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Tongue root articulations : a case study of Lillooet Remnant, Daphne Elizabeth 1990

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TONGUE ROOT ARTICULATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF LILLOOET By DAPHNE ELIZABETH REMNANT A. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 © Daphne E l i z a b e t h Remnant, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of W C\ U-Af?V\ C-*^> The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T This thesis examines retraction and pharyngealization processes in Lillooet, an Interior Salish language spoken in south central British Columbia. Phayngealization occurs predictably whenever a vowel immediately precedes a pharyngeal glide. Retraction, on the other hand, is a process whereby vowels and, in some cases , alveo-palatals are articulated with a retracted tongue root, and is caused by four distinct sets of triggers: uvular consonants, /z z'l (which is a segment peculiar to Lillooet and not like the English Izl), a floating adversative morpheme, and a floating Tongue Root node that is lexically specified on a stem. In the thesis I present an analysis of these problems within a non-linear framework, adopting the model of phonological geometry proposed in Sagey (1986), and further developed in Clements (to appear). In addition, I adopt the theory of Radical Underspecification presented in (Archangeli and Pulleyblank 1986, 1987) and Archangeli (1988). It is shown that the data of Lillooet motivate the addition of a fourth articulator node, Tongue Root, which dominates the feature [epiglottis]. Two rules of retraction involve spreading of a Tongue Root node which is unspecified for [epiglottis]. The first rule operates locally triggered by the class of consonants which have a Tongue Root node, that is, the uvular consonants and Iz z'l. This rule precedes Redundancy Rules which specifies vowels, thereby preventing the rule from applying to schwa, which is analyzed as lacking place features. The second retraction rule applies long distance and follows these Redundancy Rules; schwa thus undergoes this rule. The rule of pharyngealization spreads the feature [+epiglottis] to the preceding vowel. Apart from the specific descriptive conclusions offered, a number of important points emerge concerning the consonant inventory of Lillooet. For example, the discussion in the thesis proves the existence of a class of pharyngeal segments distinct from the uvulars. Again, the evidence adduced refutes speculations that pharyngeal consonants must be characterized by a set of laryngeal features. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements v Chapter 1 1.0. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.1. T h e o r e t i c a l O u t l i n e 2 1.2. L i l l o o e t F a c t s 7 1.2.1. R e t r a c t i o n 7 1.2.1.1. R e t r a c t i o n from u v u l a r s and / z / 8 1.2.1.2. R e t r a c t i o n from a F l o a t i n g Morpheme .. 10 1.2.1.3. R e t r a c t i o n from a F l o a t i n g Feature ... 12 1.2.2. P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n 14 1.3. A n a l y s i s and Proposed Feature Geometric Model 19 1.3.1. R e t r a c t i o n 20 1.3.2. P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n 24 Chapter 2 2.0. I n t r o d u c t i o n 27 2.1. Chomsky and H a l l e (1968) 29 2.2. P l a c e F e a t u r e Geometry 31 2.3. Recent S t u d i e s 35 2.3.1. McCarthy (1989) 35 2.3.2. H a l l e (1989) 40 2.4. Other P r o p o s a l s 42 Chapter 3 3.0. I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 5 3.1. Consonantal Inventory 45 3.1.1. C o r o n a l s 48 3.1.1.1. De n t a l s 48 3.1.1.2. A l v e o - p a l a t a l s 49 3.1.1.3. /z z 1 / 51 3.1.2. U v u l a r s 53 3.1.3. Pharyngeals ». 5 4 3.2. V o c a l i c Inventory 56 3.2.1. V o c a l i c U n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n 60 3.3. S t r e s s 62 3.4. Rounding 63 Chapter 4 4.0. I n t r o d u c t i o n 65 4.1. The R e t r a c t i o n Problem 66 4.1.1. R e t r a c t i o n T r i g g e r e d by U v u l a r s 68 4.1.1.1. The R e t r a c t i o n Rule 70 4.1.2. R e t r a c t i o n T r i g g e r e d by /z z 1 / 76 4.1.3. R e t r a c t i o n from a F l o a t i n g Morpheme 86 i i i 4.1.4. R e t r a c t i o n from a F l o a t i n g Feature 95 4.2. P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n 106 4.3. Summary 117 Chapter 5 5.0. A r t i c u l a t o r Co-occurrence 119 5.1. One More Feature 121 5.2. C o n c l u s i o n 123 Appendix 1 124 Appendix 2 134 References 136 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the members of my committee, Dr. Bruce Bagemihl, Dr. M. D. Kinkade, and my supervisor Dr. Patricia Shaw for helpful comments and suggestions on my thesis. I would particularly like to thank Dr. David Odden who spent much time discussing the contents of this thesis with me and who helped to clarify many issues of phonological theory for me. Also, I am very grateful to Jan van Eijk who clarified many issues of Lillooet for me. I acknowledge U . B . C . for a graduate fellowship in 1988-89. Thanks also go to my fellow students at U . B . C , in particular Kathy Hunt and Nicola Bessel l , and to the departmental secretary Carmen da Silva. I would also like to thank Sandy Campbell and Mary Odden. Finally, to my parents, Peter and Milla Remnant, and to Bob Levine I am especially grateful for everything. V Chapter 1 1.0. introduction T h i s t h e s i s examines r e t r a c t i o n harmonies i n v o l v i n g l both pharyngeal and u v u l a r segments i n L i l l o o e t , an I n -t e r i o r S a l i s h language spoken i n south c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the o t h e r I n t e r i o r Sa-l i s h languages, i n p a r t i c u l a r the n e i g h b o u r i n g language Thompson, and shares a number of a r e a l f e a t u r e s w i t h o t h e r languages of the r e g i o n i n c l u d i n g the Athapaskan language C h i l c o t i n as w e l l as the T s i m s h i a n i c languages Nisgha and G i t k s a n . The two main d i a l e c t s o f L i l l o o e t a re Mount C u r r i e (M) and Fo u n t a i n (F) . In both d i a l e c t s , p h a r y n g e a l -i z a t i o n o f vowels i s a common p r o c e s s t h a t o c c u r s p r e d i c -t a b l y whenever a vowel immediately precedes a pharyngeal g l i d e . R e t r a c t i o n , on the o t h e r hand, i s a p r o c e s s whereby vowels are a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h a r e t r a c t e d tongue r o o t ; t h i s r e t r a c t i o n i s caused by an immediately f o l l o w i n g u v u l a r , A l l t he data and some o f the d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on L i l l o o e t have been taken from van E i j k (1985) as w e l l as p e r s o n a l communication w i t h Jan van E i j k t o whom I am v e r y g r a t e f u l . Some o f the t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s r a i s e d i n t h i s paper are f u r t h e r developments o f i s s u e s r a i s e d i n B e s s e l l & Remnant 1989. Needless t o say, a l l e r r o r s a re mine. 1 2 2 . an immediately f o l l o w i n g / z / , and a f l o a t i n g Tongue Root node. Thus, the environments i n which r e t r a c t i o n can occur are more widespread; however, i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s s u b j e c t t o o t h e r f a c t o r s i n the grammar such as r u l e o r d e r i n g . The o u t l i n e of the t h e s i s i s as f o l l o w s . In Chapter 1, I i n t r o d u c e the t o p i c and r a i s e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of back a r t i c u l a t i o n s i n a F e a t u r e Geometric model, p a y i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o L i l l o o e t . Chapter 2 p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d survey of r e l e v a n t l i t e r a -t u r e f o r the i s s u e s t h a t are r a i s e d i n the t h e s i s , w h i l e Chapter 3 l o o k s a t the phonemic and p h o n e t i c i n v e n t o r y of L i l l o o e t and d i s c u s s e s g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s of L i l l o o e t phonology. Chapter 4 p r e s e n t s d e t a i l e d a n a l y s e s o f r e t r a c -t i o n and p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . F i n a l l y , Chapter 5 summarizes the t h e o r e t i c a l arguments t h a t have been proposed through-out the t h e s i s . 1 . 1 . Theoretical Outline C e n t r a l t o the i s s u e of r e t r a c t i o n harmonies i s the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f "back" a r t i c u l a t i o n s i n f e a t u r e h i e r -a r c h i c a l terms. My o b j e c t i v e i s t o show t h a t w i t h i n the Note t h a t the L i l l o o e t / z / i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the E n g l i s h / z / . I d i s c u s s t h i s segment and t h e e f f e c t s i t causes i n d e t a i l i n s e c t i o n s 1.2.1., 1.3.1., 3.1.1.1., and 4.1.2. 3 framework o f Feature Geometry (Clements 1985, Sagey 1986, McCarthy 1988, among others) an adequate way of d i s t i n -g u i s h i n g between the e f f e c t s of pharyngeal harmony and those of u v u l a r harmony on adjacent vowels must be encoded w i t h i n the f e a t u r e geometric model. I propose a s l i g h t but s i g n i f i c a n t change t o c u r r e n t models such as t h o se propos-ed i n the works c i t e d above by i n c l u d i n g a f o u r t h a r t i c u l a t o r node: Tongue Root and a f e a t u r e [ t e p i g l o t t i s ] which i s dependent on the Tongue Root node. In a d d i t i o n , an e x p l a n a t o r y account of the two d i s t i n c t p r o c e s s e s o f harmony i n L i l l o o e t may be achieved by combining the e f -f e c t s o f u s i n g a f e a t u r e geometric model ( i n c l u d i n g my proposed changes) wi t h U n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n Theory ( K i p a r s k y 1982, A r c h a n g e l i 1989, A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k 1986, 1987, S t e r i a d e 1987b, among o t h e r s ) . U n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n Theory i m p l i e s a s o r t of r u l e o r d e r i n g ; t h a t i s , the o r -d e r i n g i n which f e a t u r e s o b t a i n t h e i r n o n - d i s t i n c t i v e + o r - v a l u e i n r e l a t i o n t o p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s . L i t t l e formal r e s e a r c h t o date has d e a l t adequately w i t h the i s s u e o f c h a r a c t e r i z i n g "back" a r t i c u l a t i o n s — t h a t i s , those a r t i c u l a t i o n s t h a t are produced i n the pos-t e r i o r r e g i o n o f the v o c a l t r a c t . In the l a s t few y e a r s t h i s l i n e of i n v e s t i g a t i o n has become an important c o n s i -d e r a t i o n as r e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t the e a r l y propo-4 s a l s f o r models of Feature Geometry such as Clements (1985) and Sagey (1986) simply d i d not account f o r b o d i e s of data e x h i b i t i n g u v u l a r and pharyngeal i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h other segments. Because of i t s two harmony p r o c e s s e s t h a t r e q u i r e back f e a t u r e s , L i l l o o e t o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g c h a l l e n g e f o r any theory t h a t attempts t o c h a r a c t e r i z e back a r t i c u l a t i o n s . As mentioned above, both u v u l a r con-sonants and pharyngeal consonants cause harmony p r o c e s s e s , but, c r u c i a l l y , the process t r i g g e r e d by u v u l a r s i s d i f -f e r e n t from t h a t t r i g g e r e d by the pharyngeals. T h i s d i f -f e r e n c e i s manifested by t h r e e s e p a r a t e s e t s of s u r f a c e vowels: the p l a i n vowels, the r e t r a c t e d ("uvularized") s e t , and the p h a r y n g e a l i z e d s e t . The fundamental o u t l i n e o f the t h e o r y o f F e a t u r e Geo-metry i s t h a t f e a t u r e s are arranged h i e r a r c h i c a l l y i n a t r e e s t r u c t u r e where f e a t u r e s t h a t p a t t e r n t o g e t h e r as a n a t u r a l c l a s s are dominated by a g i v e n node. A l l nodes and f e a t u r e s i n t u r n are on separate t i e r s , p e r m i t t i n g r u l e s t o access the necessary f e a t u r e or node and e i t h e r spread a s s o c i a t i o n l i n e s or d e l e t e a s s o c i a t i o n l i n e s . The diagram i n (1) shows the f e a t u r e geometric model proposed i n Sagey (1986) , and i s the b a s i c model t h a t I assume. 5 (1) °-roQt^ v ' \ ^ : ^ c o n t i n u a n t ^ \ 0 consonantal •° s u p r a - l a r y n g e a l [ s . g l . ] n a s a l " l a b i a l " 1 d o r s a l AcoronaL s o f t p a l a t e ^ * p l a c e [rd] / \ [ h i ] [bk] / \ [ l o ] [ant] [ d i s t ] Note t h a t Sagey i n c o r p o r a t e s the p l a c e f e a t u r e s under t h e i r own node and t h a t these p l a c e f e a t u r e s are based on a r t i c u l a t o r y n o t i o n s : i . e . v o c a l t r a c t anatomy. C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s o - c a l l e d "back" a r t i c u l a t i o n s emerged i n l a t e r work, i n c l u d i n g t h a t of P u l l e y b l a n k (1987), S t e r i a d e (1987a), Cole (1987) , Czaykowska-Higgins (1987), McCarthy (1988, 1989) and B e s s e l l & Remnant (1989). P u l l e y b l a n k (1987) i n c l u d e s a v e l a r node under th e p l a c e node, which i n t u r n dominates an [ATR] f e a t u r e . S t e r i a d e (1987a) and (Clements 1989) suggest i n c o r p o r a t i n g a s p e c i a l vowel t i e r dominated by the p l a c e node which p e r m i t s a r u l e t o r e f e r t o j u s t the v o c a l i c t i e r . Czaykow-sk a - H i g g i n s (1987) proposes a f o u r t h a r t i c u l a t o r node w i t h two f e a t u r e s : [±Upper Pharynx] and [±Lower Pharynx] t o c o v e r u v u l a r s , pharyngeals, r h o t o c i z e d consonants, and p h a r y n g e a l i z e d u v u l a r s and u v u l a r i z e d pharyngeals. Mc-6 Carthy (1988) r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of whether a pharyngeal node should be i n c l u d e d under a p l a c e node, but p r o v i d e s no s o l u t i o n . McCarthy (1989) and B e s s e l l and Remnant (1989) p r o v i d e the most d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s t o date of adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r the "back" a r t i c u l a t i o n s . McCarthy (1989) suggests a f o u r t h a r t i c u l a t o r node: Pharyngeal and a f e a t u r e [ t g l o t t a l ] t o account f o r t h e s e t o f " g u t t e r a l s " i n A r a b i c . B e s s e l l & Remnant (1989) propose a Tongue Root node c o n s t i t u t i n g the f o u r t h a r t i c u l a t o r node which dominates the f e a t u r e [ l e p i g l o t t i s ] . In Chapter 4, I develop the arguments f o r the Tongue Root node and the f e a t u r e [±epiglottis] and show how they are fundamen-t a l t o the phonology of L i l l o o e t . A second sub-theory of p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e , which i s c e n t r a l t o the prese n t work, i s R a d i c a l U n d e r s p e c i f i c a -t i o n Theory as presented i n A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k (1986) and A r c h a n g e l i (1989). The p r i n c i p a l t e n e t s o f t h i s t h e o r y are t h a t ( i ) no redundant i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t a t the u n d e r l y i n g l e v e l , and t h a t ( i i ) Redundancy Rules p r e -sent i n U n i v e r s a l Grammar ( d e f a u l t r u l e s ) o r language spe-c i f i c r u l e s (complement r u l e s ) serve t o f i l l i n the de-f a u l t v a l u e s of f e a t u r e s . For example, i f a i s the maxi-m a l l y u n d e r s p e c i f i e d segment found i n U n i v e r s a l Grammar, then d e f a u l t r u l e s would apply a t a g i v e n p o i n t i n the 7 grammar t o f i l l i n the maximally u n d e r s p e c i f i e d s l o t w i t h each o f the f e a t u r e v a l u e s which c o l l e c t i v e l y d e f i n e a. However, i f i n language X i t can be shown t h a t 6 i s i n f a c t the maximally u n d e r s p e c i f i e d segment, then one or more complement r u l e s which preempt the r e g u l a r u n i v e r s a l d e f a u l t r u l e ( s ) a p p l y t o f i l l i n £> as the maximally under-s p e c i f i e d segment. By i n c o r p o r a t i n g complement r u l e s which a u t o m a t i c a l l y apply b e f o r e the d e f a u l t r u l e s , the u n i v e r -s a l l y marked v a l u e of a g i v e n f e a t u r e which f u n c t i o n s as the unmarked v a l u e i n the language i n q u e s t i o n can p r o p e r -l y be a s s i g n e d t o the f e a t u r e . 1.2. L i l l o o e t Facts L i l l o o e t , as mentioned b r i e f l y above, has two sepa-r a t e p r o c e s s e s i n which p o s t e r i o r consonants ( t h a t i s , u v u l a r s and pharyngeals) a f f e c t vowels. R e t r a c t i o n (so c a l l e d i n van E i j k 1985) i s a p r o c e s s i n which vowels are a f f e c t e d by a f o l l o w i n g u v u l a r t o c r e a t e a r e t r a c t e d a r t i -c u l a t i o n , and p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n , which behaves somewhat l i k e r e t r a c t i o n , i s one i n which a vowel p r e c e d i n g a phar-yngeal consonant p h a r y n g e a l i z e s (as opposed t o r e t r a c t s ) . 1.2.1. Retraction Van E i j k (1985:3) c h a r a c t e r i z e s r e t r a c t i o n as " b a s i -8 c a l l y v e l a r i z a t i o n " , w i t h the tongue-root p u l l e d back i n the t h r o a t so t h a t , i n the case o f r e t r a c t e d a l v e o p a l a t a l s /6 £/, o n l y the t i p of the tongue i s used i n a r t i c u l a t i o n . The s e t of r e t r a c t i n g consonants ( i . e . t r i g g e r s ) c o n s i s t s of the u v u l a r s / q q' q w q | W X X w/ and the c o r o n a l s /z z'/« Those segments t h a t may be r e t r a c t e d ( i . e . t a r g e t s ) are the f u l l vowels / i u ae/. These are normally r e a l i z e d p h o n e t i c a l l y as [e o ae], but i n t h e i r r e t r a c t e d form as [e o a ] . F u r t h e r , the l a x c e n t r a l vowel schwa (/§/, phone-t i c a l l y [@]) i s r e t r a c t e d t o [A] when i t occurs i n a form wi t h a f l o a t i n g Tongue Root node, as shown i n 1.2.1.2. and 1.2.1.3. In a d d i t i o n , the consonants /& s 1 l 1 / may be r e t r a c t e d , meaning t h a t they are doubly a r t i c u l a t e d u s i n g both the t i p o f t h e tongue and the tongue dorsum. See Chapter 3 f o r a complete d i s c u s s i o n o f the f u l l phonemic i n v e n t o r y of L i l l o o e t consonants and vowels. 1.2.1.1. R e t r a c t i o n from u v u l a r s and /z z'/ The u v u l a r consonants w i l l r e t r a c t an immediately p r e c e d i n g vowel i f t h a t vowel i s one o f the s e t o f f u l l vowels: / i u ae/. Examples o f t h i s p r o c e s s are g i v e n i n (2a) below. In t h e case of t a r g e t vowels /u as/, r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by /z z'/ i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t by u v u l a r s as can be seen i n (2b). However, / i / does not r e t r a c t when 9 f o l l o w e d by /z z 1 / - 1 argue i n Chapter 4 s e c t i o n 4.1.2. t h a t r e t r a c t i o n i s r u l e d out when the t r i g g e r and t a r g e t are doubly l i n k e d t o a node w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e , i n t h i s case the D o r s a l node. (2b) shows r e t r a c t i o n o f /ae/ t o [a] and (2c) g i v e s the ungrammatical form i n the f a i l u r e o f / i / t o r e t r a c t t o [ e ] . I f /z z'/ were t o r e t r a c t a p r e c e d -i n g / i / we would expect the ungrammatical s u r f a c e form found i n ( 2 c ) . (2a) / V i q / —> [fc'eql " t o a r r i v e h ere" /suq^em/ — > [soq'^em] " t o s k i n an a n i m a l " /maeqae?/ — > [maqae?] "snow" (b) /muzmit/ — > [mozmet] " p i t i f u l " /xniz'aez 1/ — > [xnez'az 1] "gooseberry bush" (c) * [ x n e z 1 a z 1 ] In a d d i t i o n , the u v u l a r s and /z z'/ w i l l not r e t r a c t /§/, as can be seen by the forms i n (3a) and the c o r r e s -ponding ungrammatical forms i n (3b). (3a) /x§z'p/ — > [xfz'p] "embers" /q^q^aez/ —> [ q * § q " a z ] " b l u e " (b) *[XAZ-$] *[q A3 az] I argue i n Chapter 4 t h a t / § / does not r e t r a c t i n t h i s environment because i t i s the maximally u n d e r s p e c i f i -ed vowel whose v a l u e i s f i l l e d i n a f t e r the r e t r a c t i o n r u l e has a p p l i e d . 1.2.1.2. R e t r a c t i o n from a F l o a t i n g Morpheme In a d d i t i o n t o r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by u v u l a r con-sonants and /z z*/f the aforementioned vowels, a l o n g w i t h / § / and the consonants /6 s" 1 a r e r e t r a c t e d when the a d v e r s a t i v e morpheme i s pre s e n t , as the da t a i n (4) show. (4) /q@l/ [qAl] "bad" /q@l-wil'x/ [qAlwel'x] " t o g e t s p o i l e d " /L@6/ [LAc] " t o cave i n " /?aels/ [ ? a l s ] " s i c k " / L u t / [Lot] 11 t o squash a bug" In a d d i t i o n , minimal p a i r s such as the s e t s i n (5) and (6) e x i s t . (5a) /L@k/ — > [L@k] 3 "get d e f l a t e d , go down (of dough)" (b) /L@k+{adversative}/ — > [LAk] "get pooped, conk out" I p o s t u l a t e one u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r the stem /L@k/, r a t h e r than s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the r e t r a c t e d vowels are phonemic, as van E i j k (1985) c l a i m s , and t h a t t h e r e i s a second u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : /LAk/. Instead, the a d v e r s a t i v e morpheme, which i s a n a l y z e d as a f l o a t i n g Tongue Root node, i s a f f i x e d t o the stem, and g e n e r a l l y a l l those segments t h a t a re s u s c e p t i b l e t o r e t r a c t i o n w i l l r e t r a c t . I use L t o s i g n i f y a d e n t a l l a t e r a l f r i c a t i v e . 1 1 (6a) /kaey-kaey/ — > [kaeykaey] " b l u e - j a y " ( r e f e r s t o the sounds i t makes when f o r e c a s t i n g good news or good weather) (b) /6@k-ae-c@k-ae/ — > [c/ikacAkae] " b l u e - j a y " ( r e f e r s t o the sound i t makes when f o r e -c a s t i n g bad news or bad weather) However, a d i s c r e p a n c y e x i s t s between the a p p l i c a t i o n of the r u l e t r i g g e r e d by a f l o a t i n g morpheme, which i n v o l -ves s p r e a d i n g Tongue Root, and the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the r e -t r a c t i n g r u l e t r i g g e r e d by the u v u l a r s and /z z'// a l s o i n v o l v i n g Tongue Root spreading. The c o r o n a l consonants are never a f f e c t e d by the oth e r r e t r a c t o r s : u v u l a r s and /z z'/# w h i l e they are t a r g e t s f o r r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by the f l o a t i n g morpheme. The examples i n (7a) show forms i n which a c o r o n a l immediately precedes a /z z'/ and (7b) show c o r o n a l s f o l l o w e d by u v u l a r s . In n e i t h e r case i s a c o r o n a l consonant r e t r a c t e d . (7a) [ ? 6 c z ] "good, s t r a i g h t (forward), o.k. [Poez'gaem1] "to s t e e r a canoe" [testaT'gszhae] "the s q u i r r e l " (b) [caqcq§t] "tame" [s'qlaew'?<il] " r e a l beaver ( i . e . not money)" [sX^es] t i " t o s m i l e " "cottonwood cambium l a y e r " :] " t o t a l k , have a c o n v e r s a t i o n " 12 1.2.1.3. Retraction from a Floating Feature Other cases o f r e t r a c t i o n e x i s t i n which a l l o f the vowels and the c o r o n a l consonants are r e t r a c t e d ; however, i n these cases n e i t h e r a r e t r a c t i n g t r i g g e r segment ( i . e . a u v u l a r o r /z z'/) n o r the a d v e r s a t i v e morpheme i s e v i d e n t l y p r e s e n t . Examples o f t h i s type o f r e t r a c t i o n a r e : (8) /k wusae?/ — > [ k w o s a ? ] 4 "to u r i n a t e " / s a e l l / — > [ s a i l ] " t o d r i p i n a s t r i n g ( l i k e s y r u p ) " The n e i g h b o u r i n g T s i m s h i a n i c languages Nisgha and G i t k s a n have g l o t t a l s t h a t cause some s o r t o f r e t r a c t i o n o f the p r e c e d i n g vowel (Shaw 1987, Hunt 1990), as does A r a b i c where the g l o t t a l s behave i n the same manner as t h e o t h e r " g u t t e r a l s " (McCarthy 1989, and see Chapter 2 f o r some d i s c u s s i o n o f A r a b i c emphasis). L i l l o o e t g l o t t a l s , however, do not appear t o a f f e c t t h e vowels i n any such way. The data i n (9) show t h i s f a c t . I mark r e t r a c t i o n on c o r o n a l consonants by u n d e r l i n -i n g t he r e t r a c t e d segment. 