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Contested knowing : narratological readings of Daphne Marlatt's How hug a stone and Nicole Brossard's… Knutson, Susan Lynne 1989

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CONTESTED KNOWING: NARRATOLOGICAL READINGS OF DAPHNE MARLATT'S HOW HUG A STONE AND NICOLE BROSSARD'S PICTURE THEORY By SUSAN LYNNE KNUTSON B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1975 M.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The Department of E n g l i s h ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1989 <Q) Susan Lynne Knutson, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6f 3/811 A b s t r a c t T h i s study begins with a q u e s t i o n : what are the formal a t t r i b u t e s of n a r r a t i v e i n the feminine? S t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of n a r r a t i v e p o s i t s a u n i v e r s a l n a r r a t i v e grammar based on the quest: a s u b j e c t seeks an o b j e c t . At i t s most a b s t r a c t , a s u b j e c t c r o s s e s a boundary. Within t h i s t e l e o l o g i c a l framework, the s u b j e c t ' s prog-r e s s i s complicated by h e l p e r s and opponents. Teresa de L a u r e t i s argues t h a t t h i s n a r r a t i v e grammar i m p l i -c a t e s b i n a r y , p a t r i a r c h a l gender. How i s such a gram-mar transformed by f e m i n i s t w r i t i n g ? N a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of Daphne M a r l a t t ' s How Hug a Stone and N i c o l e Brossard's P i c t u r e Theory permits s y s t e m a t i c d e s c r i p -t i o n a t the three i n t e r p r e t i v e l e v e l s of f a b u l a , s t o r y and t e x t , and thus enables comparison with h y p o t h e t i c a l u n i v e r s a l n a r r a t i v e grammar. N a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s i l l u m i n a t e s the ways t h a t both M a r l a t t and Brossard transform the quest i n t o more open-ended, gender-n e u t r a l and f e m a l e - p o s i t i v e forms. In How Hug a Stone r the n a r r a t o r ' s quest f o r her mother becomes a journey i n t o the mothertongue and the realm of the arche-mother. The quest s t r u c t u r e i s d i s p l a c e d from the s t r u c t u r i n g l e v e l of f a b u l a to the l e v e l of s t o r y , where i t i s a f u n c t i o n of the powerful f o c a l i z a t i o n by a paradigmatic female s u b j e c t - i n - f o r m a t i o n . In P i c t u r e i i i Theory f N i c o l e Brossard develops a d i a l o g i c n a r r a t i v e grammar i n v o l v i n g a m u l t i p l e l e s b i a n actant who sepa-r a t e s , reassembles and generates energy. This energy guides the actant i n a s p i r a l l i n g movement out of the c i r c l e of "f6minit6," towards the Utopia s i g n i f i e d by a hologram of " l a femme i n t e g r a l e . " Both authors gener-ate a fabula s t r u c t u r e which thwarts the g e n e r i c a l l y masculine and s i n g l e questing hero. At the s t o r y l e v e l , M a r l a t t pushes f o c a l i z a t i o n to the l i m i t s of language, and i n so doing, provides formal c r i t e r i a f or " w r i t i n g the body." Brossard refuses s i n g l e focus, engaging m u l t i p l e perspectives which "metamorphose men-t a l space" and "open the mind." At the t e x t u a l l e v e l , both authors construct meaning i n t e r t e x t u a l l y , thus acknowledging the c o l l e c t i v i t y of meaning. Both face the consequences of w r i t i n g as a woman, and i n so doing, c o n t r i b u t e to a new epistemology which v a l i d a t e s the experience of women. I V Table of Contents Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v Acknowledgement v i Part I: N a r r a t i v e , Gender and the Grammar of Knowledge 1 Notes ~ 35 P a r t I I : A N a r r a t o l o g i c a l Reading of How Hug a Stone A. Fabula Event 4 0 Ac t o r s 49 Beyond the T e l e o l o g y of the Quest . 54 B. S t o r y F o c a l i z a t i o n 61 Temporal R e l a t i o n s 67 C. Text L o c u t i o n / S u b j e c t i v i t y / G e n d e r . . 81 From " I " to " i " 91 The Nar r a t o r of How Hug a Stone . 96 D i a l o g i s m / I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y . . . 103 P o s t s c r i p t : N a r r a t i v e i n Language 124 Notes 129 Pa r t I I I : A N a r r a t o l o g i c a l Reading of P i c t u r e Theory A. Fabula Event 135 B. Story From Actant to Characters . . . 187 Temporal R e l a t i o n s 201 F o c a l i z a t i o n 205 C. Text The N a r r a t i v e Contract . . . . 209 N a r r a t i v e Embedding 220 I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y 229 Notes 245 Pa r t IV: Narrative/Knowing i n the Feminine . . . 251 Notes . . 271 B i b l i o g r a p h y 273 Appendix 280 V L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e 1 T h e N e o l i t h i c C o m p l e x a t A v e b u r y P a r i s h , W i l t s h i r e , E n g l a n d ( a f t e r S t u k e l e y ) . P a g e 1 1 3 F i g u r e 2 N i c o l e B r o s s a r d ' s s p i r a l o f c u l t u r e " a u f £ m i n i n , " f r o m L a l e t t r e a e r i e n n e . P a g e 1 5 8 F i g u r e 3 D i a g r a m o f m i c r o s t r u c t u r e o f s y n a p t i c d o m a i n s i n c o r t e x , f r o m P r i b r a m . P a g e 1 6 7 v i Acknowledgement This d i s s e r t a t i o n was made p o s s i b l e by f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the Morris and Tina Wagner Foundation, and The S o c i a l Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Doctoral Fellowships D i v i s i o n . Many thanks are due to Daphne M a r l a t t and N i c o l e Brossard f o r t h e i r u n f a i l i n g g e n e r o s i t y and i n s p i r a t i o n ; to Dorothy Kidd, f o r i r r e p l a c e a b l e d i s c u s s i o n of the major ideas i n t h i s t e x t ; to James Quinlan, for working with me on the f i n a l d r a f t , and to L o r r a i n e Weir, f o r pushing me to my l i m i t , over and over again. I cannot f o r g e t , e i t h e r , Gladys T u l l o c h , C a r l , Doreen, E l l e n , Robert and John Knutson, Joan Meister and A l l e s o n Kase, f o r t h e i r encouragement over the four years i t took me to complete t h i s p r o j e c t . 1 Part I: N a r r a t i v e , Gender and the Grammar of Knowledge to n a r r a t e : t r . To give an o r a l or w r i t t e n account of, t e l l (a s t o r y ) . i n t r . To give an account or d e s c r i p t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y , to supply a running commentary f o r a motion p i c t u r e or other performance. [ L a t i n n a r r a r e , from gnarus f knowing.} see gno-. gno-. To know. 1. Extended form *qnow- i n Germanic *know- *kne(w)- i n Old E n g l i s h cnawan. to know: KNOW. 2. Zero-grade form *qna- i n a. Germanic *kunnan i n Old E n g l i s h , cunnan, to know, know how t o , be able t o : CAN, CON, CUNNING; b. Germanic causative verb *kann1an, to make known, i n Old E n g l i s h cennan, to d e c l a r e , and Old Norse kenna, to name ( i n a formal p o e t i c metaphor). KEN, (KENNING); c. Germanic *kunth- i n Old E n g l i s h cuth, known, well-known, u s u a l , e x c e l l e n t , f a m i l i a r : COUTH, UNCOUTH; d. Germanic *ku n t h i t h a - i n Old E n g l i s h c y t h ( t h e ) , cyththu, knowledge, aquaintance, f r i e n d s h i p , k i n f o l k : KITH. 3. S u f f i x e d form *an5- sko- i n L a t i n (g)noscere r to get to know, get acquainted wit h : NOTICE, NOTIFY, NOTION, NOTORIOUS; ACQUAINT, COGNITION, (COGNIZANCE), CONNOISSEUR, QUAINT, RECOGNIZE. 4 . S u f f i x e d form *ano-ro- i n L a t i n Iqnorare, not to know . . . (IGNORANT). 5. S u f f i x e d form * q n o - d h l i - i n L a t i n n o b i l i s , knowable, known, famous, noble: NOBLE. 6. Reduplicated and s u f f i x e d form *ai-ano-sko-i n Greek gjgnoskein. to know, t h i n k , judge (and *gno- i n gnomonr a judge, i n t e r p r e t e r ) : GNOME, GNOMON, GNOSIS; DIAGNOSIS, PHYSIOGNOMY, PROGNOSIS. 7. ^  S u f f i x e d zero-grade form *qn9-ro i n L a t i n gnarus, knowing, expert, whence narrare (< * g n a r r a r e ) f to t e l l , r e l a t e : NARRATE./I/ T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a n a r r a t o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f two book s , Daphne M a r l a t t ' s How Hug a Stone /2/ and N i c o l e B r o s s a r d ' s P i c t u r e T h e o r y . / 3 / Daphne M a r l a t t and N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , w r i t i n g f r o m V a n c o u v e r and M o n t r e a l r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e l e a d i n g c o n t r i b u t o r s t o c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t i n g i n Canada. B o t h a r e p o e t s , t h e o r i s t s , n o v e l i s t s , e d i t o r s , t e a c h e r s and f e m i n i s t a c t i v i s t s . Daphne M a r l a t t i s one o f t h e few women t o have p a r t i c i -p a t e d i n t h e T i s h movement and t h e e v o l u t i o n o f p o s t -modernism i n E n g l i s h Canada; N i c o l e B r o s s a r d p l a y e d a ke y r o l e i n t h e f l o w e r i n g o f c o n t e m p o r a r y Q u e b e c o i s w r i t i n g and t h e e l a b o r a t i o n of " l a m o d e r n i t e . " R e c o g -n i z i n g t h e " c r i s i s o f n a r r a t i v e s , " w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s our c o n t e m p o r a r y or p o s t m o d e r n age,/4/ b o t h w r i t e r s have e x p r e s s e d d i s t r u s t o f t r a d i t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e f o r m s . N a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f How Hug a S t o n e and P i c t u r e  T h e o r y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t b o t h Daphne M a r l a t t and N i c o l e B r o s s a r d a r e i n n o v a t o r s i n t h e f i e l d o f c o n t e m p o r a r y n a r r a t i v e . E a c h e n c o d e s t h e n a r r a t i v e q u e s t as a woman's s u c c e s s f u l b r e a k from t h e i n h e r i t e d c o n f i n e s o f f e m i n i n i t y . B o t h t e x t s r e v i s e n a r r a t i v e grammar, c h a l -l e n g i n g d e e p l y r o o t e d b i n a r y s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h have h i s -t o r i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d w e s t e r n n a r r a t i v e . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h my a n a l y s i s I w i l l b r i e f l y s k e t c h t h e h i s t o r y o f n a r r a t o l o g y . S t r u c t u r a l i s t s t u d y o f n a r r a t i v e was i n a u g u r a t e d i n 1928 by V l a d i m i r P r o p p , 3 of the F o l k t a l e . The book was published i n the U.S.S.R. during S t a l i n ' s regime, when Russian formalism was i n d e c l i n e ; i t was t h i r t y years before most Euro-pean and American s c h o l a r s were able to read i t . I t s t r a n s l a t i o n and r e p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1958 i n s p i r e d s i g -n i f i c a n t s c h o l a r l y response from Claude L e v i - S t r a u s s , Claude Bremond, A.J. Greimas and others. Alan Dundes, i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n to the r e v i s e d E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of Propp's Morphology, reviews the h i s t o r y of the book's r e c e p t i o n by European and American s c h o l a r s who were themselves caught up i n the s t r u c t u r a l i s t r e v i s i o n of the human sciences./5/ Dundes argues that Propp's a n a l y s i s was both induc-t i v e and syntagmatic i n i t s ba s i c approach: (T]he s t r u c t u r e or formal o r g a n i z a t i o n of a f o l k -l o r l s t i c t e x t i s described f o l l o w i n g the c h r o n o l o g i -c a l order of the l i n e a r sequence of elements i n the t e x t as reported from an informant. Thus i f a t a l e c o n s i s t s of elements A to Z, the s t r u c t u r e of the t a l e i s d e l i n e a t e d i n terms of t h i s same sequence. Foll o w i n g L6vi-Strauss (1964:312), t h i s l i n e a r s e q u e n t i a l s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s we might term "syntagmatic" s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s , borrowing from the notion of syntax i n the study of language ( c f . Greimas 1996a:404)./6/ Propp i d e n t i f i e d t h i r t y - o n e n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s or elementary events which combine to form s p e c i f i c n arra-t i v e s . 4 European s t r u c t u r a l i s t readings, e s p e c i a l l y those of L e v i - S t r a u s s , Greimas and Bremond, responded to Propp's work by s h i f t i n g i t towards the paradigmatic and deductive methodology i n s p i r e d by the l i n g u i s t i c s of Ferdinand de Saussure. This involved a reformula-t i o n of underlying mythical s t r u c t u r e as a dynamic model rather than a sequence of f u n c t i o n s ; the model, furthermore, was " u s u a l l y based on an a p r i o r i p r i n c i -ple of o p p o s i t i o n " / ? / : The champion of paradigmatic s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s i s Claude L6vi-Strauss and i t should be noted that he presented a paradigmatic model as e a r l y as 1955, that i s , w e l l before the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of Propp's work. The h y p o t h e t i c a l paradigmatic matrix i s t y p i c a l l y one i n which polar oppositions such as l i f e / d e a t h , male/female are mediated. L e v i - S t r a u s s i s c e r t a i n l y aware of the d i s t i n c t i o n between Propp's syntagmatic s t r u c t u r e and h i s paradigmatic s t r u c t u r e . In f a c t , L 6 v i - S t r a u s s ' s p o s i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y that l i n e a r s e q u e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e i s but apparent or manifest content, whereas the paradig-matic or schematic s t r u c t u r e i s the more important l a t e n t content./8/ Dundes suggests that n a r r a t i v e events can be read at i n c r e a s i n g l y a b s t r a c t l e v e l s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n the under-l y i n g b i n ary o p p o s i t i o n thought to be meaningful w i t h i n Indo-European c u l t u r e s . For example, one s t o r y begins with Propp's f i r s t f u n c t i o n , "One of the members of a f a m i l y i s absent from home," and ends with the t h i r t y -f i r s t or l a s t , "The hero i s married and ascends the throne."/9/ P a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y , t h i s s t o r y can be read 5 as a n a r r a t i v e which r e s o l v e s once again the binary o p p o s i t i o n male/female, i n terms which are meaningful to p a t r i a r c h a l Indo-European c u l t u r e s . / 1 0 / The d i s t i n c t i o n , e n t a i l e d by the paradigmatic approach, between apparent and manifest n a r r a t i v e con-te n t i s today a b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of n a r r a t o l o g y i n s o f a r as i t corresponds to the d i s t i n c t i o n between n a r r a t i v e l e v e l s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the f a b u l a , or underlying events, and the s t o r y , or manner i n which these events are presented. In 1966, Roland Barthes described n a r r a t o l o g y as a branch of l i n g u i s t i c s which takes as i t s object l a n -guage from the l e v e l of the sentence up: [ l i t seems reasonable that the s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of n a r r a t i v e be given l i n g u i s t i c s i t s e l f as the founding model . . . [Tlhere can be no question of l i n g u i s t i c s s e t t i n g i t s e l f an object s u p e r i o r to the sentence, s i n c e beyond the sentence are only more sentences . . . And yet i t i s evident t h a t discourse i t s e l f (as a set of sentences) i s organized and t h a t , through t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t can be seen as the message of another language, one operating at a higher l e v e l than the language of the l i n g u i s t s . Discourse has i t s u n i t s , i t s r u l e s , i t s 'grammar': beyond the sentence, and though c o n s i s t i n g s o l e l y of sentences. . . . (D]iscourse must be s t u d i e d from the b a s i s of l i n g u i s t i c s . I f a working hypothesis i s needed for an a n a l y s i s whose task i s immense and whose m a t e r i a l s i n f i n i t e , then the most reasonable t h i n g i s to p o s i t a homological r e l a t i o n between sentence and discourse i n s o f a r as i t i s l i k e l y that a s i m i l a r formal o r g a n i z a t i o n orders a l l s e m i o t i c systems, whatever t h e i r substances and dimensions. A discourse Is a long 'sentence' (the u n i t s of which are not n e c e s s a r i l y sentences), j u s t as a sentence, a l l o w i n g for c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , i s a short • d i s c o u r s e . ' / I I / 6 The homology with the sentence Is a r e c u r r i n g element of na r r a t o l o g y . Here Barthes uses i t i n arguing that j u s t as l i n g u i s t i c s reads a sentence at the d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l s of the phoneme, the morpheme, and syntax, so n a r r a t o l o g y reads n a r r a t i v e at various d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l s , d e f i n i n g i n t h i s way the b a s i c u n i t s , r u l e s , and grammar of n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e . Researchers working i n a v a r i e t y of t r a d i t i o n s and languages have n a t u r a l l y defined the u n i t s of n a r r a t i v e grammar d i f f e r e n t l y and assigned terms which are not g l o b a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . Jonathan C u l l e r has commented on the confusing p r o l i f e r a t i o n of terms i n contemporary nar r a t o l o g y : There i s considerable v a r i e t y among . . . t r a d i -t i o n s . . . . ITlhe theory of n a r r a t i v e r e q u i r e s a d i s t i n c t i o n between what I s h a l l c a l l ' story' — a sequence of a c t i o n s or events, conceived as inde-pendent of t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n discourse -- and what I s h a l l c a l l 'discourse,' the d i s c u r s i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n or n a r r a t i o n of events. In Russian Formalism t h i s i s the d i s t i n c t i o n between fabula and s l u z h e t : the s t o r y as a s e r i e s of events and the s t o r y as reported i n the n a r r a t i v e . Other t h e o r i s t s propose d i f f e r e n t formulations whose terms are often confusing: r 6 c i t, f o r example, i s sometimes f a b u l a r as i n Bremond [ s i c ] , and sometimes s j u z h e t . as i n Barthes. But there i s always a basic d i s t i n c t i o n between a sequence of events and a d i s -course that orders and presents events. Genette, for i nstance, d i s t i n g u i s h e s the sequence of events, h l s t o i r e f from the p r e s e n t a t i o n of events i n d i s -course, r e c l t r and a l s o from a t h i r d l e v e l , n a r r a -tion,, which i s the e n u n c i a t i o n of n a r r a t i v e ; but from the way i n which Genette uses h i s c a t e g o r i e s 7 Mieke Bal argues, r i g h t l y I b e l i e v e , that ' i n the end Genette d i s t i n g u i s h e s only two l e v e l s , those of Russian Formalism.'/12/ A survey of the f i e l d e a s i l y produces more examples of t e r m i n o l o g i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y . Mieke Bal r e f e r s to a "character-bound n a r r a t o r " where Gerard Genette speaks of an " i n t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t o r " ; she analyses n a r r a t i v e on the three l e v e l s of f a b u l a , s t o r y and t e x t , where Seymour Chatman uses s t o r y (corresponding to Mieke Bal's fabula) and d i s c o u r s e . Because of the incon-s i s t e n c y i n terms, and because my focus i s not nar-r a t o l o g y per se, but the a p p l i c a t i o n of n a r r a t o l o g y to s p e c i f i c t e x t s , I have not, i n general, compared terms but have followed Mieke B a l . In N a r r a t o l p g y ; I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Theory of Nar-r a t i v e , Mieke Bal systematizes t h i r t y years of s t r u c -t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s of n a r r a t i v e i n a c l e a r and u s e f u l e x p o s i t i o n of narrat o l o g y as a method of t e x t analy-s i s . /13/ Bal's n a r r a t o l o g y describes n a r r a t i v e t e x t s on three l e v e l s , f a b u l a , s t o r y and t e x t . Fabula i s the deepest s t r u c t u r e of n a r r a t i v e . When Barthes p o s i t e d "a homological r e l a t i o n between sentence and d i s c o u r s e " i n order to uncover the " i m p l i c i t system of u n i t s and r u l e s " / 1 4 / which con-s t i t u t e n a r r a t i v e , he was orie n t e d towards an a n a l y s i s of n a r r a t i v e f a b u l a . L i k e n a r r a t o l o g y i t s e l f , the word 8 fabula comes from the Russian F o r m a l i s t s , s p e c i f i c a l l y B o r i s Tomashevsky who, i n 1925, d i s t i n g u i s h e d between fabula and s t o r y , fabula and s j u z e t ; ( f a b u l a i s here t r a n s l a t e d as " s t o r y " and s l u z e t as " p l o t " ) (Tlhe s t o r y i s the aggregate of motifs i n t h e i r l o g i c a l , c a u s a l - c h r o n o l o g i c a l order; the p l o t i s the aggregate of those same motifs but having the r e l e -vance and order which they had i n the o r i g i n a l work. The place i n the work i n which the reader learns of an event, whether the information i s given by the author, or by a ch a r a c t e r , or by a s e r i e s of i n d i r e c t h i n t s — a l l t h i s i s i r r e l e v a n t to the s t o r y . But the a e s t h e t i c f u n c t i o n of the p l o t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s b r i n g i n g of an arrangement of motifs to the a t t e n t i o n of the reader. . . . [A] p l o t i s wholly an a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . / 1 5 / In her use of the terms fabula and s t o r y , B a l essen-t i a l l y f o l l o w s Tomashevsky, but she adds the t h i r d des-c r i p t i v e l e v e l of n a r r a t i o n or t e x t . The three l e v e l s of n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n are defined by Bal as f o l l o w s : fabula i s the aggregate of motifs or bas i c elements of a n a r r a t i v e , arranged i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l , l o g i c a l order; i t i s the underlying sequence of events, conceived a b s t r a c t l y . Story ( s j u z e t ) i s the p a r t i c u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n of the fabula i n a given n a r r a t i v e : "Story i s how information about the fabula i s presented to the reader" ( B a l , 116). Major c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the a n a l y s i s of s t o r y have been made by Wayne Booth and Gerard Genette./16/ The t h i r d l e v e l of n a r r a t i o n i s that of l o c u t i o n , or words. 9 B a r t h e s ' d e f i n i t i o n o f n a r r a t i v e d i d n o t s t r e s s t h e l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t : " n a r r a t i v e i s p r e s e n t i n myth, l e g e n d , f a b l e , t a l e , n o v e l l a , e p i c , h i s t o r y , t r a g e d y , drama, comedy, mime, p a i n t i n g ( t h i n k o f C a r p a c c i o ' s S a i n t U r s u l a ) , s t a i n e d g l a s s windows, c i n e m a , c o m i c s , news i t e m s , c o n v e r s a t i o n . " / 1 7 / B a l , however, s p e c i f i e s f r o m t h e o u t s e t t h a t n a r r a t i v e t e x t s a r e "composed o f l a n g u a g e s i g n s " ( B a l , 5 ) . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s u b j e c -t i v i t y t h r o u g h d e i c t i c a t t r i b u t e s o f l a n g u a g e c o r -r e s p o n d s i n n a r r a t i v e a n a l y s i s t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n a r r a t i v e a g e n t ; t h u s B a l a l s o d e f i n e s a n a r r a t i v e t e x t as "a t e x t i n w h i c h a n a r r a t i v e a g e n t t e l l s a s t o r y " ( B a l , 1 1 9 ) . G e n e r a l l y , a n a r r a t i v e t e x t i s d e f i n e d by t h e p r e s e n c e of a n a r r a t i v e a g e n t , by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f f a b u l a , s t o r y and t e x t c a n be d i s t i n -g u i s h e d , and by i d e n t i f i a b l e n a r r a t i v e c o n t e n t , c o n -s i s t i n g o f a s e r i e s o f e v e n t s c a u s e d or e x p e r i e n c e d by a c t o r s ( B a l , 8 ) . N a r r a t o l o g y i s "an i n s t r u m e n t f o r making d e s c r i p -t i o n s , " ( B a l , 10) "a means t o e x p r e s s and s p e c i f y one's i n t e r p r e t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o a t e x t " ( B a l , x ) . The method does n o t r e q u i r e a d h e r e n c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h y , whether s t r u c t u r a l i s t , d e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t , f e m i n i s t , M a r x i s t o r C h r i s t i a n . Mieke B a l u s e s n a r r a t o l o g y f o r f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m b e c a u s e " i t h e l p s t o make t h a t a p p r o a c h t h e more c o n v i n c i n g , b e c a u s e o f t h e f e a t u r e s a 10 s y s t e m a t i c a c c o u n t e n t a i l s " ( B a l , x ) . N a r r a t o l o g y , l i k e r h e t o r i c a l s t u d i e s and d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s , e n a b l e s i t s u s e r t o u n d e r s t a n d and d e s c r i b e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p a r t i c u l a r d i s c o u r s e and t h e k i n d s o f i d e o l o g i c a l messages c o d i f i e d t h e r e . I t c a n s p e c i f y how i d e o l o g y f u n c t i o n s i n n a r r a t i v e and, u l t i m a t e l y , how n a r r a t i v e i t s e l f i s i d e o l o g i c a l . N a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of How Hug a Sto n e and P i c -t u r e T h e o r y i s e s p e c i a l l y f r u i t f u l i n r e l a t i o n t o n a r -r a t i v e a s an i d e o l o g i c a l l y i n v e s t e d f o r m . B o t h t e x t s c h a l l e n g e t h e s u p p o s e d i n n o c e n c e o f i n h e r i t e d n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e n a r r a t i v e grammar of t h e q u e s t and t h e h e r o / o b s t a c l e o p p o s i t i o n w h i c h i t i m p l i e s . I n d i f f e r e n t ways, b o t h Daphne M a r l a t t and N i c o l e B r o s s a r d engage w i t h t h i s grammar as a h i s t o r i -c a l l y i n v e s t e d f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e , and e a c h s u c c e e d s i n r e d i r e c t i n g t h e f a b u l a away from t h e t e l e o l o g y o f h e r o i c s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e t o w a r d s a form more open-ended, d i a l o g i c , g e n d e r - n e u t r a l and f e m a l e - p o s i t i v e . I n How Hug a S t o n e r c o n c e r n w i t h t h e i d e o l o g i c a l l y d e t e r m i n i n g f o r c e o f n a r r a t i v e i s f o r e g r o u n d e d as t h e n a r r a t o r q u e s t i o n s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r n a r r a t i v e and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n n a r r a t i v e f o r m . She i d e n t i f i e s t h e p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e o f i n h e r i t e d s t o r i e s w h i c h , a l t h o u g h f r a g m e n t e d , s t i l l g i v e meaning t o human e x i s t -e n c e . P r e - e x i s t i n g s c r i p t s w h i c h " w r i t e our p a r t s " 11 (HHSr 73) are counterposed to freedom and to the c o n d i -t i o n of being l o s t ; a l l are r e l a t e d to the n a r r a t o r ' s g r i e v i n g for her mother, Edrys, who has died and i s l o s t i n s e v e r a l senses of the word. "Lost" stems from an Indo-European root l e u - ' . meaning to loosen or cut a p a r t , r e l a t e d to the Greek l e u l n r to loosen, r e l e a s e , u n t i e . E t y m o l o g i c a l l y , to lose something i s to set i t free by loosening or c u t t i n g a bond. How Hug a Stone imagines n a r r a t i v e to be that p a r a d o x i c a l bond, so that to be without a s t o r y i s simultaneously to be l o s t and to be set f r e e . Edrys i s l o s t without a p l o t of her own at the same time that she i s enclosed by another's s c r i p t : where was she? Tino, my mother, small i n a henge of emotion, removed some-where, no s t a r s to p l o t t h i s course, only f o r e -boding & hope against her f a t h e r ' s words, against the s c r i p t . l e a r n i n g how to f l y . (HHS., 45) This passage brings together s e v e r a l important m o t i f s : the henge and s t a r s to s t e e r by, the b i r d " l e a r n i n g how to f l y , " and the s c r i p t backed by p a t r i a r c h a l a u t h o r i t y . The N e o l i t h i c landscape of the poem i s evoked by the word "henge": a c i r c l e of megaliths sacred to the earth mother, s i t u a t e d i n a mathematical r e l a t i o n to more ancient s t a r s . Edrys, l i k e t hat arch6-mother, i s a s s o c i a t e d with b i r d s , but she never 12 does f l y : she "had her wings c l i p p e d growing up" (HHS, 67). The s c r i p t , i n a c e r t a i n sense, c l i p p e d them. The narrator r e s i s t s the c l o s u r e of n a r r a t i v e while r e c o g n i z i n g that without i t , she i s l o s t . E a r l y i n the poem, she s p e c i f i e s that she d i s t r u s t s n a r r a t i v e because of what i t shuts out of i t s t e l l i n g : an e l d e r l y man s i t t i n g at the back says we have j u s t l e f t land, B a f f i n I s l a n d he means, now a l l i s i c e f l o e s on black water, cra z y paving they have p u l l e d the b l i n d s on. f o r the movie begins. Agatha C h r i s t i e v e r s i o n of what we f l y t o , dense with i n t r i g u e , take i n t r i g u e d a t t e n t i o n to a s t a r system e l d e r l y E n g l i s h lady p l o t s , enraged mother a t the heart of i t : l o s t . (HHS., 15) The movie (read s t o r y ) begins, so "they" p u l l the b l i n d s , s h u t t i n g out what doesn't f i t i n t o the p l o t : the "crazy paving" that i s the surface of the earth i t s e l f , and the r e a l i t y of f l y i n g . In r e b e l l i o n , the n a r r a t o r a r t i c u l a t e s t h e i r f l y i n g — not the romantic v e r s i o n of i t , but "with our s h i t , l e f t o v e r s , earthladen sacs, thanks to 23,000 g a l l o n s of f o s s i l f u e l " (HHS, 15). N a r r a t i v e wraps up the r e a l i n a c l o s u r e the narrator r e s i s t s : fed a l i n e so as not to imagine the end — l i n e a r v e r s i o n of our l i v e s u n r a v e l l i n g i n a look, back, mystery appeals to our b e l i e f that t h i n g s do make sense, t h i s p l o t we're i n , wrapped up l i k e k n i f e fork & spoon. 13 & y e t , l e f t open, f l a p p i n g , wide to the wind, without n a r r a t i v e how can we see where we're going? or t h a t — f o r long moments now, we happen. (HHS, 15) In " n a r r a t i v e c o n t i n u i t y , " t h i s q u e s t i o n i s r e i t e r a t e d : remnants of Old E n g l i s h , even moth, snake, stone. word henge to p l o t us i n the c u r r e n t flow, without n a r r a t i v e how can we see where we've been? or, unable to leave i t a l t o g e t h e r , what we come from? (HHS., 19) Unable to do without n a r r a t i v e but u n w i l l i n g to be wrapped up l i k e a k n i f e , fork and spoon i n the o l d s c r i p t s , the n a r r a t o r makes her c h o i c e : "so as not to be l o s t , i n v e n t : one c l e a r a c t i n a l l t h a t j a z z , ( i n f l i g h t ? & i f the plane goes down?)" (HHS. 15). She i s seeking another n a r r a t i v e , "wanting t o make us new ag a i n : to speak what i s n ' t spoken, even with the o l d words" (HHS. 73). Thi s sequence i l l u s t r a t e s the r i c h i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y of How Hug a Stone. "{Wlanting to make us new" r e c a l l s E z r a Pound's dictum: "MAKE IT NEW."/18/ The idea of a woman i n v e n t i n g a new s t o r y f o r h e r s e l f suggests V i r -g i n i a Woolf, who i n 1929 foresaw t h a t women were begin-ning "to wr i t e of women as women have never been w r i t -ten of before."/19/ The r e s o l u t i o n "to i n v e n t " a l l u d e s to Monique W i t t i g , who argues t h a t i n a golden age 14 before the r i s e of p a t r i a r c h y , women were not oppressed. In Les g u e r i l l e r e s , she urges women to remember that l i f e : "Tu d i s q u ' i l n'y a pas de mots pour d e c r i r e ce temps, t u d i s q u ' i l n 'existe pas. Mais s o u v i e n s - t o i . F a i s un e f f o r t pour te souvenir. Ou, A defaut, invente."/20/ F i n a l l y , but not l e a s t , t h i s i n t e r t e x t u a l crux and c r u c i a l moment of d e c i s i o n -t a k i n g , with i t s f a i t h i n "what hasn't been spoken" and i t s determination to invent, resonates with the work of Ni c o l e Brossard. N i c o l e Brossard i s seeking to w r i t e a n a r r a t i v e which has never e x i s t e d before. P i c t u r e Theory aims to cr e a t e , i n the mind of the reader, knowledge which has never been represented but which i s suggested by the p o s s i b i l i t y of the hologram. The n a r r a t i v e grammar of P i c t u r e Theory i s a r a d i c a l departure from the t r a d i -t i o n a l quest of a s i n g u l a r hero; the book announces the co n d i t i o n s of i t s own c r e a t i o n to be "depuis l a mort du heros a double sens p a t r i a r c a l " (PT, 25). A new kind of n a r r a t i v e i s the necessary outcome of the death of the p a t r i a r c h a l hero. Ezra Pound i s not the only modernist whose t e x t / i n t e r t e x t l i e s , p a l i m p s e s t i c , under the d e s i r e to make n a r r a t i v e new. P i c t u r e Theory i s a l s o , s i g -n i f i c a n t l y , post-Flnnegans Wake: 15 Depuis Ftnnigans Wake [ s i c ] , C»6tait l a n u i t . I t i n e r a n t e , Florence D6rive et tellement d'une femme. Cerveau - - - - - - - - memoire. La n u i t , nombres et l e t t r e s . (PJ., 19) Lorr a i n e Weir has shown that P i c t u r e Theory i s i n s p i r e d by "the po l y v a l e n t system" of James Joyce's l a s t e p i c , and by Ludwig Wittgenstein's i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of "the i n t e r c a l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p of language, p i c t u r e , and language games."/21/ Brossard has w r i t t e n a novel i n which l i n e a r and t e l e o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s are d e c o n s t r u c t e d i n o r d e r t o b e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e " t h r e e - w a y i n t e g r a t i o n " and U t o p i a n p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e hologram./22/ L o r r a i n e Weir a l s o i d e n t i f i e s i n Brossard's "num-bers and l e t t e r s " a reference to Monique W i t t i g ' s golden age./23/ In Lesbian Peoples: M a t e r i a l s f o r a  D i c t i o n a r y , the language of numbers and l e t t e r s i s the o r i g i n a l p r e - p a t r i a r c h a l language to which the ancient Amazons remained f a i t h f u l . / 2 4 / Monique W i t t i g and Sande Zeig c r e d i t t h i s p r e h i s t o r i c tongue with enormous powers of d e s t r u c t i o n and c r e a t i o n ; among other f e a t s , i t erected the N e o l i t h i c megaliths "un peu partout dans l e monde.M/25/ In P i c t u r e Theory, t h i s o r i g i n a r y l a n -guage of numbers and l e t t e r s r e - c i r c u l a t e s i n the night which i s Finneaans Wake, as meaning i t s e l f i s reborn i n an other book, with a correspondingly other n a r r a t i v e 16 s t r u c t u r e : " C ' e t a i t absoluroent dans un autre l l v r e q u ' e l l e s a u r a i t r e t r a c e r l e moment venu, l e s l i g n e s d'une forme humaine parfaitement l i s i b l e " (PT, 25). Brossard has worked with n a r r a t i v e theory i n other t e x t s . Un l i v r e /26/ i s a parodic t a b u l a t i o n of narra-t i v e conventions and a n a r r a t o l o g i c a l reading of n o v e l l s t i c s t r u c t u r e . L'Avlva /27/ and Le d6sert mauve /28/ involve u n i l i n g u a l s e l f - t r a n s l a t i o n ; / 2 9 / Brossard r e - w r i t e s her f a b u l a , p l a y i n g with the i r r e d u c i b l e i n the n a r r a t i v e . P i c t u r e Theory, as "an i n d u c t i o n i n t o the grammar of the hologram,"/30/ and t h e r e f o r e a r e w r i t i n g of n a r r a t i v e grammar i t s e l f , i s Brossard's most ambitious t e x t to date and her c l e a r e s t challenge to the p a t r i a r c h a l canon. In complexity and scope P i c -ture Theory i s best compared with James Joyce's modernist reformulations of the c e n t r a l n a r r a t i v e s of western c u l t u r e . In t a k i n g on issues of n a r r a t i v i t y , M a r l a t t and Brossard p a r t i c i p a t e i n the contemporary e f f o r t to r e d e f i n e and r e s i t u a t e the knowing subject and what i s known i n an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l framework not indebted to d i s c r e d i t e d metaphysics. N a r r a t i v e , with semantic and etymological t i e s to knowing and t e l l i n g , i s a con-t e s t e d f i e l d . The work of M a r l a t t and Brossard i l l u s t r a t e s that t h i s i s doubly true f o r contemporary w r i t e r s who are women. What i s known " i n the femi-17 nine"/31/ must be t o l d i n a p a t r i a r c h a l language which r e s i s t s and undermines t h a t knowledge. The subject p o s i t i o n of n a r r a t i v e grammar i s male by d e f a u l t ; a masculine generic e x e r c i s e s i t s force on the l e g i t i m a t -ing n a r r a t i v e s men and women r e l y on to give meaning to t h e i r l i v e s . In The Postmodern C o n d i t i o n : A Report on Knowledge. Jean-Frangois Lyotard argues that the l i b e r a t i o n of the people and the l i f e of the s p i r i t c o n s t i t u t e two l e g i t i m i z i n g n a r r a t i v e s of western c i v i l i z a t i o n . R esituated by economic and s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n s , these have l o s t t h e i r power "to l e g i t i m a t e know-ledge. "/32/ S c i e n t i f i c discourse "has always been i n c o n f l i c t with n a r r a t i v e s , " judging them to be " f a b l e s , " / 3 3 / but nevertheless has h i s t o r i c a l l y been l e g i t i m i z e d by the same metanarratives which are now i n c r i s i s . I n c r e d u l i t y towards metanarratives i n science as elsewhere marks the end of the modern age: To the obsolescence of the metanarrative apparatus of l e g i t i m a t i o n corresponds, most notably, the c r i s i s of metaphysical philosophy and of the univ-e r s i t y i n s t i t u t i o n which i n the past r e l i e d on i t . The n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n i s l o s i n g i t s f u n c t o r s , i t s great hero, i t s great dangers, i t s great voyages, i t s great g o a l . I t i s being dispersed i n clouds of n a r r a t i v e language elements — n a r r a t i v e , but a l s o d e n o t a t i v e , p r e s c r i p t i v e , d e s c r i p t i v e , and so on. Conveyed w i t h i n each cloud are pragmatic v a l e n c i e s s p e c i f i c to i t s k i n d . Each of us l i v e s at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of many of these./34/ 18 In s p e c i f y i n g i n her t e x t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of language elements w i t h i n which she makes sense of the world, Daphne M a r l a t t brings forward as much of the r e a l as i s p o s s i b l e , f i n d i n g the l i m i t of that p o s s i b i l i t y to be a c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g horizon of her own sense and "what our p a t r i a r c h a l l y loaded language . . . can bear."/35/ N i c o l e Brossard, the more modernist of the two, works to "present the f a c t that the unpresentable e x i s t s , " / 3 6 / a task which Lyotard a t t r i b u t e s to modern a r t : "To make v i s i b l e that there i s something which can be conceived and which can nei t h e r be seen or made v i s i b l e . " / 3 7 / Both authors " a c t i v a t e d i f f e r e n c e s and wage a war on t o t a l i t y . " / 3 8 / The c r i s i s i n n a r r a t i v e of which Lyotard w r i t e s has been at l e a s t as v i s i b l e i n l i t e r a r y s t u d i e s as e l s e -where. Roland Barthes' concept of a s h i f t towards the non-narrative, from the r e a d e r l y to the w r i t e r l y , i s one s i g n of the obsolescence of n a r r a t i v e forms i n l i t -e r a t u r e . /39/ In f i l m as i n the novel, a tendency towards the non-narrative r e j e c t s the f a m i l i a r com-p l i c i t y between reader and t e x t , between the viewer and the a l r e a d y known. " N a r r a t i o n , " Lyotard argues, " i s the q u i n t e s s e n t i a l form of customary knowledge."/40/ L i t e r a t u r e produces n a r r a t i v e s that are fragmented, s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and e x p l o r a t o r y : evidence that the cus-tomary i s i n c r i s i s . Lyotard considers that i n t r a d i -19 t i o n a l c u l t u r e s , the c o n d i t i o n s f o r the transmis s i o n of n a r r a t i v e knowledge both create and presuppose com-munity: "the community's r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t s e l f and i t s environment i s played out. What i s tran s m i t t e d . . . i s the set of pragmatic r u l e s that c o n s t i t u t e the s o c i a l bond."/41/ In the modern world, the r u l e s that c o n s t i t u t e the s o c i a l bond have been problematized i n a hundred ways, and not l e a s t by feminism. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that f e m i n i s t theory has taken a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the questions posed by n a r r a t i v e . Rachel Blau D u P l e s s i s , i n W r i t i n g bevond the Ending: N a r r a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s of Twentieth-Century Women  Wr i t e r s , argues that u n t i l the twentieth century, female characters i n novels t y p i c a l l y ended up married or dead; the novel r e f l e c t e d the r e a l i t y that success-f u l s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n f o r women was achieved through marriage, and the a l t e r n a t i v e s (except f o r death!) were anything but romantic: Once upon a time, the end, the r i g h t f u l end, of women i n novels was s o c i a l — s u c c e s s f u l c o u r t s h i p , marriage — or judgmental of her sexual and s o c i a l f a i l u r e — death. These are both r e s o l u t i o n s of romance./42/ Blau DuPlessis documents "the p r o j e c t of tw e n t i e t h -century women w r i t e r s to solve the c o n t r a d i c t i o n between love and quest and to replace the a l t e r n a t e 20 endings i n marriage and death . . . [with] a d i f f e r e n t set of choices."/43/ She r e l a t e s t h i s p r o j e c t to the impact of the f i r s t and second waves of the women's movement i n the nineteenth and twentieth c e n t u r i e s . Blau DuPlessis represents n a r r a t i v e i n A l t h u s s e r i a n terms as a systematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n through which i n d i v i d u a l s s t r u c t u r e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to c u l t u r a l "values and i n s t i t u t i o n s " : N a r r a t i v e i n the most general terms i s a v e r s i o n o f , or a s p e c i a l expression of, ideology: representa-t i o n s by which we co n s t r u c t and accept values and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Any f i c t i o n expresses ideology . . . romance p l o t s of various kinds and the f a t e of female characters express a t t i t u d e s at l e a s t toward f a m i l y , s e x u a l i t y , and gender. The attempt to c a l l i n t o question p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l forms r e l a t e d to women and gender, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of women's eman-c i p a t i o n i n the l a t e nineteenth and twen t i e t h c e n t u r i e s , i s accompanied by t h i s attempt by women w r i t e r s to c a l l n a r r a t i v e forms i n t o question. The inv e n t i o n of s t r a t e g i e s that sever the n a r r a t i v e from formerly conventional s t r u c t u r e s of f i c t i o n and consciousness about women i s what I c a l l " w r i t i n g beyond the ending."/44/ W r i t i n g beyond the ending i s Rachel Blau DuPlessis's metaphor f o r the i n v e n t i o n of new n a r r a t i v e s and new p o s s i b i l i t i e s f or women. V i r g i n i a Woolf's denunciation of male values i n f i c t i o n /45/ i s an important element i n W r i t i n g beyond  the Ending. Blau DuPlessis argues t h a t w r i t i n g from a woman's point of view w i l l i n e v i t a b l y i nvolve breaking conventions, which she r e f e r s to as s t r u c t u r e : " t r y i n g 21 to make f i c t i o n t a l k about women and t h e i r concerns, e s p e c i a l l y when a woman i s the speaking s u b j e c t , may n e c e s s a r i l y lead to a c r i t i c a l transformation of nar r a -t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . " / 4 6 / The changes i n the novel which she documents include the r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or r e v i s i o n of c l a s s i c a l myths, s e l f - c o n s c i o u s c r i t i q u e of the p l o t ending i n death or marriage, and the development of a c o l l e c t i v e p r o t a g o n i s t . W r i t i n g beyond the Ending i s an important study, but i t s u f f e r s from a confusion between theme and s t r u c t u r e ; n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s -t i n g u i s h e d from romantic and n o v e l i s t i c conventions. This confusion makes i t impossible to d i s t i n g u i s h between r e s i s t a n c e to the romantic p l o t , with i t s c h o i c e s , love i n t e r e s t , and "catastrophe i n the accepted s t y l e , M / 4 7 / and r e s i s t a n c e t o the t e l e o l o g y which, some have argued, i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e per se./48/ The s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of nar-r a t i v e i s not the subject of W r i t i n g beyond the Ending; the book analyzes women's r e s i s t a n c e to s o c i a l oppres-s i o n as i t has been c o d i f e d and r e f l e c t e d i n the con-ventions of romance. S t r u c t u r a l i s t and sem i o t i c analyses of n a r r a t i v e suggest that elementary n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e produces and reproduces p a t r i a r c h a l gender; t h i s s t r u c t u r e has been d i s t i n g u i s h e d from thematic values. I am arguing 22 that both M a r l a t t and Brossard r e s t r u c t u r e elementary n a r r a t i v e forms. The s t r u g g l e with n a r r a t i v e which i s a r t i c u l a t e d i n How Hug a Stone i s both thematic and s t r u c t u r a l ; M a r l a t t f i n d s a v a r i e t y of ways to thwart the a l r e a d y w r i t t e n . In N i c o l e Brossard*s P i c t u r e  Theory the grammar governing n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i s deconstructed and r e w r i t t e n as part of Brossard*s pro-j e c t to b u i l d c u l t u r e "au feminin. M/49/ As the e a r l i e r example from Propp showed, the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between gender and n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s com-plex. H i s t o r i c a l l y , signs of women have tended to occupy c e r t a i n p l o t p o s i t i o n s , and not others. I t has been l e f t to f e m i n i s t s to wonder out loud why the hero i s so oft e n male and why Sleeping Beauty doesn't make more of an e f f o r t to take fat e i n t o her own hands. Teresa de L a u r e t i s , i n A l i c e Doesn't; Feminism, Semi-o t i c s . Cinema f analyses the c o m p l i c i t y of gender and n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . She suggests that the Oedipus s t o r y can be read as a kind of U r - n a r r a t i v e f o r p a t r i a r c h a l c u l t u r e . Her proposal reworks L e v i -Strauss's contention that the i n c e s t p r o h i b i t i o n , which he i n t e r p r e t e d as the exchange of women, i s the p r i n c i -p l e found at the o r i g i n of human c u l t u r e : I f n a r r a t i v e i s governed by an Oedipal l o g i c , i t i s because i t i s s i t u a t e d w i t h i n the system of exchange i n s t i t u t e d by the i n c e s t p r o h i b i t i o n , where woman functions as both a s i g n (representa-t i o n ) and a value (object) f o r that exchange./50/ 23 D e L a u r e t l s a r g u e s t h a t t h e i n h e r e n t l o g i c o f n a r r a t i v e i s p a t r i a r c h a l . T h e t h e o r y i s t h a t s t r u c t u r a l l y , w o m e n h a v e s i g -n i f i e d f i x e d b o u n d a r i e s , o r i g i n s , o b s t a c l e s o r r e w a r d s f o r a c t i v e m a l e h e r o e s . P l o t s i n w h i c h w o m e n f u n c t i o n a s h e r o i c t r a n s g r e s s o r s o f b o u n d a r i e s a r e r e w r i t t e n . T h e s t o r i e s o f E v e , G u e n e v e r e , C l y t e m n e s t r a a n d M e d e a h a v e b e e n r e t o l d s o t h a t t h e f e m a l e f i g u r e i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s a n o b s t a c l e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e m a l e h e r o m u s t p a s s . O r e s t e s o v e r c o m e s h i s m o t h e r , T h e s e u s l e a v e s M e d e a , E v e r y m a n m u s t r e s i s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n o f E v e . A r t h u r t u r n s a d e a f e a r t o h i s Q u e e n , w h o i s , f u r t h e r m o r e , a n o b s t a c l e i n L a n c e l o t ' s q u e s t f o r t h e G r a i l . T h e s i g n o f t h e w o m a n a p p e a r s i n i t s c l a s s i c a l , f i x e d p o s i t i o n a n d t h e m a l e h e r o p r o g r e s s e s t o t h e e n d o f t h e s t o r y . T e r e s a d e L a u r e t l s m a k e s t h i s p o i n t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h e r r e a d i n g o f F r e u d : T h e m y t h o f w h i c h ( t h e l i t t l e g i r l ] i s p r e s u m e d t o b e t h e s u b j e c t , g e n e r a t e d b y t h e s a m e m e c h a n i s m t h a t g e n e r a t e d t h e m y t h o f O e d i p u s , i n f a c t w o r k s t o c o n -s t r u c t h e r a s a " p e r s o n i f i e d o b s t a c l e " ; s i m i l a r l y t h e n a r r a t i v e t r a n s f o r m s a h u m a n c h i l d i n t o a w o m b , " a c a v e , " " t h e g r a v e , " " a h o u s e , " " a w o m a n . " T h e s t o r y o f f e m i n i n i t y , F r e u d ' s q u e s t i o n ( w h a t d o w o m e n w a n t ? ] , a n d t h e r i d d l e o f t h e S p h i n x a l l h a v e a s i n g l e a n s w e r , o n e a n d t h e s a m e m e a n i n g , o n e t e r m o f r e f e r e n c e a n d a d d r e s s : m a n , O e d i p u s , t h e h u m a n m a l e p e r s o n . A n d s o h e r s t o r y , l i k e a n y o t h e r s t o r y , i s a q u e s t i o n o f h i s d e s i r e : a s i s t h e t e l e o l o g y t h a t F r e u d i m p u t e s t o N a t u r e , t h a t p r i m o r d i a l " o b s t a c l e " o f c i v i l i z e d m a n . " / 5 1 / 24 De L a u r e t i s develops her conclusions regarding nar-r a t i v i t y and gender through her reading of the work of Y u r i j Lotman, the Soviet s e m i o t i c i a n whose p l o t t y p o l -ogy i s both a t h e o r e t i c a l model f o r the o r i g i n of c u l -ture and a s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n a l y s i s of p l o t types./52/ Lotman d i s t i n g u i s h e s between two h i s t o r i c a l l y and t y p o l o g i c a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y kinds of p l o t . The l e s s e r of these i s a n o n - t e l e o l o g i c a l c h r o n i c l i n g of events that are excessive i n that they e x i s t outside the i n t e g r a t i n g framework of a l i f e , season, or day; t h i s p l o t would be a l i s t of m i r a c l e s , d i s a s t e r s , and inex-p l i c a b l e , anomalous events. The more important, mythological type of p l o t reproduces the c y c l i c a l f l u x of patterned r e a l i t y e x e m p l i f i e d by the r i s e and f a l l of days, seasons, and l i f e - c y c l e s . This c y c l i c a l , m ythical p l o t - t y p e i s a n t e r i o r to true p l o t , because i t does not r e s t upon o p p o s i t i o n between d i s c r e t e events, but on "the establishment of i s o - and homomorphisms and the r e d u c t i o n of the d i v e r s i t y and v a r i e t y of the world to i n v a r i a n t images."/53/ Absolute equivalence i s e s t a b l i s h e d between p a r a l l e l events: The c y c l i c a l world of mythological t e x t s creates a m u l t i - l a y e r e d mechanism with c l e a r l y manifested features of t o p o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . This means that such c y c l e s as the day, the year, the c y c l i -c a l chain of l i f e and death of man [ s i c ] or god, 25 are considered as mutually homomorphous. Thus, although n i g h t , winter and death are i n some respects d i s s i m i l a r , t h e i r c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s not a metaphor as the consciousness of today would i n t e r p r e t i t . They are one and the same t h i n g (or r a t h e r , transformations of one and the same thing)./54/ This mythological mechanism was a way of making sense and order out of the world; Lotman argues that i t l i e s a t the o r i g i n of human sc i e n c e , c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , r e g u l a -t i o n , order and r e l i g i o n . News, scandals, and miracles o r i g i n a t e with the other type of p l o t . The mythical t e x t and i t s opposite, the l i s t , both disappeared long ago; they are hypothesized as a " t e x -t u a l mechanism for generating myths" " ( a l t the centre of the c u l t u r a l massif."/55/ They would be true con-temporaries of the i n c e s t taboo. In the a b s t r a c t , these two types of p l o t could be represented as a c i r -c l e and a l i n e . "The modern p l o t - t e x t i s the f r u i t of the i n t e r a c t i o n and r e c i p r o c a l i n f l u e n c e of these two t y p o l o g i c a l l y age-old types of t e x t . " / 5 6 / Five thou-sand or more years of l i n e a r thought have made us f a m i l i a r with the hybrid p l o t as we know i t . The c y c l i c a l mythological p l o t i s unfolded or l i n e a r i z e d , producing d i s c r e t e s t o r y elements such as character and place./57/ The s t o r y , i n c l u d i n g the s t o r y - l i k e v e r -s i o n s of myth with which we are f a m i l i a r , and con-temporary t e x t s , novels, movie s c r i p t s and so on, i s 26 what remains of the mythological p l o t mechanism. According to Lotman, because the mixing began so long ago, ve can look f o r signs of myth's continued v i t a l i t y as e a s i l y i n contemporary t a l e s as i n Robert Graves' c o m p i l a t i o n s . The true h e i r of myth i s the s t o r y , which i s s t i l l a way of making sense of the world. The m y t h o l o g i c a l , c y c l i c a l p l o t i d e a l , operating as a molding force on l i n e a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of events, r e s u l t s i n a manifest p l o t which has the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of a sentence: n e i t h e r a l i n e nor a c i r c l e , i t i s a closed s t r u c t u r e which moves forward out of i t s e l f : The c e n t r a l myth-making mechanism of c u l t u r e i s organised as t o p o l o g i c a l space. With p r o j e c t i o n onto the a x i s of l i n e a r time and from the province of r i t u a l p l a y - a c t i o n i n t o the sphere of the ver-b a l t e x t , i t undergoes important changes: i n assuming l i n e a r i t y and d i s c r e t e n e s s , i t acquires the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a v e r b a l t e x t constructed on the p r i n c i p l e of a sentence. . . . (Tlhe cen-t r a l sphere of c u l t u r e i s constructed on the p r i n -c i p l e of an Integrated s t r u c t u r a l whole, a sentence; the p e r i p h e r a l sphere i s organized as a cumulative c h a i n , simply by the a c c r e t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l l y independent e n t i t i e s . This kind of o r g a n i z a t i o n i s most apposite to the f u n c t i o n of the former as a s t r u c t u r a l model of the world and of the l a t t e r as a kind of a r c h i v e of excesses./58/ An isomorphism i s thus e s t a b l i s h e d between a myth-making c u l t u r a l mechanism, the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e engenders, a sentence, and a model of the world. i t 27 When Lotman discusses the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the narra-t i v e sentence, he i s a n a l y z i n g the n a r r a t i v e fabula i n the t r a d i t i o n of Propp, Br6mond, and Greimas. Lotman's p l o t typology i s compelling because i t proposes the d i a l o g i c i n t e r a c t i o n of two i n i t i a l t e x t -groups or n a r r a t i v e forms, manifesting themselves i n the n a r r a t i v e sentence. This model i s p o t e n t i a l l y more dynamic than any pur e l y c l a s s i f i c a t o r y typology. Propp's t h i r t y - o n e p l o t f u n c t i o n s , f o r example, are most a p p l i c a b l e to the Russian f o l k t a l e but d e c l i n e i n relevance outside the framework of that corpus. The d i a l o g i c play of the two e s s e n t i a l p l o t - t y p e s i s found i n contemporary t e x t s , f o l k t a l e s , and l i n e a r , recorded v e r s i o n s of myth. In the course of h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of n a r r a t i v e f a b u l a , Lotman notes the gender of fundamental p l o t p o s i t i o n s : The elementary sequence of events i n myth can be reduced to a cha i n : e n t r y i n t o a cl o s e d space — emergence from i t ( t h i s chain i s open at both ends and can be e n d l e s s l y m u l t i p l i e d ) . Inasmuch as closed space can be i n t e r p r e t e d as "a cave," "the grave," "a house," "woman," (and, correspondingly, be a l l o t t e d the features of darkness, warmth, dampness) (Ivanov and Toporov, 1965), e n t r y i n t o i t i s i n t e r p r e t e d on various l e v e l s as "death," "conception," " r e t u r n home," and so on; moreover a l l these a c t s are thought of as mutually i d e n t i -c a l . /59/ 28 "Woman" i s here i d e n t i f i e d with the closed space or f i x e d p o s i t i o n of every s t o r y . I t i s arguable t h a t the plo t - t y p e s Lotman hypothesizes e x i s t e d a n t e r i o r to gen-der as ve know i t , and only became elements of gender d e f i n i t i o n as p a t r i a r c h y developed. In any case, draw-ing h i s data from the only kind of p l o t a v a i l a b l e to study, that i s , from p l o t s of the mixed type, Lotman remarks on an observable, h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p l o t - p o s i t i o n s and gender. I d e n t i f y i n g Lotman's theory as a " m y t h i c a l - t e x t u a l mechanics" with an I n e v i t a b l e l o g i c of i t s own, Teresa de L a u r e t i s draws d i s t u r b i n g conclusions with respect to n a r r a t i v i t y and gender: [T]he hero must be male, regardless of the gender of the text-image, because the o b s t a c l e , whatever i t s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , i s m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y female and Indeed, simply, the womb. The i m p l i c a t i o n here i s not i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l . For i f the work of the mythical s t r u c t u r a t i o n i s to e s t a b l i s h d i s t i n c -t i o n s , the primary d i s t i n c t i o n on which a l l others depend i s not, say, l i f e and death, but rather sexual d i f f e r e n c e . In other words, the p i c t u r e of the world produced i n mythical thought s i n c e the very beginning of c u l t u r e would r e s t , f i r s t and foremost, on what ve c a l l b i o l o g y . Opposite p a i r s , such as i n s i d e / o u t s i d e , the rav/the cooked, or l i f e / d e a t h appear to be merely d e r i v a t i v e s of the fundamental o p p o s i t i o n betveen boundary and passage; and i f passage may be i n e i t h e r d i r e c -t i o n , from i n s i d e to outside or v i c e v e r s a , from l i f e to death or v i c e versa, nonetheless a l l these terms are predicated on the s i n g l e f i g u r e of the hero vho crosses the boundary and penetrates the other space. In so doing the hero, the mythical s u b j e c t , i s constructed as human being and as male; he i s the a c t i v e p r i n c i p l e of c u l t u r e , the e s t a b l i s h e r of d i s t i n c t i o n s , the c r e a t o r of d i f -29 ferences. Female i s what i s not s u s c e p t i b l e to t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , t o l i f e or death; she ( i t ) i s an element of plot-space, a topos, a r e s i s t a n c e , matrix and matter./60/ De L a u r e t i s argues that the gender of n a r r a t i v e p o s i -t i o n s or p l o t f u n c t i o n s i s b a s i c to the l a r g e r c u l t u r a l system of s t r u c t u r i n g o p p o s i t i o n s such as i n s i d e / o u t s i d e , raw/cooked and l i f e / d e a t h which s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e f i n e woman. The hero/obstacle opposi-t i o n i s one of the b i n a r y oppositions s t r u c t u r i n g western c u l t u r e . She suggests that these d i s c o v e r i e s pose another problematic: the extent to which n a r r a t i v e as such i s i m p l i c a t e d i n the production of gendered, s a d i s t i c and\or Oedipal meanings. Therefore, "the s t o r y must be t o l d d i f f e r e n t l y . " / 6 1 / Her a n a l y s i s demonstrates the need to deconstruct the c l a s s i c a l and gendered form of n a r r a t i v e which i s our Indo-European i n h e r i t a n c e . De L a u r e t i s argues that a hero overcoming obstacles and a c h i e v i n g g o a l s , unless otherwise marked, i s male; concomitantly, one of the ways that c u l t u r e d e f i n e s "male" i s as a hero who overcomes obstacles and achieves goals. Obstacles and g o a l s , unless otherwise marked, are defined as female, and one of the ways that "female" i s defined and s o c i a l l y produced i s as an obstacle and/or a g o a l . In other words, she argues t h a t a masculine generic operates at the l e v e l of nar-30 r a t i v e grammar. I t i s thus p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y a mas-c u l i n e generic at the three l e v e l s of sentence grammar, d i s c o u r s e , and n a r r a t i v e . The masculine generic i s the primary t a r g e t of fem-i n i s t l i n g u i s t i c reform. I t has been widely discussed from the point of view of s o c i o - l i n g u i s t i c s and semantics, and h i s t o r i c a l l y , i n terms of the debate over a non-gendered pronoun i n English./62/ Feminist l i n g u i s t s argue that the maintenance of the masculine generic as standard E n g l i s h means that males "are the sp e c i e s . What i t says about females i s that they are a sub-species."