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Territorial disputes : maps and mapping strategies in contemporary Canadian and Australian fiction Huggan, Graham 1989

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MAPS AND MAPPING STRATEGIES IN CONTEMPORARY CANADIAN AND AUSTRALIAN FICTION By GRAHAM HUGGAN B.A.; Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y , 1981 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Program i n Comparative L i t e r a t u r e ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE 1989 ® Graham Huggan, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date J V V . VQK 81  DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s an attempt t o r e f l e c t and account f o r the d i v e r s i t y of maps and mapping s t r a t e g i e s i n contemporary Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n f i c t i o n . I t s metnoaology, o u t l i n e d i n the opening chapter, draws on a combination of geo g r a p h i c a l and l i t e r a r y theory, p l a c i n g p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on s e m i o t i c and other p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t procedures (recon-s t r u c t i n g the map as model; d e c o n s t r u c t i n g the map as s t r u c -t u r e ) . The map i s f i r s t d e f i n e d as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l model, as an h i s t o r i c a l document, and as a g e o p o l i t i c a l c l a i m . I t s s t a t u s as model, document or c l a i m b r i n g s i n t o play a s e r i e s of mapping s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d i n g a p p r o p r i a t i o n , d i v i s i o n ana m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n . A t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o the ways" i n which f e m i n i s t , r e g i o n a l and e t h n i c w r i t e r s have qu e s t i o n e d these d e f i n i t i o n s and r e s i s t e d or adapted these s t r a t e g i e s . B a s i c p r i n c i p l e s f o r a " l i t e r a r y cartography" are thus e s t a b l i s h e d d e r i v i n g from conceptual d e f i n i t i o n s , s o c i a l ana p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , and d i v e r s e f i c t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of the map. "Grounds f o r comparison" are then e s t a b l i s h e d between E n g l i s h and French w r i t i n g i n Canada, and between the l i t e r a -t u r e s of Canada and A u s t r a l i a , by o u t l i n i n g a b r i e f h i s t o r y of maps and mapping s t r a t e g i e s i n those areas. Three s i g n i f i c a n t p r e c u r s o r s of the contemporary p e r i o d of l i t e r a r y cartography are d i s c u s s e d : P a t r i c k White, Margaret Atwood, and Hubert Aquin, l e a d i n g t o an overview of p a t t e r n s ana i m p l i c a t i o n s of c a r t o g r a p h i c imagery i n contemporary Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n f i c t i o n from 1975 to the present. The lay o u t f o r t h i s overview i s f o u r f o l d : "Maps and Men" d i s c u s s e s the map as a c o n s t r i c t -i v e or c o e r c i v e device which r e i n f o r c e s the p r i v i l e g e s of a p a t r i a r c h a l l i t e r a r y / c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n ; "Maps and Myths" examines the map as a mythic paradigm f o r the r e v i s i o n or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of "New World" h i s t o r y ; "Maps ana Dreams" exposes the map as an o n e i r i c c o n s t r u c t a l l i e d to the e x e r c i s e , but a l s o to the p o t e n t i a l c r i t i q u e , of c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t y , ana "Maps and Mazes" o u t l i n e s the map as a s e l f - p a r o d i c analogue f o r the l a b y r i n t h i n e s t r u c t u r e and d i v e r s i o n a r y t a c t i c s of tne contemporary ( p o s t - c o l o n i a l ) l i t e r a r y t e x t . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n e v i t a b l y made i n t h i s overview are o f f -s e t by a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s , from a comparative perspec-t i v e , of a number of s p e c i f i c t e x t s . T o p i c s f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n c l u d e the d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n of " c a r t o g r a p h i c space" i n contemporary f i c t i o n s by women i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a , the d e / r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of "New World" h i s t o r y i n Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c m e t a f i c t i o n , and the promulgation of a l t e r n a t i v e hypotheses of s y n t h e s i s or h y b r i d -i t y i n the s p a t i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d ("interna-t i o n a l " / " r e g i o n a l ") t e x t . The d i s s e r t a t i o n concludes by con-s i d e r i n g the wider i m p l i c a t i o n s of these r e v i s i o n i s t " c a r t o -g r a p h i c " procedures f o r p o s t - c o l o n i a l l i t e r a t u r e s ana f o r the f u t u r e of p o s t - c o l o n i a l s o c i e t i e s / c u l t u r e s seeking t o f r e e themselves from the conceptual legacy of t h e i r c o l o n i a l past. i v CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i Acknowledgement v i i Chapter One: P r i n c i p l e s f o r a L i t e r a r y Cartography . . . 1 1. D e f i n i n g the Map 2 i The Map as Model 2 i i The Map as Document 7 i i i The Map as Claim 13 2. C h a l l e n g i n g the Map 15 i The Feminist Challenge 15 i i The R e g i o n a l i s t Challenge 23 i i i The E t h n i c Challenge 27 3. F i c t i o n a l i z i n g the Map 32 i The Map as L i t e r a r y Device 32 i i P r i n c i p l e s f o r a L i t e r a r y Cartography 47 Chapter Two: Grounds f o r Comparison 52 Chapter Three: New T e r r i t o r i e s 94 1. Maps and Men 99 2. Maps and Myths . 113 3. Maps and Dreams 126* 4. Maps and Mazes 142 Chapter Four: T e r r i t o r i a l D isputes 162 1. Mapbreakers and Mapmakers: L i t e r a r y Cartography 163 and the Imaginative Response to P a t r i a r c h y i Transforming C a r t o g r a p h i c Space Ib3 i i M o b i l i z i n g C a r t o g r a p h i c Space 168 i i i D e t e r r i t o r i a l i z i n g C a r t o g r a p h i c Space 176" V 2. New Readings of the 'New World': L i t e r a r y Carto-graphy and the Imaginative Transformation of H i s t o r y 188 i Unnaming/Renaming the Past . 188 i i Demythologizing the Past 193 i i i R e i n v e n t i n g the Past 206 3. Home Ground, Fo r e i g n T e r r i t o r y : L i t e r a r y Cartography and the Imaginative Challenge to Ethnocentrism . . . 216 i New Coordinates 216 i i The " I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t " Hypothesis 220 i i i The " R e g i o n a l i s t " Hypothesis 230 Chapter F i v e : D e c o l o n i z i n g the Map: L i t e r a r y Cartography and the Future of P o s t - C o l o n i a l S o c i e t i e s / C u l t u r e s 243 Works C i t e d 259 v i L I S T OF FIGURES F i g . 1 M e d i e v a l T-0 Maps ( R o b i n s o n 10) 7 i P s a l t e r M a n u s c r i p t , c a . 122b i i I s i d o r e o f S e v i l l e , 1475 F i g . 2 M e r c a t o r ' s W o r l d Map, 1569 (Bagrow 224-5) . . 8 F i g - 3 D e t a i l f r o m Map o f A b y s s i n i a , L u d o l f i , 1683 ( G e o r g e 16U) 9 F i g . 4 Map o f t h e I m p e r i a l F e d e r a t i o n , 1886 ( H a r l e y 283) 12 F i g . 5 P r o p a g a n d a Map, F a c t s i n R e v i e w A p r . 5, 194U (Quam 26; . . . 13 F i g . 6 The G u l l i v e r i a n H e m i s p h e r e i D e t a i l , S w i f t , 1766 ( P o s t 21) 34 i i The G u l l i v e r i a n Hemi s p h p r P r a f t e r M o l l ' s New and C o r r e c t Map o f t h e W h o l e W o r l d , 1719 ( C a s e 54) 35 F i g . 7 Y o k n a p a t a w p h a C o u n t y , F a u l k n e r , 1936 ( P o s t 149) 40 F i g . 8 New F r a n c e , C h a m p l a i n , 1632 ( S k e l t o n 2bu-26i). 62 F i g . 9 D e t a i l f r o m S a n s o n ' s Map o f t h e W o r l d , 1720 ( T o o l e y 121) 64 F i g . 10 W o r l d Map, B l a e u , 1648 (Bagrow 176; 73 F i g . 11 L i g n e s de F u i t e , B e n t e r r a k , 1983 ( B e n t e r r a k e t a l 83) 183 F i g . 12 The C h a n g i n g T e r r i t o r y , 1854-189b (Waldman 181-2) > 199 F i g . 13 i C a r t e de 1 ' A c c a d i e , B e l l i n , 1744 (Dawson 85) 234 i i Nova S c o t i a , C h a r l e s N o r r i s , 175b (Dawson 89) 234 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thanK the members of my d i s s e r t a t i o n committee, P r o f s . W. H. New ( S u p e r v i s o r ) , P. M e r i v a l e and V. Raoul f o r t h e i r advice and d i r e c t i o n ; P r o f s . D. Brydon, C. Tapping and R. Beaudoin, P. Brophy and B. F e l l f o r other u s e f u l ideas, and Word Weavers of Vancouver f o r t h e i r s e c r e t a r i a l s e r v i c e s . 1 Chapter One PRINCIPLES FOR A LITERARY CARTOGRAPHY 2 (1) D e f i n i n g the Map (i) The Map as Model In that Empire, the c r a f t of Cartography a t t a i n e d such p e r f e c t i o n t h a t the Map of a S i n g l e p r o v i n c e covered the space of an e n t i r e C i t y , and the Map of the Empire i t s e l f an e n t i r e Province. In the course of Time, these E x t e n s i v e maps were found somehow wanting, and so the c o l l e g e of Cartographers evolved a Map of the Empire that was of the same S c a l e as the Empire and c o i n c i d e d w i t h i t p o i n t f o r p o i n t . Less a t t e n t i v e to the study of Cartography, succeeding Generations came to judge a map of such Magnitude cumbersome and, not without I r r e v e r e n c e , abandoned i t to the Rigours of sun and r a i n . In the western Deserts, t a t t e r e d Fragments of the Map are s t i l l to be found, s h e l t e r i n g an o c c a s i o n a l Beast or beggar; i n the whole Nation no other r e l i c i s l e f t of the D i s c i p l i n e of Geography. (J-L. Borges) Borges's w i t t y p a r a b l e n e a t l y i l l u s t r a t e s the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of e x a c t i t u d e i n c a r t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . For maps are never more than approximations of the t e r r i t o r y they purport to d e s c r i b e and r e g u l a t e : i n Ko r z y b s k i ' s famous phrase, "a map i s not the t e r r i t o r y i t r e p r e s e n t s , " although, " i f c o r r e c t , i t has a s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e to the t e r r i t o r y , which accounts f o r i t s u s e f u l n e s s " (58). Yet how ' c o r r e c t ' can maps ever be? Whatever t h e i r degree of s c i e n t i f i c accuracy, maps are n e i t h e r exact nor e n t i r e l y o b j e c t i v e ; they are, a f t e r a l l , c o n t r o l l e d by human i n t e r e s t s , and at best o f f e r "not a copy, but a semblance of r e a l i t y , f i l t e r e d by the mapmaker's motives and p e r c e p t i o n s " (310). The s u b j e c t i v e aspect of maps i n v o l v e s more, however, than the motives and p e r c e p t i o n s of the mapmaker; f o r maps c o n s t i t u t e a complex communicational system engaging 3 t r a n s a c t i o n s between mapmaker and mapreader. Neither of these, s t r i c t l y speaking, can be c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i v i d u a l : e x p l o r e r s and surveyors, d e s i g n e r s and p r i n t e r s , p u b l i s h e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s can a l l be considered to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the process of mapmaking; and although the d e c i s i o n s taken i n r e a d i n g a map may r e f l e c t i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e , they are a l s o i n f l u e n c e d , d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , by wider s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s . So the meaning of a map emerges from a t r a n s a c t i o n a l process i n v o l v i n g a number of d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t groups; or as Walter Z e l i n s k y says, "the map e x i s t s and has meaning only as i t connects with other aspects of an i n t e r l o c k i n g communicative s t r u c t u r e " (3). Thus, w h i l e a map remains i n one sense a product, i t i s a l s o a process, f o r i t r e p r e s e n t s both an encoded document of a s p e c i f i c environment and a network of p e r p e t u a l l y recoded messages p a s s i n g between the v a r i o u s mapmakers and mapreaders p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the event of c a r t o g r a p h i c communication. The accuracy of a map o b v i o u s l y depends on i t s p r e c i s i o n of d e t a i l and refinement of d e l i v e r y , y e t i t a l s o depends on e x p l i c i t or t a c i t p e r c e p t u a l conventions which, d i f f e r i n g w i d e l y from c u l t u r e to c u l t u r e , are the unstable products of s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l circumstance. For a more d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c a r t o g r a p h i c communication, see the essays c o l l e c t e d i n a s p e c i a l i ssue of C a r t o g r a p h i c a Monograph No. 19 (1977), ed. Leonard Guelke, esp. Arthur Robinson and Barbara Petchenik's essay "The Map as a Communication System": 92-110. 4 I f a l l of t h i s i s t o say that the map i s n e c e s s a r i l y d e f i c i e n t as a copy of r e a l i t y , i t may nonetheless f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y as a model of r e a l i t y . As C h r i s t o p h e r Board puts i t , "maps [are] r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l models of the r e a l world... they are a l s o conceptual models c o n t a i n i n g the essence of some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n about r e a l i t y . In t h a t r o l e , maps are u s e f u l a n a l y t i c a l t o o l s which h e l p i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o see the r e a l world i n a new l i g h t , or even to allow them an e n t i r e l y new view of r e a l i t y " (672). Board proceeds to o u t l i n e a d i a l e c t i c between the f o r m u l a t i o n of the map, d u r i n g which "the r e a l world i s concentrated i n model form," and the implementation of the map, du r i n g which "the model i s t e s t e d a g a i n s t r e a l i t y " (672). As a r e s u l t of t h i s d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n , he suggests, "the c y c l e may begin again with [a] r e v i s e d view of the r e a l world" (672). Other commentators, however, do not share Board's confidence i n the v i a b i l i t y of the map as a conceptual model of r e a l i t y . A map-like conception of r e a l i t y , c l a ims P h i l i p Muehrcke, f o r example, i s suspect because i t may a l i e n a t e us from, r a t h e r than u n i t e us with, our environment: The d e f i c i e n c y of both the 'map as r e a l i t y ' and ' r e a l i t y as map' a t t i t u d e s i s t h a t they f a l l s hort of u n i t i n g us with our environment i n a l l aspects of experience. They encourage us t o ignore the independent u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e of our e x i s t e n c e , upon which our s u r v i v a l and the w e l l - b e i n g of our world depend. (309) Muehrcke's humanistic sentiments are echoed by John Vernon, f o r whom maps encourage a g e o c e n t r i c p o i n t of view i n which d i s t a n c e i n t e r v e n e s between the world and i t s p e r c e i v e r ; a t i t s most extreme, the a t t i t u d e f o s t e r e d by the map induces a kind 5 of s c h i z o p h r e n i a by persuading i t s user to b e l i e v e t h a t the world can be transformed i n t o an o b j e c t . The conceptual model of r e a l i t y p rovided by the map may thus c o n t r i b u t e to the r i g i d l y d u a l i s t i c p h ilosophy which has enabled "[Western] c i v i l i z a t i o n to confirm i t s a b s o l u t e space of reasonableness, c l e a n l i n e s s , freedom and wealth, p r e c i s e l y by c r e a t i n g e q u a l l y a b s o l u t e but s e a l e d - o f f spaces of madness, d i r t , s l a v e r y and pov e r t y " (17). Vernon's argument i s o v e r s t a t e d , but i n s t r u c t i v e i n so f a r as i t emphasizes the map's tendency towards s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . For maps are n e c e s s a r i l y s i m p l i f i e d models of the environment they represent; however e l a b o r a t e t h e i r 'modelling system', they remain g e n e r a l i z e d , incomplete 2 and r e l a t i v i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of r e a l i t y . The concept of a 'modelling system' i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the Russian s e m i o t i c i a n Y u r i Lotman. A l l t e x t s , says Lotman, are c o d i f i e d m o d e l l i n g systems; maps are examples of p l o t l e s s t e x t s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r d e f i n i t e order of i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i l e p l o t t e d t e x t s "cross the f o r b i d d e n border which the p l o t l e s s s t r u c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e s " (239). Maps may a c q u i r e a p l o t , however; f o r example, suggests Lotman: " i f we draw a l i n e across the map to i n d i c a t e .. the p o s s i b l e a i r or sea routes, the t e x t then assumes a p l o t : an a c t i o n w i l l have been i n t r o d u c e d which surmounts the s t r u c t u r e " (239). Maps possess t e x t u a l p r o p e r t i e s , but they may On the d i s t o r t i v e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s of maps as 'modelling systems' see a l s o J.S. Keates, Understanding Maps (London: Longman, 1982) esp. Part One: 12-61. A l s o Mark Monmonier, Maps, D i s t o r t i o n and Meaning (Washington: AAG, 1977). 6 a l s o become t e x t u a l events; the act of reading the map t h e r e f o r e does not r e s t r i c t i t s e l f to the decoding of the model, but i n v o l v e s i t s e l f i n the f u r t h e r recoding of the mo d e l l i n g system. Two c a r t o g r a p h i c t h e o r i s t s informed by Lotman's s e m i o t i c s are Denis Wood and John F e l s . For Wood and F e l s , every map i s at once a s y n t h e s i s of s i g n s and a s i g n i n i t s e l f : an instrument of d e p i c t i o n - of o b j e c t s , events, p l a c e s - and an instrument of pe r s u a s i o n -about these, i t s makers, and i t s e l f . L i k e any other s i g n , i t i s the product of codes: conventions t h a t p r e s c r i b e r e l a t i o n s of content and e x p r e s s i o n i n a given s e m i o t i c circumstance. (54) In much the same way as Lotman d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the syntagmatic ( i n t e r n a l ) and paradigmatic (external) codes which inform the l i t e r a r y t e x t , Wood and F e l s d i s t i n g u i s h between the " i n t r a s i g n i f i c a n t " codes which "govern the formation of the c a r t o g r a p h i c i c o n , the deployment of v i s i b l e language, and the scheme of t h e i r j o i n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " and the " e x t r a s i g n i f i c a n t " codes which "govern the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of e n t i r e maps as s i g n v e h i c l e s f o r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e x p r e s s s i o n - of va l u e s , goals, a e s t h e t i c s and s t a t u s - as the means of modern myth" (54). The map's s t a t u s as a model depends, then, on the coherence of i t s i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e , but a l s o on the degree and scope of i t s e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e . Wood and F e l s ' s reminder that maps may assume m y t h i c a l s t a t u s through the f o r c e of t h e i r s i g n p r o d u c t i o n does not c o n t r a d i c t t h e i r c a p a c i t y to model the " r e a l world;" i t merely emphasizes the p o t e n t i a l f o r disc r e p a n c y between the model (or m o d e l l i n g system) and the " r e a l i t y " r e presented by the model. 7 ( i i ) The Map as Document Wood and F e l s ' s r e f e r e n c e to the mythmaking p o t e n t i a l of maps s e r v e s an an admonitory reminder of t h e i r c o n t i n g e n t s t a t u s as h i s t o r i c a l documents. Since t h e i r rudimentary b e g i n n i n g s , maps have o f t e n r e l i e d more on c o n j e c t u r e than on f a c t . Indeed many a n c i e n t and medieval maps d i d not s e t out to r e c o r d f a c t at a l l , but to r e i n f o r c e b e l i e f . Thus, i n the t h e o c e n t r i c T-0 ( o r b i s terrarum) maps of the Middle Ages, Jerusalem was p l a c e d a t the c e n t r e of a s p h e r i c a l u n i v e r s e , w h i l e i n o t h e r , h i g h l y schematized maps from the same p e r i o d , p e r f e c t c e l e s t i a l realms were l o c a t e d , w i t h r i c h embellishment, above i m p e r f e c t t e r r e s t r i a l worlds (Thrower 34). P s a l t e r Manuscript I s i d o r e of S e v i l l e , 1475 ca. 1225 F i g . 1 Medieval T-0 Maps S i g n i f i c a n t changes, however, were to f o l l o w the d i s c o v e r i e s of the Age of E x p l o r a t i o n and the development of c a r t o g r a p h i c instruments and t e c h n i q u e s i n s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Europe. A combination of s c i e n t i f i c r i g o u r and e x p l o r a t o r y z e a l , c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the r e v i v a l of Ptolemy's p r o j e c t i o n s and the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s of America and of a s e a - r o u t e to I n d i a , r e i n f o r c e d the i n t e l l e c t u a l a u t h o r i t y and commercial success of Renaissance Europe. The improved measuring t e c h n i q u e s of the w o r l d maps of t h i s p e r i o d , the most famous be i n g M e r c a t o r ' s (1569), paved the way f o r the development of s p e c i a l i z e d t o p o g r a p h i c , h y d r o g r a p h i c and t h e m a t i c mapping F i g . 2 Mercator's World Map. 1569 9 t r a d i t i o n s i n the seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . D e s p i t e the p r o g r e s s of the S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n , however, l a t e Renaissance and e a r l y Enlightenment maps were s t i l l r i d d l e d w i t h e r r o r s and f a n c i f u l c o n jecture.. S w i f t ' s s a t i r i c a l v e r s e pokes fun a t the extravagance of seventeenth c e n t u r y c a r t o g r a p h y : So geographers, i n Af r i c - m a p s With s a v a g e - p i c t u r e s f i l l t h e i r gaps: And o'er u n i n h a b i t a b l e downs P l a c e e l e p h a n t s f o r want of towns. F i g . 3 D e t a i l from map of A b y s s i n i a , L u d o l f i , 16b3 Mapmaking c o u l d h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d a f r i v o l o u s a c t i v i t y , however; the Renaissance S p a n i a r d s , f o r i n s t a n c e , l e a d e r s i n the e x p l o r a t i o n of the New World, d e s t r o y e d or bought up and h i d whole e d i t i o n s of books and maps because they were c o n s i d e r e d t o d i s s e m i n a t e the wrong k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n : as the h i s t o r i a n of ca r t o g r a p h y , L l o y d Brown, remarks, "there was always a p r i s o n c e l l or a l i t t l e machine w a i t i n g f o r the author and p u b l i s h e r of c o n f i d e n t i a l maps and c h a r t s " ( 9 ) . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , g i v e n t h i s r i g o r o u s c e n s o r s h i p , many of the maps and c h a r t s which s u r v i v e from the p e r i o d are m i s c e l l a n e o u s and u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d . 10 Maps based on the systems of Ptolemy and Mercator continued to mix f r e e l y f a c t with f a b l e ; they were a l s o f r e e l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d , or a r t f u l l y doctored, by t h e i r users. The h i s t o r y of cartography had become a h i s t o r y of c o n t r a c t u a l abuse between mapmaker and mapuser; as a r e s u l t , the documentary value of the map was eroded, and the "evidence" i t presented d i s t o r t e d , w i l f u l l y a l t e r e d , abridged, or censored -i f i t had ever been ac c u r a t e i n the f i r s t p l a c e . The s t o r y of maps, l e s s dramatic perhaps than the s t o r y of g e o g r a p h i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y , i s not without i t s share of adventure. Brown, f o r example, r e t e l l s the s t o r y of Robert Thome's s t o l e n map of the West Indies, s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y s p i r i t e d away to h i s n a t i v e England w i t h the accompanying warning: [It] i s not to be shewed or communicated... For though there i s nothing i n i t p r e j u d i c i a l l to the Emperour, yet i t may be a cause of paine to the maker: as w e l l f o r that none may make these Cardes [ c h a r t s ] , but c e r t a i n e appointed and allowed f o r masters, as f o r that peradventure i t would not sound w e l l to them, t h a t a stranger should know or d i s c o v e r t h e i r s e c r e t e s : and would appeare worst of a l l , i f they understand t h a t I w r i t e touching the s h o r t way to the s p i e e r i e by our Seas. (8-9) T h i s s p l e n d i d i n s t a n c e of c a r t o g r a p h i c i n t r i g u e i l l u s t r a t e s the i n v a l u a b l e r o l e played by maps i n the economic expansion of Europe. Seventeenth-century n a u t i c a l c h a r t s t r a c i n g routes between Europe and the t r a d i n g - p o s t s of the East t y p i f i e d the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of geographic i n f o r m a t i o n f o r economic g a i n ; s i m i l a r l y , the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s c o v e r y of new lands, a i d e d i n no small measure by the r h e t o r i c which pronounced them ready f o r the p i c k i n g , a f f o r d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l , c o r p o r a t e or n a t i o n a l enrichment: as Chandra Mu k e r j i puts i t , "the mean-in g of l a n d as p r o p e r t y to be consumed and used by Europeans was w r i t t e n i n t o the language of maps j u s t as the meaning of the wo r l d as s i g n of God had been i n the l a t e Middle Ages" (31). The new s c i e n t i f i c c a r t o g r a p h y of the seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s can t h e r e f o r e be regarded as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the i m p e r i a l i s t expansion of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The map's v a l u e c o n s i s t e d not o n l y i n i t s p u t a t i v e a c c u r a c y as a document but a l s o i n i t s i n c r e a s i n g d e s i r a b i l i t y as a consumer good. I f the New Science l e n t a u t h o r i t y to the document, the d e s i r e f o r commercial expansion i n c r e a s e d i t s v a l u e as a commodity; a growing supply of maps and c h a r t s m a t e r i a l i z e d t o meet the consumer demands of the i n d i v i d u a l or c o r p o r a t e buyer and t o " f a c i l i t a t e the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of p a t t e r n s of tr a d e and p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l " (81). The map i t s e l f became a f a c i l i t a t o r of the p r o f i t - m a k i n g v e n t u r e and a pawn i n the s t r u g g l e f o r dominion; thus, whereas the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c a d a s t r a l ( e s t a t e ) map had f u n c t i o n e d as a symbol of p r i v a t e ownership^ the maps of the High I m p e r i a l i s t p e r i o d were t o become symbols of c o r p o r a t e g a i n or n a t i o n a l conquest. I m p e r i a l maps expressed the r e a l i t y of conquest w h i l e promoting and See W i l l i a m Boelhower's d i s c u s s i o n of the s e l f - g l o r i f y i n g r h e t o r i c of g e o g r a p h i c a l ' d i s c o v e r y ' and e x p l o r a t i o n i n Through a G l a s s D a r k l y : E t h n i c Semiosis i n American L i t e r a t u r e (NY: OUP, iy«/) esp. 44-bU. For Boelhower, the f u n c t i o n of the f i r s t maps of America was not "to r e p o r t a p l a c e but to impose an idea of p l a c e on the new c o n t i n e n t ... f i t ] was above a l l a n a t i o n a l s i g n a t u r e of p o s s e s s i o n and a p u b l i c d e c l a r a t i o n of the r i g h t to s e t t l e m e n t " (48) . 1 2 l e g i t i m i z i n g the i d e a of Empire; moreover, as J.B. Harley remarks, "the g r a p h i c nature of the map gave i t s i m p e r i a l users an a r b i t r a r y power t h a t was e a s i l y d i v o r c e d from the s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and consequences of i t s e x e r c i s e . The world c o u l d be carved up on paper" (282). In the scramble f o r A f r i c a and other overseas c o l o n i e s , the map r e a l i z e d i t s p o t e n t i a l as a f o r m i d a b l e p o l i t i c a l weapon; i t s u t i l i t y i n f o s t e r i n g the n o t i o n of a s o c i a l l y empty space was f u l l y e x p l o i t e d by the c o l o n i z e r s of the new " v i r g i n " l a n d s and by the commercial and g e o p o l i t i c a l agents of i m p e r i a l i s m i n c o u n t r i e s such as A f r i c a and I n d i a which, though densely populated, c o u l d be i m p e r s o n a l l y r e f a s h i o n e d f o r the purposes of p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l and economic gain. F i g . 4 Map of the Imperial F e d e r a t i o n , 1886 13 ( i i i ) The Map as Claim The f o r e g o i n g thumbnail s k e t c h of the h i s t o r y of cart o g r a p h y i s enough to emphasize the map's c o n s i d e r a b l e a u t h o r i t y as a c l a i m . The most obvious example of the p e r v e r s e p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s s t a t u s i s the propaganda map, which can be c o n s i d e r e d to r e p r e s e n t "a w i l f u l e x p l o i t a t i o n of the i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s of maps to d i s t o r t , exaggerate, or deny f a c t s " (Quam 22). Propaganda maps a r e designed to d e c e i v e ; r e a d i l y comprehensible but s u b t l y m a n i p u l a t i v e , they use the a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t a t u s and a l l e g e d n e u t r a l i t y of the map as means of r e i n f o r c i n g "the p e c u l i a r c r e d u l i t y with which maps are g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d " (Quam 32). The map's e f f i c a c y as a c l a i m , l i k e i t s impact as a p o l i t i c a l weapon, r e s t s on the combined e f f e c t of i t s d i v e r s e s t r a t e g i e s : the d e l i n e a t i o n and demarcation of t e r r i t o r y , the nomination and l o c a t i o n of p l a c e , THE AGGRESSOR. NATIOH? ,2 6% OF THE WORLD, T H E B R I T I S H E M - P I R E F i g . 5 Propaganda Map, F a c t s i n Review, Apr. 5, 1940 14 the i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n of d e t a i l w i t h i n a p r e s e t framework, the choice of s c a l e , format and design, and so on. Many of these s t r a t e g i e s are obvious, but some are s u b l i m i n a l , r e f l e c t i n g the s u b t l e t y with which maps operate as forms of s o c i a l knowledge or as agents of p o l i t i c a l expediency. In h i s e x c e l l e n t essay "Maps, Knowledge and Power", J.B. Harley o u t l i n e s what he c a l l s , a f t e r Foucault, the "hidden r u l e s " of 4 cartography. The " s i l e n c e s " , " p o s i t i o n a l enhancements" and " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i e s " of maps exemplify the ways i n which, c o n s c i o u s l y or unco n s c i o u s l y , mapmakers betray s o c i a l s t a t u s , c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e , or p o l i t i c a l i n t e n t . S i l e n c e s r e f e r to small but s i g n i f i c a n t omissions of d e t a i l or, i n some cases, s u b s t a n t i a l e x c l u s i o n s of censored m a t e r i a l which b e l i e the supposed i m p a r t i a l i t y of the map, l i n k i n g i t i n s t e a d t o myths of c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y or " e n s h r i n i n g s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c i e s about the geography of power" (292). P o s i t i o n a l enhancements r e f e r to adjustments i n l o c a t i o n or p r o j e c t i o n which, as i n the t h e o c e n t r i c maps of the Middle Ages or the E u r o c e n t r i c maps of the Renaissance, focus the mapreader's a t t e n t i o n on the centre, thereby promoting or p r o c l a i m i n g the supremacy of a p a r t i c u l a r worldview. R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i e s , f i n a l l y , r e f e r to the ranking of v i s u a l s i g n s i n maps so as to promote or confirm s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l or r e l i g i o u s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s . The hidden r u l e s of cartography c o n t r i b u t e to the map's Harley acknowledges h i s source from F o u c a u l t ' s Les Mots et  l e s choses ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1966). 15 s t a t u s as a symbol of p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y . By de-emphasizing or e x c l u d i n g m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t s , maps r e v e a l themselves as "preeminently a language of power, not of p r o t e s t . . . t h e i d e o l o g i c a l arrows have tended t o f l y l a r g e l y i n one d i r e c t i o n , from the powerful to the weaker i n s o c i e t y . The s o c i a l h i s t o r y of maps...appears to have few genuinely popular, a l t e r n a t i v e , or s u b v e r s i v e modes of e x p r e s s i o n " (300-301). Although the map's a u t h o r i t y has been p e r i o d i c a l l y c h a l l e n g e d by those who read i t s c l a i m to v e r a c i t y as a d i s g u i s e d e x p r e s s i o n of the w i l l to power, the v o i c e s of the c h a l l e n g e r s have o f t e n gone unheard; the map has engendered a language of p r o t e s t without compromising i t s own language of power. By now g i v i n g v o i c e to a t r i o of d i s s i d e n t groups who chall e n g e the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l accuracy, the h i s t o r i c a l a u t h e n t i c i t y , and the p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y of the map, I s h a l l demonstrate f u r t h e r t h a t maps are u l t i m a t e l y n e i t h e r copies nor semblances of r e a l i t y but modes of d i s c o u r s e which r e f l e c t and a r t i c u l a t e the i d e o l o g i e s of t h e i r makers. (2) C h a l l e n g i n g the Map (i) The Feminist Challenge Although e x p l i c i t l y a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n t h e i r mode of exp r e s s i o n , maps may be read i n ways which con t e s t rather than confirm t h e i r d i s c u r s i v e c l a i m s . An example of t h i s c o n t e s t a t o r y reading i s pro v i d e d by f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s / c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s who view the e t h n o c e n t r i c tendencies of the map, i t s makers' c h o i c e to d i s p l a c e what they cannot accommodate, as an 16 analogue f o r the m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n of women i n p a t r i a r c h a l c u l t u r e . "The map i s not the t e r r i t o r y , " w r i t e s Canadian poet Betsy Warland i n an i r o n i c r e j o i n d e r to Korzybski, "when d i d we o r i g i n a t e / a r e we a d i s p l a c e d c i v i l i z a t i o n ? . . . our country/our bodies/edge/boundaries of v i c i o u s n e s s : each country's c o n v i c t i o n t o c o l o n i z e us". Warland's gesture of angry d e n i a l f i n d s support i n the t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n taken up by f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s such as Helene Cixous. Cixous equates male w r i t i n g w i t h 'marked' w r i t i n g , the p a t r i a r c h a l d i s c o u r s e which a u t h o r i z e s i t s e l f by 'marking' the female v o i c e as Other. Cixous 1 c l a i m i s t h a t : presque toute l ' h i s t o i r e de l ' e c r i t u r e se confond avec l ' h i s t o i r e de l a r a i s o n dont e l l e a ete a l a f o i s l ' e f f e t , l e s o u t i e n , et un des a l i b i s p r i v i l e g i e s . E l l e a ete homogene a l a t r a d i t i o n p h a l l o c e n t r i q u e . E l l e e st meme l e p h a l l o -centrisme q u i se regarde, qui j o u i t de lui-meme et se f e l i c i t e . (42) To i n s c r i b e t h e i r own f e m i n i n i t y , women must t h e r e f o r e break with t h i s t r a d i t i o n and the r a t i o n a l e which nu r t u r e s i t . The s t r a t e g i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of mapping: s t r i c t c o d i f i c a t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n , e n c l o s u r e , e x c l u s i o n , are p r e c i s e l y the s t r a t e g i e s Cixous wishes t o counter, f o r , i n her o p i n i o n , t i l est] i m p o s s i b l e de d e f i n i r une p r a t i q u e feminine de l ' e c r i t u r e , d'une i m p o s s i b i l i t e q u i se mainti e n d r a car on ne pourra jamais t h e o r i s e r c e t t e p r a t i q u e , l'enfermer, l a coder.... e l l e excedera t o u j o u r s l e d i s c o u r s q u i r e g i t l e systeme p h a l l o c e n t r i q u e ; e l l e a et aura l i e u a i l l e u r s que dans l e s t e r r i t o i r e s subordonnees a l a domination p h i l o s o p h i q u e - t h e o r i q u e . (45) The map operates i n t h i s sense as a dual paradigm f o r the p h a l l o c e n t r i c d i s c o u r s e which i n s c r i b e s woman, and the r a t i o n a l i s t i c d i s c o u r s e which i n s c r i b e s the land, as 'Other'. P r e d i c a t e d on the p r i n c i p l e of the bin a r y o p p o s i t i o n , these two 17 mutually s u p p o r t i v e d i s c u r s i v e systems l e g i t i m i z e the subservience of woman as a ' l o g i c a l ' c o u n t e r p a r t to the conquest of nature: woman, l i k e the land, becomes an enslaved o b j e c t of male r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . To i n s c r i b e t h e i r own subjecthood, suggests Cixous, women must ch a l l e n g e the paradigms inform i n g p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , d i s p l a c i n g , undermining, and e v e n t u a l l y d i s c r e d i t i n g the p r o p o s i t i o n s put forward by the p a t r i a r c h a l system. The connection between p a t r i a r c h y and a t e l e o l o g i c a l "language of p r o p o s i t i o n " i n which "meaning, o r i g i n , and forming [are] p o s i t e d as the l i m i t of any attempt at c l a r i f i c a t i o n " (280-1) has been explored by J u l i a K r i s t e v a . K r i s t e v a claims t h a t the s t r u c t u r e of language, and the v i a b i l i t y of the p r o p o s i t i o n s i t puts forward, depend on the "metaphysical s o l i d a r i t y " of the logos, which f u n c t i o n s as both source (arche) and goal ( t e l o s ) of l i n g u i s t i c a c t i v i t y . I f the s t a t u s of the logos i s c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n , however, the s t r u c t u r e i t informs and the p r o p o s i t i o n s i t supports are undermined; i f i t i s then i d e n t i f i e d as the lo c u s of male a u t h o r i t y , the homogenizing c a t e g o r i e s of p a t r i a r c h a l d i s c o u r s e ( i t s meaning, o r i g i n , and forming, to r e t a i n K r i s t e v a * s terms) are subverted. Since the s t r u c t u r e can no lo n g e r be p e r c e i v e d as u n i f i e d , the p r o p o s i t i o n s i t encapsulates l o s e t h e i r a u t h o r i t y ; what remains, however, i s not a t o t a l breakdown i n s i g n i f i c a t i o n (a lapse i n t o the meaningless) but an opening-up of the f i e l d of s i g n i f i c a t i o n (a newly recognized p e r m i s s i v e n e s s which a f f o r d s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l t e r n a t i v e 18 meanings). The s t r a t e g y of displacement I have j u s t o u t l i n e d i n s i m p l i f i e d form here i s c o u n t e r - d i s c u r s i v e ; t h a t i s t o say, i t both subverts e s t a b l i s h e d or dominant d i s c u r s i v e modes and p r o v i d e s the impetus f o r new or p r e v i o u s l y outlawed forms of 5 e x p r e s s i o n . I f displacement i s regarded as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r new, f o r m e r l y suppressed or d i s a l l o w e d p r o j e c t i o n s of s e l f , women can be seen i n t h i s sense both as mapbreakers engaged i n the d i s m a n t l i n g of a p a t r i a r c h a l system of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and a s mapmakers i n v o l v e d i n the p l o t t i n g of new c o o r d i n a t e s f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of knowledge and experience. T h i s dual n o t i o n of mapbreaking/mapmaking i s perhaps most c l e a r l y demonstrated i n the work of the American f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t A l i c e J a r d i n e . J a r d i n e views the map as a p a t r i a r c h a l metaphor o p e r a t i n g i n tandem with the t r a d i t i o n a l d e v i c e s of Western r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , mimesis and C a r t e s i a n d i a l e c t i c . The c r i s i s of modernity, however, argues J a r d i n e , has brought wi t h i t "a f i g u r a t i v e c o n f u s i o n " (88): the frame once h e l d together by the "Big Dichotomies" has been damaged or dismantled; the s t a t u s of mimetic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d i s c r e d i t e d ; the d i a l e c t i c d i s p l a c e d . The c l e a r l i n e s on o l d p a t r i a r c h a l maps have become b l u r r e d or e f f a c e d ; new c o n f i g u r a t i o n s have emerged under the s i g n of " g y n e s i s , " a term d e f i n e d by J a r d i n e as "a new kind of Cf. Richard Terdiman's d e f i n i t i o n of c o u n t e r - d i s c o u r s e as a set of s t r a t e g i e s which " r e l a t i v i z e the a u t h o r i t y and s t a b i l i t y of a dominant system of u t t e r a n c e s " (15-16). Note a l s o Terdiman's conception of c o u n t e r - d i s c o u r s e as a "fragmented mapping" of "the i n t e r n a l incoherence of the seemingly u n i v o c a l and monumental i n s t i t u t i o n of dominant d i s c o u r s e " (77). 19 w r i t i n g on the woman's body, a map of new spaces y e t to be explored, with 'woman' s u p p l y i n g the only d i r e c t i o n " (52) . By "woman," J a r d i n e r e f e r s not to the c o l l e c t i v e s t a t e or s t a t u s of womankind but to "a new r h e t o r i c a l space i n the era of p o s t - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " (48) . The "woman-as-Other" paradigm has become outmoded, claims J a r d i n e ; "woman" has consequently i n s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as a "process i n t r i n s i c t o the c o n d i t i o n of modernity" (52) . T h i s process i s e s s e n t i a l l y d e s t a b i l i z i n g ; thus, w h i l e J a r d i n e views gynesis as the g e s t u r a l e q u i v a l e n t of "a mapping of p o s s i b l e new c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of woman and modernity" (264), she makes i t c l e a r that the new maps, u n l i k e the o l d , w i l l not submit to r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n or u n i f o r m i t y of ex p r e s s i o n . So, although the p r o j e c t n e c e s s i t a t e s the t r a n s p o s i t i o n of "boundaries and spaces now t a n g l e d i n a f i g u r a t i v e c o n f u s i o n " (88) , i t a l s o i n v o l v e s the t r a n s g r e s s i o n of boundaries and the t r a v e r s a l of new, p r e v i o u s l y unexplored . . . 6 t e r r i t o r i e s . Cf. the n o t i o n of ' t r a n s g r e s s i v e ' w r i t i n g put forward ( v i a Barthes) by Don Anderson i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s e d i t i o n of short f i c t i o n A u s t r a l i a n W r i t i n g Now (Ringwood: Penguin, 1986). Anderson's remarks about contemporary w r i t i n g i n A u s t r a l i a are of wider relevance to the v a r i o u s c o n t e s t a t o r y v o i c e s of women, r e g i o n a l and e t h n i c w r i t e r s seeking t o d i s p u t e or subvert the dominant i d e o l o g i e s of the mainstream: "I would be happy i f much of the w r i t i n g i n t h i s volume were found t o be c o n t e s t a t o r y : of dominant r h e t o r i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s i n w r i t i n g no l e s s than of dominant s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s . . . [ f o r ] t r u l y contemporary w r i t i n g cuts a c r o s s the doxa, cu t s a c r o s s r e c e i v e d o p i n i o n . To subvert dominant l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e s and dominant l i n g u i s t i c and r h e t o r i c a l p a t t e r n s i s a l s o t o subvert dominant i d e o l o g i e s . " (Anderson ix) 20 The n o t i o n of the boundary has had, and continues to have, f a r - r e a c h i n g t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f e m i n i s t s i n the f i e l d s of philosophy, l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r y and s o c i a l s c i e n c e . In her recent study of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between gender, c u l t u r e , and f i c t i o n , Roberta R u b i n s t e i n draws a p a r a l l e l between the development of human consciousness and the d e f i n i t i o n of a p s y c h i c geography whose "personal boundaries [are] mapped i n r e l a t i o n to the emotional f i e l d s of other people" (5). R u b i n s t e i n goes on to d i s t i n g u i s h between i n t e r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l boundaries, s t r e s s i n g the need f o r a r e d e f i n i t i o n of the boundaries of s e l f h o o d i n p a t r i a r c h a l , e t h n o c e n t r i c s o c i e t i e s where gender and/or e t h n i c s t a t u s i s muted by the dominant d i s c o u r s e . The s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t S h i r l e y Ardener a l s o argues f o r a r e v i s i o n of the n o t i o n of the boundary i n s o c i e t i e s where men c o n t r o l and dominate space. Since the p h y s i c a l world i s l a r g e l y d e f i n e d through s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n s of i t , says Ardener, s o c i e t i e s have generated t h e i r own r u l e s , c u l t u r a l l y determined, f o r making boundaries on the ground, and have d i v i d e d the s o c i a l i n t o spheres, l e v e l s and t e r r i t o r i e s with i n v i s i b l e fences and p l a t f o r m s to be s c a l e d by a b s t r a c t l a d d e r s and c r o s s e d by i n t a n g i b l e b r i d g e s . (11-12) But these " s o c i a l maps" governing the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s between people i n space do not n e c e s s a r i l y correspond to the "ground r u l e s " which govern the p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s i n space; the problem i s compounded i n s o c i e t i e s where space i s c o n c e p t u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d , s o c i a l l y ordered, and 21 p h y s i c a l l y dominated by men. L i k e R u b i n s t e i n , Ardener emphasizes t h a t the c r e a t i o n and maintenance of boundaries i s c u l t u r a l l y determined; p e r s o n a l or " s o c i a l " maps, t h e r e f o r e , are not only conceptual models; they are a l s o c u l t u r a l c o n s t r u c t s whose r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l , h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s depends on modes of c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n f i l t e r e d through and a r t i c u l a t e d by language. Maps can thus be con s i d e r e d as metaphors f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n and c o n t r o l of p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , or c u l t u r a l experience which operate as gauges of c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n and t h e r e f o r e p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n the process of s o c i a l change. The c o n t r i b u t o r y r o l e of s p a t i a l metaphors i n the e n g i n e e r i n g of s o c i a l change has been noted by the f e m i n i s t c r i t i c Annette Kolodny. In The Lay of the Land, f o r example, she analyzes the complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n , s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , and l i n g u i s t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the pioneer p e r i o d of American h i s t o r y . The success of the f i r s t American s e t t l e r s , argues Kolodny, "depended on the a b i l i t y to master the land, t r a n s f o r m i n g the v i r g i n t e r r i t o r i e s i n t o something e l s e - a farm, a v i l l a g e , a road, a c a n a l , a r a i l w a y , a mine, a f a c t o r y , a c i t y , and, f i n a l l y , an urban n a t i o n " (7). Yet i t a l s o depended on the v i a b i l i t y of c u l t u r a l myths disseminated through a range of metaphors f o r t r a n s f o r m i n g the w i l d e r n e s s . Mapping the new land, f o r i n s t a n c e , e n t a i l e d both p h y s i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and conceptual a p p r o p r i a t i o n ; s i m i l a r l y , i n metaphors such as "the p o s s e s s i o n of the v i r g i n 22 c o n t i n e n t , " the American s e t t l e r s s t r o v e to gain and m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l of t h e i r environment through the e x p r e s s i o n of a p a s t o r a l myth. The terms of the myth r e i n f o r c e d the p a t r i a r c h a l v a l u e s of the c u l t u r e : s e t t i n g out to d e f i n e , c o n t r o l and e v e n t u a l l y "conquer" h i s t e r r i t o r y , the "wilderness Adam" c o n c u r r e n t l y sought metaphors which would l e g i t i m i z e , and i f p o s s i b l e g l o r i f y , h i s muscular endeavours. The land-as-woman was one such metaphor; the map, by c o r o l l a r y , operated as a metaphorical agency of male c o n t r o l which came at once to j u s t i f y the do m e s t i c a t i o n of the co n t i n e n t and to ensure the c o n t i n u i n g d o m e s t i c i t y of women. The t r a n s f o r m a t i v e c a p a c i t y of metaphor t h e r e f o r e became a means of c e l e b r a t i n g the p r o g r e s s i v i s t e x p l o i t s of the male pioneer w h i l e negating the r o l e of women i n e n g i n e e r i n g s o c i a l change. I have suggested t h a t s e v e r a l options are open to women i n t h e i r challenge to the p a t r i a r c h a l a u t h o r i t y i n v e s t e d i n the map: they may choose to r e j e c t the map o u t r i g h t as a symbol of a u t h o r i t y or as a mode of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , or to accept the paradigm but a l t e r i t s terms of ref e r e n c e , making the map, f o r example, a v e h i c l e f o r the o r g a n i s a t i o n and c e l e b r a t o r y e x p r e s s i o n of female experience. The range of p o s s i b l e responses i s i n d i c a t e d by the a d a p t a b i l i t y of key c a r t o g r a p h i c terms such as the boundary; f o r boundaries may be p e r c e i v e d as means of e x c l u s i o n , symbolic d e v i c e s f o r the m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n of women i n p a t r i a r c h a l c u l t u r e , or as means of t e r r i t o r i a l d e l i m i t a t i o n which allow women to d e f i n e t h e i r own space or to giv e shape to t h e i r own experience. 