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Tongue root articulations : a case study of Lillooet Remnant, Daphne Elizabeth 1990

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TONGUE ROOT ARTICULATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF LILLOOET By DAPHNE ELIZABETH REMNANT A. T h e U n i v e r s i t y THESIS SUBMITTED  of British  C o l u m b i a , 1987  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s to the required  as  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r 1990 ©  Daphne E l i z a b e t h  Remnant, 1990  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his  and  scholarly  or  thesis  study.  her  for  of  W  C\  purposes  gain  U-Af?V\  DE-6 (2/88)  C-*^>  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  The University of British C o l u m b i a Vancouver, Canada  I  I further  permission.  Department  of  be  It not  that  the  be  Library  an  advanced  shall  permission for  granted  is  for  by  understood allowed  the  make  extensive  head  that  without  it  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT  This thesis examines retraction a n d pharyngealization p r o c e s s e s in Lillooet, an Interior Salish language s p o k e n in south central British C o l u m b i a . Phayngealization o c c u r s predictably whenever a vowel immediately p r e c e d e s a pharyngeal glide. Retraction, on the other hand, is a process whereby vowels and, in s o m e c a s e s , alveo-palatals are articulated with a retracted tongue root, and is c a u s e d by four distinct sets of triggers: uvular consonants, /z z'l (which is a segment peculiar to Lillooet and not like the English Izl), a floating adversative morpheme, and a floating T o n g u e Root node that is lexically specified on a stem. In the thesis I present an analysis of these problems within a non-linear framework, adopting the model of phonological geometry proposed in S a g e y (1986), and further developed in Clements (to appear). In addition, I adopt the theory of Radical Underspecification presented in (Archangeli and Pulleyblank 1986, 1987) and Archangeli (1988). It is shown that the data of Lillooet motivate the addition of a fourth articulator node, T o n g u e Root, which dominates the feature [epiglottis]. Two rules of retraction involve spreading of a T o n g u e Root node which is unspecified for [epiglottis]. T h e first rule operates locally triggered by the c l a s s of c o n s o n a n t s which have a Tongue Root node, that is, the uvular consonants and Iz z'l. This rule p r e c e d e s R e d u n d a n c y Rules which specifies vowels, thereby preventing the rule from applying to s c h w a , which is analyzed a s lacking place features. T h e s e c o n d retraction rule applies long distance and follows these R e d u n d a n c y Rules; s c h w a thus undergoes this rule. T h e rule of pharyngealization spreads the feature [+epiglottis] to the preceding vowel. Apart from the specific descriptive c o n c l u s i o n s offered, a number of important points emerge concerning the c o n s o n a n t inventory of Lillooet. For example, the discussion in the thesis proves the existence of a class of pharyngeal s e g m e n t s distinct from the uvulars. A g a i n , the evidence a d d u c e d refutes speculations that pharyngeal consonants must be characterized by a set of laryngeal features.  ii  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Acknowledgements  v  Chapter 1 1.0. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1.1. T h e o r e t i c a l O u t l i n e 1.2. L i l l o o e t F a c t s 1.2.1. R e t r a c t i o n 1.2.1.1. R e t r a c t i o n f r o m u v u l a r s a n d / z / 1.2.1.2. R e t r a c t i o n f r o m a F l o a t i n g Morpheme .. 1.2.1.3. R e t r a c t i o n f r o m a F l o a t i n g F e a t u r e ... 1.2.2. P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n 1.3. A n a l y s i s a n d P r o p o s e d F e a t u r e G e o m e t r i c M o d e l 1.3.1. R e t r a c t i o n 1.3.2. P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n  1 2 7 7 8 10 12 14 19 20 24  Chapter 2 2.0. I n t r o d u c t i o n 2.1. Chomsky a n d H a l l e (1968) 2.2. P l a c e F e a t u r e G e o m e t r y 2.3. R e c e n t S t u d i e s 2.3.1. M c C a r t h y (1989) 2.3.2. H a l l e (1989) 2.4. O t h e r P r o p o s a l s  27 29 31 35 35 40 42  Chapter 3 3.0. I n t r o d u c t i o n 3.1. C o n s o n a n t a l I n v e n t o r y 3.1.1. C o r o n a l s 3.1.1.1. D e n t a l s 3.1.1.2. A l v e o - p a l a t a l s 3.1.1.3. / z z / 3.1.2. U v u l a r s 3.1.3. P h a r y n g e a l s 3.2. V o c a l i c I n v e n t o r y 3.2.1. V o c a l i c U n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n 3.3. S t r e s s 3.4. R o u n d i n g  45 45 48 48 49 51 53 54 56 60 62 63  1  ».  Chapter 4 4.0. I n t r o d u c t i o n 4.1. T h e R e t r a c t i o n P r o b l e m 4.1.1. R e t r a c t i o n T r i g g e r e d b y U v u l a r s 4.1.1.1. T h e R e t r a c t i o n R u l e 4.1.2. R e t r a c t i o n T r i g g e r e d b y / z z / 4.1.3. R e t r a c t i o n f r o m a F l o a t i n g Morpheme 1  iii  65 66 68 70 76 86  4.1.4. R e t r a c t i o n f r o m a F l o a t i n g 4.2. P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n 4.3. Summary  Feature  95 106 117  Chapter 5 5.0. A r t i c u l a t o r C o - o c c u r r e n c e 5.1. One More F e a t u r e 5.2. C o n c l u s i o n  119 121 123  Appendix  1  124  Appendix 2  134  References  136  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the members of my committee, Dr. Bruce Bagemihl,  Dr. M. D. Kinkade, and my supervisor Dr. Patricia Shaw for  helpful comments and suggestions on my thesis. I would  particularly  like to thank Dr. David O d d e n who spent much time discussing the contents of this thesis with me and who helped to clarify  many  issues of phonological theory for me. A l s o , I a m very grateful to J a n van Eijk who clarified many issues of Lillooet for me. I acknowledge U . B . C . for a graduate fellowship in 1988-89. T h a n k s also go to my fellow students at U . B . C ,  in particular Kathy Hunt and Nicola  B e s s e l l , a n d to the departmental secretary C a r m e n d a Silva. I would also like to thank S a n d y Campbell and Mary O d d e n . Finally, to my parents, Peter and Milla Remnant, and to B o b Levine I am especially grateful  for  everything.  V  Chapter 1  1.0.  introduction This thesis  examines r e t r a c t i o n harmonies  involving l  b o t h p h a r y n g e a l and u v u l a r segments i n L i l l o o e t terior  Salish  Columbia. lish  language  I t i s closely  languages,  spoken  i n south c e n t r a l  related  i n p a r t i c u l a r the neighbouring  languages  of the region  Chilcotin  as w e l l  o f vowels  features with other  as the T s i m s h i a n i c languages  (M) a n d F o u n t a i n  of Lillooet  immediately precedes  glide.  Retraction,  vowels  are articulated with a retracted  retraction  on t h e o t h e r hand,  i s caused by an immediately  language  Nisgha and  a r e Mount  (F) . I n b o t h d i a l e c t s ,  i s a common p r o c e s s t h a t  t a b l y whenever a vowel  language  i n c l u d i n g t h e Athapaskan  G i t k s a n . T h e two m a i n d i a l e c t s  ization  British  t o the other I n t e r i o r Sa-  Thompson, a n d s h a r e s a number o f a r e a l  Currie  , an I n -  pharyngeal-  occurs  predic-  a pharyngeal  i s a p r o c e s s whereby tongue  root;  this  following uvular,  A l l t h e d a t a a n d some o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on L i l l o o e t h a v e b e e n t a k e n f r o m v a n E i j k (1985) a s w e l l a s p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h J a n v a n E i j k t o whom I am v e r y g r a t e f u l . Some o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s r a i s e d i n t h i s paper a r e f u r t h e r developments o f i s s u e s r a i s e d i n B e s s e l l & Remnant 1989. N e e d l e s s t o s a y , a l l e r r o r s a r e m i n e . 1  2 2 an  immediately  following  node. T h u s , t h e are to  , and  other factors outline  grammar s u c h a s  of  thesis  the topic  characterization  of  and  i s as  raise  issues  Chapter 3 looks at Lillooet  and  that the  questions  are  survey of raised  p h o n e m i c and  and  the  theoretical  i n the  out  the  1.1.  concerning Feature  to L i l l o o e t . litera-  phonetic  while  inventory  of  of L i l l o o e t  analyses of 5  retrac-  summarizes  have been proposed  through-  thesis.  Theoretical Central  to  characterization archical  Chapter  thesis,  F i n a l l y , Chapter  arguments t h a t  subject  relevant  discusses general p r i n c i p l e s  pharyngealization.  In  in a  attention  occur  ordering.  follows.  phonology. Chapter 4 p r e s e n t s d e t a i l e d tion  rule  back a r t i c u l a t i o n s  Chapter 2 provides a d e t a i l e d f o r the  can  its distribution is  G e o m e t r i c model, p a y i n g p a r t i c u l a r  ture  f l o a t i n g Tongue Root  i n the  I i n t r o d u c e the  the  a  environments i n which r e t r a c t i o n  more w i d e s p r e a d ; however,  The 1,  /z/  .  Outline the of  t e r m s . My  issue  of  retraction  "back" a r t i c u l a t i o n s objective  i s to  harmonies i s  the  in feature  hier-  show t h a t  within  the  Note t h a t the L i l l o o e t / z / i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e E n g l i s h / z / . I d i s c u s s t h i s segment and t h e e f f e c t s i t c a u s e s i n d e t a i l i n s e c t i o n s 1.2.1., 1.3.1., 3.1.1.1., and 4.1.2.  3 f r a m e w o r k o f F e a t u r e Geometry M c C a r t h y 1988, guishing  among o t h e r s ) an  between t h e  those of uvular within  the  ed  i n the  adjacent  change t o c u r r e n t  the  harmony i n L i l l o o e t may  be  a feature  Archangeli  1987,  Steriade  1989,  two  distinct  achieved  by  implies  dering  i n which f e a t u r e s  Little w i t h the that  their  to phonological research  deration  of  (including Theory  efmy  (Kiparsky 1986,  that  i s , the  or-  of as  of the  vocal  tract.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n has researchers  or  rules. dealt  adequately  i s s u e o f c h a r a c t e r i z i n g "back" a r t i c u l a t i o n s  region  line  processes  non-distinctive +  t o d a t e has  i s , those a r t i c u l a t i o n s that  terior this  formal  obtain  addition,  Underspecification  a s o r t of r u l e o r d e r i n g ;  in relation  [tepiglottis]  & Pulleyblank  1987b, among o t h e r s ) .  but  propos-  combining the  g e o m e t r i c model  Archangeli  Theory  - value  encoded  fourth  a feature  p r o p o s e d changes) w i t h U n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n 1982,  and  those  Tongue R o o t node. I n  account of the  f e c t s of using  distin-  v o w e l s must be  including a  n o d e : Tongue R o o t and  explanatory  of  m o d e l s s u c h as  above by  w h i c h i s d e p e n d e n t on an  a d e q u a t e way  1986,  g e o m e t r i c model. I propose a s l i g h t  works c i t e d  articulator  Sagey  e f f e c t s o f p h a r y n g e a l harmony  harmony on  feature  significant  ( C l e m e n t s 1985,  are  produced  In the  become an  have found t h a t  last  i n the few  important the  early  — pos-  years consipropo-  4 sals  f o r models o f F e a t u r e Geometry such  (1985) and of data  Sagey  pharyngeal  o t h e r s e g m e n t s . B e c a u s e o f i t s two r e q u i r e back f e a t u r e s , L i l l o o e t f o r any  but,  and  from  ference  offers  consonants  the process  that triggered  i s manifested  by  that  interesting  to characterize uvular  con-  processes,  by  the pharyngeals.  three separate  sets of  This  dif-  surface  ("uvularized")  and  the pharyngealized  The  fundamental o u t l i n e o f the t h e o r y o f F e a t u r e  set.  hierarchically  features  c l a s s a r e dominated by i n t u r n a r e on  to access the necessary association  lines  (1) shows t h e  (1986) , and  a g i v e n node. A l l nodes  separate t i e r s ,  feature geometric  a and  permitting rules  f e a t u r e o r node and  or d e l e t e a s s o c i a t i o n  Geo-  in a  s t r u c t u r e where f e a t u r e s t h a t p a t t e r n t o g e t h e r a s  natural  in  with  t r i g g e r e d by u v u l a r s i s d i f -  metry i s t h a t f e a t u r e s are arranged tree  an  c a u s e harmony  vowels: the p l a i n vowels, the r e t r a c t e d set,  interactions  mentioned above, b o t h  pharyngeal  crucially,  ferent  As  f o r bodies  harmony p r o c e s s e s  theory t h a t attempts  back a r t i c u l a t i o n s . sonants  Clements  (1986) s i m p l y d i d n o t a c c o u n t  e x h i b i t i n g u v u l a r and  challenge  as  either  lines.  The  model p r o p o s e d  i s t h e b a s i c model t h a t I assume.  spread diagram i n Sagey  5 °-roQt^ '\^ ^continuant ^ \ consonantal  (1)  v  :  0  •° s u p r a - l a r y n g e a l soft palate ^ * place  [s.gl.] nasal"  1 dorsal AcoronaL  labial" [rd]  / / [ant]  Note t h a t Sagey i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e p l a c e their  own  node and  articulatory  that these  notions:  Consideration  place  features  emerged i n l a t e r work, i n c l u d i n g t h a t o f (1987a), C o l e  (1987), McCarthy  (1988, 1989)  (1989). P u l l e y b l a n k place  (1987a) and  a s p e c i a l vowel t i e r permits  cover  Pulleyblank  and  B e s s e l l & Remnant  (1987) i n c l u d e s a v e l a r node u n d e r  ( C l e m e n t s 1989) d o m i n a t e d by  [ATR]  suggest  the p l a c e  uvulars,  pharyngealized  [±Upper P h a r y n x ] and pharyngeals, uvulars  and  the  feature. incorporating node w h i c h  (1987) p r o p o s e s a f o u r t h a r t i c u l a t o r  features:  on  articulations  a r u l e t o r e f e r t o j u s t the v o c a l i c t i e r .  ska-Higgins two  based  (1987) , C z a y k o w s k a - H i g g i n s  node, w h i c h i n t u r n d o m i n a t e s an  Steriade  under  anatomy.  s o - c a l l e d "back"  (1987), S t e r i a d e  [ h i ] [bk] \ [lo] [dist]  features are  i.e. vocal tract  of the  \  Czaykownode  [±Lower P h a r y n x ]  r h o t o c i z e d consonants, u v u l a r i z e d pharyngeals.  to and Mc-  with  6 Carthy node  (1988) r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n  should  o f whether a  be i n c l u d e d u n d e r a p l a c e node, b u t  no s o l u t i o n .  McCarthy  (1989) p r o v i d e  (1989) and B e s s e l l  t h e most d e t a i l e d  studies t o date  f o r t h e "back"  McCarthy  a fourth articulator  (1989) s u g g e s t s  of  and a f e a t u r e  [tglottal]  "gutterals" i n Arabic. Bessell  a Tongue R o o t node c o n s t i t u t i n g  I develop feature  tal  t o the phonology of  t o the present  (1986) a n d A r c h a n g e l i are that  the underlying sent cific  rules  then  (1989) p r o p o s e articulator  [lepiglottis].  they  of phonological  In Chapter  fundamen-  work, i s R a d i c a l U n d e r s p e c i f i c a i n Archangeli  & Pulleyblank  ( i ) no r e d u n d a n t i n f o r m a t i o n level,  are  and  s t r u c t u r e , which  ( 1 9 8 9 ) . The p r i n c i p a l  and t h a t  i n U n i v e r s a l Grammar  f a u l t values mally  & Remnant  f o r the set  Lillooet.  t i o n Theory as p r e s e n t e d  theory  t o account  [ ± e p i g l o t t i s ] and show how  A second sub-theory central  node:  t h e a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e Tongue R o o t node  the  is  of  articulations.  the fourth  node w h i c h d o m i n a t e s t h e f e a t u r e 4,  provides  a n d Remnant  adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  Pharyngeal  pharyngeal  tenets  of  this  i s present  ( i i ) Redundancy  Rules  at  pre-  ( d e f a u l t r u l e s ) o r language spe-  (complement r u l e s ) s e r v e t o f i l l o f f e a t u r e s . F o r example,  u n d e r s p e c i f i e d segment  found  d e f a u l t r u l e s would a p p l y  i n t h e de-  i f a i s the maxi-  i n U n i v e r s a l Grammar,  at a given point  i n the  7 grammar t o  fill  each of the  i n the  maximally u n d e r s p e c i f i e d  feature values  However, i f i n l a n g u a g e X f a c t the  which c o l l e c t i v e l y i t can  be  maximally u n d e r s p e c i f i e d  rule(s) apply  specified  segment. By  automatically  apply  to  fill  before  segment, t h e n one  the  i n the  be  1.2.  assigned  Lillooet Lillooet,  rate processes uvulars called  and  culation, like  by  a  and  a.  or  regular universal  the  maximally  d e f a u l t r u l e s , the f e a t u r e which  under-  univer-  functions  language i n question  as  can  proper-  two  sepa-  feature.  Facts as mentioned b r i e f l y  above, has  i n which p o s t e r i o r consonants  (that i s ,  pharyngeals) a f f e c t vowels. R e t r a c t i o n  i n van  affected  to the  i n £> as  the  of a given  ly  define  i n c o r p o r a t i n g complement r u l e s w h i c h  s a l l y marked v a l u e unmarked v a l u e  with  shown t h a t 6 i s i n  more complement r u l e s w h i c h p r e e m p t t h e default  slot  Eijk  1985)  i s a process  following uvular  r e t r a c t i o n , i s one  i n which vowels  to create  pharyngealization,  a retracted  are arti-  w h i c h b e h a v e s somewhat  i n which a vowel p r e c e d i n g  yngeal consonant pharyngealizes  (so  (as o p p o s e d t o  a  phar-  retracts).  1.2.1. R e t r a c t i o n Van  Eijk  (1985:3) c h a r a c t e r i z e s r e t r a c t i o n a s  "basi-  8  cally velarization", the /6 The of  throat £/,  i n the case of r e t r a c t e d  o n l y the t i p o f the tongue  set of r e t r a c t i n g t h e u v u l a r s / q q' q  Those the  so t h a t ,  with the tongue-root p u l l e d  consonants w  s e g m e n t s t h a t may  full  |  W  X X / w  as  o a ] . Further, [@])  Tongue R o o t  1.2.1.3. I n a d d i t i o n , retracted,  in articulation.  triggers)  (i.e.  schwa  (/§/,  and t h e t o n g u e  c o n s o n a n t s and  1  / may  dorsum.  i f t h a t vowel  v o w e l s : / i u ae/. E x a m p l e s (2a) b e l o w .  retract  i s one  and  be using  See  phonemic  vowels.  f r o m u v u l a r s and / z  The u v u l a r c o n s o n a n t s w i l l p r e c e d i n g vowel  form  node, a s shown i n 1.2.1.2. s 1 l  [e  phone-  [A] when i t o c c u r s i n a  Chapter 3 f o r a complete d i s c u s s i o n o f the f u l l  1.2.1.1. R e t r a c t i o n  are  form as  meaning t h a t t h e y a r e d o u b l y a r t i c u l a t e d  of L i l l o o e t  z'/«  targets)  retracted  t h e c o n s o n a n t s /&  both the t i p o f t h e tongue  inventory  consists  are normally r e a l i z e d  t h e l a x c e n t r a l vowel to  alveopalatals  and t h e c o r o n a l s / z  [e o ae], b u t i n t h e i r  i s retracted  with a f l o a t i n g  (i.e.  be r e t r a c t e d  v o w e l s / i u ae/. T h e s e  phonetically  tically  q  i s used  back i n  z'/ an  immediately  of the set of  full  of t h i s process are given i n  I n t h e c a s e o f t a r g e t v o w e l s / u as/, r e t r a c t i o n  t r i g g e r e d by / z  z'/ i s i d e n t i c a l  t o t h a t by u v u l a r s a s  be s e e n i n ( 2 b ) . However, / i / d o e s  not r e t r a c t  when  can  9 f o l l o w e d by / z z / 1  that are  retraction  argue i n Chapter 4 s e c t i o n  1  i s ruled  doubly l i n k e d  o u t when t h e t r i g g e r  (2b) shows r e t r a c t i o n  and  (2c) g i v e s t h e u n g r a m m a t i c a l  / i /  to retract  found  we  to  would  [ e ] . I f /z  in this  o f /ae/ t o  z'/ were t o r e t r a c t surface  [a] of  a precedform  i n (2c).  /maeqae?/  [fc'eql [soq'^em]  —>  1  (c) In  [mozmet] [xnez'az ]  1  1  t h e u v u l a r s and / z z'/ w i l l  a s c a n be s e e n by t h e f o r m s  ponding ungrammatical  forms  (3a) / x § z ' p / —> /q^q^aez/ —>  not  i n (3a) a n d t h e  retract corres-  i n (3b).  [xfz'p] [q*§q"az]  "embers" "blue"  *[XAZ-$] A3 az]  *[q  I argue  i n Chapter 4 that  environment because  applied.  / § / does n o t r e t r a c t i n  i t i s the maximally  e d v o w e l whose v a l u e i s f i l l e d r u l e has  "pitiful" "gooseberry bush"  1  *[xnez az ]  addition,  (b)  "to a r r i v e here" " t o s k i n an animal" "snow"  [maqae?]  (b) /muzmit/ —> /xniz'aez / — >  this  target  form i n t h e f a i l u r e  expect the ungrammatical  (2a) / V i q / —> /suq^em/ — >  /§/,  and  t o a node w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e ,  c a s e t h e D o r s a l node.  ing / i /  4.1.2.  i n a f t e r the  underspecifiretraction  1.2.1.2. R e t r a c t i o n f r o m a F l o a t i n g Morpheme In a d d i t i o n t o r e t r a c t i o n s o n a n t s and / z z*/  f  /§/  t r i g g e r e d by u v u l a r  t h e aforementioned vowels,  a n d t h e c o n s o n a n t s /6 s" 1  a  a d v e r s a t i v e morpheme i s p r e s e n t , (4)  /q@l/ /q@l-wil'x/ /L@6/ /?aels/ /Lut/  r  e  con-  along  with  r e t r a c t e d when t h e  as t h e data  [qAl] [qAlwel'x] [LAc] [?als] [Lot]  i n (4) show.  "bad" "to get spoiled" " t o cave i n " "sick" squash a bug"  11 t  o  In a d d i t i o n , minimal p a i r s such as t h e s e t s  i n (5) a n d (6)  exist. (5a)  /L@k/  —>  [L@k]  (b)  /L@k+{adversative}/ — >  3  " g e t d e f l a t e d , go down (of dough)" [LAk]  "get I p o s t u l a t e one u n d e r l y i n g  representation  stem /L@k/, r a t h e r t h a n s u g g e s t i n g v o w e l s a r e phonemic, as v a n E i j k there  i s a second u n d e r l y i n g  Instead,  pooped, conk o u t "  that the retracted  (1985) c l a i m s ,  representation:  t h e a d v e r s a t i v e morpheme, w h i c h  f l o a t i n g Tongue R o o t node, i s a f f i x e d generally  a l l those  retraction will  f o r the  and t h a t  /LAk/.  i s analyzed  t o t h e stem, and  segments t h a t a r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o  retract.  I use L t o s i g n i f y  a dental  as a  lateral  fricative.  11  (6a)  /kaey-kaey/ — >  [kaeykaey]  (b)  /6@k-ae-c@k-ae/ — >  "blue-jay" (refers to t h e s o u n d s i t makes when f o r e c a s t i n g g o o d news o r g o o d w e a t h e r )  [c/ikacAkae] " b l u e - j a y " (refers t o t h e sound i t makes when f o r e c a s t i n g b a d news or bad weather)  However, a d i s c r e p a n c y e x i s t s between t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of  the rule triggered  ves  s p r e a d i n g Tongue R o o t , a n d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  tracting  rule triggered  involving are z'/# the  by a f l o a t i n g morpheme, w h i c h  of the r e -  by t h e u v u l a r s and / z z'// a l s o  Tongue R o o t s p r e a d i n g . The c o r o n a l  never a f f e c t e d  invol-  by t h e o t h e r r e t r a c t o r s :  while they are targets  consonants u v u l a r s and / z  f o r retraction triggered  by  f l o a t i n g morpheme. The e x a m p l e s i n ( 7 a ) show f o r m s i n  which a coronal show c o r o n a l s coronal  immediately p r e c e d e s a / z z'/ and (7b)  f o l l o w e d by u v u l a r s .  consonant  (7a)  In neither  case i s a  retracted.  [?6cz] "good, s t r a i g h t ( f o r w a r d ) , [Poez'gaem ] " t o s t e e r a canoe" [testaT'gszhae] " t h e s q u i r r e l "  o.k.  1  (b)  [caqcq§t] [s'qlaew'?<il] [sX^es] t i  "tame" " r e a l b e a v e r ( i . e . n o t money)" "to smile" " c o t t o n w o o d cambium l a y e r " :] " t o t a l k , h a v e a c o n v e r s a t i o n "  12  1.2.1.3. R e t r a c t i o n from a F l o a t i n g F e a t u r e Other cases o f r e t r a c t i o n vowels in  and t h e c o r o n a l  exist  consonants  i n which  are retracted;  these cases neither a r e t r a c t i n g t r i g g e r  a u v u l a r o r / z z'/) evidently  n  o  r  a l l of the however,  segment ( i . e .  