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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Territorial disputes : maps and mapping strategies in contemporary Canadian and Australian fiction Huggan, Graham 1989

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MAPS AND MAPPING  STRATEGIES  IN CONTEMPORARY CANADIAN AND AUSTRALIAN  FICTION  By GRAHAM HUGGAN M.A.,  B.A.; Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y , 1981 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1987  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Program i n C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s to the required  as conforming standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA JUNE 1989 ® Graham Huggan, 1989  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be her  representatives.  permission.  of  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  J V V . VQK  81  for  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  It  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not  Department  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the head  understood  that  of  copying  my or  be allowed without my written  ii ABSTRACT This account  dissertation  represents  f o r t h e d i v e r s i t y o f maps  contemporary outlined  i n the opening and l i t e r a r y  on  and  semiotic  structing ture).  of  other  t h e map  The map  deriving  and  "Grounds  tures  o f Canada  are  Aquin,  leading  cartographic  defined  combination  brings  into  play  appropriation,  i s paid  ethnic  to  writers  or adapted  Patrick  these  cartography"  fictional  model,  are  series  division  questioned  strategies.  a r e thus social  then  i n those  White,  a  Its  ana which these Basic  established  ana  political  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e map.  i n Canada,  t o an o v e r v i e w  imagery  of  struc-  t h e ways" i n  have  definitions,  strategies  as  as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  or c l a i m  writing  t h e map  and a s a g e o p o l i t i c a l c l a i m .  of the contemporary  discussed:  a  established  and between  and A u s t r a l i a , by o u t l i n i n g a b r i e f  maps and mapping precursors  deconstructing  f o r comparison"  and F r e n c h  I t s metnoaology,  (recon-  "literary  and d i v e r s e  strategies i n  p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t procedures  conceptual  implications,  English  and  on  and  emphasis  including  resisted  for a from  placing  Attention  regional  principles  theory,  document  strategies  definitions  draws  as model;  marginalization. feminist,  and mapping  chapter,  document,  as m o d e l ,  mapping  to reflect  particular  is first  an h i s t o r i c a l  status  attempt  C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n f i c t i o n .  geographical  as  an  period  areas.  the l i t e r a h i s t o r y of  Three  significant  of l i t e r a r y  cartography  Margaret of p a t t e r n s  i n contemporary  between  Atwood,  and  Hubert  ana i m p l i c a t i o n s of  Canadian  and  Australian  fiction is  f r o m 1975 t o t h e p r e s e n t .  fourfold:  ive  or  "Maps and Men" d i s c u s s e s  coercive  patriarchal examines  but  t h e map  for  as  of  and Mazes"  this  o f a number section  space"  in  the and  promulgation ity  texts.  de/reconstruction  by of  and  culturally  the wider  implications  graphic"  procedures  for post-colonial  "New  of  are offperspec-  "cartographic  in  World"  Canada history  metafiction,  of s y n t h e s i s  these  and in  and t h e  or  hybrid-  ("interna-  revisionist  by  con-  "carto-  l i t e r a t u r e s ana f o r t h e  societies/cultures  the conceptual legacy  ana  for discussion i n  decentralized  sidering  from  Dreams"  t a c t i c s of tne  The d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n c l u d e s of  or  analogue  comparative  women  historiographic  text.  themselves  a  Topics  of a l t e r n a t i v e hypotheses  post-colonial  Myths"  to the exercise,  i n t h i s overview  from  fictions  a  text.  t i o n a l " / " r e g i o n a l ")  of  ana  self-parodic  the d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n  i n the s p a t i a l l y  future  allied  of  revision  "Maps  and d i v e r s i o n a r y  analysis,  Australian  and  f o r the  as a  literary  of s p e c i f i c  include  "Maps  history;  i n e v i t a b l y made  contemporary  Australia, Canadian  paradigm  t h e map  structure  detailed  as a c o n s t r i c t -  c r i t i q u e , of c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t y ,  (post-colonial)  a more  overview  the p r i v i l e g e s  tradition;  World"  outlines  Generalizations  tive,  reinforces  mythic  "New  the l a b y r i n t h i n e  by  a  to the potential  contemporary  set  which  for this  t h e map  t h e map a s an o n e i r i c c o n s t r u c t  also  "Maps  device  literary/cultural  transformation exposes  The l a y o u t  seeking  of t h e i r c o l o n i a l  to  free  past.  iv CONTENTS Page Abstract List  i i  of F i g u r e s  vi  Acknowledgement  v i i  Chapter 1.  Defining i ii iii  2.  One:  Principles  for a Literary  Cartography  . . .  1  t h e Map  2  The Map as Model The Map a s Document  2 7  The Map a s C l a i m  13  C h a l l e n g i n g t h e Map  15  i The F e m i n i s t C h a l l e n g e ii The R e g i o n a l i s t C h a l l e n g e iii The E t h n i c C h a l l e n g e 3. F i c t i o n a l i z i n g t h e Map i ii  The Map a s L i t e r a r y Principles  Chapter  Two:  Chapter  Three:  Device  for a Literary  Grounds New  15 23 27 32 32 Cartography  f o r Comparison  Territories  47 52 94  1.  Maps and Men  2.  Maps and Myths  3.  Maps and Dreams  126*  4.  Maps and Mazes  142  Chapter 1.  Four:  99 .  T e r r i t o r i a l Disputes  M a p b r e a k e r s and Mapmakers: L i t e r a r y C a r t o g r a p h y and t h e I m a g i n a t i v e Response t o P a t r i a r c h y i ii iii  T r a n s f o r m i n g C a r t o g r a p h i c Space M o b i l i z i n g C a r t o g r a p h i c Space D e t e r r i t o r i a l i z i n g C a r t o g r a p h i c Space  113  162 163 Ib3 168 176"  V  2.  New R e a d i n g s of t h e 'New W o r l d ' : L i t e r a r y Cartog r a p h y and t h e I m a g i n a t i v e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f History i ii iii  3.  Unnaming/Renaming t h e P a s t Demythologizing the Past R e i n v e n t i n g the Past  188 .  Home Ground, F o r e i g n T e r r i t o r y : L i t e r a r y Cartography and t h e I m a g i n a t i v e C h a l l e n g e t o E t h n o c e n t r i s m . . . i ii iii  Chapter  New C o o r d i n a t e s The " I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t " H y p o t h e s i s The " R e g i o n a l i s t " H y p o t h e s i s Five:  Works C i t e d  D e c o l o n i z i n g t h e Map: Literary and t h e F u t u r e of P o s t - C o l o n i a l Cultures  188 193 206 216 216 220 230  Cartography Societies/ 243 259  vi LIST  OF  Fig.  1  FIGURES M e d i e v a l T-0 M a p s i ii  Psalter Isidore  ( R o b i n s o n 10)  M a n u s c r i p t , c a . 122b o f S e v i l l e , 1475  Fig.  2  Mercator's World  Fig-  3  D e t a i l f r o m Map o f A b y s s i n i a , 1683 ( G e o r g e 1 6 U )  Fig. Fig.  4 5  Apr. Fig.  6  7  (Bagrow  5, 194U  8  Ludolfi, 9 12  . . .  13  Hemisphere  D e t a i l , S w i f t , 1766 ( P o s t 21) T h e G u l l i v e r i a n Hemi s p h p r P a f t e r M o l l ' s New a n d C o r r e c t Map o f t h e W h o l e W o r l d , 1719 ( C a s e 54)  34  r  (Post  County,  149)  40  8  New F r a n c e ,  Champlain,  Fig.  9  Detail  Sanson's  1720  from  35  F a u l k n e r , 1936  Fig.  1632  ( S k e l t o n 2bu-26i).  62  Map o f t h e W o r l d ,  ( T o o l e y 121) Map, B l a e u , 1648  64  Fig.  10  World  Fig.  11  Fig.  12  L i g n e s de F u i t e , B e n t e r r a k , 1983 ( B e n t e r r a k e t a l 83) T h e C h a n g i n g T e r r i t o r y , 1854-189b ( W a l d m a n 181-2)  Fig.  13  ii  . .  Federation,  (Quam 26;  Yoknapatawpha  i  224-5)  Map, F a c t s i n R e v i e w  The G u l l i v e r i a n i ii  Fig.  Map, 1569  Map o f t h e I m p e r i a l 1886 ( H a r l e y 283) Propaganda  7  (Bagrow  176;  C a r t e d e 1 ' A c c a d i e , B e l l i n , 1744 ( D a w s o n 85) N o v a S c o t i a , C h a r l e s N o r r i s , 175b ( D a w s o n 89)  73  183 > 199 234 234  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would committee, V. R a o u l  like  t o thanK  t h e members  Profs.  W. H. New  (Supervisor),  for their  advice  ideas,  secretarial  P. M e r i v a l e and  and d i r e c t i o n ; P r o f s .  C. T a p p i n g and R. B e a u d o i n , P. Brophy useful  o f my d i s s e r t a t i o n  and B. F e l l  and Word W e a v e r s o f V a n c o u v e r  services.  D. B r y d o n , f o r other  for their  1 C h a p t e r One  PRINCIPLES FOR A LITERARY  CARTOGRAPHY  2  (1)  D e f i n i n g t h e Map  (i)  T h e Map a s Model In t h a t Empire, t h e c r a f t o f C a r t o g r a p h y a t t a i n e d s u c h p e r f e c t i o n t h a t t h e Map o f a S i n g l e p r o v i n c e c o v e r e d t h e space o f an e n t i r e C i t y , and t h e Map o f t h e E m p i r e i t s e l f an e n t i r e P r o v i n c e . In t h e c o u r s e o f Time, t h e s e E x t e n s i v e maps were f o u n d somehow w a n t i n g , and so t h e c o l l e g e o f C a r t o g r a p h e r s e v o l v e d a Map o f t h e E m p i r e t h a t was o f t h e same S c a l e a s t h e E m p i r e and c o i n c i d e d w i t h i t p o i n t f o r p o i n t . Less a t t e n t i v e t o the study of Cartography, succeeding G e n e r a t i o n s came t o j u d g e a map o f such M a g n i t u d e cumbersome and, n o t w i t h o u t I r r e v e r e n c e , abandoned i t t o t h e R i g o u r s o f sun and r a i n . In t h e western D e s e r t s , t a t t e r e d F r a g m e n t s o f t h e Map a r e s t i l l t o be f o u n d , s h e l t e r i n g an o c c a s i o n a l B e a s t or b e g g a r ; i n t h e w h o l e N a t i o n no o t h e r r e l i c i s l e f t o f t h e D i s c i p l i n e of Geography. (J-L. Borges's  witty parable neatly i l l u s t r a t e s the  impossibility  of e x a c t i t u d e i n c a r t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  For maps a r e n e v e r they  "if  "a map  correct,  accounts ever  more t h a n  approximations  p u r p o r t t o d e s c r i b e and r e g u l a t e :  phrase,  i s not t h e t e r r i t o r y  i t has a s i m i l a r  Whatever  are n e i t h e r exact controlled  their  i t represents," although,  structure  degree  nor e n t i r e l y  by human i n t e r e s t s ,  but  a semblance  of r e a l i t y ,  and  p e r c e p t i o n s " (310).  of the t e r r i t o r y  i n K o r z y b s k i ' s famous  to the t e r r i t o r y ,  f o r i t s u s e f u l n e s s " ( 5 8 ) . Y e t how  be?  Borges)  'correct'  of s c i e n t i f i c objective;  they  c a n maps  accuracy,  maps  are, after a l l ,  and a t b e s t o f f e r  filtered  which  " n o t a copy,  by t h e mapmaker's m o t i v e s  The s u b j e c t i v e  aspect  more, however, t h a n  the motives  f o r maps c o n s t i t u t e  a complex c o m m u n i c a t i o n a l  o f maps i n v o l v e s  and p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e mapmaker; system  engaging  3  t r a n s a c t i o n s between mapmaker and strictly and  speaking,  surveyors,  politicians  can  reflect  directly  a l l be  or  or  So  process  as W a l t e r  interlocking  r e p r e s e n t s both  i t also  r e l a t i o n s and  i t s precision  "the map  other  depends on  a s p e c t s of (3).  which, d i f f e r i n g w i d e l y unstable products  of  The  from  social,  or  and  Thus, w h i l e a  culture  historical  and  for i t  between  i n the  event  obviously  of  perceptual  to c u l t u r e ,  map  environment  of a map  refinement  tacit  has  an  messages p a s s i n g  accuracy  interest  e x i s t s and  mapreaders p a r t i c i p a t i n g  explicit  map  a  i t i s also a process,  of d e t a i l  process  cultural  a number of d i f f e r e n t  a network o f p e r p e t u a l l y r e c o d e d  depends on  i n the  an e n c o d e d document of a s p e c i f i c  c a r t o g r a p h i c communication.  explorers  i n reading a  emerges f r o m  structure"  a product,  these,  p u b l i s h e r s and  social  Z e l i n s k y says, with  of  are a l s o i n f l u e n c e d ,  a map  involving  i t connects  sense  individual:  d e c i s i o n s taken  by w i d e r  t h e v a r i o u s mapmakers and  yet  the  c h o i c e , they  communicative  r e m a i n s i n one  of  printers,  t h e meaning o f  m e a n i n g o n l y as  and  although  indirectly,  transactional  c o n s i d e r e d an  Neither  considered to p a r t i c i p a t e  individual  attitudes.  groups;  be  d e s i g n e r s and  o f mapmaking; and may  can  mapreader.  delivery, conventions  are  the  political  circumstance.  F o r a more d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c a r t o g r a p h i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n , see t h e e s s a y s c o l l e c t e d i n a s p e c i a l i s s u e of C a r t o g r a p h i c a Monograph No. 19 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , ed. L e o n a r d G u e l k e , esp. A r t h u r R o b i n s o n and B a r b a r a P e t c h e n i k ' s e s s a y "The Map as a C o m m u n i c a t i o n S y s t e m " : 92-110.  4  If  a l l of t h i s  deficient  a s a copy o f r e a l i t y ,  efficiently it,  "maps  they  a s a model  are also  analytical  of r e a l i t y .  conceptual about  As C h r i s t o p h e r B o a r d  In t h a t r o l e ,  o r even t o a l l o w  (672).  Board  i s concentrated  t h e map, d u r i n g w h i c h (672).  As a r e s u l t  suggests,  proceeds  them an e n t i r e l y to outline  the  real world"  not  share  a  of t h i s  (672).  model of r e a l i t y . Muehrcke,  us f r o m ,  dialectic "the real  interaction,  reality" he  however, do  i n the v i a b i l i t y A map-like  of  [a] r e v i s e d v i e w of  commentators,  f o r example,  r a t h e r than  new view o f  i s tested against  dialectical  Other  world  form," and t h e implementation  " t h e model  Board's confidence  claims P h i l i p alienate  i n model  " t h e c y c l e may b e g i n a g a i n w i t h  conceptual  o f some  maps a r e u s e f u l  between t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e map, d u r i n g w h i c h world  world...  models c o n t a i n i n g t h e essence  reality.  puts  t o o l s which h e l p i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o see t h e r e a l  a new l i g h t ,  reality"  i t may n o n e t h e l e s s f u n c t i o n  [are] r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l models of t h e r e a l  generalization  in  i s t o s a y t h a t t h e map i s n e c e s s a r i l y  o f t h e map a s a  conception of r e a l i t y ,  i s suspect  u n i t e us w i t h ,  because  i t may  our environment:  The d e f i c i e n c y o f b o t h t h e 'map a s r e a l i t y ' and ' r e a l i t y a s map' a t t i t u d e s i s t h a t t h e y f a l l s h o r t o f u n i t i n g us w i t h our e n v i r o n m e n t i n a l l a s p e c t s o f experience. They e n c o u r a g e us t o i g n o r e t h e i n d e p e n d e n t u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e o f our e x i s t e n c e , upon w h i c h our s u r v i v a l and t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f o u r w o r l d depend. (309) Muehrcke's h u m a n i s t i c  sentiments  a r e echoed  by J o h n V e r n o n , f o r  whom maps e n c o u r a g e a g e o c e n t r i c p o i n t o f view distance  i n t e r v e n e s between t h e w o r l d  most e x t r e m e ,  the attitude  i n which  and i t s p e r c e i v e r ; a t i t s  f o s t e r e d by t h e map  induces  a kind  5 of  schizophrenia  world of  by p e r s u a d i n g  c a n be t r a n s f o r m e d  reality  rigidly  provided  dualistic  i t s user  i n t o an o b j e c t .  by t h e map may  philosophy  civilization  to confirm  cleanliness,  freedom  poverty"  ( 1 7 ) . V e r n o n ' s argument  "[Western]  space of r e a s o n a b l e n e s s ,  s p a c e s o f madness, d i r t , i s overstated,  but tendency  F o r maps a r e n e c e s s a r i l y s i m p l i f i e d  models of t h e environment 'modelling  equally  s l a v e r y and  i n so f a r as i t e m p h a s i z e s t h e map's  towards s i m p l i f i c a t i o n .  model  to the  p r e c i s e l y by c r e a t i n g  but s e a l e d - o f f  their  thus c o n t r i b u t e  i t s absolute  and w e a l t h ,  that the  The c o n c e p t u a l  which has e n a b l e d  absolute  instructive  to believe  they  represent;  system', they  however  elaborate  remain g e n e r a l i z e d ,  incomplete  2 and  relativistic The  with  concept  the Russian  Lotman,  representations  of  of a ' m o d e l l i n g  system'  semiotician  texts  internal  organization,  border which  characterized  across  air  or s e a r o u t e s ,  the text  have been i n t r o d u c e d  (239).  by t h e i r  d e f i n i t e order "cross  establishes"  a p l o t , however; f o r example,  we draw a l i n e  will  A l l texts,  while plotted texts  "if  associated says  s y s t e m s ; maps a r e examples o f  the p l o t l e s s s t r u c t u r e  Maps may a c q u i r e  i s usually  Y u r i Lotman.  are c o d i f i e d modelling  plotless  reality.  of  the forbidden (239).  suggests  Lotman:  t h e map t o i n d i c a t e .. t h e p o s s i b l e t h e n assumes a p l o t :  which  an a c t i o n  surmounts t h e s t r u c t u r e "  Maps p o s s e s s t e x t u a l p r o p e r t i e s ,  but they  may  On t h e d i s t o r t i v e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s o f maps a s ' m o d e l l i n g s y s t e m s ' s e e a l s o J . S . K e a t e s , U n d e r s t a n d i n g Maps (London: Longman, 1982) e s p . P a r t One: 12-61. A l s o Mark Monmonier, Maps, D i s t o r t i o n and M e a n i n g ( W a s h i n g t o n : AAG, 1 9 7 7 ) .  6 also  become t e x t u a l  therefore model,  itself  itself  t h e map  to the decoding of the  i n the further  recoding  of the  system.  Two c a r t o g r a p h i c are  t h e a c t of r e a d i n g  does n o t r e s t r i c t  but i n v o l v e s  modelling  events;  t h e o r i s t s informed  D e n i s Wood and J o h n  Fels.  by Lotman's  semiotics  F o r Wood and F e l s ,  e v e r y map i s a t once a s y n t h e s i s o f s i g n s and a s i g n in i t s e l f : an i n s t r u m e n t o f d e p i c t i o n - o f o b j e c t s , e v e n t s , p l a c e s - and an i n s t r u m e n t o f p e r s u a s i o n a b o u t t h e s e , i t s makers, and i t s e l f . L i k e any o t h e r s i g n , i t i s t h e product of codes: conventions that p r e s c r i b e r e l a t i o n s o f c o n t e n t and e x p r e s s i o n i n a g i v e n s e m i o t i c c i r c u m s t a n c e . (54) In much t h e same way a s Lotman d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h e syntagmatic inform  ( i n t e r n a l ) and p a r a d i g m a t i c  the l i t e r a r y  "intrasignificant" cartographic  codes which  joint  "extrasignificant"  "govern t h e f o r m a t i o n of v i s i b l e  representation"  codes which  - of values,  means o f modern myth" depends, also and  the force  goals,  a e s t h e t i c s and s t a t u s - a s t h e  ( 5 4 ) . The map's s t a t u s  capacity  a s a model s t r u c t u r e , but  influence.  t h a t maps may assume m y t h i c a l  of t h e i r  t o model  sign production  system) and t h e " r e a l i t y "  does n o t c o n t r a d i c t  between t h e model  represented  Wood  status  the "real world;" i t merely  p o t e n t i a l f o r discrepancy  and t h e  and p o l i t i c a l  on t h e c o h e r e n c e o f i t s i n t e r n a l  F e l s ' s reminder  their  language,  "govern t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n of  on t h e d e g r e e and s c o p e o f i t s e x t e r n a l  through  the  then,  of the  and t h e  e n t i r e maps a s s i g n v e h i c l e s f o r s o c i a l expresssion  codes which  t e x t , Wood and F e l s d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e  i c o n , t h e deployment  scheme of t h e i r  (external)  emphasizes  (or modelling  by t h e m o d e l .  7  (ii)  The  Map  Wood and maps s e r v e s status  as  as  Document  Fels's  an  an  admonitory  historical  beginnings,  reference  to  reminder  documents.  maps h a v e o f t e n  the  mythmaking of  Since  their  their  r e l i e d more on  I n d e e d many a n c i e n t  and  record  fact  reinforce belief.  theocentric  T-0  J e r u s a l e m was while  at  highly  celestial  imperfect  to  (orbis terrarum)  placed  i n other,  perfect above  a l l , but  the  centre  of  realms were l o c a t e d ,  t e r r e s t r i a l worlds  the  Age  of  Middle  a spherical the  with  rich  (Thrower  34).  and  the  of  than set  in  on  out  to  the  Ages,  universe, same  period,  embellishment,  Seville,  1475  Maps  however, were t o  Exploration  the  Isidore Fig. 1 M e d i e v a l T-0  changes,  Thus,  s c h e m a t i z e d maps f r o m  Psalter Manuscript ca. 1225  Significant  rudimentary  maps d i d n o t  maps of  of  contingent  conjecture  fact.  at  medieval  potential  follow  development  of  the  discoveries  cartographic  of  instruments Europe. zeal, the  A  and  techniques  combination  coinciding with  of the  i n s i x t e e n t h and s c i e n t i f i c rigour revival  geographical discoveries  India,  reinforced  success  of  techniques being  of  of A m e r i c a  Europe.  the world (1569),  topographic,  The  and  improved  maps of  this  paved  t h e way  of  exploratory projections  and  a sea-route  to  and  commercial  measuring  p e r i o d , t h e most  hydrographic  Mercator's  and  Ptolemy's  intellectual authority  Renaissance  Mercator's  specialized  the  of  seventeenth-century  Fig. 2 W o r l d Map.  f o r the and  development  thematic  1569  famous  mapping  of  9  traditions Despite late  i n the seventeenth  the progress  Renaissance  riddled verse  with  pokes  and e i g h t e e n t h  centuries.  of the S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n ,  and e a r l y  Enlightenment  e r r o r s and f a n c i f u l  maps w e r e  conjecture..  fun at the extravagance  however, still  Swift's  of seventeenth  satirical  century  cartography: So g e o g r a p h e r s , i n A f r i c - m a p s With s a v a g e - p i c t u r e s f i l l t h e i r gaps: And o ' e r u n i n h a b i t a b l e downs P l a c e e l e p h a n t s f o r want o f t o w n s .  Fig. Detail  f r o m map o f A b y s s i n i a , L u d o l f i ,  Mapmaking c o u l d h a r d l y  be c o n s i d e r e d  however; t h e R e n a i s s a n c e the  3  Spaniards,  e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e New W o r l d ,  a frivolous f o r instance,  destroyed  the  to disseminate  historian  of cartography,  always a p r i s o n c e l l and  publisher  surprisingly, and  t h e wrong  of c o n f i d e n t i a l given  c h a r t s which  unsubstantiated.  this  s u r v i v e from  they  up a n d  were  remarks,  machine w a i t i n g  maps a n d c h a r t s "  rigorous  leaders i n  kind of information:  L l o y d Brown,  or a l i t t l e  activity,  or bought  h i d w h o l e e d i t i o n s o f b o o k s a n d maps b e c a u s e considered  16b3  censorship,  the period  "there  as was  f o r the author  ( 9 ) . Not many o f t h e maps  are miscellaneous  and  10 Maps b a s e d on mix  freely  the  fact with  misinterpreted, history  of  s y s t e m s of  or  f a b l e ; they  artfully  cartography  had  of  t h e map  was  if  ever  been a c c u r a t e  dramatic  e x p l o r a t i o n and adventure.  discovery,  spirited  i n the  first  t h e West  contractual the  and  "evidence"  the  place.  or  The  story  of  geographical  i t s share s t o r y of  of  the  Indies,  surreptitiously the  i t  censored  retells  England with  to  The  result,  s t o r y of  i s not without  away t o h i s n a t i v e  users.  a l t e r e d , abridged,  Brown, f o r example, of  a  continued  freely  their  eroded,  perhaps than the  T h o m e ' s s t o l e n map  by  mapuser; a s  distorted, wilfully  maps, l e s s  Mercator  were a l s o  doctored,  presented i t had  and  become a h i s t o r y o f  abuse between mapmaker and documentary v a l u e  Ptolemy  Robert  accompanying  warning: [ I t ] i s n o t t o be shewed or communicated... For though t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n i t p r e j u d i c i a l l to the Emperour, y e t i t may be a c a u s e of p a i n e t o t h e maker: a s w e l l f o r t h a t none may make t h e s e C a r d e s [ c h a r t s ] , but c e r t a i n e a p p o i n t e d and a l l o w e d f o r m a s t e r s , as f o r t h a t p e r a d v e n t u r e i t w o u l d n o t sound w e l l t o them, t h a t a s t r a n g e r s h o u l d know or d i s c o v e r their secretes: and w o u l d a p p e a r e w o r s t of a l l , i f t h e y u n d e r s t a n d t h a t I w r i t e t o u c h i n g t h e s h o r t way t o t h e s p i e e r i e by our S e a s . (8-9) This  splendid  invaluable Europe.  instance  of  cartographic  role played  by  maps i n t h e  Seventeenth-century  between E u r o p e and appropriation similarly, small  the  of  the  geographical  measure by  the  economic e x p a n s i o n  nautical charts  trading-posts  geographic  intrigue illustrates  of  information discovery  the  tracing East  of new  of  routes  typified  f o r economic  the  the  gain;  lands,  aided  in  r h e t o r i c w h i c h p r o n o u n c e d them  ready  for  no  the or ing  picking, national  enrichment:  of land  as p r o p e r t y  was w r i t t e n the  afforded  world The  into  new  centuries  as  The map's v a l u e  document, value  good.  a s a commodity; a g r o w i n g  corporate patterns  t o meet  buyer  of trade  and p o l i t i c a l  Science  expansion  supply  of corporate  maps e x p r e s s e d  the r e a l i t y  gain  as a  i n i t s putative desirability  authority to the increased i t s  o f maps a n d c h a r t s  demands o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of  c o n t r o l " ( 8 1 ) . T h e map venture  whereas t h e  ( e s t a t e ) map h a d f u n c t i o n e d  become s y m b o l s  Middle Ages" ( 3 1 ) .  of the nineteenth  lent  of the p r o f i t - m a k i n g  o w n e r s h i p ^ t h e maps o f t h e H i g h  by E u r o p e a n s  i n i t s increasing  t h e consumer  s t r u g g l e f o r dominion; thus,  cadastral  expansion  and t o " f a c i l i t a t e  became a f a c i l i t a t o r the  I f t h e New  i t , " t h e mean-  o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h and  consisted not only  but a l s o  corporate  as t h e meaning of  be r e g a r d e d  t h e d e s i r e f o r commercial  materialized  puts  i n the l a t e  cartography  f o r the i m p e r i a l i s t  a consumer  Mukerji  o f maps j u s t  can t h e r e f o r e  a s a document  f o r personal,  t o be consumed and u s e d  the language  scientific  prerequisite  accuracy  a s Chandra  a s s i g n o f God h a d been  eighteenth  century.  the opportunity  itself  a n d a pawn i n  eighteenth-century  a s a symbol  of p r i v a t e  I m p e r i a l i s t p e r i o d were t o or n a t i o n a l conquest.  