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Everyday life in the golden city : a historical geography of Rossland, British Columbia Ripmeester, Michael R. 1990

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EVERYDAY L I F E I N THE GOLDEN A Historical  CITY:  Geography o f R o s s l a n d , B r i t i s h  Columbia  By M i c h a e l R. B.A., T h e U n i v e r s i t y  Ripmeester  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1988  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  ( Department o f Geography )  We  accept this to  THE  thesis  the required  as conforming standard  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  S e p t e m b e r 1990 ©Michael  Robert Ripmeester,  1990  In  presenting  degree freely  at  the  available  copying  of  department publication  this  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  study.  scholarly  or  her  for  financial  of  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  S^-FTemP^lZ  DE-6 (2/88)  ^4-,  I  I further  purposes  mo  gain  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  permission.  Department  of  be  It not  that  the  be  Library  an  by  understood allowed  advanced  shall  permission for  granted  is  for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT  Rossland, B r i t i s h Columbia, l i k e many o t h e r Kootenay towns was t h e c h i l d of a turn-of-the-century lode mining boom. As such, Rossland was a frontier s e t t l e m e n t , b u t i t was a l s o p a r t o f an i n d u s t r i a l mining complex which had been working northward out o f the C a l i f o r n i a g o l d f i e l d s o f t h e 1840s. The p e r i o d under examination extends from t h e d i s c o v e r y o f o r e s on Red Mountain i n 1887 t o 1902, by which time R o s s l a n d was e s t a b l i s h e d as a mature m i n i n g c i t y . I argue t h a t there was a relationship between the l e v e l of mechanized mining on Red Mountain and t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f R o s s l a n d . Research indicates that the r a p i d m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f Rossland*s mines produced a stratified social structure, a specific residential p a t t e r n , and an e t h n i c a l l y segmented l a b o u r f o r c e . Very quickly one's o c c u p a t i o n , one's gender, and one's ethnicity determined what one's o p p o r t u n i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s would be.  ii  Table  of  Contents  Page Abstract.  •  List  of Tables  List  o f Maps  i i iv v  Acknowledgements. . . 1.  Introduction:  2.  S e t t i n g the Context: Cordillera  Of D i o r a m a s  3. From B a r t o B o a r d r o o m 4. C l a s s ,  Gender,  vi 1  Lode M i n i n g  i n the Western 14  and O t h e r  Stories  .....41  and E t h n i c i t y i n R o s s l a n d . . . .  5 . Conclusion  76 146  Bibliography  .149  Appendix A  -  iii  157  List  of Tables  Page Table  1-Rossland  Mining  Statistics,  1891-1897  47  Table  2-Rossland  Mining  Statistics,  1898-1902  66  Table  3-Rossland  Mining  Business  Table  4 - 0 c c u p a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e among M a l e s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s . . . .  Table  5-Occupational by  Marital  Statistics,  Status  84  6 ^ R e l a t i o n s h i p t o Employment  Table  7-Rossland  Table  8 - O c c u p a t i o n a n d Wage S t r u c t u r e among Employed Males... 9 - O c c u p a t i o n a n d Wage S t r u c t u r e among Employed Females  Table  Table Table  83  S t r u c t u r e among F e m a l e s  Table  Table  1895-1902.... 67  Occuupational  b y Sex  G r o u p s 1901  1 0 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Ethnic by C e n s u s S u b d i s t r i c t  85 86  88 90  Backgrounds 121  1 1 - D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E t h n i c Groups i n t h e L a b o u r F o r c e (Male)  126  1 2 - D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E t h n i c Groups i n the Labour Force  127  iv  List  o f Maps  Page Map 1-Some W e s t e r n C o r d i l l e r a n S t r i k e s , 1848-1910  Ore 19  Map 2 - S o u t h - e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Bordering Map  3-Rossland  Map 4 - R o s s l a n d  and  States  44  and V i c i n i t y Town S i t e ,  59  1897  101  Map  5 - R o s s l a n d : F i r s t Avenue a n d L i n c o l n S t r e e t , 1897 Map 6 - E t h n i c N e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n R o s s l a n d , a p p r o x . 1902  v  102 145  Acknowledgements  T h e r e a r e many who c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s a n d my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e M a s t e r o f A r t s p r o g r a m o f U.B.C. I w o u l d l i k e t o u s e t h i s s p a c e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i r e f f o r t s . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k D r . D. H i e b e r t , my a c a d e m i c supervisor, f o r h i s guidance and support through my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e M.A. p r o g r a m . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o D r . R.C. H a r r i s f o r h i s i n s i g h t s and a i d i n d e v e l o p i n g my t h e s i s . I am a l s o e t e r n a l l y i n d e b t e d t o my w i f e , Anna, who not o n l y p u t up w i t h me, b u t gave h e r s u p p o r t and h e r talents as a p r o o f reader and a r t i s t . I am also very g r a t e f u l f o r the help of those a s s o c i a t e d with the Rossland Historical Museum Association: Joyce Tadevic, Jenny L a n g i l l e , J a c k MacDonald, and H a r r y L e f e v r e . F i n a l l y I would a l s o l i k e t o acknowledge t h e a i d o f the s t a f f o f t h e S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D e p a r t m e n t , M a i n L i b r a r y , U.B.C.  vi  1 Introduction:  Rossland,  British  Of  Columbia  Dioramas  was,  at i t s zenith,  known and much d i s c u s s e d town. M i n e s d e l v e d of  surrounding  gold  per year  of  years  mountains  during  around  years  was  a  wherein  world,  effects. lives,  Yet  tried  maintained possible of  century  i t was t o make  that  One  museum  natural both roofs,  place sense  and  the world,  used  with  to  merits  part of  out  their  created  the  as  reaching  There  interpret  some  appeal  far  lived  within  number  known  also  and  in  are  and many  discipline  turn-of-theand  a l l with  i s the diorama  approach  Hagerstrand.  displays  what  people  techniques  be  suggests  i s very  had  relationships.  that holds  surroundings.  what  and  I t was  events  where of  and  most  by T o r s t e n  Hagerstrand  million  o f peak p r o d u c t i o n . F o r a  distant  can  Rossland,  formulated  those  a  methodologies  shortcomings.  $4  than  a hive of a c t i v i t y .  communities  geography  more  well  the bedrock  the turn-of-the-century Rossland,  the Golden C i t y , wider  yielded  into  a  the diorama  where He  argues  close,  i s very  the  even  distant,  1  approach  exhibit that  what  be  is  "...we  set must  i s hidden  say,  the  used  in its include  under  clouds  like  and  our the  stars."  These  1  Hagerstrand's geographical general.  propositions  insistence inquiry,  He s t a t e s  are  on  the  closely need  related  for  a n d a s he i n s i n u a t e s ,  context  to in  f o r inquiry i n  i t t h i s way:  ...human a c t i o n always has t o e n f o l d (sic)i n real dioramas and whatever foreseen or unexpected consequences come about, they depend upon what i s present a n d what i s absent a n d i n what sort of relations precisely where the actions happen...by s h i e l d i n g o f f - — i n o t h e r words making a b s e n t — - e v e r y t h i n g b u t t h e one o r two v a r i a b l e s o n e w a n t s t o s t u d y , one i s a l s o c r e a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t do n o t e x i s t a n d p r o b a b l y v e r y o f t e n cannot e x i s t i n any i m a g i n a b l e w o r l d . ^  Of  course  no i n q u i r y ,  encompass  an e n t i r e  definition enough  to  Hagerstrand that  include  out  or otherwise,  Such  a  individual  premise  to  that  consecutive  actions  T. H a g e r s t r a n d ,  voor  Economische  behind that  Sociale  i n mind.  3  as a s e t t i n g f o r  a r e two i m p o r t a n t  and  time-geography  projects. i s  that  The the  make i n t h e c o u r s e o f a d a y ,  Path,  and P r o j e c t , "  Geografie,  Tijdschrift  v.73, no.6,  p.325. 2. T. Hagerstrand, "Presence and Absence: A Conceptual Choices and Bodily Necessities," Studies, v . 1 8 , n.5, 1984, p p . 3 7 6 - 3 7 7 . 3. I b i d , p . 3 7 8 . 2  suggests  of the concepts of  There  paths  people  "Diorama,  en  some  thesis.  time-geography, lies  by  projects.  b u t he  be k e p t  approach  f o r m u l a t i o n o f time-geography,  components  and  f o rt h i s ,  uses, t h e diorama  to this  p e r s p e c t i v e would  paths  omitted should at least  are important  c a n hope t o  p e r s p e c t i v e , y e t be f i n e - g r a i n e d  r e c o g n i z e s and a l l o w s  what i s  which  1.  diorama.  a global  pick  Hagerstrand his  geographic  1982,  Look a t Regional  year,  or  Thus,  lifetime  the  history  Hagerstrand or  have of  contends,  n o t , c a n be seen  space  and t i m e .  dance,  the  stations, paths. time  While  needed  behavior. behavior most  7  every  and temporal  and  other  as h a v i n g Pred  every  person,  and  c o n t i n u a n t whether  a trajectory  or path  describes this  significant  attributes.  steps  of  living through  movement  which  as  as a  occur  at  a s homes a n d p l a c e s o f work, s t r u n g a l o n g t h e paths  and s p a c e ,  tasks  each  Allan  5  most  such  spatial  a r e meant  projects  t o complete  Projects  from  important  t o convey  delineate any g o a l  include  an  t h e most  trivial  policy  decisions  movement  the complete or  array of  intention-orientated  incredibly personal of  through  vast  range  activities  the world's  of  to the  political  units.  Time-Geography it  critical,  geography Giddens, two  has r e c e i v e d  some l a u d i n g . considerable  an i n f l u e n t i a l  often  disparate  8  much  recognition,  One a u t h o r  attention social  who h a s g i v e n  is  theorist,  themes,  namely  some o f time-  Anthony  Giddens.  has worked  to unite  structure  and  human  4. A. P r e d , " S o c i a l R e p r o d u c t i o n a n d t h e T i m e G e o g r a p h y o f E v e r y day L i f e , " Geografiska Annaler, v.63b, n o . l , 1981, p . 9. 5. H a g e r s t r a n d , 1982, p . 3 2 3 . 6. A. P r e d , "The c h o r e o g r a p h y o f E x i s t e n c e : Comments o n H a g e r s t r a n d ' s Time Geography and i t s U s e f u l n e s s , " Economic Geography, v . 5 3 , 1 9 7 7 , p . 2 0 8 . 7. H a g e r s t r a n d , 1982, p . 3 3 6 . 8. S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , A. B a k e r , " H i s t o r i c a l G e o g r a p h y : A New B e g i n n i n g , " Progress in Human Geography, v . 3, 1979; P r e d , 1977. 3  agency,  in  a  theory  Giddens'  central  of  argument  structuration.  Briefly  stated  i s that:  . . . i n t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f s o c i a l life (through systems o f i n t e r a c t i o n ) a c t o r s r o u t i n e l y draw u p o n i n t e r p r e t i v e s c h e m e s , r e s o u r c e s , a n d norms w h i c h a r e made a v a i l a b l e by e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n , d o m i n a t i o n a n d l e g i t i m a t i o n and t h a t i n d o i n g so they thus immediately and necessarily reconstitute those structures.... [ i t a l i c s i n the o r i g i n a l ] 3  Giddens  finds  contextual crucial  time-geography  setting  attractive  f o r the everyday  actions  to h i s formulations. In other  connections  to  transformation where t h e y  be  made  of social  between structures  because  words,  the  i t offers that  a  a r e so  i t allows f o r  reproduction  i n the actual  and  settings  occur.^  However,  Giddens  i s also  sharply  critical  of  time-  geography: First, i t [time-geography] o p e r a t e s w i t h a n a i v e and d e f i c i e n t c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e human a g e n t . . . . A g e n t s a r e r e g a r d e d as p u r p o s i v e b e i n g s i n t h e sense t h a t their a c t i v i t i e s a r e g u i d e d by ' p r o j e c t s * which they pursue. But the nature and o r i g i n of projects i s left unexplored. Second, Hagerstrand's analyses therefore tend to recapitulate the dualism of actions and structure.... Stations a r e themselves taken as givens, t h e outcome of uninterrupted processes of i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o r m a t i o n and c h a n g e . . . l i t t l e emphasis i s p l a c e d o n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f a l l human action.... Third, concentration solely on the c o n s t r a i n i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e body, i n i t s movement t h r o u g h time and space, i s unwarranted. A l ltypes of 9.  D.  Gregory,  Transactions  of  "Human  Agency  the Institute  and  of British  Human  Geography,"  Geographers,  n.s.  6, 1981, pp.8,10 10. A. G i d d e n s , T h e Constitution of Society, (Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1984) p . I l l ; "Space, Time and P o l i t i c s i n S o c i a l Theory: an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Anthony Giddens," Conducted by Derek Gregory, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, v . 2 , 1984, p . 1 2 3 . 4  c o n s t r a i n t . . . a r e a l s o types o f o p p o r t u n i t y , media f o r the enablement of action.... F i n a l l y , time-geography involves only a weakly developed theory o f power. H a g e r s t r a n d does t a l k o f a u t h o r i t y c o n s t r a i n t s , which he l i n k s to capability and c o u p l i n g r e s t r a i n t s . But t h e s e a r e b o t h v a g u e l y f o r m u l a t e d and i n v o k e a zero-sum c o n c e p t i o n o f power a s a s o u r c e o f l i m i t a t i o n s upon action. 1 1  The  common  concerns social  the  life  agency  with an  through  between  these  human  which  they  must  attempt  will  be  and s t r u c t u r e  question by  agency  Hagerstrand. he r e m i n d s  being traced  is  In  one  "Diorama,  us t h a t  through  In  the  to sort  out  l i e i n the unfolding  The  time  and t h e  deal.  made  i n a time-geographic p e r s p e c t i v e .  of  critiques  actors  seen  example,  paths  runs  relationship  paragraphs  addressed for  which  structures  following where  thread  that  is  Path  a t t h e head  of  and  social  directly Project,"  o f each  of the  and space:  . . . s t a n d s a l i v i n g body s u b j e c t endowed w i t h m e m o r i e s , f e e l i n g s , knowledge, i m a g i n a t i o n , and g o a l s — i n other words c a p a b i l i t i e s t o o r i c h f o r a n y k i n d o f s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b u t d e c i s i v e enough f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f paths. 1 2  But  as  finds  Hagerstrand the  admits  pursuit  of  i n this  human  p r o b l e m a t i c . T h u s he c o n t e n d s to  the recognition  to  remain  these p r o j e c t s  11. 12. 13.  intentions that  of intentions  as obtuse remain  paper  while  and e l s e w h e r e and  goals  to  and g o a l s , t h e y  Consequently,  a r e doomed of  he c o n c e n t r a t e s  G i d d e n s , 1984, p . 1 1 7 ; "An I n t e r v i e w w i t h . . . , " p . 1 2 3 . H a g e r s t r a n d , 1982, p . 3 2 4 . I b i d , p.324. 5  be  t h e r e i s no b a r r i e r  t o o b s e r v a t i o n as t h e r e a l i z a t i o n s clear.^  he  on  the paths  and  weave,  the constraints  Hagerstrand so  people  much  woven the  stations. ^  a given  time-geography. knowledgeable  concepts  where  a r e absent  As  a  result  thefocus i s not  b u t on t h e i r  movements  restrict  t h e paths  and i s a b l y c a p t u r e d But, as  Giddens  actors able  effect  t o deploy  theprocess  using  argues, power,  of events. ^ 1  i n Hagerstrand's  question of intention of  projects  Hagerstrand  "...from  picks  that  library  closely  formulations  more  where  from  and h e l p s  he admits  he d e s c r i b e s  behind the  the question  or less  t o be a j u s t i f i c a t i o n  a s autonomous  lying  projects  o u t ready-made t o n e s  would appear  intentions  o r autonomy  follows  contends  the blueprint  a pianist  projects  with.  o f t h e autonomy h e a w a r d s t o p r o j e c t s .  formation agency.  they c r e a t e o r j o i n ,  constraints  o r n o t a c t and thereby  The  when  of  arealso  because  deal  of subjects, That  1  methods  These  This  must  c r e a t e s a mode o f i n q u i r y  b y human a c t o r s i s  humans act  they  on t h e a c t i o n s  between  the projects  a r e t o be t a k e n t h e same way a s  his instrument."  him avoid  the world o f 1  of a  1 6  of h i s conception of  he i s u n c o m f o r t a b l e . " ^  the unfolding  of  project  Thus,  i ti s  the  14. S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e d i a g r a m o n p.330 o f H a g e r s t r a n d , 1982, T h e d e t a i l e d m a p p i n g o u t o f t h e w e e k l y movements o f d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f p e o p l e i n t h e town where h e grew up i s i n t e r e s t i n g b u t t h e s t a t i o n s , t h e home, s c h o o l , c h u r c h , a n d work, e t c . a r e r e p r e s e n t e d s i m p l y a s empty b o x e s . 15. G i d d e n s , 1984, p . 1 4 . 16. H a g e r s t r a n d , 1982, p . 3 2 4 . 17. D. Gregory, "Suspended Animation: The S t a s i s o f D i f f u s i o n Theory," Social Relations and Social Structures, D. Gregory and J . Urry, E d s . , (London: MacMillan P u b l i s h e r s , 1985) p . 3 2 4 . 6  project  itself  that  the  situations  the  r o l e s needed  mind  the  ability with  that  arise,  to  question  changing  weaves i t s way  effect  of  a  the  company  firm  and  directors  viabilities  act  Another the  lack  the  paths.  Giddens  of  serious  Often  unfortunate  for  of  world  i t is and  Giddens enable  in  argues them.  deal  with  what  can  operation  the  life  at  the  portrayed  as  black  these  social  .the  projects  of  the  things  has  what  and  the  18. 19.  G i d d e n s , 1984, I b i d , p.367.  he  the  path  p.135.  the  with  economic  at,  various as  concerns  stations  empty  boxes,  This  8  that  is  the  along or  as  indeed  actions  of  structure.  i s then  capabilities human  ways  depend  It  the  But  actors with  on  is  as also  which  i s done the  internal-external  dialectic.  one  and  subjects.  constrain  useful  suggestions  calls  path-daily  hinted  i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n what  His  meet  or  of  perspective  that  described  dialectical  to  changes l i e :  aware  stations  by  Pred  to does  mandates,  boxes.^  time-geographic  those  projects  market  already  imposed  done.*^ of  as  transform  in a  playing bring  instance,  to  are  may  with  knowledge?  are  at  for  merely  This  of  production  action  them,  constraint  involvement  of  adapt  who  this  these  humans r e p r o d u c e  to  flaw,  analysis  describes  The  on  actors  ability  Where,  its  knowledgeable and  the  lies.  business  human  time d e a l i n g  i t s completion.  where  circumstances of  the  through  to and  joint  dialectic  important  to  note are an  that  these  busily  involved  prior  suggests  mental  this  what  and  way  projects  As  new  of  a  while  the a c t o r s  and t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e  the this  mechanism, and  Annals  or not, s o c i a l  the  of  biography  The  interplay  and l o n g - t e r m  upon  t o note  i s that  of  cannot  these  or  that  by  the  the use  structures  life  between  life  part  i n creating  everyday  cannot  mechanisms  of  path  actions  In other help  of  are both  path-daily  opportunities.  everyday  i t s direction. t o o become  t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and j o i n i n g  operation  the  result  both  a r e made by n o b o d y b u t  knowingly  on b o t h  of  they  The  experiences  20. A. P r e d , Structuration  projects  through  experiences,  I t i s important  transformed.^  experiences  person's  past  drawn  which  one d o e s and  creates a path  joined  t o be  by  any  internal-external  b e t w e e n what  involved.  involves  joint  mechanisms  The  2 0  upon  are created or  projects.  individual  influence  two  a person  ( s ) h e draws  to create or j o i n  dialectic  offers  operates.  experiences,  future  reproduced  can take p l a c e without  and u n c o n s c i o u s l y , i n n e g o t i a t i n g  person's  decisions  and  o r c a n d o . As  projects  joining  no a c t i o n  to the i n t e r p l a y  space  consciously  that  process  refers  one w i l l  time  The  i n their  activity  necessary  dialectic  the  are under  element m i s s i n g i n time geography.  Pred  and  mechanisms  but  words exert  projects.  means  that  2 2  a  be c o n s i d e r e d on i t s own,  b u t must  " P l a c e s as H i s t o r i c a l l y Contingent and t h e Time Geography o f Becoming  Process: Places,"  Association  of  American  Geographers,  v.12,  no.2, 1984, p . 2 8 6 . 21. P r e d , 1981, p p . 1 1 - 1 2 . 22. I b i d , p p . 1 3 - 1 4 . 8  ,  .  be  seen  in light  encounters,  and  association The  of  accumulation  impressions  of  portrayed  this as  i s that  that  personal  institutional  and  He to  be  also  fair  has  must  human  For  example,  autonomy  of  projects  can  be  however,  in  depending  too  heavily  Hagerstrand  t o be  than  meets  inquiry  will  relegate  the  study  cannot  of  be  structures  the  the  will  eye. the  for  unfold  while  at  J  the  undergo  decisions  these  about  suggests  and  the in  upon  of  is  2 6  In  between in  the  danger,  more that  geography  unique.  ways  more  results,  concerned  interplay  various  empirical  human  the  a  2 4  them  that  is  there  i s also  of  j u d g e m e n t s on  There  2 5  suggests  study  criticisms.  application  he  made.  He  particular  avoided,  future  from  projects.  Hagerstrand,  done b e f o r e any  himself  diorama  by  c o n c e r n i n g the  work n e e d s  as  actors,  acknowledges  empirical  for  accrued  projects.  Hagerstrand  time-geography.  been  experiences,  institutional  influence  reservations  of unique  have  'black boxes'  experiences  To  that  w i t h b o t h p e r s o n a l and  implication  stations  the  to  such  back  a way  to  this  actors  different  a  and times  and p l a c e s .  What, t h e n , would  seem  t o be  can  a time-geographic  a useful  I t provides  tool  and  events.  a  23. 24. 25. 26.  P r e d , 1984, p . 2 8 6 . See H a g e r s t r a n d , 1978, p.123 H a g e r s t r a n d , 1982, p . 3 3 8 . I b i d , p.338.  to i n t e r p r e t  grounding  9  perspective offer?  and  i n time  1984,  both  landscapes  and  notes  It  space  10  and  for  13.  social Pred  theory l i k e  suggests  that  deficiencies interweave and  approximates  the  different made  gold end  fields  the the  growth  distinct  of C a l i f o r n i a  in  relationships  between  of  unionism chapter  27.  the  among  these  mining  western  c a n be s e e n  Pred,  c a n be  An  capital in  chapter changes: miners  to  people  viewed  as  10  of  being  c h a p t e r s . The chapter  traces  from t h e  i s made  diffusion  of  tot i e mining;  industry;  and  equipment.  some  their and  I n terms  background.  1984, p . 2 8 0 .  and  to approximately the  mining  and  miners.  a  of  the  Also social  the transformation of the  frontier;  as t h e  hierarchy  intensive  are  played  lode mining  attempt  the s p a t i a l  which  Rossland's  mining  open  i n t h e 1840s  advances  of  manner  social  cordilleran  as a  ramifications  actors  reproduce  be t h a t  context. This  century.  this  a  y e t interdependent  threads:  technological  introduced  thesis  the broad  of mining  to both  lode  the c i t i e s  of western  several  closure  capitalized  The  the nineteenth  together  a n d human  in  opportunities  backgrounds.  development  and p l a c e s  The a r g u m e n t w i l l  and  sets  structure  presented  i n determining  chapter  of  be  of heavily  up o f t h r e e  second the  will  experiences  o f t h e two c a n o v e r c o m e t h e  2 7  a diorama.  base  role  times  society.  thesis  where i t i s o f t e n m i s s i n g .  t o show how  i n specific  This  large  a combination  of both  transform  economic  structuration,  tools; the  the  rapid  development  o f a diorama  of this  In  the  describes  third  how  the  chapter  imposed  British  Columbia  Chapter  three  first  ores  itself to  on  Red  material  is  sets  specific  fourth  s e e n as  focusing the  on  be  the  the  made  to  The  second  uncover  of  of  the  an  employment  1902,  by  town.  Much  diorama  of  and  the date  of  this  because  i t  contained  in  terms,  can  issues.  to  be  revolves a  set  around  an  of  11  For  rapidly  division a  class-  surprising at  Rossland.  beyond  attempt class  gender  A  structure  was  far  male-dominated  i n population.  was  be  mining  and  quickly.  first  there  again, Rossland  social  The  extends  groups  city  not  of  In  passed  the  That  should  subjective  narrows  Rossland.  industrial  however,  was  of  which  important  four d i v i s i o n s .  occupational  Rossland  landscape.  discovery  perspective  mechanization  more  first  south-eastern  discussion  changes  structure  a  It  detail.  of  the  along  division  relationships. terms  that  rapid  of  is  in  geography  identification,  identification  chapter,  class-based  considering  to  i f i t e x i s t e d at a l l ,  like  social  the  chapter  Analyses  around  for  coarse  social  out  i t  i n the  of  the  mining  but  narrowed.  industrial  from  1887  mature  This  the  dynamic  in  is  introduced  wilderness  period  contexts  stratified  Class  a  period,  carried  revolves  a  known,  fourth  hierarchy  reproduced. will  become  chapter.  frontier  social  produce  already  the  perspective  the  Mountain  providing  In  on  o u t l i n e s the  had  the  the  economic geography  Rossland  the  chapter  the  will  be  relations. and  place,  gender both  women t h e r e  in  were  fewer and  opportunities. experiences  third be  division  unexpected  of  other  existed  to  hierarchy  featured  a  because  class The  this  then,  chapter  strict the  and  i t s use. and  economic  In  the  a  Studies  animosity ethnic  identification, were  an  community,  that  the  variegated. can  be  said  city,  the and  social  Returning to  be  the  chapters chapters,  fourth  history, as  i t may  for a  study  the  third  changes i n the  As  Rossland  evolved  12  from  useful  entity.  of  the  Rossland  and  perspective  social tent  to  supply  made b e t w e e n  a  does  difficult  diorama  in  Rossland.  c a n be  is  to  geographic  nevertheless,  chapter  the  its  be  Ties  and  i t  a complete  become more a p p a r e n t . chapter  however,  Instead  viewed  context  i n working  Its value,  its  t o be  tool  should  of  not  economically,  useful  application.  third These  be  Rossland.  i t s people  second  people.  the  would  Chinese  demonstrate and  The  Rossland  substantial  dynamic  like  allows  and  historical its  in  socially,  will  was  can,  its  i t  location,  discern  a  It  i n Rossland.  relationships.  analogy,  place  l i e in  the  with  chapter  diorama  understand  In  distinctions.  considerable  overlapped  chances  exhibit.  The  not  that  were  life  relationships.  but  marginalized  diorama  women,  class  groups,  they  Rossland  and  tensions  shown  ethnic  This of  ethnic  closely  were  spatially.  ethnic  have  Though  men  around  ethnic  tempering  the  find  between  Chinese  to  revolved  cities  exception.  both  concerns  identification thus  For  events  geography camp  to  a  mature  mining  structure should to the is  town  took  also  p l a c e . The  that  structures crucial  to  the  of  experiences  home,  the  a  It  analysis  the  own  It  the  i n the  was  of  home,  e t h n i c and  perceived.  the  terms,  synthetic  the  lives  economic but  approach  or  important  d i d not  confront  i n a vacuum. I t  this  thesis  the  of  associated with  the  well  racial  of  beyond  the  t h e work p l a c e .  survival and in  geography  hopefully there w i l l in this  and  experience  relationships,  groups,  these  ideologies  miner  i s merit  social  13  It is  b e t w e e n t h e work p l a c e ,  family  outlined  Giddens  the  social  There  and  city  formation  case  social  that  people  determined  towards  society  their  into  hall.  attitudes of  in  a miner permeated  extended  union  As  the  of  its  Pred  Rossland  argument  and  of  in  chapter.  mining  interaction  role  identifications. being  central  community,  played  in this  industrial  of  change  formulations  r e s i d e n t s of  an  the  daily  of  corresponding  become m a n i f e s t  remember  places  a  be  the  strategies, how  doing of  and  the a  rest close  Rossland  on  some a p p e a l  to  introduction.  2 S e t t i n g the Context: Lode M i n i n g i n the Western C o r d i l l e r a  The  unexpected  California western  in  1848  made,  Yukon,  to  other  was  lode  prospectors  was  a  new  from  simple had  employees  become and  huge  a variety  impressive  in  were  alterations mining towns social quickly  in  became which  and  sprang  structures  up  The  Arizona  of of  the  the  a  developed  short  in  of the  around  the  The  social the of  focus of t h i s  of  machines. obtained profound  changes  industrial  mining  hundreds  they  In  lode  some  in  organization  mines.  As  century  effected  work.  and  west,  mining  results  time  that  14  of  the  placer  stages lode  employing  the  to  mining. the  to  strikes  initial  vein)  turn  new  settlement  throughout  and  resembling  reproduced.  from  In i t s i n i t i a l  a l l aspects reflected  ranging  o f newly  advances  thronged  as  concerns  technological  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of  and,  quartz,  by  Creek,  wealth  California  o p e r a t i o n , but  Sutter's  Thousands  offshoot  (hard-rock,  moved  at  patterns  An  grew i n i m p o r t a n c e .  mines  The  America.  locations  networks.  gold  remarkable  instant  creating  transportation  mining  for  of  a  North  eager  thus  mining  started  cordilleran  California, were  discovery  lode  of  these  towns  cities  chapter w i l l  be  the  on  were the  development  of  technological  jobs  i t s spatial also  diffusion  introduce  consequences o f these developments:  the f r o n t i e r ,  their  mining:  advances. But i t w i l l  sociological of  lode  the changing  and t o o l s ,  and  some  the  the closure  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the miners t o  and t h e i r  reactions  to these  evolving  circumstances.  The  discovery  thousands, coastal other arduous  cities settled  that  carried  weight,  potholes.* equipment  country.  of  for  a l l three  washed  the  to California i s gold  The  boxes  rushing  areas  by  that  appeal  easy  Creek  the east  were  Those  looking  gravel  of placer  to obtain  or  similar;  and t h e g o l d  water  separated  the gold  away f r o m  a vein  because  ofi t s  bars  was  of choice,  and d i r t  o u t by v i r t u e  or  obvious.  simple  in The  to use.  but eventually  a n d s l u i c e s a l s o became p o p u l a r . was  made  f o r placer  and r e l a t i v e l y  the t o o l  the  and f r o m  who  sand  mining  from  coast,  and e v e n t u a l l y ,  in  brought  to the area  had been eroded  stream  Wash p a n s were o r i g i n a l l y cleated  Sutter's  from  collected  was  at  Americans,  away  had  gold  of C a l i f o r n i a ,  journey  deposits, and  mostly  of  The  were  principle mixed  of i t s  and  greater  weight. 1.  United  States  Department  of  Cowhand, and Sodbuster: Historical the Mining, Ranching and Farming  the  Interior,  Places Frontiers  Prospector,  Associated in the  with Trans-  Mississippi, v . l l , R. F e r r i s , series editor, (Washington: The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f H i s t o r i c S i t e s a n d B u i l d i n g s , 1967) pp.8-10. H e r e a f t e r this reference will be c i t e d a s U.S. D e p t . o f I n t . ; R. P a u l , Mining Frontiers of the Far West: 1840-1880, (New Y o r k : H o l t , Rinehart, a n d W i n s t o n , 1963) p . 6. 15  The  population  natives sprang  in  1848  up  diggings strikes  fortunes  many  Mountains  An  were  the  along known  original take a  as  and  150 the  mile  had  hoping  Mother  Lode.  eagerness  even  cases  prospectors  were  lucky.  5  to  One  author  enough f o r t h e b a s i c  camps  near  the  first  cash  in  to  the  on  the  lawyers, early  d i s a p p o i n t e d by  their  began  of  be  to  go  mining the  Sierra  meant  suggests  Nevada  nature  of  that  miners  t o a new  locale  waiting.  rewarded,  further  operations  volatile  c l a i m s t o go  handsomely  tent  o c c u p a t i o n s made  The  might  non-  as  hastened  f o r wealth  opportunities  48,000  of merchants,  and  portion  where  better  the  year  long before placer  leave promising or paying  made more t h a n  who  sites  from  creek  undoubtedly  would  so  a  assortment  rushes  not  or  those  these  were  in  o t h e r s o f more d u b i o u s  I t d i d not  spread  stream  Some were  near  boomed  100,000  a l l of  i n o t h e r ways.  appearances.-*  had  every  miners;  and  California  about  Not  2  were  tradesmen,  afield.  to  around  discoveries.  of  but that  necessities  In  some  often  they  4  few of  miners  life.  6  2. I b i d , p . 1 5 ; U.S. D e p t . o f t h e I n t . , 1967, p.10. 3. P a u l , 1963, p.16. 4. I b i d , p . 1 0 7 . 5. I n 1852, t h e p e a k y e a r o f g o l d p r o d u c t i o n more t h a n $81 m i l l i o n i n g o l d was r e c o v e r e d . B e t w e e n 1852 and 1885 $15-$20 m i l l i o n i n g o l d was e x t r a c t e d . U.S. D e p t . o f t h e I n t . , 1967, p.14. 6. R. R i e g e l , America Moves West, (U.S.A.; H e n r y H o l t and Co., 1947) p . 4 2 3 . M i n e r s were r e p u t e d t o make a p p r o x i m a t e l y $2.00 p e r d a y , on a v e r a g e . W h i l e t h i s f i g u r e seems h i g h i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h wages i n e a s t e r n U.S. c i t i e s , i t d i d n o t go f a r i n t h e w e s t w h e r e c o s t s o f l i v i n g were h i g h . 16  By gold  the  early  had  been  mined  gold  were  recovering required  more  organization of  the  been  there  to  placer rock,  tunnel  A  wherein  slopes  drained  from  requiring to  a  most  thesis, where Lode veins  and  these more  up  i t had mining  began  proved  techniques discoveries,  to  and  masses,  but  development,  in be  of  1849, a  the  face  7. See P a u l , 1963, pp.28-31 d e v e l o p m e n t and e a r l y u s e o f  was  was  building  for  the  purposes back  to  i t directly  a  the light  year in  was and  water  sluices. of  this  the  veins  from  them.  ore of of  capital  from  the  existing the  first  California  was  f o r more d e t a i l c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e m i n i n g methods.  