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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Canadian political party practices and the candidacy of women in the 1988 national election Rohde, Colleen G 1990

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CANADIAN P O L I T I C A L PARTY P R A C T I C E S AND THE CANDIDACY OF WOMEN IN THE 1988 NATIONAL ELECTION by COLLEEN G. ROHDE M.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1990  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Political  Science  Department)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r 1990 © C o l l e e n G. R o h d e , 1990  In  presenting  degree freely  at  the  available  copying  of  department publication  this  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  study.  scholarly  or  her  for  Political  financial  gain  Science  DE-6  (2/88)  September 2 4 t h ,  1990  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  I  I further  purposes  permission.  Department of  of  be  It not  is be  that  the  for  Library  an shall  permission for  granted  by  understood allowed  the  advanced make  extensive  head  that  without  it  of  copying my  my or  written  i i  ABSTRACT C a n a d a ' s t h r e e major p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s h a v e l a m e n t e d t h e l a c k o f women s e e k i n g c a n d i d a c y f o r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e . Y e t few o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s h a v e b e e n u s e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f women c a n d i d a t e s and Members o f P a r l i a m e n t . Given the important r o l e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s p l a y i n m e d i a t i n g and s t r u c t u r i n g l e g i s l a t i v e c a n d i d a c i e s , t h e c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s and p a r t y p r a c t i c e s can a c t as b a r r i e r s to female p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a n t s , b o t h a t t h e n o m i n a t i o n and e l e c t i o n s t a g e s . This t h e s i s a n a l y z e s b o t h a g g r e g a t e e l e c t i o n d a t a and t h e r e s u l t s o f a systematic, c o n s t i t u e n c y l e v e l , survey o f the nomination p r o c e s s e s o f t h e New D e m o c r a t i c , L i b e r a l and P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s c o n d u c t e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e 1988 g e n e r a l election. The t h e s i s f i n d s t h a t much o f t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r lack o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c a n be f o u n d i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f a l l t h r e e p a r t i e s to nominate d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e numbers o f women c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s where t h e y have l i t t l e c h a n c e o f s u c c e s s . Limited c o m p e t i t i o n f o r n o m i n a t i o n s and t h e p r a c t i c e o f a l l p a r t i e s n o t to c h a l l e n g e i n c u m b e n t s who s e e k r e s e l e c t i o n a l s o b e n e f i t women c a n d i d a t e s l e s s t h a n t h e y do t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . This t h e s i s argues that use o f s t r u c t u r e s such as s e l e c t i o n c o m m i t t e e s and e n c o u r a g e m e n t f r o m n a t i o n a l p a r t y o f f i c i a l s f o r l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t o n o m i n a t e women c a n h a v e a p o s i t i v e i m p a c t on t h e number o f women who s e e k p o l i t i c a l c a n d i d a c y .  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS List  of Tables  iv  Chapter  1.  Introduction  Chapter a) b) c) d )  S. Underrepresentation the extent women's g r o u p s party responses t h e o r i es  6 6 8 10 13  Chapter  3.  17  Portrait  1  o f a Candidate  a) a g e b) o c c u p a t i o n c) p a r t y s e r v i c e d) p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e e) c o n s t i t u e n c y r e s i d e n c y f) summary Chapter a) b) c) Chapter  Chapter  .  'Lost  26 88 89  Cause C a n d i d a t e s ' ?  31  e l e c t o r a l p r o s p e c t s o f women c a n d i d a t e s by p r o v i n e e / r e g i o n l o c a l p e r c e p t i o n o f e l e c t o r a l c h a n c e s and women c a n d i d a t e s summary 5.  6.  7.  B i b1i ography  33 58 56  Incumbency, Competitiveness and F e m a l e C a n d i d a t e s  57  Mechanisms o f C a n d i d a t e  61  a) b) c)  Chapter  18 19  Recruitment  o u t s i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t f o r woman c a n d i d a t e search committees e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s o f women and search committees d> o u t s i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t and s e a r c h comm i t t e e s e) summary  68 68  75 76  Conclusion  78  73  88  1 V  LIST 2.1  2.2  Percent Women:  o f Major P a r t y  Candidates,  1 9 8 0 - 8 8  Women C a n d i d a t e s General  OF TABLES  Elections  7  and MPs i n C a n a d i a n 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 8 8  7  3.1  Candidates'  3.2  Occupation  3.3  Occupational Success  3.^t  Candidates' Length o f P a r t y S e r v i c e by G e n d e r P o l i t i c a l Experience of Candidates by Gender  3.5  ^. 1  H-.2  1 9 8 0 ,  ^.3  .h  and C a n d i d a t e s '  Percent of P a r t i e s ' Women by R e g i o n ( 1 9 Summary  of Seats  1 9 8 ^ ,  Percentage Candidates  19  Age by Gender  Rates  Gender  2 0  by G e n d e r  21  Candidates  Which  2 ^ 2 7 Were  8 8 )  3 6  Won by P r o v i n c e and P a r t y  1 9 8 8  3 7  P o i n t s >/< A v e r a g e P e r c e n t a g e o f 3 9  M a l e and F e m a l e E l e c t o r a l and P r o v i n c e ( 1 9 8 8 )  Success  by P a r t y  ^.5  C a n d i d a t e s / M P s p e r P a r t y by P r o v i n c e  5 0  4-.6  Chances o f E l e c t o r a l by C a n d i d a t e G e n d e r  5H  *f. 7  5.1  6.1  Success  i n Constituency  P e r c e n t a g e o f P a r t y C a n d i d a t e s and C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s o f Seat C a n d i d a t e Gender Nom i n a t i o n  and C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s o f 5 7  C a n d i d a t e G e n d e r and O u t s i d e f o r Female (Nonincumbents>  Encouragement  6.2  Search  6.3  S e a r c h C o m m i t t e e s and F e m a l e A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s (Nonincumbents)  Committees  5^t  by P a r t y  6^t 6 8  7 0  V  S e a r c h C o m m i t t e e s and C a n d i d a t e s by P a r t y Search Committees f o r Female  Nonincumbent  and O u t s i d e  Encouragement  1  Chapter  1. I n t r o d u c t i o n :  All  t h r e e o f Canada's major  expressed  a commitment  to i n c r e a s i n g  seek  and a c h i e v e e l e c t i o n  the  198^ and 1988 C a n a d i a n  Conservative, concern  that  political  Liberal  parties  the status play  political  thesis  affect  national  seats  i n mediating  both  the ranks o f  and l o c a l  levels  role  c a n a c t as b a r r i e r s  political  rhetoric  political  legislative  at the nomination  process  But t h e p a r t i e s  on t h e i r  the important  d e s c r i b e s these p r a c t i c e s  to f e m a l e  and e l e c t i o n  and d e m o n s t r a t e s  office.  I t argues  and p a r t y p r a c t i c e s  c a n be a d a p t e d  their  have been d i r e c t e d a t  and s t r u c t u r i n g  party practices  selection  t h e number  Given  both  indicated  among  to d e l i v e r efforts  During  campaigns, the  parties  underrepresented  quo.  women who seek  candidate  how  they  that the  a t both the  and u s e d  o f women c a n d i d a t e s and t h e number  stages.  to i n c r e a s e  o f women who  take  i n t h e House o f Commons. The  collected  d a t a upon w h i c h  Parties. Fraser  The s u r v e y  University  Columbia.  a good  i n a 1988 s u r v e y  t h e New D e m o c r a t i c ,  the  and New D e m o c r a t i c  f o rfailing  aspirants,  have  o f women who  c a n d i d a t e s and Members o f P a r l i a m e n t .  candidacies,  This  t h e number  general election  few c o n c r e t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  changing  parties  t o t h e House o f Commons.  women r e m a i n  have been c r i t i c i z e d since  political  Liberal  deal of this  was  and P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e  was c o n d u c t e d  by L . E r i c k s o n o f Simon  and R.K. C a r t y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y  election  relies  of the constituency a s s o c i a t i o n s of  8 8 ^ q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t  1988 n a t i o n a l  thesis  of B r i t i s h  immediately  to the o f f i c i a l  agents  following  of every  2  candidate  nominated  were c o m p l e t e d The r e t u r n s parties.  by  three  and r e t u r n e d  are  for  representative  The s u r v e y  constituency  the  covered  candidate  candidate  search  candidate  selected.*  major p a r t i e s . a response  of  as  rate  regions  a number o f  selection  processes  the  as  of  k1  the  of  88^,  367  percent.  and t h e  areas  including  well  Of t h e  three  local  nomination  characteristics  and  of  the  Summary; Chapter chapter female  to  2 of  d)  women's g r o u p s  essentially  to  have the  theories  underrepresented. exists,  that  responses  problem of  concerned  an  and f e m a l e  to  for  a)  the  extent  the  organized  change  the  status  to  underrepresentation responses  that  increasing,  quo;  and  difficult;  why women  demonstrates is  of  some o f  explain  a solution  introductory  and  are a problem but  that  difficult.  3 focuses  with  occupation,  be  seek  The d i s c u s s i o n  pressure  will  Chapter  which  b)  undertaken  norms w h i c h make more e f f e c t i v e  varying  male  is  underrepresentation;  c) • p a r t y r e s p o n s e s party  thesis  p r o v i d e background which d e s c r i b e s :  political  efforts  this  whether  on  the  there  candidates.  political  candidates. are  systematic  The v a r i a b l e s  experience,  The c h a p t e r  is  differences considered  party service  and  between  are  age,  constituency  Two r e c e n t p a p e r s h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n u s i n g t h i s d a t a . See L y n d a E r i c k s o n and R . K . C a r t y , " C a n d i d a t e S e l e c t i o n i n C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s " , n . p . , n . d . , and L y n d a E r i c k s o n and R . K . C a r t y , "Making Her Way I n : Women, t h e House o f Commons and P a r t y C a n d i d a c i e s i n Canada", n . p . , n . d .  3  residency. win  The q u e s t i o n  election  typical  because  i s , do women f a i l  they  do n o t have  o f male p o l i t i c i a n s .  because,  This  i f women a r e r e j e c t e d  qualifications  make them  less  t h e number provide female  o f women would  a definitive  less to  political  reside  tend  nominated  in spite  nomination  characteristics. c a n d i d a t e s ought these  are  parties their that party  H- t u r n s  predominantly  women t e n d has l i t t l e  characteristics critical  factors  or whether  they  from  do n o t d i f f e r  parties  who  lost  these  women  on t h e b a s i s  political in ridings  s t u d i e s have  in ridings success.  who w i l l  those  for office.  Previous  should  likely  a r e not g r e a t , nor  significantly,  i n determining  have  were  that  candidacy  n o m i n a t e women c a n d i d a t e s  chance o f e l e c t o r a l  than  office,  too possessed  qualifications  i s slim.  that  and a r e more  h o w e v e r , be s u g g e s t e d  t o become c a n d i d a t e s  win e l e c t i o n ,  seek  to t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether  chance o f success  cannot  does r e v e a l  differences  s i n c e the d i f f e r e n c e s  t h e r e we 1 1 - a r t i c u 1 a t e d  at increasing  I t i s not p o s s i b l e to  qualities,  n o t t o be e x c l u d e d  differences  Chapter  will  I t can,  when t h e y  these  b i d s d i d so b e c a u s e  their  o c c u p a t i o n a l groups  and p a r t y s e r v i c e ,  t h e women w i t h  than  This thesis  but the a n a l y s i s different  their  candidates  changes d i r e c t e d  t o be y o u n g e r  of these  to c o n s i d e r  because  attractive  outside the constituency. whether  of  answer  experience  determine  their  i s important  be m i s d i r e c t e d .  c a n d i d a t e s come f r o m  male c a n d i d a t e s ,  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  by r i d i n g s  male c o l l e a g u e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  t o be n o m i n a t e d and  where  where  shown  their  If candidate and a r e n o t  be n o m i n a t e d  n o t be r e l u c t a n t  and who  to o f f e r  women s e a t s w h i c h both  the survey  information, Chapter  and a r e v i e w the p a r t i e s  demonstrates  women a r e l e s s  s e a t s , one might  competition  in their  However, C h a p t e r candidates female  face  significant  impact  nature  on t h i s  i n their  of candidate  But t h e d a t a  less  their  party  practice  the  first  which  then  turns  they  relate  aspect  reselection  would  than  discussed  face  male  less  candidates. i s true.  nomination  of the candidate  selection  f o r incumbents  t o go  b i d , and t h e u n c o m p e t i t i v e to a c a n d i d a t e ' s  women c a n d i d a t e s limited  benefit  c o m p e t i t i o n and t h e  incumbents. i n Chapters future.  the process mechanism  ridings  to a d i s c u s s i o n  3, ^ and 5 a r e  Chapter  o f change.  of national  6 t u r n s to o f women  The c h a p t e r party  t o n o m i n a t e women c a n d i d a t e s .  o f the use o f search  candidacy.  m e c h a n i s m s c a n be e f f e c t i v e l y  Male  t h a n do  c a n u s e t o i n c r e a s e t h e number  c a n speed  to female  as c a n d i d a t e s i n  i s shown t o have a  c a n work  i n t h e immediate  of local  r e l a t i n g to  the opposite  r e v e a l s that  at the general  encouragement  that  o f not c h a l l e n g i n g  mechanisms p a r t i e s  looks  bids  male c o l l e a g u e s f r o m  to change  candidates  they  in a l l parties  None o f t h e f a c t o r s likely  that  incumbency  selection,  benefit. than  t o be s e l e c t e d  competition f o r their Again,  election  women s a f e s e a t s .  party practices  likely  suggest  The tendency  unchallenged  of the aggregate  However,  role.  nomination  less  chance o f winning.  do n o t o f f e r  that  5 illustrates  candidates.  process.  h a v e a good  p l a y an i m p o r t a n t  Since safe  data  suggest  ^ also  incumbency  they  The d a t a  directed  It  committees as  shows t h a t  at increasing  these t h e number  5  of  female candidates.  definite  party  effect:  mechanisms might aspirants  throughout direction advance  help  for office  A final  chapter  the  The The  and  undoubtedly  summarizes offers  take  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of must  their  nominated  t h e s i s and  change  also reveals  NDP's g r e a t e r  explain  p a r t i e s might  the  chapter  use  greater  of  that  there  is a  these  number  of  female  candidates.  the  findings discussed  tentative conclusions  i f there women.  i f immediate  for  i s a genuine d e s i r e  the to  Party p r a c t i c e s results  are  to be  realized.  6  Chapter a)  2. U n d e r r e p r g s e n t a t i o n :  The Ex t e n t : The  each  election  remains election ran  number  o f women who seek  year,  low.  Only  candidates, 1988  SO p e r c e n t Between  office.  increases  candidates  of a l l candidates  i n t h e 1988  1920 and 1970 i n C a n a d a , 300 women  I n 1984 a l o n e ,  206 women s t o o d a s  131 o f them r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e 3 m a j o r  t h e number  climbed  b u t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f women  were women.  for national  party nominations  o f women c a n d i d a t e s  t o a r e c o r d 302 c a n d i d a t e s  on f e d e r a l with  parties.  election  By  ballots  174 o f them r e p r e s e n t i n g  2 the  t h r e e major In  for  parties.  1984, s i x t y - f i v e  the L i b e r a l s  candidates.  while  As T a b l e  party  women were NDP c a n d i d a t e s ,  the Conservatives 2.1 shows,  nominated  t h e number  i n 1984 was a l m o s t  each  but  i n 1988 t h e i n c r e a s e was n o t q u i t e a s d r a m a t i c . o f women c a n d i d a t e s  only  i n c r e a s e s from  modest  When we s p e a k the 13  t r u e measure. percent  f o r each  number  party,  in  Table  candidates in  1980,  In t e r m s o f 2.1 shows  1984 t o 1988. i n Parliament i s  2.2 r e v e a l s , women s t i l l  o f t h e Members o f P a r l i a m e n t ,  women were e l e c t e d  their  o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , membership As T a b l e  23 women  o f women  for  percentages  double  43 women r a n  even  though  make up o n l y a r e c o r d 39  1988.  Over t h e p e r i o d d i s c u s s e d h e r e , t h e s i z e o f t h e House o f Commons i n c r e a s e d f r o m 235 s e a t s i n 1920 t o 295 i n 1988. In 1984 t h e number o f s e a t s s t o o d a t 282 and was i n c r e a s e d t o 295 i n 1988.  7  Percent  o f Major  1980  Par t y i  1984  5.0 ( 1 4 ) 8.2 ( 2 3 ) 11.7 ( 3 3 )  P.C. L i bera1 NDP A l l Three Par t i e s Bracketed  T a b l e 2.1 P a r t y C a n d i d a t e s , Women:  8.2 ( 7 0 ) figures  indicate  1921 1968 1972 1974 1979 1980 1984 1988  1988  8.2 ( 2 3 ) 16.0 ( 4 5 ) 22.7 ( 6 4 )  12.5 (37) 18.0 (53) 28.4 ( 8 4 )  15.6 ( 1 3 2 )  19.6 ( 1 7 4 )  numbers o f women c a n d i d a t e s  T a b l e 2.2 Women C a n d i d a t e s and MPs i n C a n a d i a n 1921 - 1988 ( p e r c e n t women) Year  G e n e r a l E1ec t i ons  Cand i d a t e s - 1967*  •Average  for elections  1980-88  2.4 3.5 6.4 9.4 13.8 14.4 14.5 19.8 between  M.P.s 0.8 0.4 1 .8 3.4 3.6 5.0 9.6 13.2  1921 and 1967  1980 and 1984 f i g u r e s a r e b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n S y l v i a B a s h e v k i n , T o e i n g t h e L i n e s : Women and P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n E n g l i s h C a n a d a . ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1985), p . 73. 1988 f i g u r e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by E l e c t i o n s Canada. S t a t i s t i c s f o r 1921 t o 1984 were t a k e n f r o m J a n i n e B r o d i e , Women and P o l i t i c s i n C a n a d a , T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n L i m i t e d , 1985, p . 