t h e a d v e r s a t i v e morpheme i s  p r e s e n t . Examples o f t h i s t y p e o f r e t r a c t i o n  are: (8)  /k usae?/ /saell/ w  —> —>  [k osa?] [sail] w  4  "to urinate" "todrip i n a (like  The  string  syrup)"  n e i g h b o u r i n g T s i m s h i a n i c languages Nisgha and  G i t k s a n h a v e g l o t t a l s t h a t c a u s e some s o r t o f t h e p r e c e d i n g vowel  of retraction  (Shaw 1987, H u n t 1 9 9 0 ) ,  a s does  A r a b i c where t h e g l o t t a l s b e h a v e i n t h e same manner a s t h e other  "gutterals"  some d i s c u s s i o n  (McCarthy  1989, a n d s e e C h a p t e r 2 f o r  o f A r a b i c emphasis).  Lillooet  h o w e v e r , do n o t a p p e a r t o a f f e c t t h e v o w e l s way.  T h e d a t a i n (9) show t h i s  glottals,  i n any such  fact .  I mark r e t r a c t i o n on c o r o n a l i n g t h e r e t r a c t e d segment.  consonants  by u n d e r l i n -  5 We f i n d no c a s e s o f [§?] i n L i l l o o e t ( v a n E i j k 1 9 8 5 : 4 4 ) . M. D. K i n k a d e ( p . c.) i n f o r m s me t h a t / § / i s r e g u l a r i l y l o w e r e d t o [a/ae] b e f o r e a / ? / t h r o u g h o u t I n t e r i o r S a l i s h which a c c o u n t s f o r t h e apparent gap i n t h e d a t a .  13  (9)i ii iii  /p'ae?x / /s-qaeXae?/ /£-pzu?/ /pu?y'aex / /p'i?/  iv  v vi (9ii)  —> [p'ae?x ] "more" —> [sqaXae?] "dog" —> [ s p z o ? ] "wild animal" -> [po?y'aex ] "smoke c o m i n g up II —> [ p ' e ? ] " t o squeeze out" [ s p e ? l • waes] " s q u e e z e d i n t h e middle"  w  w  w  1  1  shows a f o r m i n w h i c h r e t r a c t i o n d o e s o c c u r on t h e  segment t h a t cially,  n o t on t h e v o w e l  (9v) and  ( v i ) we  root that (9vi).  i s followed  a glottal  indicates that  the  first  example  i n (8)  due  to the g l o t t a l .  fricative,  between t h e  non-retracted root  r e t r a c t i o n i n ( 9 v i ) (and a l s o  [k Dsa?] "to u r i n a t e " W  Instead,  ) i s not  I p r o p o s e i t i s due t o a  Tongue R o o t node w h i c h  the  (see Chapter 4 f o r t h e m o t i v a t i o n  this  cru-  In  (9v) and t h e r e t r a c t e d  floating stem  but  that precedes the g l o t t a l .  see a c o n t r a s t  contains  This  by t h e u v u l a r  is lexically  s p e c i f i e d on  and a n a l y s i s o f  claim). To s u m m a r i z e t h e f a c t s o f r e t r a c t i o n e x e m p l i f i e d  data sets horizontal retracted cates  (2)-(9), I present  the chart  i n ( 1 0 ) . The  a x i s a t t h e t o p shows t h e segment t h a t and t h e v e r t i c a l  column  in  on t h e l e f t  side  can  be  indi-  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . A / marks r e t r a c t i o n w h i l e an  x  14 indicates  no r e t r a c t i o n .  (10) 7q q'-q »q - / _/z,z' A d v e r s a t i v e Morpheme & L e x i c a l F l o a t i n g Node w  , w  x  x W  (  1.2.2.  / x /  / / /  / / /  E i j k p . c.) a n d b y t r i g g e r i n g i s different  netic  x x /  /  x x /  a vowel  themselves  (and a u d i b l y , v a n harmony p r o c e s s  from t h a t o f t h e r e t r a c t i o n .  The vowels  The pho-  r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e v o w e l s /ae @/ when p h a r y n g e a l i z e d of theretracted  o f pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n effects  tralized,  vowels w i t h t h e a d d i -  superimposed  on t h e vowel.  o f p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n and r e t r a c t i o n  however, w i t h / i / .  corresponding the  x x  n o t appear t o occur i n t h i s environment.  basically that  tion The  /  1 1'  ae @/ u n d e r l y i n g l y p r e c e d e p h a r y n g e a l c o n s o n a n t s w h i l e  / u / does  is  x x  distinguish  from t h e u v u l a r s both a r t i c u l a t o r i l y  / i  * x /  s  Pharyngealization  The p h a r y n g e a l s i n L i l l o o e t  which  6  i u a e @  a r e neu-  (11) a n d (12) d e m o n s t r a t e t h e  s e t s o f p h o n e t i c segments o r i g i n a t i n g  from  p h o n e m i c v o w e l s /a? @/ when i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f  pharyngeals . 6  T h i s c h a r t i s t a k e n from v a n E i j k (1985:13-14). The diacritic over vowels denotes p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . F o r example, [ a ] i s a p h a r y n g e a l i z e d [ a ] . A  15  (iD/eJi/ [aS] [a:]  [3:]  [3:?]  slow fast  speech speech  slow fast  speech speech  (12)/aeS/  [ail] [a::]  [5:S ][5:i J [5::] [5::?] W  , w  (11) shows t h a t where / § / i s u n d e r l y i n g realization for  i s either  [3]  [a] o r  the  surface  d e p e n d i n g on t h e  value  [round] o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p h a r y n g e a l . D i s t r i b u t i o n a l  restrictions  i n d i c a t e that the value  of the  underlying  v o w e l i n (12) must be /ae/ and n o t / u / . T h a t i s , g i v e n the  value  f o r height  and t h a t t h e v a l u e  of the surface  vowel i s always  f o r [round] i s p r e d i c t a b l e  following pharyngeal's value  f o r [round]),  that  [+lo]  (due t o t h e  only  the  full  g  v o w e l /ae/ u n d e r l y i n g l y Following skeletal for  Hayes  precedes a pharyngeal .  (1981), I p r o p o s e t h a t  s l o t s representing  /§/ d i f f e r s  t h e number o f  f r o m t h e number  / i ae u / . I n e f f e c t , / § / h a s one t i m i n g  s l o t while the  I have c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e r e l a t i v e l e n g t h o f segments u s i n g [:] and [::] s o a s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n l e n g t h b e t w e e n [@] and t h e f u l l v o w e l s . My representation d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y f r o m t h a t o f v a n E i j k who u s e s p a r e n t h e s e s , a s shown b e l o w t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i v e s h o r t n e s s o f schwa.  [a:] This observation  i s due  t o P.  slow speech f a s t speech Shaw  (p.c).  16 others  h a v e two. S u f f i c e i t t o s a y t h a t  d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n /@/ a n d t h e f u l l of length. pensatory  The bottom l i n e lengthening  pharyngeal during  vowels on t h e b a s i s  o f each c h a r t  shows t h a t  fast  speech. f o r proposing a difference i n  number o f s k e l e t a l s l o t s f o r / § / a n d / i ae u / comes  from s t r e s s placement. I n r o o t - s u f f i x c o m b i n a t i o n s , will  com-  occurs with t h ed e l e t i o n o f t h e  Independent m o t i v a t i o n the  i t i spossible t o  shift  a full  stress  two v o w e l s t o t h e r i g h t f r o m t h e r o o t v o w e l t o  v o w e l , b u t n o t t o [§] w h i c h i s o v e r l o o k e d b y t h e  s t r e s s r u l e . I n a r o o t w i t h / § / , s t r e s s remains on t h e root  i f the s u f f i x contains  /§/, butw i l l  root  to a suffix  a full  containing  vowel  o f t h e movement o f s t r e s s a r e g i v e n  9  shift  . Some e x a m p l e s  i n (13) b e l o w .  (13a)/?ux aelmixJV [?6x aelmex l /?ux aelmix -kaen/ [Tox^lmex^kaen] w  w  "Indian,person" " I am a n Indian person"  w  w  (b)  from t h e  /zaex-ael'q^em'/ [ zaexael'q ] "tall" /Z3=x-ael • q ^ m -Lkael'aep/ [zaexael' q @m Lkael'aep] "you f o l k s a r e tall" * [ zaexael q § m Lkael aep ] w  1  w  1  /  1  (c)  w  1  1  /m@c-@n/  [m§c@n]  /m@c-xael/  [m@cxael]  F o r more (1985:20-24).  details  of Lillooet  "to write i t , (tr.)" "to write, (intr.)"  stress  see van E i j k  17 I have not charts  in  are very this  included the  (11)  and  (12)  f o r two  scarce  —  I am  aware o f o n l y t h r e e  sequence which (14)  are  c  /ci?i i c  Second, t h e  /  [ce?eS ]  f o l l o w e d by  "to  , w  [e] where / i /  surface  data  instances  of  forms  We  as  and r e t r a c t i o n  have a l r e a d y [5] are are  shown i n t h e  above. A s u r f a c e r e a l i z a t i o n  imposition of pharyngealization,  Postulation  examples i n  [a] and  / § / when t h e y  a pharyngeal,  bleed"  i s concerned.  evidence.  f r o m u n d e r l y i n g / a e / and  (12)  1  the u n d e r l y i n g vowel i n the  b l i s h e d t h a t the  and  [leTe^ ]  -->  distributional  the  "to take apart, to t e a r down" "to s c a t t e r (e.g. people l e a v i n g a meeting)"  w  e f f e c t s of pharyngealization  are n e u t r a l i z e d to  b a s e d on  First,  [leS ]  —>  , w  reasons.  the  :  w  1  as  1 0  /li i /—>  /li?!^ /  of / i /  f a c t s about / i S / i n  of  (14)  is  esta-  derived  immediately charts  in  [e] w i t h  a  stemming f r o m  (11) super-  underlying  . c I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the second vowel i n both [le?e^'] " t o s c a t t e r " and [ c e ? e 1 ] " t o b l e e d " a r e e c h o v o w e l s and t h e r e f o r e do n o t h a v e t h e s t a t u s o f a f u l l v o w e l . F o r t h e purposes o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h i s f a c t does not m a t t e r because the pharyngeal i s p r e d i c t e d t o r e t r a c t the vowel i n e i t h e r case. I f t h e y are echo vowels, t h e n t h e c o r r e c t u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w o u l d be / l i S ' / " t o s c a t t e r " and / c i i / " t o b l e e d " . G l o t t a l i z a t i o n would s p r e a d from t h e g l o t t a l i z e d p h a r y n g e a l t o t h e v o w e l and result i n an echo vowel. [ + e p i g l o t t i s ] (see t h e a n a l y s i s i n C h a p t e r 4 s e c t i o n 4.2.) w o u l d t h e n s p r e a d f r o m t h e p h a r y n g e a l and we o b t a i n t h e c o r r e c t s u r f a c e form. 10  c  | W  c  | W  18 / i / ,  i s p r e c i s e l y what we w o u l d e x p e c t  patterning is,  to find  o f r e t r a c t i o n versus p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . That  a p h a r y n g e a l i z e d vowel has t h e f o c u s o f a  vowel w i t h pharyngeal [a],  constriction.  while pharyngealized  ([e])  the pharyngeal  However,  Thus,  i t i s [a]. In the case  c o n s t r i c t i o n appears  of  t o be m i s s i n g .  In order t o  c o n s t r i c t i o n t h e t o n g u e must b e p u l l e d  back i n t h e v o c a l t r a c t  such  t h a t t h e f r o n t vowel i s  p h o n e t i c a l l y b a c k . M. D. K i n k a d e  ( p . c.) p o i n t s o u t t h a t  f r o n t v o w e l i n C o l u m b i a n may be p h a r y n g e a l i z e d ,  Odden  a n d D.  ( p . c.) i n f o r m s me t h a t t h e A r a b i c f r o n t v o w e l s i s  indeed pharyngealizable, but are p h o n e t i c a l l y Further phonetic suggest first  / i /  i t i s n o t c l e a r t o me t h a t p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n o f a  make t h e p h a r y n g e a l  investigation  a resolution  and t h i r d  f o r t h i s problem. Furthermore,  e x a m p l e s i n (14) show, / i /  v o w e l s /ae §/ do. I n C h a p t e r [round]  t o spread  language p a r t i c u l a r rounded  vowels.  backed.  i s required i n order t o  when a d j a c e n t t o a r o u n d e d p h a r y n g e a l ,  of  retracted  r e t r a c t e d /ae/ i s  f r o n t v o w e l w o u l d be p o s s i b l e i n L i l l o o e t .  the  given the  as t h e  does n o t round  while the other  4, I s u g g e s t  that the f a i l u r e  t o t h e f r o n t vowel r e f l e c t s a constraint that rules out front  19  1.3.  A n a l y s i s and Sagey's  Proposed F e a t u r e Geometric Model  (1986) m o d e l o f F e a t u r e G e o m e t r y shown i n  above i s n o t  sufficiently  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the data presented [hi,back,lo], the  Dorsal  the  features  account  [a]  in section following  1.1.  the  with  [ae]  the  (See  Third,  reflected  i n the  2.1. the  feature  uvulars  are  involve  r a i s i n g the  2.1  and  references  the  problems of  Yallop  1990:68).  Second,  consonants  at a surface  [-hi,-lo]  from  level  i n her  system.  of t h i s  point.)  t o n g u e body movements a r e So,  f o r example,  [-high], but  tongue body.  (See  they  not  the  actually  Chapter 2  section  f o r a more d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t  [high,back,lo] with regard  to  posterior  consonants.) I suggest e n r i c h i n g  not  terms  for discussion  as  therein  does  i s , i n c a r d i n a l vowel  values.  characterized  [-lo]  to  lower  retracted  s p e c i f i e d as  articulatorily,  under  vowels a c t u a l l y  counterparts  Chapter 2 s e c t i o n  the  features  (1968),  spreading  [+lo]  ( C l a r k and  Sagey c a n n o t d i s t i n g u i s h the non-retracted  for  t h e s e s e g m e n t s . However,  data. F i r s t ,  fact that  Halle  features  p r o b l e m a t i c when a t t e m p t i n g  r e t r a c t i o n . That  because both are  to  assumes t h e  Chomsky and  themselves are  i s lower that  their  She  node t o c h a r a c t e r i z e  characterize  with regard  back a r t i c u l a t i o n s t o account  for attested  slightly  enriched  (1)  S a g e y ' s model u n d e r t h e  Place  of  20 node w i t h a n a d d i t i o n a l node: Tongue R o o t . fourth  a r t i c u l a t o r node, a s a r g u e d  Bessell  & Remnant  (1990). Moreover, feature tional  I suggest that  [lepiglottis]  (1987),  (1989), and B e s s e l l  Tongue R o o t  ([±epi]), which  f o r i n B e s s e l l & Remnant  t h e proposed  (1988,  f o ri n Cole  a  dominates t h e  reflects the addi-  p h a r y n g e a l c o n s t r i c t i o n on p h a r y n g e a l i z e d v o w e l s ,  as argued adopt  (1989), McCarthy  I propose  1989),  (1989).  changes t o t h e r o o t  f o r i n Odden  following  structure.  tree  (15)  I  node i n M c C a r t h y  and changes t o t h e s t r u c t u r e  node a s a r g u e d  In addition,  of the dorsal  ( 1 9 8 9 ) . I assume, t h e n , t h e  sonorant vocoid approximant [nasal]  LARYNGEAL NODE  [cgT"Tsg]"* [st.vc] Jsl-;vc] [LABIAL]  [CORONAL]  [dist]  1.3.1.  [TONGUE ROOT]  [ant] [ l a t ] Height.V "7 B a c k - r o u n d I \ / \[epiglottis] [ h i ] [ATR] [ l o ] [ b a c k ] [ r n d ]  Retraction  Cole  (1987),  (1989) a r g u e  B e s s e l l & Remnant  f o r a complex s t r u c t u r e  (1989),  and McCarthy  for the representa-  tion  of uvulars  along  poses f o r p a l a t a l s .  the lines  I suggest  that Keating  (1987)  a similar proposal  pro-  i n that  u v u l a r s a r e complex s t r u c t u r e s and a r e c o - a r t i c u l a t e d i n v o l v i n g t h e Tongue R o o t node a n d t h e D o r s a l n o d e . T h e base u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f u v u l a r s the underlying  level,  there  s t r u c t u r e below t h e D o r s a l the both  class  of uvulars  a Dorsal  i s found  i s no n e e d t o s p e c i f y a n y a n d Tongue  Root nodes because  a r e defined as t h e only  a n d a Tongue R o o t  (16)  i n (16). A t  segment  with  node.  ° PLACE NODE ROOT  Uvulars  a r e redundantly  phonetic  realized  as [-epi], t h e i r  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n shown i n (17) b e l o w  full  .  (17) ROOT [-epiglottis] The r e t r a c t i o n  r u l e spreads  t h e [Tongue R o o t ]  node  o n t o t h e P l a c e node o f t h e p r e c e d i n g  vowel.  formalization of the retraction  t r i g g e r e d by a u v u l a r  consonant. The d e f a u l t v a l u e stated  rule  (18) g i v e s t h e  for[epiglottis],  above i s [ - e p i ] , i s f i l l e d  i n at a later  which as stage i n  the d e r i v a t i o n .  11  D e t a i l a b o v e t h e P l a c e node h a s b e e n  omitted.  22 [+vocalic]  (18)  Place Dorsal Tongue R o o t Scansion applies Pulleyblank a  1 9 8 7 ) , and  [+vocalic]  targets  point  r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by z'//  is  d i f f e r e n t from the  / z / has raised  / i /  does not  a dental  Dorsal  targeted  by  and  node  the  on  rule  not  node.  t r i g g e r e d by  /z  (Archangeli  o f a p p l i c a t i o n , schwa i s  for a Dorsal  Retraction  level  a preceding  segment. Schwa i s n o t  because at the specified  at a minimal  /z  uvulars  r e t r a c t . As  z'/  parallels  except that  i n the  noted p r e v i o u s l y ,  English /z/.  Instead,  a r t i c u l a t i o n with the  giving i t a lateral-like  that  the  sides  q u a l i t y . In  case /z  Lillooet  of the  tongue  addition,  Thompson  (1986:60) p o i n t  Thompson / z /  involves  "a c e r t a i n amount o f r e t r o f l e x i o n ,  me  that  root  as  lying /z/  q u a l i t y " . D.  r e t r o f l e x i o n may the  between t h e region"  r-like  t i p of the  involve  Odden  Yallop  representation  is triply  (p. c.)  1990:80).  for /z/.  the  informs  r e t r a c t i o n of the  " t o n g u e u n d e r s u r f a c e and  ( C l a r k and  that  tongue i s r a i s e d t o [the] (19)  form  tongue  contact  postalveolar  shows t h e  under-  I t i s important to note  a r t i c u l a t e d , which accounts  of  z'/  Thompson and  g i v i n g them an  out  of  that  for i t s rarity  23 i n the world's (19)  languages  12  /z/  Place CORONAL  The apply  spreading rule  formulated  i n t h e case of / z /  traction linked  triggered  DORSAL  i n (18) a b o v e  retraction,  as well  will  as f o r r e -  by a u v u l a r c o n s o n a n t . T h e s i n g l y  D o r s a l node a n d i t s d e p e n d e n t  specified  TONGUE ROOT  so as t o r u l e  feature  out the application  [-back] i s of the rule to 13  the  sequence / i z / , which has t h e s t r u c t u r e (20)  i  i n (20)  z y°  Place Dorsal  [-back] In  t h e case o f consonant r e t r a c t i o n ,  spreading of  Tongue R o o t c a u s e s s e c o n d a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n . I c l a i m the  alveo-palatals  are specified  serves t o distinguish  rule.  Keating  doubly a r t i c u l a t e d Lillooet  f o r a D o r s a l node w h i c h  them f r o m t h e o t h e r c o r o n a l s a n d  p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e traction  that  i n the formalization (1987) p r o p o s e s t h a t  involving  h a s no p a l a t a l s ,  of the r e palatals are  t h e C o r o n a l and D o r s a l  b u t two s e r i e s  nodes.  of coronals: the  12 found  K m k a d e ( p . c . ) i n f o r m s me t h a t t h i s segment i n L i l l o o e t , Thompson, a n d C h i l c o t i n . 13 S e e C h a p t e r 4 f o r d e t a i l s o f t h e argument.  i s only  dental the  coronals,  alveo-palatal coronals,  These s e r i e s can node f o r t h e gets and  the  filled  node. C r u c i a l l y ,  spreading  filled  i n as  from a f l o a t i n g  node o f t h e floating  therefore  i t may  y  a  and  y'/«  Dorsal  be  point  unmarked  vowel, As  [</>epiglottis]  (21)  shows  t r i g g e r of the  docked t o a s k e l e t a l  more s t r u c t u r e t h a n t h a t  . I  at  targeted.  above,  tar-  level,  t o n g u e r o o t node o n t o t h e  segment i t i s n o t  I  (21)  1'  at the  [-epiglottis].  consonant. Because the  r e q u i r e s no  z z*//  minimal  f o r the  the v o c a l i c r e t r a c t i o n d e s c r i b e d  redundantly  s 1  invoking  vowels scans the  i n so t h a t  c'  retraction rule that  r u l e a p p l i e s , the value  schwa, must be  a  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  Dorsal  L n n'  which are / 6  a l v e o - p a l a t a l s . The  t a r g e t s the  with  be  c o n s o n a n t s and  which t h i s  is  c o n s i s t i n g o f / t \*  Place  rule is slot  and  pictured.  Place Dorsal  °' *"Tongue R o o t  1.3.2.  Pharyngealization  Pharyngealization retraction  and  o f vowels i n v o l v e s b o t h tongue body  l o w e r p h a r y n g e a l c o n s t r i c t i o n , and  whenever a vowel i s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t pharyngeal consonant. In Feature feature  to a  occurs  following  Geometric terms, then,  [ + e p i g l o t t i s ] w h i c h i s d o m i n a t e d by  a  a Tongue Root  node, r e p r e s e n t i n g the  Place  node o f any  v o w e l . The the  in  a d d i t i o n , the  case of the  of pharyngeal  result  fact  uvular  feature  by  different  ever,  in  i s a pervasive  is  therefore  of  pharyngealization. (22)  independently  as but  superimposition accounts  p h a r y n g e a l harmony  (11)  vowels.  and  (12)  indicate  f o r [round] i s d e t e r m i n e d  pharyngeal consonant's value rounding  above,  the vowels. T h i s  sets of surface  charts  onto  preceding  discussed  t h a t u v u l a r harmony and  i n two  spreads  of the vowels  [+epi] causes a  the vowel's surface value  the  adjacent  retraction  c o n s t r i c t i o n on  Furthermore, the that  immediately  Tongue Root c a u s e s r e t r a c t i o n  in  f o r the  a pharyngeal consonant,  for that  process  motivated.  i n the (22)  f e a t u r e . Howlanguage  shows t h e  and rule  [+vocalic] r  Place Tongue R o o t "~ ~ [ + e p i ]  I n summary, t h e articulator  of  a later point  i n the  [epi].  unspecified value other  spreads  the  node Tongue R o o t , w h i c h i s u n s p e c i f i e d f o r a  feature value  the  r u l e of r e t r a c t i o n  hand,  as  A Redundancy R u l e t h a t a p p l i e s  grammar s e r v e s  to  [-epiglottis].  Pharyngealization,  i n v o l v e s a r u l e of  fill  in  at  the  [-(-epiglottis]  on  spreading  o n t o a Tongue generation.  R o o t node, w h i c h i s p r e s e n t  due t o node  Chapter  2.0.  Introduction In t h i s Chapter,  to characterize p h o n o l o g y and  I look at various  point  out,  w o r l d ' s l a n g u a g e s . The  for attested  with the  Pattern  English  (hereafter  SPE),  fact,  ize  however, i t was  and  Halle  r o u n d i n g and  [flat]  t h i s date was  Phonology  descrip-  considered  used to a l s o used  v e l a r i z a t i o n . Jakobson,  (1952) c h a r a c t e r i z e  characterto Fant,  f l a t t e n i n g as:  . . i c h i e f l y g e n e r a t e d by a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e l i p o r i f i c e (rounding) w i t h a concomitant i n c r e a s e i n the length of the l i p c o n s t r i c t i o n . . . Instead o f t h e f r o n t o r i f i c e o f t h e mouth c a v i t y , t h e p h a r y n g e a l t r a c t , i n i t s t u r n , may be contracted with a s i m i l a r e f f e c t of f l a t t e n i n g . This independent pharyngeal c o n t r a c t i o n , c a l l e d phary n g e a l i z a t i o n , a f f e c t s t h e a c u t e c o n s o n a n t s and a t t e n u a t e s t h e i r a c u t e n e s s . (p. 31) J a k o b s o n and  Halle  (1956) f u r t h e r d e f i n e  f l a t t e n i n g as  follows: a c o u s t i c a l l y - f l a t phonemes i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p l a i n ones a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a downward s h i f t o r w e a k e n i n g o f some o f t h e i r u p p e r f r e q u e n c y c o m p o n e n t s ; 27  the  Sound  t h o u g h much  back a r t i c u l a t i o n s . In  characterize  i n some o f  p u b l i c a t i o n o f The  t h e o r e t i c a l work p r i o r t o  pharyngealization;  data  previous  f i r s t phase of G e n e r a t i v e  i n 1968  and  generative  i n some c a s e s , where  culminates of  d i f f e r e n t attempts  back a r t i c u l a t i o n s w i t h i n  p r o p o s a l s cannot account  tive  2  28 g e n e t i c a l l y - t h e former (narrowed s l i t ) phonemes i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o t h e l a t t e r ( w i d e r s l i t ) phonemes a r e p r o d u c e d w i t h a d e c r e a s e d b a c k o r f r o n t o r i f i c e o f t h e mouth r e s o n a t o r , and a c o n c o m i t a n t v e l a r i z a t i o n e x p a n d i n g t h e mouth r e s o n a t o r , (p.31) In  o t h e r words,  [flat]  covers l a b i a l i z a t i o n ,  and p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . McCawley 1975  and A n d e r s o n  of  rule  be  specified  1985)  (1967)  notes that  f o r m u l a t i o n because  (discussed  [flat]  a segment t h a t  i n some o t h e r way  velarization, i n Hyman  causes a  problem  i s [+flat]  f o r i t s roundness  or  must  phar-  yngealization, etc. Anderson  (1985) a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t b o t h C a u c a s i a n  languages and  Salishan  [flat]  they each c o n t a i n c o n t r a s t i n g  1 4  because  languages c r e a t e problems  for  segments  c a n n o t be a c c o u n t e d f o r w i t h i n t h e J a k o b s o n i a n  that  system.  