the  17  mining  beds,  expensive,  for  in  that  mining, by  considerable  task  rivers  costly  away  also  gold  This  stream  wood  Within of  bed.  hydraulic  extracting  daunting  equipment. '  then,  and  removing but  damming,  alternative  blasted  placer  and  was  this  force and  One  of one  discovered  this  approach  was  controllable  aggraded  debris.  nozzles,  originated  and  but  mining  of  which  degrees  river  soon  other  labour  tracing  also  were  of  involving  most  up  all  River  placer  means  greater  exposed  1850  sources,  important the  by  hillsides  pipes,  was  the  direct  and  and  1849,  in dried  sizeable  purchase  The  dirt  pent  in  Prospectors  gold  into  speculative.  but  appear,  mining.  working  out.  to  capital  placer  obtainable  sophisticated  beginning  had  then  readily  more  appearing  worked  in  most  and  successful,  was  buried  than  and  m e t h o d was  the  operating  first,  diverting  had  1850s  changing  a s new modes  capital  lode  First,  1850s mining  early  were  an i m p o r t a n t  i n the western  i n t h e decade  were n e a r i n g  exhaustion  mining  becoming  were  opportunities out  i n search  word  leaked  o u t a minor rush  were  Rivers  and  after  Indian  around  a small f o r most  of California  to  diminishing  began  Charlotte  along  the Fraser  and by  flood.  1858  But t h i s  seekers,  i n Arizona  A j o i n 1854.  Still  south-western  Oregon,  central  ( S e e Map  Idaho  drew other  small  trickle  rush  rushes  strikes  north-eastern  that  a n d Thompson  a  many  known  also  o f whom  a f e w weeks o r m o n t h s . ^ ° S t o r i e s o f l o s t mines  Islands  b u t was s u m m a r i l y p u t  By 1857 i t became  gold  t o spread  f o l l o w i n g rumour a s much a s  b e g a n i n 1852, 9  reasons.  i n t e n s i v e forms o f  Reacting  8  many  mines  t h e Queen  Columbia,  became  disappointment  again  on  Indians.  i n British  for  prospectors  quantities of gold  prospectors in  of gold  by t h e H a i d a  i n t h e development  a n d more c a p i t a l  of placer deposits  When  there  decade  the placer  i n California,  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  prospector.  cordillera  dominant.  fact.  down  requiring  began t o r e p l a c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l  The of  o f mining  of  ended left  Spanish  t o the area  created  stirs i n  Washington  and i n  1 ) . The g r e a t e s t  sensations  were  8. T h e d a t e f o r t h e e x h a u s t i o n o f p l a c e r m i n e s h a s b e e n s e t by some a t 1 8 5 3 , H. Carter. Far Western Frontiers, ( W a s h i n g t o n , A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , AHA P a m p h l e t s , 1972) p . 3 7 . 9. R. Fisher, Contact and Conflict: Indian-European  Relations  in  British  Columbia,  1774-1890,  (Vancouver:  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1977) pp.69-70. 10. See R . C Harris and J . Warkentin, Canada Before Confederation, (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974) p p . 296-306, f o r more d e t a i l o n t h e B.C. g o l d r u s h e s . 18  Map Some W e s t e r n C o r d i l l e r a n • 1840s  X 1850s  al860s  1 Ore S t r i k e s  A 1870s 19  0 1880s  1848-1910. + 1890s  a 1900s  created other  by  in  discoveries  effects  flung  British  of  these  distribution  Columbia  and  were  considerable  evidence  distribution  of  that  with  Hills  of North  Dakota  those  made  the  in  territory  was of  some  reasons thriving  new  emerged: hinterland  smaller  the  up  and/or  and  rushes  drew  wagon  while  Francisco included  St. Louis  most  and  such  as  in  each  Salt  lode  camps  new  New  dominant western  Lake C i t y  for into into  Prospectors lines  and  hierarchies city  over  a  cordillera;  became  these  Sacramento,  mines  passed  Urban  the  of  growing  developed  rivers. the  strike a  1  Black  networks.  railway  Between  20  The  on Map the  into  later  of  railway centres.  cities,  rapidly other  and  became  was  region.  p o p u l a t i o n away.  navigable  was  discovered deposits  associated with  the  roads  the  with  newly  explained)  cities,  There  presented  incorporated  around  and  that  mineralization  transportation  (usually  meant  to  a l l were i n t h e b o u n d s  Secondly,  and  be  blindly.  discoveries  (Leadville),  the  Arizona  to Colorado,  strikes  of  One,  from  cordilleran  exception  will  that  Denver,  supply  i n Nevada,  twofold.  that  major  overnight  plied San  suggest  1850s.  cases  became  steamboats  later  up  towns  memory as  the  opened  that  trails  one  strikes,  the  settlement  sprang  the  subsequent  shows  in  were  searching to  throughout  and  strikes  California  not  continuous  camps  1858,  of  from  prospectors  pattern  during  Colorado.  The far  two  important  large  cities,  California  and  Lewistown,  Idaho  the  surrounding  as  a  turn  of  off  thus  the  railways  various  By  the  stages  time  D'Alene,  the  Idaho  railway  a of  then,  most  and  productive, the  to  served  By  routes,  and  and  of  and  possible  to  cities  isolation.  Dakota  i t was  the was  towns  South  and  cordillera  degrees  journey  camp  pattern.  camps,  Leadville,  of  the  western  of  centres  exploration  steamboat  development  became  for  the  roads,  at  town and  further  patchwork  mines  distribution  expanding  trails,  connecting  of  for  further  by  as  camps. E v e r y  point  century,  crisscrossed  roles  towns and  jumping  prospecting,  the  developed  these  Coeur  to  new  take mining  11 a r e a s . -L  Though  lode  mining  rush,  many  of  1848 paying Lode  L  ore  of  looking most  from  Nevada for  part  are  and to  11.  than  by  their efforts  the  recorded  stuff." the be  A  the  sample  mines  almost  of  peers, to  sent  silver  Nevada of  an  on  this  had  an  the  Comstock  Prospectors been  for  the more  outcropping  gold  were  of  hampered,  extraordinary material  to  as  "...that  back  to  California  and  the  removing  prospectors,  uncovered  recover of  out  after  with  Colorado.  pair  were a s t o n i s h i n g .  pure  1963,  One  soon  associated  were w o r k e d  referring was  California  i n western  presence  as  results  Paul,  in  in  problems  bedrock  placer gold  Their  however,  and  the  disappointed.  fortunate gold.  the  began  the  p.148. 21  The  blue  assay  blasted for  stuff  showed  they blue  assaying  turned returns  out of  $1,595 i n g o l d  and  began  wild  another  became  known  rushed  to  veins  the  beyond  prospectors  strike, This  knowledge  of  gold  paying to  Running  from  even  mines  were  the  turning  a  under  technological cutting solutions  silver,  Although  deposits  This  to  what  prospectors  were  and  ^  locked'  equipment  in.  most  of  i n 1858  appeared,  Again,  small  most  and  once  the  point  in  lode than  group the  problems  tunnels  Peak,  led  to  again  their  disappointed.  exhausted  problems  rock  rush  Americans  bringing  were  soon  a  and,  of  proved  when  extracting  insurmountable  1 4  skill  small  came  Lode.  skills  surrounding  successful  organizational or  ore.  attracted primarily eastern  mining.  discovery  a  of  for  the  Californians  prospectors.  a  ton  first  the  Pikes  were u n c o v e r e d ,  The marked  near  deposits  ore  most  of  rush  few  veins  Lode  reach  a  the  Comstock  Comstock  although  placer  the  per  possessed.^  Colorado.  The  rush,  the  the  Another in  as  $4,741 i n s i l v e r  were  dramatically  of  mines the  and  of  required  more  possessed  partners.  control  Nevada  development  mine that  of  of  associated  As  by  a  lode  worked  out  in  an  changed  not  only  most  Many  sinking  the  and  individual,  result,  those  mining.  capital  corporations. with  Colorado  of  the  shafts  and  regions. scale  lode  of  The  mining  12. I b i d , p.59, R i e g e l , 1947, p.440. 13. V a r i o u s r e p o r t s show t h a t b e t w e e n 1,700 and 3,000 c l a i m s were s t a k e d . P a u l , 1963, p.62, U.S. Dept o f the I n t , 1967, p . 25. 14. U.S. D e p t . o f I n t . , 1967, p.24. 22  operations, the  terms o f l a b o u r  The Nevada work do  but also profoundly  American  having  s o . Most  those or  with  t o companies  Lode.  prospectors  1 5  were,  sizes  and a b i l i t i e s ,  city,  first  contained New  York  ample  efficiency  then  spread,  Mining  sources  their  t o mine  offices  was  of capital  becoming  mines  of varying distant  of the wealth  Coast  i n some  lode  in a  a s word  i n East  claims t o  t h e Comstock  corporations  head  and e v e n t u a l l y  capitals.  nor the i n c l i n a t i o n to  formed  with  in  not, u n l i k e l y to  i n California  often  i n San F r a n c i s c o ,  o r Boston,  requiring with  often  i n t h e mines  financial  gained  were  than  the claims  but to s e l l  had been  T h e new owners  staked  t h e means  choice  experience which  who  more o f t e n  neither  had l i t t l e some  t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and  i n t h e mines.  and C o l o r a d o  them,  altered  cities  such as  o f t h e European a  b i g business  a n d was t r e a t e d a s s u c h ,  and t h e r e d u c t i o n o f c o s t s becoming  primary  concerns.  Nor  were  employees.  the prospectors  As o n e p r o s p e c t o r  predisposed  t o working  as  explained i t :  A g o l d m i n e r n e v e r w a n t s t o a d m i t t h a t he w o r k s f o r wages, f o r when he d o e s i t ' s simply to get the wherewithal t o g e t another grub stake s o he c a n go l o o k i n g f o r t h e end o f t h e r a i n b o w . 1 6  15.  R i e g e l , 1947, p.440.  16. M. N u e s h c h a t z ,  The Golden  Sword:  The Coming  of  Capital  to the Colorado Mining Frontier, (New Y o r k : T h e Greenwood Press, 1986) p . 1 5 c i t i n g M.B. L e e , Cripple Creek Days, ( G a r d e n C i t y : D o u b l e Day a n d C o . I n c . , 1958) p . x i v .  23  Initially their  mine  skills  techniques replaced.  owners h i r e d  i n theSpanish  and equipment Among  1 7  miners  fleeing  Cornish  miners  history hammer  in  drill)  creating  same  time  fleeing  homeland.  jacking.  Irish  were  learned  °  seeming  i ntheir  labourers  also  some s k i l l both  skills.  1  tools, a could  into  carts  by trammers.  by muckers, Mining  2 1  face,  work  and bodies simple  At roughly  9  t o appear  and d e s t i t u t i o n t h a t  i n  wracked  the  their  divided.  w h i c h was t h e n  which  were  pushed  decisions  were  made  from t h e  by  veteran  17. O.E. Y o u n g J r . , Black Powder and Hand Steel, (Norman: U n i v e r s i t y o f O k l a h o m a P r e s s , 1975) p . 5 . 18. A.C. Todd, The Cornish Miner in America, ( T r u r o : D. B r a d f o r d B a r t o n L i m i t e d , 1967) p p . 1 9 - 2 0 . 19. Hand d r i l l i n g c o n t e s t s were h e l d o n h o l i d a y s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w e s t e v e n a f t e r m a c h i n e d r i l l s h a d made t h e s e skills obsolete. 20. Young, 1 9 7 5 , p . 5; R.E. L i n g e n f e l t e r , The Hard Rock  Miners:  A History  of  the Mining  Labour  American West 1863-1893, (Los Angeles: C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1974) p . 6 .  21.  M. Wyman,  Industrial California  Hard  Rock  Revolution, P r e s s , 1979)  Epic:  Western  (Los Angeles: p.13. 24  Movement  in  the  University  of  Miners  a  t o use  a relatively  began  the rock  a long (eg.  T h e work i n t h e e a r l y m i n e s was s i m p l y  2 0  These  from  of tools  soon  English  simple,  control  ballet  Their  were  o r a p a i r o fminers  While  pride  thepoverty  them  still  could  m i n e r s b r o k e o r e away f r o m  loaded  were  a whirling  took g r e a t  and they  but required  miner  mines.  of Cornwall.  skills  The t o o l s  A single  miners  west,  mine  them  known a s s i n g l e j a c k i n g ,  task,  The  with  and a hand h e l d  known a s d o u b l e  antiquated  mines  who h a d l e a r n e d  silver  who r e p l a c e d  the troubled  o f mining.  tandem,  the  Colonial  were  those  brought  effectively. feat  Mexican workers  and the  University  of  miners  who  not  formal  by  The  had  developed education.  early  place.  mine,  Entry,  depended  on  operator. through  the  Carelessness fall  could  work  constant  facilities.  of  They  were  cacophony  of  of  possession  the of  in  and  was  the  was  and the  darkness often  ubiquitous  lack  of  noisy,  blasting  or  a  fires mine  and  a  the  filthy,  sanitation  there and  lamps.  injury  were  often  dimly  o i l  charges,  Neither  the  Passage  only  serious  missed  bucket,  awaited.  small  a  work  and/or  mines  drilling,  financial  technology.  though the  rich  could  Paul, Ibid,  2 3  ores  only  which  factors. 22. 23.  rope  equipment  Besides  also  benefits  inadequate  after  a  or  perhaps  the  salubrious  drifts  concerns.  to  a  hazards the  result  peril,  due  experience,  the  being  an  rumbling  carts.  One  mines  in  environment.  places  unfailing  easily  the  other  or  not  ladder  of  work  constant  threat  verminous  ore  long  candles  other  desirable  and  was  down a s h a f t . C a v e - i n s ,  presented  of  by  reliability  tunnels  through  2 2  Once u n d e r g r o u n d ,  the  skills  however,  whether  i l l u m i n a t e d . by  fatal  their  be  enjoyed power  At  the  to  cave-ins  In  addition  1963, p.64.  p.34.  and both  corporations  solve  Comstock  were t h o u g h t worked  by  to  the  Lode,  to extend a  depth  flooding mining  and  was  problems for  about  became railway  of  instance,  much d e e p e r ,  of  the  180  the feet  prohibitive interests  clamoured  f o r a working  both  slow  and e x p e n s i v e .  mine  owners  to  cave-ins  German system In  turned  trained where  of  Other the  who  cable  that  rope;  and  working  times  hoists,  was  more  dynamite  replacement  faster  that  into  pumps  time.  2 5  then  human  a  powder  contemporary  teams.  power t o r u n braided than  to  was  capable  drilling  electric  a  cubes.  drill  and p r o v e d  supposed  blasting  One  problems  interlocking  and dependable was  was  i n California,  and l i g h t i n g ;  durable which  t o these  o f a machine  than  steam,  drilling  s e t t i m b e r i n g by a  had worked  version  f o r the f i c k l e  until  o f square  i n t h e mines o f C o l o r a d o  five  power  as h a n d  and e x p e r t s . The s o l u t i o n  t i m b e r s were a r r a n g e d  innovations included  new  used  to technicians  engineer  and t e s t e d  drilling  drill  For solutions  2 4  was t h e i n v e n t i o n  1870 t h e f i r s t  tried  machine  be  a a  wire heavy safer  that  had been  expert  concluded  that: . . . u n d o u b t e d l y g r e a t e r p r o g r e s s was made i n m i n i n g i n all i t s departments during the period o f 30 y e a r s b e g i n n i n g w i t h 1860 t h a n h a d b e e n made i n t h e p r e c e d i n g 500 y e a r s . 2 6  The to  arrival become  Lode,  of these  truly  huge  f o r example,  feet  and c o n s i s t e d  lode  mines  technical  advances  operations.  went  down  allowed  The mines  t o depths  some  mines  on t h e Comstock  o f more  than  3,000  o f 180 - 190 m i l e s o f t u n n e l s . T h u s , t h e  o f Nevada  and C o l o r a d o  were  the proving  ground  24. Some c o n t e m p o r a r y m i n i n g men c l a i m e d t h a t h a n d d r i l l i n g made up 7 5 % o f m i n i n g c o s t s . Wyman, 1979, p.84 25. See Wyman, 1979, c h a p t e r 4 f o r a d e t a i l e d l o o k a t t h e changes i n m i n i n g t e c h n o l o g y . 26. Wyman, 1979, p . 8 6 . 26  for  many  spread  of the innovations i n lode mining.  and  easier,  the technology  especially  transportation  The mining to new  more  make  efficient  t h e mines  equipment  by t h e m i n e r s .  noted  that  were d e s i g n e d  dangers  allowed  brought  A Montana  seems t h a t A  risks,  gases  These  particles  natural  defence  i n and congest  would d e v e l o p to  of fine  chronic  bronchitis,  tuberculosis  regretfully  drills  created  knowledge  small  systems,  a miner's  around  enough  b u t were  ventilation Other  the d r i l l i n g  large  enough t o  The a f f e c t e d  o r most  and d i e a "...wheezing  drills  t o escape t h e  cough and e v e n t u a l l y  emphysema,  were  previously  i n the d r i f t s .  lungs.  which  of. e l e c t r i c i t y a n d  and improper  particles  were  a dryrasping  inspector  already  The o p e r a t i o n o f machine  dust  make  intended  t o those  hoists  t o accumulate  a myriad  to  Unfortunately, the  T h e hew m a c h i n e  l  l e d t o many a c c i d e n t s ,  deadly  mines.  d e a t h works i n t h e t h i n g s  inadequate  created  lodge  mine  and  expanding  i t was a l s o  hazards  t h e new p o w e r e d  were more i n s i d i o u s .  body's  new  of  supposed  place.  mining  quicker  industrial  not only  work  hazards  sites.  context  and p r o f i t a b l e ,  as b e n e f i t s .  known t o e x p l o d e , unthought-of  was  a safer  often  "...it  the  i t was  to establish  technology  faced  its  in  networks,  new  improved  As l o d e  fall  commonly,  oxygen  starved  miner victim silico-  old  man  27. M. Wyman, I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n i n t h e W e s t : H a r d Rock Mining a n d t h e New T e c h n o l o g y , " The Western Historical Review, v . 5 , n . l , J a n u a r y 1974, p. 42 c i t i n g M o n t a n a M i n i n g I n s p e c t o r , R e p o r t , 1902, p . 1 2 . 27  of the  forty  five.""  lives  o f 56% o f w e s t e r n  Safety costs  According  5 0  who  had  compensated  An i n j u r e d  3 0  been  killed  f o rtheir  f o r example,  until  A  1936.  or  fatality  preindustrial Using  risk,  associated the  misfortune;  accident.  that  with  employee  another  judgements  their  himself  or the family  little  f o rthis  mines  were  hope  of  were  three  aware  offered  of injury a  of  set of  liability.  assumptions: of  the  contributory negligence,  was a t l e a s t  partly  t o blame  of fellow  n o t t h e company  was  t o see that  being  i n the legal  on  law  on  of a  of contracting  lies  relied  made  employees  I t i s n o t hard  line of  a d j u d i c a t i n g cases  and t h e n e g l i g e n c e  employee  miner  t h e common  jobs;  by t h e h a r d  was no c o m p e n s a t i o n  Judges  precedents:  these,  assumed  there  i n mechanized  claimed  I n t h e case  Part o f thereason  o f t h e time.  silicosis  2 9  had  losses.  silicosis,  apparatus  miners.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were t e m p e r e d  and p r o f i t s .  miner  t o estimates  almost  that  for  employees,  t o blame  risks  his  that  for  the  any a c c i d e n t  28. J . F o s t e r , T h e W e s t e r n D i l e m m a : M i n e r s , S i l i c o s i s , and Compensation," Labour History, v . 2 6 , n.2, S p r i n g 1 9 8 5 , p.272, 274. 29. Ibid, p.268 citing S.S. H o t c h k i s s , "Occupational Diseases i n the Mining Industry," The American Labour Legislation Review, n.2, 1912, p . 1 3 3 , 134. 30. S h o r t c u t s m i g h t b e t a k e n t o h e l p k e e p c o s t s down. T h e s e o f t e n c r e a t e d h a z a r d s t o t h e m i n e r s w o r k i n g u n d e r g r o u n d . Men were o n l y o n e p a r t o f t h e c o s t / b e n e f i t e q u a t i o n . T h u s when questioned about t h e t i m b e r i n g p r a c t i c e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r m i n e , i t s manager r e p l i e d t h a t "...men were c h e a p e r than t i m b e r s . " Young, 1975, p.14 c i t i n g F . C r a m p t o n , Deep Enough, A Working Stiff in the Western Mines, ( D e n v e r : Sage B o o k s , 1956) p.42-46. 31. F o s t e r , 1985, p . 2 3 5 . 28  could  be  explained  assumptions. indeed funds  away  The  so s l i g h t  other  threat  that  from  more  century While  tangible  the  had  mining, living  and or  simple  to  work  Seeking this.  person  regulations supervisors the  early  world in  32. 33.  worked  o r a c o r p o r a t i o n , a n d was  acceptable  standards  and  foremen, Miners  markets.  being  was  of the passing.  f o r that had  strike  become  however,  and  i f a  an  placer  provide  an  easy  allow  rich  a  strike  A  were  enforced replaced  t o work, made  by  a  change i n metal  to  the  where  changed be  products t o work,  topic  the  prices  s e e Wyman,  Hard  hierarchy  of  autonomy  of  caprices  of  could  c l o s e d down o r a p o r t i o n o f t h e work  F o r more d e t a i l on t h i s P a u l , 1963, p . 9 7 .  i t a  f o r him.  the r e l a t i v e  subject  mine  else,  a l i e n a t e d from  work  were  company  f o r someone  on when  of  rules,  mines.  metal  a mine  Decisions  and  did,  i n a mechanized  the miner  h i s labour.  turn  were h i s own.  employment  There  rush  not  terms  or  presented,  Prospecting,  did  They  h i s own  the  prospecting  mining  was  effort,  a mine  By  3 3  these  action  time,  searching  mining.  wealth.  were made t h e p r o f i t s  working  always  of  3 2  mineral  them,  legal  little  occurred. the  lode  on  lent  that  from  promise  prospector  of  remained  distinct  combination  environment.  changes  f a r eluded  o r any  successful  managers  phenomena  so  occupation  and  of  the dangers  prospectors  that  of  one  t o c r e a t e a s a f e work  Aside  all  by  1974.  result force  being  laid  another meant be  done  into or  jobs  with  areas  deskilling  immigrants latter  3 4  as miners  considerable  on t o  could  little  time t o  that  became  divided  work  on s p e c i f i c  also  had  no l o n g e r  blast,  skill  relatively  centred  This  of mining  machines  the effect  required  timber,  meant  arriving  wages.  o f immigrant  f o r lower mired  arrival  high  wages,  of  the vast  and m a i n t a i n  i nunskilled  of Italian  miners  century Resident  jobs  America  their  though  became  European  during the  were drawn t o t h e w e s t miners  were  a s i t was f e a r e d  positions.  workers  mining  and e a s t e r n  i n North  miners even  that  central  part of the nineteenth  suspicious  other  meant  Unskilled  who were  relatively  often  took  tasks  to d r i l l ,  accessible.  work  I t also  t h e work  b u t t o move  3 5  The more  that  the mines.  of s k i l l s  tools.  had r e q u i r e d  specialized  of  alternative  town. T h e i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f m a c h i n e r y  a machine  numerous  array  no  which  to operate.  deskilling  by  with  j o b o r mining  that  learn  off,  immigrant  highly  they  would  workers  were  I n one c i r c u m s t a n c e t h e  i n t h e mines  was s e e n  t o b e p a r t o f a scheme c o n t r i v e d b y mine  by t h e owners  34. I n a d d i t i o n t o m i n e r s , m u c k e r s , a n d trammers t h e m i n e would employ c a r p e n t e r s , b l a c k s m i t h s , timbermen, e n g i n e e r s , rock breakers, cagers, and e r r a n d runners. Wyman, 1 9 7 9 , pp.13-14. 35. T h e u s e o f m a c h i n e r y c e r t a i n l y e n t a i l e d some s k i l l , b u t compared t o those needed f o r single o r double jacking, o p e r a t i n g a m a c h i n e was f a r more e a s i l y l e a r n e d . F o r an example o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f m i n i n g j o b s a n d s k i l l s n e e d e d t o become a m i n e r , a l t h o u g h a few d e c a d e s l a t e r , s e e , W. C l e m e n t , "The S u b o r d i n a t i o n o f Labour i n Canadian Mining," Labour/he Travailleur, v.5, S p r i n g , 1980. 30  and  steamship  companies  wage a m i n e r as  received  i t barely  where  especially reports  were  no  more  did  a factory  In  selling  them  miners  newspapers  considerable.  change  houses  p r o v i d e d a chance day.  from  In  out  strip  searches  of  Mine  of  for a close cases as  been  galling  gave  glowing in  the  the miner  wealthy  high  losses  the to  than  grading, mines  graders  in  Cripple  owners over  $1  instituted  work  a  became  managers  million  to  the  sought  combat  warm,  clothes,  look at miners  they  and  high  providing  sweat-soaked  some  town  Philadelphia.  m e a s u r e s were t h e r e f o r e  to  mining  wealth  claimed losses  guise  high  guarded  contained  practiced  The  the  a  have  a l l that  themselves.  Under  in  must  or  The  jealously  independently  York  for instance,  practice.  degrading  by  becoming  was  wealth  ores  been  Colorado  the  the  grade  place  for  of  some  for  have  This  3 7  labour. °  subsist  when l o c a l  i n New  highest  per year. S t i f f this  of  worker  the  to  Creek,  chance  cheap  to  when s u r r o u n d e d  response  smuggling  seem  times  predictions  mines. For even had  enough  inflated.  i n boom  and  import  for his efforts  provided  prices  to  dry  change retiring  sites out  of high  36. Wyman, 1979, p.32. 37. The wages a m i n e r earned depended on the p r e v a l e n t e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s and c o u l d r a n g e anywhere up t o about $6.00 p e r d a y d u r i n g boom t i m e s . The usual standard i n w e s t e r n m i n i n g was $3.00 t o $3.50 p e r d a y . T h i s was h i g h e r t h a n t h e wages p a i d i n many o t h e r j o b s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n t h e e a s t , i n M i s s o u r i , f o r e x a m p l e , m i n e r s made a b o u t $2.00 per day. But expenses in the west were also higher. E s t i m a t e s f o r c o s t s o f l i v i n g r a n g e f r o m two t o f i v e t i m e s more t h a n i n t h e e a s t . Wyman, 1979, p.35,54; R. Brown, Hard  Rock  Miners:  Station:  Texas  The  A&M  Intermontain  University  West,  1860-1920,  P r e s s , 1979) 31  p.163.  (College  graders.  Underground,  work p l a c e pose  as  addition  and sometimes  miners  products fair  health,  miners'  began  union  Comstock Lode i n 1 8 6 3 . their  members;  recreation  isolated  strikes against  small,  funds,  of  were  fight  provided a i d to  on t h e  a great  deal to  needy  attachment  f o r many  often  to get a  City,  and,  little  from t h e  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y t h e  hospitals  and p h y s i c a l wielded  the constant  alienation  at Virginia  The u n i o n s  a particularly D'Alene  t h e powers  against  trade,  distance. power defeated  perhaps  most  lonely These  4 0  and,  members,  men  unions  though  spirited  i n their  efforts  t h e owners.  t h e Coeur  that  point  occurred,  After in  a  3 9  of their  formed  and  by s o c i a l  were o f t e n  3  t o organize.  burial  halls  importantly,  o r malingerers. **  and t h e c o n s t a n t  was  were h i r e d t o  any o r e t h i e v e s , i n  t h e complete  labour,  miners  and s p i e s  to report  thedeskilling  of their  wage,  first  i n order  to their  and foremen m o n i t o r e d t h e  detectives  t o any malcontents  Faced with threat  supervisors  them.  4 1  and b i t t e r  i n 1892, t h e m i n e r s  of state A  violent  western  and c a p i t a l  became  were  cordilleran-wide  confrontation convinced  firmly  allied  miners*  union,  38. The Miners' Magazine, v . 6, n.109, J u l y 25, 1 9 0 5 , p . 8; Brown, 1979, p.123. 39. P a u l , 1963, p . 6 9 . 40. Wyman, 1974, p.49; D . J . B e r c u s o n , " L a b o u r R a d i c a l i s m a n d the Western Industrial Frontier," Canadian Historical Review, v.58, n.2, 1977, p.167. 41. D u r i n g t h i s s t r i k e , w h i c h b e g a n when t h e owners t r i e d t o l o c k o u t t h e m i n e r s i n an a t t e m p t t o r e d u c e wages, m a r t i a l l a w was d e c l a r e d a n d f e d e r a l t r o o p s were s e n t i n t o r e s t o r e 32  the  Western  Butte  i n 1893.  radical the  however,  they  hoped  the miners  had t i r e d  refusal  lack  government.  with  of  Furthermore,  ideas who  f a r from a  or  violent.  relationship  B u t b y 1902 t h e  4 2  intransigence  and  the union,  f o r miners  the  from  t h e WFM  union  defeats  helped  to  embrace  radical  was v e r y  influential  continued  and o f t h e  a l l levels  Workers  of  the  the mining  has been  portrayed  h i e r a r c h i e s were opportunities  emanate f r o m  frontier, as  leveled  a  convince  social  (IWW),  access  to land  4 3  an  inclined.  other  frontier  and p l a c e  where  there  mobility.  the w r i t i n g s of F r e d e r i c k Jackson  that  the  socialism.  o u t a n d where  f o r upward  growing  o f Labour, and  World  like  time  of  i n the formation  w h i c h was e v e n more r a d i c a l l y  cases  postulated  Federation  union  WFM  a  intentions of  positive  to recognize  in  as h a v i n g  radical  employees.  the American  International  I n many  increased  organized  The o r i g i n a l  promote  of support  leaders  social  to  owners  devastating  settings,  were  and t h e i r  several  industrial  was  In a d d i t i o n , the c o l l a p s e of populism,  disillusionment  the  bent.  of the constant  o f mine  persistent  (WFM),  T h e WFM h a s o f t e n b e e n p o r t r a y e d  founders,  between  of  of Miners  and s y n d i c a l i s t i c  Instead  WFM  Federation  and r e s o u r c e s  were These  Turner,. required  t h e p e a c e . H u n d r e d s o f m i n e r s were a r r e s t e d a n d d e t a i n e d i n ' b u l l p e n s . ' See Wyman, 1979, L i n g e n f e l t e r , 1974 f o r more details  42. C. S c h w a n t e s , Radical Heritage: Reform in Washington and British  Labour, Socialism, and Columbia, 1885-1917,  ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1979) p.113, 43. I b i d , p . 1 2 9 ; s e e a l s o Wyman, 1979, a n d L i n g e n f e l t e r , 1974. 33  that  social  words,  development  "...these  free  equality,  freedom  suggests  that  application bases  this  successful a high lower be  to rise,  there  argument mining  class"  some  I n h i s own  %  individualism,  democracy".  i s  on a s t u d y  of  The  f o r the  frontier. origins  50% o f whom h e l d  thousands,  who  days o f a p l a c e r  prospector  could  chance  finding  of  prospecting. established  to  than  "middle o r o f 50 men  o f the thousands,  i f  not  participated  in  western  o r lode mining  camp  appeared  uncover gold  A shop early  improve  also  f o r those  of r i g i d i t y Thus,  rich  was  social  find;  standing.  certainly  t o keep  history  providing services  i n the social doctors,  44. C a r t e r , 1972, p . 6 . 45. R. P e t e r s o n , "The F r o n t i e r the Mining Frontier," Pacific 1975, p . 4 2 . 46. I b i d , p p . 64,66.  become  structure and bankers  both  Opportunities  t o miners,  Some a r g u e  people  who h a d b e e n  could  i n t h e community.  A  the slim  many  or businessperson  or teamsters.  lawyers,  one's  enough  i n t h e camp's  and i n f l u e n t i a l  doctors,  a  keeper  successful  lawyers,  o f 50  less  can the successes  the experience  occasion  arose  But  He  mining?  early  offer  with  4 6  Peterson  justification  of the s o c i a l  entrepreneurs,  economic  Richard  4 5  t h e o r i e s t o themining  background.  cordilleran  towns.  again.  s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a n d 80% o f whom came f r o m  hundreds  lack  over  l a n d s promoted  of Turner's  reconciled  to  begin  that  such as  t h e r e was a  of early held  no  mining social  T h e s i s and S o c i a l M o b i l i t y on Historical Review, v . 44,  advantage  over  saloon  keepers,  m i n e r s who h a d made s t r i k e s . assume  there  was no s o c i a l  simplified. social such out  I n these  niceties  as l a n d  long.  with  companies mining. routes  a  and  a  established. probably boomed, drafty stretch  working  of  f o r social  deposits  by  were  river  lode  developing  mining  might  become  were  mining  mining  camp,  a foreman,  expensive  i n a  jerry-built  boarding  were  commodity  or  as  closed well  service,  established.  Once  off  for  who,  would  town  other  unless  have  Peterson's  further.  a  °  skills  If a  camp  and even house  was  a  could  established  p r o f e s s i o n a l s and dealing  t o compete  notion  quickly  but his  excessively  budget.  by  hydraulic  were  became  labourer's  replaced  transportation  property room  depleted.  or  technology  h i m much  mobility  quickly  n o t take  businesspersons  smoothed  camp d i d n o t l a s t  would  a  for  resources  a v a i l a b i l i t y of gold  f o r themselves  gold  promising  opportunities  already  camps,  A miner  dark  i t was  was no u s e  accessibility  the opportunities  extracting In  there  t h e e a r l y days o f a mining  miners  and  differences.  In the placer  Individual  a t a l l . Rather,  settings  and t h e p e r c e i v e d  any event,  associated  structure  rough  speculators,  B u t i t w o u l d be a m i s t a k e t o  4 7  and t h e r e l a t i v e  certain social  In  mining  of social  i n a with  new those  mobility,  47. R. L i n g e m a n , Small Town America, (New Y o r k : G. Putman's S o n s , 1985) p.201. 48. R.C. H a r r i s , " I n d u s t r y a n d t h e Good L i f e A r o u n d I d a h o P e a k . " Canadian Historical Review, v. 56, n . 3 , p.330, n o t e 36. 35  therefore, the or  should  perspective died  with  be r e - e x a m i n e d  of the untold  without  staking  the depletion  show  that  Various  prospectors  accounts  most  therefore, social  i t usually  patterns  from  typical  failed  of gold  and f o r t u n e  i n f o l l o w i n g the rushes  established  side,  o r whose b u s i n e s s e s  disappointed towns,  the other  numbers who g a v e up t h e s e a r c h  a claim,  of gold.  countless  from  rushes  seekers  from p l a c e  were  to place. In  d i d n o t take  long f o r  of capitalist  societies  t o be r e p r o d u c e d .  The on  a  made  social  familiar up  of  owners),  tapestry weave  mine  and  professionals  as i t d e v e l o p e d . managers  Then  society,  f o r various  order  became  mining and/or which  selected  which  their  churches  Brown, 1974,  among who  were  them  group  laya  catered  existed  carefully  36  4 9  vagrants, social  the  typical  by s t a t u s  Various  would  clubs  be f o u n d e d .  portions  saloons"  of  This  segregated  to different  p.29.  of  were  outside  and t h e  overlapped.  a n d two b i t  The n e x t  a majority  i n t h e geography  often  the other  ostracized.  became  elite  lawyers,  whom  the Chinese,  membership  "...[B]it  was a n  took  necessarily  Below  groups  R e s i d e n t i a l areas  ethnicity  population.  reasons,  reflected  town.  Different  49.  were  the p r o s t i t u t e s ,  whom,  not  town  a n d a r t i s a n s , among o t h e r s .  of labourers,  there  There  doctors,  and b u s i n e s s p e r s o n s .  consisted  miners.  (though  established  made up o f s h o p k e e p e r s strata  o f the s u c c e s s f u l mining  both  of the reflected  the  status  the  of their  cemeteries  Catholics,  The  Turner's  that  society  reproduced  relates, distant on  small  Thus,  were  of  a  wage  many  mining  were  more  their  50.  have  argued  likely  eastern  physical  of  still  their  were  than  jobs  nonetheless,  D.A. S m i t h ,  Rocky  made a n d cordillera  t o escape  a  Apparently,  As  Mark  Wyman  a t t h e news o f a seemed  t o depend  another . i n t e r e s t i n g  t h e WFM  socialism  the rapid  Mountain  Frontier, (Bloomington: Indiana p . 