4. T h o s e f o r 1988 were c o m p i l e d f r o m t h e R e p o r t o f t h eC h i e f E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r and i n f o r m a t i o n g r a t e f u l l y r e c e i v e d from E l e c t i o n s Canada.  B  Because o f the extent limited  amount o f c h a n g e  organized  across  women t o t h i n k teach  parties  a career  career  that  to address  a number  the point because  and t o  briefly  that the  the p o l i t i c a l women f a c e  when  in politics.  Since  point  the next  the  Status  f o r their  representation  have  national election.  efforts.  The N a t i o n a l  o f Women (NAC) had p u b l i s h e d  election  k i t called  outlined  the feminist platform  Action  on a number  up  C o m m i t t e e on  30,000 c o p i e s  "Women and t h e F e d e r a l  by t h e p o l i t i c a l  come  The 1 9 8 8 e l e c t i o n  groups.  o f 1 9 8 7 , women's g r o u p s had been g e a r i n g  the f a l l  for  p a r t i e s to a d d r e s s  and t h e i s s u e o f f e m a l e  o f p u b l i c advocacy  became a f o c a l  advice  section  t h e problems which  d i r e c t e d at the p o l i t i c a l  women's c o n c e r n s  left  and makes  option  Groups;  Pressure  void  The n e x t  have  to encourage  as a r e a l i s t i c  goal.  activity  and t h e  women's g r o u p s change,  groups a r e necessary  have f a i l e d  seek  years,  to advocate  of a p o l i t i c a l  o f these  b) Women's  from  the country  some o f t h i s  activities  they  i n recent  women how t o p u r s u e  describes  of underrepresentation,  Election"  o f an which  of issues.  Filling  a  p a r t i e s , t h e NAC p u b l i c a t i o n o f f e r e d  o n how t o become a c a n d i d a t e  and g e t t h e r i d i n g  nomination. Conferences various to  cities  sponsored  across  run f o r o f f i c e .  finances  often  non-partisan  Canada  i n an e f f o r t  Recognizing  deter  group  by women's g r o u p s were a l s o  female  working  that  f o r equal  t o e n c o u r a g e more women  insufficient  candidates,  held i n  personal  t h e C o m m i t t e e F o r '94, a  representation  f o r women,  9  called  f o r p u b l i c funding  of elections.  As L i b b y  Burnham, a  member o f t h e C o m m i t t e e  F o r '94 m a i n t a i n e d :  influence  we must  more women; t h e r e f o r e we must  financial  barriers.  elect  ... P u b l i c f u n d i n g  "To have  political remove t h e  means more women c o u l d r u n  5 for  office  and be e l e c t e d " .  Other their  efforts  advocate largest the  g r o u p s have sprung to those  political  women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , h e a d e d  activities,  federal  election  elections.  they  with  g r o u p s seem  their  called  begun  or w i l l  political  fill  which  skills could  a void  left  NAC who  One o f Q u e b e c ' s Cou1ombe-Jo 1y,  women's g r o u p s .  As p a r t o f  30 women t o r u n i n t h e 1988 Quebec  municipal  Representation,  i n Ottawa, Winnipeg,  t h e 52 P e r C e n t  a r e both  these  a gap w h i c h  not adequately  H a l i f a x and  committed to politicians.  and o t h e r  women's  the p o l i t i c a l  parties  address.  t o women t o groom  T h e i r e f f o r t s to  them f o r o f f i c e a r e  political  by t h e p a r t i e s .  a  Solution, a  o f e l e c t e d female  efforts,  complement  adding  e t d ' a c t i o n s o c i a l e , has  i n Newfoundland,  advocacy  t o be f i l l i n g  cannot  functions often  group  chapters  like  by L o u i s e  upcoming  o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e number  Beyond  teach  recruited  and t h e t h e n  group  non-partisan  either  d'education  600 d i f f e r e n t  Edmonton and a g r o u p  goal  groups  C a n a d i a n Women f o r P o l i t i c a l  non-partisan  several years  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f women.  30,000 members f r o m  the  of long-standing  A s s o c i a t i o n feminine  their  up i n t h e p a s t  party  efforts  One e f f e c t  these  In C a t h e r i n e Dunphy, "On t h e march f o r p o l i t i c a l T o r o n t o S t a r . F e b r u a r y 2, 1988, p . C I , C4.  b u t more groups  equality",  10  h a v e had o n t h e p a r t i e s the  problems f a c i n g  party c)  responses  Party  that  specifically  they  available  h a v e won t h e i r  the p a r t i e s  to each  Party's  Fairclough  o f i t s 84 c a n d i d a t e s LaMarsh  candidates  received  varied according  care  into  Conservative's  female candidates allocated  The l a r g e s t  fund i s  made $1,000  i n t h e 1988 e l e c t i o n .  allocated  support  The  $850.00 t o e a c h o f Party's  each  i s not p u b l i c  t o need  consideration.  incumbents being  funds  Ellen  t o be t h e s m a l l e s t o f t h e t h r e e  of financial  reportedly taken  Fund  nomination.  aside  which  The C o n s e r v a t i v e  i s reported  The amount  Conservative  Fund  to  t o women's  women c a n d i d a t e s .  Agnes M a c p h a i l  Judy  Fund  party's  a r e now s e t t i n g  f o r nominated  53 women c a n d i d a t e s .  funds.^  nevertheless,  have been d e s i g n e d  finances are often a barrier  New D e m o c r a t s '  its  aspirants foroffice;  organizational efforts  women a f t e r  participation,  Liberal  an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r  Responses:  Recognizing  the  female  to e n c o u r a g e  have been few.  Some modest assist  has been  with  information but  expenses  However, e a c h received  "considerably  o f t h e 37 f e m a l e  such  a s day  o f the  less  than  less"  than  $1,000,  with  7 nonincumbents. already  won t h e i r  Since  these  party's  funds  assist  nomination,  they  only  women who h a v e  a r e not party  efforts  Ann R a u h a l a i n "Women f a c e b a r r i e r s t o p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n " , G l o b e and Mai 1. November 10, 1988, p. A12.  to  7 Telephone i n t e r v i e w with V a l e r i e York, E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t Mary C o l l i n s , MP (PC, C a p i 1 a n o - H o w e S o u n d ) , A u g u s t , 1990.  it  11  directly But  aimed  at increasing  the prospect  election  might  of extra  be enough  t h e number  financial  of female  assistance  to c o n v i n c e  candidates.  during the  some women t o seek a  nominat i o n . Evidence of party number  commitment  o f women c a n d i d a t e s  from  reports  Paul  Martin  election,  to t h e goal  i s quite  limited.  of organizational efforts J r . , the L i b e r a l  was r e p o r t e d  of increasing the  party's  within  recruiter  to have e x p r e s s e d  One example  comes  the L i b e r a l  Party.  f o r t h e 1988  a concern  with  getting  g enough  women t o r u n i n t h a t  to h a v e o n e p e r s o n candidates.  This  i n each  election. province  d i d not occur  His plan  train  f o r that  and r e c r u i t election,  other  campaign  priorities  or l i m i t e d  party  campaign  organizers  c a n be r e l u c t a n t  might  s e e a s an u n d e s i r a b l e  party  campaign  chairman  feared  setting  f o r women c a n d i d a t e s  finances.  actions  compromise  due t o  Provincial  t o embrace what  that  would  female  likely  affirmative action plan.  B.C.'s L i b e r a l quotas  a t t h e t i m e was  they  F o r example such as candidate  9 quality.  National  party  candidates  but because they  have d i f f i c u l t y  and  processes  Reported i n Peter Vancouver Sun. F e b r u a r y  c a n lament  "national party  articulated"^ nomination  officials  i n t e r e s t s are only  weakly  i n f l u e n c i n g the recruitment  at the l o c a l  level.  ( l a s e r , " L i b e r a l s a r e big-name 6, 1987.  9 Kim B o l a n , "SI women c o n t e s t November 1, 1988, p . A9.  seats  ^ S e e L y n d a E r i c k s o n and R.K. C a r t y , C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s " , n.p., n . d . 1<  t h e l a c k o f women  hunters",  i n B.C.", V a n c o u v e r S u n . "Candidate S e l e c t i o n i n  12  Organizational candidates The  appear  NDP t r i e d  candidates Their to  e f f o r t s to i n c r e a s e  more p r e d o m i n a n t  to i d e n t i f y  and a l s o  held  more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  the f a c t  Marian  their  past  can only  be s u c c e s s f u l  Critiques inability  must  riding  process. offered  which  blame  or unwillingness  recruitment  remain  by o u t s i d e report  the candidate  at local  riding  have b e e n women:  agree to  executives  and t o  association  meetings.  parties f o r their  t o engage a c t i v e l y i n c a n d i d a t e  which  effectively  d i d not reveal  officials,  over  s e l e c t i o n process.  s e l e c t i o n was u s u r p e d  officers,  the local  incentive  to e x i s t . * *  associations National  that  over  e l e c t i o n year  national Indeed,  by n a t i o n a l would party  i t i s the  own t h e n o m i n a t i o n  controversy  but each  dissatisfaction  announcing  may be c r e d i t e d  activists  party  the national  candidate  for  i f local  s e n s i t i v e to t h e f a c t  associations  The s u r v e y  accounts  points  presidents  candidates.  But e f f o r t s o f t h e n a t i o n a l  by n a t i o n a l  n o m i n a t e women c a n d i d a t e s  in  two p a r t y  approach  Party.  women  f o r a s p i r i n g women  and s u c c e s s f u l  measures suggested  local  prospective  Dewar and J o h a n n a d e n H e r t o g .  executive adopt  that  i n t h e New D e m o c r a t i c  and r e c r u i t seminars  t h e number o f women  have  party  newspaper involvement  i f the r o l e of or r e g i o n a l little  organizers  commitments w h i c h  the help  party  reason or  get p o l i t i c a l  may g a r n e r  them more o f  This suggestion i s a l s o made i n R o b e r t J . W i l l i a m s , " C a n d i d a t e S e l e c t i o n " , i n Howard R. P e n n i m a n , e d . , Canada a t t h e P o l l s , 1979 and 1980: A S t u d y o f t h e G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n s , Washington: American E n t e r p r i s e I n s t i t u t e f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y R e s e a r c h , 1981, pp. 86 - 120.  13  the  female  the  198s-  for  example,  called local be  vote,  a s was done  and 1988 g e n e r a l the longest  "Issues party  little  i n t h e campaign  elections.  candidates.  o f Concern  t o Women".  of requiring  Other  local  means must  ridings  be u s e d  As t h i s  responses  to the underrepresentation  explain  campaign,  might  be u s e f u l a t t h i s  point  might  best  party  the control  process,  i fthe p a r t i e s  there can  party  prove  t h e o r i e s which  nominations  to suggest  which  a r e to  political  o f women c o u l d  Some d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s t o seek  p l a t f o r m was  t o n o m i n a t e women  d i s c u s s i o n has suggested,  why women f a i l  d)  t h e 198H  But g i v e n  the nomination  respond.  difficult.  o f both  s e c t i o n o f the Mulroney  members want o v e r  talk  During  platforms  t r y to  and g e t e l e c t e d  where p a r t y  efforts  be p l a c e d .  Theor i e s : T h e r e a r e a number  paucity  o f women c a n d i d a t e s  concerning that  o f t h e o r i e s which  the p o l i t i c a l  many o f t h e c r i t i c a l  might  e x p l a i n the  and e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s .  participation barriers  o f women must  to being  nominated  Any s t u d y acknowledge and e l e c t e d  12 are  socio-economic.  But s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  factors  alone  cannot  A number o f s t u d i e s h a v e c h a r t e d t h e l a c k o f socio-economic p r o g r e s s i n terms o f s a l a r y d i f f e r e n t i a l s , unequal f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e t c . , b e t w e e n men and women w h i c h c r e a t e u n i q u e b a r r i e r s t o t h e c o m p e t i t i v e p o l i t i c a l f o o t i n g o f women. Among them s e e e B r o d i e , Women and P o l i t i c s i n C a n a d a , ( T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n L i m i t e d , 1985); C a n a d i a n A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on t h e S t a t u s o f Women, "Women i n P o l i t i c s : B e c o m i n g F u l l P a r t n e r s i n t h e P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s " , ( O t t a w a : CACSW, November 1987, R e v i s e d May 1 9 8 8 ) , and M. J a n i n e B r o d i e and J i l l M c C a l l a V i c k e r s , " C a n a d i a n Women i n P o l i t i c s : An O v e r v i e w " , ( O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e f o r t h e Advancement o f Women, 1982).  14  fully  account  factors, the in  f o r t h e u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f women.  socialization  i n f l u e n c e s and v a l u e  g e n d e r s have a l l been e x p l o r e d the p o l i t i c a l  "factors  such  difficulty  domain.  a s ial  Brodie  perceived  Cultural  differences  as v a r i a b l e s  between  relating  t o women  and V i c k e r s h a v e s u g g e s t e d  lack o f p o l i t i c a l  i n obtaining funding,  and f e a r s t h a t  that  experience, t h e community was  13 unreceptive delaying  t o women p o l i t i c i a n s "  o f women's c a n d i d a c i e s .  Using  survey  women a r e l e s s perception political national  with  ambitious  ambition office  to engage  possess  "a d r i v i n g  values  and H e r r i n g  men.  They  concluded  suggest  in society  women a r e l e s s  role,  hand  regard  t o whether  because  in political ambition  i n h i b i t s her  likely  and p r i o r i t i e s ,  towards  to pursue  competition  social  Women, w i t h  f o r s u c h an  national  that pursuit  i t does n o t .  f o rpersonal  or discounts other  relationships.  c a n work  that  t h a t a woman's  the sing1e-mindedness necessary  without  willing  of  than  and t h u s  with  h i ssocietal  personal  Bledsoe  Men on t h e o t h e r  office  disregards  research  o f h e r s t a t u s and r o l e  endeavour. elected  can a l l c o n t r i b u t e to the  conflicts  Men a r e more  and a r e more  advancement  l i k e l y to  that  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and their  a r e at a d i s t i n c t  more b a l a n c e d disadvantage  system in this  competltion.  13 B r o d i e and V i c k e r s , " C a n a d i an Women i n P o l i t i c s : An O v e r v i e w " , 198E, p . 3 1 . 14 T i m o t h y B l e d s o e and Mary H e r r i n g , " V i c t i m s o f C i r c u m s t a n c e s : Women i n P u r s u i t o f P o l i t i c a l O f f i c e " , i n Amer i c a n (Footnote Continued)  15  Comments made by women conclusions "Barbara  reached  McDougall  legislators  by B l e d s o e said  often  and H e r r i n g .  the win-at-any-cost  support the Cornacchia  reports:  mentality of 15  nomination Smith,  contests  a t t h e time Manitoba's  legislature seen  i s often  b e c a u s e we d o n ' t  A quite  different  "Legislative political  overlooked, the  candidacies  aspirants  Deputy P r e m i e r ,  which  Brodie  recruitment  can serve  suggest,  e i t h e r as a b r i d g e ... T h u s , w h i l e  legislators,  5  that  and s t r u c t u r e d by t h e  parties are certainly  o f Canadian  ... women a r e  on b a r r i e r s b e y o n d t h  and V i c k e r s  ... a r e m e d i a t e d  to e l e c t e d o f f i c e .  political  focuses  Muriel  said "the  go f o r t h e j u g u l a r " . * ^  perspective  or c u l t u r a l .  party  f o r women t o a d o p t " .  a substitution for a k i l l i n g ,  as s o f t  socio-economic  for  isdifficult  or a b a r r i e r  often  influential  whether  actors i  male o r  17 female." clearly  In t h i s suggests  selection major  that  the a n a l y s i s of Erickson  political  c a n h a v e an e f f e c t  party  (Footnote Political 223.  vein,  party  and C a r t y  p r a c t i c e s and  candidate  on t h e numbers o f women s e e k i n g  a  candidacy.^  Continued) S c i e n c e R e v i e w , V o l . 8 H , No. 1, March  1990, pp. 213 -  ^ C h e r y l Cornacchia, "'The C o u n t r y i s Y o u r s , L a d i e s ' : women want more s e a t s i n g o v e r n m e n t - and t h e y ' r e w i l l i n g t o g e t t h e i r h a n d s d i r t y t o w i n them", The G a z e t t e . March 18, 1988, p. C7. *^Dunphy, p . C4. 17 Brodie 18  and V i c k e r s ,  Erickson  and C a r t y ,  p . 30 - 3 1 . "Making  Her Way I n " .  1 6  Any complex  one o r indeed question  underrepresented. parties party is  through  impact  politically  however,  on w h e t h e r  inform the  that  a woman s e e k s a  and w i n s e l e c t i o n .  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n that socio-economic i n order  Thus,  a focus  political  t h a t more women w i l l on p o l i t i c a l  And  it  and o t h e r  seek  p a r t y p r a c t i c e s and  i s appropriate. Having  need  be d i s p u t e d ,  becomes a c a n d i d a t e  political  office.  t h e o r i e s together  why women r e m a i n  It cannot  c a n be c h a n g e d  political norms  asks  have a s i g n i f i c a n t  nomination,  factors  which  a l l o f these  e s t a b l i s h e d the extent  f o r the p a r t i e s  candidate  to respond,  characteristics  differences  which  inform  of underrepresentation  we t u r n  to determine the problem  and t h e  to a d i s c u s s i o n o f  i f there  a r e gender  of underrepresentation.  17  Chapter  3.  Portrait  of a  Candidate:  " I n a c o u n t r y where e v e r y o n e o v e r e i g h t e e n i s p r i v i l e g e d t o v o t e and where a n y o n e , s u p p o s e d l y , c a n work h i s o r h e r way up t h r o u g h t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y s y s t e m t o r u n f o r p a r l i a m e n t , why i s t h e House o f Commons so m o n o t o n o u s l y w h i t e , t h r e e - p i e c e - s u i t e d , 1 a w y e r - 1 a d e n , and male? It i s n ' t a s t h o u g h i t t a k e s e x c e p t i o n a l a b i l i t y and m e r i t to s i t i n p a r l i a m e n t . In a d e m o c r a c y , a n y o n e s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f b e i n g e l e c t e d - and a l m o s t anyone has. We've had u s e d c a r s a l e s m e n , hockey p l a y e r s , eminent lawyers, s c h o l a r s , s u c c e s s f u l businessmen, as w e l l as b a n k r u p t s , w i f e b e a t e r s , income t a x e v a d e r s , f o r g e r s , i n f l u e n c e p e d d l e r s , and f r a u d a r t i s t s . One member o f p a r l i a m e n t took c o u n s e l on i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s by communing w i t h h i s dog |>nd h i s dead m o t h e r . He became p r i m e m i n i s t e r . "  As  D o r i s Anderson's o b s e r v a t i o n suggests  qualifications  for national  can  to P a r l i a m e n t  be  elected  qualities, continues to  be  Parliament t o be  experience they  either  represent.  