23 ( i i ) The R e g i o n a l i s t Challenge A s i m i l a r s et of o p t i o n s i s open to the r e g i o n a l i s t , who may wish to d i s c r e d i t the n a t i o n a l map or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , to r e a l i g n i t i n accordance with the experience of h i s / h e r own c u l t u r e group. Emily Toth has noted the l i n k between the su b v e r s i v e and/or r e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s of r e g i o n a l i s m and those of feminism. 7 Toth draws an analogy between r e g i o n a l i s m and the female i m a g i n a t i o n : the woman w r i t e r , l i k e the r e g i o n a l w r i t e r , tends t o be p e r c e i v e d as p e r i p h e r a l to the mainstream of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y . P e r c e p t i o n i s the key term here; f o r i t i s c l e a r t h at one person's (or group's) margin may be p e r c e i v e d as another person's (or group's) c e n t r e and t h a t , furthermore, p e r c e p t i o n s of both margin and c e n t r e may a l t e r r a d i c a l l y over time. The work of Downs and Stea, and Gould and White, on c o g n i t i v e mapping procedures i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e to the study of the e f f e c t of p e r c e p t i o n on r e g i o n a l imbalance. C o g n i t i v e mapping, i n Downs and Stea's f o r m u l a t i o n , r e f e r s t o "those c o g n i t i v e or mental a b i l i t i e s t h a t enable us t o c o l l e c t , o r g a n ize, s t o r e , r e c a l l , and manipulate i n f o r m a t i o n about the s p a t i a l environment" (6). A c o g n i t i v e , or mental, map, i s d e f i n e d as "a person's o r g a n i s e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of some p a r t of the s p a t i a l environment... a c r o s s s e c t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g the world at one i n s t a n t i n time. I t r e f l e c t s the world as people b e l i e v e i t to be; i t need not be c o r r e c t . In f a c t , d i s t o r t i o n s Emily Toth, ed. Regionalism and the Female Imagination (NY: Human Sciences Press, 1985) esp. i n t r o . 24 are h i g h l y l i k e l y " (6). Gould and White demonstrate t h i s c a p a c i t y f o r d i s t o r t i o n i n t h e i r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the mental maps of a s e l e c t e d group of Canadian and American hi g h - s c h o o l students. " O u t l y i n g " r e g i o n s are reduced, b l u r r e d , or excluded a l t o g e t h e r , while " c e n t r a l " r e g i o n s are enlarged, d e t a i l e d and more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . Gould and White's s t u d i e s l e n d weight to Yi-Fu Tuan's t h e s i s t h a t "human beings, i n d i v i d -u a l l y or i n groups, tend to p e r c e i v e the world w i t h ' s e l f as the c e n t r e " (30); they a l s o i n d i c a t e the extent t o which both p e r s o n a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y manufactured maps are e m o t i o n a l l y c o l o u r e d . The s c a l e of a mental map, f o r example, tends t o be graded a c c o r d i n g t o i t s l e v e l of emotional i n t e n s i t y rather than i t s degree of s c i e n t i f i c accuracy. I f mental maps i n e v i t a b l y d i s t o r t the environment they concep-t u a l i z e , they a l s o s i m p l i f y i t , u s u a l l y reducing i t i n t o a s e r i e s of e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e , o f t e n s t e r e o t y p i c a l , landmarks. But mental maps are not n e c e s s a r i l y simple; indeed they may be h i g h l y complex, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s o c i e t i e s r e l i a n t on d i r e c t v i s u a l experience rather than on mediated g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n . U s u a l l y , however, they are embodiments of s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s , and as o f t e n as not s i g n i f i c a n t r e g i s t e r s of c u l t u r a l p r e j u d i c e . To a gr e a t e r extent than p r o f e s s i o n a l l y made maps, which b e n e f i t from the gr e a t e r accuracy p r o v i d e d by t e c h n i c a l equipment, mental maps f e a t u r e the hidden r u l e s of cartography: s i l e n c e s , p o s i t i o n a l enhancements, and s p a t i a l h i e r a r c h i e s which, unchecked by the v e r i f i c a t o r y procedures of s c i e n c e , g i v e f u l l 25 r e i n t o p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e s . Mental maps are a l s o c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h , and sometimes d i r e c t l y e x p r e s s i v e of, the n o t i o n of r e g i o n a l i s m , which I s h a l l d e f i n e i n i t i a l l y here as t h a t set of a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , circumstances and t h e i r emotional c o l o r a t i o n s which allow one ( u s u a l l y l a r g e r or more powerful) group to dominate other ( u s u a l l y s m a l l e r or l e s s powerful) groups or, c o n v e r s e l y , which enable one (or more) of these l a t t e r groups to i d e n t i f y i t s e l f . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , the derogatory term " r e g i o n a l " r e i n f o r c e s the c u l t u r a l p r e r o g a t i v e of the p e r c e i v e r ; i n the second, " r e g i o n a l i s m " becomes the means by which the p e r c e i v e r s t r i v e s t o a s s e r t a l o c a l i z e d i d e n t i t y . In both i n s t a n c e s , the p e r c e i v e r 1 s mental map i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the d e s i g n a t i o n of boundaries; f o r the c e n t r i s t , r e g i o n denotes t e r r i t o r y l y i n g e i t h e r o u t s i d e or at the l i m i t s of h i s own p r e s c r i b e d boundaries; f o r the r e g i o n a l i s t , i t denotes personal or, more f r e q u e n t l y , shared t e r r i t o r y c o n tained w i t h i n boundaries which are u s u a l l y more narrowly d e f i n e d . But the f u n c t i o n of the boundary f o r the r e g i o n a l i s t , as f o r the f e m i n i s t , i s ambivalent: so w h i l e on the one hand boundaries may be p e r c e i v e d as necessary f o r the d e l i m i t a t i o n of p r i v a t e or c o l l e c t i v e experience, on the other they may be considered as s t r a t e g i e s of containment which have enabled other, dominant c u l t u r e groups to achieve and m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l . In e i t h e r case, however, r e g i o n a l i s m has i n e s c a p a b l e p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , f o r the primary concern i s o f t e n "not so much with p l a c e as w i t h power; w i t h p e r c e i v e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s , with l i n e s of connection and a u t h o r i t y - and not so much with 26 the nature of power as with the p o s s e s s i o n or placement of power. So place remains important but comes t o e x i s t as a metaphor of s t r u c t u r e " (New 5 ) . Hence, I would argue, the f a s c i n a t i o n of r e g i o n a l w r i t e r s with the f i g u r e of the map; f o r the map i s , a f t e r a l l , a metaphor of s t r u c t u r e whose own l i n e s of connection and a u t h o r i t y are contained w i t h i n a d e f i n i t e and ap p a r e n t l y coherent framework. The n o t i o n of l i t e r a r y r e g i o n a l i s m , then, cannot be d e f i n e d s o l e l y by i t s e x p r e s s i o n of a range of responses t o the p a r t i c u l a r i t y of p l a c e , but by i t s choice of s p a t i a l metaphors t o evoke that p a r t i c u l a r i t y and by the s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s of those metaphors as they i n t e r a c t with one another and w i t h i n the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of the t e x t . The use of the map as metaphor, however, i s i n h e r e n t l y p r o b l e m a t i c : f i r s t , because maps c o n t a i n and r e s t r i c t , as w e l l as org a n i z e and o r i e n t , space; and, second, because maps support the n o t i o n of a t o t a l , " c l o s e d " s t r u c t u r e , a n o t i o n c u r r e n t l y c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n by l i t e r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l t h e o r i s t s , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s 9 a l i k e . So, i f the " t r u l y r e g i o n a l v o i c e , " as i n New's o p i n i o n , i s one th a t " d e c l a r e s an i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e " (6), i s i t not a l s o l i k e l y to be one that q u e s t i o n s the t o t a l i t y of See, i n the Canadian context, Arthur Adamson's essay " I d e n t i t y Through Metaphor: An Approach to the Question of Regionalism i n Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , " S t u d i e s i n Canadian  L i t e r a t u r e 5.1 (1980): 83-99. q A u s e f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o contemporary c r i t i q u e of the ' u n i f y i n g ' s t r u c t u r e i s Jacques D e r r i d a ' s essay "La S t r u c t u r e , l e signe et l e j e u dans l e d i s c o u r s des s c i e n c e s humaines," i n L ' E c r i t u r e et l a d i f f e r e n c e ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1967) 409-428. 27 the d e f i n i n g s t r u c t u r e , the immobility of the designated c e n t r e , or even the coherence and completeness of the l i t e r a r y t e x t ? As n o t i o n s of c e n t r e and p e r i p h e r y are r e d e f i n e d , " r e g i o n " may t h e r e f o r e come to denote the semantic s l i p p a g e between d e f i n i t i o n s of p l a c e r a t h e r than the c i r c u m s c r i b e d a s s e r t i o n of l o c a l i d e n t i t y . " ^ Furthermore, t h i s s l i p p a g e may be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the c o u n t e r - d i s c u r s i v e s t r a t e g i e s which enact what Raymond W i l l i a m s has c a l l e d "an u n l e a r n i n g of the i n h e r e n t dominative mode" (335). Thus, l i k e t h a t c l u s t e r of d i s s i d e n t or r e v i s i o n a r y d i s c u r s i v e p o s i t i o n s taken up w i t h i n feminism, the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s put forward i n the name of r e g i o n a l i s m may be considered as "new c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , " r h e t o r i c a l spaces which d i s r u p t or d i s c r e d i t the n o t i o n of a " c e n t r a l " l o c u s of a u t h o r i t y . ( i i i ) The E t h n i c Challenge Another s e r i e s of new c o n f i g u r a t i o n s which have come to c h a l l e n g e the t e r r i t o r i a l imperative of the " c e n t r e " may be l o o s e l y bracketed under the heading " e t h n i c i t y " . E t h n i c i t y c l e a r l y means more than the e x p r e s s i o n of a d i s t i n c t i v e e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . As the s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Michael F i s c h e r has noted, there i s something p a r a d o x i c a l about the n o t i o n of e t h n i c i t y : " [ i t ] i s something r e i n v e n t e d and r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n each g e n e r a t i o n by each i n d i v i d u a l and...is o f t e n something Cf. R u s s e l l McDougall's d i s c u s s i o n of the r e g i o n as a l o c u s of ambiguity i n the l i t e r a r y t e x t i n "On L o c a t i o n : A u s t r a l i a n and Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , " True North/Down Under 4 (1985): 12-42. 28 q u i t e p u z z l i n g to the i n d i v i d u a l , something over which he or she l a c k s c o n t r o l " (195). The unstable emotional component and s h i f t i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of e t h n i c i t y make i t d i f f i -c u l t to d e f i n e c l e a r l y ; as a r e s u l t , the r h e t o r i c a l space occupied by e t h n i c i t y , l i k e those spaces occupied by feminism and r e g i o n a l i s m , i s f r e q u e n t l y ambivalent. E t h n i c i t y i s more c l o s e l y concerned w i t h t e r r i t o r i a l than w i t h c a r t o g r a p h i c p r i n c i p l e s : i t r e f e r s t o the e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i a l power and to the r e l a t i o n s between space and s o c i e t y rather than to the a b s t r a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a geographical e n v i r o n m e n t . ^ The s o c i a l l y motivated, o f t e n p o l i t i c a l l y manipulated, dimensions of the map i n d i c a t e a connection, however, between the expres-s i o n of e t h n i c i t y and the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of e t h n o c e n t r i c i t y . The connection i s , once again, by no means c l e a r - c u t . The e t h n i c should c e r t a i n l y not be equated w i t h the e t h n o c e n t r i c : the former expresses a " v i s i o n , both e t h i c a l and f u t u r e -o r i e n t e d " (196), the l a t t e r a p r e j u d i c e nurtured on myths of c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y " j u s t i f i e d " by a r e a l or imagined past. E t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups o f t e n c o n s i d e r , and d i s p u t e , ethno-Cf. Robert Sack's d e f i n i t i o n of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y as "a primary g e o g r a p h i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i a l power, " i n Human  T e r r i t o r i a l i t y : I t s Theory and H i s t o r y . Cambridge: CUP, 1986: 5. Sack d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the " b i o l o g i c a l " view of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y as an a g g r e s s i v e i n s t i n c t shared by humans wit h other animals eg. i n Robert Ardrey's The T e r r i t o r i a l  Imperative (NY: Atheneum, 1966) and h i s own " s o c i a l " view of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y as "a s p a t i a l s t r a t e g y to a f f e c t , i n f l u e n c e , or c o n t r o l resources and people by c o n t r o l l i n g a r e a " (1). A s i m i l a r approach to t e r r i t o r i a l i t y i s taken i n Guy D u b r e u i l and G i l b e r t Tarrab's C u l t u r e , t e r r i t o i r e et amenagement (Montreal, E d i t i o n s Georges l e Pape, 1976) . '• 29 c e n t r i c maps as modes of hegemonic d i s c o u r s e ; but they a l s o d e f i n e and designate t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y i n a gesture which can i t s e l f be p e r c e i v e d as e t h n o c e n t r i c . The g e o g r a p h i c a l map may t h e r e f o r e f u n c t i o n as a c a t a l y s t f o r e t h n i c d i s p u t e or as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l medium f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of e t h n i c s t a t u s . U s u a l l y , however, the e x p r e s s i o n of one or another form of e t h n i c t e r r i t o r i a l i t y i n v o l v e s a r e s i s t a n c e to the p e r c e i v e d p o l i t i c s of c a r t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s r e s i s t a n c e , as Michel de Certeau has p o i n t e d out, does not so much i n v o l v e a c h a l l e n g e to the terms of c a r t o g r a p h i c d i s c o u r s e as an i m p l i e d 12 r e f u s a l to operate w i t h i n them. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the t e r r i t o r i a l p r i n c i p l e s of the L a t i n American Indians, de Certeau demonstrates t h a t the d e s i g n a t i o n of a l o c u s p r o p r i u s . . enables, the  r e s i s t a n c e to a v o i d being disseminated i n the o c c u p i e r s ' power g r i d , t o a v o i d being captured by the dominating, i n t e r p r e t i v e systems of d i s c o u r s e . , i t maintains a d i f f e r e n c e rooted i n an a f f i l i a t i o n t h a t i s opaque and i n a c c e s s i b l e to both v i o l e n t a p p r o p r i a t i o n and l e a r n e d c o o p t a t i o n . I t i s the unspoken fo u n d a t i o n of a f f i r m a t i o n s t h a t have p o l i t i c a l meaning to the extent t h a t they are based on a r e a l i z a t i o n of coming from a d i f f e r e n t p l a c e .. on the p a r t of those whom the omnipresent conquerors dominate. (229; my emphasis) The same i s a l s o true of s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n e t h n i c w r i t i n g ; f o r , l i k e the f e m i n i s t or r e g i o n a l w r i t e r , the e t h n i c w r i t e r may focus on the d i s r u p t i v e a c t i v i t y of mapbreaking or on the r e c o n s t i t u t i v e a c t i v i t y of mapmaking but i s u s u a l l y Cf. Boelhower's d e f i n i t i o n of e t h n i c semiosis as a form of d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s c o u r s e which "holds i t s ground a g a i n s t the map of n a t i o n a l c i r c u l a t i o n " (143). 30 i n v o l v e d t o some extent i n both; the r e c o n s t i t u t e d map has a l t e r e d i t s terms of re f e r e n c e , not to av o i d being subsumed w i t h i n the dominant c a r t o g r a p h i c d i s c o u r s e but p r e c i s e l y to r e s i s t t h a t avoidance. " E t h n i c i t y , " t h e r e f o r e , l i k e "feminism" and " r e g i o n a l i s m , " may come to be considered as t h a t s et of r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g i e s which a c t i v a t e s a s l i p p a g e of meaning between p r e s c r i b e d ( c a r t o g r a p h i c a l ) d e f i n i t i o n s . The easy e t h n o c e n t r i c d i s t i n c t i o n between "our" t e r r i t o r y and " t h e i r s " i s consequently b l u r r e d , i n d i c a t i n g the f a l l a c y of the neat r h e t o r i c a l d i v i s i o n s i n h e r e n t i n c a r t o g r a p h i c d i s c o u r s e . T h i s r h e t o r i c a l b l u r r i n g of ge o g r a p h i c a l boundaries i s best expressed by Edward S a i d : I t i s p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e to argue that some d i s t i n c t i v e o b j e c t s are made by the mind, and t h a t these o b j e c t s , w h i l e appearing t o e x i s t o b j e c t i v e l y , have only a f i c t i o n a l r e a l i t y . A group of people l i v i n g on a few acres of l a n d w i l l s et up boundaries between t h e i r l a n d and i t s immediate surroundings and the t e r r i t o r y beyond, which they c a l l 'the land of the b a r b a r i a n s ' . In other words, t h i s u n i v e r s a l p r a c t i c e of d e s i g n a t i n g i n one's mind a f a m i l i a r space which i s 'ours' and an u n f a m i l i a r space beyond 'ours' which i s ' t h e i r s ' i s a way of making ge o g r a p h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t can be e n t i r e l y a r b i t r a r y . . the geographic boundaries acccompany the s o c i a l , e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l ones i n expected ways. Yet o f t e n the sense i n which someone f e e l s h i m s e l f to be n o t - f o r e i g n i s based on a very unrigorous idea of what i s 'out t h e r e ' , beyond one's own t e r r i t o r y . A l l kinds of s u p p o s i t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s , and f i c t i o n s appear to crowd the u n f a m i l i a r space o u t s i d e one's own. (54) The d e l i n e a t i o n of p h y s i c a l geography, argues Said, i s complicated by the o p e r a t i o n of "imaginative geography:" the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of space, i t would seem, owes as much to the s u b t l e t y of c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n as t o the p u t a t i v e accuracy of 31 t e c h n i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . A modern map, of course, i s not l i k e l y t o d i s p l a y the same e r r o r s as, say, a medieval one, but i t s d e t a i l e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l environment i s not 13 e n t i r e l y f r e e from the s u p p o s i t i o n s of i m a g i n a t i v e geography. Maps, t h e r e f o r e , should presumably be measured on a continuum between the " t e c h n i c a l , " which might i n c l u d e standard t o p o g r a p h i c a l maps, computerized maps, and the l i k e , and the " i m a g i n a t i v e , " which i s perhaps best e x e m p l i f i e d i n the v a r i o u s " c o u n t r i e s of the mind" and "landscapes of the i m a g i n a t i o n " of c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g . E t h n i c w r i t i n g , as E l i Mandel d e f i n e s i t , i s "a l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t i n g at an i n t e r f a c e of two c u l t u r e s , a form concerned to d e f i n e i t s e l f , i t s v o i c e , i n the d i a l e c t i c of s e l f and other and the d u p l i c i t i e s of s e l f - c r e a t i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and i d e n t i t i e s " (274). The heightened s e n s i t i v i t y of e t h n i c w r i t e r s to the " d u p l i c i t i e s of s e l f - c r e a t i o n " makes them s u s p i c i o u s of, and u s u a l l y r e s i s t a n t to, the homogenizing tendencies of "mainstream" c u l t u r e s and/or " c e n t r a l " governments. The map, I have suggested, can be seen as the symbol of c e n t r a l i z e d p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y or as the e x p r e s s i o n of a dominant c u l t u r a l imperative. E t h n i c w r i t i n g can be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s context to operate as a form of For a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the workings of i m a g i n a t i v e geography, see Chapter 1, Part 2 of Said's O r i e n t a l i s m (NY: V i n t a g e , 1979) 49-72. A l s o , from a d i f f e r e n t perspective,' John L. A l l e n ' s essay "Lands of Myth, Waters of Wonder: The Place of the Imagination i n the H i s t o r y of G e o g r a p h i c a l E x p l o r a t i o n , " i n David Lowenthal, ed. Geography of  the Mind: Essays i n H i s t o r i c a l Geography (NY: OUP, 1976) : 41-61. 32 c o u n t e r - d i s c o u r s e to the dominant c a r t o g r a p h i c d i s c o u r s e which i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y r e s i s t s the map as a s p a t i a l paradigm of c u l t u r a l i m p e r i a l i s m . Madeleine O u e l l e t t e - M i c h a l s k a has d e s c r i b e d the o p e r a t i o n s of the paradigm: Une s t r u c t u r e hegemonique c e n t r a l e dispose des moyens d'imposer sa c u l t u r e , ses modes d'e t r e et de pensee.. c e t t e s t r u c t u r e , qui prend a u s s i t d t f i g u r e de modele a i m i t e r , s ' a f f i r m e comme l e monde e s s e n t i e l , 1'unique i n s t a n c e de d e c i s i o n capable de d e c r g t e r ou et en quoi l a p e r i p h e r i e sera d i f f e r e n t e de. (37) By r e s i s t i n g the f a l s e e s s e n t i a l i s m which imposes d i f f e r e n c e , "the new c o n f i g u r a t i o n s " of e t h n i c i t y , feminism and r e g i o n a l i s m p r o v i d e the r h e t o r i c a l framework f o r a c e l e b r a t i o n of s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d d i f f e r e n c e , of the p l u r a l d i s c o u r s e s which take p l a c e i n areas other than those subordinated t o " l a domination p h i l o s o p h i q u e - t h e o r i q u e " (Cixous 45). (3) F i c t i o n a l i z i n g the Map (i) The Map as L i t e r a r y Device So f a r I have r e s t r i c t e d myself to a s e r i e s of general comments about the a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t a t u s of the map, i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n , and the relevance of maps and mapping s t r a t e g i e s to the " c o u n t e r d i s c u r s i v e " f o r m a t i o n s of feminism, r e g i o n a l i s m and e t h n i c i t y ; I would now l i k e to look more c l o s e l y at the s p e c i f i c workings of the map topos i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s . Maps f u n c t i o n as l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s i n three ways: as i c o n s , as m o t i f s , and as metaphors. The map as i c o n i s u s u a l l y s i t u a t e d at the f r o n t i s p i e c e of the t e x t , d i r e c t i n g the 33 reader's a t t e n t i o n towards the importance of ge o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n i n the t e x t t h a t f o l l o w s , but a l s o s u p p l y i n g the reader with a r e f e r e n t i a l guide to the t e x t . The map operates as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n but, more impo r t a n t l y , i t c h a l l e n g e s the reader to match h i s experience of the t e x t w i t h the " r e a l i t y " represented by the map. The map, i n t h i s sense, s u p p l i e s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e f o r the reading of the t e x t : i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned from the t e x t i s r e f e r r e d back t o the map f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n , so t h a t the act of reading the t e x t i n v o l v e s an a l t e r n a t i o n between v e r b a l and v i s u a l codes. Maps i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s d i f f e r i n t h i s respect from landscapes. L i k e maps, landscapes are c u l t u r a l images, but t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s i s most o f t e n one of symbolic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , whereas maps, more conceptual i n design, i n v i t e the reader to co n s i d e r , and i n some cases to q u e s t i o n , the d u p l i c a t o r y procedures of mimetic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Conventional maps persuade the reader to "go beyond the p h y s i c a l presence of ink on paper to the r e a l - w o r l d r e f e r e n t s of the symbols" (Muehrcke 319), a process of adjustment which o f t e n i n v o l v e s the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t maps d i f f e r from the r e a l i t y they represent. Maps i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s h i g h l i g h t t h i s process, and i n some cases exacerbate t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , by j u x t a p o s i n g two s e t s of conventions: the v e r b a l and the v i s u a l . The process of matching map to t e x t , or t e x t t o map, i n v o l v e s the reader i n a comparative a c t i v i t y which may exemplify flaws or d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the process of mimetic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; f o r t h i s reason, maps are p r e v a l e n t i n contemporary l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n those 34 s e l f - r e f l e x i v e f i c t i o n s which p r o b l e m a t i z e the n o t i o n of mimesis or the r e f e r e n t i a l f u n c t i o n of language. The i m p o s s i b i l i t y of e x a c t i t u d e i n maps:, the divergence between the images p r e s e n t e d on the map and the ' r e a l i t y ' r e p r e s e n t e d by the map, a l s o h o l d s appeal f o r w r i t e r s of f a n t a s y , who use the image-making c a p a c i t y of the map as a metaphor f o r the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n ; and f o r w r i t e r s o p e r a t i n g i n an i r o n i c mode, who h i g h l i g h t the d i s t i n c t i o n between the appearance of the map and the r e a l i t y i t r e p r e s e n t s . An e a r l y example of a w r i t e r combining f a n t a s y w i t h i r o n i c d i s t a n c e i s Jonathan S w i f t . S w i f t ' s maps i n G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s Parts Unknown. 4£lrrac Tiinul The G u l l i v e r i a n Hem F i g . 6 i s p h e r e . D e t a i l , S w i f t , 1766 3 5 36 are a d e l i b e r a t e l y incongruous mixture of the r e a l and the imaginary: h i s f i c t i t i o u s i s l a n d s are charted w i t h s c i e n t i f i c p r e c i s i o n , a c c e n t u a t i n g gaps i n contemporary geographic knowledge, and embellished w i t h i r r e l e v a n t d e t a i l , poking fun a t the v i s u a l extravagances of contemporary cartography. In h i s mockery of the p r e t e n t i o n s of the New Science, S w i f t takes p a r t i c u l a r aim at c a r t o g r a p h e r s such as Hermann M o l l , who, i n 1719, l e s s than ten years before the p u b l i c a t i o n of G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s , had presumed to produce "A New and C o r r e c t Map of the 14 Whole World." I r o n i c r e f l e c t i o n s on the nature and scope of geographic knowledge, S w i f t ' s maps a l s o t e s t i f y to the power of h i s i m a g i n a t i o n ; i n t h i s way, they serve at once to d e r i d e the c o n j e c t u r a l worlds of cartography and to c e l e b r a t e the invented worlds of f i c t i o n . Another w r i t e r f a s c i n a t e d by maps, yet wary of t h e i r c l a i m s , i s Joseph Conrad. In Nostromo, Conrad uses the map to comment i r o n i c a l l y on the g e o p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n s of an invented L a t i n American s t a t e , Costaguana; and i n Heart of Darkness, he demonstrates the i n s i d i o u s appeal of the propaganda map. W a i t i n g f o r h i s i n t e r v i e w by the t r a d i n g company which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y send him i n t o the innermost reaches of the Dark Continent, Marlow beholds See R. Case's essay "The Geography and Chronology of G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s , " i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n Four Essays on  G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s (Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1958) 50-68. A l s o John R. Moore, "The Geography of G u l l i v e r ' s  T r a v e l s , " J o u r n a l of E n g l i s h and Germanic P h i l o l o g y 40 (1941): 214-28. 37 a l a r g e s h i n i n g map, marked w i t h a l l the c o l o u r s of a rainbow. There was a vast amount of red - good to see at any time, because one knows t h a t some r e a l work i s done, i n t h e r e , a deuce of a l o t of blue, a l i t t l e green, smears of orange, and, on the East Coast, a p u r p l e patch, to show where the j o l l y p i o n e e r s of progress d r i n k the j o l l y l a g e r - b e e r . (55) Ensnared by the s i z e and i n t e n s i t y of the map, Marlow accepts and reconfirms i t s b l a t a n t i m p e r i a l p r e j u d i c e . Yet i f the map i s undeniably powerful as a symbol of p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y , i t i s i n e f f e c t i v e as a r e f e r e n t i a l guide. N e i t h e r the map nor the n a v i g a t i o n manual, Marlow's two main guides as he s t e e r s a course f o r the Inner S t a t i o n , i s of much he l p to him: the f i r s t r e g i s t e r s a change from "blank space" t o "darkness" (52); the second a switch from a code he can understand ( n a v i g a t i o n a l jargon) t o one he cannot (the c r y p t i c annotations t o the manual, which t u r n out to have been w r i t t e n i n R u s s i a n ) . The map and the manual are both c o d i f i e d systems, but i n n e i t h e r case can Marlow crack the code; the map duly f u n c t i o n s as a motif s u p p o r t i n g the novel's c e n t r a l theme of hidden t r u t h . In a l a t e r novel which draws e x t e n s i v e l y on Heart of  Darkness, James Dickey's D e l i v e r a n c e , the map f u n c t i o n s as a motif s u p p o r t i n g the theme of design. When the p r o t a g o n i s t l e a v e s h i s job (as a g r a p h i c designer) t o embark on a c h a l l e n g i n g journey i n t o the i n t e r i o r , he b e l i e v e s t h a t he has "come out of the map." But the h o l i d a y he had "designed" f a i l s 38 to meet the d e f i n i t e standards r e q u i r e d of i t ; the t r i p goes out of c o n t r o l , and he i s l u c k y to escape with h i s l i f e . The c o n t r o l l e d a b s t r a c t i o n s of the map are shown i n the process to be no match f o r the u n p r e d i c t a b l e events of the " r e a l " world. If S w i f t e x p l o i t s the map as i c o n , and Conrad and Dickey the map as motif, a l l three i m p l i c i t l y use the map as metaphor. Maps are f r e q u e n t l y used as metaphors i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s , u s u a l l y of s t r u c t u r e (arrangement, containment) or of c o n t r o l ( o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o e r c i o n ) . Some of the best examples are p r o v i d e d i n the work of the n ineteenth century n o v e l i s t J u l e s Verne, whose Voyages e x t r a o r d i n a i r e s set out to d e f i n e , enclose and c o n t r o l a whole world. Cyrus Smith's e x p e d i t i o n i n L ' l i e mysterieuse i s a microcosm of Verne's f i c t i o n a l p r o j e c t : c a s t away on a remote South P a c i f i c i s l a n d , Smith and h i s f o l l o w e r s proceed to explore, map, and transform i t . T h e i r map, however, does not merely p r o v i d e a means of o r i e n t a t i o n around the i s l a n d , but a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the c o l o n i z a t i o n of the i s l a n d . Geographical i n f o r m a t i o n i s turned to p o l i t i c a l ends: the map of the newly-named L i n c o l n I s l a n d f u n c t i o n s as a metaphor of c o n t r o l , where c o n t r o l e n t a i l s a p p r o p r i a t i o n of t e r r i t o r y , development of a h i e r a r c h i c a l system of government, d o m e s t i c a t i o n of nature, establishment of a communications network, and a l l the other t r a p p i n g s of a c o l o n i a l regime. As the group's s c r i b e (and cartographer) P e n c r o f f enthuses: Nous f e r o n s de c e t t e l i e une p e t i t e Amerique! Nous y b a t i r o n s des v i l l a s , nous y e t a b l i r o n s des chemins de f e r , nous y i n s t a l l e r o n s des t e l e g r a p h e s , et un beau j o u r , quand e l l e sera bien transformed, b i e n am£nagee, b i e n c i v i l i s e e , nous i r o n s 1 ' o f f r i r au gouvernement de 1'Union. (139-40) 39 The map can a l s o be con s i d e r e d as a metaphor of s t r u c t u r e ; the c o l o n i z e r s ' g e o m e t r i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r environment thus sheds l i g h t on the meticulous s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the t e x t and on the l a r g e r , "comprehensive" schema of the Voyages e x t r a o r d i n a i r e s . Verne's f i c t i o n , l i k e h i s geography, operates on the p r i n c i p l e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and conquest, the map's "technology of p o s s e s s i o n " (McClintock 151) e n a b l i n g i t not merely to d e s c r i b e the environment but to i n s c r i b e upon i t the 15 c u l t u r a l imperative of c o l o n i a l i s t expansionism. Verne i s not alone i n h i s use of the map to c o n t r o l and l e g i t i m i z e h i s f i c t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e . Consider one of W i l l i a m Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha County maps, f o r example, s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n s c r i b e d w i t h the s i g n a t u r e : "William Faulkner, s o l e owner and p r o p r i e t o r ; " or Walter de l a Mare, tongue-in-cheek, weary of "Greenwich time and t e r r e s t r i a l l a t i t u d e s , " who imagines how easy to take p e n c i l and brush and i d l y map out the pla c e where one would be. No need t o be s p e c i f i c ; no c a l l to give i t even a name. I t would be q u i t e unnecessary even t o w r i t e a book about i t . I t would f e t c h not f o r t y - f o u r f a r t h i n g s i n open a u c t i o n . I t would be only a poor t h i n g , but i t would be one's very own. (347) But the map i s not j u s t a metaphor of a r t i s t i c s e l f -a p p r o p r i a t i o n ; i t i s a l s o one of i n t e r n a l a r t i s t i c See Karen M c C l i n t o c k ' s essay i n South A t l a n t i c Q u a r t e r l y 87.1 (1988); a l s o the co n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n of Jean Chesneaux's Une L e c t u r e p o l i t i q u e de J u l e s Verne ( P a r i s : Maspero, 1966) . 40 I S S E T I 8 B E . H A S SuJ pen. Miss Joanna 3urden's, vkrrt Okristmas kilUdJKUs Burden, frwhrrt-J.enagraft's child was horn. McCalluiis, wktrt jowy Soj/ard Sartoris toent , tune* kit grandfather's •heart failed in the car wrtci. V r ^uripn isruMc i c s i i j i c a * ana-Confederate Movement which Btnju had to pass on hit LEFT tide J \ Sawmill where3yron3unchfirst saw Miss Hota Coti/Uldl "4. N E Where old*Bayard Sartoris died in young Sajfardi car John. Sartoris' Statnt & Ifflgy where he can watch his railroad, and cemetery where they buried kiddie 3undrc* al last •Belle MilckelTs •J-LoLston House ^ Henbovit Sail where §oodtuin tags lynched. \^0ld3ayard Sartoris' A robbed, which Tien, president of H I bank, which. Byron Snopes j \Snopes later became Compsm's when their said Ik* pasture • . (75 Mo US town, where Jason .. Compson lost his niece's trail, and wktrt •A-nse Sundren and his bous had to go in order txf reach Jefferson 4 7 p i n e ' ' H I L L S /»' '.'...•0""*'"',„.C.. J E F F E R S O N , YOKNAPATAWPHACQ, cMLssissifppi tArea.,1400 Square Mties—PopulatioTifUhxtes, 62p8; Negroes, 05/5 WILLI AM FAULKNER, Sole Owner & Proprietor F i g . 7 Yoknapatawpha County, Faulkner, 1936 o r g a n i z a t i o n . Thus, as Ala n S i l l i t o e e x p l a i n s , j u s t as a general needs maps upon which to p l a n h i s campaign or f i g h t h i s b a t t l e s , so an author r e q u i r e s them f o r h i s novels and s t o r i e s , even i f they e x i s t o n l y i n memory, or i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . . . i t i s b e t t e r t o get them down i n black and white, b e t t e r s t i l l i n many c o l o u r s . , f o r they can be j u s t as much a p a r t of the notes f o r a novel as those key phrases and paragraphs with which you prepare the ground f o r one. (686) The c o n s u l t a t i o n or i n v e n t i o n of maps t h e r e f o r e becomes f o r S i l l i t o e "a s t a b i l i z i n g f a c t o r g i v i n g p l a y to both r i g i d i t y and f a n t a s y . . . a way of f i x i n g the mind, and at the same time r e c o g n i z i n g no l i m i t s t o the p r i s o n i n which i t seemtsl t h a t one [has] been born" (689). By g u i d i n g and shaping the p r o d u c t i o n of f i c t i o n , c l a i m s S i l l i t o e , the map operates both as a v i s u a l complement to the w r i t t e n t e x t and as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the w r i t i n g of the t e x t . Many tw e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y w r i t e r s might agree w i t h S i l l i t o e 1 s t e c h n i c a l measures but not wit h h i s f i c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s ; f o r the map i n twe n t i e t h - c e n t u r y f i c t i o n has tended t o f u n c t i o n as a metaphor of the appearance r a t h e r than the e x e r c i s e of c o n t r o l . I have alr e a d y suggested that the map may operate as a powerful symbol of p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l w h i l e remaining an inadequate r e f e r e n t i a l guide. I t s i n a c c u r a c i e s and lacunae, moreover, may expose i d e o l o g i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the c o n t r o l l i n g agency, so t h a t the map's attempt t o l o c a t e and o r i e n t the i n d i v i d u a l i n the r e a l world i s r e i d e n t i f i e d as a d i s g u i s e d form of p o l i t i c a l m a nipulation. I t i s one t h i n g , however, t o 42 r e v e a l the map as a f a l s e guide, and another to r e p l a c e i t . The novels of Kafka and R o b b e - G r i l l e t provide d i f f e r e n t examples of a c o d i f i e d t e x t u a l system which appears e i t h e r to have no key at a l l or any number of f a l s e keys. Scanning the country but f a i l i n g t o comprehend i t , Kafka's l a n d surveyor dramatizes t h i s hermeneutic dilemma. So too does Jacques Revel, the i r o n i c a l l y named p r o t a g o n i s t of Michel Butor's novel L'Emploi du Temps, who, having bought a map to o r i e n t h i m s e l f i n the u n f a m i l i a r surroundings of a Northern E n g l i s h town, d i s c o v e r s i t s geometric r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of space wholly inadequate to the task of f i n d i n g out what kind of p l a c e i t r e a l l y i s : C e r t e s , dans c e t t e f e u i l l e de p a p i e r couverte de t r a i t s d'encre de cinq c o u l e u r s , l e s centimetres c a r r e s lie\s dans ma memoire a des batiments pergus, a des heures, a des aventures, se sont m u l t i p l i e s , ont envahi de r e a l i t y un domaine de p l u s en p l u s v a s t e , mais i l r e s t e d'immenses lacunes, d'immenses t r o u s dans cet espace, ou l e s i n s c r i p t i o n s r e s t e n t l e t t r e morte, ou l e s l i g n e s ne f o n t a p p a r a i t r e aucune image, ou l e s rues demeurent l a n o t i o n l a p l u s vague de 'rues de B l e s t o n ' , sans r i e n q u i puisse l e s p a r t i c u l a r i s e r . (104) Confused and exasperated, Revel burns h i s map, only to r e p l a c e i t w i t h h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y convoluted d i a r y , which, l i k e the map, p r o v i d e s a means of s t r u c t u r i n g h i s experience. Beginning as a rambling " j o u r n a l i n t i m e , " the d i a r y proves no more u s e f u l than the map, but once Revel r e a l i z e s t h a t the s e l f cannot be f i x e d i n time or space, the d i a r y i s m o d i f i e d to become a kind of r e l i e f map of the s e l f i n time; i t i s consequently accepted as an ongoing process r a t h e r than a means of eventual access to the " t r u t h . " Butor's use of the map as metaphor suggests t h a t 43 he c o n s i d e r s w r i t i n g t o be an i n c o n c l u s i v e a c t i v i t y , an attempt at c o n t r o l but, a t the same time, a r e v e l a t i o n of the i m p o s s i b l i t y of t o t a l c o n t r o l . So the map as metaphor i s not r e j e c t e d out of hand, but m o b i l i z e d , reformulated, accommodated to p e r c e p t u a l inconstancy and temporal f l u x . I t resembles but does not equal r e a l i t y : the divergence produces a n x i e t y , but i t may a l s o c r e a t e the p o t e n t i a l f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . A contemporary w r i t e r who t u r n s the t r a n s f o r m a t i v e p o t e n t i a l of the map as metaphor to h i s advantage i s the Guyanese n o v e l i s t W i l s o n H a r r i s . A t r a i n e d surveyor, H a r r i s i s w e l l versed i n c a r t o g r a p h i c p r i n c i p l e s and procedures. In h i s f i c t i o n , however, maps are used p r i m a r i l y as metaphors. H a r r i s d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the map as a paradigm of conquest and as a process of r e f o r m u l a t i o n . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , maps are m o n o l i t h i c s t r u c t u r e s which preclude communication by repre-s e n t i n g the one-sided view of c o n q u i s t a d o r i a l c u l t u r e s ; i n the second, they a c q u i r e f u r t h e r , unforeseen dimensions which l i n k d i f f e r e n t , a p p a r e n t l y incompatible c u l t u r e s i n "the womb of space" (137). If the map i s p e r c e i v e d as an im a g i n a t i v e c o n s t r u c t rather than as a m i r r o r of c u l t u r a l p r e j u d i c e , i t can serve as a metaphorical device f o r the i n t e r l i n k a g e of c u l t u r e s ; thus, the n a r r a t o r of the n o v e l l a Palace of the  Peacock sees the map of the Guyanese savannahs as a dream which f i r s t confirms, then l i b e r a t e s him from, h i s c u l t u r a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . Here i s the f i r s t stage: The map of the savannahs was a dream. The names B r a z i l and Guyana were c o l o n i a l conventions I had known from chi l d h o o d . I clung to them now as to a c u r i o u s necessary stone and f o o t i n g , even i n my dream, the ground I knew I must not r e l i n q u i s h . . . I c o u l d not h e l p c h e r i s h i n g my symbolic map...I saw t h i s kingdom of man turned i n t o a colony and b a t t l e g r o u n d of s p i r i t , a p r i c e l e s s tempting jewel I dreamed I possessed. (24) And here i s the second: One had an i n t u i t i v e f e e l i n g t h a t the savannahs -though empty - were crowded. A metaphysical o u t l i n e dwelt everywhere f i l l i n g i n blocks where spaces stood and without t h i s one would never have p e r c e i v e d the c u r i o u s statement of completion and p e r f e c t i o n . The work was t r u l y f i n i s h e d but no one would have known i t or seen i t or f o l l o w e d i t without a t r u s t i n g k i n s h i p and contagion. ( I l l ) H a r r i s s u b s t i t u t e s a u n i f y i n g metaphysical c o n s t r u c t f o r a d i v i s i v e c u l t u r a l one: the n a r r a t o r i s " f r e e t d J from m a t e r i a l r e s t r a i n t and p o s s e s s i o n " (108) by r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the map need not n e c e s s a r i l y operate as a symbol of s e l f - s e r v i n g a u t h o r i t y , but may a l t e r n a t i v e l y embody the d e s i r e f o r c u l t u r a l interchange. Since the map i s i n e v i t a b l y f i l t e r e d through the p e r c e p t i o n s of i t s makers, i t may be remade i f i t i s p e r c e i v e d i n a new l i g h t or from a d i f f e r e n t angle. Thus H a r r i s , l i k e Butor, does not simply r e j e c t the map as metaphor but i n s i s t s t h a t , with p e r c e p t u a l adjustment, i t may be c o n s i d e r e d a metaphor of r e c o n s t i t u t i o n r a t h e r than one of p r e s e r v a t i o n . Not a l l w r i t e r s , needless to say, are as o p t i m i s t i c as H a r r i s about the p o s s i b i l i t y of t r a n s f o r m i n g the map. For the New Zealand w r i t e r Janet Frame, f o r example, maps are metaphors of c l a u s t r o p h o b i c containment which designate s o c i e t i e s whose 45 P r o c r u s t e a n d i s t i n c t i o n s between the "normal" and the "abnormal" t h i n l y d i s g u i s e s o c i a l , r a c i a l , and c l a s s p r e j u d i c e s . In the novel Scented Gardens f o r the B l i n d , f o r example, asylum inmate Vera Glace c o n s t r u c t s an e l a b o r a t e mental map which r e f l e c t s both her d e s i r e f o r order and her f e a r of r e s t r i c t i o n . Thus, while she wishes t h a t "the map of [her] room were i n numbered segments which would stay pinned and numbered" (17), she d e t e s t s the f a c t s and f i g u r e s of her p s y c h i a t r i s t Dr. Clapper and the "standard" d e f i n i t i o n s p r o v i d e d by d i c t i o n a r i e s , e n c y c l o p e d i a s and other acknowledged sources of " f a c t u a l " i n f o r m a t i o n . For Vera, the map i s a s c h i z o p h r e n i c s t r u c t u r e which p r o v i d e s an i l l u s i o n of order but a l s o encourages, and i t s e l f symbolizes, the narrowly d u a l i s t i c c o n ception of personal and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which allows people l i k e Dr. Clapper to group "the deaf, dumb, b l i n d , c r i p p l e d , mentally i l l i n one mass i n order to 'deal w i t h 1 them, f o r we must 'deal with' these vast s u r f a c e s of strangeness which demand a l l our l i v e s a p r o t e c t i v e v a r n i s h of sympathy" (14). With s i m i l a r emphasis, the Somali w r i t e r Nuruddin Farah w r i t e s of maps as i n s i d i o u s mechanisms j u s t i f y i n g the d i s p o s s e s s i o n of m i n o r i t y peoples. The de f a c t o boundaries, g e n e r i c d e f i n i t i o n s and designated no man's lands of g e o p o l i t i c a l maps are used as metaphors f o r the d i v i d e d 46 l o y a l t i e s of those i n v o l v e d i n the Horn of A f r i c a war. The f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n between the p r o t a g o n i s t Askar and h i s uncle/mentor H i l a a l i s worth q u o t i n g a t l e n g t h because i t br i n g s i n t o focus many of the c a r t o g r a p h i c i s s u e s I have p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d : H i l a a l : Do you carve out of your soul the invented t r u t h of the maps you draw? Or does the d a i l y t r u t h match, f o r you, the r e a l i t y you draw and the maps others draw? Askar: Sometimes I i d e n t i f y a t r u t h i n the maps which I draw. When I i d e n t i f y t h i s t r u t h , I l a b e l i t as such.. I hope, as dreamers do, t h a t the dreamt dream w i l l match the dreamt r e a l i t y - t h a t i s , the invented t r u t h of one's own imagination. My maps invent nothing. They copy a given r e a l i t y , they map out the roads a dreamer has walked, they i d e n t i f y a n o t i o n a l t r u t h . H i l a a l : The q u e s t i o n i s , does fcyuth change? Or do we?.. Be t t e r s t i l l , who or what i s more important, the t r u t h or i t s f i n d e r ? You look a t a map, of the B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s i n A f r i c a , say...now compare the s i t u a t i o n today with i t s g h o s t l y past and someone may thi n k t h a t a great deal of change has taken p l a c e and t h a t names of a number of c o u n t r i e s have been a l t e r e d t o accommodate the n a t i o n a l i s t wishes of the people of those areas. But has the more b a s i c t r u t h undergone a change? Or have we?.. There i s t r u t h i n maps. The Ogaden, as Somali, i s t r u t h . To the E t h i o p i a n mapmaker, the Ogaden, as Somali, i s untruth. (216-8) Farah's d r a m a t i z a t i o n of the p o l i t i c s of cartography draws a t t e n t i o n t o the map's pr o b l e m a t i c s t a t u s as metaphor. Whether maps i d e n t i f y a " n o t i o n a l t r u t h , " and, i f so, whether that t r u t h i s a b s o l u t e or approximate, s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d or p e r s o n a l l y i n t u i t e d , are i s s u e s I aim to deal with more f u l l y i n the f o l l o w i n g chapters. For the moment, l e t me leav e the f i n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n of the e q u i v o c a l nature of c a r t o g r a p h i c 47 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the p a l i m p s e s t i c o p e r a t i o n of the map as a s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n of one, contingent, form of " r e a l i t y " upon another, and the d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between mapmaker and mapreader i n the p r o d u c t i o n of meaning, t o another w r i t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to the p o l i t i c s of cartography: South A f r i c a ' s Andre Bri n k . For Brink, the w r i t e r i s not concerned only with 'reproducing' the r e a l . What he does i s to p e r c e i v e , below the l i n e s of the map he draws, the contours of another world, somehow a more ' e s s e n t i a l ' world. And from the i n t e r a c t i o n between the land as he p e r c e i v e s i t t o be, and the land as he knows i t can be, someone from o u t s i d e , the 'reader' of the map, watches, and a i d s , the emergence of the meaning of the map. (169) ( i i ) P r i n c i p l e s f o r a L i t e r a r y Cartography Despite the prevalence of maps i n contemporary l i t e r a r y t e x t s , t h e r e has been l i t t l e attempt on the p a r t of c r i t i c s or t h e o r i s t s t o e s t a b l i s h p r i n c i p l e s f o r a l i t e r a r y cartography. T h i s chapter has gone some way towards compensating f o r the d e f i c i e n c y : f i r s t , by c o n s i d e r i n g the map as a represen-t a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t (or model), an h i s t o r i c a l document, and a g e o p o l i t i c a l c l a i m ; second, by o u t l i n i n g t h e o r e t i c a l counterarguments t o s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v e d or i m p l i e d i n the c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s ; and t h i r d , by i l l u s t r a t i n g the map's f u n c t i o n as i c o n , motif and metaphor i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s . The p r a c t i c e of l i t e r a r y cartography can t h e r e f o r e be based on the d e f i n i t i o n , c o n n o t a t i o n and l i t e r a r y f u n c t i o n of maps; i t a l s o proceeds from a d i s t i n c t i o n between maps and other s p a t i a l 48 metaphors or paradigms; f o r i f a map i s not equal to the t e r r i t o r y i t repr e s e n t s , n e i t h e r i s i t equal to a landscape. The p r i n c i p l e s of l i t e r a r y cartography, l i k e those of landscape theory, are fundamentally concerned w i t h the process of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; but whereas the symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of landscapes i n l i t e r a t u r e r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of how the land i s pe r c e i v e d , the metaphoric f u n c t i o n of maps i n l i t e r a t u r e a l s o addresses the is s u e of how the l a n d i s c o n t r o l l e d . L i k e maps, landscapes are c u l t u r a l l y determined and s u s c e p t i b l e to p o l i t i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n ; maps, however, draw more immediate a t t e n t i o n than landscapes t o t h e i r s t a t u s , f u n c t i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n as power-structures. Thus, l i t e r a r y cartography a l s o i n v o l v e s not only the f u n c t i o n of maps i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s but a l s o the o p e r a t i o n s of a s e r i e s of t e r r i t o r i a l s t r a t e g i e s i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h maps. Some of these s t r a t e g i e s are b e n e f i c i a l to t h e i r users, as i n the attempt t o order, d i r e c t and a r t i c u l a t e p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l e xperience; o t h e r s i n v o l v e p o w e r - r e l a t i o n s which serve to r e i n f o r c e e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n s o c i e t y or to exacerbate c u l t u r a l p r e j u d i c e s , as i n the attempt t o enclose, r e s t r i c t or w i l f u l l y c o n t r o l experience. The f u n c t i o n of maps and mapping s t r a t e g i e s i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s i s t h e r e f o r e f r e q u e n t l y ambivalent: maps may be sim u l t a n e o u s l y p e r c e i v e d as u s e f u l t o o l s and as dangerous weapons. Furthermore, maps may e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e the r e l a t i o n between, or exacerbate the d i s t i n c t i o n between, the r e a l and the represented world. Since, l i k e l i t e r a r y t e x t s , maps are con v e n t i o n a l systems of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , 49 they may be used as paradigms f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the procedures and, i n many cases, the o n t o l o g i c a l and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m a t i c s , of mimesis. For t h i s reason, maps o f t e n f e a t u r e i n s e l f - r e f l e x i v e t e x t s ; they a l s o tend t o f e a t u r e i n t e x t s by f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s anxious t o l i b e r a t e themselves from, or to r e v i s e the assumptions behind, p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; by r e g i o n a l w r i t e r s c r i t i c a l of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s which p r o c l a i m or j u s t i f y a form of c u l t u r a l c e n t r i s m ; and by e t h n i c w r i t e r s r e s i s t a n t t o or a v o i d i n g c i r c u m s c r i p t i o n w i t h i n the homogenizing d i s c o u r s e of the "mainstream." The connection between s p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n , g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and the s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of gender, r e g i o n and e t h n i c i t y make maps u s e f u l paradigms f o r the c r i t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of forms of i d e o l o g i c a l f o r e c l o s u r e . For a s s o c i a t e d reasons, which I s h a l l d i s c u s s at gr e a t e r l e n g t h i n l a t e r chapters, maps are p r e v a l e n t i n p o s t - c o l o n i a l l i t e r a t u r e s , o f t e n as symbols of imposed p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y or as metaphors f o r t e r r i t o r i a l d i s p o s s e s s i o n . The study of l i t e r a r y cartography i s t h e r e f o r e l i k e l y to focus on t e x t s which c h a l l e n g e or r e v i s e e s t a b l i s h e d l i t e r a r y canons and self- a c k n o w l e d g i n g c u l t u r a l mainstreams. The tendency towards an i r o n i c or p a r o d i c usage of the map i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s the u t i l i t y of maps as symbolic t a r g e t s of s o c i a l c r i t i q u e or as v e h i c l e s f o r r e v i s i o n i s t views. For l i t e r a r y cartography i s as concerned w i t h the p o l i t i c s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as with i t s semantics: i t i n v i t e s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the map's c l a i m to v e r a c i t y as a 50 f u n c t i o n of the l i t e r a r y t e x t and as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between the l i t e r a r y t e x t and wider c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Because of i t s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y nature, l i t e r a r y cartography demands an approach to the l i t e r a r y t e x t which takes i n t o account comparative t h e o r i e s and c r o s s -c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s as w e l l as the s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s between l i t e r a t u r e , s o c i e t y and h i s t o r y . The map's f u n c t i o n as a metaphor of s t r u c t u r e suggests t h a t r e c o n s t i t u t i v e s e m i o t i c a n a l y s e s and d e c o n s t r u c t i v e p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t p r a c t i c e s may serve as u s e f u l methodological t o o l s i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment of maps and mapping s t r a t e g i e s i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s . I would suggest, then, t h a t l i t e r a r y cartography be founded on the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s : (1) b a s i c concepts of the map; d e f i n i t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s , with p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to t h e o r i e s of s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . (2) d i s c u s s i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the map; arguments and counterarguments r e l e v a n t t o the s t r a t e g i c uses of mapping, with refere n c e to t h e o r i e s of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y and m a r g i n a l i t y . (3) d e l i n e a t i o n of the map's f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the l i t e r a r y t e x t ; e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n of these f u n c t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r syntagmatic ( i n t e r n a l ) and paradigmatic (external) o p e r a t i o n s . (4) a n a l y s i s of the map topos i n d i f f e r e n t l i t e r a t u r e s , with p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to l i t e r a t u r e s or l i t e r a r y forms considered t o be ma r g i n a l ; e v o l u t i o n and contemporary m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the map topos i n these l i t e r a t u r e s . My own focus i s on contemporary m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the map topos i n Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n f i c t i o n . Why I have chosen t e x t s 51 from these p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c a l areas, from t h i s p e r i o d , and i n t h i s genre, w i l l become c l e a r i n the next chapter. Chapter Two GROUNDS FOR COMPARISON In the Canadian imagination, when people disappear o f f the map, they're most l i k e l y to show up i n A u s t r a l i a . (Jack Hodgins) 53 "There i s a r e c o g n i z a b l e p r o f i l e of Dominions' l i t e r a t u r e a t present i n e x i s t e n c e , i n s p i t e of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and v a r i a t i o n s , and ... more may be d i s c o v e r e d about both Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n l e t t e r s when they are compared than when they are s t u d i e d i n i s o l a t i o n " ( v i i i ) . The words are John Matthews's, the year 1962. But d e s p i t e Matthews's optimism, C a n a d i a n - A u s t r a l i a n s t u d i e s have not developed as he might have wished. The si g n s are t h e r e : i n r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d j o u r n a l s such as A u s t r a l i a n - C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s and A u s t r a l i a n and New Zealand S t u d i e s i n Canada, i n G i l l i a n W hitlock and R u s s e l l McDougall's A u s t r a l i a n and Canadian L i t e r a t u r e s i n E n g l i s h : Comparative P e r s p e c t i v e s (1986), and i n s p e c i a l e d i t i o n s of j o u r n a l s such as A r i e l and World L i t e r a t u r e W r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h devoted to the C a n a d i a n - A u s t r a l i a n comparison. But these e f f o r t s , though i n c r e a s i n g , remain somewhat i s o l a t e d : comparative l i t e r a r y s t u d i e s i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a at present, i t would seem, converge i n the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y p u r s u i t of l i t e r a r y theory rather than the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison of n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e s . The r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t of Canadians to promote comparisons w i t h t h e i r A u s t r a l i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s i s perhaps understandable; a f t e r a l l , they have had enough problems d e c i d i n g whether or not the comparison of t h e i r own E n g l i s h and French w r i t i n g i s a v i a b l e , or indeed a d e s i r a b l e , concern. F e e l i n g s remain mixed; as P h i l i p S t r a t f o r d notes: Comparatists of Canadian s u b j e c t s are themselves condemned t o m a i n t a i n a p a r a d o x i c a l d u a l i t y . B l i n d e d by p r o x i m i t y to t h e i r s u b j e c t , swayed by p o l i t i c s and 54 h i s t o r y , hamstrung by an i n e v i t a b l e n a t u r a l , l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n to one of the two camps, they must n e i t h e r u n i f y , nor d i v i d e . (138) The r e t i c e n c e , or even the r e f u s a l , of l i t e r a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada to engage i n comparative research, and the r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y of comparative essays i n Canadian j o u r n a l s , would seem to confirm the predicament o u t l i n e d by S t r a t f o r d . Yet a l l i s not l o s t ; i n one of the best c o l l e c t i o n s of essays to date on Canadian w r i t i n g , E.D. B l o d g e t t f i r m l y defends h i s comparatist p e r s p e c t i v e . "I have w r i t t e n these essays," says B l o d g e t t , "from a p o s i t i o n t h a t assumes, d e s p i t e the fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l i d e o l o g i e s , t h a t Canada endures i n a polysemous, p o l y v a l e n t f a s h i o n " (9). Joseph P i v a t o goes f u r t h e r ; a r g u i n g f o r the i n c l u s i o n of e t h n i c w r i t i n g i n Canadian l i t e r a r y s t u d i e s , he claims t h a t " i n t h e i r i m a g i n a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Canadian s o c i e t y as an e t h n i c mosaic, w r i t e r s have concrete ways of s t r a d d l i n g the b a r r i e r s of time, space and c u l t u r e " (32). P i v a t o 1 s r h e t o r i c i s warming, but u n r e a l i s t i c ; f o r the a b i l i t y of w r i t e r s i n Canada and elsewhere to ' s t r a d d l e b a r r i e r s of time, space and c u l t u r e ' depends to some extent on an h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c s of c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . A b e t t e r p o s i t i o n , perhaps, i s B l o d g e t t ' s : the Canadian l i t e r a t u r e s , he claims, e x i s t i n a metonymic ra t h e r than a metaphoric r e l a t i o n s h i p to one another which enables them to be compared w i t h one another without assumptions of homogeneity. B l o d g e t t ' s c a l l f o r an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p l u r a l i t y of Canadian w r i t i n g i s t i m e l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e 55 l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l c r i t i c s i n Canada, above a l l i n Quebec, have tended to overlook "minor" c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r search to d e f i n e a n a t i o n a l consciousness. I t would no doubt be u n f a i r to blame the c r i t i c s f o r what has a l s o been an o b s e s s i o n of the c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s ; but i n any case, the i n c r e a s i n g l y cosmopolitan tendencies of Canadian w r i t i n g have problematized such q u e s t i o n s as "what i s Canadian about Canadian l i t e r a t u r e ? " , and many contemporary w r i t e r s seem more i n t e r e s t e d i n the promulgation of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e or c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y than i n the p u r s u i t of MacLennanesque a l l e g o r i e s of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . I t i s as w e l l here to d i s p e l a common misconception about comparative l i t e r a t u r e . Comparatists are not s y n c r e t i s t s : t h a t they choose to o u t l i n e s i m i l a r i t i e s between works d e r i v i n g from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s or d i s c i p l i n e s , or w r i t t e n i n d i f f e r e n t languages, does not imply the erasure or compromise of t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . P i v a t o ' s assumption i s symptomatic: "In Comparative L i t e r a t u r e , a l l w r i t i n g i s p e r c e i v e d as being an e s s e n t i a l u n i t y , a form of human e x p r e s s i o n l i k e music, dance or p a i n t i n g " (32). T h i s i s simply untrue: comparatists i n q u i r e i n t o the r e l a t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t d i s c u r s i v e modes, but i t i s d o u b t f u l whether many would agree on the " e s s e n t i a l u n i t y " of w r i t i n g . Moreover, the recent impact of post-s t r u c t u r a l i s t theory on comparative l i t e r a r y s t u d i e s has r e s u l t e d i n a wide d i s m i s s a l of t h i s form of f a l s e e s s e n t i a l ism, so t h a t even where a more " t r a d i t i o n a l i s t " p o s i t i o n i s maintained, as, f o r example, i n the comparison 56 between two t e x t s w r i t t e n i n d i f f e r e n t languages, the comparatist i s more l i k e l y to move between these t e x t s than to r e c o n c i l e or u n i f y them. T h i s b r i n g s me back t o the problem of the Canadian-A u s t r a l i a n comparison and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o a recent essay on the s u b j e c t , Kateryna A r t h u r ' s "Between L i t e r a t u r e s : Canada and A u s t r a l i a " ( A r i e l , 1988). Drawing on the theory of Deleuze and G u a t t a r i , Arthur argues t h a t " A u s t r a l i a and Canada can ... be seen d i s j u n c t i v e l y as not only between l i t e r a t u r e s and c u l t u r e s , not simply as i n t e r n a t i o n a l , but as t r a n s n a t i o n a l " (10). Both l i t e r a t u r e and c r i t i c i s m i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a , c l a ims Arthur, have been "impeded by the n a t i o n a l i s t i c -a n t i n a t i o n a l i s t i c debate" (9); what i s needed, she suggests, i s a model which "allows the s c h i z o i d nature of each country's v i s i o n of i t s e l f to be r e d e f i n e d as a source of c r e a t i v e power ra t h e r than t o be seen as a source of i n s e c u r i t y " (9). Arthur does not seek to disabuse h e r s e l f of myths and conventions of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y but rather to demonstrate t h e i r m o b i l i t y ; what emerges i s not a set of u n i f i e d (or u n i f y i n g ) concepts but, on the c o n t r a r y , a s e r i e s of s h i f t i n g k a l e i d o s c o p i c p a t t e r n s . Although A r t h u r ' s argument f o r a " t r a n s n a t i o n a l mixing of l i t e r a t u r e s " i s a p p e a l i n g , she f a l l s s h o r t of e s t a b l i s h i n g a methodology fo r the e f f e c t i v e comparison of these l i t e r a t u r e s . Her emphasis on the t h e o r e t i c a l d i v e r t s her from the s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s which have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development of the Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n l i t e r a t u r e s . Thus, w h i l e she p o i n t s out t h a t "white Canadians and A u s t r a l i a n s were l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i s p o s s e s s e d by the f a c t of t h e i r m i g r a t i o n and p l a c e d i n t o s i t u a t i o n s where s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n , whether pers o n a l or n a t i o n a l , was d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e " (4), she p r e f e r s t o d i s c u s s the broader t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e of l i n g u i s t i c displacement rather than the s p e c i f i c s o c i o - h i s t o r i c i s s u e of how the s e t t l e r s came to terms w i t h t h e i r new environment, how they attempted t o f i n d a language compatible with t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , and how l i t e r a t u r e came, a t l e a s t i n d i r e c t l y , t o reshape that language and those p e r c e p t i o n s . For contemporary w r i t i n g i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a i s , a f t e r a l l , as much a response to p r e v i o u s c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n s and pre c o n c e p t i o n s d e r i v i n g from a common, i f d i f f e r e n t l y t r a n s m i t t e d and r e c e i v e d , c o l o n i a l i n h e r i t a n c e , as i t i s a response to the ( m e t a ) l i n g u i s t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of " p a t e r n i t y , genealogy and a u t h o r i t y " (4). I t i s c e r t a i n l y true t h a t the more experimental forms of contemporary w r i t i n g i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a r e s i s t "encompassing s t r u c t u r e s w i t h t h e i r b u i l t - i n paths, c h r o n o l o g i e s and t e r r i t o r i e s i n favour of more random and fragmented u n i t s which may or may not y i e l d l a r g e r p a t t e r n s " (7). But even the most d e s t r u c t i v e of the new "mapbreakers" i s a l s o t o some extent a "mapmaker;" the new c o n f i g u r a t i o n he or she produces, however random and d i s c r e t e i t may appear, i s s t i l l a c o n s t r u c t of some s o r t . What I am suggest i n g here i s : f i r s t , t h a t the c a l l f o r a t r a n s n a t i o n a l mixing of l i t e r a t u r e s i s i t s e l f a response to a set of s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i a l c o n d i t i o n s as w e l l as the r e c o g n i t i o n of a need f o r broader t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s ; and, second, t h a t the nature of 58 t h i s response i s not u n l i m i t e d : t h e r e must, i n other words, always be some grounds f o r comparison.''' Having s a i d t h i s , what are the grounds f o r comparison between Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g ? The most immediate would appear to be the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n s i d e r i n g the Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n l i t e r a t u r e s as r e l a t e d forms of p o s t - c o l o n i a l w r i t i n g . A g e n e r a l i z e d d i s t i n c t i o n can be made here between t r a n s p o r t e d and t r a n s p l a n t e d c o l o n i a l c u l t u r e s : i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a , as opposed t o Ind i a or A f r i c a , the c o l o n i z e r s ' e a r l y task c o n s i s t e d not so much i n the i m p o s i t i o n of one c u l t u r e upon another as i n the a d a p t a t i o n of the "parent" c u l t u r e to 2 the new land. The new s e t t l e r s ' attempts to accommodate themselves to an u n f a m i l i a r , o f t e n harsh environment, a l l i e d to the s t r u g g l e to f r e e themselves from c o l o n i a l p r e c o n c e p t i o ns about the new land, are r e f l e c t e d i n much of the e a r l y , and some of the l a t e r , l i t e r a t u r e . f r o m both c o u n t r i e s ; human responses t o the land became, and u n t i l r e c e n t l y have probably remained, the major theme of Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g . The d i s c r e p a n c y between an imported c o l o n i a l vocabulary and a la n d too l a r g e (Canada) and/or a l t o g e t h e r too strange ( A u s t r a l i a ) f o r t h a t v ocabulary can be d i s c e r n e d i n a great deal of nine t e e n t h , and some twe n t i e t h - c e n t u r y w r i t i n g . As w r i t e r s began t o disabuse themselves of c o l o n i a l p r e c o n c e p t i o n s , however, they a p p l i e d themselves t o the task of f i n d i n g a language capable of d e s c r i b i n g and, i n c r e a s i n g l y , of * Cf. Harry L e v i n , Grounds f o r Comparison (Cambridge: Harvard UP 1972). 2 For a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of these d i f f e r e n c e s , see W.H. New. Among Worlds ( E r i n , Ont: Press P o r c e p i c , 1975). 59 m y t h o l o g i z i n g the la n d . S o c i a l f a c t o r s l e n t weight t o the ta s k : numerous a r t i c l e s and f u l l - l e n g t h works have been w r i t t e n on the i n f l u e n c e of the C a l v i n i s t w ork-ethic on the Canadian r u r a l romance, of J a n s e n i s t moral s t r i c t u r e s on the Quebec roman du t e r r o i r , and of popular n a t i o n a l i s t sentiment on the bush b a l l a d s and yarns of t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y A u s t r a l i a . Other s c h o l a r l y work, too s u b s t a n t i a l f o r me to review here, has been done on i n d i v i d u a l Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n w r i t e r s ' responses t o the land, and on the s o c i a l c o ntexts f o r those responses, w h i l e s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have been devoted t o the complex r e l a t i o n s between s o c i a l change, environmental 3 p e r c e p t i o n and l i t e r a r y development i n the two c o u n t r i e s . In one of these s t u d i e s , W.H. New demonstrates t h a t , as the Canadian s e t t l e r s moved west, they a l s o began to " a r t i c u l a t e west:" the h i s t o r y of Canadian w r i t i n g can t h e r e f o r e be charted i n the ambivalent r e l a t i o n s h i p between geographical (and s o c i a l ) expansion and m y t h o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . W r i t i n g i n Quebec, on the other hand, t r a d i t i o n a l l y l e s s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c or mobile than i t s Anglo-Canadian counterpart, has f r e q u e n t l y been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the tendency towards c l a u s t r o p h o b i a . P a t r i c i a Smart expresses the d i s t i n c t i o n w e l l : L'espace geographique de l a l i t t e r a t u r e t r a d i t i o n n e l l e du Quebec, enfermg et Among the most comprehensive of these s t u d i e s are Susan Wood, The Land i n Canadian Prose (Ottawa: C a r l e t o n Monographs, 1988); Luc Bureau, Entre l'Eden et l ' U t o p i e : fondements de  l'espace quebecois (Montreal: Quebec/Amerique, 1986); Ross Gibson, The D i m i n i s h i n g P a r a d i s e : Changing L i t e r a r y P e r c e p t i o n s  of A u s t r a l i a (Melbourne: Angus and Robertson, 1984). 60 diminu£, est percu comme une v e r s i o n a v i l i e de l 1immense canevas geographique occupe par l a Nouvelle France avant l a Conquete. L'espace dans l a l i t e r a t u r e canadienne-a n g l a i s e e s t ouvert, e c l e c t i q u e et souvent deroutant dans sa d i s p a r i t y r g g i o n a l e : c ' e s t un espace q u i permet 1 * e x p l o r a t i o n et 1'expansion. (34) A u s t r a l i a n l i t e r a t u r e might be con s i d e r e d t o combine these two s p a t i a l paradigms: from the bush s e t t i n g s of Lawson and Furphy to the metaphysical landscapes of White and Stow, the "space" of A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g i s a t once c l a u s t r o p h o b i c i n i t s p e r c e i v e d r e s i s t a n c e towards the crowded urban f r i n g e s and agoraphobic i n i t s f e a r of, yet compulsion towards, the v a s t , open i n t e r i o r . How u s e f u l are these g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ? They serve perhaps as a p o i n t of departure, but f a i l to account f o r complex h i s t o r i c a l , p e r c e p t u a l and l i n g u i s t i c changes w i t h i n each l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n ; moreover, they tend t o g l o s s over d i f f e r e n c e s between p h i l o s o p h i c a l n o t i o n s of space, s o c i o - c u l t u r a l n o t i o n s of landscape, and l i n g u i s t i c n o t i o n s of metaphor and s t r u c t u r e . One way, perhaps, of a v o i d i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r co n f u s i o n i s t o focus on a s p e c i f i c s p a t i a l paradigm; I have chosen the map, not j u s t because maps f e a t u r e f r e q u e n t l y i n Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g but because they are themselves paradigmatic s t r u c t u r e s . Landscapes express a v i s i o n of the l a n d ; maps c o n c e p t u a l i z e , c o d i f y and r e g u l a t e t h a t v i s i o n . Thus, i f landscapes can be considered as v e h i c l e s of a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , maps are b e t t e r c o n s i d e r e d as paradigms of a r t i s t i c c o n t r o l . A f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n can be made between 61 the h i s t o r y of symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (landscape) and t h a t of g e o g r a p h i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n (maps). The prevalence of the map topos i n Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g owes much to the c l o s e r e l a t i o n i n both c o u n t r i e s between h i s t o r i c a l development and g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s c o v e r y . Some of t h e i r e x p l o r e r s and n a v i g a t o r s have a t t a i n e d legendary s t a t u s : C a r t i e r and Champlain i n Quebec, Mackenzie and Vancouver i n Western Canada, Cook and S t u r t i n A u s t r a l i a , are a l l c u l t u r a l icons whose e x p l o i t s (and j o u r n a l s ) have provided r i c h m a t e r i a l f o r Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n w r i t e r s . The p o p u l a r i t y of these men owes more to t h e i r adventures than to t h e i r maps or c h a r t s . In t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s Men and Meridians and The Mapping of  A u s t r a l i a , h i s t o r i a n s of cartography Don Thomson and R.V. Tooley s e t out to r e d r e s s t h i s imbalance. Thomson's massive study c h a r t s the h i s t o r y of s u r v e y i n g and mapping i n Canada from the e a r l y voyages of C a r t i e r and Cabot to the s o p h i s t i c a t e d g e o d e t i c surveys of the present day. The e a r l i e s t maps of Canada, he demonstrates, were almost e x c l u s i v e l y French i n c h a r a c t e r . The maps and surveys of French car t o g r a p h e r s supported a s e i g n e u r i a l system of l a n d tenure, so t h a t s u r v e y i n g the l a n d was p r i m a r i l y p e r c e i v e d as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s e t t l i n g i t . The c e l e b r a t e d goals of the great n a v i g a t o r s and e x p l o r e r s (the Northwest Passage, the Western Sea etc.) should be seen i n t h i s context, a l o n g s i d e the 62 F i g . 8 New France, Champlain, 1632 63 more modest domestic and commercial o b j e c t i v e s of settlement and expansion. Mapping the country and c h a r t i n g i t s c o a s t l i n e s were not, a f t e r a l l , the business of a s e l e c t group of g l o r y -seeking i n d i v i d u a l s , but the combined e f f o r t s of e x p l o r e r s , n a v i g a t o r s and s u r v e y i n g teams i n t e n t on d e v e l o p i n g the country's resources. The p r e f a c e to Bouchette's T o p o g r a p h i c a l  D e s c r i p t i o n of the P r o v i n c e s of Lower Canada (1815) i s i n s t r u c t i v e : The i n t e r i o r of Lower Canada being so l i t t l e known beyond the l i m i t s of the p r o v i n c e , a b e l i e f t h a t a d e t a i l e d account of i t would not only be u s e f u l i n shewing i t s present s t a t e , but by b r i n g i n g i t under more general n o t i c e , might p o s s i b l y a s s i s t i n the development of i t s v a s t resources, has l e d to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a t o p o g r a p h i c a l map upon a l a r g e s c a l e and to the p u b l i c a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g Book to i l l u s t r a t e the same more f u l l y . As i n Europe, maps i n Canada became a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r commercial expansion: the d r i v e west, symbolized by Mackenzie's e x p e d i t i o n s i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, was thus g e o g r a p h i c a l l y o r i e n t e d but economically motivated. The r o l e of the seventeenth/eighteenth-century e x p l o r e r or navigator was taken over by the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y land surveyor, "harbinger of the i n e v i t a b l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a l a n d and i t s people" (2). I n c r e a s i n g immigration n e c e s s i t a t e d the a l l o c a t i o n of t e r r i t o r y , the development of communications networks, and the r e l o c a t i o n of indigenous l a n d s ; n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y surveys can be seen i n t h i s context as i n d i s p e n s a b l e agents of the c o l o n i z i n g process, by a s s i s t i n g p o l i c i e s of t e r r i t o r i a l n e g o t i a t i o n , a p p r o p r i a t i o n and expansion. 64 In A u s t r a l i a , the h i s t o r y of mapping and s u r v e y i n g took a d i f f e r e n t course. As R.V. Tooley has p o i n t e d out, A u s t r a l i a h olds a unique p l a c e i n the h i s t o r y of cartography by b e i n g imagined b e f o r e i t was d i s c o v e r e d . Moreover, the f a b l e d southern l a n d of Marco Polo was o n l y p a r t i a l l y d i s p e l l e d by the d i s c o v e r i e s of Dampier and Tasman; w e l l i n t o the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , rumours p e r s i s t e d of a kingdom of g o l d whose d i s c o v e r e r s , p r o p h e s i e d Emmanuel Bowen i n 1 7 4 7 , "[would] become possessed of t e r r i t o r i e s as r i c h and f r u i t f u l as any t h a t [had] h i t h e r t o been found o u t " (Tooley i x ) . The e x t r a o r d i n a r y maps of seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h century c a r t o g r a p h e r s of the French School who, u n l i k e t h e i r Dutch c o u n t e r p a r t s , were u n w i l l i n g t o l e a v e blanks f o r unexplored r e g i o n s and attempted i n s t e a d to f i l l t h e i r gaps w i t h ( o f t e n w i l d ) c o n j e c t u r e and. " l o g i c a l " e x t e n s i o n , c o n t r i b u t e d to p r e v a i l i n g myths of T e r r a A u s t r a l i s I n c o g n i t a . Thus, i t was p o s s i b l e f o r the seventeenth c e n t u r y c a r t o g r a p h e r Sanson to produce a w o r l d map ( 1 6 5 1 ) which F i g . 9 D e t a i l from Sanson's Map of the World. 1 7 2 0 65 c h a r t e d the western and southern c o a s t s of A u s t r a l i a with reasonable accuracy, but supplemented an e n t i r e l y imaginary o u t l i n e of the northern coast. N i c o l o s i , i n the l a t e seven-teenth century, went one b e t t e r , c o n t r i v i n g t o show two north ern c o a s t s of A u s t r a l i a on the same map, w h i l e d ' A n v i l l e imagi-n a t i v e l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d the coasts of New Guinea, A u s t r a l i a , Tasmania, and the e a s t e r n T e r r e de Quiros (named a f t e r the Spanish navigator) i n t o one u n i n t e r r u p t e d landmass. The voyages of Cook and, l a t e r , of F l i n d e r s and King, were to e r a d i c a t e these egregious e r r o r s , but meanwhile the l o c u s of c o n j e c t u r e had s h i f t e d from the c o a s t l i n e to the v a s t , s t i l l l a r g e l y unexplored, i n t e r i o r . S t u r t , Burke and W i l l s , Eyre, and L e i c h h a r d t proceeded to take over where Tasman and Cook had l e f t o f f ; but w h i l e t h e i r d i s c o v e r i e s were to change the f a c e of the c o n t i n e n t , they were p a r a d o x i c a l l y to r e i n f o r c e r a ther than d i s p e l popular myths of the Great Unknown. U n l i k e Canada, where the i n t e r i o r was c o l d and harsh, p o s s i b l y t h r e a t e n i n g but p o t e n t i a l l y h a b i t a b l e , the A u s t r a l i a n d e s e r t - i n t e r i o r took on the aura of an u n i n h a b i t a b l e t e r r a i n a c c e s s i b l e only to the i m a g i n a t i o n . The Canadian r e a l i t y of p r o g r e s s i v i s t expansion found i t s counterimage i n an A u s t r a l i a n myth of the Timeless Land; so, whereas c a r t o g r a p h i c achievements i n Canada tended to supplement a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g economic programme, i n A u s t r a l i a 4 they f u e l l e d an imaginary d e s i r e f o r s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t . T h i s Cf. Ross Gibson; a l s o the essays i n P.R. Eaden and F.H. Mares, eds. Mapped but Not Known: The A u s t r a l i a n 66 d i s t i n c t i o n between cartography as an e f f i c i e n t c o l o n i z i n g p r a c t i c e (Canada) and as a p r o j e c t i o n of w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t , or, i n the case of f a i l e d e x p e d i t i o n s such as L e i c h h a r d t ' s , as a d e n o t a t i o n of the f a i l u r e to achieve i t ( A u s t r a l i a ) , i s of c r u c i a l importance i n any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e v o l u t i o n of the map topos i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l i t e r a t u r e s . In her study The Wacousta Syndrome, G a i l e McGregor d e s c r i b e s the map as "probably the i c o n i c a r t i f a c t i n the Canadian's conceptual v o c a b u l a r y " (350). Maps, she says, p r o v i d e us w i t h "a conceptual t o o l which w i l l allow us to deal w i t h , indeed, l i t e r a l l y to c o n s t r u c t , a phenomenal world w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d i s s o c i a t i n g o u r s e l v e s from i t " (352). She a c c o r d i n g l y notes the prevalence of " a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c a l l e g o r y " i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i s p l a c e d w i t h i n some l a r g e r scheme which w i l l allow him to o r i e n t h i m s e l f i n h i s newfound world. McGregor's argument i s undermined, however, by her t a s t e f o r the general ("the Canadian," "Canadian l i t e r a t u r e " ) , which d i v e r t s her from the r e l a t i v e i nfrequency of the map topos i n e a r l y Canadian w r i t i n g and g l o s s e s over the c o n s i d e r a b l e range of f u n c t i o n s i t has served i n the h i s t o r y of the Canadian l i t e r a t u r e s . A b e t t e r i n d i c a t i o n i s given by W.H. New, when he suggests t h a t i t had been one of the tasks of the [Canadian] w r i t e r s of the f i r s t h a l f of the twentieth century ... to develop an a r t i s t i c language out of the r e a l landscapes through which they moved; f o r the w r i t e r s who developed or were recognized i n the subsequent twenty years ... a major task was to e x p l o r e the Landscape of the Imagination (Netley, S.A.: W a k e f i e l d Press, 1986). a  67 landscape that i s language i t s e l f , f o r the purposes of f r e e i n g the i m a g i n a t i o n from r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t r i c t u r e s and a f f i r m i n g the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of s p i r i t u a l ( v i s i o n a r y ) and p o l i t i c a l ( e m p i r i c a l ) goals, (xxiv) While New i s r e f e r r i n g here to the f i c t i o n a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n or symbolic p r e s e n t a t i o n of landscape rather than to the u t i l i s a t i o n of the map as a s p e c i f i c m o t i f or metaphor, the development he t r a c e s allows us to v i s u a l i z e the emergence of the map topos i n Canadian w r i t i n g as a f u n c t i o n of the i n c r e a s i n g l y s e l f - r e f l e x i v e t e x t . Nineteenth-century w r i t e r s i n Canada were mainly concerned w i t h the d i s c r e p a n c y between co n v e n t i o n a l and observed landscapes (Moodie) or with the c o n s t r u c t i o n of i d e o l o g i e s of a g r a r i a n development ( G e r i n - L a j o i e ) , and e a r l y to mid t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y w r i t e r s p r o v i d e d i r o n i c r e j o i n d e r s to these e a r l i e r concerns or m y t h i c i z e d reworkings of them (Leacock, Grove, O'Hagan, Ri n g u e t ) . I t was not u n t i l a s u s t a i n e d c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y was launched i n t o the v i a b i l i t y of mimetic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t the " r e a l i s t i c " d e p i c t i o n of e x t e r n a l landscapes began to g i v e way to the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p r e s e n t a t i o n of inner "dreamscapes" (Watson, B l a i s ) and s t y l i z e d l i t e r a r y landscapes ( K l e i n , B e s s e t t e ) . T h i s developing emphasis on p a l p a b l e l i n g u i s t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n , a l l i e d t o an i n c r e a s i n g s c e p t i c i s m towards " r e a l i s t i c " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , was to h e r a l d the a r r i v a l of the map as a major topos i n the Canadian l i t e r a t u r e s . ^ Another way of l o o k i n g a t t h i s s h i f t i s to c o n s i d e r the p rocess i n Canadian w r i t i n g i n which the map i s f i r s t e n v i s i o n e d as a mode of c o n t r o l , a means of p o s s e s s i n g the unknown or only p a r t l y known lan d , but l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d as an - continued -68 I t s presence was most r e a d i l y f e l t i n the poetry, e i t h e r e x p l i c i t l y (Birney, Reaney) or i n d i r e c t l y ( K l e i n , Saint-Denys-Garneau). Here, f o r example, i s B i r n e y 1 s poem 1Mappemounde' (1945): Not t h i s o l d w h a l e h a l l can whelm us, shiptamed, g u l l g r a c e d , s o f t to our g l i d i n g s . Harrows t h a t mere more that squares our map. See i n i t s north where s c r i b e has marked mermen, shore-sneakers who croon, to the s e a - f a r e r ' s g i r l , next year's gleewords. East and West nadders, flamefanged b a l e t w i s t e r s ; t h e i r breath d r i e s up t e a r s , chars i n the breast-hoard the dear face-charm. Southward Cetegrande, t h a t s l y beast who sucks i n w i t h w h i r l w i n d a l s o the wanderer's pledges. That sea i s h i g h t Time, i t hems h e a r t ' s l a n d t r a c e . Men say the r e d e l e s s , reaching i t s bounds, t o p p l e i n maelstrom, t r e a d back never. Adread i n t h a t mere we d r i f t toward map's end. B i r n e y * s poem i s double-edged: on the one hand, he p o i n t s t o the l i m i t a t i o n of p o e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the seeming ambivalent or even an u n d e s i r a b l e c o n s t r u c t , i n c a p a b l e of or at l e a s t u n c e r t a i n of accounting f o r the c o m p l e x i t i t e s or v a r i e t i e s of human responses to the l a n d . A d i a l e c t i c thus emerges between the "unnaming" and renaming of place i n which the map i s recognized both as the product of previous p e r c e p t i o n s of the g e o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l environment and as the v e h i c l e f o r new or r e v i s e d p e r c e p t i o n s of i t . T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of the fundamental i n s t a b i l i t y of c a r t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n makes the map a p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p e a l i n g metaphor f o r w r i t e r s seeking t o h i g h l i g h t a m b i g u i t i e s , paradoxes or c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e i r known or invented worlds. Note, f o r example, the s h i f t from O'Hagan (1939) t o Kroetsch (1974): I t i s p h y s i c a l l y exhausting to look on unknown country. A name i s the magic t o keep i t w i t h i n the h o r i z o n s . Put a name to i t , put i t on the map, and you've got i t . The unnamed - i t i s the darkness u n v e i l e d . (Tay John, 80) At one time I c o n s i d e r e d i t the task of the Canadian w r i t e r to g i v e names to h i s experience, to be the namer. I now suspect t h a t on the c o n t r a r y , i t i s h i s task to un-name. ("Unhiding the Hidden", 43) 69 i n a b i l i t y of the "shiptamed" poet to c r e a t e new symbols or myths which w i l l take him beyond the c i r c u m s c r i b e d boundaries of "map's end;" on the other, he c e l e b r a t e s the poet's a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e new words which w i l l take him beyond the c o n f i n e s of the known world. The poem's l a s t l i n e p r o v i d e s the key: "Adread i n t h a t mere we d r i f t towards map's end". Birney p l a y s on the word "mere:" i f , he suggests, the poet i s "merely" content t o reproduce the a l r e a d y known, or to copy the " r e a l " world, he w i l l f a i l i n h i s task, which i s t o i n j e c t new l i f e i n t o the world through the d e f a m i l i a r i z i n g o p e r a t i o n s of language. Birney laments the p a s s i n g of the r i c h l y decorated maps of the e a r l y modern p e r i o d w i t h t h e i r u n i n h i b i t e d combinations of f a c t and fancy; but although these maps have passed i n t o h i s t o r y , the i m a g i n a t i o n t h a t i n s p i r e d them should not be allowed to d r i f t i n t o o b l i v i o n . The poet's " c r a f t " r e s t s , then, on h i s a b i l i t y to move beyond "map's end" and, by t r a n s g r e s s i n g the boundaries of c o n v e n t i o n a l p o e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t o r e i n s t a t e h i m s e l f through h i s c r e a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of an imaginary world. A more personal approach towards cartography i s taken by James Reaney i n h i s poem "Maps" (1945) : F i v e m i l e s up from Pork S t r e e t The maps hang on the w a l l Gray-green windows on the world Before which the s c h o l a r s stand And hear the gasp and r o l l A t l a n t i c Above, l i k e the cynosure of a Queen Anne's Lace Dance The dark red i s l a n d , B r i t a i n Proud and proud. 