UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Canadian political party practices and the candidacy of women in the 1988 national election Rohde, Colleen G 1990

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CANADIAN POLITICAL PARTY PRACTICES AND THE CANDIDACY OF WOMEN IN THE 1988 NATIONAL ELECTION by COLLEEN G. ROHDE M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1990 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Department) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 ©Colleen G. Rohde, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P o l i t i c a l Science The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date September 24th, 1990 DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Canada's three major p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s have lamented the lack o f women seeking candidacy f o r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e . Yet few o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s have been used to i n c r e a s e the number of women c a n d i d a t e s and Members of P a r l i a m e n t . Given the important r o l e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s p l a y i n mediating and s t r u c t u r i n g l e g i s l a t i v e c a n d i d a c i e s , the c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n p rocess and p a r t y p r a c t i c e s can act as b a r r i e r s to female p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a n t s , both at the nomination and e l e c t i o n s t a g e s . T h i s t h e s i s a n a l y z e s both aggregate e l e c t i o n data and the r e s u l t s of a s y s t e m a t i c , c o n s t i t u e n c y l e v e l , survey of the nomination p r o c e s s e s of the New Democratic, L i b e r a l and P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s conducted at the time of the 1988 ge n e r a l e l e c t i o n . The t h e s i s f i n d s that much of the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r lack of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can be found i n the p r a c t i c e of a l l three p a r t i e s to nominate d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e numbers of women c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s where they have l i t t l e chance of s u c c e s s . L i m i t e d c o m p e t i t i o n f o r nominations and the p r a c t i c e of a l l p a r t i e s not to c h a l l e n g e incumbents who seek r e s e l e c t i o n a l s o b e n e f i t women c a n d i d a t e s l e s s than they do t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s t h e s i s argues that use of s t r u c t u r e s such as s e l e c t i o n committees and encouragement from n a t i o n a l p a r t y o f f i c i a l s f o r l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s to nominate women can have a p o s i t i v e impact on the number of women who seek p o l i t i c a l c a n d i d a c y . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS L i s t of T a b l e s i v Chapter 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter S. U n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n 6 a) the extent 6 b) women's groups 8 c) p a r t y responses 10 d ) theor i es 1 3 Chapter 3. P o r t r a i t o f a Candidate 17 a) age 18 b) o c c u p a t i o n 19 c) p a r t y s e r v i c e d) p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e 26 e) c o n s t i t u e n c y r e s i d e n c y 88 f) summary 89 Chapter . 'Lost Cause Candidates'? 31 a) e l e c t o r a l p r o s p e c t s of women c a n d i d a t e s by p r o v i n e e / r e g i o n 33 b) l o c a l p e r c e p t i o n of e l e c t o r a l chances and women c a n d i d a t e s 58 c) summary 56 Chapter 5. Incumbency, C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s and Female Candidates 57 Chapter 6. Mechanisms of Candidate Recruitment 61 a) o u t s i d e encouragement f o r woman ca n d i d a t e 68 b) search committees 68 c) e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s of women and search committees 73 d> o u t s i d e encouragement and sea r c h comm i t tees 75 e) summary 76 Chapter 7. C o n c l u s i o n 78 B i b1i ography 88 1 V LIST OF TABLES 2 . 1 Percent of Major P a r t y Candidates, Women: 1 9 8 0 - 8 8 7 2 . 2 Women Candidates and MPs i n Canadian General E l e c t i o n s 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 8 8 7 3 . 1 C a n d i d a t e s ' Age by Gender 1 9 3 . 2 Occupation and Can d i d a t e s ' Gender 2 0 3 . 3 O c c u p a t i o n a l Success Rates by Gender 2 1 3 . ^ t Candidates' Length of P a r t y S e r v i c e by Gender 2 ^ 3 . 5 P o l i t i c a l E x p e r i e n c e of Candidates by Gender 2 7 ^ . 1 Percent of P a r t i e s ' Candidates Which Were Women by Region ( 1 9 8 8 ) 3 6 H - . 2 Summary of Seats Won by P r o v i n c e and P a r t y 1 9 8 0 , 1 9 8 ^ , 1 9 8 8 3 7 ^ . 3 Percentage P o i n t s >/< Average Percentage of Candidates 3 9 . h Male and Female E l e c t o r a l Success by P a r t y and P r o v i n c e ( 1 9 8 8 ) ^ . 5 Candidates/MPs per P a r t y by P r o v i n c e 5 0 4 - . 6 Chances of E l e c t o r a l Success i n C o n s t i t u e n c y by Candidate Gender 5 H * f . 7 Percentage of P a r t y Candidates and Com p e t i t i v e n e s s o f Seat 5^t 5 . 1 Candidate Gender and Co m p e t i t i v e n e s s of Nom i nat ion 5 7 6 . 1 Candidate Gender and Outside Encouragement f o r Female (Nonincumbents> 6^t 6 . 2 Search Committees by P a r t y 6 8 6 . 3 Search Committees and Female A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s (Nonincumbents ) 7 0 V Search Committees and Nonincumbent Cand i d a t e s by P a r t y Search Committees and Outside Encouragement f o r Female 1 Chapter 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n : A l l t h r e e o f Canada's major p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s have expressed a commitment to i n c r e a s i n g the number of women who seek and a c h i e v e e l e c t i o n to the House of Commons. During both the 198^ and 1988 Canadian g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n campaigns, the C o n s e r v a t i v e , L i b e r a l and New Democratic p a r t i e s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r c oncern that women remain u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d among the ranks of p o l i t i c a l c a n d i d a t e s and Members of P a r l i a m e n t . But the p a r t i e s have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r f a i l i n g to d e l i v e r on t h e i r r h e t o r i c s i n c e few c o n c r e t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s have been d i r e c t e d at changing the s t a t u s quo. Given the important r o l e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s p l a y i n mediating and s t r u c t u r i n g l e g i s l a t i v e c a n d i d a c i e s , p a r t y p r a c t i c e s can act as b a r r i e r s to female p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a n t s , both at the nomination and e l e c t i o n s t a g e s . T h i s t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s these p r a c t i c e s and demonstrates how they a f f e c t women who seek p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e . It argues that the c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s and p a r t y p r a c t i c e s at both the n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s can be adapted and used to i n c r e a s e the number of women c a n d i d a t e s and the number of women who take s e a t s i n the House of Commons. The data upon which a good deal of t h i s t h e s i s r e l i e s was c o l l e c t e d i n a 1988 survey of the c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s of the New Democratic, L i b e r a l and P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s . The survey was conducted by L . E r i c k s o n of Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y and R.K. C a r t y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 88^ q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent immediately f o l l o w i n g the 1988 n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n to the o f f i c i a l agents of every 2 c a n d i d a t e nominated by the t h r e e major p a r t i e s . Of the 88^, 367 were comple ted and r e t u r n e d f o r a re sponse r a t e o f k1 p e r c e n t . The r e t u r n s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the r e g i o n s and the t h r e e p a r t i e s . The s u r v e y c o v e r e d a number o f a r e a s o f l o c a l c o n s t i t u e n c y c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n i n c l u d i n g the n o m i n a t i o n and c a n d i d a t e s e a r c h p r o c e s s e s as w e l l as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t e d . * Summary; C h a p t e r 2 o f t h i s t h e s i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r to p r o v i d e background which d e s c r i b e s : a) the e x t e n t o f female p o l i t i c a l u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; b) some of the o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t s women's groups have u n d e r t a k e n to change the s t a t u s quo; c) • p a r t y r e s p o n s e s to the prob lem o f u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and p a r t y norms which make more e f f e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s d i f f i c u l t ; and d) v a r y i n g t h e o r i e s which seek to e x p l a i n why women a r e u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d . The d i s c u s s i o n demons tra te s that a problem e x i s t s , t h a t p r e s s u r e f o r a s o l u t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g , but that r e s p o n s e s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t . C h a p t e r 3 f o c u s e s on the c a n d i d a t e s . The c h a p t e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h whether t h e r e a r e s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female c a n d i d a t e s . The v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d are age, o c c u p a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , p a r t y s e r v i c e and c o n s t i t u e n c y Two r e c e n t papers have been w r i t t e n u s i n g t h i s d a t a . See Lynda E r i c k s o n and R . K . C a r t y , "Candida te S e l e c t i o n in C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s " , n . p . , n . d . , and Lynda E r i c k s o n and R . K . C a r t y , "Making Her Way In : Women, the House o f Commons and P a r t y C a n d i d a c i e s i n Canada" , n . p . , n . d . 3 r e s i d e n c y . The q u e s t i o n i s , do women f a i l to be nominated and win e l e c t i o n because they do not have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y p i c a l of male p o l i t i c i a n s . T h i s i s important to c o n s i d e r because, i f women are r e j e c t e d by r i d i n g s because t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s make them l e s s a t t r a c t i v e c a n d i d a t e s than t h e i r male c o l l e a g u e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes d i r e c t e d at i n c r e a s i n g the number of women would be m i s d i r e c t e d . T h i s t h e s i s cannot p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t i v e answer but the a n a l y s i s does r e v e a l that female c a n d i d a t e s come from d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l groups than male c a n d i d a t e s , tend to be younger when they seek o f f i c e , have l e s s p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and p a r t y s e r v i c e , and are more l i k e l y to r e s i d e o u t s i d e the c o n s t i t u e n c y . It i s not p o s s i b l e to determine whether the women with these d i f f e r e n c e s were nominated i n s p i t e of these q u a l i t i e s , or whether those who l o s t t h e i r nomination b i d s d i d so because they too possessed these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . It can, however, be suggested that women c a n d i d a t e s ought not to be excluded from candidacy on the b a s i s of these d i f f e r e n c e s s i n c e the d i f f e r e n c e s are not g r e a t , nor are there we 1 1 - a r t i c u 1 ated q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r o f f i c e . Chapter H- t u r n s to the q u e s t i o n of whether p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s predominantly nominate women c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s where t h e i r chance of succ e s s i s s l i m . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have shown that women tend to become c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s where t h e i r p a r t y has l i t t l e chance of e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s . I f c a n d i d a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y , and are not c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g who w i l l be nominated and who w i l l win e l e c t i o n , p a r t i e s s hould not be r e l u c t a n t to o f f e r women s e a t s which they have a good chance of winning. However, both the survey data and a review of the aggregate e l e c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , suggest the p a r t i e s do not o f f e r women s a f e s e a t s . Chapter ^ a l s o demonstrates that p a r t y p r a c t i c e s r e l a t i n g to incumbency p l a y an important r o l e . S i n c e women are l e s s l i k e l y to be s e l e c t e d as c a n d i d a t e s i n s a f e s e a t s , one might suggest that they would f a c e l e s s c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e i r nomination b i d s than male c a n d i d a t e s . However, Chapter 5 i l l u s t r a t e s that the o p p o s i t e i s t r u e . Male c a n d i d a t e s f a c e l e s s c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e i r nomination than do female c a n d i d a t e s . Again, incumbency i s shown to have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on t h i s aspect of the c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . The tendency i n a l l p a r t i e s f o r incumbents to go unc h a l l e n g e d i n t h e i r r e s e l e c t i o n b i d , and the unc o m p e t i t i v e nature of c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n , can work to a c a n d i d a t e ' s b e n e f i t . But the data r e v e a l s that women c a n d i d a t e s b e n e f i t l e s s than t h e i r male c o l l e a g u e s from l i m i t e d c o m p e t i t i o n and the p a r t y p r a c t i c e of not c h a l l e n g i n g incumbents. None of the f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapters 3, ^ and 5 are l i k e l y to change i n the immediate f u t u r e . Chapter 6 turns to the mechanisms p a r t i e s can use to i n c r e a s e the number of women c a n d i d a t e s which can speed the pr o c e s s of change. The chapter l o o k s f i r s t at the ge n e r a l mechanism of n a t i o n a l p a r t y encouragement of l o c a l r i d i n g s to nominate women c a n d i d a t e s . It then t u r n s to a d i s c u s s i o n o f the use of search committees as they r e l a t e to female c a n d i d a c y . The data shows that these mechanisms can be e f f e c t i v e l y d i r e c t e d at i n c r e a s i n g the number 5 of female c a n d i d a t e s . The chapter a l s o r e v e a l s that there i s a d e f i n i t e p a r t y e f f e c t : The NDP's g r e a t e r use of these mechanisms might help e x p l a i n t h e i r g r e a t e r number of female a s p i r a n t s f o r o f f i c e and nominated c a n d i d a t e s . A f i n a l chapter summarizes the f i n d i n g s d i s c u s s e d throughout the t h e s i s and o f f e r s t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s f o r the d i r e c t i o n p a r t i e s might take i f there i s a genuine d e s i r e to advance the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women. P a r t y p r a c t i c e s undoubtedly must change i f immediate r e s u l t s are to be r e a l i z e d . 6 Chapter 2. U n d e r r e p r g s e n t a t i o n :  a) The Ex t e n t : The number of women who seek p a r t y nominations i n c r e a s e s each e l e c t i o n year, but the p r o p o r t i o n of women c a n d i d a t e s remains low. Only SO percent of a l l c a n d i d a t e s i n the 1988 e l e c t i o n were women. Between 1920 and 1970 i n Canada, 300 women ran f o r n a t i o n a l o f f i c e . In 1984 alone, 206 women stood as c a n d i d a t e s , 131 of them r e p r e s e n t i n g the 3 major p a r t i e s . By 1988 the number of women c a n d i d a t e s on f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n b a l l o t s climbed to a r e c o r d 302 c a n d i d a t e s with 174 of them r e p r e s e n t i n g 2 the t h r e e major p a r t i e s . In 1984, s i x t y - f i v e women were NDP c a n d i d a t e s , 43 women ran f o r the L i b e r a l s w h i l e the C o n s e r v a t i v e s nominated 23 women c a n d i d a t e s . As Table 2.1 shows, the number of women c a n d i d a t e s f o r each p a r t y i n 1984 was almost double t h e i r number i n 1980, but i n 1988 the i n c r e a s e was not q u i t e as dr a m a t i c . In terms of percentages o f women c a n d i d a t e s f o r each p a r t y , Table 2.1 shows on l y modest i n c r e a s e s from 1984 to 1988. When we speak of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , membership i n Parl i a m e n t i s the t r u e measure. As Tabl e 2.2 r e v e a l s , women s t i l l make up o n l y 13 p e r c e n t o f the Members of P a r l i a m e n t , even though a r e c o r d 39 women were e l e c t e d i n 1988. Over the p e r i o d d i s c u s s e d here, the s i z e of the House of Commons i n c r e a s e d from 235 s e a t s i n 1920 to 295 i n 1988. In 1984 the number of s e a t s stood at 282 and was i n c r e a s e d to 295 i n 1988. 7 T a b l e 2.1 Percent o f Major P a r t y Candidates, Women: 1980-88 Par t y i 1980 1984 1988 P.C. L i bera1 NDP A l l Three Par t i es 5.0 (14) 8.2 (23) 11.7 (33) 8.2 (70) 8.2 (23) 16.0 (45) 22.7 (64) 15.6 (132) 12.5 (37) 18.0 (53) 28.4 (84) 19.6 (174) Bracketed f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e numbers of women c a n d i d a t e s Ta b l e Women Candi d a t e s and MPs 2.2 i n Canadian General 1921 - 1988 (percent women) E1ec t i ons Year Cand i d a t e s M.P.s 1921 - 1967* 2.4 0.8 1968 3.5 0.4 1972 6.4 1 .8 1974 9.4 3.4 1979 13.8 3.6 1980 14.4 5.0 1984 14.5 9 . 6 1988 19.8 13.2 •Average f o r e l e c t i o n s between 1921 and 1967 1980 and 1984 f i g u r e s a re based on i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n S y l v i a Bashevkin, Toeing the L i n e s : Women and P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n  E n g l i s h Canada. (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1985), p. 73. 