Board by establishing a Consumers Informa-t i o n Bureau to ensure that consumers received s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n regarding war-time economic r e s t r i c t i o n s . By June of 1943, however, the Housewives League had become e x t r e m e l y d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h the f e d e r a l government's economic p o l i c i e s and voiced c r i t i c i s m about increased p r i c e s , f u e l shortages, i n e f f i c i e n c y i n rationing pro-cedures, the lack of c e r t a i n consumer goods, and the reduced standard and qual i t y of goods. In an attempt to pressure the government i n t o quick a c t i o n , members of the League organized a Consumer Conference i n l a t e June 1943 and 40 VCW Resolution, Sub-Executive Meeting, June 7, 1943. Minutes. 41 Address by Helen Smith, VCW General Meeting, June 8, 1945, Minutes. 42 RCMP Weekly I n t e l l i g e n c e B u l l e t i n . Nov.20, 1939. "Housewives League R e p l i e s to Charges of Communism", Vancouver Sun. December 16, 1939, p.17. extended an i n v i t a t i o n to a l l interested groups, including the VCW. However, the Council decided not to send a repre-sentative, 43 presumably because of the League's controver-s i a l p o l i t i c a l leanings; as well, i t refused the League's ap p l i c a t i o n for a f f i l i a t i o n . 4 4 C r i t i c i s m of the federal government's p o l i c i e s was also voiced by Vancouver's r a d i c a l paper The People, which des-c r i b e d Ottawa's proposed p r i c e - f i x i n g and cost of l i v i n g index as attempts "to avoid paying a proper cost of l i v i n g bonus" to the province's workers and a poor excuse "against r a i s i n g wages to decent standards."45 The most blatant c r i t i c i s m came from i t s managing editor, Kay Gregory, who agreed that housewives were w i l l i n g to make s a c r i f i c e s , but that they were distraught at the existence of unfair prac-tices,46 which allowed some families to have an abundance of food while others did without. She reported that " p a t r i o t i c housewives, determinedly refusing to buy on the black mar-kets, see th e i r friends obtaining surreptitious supplies of e x t r a sugar, plenty of tea and coffee, canned f r u i t s and 43 VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, A p r i l 5, 1943, Minutes. 44 VCW Meeting, March 1942, Minutes; VCW Meeting, A p r i l 13, 1942, Minutes; VCW Executive Meeting, May 1942, Minutes and VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, June 1942, Minutes. 4 5 "The "Average Family' - A S t a t i s t i c a l Dream", The  People, Vol.11, No.23, June 12, 1943, p.7. 46 Kay Gregory, "Housewives Welcome Rationing But Irked By Board's Bungling" , The People. Vol.11, No. 34, Aug. 28, 1943, p.3. jam. "47 Gregory also c r i t i c i z e d the slow actions of the Wartime P r i c e s and Trades Board which contributed to the f a i l u r e of the commercial and home-canning industries,48 and argued that "centralized control of a l l our food problems, supply, d i s t r i b u t i o n and price, i s the only solution."49 The l e f t ' s c a l l for greater c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and control of resources revealed that at least a segment of the public saw the need not only for new strategies to beat war-time i n f l a t i o n , but for a major reorganization of government. I t s popularity at the e l e c t o r a l p o l l s represented a broad upsurge of support f o r the l e f t , p a r t i c u l a r l y the GCF, during the war years throughout much of central and western Canada.50 E d i t o r i a l s i n left-wing papers point as well to a growing war weariness among some Vancouver women, faced with war-time r e s t r i c t i o n s , and of t h e i r mounting unwillingness to adhere to the n a t i o n a l government's war-time demands. Left-wing women's groups were increasingly uncertain about the e f f i c i e n c y of war-time government p o l i c i e s , as well as how long women's support for the various home front campaigns would endure. Their c r i t i c i s m s were a marked contrast to the predominantly pos i t i v e reactions of the VCW. 47 Gregory, "Housewives Welcome Rationing", p. 3. 48 Gregory, "Housewives Welcome Rationing", p.3. 49 Gregory, "Housewives Welcome Rationing", p.3. 50 Andrea Smith, "The CCF, NPA, and C i v i c Change: Prov i n c i a l Forces Behind Vancouver P o l i t i c s 1930-1940", B.C.  Studies, No.53, Spring 1982, pp.59 and 65. 64 To the Council, women's most important duty during the war was to provide p a t r i o t i c service without question or c r i t i c i s m , and i t s programmes conveyed t h i s message to the woman i n the home by praising her role as volunteer worker, p a t r i o t i c consumer and frugal bomemaker. Foremost emphasis was placed on women's a b i l i t y to make s a c r i f i c e s on the home front, whether giving an extra d o l l a r to the Victory Loan or using excess meat drippings i n place of la r d . In each case the message to women was that they could best help the war e f f o r t by performing their t r a d i t i o n a l duties at home and o f f e r i n g l e i s u r e time to war service. With such views i n mind, VCW President Crump proclaimed that during war—time women were "keepers of morale i n our country" who had a " s p e c i a l duty to c a r r y on our everyday l i f e on the home front."51 Her hopes, however, were a marked contrast to the concerns expressed by left-wing women and the growing evidence of public discontent regarding war-time measures. But the VCW d i d l i t t l e to address these concerns. In e f f e c t , i t s campaigns supported federal war-time economic and domestic programmes and did not question th e i r fairness or effectiveness. To the VCW, women's role was to smooth over any d i f f i c u l t i e s ; throughout the war i t stressed that women's volunteer e f f o r t s and the i r domestic duties were thei r part i n the prosecution of war. Women would remain i n 51 VCW Annual General Meeting, March 2, 1942, Minutes. "Club Women's Parliament Meets" Vancouver Sun, March 3, 1942. 65 the home attending to household chores, f r u g a l l y maintaining the household budget and waiting for their men to return from the war. C h a r i t y and t h r i f t , women's t r a d i t i o n a l feminine v i r t u e s , would determine th e i r contribution to the war e f f o r t . Thus, for the VCW, women's proper sphere - i n spite of the exigencies of war-time l i v i n g - was s t i l l the home. 66 Chapter V: Vancouver Council of Women's Views of Women i n Paid War-time Work Force Representative of that segment of Vancouver public o p i n i o n that supported the federal government's war-time campaigns, the Vancouver C o u n c i l of Women a c t i v e l y par-t i c i p a t e d i n e f f o r t s to r e c r u i t women for paid war-time service. Its support was couched i n terms that emphasized women's service as an act of patriotism and a necessity to win the war. Yet, while the VCW agreed to a s s i s t i n the recruitment of women for i n d u s t r i a l and m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e -areas outside women's t r a d i t i o n a l spheres of employment - i t d i d so without the i n t e n t i o n of broadening women's work o p p o r t u n i t i e s . In fact, even during the war the Council stressed the view that women's paid work was best confined to areas that c o i n c i d e d with t h e i r domestic s k i l l s and r e l i e d on their feminine nature. In the i n i t i a l stages of the war the federal government was reluctant to employ women u n t i l a l l other workers were recruited. In 1939 there were approximately 900,000 persons registered as unemployed i n Canada's pre-war labour force of 3.8 m i l l i o n . During the f i r s t two years of the war the unemployed were therefore recruited into the work force to make up losses due to m i l i t a r y r e c r u i t s or to war-time production.1 In spite of the Prime Minister's announcement 1 Pierson, "Women's Emancipation and the Recruitment of Women into the Labour Force i n World War I I " , p.126. 67 in June 1941 that plans to give women "broader p o s s i b i l i t i e s of employment" were under d i s c u s s i o n , 2 325 female ex-munitions workers i n B r i t i s h Columbia complained that t h e i r services were being ignored while th e i r " s i s t e r s [services] i n the East are being so pressed."3 The pr o v i n c i a l labour minister, George S. Pearson, also appeared to be hesitant about r e c r u i t i n g women and insinuated that they could not perform i n d u s t r i a l work equal to men without the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n j u r i n g themselves.4 In March 1942 Prime Minister Mackenzie King announced the extension of the National Selective Service, allowing women i n t o war industry, but he made i t clear that women were being mobilized because a l l other prospective workers had been employed. 5 In f a c t , the D i r e c t o r of the NSS, E l l i o t t M. L i t t l e l a t e r maintained that the se l e c t i o n of women would be based upon the n o n - a v a i l a b i l i t y of men. He explained that "the important thing i s to get the bread-winners working f i r s t ; then the women who can work f u l l time; then, when i t becomes necessary, the women who w i l l 2 "Women to Get Larger Role i n Canada's War E f f o r t " , Vancouver Sun, June 14, 1941, p.3. 