of conquest w h i l e  Imperial  p r o m o t i n g and  See W i l l i a m B o e l h o w e r ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e l f - g l o r i f y i n g r h e t o r i c of g e o g r a p h i c a l ' d i s c o v e r y ' and e x p l o r a t i o n i n Through a G l a s s D a r k l y : E t h n i c Semiosis i n American L i t e r a t u r e (NY: OUP, i y « / ) e s p . 4 4 - b U . For Boelhower, t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e f i r s t maps o f A m e r i c a was n o t " t o r e p o r t a p l a c e b u t t o impose an i d e a o f p l a c e on t h e new c o n t i n e n t . . . f i t ] was a b o v e a l l a n a t i o n a l s i g n a t u r e of p o s s e s s i o n and a p u b l i c d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e r i g h t t o s e t t l e m e n t " (48) .  12  legitimizing remarks, an  the idea  "the g r a p h i c  arbitrary  power  responsibilities could and a  be c a r v e d  other  (282).  weapon;  from  the  In the scramble  empty  s p a c e was  "virgin"  though  impersonally  refashioned  and  gain.  realized  i t sutility  lands  agents of i m p e r i a l i s m densely  fully  The  of the Imperial  world  for Africa  i t s p o t e n t i a l as  i n f o s t e r i n g the e x p l o i t e d by t h e  and by t h e c o m m e r c i a l  i n countries  populated,  users  social  such  could  as  4 Federation,  1886  and  Africa  be  f o r the purposes of p o l i t i c a l  Fig. Map  Harley  gave i t s i m p e r i a l  divorced  c o l o n i e s , t h e map  political  I n d i a which,  economic  of t h e map easily  up on p a p e r "  o f t h e new  geopolitical and  t h a t was  of a s o c i a l l y  colonizers  nature  as J . B .  and c o n s e q u e n c e s o f i t s e x e r c i s e .  overseas  formidable  notion  of E m p i r e ; m o r e o v e r ,  control  13  (iii)  T h e Map a s C l a i m The  foregoing  cartography  thumbnail  i s enough  sketch  to emphasize  authority  as a c l a i m .  The most  political  implications  of t h i s  which the  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  inherent  deny  deceive; use as are  (Quam 22).  readily  claim,  like  combined  i t s impact  demarcation  considerable  example  of t h e p e r v e r s e  i s t h e propaganda "a w i l f u l  o f maps t o d i s t o r t ,  status  but subtly  and a l l e g e d  "the p e c u l i a r (Quam 32).  accepted"  effect  status  of  e x p l o i t a t i o n of  exaggerate, or  manipulative,  neutrality  credulity  with  weapon, r e s t s  strategies:  which  Fig. Map,  Facts  as a  the delineation  ,2 6 % OF THE WORLD, T H E  B R I T I S H  maps  on t h e  of t e r r i t o r y , t h e nomination and l o c a t i o n  THE AGGRESSOR. NATIOH?  they  o f t h e map  The map's e f f i c a c y  as a p o l i t i c a l  of i t s d i v e r s e  Propaganda  map,  P r o p a g a n d a maps a r e d e s i g n e d t o  means o f r e i n f o r c i n g generally  obvious  comprehensible  the a u t h o r i t a t i v e  t h e map's  to represent  limitations  facts"  of t h e h i s t o r y  EM-PI R E  5 i n R e v i e w , A p r . 5, 1940  and  of place,  14 the  inclusion  framework,  and e x c l u s i o n o f d e t a i l  the choice  Many o f t h e s e reflecting social  of s c a l e ,  within a preset  format  s t r a t e g i e s a r e obvious,  and d e s i g n ,  b u t some a r e s u b l i m i n a l ,  t h e s u b t l e t y w i t h w h i c h maps o p e r a t e  knowledge or a s a g e n t s o f p o l i t i c a l  excellent  essay  and so on.  as forms of  expediency.  In h i s  "Maps, Knowledge and Power", J . B . H a r l e y  o u t l i n e s what he c a l l s ,  after  Foucault,  t h e "hidden  rules" of  4 cartography.  The " s i l e n c e s " ,  "representational which,  to small  cases, the  cultural  preference,  myths o f c u l t u r a l  o f t h e map,  superiority  prophecies  about  Positional  enhancements r e f e r  i t instead to self-fulfilling  i n l o c a t i o n or  as i n t h e t h e o c e n t r i c maps o f t h e M i d d l e  thereby  hierarchies,  finally,  The  or r e l i g i o u s hidden  Ages  focus the promoting or  worldview.  refer  t o the ranking of  s i g n s i n maps so a s t o promote or c o n f i r m  cultural  belie  (292).  to adjustments  p r o c l a i m i n g t h e supremacy o f a p a r t i c u l a r  visual  o r , i n some  m a t e r i a l which  t h e E u r o c e n t r i c maps o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e ,  Representational  social  Silences  of d e t a i l  or " e n s h r i n i n g  m a p r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n on t h e c e n t r e ,  les  intent.  linking  t h e g e o g r a p h y o f power"  p r o j e c t i o n which, or  omissions  e x c l u s i o n s of censored  impartiality  t h e ways i n  mapmakers b e t r a y  or p o l i t i c a l  but s i g n i f i c a n t  substantial  supposed  e n h a n c e m e n t s " and  h i e r a r c h i e s " o f maps e x e m p l i f y  c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y ,  status, refer  "positional  social,  stratifications.  r u l e s of cartography  c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e map's  H a r l e y acknowledges h i s source from choses ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1966).  F o u c a u l t ' s L e s Mots e t  15 s t a t u s a s a symbol or  of p o l i t i c a l  excluding minority  "preeminently ideological from  authority.  interests,  maps r e v e a l  themselves as  a l a n g u a g e o f power, n o t of p r o t e s t . . . t h e a r r o w s have t e n d e d t o f l y l a r g e l y  the powerful  t o t h e weaker  i n society.  o f m a p s . . . a p p e a r s t o have few g e n u i n e l y or  By d e - e m p h a s i z i n g  subversive  modes o f e x p r e s s i o n "  read  i t s claim  will  t o power, t h e v o i c e s  The s o c i a l  Although the  challenged  by t h o s e  t o v e r a c i t y as a d i s g u i s e d e x p r e s s i o n of t h e c h a l l e n g e r s  a  trio  i t s own l a n g u a g e  o f d i s s i d e n t g r o u p s who  accuracy,  the h i s t o r i c a l  authority  o f t h e map,  ultimately of  neither  d i s c o u r s e which  their  o f power. challenge  who  of the  have o f t e n  u n h e a r d ; t h e map h a s e n g e n d e r e d a l a n g u a g e o f p r o t e s t compromising  history  popular, a l t e r n a t i v e ,  (300-301).  map's a u t h o r i t y has been p e r i o d i c a l l y  i n one d i r e c t i o n ,  gone  without  By now g i v i n g v o i c e t o the representational  a u t h e n t i c i t y , and t h e p o l i t i c a l  I shall  copies  d e m o n s t r a t e f u r t h e r t h a t maps a r e  nor semblances of r e a l i t y  reflect  and a r t i c u l a t e  b u t modes  the i d e o l o g i e s of  makers.  (2)  Challenging  (i)  The F e m i n i s t Although  expression, confirm  Challenge  explicitly  a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n t h e i r mode o f  maps may be r e a d  their  contestatory  t h e Map  i n ways w h i c h  d i s c u r s i v e claims. reading  w r i t e r s who v i e w makers' c h o i c e  i s provided  the ethnocentric  contest  rather  than  An example o f t h i s by f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s / c r e a t i v e tendencies  t o d i s p l a c e what t h e y  o f t h e map, i t s  c a n n o t accommodate,  a s an  16 analogue  f o r t h e m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n o f women i n p a t r i a r c h a l  culture.  "The map i s n o t t h e t e r r i t o r y , " w r i t e s  Betsy Warland  i n an i r o n i c  rejoinder  Canadian  to Korzybski,  poet  "when d i d we  o r i g i n a t e / a r e we a d i s p l a c e d c i v i l i z a t i o n ? . . .  our country/our  bodies/edge/boundaries of v i c i o u s n e s s :  country's  conviction finds  to colonize  support  theorists with  us".  each  Warland's gesture  of angry  i n the t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n taken  such  as H e l e n e C i x o u s .  up by f e m i n i s t  C i x o u s equates male w r i t i n g  'marked' w r i t i n g , t h e p a t r i a r c h a l d i s c o u r s e  authorizes Cixous  1  itself  claim  by 'marking'  denial  t h e female v o i c e  which as Other.  i s that:  p r e s q u e t o u t e l ' h i s t o i r e de l ' e c r i t u r e se c o n f o n d a v e c l ' h i s t o i r e de l a r a i s o n dont e l l e a e t e a l a f o i s l ' e f f e t , l e s o u t i e n , e t un d e s a l i b i s privilegies. E l l e a e t e homogene a l a t r a d i t i o n phallocentrique. E l l e e s t meme l e p h a l l o c e n t r i s m e q u i s e r e g a r d e , q u i j o u i t de lui-meme e t se f e l i c i t e . (42) To  inscribe their  with  this  own f e m i n i n i t y , women must t h e r e f o r e  tradition  strategies definition,  and t h e r a t i o n a l e w h i c h  characteristic enclosure,  o f mapping:  exclusion,  Cixous wishes t o counter,  nurtures  strict  break  i t . The  codification,  are p r e c i s e l y the s t r a t e g i e s  f o r , i n her opinion,  t i l e s t ] i m p o s s i b l e de d e f i n i r une p r a t i q u e feminine de l ' e c r i t u r e , d'une i m p o s s i b i l i t e q u i se m a i n t i e n d r a c a r on ne p o u r r a j a m a i s t h e o r i s e r c e t t e p r a t i q u e , l'enfermer, l a coder.... e l l e excedera toujours l e d i s c o u r s q u i r e g i t l e systeme p h a l l o c e n t r i q u e ; e l l e a e t a u r a l i e u a i l l e u r s q u e dans l e s t e r r i t o i r e s subordonnees a l a domination philosophique-theorique. (45) The  map o p e r a t e s  i n this  sense as a dual  paradigm  for the  phallocentric  discourse  which  i n s c r i b e s woman, and t h e  rationalistic  discourse  which  i n s c r i b e s the land,  Predicated  on t h e p r i n c i p l e  of the binary  as 'Other'.  opposition,  t h e s e two  17 mutually  supportive  subservience conquest object  d i s c u r s i v e systems l e g i t i m i z e t h e  o f woman a s a ' l o g i c a l '  of n a t u r e :  woman, l i k e  o f male r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  subjecthood, paradigms  suggests  informing  undermining, forward  Cixous,  the land,  their  own  women must c h a l l e n g e t h e representation,  and e v e n t u a l l y d i s c r e d i t i n g  connection  to the  becomes an e n s l a v e d  To i n s c r i b e  patriarchal  by t h e p a t r i a r c h a l  The  counterpart  displacing,  t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s put  system.  between p a t r i a r c h y and a t e l e o l o g i c a l  " l a n g u a g e of p r o p o s i t i o n " i n w h i c h  "meaning, o r i g i n , and  forming  o f any a t t e m p t a t  [are] p o s i t e d as t h e l i m i t  clarification" Kristeva  (280-1) h a s been e x p l o r e d  claims  viability  that  solidarity"  source  (arche)  status  of the logos  structure  and goal  forward,  of the logos,  which  (telos) of l i n g u i s t i c  i s called  i t informs  into question,  and t h e depend on t h e  f u n c t i o n s as both activity.  identified  a s t h e l o c u s o f male  t h e homogenizing c a t e g o r i e s of p a t r i a r c h a l and f o r m i n g ,  are  t h e s t r u c t u r e c a n no l o n g e r  subverted. unified,  Since  signification of  the f i e l d  to retain  the propositions i t encapsulates  a u t h o r i t y ; what  remains,  (a l a p s e  however,  which  discourse  K r i s t e v a * s terms)  lose  i s not a t o t a l  be p e r c e i v e d their breakdown i n  i n t o t h e m e a n i n g l e s s ) b u t an o p e n i n g - u p  of s i g n i f i c a t i o n  permissiveness  If the  however, t h e  ( i t s meaning, o r i g i n ,  as  Kristeva.  and t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s i t s u p p o r t s a r e  undermined; i f i t i s then authority,  Julia  t h e s t r u c t u r e of language,  of the p r o p o s i t i o n s i t puts  "metaphysical  by  (a newly  recognized  affords the opportunity  for alternative  18 meanings).  The  in  simplified  it  both  strategy  form  subverts  provides  the  of  displacement  I have j u s t  here i s c o u n t e r - d i s c u r s i v e ;  e s t a b l i s h e d or  dominant  that  outlined i s to  say,  d i s c u r s i v e modes  i m p e t u s f o r new  or  previously  If displacement  i s r e g a r d e d as  and  outlawed forms  of  5  expression. new,  formerly  women can the a  s  be  s u p p r e s s e d or seen i n t h i s  dismantling  of  articulation This  clearly  dual  of  i n the  notion  demonstrated  operating  Jardine  i n tandem w i t h  representation,  by  the  " B i g D i c h o t o m i e s " has  displaced.  The  or  sign  "gynesis,"  of  e f f a c e d ; new a  the  coordinates  American  and  for  as  a patriarchal devices  of  dialectic.  The  has  with  brought  frame once h e l d  been damaged or  on  feminist  traditional  Cartesian  (88): the  representation  clear lines  blurred  the  however, a r g u e s J a r d i n e ,  "a f i g u r a t i v e c o n f u s i o n "  of mimetic  new  v i e w s t h e map  m i m e s i s and  it  status  representation,  experience.  i n t h e work of  metaphor  of m o d e r n i t y ,  of  of  in  of mapbreaking/mapmaking i s p e r h a p s most  Alice Jardine.  crisis  self,  as m a p b r e a k e r s engaged  plotting  knowledge and  theorist  Western  sense both  p r o j e c t i o n s of  a p a t r i a r c h a l system  mapmakers i n v o l v e d  the  disallowed  a prerequisite for  together  dismantled;  d i s c r e d i t e d ; the  the  dialectic  o l d p a t r i a r c h a l maps have become  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s have emerged under  term  defined  by  Jardine  as  "a new  the  kind  C f . R i c h a r d T e r d i m a n ' s d e f i n i t i o n of c o u n t e r - d i s c o u r s e a s e t of s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h " r e l a t i v i z e t h e a u t h o r i t y and s t a b i l i t y of a dominant s y s t e m of u t t e r a n c e s " ( 1 5 - 1 6 ) . Note a l s o T e r d i m a n ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f c o u n t e r - d i s c o u r s e as a " f r a g m e n t e d m a p p i n g " o f " t h e i n t e r n a l i n c o h e r e n c e of t h e s e e m i n g l y u n i v o c a l and monumental i n s t i t u t i o n o f dominant d i s c o u r s e " (77).  of  as  19 writing  on t h e woman's body, a map o f new s p a c e s y e t t o be  explored,  with  'woman' s u p p l y i n g  "woman," J a r d i n e  the only  r e f e r s not t o the c o l l e c t i v e  o f womankind b u t t o "a new r h e t o r i c a l post-representation" become outmoded, inscribed  thus,  (48) .  claims  while  (52) .  This  Jardine  space  (52) .  By  s t a t e or s t a t u s  i n the e r a of  The "woman-as-Other" p a r a d i g m h a s  Jardine;  h e r s e l f as a " p r o c e s s  modernity"  direction"  process  "woman" h a s c o n s e q u e n t l y intrinsic  t o the condition of  i s essentially  views gynesis  destabilizing;  as the g e s t u r a l  equivalent of  "a mapping o f p o s s i b l e new c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f woman and modernity" the  (264),  old, w i l l  expression.  of  not submit t o r i g i d So, a l t h o u g h  transposition figurative  s h e makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e new maps, definition  the p r o j e c t  or u n i f o r m i t y of  necessitates the  o f " b o u n d a r i e s a n d s p a c e s now t a n g l e d  confusion"  (88) , i t a l s o  unlike  involves  ina  the transgression  b o u n d a r i e s a n d t h e t r a v e r s a l o f new, p r e v i o u s l y  unexplored  . . . 6 territories.  Cf. t h e n o t i o n o f ' t r a n s g r e s s i v e ' w r i t i n g put forward ( v i a B a r t h e s ) by Don A n d e r s o n i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s e d i t i o n o f s h o r t f i c t i o n A u s t r a l i a n W r i t i n g Now (Ringwood: Penguin, 1986). A n d e r s o n ' s remarks a b o u t c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t i n g i n A u s t r a l i a a r e of wider r e l e v a n c e t o t h e v a r i o u s c o n t e s t a t o r y v o i c e s o f women, r e g i o n a l and e t h n i c w r i t e r s s e e k i n g t o d i s p u t e or s u b v e r t t h e dominant i d e o l o g i e s o f t h e m a i n s t r e a m : " I w o u l d be happy i f much o f t h e w r i t i n g i n t h i s v o l u m e were f o u n d t o be c o n t e s t a t o r y : o f d o m i n a n t r h e t o r i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s i n w r i t i n g no l e s s t h a n o f dominant s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s . . . [ f o r ] t r u l y c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t i n g c u t s a c r o s s t h e doxa, c u t s a c r o s s r e c e i v e d o p i n i o n . To s u b v e r t d o m i n a n t l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e s and d o m i n a n t l i n g u i s t i c and r h e t o r i c a l p a t t e r n s i s a l s o t o s u b v e r t dominant i d e o l o g i e s . " (Anderson i x )  20 The  n o t i o n of  far-reaching of  In  recent  culture,  philosophy,  and  between t h e definition [are]  b o u n d a r y has  theoretical  fields her  the  study  the  a psychic  (5).  of  and  the  goes on  to  redefinition  of  ethnocentric  s o c i e t i e s where gender  muted by  dominant d i s c o u r s e .  Shirley  the  Ardener  boundary Since  b o u n d a r i e s of  also  argues for  physical  p e r c e p t i o n s of  have,  the  science.  gender,  world  i t , says  stressing  selfhood and/or  revision  is largely  in  boundaries  and  defined  other  between the  need f o r  a  patriarchal,  ethnic  social  control  the  f i e l d s of  distinguish  The a  i n s o c i e t i e s where men  the  social  "personal  emotional  s o c i a l boundaries,  the  and  in  human c o n s c i o u s n e s s and  g e o g r a p h y whose  Rubinstein  interpersonal  feminists  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between  mapped i n r e l a t i o n t o  people"  for  continues to  R o b e r t a R u b i n s t e i n draws a p a r a l l e l  development of  implications  and  literature, history  of  fiction,  had,  status  is  anthropologist  of  the  n o t i o n of  dominate through  the  space. social  Ardener,  s o c i e t i e s have g e n e r a t e d t h e i r own r u l e s , c u l t u r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d , f o r m a k i n g b o u n d a r i e s on t h e g r o u n d , and have d i v i d e d t h e s o c i a l i n t o s p h e r e s , l e v e l s and t e r r i t o r i e s w i t h i n v i s i b l e f e n c e s and p l a t f o r m s t o be s c a l e d by a b s t r a c t l a d d e r s and c r o s s e d by intangible bridges. (11-12) But  these  " s o c i a l maps" g o v e r n i n g t h e  between p e o p l e "ground  i n s p a c e do  r u l e s " which  not  govern the  individuals  i n space; the  where s p a c e  i s conceptually  structural  necessarily physical  problem  correspond  location  i s compounded  controlled,  relations  in  to  the  of societies  s o c i a l l y ordered,  and  21  physically  dominated  by men.  Like Rubinstein,  e m p h a s i z e s t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e culturally are  determined; personal  not only  conceptual  Ardener  of boundaries  is  or " s o c i a l " maps, t h e r e f o r e ,  models; they  are also  cultural  c o n s t r u c t s whose r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l , h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l status and  depends on modes o f c u l t u r a l  articulated  by l a n g u a g e .  perception  Maps c a n t h u s  f i l t e r e d through  be c o n s i d e r e d  as  m e t a p h o r s f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n and c o n t r o l of personal,  social,  or c u l t u r a l  gauges o f c u l t u r a l actively role  perception  i n the process  of s p a t i a l been n o t e d  The  Lay of the Land,  construction, period  f o r example,  between c u l t u r a l  the  transforming  a city,  of s o c i a l  social i n the pioneer  of the f i r s t  American  "depended on t h e a b i l i t y t o m a s t e r  a road,  t e r r i t o r i e s into  something  a canal, a railway,  a mine, a  and, f i n a l l y , an u r b a n n a t i o n " ( 7 ) .  disseminated  through  wilderness.  Mapping t h e new  myths  a range o f m e t a p h o r s f o r t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e  transformation  similarly,  In  t h e complex  i t a l s o depended on t h e v i a b i l i t y o f c u l t u r a l  physical  change  Kolodny.  she a n a l y z e s  The s u c c e s s  as  participate  Annette  perception,  the v i r g i n  e l s e - a farm, a v i l l a g e ,  operate  The c o n t r i b u t o r y  and l i n g u i s t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  argues Kolodny,  Yet  change.  by t h e f e m i n i s t c r i t i c  settlers,  factory,  and t h e r e f o r e  of s o c i a l  of American h i s t o r y .  land,  which  metaphors i n t h e e n g i n e e r i n g  has  interrelations  experience  land,  for instance, entailed  and c o n c e p t u a l  both  appropriation;  i n m e t a p h o r s s u c h as " t h e p o s s e s s i o n  of the v i r g i n  22 continent," control  of t h e i r  pastoral  myth.  patriarchal control  t h e American  environment  strove  through  values  of the c u l t u r e :  and e v e n t u a l l y  t o g a i n and m a i n t a i n  the expression  The t e r m s o f t h e myth  Adam" c o n c u r r e n t l y if  settlers  of a  reinforced the  setting  out t o define,  "conquer" h i s t e r r i t o r y ,  the "wilderness  s o u g h t m e t a p h o r s w h i c h w o u l d l e g i t i m i z e , and  possible glorify,  h i s muscular  endeavours.  The  land-as-woman was one s u c h m e t a p h o r ; t h e map, by c o r o l l a r y , operated  as a metaphorical  once t o j u s t i f y  o f male c o n t r o l w h i c h  the domestication  ensure the continuing capacity  agency  o f metaphor  of the continent  domesticity  o f women.  t h e r e f o r e became a means o f c e l e b r a t i n g  p r o g r e s s i v i s t e x p l o i t s of t h e male p i o n e e r  the  role  o f women i n e n g i n e e r i n g  I have s u g g e s t e d challenge  map:  they  authority paradigm  and t o  The t r a n s f o r m a t i v e  the  their  that  social  several  while  may c h o o s e t o r e j e c t  negating  change.  options  a r e open t o women i n  to the p a t r i a r c h a l authority invested  i n the  t h e map o u t r i g h t a s a symbol o f  o r as a mode o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , but a l t e r  came a t  or t o accept t h e  i t s terms o f r e f e r e n c e ,  making t h e map, f o r  example, a v e h i c l e f o r t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n and c e l e b r a t o r y expression  of female experience.  The range o f p o s s i b l e  r e s p o n s e s i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y o f key c a r t o g r a p h i c t e r m s s u c h a s t h e b o u n d a r y ; f o r b o u n d a r i e s may be p e r c e i v e d a s means o f e x c l u s i o n ,  symbolic  devices  f o r the m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n of  women i n p a t r i a r c h a l c u l t u r e , o r a s means o f t e r r i t o r i a l d e l i m i t a t i o n which give  shape t o t h e i r  allow own  women t o d e f i n e experience.  their  own s p a c e or t o  23 (ii)  The R e g i o n a l i s t A similar  may w i s h  Challenge  s e t o f o p t i o n s i s open t o t h e r e g i o n a l i s t ,  to discredit  the national  realign  i t i n accordance with  culture  group.  and  the  tends  of c u l t u r a l  here; f o r i t i s c l e a r be  Toth  7  and t h e f e m a l e  regional writer,  mainstream  that  radically  strategies  imagination:  person's  C o g n i t i v e mapping,  (or group's)  (or group's)  cognitive store,  and c e n t r e may  i s particularly  o f p e r c e p t i o n on r e g i o n a l  imbalance.  i n Downs and S t e a ' s f o r m u l a t i o n , r e f e r s t o  or mental recall,  abilities  that  and m a n i p u l a t e  (6).  A cognitive,  e n a b l e us t o c o l l e c t ,  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e  a s "a p e r s o n ' s o r g a n i s e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n environment... a c r o s s  a t one i n s t a n t  believe  alter  valuable to the  defined  world  may  and W h i t e , on  environment"  spatial  margin  c e n t r e and t h a t ,  spatial  the  to the  time.  of the e f f e c t  organize,  like  P e r c e p t i o n i s t h e key term  one p e r s o n ' s  c o g n i t i v e mapping p r o c e d u r e s  "those  between  t h e woman w r i t e r ,  The work o f Downs and S t e a , and G o u l d  study  of regionalism  t o be p e r c e i v e d a s p e r i p h e r a l  p e r c e p t i o n s of both margin  over  own  between t h e  draws an a n a l o g y  activity.  p e r c e i v e d as another  furthermore,  the e x p e r i e n c e of h i s / h e r  reinterpretative  those of f e m i n i s m .  regionalism  map o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , t o  Emily Toth has noted t h e l i n k  s u b v e r s i v e and/or  who  i n time.  or mental,  section  It reflects  i t t o be; i t need n o t be c o r r e c t .  map, i s  o f some p a r t o f  representing the t h e w o r l d as people In f a c t ,  distortions  E m i l y T o t h , e d . R e g i o n a l i s m and t h e Female I m a g i n a t i o n (NY: Human S c i e n c e s P r e s s , 1985) e s p . i n t r o .  24 are h i g h l y l i k e l y " capacity  ( 6 ) . G o u l d and W h i t e d e m o n s t r a t e  for distortion  i n their  detailed  this  a n a l y s i s of the  m e n t a l maps o f a s e l e c t e d g r o u p o f C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n high-school  students.  or  altogether, while  excluded  detailed  and more c l e a r l y  lend weight ually the  " O u t l y i n g " r e g i o n s a r e reduced,  personally  tend  (30); they constructed  emotionally  defined.  coloured.  to perceive  also indicate  rather  than  series But  they  the world  the extent  to i t s level  distort  of  visual  experience  Usually,  attitudes, prejudice. which  particularly rather  however, t h e y  f o r example,  they  concep-  indeed  landmarks. they  may be  reliant  on d i r e c t  on m e d i a t e d  graphic  information.  than  extent  the greater  than  cultural  registers  of c u l t u r a l  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y made maps,  accuracy  enhancements,  u n c h e c k e d by t h e v e r i f i c a t o r y  If  i t into a  a r e embodiments o f s p e c i f i c  To a g r e a t e r  positional  both  in societies  provided  e q u i p m e n t , m e n t a l maps f e a t u r e t h e h i d d e n silences,  as  t o which  often stereotypical,  and a s o f t e n a s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t  b e n e f i t from  'self  accuracy.  i t , usually reducing  m e n t a l maps a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s i m p l e ; complex,  individ-  emotional  t h e environment  identifiable,  highly  with  i t s degree of s c i e n t i f i c  also simplify  of e a s i l y  studies  "human b e i n g s ,  The s c a l e o f a m e n t a l map,  m e n t a l maps i n e v i t a b l y tualize,  are enlarged,  and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y m a n u f a c t u r e d maps a r e  t e n d s t o be g r a d e d a c c o r d i n g intensity  regions  G o u l d and W h i t e ' s  t o Y i - F u Tuan's t h e s i s t h a t  or i n g r o u p s ,  centre"  "central"  blurred,  r u l e s of  and s p a t i a l  procedures  by t e c h n i c a l cartography:  h i e r a r c h i e s which,  of s c i e n c e , g i v e  full  25 rein  to personal  also  closely  of,  the  that  more p o w e r f u l )  the  map  conversely,  groups to term  of  the  identity.  