I n t h e n o r t h w e s t C a u c a s i a n l a n g u a g e s U b y k h and (the Bzyb d i a l e c t o f ) A b k h a z , however, independent c o n t r a s t s o f r e t r o f l e x i o n and r o u n d i n g a r e r e p o r t e d among a f f r i c a t e s i n t h e a l v e o p a l a t a l r e g i o n . Ubykh a l s o d i s p l a y s i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o n t r a s t i v e p l a i n , rounded, p h a r y n g e a l i z e d , and r o u n d e d - p h a r y n g e a l i z e d u v u l a r s t o p s . Bzyb Abkhaz h a s u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e s of f i v e d i s t i n c t t y p e s : p l a i n , rounded, " p a l a t a l i z e d " ( i n v o l v i n g an i n c r e a s e i n t h e l e n g t h o f t h e c o n s t r i c t i o n ) , p h a r y n g e a l i z e d , and r o u n d e d pharyngealized. A contrast of rounding i s a l s o reported f o r d i s t i n c t i v e l y pharyngeal f r i c a t i v e s i n some l a n g u a g e s o f t h e S a l i s h a n f a m i l y , s u c h a s C o l v i l l e . (p. 124)  See s e c t i o n 2.3.1. b e l o w C a u s c a s i a n back consonants.  f o r more d i s c u s s i o n  of  the  The proved  SPE  method o f a c c o u n t i n g  t o be p r o b l e m a t i c e a r l y  early proposals 1986)  used  the  not  than  as  feature inherited  aspect  prove  t o be  of t h i s  Chapter  including  I examine  proposals  several dealing with  in particular.  Halle  Chomsky and  H a l l e (1968) c h a r a c t e r i z e v e l a r s ,  (23)  suc-  i t s predecessor.  c o a s t languages  and  shown i n  of  no more  Chomsky and  uvulars,  seg-  then the arrangement o f f e a t u r e s  f o r back a r t i c u l a t i o n s ,  2.1.  same  Sagey  hierarchically.  for a particular  structure will  In the remainder  northwest  1985,  f e a t u r e system t h a t i t has  of accounting  a hierarchical  cessful  (Clements  f o r the explanatory value of  phonological behaviour, in  (Brame 1970) ; however,  f e a t u r e s were a r r a n g e d  said  capable  segments  same f e a t u r e s t o d e s c r i b e t h e  geometry, y e t i f t h e is  on  i n f e a t u r e geometry  ments, o n l y t h e Much c a n be  f o r these  (19 68)  pharyngeals  using  [high],  [ b a c k ] , and  [low]  (23).  SPE c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s  back high low  k  q  S  ?  + + -  + -  + +  +  However, t h e p r o c e s s e s  of L i l l o o e t  retraction  and  pharyn-  30 gealization  c a n n o t be a c c o u n t e d f o r u s i n g t h e s e  In the case of p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n , is  superimposed  feature would  [+back]  on t h e v o w e l  pharyngeal  quality.  The  features.  constriction  spreading of the  from t h e p h a r y n g e a l onto t h e back  apply vacuously. Similarly,  vowels  while spreading of  [+low] a p p e a r s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e n i c e l y t h e p r o c e s s f o r t h e h i g h vowels, v o w e l s . As  i t cannot account f o r t h e changes  for retraction,  h a v e on v o w e l s , t h e v o w e l , we  i f the features  would  arguments  b a s e d on a r t i c u l a t o r y argues t h a t uvulars, natural  t h e SPE  i s the e f f e c t [-high,-low]  e x p e c t t h e low v o w e l s  does not o c c u r ; i n f a c t , Additional  which  low v o w e l s  lower  analysis of "gutterals"  c l a s s by t h e f e a t u r e s f r o m one  However, t h i s  a n a l y s i s does n o t c o r r e c t l y  a r t i c u l a t o r y g e s t u r e s i n v o l v e d . The  Uvulars are c l a s s i f i e d raising  t h e tongue  i n SPE as  pharyngeal wall.  are  (1989) . He (which  [ l o w ] and  include as a  be  [back].  characterize  the  features  t o t o n g u e body movements.  body. P h a r y n g e a l s a r e  Finally,  features  [-high], but, i n f a c t ,  appear t o i n v o l v e t h e tongue  which  c a n be g r o u p e d  distinguished  [high,back,low] r e f e r  spread onto  [ - a n t , - h i g h ] and c a n  another with  uvulars  slightly.  from McCarthy  p h a r y n g e a l s , and l a r y n g e a l s )  the  to raise,  a g a i n s t u s i n g SPE  factors  i n low  root,  involve  [+low,+back],  epiglottis,  and  laryngeals are s p e c i f i e d  as  but  [+low] i n s p i t e  of the  involved  articulation  i n the  (McCarthy  1989:34-35).  2.2  Feature  Place Sagey  that Her  f a c t that the  t o n g u e body i s  of l a r y n g e a l s whatsoever  Geometry  (1986) p r o p o s e s a model o f  incorporates the motivation  articulatory  not  place  feature  f e a t u r e s under t h e i r  f o r advancing such a proposal  notions:  geometry  i.e. vocal tract  own  node  i s based  on  anatomy.  (24) root_ continuant consonantal ° supra-laryngeal [spr.gl.] / \ [st.v.c] soft p a l a t e ^ ^ place [constr.gl.][si.v.c.] [nasal] labia dorsal corona] 0  [round]  /  \ [high] [back] [low]  [anterior] [distributed] The geometry culation.  primary problem with i s that She  i t ignores  relies  on  the  S a g e y " s model o f  feature  any  s o r t of tongue r o o t  arti-  SPE  method o f a c c o u n t i n g  for  b a c k a r t i c u l a t i o n s w h i c h , a s m e n t i o n e d above, u s e back,low] to d i s t i n g u i s h v e l a r s , u v u l a r s , and  w h i c h I h a v e shown i n s e c t i o n 2.1. Other proposals  for place  and  t o be  [high,  pharyngeals problematic.  f e a t u r e geometry  include  that  of P u l l e y b l a n k  (1987a) i n  (1987) f o u n d  \coronal  [round]  /.dorsal  vela:  \  [high]\ [back] gh]\ [b< [low] [dist]  [ant]  (1987a) p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e  s p e c i a l vowel t i e r  Steriade  In c o n t r a s t ,  the  and  node. S t e r i a d e  1  [ATR]  Dorsal  t h a t dominates only  include both v o c a l i c Dorsal  and  "place,  labiay  features.  (25)  (26).  (25)  Steriade  in  S a g e y and  consonantal  the  node be  a  vocalic  Pulleyblank  models  f e a t u r e s under  the  a d d s a V e l a r node t o accommodate  tongue body c o n s o n a n t a l  feature  ( w h i c h she  does  the  not  specify). (26)  place  \  labial  [ant] If,  as  Steriade  are  a v a i l a b l e only  and  using  [high]  Steriade  root])  proposes,  the  velar? F?  features  f o r vowels, the pharyngeal,  [ b a c k ] and  [low].  (1987a) i n c l u d e  in their  I  ^dorsal  tongue  root [ATR]  [high]\ [back] [low] [dist]  places: velar, uvular, by  ^  s  [ATR]  on  three  the  Dorsal  consonantal  c a n n o t be  distinguished  Both P u l l e y b l a n k ([advanced  t r e e g e o m e t r i e s . The  tier  question  (1987)  tongue of the  com-  patibility this  of  thesis  [  A T R  ]  w i t h t h e f e a t u r e and node I p r o p o s e i n  r e m a i n s t o be s e e n .  and C z a y k o w s k a - H i g g i n s  (1987)  (However, s e e Cook  (1989)  f o r some d i s c u s s i o n o f  this  issue.) Czaykowska-Higgins Upper  Pharynx  articulations. these  (1987) p r o p o s e s two  and Lower P h a r y n x , The  chart  (27)  q + -  [± U p p e r P h a r y n x ] [+ Lower P h a r y n x ]  r  t o account f o r t h e s e back  i n (27) shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  features over the relevant  g = 5 = C =  segments. ^ +  q + +  3. + +  C -  r  l  claims that the pharyngealized  [q] a n d t h e e m p h a t i c p h a r y n g e a l ( i . e . [9]  of  5  p h a r y n g e a l i z e d u v u l a r (N.W. C a u c a s i a n ) emphatic pharyngeal ( P a l e s t i n i a n A r a b i c ) r h o t a c i z e d consonant o r vowel  Czaykowska-Higgins  geal)  features,  are i n e f f e c t  uvularized  t h e same t h i n g .  b a s i c model o f f e a t u r e geometry tions,  b u t i n c o r p o r a t e s Upper  arrive  at the u n i v e r s a l  She  uvular pharyn-  adopts  using articulatory  Pharynx  representation  Sagey's no-  and Lower P h a r y n x of feature  to  geometry  shown i n ( 2 8 ) .  S e e C z a y k o w s k a - H i g g i n s (1987) f o r more d e t a i l on t h e s e f e a t u r e s and f o r a b r o a d e r e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y behaviour of the vocal t r a c t i n r e l a t i o n to these features.  34  root ° supra-laryngeal  jsoft  ^r^place  palate  "nasal  labial"  tongue  ^dorsal  upper"  "coronal An  interesting  that  aspect  rooty^ "lower  pharynx  pharynx  o f t h e Czaykowska-Higgins model  is  t h e t o n g u e r o o t node i s i m m e d i a t e l y d o m i n a t e d b y  supra-laryngeal  node.  cross-linguistic  She  evidence —  West G r e e n l a n d i c E s k i m o tongue r o o t  argues t h a t ,  on t h e b a s i s  in particular,  consonantal  node must be a s i s t e r  the  of  e v i d e n c e from  assimilation  —  the  t o t h e p l a c e node  and  not a daughter o f i t . The p r o b l e m w i t h t h e C z a y k o w s k a - H i g g i n s m o d e l f e a t u r e geometry h a v i n g two  i s that  there  i s no c l e a r m o t i v a t i o n f o r  f e a t u r e s u n d e r t h e Tongue Root  node.  The  s e n c e o r p r e s e n c e o f t h e Tongue R o o t node a n d one two  proposed features  the  independently  necessary  facts,  ( f o r example,  required  Dorsal  Dorsal Tongue R o o t [+ Lower P h a r y n x ]  q + + -  ab-  of the  [±LP]), i n a d d i t i o n  node c a n c a p t u r e  a s shown i n ( 2 9 ) .  (29)  of  S + +  q + + +  3  C + -  r  the  to  35  2.3.  Recent  Studies  2.3.1. McCarthy (1989) McCarthy terizing  (1989) a d d r e s s e s  the problem  the phonological behaviour  of  of back  consonantal  articulations within a place-of-articulation attempts  t o account  "gutterals" pharyngeals,  f o r the behaviour  i n A r a b i c which and  by p o s i t i n g  t h a t dominates a f e a t u r e [ g l o t t a l ] . representation  theory  1 6  . He  of the set of  includes uvular  laryngeals,  charac-  The  fricatives,  a node  Pharyngeal  structural  i s g i v e n i n (30).  (30)  sonorant vocoid approximant [nasal]  Laryngeal [eg]  Node^\^  [sg]^[stf]  [slk]  [lab] [rnd]  [pharyngeal] /  [dist] McCarthy argues articulator  | [ant]  [hi] [lo] [lat]  [bk] [glottal]  for place-of-articulation theory  theory, advocated  i n Sagey  (1986) and  over  Halle  Some o f the issues in this section regarding M c C a r t h y ' s p a p e r h a v e p r e v i o u s l y b e e n r a i s e d i n B e s s e l l and Remnant ( 1 9 8 9 ) .  ( 1 9 8 9 ) , on using  three  together on  the  the  grounds t h a t the  g u t t e r a l s are a r t i c u l a t e d  different articulators,  as  a natural  presupposition  clearly  function  c l a s s . A r t i c u l a t o r theory  i s based  that  yet  each f e a t u r e  i s e x e c u t e d by  particular  active articulator. Place-of-articulation  theory,  the  on  articulation, determining are  presents  five  tion, 4ff)  and  hand, c l a i m s  not  the  f a c t o r i n the  theories  tions,  other  grounded  forming of n a t u r a l tract  a r g u m e n t s b a s e d on  show w i t h o u t a d o u b t t h a t  function together cording  as  a natural  t o M c C a r t h y , must be  iculation  the  classes.  Both  restric-  syllable-final  the  degemination" gutterals  c l a s s , and  dealt with  posi-  do  therefore,  in a  (p.  ac-  place-of-art-  theory.  Clements r o o t node so [sonorant], of these  is  "co-occurrence  avoidance of  of  anatomy. M c C a r t h y  t r a n s p a r e n c y t o a s s i m i l a t i o n , and that  place  active articulator,  in vocal  vowel lowering,  that the  a  (to appear) suggests a r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f that  i t c o n s i s t s of the  [vocoid],  features  of  [consonantal];  as  "any  are an  and "...  [ a p p r o x i m a n t ] . The [vocoid]  voiceless"  that  i s simply  a i r f l o w through  oral tract  the by  inverse Clements  stricture  i t i s turbulent  ( M c C a r t h y 1989:3), and  features  definitions  [approximant] i s d e f i n e d  s o u n d p r o d u c e d w i t h an  enough s o  major c l a s s  the  only  open i f  [sonorant] maintains i t s  common m e a n i n g . M c C a r t h y a d o p t s C l e m e n t s ' p r o p o s a l  c classifies thereby  grouping  Arabic  Arabic), ted  consonants  (1970), Broselow  (1957), and Heath  formation  which a r e s i m i l a r  i n nature  i n v o l v i n g both Coronal  (1977), for i n -  and emphasis i n  to Lillooet's  i n McCarthy  retrac-  (1989) a s d o u b l y  and D o r s a l  nodes;  a r e a l s o c o - a r t i c u l a t e d i n v o l v i n g t h e D o r s a l and  Pharyngeal nodes. Pharyngeals, classified  as redundantly  enables  uvulars  [-glottal],  geal consonants are s p e c i f i e d then,  class.  (see A l - A n i  (1987) among o t h e r s  segments, a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  uvulars  [+approximant]  (1979), G h a z e l i  on d i f f e r e n t A r a b i c d i a l e c t s  articulated,  as  segments i n t o a n a t u r a l  emphatic c o r o n a l  ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Brame Harrell  these  17  i ? h/  t h e g u t t e r a l s : /X ¥ H  and  whereas t h e l a r y n -  [+glottal].  McCarthy t o capture  l a r y n g e a l s /? h/ w i t h  and c o r o n a l s a r e  This  feature,  the patterning of the  p h a r y n g e a l s and u v u l a r s  as a n a t u r a l  c l a s s . McCarthy argues t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a r e o n l y for the feature  [glottal]  i f t h e system has t r u e  specified pharyn-  geals. The  Lillooet  pharyngeals tion  f a c t s show t h a t t h e o c c u r r e n c e  i s not a s u f f i c i e n t  o f l a r y n g e a l s as [ g l o t t a l ] .  Arabic  of true  condition f o r specificaAs s e e n i n ( 3 1 a - c ) ,  I use ¥ t o r e f e r t o a voiced uvular and a v e l a r resonant i n L i l l o o e t .  fricative  in  38 retraction Glottal  triggered  by  an u v u l a r i s n o t b l o c k e d by / ? / .  stop i s the o n l y consonant  transparent to  retrac-  tion. (31a)  (b)  (c)  i ii  [lae?] [la?qs]  "to get close" " t o go a s h o r e "  i  [?oq |P?]  "to  ii  [T^Tq^a?]  "to drink a l i t t l e b i t "  i  eq]  W  ii If  Lillooet  which,  on t h e b a s i s  l a r y n g e a l / ? / as  "cranky  here"  like  a baby"  are indeed t r u e pharyngeals,  of t h e i r behaviour with regard to  v o w e l harmony, I c l a i m  by a f u l l  "to a r r i v e  [ke?X] pharyngeals  drink"  they are, then s p e c i f y i n g  the  [-(-glottal] i n a c a s e where i t i s p r e c e d e d  v o w e l and  f o l l o w e d by  a uvular should block  retraction  o f the vowel because  pharyngeal  node w o u l d be b l o c k e d by t h e p h a r y n g e a l  the g l o t t a l  spreading the  trigger's node o f  a s shown i n ( 3 2 ) .  (32)  V  ?  - - L  c  j  place Pharyngeal  [glottal] A problem  t h a t McCarthy f a c e s i s t h a t h i s  f e a t u r e g e o m e t r i c model i s n o t a b l e t o p h a r y n g e a l i z e d u v u l a r s found  proposed  characterize  i n Bzyb Abkhaz  (Colarusso  1975)  or u v u l a r i z e d pharyngeals  Arabic  ( C a r d 1983,  cited  reported for Palestinian  i n Czaykowska-Higgins 1987).  i n v e n t o r y of p o s t - v e l a r consonants in  (33)  below  1 8  i n B z y b Abkhaz i s g i v e n  .  q« q  (33)  The  Y  1  ,w  x  X X w  Y  ¥  ¥ ¥ w  h  Y  h  £  S  W  w  x x  w  McCarthy's model has  no way  under the pharyngeal  node a s  account  of distinguishing i s necessary  f o r p h a r y n g e a l i z e d u v u l a r s . The  w h i c h i s d o m i n a t e d by distinguish  the pharyngeal  l a r y n g e a l s from  under the pharyngeal  segments  i n order  feature  to  [glottal],  node, s e r v e s  to  o t h e r segments c h a r a c t e r i z e d  node, b u t  i t bears  no  relevance  to  secondary p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . McCarthy's p r o p o s a l does c a p t u r e t h e laryngeals c l a s s together with pharyngeals Semitic.  fact and  that uvulars i n  I t seems t h a t a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i n g o f l a r y n g e a l s  with uvulars occurs  i n Nisgha  shown a b o v e , L i l l o o e t  (Shaw 1 9 8 7 ) , t h o u g h ,  as  does not group l a r y n g e a l s w i t h  of the other p o s t - v e l a r  any  consonants.  "^indicates p a l a t a l i z a t i o n , ' represents g l o t t a l i z a t i o n , X i s a voiceless uvular f r i c a t i v e with ¥ being i t s v o i c e d c o u n t e r p a r t and x i s a voiceless pharyngealized uvular.  40 2.3.2. H a l l e Halle  (1989),  articulator classifies their  (1989) i n a response  t h e o r y as d e v e l o p e d the  "gutterals"  "glide-like"  quality.  basis of x-ray t r a c i n g s , are produced  as  t o McCarthy, i n Sagey  (1986).  [-consonantal]  In a d d i t i o n ,  he  w i t h a lower pharyngeal  ([+CP]), which i s dominated  He  because  the  pharyngeals  constriction  by  of  c l a i m s , on  t h a t b o t h u v u l a r s and  t h e r e f o r e b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e f e a t u r e pharynx]  defends  and  are  [+constricted  a Tongue Root  node. H a l l e proposes along  lines  changing  suggested  grouping of laryngeal  t h e L a r y n g e a l node t o  Glottal  by M c C a r t h y . I n o r d e r t o c a p t u r e features with the uvulars  and  p h a r y n g e a l s w h i c h makes up  the e n t i r e  segments, he makes s i s t e r s  o f t h e T o n g u e R o o t node and  Glottal  node u n d e r a L a r y n x  proposes  i s found  node. The  set of  gutteral  structure  he  i n (34).  (34)  PLACE LARYNX Tojigjoe^Root  [ATR]  [CP]  Glottal  [c.glT^sp^glT^s^^  H a l l e ' s arguments f o r h i s p r o p o s a l appear strong. and  First,  laryngeal  physiologically,  grouping the  segments t o g e t h e r u n d e r one  the  fairly  pharyngeal  node  reflects  the  the  fact  tis, the  t h a t one  which p l a y s  set of muscles c o n t r o l both the e p i g l o t a part  larynx, which i s o b v i o u s l y  articulations. references voicing  Citing  cular,  fundamental  Czaykowska-Higgins  therein), Halle claims  q u a l i t y , f o r h i s proposed  w h i c h a r e d o m i n a t e d by he  "induce in  i n pharyngeal a r t i c u l a t i o n s ,  the  s t a t e s that both  noticeable modifications  some A f r i c a n l a n g u a g e s ,  pronounced w i t h  creaky,  voice  (p.  by  regarding and  the  follows is  on  features  [ATR]  [CP]  from t h e  bright, brassy  breathy,  t h a t by  of  [CP],  partishown  said  to  to  be  whereas  muffled,  H a l l e are  or  choice  and  of theory.  showing the  the  the  assumptions  place-of-articulation pharyngeals  Much o f t h e  advantage of  that a l l g u t t e r a l s are  empirical issue)  theory, which  Halle  paper  articulator but  his  g u t t e r a l argumentation are  A p o t e n t i a l problem f o r H a l l e an  and  be  voice,  over p l a c e - o f - a r t i c u l a t i o n theory,  of course,  basis  i n v o i c e q u a l i t y . Thus,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of u v u l a r s  the proposal  can  [-ATR] v o w e l s a r e  a r t i c u l a t o r versus  tions regarding  the  p r i m a r y d i f f e r e n c e s between  M c C a r t h y and  concerned with  theory  (and  18).  I n summary, t h e proposal  (1987)  support,  and  [+ATR] v o w e l s a r e p r o n o u n c e d w i t h hollow  in laryngeal  Tongue R o o t n o d e . I n [ATR]  and  assump-  based  on  [-consonantal]. ( b u t one  i s the  that  status of  remains, uvulars.  42 He c l a i m s  t h a t they are not doubly a r t i c u l a t e d , p r o v i d i n g ,  however, o n l y evidence  the muscular f a c t s discussed  f o r h i s claim. Given the strong  (1987) a n d M c C a r t h y kowska-Higgins  (1989)  the lines  Other  Cook  i n Keating  contentious.  section I discuss  researchers  have g i v e n  some o f t h e t r e a t m e n t s f o r r e t r a c t i o n phenomena.  (1987) p r o p o s e s an a n a l y s i s f o r C h i l c o t i n  which i s a process tion.  as a  Proposals  In t h i s various  i n Czay-  uvulars  suggested  (1987) f o r p a l a t a l s , t h e i s s u e r e m a i n s  2.4.  arguments i n C o l e  (and as s u g g e s t e d  (1987)) f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g  complex s t r u c t u r e a l o n g  above as  flattening,  t h a t c l o s e l y resembles L i l l o o e t  T h o u g h he d o e s n o t p r o p o s e a f o r m a l i z e d  model o f a  f e a t u r e g e o m e t r i c t r e e , he d o e s i n v o k e a f e a t u r e w h i c h when a p p l i e d i n an a u t o s e g m e n t a l to h i s formalized cess  according  r u l e s accounts f o r the f l a t t e n i n g  (1987) u s e s  progressive claims  are  [RTR]  pro-  i n Chilcotin. Doak  geal  fashion  retrac-  [CP] and [RTR] t o a c c o u n t f o r  a n d r e g r e s s i v e harmony i n C o e u r d ' A l e n e . She  that these  features  reflect  the nature o f pharyn-  c o n s t r i c t i o n s , which, a c c o r d i n g o f two d i f f e r i n g  epiglottis  types:  (which r e p r e s e n t s  t o Ladefoged  (1982),  ( i ) p u l l i n g back o f t h e [CP]) and ( i i ) r e t r a c t i o n o f  43 the  tongue r o o t  (which r e p r e s e n t s  not  attempt t o p o s i t i o n these  work, n a m e l y , w i t h i n therefore  gives  no  structure that  in  of  (35)  Doak d o e s  in a larger  frame-  status  of  and  these  Grammar.  the  other  t o account  Doak i s c o n c e r n e d  (p. 4 ) .  feature hierarchy,  i n d i c a t i o n of the  ( 1 9 9 0 ) , on (35)  features  a theory  features within Universal Bessell  [RTR])  hand, p r o p o s e s  f o r the very  the  same phenomenon  with.  PLACE I  Tongue R o o t However, B e s s e l l makes u s e Root] under the harmony. U s i n g two  place only  one  feature  i s t o say,  / i /  —>  progressive  relies  two  different  spreading  Bessell's Bessell  and  Remnant  features  d'Alene data requires  an  as  the  [Tongue two  fact  same s e t o f /u/  features  —>  [o]  for  set of vowels  extra  the  Where we  r e q u i r e d to account  opposed t o the  that  of the  in  harmony. Doak's a n a l y s i s  (1989), p a r a l l e l s  i n C h a p t e r 4.  types  surface  two  surfaces.  system, which i s l a r g e l y d e r i v e d  propose i n d e t a i l necessary  one  f o r the  [e] and  different  r u l e s where o n l y  feature  captures  i n the  b o t h r e g r e s s i v e and on  one  node t o a c c o u n t  t y p e s o f harmony r e s u l t  vowels. That  of j u s t  Lillooet  one  that  differ  f o r the data.  feature to c h a r a c t e r i z e the  from I  is in  the  Coeur Lillooet two  sets  of  surface ation.  vowels t r i g g e r e d In  Lillooet  the  p h o n o l o g y , and  account of analysis  following  of  by  chapter,  phenomena.  pharyngealiz  I present the  i n C h a p t e r 4,  r e t r a c t i o n and the  r e t r a c t i o n and  I give a  pharyngealization  as  facts  of  detailed well  as  an  Chapter 3  3.0.  Introduction This chapter  Lillooet tain  e x p l i c a t e s the general  p h o n o l o g y as p r e s e n t e d  aspects  of the  classification  Lillooet  investigation  processes tion,  I examine t h e the  3.2.,  of rounding  and  relatively  Lillooet  the  tion  on  3.1.  