and  office.  homogenous.  to h a v e v e r y office  Anderson  also  politicians  are d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  observation  echoes  the p u b l i c  Even  possessing The  t h e e x e c u t i v e or  in elected But,  without  remains  drawn f r o m  middle-aged,  political  there are  limited or  though  average  previous  observes male  perception that  one  stellar politician  professional  indeed  white  few  within that  class,  political the p a r t y  federal  lawyers. white  Her  males  from  £0 the p r o f e s s i o n a l  middle  class  a r e more e l e c t a b l e  than  D o r i s A n d e r s o n , i n Mel H u r t i g , e d . , I f I Were P r i m e M i n i s t e r , Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s , 19B7, p 8. EO P r o f e s s i o n a l i n t h i s c o n t e x t u s u a l l y means t h o s e p r o f e s s i o n s , s u c h as l a w y e r s and a c c o u n t a n t s , w h i c h a r e male d o m i n a t e d and n o t t h o s e p r o f e s s i o n s , s u c h a s s o c i a l work and h e a l t h c a r e , w h i c h t e n d to be f e m a l e dominated.  18  candidates party  who do n o t p o s s e s s  activists  choice could  hold  this  be c o n s i d e r e d class  determine  less  members v i e w  female  there  parties  n o m i n a t e women  This  analyzes  constituency residency  the  case  the They  also  party  tend  party  i t l o o k s a t whether d i f f e r , and mold  when  data  they  experience,  five  party  service,  and male c a n d i d a t e s .  data  i s also  offer  the questions  t o know a b o u t  considering  used.  the best  In  These  descriptionsof  i n c l u d e d on t h e s u r v e y . which  one would  the i n d i v i d u a l  expect  seeking the  riding.  Age: The  in  i n their  cannot  because  the t r a d i t i o n a l  f o r female  aggregate  among  t o want  chapter  nominations  t o be t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  activists  nomination a )  from  candidate  i f s h e was n o t a  candidates  political  were c h o s e n b e c a u s e  candidates  in this  Rather  the survey  age, o c c u p a t i o n ,  of occupation,  with a  standard-bearers.  and  variables  electable.  i s any d e v i a t i o n f r o m  chapter  variables:  The a n a l y s i s  o f m a l e and f e m a l e  whether  If local  the female  particularly  aspirants lose  them a s l e s s  characteristics  candidate,  electable,  professional.  whether  characteristics.  p e r c e p t i o n when f a c e d  b e t w e e n a male and f e m a l e  middle  the  also  these  g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f both  the survey  3.1).  were  under  45 was g r e a t e r  that  group.  that  the percentage  women  i n t h e 31 t o 40 y e a r  In a l l age g r o u p s under  candidates  I t i s not u n t i l  candidates.  male and f e m a l e o l d age g r o u p  45, t h e p e r c e n t a g e than  one l o o k s a t t h e over i s greater  (Table  o f women  the percentage  o f male c a n d i d a t e s  candidates  o f men i n 51 age g r o u p  than  that of  19  Candidates'  T a b l e 3.1 Age by G e n d e r  Age:  */. F e m a l e  Under 31 t o 41 t o 46 t o 51 t o 61 t o  30 40 45 50 60 77  to  than t h e i r  that female candidates  male c o l l e a g u e s .  nonincumbent c a n d i d a t e s  t h e 46 t o 50 y e a r The  likely  socioeconomic.  careers  would and  election  The p r o p o r t i o n o f w e l l  fall any b)  likely  connections  bid.  into  a  were, on a v e r a g e ,  and i n f a c t  when  extends  f o r t h i s age d i f f e r e n c e i s e d u c a t e d , and f i n a n c i a l l y  i n p r o f e s s i o n a l or e x e c u t i v e  greater  t h e r e f o r e be more l i k e l y  business  venture  o l d age group.  explanation  i s very  one c o u l d  This d i f f e r e n c e holds  are considered  i n d e p e n d e n t women who a r e e m p l o y e d type  4.7 25.8 19.4 21 .5 23.3 5.4  the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e not great,  tentative conclusion  only  */. M a l e  6.8 31.1 20.3 21.6 17.6 2.7  Although  younger  (1988)  among y o u n g e r women.  t o have t h e f i n a n c i a l  w h i c h a r e so o f t e n n e c e s s a r y  A s t h e n e x t s e c t i o n s h o w s , more f e m a l e  p r o f e s s i o n a l and e x e c u t i v e  occupational  They  resources f o r an candidates  categories  than  other. Occupat i o n : T a b l e 3.2 s e t s o u t t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l  survey  c a t e g o r i e s used  i n the  a n d s h o w s t h e number and p e r c e n t a g e o f c a n d i d a t e s  o f each  g e n d e r by o c c u p a t i o n . occupations, Officer,  taken  from  The a g g r e g a t e d a t a  f o r candidates'  the Report of the Chief  i s shown f o r f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s  only.  Electoral The a g g r e g a t e  20  information  f o r female  survey  s i n c e the  data  candidates numbers  i s used  f o r female  to supplement candidates  the  i n the  survey  were sma11. Table 3.2 O c c u p a t i o n and C a n d i d a t e s ' Gender (Vertical Percentages) 1988  Female  Male  All Occupation:  Bus i n e s s p e r s o n E x e c u t i ve/Manager i a l Lawyer Educator Journalist Clergy Professional-uns. Consultant/Analyst Farm i n g / A g r i c . M.P. P o 1 i t i c i an Market i n g / S a l e s C1er i c a 1 Un i o n E x e c . Trades, Labour Student Homemaker Ret i r e d Other •differences Looking  N  .2 .9 .3 .2 .3 0 14 .4 5 .7 2 .3 6 .3 4 .0 2 .9 10 .9 0 1. 7 0 2 .9 1. 1 2 .3  8 12 6 5 4 1* 8 3 1 3 1 0 1 3* 1 1* 3 2 10  are first  due to at  9 10 10 9 6  16 19 18 16 1 1 0* 25 10 4 1 1 7 5 19 0* 3 0* 5 2 4  the  survey  data,  indicated  f o r m a l e and  different.  Table  shows  percent,  female  their  of  occupation,  Businessperson 10.8  percent  and  Survey  10.. 8 16,.2 8.. 1 6,.8 5,.4 1 .4 , 10..8 4, . 1 1 .4 . 4, . 1 1 .4 . 0 2..7 4. 1 1 ,. 4 1 .. 4 4 ., 1 2..7 13.,5  N  7.  39 19 33 40 2 4 35 9 19 13 1 1 7 0 8 9 0 0 5 23  14 ,. 1 6 .9 12.. 0 14 .5 .7 1 .4 12.. 7 3,. 3 6..9 .7 4, 4 ..0 2,.5 0 .9 2. 3.. 3 0 0 1 .8 , 8., 3  c o d i n g v a r i a t i i• n s .  occupations  3.2  Survey Y .  V.  N  that  candidates f o l l o w e d by  i t suggests  female  candidates  the h i g h e s t  indicated 'other'  at  that are  the somewhat  proportion,  executive/managerial 13.5  percent.  p r o f e s s i o n a 1 - u n s p e c i f i e d f o l l o w e d , both  o f women c a n d i d a t e s .  16  at  as  21  Among male? c a n d i d a t e s educator percent the  as and  survey  success varies  their  i n the  shown  at  13 p e r c e n t  in Table  r a t e s of candidates by  14.5  percent  o c c u p a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by  professional data  survey,  3.3  indicated  businessperson  (Table 3.2).  also  at  14  A n a l y s i s of  r e v e a l s that  electoral  i n t h e same o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s  gender. T a b l e 3.3 O c c u p a t i o n a l S u c c e s s R a t e s by G e n d e r (Number and P e r c e n t E l e c t e d ) 1988 Fema1e  Male  All  Businessperson E x e c u t i ve/Manager i a 1 Lawyer Educator Journali st Clergy Professional-uns. Consu1 t a n t / A n a 1 y s t Farming/Agric. M.P. P o 1 i t i c i an Marketing/Sales Clerical Un i o n E x e c . Trades, Labour Student Homemaker Retired Other *No  candidates  Table candidates, MP's seats  and  Survey  N  Occupation:  3.3  of  6 8 5 3 1 0 2 1 0 6 3 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1  t h i s gender  shows t h a t  lawyers  37 42 27 IB 9  N  .5 . 1 .5 .8 .0  2 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2  -— *  8 .0  !0 .0  0 54 .5 42 .8 40 .0 0 -•- *  0 -•-#  20 .0 0 25 .0 hav i ing  this  most  likely  Forty percent  executives/managers  of  Survey '/.  N  7.  9 7 13 14 1 2 1 1 4 8 10 6 2 0 1 3 0 0 2 8  25 . 0 16 .6 0 0 25 . 0 0 0 33 .3 0 100 .0 0 -•-•*  0 0 100 .0 0 0 0 20 .0  23,. 0 36 .8 39..3 35,.0 50..0 50, . 0 31 ., 4 44 ,.4 42. . 1 76 ,.9 54. .5 28, .6 — -*-  12..5 33. , 3 — -*— - *  40..0 34. ,8  occupat ion.  among a l l o c c u p a t i o n s  were t h e  politicians.  f o l l o w e d by  '/.  t o win the  a t 37  indicated election  lawyers percent.  won The  by  male  after their survey  22  data  shows q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t  than  f o r male c a n d i d a t e s  are  very  Table  small.  b u t i t must  As t h e s u r v e y  Only  male e d u c a t o r s  professionals educators  numbers  candidates i n i n the survey  Just  almost  over  a third  In c o n t r a s t none o f t h e f i v e  were  terms,  as t h e i r  the success  one-quarter  occupation. r a t e s very  f o r both  the r a t e f o r female  o u t o f 8 women c a n d i d a t e s .  lawyers  and e x e c u t i v e s / m a n a g e r s  candidates. candidates  A similar since only  the e l e c t i o n may s h e d  were  one-third o f male  women  unspecified  twelve  additional  female  businessperson  i s based  Among m a l e  candidates,  on o n l y 2  t o be t h e most s u c c e s s f u l t o make f o r women  candidates  data  fall  who won t h e i r  A look  seat  at the aggregate  and e d u c a t o r somewhat  few  women c l e r k s ,  The  professional-unspecified  r e v e a l s that  into  a t 14.4 p e r c e n t ,  lawyers  f o r both  light.  a t 10.9 p e r c e n t ,  This d i f f e r s  among  candidates  respondents.  o f women c a n d i d a t e s  both  similar  isdifficult  o f the aggregate  category  Only  men and women b u t i n  appear  statement  were s u r v e y  analysis  proportion  clerical  that  i n the  seats.  seats while  elected  The  lawyers  candidates  won t h e i r  won t h e i r  professional  genders a t about absolute  group  d i d so.  businesspeop1e  3.2).  f o r female  candidates  were s u c c e s s f u l n o r were any o f t h e e i g h t women  indicating  data  be remembered  data  two o f t h e t w e l v e  executive/managerial  in  r a t e f o r female  3.3 shows, none o f t h e s i x women  elected.  of  success  lawyer  the p r o f e s s i o n a l -  e x e c u t i v e / m a n a g e r i a l and a t 10.3 p e r c e n t , and  c a t e g o r i e s both from  the survey  or educators aggregate  the greatest  a t 9.2 p e r c e n t results  were s u r v e y data  category  since  (Table very  respondents. captures the  23  traditiona11y  fema1e d o m i n a t e d  fields.  the exception  With  aggregate which for  data  i n Table  of the c l e r i c a l  3.2 shows  most women c a n d i d a t e s  male c a n d i d a t e s  health care  that  and s o c i a l  category, the  the c a t e g o r i e s within  f i t a r e t h e same a s t h o s e  i n the survey,  service  categories  but the d i s t r i b u t i o n  varies  somewhat. In 3.3  terms o f s u c c e s s  show  that a f t e r  executive/managers percent  were most  o f t h e women  then  lawyers  the aggregate  MP's and p o l i t i c i a n s , likely  in this  marketing/salespeople and  rates,  group  were e l e c t e d  b e c a u s e numbers  a r e low i n some c a s e s .  percent  rate reported  success  marketing/salespeople candidates. much  lower  It i s notable, success  professionals  on o n l y  male fare  a t 38 p e r c e n t  i s advised  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e 40  2 elected  however, t h a t f e m a l e  r a t e than  and e d u c a t o r s  caution  f o r women c a n d i d a t e s  i s based  Forty-two  f o l l o w e d by  businesspeop1e  Again,  i n Table  female  to win e l e c t i o n .  a t 40 p e r c e n t ,  a t 28 p e r c e n t .  figures  lawyers.  who were  out o f 5 lawyers  female had a  Nor d i d f e m a l e  q u i t e as w e l l  a s men i n t h e s e  groups. Women o f q u i t e v a r i e d political are of  more both  office  office likely  but those  occupations  are seeking  who h a v e more  to get e l e c t e d .  traditional  occupations  Generally speaking,  individuals  g e n d e r s who a r e s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r are executives,  lawyers  national  and  b i d for elected  businesspeop1e.  84  c)  Party Service: The  ages  fact  than  t h a t women a p p e a r  men may a l s o  membership  reflect  and p o l i t i c a l  t o seek upon  their  experience.  those  who a r e n o t i n c u m b e n t s ,  party  a c t i v i s m and l e s s  public  a t younger  length of party  Younger  c a n be e x p e c t e d  political  office  experience  c a n d i d a t e s , and t o have f e w e r than  years  their  col leagues. Looking survey  data  first  at party service,  showing  when c a n d i d a t e s  Table joined  3.4 p r e s e n t s t h e their  parties.  T a b l e 3.4 C a n d i d a t e s ' L e n g t h o f P a r t y S e r v i c e by Gender ( V e r t i c a l Percentages) (1988) Candidate Party Member S i n c e : Joined 1984 1980 1970s 1960s 1950s 1940s before  Female  i n 1988 1987 1984  Male  0/18/15* 0/14/18 80/85/84 60/34/31 10/18/18 10/ 4/ 5 0/8/8 0/ 0 / 0  1940  A l l Candidates  0/13/10 8/18/15 14/14/14 34/38/33 34/19/84 8/3/5 0/ 1/.4 1/ 0/.4  11 14 16 38 81 5 1 .3  * C e l l e n t r i e s a r e p e r c e n t a g e o f incumbent candidates/percentage of nonincumbent c a n d i d a t e s / p e r c e n t a g e o f a l l c a n d i d a t e s o f t h a t gender.  Table tend  3.4 shows t h a t g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g ,  t o be more r e c e n t  counterparts. less  than  some  of this  incumbents incumbent  Half  party  party  difference have  candidates  than  t h e women b u t o n l y  eight years  would  members  experience.  would  longer a r e men.  women c a n d i d a t e s do  their  male  38 p e r c e n t One would  o f t h e men had expect  be e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t term  party service  N a t u r a l l y very  that  that  and more  few i n c u m b e n t s  25  should party the  be f o u n d  experience.  percentage  group only  i n this  nonincumbents  eight  of individuals  i s more s u r p r i s i n g  o f women v a r i e s  of candidates  percent  who j o i n e d  years  party  candidates female  to  34 p e r c e n t  similar  incumbents  The  election  parties  joined  their  parties  incumbent  candidates.  f o r both  data  also  indicates  joined  their  parties  since  had done so i n t h e 1988 e l e c t i o n  a third  1984.  Gender  then  when t h e y  are  at individually,  office,  party  male  year.  service i s  m a l e s and f e m a l e s  differences  t h a t women t e n d  experience  exists  generally  o f both  were n o t g r e a t i n  cases.  c a n be s a i d  extent  i s very  s i n c e t h e 1984 g e n e r a l  o f both  greater  Among  t h a t one q u a r t e r  with  tendency  compared  one-third.  e v e n more p r o n o u n c e d  looked  percent  male and f e m a l e  of limited  It  Sixty  i n t h e 1970's  the evidence  o f these  than  i n t h e group o f  Among n o n i n c u m b e n t s ,  either  When  o f t h e men had l e s s  i n t h e 1970's.  and 10 p e r c e n t  joined  o f men i n t h e  shows t h a t 57  party  candidates  having  little  to which  s i n c e 1980.  the survey  45 p e r c e n t  the percentage  survey  female  their  their  o f t h e male  a t about  i s the extent  the percentage  becomes more o f a f a c t o r  non-incumbents,  who h a v e v e r y  experience.  who j o i n e d  of  from  are considered,  o f t h e women b u t o n l y  Incumbency  and  What  group  seek  a nomination. the survey  i n a l l three p a r t i e s . i n t h e NDP.  been c o n s i d e r e d  but t h i s  finding  t o have  data  Limited party  i s somewhat  party  When t h e p a r t i e s shows  However,  a significant  less  this  i texists  service  roadblock  surprising  that  to a  has not to p o l i t i c a l  given  the higher  86  proportion that  o f female  t h e NDP t e n d s  service.  Either  is  weakening  to  increasing  important might  NDP c a n d i d a t e s  to favour  and t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  candidates  party service  with  as a f a c t o r  long-time  commending  wisdom  party candidates  among NDP a s s o c i a t i o n s o r t h e NDP h a s a commitment t h e number  enough  be t h a t  o f women c a n d i d a t e s  to overlook  the survey  which  party service.  data  confirms  i s considered  Another  recent  explanation  suggestions  that  more women a r e now t u r n i n g t o t h e NDP. d)  Political  Experience;  A reasonable that  expectation concerning  women c a n d i d a t e s '  mens'.  The l i t e r a t u r e  seeking  local  provincial  or f e d e r a l  relatively  low l e v e l  effect  level  V i c k e r s found  at the municipal  are less  levels. o f power  o f government  of reducing  would  question maintains  office.  campaign  provincial  experience  i n g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n s than  are clustered  a municipal  municipal  on t h i s  or n a t i o n a l  politicians of  office  electoral  political  competition  than  be l e s s  than  t h a t women a r e they a r e  t h a t women  level  i s the case  She a l s o  experience i s  suggested  s i n c e the c o s t s at the that "the  and i n f l u e n c e [ a c c o r d e d t h e and t h u s  local  politicians!  has the  Cand o f w e a k e n i n g ! s t r u c t u r e s s u c h  SI as  political  access  parties".  to r e c r u i t m e n t  recruitment  Since p o l i t i c a l channels  i n that  Ccan a c t ] a s a c r i t i c a l  parties  can l i m i t  "party control  barrier  over  elite  to i n c r e a s e d  V i c k e r s , "Where a r e t h e Women i n C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c s ? " , A t l a n t i s , v o l . 3, n o . 2, ( S p r i n g , 1 9 7 8 ) , p . H 6 .  27  participation lack  by women i n C a n a d i a n  of p a r t i s a n s h i p at the l o c a l  woman's c a n d i d a c y . from  the l a r g e l y  federal  level  municipal  22  the  i n a sense  and V i c k e r s f o u n d  nonpartisan  politics,  intervene  Brodie  politics",  that  sphere  traditional  facilitates  a  "when one moves  to p r o v i n c i a l  and  where p a r t y c o n s t i t u e n c y o r g a n i z a t i o n s  i n the s e l e c t i o n  process,  ... women c a n d i d a t e s  a r e much  23 less  common." The s u r v e y  implications  data  presented  of Brodie  percentage  of female  experience  was  and V i c k e r s .  