3 "Vancouver Has 300 Trained Women Munitions Workers-Their Offer to Help Train Others "Pigeon-holed' by Ottawa While Crying Labor Shortage", Vancouver Sun, Nov.24, 1941, p. 6. 4 The People, Vol.1, No.9, December 5, 1942, p.7. 5 The Labour Gazette, A p r i l 1942, pp.402-403;405. 68 work pa r t time. "6 In May 1942 the f e d e r a l government created a Women's Di v i s i o n of the NSS with Fraudena Eaton, a former Executive member of the VCW, as Assistant Director ( l a t e r D i r e c t o r ) to deal with the employment of women. However, a year l a t e r , i n a radio address, both Mr. L i t t l e and the Deputy Minister of Labour s t i l l emphasized that, i n spite of the variety of war-time jobs performed by women, the s i t u a t i o n was only temporary; tthey reminded the public that women excel at teaching and nursing and recommended that women with such t r a i n i n g could not be spared from these jobs.7 J As the demand for female labour increased, the federal government also appealed to housewives to perform part-time work.8 (yet, most of the jobs suggested were the t r a d i -t i o n a l low-paying tasks deemed appropriate for women, such as h o s p i t a l domestic work, c l e r i c a l work and the clothing industry. Housewives were reminded that, by performing such jobs, they would allow other women, p a r t i c u l a r l y younger and strong women, to do full - t i m e i n d u s t r i a l war work. At the same time suggestions were made that they posed considerable s u p e r v i s i o n problems. A f e d e r a l Department of Labour 6 Mr. L i t t l e spoke at a Canadian D a i l y Newspaper Association Convention. The Labour Gazette. A p r i l 1942, p.414. 7 "Women of Canada and the War" The Labour Gazette. Sept. 1943, p.1217. 8 "Planning For Part-time Workers i n Canada - P r i n -c i p l e s for E f f e c t i v e Absorption of Women into Essential Jobs on Part-time Basis", The Labour Gazette, Nov. 1943, p.1472. 69 p u b l i c a t i o n reported that, compared to the single woman worker, housewives would have to be supervised for punctual-i t y and attendance, because " i n managing the i r own homes for years they have become thoroughly i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c as a r u l e . " 9 In s p i t e of the federal government's misgivings about the employment of women i n part-time and full - t i m e work, as the war continued women became part of the Canadian workforce i n unprecedented numbers, [in fact, the proportion of females i n the Canadian labour force rose from a pre-war l e v e l of 25% to a high of 36% i n 1944.10 In Vancouver, while women accounted for only 19% of the workforce i n 1930,11 by October 1944 they made up almost 30% of the c i t y ' s t o t a l workforce. [See Table I I I ] . , 9 "Planning for Part-time Workers i n Canada" The Labour  Gazette, pp.1471-1474. 10 F.H. Leacy, ed. H i s t o r i c a l S t a t i s t i c s of Canada. Series D260-D265. 11 Norbert MacDonald, Distant Neighbors: A Comparative  History of Seattle Se Vancouver. (Lincoln & London: Univer-s i t y of Nebraska Press, 1987), p.110. 70 TABLE III SEX DISTRIBUTION OF IN RECORDED EMPLOYMENT WORKERS IN VANCOUVER FEMALE MALE No. % of Workforce No. % of Workforce Oct. 1942 18,510 21.3 68,352 78.7 Oct. 1943 25,478 27.3 67,793 72.7 Oct. 1944 25,658 29.9 60,198 70.1 Oct. 1945 22,410 28.5 56,248 71.5 Oct. 1946 21,573 27.9 55,815 72.1 Source: Canada, Dept. of Labour, The Labour Gazette, 1943-1946. Because the f e d e r a l government campaign for women's war-time labour p a r t i c i p a t i o n was couched i n terms of p a t r i o t i c duty, the VCW pledged i t s p a t r i o t i c support to labour recruitment plans. In 1940 the Council's Trades and Professions for Women Committee resolved that the fed e r a l l y sponsored t r a i n i n g classes e s s e n t i a l for placing women i n war industries be continued. 12 A year l a t e r the VCW sup-ported the Prov i n c i a l Council's recommendation that women be trained to produce "equipment and supplies for the prosecu-t i o n of the war "because i t maintained that "more men w i l l be needed i n the active f i g h t i n g forces."13 Although the VCW acknowledged that women's employment in war-time industries was e s s e n t i a l , i t suggested areas of 12 VCW General Meeting, Sept. 9, 1940, Minutes. 13 VCW General Meeting, May 5, 1941, Minutes. work that f i t t e d i n with women's t r a d i t i o n a l sphere. With t h i s i n mind, and i n view of the prominent part played by ag r i c u l t u r e i n Canada's war e f f o r t , the VCW supported the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the NCWC's A g r i c u l t u r a l Committee i n 1940.14 As the war progressed and fear of food shortages grew, the VCW encouraged women to enter farm work i n order to produce goods f o r home and a l l i e d consumption. The C o u n c i l ' s campaign f o r a p r o v i n c i a l Women's Land Army, sim i l a r to the Women's Land Army established by the Ontario Farm S e r v i c e Force i n 1941, r e f l e c t e d i t s b e l i e f that women's placement on the farm was a natural extension of thei r domestic sphere. However, the Council was also aware of the poor working conditions on farms that made a g r i c u l -t u r a l labour unappealing to many women. In an attempt to correct such inadequate working conditions, i n November 1942 Mrs. Mabel Tomer, the VCW A g r i c u l t u r a l Convenor, urgently recommended that an organized recruitment programme for farm labour be set up. In presenting her arguments Mrs. Tomer maintained that women would make ideal farm workers, but suggested that attempts would have to be made to "'glamo-r i z e ' a g r i c u l t u r a l labour and make i t more a t t r a c t i v e to women."15 In spite of her attempts, no immediate action was taken. One month l a t e r , the VCW's Ag r i c u l t u r a l Committee 14 VCW General Meeting, January 9, 1940. Minutes. 15 "Must E n l i s t More Women f o r Farms" i n Vancouver  Dally Province. Nov. 10, 1943, VCW Scrapbook. r e i t e r a t e d that a Women's Land Army was needed "due to growing shortages of farm products and expected greater shortages...[plus the]...increasing demand of food products for our armed forces and our Allies."16 The Council's e f f o r t s to place women on farms received more a t t e n t i o n when i t j o i n e d with B r i t i s h Columbia's farmers to urge the pr o v i n c i a l government to co-operate more cl o s e l y with the federal a u t h o r i t i e s to introduce a Women's Land Army. In February 1943, Helen Smith and Mabel Tomer of the VCW addressed a meeting with government o f f i c i a l s and representatives of the Fraser Valley Milk Producers Associa-t i o n , the B.C. Fe d e r a t i o n of Ag r i c u l t u r e and B.C. F r u i t Growers. The seven women delegates, i n c l u d i n g Dr. Olga Jardine of the PCW, and two MLAs, T i l l i e Rolston and Nancy Hodges, s c o f f e d at suggestions that any mobilization of women would r e q u i r e more work. A f t e r the meeting the delegates formed an Advisory Committeel7 to work with a government inter-departmental committee to study the estab-lishment of a Farm Service Corps. The federal government agreed to look into the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e c r u i t i n g women, but i t stressed that "essential men should be returned or 16 VCW General Meeting, Dec. 7, 1942, Minutes. See also "Women's Land Army Idea Backed by Local Council" Vancouver  Sun, December 8, 1942, p.6. 17 "Promote Farm S e r v i c e Corps", Vancouver D a i l y  Province. Feb.24, 1943, Sessional Clippings Book. 73 maintained on the farms."18 F i n a l l y i n May 1943 an agree-ment between B r i t i s h Columbia and the Dominion was reached for the r e c r u i t i n g , transporting, and placing of male and female farm workers.19 I t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the extent to which the VCW's involvement f a c i l i t a t e d the agreement, since the impetus to e s t a b l i s h i t came from many p r o v i n c i a l groups and l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s . Although there i s no reference to any motions put forth by Mrs. Tomer, who was one of four women on the Farmers Inst i t u t e ' s Advisory Committee, i t i s c e r t a i n that she continued to express the opinion that women's service on the farms was needed and that women could be trained to do such work. As an owner of a farm on Barnston Island, Mabel Tomer was no stranger to farm work. She argued,"*[I've] done i t for 15 years and have never suffered from i t . Other women could be taught to do the same.'"20 The C o u n c i l continued to fi g h t for more female farm r e c r u i t s and, after the Prov i n c i a l Farm Corps was set up, the VCW lobbied for more middle-aged women as farm workers. In June 1943 the Council was surprised to learn from the Junior Department of the National Selective Service that no 18 "Place for Women On Farms, Says Mrs. Rex Eaton", Vancouver Daily Province, March 18, 1943, Sessional C l i p p -ings Book. 19 Unpublished Sessional Paper, No.330, Fourth Session of the 19th Parliament, May 4, 1943, RG 14 D2, Vol. 453. 20 Vancouver Daily Province, March 3, 1943 i n VCW Scrapbook. 