0 there are maps of A s i a Where warm winds blow When o u t s i d e the J a n u s - f r o s t 70 Rules the bread-white snow. A s u l t r y c o i l of breeze, And a blossom, Clogged winds of Cinnamon and amber. Fat yellow China and p u r p l e I n d i a , Ceylon l i k e a c h o c o l a t e comfit The rim and dim ghost of Europe Where the colour has run out ... Whenever we s i n g 'In days of yore' We t h i n k of the New World's crown. The green Northwest with i t s q u a i n t i n l e t s . The brown Yukon. Ungava Bay and Newfoundland Pink f e v e r e d Saskatchewan and p u r p l e A l b e r t a . Reaney b r i n g s the i m p e r i a l maps of h i s c h i l d h o o d to l i f e , but not t o r e c o n f i r m the r e a l i t y of Empire (whose "colour has run o u t " ) ; the v i b r a n t c o l o u r s of Canada remind the poet r a t h e r of h i s own, p r i v a t e l y c o n s t r u c t e d world. Reaney reproduces the e x o t i c language of Empire, but t u r n s i t a g a i n s t i t s e l f ; "clogged winds of cinnamon and amber" are as f o r e i g n to the poet i n h i s snowbound environment as they were to the European c o l o n i z e r s , but the i n l e t s of B r i t i s h Columbia, "quaint" t o European eyes, are f a m i l i a r to h i s . By naming and p e r s o n i f y i n g h i s world, Reaney r e c o n s t r u c t s the map; l i k e B i rney, he i s not content to reproduce or to stay w i t h i n the parameters of other people's maps; the map, he suggests, must be c o l o u r e d by p e r s o n a l experience, not by p o l i t i c a l mandate. For Birney, the map's contours are shaped by the imagination, f o r Reaney by memory; but both poets r e b e l a g a i n s t the n o t i o n t h a t the map i m i t a t e s r e a l i t y : i t i s merely someone's v e r s i o n of r e a l i t y , 71 and i t must be r e v i s e d , r e c o n s t r u c t e d and reanimated i f i t i s t o become p a r t of the poet's own world. I have dwelt upon these two poems because they seem to me to a n t i c i p a t e l a t e r developments i n the " l i t e r a r y cartography" of Canada; I would now l i k e to consid e r t h e i r A u s t r a l i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . As i n Canada, the map topos does not f e a t u r e w i d e l y i n the e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e of A u s t r a l i a ; i t s emergence i s res e r v e d f o r a p e r i o d when w r i t e r s are l e s s concerned wi t h the mediated r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e x t e r n a l environment (Lawson, Furphy, Richardson) than w i t h the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of landscape (Hope, Campbell, Wright) or the r e v i s i o n of ge o g r a p h i c a l h i s t o r y (Dark, H i l l , Stewart). The two tendencies converge i n Kenneth S l e s s o r ' s c y c l e of poems "The A t l a s " (193 2), which p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s of w i t t y v i g n e t t e s on s e l e c t e d European car t o g r a p h e r s of the seventeenth century. In the t h i r d poem, de d i c a t e d t o the Dutch cartographer Blaeu, S l e s s o r combines S w i f t i a n s a t i r e w i t h agonized i n t r o s p e c t i o n : Sky f u l l of s h i p s , bay f u l l of town, A p o r t f u l l of waters j e l l i e d brown: Such i s the world no t i d e may s t i r , Sealed by the great cartographer. 0, co u l d he but c l a p up l i k e t h i s My decomposed m e t r o p o l i s , Those other c o u n t r i e s of the mind, So t o u s l e d , dark and undefined! S l e s s o r d i s t i n g u i s h e s w i t t i l y between the o r d e r l y appearance of the map and the d i s o r d e r l y s t a t e of h i s mind: the pat rhymes and overblown d i c t i o n of h i s poetry mock the p r e c i o s i t y of the map which, f a r from copying r e a l i t y , does not even resemble i t . L i k e Birney and Reaney, S l e s s o r employs to 73 an outmoded language f o r i r o n i c purposes; but whereas B i r n e y and Reaney both suggest t h a t a new language can be wrought from the o l d , S l e s s o r i s l e s s c o n f i d e n t t h a t he can f i n d a language capable of a r t i c u l a t i n g "those other c o u n t r i e s of the mind." The poet i s t o r n between the d e s i r e to c o n t r o l h i s emotions and the need to express them; the map consequently becomes a metaphor of s e l f - c o n t r o l , but a l s o one of s e l f - l i m i t a t i o n . Here, as elsewhere i n S l e s s o r ' s poetry, the i n f l u e n c e of N i e t z s c h e can be d e t e c t e d i n the p u l l between A p o l l i n i a n form and D i o n y s i a n formlessness. A p o l l i n i a n c u l t u r e , w r i t e s N i e t z s c h e i n The B i r t h of Tragedy, "seeks to d i s s o l v e the power of myth ... i t b e l i e v e s t h a t i t can c o r r e c t the world by knowledge [and] guide l i f e by s c i e n c e " (109). "The r e a l i t y i n which we l i v e , " he claims, " i s mere appearance, and another, q u i t e d i f f e r e n t r e a l i t y l i e s beneath i t " (34). T h i s i s the realm of D i o n y s i a n anguish and r a p t u r e ; i t i s a l s o the realm of S l e s s o r ' s "other c o u n t r i e s of the mind." But i t would be s i m p l i s t i c t o equate the map w i t h A p o l l i n i a n s c i e n t i s m ; f o r , as S l e s s o r suggests i n "The A t l a s , " the map i s at once a p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c document and an a r t i s t i c c o n s t r u c t : the seventeenth-century maps of Blaeu, Sanson and Norton t e s t i f y to the e s s e n t i a l l y ambivalent s t a t u s of cartography. L i k e B irney, S l e s s o r draws a p a r a l l e l between the cartographer and the poet: both are craftsmen, b u i l d e r s and shapers of f i c t i o n a l worlds; but both, too, are s c i e n t i s t s , a r t i c u l a t o r s of " t r u t h s " about the " r e a l " world. A d i f f e r e n t approach to the r e l a t i o n between a r t and 74 s c i e n c e i s taken by A.D. Hope i n h i s poem "On an Engraving by C a s s e r i u s . " Hope e x p l a i n s why the engraving f a s c i n a t e s him: Turning the l e a v e s of t h i s m a j e s t i c book My thoughts are with those great cosmographers, ' Surgeon adventurers who undertook To probe and c h a r t time's other u n i v e r s e . T h i s one engraving holds me with i t s theme: More than a l l maps made i n t h a t century Which set true bearings f o r each cape and s t a r , De Quiros' v i s i o n or Newton's cosmic dream, T h i s reaches towards the c e n t r a l mystery Of whence our being draws and what we are. Hope acknowledges the m e r i t s of s c i e n c e but spurns i t s " s o l u t i o n s : " "the c e n t r a l mystery of ... what we a r e " cannot be a r t i c u l a t e d by the map, which may s e t out general t r u t h s but cannot imply a b s t r a c t causes. Hope goes on to s t a t e h i s case more e m p h a t i c a l l y : ... Did he [Thomas Browne] f o r e s e e perhaps An age i n which a l l sense of the unique, And s i n g u l a r d i s s o l v e s , l i k e our today, In diagrams, s t a t i s t i c s , diagrams, maps? Not here! The graver's t o o l i n t h i s design Aims s t i l l to g i v e not general t r u t h alone, B l u e - p r i n t of s c i e n c e or data's formal l i n e : Here i n i t s s i n g u l a r i t y he has shown The image of an i n d i v i d u a l s o u l ; Bodied i n t h i s one woman, he makes us see The shadow of h i s anatomical laws. An a r t i s t ' s v i s i o n animates the whole, Shines through the s c i e n t i s t ' s d e t a i l e d s c r u t i n y And l i n k s the person and the a b s t r a c t cause. Hope uses the example of C a s s e r i u s to set out h i s own a r t i s t i c m a n i f e s t o i n which, u n l i k e S l e s s o r , he d i s t i n g u i s h e s between po e t r y and cartography: the former f u r n i s h e s a v i s i o n of the whole, the l a t t e r p r o v i d e s a set of c o n v e n t i o n a l o u t l i n e s . The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of maps, i m p l i e s Hope, runs counter to the i 75 s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l . Hope does not consider cartography to be an a r t - f o r m ; i n s t e a d , l i k e the s t a t i s t i c a l c h a r t or the e x p l i c a t o r y diagram, the map belongs to the impersonal world of s c i e n c e . Maps are s e t s of i n s t r u c t i o n s about the p h y s i c a l environment; they have no say, however, i n the i n t u i t i o n of metaphysical laws. Thus, whereas S l e s s o r ' s poem turns to the Renaissance f o r i t s i n q u i r y i n t o the l i m i t s of a r t i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , Hope's r e t u r n s to C l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y i n search of p h i l o s o p h i c a l s o l a c e . Between them, S l e s s o r and Hope i n d i c a t e the p r e v a i l i n g s c e p t i c i s m of A u s t r a l i a n w r i t e r s towards the f i g u r e of the map. The poems of Birney and Reaney are ambivalent, suggesting t h a t the map may be employed as a paradigm f o r a r t i s t i c s e l f -e x p r e s s i o n i f not as an agent of mimetic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The poems of S l e s s o r and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , Hope, are l e s s e q u i v o c a l . S l e s s o r , l i k e B i rney, i s a t t r a c t e d by the flamboyance of Old World maps; but whereas Birney suggests t h a t the poet, mediating between Old and New Worlds, may c r e a t e h i s own maps, S l e s s o r i m p l i e s t h a t c o u n t r i e s of the mind e x i s t , both i n h i s p e r s o n a l unconscious and, perhaps, i n the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious of h i s f e l l o w - A u s t r a l i a n s , which cannot be expressed by the r i g o r o u s d e f i n i t i o n s and o u t l i n e s , nor y e t by the extraneous c o n c e i t s , of the map. The i n f l u e n c e of N i e t z s c h e on S l e s s o r , and of P l a t o on Hope, i n d i c a t e a p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s i n c l i n a t i o n towards the i m p l i c i t l y 76 A r i s t o t e l i a n systemics of c a r t o g r a p h y ; 6 Birney shares t h i s s u s p i c i o n , although he and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , Reaney are l e s s c a t e g o r i c a l i n t h e i r d i s t i n c t i o n s between the " v i s i o n a r y " and the " e x p l i c a t o r y " (or, to r e t a i n Hope's terms, the i n t u i t e d " a b s t r a c t cause" and the c a l c u l a t e d "general law"). For both Birney and Reaney, the map must be r e v i s e d and r e c o n s t r u c t e d ; f o r the s c e p t i c a l S l e s s o r or the d i s m i s s i v e Hope, however, i t must be supplemented by other modes of ( s e l f ) e x p r e s s i o n . D e s p i t e these d i f f e r e n c e s , a l l four poets i l l u s t r a t e the l i m i t a t i o n s of maps as models of the world or as metaphors of a r t i s t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s , i n c r e a s i n g l y , i n the second h a l f of the t w e n t i e t h century that w r i t e r s from Canada and A u s t r a l i a , coming t o terms with the l i m i t a t i o n s of mimetic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , r e c o g n i z e the need f o r new c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . The map topos consequently comes i n t o prominence as a paradigm which e i t h e r demands r e s i s t a n c e or i n v i t e s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Before f o c u s i n g , however, on m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the map topos i n contemporary Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g , I would l i k e to comment on three works which, i n my view, act as a watershed between the "modern" and "contemporary" p e r i o d s of l i t e r a r y cartography: these are, i n A u s t r a l i a , P a t r i c k White's Voss (1957); and, i n Canada, Margaret Atwood's S u r f a c i n g (1972) and Hubert Aquin's Neige n o i r e (1974). See A l f r e d K o r z y b s k i ' s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the map Science and S a n i t y : An I n t r o d u c t i o n to N o n - A r i s t o t e l i a n ( L a k e v i l l e : I n s t i t u t e of General Semantics, 1958), esp. i n Systems 58. 77 Much ink has been s p i l t on the extent to which the p r o t a g o n i s t of White's novel i s modelled on the German e x p l o r e r 7 Ludwig L e i c h h a r d t . Voss, however, seems to me l e s s an h i s t o r i c a l (or even a p s e u d o - h i s t o r i c a l ) novel than a novel of ideas which uses the f i g u r e of Voss t o engender a debate between "German p r e c i s i o n and German mysti c i s m " (104) . L i e u t e n a n t R a d c l y f f e ' s a l l e g i a n c e i s c l e a r : "Where Voss i s concerned, I w i l l put my money on the clouds of theory rather than the knife-edge of p r a c t i c e " (104). The d e s e r t i s an i d e a l s i t e f o r Voss's metaphysical s p e c u l a t i o n , s i n c e the environment and the thoughts i t i n s p i r e s are reduced to the l e v e l of pure a b s t r a c t i o n . Voss's c o l l e a g u e s provide d i f f e r e n t a ngles on the c h a r a c t e r of t h e i r l e a d er and on the nature of the debate; f o r each of them i s engaged i n a p r i v a t e s t r u g g l e which has metaphysical p r o p o r t i o n s : the o r n i t h o l o g i s t Palfreyman, f o r example, seeks a compromise between h i s r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and h i s d e d i c a t i o n to s c i e n c e ; the a s p i r i n g a r t i s t Le Mesurier a balance between v e r b a l c r e a t i v i t y and p h y s i c a l d e s t r u c t i o n . Voss's tendency towards mysticism i s counteracted by the p r a c t i c a l i t y of the e x - c o n v i c t Judd, keeper of the c a r t o g r a p h i c instruments; y e t , as the e x p e d i t i o n moves f u r t h e r i n t o the i n t e r i o r , and the debate on which i t i s p r e d i c a t e d i n t e n s i f i e s , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t p r a c t i c a l i t y i s l o s i n g i t s purpose: the e x p e d i t i o n has ceased to be a See J.F. Burrows, "'Voss' and the E x p l o r e r s , " AUMLA 26 (1966): 234-240; a l s o Don D. Walker, "The Western E x p l o r e r as a L i t e r a r y Hero: Jedediah Smith and Ludwig L e i c h h a r d t , " Western  Humanities Review 29 (1975): 243-259. 78 t r a v e r s a l of the p h y s i c a l environment, and has become i n s t e a d an e x e r c i s e of pure w i l l . The instruments are l o s t , the h i s t o r i c a l record of the e x p e d i t i o n b l u r r e d , and the s t o r y of Voss passes i n t o legend. White's use of the map metaphor i n Voss bears comparison with Hope's i n "On an Engraving by C a s s e r i u s . " L i k e Hope, White demonstrates the l i m i t a t i o n s of maps as a r b i t e r s of knowledge; as Voss's companion and soulmate Laura T r e v e l y a n c o n f e s s e s : "the l i t t l e I have seen i s l e s s ... than what I know. Knowledge was never a matter of geography. Quite the r e v e r s e , i t overflows a l l maps t h a t e x i s t . Perhaps t r u e knowledge only comes of death by t o r t u r e i n the country of the mind" (446). The map's value as a document i s undermined, but i t s s t a t u s as a myth i n c r e a s e s : thus, w h i l e i t i s c l e a r that Voss f a i l s p h y s i c a l l y i n h i s attempt to "make the map" of C e n t r a l A u s t r a l i a , t h e r e i s the suggestion t h a t he succeeds p s y c h i c a l l y i n "probting] and c h a r t ting] time's other u n i v e r s e . " The e x p l i c a t o r y s c i e n c e of cartography i s transmuted i n t o a v i s i o n a r y a r t ; the b a t t l e between German p r e c i s i o n and German mysticism i s won by the l a t t e r , i f at the p r i c e of p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l . The map as metaphor mediates between White's two other major s p a t i a l paradigms i n the n o v e l : the d e s e r t and the garden. Both are ambivalent: the d e s e r t i s a t once a symbol of completion and of negation, the garden one of domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and of i l l i c i t p l e a s u r e . The map, a c c o r d i n g l y , becomes the means by which Voss and h i s e x p e d i t i o n t r a v e r s e the d e s e r t , but a l s o the i n s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r f a i l u r e ; and the means by which the more c o n s e r v a t i v e Bonner and h i s company enclose and c o n t r o l t h e i r p r i v a t e t e r r i t o r y , but a l s o r e l i n q u i s h a deeper understanding of i t . A kind of pragmatic i d e a l i s m emerges i n which the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a p r i v a t e v i s i o n i s h e l d i n check by the s c e p t i c a l , even s c o r n f u l awareness of the importance of conformism i n an otherwise contingent world; cartography operates as the mediating p r i n c i p l e , f o r maps i m p l i c i t l y f u n c t i o n both as e x p r e s s i o n s , or m y t h i c a l transmutations, of personal experience and as r e g i s t e r s of s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , maps embody or enhance dreams; i n the second, they reduce or r e p r e s s them. White t h e r e f o r e looks back beyond the e x p l o i t s of L e i c h h a r d t , Eyre and other European e x p l o r e r s i n C e n t r a l A u s t r a l i a to the e a r l i e s t myths of T e r r a A u s t r a l i s I n c o g n i t a i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the c o n j e c t u r a l maps of the l a t e Middle Ages and, l a t e r , i n the maps of Mercator, Waldseemiiller and Blaeu. These maps, as I have a l r e a d y suggested, were combinations of f a c t and f a b l e : the Great Southern Land symbolized imaginary hopes and f e a r s which were to i n f l u e n c e l a t e r e x p e d i t i o n s , a f f e c t p e r c e p t i o n l o n g a f t e r these e x p l o r a t i o n s had been completed and, of course, p r o v i d e A u s t r a l i a n w r i t e r s with ready-made or Cf. K e i t h Garebian, "The Desert and the Garden: The Theme of Completeness i n Voss," Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s 22 (1976-7): 80 c o n v e n i e n t l y m a l l e a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e i r f i c t i o n s . White's i n t e r e s t , however, extends beyond the r e v i v a l and l i t e r a r y r e v i s i o n of myths of T e r r a A u s t r a l i s ; f o r he i s a l s o concerned w i t h the s p e c i f i c means of t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n , and i n p a r t i c u l a r with d i s t i n c t i o n s between v e r b a l and v i s u a l analogues (the legend; the map). Voss's journey i n t o the i n t e r i o r i s the s t u f f of legend; i t i s a l s o a reworking of an e s t a b l i s h e d l i t e r a r y paradigm: the quest n a r r a t i v e . The n a r r a t i v e corresponds to the process °f mapmaking by i t s i n s c r i p t i o n , l i k e Voss's journey i n t o the de s e r t , onto a "blank" environment: the page. I t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, corresponds to the process of mapreading, an ongoing attempt to decipher t e x t u a l / g e o g r a p h i c a l s i g n s . Voss's death and a b s o r p t i o n i n t o the landscape, f o l l o w i n g on the l o s s of h i s maps and c a r t o g r a p h i c instruments, emphasize the f a i l u r e of the former p r o j e c t ; but they a l s o i n d i c a t e a s h i f t of emphasis from the former to the l a t t e r c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s : the "reading" of landscape i s p r i v i l e g e d over i t s (superimposed) " w r i t i n g , " and the map, although d i s c r e d i t e d as a v e r b a l mode, i s reestimated as a v i s u a l one. White's d i s t i n c t i o n i s t w o f o l d : f i r s t , between mapping as a metaphoric process a k i n to w r i t i n g and the map as a v i s u a l analogue of the myth; and second, between the map as an " o b j e c t i v e " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e x t e r n a l environment and the map as a " s u b j e c t i v e " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of personal experience. By i n d i c a t i n g the shortcomings of c a r t o g r a p h i c n o t a t i o n , and by f u r t h e r suggesting the narrowly p o s i t i v i s t i c view of the w o r l d 81 on which i t i s p r e d i c a t e d , White i m p l i e s h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r a phenomenological approach i n which the map, reassessed a c c o r d -i n g t o the H u s s e r l i a n p r i n c i p l e t h a t the s c i e n c e of nature pre-supposes the s c i e n c e of s p i r i t , i s p e r c e i v e d not as a v e r b a l means of conquering, nor even of e x p l a i n i n g , the e x t e r n a l e n v i -ronment but r a t h e r as a v i s u a l means of s u r r e n d e r i n g t o i t s Q mystery. The map, i n t h i s sense, becomes a metaphor f o r the i m a g i n a t i v e process i n v o l v e d i n a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n , but at the same time a reminder of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of f i n d i n g words to express the " t r u t h " of a personal v i s i o n . Thus, an apt e p i t a p h to Voss (or f o r Voss?) might be Marlow's words i n Heart of  Darkness: I t seems to me I am t r y i n g to t e l l you a dream - making a v a i n attempt, because no r e l a t i o n of a dream can convey the dream-sensation, t h a t comingling of a b s u r d i t y , s u r p r i s e , and be-wilderment i n a tremor of s t r u g g l i n g r e v o l t , t h a t n o t i o n of being captured by the i n c r e d -i b l e which i s of the very essence of dreams ...No, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e ... to convey the l i f e -s e n s a t i o n of any given epoch of one's e x i s t e n c e - t h a t which makes i t s t r u t h , i t s meaning - i t s s u b t l e and p e n e t r a t i n g essence. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e . We l i v e , as we dream - alone ... (82) A Canadian novel i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to both Heart of See H u s s e r l ' s essay "Philosophy and the C r i s i s of European Man", i n Phenomenology and the C r i s i s of Philosophy, t r a n s . Q. Lauer (NY: Harper and Row, 1965) 149-192. H u s s e r l ' s b e l i e f i s t h a t "the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s g i v e merely the appearance of having brought nature to a p o i n t where f o r i t s e l f i t i s r a t i o n a l l y known. For nature i n i t s proper s c i e n t i f i c sense i s a product of the s p i r i t t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e s nature, and thus the s c i e n c e of nature presupposes the s c i e n c e of the s p i r i t " (184). Voss's d e f e a t i m p l i e s t h a t the map has f a i l e d as a v e h i c l e of p o s i t i v i s t i c r a t i o n a l i s m ; but h i s " t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n " a l s o i n d i c a t e s a r e t u r n to the s p i r i t u a l b a s i s of s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i ry. Darkness and Voss i s Margaret Atwood's S u r f a c i n g . L i k e Conrad's novels and White's, S u r f a c i n g i s a quest n a r r a t i v e c h a r t i n g the s u c c e s s i v e stages of i t s p r o t a g o n i s t ' s journey i n t o the i n t e r i o r . But, u n l i k e Voss or Heart of Darkness, S u r f a c i n g does not p i t c h i t s p r o t a g o n i s t i n t o the "unknown." The quest does not demand the n a v i g a t i o n a l or c a r t o g r a p h i c s k i l l s needed t o c h a r t a course through u n f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y ; i n s t e a d , i t r e q u i r e s the a b i l i t y to d i s c e r n and disabuse o n e s e l f of f a l s e landmarks i n f a m i l i a r , but treacherous, t e r r a i n . Since, f o r the n a r r a t o r of S u r f a c i n g , the border country between O n t a r i o and Quebec i s "home ground, f o r e i g n t e r r i t o r y " (12), she i s fa c e d w i t h the p a r a d o x i c a l task of d e f a m i l i a r i z i n g her surroundings i n order to achieve her own sense of p l a c e . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t S u r f a c i n g , l i k e so many quest n a r r a t i v e s , i n v o l v e s a search f o r i d e n t i t y ; and, indeed, t h a t i s the way the novel i s u s u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d . I would suggest, however, that S u r f a c i n g p r o v i d e s an i m p l i e d c r i t i q u e of s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n : f o r i f the n o t i o n of i d e n t i t y connotes s t a s i s , f i x i t y , completeness, then i t must be r e s i s t e d . Furthermore, i d e n t i t y i s a l s o suggested as being a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t ; and s i n c e the s o c i e t y d e p i c t e d by the n a r r a t o r i s p a t r i a r c h a l , m a t e r i a l i s t i c and s u p e r f i c i a l , the n a r r a t o r ' s attempt t o a s s e r t h e r s e l f becomes a q u e s t i o n of " a r t i c u l a t i n g the space (s) between"^ by r e s i s t i n g narrow s o c i a l convention Cf. S h e r r i l l Grace's d i s c u s s i o n of Atwood's " a r t i c u l a t i o n of the space between" as an a l t e r n a t i v e to the " v i o l e n t - continued -83 and r e j e c t i n g the easy c a t e g o r i e s which are (mis)used to d i s t i n g u i s h one c u l t u r e or s u b - c u l t u r e from o t h e r s . As Jeanne Delbaere has p o i n t e d out, the n a r r a t o r ' s main task i s to unname her environment;"''"'" she, of course, remains nameless throughout, w h i l e other names d i s s o l v e around her i n a p l a y of p a s t i c h e (David's "Random Samples"), parody (her own d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e drawings) and metaphor/metamorphosis ( l i n g u i s t i c / o r g a n i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ) . In the process of "unnaming" her environment, the n a r r a t o r a l s o "unmaps" i t : t h a t i s to say, she r e j e c t s the s t r a t e g i e s of nomination, e n c l o s u r e and d e f i n i t i o n i m p l i c i t i n the n o t i o n of the map. The n a r r a t o r ' s f a t h e r ' s map i s a symbol - continued -d u a l i t i e s " of Canadian s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l experience i n " A r t i c u l a t i n g the 'Space Between': Atwood's Un t o l d S t o r i e s and Fresh Beginnings," i n S. Grace and L. Weir, eds. Margaret  Atwood: Language, Text and System (Vancouver: U of B r i t i s h Columbia P. 1983) 1-16. Jeanne Delbaere-Garant, " D e c o l o n i z i n g the S e l f i n S u r f a c i n g , Bear, and A Fringe of Leaves," i n X. Pons and E. Rocard, eds. C o l o n i s a t i o n s : Rencontres A u s t r a l i e - C a n a d a (Toulouse: U de T o u l o u s e - l e - M i r a i l , 1985): 67-78. Although the n a r r a t o r unnames/unmaps her environment, she can a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as remapping i t . T h i s de/recoding of the map i s s i m i l a r to the d i a l e c t i c a l process I o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y between the unnaming and renaming of p l a c e . I t a l s o suggests t h a t Atwood does not simply r e j e c t the map metaphor but adapts i t to her own purposes. In t h i s sense, Atwood's d e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the map i n S u r f a c i n g does not c o n t r a d i c t , but rather complements, her comments i n S u r v i v a l : "What a l o s t person needs i s a map of the t e r r i t o r y , with h i s own p o s i t i o n marked on i t so he can see where he i s i n r e l a t i o n to e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . L i t e r a t u r e i s not only a m i r r o r : i t i s a l s o a map, a geography of the mind. Our l i t e r a t u r e i s one such map, i f we can l e a r n t o read i t as our l i t e r a t u r e , as the product of who and where we have been" (19). The map thus i l l u s t r a t e s one of the c e n t r a l paradoxes i n Atwood's work: the need both to d e f i n e and to r e s i s t d e f i n i n g the s e l f (or, a t l e a s t , t o r e s i s t p r evious d e f i n i t i o n s of i t ) . 84 of p a t r i a r c h a l a u t h o r i t y ; but when he attempts t o match the s p a t i a l c o o r d i n a t e s of the map w i t h t h e i r r e a l geographical l o c a t i o n s , the symbolic power i n v e s t e d i n the map turns a g a i n s t him, and he f a l l s v i c t i m to h i s own i l l u s i o n s of s e l f -aggrandizement. F o l l o w i n g i n her f a t h e r ' s f o o t s t e p s , the n a r r a t o r seeks t o p i e c e together h i s map " l i k e the c l u e s i n [a] p u z z l e " (137). Looking f o r a " l i n e t h a t would f i t the mapline" (136), she d i s c o v e r s i n s t e a d the " s i t e of the X... he had been here and l o n g before him the o r i g i n a l ones, the f i r s t e x p l o r e r s , l e a v i n g behind them t h e i r s i g n , word, but not i t s meaning" (136). The cr o s s i s a m u l t i v a l e n t symbol i n S u r f a c i n g . For the n a r r a t o r ' s f a t h e r , i t symbolizes the d e s t r u c t i v e i d e o l o g y of p o w e r - t o - k i l l a l s o i n v e s t e d i n the surveyors' c h a r t s and the hunters' maps. For the n a r r a t o r , however, i t has connotations of v i c t i m i z a t i o n ; her attempt t o l o c a t e the s i t e of the X i s t h e r e f o r e f o l l o w e d by an erasure or t r a n s l a t i o n of i t s marker-function. The n a r r a t o r a c c o r d i n g l y desystematizes or recodes the map, c h a l l e n g i n g i t i n both cases as a metaphor of p a t r i a r c h a l c o e r c i o n and as a composite symbol of a l l those s t r a t e g i e s which are p e r c e i v e d t o impose a f i x e d p a t t e r n on experience. The map i s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y exposed as both a f a l s e guide and a f a l s e c o n s t r u c t : i t pu r p o r t s t o advise but a c t u a l l y d i c t a t e s and d i s t o r t s ; moreover, i t operates r e d u c t i v e l y i n two dimensions and, l i k e other two-dimensional c o n s t r u c t s i n the novel (the photograph, the p i c t o g r a p h , the i l l u s t r a t i o n ) , i s conducive to d u a l i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n . 85 The n a r r a t o r ' s r e s i s t a n c e to the map can be seen, then, a t s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s : i n her disavowal of the map as mentor ( i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t her own g e n i i l o c i defy b o r d e r s ) , her reanimation of the map as monolith (and of other two-dimensional g r a p h i c s , n o t a b l y her i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Quebec Folk T a l e s and her f a t h e r ' s v e r s i o n of the Indian p i c t o g r a p h s ) , and her d e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the map as metaphor. Le t me comment b r i e f l y on each of these i s s u e s . In the f i r s t s e c t i o n of the novel, the n a r r a t o r and her companions t r a v e l through a c o u n t r y s i d e c l u t t e r e d w i t h ' f a l s e ' landmarks: e l e c t i o n slogans ... p a i n t e d over and over, some faded and defaced, o t h e r s f r e s h yellow and white, VOTEZ GODET, VOTEZ O'BRIEN, along w i t h h e a r t s and i n t i a l s and words and advertisements, THfi SALADA, BLUE MOUNTAIN COTTAGES 1/2 MILE, QUEBEC LIBRE, FUCK YOU, BUVEZ COCA-COLA GLACE, JESUS SAVES, melange of demands and languages ... an X-ray of i t would be the d i s t r i c t ' s e n t i r e h i s t o r y . (15) The v i s u a l a r r a y of s i g n s and symbols defaces r a t h e r than d e s c r i b e s the landscape. A surrogate map, i t i s o b v i o u s l y inadequate as a r e f e r e n t i a l guide because i t s frame of re f e r e n c e i s c o n t i n u a l l y changing (eg. the p a l i m p s e s t i c slogans) and because i t s v a r i o u s markers c o n t r a d i c t one another; nor i s i t adequate as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n c e i t i s measured not i n terms of mimetic accuracy but i n those of commercial v i a b i l i t y . L i k e the n a r r a t o r ' s f a t h e r ' s map, which r e g i s t e r s h i s ob s e s s i o n w i t h measurement but which, along w i t h h i s drawings, l e a v e s "a gap, something not accounted f o r , something l e f t over" (112), the d i s p l a y imposes i t s e l f 86 upon, b u t c a n n o t c o n t a i n o r f u l l y s y s t e m a t i z e , i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s . L i n k e d t o a n i d e o l o g y o f c o n s u m e r i s m w h i c h e n v i s i o n s t h e l a n d a s a c a p i t a l g o o d , i t d i s r e g a r d s t h e l a n d a s a l i v i n g e n t i t y . R e s i s t i n g t h e f a l s e l y i m p l a n t e d a u t h o r i t y o f h e r f a t h e r ' s map and t h e a l l u r i n g b u t d e c e p t i v e s y m b o l s o f h e r consumer c u l t u r e , t h e n a r r a t o r " t r a n s l a t e s " h e r e n v i r o n m e n t by t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e map and i t s s u r r o g a t e s f r o m i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s i n t o a n i m a t e s u b j e c t s : t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , l i k e t h e n a r r a t o r ' s f a t h e r ' s d r a w i n g s , t a k e s on a l i f e o f i t s own. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s p e r c e p t u a l : t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and i t s p e r c i p i e n t i s no l o n g e r v i e w e d a s one o f s u b j e c t t o o b j e c t b u t a s one o f m u t u a l i n t e r - s u b j e c t i v i t y . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o l i n g u i s t i c : t h e map l o s e s i t s s t a t u s a s a n a u t h o r i t a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t , b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h emerges b e t w e e n t h e map and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i t s e t s o u t t o r e g u l a t e i s i n t e r p r e t e d p r o d u c t i v e l y as a means o f a s s e r t i n g l i n g u i s t i c f l u i d i t y and o f g u a r a n t e e i n g p e r s o n a l f r e e d o m . P a u l R i c o e u r ' s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n " d e a d " ( t a u t o l o g o u s ) a n d " l i v e " 12 ( m u l t i v a l e n t ) m e t a p h o r s i s u s e f u l h e r e ; f o r i n S u r f a c i n g , t h e map i s r e j e c t e d a s a " d e a d " m e t a p h o r b u t t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a " l i v e " o n e : t h e e m p h a s i s i s d u l y s h i f t e d f r o m map a s p r o d u c t ( a s an e n c o d e d s p a t i a l p a r a d i g m ) t o t h e map a s p r o c e s s ( a s a r e c o d a b l e p r o c e d u r e o f s p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n ) . The a m b i g u o u s e n d i n g o f S u r f a c i n g r e i n f o r c e s t h e p o i n t : t h e n a r r a t o r r e m a i n s P a u l R i c o e u r , The R u l e o f M e t a p h o r ( T o r o n t o : U o f T o r o n t o P, 1977) . 8 p o i s e d between two worlds and, l i k e the c h i l d s u r f a c i n g w i t h i n her, recovers her freedom not i n the choice to emerge, but i n the emergence of choi c e . Whereas Atwood's focus i s on the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of c a r t o g r a p h i c a u t h o r i t y , Hubert Aquin's i s on the wider p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of c a r t o g r a p h i c r e f e r e n t i a l i t y . The epigraph to h i s 1974 novel Neige n o i r e i s Kierkegaard's a d a p t a t i o n of Hamlet " j e d o i s maintenant a l a f o i s e t r e et ne pas e t r e . " I t becomes the p o i n t of departure f o r an e x p l o r a t i o n of o n t o l o g i c a l a n x i e t y based on the p e r c e i v e d d i s j u n c t i o n between s e l f and world. The dilemma i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a parable of r e f e r e n t i a l l o c a t i o n whose r i d d l e , presented but a p p a r e n t l y unanswered by the p r o t a g o n i s t (Shakespearean ac t o r turned s c r e e n w r i t e r , N i c o l a s ) , condenses i n t o the r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n "ou done e s t ce s p e c t a c l e ? " (19). The q u e s t i o n seems r h e t o r i c a l , the r i d d l e u n s o l v a b l e , because the v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s of the novel, s h i f t i n g between t h e a t r i c a l and c i n e m a t i c modes, only provide mirror-images of one another The i n v e r s i o n or m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of these images simulates the o n t o l o g i c a l a n x i e t y of the p r o t a g o n i s t , unsure of who he i s or which r o l e he i s p l a y i n g , but a l s o the r e f e r e n t i a l a n x i e t y of the reader, unsure where he i s or which f i c t i o n he i s reading. The map f u n c t i o n s i n Aquin's t e x t as a v e h i c l e f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of the d i s c r e p a n c y between " r e a l i t y " and i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l screenplay N i c o l a s i s w r i t i n g , the " r e a l " world i n t e r v e n e s to subvert the f i c t i o n : " l a f i c t i o n n'est pas un piege, e'est e l l e , p l u t o t , q u i est 88 piegee par une r£alit£ q u ' e l l e n e c o n t e n a i t pas e t q u i l ' e n v a h i t hypocritement" (155). N i c o l a s ' conceptual model i s sabotaged by a r e a l i t y i t cannot c o n t a i n , r e c a l l i n g the d i f f e r e n t kind of "sabotage" which b e f a l l s h i s w i f e S y l v i e , k i l l e d i n an " a c c i d e n t " i n the remote, ice-bound wastes of Norway. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , S y l v i e cannot be found by a rescue team r e l i a n t on the supposed r e f e r e n t i a l p r e c i s i o n of cartography (120); the map t h e r e f o r e comes to i l l u s t r a t e the i l l u s i o n of r e f e r e n t i a l i t y which c o r r o b o r a t e s " 1 ' i n a n i t y d'une f i c t i o n q u i ne peut e t r e i n t e l l i g i b l e que s i on l'aborde par ce q u ' e l l e n'est pas" (218-19). The map demonstrates and r e i n f o r c e s t h i s K i e r k e g a a r d i a n a b s u r d i t y by c l a i m i n g to be what i t i s not: a " t r u t h f u l " v e r s i o n of " r e a l i t y . " In f a c t , as Aquin suggests, i t i s merely one simulacrum among ot h e r s , a f i c t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t which, masquerading as a r e l i a b l e r e f e r e n t i a l guide, serves only to exacerbate the d i s t i n c t i o n between the " r e a l " w o r l d and i t s p e r c e i v e r . Yet Aquin goes f u r t h e r ; f o r what passes as " r e a l i t y " i s i t s e l f a superabundance of f r a c t u r e d images and "aberrant" v e r s i o n s which counteract r a t h e r than complement one another. Thus, the ' r e a l ' landscapes of S p i t z b e r g e n and A l a s k a i n N i c o l a s ' nightmare appear to be the c o u n t e r v a i l i n g symbols of "un cartographe d e l i r a n t " (153). T h i s n o t i o n of a " d e l i r i o u s cartography" i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e paradigm f o r what P a t r i c i a M e r i v a l e has c a l l e d Aquin's " a e s t h e t i c s of 13 p e r v e r s i o n ; " f o r the a r t i s t - a s - p e r v e r t i s one who P a t r i c i a M e r i v a l e , "Hubert Aquin and Highbrow Pornography: 89 d e f a m i l i a r i z e s , deforms, but a l s o d i s l o c a t e s " r e a l i t y . " The connect i o n between a e s t h e t i c d e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n , p h y s i c a l d i s f i g u r a t i o n and geo g r a p h i c a l d i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l e x e m p l i f i e d i n the c l i m a c t i c scenes on the i s l a n d of Svalbard, where S y l v i e ( i n one v e r s i o n ) i s l a c e r a t e d and k i l l e d by N i c o l a s , and ( i n another) i s l o s t a f t e r a ( s u i c i d a l ? ) f a l l . The A r c t i c l o c a t i o n i s well-chosen, f o r the ice-bound mountains and r a v i n e s of Svalbard not only defy c a r t o g r a p h i c e x a c t i t u d e through the c l i m a t i c erasure of i d e n t i f i a b l e landmarks; they a l s o symbolize the s h i f t i n g ground of the t e x t , which annuls a l l attempts at d e f i n i t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The i n s c r i p t i o n of a " d e l i r i o u s " ( t e x t u a l ) cartography which p r o v i d e s "aberrant" i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the p h y s i c a l environment suggests, however, t h a t the map should not only be cons i d e r e d as a f a l s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t but as a paradigmatic device f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the unconscious. Thus, i n the s h i p the Nordnorge which takes S y l v i e and N i c o l a s i n t o ever l e s s f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y , the w a l l s of t h e i r c a bin are covered w i t h maps of Norway and i t s i s l a n d s (67): the map seems not to r e f e r to the e x t e r n a l environment but to f u n c t i o n as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the i n t e r i o r . Furthermore, at the p o i n t when S y l v i e t u r n s her a t t e n t i o n to these maps, N i c o l a s i s s l e e p i n g (92): the map i s i m p l i c i t l y recognized as an o n e i r i c c o n s t r u c t , the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the "voyage int£rieur" (194) which takes them i n t o " l e paysage i r r e e l " (108) of the A r c t i c The A e s t h e t i c s of P e r v e r s i o n , " Essays on Canadian W r i t i n g 26 (1982): 1-12. 90 89 North. I f the map i s p e r c e i v e d as a s t r u c t u r i n g device f o r the unconscious r a t h e r than as a r e f e r e n t i a l guide to the e x t e r n a l world, i t s r o l e must be reassessed; f o r i n s t e a d of p r o v i d i n g a s e r i e s of a r b i t r a r y s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n s on an environment which d e f i e s , or erases, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , maps are shown t o supply a s e t of s u c c e s s i v e l y framed i n t e r i o r i s a t i o n s which move i n towards an i d e n t i f i a b l e f o c a l p o i n t . As i n the complementary de v i c e of cinem a t i c focus, the r e s u l t i s an a t o m i z a t i o n or d i s p e r s a l of the surrounding image: the o v e r a l l r e f e r e n t i a l i l l u s i o n i s broken, but the c l a r i t y of the immediate o b j e c t i n t e n s i f i e d . Thus, i n the f i n a l scene of the novel, the " i l l i c i t " l e s b i a n c o u p l i n g of Eva and Lin d a produces a kind of Ki e r k e g a a r d i a n " i l l u m i n a t i o n " i n which they approach "ce t h e a t r e i l l u m i n e ou l a p i e c e qu'on repr£sente e s t une parabole dans l a q u e l l e t o utes l e s oeuvres humaines sont enchassees" (264). A cosmic reunion i s a p p a r e n t l y produced through the agency of t h e a t r i c a l i l l u s i o n . The "cosmic t h e a t r e " i m p l i c i t l y r e u n i t e s N i c o l a s with the stage he had p r e v i o u s l y renounced. I t s design a l s o r e c a l l s the i n s i g n i a on the mysterious pendant which S y l v i e had p r e v i o u s l y used t o a t t a c k N i c o l a s i n a gesture of symbolic c a s t r a t i o n . Absence (the Lacanian " l a c k , " perhaps, 14 or the Hamletian " s i l e n c e " ) impinges upon the presence of the t e x t which, as S y l v i e 1 s f a t h e r / l o v e r Michel had p r e d i c t e d , "ne For a Lacanian approach to Neige Noire, see Fr a n c o i s e I q b a l , "Inceste, onirisme et i n v e r s i o n : Neige N o i r e et l 1 i d e n t i t y apocryphe," Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 107 (1985): 74-84. 91 peut e t r e i n t e l l i g i b l e que s i on l'aborde par ce q u ' t i l ] n'est pas". The r e - s u b s t i t u t i o n of a t h e a t r i c a l f o r a c i n e m a t i c i l l u s i o n f u r t h e r suggests t h a t the " r e s o l u t i o n " of " [ l a ] p a r a b o l e dans l a q u e l l e toutes l e s oeuvres humaines sont enchass£es" r e q u i r e s a K i e r k e g a a r d i a n l e a p of f a i t h rather than a r a t i o n a l attempt to l o c a t e one's " t r u e " p o s i t i o n i n the " r e a l " world. Another word f o r t h i s l e a p of f a i t h might be the dramatic term c a t h a r s i s ; f o r i f Aquin adapts the tragedy of Hamlet to demonstrate the a b s u r d i t y of a world i n which no r a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n i s tenable, and t o suggest by analogy the i n t o l e r a b i l i t y of h i s own d i v i d e d s o c i e t y , he p o s i t s the s u r v i v a l of F o r t i n b r a s (Hamlet's twin i n the dual r o l e played by N i c o l a s ) as the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a g r e a t e r understanding of, r a t h e r than a d e s p a i r i n g surrender to, the d u p l i c i t y of s e l f . I suggested e a r l i e r t h a t Voss, S u r f a c i n g and Neige n o i r e may a l l be considered "watershed" n o v e l s ; perhaps now i t i s p o s s i b l e to see why. Voss looks back to the c o n j e c t u r a l , myth-laden maps of T e r r a A u s t r a l i s , but a l s o more r e c e n t l y to the metaphysical landscapes of Hope and McAuley; White's blend of s p e c u l a t i v e pantheism and i r o n i c detachment looks forward most d i r e c t l y to the novels of Stow, although h i s tongue-in-cheek r e v i s i o n of A u s t r a l i a n l i t e r a r y and s o c i a l h i s t o r y (more f u l l y r e a l i z e d i n the l a t e r A Fringe of Leaves) a l s o a n t i c i p a t e s the "new w r i t i n g " of Carey, B a i l , Murnane and o t h e r s . S u r f a c i n g , s i m i l a r l y , c a s t s an i r o n i c r e t r o s p e c t i v e glance at the r o l e of cartography i n Canadian s o c i a l h i s t o r y (through Atwood's g o t h i c parody of the genteel backwoods guides of Moodie and T r a i l l ) ; 92 i t a l s o a n t i c i p a t e s the f e m i n i s t r e v i s i o n i s t novels of Engel, Van Herk and ot h e r s . Neige n o i r e , f i n a l l y , by e l a b o r a t i n g on the o n t o l o g i c a l i n s e c u r i t i e s expressed both by e a r l i e r and by more contemporary w r i t e r s (St.-Denys-Garneau, F e r r o n ) , and by p l a c i n g them i n the ambivalent context of Quebec's c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y , looks forward t o the d e s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n of c a r t o g r a p h i c space i n l a t e r f i c t i o n s by R i v a r d , B a i l l i e and V i l l e m a i r e . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the three novels are i n s t r u c t i v e : f o r White, the map i s a su b j e c t f o r metaphysical s p e c u l a t i o n ; f o r Atwood, a symbol of p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and imposed s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ; f o r Aquin a metaphor of immediate c u l t u r a l and wider o n t o l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n . The three tendencies may be g e n e r a l i z e d , although such g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s n e c e s s a r i l y overlook the i n t e r n a l c o m p l e x i t i e s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s which c h a r a c t e r i z e the p l u r a l s o c i e t i e s / c u l t u r e s of A u s t r a l i a and Canada: i n A u s t r a l i a , the unique c a r t o g r a p h i c h i s t o r y , as w e l l as the unusual f l o r a , fauna and topographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of the country go some way towards accounting f o r the prevalence i n A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g of i n t e r n a l i z e d "landscapes of the i m a g i n a t i o n . " In Canada, the p r o g r e s s i v e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the environment l e a d s , f i r s t , t o the r e a l i s t i c d e p i c t i o n of landscape, second, t o i t s m y t h o l o g i z a t i o n , and t h i r d , t o i t s s t y l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n which maps f e a t u r e as ambivalent metaphors of s o c i a l and/or l i n g u i s t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n . In Quebec, the heightened s e n s i t i v i t y of the l o c a l community to i n t e r n a l , as w e l l as e x t e r n a l , c o l o n i z a t i o n , r e f l e c t e d i n the l i t e r a r y usage of the map as a metaphor f o r the d r a m a t i z a t i o n of 93 l n t o l o g i c a l a n x i e t y , produces the need, f i r s t , f o r a r e v i s i o n a r y c u l t u r a l agenda then, l a t e r , f o r a programme of d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n which r e f l e c t s the " r e a p p r o p r i a t e d " c u l t u r e ' s d e s i r e f o r movement beyond i t s own h o r i z o n s . The prevalence of the map topos i n contemporary w r i t i n g i n both A u s t r a l i a and Canada suggests a c e r t a i n convergence of a l l , or some, of these tendencies, a l l i e d i n Canada to the d i s c o v e r y of the f i c t i o n s of the French and, more r e c e n t l y , the L a t i n American "new n o v e l i s t s ; " and i n A u s t r a l i a to the emergence of women's w r i t i n g and the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the c u l t u r a l "mainstreams" of Melbourne and Sydney. The dev e l o p i n g m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m of Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n s o c i e t y , the p r e v a l e n t s o c i a l i s s u e s of feminism, r e g i o n a l i s m and e t h n i c i t y , and the general tendency towards d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n have perhaps brought the agenda of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l i t e r a t u r e s c l o s e r to one another than they have ever been; the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of contemporary examples of " l i t e r a r y cartography" may help us c l a r i f y these recent developments. 94 Chapter Three NEW TERRITORIES And he wrote i n h i s f i e l d book, a f t e r the date, a f t e r the hour of t h a t s i g h t i n g , not of why he had so f a r found n o t h i n g or of what he b e l i e v e d he would f i n d : he wrote, both d e c e i v i n g and not d e c e i v i n g h i m s e l f : We are s a i l i n g o f f the map. (Robert Kroetsch) 95 " I t seems t o me," wrote Northrop Frye i n 1965, "that the Canadian s e n s i b i l i t y has been profoundly d i s t u r b e d , not so much by our famous problem of i d e n t i t y , important as t h a t i s , as by a s e r i e s of paradoxes i n what c o n f r o n t s t h a t i d e n t i t y . I t i s l e s s perplexed by the q u e s t i o n 'Who am I ? 1 than by some such r i d d l e as 'Where i s here?'" (220). More than twenty years l a t e r , Frye's comment i s as r e l e v a n t as i t has ever been. The emphasis, however, has changed: many contemporary Canadian w r i t e r s , i t would seem, are l e s s i n t e r e s t e d than t h e i r immediate or more d i s t a n t predecessors i n evoking a sense of pJLace than i n e x p r e s s i n g a kind of pi acpl PRRIIPRP through which the n o t i o n of a f i x e d l o c a t i o n , and the corresponding p o s s i b i l i t y of a f i x e d i d e n t i t y , are resisted.''' "When you say p l a c e , " w r i t e s Dave Godfrey i n h i s 1978 c o l l e c t i o n of short s t o r i e s Dark Must Y i e l d , "I t h i n k movement" (91). I t i s not t h a t Frye's here-and-now has l o s t s i g n i f i c a n c e , but rather that i t s e f f e c t i s recognized to be temporary, so t h a t the s e l f , d e f i n i n g and d e f i n e d by the p l a c e s i t i n h a b i t s , becomes a t r a n s i t o r y , c ontingent and f l u i d phenomenon. The e f f e c t of t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n need not be d e b i l i t a t i n g ; on the c o n t r a r y , i t may c o i n c i d e w i t h the r e l e a s e of the s e l f from c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d upon i t by i t s immediate ge o g r a p h i c a l surroundings or A d i s t i n c t i o n i s necessary here between Edward Relph's d e f i n i t i o n of p l a c e l e s s n e s s as an " a t t i t u d e which does not acknowledge s i g n i f i c a n c e i n p l a c e s " (143) and the more p o s i t i v e view of p l a c e l e s s n e s s i m p l i e d by a " d i f f e r e n t i a l topography" which acknowledges s i g n i f i c a n c e i n p l a c e s but q u e s t i o n s t h e i r p r e t e n s i o n s to permanence. 96 apparent c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n . The recent tendency towards p l a c e l e s s n e s s , i n other words, has not served to r e i n f o r c e entrenched n o t i o n s of e x i l e d e r i v i n g from the conceptual legacy of a c o l o n i a l past and the acute s e n s i t i v i t y to v i c a r i o u s c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n of a c u l t u r e threatened by the massed f o r c e s of i t s immediate neighbours and the s t i l l p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e of i t s former c o l o n i z e r s ; i n s t e a d , i t has brought with i t a resharpened awareness of c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i t y . T h i s awareness i s by no means new to what Frye p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y c a l l s "the Canadian s e n s i b i l i t y , " and i s perhaps ever c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i t , but now more than ever, i t would appear, i t i m p l i e s a promotion of the v a l u e s of change and the v i r t u e s of adapt-a b i l i t y without endorsing the homogenizing p r i n c i p l e s of a s s i m i l a t i o n . A s i m i l a r tendency can be d i s c e r n e d i n A u s t r a l i a , where, as i n Canada, many contemporary w r i t e r s "have qu e s t i o n e d the p r a c t i c e of e n c l o s i n g space ... thus d e f i n i n g a pla c e and p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e as the l o c u s of personal i d e n t i t y i n an environment i n which acceptance of space rather than containment of i t might be more a p p r o p r i a t e " ( T i f f i n 24). An acceptance, however, not merely of the immensity, but of the m a l l e a b i l i t y of space, i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r a b s t r a c t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . For space, as the geographer Y i - F u Tuan has s a i d , " i s more a b s t r a c t than p l a c e ... what begins as u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d space becomes p l a c e as we get to know i t b e t t e r and endow i t with v a l u e " (6). T h i s d i a l e c t i c 97 2 between concentrated p l a c e and surrounding space has been a c o n s i s t e n t f e a t u r e of w r i t i n g from Canada and A u s t r a l i a as each country has attempted t o come to terms w i t h , accommodate i t s e l f to, and tap c r e a t i v e sources w i t h i n i t s v a s t geography. The new concern f o r space as an a b s t r a c t q u a l i t y , more e a s i l y reshaped i n t o some a l t e r n a t i v e c o n f i g u r a t i o n than reduced to the s p e c i f i c i t y of pl a c e , r e f l e c t s the d e s i r e of many contemporary w r i t e r s i n both c o u n t r i e s t o f a s h i o n , e x p l o r e and map new f i c t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s . Thus, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the contemporary Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n l i t e r a t u r e s i s t h e i r m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of s p a t i a l r e f e r e n c e s m o d i f i e d by the dual impulses towards d i s p e r s a l and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . Polyvalence i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n evidence i n contemporary French-Canadian f i c t i o n : i n the Americanism of Godbout, the O r i e n t a l i s m of Riv a r d , the p o l y g l o t i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m of V i l l e m a i r e . Nor i s i t j u s t t h a t the ce n t r e cannot h o l d ; i t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t , t o the p o i n t of i m p o s s i b i l i t y , t o say what or where the "c e n t r e " i s . A p a r a d o x i c a l a l l i a n c e has formed between " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t " and " r e g i o n a l i s t " camps; i n the novels of West Coast Canadian w r i t e r Jack Hodgins, f o r example, the e v o c a t i o n of a l o c a l community s i t u a t e d at the very edge of a co n t i n e n t has a d e s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t on the mainland and, i m p l i c i t l y , on the "mainstream" c u l t u r e ; but a l s o , by extension, on any c u l t u r e or c u l t u r e group which seeks to d e f i n e and d e l i m i t i t s e l f through Y i - F u Tuan, Space and P l a c e : The P e r s p e c t i v e of Experience ( M i n n e a p o l i s : U of Minnesota P., 1977) esp. i n t r o . 3-7. 98 the establishment, maintenance, and c a r e f u l s u r v e i l l a n c e of boundaries. So the space occupied by the " r e g i o n a l , " or by the " i n t e r n a t i o n a l , " i s ambiguous. I t would be i n s t r u c t i v e i n t h i s context to compare the work of Hodgins i n Canada with that of David Malouf i n A u s t r a l i a ; f o r although both, i n a s t r i c t g e o g r a p h i c a l sense, are " r e g i o n a l " w r i t e r s , they engage i n a s e r i e s of u n r e s o l v a b l e s p a t i a l r i v a l r i e s : l o y a l t i e s are d i v i d e d , and no s i n g l e p l a c e can be designated or demarcated as one" s "own. " T h i s s h i f t of emphasis from the i s o l a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of p l a c e to the attempted c o o r d i n a t i o n of a s e r i e s of movements through space goes some way towards e x p l a i n i n g the p a r t i c u l a r appeal of the map topos to contemporary w r i t e r s i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a . For the map operates as a v e h i c l e f o r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of space which permits the w r i t e r to invent and e x p l o r e "new t e r r i t o r i e s " or to r e a s s e s s the r e l a t i o n s between more f a m i l i a r p l a c e s , and h i s / h e r own r e l a t i o n t o them. The map, i n t h i s sense, i s an e n a b l i n g c o n s t r u c t ; y e t i t may a l s o be a d i s a b l i n g one, f o r i t i s , by i t s very nature, r e d u c t i v e , i n t r o v e r t e d , even s i m p l i s t i c or d i s t o r t e d . Although maps may p r o v i d e the c o o r d i n a t e s f o r an imaginary world, t h e i r more usual r o l e i s to impose l i m i t s on the r e a l world; t h e i r f u n c t i o n , as the e x p l o r e r - p a l a e o n t o l o g i s t Dawe i m p l i e s i n Robert Kroetsch's novel Badlands (1975), i s thus p o t e n t i a l l y s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y : "he wrote, both d e c e i v i n g h i m s e l f and not d e c e i v i n g h i m s e l f : we are s a i l i n g o f f the map" (95; my emphasis). 99 To d i s c o v e r new t e r r i t o r i e s and to expl o r e the unknown, i t may be necessary to move o f f the map i n t o the invented worlds of f i c t i o n . Canada, c l a i m s Geoff Hancock, i s one such "undiscovered f i c t i o n , " "so Canadian f i c t i o n w r i t e r s have found a d i v e r s i t y of d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t imagine what i s r e a l about the pl a c e .... Canadians d i s c o v e r themselves i n the l i n k a g e s , connections, t i s s u e s " (277). Yet these f i c t i o n a l worlds, too, may be mapped i n t h e i r t u r n ; moving o f f one map may e v e n t u a l l y be to move onto another. Some contemporary w r i t e r s i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a (Kroetsch, P o u l i n , B a i l , Carey) are i n t e r e s t e d i n the metaphysical i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s paradox; o t h e r s (Roy, Barfoot, Garner) are more concerned w i t h i t s impact on the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y . The range of responses i s too great f o r me to do j u s t i c e to them here; what f o l l o w s , then, i s a s t r i c t l y s e l e c t i v e assessment of the relevance of c a r t o g r a p h i c metaphors t o the "new t e r r i t o r i e s " of Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n f i c t i o n , beginning i n 1975 with the p u b l i c a t i o n of K r o e t s c h 1 s Badlands, Roy's Un J a r d i n au bout du monde and Malouf's Johnno, and ending i n the l a t e 80's wit h the novels of Carey, B a i l l i e and Van Herk. 1. MAPS AND MEN One of the l a r g e s t bodies of contemporary f i c t i o n f e a t u r i n g the map topos i s th a t w r i t t e n by women. G e n e r a l l y speaking, i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h between those f i c t i o n s which designate " c l o s e d " spaces and those which p r o j e c t "open" ones. In the former category, maps are u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with 100 a s t i f l i n g system of p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; i n the l a t t e r , with an a l t e r n a t i v e system which lends i t s e l f more d i r e c t l y to the a r t i c u l a t i o n of female experience. The former category i s u s u a l l y , though not always, e x e m p l i f i e d i n r e a l i s t works such as the sho r t s t o r y c o l l e c t i o n s of Helen Garner (Postcards from S u r f e r s , 1985) and G a b r i e l l e Roy (Un J a r d i n au bout du monde, 1975). Garner's c o l l e c t i o n i s a set of f i c t i o n a l s t u d i e s of b i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l entrapment; as i t s t i t l e , and t i t l e s t o r y , suggest, i t c o n t r a s t s the i l l u s i o n s of escape from everyday l i f e w ith i t s d u l l , o f t e n dark, r e a l i t i e s . In the i r o n i c a l l y t i t l e d " C i v i l i s a t i o n and i t s D i s c o n t e n t s , " the n a r r a t o r and her l o v e r , a married man d i s a f f e c t e d w i t h h i s l i f e , but seemingly i n c a p a b l e of changing i t , gaze out of the window of the h o t e l room where they have j u s t made l o v e : The b u i l d i n g had a f l a g p o l e . P h i l i p and I stood at the window with no c l o t h e s on and looked out. The t i n t e d g l a s s made the cloud masses more d e t a i l e d , r i c h e r , more s p e c t a c u l a r than they were .... "I l o v e the A u s t r a l i a n f l a g " [ P h i l i p ] s a i d . "Every time I see i t I get a s h i v e r . " "I'm l i k e t h a t about the map. Once I worked i n a convent school i n East London. I used to go to the l i b r a r y at lunchtime ... and take down the a t l a s and gaze a t the page wi t h A u s t r a l i a on i t : I l o v e d i t s upper p o i n t s , i t s v a s t i n l e t s , i t s f a t s i d e s , the might of i t , the mass from whose south-eastern corner my small l i f e had sprung. I used to crouch between the stacks and r e s t the heavy book on the edge of the s h e l f : I could h a r d l y support i t s weight. I looked at the map and my eyes f i l l e d w i t h t e a r s . (94) The map, l i k e the f l a g , i s the symbol of an ambivalent a l l e g i a n c e . To whom, asks Garner throughout the s t o r y , and 101 indeed throughout the whole c o l l e c t i o n , are we bound: t o our country? our f a m i l y ? or, perhaps, merely, to an idea of o u r s e l v e s ? The n a r r a t o r d i s c o v e r s t h a t there are no easy answers; the map may, a f t e r a l l , be nothing more than a s a l u t a r y i l l u s i o n which, l i k e the g a r i s h postcards of S u r f e r s Paradise which she buys, w r i t e s , but f i n a l l y d i s c a r d s , cannot support the weight of her dreams. The s t o r i e s i n c l u d e d i n G a b r i e l l e Roy's 1975 c o l l e c t i o n Un J a r d i n au bout du monde generate a s i m i l a r sense of d i s i l l u -s i oned pathos. Sketches of the l i v e s of a s e r i e s of immigrants i n the harsh environment of r u r a l Manitoba, Roy's s t o r i e s are l e s s o v e r t l y f e m i n i s t than Garner's; nonetheless, the d i f f i c u l -t i e s experienced by the immigrant f a m i l i e s i n coming to terms with t h e i r new country are exacerbated by the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e i r staunchly p a t r i a r c h a l v a l u e s . L i k e Garner, Roy draws a t t e n t i o n to the dilemma of p e r s o n a l , c u l t u r a l and n a t i o n a l a l l e g i a n c e . Bound t o her dependent husband Stephan, the ageing Martha Yaramko, p r o t a g o n i s t of the t i t l e s t o r y , has a l s o d e c l a r e d h e r s e l f l o y a l to a country which means l i t t l e to her: P l u t 6 t qu'un v e r i t a b l e pays, l e Canada l u i a p p a r a i s s a i t comme une immense c a r t e geographique aux decoupures b i z a r r e s , s u r t o u t dans l e nord; ou encore que c i e l , a t t e n t e profonde et reveuse, a v e n i r en suspens. Sa v i e l u i semblait p a r f o i s s'§tre d£roul£e en bordure du pays, en quelque zone imprecise de vent et de s o l i t u d e qu'un jour peut- §tre v i e n d r a i t a r e j o i n d r e l e Canada. (172) N e i t h e r " U k r a i n i a n " nor "Canadian," Martha f e e l s h e r s e l f caught between two worlds, one of which has l o s t , the other of which 102 has y e t to a c q u i r e , meaning f o r her. The contours of the map o u t l i n e a f o r e i g n , c o n j e c t u r a l t e r r i t o r y ; o n l y the space of her p a i n s t a k i n g l y c u l t i v a t e d garden o f f e r s her comfort, but even t h a t i l l u s i o n p e r i s h e s with the onslaught of w i n t e r , and t h i s time Martha proves too weak to respond. Another s t o r y of female entrapment and d i s i l l u s i o n , Joan Barf o o f s novel Dancing i n the Dark (1982), p o r t r a y s the dilemma of a f r u s t r a t e d housewife who, seeking "the proper p a t t e r n of a l i f e " (25) , cannot cope with anything l e s s than the p e r f e c t i o n she f e e l s others demand of her. The monotonous r o u t i n e of Edna's d a i l y l i f e i s r e f l e c t e d i n a s e r i e s of r e c t a n g u l a r m o t i f s (the room, the m i r r o r , the page), a l l of which, however, f e a t u r e conspicuous flaws or i r r e g u l a r i t i e s (dusty corners which escape a t t e n t i o n , cracks i n the g l a s s , h o l e s i n the margins of the page, e t c . ) . A c h e r i s h e r of l i n e s and p a t t e r n s who sees her l i f e "patterned i n numbers, a connect-the-dot p u z z l e i n a c h i l d ' s magazine" (35), Edna c o n f r o n t s , but cannot accommodate h e r s e l f to, an e x i s t e n c e whose conspicuous i m p e r f e c t i o n s (most no t a b l y her husband's brazen i n f i d e l i t y ) do not measure up to the i d e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s imposed upon her by a predominantly p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y . A motif u n d e r l i n i n g Edna's i n a b i l i t y to adapt i s the map. Her more r e s i l i e n t s i s t e r , S t e l l a , who has recovered from a broken marriage, w r i t e s to Edna to r e v e a l her i n t e n t i o n t o move to Vancouver: "The f i r s t t h i n g about being f r e e i s not being here [ T o r o n t o ] . . . . so I looked at a map and I thought, Vancouver ... i t seems i t might be f a r enough away 103 t h a t e v e r y t h i n g r e a l l y might be d i f f e r e n t " (111) . S t e l l a moves, becomes i n v o l v e d w i t h another man, and s t a r t s a new l i f e , but Edna cannot even consider the p o s s i b i l i t y : She [ S t e l l a ] c o u l d look a t a map and p o i n t at a c i t y and suddenly, bang, she would go there and l i v e . A new s t a r t , a d i f f e r e n t l i f e . She thought t h a t would amaze me, t h a t p o s s i b i l i t y ? I t h o r r i f i e d me. What i f such a t h i n g c o u l d happen? 'What i f Harry [Edna's husband] d i e d ? 1 I thought, f o r i t was a l l I could imagine. (115) For Edna, the map does not represent a r e a l i s t i c p o s s i b i l i t y of escape but a f u r t h e r reinforcement of the narrowly d e f i n e d margins of her present l i f e ; unable to make the t r a n s i t i o n from the map to the r e a l i t y i t r e p r e s e n t s , Edna merely adds i t to the stock of images which bind her to a l i f e of domestic r o u t i n e , f u e l her o b s e s s i o n to become the p e r f e c t w i f e , and r a t i o n a l i z e her t e r r o r of change: " I f I thought of freedom, I saw chaos; a great black c a t a s t r o p h i c p i t i n which anything c o u l d happen" (115). "Anything" does: Edna l a p s e s , somewhat o v e r d r a m a t i c a l l y , i n t o murder and madness. C l i n g i n g to her l e t t e r s and notebooks as a l a s t b a s t i o n of defence a g a i n s t the i n c r e a s i n g t h r e a t of the o u t s i d e world, Edna reduces the l i n e s and p a t t e r n s of the map s t i l l f u r t h e r to the t i n y scrawl of handwriting on the margined page; as the s i z e of Edna's world d i m i n i s h e s , i t s images crowd i n on her, w i t h h o l d i n g any p r o t e c t i o n they might once have o f f e r e d : "The paper no longer binds the wounds. Blood seeps between the pages, and oozes out the c o v e r s " (171). The image a n t i c i p a t e s the v i o l e n t ending but a l s o r e c a l l s the r e f l e c t i v e beginning of the novel, i n 104 which, c o n f i n e d to an asylum, Edna contemplates the notebook she i s w r i t i n g i n : Three h o l e s cut i n t o each margin, round and p r e c i s e , not at a l l l i k e the holes, i r r e g u l a r and unspaced, made by a k n i f e i n a body. There i s a comforting neatness about t h i s book, so one f e e l s compelled e i t h e r to l e a v e i t blank or to w r i t e i n i t c a r e f u l l y , p e r f e c t l y , and w i t h a c e r t a i n p a i n i n the p e r f e c t i o n . (1) The wounds are rebound, the h o l e s r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n a conformist p a t t e r n : Edna "remaps" her l i f e , but at the p r i c e of her s a n i t y . The connection made by B a r f o o t between the r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n s , e n c l o s u r e s and g r i d l i n e p a t t e r n s of the map and the entrapment of women w i t h i n the narrow c o n f i n e s of a p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y t r a n s l a t e s i n P a u l i n e Harvey's 1981 novel Le Deuxieme Monopoly des prgcieux i n t o a more c o n c e p t u a l l y based c r i t i q u e of s o c i a l conformism. A l a t t e r - d a y Quebecois A l i c e i n Wonderland, Harvey's novel f o l l o w s the f o r t u n e s of the b r i l l i a n t but unstable w r i t e r Leopied, who l i v e s i n a ramshackle cabin midway between the town of Ca, residence of the l o c a l r u l e r Grand-Mot-Fun, and the v i l l a g e of I t , seat of h i s arch p o l i t i c a l r i v a l La Reine. As the novel progresses, and the f a b l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the v a r i o u s o u t l a n d i s h f i g u r e s Leopied encounters, we come to r e a l i z e t h a t Leopied's i n t e r m e d i a r y l o c a t i o n a l s o i m p l i e s a p o s i t i o n of p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e l a t i v i t y . The most r e v e a l i n g episode i s Leopied*s c o n f r o n t a t i o n with the e c c e n t r i c p h i l o s o p h e r B a l i , whose u n i v e r s i t y course i n v o l v e s " 1 ' e x p l o r a t i o n et ... l'arpentage 105 d'un u n i v e r s mental assez a b s t r a i t et ... une m£thodologie assez complexe pour e t u d i e r des micro-organismes" (Harvey 89). B a l i and Leopied enter i n t o a s e r i e s of d i s c u s s i o n s on the n o t i o n of i d e n t i t y which, B a l i d ecides, i s "une i n v e n t i o n s o c i a l e q u i a f a i t son temps e t q u i est devenue d£cadente." "L 1 i d e n t i t y , " says B a l i , "est f a i t e de toute s o r t e s de reperes sociaux r e l a t i v e m e n t a un contexte perime ... de s o r t e que l e s gens se retrouvent bloques dans un cadre £troit a l ' i n t g r i e u r de l e u r i d e n t i t y et que l e u r s comportements ne peuvent plu s e v o l u e r ou s'adapter" (98). B a l i ' s c u r i o u s but e f f e c t i v e r easoning l e a d s Leopied to r e c o n s i d e r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of i d e n t i t y as un gigantesque t e r r i t o i r e dont on p o u r r a i t f a i r e l a c a r t o g r a p h i e ... l e s c a r t e s sont t o u j o u r s un peu fausse'es au debut. Un e x p l o r a t e u r aura p l a c e un l a c au mauvais e n d r o i t , quelques m i l l e s t r o p au nord ou t r o p a l ' e s t , et a mesure que l e s o u t i l s se p e r f e c t i o n n e n t l e s arpenteurs c o r r i g e n t l a c a r t e . Moi, j e possede une p r e c a u t i o n ... i l y a des gens q u i viennent sans p r e c a u t i o n et q u i faussent l a c a r t e . (104-5) Leopied*s views on the p e r f e c t i b i l i t y of the map, and on the corresponding p o s s i b i l i t y of a t o t a l l y coherent i d e n t i t y , are g r a d u a l l y modified, however, as he r e a l i z e s the p l u r a l i t y of p o s s i b l e models of the world and the need t o adapt to these numerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s r a t h e r than to adhere r i g i d l y to a p a r t i c u l a r worldview. Leopied's mentors here i n c l u d e B o r g i a (a s u r r o g a t e Borges), who teaches him t h a t s i n c e the world i s f a s h i o n e d by a whole " s e c r e t s o c i e t y " of astronomers, b i o l o g i s t s , c a r t o g r a p h e r s , metaphysicians and poets, " l e p l u r i e l est i n e v i t a b l e , car l'hypothese d'un seul inventeur ... 106 a £te £cart£e a l ' u n a n i m i t e " (133) and Belvedere, who e x p l a i n s t o him that h i s " e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l model" of the world "m'a permis de f a i r e t o u tes ces choses e t maintenant mon p o s s i b l e a augment^" (152). So, l i k e Lewis C a r r o l l i n the A l i c e s t o r i e s , Harvey turns l o g i c on i t s head t o demonstrate the a b s u r d i t y of a s i n g l e view or model which pres e n t s i t s e l f as the " t r u t h . " Leopied, widely c o n s i d e r e d t o be mad, r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s madness i s the product of other people's narrow t h i n k i n g : C'est etonnant comme l e s gens se sentent o b l i g e s de s'en t e n i r a une seule et unique facon de s'exprimer q u ' i l s c o n s i d e r e n t comme f a i s a n t p a r t i e de l e u r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , de l e u r moi inchangeable ... s i quelqu'un decide ... de m o d i f i e r c e t t e e x p r e s s i o n , s ' i l se met a devenir l e personnage q u ' i l est capable d ' i n v e n t e r , on l ' a p p e l l e 'Fou' e t i l est enferm£ dans un h S p i t a l od on l u i prodiguera des s o i n s a f i n q u ' i l se remette a se comporter comme avant. (171) Leopied r e j e c t s h i s p r e v i o u s " c a r t o g r a p h i c model" as unimaginative, l i m i t i n g and d e c e p t i v e ; f o r the map, l i k e the other l i n e a r models presented i n the novel, n o t a b l y the boardgames chess, draughts and Monopoly, may t r i c k us i n t o m i s t a k i n g a p r i n c i p l e of order f o r a value of t r u t h . By r e f u s i n g t o conform, suggests Harvey, we can use our l i b e r a t e d i m a g i n a t i o n t o adapt or r e i n v e n t our p e r s o n a l i t i e s ; as La Reine says at the end of the novel, " i l n'y a qu'a se l a i s s e r a l l e r , c ' e st tout a f a i t n a t u r e l , c'est l a chose l a p l u s f a c i l e du monde. On n'a meme pas besoin de r£flechir pour y a r r i v e r " (223). Harvey's feminism, though attenuated and i n d i r e c t , i n v o l v e s the f i c t i o n a l i z e d r e i t e r a t i o n of arguments used by 107 f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s such as G i l b e r t and Gubar to undermine those c o n f o r m i s t systems of thought which have c o n s i s t e n t l y been used 3 as a means of j u s t i f y i n g p a t r i a r c h a l ascendancy. I f Harvey's focus i s on p a t r i a r c h a l systems of thought, P a u l e t t e J i l e s ' s i s on p a t r i a r c h a l modes of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In the p l a y f u l l y e n t i t l e d S i t t i n g i n the Club Car D r i n k i n g Rum and  Karma Kola (1986) , f o r example, J i l e s undertakes a l i g h t h e a r t e d c r i t i q u e of p a t r i a r c h a l s t e r e o t y p e s i n l i t e r a t u r e and f i l m , u s i n g these s t e r e o t y p e s as examples of p e r v a s i v e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l "compartmentalization." The metaphor i s chosen a d v i s e d l y , f o r the a c t i o n of the novel takes p l a c e i n a t r a i n . R e f e r r e d t o a f l o o r p l a n of the d i n i n g car, the reader i s i n v i t e d t o accompany the passengers i n a game of "Clue" which does not i n v o l v e a murder but an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the v a r i o u s compartments of the mind "where huge symbols and s t e r e o t y p e s crash i n t o each o t h e r " (18). Among these s t e r e o t y p e s are those " c l i c h e s of America's view of Canada as n o t h i n g but landscape ... [and] of Canada's view of Americans as people who i n d u l g e i n e x o t i c squalor and h i g h - r o l l i n g " (64) and, at a more personal l e v e l , the hackneyed r o l e s played out by two people who p e r c e i v e one another through the f i l t e r of l i t e r a r y and c i n e m a t i c romance. But, as J i l e s p o i n t s out, her two p r o t a g o n i s t s "could have been symbols of anything: of male and Sandra G i l b e r t and Susan Gubar, The Madwoman i n the A t t i c :  The Woman W r i t e r and the Nineteenth-Century L i t e r a r y  Imagination (New Haven: Yale UP, 1979) esp. s e c t i o n one, "Towards a Feminist P o e t i c s . " 108 female, of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , of refinement versus the untutored, of upper c l a s s and working c l a s s , c h i l d and a d u l t , savage and urban" (64). The o p t i o n s are covered; the main d i f f i c u l t y , suggests J i l e s , i s not to a s c e r t a i n what the symbols or s t e r e o t y p e s are but to f i n d a way of d i s c a r d i n g them; thus the "heroine," c o n s u l t i n g her diagrams, asks h e r s e l f r u e f u l l y : How can we compartmentalize our l i v e s , and ev e r y t h i n g ? Are these t h i n g s r e a l l y b l u e p r i n t s which assure us t h a t nothing s u r p r i s i n g w i l l ever happen? ... A t r a i n made of diagrams, where s p e c t r e s experience only the expected experiences, t h i n k the f a s h i o n a b l e thoughts of t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n of s p e c t r e s . There i s s e a t i n g only f o r people e x a c t l y l i k e themselves who move l i k e t r a i n s on p r e d i c t a b l e t r a c k s , d w i n d l i n g i n t o the d i s t a n c e , l o n e l y and dead. (58) The diagram i n S i t t i n g i n the Club Car, l i k e the map i n Le Deuxieme Monopoly, i s analogous t o a s u p e r f i c i a l but by no means innocuous boardgame, i n which the r u l e s are set and the p l a y e r s have only to f u l f i l t h e i r g i v e n r o l e s . But l i k e Leopied i n Harvey's n o v e l , the n a r r a t o r i n J i l e s 1 s r e f u s e s t o respec t the r u l e s ; so, with an i r o n i c glance back t o the genteel e t i q u e t t e manuals of V i c t o r i a n Canada and, more r e c e n t l y , t o the melodramatic, male-dominated conventions of Hollywood romance, J i l e s and her e b u l l i e n t n a r r a t o r escape from the p e r i l s of conformism, and the t r a i n "made of diagrams" becomes i n s t e a d a "a pe r p e t u a l performance, a c a r n i v a l , a t r a v e l i n g medicine show, a s o r t of genteel psych ward going around the bend" (84) . The diagram at the f r o n t of the novel t u r n s 109 out to be i r r e l e v a n t ; b e g u i l e d i n t o p l a y i n g the r o l e of " t r u t h - s e e k i n g " r e a d e r - d e t e c t i v e s , we are e v e n t u a l l y informed t h a t "the nature of absolute t r u t h i s t h a t i t i s too b o r i n g to endure without a f r o n t a l lobotomy, and t h e r e i s f o r most of us no v i r t u e i n i t " (77). A s i m i l a r sense of s a r d o n i c humour i s evinced by the A u s t r a l i a n w r i t e r Thea A s t l e y i n her c o l l e c t i o n of short s t o r i e s Hunting the W i l d Pineapple (1978). J i l e s mocks the " e x p l i c a t o r y " diagram; A s t l e y r i d i c u l e s the map as a simulacrum of the " t r u t h ; " f o r , i n a c o l l e c t i o n which, as i t s n a r r a t o r suggests, p r e s e n t s l i f e as "an unending a c c r e t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s " (175), maps are not a r b i t e r s of t r u t h but metaphors of f a b r i c a t i o n , of the m u l t i p l e v a r i a t i o n s of the s t o r y t e l l e r . "Let me draw you a l i t t l e map" (3) i s the n a r r a t o r ' s way of i n t r o d u c i n g us to h i s c o l l e c t i o n of r e l a t e d s t o r i e s , s e t at "the top end of the l o s t w o rld" of Northern A u s t r a l i a . Here, i n an improbable landscape where the green i s too green and the blue too blue, i s a s p r i n k l e of people "who f e e l they've been f o r g o t t e n by the r e s t of the country - and don't r e a l l y c a r e " (3). Queensland, suggests the n a r r a t o r a r c h l y , i s "maybe ... only a second-rate Eden ... a kind of limbo f o r those who've l o s t d i r e c t i o n and have p i t c h e d a l a s t - s t a n d t e n t " (3) . But outposts such as these are p r e c a r i o u s , as A s t l e y proceeds to show i n a s e r i e s of s t o r i e s which m e r c i l e s s l y b u r s t the bubbles of t h e i r h y p o c r i t i c a l m i d d l e - c l a s s p r o t a g o n i s t s . The f i r s t s t o r y i s the most i n s t r u c t i v e , with i t s c a u s t i c mockery of m i d d l e - c l a s s escapism: 110 Queensland's h i p p i e communities and a s s o r t e d dropouts, suggests the n a r r a t o r , are l i t t l e more than p a t h e t i c c o u n t e r p a r t s of the "new urban t r e n d i e s , so sadly c o n f o r m i s t t h a t they are t u r n i n g t h e i r new elysiums i n t o a bedraggled t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the suburbia they have been t r y i n g t o escape" (19). The n a r r a t o r ' s b i t t e r n e s s shines through, f o r of a l l the " l o s t people" he d e p i c t s i n h i s s t o r i e s , he h i m s e l f i s the most d i s o r i e n t e d . His maps are the i r o n i c v e h i c l e s of t h i s d i s o r i e n t a t i o n ; as I suggested, they are a l s o f a b r i c a t i o n s , a r t f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d f i c t i o n s which break the same i l l u s i o n s t h a t they present. One i l l u s i o n i s s h a t t e r e d , another c o n s t r u c t e d ; mapmaking, the means by which one person persuades another to b e l i e v e i n the r e a l i t y of what he i s seeing, thus becomes the i r o n i c metaphor f o r the i l l u s i o n i s m of the s t o r y t e l l e r ' s a r t . A s t l e y ' s feminism, l i k e Harvey's and J i l e s ' s , i s i n d i r e c t : f o r although the worst treatment i n her s t o r i e s i s reserved f o r her women c h a r a c t e r s (as v i c t i m s of male d e s i r e s and f a n t a s i e s ) , i t i s c l e a r t h at most, i f not a l l , of her c h a r a c t e r s , male and female a l i k e , are caught up i n t h e i r s t e r e o t y p i c a l dreams of freedom. So w h i l e the v a r i o u s Edens of Hunting the W i l d Pineapple are none of them " t r u e , " they may nonetheless have t h e i r o f t e n unpleasant " t r u t h s " t o t e l l about those who imagine them. More o b v i o u s l y f e m i n i s t i n i n s p i r a t i o n i s A r i t h a Van Herk's recent novel No Fixed Address (1987). Van Herk d i s t i n g u i s h e s i n the novel between the symbolic v a l u e of the map, which designates a f i x e d , i n h e r e n t l y l i m i t e d view, and t h a t I l l of the s p i d e r , which expresses a mobile but d e c e p t i v e and p o t e n t i a l l y s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e view of the world. The former view i s i m p l i c i t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l i m i t a t i o n s of p a t r i a r c h y , and i n p a r t i c u l a r with the neat but unadventurous l i f e s t y l e of p r o f e s s i o n a l cartographer Thomas T e l f e r . The l a t t e r view i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Thomas's wayward l o v e r Arachne Manteia, whose webs of d e c e i t , l i k e the m u l t i p l e f i l a m e n t s of Van Herk's d e f t l y s t r u c t u r e d t e x t , suck her unwary v i c t i m s i n but a l s o c o n t a i n the p o t e n t i a l f o r her own d e s t r u c t i o n ( l i k e the s p i d e r which, s t a r v e d of f l i e s , w i l l eat of i t s own k i n d ) . The d i f f e r e n c e between Thomas's conformist and Arachne's f i e r c e l y independent views of the world i s brought out i n t h e i r r e a c t i o n to the map: f o r Thomas, maps draw the l i n e s which shape the landscape; f o r Arachne they o u t l i n e the d e s i r e to move through "sink i n t o " i t (260). F i n d i n g h e r s e l f i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t e d by Thomas's e x q u i s i t e l y drawn maps, Arachne sees the l i n e s e n t i c i n g her to quest beyond the c i t y [ C a l g a r y ] ' s r a d i u s . She gets i n t o the car and s e t s the bonnet towards the sun. She i s l e a r n i n g t r a v e l , the pace and p r o g r e s s i o n of journey, the m u l t i f a r i o u s s e d u c t i o n of movement ... [Thomas] i s the author of those maps but he has never known t h e i r u l t i m a t e a f f i r m a t i o n , the consummation of the pact between t r a v e l e r and t r a v e l e d . He only draws them; she t r a c e s them f o r him, l e a v i n g the p e n - l i n e of her p a s s i n g ... [she] t r a v e l s to t r a v e l . Her only paradox i s a r r i v i n g somewhere, her only s o l u t i o n i s t o l e a v e f o r somewhere e l s e . (164) Arachne duly takes on a job as a t r a v e l i n g s a l e s p e r s o n which a l l o w s her to indulge i n her wander- (and other forms of) l u s t ; 112 she always r e t u r n s , however, to Thomas, at l e a s t , t h a t i s , u n t i l her f i n a l b i d f o r freedom, which takes her beyond the a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d boundaries which have p r e v i o u s l y l i m i t e d her experience to the end of the road, then on s t i l l f u r t h e r i n t o the " u n c i v i l i z e d t e r r i t o r i e s " (317) of the extreme North. As Arachne's f i n a l , one-way journey p r o g r e s s e s f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r away from the urban and, i m p l i c i t l y , the emotional c e n t r e s of her p r e v i o u s e x i s t e n c e , the novel a l s o s h i f t s from a predominantly r e a l i s t to an i n c r e a s i n g l y m y t h i c a l mode. Thomas's c a r t o g r a p h i c p r i n c i p l e s no longer apply; the journey becomes an inner one, and the d e s i r e to impose l i m i t s on the p h y s i c a l world i s o v e r r i d d e n by the need t o express the i n d i v i d u a l psyche. S i m i l a r l y , the demand f o r v e r i s i m i l i t u d e which d e l i m i t s c a r t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can no longer be met; Arachne improbably becomes a kidnapper, a t h i e f , a murderer: her e x i s t e n c e , and those of the men who have "shaped" her l i f e , take on mythic p r o p o r t i o n s . As the s i g n - p a i n t e r she meets on Vancouver I s l a n d i n d i c a t e s through h i s c o n v e r s i o n of a "standard" r o a d - s i g n i n t o a commercial for an a i r l i n e company, Arachne has moved i n t o a d i f f e r e n t dimension of space; but she has a l s o moved i n t o a d i f f e r e n t dimension of time. Whereas she had p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d t h a t Thomas's o l d maps "could l e a d [her] i n t o the past so e a s i l y , l e a d [her] through h i s t o r y i n t o another frame of time ... [so t h a t ] she would be a b l e to t r a n s c e n d her own past, i t s rude, uneven measure, i t s gaps and h o r r o r s " (117) she now d i s c o v e r s t h a t i t i s not the maps themselves, but the spaces between them, those unaccounted gaps 113 she had once wished t o f i l l , t h a t " l e a d her through h i s t o r y . " L i k e Arachne and Thomas who, having made l o v e , f a l l a s l e e p between the maps s c a t t e r e d on the f l o o r , Van Herk i m p l i e s t h a t s e l f - d i s c o v e r y has no temporal or s p a t i a l l i m i t s ; i t operates, i n c o n c l u s i v e l y , a t the l e v e l of the dream i n a realm which has "no f i x e d address." 2. MAPS AND MYTHS Van Herk's q u e s t i o n i n g of the v e r i f i c a t o r y procedures of maps, and her d e l i b e r a t e c o n t r a s t between an h i s t o r i c a l l y founded and a m y t h i c a l l y i n t u i t e d approach towards ( s e l f - ) knowledge, c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o the c o r r e l a t i o n between maps and myths i n s e v e r a l contemporary h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l novels i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a . In Peter Carey's Illywhacker (1985), f o r i n s t a n c e , the h i s t o r y of modern A u s t r a l i a i s charted through a d e s c r i p t i o n of the gradual development of technology, i t s impact on the n a t u r a l environment, and i t s a n t i c i p a t i o n of the contemporary era of m u l t i n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s m . In the process, Carey explodes a number of myths about A u s t r a l i a , n o t a b l y that concerning the r i g h t f u l ownership of the l a n d ; f o r , as the n a r r a t o r i s informed by h i s f r i e n d Leah G o l d s t e i n , "the whole n a t i o n i s based on a l i e which i s t h a t i t was not al r e a d y occupied when the B r i t i s h came here" (307). The development of A u s t r a l i a n r a d i c a l - d e m o c r a t i c n a t i o n a l i s m i s a l s o exposed as a r h e t o r i c a l c o n s t r u c t , a myth as necessary to the promulgation of a p o s t - c o l o n i a l A u s t r a l i a n i d e n t i t y as the myth of d i s c o v e r y was to the f i r s t European c o l o n i z e r s . But 114 Carey's s a t i r e does not r e s t r i c t i t s e l f to the s o - c a l l e d 4 " A u s t r a l i a n t r a d i t i o n ; " i t a l s o takes i n s t e r e o t y p i c a l European and, more r e c e n t l y , American, p e r c e p t i o n s of the a ntipodes. The naive a s s o c i a t i o n of A u s t r a l i a with i t s " e x o t i c " f l o r a and fauna, f o r example, g i v e s r i s e to C h a r l e s Badgery's s e l f - p a r o d i c petshop w i t h i t s d i s p l a y of "genuine" A u s t r a l i a n a i n c l u d i n g a caged Chinaman, a dragon i n a b o t t l e and a promotional d i s p l a y f o r " A u s t r a l i a ' s own c a r " (a j o i n t v enture between the A u s t r a l i a n government and General Motors). The h i s t o r y of A u s t r a l i a , suggests Carey, i s r i f e with f r a u d u l e n c e and p r e j u d i c i a l misconception, a p e r f e c t t o p i c f o r h i s n a r r a t o r Herbert Badgery, used car salesman and confidence t r i c k s t e r . Maps are no more r e l i a b l e than myths i n the c h a r t i n g of t h i s p s e u d o - h i s t o r y ; indeed, maps themselves embody a kind of myth based on spurious " d i s c o v e r y , " f u e l l e d by c o n j e c t u r e , and funded by o r g a n i s a t i o n s with v e s t e d commercial or p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . The map of A u s t r a l i a d e c o r a t i n g the window d i s p l a y of the Badgery Pet Emporium i s a case i n p o i n t : There are some words, but I am more taken by the l i t t l e r o c k - w a l l a b i e s which hop t o and f r o a c r o s s t h i s p r e t t y scene and one of them, i n p a r t i c u l a r , e a t i n g an apple, h o l d i n g i t d a i n t i l y between i t s two f r o n t paws. (493) Garlanded i n fake f l o w e r s , the map becomes the t a r g e t f o r Carey's mockery of the i n a u t h e n t i c i t y of European p a s t o r a l ; but the f a c t t h a t the d i s p l a y i s a promotional venture f o r American See, f o r example, A.A. P h i l l i p s , The A u s t r a l i a n T r a d i t i o n :  S t u d i e s i n a C o l o n i a l C u l t u r e (Melbourne: Longman, 1958). 