190 51. L i n g e m a n , 1985, p . 2 0 9 . 52. Wyman, 1979, p . 1 5 1 . 37  western  and r a d i c a l i s m given  Camps:  University  Some  unions than  f o r this are  mechanization  Mining  issue,  and m i l i t a n c y .  and o t h e r  c o u n t e r p a r t s . The r e a s o n s isolation,  their  skill.  raises  t o embrace  being  western  strong.  labour radicalism  that  institutions  existed.  company  frontier  v e r y f a r beyond  the  remained  frontier  mining  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s  Success,  5 2  namely t h e o r i g i n s  the  gold  beginnings.  social  strikes  founded,  l u c k and t i m i n g r a t h e r  authors  the  The  new  employment  men q u i t  strike.  The  simplified  frontier  frontier  finding  5 1  I t d i d require  o u t from  while  Roman  of the f r o n t i e r .  pockets.  being  t o be  in  itself  for  t o and d i f f e r e n t  i n t h e towns d i d n o t e x t e n d  camps  faith  each  even  similar  agricultural  limits.  lifetime  one  was b o t h  conception  in  continued  segregated,  frontier  work  an  developed  new  I n T i n Cup, N e v a d a ,  3 U  P r o t e s t a n t s , Jews a n d c r i m i n a l s .  from  outer  were  mining  Unlike  clienteles.  of mining,  The  Press,  Urban 1967)  and  the l i n g e r i n g  Others were  have  argued  no more  west  were  isolation, unrest as  In  I t may be t h a t  thrown  into  across  with  Canada  and r a d i c a l i s m  the actions  sharper  people  relief  North  to  socialism  evidence  and 1919,  i n fact,  issued  by t h e w e s t e r n  hours,  unsafe  black  lists,  collective  and  bear  5 5  surprising  were  coming t o  were  workers  The r e s p o n s e s  national  levied  resemblance  between t o those  l o w wages,  [and the] were  5 4  u n r e s t and a  conditions,  non-recognition of unions,  of labour  be  labour  "unemployment,  and u n s a n i t a r y working  physical  and m e c h a n i z a t i o n .  radicalism  remarkable  miners:  bargaining."  by t h e i r  this  that  phenomena. T h e c o m p l a i n t s o f C a n a d i a n 1846  of the unions i n  America  spreading i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n  unions  than the  t h e r e was a g o o d d e a l  throughout  i s ample  i t rich.  the western  t h e c o n t i n e n t . Nor s h o u l d  there  recourse  of s t r i k i n g  that  to socialism  b u t i t seems t h a t  labouring  .terms  dreams  the opposite,  inclined  eastern unions. the  but fading  long,  ...employer refusal of  also  similar:  53. Wyman, 1979, p . 1 5 1 . T h e s e r e a s o n s a r e a l s o c e n t r a l t o the arguments o f Bercuson, 1977, and M. D u b o f s k y , "The Origins o f Western Working Class R a d i c a l i s m , 1890-1905,  Labour  History,  v.7,  1966.  54. D a t e s h a v e b e e n a t t a c h e d f o r t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f the U n i t e d States (1843) and Canada (1870) . Furthermore Douglas Cruikshank and G r e g o r y Kealey argue that both n a t i o n s were u n d e r g o i n g a s e c o n d i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e l a t t e r y e a r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t s h o u l d n o t be unexpected, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e r e was c o n t i n e n t a l reaction against i t . H.G. Gutman, "Work, C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y i n I n d u s t r i a l America, 1815-1919, i n On Work, R. P a h l , E d . , (New Y o r k : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1989) p.126; J . R i n e h a r t , The Tyrrany of Work, (Don M i l l s : Longman C a n a d a , 1975) p . 3 4 ; D. C r u i k s h a n k a n d G. K e a l e y , " S t r i k e s i n C a n a d a , 1891-1950," Labour/Le Travailleur, v . 2 0 , F a l l , 1987, p . 8 8 . 55. G. K e a l e y , "The S t r u c t u r e o f C a n a d i a n Working Class  History," History,  Lectures  W.J.C.  in  Canadian  Cherwinski  Labour  a n d G. 38  and  Kealey,  Working  Class  Eds., (Toronto:  strikes  were a common o p t i o n ,  questions  of  social  reform  Western c o r d i l l e r a n of  the  mining  California areas  explore  of  the  and  California  Once  mining  the  quickly  new  who  Not  of  equipment,  technology  work  deskilled,  and  in  opportunities  were  not  long  into the  for  lived,  Urban i n s t i t u t i o n s  consequence  was  that  an  after  extension  the  placer  beyond  veins  the  of  ore  inclinations to  their  capital  to  access  mechanized,  new  readily  stratified  accessible  The  in  effect and  reproduced, along  miners,  class  like  of  social  lode  i t  With  specialized,  mobility  particularly  activity.  regions.  became  segregated.  to  industrial  mining  social  the  to  g a v e way  mines  the  5 6  I n d i v i d u a l miners  were r a p i d l y  hierarchy  long  proved  became  ethnically  that  social  a  then,  following  used  into  introduced  addressed.  were e s t a b l i s h e d , m i n e r s b e g a n  however,  corporations  transform  a  rush.  means o f most p r o s p e c t o r s .  large  more p h i l o s o p h i c a l  l o d e m i n i n g was,  gold  This,  deeper,  were a l s o  possibilities  underground.  but  this  workers  was  leveling towns.  of.the  lines.  new  largely  mining  one  was  first  Another  across  the  C o m m i t t e e on C a n a d i a n L a b o u r H i s t o r y and New Hogtown P r e s s , 1985) p.12. 56. S t r i k e s were a v e r y common r e c o u r s e i n t h e p e r i o d u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . B e t w e e n 1891 and 1910 t h e r e were o v e r 2000 s t r i k e s c a l l e d i n Canada the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f w h i c h were called in Ontario. Cruikshank and Kealey, 1987, p p . 8 6 , 9 0 . By t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i a l i s m and r a d i c a l i s m were b o t h well established in central Canada. Toronto has been r e f e r r e d to as the leading centre of C a n a d i a n r a d i c a l o p i n i o n . G.H. Homel, " F a d i n g Beams o f t h e Nineteenth Century; Radicalism and Early Socialism in C a n a d a ' s 1 8 9 0 s , " Labour/Le T r a v a i l l e u r , v.5, Spring, 1980, p.9. 39  continent,  began  to  organize  to p r o t e c t  seek r e f o r m s .  40  themselves  and  to  3  From Bar t o Board Room and o t h e r S t o r i e s  The  d i s c o v e r y of r i c h g o l d ores on Red Mountain i n t h e  Kootenay  region of south-eastern  i n the f o u n d i n g of the c i t y number  of y e a r s  flourished  with  around  British  of Rossland  the t u r n  the outputs  Columbia  resulted  (Maps 2 & 3 ) . F o r a  of t h e c e n t u r y ,  of  i t s mines.  The  Rossland British  Columbian w i l d e r n e s s was r a p i d l y t r a n s f o r m e d by a w e l l system  of  mining,  entrepreneurs. mountain human  natives. gold,  where  became  too  difficult  passed.  Lode  and expensive  to  obtain.  a  short  Rossland  expensive  experienced  time  the seasonal  but i t was not long had  by  was  mining  almost  around miners.  t o e x t r a c t and chapter  before  the o n l y  occupation  b e f o r e the time  f o r most  This  mining  town and two r a i l w a y s hugged the  only  had been  F o r a time  1  riches  costly  A bustling  slopes  presence  headed  tried  of  synonymous  local with  of g a i n i n g easy Rossland The  quickly  ores  were  mining equipment t o o  describes  the  economic  1. These bands were p r o b a b l y p a r t of the Southern Okanagan or more s p e c i f i c a l l y the L a k e - C o l v i 1 l e I n c h i l i u m . Rossland Historical A s s o c i a t i o n , Rossland Historical Guide Map and Story of Rossland, 1974, p.4; M.D. Kincade, W. S u t t l e s , R.M. G a l o i s , and S.P. Robinson, "New C a l e d o n i a and Columbia," Historical Atlas of Canada, Volume I: From the Beginning to 1800, R.C. H a r r i s , Ed., (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1987, p i . 6 6 . 41  geography first  of  ores  this in  mature mining  burgeoning  1887  or  passed  by  and  bitter  companies  the  are  chapter  is  maturing  city  by  the  which  i s interesting  preformed the  1902  from  d i s c o v e r y of  time  Rossland  town. S i n c e most o f t h i s m a t e r i a l  known, some t h a t considered  to  city  hinted  based  a  at.)  The  i s only  example  the  main  of  a  briefly  the  in  railway  purpose as  mechanized  role  Rossland  rival  Rossland  increasingly  was  i s generally  i n events  between  portrait  upon  (For  Government  competition  build  relevant  entirely.  Dominion  only  to  by  and  the  of a  this  rapidly  mines.  *  A  series  attract the at  the  Creek  of  ingress,  Trail)  area  were  gold  Idaho.  In  Butte,  been  rail  a  at  from  created was  to  Bend  at the  and  which  State  a  had  began  at  south  the  settlements mined  Routes Dewdney  established.  i n Coeur  Pacific  on  Spokane had  transformed  (the  e r e c t e d and  Northern  Washington  42  west  Horse  interest  mineralization.  and  the  blown  Railway  Pacific  claims  In  D'Alene,  of  in had  coast.  become t h e hub  the  to  rushes  Wild  initial  to  men  gold  potential  the  (by 1887)  Small  (1855),  s m e l t e r was  1883  1850s  other mining  (1865) drew  small  Tacoma,  few y e a r s  the  Columbia.  successfully  same y e a r  M o n t a n a . By  network  British  Big  both  completed  Within  of  hinted  quartz  in  o f p r o s p e c t o r s and  and  the  beginning  i n Washington  (1864) , and  the  at  Region  Colville  to  1879  events  attention  Kootenay Fort  of  of  a  Coeur  D'Alene  into  producing  mines.  P a c i f i c Railway was completed  By  the l a t e  1880s  To the n o r t h  2  t o the coast i n 1885.  there  was  c o n s i d e r a b l e reason t o  b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e were metal ores of  British  Columbia.  considerably industrial  improved  mining  There  by  improved  experienced towards  transportation mining  to  infrastructure  Montana p r o b a b l y extended  by  that  the area, immediately  time but  began  The f i r s t  first  and induced  p r o s p e c t o r s then  to turn  their  attention  important s t r i k e s were  made i n 1887, a t Ainsworth and a t Toad  Mountain  c i t y of Nelson would be founded) (Map 2 ) .  an  of Idaho and  i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia, networks,  also  also  to the south.  the m i n e r a l r i c h e s  interests  t h e Kootenay.  i n the s o u t h - e a s t c o r n e r  was  access  Aided by the knowledge t h a t  the Canadian  both  (where t h e  3  As news of t h e d i s c o v e r i e s of o r e a t Ainsworth and Toad Mountain  filtered  through the m i n i n g  community, p r o s p e c t o r s  2. D.J. N i c o l , Changing Spatial Patterns in the Lode-Metal Mining Industry of British Columbia: 1887-1945, U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971) p.50; R.C. H a r r i s , Moving Amid the Mountains, 18701930," B.C. Studies, No. 58, Summer, 1983, pp. 10-11; J . Fahey, Inland Empire: D.C. Corbin and Spokane, (Seattle: U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s , 1965) c h a p t e r 3. 3. See E.S. Moore, American Influence in Canadian Mining, (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1941) c h a p t e r 7 f o r a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e advance of American mining i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia. 43  Legend  Trail S t e a i b o a t Run Railways « « > • ' • ' 1. N o r t h e r n P a c i f i c 2. C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c Railway j . S p o k a n e F a l l s and Northern Railway  i. i e l s o o and f o r t Sheppard iailiay  s v..  Wild Horse Creek  <Q  IQ  __i  30 I  40 i  Hiles  Map  2  South-eastern B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and B o r d e r i n g States-Places and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n N e t w o r k s m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r s 2 and 3. S o u r c e s : M e y e r , 1970; H a r r i s , 1983. i  44  50 i  began t o s e a r c h elsewhere  for similar  d e p o s i t s . One o f the  r o u t e s o f e n t r y i n t o the Kootenay was a l o n g the o l d Dewdney Trail  which wound  out  of  the Monashee  Valley. trail  down b e s i d e T r a i l Mountains  I t may have been  that  i n 1887 George  ore on Deer Park Mountain two  from  claims,  one  on  Creek  into  Bowerman n o t i c e d  The miner, the  each  peak,  Moris  Bourgeois,  a l o n g the  outcroppings of Bowerman s t a k e d  although  neither  claim  abandoned. In 1889 the  was r e d i s c o v e r e d and c h r i s t e n e d  the owners  o f the c l a i m  t o do the assessment  minimum  required  work  hired  a  on the c l a i m ;  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l  government.  on the c l a i m , M o r i s was a t t r a c t e d by s t a i n s o f  mineralization  Star,  year  Joe M o r i s ,  While working  year,  River  4  following  annual  point  and Red Mountain.  c l a i m on Deer Park Mountain May.  the Columbia  some vantage  amounted t o much and both were soon  the L i l y  as i t descended  on  the s i d e s  of Red Mountain.  r e t u r n e d t o Red Mountain and t o g e t h e r they  with  staked f i v e  Later  that  a p a r t n e r , Joe  c l a i m s : t h e Centre  and on i t s e x t e n s i o n , the LeWise, the War E a g l e , t h e  Idaho,  and t h e V i r g i n i a .  samples  assayed.  samples  only  four  They went  The r e s u l t s  were  showed any t r a c e s  t o Nelson  and had some  disappointing: of metals.*  5  of t e n  Yet Moris  4. Cominco, S o u v e n i r E d i t i o n , Supplement t o the Trail Daily Times, August 11, 1988. P a r t o f t h i s supplement i s a r e p r i n t of the T o r o n t o newspaper The Saturday Globe o f February 6, 1897, a s p e c i a l e d i t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h R o s s l a n d . 5. There a r e many accounts o f the f i n d i n g o f t h e f i r s t important R o s s l a n d mines. T h i s one, w r i t t e n by Joe M o r i s , can be found i n ; L. W h i t t a k e r , Ed., Rossland: The Golden City, (Rossland: Rossland Miner L i m i t e d , 1949) pp.1-2. 45  and  Bourgeois  prevented  recorded  from  p r o h i b i t e d one  their  claims,  recording a l l five  because  they  that  instead  of  spending  offer  claim  t o Eugene Topping,  their the  own  of  the  examining  the  Wise  renamed  Le  preliminary  and  claim.  money  e x p l o r a t o r y work  and,  where he bonded 16/30 businessmen. returned started  as and  men as  weekly  Le  Roi.  he  of  hand  offer  did  some  lacked  the  took samples t o Spokane  did  sixty  samples  further dollars  sampling per  ( a s s a y i n g up  ton. to  p i c k e d ore  were  sent  shaft  $472  per  which  of 1891  was ton) ten  Butte  f o r smelting,  r e t u r n i n g a v a l u e of $84.40 per t o n . Although  transportation  c o s t s ate up much of the p r o f i t s , r e s t of Topping's M i n i n g Company was  to  work A  were sent t o Marcus, Washington. In the s p r i n g tons  6  the  He  in  of the c l a i m t o a s y n d i c a t e of Spokane  These much  accepted  realizing  means t o work the c l a i m h i m s e l f , he  they  Deputy Recorder,  Topping  i t the  law  Bourgeois  r e t u r n f o r p a y i n g the r e c o r d i n g fee on a l l of them. After  were  provincial  person from s t a k i n g more than two.  suggested one  although  the bond was  s h a r e s were purchased,  taken up,  the  and the Le Roi G o l d  formed. ' 7  6. W h i t t a k e r , 1942, p. 2. T h i s i s another example of the v a r y i n g accounts of these e v e n t s . Another account suggests t h a t t h i s law p r o h i b i t e d one person from s t a k i n g more than one claim per lead. J . Mouat, Mining in the Settler Dominions: A Comparative Study of the Industry in Three Communities from the 1880s the First World War, U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.d. Thesis, (Vancouver: The University of British Columbia, 1988) p.38. 7. W. C a r l y l e , Report on the Trail Creek Mining District. B u l l e t i n Number 2. The P r o v i n c i a l Bureau of Mines. V i c t o r i a . 1896. In, B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, ( V i c t o r i a : The K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1896) p.15. H e r e a f t e r 46  This  activity  on  Red Mountain  caused  a  stir  among  Kootenay p r o s p e c t o r s . A minor r u s h t h e r e i n 1890 overwhelmed the  inaugural  CPR  mainline  r u n of the steamboat at Revelstoke  with  Spokane, v i a the Spokane F a l l s were  30 men about  along  the t r a i l  service  the Northern  and N o r t h e r n .  the camp and a small  l e a d i n g t o the m i n e s .  new  camp waned d u r i n g the l a s t h a l f  on  the Le Roi and some of the o t h e r  little  of the excitement  discoveries. the T r a i l  Table  1893  there  9  8  Pacific  settlement  grew up  Yet i n t e r e s t  of 1892. Work  i n the  continued  c l a i m s , but t h e r e was new m i n e r a l  1 shows the number of c l a i m s This table,  at  In 1891 t h e r e  often a s s o c i a t e d with  Creek d i s t r i c t .  gauge i n t e r e s t  c o n n e c t i n g the  which  staked i n  can be used t o  i n the new camp, shows t h a t between 1891 and  was an annual  decline  i n the number  of c l a i m s  s t a k e d , w i t h a low of 33 i n 1893. TABLE 1 Rosslflnri  Year 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 Source:  Mining  Number of Claims Staked 87 67 33 99 1,997 2.588 N/A  Annual  Report  S t a t i at. i est  1RQ1-1RQ7  Tons of T o t a l Value Ore of Ore Produced Produced($) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,856 75,510 702,459 19,693 1,243,360 38,075 2,097,280 68,804  of  the Minister  of Mines,  Value of Ore Produced Per Ton($) 0.00 0 .00 0.00 40.69 35.67 32.65 30.48 1891-1897.  these r e p o r t s w i l l be c i t e d as Annual Report of the Minister of Mines. 8. Fahey, 1965, p.107. 9. Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1891, p.565. 47  The factor  cost  i n this  packhorse  of transporting  the ores  decline.  time  At t h i s  t o t h e Columbia and  taken  to  Northport,  from  where  they  Tacoma  Montana. private and  the following  Creek  year  solution.  times  In  addition,  and  o r West  a  on a  later  to  t o smelters  Helena  o r Butte,  though  of  there  uncovered.  In  transportation  Other  of  factors interest  ores  were  to  Gold  built  Commissioner down  some  were  inclement  lower  facilities  road  offered  rich  grade  from  exploit  relief  the  i n the T r a i l  were  these  discovered  in  Mines. the  In  extracted, also  being  ores  immediate  Creek  became  t h e mines.  w o u l d h a v e t o be o b t a i n e d .  outside  from  permanent  they  ore being  ores  to Trail  not a  weather  shipments  was v e r y  order  constructed t o Northport  but they  and r e s t r i c t e d  quantities  silver  loaded  by r a i l  Kootenay  roads  problems,  affected  West  These  1 1  transportation  impassable  shipped  been  were t a k e n b y  were  Dalles,  a wagon r o a d  F i t z s t u b b s had another  Landing.  large  were  have  I n 1892 t h e manager o f t h e L e R o i mine b u i l t , by  subscription,  Napoleon  Little  o r E v e r e t t , Washington,  1 0  the ores  R i v e r where t h e y  steamboat  at  may  better 1 2  region  also  I n 1891 r i c h  Slocan  Valley.  10. C a r l y l e , 1896, p . 1 7 ; T h e f i r s t shipments o f o r e from N e l s o n were b y s i m i l a r means a n d c o s t a b o u t $57.00 a t o n t o transport t o the smelter. It i s likely that costs from Rossland were a l s o i n this range. Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1889, p.298. 11. C a r l y l e , 1896, p. 15; Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1892. p.533. 12. T h e R o s s l a n d M i n e r , December 7, 21, 1895; C a r l y l e , 1896, p.14. 48  P r o s p e c t o r s who had been working by a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t to  deliver  Trail  wealth.  a t Rossland were drawn away  the S l o c a n mines had g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l A  1 3  mining  Creek mines r e c a l l e d  commentator  describing  the p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r  the  limited  p o s s i b i 1 i t i e s .A f t e r the so c a l l e d i r o n c r o p p i n g s of Red Mountain were found s e v e r a l y e a r s ago they were p r o s p e c t e d i n a desultory and h a l f h e a r t e d f a s h i o n . P r o s p e c t o r s and p r a c t i c a l mining men of long e x p e r i e n c e i n the Rocky Mountain camps and many r e p u t a b l e e x p e r t s , a c t u a l l y condemned the d i s c o v e r i e s . In o t h e r s e c t i o n s , n o t a b l y i n Colorado, these p y r i t i c m a t e r i a l s were b a r r e n , and no one having had any p r e v i o u s trial with like p r o p o s i t i o n s h e l d out the s l i g h t e s t hope f o r T r a i l Creek. 1 4  A w o r l d wide r e c e s s i o n i n 1893 r a t t l e d of mining  interests,  further  flagging  the c o n f i d e n c e  interest  i n the T r a i l  Creek mines. A l l of the mines were  f o r c e d t o shut down f o r  at  the Le Roi was  least  sell  part  enough  operations. Tacoma. they  13  must  of the y e a r ore  They  The  from  i t s dump  sent  results  have  although  250  tons  of t h i s  been  to of  work  encouraging  be  ore were  able from  to  able to resume  the dump  to  not r e l e a s e d , but  because  new  mining  machinery. 30 more employees, and t h r e e teams of h o r s e s were sent t o the m i n e .  1 6  13. Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1891, p. 565; P a u l , 1963. p.132. 14.. Correspondence from The Post Intellegencer, The British Columbia Mining Record, v . l , n.2, November, 1895, p.15. H e r e a f t e r t h i s j o u r n a l w i l l be c i t e d as BCMR. 15. The ore s h i p p e d from the Le Roi was hand s o r t e d . The dump was where lower grade o r e s were d i s c a r d e d . 16. Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1893, p. 1042; C a r l y l e , 1896, 15. 49  Eventually Trail As  Creek  a result  there  mines.  was  In  a  resurgence  1893  the lode mining  the  price  for silver  of of  interest  silver  i n the  crashed.  1 - 7  became:  ...so p o o r an i n v e s t m e n t t h a t i t a c t u a l l y compelled money u s u a l l y u s e d i n t h i s i n d u s t r y t o s e e k t h e o n l y other a l t e r n a t i v e — g o l d mining f o r o r e . from which i t c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l y e x t r a c t e d , no m a t t e r how s m a l l t h e margin. 1 S  Events  at Rossland  mines.  At  the  discoveries  At  work  gone  change of  Le  Roi  t h e War  more  Eagle,  unrewarded  to greater  machinery  where  in  f e e t wide,  Le R o i . A c o n t r a c t  ship  10,000  tons  paid  i t sfirst  was  new  resulted  almost  signed  with  o f o r e p e r month  and  appeal  was  $10,000  1894,  i n the d i r e c t i o n of mining  an o r e body e i g h t  the  contributed  o f o r e were made, and t h e company  dividend. had  also  added,  paid in  of the new  i t s first  development  management i n the  and  a  discovery  identical  t o those i n  a smelter  i n Butte  i n 1895  the  to  company  dividends.  17. The c r a s h o f t h e p r i c e o f s i l v e r i s f a r t o o c o m p l e x a n i s s u e t o be d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s . One i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n v o l v e d t h e end o f b i m e t a l l i s m . L e g a l bimetallism i n the United States e n d e d i n 1873 t h r o u g h an o v e r s i g h t by t h e Congress. The Sherman S i l v e r P u r c h a s e A c t , w h i c h h a d b e e n e n a c t e d i n 1890 a s one o f a s e r i e s o f s t e p s t o h e l p s i l v e r p r o d u c e r s s i n c e b i m e t a l l i s m had ended, mandated t h a t t h e t r e a s u r y buy 4.5 m i l l i o n ounces o f s i l v e r p e r month, an amount w h i c h c o v e r e d a l m o s t a l l o f t h e o u t p u t o f A m e r i c a n s i l v e r m i n e s . I t was r e p e a l e d i n 1893 t h r o w i n g t h e s i l v e r market into a panic. F o r more d e t a i l s e e : R.W. Jastram, Silver, the Restless Metal, ( T o r o n t o : J o h n W i l e y and S o n s , 1981) pp. 69-78. 18. Mouat, 1988, p.41 citing J.W. McCarthy, British  Investment  Cambridge,  in  Overseas  Mining,  1961. 50  1890-1914,  Ph.d.  Thesis,  Response Prospectors again 1).  to  poured  be u s e d  From t h e  1895  transformed.  cleared,  burned  construction. like  holes,  cabins...."  Through mines  air  t h e boom  dynamo  to light  drill;  nine  becoming  years  working  including:  were  frantic  Red M o u n t a i n  wooded  mountain  prospecting,  new made  was  slopes  or cut  for  shaft  houses and  o f men e m p l o y e d  operations.  powered  t h e company  by t h r e e  t h e mines  their Between  i n R o s s l a n d mines  19. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e f r o m n.2, Nov., 1895. p.15 .  increased  The Post  51  more  a huge  125 HP b o i l e r s ;  operations  new  40 d r i l l an E d i s o n  an e l e c t r i c  and a s t a t i o n  one  up t o 450  installed  plant;  a n d power  drills;  expanding  of ore also  I n 1896  i n the L e R o i a t depths  a new h o i s t i n g  new m a c h i n e also  o f 1895, 1896, a n d 1897 some their  year  p r o d u c i n g mines.  production  of  was "...honeycombed b y m o l e -  with  t o expand  I n t h e same  compressor  mines  Red M o u n t a i n  camp s w e l l t o  1 9  men were  machinery  (see T a b l e  the site  and around  t o ease  and studded  continued  hundred feet.  Bald  1895 saw t h e  Heavily  off  o f claims can  i n t h e camp  a n d become on  immediate.  t h e number c l i m b e d t o 1997 i n  The y e a r  landscape  almost  T h e number  the interest  i n 1896.  The  was  t h e camp.  inhabitants  dramatically were  events  low o f 33 i n 1893  3000  activity.  into  t o gauge  a n d 2588  about  these  diamond  pump.  a n d some  Other were  1894 a n d 1895 t h e number jumped  f r o m 40 t o 500. T h e  dramatically,  Intellegencer,  going  from  BCMR,  v . l ,  1856  tons  $2,097,280  worth  $75,510  i n 1897  (Table  T h e r e were,  The  Annual  Report  that  several  more  capital  great  deal  the  ores  of  mining  making  tunneling  veins four  foot  and  relocate  their  Red  a  fault  were  and  Le  and  War  ore  i n the  required  a  recorder  f o r the  owners  easily  most  of  that  had  was  ground.  pay most  there  was  being  done,  be  few  work  pierced, addition,  Cliff  was  to  a  the lost,  required  f o r themselves.  in his report  the  mine  feet  properties  productive  A  were  dislocating the  a  extracted.  Once a v e i n was  2 2  very  required  In  2 1  twenty  development  the  to  in  shifted  noted  the, claims  faulted,  example,  were  work  l o t o f d e v e l o p m e n t money t o r e a c h district  worth  produce w e l l .  Although  expensive.  t h a t would  Eagle,  tons  f o r 1897  the  not  was  For  non-productive  camp, t h e n ,  Mines  exploratory  deposits  i t . There  d i d not  because  and  courses: of  68,804  properties.  Mountain  body  of  related  iron  Rossland Roi  idle  difficult  their  by  expensive to  of  wide  northwest  lay  Mountain  tough  from  Minister  engineer  with  bedrock  mines t h a t  prospecting Red  to  2  the  t o work  capped  the  of  1894  1). °  course,  claims  of  visiting  of  in  in Even  mines,  paying  ore.  the the had The  noted:  20. C a r l y l e ' s r e p o r t f o r 1896 g i v e s d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f some o f t h e l a r g e r c l a i m s . He r e p o r t s t h a t t h e r e were f i v e compressors already i n use with s i x more w a i t i n g to be installed. In a l l he estimated there had been a total i n v e s t m e n t o f $175,000 i n m a c h i n e r y i n t h e camp. Carlyle,  1896,  p. 13,  1895,  p.688;  21.  1897.  Annual  21. BCMR, v . 2 , n.4. 22.  Carlyle,  1896,  Report  of  p.536.  May,  1896,  p.20.  p.25. 52  the  Minister  of  Mines,  ...it i s u s e l e s s t o a t t e m p t m i n i n g i n t h i s camp w i t h limited capital, as mining costs are high, and c a l c u l a t i o n s a s t o t h e amount o f work n e c e s s a r y may p r o v e a l t o g e t h e r t o o low, and work h a v e t o c e a s e by f u n d s b e i n g e x h a u s t e d , j u s t when t h e p r o s p e c t i n g s h o u l d be p u s h e d a h e a d f o r a l l i t s w o r t h . 2 3  Much mines was  of  was  First,  extension  within would  of  not  turn  of  their  number  Creek  being  in  a  thesis  speculates that  other  hand,  were  not  area  about  which  source  w o r l d wide large  invested  of  to was  in  able  invest  of t h e i r  to afford  known.  But  the  opportunities domestic  speculative  i n the  2 3  was who  interested. in  Kootenay  few  such  an  stages citizens  British  was  Canadians  they  an  more  enjoyed invested  i t was and  in a  already  though  on  investment  ventures  income o v e r s e a s  ventures.  been  men  early  Britain  and  had  a mine. Those,  mining  2 4  natural  region  easily  or finance  this  possibilities.  therefore,  in risky  little  capital.  investment  part  were  a  formation  still  were,  why  mining  investment  capital  to purchase  who  inclined  There  were  Kootenay  were n o t  C a n a d a was  Rossland's  reasons  American  new  on  for  complex w h i c h  the  experienced on  of  mines  so,  other sources of c a p i t a l  enough c a p i t a l  likely  a  capital  lode mining  backs  industrialization.  the  a  Trail  This  reach  Church,  with  are  of the American  easy  mines,  development  There  the  northward.  Second, John  early  American.  so.  working  the  rarely British  23. Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1897, p.537. 24. J . S . C h u r c h , Mining- Companies in the West Kootenay District of British Columbia, 1890-1900, U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. Thesis, (Vancouver, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961) p.19. 25. I b i d , p.19; D.G. P a t e r s o n , "European F i n a n c i a l Capital and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : An E s s a y on t h e R o l e o f t h e R e g i o n a l E n t r e p r e n e u r , " B.C. Studies, n.21. S p r i n g 1974, p.33-34. 53  investors  were  repeatedly  encouraged  development  o f the Kootenays,  The  of  editor  this  The  comparison  investment  to participate  but t h e i r  British  Columbia  o f American  the  r e s p o n s e was s l o w .  Mining  versus  in  Record  Canadian  2 6  offered  and  British  strategies  The A m e r i c a n g o e s a t a new d i s t r i c t l i k e a h u n g r y d o g at a b o n e . He e x u l t s , he t r i u m p h s i n the idea of resisting and overcoming o b s t a c l e s . The C a n a d i a n and the Englishman are l i k e t i m i d bathers, they t r y the w a t e r g i n g e r l y a t f i r s t . Once i n , t h e y swim m a n f u l l y , but t h e y do n o t t a k e t h e p l u n g e a s r a p i d l y a s t h e American. 2 7  One  factor  apprehensive associated for  which  made  Canadian  with  speculative  speculating  properties.  Evidence  activity  c a n be f o u n d  i n the rate  a t which  formed.  In  registered  or incorporated  country. This  total  1895 t h e r e  was s u r p a s s e d i n t h e f i r s t  two q u a r t e r s as  incorporations February  there  incorporations While  many  concerns,  of  many  were  76  March  there  a n d b y May these others  and Boundary  and r e g i s t r a t i o n s .  I n each  and  total  135  The t r e n d were  more  were  c o n t i n u e d t o be  registrations  and  c o n t i n u e d i n 1897,  245  t h e number  registrations  in  and  had reached-  422.  undoubtedly  viable  concerned  26. F o r a n example of a plea f o r Canadian i n v e s t m e n t s e e : BCMR, v . l , n . l , O c t o b e r , 1895, 27. BCMR, v . 7 , n.10, O c t o b e r , 1900, p.370 28. C h u r c h , 1961, p.113. 54  companies  o f 1896  companies were  50  half  o f 1896 t h i s  respectively.  and  were  t o work t h e K o o t e n a y  when t h e r e were 61 i n c o r p o r a t i o n s  surpassed  abuses  i n mining  were  the last  investors  o f t h e R o s s l a n d m i n e s was t h e f i n a n c i a l  companies  of  and B r i t i s h  with  2 e  selling  and B r i t i s h p.2.  shares would  than with working buy  options and,  small  o u t on  drawing  future  companies  invited  formation claim that  of a  warning  castigated them  benefits,  seem  can  company  being  The those  such  and E n g l i s h  from poor  that  financial  which  activities  investment,  unscrupulous Ibid,  mining  care  bought  certainly  promoters,  have  p.37. 55  3 0  Record  short  term  be d e t r i m e n t a l of eastern  promotion  Rossland's  would  mines d i d  a reputation  and  Mining  Columbian t o be  and an a r t i c l e  p.112.  30. BCMR, v . 2 , n.5. May, 1896,  times  speculating,  reception  Engineering  fractional five  have  and d e v e l o p e d  i n the  capital.  i n mine might  types  Mining  t o Rossland  would  practice  i n addition  a  $500,000  he was c o r r e c t .  The  mining  manipulation  o f perhaps  The c o o l  abuses  of  This  Columbia  New York w a r n e d t h a t w h i l e B r i t i s h  good  c l a i m s as  demonstrated  involved  capital  investments.  these  gambling  be  take  prospectus  Examples o f b o t h  2 9  British  i n the province.  to indicate  suffer  29.  and s t o c k  but i n t h e long r u n would  mining  Canadian  that  just  a  promoters.  a projected value  of  issue  financial  amount, b u t i n c o r p o r a t e d i t w i t h  regularly  of  practices  editor  would  promote  of  mining  speculation  f o r $150 w i t h  The  to  type  Spokane  cases  then  the value of stock down.  speculative  cases p e r p e t r a t o r s  The o v e r - c a p i t a l i z a t i o n  another  further  would  a n d rumour,  by u n s c r u p u l o u s  to keeping of  fact  In these  o r i n some  c l a i m s . They  producers.  is  practiced  claims,  upon  great  a mine.  for  Journal  m i n e s were a  taken  to  i n the  avoid  Toronto  Telegram  suggested  R o s s l a n d m i n e s was a s  L  As  the  facilities carry  mines  often  from  tonnages  impassable.  materials,  existing  In  more  needed  Rossland  produced  and m i n i n g  requiring  clearly  developed,  transportation  became i n a d e q u a t e . T h e wagons a n d s l e i g h s  t h e o r e away  increased  with  money p u t i n t o  -i 1 as l o s t . •  good  also  that  were  unable  i n t h e mines  addition,  more  machinery efficient  were  t h e mines  knew,  was  t o handle the  and r o a d s  supplies, coming  into  transportation.  to cut production costs, railway  used t o  were  building t h e camp What  was  e v e r y one a s s o c i a t e d  access  and  a  nearby  smelter.  The  CPR was v e r y  Rossland.  They  were  Columbia  River  Columbia  Avenue  depot.  3 2  interested  the f i r s t  and purchased on which  This  project  Americans,  Fritz  Augustus  31.  The Engineering  to  survey  portions  to build  T h e CPR, h o w e v e r ,  Rossland.  i n building  was  of several  d i d build  taken  Heinze  and Mining  a line  a passenger  never  up  and D a n i e l  Journal  a  line  into  from t h e  b l o c k s near and f r e i g h t a  instead  line by  into two  C. C o r b i n .  