74 p r o v i s i o n s had been made for women aged 45 and over who wished to enter farm work and that few employers requested women of t h i s age bracket. 21 At the same time, the VCW recommended that the age l i m i t f o r younger r e c r u i t s be r a i s e d , presumably so that they would be encouraged to f i n i s h t h e i r e d u cation. I t appears that the Co u n c i l envisioned the ideal farm r e c r u i t s as either young, single women with no family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s who had finished t h e i r education and were just entering the work force, or older women who i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y did not have pre-school aged children at home. In fact, the VCW addressed the problem from the viewpoint of the war-time labour shortage rather than the economic needs of women, and therefore f a i l e d to acknowledge the needs of women not of these age groups. As well, the Council was reluctant to endorse the employment of women who might have had small c h i l d r e n at home. To the VCW the recruitment of young single women or older women as farm workers was appropriate because c e r t a i n types of a g r i c u l -t u r a l labour were t r a d i t i o n a l l y performed by women. In the armed forces, as well, war-time jobs for women were l i m i t e d for the most part to those that encompassed t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s acquired i n the home or female-dominated trades. Few fears were expressed that women's m i l i t a r y jobs would d e v i a t e from what was thought to be women's proper 21 VCW General Meeting, June 7, 1943, Minutes. 75 sphere and so the Council supported the entry of women into the m i l i t a r y labour f o r c e . The federal government took great care to ensure that women r e c r u i t s i n the armed forces continued i n tasks that emphasized th e i r feminine character-i s t i c s 2 2 and jobs that did not f i t such views were described as temporary. On one occasion, for example, when the VCW i n v i t e d Lieutenant Patterson of the Canadian Women's Army Corps as i t s guest speaker i t was informed that 2000 more female r e c r u i t s were needed to r e l i e v e men for active duty from positions as clerk, drivers and cooks.23 As the war was nearing i t s conclusion and concern about women's post-war job plans grew. Captain N.S. Paige, a CWAC r e c r u i t i n g o f f i c e r , assured the VCW that m i l i t a r y positions for women were being streamlined so that "their q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w i l l be la t e r useful i n c i v i l i a n l i f e . " 2 4 The armed forces were obviously aware that the NCWC and i t s l o c a l a f f i l i a t e s c ould be used as an e f f e c t i v e propaganda tool to advertise for more female r e c r u i t s . At the annual meeting of the VCW i n March 1944, for example, Major J. Brayshawe suggested that the Council "could do a great deal to help, by broadcasting the need for g i r l s " . 25 Shortly thereafter one of the VCW's executive members, 22 Pierson, "They're S t i l l Women After A l l " , p.125. 23 VCW General Meeting, Jan. 4, 1943, Minutes. 24 VCW General Meeting, March 6, 1945. Minutes. 25 VCW Annual General Meeting, March 7, 1944, Minutes. 76 Mrs. Bagley, was appointed the f i r s t Vice President and Chairman of the Speakers Committee, established to inform the Department of National Defence about the need for more women recruits.26 The VCW a l s o concerned i t s e l f with m i l i t a r y women's post-war employment p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 2 7 In honour of those who had performed i n the services, a res o l u t i o n from the Over-seas Nursing S i s t e r s was ca r r i e d recommending that women and men who had performed overseas service be granted income tax exemptions of $1200 for single men and women and $1800 for married men and widows of overseas service men.28 Yet, the VCW's e f f o r t s to lobby for the concerns of females i n the armed forces was minimal at best and gave no serious con-sid e r a t i o n to whether any women would wish to remain i n the forces once the war was over. This was consistent with i t s view that women's m i l i t a r y service was a temporary aberra-t i o n caused by war and not a viable career option for women under normal conditions. As the war progressed and more women entered paid war-time work, the demand for c h i l d care services increased. In Ju l y 1942 the Dominion-Provincial War-time Day Nurseries 26 VCW General Meeting, Feb.l, 1943, Minutes. 27 VCW Meeting, A p r i l 5, 1943, Minutes. 28 VCW Meeting, May 14, 1945, Minutes. 77 Agreement29 secured the establishment of day care f a c i l i t i e s for c h i l d r e n of mothers engaged i n war industries, with c o s t s to be shared equally by the federal and pr o v i n c i a l governments. Although Ontario and Quebec signed the agree-ment, B r i t i s h Columbia argued that there was no immediate need for the entry of women with childr e n into war-time industry.30 Eight months l a t e r , however, i t was estimated that i n Vancouver 15,000 married women with childr e n were working i n Industry31 and a p o l i t i c a l debate began over the establishment of day care services i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The debate centered on two issues: whether c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s were a war-time n e c e s s i t y and whether mothers of young c h i l d r e n should work at a l l , even during the war. The debate received attention not only because the war required more women to work out s i d e the home, but because of a shortage of adequate housing f a c i l i t i e s due to the in f l u x of war workers i n the city.32 In fact, war-time c h i l d care 29 Canada At War. February 1944, No.33, p.26. See also The Labour Gazette. February 1943, pp.175-176, June 1944, p.698 and A p r i l 1942, p.406. 30 "Federal Child Day Care Plan To Release Women For War Work", July 16, 1942, p.6. 31 "Better Deal f o r Women Workers Asked i n House", Vancouver Daily Province. March 2, 1943, Sessional Clippings Book. 32 J i l l Wade notes that i n A p r i l 1943 the federal Real Property A d m i n i s t r a t i o n declared Vancouver a "congested" c i t y and that by December the housing shortage was more acute than any other c i t y i n Canada. ""Black Treachery': The 1944 Vancouver Housing C r i s i s " , Unpublished Paper, History 506, U.B.C., 1982. 78 centres were advocated as alte r n a t i v e s i t e s for c h i l d r e a r i n g during the daytime.33 Consequently, day care services were advocated by welfare and charity workers, left-wing women's organizations and the Vancouver School Board. The VCW, however, maintained that i f mothers took jobs i n the workplace, the c h i l d ' s welfare would e v e n t u a l l y s u f f e r . In f a c t , i t reacted c a u t i o u s l y to government-sponsored day care and seemed ambivalent about the needs of working mothers. Furthermore, i t considered the a l l e v i a t i o n of Vancouver's crowded housing conditions a solution to the day care demand, t h e r e f o r e f a i l i n g to address p o s s i b l e solutions to either problem. In November 1942 the VCW f i r s t addressed the issue when i t s Sub-executive reported that r e s o l u t i o n s r egarding Day Nur s e r i e s "should go to [the] N a t i o n a l [ C o u n c i l ] and Mrs. [Fraudena] Eaton [of the NSS]"34, but no reference was made again to day care u n t i l almost a year l a t e r . In spite of the VCW's endorsation of government campaigns to mobilize more women for war work, i t argued that married women with c h i l d r e n should only be c a l l e d i n to the war-time work force once a l l other workers had been m o b i l i z e d and that they should be the f i r s t to leave t h e i r jobs. Its Committee for Trades and Professions 33 G i l l i a n Weiss, "The Development of Public Schools and Kindergartens i n B.C.", M.A. Thesis, UBC, 1979, pp.38-39. 34 VCW S u b - E x e c u t i v e M e e t i n g , November 2, 1942. Minutes. 79 for Women, which claimed to uphold the ri g h t s of a l l women workers, argued that i t was not l o g i c a l for so many married women to work when so many single g i r l s were unemployed. 35 Consequently, i n late 1943 i t recommended that i f women were to be released soon from the shipyards, married women with small c h i l d r e n should be the f i r s t to go.36 Furthermore, both the VCW's Town Planning and Child Welfare Committees argued that the issue of day care could only be resolved i f Vancouver's crowded housing s i t u a t i o n was r e c t i f i e d and therefore i t recommended that a war-time housing scheme for war workers be implemented and that "workers with childr e n have priority."37 However when a Day Nurseries Association representative spoke at a Council meeting and urged that day nurseries be extended, the VCW Committees agreed to further study the issue.38 In January 1944 they asked education authorities to amend the School Act to allow for the creation of "infant s c h o o l s " (separate from elementary schools) for children from 3 to 6 years of age. The proposal mirrored one put f o r t h two months e a r l i e r by the Vancouver School Board's 35 "Former Woman MLA to Lead Clubwomen", Vancouver Sun. March 4, 1942, p.7. 