Consonantal  in  columns), uvular  Certhe  I present  consonantal  effects  van  language,  vocalic  the addi-  inventory  inventory.  Eijk's  i n v e n t o r y ; and  classification in section  inventory paying  of r e t r a c t i o n  and  and  particular  pharyngealiza-  vowels.  The, p l a c e s found  s u c h as  p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . In  s m a l l phonemic  I examine t h e v o c a l i c  a t t e n t i o n to the  i n the  extensive phonetic  I n s e c t i o n 3.1., of the  sound system,  (1985).  i n order to e x p l i c a t e f u l l y  of r e t r a c t i o n  as w e l l as  Eijk  of  o f segments i n t h e phonemic i n v e n t o r y  the pervasive processes require  i n van  details  (36)  Inventory of a r t i c u l a t i o n  below a r e :  labial,  alveopalatal, velar  ( u n r o u n d e d and  of the dental  consonant (second  ( u n r o u n d e d and  rounded), pharyngeal  45  inventory and  third  rounded),  (unrounded  and  46 rounded),  and l a r y n g e a l  (36) P  k k x  t  P'  m m' Van  19  K l l' y y'  L  n n  1  k k X  1  ¥  q q'  W ,  w  q qA w  X  W  w  S S  w  ¥ • v  w  h  <i' S' ? w  E i j k d i v i d e s t h e system i n t o o b s t r u e n t s and  resonants  with the obstruents being v o i c e l e s s while the resonants are voiced, thereby as r e s o n a n t s . classify  i n c l u d i n g t h e s e t o f / z z* 'l*?**!'  He s t a t e s t h a t t h e u v u l a r g l i d e s  as pharyngeals)  are resonants  because  not occur  the other resonants,  o f / z z'  ^T *? 7  1  (p.3).  they  However,  °/' /indicate w  segments p a t t e r n w i t h t h e o b s t r u e n t s w i t h r e In the case  f u n c t i o n as r e t r a c t i n g  o f / z z'/, t h e s e  segments  segments, p a t t e r n i n g w i t h t h e  u v u l a r o b s t r u e n t s . The p h a r y n g e a l s  effect  I  1  i n t h e p o s i t i o n s C_C a n d C_#"  gard t o r e t r a c t i o n .  retracting  (which  ( i ) "they oppose p l a i n v s . g l o t -  the phonological behaviour that these  ,w  a n d / z z / ( i n a d d i t i o n t o ¥ ¥•)  t a l i z e d members" a n d ( i i ) " l i k e do  S /  also pattern with the  segments i n t h a t t h e y h a v e p h a r y n g e a l i z i n g  on v o w e l s . F u r t h e r m o r e ,  van E i j k ' s  first  argument  c o n c e r n i n g p l a i n v s . g l o t t a l i z e d members, w h i c h I s t a t e above, cannot  and  serve t o d i s t i n g u i s h  resonants  from  I use L t o stand f o r t h e d e n t a l , l a t e r a l ¥ f o r the v e l a r resonant /](/•  obstru-  fricative:  ents because the zed  series.  s t o p s a l s o oppose a p l a i n  Moreover, h i s second  impossible canonical position necessitate  those p o s i t i o n s , evidence  sonants.  c o u l d be  (see s e c t i o n  struents The tirely  sonants,  C  and  t o be  on v o i c i n g  I find  / 7 7 7* <  W(  not  obstruents  I  no  /as  I have chosen t o l e a v e t h e  in  compelrepharyn-  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p h o n e t i c d e s c r i p 3.1.4.), w h i l e /z  s t a t u s of /h/  and  Van  and  /?/  z'/  a r e c l a s s e d as  i n the system  E i j k p o i n t s out  ob-  i s not  en-  t h a t the r e l a t i o n  be-  / ? / does not p a r a l l e l  which have a c l e a r p a i r i n g  p a t t e r n t o g e t h e r as p l a i n E i j k pp.  this thesis, /?/  z'  the  segments does  t h a t of the other of p l a i n  s e g m e n t s . However, t h e r e a r e c a s e s  (see van  glottali-  .  clear.  tween / h /  lized  2 0  construed  f o r c l a s s i f y i n g /z  g e a l s as r e s o n a n t s tion  of these  f o r example. T h e r e f o r e ,  Nevertheless,  a  argument c o n c e r n i n g  a d i s t i n c t i o n between r e s o n a n t s  as t h e r e s t r i c t i o n  ling  and  glotta-  i n which they  glottalized  van  Eijk's  analysis  do  counterparts  16,31-33, 3 6 - 3 7 ) . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s  I adopt  f u n c t i o n as  and  and  re-  i n which /h/  of and  resonants.  See C h a p t e r 4 s e c t i o n 4.1.2. d i s c u s s i o n of /z z / i n r e l a t i o n t o argue t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e found i n t h e i r v a l u e s f o r [sonorant] 1  for further relevant / i / and / y / , where I t h r e e s e g m e n t s c a n be and [ v o c o i d ] .  48 3.1.1.  Coronals  The  coronal  consonants can  two-sub g r o u p s : t h e set  of dental  dentals  and  a l v e o - p a l a t a l s a r e /&  /z  i t s own  on  the  c o n s o n a n t s i s made up  while the z'/  be  as  The  of / t %'  c'//  -  z'/  i n the  t h e y may  a l s o have a l a t e r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n .  pattern  with the  alveo-palatals  f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h /y Finally,  /z  z / 1  with the  y'  l ' /  :  two  The  a b s e n c e o f an  s y s t e m . However, t h e  stop  / t / ( i . e . t')  counterpart  in  segments. which  to retraction.  (See  z'/O  of /z  Proto-Salish  In a d d i t i o n , /L/ in this  to  i n d i c a t e a gap  in  l a t e r a l a f f r i c a t e /J^'/  phoneme w h i c h s u r f a c e s  1985:iii).  appears t o  counterpart  functions  to / t / . Interestingly, h i s t o r i c a l  e v i d e n c e shows t h a t  fricative  /z  addition,  alveo-palatal  expected g l o t t a l i z e d  the  one  times,  Dentals  dental  the  In  At  h a v e a Tongue R o o t a r t i c u l a t i o n  the  as  is  articulation  teeth.  3.1.1.3. f o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n  3.1.1.1.  system  i n that they are  accounts f o r i t s behaviour with regard section  1  classify  1  have a d e n t a l  tongue-tip  1  L n n  y y'/«  w i t h the  z /  i n contact  alveo-palatals.  s 1 1*  i t s patterning  anomalous. P h o n e t i c a l l y , /z  b r o k e n down i n t o  * t ' and  as /&J/  merged  in Lillooet  i s c l a s s i f i e d as  s y s t e m where / s /  i s not  (van  the  into Eijk  dental  a phonemic  seg-  / X V  ment o f t h e l a n g u a g e . By g r o u p i n g glottalized  However, I do n o t c l a i m t h a t  logical of not to  but t h a t these  lateral  /L/  both  cally  not  and / l  1  /  s  t  n  e  respectively,  articulation.  i s n o t an o p e r a t i v e  Furthermore, t h e e n t i r e s e t ( i . e . /%J  L I l / ) do 1  respect to retraction.  That i s  c a n b e r e t r a c t e d w h i l e /&,'/ a n d  dental affricate / c / 1  alveo-palatal  case  / l /  a  a r e apparently never s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e process. The  not  L  segments f u n c t i o n a s t h e  segments i n t h e l a n g u a g e  pattern together with say,  d / /  lateral  [lateral]  counterparts t o / t / .  lateral  n  d e n t a l s t o p and d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e  I appear t o be d i s c o u n t i n g t h e i r  feature,  a  from t h e  consonant / £ / and does n o t p a t t e r n  as t h e g l o t t a l i z e d  share  i sdistinct  c o u n t e r p a r t . T h e s e s e g m e n t s do  a common p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ,  of the laterals  (/X'  phoneti-  V  and / l  b e h a v e i n t h e same manner w i t h  l /), 1  and, as i n t h e / c ' / a n d /£"/ do  regard t o r e t r a c t i o n .  3.1.1.2. A l v e o - p a l a t a l s The  a l v e o - p a l a t a l o b s t r u e n t s / £ s 1 1'/ -  [£ £ 1 1']) p a t t e r n t o g e t h e r w i t h When / £ £ / a r e r e t r a c t e d [s],  which  they  i s not the standard  A r a b i c consonant s a d (van E i j k describes  (phonetically  regard t o r e t r a c t i o n .  a r e pronounced as [ t s ,  s].  E n g l i s h [ s ] , resembles t h e 1985:3). T r i t t o n  s a d a s "... t h e c o u n t e r p a r t  (1962)  o f s a n d i s made  50 w i t h t h e b l a d e o f t h e tongue a g a i n s t tip  b e i n g behind t h e lower t e e t h "  Eijk ...  (1985:3) s t a t e s t h a t  blade  tract,  f o rarticulating the  -  f r e e t o make t h e c l o s u r e . . . " .  secondary c l o s u r e vocal  ( p . 1 7 ) . However, v a n  t o [ft S ] , where t h e w h o l e t o n g u e -  - i n contrast  i s left  ridge, the  " r e t r a c t i o n of the tongue-root  leaves only the tongue-tip  closure  the teeth  Note t h a t a  i s formed i n t h e p o s t e r i o r r e g i o n  specifically,  a closure  ofthe  i n v o l v i n g t h e tongue  dorsum a n d t h e v e l u m . Thompson a n d Thompson  (1986:58),  i n describing 2  similar  s e g m e n t s i n Thompson, s t a t e t h a t  "resemble t h e consonants o f E n g l i s h in  1  [c] and [ s ]  i t s , sauce, b u t have  a d d i t i o n a c u p p i n g o f t h e tongue i n back o f t h e key  point  of articulation,  (They a r e n o t , The  g i v i n g them a d a r k , h o l l o w  timbre.  however, r e t r o f l e x e d . ) "  l a t e r a l s / l 1'/ a r e p r o n o u n c e d l i k e  the English  clear the  [ 1 ] . When r e t r a c t e d t h e s e segments a r e s i m i l a r t o 22 dark i n English , due t o t h e a d d i t i o n a l p o s t e r i o r 2  1  .  .  Underliningof  a segment i n d i c a t e s r e t r a c t i o n .  22  By s t a t i n g t h a t t h e r e t r a c t e d [1] o f L i l l o o e t i s s i m i l a r t o E n g l i s h d a r k [ * ] , I am m a k i n g no c l a i m a b o u t t h e s t a t u s o f v e l a r i z a t i o n v s . u v u l a r i z a t i o n o f E n g l i s h [ 1 ] . The a r t i c u l a t o r y f a c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n both t h e E n g l i s h and t h e L i l l o o e t c a s e s / ! / may b e b a c k e d . T h e f a c t s o f E n g l i s h d a r k [ i ] a r e o f no c o n c e r n t o t h e p r e s e n t work, a n d I r e f e r t o them o n l y s o t h a t t h e r e a d e r may g a i n a r o u g h i d e a o f t h e articulation of Lillooet retracted [ 1 ] . I am a l s o n o t claiming that L i l l o o e t [1] i s " u v u l a r i z e d " . I n s t e a d , a s  51 constriction  s u p e r i m p o s e d on  3.1.1.3. / z  Z /  /z  z / 1  the  articulation  of  /!/.  1  have a d e n t a l  a r t i c u l a t i o n w i t h the  sides  of  23 the  tongue r a i s e d  Van  Eijk  the  following way: P h o n e t i c a l l y , / z z'/ a r e l a x f r i c a t i v e s , v a r y i n g from a p u r e l y d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n (with the t o n g u e - t i p more f o r w a r d t h a n i n E n g l i s h "z") to an i n t e r d e n t a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n (where z z' s o u n d somewhat l i k e l a x v a r i a n t s o f E n g l i s h v o i c e d " t h " ) ; the former p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y more common i n t h e F o u n t a i n d i a l e c t ( F ) , t h e l a t t e r i n t h e Mount C u r r i e d i a l e c t (M).... In  the  indicating this  i t a lateral-like quality  (1985:4) d e s c r i b e s t h e  articulation  Mount C u r r i e d i a l e c t  in post-vocalic  to  giving  position,  that there  as  [z]  the  z'/  alternates with  example i n  i s indeed a  of /z  .  (36)  in  [1]  shows,  "lateral-like" quality  segment . 2 4  shown i n Chapter 4, retracted [1] has a r t i c u l a t i o n , as do t h e u v u l a r s e g m e n t s , pharyngeals.  a /z  Tongue Root z'/, and the  23 B o t h M . D. K m k a d e and P. Shaw (p. c.) h a v e i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e C h i l c o t i n / z / w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o Cook ( 1 9 7 8 ) , a b o r r o w i n g from I n t e r i o r S a l i s h i s l a t e r a l - l i k e . 24 . . V a n E i j k m e n t i o n s t h a t / z ' / may be p r o n o u n c e d a s [ l ] i n p o s t - c o n s o n a n t a l p o s i t i o n , and t h a t / z / may be p r o n o u n c e d as [1] b e f o r e o r a f t e r v o w e l s . However, he p r o v i d e s no examples o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i o n s , and I am n o t s u r e w h e t h e r these v a r i a t i o n s are r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n l e x i c a l items or may o c c u r w h e n e v e r a / z / o r / z / i s i n one of the above mentioned environments.  me is  1  1  52 (36) / x @ z p / — > f  [x@z'p]  or  [x@l'p]  "embers"  However, / l 1'/ may n o t s u r f a c e a s [z z ] , a s (37) shows. 1  (37) / p § l ' p /  -->  [p§l'p] *[p@z'p]  In both d i a l e c t s giving this  [z] i s i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n with [y]  i ta g l i d e - l i k e quality.  alternation  enclitic  occurs are: (i) before a s u f f i x or  beginning  alveo-palatal  —  The e n v i r o n m e n t s i n which  i n a coronal  —  either dental or  c o n s o n a n t , a n d ( i i ) i n word  position  in idiolectal  variations  Examples  o f ( i ) and ( i i ) a r e g i v e n  and n u r s e r y  initial talk.  i n (38a) a n d (38b)  respectively. [hDZ ]  (38a) / h u z ' / /huz'-ti?/  /X'laez / 1  /X'laez'-s/ (b)  " t o be about t o do smt." [ h o z ' t e T j / C h o y ' t e ? ] " t h a t one i s a b o u t t o do smt." 1  /z@tp/ /zaext/  As w i t h t h e [z z ' ] / [ l  [X'laz ] 1  "canoe"  [Vlaz'sJ/CVlaey's]  " h i s canoe"  [z@tp]/[y§tp] [ zaext]/ [yaext]  "jelly-like" "long"  1'] a l t e r n a t i o n ,  /y y'/ cannot  s u r f a c e a s [z z ' ] , a s (39) d e m o n s t r a t e s . (39) /?aeyL/  [?«yL]  " t o have r e c e n t l y done smt."  *[?azL] /yunhaenae/ In  [yonhaenae] * [ zonhaenae]  "Carrier  Indian"  h i s study o f t h e a c o u s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  Chilcotin,  Latimer  retracted)  segments h a v e l o w e r h i g h f r e q u e n c i e s t h a n  of  the sharp  (1978) shows t h a t  ( i . e .plain)  series.  indicate pharyngealization. e v i d e n c e from palatograms articulation  s e r i e s has  retracted  series  ridge  Lower  t o show t h a t series  he p r o v i d e s  the places  are indeed  a dental a r t i c u l a t i o n ,  as t h e C h i l c o t i n  Lillooet  "flat"  /z  of  different.  while the  involves contact behind the  (p. 4 2 ) . The  those  frequencies  Furthermore,  between t h e two  The p l a i n  the " f l a t " ( i . e .  alveolar  z * / a p p e a r s t o be t h e same  series while the C h i l c o t i n  "sharp"  2 5  s e r i e s resemble  English  [z]  .  3.1.2. U v u l a r s The the  s e t of u v u l a r consonants  following  glottalized glide, their  s t o p s and  fricatives:  stops a r e pronounced  articulated  as  uvulars,  Lillooet  q q' q  [ q ' ] and / q X  has  , w  Thus,  / as  a full  [q  w  q  consists |  W  X X . w  of The  with a f r i c a t i v e o f f -  a t t h e same p l a c e ,  resembling a f f r i c a t e s .  realized  in Lillooet  , X w  which  results  in  /q'/ i s phonetically ] . In a d d i t i o n t o the  set of v e l a r  consonants: k  k*  To my k n o w l e d g e , no a c o u s t i c o r a r t i c u l a t o r y work such as s p e c t r o g r a m s or palatograms has been done on L i l l o o e t . I make u s e o f t h e C h i l c o t i n c a s e b e c a u s e o f t h e s i m i l a r p r o c e s s o f r e t r a c t i o n and t h e a p p a r e n t h i s t o r i c a l l i n k b e t w e e n t h e C h i l c o t e n / z / and t h e L i l l o o e t / z / (Cook 1978) .  54 k  w  k  and  ,  w  x x  w  ¥ ¥ ' . The p l a c e s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n  u v u l a r s e t s a r e v e r y c l o s e t o one a n o t h e r w i t h t h e  uvulars articulated of  articulation.  ed  (that  are  tion  just  adjacent  In a d d i t i o n , v e l a r s a r e almost  (van E i j k from  1985:11). I n t h i s  case they a r e articula-  .  Pharyngeals  Doak  (1987:4) n o t e s t h a t  different  second  one i s c a r r i e d  toward  t h e back w a l l  Epiglottal  Ladefoged  types o f pharyngeal  method i n v o l v e s r e t r a c t i n g  geal articulation  down u p o n t h e e p i g l o t t i s ,  (Ladefoged  back  articulation i s  "the tongue r o o t  pharyn-  [being]  bringing the l a t t e r  articulations  i n the literature.  first  1982:149).  (1985), who s t a t e s t h a t  approximation with t h e opening Pharyngeal  the epiglottis  i n a pharyngeal  involves  The  t h e tongue r o o t , w h i l e t h e  o f t h e pharynx"  involvement  (1982) r e c o g n i z e s  articulations.  o u t by " p u l l i n g  a l s o c l a i m e d by C o l a r u s s o  suspect  place  assimilat-  one a n o t h e r b y t h e a f f r i c a t e  of the uvulars  3.1.3.  s l i g h t l y back o f t h e v e l a r  i s t o s a y , a r e b a c k e d ) t o u v u l a r s when t h e two  distinguished  two  of the velar  thrust  into  o f t h e l a r y n x " (p.  367).  i n L i l l o o e t have been  Kinkade  V a n E i j k does n o t a c t u a l l y  (1967) s t a t e s t h a t t h e  provide  examples.  p h a r y n g e a l s o f C o l u m b i a n and C o e u r d ' A l e n e a r e p r i m a r i l y uvular  approximants i n L i l l o o e t  hand, L a t i m e r that  (1978) and Cook  a n d Thompson. On t h e o t h e r  (1983, 1987, 1989)  C h i l c o t i n f l a t t e n i n g (which i s d e r i v e d  retraction)  i s pharyngealization,  articulation  from  but involves  or backing of a v e l a r  such t h a t  claim Lillooet  a  uvular  a uvular  is  articulated. Van as  Eijk  uvulars.  these g l i d e s uvular  (1985) c l a s s i f i e s  t h e g l i d e s / 7 , f' , ^ , * j c  However, he n o t e s t h a t  and [7]  sion  of the equivalent  "[p]ostvelar by the  (1986),  friction  or occasionally  a uvular  production."  (p. 6 4 ) .  (1971)  o f van E i j k  resonant  i n the L i l l o o e t  propose t h a t  Lillooet  some  They  also  glottal  of articulation differs  (1986), Kinkade  (who d o e s n o t i n c l u d e  produced  involve  trill.  h a v e some s u g g e s t i o n o f c r e a k y  from t h a t  that  and g e n e r a l n a r r o w i n g o f  occasionally  My p r o p o s a l a s t o t h e p l a c e  discus-  state  resonants are b a s i c a l l y pharyngeals,  p h a r y n x . The p l a i n o n e s /7, ^ / c o m m o n l y  uvular  Arabic  in their  segments i n Thompson,  r e t r a c t i o n o f t h e tongue r o o t  /  t r a c t than the  i s similar to the  p h a r y n g e a l . Thompson and Thompson  , w  the a r t i c u l a t i o n of  i s f a r t h e r back i n t h e v o c a l  obstruents,  W  (1967), and i;  any p h a r y n g e a l o r  consonantal  inventory)  has b o t h a u v u l a r  series  Swoboda  uvular i n that that  I  includes  s t o p s and f r i c a t i v e s  contains only resonants. based  The a r g u m e n t s  f o r my  series  but primarily  segments I c l a s s i f y vowels. Therefore, thesis  on t h e d i f f e r i n g  that  analysis are  i n p a r t on d e s c r i p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e p l a c e o f  culation,  this  and a p h a r y n g e a l  arti-  effects that the  a s u v u l a r s and p h a r y n g e a l s  h a v e on  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n  I argue f o r a r e a n a l y s i s o f previous  cations o f the pharyngeal  s e g m e n t s . To summarize,  propose the s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (40)  found  uvular stops fricatives resonants  classifiI  i n (40). pharyngeal  q q' X  9 7'  3.2.  Vocalic  Inventory  The v o c a l i c languages contain  share  i n v e n t o r i e s o f many I n t e r i o r  one n o t e w o r t h y p r o p e r t y , n a m e l y  few p h o n e m i c v o w e l s w h i l e h a v i n g  phonetic vowels  for  van E i j k  (1938) a n d Doak  (198 6) f o r  (1987) f o r C o e u r  (1985) f o r L i l l o o e t ,  a general discussion of Salish  they  a wide range o f  ( s e e Thompson a n d Thompson  Thompson, R e i c h a r d d'Alene,  Salish  a n d Thompson  vowels).  (1979)  57  The  phonemic v o c a l i c  inventory of L i l l o o e t  i s shown 27  in  (41)  while  (42)  g i v e s t h e p h o n e t i c vowel  (41)  inventory  .  u  @ ae o  (42) e e  §  DO A  ae aa The  u n d e r l y i n g v o w e l s / i u ae §/  [e o ae §] phonetic to  in their  clarity's  sake,  [ae] s o a s n o t  (i.e. plain) state.  The  non-retracted  T h u s , /as/ c a n  be  either  in part,  [e] o r  t o confuse  system are,  v o w e l s . However, / u /  though  [o]  [ae] ; f o r  I have chosen t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s vowel i t with  the  r e t r a c t e d form  which i s [ e ] . P h o n e t i c a l l y , the phonemically  vowels i n the mid  as  r a n g e o f t h e p l a i n v o w e l s i s w i d e due,  free variation.  / i / ,  surface approximately  i s the  as  of  high  f o r t h e most p a r t , p h o n e t i c a l l y may  be  pronounced as  [u], a l -  common v a r i a n t .  Thediacritic over vowels denotes p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e a i s a p h a r y n g e a l i z e d a and 5 i s a p h a r y n g e a l i z e d D. A  58  In a f i v e vowel system o f : (43)  i  u  e  o a  there  i s a three-way d i s t i n c t i o n  i n height.  t h r e e vowel  system such as L i l l o o e t  distinction  i s required  vowels t h a t  surface  will  as  be t h e m i d - v o w e l s ,  [-hi,-lo].  [e] and  type  height.  i s no  the t h e o r e t i c a l  does n o t  I have the  interfere  i s s u e s a t hand.  r e t r a c t e d vowels are r e a l i z e d  as  [ e , D,a,A.] . The 2 9  u n d e r l y i n g v o w e l s c a n a l s o be p h a r y n g e a l i z e d ;  in  /ae/  forms so t h a t  problem o f c h a r a c t e r i z i n g vowel h e i g h t  hand,  distinctive  For the purposes of s i m p l i c i t y  and / u / as t h e u n d e r l y i n g  system system  f u n c t i o n as t h e h i g h vowels, w h i l e  mid-vowel  The  feature  s y s t e m , on t h e o t h e r  a s t h e low v o w e l , a n d t h e r e  with  a two-way  [o] i n a f i v e v o w e l  functions  chosen / i /  a  T h i s means t h a t t h e  o r i n an SPE  In the t h r e e vowel  t h e s e segments  has o n l y  2 8  f o r height.  However,  this  See s e c t i o n 3.2.1. b e l o w f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n terms o f u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n t h e o r y .  results  o f schwa  An a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f r e t r a c t e d / i / i s [e]. [e] and [e] ( w h i c h i s p h o n e t i c a l l y t h a t o f t h e s o u n d i n t h e German word "mehr" ( v a n E i j k 1985:3)) a r e i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n . So, f o r example, / X j i q / ("to a r r i v e h e r e " ) i s r e a l i z e d a s e i t h e r [fj eq] o r RC'eq]. I u s e [ e ] t o r e p r e s e n t t h e r e t r a c t ed f o r m o f / i / .  59 in  a d i f f e r e n t set of  surface  vowels from t h o s e o f  re-  traction. in  That  i s , as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y  a d d i t i o n to the  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  segments a r e of the ized  vowels. two  ( i . e . are  segments a r e  i s that the  uvularized)  pharynx). on  (44)  shows t h e  upper  portion  pharyngeal-  pharyngealized lower p o r t i o n  effects that  the  (i.e. of  the  pharyngeals  have  vowels. (44)  /*,§/  Ladefoged is  retracted  while the  b o t h r e t r a c t e d and  a r e made w i t h a c o n s t r i c t i o n i n t h e  are  In a r t i c u l a t o r y terms,  made w i t h a c o n s t r i c t i o n i n t h e  pharynx  1.1.2.,  p h o n e t i c a l l y r e t r a c t e d vowels there  phonetically pharyngealized the  in section  "raising  [a]/_<7  [5]/  /!/  -->  [€]/j7( )  W W  (1982) n o t e s t h a t b o t h v e l a r i z a t i o n ( w h i c h  the  back of the  the  t o n g u e " ; p.  (where " t h e  root  of the  states that  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n v e l a r i z e d and  s o u n d s , and  no  possibilities"  211)  p h a r y n x i s n a r r o w e d " ; p.  s e c o n d a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n s . He little  9  -->  pharyngealization back so t h a t  —>  /«,§/  and  tongue 283)  i s drawn  are  "[t]here  is  pharyngealized  language d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h e (p. 2 1 1 ) .  Unfortunately  hand, L a d e f o g e d s a y s n o t h i n g separate process of  very  f o r the  case  about u v u l a r i z a t i o n as  secondary a r t i c u l a t i o n .  two at a  It i s clear  from the  f a c t s of L i l l o o e t  t i o n t h a t we  retraction  and  pharyngealiza-  need t o d i s t i n g u i s h p h o n e t i c a l l y between  uvularization  (which I c a l l  r e t r a c t i o n ) and  pharyngealiza-  tion. To  summarize t h e e f f e c t s o f r e t r a c t i o n  gealization,  I present  t h e c h a r t i n ( 4 5 ) . The  shows t h e p h o n e m i c v o w e l , t h e f o r m , and  the t h i r d  pharyngealized (45)  and  and  pharyn-  first  second i s the p l a i n  f o u r t h g i v e the  retracted  column  phonetic and  forms, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  phonemic  phonetic  retracted  pharyngealized  /V  [e]  [e]  [e]  /u/ /ae/ /£/  [o] [ae] [§]  [o] [a] [A]  [a]/[5] [a]/[3]  3.2.1. V o c a l i c U n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n An  u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n system f o r the vowels  Lillooet  i s presented  (46)  i n the  i  u  [lo] [bk] [rd] (47)  lists  the  the phonetic (47)  ae +  in  (46).  @  + redundancy r u l e s f o r the  inventory of L i l l o o e t for  feature matrix  of  and  (48)  presents  inventory.  [0lo] [0bk]  [0bk] [0rd]  --> --> --> —>  [-lo] [-bk]/[+lo] [+bk] [-rd]  vocalic  a feature  chart  61  (48)  e -  10 bk rd TR epi An  important  o + + -  ae @ + - + - - - -  e o a - - + - + + + - + - + + + + - - _ A  b + + + +  point evident  a + + + +  i n the chart concerns the  s t a t u s o f / § / . Schwa i s m a x i m a l l y u n d e r s p e c i f i e d ingly; rules  a l l of i t s features are f i l l e d i n the course  i n by  underly-  redundancy  of the d e r i v a t i o n . Evidence  f o r the  s t a t u s o f schwa a s t h e m a x i m a l l y u n d e r s p e c i f i e d v o w e l comes f r o m i t s b e h a v i o u r vowel the  insertion.  one h a n d ,  I t i s schwa,  i n (49)  (illustrating  regard  t o vowel e l l i p s i s  and o n l y schwa,  that  t h e e p e n t h e t i c v o w e l , and, on t h e  subject to e l l i p s i s found  with  30  . .Data e x e m p l i f y i n g  (illustrating ellipsis)  (49) i /?aew't/ /?ae-?-w»t/  epenthesis)  these and  and  i s , on  other,  claims  are  (50)  below. [?aew't]  " t o be  [?ae?w'§t] " t o be  11  /caeqcq@t/  iii  /waew§l£kzae?/ — >  —>  late" later"  [caq£q@t]/[caq@cq@t ]  "tame"  [waew@lclczae?]/[waew§ltf@kzae?] "poplar"  W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s t a t u s o f schwa, I f o l l o w v a n E i j k ' s a n a l y s i s . F o r d e t a i l s o f t h e b e h a v i o u r o f schwa w i t h r e g a r d t o e p e n t h e s i s and e l l i p s i s s e e v a n E i j k (1985:23-35) . S p a c e l i m i t a t i o n s do n o t a l l o w me t o examine t h i s i s s u e further.  62  (50) i  "white" "face"  /p@q/ /p@q  ii  - u§/  ~>  [pqos]  /xjjgm/ /x @m - aekae/ — >  [x maekae?]  w  iii  /?um'@n/  /?um'@n - aes/ — >  3.3.  "bald  [Tom'naes]  eagle"  "fast" " t o do smth. fast" "to give smth. t o smb. " "he" "he g i v e s i t t o him"  Stress Stress  a complex  i n Lillooet,  issue  (see Czaykowska-Higgins  analysis  o f Columbian  phonemic  stress  following  (b)  stress).  (van E i j k  roots  (51) a  as i n other S a l i s h  Lillooet  1985:5),  languages, i s  1985 f o r a n appears t o have  a s t h e examples  show. [maqae?] [maqas]  "snow" "poison  onion"  IX'amen] " f u r " [X'aemen] " a x e "  (51a) shows t h a t  s t r e s s does n o t p l a y any r o l e  retraction  o f vowels as i n b o t h forms t h e vowel  the uvular  i s retracted  stress.  i n the  i n the preceding  r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e placement o f  63 3.4.  Rounding Rounding i n L i l l o o e t  n o t a p p e a r t o be l i m i t e d rule of spreading triggers  [round]  t o one r u l e .  That  the rounding  rules,  various different  i s t o say, a  i s a c t i v a t e d b y a number o f  i n detail  i t i s important  t h e f i n e r workings of to consider the  aspects o f rounding  given the role  plays i n conjunction with the r u l e of pharyngeali-  z a t i o n . The g e n e r a l p r o c e s s  o f rounding  will  round  u v u l a r o r v e l a r consonant i f i t i s immediately 31  the rounded vowel / u /  cases e x i s t  alternation,  [c'ae?x os'] w  "ashamed"  and t h e r e f o r e i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e  Therefore,  principle"  adjacent t o  i n w h i c h t h e r e i s no morphophonemic  whether t h e consonants ingly.  a  . F o r example,  (52) /c'ae?x/ i d . /C'<E?X-US/ — > (/-us/ " f a c e " ) . Other  t h a t does  and a p p l i e s t o a number o f t a r g e t s . Though i t i s  n o t my p u r p o s e t o p r e s e n t  [round]  i s a pervasive process  a r e rounded o r unrounded  i n keeping  underly-  w i t h t h e "no a l t e r n a t i o n  ( K i p a r s k y 1968) I p o s t u l a t e t h e s e  segments as  Van E i j k s t a t e s t h a t r o u n d i n g o f a u v u l a r o r v e l a r w i l l occur i f the uvular or v e l a r are before o r a f t e r /u/ (p. 1 0 ) . However, t h e o n l y c l e a r e x a m p l e o f r o u n d i n g t h a t he p r e s e n t s i s t h e example g i v e n i n (52) . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , I f o l l o w v a n E i j k a s I am m a k i n g no c l a i m s a b o u t t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s ( e s ) o f r o u n d i n g i n L i l l o o e t . F o r my p u r p o s e s , I am merely concerned w i t h l e f t w a r d s p r e a d i n g o f round from a pharyngeal consonant t o a p r e c e d i n g vowel (see Chapter 4 s e c t i o n 4.2.)  underlyingly do  r o u n d e d . We  exist underlyingly  tion  that  leaves  a l s o know t h a t  rounded  consonants  b e c a u s e o f morphophonemic a l t e r n a -  a c o n s o n a n t r o u n d e d when i t i s  not  32 adjacent  to the  (53)  rounded vowel  example,  [paq^o?] [paq^Taen/  " t o be a f r a i d " " t o s c a r e smb.,  [cok ]  "finished"  w  [c@k -cok ] w  the  "various  w  In the detail  .For  r u l e s to account  addition,  I present  articulator  geometry t o  node: Tongue R o o t , and  include an  incorporating these  previous  can  z'/,  a  Sagey  fourth  additional features  i n the  r e t r a c t e d consonants,  and  and  In  the  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y account  a p p a r e n t anomalous b e h a v i o u r o f v o w e l s /z  i n more  for these processes.  [ ± e p i g l o t t i s ] . By  of uvulars,  finished"  pharyngealization  arguments f o r e n r i c h i n g  feature  model we  are  I present  r e t r a c t i o n and  formalize  (1986) model o f  things  f o l l o w i n g Chapter,  problem of  tr."  feature:  into  for  the  the  environment pharyngeals.  32 B. B a g e m i h l (p. c.) suggests that deletion or r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n these instances could follow rounding of an u n d e r l y i n g l y p l a i n c o n s o n a n t . 33 F o r an a n a l y s i s o f schwa and f u l l v o w e l a l t e r n a t i o n i n L i l l o o e t r e d u p l i c a t i o n s e e Remnant ( 1 9 8 9 ) .  Chapter  4.0.  4  Introduction In t h i s  chapter  I address  t h e problem o f r e t r a c t i o n  v e r s u s p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n i n f e a t u r e h i e r a r c h y terms. As mentioned cesses  i n Chapter  3, two s e p a r a t e  i n v o l v i n g u v u l a r s and p h a r y n g e a l s  Retraction (i.e.  1 and C h a p t e r  i s a process  affect  pro-  vowels.  i n which vowels a r e " r e t r a c t e d "  b a c k e d and l o w e r e d ) when i m m e d i a t e l y  f o l l o w e d by a  member o f t h e s e t o f u v u l a r s o r d e n t a l r e s o n a n t s . tion  o f c o r o n a l consonants  also occurs,  cess  i s not s t r i c t l y  as i n t h e case  local  although  Retracthe pro-  of retraction  t r i g g e r e d b y a u v u l a r o r a / z z'/- P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, o c c u r s when a v o w e l pharyngeal  c o n s o n a n t a n d becomes b o t h  "pharyngealized" —  First, account  organization of this  f o r t h e seemingly  constriction i s  vowel. chapter  I present various r e t r a c t i o n  retraction  r e t r a c t e d and  that i s , a pharyngeal  s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e r e t r a c t e d The  i s f o l l o w e d by a  i s as f o l l o w s .  data  and a n a l y s e s t o  disparate processes  of simple  a n d r e t r a c t i o n harmony. I n a d d i t i o n ,  I propose  a representation that characterizes the structural and r e t r a c t e d  proper-  ties  of retracting  segments. Then,  i n sec-  tion  4.2., I examine t h e p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n d a t a ,  present  65  an  analysis  to  account  f o r the  relevant  f a c t s i n t o the  4.1.  Retraction  The  Retraction segments a r e  f a c t s , and  incorporate  s t r u c t u r a l model p r o p o s e d  of  i s a process i n which a p a r t i c u l a r s e t  a r t i c u l a t e d f a r t h e r back i n the  r e t r a c t i o n , however, v a r y  segment. So, tion the  of  the  coronal  vowels. For not  velarization  (much l i k e  dark  [4]  alveo-palatal  c o n s t r i c t i o n between t h e  alveolar  tongue i n the  of the  between t h e  front part  upper s e c t i o n  posterior  section  Retraction lowering of  vocal  the  vocal  1  the  ~) i n v o l v e  The  segments  constriction  and  the  and  to  t i p of  t r a c t , as  of tongue r o o t  of  of  tongue b l a d e  ridge  well  the  the  as  uvula  in  tract.  of vowels g e n e r a l l y  the  means b a c k i n g  and  v o w e l s ; however, e v e n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s  somewhat v a g u e . I n t h e counterparts:  of  the  of  that  in exactly  in English).  a r e a and  retrac-  set  laterals f 1 1  retracted  [ s ] , however, move f r o m a p o i n t  between the  the  the  physiologically retracted  tract  to  parallel  t h a t m a t t e r , members o f  of  physiological  f r o m segment  consonants does not  same manner. T h u s , t h e  [ c ] and  vocal  f o r example, t o n g u e movement i n t h e  coronals are  4.1.  Problem  than t h e i r non-retracted counterparts; the facts  in  [e]  and  case of / i / [A]  are  and  indeed  /§/,  the  l o w e r and  retracted farther  67 back than  the  non-retracted  and  The  low  [@]).  [a].  As  f o r /u/,  the  r e t r a c t e d form  backed. I present  ing  segment  the  o t h e r vowels —  phonetic  approximation  (54)  i s lowered, with  i t s position  The  / i / /u/ /ae/ /§/  but  underly-  in relation  first  of the nonretracted r e t r a c t e d f o r m on  [e] [o] [ae] [@]  triggers  c o n s o n a n t s and  form  to  phonolo-  column,  the  in  the the  lefthand  [e] [o] [a] [A]  for retraction  i n c l u d e the  the coronal resonants  p h o n e m i c c h a r t i n (55)  with  the  /z  z'/«  set of  c o n s o n a n t s i n h e a v i l y o u t l i n e d b o x e s . The box  the  to  .  (54)  full  the  [e]  lowers s l i g h t l y  [o]  phonetically) i n the  c e n t r e c o l u m n , and  roughly  i . e . the high vowels are high  but  3 4  the c h a r t i n  (which r e f l e c t s  gically,  side  (which a r e  v o w e l /ae/ b a c k s and  not  mid  vowels  i n d i c a t e s the  set of  uvular  1 give  the  triggering  single outlined  set of r e t r a c t a b l e consonants.  The low v o w e l /ae/ i n i t s n o n - r e t r a c t e d p h o n e t i c f o r m varies i n i t s pronounciation. Phonetically i t alternates b e t w e e n [e] and [ae]. So a s n o t t o c o n f u s e t h i s v o w e l w i t h t h e r e t r a c t e d form o f / i / , [ e ] , I have chosen t o r e p r e s e n t i t a s [ae].  68 (55) P  t  V  P'  m m"  L  s  n n'  y  k k' x  k ,w ..w w  k  1 1'  ¥ ¥  y  1  q q' X  _w  w  q qw h Cji q w  w w'  (  4.1.1. R e t r a c t i o n T r i g g e r e d b y U v u l a r s U v u l a r consonants cause r e t r a c t i o n p r e c e d i n g vowel vowels: / i  i f t h a t vowel  Retraction of  /V idiomatic "to a r r i v e here" "to s t e a l " "the onion" "bear"  [Leg-] [teq laew?ae] [meXaeL] w  R e t r a c t i o n o f /u/ [s?oq ae?] w  [Loq^xet]  [qjaqjjsem] [q oq o?] w  (c)  uvulars  vowel.  [ceq] [Veq]  (b)  i s one o f t h e s e t o f f u l l  u ae/. (56) shows f o r m s w h i c h c o n t a i n  and a p r e c e d i n g r e t r a c t e d  (56)a  o f an i m m e d i a t e l y  w  "to drink" "dead" "to serve (food)" "to shoot/hunt small animals" " s m a l l body o f w a t e r "  R e t r a c t i o n o f /*/ [sqaXae?] w w [q^aq X] [paq o?] [ sneLaqae? ] [6aq6q@t] [maqae? ] [ q  a X  w  w  The a l t e r n a t i n g  "dog" "drunk" "nightmare" " t o be a f r a i d " " w e l l , i t ' s him" "tame" "snow"  f o r m s i n (57) i n d i c a t e t h a t r e t r a c t i o n o f  69  t h e v o w e l s i s due retracted  t o t h e u v u l a r and  segments. Moreover, t h e s e  n o t due  r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by  requires  adjacency.  venes between t h e t r i g g e r  a uvular  Where a n o t h e r and  inherently  f o r m s show t h a t  rule of v o c a l i c string  to  target,  the  consonant  consonant  inter-  retraction i s  blocked. (57)a  [soq §m] [sosq @m']  " t o s k i n an a n i m a l " "to skin small animals"  [q Dq s@m»]  "to shoot/hunt animals" "to shoot"  | W  1  (b)  W  w  [q os@m] w  The  one  e x c e p t i o n t o t h e above c a s e o f  blocking of retraction  is glottal  rent to the r e t r a c t i o n  rule.  of g l o t t a l s along with is  are presented (58.a.iii)  independent (58a) i ii  and  of the  consonantal  stop, which i s t r a n s p a -  Examples o f t h e  i n ( 5 8 a ) . The  data  transparency in  (58b),  (58.a.iv) i n d i c a t e t h a t the / ? /  f o l l o w i n g segment  /Lae?-qs/ /mi6ae?q/  [La?qs] [me£a?q]  iii  /?ae?Xae?/  [?a?Xae?]  iv  /zae?X /  [za?X ]  w  small  w  3 5  :  " t o go a s h o r e " " t o s i t down o r up" " s a c r e d , supernatural, talented" "thaw"  The f a c t t h a t I h a v e e x a m p l e s o n l y i n v o l v i n g /ae/ and /u/ does not a f f e c t the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t / ? / i s t r a n s p a r e n t t o r e t r a c t i o n , b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e no c a s e s where r e t r a c t i o n o f / i / i s b l o c k e d by / ? / .  70  "to drink" "to drink a bit" "rotten" The  set  in  (58.b.i)  whether a g l o t t a l (58.a.iv) the  shows t h a t t h e  stop  c a n n o t be  form w i t h segment,  of the  glottalization, transparent  4.1.1.1. The As  stop  f a c t s of  segment i s an  Retraction  f o r the  this  licensing  an  ( 5 8 . b . i i ) shows a  glottalized  stop  i s not  pre-glot-  which r e t a i n s i t s the  argument t h a t  the  segment.  in  (24)  Sagey's i s not  (1986) m o d e l  sufficiently  in Lillooet.  captured  the  by  a  representation feature that  t a r g e t . T h u s , we of  a  have  of  First,  spreading  of  rich  to  the one  or  f e a t u r e s . Second, because r e t r a c t i o n i s  uvulars,  representation  and  Rule  r e t r a c t i o n data  dorsal  t r i g g e r and  glottal  i n C h a p t e r 2,  t r i g g e r e d by f a c t by  by  independent  r e t r a c t i o n c a n n o t be  more o f t h e  the  followed  further supporting  discussed  (58.a.iii)  does not  fricative.  following stop  f e a t u r e geometry g i v e n account  uvular  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the  talization  or not.  because L i l l o o e t  glottalized a glottal  segment i s r e t r a c t e d  i n t e r p r e t e d as p r e - g l o t t a l i z a t i o n  following uvular  underlying  i s present  little  uvulars.  must  incorporate  i s s h a r e d by  must f i r s t  examine  both the  I and  follow Cole  Remnant  segments case  (1987), McCarthy  (1989) i n s u g g e s t i n g  i n v o l v i n g the Dorsal  o f M c C a r t h y 1989,  states that  ( 1 9 8 9 ) , and  Bessell  that uvulars  a r e complex  and Tongue R o o t  (or, i n the  Pharyngeal) nodes. McCarthy  " u v u l a r g u t t u r a l s a r e p r o d u c e d b y a movement  o f t h e t o n g u e dorsum upwards and b a c k w a r d s ; t h e r e striction palate"  both  i s con-  i n t h e o r o p h a r y n x and a g a i n s t t h e s o f t  (p. 3 8 ) . Furthermore, u v u l a r s  systems w i t h  (1989)  velars, indicating  q u i r e s an i n d e p e n d e n t l y  are only  found  in  that t h e i r presence r e -  motivated  D o r s a l n o d e . By p o s t u l a -  t i n g u v u l a r s a s c o m p l e x s e g m e n t s , none o f t h e  requirements  s t i p u l a t e d by Sagey  complex  segment  (1988) f o r t h e s t a t u s o f a  are violated.  t h e move t o r e p r e s e n t lels  Moreover, McCarthy  u v u l a r s a s complex segments  that of representing palatals  (argued  (1989) n o t e s  f o r i n Keating  as complex  paral-  segments  1 9 8 7 ) , and i s t h e r e f o r e n o t  u n p r e c e d e n t e d . I a d o p t t h e s t r u c t u r e s i n (59) p r o p o s e d Cole  (1987) f o r v e l a r s , u v u l a r s , (59)  velars  and  uvulars  pharyngeals  Iplace  [place  "dorsal  "tongue  give the rule  of uvular retraction  R o o t node o f t h e u v u l a r  spreads  by  pharyngeals.  Having e s t a b l i s h e d the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f u v u l a r s , now  that  i n ( 6 0 ) . The  onto the P l a c e  root I  Tongue  node o f t h e  vowel. (60)  [+voc|lic] |  Place Dorsal ""~"  Tongue R o o t  0  A r c h a n g e l i and mal/minimal t i e r  Pulleyblank  scansion parameter t h a t permits  access  i n f o r m a t i o n on  invoke  the  with t i e r that  Locality  (61)  an  that rules  segments on  apply  a given t i e r . the  The  r u l e must be  the t r i g g e r  adjacent,  Maximal s c a n s i o n  and  the  trigger.  o t h e r hand,  the  tier.  i s d e f i n e d as  f e a t u r e a scans Pulleyblank  skeletal  the t i e r  target i s  and  t a r g e t of  r u l e must  not  i n v o l v i n g vowels w i l l  t h e n u c l e a r t i e r w h i l e maximal s c a n s i o n scans  Condi-  of r u l e s t o t a r g e t s which  of r e t r a c t i o n , string  —  combin-  Locality  a r b i t r a r y d i s t a n c e from t h e  case  apply to /§/.  ants  locally  Locality Condition A r u l e can a p p l y o n l y i f a s p e c i f i e d adjacent to a s p e c i f i e d t r i g g e r .  In the  to  C o n d i t i o n i n (61) , w h i c h , when a p p l i e d  the a p p l i c a t i o n  a p p e a r t o be  a rule  In a d d i t i o n , they  o f m a x i m a l / m i n i m a l s c a n s i o n and  t i o n permit  the  a given t i e r .  scansion, ensures  i s , to adjacent  ation  (1987) p r o p o s e a m a x i -  Minimal  involving  scansion,  on  scan  consonthe  "a r u l e whose t a r g e t i s node c o n t a i n i n g a"  1987:25). T h a t  i s , the t i e r  (Archangeli that  or  and  immediately  d o m i n a t e s t h e f e a t u r e o r node t h a t s p r e a d s i s t h e one t h a t is  scanned. Thus,  i n t h e c a s e o f r e t r a c t i o n where T o n g u e  Root spreads, i n v o k i n g t h e parameter o f minimal  scansion  e n s u r e s t h a t t h e p l a c e node i s s c a n n e d . D e r i v a t i o n s f o r [meXaeL] " b e a r " , [z:>q ] "dead", w  given  i n (62a-c).  The d e r i v a t i o n f o r [ q @ q a z ] " b l u e " , w  where / § / d o e s n o t r e t r a c t , (62a)/m  i  X  ae  N x  I  a n d [maqae?] "snow" a r e  i s given  in  w  (63).  L/  N  1 x (  x  x  x  Skeletal  tier  Place Dorsal Tongue  / [-bk]  Root  [meXaeL] (b) / z  u  q / w  N I  x  x  Skeletal  p.  / I  Place  s  Dorsal Tongue  /  [+rd] [  q ] w  Z 3  tier  Root  74 (c)  /m  ae  ae  N  N  I  T  X  X  V  Skeletal  X  X  tier  Laryngeal Place  Node  Dorsal Tongue R o o t  /  [+lo] [maqae?] (63)  /q  w  -W  @ N  X  z/  ae  36  N  I  I I  X  X  x  I o  J_J  Skeletal  I  o  Tier  o  L  Place Dorsal  :  0  :  :  Tongue R o o t  [q @q az] w  P l a c e node s c a n s i o n the  application  w  and t h e L o c a l i t y  o f t h e r u l e when t h e r e  Condition  block  i s an i n t e r v e n i n g  c o n s o n a n t b e t w e e n a v o w e l and a u v u l a r c o n s o n a n t . I assume that and  the coronal  segments a r e s p e c i f i e d  t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t be t r a n s p a r e n t  f o r a Place  to retraction,  node as  The p h o n e t i c form o f /q @q aez/, [q @q az], shows r e t r a c t i o n o f /ae/ t r i g g e r e d by / z / . I d i s c u s s t h e d e t a i l s o f r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by / z / i n s e c t i o n 4.1.2., a n d assume t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r u l e i n t h i s example. w  w  w  w  shown i n (64) (64)/s  u  q'  w  @  m/  N  N x  I  x o  Skeletal  X  tier  o  J  fc  Laryngeal Place Dorsal Tongue  Node  Root  [+rd] *[sosq @m] ,w  As t h e d a t a retraction. would behave  Should like  However, / ? / — Laryngeal  Though  trigger  / ? / be s p e c i f i e d /&/  on t h e P l a c e t i e r i t  i n (64) above, b l o c k i n g  having  features —  Place t i e r , rule.  i n (58) a b o v e show, / ? / d o e s n o t b l o c k  no P l a c e  retraction.  features, i n fact,  i s therefore not s p e c i f i e d  and i s t h u s  transparent  / ? / i n t e r v e n e s between  a t t h e r o o t node,  only  on t h e  to the retraction t h e t a r g e t and t h e  on t h e P l a c e t i e r  -- t h e t i e r a t  w h i c h t h e r u l e a p p l i e s —- t h e t r i g g e r and t a r g e t a r e a d j a cent.  (65) g i v e s t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f /Las?qS/ " t o go  ashore".  76 (65)/L  ae  ?  q  s/  x  x  x  I  I  I  N x  x  I  I  s  Skeletal Laryngeal Place  J  tier Node  Dorsal Tongue Root C+lo] [La?qg]  4.1.2. R e t r a c t i o n Retraction /z  z // 1  as  (66a)  can  t r i g g e r e d by  of the vowels /u been seen i n t h e  Retraction  of  [mozmet] [k'zjz] [£@m?aeiroz ] [spzozae?] [sk ozae?] 1  w  of  [Xi'az]  in  (66a-b).  to  "not"  [nqjeixaz • ] [sk^azDz' ] [q letaz'] [?az] w  the  sets  "blue"  w  to account  data  by  /ae/  [q^@q az]  In order  ae/ i s a l s o t r i g g e r e d  "to spread out b e r r i e s dry" "pitiful" " t o have t w i n s " "girlfriend, mistress" "bird" "child, offspring"  w  Retraction  z'/  /u/  [k ozxael]  (b)  /z  " t o swim a r o u n d " "doll" "jackpine" "nice"  f o r these data  structural representation  of the  we  must  examine  t r i g g e r segment,  as  in  the case of u v u l a r s . I propose  articulated, and  i n v o l v i n g t h e C o r o n a l node, t h e D o r s a l node,  t h e Tongue R o o t node, b a s e d  ations.  First,  Chapter  on t h e  3 section  / l  1'/  a C o r o n a l node w h i l e / l feature changing  l  /  1  z'/ was  r u l e s t o account  (see Chapter  3 section  Coronal a r t i c u l a t i o n z'/ and  accounted  fication,  the  segments  not s p e c i f i e d  f o r the  articulation  nicely  and  and / y y ' / were w o u l d  the phonetic d e s c r i p t i o n  be  1  and / y y ' / d i s c u s s e d a b o v e  Furthermore,  behaviour of /z  z /  3.1.1.3. s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e  are c o r o n a l s . Proposing t h a t /z  that  following consider-  t h e a l t e r n a t i o n between /z  other c o r o n a l consonants in  that /z/ i s t r i p l y  require  alternation.  