1988 f i g u r e s are c a l c u l a t e d from i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by E l e c t i o n s Canada. S t a t i s t i c s f o r 1921 to 1984 were taken from Janine B r o d i e , Women and P o l i t i c s i n Canada, Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson compiled from the i n f o r m a t i o n g r a t e f u l l y L i m i t e d , 1985, p. 4. Those f o r 1988 were Report of the r e c e i v e d from C h i e f E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r and E l e c t i o n s Canada. B Because o f the extent of u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and the l i m i t e d amount of change i n re c e n t y e a r s , women's groups have o r g a n i z e d a c r o s s the coun t r y to advocate change, to encourage women to th i n k of a p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r as a r e a l i s t i c o p t i o n and to teach women how to pursue that g o a l . The next s e c t i o n b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e s some of t h i s a c t i v i t y and makes the p o i n t that the a c t i v i t i e s of these groups are necessary because the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s have f a i l e d to address the problems which women f a c e when they seek a c a r e e r i n p o l i t i c s . b) Women's Groups; P r e s s u r e d i r e c t e d at the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s to address women's concerns and the i s s u e of female r e p r e s e n t a t i o n have come from a number of p u b l i c advocacy groups. The 1988 e l e c t i o n became a f o c a l p o i n t f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s . S i n c e the f a l l of 1 9 8 7 , women's groups had been g e a r i n g up f o r the next n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n . The N a t i o n a l A c t i o n Committee on the S t a t u s of Women (NAC) had p u b l i s h e d 30,000 c o p i e s of an e l e c t i o n k i t c a l l e d "Women and the F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n " which o u t l i n e d the f e m i n i s t p l a t f o r m on a number of i s s u e s . F i l l i n g a v o i d l e f t by the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , the NAC p u b l i c a t i o n o f f e r e d a d v i c e on how to become a c a n d i d a t e and get the r i d i n g n omination. Conferences sponsored by women's groups were a l s o h e l d i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s a c r o s s Canada i n an e f f o r t to encourage more women to run f o r o f f i c e . R e c o g n i z i n g that i n s u f f i c i e n t p e r s o n a l f i n a n c e s o f t e n d e t e r female c a n d i d a t e s , the Committee For '94, a n o n - p a r t i s a n group working f o r equal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r women, 9 c a l l e d f o r p u b l i c f u n d i n g of e l e c t i o n s . As Li b b y Burnham, a member of the Committee For '94 maintained: "To have p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e we must e l e c t more women; t h e r e f o r e we must remove the f i n a n c i a l b a r r i e r s . ... P u b l i c funding means more women c o u l d run 5 f o r o f f i c e and be e l e c t e d " . Other groups have sprung up i n the past s e v e r a l years adding t h e i r e f f o r t s to those o f l o n g - s t a n d i n g groups l i k e NAC who advocate p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women. One of Quebec's l a r g e s t women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , headed by L o u i s e Cou1ombe-Jo 1y, the A s s o c i a t i o n f e m i n i n e d ' e d u c a t i o n et d ' a c t i o n s o c i a l e , has 30,000 members from 600 d i f f e r e n t women's groups. As p a r t of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , they r e c r u i t e d 30 women to run i n the 1988 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n and the then upcoming Quebec m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s . Canadian Women f o r P o l i t i c a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a n o n - p a r t i s a n group with c h a p t e r s i n Ottawa, Winnipeg, H a l i f a x and Edmonton and a group c a l l e d the 52 Per Cent S o l u t i o n , a n o n - p a r t i s a n group begun i n Newfoundland, are both committed to the goal of i n c r e a s i n g the number of e l e c t e d female p o l i t i c i a n s . Beyond t h e i r advocacy e f f o r t s , these and other women's groups seem to be f i l l i n g a gap which the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s e i t h e r cannot or w i l l not adequately address. T h e i r e f f o r t s to teach p o l i t i c a l s k i l l s to women to groom them f o r o f f i c e are f u n c t i o n s which c o u l d complement p o l i t i c a l p a r t y e f f o r t s but more o f t e n f i l l a v o i d l e f t by the p a r t i e s . One e f f e c t these groups In C a t h e r i n e Dunphy, "On the march f o r p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y " , Toronto S t a r . February 2, 1988, p. CI, C4. 10 have had on the p a r t i e s has been to encourage an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the problems f a c i n g female a s p i r a n t s f o r o f f i c e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , p a r t y responses have been few. c) P a r t y Responses: Some modest o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s have been designed to a s s i s t women a f t e r they have won t h e i r p a r t y ' s nomination. R e c o g n i z i n g that f i n a n c e s are o f t e n a b a r r i e r to women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the p a r t i e s are now s e t t i n g a s i d e funds s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r nominated women c a n d i d a t e s . The l a r g e s t fund i s the New Democrats' Agnes Macphail Fund which made $1,000 a v a i l a b l e to each of i t s 84 c a n d i d a t e s i n the 1988 e l e c t i o n . The L i b e r a l P a r t y ' s Judy LaMarsh Fund a l l o c a t e d $850.00 to each of i t s 53 women c a n d i d a t e s . The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y ' s E l l e n F a i r c l o u g h Fund i s r e p o r t e d to be the s m a l l e s t of the three f u n d s . ^ The amount of f i n a n c i a l support each of the 37 female C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s r e c e i v e d i s not p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n but i t r e p o r t e d l y v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to need with expenses such as day ca r e taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . However, each of the C o n s e r v a t i v e ' s female c a n d i d a t e s r e c e i v e d l e s s than $1,000, with incumbents being a l l o c a t e d " c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s " than 7 nonincumbents. S i n c e these funds a s s i s t o n l y women who have a l r e a d y won t h e i r p a r t y ' s nomination, they are not p a r t y e f f o r t s Ann Rauhala i n "Women f a c e b a r r i e r s to p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n " , Globe and Mai 1. November 10, 1988, p. A12. 7 Telephone i n t e r v i e w with V a l e r i e York, E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t to Mary C o l l i n s , MP (PC, Capi1ano-Howe Sound), August, 1990. 11 d i r e c t l y aimed at i n c r e a s i n g the number of female c a n d i d a t e s . But the p r o s p e c t of e x t r a f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the e l e c t i o n might be enough to con v i n c e some women to seek a nominat i o n . E v i d e nce o f p a r t y commitment to the goal of i n c r e a s i n g the number of women c a n d i d a t e s i s q u i t e l i m i t e d . One example comes from r e p o r t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l P a r t y . Paul M a r t i n J r . , the L i b e r a l p a r t y ' s r e c r u i t e r f o r the 1988 e l e c t i o n , was r e p o r t e d to have expressed a concern with g e t t i n g g enough women to run i n that e l e c t i o n . H i s p l a n at the time was to have one person i n each p r o v i n c e t r a i n and r e c r u i t female c a n d i d a t e s . T h i s d i d not occur f o r that e l e c t i o n , l i k e l y due to other campaign p r i o r i t i e s or l i m i t e d p a r t y f i n a n c e s . P r o v i n c i a l p a r t y campaign o r g a n i z e r s can be r e l u c t a n t to embrace what they might see as an u n d e s i r a b l e a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n p l a n . For example B.C.'s L i b e r a l campaign chairman f e a r e d that a c t i o n s such as s e t t i n g quotas f o r women c a n d i d a t e s would compromise c a n d i d a t e 9 q u a l i t y . N a t i o n a l p a r t y o f f i c i a l s can lament the lack of women c a n d i d a t e s but because " n a t i o n a l p a r t y i n t e r e s t s are only weakly a r t i c u l a t e d " ^ they have d i f f i c u l t y i n f l u e n c i n g the r e c r u i t m e n t and nomination p r o c e s s e s at the l o c a l l e v e l . Reported i n Peter (laser, " L i b e r a l s are big-name hu n t e r s " , Vancouver Sun. February 6, 1987. 9 Kim Bolan, "SI women c o n t e s t s e a t s i n B.C.", Vancouver Sun. November 1, 1988, p. A9. 1 <^See Lynda E r i c k s o n and R.K. C a r t y , "Candidate S e l e c t i o n i n Canadian P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s " , n.p., n.d. 12 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s to i n c r e a s e the number of women c a n d i d a t e s appear more predominant i n the New Democratic P a r t y . The NDP t r i e d to i d e n t i f y and r e c r u i t p r o s p e c t i v e women c a n d i d a t e s and a l s o h e l d seminars f o r a s p i r i n g women c a n d i d a t e s . T h e i r more comprehensive and s u c c e s s f u l approach may be c r e d i t e d to the f a c t t h at t h e i r past two p a r t y p r e s i d e n t s have been women: Marian Dewar and Johanna den Hertog. But e f f o r t s of the n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e can o n l y be s u c c e s s f u l i f l o c a l a c t i v i s t s agree to adopt measures suggested by n a t i o n a l p a r t y e x e c u t i v e s and to nominate women c a n d i d a t e s at l o c a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n meetings. C r i t i q u e s which blame the n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s f o r t h e i r i n a b i l i t y or u n w i l l i n g n e s s to engage a c t i v e l y i n c a n d i d a t e r e c r u i t m e n t must remain s e n s i t i v e to the f a c t that i t i s the l o c a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s which e f f e c t i v e l y own the nomination p r o c e s s . The survey d i d not r e v e a l c o n t r o v e r s y over the help o f f e r e d by o u t s i d e o f f i c i a l s , but each e l e c t i o n year newspaper accounts r e p o r t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n over n a t i o n a l p a r t y involvement i n the c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . Indeed, i f the r o l e of c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n was usurped by n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l p a r t y o f f i c e r s , the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s would have l i t t l e reason or i n c e n t i v e to e x i s t . * * N a t i o n a l p a r t y o r g a n i z e r s get p o l i t i c a l p o i n t s f o r announcing commitments which may garner them more of T h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s a l s o made i n Robert J . W i l l i a m s , "Candidate S e l e c t i o n " , i n Howard R. Penniman, ed., Canada at the P o l l s , 1979 and 1980: A Study of the General E l e c t i o n s , Washington: American E n t e r p r i s e I n s t i t u t e f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y Research, 1981, pp. 86 - 120. 13 the female vote, as was done i n the campaign p l a t f o r m s of both the 198s- and 1988 ge n e r a l e l e c t i o n s . During the 198H campaign, f o r example, the longest s e c t i o n of the Mulroney p l a t f o r m was c a l l e d " Issues o f Concern to Women". But g i v e n the c o n t r o l which l o c a l p a r t y members want over the nomination p r o c e s s , there can be l i t t l e t a l k o f r e q u i r i n g l o c a l r i d i n g s to nominate women c a n d i d a t e s . Other means must be used i f the p a r t i e s are to respond. As t h i s d i s c u s s i o n has suggested, p o l i t i c a l p a r t y responses to the u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women c o u l d prove d i f f i c u l t . Some d i s c u s s i o n of the v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s which t r y to e x p l a i n why women f a i l to seek p a r t y nominations and get e l e c t e d might be u s e f u l at t h i s p o i n t to suggest where p a r t y e f f o r t s might best be p l a c e d . d) Theor i e s : There a re a number of t h e o r i e s which might e x p l a i n the p a u c i t y of women c a n d i d a t e s and e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s . Any study c o n c e r n i n g the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women must acknowledge that many of the c r i t i c a l b a r r i e r s to being nominated and e l e c t e d 12 are socio-economic. But socio-economic f a c t o r s alone cannot A number of s t u d i e s have c h a r t e d the lack of socio-economic p r o g r e s s i n terms of s a l a r y d i f f e r e n t i a l s , unequal f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e t c . , between men and women which c r e a t e unique b a r r i e r s to the c o m p e t i t i v e p o l i t i c a l f o o t i n g of women. Among them see e B r o d i e , Women and P o l i t i c s i n Canada, (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson L i m i t e d , 1985); Canadian A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the S t a t u s o f Women, "Women i n P o l i t i c s : Becoming F u l l P a r t n e r s i n the P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s " , (Ottawa: CACSW, November 1987, Revised May 1988), and M. Ja n i n e B r o d i e and J i l l M c C a l l a V i c k e r s , "Canadian Women i n P o l i t i c s : An Overview", (Ottawa: Canadian Research I n s t i t u t e f o r the Advancement of Women, 1982). 1 4 f u l l y account f o r the u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women. C u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s and val u e d i f f e r e n c e s between the genders have a l l been e x p l o r e d as v a r i a b l e s r e l a t i n g to women i n the p o l i t i c a l domain. B r o d i e and V i c k e r s have suggested that " f a c t o r s such as ial p e r c e i v e d lack of p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g f u n d i n g , and f e a r s that the community was 13 u n r e c e p t i v e to women p o l i t i c i a n s " can a l l c o n t r i b u t e to the d e l a y i n g of women's c a n d i d a c i e s . Using survey r e s e a r c h Bledsoe and H e r r i n g concluded that women are l e s s ambitious than men. They suggest that a woman's p e r c e p t i o n o f her s t a t u s and r o l e i n s o c i e t y i n h i b i t s her p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n and thus women are l e s s l i k e l y to pursue n a t i o n a l o f f i c e with the sing1e-mindedness necessary f o r such an endeavour. Men on the other hand can work towards n a t i o n a l e l e c t e d o f f i c e without regard to whether that p u r s u i t c o n f l i c t s with h i s s o c i e t a l r o l e , because i t does not. Men are more w i l l i n g to engage i n p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n and are more l i k e l y to possess "a d r i v i n g a m bition f o r p e r s o n a l advancement that d i s r e g a r d s or d i s c o u n t s other s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and pe r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Women, with t h e i r more balanced system of v a l u e s and p r i o r i t i e s , a re at a d i s t i n c t disadvantage i n t h i s c o m p e t l t i o n . 13 B r o d i e and V i c k e r s , "Canadi an Women i n P o l i t i c s : An Overview", 198E, p. 31. 14 Timothy Bledsoe and Mary H e r r i n g , " V i c t i m s of Cir c u m s t a n c e s : Women i n P u r s u i t of P o l i t i c a l O f f i c e " , i n Amer i can (Footnote Continued) 15 Comments made by women l e g i s l a t o r s o f t e n support the c o n c l u s i o n s reached by Bledsoe and H e r r i n g . C o r n a c c h i a r e p o r t s : "Barbara McDougall s a i d the win-at-any-cost m e n t a l i t y of 15 nomination c o n t e s t s i s d i f f i c u l t f o r women to adopt". M u r i e l Smith, at the time Manitoba's Deputy Premier, s a i d "the l e g i s l a t u r e i s o f t e n a s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r a k i l l i n g , ... women are seen as s o f t because we don't go f o r the j u g u l a r " . * ^ 5 A q u i t e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e f o c u s e s on b a r r i e r s beyond th socio-economic or c u l t u r a l . B r o d i e and V i c k e r s suggest, that " L e g i s l a t i v e c a n d i d a c i e s ... are mediated and s t r u c t u r e d by the p o l i t i c a l p a r t y which can se r v e e i t h e r as a b r i d g e or a b a r r i e r f o r a s p i r a n t s to e l e c t e d o f f i c e . ... Thus, w h i l e o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d , p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s are c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n t i a l a c t o r s i the r e c r u i t m e n t of Canadian l e g i s l a t o r s , whether male or 17 female." In t h i s v e i n , the a n a l y s i s of E r i c k s o n and Ca r t y c l e a r l y s u g gests that p o l i t i c a l p a r t y p r a c t i c e s and c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n can have an e f f e c t on the numbers of women seeking a major p a r t y c a n d i d a c y . ^ (Footnote Continued) P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review, V o l . 8H , No. 1, March 1990, pp. 213 -223. ^ C h e r y l C o r n a c c h i a , "'The Country i s Yours, L a d i e s ' : women want more s e a t s i n government - and the y ' r e w i l l i n g to get t h e i r hands d i r t y to win them", The Gaz e t t e . March 18, 1988, p. C7. *^Dunphy, p. C4. 17 B r o d i e and V i c k e r s , p. 30 - 31. 18 E r i c k s o n and C a r t y , "Making Her Way In". 1 6 Any one or indeed a l l o f these t h e o r i e s together inform the complex q u e s t i o n which asks why women remain p o l i t i c a l l y u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d . It cannot be d i s p u t e d , however, that p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on whether a woman seeks a p a r t y nomination, becomes a c a n d i d a t e and wins e l e c t i o n . And i t i s through p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n that socio-economic and other f a c t o r s can be changed i n order that more women w i l l seek p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e . Thus, a fo c u s on p o l i t i c a l p a r t y p r a c t i c e s and norms i s a p p r o p r i a t e . Having e s t a b l i s h e d the extent of u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and the need f o r the p a r t i e s to respond, we tu r n to a d i s c u s s i o n o f c a n d i d a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to determine i f the r e are gender d i f f e r e n c e s which inform the problem of u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 17 Chapter 3. P o r t r a i t of a Candidate: "In a c o u n t r y where everyone over e i g h t e e n i s p r i v i l e g e d to vote and where anyone, supposedly, can work h i s or her way up through the p o l i t i c a l p a r t y system to run f o r p a r l i a m e n t , why i s the House of Commons so monotonously white, t h r e e - p i e c e - s u i t e d , 1awyer-1aden, and male? It i s n ' t as though i t takes e x c e p t i o n a l a b i l i t y and merit to s i t i n p a r l i a m e n t . In a democracy, anyone should be c a p a b l e of being e l e c t e d - and almost anyone has. We've had used car salesmen, hockey p l a y e r s , eminent lawyers, s c h o l a r s , s u c c e s s f u l businessmen, as w e l l as bankrupts, w i f e b e a t e r s , income tax evaders, f o r g e r s , i n f l u e n c e p e d d l e r s , and f r a u d a r t i s t s . One member of p a r l i a m e n t took c o u n s e l on important matters by communing with h i s dog |>nd h i s dead mother. He became prime m i n i s t e r . " As D o r i s Anderson's o b s e r v a t i o n suggests there are few q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e . Even though one can be e l e c t e d to P a r l i a m e n t without p o s s e s s i n g s t e l l a r q u a l i t i e s , P a r l i a m e n t remains homogenous. The average p o l i t i c i a n c o n t i n u e s to be drawn from the e x e c u t i v e or p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s , to be middle-aged, and to have very l i m i t e d p r e v i o u s p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e e i t h e r i n e l e c t e d o f f i c e or indeed w i t h i n the p a r t y they r e p r e s e n t . But, Anderson a l s o observes that f e d e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s are d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y white male lawyers. Her o b s e r v a t i o n echoes the p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n that white males from £0 the p r o f e s s i o n a l middle c l a s s are more e l e c t a b l e than D o r i s Anderson, i n Mel H u r t i g , ed., I f I Were Prime  M i n i s t e r , Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s , 19B7, p 8. EO P r o f e s s i o n a l i n t h i s c o n t e x t u s u a l l y means those p r o f e s s i o n s , such as lawyers and a c c o u n t a n t s , which are male dominated and not those p r o f e s s i o n s , such as s o c i a l work and h e a l t h c a r e , which tend to be female dominated. 