identify  at  the  regionalist, territory narrowly  one  of  In b o t h  defined. as  be  In t h e  But  the  f o r the  p r i v a t e or as  be  collective  of  perceiver s boundaries;  for  are  however,  power; w i t h  and  the  or  the shared  for  the  so w h i l e  necessary on  for the  containment which  regionalism  primary  for  u s u a l l y more  boundary  as  a  mental  1  c u l t u r e groups t o a c h i e v e  as w i t h  connection  to assert  experience,  s t r a t e g i e s of  i m p l i c a t i o n s , f o r the  lines  "regionalism"  i s ambivalent:  perceived  instance,  either outside  the  less  cultural  more f r e q u e n t l y ,  f u n c t i o n of  political  place  of  or  (or more) o f  first  strives the  lying  or,  feminist,  dominant  second,  boundaries which  In e i t h e r c a s e ,  with  itself.  instances,  control.  so much w i t h  (usually smaller  perceiver  and  ( u s u a l l y l a r g e r or  p r e s c r i b e d boundaries;  within  considered  other,  one  designation  hand b o u n d a r i e s may  may  enabled  the  h i s own  contained  d e l i m i t a t i o n of they  the  initially  circumstances  e n a b l e one  p e r c e i v e r ; i n the  are  expressive  define  which  i t denotes personal  regionalist, the  allow  r e g i o n denotes t e r r i t o r y  limits  I shall  " r e g i o n a l " r e i n f o r c e s the  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  centrist,  which  c o l o r a t i o n s which  becomes t h e means by w h i c h localized  sometimes d i r e c t l y  group t o dominate other  derogatory  prerogative  and  M e n t a l maps  attitudes, perceptions,  powerful) groups or, latter  preferences.  regionalism,  s e t of  emotional  these  cultural  aligned with,  n o t i o n of  h e r e as their  and  and  has  concern  on the  other have  maintain  inescapable  i s often  "not  perceived effectiveness,  a u t h o r i t y - and  not  so much  with  26 the  n a t u r e o f power a s w i t h  power.  So p l a c e  metaphor  the of  Hence,  map i s , a f t e r a l l , a metaphor  apparently  and a u t h o r i t y  coherent  regionalism,  then,  t h e f i g u r e o f t h e map; f o r  o f s t r u c t u r e whose own  are contained  framework. cannot  I would argue, t h e  within  The n o t i o n  be d e f i n e d  by  choice  of s p a t i a l  interact with the  text.  one a n o t h e r  restrict,  problematic: as w e l l  b e c a u s e maps s u p p o r t notion  and w i t h i n  first,  as o r g a n i z e  historical  of p l a c e ,  p a r t i c u l a r i t y and  however, i s  b e c a u s e maps c o n t a i n and space; and, second,  of a t o t a l ,  into question  theorists, social  b u t by  the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of  and o r i e n t ,  the notion  currently called  expression  of those metaphors as they  The use of t h e map a s metaphor,  inherently  a d e f i n i t e and  s o l e l y by i t s  m e t a p h o r s t o evoke t h a t  the s t r u c t u r a l properties  lines  of l i t e r a r y  a range of r e s p o n s e s t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t y  its  a  (New 5 ) .  or placement of  b u t comes t o e x i s t a s a  of r e g i o n a l w r i t e r s with  connection  of  remains important  of s t r u c t u r e "  fascination  the possession  scientists  "closed"  structure,  by l i t e r a r y and and c r e a t i v e  writers  9 alike.  So, i f t h e " t r u l y  is  one t h a t  "declares  is  i t not a l s o l i k e l y  regional  v o i c e , " a s i n New's  an i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l  alternative"  t o be one t h a t q u e s t i o n s  opinion, (6),  t h e t o t a l i t y of  See, i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t , A r t h u r Adamson's e s s a y " I d e n t i t y T h r o u g h M e t a p h o r : An A p p r o a c h t o t h e Q u e s t i o n o f Regionalism i n Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , " S t u d i e s i n Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 5.1 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 83-99. q A u s e f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i q u e of t h e ' u n i f y i n g ' s t r u c t u r e i s J a c q u e s D e r r i d a ' s e s s a y "La S t r u c t u r e , l e s i g n e e t l e j e u dans l e d i s c o u r s d e s s c i e n c e s h u m a i n e s , " i n L ' E c r i t u r e e t l a d i f f e r e n c e ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1967) 409-428.  27 the  d e f i n i n g s t r u c t u r e , the  centre, text?  or As  even t h e notions  " r e g i o n " may  c o h e r e n c e and  of  centre  therefore  between d e f i n i t i o n s of assertion be  of  local  the  place  up w i t h i n name of  feminism,  (iii)  The  challenge  of  Ethnic  Another  may  be  disrupt  new  territorial  there  ethnicity: each  "new  under  social  the heading  of  the  expression  of  anthropologist  forward  the  in  notion  of  each  " c e n t r e " may  the  a  about  the  and  i n d i v i d u a l and...is  be  Ethnicity  a distinctive  Michael  " [ i t ] i s something r e i n v e n t e d by  taken  "ethnicity".  i s something p a r a d o x i c a l  generation  the  configurations,"  discredit  imperative  means more t h a n t h e the  of  that cluster  a l t e r n a t i v e s put  or  may  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w h i c h have come t o  clearly  noted,  unlearning  like  as  slippage  Challenge  bracketed  As  this  s t r a t e g i e s which  "an  Thus,  slippage  circumscribed  Furthermore,  called  literary  redefined,  semantic  than the  considered  loosely  identity.  are  the  authority.  s e r i e s of  the  periphery  (335).  the v a r i o u s  spaces which  "central" locus  c o m p l e t e n e s s of  rather  has  designated  revisionary discursive positions  regionalism  rhetorical  the  counter-discursive  d o m i n a t i v e mode"  d i s s i d e n t or  of  come t o d e n o t e t h e  e n a c t what Raymond W i l l i a m s  of  and  identity."^  i d e n t i f i e d with  inherent  immobility  Fischer notion  ethnic has of  reinterpreted in  often  something  C f . R u s s e l l M c D o u g a l l ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e g i o n as a l o c u s of a m b i g u i t y i n t h e l i t e r a r y t e x t i n "On L o c a t i o n : A u s t r a l i a n and C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e , " T r u e North/Down Under 4 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 12-42.  28 quite she  p u z z l i n g to the  lacks control"  shifting cult  (195).  geographical  by  ethnicity,  concerned  principles: the  as  with  those  emotional  the  spaces  territorial  i t refers  relations  to the  socially  motivated,  t h e map  sion  of  indicate  ethnicity  connection  ethnic  should  former  oriented" cultural  often p o l i t i c a l l y a connection,  and  the  expresses (196),  the  superiority  a  feminism  Ethnicity  i s more  cartographic social  power and to  the  environment.^  manipulated,  to  The  dimensions  however, between t h e  expres-  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of e t h n o c e n t r i c i t y .  i s , once a g a i n , certainly  space  by  s o c i e t y r a t h e r than  a geographical  and  make i t d i f f i -  occupied  than w i t h  or  component  rhetorical  e x p r e s s i o n of  between s p a c e and  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  the  a result,  like  abstract  The  unstable  r e g i o n a l i s m , i s f r e q u e n t l y ambivalent.  closely  of  The  s o m e t h i n g o v e r w h i c h he  p e r s p e c t i v e of e t h n i c i t y  to define c l e a r l y ;  occupied and  individual,  not  be  by  equated w i t h  "vision,  latter  no means c l e a r - c u t .  both  the e t h n o c e n t r i c :  ethical  and  a prejudice nurtured  "justified"  by  a real  E t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p s o f t e n c o n s i d e r , and  The  or  futureon myths of  imagined  dispute,  past.  ethno-  C f . R o b e r t S a c k ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f t e r r i t o r i a l i t y as "a p r i m a r y g e o g r a p h i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f s o c i a l power, " i n Human T e r r i t o r i a l i t y : I t s T h e o r y and H i s t o r y . C a m b r i d g e : CUP, 1986: 5. Sack d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h e " b i o l o g i c a l " v i e w of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y as an a g g r e s s i v e i n s t i n c t s h a r e d by humans w i t h o t h e r a n i m a l s eg. i n R o b e r t A r d r e y ' s The T e r r i t o r i a l I m p e r a t i v e (NY: Atheneum, 1966) and h i s own " s o c i a l " v i e w of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y as "a s p a t i a l s t r a t e g y t o a f f e c t , i n f l u e n c e , or c o n t r o l r e s o u r c e s and p e o p l e by c o n t r o l l i n g a r e a " ( 1 ) . A s i m i l a r a p p r o a c h t o t e r r i t o r i a l i t y i s t a k e n i n Guy D u b r e u i l and G i l b e r t T a r r a b ' s C u l t u r e , t e r r i t o i r e e t amenagement ( M o n t r e a l , E d i t i o n s G e o r g e s l e Pape, 1976) . '•  29 c e n t r i c maps as modes o f define  and  itself  be  designate perceived  therefore  hegemonic d i s c o u r s e ;  their as  f u n c t i o n as  own  territory  ethnocentric. a catalyst  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l medium f o r t h e Usually, ethnic  for ethnic expression  dispute of  of  territoriality  involves a  r e s i s t a n c e to the  de  cartographic  C e r t e a u has  challenge  to the  or  representation.  pointed  t e r m s of  out,  another  This  does n o t  cartographic  which map  or  ethnic  expression  of  also  geographical  however, t h e  politics Michel  they  i n a gesture  The  one  but  as  may a  status.  form  of  perceived  resistance,  so much i n v o l v e  discourse  as  can  an  as a  implied  12 refusal  to operate w i t h i n  territorial  principles  of  them.  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f  the L a t i n American  Indians,  the  de  Certeau demonstrates that the d e s i g n a t i o n of a l o c u s p r o p r i u s . . enables, the r e s i s t a n c e to avoid being disseminated i n the o c c u p i e r s ' power g r i d , t o a v o i d b e i n g c a p t u r e d by t h e dominating, i n t e r p r e t i v e systems of d i s c o u r s e . , i t m a i n t a i n s a d i f f e r e n c e r o o t e d i n an a f f i l i a t i o n t h a t i s opaque and i n a c c e s s i b l e t o b o t h v i o l e n t a p p r o p r i a t i o n and l e a r n e d c o o p t a t i o n . I t i s the u n s p o k e n f o u n d a t i o n o f a f f i r m a t i o n s t h a t have p o l i t i c a l meaning t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y a r e b a s e d on a r e a l i z a t i o n o f coming f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p l a c e .. on t h e p a r t of t h o s e whom t h e o m n i p r e s e n t c o n q u e r o r s dominate. (229; my emphasis) The  same i s a l s o t r u e  writing;  for, like on  the the  spatial  feminist  writer  may  on  reconstitutive activity  the  focus  of  representation or  in  regional writer,  disruptive activity  ethnic the  ethnic  of m a p b r e a k i n g  of mapmaking but  or  i s usually  C f . B o e l h o w e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n i c s e m i o s i s as a f o r m of d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s c o u r s e which "holds i t s ground a g a i n s t the map of n a t i o n a l c i r c u l a t i o n " (143).  30 involved altered  t o some e x t e n t  i t s terms of r e f e r e n c e ,  within  t h e dominant  resist  that  and  not to avoid  cartographic  avoidance.  discourse  being  "Ethnicity," therefore,  ethnocentric  (cartographical)  distinction  consequently  blurred,  between  as t h a t  i n d i c a t i n g the f a l l a c y  d i v i s i o n s inherent  rhetorical  b l u r r i n g of geographical by Edward  i n cartographic  "feminism" s e t of  o f meaning  definitions.  "our" t e r r i t o r y  rhetorical  expressed  like  s t r a t e g i e s which a c t i v a t e s a s l i p p a g e  between p r e s c r i b e d  subsumed  but p r e c i s e l y t o  " r e g i o n a l i s m , " may come t o be c o n s i d e r e d  rhetorical  is  i n b o t h ; t h e r e c o n s t i t u t e d map h a s  The e a s y and  "theirs"  of t h e neat  discourse.  boundaries  This  i s best  Said:  I t i s p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e t o a r g u e t h a t some d i s t i n c t i v e o b j e c t s a r e made by t h e mind, and t h a t these objects, while appearing t o e x i s t o b j e c t i v e l y , have o n l y a f i c t i o n a l r e a l i t y . A group of p e o p l e l i v i n g on a few a c r e s o f l a n d w i l l s e t up b o u n d a r i e s between t h e i r l a n d and i t s i m m e d i a t e s u r r o u n d i n g s and t h e t e r r i t o r y beyond, w h i c h t h e y c a l l ' t h e l a n d of t h e b a r b a r i a n s ' . I n o t h e r words, t h i s u n i v e r s a l p r a c t i c e o f d e s i g n a t i n g i n o n e ' s mind a f a m i l i a r s p a c e w h i c h i s ' o u r s ' and a n u n f a m i l i a r s p a c e beyond ' o u r s ' w h i c h i s ' t h e i r s ' i s a way o f m a k i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t c a n be e n t i r e l y a r b i t r a r y . . t h e g e o g r a p h i c b o u n d a r i e s acccompany t h e s o c i a l , e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l ones i n e x p e c t e d ways. Y e t o f t e n t h e s e n s e i n w h i c h someone f e e l s h i m s e l f t o be n o t - f o r e i g n i s b a s e d on a v e r y u n r i g o r o u s idea o f what i s ' o u t t h e r e ' , beyond o n e ' s own t e r r i t o r y . A l l k i n d s o f s u p p o s i t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s , and f i c t i o n s a p p e a r t o crowd t h e u n f a m i l i a r s p a c e o u t s i d e one's own. (54) The  d e l i n e a t i o n of p h y s i c a l geography,  complicated  by t h e o p e r a t i o n  representation subtlety  of space,  of c u l t u r a l  of "imaginative  i t would  perception  argues Said, i s geography:"  the  seem, owes a s much t o t h e  as t o t h e p u t a t i v e  accuracy  of  31 technical  presentation.  t o d i s p l a y the detailed  A modern map,  same e r r o r s a s ,  representation  of  the  say,  of  course,  a medieval  physical  i s not  one,  but  environment  likely its  is  not 13  entirely  f r e e from  Maps, t h e r e f o r e , between t h e  should  suppositions  of  p r e s u m a b l y be  " t e c h n i c a l , " which might  topographical  imaginative m e a s u r e d on  include  maps, c o m p u t e r i z e d maps, and  "imaginative," "countries  the  of  which  i s perhaps best  t h e m i n d " and  a  continuum  standard  the  like,  exemplified  " l a n d s c a p e s of  geography.  the  and  i n the  the various  imagination"  of  creative writing. E t h n i c w r i t i n g , as existing define and  the  a t an  itself,  writers  to the of,  tendencies  of  governments.  of  i t s voice,  (274).  suspicious  symbol  i n t e r f a c e of  duplicities  identities"  of  of The  dialectic  self-creation, heightened  usually  of  map,  cultural  in this  concerned  self  sensitivity  and  of  to  other and  ethnic  s e l f - c r e a t i o n " makes them  r e s i s t a n t to,  I have s u g g e s t e d ,  the  homogenizing  "central"  can  be  s e e n as  a u t h o r i t y or  as  the  imperative.  context  of  literature  transformation,  "mainstream" c u l t u r e s and/or The  i t , i s "a  c u l t u r e s , a form  i n the  "duplicities and  two  centralized political  a dominant  considered  E l i Mandel d e f i n e s  expression  E t h n i c w r i t i n g can  t o o p e r a t e as  a form  the  be  of  For a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h e w o r k i n g s o f i m a g i n a t i v e g e o g r a p h y , see C h a p t e r 1, P a r t 2 of S a i d ' s O r i e n t a l i s m (NY: V i n t a g e , 1979) 49-72. A l s o , from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , ' J o h n L. A l l e n ' s e s s a y "Lands of Myth, W a t e r s o f Wonder: The P l a c e of t h e I m a g i n a t i o n i n t h e H i s t o r y of Geographical E x p l o r a t i o n , " i n D a v i d L o w e n t h a l , ed. G e o g r a p h y of t h e M i n d : E s s a y s i n H i s t o r i c a l G e o g r a p h y (NY: OUP, 1976) : 41-61.  32 counter-discourse implicitly of  t o t h e dominant  or e x p l i c i t l y  resists  c u l t u r a l imperialism.  described  the operations  cartographic t h e map  discourse  which  as a s p a t i a l paradigm  Madeleine O u e l l e t t e - M i c h a l s k a  has  of the paradigm:  Une s t r u c t u r e hegemonique c e n t r a l e d i s p o s e des moyens d ' i m p o s e r s a c u l t u r e , s e s modes d ' e t r e e t de p e n s e e . . c e t t e s t r u c t u r e , q u i p r e n d a u s s i t d t f i g u r e de m o d e l e a i m i t e r , s ' a f f i r m e comme l e monde e s s e n t i e l , 1 ' u n i q u e i n s t a n c e de d e c i s i o n c a p a b l e de d e c r g t e r ou e t en q u o i l a p e r i p h e r i e s e r a d i f f e r e n t e de. (37) By  resisting  "the  new  provide  the f a l s e essentialism  configurations"  imposes  of e t h n i c i t y , feminism  difference,  i n areas other  and  of the p l u r a l d i s c o u r s e s  than those  philosophique-theorique"  regionalism  Fictionalizing  (i)  The Map a s L i t e r a r y D e v i c e So  subordinated  the a u t h o r i t a t i v e  representational  t o " l a domination  function,  t o a s e r i e s of  status  regionalism  and t h e r e l e v a n c e  o f maps and formations of  and e t h n i c i t y ; I w o u l d now  more c l o s e l y a t t h e s p e c i f i c w o r k i n g s o f t h e map literary  like  to look  topos i n  texts.  Maps f u n c t i o n as m o t i f s ,  situated  general  o f t h e map, i t s  mapping s t r a t e g i e s t o t h e " c o u n t e r d i s c u r s i v e " feminism,  take  t h e Map  f a r I have r e s t r i c t e d m y s e l f  comments a b o u t  which  (Cixous 4 5 ) .  (3)  icons,  difference,  t h e r h e t o r i c a l framework f o r a c e l e b r a t i o n o f  self-proclaimed place  which  as l i t e r a r y  devices  and a s m e t a p h o r s .  i n three  The map  a t t h e f r o n t i s p i e c e of t h e t e x t ,  ways:  as i c o n  as i s usually  d i r e c t i n g the  33 r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n towards t h e importance location  i n the text  that  follows,  reader with  a referential  as  of i n f o r m a t i o n  the  a source reader  "reality" supplies text: the  represented  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l gleaned  texts  differ  from  in this  i s most o f t e n  the reader  on  to the real-world  319),  one o f s y m b o l i c  conventions:  comparative a c t i v i t y  are  invite  the duplicatory  w h i c h may  process,  presence  exemplify  literature,  of ink  (Muehrcke  they  represent.  and i n some two s e t s o f  The p r o c e s s o f  involves  representation;  i n contemporary  maps  involves the  the r e a l i t y  t o map,  Like  the reader to  of t h e symbols" often  Maps  identification,  Conventional  and t h e v i s u a l .  or t e x t  the process of mimetic prevalent  from  the text  function i n  d i f f e r e n c e , by j u x t a p o s i n g  the verbal  m a t c h i n g map t o t e x t ,  in  i n design,  referents  of the  from l a n d s c a p e s .  images, b u t t h e i r  texts highlight this  cases exacerbate t h i s  sense,  i s r e f e r r e d back t o  t o "go beyond t h e p h y s i c a l  t h a t maps d i f f e r  Maps i n l i t e r a r y  in this  and v i s u a l c o d e s .  respect  a process of adjustment which  recognition  i t challenges  the a c t of reading  representation.  persuade paper  The map,  and i n some c a s e s t o q u e s t i o n ,  procedures of mimetic  operates  of the t e x t w i t h the  the text  so t h a t  w h e r e a s maps, more c o n c e p t u a l consider,  The map  p r i n c i p l e f o r the reading  maps, l a n d s c a p e s a r e c u l t u r a l texts  supplying the  b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  a n a l t e r n a t i o n between v e r b a l  literary  geographical  to the text.  by t h e map.  map f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n ,  literary  but a l s o  t o match h i s e x p e r i e n c e  information  involves in  guide  of  flaws  the reader or  for this  in a  discrepancies reason,  maps  e s p e c i a l l y i n those  34  self-reflexive  fictions  which  mimesis or the r e f e r e n t i a l impossibility the by the  t h e map,  i n maps:,  also holds  appeal  imagination;  o f t h e map a s a m e t a p h o r  and f o r w r i t e r s o p e r a t i n g  map a n d t h e r e a l i t y An  distance  the divergence  e a r l y example  between  represented  f o r w r i t e r s of fantasy,  mode, who h i g h l i g h t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n the  The  on t h e map a n d t h e ' r e a l i t y '  image-making c a p a c i t y  creative  the n o t i o n of  f u n c t i o n of language.  of e x a c t i t u d e  images p r e s e n t e d  problematize  between  who use  for  i n an  ironic  the appearance of  i t represents.  of a w r i t e r  i s Jonathan Swift.  combining  S w i f t ' s maps  fantasy  with  4£l rac Tiinul r  Gulliverian  Fig. 6 Hem i s p h e r e .  ironic  i n Gulliver's Travels  Parts Unknown.  The  the  Detail,  Swift,  1766  35  36 are a d e l i b e r a t e l y  i n c o n g r u o u s m i x t u r e of the r e a l  imaginary: h i s f i c t i t i o u s precision,  are charted with  a c c e n t u a t i n g gaps i n c o n t e m p o r a r y  knowledge, and at  islands  the v i s u a l  embellished with  irrelevant  h i s m o c k e r y o f t h e p r e t e n t i o n s o f t h e New  poking fun  a t c a r t o g r a p h e r s s u c h as Hermann M o l l ,  1719,  than ten y e a r s b e f o r e the p u b l i c a t i o n  had presumed t o p r o d u c e  "A New  In  Science, Swift  aim  Travels,  scientific  cartography.  particular less  the  geographic  detail,  extravagances of contemporary  and  and  of  Correct  takes  who,  in  Gulliver's Map  of  the  14 Whole W o r l d . " geographic his  Ironic  knowledge,  reflections  S w i f t ' s maps a l s o  i m a g i n a t i o n ; i n t h i s way,  conjectural worlds  of  worlds  testify  scope  of  t o t h e power of  t h e y s e r v e a t once  o f c a r t o g r a p h y and  to deride  to celebrate  the  the i n v e n t e d  fiction.  Another w r i t e r claims,  i s Joseph  comment  ironically  Latin  on t h e n a t u r e and  American  demonstrates  fascinated  Conrad.  by maps, y e t wary of  In Nostromo,  on t h e g e o p o l i t i c a l  state,  Costaguana;  the i n s i d i o u s  Waiting for h i s interview eventually  send him  Continent,  Marlow  into  and  Conrad  u s e s t h e map  i n H e a r t of Darkness,  the t r a d i n g  the innermost  to  t e n s i o n s o f an i n v e n t e d  a p p e a l of t h e p r o p a g a n d a by  their  he  map.  company w h i c h  will  r e a c h e s o f t h e Dark  beholds  See R. C a s e ' s e s s a y "The G e o g r a p h y and C h r o n o l o g y of G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s , " i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n Four E s s a y s on G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s ( G l o u c e s t e r , Mass.: P e t e r S m i t h , 1958) 50-68. A l s o J o h n R. Moore, "The G e o g r a p h y o f G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s , " J o u r n a l of E n g l i s h and G e r m a n i c P h i l o l o g y 40 ( 1 9 4 1 ) : 214-28.  37  a l a r g e s h i n i n g map, marked w i t h a l l t h e c o l o u r s of a rainbow. T h e r e was a v a s t amount of r e d - good t o see a t any t i m e , b e c a u s e one knows t h a t some r e a l work i s done, i n t h e r e , a deuce of a l o t of b l u e , a l i t t l e g r e e n , smears o f o r a n g e , and, on t h e E a s t C o a s t , a p u r p l e p a t c h , t o show where t h e j o l l y p i o n e e r s of p r o g r e s s d r i n k t h e j o l l y l a g e r - b e e r . (55) Ensnared and  by  the  size  and  intensity  reconfirms i t s blatant imperial  is  undeniably  is  ineffective  powerful  as a symbol  as a r e f e r e n t i a l  n a v i g a t i o n manual, Marlow's two course  f o r the  Inner  first  registers  (52);  the  The  Station,  a switch  jargon)  t h e manual, w h i c h map  neither  and  t h e manual  case  as a m o t i f  can  guide.  Neither  main guides  accepts  i f the  space"  authority, i t t h e map  as he  cannot  to  can  map  nor  the  steers a the  "darkness"  understand  (the c r y p t i c  annotations  t o have been w r i t t e n i n R u s s i a n ) .  are both  codified  Marlow c r a c k t h e  s u p p o r t i n g the  Yet  of p o l i t i c a l  a code he  he  t u r n out  Marlow  prejudice.  "blank  from  t o one  t h e map,  i s o f much h e l p t o him:  a change from  second  (navigational to  of  novel's  systems,  c o d e ; t h e map central  but  in  duly functions  theme of  hidden  truth. In  a later  n o v e l w h i c h draws e x t e n s i v e l y on H e a r t  D a r k n e s s , James D i c k e y ' s motif  supporting the  leaves h i s job challenging "come out  of  D e l i v e r a n c e , t h e map  theme of d e s i g n .  (as a g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r )  journey  i n t o the  t h e map."  But  interior,  of  f u n c t i o n s as  a  When t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o embark on he  a  b e l i e v e s t h a t he  t h e h o l i d a y he had  "designed"  has fails  38 t o meet t h e out  of  control,  controlled be  no  and  Swift  map  the  usually  of  the  map  map  as  are  work o f  Some of  the  control  a whole w o r l d .  mysterieuse  i s a microcosm  away on  a  proceed  to  does not island,  remote S o u t h explore,  merely provide but  Geographical of  the  a prerequisite  "real"  world.  icon,  C o n r a d and  Dickey  information  where c o n t r o l  development  of  the  network, the  and  group's s c r i b e  map  (and  set  out  the  Island  it.  to  texts, of  map,  around  to  ends:  of  trappings  of  of  Jules enclose  in  his  of  as  are  L'lie  project:  colonization  functions  control  define,  Their  political  metaphor.  novelist  S m i t h and  establishment  other  as  examples  century  entails appropriation  nature,  a l l the  best  orientation  a h i e r a r c h i c a l system  d o m e s t i c a t i o n of  the  containment) or  island,  i s turned  newly-named L i n c o l n  control,  and use  transform  for  to  the  of V e r n e ' s f i c t i o n a l  a means of  The  process  Cyrus Smith's e x p e d i t i o n  and  goes  his l i f e .  shown i n t h e  nineteenth  Pacific  map,  trip  e v e n t s of  V e r n e , whose V o y a g e s e x t r a o r d i n a i r e s and  i t ; the  escape w i t h  implicitly  (arrangement,  coercion).  i n the  the  to  of  u s e d as m e t a p h o r s i n l i t e r a r y  structure  (organization, provided  i s lucky  a l l three  frequently of  required  unpredictable  exploits  as m o t i f ,  Maps a r e  he  abstractions  match f o r If  the  d e f i n i t e standards  the  cast  followers however, the island. the  a metaphor  map of  territory,  government, of  a  communications  a colonial  cartographer) Pencroff  regime.  