of New York c i t e d i n  BCMR, v . 3 , n . l , J a n u a r y , 1897, p . 16; T h e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a r t i c l e i n t h e Toronto Telegram was f o u n d i n The Rossland Weekly Miner, March 18, 1 8 9 7 . I n r e s p o n s e the editor a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e h a d b e e n " . . . u n f o r t u n a t e l y more t h a n one i n s t a n c e o f o v e r c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n R o s s l a n d , b u t [he a r g u e d ] where i n a l l C a n a d a i s t h e r e s o g i g a n t i c a n i n s t a n c e o f o v e r c a p i t a l i z a t i o n a s t h e c a s e o f t h e CPR." 32. R o s s l a n d H i s t o r i c a l Museum A s s o c i a t i o n , Historic Addenda Sheet, p . 2 ; BCMR, v . l , n.3, December, 1895, p . 2 4 .  56  Heinze Rossland.  In  Rossland, and  was  the  first  1895,  Heinze  to  complete  hearing  sent  two  of  the  to  rights  act.  from  He  made  another  a  ore,  Roi,  t o be  paid  lot  and  and  shipment  would  after  ship  for after  the  charges.  and  the  market.  Finally,  from his  the  tons  treated  deal of  and  at  a  the  was  with  37,500  lowest  ton  of  each  the  mine which  available of  one  ore  of  freight  smelter  r e c e i v e d a bonus f o r each  of  for  rate  a  owners tons  sampling  the  the  and  the  complete  to  town  Heinze  smelter  dollars  ore  on  dollar  treated  at  smelter.33  ore  would  be  carried  to  the  gauge Columbia  and  Western Railway.  was  of  Heinze's  only  from  part  the  Heinze  Kootenay  stoked  Provincial  grant.  The  to  the  treating Heinze first  plans  The  Penticton.  with  received stage  of  To of.  pictures  Slocan  ores his the  C a r l y l e , 1896, p.16. F a h e y , 1965, p.154. 57  smelter  of  and  on  Columbia  which  imaginations  government  Vancouver  smelter.34  33. 34.  activity  acquiring  supply  eleven  at the  he  build  shipment of  Dominion Government  The  in  deals,  they  this  37,500  shipped  open  the  When  w o u l d be  an  that  deduction  another  of  agreement  stipulating  Le  number  concluded  of  to  a favourable report  to  also  link  to scout  entrepreneur  tramway. H e i n z e the  railway  renewed  of h i s employees  i t s p r o s p e c t s . Upon r e c e i v i n g  began  a  the and  included promote  the a  Western  a  railway  his  railway  members refining  matte  narrow  of  the  industry  from  the  Trail  large  land  charter  and  a  railway,  the  narrow  gauge  between  Rossland  The  line  and  l o a d s , and  seven  was  fiscal  year,  completed  Robson,  (Maps 2  a  been  he  the  Trail was  first  a  r e g i o n of  of  between  by  of  the  end  of  gauge  and  an  important  known  to  the  first Heinze  charter,  just  the  the  the  1897  Columbia  terminus  and  remarkable  of  In  3 5  the  operation  standard the  speeds  Rossland  Western d i d  $103,486. his  western  railway  from  landgrant.  4). In  opposed  British  1893 of  1895  the  west  Columbia  steamboat  by  land he  the  the  the  the used  of  of and  landing  Rossland  Corbin  network  had  this  of  syndicate  &  Fort  after  p a r t of  grant  of  became e m b r o i l e d  T u r n e r , West o f t h e G r e a t 1987) p . 1 0 9 - 1 1 0 . 58  the  Rossland  i n a law  Divide,  in  into Corbin  they  government  north  ore  Sheppard  provincial  this  Coeur  network  government,  Nelson  even  earlier  i n the  discoveries  Canadian  Columbian  just  camp.  expanding  build  Corbin  people  rail  with  envisioned  petitioned  In  acres  and  c h a r t e r to  a  to  successful  Idaho,  he  a  successfully  35. R. Press,  and,  1896.  t r a c k to cover  months  t o a p o i n t on  well  built  acquired  4,600  month  part  line,  was  Kootenay  Railway  six  totaled  the  CPR  Canada. A l t h o u g h  (Map  and  responsible for a  D'Alene  had  Columbia  June,  &3).  Corbin before  the  by  restricted  m i l e s of feet  first  which  service  vertical  profits  the  Kootenay,  in  c o n s t r u c t i o n , which  $20,000 p e r  from  was  2000  this  During  were  building  light  and  profits  Trail,  required thirteen  Despite  business.  the  of  miles  Trail.  and  for  to  had a  select  townsite  suit  with  the  (Victoria:  Sono  Nis  Map 3 R o s s l a n d and V i c i n i t y  Scale 1/2  S o u r c e : C a n a d a , D e p a r t m e n t o f N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e Army Establishment, Rossland-Trail, S h e e t s , 82 F/4 West, E a s t , 1951.  Survey 82 F/4  1:50,000 0 Miles  owners  of  the  overlapped valuable another  Paris  the . railway  Rossland  Northport  up  over  the  potentially involved i n  Corbin's  an arduous  of  opened  line,  route  into  some  t o extend  a  subsidy  fifty  the r a i l w a y  of  the need f o r  coming  of  t o the mines.  ability  of  quantities  of  ore  The most c r u c i a l  the the  36. Fahey, 1965, p.170; 1895; J u l y 31; 1896. 37. I b i d , p;i62.. 38. I b i d , p.160.  carry  mines  large started  3 3  the  benefits  When  were  c l e a r l y demonstrating  can not be o v e r s t a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y  efficiently.  When the  3 - 7  i n Northport  the  to  inspector  waiting  Rossland  railroads  1300  i n December of 1896 t h e r e  a more e f f i c i e n t manner of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . importance  also  of i t s l e n g t h was  f o r a s t a n d a r d gauge l i n e .  f o r shipment t o Rossland,  line  of CPR  I t climbed  percent  one hundred c a r loads of f r e i g h t  The  because  the c i t y .  of which  f o r business  a  the Red Mountain Railway,  and over  curves,  decided  He a p p l i e d f o r and r e c e i v e d a  d i d not r e c e i v e  c o n s i d e r e d t o o severe railway  over  claim  3 6  booming C o r b i n  f e e t from N o r t h p o r t made  grant,  whose  In 1896 C o r b i n became  t o Rossland.  but  intervention. followed  claim,  law s u i t . T h i s time w i t h s q u a t t e r s he wanted e v i c t e d  With  charter,  mineral  land  surface r i g h t s .  from h i s land g r a n t .  from  Belle  Rossland  60  to  i n terms of the  factor  amounts to  old transportation  The  railways  Miner,  l a y i n the of  freight  produce systems  large were  November 30,  overwhelmed. The t h a t was  able  1 shows t h a t mines  more  completed  r a i l w a y s o f f e r e d a means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  to accommodate these the amount of ore  than  doubled  into  in  Rossland.  i n c r e a s e d outputs.  shipped the  r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of the r a i l w a y of  mining,  ores,  shipping,  which had  and  little  from the T r a i l  year  Perhaps  the  most  no  railways  also  the  dropped,  value  per  value  illustrating  ores were b e i n g shipped also  allowed  This  before  i n much  perhaps no c o i n c i d e n c e adding  above. The  the  to  ore  be  from  that  l a r g e r s i z e s and  forty  concentrating  p l a n t s and  mines the  Rossland  railway  camp at much  quantities. It i s  mines such as the Le  of  machinery  i n t e r e s t e d i n the  of  1 also  The  as  Rossland  connected  o u t s i d e world  Roi  mentioned  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r a i l w a y s s t i r r e d up  predictions  that  lower-grade  profit. i n t o the  costs  construction  shipped  shipped  amounts  the  meant  the  some degree  t h a t i n 1896  large  optimism among those  made.  of  at a r e a s o n a b l e  machinery to  lower r a t e s and  were  ton  were  lowered the o v e r a l l  of the r a i l w a y s , c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l y e x t r a c t e d . T a b l e shows t h a t  Creek  importantly  t r e a t i n g ores.  or  Table  unbridled mines,  and  rail  to  by  were c o n f i d e n t l y  39  * Some  authors  B r i t i s h Columbia,  39.  have  argued  that  the  border  i n p a r t i c u l a r the Kootenay, and  BCMR, v. 2, n.5.  May,  1896, 61  p.6.  the  between United  S t a t e s was o f l i t t l e the  prospectors,  significance.  most of the e a r l y development c a p i t a l , and  most  s u p p l i e s came from the U n i t e d  that  both  the  Dominion  and  ambiguous  attitudes  case w i t h  Rossland, American  part  of the r a i l  at  all,  obstacles fact,  traffic  Provincial  entrepreneurs t o and from  any r a i l  neither  It i s also  true  governments  had  captured  a large  Kootenay.  centres.  development was b e t t e r  government  t o Americans  prohibitory  States.  towards the boundary. As had been t h e  Perhaps b e l i e v i n g t h a t none  I t i s t r u e t h a t most of  4 0  wishing  presented  to build  measures were  significant  into  Canada. In  l e v e l e d by Ottawa  American r a i l w a y b u i l d e r s o n l y t h r e e times d u r i n g Kootenay  and Boundary  e f f e c t beyond d e l a y i n g In presence first  felt  ores  other  mining  charters.**  ways  were  was  against  the e n t i r e  but these  had  little  1  the f e d e r a l  government  made i t s  e a r l y i n the R o s s l a n d camp. In 1893, when the shipped  were e s t a b l i s h e d a t T r a i l another  booms,  than  from  the d i s t r i c t ,  customs  offices  Creek Landing and Waneta. In 1895  put a t Paterson  on  the road  to  Northport.*  42  These border c r o s s i n g were c l o s e l y p a t r o l l e d as demonstrated by the f o l l o w i n g :  40. C. Schwantes, Radical Heritage: Labour, Socialism, and Reform in Washington and British Columbia, 1885-1917, ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , 1979) p.116. T h i s i s a l s o a constant theme i n Fahey, 1965. 41. R.H. Meyer, The Evolution of Railways in the Kootenays, Unpublished Master's Thesis, (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970) pp.84-94. 42. Fahey, 1965, p.147. 62  American h o r s e s are a l l o w e d t o b r i n g freight into Canada without duty b e i n g charged on the h o r s e s but they are not a l l o w e d to. c a r r y f r e i g h t out u n l e s s duty has been p a i d on them. The odd s p e c t a c l e of a waggon ( s i c ) load of ore g o i n g out from the War E a g l e mine was seen t h i s week which had two h o r s e s i n the s h a f t s and two l e d behind. The two l e d behind were c i t i z e n s of the U.S. Those d o i n g the work were C a n a d i a n s . 4 3  Duties machinery mining felt  and  interests,  tariff  4  interests:  protected  posed one,  applied  made  goods  in  to  that  Canada,  manufactures  t h e . western  p l a c e d too two  such  as  Canadian  machinery to  mean  were 'capable of  for British  of t h e i r the  which any  Columbian  provinces. A l l  manufacturers  interpreted  Columbian  law s t a t i n g t h a t  duty  of  machinery  producing.  4 3  a  type  which The  result  free-trade p o l i c i e s  lode mining machinery. was  that  c o a l mining  To western  mining  Adding  five  Liberals  but these hopes were p e r c e n t was  p l a c e d on  i n s u l t t o t h i s obvious a f f r o n t  equipment was  interests  was  expensive.  and  of twenty  already Canadian  hope f o r r e l i e f w i t h the e l e c t i o n of the  when a t a r i f f  adding two,  There was  dashed  the  goods; and  was  i n 1897,  on  were  t h a t mining equipment became almost p r o h i b i t i v e l y  their  mining  l a r g e a burden  problems  amount t o the p r i c e  some customs o f f i c e r s be  imported  but throughout  the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y  mining  on  were a sore spot, not o n l y w i t h B r i t i s h  west. ** The  the  tariffs  i t was  added t o the f r e e no  coincidence that  list. the  43. The Rossland Miner, March 16, 1895. 44. D.E. B l a k e , "Managing the P e r i p h e r y : B r i t i s h Columbia and the N a t i o n a l P o l i t i c a l Community," A History of British Columbia, P. Roy, Ed., (Toronto: Copp C l a r k Pitman L t d . , 1989) p.176. 45. BCMR, v.2, n.5. May 1896, p.7; v.3. n.4, A p r i l 1897, pp.11-12. 63  minister responsible  for this  a b e r r a t i o n was from a p a r t o f  the M a r i t i m e s where coal m i n i n g was important."* While  tempers  simmered  concerning  federal  policy  over  tariffs,  began  6  another  t o . brew.  The  storm  Americans  passed an A l i e n Labour Law i n 1885 which p r e v e n t e d a l l nonAmericans By  from  procuring  employment  i n the U n i t e d  1897 the matter had come b e f o r e  the Dominion  of the Rossland  suggested t h a t  The  editor  Miner  law be passed i n Canada which would deported,  and which would  Government. a  put a s t o p  t o American  same y e a r the Canadian Government  such  a  stance.  "...inappropriate  But  such  similar  see a l l American miners ownership  of B r i t i s h Columbian r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . * * that  States.  a  reluctantly  law  f o r an e n l i g h t e n e d  was  - 7  Later  adopted  considered  country."** Thus the 8  Alien  Labour A c t , as i t was enacted, a p p l i e d m a i n l y t o the  east,  and would  enforced after  their  than  version  perhaps m u l l i n g  suggestion, the  be imposed  the e d i t o r  conclusion good.  that  only  of t h i s  i f and when the Americans law.**  9  A  few weeks  over the consequences of the Rossland  an e x c l u s i o n a r y  I n s t e a d he p r o f f e r e d  that  later,  of h i s e a r l i e r  Miner  law would  also  came t o  do more harm  i f retaliatory  action  46. I b i d , v.3, n.7, J u l y 1897, p.14. 47. The Rossland Weekly Miner, F e b r u a r y 4, 1897 48. M. W e l l s , The Western Federation of Miners' in the Coeur D'Alene and Kootenay Region 1899-1902, Paper p r e s e n t e d t o the P a c i f i c Northwest Labor H i s t o r y Conference, S e a t t l e , May 4, 1976, p.4 c i t i n g Official Report of the Debates of the House of Commons of the Dominion of Canada, 7 A p r i l , 1897, 45: 658-59; 7 June 1897, 45:3551; The Labour Gazette, September, 1900, pp.26-27. 49. I b i d , p.4. 64  were  to  be  different  taken  nature,  at  a l l , i t had  f o r , he  best  be  of  an  entirely-  argued.  We want both American labour and American c a p i t a l i n Canada, e s p e c i a l l y i n the west, and t h e r e i s mighty l i t t l e sense i n c u t t i n g o f f your nose t o s p i t e your f a c e . There . are o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s i n which Canada can r e t a l i a t e to better advantage. 550  Little  d i d he  the events  know t h a t  law  would become prominent i n  of the coming decade.  In the J u l y , 1897  Record  this  i t was  British  i s s u e of the  Columbia  Mining  reported:  During the past few weeks a change of tone has become e v i d e n t over the whole camp. Real e s t a t e and r e n t s have s t e a d i e d or are dropping; the s t o c k market is practically dead; the days of the boom, when e v e r y t h i n g went j u s t because i t happened at Rossland are p a s t . . . . 5 5 x  There  are  demise of passing This It  two  interdependent  i n t e r e s t at  of The  law was  ownership, law,  provided  that  would  thus  some for  prospectus.  This  by  companies,  have  to  first  the  for  information  sudden  i n v o l v e s the . 1897 Government.  speculative  investment.  under  country  could  be  25,  by  It  also  stiffening  included had  of  Columbian  procedures..  investors  The Rossland Weekly Miner, February BCMR, v. 3, n.7, J u l y , 1897, p.14.  the  British  seems t o have  65  the  Provincial  operating  legislation  for  r e g a r d l e s s of  operate  protection what  The  to d i s c o u r a g e  standardizing  regulations  50. .51.  Rossland.  Companies Act  intended  stipulated  explanations  the  1897.  in  a  desired  effect  on  speculative  effectiveness off  i s that  dramatically  half  were  were  One  a f t e r the s p e c u l a t i v e the law was  frenzy  with  of i t s fell  of the f i r s t  passed  i n May, o n l y  85  r e g i s t e r e d or incorporated  and of these  41  r e r e g i s t r a t i o n s or reincorporations  sharply  measure  r e g i s t r a t i o n s and i n c o r p o r a t i o n s  of 1897. A f t e r  companies  financing.  (this  contrasted  the 922 r e g i s t r a t i o n s and i n c o r p o r a t i o n s  from  January t o May). Another measure of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Companies A c t t o c o n t r o l  speculative  of  transfers  bills  of  sale  and  activity of  i s t h e number  Trail  Creek  mining  p r o p e r t i e s . T a b l e 2 shows t h a t the number of t r a n s a c t i o n s of Trail  Creek  mining  properties  dropped  o f f markedly  after  1897. TABLE 2 Rnss1 and  Year  Number of Claims Staked  1898 1899 1900 1901 1902  1110 788 520 388 205  Source: Annual  Min-inrr  Tons of Ore Produced  Statistics  Value of Ore Produced($)  116,367 180,300 217,636 283,307 329,534  Report  of  for  Value of Ore Produced per Ton($) 18.99 17.81 10.72 16 .31 14.84  2,210,000 3,211,400 2,333,725 4,621,299 4,893,395  the Minister  The o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d of  1 RQfl-1 90.2  of Mines,  1898-1902.  t o the l a g g i n g appeal  Rossland's mines was the r e a l i z a t i o n  that  the p o t e n t i a l  easy w e a l t h had passed. T a b l e 3 shows t h a t the number of  c l a i m s s t a k e d began t o drop a f t e r the peak y e a r s of 1895 and 1896.  The Companies Act may p a r t i a l l y 66  explain  this  decline  as  the market  f o r claims  f o r speculative  manipulation  c o n s t r i c t e d . Another f a c t o r was the d i s c o v e r y  of g o l d  Klondyke.  that  A  prospectors  Rossland  journalist  were being  drawn away:  relates "The l a t e  i n the Eureka Camp have caused no l i t t l e the  rush  But  other  in  mining  drop  f o r the Klondyke has not l e f t s t a t i s t i c s reveal activity  i n the number  around  stir  of c e r t i f i c a t e s  i n the  Rossland  lucky  strikes  in this  place,  i t scatheless...."  t h a t there was a g e n e r a l Rossland.  was  Table  3 also  :  of work  3 2  decline shows a  issued.  These  c e r t i f i c a t e s were i s s u e d a f t e r assessment had shown that the minimum amount of work r e q u i r e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government to h o l d the c l a i m had been done (an o p t i o n t o pay i n l i e u of doing  the work a l s o  small  claims  not  going  existed).  recognized  The owners of some  t h a t a l i m i t e d supply  t o be s u f f i c i e n t  to extract  of the  of c a p i t a l  the ores  from  was  their  claims. TABLE 3 Rossland Mining Business S t a t i s t i c s Year 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 Source: Annual 52.  Certificates Money i n of lieu Work o f Work 213 1,211 N/A 1,110 788 520 388 205  Report  Transfers and B i l l s of Sale  N/A N/A N/A 16 17 4 11 5  of  the  Minister  1.155 2,690 N/A 660 309 177 114 49  of Mines,  BCMR, v.3, n.9, September, 1897, p.25 67  1895-1902  1895-1902  Detractors of  of the R o s s l a n d mines g l o a t e d i n the l a p s e  the excitement  claiming that,  as they had p r e d i c t e d , the  bottom of R o s s l a n d had f a l l e n out. Yet i t would be a mistake to  assume  half  that  the R o s s l a n d mines were e n t e r i n g  of a boom-bust  cycle.  Others  hailed  the  latter  the changes. F o r  them the change t h a t had come over Rossland s i g n a l e d the end of  s p e c u l a t i v e v e n t u r e s i n mining p r o p e r t i e s . Optimism  ran  unbounded, but i t s nature had changed.  f o r a p r o s p e c t o r t o make a r i c h  still  The o p p o r t u n i t y  f i n d had perhaps  passed, but  some of the b i g companies had been hugely s u c c e s s f u l . M i n i n g i n t e r e s t s hoped t h a t future, Le  as many as a dozen mines p r o d u c i n g on p a r w i t h t h e  Roi.  and  t h e r e would be, i n the not t o o d i s t a n t  5 5 3  The Rossland  included  corroborate  articles  Weekly Miner from  other  issued  similar  Kootenay  claims  newspapers  to  i t s views:  The shipments of ore from the a d j a c e n t mines are s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g , and t h a t i s the o n l y b a s i s on which t o judge the f u t u r e of a mining town. Rossland i s growing and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o do so as long as the output of i t s mines c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e . " * 3  Perhaps at  Rossland  changed  from  coincidentally, died  down,  the y e a r  the ownership  predominantly  American  after of  the excitement  the l a r g e  to B r i t i s h  and  owners. T h i s t r e n d had begun w i t h  the purchase  Eagle  Blackstock  mine  by  the Gooderham  and  53. BCMR, v.3, n.8, August, 1897, p.15. 54. The Rossland Weekly Miner, J u l y 1, Nelson Tribute, no date a v a i l a b l e . 68  mines  Canadian  of the War  syndicate of  1897,  citing  the  Toronto  i n 1897. Gooderham and B l a c k s t o c k  a c q u i r i n g the Centre  t o add  to  their  in  1898 and t h e S t . Eugene i n the East Kootenay i n 1899.  1898  Kootenay h o l d i n g s ,  continued  Star  Mine In  Hienze s o l d h i s s m e l t e r , h i s r a i l w a y , and the remaining  p o r t i o n of h i s c h a r t e r t o the CPR. F i n a l l y ,  a l s o i n 1898,  E n g l i s h f i r m , the B r i t i s h America C o r p o r a t i o n  an  (BAC) a c q u i r e d  a number of Rossland mines, i n c l u d i n g the Le R o i . Many turnover  explanations in  have  been  offered  the ownership of Rossland  mines.  most  p e r v a s i v e has been the r a i l w a y t h e s i s .  that  t h e r e was a c o n n e c t i o n  Crowsnest Railway  t o e x p l a i n the One of the  The premise i s  between the completion  of t h e  and the a t t r a c t i o n of B r i t i s h and Canadian  capital  t o the Kootenay mines. In o t h e r words, the Crowsnest  Railway  provided a d i r e c t  rest  of Canada,  economy.  In t u r n t h i s  patriotic British from  thereby  feelings  link  i t into  the n a t i o n a l  was supposed t o have s t i m u l a t e d  i n central  and e a s t e r n  sought  of American  Canadian and i n  to" 'rescue'  investors.  s s  the Kootenay The Crowsnest  was c e r t a i n l y a d e f e n s i v e a c t i o n on the p a r t of t h e  Dominion, British  between the Kootenay and the  integrating  i n v e s t o r s who then  the c l u t c h e s  Railway  link  though whether investment  question.  in  i t was an impetus t o Canadian and the  Kootenay  mines  is  another  3 6  55. F o r example see Church, 1961, pp. 231-233; and f o r a fuller d i s c u s s i o n and l i t e r a t u r e review of the r a i l w a y t h e s i s see G. A. T r i p p , Transportation and Lead Smelters in the Kootenays; A Reconsideration, Unpublished B.A. T h e s i s , (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970. 56. Meyer. 1970, pp.31-35. 69  Other Rossland  factors mines  attraction Hienze's means  to  railway,  t o combat The  investors  British  the  waters  potential  much  reaching most  of  their  mines.  3 8  investment. mines  In terms o f  swimming  addition; making  analogy  w h i c h were  f o rt h i s .  daunted  by  owners,  also  been  One a u t h o r  owners  a number o f suggests  likely,  of  large  that  suggests mines  the production  they were that were  of the  of the Rossland  Pacific  that  against  when t h e m i n e s  the  many  57. E . T u r n b u l l , " R o s s l a n d Camp," v . 6 , n . l . W i n t e r , 1962, p . 1 2 . 58. F a h e y , 1965, pp.183-185. 70  p r o d u c e r s and  o r more  despite  the reasons,  t h e Americans  campaigns  Another author  S 7 ,  Columbian  various  t o g e t o u t a t a time values.  good  deemed  speculative  British  B u t why were  T h e r e have  overextended  Whatever  In  restricted,  t h e American  financially  British  and r e p o r t s  a s mine  peak  and  tremendous  formulated  s h r e w d enough  across the  had been  explanations  were  better  The p e r f o r m a n c e o f  dividends?  presence  of  appealing.  their  were  Canadian  t o comprehend.  limitless.  safer  them  goods  editor's  The  acquisition  gave  of  more  regular  their  other  Mining: Record  h a d become  Americans  The  and s m e l t e r  not d i f f i c u l t  their  the  investors.  of  o f t h e mines  paid  British  interest  became  to sell  i n the sale  i s obvious.  charter,  Columbia  a much  and  role  o f o r e and o t h e r  some  willing  Canadian  a  the flow  i s also  the  financing  played  f o r t h e CPR  boundary.  mines  also  mines  Northwesterner,  passed  into  the  hands of  Canadian and  s t a t e of a f f a i r s which had The a new and  new  Blackstock  long been d e s i r e d .  f o r the mines. mining  " b u s i n e s s l i k e and  aftermath  of  a l l the  year  and  a half,  and  the  new  its  The  the  segment  and  standard  i n output  transportation longer  of  hoped  often c r i t i c i z e d  efforts.  increase  widely  that  camp  Trail gauge  59  In the  the  previous  these  would  companies  restore  the  past,  hailed  for  was  Columbia  and  changed from narrow gauge to  to  accommodate  the  anticipated  the  (between  break the  of  bulk  narrow  gauge  and  equipment i n p l a c e ore  shipped  s u p p l i e s , as  the  smelter  and  reduced  at T r a i l  gauge t r a c k s ) . With the new to  Western  from the mines. T h i s change a l s o  c o s t s as  necessary  was  the  performing  area.  i n the  of  of  well  as  was  and  inexpensively.  s m e l t e r and  mines much more  no  standard could coal  the newly opened Crowsnest and L e t h b r i d g e c o a l f i e l d s , be d e l i v e r e d to the  as  Gooderham  for  i n t e l l i g e n t manner."  of i n v e s t o r s i n the Rossland  CPR,  modified  i t was  heralded  and  lauded  speculative activity  atmosphere  between Rossland a  Both the BAC  companies were  work i n a  The  investors, a  ownership of the Rossland mines was  beginning  confidence  British  be  from could  efficiently  6 0  59. BCMR. v.4, n.7, J u l y , 1898, p.19; 1898, p.11. 60. N i c o l r e l a t e s t h a t the H a l l s m e l t e r Crowsnest c o a l f o r 36% l e s s than i t had coal from Comox. The s a v i n g s at the l i k e l y s i m i l a r . N i c o l , 1971, p.59. 71  v.4,  n.9,  September  at Nelson purchased previously paid for Trail s m e l t e r were  The  Rossland  mines  also  ownership of the s m e l t e r . the  purpose  behind  "...the CPR  was  money from  it.'"  on t h e i r  Rather  from  the  smelter,  related  t h e i r goal was  t o generate  l i n e s between the mines and the s m e l t e r .  to  f o r c a r r i a g e and  treatment  dropped from  made  32  Treatment  even  the  total  tons per  ton day  These d e c l i n i n g s m e l t i n g and t r a n s p o r t r a t e s  i t p o s s i b l e to  sparked  traffic  $11.00 per  $7.50 down t o $7.00 per ton i f more than 175  were s h i p p e d . *  that  i n t o the s m e l t i n g b u s i n e s s t o make  a t . t h e s m e l t e r would t h e r e f o r e be done at c o s t and cost  CPR  Thomas Shaughnessy, i n o u t l i n i n g  a c q u i r i n g the  not going 5 1  benefitted  ship  greater  lower-grade  expectations  ore for  profitability Rossland  and  and  its  mines. On appearances the mines prospered under the changes of 1897-1898. value  of  Outputs the  ore  continued  produced  to  rise,  (Table  2) .  as  did  The  c o n t i n u e d to expand and become more mechanized. Le Roi Star  employed over  240.  In  1900,  650 men, at  the  Le  the War Roi  improvements were made t o the p l a n t and The  n o i s e and  activity  i n and  total  large  mines  By  E a g l e 166,  alone,  the  1900  and  the  Centre  $378,207 worth  of  the s u r f a c e w o r k s .  around R o s s l a n d  signified  6 3  the  61. BCMR, v.4, n.3, March, 1898, p.13. 62. Some commentators argued t h a t the s m e l t e r would s t i l l be making money as s m e l t i n g c o s t s were c a l c u l a t e d at 95% of the assay v a l u e , and o f t e n b e t t e r r e s u l t s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . BCMR, v.4, n.3, March, 1898, p.13; v.4, n.4, A p r i l 1898, p.15; v.5, n.2, p.16. 63. Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, 1900, pp.858860. 72  health  of  Columbia  the  A  town.  Mining- Record  corespondent  local  for  British  the  wrote:  A l l u s i o n has been made t o the music of the Robin and h i s a s s o c i a t e s . T h i s i s indeed a c c e p t a b l e t o the denizens of Rossland, but f a r more a c c e p t a b l e i s the h a r s h and d i s c o r d a n t notes which come from ton tram c a r s as the ore i s unceremoniously dumped i n t o the bunkers of the War E a g l e , Le Roi and I r o n Mask and thence i n t o r a i l w a y c a r s . 6 4  But  there  increasing  were  every  problems.  year,  few  Although  dividends  outputs  were  had  i s s u e d by  companies o p e r a t i n g the  l a r g e mines: the Le R o i , the  Star  (the War  run  and by  the War  the  Eagle  same management, but  these mines had  Eagle and as two  been s a d d l e d w i t h  l a r g e purchase  and  Eagle  values in  6 3  had To  been  o p e r a t i n g at  combat  mines h i r e d new  these  faced  with  costs  (the  $2,000,000, falling  break  the  a  loss  problems  the  of  about  ore  $2.50  management  of  g e n e r a l managers t o run the p r o p e r t i e s .  the a c t i o n s of the new to  and  A l l of  (Table 2) were not a b l e t o earn a p r o f i t . The'Le R o i ,  fact,  ton.  $750,000)  Centre  companies).  $3,000,000, the Centre S t a r , about  War  the  Centre S t a r were  Le R o i , about the  been  Miners'  managers were c u r i o u s . Union  whose  6 6  e x i s t e n c e was  per the But  Both  tried  seen  as  a  64. BCMR, v.5, n.5, May, 1899. p.15. 65. B. MacDonald, "Hoisting and Haulage in Mining O p e r a t i o n s , A D e s c r i p t i o n of the Le Roi Mine, Rossland,. B.C.," The Journal of the Institute of Canadian Miners, v.5, 1902, p.312, 320. MacDonald's paper d e a l t w i t h much more than j u s t the h o i s t i n g machinery at the Le R o i . He also d i s c u s s e s many of the problems t h a t plagued the mine. 66. There is speculation that MacDonald was hired s p e c i f i c a l l y by W h i t t a k e r Wright, the f i n a n c i a l agent who put the BAC together, to help cover up a network of international f r a u d s , which also i n c l u d e d the Le Roi Company. For more d e t a i l , see W e l l s , 1976. 73  t h r e a t t o p r o f i t s . The bitter  strike  officially strike  which  called  will  chapter).  consequence of t h e i r a c t i o n s l e d t o a began  in  o f f (issues  July,  dealt  with  at  Both  were  also  accused  into  the  Le  greater  Roi  of  Company  had  involvement  frauds.  to  his  report  In  investigator  also  hide to  reported  the  the  in  by  that  the  one the  in  Board  that  never the next  mismanagement.  uncovered  juggled  was  union and  length  Company's m i n o r i t y d i r e c t o r s been  and  s u r r o u n d i n g the  be  investigation  1901  of  new  An  of  the  accounting  international Directors  manager  the  had  been  o u t f i t t i n g the Le Roi mine w i t h the v e r y b e s t equipment, but that  "...it  mine.* also  was  The  5-7  had  out of a l l p r o p o r t i o n t o the c a p a c i t y of the  manager of  the Centre  S t a r and  War  a r e p u t a t i o n f o r mismanagement. An  Eagle  mines  interview with  George Gooderham i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i r e c t o r s of the company which owned still  not  blamed that  the War  happy  the  work.* ® 3  with  miners.  thousands  characterized  the  the  Centre  performance  dollars  the  by  and  I t was  of  Though  Eagle  years  turmoil,  of  the  apparently well were  being  between outputs  mines were  mines.  known,  spent  1899 and  Star  the  however,  on  and  Kirby  useless  1902  total  were annual  v a l u e s of s h i p p e d ore c o n t i n u e d t o r i s e .  This, geography apparent 67. 68.  then,  has  of  Rossland  from  this  Annual Report The Industrial  been  an  between  chapter  overview 1887  that  and the  of 1902.  period  the  I t should of  of the Minister of Mines, 1901, World, September 1, 1900. 74  economic  easy p.1045.  be and  instant early  wealth as  came t o an e a r l y  1891  that  he  did  c l o s e . Topping  not  have  the  s u c c e s s f u l l y mine the Le R o i . The eventual Roi  and the War E a g l e drew a r u s h  and  1896.  But  prospecting, rapid  records  show  assessment work,  decline.  after  of  most  market  only  Several . c o n t r i b u t i n g  f o r mining  legislation  claims;  and  during  a  few  factors  hide  the  fact  that  be  t o e x t r a c t and f a u l t e d  cut  federal  there  years,  can  and c a p i t a l  off a  tariff  speculative  p o l i c i e s made  mining equipment expensive t o o b t a i n . A l l of t h i s , cannot  1895  a l l began a  t h a t mining was beyond the s k i l l s  individuals;  to  success of the Le  and t r a n s a c t i o n s  i d e n t i f i e d : ores which were d i f f i c u l t bedrock meant  resources  of p r o s p e c t o r s  that  r e a l i z e d as  was  a  limited  however, supply  of  high-grade o r e . The p r e d i c t i o n s of as many as f o r t y , o r even a dozen mines, p r o d u c i n g realized. only  By  eight  shipped  1902  there  shipping  100  tons  or  on par w i t h were  more more  only  than only  the Le Roi were  ten shipping  100  tons.  four  Of  were  never  mines  with  those  that  shipped  large  amounts of ore and a l l f o u r of these were under the c o n t r o l of the  large  corporations.  most p a r t ,  transformation important  Mining  a mechanized :  i n Rossland  industrial  had  become, f o r  activity.  The  from a boom town t o a mature mining  ramifications  These are e x p l o r e d  f o r Rossland's  i n the next  chapter.  75  social  rapid  c i t y had  structure.  4 Class,  The Rossland was  two  previous  between  broad,  even  Gender,  London.  Rossland,  Ethnicity  chapters  the  often  and  late  Questions  such  and  1902.  places  as  concerning  however,  are  yet  doubt  that Rossland  was  a frontier  first  Kootenay  only  occasionally  Europeans.  If  gold  a  second  Rossland  industrial and  the  This  means  of  living;  relationships;  the  social  At  mid  Natives  that  There the  1860s  roles  ethnicity  and  extracting backing that  were  no the was  known  to  ore  long. from  As the  mechanized  mines to  stratified  occupation  of  of  area  last  access  a  is  and  opportunity  and  the  varying  determined  became capital social one's  what o p p o r t u n i t i e s  played  determined  76  the  leveling  one's gender o r d a i n e d what  time  little  created  q u i c k l y one's  and and  and  geography  and  meant  production  standard  available  Klondyke,  social  town.  corporate  turn  places  Very  were  the  around  perspective  addressed.  demonstrates,  in  structure. of  of  be  in  by  required  work  to  the  i n and  The  m o b i l i t y e x i s t e d , i t d i d not  chapter  mines  equipment.  used  period  f o r upward s o c i a l the  rushes  Rossland  o u t l i n e d events  1880s  reaching  in  in  inter-gender  one's o c c u p a t i o n  and  social  opportunities.  Rossland and  society  ethnicity,  Two  and  manuscript  census.  