36 VCW General Meeting, October 4, 1943. The vote of 34 for/and 5 ag a i n s t was taken at the General Meeting on December 6, 1943. Minutes. 37 VCW General Meeting, November 1, 1943, Minutes. 38 VCW General Meeting, December 6, 1943, Minutes. 80 Daycare Committee,39 whose membership included Ada Crump, VCW Past President. The Council stressed that changes were needed s t r i c t l y because of "an acute housing shortage i n Vancouver." The fact that "mothers of young ch i l d r e n are a c c e p t i n g employment which takes them away from t h e i r f a m i l i e s during the daytime"40 was viewed more as a tem-porary war-time problem than as evidence of economic neces-s i t y . "Infant s c h o o l s " were t h e r e f o r e recommended only "where the need i s greatest". Contrary to the VCW's ambivalent views on the need for c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s , l e f t - w i n g women's groups, union o f f i c i a l s and left-wing p o l i t i c i a n s openly condemned what i t saw as the c i t y ' s apathetic response to the day care issue. The Housewives League argued that there was a growing i n t e r e s t i n es t a b l i s h i n g such f a c i l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Capitol H i l l and South Vancouver areas, "where a greater number of women are interested i n industry".41 The League therefore formed a Day Nursery Committee and c a l l e d an open conference i n November 1942. The f i f t y delegates agreed to 39 Weiss, "The Development of P u b l i c Schools and Kindergartens i n B r i t i s h Columbia", p.45. 40 VCW Meeting, January 3, 1944, Minutes. 41 "Housewives League Says Vancouver Women Apathetic To Need for War Nursery", Vancouver Sun, Sept. 9, 1942, p. 9. and "Day nurseries Will free Women...", The People. Sept. 1942, p.2. 81 a s s i s t the Vancouver Council of Social Agencies,42 Children D i v i s i o n and by mid 1943 the VCSA had set up three experi-mental playschools43 i n the c i t y . I t s success was l a t e r hampered, however, when attempts to secure municipal funding proved futile.44 Alderman George M i l l e r summed up the City Council's cautious attitude to day care, stating that i t was ""one t h i n g to est a b l i s h such nurseries, and i t would be another to get r i d of them.'"45 By the f a l l the VCSA faced c l o s i n g the f a c i l i t i e s , but p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m 4 6 and the e f f o r t s of the Housewives League to ra i s e funds,47 allowed the playschools to remain open. In the Leg i s l a t u r e , Laura Jamieson (CCF) argued that day care was needed because many women were i n the work-force due to economic necessity.48 "Day nurseries are not substitutes for a home," she argued "but supplemental to a 42 The Vancouver C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies was an as s o c i a t e d group of c h a r i t a b l e welfare agencies i n the Vancouver area. 43 Vancouver D a i l y Province, August 20, 1943, p.5; September 7, 1943, p.22. 44 Vancouver Daily Province. August 17, 1943, p.2. 45 The People. August 21, 1943, Vol.11, No.33, p.8. 46 "Save Nurseries, Urges Government Not Sure of Need", The People. August 7, 1943, Vol;II., No.31, p.8. 47 The People. August 12, 1944, p.7. 48 "Mrs. Jamieson Defends Women In Industries" Van- couver Daily Province. February 12, 1944, Sessional C l i p p -ings Book. 82 home - and t r a i n e d people must be i n charge."49 However, T i l l y R o l s t o n , (Cons./Coal.) took g r e a t o f f e n c e to the idea t h a t c h i l d r e n not be cared f o r by t h e i r mother, but r a t h e r by what she d e s c r i b e d as "some parched, dried-up, s t a r c h e d , c u l t u r e d academician."50 She c r i t i c i z e d Jamieson's views and argued t h a t Mothers Pensions had been l e g i s l a t e d s p e c i -f i c a l l y to discourage mothers from t a k i n g jobs.51 As women continued to accept war-time employment, R o l s t o n expressed c o n c e r n s t h a t t h e r e now e x i s t e d "thousands o f underfed, n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n who are key c a r r i e r s , while mother wields a blow t o r c h . " 5 2 Meanwhile, she p r a i s e d those women who chose not to answer the c a l l to war-time work as "the r e a l f o u n d a t i o n o f the n a t i o n ' s morale, and the mainspring o f our n a t i o n a l war e f f o r t . " 5 3 The p r o v i n c i a l government a p p e a r e d t o agre e w i t h R o l s t o n and the VCW on the day care i s s u e . P r e v i o u s l y the 49 "Mrs. Jamieson C a l l s For Day N u r s e r i e s " Vancouver  D a i l y P r o v i n c e , March 2, 1943, S e s s i o n a l C l i p p i n g s Book. 50 "Mrs. R o l s t o n Scor[n]es Mrs. Jamieson...Says Nursery Idea I n s u l t to B.C. Mothers: CCF Member's Suggestion Branded As "Attack On Our Canadian Home.'" Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e . March 4, 1943, S e s s i o n a l C l i p p i n g s Book. 51 "Claims I n s u l t To Mothers - Mrs. R o l s t o n On Warpath With C.C.F." Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , March 4, 1943. 52 " D r a f t Working Mothers Back To Homes, Says Woman MLA", u n i d e n t i f i e d newspaper, February 5, 1944, S e s s i o n a l C l i p p i n g s Book. 53 "Working Mothers Rear Gangsters - Mrs. Ro l s t o n " , u n i d e n t i f i e d newspaper, February 5, 1944, S e s s i o n a l C l i p p -ings Book. 83 government's s o c i a l welfare p o l i c y advisor had questioned whether "such a labor shortage i n B.C. [existed] to warrant the employment of women with young children.'"54 Although the numbers of women who possibly needed day care could have been almost as high as 25%55 of a l l married women, no j o i n t D o minion-Provincial Daycare Agreement was implemented i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t appears that society's mixed reactions to the issue may have prevented the establishment of a pro-v i n c i a l day care programme. G i l l i a n Weiss succinctly notes that "the debate was very much clouded by changing s o c i e t a l norms and the threat that many saw i n the increasing number of women no longer t i e d to the home. "56 Those Vancouver • women who looked to the pr o v i n c i a l and municipal governments to provide c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s were sorely disappointed. The day care controversy revealed that not a l l of Vancouver society was w i l l i n g to accept mothers as labour 54 "Available Women Power Not Yet F u l l y U t i l i z e d " , The  People, December 5, 1942, Vol.1, No.9, p.7. 55 The t o t a l number of women working i n Vancouver by October 1943 was 27,478 (see Table I) of which approximately 15,000 were married women with children.(n.34). The t o t a l number o f married women i n Vancouver at the time was approximately 63,101 (Canada. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Canada. Population By Sex, Age. Conjugal Condi- tions. Etc. For the Social Areas of Vancouver and Winnipeg). I f 15,000 married mothers were working, and 48,101 were at home, then 23.8% of those women who possibly needed day care were married women. This does not include single working mothers who al s o may have needed day care; (See Appendix I I ) . 56 Weiss, "The Development of P u b l i c Schools and Kindergartens i n B r i t i s h Columbia", p.42. 84 force participants and th i s c e r t a i n l y was the view of the VCW. Furthermore, the VCW designated women as secondary wage earners. The C o u n c i l ' s Trades and Professions for Women Committee vowed that single men, es p e c i a l l y those who were rejected for m i l i t a r y service, should be f i r s t on the l i s t for jobs. I t concluded that "we should see the men placed before the women take the jobs",57 and only then should single unemployed women be considered. Yet, during the war perhaps 28 per cent of Vancouver's female population of working age (between ages 15 and 64) was not married, and therefore possibly had no other source of income.58 By taking such a stand, the Council denied the ri g h t s of those women who were working out of economic necessity. The VCW's ambivalent a t t i t u d e towards c h i l d care s e r v i c e s and the treatment of married women workers r e -fle c t e d i t s views regarding married women's proper sphere. The Council was reluctant to agree to the mobilization of women whose employment, i t feared, would disrupt family l i f e , and t h i s perception l i m i t e d i t s a b i l i t y to support working mothers eager to secure government-sponsored c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s . To the VCW, mothers belonged at home, not in the workforce - even during war-time. 57 "Former Woman MLA to Lead Clubwomen", Vancouver Sun, March 4, 1942, p.7. 58 See Appendix I I . 