18 c a n d i d a t e s who do not possess these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I f l o c a l p a r t y a c t i v i s t s a l s o h o l d t h i s p e r c e p t i o n when fa c e d with a c h o i c e between a male and female c a n d i d a t e , the female c a n d i d a t e c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d l e s s e l e c t a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f she was not a middle c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n a l . The a n a l y s i s i n t h i s chapter cannot determine whether female a s p i r a n t s l o s e nominations because p a r t y members view them as l e s s e l e c t a b l e . Rather i t looks at whether the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of male and female c a n d i d a t e s d i f f e r , and whether t h e r e i s any d e v i a t i o n from the t r a d i t i o n a l mold when p a r t i e s nominate women s t a n d a r d - b e a r e r s . T h i s c h a p t e r a n a l y z e s the survey data c o n s i d e r i n g f i v e v a r i a b l e s : age, o c c u p a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , p a r t y s e r v i c e , and c o n s t i t u e n c y r e s i d e n c y f o r female and male c a n d i d a t e s . In the case o f o c c u p a t i o n , aggregate data i s a l s o used. These v a r i a b l e s were chosen because they o f f e r the best d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c a n d i d a t e s from among the q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d on the survey. They a l s o tend to be the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which one would expect p a r t y a c t i v i s t s to want to know about the i n d i v i d u a l seeking the nomination i n t h e i r r i d i n g . a ) Age: The g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n of both male and female c a n d i d a t e s i n the survey were i n the 31 to 40 year o l d age group (Table 3.1). In a l l age groups under 45, the percentage of women c a n d i d a t e s under 45 was g r e a t e r than the percentage of men i n tha t group. It i s not u n t i l one looks at the over 51 age group that the percentage of male c a n d i d a t e s i s g r e a t e r than that of women c a n d i d a t e s . 1 9 T a b l e 3.1 C a n d i d a t e s ' Age by Gender (1988) Age: */. Female */. Male Under 30 31 to 40 41 t o 45 46 to 50 51 t o 60 61 to 77 6.8 31.1 20.3 21.6 17.6 2.7 4.7 25.8 19.4 21 .5 23.3 5.4 A l t h o u g h the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e not g r e a t , one c o u l d v e n t u r e a t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s were, on a v e r a g e , younger t h a n t h e i r male c o l l e a g u e s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e h o l d s when o n l y nonincumbent c a n d i d a t e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d and i n f a c t e x t e n d s to t he 46 to 50 year o l d age group. The l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s age d i f f e r e n c e i s s o c i o e c o n o m i c . The p r o p o r t i o n o f w e l l e d u c a t e d , and f i n a n c i a l l y i n dependent women who a r e employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l or e x e c u t i v e t y p e careers i s v e r y l i k e l y g r e a t e r among younger women. They would t h e r e f o r e be more l i k e l y to have the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and b u s i n e s s c o n n e c t i o n s which a r e so o f t e n n e c e s s a r y f o r an e l e c t i o n b i d . As the next s e c t i o n shows, more f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s f a l l i n t o p r o f e s s i o n a l and e x e c u t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s than any o t h e r . b) Occupat i o n : T a b l e 3.2 s e t s out the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s used i n the s u r v e y and shows the number and p e r c e n t a g e o f c a n d i d a t e s o f each gender by o c c u p a t i o n . The a g g r e g a t e d a t a f o r c a n d i d a t e s ' o c c u p a t i o n s , t a k e n from the R e p o r t o f the C h i e f E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r , i s shown f o r f e m a l e c a n d i d a t e s o n l y . The a g g r e g a t e 20 i n f o r m a t i o n f o r female c a n d i d a t e s i s used to supplement the survey data s i n c e the numbers f o r female c a n d i d a t e s i n the survey were sma11. Table 3.2 Occupation and Candidates' Gender ( V e r t i c a l Percentages) 1988 Female Male A l l Survey Survey O c c u p a t i o n : N V. N Y . N 7. Bus i n e ssperson 16 9 .2 8 10. . 8 39 14 , . 1 Execut i ve/Manager i a l 19 10 .9 12 16, .2 19 6 .9 Lawyer 18 10 .3 6 8. . 1 33 12. . 0 Educator 16 9 .2 5 6, .8 40 14 .5 J o u r n a l i s t 1 1 6 .3 4 5, .4 2 . 7 C l e r g y 0* 0 1* 1 , .4 4 1 .4 P r o f e s s i o n a l - u n s . 25 14 .4 8 10. .8 35 12. . 7 C o n s u l t a n t / A n a l y s t 10 5 .7 3 4 , . 1 9 3, . 3 Farm i ng/Agr i c . 4 2 .3 1 1 . 4 19 6. .9 M.P. 1 1 6 .3 3 4 , . 1 13 4 , .7 Po1i t i c i an 7 4 .0 1 1 . 4 1 1 4 . 0 Market i n g / S a l e s 5 2 .9 0 0 7 2, .5 C1er ica1 19 10 .9 1 2. .7 0 0 Un i o n Exec. 0* 0 3* 4 . 1 8 2. .9 Trades, Labour 3 1 . 7 1 1 . , 4 9 3. . 3 Student 0* 0 1* 1 . 4 0 0 Homemaker 5 2 .9 3 4 . , 1 0 0 Ret i r e d 2 1 . 1 2 2. .7 5 1 , .8 Other 4 2 .3 10 13. ,5 23 8. , 3 • d i f f e r e n c e s are due to c o d i n g var i a t i i • ns. Looking f i r s t at the survey data, i t suggests that the o c c u p a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d f o r male and female c a n d i d a t e s are somewhat d i f f e r e n t . Table 3.2 shows that the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n , 16 p e r c e n t , of female c a n d i d a t e s i n d i c a t e d e x e c u t i v e / m a n a g e r i a l as t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by 'other' at 13.5 p e r c e n t . B u s i n e s s p e r s o n and p r o f e s s i o n a 1 - u n s p e c i f i e d f o l l o w e d , both at 10.8 p e r c e n t of women c a n d i d a t e s . 21 Among male? c a n d i d a t e s i n the survey, 14.5 percent i n d i c a t e d educator as t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by b u s i n e s s p e r s o n at 14 p e r c e n t and p r o f e s s i o n a l at 13 percent (Table 3.2). A n a l y s i s of the survey data shown i n T a b l e 3.3 a l s o r e v e a l s that e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s r a t e s of c a n d i d a t e s i n the same o c c u p a t i o n a l groups v a r i e s by gender. Tab l e 3.3 O c c u p a t i o n a l Success Rates by Gender (Number and Percent E l e c t e d ) 1988 Fema1e Male Oc c u p a t i o n : A l l N '/. Survey N '/. Survey N 7. B u s i n e s s p e r s o n 6 37 .5 2 25 . 0 9 23, . 0 Execut i ve/Manager i a 1 8 42 . 1 2 16 .6 7 36 .8 Lawyer 5 27 .5 0 0 13 39. .3 Educator 3 IB .8 0 0 14 35, .0 J o u r n a l i s t 1 9 .0 1 25 . 0 1 50. .0 C l e r g y 0 - — * 0 0 2 50, . 0 P r o f e s s i o n a l - u n s . 2 8 .0 0 0 1 1 31 . , 4 Consu1 tant/Ana 1yst 1 !0 .0 1 33 .3 4 44 , .4 F a r m i n g / A g r i c . 0 0 0 0 8 42. . 1 M.P. 6 54 .5 3 100 .0 10 76 , .9 Po1i t i c i an 3 42 .8 0 0 6 54. .5 M a r k e t i n g / S a l e s 2 40 .0 0 -• -•* 2 28, .6 C l e r i c a l 0 0 0 0 0 — -*-Un i o n Exec. 0 -• - * 0 0 1 12. .5 Trades, Labour 0 0 1 100 .0 3 33. , 3 Student 0 -• -# 0 0 0 — -*-Homemaker 1 20 .0 0 0 0 — - * R e t i r e d 0 0 0 0 2 40. .0 Other 1 25 .0 2 20 .0 8 34. ,8 *No c a n d i d a t e s of t h i s gender hav i i ng t h i s occupat io n . T able 3.3 shows that among a l l o c c u p a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d by male c a n d i d a t e s , lawyers were the most l i k e l y to win e l e c t i o n a f t e r MP's and p o l i t i c i a n s . F o r t y p e r c e n t of the lawyers won t h e i r s e a t s f o l l o w e d by executives/managers at 37 p e r c e n t . The survey 22 data shows q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t s uccess r a t e f o r female c a n d i d a t e s than f o r male c a n d i d a t e s but i t must be remembered that numbers are very s m a l l . As the survey data f o r female c a n d i d a t e s i n Tab l e 3.3 shows, none of the s i x women lawyers i n the survey were e l e c t e d . Only two of the twelve c a n d i d a t e s i n the ex e c u t i v e / m a n a g e r i a l group won t h e i r s e a t s . J u s t over o n e - t h i r d of male e d u c a t o r s won t h e i r s e a t s while almost a t h i r d of male p r o f e s s i o n a l s d i d so. In c o n t r a s t none of the f i v e women ed u c a t o r s were s u c c e s s f u l nor were any of the e i g h t women i n d i c a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l as t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n . Only among businesspeop1e were the succ e s s r a t e s very s i m i l a r f o r both genders at about one-quarter f o r both men and women but i n a b s o l u t e terms, the r a t e f o r female c a n d i d a t e s i s based on onl y 2 e l e c t e d out of 8 women c a n d i d a t e s . Among male c a n d i d a t e s , lawyers and executives/managers appear to be the most s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s . A s i m i l a r statement i s d i f f i c u l t to make f o r women c a n d i d a t e s s i n c e o n l y twelve female c a n d i d a t e s who won t h e i r seat i n the e l e c t i o n were survey respondents. A look at the aggregate data may shed a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t . The a n a l y s i s o f the aggregate data r e v e a l s that the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f women c a n d i d a t e s f a l l i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l -u n s p e c i f i e d c a t e g o r y at 14.4 p e r c e n t , e x e c u t i v e / m a n a g e r i a l and c l e r i c a l both at 10.9 p e r c e n t , lawyer at 10.3 pe r c e n t , and b u s i n e s s p e r s o n and educator c a t e g o r i e s both at 9.2 percent (Table 3.2). T h i s d i f f e r s somewhat from the survey r e s u l t s s i n c e very few women c l e r k s , lawyers or edu c a t o r s were survey respondents. The p r o f e s s i o n a l - u n s p e c i f i e d aggregate data c a t e g o r y c a p t u r e s the 23 t r a d i t i o n a 1 1 y fema1e dominated h e a l t h care and s o c i a l s e r v i c e f i e l d s . With the e x c e p t i o n of the c l e r i c a l c a t e g o r y , the aggregate data i n Table 3.2 shows that the c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n which most women c a n d i d a t e s f i t are the same as those c a t e g o r i e s f o r male c a n d i d a t e s i n the survey, but the d i s t r i b u t i o n v a r i e s somewhat. In terms o f succ e s s r a t e s , the aggregate f i g u r e s i n Table 3.3 show that a f t e r MP's and p o l i t i c i a n s , female executive/managers were most l i k e l y to win e l e c t i o n . Forty-two p e r c e n t of the women i n t h i s group were e l e c t e d f o l l o w e d by m a r k e t i n g / s a l e s p e o p l e at 40 p e r c e n t , businesspeop1e at 38 perc e n t and then lawyers at 28 p e r c e n t . Again, c a u t i o n i s advised because numbers are low i n some ca s e s . For example, the 40 perce n t s u c c e s s r a t e r e p o r t e d f o r women c a n d i d a t e s who were m a r k e t i n g / s a l e s p e o p l e i s based on onl y 2 e l e c t e d out of 5 female c a n d i d a t e s . It i s n o t a b l e , however, that female lawyers had a much lower s u c c e s s r a t e than male lawyers. Nor d i d female p r o f e s s i o n a l s and edu c a t o r s f a r e q u i t e as w e l l as men i n these groups. Women of q u i t e v a r i e d o c c u p a t i o n s are seek i n g n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e but those who have more t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s a r e more l i k e l y to get e l e c t e d . G e n e r a l l y speaking, i n d i v i d u a l s of both genders who are s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r b i d f o r e l e c t e d o f f i c e a r e e x e c u t i v e s , lawyers and businesspeop1e. 84 c) P a r t y S e r v i c e : The f a c t that women appear to seek p u b l i c o f f i c e at younger ages than men may a l s o r e f l e c t upon t h e i r l ength of p a r t y membership and p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . Younger c a n d i d a t e s , and those who are not incumbents, can be expected to have fewer years p a r t y a c t i v i s m and l e s s p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e than t h e i r c o l leagues. Looking f i r s t at p a r t y s e r v i c e , Table 3.4 p r e s e n t s the survey data showing when c a n d i d a t e s j o i n e d t h e i r p a r t i e s . T a b l e 3.4 Can d i d a t e s ' Length of P a r t y S e r v i c e by Gender ( V e r t i c a l Percentages) (1988) Candidate P a r t y Member S i n c e : Female Male A l l Candidates J o i n e d i n 1988 0/18/15* 0/13/10 11 1984 - 1987 0/14/18 8/18/15 14 1980 - 1984 80/85/84 14/14/14 16 1970s 60/34/31 34/38/33 38 1960s 10/18/18 34/19/84 81 1950s 10/ 4/ 5 8 / 3 / 5 5 1940s 0 / 8 / 8 0/ 1/.4 1 b e f o r e 1940 0/ 0 / 0 1/ 0/.4 .3 * C e l l e n t r i e s a re percentage of incumbent c a n d i d a t e s / p e r c e n t a g e of nonincumbent c a n d i d a t e s / p e r c e n t a g e of a l l c a n d i d a t e s of that gender. Tab l e 3.4 shows that g e n e r a l l y speaking, women c a n d i d a t e s do tend to be more r e c e n t p a r t y members than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . H a l f the women but only 38 perc e n t of the men had l e s s than e i g h t years p a r t y e x p e r i e n c e . One would expect that some of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e would be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t that incumbents would have longer term p a r t y s e r v i c e and more incumbent c a n d i d a t e s are men. N a t u r a l l y very few incumbents 25 should be found i n t h i s group of i n d i v i d u a l s who have very l i t t l e p a r t y e x p e r i e n c e . What i s more s u r p r i s i n g i s the extent to which the percentage o f women v a r i e s from the percentage of men i n the group o f c a n d i d a t e s who j o i n e d t h e i r p a r t i e s s i n c e 1980. When on l y nonincumbents are c o n s i d e r e d , the survey shows that 57 perce n t o f the women but o n l y 45 percent of the men had l e s s than e i g h t y ears p a r t y e x p e r i e n c e . Incumbency becomes more of a f a c t o r i n the group o f c a n d i d a t e s who j o i n e d t h e i r p a r t y i n the 1970's. S i x t y percent of female incumbents j o i n e d t h e i r p a r t i e s i n the 1970's compared to 34 perc e n t o f the male incumbent c a n d i d a t e s . Among non-incumbents, the percentage f o r both male and female i s very s i m i l a r at about o n e - t h i r d . The survey data a l s o i n d i c a t e s that one qu a r t e r of both male and female c a n d i d a t e s j o i n e d t h e i r p a r t i e s s i n c e the 1984 gene r a l e l e c t i o n and 10 percent had done so i n the 1988 e l e c t i o n year. Among nonincumbents, the eviden c e of l i m i t e d p a r t y s e r v i c e i s even more pronounced with a t h i r d of both males and females having j o i n e d s i n c e 1984. Gender d i f f e r e n c e s were not gre a t i n e i t h e r o f these c a s e s . It can be s a i d then that women tend to have l e s s p a r t y e x p e r i e n c e when they seek a nomination. When the p a r t i e s are looked at i n d i v i d u a l l y , the survey data shows that t h i s tendency e x i s t s i n a l l t h r e e p a r t i e s . However, i t e x i s t s to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t i n the NDP. L i m i t e d p a r t y s e r v i c e has not g e n e r a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t roadblock to p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e , but t h i s f i n d i n g i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n the high e r 86 p r o p o r t i o n o f female NDP c a n d i d a t e s and the c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom that the NDP tends to favour c a n d i d a t e s with long-time p a r t y s e r v i c e . E i t h e r p a r t y s e r v i c e as a f a c t o r commending c a n d i d a t e s i s weakening among NDP a s s o c i a t i o n s or the NDP has a commitment to i n c r e a s i n g the number of women c a n d i d a t e s which i s c o n s i d e r e d important enough to ove r l o o k p a r t y s e r v i c e . Another e x p l a n a t i o n might be that the survey data c o n f i r m s r e c e n t s u g g e s t i o n s that more women are now t u r n i n g to the NDP. d) P o l i t i c a l E x p e r i e n c e ; A r e a s o n a b l e e x p e c t a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i s that women c a n d i d a t e s ' e l e c t o r a l e x p e r i e n c e would be l e s s than mens'. The l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s q u e s t i o n m a i n t a i n s that women are see k i n g l o c a l o f f i c e i n g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n s than they are p r o v i n c i a l or n a t i o n a l o f f i c e . V i c k e r s found that women p o l i t i c i a n s are c l u s t e r e d at the mu n i c i p a l l e v e l s i n c e the c o s t s of a m u n i c i p a l campaign are l e s s than i s the case at the p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l l e v e l s . She a l s o suggested that "the r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l of power and i n f l u e n c e [accorded the mu n i c i p a l l e v e l o f government and thus l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s ! has the e f f e c t o f r e d u c i n g c o m p e t i t i o n Cand of weakening! s t r u c t u r e s such SI as p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s " . S i n c e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s can l i m i t a c c e s s to r e c r u i t m e n t channels i n that " p a r t y c o n t r o l over e l i t e r e c r u i t m e n t Ccan a c t ] as a c r i t i c a l b a r r i e r to i n c r e a s e d V i c k e r s , "Where are the Women i n Canadian P o l i t i c s ? " , A t l a n t i s , v o l . 3, no. 2, ( S p r i n g , 1978), p. H 6 . 27 22 p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women i n Canadian p o l i t i c s " , the t r a d i t i o n a l lack of p a r t i s a n s h i p at the l o c a l l e v e l i n a sense f a c i l i t a t e s a woman's ca n d i d a c y . B r o d i e and V i c k e r s found that "when one moves from the l a r g e l y n o n p a r t i s a n m u n i c i p a l sphere to p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s , where p a r t y c o n s t i t u e n c y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r v e n e i n the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , ... women c a n d i d a t e s are much 23 l e s s common." The survey data p r e s e n t e d i n Table 3.5 supports the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f B r o d i e and V i c k e r s . As Table 3.5 shows, the percentage of female c a n d i d a t e s who i n d i c a t e d l o c a l government e x p e r i e n c e was g r e a t e r than the percentage i n d i c a t i n g e i t h e r House of Commons or p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . However, i n a l l t h r e e i n s t a n c e s the p r o p o r t i o n s of ex p e r i e n c e d women were l e s s than that of e x p e r i e n c e d men. Tabl e 3.5 P o l i t i c a l E x p e r i e n c e of Candidates by Gender (1988) Candidate Been In: Fema1e Male A l l Cand i d a t e s House of Commons P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e L o c a l Government Not Held P u b l i c O f f i c e 13.3 0 17.3 56.0 29.8 6.3 26 .0 38.6 26 . 4 5.0 24.2 42.2 B r o d i e and V i c k e r s , "The More Things Change ... Women i n the 1979 F e d e r a l Campaign", i n Howard R. Penniman, ed., Canada at  the P o l l s , 1979 and 1980: A Study of the General E l e c t i o n s . (Washington, D.C.: American E n t e r p r i s e I n s t i t u t e f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y Research, 1981), p. 323 and 326 f f . a 3 I b i d , p. 323. 