candidates  greater  than  a l l three  less  than  who  3.5  supports  As T a b l e indicated  the percentage  House o f Commons o r p r o v i n c i a l in  i n Table  legislative  3.5  the  shows, t h e  local  government  indicating experience.  i n s t a n c e s the p r o p o r t i o n s of experienced  that of experienced  Political  Experience  either However, women were  men.  T a b l e 3.5 of Candidates  by Gender  (1988)  Candidate Been I n :  Fema1e  Male  All Cand i d a t e s  House o f Commons Provincial Legislature L o c a l Government Not H e l d P u b l i c O f f i c e  13.3 0 17.3 56.0  29.8 6.3 26 .0 38.6  26 . 4 5.0 24.2 42.2  B r o d i e and V i c k e r s , "The More T h i n g s Change ... Women i n t h e 1979 F e d e r a l C a m p a i g n " , i n Howard R. P e n n i m a n , e d . , C a n a d a a t t h e P o l l s , 1979 and 1980: A S t u d y o f t h e G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n s . ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: A m e r i c a n E n t e r p r i s e I n s t i t u t e f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y R e s e a r c h , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 323 and 326 f f . a 3  Ibid,  p. 323.  28  Regardless not  appear  the  candidates  o f gender  t o be a c r i t i c a l  while  provincial  legislature.  experience  accounted  surprisingly,  But  experience  e)  percent  than  their  Constituency  office  defend  charges.  were r u n n i n g .  do t e n d  this  less  category.  political i n any  requirement.  reasons  f o r doing almost  the area  must  so a g a i n s t a v a r i e t y a quarter  political  d e s i r a b l e i n Canada.  residency outside  often  of opposition  (22*/.) o f t h e c a n d i d a t e s  were n o t r e s i d e n t i n t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y where But t h e s u r v e y  data  shows t h a t  who d i d n o t r e s i d e i n t h e i r Almost  a third  were n o t c o n s t i t u e n c y r e s i d e n t s w h i l e lived  works a g a i n s t  f o r women.  into  to have  at a l l .  w i t h i n t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y where one s e e k s  f o r male c a n d i d a t e s .  candidates  percent of  experience  fell  reported  Residency:  female candidates than  Forty-two  candidates  Not  a mere 5 p e r c e n t  electoral  t o be a c r i t i c a l  Nevertheless,  the survey  House o f Commons  male c o u n t e r p a r t s , b u t e x p e r i e n c e  who m a i n t a i n  their  in local  of candidates.  has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d  Candidates  had s e r v e d  was e v e n more p r o n o u n c e d  o f female  does not appear  Residency  in  nonincumbents,  summary, women c a n d i d a t e s  case  86 p e r c e n t  no p r e v i o u s  lack of experience  Fifty-six In  indicated  they  previous  House o f Commons e x p e r i e n c e .  candidates  does  had b e e n members o f a  Those with  f o r only  experience  since only a quarter of  indicated  a mere 5 p e r c e n t  among o n l y  political  requirement  i n the survey  government  previous  differences,  only  outside the constituency.  a candidate  in their  the percentage of riding  o f women  was g r e a t e r  candidates  19 p e r c e n t Whether  nomination  they  o f male  this  factor  b i d or l a t e r  during  59  the  election  occurs poor  more  this  analysis,  to  where t h e c h a n c e o f e l e c t o r a l likely  later  t o be c a n d i d a t e s  in this  thesis,  chapter  comparison be y o u n g e r ,  represent.  varied those  has been devoted  o f male and f e m a l e have  less  candidates  political  There a r e a l s o This chapter  occupations  shed  more  ridings. l i g h t on  tend  surprisingly, occupations •ne  can only  considered  s p e c u l a t e about  candidates'  chance o f winning  purpose o f t h i s  chapter  has been  and t o make t h e p o i n t grounds f o r q u e s t i o n i n g  candidates  i n general  affect  from  f o r male  they  nominating  Such  affect  I f t h e number  these the female  and e l e c t i o n . these n o t t o be  o f women  f o relected  differences  women c a n d i d a t e s ,  chances.  candidates.  ought  the c a l i b r e  Not  i n these  to a r t i c u l a t e  that  elected.  to which  nominations  since qualifications  well defined.  electoral  o f f i c e but  traditional for  candidates  riding  considered  ridings  more  the extent  b e t w e e n m a l e and f e m a l e  no means  political  those  seek  t h a t women o f q u i t e  o f women c a n d i d a t e s than  party  i n occupational  to have a b e t t e r chance o f g e t t i n g  t o be l e s s  years  tend  the c o n s t i t u e n c y they  national  differences  differences  fewer  some d i f f e r e n c e s  are seeking  the percentages  tends  characteristics.  r e v e a l s women  experience,  made t h e p o i n t  who h a v e o c c u p a t i o n s  politicians  by  i n such  to c a n d i d a t e  and more o f t e n r e s i d e o u t s i d e  categories.  The  will  success i s  Summary:  service to  be t h a t o u t s i d e r e s i d e n c y  question.  This The  in ridings  I t might  and women a r e more  Further  f)  i s unclear.  should  not p r e c l u d e  n o r do t h e y o f female  office are  necessarily  candidates are  30  to  increase, riding  differences  associations will  as l e s s  representation.  important  than  In a d d i t i o n ,  campaign  political  or party experience.  sufficient  seats  Chapter consider  changes  good .  The next  female  But t h e s e  minor political  measures,  any g a p s c r e a t e d by measures a l o n e  chapter  argues  i n p a r t y norms and p r a c t i c e s ,  4 moves away f r o m the p a r t i e s '  candidates  to f i l l  c a n adopt  such  such as less w i l l not  t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f women who a r e e l e c t e d t o  i n Parliament.  changes,  to regard  i s increasing  parties  candidate  be  training,  have  in ridings  a focus  profound  may be n e c e s s a r y .  on t h e c a n d i d a t e s  r e l u c t a n c e or i n a b i l i t y where t h e i r  t h a t more  themselves  to  t o n o m i n a t e women  chance o f e l e c t o r a l  success i s  31  Chapter  4.  'Lost  Cause'  Candidates?:  A f r e q u e n t l y stated p r o p o s i t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e the  three  major  constituencies instead  they  political  parties  where t h e r e  field  their  i s that  a r e r e l u c t a n t to f i e l d  i s a good  prospect  female candidates  women i n  o f v i c t o r y but  almost  exclusively in E4  ridings  where  their  chance o f e l e c t o r a l  T h e s e women c a n d i d a t e s for  standing  with  little  As a n e x a m p l e election  of  their  nominated  nomination  o f t e n been  half  sacrificial  lamb  they  where would  not  have  account, can  nominations. riding  candidates elected  seeking  In f a c t  to win.  t o new c a n d i d a t e s ,  reselection,  likely  lamb  i n Quebec,  most  incumbent  f e w e r women would  s i n c e t h e i n c u m b e n t s would  this  o f women MPs i n 1984  incumbent  Had t h e r e b e e n  14 o f  who d i d On  of s a c r i f i c i a l  one C o n s e r v a t i v e  a s s o c i a t i o n s were open  were n o t e x p e c t e d  result  women  at the time  Conservatives  i n t h e number  by a p e c u l i a r  With o n l y  Party's  incumbents f o r a nomination.  much o f t h e i n c r e a s e  be e x p l a i n e d  lambs'  t h e 1984  be d e f e a t e d .  E7 women e l e c t e d i n 1984 were Quebec with  theory,  i t was assumed  the  t o compete  'sacrificial  o f the Conservative  i n Quebec that  termed  i s v e r y low.  o r no c h a n c e o f s u c c e s s .  of this  saw more t h a n  candidates  have  success  o f whom  Conservative  have  been  h a v e b e e n male and  E4 See f o r e x a m p l e B r o d i e , Women and P o l i t i c s , and t h e C a n a d i a n A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l o n t h e S t a t u s o f Women, e s p e c i a l l y p 5, and H u n t e r and D e n t o n . Brodie,  Women and P o l i t i c s ,  p. 1E4.  74  32  incumbent  candidates  are rarely  challenged  in their  renomination  bid. But  t h e 1984 e l e c t i o n  were w i n n i n g found safe  that  i n safe seats.  two C o n s e r v a t i v e  seats  and f i v e  where t h e i r chose  nominations  a l s o saw some e v i d e n c e  party  at least  women t o c o n t e s t  Brodie  were n o m i n a t e d i n  women were n o m i n a t e d  had r u n a c l o s e s e c o n d  seven  more women  F o r example,  women c a n d i d a t e s  Conservative  that  i n 1980.  safe seats  in ridings  The L i b e r a l s  and n o m i n a t e d 26  s e v e n more where are,  then,  remain there  conflicting  i s a good  whether  had r u n s e c o n d  i n d i c a t i o n s about  chance o f s u c c e s s .  and s u r v e y  data  the s a c r i f i c i a l  The  first  region.  rather  party  i n 1980.  whether  r e l u c t a n t t o n o m i n a t e women c a n d i d a t e s  aggregate  and  their  than  A provincial  still  a n a l y s i s by c o n s t i t u e n c y  and r e g i o n .  level  both  a n a l y s i s was c h o s e n  because  the L i b e r a l s  t o 1988, t h e y  Parliament,  one i n M a n i t o b a  and one i n B r i t i s h  statements  c a n be made a b o u t  two  p a r t i e s with  Brodie,  by p r o v i n c e  the u n i t s are  d o m i n a n c e g e n e r a l l y c a n be d e f i n e d by  For instance,  the t o t a l  to determine  holds.  w e s t e r n C a n a d a where, p r i o r  some p r o v i n c e s  where  explores the  the aggregate data  and r e g i o n a l  more m a n a g e a b l e and p a r t y province  This chapter  theory  section analyzes  the p a r t i e s  in ridings  f o r t h e 1988 e l e c t i o n  lamb  There  the other  seats  the t h i r d  might  party  had o n l y  two Members o f  Columbia.  two p a r t i e s e v e n  i n general  holding  Women and P o l i t i c s ,  a r e weak i n  p. 125.  though i n  be s p l i t  a few s e a t s .  Similar  between  Ontario i s  33  a good  e x a m p l e where a l l t h r e e n a t i o n a l  success.  A provincial  when c o m p a r i n g  and r e g i o n a l  the r e s u l t s  parties  level  have e n j o y e d  analysis  i s also  some  useful  o f p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o f female  candidacy. Constituency section this  level  where t h e s u r v e y  section  objective The parties  analysis possible analysis  continue  the  their  i n areas data  that  data.  shows t h a t candidates  the party  in ridings  conclusion  that  women a r e more  a l l three in ridings  i s better  section  placed  supports  cannot  this  tend  d e f i n e d as 'safe s e a t s ' .  u n e q u i v o c a l l y support  to win  not to But  a  likely  t o be c a n d i d a t e s  i n 'lost  c o n s t i t u e n c i e s as i s suggested  by t h e a g g r e g a t e  data.  Electoral Any  P r o s p e c t s o f Women C a n d i d a t e s  analysis  complicated  based  by t h e v e r y  surveys  chances,  those  undertaken  example,  could  rely  was l i k e l y  success  resounding  by P r o v i n c e / R e g i o n :  on a p a r t y ' s p r e v i o u s e l e c t o r a l  Previous  the  t h e more  i t r e v e a l s the p a r t i e s  analysis  party  female  where  data  i5  r a t h e r than  i s r e m o t e and do n o t n o m i n a t e many  survey  a)  data  i n the second  The m e a s u r e s u s e d i n  the aggregate  i n t h e second  to the extent  women c a n d i d a t e s  cause'  nature  with  of victory  The s u r v e y  conclusion  i s analyzed.  of the aggregate to f i e l d  women c a n d i d a t e s seats.  data  i s undertaken  are of a subjective  where t h e p r o s p e c t  field  analysis  o f female  unusual  results  candidacy during  on a d e g r e e  t o w i n most  o f t h e 1984 e l e c t i o n . on a p a r t y ' s  the L i b e r a l  electoral  p a r t y ' s hegemony f o r  of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y  seats  of the Conservatives  based  success  in a particular  about  which  r e g i o n . But  i n 1984 and 1988, and t h e  d e f e a t o f numerous L i b e r a l  c a n d i d a t e s , changed t h e  34  electoral  landscape.  With  become more d i f f i c u l t a particular Since  the  region  Liberals  were t r o u n c e d  considered  e v e n good  i n 1988.  polls  fluctuating  1988  The  party  considered  given  Nor  i n Quebec  i t i s open  as  could  safe for the  rest  i n the  number  In  party  the  of  as  polls.  On  i n the  at  with  the  though  ridings had  but to  be  Conservative the  1988  election  o f Canada  the  reason  i t would  where two  a good  p l a c e at  the  were  or  times  of  the  lead at  40  percent,  running  optimism  quite  even  three  success  election,  eve  Liberals  for  be  chance of  period before  in third  were  percent  a l l three p a r t i e s  looked  Conservatives 31  well  candidate.  constituencies could  entirely  as  candidates  high.  shown e a c h  leading  had  election  competitive.  had  f o r Quebec  sweep  in  dramatically.  polls  major  considered  has  a female candidate  been s t r o n g  Conservative  s a f e or  the  the  traditionally  i n the  electorate, it  a throw-away  Liberal  since  the  have  to be  remaining  i n Quebec be  and  is likely  whether  the  seats  The  a volatile  to d e t e r m i n e  i n 1984  d e b a t e whether  such  while  campaign, the  of  could  the  be  polls  at o t h e r  times  the NDP  a close third  was at  second 86  87 percent.  So  out  a breakthrough  hope o f This  percentage  optimistic  were  each  parties'  A l a n F r i z z e l l , Jon Canadian General E l e c t i o n P r e s s , 1989).  Democrats  that  they  held  i n Quebec.  a n a l y s i s proceeds of  t h e New  with  an  examination  candidates  i n each  of  the  number  r e g i o n who  and  were  H. Pammett and A n t h o n y W e s t e l l , The o f 1988. (Ottawa: C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y  35  women, w i t h discussion of  i s organized  the e l e c t o r a l  male  party into  by p a r t y ,  success  provinces.  concluding  o f women c a n d i d a t e s  with  The  a consideration  compared  to that f o r  candidates. Table  4.1 s e t s o u t t h e number  i n each  region  a percentage  were women. of  some d i s c u s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l  seats  national  and i n d i c a t e s how t h o s e  o f each  p a r t i e s ' candidates  For comparative  won p e r r e g i o n elections.  o f women c a n d i d a t e s  purposes,  by e a c h  party  Table  f o r each  numbers t r a n s l a t e i n each  region  who  4.2 shows t h e number  i n t h e 1980, 1984 and 1988  36  Percent  T a b l e 4.1 o f P a r t i e s ' C a n d i d a t e s Who By Reg i o n ( 1988) NDP  Liberal  N Atlantic (32) N f l d (7) PEI (4) NS < 1 1 > NB (10)  '/. 13  N  41  2 4 4 3  Were Women  29 100 36 30  P.C. */.  5 1 1 3 0  N  '/.  16 14 25 27 0  O 0 0 0 O  0 0 O 0 O  Quebec (75)  17  23  11  15  16  21  Ontario (99)  35  35  17  17  11  11  9  17  13  24  4  7  Prairies (54) Man. (14) Sask.(14) Alta.(26)  1 1 7  7  2 3 8  7 27  14 21 31  1 1 2  7 7 8  B.C. (32)  9  28  6  19  6  19  NWT/Yukon (3)  1  33  1  33  0  0  84  28  53  18  37  13  Total Bracketed f i g u r e s prov i nee.  a r e t h e number  of e l e c t o r a l  districts  i n each  37  T a b l e 4.E Summary o f Sea t s Won by P r o v i n c e and P a r t y 1980 , 1984 , 1988*  1980  NDP 1984  1988  1980  L i ber a1 1984  1988  1980  P.C. 1984  198E  Nf Id . PEI NS NB Total Atlant ic  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  5 E 5 7  3 1 E 1  5 4 6 5  S E 6 3  0  0  0  19  7  EO  13  E5  12  Quebec  0  0  0  74  17  IE  1  58  63  •ntar io  5  13  10  5S  14  43  38  67  46  Nan. Sask . Alta. Total Prairies  7 7 0  4 5 0  S 10 1  S 0 0  1 0 0  5 0 0  5 7 El  9 9 El  7 4 25  14  9  13  E  1  5  33  39  36  B.C.  IE  8  19  0  1  1  16  19  12  1  0  1  0  0  S  E  3  0  3E  30  43  40  83  103  NWT/Yukon Totals  147  *The t o t a l number o f s e a t s i n t h e House o f Commons 1984 was 282 w h i l e i n 198B i t was 295.  The  New  shows t h a t  first  candidate  a t t h e NDP  the Party  does not i n c l u d e  1979 b u t t h a t  one f r o m  seats  in this based  i n the A t l a n t i c  i s extremely  was e l e c t e d f r o m  candidates their  2 0 5 5  169  211  i n 1980 and  Democrats:  Looking  elected,  4 3 9 9  i n the region.  election  Atlantic  Newfoundland region  weak  region,  was t h e l a s t  Canada  Table Table  on t h e p a r t y ' s  when two members were  not r e a l i s t i c a l l y past  4.2  t i m e an NDP  and one f r o m Nova S c o t i a .  could  4.2  performance.  expect  NDP to win  38  As in  Table  4.1 shows, 41 p e r c e n t  the A t l a n t i c  and  r e g i o n were women.  New B r u n s w i c k  women.  one-third  I n P r i n c e Edward  a New D e m o c r a t all  alone  four  t o Ottawa,  o f t h e NDP's c a n d i d a t e s  and w h i c h  however,  this  who were women i s b a s e d  a t another  eighty-four Ontario  candidates. in  account  Nevertheless,  the A t l a n t i c  region,  since  4.3 d e m o n s t r a t e s , Atlantic  region  percentage  I t must be  32  individuals.  o f t h e New  the smaller  i t i s r e v e a l i n g that  t h e NDP was n o t l i k e l y  i n those  to win s e a t s  the percentage  was 12 p e r c e n t a g e  Democrats' Quebec and  number  of seats  a much h i g h e r ridings  i n the area.  points greater  than  i n the e l e c t i o n .  than  were women As T a b l e  o f NDP women c a n d i d a t e s  f o r women NDP c a n d i d a t e s  sent  o f t h e NDP's women  even g i v e n  a v e r a g e p e r c e n t a g e o f NDP c a n d i d a t e s  has never  e l e c t e d a woman MP,  r a n i n the r e g i o n .  f o r 62 p e r c e n t  were  o f NDP c a n d i d a t e s i n  on o n l y  15 p e r c e n t  women c a n d i d a t e s  alone  has never  t h e 41 p e r c e n t  way, o n l y  which  were women.  recognized,  Looked  that  1988 c a n d i d a t e s  In N e w f o u n d l a n d , Nova S c o t i a  Island, a province  o f t h e NDP's c a n d i d a t e s  region  o f t h e NDP's  i n the  the average  39  Percentage  Points  Table 4.3* Average Percentage (1988)  >/<  NDP  Atlantic Quebec Ontario Prairies B.C. Average  the  P.C.  +18 - 5 +7 -18 0  - 8 - 3 - 1 +6 +1  -13 +8 - 8 - 6  SB  18  13  prairies  Saskatchewan,  where  NDP  was  candidate  election  to O t t a w a  that  year  +6  only  a province The Quebec. in  NDP  both  t h e NDP  female  one  sent  10  out  candidates  were e l e c t e d .  