/63/ As f e m i n i s t s have pointed out i n many other contexts, the norm i s the male point of view. In the context of n a r r a t i v e i t i s appropriate to note the a s s o c i a t i o n , reaching back to Indo-European, between a c t i o n words and the semantic feature [+male]./64/ In t h i s case the homology between sentence grammar and n a r r a t i v e grammar i s not d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y ; i n f a c t i t could be n a i v e l y argued that both r e l y on a mimetic r e l a t i o n s h i p to nature. The same could be s a i d about l e x i c a l asymmetry: i t i s "nat-u r a l " that there are many more words/stories a v a i l a b l e to describe a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d , h e r o i c , t r a n s g r e s s i v e males than females. I t i s e a s i e r to t e l l a s t o r y with a male hero because males are h e r o i c . Feminist 31 s c h o l a r s h i p argues that because of a long h i s t o r y of t e l l i n g s t o r i e s with e x c l u s i v e l y male heroes, the vocabulary of feminine heroism and a c t i o n has been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y depleted. Old E n g l i s h l e x i c o l o g y pro-vides evidence for t h i s view of the problem; J u l i a Penelope Stanley and Cynthia McGovan poin t to the d i s -appearance of such terms as locbore " f r e e woman", quthcwena " b a t t l e woman," and maedenheap "band of female warr i o r s . " / 6 5 / N a r r a t i v e functions marked f o r performance by a male hero correspond t o sex-marked pr e d i c a t e s which e x i s t , l a r g e l y unnoticed, i n E n g l i s h . In 1978, J u l i a Penelope Stanley and Susan Wolfe Robbins published an a n a l y s i s of sex-marked pr e d i c a t e s i n E n g l i s h , noting that l e x i c a l asymmetry i s r e i n f o r c e d by ge n d e r - s p e c i f i c d i s t r i b u t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . / 6 6 / Gender-marked c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as might be expected, tend to def i n e and r e i n f o r c e c u l t u r a l stereotypes of appropriate behavior f o r women and men. Another set of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t e s to de L a u r e t i s ' s contention t h a t a l l n a r r a t i v e i s governed by a kind of Oedipal l o g i c . The Oedipus myth was re-read by Freud p r e c i s e l y as the s t o r y of the production of a human who i s subject to c u l t u r e , a human s u b j e c t . In Freud's v e r s i o n , everyone goes through the Oedipal nar-r a t i v e , and i n so doing, i s produced as a member of s o c i e t y , male or not-male. De L a u r e t i s broadens t h i s 32 a s s e r t i o n to include the idea that n a r r a t i v e — l i k e language i n general — i s the production ground of sub-j e c t i v i t y . She argues that i n c r o s s i n g a f r o n t i e r and pene t r a t i n g what was other, the hero i s constructed as a mythical s u b j e c t , a human being and male./67/ B i r t h has p r i o r p r i v i l e g e as n a r r a t i v e content: the not-yet-human crosses the b i r t h passage and enters the world as a human. This i s the passage on which a l l subsequent r i t e s of passage and i n i t i a t i o n are modelled. Here, woman i s not only not constructed as mythical subject and human, but i s s p e c i f i c a l l y that which remains unmoved, s t a t i o n a r y and r e s i s t a n t : matter/matrix/ mother. She i s the other against which the human sub-j e c t i s de f i n e d . However, i f the c r o s s i n g from the womb i n t o the world i s the r i t e of passage i n t o c u l -t u r e , why cannot women, as w e l l as men, be so con-s t r u c t e d as mythical subjects and female? De L a u r e t i s asks what Medusa f e l t "seeing h e r s e l f i n Perseus' mirror j u s t before being s l a i n ? " / 6 8 / What r e a l l y became of the Sphinx who i s supposed to have k i l l e d h e r s e l f i n f r u s t r a t i o n ? / 6 9 / Brossard uses both mythical female characters to ask very s i m i l a r ques-t i o n s i n P i c t u r e Theory. The v i o l e n c e of the images i n d i c a t e s the r e a l i t y t h a t , although simple i n p r i n c i -p l e , t e l l i n g the h e r o i c s t o r y from woman's point of view i s more than a simple r e v e r s a l . A woman s l i p p i n g 33 t o t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e m a l e / f e m a l e o p p o s i t i o n s i m p l y becomes male, as l o n g as t h e o p p o s i t i o n r e m a i n s i n t a c t . The d o u b l e - b i n d i s e x e m p l i f i e d by F r e n c h grammar; a woman i n a g r o u p i n c l u d i n g males or i n a s o c i a l r o l e a t t r i b u t e d t o males becomes g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n v i s i b l e , i n s p i t e o f t h e gende r m a r k i n g i n t h e l a n g u a g e . T e l l i n g a s t o r y f r o m an a u t h e n t i c a l l y f e m a l e p o i n t o f v i e w must undermine or undo t h e male h e r o / f e m a l e o b s t a c l e o p p o s i -t i o n . But does an a u t h e n t i c a l l y f e m a l e p o i n t o f v i e w e x i s t ? An u n c o l o n i z e d woman's p o i n t o f v i e w i s o n l y b e g i n n i n g t o be a r t i c u l a t e d i n t e x t s s u c h a s t h e two w h i c h a r e t h e o b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y . S p e a k i n g a b o u t women and f i c t i o n t o a g r o u p o f women s t u d e n t s i n 1928, V i r g i n i a Woolf b r o a c h e d t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e f u t u r e o f f i c t i o n and c l a i m e d t h a t " t h e book has somehow t o be a d a p t e d t o t h e body."/70/ Woolf f o r e s a w t h e c e n t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a d e v e l o p i n g women's w r i t i n g and t h e body, t h e v i o l e n c e t h a t would be u n l e a s h e d i n w r i t i n g women's b o d i e s : r e - w r i t i n g or w r i t i n g o v e r b o d i e s a l r e a d y w r i t t e n , z o n e d , c o l o n i z e d , c l a i m e d a s t h e s i t e o f c e n t r a l c u l t u r a l t a b o o s . She a r g u e d t h a t t h e woman w r i t e r needed f i r s t t o d e v i s e a s e n t e n c e s u i t e d t o h e r u s e ; beyond t h a t she would r e d e s i g n t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e , " a r c a d e s or domes,"/71/ b u i l t o u t o f s u c h s e n t e n c e s and c o m p r i s i n g t h e form o f t h e book, e p i c , or p o e t i c p l a y . A new, womanly w r i t i n g 34 would l i g h t up what has always been dark: For i f Chloe l i k e s O l i v i a and Mary Carmichael knows how to express i t she w i l l l i g h t a to r c h i n that vast chamber where nobody has yet been. I t i s a l l h a l f l i g h t s and profound shadows./72/ What i s the a r c h i t e c t u r e of t h i s new women's w r i t i n g , which V i r g i n i a Woolf foresaw, and which has c e r t a i n l y begun to e x i s t ? With what kind of p l o t s w i l l women c l e a r the ground? The two n a r r a t o l o g i c a l readings which compose the body of t h i s study are a c o n t r i b u t i o n to our n e c e s s a r i l y c o l l e c t i v e response to t h i s q uestion. 35 N o t e s / l / The Houghton M i f f l i n C a n a d i a n D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e  E n g l i s h Language, W i l l i a m M o r r i s , e d . (Markham, O n t a r i o : Houghton M i f f l i n , 1 9 8 2 ) . E y t m o l o g i e s and d e f i n i t i o n s u s e d i n P a r t s I and I I o f t h i s d i s s e r t a -t i o n , u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , come from t h i s e d i t i o n , b e c a u s e i t i s t h e C a n a d i a n e d i t i o n o f The A m e r i c a n  H e r i t a g e D i c t i o n a r y , , W i l l i a m M o r r i s , e d . ( B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n , 1 9 8 1 ) , w h i c h M a r l a t t u s e d i n w r i t i n g How Hug a S t o n e . The C a n a d i a n e d i t i o n has d e l e t e d t h e word " c u n t " ; I v e r i f i e d t h i s e t y m o l o g y i n t h e A m e r i c a n e d i t i o n . /2/ Daphne M a r l a t t , How Hug a Stone ( W i n n i p e g : T u r n s t o n e , 1 9 8 3 ) . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . / 3 / N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , P i c t u r e T h e o r y ( M o n t r e a l : N o u v e l l e O p t i q u e , 1982.) A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . /4/ J e a n - F r a n g o i s L y o t a r d , The P o s t m o d e r n C o n d i -t i o n : A R e p o r t on Knowledge, t r a n s . G e o f f B e n n i n g t o n and B r i a n Massumi ( M a n c h e s t e r U.P., 1 9 8 4 ) , x x i i i . / 5 / V l a d i m i r P r o p p , M o r p h o l o g y o f t h e F o l k t a l e , t r a n s . L a u r e n c e S c o t t ; 2nd e d . r e v i s e d and e d i t e d by L o u i s A. Wagner, New I n t r o d u c t i o n by A l a n Dundes ( A u s t i n : U n i v . o f T e x a s , 1 9 6 8 ) . /6/ P r o p p , x i . /I/ P r o p p , x i . /8/ P r o p p , x i i . / 9 / P r o p p , x i i i . /10/ Dundes does n o t use t h e t e r m " p a t r i a r c h a l " i n s p i t e o f i t s o b v i o u s r e l e v a n c e t o h i s example. / I I / R o l a n d B a r t h e s , " I n t r o d u c t i o n a l ' a n a l y s e s t r u c t u r a l e des r 6 c i t s . C o m m u n i c a t i o n s 8 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 1-27; " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s o f N a r r a -t i v e s , " Image - M u s i c - T e x t , t r a n s . S t e p h e n Heath (New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1 9 7 7 ) , 82-83. 36 /12/ Jonathan C u l l e r , "Story and Discourse i n the A n a l y s i s of N a r r a t i v e , " The P u r s u i t of Signs:  S e m i o t i c s , L i t e r a t u r e , D e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U.P., 1981), 169-170. /13/ Mieke B a l , N a r r a t o l o g y : I n t r o d u c t i o n to the  Theory of N a r r a t i v e , t r a n s . C h r i s t i n e van Boheemen (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto, 1985). A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . /14/ Barthes, 83, 81. /15/ B o r i s Tomashevsky, "Thematics," Russian F o r -m a l i s t C r i t i c i s m : Four Essays, t r a n s . Lee T. Lemon and Marion J . Reis ( L i n c o l n : Univ. of Nebraska, 1965), 68. /16/ Wayne Booth, The R h e t o r i c of F i c t i o n 2nd ed. (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, 1983); Gerard Genette, Nar-r a t i v e D i s c o u r s e : An Essay i n Method, t r a n s . Jane E. Lewin ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U.P., 1980). /17/ Barthes, 79. /18/ The Cantos of Ezra Pound (New York: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1950), 265. /19/ V i r g i n i a Woolf, "Women and F i c t i o n , " Women  and W r i t i n g , ed. Michele B a r r e t t (New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979), 49. /20/ Monique W i t t i g , Les q u e r i l l e r e s ( P a r i s : M i n u i t , 1969), 127. M a r l a t t read Les qu£rill&res before w r i t i n g How Hug a Stone. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w with Daphne M a r l a t t , J u l y 19, 1989. /21/ L o r r a i n e Weir, "From p i c t u r e to hologram: N i c o l e Brossard's grammar of u t o p i a , " A Mazing Space:  W r i t i n g Canadian Women W r i t i n g , eds. S h i r l e y Neuman and Smaro Kamboureli (Edmonton: Longspoon/NeWest, 1986), 345. /22/ Weir, 345. /23/ Weir, 349. /24/ Monique W i t t i g , Sande Ze i g , L e s b i a n Peoples:  M a t e r i a l s f o r a D i c t i o n a r y (New York: Avon, 1979), 74. /25/ W i t t i g , Z e i g , B r o u i l l o n pour un d i c t i o n n a i r e  des amantes ( P a r i s : Grasset, 1976), 151. /26/ N i c o l e Brossard, Un l i v r e (Montreal: Quinze, 1980). 37 /27/ N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , L ' A v i v a ( M o n t r e a l : n b j , 1985) . /28/ N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , Le d e s e r t mauve: roman ( M o n t r e a l : l ' H e x a g o n e , 1 9 8 7 ) . /29/ See B a r b a r a G o d a r d , " T h e o r i z i n g F e m i n i s t D i s -c o u r s e / T r a n s l a t i o n , " T e s s e r a 6 ( 1 9 8 9 ) , f o r t h c o m i n g . /30/ W e i r , 352. /31/ The p r o j e c t o f b u i l d i n g c u l t u r e "au f e m i n i n " i s o u t l i n e d i n N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , "De r a d i c a l a 1 ' i n t £ g r a l e s , " La l e t t r e a e r i e n n e ( M o n t r e a l : remue-menage, 19 8 5 ) , 87-106. "Au f e m i n i n " i s t r a n s l a t e d i n E n g l i s h a s " i n t h e f e m i n i n e . " See i n t h e f e m i n i n e :  women and v o r d s / l e s femmes e t l e s mots: C o n f e r e n c e P r o -c e e d i n g s 1983, e d . Ann D y b i k o w s k i e t . a l . (Edmonton: L o n g s p o o n , 1985). /32/ L y o t a r d , x x i v . /33/ L y o t a r d , x x i i i . /34/ L y o t a r d , x x i v . /35/ Daphne M a r l a t t , "musing w i t h m o t h e r t o n g u e , Touch t o my Tongue (Edmonton: L o n g s p o o n , 1 9 8 4 ) , 47. /36/ L y o t a r d , 78. /37/ L y o t a r d , 78. /38/ L y o t a r d , 82. /39/ R o l a n d B a r t h e s , S/Z, t r a n s . R i c h a r d M i l l e r (New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 19 7 4 ) , 3-6. /40/ L y o t a r d , 19. /41/ L y o t a r d , 21. /42/ R a c h e l B l a u D u P l e s s i s , W r i t i n g beyond t h e  E n d i n g : N a r r a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s o f T w e n t i e t h - C e n t u r y Women  W r i t e r s ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U.P., 19 8 5 ) , 1. /43/ B l a u D u P l e s s i s , 4. 744/ B l a u D u P l e s s i s , x. 38 /45/ V i r g i n i a Woolf, "Women and F i c t i o n , " 49; c i t e d i n Blau D u P l e s s i s , 56. /46/ Blau D u P l e s s i s , 56. /47/ V i r g i n i a Woolf, "Modern F i c t i o n , " The Common  Reader (London: Hogarth, 1925), 189; c i t e d i n Blau D u P l e s s i s , 56. /48/ For example, F r e d r i c Jameson: " n a r r a t i v e . . . means something l i k e t e l e o l o g y , " Foreword to Lyotard, x i x . /49/ Brossard, "De r a d i c a l a i n t e g r a l e s , " 87-103. /50/ Teresa de L a u r e t i s , A l i c e Doesn't: Feminism,  Semiotics, Cinema (Bloomington: Indiana U.P., 1984), 140. /51/ de L a u r e t i s , 133. /52/ J u r i j Lotman, "The O r i g i n of P l o t i n the Li g h t of Typology," P o e t i c s Today, 1, 1-2 (1979), 161-184. /53/ Lotman, 162. /54/ Lotman, 162. /55/ Lotman, 161. /56/ Lotman, 163. /57/ Lotman, 164. /58/ Lotman, 173. /59/ Lotman, 168. /60/ de L a u r e t i s , 118-119. /61/ de L a u r e t i s , 156. /62/ Denis Baron, Grammar and Gender (New Haven: Yale U.P., 1986). /63/ Casey M i l l e r and Kate Smith, The Handbook of Mpn-gextst W r i t i n g (Women's Press, 1980), 4. /64/ Susan J . Wolfe, "Gender and Agency i n Indo-European Languages," Papegs in, Linguistics, 13, 4 (1980), 773-794. 39 /65/ J u l i a Penelope Stanley and Cynthia McGovan, "Woman and Wife: S o c i a l and Semantic S h i f t s i n E n g l i s h , " Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s . 12, 3-4 (1979), 500. /66/ J u l i a Penelope Stanley and Susan Wolfe Rob-b i n s , "Sex-marked P r e d i c a t e s In E n g l i s h , " Papers In  L i n g u i s t i c s . 11, 1-2 (Spring-Summer 1978), 487-516. /67/ de L a u r e t i s , 119. /68/ de L a u r e t i s , 109. /69/ de L a u r e t i s , 156-157. /70/ V i r g i n i a Woolf, A Room of One's Own (1929; r p t . London: Granada, 1981), 74. /71/ Woolf, Room. 73. /72/ Woolf, Room. 80. 4 0 Part I I : A N a r r a t o l o g i c a l Reading of How Hug a Stone I t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine that access to the p o s s i b i l i t y of a road map i s not at the same time access t o w r i t i n g . / I / Event Fabula i s composed of four elements: event, a c t o r ( s ) , time and l o c a t i o n . Of these four , event i m p l i c a t e s the others because an actor i s defined as an agent that causes or experiences an event ( B a l , 5), and because events n e c e s s a r i l y happen somewhere and take time. N a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s therefore begins with the event or events of the f a b u l a . Defined as "a t r a n s i t i o n from one s t a t e to another s t a t e , caused or experienced by a c t o r s " ( B a l , 13), event i s s i t u a t e d at the heart of every f a b u l a . In order to determine the events of a f a b u l a , the reader can generate a one-sentence summary of the nar-r a t i v e o r, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , have s e v e r a l other readers w r i t e short summaries of the n a r r a t i v e and then s e l e c t what they have i n common. This i n t u i t i v e approach i s based on the perceived resemblance between sentence and fab u l a s t r u c t u r e . Mieke Bal r e s t a t e s n arratology's working assumption that a homology e x i s t s "between the 41 ( l i n g u i s t i c ) s t r u c t u r e of the sentence and that of the whole t e x t , " and between "the 'deep s t r u c t u r e 1 of the sentence and the 'deep s t r u c t u r e ' of the n a r r a t i v e t e x t , the f a b u l a " ( B a l , 11). Gerard Genette argues th a t i n essence, n a r r a t i v e i s the monstrous development of the verb: Since any n a r r a t i v e . . . i s a l i n g u i s t i c production undertaking to t e l l of one or s e v e r a l events, i t i s perhaps l e g i t i m a t e to t r e a t i t as the development — monstrous, i f you w i l l — given to a v e r b a l form, i n the grammatical sense of the term: the expansion of a verb. I walk, P i e r r e has come are f o r me minimal forms of n a r r a t i v e , and i n v e r s e l y the Odyssey or the Recherche i s only, i n a c e r t a i n way, an a m p l i f i c a -t i o n ( i n the r h e t o r i c a l sense) of statements such as Ulvsses comes home to Ithaca or Marcel becomes a, w r i t e r . This perhaps a u t h o r i z e s us to organize, or at any r a t e to formulate, the problems of a n a l y z i n g n a r r a t i v e discourse according to c a t e g o r i e s borrowed from the grammar of verbs./2/ Bal c l a r i f i e s the nature of the homology when she w r i t e s "that the correspondence . . . between the sentence and the fabula r e s t s upon a common l o g i c a l b a s i s . . . l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n f a m i l i a r t o us from sentence a n a l y s i s " ( B a l , 11-12). Sentence l o g i c r e f e r s us to the f a m i l i a r world of su b j e c t s and o b j e c t s , v e r b a l a c t i o n s and people or t h i n g s a c t i n g or acted upon. Bal notes t h a t many sc h o l a r s have searched f o r a c o r r e l a t i o n between the n a r r a t i v e events and the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of v e r b a l forms i n a t e x t , but she con-42 eludes that "the l i n g u i s t i c form i n which . . . [the event] i s embodied can be an i n d i c a t i o n but i t i s not always d e c i s i v e . Furthermore the general assumption that every event i s i n d i c a t e d by a verb of a c t i o n i s u n j u s t i f i e d " ( B a l , 15). This point i s demonstrated by How Hug a Stone, a t e x t which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y presents events i n p a r a t a c t i c s e r i e s of nominal or a d j e c t i v a l phrases. For example, i n "Combe M a r t i n , " ve read: l e t o f f the bus v i t h our bags & pack & vhere s h a l l ve go? here at the heart of vhat i remember of Combe Ma r t i n , curve of Seaside H i l l running dovn to the cove vhere t i d e d a i l y climbs the s h i n g l e beach to a s e a v a l l c l u t t e r of small h o t e l s , nev p l a t e g l a s s f i s h & c h i p p l a c e , shops o f f High S t r e e t s t r e t c h i n g back up the combe. l e t ' s eat, he says. (HJi§., 45) The e l i s i o n of f i n i t e verbs does not i n d i c a t e a s c a r -c i t y of events i n the f a b u l a ; i t should be understood, r a t h e r , as the grammar of o r a l language. An i n i t i a l one-sentence summary of Hov Hug a Stone might be as f o l l o w s : the n a r r a t o r , v i t h her son, t r a v e l s i n England f o r a month v i t h the i n t e n t i o n of be t t e r understanding her mother. This vorking summary corresponds to the n a r r a t o r ' s i n t e n t i o n s as a r t i c u l a t e d i n the " I n t r o d u c t i o n " : 43 June 14, 1981. ve f l y to England for a month of v i s i t i n g my mother's s i d e of the f a m i l y , my mother nov dead, her mother s t i l l a l i v e , my son vants to meet h i s great-grandmother & i vant to see her again, t h i s v r i t e r of f a i t h f u l l e t t e r s that have crossed the A t l a n t i c & Canada fo r 30 years, l e t t e r s that r e f l e c t vhat ve t e l l her but never say much about her ovn l i f e . l e t t e r s that remember me vhen i vas s m a l l , tugging me back to a mother vho was once my age. nov my son & i f l y a c r o s s , tvo l i v i n g l e t t e r s i n r e p l y , tvo s i n g l e i ' s v i t h Canadian accents, one 39, one 12. my Canadian-born son, vho b a r e l y knew & d i d n ' t understand h i s E n g l i s h grandmother, v i l l nov meet h i s E n g l i s h r e l a t i v e s & understand them as best he can. & perhaps i v i l l come to understand my mother too. (HHS f 11) This important statement frames the n a r r a t i v e vhich f o l l o w s . I t s p e c i f i e s that the voyage, motivated by the n a r r a t o r ' s d e s i r e to understand her mother, i s a quest f o r understanding. N a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s pro-ceeds from t h i s p o i n t . The fabula s t r u c t u r e a r r i v e d at by i n t u i t i v e means can be evaluated according to formal n a r r a t o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a . "[T]he r e l a t i v e importance of being able to formalize one's a n a l y s i s depends on one's purpose i n conducting i t . A very i n t u i t i v e s e l e c t i o n i s o f t e n s a t i s f a c t o r y , and a more formal method can be reserved fo r d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s " ( B a l , 18). Formal c r i t e r i a have been developed by Claude Bremond, who d e s c r i b e s n a r r a t i v e event as a process t a k i n g place i n three phases: v i r t u a l l t y , r e a l i z a t i o n , and c o n c l u s i o n . / 3 / B a l summarizes h i s argument: 44 A f a b u l a may be c o n s i d e r e d as a s p e c i f i c grouping of [ s i c ] s e r i e s of events. The f a b u l a as a whole con-s t i t u t e s a process, while every event can a l s o be c a l l e d a process or, at l e a s t , p a r t of a p r o c e s s . Three phases can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n every f a b u l a : the p o s s i b i l i t y (or v i r t u a l i t y ) , the event (or r e a l i z a t i o n ) , and the r e s u l t (or c o n c l u s i o n ) of the process. ( B a l , 19) Using Bremond's terms, the f a b u l a of How Hug a Stone can be p r o v i s i o n a l l y d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : Model 1 1. C o n d i t i o n of v i r t u a l i t y : the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the n a r r a t o r , i n making t h i s journey, w i l l b e t t e r understand her mother 2. Process of r e a l i z a t i o n : June 14, f l y i n g to England June 15, l a n d i n g at Gatwick June 16, s t a y i n g at the stepmother's house; t a k i n g the t r a i n to Exeter June 17, v i s i t i n g Poltimore V i l l a g e and the grandmother and uncle June 21, the grandmother g i v i n g photos, t e l l i n g s t o r l e s June 22, t r a v e l l i n g to Ilfracombe, Combe Ma r t i n , where the n a r r a t o r had stayed with her mother, s i s t e r s and grandparents as a c h i l d June 24, s t a y i n g a t Ellesmere June 26, on the t r a i n June 28, P i l g r i m Cottage with Jean and Nick June 30, " c i r c l i n g the power t h r e s h o l d s of Stonehenge -- embracing the squat stone mothers of Avebury" (HHS. 64) 3. C o n c l u s i o n : u n s p e c i f i e d date, T r a f a l g a r Square, "we want to be where l i v e t h i n g s a r e " N a r r a t o l o g y d i s t i n g u i s h e s between f u n c t i o n a l and non-f u n c t i o n a l events. F u n c t i o n a l events i n v o l v e a change 45 of c o n d i t i o n caused or experienced by an a c t o r . Bal c i t e s Roland Barthes' " I n t r o d u c t i o n to the S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s of N a r r a t i v e " i n arguing that i n order to be considered f u n c t i o n a l , an event must pose a choice between two p o s s i b i l i t i e s ( B a l , 15-16). Once a choice i s made i t determines the course of the n a r r a t i v e ; there i s a causal r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f u n c t i o n a l events of a f a b u l a . The p a t t e r n of choice — event — choice i s i m p l i c i t i n the t r a v e l n a r r a t i v e of How Hug a  Stone. From Combe M a r t i n , the narrator could have returned to London or Canada, but she chose to go on to the Cotswolds and Avebury. The events of the f a b u l a as o u t l i n e d i n Model I are f u n c t i o n a l according to the c r i t e r i a of choice and change of c o n d i t i o n . When there i s no c l e a r causal r e l a t i o n s h i p between the important events of a n a r r a t i v e , n a r r a t o l o g y ques-t i o n s the " l o g i c of events." " S t r u c t u r a l i s t s o f t e n work from the assumption that the s e r i e s of events that i s presented i n the s t o r y must answer to the same r u l e s as those c o n t r o l l i n g human behavior, s i n c e a n a r r a t i v e t e x t would otherwise be impossible to understand" ( B a l , 6). Bal d e f i n e s the " l o g i c of events" as "a course of events that i s experienced by the reader as n a t u r a l and i n accordance with the world" ( B a l , 12). The s e l f -r e f e r e n t i a l conservatism of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s obvious. A n a l y s i s of the l o g i c of events provides a c l e a r occa-46 s i o n f o r examination of the i d e o l o g i c a l commitment, conscious or not, of a t e x t . The normative assumptions t i e d up v i t h "the l o g i c of events" are not challenged by Hov Hug a Stone to the extent that they are by P i c t u r e Theory. They are, hovever, c l e a r l y challenged by K i t ' s dream of i d o l a t r y and s a c r i f i c e . The meaning of K i t ' s dream i s a con-s t r u c t of the i n t e r t e x t u a l s i g n i f y i n g system of the t e x t , although i t i s presented as spontaneous and " r e a l . " Daphne M a r l a t t a s c r i b e s the dream t o the a c t i v i t y of the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious; K i t sub-c o n s c i o u s l y had a profound understanding of the issues h i s mother vas s t r u g g l i n g v l t h . / 5 / The reader, i f s/he dis c o v e r s the r e l a t i o n s h i p betveen K i t ' s dream and the mythological subtext of the poem, v l l l l i k e l y a s c r i b e i t t o a u t h o r i a l i n v e n t i o n : s/he v i l l assume that the dream i s f i c t i o n . A reading of the poem as autobiography vould have to s t r u g g l e v i t h the u n i t y of n a r r a t o r , author, and content of the n a r r a t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , v i t h the question of f i c t i o n and r e a l i t y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p betveen the author of the book and the nar r a t o r of the poem does not, hovever, form part of a n a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . I t i s enough to observe that a normative l o g i c of events i s challenged by the poem "on the t r a i n . " A t h i r d c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i n g events vas developed by W i l l i a m Hendricks./6/ According to t h i s 47 theory, the s t r u c t u r e of the fabula i s determined by the c o n f r o n t a t i o n of two groups of a c t o r s ; such a con-f r o n t a t i o n d e f i n e s f u n c t i o n a l events as i n v o l v i n g two a c t o r s and one a c t i o n , two arguments and one p r e d i c a t e , or two objects and one process. Mieke Bal points out: L i n g u i s t i c a l l y , i t should be p o s s i b l e to formulate t h i s u n i t y as: two nominal and one v e r b a l component. The s t r u c t u r e of the b a s i s [ s i c ) sentence would then be: subject — p r e d i c a t e — ( d i r e c t ) object i n which both the subject and the ( d i r e c t ) object must be a c t o r s , agents of a c t i o n . According to t h i s t h i r d c r i t e r i o n , only those segments of the t e x t that can be represented by such a b a s i s sentence c o n s t i t u t e a f u n c t i o n a l event. ( B a l , 17) The b a s i s sentence, according to these c r i t e r i a , could be w r i t t e n as f o l l o w s : the narrator f l i e s to England to understand her mother. V a r i a t i o n s on the b a s i s sentence which preserve i t s e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e would i n c l u d e : the n a r r a t o r t r a v e l s to P o l t i m o r e / t o Combe M a r t i n / to Ellesmere/ to Avebury, i n order to under-stand her mother. She l i s t e n s to s t o r i e s / r e l i v e s her memories/ reads and w r i t e s / becomes more conscious of her own mothering, and so on, i n order to understand her mother. There are events i n the n a r r a t i v e which do not f a l l i n t o t h i s p a t t e r n : Edrys h e r s e l f c o n f r o n t i n g her mother, K i t t e l l i n g h i s dream, B r i t i s h R a i l r e t u r n -48 ing mother and son to t h e i r i t i n e r a r y . These events e s s e n t i a l l y form subordinate clauses w i t h i n the n a r r a -t i v e sentence. Using Hendricks' formula, the a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by the narrator i n her e f f o r t to understand her mother are f u n c t i o n a l events i n t h i s f a b u l a . According to each of these formal methods, the pas-sage of the narrator from a c o n d i t i o n of non-understanding to a c o n d i t i o n of understanding i s the c e n t r a l event of How Hug a Stone. The fabula has a quest s t r u c t u r e . The n a r r a t o r , who i s the a c t o r / s u b j e c t , experiences a lack of understanding, and s e t s out to f i n d what she i s missing. A f t e r a s e r i e s of adventures i n which she r e c e i v e s help from donors and overcomes obstacles which can be r e f e r r e d t o as opponents, she succeeds i n her quest and the s t o r y i s complete. As a n a r r a t i v e grammar, the quest i s h i s t o r i c a l l y and s t r u c t u r a l l y r e l a t e d to the f o l k t a l e fabulas which were the objects of V l a d i m i r Propp's e a r l y n a r r a t o l o g y . In f a c t , the f o l k t a l e f a b u l a , r e f i n e d by Bremond and Greimas, has served as the model f o r a h y p o t h e t i c a l u n i v e r s a l n a r r a t i v e f a b u l a : Taking as a b a s i s the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n that human t h i n k i n g and a c t i o n i s d i r e c t e d towards an aim, one c o n s t r u c t s a model which represents the r e l a t i o n s to the aim. This model claims u n i v e r s a l v a l i d i t y for 4 9 i t s o perative p r i n c i p l e and i s not l i m i t e d to invented f a b u l a s . ( B a l , 26) The quest s t r u c t u r e r e g u l a r l y occurs not only i n the f a i r y t a l e and romance but, as a quest f o r understand-in g , development or i d e n t i t y , i n the bildungsroman, the love s t o r y , the adventure or d e t e c t i v e t h r i l l e r , and i n n o n f i c t i o n . The fabula of How Hug a Stone can be schematized as a quest: the n a r r a t or — wishes to understand — her mother actant (subject) — f u n c t i o n — actant (object) This i s the "head" or elementary s e r i e s of events ( B a l , 21). The fabula becomes more complex through embedded n a r r a t i o n s , l e a d i n g t o an e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t fabula model which I c a l l Model I I . In order to develop Model I I , i t i s necessary f i r s t to define " a c t a n t i a l r o l e s " ( B a l , 26) and the concept of n a r r a t i v e " f u n c t i o n . " Actors I t i s important to recognize the extent to which the quest model i s g o a l - o r i e n t e d . The subject has a g o a l , and helpers and opponents complicate her progres-s i o n towards i t . On the grounds of t h i s g o a l -50 o r i e n t a t i o n s e v e r a l a c t o r s may be considered as the same ac t a n t . Bal c l a r i f i e s these r e l a t i o n s : (Tjhe model s t a r t s from a t e l e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n betveen the elements of the s t o r y : the a c t o r s have an i n t e n t i o n : they a s p i r e tovards an aim. That a s p i r a t i o n i s the achievement of something agreeable or favourable, or the evasion of something di s a g r e e -able or unfavourable. The verbs to wish and t o fear i n d i c a t e t h i s t e l e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n and ar e , there-f o r e , used as a b s t r a c t i o n s of the i n t e n t i o n a l con-nections betveen elements. The c l a s s e s of a c t o r s ve c a l l a c t a n t s . An actant i s a c l a s s of a c t o r s that shares a c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c q u a l i t y . That shared c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s r e l a t e d to the t e l e o l o g y of the fabula as a vhole. An actant i s ther e f o r e a c l a s s of a c t o r s vhose members have an i d e n t i c a l r e l a t i o n to the aspect of t e l o s which c o n s t i t u t e s the p r i n c i p l e of the f a b u l a . That r e l a t i o n we c a l l the f u n c t i o n ( F ) . ( B a l , 26) There are s i x a c t a n t i a l c l a s s e s , which f a l l i n t o p a i r s : s u b j e c t / o b j e c t , p o v e r / r e c e i v e r , and helper/opponent. In Hov Hug a Stone, i i s the s u b j e c t / a c t o r of the head s e r i e s . Her mother i s the ob j e c t , and understand-ing mother Is the f u n c t i o n . The pover and the r e c e i v e r a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h a t force i n the n a r r a t i v e v h i c h enables the narrator to achieve her g o a l , and that e n t i t y v h i c h b e n e f i t s from her success. Language i s the medium for her voyage of d i s c o v e r y and the means through v h i c h s t o r i e s of her mother come t o her. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , the most appropriate sender or pover. The n a r r a t o r h e r s e l f i s the r e c e i v e r ; she undertakes 51 her quest for h e r s e l f . The r o l e s of the power and r e c e i v e r i n How Hug a Stone can be schematized as f o l l o w s : power — f u n c t i o n — r e c e i v e r language — enables understanding — f o r the subject Power, Bal argues, i s "power over the whole e n t e r p r i s e , i s o f t e n a b s t r a c t , u s u a l l y remains i n the background, ( i s ] u s u a l l y only one" ( B a l , 31). I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h i s way from the helper c l a s s of a c t a n t s , which a l s o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r the subject to achieve her aim. Helpers, i n c o n t r a s t to power, are u s u a l l y m u l t i -p l e , o f t e n come to the f o r e , are mostly concrete and give i n c i d e n t a l a i d . The helper i s paired with the opponent c l a s s . The i n t e r v e n t i o n s of the helpers and opponents are g e n e r a l l y what make a s t o r y i n t e r e s t i n g . According to the l o g i c of the quest, the s t o r i e s that K i t t e l l s can be Integrated i n t o the head s e r i e s as helpers because they c o n t r i b u t e to the n a r r a t o r ' s eventual understanding. Other helpers include the grandmother and her g i f t s of s t o r i e s and photographs; the c o u s i n , uncle, aunts, nieces and Jean and t h e i r s t o r i e s ; and the landscape i t s e l f , w ith i t s r e s i d e n t s , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s , f l o r a and fauna. Everything counts i n t h i s s t o r y of un f o l d i n g s t o r i e s . "everything c a l l s , s h i n e s , p o i n t s to i t s e l f " (HHS., 43). 52 Quest grammar s p e c i f i e s that opponents are s t r u g g l e d with and overcome i n the progress tovards the g o a l . The cousin i n i t i a l l y seems to be an opponent, as he plays h i s game of death and, as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the dominant ideology, " h a i l s " young K i t . I t i s notevorthy that the t e x t p r e c i s e l y presents the func-t i o n v hich Althusser c a l l s i n t e r p e l l a t i o n or h a i l i n g ; i t i s the means by v h i c h ideology r e c r u i t s ' subjects . . . or 'transforms' . . . i n d i v i d u a l s Into s u b j e c t s " of already e x i s t i n g i d e o l o g i c a l formations./?/ Hovever, the cousin's p l a y r e s u l t s l n the n a r r a t o r ' s heightened avareness: " i thought i vas f r e e " (HHS, 17), and her consciousness that K i t ' s t u r n i n g from her p a r a l l e l s her pushing past her ovn "mother's quick r e s t r a i n t " (HHS, 18), at the age of nine. These are g i f t s i n a quest f o r understanding, so the cousin too must be understood as a helper. Fear i s the true opponent i n Hov Hug a Stone; fear that vanquished Edrys and that threatens her daughter. In "back to Reading," the n a r r a t o r a r t i c u l a t e s her s t r u g g l e v i t h f e a r : i think of the shape of her l i f e , her brooding s i l e n c e , hov 1 f e l t 1 vas s t r u g g l i n g o f t e n v i t h her sense of f a t a l i t y , e i t h e r about h e r s e l f or about us, her c h i l d r e n , the s t r u g g l e v i t h her fear vhich 1 suspected of being so strong i t could a c t u a l l y shape vhat happened to me. coming to meet i t , i see vhat I've been s t r u g g l i n g v i t h here. (HHS., 76) 53 In the rough notes f o r the book, which now form part of the Daphne M a r l a t t c o l l e c t i o n i n the L i t e r a r y Manu-s c r i p t s D i v i s i o n of the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of Canada, we read, "fear i s the great d e b i l i t a t o r — poisoning 'the w e l l of being' so that we lose s i g h t of our own poten-t i a l (the w e l l s p r i n g , the source)." Fear i s a powerful o b s t a c l e . I t f i n a l l y c o n t r i b u t e s to the n a r r a t o r ' s understanding and i s ther e f o r e r e l a t e d to the t e l e o l o g y of the quest. The a c t a n t i a l r o l e played by K i t i s d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e . He i s more than a helper; the s t o r i e s he t e l l s and the comments he makes repeatedly emphasize that K i t i s a subject (actor) with a program ( f u n c t i o n ) of h i s own t o f u l f i l l . He i s the subject of language and of a number of sub-fabulas or fabulas embedded w i t h i n the head s e r i e s . He i s not a double of the s u b j e c t / a c t a n t , s i n c e he doesn't have the same f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to the object of the n a r r a t i v e ; K i t i s not questing to understand h i s / t h e mother. He might be defined as an " a n t i - s u b j e c t , " that i s , an acto r who pursues her/his own object and, at a c e r t a i n moment, stands a t c r o s s -purposes t o the subject ( B a l , 32). However, K i t i s not, s t r i c t l y speaking, independent of h i s mother. He has a dream, becomes i l l and plays i n r e l a t i o n to her. 54 C l e a r l y , the quest model Is not well-equipped to des-c r i b e mother/child r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Beyond, fchs Telsolpgy pfi the QVISgt The fabula of How Hug a Stone can be described i n three ways. The f i r s t and most evident considers the fabula as a quest. Recent developments i n f e m i n i s t theory have, however, made i t impossible to accept u n c r i t i c a l l y the quest model and the n a r r a t i v e grammar i t i m p l i e s . In any case, the fabula of How Hug a Stone deconstructs as i t evokes the quest motif and s t r u c -ture . As I pointed out i n Part I , J u r i j Lotman i d e n t i f i e s at the heart of the quest fabula an "elementary sequence of events": "entry i n t o a closed space" and "emergence from i t . " / 8 / Noting that these form a "fun-damental o p p o s i t i o n between boundary and passage,"/9/ Teresa de L a u r e t i s leaves no doubt as to the i m p l i c a -t i o n s of Lotman's work f o r f e m i n i s t theory: (T)he hero must be male . . . because the obstacle . . . i s mo r p h o l o g i c a l l y female. . . . the s i n g l e f i g u r e of the hero . . . i s constructed as human being and as male. . . . Female i s what i s not sus-c e p t i b l e to tra n s f o r m a t i o n , to l i f e or death; she ( i t ) i s an element of plot-space, a topos, a r e s i s t a n c e , matrix and matter./10/ S i m i l a r terms d e f i n i n g female are brought i n t o p l a y by Daphne M a r l a t t , with reference to the arche-mother: 55 although there are s t o r i e s about her, versions of h i s t o r y that are ver s i o n s of her, & though she comes i n many guises she i s not a person, she i s what ve come through to & what ve come out of, ground & source, the space a f t e r the co l o n , the pause (between the vords) of a l l p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n . (HHS., 73) In t h i s passage, M a r l a t t a r t i c u l a t e s the c l a s s i c a l p l o t p o s i t i o n v hich c o n s t r u c t s vhat i t i s to be female./II/ In d e f i n i n g a feminine ground through v h i c h the subject moves, M a r l a t t , l i k e de L a u r e t i s , suggests the r e l a t i o n betveen the p h y s i c a l i t y of the mother's body and the metaphysical arch6-mother, earth-vomb-tomb. Both authors s p e c i f y the s t a t i o n a r y , non-person s t a t u s of t h i s feminine ground: de L a u r e t i s rather a n g r i l y , and M a r l a t t , f a c t u a l l y , both i n t h i s t e x t and i n her notebook. In a r t i c u l a t i n g the female p l o t p o s i t i o n , M a r l a t t r e c o n t e x t u a l i z e s i t and changes i t s meaning. Recognizing the matrix as ar c h e t y p a l and other, she claims i t as vhat "ve" come through. She uses these terms to co n s t r u c t her protagonist as human subject and female. The quest model describes events i n terms of the d e s i r e of one s u b j e c t ; conceived at i t s most a b s t r a c t , a subject crosses a l i n e . The nar r a t o r of Hov Hug a  Stone crosses the ocean and crosses over the boundary i n t o understanding. According t o the l o g i c of the 56 quest, the other characters i n the poem, with the exception of Edrys who i s an ob j e c t , are helpers or opponents. The nar r a t o r i s the one true s u b j e c t . The quest s t r u c t u r e subordinates a l l the other fabula e l e -ments to the t e l o s of the s u b j e c t . S t r u c t u r a l s u b o r d i n a t i o n on t h i s l e v e l runs counter to Hov Hua a Stone's s p i r i t which emphasises a p l u r a l i t y of voices and c e l e b r a t e s a l i s t e n i n g and u l t i m a t e l y c o l l e c t i v e s u b j e c t . In a d d i t i o n , the quest model f a i l s to account f o r the character of K i t . However, How Hug a Stone has other deep s t r u c t u r e s which contest the t e l e o l o g y of the quest. The f i r s t of these becomes apparent when we b r i n g forward the f u l l complexity of the quest n a r r a t i v e i t s e l f . The events of Edrys' l i f e , as they g r a d u a l l y emerge, c o n s t i t u t e a second fabula which i s embedded i n the head s e r i e s , thus c r e a t i n g a much more complex fabula with not one hero but two: the nar r a t o r and her mother. Reading the n a r r a t i v e t h i s way, t r a c i n g Edrys' s t r u g g l e through the map of memory, the reader f i n d s that the s t r u c t u r e of the fabula metamorphoses. While the n a r r a t o r ' s s t o r y moves forward i n time and space, Edrys' s t o r y unfolds i n the reverse d i r e c t i o n . Con-si d e r e d as one n a r r a t i v e with a second embedded w i t h i n i t , the whole fabula i s as f o l l o w s : 57 Model I I June 14 subject t r a v e l s to Reading ( n a r r a t o r ' s memories of 1948: Edrys on vacation) t o Poltimore (grandmother's memories of the l a t e t h i r t i e s and e a r l y f o r t i e s : Edrys becomes a woman) to P i l g r i m Cottage (Jean's memories: Edrys i n school) to Avebury ( c u l t u r a l , a n c e s t r a l memory) to London (ves t i g e of dinosaurs) back to 1951, then to the present. Moving i n two d i r e c t i o n s at once, t h i s f a b u l a escapes the s t r i c t c o n t r o l of l i n e a r time; i t s double movement generates an e f f e c t of synchrony. Schematized i n t h i s way the fabula corresponds to Bremond's a n a l y s i s of n a r r a t i v e c y c l e s , e i t h e r i n sequence or embedded w i t h i n one another, which are con-s t i t u t e d by "processes of improvement" and "processes of d e t e r i o r a t i o n " ( B a l , 22). Improvement f u l f i l l m e n t of the task ( c r o s s i n g over) I n t e r v e n t i o n of a l l i e s ( s t o r i e s ) e l i m i n a t i o n of the opponent (fea r ) n e g o t i a t i o n ( " P i l g r i m n i g h t " to "long a f t e r The Brown Day of Bride") s a t i s f a c t i o n (feeding the pigeons) D e t e r i o r a t i o n misstep (Edrys' marriage) c r e a t i o n of an o b l i g a t i o n (to be a wife and mother) the s a c r i f i c e (going to North America) the endured attack (madness, fear) the endured punishment ( s i l e n c e ) 58 In t h i s v e r s i o n of the f a b u l a , the two processes occur simultaneously; thus Model I I c l e a r l y undermines the t e l e o l o g y of the quest. A t h i r d fabula model accounts more c a r e f u l l y than the f i r s t two for the f i n a l movement of the poem, the n a r r a t o r ' s t r i p to Avebury and her e x p l o r a t i o n of N e o l i t h i c r i t u a l . The f i g u r e of Edrys g r a d u a l l y merges with t h a t of B l r d / B r i d e / B r i g i t , the B r i t i s h i n c a r n a t i o n of the great goddess of Old European c u l t u r e . / 1 2 / A s h i f t i n t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l time i s marked by the move-ment from " P i l g r i m n i g h t , " with I t s fear and I t s ques-t i o n , "who mothers me?" (HHS. 71), to "long a f t e r The Brown Day of B r i d e " (HHS. 72-73), with i t s d i r e c t i n v o c a t i o n of the earth's mothering and mythological power. The n a r r a t o r ' s quest to understand her mother has l e d her beyond Edrys and beyond her mother, to the "squat stone mothers of Avebury" (HHS. 64) and, f i n a l l y , t o the i n t e r i o r n a r r a t i v e of the mothertongue. The fabula thus moves from o r i g i n t o myth to the i n t e g r a t i o n of past and present. In Model I I I , ceremonies held i n the West Kennet long barrow i n approximately 3500 B.C. are the f i r s t f abula event. They are followed by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of S i l b u r y H i l l i n l a t e J u l y , 2660 B.C. Subsequent t r a n s -formations may be arranged along a t i m e l i n e that d i s -s o c i a t e s them from the n a r r a t o r and her quest. The 59 speaking community i s the s u b j e c t / a c t a n t manifested by a l l the c h a r a c t e r s . Language i s the pover t h a t makes t r a n s i t i o n from generation to generation p o s s i b l e . This v e r s i o n of the fabula i s as f o l l o w s : Model I I I 3500 B.C. West Kennet long barrow 2660 B.C. S l l b u r y H i l l 1890 A.D. Grandmother born 1941 Edrys brought out 1942 narrator born 1948 h o l i d a y i n England 1951 emigration June 14, 1981 the n a r r a t o r and her son f l y to England e t c . In t h i s v e r s i o n of the f a b u l a , Edrys, her mothers before her, the n a r r a t o r and K i t share e q u a l l y i n the subject f u n c t i o n . The c o l l e c t i v e s u b j e c t / a c t a n t crosses the boundary between l i f e and death, a subject of language who, l i k e the n a r r a t o r , remains otherwise unnamed. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between i and the other sub-j e c t s of language i s both f a m i l i a r and f a m i l i a l , char-a c t e r i z e d by the " r e c i p r o c a l t i e s " summoned by etymological play on the Indo-European root g h o s t i - r meaning "stranger, guest, host; one v i t h whom one has r e c i p r o c a l t i e s of o b l i g a t i o n . " Conceived i n t h i s way the fabula r e f l e c t s and r e i n f o r c e s the thematic sub-s t i t u t i o n of t e l o s , "our obsession with the end of t h i n g s , " with "the o l d slow pulse beyond word become, 60 under f l e s h , mutter of stone, stane, s t e l - i n q power" (HHS. 75). P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h i s model of the f a b u l a , which e x p l i c i t l y reaches towards the N e o l i t h i c o r i g i n s of our language and c u l t u r e , r e v e a l s the i l l u s o r y nature of a quest for o r i g i n . I f the f a m i l y i s the s u b j e c t / a c t a n t of the f a b u l a , o r i g i n and t e l e o l o g y disappear i n the mists of time: someone always gave b i r t h to the one before. This "mise en abyme" i s suggested i n the e v o l u t i o n a r y image of the f i n a l passage: " r u f f l e d neck feathers r i p p l e s n a k e l i k e movement of the neck l a s t v e s t i g e of dinosaurs" (HHS, 79). As long as humans s u r v i v e , t h i s s t o r y w i l l continue; but s u r v i v a l too, the t e x t points out, i s i n doubt. "This e a r t h h o s p i t a b l e . . . . takes back what i s gi v e n , qhost-1, h o s t l y and h o s t i l e at once" (HHS, 48-49). By n e g l e c t -ing i t s r e c i p r o c a l d u t i e s to the e a r t h , modern s o c i e t y puts l i f e i t s e l f i n jeopardy, "planning . . . nuclear-powered k i l l e r submarines & radar-equipped reconnais-sance a i r c r a f t , ( g e t t i n g r i d of u s ) " (HHS. 48). Taking Model I I I as the f a b u l a , the poem has the character of a c h r o n i c l e which repeats the b i r t h and death of a s i n g l e , c o l l e c t i v e actant without reproduc-ing the b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n of i n s i d e / o u t s i d e which i s i m p l i c a t e d i n the production of male/female gender. The actant includes male and female. Understood i n 61 t h i s l i g h t , the fabula c o n s t r u c t s gender as an a t t r i b u t e of s t o r y . To put i t d i f f e r e n t l y , the fabula i m p l i e s a generic human vho i s both male and female. In a d d i t i o n , the form of the quest, v h i c h i s oft e n taken as a model — even a u n i v e r s a l model — of fa b u l a , can be r e i n t e r p r e t e d as an aspect of s t o r y vhich depends on the f o c a l i z a t i o n of one a c t o r . B. Story Fpc^llzcl t lPn The adoption of the t h i r d model f o r the fabula s t r u c t u r e r e s u l t s i n a reading of the poem as the transformation of a c o l l e c t i v e subject vho i s manifested, at the l e v e l of s t o r y , by many d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s . The d e s i r e f o r understanding v h i c h motivates the t r a v e l n a r r a t i v e i s d i s p l a c e d and reap-pears as an aspect of s t o r y ; i t i s a consequence of our perception of the fabula through the senses of the nar-r a t o r . Bal defines t h i s sensory aspect of s t o r y as f o c a l i z a t i o n , p r e f e r r i n g the term to the more v i d e l y used "point of v i e v " because i t permits a rigo r o u s d i s -t i n c t i o n betveen the v i t n e s s of fabula events and t h e i r n a r r a t o r , vho i s the l i n g u i s t i c subject of language ( B a l , 100-101). Character i s r e l a t e d to f o c a l i z a t i o n i n s o f a r as i t i s g e n e r a l l y through one or more charac-62 t e r s that a fabula i s f o c a l i z e d . I f a fabula i s not f o c a l i z e d through the senses of a ch a r a c t e r , v h i c h i s the case v i t h s e c t i o n s of N i c o l e Brossard's P i c t u r e  Theory, a r a d i c a l displacement of n a r r a t i v e expecta-t i o n s r e s u l t s . Bal's d i s c u s s i o n makes c l e a r that there i s more to f o c a l i z a t i o n than seeing; the f o c a l i z e r lends a l l of her sensory c a p a b i l i t i e s , that i s , a l l of her body, to the experiencing and focussing of the fa b u l a . This s t r u c t u r i n g presence Is noteworthy i n Hov  Hug a Stone, a t e x t vhich i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the p o v e r f u l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a woman's body at the s t o r y l e v e l . More than any other aspect of s t o r y , f o c a l i z a t i o n mediates between s t o r y and f a b u l a : In a s t o r y , elements of the fabula are presented i n a c e r t a i n way. We are confronted with a v i s i o n of the f a b u l a . What i s t h i s v i s i o n l i k e and where does i t come from? . . . I s h a l l r e f e r to the r e l a t i o n s between the elements presented and the v i s i o n through which they are presented with the term jEocal i z a t i o n . ( B a l , 100) The fabula of How Hug a Stone i s s t r o n g l y f o c a l i z e d through the v i s i o n and emotions of the p r o t a g o n i s t ; t h i s f o c a l i z a t i o n gives meaning and importance to a guest s t r u c t u r e which begins with a t r a n s a t l a n t i c f l i g h t and which ends with her achievement of r e l a t i v e understanding. The t r a v e l n a r r a t i v e frames a s e r i e s of 63 embedded s u b j e c t i v e r e t r o v e r s i o n s , or remembered i n c i -dents from the past, which t e l l the s t o r i e s of Edrys and her mother. These depend f o r t h e i r form and m o t i v a t i o n on the f o c a l i z a t i o n by the n a r r a t o r . F o c a l i z a t i o n a l s o governs the r e g u l a r rhythm of the t r a v e l n a r r a t i v e and the summarizing rhythm of s t o r i e s held i n memory. The n a r r a t o r ' s preoccupation with n a r r a t i v e can be read as her need to i d e n t i f y the f a b u l a i n which she f i n d s h e r s e l f . Once she e s t a b l i s h e s both i t s a n t i q u i t y and i t s open-ended f u t u r e , the q u e s t i o n of o r i g i n i s d i s p l a c e d and she i s f r e e d from the c l a u s t r o p h o b i c dynamics of her f a m i l y . Her uncle d r i v e s the Dartmoor H i l l s , " f u r i o u s " and " d r i v e n , " a s k i n g "who w r i t e s the t e x t ? " (HHS, 33). His q u e s t i o n i s answered i n the l a s t s e c t i o n of the poem. L i k e the s p i r a l l e d s h e l l of the s n a i l , the unwinding, sinuous, n a r r a t i v e sentence c u r l s over on i t s e l f , with o n l y a "blue/black hole at c e n t r e " (HHS, 70). Without f i x e d o r i g i n , the n a r r a t o r w r i t e s at the beginning of her journey, "so as not to be l o s t , i n v e n t : one c l e a r a c t i n a l l t h a t j a z z . ( i n f l i g h t ? & i f the plane goes down?" (HHS, 15). By the end of How  Hug a Stone, her i n v e n t i o n has won her a p l a c e to stand (HHS., 78-79). That place i s i n the context of her fam-i l y which, with i t s r e c i p r o c a l r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s , and r e p e t i t i v e form, transcends the l i f e and death of 64 i n d i v i d u a l s : "memorial o r b i t s of love, spasmodic, reaching f a r back i n the blood — where there i s a gap, a black hole somewhere" (HHS, 34). Family s t r u c t u r e i s mirrored i n the fabula with i t s one subject who passes i n and out of language and l i f e . The usual "numerical i n e q u a l i t y between a c t o r s and a c t a n t s " ( B a l , 32) i s here exaggerated to the extreme point of uncountable characters and one ac t a n t . This i s a mythological form. The narrator t r a c e s a d e l i c a t e l i n e between her growing awareness of the c o l l e c t i v i t y which d e f i n e s who she i s , and her i n d i v i d u a l voice and freedom to act (HJiS_, 35). In c e r t a i n passages, characters merge i n t o t h e i r a c t a n t i a l f u n c t i o n . D i s t i n c t i o n s among the grand-mother, Edrys and the n a r r a t o r b l u r : & so c o a l l i g h t s , qeulo-, ember from India born "somewhere i n the north" i n the 1890's, schooled i n the h i l l s , has a daughter born i n Bombay, schooled i n the N i l g i r i H i l l s ( " l i k e the E n g l i s h downs," she s a i d ) & England, c a r r i e d a l l the way to Malaya, thence to A u s t r a l i a when war breaks out, where i appear. (HHS, 29-30) I t i s impossible to i d e n t i f y the point when the grand-mother becomes Edrys, or who e x a c t l y s a i d that the N i l -g i r i H i l l s are l i k e the E n g l i s h downs. Three b i r t h s are mentioned; three generations of daughters are evoked, s i n c e i t was the grandmother, and not Edrys, 65 who was born i n the 1890s, and i i s the nar r a t o r of the poem. The sub j e c t / a c t a n t of t h i s embedded n a r r a t i v e i s geulo-, promethean f i r e of l i f e or simply, as M a r l a t t wrote i n her notebook, "the same o l d c o a l . " N a r r a t o l o g i c a l reading i l l u m i n a t e s the I d e n t i f i c a -t i o n and c o n f l i c t between Edrys and her daughter. This c o n f l i c t Is meaningful t h e m a t i c a l l y , but i t i s c l e a r l y a l s o a s t r u c t u r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s ' i d e n t i t y at the l e v e l of the f a b u l a . Within the d i s -course of the poem t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s manifested by t h e i r mutual r e s i s t a n c e to the r o l e that they are of f e r e d i n the p a t r i a r c h a l s c r i p t . Edrys ended by "lending her body" (HHS, 29) to the i n h e r i t e d dream, but her daughter, refused, on a new co n t i n e n t , s u f f o c a t e d i n changing rooms t h i c k with resentment: you don't understand, everybody wears jeans here & i want a job. r e f u s i n g the dream i t s c o n t i n u i t y i n what i thought was no man's land (not Rupert's, not the K i n g ' s ) , j u s t the t r e e s • . (HHS, 29) The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between the narrator and her mother with respect to t h e i r f e a r s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n can a l s o be understood as a n x i e t y r e l a t i n g to t h e i r a c t a n t i a l f u n c t i o n as parents i n the s p i r a l of generation. Strong f o c a l i z a t i o n creates the impression of a sensory/sensing body extended through the t e x t u a l system. The g e n e r a t i o n a l b l u r r i n g i d e n t i f i e d i n these passages permits a glimpse of a c t a n t i a l f u n c t i o n behind the mask of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s . I t might i n i t i a l l y be thought of as a temporary weakening of f o c a l i z a t i o n . My argument i s that the intense f o c a l i z a t i o n i s p r e c i s e l y what allows the f o c a l i z e r to t r a c e the e f f e c t of f i n d i n g h e r s e l f i n s i d e a c o l l e c t i v e s u b j e c t i v i t y , which unfolds s t e a d i l y through and beyond her body, and which incorporates the d i f f e r e n c e she h e r s e l f made when she "refused on a new c o n t i n e n t " to lend c o n t i n u i t y to the p a t r i a r c h a l dream. She reaches i n t o language, l i s t e n i n g f o r s t o r i e s t h a t can t e l l her where she i s . Aware of the e f f e c t of these s t o r i e s on h e r s e l f , the n a r r a t o r comments that " s t o r i e s can k i l l " (HHS. 51). F o c a l i z a t i o n plays a s i g n i f i c a n t and s t r u c t u r i n g r o l e i n How Hug a Stone; The t e x t i l l u s t r a t e s the extent to which f o c a l i z a t i o n can govern a fabula's m a n i f e s t a t i o n as s t o r y . As Mieke Bal puts i t , F o c a l i z a t i o n . . . has an 'overarching' p o s i t i o n with respect to the other aspects [of s t o r y ) . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of c e r t a i n aspects cannot be viewed unless i t i s l i n k e d to f o c a l i z a t i o n . Moreover, f o c a l i z a t i o n i s . . . the most important, most pene-t r a t i n g , and the most s u b t l e means of manipulation. ( B a l , 116) Temporal r e l a t i o n s i n How Hug a Stone must a l s o be understood i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the overarching aspect of f o c a l i z a t i o n . 67 Temporal R e l a t i o n s Although d u r a t i o n i s an element of f a b u l a , I d i s -cuss i t here i n order to group together three aspects of temporal r e l a t i o n s : d u r a t i o n , anachrony, and rhythm. The t r a v e l n a r r a t i v e vhich frames Hov Hug a Stone has a du r a t i o n of the developmental type ( B a l , 38-42). This type of d u r a t i o n Is opposed to that of the c r i s i s , i n vhi c h events developing f o r some time come to a head d r a m a t i c a l l y , and i n a short period of time. These are r e l a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n s v hich are u s e f u l f o r comparative e v a l u a t i o n s . Edrys' l i f e i s presented i n summary and i n a s e r i e s of v i g n e t t e s . The n a r r a t o r ' s memory of ca t c h i n g a cinder i n her eye on the t r a i n to Reading i s l i t e r a l l y and n a r r a t o l o g i c a l l y a c r i s i s . An example of summary i s the second h a l f of the poem " P i l g r i m Cottage," v i t h i t s quick sketch of Edrys* l i f e and death. The gram-m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of r e c u r r i n g present p a r t i c i p l e s emphasizes a t i m e l e s s , d e s c r i p t i v e t e m p o r a l i t y . vondering even as a mother vas she "doing the r i g h t thing"? h i d i n g her doubts to v r e s t l e v i t h the angel a u t h o r i t y of f a t h e r , teacher, doctor, d e n t i s t , p r i e s t , f u r i o u s , raging at the f a l s e f r o n t of s o c i e t y , t e a r i n g out the p l a c i d assumptions of fam-i l y . . . & then l a p s i n g , c o n t r o l l e d , i n t o s i l e n c e . (HHS., 67) 68 The a l t e r n a t i o n of e v o c a t i v e , metonymic c r i s e s with i n c i s i v e summary i s an e x p r e s s i v e and economical way to t e l l Edrys' s t o r y . S i m i l a r methods are used to evoke the N e o l i t h i c Age and the p r e h i s t o r i c community at Avebury. The b u i l d i n g of a c u l t u r e i s o b v i o u s l y a develop-mental event. However, "long a f t e r The Brown Day of B r i d e " presents a p a r t i c u l a r event: the ceremonial con-s t r u c t i o n of S i l b u r y H i l l . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e a d i n g of S i l b u r y H i l l r e v e a l e d t h a t e a r t h was l a y e r e d over l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s whose seasonal wing development enabled s c i e n t i s t s , almost 5000 years l a t e r , to date the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the h i l l , c o r r e l a t i n g i t roughly with summer harvest f e s t i v a l s s t i l l h eld today i n W i l t s h i r e . / 1 3 / A r c h a e o l o g i s t s have found evidence of the r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e of the foundations of the h i l l : matrix of chalk block w a l l s arranged i n the p a t t e r n  of a s p i d e r ' s web around & over a mound of t u r v e s , grass s t i l l p l i a b l e though brown i n c o l o u r . . .  b e e t l e s . . . f l y i n g ants with t h e i r wings showed them b u r i e d l a t e J u l y of 2660 B.C. why? /14/ (HHS. 74-75) The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the h i l l i s an event of the c r i s i s type, s e t i n t o a context which the t e x t p i e c e s together from what evidence there i s . 69 Michael Dames, whose book The Avebury Cycle i s one of the sources quoted i n How Hug a Stone, t h e o r i z e s that the h i l l i s the goddess's pregnant womb from which she gives b i r t h to the harvest./15/ A l t e r n a t i v e l y , she gives b i r t h to s p r i n g . M a r l a t t c i t e s a G a e l i c poem which i s thought to remember the r i t u a l of the b i r t h of s p r i n g : "The Day of B r i d e , the b i r t h of Sprin g / the serpent emerges from h i s k n o l l . . . / The serpent v i l l come from h i s hole/ on the Brovn Day of B r i d e . H / 1 6 / the l i n e hypothesized d r u i d l o r e ( i n C h r i s t i a n t i m e s ) , today a c o l l e c t i v e need to endure v i n t e r to s p r i n g , vhen from h i s k n o l l . . . the Serpent v l l l come from h i s hole/ on the Brovn Day of Bride s i n g -i n g , vave on vave emerging: & at ce n t r e , e a r t h , only e a r t h . (HHS_, 75) The h i l l i s both a d i s c r e t e topos and an i n t e g r a l part of the sacred body; a c t i v a t e d i n r i t u a l i t i s an image of a s i n g u l a r event and of the e n d l e s s l y repeated and th e r e f o r e t i m e l e s s movement of the seasons. The phrase, "at centre only e a r t h , " r e f e r s to the f a c t that a r c h a e o l o g i s t s excavated the h i l l three times, f u l l y expecting to f i n d b u r i a l s . U n l i k e the Egyptian pyramids, hovever, and u n l i k e the West Kennet long barrov nearby, the h i l l contains no bones, only (sacred) e a r t h , the matrix of chalk b l o c k s , and a moat, resembling the one around the Avebury henge, vhich vas 70 f i l l e d i n v i t h more earth at the time of c o n s t r u c t i o n . Dames i n t e r p r e t s the s t r u c t u r e as a ceremonial repre-s e n t a t i o n of both c r i s i s and r e p e t i t i o n , a symbolic summary of the " d i v i n e n a r r a t i v e " / 1 7 / v h i c h served these e a r l y communities as "a s t r a t e g y f o r s u r v i v a l M (HHS., 75). M a r l a t t ' s n a r r a t i v e re-reads the " v r i t i n g In monumental stones," reaching back to the "transforma-t i v e , sinuous sentence emerging even c i r c u l a r , c y c l i c Avebury" (HHS, 75). Her n a r r a t i v e l i n e i s the l i n e of her r e - r e a d i n g , a r a d i c a l r e i n t e r p r e t a i o n of the e v i -dence : she l i v e s stands f o r nothing but t h i s longstanding matter i n the g r a s s , s e t t l e d hunks of mother c r u s t , e a r l y T e r t i a r y , bearing the rootholes of palms, they b r i n g us up, i n among s t o n e - f o l d s , to date: the enfolded presented v a i t s f o r us t o have done v i t h hiding-&-seeking t e r r o r s , t e r r i t o r i e s , our obsession v i t h the end of t h i n g s . hov hug a stone (mother) except nose i n to l i t h i c f o l d , the o l d s l o v pulse beyond vord become, under f l e s h , mutter of stone, stane, s t e l - l n g pover. (HHS, 75) The c r i t i c a l / d u r a t i o n a l type of s t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n t y p i c a l of Hov Hug a Stone Is r e l a t e d t h e m a t i c a l l y to the c y c l i c a l r i t u a l s of the earth and t o a r e s o l u t i o n of the n a r r a t o r ' s g r i e v i n g f o r her mother. Insofar as the fabula reaches back to the N e o l i t h i c Age, i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an enormous e l l i p s i s 71 s e p a r a t i n g that age and our own. This e l l i p s i s , v h i ch d v a r f s the r e s t of the f a b u l a , i s presented i n the poem as absence and l o s s : thus the preoccupation v i t h e v i -dence. Nevertheless, i n these misty regions the f a b u l a , "vave on vave emerging" (HHS. 75), begins. Fabula time moves for v a r d as i t must, bound by con-v e n t i o n a l and l o g i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s . C h r o n o l o g i c a l and d i a c h r o n i c , i t i s encoded as TF or fabula time ( B a l , 70). Fabula time of H9V HM9 a Stone begins a t a p p r o x i -mately 3500 B.C. and ends v i t h the present tense nov of the l a s t poem i n the book. Story time, TS, i s more f l e x i b l e ; i t begins v i t h the v i s i t to the medium i n Vancouver, s i x years p r i o r to the voyage to England. From there i t jumps t o June 14, 1981, as the na r r a t o r and her son take o f f on a t r a n s a t l a n t i c f l i g h t tovards t h e i r a n c e s t r a l home. I t covers approximately one month. Anachrony i s the non-coincidence of fabula and s t o r y time. " D i f f e r e n c e s betveen the arrangement i n the s t o r y and the chronology of the fabula ve c a l l c h r o n o l o g i c a l d e v i a t i o n s or anachypnjes" ( B a l , 53). Tvo b a s i c types of anachrony, r e t r o v e r s i o n and a n t i c i p a t i o n , correspond to the popular c a t e g o r i e s of flashback and a n t i c i p a t i o n . "Seen from that moment i n the fabula vhich i s being presented when the anachrony intervenes, the event presented i n the anachrony l i e s 72 e i t h e r i n the past or i n the f u t u r e . For the f i r s t category, r e t r o v e r s i o n may be used; f o r the second, a n t i c i p a t i o n i s a s u i t a b l e term" ( B a l , 54). Story time of the t r a v e l n a r r a t i v e c o i n c i d e s u n p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y v i t h corresponding fabula time, so that ve could encode the r e l a t i o n betveen TS and TF i n that p o r t i o n of the n a r r a t i v e by saying that TS = TF. The s i m p l i c i t y of t h i s r e l a t i o n i s q u a l i f i e d by s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s vhich introduce elements of anachrony, f o r example, i n t e r n a l r e t r o v e r s i o n . I n t e r n a l r e t r o v e r s i o n occurs vhen the s t o r y sequence d i f f e r s from t h a t of the fabula because events v i t h i n the time frame of the s t o r y are presented t v i c e . I n t e r n a l r e t r o v e r s i o n f i l l s i n missing i n f o r m a t i o n e l i d e d i n i t s s e q u e n t i a l place ( p a r a l i p s i s ) or repeats an event: In a d d i t i o n t o [having a) complementary f u n c t i o n , i n t e r n a l r e t r o v e r s i o n s may have yet another f u n c t i o n . . . the r e p e t i t i o n of a p r e v i o u s l y described event u s u a l l y serves to change, or add t o , the emphasis on the meaning of tha t event. The same event i s pre-sented as more, or l e s s , pleasant, innocent or important than ve had p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d i t to be. I t i s thus both i d e n t i c a l and d i f f e r e n t : the f a c t s are the same but t h e i r meaning has changed. ( B a l , 61) This technique i s f a m i l i a r to many readers from i t s use i n the d e t e c t i v e novel, vhere the r e v e l a t i o n of the 73 crime of t e n involves a r e t e l l i n g of events a l r e a d y nar-rated . In Hov Hug a Stone, i n t e r n a l r e t r o v e r s i o n occurs vhen d i f f e r e n t types of t e x t report the same fabula events, p a r t i c u l a r l y vhen t r a v e l j o u r n a l e n t r i e s at the head of s e c t i o n s give short summaries of a c t i v i t i e s v h i c h are developed elsewhere. The poems or p o e t i c prose t e x t s open out what i s w r i t t e n i n the j o u r n a l , g i v i n g i t v o i c e . L i n e a r i t y i s undermined. For exam-p i e , the events recorded l n the j o u r n a l e n t r y , "June 17, Poltimore v i l l a g e , evening — wapm, s i l e n t , f r a -grant with hav & s i l a g e , timothy grass (June the worst month f o r p o l l e n count)" (HHS, 22 ) , are repeated and expanded i n "June near the r i v e r C l y s t , C l u s t , c l e a r . Clystmois t h i s h olding vet & c l e a r . " An example of i n t e r n a l a n t i c i p a t i o n occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : "June 21 . my grandmother i s g i v i n g back my e a r l y s e l f to me i n photographs she foresees drained of meaning i n st r a n g e r s ' hands" (HHS. 22 ) . The j o u r n a l entry com-ments on "Poltimore, P w y l l T i Mavr, Pool by the Great House," i d e n t i f y i n g the grandmother's a c t a n t i a l func-t i o n of donor. P o v e r f u l p o e t i c m a t e r i a l i s uniquely presented, on occasion, i n j o u r n a l e n t r i e s : "under her mothering wing" (HHS, 64), an image which brings together the symbolic and p r o a i r e t i c codes of the nar-r a t i v e , i s a good example. The s t o r y of Edrys 1 coming to be a woman and mother i s presented through the memory and mind of various c h a r a c t e r s , i n other words, through the technique of " s u b j e c t i v e anachrony" ( B a l , 57). Her s t o r y i s t o l d i n the opposite order from which i t occurred, so that fabula time and s t o r y time run counter to each other. Her s t o r y i s presented i n fragments of e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g span, at e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g distance from the primary s t o r y time of the n a r r a t o r ' s present tense. Edrys i s f i r s t r e c a l l e d when the n a r r a t o r remembers c a t c h i n g a cinder i n her eye on the t r a i n to Reading; next she r e c a l l s d r i v i n g i n the car during the t r i p t hat the f a m i l y took to England i n 1948. The grandmother's memories pick up the thread, t e l l i n g how Edrys was taken out at the age of eighteen and s t a r t e d her f a m i l y during the Second World War. Edrys' f r i e n d Jean r e c a l l s her next, as a g i r l . The f i r s t anachrony spans a moment; the second spans a short scene; the t h i r d covers a period of s e v e r a l years; the f o u r t h , i t e r a t i v e and vague as to temporal d e t a i l s , r e f e r s to the period of approximately seven years which Edrys spent i n boarding s c h o o l . Prom June 30 to the end of the journey, e l i s i o n of dates and f a c t u a l d e t a i l s corresponds to the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s i n c r e a s i n g preoccupation with the past. Edrys begins to blend with the ar c h e t y p a l mother, some-times imaged as a b i r d . The fabula s t r e t c h e s back to the N e o l i t h i c Age, while the s t o r y moves forward i n the f i r s t person, present tense of the n a r r a t i o n , i n a l i n e a r movement imagined as the t r a i n i n v h i c h the nar-r a t o r and her son t r a v e l . The s t o r y and the fabula move simultaneously f o r v a r d and backvard i n time. L i k e a s p i n n i n g top that appears to be standing s t i l l , the tvo together convey an impression of timelessness. The s u b j e c t i v e anachrony represented by Edrys 1 s t o r y merges v i t h s t o r i e s dravn from the c o l l e c t i v e memory of l a n -guage, moving from mother to mothertongue. Edrys' o r i g i n s fade. A p o v e r f u l e f f e c t of di s t a n c e i s evoked as the f o c a l i z e r t r a v e l s huge areas of the earth's s u r -face and through time, moving betveen Bombay and England, the N e o l i t h i c era and our ovn. At the same time, an e f f e c t of almost s t i f l i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n l i n k s the n a r r a t o r to her mother. Tvo characters share the r o l e of su b j e c t / a c t a n t i n a s i n g l e f a b u l a . The embedded s u b j e c t i v e anachronies p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e i n the n a r r a t o r ' s guest f o r understanding. Mieke Bal p o i n t s out that i t i s not uncommon f o r e x t e r n a l r e t r o v e r s i o n s to f u l f i l an explanatory f u n c t i o n : " E x t e r n a l r e t r o v e r s i o n s o f t e n provide i n d i c a t i o n s about the antecedents, the past of the a c t o r s concerned, i n so f a r as that past can be of importance for the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of events" ( B a l , 60). With the help of the s t o r i e s she hears (and i n v e n t s ) , i d i s c o v e r s who and where she i s . She remembers the past i n order to understand her present. How can intense, p h y s i c a l f o c a l i z a t i o n be maintained i n a s t o r y which spans so much time? The n a r r a t o r l i s t e n s to her own memory and to s t o r i e s held i n the memories of others. She l i s t e n s to the c o l l e c t i v e memory of language which succeeds the f a m i l i a l s t o r y t e l l i n g . The n a r r a t o r focusses on l a n -guage, and words t e l l her s t o r i e s she needs to hear. Rhythm i s the synchronizing of the r e l a t i v e speed of s t o r y time and fabula time. In other words, rhythm c o r r e l a t e s the r e l a t i v e speed of the events to t h a t of t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n . The p r e s e n t a t i o n or performance time of a t e x t can never be d e f i n i t i v e l y f i x e d ; Mieke Bal p o i n t s out that s c h o l a r s have nevertheless devoted a t t e n t i o n to the t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n between M a summarizing, a c c e l e r a t i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n and a broad, s c e n i c one" ( B a l , 68). Dramatic p r e s e n t a t i o n of dialogue involves a " s c e n i c " rhythm i n which s t o r y time i s more or l e s s equal to the time of the f a b u l a . The remembered fragment of d i a l o g u e , "didn't i t e l l you?" (HHSf 16), has the rhythm of a scene. A summary con-denses fabula time. At e i t h e r extreme of rhythmic pos-s i b i l i t y we f i n d the e l l i p s i s , i n which the fabula pro-ceeds while the s t o r y does not, and the pause, i n which the s t o r y i s elaborated while the fabula stands s t i l l . Mieke Bal encodes the p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s of s t o r y time to fabula time as f o l l o w s : e l l i p s e s TF = n TS = 0 thus TF > ©© TS pause TF = 0 TS = n thus TF < oo TS ( B a l , 71) Although e l l i p s e s n a t u r a l l y occur w i t h i n n a r r a t i v e t e x t s , they narrate nothing; the same can be s a i d of pauses or d e s c r i p t i o n s . I have noted the enormous e l l i p s i s betveen the N e o l i t h i c Age and our ovn. The t e x t acknovledges the gap i n knovledge v h i c h t h i s e l l i p s i s represents: . . . that i s the l i m i t of the o l d s t o r y , i t s ruined c i r c l e , that i s not hov i t ended or ve have f o r g o t -ten p a r t s , ve have l o s t sense of the vhole. Fabula time i s i n f i n i t e l y greater than s t o r y time, and some of i t i s l o s t to memory. More recent h i s t o r y such as the b i r t h of the grand-mother, "ember from India born 'somewhere i n the north' i n the 1890's" (HHS. 29), i s sketched i n q u i c k l y ; l i v e s are summarized and run together; the rhythm of the embedded s u b j e c t i v e r e t r o v e r s i o n s i s f a i r l y r a p i d . In "close to the edge," two events from the past are sum-summary scene slow-down TF > TS TF = TS TF < TS (HHS., 73) 78 m a r i z e d , t h e a d v e n t u r e a t W i l d P e a r Beach and t h e s c a t -t e r i n g o f E d r y s ' a s h e s (HHS, 5 5 ) . S u m m a r i z i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n i s n o t l i m i t e d , e i t h e r , t o r e t r o v e r s i o n : " i f i t wasn't f o r t h e c l o u d s " (HHS, 62) i s an example of s u m m a r i z i n g rhythm, where f a b u l a t i m e i s g r e a t e r t h a n s t o r y t i m e . Whenever d i a l o g u e o c c u r s , t h e r h y thm s l o w s t o t h a t o f a s c e n e . Good examples a r e "boy w i t h t a p e r e c o r d e r s t a l k i n g h o r s e s i n a f i e l d o f cows," and " N a t t a d o n Farm" (HHS. 3 6 - 3 7 ) . "by t r a i n t o R e a d i n g " has t h e d e c e l e r a t i n g r h y t h m o f a slow-down (TF < T S ) , as i t g a t h e r s and a c k n o w l e d g e s a l l o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s of t h e f r a g m e n t o f d i a l o g u e , " d i d n ' t i t e l l y o u ? " D e s c r i p t i v e p a u s e s c o n t r i b u t e t o a t i m e l e s s e f f e c t , " c o t t a g e i n t h e C o t s w o l d s " d e s c r i b e s t h e o l d k n i g h t a t h i s c o t t a g e : " s l a t e r o o f , r o s e s t w i n i n g up t h e s t o n e w a l l t o t h e e a v e s t r o u g h , d e l p h i n i u m s b l u e , l a r k s p u r & l u p i n s i n t h e honeyed l i g h t . N i c k on h i s knees among t h e c a b b a g e " (HHS, 6 5 ) . P a u s e s a r e o f t e n i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h d e s c r i p t i v e summary, and t h e two a r e n o t e a s i l y s e p a r a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y b e c a u s e o f t h e f r e q u e n t e l i s i o n of f i n i t e v e r b s . " t h e f e e l o f t h i s c o t t a g e f u l l o f d o g s , c a t s , f l o w e r s , c u r r e n t s o f e m o t i o n . t h e drama o f E n g l i s h manners" (HHS, 24) i s d e s c r i p t i v e , b u t e v e n t s a r e i m p l i e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e p a s s a g e c o n t i n u e s : " ' s o r r y , d a r l i n g . 1 s c o n e s w i t h D e v o n s h i r e cream & s t r a w b e r r y jam f o r t e a . " A n o t h e r good example i s " s u c h 79 t i d e s of f e e l i n g — grey despair even, l i s t e n i n g to K i t coughing through the door i n f i t s , a t t a c k s " (HHS, 51). The ambiguous rhythm of the d e s c r i p t i v e summary i s f i n a l l y the one most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s t e x t , v h ich nevertheless e x h i b i t s the f u l l range of rhythmic pos-s i b i l i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d by Mieke B a l . One scene of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the r e c a l l e d conversation betveen Edrys and her mother, v h i c h vould have taken place sometime i n the l a t e 1930s: ''We vent to Penang and she s a i d , 'Mother, I'm so t i r e d of t h i s l i f e , of j u s t v a s t i n g my time going out dancing every n i g h t , g e t t i n g engaged to p l a y t e n n i s , somebody r i n g i n g up and vanting to take me out to g o l f . I t seems so f u t i l e . I vant t o l e a r n dress designing and dressmaking. I've seen adver-tisements and I've v r i t t e n o f f to England. I von't be coming back v i t h you vhen ve go on leave.' This vas vhen ve vere i n the h o t e l i n Penang s i t t i n g on the grounds f a c i n g the sea j u s t vhere her vedding photograph vas taken a fev months l a t e r . I s n ' t i t e x t r a o r d i n a r y ? " (HHS, 29) This important fragment of dialogue records Edrys' (unsuccessful) d e c i s i o n t o v r i t e her ovn s c r i p t . I t i s i n a p o v e r f u l p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e to s t o r y and f a b u l a . The dialogue occurs w i t h i n a scene i n the s t o r y of the n a r r a t o r ' s v i s i t to her maternal grandmother, and w i t h i n the embedded summary of Edrys' l i f e . The s c e n i c s t o r y rhythm (TS » TF) underlines the importance of her speech. Thus rhythm corresponds to semantic emphasis. 80 Mieke Bal notes that a n a l y s i s of rhythm can i n d i -cate hov a t t e n t i o n i n a n a r r a t i v e i s patterned: [Sluch research should not simply be aimed at p r e c i s e c a l c u l a t i o n of the number of vords or l i n e s per event; the amount of t e x t s e t aside f o r each event only i n d i c a t e s something about hov the a t t e n t i o n i s patterned. The a t t e n t i o n paid to the v a r i o u s elements gives us a p i c t u r e of the v i s i o n on the f a b u l a , vhich i s being communicated to the reader. ( B a l , 69) The n a r r a t o r ' s journey i s a month long and the book c o n s i s t s of t h i r t y - n i n e poems vh i c h are spaced f a i r l y r e g u l a r l y ; there i s a l i t t l e more than a poem per day v i t h approximately a page per poem. The rhythm of the n a r r a t o r ' s s t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y hovers betveen des-c r i p t i v e scene and d e s c r i p t i v e summary. Edrys' s t o r y i s most o f t e n summarized, a f a c t v hich makes her inde-pendence speech to her mother a l l the more s t r i k i n g . The t y p i c a l rhythms accorded to the n a r r a t i v e s of Edrys and her daughter r e f l e c t the s t o r y ' s f o c a l i z a t i o n through the n a r r a t o r . The e l l i p s i s s e p a r a t i n g the N e o l i t h i c Age from the present i s a rhythmic d i s r u p t i o n vhich emphasizes "long a f t e r The Brown Day of B r i d e , " "continued," and "Avebury awi-spek, winged from buried (egg." 81 Ct Tex.fr L o c u t l o n / S u b l e c t i v i t v / G e n d e r The t e x t u a l l e v e l of n a r r a t i v e i s the l e v e l of words. The n a r r a t o l o g l s t Is here concerned not with the elements of a n a r r a t i v e , nor with how they are pre-sented, but with the t e l l i n g i t s e l f : the act of l o c u -t i o n . In the n a r r a t i v e utterance someone who i s t e l l -i ng t e l l s something that i s known. N a r r a t i v e i m p l i -c a t e s , e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y , t h i s double c o n s t r u c t i o n of knower and known. At the t e x t u a l l e v e l of a n a l y s i s , the focus i s on the knower. The i n d i c a t i o n s of the knower l n language are defined i n l i n g u i s t i c s as d e i x i s : "the l o c a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of persons, o b j e c t s , events, processes and a c t i v i t i e s being t a l k e d about, or r e f e r r e d t o , i n r e l a t i o n to the spatio-temporal context created and sustained by the act of utterance. H/18/ D e i x i s i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t as the r e g i s t e r of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n language. D e i c t i c signs have denotative meaning only i n r e l a t i o n to a s p e c i f i c speech a c t ; they are r e l a t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of pla c e , person and time. Examples in c l u d e : here, there; personal pronouns I , you, we; proper names; now, the day a f t e r tomorrow, yesterday. The word d e i x i s comes v i a the Greek " d e l k t i k o s , " mean-ing "able to show," from an Indo-European r o o t , d e l k , meaning "to show" or "to pronounce solemnly." Etymol-82 o g y h i g h l i g h t s t h e p h y s i c a l i t y o f l a n g u a g e : t h e b o d y p o i n t i n g , t h e m o u t h a r t i c u l a t i n g a s p e e c h a c t . D e i x i s p o i n t s t o a n d p o s i t s t h e p e r s o n w h o s t a n d s i n t h e p l a c e o f t h e I , i n t h e h e r e a n d n o w o f l a n g u a g e a s i t i s g e n -e r a t e d . I n p g o b l e m e s flg UngMlstlqu.fr q ^ K a l s , E m i l e B e n -v e n i s t e o u t l i n e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s u b j e c t i v i t y a n d l a n g u a g e : C ' e s t d a n s e t p a r l e l a n g a g e q u e l ' h o m m e s e c o n -s t i t u e c o r a r a e s u l e t ; p a r c e q u e l e l a n g a g e s e u l f o n d e e n r e a l i t e , d a n s s_a_ r e a l i t e q u i e s t c e l l e d e l ' e t r e , l e c o n c e p t d ' " e g o " . L a " s u b j e c t i v i t y " d o n t n o u s t r a i t o n s i c i e s t l a c a p a c i t e d u l o c u t e u r A s e p o s e r c o m m e " s u j e t " . E l l e s e d e f i n i t , n o n p a r l e s e n t i m e n t q u e c h a c u n e p r o u v e d ' e t r e l u i - m e ' m e ( c e s e n t i m e n t , d a n s l a m e s u r e o u l ' o n p e u t e n f a l r e e t a t , n ' e s t q u ' u n r e f l e t ) , m a i s c o m m e 1 * u n i t e p s y c h i q u e q u i t r a n s c e n d e l a t o t a l i t e d e s e x p e r i e n c e s v e c u e s q u ' e l l e a s s e m b l e , e t q u i a s s u r e l a p e r m a n e n c e d e l a c o n s c i e n c e . O r n o u s t e n o n s q u e c e t t e " s u b j e c t i v i t y " , q u ' o n l a p o s e e n p h e n o m e n o l o g i e o u e n p s y c h o l o g i e , c o m m e o n v o u d r a , n ' e s t q u e 1 ' e m e r g e n c e d a n s l ' d t r e d ' u n e p r o p r i e t y f o n d a m e n t a l e d u l a n g a g e . E s t " e g o " q u i d l t " e g o " . N o u s t r o u v o n s l a l e f o n d e m e n t d e l a " s u b j e c t i v i t y " , q u i s e d e t e r m i n e p a r l e s t a t u t l l n g u l s t i q u e d e l a " p e r s o n n e " . / 1 9 / O u r c o m m o n s e n s e i m p r e s s i o n o f s u b j e c t i v i t y , a c c o r d i n g t o B e n v e n i s t e , i s s i m p l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e d e i c t i c o r d e r o f l a n g u a g e . T h e s u b j e c t i s p l o t t e d b y a d e i c t i c n e t w o r k o f w o r d s a t t h e m o m e n t o f s p e e c h , c r e a t i n g w h a t w e k n o w a s s u b j e c t i v i t y . I n J u l i a K r i s t e v a ' s a n a l y s i s , t h i s s e l f - c r e a t i o n c o n t i n u a l l y o c c u r s i n t h e f o r m o f a 83 "rupture and/or boundary" i n which the subject sepa-r a t e s from the o b j e c t . / 2 0 / This phase, which K r i s t e v a c a l l s the t h e t i c , c o n s t i t u t e s the th r e s h o l d of l a n -guage. Behind every language a c t , i n other words, i s a subject i n formation. / 2 1 / Returning to na r r a t o l o g y , we can compare Mieke Bal's argument that the knower of the n a r r a t i v e utterance, whether speaking i n the f i r s t or the t h i r d person, i s , i n her/himself, always an " I . " This " I " i s an e f f e c t of the n a r r a t i v e utterance. B a l discusses t h i s phenomenon i n a s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " ' I ' and 'He' are Both ' I . ' " Her argument, which i s perhaps indebted to Benveniste's, i s as f o l l o w s : In p r i n c i p l e , i t does not make a d i f f e r e n c e t o the statu.s Q£ the naSKattoni whether a na r r a t o r r e f e r s to i t s e l f or not. As soon as there i s language, there i s a speaker who u t t e r s i t ; as soon as those l i n g u i s t i c utterances c o n s t i t u t e a n a r r a t i v e t e x t , there i s a n a r r a t o r , a n a r r a t i n g s u b j e c t . From a grammatical point of view, t h i s i s always a ' f i r s t person.' In f a c t , the term 'third-person n a r r a t o r ' i s absurd . . . at best the na r r a t o r can narrate about someone e l s e , a 'he' or a 'she.'. . . (TJhe d i s t i n c t i o n between ' f i r s t person' and ' t h i r d per-son' n a r r a t i v e s . . . r e s t s i n the object of the utterance. ( B a l , 121-122) The s u b j e c t - i n - f o r m a t i o n i n n a r r a t i v e language i s a nar r a t o r and a f i r s t person. What can be s a i d about the gender of t h i s n a r r a t i n g subject? 84 Emile Benveniste assumes a masculine generic i n o u t l i n i n g h i s theory of human s u b j e c t i v i t y i n a s e c t i o n of Problemes de l l n q u l s t l q u e q£nerale e n t i t l e d "L'homme dans l a langue." He f a i l s to comment on whether or not women have a d i f f e r e n t rapport with language and/or s u b j e c t i v i t y . However, f e m i n i s t theory has addressed the s p e c i f i c rapport between women's s u b j e c t i v i t y and language, often drawing on Benveniste's work i n con-s t r u c t i n g i t s analyses. The best f e m i n i s t reading of Benveniste i s tha t of Monique W l t t i g i n "The Mark of Gender. H/22/ W i t t i g argues that a " p r i m i t i v e o n t o l o g i c a l concept . . . enforces i n language a d i v i s i o n of beings i n t o sexes."/23/ This i s the law of gender which oppresses women. L e x i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the law of gender has "a p l a s t i c a c t i o n on the r e a l , " / 2 4 / working through language to c o n t i n u a l l y r e c o n s t i t u t e the world accord-ing to the binary o p p o s i t i o n of male and female. I t places women i n the o n t o l o g i c a l l y impossible p o s i t i o n of being a p a r t i a l or " r e l a t i v e " s u b j e c t . "The r e s u l t of the impo s i t i o n of gender, a c t i n g as a d e n i a l at the very moment when one speaks, i s to deprive women of the a u t h o r i t y of speech . . . to deny them any c l a i m to the a b s t r a c t , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , p o l i t i c a l d i scourses which give shape to the s o c i a l body."/25/ W i t t i g ' s p o r t r a y a l of t i v i t y : 85 argument complements V i r g i n i a Woolf's the d i v i d e d c o n d i t i o n of women's subjec-[ I ] f one i s a woman one i s often s u r p r i s e d by a sud-den s p l i t t i n g o f f of consciousness, say i n walking down W h i t e h a l l , when from being the n a t u r a l i n h e r i t o r of that c i v i l i z a t i o n , she becomes, on the con t r a r y , outside of i t , a l i e n and c r i t i c a l . C l e a r l y the mind i s always a l t e r i n g i t s focus, and b r i n g i n g the world i n t o d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . But some of these s t a t e s of mind seem, even i f adopted spontaneously, to be l e s s comfortable than others./26/ According to Woolf, a woman experiences a contested s t a t u s as s u b j e c t ; both i n h e r i t o r of and a l i e n to her own c u l t u r e , she has i n v o l u n t a r y knowledge of s t a t e s of consciousness which are " l e s s comfortable" than others and which, A Room of One's Own argues, are co n s i d e r a b l y l e s s c r e a t i v e . Woolf's theory of women's d i v i d e d con-sciousness, and W i t t i g ' s argument that the law of gen-der intervenes at the moment of speech to make women r e l a t i v e s u b j e c t s , both describe a consciousness d i v i d e d against i t s e l f . Both describe an uncomfort-a b l e , h a b i t u a l and i n v o l u n t a r y s h i f t out of the subject p o s i t i o n . Teresa de L a u r e t i s argues that such a p e r i l o u s or s p l i t r e l a t i o n s h i p to s u b j e c t i v i t y i s i n f a c t a product of the "symbolic f u n c t i o n " inherent i n n a r r a t i v e gram-mar : 86 The hero's . . . descent through the landscape of her body symbolizes the (now) unimpeded descent of the f e t u s along the b i r t h c a n a l . In s h o r t , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of symbols, -- the work of the sym-b o l i c f u n c t i o n i n the unconscious — e f f e c t s a s p l i t t i n g of the female s u b j e c t ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n t o the two my t h i c a l p o s i t i o n s of hero (mythical s u b j e c t ) and boundary ( s p a t i a l l y f i x e d o b j e c t , per-s o n i f i e d o b s t a c l e ) . / 2 7 / She c o r r e l a t e s t h i s argument to the double or s p l i t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the woman who, faced with the cine m a t i c image of woman, sees h e r s e l f being seen: [W]e can again r e c o g n i z e a p a r a l l e l with the double or s p l i t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n which, f i l m t heory has argued, cinema o f f e r s the female s p e c t a t o r : i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n with the look of the camera, apprehended as temporal, a c t i v e or i n movement, and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the image on the screen, p e r c e i v e d as s p a t i a l l y s t a t i c , f i x e d , i n frame./28/ How can a woman overcome t h i s c o n d i t i o n of s p l i t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ? On t h i s s u b j e c t there i s l e s s unanim-i t y . Monique W i t t i g takes from Benveniste the c r i t i c a l n o t i o n of an a b s t r a c t but whole s u b j e c t i v i t y a c c e s s i b l e to women as to men through the e x e r c i s e of language: For when one becomes a l o c u t o r , when one says I and, i n so doing, r e a p p r o p r i a t e s language as a whole, proceeding from o n e s e l f alone, with the tremendous power to use a l l language, i t i s then and th e r e , a c c o r d i n g to l i n g u i s t s and p h i l o s o p h e r s , t h a t there occurs the supreme a c t of s u b j e c t i v i t y , the advent of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n t o c o nsciousness. I t i s when 87 s t a r t i n g to speak that one becomes This act — the becoming of the subject through the e x e r c i s e of language and through l o c u t i o n — i n order to be r e a l , i m p l i e s t h a t the l o c u t o r be an absolute sub-j e c t . For a r e l a t i v e subject i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e , a r e l a t i v e subject could not speak at a l l . I mean t h a t , i n s p i t e of the harsh l a v of gender and i t s enforcement upon vomen, no voman can say L without being f o r h e r s e l f a t o t a l subject — that i s , ungendered, u n i v e r s a l , whole. Or, f a i l i n g t h i s , she i s condemned to what I c a l l parrot speech (slaves echoing t h e i r masters' t a l k ) . Language as a whole gives everybody the same power of becoming an absolute subject through i t s e x e r c i s e . But gender, an element of language, works upon t h i s o n t o l o g i c a l f a c t to annul i t as f a r as women are concerned and corresponds to a constant attempt to s t r i p them of the most precious t h i n g f o r a human being — subjec-t i v i t y . . . . l E l a c h time I say 1, I reorganize the world from my point of view and through a b s t r a c t i o n I l a y c l a i m to u n i v e r s a l i t y . This f a c t holds true f o r every l o c u t o r . / 2 9 / W i t t i g here i d e n t i f i e s a c r i t i c a l dynamic between women and language. Language i t s e l f reproduces p a t r i a r c h a l s t r u c t u r e s which s p l i t women's consciousness, yet i n accessing language a woman experiences h e r s e l f as a " t o t a l subject . . . ungendered, u n i v e r s a l , whole." In emphasizing the r o l e of the f i r s t - p e r s o n subject pronoun above that of other d e i c t i c s i g n s , W i t t i g f o l -lows Benveniste: C'est en s ' i d e n t i f i a n t comme personne unique pronongant le_ que chacun des locuteurs se pose tour a tour comme " s u j e t " . . . . Quand l ' i n d i v i d u se l ' a p p r o p r i e , l e langage se tourne en instances de d i s c o u r s , c a r a c t e r i s e e s par ce systeme de references internes dont l a c l e f e s t l e , et d e f i n i s s a n t l ' i n d i v i d u par l a c o n s t r u c t i o n l i n g u i s t i q u e p a r t i c u l l e r e dont i l se s e r t quand i l s'enonce comme lo c u t e u r . A i n s i l e s i n d i c a t e u r s le_ et tu ne peuvent 88 e x i s t e r comme signes v i r t u e l s , l i s n ' e x i s t e n t qu'en tant q u ' i l s sont a c t u a l i s e s dans l ' i n s t a n c e de d i s -cours, ou l i s marquent par chacune de l e u r s propres instances l e proces d'ap p r o p r i a t i o n par l e locuteur./30/ The f i r s t - p e r s o n pronoun i s the most po w e r f u l l y d e i c t i c of l i n g u i s t i c s i g n s ; i t represents the subject at i t s most a b s t r a c t and, i n that sense, the subject who i s beyond gender. Since Benveniste does not address gen-der, W i t t i g moves outside h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework to c o r r e l a t e s u b j e c t i v i t y i n language with the question of women's d i v i d e d s u b j e c t i v i t y . She argues that i n saying " I , " a woman becomes an undivided subject i n s p i t e of the law of gender; the use of language works d i r e c t l y against the e x c l u s i v e a p p r o p r i a t i o n of subjec-t i v i t y by men. In her f i c t i o n , Monique W i t t i g has experimented with ways to thwart gender i n language. She d i s r u p t s the masculine generic without n e c e s s a r i l y p o s i t i n g a feminine generic i n i t s place. In Les a u 6 r l l l & r e s . a u n i v e r s a l point of view f o r women i s achieved through her use of a feminine g e n e r i c . Yet, i n her essays, W i t t i g argues c l e a r l y t h a t the feminine generic i s a temporary phase which serves a p a r t i c u l a r purpose but then must end. "Gender must be . . . destroyed."/31/ Her v i s i o n of a post-gender future can be compared to W o o l f s argument th a t only the "androgynous mind", 89 "man-womanly" or "woman-manly,"/32/ i s t r u l y c r e a t i v e . For women, such a q u a l i t y of mind must l i e i n the fu t u r e ; i n the present women's s u b j e c t i v i t y i s l i m i t e d because i t i s contested. Or, both Woolf and W i t t i g might say, women's s u b j e c t i v i t y i s l i m i t e d because i t i s "woman's." Women's true s u b j e c t i v i t y i s a human s u b j e c t i v i t y i n c r e a t i o n . Daphne M a r l a t t and N i c o l e Brossard work towards the c o n s t r u c t i o n of such subjec-t i v i t y i n HQW Hug a StQns and P i c t u r e Theory. Each demonstrates that a woman w r i t i n g transforms her l a n -guage to express what she knows as a woman, and thus embarks upon a d i a l e c t i c a l transformation of her expe-ri e n c e of h e r s e l f as a subject and of her rapport with the world. V i r g i n i a Woolf discovered i n language an " I " which she equated with a type of male w r i t i n g n e g l e c t f u l of the androgyny belonging to the t r u l y c r e a t i v e mind. Woolf c h a r a c t e r i z e d the "other" s i d e of women's con-sciousness as " a l i e n " and " c r i t i c a l , " and one of the things she i s c r i t i c a l of i s the i m p e r i a l , male " I . " In Woolf's view, i f women's imaginations are l i m i t e d by gender oppression, men's imaginations s u f f e r from other d i s t o r t i o n s : [ l i t was d e l i g h t f u l to read a man's w r i t i n g again. I t was so d i r e c t , so s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a f t e r the w r i t -ing of women. I t i n d i c a t e d such freedom of mind, such l i b e r t y of person, such confidence i n himse l f . 90 One had a sense of p h y s i c a l v e i l - b e i n g i n the presence of t h i s v e i l - n o u r i s h e d , v e i l - e d u c a t e d , free mind, vhich had never been thvarted or opposed, but had had f u l l l i b e r t y from b i r t h t o s t r e t c h i t s e l f i n vhatever vay i t l i k e d . A l l t h i s vas admirable. But a f t e r reading a chapter or tvo a shadov seemed to l i e across the page. I t vas a s t r a i g h t dark bar, a shadov shaped something l i k e the l e t t e r " I . " One began dodging t h i s vay and that to catch a glimpse of the landscape behind i t . Whether that vas indeed a t r e e or a voman v a l k i n g I vas not q u i t e sure. Back one vas alvays h a i l e d to the l e t t e r " I . " One began to be t i r e d of " I . " Not but vhat t h i s " I " vas a most repectable " I " ; honest and l o g i c a l ; as hard as a nut, and p o l i s h e d f o r c e n t u r i e s by good teach-ing and good feeding. I respect and admire th a t " I " from the bottom of my heart. But — here I turned a page or tvo, l o o k i n g f o r something or other -- the v o r s t of i t i s that i n the shadov of the l e t t e r " I M a l l i s shapeless as mist. Is that a t r e e ? No, i t i s a voman. But . . . she has not a bone i n her body, I thought./33/ This male " I , " u n l i k e the " I " of a voman, i s healthy, v e i l - f e d and not at a l l stunted, yet i t i s s e r i o u s l y f l a v e d . I t impedes perception; i t makes i t impossible t o d i s t i n g u i s h a voman from a t r e e . Woolf condemns t h i s " I " for tvo reasons. F i r s t i s i t s "dominance . . . and the a r i d i t y , v h i c h , l i k e the g i a n t beech t r e e , i t c a s t s v i t h i n i t s shade. Nothing v i l l grov t h e r e . " Second i s that the author i s v r i t i n g s t r i c t l y from the male s i d e of h i s b r a i n . There i s no androgyny to such a mind, and i t i s "a mistake f o r a vomen to read [such v r i t i n g ) for she v i l l i n e v i t a b l y look f o r something that she v i l l not find."/34/ 91 From I to 1 Feminist s c h o l a r s have devoted p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to women's d i a r i e s , the d i a r y novel and autobiography, a l l forms of w r i t i n g at which women have e x c e l l e d and which are w r i t t e n i n the f i r s t person. They trace the development of a female w r i t i n g t r a d i t i o n i n which women, while not attempting the a n a l y s i s of a f f a i r s of s t a t e or the w r i t i n g of l i t e r a t u r e , have taken up the pen to re-create t h e i r own r e a l i t i e s . / 3 5 / I t i s a curious f a c t that women's a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s t r a t e g i e s / are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by recourse to an other — God, f a t h e r , husband, or greater cause — which serves as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l act./36/ T y p i -c a l l y , a woman's a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l " I " i s , i n the words of autobiographer Mary Meigs, only "seemingly auda-c i o u s . "/37/ Monique W i t t i g , although s t r o n g l y endorsing the power of the pronoun " I , " u n t i l r e c e n t l y avoided i t almost e n t i r e l y i n her f i c t i o n . / 3 8 / In L'opoponax, the pr o t a g o n i s t , Catherine Legrand, r e f e r s to h e r s e l f as " j e " only once, i n the l a s t sentence of the book: "On d i t , tant je l'aimais qu'en e l l e encore je v i s . " / 3 9 / U n t i l t h i s point the character speaks only of "on," b u i l d i n g i n t h i s way a n o n - s p e c i f i c , non-gendered sense of s u b j e c t i v i t y . W i t t i g e x p l a i n s that the s i n g l e use of " j e " at the end of the book i n d i c a t e s her hope that 92 "the transformation i n t o the sovereign subject (vhich i t i m p l i e s ) vas accompished for the character Catherine Legrand and a l l the others of her group."/40/ The characters of Les qu£rllleres are r e f e r r e d to as " e l l e s , " the feminine p l u r a l being g r a d u a l l y invested v i t h a u n i v e r s a l and undivided point of v i e v . The sub-j e c t of Le corps l s s f r l e n i s a double l e s b i a n s u b j e c t , " j / e " and " t u , " vho, i n W i t t i g ' s words, i s "an I_ become so powerful that i t can attack the order of hetero-s e x u a l i t y i n t e x t s and . . . l e s b l a n i z e the gods and goddesses, l e s b l a n i z e men and women."/41/ This " I " can be destroyed and rec r e a t e d ; i t has transformed i t s con-t e s t e d s t a t u s i n t o a powerful, post-gender r e v e r -s i b i l i t y . L i k e V i r g i n i a Woolf and Monique W i t t i g , Daphne Mar-l a t t has explored i n her poetry and i n her t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g the complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of the pronoun " I , " s u b j e c t i v i t y , and gender./42/ However, u n l i k e Woolf and W i t t i g , she does not a t t r i b u t e the problems with the " I " s o l e l y to gender; her a n a l y s i s encompasses other power imbalances as w e l l . U nlike W i t t i g i n par-t i c u l a r , M a r l a t t does not avoid the f i r s t - p e r s o n pro-noun i n her w r i t i n g . In How Hug a Stone an i n s i s t e n c e on the f a c t that the n a r r a t i n g , f o c a l i z i n g p r o t a g o n i s t i s known only as " i " underlines her st a t u s as subject of language. Neither W i t t i g ' s rather aggressive l e s -b i a n i z i n g M I , M nor the " I " that Woolf c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s b l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s on growth and per c e p t i o n , have much i n common with the " i " that Daphne M a r l a t t con-s t r u c t s i n t h i s t e x t . M a r l a t t * s H i " i s an " i " / e y e ; a channel f o r p e r c e p t i o n , a conduit that gives voice to a woman's senses: her eyes, ears, and s k i n . M a r l a t t developed t h i s " i " i n e x p l i c i t o p p o s i t i o n to the b l i n d l y e t h n o c e n t r i c and c o l o n i z i n g postures of white Europeans. The power r e l a t i o n s which she c r i t i c i z e s Include but are not l i m i t e d to those of gender. "In the Month of Hungry Ghosts" records the t r a n s i -t i o n from " I " to " i . " / 4 3 / The n a r r a t o r , r e t u r n i n g to Malaysia and the scenes of her childhood on the occa-s i o n of her mother's death, f e e l s h e r s e l f and her s i s t e r to be: uncomfortable parodies of the l e i s u r e d c l a s s . Is t h i s the only way to be a white woman here? Or Is t h i s the c o n d i t i o n of being a member of an e x p l o i t a -t i v e & f o r e i g n moneyed c l a s s ? / 4 4 / there's no aut h e n t i c ground here f o r "Europeans." I want to r i p out of myself a l l the c o l o n i a l i s m s , the t a i n t of c o l o n i a l s e t s of mind. That's why as ki d s we hated everything " E n g l i s h " — not because i t was E n g l i s h but because we equated what was E n g l i s h with a c o l o n i a l i s t a t t i t u d e , that defensive s et against what immediately surrounds as r e a l on I t s own terms -- because to take i t on as r e a l would mean to "go n a t i v e " & that was unthinkable to them./45/ 94 The c o l o n i a l i s t a t t i t u d e t r i e d to maintain as " r e a l " vhat vas elsewhere, denying the d a i l y evidence of the senses, e a t i n g tinned food while i g n o r i n g the f r e s h t r o p i c a l produce of the land. M a r l a t t opens her senses to the present, c o n s t r u c t s a s u b j e c t i v i t y that i s r a d i -c a l l y immediate. "I stands f o r dominant ego i n the world when you i s not c a p i t a l i z e d , " / 4 6 / she w r i t e s , and doesn't use the c a p i t a l l e t t e r f o r h e r s e l f again. The character of the grandmother i n How Hug a Stone uses the c a p i t a l " I " repeatedly, and i t s use forms part of M a r l a t t ' s c o n t i n u i n g c r i t i q u e of c o l o n i a l i s t a t t i -tudes : "brought up i n lux u r y with servants & comforts of every s o r t . When I see what people are going through now 1 th i n k how lucky I was to be born when I was." s i t t i n g s t r a i g h t i n the room where the t v i s , my grandmother imperious. (HHS, 27) my grandmother m o n o l i t h i c i n mauve, composed. (HHS., 29) "I always came f i r s t with Grandpa & your mother. I always want to come f i r s t with people" — mauve & blue, she t e l l s the s t o r y from her point of view, how e l s e ? "queening i t around the lodge," he says, s t a r of a shattered system of domestics, memorial o r b i t s of lov e , spasmodic, reaching f a r back i n the blood -- where there i s a gap, a black hole some-where . (HHS., 34) The e g o t i s t i c a l " I " represented by t h i s grandmother, "imperious & u n p r e d i c t a b l e , " "& f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r her-95 s e l f " (HHSr 34), i s a product of the B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l and c l a s s system. She i s o b l i v i o u s to her c l a s s p r i v i l e g e and correspondingly b l i n d to the r e a l i t i e s of others. Her lack of perception resembles the blindness of Woolf's male " I . " " M o n o l i t h i c , " "imperious," "queening i t around the lodge"; the words chosen to descri b e her underline her monological, h i e r a r c h i c a l r o l e . With " i , " the na r r a t o r defines h e r s e l f i n oppo-s i t i o n to what the grandmother represents. How Hug a Stone i s a book with a t h e t i c theme: the s t o r y of a woman who seeks ground f o r h e r s e l f r e l a t i v e to her f a m i l y and the world. The d e i c t i c " i " of the knower l n the language i s paradigmatic of a type of s u b j e c t i v i t y opposed to the " I " c r i t i c i z e d by Woolf. In " W r i t i n g our Way through the L a b y r i n t h , " M a r l a t t argues f o r a w r i t i n g i n the feminine which i s more l i k e reading, and again she argues f o r senses open to the world. In t h i s essay, she r e l a t e s the e g o t i s t i c a l " I " to gender: w r i t i n g can s c a r c e l y be f o r women the act of the p h a l l i c s i g n l f i e r , i t s c l a i m to s i n g u l a r i t y , the mark of the c a p i t a l I (was here). language i s no " t o o l " for us, no extension of our s e l v e s , but some-t h i n g we are " l o s t " i n s i d e of. f i n d i n g our way i n a l a b y r i n t h i n e moving with the d r i f t , s l i p p i n g through claims to one-track meaning so that we can recover m u l t i p l e r e l a t e d meanings, reading between the l i n e s , f i n d i n g i n w r i t e , r i t e , growing out of a r - f that f i t t i n g together at the root of read (we c i r c l e back), moving i n t o r e l a t e d words f o r arm, shoulder ( j o i n t ) , harmony — the music of connection, making our way through a l l parts of the f i g u r e , using our l a b y r i n t h i n e sense, we ( w ) r i t e our way ar-way f "reading" i t , i n intercommunicating passages . / 4 7 / This essay encodes the values M a r l a t t i n v e s t s i n the s u b j e c t i v i t y of the w r i t i n g woman she created i n How  Hug a Stone: harmony, music, f i t t i n g together, c i r c l i n g back. M a r l a t t moves away from a c r i t i q u e of women's s u b j e c t i v i t y as c o n s t i t u t e d by the law of gender and damaged by h i e r a r c h i c a l systems of c l a s s power and p r i v i l e g e . She moves toward a v i s i o n of the p o s s i b l e , using a n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l grammar at the l e v e l of the sentence and at the l e v e l of n a r r a t i v e . She co n s t r u c t s a subject who i s always present: a sensuous body who l i s t e n s and f e e l s and speaks. The knower i n How Hug a  Stone i s the subject of a world i n which meaning i s contin u o u s l y discovered as m u l t i p l e and d i a l o g i c . She i s a subject of l i v i n g language, s t r i v i n g to be i n harmony with her world. The Narrator of How Hug a Stone My a n a l y s i s of the s t o r y l e v e l of How Hug a Stone focussed on the strong f o c a l i z a t i o n through i . The f o c a l i z e r i s a l s o the primary narrator of the t e x t . She can be c l a s s i f i e d as a character-bound n a r r a t o r (CN) or, i n Genette's terms, an i n t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t o r , i n a d d i t i o n to being the character f o c a l i z e r (CP). i 97 i s not the only l i n g u i s t i c s u b j e c t ; other characters narrate p o r t i o n s of the t e x t . She i s , however, always present as f o c a l i z e r , reading, seeing, or l i s t e n i n g to the voices of the other c h a r a c t e r s . Her f o c a l i z i n g presence c h a r a c t e r i z e s the t h e t i c d i a l e c t i c of the t e x t ; denotative and enunciative p o s s i b i l i t y i s a r t i c u -l a t e d through her. This produces a strong i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n between i and the reader, since the reader learns that i i s mediating between the world of the t e x t , with i t s many v o i c e s , and the e s s e n t i a l l y p r i v a t e a ct of reading. Because of the strong f o c a l i z a t i o n the reader i s never i n doubt th a t i , although she may not be l i n g u i s t i c a l l y represented as the n a r r a t o r , i s i n f a c t t e l l i n g what she has seen and heard. As Mieke Bal argues, a na r r a t o r i s always a f i r s t person. To take one example from the poem "Combe M a r t i n , " the l i n e " l e t ' s eat, he says" r e p o r t s K i t ' s words. The sentence can be encoded as f o l l o w s : CN (1 ) , CP ( i ) , CN2 ( K i t ) speaks, " l e t ' s eat." The fragment of dia l o g u e , " l e t ' s eat," i s an embedded dramatic t e x t . K i t i s the narrator or l i n g u i s t i c sub-j e c t of these words which are embedded w i t h i n the p r i -mary n a r r a t i o n . Thus, na r r a t o l o g y e s t a b l i s h e s a hi e r a r c h y of n a r r a t i v e l e v e l s . I f I t e l l you that she 98 t o l d him that John s a i d , "forget i t , " mine i s a primary-n a r r a t i v e , hers i s a secondary n a r r a t i v e , and John's i s a t e r t i a r y n a r r a t i v e . Here, K i t i s a n a r r a t o r i n the second degree and i i s the f o c a l i z e r t o whom he speaks. Tvo points must be made concerning n a r r a t i v e embed-ding i n Hov Hug a Stone. The f i r s t i s t h a t there are many, many embeddings. The t e x t i s f u l l of characters vho are subjects of language. The second concerns the vay the embeddings are s t r u c t u r e d r e l a t i v e to one another. Often the vords "he s a i d , " or "she s a i d , " vhich s i g n a l a s h i f t i n n a r r a t i v e l e v e l s , are e l i d e d . Instead, the reader i s avare of another voic e because i t a l i c s or quotation marks are used, or because of a s h i f t i n speech rhythms or the sound of the v o i c e . The use of these methods rather than the grammatical forms means that embedded n a r r a t i o n s have a c e r t a i n grammati-c a l freedom. Levels of n a r r a t i o n i n n a r r a t o l o g y do e s t a b l i s h a h i e r a r c h y , and although Bal argues that the h i e r a r c h y i t s e l f i s only t e c h n i c a l , i t i s undeniable that the terms "I s a i d , " "she s a i d , " and so on, are e s s e n t i a l l y h y p o t a c t i c , subordinating the voices of others to the primary n a r r a t i v e . As B a l h e r s e l f points out, because of the pover of n a r r a t i v e h i e r a r c h i e s , one vord from the primary n a r r a t o r i s enough to i n v a l i d a t e or render i r o n i c the embedded t e x t of another character ( B a l , 149). The t e x t of Hov Hug a Stone allows other 9 9 voices to stand on t h e i r own, u n i t i n g them not through grammatical marking but through the sensory and sensual f o c a l i z a t i o n by 1. This i n turn creates a c o n t r a d i c -t o r y kind of s u b j e c t : strong but not c o n t r o l l i n g . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between an embedded n a r r a t i v e and the primary n a r r a t i v e i n which i t occurs i s a f r u i t f u l one f o r n a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . Mieke Bal o u t l i n e s s e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s : the embedded n a r r a t i v e could be a s i g n to the reader, informing her/him how to i n t e r -pret the primary f a b u l a ; i t could be a s i g n to an actor i n the s t o r y , enabling her/him to res o l v e a problem or solve a mystery, o r, the two fabulas could resemble each other ( B a l , 142-148). Resemblance means that the "two fabulas can be paraphrased i n such a way that the summaries have one or more s t r i k i n g elements i n common" ( B a l , 146). In t h i s case, narra t o l o g y d e f i n e s the embedded t e x t as a m i r r o r - t e x t and as a s i g n of the primary f a b u l a . "An embedded t e x t that presents a s t o r y which . . . resembles the primary fabula may be taken as a s i g n of the primary f a b u l a " ( B a l , 146). Two important embedded n a r r a t i v e s i n How Hug a Stone are the grandmother's s t o r y of Edrys and K i t ' s dream on the t r a i n . The grandmother recounts Edrys' coming out at the marriage of a magistrate and a p l a n t e r ' s daughter i n Malacca. The fabula of Edrys' s t o r y resembles the 100 fabula of the main t e x t i n that paraphrases of each share a s t r i k i n g element: a young woman confronts her pr e s c r i b e d i d e n t i t y . E d r y s 1 s t o r y can t h e r e f o r e be described as a s i g n of the primary fabula and as a mir-r o r t e x t . In a d d i t i o n , the s t o r y of her mother serves as a s i g n to the n a r r a t o r , who recognises that she escaped where her mother had been trapped by the ••script that continues to w r i t e our p a r t s " ( H H S , 7 3 ) . Edrys, the poem t e l l s us, "had her wings c l i p p e d grow-ing up H ( H H S , 6 7 ) , but she had wanted to f l y : "no s t a r s to p l o t t h i s course, only foreboding & hope again s t her f a t h e r ' s words, against the s c r i p t . l e a r n -ing how to f l y " (H H S , 4 5 ) . L i s t e n i n g to her grand-mother's v o i c e , the na r r a t o r recognizes what Edrys had been up a g a i n s t : "Do you know what she wore? I can see her now — a l o v e l y pale c o f f e e - c o l o u r e d organdy dress . . . and she looked a dream." her dream, the one my mother i n h e r i t e d , her dre s s , my mother lending her body to i t . as i refused (HHS., 2 9 ) I have argued that the n a r r a t o r ' s r e f u s a l of the dream i s a moment when the two c h a r a c t e r s ' i d e n t i t y as actant i s a r t i c u l a t e d . The fab u l a of the embedded n a r r a t i o n by the grandmother and that of the primary n a r r a t i o n have t h i s actant i n common. 101 K i t ' s dream shares two characters with the main f a b u l a , the narrator and K i t hi m s e l f , but i t i s not c l e a r that e i t h e r i s , s t r i c t l y speaking, the same actor i n each of the fab u l a s . S t y l i s t i c a l l y , the a c t i o n -packed and her o i c language of K i t ' s n a r r a t i o n c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y with i ' s nominalized and d e t a i l e d observation, thus suggesting and perhaps parodying t r a d i t i o n a l gen-der o p p o s i t i o n : " s i t t i n g face to face across a moving t a b l e , r e c o g n i z i n g our d i f f e r e n c e " (HHS, 61). The f u l l r e l a t i o n s h i p between K i t ' s dream and the main fabula can be i l l u m i n a t e d only by an examination of meanings created i n t e r t e x t u a l l y . Before developing the a n a l y s i s of K i t ' s dream, I wish t o make s e v e r a l more po i n t s con-cerning l e v e l s of n a r r a t i o n i n How Hug a Stone. The primary n a r r a t i v e i s i t s e l f framed by a l a r g e r s t o r y , t o l d i n other v o i c e s . The book opens with the words of a Vancouver medium who, i n 1975, f o r e t o l d the voyage which i s the subject of the book. The medium's i s the f i r s t n a r r a t o r y v o i c e ; i i s present i n her r o l e as f o c a l i z e r : " y o u ' l l cross to England & you w i l l walk i n 'England's green & pleasant land' & s h e ' l l go home with you, though she has been a l r e a d y . " Vancouver, 1975 (HHS, 9) A summary of main events at the beginning of a na r r a -t i v e i s a "more or l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l form" of n a r r a t i v e 102 a n t i c i p a t i o n , w h i c h " s u g g e s t s a s e n s e of. f a t a l i s m , or p r e d e s t i n a t i o n " ( B a l , 6 3 ) . T h i s e p i g r a p h , w h i c h frames t h e s t o r y , i s b o t h a p r o p h e c y and a summary o f t h e v oyage t o E n g l a n d , E d r y s ' p r e s e n c e t h e r e , and t h e s u c -c e s s f u l outcome o f t h e q u e s t . The f a b u l a s o f t h e p r o p h e c y and o f t h e main n a r r a t i v e c a n t h e r e f o r e be s a i d t o m i r r o r one a n o t h e r . The words o f t h e medium a r e composed p a r t i a l l y o f a t r a n s p o s e d l i n e f r o m t h e f i n a l s t a n z a o f t h e l y r i c i n t h e " P r e f a c e " t o W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s M i l t o n : I w i l l n o t c e a s e f r o m M e n t a l F i g h t , Nor s h a l l my Sword s l e e p i n my hand, T i l l we have b u i l t J e r u s a l e m In E n g l a n d ' s g r e e n & p l e a s a n t Land./48/ B l a k e ' s words, embedded i n M a r l a t t ' s e p i g r a p h , c o n n e c t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s q u e s t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h t h e p r o p h e t ' s d e s i r e t o n a t u r a l i z e J e r u s a l e m . The words of a p r o p h e t , embedded i n a n o t h e r ' s p r o p h e c y , c r e a t e a c o n t e x t w h i c h r e i n f o r c e s t h e themes o f t h e poem and a r e a d i n g o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s q u e s t as w i d e r t h a n her p e r -s o n a l s t o r y . How Hug a S t o n e i t s e l f becomes a m i r r o r t e x t , and a s i g n t h a t J e r u s a l e m w i l l be b u i l t . T h i s s h i f t i n c o n t e x t h i g h l i g h t s t h e p o l i t i c a l s u b t e x t s o f t h e book: t h e c o m p a r i s o n w i t h N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e , t h e q u e s t i o n o f g e n d e r , t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e d a n g e r r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e arms r a c e . The q u e s -103 t i o n o f t h e book's t i t l e , "how hug a s t o n e ? " c o u l d be r e p h r a s e d : how do we g e t i n t o u c h a g a i n w i t h t h e e a r t h , our mother? D l a l o g i s m / I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y The p o w e r f u l p r e s e n c e o f t h e n a r r a t o r as f o c a l i z e r g e n e r a t e s a d i a l o g i c s e n s e o f d i s c o u r s e r a t h e r t h a n a m o n o l o g i c s e n s e o f h i s t o r y : t h e f o c u s i s on b o t h t h e r e f e r e n t i a l o b j e c t o f s p e e c h and on t h e a c t o f t e l l i n g i t s e l f . The n a r r a t o r ' s a c u t e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e l a n g u a g e of o t h e r s i n t h e w o r l d a r o u n d h e r e n s u r e s t h a t t h e n a r -r a t i o n i s a l w a y s o r a l , d i a l o g i c , and d o u b l e - or t r i p l e -v o i c e d . /49/ K i t i s o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n h i s mot h e r ' s d i s c o u r s e . E m i l e B e n v e n i s t e has shown t h a t t h e f i r s t - p e r s o n p l u r a l s u b j e c t p r o n o u n i s i n r e a l i t y a f i r s t - p e r s o n s i n g u l a r " I " s p e a k i n g on b e h a l f o f h i m / h e r s e l f and o t h e r s . "La p r e s e n c e du ' j e ' e s t c o n s t i t u t i v e du 'nous.'"/50/ When t h e n a r r a t o r r e f e r s t o "we," she g e n e r a l l y means h e r s e l f and K i t . K i t g e n e r a l l y a d d r e s s e s h i s mother i n t h e s e c o n d p e r s o n . In "on t h e t r a i n , " he s p e a k s o f h i s mother and her p a r t n e r as " t h e y , " b u t m o d i f i e s h i s p r o -noun t o "you, or whoever" when q u e r i e d by h e r (HHS, 5 9 ) . The n a r r a t o r and K i t embody t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d p e r s o n s o f t h e d i s c u r s i v e c o n t e x t . The t e x t p r e s e n t s t h e o f t e n h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f mother t o c h i l d 104 as a d i a l o g i c r e l a t i o n , v i t h f o c a l i z a t i o n r e s t i n g v i t h the mother. Hov Hug a Stone s u b s t i t u t e s f o r determining, s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s a metonymic and r e l a t i o n a l grammar of j u x t a p o s i t i o n and pr o x i m i t y : p a r a t a x i s i s p r i v i l e g e d over hypotaxis, and a m u l t i p l e i n t e r t e x t u a l voice and v i s i o n d i s p l a c e s a monologic, i m p e r i a l point of v i e v . The emphasis on grammatical r e l a t i o n as opposed to sub-o r d i n a t i o n r e f l e c t s the thematic p l a y of host and h o s t i l e , g h o s t l y and h o s p i t a b l e , vhich i s developed through cognates of the Indo-European root g h o s t - i . I t a l s o r e c a l l s M a r l a t t ' s i n t e r e s t i n a v r i t i n g that i s more l i k e reading, a v r i t i n g of connection. The e l i -s i o n of "s/he says" and, f r e q u e n t l y , of f i n i t e verbs, frees the sentence from s y n t a c t i c a l r e s t r a i n t ; c o n t r o l i s a t is s u e . In "Clystmois, 1 1 for example, voices and indeed language seem to be speaking autonomously, free from mediation by the n a r r a t i v e agent. Thus, v h i l e the n a r r a t i v e i s t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d by the exigencies of a t r a v e l n a r r a t i v e and by strong f o c a l i z a t i o n , i t i s free and decentred i n r e l a t i o n to other techniques of nar r a -t i o n . Hov Hug a Stone i s a d i a l o g i c n a r r a t i v e , imbued v i t h the values of d i s c o u r s e , as opposed to s o - c a l l e d impersonal or h i s t o r i c a l accounting v h i c h passes i t s e l f o f f as Truth. This t e x t takes a stance against the 105 i n v i s i b l e (white, male, h e t e r o s e x u a l , a b l e - b o d i e d , bourgeois) g e n e r i c s u b j e c t of h i s t o r i c a l language. How  Hug a Stone demands and generates a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to s t o r y : the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a s u b j e c t who l i s t e n s , who r e f u s e s to s i l e n c e o t h e r s , who takes a f e m i n i s t stance. She i s a s u b j e c t " l o s t " i n s i d e a w r i t i n g of connection, who b r i n g s forward the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of language and place i n a p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g of human h i s -t o r y which works to show f o r t h a world./51/ The world of How Hug a Stone i s f u l l of v o i c e s . / 5 2 / Many belong to c h a r a c t e r s i n the s t o r y ; others come from sources which can no longer be l o c a t e d . The phrase " n a r r a t i v e i s a s t r a t e g y f o r s u r v i v a l " (HHS, 75) was overheard on a car r a d i o . / 5 3 / Other v o i c e s come from w r i t t e n t e x t s . Each instance e x e m p l i f i e s the fun-damental s i g n i f y i n g process which J u l i a K r i s t e v a has d e f i n e d as t r a n s f e r e n c e or i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y : As we know, Freud s p e c i f i e s two fundamental "processes" i n the work of the unconscious: d i s -placement and condensation. Kruszewski and Jakobson introduced them, i n a d i f f e r e n t way, d u r i n g the e a r l y stages of s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s , through the concepts of metonymy and metaphor, which have s i n c e been i n t e r p r e t e d i n l i g h t of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s (see Lacan, E c r i t s : A S e l e c t i o n , pp. 156-157, et passim.) To these we must add a t h i r d "process" — the passage from one s i g n system to another. To be sure, t h i s process comes about through a combination of displacement and condensation, but t h i s does not account f o r i t s t o t a l o p e r a t i o n . I t a l s o i n v o l v e s an a l t e r i n g of the t h e t i c p o s i t i o n -- the d e s t r u c -t i o n of the o l d p o s i t i o n and the formation of a new one. The new s i g n i f y i n g system may be produced with 106 the same s i g n i f y i n g m a t e r i a l ; i n language, f o r exam-p l e , the passage may be made from n a r r a t i v e to t e x t . Or i t may be borrowed from d i f f e r e n t s i g n i f y i n g m a t e r i a l s : the t r a n s p o s i t i o n from a c a r n i v a l scene to the w r i t t e n t e x t , f o r instance. . . . The term i n t e r - t e x t u a l l t y denotes t h i s t r a n s p o s i t i o n of one (or s e v e r a l ) s i g n system(s) i n t o another; but sin c e t h i s term has ofte n been understood i n the banal sense of "study of sources," we pr e f e r the term t r a n s p o s i t i o n because i t s p e c i f i e s t h a t the passage from one s i g n i f y i n g system to another demands a new a r t i c u l a t i o n of the t h e t i c — of enun c i a t i v e and denotative p o s i t i o n a l i t y . I f one grants that every s i g n i f y i n g p r a c t i c e i s a f i e l d of t r a n s p o s i t i o n s of various s i g n i f y i n g systems (an i n t e r - t e x t u a l i t y ) , one then understands that i t s "place" of enunciation and i t s denoted "obje c t " are never s i n g l e , complete, and i d e n t i c a l t o themselves, but always p l u r a l , s h a t t e r e d , capable of being t a b u l a t e d . In t h i s way polysemy can a l s o be seen as the r e s u l t of a semi-o t i c polyvalence -- an adherence to d i f f e r e n t s i g n systems./54/ In How Hug a Stone we f i n d instances of va r y i n g kinds of t r a n s p o s i t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t r a n s p o s i t i o n s from spoken language to t e x t ; from dream to spoken language to t e x t ; from the news media to t e x t ; i n t e r n a l t r a n s p o s i -t i o n s from one p o s i t i o n to another w i t h i n the t e x t ; and, not l e a s t , the weaving of a v a r i e t y of w r i t t e n t e x t s i n t o t h i s one. "at Cogswells ('whose w e l l s ? ' ) " i l l u s t r a t e s t r a n s p o s i t i o n from spoken language to t e x t . I t evokes the c o l l e c t i v i t i e s of f a m i l y and v i l l a g e i n r e l a t i o n to language and water: two l i f e sources. The t i t l e i s d i a l o g i c : one v o i c e , probably K i t ' s , i n t e r r u p t s what could have been a u n i v o c a l naming of the place. His question reminds us that w e l l s , l i k e v i l l a g e commons 107 ( a l s o featured i n Hov Hug a Stone), r e s i s t e d the i n s t i t u t i o n of p r i v a t e property. In the landscape a r c h i t e c t u r e of the N e o l i t h i c , v e i l s vere sacred. at Cogswells ("vhose v e i l s ? * 1 ) the f e e l of t h i s cottage f u l l of dogs, c a t s , f l o v -e r s , c u r r ents of emotion, the drama of E n g l i s h man-ners, " s o r r y , d a r l i n g . " scones v i t h Devonshire cream & s t r a v b e r r y jam f o r t e a . "o bloody h e l l , there goes the phone." a constant stream of speech, my aunt i n a l l i a n c e v i t h her teenage g i r l s , the jokes, the s t o r i e s -- "that o l d bag," "vhat rub-b i s h , " "a p e r f e c t l y h o r r i d l i t t l e house." the com-ings and goings of my uncle, pater f a m i l i a s , Mephistophelian brovs (my grandfather) v i t h the f u l l feminine mouth i see In my s i s t e r , the moods of my mother, charming & f u r i o u s at once. my son i m i t a t e s an E n g l i s h accent, i n t r i g u e d (to be i n the svim) & yet s t u f f e d up, f i n d i n g i t hard to breathe, a l l e r g i c to the nearest t h i n g ve have to a h e r e d i t a r y home. (HHS_, 24) Cogswells i s f u l l of the voices of f a m i l y members who belong to the place. The narrator f o c a l i z e s and transposes between the s i g n i f y i n g systems of her r e l a -t i v e ' s language and her own. She i s at the centre of a network of d e i c t i c r e l a t i o n s : " t h i s cottage," "my aunt," "my uncle," "my s i s t e r , " "my mother," and "my son." The f a m i l y voices are "a constant stream of speech," suggesting the n a r r a t o r ' s sensation as t h i s stream washes over her. She hears her r e l a t i o n s as subjects of t h e i r language and she transposes the music of t h e i r speech i n t o her ovn t e x t u a l sounding of her 108 environment. The one complete sentence r e f e r s to the watery q u a l i t y of Cogswells: "my son i m i t a t e s an E n g l i s h accent, i n t r i g u e d (to be i n the swim). M K i t ' s " f i n d i n g i t hard to breathe" adds an ominous note to the watery d i c t i o n — w e l l s , c u r r e n t s , stream, swim — used to describe t h i s a n c e s t r a l place. The t r a n s p o s i -t i o n from spoken language to w r i t t e n i s foregrounded; d i s c u r s i v e language, both as a d e i c t i c force l o c a t i n g one i n the world and as a stream of sound pouring over the ears, i s a source of pleasure. In "June near the r i v e r C l y s t , C l u s t , c l e a r . Clystmois t h i s h olding wet & c l e a r , " the heard voices are more a n c e s t r a l . The t e x t i s a meditation on haysel or hay-making, the hay harvest which, t a k i n g place i n June, the month of Oak, c o i n c i d e s with the summer s o l -s t i c e : i t ' s h a y s e l , haymaking time, "Sweet an' dry an' green a s ' t should be, An f u l l o' seed an* Jeune f l o w e r s . " tedding & cocking going on, shaking, t u r n -i n g , spreading, haytrucks go l o r r i e s lumbering by these t w i s t y lanes l i n e high with hedgerow, no seeing over, cow p a r s l e y , s t i n g i n g n e t t l e s , campion, "day's eyes" & s n a i l s a l l colours c o i l e d i n t h e i r l e a f byways, jeune the young, green June delayed by r a i n . June why do you punish me? "Take heede to the weather, the wind, and the s k i e . " indeed, make hay while the sun shines you w r i t e , while the moon i s on the wane. (HHS., 25) The t e x t transposes phrases from G a i l Duff's Country 109 Wisdom, an encyclopaedia of " t r a d i t i o n a l good sense," v h i c h acknovledges a long l i s t of c o n t r i b u t o r s f o r t h e i r "vords of country visdom."/55/ The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s from Duff have been p a r t i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the opening of the poem: "Tedding i s shaking, t u r n i n g , spreading the grass out to help d r y i n g . Cocking i s making the grass i n t o p i l e s . " / 5 6 / Most quotations are i n d i c a t e d by quotation marks. "Sweet an' dry an' green as ' t should be,/ An' f u l l o' seed an* Jeune Flowers," i s c i t e d i n Duff along with a s e r i e s of other proverbs to do with haymaking. These include "Take heed to the weather, the wind and the s k i e , / I f danger approacheth, then cock apace c r i e , " and "Mow grass and make hay while the moon i s on the wane."/57/ "Make hay while the sun sh i n e s " i s not i n Duff's l i s t , although i t seems l i k e good advice and i s c i t e d i n the OED under "hay"; i t appears i n the poem courtesy of a l e t t e r from Roy Kiyooka./58/ S n a i l s h e l l s , with t h e i r n a t u r a l s p i r a l images — a sinuous l i n e moving out of a "black hole at the ce n t r e , " are as s o c i a t e d with N e o l i t h i c b u r i a l s . / 5 9 / G a i l Duff's country proverbs are not the only t e x t s which reappear, t r a n s f e r r e d to the s i g n i f y i n g context of Hov Hug a Stone. The l a s t l i n e s of "Clystmois" r e f e r to another i n t e r t e x t u a l system: 110 he wanes, my son redeyed & watery, phlegmatic i n the face of phleum pratense grass of the meadow, timothy spikes e r e c t a masculine given name, god honouring, not her who i s c u t , f u l l of young v i g o u r , from the l i v i n g book, from the play of l i g h t & shadow, nothing l e s s than herb-of-grace, rue i f i n d , there with the queen's pinks i n the clock that i s a garden. (HHS., 25) The t e x t opens up the meaning of words i n order to i l l u m i n a t e immediate r e a l i t y . The word "hay" comes from a root kau- meaning to hew or s t r i k e , and M a r l a t t takes t h i s root meaning as a cue to l i n k the image of haymaking to ancient harvest r i t u a l s . L i k e the moon, an image of c y c l i c l i f e , the n a r r a t o r ' s son wanes; the time i s r i g h t , then, for the mowing. Timothy spikes r e f e r to the grass, phleum pratense, "having narrow, c y l i n d r i c a l flower spikes and widely c u l t i v a t e d f o r hay." "Timothy" i s "a masculine given name" meaning "God-honouring" and stemming from k w e i 1 , to pay, atone, compensate. I t i s cognate to "punish," which perhaps accounts f o r "June, why do you punish me?" Duff records, on the page f o l l o w i n g the haymaking proverbs, a l o c a l t r a d i t i o n that blades of harvest wheat are young men./60/ Folk songs commemorate s t i l l the l i f e and death of John Barleycorn at harvest. Dames sug-gests that a male harvest surrogate was s a c r i f i c e d at mid-summer r i t e s observed by e a r l y N e o l i t h i c , I l l a g r i c u l t u r a l c u l t u r e s . / 6 1 / According to Robert Graves, the s a c r i f i c e of the surrogate son/king took place f o r the common good of the people and the recurrence of a g r i c u l t u r a l , l i f e - s u p p o r t i n g c y c l e s ; on June 24 an "Oak King" was burned a l i v e , then a f t e r a seven day wake the second h a l f of the year began: the C e l t i c New Year./62/ The month of Oak i s June 10 - J u l y 7, which roughly corresponds to the dates of the n a r r a t o r ' s journey. I t i s the month of loo k i n g both ways, Duff's country wisdom r e p o r t s , which i s why oak i s good f o r making hinges./63/ A l l s igns point to the s a c r i f i c e of the harvest/ son; the focus i s on him and not, the na r r a t o r f i n d s , on "her who i s c u t , f u l l of young v i g o u r , from the l i v i n g book" (HHS., 25). "Her i l o s t , not him (HHS./ 78). Edrys i s the one whose l i f e was s a c r i f i c e d ; "the common good" tyrann i z e d who she was (HHS, 70). Now the n a r r a t o r , rueing her l o s s , f i n d s rue: herb of grace i n the k i t c h e n garden./64/ In the Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n -ary under "rue" one reads: " l i e s et a Bank of Rew, sowre Herbe of Grace; Rue, e'en for r u t h , heere s h o r t l y s h a l l be seen. In the remembrance of a Weeping Queene."/65/ The f i n a l image of M a r l a t t ' s poem, "there with the queen's pinks i n the clock that i s a garden," resonates with the image of Demeter, weeping Queen and keeper of c y c l i c a l , time-keeping nature. The nar r a t o r 112 mourns her mother vho i n t h i s moment i s Persephone, too. The mythological subtext of "Clystmois" i s under-s t a t e d but important. We can read i t because " C l y s t -mois" i s not i s o l a t e but i s part of a n a r r a t i v e vhole i n v h ich myth plays an important s u b - t e x t u a l r o l e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Hov Hua a Stone depends to a s i g -n i f i c a n t extent on the reader's apprehension of the s i g n i f y i n g systems from v h i c h the various mythical references are taken. In the manuscript p r e s e n t l y i n the L i t e r a r y Manu-s c r i p t s C o l l e c t i o n of the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of Canada, submitted to Turnstone Press f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , Daphne M a r l a t t included a B i b l i o g r a p h y (see Appendix). This B i b l i o g r a p h y should have been published because i t vould have permitted readers vho wished to pursue some of M a r l a t t ' s suggestions to move much more q u i c k l y i n t o Hov Hug a Stone. Knovledge of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sub-or l n t e r t e x t i l l u m i n a t e s the n a r r a t i v e as a vhole and c l a r i f i e s mythological references such as those i n "June near the r i v e r C l y s t . " Knovledge of Michael Dames' The Avebury Cycle and Robert Graves' The White  Goddess i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l . 114 Kev to Figure 1 a. Avebury Henge b. S i l b u r y H i l l c. South Long Barrow d. Kennett Spring e. West Kennett £. Kennett Avenue g. Beckhampton Avenue h. Bath Road i . Windmill H i l l j . S aint Ann's H i l l K. Temple Downs 115 M i c h a e l Dames and R o b e r t G r a v e s e a c h r e c o n s t r u c t t h e r e l i g i o u s s y s t e m o f t h e N e o l i t h i c e r a i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , c h a r a c t e r i z i n g i t as g o d d e s s - w o r s h i p p i n g and a g r i c u l t u r a l . Dames f o c u s s e s on t h e complex o f N e o l i t h i c s i t e s a t A v e b u r y , p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t A v e b u r y i n c l u d e s t h e l a r g e s t known s t o n e c i r c l e i n t h e w o r l d ; E n g l a n d ' s l a r g e s t p r e h i s t o r i c barrow, West K e n n e t ; t h e remnants o f two monumental s t o n e a v e n u e s ; and S i l b u r y H i l l , E u r o p e ' s t a l l e s t a r t i f i c i a l h i l l ( F i g u r e 1 ) . The s o c i e t y w h i c h b u i l t t h i s complex l e f t b e h i n d a f r a g -mented r e c o r d w h i c h n o n e t h e l e s s s u g g e s t s t h a t i n i t s i n f a n c y E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e was n o n - p a t r i a r c h a l and i n harmony w i t h t h e e a r t h . M a r l a t t o b s e r v e d i n h e r n o t e s f o r How Hug a Ston e t h a t t h e b u i l d e r s o f A v e b u r y were s u c c e e d e d i n t h e I r o n Age by a w a r r i o r - o r i e n t e d , p a t r i a r c h a l and c l a s s - s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y . Thus t h e N e o l i t h i c i s i d e n t i f i e d as b o t h a s o u r c e and a s i t e o f l o s s . A c c o r d i n g t o Dames, " t h e monuments [ i n A v e b u r y P a r i s h , W i l t s h i r e ] were c r e a t e d as a c o h e r e n t ensemble t o s t a g e a r e l i g i o u s drama w h i c h t o o k one y e a r t o p e r -f o r m . "/66/ The e a r t h and s t o n e c o n s t r u c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t t h e body o f t h e e a r t h mother, "nose s t u f f e d e y e s h o l e s i n t h e c h a l k r i d g e o f s i n a l bones r u s h e d down back r o a d s ' u p l a n d g r a s s wind w e a v i n g s n a k e l i k e t h r o u g h , " (HHS. 74) w r i t e s M a r l a t t o f A v e b u r y . 116 F o l l o w i n g the r e d i s c o v e r y that S i l b u r y i s an image of the pregnant Mother Goddess i n harvest, (described i n The S i l b u r v Treasure. 1976), i t w i l l be argued that the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the e n t i r e c y c l e was designed to be read as a sequence of v i s u a l images of the N e o l i t h i c d e i t y . These g i g a n t i c s c u l p t s [ s i c ] of the Great Goddess were regarded as l i v i n g c h a r a c t e r s , brought, each i n i t s t u r n , to a s t a t e of maximum v i t a l i t y by the annual sequence of human r i t e s conducted w i t h i n . . . . The a c t s ( r i t u a l s ) of the drama were joined together to make a c y c l i c a l p l a y , with the monuments arranged so as to describe and c o n t a i n the d i v i n e n a r r a t i v e i n a sequence of a r c h i t e c t u r a l stages (symbols) shaped to correspond with the changing c o n d i t i o n of the d e i t y ' s form./67/ The changing c o n d i t i o n of the d e i t y ' s form Is none other than the seasonal, a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e . M a r l a t t develops a sub-text based on the d i v i n e n a r r a t i v e which Dames p o s i t s , and r e l a t e s i t to her n a r r a t o r ' s search for her l o s t mother. "The Avebury c y c l e , " w r i t e s Dames, "provides a glimpse of the Mother we have l o s t . " / 6 8 / In The White Goddess, Robert Graves tr a c e s the signs of the goddess through G a e l i c c u l t u r e back to the N e o l i t h i c . In her notebook, M a r l a t t noted her names: B e l i l i , the Sumerian white goddess who preceded I s h t a r ; B r i g i t , known as B r i d e . Reading through The White God-dess we f i n d motifs f a m i l i a r from M a r l a t t ' s poem: the Night Mare (HHS, 33), "one of the c r u e l l e s t aspects of the Goddess;"/69/ the muse-ship, which the Medieval B r i g i t shared with "Mary Gypsy" or "Mary of Egypt" 117 (HHSr 72);/70/ the serpent, who i s the lover or son of the goddess and i s known as "the serpent of wisdom" and "the s t a r of l i f e " (HHSr 75);/71/ the "white lady" (HHS., 76);/72/ and a t i t l e f o r Mary who i s a l s o B r i g i t : "Bride of the White H i l l s " (HHSP 72)./73/ Another i l l u m i n a t i n g motif from Graves i s the fram-ing device of the r i d d l e or poem which conceals the name and a t t r i b u t e s of the goddess. The t i t l e , "how hug a stone?" can be read as a p o e t i c r i d d l e of the same type as the "Cad Goddeu," or "The B a t t l e of the Trees," i n which the poem i t s e l f , the c o r r e c t response to the r i d d l e , preserves and conceals the mysteries of the ancient goddess./74/ In l i k e manner, How Hug a  Stone presents and d i s g u i s e s the goddess's a t t r i b u t e s : b i r d , horse, snake, cave, cow, and white lady. The theme of the harvest s a c r i f i c e f o r the Mother i s woven i n t o the n a r r a t i v e of How Hug a Stone at the same time that i t i s r e - w r i t t e n and r e j e c t e d . " S a c r i f i c e of son refused," M a r l a t t wrote i n her notes: the fear that i f i was to (liJatitilLy with) embrace Her, then he would have to d i e , be s a c r i f i c e d , but she was never a person as (e^peo, ) He, Jehovah, became, d i c t a t i n g to Abraham. She was the source of a l l l i f e , a cunt, w e l l s p r i n g , daemon of the earth out of which e v e r y t h i n g flows (Olson's Gala?) Rhea (flowing) & her son i n the o l d Mediterranean r e l i -gions was both son & lover i n d i v i d u a t e d , mortal, t h e r e f o r e of seasonal d u r a t i o n only. 118 The motif of s a c r i f i c i n g the son i s the " r a i s o n d'etre" behind the n a r r a t o r ' s fear that she has put her son at r i s k i n b r i n g i n g him on her guest f o r the/her mother: " i only want to f l y home v i t h him, to keep him s a f e , vhere does t h i s f e e l i n g come from that i have put him at r i s k ? that the longer ve st a y here the more i tempt f a t e ? " (HHS, 54). The s a c r i f i c e motif l i e s behind K i t ' s dream i n "on the t r a i n , " as the notebooks make c l e a r : " K i t ' s d r e a m — the King/ the s a c r i f i c e , ' i d o l i d o l i d o l ' e t c . " The manuscript notes leave no doubt tha t M a r l a t t took the n a r r a t i v e of the son's s a c r i f i c e from Graves and Dames. K i t ' s f e v e r , i n " P i l g r i m n i g h t , " vhere he i s "very hot" and "scared," as v e i l as h i s dream of i d o l a t r y and s a c r i f i c e , are p r o a i r e t i c developments of t h i s s u b n a r r a t i v e . The appearance of animals sacred to the goddess, s p e c i f i c a l l y the s e r -pent, i n "as commonly t o l d , " and the horse i n "boy v i t h tape recorder s t a l k i n g horses i n a f i e l d of covs," com-bined v i t h the emphasis throughout the poem on the importance of b i r d s , can a l l be understood f r e s h l y vhen seen i n the context of t h i s ancient n a r r a t i v e . The t e x t r e c o n s t r u c t s at the same time that i t refuses the N e o l i t h i c c y c l e of s a c r i f i c e and r e n e v a l , a process vhich M a r l a t t comments on i n her notes: "subtext — i l l u m i n a t e s / c o l l i s i o n of subtexts." 119 The notes a l s o r e l a t e the growing h i s t o r i c a l s i g -n i f i c a n c e of the s a c r i f i c e of the son to the deper-s o n a l i z a t i o n of the goddess as matrix and matter: as we get caught up i n the passion & pathos of His s a c r i f i c e , she fades i n t o u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d back-ground, because she i s not a person i n that way. we can't r e l a t e the tra g e d i e s of our l i v e s , our M o r t a l i t i e s , to Her because she i s pure source. Refusal of the s a c r i f i c e i s thus c o r r e l a t e d with r e f u s a l of the hero/obstacle o p p o s i t i o n and the p l o t p o s i t i o n d e f i n i n g woman. I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i s c r u c i a l i n the Avebury poems, "long a f t e r The Brown Day of B r i d e , " "continued," and "Avebury awi-spek f winged from buried (egg." "long a f t e r The Brown Day of B r i d e " t r a c e s the s t o r y of the goddess from the ol d e s t monument i n the Avebury com-p l e x , the West Kennet long barrow, to her s u r v i v a l as Mary i n C h r i s t i a n r i t u a l . The t e x t c i t e s p o r t i o n s of the f o l l o w i n g passages from The Avebury Cycle: When winter approached, the harvest goddess per-s o n i f i e d by S i l b u r y was transformed. As s u r e l y as winter f o l l o w s summer, the Tomb Lady took over from the Mother, and i n v i t e d the N e o l i t h i c population to f o l l o w her r e t r e a t i n t o the underworld. This meant th a t the focus of a t t e n t i o n switched form S i l b u r y , the August F i r s t F r u i t s temple, designed to operate as the Mother Goddess i n labour, to a temple devoted to death . . . the mighty West Kennet long barrow./75/ The nature of the Winter goddess at West Kennet i s revealed as much by her f u r n i s h i n g s (now housed i n 120 Devizes Museum) as by her o v e r a l l form. Her tomb-body vas b u i l t to co n t a i n that primary chaos of nat-u r a l and man-made things — the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d rubbish from vhich nev l i f e a n n u a l l y a r i s e s . Within the tomb there vas a b l u r r i n g of d i s t i n c -t i o n betveen corpse and corpse./76/ her tomb-body . . . b u i l t to contain that primary chaos f long barrov of bones, dismembered or not, of potsherds, a l l mingled together. v i n t e r , t h i s time of the year, submerged, as i am, heavy v i t h c o l d , on the other side "dovn under" watching almond blossom i n the c h i l l s t r e e t s of t h e i r world, a place to v i s i t , b l u r r i n g d i s t i n c t i o n betveen corpus & corpse. quick, running to meet them, v i t h pots, meat bones, f l i n t implements, v i t h stone, bone & s h e l l beads, r u b b i s h , fsoro vhich new li f e annually E l s e s (HHS_, 72) The goddess as death i s i n e v i t a b l y posed i n a quest f o r a mother vho has r e t r e a t e d to the undervorld. The r i t u a l of the long barrov must be enacted before s p r i n g v i l l come again. The barrov, b u r i a l place and tomb-body of the mother, vas a "place t o v i s i t , " v r i t e s Mar-l a t t , misreading Dames i n order to point out hov, i n the sacred jumble of pots and bones, mingling "corpus and corpse," ve read our heritage and l e a r n vhat ve need to knov to s u r v i v e . Dames comments, " I t may seem strange and even o f f e n s i v e to our Western s e n s i b i l i t i e s t hat the tomb vas frequented by the l i v i n g as v e i l as the dead."/77/ Frequenting the haunts of her dead mother, hovever, the na r r a t o r understands that " I t l h e 121 seeker even today . . . must confront and a s s i m i l a t e i n i t s most concrete form the meaning of death . . . His goddess, h i s l o v i n g mother i n time."/78/ The long bar-row was a ceremonial centre of death i n t e r p r e t e d as winter from which new l i f e a nnually a r i s e s . Both Mar-l a t t and Dames move from t h i s N e o l i t h i c premise to meditation on r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s i n modern I n d i a , where T a n t r i c teachings preserve an ancient respect for death. The next part of the poem i s a l s o r e l a t e d to a pas-sage from Dames: On balance . . . the l i f e - g i v i n g force enjoys no absolute triumph, but always s u r v i v e s . This i s shown i n the t r a d i t i o n a l game, "The Farmer's i n h i s Den," where the c h i l d s e l e c t e d to be Bone i s destined to be chewed by Dog, and to r e c e i v e a shower of blows from the others who shout: "We a l l pat the bone." The bone d i s i n t e g r a t e s , but the end of one game i s the s t a r t of another, because that very bone i s changed i n t o a new being. Bone becomes Farmer i n the next round."/79/ cup-&-ring, stone r i n g w i t h i n a r i n g , the Farmer's i n the D e l l ( i s that you, Bride of the Brown Day, of the White H i l l s ? ) & we a l l pat the bone, t h i n k i n g to make i t r i n g us round, earth word (home a g a i n ) , seed word (safe a g a i n ) , that bears us i n t h i s k i e l r to ku-, t o , a hollow space or p l a c e , e n c l o s i n g o b j e c t , round o b j e c t , a lump, mound i n the surrounding sea of grass, ku-, kunte, t o , wave-breaking womb: Bride who comes unsung i n the muse-s h i p shared with Mary Gypsy, Mary of Eygpt, Miriam, 122 Marianne suppressed, become/Mary of the Blue V e i l , Sea Lamb s i f t i n g sand & dust, dust & bone, whose son . (HHS., 72) M a r l a t t reads the long barrow as a s h i p i n a sea of grass; the hollow space at the centre of the s p i r a l ; the g e n i t a l s of the e a r t h . Her transformation of Dames' t e x t t r a c e s the signs of the goddess from the N e o l i t h i c cup and r i n g motifs which were i n c i s e d on the megaliths themselves, through the c h i l d r e n ' s game with i t s ancient r e f r a i n , to C h r i s t i a n iconography which a l s o preserved c e r t a i n elements of the goddess i n Mary's d i v i n i t y , and which transformed the s a c r i f i c e d lover/serpent/son i n t o the passion of Jesus C h r i s t . The poem stops there. Again, the narrator refuses the s a c r i f i c e of the son. The next poem i n s i s t s t h a t r e i f i e d , d e i f i e d s a c r i f i c e i s not the point of the s t o r y the narrator seeks to r e c o n s t r u c t . Or perhaps, r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s not the p o i n t : " a c t l v e d y l misread-i n g " (HHS./ 75), she wants to "make us new again: to speak what i s n ' t spoken, even with the o l d words:" . . . that i s the l i m i t of the o l d s t o r y , i t s ruined c i r c l e , t hat i s not how i t ended or we have f o r g o t -ten p a r t s , we have l o s t sense of the whole, l e f t with a s c r i p t that continues to w r i t e our parts i n the passion we f i n d ourselves enacting, o l d wrongs, o l d s a c r i f i c e s . (HHS., 73) 123 "Avebury awi-spek, winged from buried (egg" moves the focus of the t e x t from the barrow to S i l b u r y H i l l , thus t r a c i n g the r i t u a l procession through the a r c h i t e c t u r a l whole of the Avebury complex as i t has been reconstructed by W i l l i a m Stukeley./80/ A double procession l e d from the sanctuary up West Kennet Avenue, and from another, now o b l i t e r a t e d c i r c l e , up Beckhampton Avenue, meeting at the henge f o r a r i t u a l sexual/symbolic r e a f f i r m a t i o n of l i f e , represented by S i l b u r y H i l l , the goddess's pregnant b e l l y . The nar-r a t o r and her son, "rushed down backroads' upland grass wind waving s n a k e l i k e through" (HHS, 74), perform t h i s r i t u a l movement which Dames r e l a t e s to serpent dances and r i t u a l marriages c e l e b r a t e d s i n c e time immemorial by a g r i c u l t u r a l people, i n c l u d i n g a "serpentine" dance c a l l e d "dancing the hay."/81/ M a r l a t t reads the serpent dancing f o r t h to h i s brid e as the l i f e p r i n c i p l e , "wave on wave emerging" (HHS, 74), l i k e the " s i n e " (HHS. 74) of c o n t i n u i t y and renewal: "man's l i f e l i k e the l i f e of c e r e a l s , woman's too" (HHS. 74). K i t ' s p l a y s i g n i f i e s the f u t u r e ; f i n a l l y freed from f e a r , i t opens i n t o renewal and l i g h t : 124 the, a l l - p o w e r f u l t i c k l e , gulp, wriggle gulping i n the whole world hugged i n e c s t a t i c l i m i t , breath's, nothing s t i l l , no dura-t i o n now (a l i n e ) creeps through f i e l d s of (waves of) renewed green, c l o u d , l i g h t . (HHS., 74) For a moment, as i n the d i v i n e n a r r a t i v e which the i n t e r t e x t of How Hug a Stone suggests, the human body i s i n harmony with the sacred body of the e a r t h . P o s t c r l p t ; N a r r a t i v e i n Language C e r t a i n aspects of How Hug a Stone f a l l outside of Mieke Bal's d e f i n i t i o n of n a r r a t i v e . The maps that appear throughout the t e x t , although s i g n i f i c a n t , are non-narrative because they are not narrated by an agent. The p r o x i m i t y of d i f f e r e n t s i g n i f y i n g systems adds complexity to the v a r i a t i o n between t r a v e l j o u r n a l and poem or p o e t i c prose t e x t which was considered as an aspect of s t o r y . The maps represent the need f o r maps; they are reminders of being l o s t . In a d d i t i o n to poems, maps and j o u r n a l e n t r i e s , the t e x t u a l system of How Hug a Stone includes c h a r t s . The c h a r t s present geographical p l a c e s , t r a i n stops, places where the narr a t o r gets her bearings: the names of the poems often correspond to the names on the maps. What i s the point? The maps i n How Hug a Stone leave out almost every-t h i n g but the place names. C o a s t l i n e , r i v e r s , 125 mountains and f i e l d s are a l l i n v i s i b l e . The goddess's body i s only i n s c r i b e d i n the memories of words and stones, but, l i k e the w e l l at Cogswells, the memories are there. The land i s o v e r w r i t t e n ; h i s t o r y i s i n s c r i b e d there. The t e x t unfolds names that are a l s o maps. This u n f o l d i n g i s another aspect of the t e x t u a l system which f a l l s outside a s t r i c t l y n a r r a t i v e frame-work . A network of words s t r e t c h e s across the body of the t e x t l i k e a l a b y r i n t h i n e web, a phenomenon which Mar-l a t t has named " n a r r a t i v e i n language."/82/ In a t e x t f u l l of voices and of l i s t e n i n g , language i t s e l f i s speaking. The most important of these webs i s based on g h o s t - i , the root which, with i t s apparent c o n t r a d i c -t i o n , represents the ambiguity of the n a r r a t o r ' s r e l a -t i o n s h i p to the f a m i l y i n t o which she t r a v e l s , i n order t o escape. Another l a b y r i n t h of words opens out of the place name, Avebury: "Avebury awi-spek, winged from buried (egg." The routes o f f e r e d by etymology are open-ended. The stone c i r c l e at Avebury was or i e n t e d towards the sky f o r d i v i n a t i o n and studying the s t a r s , and the idea of augury i s concealed i n the roots and the sound of the name. The f i r s t part of the name, ave- i s from the L a t i n a v i s , or b i r d . The word has an Indo-European r o o t , a w l - P with a compound, awi-spek, or "observer of 126 b i r d s . " An e a r l i e r poem, "magpie augury," l i n k e d b i r d augury to women's s t o r i e s yet to be t o l d ; the connec-t i o n comes f u l l c i r c l e i n the b i r t h promised by the opening parenthesis of the poem's t i t l e . Augury comes from a root aug- 1, meaning to inc r e a s e , to d i v i n e , to wax august. The root aw).- has many cognates, i n c l u d -ing the word f o r egg, thus suggesting the p o s s i b i l i t y of hatching, winged from b u r i e d , l i k e the bones i n the barrow. These meanings f o l d i n t o the s e r i e s of b i r d images which form another word ch a i n : Edrys who "loved b i r d s " (HHS. 40), who perched l i k e a g u l l (HHS. 45), but who never d i d l e a r n to f l y ; and the pigeons a t the poems' clo s e whose upward s p i r a l s i g n i f i e s the movement of l i f e : r u f f l e d neck feathers r i p p l e s n a k e l i k e movement of the neck l a s t v e s t i g e of dinosaurs: then l i f t , t h i s quick wing f l a p , heart at breast s t r i k e up a w i l d b eating, blood for the clim b , g l i d e , r e s t , on a i r c u r r e n t , free we want to be where l i v e things are. (HHS., 79) The second part of "Avebury," "bury," i s e q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . "Bury" comes from the root bhergh- 1 r which means to hide or to p r o t e c t , and gives us the words " b u r i a l , " "burrow," "borrow," and "bargain." The root a l s o means high, as i n a h i l l , h i l l - f o r t (which p r o t e c t s ) or burrow, i n which people were b u r i e d , i n order t o r i s e again. Cognates include borough; thus 127 Avebury can be taken to mean Bird-Town. And bhergh- a i s the root of the C e l t i c name f o r the ancient goddess: B r i g e t , or B r i d e . In How Hug a Stone, burrows are places of s a f e t y : & we a l l pat the bone, t h i n k i n g to make i t r i n g us round, earth word (home a g a i n ) , seed word (safe a g a i n ) , that bears us i n t h i s k i e l , to ku- f t o , a hollow space or plac e , e n c l o s i n g o b j e c t , round o b j e c t , a lump, mound i n the surrounding sea of grass, ku-, kunte, to wave-breaking womb: Bride who comes unsung i n the muse-sh i p shared with Mary (HHS., 72) This poem unfolds the roots to word "cunt," from k i e l , k e e l of a s h i p , to ku-, i n order to l i n k the k e e l of the muse-ship, the sex of the goddess, the s a f e t y of the barrow, an "enc l o s i n g space," and a "mound i n the sea of grass." M a r l a t t has commented on her use of word chains i n "Narrative i n Language C i r c u i t s : " a long poem o f f e r s the scope f o r . . . word/thought u n r a v e l l i n g s . . . the u n r a v e l l i n g of "language." . . . i n How Hug a Stone (which my pu b l i s h e r adver-t i s e d as a novel but which could j u s t as e a s i l y be termed a long poem) the chains are there too, but more hidden, one that runs through s e v e r a l poems: "guest", " o b l i g e d " , " h o s t l y & h o s t i l e " " g h o s t l y " , branches: i n t o "tomb", "womb", "ea r t h " , i n touch with "guest" again, these are the touch p o i n t s , touch words i n the s e c r e t n a r r a t i v e of the composi-t i o n a l process, these are the connecting points of the neural net language makes of experience, where l i g h t f l a r e s , moving along the net we f i n d i t moves 128 through us and the distance covered i s c i r c u i t - o u s . i n a l l vays./83/ I t would be i l l u s o r y to th i n k one could t r a c e a l l these c i r c u i t s and r e w r i t e them as e x p o s i t o r y prose. At one point or another, every word bumps up against every other. Language i s i n e x h a u s t i b l e ; i t s r i c h n e s s i s the pleasure of the t e x t . N a r r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of How Hug a Stone shows that language functions a c t a n t i a l l y at the l e v e l of f a b u l a , as the power which makes p o s s i b l e the f u l f i l l m e n t of the quest, and perhaps as the subject i t s e l f . At the l e v e l of s t o r y , language spans enormous d u r a t i o n s , i s rhythmic, i s a stream of sound; at the l e v e l of t e x t , language i s the matrix f o r the c r e a t i o n of subjec-t i v i t y . At t h i s l e v e l , a step beyond n a r r a t i v e , l a n -guage i s t e l l i n g i t s own s t o r y , speaking i t s e l f . U l t i m a t e l y both the acto r of the fabula and the nar-r a t o r of the t e x t are c o l l e c t i v e e n t i t i e s . The actant of the fabula i s the c o l l e c t i v e of the f a m i l y , those to whom one i s bound through r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n , through time or space or both. The n a r r a t o r , seen a l l along to comprise many v o i c e s , can perhaps a l s o be u l t i m a t e l y understood as the c o l l e c t i v i t y of language i t s e l f . For language i s a c o l l e c t i v e body and i n i t s speaking are the voices of human h i s t o r y . 129 Notes / l / Jacques D e r r i d a , Of Grammatology, t r a n s . G a y a t r l Chakravorty Splvak (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U.P., 1976), 108. /2/ Genette, 30. /3/ Claude Bremond, Loglgue du r e c i t ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1973.) /4/ Barthes, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " 88-104; c i t e d i n B a l , 15-16. /5/ Personal i n t e r v i e w with Daphne M a r l a t t , J u l y 21, 1988. /6/ W i l l i a m Hendricks, "Methodology of N a r r a t i v e S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s , " Semiotica 7, 163-184; c i t e d i n B a l , 16-18. /!/ Louis A l t h u s s e r , Lenin and Philosophy, t r a n s . Ben Brewster (London: Monthly Review Press, 1971), 174-175; c i t e d i n Kaja Silverman, The Subject of Semiotics (New York: Oxford U.P., 1983), 218-219. /8/ Lotman, 168. /9/ de L a u r e t i s , 119. /10/ de L a u r e t i s , 118-119. / I I / Teresa de L a u r e t i s i s not M a r l a t t ' s source, although M a r l a t t became f a m i l i a r with de L a u r e t i s ' s work a f t e r w r i t i n g How Hug a Stone. Personal i n t e r v i e w with Daphne M a r l a t t , August 3, 1988. /12/ For an a r c h a e o l o g i s t ' s view of Old European c u l t u r e , see M a r i j a Gimbutas, "The F i r s t Wave of Eurasian Steppe P a s t o r a l i s t s i n t o Copper Age Europe," Journal of Indo-European Studies 5, 4 (Winter 1977), 277-338; "An Ar c h a e o l o g i s t ' s View of *PIE i n 1975," Journal of Indo-European Studies 2, 3 (1974), 289-307; The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe 7000 - 3500 B.C. (London: Thames and Hudson, 1974). 130 /13/ Michael Dames argues that the Tan H i l l F a i r , held i n W i l t s h i r e every year u n t i l 1932, was a "genuine N e o l i t h i c s u r v i v a l . " The Avebury Cycle (London: Thames and Hudson, 1977), 210-218. /14/ M a r l a t t ' s source was the o f f i c i a l handbook put out by the Department of the Environment, where we read that S i l b u r y H i l l i s "made up of a matrix of chalk block w a l l s arranged i n the p a t t e r n of a s p i d e r ' s web with a number of c o n c e n t r i c c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l and i n t e r r u p t e d r a d i a l w a l l s i n p l a n " (26); and, "the h i g h l y preserved s t a t e of the organic m a t e r i a l was q u i t e e x c e p t i o n a l . As w e l l as the grass which was s t i l l p l i a b l e , through brown i n c o l o u r , there was a l l the i n s e c t and f l o r a l l i f e that goes with i t ; b e e t l e s , many other i n s e c t components, and f l y i n g ants with t h e i r wings. Although the date of c o n s t r u c t i o n of the h i l l i s s t i l l only known w i t h i n a bracket of a few hundred years, the ants with t h e i r wings t e l l us that the b u i l d i n g s t a r t e d at the end of J u l y or e a r l y i n August, at a time of year when the wings of t h i s ant develop" (28). The Avebury Monuments, F a i t h Vatcher and Lance Vatcher (London: Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1976). /15/ Dames, 131. /16/ D.A. Mackenzie, S c o t t i s h F o l k l o r e and Folk  L i f e (1935), 188; c i t e d i n Dames, 86. /17/ Dames, 13. /18/ John Lyons, I n t r o d u c t i o n tQ T h e o r e t i c a l L i n g u i s t i c s (London: Cambridge U.P., 1977); c i t e d i n Rhoda Hanafi, "When " I " Speaks to "You": The L i t e r a r y Subject as an E f f e c t of Pronominal P l a y i n Two Works by Contemporary Women W r i t e r s , " M.A. Thesis, U.B.C., 1987, 24. /19/ Emile Benveniste, Probl6mes de l i n g u l s t l q u e generale ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1966), 259-260. /20/ J u l i a K r i s t e v a , Revolution i n P o e t i c  Language, t r a n s . Margaret Waller (New York: Columbia U.P., 1984), 43-45. /21/ Cf. Nancy Chodorow: "Separateness . . . i s not simply given from b i r t h , nor does i t emerge from the i n d i v i d u a l alone. Rather, separateness i s defined r e l a t i o n a l l y ; d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n occurs i n r e l a t i o n s h i p : " I " am "not-you". Moreover, "you", or the other, i s 131 a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d . The c h i l d learns to see the p a r t i c u l a r i t y of the mother or primary caretaker i n con t r a s t to the r e s t of the world." "Gender, R e l a t i o n , and D i f f e r e n c e i n Psychoanalytic P e r s p e c t i v e , " The Future of D i f f e r e n c e , Hester E i s e n s t e i n and A l i c e J a r -d i n e , eds. (Boston, Massachusetts: G.K. H a l l & Co, 1980), 6. /22/ Monique W i t t i g , "The Mark of Gender," EfimJ,-r U s t tssyiss 5, 2 ( F a l l 1985), 3-12. /23/ W i t t i g , MG, 3. /24/ W i t t i g , Mfi, 4. /25/ W i t t i g , dfi, 6. /26/ Woolf, Room, 93. /27/ de L a u r e t i s , 119. /28/ de L a u r e t i s , 199. /29/ W i t t i g , M£, 6. /30/ Benveniste, 254-255. /31/ W i t t i g , MG_, 6. /32/ Woolf, Room. 98-99. /33/ Woolf, Room, 95-96. /34/ Woolf, Room. 96. /35/ Women's Autobiography, ed. E s t e l l e J e l i n e k (Bloomington: Indiana U.P., 1980). /36/ J e l i n e k , "Women's Autobiography i n the Male T r a d i t i o n , " Women's Autobiography, 3. /37/ Mary Meigs, The Medusa Head (Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1983), 7. /38/ Monique W i t t i g ' s most recent novel, V i r g i l e  Non ( P a r i s : M i n u i t , 1985), uses the f i r s t - p e r s o n s i n g u l a r pronoun. /39/ Monique W i t t i g , L'opoponax ( P a r i s : M i n u i t , 1964), 281. 