of  of  under  the  a  vibrant  time.  must  in  census Thus,  a  the  would  census  dispute culminate  special  arrived  town  (April,  to  for  short  such  this  social  1901  Rossland  still  1  a  covered  Second,  Yet  the  is  structure.  in July  the  census  non-union union  Rossland  1901.  data.  at  nothing  Third, a  the  lengthy  management of  1901  available  source  mine  any  considerable  coincided with  and  replace  explore  the  source  call  for  is  time.  data  from  miners  to  consideration. First,  underwent  1901)  been r e c r u i t i n g  immigrants,  gender,  u n f o r t u n a t e l y , makes  which  only  strike  source  impossible.  of a f l u i d  ramifications  management h a d  data  was  provide  This,  gleaned  between in a  i t could  used  first  into  relatively  data  timing.of  this  taken  laws.  i s the  a snapshot  labour  be  the  more t h a n  standing,  were  The  using  mining  transformation  this  In  of  social  sources  structure.  privacy  mapping  manuscript  data  information  federal  detailed was  caveats  i s s u e s of  l o o k a t an e v o l v i n g  important.  complementary social  some  how  became  Rossland's  number  This chapter w i l l  which  This The  has mine  l a b o u r , o f t e n newly miners.  Some  miners  1. The names o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s s u r v e y e d a r e s t i l l covered u n d e r t h e F e d e r a l P r i v a c y A c t and h o u s e h o l d a d d r e s s e s are not r e c o r d e d i n the census. In a d d i t i o n a second schedule l i n k i n g t h e d a t a i n t h e c e n s u s t o p r o p e r t y i n f o r m a t i o n was n e v e r r e c o r d e d o r h a s l o n g s i n c e b e e n l o s t . T h u s t h e r e was little p o s s i b i l i t y of d i r e c t l y l i n k i n g the census data to l o c a t i o n s o r u s i n g i t i n tandem w i t h o t h e r d a t a s o u r c e s s u c h as t a x a s s e s s m e n t s . D i r e c t o r i e s were o f l i t t l e u s e . L i s t s o f names a r e r e c o r d e d , b u t c o m p l e t e a d d r e s s e s were g i v e n f o r v e r y few r e s i d e n t s . 77  left  the  may  not  these  camp a t have  come  factors  rendering  the  been.  some  of  the  labour dispute  back w h i l e  the  unrest  data of  It should, social  still  a  lot  of  data  describing ethnic  labour  be  can  journals, counter people such  and  to of  to  the  in  perfect i t might  in exploring  emerged.  the  There  manuscript  sexual  is  census:  relationships  the  manuscript  speak  census,  records  were  "facts"  provide  perhaps  than  useful  which  and  contemporary  past  be  of  in  division  of  from i t .  the  hard  census,  less  wages,  background,  interviews,  the  sources  material  the  and  Both  s t r u c t u r e than  still  occupations,  addition  in  i n 1899  continued.  it a  social  relationships  distilled  namely  from  however,  useful  families,  visible  Rossland's  the  sources,  become collected  of  In  onset  should  representation have  the  such  consulted.  of  the  census  f o r themselves.  insights  into  several as  newspapers,  These data  provide  and  Though  social  other  a  l e t the  value-laden,  relationships.  * During gold In  the  first  t h e r e were 1891  camp.  2  there Some  employees town  site  2. Annual  few were  number o f y e a r s  people thirty  may  have  the  Le  of was  Report  the  men  been  Roi  staked  of  living  on  living  Mining  and  Minister 78  a  of  the  discovery  o r a r o u n d Red and  prospectors,  Gold out  after  Mines,  cost  in  others  Company.  lot  Mountain.  working but  In  p.  the were  1892  about  1891,  of  the  thirty  565.  dollars. cabins, hundred  By  3  and  beginning  shacks  people,  two hundred  1894  the  and  of  provided  1895,  The  successes  and  1895  promoters,  accommodation  a l o t on Columbia  of  the  Le  Roi  drew a r u s h of g o l d  the t r a i l  for  building, about  two  Avenue went f o r about  merchants,  collection which  and  the War  and  of  others  hastily  Eagle during  s e e k e r s t o Red  i n t o the camp, f o l l o w e d by  occupations. Boisterous a c t i v i t y a  fifty  dollars.**  P r o s p e c t o r s poured  where  some  of  Mountain.  lawyers, s t o c k more  dubious  focused on Sourdough A l l e y , constructed buildings  l e d t o the mines.  By  the end  lined  of the  the p o p u l a t i o n had s w o l l e n t o 3,000. C r e a t u r e comforts  year often  took second p l a c e t o the quest f o r g o l d : As t o the town i t s e l f , i t may be c a l l e d p r e t t y by some, but people at present have no time f o r sentiment, they get the f e v e r as soon as they, a r r i v e here, and a l l are i n t e n t on becoming r i c h . The town i s f u l l of p e o p l e v e r y f u l l , and a number of people are f u l l a l s o . There are about e i g h t h o t e l s r u n n i n g , s i x r e s t a u r a n t s , and four large hotels under construction.... A l l the h o s t e l r i e s are crowded, t h e r e i s s c a r c e l y s l e e p i n g room on the f l o o r s . The w r i t e r c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f i n g r e a t luck t o get a chance t o s l e e p i n a t e n t between two f a t men...all w i t h i n the space of f o u r f e e t . We s l e p t , or tried to sleep, spoon fashion, and i t was an impossibility t o t u r n over. Cedar boughs formed a m a t t r e s s w i t h one b l a n k e t . S t i l l we were happy. I t goes to prove what a greed men have f o r the s t u f f . 8 5  Rossland  became  a  destination  began t o m i g r a t e t o Rossland, not  for  because  settlers.  People  they sought g o l d .  3. W h i t t a k e r , 1949, p.7; The Rossland Miner, March 2, 1895. 4. The Rossland Miner, March 2, 1895. 5. The Rossland Miner, J u l y 13, 1895, c i t i n g J.T. W i l k i n s o n , The Vancouver World, no date a v a i l a b l e . 79  but because thriving  they saw  town.  The  opportunities real  suggested  that  attentions  from mines  began t o s e l l  Rossland  estate  perhaps  market  to  lots  as  reported that  had  those  $6.000.  life  boomed.  speculators  f o r $1,000, then  Miner  for a better  on  Headlines  turned  their  Columbia  Avenue  In March,  6  t h e r e were  i n the  over  1,000  men  work i n the town engaged i n c o n s t r u c t i o n . Some of the business  people  spoke  of  erecting  stone  or b r i c k  the people  social  mobility  assertion  eased,  be  made  corporate-controlled, b e f o r e the  boom  years  the  forty  to  themselves  the  carefully.  The  in  miners  time.  The  mechanized  employed  hundred.  peers.  middle  of 1897  established  But  such  precedent  mining  was  for being  i t s h e i g h t . During the. mines  jumped  organized  to  an  the from  protect  that  Canadian  the boom had  as an  Miner  first  there  mining  those  were  of the WFM.  faded and R o s s l a n d was  industrial  warned  local  with  no  town. The few  the  becoming  e d i t o r of  skills  opportunities  By  for  or  them  Both men and women who are out of money had b e t t e r keep out of R o s s l a n d at p r e s e n t . More people have been coming here i n s e a r c h of work than the c o u n t r y can g i v e  The The  Rossland Rossland  Miner, Miner,  November 6, 1896. March 25, 1897. 80  The  little  Rossland:  6. 7.  7  from becoming v o i c e l e s s o p e r a t i v e s i n the company  forming the  capital  was  boom reached  number  mines,  Rossland  this  heavily  established  five  local  of R o s s l a n d enjoyed a p e r i o d when upward  was  must  at  business  b l o c k s , an e v e n t u a l i t y e a g e r l y a n t i c i p a t e d by t h e i r If  The  1897  in  employment t o . . . . To a l l such men do not come t o Ross land.8 By  1901  population  Rossland  had  numbered  was  declined  6,156.  The  optimism  capital  and  produce. cabins fine  and  residences...."  straightened  and  boom  of  the  9  1897  large  could  be  found  trickled  The  stone  had  been  graded,  shifted  straightened  and  away,  the  corespondent  local  "...the  mining  dangerous  There mining.  A  indirectly  one  camp  rival...to  Vancouver."  from  and  still  mines  were  built.  t o The on  The  the  feet  coast  and  blocks were  bridges  focus of  Alley,  which  Columbia  the was  Avenue,  wide. In the words of  Columbia  steep  scattered  and  The  of  would  streets  were b u i l t ,  British  the  mines  business  Avenue, t o  hundred  had  ( s i c ) homes  brick  Sourdough  renamed F i r s t  a stately  but  their  "...cosy  sidewalks  away  which was  The  combination  these  v i a d u c t s h e l p e d tame the sharp r e l i e f . had  city.  days,  r a n h i g h . I f the r i g h t  s h a n t i e s r e p l a c e d by  in  town  still  mining  say,  a l t h o u g h many p r o m i s i n g c l a i m s  prospectors  anticipated  and  the  outputs  equipment  The  mature  after  i n c r e a s i n g a n n u a l l y and, failed,  a  the Miner would  slopes  cities  Mining is  of  Record  becoming  Victoria  a and  10  was large  little  to  Rossland's  part  of  the  involved with  the  economic  population mines. There  was  beyond  directly  were of  8. The Rossland Miner, March 4, 1897. 9. BCMR, v.7, n.7, J u l y , 1900, p.246. 10. BCMR, v.4, n.11, November, 1898. pp.14-15. 81  base  or  course,  many  miners,  engineers, families  a  variety  they  brought w i t h  supply  such  support  a s : lawyers,  merchants  variety  of agents and b r o k e r s .  therefore, employed  labourers  stratified and may  employees;  some h e l d  of  had a  jobs  1901 manuscript labour  force.  organizing  census  data,  lie.  groups  groups  were  collar  workers  workers;  defined:  others  some  can p r o v i d e  were  autonomy,  a snapshot  a r e , however, problems among  them  the boundaries  inquiry  of D e t r o i t  was  self  unskilled.  and where  for  a study  there  not l e a s t  classification  some were  and some were h i g h l y s k i l l e d ,  There  occupational  white  labour f o r c e was,  few employees,  census  For t h i s  1 1  f o r those  a l l d e s c r i p t i o n s , and a  where  w h i l e o t h e r s were c o n s i d e r e d  Rossland's  and the  and shopkeepers,  Rossland's  o t h e r s were c l o s e l y monitored;  occupational  people  i n a number of ways:  have  managers,  s e r v i c e s o r . any of a v a r i e t y of  employees,  should  assayers,  them c r e a t e d a market  collar  The  of  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . A l l of these  who c o u l d goods,  but a l s o  an  be u s e d .  (1) p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  and c a p i t a l i s t s  ;  with  d e f i n i n g the between them  adaptation  of the  system o u t l i n e d by O l i v i e r  will  of  Zunz  S i x occupational  1 2  high-income  (2) o t h e r  (3) n o n - r e t a i l p r o p r i e t o r s , r e t a i l  white  white-collar  p r o p r i e t o r s , and  11. .'For a more complete d i s c u s s i o n of t h e problems i n creating occupational groups from census data see, R. Dennis, English Industrial Cities of the Nineteenth Century: A Social Geography, (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1984) c h a p t e r 6. 12. " See Appendix A f o r d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l groups and which o c c u p a t i o n s f a l l i n t o each. 82  self-employed earners  and s e r v i c e  labourers; employed and  5  craftsmen;  and  person  (4) s k i l l e d  workers;  (6)  other.  and  (5) u n s k i l l e d wage A  1 3  sample  i n R o s s l a n d was t a k e n  describe  semi-skilled  the occupational  and  service  including  for analysis.  structure  of  wage  every  Tables  Rossland  4 in  1901.  TABLE 4 Occupational  Structure  MS at ra it tu as l 2  1 Married %  73 5. .9  93 7..5  S i ng 1 e  67 3. .3  163 8.,0  5 7.,2  3 4..3  Widowed % Divorced % Total %  2 50 .,0 147 "4.,4  S o u r c e : Manuscript National Archives One  pattern  among M a l e s by M a r i t a l  Occupational 3 4 242 19. . 6  643 52. . 1  136 1217 6..7 60. ,0  Total  169 13. .7  13 1., 1  1233 37. 0  419 20. ,7  27 1 .,3  2029 60 . 8  14 20. ,3  2 2. 9  1 25 .,0  1 25. , 0  0 0  389 1895 11. .7 56. .8  603 18. . 1  0 0  0 0  260 7..8  6  34 49. ,3  11 15. , 9  Census, 1901. By p e r m i s s i o n o f Canada. becomes  obvious  surprisingly,  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  towards  skilled  the  Group 5  Status  and  from  these  o f employed  semi-skilled  4 0. 1  42 1 ..3  3336  of the  tables.  persons wage  69 2. 1  and  Not  i s skewed service  13. H e r e a f t e r i n t h e t e x t t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s w i l l be r e f e r r e d by a b b r e v i a t i o n s : professional, high white-collar, and capitalist—prof./h.w.c./cap.; other white-collar workers—wh.col.; non-retail proprietors, retail p r o p r i e t o r s , a n d s e l f - e m p l o y e d c r a f t s m e n — s . emp.; skilled and s e m i - s k i l l e d wage e a r n e r s a n d s e r v i c e w o r k e r s — s k . / s e m i . wage a n d s e r . ; u n s k i l l e d wage and s e r v i c e labourers—unsk. wage a n d s e r . ; a n d o t h e r — o t h . 83  p o s i t i o n s . The employment p a t t e r n i s o b v i o u s l y dominated by work i n the mines. Of those  males enumerated as s k i l l e d o r  s e m i - s k i l l e d workers, 1,374 {22% of the t o t a l 41%  of  employed  occupation. mines  of engineers  gold  mining  as  their  and draftsmen) , made up the  p r o p o r t i o n of the f i r s t  who c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d or  claimed  P r o f e s s i o n a l s , a g a i n many a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  1 4  (a v a r i e t y  greatest  males)  p o p u l a t i o n and  capitalists;  group. There were v e r y few  as high-income white  most  of  the  mines  collar  were  workers  owned  by  TABLE 5 Occupational Marital Status  S t r u c t u r e among Females by M a r i t a l  1  2  Married  2 3.,3  4 6.,6  37 60..7  10 16.,4  8 13.. 1  Single  13 8 .0 .  29 17.,9  31 19., 1  26 16 ..0  63 38..9  Widowed  2 5..9  2 5.,9  16 47.. 1  2 5..9  12 35.,3  Divorced %  0 0  0 0  1 100. .0  %  17 6 ,6 .  35 13.,6  85 32.,9  %  %  %  Total Source:  Manuscript  O c c u3p a t i o n a4l  Group 5  0 0 38 14.,7  Status  Total  0 0 83 32.,2  61 23. 6 162 62.8 34 13. 2 1 0.4 258  Census, 1901.  14. T h i s f i g u r e must be regarded w i t h some c a u t i o n as t h e r e were a v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a l i z e d t a s k s w i t h i n the mines. Some, l i k e work a t the rock f a c e , r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s k i l l , while others, like sorting ore, required less. In the census, however, t h e r e seems t o be no d i s t i n c t i o n between the two. 84  corporations  with  r e q u i r e d a small  head  offices  in distant  cities.  number of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s ,  such as a C h i e f  of P o l i c e , and was home t o a.few minor government such  as t h e d i s t r i c t  significant  Gold  proportion  (s.emp.).  Most  of  Commissioner. people, who  of the labour  force  There  were  Male  i n Rossland,  Sex  Working on own account %  498 84.8  Employee %  2811 94.5  Employer* % L i v i n g on own means % Total %  be  t o be r e f l e c t e d  Rossland,  as d i f f e r e n t jobs with  them  however,  and  Total 587 16.4  164 5.5  2975 83.2  0 0.0  1 0.0  10 90.9  1 9.1  11 0.3  3320 92.9  254 7.1  unexpected  structure  associated  employed  89 15.2  *Some o f those enumerated as working have been employers. Source: Manuscript Census, 1901  not  a  pattern.  Female  1 100  would  was a l s o  TABLE 6 t o Employment by Sex  Relationship to Employment  It  officials,  self  worked f o r someone e l s e . T a b l e 6 v e r i f i e s t h i s  Relationship  Rossland  on own account  f o r the  i n the r e s i d e n t i a l have v a r y i n g offer  85  • 3574  vastly  must  occupational pattern  of  l e v e l s of  status  different  wages.  Unfortunately, impossible.  mapping  areas  some  Table  shows  the  through  the  exceptions for  some  subdistrict of  data  is,  I f the census s u b d i s t r i c t s  discrete 7  the  broad  the  can be assumed t o be  of  subdistricts.  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  seems  anomalies  can  possible.  occupational  With  a  few  q u i t e even. only  be  H7 most o c c u p a t i o n a l groups,  the sk./semi.  explained,  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are  distribution  census  as  groups notable  Explanations  guessed  a t . In  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n  wage and s e r v . group a r e u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d .  TABLE 7 Rossland O c c u p a t i o n a l Groups 1901 Census Subdistrict  1  2  O c c u p a t i o n a l Groups 3 4 5  H2  34 7..3  39 127 128 8.4 27..3 27..5  134 28..8  H3  36 5..3  53 7.9  98 362 14..6 53..8  119 17..7  H4  20 7..4  45 16 .7  50 18..5  H5  26 2..9  65 7.2  H6  33 7..2  47 10.3  58 227 12..7 49..6  90 19 ,.7  H7  15 1,.8  46 5.5  597 39 4..7 71..8  134 16 ,. 1  164 295 475 1933 4,.6 8.2 13.. 2 53,.8  686 19,. 1  %  %  %  %  %  %  Total  %  Source:  Manuscript  4 0 .9 5 0.7  57 21.. 1  93 34,.4  103 526 152 11..5 58.. 6 16..9  Census,  6  Total 466 13. 0 673 18. 7  5 1. 9  270 7. 5  25 2. 8  897 25. 0  3 0 .7  458 12. 7  0 0  831 23. 1  42 1. 2  3595  1901.  This  i s because the company b o a r d i n g  were  located i n this  district  (this  86  houses  f o r the miners  would p l a c e  i t i n the  north-west s e c t i o n of town near t h e mines and a c o n s i d e r a b l e distance  from the b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n  subdistrict  H4  group,  the s.emp.  and  concentrations. district  on  the  on Columbia  prof./h.w.c./cap.  I t may  Columbia  group  were  be t h a t Avenue.  found  this The  s u b d i s t r i c t H2 and H6. But t h i s  group,  was same  confirms  affected  i n the  highest  be  said  there  was  a  degree  e x p e r i e n c e s of both men the  realities  of  i s simply c o n j e c t u r e . I f the can be a c c e p t e d ,  measure of s e g r e g a t i o n can be a p p l i e d .  that  by  wh.col.  could  of  segregation  o c c u p a t i o n a l groups, but i t was not l a r g e .  The  the  near the b u s i n e s s  assumption of d i s c r e t e census s u b d i s t r i c t s a statistical  Avenue). In  of  in  among  1 3  and women were life  Testing  a  profoundly  mining  town.  Employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , wages, and c u l t u r e shaped the l i f e chances between  of  men  and  women  and  them. Some were p u r e l y  shaped  the  economic,  relationships  others  had deeper  a s s o c i a t i o n s ; gender r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s were determined i n p a r t by c u l t u r e ,  i n p a r t by economic  necessity.  15. The index of s e g r e g a t i o n f o r : the prof./h.w.c./cap. group was, 20.4; f o r the wh.col. group, 26.6; f o r the s.emp. group, 15.4; f o r the sk./semi, wage and s e r . group, 21.2; and f o r the unsk. wage and s e r . group, 10.9. The index o f s e g r e g a t i o n r e f e r s t o how many of a p a r t i c u l a r group would have t o r e l o c a t e t o c r e a t e an even d i s t r i b u t i o n . A v a l u e of 25 i s c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t . 87  TABLE 8 O c c u p a t i o n and Wage S t r u c t u r e among Employed Males Wages 0500 %  5011000  2  1  30  4  88  0..3  11. 4  1.,5  33..7  7  85  0 .4 .  %  10011500  14  15012000  6  6 .6 .  %  35..2  %  20012500  O c c u p a t i o n a l Group 3 4 5  1  24  34  10  16. 1 7 41. 1  59..4 149  4.,7  52 ..9  71 , .1  Total  0  261 13. 6  0  160  1139  1..6  6.0  138  6  1  11..2  1416  0  73. 9  4  0  1.,9  0  11. 0 17  211  1  3  0  0  5..8  1..4  0  0  0. 9  0  2  0  0  0  0  2  0  100  0  0  0  0  0. 1  2501 +  6 75  1 25  0 0  1 25  0 0  0 0  8 0 .4  Total  34 1,.7  %  %  %  159 8. 2  Source, Manuscript  40 1380 2,. 1 72 .0  302 15,.8  1 0.1  1916  Census, 1901.  M i n i n g was a predominantly male a c t i v i t y . e d i t o r o f 77?e Rossland  Although the  Miner warned u n s k i l l e d people w i t h no  funds t o s t a y away from Rossland, a male c o u l d p r o b a b l y a  job. Of a t o t a l  3336  (82%) s t a t e d  more  difficult,  work  for  opportunities labour  o f 4085 males  enumerated  find  i n the census,  an o c c u p a t i o n . F o r women f i n d i n g work was  but many,  wages.  With  especially few  f o r women conformed  of t h e time.  Thus,  women 88  single  women, had t o  exceptions,  employment  t o the sexual d i v i s i o n of could  anticipate  finding  employment nursing, the  i n : domestic work, h a t o r dressmaking,  or waitressing.  products  of  R o s s l a n d i n 1901, if  a woman  found  their  Many were own  self  labour.  teaching,  employed,  Of  2048  females  258 (12.6%) were g a i n f u l l y e m p l o y e d . work  i t typically  made $750 o r l e s s  p e r y e a r and over  annually.  9 ) . Compared  similar  occupational  significantly Many published women  were  But  16  over 85%  60% made $500 o r l e s s  t o what earned,  male women  workers  in  worked  for  above,  were  lower wages (Tables 8 and 9 ) .  warnings, in  groups  in  d i d not pay w e l l . Of  employed women who r e p o r t e d an income i n 1901 j u s t  (Table  selling  like  the one  The Rossland  few. D e s p i t e  Miner these  mentioned  suggesting warnings  t h a t jobs f o r  the e d i t o r  sadly  noted t h a t s i n g l e women c o n t i n u e d t o a r r i v e  i n Rossland w i t h  little  employment. "  money and few p r o s p e c t s of f i n d i n g  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r chances what  had happened  1  of f i n d i n g work the e d i t o r  i n an American  mining  town  7  In  related  where  there  were t o o many s i n g l e women: A few, a v e r y few had the good f o r t u n e t o get m a r r i e d , c h a r i t a b l e people got h o l d of a few more and sent them back whence they came, o f the r e s t the l e s s s a i d the better. We want no such m i s f o r t u n e t o mar the f a i r name of R o s s l a n d . 1 8  16. T h i s f i g u r e i s c l o s e t o t h e n a t i o n a l average. At t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y women made up a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13% o f the Canadian labour force. J . Sangster, "Canadian Working Women." Lectures in Canadian Labour and Working Class History, W.J.C. Cherwinski and Gregory S. Kealey Eds., (Toronto: Committee on Canadian Labour H i s t o r y and New Hogtown P r e s s , 1985) p.60; Canada, M a n u s c r i p t Census, 1901. 17. The Rossland Miner, March 4. 1897.  89  TABLE 9 a n d Wage S t r u c t u r e among E m p l o y e d  •Occupation Wages  O c c u p a t i o n a l Group 4 3 5  Females  6  Total  1  2  0  1  0  0  18  0  19  %  0  5., 2  0  0  94. .7  0  23.4  251500  2  4  2  5  19  0  32  59.,3  0  39.5  0  18 ,  0  22. 2  0  0  11  81..2  0  0  13.6  1 50  0 0  0 0  2 2.5  0250  6 ..2  12 ..5  6 ,2 .  501750  0  11  0  1  %.  0  61., 1  0  9 ,. 1  7511000  .0  0  9  %  *  0  1001 + Total  0 0  Source:  of  turn  arrived  necessary  of  their  43 53,. 1  women  to a  81  0 0  1 9  women  who  of reasons  but these contexts  desperate  i n Rossland  do l i t t l e  numbers.  to  of p r o s t i t u t i o n  In these  solution  documents w h i c h  16 19..8  referring  f o r jobs,  paid.  these  33.,3  a r e a n y number  to a life  poorly  about  There  looking  6  Census, 1901.  course,  prostitution.  and  3 3..7  Manuscript  was,  would  1 50  17 21,.0  2 2..5  %  0  18.. 1  0 0  %  He  2  15.,6  were  hard  F o r whatever  to  a woman  town;  some  t o come b y .  prostitution situation.  than  why  i n a mining  was r e c o r d e d ,  more  turned  became  Very  a  little  save  i n police  p r o v i d e some  indication  reason  a  woman  became  a  18. The Rossland Miner, November 6, 1896. 19. F o r e x a m p l e , f r o m J u l y 26-30 1897, 53 c a s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o s t i t u t i o n a p p e a r i n t h e P o l i c e C o u r t D o c k e t . RHMA 90  prostitute, because  whether  of  difficult  a  troubled  life.  well-appointed cribs,  tiny  shoulder  2  0  A  turned  and  not just  and  i n t h e Kootenay.  single  make  them  impossible were  also  men  worked  than  out of  shacks, s e t  to  loneliness, many  t o drugs,  while  newspaper  t o be f o u n d  editor  i n the region,  i n Rossland,  extremely  women  alcohol,  2 2  husbands  The  that  available  turned  i n a Toronto  potential  by s t a t i n g  no more  or  i n gaudy, b u t  most  Vulnerable  a few t o s u i c i d e .  published  worked  an  transmitted disease,  to prostitution  t h e r e were  many  2 1  alternatives  entered  likely  sometimes  shoulder.  that  responded  she  More  and' s e x u a l l y  report  of v i a b l e  past,  bordellos.  to  who  lack  few u n d o u b t e d l y  buildings,  destitution,  A  for a  of  proclaimed i n Rossland  the Rossland  i t were t r u e t h a t this  for marriage.  Miner  t h e r e were  d i d not a u t o m a t i c a l l y 2 3  Marriage  b u t i t was d i f f i c u l t .  was  not  I n 1901 t h e r e  1280 m a r r i e d men, 977 m a r r i e d women, a n d 1393 f a m i l i e s .  f i l e s . N o t s u r p r i s i n g l y t h e r e wjsre no p r o s t i t u t e s e n u m e r a t e d i n t h e c e n s u s , b u t t h e r e was a n u n u s u a l l y h i g h number o f women e m p l o y e d a s d r e s s m a k e r s . 20. F o r a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f r e a s o n s f o r women t u r n i n g t o p r o s t i t u t i o n s e e C. S t a n s e l l , City of Women, Sex and Class in New York: 1789 -1860, (New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1986) c h . 9. 21. Some o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s t a k e n from r o m a n t i c i z e d a c c o u n t s o f w e s t e r n f r o n t i e r p r o s t i t u t i o n , b u t t h e Rossland Daily Police Reports v o u c h f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f c r i b s . T h e r e was a l s o a Red L i g h t D i s t r i c t . Rossland Daily Police Reports J u n e 4, 1901. J . M a c D o n a l d . I n t e r v i e w , F e b r u a r y , 1990. 22. S e e f o r e x a m p l e , H. S. D r a g o , Notorious Ladies of the Frontier (New Y o r k : Dodd, Mead & Company 1969) . Many o f t h e women a l l to briefly considered i n this book came t o u n f o r t u n a t e ends. 23. The Rossland Miner, November 6, 1896. 91  In  some cases the  ability  of  a  man  feasibility to  make  a  of marriage family  enough wage t o support a f a m i l y .  depended on  wage,  In 1899  that  is a  a  f a m i l y of  three. "*  According  required to  Rossland was. l a r g e r than  2  S l o c a n V a l l e y mining towns and p r i c e s may lower, but  high  the S l o c a n M i n e r s '  Unions argued t h a t a wage of $1,000 per y e a r was support  the  have been a  the  little  c o s t s were p r o b a b l y somewhere i n the same range. to  the  1901  manuscript  census,  $1,000 per y e a r . Among l a b o u r e r s ( s k i l l e d , unskilled)  and  wh.col.  employees  only  few  men  earned  semi-skilled,  9.3%  made  over  and the  s t a t e d minimum t o support a f a m i l y . Yet 32.5% were m a r r i e d . Among  those  among those  who  were  in  the  p r o f . / h .w. c./cap.  group,  and  i n the s.emp. group, .59.5% made over $1,000 per  y e a r and 58.8% were m a r r i e d . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t income  to  Culture badly  maintain  dictated  on  the  that  a  few employees.earned  family, a  masculinity  few  working of  her  m a r r i e d women enumerated i n the 1901 being  gainfully  women were i d l e . could h i r e  employed. T h i s  married  married  a  women  woman  husband.  23  sufficient worked.  reflected  Of  the  977  census o n l y 61 r e p o r t e d  i s not  t o say  that  married  A woman whose husband's income p e r m i t t e d i t  a domestic  and  be  freed  from  domestic  duties.  2 6  24. H a r r i s , 1985, p.327 c i t i n g Department of Labour L i b r a r y , Ottawa, Re Miners and Mine Owners i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, Report and E v i d e n c e , 1900, m i c r o f i l m misc. 86. 25. B. Bradbury, "Women's H i s t o r y and Working Class H i s t o r y , " Labour/Le Travail, v.19, S p r i n g 1987, pp.34-35. 26. I t i s tempting t o say t h a t such women were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n c i v i c r e f o r m s . T h i s was a p p a r e n t l y common i n mining towns. Brown, 1974, p.30. There i s , however, no evidence t o 92  For  most  work  women,  at  home.  inadequate be  made  home.  income  An a n i m a l when  thriftiness.  also  required,  numerous  goods  could  could  from  been  and  be  f a m i l i e s were  left  be  and who  that  they  stretching  prepared  i f space  done  with  t o take  food.  such  a  a source  of d e s p a i r .  couples  of  an  could i n the  allowed.  an  eye  to  i n boarders, but  t o p r o v i d e a room a s w e l l bedding  women  task  c o u l d be k e p t  as  sufficient  Thus,  those  who  strategy  found  i t beyond  of balancing a  could  household  o f p r i d e t o many women, b u t  2 8  were a l t e r n a t i v e s .  married  demanded  f o r the family. Clothes  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  2 7  have  a source  There men,  o r a garden  to provide  must  Baked  the  A common s t r a t e g y was  means.  budget  fell  to provide  b e n e f i t e d most  their  circumstances  them  r e q u i r e d space  income have  To  and r e p a i r e d .  Shopping,  this  though,  I n 1901 t h e numbers o f m a r r i e d  families lived  i n other  indicates  apart. cities  that  there  were  Sometimes  wives  and  while  t h e husband  worked  s u p p o r t s u c h a c l a i m i n R o s s l a n d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d , up t o 1901. 27. The a b i l i t y a n d d e s i r e t o t a k e i n b o a r d e r s was r e l a t e d to t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a n d i n g o f t h e head o f t h e household. Among f a m i l i e s where h e a d o f t h e h o u s e h o l d b e l o n g e d t o t h e prof./h.w.c./cap. g r o u p 3 0 % t o o k i n b o a r d e r s ; among f a m i l i e s h e a d e d by w h . c o l . w o r k e r s , 31%; among f a m i l i e s h e a d e d by a s.emp. member, 36%; among f a m i l i e s h e a d e d by a sk./semi. wage a n d s e r . w o r k e r , 23%; a n d among f a m i l i e s h e a d e d b y a n u n s k . wage a n d s e r . w o r k e r , 24%. 28. F o r more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e home l a b o u r o f w o r k i n g c l a s s women s e e : B. B r a d b u r y , " P i g s , Cows, a n d B o r d e r s : Non Wage f o r m s o f S u r v i v a l among M o n t r e a l F a m i l i e s , 1861-1891," Labour/Le Travail, v . 1 4 . 1984; a n d M. May. "The Good M a n a g e r s : M a r r i e d W o r k i n g C l a s s Women a n d F a m i l y Budget S t u d i e s , 1895-1915," Labour History, v . 2 5 , n.3. Summer 1984. 93  in  Rossland  Rossland  was  appears they  remitting one  that  confirms lived  this  exacerbated in  as  by  employment  labour  had  probably  since  husband would  to  the  household.  1901,  only  only  imagine  difficult, tending  2.5%  emergencies  made  the  likely  be  life brunt  than for  of  directly  on  their  by  women  was to  that  April  a  many  to  seek  i n Rossland  find  an  employment little  income  in  One  can  year. was  income  dealing  women  coming  contribute  per  p r o v i d i n g an  census  pattern  reported  $1,000  it  while  married  were  to  able to  and  of  But  and  i n Rossland  behind  but  these  needs  cities  indicate  left  alternative  family.  This  Rossland  the w i f e  more  domestic fell  left  his  manuscript  number  Among women who  3 0  that  for to  little  a  Documents  For  t h e r e was  The  t r o u b l e s which  already 2 9  families  children.  year.  elsewhere.  her  that  to  Kootenay  elsewhere.  their  census  could  their  i t shows  the  miners  he  larger  left  with  the  striking  the  employment  alone  head  of  some men  sought  what  extremely as  with  well  as  everyday  shoulders.  * The  classification  providing wholly  an  interesting  describe  of and  Rossland's  occupations useful social  into  starting  groups,  though  p o i n t , does  structure.  Such  not a  29. The Industrial World, J u l y 14, 1900. By November t h e r e were only a couple of hundred striking miners left in Rossland, The Labour Gazette, v . 2, n.6, December 1901, p.364. 30. The m a n u s c r i p t c e n s u s shows t h a t many w o r k i n g married women l i v e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h e i r h u s b a n d s . 94  . g r a d a t i o n a l approach city,  but  may r e f l e c t  i t would  be  a  the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y of the  mistake  assume  arbitrary  constructions  perceptions  and a c t i o n s of those who a c t u a l l y  in  Rossland's  try  determine  relationship class  social  to their  that  such  reflect  the  t h e r e was a  the e x p l o i t i v e  i n t e n s i v e mining the v a r i o u s  relations  i t c o u l d not have been elements  in a  s t r u c t u r e beyond p i g e o n h o l i n g o c c u p a t i o n s i s another A  number  of authors  have  suggested,  i s to  saw themselves i n  work and t o o t h e r s . That  Identifying  participated  An a l t e r n a t i v e  of Rossland  i s . a given, with  generated by c a p i t a l  adequately  relationships.  how the people  structure  otherwise.  can  to  in slightly  social matter.  different  ways, t h a t c l a s s e s can be i d e n t i f i e d by a d i s p o s i t i o n t o a c t as  a  class.  paragraphs in  3 1  An attempt  to unravel  will  the s o c i a l  be made  i n the f o l l o w i n g  relationships  constituted  Rossland. The  because  logical they  p l a c e t o b e g i n i s w i t h the l a b o u r i n g people dominate  Rossland's  labour  force.  31. D i f f e r e n t commentators p r o f f e r a l t e r n a t e ways t o view class consciousness culminating in revolutionary c o n s c i o u s n e s s . As examples: R i c h a r d Dennis d e f i n e s i t s i m p l y as being a common s e t of a t t i t u d e s , b e h a v i o r s and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; I r a K a t z n e l s o n concurs but argues t h a t such i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s o n l y a s i n g l e f a c t o r among f o u r which must be c o n s i d e r e d i n combination i n any a n a l y s i s of c l a s s ; and N i g e l T h r i f t and P e t e r W i l l i a m s c r i t i q u e a f o u r stage model of class consciousness that c u l m i n a t e s i n a s p i r i t of revolution. Dennis, 1984, p.187; I. K a t z n e l s o n , CityTrenches: Urban Politics and the Patterning of Class in the United States, (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1981) pp.201,204; N. T h r i f t and P. W i l l i a m s , "The Geography of C l a s s Formation," Class and Space: The Making of Urban Society. N. T h r i f t and P. W i l l i a m s , Eds., (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1987) p.10. 95  Identification painter, work into  p l a c e . The leisure  trade  a  l a b o u r e r , whether a miner,  or a c a r p e n t e r , went beyond the  friends  or  social  relationships  activities. frequented  union  in  the  crucial women  functions.  