5 We f i n d no cases of [§?] i n L i l l o o e t (van E i j k 1985:44). M. D. Kinkade (p. c.) informs me t h a t / § / i s r e g u l a r i l y lowered t o [a/ae] b e f o r e a / ? / throughout I n t e r i o r S a l i s h which accounts f o r the apparent gap i n the da t a . 13 ( 9 ) i i i i i i /p'ae?x w/ /s-qaeXae?/ /£-pzu?/ —> [p'ae?x w] "more" —> [sqaXae?] "dog" —> [spzo?] " w i l d a nimal" -> [po?y'aex w] "smoke coming up 1 —> [p'e?] "to squeeze out" [ s p 1 e ? l • waes] "squeezed i n the v v i i v /pu?y'aex / / p ' i ? / II middle" ( 9 i i ) shows a form i n which r e t r a c t i o n does occur on the segment t h a t i s f o l l o w e d by the u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e , but c r u -c i a l l y , not on t h e vowel t h a t precedes the g l o t t a l . In (9v) and ( v i ) we see a c o n t r a s t between the n o n - r e t r a c t e d r o o t t h a t c o n t a i n s a g l o t t a l (9v) and the r e t r a c t e d r o o t ( 9 v i ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e t r a c t i o n i n (9vi) (and a l s o the f i r s t example i n (8) [k WDsa?] "to u r i n a t e " ) i s not due t o the g l o t t a l . Instead, I propose i t i s due t o a f l o a t i n g Tongue Root node which i s l e x i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d on the stem (see Chapter 4 f o r the m o t i v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of t h i s c l a i m ) . To summarize the f a c t s o f r e t r a c t i o n e x e m p l i f i e d i n data s e t s ( 2 ) - ( 9 ) , I p r e s e n t the c h a r t i n (10). The h o r i z o n t a l a x i s a t the top shows the segment t h a t can be r e t r a c t e d and the v e r t i c a l column on the l e f t s i d e i n d i -c a t e s the environment. A / marks r e t r a c t i o n w h i l e an x 14 i n d i c a t e s no r e t r a c t i o n . (10) i u a e @ 6 s 1 1' 7 q ( q ' - q w » q , w - x / x W / / / * x x x x _ / z , z ' x / / x x x x x A d v e r s a t i v e Morpheme & / / / / / / / / L e x i c a l F l o a t i n g Node 1.2.2. Pharyngeal izat ion The pharyngeals i n L i l l o o e t d i s t i n g u i s h themselves from the u v u l a r s both a r t i c u l a t o r i l y (and a u d i b l y , van E i j k p. c.) and by t r i g g e r i n g a vowel harmony pr o c e s s which i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f the r e t r a c t i o n . The vowels / i ae @/ u n d e r l y i n g l y precede pharyngeal consonants w h i l e /u/ does not appear t o occur i n t h i s environment. The pho-n e t i c r e a l i z a t i o n o f the vowels /ae @/ when p h a r y n g e a l i z e d i s b a s i c a l l y t h a t o f the r e t r a c t e d vowels w i t h the a d d i -t i o n o f pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n superimposed on the vowel. The e f f e c t s o f p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n and r e t r a c t i o n a re neu-t r a l i z e d , however, w i t h / i / . (11) and (12) demonstrate the co r r e s p o n d i n g s e t s o f p h o n e t i c segments o r i g i n a t i n g from the phonemic vowels /a? @/ when i n the environment o f p h a r y n g e a l s 6 . T h i s c h a r t i s taken from van E i j k (1985:13-14). The d i a c r i t i c A over vowels denotes p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . For example, [a] i s a p h a r y n g e a l i z e d [ a ] . 15 ( i D / eJ i / [aS] [a:] slow speech f a s t speech [ 3 : ] [ 3 : ? ] (12)/aeS/ [ a i l ] [a::] [ 5 : S W ] [ 5 : i , w J slow speech f a s t speech [5::] [5::?] (11) shows t h a t where /§ / i s u n d e r l y i n g the s u r f a c e r e a l i z a t i o n i s e i t h e r [a] or [ 3 ] depending on t h e v a l u e f o r [round] of the f o l l o w i n g p haryngeal. D i s t r i b u t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t the v a l u e o f the u n d e r l y i n g vowel i n (12) must be /ae/ and not /u/. That i s , g i v e n t h a t the v a l u e f o r h e i g h t of the s u r f a c e vowel i s always [+lo] and t h a t the v a l u e f o r [round] i s p r e d i c t a b l e (due t o the f o l l o w i n g pharyngeal's v a l u e f o r [ r o u n d ] ) , o n l y t h e f u l l g vowel /ae/ u n d e r l y i n g l y precedes a pharyngeal . F o l l o w i n g Hayes (1981), I propose t h a t the number o f s k e l e t a l s l o t s r e p r e s e n t i n g / § / d i f f e r s from the number f o r / i ae u/. In e f f e c t , /§/ has one t i m i n g s l o t w h i l e the I have c h a r a c t e r i z e d the r e l a t i v e l e n g t h o f segments u s i n g [:] and [::] so as t o demonstrate the d i f f e r e n c e i n l e n g t h between [@] and the f u l l vowels. My r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from t h a t of van E i j k who uses p a r e n t h e s -es, as shown below t o i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e s h o r t n e s s o f schwa. [a:] slow speech f a s t speech T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s due t o P. Shaw ( p . c ) . 16 others have two. S u f f i c e i t t o say t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between /@/ and the f u l l vowels on the b a s i s of l e n g t h . The bottom l i n e o f each c h a r t shows t h a t com-pensatory l e n g t h e n i n g occurs w i t h the d e l e t i o n o f the pharyngeal d u r i n g f a s t speech. Independent m o t i v a t i o n f o r p r o p o s i n g a d i f f e r e n c e i n the number of s k e l e t a l s l o t s f o r / § / and / i ae u/ comes from s t r e s s placement. In r o o t - s u f f i x combinations, s t r e s s w i l l s h i f t two vowels t o the r i g h t from the r o o t vowel t o a f u l l vowel, but not t o [§] which i s ov e r l o o k e d by t h e s t r e s s r u l e . In a r o o t w i t h /§/, s t r e s s remains on the ro o t i f the s u f f i x c o n t a i n s /§/, but w i l l s h i f t from t h e 9 r o o t t o a s u f f i x c o n t a i n i n g a f u l l vowel . Some examples of t he movement o f s t r e s s a re g i v e n i n (13) below. (13a)/?uxwaelmixJV [?6x waelmex wl "Indian , p e r s o n " /?uxwaelmix -kaen/ [Tox^lmex^kaen] "I am an In d i a n person" (b) /zaex-ael'q^em'/ [ zaexael'qw] " t a l l " /Z3=x-ael • q^m 1 -Lkael'aep/ [zaexael' qw@m1 Lkael'aep] "you f o l k s a re / t a l l " * [ zaexael1 q w § m 1 Lkael 1 aep ] (c) /m@c-@n/ [m§c@n] " t o w r i t e i t , ( t r . ) " /m@c-xael/ [m@cxael] "to w r i t e , ( i n t r . ) " For more d e t a i l s o f L i l l o o e t s t r e s s see van E i j k (1985:20-24). 17 I have not i n c l u d e d the f a c t s about / i S / i n t h e c h a r t s i n (11) and (12) f o r two reasons. F i r s t , t h e d a t a are v e r y s c a r c e — I am aware of o n l y t h r e e i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s sequence which a r e 1 0 : (14) / l i c i w / — > [ l e S w ] "to take a p a r t , t o t e a r down" /li?!^1/ —> [ l e T e ^ 1 ] " t o s c a t t e r (e.g. people l e a v i n g a meeting)" / c i ? i c i , w / --> [ c e ? e S , w ] " t o b l e e d " Second, the e f f e c t s of p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n and r e t r a c t i o n are n e u t r a l i z e d t o [e] where / i / i s concerned. P o s t u l a t i o n o f / i / as the u n d e r l y i n g vowel i n the examples i n (14) i s based on d i s t r i b u t i o n a l evidence. We have a l r e a d y e s t a -b l i s h e d t h a t the s u r f a c e forms [a] and [ 5 ] are d e r i v e d from u n d e r l y i n g / a e / and /§/ when they are immediately f o l l o w e d by a pharyngeal, as shown i n the c h a r t s i n (11) and (12) above. A s u r f a c e r e a l i z a t i o n o f [e] w i t h a super-i m p o s i t i o n of p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n , stemming from u n d e r l y i n g 1 0 . c I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the second vowel i n both [le?e^'] "to s c a t t e r " and [ce?e c1 | W] "to b l e e d " are echo vowels and t h e r e f o r e do not have the s t a t u s o f a f u l l vowel. F o r the purposes o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h i s f a c t does not matter because the pharyngeal i s p r e d i c t e d t o r e t r a c t t h e vowel i n e i t h e r case. I f they are echo vowels, then the c o r r e c t u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s would be / l i S ' / " t o s c a t t e r " and / c i c i | W / " t o b l e e d " . G l o t t a l i z a t i o n would spread from t h e g l o t t a l i z e d pharyngeal t o the vowel and r e s u l t i n an echo vowel. [ + e p i g l o t t i s ] (see the a n a l y s i s i n Chapter 4 s e c t i o n 4.2.) would then spread from the pharyngeal and we o b t a i n the c o r r e c t s u r f a c e form. 18 / i / , i s p r e c i s e l y what we would expect t o f i n d g i v e n t h e p a t t e r n i n g o f r e t r a c t i o n v ersus p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . That i s , a p h a r y n g e a l i z e d vowel has the focus o f a r e t r a c t e d vowel w i t h pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n . Thus, r e t r a c t e d /ae/ i s [ a ] , w h i l e p h a r y n g e a l i z e d i t i s [ a ] . In the case o f / i / ( [e]) the pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n appears t o be m i s s i n g . However, i t i s not c l e a r t o me t h a t p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n o f a f r o n t vowel would be p o s s i b l e i n L i l l o o e t . In o r d e r t o make the pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n the tongue must be p u l l e d back i n the v o c a l t r a c t such t h a t the f r o n t vowel i s p h o n e t i c a l l y back. M. D. Kinkade (p. c.) p o i n t s out t h a t the f r o n t vowel i n Columbian may be p h a r y n g e a l i z e d , and D. Odden (p. c.) informs me t h a t the A r a b i c f r o n t vowels i s indeed p h a r y n g e a l i z a b l e , but are p h o n e t i c a l l y backed. F u r t h e r p h o n e t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o suggest a r e s o l u t i o n f o r t h i s problem. Furthermore, as the f i r s t and t h i r d examples i n (14) show, / i / does not round when ad j a c e n t t o a rounded pharyngeal, w h i l e the o t h e r vowels /ae §/ do. In Chapter 4, I suggest t h a t the f a i l u r e o f [round] t o spread t o the f r o n t vowel r e f l e c t s a language p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r a i n t t h a t r u l e s out f r o n t rounded vowels. 19 1.3. Analysis and Proposed Feature Geometric Model Sagey's (1986) model of Feature Geometry shown i n (1) above i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y e n r i c h e d w i t h r e g a r d t o f e a t u r e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the back a r t i c u l a t i o n s t o account f o r the d ata p r e s e n t e d i n s e c t i o n 1.1. She assumes the f e a t u r e s [ h i , b a c k , l o ] , f o l l o w i n g Chomsky and H a l l e (1968), under the D o r s a l node t o c h a r a c t e r i z e these segments. However, the f e a t u r e s themselves are p r o b l e m a t i c when attempting t o account f o r a t t e s t e d d ata. F i r s t , s p r e a d i n g [-lo] does not c h a r a c t e r i z e the f a c t t h a t the [+lo] vowels a c t u a l l y lower s l i g h t l y w i t h r e t r a c t i o n . That i s , i n c a r d i n a l vowel terms [a] i s lower t h a t [ae] ( C l a r k and Y a l l o p 1990:68). Second, Sagey cannot d i s t i n g u i s h the r e t r a c t e d consonants from t h e i r n o n - r e t r a c t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s a t a s u r f a c e l e v e l because both are s p e c i f i e d as [ - h i , - l o ] i n her system. (See Chapter 2 s e c t i o n 2.1. f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p o i n t . ) T h i r d , a r t i c u l a t o r i l y , the tongue body movements are not r e f l e c t e d i n the f e a t u r e v a l u e s . So, f o r example, the u v u l a r s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as [-high], but they a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e r a i s i n g the tongue body. (See Chapter 2 s e c t i o n 2.1 and r e f e r e n c e s t h e r e i n f o r a more d e t a i l e d account of the problems o f [ h igh,back,lo] w i t h r e g a r d t o p o s t e r i o r consonants.) I suggest e n r i c h i n g Sagey's model under the P l a c e 20 node w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l node: Tongue Root. I propose a f o u r t h a r t i c u l a t o r node, as argued f o r i n Cole (1987), B e s s e l l & Remnant (1989), McCarthy (1989), and B e s s e l l (1990). Moreover, I suggest t h a t Tongue Root dominates t h e f e a t u r e [ l e p i g l o t t i s ] ([±epi]), which r e f l e c t s the a d d i -t i o n a l pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n on p h a r y n g e a l i z e d vowels, as argued f o r i n B e s s e l l & Remnant (1989). In a d d i t i o n , I adopt t h e proposed changes t o the r o o t node i n McCarthy (1988, 1989), and changes t o the s t r u c t u r e o f the d o r s a l node as argued f o r i n Odden (1989). I assume, then, the f o l l o w i n g t r e e s t r u c t u r e . (15) sonorant v o c o i d approximant LARYNGEAL NODE [cgT"Tsg]"* [st.vc] Jsl-;vc] [LABIAL] [CORONAL] [nas a l ] [TONGUE ROOT] [ d i s t ] [ant] [ l a t ] Height.V "7 Back-round I \ / \ [ e p i g l o t t i s ] [ h i ] [ATR] [ l o ] [back] [rnd] 1.3.1. R e t r a c t i o n C ole (1987), B e s s e l l & Remnant (1989), and McCarthy (1989) argue f o r a complex s t r u c t u r e f o r the r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f u v u l a r s along the l i n e s t h a t K e a t i n g (1987) p r o -poses f o r p a l a t a l s . I suggest a s i m i l a r p r o p o s a l i n t h a t u v u l a r s a re complex s t r u c t u r e s and are c o - a r t i c u l a t e d i n v o l v i n g the Tongue Root node and the D o r s a l node. The base u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f u v u l a r s i s found i n (16). At the u n d e r l y i n g l e v e l , t h e r e i s no need t o s p e c i f y any s t r u c t u r e below the D o r s a l and Tongue Root nodes because the c l a s s o f u v u l a r s are d e f i n e d as the o n l y segment w i t h both a D o r s a l and a Tongue Root node. (16) ° PLACE NODE Uv u l a r s a re redundantly r e a l i z e d as [ - e p i ] , t h e i r f u l l p h o n e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n shown i n (17) below . The r e t r a c t i o n r u l e spreads the [Tongue Root] node onto the P l a c e node o f the p r e c e d i n g vowel. (18) g i v e s the f o r m a l i z a t i o n o f the r e t r a c t i o n r u l e t r i g g e r e d by a u v u l a r consonant. The d e f a u l t v a l u e f o r [ e p i g l o t t i s ] , which as s t a t e d above i s [ - e p i ] , i s f i l l e d i n a t a l a t e r stage i n the d e r i v a t i o n . ROOT (17) ROOT [ - e p i g l o t t i s ] 11 D e t a i l above the P l a c e node has been omitted. 22 (18) [ + v o c a l i c ] D o r s a l Tongue Root P l a c e Scansion a p p l i e s a t a minimal l e v e l ( A r c h a n g e l i and P u l l e y b l a n k 1987), and t a r g e t s a p r e c e d i n g D o r s a l node on a [ + v o c a l i c ] segment. Schwa i s not t a r g e t e d by the r u l e because a t the p o i n t of a p p l i c a t i o n , schwa i s not s p e c i f i e d f o r a D o r s a l node. R e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by /z z'/ p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by u v u l a r s except t h a t i n t h e case of /z z'// / i / does not r e t r a c t . As noted p r e v i o u s l y , /z z'/ i s d i f f e r e n t from the E n g l i s h / z / . I n s t e a d , the L i l l o o e t / z / has a d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n w i t h the s i d e s o f t h e tongue r a i s e d g i v i n g i t a l a t e r a l - l i k e q u a l i t y . In a d d i t i o n , Thompson and Thompson (1986:60) p o i n t out t h a t the Thompson / z / i n v o l v e s "a c e r t a i n amount o f r e t r o f l e x i o n , g i v i n g them an r - l i k e q u a l i t y " . D. Odden (p. c.) informs me t h a t r e t r o f l e x i o n may i n v o l v e r e t r a c t i o n o f the tongue r o o t as the t i p o f the tongue i s r a i s e d t o form c o n t a c t between the "tongue u n d e r s u r f a c e and [the] p o s t a l v e o l a r r e g i o n " ( C l a r k and Y a l l o p 1990:80). (19) shows the under-l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r / z / . I t i s important t o note t h a t / z / i s t r i p l y a r t i c u l a t e d , which accounts f o r i t s r a r i t y 23 12 i n the world's languages (19) / z / P l a c e CORONAL DORSAL TONGUE ROOT The s p r e a d i n g r u l e formulated i n (18) above w i l l a pply i n the case of / z / r e t r a c t i o n , as w e l l as f o r r e -t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by a u v u l a r consonant. The s i n g l y l i n k e d D o r s a l node and i t s dependent f e a t u r e [-back] i s s p e c i f i e d so as t o r u l e out the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the r u l e t o 13 the sequence / i z / , which has the s t r u c t u r e i n (20) (20) i z y° P l a c e D o r s a l [-back] In the case of consonant r e t r a c t i o n , s p r e a d i n g o f Tongue Root causes secondary a r t i c u l a t i o n . I c l a i m t h a t t h e a l v e o - p a l a t a l s are s p e c i f i e d f o r a D o r s a l node which s e r v e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h them from the o t h e r c o r o n a l s and p l a y s an important r o l e i n the f o r m a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r e -t r a c t i o n r u l e . K e a t i n g (1987) proposes t h a t p a l a t a l s a r e doubly a r t i c u l a t e d i n v o l v i n g the Coronal and D o r s a l nodes. L i l l o o e t has no p a l a t a l s , but two s e r i e s o f c o r o n a l s : t h e 12 Kmkade (p.c.) informs me t h a t t h i s segment i s o n l y found i n L i l l o o e t , Thompson, and C h i l c o t i n . 13 SeeChapter 4 f o r d e t a i l s o f the argument. d e n t a l c o r o n a l s , c o n s i s t i n g o f / t \* L n n' c' z z*// and the a l v e o - p a l a t a l c o r o n a l s , which are / 6 s 1 1 ' y y'/« These s e r i e s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by i n v o k i n g a D o r s a l node f o r the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s . The r e t r a c t i o n r u l e t h a t t a r -g e t s the consonants and vowels scans the minimal l e v e l , and t a r g e t s the D o r s a l node. C r u c i a l l y , a t the p o i n t a t which t h i s r u l e a p p l i e s , the v a l u e f o r the unmarked vowel, schwa, must be f i l l e d i n so t h a t i t may be t a r g e t e d . As w i t h the v o c a l i c r e t r a c t i o n d e s c r i b e d above, [</>epiglottis] i s r edundantly f i l l e d i n as [ - e p i g l o t t i s ] . ( 2 1 ) shows sp r e a d i n g from a f l o a t i n g tongue r o o t node onto th e P l a c e node of the consonant. Because the t r i g g e r o f t h e r u l e i s a f l o a t i n g segment i t i s not docked t o a s k e l e t a l s l o t and t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s no more s t r u c t u r e than t h a t p i c t u r e d . ( 2 1 ) I . I P l a c e °' D o r s a l *"Tongue Root 1.3.2. P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n of vowels i n v o l v e s both tongue body r e t r a c t i o n and lower pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n , and o c c u r s whenever a vowel i s immediately a d j a c e n t t o a f o l l o w i n g pharyngeal consonant. In Feature Geometric terms, then, a f e a t u r e [ + e p i g l o t t i s ] which i s dominated by a Tongue Root node, r e p r e s e n t i n g a pharyngeal consonant, spreads onto the P l a c e node of any immediately a d j a c e n t p r e c e d i n g vowel. The Tongue Root causes r e t r a c t i o n o f the vowels as i n the case o f the u v u l a r r e t r a c t i o n d i s c u s s e d above, but i n a d d i t i o n , the f e a t u r e [+epi] causes a s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n of pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n on the vowels. T h i s accounts f o r t h e f a c t t h a t u v u l a r harmony and pharyngeal harmony r e s u l t i n two d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f s u r f a c e vowels. Furthermore, the c h a r t s i n (11) and (12) i n d i c a t e t h a t the vowel's s u r f a c e v a l u e f o r [round] i s determined by the pharyngeal consonant's v a l u e f o r t h a t f e a t u r e . How-ever, rounding i s a p e r v a s i v e p r o c e s s i n the language and i s t h e r e f o r e independently motivated. (22) shows the r u l e of p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . (22) [ + v o c a l i c ] r P l a c e Tongue Root "~ ~[+epi] In summary, the r u l e of r e t r a c t i o n spreads the a r t i c u l a t o r node Tongue Root, which i s u n s p e c i f i e d f o r a f e a t u r e v a l u e of [ e p i ] . A Redundancy Rule t h a t a p p l i e s a t a l a t e r p o i n t i n the grammar serves t o f i l l i n the u n s p e c i f i e d v a l u e as [ - e p i g l o t t i s ] . P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, i n v o l v e s a r u l e of [-(-epiglottis] s p r e a d i n g onto a Tongue Root node, which i s p r e s e n t due t o node g e n e r a t i o n . Chapter 2 2.0. I n t r o d u c t i o n In t h i s Chapter, I l o o k a t v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t attempts t o c h a r a c t e r i z e back a r t i c u l a t i o n s w i t h i n g e n e r a t i v e phonology and p o i n t out, i n some cases, where p r e v i o u s p r o p o s a l s cannot account f o r a t t e s t e d data i n some of the world's languages. The f i r s t phase o f G e n e r a t i v e Phonology culminates i n 1968 w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f The Sound  P a t t e r n of E n g l i s h ( h e r e a f t e r SPE), though much d e s c r i p -t i v e and t h e o r e t i c a l work p r i o r t o t h i s date c o n s i d e r e d back a r t i c u l a t i o n s . In f a c t , [ f l a t ] was used t o c h a r a c t e r -i z e p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n ; however, i t was a l s o used t o c h a r a c t e r i z e rounding and v e l a r i z a t i o n . Jakobson, Fant, and H a l l e (1952) c h a r a c t e r i z e f l a t t e n i n g as: . . i c h i e f l y generated by a r e d u c t i o n of t h e l i p o r i f i c e (rounding) w i t h a concomitant i n c r e a s e i n the l e n g t h o f the l i p c o n s t r i c t i o n . . . I n s t e a d of the f r o n t o r i f i c e o f the mouth c a v i t y , the pharyngeal t r a c t , i n i t s t u r n , may be c o n t r a c t e d w i t h a s i m i l a r e f f e c t o f f l a t t e n i n g . T h i s independent pharyngeal c o n t r a c t i o n , c a l l e d phar-y n g e a l i z a t i o n , a f f e c t s t h e acute consonants and a t t e n u a t e s t h e i r acuteness. (p. 31) Jakobson and H a l l e (1956) f u r t h e r d e f i n e f l a t t e n i n g as f o l l o w s : a c o u s t i c a l l y - f l a t phonemes i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c -t i o n t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p l a i n ones are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a downward s h i f t or weakening of some of t h e i r upper frequency components; 27 28 g e n e t i c a l l y - the former (narrowed s l i t ) phonemes i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o the l a t t e r (wider s l i t ) phonemes are produced w i t h a decreased back or f r o n t o r i f i c e o f the mouth res o n a t o r , and a concomitant v e l a r i z a t i o n expanding the mouth r e s o n a t o r , (p.31) In o t h e r words, [ f l a t ] covers l a b i a l i z a t i o n , v e l a r i z a t i o n , and p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . McCawley (1967) ( d i s c u s s e d i n Hyman 1975 and Anderson 1985) notes t h a t [ f l a t ] causes a problem of r u l e f o r m u l a t i o n because a segment t h a t i s [ + f l a t ] must be s p e c i f i e d i n some oth e r way f o r i t s roundness or phar-y n g e a l i z a t i o n , e t c . Anderson (1985) a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t both Caucasian l a n g u a g e s 1 4 a n d S a l i s h a n languages c r e a t e problems f o r [ f l a t ] because they each c o n t a i n c o n t r a s t i n g segments t h a t cannot be accounted f o r w i t h i n the Jakobsonian system. In the northwest Caucasian languages Ubykh and (the Bzyb d i a l e c t of) Abkhaz, however, independent c o n t r a s t s of r e t r o f l e x i o n and rounding are r e p o r t e d among a f f r i c a t e s i n t h e a l v e o p a l a t a l r e g i o n . Ubykh a l s o d i s p l a y s independently c o n t r a s t i v e p l a i n , rounded, p h a r y n g e a l i z e d , and rounded-pharyngealized u v u l a r s t o p s . Bzyb Abkhaz has u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e s o f f i v e d i s t i n c t t y pes: p l a i n , rounded, " p a l a t a -l i z e d " ( i n v o l v i n g an i n c r e a s e i n the l e n g t h o f the c o n s t r i c t i o n ) , p h a r y n g e a l i z e d , and rounded-p h a r y n g e a l i z e d . A c o n t r a s t of rounding i s a l s o r e p o r t e d f o r d i s t i n c t i v e l y pharyngeal f r i c a t i v e s i n some languages of the S a l i s h a n f a m i l y , such as C o l v i l l e . (p. 124) See s e c t i o n 2.3.1. below f o r more d i s c u s s i o n o f the Causcasian back consonants. The SPE method of a c c o u n t i n g f o r these segments proved t o be p r o b l e m a t i c e a r l y on (Brame 1970) ; however, e a r l y p r o p o s a l s i n f e a t u r e geometry (Clements 1985, Sagey 1986) used the same f e a t u r e s t o d e s c r i b e the same seg-ments, o n l y the f e a t u r e s were arranged h i e r a r c h i c a l l y . Much can be s a i d f o r the e x p l a n a t o r y v a l u e of f e a t u r e geometry, y e t i f the f e a t u r e system t h a t i t has i n h e r i t e d i s not capable of a c c o u n t i n g f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t of p h o n o l o g i c a l behaviour, then the arrangement o f f e a t u r e s i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e w i l l prove t o be no more suc-c e s s f u l than i t s predecessor. In the remainder of t h i s Chapter I examine p r o p o s a l s f o r back a r t i c u l a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l d e a l i n g w i t h northwest c o a s t languages i n p a r t i c u l a r . 