28 R e g a r d l e s s of gender d i f f e r e n c e s , p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e does not appear to be a c r i t i c a l requirement s i n c e o n l y a q u a r t e r o f the c a n d i d a t e s i n the survey i n d i c a t e d they had served i n l o c a l government w h i l e a mere 5 perc e n t had been members of a p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . Those with p r e v i o u s House of Commons ex p e r i e n c e accounted f o r o n l y 86 percent of c a n d i d a t e s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , among o n l y nonincumbents, a mere 5 percent r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s House of Commons e x p e r i e n c e . Forty-two percent of c a n d i d a t e s i n d i c a t e d no p r e v i o u s e l e c t o r a l e x p e r i e n c e at a l l . But lack of e x p e r i e n c e was even more pronounced f o r women. F i f t y - s i x p e r c e n t of female c a n d i d a t e s f e l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . In summary, women c a n d i d a t e s do tend to have l e s s p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s , but ex p e r i e n c e i n any case does not appear to be a c r i t i c a l requirement. e) C o n s t i t u e n c y Residency: Residency w i t h i n the c o n s t i t u e n c y where one seeks p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e i n Canada. Candidates who m a i n t a i n r e s i d e n c y o u t s i d e the area must o f t e n defend t h e i r reasons f o r doing so a g a i n s t a v a r i e t y of o p p o s i t i o n charges. N e v e r t h e l e s s , almost a q u a r t e r (22*/.) of the c a n d i d a t e s i n the survey were not r e s i d e n t i n the c o n s t i t u e n c y where they were r u n n i n g . But the survey data shows that the percentage of female c a n d i d a t e s who d i d not r e s i d e i n t h e i r r i d i n g was g r e a t e r than f o r male c a n d i d a t e s . Almost a t h i r d of women c a n d i d a t e s were not c o n s t i t u e n c y r e s i d e n t s while o n l y 19 percent of male c a n d i d a t e s l i v e d o u t s i d e the c o n s t i t u e n c y . Whether t h i s f a c t o r works a g a i n s t a c a n d i d a t e i n t h e i r nomination b i d or l a t e r d u r i n g 59 the e l e c t i o n i s u n c l e a r . It might be that o u t s i d e r e s i d e n c y o c c u r s more i n r i d i n g s where the chance of e l e c t o r a l s uccess i s poor and women are more l i k e l y to be c a n d i d a t e s i n such r i d i n g s . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s , l a t e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , w i l l shed more l i g h t on t h i s q u e s t i o n . f ) Summary: T h i s chapter has been devoted to c a n d i d a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The comparison o f male and female c a n d i d a t e s r e v e a l s women tend to be younger, have l e s s p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , fewer years p a r t y s e r v i c e and more o f t e n r e s i d e o u t s i d e the c o n s t i t u e n c y they seek to r e p r e s e n t . There are a l s o some d i f f e r e n c e s i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s chapter made the p o i n t that women of q u i t e v a r i e d o c c u p a t i o n s are se e k i n g n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e but those who have o c c u p a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d more t r a d i t i o n a l f o r p o l i t i c i a n s tend to have a b e t t e r chance of g e t t i n g e l e c t e d . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the percentages of women c a n d i d a t e s i n these o c c u p a t i o n s tends to be l e s s than those f o r male c a n d i d a t e s . •ne can o n l y s p e c u l a t e about the extent to which these d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female c a n d i d a t e s a f f e c t the female c a n d i d a t e s ' chance of winning r i d i n g nominations and e l e c t i o n . The purpose of t h i s chapter has been to a r t i c u l a t e these d i f f e r e n c e s and to make the p o i n t that they ought not to be c o n s i d e r e d grounds f o r q u e s t i o n i n g the c a l i b r e of women c a n d i d a t e s i n ge n e r a l s i n c e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r e l e c t e d o f f i c e are by no means w e l l d e f i n e d . Such d i f f e r e n c e s should not p r e c l u d e r i d i n g s from nominating women c a n d i d a t e s , nor do they n e c e s s a r i l y a f f e c t e l e c t o r a l chances. I f the number of female c a n d i d a t e s are 30 to i n c r e a s e , r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s w i l l have to regard such minor d i f f e r e n c e s as l e s s important than i s i n c r e a s i n g female p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , p a r t i e s can adopt measures, such as c a n d i d a t e campaign t r a i n i n g , to f i l l any gaps c r e a t e d by l e s s p o l i t i c a l or p a r t y e x p e r i e n c e . But these measures alone w i l l not be s u f f i c i e n t to i n c r e a s e the number of women who are e l e c t e d to s e a t s i n P a r l i a m e n t . The next chapter argues that more profound changes, changes i n p a r t y norms and p r a c t i c e s , may be nec e s s a r y . Chapter 4 moves away from a f o c u s on the c a n d i d a t e s themselves to c o n s i d e r the p a r t i e s ' r e l u c t a n c e or i n a b i l i t y to nominate women c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s where t h e i r chance of e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s i s good . 31 Chapter 4. 'Lost Cause' C a n d i d a t e s ? : A f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d p r o p o s i t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s that the three major p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s are r e l u c t a n t to f i e l d women i n c o n s t i t u e n c i e s where th e r e i s a good p r o s p e c t of v i c t o r y but i n s t e a d they f i e l d t h e i r female c a n d i d a t e s almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n E4 r i d i n g s where t h e i r chance o f e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s i s very low. These women c a n d i d a t e s have o f t e n been termed ' s a c r i f i c i a l lambs' f o r s t a n d i n g with l i t t l e or no chance of s u c c e s s . As an example of t h i s s a c r i f i c i a l lamb theory, the 1984 e l e c t i o n saw more than h a l f o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y ' s women ca n d i d a t e s nominated i n Quebec where i t was assumed at the time of t h e i r nomination that they would be d e f e a t e d . In f a c t 14 of the E7 women e l e c t e d i n 1984 were Quebec C o n s e r v a t i v e s who d i d not have to compete with incumbents f o r a nomination. On t h i s account, much of the i n c r e a s e i n the number of women MPs i n 1984 can be e x p l a i n e d by a p e c u l i a r r e s u l t of s a c r i f i c i a l lamb nominations. With on l y one C o n s e r v a t i v e incumbent i n Quebec, 74 r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s were open to new c a n d i d a t e s , most of whom were not expected to win. Had the r e been incumbent C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s s e e k i n g r e s e l e c t i o n , fewer women would have been e l e c t e d s i n c e the incumbents would l i k e l y have been male and E4 See f o r example B r o d i e , Women and P o l i t i c s , and the Canadian A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the S t a t u s of Women, e s p e c i a l l y p 5, and Hunter and Denton. B r o d i e , Women and P o l i t i c s , p. 1E4. 32 incumbent c a n d i d a t e s are r a r e l y c h a l l e n g e d i n t h e i r renomination b i d . But the 1984 e l e c t i o n a l s o saw some evidence that more women were winning nominations i n s a f e s e a t s . For example, B r o d i e found that two C o n s e r v a t i v e women c a n d i d a t e s were nominated i n s a f e s e a t s and f i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e women were nominated i n r i d i n g s where t h e i r p a r t y had run a c l o s e second i n 1980. The L i b e r a l s chose at l e a s t seven women to c o n t e s t s a f e s e a t s and nominated 26 seven more where t h e i r p a r t y had run second i n 1980. There a r e , then, c o n f l i c t i n g i n d i c a t i o n s about whether the p a r t i e s remain r e l u c t a n t to nominate women c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s where the r e i s a good chance o f s u c c e s s . T h i s chapter e x p l o r e s the aggregate and survey data f o r the 1988 e l e c t i o n to determine whether the s a c r i f i c i a l lamb theory s t i l l h o l d s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n a n a l y z e s the aggregate data by p r o v i n c e and r e g i o n . A p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l a n a l y s i s was chosen r a t h e r than a n a l y s i s by c o n s t i t u e n c y both because the u n i t s are more manageable and p a r t y dominance g e n e r a l l y can be d e f i n e d by p r o v i n c e and r e g i o n . For i n s t a n c e , the L i b e r a l s are weak i n western Canada where, p r i o r to 1988, they had onl y two Members of P a r l i a m e n t , one i n Manitoba and one i n B r i t i s h Columbia. S i m i l a r statements can be made about the other two p a r t i e s even though i n some p r o v i n c e s the t o t a l s e a t s might i n g e n e r a l be s p l i t between two p a r t i e s with the t h i r d p a r t y h o l d i n g a few s e a t s . O n t a r i o i s B r o d i e , Women and P o l i t i c s , p. 125. 33 a good example where a l l three n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s have enjoyed some s u c c e s s . A p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l a n a l y s i s i s a l s o u s e f u l when comparing the r e s u l t s of p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s of female c a n d i d a c y . C o n s t i t u e n c y l e v e l a n a l y s i s i s undertaken i n the second s e c t i o n where the survey data i s a n a l y z e d . The measures used i n t h i s s e c t i o n are of a s u b j e c t i v e nature r a t h e r than the more o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s p o s s i b l e with the aggregate d a t a . The a n a l y s i s of the aggregate data shows that a l l three p a r t i e s c o n t i n u e to f i e l d t h e i r female c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s where the p r o s p e c t of v i c t o r y i s remote and do not nominate many women c a n d i d a t e s i n areas where the p a r t y i s b e t t e r p l a c e d to win s e a t s . The survey data i n the second s e c t i o n supports t h i s c o n c l u s i o n to the extent that i t r e v e a l s the p a r t i e s tend not to f i e l d women c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s d e f i n e d as 'safe s e a t s ' . But the survey data a n a l y s i s cannot u n e q u i v o c a l l y support a c o n c l u s i o n that women are more l i k e l y to be c a n d i d a t e s i n ' l o s t cause' c o n s t i t u e n c i e s as i s suggested by the aggregate data. a) E l e c t o r a l P r o s p e c t s of Women Candidates by Pr o v i n c e / R e g i o n : Any a n a l y s i s based on a p a r t y ' s p r e v i o u s e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s i 5 c o m p l i c a t e d by the very unusual r e s u l t s of the 1984 e l e c t i o n . P r e v i o u s s u r v e y s of female candidacy based on a p a r t y ' s e l e c t o r a l chances, those undertaken d u r i n g the L i b e r a l p a r t y ' s hegemony f o r example, c o u l d r e l y on a degree of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y about which p a r t y was l i k e l y to win most s e a t s i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n . But the s u c c e s s of the C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n 1984 and 1988, and the resounding d e f e a t of numerous L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s , changed the 34 e l e c t o r a l landscape. With such a v o l a t i l e e l e c t o r a t e , i t has become more d i f f i c u l t to determine whether a female c a n d i d a t e i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n i s l i k e l y to be a throw-away c a n d i d a t e . S i n c e the L i b e r a l s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been s t r o n g i n Quebec but were trounced i n 1984 i n the C o n s e r v a t i v e sweep i t i s open to debate whether the remaining L i b e r a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d s a f e or even good i n 1988. Nor c o u l d C o n s e r v a t i v e s e a t s i n Quebec be c o n s i d e r e d e n t i r e l y s a f e f o r the 1988 e l e c t i o n s i n c e the p o l l s f o r Quebec as w e l l as the r e s t of Canada were f l u c t u a t i n g d r a m a t i c a l l y . The p o l l s had g i v e n a l l three p a r t i e s reason f o r optimism and the 1988 e l e c t i o n looked as though i t would be q u i t e c o m p e t i t i v e . The number of r i d i n g s where two or even three of the major p a r t y c a n d i d a t e s had a good chance of success c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d h i g h . In the p e r i o d b e f o r e the e l e c t i o n , the p o l l s had shown each p a r t y i n t h i r d p l a c e at times w h i l e at other times l e a d i n g i n the p o l l s . On the eve of the campaign, the C o n s e r v a t i v e s were i n the lead at 40 p e r c e n t , the NDP was second at 31 p e r c e n t with the L i b e r a l s running a c l o s e t h i r d at 86 87 p e r c e n t . So o p t i m i s t i c were the New Democrats that they h e l d out hope of a breakthrough i n Quebec. T h i s a n a l y s i s proceeds with an examination of the number and percentage of each p a r t i e s ' c a n d i d a t e s i n each r e g i o n who were Ala n F r i z z e l l , Jon H. Pammett and Anthony W e s t e l l , The  Canadian General E l e c t i o n of 1988. (Ottawa: C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1989). 35 women, with some d i s c u s s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c e s . The d i s c u s s i o n i s o r g a n i z e d by p a r t y , c o n c l u d i n g with a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s of women c a n d i d a t e s compared to that f o r male c a n d i d a t e s . T a b l e 4.1 s e t s out the number of women c a n d i d a t e s f o r each p a r t y i n each r e g i o n and i n d i c a t e s how those numbers t r a n s l a t e i n t o a percentage of each p a r t i e s ' c a n d i d a t e s i n each r e g i o n who were women. For comparative purposes, Table 4.2 shows the number of s e a t s won per r e g i o n by each p a r t y i n the 1980, 1984 and 1988 n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n s . 36 Table 4.1 Percent of P a r t i e s ' Candidates Who Were Women By Reg ion ( 1988) NDP L i b e r a l P.C. N '/. N */. N '/. A t l a n t i c 13 41 5 16 O 0 (32) N f l d (7) 2 29 1 14 0 0 PEI (4) 4 100 1 25 0 O NS < 1 1 > 4 36 3 27 0 0 NB (10) 3 30 0 0 O O Quebec 17 23 11 15 16 21 (75) O n t a r i o 35 35 17 17 11 11 (99) P r a i r i e s 9 17 13 24 4 7 (54) Man. (14) 1 7 2 14 1 7 Sask.(14) 1 7 3 21 1 7 A l t a . ( 2 6 ) 7 27 8 31 2 8 B.C. 9 28 6 19 6 19 (32) NWT/Yukon 1 33 1 33 0 0 (3) T o t a l 84 28 53 18 37 13 Bracketed f i g u r e s are the number of e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s i n each prov i nee. 37 Table 4.E Summary of Sea t s Won by P r o v i n c e and Par ty 1980 , 1984 , 1988* NDP L i ber a1 P.C. 1980 1984 1988 1980 1984 1988 1980 1984 198E Nf Id . 0 0 0 5 3 5 S 4 2 PEI 0 0 0 E 1 4 E 3 0 NS 0 0 0 5 E 6 6 9 5 NB 0 0 0 7 1 5 3 9 5 T o t a l A t l a n t i c 0 0 0 19 7 EO 13 E5 12 Quebec 0 0 0 74 17 IE 1 58 63 • n t a r io 5 13 10 5S 14 43 38 67 46 Nan. 7 4 S S 1 5 5 9 7 Sask . 7 5 10 0 0 0 7 9 4 A l t a . 0 0 1 0 0 0 E l E l 25 T o t a l P r a i r i e s 14 9 13 E 1 5 33 39 36 B.C. IE 8 19 0 1 1 16 19 12 NWT/Yukon 1 0 1 0 0 S E 3 0 T o t a l s 3E 30 43 147 40 83 103 211 169 *The t o t a l number of s e a t s i n the House of Commons i n 1980 and 1984 was 282 wh i l e i n 198B i t was 295. The New Democrats: Looking f i r s t at the NDP i n the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n , Table 4.2 shows that the P a r t y i s extremely weak i n the r e g i o n . Table 4.2 does not i n c l u d e 1979 but t h a t e l e c t i o n was the l a s t time an NDP c a n d i d a t e was e l e c t e d from A t l a n t i c Canada when two members were e l e c t e d , one from Newfoundland and one from Nova S c o t i a . NDP c a n d i d a t e s i n t h i s r e g i o n c o u l d not r e a l i s t i c a l l y expect to win t h e i r s e a t s based on the p a r t y ' s past performance. 38 As T a b l e 4.1 shows, 41 percent of the NDP's 1988 c a n d i d a t e s i n the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n were women. In Newfoundland, Nova S c o t i a and New Brunswick alone o n e - t h i r d of the NDP's c a n d i d a t e s were women. In P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , a p r o v i n c e which has never sent a New Democrat to Ottawa, and which has never e l e c t e d a woman MP, a l l f o u r of the NDP's c a n d i d a t e s were women. It must be r e c o g n i z e d , however, that the 41 percent of NDP c a n d i d a t e s i n t h i s r e g i o n who were women i s based on o n l y 32 i n d i v i d u a l s . Looked at another way, o n l y 15 percent of the New Democrats' e i g h t y - f o u r women c a n d i d a t e s ran i n the r e g i o n . Quebec and On t a r i o a l o n e account f o r 62 perc e n t of the NDP's women c a n d i d a t e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , even g i v e n the s m a l l e r number of s e a t s i n the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n , i t i s r e v e a l i n g that a much higher than average percentage of NDP c a n d i d a t e s i n those r i d i n g s were women s i n c e the NDP was not l i k e l y to win s e a t s i n the area. As Table 4.3 demonstrates, the percentage of NDP women c a n d i d a t e s i n the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n was 12 percentage p o i n t s g r e a t e r than the average percentage f o r women NDP c a n d i d a t e s i n the e l e c t i o n . 39 Table 4.3* Percentage P o i n t s >/< Average Percentage of Candidates (1988) NDP L i b e r a l P.C. A t l a n t i c +18 - 8 -13 Quebec - 5 - 3 + 8 O n t a r i o + 7 - 1 - 8 P r a i r i e s -18 + 6 - 6 B.C. 0 + 1 +6 Average SB 18 13 *The Yukon and N.W.T. have been omitted from t h i s t a b l e g i v e n t h e i r few s e a t s . On the p r a i r i e s the p a t t e r n was r e v e r s e d (Table 4.3). In Saskatchewan, where the NDP has t r a d i t i o n a l l y done w e l l , o n l y one NDP c a n d i d a t e was female (Table 4.1). She l o s t her b i d f o r e l e c t i o n i n a p r o v i n c e where the NDP sent 10 out of a p o s s i b l e 14 MP's to Ottawa i n 19B8. 