conditions the  of  children at work  homes and  social  as  and  not  among  only  well.  tight  work  almost  3 3  The  among  the over been  if  their  certainly  met  were  important  home  was  men,  but  relating  budgets were No  and  a  have  circles;  Matters  friends.  barber,  carried  may  in particular  labourers.  a  individual  employees  same  Unions  socialization,  and  of  o r g a n i z e d they  3 2  socialization to  Fellow  the  or o c c u p a t i o n was  at  in  as  likely  member of  a  also among  to  the  discussed family  was  more aware of an i n s u f f i c i e n t  income than a w i f e and mother.  Associations  important  work in  like  are  socializing... reinforces  influencing  with  these  people  norms and  in similar  of  the  3  occupations  society  formulated  individuals  work. S o c i a l i z a t i o n ,  effect  "...[s]uch o f f occupation  v a l u e s . " * * In o t h e r words  about work and by  the  for  and  r e i n f o r c e d those  then,  through took  their  with  similar  which may own  contact views  have been  experience  p l a c e not o n l y at work,  of but  32. S e v e r a l groups of workers i n Rossland were u n i o n i z e d including: miners, newsboys, typographers, tailors, painters, brewerymen, barbers, cooks and waiters, c a r p e n t e r s , mechanics, and l a b o u r e r s . The Evening- World, J u l y 15, 1901. 33. As mentioned i n the f i r s t chapter North America was undergoing a second wave of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Reaction a g a i n s t i t was s t r o n g , o f t e n t a k i n g the shape of s o c i a l i s m or r a d i c a l i s m . Unions o f t e n s u p p l i e d l i t e r a t u r e and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s e x p l a i n i n g the e x p l o i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p labours were engaged i n w i t h c a p i t a l . 34. M.I.A. Bulmer, "Sociological Models of the Mining Community," Sociological Review, 1975, p.81. 96  in  t h e home, i n t h e community, and i n the union h a l l  context  of reference  shared,  groups  wider working be  there  v a l u e s . and norms  class  consciousness  surprising,  was  which suggests  i n Rossland.  f o r as mentioned  growing  awareness  t h a t t h e r e was a This  organizations. formed w i t h  In  1897  a Miners'  a  of c l a s s  Union  Trades  issues  and  cause.  g i v e n the Rossland  good  example  example,  non-union  the union,  and  establishment.  outside  Council  class  disregarded  solidarity.  1901 a r e s t a u r a n t was  were  After  only  f o r as he  noted  the f o l d . "  wrote t h e r e was r e a l  3 6  advised a  not  matter  i t was  As t h e e d i t o r  to  of  labour's  As  another  i d e n t i f i e d as replacements  impossible of  called  patronize  days  the to  the owner  "...stay  77?e Evening  power i n a u n i t e d working  World  class:  I t i s a matter of s u r p r i s e t o t h e w o r l d t h a t any man i n b u s i n e s s would choose t o d e f y t h e wishes of those from whom he s e c u r e s h i s b u s i n e s s . There can be but one 35. Mouat, 1988, p.61. 36. The Evening World, September 1, 5, 1901. 97  3 3  s t r i k e of 1901-02 i s  cooks.. The owner was sent  men  was  i n t e r e s t s . A sharp  but he t u r n e d them away. A b o y c o t t was  a l l union  complied,  working  i n September,  employing by  of  i n labour  miners by many o f the  labour o r g a n i z a t i o n s d u r i n g the miners' a  North  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e as p r e s i d e n t .  open f o r those who openly  The support  chapter  across  Labour  They a l s o s t r o v e t o p r o t e c t one anothers was kept  should  i n the f i r s t  America. T h i s wider awareness made i t s e l f m a n i f e s t  eye  were  s a n c t i o n e d , and a r t i c u l a t e d .  There i s a l s o evidence  not  where  i n the  r e s u l t , l o s s of b u s i n e s s and u l t i m a t e f a i l u r e . No one i n t h i s day can employ whom he p l e a s e s a t whatever r a t e he can get them f o r and r e t a i n the b u s i n e s s o f those who a r e opposed t o such p o l i c y . 3 7  There  i s , then,  much  to  suggest  that  Rossland's  l a b o u r i n g people had a d i s p o s i t i o n t o a c t i n a c l a s s way. I t is  also  important  individual collage and  that  these were  reactions to industrialization  not  i n group  essentially  settings.  powerless,  but  As  spontaneous  or c a p i t a l ,  o f c o m p l a i n t s and g r i e v a n c e s which  sanctioned  were  t o note  were  reinforced  individuals,  unified  but a  workers  into  organized  of  Rossland's  b o d i e s they w i e l d e d some power. Class  identification  population  i s more  problematic truncated.  is  scale  proprietors,  city.  There  rest  of  were,  the  manuscript  difficult  that  Few mine  to  Rossland's  the  rest  penetrate.  most seems  owners, h i g h r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l s ,  large-  or  social  Perhaps  structure  large-scale  i n fact,  population  census  among  shows  employers  lived  i n the  few who were s e t a p a r t from the by  that,  wealth  and  power.  among those  who  The  1901  r e p o r t e d an  income, l e s s than 12% of the p o p u l a t i o n made over a s t a n d a r d wage (about $1,100 per y e a r ) and l e s s than 2% earned g r e a t e r than  $1,500  per y e a r .  were prominent management  Considered  professionals,  of t h e mines, and  among  successful later  The Evening- World,  and the  the o f f i c i a l s  of West  September 1, 1901. 98  elite  merchants,  Kootenay Power and L i g h t , and Cominco.  37.  the R o s s l a n d  Yet united  i t would be a mistake  i n t h e i r v a l u e s . They may  the m e r i t s and was  t o assume t h a t t h i s group  a  members of t h i s committed  have h e l d s i m i l a r views of  i n a d e q u a c i e s of the working  fundamental  divide  group.  to  the  in  The  the  c l a s s , but  primary  concerns  mine management were  continued  functioning  of  companies they r e p r e s e n t e d . O f t e n , e s p e c i a l l y the b i g mines, they corporations. independent  had  Thus, of  the  Rossland,  and  attachment  t o the  were  concerned  also  vital they  interest had  imagine dealings further  38.  R.  The  3 6  with  the  mining  i n the case of of  relatively  the  may  actual  have  the  parent secure,  mines no  real  o t h e r members of t h i s  elite  mines,  but  been  in  they  also  had  a  i n the c o n t i n u e d f u t u r e of t h e i r c i t y because financial  investments  to Rossland.  MacDonald  was  and  another  with  in,  Thus,  Kirby  (this  portion  neither  influential,  craftsmen, have  there  the  and  had  formed  i t i s not h a r d at the  will  be  to  mysterious dealt  the  of  small  the elite  population nor  the  c l a s s . T h i s component of the p o p u l a t i o n was  less  may  of  of  with  below).  identified  of  city.  were  there  principally  the bequest  c o n s t e r n a t i o n of these people  of  There  working  longevity  attachments  the  jobs  therefore  made  emotional  been sent on  their  was  proprietors, seen  the  Lucas,  professionals and  some white  l a b o u r i n g people  Mi 11 town,  and  as  Minetown,  U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1971) 99  large made up  businesspersons,  c o l l a r workers. a class RaiItown,  p.152.  who  and  They  perhaps (Toronto:  even  the small  indicate  group.  saw  were  where  in their  Union  Instead  there  lodges,  like  Fraternal catering  jobs  Rossland  reputation frontier begun Trade,  the  Rossland Rossland  to  had considerable  like  Furthermore the Rossland  and  various  of  many  Rossland; created  held  of being  t o improve  Organizations  Club  such  rigourously  Many h a d a a  desire a  settled i n  wild  and  boisterous  r e p u t a t i o n had Board  of  and t h e  t o b o l s t e r t h e image o f  town.  4 0  Sanitation  i n mid  1896  39. A f i l e of Rossland's clubs and o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o u n d i n t h e RHMA f i l e s . 40. T h e s e c l u b s a r e a l s o l i s t e d i n t h e RHMA f i l e s . 100  or  t o change t h e  Association,  enforced  stake  property  as t h e Rossland  created  and v i t a l  who  Rossland's  Progressive were  city.  a  clubs  3 9  perhaps  which  and t h e  athletic  of those  fortheir  rhetoric.  Horseshoe,  t a s t e s and n e e d s .  on c o n c e r n  Rossland  a common  of the Golden  unified  as a v i b r a n t be  employees ( s .  engineers).  organization  Eagles,  Efforts  Boosters  b u t may h a v e  small  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as  Rossland  early.  their  ran  this  clubs  which  town.  alongside  many  of  numerous  of  investment  though  One  under  the well-being  business  terms.  ;  group  to individual  centred  class  this  the Knights  bond  in  i s l i t t l e to  of experiences  (accountants,  to unite  Order  One  began  worked  employees,  were  range  employers,  they  but there  themselves  was no a l l - i n c l u s i v e  Labour  terms,  i n t h e wide  O t h e r s were  autonomy  in  they  lies  Some  operations  there  i n such  that  explanation  emp.).  elite  laws  and t h e c a n be  Rossland  Map 4 Townsite,  1897  S o u r c e : C h a s . E. Goad, R o s s l a n d F i r e I n s u r a n c e Maps, 1897 U s e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Map L i b r a r y .  Scale:  1 inch  = 500  feet.  ]  •  X  •  • C5  •  4-> W  i  o  11 —•  a  •  di  First Avenue Rossland:  First  Map 5 Avenue and L i n c o l n  S o u r c e : C h a s . E . Goad, R o s s l a n d F i r e I n s u r a n c e Maps, U s e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Map L i b r a r y .  Street,  1897  1897 Scale:  • 1 inch  i — i  = 50  feet.  slaughterhouse  and  limits.*  pell  The  4 1  protection, scrutiny. beyond  and  a  were  civic  matters  t o these  of those  In July,  taxes, With  the  first  council  system Police  fire  also  came  were  to contribute to  their  incorporation  of the b i l l  t h e $50,000  out,  of Rossland as  As a c i t y  effort  Miner,  Rossland  o f income  for the  and t h e e l e c t i o n o f applied  a c o n t r a c t f o r a sewer  M a g i s t r a t e and a L i c e n c e and  appointed.  t o improve  for prohibition  The Rossland  begun,  city.  t o levy and  l o a n was s u c c e s s f u l l y  and a P o l i c e  Commissioner  citizens,  was i n c o r p o r a t e d a s a  p r o v i d i n g two s o u r c e s  the passing  under  however,  benefits.  i m p r o v e m e n t s were  given  continuing voted  financial  thus  city.  street  t h e camp,  t o b o r r o w $50,000 a n d h a d t h e r i g h t  new  for,  city  problems,  willing  1897 R o s s l a n d  had important  collect  of  beyond  A d e c i s i o n was made, among c o n c e r n e d  4 2  entitled  legislated  organization  t h e o n l y r o u t e was t o s e e k  This  41.  other  t h e means  city.  was  mell  The s o l u t i o n s  correction. that  pigsties  4 3  Then,  in  1898,  t h e Town's r e p u t a t i o n  i n t h e town by a n a r r o w  A u g u s t 28, 1896;  in  Rossland  margin.  The Rossland  a  4 4  Weekly-  Miner, O c t o b e r 23, 30, 1896. 42. T h e f u n d i n g f o r t h e s e a n d o t h e r n e c e s s a r y p r o j e c t s was supposed t o have come from the provincial government, although the opinion i n Rossland was that they were s e r i o u s l y s h i r k i n g t h e i r d u t i e s . The m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f R o s s l a n d t a x p a y e r s became a c o n s t a n t theme i n 77?e Rossland Miner, t h e e d i t o r c l a i m i n g t h a t they d i d n o t g e t back onetenth o f what they paid into provincial coffers. 7??e Rossland Miner, M a r c h 30 1895; J a n u a r y 25, 1896; November 25, 1896. 43. Whittaker, 1949, p.34; R o s s l a n d Miner Historical E d i t i o n , O c t o b e r 11, 1938, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, The Library, Special Collections, Western Federation of Miners, Mine Mill Papers, Box 150 - F i l e 16. H e r e a f t e r t h i s c o l l e c t i o n w i l l be c i t e d a s MMP B o x - F i l e . 44. Mouat, 1988, p . 4 6 . 103  The  fire  remarkable  insurance  snapshot  of  town. D r a f t e d  in July  layout  town  while  of  the  most  there  of  were  appeared  Such though  at  seemingly that  in  inside  city  limits  income  was  lost of  lots  that  town s i t e  private  a  relegated  bring  city  movement t o  many  grid  ramifications.**  6  and did  and no  be  For  image o f many  other  may  the  of  pigs  food  and The  4 3  regularized  4).  lots  This  put  labourers  rental  have  been  town, b u t  miners,  of  possible,  most  houses,  social  families.  system  of  5).  keeping  source  means  plan  class-based  on  (Map  that  and  of. where  purchased  the  improvements,  have  longer  Prohibition the  a  to  placement  (Maps 4  social  a  camp  street  and.  order  working-class  the  boarding  limits. improve  to  a valuable  was  would have t o  to  the  restriction  pattern  beyond  to  larger questions  that  provide  illustrating  location  thought  squatting  them  detail,  conformed  The  meant  1897  s e r i e s o f maps shows  whose  up  lay.  to  residence  this  physical  for  t r a n s i t i o n from  inoffensive,  Rossland  imposition  beyond  others  attempts  meant  1897,  made w i t h o u t  power  the  of  Rossland  physical  buildings  still  ramifications  the  of  in considerable  the  t o be  maps  and  i t had  a and  units, part  in  of  or a  deeper  probably  a  45. K e e p i n g a p i g was one survival strategy for families t r y i n g t o g e t by on an i n a d e q u a t e income. P i g s t o o k up l e s s room and required l e s s c a r e t h a n a cow. Bettina Bradbury describes p i g s as "...a p o o r man's cow." Bradbury, 1984, p. 14. 46. Francis Couvares argues that actions such as p r o h i b i t i o n , were p a r t o f an a t t e m p t t o r e f o r m t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . By t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e w o r k e r ' s l e i s u r e t i m e i t was h o p e d t h a t h i s / h e r m o r a l s t a n d a r d s m i g h t a l s o be r a i s e d . F. 104  significant saloons  was c a u s e  was  thought  not  only  place only  a small  carried fact,  a  and  t o vote  paying  taxes  voting  incivic and  that  A  issues  matters.  4 3  excluded  many  these  was  and w i t h  common were  source pattern  seemingly  labouring  people.  had d e f i n e d  as  the  property  provincial  holders  The c o s t s  who  were  of buying  a  on i t a n d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f many  elections. Fortheir  interests,  saloon  as an a l t e r n a t i v e , an  Rossland's  only  the  i t was a l s o a alone  improvements  in civic  on them  powerless t o confront  often  a c t of incorporation  a house  a  f r i e n d s was a n i m p o r t a n t  consulting  i n civic  with  house  of  The s a l o o n  4,7  get a drink,  labourers,  and p h y s i c a l  voice  closure  town w i t h o u t  entertainment.  Act dictated  of land  numbers  among  the  but monotony.  i n a boarding  the simple  have  allowed  F o r many  out without  Municipal  plot  room  social  A mining  where one c o u l d  companionship  would  little  i n the saloon  emerges:  In  to offer  a place  labourers,  f o r alarm;  to socialize.  evening of  p o r t i o n of other  labouring part,  labourers  people  and d e s p i t e found  from their  themselves  reforms.  C o u v a r e s , "The T r i u m p h o f Commerce: C l a s s C u l t u r e a n d Mass C u l t u r e i n P i t t s b u r g h , " Working Class America. M. F r i s c h a n d D. W a l k o w i t z , E d s . , (Chicago.: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1983) . I n 1908 t h e spokesman f o r t h e movement t o r e s t r i c t g a m b l i n g a n d d r i n k i n g d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t s u c h a m o t i v e was present a t that time: "I t h i n k . . . t h a t you w i l l see that i t w i l l be a b e n e f i t t o t h e w o r k i n g men o f t h i s town i f t h e l a w i s e n f o r c e d . " The Rossland Miner, May 23, 1908. 47. S c h w a n t e s , 1979, p.127. 48. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Revised Statutes of British Columbia, v.l (Victoria: Richard W o l f e n d o n , P r i n t e r t o t h e Queen's Most E x c e l l e n t M a j e s t y , 1897) p.767. 105  It miners large the  seems o n l y  appropriate  i n Rossland. portion  because  took  social  miners  place  which  up  which  affected  worked work in  i n mechanized  outlined  Rossland the  the  British  less  than  mine.  feet  the miners during  of  found  Others  union  that were  the workings  But  o f t h e town t h e  affected  t h e whole  I t was done i n  labour.  number  Most  miners  miners  of  report  complaints  on t h e  complained  that  l e d t o t h e mine  environment.  Record  fatalities  of a Provincial  favourable  the conditions Most  hall.  many o f t h e h a z a r d s o f  i n several  Mining  a t work, a t  the s t r i k e .  chapter. A  a  about  of the miners.  was d i f f i c u l t .  a s an u n s a f e work  Some c o m p l a i n e d  up f r o m  part  i n t h e Le R o i s h o u l d have  adequate.  blasting.  large  and f a c e d  When  4 9  Columbia  miners  a  the  l e d t o t h e appointment  m i n e s was t u r n e d  condemned  several  49. 50.  mines.  conditions  being  of  i n the f i r s t  of  true  at  t e n hours  mines  t h e R o s s l a n d mines  Inspector  true  i n t h e mines  required  represented a  Much o f what was s a i d  and  such  town. T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y  Employment  look at the  i n a number o f p l a c e s :  functions,  made  circumstances  shifts  families  people of Rossland i s also  Socialization at  and t h e i r  of the population.  labouring  home,  They  t o take a c l o s e r  also  3 0  Letters to  indicate  i n the Rossland  that mine  f o c u s e d on t h e L e R o i  t h e r e was no s y n c h r o n i z e d s y s t e m appalled  at having  on l a d d e r s ,  because  BCMR, v . 4 , n.2, F e b r u a r y , 1898, p . 1 3 . BCMR, v . 4 , n.4, A p r i l , 1898, p . 4 2 . 106  to climb there  675  were no  cages  or  allowed.  elevators  most  companies  cent He  common  required  houses.  were  One  argued  the p r o f i t s  guarded.  out that  14  replaced  by  men  Apparently  shop  single  lodgings.  $6.50-$7.00  per  week,  some  i n a company  enacted houses  He  cars  who  was  not  hotels  store.  3 2  t o c u r b t h e abuses and s t o r e s .  legislation  by  they  i n town  had  been  offered  offered  a  miners  were  I n 1898 t h e K e l l y  their  places.  with  by  l e t go a n d to stay i n  at a  not  associated  f i f t y per  h i s assertion  were  M i n i n g companies,  running  company  i n such  compelled  were  that  at  from b o a r d i n g miners  up  had been  indication  mining  board  staying  miners  though  many  estimated that  earned  lodgings  that  to  backed  married  These  the best  i s also  employees  correspondent  pointing  There  ore  was  a t R o s s l a n d were  that  jealously  company  the  grievance  their  of the miners  also  riding  3 1  The  rooming  and  premium.  very  good.  better  deal.  required to  Truck  company  A c t was boarding  however, a v o i d e d  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s under  this  a  third  T h e 1901 c e n s u s  shows  party.  Work  i n t h e m i n e s was  that  most  miners  But  an  suggested  51. 52.  article that  were  irregular.  employed  f o r 10 months  i n t h e British  miners  were  BCMR, v . 4 , n.3, M a r c h , BCMR, v . 4 , n.4, A p r i l ,  laid  Columbia  i n the year.  Mining  Record  o f f f o r a s many a s t e n d a y s  1898, p . 4 1 . 1898, p . 4 2 . 107  a  month  earned  not  Sundays.  a h i g h e r wage t h a n most  annual  earnings  enumerated  living  were  very  as g o l d m i n e r s  Faced  meet.  including  with  T h i s was  A commentator  particularly  though  Only  more t h a n  work,  had  even  miners  labourers could expect,  earned  miners  Thus,  similar.  uncertain  expenses,  3 3  low  6.4%  of  $1,000  difficult  true  i f the  time  those  in  earnings,  a  their  1901.  and  high  making  m i n e r were  ends  married.  noted:  S h o u l d t h e u n f o r t u n a t e be m a r r i e d h i s c a s e becomes t h a t of, a s l a v e , f o r he w i l l n e v e r w i l l h a v e enough money i n h a n d t o be a h e a d w i t h t h e w o r l d and p u r c h a s e i n cash f r o m h i s own c h o i c e o f s t o r e . * * 5  Rossland to  produce  were of  did  the not  Kelly  institution social and  for  Truck  a  organized  amounts  Canadian strong  their Act.  once  of  local  of  beginning.  and  Yet  3 5  Rossland  federal  mines  began  In  1895  they  the  the  As  union  the  Miners'  governments  WFM,  but  F o r . example,  non-participation  f o r miners.  the  the  ore.  f o r i t s members, o f t e n i t was  strength  in  was the  union Union  the an  the they  passing important  only source gained would  in i t s efforts  of  members take  on  to protect  members.  In creating 53. 54. 55.  have  attachment  provincial its  first  criticized  the  became  substantial  established union  miners  BCMR, BCMR, BCMR,  1899 an v.4, v.4, v.4,  the  Rossland  eight n.5. n.5, n.6,  hour  Miners' work  Union  day  for  May, 1898, p. 18-19. May, 1898, pp.18-19. June, 1898. 108  was  instrumental in  British  Columbia  miners. * 3  miners same  Response  5  went wage  Rossland  on s t r i k e f o r eight  t h e mine  difficulties and  they  complied  the  when hours  In the Slocan  t h e owners work  managers,  light  Institute  the situation  Valley the t o pay  the  had f o r ten. of  the  In  financial  t o keep the mines o p e r a t i n g  t h e new l e g i s l a t i o n .  Mining  refused  as they  in  faced, decided  with  Canadian  assessed  was i m m e d i a t e .  in  At t h e meetings of  1899, t h e s e c r e t a r y  at Rossland:  R o s s l a n d h a s h e l d h e r head s o h i g h , s h e h a s been above t h e " L a b o u r T r o u b l e s , " b u t s h e h a s h a d t o s t a n d upon h e r t i p t o e s t o do i t . W h e t h e r s h e w i l l g e t t i r e d o f t h i s u n n a t u r a l p o s e r e m a i n s t o be s e e n . 3 7  It  was n o t l o n g b e f o r e  Rossland  began  to fall  headlong  into  a p r o t r a c t e d labour dispute.  After that  a s h o r t time  compliance  production  costs  down,  ostensibly  miners  were t o l d  of the to  payment.  with  i t became a p p a r e n t the  b y $.72 p e r t o n . f o r repairs,  pressure  A federal  the offer. from  Hour 3 1 3  Law  had  raised  The mines  were  closed  b u t when  t h e y would have t o a c c e p t mediator  d i s p u t e , b u t he c o u l d accept  Eight  find  Within  t h e Government  t o t h e management  they  a contract  was p e t i t i o n e d no r e a s o n  a week and w i t h  reopened  the  system  to adjudicate  f o r the miners not  o f n e g o t i a t i o n s , under little  public  support,  56. For a detailed account of the role of the Rossland M i n e r s ' U n i o n i n t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e E i g h t H o u r Law a n d t h e e n s u i n g l a b o u r t r o u b l e a n d s t r i k e , s e e Mouat, 1988. 57. " A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g s o f t h e I n s t i t u t e , " The Journal of the Canadian Mining- Institute, v . 3, M a r c h 1900 p p . 1 8 5 186. 58. M a c D o n a l d , 1902, p.319. 109  the  Union  had l i t t l e  try  the contract  In  July,  strike.  In a  and  posted  protest  use  6 0  for  miners their  the  the  management immigrants,  labour  they  of  on  newspapers  spying  on  the revocation  market;  ofthe  agencies  and  smelter  finally workers  striking  and  property; to  employment  were  went  to to at  to bring the  t o $2.50 t o $3.00 p e r d a y .  i n the strike  Shortly began  practice  striking  a n d t h e management ends.  least  i t s reasons f o r  f o r members on company  In a d d i t i o n  key i s s u e  outlined  to protest  the  m u c k e r ' s wage up f r o m  A  the union  of Rossland  i n the local  clandestine  overcrowd  sympathy  Northport.  of  Union  circulated  of canvassing  artificially show  statement  and t o a t  3 9  u n i o n members;  the  b u t t o comply  1901 t h e M i n e r s '  to  blacklisting  protest  system.  as a b u l l e t i n  striking:  privilege  choice  after  to recruit  to replace  was t h e a c c e s s  to the legal the s t r i k e  means  was  miners.  to  called  strikebreakers,  the s t r i k i n g  of both the  6 1  often  achieve  t h e mine European  The U n i o n  went  59. T h e m i n e s h a d r e m a i n e d c l o s e d f o r 66 d a y s . Mouat, 1988; BCMR, v . 7 , n.4, A p r i l , 1900, p . 3 0 ; F. W o o d s i d e , " H i s t o r y o f the Rossland T r o u b l e , " The Miners' Magazine, August 20, 1901, p. 3. A copy of t h i s manuscript c a n be f o u n d a t : University of British Columbia, The Library, Special Collections Division, Angus Mclnnis Collection, Box 3 4 - F i l e 8. 60. T h e b u l l e t i n was a d d r e s s e d t o t h e C i t i z e n s a n d B u s i n e s s Men o f R o s s l a n d a n d V i c i n i t y a n d t o t h e G e n e r a l P u b l i c a n d  was titled: A Plain Statement: The Presented by the Executive Committee of  Facts of the Case the Rossland Miners'  Union No.38, WFM, J u l y 12, 1901. MMP 150-2. I t a l s o a p p e a r e d i n The Rossland Miner J u l y 13, 1901. 61. T h e f a v o u r e d s o u r c e s o f s t r i k e b r e a k e r s w e r e : M i n n e s o t a , where t h e r e a l a r g e number o f i m m i g r a n t mine w o r k e r s whom 110  to  great  popular to  lengths  to  recruitment  t h o s e who  circulate areas  arrived  and  to  in Rossland  t h e s e means many were d e t e r r e d But  despite  hire  the  Union  imported the  of  deportation occurred. the  of  Assistant Rossland  Labour  Act.  hundreds Act.  s s  Yet  When  of  of  had  King  report  the sent  a  Roi  in  was  able  September.  these  similar made  laid,  to  6 3  illegally appeal in  but  by  vain. the  full  requesting  that  MacKenzie King,  come  Ottawa  violations in  Rossland the  Minister  for  A  to  the  the  By  S 2  hoped  describing to  mines.  U n i o n had  L a b o u r , W.L.  arrived  the  strikebreakers.  Le  been  were  in  effective barriers  have  though  Unions  investigate  affidavits  King's  the  to  convictions  Minister  strike  t o work i n t h e  union  even  p e t i t i o n was  and  create  Ottawa  strikebreakers  A  6 4  to  Miners'  individual  the  from becoming  the  deported,  Valley  of  t o resume o p e r a t i o n  appealed  miners  Slocan  number  to  e f f o r t s of  enough e m p l o y e e s  The  news  of  the  Alien  he  was  given  violations of  never  of  L a b o u r makes  the no  management t h o u g h t w o u l d be willing t o work d e s p i t e the strike; and M i s s o u r i , a s o u r c e o f s t r i k e b r e a k e r s i n many m i n i n g d i s p u t e s t h r o u g h o u t the w e s t e r n c o r d i l l e r a . Woodside, 1901, p.7, Angus Mclnnis Collection, 34-8; Wyman, 1979, p. 54. 62 W o o d s i d e t o S h i H a n d , J u l y 26, 1901, MMP 152-4. O t h e r union records show t h a t names and d e s c r i p t i o n s of known s c a b s were c i r c u l a t e d among t h e union locals. Background c h e c k s on p o t e n t i a l members were a l s o c a r r i e d o u t . W o o d s i d e w r o t e t o Andrew S h i H a n d , s e c r e t a r y o f t h e Sandon local, i n f o r m i n g h i m t h a t : "...we h a v e t h e camp p i c k t e d ( s i c ) f o r 2 miles round and good committees alround ( s i c ) so i t is impossible f o r men to get i n without seeing them. W o o d s i d e t o S h i l l a n d , J u l y 28, 1901, MMP 152-1. 63. The Rossland Miner, S e p t e m b e r 4, 1901. 64. The Labour Gazette, O c t o b e r , 1901, v.2, n.4, p.210. 65. Rossland Miner H i s t o r i c a l E d i t i o n , p.34, MMP 150-16.. Ill  mention  of  these  or the presence  miners.  Instead  i t goes  alleged  irregularities  The management more to  into  turned  down,  i n t h e Union's  detail  strike  a  system.  fora  squad  was  supplied  by  o f men were  supervision October,  o f t h e mine  them  away  them,  the  strikebreakers, employment they  potential  union with  a  decision  lawsuit  from  were  When  breakers to call  another  laid  blow  t o recover  the  lost  that a  the  ability  Also  while  6 - 7  In  union  considering  of  taking  were  obtained  to  intercept  a part  i n the  i n October the  as t h e major mines  income  was  municipal  residences  a n d may h a v e p l a y e d 6 9  squad  and t h e grounds  injunctions  in King.  request  reveal  against  o f someone  the union's  a  and M a c D o n a l d .  stations,  these  the  t o make  and put under t h e  any o f t h e mines  railway  hampered  strike  received  6 0  the c i t y  managers, K i r b y  o r even those  there.  severely  union's  by  1901, i n j u n c t i o n s  ordering around  hired  6 6  able  police  g o v e r n m e n t . Sworn s t a t e m e n t s b y h i r e d d e p u t i e s number  describing  Although  special  imported,  vote.  o f t h e m i n e s was s e e m i n g l y  government  such  illegally  considerable  e f f e c t i v e use o f t h e l e g a l  the federal  of  served  them  t h e s t r i k e was  66. K i n g ' s f u l l r e p o r t c a n be f o u n d i n . The Labour Gazette. v..2, n.6, December, 1902, pp.362-365. 67. T h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a l s o r e v e a l t h a t t h e s e s p e c i a l s were well armed. Sworn S t a t e m e n t s by Edward I r v i n g a n d Edward P a v i e r , N o t a r i z e d b y C O . L a l o n d e , Mayor, J u l y 29, 1901, MMP 150-2. 68. W o o d s i d e t o S h i H a n d , October 25, 1901, MMP 152-7; Rossland Miner, J a n u a r y 8, 1902. 69. Mouat, 1988, p . 8 9 . 112  in  effect.  its  While  threat  It had  hung o v e r  appears,  varying  recourse from  to  the  evidence  the  justification Act  en  Minister  the  access the  of  case  then, to  Alien  start.  intention  the  the  It  did  union.  go  the  the  legal  it  union  have  may  and  system.  Act  in  court  miners  may  questionable  enforcing  to  immediately,  - 7 0  that  Labour  is  not  the But  have  whether  Rossland  at  supplied.  the  As  of J u s t i c e  a  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  ill-fated  there  was  any  a l l , despite was  t o the r e l u c t a n c e of the government  masse.  Union's  been  There  7 1  management  the  a  any  legal  to enforce  Office  of  the  explained:  . . . t h a t [a l a r g e s c a l e e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e A l i e n Labour Act] i s p r e c i s e l y what we h a v e b e e n a s k e d t o do in British Columbia, and what we cannot do without discrediting the administration of justice, and s u b j e c t i n g the country to l a s t i n g r e p r o a c h . 7 2  Besides at  offering  in  the  events  in  was  legal  quotation Rossland  involved  in  justifications, above,  were a  political  threaten  the  motives  u n f o l d i n g , .the  dispute  with  boundary between B r i t i s h . Columbia to  t h e r e were, as  completion  of  'the and  the  as  Dominion Americans  A l a s k a and  negotiations,  hinted  well.  As  government over had  no  the wish  especially  70. This l a w s u i t was based upon s u c c e s s f u l legal action t a k e n by t h e T a f f V a l e r a i l w a y company o f E n g l a n d a g a i n s t i t s s t r i k i n g employees. I b i d , p.95. 71. A d i a r y e n t r y made by K i n g more t h a n a month b e f o r e he a r r i v e d i n R o s s l a n d r e l a t e s t h a t " . . . t h e government does not w i s h t o e n f o r c e any s u c h law [ t h e A l i e n L a b o u r A c t ] . " Mouat, 1988, p.90 c i t i n g M a c k e n z i e K i n g D i a r y , O c t o b e r 2, 1901. 72. D a v i d M i l l s , O f f i c e o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , O t t a w a t o A l f r e d P a r r , S e c r e t a r y o f D i s t r i c t 6 WFM, November 2, 1901, MMP 152-8. 113  enforcing  an  retaliation inability in  their  ability  proved  more  London  eventual  In at  successful.  who  January,  War  Eagle  resumed  his  words  justice  the legal Other  Their  legal  system,  and Centre  union vividly  by  but i n t h e i r  contributed to Wright,  that  the  the  company.  b e g a n t o go b a c k remained  mines, time."  s e c r e t a r y wrote describing  lain  t h e BAC a n d t h e L e R o i  however,  that  Thus, t h e  i n an appeal t o  of Whittaker  miners  Star  7 3  in  r e c o u r s e by t h e u n i o n  led to a settlement with  The s t r i k e ,  applied  may n o t h a v e  co-operation  had put together  1902 u n i o n  be  by t h e A m e r i c a n s .  and c o n v i c t i o n  operations  disheartened  to  o f t h e L e R o i Company  and a l s o  t h e Le R o i .  the  apparatus.  office  meant  t o invoke  t o access  arrest  financier  was  action  of the union  of legal  company,  which  to similar  choice  the  law  both 7 3  another  the f i n a l  In  -7-4  t o work  i n effect at of which had February  union moments  a  official, of the  strike: . . . o u r men a r e w a n d e r i n g o f f t o work where t h e y c a n g e t i t . L a s t Monday we were $6,000 i n d e b t a n d n o t h i n g i n s i g h t . We h a d t o c u t o f f r e l i e f f o r t h a t d a y a n d a b o u t 6 men went t o work a t t h e War E a g l e m i n e . I t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r us. t o c u t them o f f a n d t h e n n o t a l l o w them t o do a n y t h i n g . I t c a n ' t h u r t u s a s t h e s c a b s a r e 73. T h e d i s p u t e o v e r t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a boundary came t o a h e a d w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e K l o n d y k e g o l d r u s h . I t was s e t t l e d by a r b i t r a t i o n i n 1903. W e l l s , 1976, p.4; E . M c l n n i s , Canada: A Political and Social History, (Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , a n d W i n s t o n , 1982) pp.464-468. 74. James W i l k e s , a d i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l , a n d F r a n k W o o d s i d e , the R o s s l a n d l o c a l ' s s e c r e t a r y a l s o sent c a b l e s and l e t t e r s t o t h e company's L o n d o n o f f i c e s o u t l i n i n g t h e u n i o n ' s v i e w of t h e s i t u a t i o n . W e l l s , 1984, p . 2 0 ; W i l k e s t o S h i l l a n d , A u g u s t 15, 1901, MMP 152-5. 75. The Evening World, J a n u a r y 25, 1902. 114  g e t i n g ( s i c ) t o work a t t h e o t h e r m i n e s a s f a s t a s t h e y g e t l a i d o f f a t t h e L e R o i . T h e r e i s ( s i c ) men c o m i n g f r o m t h e o u t s i d e a n d g o i n g t o work. A t o u r r e g u l a r m e e t i n g on Wednesday t h e r e was no a c t i o n t a k e n t o c a l l o f f t h e s t r i k e n e a r l y a l l o u r men o p p o s e c a l l i n g o f f t h e s t r i k e b u t t h e y d i d n o t p u t t h e men on t h e s c a b l i s t t h a t went t o w o r k . - 7 6  The  strike  defeat  was n e v e r  would  n o t have  trouble  and s t r i k e  sharper  relief.  