2.1. Chomsky and H a l l e (19 68) Chomsky and H a l l e (1968) c h a r a c t e r i z e v e l a r s , u v u l a r s , and pharyngeals u s i n g [ h i g h ] , [back], and [low] as shown i n (23). (23) SPE c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s k q S ? back + + + -h i g h + - - -low - - + + However, the processes of L i l l o o e t r e t r a c t i o n and pharyn-30 g e a l i z a t i o n cannot be accounted f o r u s i n g these f e a t u r e s . In the case of p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n , pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n i s superimposed on the vowel q u a l i t y . The s p r e a d i n g of the f e a t u r e [+back] from the pharyngeal onto the back vowels would a p p l y vacuously. S i m i l a r l y , w h i l e s p r e a d i n g o f [+low] appears t o c h a r a c t e r i z e n i c e l y the p r o c e s s f o r the h i g h vowels, i t cannot account f o r the changes i n low vowels. As f o r r e t r a c t i o n , which i s the e f f e c t t h e u v u l a r s have on vowels, i f the f e a t u r e s [-high,-low] spread onto t h e vowel, we would expect the low vowels t o r a i s e , which does not occur; i n f a c t , low vowels lower s l i g h t l y . A d d i t i o n a l arguments a g a i n s t u s i n g SPE f e a t u r e s are based on a r t i c u l a t o r y f a c t o r s from McCarthy (1989) . He argues t h a t the SPE a n a l y s i s o f " g u t t e r a l s " (which i n c l u d e u v u l a r s , pharyngeals, and l a r y n g e a l s ) can be grouped as a n a t u r a l c l a s s by the f e a t u r e s [-ant,-high] and can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from one another w i t h [low] and [back]. However, t h i s a n a l y s i s does not c o r r e c t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e the a r t i c u l a t o r y g e s t u r e s i n v o l v e d . The f e a t u r e s [high,back,low] r e f e r i n SPE t o tongue body movements. U v u l a r s are c l a s s i f i e d as [-high], but, i n f a c t , i n v o l v e r a i s i n g the tongue body. Pharyngeals are [+low,+back], but appear t o i n v o l v e the tongue r o o t , e p i g l o t t i s , and pharyngeal w a l l . F i n a l l y , l a r y n g e a l s are s p e c i f i e d as [+low] i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t the tongue body i s not i n v o l v e d i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n of l a r y n g e a l s whatsoever (McCarthy 1989:34-35). 2 . 2 P l a c e Feature Geometry Sagey (1986) proposes a model of f e a t u r e geometry t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s the p l a c e f e a t u r e s under t h e i r own node Her m o t i v a t i o n f o r advancing such a p r o p o s a l i s based on a r t i c u l a t o r y n o t i o n s : i . e . v o c a l t r a c t anatomy. (24) root_ c o n t i n u a n t consonantal [ s p r . g l . ] / \ [ s t . v . c ] [ c o n s t r . g l . ] [ s i . v . c . ] [nasal] l a b i a ° s u p r a - l a r y n g e a l s o f t p a l a t e ^ ^ 0 p l a c e d o r s a l corona] [round] / \ [high] [back] [low] [ a n t e r i o r ] [ d i s t r i b u t e d ] The primary problem wi t h Sagey"s model o f f e a t u r e geometry i s t h a t i t ignores any s o r t of tongue r o o t a r t i -c u l a t i o n . She r e l i e s on the SPE method of a c c o u n t i n g f o r back a r t i c u l a t i o n s which, as mentioned above, use [high, back,low] t o d i s t i n g u i s h v e l a r s , u v u l a r s , and pharyngeals and which I have shown i n s e c t i o n 2.1. t o be p r o b l e m a t i c . Other p r o p o s a l s f o r p l a c e f e a t u r e geometry i n c l u d e t h a t of P u l l e y b l a n k (1987) found i n (25) and S t e r i a d e (1987a) i n (26). (25) l a b i a y [round] "place, \ c o r o n a l / . d o r s a l \ gh]\ [b< vela: [high]\ [back] [low] 1 [ATR] [ant] [ d i s t ] S t e r i a d e (1987a) proposes t h a t the D o r s a l node be a s p e c i a l vowel t i e r t h a t dominates o n l y the v o c a l i c f e a t u r e s . In c o n t r a s t , the Sagey and P u l l e y b l a n k models i n c l u d e both v o c a l i c and consonantal f e a t u r e s under the D o r s a l node. S t e r i a d e adds a V e l a r node t o accommodate the tongue body consonantal f e a t u r e (which she does not s p e c i f y ) . (26) l a b i a l p l a c e s \ ^ ^ d o r s a l v e l a r ? tongue root I F? [ATR] [high]\ [back] [low] [ant] [ d i s t ] I f , as S t e r i a d e proposes, the f e a t u r e s on the D o r s a l t i e r a re a v a i l a b l e o n l y f o r vowels, the t h r e e consonantal p l a c e s : v e l a r , u v u l a r , pharyngeal, cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by u s i n g [high] [back] and [low]. Both P u l l e y b l a n k (1987) and S t e r i a d e (1987a) i n c l u d e [ATR] ([advanced tongue r o o t ] ) i n t h e i r t r e e geometries. The q u e s t i o n of the com-p a t i b i l i t y o f [ A T R ] w i t h the f e a t u r e and node I propose i n t h i s t h e s i s remains t o be seen. (However, see Cook (1989) and Czaykowska-Higgins (1987) f o r some d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s i s s u e . ) Czaykowska-Higgins (1987) proposes two f e a t u r e s , Upper Pharynx and Lower Pharynx, t o account f o r these back a r t i c u l a t i o n s . The c h a r t i n (27) shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these f e a t u r e s over the r e l e v a n t segments. (27) q ^ q 3. C r l 5 [± Upper Pharynx] + - + + -[+ Lower Pharynx] - + + + -g = p h a r y n g e a l i z e d u v u l a r (N.W. Caucasian) 5 = emphatic pharyngeal ( P a l e s t i n i a n A r a b i c ) C r = r h o t a c i z e d consonant o r vowel Czaykowska-Higgins c l a i m s t h a t the p h a r y n g e a l i z e d u v u l a r [q] and the emphatic pharyngeal ( i . e . u v u l a r i z e d pharyn-geal) [9] are i n e f f e c t the same t h i n g . She adopts Sagey's b a s i c model of f e a t u r e geometry u s i n g a r t i c u l a t o r y no-t i o n s , but i n c o r p o r a t e s Upper Pharynx and Lower Pharynx t o a r r i v e a t the u n i v e r s a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of f e a t u r e geometry shown i n (28). SeeCzaykowska-Higgins (1987) f o r more d e t a i l on these f e a t u r e s and f o r a broader e x p l a n a t i o n o f the a r t i c u l a t o r y behaviour o f the v o c a l t r a c t i n r e l a t i o n t o these f e a t u r e s . 34 r o o t ° s u p r a - l a r y n g e a l j s o f t p a l a t e ^ r ^ p l a c e tongue rooty^ "nasal l a b i a l " ^ d o r s a l upper" "lower "c o r o n a l pharynx pharynx An i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of the Czaykowska-Higgins model i s t h a t the tongue r o o t node i s immediately dominated by the s u p r a - l a r y n g e a l node. She argues t h a t , on the b a s i s o f c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c evidence — i n p a r t i c u l a r , e v i d e n c e from West G r e e n l a n d i c Eskimo consonantal a s s i m i l a t i o n — the tongue r o o t node must be a s i s t e r t o the p l a c e node and not a daughter of i t . The problem w i t h the Czaykowska-Higgins model o f f e a t u r e geometry i s t h a t t h e r e i s no c l e a r m o t i v a t i o n f o r having two f e a t u r e s under the Tongue Root node. The ab-sence o r presence of the Tongue Root node and one o f the two proposed f e a t u r e s ( f o r example, [±LP]), i n a d d i t i o n t o the independently r e q u i r e d D o r s a l node can c a p t u r e the necessary f a c t s , as shown i n (29). (29) q S q 3 C r D o r s a l + + Tongue Root + + + + [+ Lower Pharynx] - + + -35 2.3. Recent Studies 2.3.1. McCarthy (1989) McCarthy (1989) addresses the problem o f c h a r a c -t e r i z i n g the p h o n o l o g i c a l behaviour of back c o n s o n a n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s w i t h i n a p l a c e - o f - a r t i c u l a t i o n t h e o r y 1 6 . He attempts t o account f o r the behaviour o f the s e t o f " g u t t e r a l s " i n A r a b i c which i n c l u d e s u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e s , pharyngeals, and l a r y n g e a l s , by p o s i t i n g a node Pharyngeal t h a t dominates a f e a t u r e [ g l o t t a l ] . The s t r u c t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s g i v e n i n (30). (30) sonorant v o c o i d approximant [ n a s a l ] [pharyngeal] Laryngeal Node^\^ [eg] [ s g ] ^ [ s t f ] [ s l k ] [lab] [rnd] / | [ h i ] [ l o ] [bk] [ d i s t ] [ant] [ l a t ] [ g l o t t a l ] McCarthy argues f o r p l a c e - o f - a r t i c u l a t i o n t h e o r y over a r t i c u l a t o r theory, advocated i n Sagey (1986) and H a l l e Some of the i s s u e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g McCarthy's paper have p r e v i o u s l y been r a i s e d i n B e s s e l l and Remnant (1989). (1989), on the grounds t h a t the g u t t e r a l s are a r t i c u l a t e d u s i n g t h r e e d i f f e r e n t a r t i c u l a t o r s , y e t c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n t o g e t h e r as a n a t u r a l c l a s s . A r t i c u l a t o r t h e o r y i s based on the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t each f e a t u r e i s executed by a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v e a r t i c u l a t o r . P l a c e - o f - a r t i c u l a t i o n t h e o r y , on the o t h e r hand, c l a i m s t h a t the p l a c e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , and not the a c t i v e a r t i c u l a t o r , i s t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n the forming of n a t u r a l c l a s s e s . Both t h e o r i e s are grounded i n v o c a l t r a c t anatomy. McCarthy p r e s e n t s f i v e arguments based on "co-occurrence r e s t r i c -t i o n s , vowel lowering, avoidance of s y l l a b l e - f i n a l p o s i -t i o n , t r a n s p a r e n c y t o a s s i m i l a t i o n , and degemination" (p. 4 f f ) t h a t show without a doubt t h a t the g u t t e r a l s do f u n c t i o n t o g e t h e r as a n a t u r a l c l a s s , and t h e r e f o r e , a c -c o r d i n g t o McCarthy, must be d e a l t w i t h i n a p l a c e - o f - a r t -i c u l a t i o n t h e o r y . Clements (to appear) suggests a r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f the r o o t node so t h a t i t c o n s i s t s of the major c l a s s f e a t u r e s [ s o n o r a n t ] , [ v o c o i d ] , and [approximant]. The d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e s e f e a t u r e s are "... [vocoid] i s simply the i n v e r s e o f [ c o n s o n a n t a l ] ; an [approximant] i s d e f i n e d by Clements as "any sound produced with an o r a l t r a c t s t r i c t u r e open enough so t h a t a i r f l o w through i t i s t u r b u l e n t o n l y i f v o i c e l e s s " (McCarthy 1989:3), and [sonorant] m a i n t a i n s i t s common meaning. McCarthy adopts Clements' p r o p o s a l and c 17 c l a s s i f i e s the g u t t e r a l s : /X ¥ H i ? h/ as [+approximant] thereby grouping these segments i n t o a n a t u r a l c l a s s . A r a b i c emphatic c o r o n a l consonants (see A l - A n i (1970), Brame (1970), Broselow (1979), G h a z e l i (1977), H a r r e l l (1957), and Heath (1987) among o t h e r s f o r i n -fo r m a t i o n on d i f f e r e n t A r a b i c d i a l e c t s and emphasis i n A r a b i c ) , which are s i m i l a r i n nature t o L i l l o o e t ' s r e t r a c -t e d segments, are represented i n McCarthy (1989) as doubly a r t i c u l a t e d , i n v o l v i n g both Coronal and D o r s a l nodes; u v u l a r s a re a l s o c o - a r t i c u l a t e d i n v o l v i n g the D o r s a l and Pharyngeal nodes. Pharyngeals, u v u l a r s and c o r o n a l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d as redundantly [ - g l o t t a l ] , whereas the l a r y n -g e a l consonants are s p e c i f i e d [ + g l o t t a l ] . T h i s f e a t u r e , then, enables McCarthy t o capture the p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e l a r y n g e a l s /? h/ wit h pharyngeals and u v u l a r s as a n a t u r a l c l a s s . McCarthy argues t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a re o n l y s p e c i f i e d f o r the f e a t u r e [ g l o t t a l ] i f the system has t r u e pharyn-g e a l s . The L i l l o o e t f a c t s show t h a t the occ u r r e n c e o f t r u e pharyngeals i s not a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r s p e c i f i c a -t i o n o f l a r y n g e a l s as [ g l o t t a l ] . As seen i n (31a-c), I use ¥ t o r e f e r t o a v o i c e d u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e i n A r a b i c and a v e l a r resonant i n L i l l o o e t . 38 r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by an u v u l a r i s not b l o c k e d by / ? / . G l o t t a l s t o p i s the o n l y consonant t r a n s p a r e n t t o r e t r a c -t i o n . (31a) i [lae?] "to get c l o s e " i i [ l a ? q s ] "to go ashore" (b) i [?oq W | P ? ] "to d r i n k " i i [T^Tq^a?] "to d r i n k a l i t t l e b i t " (c) i eq] "to a r r i v e here" i i [ke?X] "cranky l i k e a baby" I f L i l l o o e t pharyngeals are indeed t r u e pharyngeals, which, on the b a s i s of t h e i r behaviour w i t h r e g a r d t o vowel harmony, I c l a i m they are, then s p e c i f y i n g the l a r y n g e a l / ? / as [-(-glottal] i n a case where i t i s preceded by a f u l l vowel and f o l l o w e d by a u v u l a r should b l o c k r e t r a c t i o n of the vowel because s p r e a d i n g the t r i g g e r ' s pharyngeal node would be b l o c k e d by the pharyngeal node of the g l o t t a l as shown i n (32). (32) V ? c - - L j p l a c e Pharyngeal [ g l o t t a l ] A problem t h a t McCarthy f a c e s i s t h a t h i s proposed f e a t u r e geometric model i s not a b l e t o c h a r a c t e r i z e p h a r y n g e a l i z e d u v u l a r s found i n Bzyb Abkhaz (C o l a r u s s o 1975) or u v u l a r i z e d pharyngeals r e p o r t e d f o r P a l e s t i n i a n A r a b i c (Card 1983, c i t e d i n Czaykowska-Higgins 1987). The i n v e n t o r y of p o s t - v e l a r consonants i n Bzyb Abkhaz i s g i v e n i n (33) b e l o w 1 8 . (33) q Y« X Y ¥ Y h q 1 X ¥ h W S w ,w xw ¥w £ x x w McCarthy's model has no way o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g segments under the pharyngeal node as i s necessary i n order t o account f o r p h a r y n g e a l i z e d u v u l a r s . The f e a t u r e [ g l o t t a l ] , which i s dominated by the pharyngeal node, s e r v e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h l a r y n g e a l s from o t h e r segments c h a r a c t e r i z e d under the pharyngeal node, but i t bears no r e l e v a n c e t o secondary p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . McCarthy's p r o p o s a l does capture the f a c t t h a t l a r y n g e a l s c l a s s t o g e t h e r w i t h pharyngeals and u v u l a r s i n S e m i t i c . I t seems t h a t a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i n g of l a r y n g e a l s w i t h u v u l a r s o c c u r s i n Nisgha (Shaw 1987), though, as shown above, L i l l o o e t does not group l a r y n g e a l s w i t h any o f the o t h e r p o s t - v e l a r consonants. " ^ i n d i c a t e s p a l a t a l i z a t i o n , ' r e p r e s e n t s g l o t t a l i z a -t i o n , X i s a v o i c e l e s s u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e w i t h ¥ b e i n g i t s v o i c e d c o u n t e r p a r t and x i s a v o i c e l e s s p h a r y n g e a l i z e d u v u l a r . 40 2.3.2. H a l l e (1989) H a l l e (1989), i n a response t o McCarthy, defends a r t i c u l a t o r t h e o r y as developed i n Sagey (1986). He c l a s s i f i e s the " g u t t e r a l s " as [-consonantal] because of t h e i r " g l i d e - l i k e " q u a l i t y . In a d d i t i o n , he c l a i m s , on the b a s i s o f x-ray t r a c i n g s , t h a t both u v u l a r s and pharyngeals are produced w i t h a lower pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n and are t h e r e f o r e b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d by the f e a t u r e [ + c o n s t r i c t e d pharynx] ([+CP]), which i s dominated by a Tongue Root node. H a l l e proposes changing the L a r y n g e a l node t o G l o t t a l a l o n g l i n e s suggested by McCarthy. In o r d e r t o c a p t u r e the grouping o f l a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s w i t h the u v u l a r s and pharyngeals which makes up the e n t i r e s e t o f g u t t e r a l segments, he makes s i s t e r s o f the Tongue Root node and the G l o t t a l node under a Larynx node. The s t r u c t u r e he proposes i s found i n (34). (34) PLACE LARYNX Tojigjoe^Root G l o t t a l [ATR] [CP] [c . g l T^sp^ g l T^s^^ H a l l e ' s arguments f o r h i s p r o p o s a l appear f a i r l y s t r o n g . F i r s t , p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y , g r ouping t h e pharyngeal and l a r y n g e a l segments t o g e t h e r under one node r e f l e c t s the f a c t t h a t one s e t of muscles c o n t r o l both the e p i g l o t -t i s , which p l a y s a p a r t i n pharyngeal a r t i c u l a t i o n s , and the l a r y n x , which i s o b v i o u s l y fundamental i n l a r y n g e a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s . C i t i n g Czaykowska-Higgins (1987) (and r e f e r e n c e s t h e r e i n ) , H a l l e c l a i m s support, on the b a s i s of v o i c i n g q u a l i t y , f o r h i s proposed f e a t u r e s [ATR] and [CP], which are dominated by the Tongue Root node. In p a r t i -c u l a r , he s t a t e s t h a t both [ATR] and [CP] can be shown t o "induce n o t i c e a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n v o i c e q u a l i t y . Thus, i n some A f r i c a n languages, [-ATR] vowels are s a i d t o be pronounced w i t h creaky, b r i g h t , b r a s s y v o i c e , whereas [+ATR] vowels are pronounced w i t h breathy, m u f f l e d , or hollow v o i c e (p. 18). In summary, the primary d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r o p o s a l by McCarthy and t h a t by H a l l e are assumptions r e g a r d i n g a r t i c u l a t o r v e r s u s p l a c e - o f - a r t i c u l a t i o n t h e o r y , and the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of u v u l a r s and p haryngeals which f o l l o w s from the c h o i c e o f t h e o r y . Much o f the H a l l e paper i s concerned w i t h showing the advantage o f a r t i c u l a t o r t h e o r y over p l a c e - o f - a r t i c u l a t i o n t h e o r y , but h i s assump-t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the g u t t e r a l argumentation are based on the p r o p o s a l t h a t a l l g u t t e r a l s are [-consonantal]. A p o t e n t i a l problem f o r H a l l e (but one t h a t remains, of course, an e m p i r i c a l i s s u e ) i s the s t a t u s of u v u l a r s . 42 He c l a i m s t h a t they are not doubly a r t i c u l a t e d , p r o v i d i n g , however, o n l y the muscular f a c t s d i s c u s s e d above as evidence f o r h i s c l a i m . Given the s t r o n g arguments i n C o l e (1987) and McCarthy (1989) (and as suggested i n Czay-kowska-Higgins (1987)) f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g u v u l a r s as a complex s t r u c t u r e along the l i n e s suggested i n K e a t i n g (1987) f o r p a l a t a l s , the i s s u e remains c o n t e n t i o u s . 2.4. Other P r o p o s a l s In t h i s s e c t i o n I d i s c u s s some of the treatments v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s have g i v e n f o r r e t r a c t i o n phenomena. Cook (1987) proposes an a n a l y s i s f o r C h i l c o t i n f l a t t e n i n g , which i s a pro c e s s t h a t c l o s e l y resembles L i l l o o e t r e t r a c -t i o n . Though he does not propose a f o r m a l i z e d model o f a f e a t u r e geometric t r e e , he does invoke a f e a t u r e [RTR] which when a p p l i e d i n an autosegmental f a s h i o n a c c o r d i n g t o h i s f o r m a l i z e d r u l e s accounts f o r the f l a t t e n i n g p r o -c e s s i n C h i l c o t i n . Doak (1987) uses [CP] and [RTR] t o account f o r p r o g r e s s i v e and r e g r e s s i v e harmony i n Coeur d'Alene. She c l a i m s t h a t these f e a t u r e s r e f l e c t the nature o f pharyn-g e a l c o n s t r i c t i o n s , which, a c c o r d i n g t o Ladefoged (1982), are of two d i f f e r i n g types: ( i ) p u l l i n g back of the e p i g l o t t i s (which r e p r e s e n t s [CP]) and ( i i ) r e t r a c t i o n o f 43 the tongue r o o t (which r e p r e s e n t s [RTR]) (p. 4 ) . Doak does not attempt t o p o s i t i o n these f e a t u r e s i n a l a r g e r frame-work, namely, w i t h i n a theory of f e a t u r e h i e r a r c h y , and t h e r e f o r e g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n of the s t a t u s o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s w i t h i n U n i v e r s a l Grammar. B e s s e l l (1990), on the o t h e r hand, proposes th e s t r u c t u r e i n (35) t o account f o r the v e r y same phenomenon t h a t Doak i s concerned w i t h . (35) PLACE I Tongue Root However, B e s s e l l makes use of j u s t one f e a t u r e [Tongue Root] under the p l a c e node t o account f o r the two t y pes of harmony. U s i n g o n l y one f e a t u r e c a p t u r e s the f a c t t h a t the two t y p e s of harmony r e s u l t i n the same s e t of s u r f a c e vowels. That i s t o say, / i / — > [e] and /u/ — > [o] i n both r e g r e s s i v e and p r o g r e s s i v e harmony. Doak's a n a l y s i s r e l i e s on s p r e a d i n g two d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s f o r two d i f f e r e n t r u l e s where o n l y one s e t of vowels s u r f a c e s . B e s s e l l ' s system, which i s l a r g e l y d e r i v e d from B e s s e l l and Remnant (1989), p a r a l l e l s the one t h a t I propose i n d e t a i l i n Chapter 4. Where we d i f f e r i s i n the n e c e s s a r y f e a t u r e s r e q u i r e d t o account f o r the Coeur d'Alene data as opposed t o the L i l l o o e t d a t a . L i l l o o e t r e q u i r e s an e x t r a f e a t u r e t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the two s e t s o f s u r f a c e vowels t r i g g e r e d by r e t r a c t i o n and p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . In t h e f o l l o w i n g chapter, I p r e s e n t the f a c t s of L i l l o o e t phonology, and i n Chapter 4, I g i v e a d e t a i l e d account o f r e t r a c t i o n and p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n as w e l l as an a n a l y s i s o f the phenomena. Chapter 3 3.0. Introduction T h i s c h a p t e r e x p l i c a t e s the g e n e r a l d e t a i l s o f L i l l o o e t phonology as p r e s e n t e d i n van E i j k (1985). Cer-t a i n a s p e c t s o f the L i l l o o e t sound system, such as the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f segments i n the phonemic i n v e n t o r y and the p e r v a s i v e p r o c e s s e s of rounding i n the language, r e q u i r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n o r d e r t o e x p l i c a t e f u l l y the p r o c e s s e s o f r e t r a c t i o n and p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . In a d d i -t i o n , I examine th e e x t e n s i v e p h o n e t i c v o c a l i c i n v e n t o r y as w e l l as the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l phonemic i n v e n t o r y . In s e c t i o n 3.1., I p r e s e n t van E i j k ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the L i l l o o e t consonantal i n v e n t o r y ; and i n s e c t i o n 3.2., I examine the v o c a l i c i n v e n t o r y paying p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e f f e c t s o f r e t r a c t i o n and p h a r y n g e a l i z a -t i o n on the vowels. 