of a dental  3.1.1.3.)  i s involved.  / i /  suggests  Second,  the  with regard to r e t r a c t i o n  f o r i f /z  thereby r e q u i r i n g  z'/ h a s  a  [-back]  a D o r s a l node.  (See b e l o w f o r  o f t h e f e a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s between / z / ,  and  Third,  Chilcotin  ( L a t i m e r 1978)  consonants, Lillooet  evidence  including /z/  and  Thompson  from  shows t h a t ( w h i c h was  study  Chilcotin  flat  a borrowing  a Tongue R o o t  ( i . e . plain)  / i / , of  from  (Cook 1978)) h a v e l o w e r h i g h  quencies than those of the sharp indicating  an a c o u s t i c  can  speci-  discussion /y/.)  for  fre-  series,  articulation.  The a c o u s t i c c h a r a c t e r i c s o f " s h a r p " [ z ] a r e two f o r m a n t s , one a t 1550 Hz and t h e o t h e r a t 2500 Hz w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e n e r g y a r o u n d 4500 Hz... [ W i t h ] " f l a t " [ z ] ... t h e r e i s a  78 c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e n e r g y a r o u n d 4500Hz and t h e r e a r e two f o r m a n t s , b u t t h e v a l u e s o f t h e f o r m a n t s a r e d i f f e r e n t . The l o w e r f o r m a n t h o v e r s a b o u t 1000 Hz and t h e u p p e r , a b o u t 2800 Hz. The l o w e r f o r m a n t o f t h e " f l a t " [ z ] h a s a v a l u e 500 Hz l e s s than t h a t o f the "sharp" [ z ] ; about the same d e c r e a s e a s i n t h e l o c i . ( L a t i m e r 1978:35) L a t i m e r goes  on t o s t a t e o f t h e f l a t  [z] t h a t :  ...this articulation i s actually pharyngealizat i o n , w h i c h , a s one o f i t s e f f e c t s , l o w e r s t h e u p p e r f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e segment w h i c h i s pharyngealized. Pharyngealization i s a c o n s t r i c t i o n o f t h e p h a r y n x , n o r m a l l y c a u s e d by a r e t r a c t i o n o f t h e tongue r o o t towards t h e w a l l of t h e pharynx. T h i s c o n s t r i c t i o n , because i t i s s o f a r b a c k i n t h e v o c a l t r a c t , c a u s e s t h e low l o c i o f t h e " f l a t " c o n s o n a n t s and c a u s e s t h e e f f e c t we s e e on t h e v o w e l s . (p. 39) Third,  palatography provides additional  special  status of  where t h e p l a i n lar"  region,  alveolar  fact  series  ...  Latimer argues  i s articulated  the " f l a t "  ridge  hypothesis."  [z] i n C h i l c o t i n .  series  The  Lillooet  l a n g u a g e s . M.  D.  Kinkade  (p. c.)  t y p e o f / z / o c c u r s i n o n l y two  articulated proposes  the front part  the  i n the the  other languages:  Likewise,  triply  Halle  active articulators:  o f t h e tongue,  on  suggests that  segments a r e e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e .  "three d i s t i n c t  the  pharyngealization  f o u r t h argument i s b a s e d  n e i g h b o u r i n g Thompson and C h i l c o t i n .  lip,  "well behind  t h a t t h e s e segments a r e e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e  world's  that  i n a "dento-alveo-  is clearly  [and] s u p p o r t s t h e  (p. 42)  evidence f o r the  (1982)  the  lower  and t h e t o n g u e  body"  79 (p.  98) t h a t may be combined  i n the articulation  of a  segment t o p r o d u c e complex s e g m e n t s . He a l s o s t a t e s in  theory,  triply  a r t i c u l a t e d segments s h o u l d  however, t h e y a r e u n a t t e s t e d . characterized  i n (67),  I claim  that  that,  be p o s s i b l e ;  Lillooet  /z/,  i s indeed a t r i p l y a r t i c u l a t e d  37 segment given  . Furthermore, t h i s proposal  that  L i l l o o e t /z/ derives  (67)  i s not s u r p r i s i n g  from P r o t o - S a l i s h *y.  P l a c e _ ^ ^ ^ ^ CORONAL  DORSAL  I  TONGUE ROOT  [-bk] The  r e t r a c t i o n r u l e formulated  h e r e i n (68) a c c o u n t s f o r t h e d a t a (68)  i n (60) a n d r e p e a t e d in  (66).  [+vocalic] Place ~  _^  Dorsal "*"~ °  As  i n the derivations  i n (62),  t a r g e t i n g the Place  Tongue  Root  t h e r u l e scans a t t h e m i n i -  mal  level  tier.  (69) g i v e s  derivations  for  /muzmit/ " p i t i f u l "  the  A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e i n s e c t i o n 4.1.1.2., I assume t h a t Coronals are f u l l y s p e c i f i e d .  and / x ? a e z / " n o t " . w  80  (69a)  /m  m  u  i  N  t/  N  X  X  x  ]  L  \  x  1  x  I  Skeletal  L  Place Coronal Dorsal TR  /  [-bk]  t+rd] [mozmet] w  (b)  ?  33  z/  N  1  x  X  Skeletal  tier  Laryngeal Place Coronal Dorsal TR  / [+lo] [x ?az] w  R e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by / z z ' / p a r a l l e l s uvulars  i n o t h e r ways. F o r e x a m p l e , c o n s o n a n t s t h a t i n -  t e r v e n e between t h e t r i g g e r and t a r g e t b l o c k as  t h a t by  i s shown  i n the data  retraction,  i n (70) a n d t h e d e r i v a t i o n i n  81 (71)  38 (70)  [?OCZ] [zaew z@w' @t] 1  (71) /?  u  "good, o.k." " t o be a b o t h e r ,  a nuisance"  c  N Skeletal  y  Tier  Laryngeal Place Coronal Dorsal TR  /  .  [+round]  [~bk]  *[?JCZ] In a d d i t i o n , rule  b o t h / § / and / ? / a r e t r a n s p a r e n t t o t h e  as t h e d e r i v a t i o n  o f /qae?@z'/ ( " t i r e d " )  i n (72)  39 shows  T h o u g h i t a p p e a r s t h a t /w / s h o u l d be s u s c e p t i b l e t o r e t r a c t i o n , I a r g u e b e l o w i n s e c t i o n 4.1.4. t h a t T o n g u e R o o t spreading i s phonetically vacuous f o r the glides and t h e r e f o r e d o e s n o t d o c k o n t o t h e P l a c e node o f /w'/ in this example. 1  39  . M. D. K m k a d e ( p . c.) s u g g e s t s t h a t / § / i n t h i s f o r m i s a c t u a l l y an e c h o v o w e l , and t h a t a n a t i v e s p e a k e r w o u l d i n t e r p r e t t h i s f o r m a s b e i n g one s y l l a b l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , [§] does remain t r a n s p a r e n t t o r u l e .  82 (72)  z'/  33  /q  N  N  x  X  X  I  Laryngeal Place Coronal Dorsal TR  o  [+lo]  [-bk]  [qa?@z'] Thus  far, retraction  z /  has behaved  the  case  1  i n e x a c t l y t h e same manner. However, i n  of retraction  retract.  Examples  (73)  t r i g g e r e d by u v u l a r s and by / z  t r i g g e r e d b y / z z*/, / i /  are given  [ x n eezz''aazz ]] *[xnez'az'] [L@lkezae] *[L@kezae]  The o b v i o u s  question  i n (73). "gooseberry  1 1  "from at this  R e t r a c t i o n and z - R e t r a c t i o n two they, ly, ling  i n fact,  First, both  between  point i s : are uvular-  separate  processes  t o suggest  the processes  that there  / § / and / ? / a r e t r a n s p a r e n t  trigger  these"  place  rules;  to the rule;  compel-  rule. second,  third,  f e a t u r e s i n t e r v e n i n g between  and t a r g e t b l o c k  or are Certain-  provide  i s o n l y one  /ae u / a r e t a r g e t v o w e l s f o r b o t h  consonant with  bush"  i n s t a n c e s o f t h e same phenomenon?  the s i m i l a r i t i e s evidence  does n o t  a p p l i c a t i o n of the r u l e ;  the and  any  83 fourth, namely  t h e vowels have i d e n t i c a l [a] and [ 3 ] . N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  application uvular  the  i nthe  when p r e c e d i n g  a  b u t d o e s n o t when i t p r e c e d e s a / z / .  underspecification chart  chart  realizations,  the discrepency  o f t h e r u l e remains, / i /  retracts,  The  surface  i n (75) p r o v i d e  f o r v o w e l s i n (74) a n d  a p o s s i b l e c l u e t o t h e anomalous  behaviour o f / i z / . (74)  i  u  ae +  [lo] [bk] [rd]  +  Recall that / z / i s specified shows t h e u n d e r l y i n g adjacent the  [back] retraction  o f [back] f o r vowels  specifications  o f [back] f o r  aez  uz  iz  aQ  uQ  iQ  0-  0-  —  00  00  -0  /  /  /  /  /  X  t h e sequence / i z / i s s p e c i f i e d  b o t h segments. The O b l i g a t o r y 1973,  [-back] on  Contour P r i n c i p l e  McCarthy 1986), w h i c h p r o h i b i t s a d j a c e n t  (Leben identical  e l e m e n t s , c r e a t e s t h e s t r u c t u r e i n (76) w h e r e / i / share  a Dorsal  a Place  i n (75)  consonants.  (75)  Significantly,  as [-back]. The c h a r t  specifications  t o the underlying  retracting  §  node. N o t e t h a t t h e s e  and / z /  s e g m e n t s do n o t s h a r e  node b e c a u s e / z / h a s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e D o r s a l  node, a C o r o n a l  node a n d a Tongue R o o t  node.  84 (76)  1 N  Place Coronal Dorsal Tongue R o o t [-bk] At  the underlyingly  ed  as [-back];  segments s t i l l features  or  f u r t h e r m o r e , when f u l l y share a Dorsal  or e n c l i t i c  in idiolectal  that  the difference  and  beginning  —  tion  their values  specified,  node b e c a u s e t h e i r from C h a p t e r 3  these dorsal  section  i n a coronal  —  c o n s o n a n t , and i n word variations  either initial  posi-  and n u r s e r y t a l k . I a r g u e  b e t w e e n / z / , / y / , and / i /  f o r s o n o r a n t and v o c o i d ,  lies in  as seen i n ( 7 7 ) , as  /y/ are not s p e c i f i e d f o r . /  i  /  [•fsonorant] [-fvocoid] gives  the f u l l y  a  dental  a s t h e a d d i t i o n a l Tongue R o o t node o f / z / , w h i c h  (77)  (78)  specifi-  / z / and / y / a r e i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n b e f o r e  alveo-palatal  well  t h e s e segments a r e b o t h  are i d e n t i c a l . Recall  3.1.1.3. t h a t suffix  level  /z/ [-sonorant] [-vocoid]  /y/ [+sonorant] [-vocoid]  specified representation  of [ i z ]  / i /  85 (78)  i  z  N  x  X  Place Coronal Dorsal Tongue R o o t [+hi]  [ - l o ] [-bk] [-rd]  Two p o s s i b l e methods o f b l o c k i n g r e t r a c t i o n when f o l l o w e d b y / z / come t o m i n d . F i r s t , constraint  as a Trigger/Target  Pulleyblank  / i /  negative  ( A r c h a n g e l i and  1986) c a n be i m p o s e d on t h e r u l e s o t h a t  ments s h a r i n g rule.  Condition  a  of  a feature value  seg-  o r node do n o t u n d e r g o t h e  T h i s c o n s t r a i n t i s s t a t e d i n (79) a n d f o r m a l i z e d i n  (80) . (79)  (80)  [TR] s p r e a d i n g i s b l o c k e d i f t h e t r i g g e r and t a r g e t s h a r e t h e D o r s a l node. Xr-  /\  Place Dorsal Tongue Root  A s e c o n d p o s s i b l e way o f d e a l i n g w i t h blocked  retraction  i s to specify a singly  node i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l o f Hayes  t h e problem o f linked  description of the rule.  (1986) and S c h e i n  and S t e r i a d e  that the r u l e of retraction given  (1986),  Dorsal In  light  I suggest  i n ( 6 0 ) , a n d (68) b e  86 reformalized,  as  (81)  in  (81) .  [+vocalic] Place Dorsal Tongue R o o t  * Hayes' L i n k i n g C o n s t r a i n t  (82)  structural description that will  apply  line.  t o an  I f the  then the  ensures t h a t a r u l e with  i n c l u d e s one  association  autosegment t h a t a l s o b e a r s o n l y  apply  where an  line  one  s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n i n c l u d e s two  rule will  a  lines  autosegment i s d o u b l y  linked. (82) L i n k i n g C o n s t r a i n t . Association lines in structural descriptions i n t e r p r e t e d as e x h a u s t i v e , (p. 331) In the all  case of r e t r a c t i o n , the  s e q u e n c e s shown i n  (75)  node i s d o u b l y l i n k e d and structural  The at  t h e r e f o r e does not  triggers /q additional  q  1  w  and  meet  q'  w  X X  w  and  z z •/.  have a l r e a d y  i n one  the  case / i / ,  However, we  c a s e s o f r e t r a c t i o n where t h e  ae § 6 s 1 1'/  apply  to  Dorsal the  f r o m a F l o a t i n g Morpheme  t a r g e t s /ae u/, q  will  rule.  c a s e s o f r e t r a c t i o n t h a t we  i n v o l v e the  (81)  e x c e p t / i z / where t h e  d e s c r i p t i o n of the  4.1.3. R e t r a c t i o n  rule in  are  t r i g g e r i s not  looked and  the  find  t a r g e t s are / i u  clearly  evident.  In  87 forms such  as t h o s e  i n (83)  word r e t r a c t i n g a l l o f t h e (83)  /q@l/ /q@l-@l/ /q@l-wil'x/ /L@6/ /l@sp/  r e t r a c t i o n spreads targets  4 0  1  [c'a?p]  /c'ae?p/  the  .  [qAdAl] fqAlwel xl [LAC] [1ASJP] [C ill]  /c'uiy  across  [?als] /?32ls/ [lot] /Lut/ [Lot-on ] /Lut-un / find alternating pairs, like 1  "bad" "good f o r n o t h i n g " "to get s p o i l e d " "to cave i n " "to cave i n " "sour, b i t t e r (of berries)" " s o u r ( o f smth. fermented)" "sick" " t o squash a bug" "to squash, t r . "  1  We  also  where t h e  form  i s retracted  i n one  t h e ones i n (84),  c a s e and  not  i n the  other. (84a)i  (b)  [L@k]  "get  ii  [LAk]  "get  iii iv  [P@t] [pAt]  " t o g e t c o v e r e d up" "to get squished"  i ii  [?aemae] [?aemaewel x]  iii iv  [qAl] fqAlwel'x]  v.  /-wil'x/  1  d e f l a t e d , go down ( o f dough)" pooped, conk o u t "  "good" "to get better, to l i f e " "bad" "to get  spoiled"  inchoative A n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be t h e semantic  t o come b a c k  recurrent  theme i n a l l t h e c a s e s o f r e t r a c t i o n i n d a t a  sets  I mark r e t r a c t i o n o f t h e c o n s o n a n t s by underlining t h e segment i n q u e s t i o n . To be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e a b o v e s e c t i o n s , t h e r e t r a c t e d v o w e l s a r e shown i n t h e i r p h o n e t i c form.  (83) and (84) . I p o s t u l a t e floating  adversative  that  r e t r a c t i o n i s due t o a  morpheme t h a t  i s a f f i x e d t o the root  and s p r e a d s r e t r a c t i o n harmony b i - d i r e c t i o n a l l y word .Thus,  the surface  4 1  across the  d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e forms i n  (84a) a r e a r e s u l t o f a f f i x a t i o n  o f a morpheme whose  realization  i s r e t r a c t i o n harmony.  and s u r f a c e  forms o f t h e r e t r a c t e d and n o n - r e t r a c t e d  in  (84a-b)  4 2  the input pairs  .  (85a)i  /L@k/ — >  [L@k]  ii  / L § k - {A}/  iii  /P§t/  iv  /pet -  i  /?aemae - w i l ' x /  ii  (85) g i v e s  -->  " g e t d e f l a t e d , go down ( o f d o u g h ) " [LAk]  --> [pit] {A}/  -->  [pAt]  "get pooped, conk out" "to get covered up" "to get squished"  [?aemaewel x] "to get better, t o come b a c k t o life" / q @ l - {A} - w i l ' x / — > [qAlwellx] "to get s p o i l e d " -—>  1  A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e way o f a c c o u n t i n g f o r the data i s t o assume t h a t t h e f l o a t i n g A d v e r s a t i v e morpheme i s a p r e f i x t h a t s p r e a d s Tongue R o o t l e f t w a r d t h r o u g h t h e r o o t a n d i n t o t h e s u f f i x ( e s ) . I a r g u e below t h a t r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by the Adversative morpheme i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same a s r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d b y a f l o a t i n g Tongue R o o t node t h a t i s l e x i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d on a r o o t . D a t a i n t h e l a t t e r c a s e show prefixes and suffixes to which retraction spreads, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t b i - d i r e c t i o n a l s p r e a d i n g must b e i n v o l v e d . 42 Iuse  {A} t o s t a n d  f o r the adversative  morpheme.  89 We h a v e a l r e a d y spreading  established that  o f a Tongue R o o t node o n t o a n  target. Adversative  appropriate  retraction, therefore,  Tongue R o o t s p r e a d i n g . that  r e t r a c t i o n i s due t o  the adversative  must  involve  T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t  morpheme n e e d b e a n y t h i n g  more t h a n a  Tongue R o o t node w h i c h , a s i t h a s no o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s linking  i t t o a root  As  stated  alveo-palatal sight,  node,  above, t h e t a r g e t s  of this  rule are the  consonants and a l l t h e vowels. A t  i t appears d i f f i c u l t  together  i s floating.  so t h a t  t o group these  a r u l e may a p p l y  s e g m e n t s . However, I p r o p o s e t h a t  t o only  segments this  f o r a Dorsal  exception  o f / § / which i s u n s p e c i f i e d ) . Keating  the in  i n Lillooet  as "being  (where he  t h e hard p a l a t e "  make up t h e s e t o f " b a c k " c o r o n a l s  C o r o n a l node a r e d i v i d e d  in  (1987)  palatals  defines  where t h e f i r s t  1982: 1 4 1 ) , t h e y  i n Lillooet.  Recall  a r t i c u l a t e d under t h e  i n t o two g r o u p s : t h e d e n t a l s a n d  alveo-palatals; the coronal (86),  (with t h e  made w i t h t h e f r o n t o f t h e t o n g u e  t h a t t h e segments i n L i l l o o e t  the  are not s t r i c t l y  L a d e f o g e d ' s s e n s e o f t h e word  approaching or touching do  node, a s a r e t h e v o w e l s  e v i d e n c e f o r p a l a t a l s a s complex segments. Though  alveo-palatals  palatals  set of  the alveo-palatals are  specified  provides  first  segments a r e r e p e a t e d  two c o l u m n s a r e d e n t a l ,  here  the third  90 is  dental  and a l v e o - p a l a t a l , and t h e f o u r t h  i s alveo-pala-  tal. (86)  6  t  X'  L  C'  i  z z» n  s 1 1» y  y I s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e d e n t a l s alveo-palatals just  i s that  the dentals  and t h e  are a r t i c u l a t e d with  a Coronal a r t i c u l a t o r while the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s  i n v o l v e C o r o n a l and D o r s a l , (87)  /&  a s shown i n ( 8 7 ) .  s 1 1'/ Place Coronal Dorsal  To r e c a p i t u l a t e , t h e t r i g g e r o f a d v e r s a t i v e is  a f l o a t i n g morpheme t h a t  R o o t node, and t h e t a r g e t  i s characterized  by a  Tongue  o f t h e r u l e must b e a node  b o t h t h e a l v e o - p a l a t a l s and t h e v o w e l s s h a r e . suggested that  harmony  I have  alveo-palatals are a r t i c u l a t e d with  Dorsal  node, l i k e  t h e v o w e l s , and t h e r e f o r e  target  o f t h e r u l e . The r u l e i s f o r m a l i z e d  that  Dorsal i n (88).  a i s the  (88)  x  Skeletal  tier  Place *^  Dorsal v v  An  essential  by  u v u l a r s and  in  the  latter,  difference  /z  z /  i t d o e s . By of  the  behaviour of /§/.  the  the  case of  point  Root  between r e t r a c t i o n  does not  retract  simple r e t r a c t i o n  account  Scansion  i s at  rule  /§/  therefore  i s a target  give derivations  of  "bad"  , and  [?als]  [qAl]  "sick"  in  ,  the the  harmony  differing  i s the  applies  that  before  a minimal l e v e l  simple r e t r a c t i o n ,  a t which the  in  is  retraction  f o r the  D o r s a l node, and  bitter"  while  Redundancy R u l e s and can  triggered  long distance r e t r a c t i o n  ordering  a f t e r t h e y a p p l y we  in  and  1  former case /§/  application  °Tongue  which,  P l a c e node. is specified  f o r the  [c'oJL*.]  (89a-c).  rule.  "sour,  as  At for I  a  92 (89)a  /q  @  1/  N  I  x  X  X  I  I  Skeletal  Tier  Place »  '  Dorsal Coronal Tongue R o o t  //  "Tongue R o o t [qAl] (b)  /c'  u  1'/  N X  X  I  Skeletal  X  Place  .  o'  /  [+rd] 'Tongue R o o t [ C « Dl_l_]  Dorsal Coronal  Tier  (c)  ae  /'•  N  1  Skeletal  x  Tier  Place  /  V  [+lo]  Dorsal Coronal  / /  \ "Tongue R o o t  [?als] In  (89a)  fied  f o r both a Dorsal My  the  the rule applies  analysis,  v a c u o u s l y t o / q / which i s s p e c i -  node a n d a Tongue R o o t  t h u s f a r , makes a p r e d i c t i o n  behaviour o f t h evelar  for a Dorsal  s e r i e s . As v e l a r s  C h a p t e r 3, I m e n t i o n e d t h a t very close  assimilated  are specified  velars  consonants. I n  and u v u l a r s a r e  t o one a n o t h e r , a n d t h a t  t o uvulars  Unfortunately, sufficiently  regarding  node we w o u l d e x p e c t them t o r e t r a c t i n t h e  same manner a s t h e v o w e l s a n d a l v e o - p a l a t a l  auditorily  node.  when t h e two a r e a d j a c e n t .  t h e d a t a on r e t r a c t e d  forms a r e n o t  e x t e n s i v e t o document a p o s s i b l e  tion  of velars.  (90)  that  thevelars  (90)  [c/\kacAkae]  velars are  uvulariza-  However, i t i s c l e a r f r o m t h e e x a m p l e i n do n o t b l o c k  retraction.  "blue-jay" ( r e f e r s t o t h e sound i t makes when f o r e c a s t i n g b a d news o r bad w e a t h e r )  My  analysis predicts that thevelars w i l l  retraction graph^  harmony a n d be r e a l i z e d  investigation  Additional  i srequired  data remain t h a t  participate i n  as uvulars. to clarify  Spectro-  this  issue.  cannot be r e a d i l y 43  accounted  f o r . C o n s i d e r t h e f o r m s i n (91)  .  (91a) No s p r e a d i n g t o s u f f i x e s /Lu-L-t-@n'/ [LDLt@n'] squash-redup-?  " t o squash i t w e l l "  /?aels-@m/ [?als@m] sick-aspectual  "sick"  /?ael^-@m-Lk-a3n/ [als@mLkaen] " I am s i c k " s i c k - a s p e c t u a l - i n d i c a t i v e - l s t person /q@l-ael'q @m/ [qlal!q @m] bad-outward appearance  "ugly"  /q@l-ti?/ bad-that  "that  w  w  [qAlte?]  /q@l-Lk-aen/ [qAlLkaen] b a d - i n d i c a t i v e - l s t person  i s bad  " I am b a d "  / q @ l - a e L - t m i x / [qAla2Ltmex ] "storm"; bad-compound f o r m e r - w e a t h e r w  w  I n many c a s e s I h a v e n o t b e e n a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x a c t morphemic breakdown o r t h e g l o s s e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t morphemes. I h a v e t r i e d t o b e a s a c c u r a t e a s p o s s i b l e i n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g f o r m s , b u t t h e r e a r e , no d o u b t , errors.  (b) No  spreading to  /kae-p@t-ae/ suddenly-to  prefixes  [kaepAtae] "to get squished" cover-reinforcing enclitic  /kae-L@k-ae/  [kaLAkae]  "to get very t i r e d , t o conk o u t " suddenly-still (?)-reinforcing enclitic  /s'-Lik/ [s*LAk] stative-still(?) In every not from  case  we  find  motionless"  f o r m s where r e t r a c t i o n  s p r e a d b e y o n d c e r t a i n morpheme b o u n d a r i e s . o t h e r forms such  retraction suggest (91)  i n (91)  "lazy,  i s not  as  [qAlwel x] 1  restricted  that the v a r i a b i l i t y  i s a result  phonology  (see K i p a r s k y  among o t h e r s . See retraction  of l e v e l  also  1985,  Bessell  1989  lexical  and  1985,  f o r t h e domains o f  not  1990  the  retract.  However, is  work.  In a d d i t i o n t o the r e t r a c t e d  consonants  Shaw  Czaykowska-Higgins  a Floating  f l o a t i n g morpheme { A d v e r s a t i v e } ,  I  forms i n  phonology of L i l l o o e t  scope of the p r e s e n t  that  lexical  K a i s s e and  o f t h e morphemes t h a t do  4.1.4. R e t r a c t i o n f r o m  retracted  i n the  i s , r e t r a c t i o n precedes  a presentation of the beyond the  spoiled"  o r d e r i n g w i t h i n the  1982,  know  root i n a l l cases.  of retraction  i n C o e u r d ' A l e n e and  f o r Columbian.) That affixation  t o the  "to get  We  has  Feature f o r m s stemming we  find  v o w e l s t h a t do  from  a  forms c o n t a i n i n g n o t h a v e any  se-  mantic  c o n n e c t i o n t o one a n o t h e r  ed b y a u v u l a r o r / z z'/.  n o r appear t o be t r i g g e r -  Examples  of this  type  of retrac-  tion are:  (92) / k u s V ? / w  /^ael-l/  [k jsa?]  "to  [sail]  "to d r i p i n a string (like syrup)"  w  urinate"  drip-redup(?) /p@m-p/ [pAmp] f a s t - a s p e c t u a l (?)  "fast"  /p§m-ilx/ fast-body  [pmelx]  "to  /p@m-p-sut/  [pAmps a t ]  hurry"  " t o r u n on w i t h o u t being able t o stop" fast-aspectual (?)-out o f control  /s'-p • @s-qs/ [ s p 'Asqs ] nominalizer-?-nose /X fi33L/ W  [x caL] w  /X'ael-aen/ [X'alan] bite-transitive /psus/  [psos]  "nose" "tongue" "to b i t e  smth."  "wild (bitter) cherry"  /£-plaent/ [splant] nominalizer-skunk  !' s k u n k "  /maec u L /  [mac•oL]  "pus"  /s*uspae?/  [sospa?]  " p r o p e r name ( f r o m /suspae?/ " t a i l " )  /m'is'-m'esy grouse-redup  [mfismfis]  "grouse"  1  The s i m i l a r i t i e s between  the retracted  f o r m s i n (92)  and t h e forms t h a t a r e a r e s u l t t i v e morpheme a r e s t r i k i n g .  of the floating  adversa-  In both cases a l l t h e vowels  and t h e a l v e o - p a l a t a l c o n s o n a n t s  are retacted.  o f p r o b l e m a t i c c a s e s where  Further,  find  t h e same s o r t  does  n o t s p r e a d a c r o s s c e r t a i n morpheme b o u n d a r i e s .  we  retraction  E x a m p l e s a r e g i v e n i n (93). (93)  /k us*?-ael 'm§n/ w  [k os?alJm@n] w  " t o want t o urinate"  u r i n a t e - t o want /m@laem@n/  [mAlam@n]  /S-p§-p-l'x / w  [spApl_!_@x ] w  stative(?)-stick /n-sa>l-l-@c7  "medicine" "to s t i c k out a little bit"  out-redup  rnsal'l'egl  " t o drool, slobber"  on t h e m o u t h - d r i p - r e d u p - ? / s * - X ' a e - V [ ^ X '  V  i i s ]  " t o c a r r y smth. i n o n e ' s mouth" stative-bite-redup-transitivizer a  A  /s'-p' i ? - @ l 'waes/ [^p' e?@l 'wae£] " s q u e e z e d middle" ? - t o s q u e e z e o u t - m i d d l e (?) /ti-k usu-ae/ w  [tek Dsohae] W  "the  pig"  i n the  4  4  article-pig-enclitic /k usu-i/ [k jsohe] pig-plural possessive w  44  w  "their pig"  . . . T h i s form i s a b o r r o w i n g from F r e n c h couchon " p i g " . K i n k a d e ( p . c.) i n f o r m s me t h a t a number o f l o a n - w o r d s f r o m E n g l i s h , F r e n c h , and n e i g h b o u r i n g n a t i v e l a n g u a g e s c o n t a i n retracted segments. Other examples include [p'Ask'ae?] "hummingbird" possibly from Chilliwack Halkomelem and [lapla£] " b o a r d " f r o m F r e n c h .  98 / k u s u - a e L c ' ae?/ [k Ds:>haeLc'ae?] p i g - i n s i d e meat  "pork  /p@lx -aenis/  " j u s t about showing"  w  W  [pAlx aenes]  w  to  stick  w  out-edge  I p r o p o s e t h a t t h e f o r m s i n (92) a n d  (93) a r e due  a  f l o a t i n g Tongue R o o t node t h a t  is lexically  a  s t e m . R e t r a c t i o n harmony t r i g g e r e d b y a f l o a t i n g  specified  harmony t r i g g e r e d by t h e f l o a t i n g  morpheme. T h u s , t h e r u l e ally,  s p r e a d s Tongue R o o t  scanning a t a minimal l e v e l  a n d t a r g e t i n g t h e D o r s a l node. for: and  [sail]  "to drip  [s^'aVAl's] (94) a  /s  "to carry  bi-direction-  (94a-c) p r o v i d e  smth.  node)  derivations  [mAlam§n] " m e d i c i n e " ;  i n one's  mouth".  1 - 1 /  32  N x  X  X  X  Skeletal  £1  Place Dorsal Coronal  [+lo]  /  "Tongue R o o t [sail]  of  Adversative  ( i . e . the Place  in a string";  on  Tongue  R o o t node o p e r a t e s i n e x a c t l y t h e same manner a s t h a t retraction  to  tier  (b) /m  @  33  1  m  n/  x  x  x  o  o  o  N x  x  x  o  o  o  i> l  O  \  /  T  Skeletal  Place  A /\ O  /  tier  Dorsal Coronal  I  [+lo] "Tongue  Root  [mAlam@n] (c) / s  V  33  -  N x  I  I  X  V  x  x  l  7  I  I  V  L_4  I  //;^/ 'Tongue  Skeletal Laryngeal Place Dorsal Coronal  !  Root  [&VaVA2J>] Thus  f a r , I h a v e c l a i m e d t h a t Tongue  Root  spreading  due t o t h e A d v e r s a t i v e morpheme a n d t o t h e f l o a t i n g feature  i s bi-directional.  retraction The d a t a  o f s u f f i x e s and p r e f i x e s t o s u p p o r t  i n (95) show c a s e s  retraction  I now p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e  o f both  along with the r e t r a c t i o n  from t h e  this  claim.  s u f f i x a l and p r e f i x a l of the root.  100 (95a)  /s-plaenfTR/  (b)  /q@l+{A}/ [qAl] /qei+IAJ-ael'q"!!!/ [qlal_Lq @m] /Lut+{A}/ [Lot] /Lut+{A}-un'/ [Lot^n']  "bad" 'ugly" "to squash" "to squash, tr.»  / s - p '@s°TR-qs/  "nose"  [splant]  "skunk"  w  (c) In  (95a), the p r e f i x  that  r e t r a c t i o n has  [sp'Asqs]  n o m i n a l i z e r {§-}  c  retracts,  s p r e a d l e f t w a r d from  indicating  the r o o t .  The  abundance o f forms w i t h a n o n - r e t r a c t e d nominal  prefix  l e a v e s no  {s-}.  (95b)  q u e s t i o n as t o t h e u n d e r l y i n g form  shows c a s e s  suffix; tion.  As  and  (95c)  operate  i n which the r e t r a c t i o n  spreads  shows b o t h  prefixal  suffixal  long distance retraction  marked s t e m s and  t r i g g e r e d by  t h e same manner I s u g g e s t  to  the  retrac-  lexically to  t h a t t h e same  T h e r e f o r e , s p r e a d i n g o f Tongue R o o t must  bi-directional  g i v e n t h a t forms w i t h  stems h a v e r e t r a c t e d Other  and  t h e a d v e r s a t i v e morpheme a p p e a r s  i n exactly  rule applies.  of  p r e f i x e s and  cases of r e t r a c t i o n  explanation occur  lexically  marked  suffixes.  f o r which I have  i n t h e d a t a and  be  no  samples are g i v e n i n  45 (96)  .Without  f u r t h e r morphemic a n a l y s i s , w h i c h i s i.  beyond t h e scope the reasons  For a A p p e n d i x 1.  of t h i s  thesis,  t h a t the r e t r a c t a b l e  more  complete  list  I cannot  s p e c u l a t e as  segments h a v e f a i l e d  of  retracted  forms  to to  see  101  undergo t h e r u l e . "cast-iron pot" "hummingb i r d " "to take aim" "board" " s o u n d made b y f r o g s II "to pinch"  [ l A n k a e y a e ]  (96)  [p  Ask'ae?]  1  [ C ' n  1  a l i o s § m ]  [laplas] [welek'] [c 1ep•] 1  To  conclude  the discussion of retraction  I will  show  that  t h e two r u l e s I h a v e p o s i t e d c a n n o t be c o l l a p s e d . The  rule  of simple  retraction  (81) , r e p e a t e d  t a r g e t s vowels t h a t immediately and  here i n (97),  precede a uvular or /z z / 1  i n v o l v e s minimal scansion a t the l e v e l  node. The r u l e must be o r d e r e d t h e Redundancy R u l e s , transparent  thereby  before  of the Place  the a p p l i c a t i o n of  p e r m i t t i n g schwa t o be  t o the rule.  (97)  [+vocalic] Place Dorsal Tongue R o o t  The repeated  rule  harmony  ( g i v e n i n (88) a n d  h e r e i n (98)) t a r g e t s a l l t h e v o w e l s a n d t h e ;  alveo-palatal minimal l e v e l , be o r d e r e d be  of retraction  consonants. T h i s r u l e a l s o scans a t a t a r g e t i n g t h e P l a c e n o d e . However,  a f t e r t h e Redundancy R u l e s  targeted.  i t must  s o t h a t schwa  will  (98)  x  Skeletal  I  tier  o  I  !.,  1  Place N  \  Dorsal "°Tongue R o o t  Though t h e enough t o applies  at  a f t e r the of  say two  of  retraction  ing  find  rule  of  i n the  included,  so  as  c o n s o n a n t s and  i n the  to  that  show t h a t  one  rule  Redundancy R u l e s .  The  state  In  alveo-palatals  they are  not  targets  do  where  not  re-  for this  apply to  rule  trigger-  vocalic status  rule to  and  the  (99),  r e t r a c t i o n harmony r u l e must n o t to permit the  that  out  immediately precede a  the  not  the  that  rule  examples i n  h a v e s e e n above, t h e  vowels.  i t is  grammar: b e f o r e  i s a vowel i n o r d e r t o  i n d i c a t i n g that we  i s due  i t i s necessary to  alveo-palatals  However, a s targets  of the  alveo-palatals.  consonant,  tract,  s i m i l a r i n form,  d i f f e r e n t points  application  the  are  a l l retraction  simple r e t r a c t i o n  target  we  that  rules  be both  of  rule. the  103  (99)  [?o6z]  "good, s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , o.k. " " t o s t e e r a canoe" "the s q u i r r e l " "tame" " r e a l beaver ( i . e . n o t money)" "to smile" " c o t t o n w o o d cambium l a y e r II "to t a l k "  [ ? o c z ' gaem ] [testa^'@szhae] [caqcq@t] [sqlaew'?€l] 1  [ s X  One phonetic  w  e s ]  final  issue regarding  retraction  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f Tongue Root.  duction t o t h i s fects that  chapter I mentioned  retraction  ous d i f f e r e n t  (i.e.  ( l i k e E n g l i s h dark  t h e wide range o f e f -  by i t .  been  of the  In the intro-  Tongue Root)  segments a f f e c t e d  become what h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y  i sthat  h a s on t h e v a r i -  The l a t e r a l s  called  [1 1 ] 1  "velarized"  [ * ] ) , and [ c s ] r e t r a c t  t h e tongue  such  t h a t t h e t i p r a t h e r t h a n t h e b l a d e forms c o n t a c t b e h i n d the a l v e o l a r  ridge,  w h i l e t h e tongue  in thevocal  tract.  The v o w e l s ,  root  i s pulled  on t h e o t h e r hand,  f o r t h e most p a r t ,  to lax —  traditionally  c a p t u r e d by t h e f e a t u r e  beyond  been  t h e scope o f t h i s  phonetic s i m i l a r i t i e s the v o c a l i c  effects  thesis  appear,  that has  [±ATR]. I t i s  t o e x p l i c a t e what t h e  between t h e c o n s o n a n t a l e f f e c t s and  o f Tongue Root  Without a s p e c t r o g r a p h i c , analysis  a characteristic  back  s p r e a d i n g might be.  and perhaps  of the phonetic effects,  palatographic,  little  c a n be s a i d  them. I n s t e a d , I s u g g e s t p h o n e t i c i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  about  rules  104  that  r e s u l t i n the  surface  segments d e s c r i b e d  The  Dorsal  and  and  therefore  (Recall that because the distinct  this,  a previously  fact regarding  alveo-palatal  retracted  /y  velar  y  unmentioned  w w/  1  may  1  g l i d e s are  be  clarified.  both s p e c i f i e d  not  rule targets  targeted only  glides.)  f o r simple  phonetically  because the or  for  retraction  vowels which are  I hypothesize that  arguably t h e y do  f a c t undergo r e t r a c t i o n ; however, r e t r a c t i o n i s realized  language  s h o u l d u n d e r g o r e t r a c t i o n harmony.  they are  from the  of  above.  Having stated particular  characterization  phonetic  in Lillooet spell-out  on  these  o f Tongue R o o t  P l a c e node o f t h e  phonetic e f f e c t because p h o n e t i c  not  segments f o r vowels  f o r consonants cannot apply to g l i d e s . That  Root spreads onto the  in  i s , Tongue  g l i d e s , but  implementation  has  no  rules  • i  c a n n o t be is  the  r e a l i z e d on  [ - v o c o i d ] segment a s  phonetic spell-out  s e g m e n t . N e i t h e r can 4 6  Tongue R o o t tract,  a  the  o f T o n g u e R o o t on phonetic spell-out  impose a d d i t i o n a l  which i s the  laxing a  [+vocoid] rules  c o n s t r i c t i o n i n the  e f f e c t i t has  on  which  obstruents,  for vocal  on  a  Assuming, f o r t h e sake o f argument, t h a t t h e vowels and g l i d e s a r e n o n - d i s t i n c t , my a n a l y s i s d o e s n o t f a c e a problem because the combinantion of the major c l a s s features [-vocalic,-fsonorant], f o r which the g l i d e s are s p e c i f i e d , w i l l r u l e o u t any s e c o n d a r y p h o n e t i c e f f e c t o f Tongue R o o t .  105 [ + s o n o r a n t ] segment. is  The  f o r m i n (100a) c o n t a i n s a / y /  s u b j e c t t o r e t r a c t i o n harmony w h i l e t h e f o r m i n  contains  and  (100b)  /w/.  (100a) / p § y - ( A } - p @ - p - y - ? - t / [ p A y p A p y ' § t ] " t o q u a r r e l " fight-{A)-redup-redup-interior g l o t t a l i z a t i o n (b)  /q@l-{A}-wil'x/ [qAl-welix] "to get bad-{A)-inchoative  T a r g e t i n g t h e D o r s a l node a n d b i - d i r e c t i o n a l permit  the r e t r a c t i o n  f e a t u r e , Tongue R o o t ,  spoiled"  spreading to  spread  through the g l i d e s  ( d o c k i n g o n t o t o them) a n d o n t o  segments  f o r D o r s a l , as t h e d e r i v a t i o n  shows.  specified  ( R e c a l l t h a t Tongue R o o t w i l l  v e l a r s because they  are s p e c i f i e d  however, t h e p h o n e t i c (101)/q  §  facts are  1 -  w  1 o  (101)  onto the  f o r a Dorsal  node;  questionable.)  N  x  I  in  1  N  o  spread  other  I o  I  o  I  4-1  I  X  I  L rV /  i  ;  /  0'  "  [-bk]  Tongue R o o t fqAlwel'x]  X  I  Skeletal  Tier  Laryngeal Place Coronal Labial Dorsal Tongue Root  tion q  w  q  and on  Thus f a r , we  have a c c o u n t e d  t r i g g e r e d by  (i) the  X X  , w  (iii) the  z z /'*  w  1  stem, by  i n the case  z'/  floating Adversative  node o n t o t h e P l a c e node o f a  presence  /g  :  the  g'  morpheme; specified and  preceding  o f r e t r a c t i o n harmony, o n t o  P l a c e node o f t h e v o w e l s and  next  /z  retrac-  s i m p l y m o t i v a t i n g a Tongue R o o t node  vowel or,  alveopalatal  the  consonants.  o r a b s e n c e o f t h e T o n g u e R o o t node i s a l l  i s required to distinguish  palatal  of  a f l o a t i n g Tongue R o o t node l e x i c a l l y  this  that  facts  s e t o f u v u l a r s and  ( i i ) the  spreading  The  f o r the  consonant  a p l a i n vowel or  alveo-  from i t s r e t r a c t e d c o u n t e r p a r t .  section, I consider pharyngealized  In  the  segments t h a t  will  r e q u i r e a f e a t u r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h them f r o m t h e r e t r a c t e d set.  i  4.2.  Pharyngealization In a d d i t i o n to the r e t r a c t i o n processes  section  4.1,  Lillooet  has  a process  which t a r g e t s vowels immediately c o n s o n a n t . The  characteristics  r u l e are s i m i l a r to those effects  are d i f f e r e n t .  pharyngealized imposition  The  discussed i n  of pharyngealization  preceding  a  pharyngeal  of the p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n  of simple  retraction,  but  phonetic  realization  of  vowel i s a r e t r a c t e d vowel w i t h  of pharyngeal  constriction.  The  a  the a  super-  vowel change i s  107 expressed the  i n (102) . N o t e i n t h e c a s e o f /ae/ a n d / § / t h a t  s u r f a c e v o w e l i s b o t h r e t r a c t e d ( e . g . /as/ — >  [ a ] ) and  pharyngealized  ( e . g . [a] where  [A] means p h a r y n g e a l  constriction).  F o r t h e moment,  I will  o f / i ° i / a n d r e t u r n t o them l a t e r As  pointed  addition  s u r f a c e vowel which, value  Given that  i s always  /§/,  tion  f o r [round]  (with t h e exception  ( i i i ) vowel l e n g t h d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e f u l l /ae/ c a n be t h e o n l y n o n - h i g h f u l l  preceding  vowel  from  precedes  Pharyngealiza-  with  /u/ i s s p e c i f i e d  spreading  of  as [+round],  / u / a n d /ae/ be n e u t r a l i z e d t o [ a ]  a pharyngeal,  [-round] w o u l d h a v e t o  spread  from t h e p h a r y n g e a l  string  [aS] f r o m / u ^ / . However, s p r e a d i n g  f e a t u r e such as  of/ i / ) ,  vowel t h a t  ( a s n o t e d by P. Shaw, p . c ) .  o f t h e non-high vowels i s coupled  [6]  f o r [e]  return to) ( i i ) the  f o r [round] i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e v a l u e  w h i c h means t h a t s h o u l d  as  f o r [lo] of the  [+lo] (excluding t h e v a l u e  [round] from t h e t r i g g e r ,  and  t h e b a s i s on w h i c h t o  (i)the value  a s m e n t i o n e d above, I w i l l  a pharyngeal  facts, i n  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f [ a ] a n d [3],  of the f o l l o w i n g pharyngeal and  i n the discussion.  t o vowel l e n g t h , p r o v i d e  i n (102).  the effects  o u t i n C h a p t e r 1, d i s t r i b u t i o n a l  determine the underlying given  overlook  i n order  to obtain the surface an unmarked  [0round] i s r u l e d o u t on t h e o r e t i c a l  108 grounds only and  4 7  . Therefore,  full  vowel t h a t precedes  phonetic values (102)  In small  / i /  are given -->  [e]  The phonemic  i n (102).  /J\ S  [a] /  /§/  [a] / _ %  ">  t h a t /ae/ i s t h e  a pharyngeal.  /ae/ -->  (103) p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n d a t a  s e t o f data  segments  we c a n e s t a b l i s h  are presented.  indicates the infrequency  of  The  pharyngeal  i n t h e language.  (103a) /§S/: /p@7-p/ —>  [pa:p]  ~>  [25a:]  / 7'@9 -6§p/~> ,  <  [S'arTiSep]  / V f i S -X" 7 - § m / ~ > / l @ 7 //"~>> [1 [15:] w  y  /p§ 7 (  " d u l l , faded (of c o l o u r ) " "to tear"  [ K ' S i V ^ ]  y  , W  -q /~> w  [pd:?q ] W  "caught i n a trap"  "hard" "to hide"  " t o bump one's head"  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r [round] i s p r i v a t i v e — having o n l y t h e p o s i t i v e v a l u e .  109 (b)  /l@ T-lae7-t/~>  [la:la::t]  /aeT'/: /g-p'ael'/ ~ >  [Sp'a::?]  c  " f a s t " (F) "burned o u t area" " s t r i p e •i  k/--> [ne?:  II s t r i p e  :?k]  one's In in  order t o capture the fact  that the surface  (103) a r e t h e same a s t h o s e d e r i v e d  (with t h e a d d i t i o n  as i n t h e case o f r e t r a c t i o n .  still  d i s t i n g u i s h between  [±epiglottis] Remnant  pharyngealized).  ([±epi])  N o n e t h e l e s s , we must  first  (which, f o r s i m p l i I adopt t h e f e a t u r e  argued f o r i n B e s s e l l and  ( 1 9 8 9 ) , w h i c h i s d o m i n a t e d b y t h e Tongue  node. T h u s , p h a r y n g e a l c o n s o n a n t s a r e s p e c i f i e d as  represented  Root  t h e r e t r a c t e d vowels and t h e  and p h a r y n g e a l i z e d vowels  sake I c a l l  I  i s i n v o l v e s t h e Tongue  node,  city's  vowels  retraction  of a pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n ) ,  propose t h a t p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n  retracted  from  on back"  Root as [+epi]  i n (104).  (104) Place Tongue  Root  [+epi] S p r e a d i n g o f [+epi] and t h e f i l l i n g  i n o f Tongue  R o o t by  110 node g e n e r a t i o n and,  will  in addition, Bessell  and  ensure t h a t the  Remnant  (1989) g i v e  p u l l i n g the  root  of the  (Pike  1977,  Ladefoged  Laver  Laufer  and  tigations  of  lower pharynx  tongue r o o t and  of  the some  musculature  t i p of the  1943,  Catford Harris  1984,  cinefluorographic  theory,  (1985)  epiglottis Laufer  from t h a t  F2  and  high  has  inves-  epiglottis Catford  examination  value  contacts  epithe  even been  B a u e r 1988)  as  a  clear that i t s  of the has  close together,  S t e v e n s 1969,  given  of the  epiglottis  pharyngealization  s h o w i n g F l and and  region  though i t i s not  i s independent  Ahmad, 1 9 8 7 ) . T h i s acoustic  B o r d e n and  the  v o w e l s shows v i b r a t i o n o f t h e  (Pike  Acoustically,  (Klatt  i n the  p h a r y n x . The  separate a r t i c u l a t o r ,  high  1961/4,  Bauer 1988). T r a i l l ' s  such that the  r e g a r d e d by  effects,  tongue back i n t o  r e t r a c t i o n ( D e l a t t r e 1971,  lX6o- p h a r y n g e a l i z e d  back w a l l  repeat  a constriction  Smalley 1982,  and  s u p p o r t t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s , showing a c o n s t r i c -  Laufer  glottis,  1943,  B a u e r 1988) . X - r a y and  i n the  c a u s e d by 1983,  1980,  acoustic  of pharyngeals, which I  pharyngeal c a v i t y  tion  the  Pharyngeal a r t i c u l a t i o n s create  c a u s e d by  retracted,  pharyngealized.  articulatory properties here.  vowels are  A l w a n 1986,  tongue  root.  distinctive with F l Butcher  for F l i s predicted  very and by  a uniform tube c o n s t r i c t e d c l o s e  to  the  source  suggesting i s very with  of e x c i t a t i o n  t h a t the place of c o n s t r i c t i o n  c l o s e t o the g l o t t a l  articulatory  flects  ( D e l a t t r e 1971), a  the  The  theory  articulatory  source.  in  result pharyngeals  Therefore,  (Sagey 1 9 8 6 ) ,  in  [±epiglottis]  re-  facts of pharyngealization.  r u l e of p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n which spreads  onto a p r e c e d i n g vowel, (105)  keeping  i s formalized i n  [+epi]  (105).  [+vocalic]  I °  Place  Tongue R o o t ~~ - - [ + e p i ] U n l i k e the by  scanning  r u l e of simple at the  level  retraction of the  that skips over  P l a c e node b e f o r e  redundancy r u l e s have a p p l i e d , t h i s  f o r / § / have b e e n f i l l e d  accounting simple  of the data.  retraction,  pharyngealization, be  /?/  permits  In a d d i t i o n , as  a  i n the  feature  case  rule  of  of  t h a t maximal s c a n s i o n  i n v o l v e d . Examples o f t h e t r a n s p a r e n c y  By  coherent  i s transparent to the  indicating  the  rule targets /§/.  applying the r u l e of p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n a f t e r the values  /@/  of /?/ are  cannot found  112 in  (106)  4 8  .  (106) / l i T i S ' / — >  [leTe !'] 0  /ci?iS' /~>  [ceTe ! ^ "to bleed"  w  0  I n a d d i t i o n t o Tongue R o o t g e a l 's marked v a l u e f o r [ r o u n d ] s p r e a d s . On t h e s u r f a c e , s p r e a d i n g and  "to s c a t t e r (e.g. people leaving a meeting)"  1  spreading, the pharyn( i . e . [+round])  i t l o o k s a s t h o u g h Tongue  adjacent t o consonants  d e n t l y motivated process i n L i l l o o e t which  i s an  indepen-  occurs perva-  Furthermore, rounding of consonants a d j a c e n t t o a  rounded vowel  also occurs.  within roots,  i t is difficult  I n many c a s e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r t o determine whether  s o u r c e o f r o u n d i n g i s t h e vowel  or the consonant.  i n the case of pharyngealization, must o r i g i n a t e unrounded. tionably  Root  [ r o u n d ] s p r e a d i n g a r e one p r o c e s s . However,  rounding o f vowels  sively.  also  i t appears t h a t  the However, rounding  from t h e consonant as / § / i s i n h e r e n t l y  Thus,  t h e sequence  (due t o v o w e l  Compensatory  [oT*] i s d e r i v e d  l e n g t h ) from  /©TV-  lengthening results  the pharyngeal consonant  in fast  unques-  from t h e d e l e t i o n  speech p r o d u c t i o n .  r o o t node o f t h e p h a r y n g e a l d e l i n k s  of  The  leaving a vacant  N o t e t h a t i n b o t h examples t h e t a r g e t v o w e l i s / i / , which I have not y e t d e a l t w i t h . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e i s s u e r e g a r d i n g / i / — > [e] d o e s n o t a f f e c t t h e a r g u m e n t a b o u t t h e t r a n s p a r e n c y o f / ? / . A l s o , s e e f o o t n o t e #10 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s t a t u s o f t h e vowel i n t h e s e examples.  113 skeletal  slot;  what w o u l d be  the vowel then lengthens t o a loss  i n t i m i n g , and,  accommodate  where a  glottlized  pharyngeal  i s d e l i n k e d , t h e L a r y n g e a l node d o c k s  the x - s l o t  of the vowel.  "fast",  [sp'a::?]  [p5:?q ] w  Derivations for  "burned  out area",  onto  [la:la::t]  [sc3::] " s t r i p e " ,  " t o bump o n e ' s h e a d " a r e g i v e n i n (107)  (107)/1  back  -  and  (110).  @ N  N  I  x  X  /\  X  X  '4  J  I  I  X  Skeletal  X  I  I  tier  L I  Place Dorsal Tongue R o o t  [+epi]  r+io]  .l [+epi] v  [la:la::t] First,  [+epi]  immediately  spreads  p r e c e d i n g vowel.  node d e l i n k s and the s k e l e t a l  from t h e p h a r y n g e a l  slot  onto  the  Then t h e p h a r y n g e a l ' s  root  t h e r o o t nodes o f t h e v o w e l s s p r e a d of the delinked pharyngeal  onto  49  T h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s w h e t h e r t h i s c o u l d be h a n d l e d i n m o r a i c t h e o r y . D. Odden (p. c.) i n f o r m s me t h a t g i v e n H a y e s ' (1989:258) r u l e W e i g h t by P o s i t i o n , t r i - m o r a i c s y l l a b l e s a r e p o s s i b l e , as i n t h e c a s e o f E s t o n i a n .  