132 /40/ W i t t i g , MG , 8. /41/ W i t t i g , MG, 11. /42/ Woolf i s not Marlatt»s source. Personal Interview with Daphne M a r l a t t , J u l y 12, 1988. /43/ Daphne M a r l a t t , "In the Month of Hungry Ghosts," The Capllano Review, 16/17 (2-3/1979), 45-95. /44/ M a r l a t t , Ghosts, 63. /45/ M a r l a t t , Ghosts, 62. /46/ M a r l a t t , Ghosts. 70. /47/ Daphne M a r l a t t , " W r i t i n g our Way through the L a b y r i n t h , " Tessera 2. nbj (1985), 49. /48/ W i l l i a m Blake, M i l t o n (Boulder, Colorado: Shambhala, 1978), 62. /49/ M i k h a i l B a x t i n , "Discourse Typology i n Prose," Readings i n Russian P o e t i c s : F o r m a l i s t and  S t r u c t u r a l i s t Views, ed. L a d i s l a v Matejka and Krystyna Pomorska (Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1971), 177-196. /50/ Benveniste, 233. /51/ Martin Heidegger, "The O r i g i n of the Work of A r t , " Poetry, Language, Thought, t r a n s . A l b e r t Hofstad-t e r (New York: Harper & Row, 1971): An a r t work "opens up a world and keeps i t a b i d i n g l y i n f o r c e " (44). In c o n t r a s t with a piece of equipment, i t does not use up m a t e r i a l but sets i t f o r t h , as earth which "grounds" our " d w e l l i n g i n the world" (46). "The s e t t i n g up of a world and the s e t t i n g f o r t h of earth are two e s s e n t i a l features i n the work-being of the work" (48). /52/ This i s not the place t o l o c a t e and catalogue the sources for every l n t e r t e x t u a l transference i n How  Hug a Stone. Much work remains to be done. /53/ Personal Interview with Daphne M a r l a t t , May 29, 1988. /54/ K r i s t e v a , 59-60. /55/ G a i l Duff, Country Wisdom: An encyclopedia of r e c i p e s , remedies and t r a d i t i o n a l good sense (London: Pan Books, 1979). 133 /56/ Duff, 22. /57/ Duff, 22-23. /58/ Personal i n t e r v i e w with Daphne M a r l a t t , J u l y 12, 1988. /59/ Dames, 71. /60/ Duff, 23. /61/ Dames, 70, 104-105. /62/ Robert Graves, The White Goddess: A h i s t o r i -c a l grammar of p o e t i c myth (London: Faber & Faber, 1961), 177. /63/ Duff, 135. /64/ Personal Interview with Daphne M a r l a t t , August 3, 1988. /65/ W i l l i a m Shakespeare, Richard I I . I l l , i v , 105-108. /66/ Dames, 9. /67/ Dames, 9, 13. /68/ Dames, 218. /69/ Graves, 26. /70/ Graves, 394. /71/ Graves, 387. /72/ Graves, 24. /73/ Graves, 394. /74/ Graves, 27-48. /75/ Dames, 22. /76/ Dames, 43. /77/ Dames, 44. /78/ Dames, 44. /79/ Dames, 45. 134 /80/ W i l l i a m Stukeley, Stonehenge. a Temple  Restor'd to the B r i t i s h Druids; Abury, a Temple of the  B r i t i s h Druids,. I n t r o d u c t i o n by Robert D. Richardson, J r . , Myth & Romanticism: A C o l l e c t i o n of the Malor Mythograohic Sources used bv the E n g l i s h Romantic  Poets, e d i t e d by Burton Feldman and Robert Richardson, J r . (1743; r p t . New York & London: Garland, 1984). /81/ Dames, 168. "Dancing the hay" means to per-form "a country dance having a winding or serpentine movement, or being of the nature of a r e e l . " The Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933). (see "hay") /82/ Daphne M a r l a t t , "Narrative i n Language C i r -c u i t s , " The Dinosaur Review 7, Summer 1986, 60-61. /83/ M a r l a t t , " N a r r a t i v e , " 61. 135 Part I I I : N a r r a t o l o g i c a l Reading of Picture Theory Nous partons, Oaniele J u d i t h , C l a i r e Derive et moi vers l a mer, retrouver Florence Derive et Oriana dans l a grande maison, sur une l i e , au sud de Cape Cod. (EX, 7 9 ) A. Fabula Event N a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of How Hug a Stone began with the f a b u l a , the deepest l e v e l of n a r r a t i v e , and with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the events out of which fa b u l a Is constructed. I o u t l i n e d the procedures f o r estab-l i s h i n g fabula events, arguing that i n most cases the n a r r a t o l o g i s t can begin with an i n t u i t i v e , one-sentence summary of the a c t i o n . Formal s t r a t e g i e s can be used to evaluate the working model of the fabula which i s produced i n t h i s way. In the case of P i c t u r e Theory, t h i s u s e f u l technique i s unable to account f o r large p a rts of the t e x t . An i n i t i a l e f f o r t to d e f i n e the main events of P i c t u r e Theory introduces the reader to a complex system of t e x t u a l transformations which Lor-ra i n e Weir c a l l s the Brossardian "grammar of u t o p i a . " / I / Events or a c t i o n s are a minor aspect of the t e x t ' s Utopian t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . 136 Brossard hangs a rudimentary p l o t upon a complex i n t e r t e x t u a l system which fugues i t s way to her con-c l u d i n g statement of women's place i n a re-imagined world. That p l o t i t s e l f i s , l i k e s i m i l a r aspects of Flnnegans Wake, at f i r s t d i f f i c u l t to see and one undertakes the same r i s k of t r i v i a l i z i n g the w r i t i n g by f e r r e t i n g out characters and i n c i d e n t s and seem-ing thereby to dispose of the complex language games of the t e x t . / 2 / As Weir argues, the r e a l event occurs at the l e v e l of t e x t or language, and "the f a c t s of a n a r r a t i v e " may serve "only as a framework"/3/ f o r the event that i s the w r i t i n g i t s e l f . Yet the "characters and i n c i d e n t s " of the "rudimentary p l o t " do bear an important r e l a t i o n to fabula events. For n a r r a t o l o g y , they are the object of a n a l y s i s . I n i t i a l l y , the n a r r a t o l o g i s t must set aside the most s t r i k i n g features of the t e x t , so that the n a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s may provide a surer method of a c q u i r i n g i n s i g h t i n t o Brossard's complex t e x t u a l system. Any summary of the major events of P i c t u r e Theory d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n to " l i v r e deux," "L'Emotion," the most n a r r a t i v e of the e i g h t s e c t i o n s . The s e r i e s of events i n "L'Emotion" i s preeminent due to the c l a r i t y with which i t i s recounted, to the amount of t e x t u a l space i t occupies, and to i t s b r i n g i n g together of the book's major c h a r a c t e r s . Fabula d e s c r i p t i o n can begin with the events of "L'Emotion": f i v e women t r a v e l to an i s l a n d o f f Cape Cod and spend t h e i r vacations together. 137 This germinal fabula begins with a journey and thus resembles the fabula model with which I began the a n a l -y s i s of How Hug a Stone: the n a r r a t o r , with her son, t r a v e l s i n England f o r a month with the i n t e n t i o n of b e t t e r understanding her mother. The element of i n t e n t i o n a l i t y , as always, points to the quest s t r u c -ture ( B a l , 26), and i n d i c a t e s that the n a r r a t o r i s the subject i n a quest for understanding. In the case of How Hug a Stone f the t e l e o l o g y of the quest, which sub-ordinates a l l other fabula elements to the d e s i r e of the s u b j e c t , i s u l t i m a t e l y undermined. At the l e v e l of fabula i t i s contested by other s t r u c t u r e s which a l l o w f o r a p l u r a l i t y of v o i c e s , d e s i r e s and s u b j e c t i v i t i e s . The quest remains an important aspect of s t o r y and i s l i n k e d to the strong f o c a l i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the poem. The problematic of the quest must be addressed again with respect to P i c t u r e Theory, f o r , as L o r r a i n e Weir argues, Brossard t r a c e s "the stages of c a p t i v i t y and release i n the quest n a r r a t i v e which c o n s t i t u t e s the c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e of the n o v e l . " / 4 / The quest stages are marked as a progression by the e i g h t s e c t i o n t i t l e s , from M L • O r d i n a i r e " through "La P e r s p e c t i v e , " "L'Emotion" and "La Pens6e," to "Screen S k i n , " "Screen Skin Too," "Screen Skin Utopia" and, f i n a l l y , hologramme. The quest i s a l s o implied by Brossard's 138 i n t e r t e x t u a l transformations of James Joyce, Djuna Barnes, Monique W i t t i g , Mary Daly and others. For example, Weir reads the snow f a l l i n g on Montreal as f o l l o w s : [Slnow f a l l s on the c i t y and becomes 'Sky-writing* (150). In sharp c o n t r a s t to the snow which descends over a l l I r e l a n d i n f r i g i d a s s o c i a t i o n with Joyce's G a b r i e l Conroy at the end of 'The Dead,• however, snow i n Brossard i s white l i g h t , agent of t r a n s -formation, symbol of the hologram. Echoing Mary Daly's r e j u v e n a t i o n of ' s p i n s t e r , ' a woman who s p i n s , (Mary Daly, Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethies of  R a d i c a l Feminism [Boston: Beacon, 1978J, chapter 10) Brossard's snow i s a 'Spinster S p i r a l e ' (190), s p i n n i n g c r e a t i v e webs i n the s e r v i c e of the union of thought and w r i t i n g . / 5 / The quest object i s here a r t i c u l a t e d as the union of thought and w r i t i n g , and i s represented through i n t e r -t e x t u a l transformations of James Joyce and Mary Daly. The symbols of snow and s p i n s t e r are redeemed by mean-ing i n the feminine, thus opening up the c l o s u r e of Joyce's "The Dead." The example shows that Brossard's n a r r a t i v e can and must be read i n t e r t e x t u a l l y . This d i s c o v e r y , however, does l i t t l e to i l l u m i n a t e the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between the "rudimentary p l o t " and the quest s t r u c t u r e of Brossard's r a d i c a l r e w r i t i n g of u t o p i a . A n a r r a t o l o g i c a l reading should be able to describe the quest as a fabula composed of f u n c t i o n a l events, defined by Barthes as any change of c o n d i t i o n which poses a choice betveen two p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the 139 f a b u l a ' s s u b s e q u e n t e v o l u t i o n . The t r i p t o t h e i s l a n d i s a f u n c t i o n a l e v e n t b e c a u s e i t i n v o l v e s a c o l l e c t i v e a c t o r ' s change o f c o n d i t i o n and b e c a u s e i t p e r m i t s t h e e v e n t s o f t h e v a c a t i o n . The d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e i s l a n d i m p l i e s t h e i n t e n t i o n a l i t y e s s e n t i a l t o q u e s t s t r u c -t u r e , u n l i k e l y as a v a c a t i o n seems as a q u e s t o b j e c t . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r v a c a t i o n , t h e women r e a d books, e a t , swim, t a l k , make l o v e , v i s i t t h e c l i f f s , s t a y up a l l n i g h t and watch t h e s u n r i s e . The i r o n i c s u b s t i t u -t i o n o f t h e s e d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e e p i c a c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i n g h e r o l i n k s B r o s s a r d ' s q u e s t t o t h e modernism o f J o y c e ' s e p i c s , U l y s s e s and F i n n e g a n s Wake. I n t e r t e x t u a l r e a d i n g u n d e r s c o r e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e j o u r n e y t o t h e i s l a n d and t h e v a c a t i o n . In "De r a d i c a l a i n t e g r a l e s , " B r o s s a r d employs t h e word " v a c a n c e , " w i t h i t s d o u b l e s e n s e o f v o i d and v a c a t i o n , t o i n d i c a t e t h e s e c o n d c r i t i c a l s t a g e i n a t w o - p a r t model o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c u l t u r e "au f e m i n i n " : 1. L 1 e c l a t du s e n s u n i q u e * b r i s e r 1•homme comme u n i v e r s e l ** rompre l e c e r c l e de l a f e m i n i t e 2. P r o d u i r e une v a c a n c e , s o i t un e s p a c e m e n t a l q u i peu a peu s e r a i n v e s t i de nos s u b j e c t i v i t y , c o n -s t i t u a n t a i n s i un t e r r i t o i r e i m a g i n a i r e a p a r t i r d u q u e l nos e n e r g i e s p o u r r o n t p r e n d r e f o r m e . / 6 / The b r e a k w i t h one-way p a t r i a r c h a l t h i n k i n g i s t h e f i r s t s t a g e on w h i c h f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c u l t u r e "au 140 feminin" depends. In P i c t u r e Theory, i t corresponds to the departure "vers l a mer," vhich i s necessary f o r the progress of the fabula and brings i n t o p l a y the t r i p l e meaning of " l a mer," " l a mere" and "l'amer" vhich Bros-sard uses to s i g n i f y the decons t r u c t i o n of p a t r i a r c h a l motherhood i n L'Amer./!/ The d i f f e r e n c e t h a t i s l e s -bianism, i n L'Am&rr makes t h i n k a b l e the p r o j e c t of P i c -ture Theory. In broad terms, L 1Amer corresponds to the rupture v i t h p a t r i a r c h a l meaning and departure "vers l a mer" i n Picture ThSPKy; P i c t u r e Theory i t s e l f c o r -responds to the vac a t i o n or r e s u l t i n g space i n vhich women's energies can be elaborated. The e l a b o r a t i o n of women's energies permits the e v o l u t i o n of woman as sub-j e c t ; thus, Brossard w r i t e s of the v a c a t i o n i n g women that "Les s u b j e c t i v i t e s s • i n t e r p e l l e n t a l n s l l e s unes l e s autres toute une n u i t chaude de i u i l l e t , lentement" (£T_, 91). The verb "s • i n t e r p e l l e r , " with i t s A l t h u s -s e r i a n connotations, r e i n f o r c e s the idea that the vaca-t i o n makes p o s s i b l e the c r e a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n the feminine. The motif of f i v e l e s b i a n women spending time together i n the p r i v i l e g e d m i l i e u of the i s l a n d evokes the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n of Sappho's academy f o r women on the i s l a n d of Lesbos; indeed, Brossard, i n choosing t h i s m o t i f , p a r t i c i p a t e s i n what Susan Gubar c a l l s the " f a n t a s t i c c o l l a b o r a t i o n " between Sappho and c e r t a i n 141 contemporary women w r i t e r s Including H.D., Renee V i v i e n , Marguerite Yourcenar, N a t a l i e Barney, and Amy Lowell./8/ At the same time that they supplement the lo s s of Sappho's t e x t s , these f e m i n i s t modernists create "an empowering l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . " / 9 / Their pro-j e c t harmonizes with that of Brossard's n a r r a t o r , who i s h e r s e l f a w r i t e r : " f a i r e e n t r e r de l ' h i s t o i r e dans ma v i e est l a chose qui m'est l a plus d i f f i c i l e . Pourtant, j ' y t r a v a i l l e reellement. Je l i e l ' h i s t o i r e A ce qui m'entoure; e l l e e st toujours a i l l e u r s " (EJ_, 140). The i s l a n d v a c a t i o n o f f Cape Cod s i g n i f i e s a p r i v i l e g e d m i l i e u f o r c u l t u r a l r e i n t e g r a t i o n of h i s t o r y and experience. I t provides an environment f u l f i l l i n g the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s needed, as V i r g i n i a Woolf sp e c u l a t e s , for the emergence of a poet of Sappho's s t a t u r e : predecessors, membership i n a group where a r t i s f r e e l y discussed and p r a c t i s e d , and freedom of a c t i o n and experience. "Perhaps i n Lesbos but never sin c e have these c o n d i t i o n s been the l o t of women."/10/ Monique W i t t i g , whose work stands i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y intimate r e l a t i o n to Brossard's, a l s o c o l l a b o r a t e s with Sappho. In Le corps l e s b l e n , according t o Namascar S h a k t i n i , W i t t i g uses the voyage to Sappho's i s l a n d to re c o n s t r u c t human s u b j e c t i v i t y around the image of the l e s b i a n body, thus w r i t i n g over c u l t u r a l l y dominant, generic and "unmarked" p h a l l o g o c e n t r i c subjec-t i v i t y . / H / The "companion lovers" / 1 2 / leave behind Freud's d e f i n i t i o n of f e m i n i n i t y as " l e continent n o i r " / 1 3 / and appropriate Watteau's Embarquement pour  Cythere, i n one b r i l l i a n t l y i n t e r t e x t u a l gesture: adieu continent n o i r de misere et de peine adieu v i l l e s anciennes nous nous embarquons pour l e s t i e s b r i l l a n t e s et radieuses pour l e s vert e s Cytheres pour l e s Lesbos n o i r e s et dorees./14/ Embarking "pour l e s t i e s b r i l l a n t e s et radieuses," " l e s amantes" move from darkness i n t o a l i g h t that i s e n i g -m a t i c a l l y "noires et dor6es." This second " n o i r e , " feminine and dark, suggests the chthonic goddesses of the ancient world, to which W i t t i g makes extensive reference. I t a l s o r e c a l l s the p r i m o r d i a l v i o l e n c e which W i t t i g a t t r i b u t e s , throughout her oeuvre, to women's natures; i n Les g u e r i l l e r e s she w r i t e s , f o r example: " E l l e s d i s e n t que l a guerre est une a f f a i r e de femme."/15/ Ni c o l e Brossard's s t r a t e g y , while e q u a l l y r a d i c a l , i s g e n t l e r . She feminizes the grammatically masculine " l e continent n o i r " and dwells there with other women w r i t e r s : ma continent m u l t i p l e de c e l l e s qui ont signe: Djuna Barnes, Jane Bowles, Gertrude S t e i n , N a t a l i e Barney, Michele Causse, M a r i e - C l a i r e B l a i s , Jovette Marches-s a u l t , Adrienne R i c h , Mary Daly, C o l e t t e et V i r g i n i a , l e s autre noyees, C r i s t i n a P e r r i R o s s i , Louky B e r s i a n i k , P o l P e l l e t i e r , Maryvonne s i 143 a t t e n t i v e , Monique W i t t i g , Sande Zeig, Anna d'Argentine, Kate M i l l e t , Jeanne d'Arc J u t r a s , Marie L a f l e u r , Jane Rule, Renee V i v i e n , Romaine Brooks, e c r i r e : l e r e e l / la.peau c l a i r v o y a n t e p r u n e l l e e s s e n t i e l l e dans l e deploiement de ma conscience et e x p r e s s i o n : mon double une s i n g u l i e r e m o b i l i t e et l e c o n t i n e n t c e r t e s une j o i e /16/ Brossard's l i s t of c o - s i g n e r s o v e r l a p s c o n s i d e r a b l y with those w r i t e r s who, c o l l a b o r a t i n g with Sappho and each other, transform r e l a t i o n s between h i s t o r y , women, and r e a l i t y , r e w r i t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l symbology of l i g h t and dark to which Freud's famous phrase r e f e r s . / 1 7 / Thus, Brossard embraces the dark c o n t i n e n t as women's t e r r i t o r y and watches i t f i l l with l i g h t : ma c o n t i n e n t , je veux p a r l e r l ' e f f e t r a d i c a l de l a lumiere au grand jour a u j o u r d ' h u i , je t ' a i s e r r e e de pres, aimee de toute c i v i l i s a t i o n , de toute t e x t u r e , de toute g6om6trie et de b r a i s e , d e l i r a n t e s , comme on e c r i t : et mon corps e s t r a v i . / 1 8 / In P i c t u r e Theory, p a t r i a r c h y i s a s s o c i a t e d with dark-ness; as women's ene r g i e s take form, l i g h t i n t e n s i f i e s . In Brossard's thought, as i n W i t t i g ' s , t h i s development corresponds to the em i g r a t i o n from the dark c o n t i n e n t to the i s l a n d : "du c o n t i n e n t des femmes a l a pensee consequente" (PT, 150-151). The i s l a n d i s an e n v i r o n -ment where "des f i l l e s s t u d i e u s e s " (PT, 99) are able to 144 pass "toute l a n u i t explorant au grand jour l e d i c t i o n -n a i r e , l e contexte dans l e g u e l l e s idees s ' e t a i e n t formees puis renouvelees" (PT, 99). The d a y l i g h t which p a r a d o x i c a l l y i l l u m i n a t e s t h i s " n u i t blanche" r e f l e c t s d i s r u p t i o n w i t h i n the b i n a r y l o g i c of p a t r i a r c h a l order, a d i s r u p t i o n a l s o symbolized by the i s l a n d . The i s l a n d , S h a k t l n i argues, represents l e s b i a n d i s p l a c e -ment of p h a l l o g o c e n t r i c i t y because i t " i s c e n t r a l from the point of view of i t s own c e n t r e , " yet "marginal from the point of view of the body of water that s u r -rounds i t . " / 1 9 / The c o n t r a d i c t o r y c e n t r a l l t y of the l i m i n a l , so e s s e n t i a l to the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of P i c t u r e Theory, i s s i g n i f i e d by the screen, the s k i n , " l e h a l l d'entree," the h o r i z o n , the f o r e s t , and the i s l a n d . / 2 0 / In B r o u l l l o n pour un d l c t i o n n a l r e des amantes, Monique W i t t i g and Sande Zeig w r i t e that at the end of p a t r i a r c h a l time, the companion lo v e r s l e f t t h e i r c i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y P a r i s , to l i v e on e q u a t o r i a l i s l a n d s : Les migrations dans l e s l i e s sont d e j a mentlonnees a l'dge de l a vapeur. C e l l e s qui s'y rendaient marchant a pied jusqu'a l a mer, chantaient, "adieu Pont-Neuf, Samaritaine / Butte Saint-Roch, P e t i t s -Carreaux, / ou nous passions des jours s i beaux. / Nous a l l o n s en passer aux l i e s / puisqu'on ne veut plus de nous aux v l l l e s " , ( t i r e de l a B l b l l o t h e q u e , ensemble des l l v r e s et fragments du passe sauv6s par l e s 145 amantes pendant l a d e r n i e r e periode de chaos). C'est t r e s massivement que l e s amantes de l'dge de g l o i r e se sont mises a chercher l e u r s t i e s . La p l u p a r t ont p r e f e r e l e s t i e s ou pousse l a grande f o r f i t h y g r o p h i l e et c o n t i n u e . I l s ' a g i t de l a c e l n t u r e d ' t l e s qui sont de p a r t e t d'autre de 1 • e q u a t e u r . / 2 1 / In P i c t u r e Theory, Brossard w r i t e s another v e r s i o n of t h i s contemporary l e s b i a n m i g r a t i o n to f o r e s t - c o v e r e d i s l a n d s . Both the phrase "vers l a mer," repeated four times, and the emphasis on the passage through l i g h t and dark u n d e r l i n e the symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Journey: Nous partons, Daniele J u d i t h , C l a i r e Derive e t moi vers l a mer, r e t r o u v e r F l o r e n c e Derive e t Oriana dans l a grande maison, sur une t i e , au sud de Cape Cod. II y a v a i t des a u t o r o u t e s , de l a f o r € t , des odeurs, des champs; nous avangions sur l e c o n t i n e n t v e r s l a mer e t nous r e g a r d i o n s devant nous. Les autoroutes prennent l a couleur des b o i s e t des v i l l e s que nous t r a v e r s o n s . Les autoroutes f a i s a i e n t des boucles dans 1'horizon e t p a r f o i s nous avons 1'impression de ne pas avancer. Chacune de nous p r e n a i t l e r e l a i s vers l a mer. L'autoroute e t a l t d'OHtfrKe et; tie lumlfrKS vers l a f i n du voyage, au c r e p u s c u l e lorsque nous 1'avons q u i t t e e pour des routes p l u s l e n t e s et qui serpentent v e r s l a mer. En a r r i v a n t a Woods Hole nous avons vu l e bateau q u i d e v a i t nous mener dans l ' t l e et q u i f l o t t a i t devant nous comme un e c l a i r a g e suspendu. (ET_, 79) B r o u l l l o n pour un d l c t l o n n a i r e des amantes i s honoured here i n the image of f o r e s t - c o v e r e d i s l a n d s to the south, and "des b o u c l e s " where W i t t i g and Z e i g wrote " c e i n t u r e d ' t l e s . " 146 B r o s s a r d ' s s t y l e , u n l i k e W i t t i g ' s a n d Z e i g ' s , i s c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d c o l l o q u i a l , y e t c l a s s i c a l i m a g e s a r e a l l o w e d t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e i n a l a t e t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y w o r l d . T h e v o y a g e i t s e l f , t h e " r o u t e s q u i . . . s e r p e n t e n t , " a n d t h e e e r i e f e r r y t h a t w a i t s t o t r a n s p o r t t h e t r a v e l l e r s a c r o s s t h e w a t e r a l l s u g g e s t U l y s s e s ' l o n g v o y a g e h o m e . H o m e r i s e x p l i c i t l y i n t r o -d u c e d i n a p a s s a g e f r o m " L ' O r d i n a i r e " w h i c h l o o k s f o r -w a r d t o t h e i s l a n d v a c a t i o n o f " L ' E m o t i o n " : D e s v a c a n c e s a u b o r d d e l a m e r . s u r u n e l i e o u quanti l e splell s e cpuche, on cKpjlKalfr vols ulysse poliniti*e ft I'horison tie ia malspn Upse wood), llLa. teffse des xeux-Rontis 3 t a U 1&, tpute prpche; npus v o y i o n s s e s f u m 6 e s ; n o u s e n t e n d l o n s l e u r v o i x e t ceiies de leuss chftypes , , , AU couches tiu spl e l l , q u a n d v i e n t l e c r e p u s c u l e , o n s ' e t e n d p o u r d o r m l r sur la qr&ve de mes", Les tgansatlantlques npus f o n t d e s r a l e s d a n s l e d o s e t s u r l e s c u i s s e s . Li e s t s e p t h e u r e s . F l o r e n c e D e r i v e r e v i e n t d u v i l l a g e avec ties mpuies-(EX, 33) T h e e p i c i n t e r t e x t e x p r e s s e s t h e m a g n i t u d e o f w o m e n ' s e n t r a n c e i n t o h i s t o r y . I n t e r t e x t u a l r e a d i n g t h u s i n t e n s i f i e s t h e s i g -n i f i c a n c e o f t h e j o u r n e y t o t h e i s l a n d a n d t h e v a c a -t i o n , a n d s u g g e s t s a s w e l l t h a t n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s i n t e g r a l t o t h e i n t e r t e x t u a l c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e n o v e l . S t i l l t o b e e s t a b l i s h e d i s t h e p l a c e o f t h e s e t w o e v e n t s w i t h i n t h e n a r r a t i v e s e n t e n c e . G i v e n B r o s s a r d ' s c o n c e r n w i t h b i n a r y l o g i c , h o w d o e s s h e t r a n s l a t e a 147 n a r r a t i v e grammar based on the hero/obstacle o p p o s i t i o n of the quest? In other words, what i s the fabula of P i c t u r e Theory? Because i t moves c o n s t a n t l y between the l e v e l of the t e x t and that of the f a b u l a , i n t e r t e x t u a l reading i s not an i d e a l method of e s t a b l i s h i n g f a b u l a s t r u c -t u r e . To e s t a b l i s h the f a b u l a , events must be i s o l a t e d from t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n at the l e v e l s of s t o r y and t e x t . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of the events of "L'Emotion" i n t h e i r order of appearance, which c o i n -c i d e s u n p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y with chronology. Events i n v o l v i n g a choice which determines the subsequent e v o l u t i o n of the a c t i o n are i d e n t i f i e d as f u n c t i o n a l ( F ) . Events which seem to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an order of the r e a l beyond the o r d i n a r y are i n parenthesis. Events which are i n s e r i e s , that i s , which lead func-t i o n a l l y each to the next, are numbered i n s e r i e s . Events i n "L'Emotion" l F a . l F b . l F c . Daniele, M.V. and C l a i r e leave f o r the ocean They cross the water i n a boat They meet Florence D6rive and Oriana on the i s l a n d A l l f i v e watch the sun r i s e They assemble around the breakfast t a b l e Discussion ("Toute l a maison, fendtres ouvertes, s ' e n s o l e i l l a i t " ) (PT_, 82) Daniele, Oriana and M.V. d r i v e the car to the v i l l a g e Florence and C l a i r e go to the beach Daniele, Oriana and M.V. enter "dans 1'ombre a l a V i t e s s e de l a lumiere" (P_T_, 82) I d . 2Fa. 2(F)b. 2c. 3Fa. 3Fa. 3Fb. 148 3Fc. They wait at garage f o r t h e i r car to be f i x e d 3Fb. Florence t a l k s about t h e i r mother and t h e i r brother John 3Fc. C l a i r e i s overwhelmed 3Fd. C l a i r e gives the impression she hasn't heard 3Fe. (her l i p s f u l l of s a l t ) 3Ff. Memories flow 3Fg. (the t i d e comes up) 3Fh. C l a i r e shuts her eyes and c r i e s 3 F i . Florence f a l l s s i l e n t 3 j . Florence looks at the ocean 3k. (The i s l a n d reappears) 3F1. They go back to the house 3Fd. Daniele, Oriana and M.V. a r r i v e back from the v i l l a g e with g r o c e r i e s (they assemble) 4a. Oriana and Daniele go to the beach 4Fb. C l a i r e and M.V. i n t e r a c t ( t a l k ) 4Fc. C l a i r e s p i l l s beer 4d. C l a i r e opens another beer 4Fe. C l a i r e and M.V. i n t e r a c t (make love) 4Ff. C l a i r e and M.V. sleep 4Fg. M.V. opens her eyes 4h. She hears, " l a t a b l e est mise" (PT. 85) 4F1. They assemble around the supper t a b l e 4 j . They t a l k 5. ("Le lendemain, l e s jours s'6coulent au bord de l a mer") (PJT_, 86) 5Fa. Oriana proposes that they v i s i t the c l i f f s 5Fb. Daniele J u d i t h d r i v e s to the c l i f f s 5Fc. they a r r i v e , park and look around 5Fd. they advance towards the c l i f f s 5e. (the c l i f f s t e l l a s t o r y of r a i n y days, e t c . ; there i s w r i t i n g / a woman i n the rock) 5Ff. they cross the i s l a n d i n r e t u r n i n g to the house 5g. ("Aujourd'hui une lumiere blanche l e s r e n d a i t r e e l l e s " ) (PT., 89) 6Fa. they a r r i v e back at the house, named "Tournant des chats" (P_T_, 89) 6b. they have naps 6c. they t a l k 6d. they read books a l l the next day 6Fe. M.V. w r i t e s about Curasao 6Ff. C l a i r e v i s i t s her i n her room 6Fg. C l a i r e and M.V. i n t e r a c t 7. they assemble at the supper t a b l e 7Fb. Oriana t a l k s 7Fc. C l a i r e / F l o r e n c e and Daniele/M.V. hear her d i f f e r e n t l y 7Fd. they t a l k 7e. ("les s u b j e c t i v i t e s s • i n t e r p e l l e n t a i n s i l e s une l e s a u t r e s toute une n u i t chaude de 149 7e.. ( " l e s s u b j e c t i v i t e s s 1 i n t e r p e l l e n t a i n s i l e s une l e s a u t r e s t o u t e une n u i t chaude de  i u i l l e t , l e n t e m e n t " ) (PT, 91) 8Fa. t h e n e x t d a y t h e y go t o t h e b e a c h 8Fb. e x c e p t f o r F l o r e n c e who l i s t e n s t o C a r l o s G a r d e l on t h e b a l c o n y 8 F c . F l o r e n c e j o i n s t h e o t h e r s on t h e b e a c h 8Fd. F l o r e n c e s i t s down t o w r i t e on t h e b e a c h 8e. M.V. d e s i r e s F l o r e n c e 9Fa. F l o r e n c e comes back from t h e c i t y w i t h f o o d 9Fb. t h e y a s s e m b l e a t t h e s u p p e r t a b l e 9 F c . t h e y t a l k 9Fd. e n t h u s i a s m mounts 9Fe. (two s e n t e n c e s e n c o u n t e r e a c h o t h e r ) 9 F f . t h e y open more wine 9Fg. t h e y t a l k 9Fh. a t t h e f a r end of t h e n i g h t , M.V. opens more wine 9 F i . ( " l e s c i t e s c o n v e r g e a i e n t dans nos v e r r e s " ) (PT, 96) 9 F j . t h e y t a l k / t r a n s f o r m ("des femmes e m e r g e a i e n t de p a r t o u t , 1 ' a r c h i t e c t u r e " ) (PT, 96) 9Fk. t h e y go t o a n i g h t c l u b 9F1. t h e y s e e a man d r e s s e d as a woman 9Fm. O r i a n a i n v e s t i g a t e s h i s t h e a t r i c a l e f f e c t s 9n. She r e p o r t s t h a t h i s b r e a s t s a r e p l a s t i c and h i s v o i c e sounds l i k e a r e c o r d i n g 9 ( F ) o . A man c r i e s o u t an i n v o c a t i o n t o n i g h t from F i n n e g a n s Wake i n F r e n c h t r a n s l a t i o n (PT, 99) 9p. ("La n u i t s ' o u v r e s u r l ' h o r i z o n " ) (PT, 99) 9q. The s u n comes up/ t h e y watch t h e s u n r i s e 9 r . t h e y change t h e c o u r s e of t h e f i c t i o n 9 s . ( " l e c o r t e x c h e r c h e a comprendre l a n a t u r e des p h r a s e s " ) (PT, 99) " L ' E m o t i o n " b e g i n s w i t h t h e d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e i s l a n d and ends w i t h t h e women's emergence from b o t h t h e n i g h t c l u b and t h e n i g h t , i n t o t h e dawn. The women a r e t h e c o l l e c t i v e s u b j e c t o f a q u e s t f o r l i g h t , f i g u r e d l a s t b u t most s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s u n r i s e , and r e l a t e d t o a c o r t i c a l s e a r c h f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The e v e n t s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o n i n e c y c l e s , e a c h o f wh i c h r e p e a t s t h e 150 change o f c o n d i t i o n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s " L ' E m o t i o n " as a whole: a j o u r n e y t h r o u g h t h e d a r k i n t o t h e l i g h t . The d a r k n e s s o f t h e f i r s t c y c l e i s b r o k e n f i r s t by f l a s h e s o f l i g h t n i n g as t h e b o a t a p p r o a c h e s t h e i s l a n d : "Nous a v a n c i o n s v e r s l ' l l e l o r s q u ' u n e c l a i r t r a v e r s a l e p o n t " (PT, 8 0 ) . I t i s b r o k e n a g a i n and more d e f i n i -t i v e l y by t h e r i s i n g o f t h e s u n . The s e c o n d c y c l e ends when t h e house f l o o d s w i t h s u n l i g h t ; t h e f i f t h c y c l e ends w i t h "une l u m i e r e b l a n c h e [ q u i ] l e s r e n d a i t r e e l l e s " (PT, 8 9 ) . When one p a r t o f t h e g r o u p t a k e s t h e c a r t o t h e m e c h a n i c ' s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y a male p r e s e r v e , M i c h & l e comments, "nous e n t r i o n s dans 1'ombre a l a v i t e s s e de l a l u m i e r e " (PT, 8 2 ) . The n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e a s s o c i a t e s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e a c t o r s w i t h e n e r g y i n t h e form o f l i g h t . The f i r s t t i m e t h a t t h e y a r e s e a t e d a r o u n d t h e t a b l e , l i g h t e n e r g y i s g e n e r a t e d by t h e v o i c e o f C l a i r e D e r i v e : L a v o i x de C l a i r e D e r i v e s ' e l e v a i t a v e c p a s s i o n dans l a g r a n d e s a l l e de b o i s . Des yeux, on a u r a i t d i t q u ' e l l e c i r c u l e c o n c r e t e m e n t d e p a r t a g e a n t de t o u t s o n c o r p s l e s f o r m e s du s a c r e e t du p r o f a n e . Pour l a p r e m i e r e f o i s , comme ce m a t i n d e v a n t l a mer, j e n ' a i pas peur d ' e n t e n d r e l e s mots d'une a u t r e femme, l ' e s p r i t de c o r p s c o n q u e r a n t l ' h o r i z o n . T o u t e l a m a i s o n , fen e ~ t r e s o u v e r t e s s ' e n s o l e i l l a i t . I I e s t m i d i . L a mer d e v a n t nous e s t au comble de l a l u m i e r e . (PT, 8 2) The abundance o f l i g h t i n t h i s p a s s a g e , " l a mer . . . au comble de l a l u m i e r e , " " l a m a i s o n [ q u i ] 151 s ' e n s o l e i l l a i t , " s u g g e s t s a wave o f l i g h t t h a t s w e l l s i n r e s p o n s e t o C l a i r e ' s v o i c e r i s i n g p a s s i o n a t e l y i n t h e "grande s a l l e de b o i s . " T h i s e v e n t p r e s a g e s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e h o l o g r a m a c c o m p a n i e d by "volume t o r -r e r e l u m i e r e c o h e r e n t e " (PT, 2 0 5 ) . The p l a y w i t h l i g h t and d a r k e x t e n d s t h r o u g h o u t P i c t u r e T h e o r y . One o f t h e m o t i f s o f " S c r e e n S k i n " i s a " p h o s p h o r e s c e n c e dans l a n u i t comme une permanence f e m i n i n e p r e n a n t r e l i e f dans l a p i e r r e " (PT, 1 3 0 ) . The p a s s a g e r e f e r s t o t h e v i s i t t o t h e c l i f f s i n " L ' E m o t i o n , " a t w h i c h t i m e n o t t h e l i g h t b u t t h e d a r k -n e s s i n t h e s t o n e was paramount, r e c a l l i n g t h e f a t e o f Medusa and E u r y d i c e : I I y a des femmes s c u l p t e e s , des m u j e r e s b l a n c h e s , d e s jambes c a s s 6 e s , d e s f r a g m e n t s c e l e b r e s . I I y a v a i t d es femmes dans l a p i e r r e b r u t e e t l a p i e r r e " t a i l l e e s de s e r v i t u d e e t de t e n e b r e s . " I I y a l a p i e r r e p a r l a n t e , l e s p i e r r e s de p l u i e . I l y a des p i e r r e s p e r c e e s e t s o n o r e s . I I y a l e s f a l a i s e s e t l a v i l l e de p i e r r e opaque. I I y a v a i t au c o e u r de l a p i e r r e une femme q u i d i s a i t moi m i l l e n a i r e t r a n s -l u c i d e , g r a v e e dans l a p i e r r e u t o p i q u e . (PT. 87-88) The woman i n t h e s t o n e p o s e s a q u e s t i o n w h i c h i s t h o u -s a n d s o f y e a r s o l d . " T r a n s l u c i d e , " she i s t h e one " q u i e s t p e r m e a b l e a l a l u m i e r e , l a l a i s s e p a s s e r , mais ne permet pas de d i s t i n g u e r n e t t e m e n t l e s o b j e t s . " / 2 2 / She i s c o n t r a s t e d t o C l a i r e , whose gaze i l l u m i n a t e s and whose d i s c o u r s e c l a r i f i e s . 152 "La n u i t p a t r i a r c a l e " i s the opponent i n t h i s guest. Resemblance between the a c t a n t i a l f u n c t i o n s of helper and opponent i s r e l a t i v e l y apparent ( B a l , 30-31): by voyaging through "the dark c o n t i n e n t , " the women are able to change the course of the f i c t i o n (PT, 9 9 ) . They enter l i g h t by t r a v e r s i n g a darkness described as "une n u i t p a r f a i t e " (PT, 95), " p a r f a i t e et c l a i r e " (EX, 96): Des bribes de phrases. On entendait l e b r u i t des vagues. C ' e t a i t une n u i t p a r f a i t e . C ' e t a i t l a n u i t : traversee par l a tendresse, l e s monstres et l e s e x p l o i t s . C ' 6 t a i t l a n u i t "parcourant l e c l e l enveloppee d'un v o i l e sombre, sur un char a t t e l e de quatre chevaux n o l r s avec l e cortege de ses f i l l e s , l e s F u r i e s , l e s Pargues". La n u i t comme en Irelande a u r a i t vingt-quatre heures et comme 1 ' e t e r n i t y c o r r e s p o n d r a i t a notre songe. C'est n u i t dans l a phrase. En c r i s ( e ) , s i n i s t r e et sanglant p a t r i a r c a t . (EX, 95-96) The naming of the F u r i e s points to an e a r l i e r over-w r i t i n g : the i n c o r p o r a t i o n , recorded i n Aeschylus' Orestelan t r i l o g y , of the p r e - p a t r i a r c h a l Eumenides i n t o the p a t r i a r c h a l system. I r e l a n d suggests Joyce and the Joycean night which extends over Dublin i n F i n -negans Wake and i n s i d e language i t s e l f . These images imply that by reading the t e x t s of p a t r i a r c h y , from t h e i r beginnings with Homer, Aeschylus and Sophocles, to t h e i r u l t i m a t e expression i n Joyce's l a s t e p i c , one i s able f i n a l l y to move through "des bri b e s de phrases" 153 (PT, 95) i n t o a renewed n a r r a t i v e sentence based on other d e s i r e s . The n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s orien t e d towards the ep i c i n that the s e r i e s of events c o n s t i t u t e d by the departure, descent, ascent and v i s i o n of " l a n u i t par-f a i t e " resembles or parodies the c l a s s i c a l , e p i c quests of western c u l t u r e : Dante's voyage through the Inferno to Purgatory and Paradise, Orpheus's journey to the underworld i n search of Eurydice, and Odysseus's descent i n t o the underworld on h i s way home to Ithaca. In each of these s p a t i a l l y organized quests, the hero's movement traces the horizon of the known cosmos. Each s t o r y , mapping the universe as i t can be known, i s a r e v e l a t i o n of a ( p a t r i a r c h a l ) world. Each male hero transgresses the boundaries of the known i n a quest f o r a haven s e m a n t i c a l l y marked as female. Brossard's i n t e r t e x t u a l system transposes these c l a s s i c a l quest n a r r a t i v e s as w e l l as James Joyce's and Monique Wit-t i g ' s modernist and f e m i n i s t r e w r i t i n g s of them. Brossard punctuates her quest with the motif of tu r n i n g to stone, a fa t e l i n k e d to Eurydice and Medusa; i n a d d i t i o n , she r e f e r s to Lot's wife who, loo k i n g back towards Sodom and Gomorrah f i e r y with God's wrath, was turned i n t o a p i l l a r of s a l t . This woman, excluded from the renewed p a t r i a r c h a l c o n t r a c t , was l e f t behind i n Gomorrah with the t a s t e of s a l t i n her mouth. In 154 d e f i n i n g U t o p i a from women's experience, Brossard begins with God's i n t e r d i c t i o n against homosexual bond-ing between women. Oriana asks for the ex p l a n a t i o n : " E l l e d i t ne pas comprendre pourguoi, chague f o i s que des femmes sont reunies, dans l e s f i l m s par exemple, l e temps semble s ' a r r f i t e r autour d ' e l l e s apres l e s a v o i r f i g e e s ou changees en statues de s e l chargees de syra-b o l e s " (PT, 81). Oriana's question leads to a d i s c u s -s i o n of timelessness: i s timelessness ecstacy or death? C l a i r e , i n her r o l e of i l l u m i n a t o r , makes a c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n : " C l a i r e Derive a f f i r m a i t q u ' i l ne f a l l a i t pas confondre l a n u i t des temps, l e temps p a t r i a r c a l et l'extase car de c e t t e confusion n a i s s a i e n t des femmes suspendues et immobiles dans l'espace" (PT, 81). The question returns to the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of d e s i r e i n defiance of p a t r i a r c h a l i n j u n c t i o n s ; the woman who r i s k s t h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n r i s k s the t a s t e of s a l t i n the mouth. The n a r r a t o r , p r o j e c t i n g the i n s c r i p t i o n of women i n t o h i s t o r y and s p e c i f y i n g the Utopian q u a l i t y of emotion between women, does t a s t e s a l t i n her mouth: Nous e t i o n s a s s i s e s autour de l a t a b l e . Daniele J u d i t h d i s a i t que l e ma t r i a r c a t est un mot d'anthropologic et q u ' i l ne peut pas e t r e u t i l i s e d'une maniere contemporaine pour e x o r c i s e r l e p a t r i a r c a t . Ce mot ne pouvait non plus s e r v i r a elaborer quelque utopie qui a u r a i t rendu l e s femmes a l e u r genre. Je d i s a i s , avec dans l a bouche un gout de s e l , a propos de 1'utopie en commengant par le mot femme que 1'utopie n ' a l l a i t pas assurer notre i n s e r t i o n dans l a r e a l i t e mais qu'un t6moignage 155 utoplque de notre part pouvalt s t i m u l e r en nous une q u a l i t y d'emotion proplce a notre i n s e r t i o n dans l ' h i s t o i r e . Avant que C l a i r e Derive p a r l e d ' a b s t r a c t i o n , j ' a j o u t a i s que nous devions s o c i a l i s e r nos energies de maniere a n'en etr e point v i c t i m e s . (EX, 85-86) The t a s t e of s a l t s i g n i f i e s the d i f f i c u l t point of o r i g i n necessary f o r the e l a b o r a t i o n of utopia begin-ning with the word "woman." The motif corresponds to the l o g i c a l paradox Brossard co n s t r u c t s around "femme" i n "De r a d i c a l a i n t 6 g r a l e s . " In a f f i r m i n g "une femme est une femme," a woman commits "un v i c e de forme,"/23/ a tautology which explodes p a t r i a r c h a l l o g i c and makes po s s i b l e the emergence of meaning i n the feminine. Because the word "femme" i s rooted i n p a t r i a r c h a l s o i l , the a f f i r m a t i o n i s r i s k y : "Qui done etant femme voud r a i t prendre l e risqu e d'etre une femme, e'est-a-d i r e une f i c t i o n dont e l l e ne s e r a i t pas A 1•origine."/24/ The t a s t e of s a l t c o r r e l a t e s to t h i s r i s k y o r i g i n , to the pol y v a l e n t symbol of l a mer/l'amer / l a mere, and to the e p i c i n t e r t e x t of the novel. Although the t r a d i t i o n a l quest n a r r a t i v e s to which P i c t u r e Theory r e f e r s conspicuously lack s u c c e s s f u l , questing women, Brossard's characters emerge v i c -t o r i o u s l y i n the dawn, having s u c c e s s f u l l y encountered p a t r i a r c h a l n i g h t . 156 Au lever du s o l e i l , nous sonnies c i n q femmes A v o i r eperdument l ' o r i g i n e des corps en a l l e e dans l a c i t e , l a ou l ' e c r i t u r e r e f a i t s u r f a c e , se condense, s o l u t i o n des eaux, l a sueur pe r l e sur nos f r o n t s . Toute l a n u i t explorant au grand jour l e d i c t i o n -n a i r e , l e contexte dans l e q u e l l e s idees s ' e t a i e n t form6es puis renouveldes, identiques et machine gun A r e p e t i t i o n dans nos bouches en commengant par l e p i r e , a. de l a p r i v a t i o n . F i l l e s s t u d i e u s e s , nous d£tournerions l e cours de l a f i c t i o n , e n t r a l n a n t avec nous l e s mots tour A t o u r , s p i r a l e ign£e, p i c -ture theory, une existence en ces termes pendant que corps cr£pusculaires, nous marchons en d i r e c t i o n du bateau, entourees de t o u r i s t e s . Une expression se l i t de f r o n t sur nos visages: tendre A 1'abstraction est une i s s u e . Rupture v i r t u e l l e dans l e rythme/faune abyssale, corps c e l e s t e . Le cortex cherche A comprendre l a nature des phrases (£T_, 99) This passage, vhich c l o s e s "L'Emotion," ends v i t h a sentence vhich i t s e l f doesn't c l o s e , but stays open to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a nev n a r r a t i v e sentence. At the con c l u s i o n of the quest of "L'Emotion," the vomen are i n the process of r e d i r e c t i n g the course of f i c t i o n ; i t s d e s t i n a t i o n i s yet to be seen. As the chart of events demonstrates, there are many more events i n "L'Emotion" than have been taken account of i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , v hich has concentrated on the movement through darkness i n t o l i g h t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c y c l e s one and nine, the journey to the i s l a n d and the events of " l a n u i t p a r f a i t e . " "L'Emotion" i n i t s e n t i r e t y manifests other n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . I f the descent i n t o the undervorld of the "b o l t e de n u i t " (PT, 97) parodies the c l a s s i c a l quest, the s e c t i o n as a 157 vhole enacts, by means of s t r u c t u r a l and formal innova-t i o n , a departure from standard n a r r a t i v e grammar. This comprises a move avay from l i n e a r c a u s a l i t y tovards the form of the s p i r a l , the " s p i r a l e ignee" (PT, 99) of the r e d i r e c t e d f i c t i o n . "De r a d i c a l a i n t e g r a l e s " o u t l i n e s the development of " c u l t u r e au feminin" as a s p i r a l l i n g movement out of the r e s t r i c t i n g c i r c l e of " f e m i n i t y " or p a t r i a r c h a l f e m i n i n i t y vhich makes nonsense of women's sense (Figure 2)./25/ The fabula of P i c t u r e Theory manifests t h i s s p i r a l . Each of the s e r i e s , or c y c l e s , i s i t s e l f a quest; as the s e r i e s repeat the s p i r a l evolves and the horizon of meaning i n the feminine b r i g h t e n s . This i s why both s e r i e s one and nine culminate i n the sun-r i s e . At a c e r t a i n point r e l a t i v e to the e v o l u t i o n of the s p i r a l out of the c i r c l e , the women are l o s t i n the "zone dangereuse,"/26/ from which they can see both ways: they can see the hor i z o n . The r e p e t i t i o n of "eperdument" underlines the dangers of t h i s passage through " l a f o l i e , d e l i r e ou genie."/27/ Puis nous sommes c i n q au lever du s o l e l l A l a v o i r eperdument l a mer, pronongant d'une maniere atonale des phrases completes et a b s t r a i t e s l i a n t l a v i e et l a parole dans l'heure h o r i z o n t a l e . (P_T, 80) Au l e v e r du s o l e i l nous sommes c i n q femmes A v o i r eperdument l ' o r i g i n e des corps. (£T_, 99) V I S I O N A E R I E N N E Des sequences de la SPIRALE en son energie et mouvement vers une culture au feminin non-sens Le Sens Invisibility des femmes La grande noirceur a. Sens nouveau dans Le Sens ex.: Le deuxieme sexe. Trots guinies b. Sens nouveau en mouvement dans Le Sens ex.: Feminisme des annees 60-80: librairies, theatres, musique, livres, cindma, manifestations, etc. c. Travail sur l'imaginaire, la langue, la pensee, la connaissance. Zone dangereuse: folie, delire ou gdnie d. Feminisme radical, politique, economique, culturel, social, ecologique, technologique d. Sens inidit n6 de la conquete sur le non-sens e. Sens renouvele par 1'excursion et l'exploration dans le non-sens f. Nouvelles perspectives: nouvelle configuration de retre-femme-au-monde du reel, de la realite et de la fiction. Culture au fdminin dont l'existence ddpend essentiellement de nos incursions dans le territoire tenu jusqu'a ce jour comme celui du non-sens. Sans les sequences S et 6, la spirale, refoulee aux fron-tieres du sens, finirait par se clore sur elle-meme. F i g u r e 2 N i c o l e Brossard's s p i r a l of c u l t u r e "au f e m i n i n , " from La l e t t r e a 6 r i e n n e . 159 The d i c t i o n p o i n t s to the isomorphism of the event at the l e v e l of f a b u l a : i n s e r i e s one and nine the women are l o s t i n the danger zone j u s t before seeing the sun r i s e over the horizon of the p a t r i a r c h a l world. The horizon i s a s p e c i a l case of the l i m i n a l imagery of i s l a n d , s k i n , screen and " h a l l d'entree": i t i s the edge of " 1 • i n e d i t . " / 2 8 / The s p i r a l s t r u c t u r e of the fabula can be seen more c l e a r l y when c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , d e t a i l s of time and pla c e , and t e x t u a l e f f e c t s are suppressed, l e a v i n g fabula events at t h e i r most a b s t r a c t : a c t o r s who expe-ri e n c e changes of c o n d i t i o n . The events of "L'Emotion" can thus be described as f o l l o w s : A b s t r a c t i o n of Events i n "L'Emotion" 1. A c o l l e c t i v e a c t o r departs on a journey, i n two groups 1. They assemble 1. They i n t e r a c t 1. They i n t e r a c t with t h e i r environment 1. (They watch the sun r i s e ) 2. They assemble 2. They i n t e r a c t 2. (The house f i l l s with l i g h t ) 3. The group separates i n t o two 3. They set out on journeys 3. One group enters l i g h t (the sunny beach) 3. One group enters shadow at the speed of l i g h t . 3. The group i n shadow wai t s . 3. The ones at the beach i n t e r a c t 3. Memories flow 3. (The t i d e comes up) 3. The group reassembles 4. They separate i n t o two again 4. One group enters the l i g h t 4. The other group i n t e r a c t s 4. They sleep 160 5. The vhole group reassembles 5. They i n t e r a c t 5. They set out on a journey 5. They i n t e r a c t 5. They i n t e r a c t v i t h t h e i r environment (The c l i f f s t e l l t h e i r s t o r y ) ("Une lumiere blanche l e s re n d a i t r e e l l e s " ) 6. They r e t u r n from t h e i r journey (reassemble) 6. They read books 6. They sleep 7. One actor v r i t e s 7. She i s jo i n e d by another and they i n t e r a c t 7. The group assembles 7. They i n t e r a c t 7. ("les s u b j e c t i v i t i e s s»interpellent") 8. The group separates i n t o two 8. One part goes to the beach 8. One actor v r i t e s 8. She j o i n s the others and they i n t e r a c t 9. The group assembles 9. They i n t e r a c t 9. They i n t e r a c t v i t h t h e i r environment (the night) 9. (The sun comes up) Reading the fabula t h i s vay makes c l e a r i t s r e p e t i t i v e , isomorphic s t r u c t u r e . Each s e r i e s i s i t s e l f a c y c l e v h i c h resembles the f i r s t s e r i e s : a c o l l e c t i v e actor s p l i t s i n t o p a r t s , journeys, reassembles, i n t e r a c t s generating energy, and s p l i t s again. This c y c l e of events i s roughly repeated nine times i n "L'Emotion," and a l s o occurs elsevhere i n the book: i t i s the p r i -mary event of P i c t u r e Theory and a s t r i k i n g v a r i a t i o n on the elementary n a r r a t i v e event as defined by J u r i j Lotman: e n t r y i n t o a cl o s e d space and emergence from i t , or t r a v e r s a l of a s p a t i a l f i e l d . The a c t o r s of P i c t u r e Theory enter and e x i t closed spaces; the c r u -c i a l d i f f e r e n c e i s that t h e i r assembling and i n t e r a c t -161 ing generates the l i g h t energy which i s the object of the quest. The events of s e r i e s two to nine frame these i n t e r a c t i o n s , many of which are conversations or embedded t e x t s ( B a l , 142-146) which develop Brossard's f e m i n i s t argument. The l e v e l s of n a r r a t i o n i n P i c t u r e  Theory are p a r t i c u l a r l y responsive to each other i n that these embedded conversations generate the object of the f a b u l a . I w i l l d i s c u s s t h i s question i n more d e t a i l i n the s e c t i o n on n a r r a t i v e embedding. The f o u r t h s e r i e s s e t s i n place some of the motifs of i n t e r t e x t u a l transformation which c o n t r i b u t e to " l a n u i t p a r f a i t e " : Joyce's Dublin, the desert sand, the Sphinx of Giza and the myth of Oedipus. The night sud-denly darkens the sunny v a c a t i o n : je me d e b a t t a i s avec une emotion a u s s i f o r t e , a u s s i pressante que des sables mouvants, qu'une mer de sable m'entrainant par l e s t a l o n s , jusqu'a ce que 1'horizon ne s o i t plus qu'un r e f l e t sur mon casque dore. Maintenant C l a i r e Derive p a r l a i t et c'est l a n u i t qui tombe sur nos epaules dans 1'eclairage au-dessus de nos corps pensant. C ' e t a i t de l a n u i t q u ' e l l e p a r l a i t et pourquoi de Dublin quand e l l e d i s a i t ne pas c r o i r e en 1'existence de c e t t e v i l l e . (EX, 86) C l a i r e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n with the f a l l i n g darkness and her p u z z l i n g i n t e r e s t i n Dublin caution Michele and the reader against s i m p l i s t i c readings of t h i s character who represents not simply l i g h t but c h i a r o s c u r o , l i g h t i n shade. The passage introduces s e v e r a l images of 162 night vhich recur i n c y c l e nine. "Le casque dore" i s a polysemic motif vhich s i g n i f i e s Athena, the goddess vho represents p a t r i a r c h a l triumph over vomen-identified forms of b e l i e f . I t i s Athena vho i s born from the head of Zeus v i t h o u t the a i d of a voman; vho k i l l s P a l l a s , her Amazonian counterpart, and then c o n t r o l s the t r a c e of her f r i e n d by t a k i n g her name; vho i n t e r -venes on behalf of Agamemnon, Apo l l o and Orestes against the F u r i e s and Clytemnestra. Athena i s a preeminent s i g n of p a t r i a r c h a l o v e r v r i t i n g on the c u l t u r a l palimpsest. She i s reclaimed i n P i c t u r e Theory as an image of the s e l f vhich has been appropriated and de f i n e d , yet has remained an Amazonian v a r r i o r . "Les sables mouvants" and " l e s t a l o n s " are images from the Oedipal s t o r y : the sands of the Sahara Desert vhich s h i f t over the pavs of the Sphinx, and the heels by vhich Oedipus as a baby vas bound, and vhich gave him the name " s v o l l e n foot."/29/ "[L]a n u i t qui tombe sur nos epaules" r e c a l l s the darkness of W.B. Yeats' "The Second Coming:" . . . somevhere i n the sands of the desert A shape v i t h l i o n body and the head of a man, A gaze blank and p i t i l e s s as the sun, Is moving i t s s l o v t h i g h s , v h i l e a l l about i t Reel shadows of indignant desert b i r d s . The darkness drops again; but nov I knov That tventy c e n t u r i e s of stony sleep Were vexed to nightmare by a roc k i n g c r a d l e 163 And what rough beast, i t s hour come round at l a s t , Slouches toward Bethlehem to be born? /30/ Brossard too announces that i n the desert a form i s s t a l k i n g emotion and h i s t o r y : "Le desert est grand, rempli de pyramides et de H i l t o n qu'une lumiere blanche f a i t s u r g i r . Une forme guette l'emotion, l ' h i s t o i r e " (PT, 96). Both Yeats and Brossard r e f e r to the Oedipal o r i g i n s of c u l t u r e i n the context of a new e p i c c y c l e which i s about to begin. The d e t a i l of the Cair o H i l t o n h i g h l i g h t s the superimposition of c l a s s i c a l motifs upon a contemporary scene. The stony sleep of "des femmes dans l a p i e r r e " (PT, 88) i s complemented by that of the s l e e p i n g stone Sphinx. In "Screen Skin Too," the motif Is f u r t h e r elaborated when Medusa i s juxtaposed with the Sphinx: two s l e e p i n g female monsters. M.V., p e t r i f i e d with f e a r , i s ready to become Medusa's head adorning the s h i e l d of the p a t r i a r c h a l hero Perseus. La f a l a i s e , l e de s e r t , l a v i l l e sur ordinateur devenaient c o n t i n u i t y cosmique: H i l t o n - - - - -- - - - £ » a l o r s qu'aux pieds de l a f a l a i s e , 1'Amotion se ref e r m a i t comme un c o q u i l l a g e . La moindre fente. La Fente f a i s a i t un jour qui m o t i v a l t M.V. dans chacune des surfaces q u ' e l l e e x p l o r a i t avec l a sensation de retrouver ses peines perdues dans 1'horizon bleu des metaphores, IA ou re g n a i t l e Sphinx. P r i s e dans l a p i e r r e de l ' e f f r o i , M.V. e t a i t prete A devenir un buste de femme A l a t e t e orageuse qui a f f o l e r a i t l'etranger lorsque l a voyant p a r a l t r e , i l s e n t i r a i t son pouls f a i b l l r . P u l s i o n , p u l s i o n , p u l v 6 r i s a n t l ' e n c r i e r , I 164 smell ashes i n the ink. L 1enigme/sandales/scandale des temps. 