3.1. Consonantal Inventory The, p l a c e s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n of the consonant i n v e n t o r y found i n (36) below ar e : l a b i a l , d e n t a l (second and t h i r d columns), a l v e o p a l a t a l , v e l a r (unrounded and rounded), u v u l a r (unrounded and rounded), pharyngeal (unrounded and 45 46 19 rounded), and l a r y n g e a l k k W q q w k 1 k , w q' qA w x X W X ¥ w S S w h ¥ • v <i' S'w? Van E i j k d i v i d e s the system i n t o o b s t r u e n t s and resonants w i t h the ob s t r u e n t s being v o i c e l e s s w h i l e the resonants are v o i c e d , thereby i n c l u d i n g the s e t of /z z* 'l*?**!' S,w/ as resonants. He s t a t e s t h a t the u v u l a r g l i d e s (which I c l a s s i f y as pharyngeals) and /z z 1 / ( i n a d d i t i o n t o ¥ ¥•) are resonants because ( i ) "they oppose p l a i n v s . g l o t -t a l i z e d members" and ( i i ) " l i k e the o t h e r r e s o n a n t s , they do not occur i n the p o s i t i o n s C_C and C_#" (p.3) . However, the p h o n o l o g i c a l behaviour of /z z' ^ T7*?1 °/' w/indicate t h a t these segments p a t t e r n w i t h the o b s t r u e n t s w i t h r e -gard t o r e t r a c t i o n . In the case o f /z z'/, t h e s e segments f u n c t i o n as r e t r a c t i n g segments, p a t t e r n i n g w i t h the u v u l a r o b s t r u e n t s . The pharyngeals a l s o p a t t e r n w i t h t h e r e t r a c t i n g segments i n t h a t they have p h a r y n g e a l i z i n g e f f e c t on vowels. Furthermore, van E i j k ' s f i r s t argument con c e r n i n g p l a i n v s . g l o t t a l i z e d members, which I s t a t e above, cannot serve t o d i s t i n g u i s h resonants from o b s t r u -(36) P P' m m' t L n n 1 K l l ' y y' I use L t o stand f o r the d e n t a l , l a t e r a l f r i c a t i v e : and ¥ f o r the v e l a r resonant /](/• ents because the stops a l s o oppose a p l a i n and a g l o t t a l i -zed s e r i e s . Moreover, h i s second argument c o n c e r n i n g the i m p o s s i b l e c a n o n i c a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e segments does not n e c e s s i t a t e a d i s t i n c t i o n between resonants and o b s t r u e n t s as the r e s t r i c t i o n c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d t o be on v o i c i n g i n those p o s i t i o n s , f o r example. T h e r e f o r e , I f i n d no compel-l i n g evidence f o r c l a s s i f y i n g /z z' C/<7W (7 I 7 * /as r e -sonants. N e v e r t h e l e s s , I have chosen t o l e a v e the pharyn-g e a l s as resonants on the b a s i s o f t h e i r p h o n e t i c d e s c r i p -t i o n (see s e c t i o n 3.1.4.), w h i l e /z z'/ a r e c l a s s e d as ob-s t r u e n t s 2 0 . The s t a t u s of /h/ and / ? / i n the system i s not en-t i r e l y c l e a r . Van E i j k p o i n t s out t h a t the r e l a t i o n be-tween /h/ and / ? / does not p a r a l l e l t h a t of the o t h e r r e -sonants, which have a c l e a r p a i r i n g of p l a i n and g l o t t a -l i z e d segments. However, t h e r e a r e cases i n which they do p a t t e r n t o g e t h e r as p l a i n and g l o t t a l i z e d c o u n t e r p a r t s (see van E i j k pp. 16,31-33, 36-37). F o r the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , I adopt van E i j k ' s a n a l y s i s i n which /h/ and / ? / f u n c t i o n as resonants. See Chapter 4 s e c t i o n 4.1.2. f o r f u r t h e r r e l e v a n t d i s c u s s i o n of /z z 1 / i n r e l a t i o n t o / i / and /y/, where I argue t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between th e t h r e e segments can be found i n t h e i r v a l u e s f o r [sonorant] and [ v o c o i d ] . 48 3 . 1 . 1 . Coronals The c o r o n a l consonants can be broken down i n t o two-sub groups: the d e n t a l s and the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s . The s e t of d e n t a l consonants i s made up o f / t % ' L n n 1 c'// w h i l e the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s are /& s- 1 1* y y'/« 1 c l a s s i f y /z z'/ on i t s own as i t s p a t t e r n i n g i n the system i s anomalous. P h o n e t i c a l l y , /z z'/ have a d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n w i t h the t o n g u e - t i p i n c o n t a c t w i t h the t e e t h . At times, they may a l s o have a l a t e r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , / z z 1 / p a t t e r n w i t h the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s i n t h a t they a r e i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h /y y' l ' / : two a l v e o - p a l a t a l segments. F i n a l l y , /z z 1 / have a Tongue Root a r t i c u l a t i o n which accounts f o r i t s behaviour w i t h r e g a r d t o r e t r a c t i o n . (See s e c t i o n 3.1.1.3. f o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of /z z ' / O 3 . 1 . 1 . 1 . Dentals The absence of an expected g l o t t a l i z e d c o u n t e r p a r t t o the d e n t a l stop / t / ( i . e . t') appears t o i n d i c a t e a gap i n the system. However, the l a t e r a l a f f r i c a t e / J ^ ' / f u n c t i o n s as the c o u n t e r p a r t t o / t / . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , h i s t o r i c a l evidence shows t h a t P r o t o - S a l i s h * t ' and merged i n t o one phoneme which s u r f a c e s as /&J/ i n L i l l o o e t (van E i j k 1 9 8 5 : i i i ) . In a d d i t i o n , /L/ i s c l a s s i f i e d as t h e d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e i n t h i s system where / s / i s not a phonemic seg-ment of the language. By grouping / X V a n d / L / a s t n e g l o t t a l i z e d d e n t a l stop and d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e r e s p e c t i v e l y , I appear t o be d i s c o u n t i n g t h e i r l a t e r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n . However, I do not c l a i m t h a t [ l a t e r a l ] i s not an o p e r a t i v e f e a t u r e , but t h a t these l a t e r a l segments f u n c t i o n as the l o g i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t s t o / t / . Furthermore, the e n t i r e s e t of l a t e r a l segments i n the language ( i . e . /%J L I l 1 / ) do not p a t t e r n t o g e t h e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e t r a c t i o n . That i s t o say, both / l / and / l 1 / can be r e t r a c t e d w h i l e /&,'/ and /L/ are a p p a r e n t l y never s u s c e p t i b l e t o the p r o c e s s . The d e n t a l a f f r i c a t e / c 1 / i s d i s t i n c t from t h e a l v e o - p a l a t a l consonant /£/ and does not p a t t e r n p h o n e t i -c a l l y as the g l o t t a l i z e d c o u n t e r p a r t . These segments do not share a common p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n , and, as i n the case o f the l a t e r a l s ( / X ' V and / l l 1 / ) , / c ' / and /£"/ do not behave i n the same manner with r e g a r d t o r e t r a c t i o n . 3.1.1.2. A l v e o - p a l a t a l s The a l v e o - p a l a t a l o b s t r u e n t s /£ s- 1 1'/ ( p h o n e t i c a l l y [£ £ 1 1']) p a t t e r n t o g e t h e r w i t h r e g a r d t o r e t r a c t i o n . When /£ £/ are r e t r a c t e d they a re pronounced as [ t s , s ] . [ s ] , which i s not the standard E n g l i s h [ s ] , resembles the A r a b i c consonant sad (van E i j k 1985:3). T r i t t o n (1962) d e s c r i b e s sad as "... the c o u n t e r p a r t o f s and i s made 50 w i t h the b l a d e of the tongue a g a i n s t the t e e t h r i d g e , the t i p b e i n g behind the lower t e e t h " (p. 17). However, van E i j k (1985:3) s t a t e s t h a t " r e t r a c t i o n o f the tongue-root ... l e a v e s o n l y the t o n g u e - t i p f o r a r t i c u l a t i n g t he c l o s u r e - i n c o n t r a s t t o [ft- S ], where the whole tongue -blad e i s l e f t f r e e t o make the c l o s u r e . . . " . Note t h a t a secondary c l o s u r e i s formed i n the p o s t e r i o r r e g i o n o f the v o c a l t r a c t , s p e c i f i c a l l y , a c l o s u r e i n v o l v i n g the tongue dorsum and the velum. Thompson and Thompson (1986:58), i n d e s c r i b i n g 2 1 s i m i l a r segments i n Thompson, s t a t e t h a t [c] and [s] "resemble the consonants o f E n g l i s h i t s , sauce, but have i n a d d i t i o n a cupping o f the tongue i n back of the key p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , g i v i n g them a dark, hollow timbre. (They are not, however, r e t r o f l e x e d . ) " The l a t e r a l s / l 1'/ are pronounced l i k e t he E n g l i s h c l e a r [ 1 ] . When r e t r a c t e d these segments are s i m i l a r t o 22 the dark i n E n g l i s h , due t o the a d d i t i o n a l p o s t e r i o r 2 1 . . U n d e r l i n i n g o f a segment i n d i c a t e s r e t r a c t i o n . 2 2 By s t a t i n g t h a t the r e t r a c t e d [1] of L i l l o o e t i s s i m i l a r t o E n g l i s h dark [*], I am making no c l a i m about the s t a t u s o f v e l a r i z a t i o n v s . u v u l a r i z a t i o n o f E n g l i s h [ 1 ] . The a r t i c u l a t o r y f a c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n both the E n g l i s h and the L i l l o o e t cases /!/ may be backed. The f a c t s o f E n g l i s h dark [ i ] a re o f no concern t o the p r e s e n t work, and I r e f e r t o them o n l y so t h a t the re a d e r may g a i n a rough i d e a o f the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f L i l l o o e t r e t r a c t e d [ 1 ] . I am a l s o not c l a i m i n g t h a t L i l l o o e t [1] i s " u v u l a r i z e d " . Instead, as 51 c o n s t r i c t i o n superimposed on the a r t i c u l a t i o n of /!/. 3.1.1.3. /z Z 1/ /z z 1 / have a d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n w i t h the s i d e s of 23 the tongue r a i s e d g i v i n g i t a l a t e r a l - l i k e q u a l i t y . Van E i j k (1985:4) d e s c r i b e s the a r t i c u l a t i o n of /z z'/ i n the f o l l o w i n g way: P h o n e t i c a l l y , /z z'/ are l a x f r i c a t i v e s , v a r y i n g from a p u r e l y d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n (with the t o n g u e - t i p more forward than i n E n g l i s h "z") t o an i n t e r d e n t a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n (where z z' sound somewhat l i k e l a x v a r i a n t s of E n g l i s h v o i c e d " t h " ) ; the former p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y more common i n the F o u n t a i n d i a l e c t ( F ) , the l a t t e r i n the Mount C u r r i e d i a l e c t (M).... In t h e Mount C u r r i e d i a l e c t [z] a l t e r n a t e s w i t h [1] i n p o s t - v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n , as the example i n (36) shows, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s indeed a " l a t e r a l - l i k e " q u a l i t y t o t h i s segment 2 4. shown i n Chapter 4, r e t r a c t e d [1] has a Tongue Root a r t i c u l a t i o n , as do t h e u v u l a r segments, /z z'/, and the p h a r y ngeals. 2 3 BothM. D. Kmkade and P. Shaw (p. c.) have informed me t h a t t h e C h i l c o t i n / z / which, a c c o r d i n g t o Cook (1978), i s a borrowing from I n t e r i o r S a l i s h i s l a t e r a l - l i k e . 24 . . V a n E i j k mentions t h a t / z ' / may be pronounced as [ l 1 ] i n p o s t - c o n s o n a n t a l p o s i t i o n , and t h a t / z / may be pronounced as [1] b e f o r e or a f t e r vowels. However, he p r o v i d e s no examples o f these a l t e r n a t i o n s , and I am not sure whether these v a r i a t i o n s are r e s t r i c t e d t o c e r t a i n l e x i c a l items o r may o c c u r whenever a / z / or / z 1 / i s i n one of the above mentioned environments. 52 (36) /x@z fp/ — > [x@z'p] o r [x@l'p] "embers" However, / l 1'/ may not s u r f a c e as [z z 1 ] , as (37) shows. (37) /p§l'p/ --> [p§l'p] *[p@z'p] In both d i a l e c t s [z] i s i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h [y] g i v i n g i t a g l i d e - l i k e q u a l i t y . The environments i n which t h i s a l t e r n a t i o n o c c u r s a r e : ( i ) b e f o r e a s u f f i x o r e n c l i t i c b e g i n n i n g i n a c o r o n a l — e i t h e r d e n t a l o r a l v e o - p a l a t a l — consonant, and ( i i ) i n word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n i n i d i o l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n s and n u r s e r y t a l k . Examples of ( i ) and ( i i ) are g i v e n i n (38a) and (38b) r e s p e c t i v e l y . (38a) /huz'/ [ h D Z 1 ] " t o be about t o do smt." / h u z ' - t i ? / [hoz'teTj/Choy'te?] " t h a t one i s about t o do smt." / X ' l a e z 1 / [ X ' l a z 1 ] "canoe" /X'laez'-s/ [Vlaz ' sJ /CVlaey's ] " h i s canoe" (b) /z@tp/ [z@tp]/[y§tp] " j e l l y - l i k e " /zaext/ [ zaext]/ [yaext] " l o n g " As w i t h the [z z ' ] / [ l 1'] a l t e r n a t i o n , /y y'/ cannot s u r f a c e as [z z ' ] , as (39) demonstrates. (39) /?aeyL/ [?«yL] " t o have r e c e n t l y done smt." *[?azL] /yunhaenae/ [yonhaenae] " C a r r i e r I n d i a n " * [ zonhaenae] In h i s study o f the a c o u s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C h i l c o t i n , Latimer (1978) shows t h a t the " f l a t " ( i . e . r e t r a c t e d ) segments have lower h i g h f r e q u e n c i e s than those of the sharp ( i . e . p l a i n ) s e r i e s . Lower f r e q u e n c i e s i n d i c a t e p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . Furthermore, he p r o v i d e s evidence from palatograms t o show t h a t the p l a c e s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n between the two s e r i e s a r e indeed d i f f e r e n t . The p l a i n s e r i e s has a d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n , w h i l e the r e t r a c t e d s e r i e s i n v o l v e s c o n t a c t behind the a l v e o l a r r i d g e (p. 42). The L i l l o o e t /z z*/ appears t o be t h e same as the C h i l c o t i n " f l a t " s e r i e s w h i l e t h e C h i l c o t i n "sharp" 2 5 s e r i e s resemble E n g l i s h [z] . 3.1.2. Uv u l a r s The s e t o f u v u l a r consonants i n L i l l o o e t c o n s i s t s o f the f o l l o w i n g stops and f r i c a t i v e s : q q' q w q | W X X w. The g l o t t a l i z e d stops are pronounced w i t h a f r i c a t i v e o f f -g l i d e , a r t i c u l a t e d a t the same p l a c e , which r e s u l t s i n t h e i r resembling a f f r i c a t e s . Thus, / q ' / i s p h o n e t i c a l l y r e a l i z e d as [ q ' X ] and / q , w / as [ q , X w ] . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e u v u l a r s , L i l l o o e t has a f u l l s e t o f v e l a r consonants: k k* To my knowledge, no a c o u s t i c o r a r t i c u l a t o r y work such as spectrograms o r palatograms has been done on L i l l o o e t . I make use of the C h i l c o t i n case because o f the s i m i l a r p rocess of r e t r a c t i o n and the apparent h i s t o r i c a l l i n k between the C h i l c o t e n / z / and t h e L i l l o o e t / z / (Cook 1978) . 54 k w k , w x x w ¥ ¥'. The p l a c e s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e v e l a r and u v u l a r s e t s are v e r y c l o s e t o one another w i t h t h e u v u l a r s a r t i c u l a t e d j u s t s l i g h t l y back o f the v e l a r p l a c e of a r t i c u l a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , v e l a r s a re almost a s s i m i l a t -ed ( t h a t i s t o say, are backed) t o u v u l a r s when the two are a d j a c e n t (van E i j k 1985:11). In t h i s case they a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d from one another by the a f f r i c a t e a r t i c u l a -t i o n o f the u v u l a r s . 3.1.3. Pharyngeals Doak (1987:4) notes t h a t Ladefoged (1982) r e c o g n i z e s two d i f f e r e n t types o f pharyngeal a r t i c u l a t i o n s . The f i r s t method i n v o l v e s r e t r a c t i n g the tongue r o o t , w h i l e t h e second one i s c a r r i e d out by " p u l l i n g t he e p i g l o t t i s back toward the back w a l l o f the pharynx" (Ladefoged 1982:149). E p i g l o t t a l involvement i n a pharyngeal a r t i c u l a t i o n i s a l s o c l a i m e d by C o l a r u s s o (1985), who s t a t e s t h a t pharyn-g e a l a r t i c u l a t i o n i n v o l v e s "the tongue r o o t [being] t h r u s t down upon the e p i g l o t t i s , b r i n g i n g the l a t t e r i n t o a pproximation w i t h the opening of the l a r y n x " (p. 367). Pharyngeal a r t i c u l a t i o n s i n L i l l o o e t have been suspect i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Kinkade (1967) s t a t e s t h a t t h e V a n E i j k does not a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e examples. pharyngeals of Columbian and Coeur d'Alene are p r i m a r i l y u v u l a r approximants i n L i l l o o e t and Thompson. On t h e o t h e r hand, Latimer (1978) and Cook (1983, 1987, 1989) c l a i m t h a t C h i l c o t i n f l a t t e n i n g (which i s d e r i v e d from L i l l o o e t r e t r a c t i o n ) i s p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n , but i n v o l v e s a u v u l a r a r t i c u l a t i o n o r backing o f a v e l a r such t h a t a u v u l a r i s a r t i c u l a t e d . Van E i j k (1985) c l a s s i f i e s the g l i d e s / 7 , cf' , ^ W , * j , w / as u v u l a r s . However, he notes t h a t the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f these g l i d e s i s f a r t h e r back i n the v o c a l t r a c t than the u v u l a r o b s t r u e n t s , and [7] i s s i m i l a r t o the A r a b i c pharyngeal. Thompson and Thompson (1986), i n t h e i r d i s c u s -s i o n o f the e q u i v a l e n t segments i n Thompson, s t a t e t h a t " [ p ] o s t v e l a r resonants are b a s i c a l l y pharyngeals, produced by r e t r a c t i o n o f the tongue r o o t and g e n e r a l narrowing o f the pharynx. The p l a i n ones /7, ^/commonly i n v o l v e some u v u l a r f r i c t i o n o r o c c a s i o n a l l y a u v u l a r t r i l l . They a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y have some s u g g e s t i o n o f creaky g l o t t a l p r o d u c t i o n . " (p. 64). My p r o p o s a l as t o the p l a c e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n d i f f e r s from t h a t o f van E i j k (1986), Kinkade (1967), and Swoboda i; (1971) (who does not i n c l u d e any pharyngeal o r u v u l a r resonant i n the L i l l o o e t consonantal i n v e n t o r y ) i n t h a t I propose t h a t L i l l o o e t has both a u v u l a r s e r i e s t h a t i n c l u d e s s t o p s and f r i c a t i v e s and a pharyngeal s e r i e s t h a t c o n t a i n s o n l y resonants. The arguments f o r my a n a l y s i s a re based i n p a r t on d e s c r i p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the p l a c e o f a r t i -c u l a t i o n , but p r i m a r i l y on the d i f f e r i n g e f f e c t s t h a t the segments I c l a s s i f y as u v u l a r s and pharyngeals have on vowels. T h e r e f o r e , on the b a s i s of the data presented i n t h i s t h e s i s I argue f o r a r e a n a l y s i s o f p r e v i o u s c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n s o f the pharyngeal segments. To summarize, I propose the s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n found i n (40). (40) u v u l a r pharyngeal 3.2. V o c a l i c Inventory The v o c a l i c i n v e n t o r i e s of many I n t e r i o r S a l i s h languages share one noteworthy p r o p e r t y , namely they c o n t a i n few phonemic vowels w h i l e having a wide range of p h o n e t i c vowels (see Thompson and Thompson (198 6) f o r Thompson, R e i c h a r d (1938) and Doak (1987) f o r Coeur d'Alene, van E i j k (1985) f o r L i l l o o e t , and Thompson (1979) f o r a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of S a l i s h vowels). f r i c a t i v e s r e s o nants s t o p s q q' X 9 7' 57 The phonemic v o c a l i c i n v e n t o r y of L i l l o o e t i s shown 27 i n (41) w h i l e (42) g i v e s the p h o n e t i c vowel i n v e n t o r y . u o § DO A aa The u n d e r l y i n g vowels / i u ae §/ s u r f a c e approximately as [e o ae §] i n t h e i r n o n - r e t r a c t e d ( i . e . p l a i n ) s t a t e . The p h o n e t i c range o f t h e p l a i n vowels i s wide due, i n p a r t , t o f r e e v a r i a t i o n . Thus, /as/ can be e i t h e r [e] or [ae] ; f o r c l a r i t y ' s sake, I have chosen t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s vowel as [ae] so as not t o confuse i t w i t h the r e t r a c t e d form o f / i / , which i s [ e ] . P h o n e t i c a l l y , the phonemically h i g h vowels i n the system are , f o r the most p a r t , p h o n e t i c a l l y mid vowels. However, /u/ may be pronounced as [ u ] , a l -though [o] i s the common v a r i a n t . (41) (42) @ ae e e ae T h e d i a c r i t i c A over vowels denotes p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e a i s a p h a r y n g e a l i z e d a and 5 i s a p h a r y n g e a l i z e d D. 5 8 In a f i v e vowel system o f : (43) i u e o a t h e r e i s a three-way d i s t i n c t i o n i n h e i g h t . However, a t h r e e vowel system such as L i l l o o e t 2 8 has o n l y a two-way d i s t i n c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r h e i g h t . T h i s means t h a t the vowels t h a t s u r f a c e as [e] and [o] i n a f i v e vowel system w i l l be the mid-vowels, or i n an SPE type f e a t u r e system [ - h i , - l o ] . In the t h r e e vowel system, on the o t h e r hand, these segments f u n c t i o n as the h i g h vowels, w h i l e /ae/ f u n c t i o n s as the low vowel, and t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t i v e mid-vowel h e i g h t . For the purposes of s i m p l i c i t y I have chosen / i / and /u/ as the u n d e r l y i n g forms so t h a t the problem o f c h a r a c t e r i z i n g vowel h e i g h t does not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s a t hand. The r e t r a c t e d vowels are r e a l i z e d as [ e 2 9 , D,a,A.] . The u n d e r l y i n g vowels can a l s o be p h a r y n g e a l i z e d ; t h i s r e s u l t s See s e c t i o n 3.2.1. below f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f schwa i n terms of u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n t h e o r y . An a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f r e t r a c t e d / i / i s [ e ] . [e] and [e] (which i s p h o n e t i c a l l y t h a t of the sound i n the German word "mehr" (van E i j k 1985:3)) are i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n . So, f o r example, / X j i q / ("to a r r i v e here") i s r e a l i z e d as e i t h e r [fj eq] or RC'eq]. I use [e] t o r e p r e s e n t the r e t r a c t -ed form of / i / . 