The  candidate  contested  the  the  the  cannot  has  NDP  in Alberta  have  be  of  only  one  for  a possible  pattern.  14  In  for  the  i n Saskatchewan. a Manitoba  been  In  seat  in  strong. to  resisted  that the  female candidates  n a t i o n a l average  considered  of  bid  In  i n Saskatchewan  is similar  traditionally  proportion  party's  then  traditionally  her  situation  f e m a l e NDP NDP  that  4.3).  done w e l l ,  seen a s i m i l a r  NDP  table  (Table  lost  to  provinces,  proportion  NDP  She  identical  provinces  to  reversed  4.1).  had  female  this  traditionally  the  1984  from  i s almost  s t o r y of  corresponded  where  were no  where t h e  Both  has  (Table  candidates  i n Manitoba  1988,  p a t t e r n was  i n 19B8.  there  where f i v e NDP  the  in a province  MP's  Candidates  Liberal  *The Yukon and N.W.T. h a v e b e e n o m i t t e d g i v e n t h e i r few s e a t s .  On  of  (28*/.).  in party  and  closely  This  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y high  even  40  though  those  lambs;  so t o o c o u l d  The  standard  confident  expectation  o f winning  the last  In t h e T o r y  seats  over  4.E). that may  ran third  competition out  place  seats  To tend  while  one l e s s  of their  half  summarize,  unlikely  about  party  were women.  It  competition  incumbent  just  b u t was  barely  beat  soundly  M.P. of female  candidates  But i n B.C., t h e NDP c o u l d of the seats.  more  Of t h e  o f them by  nominated.  The NDP  that  they  disproportionately i n regions  they  iselectorally  proportion of their  i s successful  (Table  no L i b e r a l  The f o u r t h  a large share  women c a n d i d a t e s  where a h i g h  up 8  the f a c t  t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e NDP d o e s s u g g e s t  to win.  the  picked  13 s e a t s  f o u r , 2 were  one f a c e d  the proportion  o f t h e 9 women  for  than t h e  i n the province  second.  incumbent  on w i n n i n g  i n the province.  a v a i l a b l e i n B.C., t h e NDP won 19: f o u r  to f i e l d  region The  count  only  Of t h o s e  Conservative  Columbia  of seats  c o u l d be  none o f them were e l e c t e d and a l l b u t  the n a t i o n a l proportion.  reasonably  almost  placed  by t h e L i b e r a l  In B r i t i s h matched  seats  they  t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s  on t h e b a l l o t . their  be t h a t  t h e NDP a c t u a l l y  three  o f NDP c a n d i d a t e s  and t h u s  the t h i r d  defeated  year  13 s e a t s ,  then  h a s been e r r a t i c b u t  1984 was by f a r t h e b e s t  sweep o f t h a t  It i s d i f f i c u l t  sacrificial  i n A l b e r t a and Quebec.  i n Ontario  a handful  I n 1988 t h e NDP l o s t  35 p e r c e n t  be c o n s i d e r e d  them would  at least  1980, w i n n i n g  M.P.'s who l o s t  are  for  be more r e v e a l i n g t h a t  four  32  strength  several elections,  NDP.  Liberals.  could  t h e male c a n d i d a t e s  NDP ' s e l e c t o r a l  a reasonable  Of  bearers  weak  candidates  i n the A t l a n t i c were women.  i n S a s k a t c h e w a n and M a n i t o b a  where,  Hi  together,  only  NDP c o u l d  expect  were  in ridings  more t h a n h a l f party  two c a n d i d a t e s  were f e m a l e .  some s u c c e s s , which  none o f t h e i r  t h e NDP won.  the thirty-two  In O n t a r i o  seats,  a r e now M.P.'s i n O t t a w a .  women  In B.C. where only  four  where t h e  candidates t h e NDP won  women f r o m  that  H2  The  Liberals: In  1988, t h e L i b e r a l s  H3  o f t h e 99 r i d i n g s  in  the A t l a n t i c  returned of  Ontario  candidates  candidates figure  that  which  female L i b e r a l  terms o f a b s o l u t e  Instead,  candidates  sent  Until a Liberal  the Tory  lost  loss  12 o f t h e P r o v i n c e ' s  that  any L i b e r a l  the  electoral  Quebec  field  with  candidates  to t h i s  where  strong  5 Liberal  point  their  party  i n t h e low t o t a l that  Liberal  there areas.  women r a n i n t h e  o f 20 L i b e r a l s  to Ottawa  were  elected.  i n 1 9 8 H , Quebec had t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n Liberal  (Table  H.2).  i n 1988, l e a v i n g  75 s e a t s .  It could  c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n Quebec were success  the i n d i v i d u a l  the comparable  lies  3 women L i b e r a l s  of 5 seats  only  though  i n these  to the C o n s e r v a t i v e s  a further  r e g i o n and  and t h e f a c t  In 1 9 8 H f i f t y - s e v e n  stronghold.  were  suffered  sweep  districts  a r e not  the problem  a total  success  o f the L i b e r a l  i n regions  candidates  H . 1 and H . 2 ) and o n l y  (Tables  Quebec  candidates  where  t h e 18 p e r c e n t  with  The a n a l y s i s  numbers, o n l y  r e g i o n which  against  16 p e r c e n t  underrepresented  few women L i b e r a l  Atlantic  enjoyed  had no women L i b e r a l  i s 17 p e r c e n t .  p e r c e n t a g e o f women L i b e r a l  In  Judged  C a n a d a were women w h i l e  had some s u c c e s s .  are  They a l s o  o f women c a n d i d a t e s ,  H . 1 shows,  in Atlantic  disproportionately has  share  A S Table  f o rOntario  suggests  i n Ontario  who were women, t h e A t l a n t i c  o f New B r u n s w i c k  H.1).  (Table  Liberals.  H.2).  MPs ( T a b l e  had a f a i r  exception  elected  of seats  r e g i o n where 20 o f t h e 32 e l e c t o r a l  Liberal  Liberal  won a n u m b e r  was t e n u o u s ,  women c a n d i d a t e s  ridings in The L i b e r a l s them  no l o n g e r 'safe'.  the L i b e r a l s  with be s a i d Even  d i d not f l o o d  out o f p r o p o r t i o n  to t h e i r  43  national  average.  Nevertheless,  Quebec c a n d i d a t e s Liberal  were women compared  candidates  The  prairies  who were women  high  number  In A l b e r t a where t h e L i b e r a l s one-third of their  Alberta  that  in  Party  Liberals  candidates  candidates.  electoral  were f e m a l e . success  i n Manitoba,  proportion  o f female  The  candidates than  points greater  the c o n t e s t Liberal leader  that  they  candidate  would  Table  nominated  Taken  of their enjoyed  some  as a whole, t h e  i n the p r a i r i e  the average Columbia  face defeat  sure  r e g i o n was  (Table 4.3).  f o r female  candidates  Liberal A higher  i n the Province before entering  at the p o l l s .  was s u c c e s s f u l :  O n l y one  the party's  i n Vancouver-Quadra. 4.3 i l l u s t r a t e s  d i s p r o p o r t i o n s a r e not dramatic,  Liberals  the  surprisingly,  have been f a i r l y  i n the Province  J o h n N. T u r n e r  after  t o t h a t on t h e p r a i r i e s .  proportion of Liberal  In summary, while  than  in British  were women and a l l c o u l d  in Alberta  b u t n e i t h e r o f t h e two women  candidates  were q u i t e s i m i l a r  average  were e l e c t e d  were e l e c t e d .  Liberal  circumstances  who were women  f o u r t h on t h e b a l l o t  The L i b e r a l s ,  i n that Province  percentage  candidates  decades,  I t was i n  n o n - e n t i t y b u t 21 p e r c e n t  candidates  six  i n vain for  were women.  candidates  candidates.  S a s k a t c h e w a n was t h e same:  a r e an e l e c t o r a l  candidates  o f women among L i b e r a l  many p l a c e d  ofa l l  In A l b e r t a , t h e r e was a  have s t r u g g l e d  No L i b e r a l  1988, and i n f a c t  Reform  t o t h e 18 p e r c e n t  the proportion of Liberal  (31*/.) was h i g h e s t .  o f the L i b e r a l ' s  (Table 4.1).  were d i f f e r e n t .  disproportionately  almost  sixteen percent  a below  average  t h a t , f o r the L i b e r a l s , they  do e x i s t .  p r o p o r t i o n o f women  The candidates  44  in  the A t l a n t i c  r e g i o n , Quebec  hope o f e l e c t o r a l Liberal's  victory.  f i v e Manitoba  and O n t a r i o  In t h e p r a i r i e  an e l e c t o r a l  breakthrough,  candidates  were women.  That  b u t i t i s somewhat  Liberal  candidates  Manitoba  proportion  o f women L i b e r a l  favoured  In B r i t i s h  electoral  was r e m o t e ,  little The  reason  highest  Quebec  where than  The L i b e r a l  the s a c r i f i c i a l  of their  percentage i n percentage  of  prairie  with  was l o w e s t  a higher  both  p r o p o r t i o n o f female  and B.C. ( T a b l e 4 . 1 ) .  provinces  seats but  here  the  of the  the chance o f L i b e r a l average  percentage of  party record  lamb  provides  theory.  where  Conservative  Stated  the Conservatives  briefly,  enjoyed  proportion of Conservative  were women may s u g g e s t A closer  look,  however, s u g g e s t s  a r e two  success i n  that a higher  candidates  the s a c r i f i c i a l  c a n d i d a t e s was  these  electoral  1984 and 1988 ( T a b l e 4.2) s o t h e f a c t  average  so  the L i b e r a l s  be  Conservatives: The  in  Of t h e t h r e e  Columbia  were women.  to d i s c a r d  one-quarter  the average  candidates  three provinces.  candidates  almost  than  who were women.  only  Liberal  had some  r e g i o n where t h e  i s n o t an o v e r w h e l m i n g  greater  provinces,  success  they  s e a t s won i n 1988 c o u l d g e n e r o u s l y  considered  itself  where  i n these  than  Provinces  lamb  theory  does n o t h o l d .  the theory  cannot  be d i s c a r d e d  eas i 1 y . Looking  surprising  first  a t Q u e b e c , f o u r t e e n women were e l e c t e d  and u n e x p e c t e d  Tory  sweep  of that Province  i n the  i n 1984  H5  where many h a v e s u g g e s t e d that  fourteen,  were e l e c t e d . challenged fourteen 1988  not  o r whether  their  f u r t h e r study.  that  the proportion  i n Quebec was g r e a t e r  proportion  (by 8 p e r c e n t a g e  Quebec the  might  next  be an a n o m a l y  election  early  suggests  that  at  good, s e a t s  least  a s Quebec  will  created  electoral  Even  though  strength  from  female Conservative in  198H to e l e v e n After  The e v i d e n t  candidates,  points  the Conservatives 58 t o 63 s e a t s , that  women  suggests  as s a f e , or o f women  won by T o r i e s  increased  their  the absolute  Province  than  highest  fell  number o f  from  fourteen  proportion of  (6 o u t o f 32) o r s i x p e r c e n t a g e  the party's  national  average.  by  pattern  i n 1988.  women c a n d i d a t e s  greater  In  the p r o p o r t i o n seats  will  may d i s a p p e a r  become more c o n f i r m e d  M.P.'s f r o m  the  national  i n 198H which  Q u e b e c , B.C. had t h e n e x t  Conservative  be s u g g e s t e d .  a closer analysis  who a r e e l e c t e d d e c l i n e s e v e n a s t h e t o t a l increases.  for  analysis  the party's  i n t h e 1990's.  f o r Tory  nominations  of Conservative  than  points)  seats  a r e not  5 ofthe  Such c o n s t i t u e n c y  but a pattern  candidates  Of  r i d i n g s were more d i f f i c u l t t o  here,  of the fact  (incumbents  to p r o t e c t  i n 198H d u r i n g  to w i n .  i n 1988 and e i g h t  t h e r u l e o f incumbency  f e m a l e MP's e l e c t e d  deserves  expected  on t h e b a l l o t  f o r the nomination) f a i l e d  be u n d e r t a k e n  spite  were n e v e r  9 remained  Whether  election,  defend,  only  they  The  T h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s made i n V a l S e a r s , "Women s t i l l face t o u g h f i g h t a s c a n d i d a t e s " , The T o r o n t o S t a r . May 2 H , 1988, p . A16, and S y l v i a G o l d , " T h e r e a r e s t i l l n o t enough women MPs i n O t t a w a " , C a l g a r y H e r a l d . November 30, 1988, p . A5.  H6  Conservatives Columbia. to  field  These  are  from  In t h e  New  Again,  candidates two  MP's  combined.  Only  Conservatives that  confident  of  Few  the  boast  eleven  i s only 13  available,  they  Manitoba  where o n l y  7  party  Saskatchewan, of  won  which  than  the  were  half like  Conservative  but,  of  2  of  the  the  Manitoba  or  Conservative  and  New  have  Democrats the  which  have been  fairly  to g a i n f r o m  among  percent  ninety-nine  (Table H . 1 ) .  points  lower  a l l but  women c a n d i d a t e s Conservative  has  the  only  Ontario. one  of  (8*/.).  candidates  the In were  available.  also consistently an  AS  than  numbers,  were e l e c t e d f r o m won  the  Conservatives  the  in absolute  1H seats  M.P.'s, saw  did Liberals  Ontario  Conservatives  percent  they  could  percentage  only  women.  ridings.  eleven  contenders  ran  are  Liberals  strength.  2  12  of  elections  in 1988  percent  the  seats  women, t h e  five  candidates  or  number o f women  Ontario electorate  than  women c a n d i d a t e s  female Conservative  a number  seats  field,  this  two  were L i b e r a l s  last  electoral  In A l b e r t a , where 26  the  the  British  electoral  absolute Only  in  is a willingness  i n 1 9 8 H , more  i n many O n t a r i o  i n the  H . 3 shows,  low.  than  Conservatives  Party's only  the  In f a c t ,  fewer  average p r o p o r t i o n of five  of  there  r e p r e s e n t i n g B.C.  female Conservative  Conservatives Table  now  showing  where t h e i r  M.P.'s to O t t a w a  i n two  success  Conservative could  i s very  in Ontario  earned  indicates  that  however,  (Table H . 2 ) .  were e l e c t e d  suggest  national elections  more C o n s e r v a t i v e Democrats  electoral  in regions  Province  last  a strong  factors  good. the  Conservative  sent  two  women c a n d i d a t e s  prospects elected  h a v e a l s o had  identically  low  returned  47  percentage Manitoba only  o f women c a n d i d a t e s .  and S a s k a t c h e w a n  the Manitoba  Looking  average  evidence  supports  evidence region, and  P a r t y and  was s u c c e s s f u l i n h e r e l e c t i o n  bid.  the p r o p o r t i o n o f female  was s i x p e r c e n t a g e  f o r the Conservative  the ' s a c r i f i c i a l  points  lamb'  Party  less  than t h e  i n the A t l a n t i c  theory,  as d i d  f o r t h e New D e m o c r a t s and t h e L i b e r a l s . where t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s  12 o f t h e 32 s e a t s  single  i n each o f  f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e  as a whole,  candidates  one woman  proportion.  The region  candidate  at the P r a i r i e s  Conservative  stood  Only  female  In t h e A t l a n t i c  won 25 o f t h e 32 s e a t s  i n 1988, t h e p a r t y  the  i n 1784  d i d not nominate a  candidate.  To  briefly  summarize,  the Conservative  pattern  to that  identified  f o r t h e New D e m o c r a t s and L i b e r a l s .  Conservative in  ridings  women c a n d i d a t e s  where p r o s p e c t s  w i n n e r s on t h e P r a i r i e s small  percentages  somewhat b e t t e r The  some e v i d e n c e at  various  statements  about  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  r e g i o n where  a r e women. i t remains glance,  i n the theory, Party  Their  only record i s  discouraging.  appeared  to p r o v i d e  b u t , a s was  suggested  analysis, decisive  as I n d i c a t o r :  assessment  regions  similar  elusive.  Success  A brief  i n Quebec, a t f i r s t  of the Conservative  remains  Electoral  The P a r t y  candidates  o f a breakdown  the beginning  evidence  a r e poor.  and i n t h e A t l a n t i c  of their  shows a  a r e a l s o d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y found  i n B.C. b u t i n O n t a r i o  Conservatives  party  of electoral  may be u s e f u l the p a r t i e s '  success  i n drawing  o f the p a r t i e s i n  more c o n c l u s i v e  w i l l i n g n e s s t o n o m i n a t e women  48  candidates This  i n s e a t s where t h e p a r t y  s e c t i o n attempts  conjunction  with  the aggregate  successful  and where t h e p a r t y  candidates  which  proportion  o f female candidates.  be  most  lost  regions  information presented  at those  way b e c a u s e  closely  Electoral candidates  and were d e t e r m i n e d  a high  candidates example,  these  Conservatives  success  gender  i s advised  o f each  will  Electoral party's  i n T a b l e 4.4.  since  f o rreference  the percentage  record  there  cannot  as w e l l  o f male table female For  suggest the and e l e c t i n g  one f e m a l e  b u t s h e was e l e c t e d .  who r a n i n t h e e l e c t i o n  that  of  by f e m a l e  f o r nominating  was o n l y  this  underrepresented.  and shows t h e number  region.  the fact  r a t e enjoyed  i n Manitoba  number  when u s i n g  can ignore  success  h a v e a good  i n each  exists.  who won o u t o f t h e t o t a l  i n the Province  party  tendency  exist  women c a n d i d a t e s i n  e l e c t e d i s shown  rate alone  candidates  female candidates  provided  to f i e l d  and e l e c t e d Members a r e s t i l l  Conservative  average  circumstances  by c a l c u l a t i n g  Caution  t h e 100 p e r c e n t  candidate  to t h e p a r t y ' s  r a t e s a r e a l s o shown f o r m a l e and f e m a l e  female candidates.  since  was e l e c t o r a l l y  o f the percentage  male o r f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s  each  where  who a r e s u c c e s s f u l l y success  It  The a n a l y s i s i s f o c u s s e d i n  the tendency  as a c a l c u l a t i o n  above.  r a n a p r o p o r t i o n o f women  cause c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , i f that  candidates  or  where a p a r t y  corresponded  the cases  r e v e a l i n g about  success  competitive.  t o add p e r s p e c t i v e when c o n s i d e r e d i n  looks only  this  i selectorally  Conservative  Table  4.5 i s  of candidates  a s t h e number  o f each  elected  from  H9  M a l e and F e m a l e  Total  V. S e a t s -  All-  Nfld PEI NS NB Total Atlant ic Quebec Ontar i o  Table H . H E l e c t o r a l S u c c e s s by P a r t y <198S)  NDP 15 Female Male (6'/.) <1B'/.)  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 *  —  O o  and P r o v i n c e  Liberal 28 Female Male ( 257.) ( 297.)  0 100 66 —  0  *  60 18  0  71 100 50 50  P.C. 57 Female Male (577.) (577.)  —  *  —  *  29 0  —  *  H5  —  *  —  •*  50  63  38 88  16 69  16  Hi  89  HH  H5  Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta Total Prairies B.C. Yukon Nor t h w e s t Territories  0 0 0  15 77 5  0 0 0  36 0 0  0  2H  0  9  HH  65  0  H  100 — *  100  F i g u r e s show p e r c e n t o f c a n d i d a t e s *no c a n d i d a t e s o f t h i s g e n d e r .  100 75 33  H6  31 96 66 38  0  0  100  0  — +  0  100 0  elected.  