0 memoire p a t r i a r c a l e qui f i t c r o i r e que l a Sphinx pouvait e t r e vaincue par un homme dont l e s talo n s depassaient des sandales. ( E £ , 147-148) In defiance of the Oedipal s t o r y , Brossard a s s e r t s that the (female) Sphinx was never overcome. The s t o r y that she was i s a "scandale des temps." Brossard plays with the gender of the Sphinx, normally masculine i n French, to make her p o i n t . L i k e Athena and Medusa, Oedipus and the Sphinx are signs of p a t r i a r c h a l o v e r w r i t i n g . The s t o r y of Oedipal d i s a s t e r safeguards the memory of man's triumph over the monster i n h i s process of g e n e r i c a l l y masculine s e l f - i d e n t l f i c a t l o n . Thus, " l e Sphinx" reigns on the blue horizon of p a t r i a r c h a l meta-phor./31/ "La Sphinx" i s supposed to have k i l l e d her-s e l f i n d e s p a i r , but i n Brossard's s p i r a l l i n g n i g h t , the Sphinx l n the desert i s one of the s t a t i o n s i n the journey towards the epiphanic horizon of sense i n the feminine. The r e p e t i t i o n of the s p i r a l s t r u c t u r e i s synonymous with progression. The c y c l e s b u i l d i n i n t e n s i t y , c r e s t i n g with the events of " l a n u i t par-f a i t e , " and each occurrence of the primary event i s a f f e c t e d by the f a c t of being i n a s e r i e s . Wave theory d e f i n e s the d i f f e r e n c e between an event i n i s o l a t i o n and an event i n a s e r i e s as a mathematical f u n c t i o n 165 c a l l e d "neighbourhood i n t e r a c t i o n . " Neighbourhood i n t e r a c t i o n i s c r i t i c a l to the development of a hologram./32/ In Brossard's f i c t i o n / t h e o r y , women use neighbourhood i n t e r a c t i o n to generate energy and l i g h t . The dynamics of " l a n u i t p a r f a i t e " are described as an i r r e v e r s i b l e r e a c t i o n , a bush f i r e , a winding, c l i m b i n g s p i r a l : L'atmosphere e t a i t a l'emotion sur l e s visages §a se vo y a i t et dans l e s corps on pouvait imaginer. Oriana o u v r a i t une t r o i s l e m e b o u t e i l l e de v i n a l o r s que l e ton montait et que nous g r a v i s s i o n s l e s echelons dans 1'enthousiasme, l e s mots se succedant comme des ph£nomenes, des feux de p a i l l e , c r e p i t a n t d'une maniere i r r e v e r s i b l e . ( E X , 93) Events move ahead i n a quantum leap, a mathematically q u a n t i f i a b l e r e a c t i o n of energy and l i g h t . The steady b u i l d i n g of energy throughout "L'Emotion" i s no n - l i n e a r . The second s e r i e s does not lead c a u s a l l y to the t h i r d , nor the t h i r d to the f o u r t h , and so on. A causal r e l a t i o n s h i p l i n k s the f i r s t s e r i e s to the others, but s e r i e s two to nine occur at the second l e v e l of c a u s a l i t y and are non-f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i v e to each other. This n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e resembles a t r e e ; the f i r s t s e r i e s i s the trunk and a l l the others are branches. Two Brossardian metaphors, " l a r a c i n e aerlenne" and " l e c o r t e x , " draw on such a s t r u c t u r e . The f i r s t s e r i e s , or tre e trunk, i s the "racine aerienne" on vhich f u r t h e r development of the a e r i a l network depends. /33/ The tree s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f resembles that of the synapses of the b r a i n (Figure 3) . The metaphorical r e l a t i o n s h i p betveen tree and cortex i s not o r i g i n a l to Brossard; the c o r t i c a l -synapses are c o n v e n t i o n a l l y described by terms r e l a t i n g to t r e e s , " d e n d r i t e s , " f o r example, and " a r b o r i z a -t i o n . " /34 / Brossard's c o n t r i b u t i o n i s to develop a n a r r a t i v e fabula corresponding to t h i s model. The fabula s t r u c t u r e of "L'Emotion" resembles both the b r a i n or tree and the s p i r a l . In any case, a s e r i e s of isomorphic events f o l l o w s the e s s e n t i a l f i r s t step of departure "vers l a mer" i n order to take a v a c a t i o n . This departure and a r r i v a l i s the model for the primary event: an actant d i v i d e s , crosses a s p a t i a l l y defined f i e l d , reassembles, and i n t e r a c t s producing l i g h t energy. F i g u r e 3 Diagram of m i c r o s t r u c t u r e of s y n a p t i c domains i n c o r t e x , from Pribram. 168 Bach of the metaphors vhich describes the fabula c o n t r i b u t e s to the richness of the t e x t , but u l t i m a t e l y the metaphor of the b r a i n i s the most developed because i t opens i n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of the hologram. In the language of neuropsychology, the primary event can be understood as a wave f r o n t I n t e r a c t i o n v hich Is synonymous v i t h consciousness. In order to change con-sciousness, "the conduction of nerve impulses [must] pass the b a r r i e r of the synapse."/35/ Translated i n t o the terms of P i c t u r e Theory, the vomen must cross " l a mer" to get to the i s l a n d . The metaphorical complex of b r a i n vaves, vomen, vater and l i g h t i s at the heart of P i c t u r e Theory. The primary event i s d i f f r a c t e d through the book and i s f i n a l l y meaningful i n terms of the production of the hologram, produced by vave f r o n t I n t e r a c t i o n exposed to coherent l i g h t . The primary event of "L'Emotion" occurs v i t h vary-ing degrees of i n t e n s i t y i n " L ' O r d i n a i r e . " The book opens v i t h s e v e r a l of i t s elements i n p l a c e : Dans l e bar du H i l t o n , l e danseur des Caralbes d i t : vous vous souviendrez sans doute de Curagao a. cause d'un d e t a i l (Anna, que l e hasard m'avait f a i t rencontrer quelques heures auparavant, m'avait prevenue qu'une r e a l i t e n'en recouvre pas neces-sairement une autre mais qu'hdtesse de l ' a i r entre l e Venezuela et Aruba l a l a i s s a i t A d e s i r e r ) . A i n s i chaque phrase ou dans l e casino (ce qui s'en s u i v i t f i t d i r e A une femme: 11 est tard) lorsque l e s yeux t i r e s , j ' a l l a i s d'une t a b l e A l ' a u t r e . Seules deux femmes mlsaient. (EX, 19) 169 The journey to Curagao i s an event of the primary type; the narrator has t r a v e l l e d to Curagao and i n t e r a c t s t h ere, "[par] hasard," with Anna. "Un coup de des jamais n ' a b o l i r a l e hasard."/36/ I t i s night i n the modern age. Women are gambling alone. On the same page, Florence Derive crosses another t h r e s h o l d , alone. I t i s n i g h t , and memory i s again at i s s u e : Lorsque Florence Derive entra A l ' H d t e l de l ' I n s t i t u t , Montreal, 1980, rue Saint-Denis. Des bri b e s de phrases A l ' i n t 6 r i e u r . A l a r e c e p t i o n . C ' 6 t a i t l a n u i t . Depuis Finnigans Wake I s i c l . C ' e t a i t l a n u i t . I t i n e r a n t e , Florence Derive et tellement d'une femme. Cerveau memoire. La n u i t , nombres et l e t t r e s . <ET_, 19) In both scenes, i n t e r a c t i o n i s l i m i t e d and i t i s dark. " L ' O r d i n a i r e " presents events of the same type as the s p i r a l l i n g c y c l e s of "L'Emotion," but the characters are i s o l a t e d and energy and l i g h t are r e s t r a i n e d . However, numbers and l e t t e r s , the embryonic elements of a new language, c i r c u l a t e i n t h i s dark, and as the chapter progresses, l i g h t i n creases. The narrator makes a s o l i t a r y journey to P a r i s , where she w r i t e s and v i s i t s the holography museum. Energy increases at the scene of w r i t i n g , perhaps because i n t h i s s i n g u l a r l o c a t i o n events f i r s t encounter one another. 170 A p a r c o u r i r / t e x t e , je m'en re s s e n s . Pour d e c r i r e avec e x a c t i t u d e une seule r e a l i t e nee en toute f i c -t i o n . La scene blanche du 16 mai. Ce n'est que dans l e s eaux de Curasao que 1'idee me t r a v e r s a . (PT, 20) The s p a t i a l terms which d e s c r i b e w r i t i n g u n d e r l i n e the isomorphism with the primary event; l i k e the women t r a v e r s i n g space and reassembling, the n a r r a t o r moves through her t e x t as her ideas move through her body, i n a double wave formation t r a v e l l i n g at the speed of l i g h t . The passage b r i n g s together the elements of women, thought and water; then, l i g h t appears: Ce s o i r - l a , c ' e s t dans des Caralbes que je s u i s l e plus f r i l e u s e . Sans y penser, je regarde l a mer, l e s poupdes h o l l a n d a i s e s . En p l e i n s o l e i l . (ET, 21) Perhaps the same evening, F l o r e n c e Derive l e c t u r e s on women and t o r t u r e : F l o r e n c e Derive -- New York-Montreal -- ce s o i r - l a . L'aube, l a sonnerie du r e v e i l l e - m a t i n : jour de con-f e r e n c e . S u j e t : l e s femmes et l a t o r t u r e . Hotel de l ' I n s t i t u t , jour e n s o l e i l l e , Carre S t - L o u i s . Smoke gets i n your eyes. La p a t r i a r c a l e machine a f a i r e des b l u e s . Un peu plus t a r d dans l a journ6e, F l o r e n c e Derive telephona a Daniele J u d i t h . Le s o i r venu, terminant sa conference: en resume, i l e s t f a c i l e de comprendre que determines par l ' e c r i t u r e , 171 l i s a i e n t su a l o r s imaginer que chaque femme de v a i t St r e mise au s e r v i c e d'un homme, quel que s o i t son rang, quel que f u t son sexe. S i l e n c e : l a s a l l e s ' e x c i t e . (PJL, 23) The d i c t i o n denotes i n c r e a s i n g l i g h t : "l'aube," "matin," " j o u r , " "jour e n s o l e i l l e " and "journee." The contact between Daniele J u d i t h and Florence i s the f i r s t time i n the novel that members of the c o l l e c t i v e p r o tagonist i n t e r a c t . (There has been another telephone c a l l mentioned, but we are not t o l d to whom the narrator speaks.) "La s a l l e s ' e x c i t e " comments on b u i l d i n g energy. There i s l i g h t , even though smoke gets i n one's eyes. The next day the n a r r a t o r i s "a 1'horizon," (PT, 23) and the novel opens i n t o " l a scene  blanche." "La scene blanche" does not f i t e a s i l y i n t o a des-c r i p t i o n of fabula because, at l e a s t s u p e r f i c i a l l y , i t i s a rec u r r e n t scene and not an event at a l l ( B a l , 73-75). The i n t e n s i t y of l i g h t c h a r a c t e r i z i n g " l a scene  blanche" r e l a t e s i t to the f u n c t i o n of l i g h t i n the fab u l a . Entrance i n t o " l e h a l l d'entr6e" (which i s f i l l e d w ith l i g h t ) , a l s o manifests the elements of the primary event. The appearance of a book r e c a l l s the scene of w r i t i n g . 172 j ' a j o u t e : i l y a deux scenes a l o r s . L'une datee du 16 mai* 1'autre t r e s rapprochee. C e l l e du l i v r e et c e l l e du t a p i s . Riv6es l'une A 1'autre commes mises en suspens par une 6 c r i t u r e , nous e x i s t o n s dans l a l a b o r i e u s e c r e a t i o n du d e s i r dont on n'a pas idee. . . . *Ce matin m6me l e h a l l d'entree e s t e n s o l e i l l e . L'odeur du bois e s t p e r s i s t a n t e . Une odeur de ca f e a u s s i . (PT, 27) "Le h a l l d'entree" i s a t the same time enigmatic and an aspect of o r d i n a r y r e a l i t y . By d e f i n i t i o n l i m i n a l and i n i t i a t o r y , as a r e c u r r e n t motif i t u n d e r l i n e s the spa-t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the primary event. As " l e h a l l d'entree" f i l l s with l i g h t , energy b u i l d s f o r " l a scene h o l o g r a p h i e e " (PT, 27), the Utopian scene which has been u n t i l now " i n d e s c r i p t i b l e " (PT, 190). "La scene blanche" i s a scene of love-making between the n a r r a t o r and C l a i r . La scene blanche l a transparence des peaux. Repondant A c e r t a i n s s i g n e s , en toute f l u i d i t e , nos corps s ' e n l a c e n t i n c i t e s a se fondre dans l'etonnement ou l a f a s c i n a -t i o n . L i t t e r a l e m e n t p e l l i c u l e l'une de l ' a u t r e au coeur d'une m o t i v a t i o n r a d i c a l e . La lumiere du j o u r . Une t e l l e abondance de lumiere e f f r i t e l e reg a r d . Les yeux sombrent comme une memoire. Tout en c e t t e femme m ' a t t i r e et l e s mots se font r a r e s . Imperative grammaire i n c e n d i e e , l e s yeux baroques, a p r o f u s i o n je l e s ferme, t r a v e r s e e par l'hypothese que sur l e t a p i s , nous avons a peine bouge. (PT, 36) 173 Here the elements of the primary event manifest at intense l e v e l s ; i n t e r a c t i o n i s f i g u r e d as bodies en l a c -i n g , and the t r a n s g r e s s i o n of space i s a hypothesis (thought) t r a v e r s i n g the body. L i g h t i s so abundant that i t fragments o r d i n a r y v i s i o n . This act of love and abundance of l i g h t marks the s h i f t i n t o the second s e c t i o n of the novel, " l i v r e un," "La Perspective."/37/ "La P e r s p e c t i v e " r e o r i e n t s the o r d i n a r y i n r e l a t i o n to a double a r t i c u l a t i o n of the love scene as body and as t e x t . The scene i s c r i t i c a l to a l l f u r t h e r t r a n s -formation . Je s a i s que l a scene amoureuse a d6ja ete vue et consommee dans p l u s l e u r s de ses mecaniques, je s a i s c e l a , je s a i s c e l a que repetee e l l e determine l'ouverture et l e point de non-retour de toute a f f i r m a t i o n . (P_T_, 47) The love scene, densely o v e r w r i t t e n as i t i s , neverthe-l e s s c o n s t i t u t e s a "point de repere" f o r the production of the hologram. L i k e the pre-symbolic, watery l i n k between c h i l d and mother, t h i s amorous scene i s the ground of a l l a f f i r m a t i o n . This i s the scene of the c r e a t i o n of new d e s i r e — d e s i r e other than the always already w r i t t e n of the Oedi p a l i z e d body. E s s e n t i a l t o the U t o p i a n l i b i d i n a l economy i n c r e a t i o n , t h i s d e s i r e metamorphoses mental space (PT, 27, 43). The c r e a t i v i t y of the love scene i s renewed when i t i s 174 r e i n s c r i b e d i n h i s t o r y w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h B r o s -s a r d f o r e g r o u n d s i n t h e e p i g r a p h f r o m G e r t r u d e S t e i n : " M a i n t e n a n t q u e l l e e s t l a d i f f e r e n c e e n t r e une p h r a s e e t j e veux d i r e . L a d i f f e r e n c e e s t une p h r a s e e s t q u ' e l l e s d £ s i r e r o n t l e s femmes" (PT, 1 3 ) . T h i s d i f -f e r e n c e d i s p l a c e s t h e s y m b o l i c , t h e i m a g i n a r y and t h e r e a l o f t h e p h a l l o g o c e n t r i c o r d e r . In B r o s s a r d ' s U t o p i a n grammar, l e s b i a n i s m i s a " n o u v e l l e o p t i q u e " t h a t c h a n g e s e v e r y t h i n g . The r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e l o v e s c e n e i s a s t r a t e g y f o r c r e a t i n g e c s t a s y and i m p r i n t i n g i t i n memory, a s t r a t e g y w h i c h i s d e c l a r e d i n t h e o p e n i n g pages o f t h e book: D ' i n s t i n c t e t de m6moire, j ' e s s a i e de ne r i e n r e c o n s t i t u e r . De m6moire, j'entame. E t c e l a ne p e u t e t r e d ' e n f a n c e . S e u l e m e n t d ' e x t a s e , de c h u t e , de mots. (PT, 19) E c s t a s y d i s l o d g e s and r e w r i t e s t h e p r i m a r y p r o c e s s e s o f s u b j e c t d e v e l o p m e n t , j u s t as t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e two women p r o v i d e s a n o n - b i n a r y g r o u n d f o r word c a t h e x i s . I t opens up t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e new. The r e f u s a l t o r e c o n s t r u c t i s a l s o a r e f u s a l o f n o s t a l g i a ; B r o s s a r d b r i n g s f o r w a r d t h e g o d d e s s e s and m o n s t e r s o f t h e c l a s s i c a l w o r l d , b u t n o t i n o r d e r t o r e c o n s t r u c t a g o l d e n age b e f o r e p a t r i a r c h y . 175 I I f a l l a i t pourtant comprendre ce que l e s obeles cachalent. Tous ces texte s dont l a pens£e avalent ete l n t e r p o l e e par des m i l l e n a i r e s de v i e p a t r i a r -c a l e . Papier d'impression, papiers-mythes de l a l e g i t i m a t i o n masculine. D 1 i n s t i n c t et de memoire, j ' e s s a i e de ne r i e n r e c o n s t i t u e r . De memoire, j'entame. (EJ_, 149) P i c t u r e Theory's o r i e n t a t i o n tovards the future i s expressed most profoundly through the metaphor of the hologram. Holograms vere f i r s t produced i n 1949 by Jim Gabor, a s c i e n t i s t searching for vays to enhance the f i d e l i t y of the e l e c t r o n microscope./38/ A l i g h t beam i s s p l i t i n t o a reference beam and another that r e f l e c t s the object to be holographed. The tvo i n t e r a c t on a f i l -t e r , c r e a t i n g a l i g h t wave i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n . Under appropriate c o n d i t i o n s the f i l t e r can reproduce a three-dimensional image of the holographed o b j e c t . Since the 1960s, holograms have been made with l a s e r l i g h t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by coherent wave pat t e r n s . The holographic f i l t e r or screen i s re-exposed to a l a s e r beam to produce the hologram. The mathematical model encoded i n the hologram has a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with the human b r a i n . K a r l Pribram, a lea d i n g neuropsychologist, was l e d by h i s research on human memory to the paradigm of the hologram. In Languages of the Bra i n (1971), he 176 presents the evidence f o r a holographic model of memory and c o g n i t i o n . P i c t u r e Theory draws on t h i s holographic complex of image, memory and thought, proposing to open the mind (PT, 170), metamorphose mental space (PT, 27, 43), and i n s c r i b e a new image or idea of woman i n h i s t o r y . The hologram s a t i s f i e s the complex d e s i r e which i s the f i n a l expression of L'Amer: je t r a v a i l l e A ce que se perde l a con v u l s i v e habitude d ' i n i t l e r l e s f i l l e s au male comme une pratique courante de lobotomie. Je veux en e f f e t v o i r s'organiser l a forme des femmes dans l a t r a j e c t o i r e de 1'espece./39/ The m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a three-dimensional p i c t u r e of a woman i n P i c t u r e Theory c e l e b r a t e s women's s e l f -o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the t r a j e c t o r y of the spe c i e s . As a s c u l p t u r e i n l i g h t , r e p l e t e with information and energy, the hologram resembles the modern c i t y , home of the " I t l r a v e r s i e r e s , urbaines r a d i c a l e s , l e s -biennes" (PT, 88) who are the heroes of P i c t u r e Theory. Brossard a l s o c e l e b r a t e s Montreal, an i s l a n d luminous i n the dark and an urban centre of transformation./40/ The hologram i s the p e r f e c t v e h i c l e for these c e l e b r a -t i o n s because i t s three-dimensional images are capable of s t o r i n g almost i n f i n i t e amounts of information i n a c c e s s i b l e form and because i t s production p a r a l l e l s 177 the processes of changing consciousness. Brossard thus p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the long work of c r e a t i n g a new c u l t u r a l symbolic o r i e n t e d to the f u t u r e . I t may be that her most s t r i k i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n to date i s the development of a n a r r a t i v e based on the metaphor of the hologram. In an i n t e r v i e w i n Montreal i n the summer of 1988, she pointed out that i t i s now p o s s i b l e to have meta-phors, based on advanced technology, which r e v e a l p r e v i o u s l y i n v i s i b l e aspects of nature. N.B.: Now we are g e t t i n g to have metaphors with some things which are not v i s i b l e , l i k e waves, "des ondes, des v i b r a t i o n s , " things l i k e t h a t . I think we might have some new metaphors because u s u a l l y metaphors are being made through things that we can see . . . that's something I'd l i k e to work on. S.K.: You t a l k e d about that once before, that I read, about the s h i f t from the red of the heart to the white of the b r a i n . . . I did n ' t q u i t e under-stand that because i t seems that women very much have been going through the heart a l s o . N.B.: What I was saying i s that we l i v e i n general i n our s o c i e t y with metaphors which belong to the i n d u s t r i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l but i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d . We don't l i v e with the metaphors of our new technology, and I think that the new technology provides us with some information which somehow we w i l l f a n t a s i z e , and when we do that then w e ' l l come up with new metaphors which w i l l t e l l more about space and about time — w i l l t e l l about space and time i n a d i f -f e r e nt way. There are things we can do because of g r a v i t y and l n non-gravity, now we are d i s c o v e r i n g things we can do without g r a v i t y and we w i l l be able to do them. I t ' s very c h a l l e n g i n g . J u s t the f a c t t h a t we only know so few things about the b r a i n — we can imagine a c e r t a i n p o t e n t i a l , but i t doesn't mean that would make us happier, i t only means that we can dream, because the body i s the body and the body i s there./41/ 178 P i c t u r e T h e o r y f a n t a s i z e s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m wave t h e o r y , quantum m e c h a n i c s , c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y , memory t h e o r y and l i g h t o p t i c s , i n o r d e r t o r e b u i l d f a b u l a s t r u c t u r e a r o u n d t h e metaphor o f t h e h o l o g r a m . " A i n s i v o i t - o n s u r g i r d ' i n e d i t e s m e t a p h o r e s a y a n t p a r t i e l i e e a v e c l e c e r v e a u : 1 1hologramme, 1 * o r d i n a t e u r . " / 4 2 / B r o s s a r d u s e s h o l o g r a p h i c t h e o r y t o c r e a t e a n o n - l i n e a r and i n t e r a c t i v e web o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e t e x t o f P i c t u r e T h e o r y , and between P i c t u r e T h e o r y and o t h e r t e x t s , as p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n ( i m a g e s ) a r e r e p e a t e d l y e n c o d e d i n t h e s p i r a l l i n g movement o f a f a b u l a w h i c h g u a r d s a t i t s h e a r t a change o f c o n d i t i o n f r o m d a r k n e s s i n t o l i g h t . In o r d e r t o c r e a t e s o m e t h i n g new, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a v o i d f a m i l i a r p a r a d i g m s . The d i f f i c u l t y o f d o i n g t h i s i s e x p r e s s e d i n P i c t u r e T h e o r y by t h e r e f u s a l t o r e c o n s t r u c t , s p e c i f i e d e a r l y i n a p a s s a g e a l r e a d y c i t e d : " j ' e s s a i e de ne r i e n r e c o n s t i t u e r . De memoire, j'entame. E t c e l a ne p e u t e t r e d ' e n f a n c e . S e u l e m e n t d ' e x t a s e , de c h u t e , de mots. Ou de c o r p s a u t r e m e n t " (PT, 1 9 ) . A v o i d i n g n o s t a l g i a and p a i n , t h i s t e x t f o c u s e s on e c s t a s y , words, i r r e s i s t a b l e s l i d e s and b r e a k t h r o u g h s . I t f o c u s e s on t h e D e r i v e , i n t h e s e n s e o f d r i f t and o f e v o l u t i o n . The r e f u s a l t o r e c o n s t r u c t 179 i s d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r i n t h e f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e o f " l a . s c e n e b l a n c h e " : r e c o n s t i t u e r s e r a i t l ' a v e u de ce q u i n'a pu e t r e qu'en f i c t i o n t r a n s f o r m e e p ar l e temps. P o u r t a n t nous v o i l a , 1 ' h o r i z o n , j a m a i s j e ne s a u r a i n a r r e r . I c i s u r l e t a p i s , e n l a c e e s . V i s i b l e s . C ' e s t a i n s i que j ' a i c h e r c h e a comprendre l ' e f f e t de l a s c e n e . E t p u i s s a n s j a m a i s p a r l a s u i t e d e v o i r n u a n c e r . I m p e r a t i v e grammaire i n c e n d i e e . (PT, 24) E x p e r i e n c e s u r p a s s e s f i c t i o n and t r a d i t i o n a l grammar goes up i n f l a m e s . Language i s r e s h a p e d by new r e a l i t i e s . In a l e c t u r e d e l i v e r e d t o t h e T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e m i n i s t Book F a i r i n M o n t r e a l , B r o s s a r d spoke on "Memoire: hologramme du d e s i r , " e l a b o r a t i n g t h e r e l a -t i o n between memory and u t o p i a : [ S ] i 1'on c o n v i e n t qu'une memoire de femme e s t une memoire i n s c r i t e dans un c o r p s marque, s i 1'on c o n -v i e n t que c e t t e memoire e s t e t r o i t e m e n t l i 6 e a une s e r i e d ' i n t i m i d a t i o n s e t de c o n t r a i n t e s r e p e t e e s dans l e temps p a t r i a r c a l , i l va s a n s d i r e que c e l l e q u i t r a v a i l l e a l a l e g e n d e des images e t d e s s c e n e s q u i se b o u s c u l e n t en e l l e , t r a c e r a immanquablement une c a r t o g r a p h i e e x p l i c a t i v e des b l e s s u r e s , des c i c a t r i c e s q u i p a r s e m e n t s o n c o r p s mais a u s s i une c a r t o g r a p h i e des i l a n s de j o i e q u i e n t h o u s i a s m e n t l a p e n s e e . A u s s i p o u v o n s - n o u s d i r e que chaque memoire de femme a l a q u e l l e nous avons a c c e s p a r l e b i a i s de sa l e g e n d e nous i n f o r m e , nous i n c i t e a f a i r e en s o r t e que ce q u i f u t b l e s s u r e ne se r e p e t e p l u s , que ce q u i f u t e m e r v e i l l e m e n t se r e p r o d u i s e . Ce n ' e s t que l o r s q u e nous pouvons d i r e l a l e g e n d e de nos v i e s que nous devenons c a p a b l e s d ' e n g e n d r e r des s c e n e s n o u v e l l e s , d ' i n v e n t e r de nouveaux p e r s o n n a g e s , de p r o d u i r e de n o u v e l l e s r e p l i q u e s , nous f r a y a n t a i n s i un chemin dans l e p r e s e n t . / 4 3 / 180 Brossard's d e c i s i o n not to trace "une cartographie e x p l i c a t i v e des b l e s s u r e s , des c i c a t r i c e s qui parsement son corps," diverges from a s i g n i f i c a n t current w i t h i n the women's movement which has adopted e x a c t l y the opposite s t r a t e g y : witness the f l o o d of f e m i n i s t books on i n c e s t s u r v i v a l , f a m i l y v i o l e n c e , a l c o h o l i s m and h e a l i n g . Brossard's s t r a t e g y i s rather to c o n s t r u c t , on the basis of the most p o s i t i v e elements p o s s i b l e , "des elans de j o i e qui enthousiasment l e pensee." The p r i v i l e g e d ground f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y i s w r i t i n g . "La f i c t i o n s e r a i t l e f i l d ' arriv6e de l a pensee" (P_T_, 165). F i c t i o n i s a medium i n which i t i s p o s s i b l e to " f a i r e en sort e que ce qui f u t blessure ne se repete p l u s , que ce qui f u t emerveillement se reproduise." F i c t i o n i s the key to c r e a t i n g i n the t e x t a hologram of d e s i r e , and t h i s i s the p r o j e c t of P i c t u r e Theory. The t i t l e of Brossard's l e c t u r e , "M6moire: hologramme du d e s i r , " r e f e r s to the theory of holographic memory f u n c t i o n . Examination of t h i s theory and of the mathematical r e l a t i o n s h i p s which i t encodes i l l u m i n a t e s the extent to which the metaphor of the hologram governs the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of P i c t u r e  Theory. K a r l Pribram opens Languages of the Bra i n with the s t o r y of the search f o r the engram, a h y p o t h e t i c a l u n i t of memory storage. He argues that the f u n c t i o n of 181 r e c o g n i t i o n demands t h e memory or s t o r a g e o f t h r e e -d i m e n s i o n a l images i n t h e b r a i n , w h i c h must somehow be s p a t i a l l y r e c o r d e d i n o r d e r t o be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . H i s r e s e a r c h l e d him t o c o n c l u d e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t s t o r e d , f i l e - c a b i n e t l i k e , i n p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e s i n t h e b r a i n . I n s t e a d , t h e c o r t e x i s c a p a b l e , he a r g u e s , o f t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l image p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n . Memory i s s t o r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e b r a i n ; as B r o s s a r d p u t s i t , " l a memoire e s t en vue comme un s i t e : t o u t e s l e s r e g i o n s du c e r v e a u " (PT, 1 2 9 ) . The b r a i n ' s r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n s t o i t s e l f a r e p r o d u c e d by "a t w o - p r o c e s s mechanism o f b r a i n f u n c t i o n , " / 4 4 / i n w h i c h t h e i n t e r -f e r e n c e p a t t e r n s o f two or more wave f r o n t f o r m a t i o n s a r e r e a d o u t , as i t were, i n a d e c o d i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h p r o d u c e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w h i c h o p e r a t e s as a f i l t e r o r s c r e e n . / 4 5 / Thus c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a w a r e n e s s and b r a i n m o d i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e ( i . e . memory) a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r as f u n c t i o n s o f p a r a l l e l p r o c e s s e s o r g a n i z e d s p a t i a l l y w i t h i n t h e b r a i n . I n s h o r t , n e r v e i m p u l s e s a r r i v i n g a t j u n c t i o n s gen-e r a t e a s l o w p o t e n t i a l m i c r o s t r u c t u r e . The d e s i g n o f t h i s m i c r o s t r u c t u r e i n t e r a c t s w i t h t h a t a l r e a d y p r e s e n t by v i r t u e o f t h e s p o n t a n e o u s a c t i v i t y o f t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m and i t s p r e v i o u s " e x p e r i e n c e . " The i n t e r a c t i o n i s enh a n c e d by i n h i b i t o r y p r o c e s s e s and t h e whole p r o c e d u r e p r o d u c e s e f f e c t s a k i n t o t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n s r e s u l t i n g from t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o c c u r r i n g wave f r o n t s , [ i . e . h o l o g r a m s ] The s l o w p o t e n t i a l m i c r o s t r u c t u r e s a c t t h u s as a n a l o g u e c r o s s - c o r r e l a t i o n d e v i c e s t o p r o -duce new f i g u r e s [ w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o ] . . . c h a n g e s i n a w a r e n e s s . / 4 6 / 182 The energy f i e l d or slow p o t e n t i a l m i c r o s t r u c t u r e i s generated by e l e c t r i c a l energy i n the neurons. This f i e l d i s crossed by incoming information which can be described e i t h e r as wave a c t i v i t y or by using a quantum mechanical approach. In e i t h e r case, the i n t e r a c t i o n of wave-fronts produces consciousness, i n t e n t i o n , emo-t i o n , m otivation and d e s i r e . The process i s mathemati-c a l l y equivalent to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a hologram by means of recording the i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n generated by two i n t e r a c t i n g wave f r o n t s . Consciousness i s thus a constant match, or mis-match, between p r i o r experience and incoming data: Experimental evidence shows t h a t , at any moment, current sensory e x c i t a t i o n i s screened by some rep-r e s e n t a t i v e record of p r i o r experience; t h i s com-pa r i s o n , the match or mismatch between current e x c i t a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e record -- guides a t t e n t i o n and a c t i o n . / 4 7 / This model c l a r i f i e s the c r u c i a l r o l e of p o s i t i v e expe-ri e n c e i n the development of f u r t h e r p o s i t i v e e x p e r i -ence. Applying t h i s paradigm t o women's break with p a t r i a r c h y , Brossard t r a c e s the c u l t i v a t i o n of U t o p i a n consciousness as a gradual process during which the screen or wave f r o n t encoding p r i o r experience becomes s u f f i c i e n t l y imbued with U t o p i a n elements t o a l l o w a 183 match between i n c o m i n g d a t a ( e c s t a s y ) and what i s a l r e a d y i n p l a c e . T h i s p r o c e s s i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e e i g h t - p a r t movement o f P i c t u r e T h e o r y . The s e q u e n c e " S c r e e n S k i n , " " S c r e e n S k i n Too," " S c r e e n S k i n U t o p i a " and holoqramme t r a c e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a h o l o g r a p h i c s c r e e n . The g r a d u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s c r e e n , s k i n or page o f e c s t a s y complements t h e book's o p e n i n g g e s t u r e o f r e f u s a l t o r e c o n s t i t u t e , c o n c e n t r a t i n g i n s t e a d on e c s t a s y , sudden b r e a k t h r o u g h s , and words. The h o l o g r a m i n P i c t u r e T h e o r y i s a s s o c i a t e d n o t o n l y w i t h U t o p i a n e x p e r i e n c e , b u t w i t h t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and p r o j e c t i o n o f Utopian knowledge i n t o t h e f u t u r e . The h o l o g r a m i s an a p p r o p r i a t e v e h i c l e f o r t h i s b e c a u s e i t s t o r e s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e most e f f i c i e n t way known, t h e way t h e b r a i n s t o r e s memory. Holograms c a n be r e p r o d u c e d u s i n g any p a r t o f t h e f i l t e r or s c r e e n . U t o p i a n i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be r e c l a i m e d by t h e r e a c t i v a -t i o n o f b o d y / c o r p s and t e x t ( c o r t e x ) . The c o r t e x s e e k -i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e n t e n c e (PT, 99) i s an e n e r g y f i e l d o r c o r t i c a l " s k i n " / 4 8 / s e e k i n g a match f o r t h e i n c o m i n g wave of U t o p i a n i n f o r m a t i o n . La s c e n e b l a n c h e e s t un r e l a i s q u i p e r s i s t e comme e c r i t u r e p e n d a n t que l e c o r p s d i c t e s e s c l i c h e s , ferme l e s yeux s u r l e s bouches q u i s ' o u v r e n t a r e p e t i t i o n t o u c h e e s p a r l e d e s t i n dans l e u r p r o p r e mouvement. F a c e a ce q u i s ' o f f r e : 1 ' e x t r a v a g e n c e des s u r f a c e s , t r a n s p a r e n c e de l a s c e n e h o l o g r a p h i e e . (PT, 27) 184 "La s c e n e b l a n c h e " i s a t a l i s m a n i c i l l u m i n a t i o n w h i c h r e a p p e a r s b e c a u s e i t i s a s s o c i a t e d b o t h w i t h t h e v i r t u a l image, or h o l o g r a m i t s e l f (PT, 203) and w i t h t h e c o h e r e n t l i g h t , or l a s e r , r e q u i r e d f o r t h e r e a n i m a -t i o n o f t h e h o l o g r a m (PT, 2 0 2 ) . As t h e " s c e n e h o l o g r a p h i e e , 1 1 " l a s c e n e b l a n c h e " i s c r i t i c a l b e c a u s e i t i s t h e r e t h a t t h e l e s b i a n body, l a n g u a g e , and e n e r g y f u s e and " 1 ' u t o p i e i n t e g r a l e " (PT, 166) b e g i n s t o t a k e f o r m . What b e g i n s as a s e r i e s o f s c e n e s i s t r a n s f o r m e d by "La P e r s p e c t i v e , " " L ' E m o t i o n , " and "La P e n s t e , " t o become t h e s c r e e n s k i n w h i c h matches and makes p o s s i b l e t h e U t o p i a n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : S k i n / l i n k : o u i l a l a n g u e p o u v a i t e t r e r e c o n s t i t u t e en t r o i s d i m e n s i o n s A p a r t i r de s a p a r t i e d i t e de p l a i s i r l a ou f u s i o n n e n t l e c o r p s l e s b i e n , l a l a n g u e e t l ' e n e r g i e . (PT, 188) The r e f u s a l t o r e c o n s t i t u t e i s f i n a l l y d i s p l a c e d by what c a n be r e c o n s t i t u t e d : " l a l a n g u e , " s i t e o f p l e a s u r e , body, l a n g u a g e and e n e r g y . The u t o p i a n p o t e n t i a l o f l a n g u a g e u n i t e s w i t h t h e e c s t a s y o f t h e r e c l a i m e d , r e i m a g i n e d body, and m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f a s t h e v i r t u a l image of a woman who has unimpeded a c c e s s t o s u b j e c t i v i t y : 185 Toute l a s u b j e c t i v i t y du monde. L'utopie l u i t dans mes yeux. La langue est fie v r e u s e comme un recours polysemique. (ET./ 170) Thus the horizon of language reached by Flnnegans Wake i s reopened i n the feminine. Depuis Flnnlgans Waker t s i c l l e 16 mai, l e blanc de l a scene. L ' a b s t r a c t i o n i n c i t e au fu t u r comme a l a r e a l i t e . V o i r : i n f r a c t i o n / r e f l e x i o n ou hologramme. Chaque f o i s que l'espace me manque a 1'horizon, l a bouche s'entrouve, l a langue trouve l'ouverture. ( E X / 26) The a b s t r a c t i o n " [ q u i ] i n c i t e au futu r comme a l a r e a l i t y , " r e c a l l s the a b s t r a c t i o n through which a woman " l a y [ s ] c l a i m to u n i v e r s a l i t y . " / 4 9 / I t c o r r e l a t e s too with " l e s memoires d'utopie" which M.V. encounters "a chaque usage de l a pa r o l e " (PT, 89). Man, whom Benveniste located i n language, i s upstaged i n P i c t u r e Theory by the generic body of woman: "[1]'utopie s e r a i t une f i c t i o n a p a r t i r de l a q u e l l e n a f t r a i t l e corps generique de c e l l e qui pense" (ET_, 165). Je ne sa u r a l s narrer ce qui se cache dans l a langue mais y v o i r c l a i r oui l ' e c l a i r ouvrant l ' h o r i z o n sur une perspective pensante. La p a r t i e de p l a i s i r i n s c r i t e dans l a langue est c e l l e qui etonne au moment m@me ou l e p l a i s i r converge. Au tournant d'un mot, l a splendeur d'une femme qui f a i t sens: image tremblee de tout corps. La r e a l i t e se condense 186 en a b s t r a c t i o n , l a peau t r a v a i l l e , r e l i e f a c o u s t i -que, j'entends l'nnommable a l ' i n s u des mots que je prononce: je l a v o i s v e n i r . C'est sans l i m i t e l a nature des phrases une i n f o r m a t i o n v i s u e l l e par-courant nos corps a l a V i t e s s e de l a lumiere. C'est l ' e t r e i n t e ; p u i s lorsque separ6es, v i r t u e l l e s a nouveau r e c o n s t i t u o n s l ' o r i g i n e l l e des r a c i n e s a e r i e n n e s . ( i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ) (PT, 186) The h o l o g r a p h i c union of language, thought, and the l e s b i a n body completes the f e m i n i s t p r o j e c t of r e w r i t -ing "woman." The hologram i s "parfaitement l i s i b l e " (PT, 207). If the t e x t u a l system of P i c t u r e Theory i s complex, the f a b u l a i s e q u a l l y a s t o n i s h i n g . Modelled on the s p i r a l , on the hologram, on the neural-networking of the b r a i n , Brossard's f a b u l a uses modern technology to cr e a t e s t r u c t u r i n g metaphors ou t s i d e of the t r a d i t i o n a l and deeply rooted h e r o / o b s t a c l e dichotomy. At the same time, through an i n t e r t e x t u a l complexity which governs the events of the f a b u l a , she br i n g s forward the c u l t u r a l system she has i n h e r i t e d i n order to r e w r i t e i t as a h e r o i c n a r r a t i v e by, f o r , and about women. Li k e Daphne M a r l a t t , she w r i t e s , i n "that tongue our bodies u t t e r , woman tongue, speaking i n and of and f o r each other."/50/ 187 B. STORY From Actant to Characters The fabulas of P i c t u r e Theory and How Hug a Stone both feature a c o l l e c t i v e subject actant and both undermine conventional n a r r a t i v e grammar, but the books exemplify opposite s t r a t e g i e s at the l e v e l of s t o r y . While How Hug a Stone i s pow e r f u l l y f o c a l i z e d , f o c a l i z a t i o n i n P i c t u r e Theory i s d i f f u s e , mixed, and often d i f f i c u l t to d i s c e r n . The subject of the primary event, defined by i t s f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to the obj e c t , or hologram, i s manifested as a m u l t i p l i c i t y of ac t o r s ( B a l , 29). Some are we11-developed c h a r a c t e r s ; others, Sandra A r t s k i n and Anna, fo r example* s i g n a l the extension of the actant i n t o other s i g n i f y i n g systems./51/ P i c t u r e Theory a l s o features characters who are ac t o r s i n minor fabulas which c o n t r a s t with the primary f a b u l a . The most important characters who are subjects of the main fabula are the f i v e women who vac a t i o n on the i s l a n d . The e f f o r t of these characters to make sense for themselves as l e s b i a n s and as women def i n e s a p o l i t i c a l "frame of reference" ( B a l , 82) which i s bas i c to the s t o r y . Dinner t a b l e d i s c u s s i o n s are occasions for c r e a t i o n of a discourse which binds them together 188 at the same time that i t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s them: Oriana t a l k s too much, Daniele J u d i t h had a d i f f i c u l t c h i l d -hood i n Gaspesie, C l a i r e Derive i s a f e m i n i s t t h e o r e t i c i a n . Michele V a l i n e , u n l i k e the others, does not r e l i v e her childhood; d i s t i n g u i s h e d by her passion fo r ideas and her love for C l a i r e Derive, she e x e m p l i f i e s the i d e a l of e l i d i n g memory, focu s s i n g instead on "d'extase, de chute, de mots" (PT, 19). The sense given to words i s foregrounded i n the discourse of these women; Oriana, for example, "nuangait l e s mots deserteur, s u b v e r s i f , r e v o l u t i o n -n a i r e , v i r l l pour s ' a r r e t e r plus longuement aux genres conformiste et a n a r c h i s t e " (PT, 90). One d i s c u s s i o n turns on the t h e o r e t i c a l l y c r i t i c a l word " m a t r i a r c a t " : "Daniele J u d i t h d i s a i t que l e m a t r i a r c a t est un mot d'anthropologic et q u ' i l ne peut pas §tre u t i l i s e d'une maniere contemporaine pour e x o r c i s e r l e p a t r i a r c a t . Ce mot ne pouvait non plus s e r v l r a 61aborer quelque utopie qui a u r a i t rendu l e s femmes a l e u r genre" (PT, 85). The focus on words opens i n t o the s p i r a l l i n g s t r u c t u r e of the primary event when t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n generates l i g h t and energy: " l e s mots se succedant comme des phenomenes, des feux de p a l l l e " (PT, 93). The motif of d i s c o u r s e , "Du d i s c o u r s autour de l a t a b l e quotldienne" (ET, 79), i s c e n t r a l i n "L'Emotion." I t 189 i s a l s o a s y n e c d o c h e o f a c t u a l f e m i n i s t d i s c o u r s e t o w h i c h B r o s s a r d c o n t r i b u t e s , p a r t i a l l y b u t n o t e x c l u -s i v e l y by means o f P i c t u r e T h e o r y . The o b j e c t o f t h e f a b u l a i s t h e h o l o g r a m w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e U t o p i a n r e a l i z a t i o n o f meaning i n t h e f e m i n i n e . The c h a r a c t e r s ' d e s i r e f o r t h e h o l o g r a m as q u e s t o b j e c t i s f o c a l i z e d t h r o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r -n a r r a t o r , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h t h e s c e n e o f w r i t i n g w h i c h opens t h e h o r i z o n o f s k i n and p a p e r t o e n v i s i o n " l ' u t o p i e 1' i n t e q r a l e " ; (PT, 166) Le temps d e v i e n t p r o c e s s u s dans 1 ' u l t r a - v i o l e t . Je s u i s l a pensee d•une femme q u i m'englobe e t que j e pense i n t £ g r a l e . SKIN (UTOPIA) g e s t e va v e n i r . G r a v i t e [ s i c ] a e r i e n n e e t g r a v e l e r i v a g e des l i e s s u s p e n d u e s . J e s e r a i a l o r s t e n t e e p a r l a r e a l i t e comme une v e r b a l e v i s i o n q u i a l t e r n e mes s e n s p e n d a n t qu'une a u t r e femme m a i t r i s e a l ' o e u v r e 1 ' h o r i z o n . (PT, 166) "La femme i n t e g r a l e " i s a " p i c t u r e t h e o r y " o f t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e s u b j e c t , and l i k e t h a t s u b j e c t , she i s b o t h s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l : L ' i n t e g r a l e s e s t r a d i c a l e . Mes s e n s o r i g v n e n t  d ' e l l e . E l l e en p a r t a g e l ' i n t e q r i t e . Le temps,  l ' e s p a c e l u i a p p a r t i e n n e n t ; e l l e e s t " s v m b o l a " pour  t o u t e s , un s i g n e de r e c o n n a i s s a n c e . F i g u r e , image,  m e t a p h o r e . e l l e f a i t t o u i o u r s s e n s e t c o r p s a v e c l e  s e n s q u ' e l l e donne aux mots. La l u m i e r e e s t  c o h e r e n t e . 7 5 2 / 190 Bach of the f i v e main characters p r e f i g u r e s M l a femme i n t e g r a l e . " They are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from one another but, with the exception of C l a i r e Derive, they are not w e l l developed as c h a r a c t e r s . The characters of P i c t u r e Theory share many charac-t e r i s t i c s . C l a i r e and Florence are s i s t e r s who grew up i n New York; Oriana i s t h e i r mother's good f r i e n d ; Daniele J u d i t h , who i s s e r i o u s , Quebecoise, and i n t e r -ested i n books, i s t r y i n g to deal with her traumatic memories of childhood; C l a i r e c r i e s over childhood memories, and i s an a n a r c h i s t ; Michele i s s e r i o u s , Quebecoise, and a w r i t e r . A l l the characters are r e l a t e d by a network of shared c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. s i b l i n g s : John, Florence, and C l a i r e Derive 2. generations: the maternal grandmother who bequeathed the house to C l a i r e , Sarah Derive S t e i n , C l a i r e , Florence, John 3. l o v e r s : Michele and C l a i r e 4. married couple: John Derive and J u d i t h Pamela 5. name: J u d i t h Pamela and Daniele J u d i t h 6. Quebecoise: Daniele J u d i t h and Michele V a l l e e 7. "New Yorkaise": Florence, C l a i r e , Oriana and Sarah 8. l e s b i a n : Florence, C l a i r e , Oriana, Michele, Daniele and Sarah and C e c i l i a (P_T_, 154) 9. w r i t e r s : Florence, Michele, John, Daniele and Sandra A r t s k i n 10. p r o t e s t a n t : J u d i t h and Sandra A r t s k i n 191 Such overlapping of character t r a i t s could be accounted for by J u r i j Lotman's p l o t typology, i n which a mythological actant i s "unfolded" i n t o t y p i c a l l y doubled or twinned c h a r a c t e r s . "The most obvious r e s u l t of the l i n e a r u n f o l d i n g of c y c l i c a l t e x t s i s the appearance of character-doubles."/53/ "[NJot only syn-c h r o n i c character-doubles, but a l s o d i a c h r o n i c ones l i k e 'father-son* represent the s u b d i v i s i o n of a s i n g l e or c y c l i c text-image."/54/ For example, How Hug a  Stone features the character-doubles Edrys and i , who manifest, along the d i a c h r o n i c l i n e of generation, the actant who i s the subject of language. In P i c t u r e  Theory, character-doubles manifest s y n c h r o n i c a l l y to undermine the p l o t p o s i t i o n which, i n Lotman's system, c o n s t i t u t e s woman: the enclosed space transgressed by the hero. As " t r a v e r s i e r e s " (PT, 88), Brossard's characters occupy the p l o t p o s i t i o n which defines them as male, i n a t e x t which i n s i s t s that they are female. The paradox moves the t e x t beyond a f e m i n i s t reading of gender and grammar, "burning" grammar to generate l i g h t and energy: "Imperative grammaire incendi^e. Je pense a c e t t e scene comme au bord de l a mer, l'energie est sans s e c r e t " (PT, 24). Although they share i n the network of c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , John Derive and J u d i t h Pamela do not have the 192 same f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to the t e l e o l o g y of the fa b u l a as do Michele, D a n i e l e , C l a i r e , F l o r e n c e and Oriana. Both c h a r a c t e r s have an ambivalent r e l a t i o n -s h i p to the primary event. John's a c t i o n s are par-t i a l l y isomorphic with i t , i n th a t he t r a v e r s e s s p a t i a l f i e l d s and c r o s s e s boundaries: "John r o u l e allegrement sur l a 95 en d i r e c t i o n du Maine" (PT, 28). However, John a t no p o i n t i n t e r a c t s with another c h a r a c t e r ; he i s absent from the v i t a l realm of d i s c o u r s e . He i s imaged not as l i g h t i n dark but as shadowed and bloody: "C'est sans e x p r e s s i o n que John r o u l e v l t e l e p r o f i l s a n g l a n t decoupe comme un paysage au s o l e i l l e v a n t " (PT, 28). The n a r r a t o r remarks t h a t as a (male) c h a r a c t e r , John has no idea of the novel he i s i n : " omme personnaqe, John n ' a v a i t aucune n o t i o n du roman" (PT, 20). P l e i n e lune, Greenwich V i l l a g e , John t i t u b e . La v i l l e s ' a b o l i t dans son o e i l . La v i e v i e n t avec l e b r o u i l l a r d , l a t r a n s e , l a panique, l a p l u i e , on o u b l i e t out e t puis on recommence: l e s e n f a n t s , l e Sexual harassement. Who do II a s u i v i l e gargon sur l e s m i n i s t r e , son roman you t h i n k you are? quais de l a r i v i e r e Hudson, la. ou entre hommes on confond l e s t o r s e s . New York Ascenseur, gargon. (P_T_, 25) Black out. Homosexual d e s i r e leads John to a black out, i n s p i t e of the f u l l moon. Unacknowledged and re p r e s s e d , i t i s 193 incompatible with h i s r o l e as "un f i l s v i r i l " (EX, 21). He has "longtemps t r a v a i l l e e t beaucoup p l e u r e devant son roman" (PT, 22); h i s w r i t i n g i s a s s o c i a t e d with f r u s t r a t i o n . John does not share the f u n c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n to the hologram. He i s the s u b j e c t of a c o n t r a s t i n g , embedded s u b - f a b u l a . J u d i t h Pamela i s a l s o o u t s i d e of the primary f a b u l a . The p a r a d o x i c a l statement, " F l a u b e r t e t a i t sa femme p r 6 f 6 r e e " (PT, 28), l i n k s her to Emma Bovary and i m p l i e s t h a t she i s dependent on male d e f i n i t i o n s of women. She reads and s t a r e s at the sea. There i s magic w a i t i n g f o r her i f she can f i n d i t : Quelque p a r t en J u d i t h Pamela, une memoire t r a v a i l l e qu i ne c o n t i e n t pas son enfance et q u i pourtant l a f a i t se tendre de t o u t son corps vers l e s eaux. La f i c t i o n afnee s'approche d ' e l l e , l u i a p p l i q u e sur l a joue un p a p i l l o n a u s s i f i c t i f qu'un b a i s e r d e c o l o r e par l'eau dans 1'horizon i n c e r t a i n . (EX, 34) A woman who "aimait l e voyage et l e s langues" (PT, 28), J u d i t h resembles the other women of the s t o r y . Her name and her a s s o c i a t i o n with the Quebec border (PT, 20) are semantic b r i d g e s to Daniele J u d i t h , who might have helped J u d i t h Pamela ac r o s s "1'horizon i n c e r t a i n " (PT, 34). Because she f a i l s to t r a v e r s e t h a t f r o n t i e r , her s t o r y i s not isomorphic with the primary event. 194 An actor i n John Derive's sub-fabula, she i s symboli-c a l l y a t odds with the other women i n the book. C l a i r e Derive manifests the a c t a n t i a l f u n c t i o n of the subject and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to f e m i n i s t conscious-ness. Although she i s e s s e n t i a l to the timelessness of " l a scene blanche," she Is the most h i s t o r i c a l l y motivated character i n the book. The marriage of John Derive and J u d i t h Pamela i s an episode In the charac-t e r i z a t i o n of C l a i r e . l e mariage de John avec J u d i t h , l a r e c e p t i o n A Stanstead sur une pelouse verte comme dans Blow up, le b r u i t des verres brandis pendant q u ' i l p o s a i t sa bouche sur ses l e v r e s de mariee et que C l a i r e , en compagnie de deux h i p p i e s qui chargeaient et rechargeaient l e s cameras comme des dements, n'avait cesse de prendre des photos d'une maniere arrogante et i n s i s t a n t e . (P_T_, 83) This scene l i n k s John and J u d i t h to " s t r a i g h t " s o c i e t y , and C l a i r e to the 1960*3 c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e . S t r a i g h t s o c i e t y was mocked i n Michelangelo Antonioni's 1967 f i l m v e r s i o n of "Blow up," i n which a photographer, working i n h i s l a b , r e a l i z e s he has witnessed a pos-s i b l y imaginary a s s a s s i n a t i o n . / 5 5 / The analogy sug-gests the wedding i n P i c t u r e Theory as the s i t e of an imaginary a s s a s s i n a t i o n , perhaps that of a woman. C l a i r e ' s f e m i n i s t t r a j e c t o r y , the wedding scene 195 i m p l i e s , had i t s o r i g i n s i n her r e j e c t i o n of the p a t r i a r c h a l f a m i l y . From the f i r s t references to her i n " L ' O r d i n a i r e , " C l a i r e i s l i n k e d to the p o s s i b i l i t y of p o l i t i c a l change. Florence Derive, n6e de sa mere et d'un u l t r a modern s t y l e new-yorkais p a s s a i t souvent ses vacances au bord de l a mer, dans l a maison de sa soeur a n a r c h i s t e et seule h 6 r i t i e r e de l a grand-mere maternelle. Maison vue and revue en plong6e par l a pl u p a r t des h e l i c o p t e r e s de s u r v e i l l a n c e qui pendant l a guerre du Vietnam f a i s a i e n t l a ronde au-dessus des maisons pouvant a b r i t e r des hommes panses. Pouvoir changer l'Amerique. (EX, 20) C l a i r e i s the p r o p r i e t r e s s of the house on the i s l a n d , an a n a r c h i s t and h e i r e s s of the maternal l i n e . The house, dive-bombed by s u r v e i l l a n c e h e l i c o p t e r s , s h e l t e r s Vietnam var d e s e r t e r s who f l e d across the l i n e i n t o Canada. The phrase "Pouvoir changer l'Amerique" r e c a l l s the exuberant expectations of those vho took part i n the r a d i c a l i z a t i o n of the 1960's. C l a i r e i s next mentioned i n r e l a t i o n to J u d i t h Pamela vho v i s i t s the house on the i s l a n d . Au bord de l a mer, l e temps c'est du s a b l e . J u d i t h Pamela songe A 1 1 immense g a l e r i e qui donne sur 1'horizon, IA ou e l l e pouvait f a i r e c o l n c i d e r l e s i l e n c e et ses pensees, A c e t t e epoque ou John et e l l e passaient l e u r s vacances dans l a maison de l a 196 soeur a n a r c h i s t e * q u ' e l l e n'a pas revue depuis c i n q ans. * C e l l e q ui v i t p a r t o u t en rofime temps. Qui " p a s s a i t " souvent l a f r o n t i e r e . Un de s e r t e u r a l a f o i s ( l a p l u p a r t sont devenus v e g e t a r i e n s et ont ouvert de p e t i t s commerces sur l a rue Duluth ou dans l e s montagnes de l a Colombie-Britannique. A Nelson, l e u r s femmes port e n t des jupes marxistes e t des p e t i t s f o u l a r d s t i s s e s A l a main. E l l e s ont toutes deux ou t r o i s enfants t r e s beaux qui se promenent nus pieds dans l e s r e s t a u r a n t s " n a t u r a l f o o d " ) . (EX, 37) A s s o c i a t e d again with the c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e and the a n t i -war movement, C l a i r e i s d e s c r i b e d by e p i t h e t s which p r e f i g u r e the primary f a b u l a event and a s s o c i a t e her with the hologram: "qui p a s s a i t souvent l a f r o n t i e r e , " and " c e l l e qui v i t p a r t o u t en meme temps." C l a i r e i s a l s o a human and v u l n e r a b l e c h a r a c t e r who c r i e s , q u a r r e l s and s e t s a s i d e time to communicate with M i c h e l e : "nous avions f a i t l e pacte de nous consacrer une heure par jour A 1'exercise de l a reponse. C ' e t a i t maintenant A moi d ' a l l e r sur son t e r r a i n t r o u v e r une resonnance A ses propos" (EX, 85). Michele and C l a i r e are model communicators, but they argue over C l a i r e ' s a t t i t u d e to her mother (PT, 138-140), and, s i g -n i f i c a n t l y , over w r i t i n g : C l a i r e Derive d i s a i t i n s t i n c t i v e m e n t : " I l ne f a u t c i t e r qu'en d e r n i e r r e c o u r s , s ' i n t e r d l r e c e r t a i n s 197 passages de maniere a ne pas se r e p e t e r " . Je d i s a i s sentant l a c o l e r e monter en mol qu'aucun passage ne m'etait i n t e r d i t et g u ' a i n s i pensante je pouvais m'ouvrir A tous l e s sens. (PJL, 84) In t h i s curious q u a r r e l , Michele i n s i s t s on her freedom r e l a t i v e to meaning. L a t e r , she r e a l i z e s she misunder-stood C l a i r e : Aimer son p r o j e t , l e r e p e t e r , l e fondre en s o l , l e c i t e r a v a l t un jour d i t C l a i r e Derive au bord de l a mer. Je mourrais de honte de n'avoir entendu que l e mot c i t a t i o n . (ET, 168) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between C l a i r e and the n a r r a t o r i s analagous to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the w r i t e r and her w r i t i n g , as C l a i r e , i n Michele's memory, des c r i b e s i t here. Love binds C l a i r e and Michele to a p r o j e c t of transformation which i s i n c r e a s i n g l y i n view: " I I n ' e t a i t plus p o s s i b l e a l o r s de perdre de vue 1'espolr  en hologramme" (PT, 168). L i k e the hope which she embodies, C l a i r e i s more and more i n focus: C l a i r e Derive marcherait dans l e f r o i d absolu jusqu'A l a rue L a u r i e r . Decembre, l a neige. M.V. r e g a r d a i t dehors l e s passantes toutes plus futures l e s unes que l e s autres et A 1'image de C l a i r e D6rive qui e n f i n , v i s i b l e A 1'Arret, r e l e v a i t l e c o l de son manteau parmi l e s phares des v o i t u r e s . Dans 198 l e h a l l d'entree, 11 f a l l a i t e nlever l a tuque, l e f o u l a r d , l e manteau et l e s gants, t r e s amoureuse-ment. Ce v i s a g e . (PJL, 157) C l a i r e Is never the f o c a l i z e r of P i c t u r e Theory; the reader i s not i n v i t e d t o i d e n t i f y with her so much as to c o n s i d e r her c a r e f u l l y . Her appearance i s l i n k e d to mo t i f s of f u t u r i t y and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which combine to c r e a t e the love scene i n which the l i t e r a l and symbolic u n i t e , becoming " l e p o i n t de non-retour de toute a f f i r m a t i o n " (PJT_, 47). At the end of " L ' O r d i n a i r e , " C l a i r e l eaves a mes-sage on Michele's answering machine. " l L ] e repondeur: Je s u l s C l a i r e D e r i v e . La v o i x e t a i t b e l l e , presque sans accent. Dans l e s eaux de Curasao l a blancheur e s t e c l a t a n t e et l e s yeux se ferment A demi pour j o n g l e r avec l e s c o u l e u r s de 1 ' a r c - e n - c i e l dans l ' i r i s " (PT, 42). Her telephone c a l l i s a s s o c i a t e d with the l i g h t which b u i l d s throughout " L ' O r d i n a i r e " and announces the next stage of the q u e s t i n g journey i n t o l i g h t : "La Per-s p e c t i v e ." C l a i r e ' s name symbolizes her r o l e i n the n a r r a t i v e , and r e l a t e s her f i r m l y to the f u n c t i o n of l i g h t i n the f a b u l a . Her given name d e r i v e s from L a t i n , c l a r u s , " b r i g h t , " "qui a 1' e c l a t du j o u r , " and synonyms i n c l u d e " e c l a t a n t , " "lumineux," " b r i l l a n t , " "net," "apparent," 199 " c e r t a i n , " " e v i d e n t , " "sQr."/56/ She stands metonymi-c a l l y f o r the l i g h t of v i s i o n , " c l a i r v o y a n c e " (PJT_, 79, 99), and the sudden i l l u m i n a t i o n of an " e c l a i r " (PT, 80). She i s l i g h t i n the p a t r i a r c h a l dark, "1'obscure c l a r t e " (PT, 79), or, as L o r r a i n e Weir puts i t , " l i g h t f i l t e r e d through darkness i n reJoyced c h i a r o s c u r o . " / 5 7 / She i s most i m p o r t a n t l y the coherent l i g h t r e q u i r e d f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of the hologram (PJP, 198, 202, 205). Deri v e , too, as Michele remarks, " 6 t a i t un nom q u ' i l f a l l a i t s a v o i r m e r i t e r en dehors des q u e s t i o n s de f a m i l l e " (PT, 95). "D e r i v e " i s a p o l y v a l e n t word which s i g n i f i e s both the slow but immeasureably powerful d r i f t of c o n t i n e n t s and the d e v i a t i o n of an a i r or water c r a f t from i t s r o u t e . I t a l s o a p p l i e s to the e v o l u t i o n of words and thus, meaning. A " d e r i v e " i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y both a d r i f t i n g o f f course and a device which impedes such d r i f t i n g , the centre-board of a s h i p or the v e r t i c a l s t a b i l i z e r of a plane. In P i c t u r e  Theory. " C l a i r e D e r i v e " s i g n i f i e s l i g h t , v i s i o n , and the emerging meaning of words which guide women through the s p i r a l and assure t h a t they w i l l not c i r c l e h e l p -l e s s l y i n s i d e the p a t r i a r c h a l f r o n t i e r . C l a i r e ' s name appears on almost every page of "La P e r s p e c t i v e . " She i s present as l o v e r , beloved, and l i g h t : 200 C l a i r e Derive e s t i n v i s i b l e quand  e l l e inonde l a scene de son regard et q u ' e l l e bougq lentement devant moj., legerqmenfr dans l a blanche matinee. C l a i r e Derive  e s t l'onde et l'espace l a memoire m i r o l -tants qpe 1'intends comme vm gsns en (EX, 72) C l a i r e inundates the scene with the l i g h t of her gaze (EX, 60). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Michele and C l a i r e opens i n t o the a c t of re a d i n g P i c t u r e Theory. P a r a l l e l s e t s of r e f e r e n t s s h i f t to produce a re a d i n g which i n c l u d e s not o n l y the n a r r a t o r and C l a i r e D erive, but the imp l i e d author, the reader and the t e x t : "Riv6es l'une a 1'autre comme mises en suspens par une e c r i t u r e , nous e x i s t o n s dans l a l a b o r i e u s e c r e a t i o n du d e s i r dont on n'a pas id6e. Ou de l' I d e e , tout ce qui p a r v i e n t a metamorphoser l'espace mental" (EX, 27). T h i s metamor-phosis i s accomplished by provoking thought, f i g u r e d as l i g h t running through the body: "La pensee e s t sans comparaison avec l e corps ce q u ' i l e s t a l a v i t e s s e de l a lumiere a l a l e t t r e " (EX, 103) C l a i r e r e p r e s e n t s the i l l u m i n a t i o n of thought u n i t e d with language and emotion: the "corps c r 6 p u s c u l a i r e s " (PT, 99) of women i n the l i g h t of a new dawn. 201 Temporal R e l a t i o n s Temporal r e l a t i o n s i n P i c t u r e Theory are extremely complex, governed by a s p i r a l l i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n o£ the s p i r a l l i n g f a b u l a . The t i m e l e s s n e s s of " l a scene b l a n -che" f u r t h e r d i s r u p t s temporal l i n e a r i t y . Mieke Bal notes t h a t a t e x t i n which temporal l i n e a r i t y i s broken demands a more intense r e a d i n g ( B a l , 52). In P i c t u r e  Theory the a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e d by the complex temporal r e l a t i o n s i s part of the o v e r a l l s t r a t e g y to t r a n s f o r m consciousness. The d u r a t i o n of the f a b u l a i s e i g h t months to a year, and the sequence of the e i g h t s e c t i o n s of the book f o l l o w s the f a b u l a . " L ' O r d i n a i r e " i s f o l l o w e d by "La P e r s p e c t i v e " which takes place on May 16, 1980. "L'Emotion" r e l a t e s the events of J u l y , 1980. "La Pensee" takes place the f o l l o w i n g winter when C l a i r e ' s mother d i e s i n New York; e v e n t u a l l y C l a i r e r e t u r n s to Michele and Montreal. "Screen S k i n , " "Screen Ski n Too," "Screen Skin U t o p i a , " and hologramme comment on the events of the n a r r a t i v e . However, because of a l t e r n a t i o n between past and present verb tense, the s t o r y i s i n c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i o n e d i n time r e l a t i v e to f a b u l a events. " L ' O r d i n a i r e " i s a complex and r e p e t i t i v e c y c l e of events. " L ' O r d i n a i r e " d e f i e s chronology; t h e r e f o r e , 202 a n a c h r o n i e s c a n n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d . E v e n t s and l o c a -t i o n s r o t a t e , a p p e a r i n g as i f on a t u r n t a b l e . / 5 8 / S c e n e s a r e s h o r t , r a n g i n g from one t o e l e v e n l i n e s . T h e y i n c l u d e " l a s c e n e b l a n c h e . " t h e t r i p t o C u r a s a o , F l o r e n c e l e c t u r i n g on women and t o r t u r e , O r i a n a s i n g i n g Wagner's D i e W a l k u r e , a t r i p t o O g u n q u i t t a k e n by J u d i t h Pamela and J o h n D e r i v e , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s t r i p t o P a r i s (where she v i s i t s one or s e v e r a l museums, and r e g i s t e r s a t one or s e v e r a l h o t e l s ) , and t h e t e l e p h o n e c a l l f r o m C l a i r e D e r i v e . S i l e n t s c e n e s i n v o l v i n g a man and a woman n o t o t h e r w i s e c h a r a c t e r s i n P i c t u r e T h e o r y a r e numbered from a ( l ) t o d ( 2 ) . B e c a u s e t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a p u r e l y p a t r i a r c h a l c o n t e x t w h i c h c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h e e v o l v i n g , woman-centred w o r l d o f P i c t u r e T h e o r y . I r e f e r t o them as " l e l i v r e au mas-c u l i n . " They f o r e g r o u n d t h e f a c t t h a t " L ' O r d i n a i r e " p r e s e n t s r e a l i t y i n need o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . L ' o r d i n a i r e e s t un b a s - r e l i e f c i r c u l a i r e r e m p l i  de m o t i f s i n a v o u a b l e s . L ' o r d i n a i r e s'empare de l a l a n g u e a son p r o f i t 0 g u a t r e e t o i l e s c o n f o n d l e s  noms de r u e s l a g v n e c o l o g i e l e d e v o i r . D ' o r d i n a i r e  l'homme t i e n t l a femme dans s e s b r a s de c a s c a d e u r l a  s o u l e v e l ' e m p o r t e , metro a s c e n s e u r p a r k i n g . l u i f a i t  l i r e ce q u ' i l v e u t . (PT, 185) S t o r y t i m e i n " L 1 O r d i n a i r e " i s c y c l i c and d i f -f r a c t e d . E v e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d as f o l l o w s : 203 Story Time i n "L ' O r d i n a i r e " Page 19. Curasao, the H i l t o n bar the scene of w r i t i n g Montreal, HOtel de l ' I n s t i t u t (Florence) New York (Florence) 20. the scene of w r i t i n g childhood (Florence) childhood (Florence) childhood (John) 21. Oriana and Florence Oriana and John New York, Broadway (Florence) the scene of w r i t i n g the scene of w r i t i n g 22. the scene of w r i t i n g Montreal? P a r i s , l e Madison P a r i s , l e Madison 23. Wood's Hole (the Derive family) New York - Montreal (Florence) Montreal, HOtel de l ' I n s t i t u t (Sandra A r t s k i n ) 24. " l a scene blanche" 25. " l e l i v r e au masculin," rue du Dragon, P a r i s " l e l i v r e au masculin," the e l e v a t o r New York (John) Montreal (Florence) Michele and Daniele ? 26. New York, Florence P a r i s the scene of w r i t i n g 27. "la serine blanche" 28. childhood (Florence) John, going to Maine Wood's Hole John 29. " l e l i v r e au masculin" New York the scene of w r i t i n g a i r p l a n e P a r i s P a r i s , h o t e l 30. P a r i s , museum of Holography P a r i s , h o t e l New York (Florence) P a r i s , museum of Holography 31. " l a scene blanche" 204 32. New York (Oriana) " l e l i v r e au masculin," the e l e v a t o r the scene of w r i t i n g 33. Wood's Hole, a scene from "1'Emotion" P a r i s Montreal (Daniele) 34. Wood's Hole ( J u d i t h Pamela) New York " l e l i v r e au ma s c u l i n , " the metro " l e l i v r e au masculin," the metro 35. New York (Oriana, Sarah) P a r i s , h o t e l 36. " l a scene blanche" 37. Wood's Hole (John and J u d i t h ) Wood's Hole (John and J u d i t h ) Curagao 38. Opera (Oriana) 39. Wood's Hole (scene from "L'Emotion") Montreal, HOtel de l ' I n s t i t u t (Sandra A r t s k i n ) Montreal, H d t e l de l ' I n s t i t u t ( F l o r e n c e ) P a r i s , l e Madison 40. P a r i s , l e Madison Opera (Oriana) P a r i s , h o t e l ? Curagao 41. Opera (Oriana) P a r i s , museum P a r i s , h o t e l " l e l i v r e au masculin" " l e l i v r e au masculin" A i r p o r t , Montreal (Daniele and Michele) 42. Montreal, the apartment on rue L a u r i e r Montreal-Curagao 43. Montreal, HOtel de l ' I n s t i t u t In " L ' O r d i n a i r e , " synchrony triumphs over d i a c h r o n y . "La scene blanche" takes place on May 16, but i s d i f -f r a c t e d throughout the s t o r y , always s i g n i f y i n g " 1 ' i n t 6 g r a l e " of which the t e x t t h e o r i z e s a p i c t u r e . In t h a t the scene i s t i m e l e s s , f a b u l a time i s i n f i n i t e l y l e s s than s t o r y time. "La scene blanche" i s one of s e v e r a l events which are re p o r t e d many times, 205 I l l u s t r a t i n g the s t o r y f u n c t i o n of "frequency." Bal argues that "the more banal the event, the l e s s s t r i k -ing the r e p e t i t i o n " ( B a l , 78), but t h i s i s not the case i n P i c t u r e Theory. Banal events are over-determined by frequent i n t e r n a l r e t r o v e r s i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t manifesta-t i o n s of the boundary c r o s s i n g which i s an element of the primary event i n c l u d e : e n t e r i n g l'HOtel de l ' I n s t i t u t , various other h o t e l s , " l e h a l l d'entree," and the f o r e s t , and t r a v e r s i n g the ocean, the border, the h o r i z o n , and the book. The often repeated phrase, " d ' i n s t i n c t et de memoire, j ' e s s a i e de ne r i e n r e c o n s t i t u e r " (PT, 19), s i g n i f i e s on the l e v e l of the scene of w r i t i n g the c r e a t i o n of a memory screen which w i l l i n t e r a c t with incoming information to produce the hologram. In P i c t u r e Theory, r e p e t i t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e s the three n a r r a t i v e l e v e l s of f a b u l a , s t o r y and t e x t . Story and fabula r e p e t i t i o n combine to create a temporal complexity which could take t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n beyond i t s immediate scope. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to see a computerized study of these i n t r i c a c i e s . F o c a l i z a t i o n F o c a l i z a t i o n i n How Hug a Stone i s so intense that i t subverts the f i r s t person n a r r a t i v e through the nar-r a t o r ' s awareness of the c o l l e c t i v e nature of language. 206 I n P i c t u r e T h e o r y , f o c a l i z a t i o n i s s o d i f f u s e t h a t t h e t e x t c o u l d b e s a i d t o f i g u r e i n w r i t i n g t h e m u l t i p l e f o c u s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s l e n s l e s s p h o t o g r a p h y o r h o l o g r a p h y . F o c a l i z a t i o n r e s t s s o m e t i m e s w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r , s o m e t i m e s b e t w e e n t h e n a r r a t o r a n d a c h a r a c -t e r , a n d s o m e t i m e s i s e x t e r n a l . T h i s v a r i a t i o n c o r -r e s p o n d s t o t h e f a c t t h a t M i c h e l e V a l l e e i s i n c o n -s i s t e n t l y t h e n a r r a t o r . I n " L ' O r d i n a i r e , " f o c a l i z a t i o n s h i f t s a s t h e s c e n e s o f t h e s t o r y r o t a t e . E v e n t s a r e p a r t i a l l y f o c a l i z e d t h r o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r w h o e x p e r i e n c e s t h e m . F l o r e n c e ' s t r i p t o M o n t r e a l i s a n e x a m p l e o f c h a r a c t e r -f o c a l i z a t i o n w i t h e x t e r n a l n a r r a t i o n ( E N / C F ) : M a i n t e n a n t , F l o r e n c e D e r i v e r e c a p i t u l e s o n t e x t e d a n s u n b a r s i t u e a l ' a n g l e d e l a s e p t i e r n e a v e n u e e t d e l a q u a r a n t e d e u x i e m e r u e . E l l e s e l i v r e m o m e n t a n e m e n t a l a n e c e s s i t y d ' e t r e c e q u e l ' o n n o m m e , p a r m i l e s e n c r e s , u n p e r s o n n a g e . S a c o n -f e r e n c e e s t p r S t e . D e m a i n , M o n t r e a l . (EX, 19) F l o r e n c e i n t e r p r e t s h e r o w n b e h a v i o r ; t h e s c e n e i s f o c a l i z e d t h r o u g h h e r . T h e u s e o f t h e d e i c t i c t e r m " d e m a i n " l o c a t e s h e r a s t h e s u b j e c t o f d i s c o u r s e a s w e l l a s t h e f o c a l i z i n g s u b j e c t . O t h e r p a s s a g e s i m p l y a n e x t e r n a l n a r r a t o r - f o c a l i z e r ( E N / E F ) w h o t r a v e l s f r e e l y t h r o u g h s p a c e a n d t i m e . 207 c(2) Le metro e t a i t mal e c l a i r e . De dos, l'hommme c a c h a i t l a femme dont on v o y a l t l a main r e c r o q u e v i l l e e dans l a slenne. (PT, 34) From whose p o i n t of view i s the woman hidden? Who i s the "on" r e f e r r e d to i n the l a s t sentence? T h i s f r a g -ment of " l e l i v r e au masculin" i s f o c a l i z e d through an unknown, e x t e r n a l n a r r a t o r . In some cases f o c a l i z a t i o n i s ambiguous. In the f o l l o w i n g scene, e i t h e r the n a r r a t o r or the c h a r a c t e r sees the r e f l e c t i o n i n the metal. b(2) L'homme r e g a r d a l t d r o i t devant l u i son d e s t i n sur l a porte de l'ascenseur qui montait. Le metal r e f l e t a i t f l o u ses vStements sans v i s a g e et l a v a l i s e a ses p i e d s . (ET., 32) Ambiguity occurs whenever Michele moves i n or out of the n a r r a t o r ' s r o l e : Les c i t e s de v e r r e s ' e t a i e n t e t e i n t e s . Dernier jour dans l ' l l e , j ' e t a i s dejA "dans l e s eaux de Curasao" en v i l l e , p r i s e par c e t t e t e n s i o n q u i m ' i n c i t e au pres e n t . Michele V a l l e e , l i v r e t r o i s , rue L a u r i e r (MOTHER SICK - STAYING IN NEW YORK - WILL WRITE -LOVE - CLAIRE). Premier tango, Anna L i v i a P l u r a b e l l e , l'homme a s s i s dans l e c o u l o i r , l a v i e en prose, l a c u l t u r e m ' a l l a i t - e l l e comme un gant mettre du t i s s u , de l ' e c r a n dans 1'existence ou m ' a l l a i t -e l l e p r e s e r v e r dans l e contexte? (EX, 105) 208 Here, f o c a l i z a t i o n takes place e s s e n t i a l l y through Mich e l e , who i s w r i t i n g her book. At a giv e n moment, however, she sees h e r s e l f as a c h a r a c t e r , "Michele V a l l e e , l i v r e t r o i s , rue L a u r i e r . " The n a r r a t i v e of the love a f f a i r with C l a i r e , the v a c a t i o n t r i p to the i s l a n d , the n a r r a t o r ' s t r i p to P a r i s , the w r i t i n g of a book and the d e s i r e f o r the hologram are a l l f o c a l i z e d more or l e s s c l e a r l y through M i c h e l e . C e r t a i n scenes, however, s h i f t f o c a l i z a t i o n suddenly; t h i s i s another technique which works to a l e r t the reader. Les mots v o l a i e n t dans toutes l e s d i r e c t i o n s . En vue d'un sens, s i l l o n n a n t l'espace, une q u e s t i o n r e s t a i t en suspens: l ' o r i g i n e sur l a q u e l l e M.V. r e s t a i t penchee des heures e n t i e r e s . Du sens 6 t a i t en vue, a m p l i f i a i t l a r e a l i t e comme une comete sonore ( a l l a n t vers l a source, une femme casquee). L ' e c l a t du musee. M i l l e fragments retombent sur mes epaules. De l a matiere p a r t o u t , p i e c e s d ' i d e n t i t y : notes, l i p s t i c k , m i r o i r , condom, c l e s , argent, m i l l e fragments s'assemblent sous vos yeux dans l e mus6e, dans l e l i v r e , i l f a u t l e s v o i r v e n i r . (EX, 112) The words "mes epaules," i d e n t i f y a f i r s t person i n a passage which a l s o r e f e r s to M.V. i n the t h i r d person and i n which the second person i s a l s o used: " m i l l e s fragments s'assemblent sous vos yeux dans l e mus6e." 209 I s M i c h e l e , who does go t o t h e museum, p r e s e n t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n f i r s t , s e c o n d and t h i r d p e r s o n ? A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e a d d r e s s e e c o u l d be C l a i r e , or t h e r e a d e r o f t h e book. F o c a l i z a t i o n and t h e n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t a r e b o t h ambiguous i n t h i s p a s s a g e . The s t o r y i s f o c a l i z e d t h r o u g h M.V., o t h e r c h a r a c -t e r s , and an e x t e r n a l f o c a l i z e r , and sometimes e x h i b i t s mixed or ambiguous f o c a l i z a t i o n . " I f one r e g a r d s t h e f a b u l a p r i m a r i l y as t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , t h e s t o r y c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as t h e r e s u l t o f o r d e r i n g " ( B a l , 4 0 ) . S t o r y i s t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f f a b u l a e v e n t s i n an e x c i t i n g , s u s p e n s e f u l , or e m o t i o n a l l y g r i p p i n g way. I n P i c t u r e T h e o r y , i n t r i g u e i s d i s p l a c e d by t h e s t r a t e g y o f t h e h o l o g r a m , and c l a s s i c a l s t o r y a s p e c t s s u c h as c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t and d r a m a t i c a r r a n g e m e n t o f e v e n t s a r e r e v o l u t i o n i z e d by t h e r e f u s a l t o r e c o n s t i t u t e t h e a l r e a d y known. C. T e x t The N a r r a t i v e C o n t r a c t A t t h e t e x t u a l l e v e l as w e l l as a t t h e l e v e l o f s t o r y , P i c t u r e T h e o r y d e s t a b i l i z e s r e l a t i o n s between 210 t h e t e x t and i t s r e a d e r , i n t e r p e l l a t i n g a s u b j e c t who w i l l "metamorphose m e n t a l s p a c e " (PT, 27, 4 3 ) . S h i f t -i n g n a r r a t o r y f u n c t i o n , a l t e r n a t i o n i n v e r b t e n s e and t h e o c c a s i o n a l use of E n g l i s h a r e t e x t u a l s t r a t e g i e s t o "open t h e mind" (PT, 1 7 0 ) . A n a r r a t i v e t e x t p r e s u p p o s e s a n a r r a t i v e a g e n t , w h i c h n a r r a t o l o g y d e f i n e s as a l i n g u i s t i c c o n s t a n t . "The l i n g u i s t i c s u b j e c t [ i s ] a f u n c t i o n and n o t a p e r -s o n , w h i c h e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f i n t h e l a n g u a g e t h a t c o n -s t i t u t e s t h e t e x t " ( B a l , 1 1 9 ) . P i c t u r e T h e o r y f o r e -g r o u n d s t h e n a r r a t o r as a v a r i a b l e f i c t i o n o f t h e n a r -r a t o r y f u n c t i o n . N a r r a t i o n i s sometimes i m p e r s o n a l ; sometimes a n a r r a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e use o f f i r s t - p e r s o n p r o n o u n s and o t h e r d e i c t i c t e r m s , and s ometimes t h e n a r r a t o r i s s p e c i f i e d as M i c h e l e V a l l e e or M.V.; t h u s t h e t e x t e x p l o r e s p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between t h e n a r r a t o r y f u n c t i o n and f i c t i o n a l s u b j e c t s who t e l l s t o r i e s a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r p e o p l e ( o b j e c t s ) . The f i c t i o n o f n a r r a t i o n changes from s e c t i o n t o s e c t i o n and p a s s a g e t o p a s s a g e . The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e combines an e x t e r n a l n a r r a t o r (EN) who i s n o t named and i s n o t a c h a r a c t e r , w i t h a c h a r a c t e r - f o c a l i z e r ( C F ) , F l o r e n c e D e r i v e : 211 EN [CF (Florence) -- young woman with b r i e f c a s e ] (I n a r r a t e : [I i n v e n t : F l o r e n c e f o c a l i z e s : ] ) Lorsque F l o r e n c e Derive s o r t i t ce m a t i n - l a de 1 'HOtel de l ' I n s t i t u t , e l l e remarqua une jeune femme qu i t o u t comme e l l e , t e n a i t sous son bras un c a r t -a b l e , sans doute achete chez Bloomingdale»s, pensa-t - e l l e d'abord, puis e l l e se concentra sur une idee t r e s p r e c i s e dont e l l e v o u l a i t d i s c u t e r avec Daniele J u d i t h avant l a conference. (EJ_, 39) An e x t e r n a l n a r r a t o r "sees" F l o r e n c e l e a v i n g the h o t e l , and "knows" the thoughts t h a t pass through her mind. T h i s passage e x e m p l i f i e s the t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a r y s t y l e of n a r r a t i o n i n the t h i r d - p e r s o n "passe simple," i n which the n a r r a t o r i s r e l a t i v e l y omnipotent and the reader i s r e l a t i v e l y p a s s i v e . Other passages combine n a r r a t o r y and f o c a l i z i n g f u n c t i o n s , while b r i n g i n g the reader c l o s e r to the t e x t through employment of the f i r s t - p e r s o n present i n d i c a -t i v e : CN (Michele) [CF (Michele) — Michele i n the P a r i s h o t e l ] L ' h o t e l sent l a v e r v e i n e . Cela peut e t r e l e f r u i t de mon imagination mais i l sent bon comme A Curasao, Anna s e n t a i t l a f i c t i o n , sur son dos, j ' a n t i c i p e . (ET_, 29) 212 In t h i s passage, both f o c a l i z a t i o n and n a r r a t i o n are through the c h a r a c t e r - n a r r a t o r , M i c h e l e . The reader i s i n v i t e d i n t o her s e n s a t i o n s as she draws on her e x p e r i -ence to n o u r i s h the f i c t i o n she i s c r e a t i n g . At t h i s p o i n t , however, the n a r r a t o r i s anonymous; she i s not named u n t i l one of the d i s c u s s i o n s on the i s l a n d : "Stop i t , M i c h e l e , watch i t , d i s a i t F l o r e n c e " (PT, 95). Michele i s c o n s i s t e n t l y the c h a r a c t e r - n a r r a t o r -f o c a l i z e r of "La P e r s p e c t i v e " and "L'Emotion." From "La Pensee" to the end of the t e x t , the nar-r a t o r y f u n c t i o n s h i f t s between Michele (CN) and an anonymous e x t e r n a l n a r r a t o r (EN). In the f o l l o w i n g passage, the n a r r a t i v e agent changes while f o c a l i z a t i o n r e s t s with Michele, c r e a t i n g an impression that Michele i s both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e of the scene: double per-s p e c t i v e which i s a c r i t i c a l B r o s s a r d i a n s t r a t e g y to c r e a t e a new p e r s p e c t i v e on r e a l i t y . Son c h a n d a i l t r a f n e A c6te du l i t . M.V. l u i p a r l e doucement, raconte l e s lnsomnies du samedi s o i r , c ' e s t - A - d i r e , c e l l e s qui p r e c e d a i e n t t o u j o u r s l e n e f a s t e dimanche, jour d ' e x p i a t i o n dans l e s c r i n o l i n e s . P u i s , C l a i r e Derive appuyait de tout son corps sur l e mien. Ses mains sont une source de chaleur sur ma nuque. L ' o r e i l l e r v i e n t de tomber sur l e t a p i s . Un d e t a i l . Je m'en souviens comme d'un jour de semaine. Quotidiennes et amoureuses. Sans personnage. (ET_, 142) 213 When p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t i s e s t a b l i s h e d between Michele and C l a i r e , the f i c t i o n of t h i r d - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n d i s -s o l v e s i n t o f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n , "sans personnage." The f l e x i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h a r a c t e r s and the n a r r a t o r y f u n c t i o n foregrounds the power of f i c t i o n to metamorphose s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n s . Double p e r s p e c t i v e , with a l l t h a t i t i m p l i e s f o r the i n t e r p e l l a t e d s u b j e c t , i s a l s o c r e a t e d through p a r a l l e l verb tense. The c o n j u g a t i o n of verbs i s a major catego r y of d e i x i s i n Emile Benveniste's a n a l y s i s of the c r e a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n language./59/ P i c t u r e Theory uses every tense i n the French language, thus i n v o k i n g every c o n c e i v a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p a s u b j e c t may have to time. These temporal gymnastics p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p l i c a t e the n a r r a t i v e agent as a s u b j e c t i n language. The reader, too, p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a f l e x i -b l e p e r s p e c t i v e on time. Brossard uses p e r s p e c t i v e as a metaphor f o r w r i t -i n g . In " L ' O r d i n a i r e , " fragments of n a r r a t i v e sentences c i r c u l a t e i n the n i g h t ; the communion of "La P e r s p e c t i v e " puts them i n t o a p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t t r a n s -forms the " f l a t " o r d i n a r y i n t o t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l r e a l i t y , thus r e v e r s i n g the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t r a d i -t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e which i s a "method of g r a p h i c a l l y d e p i c t i n g t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s and s p a t i a l r e l a -214 t i o n s h i p s on a two-dimensional plane or on a plane t h a t i s shallower than the o r i g i n a l ( f o r example, i n f l a t r e l i e f ) . " / 6 0 / The p r i n t e d page, as a shallow r e l i e f of paper and ink, f u n c t i o n s as a r e l a y - t r a n s i s t o r or screen f o r t h i s two-way i n t e r a c t i o n . P e r s p e c t i v e c r e a t e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a work of a r t and an observer. Renaissance a r c h i t e c t F i l i p p o B r u n e l l e s c h i r e d i s c o v e r e d the mathematical p r i n c i p l e s of one-point or c e n t r a l p e r s p e c t i v e which were known to the a r c h i t e c t s of c l a s s i c a l Greece, but l o s t d u r i n g the Middle Ages. Leon B a t i s t a A l b e r t i t h e o r i z e d and a p p l i e d B r u n e l l e s c h i ' s d i s c o v e r y of the v a n i s h i n g p o i n t i n h i s t h e s i s D e l i a p i t t u r a (1436; On P a i n t i n g , 1956). Accor d i n g to h i s " p i c t u r e theory," a l l p a r t s of a p a i n t i n g were to be c o n s t r u c t e d so as to have a r a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to each other and to the observer. "The observer's height and d i s t a n c e he i s to stand from the p a i n t i n g are c o n t r o l l e d by the a r t i s t i n l a y i n g out h i s p e r s p e c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . By means of t h i s system the microcosm of the p a i n t i n g and the mac-rocosm of the observer become one, and the observer p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the observed." T r a d i t i o n a l depth per-s p e c t i v e thus p l a c e s the viewer i n a f i x e d and i d e a l p o s i t i o n , whereas the p e r s p e c t i v e of P i c t u r e Theory demands a viewer i n motion. 215 In "La P e r s p e c t i v e , " Brossard develops t e x t u a l per-s p e c t i v e s which s i t u a t e the reader i n a t r i a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n organized by s p l i t t i n g " l a scene blanche" i n t o the two p a r a l l e l scenes of the c a r p e t and the book (PT, 27). Two p e r s p e c t i v e s on time are e l a b o r a t e d through a l t e r n a t e use of the present tense with the imperfect or the "passe compose." comme i l a r r i v e que 1'ombre d'un doute j ' e n t r e simultanement dans l e h a l l d'entree (un je se perd i c i au t r a v a i l instantanement en e n t r a n t dans l a maison ce t r a v a i l m'epulse rapidement) ma presence se confond a l'odeur du b o i s l e l i v r e , je l ' a i tout de s u i t e remarque sur l a t a b l e , a l' e n v e r s et ouvert r e c t o - v e r s o l e s e u l o b j e t v l r t u e l d i f f i c i l e a s o u t e n i r C l a i r e Derive sa joue q u ' e l l e me t e n d a l t mise en abyme puis recompose son regard m ' a r r i v a i t a l a p o i t r i n e a c e t t e hauteur ou 1'impression c ' e s t r e c u e i l l e emprise (ET, 49) The m o t i f s of the " h a l l d'entree" and the room f i l l e d with l i g h t , f a m i l i a r from " l a scene blanche," guide the reader through the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of "La P e r s p e c t i v e . " L i k e the viewer of a Renaissance p a i n t i n g , the reader p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the observed. Brossard d e c l i n e s , however, to c o n t r o l the reader's "height and d i s t a n c e . . . from the p a i n t i n g . " One-point p e r s p e c t i v e i s made ob s o l e t e by the t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of the 216 hologram, which permits a m u l t i p l i c i t y of p o i n t s of view. The s p l i t scene of "La P e r s p e c t i v e " may a l s o r e p r e s e n t the s p l i t beam of l i g h t used to c r e a t e a hologram; the passages i n the present tense correspond to the r e f e r e n c e beam, and the passages i n the past tense have been r e f l e c t e d o f f the love scene and c a r r y t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n forward to the f u t u r e . The perspec-t i v e t h a t e v e n t u a l l y develops, t h e r e f o r e , i s perspec-t i v e on a hologram r a t h e r than on a two-dimensional p i c t u r e . The change i s s i g n i f i c a n t . Brossard's t r i -a n g u l a t i o n c r e a t e s a p l a c e f o r the reader i n the t e x -t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e , but i t i s no longer necessary f o r t h i s place or space to be f i x e d , because a hologram, l i k e a " r e a l " o b j e c t , can be regarded from any s i t u a -t i o n and w i l l r e t a i n i t s v i t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . "La P e r s p e c t i v e , " however, i s not yet holoqramme f and the love scene has not dispensed with one-point p e r s p e c t i v e . C l a i r e ' s cheek, o f f e r e d to her l o v e r , i s the "mise en abyme" (PT, 49) or v a n i s h i n g p o i n t . As the i n t e n s i t y of the love scene i n c r e a s e s , the perspec-t i v e appears more and more to be based on a v a n i s h i n g p o i n t of l i g h t : a t the end, e v e r y t h i n g i s l i g h t (PT, 72). The rose of l i g h t which Dante saw i n paradise appears here i n a e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e : "/posture aerienne / l'apparence d'une rose double dans l a c l a r t e " (PT, 217 53). C l a i r e e n t e r s f i r s t " l e h a l l d'entree," and then the f o r e s t . Read i n t e r t e x t u a l l y , the images of the s e c t i o n t u r n to Dante, W i t t i g , and the Joycean event of the book. As the scene of the book i s i n t e r f a c e d with the love scene, reading " l a scene h o l o g r a p h i e e " (PT, 27) i s more and more a q u e s t i o n of readi n g P i c t u r e Theory. The w r i t i n g , " t r a v e r s e " or "cr o s s e d " by f e m i n i s t con-s c i o u s n e s s , permits "another r e a d i n g of r e a l i t y and s e l f , " / 6 1 / and the reader reenacts the double process necessary f o r t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y : "1'hypothese  tramee" (PT, 60). The i n t e r f e r e n c e p a t t e r n produces a hologram which w i l l be found not i n a holography museum, but i n the c o r t e x of the book's reader. In "Screen Skin U t o p i a , " these s t r a t e g i e s of m u l t i -pl e s u b j e c t i v i t y are l i n k e d to the polysemic p o t e n t i a l of language: L ' u t o p i e l u i t dans mes yeux. La langue e s t f i e v r e u s e comme un recours polysemique. Le p o i n t de non-retour de toute a f f i r m a t i o n amoureuse e s t a t t e i n t . Je s u i s 1A ou commence "l'apparence raagi-que", l a coherence des mondes, trou6e par d ' i n v i s i b l e s s p i r a l e s q ui l ' a c t i v e n t . Je g l i s s e h o r s - l i e u - d i t emportee par l a pensee d'une femme convergente. Tranche anatomique de 1•imaginaire: e t r e coupee des v i l l e s l i n e a i r e s pour entreprendre mon rdve dans l a duree, casquee, v i r t u e l l e comme c e l l e q u i rassemble un jour ses connaissances pour un l i v r e . 218 M.V. s ' e t a i t r e d r e s s e e , a v a i t lentement tourne l a t e t e l e regard p r i s e ntre l e rebord de l a fenStre et 1'horizon. Le poeme h u r l a i t opening the mind (ET, 170) The f i r s t paragraph i s w r i t t e n i n the f i r s t person, present tense. I t i l l u m i n a t e s the scene of w r i t i n g from the p o i n t of view of the w r i t e r who senses the Utopian p o t e n t i a l of meaning: " l a coherence des mondes," " l a ou commence 'l'apparence magique'" (PT, 170). Meaning s p i r a l l i n g through the p o l y v a l e n c y of words as " l e c o r t e x s p i r a l e " (PT, 169) i l l u m i n a t e s the convergent image of the woman who, w r i t i n g , makes sense. The second paragraph, w r i t t e n i n the p l u p e r f e c t tense and the t h i r d person, looks a t the scene from a p o s i t i o n i n the f u t u r e . The focus i s on the a c t i v i t y of the poem which opens the mind. A t h i r d s t r a t e g y which complements the e f f e c t of s h i f t i n g n a r r a t o r y f u n c t i o n and v e r b a l tenses i s the movement between E n g l i s h and French. T h i s i s as c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c of Brossard's novels as i t i s of speech i n Canadian francophone communities. As a t e x t u a l s t r a t e g y , i t not onl y demands l i n g u i s t i c competence i n the two languages, but e c o n o m i c a l l y evokes the l i n g u i s t i c p o l i t i c s of Quebec. I t i s r e a l i s t i c a l l y motivated and i s a f u n c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ; C l a i r e , f o r example, i s an anglophone and speaks 219 o c c a s i o n a l l y i n her mother tongue. But there i s more to i t . " ( L 1 i t e r a r y b i l i n g u a l consciousness"/62/ i s c r e a t i v e because, as Bakhtln argues, "Two myths p e r i s h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y : the myth of a language t h a t presumes to be the o n l y language, and the myth of a language t h a t presumes to be completely u n i f i e d . " / 6 3 / Thus i n P i c -t u r e Theory, the c o n f u s i o n of tongues i s r e l a t e d to the c r e a t i o n of new d i s c o u r s e and "synthese de l a double o r i g i n e " which engages Michele as a w r i t e r : C l a i r e r e v e n a i t avec l e v i n , hors d ' e l l e , p a r l a i t b i t c h , dyke, s e n t a i t l ' a m e r i c a i n e a p l e i n nez, u l t r a modern s t y l e new-yorkais. Stop i t , M i c h e l e , watch i t , d i s a i t F l o r e n c e t r e s enerv6e pendant que je s a v a i s v o u l o i r r e a l i s e r l a fameuse synthese de l'eau et de feu qui b r u l e l a langue. I know, 5a me t r a h i t c e t t e synthese de l a double o r i g i n e , I kne_w, I kno_w. Des b r i b e s de phrases. On e n t e n d a i t l e b r u i t des vagues. (PT, 95) "I kn§w, I knp_w" enacts the s t r a t e g i e s of p a r a l l e l verb tenses and the use of E n g l i s h , while naming the new p e r s p e c t i v e . "Cette synthese de l a double o r i g i n e " i s opposed to the s i n g l e logos of p h a l l o g o c e n t r i c v i s i o n . "Des b r i b e s de phrases" r e f e r s to the fragments of l a n -guage c i r c u l a t i n g i n the n i g h t , "Depuls F l n n l g a n s Wake [ s i c ] " (EX, 19)/ "A l a r e c e p t i o n " (EX, 19). In the more evolved context of " l a n u i t p a r f a i t e , " the phrase foregrounds the a c t of d i s c o u r s e which renders "woman" 220 m e a n i n g f u l . The c h a o s o f c i r c u l a t i n g l a n g u a g e e l e m e n t s i s u n d e r l i n e d by O r i a n a ' s s p e e c h : O r i a n a p a r l e e t l e s l a n g u e s se c o n f o n d e n t dans 1 1 e x c i t a t i o n ; du f r a n ^ a i s a l ' a n g l a i s ; e l l e g l i s s e d e s p h r a s e s t o t a l e s en i t a l i e n , une c i t a t i o n en a l l e m a n d . E l l e e t a i t t o u t g e n r e a l a f o i s d'une l a n g u e a l ' a u t r e . (PX, 9 5 ) . O r i a n a , who o f t h e f i v e women i s t h e c h a r a c t e r most marked by p a t r i a r c h y , i s h e l p e d i n h e r p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s a g e n e r i c a l l y f e m i n i n e mind by h e r p o l y g l o t o r i g i n s . N a r r a t i v e Embedding The s h i f t i n g n a r r a t i v e a g e n t i n P i c t u r e T h e o r y makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o enumerate l e v e l s o f n a r r a t i o n ; numerous embedded n a r r a t i v e s a r e i n t r i c a t e l y woven i n t o t h e body o f t h e t e x t . A p a r t i c u l a r l y r i c h r a p p o r t l i n k s t h e embedded c o n v e r s a t i o n s o f t h e women on t h e i s l a n d w i t h t h e p r i m a r y e v e n t o f t h e f a b u l a . As I p o i n t e d o u t i n r e l a t i o n t o embedding i n How Hug a  S t o n e , Mieke B a l i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between a p r i m a r y f a b u l a and embedded t e x t s ( B a l , 1 4 4 - 1 4 9 ) . An embedded f a b u l a may r e s e m b l e o r m i r r o r a p r i m a r y f a b u l a , or i t may e x p l a i n i t . I n t h e c a s e o f A r a b i a n N i g h t s , t h e n a r r a t i v e a c t wh i c h p r o d u c e s t h e embedded t e x t i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t e v e n t i n t h e p r i -221 mary f a b u l a . In c e r t a i n cases, an embedded f a b u l a may i n f l u e n c e or even determine the outcome of a primary f a b u l a , f o r example, i f a c h a r a c t e r t e l l s a s t o r y which changes the outcome of the p l o t (a g i r l e x p l a i n s why she cannot marry her l o v e r . He i s so moved by her t a l e t h a t a l l i s f o r g i v e n and they marry a f t e r a l l ) . P i c -t u r e Theory p r o v i d e s another ins t a n c e of response between l e v e l s of n a r r a t i o n , i n t h a t the embedded con-v e r s a t i o n s produce energy which i s an e s s e n t i a l element of the primary f a b u l a event. The c o n v e r s a t i o n s are presented through i n d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e , a technique which b l u r s embedding and c r e a t e s what Mieke Bal c a l l s t e x t i n t e r f e r e n c e , d e f i n e d as i n t e r f e r e n c e between the embedded a c t o r ' s t e x t and the primary n a r r a t o r ' s t e x t ( B a l , 139-143). The nar-r a t o r i d e n t i f i e s each speaker and summarizes her s t a t e -ment, thus e x e m p l i f y i n g the c o n t r o l l i n g p o t e n t i a l of a n a r r a t o r to c r e a t e i r o n y , ambivalence or ambiguity. T h i s i s a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g y from t h a t used by Daphne M a r l a t t i n How Hug a Stone, but the e f f e c t i s s i m i l a r . In P i c t u r e Theory, the weaving together of p o i n t s of view, i n e v i t a b l e i n t e x t i n t e r f e r e n c e , i s a l s o a s t r a t e g y t o c r e a t e the m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e necessary f o r " l a p r a t i q u e c o l l e c t i v e de l ' e c a r t semantique."/64/ The round t a b l e d i s c u s s i o n s are the 222 model and t h e o c c a s i o n f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e i n t h e f e m i n i n e . The u s u a l t o p i c o f women's t r a j e c t o r y o u t o f p a t r i a r c h y m i r r o r s t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e book as a whole, and e n s u r e s t h a t t h e embedded t e x t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r g u m e n t a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n n a r r a t i v e ( B a l , 1 2 8 ) . Nous e t i o n s a s s i s e s a u t o u r de l a t a b l e . D a n i e l e J u d i t h d i s a i t que l e m a t r i a r c a t e s t un mot d ' a n t h r o p o l o g i e e t q u ' i l ne p e u t pas §tre u t i l i s e d'une m a n i e r e c o n t e m p o r a i n e pour e x e r c i s e r l e p a t r i a r c a t . Ce mot ne p o u v a i t non p l u s s e r v i r a e l a b o r e r q u e l q u e u t o p i e q u i a u r a i t r e n d u l e s femmes a l e u r g e n r e . Je d i s a i s , a v e c dans l a bouche un g o u t de s e l , a p r o p o s de 1 ' u t o p i e en commenjant p a r l e mot femme que l ' u t o p i e n ' a l l a i t pas a s s u r e r n o t r e i n s e r t i o n dans l a r e a l i t e mais qu'un t e m o i g n a g e u t o p i q u e de n o t r e p a r t p o u v a i t s t i m u l e r en nous une q u a l i t e d ' A m o t i o n p r o p i c e a n o t r e i n s e r t i o n dans l ' h i s t o i r e . A v a n t que C l a i r e D e r i v e p a r l e d ' a b s t r a c t i o n , j ' a j o u t a i s que nous d e v i o n s s o c i a l i s e r nos e n e r g i e s de m a n i e r e a n'en §tre p o i n t v i c t i m e s ou e n c o r e pour £viter que nos v e n t r e s s e u l s s o i e n t m e r i t o i r e s comme une v i r i l i t e m e n t a l e p o u v a n t s e r v i r p a r l a s u i t e a m e u r t r i r l e s c o r p s p e n s a n t . (PT, 85-86) The c h a r a c t e r s r e a c h f o r words and meanings w h i c h a r e adequate to a Utopian e x p e r i e n c e o u t s i d e t h e framework of p a t r i a r c h a l r e a l i t y and t h e r e f o r e without l a n g u a g e . The p r o c e s s i m p l i c a t e s a s p e a k i n g community w h i c h means and u n d e r s t a n d s from a f e m i n i s t or double p e r s p e c t i v e . M i c h e l e a r g u e s t h a t women's e n e r g i e s must be r e s o c i a l i z e d , and t h a t c a n n o t be i n i s o l a t i o n b u t must 223 involve the company of others who are doing the same. The passage i s s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l , r e f e r r i n g to and metonymically representing a discourse which i n t e r p e l -l a t e s such s u b j e c t i v i t i e s - i n - p r o c e s s . In order to e f f e c t the transformation of i n d i v i d u a l Utopian e x p e r i -ence i n t o a new symbolic and h i s t o r i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of gender, women must e s t a b l i s h a new l i b i d i n a l economy. The i d e a l point of departure f o r t h i s e n t e r p r i s e i s e x a c t l y where these characters are, around the t a b l e sharing language and energy. The r e p e t i t i o n of the phrase "nous et i o n s a s s i s e s autour de l a t a b l e " (PT, 80, 85, 89, 90, 93), with i t s feminine " a s s i s e s , " underlines the round t a b l e d i s c u s s i o n s as a motif i n the novel. C l a i r e Derive i d e n t i f i e s the f a c t of t h e i r v a c a t i o n as a s i g n . Nous etions a s s i s e s autour de l a t a b l e et C l a i r e Derive d i s a i t que de nous v o i r ensemble et i c i retrouvees au bord de l a mer, c'est un signe. Bien q u ' e l l e a f f i r m a i t que l e mot a b s t r a c t i o n se g l i s s e quelque part dans sa pensee, e l l e admettait pour l e moment q u ' i l l u i e t a i t d i f f i c i l e d ' e t a b l i r un l i e n d i r e c t entre l e f a i t d'etre c i n q femmes dans une l i e et l a notion meme de ce que peut §tre une a b s t r a c -t i o n . Oriana se mit a l o r s a p a r l e r du temps tout en cherchant ses mots en f r a n g a i s pour d i r e comment e l l e l ' l m a g i n a l t . E l l e d i t ne pas comprendre pour-quoi, chaque f o i s que des femmes sont r e u n i e s , dans l e s f i l m s par exemple, l e temps semble s ' a r r e t e r autour d ' e l l e s apres l e s a v o i r f i g e e s ou changees en statues de s e l chargees de symboles. Oriana, apres que Daniele J u d i t h l ' e u t interrompue pour d i r e 224 m a t r i a r c a t , c o n t i n u a i t s a d e s c r i p t i o n du temps et c h o i s i t de d i r e q u ' i l n*y a v a i t aucun i n t e r S t a l'imaginer e t e r n e l : "au c o n t r a i r e ce s e r a i t l a notre perte que d ' o u b l i e r l e s heures". Je v o u l a i s d i r e que l' e x t a s e e s t une r e a l i t e en s o i q ui rend l e temps e t e r n e l . C l a i r e Derive a f f i r m a i t q u ' i l ne f a l l a i t pas confondre l a n u i t des temps, l e temps p a t r i a r c a l et l ' e x t a s e car de c e t t e c o n f u s i o n n a i s s a i e n t des femmes suspendues e t immobiles dans 1'espace. (EI_, 80-81) The women seated together i n the house by the sea are a s i g n of s o c i a l change, s i g n i f y i n g t h a t the break from p a t r i a r c h a l meaning has been e f f e c t e d , and the second stage, the c r e a t i o n of the "vacance" to be f i l l e d with women's e n e r g i e s , i s i n prog r e s s . C l a i r e ' s i n t u i t i o n of an a b s t r a c t i o n r e f e r s to " 1 ' a b s t r a c t i o n v i t a l e " (PT, 72) of May 16, which i n t u r n opens i n t o the a b s t r a c t i o n through which women, as s u b j e c t s of language, " l a y c l a i m to u n i v e r s a l i t y . " / 6 5 / They d i s c u s s the r o l e of ec s t a c y i n improving the s t a t u s of women, an is s u e which i s d e a l t with i n the primary t e x t because i t i s c e n t r a l t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the hologram. Oriana's search f o r words t o express what she imagines c o r -responds t o the gradual c r e a t i o n of a screen s k i n s u f -f i c i e n t l y imbued with U t o p i a n elements t h a t i t w i l l i n t e r a c t with experience of e c s t a s y and produce the hologram. Her speech i s slowed by her t i e s t o the p a t r i a r c h a l world, even as she speaks i n the new tongue. 225 In speaking of the d e a t h l y e f f e c t of the p a t r i a r -c h a l gaze on the bodies of women, Oriana r e f e r s to the myths of Lot's wife and E u r y d i c e , each woman pa r a l y z e d by her husband's gaze. I have a l r e a d y shown t h a t these myths, r e w r i t t e n by Monique W i t t i g i n Le corps l e s b i e n , and woven i n t o the i n t e r t e x t u a l web by Brossard i n P i c -t ure Theory, are c e n t r a l to the l e s b i a n r e w r i t i n g of p a t r i a r c h a l mythology. The l e s b i a n i s abl e to lead her lo v e r out of h e l l -- u n l i k e the male l o v e r who betrays her and i n c o r p o r a t e s her death i n t o a r e l i g i o u s symbol-ogy. Oriana remembers and re p r e s e n t s the a n c i e n t b e t r a y a l ; she i s l e s s able to repr e s e n t the utopian p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the f a c t of f i v e women around the t a b l e on the i s l a n d suggests. Daniele i n t e r r u p t s her with the ta l i s m a n of matriarchy, a charm a g a i n s t the damage to the body and the imagination which i s sum-moned up by Oriana's speech. Both Michele and C l a i r e make programmatic i n t e r v e n -t i o n s . E c s t a s y i s pa r t of the U t o p i a n program; i t s tim e l e s s n e s s has nothing i n common with the t i m e l e s s -ness of women's non-being i n p a t r i a r c h a l systems, and p a t r i a r c h a l darkness has nothing i n common with n i g h t . I t i s by imagining that they are the same and thus i d e n t i f y i n g p l e a s u r e with a m a s o c h i s t i c a n n i h i l a t i o n by the f a t h e r , that women are destroyed: "de c e t t e confu-226 s i o n n a i s s a i e n t d es femmes s u s p e n d u e s e t i m m o b i l e s dans l ' e s p a c e " (PT, 8 1 ) . Women a r e p a r a l y z e d i n " l e temps p a t r i a r c a l , " b e t r a y e d , a s Mary D a l y a l s o p o i n t e d o u t , / 6 6 / by t h e i r m o t h e r s who i n i t i a t e them i n t o p a t r i a r c h a l law: Le temps p a t r i a r c a l ne s ' e s t - i l pas a r r 6 t e a u t o u r d ' e l l e s pour l e s c o n f o n d r e morbidement a l a f o l i e , a l a mort e t a l a s o u m i s s i o n . L a mere e s t p a r t o u t quand l e temps s ' a r r § t e , l a mere e s t p l e i n e de s e c r e t s q u i a n g o i s s e n t l e s f i l l e s l a i s s e e s a e l l e s -mSmes dans l e s r u i n e s p a t r i a r c a l e s : a u t o s , p n e u s , a s c e n s e u r s , m e t r o s , v e r r e s b r i s e s . L'Sme en r u i n e , 1 ' e s p r i t de l'homme ne p e u t p l u s se c o n c e v o i r a u t r e -ment qu'en p r o j e t a n t l a p e r t e de s a d e i t e dans l e s c o r p s a b s t r a i t s de q u e l q u e s femmes i s o l e m e n t r e u n i e s , l'clme en r u i n e s . I I y a l a un manque a i m a g i n e r q u i b i e n que n ' e t a n t pas n O t r e , nous a c c a b l e dans 1 ' e x e r c i c e meme de nos f o n c t i o n s m e n t a l e s . (PT, 81-82) C l a i r e h e r e s p e c i f i e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f f e m a l e i d e n t i t y i n t h e f a m i l y and t h e d e s t r u c t i v e l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t s t h a t i t h a s . She c l a r i f i e s f e m i n i s t t h e o r y w h i c h i l l u -m i n a t e s r e a l i t y . The n a r r a t o r t e s t i f i e s t o t h e s i g -n i f i c a n c e o f h e r s p e e c h : La v o i x de C l a i r e D e r i v e s ' e l e v a i t a v e c p a s s i o n dans l a g r a n d e s a l l e de b o i s . Des yeux, on a u r a i t d i t q u ' e l l e c i r c u l e c o n c r e t e m e n t d e p a r t a g e a n t de t o u t s o n c o r p s l e s formes du s a c r e e t du p r o f a n e . Pour l a p r e m i e r e f o i s , comme ce m a t i n d e v a n t l a mer, j e n ' a i pas peur d ' e n t e n d r e l e s mots d'une a u t r e femme, 1 ' e s p r i t de c o r p s c o n q u e r a n t l ' h o r i z o n . T o u t e l a 227 maison, f e n S t r e s ouvertes s ' e n s o l e i l l a i t . II e s t m i d i . (PJE, 82) In a d d i t i o n to the d i s c o u r s e s around the t a b l e , other embeddings c o n t a i n argumentative elements and c o n t r i b u t e to the r i c h n e s s of the t e x t . A fragment of Richard Wagner's Die Walkure serves as a footnote to Oriana's opera c a r e e r and presents a cornerstone of p a t r i a r c h a l myth: the d i s o b e d i e n t daughter i s i s o l a t e d and denied community by the f a t h e r : Wotan Did you not hear what I ordained? J ' a i e x c l u de v o t r e troupe l a soeur i n f i d e l e ; A c h e v a l avec vous e l l e ne t r a v e r s e r a p l u s l e s a i r s ; l a f l e u r v i r g i n a l e se fanera, un epoux gagnera ses faveurs de femme; desormais e l l e o b e i r a A son seigneur e t maftre, e t , a s s i s e devant son foyer f i l a n t l a q u e n o u i l l e , e l l e s e r a l a c i b l e et l ' o b j e t de toutes l e s moqueries. S i son s o r t vous e f f r a i e , a l o r s fuyez c e l l e qui e s t perdue! Ecartez-vous d ' e l l e et r e s t e z l o i n d ' e l l e . C e l l e d'entre vous qui o s e r a i t demeurer aupres d ' e l l e c e l l e qui me b r a v e r a i t , p r e n d r a i t l e p a r t i de l a m i s e r a b l e , c e t t e insensee p a r t a g e r a i t son s o r t : c e t t e temeraire d o i t l e s a v o i r ! / 6 7 / (PT_, 38) The embedded fragment c o n t r a s t s with Brossard's s t o r y of a c r e a t i v e community of women. I t i s a m i r r o r t e x t 228 which serves as a s i g n of the primary f a b u l a . "[T]he primary fabula and the embedded fabula can be para-phrased i n such a manner that both paraphrases have one or more elements i n common" ( B a l , 146). The outcast "temeraire" i s a r e b e l l i o u s woman and a common element with the main fabula of P i c t u r e Theory. Her punishment underlines the p o s i t i v e rewards enjoyed by the women i n P i c t u r e Theory, and introduces the motif of marriage as symbolic death. Concealed i n P i c t u r e Theory i s a new book, hologramme, which can be read as an embedded mirror t e x t s i g n i f y i n g the Utopian p o s s i b i l i t i e s concealed i n d a i l y l i f e ; the events of the f i r s t part of P i c t u r e  Theory are repeated on the l e v e l of the hologram which r e a l i z e s the p o t e n t i a l of "1'Ordinaire." hologramme transcends the f i c t i o n of the novel at the same time that i t takes up the elements of that f i c t i o n and uses them to create a language which a f f i r m s and moves f o r -ward the Utopian experience which the f i c t i o n e n f o l d s . The reenactment of a t e x t w i t h i n a t e x t i s a technique which Brossard has explored i n french k i s s, 7 6 8 / Le  desert mauve and Avlva. As signs of the primary t e x t s , the transformed/mirror t e x t s are not i n t e r p r e t e d by f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s , but by the reader who i s the r e c i p i e n t of what Bal c a l l s t h e i r " s i g n i f i c a n c e enhanc-ing f u n c t i o n " ( B a l , 147). 229 I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y I opened t h i s a n a l y s i s of P i c t u r e Theory with the argument t h a t the events themselves must be read i n t e r -t e x t u a l l y . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t h e r e f o r e to c l o s e i t with f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n of the i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y of the n o v e l . L o r r a i n e Weir has brought to l i g h t the Joyce/ Brossard i n t e r t e x t , showing the complex p l a y which l i n k s Brossard's " n u i t p a r f a i t e " with Bloom's wander-ings through the Dublin n i g h t i n Joyce's U l y s s e s . She p o i n t s out t h a t "La Pensee" p r e s e n t s : a s e r i e s of v i r t u o s o i n v e n t i o n s of Joycean themes and e l a b o r a t i o n s on the major t o p o i of the n o v e l . Joyce's 'Mother dying come home f a t h e r ' (James Joyce, U l y s s e s [Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968], 47) becomes 'MOTHER SICK - STAYING IN NEW YORK - WILL WRITE - LOVE - CLAIRE' (105), and the l a s t sentence of Joyce's "The Dead" ("His s o u l swooned s l o w l y as he heard the snow f a l l i n g f a i n t l y through the u n i v e r s e and f a i n t l y f a l l i n g , l i k e the descent of t h e i r l a s t end, upon a l l the l i v i n g and the dead' (James Joyce, D u b l l n e r s (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1956], 220) i s condensed i n t o 'Dehors i l neige sur toute l'6tendue de l a langue' (117). The image of the s p i r a l , used throughout the novel to denote both the e n t r y i n t o the vagina and the passage of l i g h t i n the hologram, here mutates i n t o the chambered n a u t i l u s and i t s Joycean epigram, 'un sexe de femme c ' e s t mathematique 1 (118), otherwise rendered i n U l y s s e s as 'Musemathematics' ( U l y s s e s , 227) and i n Finnegans Wake, ' e t e r n a l geomater.' (James Joyces, Finnegans Wake [New York: V i k i n g , 1959], 296-297) ./69/ 230 Weir a l s o i l l u m i n a t e s Brossard's t r a n s f e r e n c e of the t e x t s of Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n . / 7 0 / Other important i n t e r t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s remain to be e x p l o r e d , i n c l u d i n g those with Gertrude S t e i n ' s Tender Buttons, Michele Causse's Lesbiana, and other t e x t s c i t e d by Brossard i n the "Notes" to P i c t u r e Theory (PT, 211). My own a n a l y s i s focusses on i n t e r t e x t u a l l i n k s between P i c t u r e Theory and Djuna Barnes' Nlghtwood, Dante A l i g h i e r i ' s La d i v l n a commedla, and the oeuvre of Moni-que W i t t i g . P i c t u r e Theory i s a masterpiece of i n t e r t e x t u a l weaving. The elements of t e x t u a l systems always have a context and an e a r l i e r l i f e , and s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n any e n u n c i a t i o n correspond to the galaxy of p o s i t i o n s made a v a i l a b l e f o r s u b j e c t s i n other t e x t s . What i s remarkable i n P i c t u r e Theory i s the q u a l i t y and the depth of the i n t e r t e x t u a l net, which captures the magnitude and beauty of western c u l t u r e while c r i t i c i z -i ng i t and g i v i n g precedence to l e s b i a n l i t e r a r y t r a d i -t i o n . P i c t u r e Theory a l s o foregrounds the i n t e r t e x t u a l p rocess, thus acknowledging a world which b u i l d s on the work of others and i s fundamentally and h i s t o r i c a l l y c o l l e c t i v e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r i n r e l a t i o n to the work of Djuna Barnes. W r i t i n g i n a l e s b i a n t r a d i t i o n p e r p e t u a l l y threatened by i n v i s i b i l i t y , Brossard s p e c i f i e s i n the 231 "Notes" to P i c t u r e Theory, t h a t "Toutes l e s c i t a t i o n s du L i v r e Un sont empruntees a Nlghtwood de Djuna Barnes" (PJT_, 211). In Barnes' 1936 n o v e l , the c h a r a c -t e r s i n s c r i b e a downward and darkening s p i r a l which ends i n d e g r a d a t i o n and d e s p a i r . Brossard r e p l a c e s the s e l f - h a t r e d which d e f e a t s Barnes' c h a r a c t e r s with the love and f r i e n d s h i p of P i c t u r e Theory. In "La Perspec-t i v e , " Brossard's t e x t r e c o n t e x t u a l i z e s a s e r i e s of passages from Nightwood. The f i r s t i s t h a t of " l e p l u s etrange s a l o n d'Amerique" (PT, 52). In Nlghtwood, t h i s s a l o n i s the American house of the h e i r e s s and l e s b i a n l o v e r , Nora F l o o d . The s t r a n g e s t " s a l o n " i n America was Nora's. Her house was couched i n the c e n t r e of a mass of t a n g l e d grass and weeds. . . . I t was the "paupers" s a l o n f o r poets, r a d i c a l s , beggars, a r t i s t s , and people i n l o v e ; f o r C a t h o l i c s , P r o t e s t a n t s , Brahmins, dabblers i n black magic and medicine; a l l these c o u l d be seen s i t t i n g about her oak t a b l e before the huge f i r e , Nora l i s t e n i n g , her hand on her hound, the f i r e l i g h t throwing her shadow and h i s high a g a i n s t the w a l l . Of a l l t h a t r a n t i n g , r o a r i n g crew, she alone stood out./71/ Nora's house i n the weeds becomes C l a i r e ' s house on the sea i s l a n d , and the " r a n t i n g , r o a r i n g crew" a company of like-minded women, who provide f o r each other a q u a l i t y of companionship which Nora Flood t r a g i c a l l y l a c k s . 