59 i n a d i f f e r e n t s e t of s u r f a c e vowels from those o f r e -t r a c -t i o n . That i s , as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y i n s e c t i o n 1.1.2., i n a d d i t i o n t o the p h o n e t i c a l l y r e t r a c t e d vowels t h e r e are p h o n e t i c a l l y p h a r y n g e a l i z e d vowels. In a r t i c u l a t o r y terms, the d i f f e r e n c e between the two i s t h a t the r e t r a c t e d segments are made w i t h a c o n s t r i c t i o n i n the upper p o r t i o n of the pharynx ( i . e . are u v u l a r i z e d ) w h i l e the p h a r y n g e a l -i z e d segments are both r e t r a c t e d and p h a r y n g e a l i z e d ( i . e . are made w i t h a c o n s t r i c t i o n i n the lower p o r t i o n o f the pharynx). (44) shows the e f f e c t s t h a t the pharyngeals have on vowels. (44) / * , § / — > [a]/_<7 / « , § / - -> [ 5 ] / 9W / ! / - - > [ € ] / j 7 ( W ) Ladefoged (1982) notes t h a t both v e l a r i z a t i o n (which i s " r a i s i n g the back of the tongue"; p. 211) and p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n (where "the r o o t o f the tongue i s drawn back so t h a t the pharynx i s narrowed"; p. 283) are secondary a r t i c u l a t i o n s . He s t a t e s t h a t " [ t ] h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between v e l a r i z e d and p h a r y n g e a l i z e d sounds, and no language d i s t i n g u i s h e s between th e two p o s s i b i l i t i e s " (p. 211). U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the case a t hand, Ladefoged says n o t h i n g about u v u l a r i z a t i o n as a s eparate p r o c e s s o f secondary a r t i c u l a t i o n . I t i s c l e a r from the f a c t s of L i l l o o e t r e t r a c t i o n and p h a r y n g e a l i z a -t i o n t h a t we need t o d i s t i n g u i s h p h o n e t i c a l l y between u v u l a r i z a t i o n (which I c a l l r e t r a c t i o n ) and p h a r y n g e a l i z a -t i o n . To summarize the e f f e c t s of r e t r a c t i o n and pharyn-g e a l i z a t i o n , I p r e s e n t the c h a r t i n (45). The f i r s t column shows the phonemic vowel, the second i s the p l a i n p h o n e t i c form, and the t h i r d and f o u r t h g i v e the r e t r a c t e d and p h a r y n g e a l i z e d forms, r e s p e c t i v e l y . (45) phonemic p h o n e t i c r e t r a c t e d p h a r y n g e a l i z e d / V [e] [e] [e] /u/ [o] [o] /ae/ [ae] [a] [ a ] / [ 5 ] / £ / [§] [A] [ a ] / [ 3 ] 3.2.1. Vocalic Underspecification An u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n system f o r the vowels o f L i l l o o e t i s presented i n the f e a t u r e m a t r i x i n (46). (46) i u ae @ [ l o ] + [bk] [rd] + (47) l i s t s the redundancy r u l e s f o r the v o c a l i c i n v e n t o r y o f L i l l o o e t and (48) p r e s e n t s a f e a t u r e c h a r t f o r the p h o n e t i c i n v e n t o r y . (47) [0lo] --> [-lo] [0bk] --> [-bk]/[+lo] [0bk] --> [+bk] [0rd] — > [-rd] 61 (48) e o ae @ e o a A b a 10 - - + - - - + - - + bk - + - + - + + + + + r d - + - - - + - - + -TR - - - - + + + + + + e p i - - - - - - _ - + + An important p o i n t e v i d e n t i n the c h a r t concerns the s t a t u s o f / § / . Schwa i s maximally u n d e r s p e c i f i e d u n d e r l y -i n g l y ; a l l o f i t s f e a t u r e s are f i l l e d i n by redundancy r u l e s i n the course of the d e r i v a t i o n . Evidence f o r the s t a t u s o f schwa as the maximally u n d e r s p e c i f i e d vowel comes from i t s behaviour w i t h regard t o vowel e l l i p s i s and vowel i n s e r t i o n . I t i s schwa, and o n l y schwa, t h a t i s , on the one hand, the e p e n t h e t i c vowel, and, on the other, 3 0 . s u b j e c t t o e l l i p s i s .Data e x e m p l i f y i n g these c l a i m s are found i n (49) ( i l l u s t r a t i n g epenthesis) and (50) ( i l l u s t r a t i n g e l l i p s i s ) below. (49) i /?aew't/ [?aew't] " t o be l a t e " /?ae-?-w»t/ [?ae?w'§t] "to be l a t e r " 11 /caeqcq@t/ — > [caq£q@t]/[caq@cq@t ] "tame" i i i /waew§l£kzae?/ — > [waew@lclczae?]/[waew§ltf@kzae?] " p o p l a r " With r e g a r d t o the s t a t u s of schwa, I f o l l o w van E i j k ' s a n a l y s i s . For d e t a i l s o f the behaviour of schwa w i t h r e g a r d t o e p e n t h e s i s and e l l i p s i s see van E i j k (1985:23-35) . Space l i m i t a t i o n s do not a l l o w me t o examine t h i s i s s u e f u r t h e r . 6 2 (50) i /p@q/ /p@q - u§/ ~ > [pqos] i i /xjjgm/ /xw@m - aekae/ — > [x maekae?] i i i /?um'@n/ /?um'@n - aes/ — > [Tom'naes] "white" " f a c e " " b a l d e a g l e " " f a s t " " t o do smth. f a s t " " to g i v e smth. t o smb. " "he" "he g i v e s i t t o him" 3.3. S t r e s s S t r e s s i n L i l l o o e t , as i n oth e r S a l i s h languages, i s a complex i s s u e (see Czaykowska-Higgins 1985 f o r an a n a l y s i s o f Columbian s t r e s s ) . L i l l o o e t appears t o have phonemic s t r e s s (van E i j k 1985:5), as the examples i n the f o l l o w i n g r o o t s show. (51) a [maqae?] "snow" [maqas] "poison onion" (b) IX'amen] " f u r " [X'aemen] "axe" (51a) shows t h a t s t r e s s does not p l a y any r o l e i n the r e t r a c t i o n o f vowels as i n both forms the vowel p r e c e d i n g the u v u l a r i s r e t r a c t e d r e g a r d l e s s o f the placement o f s t r e s s . 63 3.4. Rounding Rounding i n L i l l o o e t i s a p e r v a s i v e p r o c e s s t h a t does not appear t o be l i m i t e d t o one r u l e . That i s t o say, a r u l e of sp r e a d i n g [round] i s a c t i v a t e d by a number o f t r i g g e r s and a p p l i e s t o a number of t a r g e t s . Though i t i s not my purpose t o p r e s e n t i n d e t a i l t he f i n e r workings of the rounding r u l e s , i t i s important t o c o n s i d e r the v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f rounding g i v e n the r o l e [round] p l a y s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the r u l e o f p h a r y n g e a l i -z a t i o n . The g e n e r a l p r o c e s s o f rounding w i l l round a u v u l a r o r v e l a r consonant i f i t i s immediately a d j a c e n t t o 3 1 the rounded vowel /u/ .For example, (52) /c'ae?x/ i d . /C'<E?X-US/ — > [c'ae?xwos'] "ashamed" (/-us/ " f a c e " ) . Other cases e x i s t i n which t h e r e i s no morphophonemic a l t e r n a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e whether the consonants are rounded o r unrounded u n d e r l y -i n g l y . T h e r e f o r e , i n keeping w i t h the "no a l t e r n a t i o n p r i n c i p l e " (Kiparsky 1968) I p o s t u l a t e these segments as Van E i j k s t a t e s t h a t rounding o f a u v u l a r o r v e l a r w i l l occur i f the u v u l a r o r v e l a r a re b e f o r e o r a f t e r /u/ (p. 10). However, the o n l y c l e a r example o f rounding t h a t he p r e s e n t s i s the example g i v e n i n (52) . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , I f o l l o w van E i j k as I am making no c l a i m s about the e n t i r e p r o c e s s ( e s ) o f rounding i n L i l l o o e t . F or my purposes, I am merely concerned w i t h l e f t w a r d s p r e a d i n g o f round from a pharyngeal consonant t o a p r e c e d i n g vowel (see Chapter 4 s e c t i o n 4.2.) u n d e r l y i n g l y rounded. We a l s o know t h a t rounded consonants do e x i s t u n d e r l y i n g l y because of morphophonemic a l t e r n a -t i o n t h a t l e a v e s a consonant rounded when i t i s not 32 a d j a c e n t t o the rounded vowel .For example, (53) [paq^o?] " t o be a f r a i d " [paq^Taen/ " t o s c a r e smb., t r . " [ c o k w ] " f i n i s h e d " [c@k w-cok w] " v a r i o u s t h i n g s are f i n i s h e d " In the f o l l o w i n g Chapter, I p r e s e n t i n more d e t a i l the problem of r e t r a c t i o n and p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n and f o r m a l i z e r u l e s t o account f o r t h e s e p r o c e s s e s . In a d d i t i o n , I p r e s e n t arguments f o r e n r i c h i n g the Sagey (1986) model of f e a t u r e geometry t o i n c l u d e a f o u r t h a r t i c u l a t o r node: Tongue Root, and an a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e : [±epiglottis]. By i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e s e f e a t u r e s i n t o the p r e v i o u s model we can s y s t e m a t i c a l l y account f o r the apparent anomalous behaviour of vowels i n the environment o f u v u l a r s , /z z'/, r e t r a c t e d consonants, and pharyngeals. 32 B. Bagemihl (p. c.) suggests t h a t d e l e t i o n or r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s c o u l d f o l l o w rounding of an u n d e r l y i n g l y p l a i n consonant. 33 For an a n a l y s i s o f schwa and f u l l vowel a l t e r n a t i o n i n L i l l o o e t r e d u p l i c a t i o n see Remnant (1989). Chapter 4 4.0. I n t r o d u c t i o n In t h i s c h apter I address the problem o f r e t r a c t i o n v e r s u s p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n i n f e a t u r e h i e r a r c h y terms. As mentioned i n Chapter 1 and Chapter 3, two s e p a r a t e p r o -cesses i n v o l v i n g u v u l a r s and pharyngeals a f f e c t vowels. R e t r a c t i o n i s a pro c e s s i n which vowels are " r e t r a c t e d " ( i . e . backed and lowered) when immediately f o l l o w e d by a member of the s e t of u v u l a r s o r d e n t a l r e s o n a n t s . R e t r a c -t i o n o f c o r o n a l consonants a l s o o c c u r s , a l t h o u g h t h e p r o -cess i s not s t r i c t l y l o c a l as i n the case o f r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by a u v u l a r o r a /z z'/- P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n , on the o t h e r hand, occurs when a vowel i s f o l l o w e d by a pharyngeal consonant and becomes both r e t r a c t e d and "p h a r y n g e a l i z e d " — t h a t i s , a pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n i s superimposed on the r e t r a c t e d vowel. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s as f o l l o w s . F i r s t , I p r e s e n t v a r i o u s r e t r a c t i o n data and a n a l y s e s t o account f o r the seemingly d i s p a r a t e p r o c e s s e s o f si m p l e r e t r a c t i o n and r e t r a c t i o n harmony. In a d d i t i o n , I propose a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r -t i e s o f r e t r a c t i n g and r e t r a c t e d segments. Then, i n s e c -t i o n 4.2., I examine the p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n data, p r e s e n t 65 an a n a l y s i s t o account f o r the f a c t s , and i n c o r p o r a t e r e l e v a n t f a c t s i n t o the s t r u c t u r a l model proposed i n 4.1. 4.1. The R e t r a c t i o n Problem R e t r a c t i o n i s a process i n which a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f segments are a r t i c u l a t e d f a r t h e r back i n the v o c a l t r a c t than t h e i r n o n - r e t r a c t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s ; the p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t s o f r e t r a c t i o n , however, va r y from segment t o segment. So, f o r example, tongue movement i n the r e t r a c -t i o n of the c o r o n a l consonants does not p a r a l l e l t h a t o f the vowels. For t h a t matter, members of the s e t o f c o r o n a l s are not p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y r e t r a c t e d i n e x a c t l y t h e same manner. Thus, the r e t r a c t e d l a t e r a l s f 1 1 1 ~) i n v o l v e v e l a r i z a t i o n (much l i k e dark [4] i n E n g l i s h ) . The segments [c] and [ s ] , however, move from a p o i n t o f c o n s t r i c t i o n between the a l v e o - p a l a t a l area and the tongue b l a d e t o c o n s t r i c t i o n between the a l v e o l a r r i d g e and the t i p o f the tongue i n the f r o n t p a r t of the v o c a l t r a c t , as w e l l as between the upper s e c t i o n of tongue r o o t and t h e u v u l a i n the p o s t e r i o r s e c t i o n of the v o c a l t r a c t . R e t r a c t i o n of vowels g e n e r a l l y means b a c k i n g and l o w e r i n g o f the vowels; however, even t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s somewhat vague. In the case of / i / and /§/, the r e t r a c t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s : [e] and [A] are indeed lower and f a r t h e r 67 back than the n o n - r e t r a c t e d vowels (which are r o u g h l y [e] and [@]). The low vowel /ae/ backs and lowers s l i g h t l y t o [ a ] . As f o r /u/, the r e t r a c t e d form [o] i s lowered, but not backed. I present the c h a r t i n (54) w i t h the u n d e r l y -i n g segment (which r e f l e c t s i t s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the o t h e r vowels — i . e . the h i g h vowels are h i g h phonolo-g i c a l l y , but mid p h o n e t i c a l l y ) i n the f i r s t column, th e p h o n e t i c approximation of the n o n r e t r a c t e d form i n the c e n t r e column, and the r e t r a c t e d form on the l e f t h a n d s i d e 3 4 . (54) / i / [e] [e] /u/ [o] [o] /ae/ [ae] [a] / § / [@] [A] The t r i g g e r s f o r r e t r a c t i o n i n c l u d e the s e t o f u v u l a r consonants and the c o r o n a l resonants /z z'/« 1 g i v e t h e f u l l phonemic c h a r t i n (55) w i t h the s e t o f t r i g g e r i n g consonants i n h e a v i l y o u t l i n e d boxes. The s i n g l e o u t l i n e d box i n d i c a t e s the s e t of r e t r a c t a b l e consonants. The low vowel /ae/ i n i t s n o n - r e t r a c t e d p h o n e t i c form v a r i e s i n i t s p r o n o u n c i a t i o n . P h o n e t i c a l l y i t a l t e r n a t e s between [e] and [ae]. So as not t o confuse t h i s vowel w i t h the r e t r a c t e d form of / i / , [ e ] , I have chosen t o r e p r e s e n t i t as [ae]. 68 (55) P P' m m" t V L n n' s 1 1 ' y y k k' x ¥ ¥ 1 k w  k,w ..w w w' q q' X _w w q qw C j i q(w h 4.1.1. R e t r a c t i o n T r i g g e r e d by U v u l a r s U v u l a r consonants cause r e t r a c t i o n o f an immediately p r e c e d i n g vowel i f t h a t vowel i s one of the s e t of f u l l vowels: / i u ae/. (56) shows forms which c o n t a i n u v u l a r s and a p r e c e d i n g r e t r a c t e d vowel. (56)a R e t r a c t i o n o f / V [ceq] [Veq] [Leg-] [teqwlaew?ae] [meXaeL] i d i o m a t i c " t o a r r i v e here" " t o s t e a l " "the onion" "bear" (b) R e t r a c t i o n o f /u/ [s?oq wae?] [Loq^xet] [qjaqjjsem] [ q w o q w o ? ] "to d r i n k " "dead" " t o serve ( f o o d ) " "to shoot/hunt s m a l l animals" "sm a l l body o f water" (c) R e t r a c t i o n of /*/ [sqaXae?] [ qw a Xw [q^aq wX] [paq wo?] [ sneLaqae? ] [6aq6q@t] [maqae? ] "dog" "drunk" "nightmare" "to be a f r a i d " " w e l l , i t ' s him" "tame" "snow" The a l t e r n a t i n g forms i n (57) i n d i c a t e t h a t r e t r a c t i o n o f 6 9 the vowels i s due t o the u v u l a r and not due t o i n h e r e n t l y r e t r a c t e d segments. Moreover, these forms show t h a t the r u l e o f v o c a l i c r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by a u v u l a r consonant r e q u i r e s s t r i n g adjacency. Where another consonant i n t e r -venes between the t r i g g e r and t a r g e t , r e t r a c t i o n i s b l o c k e d . (57)a [ s o q | W § m ] " t o s k i n an animal" [ s o s q 1 @m'] "to s k i n s m a l l animals" (b) [q W D q ws@m»] "to shoot/hunt s m a l l animals" [q wos@m] "to shoot" The one e x c e p t i o n t o the above case of consonantal b l o c k i n g o f r e t r a c t i o n i s g l o t t a l stop, which i s t r a n s p a -r e n t t o the r e t r a c t i o n r u l e . Examples of the t r a n s p a r e n c y of g l o t t a l s are p r e s e n t e d i n (58a). The data i n (58b), along w i t h ( 5 8 . a . i i i ) and (58.a.iv) i n d i c a t e t h a t the / ? / 3 5 i s independent o f the f o l l o w i n g segment : (58a) i /Lae?-qs/ [La?qs] " t o go ashore" i i /mi6ae?q/ [me£a?q] "to s i t down or up" i i i /?ae?Xae?/ [?a?Xae?] "sacred, super-n a t u r a l , t a l e n t e d " i v /zae?X w/ [za?X w] "thaw" The f a c t t h a t I have examples o n l y i n v o l v i n g /ae/ and /u/ does not a f f e c t the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t / ? / i s t r a n s -p a rent t o r e t r a c t i o n , because t h e r e are no cases where r e -t r a c t i o n o f / i / i s b l o c k e d by / ? / . 70 "to d r i n k " "to d r i n k a l i t t l e b i t " " r o t t e n " The s e t i n (58.b.i) shows t h a t the segment i s r e t r a c t e d whether a g l o t t a l stop i s p r e s e n t or not. ( 5 8 . a . i i i ) and (58.a.iv) cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d as p r e - g l o t t a l i z a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g u v u l a r because L i l l o o e t does not have an u n d e r l y i n g g l o t t a l i z e d u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e . ( 5 8 . b . i i ) shows a form w i t h a g l o t t a l stop f o l l o w e d by a g l o t t a l i z e d segment, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the g l o t t a l stop i s not p r e - g l o t -t a l i z a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g s t o p which r e t a i n s i t s g l o t t a l i z a t i o n , f u r t h e r s u p p o r t i n g the argument t h a t the t r a n s p a r e n t segment i s an independent segment. 4.1.1.1. The R e t r a c t i o n Rule As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2, Sagey's (1986) model of f e a t u r e geometry g i v e n i n (24) i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y r i c h t o account f o r the r e t r a c t i o n data i n L i l l o o e t . F i r s t , the f a c t s of r e t r a c t i o n cannot be c a p t u r e d by s p r e a d i n g one or more of the d o r s a l f e a t u r e s . Second, because r e t r a c t i o n i s t r i g g e r e d by u v u l a r s , the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n must i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s f a c t by l i c e n s i n g a f e a t u r e t h a t i s shared by both the t r i g g e r and t a r g e t . Thus, we must f i r s t examine the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of u v u l a r s . I f o l l o w C o l e (1987), McCarthy (1989), and B e s s e l l and Remnant (1989) i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t u v u l a r s are complex segments i n v o l v i n g the D o r s a l and Tongue Root (or, i n the case of McCarthy 1989, Pharyngeal) nodes. McCarthy (1989) s t a t e s t h a t " u v u l a r g u t t u r a l s are produced by a movement of the tongue dorsum upwards and backwards; t h e r e i s con-s t r i c t i o n both i n the oropharynx and a g a i n s t the s o f t p a l a t e " (p. 38). Furthermore, u v u l a r s are o n l y found i n systems w i t h v e l a r s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e i r presence r e -q u i r e s an independently motivated D o r s a l node. By p o s t u l a -t i n g u v u l a r s as complex segments, none o f the requirements s t i p u l a t e d by Sagey (1988) f o r the s t a t u s of a complex segment are v i o l a t e d . Moreover, McCarthy (1989) notes t h a t the move t o r e p r e s e n t u v u l a r s as complex segments p a r a l -l e l s t h a t o f r e p r e s e n t i n g p a l a t a l s as complex segments (argued f o r i n K e a t i n g 1987), and i s t h e r e f o r e not unprecedented. I adopt the s t r u c t u r e s i n (59) proposed by Cole (1987) f o r v e l a r s , u v u l a r s , and pharyngeals. (59) v e l a r s u v u l a r s pharyngeals Having e s t a b l i s h e d the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f u v u l a r s , I now g i v e the r u l e o f u v u l a r r e t r a c t i o n i n (60). The Tongue Root node of the u v u l a r spreads onto the P l a c e node o f the I p l a c e [ p l a c e " d o r s a l "tongue r o o t vowel. (60) [ + v o c | l i c ] | P l a c e D o r s a l ""~"0 Tongue Root A r c h a n g e l i and P u l l e y b l a n k (1987) propose a maxi-mal/minimal t i e r s c a n s i o n parameter t h a t p e r m i t s a r u l e t o access i n f o r m a t i o n on a g i v e n t i e r . In a d d i t i o n , they invoke the L o c a l i t y C o n d i t i o n i n (61) , which, when a p p l i e d w i t h t i e r s c a n s i o n , ensures t h a t r u l e s a pply l o c a l l y — t h a t i s , t o adjacent segments on a g i v e n t i e r . The combin-a t i o n o f maximal/minimal s c a n s i o n and the L o c a l i t y C o n d i -t i o n permit the a p p l i c a t i o n of r u l e s t o t a r g e t s which appear t o be an a r b i t r a r y d i s t a n c e from the t r i g g e r . (61) L o c a l i t y C o n d i t i o n A r u l e can apply o n l y i f a s p e c i f i e d t a r g e t i s a d j a c e n t t o a s p e c i f i e d t r i g g e r . In the case of r e t r a c t i o n , the t r i g g e r and t a r g e t of the r u l e must be s t r i n g adjacent, and the r u l e must not apply t o /§/. Maximal s c a n s i o n i n v o l v i n g vowels w i l l scan the n u c l e a r t i e r w h i l e maximal s c a n s i o n i n v o l v i n g conson-ants scans the s k e l e t a l t i e r . Minimal s c a n s i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s d e f i n e d as "a r u l e whose t a r g e t i s node o r f e a t u r e a scans the t i e r c o n t a i n i n g a" ( A r c h a n g e l i and P u l l e y b l a n k 1987:25). That i s , the t i e r t h a t immediately dominates the f e a t u r e or node t h a t spreads i s the one t h a t i s scanned. Thus, i n the case of r e t r a c t i o n where Tongue Root spreads, i n v o k i n g the parameter o f minimal s c a n s i o n ensures t h a t the p l a c e node i s scanned. D e r i v a t i o n s f o r [meXaeL] "bear", [z:>qw] "dead", and [maqae?] "snow" a r e g i v e n i n (62a-c). The d e r i v a t i o n f o r [q w@q waz] " b l u e " , where / § / does not r e t r a c t , i s g i v e n i n (63). (62a)/m i X ae L/ N N 1 x x x x x S k e l e t a l t i e r I ( P l a c e / [-bk] [meXaeL] (b) /z u q w / / [+rd] [ Z 3 q w ] D o r s a l Tongue Root N I x x S k e l e t a l t i e r p. / s I P l a c e D o r s a l Tongue Root 74 (c) /m T ae N I X X ae N X V X / [+lo] S k e l e t a l t i e r L a ryngeal Node Pl a c e D o r s a l Tongue Root [maqae?] (63) /q w X @ N I X -W X ae N I x z/ 36 I I I o o o J _ J L S k e l e t a l T i e r P l a c e D o r s a l : 0 : : Tongue Root [q w@q waz] P l a c e node s c a n s i o n and the L o c a l i t y C o n d i t i o n b l o c k the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the r u l e when t h e r e i s an i n t e r v e n i n g consonant between a vowel and a u v u l a r consonant. I assume t h a t the c o r o n a l segments are s p e c i f i e d f o r a P l a c e node and t h e r e f o r e cannot be t r a n s p a r e n t t o r e t r a c t i o n , as The p h o n e t i c form of /q w@q waez/, [ q w @ q w a z ] , shows r e t r a c t i o n o f /ae/ t r i g g e r e d by / z / . I d i s c u s s the d e t a i l s o f r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by / z / i n s e c t i o n 4.1.2., and assume the a p p l i c a t i o n of the r u l e i n t h i s example. shown i n (64) (64)/s u N x q' x w @ N I X m/ o o J fc S k e l e t a l t i e r L a r y n g e a l Node Pl a c e D o r s a l Tongue Root [+rd] *[sosq , w@m] As the data i n (58) above show, / ? / does not b l o c k r e t r a c t i o n . Should / ? / be s p e c i f i e d on the P l a c e t i e r i t would behave l i k e /&/ i n (64) above, b l o c k i n g r e t r a c t i o n . However, / ? / — having no P l a c e f e a t u r e s , i n f a c t , o n l y L a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s — i s t h e r e f o r e not s p e c i f i e d on the P l a c e t i e r , and i s thus t r a n s p a r e n t t o the r e t r a c t i o n r u l e . Though / ? / i n t e r v e n e s between the t a r g e t and the t r i g g e r a t the r o o t node, on the P l a c e t i e r -- the t i e r a t which the r u l e a p p l i e s —- the t r i g g e r and t a r g e t are a d j a -c e n t . (65) g i v e s the d e r i v a t i o n o f /Las?qS/ "to go ashore". 