50  Candidates/MPs  Total  Table 4.5 per P a r t y <1988)  NDP 43 Female Male  Seats-  Nf Id PEI NS NB Total Atlant ic  2/0 4/0 4/0 3/0  5/0 0/0 7/0 7/0  13/0  Quebec Ontario  by P r o v i n c e  Liberal 83 Female Male  P.C. 169 Female  Male  1 /0 1/1 3/2 0/0  6/5 3/3 8/4 10/5  0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0  7/2 4/0 11/5 10/5  19/0  5/3  27/17  0  32/12  17/0  58/0  1 1/2  64/10  16/11  59/52  35/0  64/10  17/7  81/36  11/5  88/41  Mani t o b a Saskatchewan Alberta Total P r a i r i es  1/0 1/0 •7/0  13/2 13/10 19/ 1  2/0 3/0 8/0  12/5 1 1 /0 18/0  1/1 1 /0 2/2  13/6 13/4 24/23  9/0  45/13  13/0  41/5  4/3  50/33  B.C.  9/4  2 3 / 19  6/0  E6/ 1  6/2  26/10  Yukon Nor t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i es  1/1  0/0  0/0  1/0  0/0  1 /0  0/0  E/0  1/ 1  1/ 1  0/0  2/0  E l 1/38  53/13  37/21  257/132  To t a 1s Figures  84/5 show t h e  Table  4.4  number of" c a n d i d a t e s / n u m b e r  shows  that  for  proportion  of  proportion  by 7 p e r c e n t a g e  enjoyed zero  a  disparity candidates male  the  success  rate.  which s u g g e s t s were  colleagues.  points  success  by f a r  rate This  that  less  elected  NDP i n O n t a r i o ,  NDP women c a n d i d a t e s  16 p e r c e n t  percent  S41/70  exceeded  the  where  the  average  (Table 4.3),  male  while  candidates  female  candidates had a  calculation clearly points  the  secure  seats  contested  than those  out  by f e m a l e NDP  contested  by  their  a  51  The o n l y apart  from  H.5).  here  where  average.  somewhat  less  Table  than  their  Conservative  candidates  an  success  candidates  points.  i n Quebec,  record  elsewhere.  was  their  f o r female proportion  exceeded  Of t h e 16 f e m a l e eleven  were e l e c t e d w h i c h i s  whereas  t h a t f o r male  which  i s only  slightly  among  their  less  high than  male c o l l e a g u e s .  Conservative  candidates  o f female candidacy  The e l e c t o r a l  was r e l a t i v e l y  success  i s much b e t t e r  o f B.C. women  at a o n e - t h i r d success t h e 38 p e r c e n t  success  rate rate  In B.C. t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f e m a l e  a l s o exceeded  the Party  a v e r a g e by 6  points.  Turning  to the L i b e r a l s ,  candidates  i n Quebec  of there being they  colleagues. the  where  t o t h e S8  a t 65 p e r c e n t .  the d i s p a r i t y  i n Quebec  Conservatives  Quebec,  well  was 88 p e r c e n t .  B.C. t h a n  Liberal  was B.C. ( T a b l e  rate at H H percent  success  r a t e o f 69 p e r c e n t  The C o n s e r v a t i v e ' s  percentage  their  illustrates  a v e r a g e by B p e r c e n t a g e  candidates,  p r o p o r t i o n corresponded  t h a t f o r male c a n d i d a t e s  candidates  electoral  i n t h e Yukon,  were a l s o r e l a t i v e l y  But a g a i n ,  H . Halso  Conservative  spite  t h e NDP e l e c t e d f e m a l e  F e m a l e NDP c a n d i d a t e s  percent  in  where  one f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e  represented  the  province  enjoyed  In t h e A t l a n t i c  i n 1988, o n l y  a higher  seven  success  rate  male L i b e r a l  among  the eleven  women  two were e l e c t e d . candidates than  elected in  d i d their  candidates  In  male  outnumbered  to one.  provinces  experienced  that  2 female L i b e r a l  Nevertheless,  female L i b e r a l s  consistently  only  we f i n d  where  electoral  the L i b e r a l s  success,  have  winning  20 o u t o f 32  52  seats one  i n P.E.I.  less to  i n 1988 o n l y  than  their  That  i s a good  which  suggests  ridings  which  offer  it  are,  that f o r t h e i r  i s even d i f f i c u l t  seats.  candidates Even  i n such  are less  colleagues  who e n j o y  that deal  last  their  counts.  of evidence  to argue field  Table  that a party higher  areas, secure  than  higher  the r i d i n g s than  those  success  I t i s based  how t h e l o c a l  success.  success  average  that  equitable  proportions of  i s likely  contested  contested  And  are less  4.4 i l l u s t r a t e d i s being  i n the  by  to win female  by t h e i r  male  rates.  C h a n c e s and Women  from  on s u r v e y  association  theory  among a l l t h r e e  looks at the s a c r i f i c i a l  i sdifferent  lamb  n o t t o be n o m i n a t e d  rates of electoral  m e a s u r e and d e p e n d s on a c o n s t i t u e n c y asked  the average,  the s a c r i f i c i a l  male c o l l e a g u e s .  section  a p e r s p e c t i v e which three  Liberal  that of their  chances o f e l e c t o r a l  Local Perception of Electoral This  than  than  i n r e g i o n s where t h e p a r t y  candidates  b)  less  less  t h a t women t e n d  the best  t o w a r d s women when t h e y female  point  sent  i n the Province.  There  e v e n when t h e y  r a t e but s t i l l  by t h e 17 male c a n d i d a t e s  somewhat  c o n c l u s i o n , i t appears  holds.  success  the p r o p o r t i o n o f female  r a t e was a g a i n  parties  than  where  was o n l y o n e p e r c e n t a g e  male c o l l e a g u e s  still  60 p e r c e n t  r a t e enjoyed  In O n t a r i o  success  In  were women; two i n Nova S c o t i a and  i s a strong  the success  Ottawa.  candidates  3 winners  lamb  the aggregate data, level  assessed  Candidates:  using  theory  a n a l y s i s on  a subjective  analysis.  their  from  The s u r v e y  chances o f v i c t o r y  53  when t h e y to  nominated  ask whether  analysis safe  which  seats  be  the survey indicated  survey  nominated  Of t h e s e ,  their  is  Only  Here  I use t h i s  the aggregate likely  ££ p e r c e n t  nominated  in ridings  considered  unlikely  disappears  among  l i k e l y to  of the survey  t o be a s a f e s e a t  for their  had male c a n d i d a t e s .  As T a b l e  were r u n i n s a f e  had s a f e s e a t s .  s l i g h t l y more  their  or hopeless.  in ridings  t o be l e s s  £0 percent  o f male c a n d i d a t e s  where  data  t o be n o m i n a t e d i n  o f women c a n d i d a t e s  h a n d , women were o n l y  question  low.  riding  90 p e r c e n t  i l l u s t r a t e s , ten percent  seats while  be  supports  women a r e l e s s  to safe s e a t s .  candidate.  other  £9  r e v e a l s t h a t women c o n t i n u e  considered  the  data  chance o f v i c t o r y  respondents  H.6  candidate.  and a r e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d  where t h e i r The  their  likely  chance o f success  than  B u t on men t o  was  This d i f f e r e n c e v i r t u a l l y  nonincumbents.  S u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d : "When t h e p a r t y was nominating t h e c a n d i d a t e how d i d t h e l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n a s s e s s t h e chances o f v i c t o r y i n the constituency? Was t h e r i d i n g c o n s i d e r e d by y o u r p a r t y t o b e : s a f e ; good c h a n c e ; u n l i k e l y ; hopeless". On t h i s g u e s t i o n , E r i c k s o n and C a r t y i n "Making Her Way I n " n o t e t h a t " p a r t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were n o t u n r e a l i s t i c . F o r e x a m p l e , s e a t s c o n s i d e r e d t o be ' s a f e ' were won by t h a t l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n 77 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s . By c o m p a r i s o n , o f t h o s e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p a r t y t o h a v e 'a good c h a n c e ' i n t h e i r r i d i n g , 31 p e r c e n t won t h e i r s e a t , o f t h o s e who t h o u g h t t h e i r c h a n c e s u n l i k e l y , o n l y 8 p e r c e n t won and none o f t h o s e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t t h o u g h t t h e i r c h a n c e s h o p e l e s s a c t u a l l y won t h e s e a t . " p p . 18-19, f f 3 9 .  54  T a b l e 4.6 o f E l e c t o r a l Success i n Constituency by C a n d i d a t e Gender (1988) (Vertical Percentages)  Chances  Chances  Cand i da t e Gender Male Fema1e  o f Success:  10. 1 58. E 37.7 (N=69)  Safe Seat Good C h a n c e Unlikely/Hopel  Table  4.7 r e v e a l s t h a t when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p a r t i e s  individually, in  unlikely  unlikely figure the  EE.E 47.3 30.5 (N=375)  the L i b e r a l s  seats.  In t h o s e  or hopeless,  was 14 p e r c e n t  New D e m o c r a t s .  a r e the least seats  13 p e r c e n t  likely  the L i b e r a l s  f o r the Conservatives  However, i t i s t h e NDP w h i c h h a s a  percent  o f NDP s a f e s e a t s had f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s  percent  of Liberal  t o n o m i n a t e women i n s a f e s e a t s .  safe seats while  only  s a f e by t h e T o r i e s had women  this  slightly  Eighteen  compared  7 percent  t o 17  of seats  candidates.  T a b l e 4.7 o f P a r t y C a n d i d a t e s and C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s (1988) NDP Female Male  S a f e Seat Good C h a n c e Unlikely/ Hopeless  while  and 35 p e r c e n t f o r  tendency  Percentage  considered  had f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s  greater  considered  t o n o m i n a t e women  Liberal Female Male  o f Seat  P.C. Female Male  18.3 31.7  81.8 68.3  16.7 19.3  83.3 80.7  6.7 10.9  93.3 89.1  35.3  64.7  13.3  86.7  14.3  85.7  55  Both gender that  Table  4.6 s h o w i n g  and c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s  women c a n d i d a t e s disparity  incumbency.  Incumbency  nomination  parties or  there  stage  party's  considered local had  safe seats  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the survey  renomination.  In  number  Since  safe  seats.  for  86 p e r c e n t  the L i b e r a l s  those  of the female  percent  o f the  women  Only  reduced.  were women.  Even  i n terms o f  had s a f e s e a t s b u t 60 safe. were  safe  seeking  reselection,  14 p e r c e n t  o f t h o s e few  (one C o n s e r v a t i v e  male c a n d i d a t e s  and C o n s e r v a t i v e s ) .  seats  a r e incumbents,  considered  incumbents  where  members won  disparity  incumbents  i f he  t o be  t o have s a f e  o f c o n s t i t u e n c i e s which  represented.  nominated  likely  A l l o f those  gender  MP  ridings  t o women i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y  i s a small  nominated  Eighty  o f t h e 54 i n c u m b e n t s  d i d not have  women were p o o r l y  while  open  the 6 percent  and w h i c h  the s i t t i n g  few women c a n d i d a t e s  i n c u m b e n t s had s e a t s  among  constituencies  five  there  Half  o f male  Even seats  only  incumbents  percent  very  In a l l t h r e e  MP a r e most  considered  reselection.  of safe seats  the survey,  among  seeking  an a d v a n t a g e both a t  Furthermore,  f o r that party.  seats.  by t h e a d v a n t a g e o f  n o t to c h a l l e n g e  i s the s i t t i n g  illustrate  i n safe  the e l e c t i o n .  renomination.  4.7 s h o w i n g  party,  represented  a candidate  and d u r i n g  candidate  incumbents  the  offers  and T a b l e  f o r each  c a n be e x p l a i n e d  i s a tendency  she i s seeking  the  o f seat  are poorly  Some o f t h i s  the  a l l parties,  and one NDP)  (two NDP and f i v e  each  56  c)  Summary: This  chapter  candidates competition  i n safe  the  seats. next  Since  number  Incumbency  chapter,  nominations  In a d d i t i o n ,  i t se f f e c t  i s considered.  in ridings  has t h e o p p o s i t e number  f a c t o r alone  o f male c a n d i d a t e s deserves  further  women  from  reduces the  a disproportionate that  not to f i e l d  the p r o t e c t i o n  nominations  Incumbency  a r e incumbents,  disproportionate  p a r t i e s tend  by i n c u m b e n c y f u r t h e r  party.  male c a n d i d a t e s .  safe  that  f o r women t o g a i n  for their  candidates  seats.  offered  opportunities safe  h a s shown  considered  effect f o r o f male  results ina  being  nominated i n  consideration  on t h e c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s  of  and,  in  57  Chapter  5.  It  Incumbency, C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s  should  candidacy female  face  percent  less  surprising  competition More  of  incumbent of  incumbent  responses  male c a n d i d a t e s candidates  candidates  had  faced  Gender  are  from  Candidates:  nomination  men  and  survey  i n the  in Table  5.1  bids  than  do  incumbency  competition.  i n the  competition  to d e f e a t  Candidate  in their  candidates  indicated  Female  t h a t male a s p i r a n t s f o r  incumbents  protects a candidate  percent  Survey  be  aspirants.  generally  89  not  and  Eighty-seven  were a c c l a i m e d  survey  were  and  male.  show  t h a t 31  percent  w h e r e a s 47  percent  of  of  female  other a s p i r a n t s . T a b l e 5.1 Competitiveness (1988)  and  of  Female 7. Acclamation: Compet i t i o n for Nomination:  Nomination  Male* 7.  53 (47)  67 (59)  47 (53)  31 (40)  F i g u r e s i n b r a c k e t s a r e r i d i n g s where o n l y n o n i n c u m b e n t s were s e e k i n g nomination. * m a l e numbers do n o t e q u a l 100 p e r c e n t b e c a u s e o f a s s o c i a t i o n s where no n o m i n a t i o n m e e t i n g was h e l d .  One number  could  candidate  face  expect  o f male c a n d i d a t e s  renominating  Among  also  had  the c a n d i d a t e not  won  nonincumbent competition  respondents,  40  the  that  benefitting who  percent  of  stood  previous  candidates,  in their  t h e r e would  men  from  be the  before  election were  nomination  less  bids  nonincumbent  a disproportionate party practice  even  of  i f that  f o r the likely  riding. than  ( T a b l e 5.1).  male c a n d i d a t e s  women to Of  survey  faced  58  competition female  nomination  though  suggestion  that  women f a c e d they  nominations  i n the competition.  successfully  won t h e n o m i n a t i o n .  that  since  they  d i d s o i n more t h a n  given  the o p p o r t u n i t y . The  apparent  opinion.  rejecting  i n the survey  of these  These f i g u r e s  willingness  of the cases  of local  riding  situations.  cases,  a woman  refute the  p a r t y members a r e r e l u c t a n t half  i s no  had a t l e a s t o n e  t o c h o o s e women where t h e y  were  a s s o c i a t i o n s to  that  politicians switch  One r e a s o n  the public  and would  parties  some, t h e r e  polls  associations  i s not y e t ready  vote  might  i s evidence  While  this  to suggest  o f the concept  indicates  that  gender  even  may s t i l l a change  i sa female  i f t h e y had  be a c o n c e r n in public  opinion  o f women i n t h e p u b l i c  E r i c k s o n and C a r t y p o i n t o u t t h a t  i n t h e 1980's  have f o r  to support  f o r a male c a n d i d a t e  t o do s o .  towards an a c c e p t a n c e sphere.  local  women c a n d i d a t e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r  perception  for  of their  f o r women c a n d i d a t e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a r e f l e c t i o n o f  public  to  local  there  i n competitive  In 54 p e r c e n t  suggestion  vote  t o 53 p e r c e n t  more c o m p e t i t i o n ,  do n o t do w e l l  of the contested  woman  compared  counterparts.  Even  Half  f o r their  public  evidence resistance  from  CIPO  t o women a s  30 politicians The the  i s very  election  idea that  results  and i s d e c l i n i n g .  from  the e l e c t o r a t e  Erickson 14.  limited  and C a r t y ,  Quebec  i n 1984 a p p e a r  i s not ready  "Making  Her Way  to support  to r e f u t e female  I n " , p . 8-3 and f f .  59  candidates.  Most  candidates.  I t was c l e a r l y  was  r e j e c t e d i n Quebec.  Conservative Had  candidate  the Conservative  Quebec few  o f t h e women e l e c t e d t h a t a political  party  recruited  seem  would  to agree  public  opinion.  Martin  offers  h i sa n a l y s i s that  name on t h e b a l l o t  the  female.  "In today's  have been q u i t e a  those  elections.  t h e r e has been a change i n  a Toronto  i s irrelevant.  for  was male o r  likely  after  that  Goldfarb,  ballots  that  more f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s i n  more women Members o f P a r l i a m e n t pollsters  were Quebec  the L i b e r a l s ,  their  that candidate  i n 1984 o r i n 1988, t h e r e  The  party,  The v o t e r s c a s t whether  year  world,  Indeed,  polling  consultant,  whether  i t s a woman's  i t may be an a d v a n t a g e 31  with  family With  i s s u e s and v a l u e s  p u b l i c o p i n i o n changing  women a s p o l i t i c i a n s willingness incumbency why  so much on t h e p u b l i c ' s mind."  and l o c a l  to b l o c k  candidates, women.  women f a c e more c o m p e t i t i o n  seeking  reselection.  have a r e l a t i o n s h i p competition.  The n e x t  can  c o n t r i b u t e to both  the  nomination  nominated.  party  factors  that  number  does not e x p l a i n  where no incumbent i s  other  suggests  an i n c r e a s e d  and a g r e a t e r  National  But t h i s  female candidacy  chapter  of  the b a r r i e r of  in ridings  There a r e then, to both  acceptance  associations evidencing a  to nominate female continues  to a g r e a t e r  a t work  which  and g r e a t e r search  committees  of candidates  seeking  p r o p o r t i o n o f women c a n d i d a t e s  i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the nomination  being  process  31 The  V a l S e a r s , "Women s t i l l f a c e t o u g h T o r o n t o S t a r . May 84, 1988, p . A16.  fight  as c a n d i d a t e s " ,  60  will  also  be shown  to have  women c a n d i d a t e s who  seek  the p o t e n t i a l their  party's  to a f f e c t nomination.  t h e number  61  Chapter  6. M e c h a n i s m s o f C a n d i d a t e  There The  way a l o c a l  from  to another  governing  approach  mechanisms o f c a n d i d a t e  association  one r i d i n g  rules  not  a r e few f o r m a l  chooses since,  the process.  well-known  individuals  f o r nomination.  involved  i f they  wish  to e n t i c e  riding  then  be c o n v i n c e d  candidate.  A l l parties  formal  candidate  aspirants  selection  who p u t t h e i r  recruitment.  