1984 had seen a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n . In that year t h e r e were no female NDP c a n d i d a t e s i n Saskatchewan where f i v e NDP c a n d i d a t e s were e l e c t e d . The s i t u a t i o n f o r the NDP i n Manitoba i s almost i d e n t i c a l to that i n Saskatchewan. In 1988, o n l y one female NDP c a n d i d a t e c o n t e s t e d a Manitoba seat i n a p r o v i n c e where the NDP has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been s t r o n g . The s t o r y of the NDP i n A l b e r t a i s s i m i l a r to that i n Quebec. Both p r o v i n c e s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e s i s t e d the p a r t y and i n both p r o v i n c e s , the p r o p o r t i o n of female c a n d i d a t e s c l o s e l y corresponded to the p a r t y ' s n a t i o n a l average (28*/.). T h i s p r o p o r t i o n cannot then be c o n s i d e r e d d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y high even 40 though those s t a n d a r d b e a r e r s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d s a c r i f i c i a l lambs; so too c o u l d the male c a n d i d a t e s i n A l b e r t a and Quebec. The NDP ' s e l e c t o r a l s t r e n g t h i n O n t a r i o has been e r r a t i c but a r e a s o n a b l e e x p e c t a t i o n f o r them would be that they c o u l d be c o n f i d e n t o f winning at l e a s t a handful of s e a t s i n the p r o v i n c e . Of the l a s t s e v e r a l e l e c t i o n s , 1984 was by f a r the best f o r the NDP. In the Tory sweep of that year the NDP a c t u a l l y p i c k e d up 8 s e a t s over 1980, winning 13 s e a t s , only one l e s s than the L i b e r a l s . In 1988 the NDP l o s t three of t h e i r 13 s e a t s (Table 4.E). It i s d i f f i c u l t then to draw c o n c l u s i o n s about the f a c t t h a t 35 perc e n t o f NDP c a n d i d a t e s i n the p r o v i n c e were women. It may be more r e v e a l i n g that none of them were e l e c t e d and a l l but fo u r ran t h i r d on the b a l l o t . Of those f o u r , 2 were incumbent M.P.'s who l o s t t h e i r s e a t s w h i l e one fa c e d no L i b e r a l c o m p e t i t i o n and thus p l a c e d second. The f o u r t h j u s t b a r e l y beat out the t h i r d p l a c e C o n s e r v a t i v e c o m p e t i t i o n but was soundly d e f e a t e d by the L i b e r a l incumbent M.P. In B r i t i s h Columbia the p r o p o r t i o n of female c a n d i d a t e s matched the n a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n . But i n B.C., the NDP c o u l d more r e a s o n a b l y count on winning a l a r g e share of the s e a t s . Of the 32 s e a t s a v a i l a b l e i n B.C., the NDP won 19: f o u r of them by almost h a l f o f the 9 women nominated. To summarize, the a n a l y s i s of the NDP does suggest that they tend to f i e l d women c a n d i d a t e s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y i n r e g i o n s they are u n l i k e l y to win. The NDP i s e l e c t o r a l l y weak i n the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n where a high p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r c a n d i d a t e s were women. The p a r t y i s s u c c e s s f u l i n Saskatchewan and Manitoba where, H i t o g e t h e r , o n l y two c a n d i d a t e s were female. In O n t a r i o where the NDP c o u l d expect some s u c c e s s , none of t h e i r women c a n d i d a t e s were i n r i d i n g s which the NDP won. In B.C. where the NDP won more than h a l f the t h i r t y - t w o s e a t s , o n l y f o u r women from that p a r t y a re now M.P.'s i n Ottawa. H2 The L i b e r a l s : In 1988, the L i b e r a l s won a number of s e a t s i n O n t a r i o where H 3 of the 99 r i d i n g s e l e c t e d L i b e r a l s . They a l s o enjoyed success i n the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n where 20 of the 32 e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s r e t u r n e d L i b e r a l MPs (Table H . 2 ) . Judged a g a i n s t the 18 perc e n t of L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s who were women, the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n and O n t a r i o had a f a i r share of women c a n d i d a t e s , with the i n d i v i d u a l e x c e p t i o n o f New Brunswick which had no women L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s (Table H . 1 ) . A S Table H.1 shows, 16 percent o f the L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s i n A t l a n t i c Canada were women w h i l e the comparable f i g u r e f o r O n t a r i o i s 17 p e r c e n t . The a n a l y s i s to t h i s p o i n t suggests that female L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s are not d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n r e g i o n s where t h e i r p a r t y has had some s u c c e s s . Instead, the problem l i e s i n the low t o t a l p e r centage o f women L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s and the f a c t that there are few women L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s i n these s t r o n g L i b e r a l a r e a s . In terms of a b s o l u t e numbers, onl y 5 L i b e r a l women ran i n the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n which sent a t o t a l of 20 L i b e r a l s to Ottawa (T a b l e s H.1 and H.2) and o n l y 3 women L i b e r a l s were e l e c t e d . U n t i l the Tory sweep i n 198H, Quebec had t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a L i b e r a l s t r o n g h o l d . In 198H f i f t y - s e v e n L i b e r a l r i d i n g s i n Quebec were l o s t to the C o n s e r v a t i v e s (Table H . 2 ) . The L i b e r a l s s u f f e r e d a f u r t h e r l o s s o f 5 s e a t s i n 1988, l e a v i n g them with o n l y 12 of the P r o v i n c e ' s 75 s e a t s . It c o u l d no longer be s a i d that any L i b e r a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n Quebec were ' s a f e ' . Even though e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s was tenuous, the L i b e r a l s d i d not f l o o d the Quebec f i e l d with women c a n d i d a t e s out of p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r 43 n a t i o n a l average. N e v e r t h e l e s s , s i x t e e n p e r c e n t of the L i b e r a l ' s Quebec c a n d i d a t e s were women compared to the 18 percent of a l l L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s who were women (Table 4.1). The p r a i r i e s were d i f f e r e n t . In A l b e r t a , there was a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y high number of women among L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s . In A l b e r t a where the L i b e r a l s have s t r u g g l e d i n v a i n f o r decades, almost o n e - t h i r d of t h e i r c a n d i d a t e s were women. It was i n A l b e r t a t h at the p r o p o r t i o n o f L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s who were women (31*/.) was h i g h e s t . No L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s were e l e c t e d i n A l b e r t a i n 1988, and i n f a c t many p l a c e d f o u r t h on the b a l l o t a f t e r Reform P a r t y c a n d i d a t e s . Saskatchewan was the same: the L i b e r a l s a re an e l e c t o r a l n o n - e n t i t y but 21 percent of t h e i r c a n d i d a t e s were female. The L i b e r a l s , s u r p r i s i n g l y , enjoyed some e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s i n Manitoba, but n e i t h e r of the two women c a n d i d a t e s i n that P r o v i n c e were e l e c t e d . Taken as a whole, the p r o p o r t i o n o f female L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s i n the p r a i r i e r e g i o n was s i x percentage p o i n t s g r e a t e r than the average (Table 4.3). The c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r female L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s were q u i t e s i m i l a r to that on the p r a i r i e s . A high e r than average p r o p o r t i o n o f L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s i n the P r o v i n c e were women and a l l c o u l d have been f a i r l y sure b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the c o n t e s t that they would f a c e d e f e a t at the p o l l s . Only one L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e i n the P r o v i n c e was s u c c e s s f u l : the p a r t y ' s l e a d e r John N. Turner i n Vancouver-Quadra. In summary, Table 4.3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t , f o r the L i b e r a l s , w h i l e d i s p r o p o r t i o n s are not dram a t i c , they do e x i s t . The L i b e r a l s nominated a below average p r o p o r t i o n of women c a n d i d a t e s 44 i n the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n , Quebec and O n t a r i o where they had some hope of e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y . In the p r a i r i e r e g i o n where the L i b e r a l ' s f i v e Manitoba s e a t s won i n 1988 c o u l d generously be c o n s i d e r e d an e l e c t o r a l breakthrough, almost one-quarter of t h e i r c a n d i d a t e s were women. That i s not an overwhelming percentage i n i t s e l f but i t i s somewhat g r e a t e r than the average percentage of L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s who were women. Of the three p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , o n l y Manitoba favoured the L i b e r a l s with s e a t s but the p r o p o r t i o n of women L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s was lowest here of the thre e p r o v i n c e s . In B r i t i s h Columbia where the chance of L i b e r a l e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s was remote, a high e r than average percentage of L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s were women. The L i b e r a l p a r t y r e c o r d p r o v i d e s l i t t l e reason to d i s c a r d the s a c r i f i c i a l lamb theory. The C o n s e r v a t i v e s : The h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f female C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s was i n Quebec and B.C. (Table 4.1). St a t e d b r i e f l y , these are two p r o v i n c e s where the C o n s e r v a t i v e s enjoyed e l e c t o r a l s uccess i n both 1984 and 1988 (Table 4.2) so the f a c t that a higher than average p r o p o r t i o n of C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s i n these P r o v i n c e s were women may suggest the s a c r i f i c i a l lamb theory does not h o l d . A c l o s e r look, however, suggests the theory cannot be d i s c a r d e d so eas i 1 y . Looking f i r s t at Quebec, f o u r t e e n women were e l e c t e d i n the s u r p r i s i n g and unexpected Tory sweep of that P r o v i n c e i n 1984 H 5 where many have suggested they were never expected to win. Of that f o u r t e e n , o n l y 9 remained on the b a l l o t i n 1988 and e i g h t were e l e c t e d . Whether the r u l e of incumbency (incumbents are not c h a l l e n g e d f o r the nomination) f a i l e d to p r o t e c t 5 of the f o u r t e e n female MP's e l e c t e d i n 198H d u r i n g nominations f o r the 1988 e l e c t i o n , or whether t h e i r r i d i n g s were more d i f f i c u l t to defend, deserves f u r t h e r study. Such c o n s t i t u e n c y a n a l y s i s w i l l not be undertaken here, but a p a t t e r n w i l l be suggested. In s p i t e of the f a c t that the p r o p o r t i o n of C o n s e r v a t i v e women c a n d i d a t e s i n Quebec was g r e a t e r than the p a r t y ' s n a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n (by 8 percentage p o i n t s ) a c l o s e r a n a l y s i s suggests Quebec might be an anomaly c r e a t e d i n 198H which may disa p p e a r by the next e l e c t i o n e a r l y i n the 1990's. The e v i d e n t p a t t e r n suggests t h a t as Quebec s e a t s become more confirmed as s a f e , or at l e a s t good, s e a t s f o r Tory c a n d i d a t e s , the p r o p o r t i o n of women who are e l e c t e d d e c l i n e s even as the t o t a l s e a t s won by T o r i e s i n c r e a s e s . Even though the C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r e l e c t o r a l s t r e n g t h from 58 to 63 s e a t s , the a b s o l u t e number of female C o n s e r v a t i v e M.P.'s from that P r o v i n c e f e l l from f o u r t e e n i n 198H to e l e v e n i n 1988. A f t e r Quebec, B.C. had the next h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of C o n s e r v a t i v e women c a n d i d a t e s (6 out of 32) or s i x percentage p o i n t s g r e a t e r than the p a r t y ' s n a t i o n a l average. The T h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s made i n Val Sears, "Women s t i l l f a c e tough f i g h t as c a n d i d a t e s " , The Toronto S t a r . May 2H, 1988, p. A16, and S y l v i a Gold, "There are s t i l l not enough women MPs i n Ottawa", C a l g a r y H e r a l d . November 30, 1988, p. A5. H 6 C o n s e r v a t i v e s have a l s o had a s t r o n g e l e c t o r a l showing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. These two f a c t o r s suggest that t h e r e i s a w i l l i n g n e s s to f i e l d women c a n d i d a t e s i n r e g i o n s where t h e i r e l e c t o r a l p r o s p e c t s are good. Again, however, the a b s o l u t e number of women e l e c t e d from the P r o v i n c e i s very low. Only two of 1 2 C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s now r e p r e s e n t i n g B.C. are women. In the l a s t two n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n s the O n t a r i o e l e c t o r a t e sent more C o n s e r v a t i v e M.P.'s to Ottawa than they d i d L i b e r a l s or New Democrats (Table H . 2 ) . In f a c t , i n 1 9 8 H , more C o n s e r v a t i v e MP's were e l e c t e d i n O n t a r i o than were L i b e r a l s and New Democrats combined. Only i n two of the l a s t f i v e e l e c t i o n s have the C o n s e r v a t i v e s earned fewer s e a t s than the L i b e r a l s which i n d i c a t e s t h at the C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n 1 9 8 8 c o u l d have been f a i r l y c o n f i d e n t of s u c c e s s i n many O n t a r i o r i d i n g s . Few female C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s were to g a i n from the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y ' s e l e c t o r a l s t r e n g t h . O n t a r i o C o n s e r v a t i v e s c o u l d boast o n l y e l e v e n women c a n d i d a t e s among the n i n e t y - n i n e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n the f i e l d , or e l e v e n percent (Table H . 1 ) . A S T a b l e H . 3 shows, t h i s i s o n l y 2 percentage p o i n t s lower than the average p r o p o r t i o n of 1 3 p e r c e n t but, i n a b s o l u t e numbers, on l y f i v e female C o n s e r v a t i v e contenders were e l e c t e d from O n t a r i o . In A l b e r t a , where the C o n s e r v a t i v e s won a l l but one of the 2 6 s e a t s a v a i l a b l e , they ran o n l y 2 women c a n d i d a t e s ( 8 * / . ) . In Manitoba where o n l y 7 percent of the C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s were women, the p a r t y won h a l f of the 1 H s e a t s a v a i l a b l e . Saskatchewan, which l i k e Manitoba has a l s o c o n s i s t e n t l y r e t u r n e d a number of C o n s e r v a t i v e M.P.'s, saw an i d e n t i c a l l y low 47 percentage of women c a n d i d a t e s . Only one woman i n each of Manitoba and Saskatchewan stood f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y and only the Manitoba c a n d i d a t e was s u c c e s s f u l i n her e l e c t i o n b i d . Looking at the P r a i r i e s as a whole, the p r o p o r t i o n of female C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s was s i x percentage p o i n t s l e s s than the average p r o p o r t i o n . The e v i d e n c e f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i n the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n s u p p o r t s the ' s a c r i f i c i a l lamb' theory , as d i d the evidenc e f o r the New Democrats and the L i b e r a l s . In the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n , where the C o n s e r v a t i v e s won 25 of the 32 s e a t s i n 1784 and 12 of the 32 s e a t s i n 1988, the p a r t y d i d not nominate a s i n g l e female c a n d i d a t e . To b r i e f l y summarize, the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y shows a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n to that i d e n t i f i e d f o r the New Democrats and L i b e r a l s . C o n s e r v a t i v e women c a n d i d a t e s are a l s o d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y found i n r i d i n g s where p r o s p e c t s are poor. The P a r t y can be c o n s i d e r e d winners on the P r a i r i e s and i n the A t l a n t i c r e g i o n where onl y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e s of t h e i r c a n d i d a t e s are women. Th e i r r e c o r d i s somewhat b e t t e r i n B.C. but i n O n t a r i o i t remains d i s c o u r a g i n g . The C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n Quebec, at f i r s t g l a n c e , appeared to p r o v i d e some ev i d e n c e of a breakdown i n the theory, but, as was suggested at the b e g i n n i n g of the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y a n a l y s i s , d e c i s i v e e v i d e n c e remains e l u s i v e . E l e c t o r a l Success as I n d i c a t o r : A b r i e f assessment of e l e c t o r a l s uccess o f the p a r t i e s i n v a r i o u s r e g i o n s may be u s e f u l i n drawing more c o n c l u s i v e statements about the p a r t i e s ' w i l l i n g n e s s to nominate women 48 c a n d i d a t e s i n s e a t s where the p a r t y i s e l e c t o r a l l y c o m p e t i t i v e . T h i s s e c t i o n attempts to add p e r s p e c t i v e when c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the aggregate i n f o r m a t i o n presented above. It looks o n l y at those r e g i o n s where a p a r t y was e l e c t o r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l and where the p a r t y ran a p r o p o r t i o n of women c a n d i d a t e s which c l o s e l y corresponded to the p a r t y ' s average p r o p o r t i o n of female c a n d i d a t e s . The a n a l y s i s i s focu s s e d i n t h i s way because the cases where these c i r c u m s t a n c e s e x i s t w i l l be most r e v e a l i n g about the tendency to f i e l d women c a n d i d a t e s i n l o s t cause c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , i f that tendency e x i s t s . E l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s as a c a l c u l a t i o n of the percentage of each p a r t y ' s c a n d i d a t e s who are s u c c e s s f u l l y e l e c t e d i s shown i n Table 4.4. E l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s r a t e s a re a l s o shown f o r male and female c a n d i d a t e s and were determined by c a l c u l a t i n g the percentage of male or female c a n d i d a t e s who won out of the t o t a l number of male or female c a n d i d a t e s . C a u t i o n i s adv i s e d when us i n g t h i s t a b l e s i n c e a high s u c c e s s r a t e alone can ignore the f a c t that female c a n d i d a t e s and e l e c t e d Members are s t i l l u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d . For example, the 100 percent s u c c e s s r a t e enjoyed by female C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s i n Manitoba cannot suggest the C o n s e r v a t i v e s have a good r e c o r d f o r nominating and e l e c t i n g female c a n d i d a t e s s i n c e t h e r e was only one female C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e i n the P r o v i n c e but she was e l e c t e d . Table 4.5 i s pr o v i d e d f o r r e f e r e n c e and shows the number of c a n d i d a t e s of each gender who ran i n the e l e c t i o n as well as the number e l e c t e d from each p a r t y i n each r e g i o n . H 9 Table H . H Male and Female E l e c t o r a l Success by P a r t y and P r o v i n c e <198S) NDP T o t a l V. S e a t s - 15 Female Male A l l - (6'/.) <1B'/.) L i b e r a l 28 Female Male ( 257.) ( 297.) P.C. 57 Female Male (577.) (577.) N f l d PEI NS NB T o t a l A t l a n t i c Quebec Ontar i o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 — * O o 0 0 16 0 100 66 — * 60 18 H i 71 100 50 50 63 16 H H — * — * — * — * — •* 69 H5 29 0 H 5 50 38 88 89 Manitoba 0 Saskatchewan 0 A l b e r t a 0 T o t a l P r a i r i e s 0 B.C. H H Yukon 100 Nor thwest T e r r i t o r i e s — * 15 77 5 2H 65 — + 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 36 0 0 9 H 0 100 100 0 100 75 33 H6 31 96 66 38 0 0 F i g u r e s show percent of c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t e d . *no c a n d i d a t e s of t h i s gender. 50 T a b l e 4 .5 C a n d i d a t e s / M P s per P a r t y by P r o v i n c e <1988) T o t a l S e a t s -NDP 43 Female Male L i b e r a l 83 Female Male P . C . 169 Female Male Nf Id PEI NS NB T o t a l A t l a n t i c Quebec O n t a r i o Mani toba Saskatchewan A l b e r t a T o t a l P r a i r i es B . C . Yukon Nor thwest T e r r i t o r i es To t a 1s F i g u r e s show 2/0 4 /0 4 /0 3 /0 13/0 17/0 35 /0 1/0 1/0 •7/0 9 /0 9/4 1/1 0/0 84 /5 5 /0 0 /0 7 /0 7 /0 19/0 58 /0 64 /10 13/2 13/10 19/ 1 45 /13 23 / 19 0 /0 E / 0 E l 1/38 1 /0 1 / 1 3 /2 0/0 5/3 1 1/2 17/7 2 /0 3 /0 8/0 13/0 6/0 0/0 1 / 1 53/13 6 /5 3 /3 8/4 10/5 27/17 64/10 81/36 12/5 1 1 /0 18/0 41 /5 E 6 / 1 1/0 1 / 1 S41/70 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 0 16/11 11/5 1/1 1 /0 2/2 4/3 6/2 0/0 0 /0 37/21 7/2 4 /0 11/5 10/5 32/12 59/52 88/41 13/6 13/4 24/23 50/33 26/10 1 /0 2 /0 257/132 the number of" c a n d i d a t e s / n u m b e r e l e c t e d T a b l e 4 .4 shows tha t f o r the NDP i n O n t a r i o , where the p r o p o r t i o n o f NDP women c a n d i d a t e s exceeded the average p r o p o r t i o n by 7 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s ( T a b l e 4 . 3 ) , male c a n d i d a t e s en jo y ed a 16 p e r c e n t s u c c e s s r a t e w h i l e female c a n d i d a t e s had a zero p e r c e n t s u c c e s s r a t e . T h i s c a l c u l a t i o n c l e a r l y p o i n t s out a d i s p a r i t y which sugges t s tha t the s e a t s c o n t e s t e d by female NDP c a n d i d a t e s were by f a r l e s s s e c u r e than those c o n t e s t e d by t h e i r male c o l l e a g u e s . 