76 (65)/L ae ? q s/ N x x x x x S k e l e t a l t i e r I I I I I s C+lo] [La?qg] J P l a c e L a r y n g e a l Node D o r s a l Tongue Root 4.1.2. R e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by /z z'/ R e t r a c t i o n of the vowels /u ae/ i s a l s o t r i g g e r e d by /z z 1 / / as can been seen i n the data s e t s i n (66a-b). (66a) R e t r a c t i o n o f /u/ [k wozxael] " t o spread out b e r r i e s t o d r y " [mozmet] " p i t i f u l " [ k ' z j z ] " t o have t w i n s " [£@m?aeiroz 1 ] " g i r l f r i e n d , m i s t r e s s " [spzozae?] " b i r d " [sk wozae?] " c h i l d , o f f s p r i n g " (b) R e t r a c t i o n o f /ae/ [q^@q waz] " b l u e " [ X i ' a z ] "not" " t o swim around" " d o l l " [ n q j e i x a z • ] [sk^azDz' ] [ q w l e t a z ' ] " j a c k p i n e " [?az] " n i c e " In o r d e r t o account f o r these data we must examine the s t r u c t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the t r i g g e r segment, as i n the case o f u v u l a r s . I propose t h a t / z / i s t r i p l y a r t i c u l a t e d , i n v o l v i n g the Coronal node, the D o r s a l node, and the Tongue Root node, based on the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s . F i r s t , the a l t e r n a t i o n between /z z 1 / and the o t h e r c o r o n a l consonants / l 1'/ and /y y'/ d i s c u s s e d above i n Chapter 3 s e c t i o n 3.1.1.3. suggests t h a t t h e s e segments are c o r o n a l s . Proposing t h a t /z z'/ was not s p e c i f i e d f o r a Coronal node w h i l e / l l 1 / and /y y'/ were would r e q u i r e f e a t u r e changing r u l e s t o account f o r the a l t e r n a t i o n . Furthermore, the p h o n e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f a d e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n (see Chapter 3 s e c t i o n 3.1.1.3.) suggests t h a t Coronal a r t i c u l a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d . Second, the behaviour of /z z'/ and / i / w i t h r e g a r d t o r e t r a c t i o n can be n i c e l y accounted f o r i f /z z'/ has a [-back] s p e c i -f i c a t i o n , thereby r e q u i r i n g a D o r s a l node. (See below f o r d i s c u s s i o n of the f e a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s between / z / , / i / , and /y/.) T h i r d , evidence from an a c o u s t i c study of C h i l c o t i n (Latimer 1978) shows t h a t C h i l c o t i n f l a t consonants, i n c l u d i n g / z / (which was a borrowing from L i l l o o e t and Thompson (Cook 1978)) have lower h i g h f r e -quencies than those o f the sharp ( i . e . p l a i n ) s e r i e s , i n d i c a t i n g a Tongue Root a r t i c u l a t i o n . The a c o u s t i c c h a r a c t e r i c s o f "sharp" [z] are two formants, one a t 1550 Hz and the o t h e r a t 2500 Hz w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of energy around 4500 Hz... [With] " f l a t " [z] ... t h e r e i s a 78 c o n c e n t r a t i o n of energy around 4500Hz and t h e r e are two formants, but the v a l u e s o f the formants are d i f f e r e n t . The lower formant hovers about 1000 Hz and the upper, about 2800 Hz. The lower formant of the " f l a t " [z] has a v a l u e 500 Hz l e s s than t h a t of the "sharp" [ z ] ; about the same decrease as i n the l o c i . (Latimer 1978:35) Latimer goes on t o s t a t e of the f l a t [z] t h a t : . . . t h i s a r t i c u l a t i o n i s a c t u a l l y p h a r y n g e a l i z a -t i o n , which, as one of i t s e f f e c t s , lowers the upper f r e q u e n c i e s of the segment which i s p h a r y n g e a l i z e d . P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n i s a c o n s t r i c -t i o n of the pharynx, normally caused by a r e t r a c t i o n o f the tongue r o o t towards the w a l l of the pharynx. T h i s c o n s t r i c t i o n , because i t i s so f a r back i n the v o c a l t r a c t , causes t h e low l o c i o f the " f l a t " consonants and causes the e f f e c t we see on the vowels. (p. 39) T h i r d , palatography p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r the s p e c i a l s t a t u s o f [z] i n C h i l c o t i n . Latimer argues t h a t where the p l a i n s e r i e s i s a r t i c u l a t e d i n a " d e n t o - a l v e o -l a r " r e g i o n , the " f l a t " s e r i e s i s c l e a r l y " w e l l behind the a l v e o l a r r i d g e ... [and] supports the p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s . " (p. 42) The f o u r t h argument i s based on the f a c t t h a t these segments are e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e i n t h e world's languages. M. D. Kinkade (p. c.) suggests t h a t the L i l l o o e t type of / z / occurs i n o n l y two o t h e r languages: ne i g h b o u r i n g Thompson and C h i l c o t i n . L i k e w i s e , t r i p l y a r t i c u l a t e d segments are e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e . H a l l e (1982) proposes " t h r e e d i s t i n c t a c t i v e a r t i c u l a t o r s : the lower l i p , the f r o n t p a r t of the tongue, and the tongue body" 79 (p. 98) t h a t may be combined i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a segment t o produce complex segments. He a l s o s t a t e s t h a t , i n theory, t r i p l y a r t i c u l a t e d segments should be p o s s i b l e ; however, they are u n a t t e s t e d . I c l a i m t h a t L i l l o o e t / z / , c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n (67), i s indeed a t r i p l y a r t i c u l a t e d 37 segment . Furthermore, t h i s p r o p o s a l i s not s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t h a t L i l l o o e t / z / d e r i v e s from P r o t o - S a l i s h *y. (67) P l a c e _ ^ ^ ^ ^ CORONAL DORSAL TONGUE ROOT I [-bk] The r e t r a c t i o n r u l e formulated i n (60) and r e p e a t e d here i n (68) accounts f o r the data i n (66). (68) [+v o c a l i c ] P l a c e ~ _ ^  D o r s a l "*"~ ° Tongue Root As i n the d e r i v a t i o n s i n (62), the r u l e scans a t t h e m i n i -mal l e v e l t a r g e t i n g the Pla c e t i e r . (69) g i v e s d e r i v a t i o n s f o r /muzmit/ " p i t i f u l " and /x w?aez/ "not". Asmentioned above i n s e c t i o n 4.1.1.2., I assume t h a t the Coronals are f u l l y s p e c i f i e d . 80 (69a) /m (b) u N X X ] L m i t / N 1 x x x S k e l e t a l / t+rd] w [mozmet] ? 33 N 1 X x [-bk] z/ \ I L P l a c e C oronal D o r s a l TR S k e l e t a l t i e r L a r y n g e a l P l a c e Coronal D o r s a l TR / [+lo] [ x w ? a z ] R e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by /z z'/ p a r a l l e l s t h a t by u v u l a r s i n o t h e r ways. For example, consonants t h a t i n -te r v e n e between the t r i g g e r and t a r g e t b l o c k r e t r a c t i o n , as i s shown i n the data i n (70) and the d e r i v a t i o n i n 81 (71) 38 (70) [ ? O C Z ] [zaew1 z@w' @t] (71) /? u N c y "good, o.k." "to be a bother, a n u i s a n c e " / [+round] S k e l e t a l T i e r L a r y n g e a l P l a c e Coronal D o r s a l TR . [~bk] * [ ? J C Z ] In a d d i t i o n , both / § / and / ? / are t r a n s p a r e n t t o t h e r u l e as the d e r i v a t i o n of /qae?@z'/ ("tired") i n (72) 39 shows T h o u g h i t appears t h a t /w1/ should be s u s c e p t i b l e t o r e t r a c t i o n , I argue below i n s e c t i o n 4.1.4. t h a t Tongue Root s p r e a d i n g i s p h o n e t i c a l l y vacuous f o r the g l i d e s and t h e r e f o r e does not dock onto the P l a c e node of /w'/ i n t h i s example. 39 . M. D. Kmkade (p. c.) suggests t h a t / § / i n t h i s form i s a c t u a l l y an echo vowel, and t h a t a n a t i v e speaker would i n t e r p r e t t h i s form as b e i n g one s y l l a b l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , [§] does remain t r a n s p a r e n t t o r u l e . 82 (72) /q 33 N N z'/ x X I X o L a r y n g e a l P l a c e Coronal D o r s a l TR [+lo] [-bk] [qa?@z'] Thus f a r , r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by u v u l a r s and by /z z 1 / has behaved i n e x a c t l y the same manner. However, i n the case o f r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by /z z*/, / i / does not r e t r a c t . Examples are g i v e n i n (73). (73) [ x n e z ' a z 1] "gooseberry bush" "from t h e s e " 'az 1 ] *[xnez'az'] [L@lkezae] *[L@kezae] The obvious q u e s t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t i s : are u v u l a r -R e t r a c t i o n and z - R e t r a c t i o n two s e p a r a t e p r o c e s s e s o r are they, i n f a c t , i n s t a n c e s of the same phenomenon? C e r t a i n -l y , the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the p r o c e s s e s p r o v i d e compel-l i n g evidence t o suggest t h a t t h e r e i s o n l y one r u l e . F i r s t , /ae u/ are t a r g e t vowels f o r both r u l e s ; second, both / § / and / ? / are t r a n s p a r e n t t o the r u l e ; t h i r d , any consonant w i t h p l a c e f e a t u r e s i n t e r v e n i n g between the t r i g g e r and t a r g e t b l o c k a p p l i c a t i o n of the r u l e ; and 83 f o u r t h , the vowels have i d e n t i c a l s u r f a c e r e a l i z a t i o n s , namely [a] and [ 3 ] . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the d i s c r e p e n c y i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the r u l e remains, / i / when p r e c e d i n g a u v u l a r r e t r a c t s , but does not when i t precedes a / z / . The u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n c h a r t f o r vowels i n (74) and the c h a r t i n (75) p r o v i d e a p o s s i b l e c l u e t o the anomalous behaviour o f / i z / . (74) i u ae § [ l o ] + [bk] [rd] + R e c a l l t h a t / z / i s s p e c i f i e d as [-back]. The c h a r t i n (75) shows the u n d e r l y i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f [back] f o r vowels adjacent t o the u n d e r l y i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f [back] f o r the r e t r a c t i n g consonants. (75) aez uz i z aQ uQ iQ [back] 0- 0- — 00 00 -0 r e t r a c t i o n / / X / / / S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the sequence / i z / i s s p e c i f i e d [-back] on both segments. The O b l i g a t o r y Contour P r i n c i p l e (Leben 1973, McCarthy 1986), which p r o h i b i t s a d j a c e n t i d e n t i c a l elements, c r e a t e s the s t r u c t u r e i n (76) where / i / and / z / share a D o r s a l node. Note t h a t these segments do not share a P l a c e node because / z / has, i n a d d i t i o n t o the D o r s a l node, a Coronal node and a Tongue Root node. 84 (76) 1 N P l a c e C o ronal D o r s a l Tongue Root [-bk] At the u n d e r l y i n g l y l e v e l these segments are both s p e c i f i -ed as [-back]; furthermore, when f u l l y s p e c i f i e d , t h e s e segments s t i l l share a D o r s a l node because t h e i r d o r s a l f e a t u r e s are i d e n t i c a l . R e c a l l from Chapter 3 s e c t i o n 3.1.1.3. t h a t / z / and /y/ are i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n b e f o r e a s u f f i x o r e n c l i t i c b e g i n n i n g i n a c o r o n a l — e i t h e r d e n t a l o r a l v e o - p a l a t a l — consonant, and i n word i n i t i a l p o s i -t i o n i n i d i o l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n s and n u r s e r y t a l k . I argue t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between / z / , /y/, and / i / l i e s i n t h e i r v a l u e s f o r sonorant and v o c o i d , as seen i n (77), as w e l l as the a d d i t i o n a l Tongue Root node o f / z / , which / i / and /y/ are not s p e c i f i e d f o r . (77) / i / / z / /y/ [•fsonorant] [-fvocoid] [-sonorant] [-vocoid] [+sonorant] [-vocoid] (78) g i v e s the f u l l y s p e c i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f [ i z ] 85 (78) i z N X x P l a c e Coronal D o r s a l Tongue Root [+hi] [-lo] [-bk] [-rd] Two p o s s i b l e methods of b l o c k i n g r e t r a c t i o n o f / i / when f o l l o w e d by / z / come t o mind. F i r s t , a n e g a t i v e c o n s t r a i n t as a T r i g g e r / T a r g e t C o n d i t i o n ( A r c h a n g e l i and P u l l e y b l a n k 1986) can be imposed on the r u l e so t h a t seg-ments s h a r i n g a f e a t u r e v a l u e o r node do not undergo t h e r u l e . T h i s c o n s t r a i n t i s s t a t e d i n (79) and f o r m a l i z e d i n (80) . (79) [TR] sprea d i n g i s b l o c k e d i f the t r i g g e r and t a r g e t share the D o r s a l node. (80) Xr - / \ P l a c e A second p o s s i b l e way of d e a l i n g w i t h the problem of blo c k e d r e t r a c t i o n i s t o s p e c i f y a s i n g l y l i n k e d D o r s a l node i n the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r u l e . In l i g h t o f Hayes (1986) and Schein and S t e r i a d e (1986), I suggest t h a t the r u l e of r e t r a c t i o n g i v e n i n (60), and (68) be D o r s a l Tongue Root 86 r e f o r m a l i z e d , as i n (81) . (81) [ + v o c a l i c ] P l a c e D o r s a l * Tongue Root Hayes' L i n k i n g C o n s t r a i n t (82) ensures t h a t a r u l e w i t h a s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e s one a s s o c i a t i o n l i n e w i l l a p p l y t o an autosegment t h a t a l s o bears o n l y one l i n e . I f the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n i n c l u d e s two l i n e s then the r u l e w i l l a p ply where an autosegment i s doubly l i n k e d . (82) L i n k i n g C o n s t r a i n t . A s s o c i a t i o n l i n e s i n s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s are i n t e r p r e t e d as exhaustive, (p. 331) In the case o f r e t r a c t i o n , the r u l e i n (81) w i l l a p ply t o a l l sequences shown i n (75) except / i z / where the D o r s a l node i s doubly l i n k e d and t h e r e f o r e does not meet the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r u l e . 4.1.3. R e t r a c t i o n from a F l o a t i n g Morpheme The cases o f r e t r a c t i o n t h a t we have a l r e a d y l o o k e d a t i n v o l v e the t a r g e t s /ae u/, and i n one case / i / , and the t r i g g e r s / q q 1 q w q ' w X X w z z •/. However, we f i n d a d d i t i o n a l cases of r e t r a c t i o n where the t a r g e t s are / i u ae § 6 s 1 1'/ and the t r i g g e r i s not c l e a r l y e v i d e n t . In 87 forms such as those i n (83) r e t r a c t i o n spreads a c r o s s the word r e t r a c t i n g a l l of the t a r g e t s 4 0 . (83) /q@l/ /q@l-@l/ /q@l-wil'x/ /L@6/ /l@sp/ / c ' u i y /c'ae?p/ /?32ls/ / L u t / / L u t - u n 1 / [qAdAl] f q A l w e l 1 x l [LAC] [1ASJP] [ C i l l ] [c'a?p] [ ? a l s ] [ l o t ] [ L o t - o n 1 ] "bad" "good f o r n o t h i n g " "to get s p o i l e d " "to cave i n " "to cave i n " "sour, b i t t e r (of b e r r i e s ) " "sour (of smth. fermented)" " s i c k " "to squash a bug" "to squash, t r . " We a l s o f i n d a l t e r n a t i n g p a i r s , l i k e the ones i n (84), where the form i s r e t r a c t e d i n one case and not i n t h e o t h e r . "get d e f l a t e d , go down (of dough)" "get pooped, conk out" "to get covered up" "to get squished" "good" "to get b e t t e r , t o come back t o l i f e " "bad" "to get s p o i l e d " i n c h o a t i v e A n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n appears t o be the r e c u r r e n t semantic theme i n a l l the cases of r e t r a c t i o n i n d a t a s e t s ( 8 4 a ) i [L@k] i i [LAk] i i i [P@t] i v [pAt] (b) i [?aemae] i i [?aemaewel1 x] i i i [qAl] i v fqAlwel'x] v. / - w i l ' x / I mark r e t r a c t i o n of the consonants by u n d e r l i n i n g the segment i n q u e s t i o n . To be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the above s e c t i o n s , the r e t r a c t e d vowels are shown i n t h e i r p h o n e t i c form. (83) and (84) . I p o s t u l a t e t h a t r e t r a c t i o n i s due t o a f l o a t i n g a d v e r s a t i v e morpheme t h a t i s a f f i x e d t o the r o o t and spreads r e t r a c t i o n harmony b i - d i r e c t i o n a l l y a c r o s s the word 4 1.Thus, the s u r f a c e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the forms i n (84a) are a r e s u l t o f a f f i x a t i o n o f a morpheme whose r e a l i z a t i o n i s r e t r a c t i o n harmony. (85) g i v e s the i n p u t and s u r f a c e forms of the r e t r a c t e d and n o n - r e t r a c t e d p a i r s i n ( 8 4 a - b ) 4 2 . ( 8 5 a ) i /L@k/ — > [L@k] "get d e f l a t e d , go down (of dough)" i i /L§k - {A}/ --> [LAk] "get pooped, conk out" i i i /P§t/ --> [pit] "to get covered up" i v /pet - {A}/ --> [pAt] " t o get squ i s h e d " i /?aemae - w i l ' x / -—> [?aemaewel1 x] "to get b e t t e r , t o come back t o l i f e " i i /q@l - {A} - w i l ' x / — > [qAlwellx] " t o get s p o i l e d " Another p o s s i b l e way o f a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e da t a i s t o assume t h a t the f l o a t i n g A d v e r s a t i v e morpheme i s a p r e f i x t h a t spreads Tongue Root l e f t w a r d through the r o o t and i n t o the s u f f i x ( e s ) . I argue below t h a t r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by the A d v e r s a t i v e morpheme i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same as r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by a f l o a t i n g Tongue Root node t h a t i s l e x i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d on a r o o t . Data i n the l a t t e r case show p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s t o which r e t r a c t i o n spreads, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t b i - d i r e c t i o n a l s p r e a d i n g must be i n v o l v e d . 42 I u s e {A} t o stand f o r the a d v e r s a t i v e morpheme. 89 We have a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t r e t r a c t i o n i s due t o spre a d i n g o f a Tongue Root node onto an a p p r o p r i a t e t a r g e t . A d v e r s a t i v e r e t r a c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , must i n v o l v e Tongue Root sp r e a d i n g . There i s no evidence t o suggest t h a t the a d v e r s a t i v e morpheme need be an y t h i n g more than a Tongue Root node which, as i t has no ot h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i n k i n g i t t o a r o o t node, i s f l o a t i n g . As s t a t e d above, the t a r g e t s o f t h i s r u l e a re the a l v e o - p a l a t a l consonants and a l l the vowels. At f i r s t s i g h t , i t appears d i f f i c u l t t o group these segments t o g e t h e r so t h a t a r u l e may ap p l y t o o n l y t h i s s e t o f segments. However, I propose t h a t the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s are s p e c i f i e d f o r a D o r s a l node, as are the vowels (with the e x c e p t i o n o f / § / which i s u n s p e c i f i e d ) . K e a t i n g (1987) p r o v i d e s evidence f o r p a l a t a l s as complex segments. Though the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s i n L i l l o o e t are not s t r i c t l y p a l a t a l s i n Ladefoged's sense o f the word (where he d e f i n e s p a l a t a l s as "being made w i t h the f r o n t o f the tongue approaching o r t o u c h i n g the hard p a l a t e " 1982: 141), they do make up the s e t o f "back" c o r o n a l s i n L i l l o o e t . R e c a l l t h a t the segments i n L i l l o o e t a r t i c u l a t e d under the Coronal node are d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: the d e n t a l s and the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s ; the c o r o n a l segments are repeated here i n (86), where the f i r s t two columns are d e n t a l , the t h i r d 90 i s d e n t a l and a l v e o - p a l a t a l , and the f o u r t h i s a l v e o - p a l a -t a l . 6 C' i s z 1 z» 1» y y I suggest t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the d e n t a l s and the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s i s t h a t the d e n t a l s are a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h j u s t a Coronal a r t i c u l a t o r w h i l e the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s i n v o l v e Coronal and D o r s a l , as shown i n (87). (87) /& s 1 1'/ P l a c e Coronal D o r s a l To r e c a p i t u l a t e , the t r i g g e r of a d v e r s a t i v e harmony i s a f l o a t i n g morpheme t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a Tongue Root node, and the t a r g e t of the r u l e must be a node t h a t both the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s and the vowels share. I have suggested t h a t a l v e o - p a l a t a l s are a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h a D o r s a l node, l i k e the vowels, and t h e r e f o r e D o r s a l i s the t a r g e t of the r u l e . The r u l e i s f o r m a l i z e d i n (88). (86) t X ' L n (88) x S k e l e t a l t i e r P l a c e * ^  D o r s a l v v°Tongue Root An e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by u v u l a r s and /z z 1 / and l o n g d i s t a n c e r e t r a c t i o n i s t h a t i n the former case /§/ does not r e t r a c t w h i l e i n t h e l a t t e r , i t does. By o r d e r i n g simple r e t r a c t i o n b e f o r e th e a p p l i c a t i o n of the Redundancy Rules and r e t r a c t i o n harmony a f t e r they apply we can account f o r the d i f f e r i n g behaviour o f /§/. Scansion i s a t a minimal l e v e l which, as i n the case o f simple r e t r a c t i o n , i s the P l a c e node. A t the p o i n t a t which the r u l e a p p l i e s / § / i s s p e c i f i e d f o r a D o r s a l node, and t h e r e f o r e i s a t a r g e t f o r the r u l e . I g i v e d e r i v a t i o n s of [qAl] "bad" , [c'oJL*.] "sour, b i t t e r " , and [ ? a l s ] " s i c k " i n (89a-c). 92 (89)a / q (b) x @ 1/ N I X X I I » ' / / "Tongue Root [qAl] / c ' u 1'/ N I X X X S k e l e t a l T i e r P l a c e D o r s a l Coronal Tongue Root S k e l e t a l T i e r . o' / [+rd] [C« Dl_l_] 'Tongue Root P l a c e D o r s a l Coronal (c) /'• ae N 1 x / V [+lo] \ / / S k e l e t a l T i e r P l a c e D o r s a l Coronal "Tongue Root [ ? a l s ] In (89a) t he r u l e a p p l i e s v a c u o u s l y t o /q/ which i s s p e c i -f i e d f o r both a D o r s a l node and a Tongue Root node. My a n a l y s i s , thus f a r , makes a p r e d i c t i o n r e g a r d i n g the behaviour o f the v e l a r s e r i e s . As v e l a r s are s p e c i f i e d f o r a D o r s a l node we would expect them t o r e t r a c t i n the same manner as the vowels and a l v e o - p a l a t a l consonants. In Chapter 3, I mentioned t h a t v e l a r s and u v u l a r s a re a u d i t o r i l y v e r y c l o s e t o one another, and t h a t v e l a r s a re a s s i m i l a t e d t o u v u l a r s when the two are adjacent. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the data on r e t r a c t e d forms are not s u f f i c i e n t l y e x t e n s i v e t o document a p o s s i b l e u v u l a r i z a -t i o n o f v e l a r s . However, i t i s c l e a r from the example i n (90) t h a t t he v e l a r s do not b l o c k r e t r a c t i o n . (90) [c/\kacAkae] " b l u e - j a y " ( r e f e r s t o the sound i t makes when f o r e c a s t i n g bad news or bad weather) My a n a l y s i s p r e d i c t s t h a t t he v e l a r s w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e t r a c t i o n harmony and be r e a l i z e d as u v u l a r s . S p e c t r o -g r a p h ^ i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o c l a r i f y t h i s i s s u e . A d d i t i o n a l data remain t h a t cannot be r e a d i l y 43 accounted f o r . C o n s i d e r the forms i n (91) . (91a) No sp r e a d i n g t o s u f f i x e s /Lu-L-t-@n'/ [LDLt@n'] " t o squash i t w e l l " squash-redup-? /?aels-@m/ [?als@m] " s i c k " s i c k - a s p e c t u a l /?ael^-@m-Lk-a3n/ [als@mLkaen] " I am s i c k " s i c k - a s p e c t u a l - i n d i c a t i v e - l s t person /q@l-ael'qw@m/ [qlal!q w@m] " u g l y " bad-outward appearance / q @ l - t i ? / [ q A l t e ? ] " t h a t i s bad bad-that /q@l-Lk-aen/ [qAlLkaen] " I am bad" b a d - i n d i c a t i v e - l s t p erson /q@l-aeL-tmix w/ [qAla2Ltmexw] "storm"; bad-compound former-weather In many cases I have not been a b l e t o determine the exact morphemic breakdown o r t h e g l o s s e s o f the d i f f e r e n t morphemes. I have t r i e d t o be as a c c u r a t e as p o s s i b l e i n r e p r e s e n t i n g the u n d e r l y i n g forms, but t h e r e a r e , no doubt, e r r o r s . (b) No s p r e a d i n g t o p r e f i x e s /kae-p@t-ae/ [kaepAtae] "to get squished" suddenly-to c o v e r - r e i n f o r c i n g e n c l i t i c /kae-L@k-ae/ [kaLAkae] " t o get v e r y t i r e d , t o conk out" s u d d e n l y - s t i l l ( ? ) - r e i n f o r c i n g e n c l i t i c /s'-Lik/ [s*LAk] " l a z y , m o t i o n l e s s " s t a t i v e - s t i l l ( ? ) In every case i n (91) we f i n d forms where r e t r a c t i o n has not spread beyond c e r t a i n morpheme boundaries. We know from o t h e r forms such as [ q A l w e l 1 x ] " t o get s p o i l e d " t h a t r e t r a c t i o n i s not r e s t r i c t e d t o the r o o t i n a l l cases. I suggest t h a t the v a r i a b i l i t y o f r e t r a c t i o n i n the forms i n (91) i s a r e s u l t of l e v e l o r d e r i n g w i t h i n the l e x i c a l phonology (see K i p a r s k y 1982, 1985, K a i s s e and Shaw 1985, among o t h e r s . See a l s o B e s s e l l 1989 f o r the domains o f r e t r a c t i o n i n Coeur d'Alene and Czaykowska-Higgins 1990 f o r Columbian.) That i s , r e t r a c t i o n precedes the a f f i x a t i o n of the morphemes t h a t do not r e t r a c t . However, a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the l e x i c a l phonology o f L i l l o o e t i s beyond the scope of the p r e s e n t work. 4.1.4. R e t r a c t i o n from a F l o a t i n g F eature In a d d i t i o n t o the r e t r a c t e d forms stemming from a f l o a t i n g morpheme {Adversative}, we f i n d forms c o n t a i n i n g r e t r a c t e d consonants and vowels t h a t do not have any se-mantic c o n n e c t i o n t o one another nor appear t o be t r i g g e r -ed by a u v u l a r o r /z z'/. Examples o f t h i s type o f r e t r a c -t i o n a r e : (92) /k wusV?