114 (108)/S  - p'  33  N  X  J  1  X  / \  X  Skeletal  X  1  X  1  , [+lo]  Laryngeal Place Dorsal Tongue  M  tier  Root  t+epi] [sp'a::?] The  d e r i v a t i o n p r o c e e d s i n e x a c t l y t h e same manner a s i n  ( 1 0 7 ) . However, i n t h i s c a s e t h e l a r y n g e a l t h a t have been a r e docked  delinked  specifications  a s p a r t o f t h e r o o t node  delinking  b a c k o n t o t h e r o o t node o f t h e v o w e l .  (109)/s - c  ae  C  V/ W  N  /\ X  o  o  o ^  o  I  I  L  J  X  Skeletal  X  X  [+10]  X  \  \\  Place Labial Dorsal Tongue  Root  [+rd] [+epi]  [sc3::] In  (109), b o t h  [ + e p i ] and  [round] s p r e a d from t h e  geal  o n t o t h e P l a c e and  D o r s a l node o f t h e v o w e l .  that  the consonants are s p e c i f i e d  pharynNote  f o r [round] under  the  115 L a b i a l node f o l l o w i n g Sagey  ( 1 9 8 6 ) . However,  Odden ( 1 9 8 9 ) , I p u t v o c a l i c  [ r o u n d ] u n d e r t h e D o r s a l node.  Consonantal  following  [ r o u n d ] s p r e a d i n g f r o m t h e L a b i a l node w i l l  a u t o m a t i c a l l y dock o n t o t h e D o r s a l node o f t h e v o w e l simply because v o c a l i c  [ r o u n d ] m u s t be d o m i n a t e d  by  50 Dorsal  .Following the spreading of [round], the place  node i s d e l i n k e d a n d t h e r o o t node o f t h e v o w e l o n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s kCj.W eletal (H0)/p §  spreads  tier.  N  x  1  I  X  X  I  X  I  o  [+rd]  Skeletal  tier  V"  Laryngeal Place Labial Dorsal Tongue Root  [+epi] [po:?q ] w  The d e r i v a t i o n p r o c e e d s i n t h e same m a n n e r a s a b o v e spreading the  [ + e p i ] and  [ + r o u n d ] , d e l i n k i n g t h e r o o t node o f  p h a r y n g e a l , s p r e a d i n g t h e r o o t node, and,  finally,  d o c k i n g t h e d e l i n k e d L a r y n g e a l node o n t o t h e r o o t node o f  O d d e n a l s o a r g u e s f o r t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y o f BackRound and H i g h - A T R . I h a v e n o t c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e s e c o n s t i t u e n t s here because they are not c r u c i a l t o the discussion; h o w e v e r , I assume h i s g r o u p i n g s .  116 the  vowel. Thus f a r I have i g n o r e d t h e c a s e  seems t o b e h a v e d i f f e r e n t l y predict  that / i /  as r e t r a c t e d striction;  f r o m / § / and  f o l l o w e d by  however, t h e p h a r y n g e a l seen  /li?i i /~> c  |  [le?e n' ] <  /ci?iS' /—> [ceTeS^] w  r e m a i n s t o be  vowel i n L i l l o o e t  occurs.  effects  on / i /  are u s e f u l  i n t h e t r e e geometry  and  [5]  in  spreading  would  predict  [a] i n t h e  f o r t h e rounded  f e a t u r e v a l u e s o f t h e vowel would  e r a s e d . However, s p r e a d i n g a t t h e  cases.  1.2.2. f o r a  s u r f a c e v a l u e s would n e u t r a l i z e t o  [+epi], r e s u l t s  front  issue).  of pharyngeals  because the o r i g i n a l  to  "to take apart, to t e a r down" " t o s c a t t e r (e.g. people l e a v i n g a meeting)" "to bleed"  i s p o s s i b l e (see s e c t i o n  a t what l e v e l  con-  appears  whether p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n of a  of unrounded pharyngeals  tree,  surface  (111).  I f t h e p l a c e node were t o s p r e a d we  that a l l the case  seen  d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s  determining  would  should  constriction  i n t h e examples i n  w  The  / a e / . We  a pharyngeal  ( l l l ) / l i S / — > [le^]  fuller  because i t  [e] w i t h a s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f p h a r y n g e a l  be m i s s i n g a s  It  o f /i^/  lowest  i n the correct  level  set be  i n the  s u r f a c e forms i n a l l  117 As  f o r t h e s p r e a d i n g o f [ r o u n d ] , we c a n draw no  c o n c l u s i o n s as t o whether i t i s r u l e d /i°i /due w  to a constraint  out i n the case o f  s u c h a s t h e one i n ( 1 1 2 ) , o r  s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e l a n g u a g e h a s no f r o n t and  must accommodate b y e i t h e r  rounded  backing the front  vowels vowel o r  l o s i n g t h e [+round] s p e c i f i c a t i o n on a [-back] v o w e l .  [-bk]  4.3.  Summary To  /z  [+rd]  summarize t h e L i l l o o e t  facts:  first,  z'/ c a u s e p r e c e d i n g v o w e l s t o r e t r a c t .  applies  locally  and s c a n s a t a m i n i m a l  D o r s a l node. R e t r a c t i o n feature  through a root  boundaries.  and a c r o s s c e r t a i n  Pharyngealization,  similar to retraction triggered  tion.  i s different  rule  targeting the  retracting morpheme  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s by u v u l a r s and / z z'/ i n  manner. However, t h e v o w e l q u a l i t y pharyngealization  This  level  harmony s p r e a d s a  u v u l a r s and  that  results  from t h a t  from  due t o r e t r a c -  Furthermore, t h e pharyngeals d e l e t e  while the  u v u l a r s a n d / z z ' / n e v e r do s o . I have proposed t h a t gealization  facts  the retraction  and p h a r y n -  c a n be c a p t u r e d by i n v o k i n g  Tongue R o o t a n d a f e a t u r e  [iepiglottis]  that  a node account f o r  the  differing  phonetic  number o f s u b s i d i a r y proposal.  facts.  I n C h a p t e r 5,  issues that  come a b o u t  I  addres  from t h i  Chapter 5  5.0.  A r t i c u l a t o r co-occurrence Articulator  supplemented  t h e o r y as p r o p o s e d i n S a g e y  i n Cole  L a d e f o g e d and H a l l e and Remnant  (1986)  (1987), Czaykowska-Higgins (1988), McCarthy  (1988,  fourth node,  as  on a g i v e n s e t o f segments  a r t i c u l a t o r node — a s shown i n (113) —  feature  and  pharyngealization  n a c e ^ ^ ^  addition,  articulatory  consonantal be d e s c r i b e d Coronal  Place  spreading.  Labial"  the  Adding a  d o m i n a t e d by Tongue R o o t , p e r m i t s an e x p l a n a -  (113)  In  in Lillooet.  and an a d d i t i o n a l  when  arti-  Tongue R o o t u n d e r t h e  characterization of retraction  feature  Bessell  ( 1 9 8 9 ) , among o t h e r s , p r o v e s i n s i g h t f u l  [epiglottis] tory  (1987),  1989),  attempting t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the e f f e c t s o f back culations  and  Coronal"  "Dorsal  t h e t h e o r y makes p r e d i c t i o n s status of the L i l l o o e t  inventory  first  presented  (C&D&TR), D o r s a l  Dorsal  and T o n g u e R o o t  Labial  (D&TR&L), Tongue R o o t  (C&D),  concerning  inventory.  Coronal,  Dorsal  and  (D&L),  Tongue R o o t  and  ( T R ) , and Tongue R o o t  and  119  now  Labial (L),  (D), D o r s a l and L a b i a l  (D&TR), D o r s a l ,  The  i n Chapter 3 can  i n terms o f major a r t i c u l a t o r s :  ( C ) , C o r o n a l and D o r s a l  Tongue R o o t  "Tongue R o o t  120 Labial /h  (TR&L), a s shown i n ( 2 ) . N o t e t h a t  ?/ do n o t h a v e a m a j o r a r t i c u l a t o r b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t  specified  under t h e Place L  C  P P'  X'  m m«  n n'  articulator another  node.  C&D  t c" C&D&TR s* z 1 zi 1'  L  D  D&L  k k  k k' w x  D&TR D&TR&L TR TR&L  q q'  W  1  w  y ¥¥' ww y are represented  T  r as  f o l l o w i n g examples o f "double (115)labio-velars labio-coronal coronal-velar  The tongue r o o t  .W  (1982:99)  t o one gives  occlusions".  Yoruba Margi Zulu  [akpa] [pt§l] [f af a]  "arm" "chief" "climb"  node, a s a r g u e d i n B e s s e l l a n d Remnant  (1989) a n d B e s s e l l  previously  [kp] [PtI. [? ]  7  co-occurring  nodes which a r e u n o r d e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t  ( H a l l e 1982, Sagey 1 9 8 6 ) . H a l l e  formation  W  X  w  X  q  1  Complex segments  the  the laryngeals  (1990), a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e  o f c o m p l e x segments b y c o - o c c u r r i n g  with the  e s t a b l i s h e d nodes. Thus, t h e a d d i t i o n a l  combinations,  including the t r i p l y  a r t i c u l a t e d segments,  may b e a d d e d t o t h e examples i n (115) t o o b t a i n  [? ] i n d i c a t e s a c o r o n a l - v e l a r  click.  a  fuller  ?  121 set  o f complex  segments  52  (116)labial-tongue root: [T*] d o r s a l - t o n g u e r o o t : [q] c o r o n a l - t o n g u e r o o t : Coeur d'Alene r e t r a c t e d / r / labial-dorsal-tongue root: [ q ] labial-coronal-tongue root: unattested coronal-dorsal-tongue root: L i l l o o e t / z / w  Bessell  a n d Remnant  (1989) a l s o  l a n g u a g e Ubykh a n d c o l l o q u i a l  list  t h e Caucasian  Egyptian  Arabic  i n support  o f a d d i t i o n a l c o - a r t i c u l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e Tongue R o o t node. U b y k h p h a r y n g e a l i z e s full  range o f l a b i a l  (Colarusso  ( t h a t i s , s p r e a d s TR node) a  segments,  1975), and E g y p t i a n  i n c l u d i n g /p,b,p ,v,w,m/ 1  Arabic  ( H a r r e l l 1957) c a n 53  s p r e a d emphasis Morrocan A r a b i c , 5.1.  One More The  (TR node) o n t o / b , m , f , l / Heath  (as can  1987).  Feature  feature  [epiglottis]  has been m o t i v a t e d  i n order  t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e e f f e c t s o f r e t r a c t i o n from t h o s e o f pharyngealization. shows t h a t es  [epi]  Furthermore, c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a t i o n  i s required  t o account  for the differenc-  t h a t p h a r y n g e a l harmony may h a v e on s e g m e n t s . So,  for  B e s s e l l ( 1 9 9 0 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t Coeur d'Alene r e t r a c t e d / r / i s a c o m p l e x segment i n v o l v i n g t h e C o r o n a l a n d Tongue Root nodes. 53  an  C o l l o q u i a l Egyptian emphatic l a r y n g e a l : 7 .  Arabic  i s also  reported  t o have  122 example, L i l l o o e t effects  r e q u i r e s a d i s t i n c t i o n between  o f u v u l a r s and  d'Alene has pharyngeals, quality.  Reichard  of pharyngeals,  tongue r o o t s p r e a d i n g but  no  distinction  Coeur d'Alene,  [epiglottis]  those  a s one  1938,  in particular,  from  while  uvulars  see  The  Doak 1987,  Bessell  1990  and  features.  node i s p a r a l l e l ed  i n Sagey  between  to the  (1986) and  [ e p i ] and  TR  will  analysis a  of  similar  on t h e Tongue R o o t  [ r o u n d ] / L a b i a l dependency d i s c u s s McCarthy  (1988).  The  relationship  that distinctively  w i t h a TR  [+epi]  node. Redundancy  Rules  a p p l y t o a Tongue R o o t node i n a s i m p l e x s t r u c t u r e  filling [-epi]  i n [+epi] fills  as t h e v a l u e  i n a l l o t h e r TR  complex s t r u c t u r e s ) . never  and,  1990.)  [epiglottis]  entails  segments a r e s p e c i f i e d  (See  Remnant 1989,  f o r d i s c u s s i o n and  Czaykowska-Higgins  dependency of  vowel  t h e r e f o r e , does not r e q u i r e  C o e u r d ' A l e n e harmony; f o r C o l u m b i a n , w h i c h h a s process,  Coeur  and  i n the r e s u l t i n g  of i t s d i s t i n c t i v e  Bessell  the  I t may  . The  nodes be  operative i n phonologies,  privative  5 4  rule:  <p  i s , those  in  default  (that  t h a t the value i . e . , that  [-epi]  —>  is  [epi] i s a  feature.  N o t e t h a t t h e R e d u n d a n c y R u l e s must a p p l y b e f o r e application of the p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n r u l e so t h a t d e s i r e d v a l u e f o r [epi] ( i . e . [+epi]) i s spread onto vowels.  the the the  123 5.2.  Conclusion One  i s s u e t h a t has n o t y e t been r a i s e d  work i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n tongue r o o t ] account These  Tongue R o o t a n d  ([ATR]), which has t r a d i t i o n a l l y  f o r v o w e l harmony s y s t e m s i n A f r i c a n  [ATR] harmony s y s t e m s a r e i n some way  r e t r a c t i o n harmony i n L i l l o o e t i n t h a t t h e vowel a l t e r n a t i o n versus laxing  and v o w e l African  been used t o languages.  similar  The  appears t o i n v o l v e  tensing  (the n e u t r a l  Salish  facts  position) between  show c o n s o n a n t  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o harmony w h i l e  s y s t e m s i n v o l v e o n l y v o w e l s . Cook  Czaykowska-Higgins  (1987), and B e s s e l l  noted the a r t i c u l a t o r y retraction  to  languages  However, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  the systems a r e s t r i k i n g .  [advanced  and o t h e r S a l i s h  o r t o n g u e advancement  and t o n g u e r e t r a c t i o n .  Salish  i n the present  (1989),  (1990)  s i m i l a r i t i e s between  have a l l  [ATR]  (which has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d  number o f d i f f e r e n t ways, m o s t n o t a b l y  the  [RTR]  and  and  in a Tongue  R o o t s p r e a d i n g ) . Though i t seems t h a t p r o p o s i n g b o t h and Tongue R o o t redundant,  in a universal  at least  i n part,  feature hierarchy i s  further research  d e t e r m i n e what t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s b e t w e e n a r e and how  t h e y c a n be c o l l a p s e d  must  these  features  (or f o r t h a t matter,  distinguished) while maintaining t h e i r language systems.  [ATR]  functions i n  Appendix  T h i s appendix contains retracted tried  segments found  to represent  e r r o r s and  van  underlining; where, w i t h  the the  Eijk  slightly  t h e s i s . A l l the  /ae/  i n van  o f words  Eijk  omissions found h e r e i n  segments w h i c h d i f f e r  t e d by  a list  accurately the  I have h e r e f o l l o w e d  of the  1  (1985). Though I have  data are  Eijk's  t o my  from t h o s e used  of /a/  t h e s i s . The p a g e on  the  which the  form  the body  indicated  appendix  numbers i n t h e  of  i n the  same a s  i n the  work,  oversight.  in his representation  r e t r a c t e d segments a r e  exception  column r e f e r t o t h e  i n van due  phonemic v o w e l s a r e  i n the  containing  by  elserepresen-  lefthand  i s given  in  the  grammar.  3.  q£l  "bad"  17.  qfiqii  "good f o r n o t h i n g , u s e l e s s " ( r e d u p l i c a t i v e form o f q@l "bad"  23.  q@l-ti?  "that  23.  qil-Lkan  " I am  3.  q@l-wil'x  "to get  28.  q@l-aL-tmix  2 6.  ql-al'g @m'  "ugly"  41.  n-ql-alc'a?  "cranky"  is  bad"  "storm"  w  w  124  bad"  spoiled"  125 n-ql-anwa^-min  "to  d i s l i k e smt./smb."  q§l-q@l-nux -min'  "to  be u n f r i e n d l y smb. t r "  q@l-q@l-xn-an-c*ut  "to  suffer help"  w  to  from l a c k o f  p£m  "fast"  pimp  "fast"  p@mp-sut  "to  r u n on w i t h o u t b e i n g able t o stop"  pm-ilx  "to  hurry"  pmiml'@x  idiomatic (redup. pm-ilx)  Lgnkaya  "cast-iron pot"  c'£np  "ringing  t§sp  "to  form o f  sound"  t r i l l , vibrate (e.g. t a b l e when h i t with a f i s t ) 1 1  %'filp  (1)  L@_np  "sound o f t h i n g s  " l o t s of noise (e.g. at a party) (2) " v i b r a t i n g sound (more o r l e s s l i k e t§sp) 1 1  shaking,  r a U l i A ^ ^ -Vo N^VV)voice.  sal  "to  drip i n a string (like syrup)"  sal@l  "to  drip i n a string (like syrup)"  }  i  126 29.  n-sal'l'-eg  "to d r o o l , s l o b b e r " " v i b r a t i n g sound  5.  (like a  s t r i n g being plucked)" 5.  palpilt  8.  q §zq az  8.  x ?az  56.  x ?a?z'-aL  "no, not" "good f o r n o t h i n g , u n w i l l i n g t o do a n y t h i n g ) "  8.  xniz'az  "gooseberry  w  "stubborn"  w  (M)  "blue"  w  w  1  (M)  bush"  "sour, b i t t e r  (of b e r r i e s ) "  42.  c'ul  42.  c'a?p  "sour  108,  c'aTp-al'iw's*  "to have  42.  psus  "wild  8.  psusaz'  " w i l d c h e r r y bush"  8.  k u z x a l (M)  " t o spread out b e r r i e s t o dry"  8.  qa?§z«  "tired"  w  9.  (M)  w  9. 9.  1  (of smth.  fermented)"  body-odour"  (bitter) cherry" >  "dead"  zuq  "cricket"  Stut  (F)  Suq' @m  " t o s k i n an a n i m a l "  w  9.  q uq £@m'  " t o shoot/hunt animals"  9  La?qs"  "to go ashore"  10.  ?uq a?  "to d r i n k "  10.  ?u?q a?  "to d r i n k a l i t t l e b i t "  59.  s-?uq a?  " d r i n k , beverage"  w  w  w  w  w  small  127 10.  ?a?Xa?  105.  "sacred, supernatural, talented" (in some idiolects—otherwise non-retracted)  k £l  "green,  yellow"  10.  k l-i?  "green,  yellow"  41.  k l-it  "brass"  105.  £-k l-al'gt  "jade"  109.  k £l-nt-aks*t  "yellow  41.  k l-ic'a?  10.  c@m'cm'@q  w  w  w  w  w  t r e e moss  (Evernia v u l p i n a ) " w  "buckskin/leather  10. 40.  coat"  w  "X'ai  "to  get mired"  "to  bite"  \'al-an  10.  S-X'aViii"^  "to "to  bite, t r . " c a r r y smth. i n o n e ' s naih ( l i k e a dog c a r r y i n g a bone)"  10.  Lut  "to  s q u a s h smth. a bug)"  "to  squash,  squash i t w e l l "  40.  Lut-un'  s o f t (esp.  tr."  10.  LuLt-@n'  "to  76.  L£t-Lat  "squishy,  10.  paq u?  "to  be  10.  paq ?-an  "to  s c a r e smb., t r . "  11.  na?q'  "rotten"  12.  tiq law?a  "the  12.  w  w  w  plq  soft"  afraid"  onion"  "white"  128 "true,  very"  12.  s"t£X  12.  x £lp  "breeze"  13.  x'iq  "to  13.  ki?X  "cranky  14.  payt  "fight"  14.  piyp£py'@t  "to  17.  SniL-a-qa?  "well,  W  W  41.  ?als  17.  ?als-@m  arrive  here"  ( l i k e baby)"  quarrel" i t ' s him"  "sick" (M)  "sick"  23.  ?als-@m-Lkan  "I  23.  ?als-@m-Lkan-kL  "I might get  30.  ?a?Pl's-@m  "a l i t t l e  125.  ?alsm-az -am  "to  18.  X aX s  "forked"  18.  q aq X  "nightmare"  21.  za?X  "thaw"  22.  Luq xit  "to  serve  25.  ka-p£t-a  "to  get  25.  ka-L£k-a  "to  get very t i r e d , conk o u t "  12.  SLfik  "lazy,  27.  ciq  1  w  w  W  w  w  W  am  sick"  pretend  27.  c;@q -c:iq  w  "red"  27.  c'@q ?iq  w  "salmon  w  b i t sick" t o be  sick"  (food)"  squished"  motionless"  idiomatic  w  w  sick"  stretcher"  to  129  30.  caqcq@t  "tame"  32.  q uq u?  " s m a l l body o f water"  32.  k usa?  " t o u r i n a t e (men o r animals)"  32.  k us?-al'm@n  " t o want t o u r i n a t e "  40.  k us?-al'nup  " t o wet one's bed"  110.  k usa?-xin  "nightslipper"  32.  SqaXa?  "dog"  33.  m@lam@n  "medicine"  3 4.  sgx-am  "a man's name, r e f e r r i n g t o his craziness"  32.  ^-p'i?-@l'waS  "squeezed i n t h e m i d d l e "  36.  k usu  "pig"  36.  ti-k usu-a  "the p i g "  w  w  w  w  w  w  w  v  "their pig"  36.  k usuh-i  3 6.  k u s u h - a L c a?  w  w  "pork"  1  40.  l@s  " t o cave i n "  41.  l@sp  "to cave i n "  42.  40. 40.  " t o cave i n "  L§c c'lip  "to pinch"  1  k'lip  "curly"  1  "curly hair"  69.  S-k»£l-k lip'q  40.  wellk'  "sound made by f r o g s "  40.  m@li-L§p  "balsam f i r "  40.  c'n'-al'us-@m  "to t a k e aim"  ,  w  " t o make a mark b y scratching"  k'£l k»l-ulm'@x  w  "boundary"  x ic -am-aya  "see-saw"  mik il-ulya?  "sticky o i l "  s-p£lx  "to  stick out"  "to  stick  w  1  1  w  sp£pli@x  w  out a l i t t l e b i t "  p@lx -anis'  "just  s-plant  "skunk"  L£mk  "broken, n o t u s a b l e  mac uL  "pus"  suspa?  proper name "tail")  w  1  about  showing"  any  (from  p@pila?  "to  swing (as c h i l d r e n ' s game)"  "to  stand s t i l l i n the a i r (e.g. a fishhawk)"  sxam  S-k'fiL-t  "mud"  c@m'g  " t o g e t s t u c k i n t h e mud"  w  k'fiL-t-ul-wiL  "earthenware p o t , crock"  miXaL  "bear"  maqa?  "snow"  maqa? (F)  "poison  onion"  1  suspa?  proper name (from "foolish, irresponsible")  s@xam  m^  131 48.  laplas'  "board"  61.  l£-mica?q  "sitting"  61.  mi£a?q  "to  63.  n-s-pXil  65.  s-c -q ul-aka  "thumb"  65.  g-c'-q ul-ax§n  "big toe"  110.  1  s i t down o r u p "  "stingy"  1  w  w  q ul  cf.  w  q ul w  "full"  110.  £-q lul-a?x§n  "hoof"  66.  Liq'  "to  76.  n-kah-aw s'  "railroad  76.  n-kah-kh-aw' s'  "to walk a l o n g t h e railroad track"  79.  c@k-a-c@k-a  "blue-jay" (refers t o the s o u n d i t makes when i t is forecasting b a d weather o r b r i n g i n g bad news)  82.  kil-us'-§m  " t o be embarrassed,  85.  X ?ul  name o f a m o u n t a i n  105.  s-liw-l'Gst  "sharp,  106.  c:a?k-alin  "metal c o o l s o f f "  106.  k @Xm-alin  name o f a m o u n t a i n o v e r w h i c h t h e w i n d (k'@X@m) i s always blowing  107.  X i V - u l 'ax  107.  t@-x caL  w  1  w  1  v  w  steal" track"  little  hurt"  rocks"  a place close Currie  t o Mount  "tongue, p a r t mouth"  of the  i32 111.  p'@s  gloss not given  111.  s-p @s-qs  "nose"  111.  p'@sk'a?  "hummingbird"  120.  St'emalt-x ix §lt  "calf"  160.  kah  "car"  222.  wa?  expression of d i s b e l i e f tinged with r i d i c u l e , m a i n l y u s e d b y men  222.  ?i£ta?  e x p r e s s i o n o f d i s b e l i e f ; also u s e d when smb. d o e s smth. s i l l y  222.  ?u-X'u?-ti?  e x p r e s s i o n o f anger o r annoy a n c e , e . g . when n o t i c i n g t h a t smb. i s cheating  22. 246.  1  w  si  w  "kiss  sq £q £l« w  w  (F)  my a . . . ! " (expression of strong disapproval)  "story"  263.  m @sm'8s  "grouse"  274.  pahy8qs  personal  116.  £k azuaz'  "doll"  119.  muzmit  "pitiful"  125.  ^@m?amuz'  "girlfriend,  104.  k'zuz  "to  104.  sV@zuzalt  "twins"  nq'@lx-az'  "to  69.  spzoza?  "bird"  70.  q litaz'  1  w  w  11  have  name  mistress"  twins"  swim a r o u n d "  jackpine"  133  98.  82.  ?az  "nice"  n-?i?z'@k  " t o be  ?iq'  "to  scrape"  cul-l@x  "to  stretch oneself for smt."  i n the middle  of"  reaching  Appendix 2  T h i s appendix contains a l i s t  o f a l l t h e words  c o n t a i n i n g p h a r y n g e a l i z e d segments f o u n d i n v a n E i j k ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e numbers i n t h e l e f t h a n d column page number o n w h i c h t h e f o r m i s g i v e n I have l i s t e d  van E i j k ' s underlying  column,  and t h e f a s t  column.  (The c i t a t i o n  refer to the  i n t h e grammar.  form i n t h e second  speech form i s found i n t h e t h i r d f o r m c a n be o b t a i n e d b y s h o r t e n i n g  the vowel  and adding a p o s t - v o c a l i c pharyngeal  The  : i s used t o i n d i c a t e r e l a t i v e  colon  consonant.)  length of vocalic  segments a n d n o t t o show p h o n e m i c a l l y l o n g  vowels.  17.  /pi?^/  [pe?a?]  "faded"  13.  /pe^P/  [pa:p]  " d u l l , faded (of colour)"  13.  ?c@p]  "caught i n a t r a p "  13.  [V^X 7 @m]  "hard"  , (  W  13 .  / P ^ ' V V  [po:?q ]  " t o bump one's head"  14.  /l^laSt/  [la:la::t]  " f a s t " (F)  14.  /Sp'a^V  [sp'a::?]  "burned out a r e a "  14.  /scu/T*/  [sc3: : ]  "stripe"  14.  /ncu J k/  [n&o::?k]  " s t r i p e on one's back"  20.  /is?7  [13:]  "to  (  , w  w  134  hide"  135 14.  /l@7 §n/  16.  /-alu7  w  , w  /  /liT/  [-3315::?]  "gall"  W  /liTin /  17.  /«i?i j> /  33.  "to  [lel ]  17.  30.  [lS^en]  [leTey.']  1  <  [ee?e J' ] <  w  w  /fWl'@p/fj 5:l'gp] w  /n- Je6ulm'§x / <  w  44. /fc§7/ 123. / s i  w 7  /  [se7 ] w  (?)  take apart, t o t e a r down"  "to  s c a t t e r (e.g. people leaving a meeting)"  "to  bleed"  "to  burn a l i t t l e b i t "  w  [Sa:]  smth."  "to  [na 7@^ulm'@x ] " t o <  hide  "to  stake a horse" tear"  "loose"  REFERENCES Al-Ani,  S.  (1970) A r a b i c  P h o n o l o g y . The Hague: M o u t o n .  A l w a n , A. (1986) A c o u s t i c and P e r c e p t u a l C o r r e l a t e s o f U v u l a r and P h a r y n g e a l C o n s o n a n t s . M. A. T h e s i s , Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e o f Technology. A n d e r s o n , S. A. (1985) P h o n o l o g y i n t h e T w e n t i e t h C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s .  Century.  A r c h a n g e l i , D. (1988) " A s p e c t s o f U n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n T h e o r y " . P h o n o l o g y 6:183-207. A r c h a n g e l i , D. and D. 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