51 The o n l y p r o v i n c e where the NDP e l e c t e d female c a n d i d a t e s , apart from one female c a n d i d a t e i n the Yukon, was B.C. (Table H . 5 ) . Female NDP c a n d i d a t e s were a l s o r e l a t i v e l y w e ll r e p r e s e n t e d here where t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n corresponded to the S8 perce n t average. But a g a i n , t h e i r s uccess r a t e at H H percent was somewhat l e s s than that f o r male c a n d i d a t e s at 65 pe r c e n t . T a b l e H . H a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the d i s p a r i t y f o r female C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s i n Quebec where t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n exceeded the average by B percentage p o i n t s . Of the 16 female C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s i n Quebec, e l e v e n were e l e c t e d which i s an e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s r a t e of 69 percent whereas that f o r male c a n d i d a t e s was 88 p e r c e n t . The C o n s e r v a t i v e ' s r e c o r d of female candidacy i s much b e t t e r i n B.C. than elsewhere. The e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s of B.C. women C o n s e r v a t i v e s was r e l a t i v e l y high at a o n e - t h i r d success r a t e which i s o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s than the 38 percent success r a t e among t h e i r male c o l l e a g u e s . In B.C. the p r o p o r t i o n of female C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s a l s o exceeded the P a r t y average by 6 percentage p o i n t s . Turning to the L i b e r a l s , we f i n d that among the e l e v e n women L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s i n Quebec i n 1988, only two were e l e c t e d . In s p i t e of t h e r e being o n l y 2 female L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t e d i n Quebec, they enjoyed a hi g h e r s u c c e s s r a t e than d i d t h e i r male c o l l e a g u e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , male L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s outnumbered the female L i b e r a l s seven to one. In the A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s where the L i b e r a l s have c o n s i s t e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e d e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s , winning 20 out of 32 52 s e a t s i n 1988 o n l y 3 winners were women; two i n Nova S c o t i a and one i n P.E.I. That i s a s t r o n g 60 percent s u c c e s s r a t e but s t i l l l e s s than the succ e s s r a t e enjoyed by the 17 male c a n d i d a t e s sent to Ottawa. In O n t a r i o where the p r o p o r t i o n o f female L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s was o n l y one percentage p o i n t l e s s than the average, t h e i r s u c c e s s r a t e was a g a i n somewhat l e s s than that of t h e i r male c o l l e a g u e s i n the P r o v i n c e . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t appears that the s a c r i f i c i a l lamb theory s t i l l h o l d s . There i s a good deal o f ev i d e n c e among a l l three p a r t i e s which suggests that women tend not to be nominated i n the r i d i n g s which o f f e r the best chances of e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s . And even when they a r e , t h e i r r a t e s of e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s are l e s s than that f o r t h e i r male c o l l e a g u e s . Table 4.4 i l l u s t r a t e d that i t i s even d i f f i c u l t to argue that a p a r t y i s being e q u i t a b l e towards women when they f i e l d h i g h e r than average p r o p o r t i o n s of female c a n d i d a t e s i n r e g i o n s where the p a r t y i s l i k e l y to win s e a t s . Even i n such are a s , the r i d i n g s c o n t e s t e d by female c a n d i d a t e s a re l e s s s e c u r e than those c o n t e s t e d by t h e i r male c o l l e a g u e s who enjoy h i g h e r s u c c e s s r a t e s . b) L o c a l P e r c e p t i o n o f E l e c t o r a l Chances and Women Candidates: T h i s l a s t s e c t i o n looks at the s a c r i f i c i a l lamb theory from a p e r s p e c t i v e which i s d i f f e r e n t from the aggregate a n a l y s i s on th r e e c o u n t s . It i s based on survey data, u s i n g a s u b j e c t i v e measure and depends on a c o n s t i t u e n c y l e v e l a n a l y s i s . The survey asked how the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n assessed t h e i r chances of v i c t o r y 53 £9 when they nominated t h e i r c a n d i d a t e . Here I use t h i s q u e s t i o n to ask whether the survey data supports the aggregate data a n a l y s i s which i n d i c a t e d women are l e s s l i k e l y to be nominated i n s a f e s e a t s and are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y over r e p r e s e n t e d i n r i d i n g s where t h e i r chance o f v i c t o r y i s low. The survey r e v e a l s that women c o n t i n u e to be l e s s l i k e l y to be nominated to s a f e s e a t s . Only £0 percent of the survey respondents c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r r i d i n g to be a s a f e seat f o r t h e i r c a n d i d a t e . Of these, 90 perc e n t had male c a n d i d a t e s . As Table H.6 i l l u s t r a t e s , ten percent of women c a n d i d a t e s were run i n s a f e s e a t s w h i l e ££ percent of male c a n d i d a t e s had s a f e s e a t s . But on the other hand, women were o n l y s l i g h t l y more l i k e l y than men to be nominated i n r i d i n g s where t h e i r chance of success was c o n s i d e r e d u n l i k e l y or h o p e l e s s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e v i r t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r s among nonincumbents. Survey respondents were asked: "When the p a r t y was nominating the c a n d i d a t e how d i d the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n a s s e s s the chances o f v i c t o r y i n the c o n s t i t u e n c y ? Was the r i d i n g c o n s i d e r e d by your p a r t y to be: s a f e ; good chance; u n l i k e l y ; h o p e l e s s " . On t h i s g u e s t i o n , E r i c k s o n and C a r t y i n "Making Her Way In" note that " p a r t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were not u n r e a l i s t i c . For example, s e a t s c o n s i d e r e d to be 'safe' were won by that l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n 77 percent o f the cas e s . By comparison, of those a s s o c i a t i o n s that c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p a r t y to have 'a good chance' i n t h e i r r i d i n g , 31 percent won t h e i r s e a t , of those who thought t h e i r chances u n l i k e l y , o n l y 8 percent won and none of those a s s o c i a t i o n s that thought t h e i r chances h o p e l e s s a c t u a l l y won the s e a t . " pp. 18-19, f f 39. 54 Tabl e 4.6 Chances o f E l e c t o r a l Success i n C o n s t i t u e n c y by Candidate Gender (1988) ( V e r t i c a l Percentages) Chances of Success: Cand i da te Fema1e Gender Male Safe Seat Good Chance U n l i k e l y / H o p e l 10. 1 58. E 37.7 (N=69) EE.E 47.3 30.5 (N=375) Tabl e 4.7 r e v e a l s that when c o n s i d e r i n g the p a r t i e s i n d i v i d u a l l y , the L i b e r a l s are the l e a s t l i k e l y to nominate women i n u n l i k e l y s e a t s . In those s e a t s the L i b e r a l s c o n s i d e r e d u n l i k e l y or h o p e l e s s , 13 percent had female c a n d i d a t e s w h i l e t h i s f i g u r e was 14 percent f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e s and 35 percent f o r the New Democrats. However, i t i s the NDP which has a s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r tendency to nominate women i n s a f e s e a t s . E i g h t e e n p e r c e n t of NDP s a f e s e a t s had female c a n d i d a t e s compared to 17 perce n t o f L i b e r a l s a f e s e a t s w h i l e o n l y 7 percent of s e a t s c o n s i d e r e d s a f e by the T o r i e s had women c a n d i d a t e s . T a b l e 4.7 Percentage of P a r t y Candidates and Co m p e t i t i v e n e s s of Seat (1988) NDP L i b e r a l P.C. Female Male Female Male Female Male Safe Seat 18.3 81.8 16.7 83.3 6.7 93.3 Good Chance 31.7 68.3 19.3 80.7 10.9 89.1 U n l i k e l y / Hopeless 35.3 64.7 13.3 86.7 14.3 85.7 55 Both Ta b l e 4.6 showing a l l p a r t i e s , and Table 4.7 showing gender and c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s of seat f o r each p a r t y , i l l u s t r a t e t h a t women c a n d i d a t e s are p o o r l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n s a f e s e a t s . Some of t h i s d i s p a r i t y can be e x p l a i n e d by the advantage of incumbency. Incumbency o f f e r s a c a n d i d a t e an advantage both at the nomination stage and d u r i n g the e l e c t i o n . In a l l three p a r t i e s t h e r e i s a tendency not to c h a l l e n g e the s i t t i n g MP i f he or she i s se e k i n g r e n o m i n a t i o n . Furthermore, those r i d i n g s where the p a r t y ' s c a n d i d a t e i s the s i t t i n g MP are most l i k e l y to be c o n s i d e r e d s a f e s e a t s f o r th a t p a r t y . E i g h t y percent of the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the survey c o n s i d e r e d to have s a f e s e a t s had incumbents seeking r e s e l e c t i o n . A l l of those members won re n o m i n a t i o n . S i n c e very few women c a n d i d a t e s are incumbents, the number of s a f e s e a t s open to women i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced. In the survey, o n l y f i v e of the 54 incumbents were women. Even among incumbents there i s a small gender d i s p a r i t y i n terms of s a f e s e a t s . H a l f of the female incumbents had s a f e s e a t s but 60 percent of male incumbents had s e a t s c o n s i d e r e d s a f e . Even among the 6 perc e n t of c o n s t i t u e n c i e s which were s a f e s e a t s and which d i d not have incumbents se e k i n g r e s e l e c t i o n , women were p o o r l y r e p r e s e n t e d . Only 14 percent of those few c o n s t i t u e n c i e s nominated women (one C o n s e r v a t i v e and one NDP) wh i l e 86 perc e n t nominated male c a n d i d a t e s (two NDP and f i v e each f o r the L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s ) . 56 c) Summary: T h i s chapter has shown that p a r t i e s tend not to f i e l d women c a n d i d a t e s i n s a f e s e a t s . In a d d i t i o n , the p r o t e c t i o n from c o m p e t i t i o n o f f e r e d by incumbency f u r t h e r reduces the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women to g a i n nominations i n r i d i n g s c o n s i d e r e d s a f e f o r t h e i r p a r t y . Incumbency has the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t f o r male c a n d i d a t e s . S i n c e a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of male c a n d i d a t e s a re incumbents, that f a c t o r alone r e s u l t s i n a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of male c a n d i d a t e s being nominated i n s a f e s e a t s . Incumbency deserves f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and, i n the next c h a p t e r , i t s e f f e c t on the c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s of nominations i s c o n s i d e r e d . 57 Chapter 5. Incumbency, C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s and Female Ca n d i d a t e s : It s hould not be s u r p r i s i n g that male a s p i r a n t s f o r candidacy f a c e l e s s c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e i r nomination b i d s than do female a s p i r a n t s . More incumbents are men and incumbency g e n e r a l l y p r o t e c t s a c a n d i d a t e from c o m p e t i t i o n . E i g h t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t of incumbent c a n d i d a t e s i n the survey were acclaimed and 89 percent of incumbent c a n d i d a t e s i n the survey were male. Survey responses i n d i c a t e d i n Table 5.1 show that 31 percent of male c a n d i d a t e s f a c e d c o m p e t i t i o n whereas 47 percent of female c a n d i d a t e s had to d e f e a t other a s p i r a n t s . T a b l e 5.1 Candidate Gender and C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s of Nomination (1988) Female Male* 7. 7. A c c l a m a t i o n : 53 67 (47) (59) Compet i t ion f o r Nomination: 47 31 (53) (40) F i g u r e s i n b r a c k e t s are r i d i n g s where on l y nonincumbents were see k i n g nomination. *male numbers do not equal 100 percent because of a s s o c i a t i o n s where no nomination meeting was h e l d . One c o u l d a l s o expect that there would be a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of male c a n d i d a t e s b e n e f i t t i n g from the p a r t y p r a c t i c e of renominating the c a n d i d a t e who stood b e f o r e even i f that c a n d i d a t e had not won the p r e v i o u s e l e c t i o n f o r the r i d i n g . Among nonincumbent c a n d i d a t e s , men were l e s s l i k e l y than women to f a c e c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e i r nomination b i d s (Table 5.1). Of survey respondents, 40 p e r c e n t of nonincumbent male c a n d i d a t e s faced 58 c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e i r nomination compared to 53 percent of t h e i r female c o u n t e r p a r t s . Even though women f a c e d more c o m p e t i t i o n , there i s no s u g g e s t i o n t h a t they do not do w e l l i n c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n s . H a l f of the c o n t e s t e d nominations i n the survey had at l e a s t one woman i n the c o m p e t i t i o n . In 54 percent of these cases, a woman s u c c e s s f u l l y won the nomination. These f i g u r e s r e f u t e the s u g g e s t i o n that l o c a l p a r t y members are r e l u c t a n t to choose women s i n c e they d i d so i n more than h a l f of the cases where they were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y . The apparent w i l l i n g n e s s o f l o c a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s to vote f o r women c a n d i d a t e s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a r e f l e c t i o n of p u b l i c o p i n i o n . One reason l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s might have f o r r e j e c t i n g women c a n d i d a t e s on the b a s i s of t h e i r gender i s a p e r c e p t i o n that the p u b l i c i s not yet ready to support female p o l i t i c i a n s and would vote f o r a male c a n d i d a t e even i f they had to s w i t c h p a r t i e s to do so. While t h i s may s t i l l be a concern f o r some, t h e r e i s evidence to suggest a change i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n towards an acceptance of the concept of women i n the p u b l i c sphere. E r i c k s o n and C a r t y p o i n t out that e v i d e n c e from CIPO p o l l s i n the 1980's i n d i c a t e s that p u b l i c r e s i s t a n c e to women as 30 p o l i t i c i a n s i s very l i m i t e d and i s d e c l i n i n g . The e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s from Quebec i n 1984 appear to r e f u t e the idea that the e l e c t o r a t e i s not ready to support female E r i c k s o n and C a r t y , "Making Her Way In", p. 8-3 and f f . 14 . 59 c a n d i d a t e s . Most of the women e l e c t e d that year were Quebec c a n d i d a t e s . It was c l e a r l y a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , the L i b e r a l s , that was r e j e c t e d i n Quebec. The v o t e r s c a s t t h e i r b a l l o t s f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e whether that c a n d i d a t e was male or female. Had the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y r e c r u i t e d more female c a n d i d a t e s i n Quebec i n 1984 or i n 1988, t h e r e would l i k e l y have been q u i t e a few more women Members of Par l i a m e n t a f t e r those e l e c t i o n s . The p o l l s t e r s seem to agree that there has been a change i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n . M a r t i n G o l d f a r b , a Toronto p o l l i n g c o n s u l t a n t , o f f e r s h i s a n a l y s i s that "In today's world, whether i t s a woman's name on the b a l l o t i s i r r e l e v a n t . Indeed, i t may be an advantage 31 with f a m i l y i s s u e s and v a l u e s so much on the p u b l i c ' s mind." With p u b l i c o p i n i o n changing to a g r e a t e r acceptance o f women as p o l i t i c i a n s and l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s e v i d e n c i n g a w i l l i n g n e s s to nominate female c a n d i d a t e s , the b a r r i e r of incumbency c o n t i n u e s to block women. But t h i s does not e x p l a i n why women f a c e more c o m p e t i t i o n i n r i d i n g s where no incumbent i s seeki n g r e s e l e c t i o n . There a r e then, other f a c t o r s at work which have a r e l a t i o n s h i p to both female candidacy and g r e a t e r c o m p e t i t i o n . The next chapter suggests that search committees can c o n t r i b u t e to both an i n c r e a s e d number of c a n d i d a t e s s e e k i n g the nomination and a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f women c a n d i d a t e s being nominated. N a t i o n a l p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the nomination p r o c e s s 31 Val S e a r s , "Women s t i l l f a c e tough f i g h t as c a n d i d a t e s " , The Toronto S t a r . May 84, 1988, p. A16. 60 w i l l a l s o be shown to have the p o t e n t i a l to a f f e c t the number women c a n d i d a t e s who seek t h e i r p a r t y ' s nomination. 61 Chapter 6. Mechanisms of Candidate Recruitment: There a re few formal mechanisms of c a n d i d a t e r e c r u i t m e n t . The way a l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n chooses to f i n d c a n d i d a t e s v a r i e s from one r i d i n g to another s i n c e , at t h i s s t a g e , there are few r u l e s governing the p r o c e s s . The l o c a l r i d i n g e x e c u t i v e may approach well-known i n d i v i d u a l s i n the community who may or may not be p a r t y members or they may convince p a r t y a c t i v i s t s to stand f o r nomination. The n a t i o n a l p a r t y e x e c u t i v e can become i n v o l v e d i f they wish to e n t i c e prominent i n d i v i d u a l s by o f f e r i n g them s e a t s which the p a r t y i s c o n f i d e n t of winning. The l o c a l r i d i n g must then be con v i n c e d to nominate that i n d i v i d u a l as t h e i r c a n d i d a t e . A l l p a r t i e s engage i n a c t i v i t i e s p r i o r to formal c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n which may a f f e c t the numbers of a s p i r a n t s who put t h e i r names forward, and whether the p a r t y w i l l nominate a woman. T h i s chapter looks at o n l y two d i f f e r e n t r e c r u i t m e n t a c t i v i t i e s which, the survey data suggests, have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r female c a n d i d a c y . The e x i s t e n c e of o u t s i d e encouragement f o r a female c a n d i d a t e and the more formal search committee mechanism. The data i n d i c a t e s that both these a c t i v i t i e s can c o n t r i b u t e to a g r e a t e r number of women c a n d i d a t e s than would be the case i n the absence o f these mechanisms. Women c a n d i d a t e s c l e a r l y b e n e f i t from p a r t y s t r u c t u r e s which f o r m a l i z e the c a n d i d a t e r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s and which p r o v i d e a means by which the n a t i o n a l p a r t y can i n f l u e n c e the pr o c e s s on t h e i r b e h a l f . 