85 Moreover, the Council's inte r e s t i n securing p a r t i c u l a r types of work for women revealed i t s true perceptions of women's proper sphere. Farm work was seen as acceptable for women because the VCW saw i t as an extension of the i r work in the home, whereas women's war-time labour force p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n the m i l i t a r y was deemed j u s t i f i a b l e because i t f a c i l i t a t e d women's post-war re-entry into more t r a d i t i o n a l jobs. In essence, the Council regarded women's po s i t i o n i n the workforce, whether they were s i n g l e or married, as separate from and subordinate to that of men. 86 Chapter VI: The Vancouver Council of Women and the Post-War World Once the war was over the federal government expected that women would return to the home or to thei r previous employment, and throughout the war the Vancouver Council of Women endorsed t h i s view. In keeping with i t s maternal f e m i n i s t philosophy the VCW recommended to the Pr o v i n c i a l Post-War Planning Committee that women confine themselves to t r a d i t i o n a l female labour roles a f t e r the war. This a t t i t u d e r e i n f o r c e d a narrow view of women's place i n s o c i e t y and d i d not help women broaden their work oppor-t u n i t i e s i n the post-war world. The a n c i l l a r y place of women i n the war-time economy i n i t i a l l y determined that they would not be expected to take part i n discussions regarding the planning of Canada's post-war r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . When B r i t i s h Columbia's Post-War Rehab-i l i t a t i o n C o u n c i l was established i n early March 1942 to analyze the post-war future of the province's industries, no female members were chosen. One month l a t e r the VCW endorsed a demand from the Prov i n c i a l Council that a woman should be appointed to the Reha b i l i t a t i o n Council, because post-war planning was a matter "of v i t a l importance to both men and women".1 Realizing that i t was facing great public 1 VCW General Meeting, Resolution from PCW, A p r i l 13, 1942> Minutes. 87 c r i t i c i s m , p a r t i c u l a r l y from women's groups,2 the pr o v i n c i a l government f i n a l l y acquiesced and i n July 1942, appointed three women MLA's, T i l l y Rolston, Nancy Hodges and Dorothy Steeves to the Council. One of the prime duties of the Rehabi l i t a t i o n Council was to determine the numbers of returned men and displaced war workers who would seek employment once h o s t i l i t i e s were over, c l a s s i f y i n g them according to occupation and formulat-ing t r a i n i n g programmes for prospective workers. The Reha-b i l i t a t i o n Council also acted as a cle a r i n g house by review-ing proposals sent from a l l public bodies, including muni-c i p a l i t i e s , boards of trade, labour o r g a n i z a t i o n s and women's groups that recommended possible areas of i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l growth for B r i t i s h Columbia which could provide employment f o r returned veterans. In i t s i n i t i a l report i n 1943 the Rehabi l i t a t i o n Council assumed that ex-servicemen and women would "return to their pre-war voca-t i o n s " . ! Furthermore, i t urged the government to give special consideration to ex-servicemen i n terms of tr a i n i n g and employment.3 The Reh a b i l i t a t i o n Council acknowledged that there would be a "large number of men and women who w i l l expect opportunities to be available for their 2 "Ask f o r Women on Council for Reh a b i l i t a t i o n " Van- couver Sun. June 24, 1942, p.6. 3 Province of B.C., Interim Report of The Post War  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o u n c i l . January 1943 and Supplementary  Report of The Post War R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Council. February 1944, p.25. The Labour Gazette. May 1943, p.590. 88 employment",4 but i t r e p o r t e d t h a t the number of workers to be a f f e c t e d by d e m o b i l i z a t i o n s t i l l had to be estimated. A supplementary r e p o r t p r i n t e d over a year l a t e r , proved no more e n l i g h t e n i n g ; the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o u n c i l concluded t h a t the e x a c t number o f workers to be d i s p l a c e d c o u l d not be determined u n t i l a f t e r the end of the war.5 When b o t h t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments undertook post-war p l a n n i n g , the VCW supported t h e i r plans to p l a c e women back i n the home and i n t r a d i t i o n a l female oc c u p a t i o n s . In i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n to the Post-War R e h a b i l -i t a t i o n C o u n c i l i n J a n u a r y 1943 the VCW emphasized t h a t women's proper p l a c e remained the home. I t was a l s o quick to c r i t i c i z e the weaknesses o f the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o u n c i l ' s I n t e r i m R e p o r t ; i t s u c c i n c t l y acknowledged t h a t although p l a n n i n g a t t e n t i o n had been g i v e n "to the re - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f men and r i g h t l y s o, no p l a n would be complete un l e s s t h o u g h t a l s o i s g i v e n to the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f women. "6 P r e v i o u s l y , the VCW had e s t a b l i s h e d i t s own committee on Post-War Planning7 and, l i k e one s e t up by the NCWC,8 i t 4 " I n t r o d u c t i o n to the I n t e r i m Report", I n t e r i m Report  of The Post War R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o u n c i l . January 1943, p.2. 5 Supplementary Report o f The Post War R e h a b i l i t a t i o n  C o u n c i l , Feb.3, 1944, p.27. 6 VCW Trades and P r o f e s s i o n s f o r Women Committee, b r i e f to the B.C. Post War R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o u n c i l , January 1943, typed copy o f b r i e f i n Minutes. 7 Suggested a t the VCW Sub-Executive Meeting, May 21, 1942, Minutes. 89 d e a l t with matters such as n a t i o n a l u n i t y , s o c i a l and economic planning, education, labour matters, housing, immigration and women's employment. Many of the VCW's recommendations to the Reha b i l i t a t i o n Council r e f l e c t e d i t s b e l i e f i n the necess i t y of women's inc l u s i o n i n post-war public l i f e and i t suggested that women be appointed to a l l government boards, that they receive pay equal to that of men and that women take part i n peace talks.9 Recognizing that women had offered their labour during war-time, the VCW al s o argued that "care must be exercised i n the post-war period when the change over from wartime industry to peace time occupations [comes], that the services of these women must not be lost."10 It proposed therefore that women war-time workers be given consideration concerning future post-war job plans, including those women i n active service, i n war industry, i n occupations formerly held by men, and i n the c i v i l service. Yet, while the VCW acknowledged "the f u l l part women are playing i n the t o t a l war effort,"11 i t s opening remarks 8 NCWC S p e c i a l Committee on Reconstruction proposal, VCW Meeting, Dec. 1942, Minutes. 9 Mrs. Denis, convenor for Committee, Report on Women i n Post-War World, VCW General Meeting, March 3, 1943, Minutes. 10 Report on Women i n Post-War World, VCW Meeting, March 3, 1943, Minutes. 11 Report on Women i n Post-War World, VCW Meeting, March 3, 1943, Minutes. 90 emphasizing the need to remember women's domestic responsi-b i l i t i e s set the tone of i t s plan for women's po s i t i o n i n the post-war world. By stressing "the underlying philosophy of the re-establishment of home l i f e " and i t s conviction "that the home i s the foundation of the nation"12 the VCW's recommendations to the Rehabilitation Council emphasized the view that women's pos i t i o n i n the public sphere was subor-dinate to their domestic role i n the home. In i t s recommendations regarding women's post-war jobs and job tr a i n i n g , the VCW kept within s t r i c t guidelines of what i t perceived as acceptable work for women. With regard to the f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g and education of young women, i t maintained that the most appropriate f i e l d s were those "of a p r a c t i c a l nature designed to improve young women i n the i r present positions."13 The VCW's aim was to concentrate on the development of women's feminine and nurturing q u a l i t i e s which could be used i n the job market, presumably because that was where women's talents naturally lay. Furthermore, the underlying assumption was that women would eventually leave the work force to marry and would use such s k i l l s i n the home. Areas of work suggested for women included counselling, (especially for ex-service womenl4), infant and 12 VCW Report to the Rehabil i t a t i o n Council, January 1943, Minutes. 13 VCW B r i e f to the B.C. Post War R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Council, January 1943, Minutes. 