232 O t h e r p h r a s e s from Nightwood w h i c h t r a n s f e r i n t a c t t o B r o s s a r d ' s f i c t i o n a r e "une f i e v r e m e t h o d i q u e " (PT, 52 ) , / 7 2 / "avec au c o e u r une c r i s p a t i o n s i p a s s i o n n e e / q u ' e l l e r e n d a i t l e s e p t i e m e j o u r i mmediat" (PT, 6 3 ) , / 7 3 / and " e c a r t e e de l a mort . . . de s u c c e s s i f s b r a s de femmes (PT, 6 6 ) . / 7 4 / une p h r a s e p r e s q u e c o m p l e t e e l l e p a r l e d ' e c l i p s e s e t de r e l a i s c i t e un p a s s a g e e t j e m'ouvre ou e l l e v e u t en v e n i r a l a s o u r c e o s c i l l e chaque f o i s t e x t u e l l e en p a r a l l e l e j ' e t a i s c o n f r o n t e e " e c a r t e e de l a m o r t " dans 1 ' o v a l e du m i r o i r "de s u c c e s s i f s b r a s de femmes" au s e u i l au s o l r e c u e i l l a i e n t mon s o u f f l e l a - b a s i g n e mon c o r p s t r o u v a i t a se d e p l a c e r j u s q u ' i c i (PT, 66) In r e c o n t e x t u a l i z i n g t h e s e p a s s a g e s , B r o s s a r d i n c o r -p o r a t e s Djuna B a r n e s 1 f i c t i o n i n t o t h e e c s t a s y o f " l a . s c e n e b l a n c h e . " She t h u s t r a n s f o r m s i n t o a t r i u m p h a n t f o r m u l a an e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h i n B a r n e s s i g n i f i e s N ora F l o o d ' s d e s p a i r a t t h e moment t h a t she abandons hope i n h e r l e s b i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p : [ Nora] c l o s e d h e r e y e s , and a t t h a t moment she knew an a w f u l h a p p i n e s s . R o b i n , l i k e s o m e t h i n g dormant, was p r o t e c t e d , moved o u t o f d e a t h ' s way by t h e s u c -c e s s i v e arms o f women; b u t as she c l o s e d h e r e y e s , Nora s a i d "Ah!" w i t h t h e i n t o l e r a b l e a u t o m a t i s m o f t h e l a s t "Ah!" i n a body s t r u c k a t t h e moment o f i t s f i n a l b r e a t h . / 7 5 / 233 In P i c t u r e Theory Brossard rereads Nightvood, f o l l o w i n g the f i c t i o n i n c e r t a i n d e t a i l s , such as Nora's dream t h a t her house was once her grandmother's,/76/ while r a d i c a l l y changing the outcome. Where Barnes' charac-t e r s descend i n t o the n i g h t , the women i n P i c t u r e  Theory s p i r a l i n t o the dawn of par a d i s e and of h i s t o r y . Barnes' l e s b i a n c h a r a c t e r s are unable to communicate with each other; i n P i c t u r e Theory they are s k i l l e d i n communication. Nightwood's Dr. Mathew-Mighty-grain-of-salt-Dante-O'Connor, whose wisdom d e r i v e s from h i s being "dead i n the beginning,"/77/ i s transformed i n t o the " t r a v e s t i " whom the women encounter i n the n i g h t . He c r a c k l e s l i k e a machine: "I speak because I am dead. I speak because I want to r e p l y to words" (£T_, 99). I t i s the women who have a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e r e l a t i o n to the body of language. In Nightwood, Robin i s the beloved through whom the world comes to an end; C l a i r e i s the beloved through whom a l l t h i n g s are p o s s i b l e . F i n a l l y , and not l e a s t , the nightwood i n which Robin and Nora are e v e n t u a l l y and i r r e m e d i a b l y l o s t i s transformed i n t o " l a f o r e t " of "La P e r s p e c t i v e " (PT, 57, 58, 59, 63, 71), the f o r e s t e d landscape of the i s l a n d and the body of a beloved woman. Brossard's f o r e s t i n tu r n 234 r e c a l l s t h a t wood i n which Dante, l o s t i n the middle of h i s l i f e , "came to h i m s e l f . " / 7 8 / Dante's La d i v i n a commedla i l l u m i n a t e s the i n t e r -t e x t u a l c r e a t i o n of a new symbolic which i s a t stake here. Four Dantesgue m o t i f s are transformed i n t o e l e -ments of Brossard*s P i c t u r e Theory: the f o r e s t , the beloved guide, the r i v e r of l i g h t , and the c e l e s t i a l r o s e . The f o r e s t , as Mieke Bal p o i n t s out, i s an over-determined image i n any n a r r a t i v e : "The hero of a f a i r y t a l e has to t r a v e r s e a dark f o r e s t to prove h i s courage. So there i s a f o r e s t " ( B a l , 96). The f o r e s t i s the matrix or female ground on which the hero's a c t i o n i s i n s c r i b e d . For Dante, the f o r e s t i s femi-nine, una s e l v a , and savage, harsh and dense. N e l l mezzo d e l cammin d i n o s t r a v i t a mi r i t r o v a i per una s e l v a oscura che l a d i r i t t a v i a era s m a r r i t a . Ah quanto a d i r qual era e cosa dura e s t a s e l v a s e l v a g g i a e aspra e f o r t e che n e l p e n s i e r r i n o v a l a paura! Tant' e amara che poco e p i u morte; In the middle of the journey of our l i f e , I came to myself w i t h i n a dark wood where the s t r a i g h t way was l o s t . Ah! how hard a t h i n g i t i s to t e l l of t h a t wood, savage and harsh and dense, the thought of which renews my f e a r ! So b i t t e r i s i t t h a t death i s h a r d l y more./79/ 235 Dante i s guided out of t h i s dark wood by h i s f i r s t guide, the poet V i r g i l . Brossard's t e x t redeems the sublime of Dante's world as a v i s i o n f o r women as sub-j e c t s . Brossard's f o r e s t i s feminine a l s o , but " l a f o r f i t " i s c e l e b r a t e d and passage through i t marks the end of p a t r i a r c h a l n i g h t . In "La P e r s p e c t i v e , " the passage t h r o u g h the f o r e s t binds the love-making o f Michele and C l a i r e t o the U t o p i a n gesture of the primary event and to the h i s t o r i c a l / c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . In both La d i v i n a  commedla and Nlghtwood the f o r e s t s i g n i f i e s darkness, but Brossard transforms i t i n t o a motif f o r the body of the beloved: dark and l i g h t , l i v i n g and i n i t i a t o r y . C l a i r e Derive p e n s a l t & l a f o r e t guand e l l e p r e n a i t des mots e n t r e s ses l e v r e s ma langue qui l u i a l l a i t r e e l l e m e n t comme une peau f a i s a i t en s o r t e que mon corps s o i t legerement vdtu devant e l l e pour que sa bouche entame d ' i n s t i n c t de memoire, corps a son ultime qui n'epargne jamais l e f u t u r e e t l a r e a l i t e qu s'en va (EX, 57) C l a i r e Derive s a v a i t mourir entre l e s jambes d'une femme "ecartee de l a mort" dans l a f o r S t t r a v e r s e e de l a q u e l l e s o r t a i t une femme casquee, au matin c l a i r chaque f o i s p l u s nombreuse en a l l e e a l a source C l a i r e Derive pour qu'entre mes jambes l a j o i e l'inonde (EX, 58) de mes pensees, casquee d'une c e r t i t u d e l e s c o n t i n e n t s a f f l u e n t , i l m'incombe maintenant 236 d ' a v o i r une idee, une seule redoublee de l ' e n e r g i e meme pour de pas e t r e epargnee t r a v e r s a n t l ' o u b l i e l a f o r e t jusqu'A l a mer (EX, 59) C l a i r e Derive e s t entree dans l a f o r e t e t l e s songes emportee par l a v i s i o n du temps qui s'ecoule entre ses l e v r e s e l l e entend l a p l u i e q ui danse sur son casque e l l e t r a v e r s e l a f o r e t r u i s s e l a n t e et determinee comme l ' e s t sa bouche C l a i r e Derive e s t dans l a rosee 1'horizon, a l l o n g ^ e entre mes c u i s s e s (EX, 71) Brossard's c h a r a c t e r s are not l o s t i n the f o r e s t but t r a v e r s e i t "jusqu'a l a mer," which i s the d i v i d i n g l i n e between p a t r i a r c h a l and woman-centred r e a l i t y . T h i s watery landscape, "au matin c l a i r , " of " f o r e t r u i s s e l a n t e , " " l a rosee," and " l a p l u i e q u i danse sur son casque," i s an imaginative opening out of the body of the beloved to produce a new world and new l i f e , a v i t a nuova, i n which h e r o i c a c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e f o r women. The r e d e f i n e d terms transcend the b i n a r y oppo-s i t e s of l i g h t , dark, e v i l and good. Brossard's C l a i r e moves h e r o i c a l l y , wearing the helmet of Athena, i n t o a f o r e s t which i s an e r o t i c , l i v i n g p l a c e . In using the overdetermined and gender-determined motif of the f o r e s t i n a l e s b i a n context which r e f u s e s b i n a r y gender d e f i n i t i o n , Brossard r e d e f i n e s both the h e r o i c s and the ground. 237 C l a i r e i s the beloved guide who r e p l a c e s both B e a t r i c e and V i r g i l . L i k e V i r g i l , she e n t e r s the f o r e s t ; l i k e B e a t r i c e , she guides the poet i n t o para-d i s e . C l a i r e ' s i d e n t i t y as guide and as l i g h t p a r a l -l e l s t h a t of B e a t r i c e : "0 i s p l e n d o r d i v i v a luce e t t e r n a , " "Oh splendour of l i v i n g l i g h t e t e r n a l , " i n Dante's f i n a l apostrophe to her i n Canto 31 of the P u r g a t o r l o . / 8 0 / The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the poet and the beloved guide i s a l s o foregrounded i n Monique Wit-t i g ' s f e m i n i s t r e v i s i o n of Dante's voyage through the i n f e r n o , purgatory and p a r a d i s e . V i r g i l e Non focusses on the guide/poet d i a l e c t i c by a d d r e s s i n g "Manastabal, mon guide," on almost every page. Manastabal a l s o addresses W i t t i g by name: "(Ne te casse pas, W i t t i g . Ce sont tous des raodeles demodes ou en v o l e de l ' d t r e avant mSme d ' a r r i v e r k d e s t i n a t i o n . Et e l l e s l e savent.)/81/ V i r g i l e , Non i s W i t t i g ' s most re c e n t and most Dantesque reworking of the guide m o t i f , but the motif i t s e l f i s e q u a l l y c r i t i c a l i n Le corps l e s b i e n , where, as I have a l r e a d y noted, W i t t i g r e w r i t e s E u r y d i c e ' s voyage out of the underworld. Dans c e t t e gehenne doree adoree n o i r e f a i s t e s adieux m/a t r e s b e l l e m/a t r e s f o r t e m/a t r e s indomptable m/a t r e s savante m/a t r e s f e r o c e m/a t r e s douce m/a p l u s aimee /82/ 238 In Le corps l e s b i e n , as i n La d i v i n a commedia, the guide i s the beloved; the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the guide and the guided i s the a x i s around which W i t t i g c o n s t r u c t s a mythology to express the freedom of women r e l e a s e d from an underworld of non-being i n t o l i f e as whole s u b j e c t s . W i t t i g ' s n a r r a t o r watches the back of her l o v e r who does not t u r n around but i n s t e a d accomplishes the unprecedented ( f o r a woman) s u c c e s s f u l e x i t from h e l l . J/e t a i r a i ton nom ador a b l e . T e l e s t l ' i n t e r d i t q u i m//a ete f a i t , a i n s i s o i t - i l . J/e d i r a i s e u l e -ment comment t u v i e n s m/e chercher jusqu'au fond de l ' e n f e r . Tu t r a v e r s e s a l a nage l a r i v i e r e aux eaux boueuses sans redouter . . . . J/e v o l s ton l a r g e dos l'un ou 1'autre de tes s e i n s quand tes mouve-ments te montrent de p r o f i l . . . . t u m//entraines jusqu'a l a s u r f a c e ou l e s o l e i l e s t v i s i b l e . C'est l a seulement l a au d6bouche vers l e s arb r e s et l a f o r e t que d'un bond t u m/e f a i s face et c ' e s t v r a i qu'en regardant t es yeux, j/e r e s s u s c i t e a une V i t e s s e p r o d i g i e u s e . / 8 3 / W i t t i g ' s oeuvre again has a f f i n i t i e s with B r o s s a r d ' s . In "La P e r s p e c t i v e , " Brossard r e c a l l s W i t t i g ' s r e w r i t -ing of the underworld voyage of Orpheus and E u r y d i c e . The "dos adoree" (ET, 51) of Brossard's " h a l l d'entree" rhymes with W i t t i g ' s guide's h e r o i c back, seen "de p r o f i l " (PJL, 88). The "g^henne doree adoree" of W i t t i g ' s h e l l sug-g e s t s both the my t h i c a l and c h t h o n i c r i c h e s of the 239 u n d e r w o r l d o f P e r s e p h o n e ' s a b d u c t o r , and t h e g i l d e d g h e t t o o f D j u n a B a r n e s ' N i q h t w o o d . I n e i t h e r c a s e , B r o s s a r d t r a n s f o r m s t h e p l a c e i n t o a r i t e o f p a s s a g e , a " h a l l d ' e n t r e e " (a b i l i n g u a l pun becomes a p p a r e n t h e r e ) , w h i c h M i c h e l e and C l a i r e a r e a l w a y s l e a v i n g b e h i n d . j ' e s q u i s s e un g e s t e de l a m a i n p o u r d i r e en v o y a n t l e t a b l e a u l a s t e l e g r i s e d ' i l l u s i o n , de p e r s p e c t i v e s o n dos momentanement l o r s q u e nous q u i t t o n s l e h a l l d ' e n t r e e d e v a n t l e t a b l e a u e l l e s e t o u r n e , j e s u i s un r e l a i s l ' i n t r i q u e s i j e d e s i r e C l a i r e D e r i v e d e m a n d a i t h o r s - t e x t e s i o r t e l e s t l e mouvement de l a ma i n quand d e s d o i g t s e l l e t o u c h a i t l e l i v r e a g i t e e e t me r e g a r d a i t f e i n d r e l a d o u l e u r q u ' e f f e c t i v e m e n t l a s t e l e , l a t o i l e , t i s s u bl§me a l o r s C l a i r e D e r i v e s ' e s q u i v a i t dos a d o r e (PT, 51) I n P i c t u r e T h e o r y , t h e p a s s a g e o u t o f h e l l i s an e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e B r o s s a r d i a n u t o p i a . V i r g i l e , Non end s w i t h a v i s i o n o f P a r a d i s e : a n g e l s on m o t o r c y c l e s a r r i v e and p u t on an open a i r b a n q u e t . Des a n g e s p a s s e n t a p r e s e n t p o r t a n t s u r l e u r s e p a u l e s d e s p a n i e r s e t d e s c a i s s e s de f r u i t s . E l l e s l e s d i s p o s e n t e n s u i t e au c e n t r e de l a c o u r d a n s d e s e n t a s s e m e n t s g e o m e t r i q u e s . I I y a d e s c e r i s e s , d e s f r a i s e s , d e s f r a m b o i s e s , d e s a b r i c o t s , d e s p§ches, d e s p r u n e s , d e s t o m a t e s , d e s a v o c a t s , d e s m e l o n s v e r t s , d e s c a n t a l o u p s , d e s p a s t e q u e s , d e s c i t r o n s , d e s o r a n g e s , d e s p a p a y e s , d e s a n a n a s e t d e s n o i x de 240 coco. A un moment donne, un cher u b i n s e i n s nus, sonne l a trompette pour annoncer que t o u t e s t p r e t pour l a c u i s i n e des anges./84/ W i t t i g and Manastabal e x i t from h e l l i n t o an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . Le corps l e s b i e n ends with a f r a g i l e r e a l i t y i n which the body may s t i l l f a l l a p a r t a t any time. P i c t u r e Theory, however, l i k e La d i v i n a commedia. ends with a v i s i o n which i s transcendent. Dante's p a r a d i s e i s t h a t of the ros e , the r i v e r of l i g h t , and the l i g h t of i n t e l l e c t u a l l o v e : E v i d i lume i n forma d i r i v e r a f u l v i d o d i f u l g o r e , i n t r a due r i v e d i p i n t e d i m i r a b i l primavera. Di t a l fiumana u s c i a n f a v i l l e v i v e , e d'ogni parte s i mettlen ne• f i o r i , q u asi r u b i n che oro c i r c u n s c r i v e . P o i , come i n e b r i a t e d a l l i o d o r i , r i p r o f o n d a v a n se n e l miro gurge; e s'una i n t r a v a , u n ' a l t r a n ' u s c l a f o r i . And I saw l i g h t i n the form of a r i v e r p o uring i t s splendour between two banks p a i n t e d with marvellous s p r i n g . From t h a t t o r r e n t came f o r t h l i v i n g sparks and they s e t t l e d on the flowers on e i t h e r s i d e , l i k e r u b i e s s e t i n g o l d ; then, as i f i n t o x i c a t e d with the odours, they plunged again i n t o the wondrous f l o o d , and as one entered another came f o r t h . / 8 5 / The v i s i o n of the r i v e r of l i g h t i s transformed i n t o t h a t of the heavenly r o s e , " r i s i n g above the l i g h t a l l round i n more than a thousand t i e r s . . . . the e t e r n a l r o s e , which expands and r i s e s i n ranks and exhales 241 odours of p r a i s e to the Sun t h a t makes p e r p e t u a l s p r i n g . " / 8 6 / Dante's P a r a d i s e , made p o s s i b l e by h i s love f o r B e a t r i c e , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v i s i o n u n l i m i t e d by space and time,/87/ and the l i g h t of i n t e l l e c t u a l l o v e : con a t t o e voce d i s p e d i t o duce r l c o m i n c i d : 'Noi siamo u s c i t i f o re d e l maggior corpo a l c i e l ch'e pura l u c e : luce i n t e l l e t t u a l , piena d'amore; amor d i vero ben, pl e n de l e t i z i a ; l e t i z i a che trascende ogni d o l z o r e . • • • • Come s u b i t o lampo che d i s c e t t i l i s p i r i t i v i s i v i , s i che p r i v a d a l l ' a t t o l ' o c c h i o d i p i u f o r t i o b i e t t i , c o s i mi c i r c u n f u l s e luce v i v a ; e lasciommi f a s c i a t o d i t a l v e l o d e l suo f u l g o r , che n u l l a m'appariva. [Slhe began again with the v o i c e and be a r i n g of a guide whose task i s done: 'We have come f o r t h from the g r e a t e s t body to the heaven t h a t i s pure l i g h t , — l i g h t i n t e l l e c t u a l f u l l of l o v e , love of true good f u l l of joy, joy t h a t surpasses every sweet-ness. . . .' L i k e sudden l i g h t n i n g t h a t s c a t t e r s the v i s u a l s p i r i t s and d e p r i v e s the eye of the a c t i o n of the c l e a r e s t o b j e c t s , a v i v i d l i g h t shone round about me and l e f t me so swathed i n the v e i l of i t s e f f u l g e n c e t h a t nothing was v i s i b l e to me./88/ In h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of P a r a d i s e , Dante sought to express the i n e x p r e s s i b l e ; "by the s u c c e s s i v e stages of h i s imagery, he s t r i v e s to s e t the u l t i m a t e r e a l t i e s of the s p i r i t apart from a l l l e s s e r experience."/89/ "Dante suggests by s e n s i b l e imagery the c o n d i t i o n s of a super-s e n s i b l e world . . . . Sound and l i g h t have been the 242 main i n g r e d i e n t s of h i s marvellous e f f e c t s . . . he achieves . . . the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a world beyond the p e r c e p t i o n s of sense."/90/ In w r i t i n g of u t o p i a , N i c o l e Brossard l i k e w i s e gestures towards what cannot be expressed because i t l i e s beyond the range of our c u r r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s : de f a i r e s u r g l r c e t t e dimension autre qui etonne soudain l e s l e v r e s au nom de l a b r u l u r e echapper a toute c a t e g o r i e n i a n t l'espace m@me et t o u j o u r s f l u i d e de 1 ' i n s t a n t ( E l , 53) Dante's r i v e r of l i g h t becomes C l a i r e ' s gaze which inundates the scene with l i g h t (PT, 60): C l a i r e Derive e s t i n v i s i b l e quand e l l e  inonde l a scene de son regard et q u ' e l l e bouae lentement devant moi. leaerement dang l a blanche m a t i n g , C l a i r e Derive e s t l'onde e t l'espace l a memoire m i r o i -tante que 1'entends comme un sens en l i b e r t y (EZ, 72) L i k e Dante's P a r a d i s e , Brossard's u t o p i a opens with an e a r t h l y dawn which i s r e l a t e d to the appearance of a rose and an a n g e l : dans l a c l a r t e , prfite a commencer l e s gestes i n v i s i b l e s q u i nous l i e n t , une l e c t u r e a t t e n t i v e pousse l e s corps a a g i r 243 /posture aerienne l'apparence d'une rose double dans l a c l a r t e mortellement touchee ou t r a v e r s e l e s a v o i r s i l'ange s ' o f f r e a l a r e f l e x i o n dans l a lumiere m i r o i r ardent. (ET, 53) "La P e r s p e c t i v e " renders Dante's Paradise as the hologram/love scene: J ' e t a l s l ' 6 n e r g l e sans f i n , l a s e n s a t i o n  de l ' i d 6 e , 1 ' e t a i s dans 1'expression de  1'utopie une femme touchee par l'appa- rence d'une r o s e . J ' e t a i s ce matin du 16  mai f avec C l a i r e D e r i v e , exposee a 1 'abstffaptipn vUaie (E3L, 72) "La P e r s p e c t i v e " c l o s e s with t h i s glimpse of u t o p i a which r e t u r n s to a kind of o r i g i n with the c l o s i n g words, " 1 ' a b s t r a c t i o n v i t a l e . " T h i s e x p r e s s i o n evokes the p r o j e c t of P i c t u r e Theory as i t i s a r t i c u l a t e d i n "L'Emotion": C l a i r e Derive d i s a i t : a. l a source de chaque emotion, i l y a une a b s t r a c t i o n dont l ' e f f e t e s t l'emotion mais dont l e s consequences d e r i v e n t l a f i x i t e du regard e t des id e e s . Chaque a b s t r a c t i o n e s t une forme p o t e n t i e l l e dans l'espace mental. Et quand 1 ' a b s t r a c t i o n prend forme, e l l e s ' i n s c r i t r a d i c a l e -ment comme enigme et a f f i r m a t i o n . A v o i r recours A 1 ' a b s t r a c t i o n e s t une n e c e s s i t e pour c e l l e q u i f a i t l e p r o j e c t , tentee par 1'existence, de t r a v e r s e r l e s anecdotes q u o t i d i e n n e s e t l e s memoires d'utopie q u ' e l l e rencontre A chaque usage de l a p a r o l e . J ' a i 244 t e n t e un jour de co n q u e r i r l a r e a l i t e , de l a rendre p l a u s i b l e . (PJZL, 89) In P i c t u r e Theory, u t o p l a p a r a d o x i c a l l y transcends r e a l i t y while c r e a t i n g another r e a l i t y i n which women, as h i s t o r i c a l s u b j e c t s and s u b j e c t s of language, gener-ate meaning "au f e m i n i n . " Utopia i s not an i s o l a t e d a c t of imagination, but a c o l l e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which i n v o l v e s not only l i v i n g women and men, but the c u l t u r a l palimpsest on which our i d e n t i t i e s as human beings are w r i t t e n . In b r i n g i n g forward the r i c h n e s s of h i s t o r y , Brossard s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a l e r t s us to the untapped p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the b r a i n , the body, l a n -guage and c u l t u r e . 2HS N o t e s / l / W e i r , 345. /2/ W e i r , 346. /3/ W e i r , 349. /4/ W e i r , 351. /5/ W e i r , 347. /6/ B r o s s a r d , "De r a d i c a l a i n t e g r a l e s , " 96. /!/ N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , L'Amer ou l e c h a p i t r e e f f r i t e ( M o n t r e a l : Q u i n z e , 1 9 7 7 ) . /8/ Susan Gubar, " S a p p h i s t r i e s , " The L e s b i a n  I s s u e : E s s a y s from S i g n s , e d . E s t e l l e Freedman e t . a l . ( C h i c a g o : U n i v . o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1982), 95. C o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Sappho i s n o t , of c o u r s e , s o l e l y t h e domain o f women w r i t e r s . See D a v i d R o b i n s o n , Sappho  and Her I n f l u e n c e (New Y o r k : Cooper S q u a r e , 1 9 6 3 ) . Among C a n a d i a n s , B l i s s Carman i s p e r h a p s most n o t e w o r t h y . See B l i s s Carman, V i s i o n of Sappho (New Y o r k ? : B l i s s Carman, 1 9 0 3 ) , and Sappho: One Hundred  L y r i c s ( London: C h a t t o & Windus, 1 9 2 1 ) . / 9 / Gubar, 95. /10/ V i r g i n i a W o o l f , r e s p o n d i n g t o " A f f a b l e Hawk's" r e v i e w of A r n o l d B e n n e t ' s Our Women and O t t o W e i n i n g e r ' s Sex and C h a r a c t e r , The New S t a t e s m a n (London, O c t . 9, 1920) ; c i t e d i n Gubar, 93. / I I / Namascar S h a k t i n i , " D i s p l a c i n g t h e P h a l l i c S u b j e c t : W i t t i g ' s L e s b i a n W r i t i n g , " The L e s b i a n I s s u e , 137-152. /12/ "Companion l o v e r s " i s t h e t e r m c h o s e n by Monique W i t t i g and Sande Z e i g t o t r a n s l a t e "amantes" i n L e s b i a n P e o p l e s : M a t e r i a l s f o r a D i c t i o n a r y . /13/ "We know l e s s a b o u t t h e s e x u a l l i f e o f l i t t l e g i r l s t h a n o f b o y s . But we need n o t f e e l ashamed o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n ; a f t e r a l l , t h e s e x u a l l i f e o f a d u l t women i s a 'dark c o n t i n e n t ' ( E n g l i s h i n o r i g i n a l ) f o r p s y c h o l o g y . " The S t a n d a r d E d i t i o n o f t h e Complete  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Works of Sigmund F r e u d , t r a n s . James S t r a c h e y i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Anna F r e u d (London: 246 H o g a r t h , 1 9 5 9 ) , 20, 212. See a l s o F r e u d , "On F e m i -n i n i t y , " The S t a n d a r d E d i t i o n ( 1 9 6 4 ) , 22, 112-135. C f . a l s o D o n a l d S t e p h e n s ' f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e moderns' i n t e r e s t i n " t h e a m b i g u i t y o f Sappho's c h a r a c t e r ; t h o u g h [ h e r ] . . . age, t h e 'dark age o f G r e e c e , ' was condemned, f o r t h e p e r v e r s i o n s o f i t s women." D o n a l d S t e p h e n s , B l i s s Carman (New Y o r k : Twayne, 19 6 6 ) , 74. /14/ Monique W i t t i g , Le c o r p s l e s b i e n ( P a r i s : M i n u i t , 1 9 7 3 ) , 20. /15/ W i t t i g , L e s q u e r i l l e r e s , 180. /16/ N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , Amantes ( M o n t r e a l : Q u i n z e , 1980), 108. /17/ C f . H e l e n e C i x o u s : "The Dark C o n t i n e n t i s  n e i t h e r d a r k nor u n e x p l o r a b l e . -- I t i s s t i l l unex-p l o r e d o n l y b e c a u s e we've been made t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t was t o o d a r k t o be e x p l o r a b l e . And b e c a u s e t h e y want t o make us b e l i e v e t h a t what i n t e r e s t s us i s t h e w h i t e c o n t i n e n t , w i t h i t s monuments t o L a c k . T h e y r i v e t e d us between two h o r r i f y i n g myths: between t h e Medusa and th e a b y s s . T h a t would be enough t o s e t h a l f t h e w o r l d l a u g h i n g , e x c e p t t h a t i t ' s s t i l l g o i n g on." "The Laugh of t h e Medusa," t r a n s , by K e i t h Cohen and P a u l a Cohen, New F r e n c h F e m i n i s m s , e d s . E l a i n e Marks and I s a b e l l e de C o u r t i v r o n (New Y o r k : S c h o c k e n , 1981), 255. /18/ Amantes, 109. • /19/ S h a k t i n i , 146. /20/ See L o u i s e F o r s y t h ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f s p a c e , i n c l u d i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r s p a c e o f t h e i s l a n d , i n B r o s s a r d ' s work. L o u i s e F o r s y t h , " D e s t r u c t u r i n g f o r m a l s p a c e / a c c e l e r a t i n g m o t i o n i n t h e work o f N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , " A M a z i n g S p a c e , 334-344. /21/ Monique W i t t i g and Sande Z e i g , B r o u l l l o n pour  un d i c t i o n n a i r e des amantes, 131-132. /22/ Le P e t i t R o b e r t ( P a r i s : D i c t i o n n a i r e s R o b e r t , 1 9 8 7 ) . /23/ B r o s s a r d , "De r a d i c a l a i n t e g r a l e s , " 94. /24/ B r o s s a r d , "De r a d i c a l a i n t e g r a l e s , " 94. /25/ B r o s s a r d , "De r a d i c a l a i n t e g r a l e s , " 94. /26/ B r o s s a r d , "De r a d i c a l a i n t e g r a l e s , " 103. 247 /27/ Brossard, "De r a d i c a l a i n t e g r a l e s , " 103. /28/ Brossard, "De r a d i c a l a i n t e g r a l e s , " 103. /29/ Robert Graves, The Greek Myths (Harmonds-worth: Penguin, 1957), I I , 13. /30/ The Variorum E d i t i o n of the Poems of W. B.  Y e a t s f eds. Peter A l l t and R u s s e l l Alspach (New York: MacMillan, 1957), 402. /31/ From an a e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , v e r y d i s t a n t o b j e c t s appear blue . " P e r s p e c t i v e , " E n c y c l o p a e d i a  B r i t a n n i c a f Mlcropaedla, 1986. /32/ K a r l Pribram, Languages of the B r a i n :  Experimental Paradoxes and P r i n c i p l e s i n Neuropsychol-ogy (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1971), 140-149. /33/ Brossard, "De r a d i c a l A i n t e g r a l e s , " 97. /34/ Pribram, 27. /35/ Pribram, 8. /36/ Stephane Mallarmd, Un coup de des jamais  n ' a b o l l r a l e hasard (Neuchatel: M e s s e i l l e r , 1960). /37/ L o r r a i n e Weir p o i n t s to the importance of the love scene i n the n a r r a t i v e ' s quest s t r u c t u r e : "The f i r s t c hapter, 'La P e r s p e c t i v e , ' focuses on the e r o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p of C l a i r e Derive and the n a r r a t o r , extend-ing the fragmentary 'scenes blanche[s]'(20) of the f i r s t few pages i n t o a s e r i e s of paragraphs i n which syntax and punctuation are opened out (as they w i l l be r e p e a t e d l y throughout the novel) i n an e f f o r t to dev i s e a language t o express Brossard's u t o p i a . . . . Bros-sard's U t o p i a n v i s i o n ( i s ] enacted i n terms of the sex-u a l union of two women and of the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a phi l o s o p h y of h i s t o r y which i n s c r i b e s women on the f i e l d of l i g h t . " Weir, 346. /38/ The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the technology of the hologram i s taken from John H. C a u l f i e l d , "The Wonder of Holography," N a t i o n a l Geographic 165, 3 (March 1984), 364-377; Emmett N. L e i t h and J u r i s Upat-n i e k s , "Photography by L a s e r , " S c i e n t i f i c American, 212, 6 (June 1965), 24-35. /39/ L'Amer, 99. 248 /40/ Cf. F o r s y t h ' s summary of the topos of the c i t y i n Brossard's work. F o r s y t h , 337. /41/ Personal i n t e r v i e w with N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , June 8, 1988 ( E n g l i s h i n o r i g i n a l ) . /42/ N i c o l e Brossard, "Synchronie," La l e t t r e  a e r l e n n e , 82. /43/ N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , "Memoire: Hologramme du d e s i r , " La p a r o l e meteque, 7 (Automne, 1988), 6. /44/ Pribram, Chapter one. /45/ Pribram, 152. /46/ Pribram, 105. /47/ Pribram, 49. /48/ Pribram, 174. /49/ W i t t i g , MG, 6. /50/ Daphne M a r l a t t , Touch to my Tongue (Edmonton: Longspoon, 1984), 27. /51/ Anna L i v i a P l u r a b e l l e (PT, 105) i s "Joyce's . . . r e s o l u t i o n of a l l women i n the Wake." Weir, 350. /52/ Brossard, "De r a d i c a l A i n t e g r a l e s , " 100. /53/ Lotman, 164. /54/ Lotman, 168. /55/ Georges Sadoul, D i c t i o n n a i r e des f i l m s ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1976). The f i l m v e r s i o n of Blow Up i s based on the s h o r t s t o r y by J u l i o C o r t a z a r , Blow Up and  Other S t o r i e s , t r a n s . Paul Black (New York: C o l l i e r , 1968) . /56/ Le P e t i t Robert (Les d i c t i o n n a i r e s Robert-Canada, 1987). /57/ Weir, 351. /58/ Cf. N i c o l e Brossard, "La plaque tournante," La l e t t r e a e r i e n n e . 11-28. /59/ Benveniste, Chapter 18. 249 /60/ The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on p e r s p e c t i v e i s taken from John R. Spencer, " P a i n t i n g , The H i s t o r y of Western," En c y c o l p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , Macropaedia, 1986, and " P e r s p e c t i v e , " The Ency c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a .  M i cropaedia. 1986. /61/ Personal i n t e r v i e w with N i c o l e Brossard, June 8, 1988. /62/ M.M. Bakhtin, The D i a l o g i c Imagination, ed. Michael H o l q u i s t , t r a n s . C a r y l Emerson and Michael H o l q u i s t ( A u s t i n : Univ. of Texas, 1981), 62. /63/ Bakhtin, The D i a l o g i c Imagination. 68. /64/ Brossard, "De r a d i c a l A i n t e g r a l e s , " 90. /65/ W i t t i g , M£, 6. /66/ Mary Daly, Gvn/Ecologv: The Metaethics of  R a d i c a l Feminism (Boston: Beacon, 1978), Chapter 4. /67/ Richard Wagner, Die Walkure: e r s t e r tag aus  der t r i l o g i e : Der r i n g des Nibelungen (Mayenee: B. Schott's Sonne, 1882). /68/ N i c o l e Brossard, french k i s s : e t r e i n t e  / e x p l o r a t i o n (Montreal: Quinze/presence, 1974). /69/ Weir, 346. /70/ Weir, 348-349. /71/ Djuna Barnes, Nightwood (New York: New D i r e c -t i o n s , 1937), 50. /72/ Barnes, 43. /73/ Barnes, 52. /74/ Barnes, 64. /75/ Barnes, 64. /76/ Barnes, 62-63. /77/ Barnes, 152. /78/ The D i v i n e Comedy of Dante A l i g h i e r i , with t r a n s , and comment by John D. S i n c l a i r (New York: Oxford U.P., 1961), I, 23. 250 /79/ Dante, I, 22-23. /80/ Dante, I I , 408-409. /81/ W i t t i g , V i r g i l e . Non. 85. /82/ W i t t i g , Le corps l e s b i e n . 7. /83/ W i t t i g , Le corps l e s b i e n . 11-13. /84/ W i t t i g , V i r g i l e . Non. 138. /85/ Dante, I I I , 432-435. /86/ Dante, I I I , 437. /87/ Dante, I I I , 443. /88/ Dante, I I I , 432-433. /89/ Dante, I I I , 441. /90/ C H . Grandgent; c i t e d i n S i n c l a i r , The D i v i n e  Comedy of Dante A l i g h i e r i . I l l , 455. 251 P a r t IV: N a r r a t i v e / K n o w i n g i n t h e F e m i n i n e ( G J e n d e r must be a c c o u n t e d f o r . I t must be u n d e r -s t o o d n o t as a " b i o l o g i c a l " d i f f e r e n c e t h a t l i e s b e f o r e or beyond s i g n i f i c a t i o n , or a s a c u l t u r a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d o b j e c t o f m a s c u l i n e d e s i r e , b u t as s e m i -o t i c d i f f e r e n c e — a d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i o n o f r e f e r e n c e and meaning as s u c h . . . / I / In P a r t I o f t h i s s t u d y , t h i n k i n g w i t h V i r g i n i a W o o l f , I a s k e d what i s t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e new women's w r i t i n g . What a r e t h e f e a t u r e s o f w r i t i n g i n t h e f e m i n i n e ? Now, c o m p a r i n g n a r r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s e s o f Daphne M a r l a t t ' s How Hug a S t o n e and N i c o l e B r o s -s a r d ' s P i c t u r e T h e o r y , I c a n o f f e r c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e work o f t h e s e two i m p o r t a n t C a n a d i a n f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s , c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h s h e d l i g h t on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l phenomenon o f women's w r i t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . The b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n o f h e r o and o b s t a c l e , i n h e r e n t i n t h e n a r r a t i v e grammar o f t h e q u e s t , i s a c u l t u r a l g e n e r a t o r o f p a t r i a r c h a l g e n d e r . The h e r o who t r a v e r s e s b o u n d a r i e s and overcomes o b s t a c l e s i s g e n e r i -c a l l y m a s c u l i n e , and t h e m a t r i x or g r o u n d w h i c h he t r a v e r s e s i s f e m i n i n e . B o t h M a r l a t t and B r o s s a r d r e w r i t e l i n e a r q u e s t s t r u c t u r e a t t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e y b r i n g t o l i g h t t h e gende r o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p l o t p o s i t i o n s . 252 M a r l a t t i n t u i t s t h e g e n d e r o f t h e n a r r a t i v e m a t r i x : she i s n o t a p e r s o n , she i s what we come t h r o u g h t o & what we come o u t o f , g r o u n d & s o u r c e , t h e s p a c e a f t e r t h e c o l o n , t h e pause (between t h e words) o f a l l p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n . ( H H S . , 73) Her t e x t h o n o u r s a f e m a l e "ground and s o u r c e " : t h e a r c h e - m o t h e r who s i g n i f i e s a p r i m o r d i a l i t y sometimes d a n g e r o u s l y i n harmony w i t h t h e l i f e f o r c e o f t h e e a r t h . The s t r o n g f o c a l i z a t i o n by t h e n a r r a t o r e n s u r e s t h a t t h e "we" i n t h i s p a s s a g e i n c l u d e s women as w e l l as men, t h u s c r e a t i n g a g e n d e r - i n c l u s i v e human s u b j e c t who o c c u p i e s t h e h e r o - p o s i t i o n i n t h e h e r o - o b s t a c l e o p p o s i -t i o n . D e l i c a t e i r o n y f r a m e s K i t ' s b o y i s h h e r o i c s i n "on t h e t r a i n , " "boy w i t h t a p e r e c o r d e r s t a l k i n g h o r s e s i n a f i e l d o f cows:" and " A v e b u r y a w i - s p e k f winged f r o m b u r i e d ( e g g . " Long c y c l e s o f h i s t o r y s h e l t e r t h e young f i g h t e r w h i l e d e f i n i n g h i s h e r o i c s by a c o n t e x t i m m e a s u r a b l y more p o w e r f u l t h a n he i s : — & s m a l l , t o y p i s t o l i n one hand, c u p p e d , & s h e l t e r e d by t h e p e l v i c t h r u s t o f r o c k , jumps, g o t c h a mom! as i f t o f i x i t ( s i n e ) , t h a t j u b i l a n t ego i n t h e f a c e o f s t o n e , o f wind f l o c k i n g g r e y w e t h e r s s t i l l g a t h e r e d l i k e ( b u t n o t t h e same, n o t t h e s e ) s a r s e n s now i n p l a c e , immutable from l o n g t i m e b a c k . & f r o n t , w e a t h e r e d y e s , i n f o l d s a c q u i r i n g c h a r a c t e r we r e a d i n , 253 c l o t h e d & p r i c k l i n g now a l o n g t h e h a i r l e s s s p i n e , a l i n e m e e t i n g a c i r c l e , two i n one so huge ( s m a l l h i l l ) b a r e l y v i s i b l e a t g r a s s v i e w , r e d w i n d b r e a k e r f l e c k a s e a o f g r e e n & c l i m b some moat i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n s c a l e d he c a l l s me t o : come & g e t me (HHS_, 74) K i t ' s h e r o i c s r e f l e c t t h e o r i g i n o f human c u l t u r e ("always h a v i n g t o f i g h t W i l d A n i m a l s " [HHS, 36]) b u t a r e now l i n k e d t o war games w h i c h t h r e a t e n r a t h e r t h a n promote human s u r v i v a l : [ K i t i s ] h a p p i e s t i n t h e L u c k y Penny c o u n t i n g h i t s or t e s t i n g q u i c k n e s s o f eye a g a i n s t s c i f l enemy bombers i n J a p a n e s e com-p u t e r games, d i v i n e wind r e c y c l e d (on & o n ) , w h i l e i n Chatham t h e y s i n g t h e Navy B l u e s , g e t t i n g r i d o f us a t a h i g h r a t e o f k n o t s ( o utmoded). N o t t p l a n -n i n g t o p l u g t h e F a r o e gap w i t h n u c l e a r - p o w e r e d k i l -l e r s u b m a r i n e s & r a d a r - e q u i p p e d r e c o n n a i s s a n c e a i r -c r a f t . ( g e t t i n g r i d o f us.) (HHS, 48) The t e x t f e a t u r e s t h e h e r o m o t i f b u t i r o n i z e s i t and i l l u m i n a t e s i t s d e a d l y , m o n o l o g i c i m p l i c a t i o n s . M a r l a t t u s e s q u e s t s t r u c t u r e b u t d i s p l a c e s i t f r o m t h e s t r u c t u r i n g l e v e l o f f a b u l a t o t h e l e v e l o f s t o r y where i t i s an a s p e c t o f f o c a l i z a t i o n by a n a r r a t o r who i s t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d h e r m o ther. Language comes i n c r e a s i n g l y t o t h e f o r e as t h e a c t a n t i a l s e n d e r . As B r o s s a r d s p e c i f i e s , t h e p a t r i a r c h a l h e r o i s d e a d : Nous p a r l o n s de p r o f i l comme un p r o p o s de c i v i l i z a -t i o n q u i marque un temps d ' a r r e t . " . . . nous man-254 quons de m a n u s c r i t s d e p u i s l a mort du h e r o s a d o u b l e s e n s p a t r i a r c a l " . C ' e t a i t a b s o l u m e n t dans un a u t r e  1 i v r e q u ' e l l e s a u r a i t r e t r a c e r l e moment venu, l e s l i g n e s d'une forme humaine p a r f a i t e m e n t l i s i b l e . (PT, 25) New p a r a d i g m s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o e x p r e s s " l e moment v e n u . " P i c t u r e T h e o r y s u g g e s t s t h e h o l o g r a m . B r o s s a r d u n d e r m i n e s t h e ge n d e r i n h e r e n t i n t h e h e r o - o b s t a c l e o p p o s i t i o n v i t h a n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h r e p e a t e d l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e f e m a l e a c t a n t a c t i v e l y t r a v e r s i n g t h e m a t r i x o f t h e c o n t i n e n t (PT, 79), t h e i s l a n d (PT, 88), " l e h a l l d ' e n t r e e " (PT, 51) and t h e f o r e s t (EX, 59, 71). The m o t i f o f " l e c a s q u e d o r e e " s i g n i f i e s a f e m a l e h e r o i c s a l s o g r o u n d e d i n t h e o l d o p p o s i t i o n . A t t h e same t i m e , P i c t u r e T h e o r y u s e s c o n -t e m p o r a r y s c i e n c e t o g e n e r a t e a p o s t - r e l a t i v i t y r e a d i n g o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n between e n e r g y and m a t t e r , t h u s f r e e -i n g t h e enormous e n e r g y i n h e r e n t i n m a t t e r i t s e l f . T r a v e r s i e r e s , u r b a i n e s r a d i c a l e s , l e s b i e n n e s , a u j o u r d ' h u i j o u r e l e c t r i q u e , l e u r e n e r g i e p r e n a i t forme comme 1 ' e l e c t r i c i t e p a r l a s t r u c t u r e de l a m a t i e r e elle-mSme. H i e r a l ' o r i g i n e , l e u r e n e r g i e n ' a v a i t e t e mise en e v i d e n c e que p a r l e u r s p r o p r i e t e s a t t r a c t i v e s ou r e p u l s i v e s . M a i n t e n a n t dans l ' o r b e l u n a i r e , e l l e s a v a i e n t p r e c e d e l a s c i e n c e de l ' e n e r g i e . (PT, 88) B r o s s a r d u s e s a d o u b l e s t r a t e g y w h i c h a s s o c i a t e s women w i t h t h e a c t i v e p r i n c i p l e i n t h e b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n 255 while demonstrating t h a t the o p p o s i t i o n i t s e l f i s out-moded. She invents a n a r r a t i v e grammar t h a t i s funda-m e n t a l l y d i a l o g i c : an a c t a n t separates, reassembles, and generates l i g h t energy. As I noted i n r e l a t i o n to C l a i r e ' s t r a v e r s a l of the f o r e s t i n "La P e r s p e c t i v e , " Brossard r e d e f i n e s both the h e r o i c s and the ground. Both Brossard and M a r l a t t use the image of the s p i r a l to suggest the form of the s t o r i e s they are t e l l i n g . The n a r r a t o r of How Hug a Stone, seeking coherence and o r i g i n , f i n d s t hat the s t o r y she i s p a r t of has onl y a "blue/black hole at c e n t r e " : & s t i l l : i suppose a l l these people know b e t t e r than i . -- d o u b t f u l , paws to eyes, s m a l l c r e a t u r e a t the heart of dreaming some blue otherwhere. & t h a t i s  the reason, the s t o r y c o n t i n u e s , c i r c l i n g back to i t s source, the dormouse c u r l s , imagining d e l -phiniums blue, o bl u e / b l a c k hole a t c e n t r e , f o l d i n g i n on i t s e l f . (HHS_, 70) Without f i x e d o r i g i n , the s t o r y must s t a r t i n m i d - a i r : " ( i n f l i g h t ? & i f the plane goes down?)" (HHS. 15). The n a r r a t o r proceeds because "without n a r r a t i v e , how can we see where we are going? or t h a t — f o r long moments now, we happen" (HHS, 15). The s t o r y must s t a r t when "we happen," with Brossard's " l e moment venu." The paradox of the o r i g i n i s developed t h e o r e t i -c a l l y i n Brossard's oeuvre, and i s l i n k e d to the image 256 of the s p i r a l . In "De r a d i c a l a i n t e g r a l e s , " Brossard argues, " L ' o r i g i n e n'est pas l a mere, mais l e sens que je donne aux mots e t a l ' o r i g i n e , je s u i s une femme."/2/ "Femme," however, i s a word rooted i n "une t e r r e semantique e t r a n g e r e . " "Femme, a sens unique, [ e s t ] . . . un mot sans autre r a c i n e que p a t r i a r -c a l e . " / 3 / In the face of t h i s dilemma, Brossard proposes breaking out of one-way p a t r i a r c h a l sense by means of the tautology/nonsense of the statement "une femme e s t une femme."/4/ T h i s i s the s t r a t e g y adopted by " t i e s ] f e m i n i s t e s r a d i c a l e s et l e u r humanitd se trouve justement l a , dans l a conquete q u ' e l l e s font mot a mot, corps a corps, de l ' e t r e femme. . . . En i n t e r -venant au mot femme, ces femmes . . . ont a l o r s mis l e d o i g t sur l e bouton qui donne acces a l a magie des mots."/5/ "La magie des mots e s t ce parcours et ce par quoi nous pouvons a u s s i transformer l a r e a l i t e ou l e sens que nous donnons a l a r e a l i t e . " / 6 / By i n t e r v e n i n g around the meaning of words, and i n p a r t i c u l a r the meaning of the word "femme," women can begin to c r e a t e s u b j e c t i v i t y rooted i n t h e i r own r e a l i t i e s , and " c u l -t u r e au f e m i n i n . " At the o r i g i n of words i n Man's s u b j e c t i v i t y , and as f a r as we have lea r n e d to consume words, we have consumed them with t h e i r r o o t . We are now i n the process of upr o o t i n g o u r s e l v e s from the s u b j e c t i v i t y / o b j e c t i v i t y of Man to take r o o t i n our own su b j e c -t i v i t y t h a t transforms r e a l i t y . Women have to be a t the r o o t of the meaning they give to words./7/ 257 Women w i l l give words new meanings which are rooted not i n p a t r i a r c h a l s o i l but i n c o l l e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s with other f e m i n i s t women. "La r a c i n e e s t aerienne."/8/ T h i s i s the process which Brossard f i g u r e s as the s p i r a l , and r e p r e s e n t s i n P i c t u r e Theory. Once again Monique W i t t i g f i g u r e s i n the i n t e r t e x -t u a l c a s t , and i n r e l a t i o n to both M a r l a t t and Bros-s a r d . The n a r r a t o r of How Hug a Stone, "so as not to be l o s t , " determines to " i n v e n t " (HHS, 15). "be unnamed, walk unwritten, d e - s c r i p t e d , undescribed, or e l s e compose, make i t say i t s e l f , make i t up" (HHS_, 35). I noted e a r l i e r t h a t her d e c i s i o n r e c a l l s a c e l e b r a t e d passage from W i t t i g ' s Les g u e r i l l e r e s : [111 y a eu un temps oa t u n'as pas ete e s c l a v e , s o u v i e n s - t o i . Tu t'en vas s e u l e , p l e i n e de r i r e , t u te baignes l e ventre nu. Tu d i s que t u en as perdu l a memoire, s o u v i e n s - t o i . Les roses sauvages f l e u r i s s e n t dans l e s b o i s . Ta main se d e c h i r e aux buissons pour c u e i l l i r l e s mures et l e s framboises dont tu te r a f r a l c h i s . Tu cours pour a t t r a p e r l e s jeunes l i e v r e s que t u ecorches aux p i e r r e s des r o c h e r s pour l e s depecer et l e s manger t o u t chauds et s a n g l a n t s . Tu s a i s comment ne pas r e n c o n t r e r un ours sur l e s p i s t e s . Tu connais l a peur l ' h i v e r quand tu entends l e s loups se r e u n i r . Mais tu peux r e s t e r a s s i s e pendant des heures sur l e sommet des a r b r e s pour at t e n d r e l e matin. Tu d i s q u ' i l n'y a pas de mots pour d e c r i r e ce temps, tu d i s q u ' i l n ' e x i s t e pas. Mais s o u v i e n s - t o i . F a i s un e f f o r t pour te s o u v e n i r . Ou, a defaut, i n v ente./9/ 258 Women are urged to remember a p r e - p a t r i a r c h a l time when they were s t r o n g and f r e e , but i f the memory i s gone and there are no words t o d e s c r i b e i t , they must inv e n t . In her e f f o r t to piece together the " o l d s t o r y " (HHS, 73) and i n her r e s o l u t i o n to in v e n t , Mar-l a t t takes up W i t t i g ' s c h a l l e n g e . Brossard quotes the c r i t i c a l l a s t three sentences of t h i s passage from Les g u e r i l l e r e s i n Amantes.710/ Her r e f u s a l to r e c o n s t i t u t e the a l r e a d y known accords w e l l with W i t t i g ' s imperative. However, her theo r y of the s p i r a l l i n g c r e a t i o n of c u l t u r e i n the feminine d i v e r g e s a t a c r i t i c a l p o i n t from W i t t i g ' s e a r l y w r i t -i n g . In " L ' O r d i n a i r e " a footnote r e f e r s the reader to the French f e m i n i s t t h e o r e t i c a l j o u r n a l Questions  f e m i n i s t e s , No. 8, of which Monique W i t t i g was an e d i t o r (PT, 32). In t h i s i s s u e , the e d i t o r s formulate t h e i r theory t h a t women must r e j e c t the word "woman": The word woman, I cannot and never c o u l d bear i t . I t i s with t h i s word t h a t they have i n s u l t e d me. I t i s a word of t h e i r language, a cadaver f i l l e d with THEIR phantasms working a g a i n s t US. Who i s t h i s "Us"? Women, to be sure -- and there a g a i n t h a t WORD. With t h a t they "have had us," as THEY SAY./II/ Brossard a l s o argues t h a t the word "woman" i s rooted i n man's s u b j e c t i v i t y , but her s t r a t e g y to redeem the word i s at v a r i a n c e with W i t t i g ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t women must 259 a b s o l u t e l y r e j e c t both h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y and any i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n as women: "'woman' has meaning o n l y i n heteros e x u a l systems of thought and het e r o s e x u a l eco-nomic systems. Lesbians are not women."/12/ W i t t i g ' s almost phobic r e f u s a l to be i d e n t i f i e d as a woman i s the extreme opposite of the e n t h u s i a s t i c announcement, made by Helene Cixous and endorsed by "Psych et Po," tha t "woman w i l l a f f i r m woman."/13/ As a r e s u l t of t h i s divergence the e d i t o r i a l c o l l e c t i v e of Questions  f e m i n i s t e s exploded, French f e m i n i s t d i s c o u r s e became v i o l e n t l y p o l a r i z e d and the women's movement i n France was v e r y badly damaged./14/ N i c o l e Brossard, i n her essays and i n P i c t u r e Theory, made a c r u c i a l i n t e r v e n -t i o n i n t o t h i s debate which u n f o r t u n a t e l y has been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y heeded. Memory plays a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n the f e m i n i s t theory under d i s c u s s i o n here, and M a r l a t t and Brossard, i n How  Hug a Stone and P i c t u r e Theory, each c o n t r i b u t e to a r e f o r m u l a t i o n of women's r e l a t i o n to memory. Nar-r a t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s showed t h a t both t e x t s manifest a c h r o n o l o g i c a l framework which i s c o n s t a n t l y i n t e r r u p t e d by memory, although the two n a r r a t o r s e x p l i c i t l y r e f u s e to be governed by the past (HHS, 29; PT, 19). In How  Hug a Stone, the n a r r a t o r ' s voyage i s supplemented by in f o r m a t i o n from i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s t a n t h i s t o r y ; f i n a l l y , the o r i g i n s of the f a b u l a disappear i n the misty begin-260 nings of human c u l t u r e . In P i c t u r e Theory l i n e a r chronology i s confounded by the simultaneous p r e s e n t a -t i o n of events o c c u r r i n g over the p e r i o d of about one year. Although the t e x t does not r e c o n s t i t u t e memory, i t taps i t c o n s t a n t l y : "de memoire, j'entame" (ET_, 19, 43, 149). A double p e r s p e c t i v e on time i s generated by the synchrony of past and present. D i s t a n t h i s t o r y i s summoned by mythic m o t i f s and the m i l l e n i a l woman "au coeur de l a p i e r r e " (PT f 88). Both t e x t s l i n k memory to the image of stone. If "memory i m p l i e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between past and present events,"/15/ the same co u l d be s a i d of stone. G e o l o g i c a l memories of the d i s t a n t past, stones are the o l d e s t o b j e c t s i n our world, and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n stone, whether f o s s i l s or c a r v i n g s by our f o r e b e a r s , are our primary source of i n f o r m a t i o n about p r e h i s t o r y . How Hug a Stone i s a Heideggerian m e d i t a t i o n on stone, b r i n g i n g "the e a r t h i t s e l f i n t o the Open of a world."/16/ Stones were a l r e a d y o l d i n the N e o l i t h i c , or New Stone Age, d u r i n g which p a t r i a r c h y i s thought to have developed. N e o l i t h i c megaliths or "squat stone mothers" (HHS., 64) are c e n t r a l to How Hug a Stone, and the r i d d l e of the book's t i t l e f o l d s i n t o Heidegger's o b s e r v a t i o n that f i n a l l y , "Earth . . . s h a t t e r s every attempt to penetrate i t . " / 1 7 / The n a r r a t o r and her son a f f i r m the s p i r a l l i n g t r a j e c t o r y of l i f e (HHS, 79), l e a v i n g behind Avebury, and pausing a g a i n to see 261 the white stone l a d y r e c l i n e d on her stone couch at the f o o t of the garden at the end of the Empire, i n an a t t i t u d e of e l e g a n t a t t e n t i v e n e s s . what thunder i s she l i s t e n i n g to? who put her there? a t r a n -q u i l l y a t t e n t i v e p o i n t of r e t u r n i n the s u r r e a l wash t h i s dream i s . (HHS P 76) The stone images of the N e o l i t h i c B i r d Goddess/18/ t r a n s l a t e f i n a l l y i n t o the "rock-dove alone i n the r u i n e d palace c r y i n g , ku? ku? ku? (qua?) where have you gone? f i r s t love t h a t teaches a p o s s i b l e world" (HHS. 78) . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of "ku" i n t o the L a t i n qua, "where, which way,"/19/ reminds us that words, l i k e stones, conceal the being of the p a s t . what was f a m i l i a r now i s r e l i c : sweetshop, p i l i a r -box . c l i p p e d monosyllables with a d i s t i n c t i v e p i t c h p a t t e r n . remnants of Old E n g l i s h , even moth, snake, stone. Word henge to p l o t us i n the c u r r e n t flow, without n a r r a t i v e how can we see where we've been? or, unable to leave i t a l t o g e t h e r , what we come from? (HHS, 19) T r a c i n g the s t o r i e s concealed i n stones and words i s the e f f o r t of memory to understand where we come from, because we cannot "leave i t a l t o g e t h e r . " N a v i g a t i n g " i n the c u r r e n t flow" towards an open-ended f u t u r e "where l i v e t h i n g s a r e " (HHS, 79), the n a r r a t o r of How 262 Hug a S t o n e t a k e s h e r b e a r i n g s on t h e p a s t , a t t h e l i m i t o f memory and l a n g u a g e . In P i c t u r e T h e o r y s t o n e i s r e p e a t e d l y i n v o k e d a s t h e r e p o s i t o r y o f t h e t i m e when women were i m m o b i l i z e d by t h e c r e a t i o n o f p a t r i a r c h a l g e n d e r . I have a l r e a d y shown t h e complex o f myth and metaphor w h i c h l i n k s t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e S p h i n x , Medusa, E u r y d i c e and L o t ' s w i f e , a l l p e t r i f i e d i n " l e temps p a t r i a r c a l e " (PT. 8 1 ) . T h e i r f a t e i s a r e m i n d e r o f t h e e m o t i o n a l damage p a t r i a r c h y has i n f l i c t e d on women, and i n f l i c t s s t i l l . "M.V. c o n n a i s s a i t peu de l ' e m o t i o n s i n o n que s o n mouve-ment p o u v a i t a r r e s t e r l e temps e t l a l a i s s e r s u s p e n d u e e t i mmobile dans l ' e s p a c e comme une femme f a t a l e m e n t a t t e i n t e " (PT, 1 4 7 ) . I n " L ' E m o t i o n , " on t h e d a y o f t h e v i s i t t o t h e c l i f f s , t h e t e x t opens i n t o a m e d i t a t i o n on what l i e s c o n c e a l e d i n t h e s e d i m e n t a t i o n o f r o c k : L e s f a l a i s e s e t a i e n t t r e s a t t i r a n t e s e t l e d e s t i n p l a n a i t . I I y a d e s l i e s a u - d e s s u s de 1 ' A r i z o n a . I I y a d e s r o c h e s metamorphiques e t d e s s t r a t e s . I I y a l a p i e r r e . "La P o l i s , l a C i t e d e s Hommes e s t un t o u t d o n t l e c o r p s de p i e r r e " c i t a i t de memoire F l o r e n c e D e r i v e . I I y a l a p i e r r e . I I en e t a i t done a i n s i au c o e u r de l ' l l e , l a p i e r r e e t l ' e a u , l ' a r d o i s e e t l a c r a i e . I I y a d e s m a l t r e s , d e s t a b l e a u x e t d e s a r t i s a n s . I I y a des cameras l a b o r i e u s e s e t des mains q u i t r a v a i l l e n t . I I y a de s femmes s c u l p t e e s , d e s m u j e r e s b l a n c h e s , des jambes c a s s e e s , d e s f r a g m e n t s c e l e b r e s . I I y a v a i t d e s femmes dans l a p i e r r e b r u t e e t l a p i e r r e " t a i l l e e de s e r v i t u d e de de t e n e b r e s " . I I y a l a p i e r r e p a r l a n t e , l e s p i e r r e s de p l u i e . I I y a v a i t des p i e r r e s p e r c e e s e t s o n o r e s . I I y a l e s f a l a i s e s e t l a v i l l e de p i e r r e opaque. I I y a v a i t au c o e u r 263 de l a p i e r r e une femme q u i d i s a i t moi m i l l e n a i r e t r a n s l u c i d e , g r a v e e dans l a p i e r r e u t o p i q u e . (PT, 87-88) In t h e h e a r t o f t h e s t o n e B r o s s a r d f i n d s n o t o n l y memories o f women, b u t c h a l k and s l a t e , t h e m a t e r i a l s f o r an immanent w r i t i n g o f c i v i l i z a t i o n ' s s t o r y . A t t h e f o o t o f t h i s c l i f f women's e m o t i o n i s p r e s e r v e d : La f a l a i s e , l e d e s e r t , l a v i l l e s u r o r d i n a t e u r d e v e n a i e n t c o n t i n u i t y c o s m i q u e : H i l t o n - - -_ _ _ _ ^ a l o r s qu'aux p i e d s de l a f a l a i s e , 1 ' emotion se r e f e r m a i t comme un c o q u i l l a g e . L a m o i n d r e f e n t e . L a F e n t e f a i s a i t un j o u r q u i m o t i v a i t M.V. dans chacune des s u r f a c e s q u ' e l l e e x p l o r a i t a v e c l a s e n s a t i o n de r e t r o u v e r s e s p e i n e s p e r d u e s dans l ' h o r i z o n b l e u des m e t a p h o r e s , l a ou r e g n a i t l e S p h i n x . P r i s e dans l a p i e r r e de l ' e f f r o i , M.V. e t a i t pr§te a d e v e n i r un b u s t e de femme a l a t§te o r a g e u s e . (PT, 147-148) As e m o t i o n i s f r e e d , "une o u v e r t u r e en forme de f e n t e " (PT, 1 4 7 ) , t h e w r i t i n g i n t h e s t o n e becomes v i s i b l e as "une l i t h o p h a n i e a l ' a s p e c t c h a n g e a n t " (PT, 1 4 7 ) . Women's b u r i e d e m o t i o n i s t h e l i g h t i n t h e s t o n e w h i c h i s r e l e a s e d t o become a component o f t h e h o l o g r a m : M e t e o r i t e s dans l e t e x t . O u v e r t u r e . M.V. ne c h e r c h a i t - e l l e pas a t r a v e r s e r t o u t e s l e s a t m o s p h e r e s , t o u s l e s c l i m a t s , t o u s du s e n s dans l a p i e r r e . E l l e c h e r c h a i t a se rompre ce q u i n * 6 t a i t e c r i t n u l l e p a r t v i s i b l e m e n t dans l a p i e r r e e t q u i p o u r t a n t f a i s a i t s e n s e t s e n s f l a m b o y a n t dans l e rou g e des i d e n t i t e s , i n f r a p. 167. C ' e t a i t done c e l a q u ' e l l e c h e r c h a i t au c o e u r de l a l e t t r e a e r i e n n e , c e l a c e t t e p h o s p h o r e s c e n c e dans l a n u i t 264 comme une permanence f e m i n i n e p r e n a n t r e l i e f dans l a p i e r r e . L* image e s t f l o u e . L e s mots l a p i d a i r e s . (PT, 130) M.V. d o e s n ' t seek a l l t h e h i s t o r y memorized i n t h e s t o n e , b u t o n l y t h e e m o t i o n s of women w h i c h were b u r i e d and c o n c e a l e d , b u t a r e now remembered i n a t e x t s t u d d e d w i t h m e t e o r i t e s and "mots l a p i d a i r e s . " The l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e woman i n t h e s t o n e i s r e l a t e d t o t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a g e n e r i c human body and u l t i m a t e l y , t h e h o l o g r a m . E a c h image i s f o l d e d i n t o t h e n e x t i n "a c o n d e n s a t i o n o f i n s c r i p t i o n s " : " L ' i d e n t i t e dans l a t r a j e c t o i r e du c o r p s , une c o n d e n s a t i o n d e s i n s c r i p t i o n s : c e l e b r e l ' h o r i z o n " (PT, 1 1 3 ) . The " a b s t r a c t i o n p r e s s e n t i e " (PT., 165) o f woman's s u b j e c -t i v i t y i n l a n g u a g e opens i n t o " l e c o r p s g e n e r i q u e de c e l l e q u i p e n s e " : (dans mon u n i v e r s , l ' u t o p i e s e r a i t une f i c t i o n a p a r t i r de l a q u e l l e n a l t r a i t l e c o r p s g e n e r i q u e de c e l l e q u i p e n s e ) . Je n ' a u r a i s pas a f a i r e n a l t r e d'une p r e m i e r e femme une a u t r e femme. J e n ' a u r a i s a l ' e s p r i t que 1 ' i d e e q u ' e l l e p u i s s e §tre c e l l e p a r q u i t o u t p e u t a r r i v e r . J ' a u r a i s t o u t en l ' e c r i v a n t a i m a g i n e r une femme a b s t r a i t e q u i se g l i s s e r a i t d ans mon t e x t e , p o r t a n t l a f i c t i o n s i l o i n que de l o i n , c e t t e femme p a r t i c i p a n t des mots, i l f a u d r a i t l a v o i r v e n i r , v i r t u e l l e a l ' i n f i n i , f o r m e l l e dans t o u t e l a d i m e n s i o n de l a c o n n a i s s a n c e , de l a methode e t de l a memoir