enthuses:  Nous f e r o n s de c e t t e l i e une p e t i t e A m e r i q u e ! Nous y b a t i r o n s des v i l l a s , nous y e t a b l i r o n s des c h e m i n s de f e r , nous y i n s t a l l e r o n s des t e l e g r a p h e s , e t un beau j o u r , quand e l l e s e r a b i e n t r a n s f o r m e d , b i e n a m £ n a g e e , b i e n c i v i l i s e e , nous i r o n s 1 ' o f f r i r au gouvernement de 1 ' U n i o n . (139-40)  As  39 The  map c a n a l s o  colonizers' light on  be c o n s i d e r e d  geometrification  on t h e m e t i c u l o u s  the larger,  of t h e i r environment  structural organization  Verne's f i c t i o n ,  like  the p r i n c i p l e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  "technology merely  of s t r u c t u r e ; t h e thus  sheds  o f t h e t e x t and  " c o m p r e h e n s i v e " schema o f t h e V o y a g e s  extraordinaires. on  a s a metaphor  of p o s s e s s i o n "  to describe  and c o n q u e s t ,  (McClintock  t h e environment  h i s geography,  operates  t h e map's  151) e n a b l i n g  i t not  b u t t o i n s c r i b e upon i t t h e 15  cultural  imperative  Verne and  of c o l o n i a l i s t  i s not alone  i n h i s use o f t h e map t o c o n t r o l  legitimize his fictional  William  expansionism.  enterprise.  Consider  one o f  F a u l k n e r ' s Yoknapatawpha C o u n t y maps, f o r example,  significantly Faulkner,  inscribed with  sole  the signature:  owner and p r o p r i e t o r ; " o r W a l t e r  t o n g u e - i n - c h e e k , weary o f "Greenwich l a t i t u d e s , " who  "William de l a Mare,  t i m e and t e r r e s t r i a l  imagines  how e a s y t o t a k e p e n c i l and b r u s h and i d l y map o u t t h e p l a c e where one w o u l d be. No need t o be s p e c i f i c ; no c a l l t o g i v e i t e v e n a name. I t would be q u i t e u n n e c e s s a r y even t o w r i t e a book a b o u t i t . I t w o u l d f e t c h n o t f o r t y - f o u r f a r t h i n g s i n open auction. I t w o u l d be o n l y a poor t h i n g , b u t i t w o u l d be one's v e r y own. (347) But  t h e map i s n o t j u s t a metaphor  appropriation;  i t i s also  of a r t i s t i c  one o f i n t e r n a l  self-  artistic  See K a r e n M c C l i n t o c k ' s e s s a y i n S o u t h A t l a n t i c Q u a r t e r l y 87.1 (1988); a l s o t h e c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n of J e a n Chesneaux's Une L e c t u r e p o l i t i q u e de J u l e s V e r n e ( P a r i s : Maspero, 1966) .  40 ISSETI8BE.HAS  McCalluiis, wktrt jowy Soj/ard Sartoris toent , tune* kit grandfather's •heart failed in the car wrtci.  N Where old*Bayard Sartoris died in young  SuJ pen.  r  ^uripn  isruMc  icsiijica*  Confederate Movement which Btnju pass on hit LEFT tide \  ana-  had to  J  \^0ld3ayard Sartoris' bank, which. Byron Snopes j robbed, which Tien, \Snopes later became president of A  H Sawmill  where3yron3unchfirst saw  Miss ..  I  Compsm's when their said Ik* pasture  "4. •.  Sajfardi car  John. Sartoris' Statnt & Ifflgy where he can watch his railroad, and cemetery where they buried kiddie 3undrc* al last •Belle MilckelTs •J-LoLston House ^ Henbovit Sail where §oodtuin tags lynched.  Miss Joanna 3urden's, vkrrt Okristmas kilUdJKUs Burden, frwhrrtJ.enagraft's child was horn. V  E  Hota Coti/Uldl  (75 Mo US town,  where Jason Compson lost his niece's trail, and wktrt •A-nse Sundren and his bous had to go in order txf reach Jefferson 4 7  pine'' H I L L S /»' '.'...•0""*'"',„.C..  J E F F E R S O N , Y O K N A P A T A W P H A C Q , cMLssissifppi tArea.,1400 Square Mties—PopulatioTifUhxtes, 62p8; Negroes, W I L L I AM FAULKNER, Sole Owner & Proprietor Fig. Yoknapatawpha  7  County,  Faulkner,  1936  05/5  organization.  Thus,  as A l a n  Sillitoe  explains,  j u s t a s a g e n e r a l needs maps upon w h i c h t o p l a n h i s campaign o r f i g h t h i s b a t t l e s , s o an a u t h o r r e q u i r e s them f o r h i s n o v e l s and s t o r i e s , e v e n i f t h e y e x i s t o n l y i n memory, o r i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . . . i t i s b e t t e r t o g e t them down i n b l a c k and w h i t e , b e t t e r s t i l l i n many c o l o u r s . , f o r t h e y c a n be j u s t a s much a p a r t o f t h e n o t e s f o r a n o v e l a s t h o s e key p h r a s e s and p a r a g r a p h s w i t h w h i c h y o u p r e p a r e t h e g r o u n d f o r one.  (686)  The  c o n s u l t a t i o n or i n v e n t i o n  for  Sillitoe  rigidity the it  "a s t a b i l i z i n g  and f a n t a s y . . .  same t i m e seemtsl  guiding  no l i m i t s  t o both  t h e mind, and a t  (689).  i n which  By  of f i c t i o n ,  claims  t h e map o p e r a t e s b o t h a s a v i s u a l complement t o  the w r i t t e n  text  and a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e w r i t i n g o f  text. Many t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y  Sillitoe s  w r i t e r s might agree w i t h  t e c h n i c a l measures but not w i t h h i s f i c t i o n a l  1  principles;  f o r t h e map  i n twentieth-century  t e n d e d t o f u n c t i o n a s a metaphor than the e x e r c i s e that  Its  I have a l r e a d y  r e m a i n i n g an i n a d e q u a t e  inaccuracies  ideological that  of c o n t r o l .  t h e map's a t t e m p t  the real world  political  symbol  of p o l i t i c a l guide.  expose  i n t h e c o n t r o l l i n g a g e n c y , so  t o l o c a t e and o r i e n t t h e i n d i v i d u a l  i s reidentified  manipulation.  rather  suggested  referential  and l a c u n a e , m o r e o v e r , may  inconsistencies  f i c t i o n has  of the appearance  t h e map may o p e r a t e a s a p o w e r f u l  control while  in  becomes  to the prison  one [ h a s ] b e e n b o r n "  and s h a p i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n  Sillitoe,  the  factor giving play  a way o f f i x i n g  recognizing  that  o f maps t h e r e f o r e  as a d i s g u i s e d  I t i s one t h i n g ,  f o r m of  however, t o  42 reveal The  t h e map  as a f a l s e  n o v e l s of K a f k a  and  e x a m p l e s of a c o d i f i e d  textual  key  a t a l l or any  country  but  failing this  Revel,  ironically  in  the  to the  which  different  appears  keys.  i t , Kafka's  dilemma.  either  Scanning  land  So t o o does  h a v i n g b o u g h t a map  surroundings  i t s geometric  inadequate  to replace i t .  surveyor Jacques  to orient  of a N o r t h e r n  English  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s p a c e  t a s k of f i n d i n g  to the  named p r o t a g o n i s t of M i c h e l B u t o r ' s  du Temps, who,  discovers  another  number of f a l s e  hermeneutic  unfamiliar  system  t o comprehend  dramatizes  L'Emploi  and  Robbe-Grillet provide  h a v e no  the  guide,  novel  himself town,  wholly  o u t what k i n d of p l a c e i t  really i s : C e r t e s , dans c e t t e f e u i l l e de p a p i e r c o u v e r t e de t r a i t s d ' e n c r e de c i n q c o u l e u r s , l e s c e n t i m e t r e s c a r r e s l i e \ s dans ma memoire a des b a t i m e n t s p e r g u s , a des h e u r e s , a des a v e n t u r e s , se s o n t m u l t i p l i e s , o n t e n v a h i de r e a l i t y un domaine de p l u s en p l u s v a s t e , m a i s i l r e s t e d'immenses l a c u n e s , d'immenses t r o u s d a n s c e t e s p a c e , ou l e s i n s c r i p t i o n s r e s t e n t l e t t r e m o r t e , ou l e s l i g n e s ne f o n t a p p a r a i t r e aucune image, ou l e s r u e s demeurent l a n o t i o n l a p l u s vague de ' r u e s de B l e s t o n ' , s a n s r i e n q u i p u i s s e l e s particulariser. (104) Confused it  with  and  exasperated,  his increasingly  p r o v i d e s a means of rambling  "journal  t h e map,  but  in  time  relief an the  or map  ongoing  Revel  convoluted diary,  intime," the  diary  realizes  space,  the d i a r y  of the  self  "truth."  h i s map,  only to replace  which,  structuring h i s experience.  once R e v e l  process  burns  that  proves the  like  as  no more u s e f u l  self  cannot  be  a  than  fixed  i s m o d i f i e d t o become a k i n d of  i n time;  use  map,  Beginning  i t i s consequently  r a t h e r t h a n a means of e v e n t u a l  Butor's  the  of t h e map  as metaphor  accepted access suggests  as  to that  43 he  c o n s i d e r s w r i t i n g t o be an i n c o n c l u s i v e a c t i v i t y ,  at  c o n t r o l b u t , a t t h e same t i m e ,  impossiblity rejected to  of t o t a l  a r e v e l a t i o n of the  So t h e map a s metaphor  o u t o f hand, b u t m o b i l i z e d ,  perceptual  and t e m p o r a l  reality:  the divergence  may a l s o c r e a t e  o f t h e map a s metaphor  Guyanese n o v e l i s t W i l s o n well  versed  fiction,  monolithic  the transformative  t o h i s advantage  Harris.  of r e f o r m u l a t i o n .  i s the  A t r a i n e d surveyor,  acquire  view  Harris i s In h i s  cultures;  incompatible  than as a m i r r o r  as a m e t a p h o r i c a l thus,  presuppositions.  and a s  maps a r e by  repre-  device  the narrator  dimensions which  a s an  of c u l t u r a l  imaginative prejudice,  i t can  f o r the i n t e r l i n k a g e of  of t h e n o v e l l a Palace  then l i b e r a t e s  link  c u l t u r e s i n " t h e womb o f  P e a c o c k s e e s t h e map o f t h e G u y a n e s e confirms,  instance,  Harris  of c o n q u i s t a d o r i a l c u l t u r e s ; i n t h e  I f t h e map i s p e r c e i v e d  rather  of conquest  communication  f u r t h e r , unforeseen  apparently  (137).  construct  In the f i r s t  s t r u c t u r e s which preclude  they  different,  first  produces a n x i e t y , but  between t h e map a s a p a r a d i g m  senting the one-sided  serve  I t resembles but  however, maps a r e u s e d p r i m a r i l y a s m e t a p h o r s .  a process  space"  accommodated  i n c a r t o g r a p h i c p r i n c i p l e s and p r o c e d u r e s .  distinguishes  second,  flux.  i s not  the p o t e n t i a l f o r transformation.  A c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r who t u r n s potential  reformulated,  inconstancy  does n o t equal it  control.  an a t t e m p t  of the  s a v a n n a h s a s a dream w h i c h  him f r o m , h i s c u l t u r a l  Here i s t h e f i r s t  stage:  The map o f t h e s a v a n n a h s was a dream. The names B r a z i l and Guyana were c o l o n i a l c o n v e n t i o n s I had known f r o m c h i l d h o o d . I c l u n g t o them now as t o a c u r i o u s n e c e s s a r y s t o n e and f o o t i n g , e v e n i n my dream, t h e g r o u n d I knew I must n o t r e l i n q u i s h . . . I c o u l d n o t h e l p c h e r i s h i n g my s y m b o l i c map...I saw t h i s kingdom of man t u r n e d i n t o a c o l o n y and b a t t l e g r o u n d of s p i r i t , a p r i c e l e s s t e m p t i n g j e w e l I dreamed I p o s s e s s e d . (24) And  here  i s the  second:  One had an i n t u i t i v e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e s a v a n n a h s t h o u g h empty - were crowded. A metaphysical outline d w e l t e v e r y w h e r e f i l l i n g i n b l o c k s where s p a c e s s t o o d and w i t h o u t t h i s one w o u l d n e v e r have p e r c e i v e d t h e c u r i o u s s t a t e m e n t of c o m p l e t i o n and p e r f e c t i o n . The work was t r u l y f i n i s h e d but no one w o u l d have known i t or s e e n i t or f o l l o w e d i t w i t h o u t a t r u s t i n g k i n s h i p and c o n t a g i o n . ( I l l ) Harris  s u b s t i t u t e s a unifying metaphysical  divisive  cultural  restraint need n o t  and  one:  the  possession"  but  interchange.  (108)  may Since  t h e map  i t s makers,  in  or  Butor, that,  does n o t with  metaphor Not Harris New of  light  from  simply  perceptual  of  i s inevitably  Zealand  be  a different reject  w r i t e r Janet  self-serving desire for  filtered  angle.  t o say,  be  through  one  but  considered  the  like  insists a  of p r e s e r v a t i o n .  a r e as o p t i m i s t i c  of t r a n s f o r m i n g  t h e map.  Frame, f o r example, maps a r e  c l a u s t r o p h o b i c containment which  cultural  Thus H a r r i s ,  as metaphor  i t may  r a t h e r than  the p o s s i b i l i t y  map  remade i f i t i s p e r c e i v e d  t h e map  adjustment,  reconstitution  of  embody t h e  i t may  from m a t e r i a l  r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the  as a symbol  a l l w r i t e r s , needless  about  by  alternatively  p e r c e p t i o n s of a new  narrator i s "freetdJ  n e c e s s a r i l y operate  authority,  construct for a  designate  as  For  the  metaphors  s o c i e t i e s whose  45 Procrustean  distinctions  "abnormal" t h i n l y prejudices. example,  disguise social,  In t h e novel  asylum  Scented  inmate V e r a  m e n t a l map w h i c h fear  between t h e " n o r m a l " and t h e  reflects  of r e s t r i c t i o n .  and c l a s s  Gardens f o r the B l i n d , f o r  Glace  both  racial,  c o n s t r u c t s an e l a b o r a t e  her d e s i r e f o r order  Thus, w h i l e  she w i s h e s t h a t  [ h e r ] room were i n numbered segments w h i c h w o u l d and  numbered"  psychiatrist provided sources  also  pinned  ( 1 7 ) , s h e d e t e s t s t h e f a c t s and f i g u r e s  of her  of " f a c t u a l "  crippled,  information.  and i t s e l f  of personal  like  encyclopedias  definitions  and o t h e r  For Vera,  Dr. C l a p p e r  mentally  ill  symbolizes,  and s o c i a l t o group  acknowledged  t h e map i s a  s t r u c t u r e w h i c h p r o v i d e s an i l l u s i o n  encourages,  people  and t h e " s t a n d a r d "  by d i c t i o n a r i e s ,  conception  " t h e map o f stay  Dr. C l a p p e r  schizophrenic  and h e r  of order but  the narrowly  dualistic  r e l a t i o n s h i p s which "the deaf,  i n one mass i n o r d e r vast  blind,  to 'deal  with  1  them, f o r we must  'deal with'  strangeness  demand a l l o u r l i v e s  a p r o t e c t i v e v a r n i s h of  emphasis,  w r i t e r Nuruddin  which  these  dumb,  allows  s u r f a c e s of  sympathy" ( 1 4 ) . With writes  similar  the Somali  o f maps a s i n s i d i o u s mechanisms j u s t i f y i n g t h e  d i s p o s s e s s i o n of m i n o r i t y peoples. generic  Farah  definitions  geopolitical  and d e s i g n a t e d  The de f a c t o  boundaries,  no man's l a n d s o f  maps a r e u s e d a s m e t a p h o r s f o r t h e d i v i d e d  46 loyalties  of those  i n v o l v e d i n t h e H o r n o f A f r i c a war.  following  conversation  uncle/mentor H i l a a l brings  between t h e p r o t a g o n i s t  i s worth quoting  at length  i n t o f o c u s many of t h e c a r t o g r a p h i c  previously  Askar  The  and h i s  because i t  i s s u e s I have  discussed:  Hilaal:  Do y o u c a r v e out o f y o u r s o u l t h e i n v e n t e d t r u t h o f t h e maps y o u draw? Or does t h e d a i l y t r u t h match, f o r y o u , t h e r e a l i t y y o u draw and t h e maps o t h e r s draw? Askar: Sometimes I i d e n t i f y a t r u t h i n t h e maps w h i c h I draw. When I i d e n t i f y t h i s t r u t h , I l a b e l i t a s s u c h . . I hope, as d r e a m e r s do, t h a t t h e dreamt dream w i l l match t h e dreamt r e a l i t y - t h a t i s , t h e i n v e n t e d t r u t h of o n e ' s own i m a g i n a t i o n . My maps i n v e n t nothing. They copy a g i v e n r e a l i t y , t h e y map o u t t h e r o a d s a dreamer has w a l k e d , t h e y identify a notional truth. H i l a a l : The q u e s t i o n i s , d o e s fcyuth c h a n g e ? Or do we?.. B e t t e r s t i l l , who or what i s more i m p o r t a n t , t h e t r u t h or i t s f i n d e r ? You l o o k a t a map, o f t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s i n A f r i c a , say...now compare t h e s i t u a t i o n t o d a y w i t h i t s g h o s t l y p a s t and someone may t h i n k t h a t a g r e a t d e a l of change has t a k e n p l a c e and t h a t names o f a number o f c o u n t r i e s have been a l t e r e d t o accommodate t h e n a t i o n a l i s t w i s h e s o f t h e p e o p l e of t h o s e a r e a s . But has t h e more b a s i c t r u t h undergone a c h a n g e ? Or have we?.. T h e r e i s t r u t h i n maps. The Ogaden, as Somali, i s t r u t h . To t h e E t h i o p i a n mapmaker, t h e Ogaden, as S o m a l i , i s u n t r u t h . (216-8) Farah's dramatization attention  t o t h e map's p r o b l e m a t i c  maps i d e n t i f y truth  in  or a p p r o x i m a t e ,  intuited,  illustration  draws  i f so, whether  socially  For t h e moment, l e t me  of the e q u i v o c a l  nature  Whether that  constructed  a r e i s s u e s I aim t o d e a l w i t h  the f o l l o w i n g chapters.  final  of c a r t o g r a p h y  s t a t u s as metaphor.  a " n o t i o n a l t r u t h , " and,  i s absolute  personally  of the p o l i t i c s  of  or  more leave  fully the  cartographic  47 representation,  the palimpsestic  superimposition  o f one, c o n t i n g e n t ,  another, mapreader  and t h e d i a l e c t i c a l i n the production  particularly  operation  form o f " r e a l i t y "  upon  i n t e r a c t i o n between mapmaker and o f meaning,  s e n s i t i v e to the p o l i t i c s  A f r i c a ' s Andre B r i n k .  o f t h e map a s a  t o another  writer  of cartography:  South  For B r i n k ,  the w r i t e r i s not concerned only with 'reproducing' the r e a l . What he does i s t o p e r c e i v e , below t h e l i n e s o f t h e map he draws, t h e c o n t o u r s o f a n o t h e r w o r l d , somehow a more ' e s s e n t i a l ' w o r l d . And f r o m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e l a n d a s he p e r c e i v e s i t t o be, and t h e l a n d a s he knows i t c a n be, someone f r o m o u t s i d e , t h e ' r e a d e r ' o f t h e map, w a t c h e s , and a i d s , t h e emergence o f t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e map. (169) (ii)  P r i n c i p l e s f o r a L i t e r a r y Cartography Despite  texts,  there  theorists This  the prevalence h a s been l i t t l e  on t h e p a r t  first,  construct  a geopolitical  by c o n s i d e r i n g  t h e map a s a  ( o r m o d e l ) , an h i s t o r i c a l claim;  second,  process;  and t h i r d ,  function  as i c o n , motif  practice  of l i t e r a r y  definition,  cartography.  connotation  proceeds from  document,  or i m p l i e d  in literary  can t h e r e f o r e  and l i t e r a r y  a distinction  represen-  by i l l u s t r a t i n g  and metaphor  cartography  f o r the  by o u t l i n i n g t h e o r e t i c a l  counterarguments t o s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v e d cartographic  literary  of c r i t i c s or  h a s gone some way t o w a r d s c o m p e n s a t i n g  deficiency:  and  attempt  to establish principles for a literary  chapter  tational  o f maps i n c o n t e m p o r a r y  i n the  t h e map's texts.  The  be b a s e d on t h e  f u n c t i o n o f maps; i t a l s o  between maps and o t h e r  spatial  48 m e t a p h o r s o r p a r a d i g m s ; f o r i f a map i s n o t e q u a l  to the  territory  landscape.  The  i t represents, n e i t h e r i s i t equal  principles  theory,  of l i t e r a r y  are fundamentally  representation;  concerned  like  with  in literature  raises  perceived,  the metaphoric  those  of l a n d s c a p e  the process of  but whereas t h e symbolic  landscapes  addresses  cartography,  to a  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t h e l a n d i s  f u n c t i o n o f maps i n l i t e r a t u r e  t h e i s s u e o f how t h e l a n d i s c o n t r o l l e d .  landscapes  are c u l t u r a l l y  determined  also  L i k e maps,  and s u s c e p t i b l e t o  political  m a n i p u l a t i o n ; maps, however, draw more i m m e d i a t e  attention  than  implication also but  landscapes  as p o w e r - s t r u c t u r e s .  i n v o l v e s not only also  s t a t u s , f u n c t i o n and Thus,  the o p e r a t i o n s of a s e r i e s or e x p l i c i t l y  strategies  are beneficial  direct  experience; reinforce  existing  to their  users,  divisions within society  wilfully  control  ambivalent: tools  experience.  in literary  serve to  or t o e x a c e r b a t e  to enclose,  r e s t r i c t or  texts i s therefore frequently  maps may be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p e r c e i v e d a s u s e f u l  the r e l a t i o n  between, t h e r e a l literary  or c u l t u r a l  The f u n c t i o n o f maps and m a p p i n g  and a s d a n g e r o u s weapons.  facilitate  strategies  Some o f t h e s e  i n v o l v e p o w e r - r e l a t i o n s which  p r e j u d i c e s , as i n t h e attempt  texts  as i n t h e attempt t o  personal, social  cultural  strategies  cartography  of t e r r i t o r i a l  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h maps.  and a r t i c u l a t e  others  literary  t h e f u n c t i o n o f maps i n l i t e r a r y  implicitly  order,  to their  texts,  Furthermore,  between, o r e x a c e r b a t e  and t h e r e p r e s e n t e d w o r l d .  maps a r e c o n v e n t i o n a l  maps may  either  the d i s t i n c t i o n Since,  like  systems of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  49 t h e y may be used a s p a r a d i g m s f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s and, i n many c a s e s , epistemological maps o f t e n feature  problematics,  feature  t h e o n t o l o g i c a l and of mimesis.  in self-reflexive  For t h i s  t e x t s ; they  patriarchal  representation;  representations centrism;  gender,  region  the  critical  For  associated  which  critique  as w i t h  or c u l t u r a l  discuss  likely  at greater  cultural  to focus  mainstreams.  i t s semantics:  texts  towards further  t a r g e t s of s o c i a l  views.  the p o l i t i c s  i t invites  on t e x t s  The t e n d e n c y  o f maps a s s y m b o l i c  i s as concerned w i t h  a u t h o r i t y or  c a n o n s and  u s a g e o f t h e map i n l i t e r a r y  the u t i l i t y  length  The s t u d y o f  or r e v i s e e s t a b l i s h e d l i t e r a r y  or as v e h i c l e s f o r r e v i s i o n i s t  political  construction  i n post-colonial  dispossession.  i s therefore  or p a r o d i c  cartography  perception,  o f t e n a s symbols o f imposed p o l i t i c a l  challenge  indicates  I shall  maps a r e p r e v a l e n t  cartography  ironic  between s p a t i a l  of the  and e t h n i c i t y make maps u s e f u l p a r a d i g m s f o r  reasons, which  self-acknowledging an  of c u l t u r a l  r e s i s t a n t t o or a v o i d i n g  and t h e s o c i a l  as m e t a p h o r s f o r t e r r i t o r i a l literary  a form  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of forms of i d e o l o g i c a l f o r e c l o s u r e .  chapters,  literatures,  c r i t i c a l of  the homogenizing d i s c o u r s e  The c o n n e c t i o n  representation  in later  or j u s t i f y  a n d by e t h n i c w r i t e r s  "mainstream."  behind,  by r e g i o n a l w r i t e r s  which p r o c l a i m  circumscription within  of  a l s o tend t o  i n t e x t s by f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s a n x i o u s t o l i b e r a t e  t h e m s e l v e s from, or t o r e v i s e the assumptions  graphic  reason,  For l i t e r a r y of  representation  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e map's c l a i m  t o v e r a c i t y as a  50 f u n c t i o n of the l i t e r a r y relation  between t h e l i t e r a r y  institutions. literary which  perspectives  as w e l l  analyses  and d e c o n s t r u c t i v e  as u s e f u l  cultural nature,  theories  r e l a t i o n s between  The map's f u n c t i o n a s a  suggests that  reconstitutive  semiotic  p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t p r a c t i c e s may  methodological  suggest,  then,  text  and c r o s s -  t o o l s i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  o f maps and m a p p i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n l i t e r a r y  I would  of the  to the l i t e r a r y  as t h e s p e c i f i c  s o c i e t y and h i s t o r y .  of s t r u c t u r e  assessment  and w i d e r  comparative  metaphor  serve  text  demands an a p p r o a c h  i n t o account  literature,  and a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  Because of i t s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  cartography  takes  cultural  text  that  literary  texts.  c a r t o g r a p h y be  f o u n d e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s : (1)  b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f t h e map; d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s , with p a r t i c u l a r reference to t h e o r i e s of s p a t i a l representation.  (2)  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e map; a r g u m e n t s and counterarguments r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t r a t e g i c uses o f mapping, w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o r i e s o f t e r r i t o r i a l i t y and m a r g i n a l i t y .  (3)  d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e map's f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a r y t e x t ; e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n of these f u n c t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r s y n t a g m a t i c ( i n t e r n a l ) and p a r a d i g m a t i c (external) operations.  (4)  a n a l y s i s o f t h e map t o p o s i n d i f f e r e n t l i t e r a t u r e s , with p a r t i c u l a r reference to l i t e r a t u r e s o r l i t e r a r y forms c o n s i d e r e d t o be m a r g i n a l ; e v o l u t i o n and c o n t e m p o r a r y m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e map t o p o s i n t h e s e literatures.  My own f o c u s in  i s on c o n t e m p o r a r y m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n f i c t i o n .  Why  o f t h e map  I have chosen  topos  texts  51 from in  these  this  particular  genre, w i l l  geographical  become c l e a r  areas,  i n the  from  next  this period,  chapter.  and  Chapter  Two  GROUNDS FOR COMPARISON  In t h e C a n a d i a n i m a g i n a t i o n , when p e o p l e d i s a p p e a r o f f t h e map, t h e y ' r e most l i k e l y t o show up i n A u s t r a l i a . (Jack  Hodgins)  53 "There at  i s a recognizable p r o f i l e  present i n existence,  variations,  and  and A u s t r a l i a n are  studied  Matthews's,  ... more may  such  The  (viii).  t h e y e a r 1962.  But  i n Canada,  McDougall's A u s t r a l i a n  journals  about  despite  Matthews's  i n recently  Perspectives  ( 1 9 8 6 ) , and  and W o r l d  i n special  i t would  of  theory rather  of n a t i o n a l  i n the  The  enough p r o b l e m s  their  own  desirable, Stratford  English  concern.  French w r i t i n g Feelings  of  i n English these  isolated: at  cross-cultural  reluctance  understandable; a f t e r  d e c i d i n g whether  and  editions  But  C a n a d i a n s t o promote c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h t h e i r i s perhaps  New  interdisciplinary  than the  literatures.  