115 i n d u s t r y a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t A u s t r a l i a has " s o l d out" t o more than one customer. So the map, o f t e n i n t e r p r e t e d as a symbol of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , becomes i n t h i s case an i r o n i c testament t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l powerbroking; l i k e farmer Les Chaffey's f o r e c a s t of r a i n which "was not on the map y e t , but ... would be" (424) , maps i n Illywhacker are d i s c o v e r e d t o be the agents of personal and cor p o r a t e w i l l . In Rodney H a l l ' s J u s t R e l a t i o n s (1982), maps are s i m i l a r l y c o n s i d e r e d as exp r e s s i o n s of ves t e d i n t e r e s t s . The novel focuses on the decayed community of Whitey's F a l l i n Southern A u s t r a l i a , the determined e f f o r t s of i t s ageing i n h a b i t a n t s t o p r o t e c t the place they have made t h e i r own, and the e q u a l l y determined e f f o r t s of the l o c a l government, l e d by the obsequious Senator H a l l o r a n , t o renovate i t . A s e r i e s of b a t t l e s , both v e r b a l and p h y s i c a l , ensue; another b a t t l e , however, takes p l a c e at the l e v e l of s t r u c t u r e : H a l l o r a n and h i s minions, i n t h e i r attempt to put Whitey's F a l l back "on the map" (261) r e p r e s e n t i n g one "camp": the g r i d l i n e p a t t e r n s of r e g i o n a l development; and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s Ian McTaggart and Rupert Ping, the former noted f o r h i s c o n c e n t r i c a l l y - a r r a n g e d garden and the l a t t e r f o r h i s crescent-shaped t o o l s , r e p r e s e n t i n g another: the c i r c u l a r p a t t e r n s of l o c a l i z e d myth. The l o c u s of the v a r i o u s myths which bind together the community of Whitey's F a l l i s the "magic mountain" which houses the s p i r i t s t h a t p r o t e c t the v i l l a g e r s but may a l s o , i f u n p r o p i t i a t e d , d e s t r o y them. The mountain i s a l s o , as the v i l l a g e r s know but do not wish to d i s c l o s e to the ou t s i d e world, the s i t e of gold, the h i s t o r i c a l l y founded l o c a t i o n 116 of the m y t h i c a l "Golden F l e e c e . " The Fleece i s r e d i s c o v e r e d by a c c i d e n t and the v i l l a g e overrun by p r o s p e c t o r s and developers, f o r c i n g i t s v e t e r a n i n h a b i t a n t s i n t o e x i l e . Whitey's F a l l , whose h i s t o r y , l i k e i t s mines, had p r e v i o u s l y been allowed t o f a l l i n t o d i s u s e , i s r e l o c a t e d not j u s t on the r e g i o n a l , but on the world map; a t the l o s s , however, of the v a l u e s i t s i n h a b i t a n t s had t r e a s u r e d most: "the ... f l e e t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n , f i r s t o c c a s i o n s , the magical a r t of naming t h i n g s , f i n d i n g the r i s k s , the t r i c k s , the n a t u r a l f o r c e s , the f o r e i g n s p i r i t of the p l a c e to be p l a c a t e d , and absorbing a l l t h i s i n t o t h e i r own s u r v i v a l " (467). By j u x t a p o s i n g memories of the Gold Rush with reminders of contemporary e c o l o g i c a l d e v a s t a t i o n , H a l l produces a trenchant s a t i r e on commercial greed, employing a range of s t r u c t u r i n g d e v i c e s to enact the analogy between t e r r i t o r i a l and l i n g u i s t i c d i s f i g u r a t i o n . Senator H a l l o r a n ' s " o f f i c i a l " map i s one such d e v i c e , at once a symbol of t e r r i t o r i a l / l i n g u i s t i c a p p r o p r i a t i o n corresponding to the d e s i r e to (re)name and a c q u i r e p l a c e , and a symbol of d e s e c r a t i o n which, l i k e the road carved i n t o the s i d e of the magic mountain, the s e l f - i n f l i c t e d ceremonial s c a r s on Rupert Ping's body, and the s a c r i f i c i a l m u t i l a t i o n s of Mrs. Ping and the Brinsmeads, r e l a t e s t o the perverse d e s i r e to dismember and u l t i m a t e l y d e s t r o y the s e l f . The r i t u a l i z e d v i o l e n c e and s y n t a c t i c v i o l a t i o n s of J u s t R e l a t i o n s are countered, however, by H a l l ' s a f f e c t i o n a t e p o r t r a y a l of the v i l l a g e r s , whose r e f u s a l of progress may banish them from the o f f i c i a l map but guarantees 117 the s u r v i v a l of the m y t h i c a l world they have invented, and shaped, f o r themselves. The q u i r k y g e o p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t staged i n H a l l ' s novel between " o f f i c i a l " and " m y t h i c a l " conceptions of place t r a n s l a t e s i n Yvon R i v a r d ' s 1979 novel L'Ombre et l e double i n t o a mock-tribunal i n which a number of d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view are o f f e r e d on the f a m i l i a r Qu£becois theme of " l a quete du pays." At f i r s t i n d i c t e d f o r h i s r e f u s a l to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the quest, n a r r a t o r - p r o t a g o n i s t Thomas i s e v e n t u a l l y a c q u i t t e d by a j u r y c o n s i s t i n g , among others, of a cartographer who b e l i e v e s t h a t "l'espace f i n i t t o u j o u r s par c o i n c i d e r avec une c a r t e b i e n f a i t e " (94), and a toponymist who b e l i e v e s t h a t he can r e c r e a t e the world by renaming i t . Thomas duly engages i n a quest of h i s own, laden w i t h C l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n , which takes him beyond the a r b i t r a r y boundaries of cartography and l u d i c ( r e ) d e f i n i t i o n s of toponymy i n t o a kind of Aquinian nether-realm where he c o n f r o n t s h i s shadow s e l f . The c o n f r o n t a t i o n , l i k e the inquest which had preceded i t , i s i n c o n c l u s i v e ; Thomas r e a l i z e s at l a s t t h a t the c u l t u r a l f r o n t i e r s sought by h i s compatriots w i l l always remain hidden to those, l i k e the cartographer and the toponymist, who t r a c k " l ' i n c o n n u a l a p£riph£rie et non au centre du pays" ( 201). C a r t o g r a p h i c knowledge, i m p l i e s R i v a r d , seeks t o impose l i m i t s on the world by e x c l u d i n g the unknown or i r r a t i o n a l ; maps c o n s t r u c t p r e c i s e l y d e t a i l e d but narrowly conceived models of the world which are i n c a p a b l e of accommodating temporal f l u x . Unable to accept the easy c a r t o g r a p h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between 118 the known and the unknown, time and space, R i v a r d t u r n s t o a l l e g o r y and myth i n search of a model which i n c o r p o r a t e s , rather than reduces or r e j e c t s , the i n e x p l i c a b l e , and i n which space i s a l s o given a temporal dimension. The model has c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , f o r R i v a r d * s "Quebec," l i k e t h a t of h i s most obvious p r e c u r s o r Jacques Perron, i s an o n e i r i c "pays 5 i n c e r t a i n ; " above a l l , however, i t r e p r e s e n t s an attempt to accommodate the a r t i s t i c process of ( r e ) i n v e n t i n g , as opposed to merely d e s c r i b i n g , the world i n terms of a N i e t z s c h e a n i r r a t i o n a l i s t p h i losophy which, p r o b l e m a t i z i n g r e f e r e n t i a l i t y to the p o i n t of negating i t , c e l e b r a t e s myth as a 'concentrated image' and as a necessary form of c u l t u r a l hygiene. For Timothy F i n d l e y , myth has r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a t i o n s ; i n h i s 1977 novel The Wars, f o r example, i t becomes a means of e x p l a i n i n g what cannot otherwise be e x p l a i n e d i n the t e x t . The Wars, an h i s t o r i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Great War, has an u n d e r l y i n g m y t h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e which b e l i e s the fragmentary nature of i t s s u r f a c e r e a l i s m . I t i s c l e a r t hat, a t one l e v e l , the f u l l s t o r y of the young See i n p a r t i c u l a r Ferron's p a r a b l e i n the Contes du pays  i n c e r t a i n (Montreal: H u r t u b i s e HMH, 1968) of the cartographer who a t f i r s t t a i l o r s h i s maps t o the d i c t a t e s of h i s p o l i t i c a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l employers but f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s t h a t the only " t r u e " maps are those which s a t i s f y the requirements of h i s a r t alone. "Quebec," i m p l i e s Ferron, should a c c o r d i n g l y be p e r c e i v e d as a f i c t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t which o u t s t r i p s the i d e o l o g i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d d e f i n i t i o n s of r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r e l i g i o n . Cf. Diana Brydon, " ' I t Could Not be T o l d ' : Making Meaning i n Timothy F i n d l e y ' s The Wars," J o u r n a l of Commonwealth  L i t e r a t u r e 21 (1986): 62-79. 119 Canadian s o l d i e r Robert Ross's traumatic experience of the Great War cannot be t o l d . 6 But the p o s s i b i l i t y of a m y t h o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t e x t , based p r i m a r i l y on elemental imagery and a metamorphic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between humans and animals, p r o v i d e s a d i f f e r e n t reading whose impulse to u n i t y works towards b r i d g i n g conspicuous gaps i n the presented n a r r a t i v e . Another approach to t h i s c o n t r a p u n t a l design i s t o c o n s i d e r the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the n a r r a t o r ' s statement t h a t the "days were made of maps and horses; of s t a b l e d r i l l and a r t i l l e r y range" (28-9). The c o n t r a s t seems simple at f i r s t s i g h t : the Great War can be symbolized i n the d e s t r u c t i v e a l l i a n c e between i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r a t e g y and p h y s i c a l power. The i m p l i c a t i o n s , however, are wider: f o r maps not only p r o v i d e a paradigm f o r m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s ; they a l s o provide a frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s t o r y . And i n n e i t h e r case, suggests F i n d l e y , are they adequate; f o r the p r e c i s e d e t a i l s of m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y are obscured i n the mud and f o g of the Somme, wh i l e those of h i s t o r i c a l r esearch are problematized by d i f f e r e n t , o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g , p e r c e p t i o n s of the same event. Maps, moreover, belong to an order of s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o u r s e which, i n attempting t o impose meaning on the e x t e r n a l world, o n l y r e i t e r a t e s i t s s e p a r a t i o n from i t . In the case of m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y , the map's combination of an a b s t r a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n with a d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of space may have d e v a s t a t i n g consequences, r e i n f o r c i n g the a b s u r d i t y of the t a c t i c a l moves which gain armies a few hundred yards but l o s e them s e v e r a l thousand men. Not u n i f y i n g d e v i c e s , but agents of 120 d e s t r u c t i o n ; not symbols of r a t i o n a l i s t i c order, but e x p r e s s i o n s of the f e a r of a b s u r d i t y : maps, suggests F i n d l e y , can be d e f i n e d as the a n t i t h e s i s of what they purport to a c h i e v e . What, then, of horses? As the a n i m a l - l o v e r and i l l u s t r a t o r Rodwell t e l l s h i s t r o u b l e d c o l l e a g u e L e v i t t , "any man whose l o v e of horses i s stronger than h i s f e a r of being an a b s u r d i t y i s a l l r i g h t with me" (90) . Yet Robert Ross's l o v e of horses d r i v e s him to murder and s e l f -d e s t r u c t i o n ; the horse, l i k e the map, i s an ambivalent symbol whose r e v e r s i b i l i t y e v e n t u a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s the v u l n e r a b i l i t y (and p o t e n t i a l p e r n i c i o u s n e s s ) of s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d d i f f e r e n c e s (between the "normal" and the "abnormal," the "good" and the " e v i l " ) . S e t t i n g up a s e r i e s of o p p o s i t i o n s i n order to break them down, F i n d l e y ' s t e x t o s c i l l a t e s between the o b j e c t s of documentary r e a l i s m and the mythoforms of legend and f a b l e , t a k i n g i n a l l , but a u t h o r i z i n g none, of these competing v e r s i o n s . Thus, i f the days of the Great War were "made of maps and h o r s e s , " the pages of F i n d l e y ' s r e c o n s t r u c t e d t e x t are made and remade a c c o r d i n g to the i n f i n i t e number of p e r c e p t u a l and l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s which shape and t r a n s f o r m a view of the world but always defer i t s f i n a l meaning. F i n d l e y ' s suggestion t h a t what passes f o r " h i s t o r y " i s the product of s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d and modulated v e r s i o n s of the past i s given a f e m i n i s t s l a n t by the two Canadian w r i t e r s Marian Engel and Audrey Thomas. Engel's Bear (1976), the account of a female a r c h i v i s t ' s t r i p t o a remote i s l a n d i n 121 Northern O n t a r i o where her r e s e a r c h i s overshadowed by what tu r n s out to be more than a casual f r i e n d s h i p with a l o c a l bear, owes much to Atwood's S u r f a c i n g f o r i t s parody of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y g e n t i l i t y and i t s attempt to break down i n h e r i t e d s t r u c t u r e s of p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . But whereas Atwood's primary t a r g e t s are the V i c t o r i a n Canadian guides of T r a i l l and Moodie, Engel's are the e x o t i c romances of the European Romantics (Rousseau, Chateaubriand, Byron) and t h e i r i n d i r e c t p r e c u r s o r s (Shakespeare, Defoe). The p r o t a g o n i s t Lou d i s c o v e r s t h a t the bequest of C o l o n e l Cary which she has been sent to i n v e s t i g a t e and catalogue cannot be c o n f i n e d to the shelves of h i s l i b r a r y or contained w i t h i n the w a l l s of h i s h e r i t a g e house; f o r i t embraces an e n t i r e h i s t o r y of s t e r o t y p i c a l p e r c e p t i o n s of the "noble savage," now somewhat i g n o b l y represented i n the f i g u r e of the ageing, u n s i g h t l y bear. As the novel progresses, Lou's a d d i c t i o n to maps and other forms of h i s t o r i c a l documentation becomes i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from her o b s e s s i o n w i t h the bear; o r i g i n a l l y b r i e f e d t o impose "numerical order on a s t r u c t u r e devised i n t e r n a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y by a mind her numbers would teach her to d i s c o v e r " (42) , she r e a l i z e s t h a t the bear can teach her more about the s t a t e of C o l o n e l Cary's mind than the l i b r a r y . Accustomed to a task which now seems p e r f u n c t o r y to her, she understands t h a t much of her working l i f e has been spent among "undecipherable papers and o v e r w r i t t e n maps" (43): the embroidered map, l i k e the r i c h l y i l l u m i n a t e d but i n a c c e s s i b l e manuscript, has become f o r her the symbol of 122 u n s a t i s f i e d d e s i r e . The bear, a c t i n g i n i t i a l l y as a conduit f o r her f r u s t r a t e d sexual d e s i r e , i s e v e n t u a l l y recognized as an i n h e r i t e d symbol of male domination; thus, when i t r i p s the s k i n o f f her back i n a gesture of symbolic erasure, Lou i s l i b e r a t e d both from her imagined romantic involvement and, at l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y , from the male-dominated "romantic i m a g i n a t i o n " which had p r e v i o u s l y entrapped her. The myth of the "noble savage" i s exploded, and the bear's c l o s e s t a l l i a n c e (with the o l d m£tisse Lucy) i s r e s t o r e d , i m p l y i n g a l i n k between the h y b r i d h e r i t a g e of Canada and the c a r n i v a l i z e d h i s t o r y of European c o l o n i a l i s m . Leaving the i s l a n d , the p r o t a g o n i s t w r i l y c o n s i d e r s the l i k e l i h o o d of vandals breaking i n t o Colonel Cary's house, " t a k t i n g ] the t e l e s c o p e f o r i t s brass screws, and smash ting] the c e l e s t i a l and t e r r e s t r i a l g l o b e s . " "Well, l e t the world be smashed," she concludes, "that was the way th i n g s were bound t o go. The bear was s a f e " (139) . Her p r o t e c t i v e n e s s towards the bear supplants her e a r l i e r p r o t e c t i v e n e s s towards her maps and manuscripts; t h i s time, however, her knowledge of the New World i s not unc o n s c i o u s l y mediated through her p e r c e p t i o n s of the Old, but through a resharpened awareness of what those E u r o c e n t r i c p e r c e p t i o n s e n t a i l . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from an i m p l i c i t l y c o l o n i a l to a p o s t - c o l o n i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and from an andro- to a g y n o c e n t r i c view of h i s t o r y , i s c o r r o b o r a t e d i n the f i n a l image of the novel which, r e p l a c i n g C o l o n e l Cary's c e l e s t i a l globe w i t h a view of the s t a r s i n which "the Great Bear and h i s t h i r t y - s e v e n thousand v i r g i n s kept her company" (141), 123 sublimates both her l u s t f o r the bear and her a d d i c t i o n t o maps i n a c o n s t e l l a t i o n which guides and p r o t e c t s , r a t h e r than e n s l a v e s , the s e l f . L i k e Bear, Audrey Thomas's novel I n t e r t i d a l L i f e (1984) employs an i s l a n d s e t t i n g t o expl o r e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of female independence and to put forward a r e v i s i o n i s t , g y n o c e n t r i c view of r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y . Thomas, l i k e Engel, uses l i t e r a t u r e to debunk the n o t i o n of male heroism, but whereas Engel's focus i s on e x o t i c romance, Thomas's i s on the l i t e r a t u r e of e x p l o r a t i o n . The c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n asked i n the novel i s "what i f women had been the e x p l o r e r s ? Would t h i n g s have been d i f f e r e n t then?" (15) . Thomas suggests t h a t they would, f o r her g y n o c e n t r i c view of h i s t o r y emphasizes an understanding of personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s r a t h e r than a w i l f u l conquest of the ou t s i d e world. As i t s t i t l e suggests, I n t e r t i d a l L i f e uses the geographical metaphor of the i n t e r -i s l a n d channel to i n v e s t i g a t e an area which the e a r l y d i s c o v e r e r - n a v i g a t o r s of the Canadian west coast had no apparent i n t e r e s t i n e x p l o r i n g : t h a t of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s i t u a t i o n , emphasizes Thomas, cannot be redres s e d by a change of emphasis from male s e l f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n t o female s e l f - a n a l y s i s , f o r the root of the problem i s the language which men have used t o d e s c r i b e and j u s t i f y t h e i r conquests and which women have tended, o f t e n u n c o n s c i o u s l y , t o accept and use i n t h e i r t u r n . Thus the p r o t a g o n i s t A l i c e , estranged from her husband Peter and s e a r c h i n g f o r new 124 d i r e c t i o n s i n her l i f e , e x p l a i n s her f a s c i n a t i o n with maritime imagery: I'm l i k e John Donne i n h i s l o v e poetry. N a v i g a t i o n a l instruments, new lands, maps, merchant s h i p s . His language r e f l e c t s what was going on around him i n the o u t s i d e world. I read about p r i z e s and shipwrecks and plunder, strange instruments which measure the a r t i f i c i a l h o r i z o n , about conquests and conventions, t h i s whole male world of the age of e x p l o r a t i o n and I see t h a t women are going t o have to get out t h e r e and do the same t h i n g . (170) The danger, of course, i s t h a t women's assumption of the language of conquest may merely r e i n f o r c e p a t r i a r c h y ; A l i c e i s aware of t h i s , but as she says, "we a l l need new maps, new instruments t o t r y and f i x our new p o s i t i o n s , u n l e s s we t h i n k we're competent enough to t r y and s t e e r by the s t a r s " (171). Thomas s t r e s s e s , however, t h a t maps are only temporary c o n s t r u c t s whose c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and c o o r d i n a t e s are s u s c e p t i b l e to change and open to r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Men tend to be b l i n d t o these changes or r e s i s t a n t to a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : they are " r e l a t e d t o the sun, [and] the sun never changes h i s shape." Women, on the other hand, are " s i s t e r s of the moon, shape s h i f t e r s but oh so p r e d i c t a b l e i n [ t h e i r ] s h i f t i n g " (206). The dilemma, then, i s a double one: how can men be disabused of t h e i r i l l u s i o n s of s e c u r i t y , and how can women move i n d i r e c t i o n s other than those d i c t a t e d by men? The s i t e For a d i s c u s s i o n of the nature and f u n c t i o n of Donne's maritime imagery, see a l s o Jeanne Shami, "John Donne: Geography as Metaphor," i n W. M a l l o r y and P. Simpson-Housley, eds., Geography and L i t e r a t u r e (Syracruse: Syracuse UP, 1987) 161-168_ 125 Thomas chooses f o r her e x p l o r a t i o n of the dilemma i s the " i n t e r t i d a l zone:" those areas and t h e i r l i f e - f o r m s which are washed up, then l e f t behind, by the t i d e s . The metaphor i s a r i c h one, su g g e s t i v e of the domestic problems l e f t behind or concealed by the male e x p l o r e r s ; of the uncharted but o f t e n c r u c i a l backwaters of h i s t o r y ; and, above a l l , of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s exposed beneath an a p p a r e n t l y t r a n q u i l s u r f a c e or caught a d r i f t by changing c u r r e n t s . The c h a r a c t e r s of Thomas's no v e l , l i k e the c r e a t u r e s of the i n t e r t i d a l zone, are a l l in s e c u r e , s u f f e r i n g some kind of l o s s ( l i k e the amputated s t a r f i s h ) or b u i l d i n g p r o t e c t i v e b a r r i e r s around themselves ( l i k e the crab or b a r n a c l e ) . V u l n e r a b i l i t y may breed r e s i l i e n c e ; the crab may d i s c a r d i t s o l d s h e l l f o r a new one, or the s t a r f i s h grow a new arm to r e p l a c e the one l o s t , but the n o t i o n of t o t a l s e l f - c o n t a i n m e n t ( l i k e the hermit-crab i n i t s inadequate s h e l l ) i s as i l l u s o r y as t h a t of the t o t a l l y secure r e l a t i o n s h i p . To change the metaphor, the r e b u i l d i n g of a l i f e a f t e r a broken marriage or r e l a t i o n s h i p does not merely e n t a i l the remaking of a map, the exchange of one set of d e f i n i t i o n s f o r another, "dependence" f o r "independence;" i t a l s o e n t a i l s an admission of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of a l l d e f i n i t i o n s , the n e c e s s i t y y e t f r a g i l i t y of a l l human contact. The problem with maps, as w i t h i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , suggests Thomas, i s t h a t they are u s u a l l y d e f i n e d i n male terms; f o r the language of d e f i n i t i o n , l i k e t h a t of conquest, i s i n h e r e n t l y p a t r i a r c h a l . Thomas's i n t e r t i d a l zone poses a c h a l l e n g e t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a l language, 126 not merely by s i t u a t i n g i t s e l f i n an int e r m e d i a r y , i n d e f i n i t e area, but by a s s o c i a t i n g i t s e l f w ith i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y : the spaces between books (and many are c i t e d i n I n t e r t i d a l L i f e ) ; and w i t h i n t e r l a n g u a g e : the spaces between languages, phrases, or even, as i n Thomas's r e v i s i o n i s t wordgames (the other i n mother, the over i n l o v e r , e t c . ) , between the l e t t e r s i n words. By r e s i s t i n g the c l o s u r e of the d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n , the completed book, the mapped t e r r i t o r y , Thomas a l i g n s h e r s e l f with other Canadian f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s such as Atwood, Engel and Van Herk whose i n s c r i p t i o n of womanhood occupies the 'space between.' To a greater extent than any of these w r i t e r s , however, Thomas i n d i c a t e s the i l l u s o r y nature of se l f - c o n t a i n m e n t : her i n t e r t i d a l zone i s a dangerously d e c e p t i v e but committedly i n t e r p e r s o n a l one. Thus, l i k e Atwood and Van Herk, she c o n s i d e r s the spaces between as a breach i n the i d e o l o g y of p a t r i a r c h y ; and, l i k e Engel, as a flaw i n the male view of h i s t o r y ; but, more than any of them, she a s s e r t s the need f o r human r e l a t i o n s h i p s : the c e r t a i n t y of female d i f f e r e n c e may be one t h i n g , but t h a t of personal independence i s another. 3. MAPS AND DREAMS Thomas's reminder of the c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l contingency of maps draws a t t e n t i o n to the disc r e p a n c y between t h e i r a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t a t u s and t h e i r approximative f u n c t i o n ; f o r although maps are s e t up as " t r u t h f u l " by t h e i r makers, and are g e n e r a l l y accepted as " t r u e " by t h e i r readers, they are 127 n e c e s s a r i l y imperfect r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of an h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c s e t of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s . In the case of a t t i t u d e s which, over generations, have s o l i d i f i e d i n t o a p p a r e n t l y "coherent" systems, such as p a t r i a r c h y , maps may come to represent, or be e x p l o i t e d i n order to represent, a s t a t u s quo which ignores, suppresses or negates a l t e r n a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o i t s own. For t h i s reason, maps tend t o serve m a j o r i t y i n t e r e s t s or to r e i n f o r c e the s t a t u s of the p powerful i n any given s o c i e t y . The t e l e o l o g i c a l d i s c o u r s e embodied by maps, moreover, has h i s t o r i c a l l i n k s w i t h c o n q u i s t a d o r i a l and e x p a n s i o n i s t regimes i n the New World. Renaissance and e a r l y modern European i m p e r i a l i s t p o l i c i e s of t e r r i t o r i a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n and renomination, f o r example, were w e l l served by the map, which a u t h e n t i c a t e d the i l l u s i o n t h a t the s o - c a l l e d " d i s c o v e r e r s " of c o n t i n e n t s such as America and A u s t r a l i a were not only f i r s t t h e r e , but had somehow produced 9 the l a n d i n t h e i r own image. The trope of "mapmaking," d o v e t a i l i n g w i t h that of " d i s c o v e r y , " was c a l l e d i n t o support an i d e o l o g y of conquest by f o s t e r i n g the n o t i o n of a s o c i a l l y empty space which b e l i e d the e x i s t e n c e of an indigenous p o p u l a t i o n . The c o n t i n e n t s of America and A u s t r a l i a had, of course, a l r e a d y been d i s c o v e r e d t o a l a r g e extent by t h e i r o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s ; the " f i r s t " maps drawn up by European c a r t o g r a p h e r s and improved upon wit h the data p r o v i d e d by Cf. H a r l e y : 300-302. Cf. Boelhower: 44-50. 128 consequent e x p l o r a t i o n s were thus s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n s on a t e r r a i n a l r e a d y explored and charted. But the systems used by Western e x p l o r e r s and A b o r i g i n a l s to "read" the country were, needless t o say, q u i t e d i f f e r e n t : as Hugh Brody and Bruce Chatwin have shown i n t h e i r recent works, the "standard" t o p o g r a p h i c a l map i n d i c a t e s a Western c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of space a l l i e d t o the b e l i e f i n the i n t r i n s i c s u p e r i o r i t y of l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e s . 1 ^ For the v a r i o u s Canadian N a t i v e Indian or A u s t r a l i a n A b o r i g i n a l peoples, the map i s seen i n d i f f e r e n t terms a l t o g e t h e r , as an e l a b o r a t e communications network s e r v i n g and s u p p o r t i n g an o r a l l y - b a s e d c u l t u r e . Several w r i t e r s i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a , working both w i t h i n and a g a i n s t the Western l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , have f i c t i o n a l i z e d t h i s c l a s h between Western and A b o r i g i n a l modes of s p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n using what they assume to be an A b o r i g i n a l view of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y i n order to undertake a c r i t i q u e of Western t e r r i t o r i a l i mperatives. The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the r h e t o r i c a l assumption of an A b o r i g i n a l v o i c e are not to be underestimated, as shown i n the f o l l o w i n g comparison between a White Canadian and an A b o r i g i n a l A u s t r a l i a n ' s treatment of a s i m i l a r t o p i c : the r e l a t i o n For Brody and Chatwin, the Western map r e g i s t e r s and j u s t i f i e s the d e s i r e f o r personal a c q u i s i t i o n , w h i l e the A b o r i g i n a l map ra t h e r p r o v i d e s a means of i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s brought out i n the r i g i d demarcation of space i n Western maps as opposed t o the more f l e x i b l e n e g o t i a t i o n s of space i n N a t i v e Indian and A u s t r a l i a n A b o r i g i n a l maps which i n d i c a t e a network of shared v a l u e s r a t h e r than a d i v i s i o n of (personal) p r o p e r t y . A s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n i s made by Benterrak, Muecke and Roe i n Reading the  Country: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Nomadology (Fremantle: Fremantle A r t s Press, 1984). For a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of Benterrak, Muecke and Roe's approach, see the f o l l o w i n g chapter. 129 between c a r t o g r a p h i c i n s c r i p t i o n and t e r r i t o r i a l d i s p o s s e s s i o n , d i s p o s s e s s i o n . The works i n q u e s t i o n here are B r i a n Fawcett's t i t l e s t o r y i n the c o l l e c t i o n The S e c r e t J o u r n a l of Alexander  Mackenzie (1985) and C o l i n Johnson's novel Doctor Wooreddy's  P r e s c r i p t i o n f o r Enduring the Ending of the World (1983). The s t o r i e s c o l l e c t e d i n The S e c r e t J o u r n a l d e l i v e r a s e r i e s of p a r a b o l i c i n v e c t i v e s a g a i n s t i n d u s t r i a l consumerism i n the contemporary Canadian Northwest. The t i t l e s t o r y , f o r example, c o n s i s t s of a s e l f - i n d i c t i n g excerpt from a h y p o t h e t i c a l j o u r n a l kept by the i l l u s t r i o u s n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y e x p l o r e r Alexander Mackenzie i n which, drawing i n s p i r a t i o n from Brody, Fawcett examines the d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s between and a t t i t u d e s embodied by maps and dreams i n Native Indian and Western c u l t u r e s . For the Na t i v e Indians, the maps of i n d i v i d u a l hunters w i t h i n the t r i b e and those of the t r i b e ' s designated "dreamers" c o i n c i d e ; f o r the European s e t t l e r s and l a t e r i n d u s t r i a l entrepreneurs, however, maps represent e x t e n s i o n s of a dream which views "the North as a place of l i m i t l e s s m a t e r i a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s " (115). Fawcett's emphasis i s on the l a t t e r connection, or rather d i s c o n n e c t i o n , f o r the j o u r n a l becomes the s i t e of dreams and h a l l u c i n o g e n i c v i s i o n s which undermine Mackenzie's d e s i r e f o r c a r t o g r a p h i c accuracy and expose the f a l s e consciousness on which h i s maps are p r e d i c a t e d . The ann o t a t i o n s t o Mackenzie's j o u r n a l introduce a pl a y between t e x t and sub-text which f u r t h e r h i g h l i g h t s the i n c o n s i s t e n c y of Mackenzie's maps, the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of h i s arguments, and the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w i t h i n h i s c h a r a c t e r . The 130 o b s t a c l e - r i d d e n t e x t i t s e l f reads as a kind of map, but one whose key does not correspond t o i t s g r a p h i c n o t a t i o n s ; Mackenzie, s i m i l a r l y , comes a c r o s s as a s p l i t p e r s o n a l i t y , t o r n between h i s l u r i d dreams of ambition and conquest and h i s i n s i s t e n c e on the hard work borne of s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e . His j o u r n a l , c o n t r o v e r t i n g h i s b e l i e f t h a t "I am a man not much give n to the dream" (16), exposes repressed f e a r s and d e s i r e s which emphasize the greed t h a t u n d e r l i e s h i s apparent s e l f - r e s t r a i n t and the mental and moral atrophy t h a t erodes h i s p r o g r e s s i v i s t work-ethic. Three symbolic "witnesses f o r the p r o s e c u t i o n " are the Na t i v e Indian Cancre who, as h i s name suggests, operates as a p r o j e c t i o n of Mackenzie's (and, by exten s i o n , of Western c u l t u r e ' s ) inner s i c k n e s s , and the two women, one white, one n a t i v e , who prophesy h i s f u t u r e , the one i n g l o r i o u s , the other i n ignominious terms. Torn between the two women and between c o n f l i c t i n g Hamletian tendencies towards a c t i o n and contemplation, Mackenzie becomes the symbol f o r a c u l t u r e d i v i d e d a g a i n s t i t s e l f ; the d i s j u n c t i o n between h i s s e l f - g l o r i f y i n g maps and h i s s e l f - i n c r i m i n a t i n g dreams thus serves as an indictment of Western t e r r i t o r i a l and m a t e r i a l greed and as a reminder of the disharmony brought about between man and h i s environment, and w i t h i n man, by "a b l i n d f u r t h e r -ance of m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g f o r the i n d i v i d u a l body" (27). Un l i k e Fawcett, who p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y employs the "Native Indian" Cancre as a r h e t o r i c a l d e v ice to undermine the dominant n a r r a t i v e v o i c e of Mackenzie, Johnson a l t e r n a t e s between the v o i c e s of h i s two main p r o t a g o n i s t s , the Bruny I s l a n d A b o r i g i n e 131 Wooreddy and the w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d but misguided E n g l i s h e v a n g e l i s t George Robinson. The s t o r y of the d i s p o s s e s s i o n and eventual e x t e r m i n a t i o n of the Tasmanian A b o r i g i n e s i s thus t o l d from two c o u n t e r a c t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s and w i t h i n two d i s t i n c t l y separate c o d i f i e d c u l t u r a l systems. The d i f f e r e n c e s are o f t e n s u b t l e , an example being t h a t between "marking" and " t r a c k i n g " the country. Robinson, newly a r r i v e d i n Van Diemen's land, b e l i e v e s i t h i s m i s s i o n to h e l p the A b o r i g i n e s : "that was a l l t h a t r e a l l y mattered. R e s o l u t e l y he turned to look a t the t h i c k r a i n f o r e s t and h i s body s t i f f e n e d with the r e s o l u t i o n to mark t h i s l a n d " (66) . The "marking" of the land has s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t connotations, among them mapping (as an a p p r o p r i a t i o n , a l l o c a t i o n and s y s t e m a t i c o r g a n i s a t i o n of t e r r i t o r y ) and w r i t i n g (as a form of s c r i p t u r a l d e s i g n a t i o n : the marks i n Robinson's j o u r n a l , the crossed s i g n a t u r e s of the A b o r i g i n e s on a p e t i t i o n they cannot understand). Mapping and w r i t i n g are conceived of as c o m p l i c i t o u s a c t i v i t i e s ; cartography, l e g i t i m i z i n g a Western l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s u s c e p t i b l e to Manichaean d i s t i n c t i o n s between s e l f and other, j u s t i f i e s i n i t s t u r n the twin r h e t o r i c s of c o l o n i a l i s m and evangelism which a l l e g e d l y ensure the " c i v i l i z a t i o n " but a c t u a l l y f a c i l i t a t e the e x t e r m i n a t i o n of the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . The renaming and r e s e t t l e m e n t of the few remaining A b o r i g i n e s are i n s t a n c e s of the t e l e o l o g i c a l nature of c a r t o g r a p h i c d i s c o u r s e : hence Robinson, i n t e n t on "marking" the l a n d i n the f u t u r e , unaware that i t has a l r e a d y been "marked" bef o r e him 132 ( i f i n a d i f f e r e n t mode); or Governor Arthur, whose m i l i t a r y map o u t l i n e s plans f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n to be taken a g a i n s t the A b o r i g i n a l r e b e l s . The s c r i p t u r a l marking of the country, suggests Johnson, i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the ( r h e t o r i c a l ) "making" of h i s t o r y ; the p h y s i c a l t r a c k i n g of the country, on the other hand, with the r e t r a c i n g of an a n c e s t r a l past which endures i n the present and i n t o the f u t u r e . Wooreddy, an expert t r a c k e r , i s a b l e to f o l l o w paths which seem i n v i s i b l e to Robinson not f o r want of ey e s i g h t but because they p e r t a i n t o a d i f f e r e n t mode of s p a t i a l (and, c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , c u l t u r a l ) p e r c e p t i o n . For Robinson and Wooreddy, cartography i s a system of t e r r i t o r i a l n e g o t i a t i o n ; but whereas f o r the former, mapmaking and r e a d i n g are s c r i p t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e the movement through a c e r t a i n t e r r a i n towards a p a r t i c u l a r g o a l , f o r the l a t t e r they are mental a c t i v i t e s which i n v o l v e a renewal of acquaintance with immediate a n c e s t o r s and, beyond them, with the Great Ancestor. T r a c k i n g , i n t h i s context, becomes a r e c u p e r a t i v e act made p o s s i b l e through the agency of memory. Paths do e x i s t on the i s l a n d , but the maps of them are i n Wooreddy's head; so, whereas Robinson i s unable to d i s t i n g u i s h between "proper" and "improper" paths because he has no pre v i o u s knowledge of the land and i s apt to di s m i s s unmapped t e r r a i n as impenetrable w i l d e r n e s s , Wooreddy knows the country as a s e r i e s of " s h o r t c u t s c u t t i n g o f f l o o p s " i n which "t r a c k s meandering o f f i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s complicated the way" (68-9). Wooreddy's and the other A b o r i g i n e s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the land, suggests Johnson, i s a t a v i s t i c and i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e ; 133 the i n c u r s i o n of the White Man and h i s "mark- making" ways (70), however, g i v e s the A b o r i g i n e s the impression t h a t "the u n i t y between man and l a n d [has] been severed" (51) and t h a t the l a n d i t s e l f i s fragmenting or even d i s a p p e a r i n g . The impression, of course, i s not an unfounded one, f o r the l a n d , although i t remains, i s a l t e r e d out of r e c o g n i t i o n ( i n Wooreddy's terms, " s c a r r e d " and " p o l l u t e d " ) by the new s e t t l e r s , w h i l e the A b o r i g i n a l communities are k i l l e d or d i e out. Johnson's account thus reaps the t r a g i c o m i c e f f e c t s of a c l a s h between two mutually incompatible d i s c u r s i v e systems. With f u r t h e r i r o n y , the c l a s h u l t i m a t e l y " r e s o l v e s " i t s e l f i n a c o n j u n c t i o n between the maps and dreams of Robinson, triumphant i f s h o r t - l i v e d governor of h i s new i s l a n d colony,"''"'' and Wooreddy, whose f i n a l v i s i o n of the " s k y t r a c k s " r e u n i t i n g him with the Great Ancestor enables him to f u l f i l h i s dream of enduring the ending of the world, but at the cost of h i s own l i f e and of the impending e x t i n c t i o n of the Tasmanian A b o r i g i n a l peoples. Less dramatic than the h i s t o r i c a l c l a s h between White and N a t i v e c u l t u r e s , but e q u a l l y problematic, i s t h a t between e s t a b l i s h e d denizens of the h y b r i d c u l t u r e s of contemporary Canada and A u s t r a l i a and new migrants. An i n c r e a s i n g l y r i c h l i t e r a t u r e both about and by the v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups The connection between Johnson's Robinson and Defoe's i s , of course, h a r d l y g r a t u i t o u s . Defoe's t e x t i s an understandably popular t a r g e t f o r p o s t - c o l o n i a l w r i t e r s seeking to subvert or i n v e r t a b i d i n g c o l o n i a l i s t h i e r a r c h i e s . 134 o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the m u l t i c u l t u r a l , p olyphonic s o c i e t i e s of Canada and A u s t r a l i a has r e s u l t e d i n a metaphorical "re-mapping" of both c o u n t r i e s . Two p a t t e r n s of c a r t o g r a p h i c imagery are p r e v a l e n t : i n Canada, the c r o s s i n g , realignment, or d i s s o l u t i o n of boundaries (as, f o r example, i n the recent n o v e l s of Andre Vachon and J a n e t t e Turner H o s p i t a l ) ; and, i n A u s t r a l i a , the r e - or d i s l o c a t i o n of s p a t i a l c o o r d i n a t e s (as i n the "Asian" n o v e l s of C.J. Koch and Blanche d'Alpuget). Both p a t t e r n s are predominantly d e s t a b i l i z i n g , the f i r s t c u t t i n g a c r o s s r e c e i v e d n o t i o n s of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e , the second f o r g i n g new l i n k s w i t h c u l t u r e s p r e v i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d as i r r e v o c a b l y "other." But i t i s necessary here to d i s t i n g u i s h between the new l i t e r a t u r e s of g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s p e r s a l w r i t t e n by n a t u r a l i z e d c i t i z e n s of Canada and A u s t r a l i a , u s u a l l y white and of Northern European descent, who are seeking to broaden the h o r i z o n s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s ; and those of i n t e r n a l displacement w r i t t e n by e s t a b l i s h e d but somehow compromised or "hyphenated" c i t i z e n s (such as Joy Kogawa i n Canada), or by r e l a t i v e newcomers t o Canada and A u s t r a l i a , u s u a l l y of Southern European or non-European descent, whose experience of t h e i r new c o u n t r i e s o f t e n b e l i e s the comforting t e n e t s of n o n - p a r t i s a n m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . In the work of w r i t e r s such as David Malouf and Michael Ondaatje, these tendencies towards d i s p e r s a l and displacement converge so t h a t the map becomes a metaphor f o r necessary, but i l l u s o r y , r e d e f i n i t i o n . Malouf, A u s t r a l i a n - b o r n of B r i t i s h and Lebanese parents, i s s e n s i t i v e to the a b i d i n g l y misunderstood, 135 suppressed or ignored s t a t u s of A u s t r a l i a as a m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t i o n ; Ondaatje, of Dutch and Tamil e x t r a c t i o n , to the c o n t i n u i n g l a c k of e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y i n Canadian w r i t i n g . The map consequently becomes a metaphor through which to express the need f o r a broader d e f i n i t i o n of A u s t r a l i a n or Canadian c u l t u r e but which, through i t s i r o n i c or p a r o d i c usage, suggests a t the same time that any new d e f i n i t i o n p r o v i d e d by the map, however r e v i s i o n i s t or i n c l u s i v e , w i l l i n e v i t a b l y f a l l s h o r t of comprehensiveness. Thus, the p r o t a g o n i s t of Malouf's 1975 novel Johnno f i n d s h i m s e l f f o r c e d to admit t h a t the map of A u s t r a l i a "has a p o i n t where I always go wrong ... the c o n t i n e n t i t s e l f i s c l e a r enough ... I know the o u t l i n e ... but what i s beyond t h a t i s a mystery ... too b i g to h o l d i n the mind ... A u s t r a l i a i s i m p o s s i b l e ! " For Ondaatje, whose a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l novel Running i n the Family (1982) takes him back to an u n c l e a r l y remembered c h i l d h o o d i n S r i Lanka, the map i s a s i m i l a r l y q u e s t i o n a b l e concept, more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h rumour than with t r u t h . As i n Malouf's n o v e l , the map f u n c t i o n s as a metaphor f o r the shaping of memory; but what, and where, i s the " t r u t h " of these memories? As Ondaatje confesses i n h i s p o s t s c r i p t to the novel, "the book i s not a h i s t o r y but a p o r t r a i t or gesture ... and i f those [people r e f e r r e d t o i n the novel] disapprove of the f i c t i o n a l , then I a p o l o g i z e and can only say that i n S r i Lanka a w e l l - t o l d l i e i s worth a thousand f a c t s " (206). Ondaatje's a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l p o r t r a i t has no p r e t e n s i o n s to e x a c t i t u d e ; more f a m i l y romance than g e n e a l o g i c a l c h r o n i c l e , i t s i n t e r r e l a t e d sketches and 136 anecdotes compile a charming but, by i t s very nature, u n r e l i a b l e mythology. S r i Lanka i s an i d e a l s i t e f o r t h i s mythology: f a b l e d i s l a n d , s u b j e c t of Ondaatje's b r o t h e r ' s " f a l s e maps" which r e v e a l "rumours of topography, the routes f o r i n v a s i o n and tr a d e , and the dark mad mind of t r a v e l l e r s ' t a l e s ... throughout Arab and Chinese and medieval r e c o r d s " (64). The name and shape of the i s l a n d have changed many times, Ondaatje informs us, so t h a t i t has come to be "the w i f e of many marriages, courted by invaders who stepped ashore and claimed e v e r y t h i n g w i t h the power of t h e i r sword or b i b l e or language" (64). V i s u a l analogues f o r s e l f - a g g r a n d i z i n g 12 European dreams of the 'fabulous O r i e n t , " the v a r i o u s maps of S r i Lanka which f a s c i n a t e Ondaatje's brother and act as c a t a l y s t s f o r h i s own rumours of topography a l s o have t h e i r dark s i d e ; f o r as Ondaatje reminds us, the h i s t o r y of S r i Lanka, c h a n n e l l e d and transmuted through the d i s a s t e r s and excesses of h i s own f a m i l y h i s t o r y , has been one of m i l i t a r y v i o l e n c e and commercial e x p l o i t a t i o n . Moreover, the changing names and shapes of the i s l a n d a t t e s t t o a h i s t o r y imposed upon i t from without, not merely through the workings of m i l i t a r y i n v a s i o n and commercial e n t e r p r i s e but, above a l l , through the r e d e f i n i t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s of a dominant language. The d i s c o u r s e of maps, suggests Ondaatje, i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r h e t o r i c of i m p e r i a l i s m which j u s t i f i e s the The standard t e x t on t h i s s u b j e c t remains Edward Said's O r i e n t a l i s m (NY: V i k i n g , 1979). 