62 a) O u t s i d e Encouragement f o r Woman Candidate: Encouragement d i r e c t e d at the l o c a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n from o u t s i d e the o r g a n i z a t i o n to encourage them to seek women c a n d i d a t e s i s an in f o r m a l means of a f f e c t i n g the nomination p r o c e s s . Such encouragement can come from l o c a l women's groups; or i t can come from p r o v i n c i a l or n a t i o n a l p a r t y o f f i c i a l s who may or may not have an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 32 c a n d i d a t e r e c r u i t m e n t . However, l o c a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s c a r e f u l l y guard t h e i r r o l e i n c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n . Involvement i n the p r o c e s s by groups or i n d i v i d u a l s from o u t s i d e the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n i s very l i m i t e d . A s s i s t a n c e from n a t i o n a l p a r t y o r g a n i z e r s i s r a r e l y sought and when imposed i s u s u a l l y r e s e n t e d . One would expect then that n a t i o n a l p a r t y encouragement f o r an i n c r e a s e d number of women c a n d i d a t e s would e i t h e r be r e j e c t e d o u t r i g h t or s a f e l y i g n o r e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the survey data r e v e a l s t h a t where o u t s i d e encouragement was r e p o r t e d , r i d i n g s were more l i k e l y to have female c a n d i d a t e s . But the ci r c u m s t a n c e s where o u t s i d e encouragement o c c u r s c l e a r l y demonstrates p a r t y d i f f e r e n c e s and i n d i c a t e s that the New Democrats are more w i l l i n g to accept n a t i o n a l p a r t y involvement and to nominate women c a n d i d a t e s when n a t i o n a l p a r t y encouragement f o r a female o c c u r s . The survey q u e s t i o n asked, i f the r e was o u t s i d e encouragement f o r the l o c a l p a r t y to choose a woman c a n d i d a t e , d i d i t come from: n a t i o n a l p a r t y ; p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y f i g u r e s ; l o c a l women's groups; o t h e r . L o c a l members were mentioned as a s p e c i f i c s o u r c e i n the "o t h e r " c a t e g o r y . 63 Given what we know of incumbency, we would expect that o u t s i d e encouragement would not l i k e l y occur i n i n s t a n c e s where an incumbent i s seeking r e n o m i n a t i o n . Among those r i d i n g s where an incumbent was seek i n g r e s e l e c t i o n , o n l y 7 percent of r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l l NDP, r e p o r t e d o u t s i d e encouragement f o r a female. N i n e t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d no such encouragement. In r i d i n g s where no incumbent i s seeking r e s e l e c t i o n , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f o u t s i d e encouragement being e f f e c t i v e i s i n c r e a s e d . T h e r e f o r e , we should expect to f i n d much g r e a t e r l e v e l s of o u t s i d e encouragement i n such r i d i n g s , but p a r t i c u l a r l y from the n a t i o n a l p a r t y g i v e n that a l l p a r t i e s have expressed a d e s i r e to i n c r e a s e the number of women c a n d i d a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r p a r t y . But the survey data a n a l y s i s c o n f i r m s our e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t h i s case o n l y i n s o f a r as the NDP i s concerned. The data suggests that even i n r i d i n g s where th e r e i s no incumbent s e e k i n g the nomination, the L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s are s t i l l f a r l e s s i n c l i n e d than the NDP to i n t e r v e n e i n l o c a l c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n on b e h a l f of women. In f a c t , more than 80 percent of the o c c u r r e n c e s of o u t s i d e encouragement f o r a female among r i d i n g s where an incumbent was not seek i n g r e s e l e c t i o n was i n the NDP. In c o n t r a s t , f i f t e e n percent of cases o c c u r r e d i n L i b e r a l r i d i n g s w h i l e o n l y 3 percent of r e p o r t e d cases o c c u r r e d i n Tory a s s o c i a t i o n s . We t u r n now to a d i s c u s s i o n of whether t h e r e i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between o u t s i d e encouragement and female c a n d i d a c y . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n e x c l u d e s those r i d i n g s where an incumbent sought the nomination. Looking f i r s t at a l l r i d i n g s , 64 T a b l e 6.1 shows that i n the 26 percent of c o n s t i t u e n c i e s which r e p o r t e d o u t s i d e encouragement f o r a female c a n d i d a t e , 45 percent nominated a woman compared to a female nomination r a t e of j u s t 16 perce n t when t h e r e was no encouragement. Viewed another way, the average percentage of women c a n d i d a t e s i n the sample was 20 pe r c e n t , so where o u t s i d e encouragement o c c u r r e d , the percentage of women nominated was 25 percentage p o i n t s g r e a t e r than the average. As Tabl e 6.1 a l s o shows, t h i s r e s u l t i s r e f l e c t e d to a much g r e a t e r extent i n the NDP than the L i b e r a l or C o n s e r v a t i v e par t i es. T a b l e 6.1 Candidate Gender and Ou t s i d e Encouragement f o r Female (Nonincumbents Only) <1988) Outs ide Encouragement: Al 1 NDP L i b e r a l P.C. R i d i n g s M/F A l l M/F A l l M/F A l l M/F A l l Yes: N No : N 50/50 26/26 79/21 44/12 48 52 52 56 80/20 B/2 84/16 75/14 10 10 90 89 50/50 1/1 90/10 35/4 5 2 95 39 55/45 35/29 84/16 154/30 26 64 74 184 N = number of can d i d a t e s , O u t s i d e encouragement o c c u r r e d i n almost h a l f (48%) of the NDP r i d i n g s i n the survey and 50 percent of those r i d i n g s nominated a woman c a n d i d a t e . Where there was no such encouragement, the NDP nominated male c a n d i d a t e s i n 79 percent of the r i d i n g s . These f i g u r e s suggest that i n the NDP at l e a s t , 65 o u t s i d e encouragement may be more a c c e p t a b l e and may i n f a c t work to i n c r e a s e the number of female c a n d i d a t e s . T h i s f i n d i n g a l s o h e l p s e x p l a i n the high e r p r o p o r t i o n of women NDP c a n d i d a t e s compared to the other two p a r t i e s . In n e i t h e r the L i b e r a l nor C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s can i t be s a i d t h at o u t s i d e encouragement had much of an e f f e c t on the number of women c a n d i d a t e s because there were so few cases where o u t s i d e encouragement was r e p o r t e d . In both p a r t i e s , however, where th e r e i s no encouragement the percentage of male c a n d i d a t e s nominated i s g r e a t e r and the percentage of female c a n d i d a t e s i s reduced. There i s , then, very l i t t l e to be s a i d about these two p a r t i e s except that perhaps they c o u l d draw l e s s o n s from the NDP where o u t s i d e encouragement appears e f f e c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e i t most o f t e n came from the n a t i o n a l p a r t y . Of the 52 NDP a s s o c i a t i o n s where an incumbent NDP M.P. was not s e e k i n g r e n o m i n a t i o n and where there was o u t s i d e encouragement f o r a female, i n almost h a l f the cases (25 of 52) i t came from the n a t i o n a l p a r t y . It might be s a i d that the n a t i o n a l p a r t y had a 64 perc e n t success r a t e i n s e c u r i n g the nomination o f a woman: i n those 25 r i d i n g s , 16 women were s u c c e s s f u l l y nominated. None of the other sources of o u t s i d e encouragement, whether i t was from the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y , l o c a l women's groups, l o c a l members or an u n s p e c i f i e d source, were as e f f e c t i v e as the n a t i o n a l p a r t y . L i b e r a l n a t i o n a l p a r t y o f f i c i a l s were f a r l e s s s u c c e s s f u l than t h e i r NDP c o u n t e r p a r t s i n i n f l u e n c i n g l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s to nominate women. Outsi d e encouragement was r e p o r t e d i n only 10 66 percent of cases and again most o f t e n i t was the n a t i o n a l p a r t y which i n t e r v e n e d . But i n over 80 percent of these cases, where n a t i o n a l p a r t y encouragement f o r a woman c a n d i d a t e was r e p o r t e d , the c a n d i d a t e was male. In o n l y one case where there was n a t i o n a l p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n d i d a woman win the nomination. Among L i b e r a l survey respondents, there were no cases where the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y expressed encouragement f o r a woman c a n d i d a t e and i n o n l y one case was the r e encouragement from a l o c a l women's group. In t h i s case the c a n d i d a t e was male. There was almost no o u t s i d e encouragement f o r a female among C o n s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s . Only 2 C o n s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the survey r e p o r t e d o u t s i d e encouragement but i n n e i t h e r case d i d i t come from p a r t y o f f i c i a l s . In one case i t came from l o c a l women's groups. In t h i s case, the nominated c a n d i d a t e was male. In the oth e r case, the source was u n s p e c i f i e d and the a s s o c i a t i o n u l t i m a t e l y nominated a woman. I f there i s a commitment on the pa r t of the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p to i n c r e a s e the number of women c a n d i d a t e s , these survey r e s u l t s do not r e v e a l that the commitment i s e x e r c i s e d through encouragement of l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s d u r i n g r e c r u i t m e n t of c a n d i d a t e s . S i n c e n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l p a r t y encouragement f o r a woman c a n d i d a t e appears not to have been s e r i o u s l y attempted by e i t h e r of the two major p a r t i e s , i t i s not p o s s i b l e to conclude that more of such i n t e r v e n t i o n would succeed. I r o n i c a l l y , w i t h i n the L i b e r a l P a r t y at l e a s t , s i n c e more women secured the nomination when the n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l p a r t y kept c l e a r of the p r o c e s s , i t might be more b e n e f i c i a l to the cause of i n c r e a s i n g the number of 67 women c a n d i d a t e s to p r e s c r i b e s i l e n c e on the p a r t of female suppor t e r s . As t h i s s e c t i o n has suggested, i t was not p o s s i b l e to c o n c l u s i v e l y a s s e r t that o u t s i d e encouragement, from n a t i o n a l p a r t y o f f i c i a l s , or elsewhere, was a u s e f u l t o o l i n i n c r e a s i n g the c andidacy of women. But there i s a s u g g e s t i o n , as evidenced i n the NDP, th a t i t might prove e f f e c t i v e . Among the i n f o r m a l mechanisms a v a i l a b l e to the p a r t i e s to i n c r e a s e the number of female c a n d i d a t e s , i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the form of encouragement of l o c a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s might be e f f e c t i v e but the two major p a r t i e s a re l e s s w i l l i n g than the NDP to engage i n such i n t e r v e n t i o n . The p a r t y e f f e c t r e v e a l e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s not l i m i t e d to the i n f o r m a l mechanism of n a t i o n a l p a r t y encouragement. The next s e c t i o n a l s o r e v e a l s that the NDP demonstrates a g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s both to use the more formal search committee mechanism and to nominate women c a n d i d a t e s when the mechanism i s used. Candidate search committees are not n e c e s s a r i l y aimed at i n c r e a s i n g the number of women c a n d i d a t e s , but t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e appears to b e n e f i t women who are l e s s l i k e l y to become c a n d i d a t e s when such s t r u c t u r e s are absent. 68 b) Search Committees: The use of search committees i s one of the few formal mechanisms f o r c a n d i d a t e r e c r u i t m e n t used by the p a r t i e s . At f i r s t g l a n c e , i t appears that where there was a search committee, the c o n s t i t u e n c y was more l i k e l y to nominate a woman than when the r e was not such a committee. However, c l o s e r examination r e v e a l s that t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p a r t i a l l y a f u n c t i o n of the NDP's p r o p e n s i t y to use se a r c h committees and t h e i r much l a r g e r number of women c a n d i d a t e s . It i s not as c l e a r that w i t h i n the L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s search committees made much d i f f e r e n c e to the number of women c a n d i d a t e s . T a b l e 6.2 shows the ext e n t to which s e a r c h committees were used. Almost h a l f the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s surveyed made use of a sea r c h committee. In more than t w o - t h i r d s of the NDP c o n s t i t u e n c i e s surveyed, search committees e x i s t e d while L i b e r a l survey respondents r e v e a l e d that a search committee was used i n on l y h a l f t h e i r r i d i n g s . Search committees were even more r a r e among C o n s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s of which o n l y one q u a r t e r r e p o r t e d t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . T a b l e 6.2 Search Committees by P a r t y (1988) Percent Search Committee: Par t y : Nonincumbent Incumbent A l l R i d i n g s New Democrats L i bera 1s C o n s e r v a t i v e s 70 54 51 50 9 10 67 50 26 69 As might be expected, incumbency has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the use of search committees, as Table 6.E i n d i c a t e s . For example, C o n s e r v a t i v e r i d i n g s r e p o r t e d use of committees i n o n l y one-quarter of a l l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s but i n h a l f of the r i d i n g s where no incumbent sought the nomination. A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i s seen i n the other two p a r t i e s as w e l l where use of search committees i s g r e a t e r than the average i n nonincumbent s i t u a t i o n s . Because the New Democrats have fewer incumbent Members of Pa r l i a m e n t to seek renomination, t h e i r use of search committees i s , not s u r p r i s i n g l y , much g r e a t e r than that of the other p a r t i e s . However, even i n incumbency s i t u a t i o n s , s e arch committees e x i s t e d i n h a l f the NDP cases compared to onl y 9 perce n t o f L i b e r a l r i d i n g s having an incumbent seeking r e n o m i n a t i o n and 10 percent f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e s . If search committees can be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r i n c r e a s i n g the number of women c a n d i d a t e s , incumbency i s again shown to be a s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s , because i t a f f e c t s the use of a mechanism which can open the door to women. Given the e f f e c t of incumbency, the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n looks o n l y at those a s s o c i a t i o n s with no incumbent seeking the nomination. The f i g u r e s suggest that the use of search committees g e n e r a l l y makes a d i f f e r e n c e i n the number of women who seek c a n d i d a c i e s (Table 6.3) and i n the number of women who are u l t i m a t e l y nominated (Table 6.4). Table 6.3 shows that 43 perce n t o f r i d i n g s which had search committees a l s o had at l e a s t one woman seek i n g the nomination. However, where no search 70 committee was used, o n l y 29 percent of r i d i n g s a t t r a c t e d at l e a s t one woman a s p i r a n t . The percentage of NDP cases where a search committee was used and at l e a s t one woman sought the nomination was n o t a b l y g r e a t e r than i n the other two p a r t i e s . S u r p r i s i n g l y , s e a r c h committees appear to have the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t i n the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y both i n terms of number of women a s p i r a n t s , and women c a n d i d a t e s . Table 6.3* Search Committees and Female A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s (Nonincumbents Only) (198S) Search Committee Used P a r t y */. Yes '/. No New Democrats: Women A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s L i bera 1s: Women A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s C o n s e r v a t i v e s : Women A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s A l l Three P a r t i e s : Women A s p i r a n t s / C a n d i d a t e s 52/42 36/19 26/10 43/29 31/18 27/15 30/19 29/17 • f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e percentage o f a s s o c i a t i o n s i n which at l e a s t one woman ran f o r the nomination. Looking now at Table 6.4, at the a s s o c i a t i o n s where no incumbent was seek i n g the nomination, the data shows that the NDP i s much more l i k e l y to nominate women c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s where a s e a r c h committee e x i s t e d . E i g h t y - f o u r p e r c e n t of nonincumbent women c a n d i d a t e s were nominated i n r i d i n g s where a search committee e x i s t e d , compared to t w o - t h i r d s o f the male c a n d i d a t e s who were nominated i n such r i d i n g s . 71 Table 6.H Search Committees and Nonincumbent Candidates by P a r t y (1988) L o c a l A s s o c i a t i o n had Search Committee: Female Male NDP LIB PC NDP LIB PC Yes ('/.) 8 H / H 8 * 59/19 33/10 63/58 58/88 53/91 No C/.) 16/18 H l / 1 5 67/19 38/88 H8/85 H 7 / B 2 * C e l l e n t r i e s are percentage of nonincumbent c a n d i d a t e s who ran i n r i d i n g s u s i n g search committees/percentage o f r i d i n g s that nominated a male or female c a n d i d a t e . T a b l e 6.H shows that among nonincumbent c a n d i d a t e s , there i a high c o r r e l a t i o n between the use of search committees and the number of NDP women c a n d i d a t e s . In the absence o f a search committee, 88 percent of NDP a s s o c i a t i o n s nominated male c a n d i d a t e s . However, when a search committee was used, H8 percent o f the NDP r i d i n g s nominated a woman. T h i s compares wit a g e n e r a l male/female p r o p o r t i o n among nonincumbent NDP c a n d i d a t e s o f 65 percent to 35 percent so se a r c h committees may indeed have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the percentage of women c a n d i d a t e s . Search committees seem to have had the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t i n the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . More women c a n d i d a t e s ran i n r i d i n g s where t h e r e was no search committee and the percentage of r i d i n g nominating women was g r e a t e r among those not having a search committee. In r i d i n g s where a search committee was used and an incumbent was not seeking r e n o m i n a t i o n , 91 percent of the c a n d i d a t e s were men. T h i s compares with a ge n e r a l r a t i o among 7H C o n s e r v a t i v e s o f 86 percent nonincumbent male c a n d i d a t e s to 14 perce n t nonincumbent female c a n d i d a t e s . Thus i t appears that the use o f se a r c h committees i n C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s may, i n f a c t , have a n e g a t i v e impact on the number of women c a n d i d a t e s . The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s s u r p r i s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between se a r c h committees and female candidacy i s not at a l l c l e a r . It may be that C o n s e r v a t i v e r i d i n g s are i d e o l o g i c a l l y i n c l i n e d to r e j e c t the n o t i o n of women as v i a b l e p o l i t i c a l c a n d i d a t e s and that s e a r c h committees p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of o p p o s i t i o n to women c a n d i d a t e s . On the other hand, search committees may simply reduce c o m p e t i t i o n and thus have an e f f e c t on the candidacy o f women s i m i l a r to the incumbency e f f e c t . Whatever the case, the q u e s t i o n deserves f u r t h e r study but cannot be d e a l t with f u r t h e r here. The survey data c e r t a i n l y c o n t r i b u t e s to the ge n e r a l p e r c e p t i o n that the d i f f i c u l t i e s women f a c e i n see k i n g candidacy f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y are c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than f o r the L i b e r a l s and NDP. It i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t to make c o n c l u s i v e statements about the e f f e c t of se a r c h committees i n L i b e r a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s . There appears to be an e f f e c t but i t i s l i m i t e d . Table 6.3 shows that when a se a r c h committee was used i n L i b e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a woman was nominated i n 19 percent of cases compared to 15 percent when a committee was not used. For the L i b e r a l s , the e x i s t e n c e of a search committee o n l y s l i g h t l y a f f e c t e d the p r o p o r t i o n of women c a n d i d a t e s over what was the case when there was not a se a r c h committee. T h i s modest p o s i t i v e e f f e c t however may 73 i n d i c a t e the l i k e l i h o o d that there would have been even fewer women L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s had search committees not been used as f r e q u e n t l y . c) E l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s of women and search committees: Among nonincumbents who ran i n r i d i n g s where search committees were used, 17 perc e n t of c a n d i d a t e s who subsequently won i n the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n were women. T h i s compares with an e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s r a t e of 8 perc e n t f o r women who were c a n d i d a t e s i n l o c a l s not having s e a r c h committees. S i n c e search committees are l e s s l i k e l y to be used i n r i d i n g s where e l e c t o r a l chances are b e t t e r and a c a n d i d a t e more r e a d i l y v o l u n t e e r s , t h i s e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s r a t e of women c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s which used search 33 committees i s worth n o t i n g . One would expect that s i n c e search committees are used more i n r i d i n g s where e l e c t o r a l chances are r e l a t i v e l y poor, c a n d i d a t e s who may have been r e c r u i t e d by search committee would have a c o n s i d e r a b l y lower s u c c e s s r a t e than those c a n d i d a t e s who would not have been r e c r u i t e d by committee. In p a r t i c u l a r , one would expect t h i s to be the case f o r women s i n c e , as has been shown, women are l e s s l i k e l y to be c a n d i d a t e s i n s a f e s e a t s . Not o n l y do search committees a p p a r e n t l y i n c r e a s e the number of women c a n d i d a t e s , they may r e c r u i t a higher c a l i b r e c a n d i d a t e than might o t h e r w i s e be the case. T h i s a p p a r e n t l y a p p l i e s , however, on l y i n the case of women c a n d i d a t e s . The survey data r e v e a l s that a search committee was used i n almost 70*/. o f r i d i n g s where i t was expected e l e c t o r a l chances were u n l i k e l y or hope l e s s but i n only 12*/. o f r i d i n g s where the seat was thought to be s a f e . 