candidates  stage,  riding  t h e r e a r e few  who may o r may  p a r t y a c t i v i s t s to  p a r t y e x e c u t i v e c a n become  prominent  individuals  i s confident of winning. to nominate engage  which  varies  e x e c u t i v e may  i n t h e community  The n a t i o n a l  the party  their  at t h i s  may c o n v i n c e  them s e a t s w h i c h must  to f i n d  The l o c a l  be p a r t y members o r t h e y  stand  Recruitment:  that  names f o r w a r d ,  The l o c a l  i n d i v i d u a l as  in activities  may a f f e c t  by o f f e r i n g  p r i o r to  t h e numbers o f  and w h e t h e r  the p a r t y  will  n o m i n a t e a woman. This  chapter  activities  which,  female  candidacy.  female  candidate  The  data  greater  number  party  process  the survey  data  suggests,  and t h e more f o r m a l that  both  these  o f women c a n d i d a t e s mechanisms.  structures  and w h i c h  influence  two d i f f e r e n t  recruitment  have  implications f o r  The e x i s t e n c e o f o u t s i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t  indicates  absence o f these from  looks at only  which  search  mechanism.  activities  can c o n t r i b u t e to a  than  be t h e c a s e  would  Women c a n d i d a t e s c l e a r l y f o r m a l i z e the candidate  p r o v i d e a means by w h i c h  the process  committee  on t h e i r  for a  behalf.  i n the  benefit  recruitment  the national  party can  62  a)  Outside  Encouragement  Encouragement outside  process.  may  directed  Candidate:  at the local  the o r g a n i z a t i o n to encourage  candidates  or  f o r Woman  i s an i n f o r m a l Such  them  c a n come f r o m  provincial  a s s o c i a t i o n from  t o seek  means o f a f f e c t i n g  encouragement  i t c a n come f r o m  riding  women  the nomination  local  women's g r o u p s ;  or n a t i o n a l p a r t y  officials  who  o r may n o t h a v e an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 32  candidate  recruitment.  carefully  guard  in  the process  association organizers One  their  However, role  local  i n candidate  by g r o u p s o r i n d i v i d u a l s  i s very  limited.  i s rarely  sought  and when  expect  then  increased  number  o f women c a n d i d a t e s  reveals  or s a f e l y  ignored.  likely  circumstances  imposed  national party  where o u t s i d e  would  to accept  t o n o m i n a t e women c a n d i d a t e s f o r a female  the l o c a l  national  party  i s usually  resented. f o r an  be r e j e c t e d  the survey  data  was r e p o r t e d ,  ridings  But t h e  occurs  d i f f e r e n c e s and i n d i c a t e s t h a t  D e m o c r a t s a r e more w i l l i n g  encouragement  outside  either  candidates.  encouragement  Involvement  encouragement  Nevertheless,  to have f e m a l e  demonstrates party  and  from  t h a t where o u t s i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t  were more  associations  selection.  A s s i s t a n c e from  would  outright  that  riding  clearly t h e New  national party  when n a t i o n a l  involvement  party  occurs.  The s u r v e y q u e s t i o n a s k e d , i f t h e r e was o u t s i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t f o r t h e l o c a l p a r t y t o c h o o s e a woman c a n d i d a t e , d i d i t come f r o m : n a t i o n a l p a r t y ; p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y f i g u r e s ; l o c a l women's g r o u p s ; o t h e r . L o c a l members were m e n t i o n e d a s a s p e c i f i c source i n the "other" category.  63  Given outside  what we know o f i n c u m b e n c y ,  encouragement  would  an  incumbent  i s seeking  an  incumbent  was s e e k i n g  associations, female.  In r i d i n g s  not l i k e l y  renomination. reselection,  a l l NDP, r e p o r t e d  Ninety-three  percent  increased.  Therefore,  from  desire their  party given  party.  But t h e s u r v e y  The d a t a  in this  suggests seeking  are  f a r less  candidate percent  selection  among r i d i n g s t h e NDP.  data  in ridings  than  while  in  associations.  only  to f i n d  The  between  sought  but p a r t i c u l a r l y  have e x p r e s s e d representing  a s t h e NDP i s c o n c e r n e d . where t h e r e  i s no  and C o n s e r v a t i v e s  t h e NDP t o i n t e r v e n e In f a c t ,  was n o t s e e k i n g percent  o u t s i d e encouragement  the nomination.  in local  more  Looking  there  was  occurred i n occurred  i sa  and f e m a l e  first  female  reselection  o f cases  ridings  t h a n 80  fora  o f reported cases  those  a  c o n f i r m s our  the L i b e r a l s  3 percent  following d i s c u s s i o n excludes  incumbent  much g r e a t e r  ridings,  We t u r n now t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f w h e t h e r correlation  for a  encouragement.  o f o u t s i d e encouragement  In c o n t r a s t , f i f t e e n  ridings  of riding  effective is  analysis  insofar  where  r e s e l e c t i o n , the  being  i n such  where an i n c u m b e n t  Liberal Tory  no s u c h  on b e h a l f o f women.  of the occurrences  ridings  only 7 percent  expect  the nomination, inclined  those  o f women c a n d i d a t e s  only  that even  incumbent still  case  Among  that a l l p a r t i e s  t o i n c r e a s e t h e number  expectations  in  we s h o u l d  o f o u t s i d e encouragement  the national  i n i n s t a n c e s where  i s seeking  o f o u t s i d e encouragement  that  occur  indicated  where no i n c u m b e n t  expect  o u t s i d e encouragement  possibility  levels  we w o u l d  candidacy.  where an at a l l ridings,  64  Table  6.1 shows t h a t  reported  o u t s i d e encouragement  nominated percent  a woman compared  when t h e r e  average percentage percent, of  i n t h e 26 p e r c e n t  o f c o n s t i t u e n c i e s which  f o r a female candidate,  to a female  nomination  was no e n c o u r a g e m e n t . o f women c a n d i d a t e s  average.  As T a b l e  much g r e a t e r  was 25 p e r c e n t a g e 6.1 a l s o  extent  shows,  i n t h e NDP t h a n  rate of just another  16  way, t h e  i n t h e s a m p l e was 20  s o where o u t s i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t  women n o m i n a t e d  Viewed  45 p e r c e n t  occurred,  the percentage  points greater  this  result  than t h e  i s reflected  the L i b e r a l  to a  or C o n s e r v a t i v e  par t i es.  Candidate  Gender  T a b l e 6.1 and O u t s i d e E n c o u r a g e m e n t (Nonincumbents Only) <1988)  f o r Female  Outs ide Encouragement: NDP  Liberal M/F A l l  P.C. M/F A l l  M/F  A l l  50/50 26/26  48 52  80/20 B/2  10 10  50/50 1/1  79/21 44/12  52 56  84/16 75/14  90 89  90/10 35/4  Al 1 Ridings M/F A l l  Yes: N  5 2  55/45 35/29  26 64  95 39  84/16 154/30  74 184  No : N  N = number  of candidates,  Outside NDP r i d i n g s nominated  encouragement i n the survey  ridings.  i n almost  and 50 p e r c e n t  a woman c a n d i d a t e .  encouragement, the  occurred  Where  t h e NDP n o m i n a t e d These f i g u r e s  half  o f those  t h e r e was no  male c a n d i d a t e s  suggest  that  (48%)  of the  ridings such i n 79 p e r c e n t o f  i n t h e NDP a t l e a s t ,  65  outside to  encouragement  increase  helps  t h e number  explain  compared  to the other  that  number  i s greater  reduced.  There  parties  except  because  very  perhaps  encouragement  it  came f r o m  Of not  often  came f r o m  national  little  they  o f male  t o be s a i d  could  draw  about  lessons  appears e f f e c t i v e ,  the national party.  women's g r o u p s , effective  whether local  candidates  from  two  t h e NDP  particularly  since  NDP M.P. was  h a l f the cases  success  be s a i d  rate  25 r i d i n g s ,  (25 o f 52)  that the  i n securing the 16 women were  sources  the p r o v i n c i a l  of outside party,  members o r an u n s p e c i f i e d s o u r c e ,  local were a s  party.  NDP c o u n t e r p a r t s Outside  these  was o u t s i d e  I t might  i t was f r o m  national party  n o m i n a t e women.  there  None o f t h e o t h e r  as the n a t i o n a l  Liberal their  had a 64 p e r c e n t  nominated.  encouragement,  where  party.  i n almost  o f a woman: i n t h o s e  successfully  on t h e  p a r t i e s , however,  the percentage  and where  f o r a female,  party  nomination  than  p a r t i e s c a n i t be  were so few c a s e s  In b o t h  the n a t i o n a l  renomination  encouragement it  candidates  t h e 52 NDP a s s o c i a t i o n s where an i n c u m b e n t  seeking  also  and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s i s  where o u t s i d e most  there  was r e p o r t e d .  i s , then, that  finding  had much o f a n e f f e c t  i s no e n c o u r a g e m e n t  nominated  o f women NDP  nor Conservative  encouragement  encouragement  there  This  work  two p a r t i e s .  o f women c a n d i d a t e s  outside where  proportion  the L i b e r a l  outside  and may i n f a c t  o f female candidates.  the higher  In n e i t h e r said  may be more a c c e p t a b l e  officials  were f a r  less  i n influencing local  encouragement  successful  a s s o c i a t i o n s to  was r e p o r t e d  i n only  10  66  percent which  of cases  intervened.  national the  party  candidate  national  provincial  group.  But i n over  was m a l e .  survey  In t h i s  it  survey  the other  ultimately part of  candidate  case,  I f there  on t h e  do n o t r e v e a l  encouragement  that the  of local  of candidates. encouragement  f o r a woman  attempted  by e i t h e r  i t i s not p o s s i b l e to c o n c l u d e  i n t e r v e n t i o n would  be more b e n e f i c i a l  was m a l e .  i s a commitment  results  succeed.  Ironically,  s i n c e more women s e c u r e d  when t h e n a t i o n a l o r r e g i o n a l p a r t y might  candidate  local  l e a d e r s h i p t o i n c r e a s e t h e number  survey  recruitment  at least,  among  associations in  i t came f r o m  a p p e a r s not to have been s e r i o u s l y  Party  women's  was u n s p e c i f i e d and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n  through  parties,  a local  but i n n e i t h e r case d i d  the nominated  party  these  candidate  f o r a female  2 Conservative  n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l p a r t y  more o f s u c h  from  where t h e  was m a l e .  In one c a s e  a woman.  i s exercised  t h e two m a j o r  Liberal  Only  the source  women c a n d i d a t e s ,  Since  of  In t h i s  during  f o r a woman  o u t s i d e encouragement  nominated  associations  where  was r e p o r t e d ,  were no c a s e s  no o u t s i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t  of the Conservative  commitment  cases,  where t h e r e was  encouragement  party o f f i c i a l s .  case,  there  the candidate  associations.  women's g r o u p s . In  one c a s e  encouragement  was t h e r e  case  reported  come f r o m  o f these  f o r a woman c a n d i d a t e  In o n l y  expressed  T h e r e was a l m o s t  the  i t was t h e n a t i o n a l p a r t y  80 p e r c e n t  respondents,  one c a s e  Conservative  often  i n t e r v e n t i o n d i d a woman w i n t h e n o m i n a t i o n .  party  i n only  most  encouragement  party  Among L i b e r a l  and  and a g a i n  kept  clear  that  within the  the nomination  o f the process, i t  t o t h e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f  67  women c a n d i d a t e s  to p r e s c r i b e  s i l e n c e on t h e p a r t  of female  suppor t e r s . As  this section  conclusively party the in  assert  officials,  candidacy  has suggested, that  or elsewhere,  o f women.  t h e NDP, t h a t  female candidates,  was a u s e f u l  intervention  are less willing  than  tool  national  i n increasing  Among  to i n c r e a s e  i n the form  might  from  i s a suggestion,  prove e f f e c t i v e .  to the p a r t i e s  riding associations  parties  encouragement,  But t h e r e  i t might  mechanisms a v a i l a b l e  local  outside  i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o  as e v i d e n c e d  the informal  t h e number o f  o f encouragement o f  be e f f e c t i v e b u t t h e two m a j o r  t h e NDP t o e n g a g e  i n such  intervention. The the  party  informal  section  also  willingness mechanism used.  mechanism reveals both  in this section  of national  that  party  encouragement.  t h e NDP d e m o n s t r a t e s  t o u s e t h e more f o r m a l  i s not l i m i t e d to  search  a  search  t h e number  organizational  committees  existence  appears  t o become c a n d i d a t e s  when  greater  t h e mechanism i s  a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y  o f women c a n d i d a t e s , to b e n e f i t such  The n e x t  committee  and t o n o m i n a t e women c a n d i d a t e s when  Candidate  increasing  likely  e f f e c t revealed  aimed a t  but t h e i r women who a r e l e s s  structures  a r e absent.  68  b) S e a r c h The  Committees: use of search  committees  i s one o f t h e few  mechanisms f o r c a n d i d a t e  recruitment  first  that  the  glance,  i t appears  c o n s t i t u e n c y was more  there  was n o t s u c h  reveals  that  this  number Liberal  to use s e a r c h  Table  6.2  Almost  search  committee.  half  constituencies  among  their  their  c o m m i t t e e s made  to which  search  committees  existed while  a search  were  made u s e o f a  search  Search  much  committees  o f t h e NDP  that  larger  that w i t h i n the  two-thirds  Liberal  c o m m i t t e e was u s e d i n  committees  were e v e n more  only  one  rare  quarter  existence. T a b l e 6.2 C o m m i t t e e s by P a r t y (1988)  Percent  New D e m o c r a t s L i b e r a 1s Conservatives  much  candidates.  a s s o c i a t i o n s o f which  Search  Par t y :  and t h e i r  I t i s not as c l e a r search  when  examination  than  revealed  ridings.  committee,  a f u n c t i o n of the  the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s surveyed  surveyed,  Conservative  reported  committees  o f women  In more  respondents  half  is partially  shows t h e e x t e n t  used.  only  However, c l o s e r  parties  t o t h e number  was a s e a r c h  At  t o n o m i n a t e a woman t h a n  a committee.  and C o n s e r v a t i v e  difference  survey  likely  o f women c a n d i d a t e s .  by t h e p a r t i e s .  where t h e r e  relationship  NDP's p r o p e n s i t y  used  formal  Nonincumbent  70 54 51  Search  Committee: Incumbent  50 9 10  All  Ridings  67 50 26  69  As m i g h t the  be e x p e c t e d ,  use o f search  example,  committees,  Conservative  one-quarter  i n the other  committees  sought  Because  percent  existed  renomination  because to  pattern i s  fewer their  ridings  having  than  incumbent use o f search that o f the  situations,  compared  an incumbent  search  to o n l y 9  seeking  f o r the Conservatives.  If search  f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f  i s again  i n the Liberal  shown t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t and C o n s e r v a t i v e  t h e u s e o f a mechanism w h i c h  parties,  c a n open  t h e door  women.  looks  only  nomination. committees who s e e k  the effect at those  o f incumbency,  the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n  a s s o c i a t i o n s with  The f i g u r e s  suggest  that  no i n c u m b e n t  seeking the  the use o f search  g e n e r a l l y makes a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number  candidacies  ( T a b l e 6.3) and i n t h e number  u l t i m a t e l y nominated  percent one  i n incumbency  t h e NDP c a s e s  incumbency  i taffects  have  much g r e a t e r  tool  i n only  o f the r i d i n g s  A similar  renomination,  c a n be a n e f f e c t i v e  For  i n nonincumbent  in half  particularly  Given  are  to seek  on  where u s e o f s e a r c h  the average  and 10 p e r c e n t  women c a n d i d a t e s , barrier,  use o f committees  as w e l l  However, e v e n  of Liberal  committees  reported  i s , not s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  parties.  committees  6.E i n d i c a t e s .  t h e New D e m o c r a t s  Members o f P a r l i a m e n t  other  than  effect  as T a b l e  the nomination.  two p a r t i e s  i s greater  situations.  committees  ridings  has a s i g n i f i c a n t  o f a l l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s but i n h a l f  where no i n c u m b e n t seen  incumbency  of ridings  woman s e e k i n g  which  ( T a b l e 6.4). had s e a r c h  the nomination.  Table  o f women  o f women who  6.3 shows t h a t 43  committees  a l s o had a t l e a s t  However, where no s e a r c h  70  committee one  was u s e d ,  woman a s p i r a n t .  committee was  Conservative women  and a t l e a s t  greater  committees  29 p e r c e n t  The p e r c e n t a g e  was u s e d  notably  search  and  only  than  both  attracted  where a s e a r c h  one woman s o u g h t  the nomination  to have  two p a r t i e s .  the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t  i n t e r m s o f number  o f women  Party New D e m o c r a t s : Women A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s L i b e r a 1s: Women A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s Conservatives: Women A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s A l l Three P a r t i e s : Women A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s  Looking  now a t T a b l e  was s e e k i n g  much more  likely  committee  women c a n d i d a t e s committee  aspirants,  Committee  '/. No  52/42  31/18  36/19  27/15  26/10  30/19  43/29  29/17  who were n o m i n a t e d  the data  existed.  Eighty-four percent  compared i n such  in ridings  to t w o - t h i r d s ridings.  where no  shows t h a t  t o n o m i n a t e women c a n d i d a t e s  were n o m i n a t e d  existed,  i n which a t  6.4, a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s  the nomination,  Used  */. Y e s  • f i g u r e s indicate percentage o f a s s o c i a t i o n s l e a s t o n e woman r a n f o r t h e n o m i n a t i o n .  a search  i n the  T a b l e 6.3* C o m m i t t e e s and F e m a l e A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s (Nonincumbents Only) (198S) Search  is  Surprisingly,  candidates.  Search  incumbent  at least  o f NDP c a s e s  i n the other  appear  Party  of ridings  t h e NDP  in ridings  where  o f nonincumbent  where a s e a r c h o f t h e male  candidates  71  Search  Table 6.H and N o n i n c u m b e n t (1988)  Committees  Candidates  by P a r t y  Local Association had Search Committee: Female LIB  NDP  PC  Male LIB  NDP  PC  Yes  ('/.)  8H/H8*  59/19  33/10  63/58  58/88  53/91  No  C/.)  