137 a c q u i s i t i o n , renomination and r e d i s p o s i t i o n of new lands. So w h i l e i n one sense maps are the products of p r e c i s e r e s e a r c h , i n another they are the p r o j e c t i o n s of dreams or v i s i o n s which, signed i n the name of a dominant c u l t u r e , a c q u i r e the spurious badge of " t r u t h . " Ondaatje makes t h i s p o i n t from the outset when, i n the p r e f a t o r y epigraph, he c o n t r a s t s the accepted "evidence" of F r i a r O d e r i c i n the f o u r t e e n t h century that he had seen " i n t h i s i s l a n d [Ceylon] fowls as b i g as our country geese having two heads" w i t h the unacceptable "rumour" of the S i n h a l e s e and Tamils who, because t h e i r "knowledge of E n g l i s h was poor, thought t h a t the earth was f l a t " (14). The power of language to r e c o n s t r u c t the world, suggests Ondaatje, depends on the power and i n f l u e n c e of the c u l t u r e which uses i t ; the world t h a t i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d by a dominant language i s no more " r e a l , " but the v e r s i o n i t produces w i l l u s u a l l y achieve wider c r e d i b i l i t y . Ondaatje combats the l i n g u i s t i c s t r a t e g i e s of c u l t u r a l i m p e r i a l i s m by h i g h l i g h t i n g the e c c e n t r i c i t y ( e x - c e n t r i c i t y ) of h i s t e x t which, although i t s e l f w r i t t e n i n a dominant language ( E n g l i s h ) , c o n t i n u a l l y d e f a m i l i a r i z e s i t s usage through the employment of s p e c i f i c d e v i c e s such as zeugma, c a t a c h r e s i s and s y n a e s t h e s i a and through the broader e f f e c t s of parody and p a s t i c h e . The d i s r u p t i o n of "accepted" conventions and the f o r m u l a t i o n of new, unexpected "correspondences" enable the t e x t t o o s c i l l a t e between d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of d i s c o u r s e , such as the i m p e r i a l i s t " c a r t o g r a p h i c d i s c o u r s e " of "Tabula A s i a e " and the renovatory, s u r r e a l i s t d i s c o u r s e which proceeds from " t a b u l a r a s a . " 138 N e i t h e r d i s c o u r s e wins out; but a d i a l e c t i c between the two ensures the h e t e r o g e n e i t y of the t e x t and i m p l i c i t l y endorses O n d a a t j e 1 s i n t e r m e d i a r y p o s i t i o n between two m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o s t - c o l o n i a l n a t i o n s (Canada and S r i Lanka), both m a r g i n a l i z e d from more powerful, supposedly mainstream, c u l t u r e s but both r e v e l a t o r y of the " f a l s e maps" on which those c u l t u r e s c o n s t r u c t t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . L i k e Ondaatje, the Maltese-born Canadian w r i t e r Sean V i r g o uses the s u r r e a l i s t n o t i o n of " t a b u l a r a s a " t o r e f a s h i o n an e x o t i c "Lost World" ( S e l a k h i ; 1987). But whereas Ondaatje r e - e n v i s i o n s a r e a l but myth-surrounded i s l a n d which has h e l d a p a r t i c u l a r f a s c i n a t i o n f o r the European i m a g i n a t i o n ( S r i Lanka), V i r g o e n v i s i o n s a m y t h i c a l i s l a n d (Selakhi) b u i l t on the foundations of European e x o t i c i s m . Taking i n s p i r a t i o n from M e l v i l l e ' s dictum " i t i s not down on any map; t r u e p l a c e s never a r e , " V i r g o c o n s t r u c t s an imaginary i s l a n d i n the "South Seas" which c o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t the v a r i o u s e x o t i c i s m s of Stevenson, K i p l i n g and Rimbaud. The i s l a n d i s the dream-child of adolescent poete maudit Darien Hughes who, r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t h i s f a m i l y and t h e i r narrowly c i v i l i z e d world, s e l e c t s S e l a k h i as the s i t e f o r h i s g a r i s h , p r i m i t i v i s t i c f a n t a s i e s . I r o n i c a l l y , however, Darien's h a l l u c i n o g e n i c v i s i o n s are e x t e n s i o n s of, r a t h e r than r e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t , the r e s i d u a l l y c o l o n i a l , E u r o c e n t r i c world of h i s parents. S e l a k h i may be a dreamworld which i s "not down i n any map" but, i n another sense, i t r e p r e s e n t s a metaphorical remapping of the " c o l o n i a l 139 unconscious." B e l i e v i n g t h a t he has i t i n h i s power to r e c r e a t e L o s t Worlds (a r e c u r r e n t image sees Darien h o l d i n g 'a streetmap of A t l a n t i s ' i n h i s palm), he f a i l s t o r e a l i z e t h a t he i s a v i c t i m of them: h i s p o e t i c v i s i o n , f a r from r e g i s t e r i n g a new beginning - the s u r r e a l i s t "recommencement au z e r o " - i s the r e c y c l e d product of an o l d and t i r e d l e g a c y . Mapmaking, a metaphor used throughout the novel f o r " l o o k i n g out of the world and d e f i n i n g i t " (248) , i s t h e r e f o r e understood not as a means of p e r c e p t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n but as an o r g a n i s a t i o n a l medium of f a l s e consciousness. "Going n a t i v e " p r o v i d e s the most obvious example of t h i s f a l s e consciousness i n o p e r a t i o n ; f o r Darien's dream-experiences on S e l a k h i do not accommodate him to the c u l t u r e of the " n a t i v e i s l a n d e r s , " but u n d e r l i n e h i s own c u l t u r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of i t . Language, as i n Running the Family, i s a key i s s u e : Darien's p r e t e n t i o u s poetry, suggests V i r g o , i s the product of a s i c k mind nurtured on f a l s e n o t i o n s of p a r a d i s e t r a n s m i t t e d and r e i n f o r c e d through European e x o t i c i s t l i t e r a t u r e ; V i r g o ' s i m p l i c i t c r i t i q u e of c o l o n i a l c u l t u r e thus works towards endorsing the m u l t i -I am r e f e r r i n g p r i m a r i l y here to the p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s of Frantz Fanon (e.g. Peau n o i r e , masques blancs P a r i s : S e u i l , 1962). Note, however, Fanon's view that the v a r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l complexes which are produced under c o l o n i a l c o n d i t i o n s do not c o n s t i t u t e a c o l l e c t i v e c o l o n i a l unconscious but rather an a c q u i r e d consciousness r e s u l t i n g from the i m p o s i t i o n of one c u l t u r e ' s myths and p r e j u d i c e s upon another's. The " c o l o n i a l unconscious" should be seen, i n t h i s context, not as a r e c o r d of p s y c h i c i n h e r i t a n c e ( f o r both c o l o n i z e r and c o l o n i z e d ) but as a r e c e p t a c l e f o r the s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d views which shape - and, as V i r g o ' s novel shows, d i s t o r t - one c u l t u r e ' s view of another. 140 c u l t u r a l , p o s t - c o l o n i a l s t a t u s of h i s adopted country (Canada) by promulgating a m o b i l i t y between c u l t u r e s and/or w i t h i n c u l t u r a l mosaics (Canada-Sri Lanka; Canada-Malta). If Ondaatje and V i r g o are i m p l i c i t l y c e l e b r a t o r y of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m of t h e i r adopted country, many other w r i t e r s i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a are more c r i t i c a l . Kogawa's Obasan (1981) p r o v i d e s an example of one form of c u l t u r a l c r i t i q u e , based on r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; M a i l l e t ' s P g l a g i e - l a - C h a r r e t t e (1979) of another, based on e t h n i c m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n . Both Kogawa and M a i l l e t , as I s h a l l demonstrate i n the next chapter, use maps p r i m a r i l y as metaphors of f a l s e l y implanted a u t h o r i t y ; an a l t e r n a t i v e , more c o n s t r u c t i v e use of the map metaphor i s proposed, however, by w r i t e r s such as A u s t r a l i a ' s Anna Couani. Couani, a second-generation A u s t r a l i a n of Greek and P o l i s h e x t r a c t i o n , has w r i t t e n w i d e l y of the problems f a c i n g migrant women w r i t e r s i n A u s t r a l i a , who are not only caught between two (or more) c u l t u r e s but disadvantaged by l i v i n g i n a country with an u n f l a t t e r i n g h i s t o r y of male domination. Couani's work, l i k e t h a t of other contemporary migrant women w r i t e r s i n A u s t r a l i a (Vicky V i i d i k a s , Antigone K e f a l a , Ania Walwicz), focuses on the p o r t r a y a l of the fragmented female s e l f , a s e l f , however, which may be r e c o n s t i t u t e d through the act of w r i t i n g . The map i s employed as a metaphor f o r t h i s r e c o n s t i t u t i o n ; thus, i n the short prose pi e c e "The Map of the World" (1983), which I quote i n i t s e n t i r e t y : 141 The map of the world i s f e l t from i n s i d e . Rough around the c o a s t l i n e s and smooth over the h i l l s and sand dunes. Warm and moist through the r i v e r s which l e a d o u t s i d e to the f o r e s t s l i k e l o n g h a i r then sparser l i k e s h o r t e r more b r i s t l y h a i r to the touch. Reading a globe of the world w i t h i t s topography i n r e l i e f . Reading w i t h the f i n g e r s as though b l i n d . F e e l i n g i t w i t h the back, down the spine. Making con t a c t w i t h the n i p p l e s and the nose only. Moving at a f a s t r a t e underwater through the oceans and l a r g e l a k e s . Most of the oceans connect up w i t h each other. Moving so f a s t t h a t you become aware of the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e being curved. F l y i n g low but f a s t a c r o s s the land masses. Make y o u r s e l f f e e l l i k e the world. As o l d but not as t r o u b l e d . The a u t h o r i t y of the map i s d i v e s t e d from o u t s i d e sources and r e i n v e s t e d i n the geography of the body's experience. The move from an e x t e r n a l , v i s u a l to an i n t e r n a l , t a c t i l e a p p r e c i a t i o n of the map a l s o r e f l e c t s a s h i f t of emphasis from the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of s e l f to i t s phenomenological r e c o n s t i t u t i o n . The map i s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y v a l i d a t e d not as a means through which others p e r c e i v e and d e f i n e us but as a means of p e r c e i v i n g and d e f i n i n g o u r s e l v e s . Couani a l i g n s h e r s e l f with other f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s such as Walwicz ( i n A u s t r a l i a ) and Brossard ( i n Canada) f o r whom w r i t i n g denotes an i n s c r i p t i o n of the female body. Couani's w r i t i n g , l i k e t h e i r s , i s a l s o c u l t u r a l l y s i t u a t e d : by f e e l i n g the map of the world from i n s i d e , Couani counters those i n her country who have c o n s t r u c t e d her as an o u t s i d e r . She f u r t h e r suggests t h a t the a f f i n i t y between people and p l a c e s owes as much to pe r s o n a l experience as t o a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d n o t i o n s of p e r s o n a l , c u l t u r a l , or n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . Thus, her response to the flagwaving but r a c i a l l y s e l e c t i v e n a t i o n a l i s m of A u s t r a l i a i s 142 not so much to p r o c l a i m her own e t h n i c i d e n t i t y , or to s i g n a l i t s d i f f e r e n c e , as t o remap the world i n accordance with her own experience, both l i v e d and imaginary. The map may only be a dream, but a t l e a s t the dream i s her own. 4 • MAPS AND MAZES In C o u a n i 1 s p i e c e , the r e c o n s t i t u t e d map i s used as a v e h i c l e f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of personal experience; i n Robert Kroetsch's novel Badlands (1975), by c o n t r a s t , i t i s r e j e c t e d as a f o r e c l o s u r e of personal experience. The novel's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e mapmaker i s ob s e s s i v e p a l a e o n t o l o g i s t W i l l i a m Dawe, d e s c r i b e d by h i s daughter, Anna, as a man who "would accept and endure d e s t i n y ... [but] c o u l d not abide chance" (109). Dawe's meticulous maps and f i e l d n o t e s t y p i f y h i s a t t i t u d e towards l i f e which, l i k e h i s a t t i t u d e towards sex, i s " m a l i c i o u s l y meditated ... orga n i z e d and executed ... intended t o f o r e c l o s e on randomness i t s e l f " (109). Dawe's maps, however, l i k e h i s f i e l d - n o t e s and the f o s s i l s he and h i s e c c e n t r i c crew unearth d u r i n g t h e i r madcap odyssey i n t o the A l b e r t a n badlands, are only a l t e r n a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s which, f a l l i n g s h o r t of completion, merely accentuate the p r i n c i p l e of randomness they are intended t o f o r e c l o s e . Moreover, they are a l l e s s e n t i a l l y s t a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s r e i n f o r c i n g a male view of the world based on Dawe's p r i n c i p l e s of d i s p o s s e s s i o n and recovery. Dawe, however, i s d i s p o s s e s s e d i n h i s t u r n by the two complementary female p r o t a g o n i s t s of the novel, the Indian squaw Anna Y e l l o w b i r d who 'accompanies' him on h i s e x p e d i t i o n , but c o n s i s t e n t l y outmaneouvres h i m / i t ; and h i s daughter, 143 Anna, who i n i t i a l l y attempts t o decipher, but e v e n t u a l l y d i s c a r d s , h i s p r e c i o u s f i e l d n o t e s . Dawe's attempt to f o r e c l o s e on randomness i s f u r t h e r subverted by the a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r y t e l l e r , Web, whose t a l l t a l e s i m p l i c i t l y mock the p r e c i s e n o t a t i o n s of Dawe's f i e l d b o o k and the p i n p o i n t accuracy of h i s maps. Web and Dawe, two v o i c e s i n a polyphonic n a r r a t i v e , can a l s o be con s i d e r e d as two a l t e r n a t i v e s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s i n a m u l t i - l a y e r e d n a r r a t i v e which, l i k e the exemplary l i g h t n i n g d u r i n g a storm midway through the e x p e d i t i o n ( i n one of the many mises en abime f o r the n o v e l ) , "webbed and p a t t e r n e d the sky, mapped the blue sky black and white; and then, i n f i n a l c o u n t e r p o i n t , s t r u c k almost on top of them ... showting] ... [them] t o each other" (103; my emphasis). The co u n t e r p o i n t between the black-and-white d i s t i n c t i o n s of the map (and i t s c o u n t e r p a r t , the photograph) and the d e l i c a t e t r a c e r y of the web (and i t s d e s t r u c t i v e reverse-image, the tornado) ensures, as i n the t e x t s of F i n d l e y and Ondaatje, t h a t no s i n g l e encompassing s t r u c t u r e emerges. S i m i l a r l y , there i s no complete p a l a e n t o l o g i c a l specimen, no a b s o l u t e e x p l i c a t o r y t r u t h ; the n o t i o n of ( p h y s i c a l ) completion, l i k e t h a t of (metaphysical) t r u t h , i s exposed as an i l l u s i o n , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Dawe's p r i z e dinosaur, "complete" o n l y because a r e p l i c a t a i l has been added t o r e p l a c e the m i s s i n g fragment. Perhaps the most a p p r o p r i a t e s i m i l e f o r Kroetsch's open-ended t e x t i s t h a t of the l a b y r i n t h which, however, " c o n c e a l t s ] not so much the Minotaur ... as an absence at the ' c e n t r e ' " (McDougall 22). As R u s s e l l McDougall has p o i n t e d out, K r o e t s c h 1 s novel i s a parody of the 'journey i n t o the i n t e r i o r 1 ; i t s m o t i f s of 144 e x p l o r a t i o n and e x c a v a t i o n are i m p l i c i t l y s e l f - i r o n i c , s i n c e the only " d i s c o v e r i e s " made are incomplete ones, and those a t the cost of a l i f e , t h a t of the boy Tune, whose b u r i a l i n the same e x p l o s i o n which unearths the "Daweosaurus" demonstrates the r h e t o r i c a l device of i n v e r s i o n which operates a t s e v e r a l " l e v e l s " throughout the novel and i m p l i c i t l y r e i n f o r c e s the n o t i o n of a decentred t e x t . "There are no t r u t h s , only correspondences" (45), Anna remarks of her f a t h e r ' s f i e l d n o t e s ; s i m i l a r l y , Kroetsch's t e x t r e v e a l s no ce n t r e of s i g n i f i c a n c e , only a p a t t e r n of a l t e r n a t i n g connections and d i s c o n n e c t i o n s which have more i n common with the i l l u s i o n i s t maze than w i t h the e x p l i c a t o r y map. But are the map and the maze so d i f f e r e n t from one another? Both are metaphors f o r a r t i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the one c o n v e n t i o n a l i z i n g r e a l i t y through the o p e r a t i o n s of mimesis, the other c e l e b r a t i n g the a r t i f i c e i n v o l v e d i n f i c t i o n a l c r e a t i o n . The map, Kroetsch f u r t h e r suggests, i s as i n c a p a b l e of a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t i n g r e a l i t y as the maze i s of comprehensively f a l s i f y i n g i t : h i s own f i c t i o n consequently s i t u a t e s i t s e l f i n the i n t e r s t i c e s between the " r e a l w o rld" (of the map-convention) and the "invented w o r l d ( s ) " (of the maze-convention). Thus, Dawe's statement t h a t he and h i s crew are " s a i l i n g o f f the map" (Kroetsch 95) i s only a h a l f - t r u t h , f o r to s a i l o f f one map i s , i m p l i c i t l y , t o s a i l onto another. Although t h i s c o u l d be seen as a t r a n s f e r e n c e on Kroetsch's p a r t from a n a t i o n a l to a r e g i o n a l p o i n t of view, the focus of t h i s p o i n t of view i s 14 Cf. Kroetsch's d e s c r i p t i o n of Canadian w r i t i n g as 'a l i t e r a t u r e of dangerous middles' (from "Beyond N a t i o n a l i s m : A Prologue," Mosaic 14.2 (1981) v - x i ) . See a l s o Robert Lecker's 145 14 ambivalent: thus, speaking i n the a p p r o p r i a t e l y e n t i t l e d c o l l e c t i o n of essays and i n t e r v i e w s L a b y r i n t h s of V o i c e , Kroetsch d e s c r i b e s the landscape of h i s n a t i v e p r a i r i e s : "they have been mapped l i k e g r i d s , a l l those roads, but you can get l o s t i n them so e a s i l y " (Neuman 80). Reading Badlands i s l i k e r eading a landscape which i n v i t e s y e t f r u s t r a t e s or even p r e c l u d e s d e f i n i t i o n : t o o r i e n t o n e s e l f i n the t e x t i s , f i n a l l y , t o admit t h a t one i s l o s t . A more l a b y r i n t h i n e t e x t s t i l l i s A u s t r a l i a n n o v e l i s t G e r a l d Murnane's c r a f t i l y c o n s t r u c t e d Landscape with Landscape (1985). A s u c c e s s i o n of s t o r i e s - w i t h i n - s t o r i e s , Murnane's t e x t p i e c e s together the l i f e of i t s n a r r a t o r , a p e r i p a t e t i c , e m o t i o n a l l y unstable w r i t e r who, attempting through h i s m u l t i - l a y e r e d f i c t i o n t o "discover the p a t t e r n of [ h i m ] s e l f and [his] l i f e " (241), e v e n t u a l l y runs the r i s k of l o s i n g h i m s e l f i n a l a b y r i n t h of h i s own making. The p r i n c i p l e i s B o r g e s i a n : l i k e the dreamer i n Borges's s t o r y who f i n d s h i m s e l f the s u b j e c t of someone e l s e ' s dream,'1'5 the n a r r a t o r , s e a r c h i n g f o r an i d e a l landscape which 'corresponds to obscure p l a c e s i n [his ] thoughts' (Murnane 231) i s h i m s e l f the s u b j e c t of someone 16 e l s e ' s search (which, i n t u r n ... e t c . Th us, l i k e the continued -d i s c u s s i o n of Kroetsch's ' b o r d e r l i n e a e s t h e t i c s ' i n "Bordering On: Robert Kroetsch*s A e s t h e t i c , " J o u r n a l of Canadian S t u d i e s 17.3 (1982): 124-133. 15 J.-L. Borges, "The C i r c u l a r Ruins," i n F i c c i o n e s , ed. A. K e r r i g a n (NY: Grove Press, 1962) 57-64. For a d i s c u s s i o n of the n o t i o n of the l a b y r i n t h i n Borges's work, and of other 'symbolic landscapes' i n modern f i c t i o n , see Wendy F a r i s , L a b y r i n t h s of Language (Bal t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins VP, 1988) . 146 i n t e r p o l a t e d n a r r a t o r of the s t o r y "The B a t t l e of Acosta Nu" (a d i s p l a c e d v e r s i o n of the primary n a r r a t o r ) who sees "the routes of [his] journeys towards t h i s l o s t land] ... as a p a t t e r n l i k e those graphs of equations which tend towards but never reach a c e r t a i n a x i s " (97), Murnane i n v o l v e s h i s readers i n a game of endless displacement and d e f e r r a l . Any attempt to unravel the t e x t i s thwarted or r e d i r e c t e d , as i n the n a r r a t o r ' s f o r l o r n quest to f i n d "an a c t u a l p l a c e where the mystery would r e v e a l i t s e l f : a suburb at the end of an unmapped t r a m l i n e , a s t r e e t bordered w i t h hedges and c u r v i n g i n on i t s e l f l i k e a pathway i n a maze" (197, my emphasis). L i k e Kroetsch, Murnane not only suggests t h a t h i s t e x t u a l maze holds no Minotaur, no t e r r i f y i n g " r e v e l a t i o n " a t i t s centre, but t h a t i t holds no c e n t r e at a l l . A l s o l i k e Kroetsch, Murnane decentres h i s t e x t i n an i m p l i c i t parody of c e n t r i s t c u l t u r a l myths: so, w h i l e Kroetsch's r e g i o n (Alberta) i s a metonymical s i t e f o r the ambivalence he reads i n t o Canadian c u l t u r e , Murnane's c i t y (Melbourne) i s a s e l f - p a r o d i c c e n t r e emblematic of the hackneyed A u s t r a l i a n d e s i r e f o r c u l t u r a l cohesiveness. P e r c e i v i n g the c e n t r e of Melbourne i r o n i c a l l y as "a blank space from which the true p a t t e r n of the suburbs would be v i s i b l e " (14), the n a r r a t o r moves t a n g e n t i a l l y away i n an attempt to s u b s t a n t i a t e the b e l i e f t h a t "he might draw a map of the c i t y beyond the reach of normal p e r c e p t i o n ... s i z e d and spaced a c c o r d i n g to the i n t e n s i t y of the p o e t i c f e e l i n g he had once f e l t i n t h i s or that p a r t of another Melbourne" (13). The map, needless to say, i s never drawn, f o r the mapmaker's attempt to 147 r a t i o n a l i z e h i s dreams i s i t s e l f r ecognized as a dream; and, i n any case, the land or d i s t r i c t he dreams about i s always somewhere e l s e . Thus, l i k e the v a r i o u s dream landscapes of the novel which, once i d e n t i f i e d , are no longer wide enough to c o n t a i n the dreamer's idea of them, the map, once drawn, i s no longer capable of accommodating the d e s i r e ( s ) of i t s maker(s). The n a r r a t o r compares h i s p o s i t i o n t o t h a t of the monks i n the Melbourne p r e s b y t e r y who "under shaded desk-lamps i n cor n e r s of h i g h - c e i l i n g e d rooms, n i g h t a f t e r n i g h t , [add] s t i l l more d e t a i l s ... t o f a n t a s t i c maps" (210). And, as i f to s t r e s s the a b s u r d i t y of the p r o j e c t , he then asks us t o e n v i s i o n a man "paint ting] g r i d s of s t r e e t - p a t t e r n s on c l e a r g l a s s panes and a l t e r n a t e s u r f a c e s of systems of m i r r o r s , p r e p a r i n g t o f u l f i l the dreams of those who had always wanted t o see themselves somehow a p a r t of the maps they had pored over" (210). The map, symbolic of the a l i e n a t i o n between i t s e l f and i t s maker, a l s o operates as a paradigm f o r Murnane's theory of the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n which, a r t i c u l a t e d through the n a r r a t o r ' s search f o r a landscape which w i l l correspond t o h i s innermost thoughts, bases i t s e l f on the d i s j u n c t i o n between conceptual f o r m u l a t i o n and v e r b a l p r o d u c t i o n (the map as i d e a ; the map as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) . Combining the Romantic n o t i o n of u n a t t a i n a b i l i t y with the p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t concept of d i f f F r a n c e , M u r n a n e i l l u s t r a t e s the i n t e r m e d i a r y Murnane's theory of the im a g i n a t i o n has been d i s c u s s e d i n s e v e r a l essays by John T i t t e n s o r , e.g. i n the survey a r t i c l e "Inner A u s t r a l i a : The Novels of G e r a l d Murnane," i n X. Pons and M. Rocard, eds.: 97-107. 148 d i s c u r s i v e p o s i t i o n of h i s t e x t which, l i k e the map, n e i t h e r embodies a v i s i o n nor r e g i s t e r s the f a i l u r e to embody a v i s i o n , but a r t i c u l a t e s a space between s u c c e s s i v e v i s i o n s . The map, suggests Murnane, a c t s as a c a t a l y s t f o r other maps, and the t e x t engenders other t e x t s ; thus the reader, i n s t e a d of being p r o v i d e d w i t h a " d e f i n i t i v e " v e r s i o n or "accurate" r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n , i s p r o p e l l e d s t i l l f u r t h e r i n t o the i n t e r t e x t u a l l a b y r i n t h . In Quebec w r i t e r Robert B a i l l i e 1 s recent novel Les Voyants (1986), the n o t i o n of an ( i n t e r ) t e x t u a l l a b y r i n t h i s supported by a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s p a t i a l r e f e r e n c e s which r a d i a t e outwards (as i n Murnane 1s text) from an 'absent' c e n t r e . U n l i k e the "blank space" of c e n t r a l Melbourne i n Landscape with Landscape, however, the c e n t r e i n Les Voyants i s marked not by t e x t u a l but by p e r c e p t u a l absence: f o r the two f r i e n d s Denise and Diana, whose house i n Montreal i s the p o i n t of departure f o r the p e r e g r i n a t i o n s of t h e i r young wards Jeanne and Gino, are both b l i n d . But b l i n d n e s s i s a r e l a t i v e concept, suggests B a i l l i e ; f o r i t i s not Denise and Diana but Jeanne and Gino who, s h o u l d e r i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the two a d u l t s , f e e l cut o f f from the o u t s i d e world. F i n a l l y b r e a k i n g away from Denise and Diana, the newly-married couple embark on a s e r i e s of t r a v e l s which take them to the Far North (Ungava) and the Deep South ( B r a z i l ) i n search of personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l f u l f i l m e n t . At f i r s t , n e i t h e r the a r c t i c wastes of the North nor the f e t i d j u n g l e s of the South do more than confirm t h e i r d e s p a i r : the c r o s s i n g of g e o g r a p h i c a l f r o n t i e r s r e g i s t e r s the 149 passage from one form of emptiness t o another. I t i s onl y through the v i c a r i o u s experience of death (Diana, t h e i r boss W i l l i a m Bellow) or an e q u i v a l e n t form of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n ( t h e i r own s e p a r a t i o n , the a n a r c h i c r i t u a l s of the Rio C a r n i v a l ) t h a t they are a b l e to co n f r o n t t h i s i n n e r / o u t e r emptiness not as a source of d e s p a i r but, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , of p h y s i c a l energy and s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h . Thus, whereas p r e v i o u s l y , i n h i s t r o u b l e d adolescence, Gino had co n s i d e r e d " [ l ' J e s p a c e i n t e r i e u r ou 1'immensity des emotions ne c o n n a i s s a i t aucune mesure ... foul nul geometre, nul g£ologue, nul arpenteur ne pouv a i t s'y e r i g e r en voyant ou en n a i t r e de d e s t i n " as "tun] v a s t e royaume de 1'absence et du v i d e ... tune] ru p t u r e t o t a l e , d e f i n i t i v e d'avec l a v i e " (51-2), he i s brought i n l a t e r l i f e to con f r o n t the same empty space as a source of jo y . Employed as a surveyor/ g e o l o g i s t f o r a mining company, Gino i s made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the establishment of a thermal p r o s p e c t i n g s t a t i o n i n a remote corner of the Far North. Gino's l i f e , p r e v i o u s l y l e d on the c o o r d i n a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s of h i s "c a r t o g r a p h i e i n t g r i e u r e " (197), i s r e a d j u s t e d t o the thermodynamic p r i n c i p l e of entropy. The s t a t i o n , s et out c o n c e n t r i c a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o "des c a l c u l s g t a b l i s , toute une g r i l l e arpentee, dessinee e t c a r t o g r a p h i e s s e l o n des normes exactes e t conformes" (179), i s d i s c o v e r e d t o be flawed, an element of i t s c e n t r a l sounding device m i s s i n g "comme s i l e ce n t r e du monde a v a i t perdu son contenu, sa substance, son o e i l , sa p u p i l l e " (192). Gino's p r o j e c t i s ruined, but t h i s absent, "unseeing" c e n t r e p a r a d o x i c a l l y g i v e s him access to 150 the i n t e r i o r v i s i o n he had always coveted: the d i s r u p t i o n of the thermodynamic system becomes the p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the r e l e a s e of Gino's own pent-up energy, j u s t as i n Rio the a n a r c h i c rhythms of samba had t r i g g e r e d the r e l e a s e of a l i b i d i n a l energy which he (and h i s wife) had not r e a l i z e d they possessed. "Seeing" i s r e i n t e r p r e t e d not as the product of a systematized " c a r t o g r a p h i c " v i s i o n but of a " b l i n d " surrender t o the senses; but whereas Gino l i b e r a t e s h i m s e l f from h i s consuming d e s i r e to systematize the world, Jeanne remains trapped w i t h i n a d i f f e r e n t kind of system: the computer c i r c u i t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l b i g business. I t i s t h i s world, " a l l - s e e i n g " but e x p l o i t a t i v e and uncaring, which i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n of the novel produces a c a t a s t r o p h i c mirror-image of i t s e l f : the a c c i d e n t at Bhopal which k i l l s thousands, and l e a v e s many more b l i n d e d f o r l i f e . For Murnane the shortcomings of c a r t o g r a p h i c v i s i o n are i m p l i c a t e d i n the p r o b l e m a t i c process of a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n , which s e t s i t s e l f the i m p o s s i b l e task of s u b s t a n t i a t i n g a dream. For B a i l l i e , on the other hand, c a r t o g r a p h i c v i s i o n , m i s a p p r o p r i a t e d as the t o o l of a system which does not understand i t s own l a b y r i n t h i n e workings or take account of the p o t e n t i a l l y f a t a l flaw at i t s " c e n t r e , " may set up the very r e a l i s t i c p o s s i b i l i t y of s u b s t a n t i a t i n g a nightmare. The d e s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n of c a r t o g r a p h i c space i n Les Voyants i s taken a stage f u r t h e r i n Yolande V i l l e m a i r e ' s novel La V i e  en prose (1980). L i k e B a i l l i e , V i l l e m a i r e employs metaphors of s p a t i a l t r a n s g r e s s i o n and e x t e n s i o n (the c r o s s i n g of 151 g e o g r a p h i c a l borders; the d e s c r i p t i o n or h y p o t h e t i c a l e v o c a t i o n of " f o r e i g n " c o u n t r i e s ) t o achieve an e f f e c t of c u l t u r a l d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n . V i l l e m a i r e i s more e c l e c t i c than B a i l l i e , however, i n her a p p l i c a t i o n of these p a t t e r n s of d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n t o the d e c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i q u e of Western s i g n i f y i n g systems. A p l a y f u l , s k i l f u l l y interwoven novel, La V i e en prose i n v e s t i g a t e s l i f e as a form of w r i t i n g and w r i t i n g as a form of l i f e through the v a r i o u s c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of i t s i n s c r i b e d "comity de l e c t u r e . " The conventions of prose f i c t i o n , l i k e those of the other forms of s c r i p t u r a l n o t a t i o n r e f e r r e d to i n the novel ( h i e r o g l y p h i c s , c i n e m a t i c i c o n s etc.) a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n s i g n systems which have a p r o b l e m a t i c r e l a t i o n t o r e a l i t y . L i k e the map, the novel (as a l i t e r a r y form) bears only an approximate resemblance to r e a l i t y . Comparing the c a r t o g r a p h i c g r i d t o the t y p o g r a p h i c d i s p l a y of her t y p e w r i t e r , one of the m u l t i p l e n a r r a t o r s of La V i e en prose draws p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the f u n c t i o n of the spacer: La barre gui commande l'espacement n'est que l a prothese mecanique de c e t t e o p e r a t i o n mentale q u i c o n s i s t e a t r o u e r l e chaos du langage en l u i r a v i s s a n t l e s termes du l e x i q u e pour f a i r e l e r e l a i s c artographique d'une i n t r i g u e dont l e t e r r i t o i r e r e s t e s e c r e t . (160) Typographic p r i n t , l i k e c a r t o g r a p h i c n o t a t i o n , superimposes i t s e l f upon a space i t cannot f i l l ; moreover, i t i n c o r p o r a t e s spaces as o p e r a t i o n a l elements w i t h i n i t s system. The p r i n t e d t e x t , suggests V i l l e m a i r e , does not need to be d e c o n s t r u c t e d ; i t d e c o n s t r u c t s i t s e l f . A f u r t h e r analogy i s t h a t between the 152 l a y e r i n g techniques of cartography and those of f i c t i o n . Both are p a l i m p s e s t i c o p e r a t i o n s ; as V i l l e m a i r e says v i a her n a r r a t o r ' s comments on N i c o l e Brossard's d e d i c a t i o n to her novel ( i t s e l f a p a l i m p s e s t i c c i t a t i o n ) : " ' I l est q u e s t i o n de deux geographies a l a f o i s ? Et c'est b i e n c e l a q u i se p r o d u i t , c e t t e prose se perdant en s u r i m p r e s s i o n sur c e l l e d'une a u t r e " ( V i l l e m a i r e 2 91). The d o u b l i n g d e v i c e s , anagrammatic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , " f r e e " v e r b a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and m u l t i p l e s p a t i a l r e f e r e n c e s of V i l l e m a i r e ' s novel a l l belong t o the order of the p a l i m p s e s t i c ; the e f f e c t , however, i s not to g i v e access to meaning through the s t r i p p i n g down of a c c r e t e d l a y e r s but rather to obfuscate or d i s p l a c e meaning through the accumulation of supplementary l a y e r s so t h a t , as (one of) the n a r r a t o r ( s ) quips, "ces m i c r o - v e r i t e s [du t e x t e ] ne seront encore qu'une c a r t e t r e s approximative du t e r r i t o i r e de l ' U l t i m e R e a l i t e " (215). By undermining the r e f e r e n t i a l a u t h o r i t y of the map, V i l l e m a i r e a l s o i m p l i c a t e s the d e c o n s t r u c t i v e o p e r a t i o n s of her own s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l t e x t which, e l u d i n g d e f i n i t i o n through an a c c r e t i o n of approximative a n a l o g i e s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y mocks the " s c i e n t i f i c " d e f i n i t i o n a l procedures of s e m i o t i c a n a l y s i s . More maze than map, " t i e ] d£dale onomastique" (310) of La V i e en prose d e l i b e r a t e l y b e w i l d e r s and " d i s l o c a t e s " i t s readers. But l i k e Kroetsch and Murnane, V i l l e m a i r e p r o b l e m a t i z e s matters f u r t h e r by suggesting t h a t maps and mazes, approximative analogues of the t e x t , are a l s o approximative analogues of one another; f o r the "deconstructed" map, l i k e the "decentred" maze, e x e m p l i f i e s 153 a d i r e c t i o n a l system whose i n b u i l t f a l l a c i e s undermine, or even d e r i d e , i t s o r i g i n a l d i r e c t i v e s . In a t e x t w i t h s i m i l a r e n c y c l o p e d i c tendencies to La V i e en prose, Murray B a i l ' s Homesickness (1980), the map operates as a s e l f - p a r o d i c paradigm f o r "exhaustive" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . B a i l ' s mockery of cartography as an "exact s c i e n c e " i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o an exuberant s a t i r e on tourism: a group of A u s t r a l i a n t o u r i s t s , shepherded between museums on t h e i r Grand World Tour but c a r e f u l l y s h i e l d e d from the "outside w o r l d , " end up by g a i n i n g i n s i g h t i n t o l i t t l e more than t h e i r own c u l t u r a l p r e j u d i c e s . The London shop of the two e c c e n t r i c b i b l i o p h i l e s Biv and Z o e l l n e r p r o v i d e s a d i f f e r e n t example of tourism: the c u l t i v a t i o n of a l i t e r a r y s t y l e which i n v o l v e s the f e t i s h i z a t i o n of the word as a c o l l e c t o r ' s item: Words had been c o l l e c t e d from a l l corners of the globe and s t o r e d i n bound volumes, s i n g l y or i n s e t s ... Z o e l l n e r and B i v r e t a i l e d every d i c t i o n a r y and word-binge imaginable ... g l o s s o l o g i e s , language maps, semantic a t l a s e s on Gleek, A n g l i s h , J a p p i s c h , East Indian, Ptydepe and Jarman, Double Deutsch, and an i n d i s p e n s a b l e phrase book on Swiss. (259) Amid t h i s " p o l y g l o t ' s t r o v e " (259), the i r r e p r e s s i b l e Biv 17 holds f o r t h to the two "men of s c i e n c e " Whitehead and North, B a i l i s poking f u n here, of course, at the " d e s c r i p t i v e geometry" of A l f r e d North Whitehead, which bases i t s e l f on "a d e f i n i t e set of [geometric] t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s forming a congruence-group, r e s u l t i n g i n a set of measure r e l a t i o n s which are i n no r e s p e c t a r b i t r a r y " (192). B a i l would appear to take p r e c i s e l y the view t h a t Whitehead r e f u t e s , namely t h a t " i t i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y unmeaning to ask which system of m e t r i c a l geometry i s t r u e of the p h y s i c a l world. Any one of these systems can be a p p l i e d , and i n an i n d e f i n i t e number of ways" (192). For a l e n g t h i e r d i s c u s s i o n see the s e c t i o n "Axioms -Continued-154 the former a d e n t i s t , the l a t t e r a z o o l o g i s t and s e l f - c o n f e s s e d l o v e r of maps who dresses u n w i t t i n g l y i n the "gentle p a s t e l s of cartography: yellow corduory t r o u s e r s (6000-9000 f e e t above sea l e v e l ) , the j a c k e t of d a r k l y woven maroon ( A n t a r c t i c Tundra), s h i r t of V i y e l l a peach ( l e s s than 1 inch of r a i n f a l l per annum)" (68). A s s e r t i n g f i r s t t h a t "maps make v e r i f i a b l e t r u t h s , " B i v then proceeds to "ravfe] on about the mystery of maps, even of s t r e e t d i r e c t o r i e s " (261). F a s c i n a t e d by t h i s d i s p l a y of " s c i e n t i f i c " knowledge, Whitehead and North ignore the more p e r c e p t i v e comment of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e : "'My l i f e , [ s a i d Sasha] suddenly dropping the set-square, ' i s one b i g c o n f u s i o n . I t h i n k I'm e x p e r i e n c i n g too much. But f u n n i l y enough, noth i n g much happens'" ( B a i l 261). Indeed, f o r a l l the t o u r i s t s ' hungry consumption of ( d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d ) knowledge d u r i n g t h e i r t r a v e l s , they have not l e a r n e d v e r y much at a l l . I t i s the Russian guide on the f i n a l stage of t h e i r tour who best expresses t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between the hasty a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge and the gradual process of understanding: 'Travel has heightened your senses ... perhaps you are l e s s n a i v e ? ' He looked at each one of them, t a k i n g h i s time. 'But appearances, of events and t h i n g s seen around, are d e c e p t i v e . What can we b e l i e v e any more? What i s r e a l ? Appearances are not n e c e s s a r i l y exact. The appearance of -Continued-of Geometry" i n Whitehead's Essays i n Science and Philosophy (NY: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1948) 177-194; f o r the relevance of Whitehead's geometric t h e o r i e s t o B a i l , see a l s o Helen D a n i e l ' s chapter on B a i l i n L i a r s : A u s t r a l i a n New N o v e l i s t s (Ringwood: Penguin, 1987). 155 t h i n g s i s g e n e r a l l y a l i e ... where i s the t r u t h , the r e a l e x i s t e n c e of t h i n g s ? I n c r e a s i n g l y , the edges are b l u r r e d 1 . (310) L i k e Anna Dawe i n Badlands, the guide i m p l i e s t h a t there are no t r u t h s , only correspondences. The map i s a case i n p o i n t : a system of p o i n t s and l i n e s of connection, i t p r o v i d e s a d e c e p t i v e l y uniform appearance of r e a l i t y which, taken f o r the a b s o l u t e " t r u t h , " proves only the g u l l i b i l i t y of i t s p e r c e i v e r . The c o u n t e r p a r t to Biv and Z o e l l n e r 1 s shop, whose s u c c i n c t o u t s i d e s i g n : " D e f i n i t i o n s , Maps" i s i n s t a r k c o n t r a s t with i t s b e w i l d e r i n g l y profuse i n t e r i o r , i s t h e r e f o r e the ' u n c l a s s i f i e d ' museum at the end of the novel i n which the t o u r i s t s , p i e c i n g together the d e t a i l s of an incomplete mural, begin t o see themselves: "The words were being read aloud one by one, and they f o l l o w e d remaining squashed together before d i s i n t e g r a t i n g : s h o u l d e r - b l a d e s , ear, p e l v i s , heart, movement, elbow, nose, eyes, a i r , r i b cage, bladder, c i g a r e t t e , t r e e s , thorax, shoes, penis, shadow, p o s t c a r d s , memory, mountain" (317). The journey through geographical space i s thus converted i n t o an a t o m i z a t i o n of t e x t u a l space i n a process which suggests t h a t the ob s e s s i v e need t o d e f i n e o n e s e l f , one's c u l t u r e , or one's view of the world i s l e s s a symptom of c u l t u r a l f r a i l t y ("home-sickness") than of a naive b e l i e f i n the f i x i t y of l i n g u i s t i c o r i g i n s . Thus, once again, the map r e v e a l s a f f i n i t i e s w i t h the maze: both, suggests B a i l , are metaphors of apparent c o n t r o l based on an a u t h o r i t y which, always q u e s t i o n a b l e , may t u r n out i n the end to be demonstrably f a l s e . 156 In N i c h o l a s Hasluck's novel The B e l l a r m i n e Jug (1984), the a u t h o r i t y i n v e s t e d i n and expressed through the map i s c h a l l e n g e d w i t h i n the wider framework of an i n q u i r y i n t o the nature and p o t e n t i a l abuse of j u s t i c e . The novel recounts the involvement of law student Leon Davies i n a scandal which t h r e a t e n s the i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n of h i s c o l l e g e , the G r o t i u s I n s t i t u t e i n H o l l a n d . The scandal, l i n k e d at f i r s t t o the d i s c o v e r y of a document i m p l i c a t i n g the son of the o r i g i n a l G r o t i u s i n the v i o l e n t events surrounding the outbreak of the R o s i c r u c i a n c u l t i n the seventeenth-century South P a c i f i c , e s c a l a t e s i n t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e which, seeming i n i t i a l l y to i n v o l v e the o b f u s c a t i o n of Dutch i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y , t u r n s out i n the end to concern the p r o t e c t i o n of B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y s e c r e t s . Conducting h i s readers through a l a b y r i n t h of sub- and c o u n t e r p l o t s couched i n an e v a s i v e l e g a l i s t i c language designed to c o n c e a l , r a t h e r than r e v e a l , the " t r u t h , " Hasluck r e f e r s s e v e r a l times t o the f a l s e maps drawn up by seventeenth-century Dutch (and Portuguese) n a v i g a t o r s t o p r o t e c t t h e i r commercial i n t e r e s t s i n the New World. The l a b y r i n t h , a metaphor i n the novel f o r the m a n i p u l a t i v e misuse of the i n t e l l i g e n c e , operates i n tandem with the map, a l i t e r a l agent of p o l i t i c a l s u b t e r f u g e : both, suggests Hasluck, are a r t f u l l y designed c o n s t r u c t s which promise the t r u t h but do not n e c e s s a r i l y p rovide i t . Both, too, are analogues f o r the d i v e r s i o n a r y s t r a t e g i e s of the t e x t , i t s e l f an a r t f u l c o n s t r u c t designed to deceive the unwary 157 reader. As i n Homesickness, appearances l i e , and as the (Borgesian?) l i b r a r i a n Niesmann asks Leon: What i s the t r u t h when you have a m e l t i n g pot of c r o s s purposes? When people are a c t i n g s t r a n g e l y , d i s g u i s i n g t h e i r motives, th e r e i s probably one of the o l d unmentionables a t the bottom of i t a l l . Greed, perhaps. Sex. Lust f o r power. Whichever one i t i s w i l l be s k i l l f u l l y tucked out of s i g h t , b u r i e d beneath an avalanche of noble phrases. What would we b e l i e v e - the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n or the g l i n t i n the eye, the p l a u s i b l e words or the p e r p l e x i n g a c t , the s u r f a c e or the hidden t r u t h ? Perhaps you have the answer? (141) The q u e s t i o n , l i k e so many posed i n the novel, i s r h e t o r i c a l ; l i k e the examination q u e s t i o n : " J u s t i c e i s i n the i n t e r e s t s of the stronger p a r t y " (given t o Leon a t the G r o t i u s I n s t i t u t e and r e i t e r a t e d many years l a t e r d u r i n g the i n t e r r o g a t i o n which g i v e s r i s e to the r e c o n s t r u c t e d events of the novel) the i s s u e s may be d i s c u s s e d but not d e f i n i t i v e l y r e s o l v e d . Hasluck's c r i t i q u e of the a l l e g e d l y t r u t h - s e r v i n g l e g a l system i s paradigmatic of h i s wider d e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Western s i g n i f y i n g systems. As the a p p r o p r i a t e l y named l e c t u r e r at the G r o t i u s 18 I n s t i t u t e , Mondrian, e x e m p l i f i e s : "What makes a r u l e of law bin d i n g ? I t must belong to a system which i s e f f e c t i v e as a whole. The s t a t e i t s e l f i s merely a f i c t i o n . Puncture the i l l u s i o n and e v e r y t h i n g c o l l a p s e s " (219) . A system, The i l l u s i o n i s t geometric p a t t e r n s of Mondrian's p a i n t i n g s are of equal relevance to the d e c e p t i v e l y s t r u c t u r e d f i c t i o n s of B a i l and Murnane and to the " r e v i s i o n i s t cartography" of Bros s a r d and Campbell (see next c h a p t e r ) . 158 suggests Hasluck, i s an i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t , a t once a means of r a t i o n a l i z i n g (or p r o t e c t i n g ) one's views and a form of f a l s e consciousness. Maps and mazes, both e f f e c t i v e systems, a l s o nurture b r i t t l e i l l u s i o n s . L i k e many of h i s A u s t r a l i a n contemporaries, Hasluck i s aware of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the process of mapmaking and reading. In showing the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h i s process t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n (and de c o n s t r u c t i o n ) of f i c t i o n , Hasluck a l s o uses the p r i n c i p l e s of p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e l a t i v i t y to unmask i d e o l o g i e s of the "New World" (both Euro- and e t h n o c e n t r i c ) and to ponder t h e i r wider metaphysical i m p l i c a t i o n s . I have suggested t h a t a readi n g of the "new t e r r i t o r i e s " of Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n f i c t i o n may be informed by four modal con n e c t i o n s : f i r s t , t h a t between maps and men, i n which the map operates as a c o n s t r i c t i v e and/or c o e r c i v e device working w i t h i n the process of p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; second, t h a t between maps and myths, i n which the mythic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the map permits a c u l t u r a l l y l o c a t e d c r i t i q u e of h i s t o r i c a l v e r a c i t y ; t h i r d , t h a t between maps and dreams, i n which the map, co n s i d e r e d as a s e l f - s e r v i n g o n e i r i c c o n s t r u c t , i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the c r i t i q u e of the " c o l o n i a l unconscious," the unmasking of r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g i e s implemented i n the "di s c o v e r y of the New World," and the r e c u p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s of e t h n i c (and other m i n o r i t y ) groups i n p o s t - c o l o n i a l , m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s ; and f o u r t h , t h a t between maps and mazes, i n which the map, i d e n t i f i e d as a spurious d e f i n i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t , i s desystematized i n a process paradigmatic of the 159 t r a n s g r e s s i o n or d e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Western s i g n i f y i n g systems. The prevalence of the map topos i n contemporary w r i t i n g from Canada and A u s t r a l i a can be p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d by i t s u t i l i t y i n the c r i t i q u e of c u l t u r a l i m p e r i a l i s m and i n the p e r c e p t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of ethno- and/or p h a l l o c e n t r i c h i s t o r i e s of the New World. The connection between t e x t u a l and c u l t u r a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n much of the recent f i c t i o n suggests, however, t h a t the map i s not u s u a l l y employed as a metaphorical v e h i c l e f o r the r e c u p e r a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l ( p o s t - c o l o n i a l ) i d e n t i t y but, by c o n t r a s t , as a s e l f - p a r o d i c device i n the c r i t i q u e of p o l i t i c a l l y imposed and/or i m a g i n a t i v e l y conceived v e r s i o n s of c u l t u r a l c e n t r i s m . The c r i t i q u e of cent r i s m i m p l i c i t i n the c e n t r i f u g a l or l a t e r a l displacements of much contemporary Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n f i c t i o n takes a v a r i e t y of forms: t o g e n e r a l i z e , i n Anglo-Canadian w r i t i n g the tendency to move " o f f " the map by g r a v i t a t i n g towards, then i m a g i n a t i v e l y "beyond," g e o g r a p h i c a l l i m i t s i s complemented by the d e c e n t r i n g o p e r a t i o n s of r e g i o n a l w r i t i n g i n which the " r e g i o n , " i d e n t i f i e d as a l o c u s of ambiguity or i n s t a b i l i t y , i m p l i e s the n o t i o n of a movement "between" maps. In French-Canadian w r i t i n g , on the other hand (and I am r e f e r r i n g here p r i m a r i l y to the l i t e r a t u r e of Quebec) a s e r i e s of t a n g e n t i a l movements away from a designated, though f r e q u e n t l y ambiguous, c e n t r e (the pro v i n c e of Quebec, the c i t y of M o n t r e a l ) , a l l i e d t o a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s p a t i a l r e f e r e n c e s (America, Europe, the Or i e n t ) i m p l i e s a process of c u l t u r a l d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n e x e m p l i f i e d by the t r a n s g r e s s i o n or d i s s i p a t i o n of n a t i o n a l 160 boundaries. In A u s t r a l i a , the f i c t i o n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s e r i e s of d i s i n t e g r a t i v e or d i v e r s i o n a r y movements d e f l e c t i n g from an absent c e n t r e , i n v e r t i n g or t r a n s p o s i n g one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mythic p a t t e r n s of e a r l i e r w r i t i n g (by Hope, Stow, White e t c . ) , i n v o l v e s or i m p l i e s the c r i t i q u e of n a t i o n a l i s t ethnocentrism and i n d i c a t e s an impulse towards i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m r e i n f o r c e d by no t i o n s of t e r r i t o r i a l and p e r c e p t u a l readjustment. Despite these r e g i o n a l or n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , which are problematized by the w r i t e r s themselves, a common concern can be found i n contemporary Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i c t i o n , f o r the d e s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n of c a r t o g r a p h i c space and f o r the pro c l a m a t i o n of "new t e r r i t o r i e s " which debunk, d e s t a b i l i z e or transform assumed c a r t o g r a p h i c conventions. The new tendency towards g e o g r a p h i c a l / s t r u c t u r a l displacement i s a l l i e d t o an i n c r e a s i n g number of t e x t s which, drawing i n s p i r a t i o n from the French and L a t i n American "new n o v e l , " but adapting i t to t h e i r 19 own geo g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n and c u l t u r a l purposes, prob l e m a t i z e or d i s c r e d i t the n o t i o n s of l i n g u i s t i c and i c o n i c r e f e r e n t i a l i t y . T h i s suggests t h a t , rather than r e p h r a s i n g much-asked q u e s t i o n s of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , many contemporary See Helen D a n i e l ' s d i s c u s s i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of Latin-American f i c t i o n on the 'new novel' i n A u s t r a l i a ( i n L i a r s , op. c i t . ) ; a l s o Andre B e l l e a u , Le Romancier f i c t i f (Quebec: Les Presses de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e du Quebec, 1980) f o r an a p p l i c a t i o n of French nouveau roman theory to the development of the "new n o v e l " i n Quebec; and Michael Ondaatje's t r i b u t e to G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez i n F i g u r e s i n a Ground, ed. D. Bessai and D. J a c k e l (Saskatoon: Western Producer P r a i r i e Books, 1978) 19-31. 