7H Male nonincumbent c a n d i d a t e s who ran i n r i d i n g s where search committees were not used i n the r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s had a g r e a t e r s u c c e s s r a t e than men who became c a n d i d a t e s when a search committee was used. One q u a r t e r of nonincumbent male c a n d i d a t e s running i n r i d i n g s where a search committee was not used won t h e i r e l e c t i o n b i d . T h i s compares to an e l e c t o r a l s uccess r a t e of 18 pe r c e n t f o r nonincumbent male c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s where a sea r c h committee was i n v o l v e d i n c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n . It i s hazardous to draw any s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n s from these r e s u l t s s i n c e the numbers are q u i t e s m a l l , but i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s can be posed. When a woman i s r e c r u i t e d by committee, perhaps she i s more c a r e f u l l y chosen i n terms o f her e l e c t o r a l chances than a r e men who are r e c r u i t e d by committee. It may be that l o s t cause r i d i n g s r e c r u i t p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more men when they use search committees. Perhaps these f i n d i n g s are simply r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the f a c t that there are so few women c a n d i d a t e s or that r e l a t i v e l y few nonincumbent survey respondents of e i t h e r gender won t h e i r s e a t i n the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n . At any r a t e , i t may be p o s s i b l e to conclude that not o n l y does the mechanism of search committees help to i n c r e a s e the number of women c a n d i d a t e s , there i s a l s o a c o r r e l a t i o n between the e x i s t e n c e of search committees and the e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s o f female c a n d i d a t e s . H8 nonincumbent winners were survey respondents. When incumbents are i n c l u d e d , 117 survey respondents were winners. 75 d) O u t s i d e Encouragement and Search Committees: A f i n a l p o i n t to c o n s i d e r i s whether t h e r e i s a c o n n e c t i o n between the use of search committees and the e x i s t e n c e of o u t s i d e involvement. The survey data makes i t p o s s i b l e to suggest that the e x i s t e n c e of search committees may f a c i l i t a t e the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s ' d e s i r e to i n c r e a s e the number of women c a n d i d a t e s . As Table 6.5 shows, o u t s i d e encouragement f o r a female c a n d i d a t e was r e p o r t e d more o f t e n i n r i d i n g s where th e r e was a search committee. Table 6.5 Search Committees and Out s i d e Encouragement f o r Female (1988) R i d i n g s R e p o r t i n g O u t s i d e Encouragement */. Search Committees: f o r Female Candidate: Yes No NDP 81 19 L i b e r a l 50 50 P.C. 100* — * A l l R i d i n g s 77 23 •There were on l y two P.C. r i d i n g s r e p o r t i n g o u t s i d e encouragement which a l s o had search committees but there were no r i d i n g s which r e p o r t e d o u t s i d e encouragement i n the absence of a search committee. Among a l l the r i d i n g s which r e p o r t e d o u t s i d e encouragement, 77 pe r c e n t a l s o had search committees. O u t s i d e encouragement was r e p o r t e d i n l e s s than one-quarter of the cases where there was no search committee i n p l a c e . Again, however, t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s much more e v i d e n t i n NDP a s s o c i a t i o n s even though i t does e x i s t to a l i m i t e d extent i n the L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s . When a s e a r c h committee i s i n p l a c e , a c t o r s o u t s i d e the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n have a formal group with which to communicate. 76 It s hould be expected that i n t e r v e n t i o n s on b e h a l f of a p a r t i c u l a r c a n d i d a t e or type o f c a n d i d a t e would be e a s i e r when the r e i s a committee i n p l a c e whose onl y f u n c t i o n i s the r e c r u i t m e n t of c a n d i d a t e s . But ease of access does not guarantee s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t s . One would expect that t h e r e would a l s o have to be a degree of openness i n the a s s o c i a t i o n s , both to o u t s i d e involvement as w e l l as female c a n d i d a t e s . Whether the o b j e c t i v e of i n t e r v e n t i o n , i n t h i s case the encouragement of female c a n d i d a t e s , i s met may have more to do with p a r t y ideology or w i l l i n g n e s s to nominate women c a n d i d a t e s , than i t does with the e x i s t e n c e o f s t r u c t u r e s . e) Summary: T h i s s e c t i o n on mechanisms of c a n d i d a t e r e c r u i t m e n t has looked at o n l y two types of a c t i v i t i e s , one in f o r m a l and one more s t r u c t u r e d . The purpose has been to determine whether women c a n d i d a t e s b e n e f i t from the e x i s t e n c e of these mechanisms. The data has demonstrated that women who seek NDP nominations may b e n e f i t from the s t r u c t u r e d environment a f f o r d e d by the p a r t y ' s more e x t e n s i v e use of search committees. But apart from the b e n e f i t the nature of the o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e s , the d i s c u s s i o n of o u t s i d e encouragement and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o u t s i d e encouragement and search committees suggests that i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s a re a l s o important. I d e o l o g i c a l l y , the NDP may be more capa b l e of a c c e p t i n g use of i t s s t r u c t u r e s to i n c r e a s e the numbers of women seeking nominations as well as more w i l l i n g to nominate women c a n d i d a t e s than are e i t h e r of the other two p a r t i e s . Furthermore, the NDP's n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e appears more 77 committed to t a k i n g s t e p s to i n f l u e n c e the p r o c e s s i n order to i n c r e a s e the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women i n t h e i r p a r t y . If the L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s strengthened t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s to make use o f search committees and the o u t l e t f o r n a t i o n a l p a r t y i n f l u e n c e that search committees can p r o v i d e , female r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e i r p a r t i e s might i n c r e a s e . 78 Chapter 7. C o n c l u s i o n : The opening chapter o f t h i s t h e s i s demonstrated that a problem of p o l i t i c a l u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women e x i s t s , that p r e s s u r e f o r a s o l u t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g and that p a r t y responses w i l l be d i f f i c u l t . It was a l s o shown that d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female c a n d i d a t e s , i n terms of age when nominated, length of p a r t y s e r v i c e , p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , c o n s t i t u e n c y r e s i d e n c y and o c c u p a t i o n do e x i s t but the degree of v a r i a t i o n i s not profound. These f a c t o r s alone cannot account f o r the p a u c i t y of women c a n d i d a t e s or e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r candidacy or e l e c t e d o f f i c e are by no means w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d . Much of the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r lack of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can no doubt be found i n the p r a c t i c e of a l l three p a r t i e s to nominate d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e numbers of women c a n d i d a t e s i n r i d i n g s where they have a l i m i t e d chance o f su c c e s s . L i t t l e s u b s t a n t i v e change i s l i k e l y to occur i f t h i s p r a c t i c e c o n t i n u e s . Compounded as the problem i s by lack o f c o m p e t i t i o n f o r nominations, and p a r t y p r a c t i c e s r e l a t e d to incumbency, the number of women who are nominated i n s i t u a t i o n s where they w i l l be w e l l - p l a c e d to win i s not l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e q u i c k l y . Furthermore, women f a c e more c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e i r b i d s f o r nomination and b e n e f i t much l e s s from the p r o t e c t i o n o f f e r e d by the p a r t y p r a c t i c e not to c h a l l e n g e incumbents. None of these f a c t o r s i s l i k e l y to change q u i c k l y to f a c i l i t a t e an i n c r e a s e i n the number of women e n t e r i n g n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . Only slow change o f these norms and p r a c t i c e s of 79 p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i s l i k e l y as women c o n t i n u e to chi p away at d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . As more women choose employment i n f i e l d s from which p o l i t i c i a n s tend to s p r o u t , they may look l i k e more c r e d i b l e p o l i t i c i a n s to the s k e p t i c s at the a s s o c i a t i o n l e v e l . Or, more l i k e l y , the d e f i n i t i o n of a p o l i t i c i a n w i l l change to i n c l u d e those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with female p o l i t i c i a n s . Over time as more women get e l e c t e d , they w i l l b e n e f i t more from incumbency and the unc o m p e t i t i v e nature of c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n . But there are other changes p o s s i b l e which c o u l d have a more immediate e f f e c t on the numbers of women c a n d i d a t e s , and u l t i m a t e l y the number of women who g a i n s e a t s i n P a r l i a m e n t . T h i s t h e s i s has argued that p a r t y s t r u c t u r e s and p r a c t i c e s r e l a t e d to the c a n d i d a t e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s can be e f f e c t i v e l y d i r e c t e d at the goal of i n c r e a s i n g the number of women who seek p o l i t i c a l c a n d i d a c i e s , the number of women nominated, and the number who u l t i m a t e l y take s e a t s i n Canada's P a r l i a m e n t . However, the thr e e major p a r t i e s are not always open to us i n g s t r u c t u r e s , or s t r e n g t h e n i n g mechanisms, to advance these g o a l s . I f p a r t y a c t i v i s t s are u n w i l l i n g to adopt the measures which f a c i l i t a t e an i n c r e a s e i n the numbers of women c a n d i d a t e s , l i t t l e change i s l i k e l y to occur i n the sh o r t term. The NDP may possess t h i s openness to a g r e a t e r extent because t h e i r past two p a r t y p r e s i d e n t s have been women, Marian Dewar and Johanna den Hertog, both of whom have advocated and worked towards g r e a t e r female p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The NDP's w i l l i n g n e s s to use search committees, and, perhaps more i m p o r t a n t l y , to be persuaded by 80 o u t s i d e encouragement on b e h a l f of women, may account f o r t h e i r g r e a t e r number of women c a n d i d a t e s . The o p p o s i t e might be s a i d about the L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , b r e a c h i n g the b a r r i c a d e s of p a r t y t r a d i t i o n c o u l d remain the g r e a t e s t h u r d l e to female r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the House of Commons. The s t r u c t u r e s which have grown up around and become entrenched by those t r a d i t i o n s have c r e a t e d i n t r a c t a b i l i t y . T h i s t h e s i s has not been a b l e to show why t h i s h u r d l e c o n t i n u e s to e x i s t w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . It has only shown that p a r t y t r a d i t i o n s , p r a c t i c e s and b i a s e s r e l a t e d to c a n d i d a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l i m i t e d c o m p e t i t i o n f o r nominations, incumbency, l o c a l p a r t y autonomy, and use of mechanisms to a r t i c u l a t e n a t i o n a l p a r t y g o a l s , do evidence a measure of i n t r a c t a b i l i t y . Mechanisms which might lower those e x c l u s i o n a r y w a l l s , such as n a t i o n a l p a r t y encouragement f o r r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s to nominate women c a n d i d a t e s , and the use of search committees, have not been e x e r c i s e d to any great e x t e n t . But where they have, they have been shown to be more e f f e c t i v e than when they are absent. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d l o c a t e the p o i n t of i n t r a c t a b i l i t y , whether i t be w i t h i n r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s or w i t h i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y ; perhaps they are one and the same. It does appear c l e a r that o n l y the assumption o f d e c i s i o n making p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s where r e c r u i t m e n t takes p l a c e , or w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l p a r t y o f f i c e s where i n f l u e n c e can be e x e r c i s e d , w i l l have any profound e f f e c t on a l t e r i n g the p r a c t i c e s , p r e f e r e n c e s 8 1 and s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h , so f a r , have s e r v e d to p r e c l u d e f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women. 82 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, D o r i s . In I f I Were Prime M i n i s t e r . Ed. Mel H u r t i g . Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s , 1987, pp. 7-11. Bashevkin, S y l v i a . Toeing the L i n e s : Women and Par t y P o l i t i c s i n  E n g l i s h Canada. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1985. Bledsoe, Timothy and Mary H e r r i n g . " V i c t i m s of Circumstances: Women i n P u r s u i t of P o l i t i c a l O f f i c e " . In American P o l i t i c a l  S c i e n c e Review, V o l . 84, No. 1 (March 1990), pp. 213-223. Bolan, Kim. "21 Women Contest Seats i n B.C.". Vancouver Sun, November 1, 1988, p. A9. Br o d i e , M. J a n i n e . Women and P o l i t i c s i n Canada. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson L i m i t e d , 1985). B r o d i e , M. J a n i n e . "The Gender F a c t o r and N a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p Conventions i n Canada". In P a r t y Democracy i n Canada: The  P o l i t i c s of N a t i o n a l P a r t y Convention. Ed. George P e r l i n . Scarborough: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1988, pp. 172 - 187. Br o d i e , M. J a n i n e and J i l l M c C a l l a V i c k e r s . "The More Things Change ... Women i n the 1979 F e d e r a l Campaign", i n Canada at  the P o l l s , 1979 and 1980: A Study of the General E l e c t i o n s . Ed. Howard R. Penniman. Washington, D.C.: American E n t e r p r i s e I n s t i t u t e f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y Research, 1981, p p . 323 - 336. Br o d i e , M. J a n i n e and J i l l M c C a l l a V i c k e r s . "Canadian Women i n P o l i t i c s : An Overview". Ottawa: Canadian Research I n s t i t u t e f o r the Advancement o f Women, 1982. Canadian A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the S t a t u s of Women. "Women i n P o l i t i c s : Becoming F u l l P a r t n e r s i n the P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s " . Ottawa: CACSW, November 1987, Revised May 1988. Co r n a c c h i a , C h e r y l . "'The Country i s Yours, L a d i e s ' : Women Want More Seats i n Government - and They're W i l l i n g to get T h e i r Hands D i r t y to Win Them". The Gazette, March 18, 1988, p. C7. Dunphy, C a t h e r i n e . "On the March f o r P o l i t i c a l E q u a l i t y " . Toron to S t a r . February 2, 1988, p. CI, C4. E r i c k s o n , Lynda and R.K. C a r t y . "Candidate S e l e c t i o n i n Canadian P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s " , n.p., n.d. E r i c k s o n , Lynda and R.K. C a r t y . "Making Her Way In: Women, the House of Commons and P a r t y C a n d i d a c i e s in Canada", n.p., n.d. 83 F e i g e r t , Frank. Canada Votes: 1935 - 1988. London: Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1989. F r i z z e l l , A l a n , Jon H. Pammett and Anthony W e s t e l l . The  Canadian General E l e c t i o n of 1988. Ottawa: C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1989. Gold, S y l v i a . "There are S t i l l Not Enough Women MPs i n Ottawa". C a l g a r y H e r a l d , November 30, 1988, p. A5. Maser, P e t e r . " L i b e r a l s are Big-Name Hunters". Vancouver Sun. February 6, 1987. M c G i l l i v r a y , Don. " T o r i e s Seek Way to C l o s e 'Gender Gap'". Montreal Gazette, J u l y 15, 1988, p. B3. Rauhala, Ann. "Women Face B a r r i e r s to P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n " . Globe and M a i l . November 10, 1988, p. A18. Sears, V a l . "Women S t i l l Face Tough F i g h t as Cand i d a t e s " . The  Toronto S t a r , May 8H , 1988, p. A16. V i c k e r s , J i l l M c C a l l a . "Where are the Women i n Canadian P o l i t i c s ? " . In A t l a n t i s , V o l . 3, No. 8 ( S p r i n g , 1978), pp. H O - 5 1 ) . W i l l i a m s , Robert J . "Candidate S e l e c t i o n " . In Canada at the P o l l s , 1979 and 1980: A Study of the General E l e c t i o n s . Ed. Howard R. Penniman. Washington: American E n t e r p r i s e I n s t i t u t e f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y Research, 1981, pp. 86-180. 

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