support  turned  picnic  held  newsboys  families  ignominious  out i n support  jobs  such  of Rossland o f most  the strike  s t o r e was o p e n e d w h i c h  to obtain necessities  was c a l l e d .  allowed  also  strike.  The Rossland  on c r e d i t  rallied to  a t the parade and  i n a sympathy  to carry or sell  into  of the city's  as c a r p e n t e r s and j o i n e r s ,  i n t h e mines  refused  stratification  of theminers  after  f o r the labour  Other walked  Even t h e  Miner. 77  miners  A  and t h e i r  f o r the duration of  strike. ® 7  The between over  Representatives  a few d a y s  cooperative  the  into  unexpected  The l a b o u r i n g p e o p l e  employees,  their  been  t o have thrown s o c i a l  the union.  unions  off  o f f , but faded  f o r the union.  It  union  called  small  remainder  t h e miners  the Eight  (about  20%) o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n  and t h e mine  managers.  stood  In t h e d i s p u t e  Hour  Law t h e r e  had been  the miners  t o accept  the offer  o f c o n t r a c t wages. B u t d u r i n g  the  strike  i t i s much  76. 77. 78.  W o o d s i d e t o P a r r , F e b r u a r y , 14, 1902; MMP 152-11. The Evening World, J u l y 15, 16, 1901. The Evening World, J u l y 11, 1901.  less  clear  115  public  pressure f o r  where t h e s y m p a t h i e s  of the  non-labouring for  population  support  editorials it.  among  critiquing  The e d i t o r  to  great  union  remainder.  The  the union  t o inform  success  contemporary  Rossland  management. candidate  those  Miner This  was  an  support  Rossland  records  claimed  into  that  who  ran went  that the  the s t r i k e .  give  i sdisputable  conflicting  the public true  when  election.  bias,  f o r the union.  Miner r a n  who d i d n o t know  particularly  interesting  canvassed  on t h e o t h e r hand,  side t o win support  won t h e 1902 c i v i c  revealing public  of either  actively  and t h e " a g i t a t o r s "  had been pushed u n w i l l i n g l y  various  The  sides  o f The Evening- World,  lengths  The as  this  l a y . Both  7 9  backed  the  the business  Mackenzie  apparently  He w r o t e  reports.  found  King, little  to h i ssuperior i n  Ottawa: As f o r p u b l i c sympathy w i t h t h e men, I am u n a b l e t o f i n d any t r a c e s o f i t . I asked t h e miners' committee t o g i v e me t h e names o f h a l f a d o z e n r e p u t a b l e c i t i z e n s who w o u l d s a y t h e y w e r e r i g h t i n their demands a n d t h e i r p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e , b u t t h e y were u n a b l e t o g i v e them. Q O  Perhaps Rossland  most local  significantly, also  proffers  a  circular  that  there  issued was  scant  by t h e public  79. The c o n t e n t i o n that the election result accurately r e f l e c t e d p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s open t o d e b a t e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y for the supporters of the Municipal Labour League t h e e l i g i b i l i t y o f t h e w i v e s o f p r o p e r t y owners was o v e r l o o k e d . The e l e c t i o n was won b y a m a r g i n o f o n l y 62 v o t e s . The Rossland Miner October 18, 1901, J a n u a r y 16, 1902; The Evening World, J a n u a r y 17, 1902.  80.  P. C r a v e n ,  'An Impartial  Umpire:'  and the Canadian State 1900-1911, T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1980) p.244 c i t i n g t o M u l o c k , November 18, 1 9 0 1 . 116  Industrial  Relations  (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f King Correspondence-King  backing  f o r t h e u n i o n . The c i r c u l a r  "...opposed majority camp."  he r e g u l a r l y  apparently  extremity  and  according  ( s i c ) by. ... a  professional  were  castigated 8 2  the  men  would  of the  liked.  t h o s e who s u p p o r t e d  union,  f o r as  h a d been  support  that  there  he  As a  the union  claimed  some  "...terrorized  into  was s u p p o r t resident  generosity  as  t o some who  and s y m p a t h y . "  not labourers. A Rossland considerable  have  B u t he was s y m p a t h e t i c  [the union]  i s evidence  was  striking  Miner  and p r o p r i e t o r s  them  There  Rossland  undecided. backed  businessmen  there  t h e u n i o n was  f o r t h e management was n o t a s c o m p l e t e  o f The  remained  who  the business  support  editor  result or  of  the bitterest  that  81  Yet the  to  notes  directed  8 3  among  those  suggested  that  towards  the  miners:  ...during the strike t h i n g s were i n a deplorable condition. F o o d s were s h o r t a n d i t was a s c a r c i t y t r y i n g t o make a l i v i n g f o r a l l u s c h i l d r e n . I t was a n i m p o s s i b i l i t y without t h e h e l p o f t h e l o c a l merchants such as t h e Hunter Bros, [a p r o m i n e n t R o s s l a n d s t o r e ] who came t o t h e d i r e c t r e l i e f o f a l o t o f t h e s e p e o p l e . T h e y f e d a l o t o f p e o p l e who w o u l d h a v e o t h e r w i s e gone h u n g r y . ** s  81. T o O f f i c e r s a n d Members o f t h e L o c a l U n i o n s , District No.6, WFM f r o m t h e R o s s l a n d M i n e r s U n i o n No.38, A p r i l 15, 1903, MMP 150-15. 82. The Rossland Miner, December 28, 1901; J a n u a r y 9, 1902. 83. T h e t h r e a t o f u n i o n b o y c o t t was a p p a r e n t l y enough t o k e e p most b u s i n e s s p e r s o n s f r o m o p e n l y o p p o s i n g t h e s t r i k i n g m i n e r s . The Rossland Miner, J u l y 9, 10, 1901.  84. RHMA, the Strike  Interview with Warren II. 1965, p . 2 .  Crowe:  117  Work in the Mines and  The  editor  The  of  endorsement. dispute union  In  fact,  became cause.  What  the  f o r the  "We  known  permitted  such or  among  managers strike  the  the  was  make t h e  other  s i d e was  The another 85. 86. 87.  The The The  claims  the  of  public  d e t a i l s of  rest  firmly  that  a  the  behind  literal  breaches go  the  men  of  interesting  the  the  and  On  e < s  placed of  the  camp  scapegoats  reputation  trouble  question,  of  in  namely  become are  other  hand,  the  mine  of blame  for  and  the  Kirby:  largely  to  properties own  their  how  0 , 7  the  city.  Rossland that  to  sins."  illustrating  Evening World, J u l y 17, 1901. Rossland Miner, O c t o b e r 3,. 1901. Evening World, J u l y 23, 1901. 118  the  for their  on  saying:  it  i s due  overcapitalized  seem  decency  MacDonald  Rossland  concentrated  labour  law  the  they  as  have  criticism  shoulders  damaging the  period  Some  managing  newspapers  of  which  to  the  criticized  quoted  sense,  elite,  i n the  unions  was  of  with  people  violence  unpunished. "  withheld. the  of  majority  foremost,  business  businessman a  they  strike  labour  both  in  on  of  Thus,  One  Rossland  not  present  desire  as  and  Local  instances  gross  that  squarely  "[t]he  would  first  city. few  afford,  that  even  their  instigated.  cannot  that  r e a l i z e d was  concerned,  of  have  a l s o made  claimed  opinion  editors  reputation  to  World  s s  was  miners  he  known,  both  population  Evening  brings of  up  ethnic  relationships.  In  mostly  American  become  a  i t would  some  tension  a  groups.  people  defined  by  European and  used  The  manuscript  to  provide  majority Canada  of  were  (33%)  Chinese  a  be  significant  numbers  Quebec)  and  German  was  amalgam  of  Chinese  f o r the or  American  Kingdom  cross  born,  States  those  backgrounds. Swedes,  these  For  most  between  the  There  but  for  in large  part  experiences  were  1901  highly  section  119  Of  but  The  can  of  those a  ( 3 0 % ) . Of  with  Finns,  census  roughly  background, of  was  The  the been  But  Rossland,  Rossland  mine  had  marginalized.  in  the  experiences  differences  population.  the U n i t e d  of  being  there  groups.  had  of  varied  with separately.  snapshot  United  an  dealt  the  This  class  society.  and  Rossland's  and  the  of  host  returns  North  and  been  the  affiliation.  population  experience  groups  therefore will  ethnic  Many  p a r t of  if  e t h n i c g r o u p was  hostile  ethnic  complexion  of  a  as  unexpected  of  i t had  population  union.  class  some  camp  cultures.  the  ethnic  Another  their  and  various by  alleviating  the  i n Rossland  been  the  of  Rossland's  break  tempered  substantial  these  to  immigrants,  overlapped,  1901  peoples  have  between  were  European  was  not  days  arrived  attempts  case  tensions  by  of  immigrants  management's  early  but,  patchwork  European  various  the  rest  of  Russians,  the  each  t h e s e most were (mainly the  be  ethnic  recorded  third  there French  again  a in  were also from  population  Italians,  and  Chinese more  among others.. T a b l e  numerous  Two trend  suggests  Davis  flats (Map  on t h i s  that  those  8  Q  Italians, (almost  evenly  primarily  a Cornish  background  throughout at least  enclave,  emerge. T h e f i r s t were  the  s i x census  two a r e a s  of Rossland  by t h o s e centered  of United around  Kingdom  Cook  Avenue  S t r e e t , a n d a p o r t i o n o f town on t h e N i c k e l  known 6) .  distribution of British  B u t t h e r e were  t o be d o m i n a t e d  backgrounds: and  based  distributed  subdistricts. known  of the  groups.  trends  generally  10 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  as F i s h  The second Germans,  the entire  concentrate  Part communities  Alley  the  trend  shows  Russians, Asian  i n ethnic  of  was d o m i n a t e d  by N e w f o u n d l a n d e r s some  groups,  Scandinavians,  and  p o p u l a t i o n was C h i n e s e )  communities.  reason  was e x t e r n a l ;  that  the  Asians  tended t o  8 9  f o r the those  Plate  formation  o f Canadian,  of  these  American, and  88. RHMA, Interview of Warren Crowe, 1967; Crowe's i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e t h n i c g r o u p s was s u p p l e m e n t e d b y t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f H a r r y L e f e v r e a n d J a c k M a c D o n a l d who a r e b o t h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e RHMA, F e b r u a r y 1990. 89. I f t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f d i s c r e t e census s u b d i s t r i c t s can a g a i n be a c c e p t e d a n i n d e x o f s e g r e g a t i o n c a n be c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t groups. T h i s index y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g results f o r t h e major e t h i c groups i n Rossland: English (23.6), I r i s h (24.9), S c o t s (20.3), R u s s i a n (49.6), Italian ( 4 2 . 0 ) , German (39.1), French (30.5), F i n n s ( 4 9 . 5 ) , Swedes (27.6), and Chinese ( 5 0 . 9 ) . T h u s among t h o s e o f U.K. a n d most north-western European backgrounds there i s only marginal s e g r e g a t i o n . Among t h o s e o f e a s t e r n a n d c e n t r a l European, and Chinese backgrounds there i s significant segregation. 120  Distribution Census Subdivision  of E t h n i c  TABLE 10 Backgrounds  1  H2  243 10.5  H3  419 18 . 2  H4  %  121 5.2  %  605 26.2  140 23.0  H6  297 12.9  82 . 13.4  H7  595 25 . 6  H5  Total  2,280 63 . 3  Subdivision  C e n t r a l and Eastern Europe Asia  Northwestern Europe" "  British Isles  by C e n s u s  29 4.8  37 10 .7  131 21.5  150 62.2  11 24.4  98 28 . 4  16 6.6  6 13.3  4 1.2  10 4 .1  8 17.8  9 3.7  16 35.6  49 8.0  126 36 . 5 25 7.2  179 29.3  52 15 .1  610 15.7  Others  345 10.8  53 22.0  2 4. 4  3 1.2  2' 4. 4  241 ' 6.7  45 1. 2  + I n c l u d e s Swedes, Germans, F r e n c h , F i n n s , Dutch, Danes, N o r s e , F l e m i s h , and I c e l a n d i c s . * I n c l u d e s Russians, I t a l i a n s , Hungarians, Swiss, Spaniards, P o l e s , and A u s t r i a n s . ** I n c l u d e s C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e . S o u r c e : Manuscript Census, 1901.  British  backgrounds  immigrants'  90  mistrusted  and  A Rossland resident  despised  the  new  remembered:  90. The Scots., I r i s h and .Germans had made up a f i r s t g r e a t wave o f i m m i g r a t i o n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a i n t h e e a r l y t o mid 1 9 t h c e n t u r y w h i l e t h o s e f r o m s o u t h and c e n t r a l E u r o p e were of a s e c o n d wave i n t h e late 19th century. Thus the c o n c e p t s o f ' o l d ' and t h e 'new i m m i g r a n t s were d e v e l o p e d . 1  D. Ward, Poverty, Ethnicity, 1925: Changing Conceptions (Cambridge:  Cambridge  and the American of the Slum and  University 121  Press,  1989)  City, 1840the Ghetto,  p.195.  When t h e v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l i t i e s came i n and s e t t l e d around i n t h e town, there seemed t o be q u i t e a resentment o f one n a t i o n towards the other. An E n g l i s h m a n who came o u t t o t h i s c o u n t r y h a d n e v e r s e e n an I t a l i a n b e f o r e he l a n d e d h e r e and, o f c o u r s e , i t was o n l y human n a t u r e t h a t they would f e e l a l i t t l e b i t s u p e r i o r and h o l d a b i t o f r e s e n t m e n t . 9 1  Thi's  statement  'new  m i r r o r s the North  immigrants'—the  south  and c e n t r a l  poverty  contributions Canada;  they  t o the  society  immigrants would  Italians,  unlikely  represented  undercut  wages  Even worse,  docile  i n t h e hands  North  therefore,  with  a greater  of capital,  by  ethnic  capital  internal  threat,  were  prepared  poorly  paid  i n these  cohesiveness  the  that  labour  f o r low  T h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s were  9 3  European  them  people  namely  t o work  among  i n t h e labour  immigrants  or relevant s k i l l s  t o take  t o North  p e r c e i v e d t o be  participation  or eastern  compelled  t o some  were  significant  and g r a d u a l l y dominate  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n may h a v e k e p t led  make  from  they  to assimilate  'new i m m i g r a n t s '  Few c e n t r a l America  that  To t h e l a b o u r i n g  9 2  wages a n d a i d i n b r e a k i n g s t r i k e s .  force.  to  and u n w i l l i n g  and s t a n d a r d s .  reinforced  and' o t h e r s  the  economic growth o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s o r  force.  often  perception of  I t was t h o u g h t  were  a n d were u n a b l e  American these  Russians,  Europe.  stricken;  American  came t o  and they  blue  collar  were, jobs.  j o b s a n d may h a v e the ethnic  groups  91. RHMA, Interview with Harry Lefevre on the Ethnic Groups in Rossland during- the Early Days of Mining, 1967, p. 6. 92.  Ward,  European  1989, p.196;  Immigrant  D.  Workers  Avery,  "Dangerous  and Labour  Radical  Foreigners"  ism in  1896-1932, ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d a n d S t e w a r t , 1979) p . 2 8 . 93. Ward, 1989, p.208; A v e r y , 1979, pp.39-40. 122  .-  Canada,  defined  as  prejudice help  and  that  resulted  from  research  has  played  member the  or  a  them  old  were and  regional  94. 95.  by The  9 4  as  their  North  of  partly  a  family  neighbours.  new  9 6  based  stretched immigrants Between  blended  Thus,  were  in  and North  superseded  partly  foisted  created  by  a  A  History  of  Immigrants  in  Urban  by  upon  mixture  See f o r example Ward., 1989, p. 191. Ward, 1989, p.191; A v e r y , 1979, pp.48-49; J . B o d n a r ,  Transplanted:  in In  9 3  village  others  loyalties  and  friends  countrymen.  entirely.  recent  immigration  and  of  It  America  but  success  Other  identities,  hosts,  solidarity.  to  and  and  6).  (Map  and  maintained,  village  national  noise  c o n n e c t i o n s were  c o n c e n t r a t e d groups  and  the  further  locations.  various  family  familial  others disappeared  generalized by  created  might  themselves  labour contractors,  these  were  the  station  for ethnic  ethnic  work  found  near  and  stimulate  world  among  immigration  reproduced  new  of  service  groups  other r e l a t i v e s ,  traditions  America,  and  city,  lines  role.  would  settings  and  immigrants  of  networks  family,  adapted,  new  the  the  significant  a i d among some  of  efforts  neighbour  relationships  sought  of  railway  much  shown  American  between  immigrants'  areas  the  immediate  North  'new  combination  pattern  t h e r e were o t h e r r e a s o n s  thought  also  Most  of the mines,  But  The  residential  desirable  activity  was  the  groups.  less  immigrants.'  c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n wage  explain  ethnic in  'new  The  America,  ( B l o o m i n g t o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f I n d i a n a P r e s s , 1985) p.211 96. Ward, 1989, p.186; W. Y a n c e y , E.P. E r i c k s e n , and R.N. Juliani, "Emergent E t h n i c i t y : A R e v i e w and R e f o r m u l a t i o n , "  American  Sociological  Review,  v . 4 1 , 1976, 123  p.397.  of  old-world  regional  by  a Rossland  identities.  resident  This  pattern  was o b s e r v e d  who n o t e d : .  We a l w a y s h a d o u r d i f f e r e n t c l a n s . T h e y w o u l d seem t o get t o g e t h e r . I f t h e y d i d n ' t come f r o m t h e same p l a c e in the o l d country, they knew t h e y were from o l d c o u n t r y anyway. They f e l t as though they h a d something i n common. ' ' 9  Most  7  ethnic  communities  club  or organization  and  cultural  survived They but of  lives  For  not only  role  newcomers between  over  old  97. RHMA., Interview  with  from the  an immigrant ethnic  paths.  could  community  1967,  facet 9 9  meet  his  affiliation.  a n d new r e a l i t i e s  Warren Crowe,  world,  controllable  i n new, u n c e r t a i n  was t h r o u g h  experience  that  community.  i np a r t i c u l a r , the ethnic past  be s p o k e n  The t r a d i t i o n s  9 8  a manageable,  o f t h e means b y w h i c h needs  could  sort of  i n the ethnic  a carry  w h i c h were u n f o l d i n g  h a d some  languages  observed.  of attachment,  her material  buffer  native  an important  represented,  One or  traditions  played  a point  where  i n Rossland  provided  1 0 0  a  a n d was a n  p. 6.  98. T h e I t a l i a n community h a d t h e i r own c l u b , c o m p l e t e w i t h b r a s s b a n d , t h e F i n n s h a d a s o c i e t y w h i c h met i n t h e i r own hall, and t h e Scots, Irish, and others of various Scandinavian descents also had t h e i r own organizations. RHMA f i l e s .of R o s s l a n d C l u b s a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n s ; Interview with Harry Lefevre February, 1990; The Rossland Record September 6, 1899; The Rossland Miner, F e b r u a r y 11, 1897. 99. S e e B o d n a r , 1985, C h a p t e r 8; Ward a r g u e s . t h e same p o i n t from a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t angle, suggesting that s u r v i v i n g e t h n i c t r a d i t i o n s were a d a p t a t i o n s t o , o r even examples o f , resistance t o i n d u s t r y and c a p i t a l i s m not only, i n North A m e r i c a , b u t i n t h e i r h o m e l a n d s a s w e l l . Ward, 1989, p.182. 100. O t h e r means b y w h i c h a n i m m i g r a n t c o u l d s a t i s f y b a s i c n e e d s were t h r o u g h a s s i m i l a t i o n o r c l a s s a c t i o n . D. H i e b e r t , Class, Ethnicity and R e s i d e n t i a l Structure: The S o c i a l Geography of Winnipeg, 1901-1921, Journal of Historical Geography, In Press. 124  important Often  source  the f i r s t  ethnic  contact  community  Rossland  an  were  no  ethnic  already  networks  part  of  of, or  consequences.  Among  and  of  were  of  significant were a l s o  the  and  'new  economic  the  In  boarding  and  group.  Contact  1 0 1  i s that  most  immigrants  inserted This  into, had  groups,  rest  of  contributions  important bonds  segregation  the  population,  inability  and  ethnic  ethnic  occupational  immigrant's'  11 and 12 c o n f i r m segmented.  German  occupational  represented  Among  provided.  employment  ethnic  and  an  to  information.  the various  1 0 2  many  through  lead  immediately  and  the  ethnically  British  point  was  be  that  employment.  to  make  unassimilabi1ity  reinforced.  Tables was  might  could  residential  reinforced.  perceptions  also  crucial  support  patterns  shelter  and  society  to a single ethnic  group The  shelter  a new  coincidence  catered  opportunities.  with  where  i t was  rooming houses with  of a i d i n finding  that  Among  the Rossland male  employees  backgrounds  are d i s t r i b u t e d  structure,  but  are  i n the prof./h.w.c./cap.,  underrepresented wage a n d s e r v .  labour  i n the sk./semi.  groups,  and v a r y  wage  in  the  those  wh.col.  and s e r v . s.emp.  of  throughout  generally  and  force  over groups,  and unsk. group.  1 0 3  101. The e v i d e n c e for this i s obtained from t h e 1901 manuscript census. 102. H i e b e r t , I n P r e s s . 103. The occupational structure among those o f German background i s interesting i n that i t is considerably different than that of other continental European c o m m u n i t i e s . German i m m i g r a n t s were p a r t o f t h e f i r s t wave o f E u r o p e a n i m m i g r a t i o n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a . Many h a d a l s o come 125  Distribution  TABLE of E t h n i c Groups  Ethnic Group  11 i n the  Occupational 2  1  3  4  5  53 5. 8  97 10 ..6  Scots  49 6 ..8  75 10 ., 5  73 10 .. 2  433 60 .4  22 4. 2  49 9 ..4  58 11 . 1  325 62.3  Irish  114 12 ..5  (Male)  Group  English %  So  Labour Force  519 56 . 9  6  117 12.8  Total  12 1 .,3  912 27.3  78 •10 . 9  9 1.,3  717 21.5  62 11.9  6 1 .. 1  522 15 . 6  12 23.3  1 1 .. 6  129 3 . 9  7 16 . 3  1 2 ..3  43 , 1.3  2 1 .6  0 0  9 15 .. 0  Russians %  0 0.  0 0  4 9 .3  Ita1ians  0 0  1 0 ..5  8 4..2  148 77. 1  35 18.2  0 0  192 5 . 8  12 5., 9  • 19 9 , .4  29 14. .3  109 53.7  27 13.3  7 3..4  203 6 . 1  3 1 .. 9  4 2 ..5  17 10 .,7  94 59 .1  41 25.8  0 0  0 0  1 2 ..7  32 86.5  4 10 .8  0 0  0 0  1 0 , .4  58 24. .4  2 0.8  173 72 .7  247 7..8  370 11 ..7  1798 57.0  Swedes %  Germans French F i nns % Chinese % Total  141 4., 5  % Source:  Among  Manuscript  the  opposite  males  31 72 . 1  0 0  Census,  of  105 73.3  556 17.6  are  .  40 1 .3 .  37 1 . 1 238 7.1 3152  1901.  c o n t i n e n t a l European  i s t r u e . Most  4 1 ..7  159 4.8  h e r i t a g e almost  underrepresented  the  i n the  w i t h a l i t t l e c a p i t a l t o g e t s t a r t e d on new l i v e s . Ward, 1989, pp.193-194. M o s t a r r i v e d i n R o s s l a n d f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s where some may h a v e a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s i n certain occupations. 126  T A B L E 12 of E t h n i c Groups i n t h e Labour Force  Distribution  Ethnic Group  Occupational 2  1  (Female)  Group 4  3  5  6  Total  7 12 .7  14 25 ..5  19 34. .5  9 16 . 4  6 10 ., 9  0 0  55 21 . 2  1 1.9  10 18. 5  16 29 . 6  9 16 . 7  18 33. ,3  0 0  54 20.8  7 13.5  8 15 . 4  13 25 . 0  8 15. 4  16 30 ..8  0 0  52 20 . 1  Swedes  0 0  0 0  3 25 ., 0  1 8.,3  8 66. ,7  0 0  12 4.6  Russians %  0 0  0 0  1 50 ., 0  0 0  ' 1 50 ., 0  0 0  2 0.8  Germans  <y so  2 5.6  2 5.. 6  13 36 .. 1  '3 8., 3  16 44. .4  0 0  36 13 . 9  French %  0 0  0 0  8 47. . 1  4 23. .5  5 29 ..4  0 0  17 6. 6  34 14. .9  73 32 .. 0  34 14. . 9  70 30. .7  0 0  and  s.emp.  E n g l i-sh  Scots  Irish  17 7.5  Total %  Manuscript  Source:  Census,  prof./h.w.c./cap., overrepresented wage  and s e r v .  although  among  i n the sk./semi.  some  the  labour  force  the  ethnic  groups  as  employed  cases,  this  1901.  wh.col.,  groups.  Among  ethnic  i s so small  wage  groups  and s e r v .  women t h e p a t t e r n groups  female  i t defeats  are noteworthy  (the Finns,  228  Italians,  i s not s u r p r i s i n g . 127  and  and  unsk.  i s similar,  participation  comparison.  because  and  no  females  Chinese).  F o r example,  there  in  Some o f appear In  some  were  no  Chinese  women e n u m e r a t e d  Married  But  women o f a l l  there  were  backgrounds  hint  single  bias  There  were  few j o b s  many  women  eager  therefore, deemed ethnic  'new  (24.7),  Italians (31.9).  The  index  Irish  (34.7).  (22.6), Germans  be  force.  no  segregation  particularly  i n the labour  labour  and a p p a r e n t l y  would  force  there  b u t t h i s may  f o r any r e a s o n  of  1 0 4  European  I t may be t h a t  employment,  There  who,  The v a l u e s  and e a s t e r n  i n Rossland  i n the labour  segregated,  immigrants.'  participation Scots  1 0 3  woman  not t o w o r k .  i n t h e female  f o r women  a  participation  was e t h n i c a l l y  prejudice  f o r work.  to hire  suitable.  not working. female  t h e 1901 c e n s u s .  tended  women o f c e n t r a l  against  at ethnic  during  e t h n i c groups  who a l s o were  was a c u l t u r a l  also  i n Rossland  was n o t measuring  confirms  f o r those  need,  that i t  defined, as  f o r combined  male  force  were:  English  (22.1),  (32.9),  Russians  (27.5),  Swedes (12.7),  French  and female  (12.6),  Finns  1 0 6  104. T h e m a n u s c r i p t c e n s u s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e were s e v e r a l 'new i m m i g r a n t ' f a m i l i e s i n R o s s l a n d . I n most c a s e s m a r r i e d women d i d n o t r e p o r t an o c c u p a t i o n . 105. I n 1896 t h e e d i t o r o f The Rossland Miner w r o t e "A mining camp p r o v i d e s little honest labour f o r women a n d t h e r e a r e p l e n t y o f h o n e s t women i n t h e K o o t e n a y t o s u c h work a s t h e r e i s . . . " The Rossland Miner, November 6, 1896. I t l i k e l y t h a t t h i n g s h a d n ' t c h a n g e d much b y 1901. 106. In t h i s case t h e index o f s e g r e g a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e percentage o f i n d i v i d u a l s who w o u l d h a v e t o move t o c r e a t e an e v e n d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r e a c h g r o u p . F o r example among t h e E n g l i s h , 2 2 . 1 % w o u l d h a v e to change t o a n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p i n o r d e r f o r t h e r e to be a n e v e n distribution of English across a l l the o c c u p a t i o n a l groups. 128  Tension labour mines  between e t h n i c groups  t r o u b l e s o f 1901. were  being  undercutting  employment.107 clear  The working  flooded  their  came t o a h e a d d u r i n g t h e  wages  with  miners  Italian  feared that the  labourers  and g r a d u a l l y f o r c i n g  The e d i t o r  o p i n i o n on t h e r o l e  them  o f The Industrial  these  who  were  out  World  of  had. a  labourers played:  The q u e s t i o n n a t u r a l l y a r i s e s : why a r e I t a l i a n s g i v e n the p r e f e r e n c e . . . ? T h e r e a l r e a s o n may be f o u n d i n t h e fact that t h e s e I t a l i a n s h a v e no v o t e s n o r a r e t h e y l i k e l y t o h a v e ; t h e y a r e more c o n t e n t t o be w o r k i n g t h a n t h e y a r e t o c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s a s t o what t h e y a r e g e t t i n g ; t h a t . they have n o t t h e gumption t o o r g a n i z e for their own p r o t e c t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be w i l l i n g t o o l s i n the hands o f t h e s w e l l headed managers t o make R o s s l a n d a c h e a p l a b o u r c a m p . l o e  No  doubt  these  Austrians, appear  also  and S c a n d i n a v i a n s  i n the  But  opinions  city  ethnic  who  were  t o the Russians, also  beginning  to  a s l a b o u r t r o u b l e s began t o i n t e n s i f y .  tensions  miners.  The n o n - B r i t i s h  workers,  refused  were  quickly  to report  f o r work  was  called.  Moreover,  strike  were  quick  t o take  became  aware  of  the labour  f o r the Union,  diluted  labourers, along with  strike  secretary  extended  among t h e  a l l the other  i n t h e mines  those  imported  up t h e u n i o n dispute.  As  cause Frank  when t h e  during the when  they  Woodside-,  explained:  An A u s t r i a n o r a n I t a l i a n t a k e s t o Unionism like a newly h a t c h e d d u c k t o a pond o f w a t e r . T h i r t y five A u s t r i a n s j o i n e d t h i s u n i o n i n one w e e k . . . t h e y e x p o s e d  107. 108.  The Rossland The Industrial  Miner, F e b r u a r y 19, 1901. World, J u l y 7, 1900. 129  the whole infamous labour market.  scheme  to  flood  and  overcrowd  the  1 0 9  There  are  these  a  immigrant  Partially sought  which  a  factor  lives  as  this  most  central  Europe  strikers, day.  strike  who  including  strike  had  the  Most  a l r e a d y met  against  i t .  1  1  short  instigators,  groups arrived last  immigrants  and  had  their  many had  I n t h e new  2  called  and  one by  walked  lived. were  sheer  The  1 1 1  F o r example,  themselves  however,  who  the  and  thus  Factors  1 1 0  ethnic  of  i n Europe  and  cordilleran  breakers.  i n R o s s l a n d was  armed  was,  western white  which  the  of the Europeans  capitalism.  recorded strikes  miners  of  cause.  WFM  include:  excluding  capitalism action  of  languages.  the  important.  continued to r e s i s t  The  and  union  efforts  immigrant  in  willingness  the  approach  the r e f u s a l  labour  the  workers,  i n the  miners  tradition  in collective  railway  same  of  t r a n s f o r m e d by  earliest  job.  be  s o u t h and  engaged they  to  cheap  may  lies  up  i n a number o f  immigrant  lack  take  a l l European  t h e u n i o n ; and  act  to  explanation  include  of  e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the  miners  contributed  camps;  from  of  union material  numbers  to  the  to  printed  from  number  back  Most at  been world  of  the  Italian off  the  of  the  work  the  1 1 3  109. W o o d s i d e , 1901, p.7, Angus Mc Inn is Collection, 34-8. 110. A v e r y , 1979, p.56. 111. Wyman, 1979, p.46. 112. Ward, 1989, p.208; A v e r y , 1979, pp.48-49; B o d n a r , 1985, p.212. 113. The Rossland Miner, J u l y 31, 1896. 130  Another miners  facet  and  the  relationship everyday little  distinguish  off-work  ethnic  socialization  institutions  became  were  based  shared  the  experiences  immigrants' and  into  places  associated bonds such  with  were  This  is  not  hostility. that  ethnic  work  where  the  to  were  scuffles.  into  under  ethnic  of  hardship.  relationships  such  through  settings.  Thus, workers  and d i f f i c u l t i e s  capitalism.  the c i t y ' s  there  Reports  incidents,  The p o i n t  class-  These  i n c l u s i v i s t i c . organizations  that  Police  a  immigrant  industrial  through  argue  t e n s i o n s were  was  forms  In o t h e r words,  the e x p l o i t a t i o n  and l i k e l y  The D a i l y  there  drunken  class.-  expressed  a s t h e WFM  class  of  a t work a n d t h e h a r d s h i p s o f e v e r y d a y  penetrated  a wider working  there  material  t h e r e was one common b o n d b e t w e e n E u r o p e a n and  the  i s i m p o r t a n t . The home a n d t h e  and a r t i c u l a t e d .  vernacular  among  involves  ethnic  translated  between t h e c o n d i t i o n s life  o f t h e 'new  tension  class  and  between  both  of ethnic  working  ethnicity  F o r many  stratification, Again,  broader  between  life. to  i n the d i l u t i o n  i s that  alleviated  was  other  no  unions.  inter-ethnic  and C o u r t Dockets  reveal  but  mostly  these  were  among t h e w o r k i n g  by common  class  o c c u p a t i o n a l and  everyday experiences. - "* 3  The was at  experience  radically  Avery,  of the Chinese  different.  a l l i n Rossland  114.  1  That  population  i n Rossland  t h e r e was' a C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n  i s remarkable  1979, p. 52. 131  i n light  of precedents s e t  in  other  For  mining  instance  Chinese for  in  cook  fear  Chinese  of  Sandon,  his  attempt  will  in  Rossland  was  Perhaps in  be  Rossland  Oriental.  By  developed.  Derived  associations  were  of  a  its  backwardness..."  In  in  these  This  turn  by  is  strong  sections  above  divisions  based  the  variety  of  the  of  society.  of  of  the  perspective  term  use  the  of  century Orient  scholars"  mere  images  i t s tendency•to  experience  discussion  the  car  paragraphs  twentieth  with  the  of  the  word  such  it  inaccuracy,  had these  Orient  despotism,  a  as  aberrant  [and]  its  1 1 6  also  to  a  the  a substantial  host  historical  of  leave  Chinese  a hostile  that  habits  found  contexts not  the  "innumerable  turn-of-the-century  superiority  the  not  Canada.  town,  following  begin  associations  so  the  and  mining  however,  In  to  with  the  sensuality,  mentality,  was,  show t h a t  place  is  set  "...its  There  3  States  crew would  d e f i n e d by  best  up  train  made t o  largely  the  conjure  1  United Kootenay  i n Rossland.  regularized  would  1  the  another  CPR  l i f e .  population  Chinese  i n both  f o r the  an  things  towns  British  expression.  refers  to  imply  that  have  shown  on  class.  Columbia Use  of  a l l those this  But  was  a  of  there  as  a writer  132  the  of  term  European  cohesive  that  115. H a r r i s , 1985, p.322, n o t e 15. 116. E. S a i d , Oriental ism, (New Y o r k : pp.203, 205.  ideas  were  white "white" stock.  body;  the  fundamental  f o r the  Pantheon Books,  Saturday  1978)  Sunset  argued,  considered  even  the  p r e f e r a b l e to  lowliest those  European  from  immigrant  was  China:  The w h i t e man, even the r i f f r a f f of the w h i t e race t h a t E u r o p e s e n d s c a n be b o i l e d down i n t o a decent Canadian c i t i z e n i n a couple of g e n e r a t i o n s at least, b u t an O r i e n t a l d o e s n o t c h a n g e . 1 1 7  Though  the  population  anti-Oriental their  less  than  small  and  context of  by  half  there  newness  a century  province's  of  and  by  the  discourage Miner  Commission r e p o r t  white  when on  he  place.  who  less  Oriental  variance  in  were,  than  perhaps,  force  sentiments on  The  1 1 3  an  of  still  with  its  In  this  that.  perceived  would  commented  in  Columbia,  immigration. the  united  Canada was  British  population  mirrored  Columbians  ideas  even  Orientals  seemed  considerable  These  o l d , and  white  Columbia  was  magnitude.  the  overrun  Ross land  British  and  British  scattered population,  the  being  labour The  sentiment  emphasis  exacerbated  of  a  danger  out  white  editor  most  upcoming  of  "white" Royal  immigration:  An O t t a w a d e s p a t c h ( s i c ) r e p o r t s t h a t the commission which has been i n q u i r i n g i n t o the m a t t e r of O r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n w i l l recommend t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e and the p l a c i n g of restrictions on the influx of Japanese. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s w i l l f e r v e n t l y hope t h a t t h e r e p o r t i s c o r r e c t and t h e v e r d i c t o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n will i n such case be g i v e n full w e i g h t . . . . We have s i m p l y t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n a w h i t e and y e l l o w occupation of this province. .. If white labour -is to be 117. P. Roy, A White Man's Province: British Columbia's Politicians and Chinese and Japanese Immigrants 1885-1914, Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of British Columbia Press, 1989) p.231, c i t i n g t h e Saturday Sunset, O c t o b e r 7, 1911. 