journals  in English:  i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a  seem, c o n v e r g e  of l i t e r a r y  counterparts had  studies  remain  have  Russell  Literature Written  somewhat  increasing,  comparative l i t e r a r y  and  i n G i l l i a n W h i t l o c k and  efforts,  though  optimism,  S t u d i e s and A u s t r a l i a n  comparison.  comparison  Canadian  established  devoted to the Canadian-Australian  pursuit  both  The words a r e J o h n  and C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e s  s u c h as A r i e l  present,  and  s t u d i e s have n o t d e v e l o p e d as he m i g h t  signs are there:  Studies  Comparative  of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  be d i s c o v e r e d  in isolation"  as A u s t r a l i a n - C a n a d i a n  Zealand  literature  l e t t e r s when t h e y a r e compared t h a n when t h e y  Canadian-Australian wished.  in spite  of Dominions'  on t h e  Australian all,  t h e y have  or n o t t h e c o m p a r i s o n i s a viable,  remain mixed;  part  as  of  or i n d e e d a  Philip  notes: C o m p a r a t i s t s of Canadian s u b j e c t s a r e t h e m s e l v e s condemned t o m a i n t a i n a p a r a d o x i c a l d u a l i t y . B l i n d e d by p r o x i m i t y t o t h e i r s u b j e c t , swayed by p o l i t i c s and  54 h i s t o r y , h a m s t r u n g by an i n e v i t a b l e n a t u r a l , l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n t o one of t h e two camps, t h e y must n e i t h e r u n i f y , nor d i v i d e . (138) The  reticence,  Canada  or  even t h e  r e f u s a l , of  t o engage i n c o m p a r a t i v e  scarcity  of  comparative  to  confirm  the  not  lost;  i n one  predicament of  Canadian w r i t i n g , perspective.  the  E.D.  outlined  best  by  polysemous, p o l y v a l e n t  fashion" the  that  (9).  studies,  reconstruction  C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y as  have c o n c r e t e and  culture"  ways o f (32).  Pivato s 1  for  to  b a r r i e r s of  some e x t e n t  on  production.  an  the  Canadian l i t e r a t u r e s ,  them t o be  of  that  he  of w r i t e r s  time,  s p a c e and  call  "in their  e t h n i c mosaic, time,  f o r an  space  elsewhere  c u l t u r e ' depends of  the rather  enables  assumptions  appreciation  to  cultural  i s Blodgett's:  another which  Canadian w r i t i n g i s timely,  writers  but  i n Canada and  another without  in  imaginative  e x i s t i n a metonymic  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one  Blodgett's  Blodgett,  ethnic writing  specific politics  claims,  one  comparatist  Pivato  b a r r i e r s of  p o s i t i o n , perhaps,  compared w i t h  homogeneity. plurality  ability  on  fundamental  Joseph  an  a l l is  essays to date  r h e t o r i c i s warming,  historically  A better  than a metaphoric  claims  s t r a d d l i n g the  unrealistic; 'straddle  he  seem  Canada e n d u r e s i n a  i n c l u s i o n of  Canadian l i t e r a r y of  Yet  these essays," says the  in  relative  f i r m l y defends h i s  ideologies,  for  the  Stratford.  assumes, d e s p i t e  in cultural  and  c o l l e c t i o n s of  "I have w r i t t e n  goes f u r t h e r ; a r g u i n g  research,  institutions  i n Canadian j o u r n a l s , would  Blodgett  "from a p o s i t i o n t h a t differences  essays  literary  of  particularly  of  the since  55 literary  and  cultural critics  have t e n d e d t o search doubt  overlook  to define be  been an  unfair  the  s u c h q u e s t i o n s as  national It  i n the than  i n the  of  they choose to  from  different cultures  languages,  or  imply  Pivato's  similarities  the  e r a s u r e or  assumption  seem more or  cultural of  of  painting"  a form  (32).  i n t o the  This  Moreover,  theory  on  that  the  recent  their  "In as  being  music,  of  t h i s f o r m of  e v e n where a more  i s maintained,  as,  for  example,  an  dance  comparatists  impact  comparative l i t e r a r y  i n a wide d i s m i s s a l so  untrue:  w h e t h e r many w o u l d a g r e e on  of w r i t i n g .  e s s e n t i a l ism,  in different  compromise of  i s perceived  deriving  r e l a t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t d i s c u r s i v e  i t i s doubtful  structuralist  between w o r k s  human e x p r e s s i o n l i k e  i s simply  about  syncretists:  i s symptomatic:  essential  unity,  not  d i s c i p l i n e s , or w r i t t e n  a l l writing  position  about  a common m i s c o n c e p t i o n  Comparative L i t e r a t u r e ,  resulted  the  have  MacLennanesque a l l e g o r i e s  Comparatists are  outline  does n o t  differences.  unity"  Canadian w r i t i n g  social difference  here to d i s p e l  that  but  case,  identity. i s as w e l l  inquire  i n any  many c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s  pursuit  comparative l i t e r a t u r e .  or  but  no  also  "what i s C a n a d i a n  p r o m u l g a t i o n of  in their  I t would  f o r what has  creative writers;  C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e ? " , and  diversity  critics  c o s m o p o l i t a n t e n d e n c i e s of  problematized  interested  consciousness.  blame t h e  o b s e s s i o n of  increasingly  "minor" c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s  a national to  i n Canada, above a l l i n Quebec,  the of  modes,  "essential post-  studies  has  false  "traditionalist" i n the  comparison  56 between two  texts written  comparatist  i s more l i k e l y  reconcile  or u n i f y  the  subject, Kateryna  and  Australia"  be  seen  (10).  not  Both  and,  1988).  s i m p l y as  and  itself  rather  t h a n t o be  debate"  t o be  does n o t  seek  national  identity  that  criticism  ( 9 ) ; what schizoid  redefined  to disabuse h e r s e l f rather  on  mixing  Although  Her  from  historical  to  the s o c i a l  and  the development  suggests,  (9).  that  Arthur  c o n v e n t i o n s of  their  mobility;  kaleidoscopic "transnational  falls  s h o r t of  comparison  e m p h a s i s on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  Thus, w h i l e she p o i n t s o u t  power  (or u n i f y i n g ) c o n c e p t s  of s h i f t i n g  f a c t o r s w h i c h have  of t h e C a n a d i a n  is  country's  of c r e a t i v e  of myths and  f o r the e f f e c t i v e  these l i t e r a t u r e s .  Australia,  she  insecurity"  i s a p p e a l i n g , she  a methodology  and  transnational"  n a t u r e o f each  of  ...  nationalistic-  A r t h u r ' s argument f o r a  of l i t e r a t u r e s "  establishing  the  Deleuze  Canada c a n  i n Canada and  t o demonstrate  the c o n t r a r y , a s e r i e s  patterns.  as  i s needed,  what emerges i s n o t a s e t of u n i f i e d but,  but  as a s o u r c e  s e e n as a s o u r c e  but  and  on  Canada  t h e t h e o r y of  "Australia  "impeded by  "allows the  of  to  Canadian-  to a recent essay  D r a w i n g on  international,  c l a i m s A r t h u r , have been  vision  t e x t s than  as n o t o n l y between l i t e r a t u r e s  literature  a model w h i c h  of the  specifically,  Arthur argues  antinationalistic  the  A r t h u r ' s "Between L i t e r a t u r e s :  (Ariel,  disjunctively  cultures,  t o move between t h e s e  back t o t h e p r o b l e m  comparison  and G u a t t a r i ,  languages,  them.  T h i s b r i n g s me Australian  in different  and  "white  Australian Canadians  of  diverts  her  contributed literatures. and  Australians  were l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and  placed  personal prefers  dispossessed  by t h e f a c t o f t h e i r  i n t o s i t u a t i o n s where s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n ,  or n a t i o n a l , was d i f f i c u l t to discuss  displacement  the broader  rather  than t h e s p e c i f i c  to find  a language  she  of l i n g u i s t i c  s o c i o - h i s t o r i c i s s u e of  t h e i r new e n v i r o n m e n t ,  compatible with  and how  reshape  that  l a n g u a g e and t h o s e p e r c e p t i o n s .  writing  i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a i s , a f t e r a l l , a s much a to previous  deriving  from  received,  came, a t l e a s t i n d i r e c t l y , t o  c u l t u r a l perceptions  colonial inheritance,  Australia paths, and  resist  "encompassing  fragmented  u n i t s w h i c h may  t o some e x t e n t  suggesting here  is still is:  first,  that  mixing of l i t e r a t u r e s i s i t s e l f  broader  i n Canada and  i n favour  conditions  as w e l l  their  built-in  o f more random larger  o f t h e new  a "mapmaker;" t h e new  however  a construct  to the  t h e more  o r may n o t y i e l d  he or s h e p r o d u c e s ,  may a p p e a r ,  historial  that  ( 7 ) . But e v e n t h e most d e s t r u c t i v e  configuration  and  g e n e a l o g y and  structures with  and t e r r i t o r i e s  "mapbreakers" i s a l s o  it  of " p a t e r n i t y ,  forms o f contemporary w r i t i n g  chronologies  patterns"  and p r e c o n c e p t i o n s  as i t i s a response  ( 4 ) . I t i s c e r t a i n l y true  experimental  For contemporary  a common, i f d i f f e r e n t l y t r a n s m i t t e d  (meta)linguistic manifestations authority"  how  their  perceptions,  response  literature  whether  (4),  t h e o r e t i c a l issue  how t h e s e t t l e r s came t o t e r m s w i t h they attempted  to achieve"  migration  random and d i s c r e t e  o f some s o r t .  the c a l l a response  for a  What  I am  transnational  t o a s e t of s p e c i f i c  as t h e r e c o g n i t i o n  t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s ; and, s e c o n d ,  o f a need f o r  that  the nature of  58 this  response  i s not u n l i m i t e d :  there  must,  i n other  words,  a l w a y s be some g r o u n d s f o r comparison.''' Having s a i d t h i s ,  what a r e t h e g r o u n d s f o r c o m p a r i s o n  between C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g ? would appear and  t o be t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  Australian literatures  writing.  A generalized  transported Australia, task  distinction  n o t so much  the Canadian  c a n be made h e r e  colonial cultures:  as opposed t o I n d i a  upon a n o t h e r  of c o n s i d e r i n g  immediate  as r e l a t e d forms of p o s t - c o l o n i a l  and t r a n s p l a n t e d  consisted  The most  or A f r i c a ,  i n Canada and  the colonizers'  i n the imposition  as i n t h e a d a p t a t i o n  between  early  o f one c u l t u r e  of the "parent" c u l t u r e t o  2 the  new l a n d .  The new  settlers'  t h e m s e l v e s t o an u n f a m i l i a r , the  struggle  about  land,  some o f t h e l a t e r ,  land  t h e major  discrepancy too large  (Australia) deal  finding  became, and u n t i l  (Canada) a n d / o r  countries;  human  r e c e n t l y have  probably  c o l o n i a l vocabulary  altogether  c a n be d i s c e r n e d  in a  great  writing.  As  themselves of c o l o n i a l  however, t h e y a p p l i e d  themselves t o the task of  capable of d e s c r i b i n g  * C f . Harry Levin, H a r v a r d UP 1 9 7 2 ) .  and a  too strange  and some t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y  began t o d i s a b u s e  a language  a l l i e d to  theme o f C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g .  f o r that vocabulary  preconceptions,  environment,  c o l o n i a l preconceptions  l i t e r a t u r e . f r o m both  between an i m p o r t e d  of nineteenth,  writers  harsh  a r e r e f l e c t e d i n much o f t h e e a r l y , and  responses t o the land  The  often  t o f r e e t h e m s e l v e s from  t h e new  remained,  a t t e m p t s t o accommodate  and, i n c r e a s i n g l y , o f  Grounds f o r Comparison  (Cambridge:  2 W.H.  For a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , s e e New. Among W o r l d s ( E r i n , O n t : P r e s s P o r c e p i c , 1 9 7 5 ) .  59 mythologizing task:  the land.  Social  numerous a r t i c l e s  written  on t h e i n f l u e n c e  Canadian  rural  Other  and f u l l - l e n g t h w o r k s have  ballads  and y a r n s o f t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y  done on i n d i v i d u a l  responses t o the land,  complex  relations  C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n  sentiment Australia.  change,  writers'  contexts f o r those  s t u d i e s have been  between s o c i a l  on t h e  f o r me t o r e v i e w h e r e ,  and on t h e s o c i a l  responses, while several  been  strictures  and o f p o p u l a r n a t i o n a l i s t  s c h o l a r l y work, t o o s u b s t a n t i a l  has been  to the  o f t h e C a l v i n i s t w o r k - e t h i c on t h e  romance, o f J a n s e n i s t m o r a l  Quebec roman du t e r r o i r , on t h e bush  f a c t o r s l e n t weight  devoted t o the  environmental  3 p e r c e p t i o n and l i t e r a r y one  o f t h e s e s t u d i e s , W.H.  Canadian west:" in  development  New d e m o n s t r a t e s  s e t t l e r s moved w e s t ,  the history  they a l s o  of Canadian w r i t i n g  the ambivalent r e l a t i o n s h i p  social)  i n t h e two c o u n t r i e s .  can t h e r e f o r e  or m o b i l e than i t s Anglo-Canadian  Patricia  be c h a r t e d  between g e o g r a p h i c a l (and  e x p a n s i o n and m y t h o l o g i c a l  characterized  as t h e  began t o " a r t i c u l a t e  expression.  Quebec, on t h e o t h e r hand, t r a d i t i o n a l l y  been  that,  In  by t h e t e n d e n c y  less  counterpart, towards  Writing i n individualistic has f r e q u e n t l y  claustrophobia.  Smart e x p r e s s e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n w e l l : L ' e s p a c e g e o g r a p h i q u e de l a l i t t e r a t u r e t r a d i t i o n n e l l e du Quebec, enfermg e t  Among t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e o f t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e S u s a n Wood, The L a n d i n C a n a d i a n P r o s e (Ottawa: C a r l e t o n Monographs, 1 9 8 8 ) ; L u c B u r e a u , E n t r e l ' E d e n e t l ' U t o p i e : f o n d e m e n t s de l ' e s p a c e q u e b e c o i s ( M o n t r e a l : Quebec/Amerique, 1986); Ross G i b s o n , The D i m i n i s h i n g P a r a d i s e : C h a n g i n g L i t e r a r y P e r c e p t i o n s o f A u s t r a l i a ( M e l b o u r n e : Angus and R o b e r t s o n , 1 9 8 4 ) .  60 d i m i n u £ , e s t p e r c u comme une v e r s i o n a v i l i e de l i m m e n s e c a n e v a s g e o g r a p h i q u e occupe par l a N o u v e l l e France avant l a Conquete. L ' e s p a c e dans l a l i t e r a t u r e c a n a d i e n n e a n g l a i s e e s t ouvert, e c l e c t i q u e e t souvent d e r o u t a n t dans s a d i s p a r i t y r g g i o n a l e : c ' e s t un e s p a c e q u i permet 1 * e x p l o r a t i o n e t 1 ' e x p a n s i o n . (34) 1  Australian spatial  l i t e r a t u r e might  paradigms:  from  be c o n s i d e r e d t o combine t h e s e two  t h e bush  settings  t o t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e s of White of  Australian writing  perceived  resistance  agoraphobic open  i s a t once towards  i n i t s fear  and Stow, t h e " s p a c e "  claustrophobic  t h e crowded  in its  u r b a n f r i n g e s and  o f , y e t compulsion towards,  the vast,  interior. How  useful  as a p o i n t  literary  perceptual  n o t i o n s of space,  One way, p e r h a p s ,  potential  f o r confusion  paradigm;  I have c h o s e n t h e map, n o t j u s t  that vision.  Thus,  spatial  b e c a u s e maps  i n C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g  o f t h e l a n d ; maps c o n c e p t u a l i z e ,  Landscapes codify  artistic  expression,  of  artistic  control.  maps a r e b e t t e r  A further  they  express a  and r e g u l a t e  considered  distinction  feature  but because  i f l a n d s c a p e s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  of  notions of  of a v o i d i n g the  i s t o f o c u s on a s p e c i f i c  themselves paradigmatic s t r u c t u r e s .  vision  each  over  n o t i o n s o f l a n d s c a p e , and l i n g u i s t i c  and s t r u c t u r e .  frequently  serve perhaps  changes w i t h i n  they tend t o g l o s s  between p h i l o s o p h i c a l  socio-cultural  They  t o a c c o u n t f o r complex  and l i n g u i s t i c  t r a d i t i o n ; moreover,  differences  metaphor  are these g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ?  of d e p a r t u r e , but f a i l  historical,  are  o f Lawson and F u r p h y  as v e h i c l e s as  paradigms  c a n be made  between  61 the  h i s t o r y of  geographical topos  symbolic  exploration  i n C a n a d i a n and  relation  i n both  geographical  representation  countries  discovery.  Quebec, M a c k e n z i e and  status:  their  The  s t u d i e s Men  Australia,  h i s t o r i a n s of to  popularity  and  charts  the  tenure,  so  that  prerequisite great  for s e t t l i n g  navigators  W e s t e r n Sea  etc.)  and  the i t .  explorers  should  be  (and  to  their  Mapping  of R.V.  the  h i s t o r y of  s u r v e y s of  surveying  Cartier the  and  present  day.  d e m o n s t r a t e s , were a l m o s t  in character.  surveying  In  e a r l y voyages of  Canada, he  supported  and  imbalance.  maps o f  cartographers  charts.  Thomson and  study  in  owes more  Don  The  French  t h e s e men  cartography  sophisticated geodetic  French  of  and  and  The  this  close  navigators  Champlain  for Canadian  maps or  Cabot t o the  exclusively  and  and  m a p p i n g i n Canada f r o m  earliest  explorers  of  map  development  Meridians  redress  Thomson's m a s s i v e and  the  i c o n s whose e x p l o i t s  rich material  respective  s e t out  of  i n W e s t e r n Canada, Cook  a l l cultural  adventures than to t h e i r  Tooley  their  C a r t i e r and  Vancouver  have p r o v i d e d  Australian writers.  prevalence  between h i s t o r i c a l  Some of  i n A u s t r a l i a , are  journals)  The  that  A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g owes much t o t h e  have a t t a i n e d l e g e n d a r y  Sturt  (maps).  ( l a n d s c a p e ) and  The  maps and  surveys  a s e i g n e u r i a l system l a n d was The  of  of land  primarily perceived  celebrated  (the Northwest  seen i n t h i s  goals  of  the  Passage,  the  context,  alongside  as  a  the  62  Fig. New F r a n c e ,  8  C h a m p l a i n , 1632  63 more modest d o m e s t i c and  expansion.  were n o t , seeking  and  Mapping t h e  after  n a v i g a t o r s and  country  a l l , the business  individuals,  country's  commercial  but  the  o b j e c t i v e s of and  resources.  D e s c r i p t i o n of  The  charting i t s coastlines  of a s e l e c t  g r o u p of  combined e f f o r t s  s u r v e y i n g teams i n t e n t  settlement  on  of e x p l o r e r s ,  developing  preface to Bouchette's  t h e P r o v i n c e s of Lower Canada  glory-  the  Topographical  (1815) i s  instructive: The i n t e r i o r of Lower Canada b e i n g so l i t t l e known beyond t h e l i m i t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , a b e l i e f that a d e t a i l e d account of i t w o u l d n o t o n l y be u s e f u l i n s h e w i n g i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e , but by b r i n g i n g i t under more g e n e r a l n o t i c e , m i g h t p o s s i b l y a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of i t s v a s t r e s o u r c e s , has l e d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a t o p o g r a p h i c a l map upon a l a r g e s c a l e and t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g Book t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e same more f u l l y . As  i n E u r o p e , maps i n Canada became a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r  commercial  expansion:  the  d r i v e west,  Mackenzie's e x p e d i t i o n s i n the geographically of  the  taken of  o r i e n t e d but  the  by  inevitable  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of  immigration  territory,  the development  relocation  of  seen  in this  colonizing  context  process,  negotiation,  by  c e n t u r y , was  of  land surveyor, a l a n d and  assisting  role  policies  expansion.  of  of  was  "harbinger (2).  of  communications networks,  i n d i s p e n s a b l e agents  a p p r o p r i a t i o n and  The  i t s people"  lands; nineteenth-century as  thus  e x p l o r e r or n a v i g a t o r  n e c e s s i t a t e d the a l l o c a t i o n  indigenous  by  economically motivated.  the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  Increasing  be  eighteenth  seventeenth/eighteenth-century over  symbolized  and  the  surveys  can  the  territorial  64  In A u s t r a l i a , different holds  course.  a unique before  southern  l a n d of  century,  As  place  imagined  discoveries  the  of  history R.V.  Marco  Dampier  and  prophesied  possessed  territories  hitherto  been found  seventeenth  French  School  unwilling instead  to  "logical"  and who,  out"  blanks  extension,  Austral i s Incognita. century  cartographer  Detail  from  Moreover,  only  of  a kingdom  (Tooley  and  Dutch  gaps w i t h  the  eighteenth  "[would]  as  any  become  that  of  counterparts,  were  r e g i o n s and  [had]  Sanson to produce a w o r l d  myths o f  map  the World.  the  attempted  conjecture  p o s s i b l e f o r the  Fig. 9 S a n s o n ' s Map o f  by  e x t r a o r d i n a r y maps  (often wild)  i t was  being  g o l d whose  c o n t r i b u t e d to p r e v a i l i n g Thus,  by  cartographers  f o r unexplored  a  Australia  dispelled  in 1747,  The  took  fabled  the  fruitful  ix).  century  the  partially  of  rich  out,  cartography  into  eighteenth  their  of  Emmanuel Bowen as  surveying  pointed  Tasman; w e l l  unlike their  to leave fill  history  P o l o was  rumours p e r s i s t e d  of  has  discovered.  discoverers,  of  Tooley  i n the  i t was  o f m a p p i n g and  and. Terra  seventeenth (1651)  1720  which  65 charted  the western  and  reasonable accuracy, outline teenth ern  but  c e n t u r y , went one  c o a s t s of A u s t r a l i a  Spanish  into  v o y a g e s of Cook and, eradicate  these  c o n j e c t u r e had  and  shifted  unexplored,  the  than  dispel  from  Sturt,  to take  potentially the aura  was  imagination.  and  harsh,  uninhabitable terrain The  Canadian  i t s counterimage  K i n g , were t o  to the v a s t ,  still  Burke and W i l l s ,  Eyre, Cook  reality  to reinforce  face  rather  U n l i k e Canada,  possibly  t h r e a t e n i n g but  desert-interior accessible  took  only to  of p r o g r e s s i v i s t  i n an A u s t r a l i a n myth of t h e  a self-fulfilling  had  Unknown.  L a n d ; so, w h e r e a s c a r t o g r a p h i c a c h i e v e m e n t s supplement  The  o v e r where Tasman and  h a b i t a b l e , the A u s t r a l i a n  of an  the  d i s c o v e r i e s were t o change t h e  cold  imagi-  Australia,  (named a f t e r  and  the c o a s t l i n e  interior.  north  but m e a n w h i l e t h e l o c u s of  p o p u l a r myths of t h e G r e a t  interior  t o show two  Guinea,  c o n t i n e n t , t h e y were p a r a d o x i c a l l y  where t h e  found  of F l i n d e r s  errors,  o f f ; but w h i l e t h e i r  seven-  u n i n t e r r u p t e d landmass.  later,  egregious  imaginary  while d'Anville  c o a s t s of New  one  L e i c h h a r d t proceeded  left  contriving  same map,  with  i n the l a t e  t h e e a s t e r n T e r r e de Q u i r o s  navigator)  largely  on t h e  entirely  Nicolosi,  better,  reconstructed the  T a s m a n i a , and  c o a s t s of A u s t r a l i a  s u p p l e m e n t e d an  of t h e n o r t h e r n c o a s t .  natively  of  southern  the  expansion Timeless  i n Canada  e c o n o m i c programme,  on  tended  in Australia  4 they  fuelled  an  imaginary  desire  for self-fulfilment.  F.H.  Cf. R o s s G i b s o n ; a l s o t h e e s s a y s i n P.R. Eaden and Mares, eds. Mapped but Not Known: The A u s t r a l i a n  This  to  66 distinction practice in  the  (Canada) and  case  denotation crucial map  between c a r t o g r a p h y  of f a i l e d of  the  topos  In h e r  study  as  with,  indeed,  accordingly in  and  i n which  the  her  Maps, she  the  says,  allow  us  to  i t " (352).  individual allow  him  deal while  She allegory"  i s placed to  orient  M c G r e g o r ' s argument i s  t a s t e f o r the  of t h e map  the  i n the  "anthropocentric  scheme w h i c h w i l l  infrequency  which  topos  general diverts  in early  ("the her  from  the  Canadian w r i t i n g  c o n s i d e r a b l e range of f u n c t i o n s i t has  i n the h i s t o r y  indication  of  "Canadian l i t e r a t u r e " ) ,  g l o s s e s over  served  (350).  o u r s e l v e s from  the prevalence  u n d e r m i n e d , however, by  relative  e v o l u t i o n of  iconic artifact  t o o l which w i l l  i n h i s newfound w o r l d .  Canadian,"  the  a  i s of  t o c o n s t r u c t , a phenomenal w o r l d  dissociating  some l a r g e r  himself  the  vocabulary"  Canadian l i t e r a t u r e ,  within  i t (Australia),  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  "a c o n c e p t u a l  notes  as L e i c h h a r d t ' s , as  W a c o u s t a Syndrome, G a i l e McGregor  literally  simultaneously  to achieve  "probably  Canadian's conceptual us w i t h  colonizing  respective literatures. The  d e s c r i b e s t h e map  provide  e x p e d i t i o n s such  i n any  in their  efficient  as a p r o j e c t i o n o f w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t , o r ,  failure  importance  as an  i s given  of  the  by W.H.  Canadian l i t e r a t u r e s . New,  when he  suggests  A better that  i t had been one of t h e t a s k s o f t h e [ C a n a d i a n ] w r i t e r s o f t h e f i r s t h a l f of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ... t o d e v e l o p an a r t i s t i c l a n g u a g e out of t h e r e a l l a n d s c a p e s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y moved; f o r t h e w r i t e r s who d e v e l o p e d or were r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t t w e n t y y e a r s ... a m a j o r t a s k was t o e x p l o r e t h e Landscape  1986).  of  the  Imagination a  ( N e t l e y , S.A.:  Wakefield  Press,  67 landscape t h a t i s language i t s e l f , f o r the purposes of f r e e i n g the i m a g i n a t i o n from r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t r i c t u r e s and a f f i r m i n g t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y of s p i r i t u a l ( v i s i o n a r y ) and p o l i t i c a l (empirical) goals, (xxiv) W h i l e New  is referring  symbolic  presentation  utilisation  of  t h e map  topos  increasingly in  of  t h e map  d e v e l o p m e n t he  traces  here to the landscape  as  a  allows  and  construction  of  i d e o l o g i e s of  provided  rejoinders  ironic  early  mythicized  reworkings of  Ringuet).  I t was i n t o the  "realistic" as  stylized  developing  allied  t o an  representation,  a major  topos i n the  earlier  writers  concerns  critical  inquiry  was  that  the  l a n d s c a p e s began t o g i v e  way  of  literary  inner  "dreamscapes"  landscapes  e m p h a s i s on  palpable  increasing scepticism was  or  O'Hagan,  of m i m e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  presentation  the  development  (Leacock, Grove,  external  writers between  (Moodie) o r w i t h  a sustained  viability  B l a i s ) and This  them  of  the  discrepancy  twentieth-century  to these  until  d e p i c t i o n of  construction,  map  not  self-conscious  Bessette).  