/ / ^ a e l - l / [ k w j s a ? ] " t o u r i n a t e " [ s a i l ] d r i p - r e d u p ( ? ) /p@m-p/ [pAmp] f a s t - a s p e c t u a l (?) /p§m-ilx/ fast-body /p@m-p-sut/ [pmelx] [pAmps at] " t o d r i p i n a s t r i n g ( l i k e s y r u p ) " " f a s t " " to h u r r y " " t o run on without b e i n g a b l e t o s t o p " f a s t - a s p e c t u a l ( ? ) - o u t o f c o n t r o l /s'-p • @s-qs/ [ sp 'Asqs ] nominalizer-?-nose / X W f i 3 3 L / [ x w c a L ] /X'ael-aen/ [X'alan] b i t e - t r a n s i t i v e /psus/ [psos] /£-plaent/ [ s p l a n t ] nominalizer-skunk /maec1 uL/ /s*uspae?/ [mac•oL] [sospa?] "nose" "tongue" " t o b i t e smth." " w i l d ( b i t t e r ) c h e r r y " !' skunk" "pus" "proper name (from /suspae?/ " t a i l " ) /m'is'-m'esy [mfismfis] grouse-redup "grouse" The s i m i l a r i t i e s between the r e t r a c t e d forms i n (92) and the forms t h a t are a r e s u l t o f the f l o a t i n g a d v e r s a -t i v e morpheme are s t r i k i n g . In both cases a l l the vowels and the a l v e o - p a l a t a l consonants are r e t a c t e d . F u r t h e r , we f i n d the same s o r t of p r o b l e m a t i c cases where r e t r a c t i o n does not spread a c r o s s c e r t a i n morpheme bou n d a r i e s . Examples are g i v e n i n (93). (93) /k wus*?-ael 'm§n/ [k wos?alJm@n] " t o want t o u r i n a t e " u r i n a t e - t o want /m@laem@n/ [mAlam@n] "medicine" / S-p§-p-l'x w/ [spApl_!_@xw] " to s t i c k out a l i t t l e b i t " s t a t i v e ( ? ) - s t i c k out-redup /n-sa>l-l-@c7 r n s a l ' l ' e g l " t o d r o o l , s l o b b e r " on the mouth-drip-redup-? / s * - X ' a e - V [ ^ X ' a V A i i s ] " t o c a r r y smth. i n one's mouth" s t a t i v e - b i t e - r e d u p - t r a n s i t i v i z e r /s'-p' i ? - @ l 'waes/ [^p' e?@l 'wae£] "squeezed i n t h e middle" ?-to squeeze out-middle (?) / t i - k w u s u - a e / [ t e k W D s o h a e ] "the p i g " 4 4 a r t i c l e - p i g - e n c l i t i c / k w u s u - i / [ k w j s o h e ] " t h e i r p i g " p i g - p l u r a l p o s s e s s i v e 44 . . . T h i s form i s a borrowing from French couchon " p i g " . Kinkade (p. c.) informs me t h a t a number o f loan-words from E n g l i s h , French, and neighbouring n a t i v e languages c o n t a i n r e t r a c t e d segments. Other examples i n c l u d e [p'Ask'ae?] "hummingbird" p o s s i b l y from C h i l l i w a c k Halkomelem and [lapla£] "board" from French. 98 /k wusu-aeLc' ae?/ [kWDs:>haeLc'ae?] "pork p i g - i n s i d e meat /p@lx w-aenis/ [pAlx waenes] " j u s t about showing" t o s t i c k out-edge I propose t h a t the forms i n (92) and (93) a r e due t o a f l o a t i n g Tongue Root node t h a t i s l e x i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d on a stem. R e t r a c t i o n harmony t r i g g e r e d by a f l o a t i n g Tongue Root node operates i n e x a c t l y the same manner as t h a t o f r e t r a c t i o n harmony t r i g g e r e d by the f l o a t i n g A d v e r s a t i v e morpheme. Thus, the r u l e spreads Tongue Root b i - d i r e c t i o n -a l l y , scanning a t a minimal l e v e l ( i . e . the P l a c e node) and t a r g e t i n g the D o r s a l node. (94a-c) p r o v i d e d e r i v a t i o n s f o r : [ s a i l ] " t o d r i p i n a s t r i n g " ; [mAlam§n] "medicine"; and [ s ^ ' a V A l ' s ] " t o c a r r y smth. i n one's mouth". (94) a /s 32 1 - 1 / N x X X X S k e l e t a l t i e r £ 1 P l a c e [+lo] / "Tongue Root D o r s a l Coronal [ s a i l ] (b) /m @ 1 33 m n/ (c) /s N T x x x x x x S k e l e t a l t i e r o o o o o o il> A /\ O \ / O / I [+lo] P l a c e D o r s a l C o r o n a l "Tongue Root [mAlam@n] V x 33 N I X I I 7 I x l I L _ 4 //;^/ ! 'Tongue Root - V x S k e l e t a l V L a r y n g e a l P l a c e D o r s a l C o r o n a l [ & V a V A 2 J > ] Thus f a r , I have claimed t h a t Tongue Root s p r e a d i n g due t o the A d v e r s a t i v e morpheme and t o the f l o a t i n g f e a t u r e i s b i - d i r e c t i o n a l . I now p r e s e n t evidence from the r e t r a c t i o n o f s u f f i x e s and p r e f i x e s t o support t h i s c l a i m . The data i n (95) show cases o f both s u f f i x a l and p r e f i x a l r e t r a c t i o n a long w i t h the r e t r a c t i o n o f the r o o t . 100 (95a) / s - p l a e n f T R / [ s p l a n t ] "skunk" (b) /q@l+{A}/ [qAl] /qei+IAJ-ael'q"!!!/ [qlal_Lq w@m] /Lut+{A}/ [Lot] /Lut+{A}-un'/ [Lot^n'] "bad" c'ugly" " t o squash" "to squash, tr.» (c) /s-p '@s°TR-qs/ [sp'Asqs] "nose" In (95a), the p r e f i x n o m i n a l i z e r {§-} r e t r a c t s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t r e t r a c t i o n has spread l e f t w a r d from the r o o t . The abundance o f forms w i t h a n o n - r e t r a c t e d nominal p r e f i x l e a v e s no q u e s t i o n as t o the u n d e r l y i n g form o f {s-}. (95b) shows cases i n which the r e t r a c t i o n spreads t o the s u f f i x ; and (95c) shows both s u f f i x a l and p r e f i x a l r e t r a c -t i o n . As l o n g d i s t a n c e r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by l e x i c a l l y marked stems and the a d v e r s a t i v e morpheme appears t o operate i n e x a c t l y the same manner I suggest t h a t the same r u l e a p p l i e s . T h e r e f o r e , s p r e a d i n g of Tongue Root must be b i - d i r e c t i o n a l g i v e n t h a t forms w i t h l e x i c a l l y marked stems have r e t r a c t e d p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s . Other cases o f r e t r a c t i o n f o r which I have no e x p l a n a t i o n o c c ur i n the data and samples are g i v e n i n 45 (96) .Without f u r t h e r morphemic a n a l y s i s , which i s i. beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s , I cannot s p e c u l a t e as t o the reasons t h a t the r e t r a c t a b l e segments have f a i l e d t o F o r a more complete l i s t o f r e t r a c t e d forms see Appendix 1. 1 0 1 undergo the r u l e . (96) [ l A n k a e y a e ] [p 1 A s k ' a e ? ] [ C ' n 1 a l i o s § m ] [ l a p l a s ] [welek'] [c 11ep•] " c a s t - i r o n pot" "hummingb i r d " " t o take aim" "board" "sound made by f r o g s "to p i n c h " II To conclude the d i s c u s s i o n of r e t r a c t i o n I w i l l show t h a t the two r u l e s I have p o s i t e d cannot be c o l l a p s e d . The r u l e o f simple r e t r a c t i o n (81) , repeated here i n (97), t a r g e t s vowels t h a t immediately precede a u v u l a r o r /z z 1 / and i n v o l v e s minimal s c a n s i o n a t the l e v e l o f the P l a c e node. The r u l e must be ordered b e f o r e the a p p l i c a t i o n of the Redundancy Rules, thereby p e r m i t t i n g schwa t o be t r a n s p a r e n t t o the r u l e . (97) [ + v o c a l i c ] The r u l e o f r e t r a c t i o n harmony (given i n (88) and repeated here i n (98)) t a r g e t s a l l the vowels ;and the a l v e o - p a l a t a l consonants. T h i s r u l e a l s o scans a t a minimal l e v e l , t a r g e t i n g the Pl a c e node. However, i t must be or d e r e d a f t e r the Redundancy Rules so t h a t schwa w i l l be t a r g e t e d . P l a c e D o r s a l Tongue Root (98) x S k e l e t a l t i e r I o I !., 1 P l a c e N \ D o r s a l "°Tongue Root Though the r u l e s are s i m i l a r i n form, i t i s not enough t o say t h a t a l l r e t r a c t i o n i s due t o one r u l e t h a t a p p l i e s a t two d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n the grammar: b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of the Redundancy Rules. In t h e r u l e o f simple r e t r a c t i o n i t i s necessary t o s t a t e t h a t the t a r g e t o f the r u l e i s a vowel i n o r d e r t o r u l e out r e t r a c t i o n o f a l v e o - p a l a t a l s . The examples i n (99), where we f i n d a l v e o - p a l a t a l s t h a t immediately precede a t r i g g e r -i n g consonant, show t h a t the a l v e o - p a l a t a l s do not r e -t r a c t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t they are not t a r g e t s f o r t h i s r u l e . However, as we have seen above, the v o c a l i c s t a t u s o f the t a r g e t s i n the r e t r a c t i o n harmony r u l e must not be i n c l u d e d , so as t o permit the r u l e t o apply t o both consonants and vowels. 103 (99) [?o6z] "good, s t r a i g h t forward, o.k. " "t o s t e e r a canoe" "the s q u i r r e l " "tame" " r e a l beaver ( i . e . not money)" "t o s m i l e " "cottonwood cambium l a y e r [?ocz ' gaem1 ] [testa^'@szhae] [caqcq@t] [sqlaew'?€l] [ s X w e s ] II " t o t a l k " One f i n a l i s s u e r e g a r d i n g r e t r a c t i o n i s t h a t o f the ph o n e t i c implementation o f Tongue Root. In the i n t r o -d u c t i o n t o t h i s c h apter I mentioned the wide range o f e f -f e c t s t h a t r e t r a c t i o n ( i . e . Tongue Root) has on the v a r i -ous d i f f e r e n t segments a f f e c t e d by i t . The l a t e r a l s [1 1 1] become what has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c a l l e d " v e l a r i z e d " ( l i k e E n g l i s h dark [*]), and [c s] r e t r a c t the tongue such t h a t t he t i p r a t h e r than the b l a d e forms c o n t a c t behind the a l v e o l a r r i d g e , w h i l e t h e tongue r o o t i s p u l l e d back i n the v o c a l t r a c t . The vowels, on the o t h e r hand, appear, f o r the most p a r t , t o l a x — a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c a p t u r e d by the f e a t u r e [±ATR]. I t i s beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s t o e x p l i c a t e what the ph o n e t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s between the consonantal e f f e c t s and the v o c a l i c e f f e c t s o f Tongue Root s p r e a d i n g might be. Without a s p e c t r o g r a p h i c , and perhaps p a l a t o g r a p h i c , a n a l y s i s o f the p h o n e t i c e f f e c t s , l i t t l e can be s a i d about them. Ins t e a d , I suggest p h o n e t i c implementation r u l e s 1 0 4 t h a t r e s u l t i n the s u r f a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f r e t r a c t e d segments d e s c r i b e d above. Having s t a t e d t h i s , a p r e v i o u s l y unmentioned language p a r t i c u l a r f a c t r e g a r d i n g /y y 1 w w1/ may be c l a r i f i e d . The a l v e o - p a l a t a l and v e l a r g l i d e s are both s p e c i f i e d f o r D o r s a l and t h e r e f o r e should undergo r e t r a c t i o n harmony. ( R e c a l l t h a t they are not t a r g e t e d f o r simple r e t r a c t i o n because the r u l e t a r g e t s o n l y vowels which are arguably d i s t i n c t from the g l i d e s . ) I h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t they do i n f a c t undergo r e t r a c t i o n ; however, r e t r a c t i o n i s not r e a l i z e d p h o n e t i c a l l y i n L i l l o o e t on t h e s e segments because the p h o n e t i c s p e l l - o u t of Tongue Root f o r vowels or f o r consonants cannot a p p l y t o g l i d e s . That i s , Tongue Root spreads onto the P l a c e node of the g l i d e s , but has no p h o n e t i c e f f e c t because p h o n e t i c implementation r u l e s • i cannot be r e a l i z e d on a [-vocoid] segment as l a x i n g which i s the p h o n e t i c s p e l l - o u t o f Tongue Root on a [+vocoid] s e g m e n t 4 6 . N e i t h e r can the p h o n e t i c s p e l l - o u t r u l e s f o r Tongue Root impose a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r i c t i o n i n the v o c a l t r a c t , which i s the e f f e c t i t has on o b s t r u e n t s , on a Assuming, f o r the sake o f argument, t h a t the vowels and g l i d e s are n o n - d i s t i n c t , my a n a l y s i s does not f a c e a problem because the combinantion o f the major c l a s s f e a t u r e s [ - v o c a l i c , - f s o n o r a n t ] , f o r which the g l i d e s a r e s p e c i f i e d , w i l l r u l e out any secondary p h o n e t i c e f f e c t o f Tongue Root. 105 [+sonorant] segment. The form i n (100a) c o n t a i n s a /y/ and i s s u b j e c t t o r e t r a c t i o n harmony w h i l e the form i n (100b) c o n t a i n s /w/. (100a) /p§y-(A}-p@-p-y-?-t/ [pAypApy'§t] " t o q u a r r e l " f i g h t - { A ) - r e d u p - r e d u p - i n t e r i o r g l o t t a l i z a t i o n (b) /q@l-{A}-wil'x/ [ q A l - w e l i x ] " t o g e t s p o i l e d " b a d - { A ) - i n c h o a t i v e T a r g e t i n g the Do r s a l node and b i - d i r e c t i o n a l s p r e a d i n g permit the r e t r a c t i o n f e a t u r e , Tongue Root, t o spread through the g l i d e s (docking onto t o them) and onto o t h e r segments s p e c i f i e d f o r D o r s a l , as the d e r i v a t i o n i n (101) shows. ( R e c a l l t h a t Tongue Root w i l l spread onto the v e l a r s because they are s p e c i f i e d f o r a D o r s a l node; however, the p h o n e t i c f a c t s are q u e s t i o n a b l e . ) (101)/q § N x 1 - w X 1 N I X I 1 I I o o o o 4-1 I L I I i / ; / rV 0 ' " S k e l e t a l T i e r L a r y n g e a l P l a c e C oronal L a b i a l D o r s a l Tongue Root Tongue Root [-bk] fqAlwel'x] Thus f a r , we have accounted f o r the f a c t s of r e t r a c -t i o n t r i g g e r e d by ( i ) the s e t o f u v u l a r s and /z z'/ : / g g' q w q , w X X w z z1/'* ( i i ) the f l o a t i n g A d v e r s a t i v e morpheme; and ( i i i ) a f l o a t i n g Tongue Root node l e x i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d on the stem, by simply m o t i v a t i n g a Tongue Root node and s p r e a d i n g t h i s node onto the P l a c e node o f a p r e c e d i n g vowel or, i n the case of r e t r a c t i o n harmony, onto the P l a c e node of the vowels and the a l v e o p a l a t a l consonants. The presence or absence of the Tongue Root node i s a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h a p l a i n vowel o r a l v e o -p a l a t a l consonant from i t s r e t r a c t e d c o u n t e r p a r t . In the next s e c t i o n , I c o n s i d e r p h a r y n g e a l i z e d segments t h a t w i l l r e q u i r e a f e a t u r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h them from the r e t r a c t e d s e t . i 4.2. P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n In a d d i t i o n t o the r e t r a c t i o n p r o c e s s e s d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 4.1, L i l l o o e t has a p r o c e s s o f p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n which t a r g e t s vowels immediately p r e c e d i n g a pharyngeal consonant. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n r u l e are s i m i l a r t o those of simple r e t r a c t i o n , but t h e e f f e c t s are d i f f e r e n t . The p h o n e t i c r e a l i z a t i o n o f a p h a r y n g e a l i z e d vowel i s a r e t r a c t e d vowel w i t h a super-i m p o s i t i o n of pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n . The vowel change i s 107 expressed i n (102) . Note i n the case of /ae/ and / § / t h a t the s u r f a c e vowel i s both r e t r a c t e d (e.g. /as/ — > [a]) and p h a r y n g e a l i z e d (e.g. [a] where [A] means pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n ) . For the moment, I w i l l o v e rlook the e f f e c t s o f / i ° i / and r e t u r n t o them l a t e r i n the d i s c u s s i o n . As p o i n t e d out i n Chapter 1, d i s t r i b u t i o n a l f a c t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o vowel l e n g t h , p r o v i d e the b a s i s on which t o determine the u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f [a] and [3], as g i v e n i n (102). Given t h a t ( i ) the v a l u e f o r [ l o ] o f the s u r f a c e vowel i s always [+lo] ( e x c l u d i n g the v a l u e f o r [e] which, as mentioned above, I w i l l r e t u r n to) ( i i ) the v a l u e f o r [round] i s determined by the v a l u e f o r [round] of the f o l l o w i n g pharyngeal (with the e x c e p t i o n o f / i / ) , and ( i i i ) vowel l e n g t h d i s t i n g u i s h e s the f u l l vowel from /§/, /ae/ can be the o n l y non-high f u l l vowel t h a t precedes a pharyngeal (as noted by P. Shaw, p . c ) . P h a r y n g e a l i z a -t i o n o f the non-high vowels i s coupled w i t h s p r e a d i n g o f [round] from the t r i g g e r , /u/ i s s p e c i f i e d as [+round], which means t h a t should /u/ and /ae/ be n e u t r a l i z e d t o [a] and [6] p r e c e d i n g a pharyngeal, [-round] would have t o spread from the pharyngeal i n order t o o b t a i n the s u r f a c e s t r i n g [aS] from /u^/. However, spre a d i n g an unmarked f e a t u r e such as [0round] i s r u l e d out on t h e o r e t i c a l 108 g r o u n d s 4 7 . T h e r e f o r e , we can e s t a b l i s h t h a t /ae/ i s the o n l y f u l l vowel t h a t precedes a pharyngeal. The phonemic and p h o n e t i c v a l u e s are g i v e n i n (102). (102) / i / --> [e] /J\ /ae/ --> [a] / S / § / "> [a] / _ % In (103) p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n data are presented. The s m a l l s e t o f data i n d i c a t e s the inf r e q u e n c y o f pharyngeal segments i n the language. (103a) / § S / : /p@7-p/ —> [pa:p] " d u l l , faded (of c o l o u r ) " ~ > [25a:] " t o t e a r " / <7 '@9 , -6§p/~> [S'arTiSep] "caught i n a t r a p " y / " > [1 / p § ( 7 , W - q w / ~ > [pd:?q W] " t o bump / V f i S -X" 7 w - § m / ~ > [ K ' S i V ^ ] "hard" / l @ 7 y / ~ > [15:] " t o h i d e " one's head" Furthermore, t h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n as t o whether [round] i s p r i v a t i v e — having o n l y the p o s i t i v e v a l u e . 109 (b) /l@ cT-lae7-t/~> [ la: la: : t ] /aeT'/: /g-p'ael'/ ~> [Sp'a::?] " f a s t " (F) "burned out area" k/--> [ne?: :?k] " s t r i p e II s t r i p e on one's back" • i In o r d e r t o capture the f a c t t h a t the s u r f a c e vowels i n (103) are the same as those d e r i v e d from r e t r a c t i o n (with the a d d i t i o n o f a pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n ) , I propose t h a t p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n i s i n v o l v e s the Tongue Root node, as i n the case o f r e t r a c t i o n . Nonetheless, we must s t i l l d i s t i n g u i s h between the r e t r a c t e d vowels and the r e t r a c t e d and p h a r y n g e a l i z e d vowels (which, f o r s i m p l i -c i t y ' s sake I c a l l p h a r y n g e a l i z e d ) . I adopt the f e a t u r e [±epiglottis] ([±epi]) f i r s t argued f o r i n B e s s e l l and Remnant (1989), which i s dominated by the Tongue Root node. Thus, pharyngeal consonants are s p e c i f i e d as [+epi] as r e p r e s e n t e d i n (104). Spreading o f [+epi] and the f i l l i n g i n of Tongue Root by (104) P l a c e Tongue Root [+epi] 110 node g e n e r a t i o n w i l l ensure t h a t the vowels are r e t r a c t e d , and, i n a d d i t i o n , p h a r y n g e a l i z e d . B e s s e l l and Remnant (1989) g i v e the a c o u s t i c and a r t i c u l a t o r y p r o p e r t i e s of pharyngeals, which I r e p e a t here. Pharyngeal a r t i c u l a t i o n s c r e a t e a c o n s t r i c t i o n caused by p u l l i n g the r o o t o f the tongue back i n t o t h e pharyngeal c a v i t y (Pike 1943, Smalley 1961/4, C a t f o r d 1977, Laver 1980, Ladefoged 1982, Borden and H a r r i s 1984, L a u f e r and Bauer 1988) . X-ray and c i n e f l u o r o g r a p h i c i n v e s -t i g a t i o n s support these d e s c r i p t i o n s , showing a c o n s t r i c -t i o n i n t h e lower pharynx i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e e p i g l o t t i s caused by tongue r o o t r e t r a c t i o n ( D e l a t t r e 1971, C a t f o r d 1983, L a u f e r and Bauer 1988). T r a i l l ' s (1985) examination of lX6o- p h a r y n g e a l i z e d vowels shows v i b r a t i o n of t h e e p i -g l o t t i s , such t h a t the t i p of the e p i g l o t t i s c o n t a c t s the back w a l l o f the pharynx. The e p i g l o t t i s has even been regarded by some (Pike 1943, L a u f e r and Bauer 1988) as a s e p a r a t e a r t i c u l a t o r , though i t i s not c l e a r t h a t i t s musculature i s independent from t h a t o f the tongue r o o t . A c o u s t i c a l l y , p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n has d i s t i n c t i v e e f f e c t s , showing F l and F2 c l o s e t o g e t h e r , w i t h F l v e r y h i g h ( K l a t t and Stevens 1969, Alwan 1986, Butcher and Ahmad, 1987). T h i s h i g h v a l u e f o r F l i s p r e d i c t e d by a c o u s t i c t h e o r y , g i v e n a u niform tube c o n s t r i c t e d c l o s e t o the source of e x c i t a t i o n ( D e l a t t r e 1971), a r e s u l t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the p l a c e o f c o n s t r i c t i o n i n p h a r y n g e a l s i s v e r y c l o s e t o the g l o t t a l source. T h e r e f o r e , i n keeping w i t h a r t i c u l a t o r y theory (Sagey 1986), [±epiglottis] r e -f l e c t s the a r t i c u l a t o r y f a c t s of p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . The r u l e of p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n which spreads [+epi] onto a p r e c e d i n g vowel, i s f o r m a l i z e d i n (105). (105) [ + v o c a l i c ] I ° P l a c e Tongue Root ~~ - - [+epi] U n l i k e the r u l e of simple r e t r a c t i o n t h a t s k i p s o v e r /@/ by scanning a t the l e v e l o f the P l a c e node b e f o r e t h e redundancy r u l e s have a p p l i e d , t h i s r u l e t a r g e t s / § / . By a p p l y i n g the r u l e of p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n a f t e r the f e a t u r e v a l u e s f o r /§/ have been f i l l e d p e r m its a coherent a c c o u n t i n g of the data. In a d d i t i o n , as i n the case o f simple r e t r a c t i o n , / ? / i s t r a n s p a r e n t t o the r u l e o f p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t maximal s c a n s i o n cannot be i n v o l v e d . Examples of the t r a n s p a r e n c y o f / ? / a r e found 112 i n ( 1 0 6 ) 4 8 . (106) / l i T i S ' / — > [leTe 0!'] "to s c a t t e r (e.g. people l e a v i n g a meeting)" / c i ? i S ' w / ~ > [ c e T e 0 ! 1 ^ " t o b l e e d " In a d d i t i o n t o Tongue Root s p r e a d i n g , the pharyn-g e a l 's marked v a l u e f o r [round] ( i . e . [+round]) a l s o spreads. On the s u r f a c e , i t l o o k s as though Tongue Root s p r e a d i n g and [round] s p r e a d i n g are one p r o c e s s . However, rounding of vowels adjacent t o consonants i s an indepen-d e n t l y motivated process i n L i l l o o e t which o c c u r s p e r v a -s i v e l y . Furthermore, rounding of consonants a d j a c e n t t o a rounded vowel a l s o o c c u r s . In many cases, i n p a r t i c u l a r w i t h i n r o o t s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether the source o f rounding i s the vowel or the consonant. However, i n the case o f p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n , i t appears t h a t rounding must o r i g i n a t e from the consonant as / § / i s i n h e r e n t l y unrounded. Thus, the sequence [oT*] i s d e r i v e d unques-t i o n a b l y (due to vowel length) from /©TV-Compensatory l e n g t h e n i n g r e s u l t s from the d e l e t i o n of the pharyngeal consonant i n f a s t speech p r o d u c t i o n . The r o o t node of the pharyngeal d e l i n k s l e a v i n g a v a c a n t Note t h a t i n both examples the t a r g e t vowel i s / i / , which I have not y e t d e a l t w i t h . Nonetheless, t h e i s s u e r e g a r d i n g / i / — > [e] does not a f f e c t the argument about the t r a n s p a r e n c y of / ? / . A l s o , see f o o t n o t e #10 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the s t a t u s of the vowel i n these examples. 