16/18  Hl/15  67/19  38/88  H8/85  H7/B2  * C e l l e n t r i e s a r e p e r c e n t a g e o f nonincumbent c a n d i d a t e s who r a n i n r i d i n g s u s i n g s e a r c h c o m m i t t e e s / p e r c e n t a g e o f r i d i n g s t h a t n o m i n a t e d a male o r f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e .  6 . H shows  Table  that  among n o n i n c u m b e n t  a high  correlation  number  o f NDP women c a n d i d a t e s .  committee,  88 p e r c e n t  candidates. percent  the use o f search  candidates  have a p o s i t i v e  committee  nominated  was u s e d , H 8  a woman.  t o 35 p e r c e n t  effect  and t h e  male  T h i s compares w i t  p r o p o r t i o n among n o n i n c u m b e n t  o f 65 p e r c e n t  there i  In t h e a b s e n c e o f a s e a r c h  However, when a s e a r c h  male/female  committees  o f NDP a s s o c i a t i o n s n o m i n a t e d  o f t h e NDP r i d i n g s  a general  indeed  between  candidates,  so s e a r c h  on t h e p e r c e n t a g e  NDP  c o m m i t t e e s may o f women  candidates. Search the  committees  Conservative  where  there  nominating committee. incumbent candidates  seem  party.  More women c a n d i d a t e s  was no s e a r c h  committee  women was g r e a t e r In r i d i n g s  among  those  ran in ridings  not having  committee  renomination,  T h i s compares  effect in  and t h e p e r c e n t a g e  where a s e a r c h  was n o t s e e k i n g were men.  t o h a v e had t h e o p p o s i t e  with  of riding  a search  was u s e d  91 p e r c e n t a general  and an  o f the ratio  among  7H  Conservatives percent use  nonincumbent  of search  associations of  women The  search may  that of  committees  this  surprising  ridings  t h e n o t i o n o f women a s v i a b l e  search  committees p r o v i d e  may s i m p l y  the candidacy  candidacy  greater  than  i s also d i f f i c u l t of search  There appears  Party  riding  impact  on t h e number  when a c o m m i t t e e a search  women c a n d i d a t e s committee.  and t h u s  hand,  data  that  effect.  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  was n o t u s e d .  and NDP. about t h e  riding associations.  in Liberal  of cases  slightly  what  was t h e c a s e  affected  positive  Table  6.3 shows  associations a  compared  For the L i b e r a l s ,  only  T h i s modest  women  Party are  but i t i s l i m i t e d . was u s e d  but cannot  certainly  t o make c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t s in Liberal  search  have an e f f e c t  f u r t h e r study  f o r the L i b e r a l s  i n 19 p e r c e n t  over  i n c l i n e d to  to t h e incumbency  deserves  It  f o r the expression  f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e  committee  committee  between  c a n d i d a t e s and  On t h e o t h e r  perception  t o be an e f f e c t  woman was n o m i n a t e d  relationship  political  The s u r v e y  committees  when a s e a r c h  search  that the  i t appears  i s not at a l l c l e a r .  competition  the q u e s t i o n  to the general  considerably  that  reduce  f u r t h e r here.  i n seeking  effect  Thus  an o p p o r t u n i t y  o f women s i m i l a r  the case,  d e a l t with  It  t o 14  are ideologically  o p p o s i t i o n t o women c a n d i d a t e s .  face  male c a n d i d a t e s  have a n e g a t i v e  and f e m a l e c a n d i d a c y  Conservative  contributes  of  i n Conservative  may, i n f a c t ,  committees  Whatever be  female candidates.  explanation for  committees on  nonincumbent  candidates.  be t h a t  reject  o f 86 p e r c e n t  to 15 p e r c e n t  the e x i s t e n c e  the p r o p o r t i o n of  when t h e r e was n o t a effect  however may  73  indicate  the l i k e l i h o o d  women L i b e r a l  that  candidates  t h e r e would  had s e a r c h  have been even  committees  fewer  not been used  as  frequently. c)  Electoral Among  were u s e d ,  i n the general success  in  locals  not having  are  less  likely  17 p e r c e n t  success  were women.  search  t o be u s e d  in ridings  more r e a d i l y  search  who  subsequently  T h i s c o m p a r e s w i t h an  f o r women who were  committees.  r a t e o f women c a n d i d a t e s  where  of candidates  rate of 8 percent  and a c a n d i d a t e  committees:  who r a n i n r i d i n g s  election  electoral  better  o f women and s e a r c h  nonincumbents  committees won  success  Since  search  committees  where e l e c t o r a l  volunteers, this  in ridings  which  candidates  chances a r e electoral  used  search  33 committees  i s worth  noting.  committees  a r e used  more  relatively  poor,  committee  would  candidates  as  in ridings  candidates  number  Not o n l y  expect  do s e a r c h  o f women c a n d i d a t e s ,  candidate applies,  than  might  success  not have been r e c r u i t e d  one would  this  likely  they  may r e c r u i t  be t h e c a s e .  i n the case  by s e a r c h  r a t e than  f o r women  t o be c a n d i d a t e s  apparently  o f women  those In since,  i n safe  increase the  a higher This  search  chances a r e  by c o m m i t t e e .  t o be t h e c a s e  committees  otherwise  however, o n l y  that s i n c e  who may h a v e b e e n r e c r u i t e d  h a s b e e n shown, women a r e l e s s  seats.  expect  where e l e c t o r a l  h a v e a c o n s i d e r a b l y lower  who w o u l d  particular,  One would  calibre  apparently  candidates.  The s u r v e y d a t a r e v e a l s t h a t a s e a r c h c o m m i t t e e was u s e d i n a l m o s t 70*/. o f r i d i n g s where i t was e x p e c t e d e l e c t o r a l c h a n c e s were u n l i k e l y o r h o p e l e s s b u t i n o n l y 12*/. o f r i d i n g s where t h e s e a t was t h o u g h t t o be s a f e .  7H  Male nonincumbent committees success  running their of  in ridings  18 p e r c e n t  since  posed.  When a woman  who a r e r e c r u i t e d recruit  committees. fact  their  possible  and  there  male c a n d i d a t e s i n candidate  that  also a correlation the e l e c t o r a l  does  where a  these  is results  questions can perhaps she  lost  cause  use search  representative of or that of either  At any r a t e ,  gender i t may be  t h e mechanism o f s e a r c h  the existence of search  o f female  is  than a r e  t h e number o f women c a n d i d a t e s ,  between  success  election.  not only  to i n c r e a s e  respondents  rate  It  chances  I t may be t h a t  a r e s o few women c a n d i d a t e s  to conclude help  by c o m m i t t e e ,  f i n d i n g s are simply  survey  success  in ridings  c o n c l u s i o n s from  by c o m m i t t e e .  i n the general  candidates  selection.  i n terms o f her e l e c t o r a l  few n o n i n c u m b e n t seat  committees is  to an e l e c t o r a l  i s recruited  these  had a g r e a t e r  male  p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more men when t h e y  Perhaps  that  relatively won  chosen  search  c o m m i t t e e was n o t u s e d won  T h i s compares  t o draw any s i g n i f i c a n t  where  when a s e a r c h  o f nonincumbent  where a s e a r c h  f o r nonincumbent  process  t h e numbers a r e q u i t e s m a l l , b u t i n t e r e s t i n g  ridings  the  One q u a r t e r  bid.  more c a r e f u l l y men  i n the recruitment  c o m m i t t e e was i n v o l v e d  hazardous  who r a n i n r i d i n g s  men who became c a n d i d a t e s  was u s e d .  election  search  be  were n o t u s e d  r a t e than  committee  candidates  there  committees  candidates.  H 8 n o n i n c u m b e n t w i n n e r s were s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s . When i n c u m b e n t s a r e i n c l u d e d , 117 s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s were w i n n e r s .  75  d) O u t s i d e  Encouragement  A final between  point  The  survey  existence of search  articulation number  data  i s whether  makes  Search  is a  the e x i s t e n c e o f o u t s i d e  facilitate  that  the  d e s i r e to i n c r e a s e the  As T a b l e  6.5  a search  was  shows,  outside  r e p o r t e d more o f t e n i n  committee.  T a b l e 6.5 and O u t s i d e E n c o u r a g e m e n t (1988)  Committees  connection  parties'  f o r a female candidate  where t h e r e was  there  i t p o s s i b l e to s u g g e s t  c o m m i t t e e s may  o f women c a n d i d a t e s .  ridings  Committees:  c o m m i t t e e s and  o f the n a t i o n a l  encouragement  Search  to c o n s i d e r  the use o f s e a r c h  involvement. the  and  Ridings Reporting O u t s i d e Encouragement f o r Female C a n d i d a t e :  */. S e a r c h Yes  NDP Liberal P.C. All Ridings  f o r Female  Committees: No  81 50 100* 77  19 50 — * 23  • T h e r e were o n l y two P.C. r i d i n g s r e p o r t i n g o u t s i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t w h i c h a l s o had s e a r c h c o m m i t t e e s b u t t h e r e were no r i d i n g s w h i c h r e p o r t e d o u t s i d e e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n t h e absence of a search committee.  Among a l l t h e r i d i n g s 77 p e r c e n t reported search  also  had  in less  committee  than  a  limited  association  one-quarter  i n NDP  extent  When a s e a r c h local  committees.  in place.  much more e v i d e n t to  search  which r e p o r t e d o u t s i d e  Again,  of the cases however,  a s s o c i a t i o n s even  i n the L i b e r a l committee  have  Outside  and  encouragement,  encouragement  was  where t h e r e was  no  this though  relationship i t does  Conservative  is  exist  associations.  i s i n p l a c e , a c t o r s o u t s i d e the  a formal  group w i t h  which  to  communicate.  76  It  should  be e x p e c t e d  that  candidate  or type  particular there  i s a committee  recruitment  efforts.  whose o n l y  as well  expect  that  candidates.  would  case  Whether  t h e encouragement  willingness  t o n o m i n a t e women c a n d i d a t e s ,  have  to o u t s i d e  the o b j e c t i v e  of female  party  than  also  ideology or  i t does w i t h t h e  of structures.  Summary: This  looked  s e c t i o n on m e c h a n i s m s o f c a n d i d a t e  at only  structured. candidates data  two t y p e s  b e n e f i t from  from  differences more c a p a b l e  and s e a r c h  are also  of accepting  n o m i n a t e women c a n d i d a t e s Furthermore,  and one more  The  NDP n o m i n a t i o n s may by t h e p a r t y ' s  But a p a r t  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p committees  women  mechanisms.  afforded  committees.  important.  numbers o f women s e e k i n g  parties.  of these  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n provides,  encouragement  encouragement  one i n f o r m a l  women who seek  use o f search  the nature  outside  the existence  that  recruitment has  t o d e t e r m i n e whether  the s t r u c t u r e d environment  more e x t e n s i v e benefit  of a c t i v i t i e s ,  The p u r p o s e h a s b e e n  has demonstrated  benefit  of  does not g u a r a n t e e  there  i s met may h a v e more t o do w i t h  e)  be e a s i e r when  f u n c t i o n i s the  candidates,  existence  of a  i n the a s s o c i a t i o n s , both  as female  intervention, in this  would  But ease o f a c c e s s  One w o u l d  t o be a d e g r e e o f o p e n n e s s involvement  of candidate  i n place  of candidates.  successful  of  i n t e r v e n t i o n s on b e h a l f  suggests  from t h e  the d i s c u s s i o n  between that  Ideologically,  outside  ideological  t h e NDP may be  use o f i t s s t r u c t u r e s to i n c r e a s e the nominations than  as w e l l  are either  a s more w i l l i n g t o  o f the other  t h e NDP's n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e  two  appears  more  77  committed increase Liberal to  to t a k i n g  steps  the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and  Conservative  make u s e o f s e a r c h  party  to  influence  representation  that  influence  o f women i n t h e i r  p a r t i e s strengthened  committees search  in their  the process  and  party. their  can p r o v i d e , increase.  to  I f the organizations  the o u t l e t f o r n a t i o n a l  committees  p a r t i e s might  i n order  female  78  Chapter  7.  The problem  opening  chapter  of p o l i t i c a l  pressure will  Conclusion: of this  underrepresentation  I t was a l s o  m a l e and f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s , of party  residency not  and o c c u p a t i o n  profound.  no  means w e l l Much  doubt  is the  f o r lack  i fthis  i s by l a c k o f c o m p e t i t i o n  i n s i t u a t i o n s where t h e y  particularly a r e by  to increase i n their  quickly.  bids  i n r i d i n g s where substantive  will  and p a r t y  o f women who a r e  be w e l l - p l a c e d  Furthermore,  f o r nomination  change  Compounded a s  f o r nominations,  t h e number  c a n no  p a r t i e s to nominate  Little  t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f f e r e d by t h e p a r t y  challenge  f o r the paucity  of representation  practice continues.  nominated  from  account  or e l e c t e d o f f i c e  chance o f success.  r e l a t e d to incumbency,  competition  cannot  numbers o f women c a n d i d a t e s  to occur  likely  constituency  representatives,  practices  not  nominated,  but the degree o f v a r i a t i o n i s  i n the p r a c t i c e of a l l three  have a l i m i t e d  problem  responses  d i f f e r e n c e s between  experience,  f o r candidacy  of the explanation  be f o u n d  likely  that  articulated.  disproportionate they  do e x i s t  or e l e c t e d  the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  party  i n t e r m s o f a g e when  These f a c t o r s alone  o f women c a n d i d a t e s since  shown t h a t  service, political  that a  o f women e x i s t s ,  f o r a s o l u t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g and t h a t  be d i f f i c u l t .  length  t h e s i s demonstrated  to w i n  women f a c e  and b e n e f i t much  more less  p r a c t i c e n o t to  incumbents.  None o f t h e s e  factors i s likely  facilitate  an i n c r e a s e  politics.  Only  to change q u i c k l y to  i n t h e number o f women e n t e r i n g  slow change o f these  national  norms and p r a c t i c e s o f  is  79  political  parties i s likely  disproportionate in  fields  like  from  representation.  which  more c r e d i b l e p o l i t i c i a n s O r , more  likely,  change  to i n c l u d e  those  female p o l i t i c i a n s .  they  will  nature  possible  which  women c a n d i d a t e s ,  seats  related  incumbency  of a p o l i t i c i a n most  often  and t h e  But t h e r e  look  will  associated  uncompetitive  a r e other  immediate  effect  and u l t i m a t e l y t h e number  t h e s i s has argued  at the goal  political number  structures, party  facilitate change  t h e number  major  changes  on t h e numbers  o f women who  gain  is likely  openness  t h e number  o f women who seek  o f women n o m i n a t e d , i n Canada's  mechanisms,  and t h e  Parliament.  to advance  to adopt  to occur  i n the short  to a g r e a t e r  extent  h a v e b e e n women, M a r i a n  representation.  committees,  c a n be e f f e c t i v e l y  to u s i n g these  t h e measures  term.  because  little  The NDP may p o s s e s s  their  past  two p a r t y  Dewar and J o h a n n a d e n H e r t o g ,  and worked  towards g r e a t e r  The NDP's w i l l i n g n e s s  a n d , p e r h a p s more  goals.  which  i n t h e numbers o f women c a n d i d a t e s ,  o f whom h a v e a d v o c a t e d  political  s t r u c t u r e s and p r a c t i c e s  p a r t i e s a r e n o t a l w a y s open  are unwilling  an i n c r e a s e  presidents  seats  or strengthening  activists  party  of increasing  candidacies,  the three  that  s e l e c t i o n process  who u l t i m a t e l y t a k e  However,  both  may  t i m e a s more women g e t e l e c t e d ,  h a v e a more  to t h e c a n d i d a t e  directed  this  they  employment  i n Parliament. This  If  Over  away a t  to the s k e p t i c s a t the a s s o c i a t i o n  selection.  could  to s p r o u t ,  the d e f i n i t i o n  b e n e f i t more f r o m  of candidate  tend  characteristics  with  to c h i p  As more women c h o o s e  politicians  level.  of  a s women c o n t i n u e  importantly,  female  to use s e a r c h  t o be p e r s u a d e d by  80  outside  encouragement  greater  number  about  the f i n a l  tradition  could  representation  remain  parties. biases  the greatest  nominations,  shown  incumbency,  to a r t i c u l a t e  walls,  The s t r u c t u r e s  such  to e x i s t  that  party  by t h o s e  within  party  goals,  Mechanisms which  as n a t i o n a l p a r t y  t h a n when t h e y Further whether  might  only  riding  research  perhaps  could riding  they  and t h e u s e o f  t o any g r e a t  locate the point  extent.  effective  offices  o f d e c i s i o n making  h a v e any p r o f o u n d  where  effect  of i n t r a c t a b i l i t y ,  a s s o c i a t i o n s or w i t h i n  a r e o n e and t h e same.  the assumption  party  those  encouragement f o r  h a v e b e e n shown t o be more  a s s o c i a t i o n s where r e c r u i t m e n t  national  lower  a  a r e absent.  i t be w i t h i n  society; that  have not been e x e r c i s e d they  competition  do e v i d e n c e  committees,  have,  p r a c t i c e s and  autonomy, and u s e o f  search  they  traditions  limited  a s s o c i a t i o n s t o n o m i n a t e women c a n d i d a t e s ,  where  which  the p o l i t i c a l  traditions,  characteristics, local  of party  to female  riding  But  be s a i d  t h e s i s has n o t been a b l e to  national party  measure o f i n t r a c t a b i l i t y . exclusionary  This  continues  r e l a t e d to candidate  mechanisms  hurdle  and become e n t r e n c h e d  I t has only  might  the b a r r i c a d e s  i n t h e House o f Commons.  hurdle  f o r their  Conservatives.  intractability.  show why t h i s  The o p p o s i t e  a n a l y s i s , breaching  h a v e grown up a r o u n d have c r e a t e d  o f women, may a c c o u n t  o f women c a n d i d a t e s .  t h e L i b e r a l s and In  for  on b e h a l f  takes  the larger  I t does appear  p o s i t i o n s within the place,  or w i t h i n t h e  i n f l u e n c e c a n be e x e r c i s e d ,  on a l t e r i n g  clear  the p r a c t i c e s ,  will  preferences  81  and  s t r u c t u r e s which,  participation  so f a r , h a v e s e r v e d  o f women.  to p r e c l u d e  full  82  BIBLIOGRAPHY A n d e r s o n , D o r i s . 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