14 VCW Meeting, Nov.6, 1944, Minutes. c h i l d care and care for the aged. But the VCW considered that a g r i c u l t u r a l work and domestic service offered the best work opportunities for women. In keeping within i t s conviction that a Women's Land Army was a suitable form of war-time service for women, the VCW a l s o recommended farm labour as appropriate post-war work for women and suggested that a Farm Labour Bureau be established to d i r e c t farm women to such p r o f i t a b l e indus-t r i e s as h o r t i c u l t u r e , bulb r a i s i n g , bee-keeping, poultry r a i s i n g and dairy farming.15 The VCW recommended as well that women, es p e c i a l l y war brides, many of whom they pre-d i c t e d would be English, should be trained for farm work because "farm women are a v i t a l factor i n any land s e t t l e -ment scheme."16 Yet, when c o n s i d e r i n g post-war jobs for women, most planning by the VCW, as well as the vari o u s l e v e l s of government, concentrated on domestic service. Pr i o r to World War II the f e d e r a l government had taken steps to encourage women to become domestic servants i n an e f f o r t to change the job's negative p u b l i c image. A Home Service T r a i n i n g Programme was established i n 1937 for unemployed women between the ages of 18 and 30 who were dependents of 15 B r i e f submitted to the B.C. Post War Rehabil i t a t i o n Council by the VCW, Vancouver, January 11, 1943, Supplemen- t a r y Report o f The Post War R e h a b i l i t a t i o n C o u n c i l , Feb.1944, p.64. 16 R e s o l u t i o n from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Committee, VCW General Meeting, January 31, 1944, Minutes. 92 urb a n f a m i l i e s on r e l i e f . The aim was to make domestic s e r v i c e a more p r o f e s s i o n a l and p r e s t i g i o u s o c c u p a t i o n , as w e l l as to s e c u r e f a i r wages and comfortable working c o n d i t i o n s f o r employees. However, l e f t - w i n g women saw domestic s e r v i c e as a poor replacement f o r the higher paying i n d u s t r i a l war-time jobs, which p r o m i s e d b e t t e r working c o n d i t i o n s and l e s s d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r the worker. As one l e f t - w i n g r e p o r t e r , C y n t h i a C a r t e r , s u c c i n c t l y e x p l a i n e d , "no young woman who has worked an e i g h t hour day f o r a decent wage w i l l r e l i s h the p r o spect o f working a twelve-hour day f o r peanuts...No g i r l who has been xon her own' i n a war p l a n t wants to s t a r t s a y i n g "Yes, madam, again".17 A major concern expressed by CCF women was the l a c k o f b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e to those women who were f o r c e d to depend on domestic s e r v i c e . F e a r i n g that women would "be thrown on the domestic l a b o r market a f t e r the war"18 Laura Jamieson and Grace Maclnnis (CCF) (MLA f o r Vancouver-Burrard) argued t h a t the best way to b e t t e r c o n d i -t i o n s f o r household workers was f i r s t to e s t a b l i s h a minimum wage, s e t up proper working c o n d i t i o n s and develop the job i n t o a s k i l l e d t r a d e . 17 C y n t h i a C a r t e r "Around Town" P a c i f i c Advocate, A p r i l 7, 1945, Vol.1, No.23, p.4. 18 "To A i d Women Workers: Hope Expressed by MLA On D o m e s t i c Minimum Wage A c t " Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , S e s s i o n a l C l i p p i n g s Book March 3, 1944. At the request of T i l l y Rolston, a p r o v i n c i a l govern-ment i n q u i r y was established i n 1944 to study the l i v i n g conditions, hours of work, wages, and t r a i n i n g of domestic workers to prepare the government for appropriate l e g i s l a -t ion. Taking the view that t r a i n i n g of domestics had to be r e g u l a t e d f i r s t , a f t e r which working conditions would be evaluated, Rolston recommended that the tra i n i n g schools for domestic servants be continued. The domestic service problem had been considered by the VCW i n the late 1930s, when a f f i l i a t e s recommended that standards be implemented to r a i s e the job to a s k i l l e d trade. 19 Yet, the Council appeared to view the issue more from the perspective of the employer than from the employee, and i t concentrated i t s e f f o r t s on guaranteeing that there would be a steady supply of q u a l i f i e d domestic servants. Thus, when i t came to lobbying f o r a minimum wage f o r domestic workers, the VCW f a i l e d to recognize the d i r e c t l i n k between status and wages and recommended instead that "no l e g i s l a t i o n [be implemented] u n t i l [the] public are edu-cated." 20 The VCW moved slowly on the issue of better status for domestic workers and i t was not u n t i l the mid-point of the war that a VCW Sub-Committee made i t s f i n a l recommendations 19 The Female Minimum Wage Act of 1934 excluded domestic service. 20 VCW Meeting, July 15, 1938, Minutes. 94 on the pos i t i o n of domestic workers i n Vancouver. In i t s 1943 report the Council's Trades and Professions for Women Committee noted that "many women now engaged i n war industry may of n e c e s s i t y require to seek employment as household workers i n the post-war period" and i t therefore recommended the re-entry of women into domestic service even during "a time of peak employment". For these reasons the VCW also recommended that domestic workers be included under the Unemployment Insurance Act and that a labour code be e s t a b l i s h e d by the government to standardize domestic servants' working conditions. 21 With an eye to the profes-s i o n a l i z a t i o n of the trade, the Council also recommended that standards of e f f i c i e n c y be developed, that c e r t i f i c a t e s of p r o f i c i e n c y f o r workers be established and that such workers be registered with the National Selective Service. Ever mindful of the career options open to young g i r l s , the VCW a l s o urged that high school courses include a home service order, with i n s t r u c t i o n i n applied psychology, care and feeding of children and home economics. Despite the VCW's hopes that more women would enter domestic service, by February 1945 Laura Jamieson noted that none of the g i r l s discharged from the armed forces had expressed an i n t e r e s t i n domestic work to the i r National 21 VCW Executive Meeting^ December 6, 1943, Minutes 95 Selective Service personnel officers.22 Jamieson maintained that, rather than looking to domestic service as the answer to women's post-war employment problems, both single and married women should be encouraged to stay i n industry and f i g h t to receive wages equal to those of men. 23 A long-time defender of the working woman,24 she questioned whether women would "turn around after the war and march r i g h t back to barbarism."25 In spite of left-wing lobbying, women did not remain in i n d u s t r i a l employment. When large scale l a y - o f f s of Van-couver's female war workers began i n late 1944, the Women's School for Citizenship reacted quickly and organized a con-ference on "The Future of Women i n Employment". I t bleakly concluded that there was "a d i s t i n c t f e e l i n g of uncertainty as to [the] future of women i n employment [...]the general attitude was that women could be c a l l e d upon i n a c r i s i s and 22 " G i r l s ' Work, Wage Pl i g h t Hit by City Woman MLA", Vancouver D a i l y Province. February 16, 1945, Se s s i o n a l Clippings Book. 23 "Better Deal for Women Workers Asked In House", Vancouver Daily Province. March 2, 1943, Sessional Clippings Book. 24 "Mrs. Jamieson Defends Women In I n d u s t r i e s " , Vancouver Daily Province, Feb.12, 1944, Sessional Clippings Book. 25 "Better Deal f o r Women Workers Asked In House", Vancouver Daily Province. March 2, 1943, Sessional Clippings Book. 96 that when the c r i s i s was over, they would have to accept what-ever came."26 Meanwhile, the sentiment expressed i n the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e was that attention should be focussed on ex-servicemen because of their p a t r i o t i c service. Therefore, the concerns of the female war worker were ignored. T i l l y Rolston, for example, defended the rights of male war veterans to receive jobs before what she described as "well-d r e s s e d , w e l l - f e d , w e l l - s i t u a t e d lady veterans of the assembly plant." She maintained that " p r a c t i c a l l y i t w i l l not hold water to t e l l a s o l d i e r that these women have as much ri g h t to work as any man." Instead Rolston recommended that "the biggest job any woman can do i s that of r a i s i n g a family of good Canadian c i t i z e n s with a sense of responsi-b i l i t y to t h e i r God, t h e i r country and their parents."27 Whatever the protests of left-wing women, the federal government appeared to already have made i t s d e c i s i o n regarding the future of women's work i n the post-war world. Like the VCW, a spokesman for the National Selective Service emphasized i n 1944 that "women's place i n the world of tomorrow i s f i r s t of a l l i n the home which i s the most 26 Excerpt from Report of Conference, January 20, 1945 at Hotel Vancouver, as c i t e d i n Urban Reader, "Vancouver: The Forties and F i f t i e s " , Jan./Feb.1976, Vol.4, No.l, p.14. 