113 s k e l e t a l s l o t ; the vowel then lengthens t o accommodate what would be a l o s s i n t i m i n g , and, where a g l o t t l i z e d p haryngeal i s d e l i n k e d , the Laryngeal node docks back onto the x - s l o t of the vowel. D e r i v a t i o n s f o r [ l a : l a : : t ] " f a s t " , [sp'a::?] "burned out area", [sc3::] " s t r i p e " , and [p5:?q w] " t o bump one's head" are g i v e n i n (107) - (110). (107)/1 @ N I x X '4 X N /\ X X X S k e l e t a l t i e r J I I I I L I P l a c e r+io] v.l D o r s a l Tongue Root [+ep i ] [+epi] [ l a : l a : : t ] F i r s t , [+epi] spreads from the pharyngeal onto the immediately p r e c e d i n g vowel. Then the pharyngeal's r o o t node d e l i n k s and the r o o t nodes of the vowels spread onto the s k e l e t a l s l o t o f the d e l i n k e d pharyngeal 49 T h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s whether t h i s c o u l d be handled i n moraic t h e o r y . D. Odden (p. c.) informs me t h a t g i v e n Hayes' (1989:258) r u l e Weight by P o s i t i o n , t r i - m o r a i c s y l l a b l e s are p o s s i b l e , as i n the case of E s t o n i a n . 114 (108)/S - p' 33 N / \ X X X X J 1 X 1 1 S k e l e t a l t i e r L a r y n g e a l P l a c e D o r s a l , Tongue Root [+lo] M t+epi] [sp'a::?] The d e r i v a t i o n proceeds i n e x a c t l y the same manner as i n (107). However, i n t h i s case the l a r y n g e a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s t h a t have been d e l i n k e d as p a r t o f the r o o t node d e l i n k i n g a r e docked back onto the r o o t node of the vowel. (109)/s - c ae CVW/ N / \ X X X X X o o o ^ o J I I L S k e l e t a l \ P l a c e L a b i a l D o r s a l Tongue Root [+10] \\ [+rd] [+epi] [sc3::] In (109), both [+epi] and [round] spread from the pharyn-g e a l onto the P l a c e and D o r s a l node of the vowel. Note t h a t the consonants are s p e c i f i e d f o r [round] under the 115 L a b i a l node f o l l o w i n g Sagey (1986). However, f o l l o w i n g Odden (1989), I p u t v o c a l i c [round] under t h e D o r s a l node. C o n s o n a n t a l [round] s p r e a d i n g from t h e L a b i a l node w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y dock o n t o t h e D o r s a l node o f t h e vowel s i m p l y because v o c a l i c [round] must be dominated by 50 D o r s a l . F o l l o w i n g t h e s p r e a d i n g o f [ r o u n d ] , t h e p l a c e node i s d e l i n k e d and t h e r o o t node o f t h e vowel s p r e a d s onto t h e f o l l o w i n g s k e l e t a l t i e r . ( H 0 ) / p x § N I X Cj.W 1 I X X I o [+rd] S k e l e t a l t i e r V" L a r y n g e a l P l a c e L a b i a l D o r s a l Tongue Root [+epi] [po:?q w] The d e r i v a t i o n p r o c e e d s i n t h e same manner as above s p r e a d i n g [+epi] and [+round], d e l i n k i n g t h e r o o t node o f t h e p h a r y n g e a l , s p r e a d i n g t h e r o o t node, and, f i n a l l y , d o c k i n g t h e d e l i n k e d L a r y n g e a l node o n t o t h e r o o t node o f O d d e n a l s o argues f o r t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y o f BackRound and High-ATR. I have n o t c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e s e c o n s t i t u e n t s h e r e because t h e y a r e n o t c r u c i a l t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n ; however, I assume h i s g r o u p i n g s . 116 the vowel. Thus f a r I have i g n o r e d the case of /i^/ because i t seems t o behave d i f f e r e n t l y from /§/ and / a e / . We would p r e d i c t t h a t / i / f o l l o w e d by a pharyngeal should s u r f a c e as r e t r a c t e d [e] w i t h a s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n of pharyngeal con-s t r i c t i o n ; however, the pharyngeal c o n s t r i c t i o n appears t o be m i s s i n g as seen i n the examples i n (111). ( l l l ) / l i S w / — > [le^] "to take a p a r t , t o t e a r down" / l i ? i c i | / ~ > [le?e <n' ] "to s c a t t e r (e.g. people l e a v i n g a meeting)" /ci?iS' w /—> [ceTeS^] "to b l e e d " I t remains t o be seen whether p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n of a f r o n t vowel i n L i l l o o e t i s p o s s i b l e (see s e c t i o n 1.2.2. f o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s i s s u e ) . The e f f e c t s of pharyngeals on / i / are u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g a t what l e v e l i n the t r e e geometry s p r e a d i n g o c c u r s . I f t h e p l a c e node were t o spread we would p r e d i c t t h a t a l l the s u r f a c e v a l u e s would n e u t r a l i z e t o [a] i n the case of unrounded pharyngeals and [5] f o r the rounded s e t because the o r i g i n a l f e a t u r e v a l u e s o f the vowel would be erased. However, s p r e a d i n g a t the lowest l e v e l i n the t r e e , [ +epi], r e s u l t s i n the c o r r e c t s u r f a c e forms i n a l l cases. 117 As f o r the spreading o f [round], we can draw no c o n c l u s i o n s as t o whether i t i s r u l e d out i n the case o f / i ° i w / d u e t o a c o n s t r a i n t such as the one i n (112), o r simply because the language has no f r o n t rounded vowels and must accommodate by e i t h e r b a c k i n g the f r o n t vowel or l o s i n g the [+round] s p e c i f i c a t i o n on a [-back] vowel. [-bk] [+rd] 4 . 3 . Summary To summarize the L i l l o o e t f a c t s : f i r s t , u v u l a r s and /z z'/ cause p r e c e d i n g vowels t o r e t r a c t . T h i s r u l e a p p l i e s l o c a l l y and scans a t a minimal l e v e l t a r g e t i n g the Dor s a l node. R e t r a c t i o n harmony spreads a r e t r a c t i n g f e a t u r e through a r o o t and a c r o s s c e r t a i n morpheme boundaries. P h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n , on the o t h e r hand, i s s i m i l a r t o r e t r a c t i o n t r i g g e r e d by u v u l a r s and /z z'/ i n manner. However, the vowel q u a l i t y t h a t r e s u l t s from p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t due t o r e t r a c -t i o n . Furthermore, the pharyngeals d e l e t e w h i l e t h e u v u l a r s and /z z'/ never do so. I have proposed t h a t the r e t r a c t i o n and pharyn-g e a l i z a t i o n f a c t s can be c a p t u r e d by i n v o k i n g a node Tongue Root and a f e a t u r e [ i e p i g l o t t i s ] t h a t account f o r the d i f f e r i n g p h o n e t i c f a c t s . In Chapter 5, I addres number of s u b s i d i a r y i s s u e s t h a t come about from t h i p r o p o s a l . Chapter 5 5.0. A r t i c u l a t o r co-occurrence A r t i c u l a t o r theory as proposed i n Sagey (1986) and supplemented i n Cole (1987), Czaykowska-Higgins (1987), Ladefoged and H a l l e (1988), McCarthy (1988, 1989), B e s s e l l and Remnant (1989), among o t h e r s , proves i n s i g h t f u l when attempting t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the e f f e c t s o f back a r t i -c u l a t i o n s on a g i v e n s e t of segments i n L i l l o o e t . Adding a f o u r t h a r t i c u l a t o r node — Tongue Root under the P l a c e node, as shown i n (113) — and an a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e [ e p i g l o t t i s ] dominated by Tongue Root, p e r m i t s an e x p l a n a -t o r y c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of r e t r a c t i o n and p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n as f e a t u r e s p r e a d i n g . (113) n a c e ^ ^ ^ L a b i a l " Coronal" "Dorsal "Tongue Root In a d d i t i o n , the t h e o r y makes p r e d i c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the a r t i c u l a t o r y s t a t u s o f the L i l l o o e t i n v e n t o r y . The co n s o n a n t a l i n v e n t o r y f i r s t p resented i n Chapter 3 can now be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of major a r t i c u l a t o r s : L a b i a l ( L ) , Coronal (C), Coronal and D o r s a l (C&D), C o r o n a l , D o r s a l and Tongue Root (C&D&TR), D o r s a l (D), D o r s a l and L a b i a l (D&L), D o r s a l and Tongue Root (D&TR), D o r s a l , Tongue Root and L a b i a l (D&TR&L), Tongue Root (TR), and Tongue Root and 119 120 L a b i a l (TR&L), as shown i n (2). Note t h a t the l a r y n g e a l s /h ?/ do not have a major a r t i c u l a t o r because they a re not s p e c i f i e d under the Pla c e node. L C C&D D D&L D&TR D&TR&L TR TR&L P P' t X ' c" k k 1 k W k ' w w x w q q' qW L C&D&TR s* X X z 1 m m« n n' z i 1' y y ¥ ¥' w w1 T r 7 . W ? Complex segments are repr e s e n t e d as c o - o c c u r r i n g a r t i c u l a t o r nodes which are unordered with r e s p e c t t o one another ( H a l l e 1982, Sagey 1986). H a l l e (1982:99) g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g examples of "double o c c l u s i o n s " . ( 1 1 5 ) l a b i o - v e l a r s [kp] Yoruba [akpa] "arm" l a b i o - c o r o n a l [PtI. Margi [pt§l] " c h i e f " c o r o n a l - v e l a r [? ] Zulu [f af a] " c l i m b " The tongue r o o t node, as argued i n B e s s e l l and Remnant (1989) and B e s s e l l (1990), a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the form a t i o n o f complex segments by c o - o c c u r r i n g w i t h the p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d nodes. Thus, the a d d i t i o n a l combinations, i n c l u d i n g the t r i p l y a r t i c u l a t e d segments, may be added t o the examples i n (115) t o o b t a i n a f u l l e r [? ] i n d i c a t e s a c o r o n a l - v e l a r c l i c k . 121 52 s e t o f complex segments ( 1 1 6 ) l a b i a l - t o n g u e r o o t : [T*] d o r s a l - t o n g u e r o o t : [q] coronal-tongue r o o t : Coeur d'Alene r e t r a c t e d / r / l a b i a l - d o r s a l - t o n g u e r o o t : [ q w ] l a b i a l - c o r o n a l - t o n g u e r o o t : u n a t t e s t e d c o r o n a l - d o r s a l - t o n g u e r o o t : L i l l o o e t / z / B e s s e l l and Remnant (1989) a l s o l i s t t he Caucasian language Ubykh and c o l l o q u i a l E g y p t i a n A r a b i c i n support o f a d d i t i o n a l c o - a r t i c u l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the Tongue Root node. Ubykh p h a r y n g e a l i z e s ( t h a t i s , spreads TR node) a f u l l range o f l a b i a l segments, i n c l u d i n g /p,b,p1,v,w,m/ (Co l a r u s s o 1975), and E g y p t i a n A r a b i c ( H a r r e l l 1957) can 53 spread emphasis (TR node) onto / b , m , f , l / (as can Morrocan A r a b i c , Heath 1987). 5.1. One More Fe a t u r e The f e a t u r e [ e p i g l o t t i s ] has been motivated i n or d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h the e f f e c t s o f r e t r a c t i o n from those o f p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n . Furthermore, c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a t i o n shows t h a t [ e p i ] i s r e q u i r e d t o account f o r the d i f f e r e n c -es t h a t pharyngeal harmony may have on segments. So, f o r B e s s e l l ( 1 9 9 0 ) suggests t h a t Coeur d'Alene r e t r a c t e d / r / i s a complex segment i n v o l v i n g the Coronal and Tongue Root nodes. 5 3 C o l l o q u i a l E g y p t i a n A r a b i c i s a l s o r e p o r t e d t o have an emphatic l a r y n g e a l : 7 . 122 example, L i l l o o e t r e q u i r e s a d i s t i n c t i o n between the e f f e c t s o f u v u l a r s and those o f pharyngeals, w h i l e Coeur d'Alene has tongue r o o t s p r e a d i n g from u v u l a r s and pharyngeals, but no d i s t i n c t i o n i n the r e s u l t i n g vowel q u a l i t y . Coeur d'Alene, t h e r e f o r e , does not r e q u i r e [ e p i g l o t t i s ] as one of i t s d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . (See R e i c h a r d 1938, Doak 1987, B e s s e l l and Remnant 1989, and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , B e s s e l l 1990 f o r d i s c u s s i o n and a n a l y s i s of Coeur d'Alene harmony; f o r Columbian, which has a s i m i l a r p r o c e s s , see Czaykowska-Higgins 1990.) The dependency of [ e p i g l o t t i s ] on the Tongue Root node i s p a r a l l e l t o the [ r o u n d ] / L a b i a l dependency d i s c u s s -ed i n Sagey (1986) and McCarthy (1988). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between [ e p i ] and TR e n t a i l s t h a t d i s t i n c t i v e l y [+epi] segments are s p e c i f i e d w i t h a TR node. Redundancy Rules w i l l apply t o a Tongue Root node i n a simplex s t r u c t u r e f i l l i n g i n [+epi] as the v a l u e 5 4 . The d e f a u l t r u l e : <p —> [-epi] f i l l s i n a l l o t h e r TR nodes ( t h a t i s , those i n complex s t r u c t u r e s ) . I t may be t h a t the v a l u e [-epi] i s never o p e r a t i v e i n p h o n o l o g i e s , i . e . , t h a t [ e p i ] i s a p r i v a t i v e f e a t u r e . N o t e t h a t the Redundancy Rules must apply b e f o r e the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the p h a r y n g e a l i z a t i o n r u l e so t h a t the d e s i r e d v a l u e f o r [epi] ( i . e . [+epi]) i s spread onto the vowels. 123 5.2. C o n c l u s i o n One i s s u e t h a t has not y e t been r a i s e d i n the p r e s e n t work i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Tongue Root and [advanced tongue r o o t ] ([ATR]), which has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been used t o account f o r vowel harmony systems i n A f r i c a n languages. These [ATR] harmony systems are i n some way s i m i l a r t o r e t r a c t i o n harmony i n L i l l o o e t and o t h e r S a l i s h languages i n t h a t the vowel a l t e r n a t i o n appears t o i n v o l v e t e n s i n g v ersus l a x i n g or tongue advancement (the n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n ) and tongue r e t r a c t i o n . However, the d i f f e r e n c e s between the systems are s t r i k i n g . The S a l i s h f a c t s show consonant and vowel i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o harmony w h i l e the A f r i c a n systems i n v o l v e o n l y vowels. Cook (1989), Czaykowska-Higgins (1987), and B e s s e l l (1990) have a l l noted the a r t i c u l a t o r y s i m i l a r i t i e s between [ATR] and S a l i s h r e t r a c t i o n (which has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n a number of d i f f e r e n t ways, most n o t a b l y [RTR] and Tongue Root s p r e a d i n g ) . Though i t seems t h a t p r o p o s i n g both [ATR] and Tongue Root i n a u n i v e r s a l f e a t u r e h i e r a r c h y i s redundant, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h must determine what the correspondences between t h e s e f e a t u r e s are and how they can be c o l l a p s e d (or f o r t h a t matter, d i s t i n g u i s h e d ) w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r f u n c t i o n s i n language systems. Appendix 1 T h i s appendix c o n t a i n s a l i s t o f words c o n t a i n i n g r e t r a c t e d segments found i n van E i j k (1985). Though I have t r i e d t o r e p r e s e n t a c c u r a t e l y the data i n van E i j k ' s work, e r r o r s and omissions found h e r e i n are due t o my o v e r s i g h t . I have here f o l l o w e d van E i j k i n h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the segments which d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from those used i n the body of the t h e s i s . A l l the r e t r a c t e d segments are i n d i c a t e d by u n d e r l i n i n g ; the phonemic vowels are the same as e l s e -where, wit h the e x c e p t i o n o f / a / i n the appendix r e p r e s e n -t e d by /ae/ i n the t h e s i s . The numbers i n the l e f t h a n d column r e f e r t o the page on which the form i s g i v e n i n the grammar. 3. q£l 17. q f i q i i 23. q @ l - t i ? 23. q i l - L k a n 3. q@l-wil'x 28. q@l-aL-tmix w 2 6. ql-al'g w@m' 41. n - q l - a l c ' a ? "bad" "good f o r n o t h i n g , u s e l e s s " ( r e d u p l i c a t i v e form o f q@l "bad" " t h a t i s bad" "I am bad" " t o get s p o i l e d " "storm" " u g l y " "cranky" 124 125 n-ql-anwa^-min q§l-q@l-nux w-min' q@l-q@l-xn-an-c*ut p£m pimp p@mp-sut pm-ilx pmiml'@x Lgnkaya c'£np t§sp %'filp L@_np "to d i s l i k e smt./smb." "to be u n f r i e n d l y t o smb. t r " "to s u f f e r from l a c k o f h e l p " " f a s t " " f a s t " "to run on without b e i n g a b l e t o s t o p " "to h u rry" i d i o m a t i c (redup. form o f pm-ilx) " c a s t - i r o n p o t " " r i n g i n g sound" "to t r i l l , v i b r a t e (e.g. i t a b l e when h i t with a f i s t ) 1 1 (1) " l o t s o f n o i s e (e.g. at a p a r t y ) 1 1 (2) " v i b r a t i n g sound (more o r l e s s l i k e t§sp) "sound of t h i n g s shaking, r a U l i A ^ ^ -Vo N^VV)voice. } s a l s a l @ l "to d r i p i n a s t r i n g ( l i k e s y r u p ) " "to d r i p i n a s t r i n g ( l i k e s y r u p ) " 126 29. 5. 5. 8. 8. 56. 8. 42. 42. 108, 42. 8. 8. 8. 9. 9. 9. 9. 9 10. 10. 59. n - s a l ' l ' - e g p a l p i l t q w§zq waz (M) x w?az x w ? a ? z ' - a L xniz'az 1 (M) c ' u l 1 c'a?p c'aTp-al'iw's* psus psusaz' k wuzxal (M) qa?§z« (M) w zuq S t u t (F) Suq'w@m q wuq w£@m' La?qs" ?uq wa? ?u?q wa? s-?uq wa? "to drool, slobber" "vibra t i n g sound ( l i k e a s t r i n g being plucked)" "stubborn" "blue" "no, not" "good for nothing, unwilling to do anything)" "gooseberry bush" "sour, b i t t e r (of b e r r i e s ) " "sour (of smth. fermented)" "to have body-odour" "wild (bitter) cherry" "wild cherry bush" > "to spread out b e r r i e s to dry" " t i r e d " "dead" " c r i c k e t " "to skin an animal" "to shoot/hunt small animals" "to go ashore" "to drink" "to drink a l i t t l e b i t " "drink, beverage" 10. ?a?Xa? 105. k w £ l 10. k w l - i ? 41. k w l - i t 105. £-k wl-al'gt 109. kw£l-nt-aks*t 41. k w l - i c ' a ? 10. c@m'cm'@qw 10. "X'ai 40. \'al-an 10. S - X ' a V i i i " ^ 10. Lut 40. Lut-un' 10. LuLt-@n' 76. L£t-Lat 10. paq wu? 10. paq w?-an 11. na?q' 12. t i q w l a w ? a 12. p l q 127 " s a c r e d , s u p e r n a t u r a l , t a l e n t e d " ( i n some i d i o l e c t s — o t h e r w i s e non-retracted) "green, y e l l o w " "green, y e l l o w " " b r a s s " " j a d e " " y e l l o w t r e e moss (Evernia v u l p i n a ) " " b u c k s k i n / l e a t h e r c o a t " "t o get mired" "to b i t e " "to b i t e , t r . " "to c a r r y smth. i n one's naih ( l i k e a dog c a r r y i n g a bone)" "t o squash smth. s o f t (esp. a bug)" "to squash, t r . " "to squash i t w e l l " "squishy, s o f t " " t o be a f r a i d " "to s c a r e smb., t r . " " r o t t e n " "the onion" "white" 12. s"t£XW 12. x W £ l p 1 3 . x ' iq 13. k i ? X 14. payt 14. piyp£py'@t 17. SniL-a-qa? 41. ? a l s 17. ?als-@m (M) 23. ?als-@m-Lkan 23. ?als-@m-Lkan-kL 30. ?a?Pl's-@m 125. ?alsm-az 1-am 18. X w a X w s 18. q W a q w X 21. z a ? X w 22. L u q W x i t 25. ka-p£t-a 25. ka-L£k-a 12. SLfik 27. c i q w 27. c;@q w-c:iq w 27. c ' @ q w ? i q w 128 " t r u e , v e r y " "breeze" "to a r r i v e here" "cranky ( l i k e baby)" " f i g h t " "to q u a r r e l " " w e l l , i t ' s him" " s i c k " " s i c k " "I am s i c k " "I might get s i c k " "a l i t t l e b i t s i c k " " t o pretend t o be s i c k " " f o r k e d " "nightmare" "thaw" "to serve ( f o o d ) " "to get squished" "to get v e r y t i r e d , t o conk out" " l a z y , m o t i o n l e s s " i d i o m a t i c " r e d " "salmon s t r e t c h e r " 30. caqcq@t 32. q wuq wu? 32. k wusa? 32. kwus?-al'm@n 40. k wus?-al'nup 110. k wusa?-xin 32. SqaXa? 33. m@lam@n 3 4. sgx-am 32. ^-p'i?-@l'waS 36. k wusu 36. t i - k v u s u - a 36. k wusuh-i 3 6. k wusuh-aLc 1 a? 40. l@s 41. l@sp 42. L§c 40. c ' l i p 1 40. k ' l i p 1 69. S-k»£l-k ,lip'q w 40. wellk' 40. m@li-L§p 40. c'n'-al'us-@m 129 "tame" "small body of water" "to urinate (men or animals)" "to want to urinate" "to wet one's bed" "nightslipper" "dog" "medicine" "a man's name, r e f e r r i n g to hi s craziness" "squeezed i n the middle" "pig" "the p i g " " t h e i r p i g " "pork" "to cave i n " "to cave i n " "to cave i n " "to pinch" "cur l y " "curly h a i r " "sound made by frogs" "balsam f i r " "to take aim" k'£l k»l-ulm'@x w x w i c 1 - a m - a y a m i k 1 i l - u l y a ? s-p£lx w sp£pli@x w p@lx w-anis' s - p l a n t L£mk mac 1uL suspa? s@xam p@pila? S-k'fiL-t c@m'gw k ' f i L - t - u l - w i L miXaL maqa? maqa? (F) "to make a mark by s c r a t c h i n g " "boundary" "see-saw" " s t i c k y o i l " " t o s t i c k out" "to s t i c k out a l i t t l e b i t " " j u s t about showing" "skunk" "broken, not u s a b l e any m^1 "pus" proper name (from suspa? " t a i l " ) p r o p e r name (from sxam " f o o l i s h , i r r e s p o n s i b l e " ) "to swing (as c h i l d r e n ' s game)" "t o s t a n d s t i l l i n the a i r (e.g. a fish h a w k ) " "mud" "to g e t s t u c k i n the mud" "earthenware pot, c r o c k " "bear" "snow" "poison o n i o n " 4 8 . laplas' 61. l£-mica?q 61. mi£a?q 63. n - s - p X i l 1 65. s - c 1 - q w u l - a k a 65. g-c'-q wul-ax§n 110. q w u l 110. £-q wlul-a?x§n 66. L i q ' 76. n-kah-aw 1 s' 76. n-kah-kh-aw' s' 79. c@k-a-c@k-a 82. kil-us'-§m 85. X w ? u l 105. s - l i w - l ' G s t 106. c:a?k-alin 106. k 1@Xm-alin 107. X i V - u l 'ax w 107. t@-x vcaL 131 "board" " s i t t i n g " " t o s i t down or up" " s t i n g y " "thumb" " b i g t o e " c f . q w u l " f u l l " "hoof" "to s t e a l " " r a i l r o a d t r a c k " "to walk a l o n g the r a i l r o a d t r a c k " " b l u e - j a y " ( r e f e r s t o t h e sound i t makes when i t i s f o r e c a s t i n g b a d weather o r b r i n g i n g bad news) "t o be embarrassed, h u r t " name o f a mountain "sharp, l i t t l e r o c k s " "metal c o o l s o f f " name o f a mountain over which the wind (k'@X@m) i s always blowing a p l a c e c l o s e t o Mount C u r r i e "tongue, p a r t o f t h e mouth" 111. p'@s 111. s-p1@s-qs 111. p'@sk'a? 120. St'emalt-x wix w§lt 160. kah 222. wa? 222. ?i£ta? 222. ?u-X'u?-ti? 22. s i 246. sq w£q w£l« 263. m1@sm'8s 274. pahy8qs 116. £k wazuaz' 119. muzmit 125. ^@m?amuz' 104. k'zuz 104. sV@zuzalt nq'@lx-az' 69. spzoza? 70. q w l i t a z ' i32 g l o s s not g i v e n "nose" "hummingbird" " c a l f " (F) " c a r " e x p r e s s i o n o f d i s b e l i e f t i n g e d w i t h r i d i c u l e , mainly used by men e x p r e s s i o n o f d i s b e l i e f ; also used when smb. does smth. s i l l y e x p r e s s i o n o f anger o r anno-yance, e.g. when n o t i c -i n g t h a t smb. i s c h e a t i n g " k i s s my a...!" ( e x p r e s s i o n of s t r o n g d i s a p p r o v a l ) " s t o r y " "grouse" p e r s o n a l name " d o l l " " p i t i f u l " " g i r l f r i e n d , m i s t r e s s " "to have tw i n s " "twins" "to swim around" " b i r d " 11 j a c k p i n e " 98. ?az n-?i?z'@k ? i q ' 82. c u l - l @ x 1 3 3 " n i c e " "to be i n the middle o f " " t o s c r a pe" " t o s t r e t c h o n e s e l f r e a c h i n g f o r smt." Appendix 2 T h i s appendix c o n t a i n s a l i s t o f a l l the words c o n t a i n i n g p h a r y n g e a l i z e d segments found i n van E i j k (1985). The numbers i n the l e f t h a n d column r e f e r t o the page number on which the form i s gi v e n i n the grammar. I have l i s t e d van E i j k ' s u n d e r l y i n g form i n the second column, and the f a s t speech form i s found i n the t h i r d column. (The c i t a t i o n form can be obtained by s h o r t e n i n g the vowel and adding a p o s t - v o c a l i c pharyngeal consonant.) The c o l o n : i s used t o i n d i c a t e r e l a t i v e l e n g t h o f v o c a l i c segments and not t o show phonemically long vowels. 17. / p i ? ^ / [pe?a?] "faded" 13. / p e ^ P / [pa:p] " d u l l , faded (of colour)" 13. ?c@p] "caught i n a trap" 13. [V^X , ( 7 W@m] "hard" 13 . / P ^ ' V V [po:?q w] "to bump one's head" 14. / l ^ l a S t / [ l a : l a : : t ] " f a s t " (F) 14. /Sp'a^V [sp'a::?] "burned out area" 14. /scu/T*/ [sc3: : ] " s t r i p e " 14. / n c u ( J , w k / [n&o::?k] "s t r i p e on one's back" 20. / i s?7 [13:] "to hide" 134 14. /l@7 w§n/ [lS^en] 16. / - a l u 7 , w / [-3315::?] /liT/ [ l e l W ] 17. / l i T i n 1 / [leTey.'] 17. /«i?i <j> w/ [ ee?e < J ' w ] 30. / f W l ' @ p / f j w 5 : l ' g p ] 33. /n- <Je6ulm'§x w/ [na<7@^ulm'@xw] 44. /fc§7/ [Sa:] 123. / s i 7 w / [ s e 7 w ] 135 "to h i d e smth." " g a l l " (?) 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