the  the  emergence  Nineteenth-century  agrarian  t o mid  the  a f u n c t i o n of  observed landscapes  and  (Watson,  text.  the  or metaphor,  to v i s u a l i z e  concerned with  (Gerin-Lajoie),  to the  us  d e s c r i p t i o n or  than to  s p e c i f i c motif  self-reflexive  conventional  "realistic"  rather  i n Canadian w r i t i n g as  Canada were m a i n l y  launched  fictionalized  to herald  Canadian  the  (Klein, linguistic towards  arrival  of  the  literatures.^  A n o t h e r way o f l o o k i n g a t t h i s s h i f t i s t o c o n s i d e r the p r o c e s s i n C a n a d i a n w r i t i n g i n w h i c h t h e map i s f i r s t e n v i s i o n e d as a mode of c o n t r o l , a means of p o s s e s s i n g the unknown or o n l y p a r t l y known l a n d , but l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d as an - continued  -  68 I t s p r e s e n c e was explicitly  most  felt  ( B i r n e y , Reaney) o r  Saint-Denys-Garneau). 1  readily  Mappemounde'  Here,  i n the  poetry,  indirectly  (Klein,  f o r example,  either  is Birney s 1  poem  (1945):  Not t h i s o l d w h a l e h a l l c a n whelm us, s h i p t a m e d , g u l l g r a c e d , s o f t t o our g l i d i n g s . Harrows t h a t mere more t h a t s q u a r e s our map. See i n i t s n o r t h where s c r i b e has marked mermen, s h o r e - s n e a k e r s who c r o o n , t o t h e s e a - f a r e r ' s g i r l , next y e a r ' s gleewords. E a s t and West n a d d e r s , f l a m e f a n g e d b a l e t w i s t e r s ; t h e i r b r e a t h d r i e s up tears, c h a r s i n the b r e a s t - h o a r d the dear face-charm. S o u t h w a r d C e t e g r a n d e , t h a t s l y b e a s t who s u c k s i n w i t h whirlwind a l s o the wanderer's pledges. T h a t s e a i s h i g h t Time, i t hems h e a r t ' s l a n d t r a c e . Men say t h e r e d e l e s s , r e a c h i n g i t s bounds, t o p p l e i n m a e l s t r o m , t r e a d back n e v e r . A d r e a d i n t h a t mere we d r i f t t o w a r d map's end. Birney*s t o the  poem  limitation  i s double-edged: of  on  the  one  p o e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the  hand, he  points  seeming  a m b i v a l e n t or even an u n d e s i r a b l e c o n s t r u c t , i n c a p a b l e of or a t l e a s t u n c e r t a i n o f a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e c o m p l e x i t i t e s or v a r i e t i e s o f human r e s p o n s e s t o t h e l a n d . A d i a l e c t i c thus emerges between t h e "unnaming" and r e n a m i n g o f p l a c e i n w h i c h t h e map i s r e c o g n i z e d b o t h as t h e p r o d u c t of p r e v i o u s p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t and as t h e v e h i c l e f o r new or r e v i s e d p e r c e p t i o n s o f i t . T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i n s t a b i l i t y of c a r t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n makes t h e map a p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p e a l i n g metaphor f o r w r i t e r s s e e k i n g t o h i g h l i g h t a m b i g u i t i e s , p a r a d o x e s or c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r known or i n v e n t e d worlds. Note, f o r example, t h e s h i f t f r o m O'Hagan (1939) t o Kroetsch (1974): I t i s p h y s i c a l l y e x h a u s t i n g t o l o o k on unknown c o u n t r y . A name i s t h e m a g i c t o keep i t w i t h i n t h e h o r i z o n s . Put a name t o i t , put i t on t h e map, and y o u ' v e got i t . The unnamed - i t i s t h e darkness unveiled. (Tay J o h n , 80) A t one t i m e I c o n s i d e r e d i t t h e t a s k of t h e C a n a d i a n w r i t e r t o g i v e names t o h i s e x p e r i e n c e , t o be t h e namer. I now suspect t h a t on t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i s h i s t a s k t o un-name. ( " U n h i d i n g t h e H i d d e n " , 43)  69 inability  of t h e  myths w h i c h  will  of  "map's e n d ; "  to  create  the  world,  words w h i c h  into  The  "mere:"  to reproduce he w i l l  fail  to create  will  drift  i f , he  symbols  c e l e b r a t e s the poet's  t a k e him  or  line  towards  provides the map's end".  suggests, the poet  i n h i s t a s k , which  key: Birney plays  is  "merely"  i s to inject  the d e f a m i l i a r i z i n g  the  "real"  new  life  o p e r a t i o n s of  t h e p a s s i n g of the r i c h l y  maps of t h e e a r l y modern p e r i o d w i t h  ability  beyond t h e c o n f i n e s o f  t h e a l r e a d y known, or t o copy  B i r n e y laments  combinations  new  beyond t h e c i r c u m s c r i b e d b o u n d a r i e s  poem's l a s t  the world through  language.  poet  t h e o t h e r , he  i n t h a t mere we  t h e word  content  t a k e him on  known w o r l d .  "Adread on  new  "shiptamed"  their  decorated  uninhibited  of f a c t  and  f a n c y ; but a l t h o u g h t h e s e maps h a v e  passed  into history,  the  imagination that  not  allowed to d r i f t  be  rests,  into oblivion.  t h e n , on h i s a b i l i t y  transgressing  The  t o move beyond  poet's  them  should  "craft"  "map's e n d "  and,  by  t h e b o u n d a r i e s of c o n v e n t i o n a l p o e t i c  representation,  t o r e i n s t a t e h i m s e l f through  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an  imaginary  A more p e r s o n a l a p p r o a c h James Reaney  inspired  i n h i s poem  his  creative  world. towards  "Maps"  cartography i s taken  by  (1945) :  F i v e m i l e s up f r o m Pork S t r e e t The maps hang on t h e w a l l G r a y - g r e e n windows on t h e w o r l d B e f o r e which the s c h o l a r s stand And h e a r t h e g a s p and r o l l A t l a n t i c Above, l i k e t h e c y n o s u r e o f a Queen Anne's L a c e The d a r k r e d i s l a n d , B r i t a i n P r o u d and p r o u d . 0 t h e r e a r e maps o f A s i a Where warm w i n d s blow When o u t s i d e t h e J a n u s - f r o s t  Dance  70 R u l e s t h e b r e a d - w h i t e snow. A s u l t r y c o i l of b r e e z e , And a b l o s s o m , C l o g g e d w i n d s of Cinnamon and amber. Fat yellow China and p u r p l e I n d i a , Ceylon l i k e a chocolate comfit The r i m and dim g h o s t of E u r o p e Where t h e c o l o u r has r u n o u t ... Whenever we s i n g 'In days of y o r e ' We t h i n k o f t h e New W o r l d ' s crown. The g r e e n N o r t h w e s t w i t h i t s q u a i n t The brown Yukon. Ungava Bay and N e w f o u n d l a n d Pink f e v e r e d Saskatchewan and p u r p l e A l b e r t a . Reaney b r i n g s  the  but  not  run  o u t " ) ; t h e v i b r a n t c o l o u r s of Canada  of  to reconfirm  i m p e r i a l maps o f  h i s own,  the  privately  reality  poet  winds of  but  European eyes, his  Empire  but  turns  cinnamon and  world,  content  the are  Reaney  inlets familiar  or  people's  maps; t h e map,  personal  experience,  memory; but imitates  are  both  reality:  they  British  to h i s .  as  he  suggests,  by  s h a p e d by  like  imagination,  rebel against  i t i s merely  the  has rather the  itself; the  European  "quaint"  to  personifying  Birney,  he  parameters of  must be  life,  reproduces  naming and  coloured  p o l i t i c a l mandate. the  poet  f o r e i g n to  Columbia, By  to  "colour  were t o t h e  to stay w i t h i n the  not  poets  Reaney  i t against  r e c o n s t r u c t s t h e map;  to reproduce  map's c o n t o u r s  of  (whose  remind the  amber" a r e  i n h i s snowbound e n v i r o n m e n t as  colonizers,  his childhood  constructed world.  e x o t i c l a n g u a g e of E m p i r e , "clogged  of  inlets.  For  other  by  Birney,  f o r Reaney  n o t i o n t h a t the  someone's v e r s i o n of  i s not  the  by map  reality,  71 and  i t must be r e v i s e d ,  t o become p a r t  upon t h e s e  to a n t i c i p a t e l a t e r  widely  two poems b e c a u s e  they  developments i n t h e " l i t e r a r y  Canada; I w o u l d now l i k e  counterparts.  and r e a n i m a t e d  i f i t is  o f t h e p o e t ' s own w o r l d .  I have d w e l t  of  reconstructed  to consider  their  seem t o me cartography"  Australian  As i n Canada, t h e map t o p o s does n o t f e a t u r e  i n the early l i t e r a t u r e  o f A u s t r a l i a ; i t s emergence i s  reserved  f o r a p e r i o d when w r i t e r s a r e l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e  mediated  representation  of the external  Furphy, Richardson) than w i t h  environment  the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n  (Hope, C a m p b e l l , W r i g h t ) o r t h e r e v i s i o n o f history  (Dark,  Hill,  Kenneth S l e s s o r ' s presents  dedicated  The two t e n d e n c i e s  vignettes  of the seventeenth  t o t h e Dutch s a t i r e with  of landscape  geographical  c y c l e o f poems "The A t l a s "  a s e r i e s of w i t t y  cartographers  Swiftian  Stewart).  cartographer  Blaeu,  converge i n  (193 2 ) ,  on s e l e c t e d  century.  (Lawson,  which  European  In t h e t h i r d Slessor  poem,  combines  agonized i n t r o s p e c t i o n :  Sky f u l l o f s h i p s , bay f u l l o f town, A p o r t f u l l o f w a t e r s j e l l i e d brown: Such i s t h e w o r l d no t i d e may s t i r , S e a l e d by t h e g r e a t cartographer. 0, c o u l d he b u t c l a p up l i k e t h i s My decomposed m e t r o p o l i s , Those o t h e r c o u n t r i e s o f t h e mind, So t o u s l e d , d a r k and u n d e f i n e d ! Slessor appearance pat  distinguishes wittily  o f t h e map and t h e d i s o r d e r l y s t a t e o f h i s m i n d : t h e  rhymes and o v e r b l o w n d i c t i o n  preciosity  between t h e o r d e r l y  o f t h e map w h i c h ,  even resemble  it.  Like  of h i s poetry  f a r from  Birney  copying  mock t h e reality,  and Reaney, S l e s s o r  does n o t  employs  to  73 an  outmoded l a n g u a g e  and  Reaney b o t h  for ironic  suggest  the o l d , Slessor  that  i s less  c a p a b l e of a r t i c u l a t i n g The  poet  i s torn  Here,  as e l s e w h e r e  and  can be  "those  o f myth  knowledge  but  w h i c h we quite  Birth  guide  live,"  different  simplistic Slessor  he  also  t o equate  the e s s e n t i a l l y  by  lies  the  "real"  culture,  "The  ambivalent  But  with Apollinian  reality  the  be  construct: Norton  of  testify  Like  of f i c t i o n a l  articulators  the  the  approach  to the  relation  poet:  worlds;  "truths"  to  Birney,  about  world.  A different  of  s c i e n t i s m ; f o r , as  between t h e c a r t o g r a p h e r and  too, are s c i e n t i s t s ,  realm  i t would  S a n s o n and  shapers  another,  i s a t once a  an a r t i s t i c  and  in  T h i s i s the  s t a t u s of c a r t o g r a p h y .  builders  by  and  rapture; i t i s also  A t l a s , " t h e map  t h e power  the world  i t " (34).  form  writes  to dissolve  correct  beneath  document and  and  of  between A p o l l i n i a n  s c i e n c e " (109).  and  t h e map  i n "The  are craftsmen, both,  language  h i s emotions  c l a i m s , " i s mere a p p e a r a n c e ,  draws a p a r a l l e l  but  a  self-limitation.  "seeks  i t can  s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y maps o f B l a e u ,  both  of  "other c o u n t r i e s of the mind."  pseudo-scientific  Slessor  one  Apollinian  that  life  reality  suggests  find  from  c o n s e q u e n t l y becomes a  of Tragedy,  r e a l m of D i o n y s i a n a n g u i s h Slessor's  can  be w r o u g h t  i n S l e s s o r ' s poetry, the i n f l u e n c e  i t believes  [and]  can  to c o n t r o l  detected i n the p u l l  i n The  ...  language  other c o u n t r i e s of the mind."  them; t h e map  Dionysian formlessness.  Nietzsche  but w h e r e a s B i r n e y  c o n f i d e n t t h a t he  of s e l f - c o n t r o l ,  Nietzsche  a new  between t h e d e s i r e  t h e need t o e x p r e s s metaphor  purposes;  between a r t and  74 science  i s taken  Casserius."  by A.D.  Hope i n h i s poem  Hope e x p l a i n s why  the  "On  engraving  an  Engraving  by  f a s c i n a t e s him:  T u r n i n g t h e l e a v e s of t h i s m a j e s t i c book My t h o u g h t s a r e w i t h t h o s e g r e a t c o s m o g r a p h e r s , S u r g e o n a d v e n t u r e r s who undertook To p r o b e and c h a r t t i m e ' s o t h e r u n i v e r s e . T h i s one e n g r a v i n g h o l d s me w i t h i t s theme: More t h a n a l l maps made i n t h a t c e n t u r y Which s e t t r u e b e a r i n g s f o r each cape and s t a r , De Q u i r o s ' v i s i o n or Newton's c o s m i c dream, T h i s reaches towards the c e n t r a l mystery Of whence our b e i n g draws and what we a r e . Hope a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e m e r i t s of "solutions:" be  "the  articulated  cannot  imply  by  central t h e map,  s c i e n c e but  mystery  of  w h i c h may  a b s t r a c t causes.  ...  spurns i t s  what we  s e t out  Hope goes on  '  are"  general  cannot  t r u t h s but  to state  his  case  more e m p h a t i c a l l y : ... D i d he [Thomas Browne] f o r e s e e p e r h a p s An age i n w h i c h a l l s e n s e of t h e u n i q u e , And s i n g u l a r d i s s o l v e s , l i k e our t o d a y , In d i a g r a m s , s t a t i s t i c s , d i a g r a m s , maps?  Not h e r e ! The g r a v e r ' s t o o l i n t h i s d e s i g n Aims s t i l l t o g i v e not g e n e r a l t r u t h a l o n e , B l u e - p r i n t of s c i e n c e or d a t a ' s f o r m a l l i n e : H e r e i n i t s s i n g u l a r i t y he has shown The image of an i n d i v i d u a l s o u l ; B o d i e d i n t h i s one woman, he makes us see The shadow o f h i s a n a t o m i c a l l a w s . An a r t i s t ' s v i s i o n a n i m a t e s t h e w h o l e , Shines through the s c i e n t i s t ' s d e t a i l e d s c r u t i n y And l i n k s t h e p e r s o n and t h e a b s t r a c t c a u s e . Hope u s e s t h e manifesto  example of C a s s e r i u s t o s e t out  i n which,  poetry  and  whole,  the l a t t e r  u n l i k e S l e s s o r , he  cartography:  the  former  p r o v i d e s a s e t of  artistic  d i s t i n g u i s h e s between  furnishes a vision  of  conventional outlines.  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f maps, i m p l i e s Hope, r u n s  i  h i s own  counter  to  the  the The  75 s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n of cartography chart  or  t o be  the  the  the  of  physical  intuition  poem t u r n s of  an  antiquity  art-form;  science.  representation, of  poems o f  the  map  may  Birney be  and  i f not  Slessor  Slessor,  like  as and,  Birney,  W o r l d maps; but  implies  the  by  extraneous  Nietzsche  on  philosophical  rigorous  conceits,  Slessor,  and  Hope, a r e the  may  i n the  d e f i n i t i o n s and  of  disinclination  t h e map. Plato  f i g u r e of  the  suggesting  The on  less  that  flamboyance the  create  The  equivocal. of  Old  poet, h i s own  maps,  in his  collective cannot  be  o u t l i n e s , nor influence  of  Hope, i n d i c a t e a  towards the  map.  self-  t h e mind e x i s t , b o t h  perhaps,  of  limits  representation.  h i s f e l l o w - A u s t r a l i a n s , which  the  Slessor's  prevailing  for a r t i s t i c  suggests that  of  in  Classical  ambivalent,  Worlds,  countries  to  towards the  i s a t t r a c t e d by  u n c o n s c i o u s and,  u n c o n s c i o u s of expressed  that  however,  solace.  of m i m e t i c  New  the  i n t o the  Hope i n d i c a t e t h e  particularly,  and  say,  Thus, w h e r e a s  a paradigm  agent  statistical  instructions  i t s inquiry  Reaney a r e  whereas B i r n e y  m e d i a t i n g between O l d  personal  an  s e t s of  Hope's r e t u r n s  and  the  consider  belongs to  have no  philosophical  employed as  poems o f  Slessor  for  of A u s t r a l i a n w r i t e r s  The  like  t h e map  laws.  Renaissance  Between them, S l e s s o r  expression  instead,  environment; they  i n search  scepticism  Hope does n o t  Maps a r e  of m e t a p h y s i c a l  to the  artistic  individual.  e x p l i c a t o r y diagram,  impersonal world about  the  implicitly  yet  by  76 Aristotelian suspicion,  although  categorical the  in their  Birney  cause"  and  the  and  he  cartography;  and,  6  Birney  particularly,  distinctions  sceptical  shares  Reaney a r e  between t h e  Despite  these  limitations  the  by  the  of maps as m o d e l s of  century  recognize  expression.  The  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of  t h e map  topos  Australian writing, which,  i n my  I would l i k e  Australia,  of  M a r g a r e t Atwood's S u r f a c i n g noire  illustrate or  i n the  second  half  and  of  mimetic  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of comes  into  demands r e s i s t a n c e or  i n contemporary t o comment on  (1957);  and,  on  Canadian  and  t h r e e works  between t h e  cartography:  (1972) and  the  as m e t a p h o r s o f  f o c u s i n g , however,  literary  P a t r i c k White's Voss  both  expression.  consequently  v i e w , a c t as a w a t e r s h e d  "contemporary" p e r i o d s  For  reconstructed;  limitations  either  topos  intuited  law").  (self)  the world  the  Before  less  d i s m i s s i v e Hope, however, i t  t h e need f o r new  p r o m i n e n c e as a p a r a d i g m w h i c h transformation.  the  t h a t w r i t e r s f r o m Canada  map  this  " v i s i o n a r y " and  r e v i s e d and  It i s , increasingly,  coming t o terms w i t h  representation,  invites  be  o t h e r modes o f  construction.  Australia,  must  "general  d i f f e r e n c e s , a l l four poets  twentieth  artistic  calculated  S l e s s o r or  supplemented  artistic  the  Reaney, t h e map  must be  of  of  " e x p l i c a t o r y " ( o r , t o r e t a i n Hope's t e r m s ,  "abstract  for  systemics  "modern" these  are,  and in  i n Canada,  Hubert Aquin's  Neige  (1974).  See A l f r e d K o r z y b s k i ' s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e map i n S c i e n c e and S a n i t y : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o N o n - A r i s t o t e l i a n S y s t e m s ( L a k e v i l l e : I n s t i t u t e of G e n e r a l S e m a n t i c s , 1 9 5 8 ) , e s p . 58.  77 Much i n k has protagonist  been s p i l t  on  of W h i t e ' s n o v e l  the  extent  i s modelled  to which  on  the  t h e German  explorer  7 Ludwig L e i c h h a r d t . historical  (or  ideas which between  Voss,  even a p s e u d o - h i s t o r i c a l )  uses the  "German p r e c i s i o n and Radclyffe's  concerned,  I will  than the  site  of  angles the  the  the  artist  Mesurier  counteracted  losing  and  by  the  cartographic i n t o the  clouds  of  The  leader  i s engaged  a balance  desert  to  Voss's tendency  practicality  of  instruments;  yet,  the  the  since  an the  reduced to provide  on  the  the  different  nature  of  struggle  between h i s  science;  the  aspiring  creativity  and  towards m y s t i c i s m  the as  ex-convict the  has  Judd,  expedition  d e b a t e on w h i c h  i t becomes c l e a r t h a t expedition  rather  is  in a private  between v e r b a l  and  theory  the o r n i t h o l o g i s t  his dedication  intensifies,  and  s e e k s a compromise  interior,  i t s purpose:  their  debate  (104) .  speculation,  proportions:  destruction.  predicated  the  Voss's colleagues  them  f o r example,  beliefs  Le  of  a  of  "Where V o s s i s  thoughts i t i n s p i r e s are  each of  religious  further  money on  p r a c t i c e " (104).  metaphysical  Palfreyman,  the  of  character  debate; f o r  w h i c h has  of  my  pure a b s t r a c t i o n .  on  physical  allegiance i s clear:  an  than a novel  German m y s t i c i s m "  for Voss's metaphysical  e n v i r o n m e n t and level  put  knife-edge  novel  less  f i g u r e of V o s s t o e n g e n d e r  Lieutenant  ideal  however, seems t o me  is keeper moves  i t is  practicality  c e a s e d t o be  is  a  See J . F . Burrows, "'Voss' and t h e E x p l o r e r s , " AUMLA 26 ( 1 9 6 6 ) : 234-240; a l s o Don D. W a l k e r , "The W e s t e r n E x p l o r e r as a L i t e r a r y H e r o : J e d e d i a h S m i t h and L u d w i g L e i c h h a r d t , " W e s t e r n H u m a n i t i e s Review 29 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 243-259.  78 traversal an  of t h e p h y s i c a l  environment,  e x e r c i s e of p u r e w i l l .  historical  r e c o r d of  Voss passes  into  instruments  has  become i n s t e a d  are l o s t ,  e x p e d i t i o n b l u r r e d , and  the  the story  of t h e map  Hope's i n "On  metaphor  an E n g r a v i n g  by  i n Voss bears  Casserius."  comparison  L i k e Hope,  White demonstrates the l i m i t a t i o n s  o f maps as a r b i t e r s  knowledge; as V o s s ' s  soulmate Laura  confesses: know.  companion and  "the l i t t l e  Knowledge was  reverse,  i t overflows  I have s e e n  never  i s less  a matter  ...  a l l maps t h a t e x i s t .  mind"  as a document i s  undermined, is  clear  map"  but  i t s s t a t u s as a myth  that Voss f a i l s  physically  of C e n t r a l A u s t r a l i a ,  succeeds  psychically  universe." transmuted precision price  major  The  into a visionary  spatial  garden.  s c i e n c e of  country  i s won  thus, to  cartography  the  while i t "make  the  he other  is  between German  the l a t t e r ,  i f at  the  survival.  as metaphor m e d i a t e s between W h i t e ' s two paradigms  and  the  chart ting] time's  by  I  of  suggestion that  a r t ; the b a t t l e  i n the  Both a r e a m b i v a l e n t :  completion  Quite  i n h i s attempt  t h e r e i s the  and German m y s t i c i s m  map  i n the  increases:  i n " p r o b t i n g ] and  explicatory  of p h y s i c a l The  of  map's v a l u e  t h a n what  Perhaps t r u e  by  The  torture  of  Trevelyan  of g e o g r a p h y .  knowledge o n l y comes o f d e a t h (446).  of  legend.  W h i t e ' s use with  the  The  and  of  negation,  novel:  t h e d e s e r t and  the  d e s e r t i s a t once a  the  g a r d e n one  of  other the symbol  domestic  responsibility  and  of  illicit  pleasure.  The  map,  accordingly,  becomes t h e means by  w h i c h V o s s and  his expedition  traverse  desert,  inscription  their  and  but  means by enclose  which and  relinquish idealism is  held  the  a l s o the  t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e  control their a deeper  i n c h e c k by of  the  implicitly  f u n c t i o n both  transmutations, social  of  looks  E y r e and  other  earliest  myths o f  conjectural maps o f  as  experience  the Great  and  as  r e g i s t e r s of  e x p l o i t s of  i n Central  later,  fact  C f . K e i t h G a r e b i a n , "The D e s e r t and C o m p l e t e n e s s i n V o s s , " Modern F i c t i o n  in  and  hopes and  affect  been c o m p l e t e d  A u s t r a l i a n w r i t e r s with  Leichhardt, the in  the  the  These maps, as  imaginary  had  them.  incorporated  Blaeu.  or  A u s t r a l i a to  M i d d l e Ages and,  long  of  f o r maps  repress  and  of  world;  r e d u c e or  expeditions,  provide  vision  they  w h i c h were t o i n f l u e n c e l a t e r  course,  a private  maps embody  symbolized  a f t e r these e x p l o r a t i o n s  pragmatic  mythical  s u g g e s t e d , were c o m b i n a t i o n s o f  Southern Land  of  contingent  or  A u s t r a l i s Incognita late  also  instance,  Mercator, Waldseemiiller  have a l r e a d y  of  company  first  back beyond t h e  the  kind  otherwise  expressions,  European e x p l o r e r s  maps o f  but  the  even s c o r n f u l awareness  i n an  second,  Terra  A  articulation  In t h e  enhance dreams; i n t h e  it.  his  the m e d i a t i n g p r i n c i p l e ,  personal  acceptability.  White t h e r e f o r e  the  conformism  o p e r a t e s as  Bonner and  of  sceptical,  cartography  failure;  private territory,  understanding  emerges i n w h i c h  importance  of  the  I  fable: fears  perception and,  ready-made  of  or  t h e G a r d e n : The Theme S t u d i e s 22 ( 1 9 7 6 - 7 ) :  80 conveniently malleable material f o r their interest, revision  however, e x t e n d s  beyond t h e r e v i v a l  o f myths o f T e r r a A u s t r a l i s ;  with  t h e s p e c i f i c means o f t h e i r  with  distinctions  legend;  the quest  journey  into  narrative.  onto  the i n t e r i o r  mapreading,  The n a r r a t i v e  death  l i k e Voss's  attempt  to the process  journey  t h e page.  of e m p h a s i s f r o m  i t s (superimposed)  discredited  Its  t o the process of  the former  but they  " w r i t i n g , " a n d t h e map,  i s privileged  although  process  i s twofold:  first,  akin to writing  between mapping a s a  and t h e map a s a v i s u a l between t h e map a s an  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e x t e r n a l environment  map a s a " s u b j e c t i v e " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l indicating  further  also  to the l a t t e r  the "reading" of landscape  o f t h e myth; a n d s e c o n d ,  "objective"  project;  instruments,  a s a v e r b a l mode, i s r e e s t i m a t e d a s a v i s u a l one.  White's d i s t i n c t i o n metaphoric  into the  to decipher textual/geographical  of the former  cartographic process:  By  paradigm:  on t h e l o s s o f h i s maps and c a r t o g r a p h i c  a shift  of legend;  and a b s o r p t i o n i n t o t h e l a n d s c a p e ,  emphasize t h e f a i l u r e  analogue  i s the stuff  corresponds  however, c o r r e s p o n d s  an o n g o i n g  Voss's  following  over  analogues (the  o f an e s t a b l i s h e d l i t e r a r y  a "blank" environment:  interpretation,  indicate  concerned  e x p r e s s i o n , and i n p a r t i c u l a r  °f mapmaking by i t s i n s c r i p t i o n ,  signs.  and l i t e r a r y  f o r he i s a l s o  between v e r b a l and v i s u a l  i s a l s o a reworking  desert,  White's  t h e map).  Voss's it  fictions.  t h e shortcomings  suggesting the narrowly  and t h e  experience.  o f c a r t o g r a p h i c n o t a t i o n , and by positivistic  view  of t h e w o r l d  81 on w h i c h  i t i s predicated,  phenomenological ing  t o the  science  of  conquering,  ronment but  rather  as  the  reassessed  science  i s perceived  even of  a visual  t h e map,  that  spirit,  nor  implies his preference  i n which  Husserlian principle  supposes the means o f  approach  White  not  e x p l a i n i n g , the  means of  for  accord-  of n a t u r e as  a  pre-  verbal  external  surrendering  a  envi-  to i t s  Q  mystery.  The  imaginative  map,  process  in this involved  same t i m e a r e m i n d e r express the to  Voss  of  " t r u t h " of  the  sense,  becomes a m e t a p h o r  in artistic impossibility  a personal  (or f o r V o s s ? ) m i g h t be  vision.  