27 "Claims Women To Step Down" Vancouver News Herald. Feb.26, 1944, Sessional Clippings Book. See also "Homemaking F i r s t Says Rolston" Feb.26, 1944, Vancouver Daily Province. Sessional Clippings Book. 97 important."28 The Federal Minister of Munitions and Supply, CD. Howe, also reasoned that women were working outside of the home only "because of the war and that they would prefer to stay at home once the war was over. "29 When the federal Sub-Committee on the Post-War Problems of Women f i n a l l y submitted i t s report i n 1944, i t too emphasized that woman's most important role was her domestic one, and i t predicted that 45 to 55 per cent of a l l women would return home once the war was over. Of the women workers polled i n Vancouver, i t was p r e d i c t e d that 53.8 per cent would return to the home. 30 For women who chose to remain i n the work force, the Sub-Committee concluded that new areas of employment, based on women's t r a d i t i o n a l jobs, would have to be created. However, few recommendations were made for the married woman worker. A n a t i o n a l survey, completed i n August 1945 by the Women's Di v i s i o n of the Dominion Employment Service (succes-sor to the National Selective Service), recommended the most s u i t a b l e areas of pre-employment vocational t r a i n i n g for women and helped set the tone for women's public status i n post-war society. The job most often mentioned as having valuable potential for t r a i n i n g was domestic service. 28 VCW General Meeting, January 3, 1944, Minutes. 29 "Canada at War", No. 31, December 1943, p.35. 30 "Half of Women i n Industry Plan To Remain, Says Woman M.L.A.", Vancouver Daily Province. February 25, 1944, Sessional Clippings Book. 98 Other j o b c h o i c e s c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e work f o r women included stenography, sales, t e x t i l e s , waitressing, beauty c o n s u l t i n g and commercial cooking.31 The r e p o r t s were submitted to Ottawa and were to serve as a basis for further enquiry and planning of suitable work areas for women. Meanwhile i n Vancouver the es t a b l i s h m e n t of the Department of Home Economics at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1943 had provided proof of the conservative s o c i a l c l i m a t e o f the day regarding women's post-war employment opportunities. Lee Stewart, a B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r i a n , maintains that women were "well aware that the r e s o l u t i o n to r e - e s t a b l i s h home economics a n t i c i p a t e d U.B.C.'s needs to accomodate men returning from the war more than i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to women on the home front." Such education Stewart argues would t h e r e f o r e "serve s o c i a l imperatives before individual or feminist preferences."32 Through i t s post-war recommendations, the Vancouver Co u n c i l of Women helped perpetuate such limited views of women's public ro l e s . By i d e n t i f y i n g domestic service and farm work as two of the main areas of work available to women after the war, the Council's proposals reinforced the importance of women's t r a d i t i o n a l roles and hindered women's 31 "Vocational Training For Women", The Labour Gazette. August 1945, pp.1120-1121. 32 Lee Stewart, "It's UP to Vou"; Women at UBC In The  E a r l y Years. (Vancouver: UBC Press for the UBC Academic Women's Association, 1990), p.61. 99 chances to broaden t h e i r economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s . By s e l e c t i n g f i e l d s of work that emphasized women's feminine nature, the VCW a l s o s t r e s s e d a lim i t e d view of women's c a p a b i l i t i e s . In fact, seven months afte r the war had ended the VCW s t i l l maintained that i t was women's duty to "watch well to see our returned men do not suffer for lack of jobs."33 This duty encompassed the C o u n c i l ' s post-war go a l s ; post-war planning meant that women's place i n the post-war world must not jeopardize that of men. To the VCW, women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the war-time labour force had been intended s t r i c t l y for the prosecution of war. L i t t l e thought had been given to evaluating women's war-time contribution i n terms of o f f e r i n g women widening public opportunities once the war was over; the VCW's goal had been to r a l l y women to p a t r i o t i c service. Patriotism, the p r e s e r v a t i o n of family l i f e and the propagation of women's feminine and n u r t u r i n g q u a l i t i e s had been the instrumental components of the VCW's war-time philosophy and programmes. 3 3 Mrs. Crump's speech. VCW Annual General Meeting, March 4, 1946, Minutes. 100 Chapter VII: Conclusion One of the major questions posed by feminist scholars has been why, i n spite of broader opportunities available to women i n Canada during World War I I , t h e i r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s i n post-war society did not change s i g -n i f i c a n t l y . Using the Vancouver Council of Women as a case study, t h i s thesis has addressed the question by examining what the VCW saw as women's s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l roles during war-time. I t has argued that the VCW was able to accomodate the temporary war-time s i t u a t i o n which required women to take on duties outside t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l sphere, while conducting a war-time programme that encompassed an unchanging ideology about women's proper role i n society. Based on the Council's maternal feminist philosophy, i t s leaders reasoned that woman's influence, her domesticity and her unique moral authority were necessary to help solve society's problems. Not being a p a c i f i s t group, the VCW saw no d i r e c t l i n k between i t s maternal ism and opposition to war, and t h e r e f o r e at the outbreak of war i n 1939 i t en t h u s i a s t i c a l l y threw i t s e f f o r t s into aiding Canada's war e f f o r t . Having embraced a feminist philosophy that u l t i -mately relegated women large l y to the private sphere, the Council embarked on a war po l i c y that was highly p a t r i o t i c and n a t i o n a l i s t i c and which drew a d i s t i n c t i o n between men's 101 war-time r o l e on the fig h t i n g front and women's war-time role on the home front. The C o u n c i l ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n war fund drives and salvage e f f o r t s , i t s attempts to secure Vancouver from a l i e n economic in t e r e s t s , i t s lobbying e f f o r t s on behalf of the armed f o r c e s and i t s p r o - B r i t i s h sympathies revealed the extent of i t s p a t r i o t i c sentiments, as did the b e l i e f that women's war-time role should embody their t r a d i t i o n a l q u a l i -t i e s as protectors of the home. To the VCW, a most s i g n i f i -cant part of women's duty during war involved preserving a p a r t i c u l a r way of l i f e on the home f r o n t and pati e n t l y waiting for the men to return. The VCW's fear of increased s o c i a l disorder during war-time encouraged i t to lobby for greater i n s t i t u t i o n a l con-t r o l s i n society and to propagate the values of a stable home l i f e . The Council also condemned the rumored war-time increases i n juvenile delinquency, alcohol consumption and promiscuous behaviour, and c a l l e d for increased parental supervision of children's a c t i v i t i e s , extended street super-v i s i o n by p o l i c e women, s t r i c t e r s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and moral i n s t r u c t i o n for c i v i l i a n s . I t s p r e s c r i p t i o n for eliminating s o c i a l disorder involved t r y i n g to ensure that the r i g h t type of c i t i z e n s would shape Vancouver's post-war s o c i e t y . This determined the VCW's limited view of the municipal f r a n c h i s e and i t s attempts to secure B r i t i s h subjects as post-war s e t t l e r s . The s o c i a l and c i v i c causes 102 endorsed by the Co u n c i l i l l u m i n a t e d i t s Anglo-Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e , i t s middle-class bias, i t s conservatism, i t s preoccupation with s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y and i t s i n t e r e s t i n so c i a l s t a b i l i t y . To the VCW, women's war-time a c t i v i t i e s were best expressed i n p a t r i o t i c service and volunteer e f f o r t s that r e f l e c t e d t h e i r housewifely r o l e s and domestic s k i l l s . Thus, the Co u n c i l r e c r u i t e d armies of housewives to can f r u i t and vegetables to feed Canada's population, and women canvassed l o c a l neighbourhoods for metal kitchen u t e n s i l s , salvaged f o r the production of esse n t i a l war tools. The message conveyed was that women's war e f f o r t s were best put to use i n t r a d i t i o n a l feminine tasks. The VCW's example of unwaivering support for the federal government's war-time domestic p o l i c i e s reinforced t h i s position. This was i n marked contrast to the messages conveyed by many left-wing women's groups which questioned the government's p o s i t i o n on these issues. The Council's attitude towards women's entry into the paid war-time labour force also emphasized the importance of women's domestic s k i l l s , and therefore i t lobbied for women's increased entry i n t o farm work during war-time. Yet, the VCW's caution regarding the outcome of the war-time employment of married women and i t s slow reaction to the day care issue confirmed i t s view that married women's proper sphere was the home. Furthermore, i t s insistence that a l l 103 men be employed before women contributed to the Council's neglect of the concerns of single women workers. The VCW's proposal to the Pr o v i n c i a l Post-War Planning Committee, which encouraged female employment i n farm work and domestic s e r v i c e , perpetuated a r e s t r i c t e d view of women's public roles and did not help women broaden th e i r