161 w r i t e r s i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a p r e f e r to concentrate on the semantic and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l , as w e l l as the c u l t u r a l p r o b l e m a t i c s of d e f i n i t i o n . Furthermore, the concern manifested by many of these w r i t e r s to d e f a m i l i a r i z e p h a l l o g o c e n t r i c New World myths i n d i c a t e s an a l l i a n c e , i f an u n c e r t a i n one, between the o p e r a t i o n s of t e x t u a l d e c o n s t r u c t i o n and those of c u l t u r a l d e c o l o n i z a t i o n ; o p e r a t i o n s , however, which do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e a p p r o p r i a t e or r e d e f i n e the p o s t - c o l o n i a l c u l t u r e but r a t h e r engage i n a kind of c o n t e s t a t o r y heterodoxy, an agenda of " t e r r i t o r i a l d i s p u t e s . " The f o l l o w i n g chapter, f o c u s s i n g on a number of t e x t s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r s p e c i f i c d r a m a t i z a t i o n of c a r t o g r a p h i c problems, e l a b o r a t e s some of these " d i s p u t e s . " The t e x t s should be read comparatively; f o r , along w i t h those I have d i s c u s s e d , a l b e i t b r i e f l y , i n t h i s chapter, others to which I have r e f e r r e d en passant, and s t i l l o thers I have omitted, they c o n s t i t u t e a nexus of i s s u e s which are c e n t r a l to the concerns of contemporary w r i t e r s i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a . Chapter Four TERRITORIAL DISPUTES T e r r i t o i r e , j e l ' h a b i t e r a i . (Robert Melancon) 163 (1) Mapbreakers Response and Mapmakers: L i t e r a r y Cartography and the Imaginative Response to P a t r i a r c h y ( i ) Transforming C a r t o g r a p h i c Space: G e o g r a p h i c a l L o c a t i o n and the T r a d i t i o n of D i s s i d e n c e I suggested p r e v i o u s l y that the prevalence of the map topos i n contemporary women's w r i t i n g i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a owes much to a p e r c e i v e d need t o r e v i s e , reformulate and, i n some cases, dismantle or d i s c a r d , s p a t i a l paradigms which have t r a d i t i o n a l l y served p a t r i a r c h a l c u l t u r e . So i t i s no s u r p r i s e to f i n d t h a t c r i t i c s of the Canadian l i t e r a t u r e s , such as Barbara Godard and Li n d a Hutcheon, and of the A u s t r a l i a n l i t e r a t u r e s , such as Dorothy Jones and Susan McKernan, use c a r t o g r a p h i c and other r e l a t e d s p a t i a l metaphors t o inform t h e i r s t u d i e s of contemporary women's w r i t i n g i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e countries." 1" Jones's c o r r e l a t i o n between mapmaking and mythmaking i n A u s t r a l i a n women's w r i t i n g , and Hutcheon's adoption of Audrey Thomas's metaphor of " s h a p e s h i f t i n g " t o account f o r the d e l i b e r a t e s l i p p a g e e f f e c t e d by many Canadian women w r i t e r s between p r e s c r i b e d d e f i n i t i o n s or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of genre and gender, exemplify the c o n t i n u i n g p a r t played by women w r i t e r s from both c o u n t r i e s i n a t r a d i t i o n of d i s s i d e n c e i n which women are moved to counteract t h e i r involvement i n Barbara Godard, "Mapmaking," i n G y n o c r i t i c s : 2:30; Lind a Hutcheon, "'Shape s h i f t e r s ' : Canadian Women N o v e l i s t s and the Challenge to T r a d i t i o n , " i n S. Neuman and S. Kamboureli, eds. A Mazing Space. Edmonton: Newest, 1986: 214-228; Dorothy Jones, "Mapping and Mythmaking: Women W r i t e r s and the A u s t r a l i a n Legend," A r i e l 17.4 (1986): 64-86; Susan McKernan, "Cr o s s i n g the Border: Regional W r i t i n g i n A u s t r a l i a , " Meani i n 38.2 (1979): 225-234. 164 systems of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t s u b j e c t them to a d i s c o u r s e of 2 male a u t h o r i t y . The map i s an apt metaphor to i l l u s t r a t e both the r e a l i t y of p a t r i a r c h a l modes of a u t h o r i t y and the f a c t i c i t y with which the knowledge t h a t they disseminate i s co n s t r u c t e d as i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e " t r u t h . " In t h i s sense, the dual n o t i o n of mapbreaking/mapmaking can be p e r c e i v e d not only as a common metaphorical p r a c t i c e w i t h i n s p e c i f i c t e x t s w r i t t e n by Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n women but as an a p p r o p r i a t e c r i t i c a l paradigm f o r the general s t a t e of women's w r i t i n g i n both c o u n t r i e s . Such g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , of course, are p o t e n t i a l l y m i s l e a d i n g , o v e r l o o k i n g as they do the p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l circumstances out of which i n d i v i d u a l t e x t s a r i s e and i n which i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r s operate. Moreover, the attempt t o l o c a t e a t r a d i t i o n of d i s s i d e n c e i n Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n women's w r i t i n g g l o s s e s over s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c u l t u r e and i n the c o n s t i t u t e d p o s i t i o n of women w i t h i n t h a t c u l t u r e . So w h i l e i t would be f a i r to say that a l a r g e number of A u s t r a l i a n women w r i t e r s , l i k e t h e i r Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t s , are r e s i s t a n t t o t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n the h i s t o r y of p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the nature of t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n (which i n t u r n determines the nature of t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e ) d i f f e r s from c u l t u r e to c u l t u r e and from stage to stage of each c u l t u r e ' s h i s t o r i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Cf. Kay S c h a f f e r . Women and the Bush. (Melbourne: CUP, 1988), esp. Ch. One. 165 A few general comments can be made nonetheless. In A u s t r a l i a , a t r a d i t i o n of m i l i t a n t m a s c u l i n i t y has not only n e c e s s i t a t e d a r e a c t i o n of female d i s s i d e n c e but, u n t i l r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y , has a l s o produced a marked discrepancy between the a c t u a l output and the p e r c e i v e d impact of w r i t i n g by women. I t may w e l l have taken the recent ongoing c r i t i q u e of A u s t r a l i a n n a t i o n a l i s m to t r i g g e r a reev a l u a t o n of the cu r r e n t s t a t e of women's w r i t i n g , of i t s p l a c e w i t h i n - or, more u s u a l l y , a g a i n s t - p r e v i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d t r a d i t i o n s , and of i t s v i a b i l i t y w i t h i n the academic i n s t i t u t i o n as w e l l as the p u b l i c marketplace. I t i s c e r t a i n l y true t h a t women's w r i t i n g i n A u s t r a l i a has only emerged r e c e n t l y from i t s "appointed" p l a c e i n the shadows of a s e l f - p r i v i l e g i n g male t r a d i t i o n . The same co u l d not be s a i d , however, of women's w r i t i n g i n Canada, which has enjoyed a high p r o f i l e throughout i t s l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y , i f not always the h i s t o r y of i t s c r i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . A f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n needs t o be made here between women's w r i t i n g i n E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Canada, where the m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s a f f o r d e d by a v a r i e t y of r e g i o n a l components have produced a nexus of l i t e r a t u r e s which elude or problem a t i z e homogeneous c a t e g o r i e s and t h e r e f o r e l e n d themselves more e a s i l y t o the c r i t i q u e of p a t r i a r c h a l c o n s t r a i n t s , and women's w r i t i n g i n French-speaking Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y Quebec, where the j e a l o u s p r o t e c t i o n of a c u l t u r e o f t e n p e r c e i v e d by i t s more powerful neighbours as "minor" or i n s u b s t a n t i a l , the c l o s e k n i t t i e s between church and l a n d i n a 3 166 predominantly a g r a r i a n s o c i e t y , and the enclosed, even p a r o c h i a l nature of th a t s o c i e t y , have arguably f a c i l i t a t e d the p e r p e t u a t i o n of narrowly d e f i n e d p a t r i a r c h a l v a l u e s which demand a more concerted, and i n some cases v i r u l e n t , r e s i s t a n c e to male domination. Despite these d i f f e r e n c e s , a f r u i t f u l comparison can be made between the v a r i o u s ways i n which women w r i t e r s i n A u s t r a l i a have reac t e d a g a i n s t the feminine p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the bush as a p a s s i v e or a l i e n element t o be subdued, mastered and domesticated, and the r e c a s t i n g of the w i l d e r n e s s i n Canadian women's w r i t i n g not as a p r o j e c t i o n of male f e a r s of or d e s i r e s f o r an unknown "other" but as a "symbolic space f o r e x p l o r a t i o n of the unknown regions of the female s e l f " (Howells 17). I suggested before t h a t the p r o j e c t i o n of male f e a r s and d e s i r e s onto the land i s o f t e n r e f l e c t e d i n the language of geog r a p h i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n . The parody of e x p l o r e r s ' j o u r n a l s and other w r i t i n g s drawing i m a g i n a t i v e l y on the geog r a p h i c a l " d i s c o v e r y " of A u s t r a l i a i n contemporary f i c t i o n by Murnane, Carey and other male w r i t e r s i l l u s t r a t e s a recent tendency i n the A u s t r a l i a n l i t e r a t u r e s t o c h a l l e n g e n a t i o n a l i s t i c n o t i o n s of conquest and containment, yet t h i s c h a l l e n g e i s taken f u r t h e r , and i n some cases r e d i r e c t e d , by women w r i t e r s such as Garner and A s t l e y , f o r whom the map f u n c t i o n s as a symbol of p a t r i a r c h a l a u t h o r i t y as w e l l as an emblem of n a t i o n a l a l l e g i a n c e and whose c r i t i q u e of the f a l s e l y homogenizing p r i n c i p l e s of c a r t o g r a p h i c d i s c o u r s e allows them to view the map i n terms other than those of a male d e s i r e f o r 167 i d e n t i t y and a u t h o r i t y . In Canada, women w r i t e r s have a l s o undertaken t o w r i t e male "pioneer" myths from t h e i r own p o i n t of view and to reformulate the map topos i n t o terms which favour the t e r r i t o r i a l i t y of female i m a g i n a t i v e space. C o r a l Ann Howells, f o r example, has drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the a p p r o p r i a t i o n by Canadian women w r i t e r s of the w i l d e r n e s s as a "symbol of unmapped t e r r i t o r y t o be transformed through w r i t i n g i n t o female i m a g i n a t i v e space" (15). But as I showed i n my e a r l i e r a n a l y s i s of exemplary "wilderness t e x t s " such as Atwood's S u r f a c i n g and E n g e l 1 s Bear, the f e m i n i s t c r i t i q u e of cartography as a symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p a t r i a r c h a l a u t h o r i t y does not n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of women wit h the unmapped t e r r i t o r i e s of the w i l d e r n e s s ; i n s t e a d , the a r t i c u l a t i o n of spaces between p r e s c r i b e d d i s c o u r s e s , such as p a t r i a r c h y , and d i s c u r s i v e formations, such as the map, encodes women's w r i t i n g as a set of i n t e r v e n t i o n a r y s t r a t e g i e s designed both to undermine the dominance of p a t r i a r c h a l d i s c o u r s e and to av o i d the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of women with any one set of c u l t u r a l or a e s t h e t i c standards. T h i s evasiveness p r o b l e m a t i z e s Howells's t h e s i s t h a t the w i l d e r n e s s has represented a " c o n d i t i o n of p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the emergence of Canadian women w r i t e r s " (11). But the problem r e s i d e s l e s s i n the n o t i o n of female i m a g i n a t i v e space per se than i n the c o n d i t i o n s which govern i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . So i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o combat the p o l i t i c s of p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , Canadian women w r i t e r s have c r i t i c a l l y reexamined r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g i e s a l l i e d t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of woman-as-other not 168 so much as a means of c r e a t i n g and guarding t h e i r own ima g i n a t i v e space but rather as a means of r e g i s t e r i n g t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e t o and d i s s o c i a t i o n from the s t a s i s c o n f e r r e d upon them by p a t r i a r c h y . Hence t h e i r c e n t r a l concern w i t h the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , m o b i l i z a t i o n and d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n of re g u l a t e d c a r t o g r a p h i c space through which a displacement of p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d codes governing the p r o d u c t i o n of c u l t u r e and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of women w i t h i n t h a t c u l t u r e p a r a d o x i c a l l y ensures t h e i r own p l a c e w i t h i n a t r a d i t i o n of d i s s i d e n c e . ( i i ) M o b i l i z i n g C a r t o g r a p h i c Space: Geographic R e l o c a t i o n and the M o d i f i c a t i o n of Genre and Gender. One way i n which contemporary women w r i t e r s i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a have r a l l i e d a g a i n s t the s t r i c t u r e s of p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s through a s h i f t of emphasis i n t h e i r w r i t i n g from r u r a l s e t t i n g s i n which women have t r a d i t i o n a l l y p l a y e d a subordinate r o l e to urban l o c a t i o n s i n which the c i t y i s envisaged both as a s i t e of r a d i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y and as an 3 e n e r g i z i n g f o r c e i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of female s e x u a l i t y . T h i s s h i f t i s most n o t i c e a b l e i n contemporary women's w r i t i n g from Quebec i n which a shared awarenes on the p a r t of women w r i t e r s t h a t the Quebec c o u n t r y s i d e has been "an u n e q u i v o c a l l y p a t r i a r c h a l space" (Gould 6) has motivated the r e l o c a t i o n of many of t h e i r t e x t s from an i m p l i c i t l y "outdated" r u r a l to a Cf. Karen Gould, " S p a t i a l P o e t i c s , S p a t i a l P o l i t i c s : Quebec Fe m i n i s t s on the C i t y and the Co u n t r y s i d e , " American Review of  Canadian S t u d i e s 12.1 (1982): 1-9. 169 demonstrably "modern" urban s e t t i n g . In the work of N i c o l e Brossard, f o r example, a connection between the a r t e r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of urban topography and the o r g a n i c composition of the female body a s s o c i a t e s the v i b r a n t energy of the c i t y with the e r o t i c i s m of the body/text. But t h i s connection remains ambivalent; f o r i f the c i t y p r o v i d e s a source of l i b i d i n a l energy, i t a l s o f r u s t r a t e s and c o n s t r a i n s : the t o p o g r a p h i c a l map emerges as a c e n t r a l metaphor f o r the r e g u l a t e d p a t t e r n s of confinement and e x c l u s i o n which r e s t r i c t or d i s a l l o w female s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . Yet, although the map i s employed p r i m a r i l y as a metaphor f o r p a t r i a r c h a l c o e r c i o n , i t may a l s o be employed as a metaphor f o r the a r t i c u l a t o n of " l i b e r a t e d " female experience. So w h i l e Brossard negates the map as a two-dimensional r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l device through her employment i n experimental t e x t s such as P i c t u r e theory (1981) of a f i c t i o n a l technique which r e p l a c e s two-dimensional c a r t o g r a p h i c r e f l e c t i o n w i t h three-dimensional h o l o g r a p h i c r e f r a c t i o n , she a l s o transforms the map i n t o an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n f i g u r a t i o n -the s p i r a l - whose f u n c t i o n no longer c o n s i s t s i n the symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an impersonal environment but rather i n the embodiment and enactment of ( i n t e r ) p e r s o n a l experience. "Ma v i e p r i v g e , " says the n a r r a t o r of P i c t u r e theory, "est une c a r t e sph£rique d 1 i n f l u e n c e s e t de p o i n t s de rencontre, e l l e tourne autour de l a langue comme hypothese et f i l t r e du q u o t i d i e n f i c t i f et t h ^ o r i q u e " (Brossard 107). The map, i n t h i s sense, does not purport to represent the " r e a l " w o r l d ; i t i s p r i m a r i l y a h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t . I t i s a l s o a l i n g u i s t i c 170 c o n s t r u c t , but language i s not put i n t o the s e r v i c e here of r e f l e c t i n g r e a l i t y (as i n the r e f e r e n t i a l i l l u s i o n of mimetic a r t ) ; i t c r e a t e s r a t h e r a new kind of r e a l i t y which, breaking down e s t a b l i s h e d b a r r i e r s or at l e a s t b l u r r i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l o u t l i n e s between the " r e a l " and the " f i c t i o n a l , " l o c a t e s i t s e l f i n the in t e r m e d i a r y domain of " l e fictif-th£orique." T h i s domain i m p l i e s a connection on the p a r t of Brossard (among other p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n Quebec of ' e c r i t u r e feminine') between the e x p r e s s i o n of a f e m i n i s t p o e t i c s and the sub v e r s i o n of "standard" l i t e r a r y modes and conventions which are p e r c e i v e d t o have played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the p e r p e t u a t i o n of p a t r i a r c h a l c u l t u r e . So Brossard's " s p h e r i c a l map" not only operates as a v i s u a l analogue f o r the changing p a t t e r n s and connections of female experience but as a c a t a l y s t f o r the d i s r u p t i o n of ' f i x e d ' p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of genre and 4 gender. The range of ge o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s , m o b i l i t y of c h a r a c t e r s , and above a l l extreme v o l a t i l i t y of language i n Brossard's t e x t f u r t h e r demonstrates her chall e n g e to the s t a s i s she a s s o c i a t e s with p a t r i a r c h a l modes of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . See L o u i s e F o r s y t h , " D e s t r u c t u r i n g Formal Space/Acceler-a t i n g Motion i n the Work of N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , " i n S. Neuman and S. Kamboureli, eds. A Mazing Space: 334-344. A d i f f e r e n t kind of d e / r e s t r u c t u r a t i o n of 'formal space' i s c a r r i e d out i n Louky B e r s i a n i k ' s novel Le Pigue-nique sur l ' A c r o p o l e (Montreal: VLB, 1979), i n which the l a t e r a l space c o n v e n t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Western w r i t i n g i s converted i n t o a s e r i e s of i r r e g u l a r , v e r t i -c a l spaces. By i n t e r p o l a t i n g a s e r i e s of unstable geometric c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n t o her t e x t , B e r s i a n i k i m p l i c i t l y d i s r u p t s the s t a t i c g r i d of c a r t o g r a p h i c space, c r e a t i n g i n i t s stead an a l t e r n a t i v e s p a t i a l t r a j e c t o r y which allows f o r change and movement and thus accommodates i t s e l f to the rhythms of the female body/text. 171 B r o s s a r d 1 s emphasis on p a t t e r n s of f u s i o n and s y n e r g e t i c i n t e r a c t i o n a l l o w s her both to a f f i r m the joy of p h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n and to open up new f i g u r a l t e r r i t o r i e s f o r the i n s c r i p t i o n of womanhood. But as I suggested, these new t e r r i t o r i e s do not e n t a i l a r e j e c t i o n of the map paradigm; they i l l u s t r a t e r a ther the a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s which a r i s e when the map i s allowed ( l i k e the sphere) t o a c q u i r e an unforeseen t h i r d dimension and ( l i k e the hologram) t o negate i t s p r e v i o u s l y two-dimensional r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n . In t h i s way, i n s t e a d of r e i n f o r c i n g the p a t r i a r c h a l system, the map i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y made to d e s t a b i l i z e i t . The s p i r a l p r o j e c t i o n s and d e f l e c t e d p r i s m a t i c p a t t e r n s of the s p h e r i c a l h o l o g r a p h i c a l map d i s p l a c e the two-dimensional contours and s t a t i c r e c t i l i n e a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of the 'standard' ( p a t r i a r c h a l ) map; by a c q u i r i n g a t h i r d dimension, the map permits a freedom of movement which a f f o r d s new p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the achievement and c e l e b r a t o r y e x p r e s s i o n of female l i b e r a t i o n . A r ather d i f f e r e n t approach to the map metaphor i s taken by the Anglo-Canadian w r i t e r Margaret Atwood, whose e a r l i e r novel S u r f a c i n g I d i s c u s s e d i n a previous chapter. D i f f e r e n t , because Atwood i s l e s s concerned w i t h the e x p r e s s i o n of 'female w r i t i n g * ( e c r i t u r e feminine) than with the e x e r c i s e of f e m i n i s t 5 c r i t i q u e ; thus although, l i k e Brossard, she seeks to c h a l l e n g e the s t a t u s of the map as a symbol of p a t r i a r c h a l Cf. Louise M i l o t , "Margaret Atwood et N i c o l e B r o s s a r d : l a q u e s t i o n de l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , " V o i x et images 11.1 (1985): 56-63. 172 a u t h o r i t y , her emphasis i s on the c r i t i q u e of e x i s t i n g conventions r a t h e r than on the establishment of a new female a e s t h e t i c . Atwood's r e v i s i o n i s t d y s t o p i a n s a t i r e The Handmaid's  T a l e (1985) i s a case i n p o i n t ; f o r as i n the novel from which i t draws much of i t s i n s p i r a t i o n , Orwell's 1984, a f u t u r i s t i c urban s e t t i n g becomes the focus f o r an a t t a c k on p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the contemporary western world. As i n S u r f a c i n g , Atwood employs the map as a metaphor f o r the combined s t r a t e g i e s of p a t r i a r c h a l s e l f - a u t h o r i z a t i o n . T h i s i n v o l v e s , as i n Brossard's t e x t , a c o n t r a s t between the r e c t i l i n e a r p a t t e r n s of urban topography and the c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n s of female b i o l o g y . But whereas Brossard m o b i l i z e s c a r t o g r a p h i c space through her t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the map topos i n t o terms which accommodate the contours and rhythms of the female body, Atwood envisages c a r t o g r a p h i c space p r i m a r i l y as a l o c u s of r e s t r i c t i o n and enforcement. The c i t y - s t a t e of G i l e a d i n The Handmaid's T a l e i s duly p e r c e i v e d as a s i t e of c o n t i n u a l p a t r i a r c h a l o p p r e s s i o n r a t h e r than one of eventual female l i b e r a t i o n . I r o n i c a l l y compared to a model town "c o n s t r u c t e d t o show the way people used to l i v e " (23), G i l e a d a s p i r e s to p e r f e c t i o n at the expense of s p o n t a n e i t y and intimacy. I t i s l i k e a map, but r a t h e r than one which i s t e s t e d a g a i n s t r e a l i t y , i t i s one which i s imposed upon r e a l i t y . T h i s a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e towards the a p p r o p r i a t i o n , a l l o c a t i o n and s u r v e i l l a n c e of space i s borne out i n the t o t a l i t a r i a n regime of G i l e a d , where the i m p o s i t i o n and maintenance of a s e r i e s of s t r i c t l y d e f i n e d s p a t i a l 173 h i e r a r c h i e s confirm the p r e l o c a t e d a u t h o r i t y of i t s t h e o c r a t i c e l i t e . G i l e a d , moreover, corresponds both to a s t a t e of p h y s i o l o g i c a l c l a u s t r a t i o n and of p s y c h o l o g i c a l f r u s t r a t i o n , so t h a t the n a r r a t o r , doubly trapped w i t h i n the w a l l s of the c i t y and w i t h i n the s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d parameters of her own body, i s l e f t seeking d e s p e r a t e l y "some space . . . th a t I can c l a i m as mine" (47). St a k i n g her own t e r r i t o r y a g a i n s t the imposed design of the map, she seeks a new, l i b e r a t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e which might r e l e a s e her from the im p r i s o n i n g v i s i o n of "[her] own s k i n l i k e a map, a diagram of f u t i l i t y , c r i s s c r o s s e d w i t h t i n y roads t h a t l e a d nowhere" (135). As i n Brossard*s t e x t , t h i s new p e r s p e c t i v e i n v o l v e s the reassessment of genre as w e l l as gender. But whereas Brossard works towards the establishment of a new "female genre" which l i b e r a t e s i t s e l f from p a t r i a r c h a l modes of ( l i t e r a r y ) r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , Atwood r e l i e s on a t u r n i n g of p a t r i a r c h a l t r a d i t i o n s and conventions a g a i n s t themselves through the combined e f f e c t s of i r o n y , s a t i r e and p a s t i c h e . The r e s u l t i s a m u l t i - l a y e r e d t e x t i n which no s i n g l e p e r s p e c t i v e or v e r s i o n i s allowed t o dominate; as i f to pro v i d e an i r o n i c r e j o i n d e r to the convenor of the G i l e a d Research A s s o c i a t i o n , who pronounces the Gi l e a d e a n p e r i o d of h i s t o r y " r e s p o n s i b l e . . f o r redrawing the map of the world" (281), the handmaid's t a l e p r o v i d e s n e i t h e r a comprehensive " f i r s t - h a n d " account nor a r e l i a b l e h i s t o r i c a l document but a co n c a t e n a t i o n of s t o r i e s and events which undercut e s s e n t i a l i s t n o t i o n s of "coherence" and " v e r a c i t y . " 174 Inherent, then, i n Atwood's c r i t i q u e of the map i n The  Handmaid's T a l e i s a r e c o g n i t i o n not j u s t of the u n r e l i a b i l i t y of a l l accounts of the h i s t o r i c a l past but of the i n e v i t a b l e b i a s behind them. The n a r r a t o r r e a l i z e s t h i s , d e s c r i b i n g her t a l e as a l l a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . . . i t ' s i m p o s s i b l e to say a t h i n g e x a c t l y the way i t was, because what you say can never be exact, you always have to l e a v e something out, there are too many p a r t s , s i d e s , c r o s s c u r r e n t s , nuances, too many shapes which can never be f u l l y d e s c r i b e d . (126) But the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t there can be no a c c u r a t e r e c o r d of the past, only a s e r i e s of p a r t i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , need not be d e b i l i t a t i n g ; f o r as the n a r r a t o r r e c a l l s of the p re-Gileadean days when newspapers were s t i l l a v a i l a b l e , "we l i v e d i n the blank white spaces at the edges of p r i n t . I t gave us more freedom . . . we l i v e d i n the gaps between the s t o r i e s " (53). T h i s memory of i n h a b i t i n g the "spaces between" connects the n a r r a t o r s of The Handmaid's T a l e and of S u r f a c i n g ; but the f u r t h e r connection i n Atwood's more recent t e x t between the i m p r i s o n i n g d e f i n i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s of the map and the i n h e r e n t l y l i m i t i n g conventions of the book i n d i c a t e s a pragmatic, r a t h e r than a Utopian, outlook on the m a r g i n a l i z e d p o s i t i o n of women, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y of women w r i t e r s , i n contemporary western s o c i e t y . A c o n t r a s t can be made here between the stances of Atwood's and Brossard's n a r r a t o r s : the former, r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t her f i c t i o n can do no more than r e c o n s t r u c t a l r e a d y " e s t a b l i s h e d " ( p a t r i a r c h a l ) convention, 175 t u r n s her a t t e n t i o n to d i s r u p t i n g these from w i t h i n ; the l a t t e r employs Utopian r h e t o r i c to p r o c l a i m a new "female genre" which d i s s o c i a t e s i t s e l f from the ( p a t r i a r c h a l ) p a s t . 6 Atwood*s and Brossard's d i s s i m i l a r s p a t i a l p o e t i c s (the one d e / r e c o n s t r u c t i v e i n form and pragmatic i n outlook; the other o r g a n i c i n form and Utopian i n outlook) nonetheless converge i n the attempt to m o b i l i z e and r e a l i g n c a r t o g r a p h i c space i n ways which d i s r u p t and transform a s p a t i a l paradigm p e r c e i v e d as i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n and reinforcement of p a t r i a r c h a l a u t h o r i t y . T h i s process of m o b i l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s both the geographical r e l o c a t i o n of the t e x t from a t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l to a modern urban s e t t i n g and the attempt to formulate an a e s t h e t i c which d i s p l a c e s e s t a b l i s h e d l i t e r a r y c o n v e n t i o n s (as i n Atwood's s u b v e r s i v e j u x t a p o s i t i o n of U t o p i a n 7 and p a s t o r a l modes) or which views standard l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s such as c h a r a c t e r , s e t t i n g and p l o t i n terms of a v o l a t i l e f i s s i o n / f u s i o n of c o n s t i t u e n t bundles of energy (Brossard's experimental " p h y s i c s " of w r i t i n g ) . Cf. the r h e t o r i c of Cixous's "Le R i r e de l a m£duse," L'Arc (1975) 39-54. 7 Cf. Atwood's Utopian s a t i r e (Gilead) and a n t i - p a s t o r a l (Serena Joy's garden). Note a l s o t h a t Atwood's a n t i - p a s t o r a l r e f l e c t s i r o n i c a l l y on the e a r l i e r r u r a l i d y l l s of Connor and Buckler, h i g h l i g h t i n g the l i n k i n both of these t e x t s between a c e l e b r a t i o n of the l a n d and a j u s t i f i c a t i o n of female subservience. So w h i l e , i n The Handmaid's T a l e , a s u b s c r i p t i o n to the " i d e a l community" of the c i t y i s exposed as one f r a u d u l e n t myth, the r e t u r n to "simple country v a l u e s " i s exposed as another. By debunking both myths, Atwood i n d i c a t e s her d i s s o c i a t i o n from - i f not her d e s t r u c t i o n of - the p a t r i a r c h a l l i t e r a r y systems which continue to d i c t a t e the r o l e of women i n Western s o c i e t i e s , and thus r e s t r i c t t h e i r freedom. 1 7 6 ( i i i ) D e t e r r i t o r i a l i z i n g C a r t o g r a p h i c Space: G e o g r a p h i c a l D i s l o c a t i o n and the A e s t h e t i c s of Evasion. A s i m i l a r s et of geographic and a e s t h e t i c r e l o c a t i o n s can be d i s c e r n e d i n contemporary women's w r i t i n g i n A u s t r a l i a . Probably the most n o t i c e a b l e s h i f t s i n the recent p e r i o d have been t o " f o r e i g n " or i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s (d'Alpuget's Indonesia, C o r b e t t ' s Japan, Farmer's Greece) and to r e d e f i n i t i o n s of the "p e r i p h e r y " (the d e f a m i l i a r i z e d " r e g i o n s " of A s t l e y and J o l l e y , the m y t h i c i z e d "suburbs" of Hanrahan). The de- or r e t e r r i t o r i a l i z i n g impulses in h e r e n t i n these new or r e d e f i n e d l o c a t i o n s suggest t h a t i t i s a primary concern of many contemporary women w r i t e r s i n A u s t r a l i a to d i s s o c i a t e themselves from the ( i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y ) p a t r i a r c h a l geography of pre v i o u s A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g and to f a s h i o n new t e r r i t o r i e s more s u i t e d t o the e x p l o r a t i o n and a r t i c u l a t i o n of female experience. The c l e a r e s t i n s t a n c e s of a d e / r e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n of what I have p r e v i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o as " c a r t o g r a p h i c space" (that i s t o say, the r e g u l a t e d space(s) of a b s t r a c t g e o g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) are i n experimental f i c t i o n s w r i t t e n about g experiences of e x p a t r i a t i o n or m i g r a t i o n , o f t e n by w r i t e r s who I am using here H a l l v a r d D a h l i e ' s d i s t i n c t i o n between e x i l e as "a [more] permanent c o n d i t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s l o c a t i o n , a l i e n a t i o n , and d i s p o s s e s s i o n " (Dahlie 4) and e x p a t r i a t i o n as a "temporary absence from the homeland, u s u a l l y motivated by the b e l i e f t h at c e r t a i n p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r l i v i n g or f o r a r t are more f a v o u r a b l e elsewhere" (Dahlie 5 ) . But as D a h l i e p o i n t s out, the two terms are- o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , c r e a t i n g , as the Canadian w r i t e r Mavis G a l l a n t says, a number of " v a r i e t i e s of e x i l e . " With t h i s caveat, my main d i s t i n c t i o n here i s a conceptual one between the e n f o r c e d l i m i t a t i o n s of a c o l o n i a l i s t "cartography of e x i l e " based on the s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n of "Old World" v a l u e s onto the "New 177 are themselves e x p a t r i a t e s (Janette Turner H o s p i t a l ) or migrants (Anna Couani) , or by w r i t e r s who have spent e x t e n s i v e p e r i o d s of t h e i r l i v e s abroad (Marion Campbell). A f r u i t f u l comparison can be made, f o r example, between two novels by H o s p i t a l and Campbell which draw an analogy between the p h y s i c a l and emotional experience of d i s l o c a t i o n and the conceptual displacement of p a t r i a r c h a l a e s t h e t i c s . Thus, i n H o s p i t a l ' s B o r d e r l i n e and Campbell's L i n e s of F l i g h t , both w r i t t e n i n 1985, the e f f o r t s of a young female p r o t a g o n i s t to a s s e r t h e r s e l f i n a male-dominated a r t world run p a r a l l e l with the search f o r a p i c t o r i a l s t y l e which breaks f r e e from the s t r i c t u r e s of mimetic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The i r r e g u l a r composition of both t e x t s i n d i c a t e s a f u r t h e r connection between the p i c t o r i a l and the f i c t i o n a l ; f o r H o s p i t a l and Campbell are themselves a r t i s t s i n search of a s t y l e which might enable them to combat the empowering c a t e g o r i e s of the p a t r i a r c h a l system and to a s s e r t t h e i r own h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c forms of n a r r a t i v e expressionism. In both novels, the search i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s p e r s a l : World" environment (see my l a t e r comments on Robert S e l l i c k ' s term) and the new " r h e t o r i c a l spaces" opened up by f i c t i o n a l i z e d e x p eriences of e x p a t r i a t i o n or m i g r a t i o n which e f f e c t a d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n of r e g u l a t e d " c a r t o g r a p h i c space" and a consequent d e s t a b i l i z a t i o n of the p r e l o c a t e d a u t h o r i t a r i a n d i s c o u r s e s which support i t . On the f u r t h e r connection between d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n and women's w r i t i n g , see Caren Kaplan, " D e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n s : The R e w r i t i n g of Home and E x i l e i n Western Feminist D i s c o u r s e , " C u l t u r a l C r i t i q u e 6 (1989): 187-198. For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s of the concept of e x i l e and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the (post) c o l o n i a l w r i t e r , see Andrew Gurr, W r i t e r s i n E x i l e ( B r i g h t o n : Harvester Press, 1981); George Lamming, The Plea s u r e s of E x i l e (NY: A l l i s o n and Busby, 1984); J.P. Matthews, T r a d i t i o n i n E x i l e (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1962) . 178 s p a t i a l m o t i f s of t r a n s g r e s s i o n and/or d i s l o c a t i o n underscore the c e n t r a l p i c t o r i a l motif of a non-mimetic canvas which b l u r s c o n v e n t i o n a l boundaries between the ' r e a l ' and the ' f i c t i o n a l ' and d i v e r g e s from the standard forms and s t e r e o t y p e s i n v e s t e d i n p a t r i a r c h a l modes of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The d e l i g h t taken by F e l i c i t y - ( i n B o r d e r l i n e ) and R i t a F i n n e r t y ( i n L i n e s of F l i g h t ) i n s u b v e r t i n g " s e t " a r t i s t i c p a t t e r n s and i n c r o s s i n g r e a l or imaginary g e o g r a p h i c a l borders marks them out as "mapbreakers" r a t h e r than "mapmakers," as c h a l l e n g e r s t o the "standard" r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of p a t r i a r c h a l space. But t o see t h e i r r o l e as p u r e l y d i s r u p t i v e would be m i s l e a d i n g . For, as the French p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t s G i l l e s Deleuze and F e l i x G u a t t a r i have argued, the n o t i o n of the map does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply l i m i t a t i o n ; on the c o n t r a r y , l a c a r t e e s t ouverte, e l l e est connectable dans t o u t e s ses dimensions, demontable, r e n v e r s a b l e , s u s c e p t i b l e de r e c e v o i r constamment des m o d i f i c a t i o n s . E l l e peut e t r e dechir£e, s'adapter a des montages de toute nature; e t r e mise en c h a r t i e r par un i n d i v i d u , un groupe, une formation s o c i a l e . On peut l a d e s s i n e r sur un mur, l a concevoir comme une oeuvre d ' a r t , l a c o n s t r u i r e comme une a c t i o n p o l i t i q u e ou comme une me d i t a t i o n . (Deleuze and G u a t t a r i 20). Accordi n g t o Deleuze and G u a t t a r i , maps f a s h i o n space i n terms of " t e r r i t o r i a l segmentation," (*segmantarite'), ' g e n e r a l i z e d overcoding', ('surcodage general') and ' d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z i n g l i n e s of f l i g h t ' ( ' lignes de f u i t e s ' ) . But s i n c e these three d i f f e r e n t kinds of maps are a l l i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , Deleuze and G u a t t a r i concede t h a t "C'est p l u t 6 t comme un espace ou c o e x i s t e n t l e s t r o i s s o r t e s de l i g n e s e t r o i t e m e n t melees" (Deleuze and G u a t t a r i 271). T h i s i s the space occupied by what Deleuze and G u a t t a r i c a l l the rhizome, which, l i k e the map, 179 t r a c e s back t o p r i n c i p l e s of he t e r o g e n e i t y and m u l t i p l e connection/ d i s c o n n e c t i o n . The m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of H o s p i t a l ' s and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , Campbell's t e x t s c l e a r l y demonstrates these " r h i z o m a t i c " impulses. But u n l i k e other " r h i z o m a t i c " t e x t s I analyzed i n p r e v i o u s chapters (notably B a i l l i e ' s Les Voyants and B a i l ' s Homesickness), H o s p i t a l ' s and Campbell's t e x t s make s p e c i f i c use of Deleuze and G u a t t a r i ' s model to a r t i c u l a t e a f e m i n i s t cartography which, d i s s o c i a t i n g i t s e l f from the "overcoded" spaces of p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n , subsequently produces through i t s ' d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z i n g l i n e s of f l i g h t ' an a l t e r n a t i v e map c h a r a c t e r i z e d not by the containment or regi m e n t a t i o n of space but by a s e r i e s of c e n t r i f u g a l displacements. The " r e v i s i o n i s t cartography" of H o s p i t a l ' s t e x t f ocuses on her d i s c u s s i o n of the n o t i o n of the border. At borders, says the n a r r a t o r i n h i s pr e f a c e to the novel, "no amount of p r i o r p l a n n i n g w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y a v a i l . The law of boundaries a p p l i e s . In the nature of t h i n g s , c o n t r o l i s not i n the hands of the t r a v e l l e r " (1). So w h i l e the v a r i o u s t r a v e l l e r s , refugees and o u t s i d e r s who make up the unusual c a s t of B o r d e r l i n e a l l share a d e s i r e to escape one or another form of s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l , i n each case the "law of boundaries" a p p l i e s : a l l e g i a n c e s s h i f t and reform unexpectedly, and the c h a r a c t e r s , moving between a s e r i e s of r e a l and imaginary l o c a t i o n s , have no c l e a r sense of where they belong. The border, i n f a c t , i s a p a r a d o x i c a l concept; so although the p r o t a g o n i s t F e l i c i t y i s trapped w i t h i n the • b o r d e r l i n e s ' of male f a n t a s y (her l o v e r Seymour's p a i n t i n g s , 180 the n a r r a t o r Jean-Marc's f i c t i o n ) , those very g e o g r a p h i c a l , p i c t o r i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l " b o r d e r l i n e s " i n the novel which symbolize a p a t r i a r c h a l l y motivated attempt t o enclose and r e g u l a t e experience p a r a d o x i c a l l y suggest openness, u n c e r t a i n t y , r e s i s t a n c e to i n h i b i t i o n or r e d u c t i v e arrangement. H o s p i t a l emphasizes the p o i n t by b l u r r i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s between c h a r a c t e r s , working the novel i n t o a conc a t e n a t i o n of " m u l t i p l y exposed" images which c a s t doubt on the nature (or even the exis t e n c e ) of the " o r i g i n a l ; " and by employing j u x t a p o s i t i o n a l and p a l i m p s e s t i c n a r r a t i v e techniques which suggest a general r e s i s t a n c e to r i g i d c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , but a l s o a more s p e c i f i c o p p o s i t i o n t o p a t r i a r c h a l d e f i n i t i o n s of gender. So w h i l e H o s p i t a l ' s t e x t f e a t u r e s a s e r i e s of s t e r e o t y p i c a l images of women e x e m p l i f i e d i n the h i s t o r y of a r t and, more r e c e n t l y , i n the s e m i o t i c systems of contemporary western c u l t u r e ( m u l t i -media, i n f o r m a t i o n and technology i n d u s t r i e s , e t c . ) , i t a l s o o f f s e t s the p h y s i c a l and/or p s y c h o l o g i c a l confinement of women w i t h i n p a t r i a r c h a l modes of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by i l l u s t r a t i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e tendency towards d i s l o c a t i o n and the m u l t i p l e exposure of the (female) s e l f . H o s p i t a l thus undermines the a u t h o r i t a r i a n assumptions of p a t r i a r c h y and u l t i m a t e l y a s s e r t s the freedom of women from p e r s o n a l , p o l i t i c a l and p o e t i c "norms" imposed upon them by the governing p a t r i a r c h a l system. As i n B o r d e r l i n e , the anagrammatic, convoluted s t y l e of L i n e s of F l i g h t i n d i c a t e s an attempt t o produce an " a e s t h e t i c s of ev a s i o n " which c o n t r o v e r t s p a t r i a r c h a l a s s e r t i o n s of u n i t y and u n i f o r m i t y . I suggested t h a t i n H o s p i t a l ' s t e x t the p e r c e i v e d ambivalence of the geog r a p h i c a l 181 b o r d e r l i n e , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c a s t i n g doubt on the d e f i n i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of the a r t i s t i c p i c t u r e f r a m e y i m p l i c i t l y d i s p l a c e s the " f i x e d " s t a t u s of women as c o n s t i t u t e d o b j e c t s of p a t r i a r c h a l 9 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . A s i m i l a r s e r i e s of geog r a p h i c a l and p i c t o r i a l displacements can be d i s c e r n e d i n Campbell's t e x t ; but whereas H o s p i t a l chooses t o focus on the i m p l i c a t i o n of women w i t h i n p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l systems, Campbell l i k e Quebec's Br o s s a r d - i n t e r r o g a t e s the complex s e m i o t i c systems which underwrite the s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of women by experimenting w i t h language as a system of codebreaking d i f f e r e n c e s . The h i g h l y i r r e g u l a r syntax of the te x t c