for  the  at  the  c r e a t i o n , but of  f i n d i n g words  Thus,  Marlow's words  an  apt  i n Heart  to  epitaph of  Darkness: I t seems t o me I am t r y i n g t o t e l l you a dream - m a k i n g a v a i n a t t e m p t , b e c a u s e no r e l a t i o n o f a dream can c o n v e y t h e d r e a m - s e n s a t i o n , t h a t c o m i n g l i n g o f a b s u r d i t y , s u r p r i s e , and bew i l d e r m e n t i n a t r e m o r of s t r u g g l i n g r e v o l t , t h a t n o t i o n o f b e i n g c a p t u r e d by t h e i n c r e d i b l e w h i c h i s o f t h e v e r y e s s e n c e of dreams ...No, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e ... t o c o n v e y t h e l i f e s e n s a t i o n o f any g i v e n epoch of one's e x i s t e n c e - t h a t w h i c h makes i t s t r u t h , i t s m e a n i n g - i t s s u b t l e and p e n e t r a t i n g e s s e n c e . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e . We l i v e , as we dream - a l o n e ... (82) A Canadian novel  indirectly  r e l a t e d to both Heart  of  See H u s s e r l ' s e s s a y " P h i l o s o p h y and t h e C r i s i s o f E u r o p e a n Man", i n Phenomenology and t h e C r i s i s o f P h i l o s o p h y , t r a n s . Q. L a u e r (NY: H a r p e r and Row, 1965) 149-192. Husserl's belief i s t h a t " t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s g i v e m e r e l y t h e a p p e a r a n c e of h a v i n g b r o u g h t n a t u r e t o a p o i n t where f o r i t s e l f i t i s r a t i o n a l l y known. For n a t u r e i n i t s p r o p e r s c i e n t i f i c s e n s e i s a p r o d u c t o f t h e s p i r i t t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e s n a t u r e , and t h u s t h e s c i e n c e of n a t u r e p r e s u p p o s e s t h e s c i e n c e of t h e s p i r i t " ( 1 8 4 ) . Voss's d e f e a t i m p l i e s t h a t t h e map has f a i l e d a s a v e h i c l e of p o s i t i v i s t i c r a t i o n a l i s m ; but h i s " t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n " a l s o i n d i c a t e s a r e t u r n t o the s p i r i t u a l b a s i s of s c i e n t i f i c inqui ry.  D a r k n e s s and V o s s Conrad's novels charting into  i s M a r g a r e t Atwood's S u r f a c i n g .  and W h i t e ' s ,  the successive  the i n t e r i o r .  Surfacing  stages  i s a quest  But, u n l i k e V o s s or Heart  does n o t p i t c h i t s p r o t a g o n i s t  The  does n o t demand t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l  skills  needed t o c h a r t  instead, oneself  i t requires of f a l s e  terrain. country  Since,  i n t o t h e "unknown." or c a r t o g r a p h i c  unfamiliar  territory;  but  treacherous,  of S u r f a c i n g ,  the border  and Quebec i s "home g r o u n d ,  her surroundings  that  the paradoxical  i n order  t h e way t h e n o v e l  foreign task of  to achieve  fixity,  Furthermore, construct;  h e r own  attempt  provides  completeness,  identity  i s also  so many q u e s t  I would  an i m p l i e d  c r i t i q u e of  then  of i d e n t i t y  suggested as being  suggest,  connotes  and s u p e r f i c i a l ,  by r e s i s t i n g  a  social  by t h e n a r r a t o r i s  t o a s s e r t h e r s e l f becomes a q u e s t i o n  s p a c e (s) b e t w e e n " ^  that  i t must be r e s i s t e d .  the s o c i e t y depicted  materialistic  and, indeed,  interpreted.  f o r i f the notion  and s i n c e  patriarchal,  like  for identity;  i s usually  Surfacing  self-definition: stasis,  Surfacing,  i n v o l v e s a search  however, t h a t  of  i n familiar,  she i s f a c e d w i t h  implies  narratives,  the  of Darkness,  of p l a c e . This  is  journey  t o d i s c e r n and d i s a b u s e  f o r the narrator  (12),  defamiliarizing  through  the a b i l i t y  between O n t a r i o  territory"  sense  a course  landmarks  narrative  of i t s p r o t a g o n i s t ' s  Surfacing quest  Like  narrow  the narrator's of  "articulating  social  convention  C f . S h e r r i l l G r a c e ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f Atwood's " a r t i c u l a t i o n t h e s p a c e between" a s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e " v i o l e n t - continued -  83 and  rejecting  distinguish  one  D e l b a e r e has her  the  easy c a t e g o r i e s which are  c u l t u r e or  pointed  out,  environment;"''"'" she,  while  other  (David's  sub-culture the  of  course,  "Random S a m p l e s " ) , p a r o d y  In t h e  the  "unmaps" i t :  strategies the  -  also  process  of nomination,  n o t i o n of  continued  remains nameless  t h e map.  of that  enclosure  The  in a play  (her  metaphor/metamorphosis  transformation). narrator  others.  n a r r a t o r ' s main task  names d i s s o l v e a r o u n d h e r  d r a w i n g s ) and  from  (mis)used  own  of  to As  Jeanne  i s t o unname throughout, pastiche  disproportionate  (linguistic/organic "unnaming" h e r i s t o say, and  she  definition  n a r r a t o r ' s f a t h e r ' s map  environment, r e j e c t s the implicit is a  in  symbol  -  d u a l i t i e s " of Canadian s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l experience i n " A r t i c u l a t i n g t h e 'Space Between': Atwood's U n t o l d S t o r i e s F r e s h B e g i n n i n g s , " i n S. G r a c e and L. W e i r , e d s . M a r g a r e t Atwood: L a n g u a g e , T e x t and System ( V a n c o u v e r : U of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P. 1983) 1-16. Jeanne Delbaere-Garant, " D e c o l o n i z i n g the S e l f i n S u r f a c i n g , B e a r , and A F r i n g e of L e a v e s , " i n X. Pons and R o c a r d , eds. C o l o n i s a t i o n s : R e n c o n t r e s A u s t r a l i e - C a n a d a ( T o u l o u s e : U de T o u l o u s e - l e - M i r a i l , 1 9 8 5 ) : 67-78.  and  E.  A l t h o u g h t h e n a r r a t o r unnames/unmaps h e r e n v i r o n m e n t , she can a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d a s r e m a p p i n g i t . T h i s d e / r e c o d i n g of t h e map i s s i m i l a r t o t h e d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s I o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y between t h e unnaming and r e n a m i n g o f p l a c e . I t a l s o suggests t h a t Atwood does n o t s i m p l y r e j e c t t h e map m e t a p h o r but a d a p t s i t t o h e r own p u r p o s e s . In t h i s s e n s e , Atwood's d e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e map i n S u r f a c i n g does n o t c o n t r a d i c t , but r a t h e r complements, her comments i n S u r v i v a l : "What a l o s t p e r s o n needs i s a map o f t h e t e r r i t o r y , w i t h h i s own p o s i t i o n marked on i t so he can see where he i s i n r e l a t i o n t o e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . L i t e r a t u r e i s n o t o n l y a m i r r o r : i t i s a l s o a map, a geography of t h e mind. Our l i t e r a t u r e i s one s u c h map, i f we can l e a r n t o r e a d i t as our l i t e r a t u r e , as t h e p r o d u c t of who and where we have b e e n " ( 1 9 ) . The map t h u s i l l u s t r a t e s one of t h e c e n t r a l p a r a d o x e s i n Atwood's work: t h e need b o t h t o d e f i n e and to r e s i s t d e f i n i n g the s e l f (or, at l e a s t , to r e s i s t previous d e f i n i t i o n s of i t ) .  84 of  p a t r i a r c h a l a u t h o r i t y ; b u t when he a t t e m p t s t o match t h e  spatial  coordinates  locations, him,  the symbolic  and he f a l l s  aggrandizement. narrator puzzle" (136),  o f t h e map w i t h  Following  Looking  she d i s c o v e r s  h e r e and l o n g explorers, meaning"  before  instead the "site him t h e o r i g i n a l them t h e i r  i t has c o n n o t a t i o n s  desystematizes as  a metaphor  of  a l l those  a false  advise  i t symbolizes  maps.  o r r e c o d e s t h e map,  the i n the  For the n a r r a t o r ,  of t h e X i s t h e r e f o r e f o l l o w e d  h e r attempt t o by an e r a s u r e or  The n a r r a t o r  accordingly  c h a l l e n g i n g i t i n both  o f p a t r i a r c h a l c o e r c i o n and a s a c o m p o s i t e s t r a t e g i e s which  p a t t e r n on e x p e r i e n c e . both  symbol i n  of v i c t i m i z a t i o n ;  of i t s marker-function.  are perceived  The map  g u i d e and a f a l s e  i n [a]  the f i r s t  of p o w e r - t o - k i l l a l s o i n v e s t e d  c h a r t s and t h e h u n t e r s '  translation  the clues  o f t h e X... he had been  i s a multivalent  ideology  the s i t e  of s e l f -  s i g n , word, b u t n o t i t s  destructive  locate  "like  ones,  For the n a r r a t o r ' s f a t h e r ,  however,  against  t h a t would f i t the m a p l i n e "  Surfacing.  surveyors'  i n t h e map t u r n s  h i s map  for a "line  The c r o s s  geographical  i n her f a t h e r ' s f o o t s t e p s , the  together  l e a v i n g behind  (136).  invested  real  v i c t i m t o h i s own i l l u s i o n s  seeks t o p i e c e (137).  power  their  symbol  t o impose a f i x e d  i s correspondingly construct:  cases  exposed as  i t purports to  b u t a c t u a l l y d i c t a t e s and d i s t o r t s ; m o r e o v e r , i t  operates  r e d u c t i v e l y i n two d i m e n s i o n s and, l i k e  two-dimensional pictograph, perception.  constructs  i n the novel  the i l l u s t r a t i o n ) ,  other  (the photograph, the  i s conducive to d u a l i s t i c  85 The several mentor  narrator's resistance different  levels:  ( i t i s significant  borders),  t o t h e map  c a n be s e e n ,  i n her disavowal that  o f t h e map a s  h e r own g e n i i  loci  her r e a n i m a t i o n o f t h e map a s m o n o l i t h  two-dimensional  then, a t  defy (and o f o t h e r  g r a p h i c s , n o t a b l y her i l l u s t r a t i o n s  of the  Quebec F o l k T a l e s and h e r f a t h e r ' s v e r s i o n o f t h e I n d i a n pictographs), L e t me  comment  and h e r d e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e map a s m e t a p h o r . briefly  on each  of these  issues.  In t h e f i r s t  s e c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l , t h e n a r r a t o r and h e r companions through  a countryside cluttered with  'false'  travel  landmarks:  e l e c t i o n s l o g a n s ... p a i n t e d o v e r and o v e r , some f a d e d and d e f a c e d , o t h e r s f r e s h y e l l o w and w h i t e , VOTEZ GODET, VOTEZ O'BRIEN, a l o n g w i t h h e a r t s and i n t i a l s and w o r d s and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , THfi SALADA, BLUE MOUNTAIN COTTAGES 1/2 MILE, QUEBEC LIBRE, FUCK YOU, BUVEZ COCA-COLA GLACE, JESUS SAVES, melange of demands and l a n g u a g e s ... an X - r a y o f i t w o u l d be t h e d i s t r i c t ' s e n t i r e h i s t o r y . (15) The  visual  a r r a y o f s i g n s and s y m b o l s d e f a c e s  describes the landscape. inadequate reference  as a r e f e r e n t i a l i s continually  s l o g a n s ) and because another;  A s u r r o g a t e map, guide  changing  viability.  (eg. t h e p a l i m p s e s t i c  accuracy  one  but i n those of  L i k e t h e n a r r a t o r ' s f a t h e r ' s map,  h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h measurement b u t w h i c h ,  drawings,  something  because i t s frame of  n o r i s i t a d e q u a t e as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n c e i t i s  commercial  his  than  i t i s obviously  i t s v a r i o u s markers c o n t r a d i c t  measured not i n terms of mimetic  registers  rather  left  leaves over"  "a gap, s o m e t h i n g (112),  the display  along with  not accounted f o r , imposes  which  itself  86 upon,  but  cannot  surroundings. envisions a  Linked  the  living  land  and  to  as  a  the  culture,  the  alluring  the  narrator  systematize,  ideology  subjects:  animate  father's  map  drawings,  transformation environment  good,  to  implanted  deceptive  and  i t s  consumerism  which  i t disregards  the  takes  on  i s perceptual:  the  the  but  as  i s also  one  of  emerges between the  map  land  as  and  distinction  of  the  objects  narrator's The  viewed  loses  construct,  "dead"  by  between  map  but  environment as  guaranteeing  between  consumer  the as  one  of  inter-subjectivity.  the  the  father's  inanimate  like  longer  mutual  and  her  i t s own.  i s interpreted productively fluidity  Ricoeur's  from  relation  linguistic:  her  environment  of  i t s p e r c i p i e n t i s no  authoritative representational  linguistic  symbols of  environment, life  object  regulate  a u t h o r i t y of  i t s surrogates  a  and  transformation  which  of  " t r a n s l a t e s " her  into  to  an  capital  but  the  an  fully  falsely  transforming  subject  or  entity.  Resisting map  contain  i t s status the  i t sets  out  asserting  freedom.  (tautologous)  as  difference  a means of  personal  The  and  Paul  "live"  12 (multivalent) map  metaphors  i s r e j e c t e d as  "live"  one:  (as  encoded  an  the  a  i s useful  here;  "dead" metaphor  emphasis  spatial  i s duly  paradigm)  to  procedure  of  ending  Surfacing  r e i n f o r c e s the  P,  Paul Ricoeur, 1977) .  The  Rule  of  but  the  from  map  perception). point:  Metaphor  in Surfacing,  transformed  shifted  recodable of  spatial  for  as  map  as  (as  a  ambiguous  narrator  (Toronto:  a  product  process  The the  into  the  U  of  remains Toronto  8 poised her, the  between two  recovers  her  emergence of  w o r l d s and, freedom  not  the wider  of  The  pas  perceived  The  presented  the v a r i o u s  of  and  cinematic  The  i n v e r s i o n or m u l t i p l i c a t i o n  ontological which the  anxiety  r o l e he  reader, The  "la  functions  of  the  fiction  the  the  the  ce  a l s o the  the dilemma  In t h e  un  between  unsolvable, between  intervenes piege,  e'est  (19).  because theatrical  one  another  images s i m u l a t e s u n s u r e of who  referential he  " r e a l i t y " and  autobiographical  is  protagonist  spectacle?"  m i r r o r - i m a g e s of these  departure  N i c o l a s ) , condenses  i s or w h i c h f i c t i o n  discrepancy  pas  of  a la  he  screenplay  to subvert elle,  the  the i s or  anxiety is  of  reading.  i n A q u i n ' s t e x t as a v e h i c l e f o r  " r e a l " world n'est  The  is  l o c a t i o n whose  shifting  protagonist,  i s p l a y i n g , but  representation. writing,  of  provide  u n s u r e where he  map  expression  modes, o n l y  novel,  riddle  of  b a s e d on  world.  done e s t  the  i s on  Neige n o i r e  point  unanswered by  "ou  seems r h e t o r i c a l , the  and  screenwriter,  question  s e t t i n g s of  cultural  "je dois maintenant  referential  apparently turned  and  novel  ontological anxiety  but  rhetorical  question  in  cartographic  I t becomes t h e  into a parable  (Shakespearean actor the  t o emerge, but  social  t o h i s 1974  d i s j u n c t i o n between s e l f  incorporated  into  the  o f Hamlet  etre."  e x p l o r a t i o n of  riddle,  choice  surfacing within  a u t h o r i t y , Hubert Aquin's  epigraph  adaptation  e t r e e t ne an  child  p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of  Kierkegaard's  for  i n the  i s on  cartographic  referentiality.  fois  the  choice.  Whereas Atwood's f o c u s implications  like  the  its Nicolas fiction:  plutot, qui  est  is  88 piegee  par  l'envahit model the  une  hypocritement"  i s sabotaged  different  killed  on  the  n'est  version  of  et qui  cannot  referential  contain,  befalls  his wife  ice-bound be  found  precision  recalling  wastes  by  a rescue  of  corroborates  " 1 ' i n a n i t y d'une f i c t i o n  s i on l ' a b o r d e  par  by  reinforces  this  c l a i m i n g t o be what i t i s n o t :  "reality."  In f a c t ,  as A q u i n  a  "truthful"  suggests,  i t i s merely  among o t h e r s , a f i c t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t  which,  guide,  exacerbate  between t h e  " r e a l " world  the  perceiver.  distinction  Yet Aquin is itself  goes f u r t h e r ;  Thus, t h e  'real'  of  (153).  delirant"  cartography"  what P a t r i c i a  r a t h e r than  landscapes t o be  for  f o r what p a s s e s  counteract  i n N i c o l a s ' nightmare appear cartographe  serves only  a s u p e r a b u n d a n c e of f r a c t u r e d  "aberrant" v e r s i o n s which  "delirious  ce q u ' e l l e  Kierkegaardian  referential  "un  team  cartography  m a s q u e r a d i n g as a r e l i a b l e  another.  of  t h e r e f o r e comes t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i l l u s i o n  d e m o n s t r a t e s and  simulacrum  "reality"  Sylvie,  (218-19).  map  absurdity  which  e t r e i n t e l l i g i b l e que  pas" The  one  supposed  r e f e r e n t i a l i t y which peut  i t cannot  remote,  Sylvie  pas  Nicolas' conceptual  "sabotage"  " a c c i d e n t " i n the  ( 1 2 0 ) ; t h e map  ne  (155).  a reality  Significantly,  reliant  qui  by  k i n d of  i n an  Norway.  of  r£alit£ q u ' e l l e n e c o n t e n a i t  as  images  T h i s n o t i o n of  called  and  complement  countervailing  i s a particularly  M e r i v a l e has  and i t s  o f S p i t z b e r g e n and  the  to  one  Alaska  symbols  a  a p p r o p r i a t e paradigm  Aquin's  " a e s t h e t i c s of  13 perversion;"  Patricia  f o r the a r t i s t - a s - p e r v e r t  Merivale,  "Hubert Aquin  i s one  and  who  Highbrow  Pornography:  89 defamiliarizes, connection  by  and g e o g r a p h i c a l  exemplified  Svalbard,  but a l s o d i s l o c a t e s " r e a l i t y . "  disorientation i s particularly  i n t h e c l i m a c t i c s c e n e s on t h e i s l a n d o f  where S y l v i e  ( i n one v e r s i o n )  N i c o l a s , and ( i n a n o t h e r )  i s lost  The  A r c t i c l o c a t i o n i s well-chosen,  and  ravines of Svalbard  through also all  the c l i m a t i c  symbolize  not only  erasure  the s h i f t i n g  i s l a c e r a t e d and  after  a (suicidal?) f a l l .  f o r the ice-bound  defy  killed  cartographic  of i d e n t i f i a b l e  mountains  exactitude  landmarks;  ground of t h e t e x t , which  they  annuls  attempts a t d e f i n i t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The  inscription  which p r o v i d e s environment considered  Thus,  "aberrant"  as a f a l s e device  covered  less  with  however, t h a t  t h e map s h o u l d  f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n  to the external  part  when S y l v i e t u r n s  takes  takes  i s implicitly  the a r t i c u l a t i o n them  but as a unconscious.  of t h e i r  cabin are  ( 6 7 ) : t h e map  environment  but t o f u n c t i o n  Furthermore,  her a t t e n t i o n t o these  n o t o n l y be  S y l v i e and N i c o l a s  the walls  of t h e i n t e r i o r .  ( 9 2 ) : t h e map  construct,  territory,  of the  maps o f Norway and i t s i s l a n d s  an i n t e g r a l  cartography  representational construct  familiar  seems n o t t o r e f e r  sleeping  (textual)  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the p h y s i c a l  i n t h e s h i p t h e Nordnorge which  i n t o ever  which  of a " d e l i r i o u s "  suggests,  paradigmatic  as  The  between a e s t h e t i c d e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n , p h y s i c a l  disfiguration well  deforms,  at the point  maps, N i c o l a s i s  recognized  a s an o n e i r i c  o f t h e "voyage i n t £ r i e u r " (194)  i n t o " l e paysage  irreel"  (108) o f t h e A r c t i c  The A e s t h e t i c s o f P e r v e r s i o n , " E s s a y s on C a n a d i a n W r i t i n g 26 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 1-12.  90 89 North.  I f t h e map i s p e r c e i v e d  unconscious  rather  than  as a s t r u c t u r i n g d e v i c e  as a r e f e r e n t i a l  world,  i t s r o l e must be r e a s s e s s e d ;  series  of a r b i t r a r y  defies,  or e r a s e s ,  set  of s u c c e s s i v e l y framed  t o w a r d s an i d e n t i f i a b l e device  of cinematic  dispersal illusion  intensified. "illicit"  Thus,  theatre  agency  i n the f i n a l  "illumination"  i s an a t o m i z a t i o n or the overall  referential  of t h e immediate  object  scene of t h e n o v e l , t h e  i n which  they  produces a kind of a p p r o a c h "ce  A cosmic  l e s o e u v r e s humaines s o n t  reunion  of t h e a t r i c a l  Its design  symbolic  produced  through the  he h a d p r e v i o u s l y  the insignia  Absence  implicitly  renounced.  on t h e m y s t e r i o u s  had p r e v i o u s l y used t o a t t a c k N i c o l a s castration.  parabole  enchassees"  The " c o s m i c t h e a t r e "  the stage  also recalls  which S y l v i e  i s apparently  illusion.  reunites Nicolas with  of  image:  but t h e c l a r i t y  toutes  a  As i n t h e c o m p l e m e n t a r y  i l l u m i n e ou l a p i e c e q u ' o n r e p r £ s e n t e e s t une  dans l a q u e l l e (264).  point.  l e s b i a n c o u p l i n g o f E v a and L i n d a  Kierkegaardian  which  maps a r e shown t o s u p p l y  the result  of t h e s u r r o u n d i n g i s broken,  on a n e n v i r o n m e n t  i n t e r i o r i s a t i o n s w h i c h move i n  focal  focus,  to the external  f o r i n s t e a d of p r o v i d i n g a  superimpositions interpretation,  guide  f o r the  (the Lacanian  pendant  in a  gesture  " l a c k , " perhaps,  14 or  the Hamletian  t e x t which,  "silence")  i m p i n g e s upon t h e p r e s e n c e  as S y l v i e s f a t h e r / l o v e r M i c h e l 1  of t h e  had p r e d i c t e d , "ne  For a L a c a n i a n approach t o Neige N o i r e , see F r a n c o i s e Iqbal, "Inceste, onirisme e t i n v e r s i o n : Neige Noire et l i d e n t i t y a p o c r y p h e , " C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e 107 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 74-84. 1  91 peut  etre  pas".  i n t e l l i g i b l e que  The  illusion  s i on  r e - s u b s t i t u t i o n of  further  p a r a b o l e dans l a q u e l l e t o u t e s  a  r a t i o n a l attempt  " r e a l " world. d r a m a t i c term  catharsis; for  survival by  of  Nicolas)  rather  of  Fortinbras as  the  may  a l l be  possible  to  see  the of  metaphysical speculative to the  revision  of  realized  i n the  "new  similarly,  casts  cartography parody  of  and  n o v e l s of  later  Carey, an  a greater to,  the  but  rather  and  m i g h t be  i n which  no  analogy  the  the  role  played  d u p l i c i t y of and  noire  i t is  conjectural,  McAuley; White's  social  looks  blend  f o r w a r d most  history  (more  others. glance  fully  anticipates  at  the  Surfacing, the  role  ( t h r o u g h Atwood's  backwoods g u i d e s of  to  tongue-in-cheek  of L e a v e s ) a l s o Murnane and  of,  self.  Neige  p e r h a p s now  his  the  of  understanding  detachment  history  the  tragedy  dual  than  a l s o more r e c e n t l y  retrospective  social  sont  posits  Surfacing  Stow, a l t h o u g h  Bail,  ironic  genteel  ironic  Fringe  he  i n the  Hope and  literary A  faith  s u g g e s t by  back t o t h e  Austral is,  l a n d s c a p e s of  i n Canadian  the  that Voss,  Terra  "[la]  faith  a world  society,  for  Voss looks  Australian  w r i t i n g " of  to  surrender  pantheism  directly  of  "watershed" n o v e l s ;  why.  m y t h - l a d e n maps o f  and  of  (Hamlet's t w i n  earlier  of  i f Aquin adapts the  opportunity  considered  t h i s leap  divided  than a d e s p a i r i n g  I suggested  leap  n'est  cinematic  "true" p o s i t i o n i n  absurdity  h i s own  a  " r e s o l u t i o n " of  one's  p o s i t i o n i s tenable,  intolerability  ce q u ' t i l ]  l e s oeuvres humaines  A n o t h e r word f o r  Hamlet t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e rational  the  a Kierkegaardian  to locate  par  a t h e a t r i c a l for  suggests that  enchass£es" r e q u i r e s  l'aborde  Moodie and  of  gothic  Traill);  92 it  also anticipates the feminist  Van  Herk and o t h e r s .  the  ontological  more  them  history, space  i n later  and  forward  both  context  by R i v a r d ,  i s a subject  Atwood, a symbol  generalized,  although  internal complexities  the  plural  Australia,  cultural  of  cartographic  and V i l l e m a i r e .  f o r metaphysical  The t h r e e  such g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  the  and by  novels are i n s t r u c t i v e :  f o r A q u i n a metaphor  ontological division.  and by  Ferron),  speculation;  of p a t r i a r c h a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  construction;  wider  by e a r l i e r  o f Quebec's  Baillie  Engel,  by e l a b o r a t i n g on  to the desystematization  fictions  t h e map  novels of  (St.-Denys-Garneau,  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e t h r e e  f o r White,  social  finally,  i n s e c u r i t i e s expressed  i n the ambivalent  looks  The  for  Neige n o i r e ,  contemporary w r i t e r s  placing  revisionist  and imposed  o f immediate  cultural  t e n d e n c i e s may be necessarily  and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w h i c h  overlook  characterize  s o c i e t i e s / c u l t u r e s o f A u s t r a l i a and C a n a d a : i n t h e unique  cartographic  h i s t o r y , as w e l l  unusual  flora,  country  go some way t o w a r d s a c c o u n t i n g  as t h e  f a u n a and t o p o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f o r the prevalence i n  A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g of i n t e r n a l i z e d "landscapes of the imagination." environment landscape, stylized  I n Canada, t h e p r o g r e s s i v e  leads, second,  first,  to i t s mythologization,  representation,  metaphors of s o c i a l the  heightened  as w e l l  t o the r e a l i s t i c  and/or  linguistic  and t h i r d ,  to i t s  as a m b i v a l e n t  construction.  of the l o c a l  of the  d e p i c t i o n of  i n w h i c h maps f e a t u r e  sensitivity  as e x t e r n a l ,  socialization  community  I n Quebec,  to internal,  c o l o n i z a t i o n , r e f l e c t e d i n the l i t e r a r y  u s a g e o f t h e map a s a metaphor  f o r the dramatization  of  93  lntological  anxiety,  p r o d u c e s t h e need,  revisionary  c u l t u r a l agenda t h e n ,  deterritorialization culture's The  desire  which  o r some, o f t h e s e  discovery  "new  prevalent  one  horizons.  i n contemporary w r i t i n g i n  allied  i n Canada t o t h e  and t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  o f C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n  tendency  of feminism,  than they  contemporary these  have e v e r  and e t h n i c i t y ,  developments.  perhaps  l i t e r a t u r e s closer to  been; t h e f o l l o w i n g  examples o f " l i t e r a r y recent  society, the  regionalism  respective  of the  The d e v e l o p i n g  t o w a r d s d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n have  t h e agenda o f t h e i r  another  clarify  i t s own  n o v e l i s t s ; " and i n A u s t r a l i a t o t h e  s o c i a l issues  the general  brought  "reappropriated"  " m a i n s t r e a m s " o f M e l b o u r n e and Sydney.  multiculturalism  and  f o r a programme of  o f t h e F r e n c h and, more r e c e n t l y , t h e  emergence o f women's w r i t i n g cultural  for a  suggests a c e r t a i n convergence of  tendencies,  of t h e f i c t i o n s  L a t i n American  beyond  o f t h e map t o p o s  b o t h A u s t r a l i a and Canada all,  later,  r e f l e c t s the  f o r movement  prevalence  first,  c a r t o g r a p h y " may  a n a l y s i s of h e l p us  94  Chapter NEW  Three  TERRITORIES  And he w r o t e i n h i s f i e l d book, a f t e r t h e d a t e , a f t e r t h e hour o f t h a t s i g h t i n g , n o t o f why he had s o f a r f o u n d n o t h i n g o r o f what he b e l i e v e d he w o u l d f i n d : he w r o t e , both d e c e i v i n g and n o t d e c e i v i n g h i m s e l f : We a r e s a i l i n g o f f t h e map. (Robert  Kroetsch)  95  "It Canadian by a  our  sensibility  wrote Northrop has  famous p r o b l e m  series  less  seems t o me,"  by  of  identity,  the q u e s t i o n  riddle  as  'Where i s h e r e ? ' "  later,  F r y e ' s comment i s as  emphasis,  however, has i t would  immediate pJLace  (220).  