118. F o r more d e t a i l on how t h e C h i n e s e were s e e n t o e f f e c t European p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s s e c t o r s of the economy s e e , " C o n c l u s i o n , " Report of the Royal Commission on Chinese and Japanese Immigration, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r 54, (Ottawa: S.E. Dawson, 1902) . 133  s u p p l e m e n t e d by y e l l o w i t w i l l o n l y be a m a t t e r o f t i m e when t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i l l undergo t h e same c h a n g e o f t i n t . 1  As  early  prompted  excluded  curtailed them  bills  others  because  which  dollar  was l a t e r  entry  such  Royal Head  raised  from  overcrowding,  rural  119.  The Rossland  D. Chuenyan  or  withdrawn,  works,  and  British  1 2 1  yet The  by t h e Dominion into  federal  Columbia  prompted  and e v e n t u a l l y  the levy  immigration  in  1885,  t o $500.  who l e f t  instability.  July  f o rNorth  14,  1 2 3  of China,  province. This  Miner,  China  suffering  America  from  poverty,  A  remarkable  most  was l a r g e l y  from  four  due t o t h e  1901.  "East" as "West": Place, State, and the of Myth in Vancouver's Chinatown, 1880-  1980, . U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. T h e s i s , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986). p.77.  121.  Chinese  was  trespassed  T a x on C h i n e s e  and p o l i t i c a l  120. K. A n d e r s o n , Institutionalization  which  the p r o v i n c e .  disallowed  from  regions  i n a single  concerns  bills  the  public  into  number h a d come f r o m t h e same a r e a counties  pass  for  Commission  Many o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s came  these  elections  matters  Agitation  1 2 2  to  from  were, however,  aforementioned a fifty  Orientals  their  over  D u r i n g t h e 1870s t h e r i g h t t o  1 2 0  and m u n i c i p a l  bills  jurisdiction.  of  government  altogether.  prohibited  Government  agitation  opportunities  excluded  exclusionary  the  a s t h e 1890s  i n provincial  other  9  the provincial  severely  vote  1  L a i , Chinatowns:  (Vancouver,  University of  Towns  Cities  within  in  Canada, (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1988) pp.28-29; Roy, 1989. pp.54-55. 122. Roy. 1989. p . 5 4 . 123. W. W i l m o t t , " A p p r o a c h e s t o t h e S t u d y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " B.C. Studies, n.45. S p r i n g , 1970, p . 4 1 . 134  same  processes  immigration,  namely  relatives. streams in  Such  dollars,  after  Columbia  took  many  years  most  Chinese  much  as p o s s i b l e  waves,  the second  f o r much  supplied  t o have  immigrated  North  from  American  with  return Because  debts.  t o pay t h e s e  off.  paying  and then  to return  in British  with  sending in  t o China)  paying  their  a s much  search  didlittle  t o China.  The C h i n e s e  desire  to  as p o s s i b l e  of short-term  menial  jobs,  h a d done  of the CPR.  save,  back  or accepted  r u s h e s and  1 2 3  money a n d e v e n t u a l l y them most  gain  to their lived  t o China.  economic  s o i n two  i nthe i n f e r i o r i t y of  their  t o endear  o f f debts  and save as  Columbia  ( t o save  i t still  t o earn  the pre-confederation gold  ambitions  hundred wages i n  i n China  h a d two g o a l s ,  Most,  1 2 4  Although  After  as  villages  to five  h i g h e r than  with thebuilding  of  specific  were m a r k e d l y  arrived  these  effective  destinations.  Combined w i t h deep s e a t e d b e l i e f s Asians,  European  by f r i e n d s a n d  been  T a x was r a i s e d  saddled  immigrants  the f i r s t  seem  t h e Head  arrived  finally  o f mouth  people  to specific  especially  who  word  accounted  networks  o f Chinese  China  British  which  frugally,  S i n c e many  they  wages  hosts.  accepted  lower  than  came low those  124. L a i , 1988, p.43; A 1908 R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t i n g on the inducements t o Chinese i m m i g r a t i o n found t h a t a m a j o r i t y of 34 randomly question Chinese immigrants had been s p o n s o r e d and/or been p r o v i d e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n by f a m i l y members. C a n a d a , Report of the Royal Commission Appointer to  Inquire  into  the Methods  been Induced to come to House, 1908) pp.72-73. 125. L a i , 1988, p . 2 0 .  by which  Canada,  Oriental  (Ottawa:  135  Labourers  Government  have  Printing  acceptable  to w h i t e s .  unfortunate the  moral  which  living and  the  the  Chinese  the  A  Royal author  second were  a  the  very  simple  was  and  seen  unfair  It  on  as  a  reinforced  of  negative  consequence  was  believed  that  In  Chinese  and  it  the  came  to  to the  wages,  conclusion  Japanese  a  sign  widely when  of  often  threat  ®  1 2  and  economic  was  jobs.  lifestyle  diet  serious  had  a direct  advantage  for unskilled Commission  and  more  as  frugal  interpreted  inferiority  population.  held  especially 1901  1 2 7  of these t r a i t s  one,  a  arrangement,  Chinese  white  combination  For  involved  sanitary  stereotypes. that  The  consequences.  Chinese,  crowded  1 2 6  the  to  immigration,  noted:  In a l l these [lumber mills, shingle mills, or as surface worker i n t h e m i n e s ] and other occupations where u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r i s e m p l o y e d he f i n d s t h e C h i n e s e w o r k i n g a t a wage t h a t b a r s h i m o u t . 1 2 9  It  is difficult  Rossland. outlining  Because how  opportunities there  are  community The There  is  to  say  there  the  only  the  upon w h i c h Chinese mention  are  Chinese  i n Rossland,  no felt  such  much a b o u t known  the  Chinese  surviving  about  their  assessments  of  in  documents place  q u e s t i o n s a r e moot.  value-laden  or  Instead the  host  t o depend.  appeared of  very  a  early  resident  in family  Rossland's  history.  negotiating  for  a  126. W.P. Ward, " C l a s s and Race i n t h e S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e o f British Columbia, 1870-1939," B.C. Studies, n.45. Spring 1980, p.33., 127. C a n a d a , 1902, " C h i n e s e O p i n i o n , " p.237. 128. Roy, 1989, pp.91, 230. 129. C a n a d a , 1902, p.276. 136  Chinese  cook  community  in  had  May  grown.  substantial  group  there  Chinese  were  most  resided  some  10-15 s t o r e s  to  both  hai1  clustered although Chinese area  3  owned  probably  1 3 2  and " w h i t e "  clothing established  enumerates  male.  a  Though  1 3 1  subdistrict,  The C h i n a t o w n  consisted of  proprietors  who  catered  p o p u l a t i o n s , and a  Masonic  to  group  only  temporary  and  by l a n g u a g e  The Rossland  Miner,  i s that  be  most  of a  important,  of  Rossland's  village  natural,  or  local  therefore, f o r  f o r support  and  mutual  e n h a n c e d by t h e p r a c t i c e o f  resident t o adopt  habits,  the Chinese western  thus  and c u l t u r e  May 25,  most  t h e same  together  no c o m p u l s i o n  styles,  Perhaps  from  p a t t e r n was l i k e l y a  f o r the formation  i n Rossland.  I t would  As  felt  Chinese  census  of reasons  i t c a n n o t be p r o v e n ,  This  the  census  i n every  by C h i n e s e  population emigrated  4  1901  3  community  people 1  residents  a r e a number  sojourning.  130.  3  i n China.  these aid.  1  By  1 3 0  manuscript  i n a Chinatown.  6).  There  The  1895.  o f 238, a l l o f whom were  the Chinese  (Map  of  firmly  immigrant  diet,  language,  keeping  barriers  entrenched.  1985.  131. T h e r e may h a v e b e e n more C h i n e s e l i v i n g o u t s i d e o f t h e town boundaries. Other estimates of the s i z e of their p o p u l a t i o n r e a c h 400. C a n a d a , 1902, p . 4 3 . The o n l y m e n t i o n of a Chinese female was found i n The Rossland Miner, S e p t e m b e r 4, 1904. 132. The i n d e x o f s e g r e g a t i o n f o r t h e C h i n e s e i n R o s s l a n d , a g a i n a s s u m i n g t h e c e n s u s s u b d i s t r i c t s were d i s c r e t e u n i t s , was 50.9, a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e .  133. RHMA, Interview with Ike Glover on the Saloons and Chinese Population in the Early Days of Rossland, 1967, p . l  134.  Wilmott,  1970, pp.38-42. 137  There the  were  formation  argued  that  negative That was  also  o f a Chinatown Chinatown  attitudes  the p r e v a i l i n g hostile  Daily  that  than  they  prejudice 1 3  '  destruction  man,  Legislation Chinese. Chinese site.  1  4  0  Although  Dockets  of violence  long  time  based  to  no  times  I n 1896 a s p a r t were  The l o c a t i o n  white was  so,  banned  from  a  residents  confirm  more  trouble to  of  the  1 3 3  time by  on t h e f o r m  I n one c a s e  prostitute with  the  teasing  taking  the r e s i d e n t i a l o f an e f f o r t  i n Rossland  Chinese,  than  i t was l e s s  1 3 5  the  Much  1 3 6  more  sympathy  limited  society.  not r e c o r d  towards  "...were  us...."  on  the surviving  do  Rossland  of Rossland  public  laundries  Kay A n d e r s o n h a s  t o w a r d s the. C h i n e s e  o l d son o f a  also  contributed to  construct  o f p r o p e r t y and a s s a u l t .  eight • year  Chinese  social  to divine.  subtle,  Other  7  i n Rossland.  and C o u r t  were  was  children.  the  two  the inhabitants  them  of  attitude  degree  with  which  and p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e h o s t  Reports  disproportionate  factors  is a  i s not hard  Police  interviews  external  when  murdered  the choices  child.  a 1 3 9  of the  to clean  up t h e camp,  operating  i n t h e town  o f t h e Chinatown  i s consistent  with  135. A n d e r s o n , 1986, p . 2 4 . 136. RHMA, Interview with Warren Crowe: Recollection of the Chinese who lived in Rossland, 1967, p. 2; RHMA, Interview with Ike Glover: Saloons and Chinese Populat ion in the Early Days of Rossland, 1967, p . 6 . 137. F o r e x a m p l e s s e e ; RHMA, Interview with Ike Glover, 1967, p . 6 ; The Rossland Miner, O c t o b e r 19, 1904. 138. I n s t a n c e s o f a s s a u l t a n d p r o p e r t y damage a p p e a r i n t h e D a i l y P o l i c e R e p o r t s and t h e Court Dockets. 139. Rossland Court Docket, October 1, 1902; J a n u a r y 28, 1902; July 15, 1905; O c t o b e r 17, 1905; Roy, 1989, p.20 c i t i n g Nelson Daily Miner, O c t o b e r 24, 1900. 140. The Rossland Miner, A u g u s t 28, 1896. 138  the by  economic, the  social,  Chinese:  Columbia city's  and  the  were  self  9 shows t h a t  underrepresented  The  index  force  measured.  Chinese in  was  underground.  others  provided  None some  of  services In  cooks,  the  these these that early  limits,  and was  near  the  shared with  Chinese  off  Columbia  the  owned  or  functions led to  a  of  or  among  the  ran  acceptance camp  or  choppers,  houses  groups  employment  necessary  of  worked  gardens, and  yet  services  and  the  Chinese;,  i n market  very w e l l .  mining  the  Chinese  Chinese  in  a l l ethnic to  wood  and  paid the  groups.  participation  the  lodging  token a  the  occupational  laboured  goods  occupations  to  groups,  limits  of  domestics,  as  open  labour  prohibited  Many  1 4 2  unskilled  other  greatest  were  such  days  the  for  Chinese  community, of  and  the  others  were  their  50.9, mines  others  city  station  i n a l l the  in British  laundries,  the  encountered  t h e C h i n e s e were o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d  group  segregation  The  legislation  beyond  occupational opportunities  employed  of  marginalization  1 4 1  few  but  labour  legal  Western Railway  Chinese. Table in  i t was  prostitutes.  There  and  to  restaurants. In  performing  provided  convenient  of  few  1  4  3  their men  presence.  would  forgo  141. Interview with Jack MacDonald and Harry Lefevre, February, 1990. 142. Wyman, 1979, p.39; Roy, 1989, pp.148-149. 143. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e C h i n e s e e n u m e r a t e d i n t h e c e n s u s d i d n o t r e p o r t any income f i g u r e s . T h e r e i s one example o f what a C h i n e s e l a b o u r e r c o u l d e a r n . A sawyer c o u l d e x p e c t t o e a r n somewhere b e t w e e n $.25 and $1.00 t o c u t 20 c o r d s o f wood, which could take anywhere from 10 to 20 days. RHMA,  Interview  with  Ike  Glover,  1967, p.5. 139  prospecting After  a  time  Chinese  the  white  i f the  Chinese  and  this  it  There  Rossland testimony  a  were  laundry  or  accepted  as  grow•vegetables. accustomed  was  pervasive across  markedly  is little  doubt  in  that  Royal  Rossland's  Commission  intensity  white  along  among t h e u p p e r  probably  cooks,  Rossland's  t h e C h i n e s e were d i s d a i n e d  the  as a " r a c e . "  class  strata  as a r a c e .  o f B e r n a r d M a c D o n a l d , manager o f t h e BAC  1901  to  laundrymen,  t h e y were n o t t o l e r a t e d  varied  society,  run  p o p u l a t i o n became  domestics  sentiment  population,  the  to  roles.  gardeners  lines.  mining  i n these  But  While  or  speaks  of The  mines,  to  most  of  for  elite:  I t w o u l d make no d i f f e r e n c e t o us i f no more C h i n e s e came i n . . . . I do n o t r e g a r d t h e C h i n e s e as a c l a s s o f people d e s i r a b l e t o form the b a s i s of the c i t i z e n r y of the c o u n t r y . ... I do n o t s e e why we c a n n o t g e t a l o n g without these people. "* 1 4  But  despite  did  avail  economic  such  threat  neither  were  stopped.  to  of  economic directly  nor  Instead,  racial The  indirectly 1902.  help.  and  The  middle  markets  the  many  Chinese  Rossland Chinese class;  i f Chinese were  citizens posed  they  no  would  immigration  valued  for  doing  pay.  concerns.  Canada,  elite  employees  labourers  and  Chinese  the  jobs f o r l i t t l e  Among  144.  p o i n t e d statement  themselves  lose  menial  a  sentiments Chinese  affect  "Testimony  their  were  were  heightened  thought  to  both  livelihoods.  As  Frank  of Bernard MacDonald," 140  by  p.94.  Woodside; Royal  secretary of the Miners'  Union,  argued  before the  Commission:  The Chinese and Japanese labour employed by r a i l w a y s i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s t h e muckers i n t h e mine. T h e s e men [who h a d b e e n r e p l a c e d o n t h e r a i l w a y ] come i n h e r e a n d are employed as muckers and finally they work themselves i n t o b e i n g miners and work themselves into c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e m a c h i n e men a n d t h e t i m b e r men a n d r e p l a c e them. They a f f e c t t h e s u r f a c e men a l o n g t h e same l i n e , t h e y a f f e c t t h e o r e s o r t e r s a s t h e y affect everyone earning a l i v e l i h o o d i n t h e mine. * 1  Working For  people  example,  of  Rossland  r e s t a u r a n t owners  hounded  into  protests  many R o s s l a n d  cooks  letting  and gardeners,  market  jealously  gardens.  them  (note  their  Chinese  particularly  dull  times.  reasoned:  when  businessmen  were their  Chinese  laundries and  o f t h e Industrial  appalling,  cooks  t o employ  and t o p a t r o n i z e Chinese  this  jobs.  16). Despite  residents continued  The e d i t o r  He  guarded  who h i r e d  go  1 5  World  found  complained  of  One often hears businessmen complain as t o business being q u i e t about t e n days a f t e r t h e monthly pay day, w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e t h o s e m e r c h a n t s who c a n a f f o r d it, have a Chinaman c u t t h e i r wood, do t h e i r laundry work, s u p p l y t h e i r v e g e t a b l e s and do t h e i r housework besides other things. T h e n w h e n u n i o n men s t a r t a n agitation requesting them not t o patronize these C h i n e s e scum o f t h e O r i e n t , t h e y throw up t h e i r hands and t e l l y o u t h a t , t h e y c a n n o t s e e how t h e y c a n p o s s i b l y get along without t h e "Chink". I t sjust as easy as l i v i n g on t w o m e a l s a d a y i f y o u know y o u have t o do s o - i t s i m p l y r e q u i r e s an e f f o r t , t h a t ' s a l l . 1 4 , 5  The  Chinese,  population, openly 145. 146.  were  opposed  though scorned  a by  by a m a j o r i t y .  significant  fraction  a l l ,tolerated In Rossland,  I b i d , "Testimony o f Frank Woodside," The Industrial World, S e p t e m b e r 2 9 , 141  by  a  of the few,b u t  as i n t h e rest  p.209 1900.  of  British  Columbia,  the  largely  defined  i m m i g r a n t s was were  marginalized  means  that  socially,  were  government.  often  I n many  experience by t h e h o s t  such  by  the  Chinese  community.  economically,  legitimized  ways  of  and  They  spatially  various  levels  marginalization  by of  limited  the  o p p o r t u n i t i e s open t o t h e C h i n e s e and f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d t h e negative  As  stereotypes  Rossland's  mechanized  Class,  determining  the  have.  inexorably  linked.  Class  three  i t  was  the  was  experiences organized  at into  exploitation. the face  and  the c i t y  and  should  ethnicity and  be  became  became  became  divides  were  apparent  that  The  heavily  fundamentally  experiences  pervasive.  greatest work  crucial a  unions  The b e s t of  dealt  with  they  were  there  was  intransigence strike  Among less  the  was Class  common  Often  they  themselves  from  i s the Miners'  Union.  on  the part  of the  e n s u e d f o r h i g h e r wages small  disposition  142  people;  them.  protect  example of t h i s  constant  recognition.  to  uniting  in  resident  population  among t h e w o r k i n g  a n d . home  m i n e management a b i t t e r  population  larger  social  most  society.  by r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n .  consciousness  union  of  gender,  These but  In  grew  opportunities  separately.  stratified  mines  the population  stratified.  could  h e l d by " w h i t e "  remainder to  a c t as  of a  and the  class.  although  action  Rossland  d i d have  played  and  family  ends  were  ethnic  class  wives  functioned.  to survive. by  had  were  economic  their  accepted,  at least  participate  Europeans. levels status.  in  low  Many  among  of  i n the miners' But  the  Chinese  Prejudice  T h e y were  looked  the working  The  t o make  in inter-  defined  among  as  'new  was an  p e o p l e were s e e n a s  threats  however,  'new  immigrants'  class,  because  of  immigrant helped  represented  them  down upon  they  shared.  labourers  alien  to  ethnic  factor  to  l e g i t i m i z e d by a l l  from  gaining  as c u l t u r a l  and f e a r e d  of the  alleviate  an  were  resident  inferiors  as economic  by  threats  class.  formulations have  a  there  strike  upper s t r a t a and d e s p i s e d  earn  of the  the  prevented  to  had t o  most  and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  o f government,  also  crucial  and t h o s e  the working  willingness  and women  i n t h e home  o f e x p l o i t a t i o n and h a r d s h i p  the  and how  not employed, b u t  also  class,  these  men  dictate,  esteem  in  differences  M a r r i e d men  were  the working  livelihoods.  example,  tensions.  held  imperative,  common e x p e r i e n c e s  should  Class  gender r o l e s  t o work . h a r d  differences  investments  Single  cultural  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The C h i n e s e  p o p u l a t i o n . . Among  by  i n determining  required,  Class  immigrants"'  the  for their  ramifications.  relationships  meet.  added  concern  wage. M a r r i e d women were g e n e r a l l y  working  For  part  h a d t o be e m p l o y e d  work  to  on  class  an i m p o r t a n t  inter-gender both  based  also  of  been  Hagerstrand, apparent  143  in  Giddens, this  and  Pred  chapter.  The  residents  of Rossland  structures part of  in a  vacuum.  confront  Class,  of the f a b r i c of everyday work  and  interaction the  d i d not  society  with  community,  organizations. associated society  employment  work  and  and  other  gender, life.  and  formulated,  capitalism,  but  through  i n t h e home,  such  as  ethnic  with  the  people  these  places,  attitudes  be  perceptions  only  also  were  institutions interaction  could  social  ethnicity  not  daily  sanctioned  and  Individual  Through  with were  were  economic  and  f o u n d ; . and  shared. •  144  towards  articulated; hopes  and  work  shelter  fears  could  and and be  Ethnic  Map 6 Neighbourhoods i n Rossland  approx.  S o u r c e : Chas. E. Goad, F i r e I n s u r a n c e Maps, 1897 U s e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Map L i b r a r y ; I n t e r v i e w s w i t h J a k e MacDonald and Henry L e f e v r e , F e b r u a r y , 1990.  1902 Scale:  1 inch  = 500  feet  Conclusion  In the i n t r o d u c t i o n approach thesis.  i n an i n q u i r y The  Rossland, viewed The  choice  of  i t s economic  as a complete  format  for this  the diorama was t o u t e d as a u s e f u l such as t h e one undertaken  i n this  a diorama,  allowed  i t was  geography,  entity  and i t s r e s i d e n t s  and as p a r t  thesis,  argued,  t o be  o f a wider w o r l d .  consequently,  approximates  a  diorama.  The  first  background. California through the  chapter  It  began  and then  the western  technical  ramifications,  supplied with  traced  the  discovery  I t also  i n lode  i t i s useful  broad  the development  cordillera.  advances  the  mining  context of  gold  of lode  introduced and  their  t o be aware o f t h i s  or in  mining some o f social  material.  Much of i t r e l a t e d t o what was happening a t R o s s l a n d . By t h e time  Gold  difficulties  was  discovered  of lode  mining  on  Red  Mountain  i n t h e western  many  of the  cordillera  had  been worked o u t . Thus, a m i n i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e o f mechanized mines,  railways,  and s m e l t e r s ,  under  the guidance o f shrewd  m i n i n g entrepren/Gfers, was q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e d . R o s s l a n d a l s o  146  played  a  picture the  role  factors,  in  second  strike  chapter the  leading  economic  from  These  excitement. Rossland  British  Within  couple  mines  as  a  of  larger  with  of  other  taken  tent  on t h e  t o t h e mines  on Red  quickly,  over  town w i t h  was  useful.  created  fortunes  was  between  camp  initially  of years  I t introduced  Rossland  small  River  over. by  little  changed  By  1898 many o f  large  Canadian  Rossland  mechanized For  and  by t h e m i d d l e  a  on t h e  mines.  example,  and  was  i t s f o r t u n e s based  number o f h i g h l y  the Klondyke  Again,  legislation  g o v e r n m e n t a n d news o f t h e new g o l d  both  contributed  to  t h e end  of the  boom.  the  third  focusing  primary  along  Turn-of-the-century  mining  perspective  to  again,  geography  wealth  had been  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l  In  argument  relationship mines  a  of a small  Rossland  the  The d e f e a t  the focus.  however,  o f easy  thriving  wide  rush  1901-1902,  the Columbia  corporations.  mature,  passed  of  mining.  boomed. B u t t h e boom p a s s e d  large  output  lode  began  mines,  1897 t h e t i m e  the  of  unfolding  narrowed  and 1902. R o s s l a n d  Mountain.  a  cordilleran  the  described  trail  of  continued  l e d t o t h e WFM's embrace o f s o c i a l i s m .  The  1887  the  of western  union  and  in  chapter  on  and s o c i a l  the s o c i a l  of  between  the  this  structure.  geography  thesis  the l e v e l  perspective  was  that  of capital  I t appears 147  of  was  narrowed  Rossland. there  investment  that  this  was  The  was  a  i n the borne  out.  Varying  stratified  access  social  relationships, labour  force.  issues  of  t o t h e means structure,  class,  inextricabley  and  formulate,  shape,  to  people and  Though  i t would  be  places  and c o n d i t i o n s  easily  The  The  diorama  interaction Ve to ^viewed social  up  i n terms  things.  a s , work  attending  then,  and s p a c e . of the very  but also  i n paths,  i n the mines,  interaction  functions. which  important.  Everyday  structures  were  that  realities  and  helped  ideologies.  structure  that  with  to the  t h e home  and  i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n  were,  f o r t h e most  offers  big,  other  part,  caring  as economic  daily  in  actions.  148  life  and a c t i v i t y  f o r the family  in with  these  be  among made  bundles home, o r that  is  also  places,  and  decisions  and  people,  informing  was  evident  places  and  such as  and t o o l s ,  But i t should  interaction  interaction  of the small,  people  projects,  t o s e t human  such  such  contends,  occurred  instrumental  a way  I t allows  i n terms  with  As H a g e r s t r a n d  social  was  settings  values  important  and t h e  t h e home a n d community.  relationships  of involvement  such  the  time  of  i t seems  work  were  a  ethnic  Interaction  to t i esocial  of  approach,  structures,  individual other  in  variety  o f work  into  life.  articulate  realities  translated  a  crucially  and  argument  ethnicity  everyday  tempting  community were a l s o  of this  and  in  gender  created  r e s i d e n t i a l patterns  facet  gender,  linked  structures  process.  effected  and s e g r e g a t e d An i m p o r t a n t  of production  Bibliography Books and A r t i c l e s " A n n u a l G e n e r a l M e e t i n g s o f t h e I n s t i t u t e . 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Interview with Warren Crowe: Recollection Chinese who lived in Rossland, 1967,  Chinese  Mines  of  and  the  . Interview with Harry Lefevre on the Ethnic Groups in Rossland during the Early Days of Mining, 1967, p . 6 . Manuscript University  of  Collections. Papers.  British  Western  Collections  Columbia.  Federation  The  of  Library.  Miners.  Special  Mine  Mill  W o o d s i d e , F . " H i s t o r y o f t h e R o s s l a n d T r o u b l e . " The Miners' Magazine. August 20, 1 9 0 1 . p . 3. A copy of this manuscript c a n be f o u n d at: University of British Columbia. The L i b r a r y . Special Collections Division.  Angus Mclnnis  Collection.  Box 3 4 - F i l e 8.  156  APPENDIX A  OCCUPATIONAL  1. P r o f e s s i o n a l s ,  High  CODES-ROSSLAND  White C o l l a r ,  1901 CENSUS*  and C a p i t a l i s t s .  PROFESSIONALS—traditional professions (medicine, law, r e l i g i o n ) and p r o f e s s i o n s such as e n g i n e e r i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e , and accounting when the person i s employed by a firm s p e c i a l i z i n g i n that service. accountant architect barrister c. e n g i n e e r captain of Salvation chemist c i v i l engineer dentist draughtsman druggist e l e c t r i c a l engineer g e o l o g i c a l engineer lawyer  mechanical draftsman mechanical engineer mine e n g i n e e r mining expert minister nurse physician p r o f e s s i o n a l nurse p r o f e s s o r o f music solicitor v e t e r i n a r y surgeon  Army  HIGH WHITE COLLAR AND C A P I T A L I S T S — c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s and major government o f f i c i a l s , owners o f l a r g e f i r m s r e q u i r i n g large investment of c a p i t a l . bank manager capitalist chief of f i r e department chief of p o l i c e c o l o n i a l agent com. o f t e a c h e r s  *  Adapted  Inequality:  from  Olivier  Urbanization,  Immigrants in Detroit, P r e s s , 1982) A p p e n d i x 3.  g e n e r a l manager o f mine gold commissioner mine owner news e d i t o r U.S. c o n s u l a t e a g e n t  Zunz,  The  Industrial  (Chicago:  157  Changing  face  Developments  Univerisity  of  of  and  Chicago  2 . WHITE C O L L A R — e m p l o y e e s o f a l l t y p e s o f f i r m s whose j o b s do not involve manual production or who do not render s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e i r hands ( i n s p e c t o r s , s a l e s p e o p l e , c l e r k s , c a s h i e r s , buyers, agents, teachers, r e a l estate agents). accountant assayer a s s t i s t a n t post master bank c l e r k banker b o a r d i n g h o u s e manager book c l e r k bookkeeper building superintendant car inspector c i t y assessor clerk clothing store clerk c o l l e c t o r of customs com. agent com. traveller confectionary clerk customs o f f i c e r d r y goods c l e r k dry goods salesman excise o f f i c e r express agent f a n c y goods c l e r k f e e d b a r n manager f e e d s t o r e manager f r u i t store clerk g e n e r a l manager general store clerk g e n e r a l s t o r e manager government c l e r k grocery clerk hardware c l e r k hotel clerk insurance clerk jewelery clerk j e w e l r y company manager journalist l a n d agent law s t u d e n t lawyer's o f f i c e c l e r k liquor store clerk l o a n agent l u m b e r manager manager manufacturers  meat m a r k e t manager messenger s e r v i c e c l e r k m e s s e n g e r s e r v i c e manager m i n e manager mine o f f i c e mine s u p e r i n t e n d a n t mining agent mission mt s t u d e n t night clerk office clerk o f f i c e manager pay m a s t e r pollster post master post o f f i c e assistant post o f f i c e clerk p u r c h a s i n g agent r a i l w a y agent railway broker r a i l w a y time keeper r e g i s t r a r of county court r e g i s t r a r o f town salesman sanitary inspector s e c r e t a r y of miner's union shoestore clerk s k a t i n g r i n k manager stenographer s t o r e keeper s t o r e manager superintendant of h o s p i t a l tea taster teacher telegraph o f f i c e telephone c l e r k t e l e p h o n e company manager time keeper  agent  158  3. Non-Retail Craftsmen.  Proprietors,  Retail  Proprietors,  and  NON-RETAIL P R O P R I E T O R S — p e r s o n s s e l f - e m p l o y e d o r employing otherss in non-retail enterprises (inducing service e n t e r p r i s e s s u c h as h o t e l s and b o a r d i n g h o u s e s ) t h a t do n t o obviously require large c a p i t a l investment. agent assayer barber billiard hall broker builder building contractor chemist customs b r o k e r expressman gardener hairdresser horse t r a i n e r h o t e l keeper insurance agent k e e p e r o f a roman b a t h labour buyer laundryman(ess) l i v e r y barns liveryman lodginghouse keeper  messenger s e r v i c e mine s p e c u l a t o r mining broker music teacher painter photographer plasterer r e a l estate broker real estate r e s t a u r a n t and rooms restauranter sign painter speculator stock broker stock broker teamster undertaker upholsterer wash h o u s e  RETAIL PROPRIETORS—persons self employed or employing o t h e r s i n an e n t e r p r i s e l i k e l y t o c a r r y on t h e s a l e o f g o o d s a t a r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l at a permanent l o c a t i o n . baker bikes book s e l l e r boots & shoes brewer butcher c i g a r maker c l o t h i n g merchant com. produce confectioner dressmaker d r y goods merchant e l e c t r i c goods merchant f a n c y goods merchant feed store f r u i t merchant furniture distributor g e n e r a l merchant grocer  i c e merchant hardware merchant jeweller l i q u o r merchant lumber merchant merchant milk merchant millinery store m u s i c and p a i n t i n g s news a g e n t produce merchant saloon keeper sawmill p r o p r i e t o r seamstress s t a t i o n a r y and news stationer tailor tobacconist watchmaker 159  CRAFTSMEN-people s e l f traditional trades.  employed  blacksmith c a b i n e t maker carpenter h a r n e s s maker machinist 4.  Skilled  and  whose  occupation  is  among  plasterer plumber printer shoemaker tanner S e m i - s k i l l e d wage and  s e r v i c e workers.  S K I L L E D AND SEMI-SKILLED WAGE L A B O U R — p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c i n g w i t h t h e i r h a n d s , o r by d i r e c t l y s u p e r v i s i n g o r o p e r a t i n g machinery, a m a t e r i a l good from the s a l e s of which the employees derive wages-included here are skilled r a i l w a y / s t r e e t c a r workers. apprentice baker blacksmith boilermaker book b i n d e r brewer brick layer b r i c k mason builder butcher carpenter carpet layer c i g a r maker cooper diamond d r i l l s e t t e r diamond d r i l l e r dressmaker druggist druggist's apprentice electician engineer farrier foreman g o l d miner gun s m i t h h a r n e s s maker hoistman lather lineman locomotive engineer lumberforeman machinist  machinist's apprentice master mechanic mechanic milliner millwrite mine o p e r a t o r mining foreman plasterer plumber pressman printer printer's apprentice pugilist r a i l w a y foreman sampler of ore s e c t i o n foreman s h i f t boss staty. engineer steam e n g i n e e r stone c u t t e r stone c u t t e r ' s apprentice s t o n e mason s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of m i n i n g tailor tanner telephone lineman timberman tinsmith typewriter  160  SKILLED AND SEMI S K I L L E D SERVICE W O R K E R S — P e r s o n s d e r i v i n g wages f r o m a s e r v i c e p r e f o r m e d w i t h t h e i r h a n d s — w h e n these s e r v i c e s do n o t r e n d e r a p r o d u c t , a n d whose j o b r e q u i r e s a d e g r e e o f t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e . actor(ress) barber bartender fireman horse t r a i n e r jockey musician p . l . surveyor painter  5.  Unskilled  photographer pianist p o l i c e sergeant policeman scales sheriff surveyor theater  Wage and S e r v i c e L a b o u r .  UNSKILLED WAGE L A B O U R — p e r s o is p a i d f o r r e n d e r i n g menial work f o r a m a n u f a c t u r i n g f i r m o f some k i n d — d o e s n o t i n c l u d e sweepers, t r u c k d r i v e r s , e t c . pork packer quarry labourer railway labourer ropeman r a i l w a y yardman sawyer street labourer switchtender teamster trainman water works l a b o u r e r wood c h o p p e r  bottler b.s. helper brakeman building labourer c i t y labourer d a i r y worker express labourer freightman gardener labourer lumberman mine l a b o u r e r ore s o r t e r  161  UNSKILLED SERVICE L A B O U R — a p e r s o n p a i d f o r r e n d e r i n g m e n i a l s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e i r hands ( d o m e s t i c s , p o r t e r s , s t e v e d o r e s , and s w e e p e r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f e m p l o y e r ) . a s s t . steward baggageman bank c o l l e c t o r bank m e s s e n g e r b e l l boy car cleaner caretaker chambermaid clother cleaner collector conductor cook d e l i v e r y boy dishwasher domestic driver express messenger  6. Others—includes occupations which defy  ironer jailer janitor laundryman messenger milkman newsboy porter servant stableman steward o f c l u b telephone messenger telephone operator waiter waitress washwoman watchman  farmers and classification.  FARMERS chicken rancher dairy farmer poultryman MISCELLANEOUS  OCCUPATIONS  edimologist gambler prospector  162  those  employed  in  

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