job o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the post-war era. The Council had adopted the view expressed by the federal government that women's entry into non-traditional f i e l d s of work during the war had been necessary for the prosecution of war. Once the war was over, the VCW expected that women would return to t r a d i t i o n a l occupations or to the home for marriage and motherhood. The po s i t i o n that the Council adopted regarding post-war planning f o r women was reactionary rather than forward-looking. Using the Council as a case i n point, i t can be argued that women's war-time a c t i v i s m arose out of t r a d i t i o n a l roles performed by women during peacetime. The VCW's views regarding the type of war-time service to be performed by women r e f l e c t e d opinions current i n federal, p r o v i n c i a l and municipal government c i r c l e s . As part of the i r p a t r i o t i c e f f o r t , women were expected to take on temporary work roles outside t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l sphere and return to the i r former r o l e s once the war was over. Thus, the perception that women were f i r s t and foremost n u r t u r i n g , s a c r i f i c a l and maternal beings, constituted the Council's view of Canadian 104 womanhood. Furthermore, the fact that s i m i l a r views were o f t e n expressed by government o f f i c i a l s s i g n i f i e d a con-t i n u i t y of b e l i e f s and norms reg a r d i n g women's war-time roles and post-war status. Signs of s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n women's s t a t u s were not forthcoming from the Council's p o l i c i e s i n s p i t e of the ex i g e n c i e s of war-time which r e q u i r e d women to step ou t s i d e the boundaries of their t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Although the Council did represent, for the most part, a segment of Vancouver s o c i e t y ' s p o l i t i c a l l y active and civic- m i n d e d female c i t i z e n s and an important s t r a i n of Canadian feminism, the VCW's a b i l i t y to of f e r new roles for women during the war was severely l i m i t e d by i t s maternal f e m i n i s t p h i l o s o p h y and i t s middle c l a s s r o o t s . The Co u n c i l ' s view of the domestic service question from the perspective of the employers, i t s i n a b i l i t y to perceive the value of an extended municipal franchise, i t s ambivalent views re g a r d i n g day care and the ri g h t s of single women workers, and i t s nomination of women to positions of author-i t y who shared i t s convictions severely l i m i t e d i t s a b i l i t y to address the concerns of i t s working c l a s s s i s t e r s . Furthermore, the VCW's refusal to admit the more r a d i c a l Vancouver Housewives League to i t s membership and the c r e a t i o n of the Progressive Women's Federation, a labour-oriented umbrella of women's groups, formed i n reaction to the VCW, revealed the wide breach i n philosophies of women's 105 groups i n Vancouver during the war years. The Council's cautious s t r a i n of feminism prevented i t from co-operating with other women's organizations of a more reformist nature. The VCW's war-time a c t i v i t i e s were concentrated lar g e l y on promoting views that assisted i n the successful prosecution of war. Patriotism, the preservation of the ideals of home l i f e and the promotion of women's feminine q u a l i t i e s were more important to the Vancouver Council of Women than the pursuit of broad feminist goals. Feminist historians have debated whether there existed a continuity of ideologies and c u l t u r a l norms during the war years or whether the war led to changes i n the perception of women's p r i v a t e and public status. The VCW's a b i l i t y to adapt to the temporary war-time s i t u a t i o n which required women to take on new r o l e s , while s t i l l m aintaining a maternal feminist philosophy that saw women's po s i t i o n i n society as derived from th e i r domestic sphere, t e s t i f i e s to the l o n g e v i t y of c u l t u r a l norms regarding women's proper place i n society. 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Wade, J i l l . ""Black Treachery': The 1944 Vancouver Housing C r i s i s " , Unpublished Paper, H i s t o r y 506, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982. 112 Appendix I * TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS: Chur c h - a f f i l i a t e d Ethnic P o l i t i c a l Professional Service-Oriented P a t r i o t i c Cultural Social welfare Veterans & Paramilitary Temperance Farm-Related (16) ( 2) ( 8) ( 4) ( 6) (10) ( 6) ( 5) ( 7) ( 7) ( 1) 72 22. 2% 2.7% 11.1% 5.5% 8.3% 13.8% 8.3% 6.9% 9.7% 9.7% 1.4% 99.6% Totals: •Terms define the 1 major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the organization. VCW A f f i l i a t e d Societies Alexandra Children's Home Alta r Society, Holy Rosary Church Altar Society, Our Lady of Perpetual Help Church American Women's Club B.C. Musical Competition F e s t i v a l Burnaby Women's Conservative Association Burrard Women's Conservative Association Canadian Daughters League No.l Canadian Daughters League No.8 Canadian Daughters League No.9 Canadian Daughters League No.22 Canadian Federation for the Blind Canadian Memorial United Church Women's Auxi l i a r y Canadian National Ins t i t u t e for the Blind Women's Au x i l i a r y Catholic Women's League, Senior Sub Di v i s i o n Chalmers United Church Women's Au x i l i a r y C i v i l i a n Mothers' and Wives Association Community Self Help Association Crippled Childrens Hospital Chown Memorial United Church Women's Auxi l i a r y CCF Women's Central Group Council Daughters of England Queen of the West Daughters of England Glazier Lodge D i s t r i c t Kings Daughters D i s t r i c t Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union Women's Ch r i s t i a n Temperance Union, Fairview Chapter Women's Ch r i s t i a n Temperance Union, Grandview Chapter Women's Ch r i s t i a n Temperance Union, Mt. Pleasant Chapter 113 Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union, K e r r i s d a l e Chapter Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union, Vancouver South Chapter Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union, West End Chapter F a i r v i e w B a p t i s t Church Women's A u x i l i a r y F i r s t B a p t i s t Church Women's A u x i l i a r y F i r s t U n i ted Church Women's A u x i l i a r y E l i z a b e t h Fry S o c i e t y E x - S e r v i c e Women Canadian Legion Greater Vancouver G i r l Guides C o u n c i l In As Much C i r c l e Kings Daughters Kiwassa Club L a d i e s G u i l d B r i t i s h S a i l o r s S o c i e t y L a d i e s A u x i l i a r y to the 49th L a d i e s A u x i l i a r y H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y L i o n s Lady Club Lady L a u r i e r Club Lady Aberdeen Branch S c o t t i s h Country Dance S o c i e t y League o f Women Voters L i l l i a n Freeman Chapter o f Hadassah New Era League N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Jewish Women Po i n t Grey Women's I n s t i t u t e Primrose Club Royal Needlework G u i l d Ryerson United Church Women's A u x i l i a r y Shaughnessy United Church Women's A u x i l i a r y S o l d i e r s , S a i l o r s , Mothers & Wives A s s o c i a t i o n S o r o p t i m i s t Club St. Andrews Wesley United Church Women's A u x i l i a r y St. Paul's A n g l i c a n Church Women's A u x i l i a r y St. Paul's H o s p i t a l A u x i l i a r y St. John's United Church United Church S o c i a l S e r v i c e C o u n c i l Vancouver Business and P r o f e s s i o n a l Women's Club Vancouver South P o i n t Grey Women's L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n Vancouver Women's L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n Vancouver Symphony S o c i e t y Vancouver Women's B u i l d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n V i c t o r i a n Order o f Nurses Veterans Mutual A s s i s t a n c e League Vancouver Chapter R e g i s t e r e d Nurses A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C. Women's E d u c a t i o n a l A u x i l i a r y Women's A u x i l i a r y Charter 44 Hotel G r e e t e r s Women's A u x i l i a r y Diocesan Board In the 1941 Attendance Record as w e l l as the above the f o l l o w i n g members were l i s t e d : Chapter A. P.E.O. S i s t e r h o o d Surrey Women's I n s t i t u t e St. Andrews' Caledonian S o c i e t y Women's Group Women's I n t e r n a t i o n a l League f o r Peace and Freedom Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n 114 Appendix II TOTAL FEMALES IN VANCOUVER BY CONJUGAL CONDITION AND SEX, 1941 SINGLE MARRIED WIDOWED DIVORCED SEPARATED NUMBERS 56,421 63,101 12,765 1,015 2,469 PERCENTAGE 41.56% 46.48% 9.40% .75% 1.82% FEMALE POPULATION BY AGE GROUP IN VANCOUVER, 1941 AGE 0 - 4 - 7,866 5 - 9 - 7,140 10-14 - 8,777 15-19 - 10,878 20-24 - 13,123 25-34 - 24,917 AGE 35-44 - 18,245 45-54 - 18,297 55-64 - 15,206 65-69 - 4,748 70+ - 6,576 Total Female Population of Vancouver, 1941 = 135,773 Sources: Canada. Census of Canada. 1941. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Population By Sex. Age. Conjugal Conditions.Etc.  For the Social Areas of Vancouver and Winnipeg. 

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