of a f i x e d  may  d e f i n e d by  coincide with  placed  upon i t by  are  than  the  lost  be  such  years been.  The  their a sense through  PRRIIPRP  of which  corresponding  resisted.'''  "When y o u  collection  r e l e a s e of t h e s e l f  on from  say  short  I t i s not  but  so t h a t  phenomenon.  debilitating;  of  (91).  significance,  temporary,  fluid  by  Canadian  i n evoking  the p l a c e s i t i n h a b i t s ,  need n o t the  ever  so much  It i s  some  twenty  i t has  "I t h i n k movement"  c o n t i n g e n t and  recognition  and  i n h i s 1978  i s r e c o g n i z e d t o be  and  by  the  i s , as  identity.  than  1  interested  identity,  F r y e ' s here-and-now has  transitory, this  as t h a t  More t h a n  predecessors  location,  s t o r i e s Dark Must Y i e l d ,  defining  I?  r e l e v a n t as  p l a c e , " w r i t e s Dave G o d f r e y  effect  am  i n e x p r e s s i n g a k i n d of pi a c p l  possibility  its  'Who  seem, a r e l e s s  the n o t i o n of a f i x e d  that  important  c h a n g e d : many c o n t e m p o r a r y  or more d i s t a n t  than  "that  been p r o f o u n d l y d i s t u r b e d , n o t  of p a r a d o x e s i n what c o n f r o n t s t h a t  perplexed  writers,  F r y e i n 1965,  rather  the  that  self,  becomes a  The  effect  of  the  contrary, i t  constraints  i t s immediate g e o g r a p h i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s  or  A d i s t i n c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y h e r e between Edward R e l p h ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f p l a c e l e s s n e s s as an " a t t i t u d e w h i c h does n o t a c k n o w l e d g e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n p l a c e s " (143) and t h e more p o s i t i v e v i e w o f p l a c e l e s s n e s s i m p l i e d by a " d i f f e r e n t i a l topography" w h i c h a c k n o w l e d g e s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n p l a c e s but q u e s t i o n s t h e i r p r e t e n s i o n s t o permanence.  96 apparent  cultural  placelessness, entrenched of  The  recent  i n o t h e r w o r d s , has n o t  n o t i o n s of e x i l e  a colonial  cultural  affiliation.  p a s t and  deriving  p r o d u c t i o n of a c u l t u r e  influence  of i t s former  colonizers;  "the Canadian  sensibility,"  i t , b u t now  promotion ability  t h e massed  the s t i l l  instead,  i t a resharpened awareness of c u l t u r a l  a w a r e n e s s i s by no means new  reinforce  to v i c a r i o u s  t h r e a t e n e d by  n e i g h b o u r s and  towards  the c o n c e p t u a l l e g a c y  the acute s e n s i t i v i t y  i t s immediate  of  served to  from  f o r c e s of  with  tendency  pervasive  i t has  brought  relativity.  This  t o what F r y e p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y and  i s perhaps  more t h a n e v e r , i t w o u l d  o f t h e v a l u e s o f change and  ever  appear,  characteristic i t implies  the v i r t u e s  without e n d o r s i n g the homogenizing  calls  of  a  adapt-  principles  of  assimilation. A similar  tendency  c a n be d i s c e r n e d  in Australia,  as i n Canada, many c o n t e m p o r a r y  writers  practice  of e n c l o s i n g  thus d e f i n i n g  physical  structure  space  ...  i n which  containment  of i t m i g h t  acceptance,  however, n o t m e r e l y  malleability  said,  and  a place  space  rather  be more a p p r o p r i a t e "  (Tiffin  endow i t w i t h v a l u e " ( 6 ) .  but  24).  An  of  the  Y i - F u Tuan  has  ... what b e g i n s  becomes p l a c e  i n an  for abstract  as t h e g e o g r a p h e r  than place  and  than  of the immensity,  i t s potential  For s p a c e ,  " i s more a b s t r a c t  undifferentiated better  a c c e p t a n c e of space  of s p a c e ,  reorganization.  "have q u e s t i o n e d t h e  as t h e l o c u s o f p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y  environment  where,  as we This  as  g e t t o know i t dialectic  97 between c o n c e n t r a t e d p l a c e consistent  feature  and s u r r o u n d i n g s p a c e  of w r i t i n g  c o u n t r y has attempted  new  c o n c e r n f o r s p a c e a s an a b s t r a c t q u a l i t y ,  the  contemporary  of p l a c e ,  writers  map new f i c t i o n a l Thus,  decentralization.  paradoxical  by t h e d u a l  culture  of R i v a r d ,  has formed  i n t h e Americanism of  the polyglot  Nor i s i t j u s t difficult,  between  f o r example,  that  the centre  t o the p o i n t of is.  the evocation  Canadian of a l o c a l has a  on t h e m a i n l a n d and, i m p l i c i t l y ,  culture;  but a l s o ,  by e x t e n s i o n ,  seeks t o d e f i n e  A  " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t " and  a t t h e v e r y edge o f a c o n t i n e n t  effect  group which  d i s p e r s a l and  i n evidence i n  camps; i n t h e n o v e l s o f West C o a s t  situated  "mainstream"  of s p a t i a l  t o s a y what or where t h e " c e n t r e "  alliance  destabilizing  e x p l o r e and  C a n a d i a n and  impulses towards  of V i l l e m a i r e .  w r i t e r Jack Hodgins, community  to fashion,  Polyvalence i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  i t i s increasingly  "regionalist"  easily  o f many  i s their multiplication  the Orientalism  impossibility,  The  than reduced t o  of t h e contemporary  French-Canadian f i c t i o n :  cannot h o l d ;  more  itself  territories.  references modified  internationalism  geography.  the desire  i n both c o u n t r i e s  literatures  contemporary  i t s vast  configuration  reflects  a characteristic  Australian  Godbout,  sources w i t h i n  some a l t e r n a t i v e  specificity  as each  t o come t o t e r m s w i t h , accommodate  and t a p c r e a t i v e  into  h a s been a  f r o m Canada and A u s t r a l i a  to,  reshaped  2  on t h e  on any c u l t u r e o r  and d e l i m i t  itself  through  Y i - F u Tuan, Space and P l a c e : The P e r s p e c t i v e o f E x p e r i e n c e ( M i n n e a p o l i s : U o f M i n n e s o t a P., 1977) e s p . i n t r o . 3-7.  98 the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t , maintenance,  boundaries.  So  the  "international," context David  sense,  and  are  I t would  no  single  be  instructive  both,  rivalries:  p l a c e can  be  of  " r e g i o n a l , " o r by  "regional" writers,  shift  of e m p h a s i s f r o m  p l a c e to the attempted  through appeal  space  in a  they  the  in this  that  of  strict  engage i n a  loyalties  are  d e s i g n a t e d or demarcated  For  reorganization explore  "new  in this  introverted,  usual  role  function, Robert  of  space  sense, one,  i s an  or  as a v e h i c l e  to reassess the  h i s / h e r own  as  f o r i t i s , by or  i s t o impose l i m i t s  definition of movements particular  i n Canada  and  f o r the to invent  relations  relation  and  between  t o them.  enabling construct; yet  c o o r d i n a t e s f o r an  Kroetsch's  the  which p e r m i t s the w r i t e r  even s i m p l i s t i c  as t h e  and  towards e x p l a i n i n g  operates  p l a c e s , and  a disabling  the  t h e map  isolation  t o contemporary w r i t e r s  territories"  more f a m i l i a r  provide  topos  the  c o o r d i n a t i o n of a s e r i e s  goes some way  of t h e map  Australia.  be  the  surveillance  "own. " This  map,  by  f o r although  of u n r e s o l v a b l e s p a t i a l  divided,  of  i s ambiguous.  in Australia;  geographical  one" s  occupied  careful  t o compare t h e work o f H o d g i n s i n Canada w i t h  Malouf  series  space  and  The  i t may  also  i t s very nature, reductive,  distorted.  Although  imaginary world, on t h e  maps  their  real world;  may  more  their  e x p l o r e r - p a l a e o n t o l o g i s t Dawe i m p l i e s i n novel Badlands  self-contradictory:  "he w r o t e ,  d e c e i v i n g h i m s e l f : we  are  (1975),  both  sailing  i s thus  potentially  d e c e i v i n g h i m s e l f and  o f f t h e map"  (95; my  not  emphasis).  99 To  d i s c o v e r new t e r r i t o r i e s  be  necessary  fiction.  t o move o f f t h e map i n t o  Canada, c l a i m s G e o f f  "undiscovered  fiction,"  of d e f i n i t i o n s  place  Canadians  ....  connections,  (277).  may be mapped i n t h e i r  and  Australia  social  imagine  implications  Bail,  c o n s t r u c t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y .  fictional  Kroetsch s  Badlands,  1  Malouf's Carey,  selective  with  i t s impact  The range  1.  MAPS AND One  assessment  Roy's Un J a r d i n  follows,  of t h e r e l e v a n c e of o f C a n a d i a n and  the p u b l i c a t i o n of  au bout  du monde and  i n t h e l a t e 80's w i t h  the novels of  MEN  of the l a r g e s t t h e map t o p o s  speaking,  i t i s possible  ones.  on t h e  and V a n Herk.  featuring  which  i n Canada  of responses i s  t o them h e r e ; what  b e g i n n i n g i n 1975 w i t h  J o h n n o , and e n d i n g  Baillie  worlds, too,  Carey) a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n  c a r t o g r a p h i c m e t a p h o r s t o t h e "new t e r r i t o r i e s " fiction,  about t h e  o f t h i s p a r a d o x ; o t h e r s (Roy,  G a r n e r ) a r e more c o n c e r n e d  Australian  found  i n the linkages,  Some c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s  (Kroetsch, Poulin,  i s a strictly  have  what i s r e a l  Yet these  t o o g r e a t f o r me t o do j u s t i c e then,  fiction writers  t u r n ; m o v i n g o f f one map may e v e n t u a l l y  another.  the metaphysical Barfoot,  that  i s one such  d i s c o v e r themselves  tissues"  t o move o n t o  the invented worlds of  Hancock,  "so C a n a d i a n  a diversity  be  and t o e x p l o r e t h e unknown, i t may  designate  bodies  fiction  i s t h a t w r i t t e n by women. to distinguish  " c l o s e d " spaces  In t h e former  of contemporary  Generally  between t h o s e  fictions  and t h o s e w h i c h p r o j e c t  c a t e g o r y , maps a r e u s u a l l y  "open"  identified  with  100 a  stifling  with the  system  of p a t r i a r c h a l  an a l t e r n a t i v e articulation The  former  representation;  system which  lends i t s e l f  category i s usually,  though  not  collections  of H e l e n Garner  suggest, life  with  (Un J a r d i n  ( P o s t c a r d s from  au bout  entrapment;  as  often  its title,  dark,  story  Surfers,  and  of escape  realities.  In t h e  and  lover,  a m a r r i e d man  disaffected with his l i f e ,  everyday ironically  i t s Discontents," the narrator  of c h a n g i n g i t , gaze  room where t h e y have j u s t made  out of t h e window  and  story,  from  "Civilisation  but  and  like  allegiance.  the f l a g ,  of t h e  hotel  love:  i s t h e symbol  To whom, a s k s G a r n e r  of an  throughout  her  seemingly  The b u i l d i n g had a f l a g p o l e . P h i l i p and I s t o o d a t t h e window w i t h no c l o t h e s on and l o o k e d o u t . The t i n t e d g l a s s made t h e c l o u d m a s s e s more d e t a i l e d , r i c h e r , more s p e c t a c u l a r t h a n t h e y were .... "I l o v e the A u s t r a l i a n f l a g " [ P h i l i p ] s a i d . "Every time I see i t I get a s h i v e r . " "I'm l i k e t h a t a b o u t t h e map. Once I w o r k e d i n a c o n v e n t s c h o o l i n E a s t London. I used t o go t o t h e l i b r a r y a t l u n c h t i m e ... and t a k e down t h e a t l a s and gaze a t t h e page w i t h A u s t r a l i a on i t : I l o v e d i t s upper p o i n t s , i t s v a s t i n l e t s , i t s f a t s i d e s , t h e m i g h t o f i t , t h e mass f r o m whose s o u t h - e a s t e r n c o r n e r my s m a l l l i f e had s p r u n g . I u s e d t o c r o u c h between t h e s t a c k s and r e s t t h e h e a v y book on t h e edge o f t h e s h e l f : I c o u l d h a r d l y support i t s weight. I l o o k e d a t t h e map and my e y e s f i l l e d w i t h t e a r s . (94)  The map,  and  Garner's  title  titled  incapable  1985)  s t u d i e s of b i o l o g i c a l  i t c o n t r a s t s the i l l u s i o n s i t s dull,  always,  du monde, 1 9 7 5 ) .  i s a s e t of f i c t i o n a l  psychological  to  of female e x p e r i e n c e .  i n r e a l i s t w o r k s s u c h as t h e s h o r t  collection  latter,  more d i r e c t l y  exemplified  G a b r i e l l e Roy  i n the  ambivalent the story,  and  101 indeed  throughout the whole c o l l e c t i o n ,  a r e we  c o u n t r y ? our f a m i l y ? o r , p e r h a p s , m e r e l y , ourselves?  The  narrator  answers;  t h e map  salutary  i l l u s i o n which,  P a r a d i s e which support  stories  au bout  all,  like  of h e r  included  the g a r i s h  of  rural  ties  e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e i m m i g r a n t  with  their  Martha  p o s t c a r d s of  but f i n a l l y  Surfers  discards,  cannot  sense  collection of  of a s e r i e s  Manitoba,  families  t o t h e dilemma  values.  of  immigrants  Roy's s t o r i e s  i n coming  of p e r s o n a l ,  Bound t o h e r d e p e n d e n t  herself  loyal  Like Garner, cultural  are  difficulto  husband  of the t i t l e  Roy  and  terms  has  of  draws  national  Stephan,  story,  Un  disillu-  c o u n t r y a r e e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e l i m i t a t i o n s  Yaramko, p r o t a g o n i s t  declared  easy  than Garner's; nonetheless, the  staunchly p a t r i a r c h a l  allegiance.  t h e r e a r e no  i n G a b r i e l l e Roy's 1975  overtly  attention  of  dreams.  less  their  feminist  idea  be n o t h i n g more t h a n a  Sketches of the l i v e s  the harsh environment  new  that  t o an  du monde g e n e r a t e a s i m i l a r  sioned pathos. in  after  she buys, w r i t e s ,  the weight  The Jardin  may,  discovers  bound: t o our  the ageing also  t o a c o u n t r y w h i c h means l i t t l e  to her:  P l u t 6 t qu'un v e r i t a b l e p a y s , l e Canada l u i a p p a r a i s s a i t comme une immense c a r t e g e o g r a p h i q u e aux d e c o u p u r e s b i z a r r e s , s u r t o u t dans l e n o r d ; ou e n c o r e que c i e l , a t t e n t e p r o f o n d e e t r e v e u s e , a v e n i r en suspens. Sa v i e l u i s e m b l a i t p a r f o i s s'§tre d £ r o u l £ e en b o r d u r e du p a y s , en q u e l q u e zone i m p r e c i s e de v e n t e t de s o l i t u d e qu'un j o u r p e u t - §tre v i e n d r a i t a r e j o i n d r e l e Canada. (172) Neither  " U k r a i n i a n " nor  between two w o r l d s , one  "Canadian," Martha  feels  of which  the o t h e r of  has l o s t ,  herself  caught which  102 has  yet  outline  t o a c q u i r e , meaning f o r h e r . a foreign,  conjectural territory;  painstakingly  cultivated  that  illusion  perishes with  time  Martha proves Another  garden o f f e r s the  t o o weak t o  s t o r y of  Dancing  of  h o u s e w i f e who,  life" she  (25) , c a n n o t  feels  daily  others  life  demand of  i s reflected  room, t h e m i r r o r , conspicuous attention,  cracks  page, e t c . ) . life  "patterned  herself  t o , an  notably  her  patriarchal adapt  her.  p o r t r a y s the  dilemma  "the proper less  than  society.  of  i n the margins of p a t t e r n s who  imposed  t o move t o V a n c o u v e r :  accommodate (most  by  a  sister,  "The  first so  Stella,  t h i n g about I looked  i t seems i t m i g h t be  to  predominantly  who  w r i t e s t o Edna t o r e v e a l  [Toronto]....  ...  in a  not measure up  upon her  more r e s i l i e n t  intention  Vancouver  her  u n d e r l i n i n g Edna's i n a b i l i t y  a broken marriage,  being here  the  imperfections  do  (the  escape  sees  puzzle cannot  Edna's  feature  (dusty c o r n e r s which  and  a  the p e r f e c t i o n  rectangular motifs  infidelity)  A motif  Her  p a t t e r n of  monotonous r o u t i n e of  c o n f r o n t s , but  from  I thought,  (1982),  e x i s t e n c e whose c o n s p i c u o u s  i s t h e map.  i s not  Joan  i n numbers, a c o n n e c t - t h e - d o t ( 3 5 ) , Edna  even  disillusion,  glass, holes  recovered  free  of w i n t e r ,  her  and  The  irregularities  expectations  but  a l l of w h i c h , however,  husband's brazen  idealistic  s p a c e of  comfort,  map  this  seeking  in a series  i n the  only  the  the  and  anything  page),  of  respond.  A c h e r i s h e r of l i n e s  c h i l d ' s magazine"  the  the  f l a w s or  onslaught  i n t h e Dark  cope w i t h  contours  her  female entrapment  Barf o o f s novel a frustrated  The  to has her  being  a t a map  and  f a r enough away  103 that  everything  really  m i g h t be  moves, becomes i n v o l v e d w i t h life,  but  Edna c a n n o t  different"  another  even c o n s i d e r  man, the  (111) . and  Stella  starts  a  new  possibility:  She [ S t e l l a ] c o u l d l o o k a t a map and p o i n t a t a c i t y and s u d d e n l y , bang, she w o u l d go t h e r e and l i v e . A new s t a r t , a d i f f e r e n t l i f e . She t h o u g h t t h a t w o u l d amaze me, t h a t p o s s i b i l i t y ? I t h o r r i f i e d me. What i f such a t h i n g c o u l d happen? 'What i f H a r r y [ E d n a ' s husband] d i e d ? I t h o u g h t , f o r i t was a l l I c o u l d imagine. (115) 1  For  Edna, t h e map  does n o t  represent  e s c a p e but  a f u r t h e r reinforcement  margins of  her  present  life;  to the  reality  i t represents,  t h e map the  stock  routine,  of  rationalize saw  her  her  obsession  terror  chaos; a great  c o u l d happen"  letters  and  increasing and  black  (115).  overdramatically,  of  t h r e a t of  p a t t e r n s of  change:  the  t h e map  " I f I thought  and  a last  madness.  still  covers"  but  also recalls  Edna  f u r t h e r to the  i n on  the  her,  size  (171). the  The  beginning  tiny  of  of  scrawl Edna's  paper  pages,  of  the  lines  the  world  any no  and  image a n t i c i p a t e s t h e v i o l e n t  reflective  her  reduces the  withholding  s e e p s between t h e  I  somewhat  C l i n g i n g to  m i g h t once have o f f e r e d : "The Blood  and  b a s t i o n of defence a g a i n s t  outside world,  i t s images crowd  t h e wounds.  domestic  d o e s : Edna l a p s e s ,  t h e m a r g i n e d page; a s  the  of  adds i t t o  anything  diminishes,  binds  to a l i f e  from  c a t a s t r o p h i c p i t i n which  on  they  transition  Edna m e r e l y  of  defined  freedom,  handwriting  protection  narrowly  of  murder  n o t e b o o k s as  the  possibility  t o become t h e p e r f e c t w i f e ,  "Anything"  into  realistic  u n a b l e t o make t h e  images w h i c h b i n d h e r  fuel  of  a  longer oozes ending  novel,  in  out  104 which, she  confined  t o an  asylum,  Edna c o n t e m p l a t e s  the  notebook  is writing in: T h r e e h o l e s c u t i n t o e a c h m a r g i n , r o u n d and p r e c i s e , n o t a t a l l l i k e t h e h o l e s , i r r e g u l a r and u n s p a c e d , made by a k n i f e i n a body. There i s a comforting n e a t n e s s a b o u t t h i s book, so one f e e l s compelled e i t h e r t o l e a v e i t b l a n k or t o w r i t e i n i t c a r e f u l l y , p e r f e c t l y , and w i t h a c e r t a i n p a i n i n t h e p e r f e c t i o n .  The  wounds a r e  p a t t e r n : Edna  rebound,  the  "remaps" h e r  holes life,  relocated within a but  at the p r i c e  of  (1)  conformist her  sanity. The  connection  definitions, the  Le  enclosures  entrapment  patriarchal  made by and  critique  Alice  i n Wonderland,  narrow  but  of  social  prgcieux  into  conformism.  Harvey's novel  his  arch  and  the  Leopied  r u l e r G r a n d - M o t - F u n , and political  rival  La Reine.  fable i s illustrated encounters,  t h e map  c o n f i n e s of  we  by  a  who  town o f Ca, the v i l l a g e As  the  come t o r e a l i z e  that  of  I t , seat  of of  progresses,  Leopied's  r e v e a l i n g episode  is  of p h i l o s o p h i c a l  Leopied*s  eccentric philosopher  involves  residence  the v a r i o u s o u t l a n d i s h f i g u r e s  The  course  the  in a  novel  relativity.  the  f o r t u n e s of  lives  also implies a position  confrontation with  novel  conceptually  f o l l o w s the  location most  and  A l a t t e r - d a y Quebecois  intermediary  university  of  a more  unstable w r i t e r Leopied,  r a m s h a c k l e c a b i n midway between t h e local  patterns  rigid  s o c i e t y t r a n s l a t e s i n P a u l i n e H a r v e y ' s 1981  based  the  between t h e  gridline  of women w i t h i n t h e  Deuxieme Monopoly des  brilliant  Barfoot  "1'exploration et  Bali, ...  whose l'arpentage  105 d'un assez Bali  u n i v e r s mental  assez  abstrait  e t ...  une  m£thodologie  complexe pour e t u d i e r des m i c r o - o r g a n i s m e s " and  Leopied  n o t i o n of  enter  i d e n t i t y which,  sociale qui  a fait  "L i d e n t i t y , " 1  says  son  relativement  gens se  retrouvent  de  identity  evoluer  ou  reasoning identity  Bali  contexte  b l o q u e s dans un  e t que  s'adapter"  i s "une  de  toute  perime cadre  leads Leopied  to  Bali's  d£cadente."  de  the  les  l'intgrieur  peuvent  c u r i o u s but  reconsider  reperes  s o r t e que  £troit a  l e u r s comportements ne (98).  the  s o r t e s de  ...  89).  invention  e s t devenue  "est f a i t e  a un  o f d i s c u s s i o n s on  decides,  temps e t q u i  Bali,  sociaux  leur  into a series  (Harvey  plus  effective  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  as  un g i g a n t e s q u e t e r r i t o i r e d o n t on p o u r r a i t f a i r e l a c a r t o g r a p h i e ... l e s c a r t e s s o n t t o u j o u r s un peu fausse'es au d e b u t . Un e x p l o r a t e u r a u r a p l a c e un l a c au m a u v a i s e n d r o i t , q u e l q u e s m i l l e s t r o p au n o r d ou t r o p a l ' e s t , e t a mesure que l e s o u t i l s se p e r f e c t i o n n e n t l e s a r p e n t e u r s corrigent l a carte. Moi, j e p o s s e d e une p r e c a u t i o n ... i l y a des gens q u i v i e n n e n t s a n s p r e c a u t i o n e t q u i f a u s s e n t l a c a r t e . (104-5) Leopied*s  v i e w s on  corresponding  the  perfectibility  possibility  gradually modified, p o s s i b l e m o d e l s of  of  a totally  however, as the world  he  and  r a t h e r than  particular  Leopied's  surrogate  Borges),  fashioned  by  biologists, pluriel  who  a whole  teaches  coherent  est i n e v i t a b l e ,  car  the  and  t o adhere  on  the  identity,  are  plurality  of  need t o a d a p t  to  rigidly  these to a  mentors here i n c l u d e B o r g i a  him  that  " s e c r e t s o c i e t y " of  cartographers,  t h e map,  realizes  the  numerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s worldview.  of  metaphysicians l'hypothese  s i n c e the world  (a  is  astronomers, and d'un  poets, seul  "le  inventeur  ...  106 a £te £cart£e a l ' u n a n i m i t e "  (133) a n d B e l v e d e r e ,  t o him t h a t h i s " e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l p e r m i s de f a i r e augment^" Harvey a  (152).  s i n g l e view  model" o f t h e w o r l d  Lewis C a r r o l l  t h e product  i n the Alice  stories,  on i t s head t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e a b s u r d i t y o f  o r model w h i c h p r e s e n t s  widely  "m'a  c e s c h o s e s e t m a i n t e n a n t mon p o s s i b l e a  So, l i k e  turns l o g i c  Leopied, is  toutes  who e x p l a i n s  considered of other  itself  as t h e " t r u t h . "  t o be mad, r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s madness  people's  narrow t h i n k i n g :  C ' e s t e t o n n a n t comme l e s gens se s e n t e n t o b l i g e s de s'en t e n i r a une s e u l e e t u n i q u e f a c o n de s ' e x p r i m e r q u ' i l s c o n s i d e r e n t comme f a i s a n t p a r t i e de l e u r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , de l e u r moi i n c h a n g e a b l e ... s i q u e l q u ' u n d e c i d e ... de m o d i f i e r c e t t e e x p r e s s i o n , s ' i l s e met a d e v e n i r l e p e r s o n n a g e q u ' i l e s t c a p a b l e d ' i n v e n t e r , on l ' a p p e l l e 'Fou' e t i l e s t e n f e r m £ dans un h S p i t a l od on l u i p r o d i g u e r a d e s s o i n s a f i n q u ' i l se r e m e t t e a se c o m p o r t e r comme a v a n t . (171)  Leopied  rejects h i s previous  unimaginative, other  linear  limiting  refusing  says  draughts  a principle t o conform,  imagination  a n d d e c e p t i v e ; f o r t h e map, l i k e t h e  models p r e s e n t e d  boardgames c h e s s , mistaking  " c a r t o g r a p h i c model" a s  t o adapt  and Monopoly, may t r i c k  of order suggests  tout a f a i t  us i n t o  of t r u t h .  By  H a r v e y , we c a n use o u r l i b e r a t e d  "il  as L a Reine  n'y a q u ' a se l a i s s e r  aller,  n a t u r e l , c ' e s t l a c h o s e l a p l u s f a c i l e du  monde.  On n'a meme p a s b e s o i n  (223).  Harvey's feminism,  involves  for a value  or r e i n v e n t our p e r s o n a l i t i e s ;  a t t h e end o f t h e n o v e l ,  c'est  i n the novel, notably the  the f i c t i o n a l i z e d  de r£flechir pour y  though a t t e n u a t e d reiteration  arriver"  and i n d i r e c t ,  o f a r g u m e n t s u s e d by  107 feminist  theorists  conformist  such  systems of  as G i l b e r t  thought  and G u b a r  t o undermine  w h i c h have c o n s i s t e n t l y  those  been  used  3 as  a means of If  justifying patriarchal  Harvey's focus  Paulette J i l e s ' s the  patriarchal  patriarchal  critique using  these  cultural  Referred  s t e r e o t y p e s as  f o r the  action  to a floorplan  accompany  involve  stereotypes  of  of  a murder  compartments o f  but  an  the novel  those  " c l i c h e s of A m e r i c a ' s v i e w  indulge  [and]  in exotic  a more p e r s o n a l people and  who  of  level,  protagonists  romance.  and  i n t o the  and  reader  is invited does  stereotypes are  of Canada as n o t h i n g  but  of A m e r i c a n s as p e o p l e  roles  through  as J i l e s  not  various  stereotypes  the hackneyed  But,  film,  in a train.  "Clue" which  high-rolling"  another  lighthearted  social  place  car, the  Among t h e s e  Canada's v i e w  squalor  p e r c e i v e one  cinematic  (18).  a  and  i s chosen  "where huge symbols and  i n t o each o t h e r "  ...  takes  i n a game of  crash  landscape  metaphor  In  D r i n k i n g Rum  undertakes  The  investigation  t h e mind  Car  i n l i t e r a t u r e and  the d i n i n g  the passengers  thought,  representation.  examples of p e r v a s i v e  "compartmentalization."  advisedly,  Club  (1986) , f o r example, J i l e s  of p a t r i a r c h a l  systems of  modes o f  p l a y f u l l y e n t i t l e d S i t t i n g i n the  Karma K o l a  to  i s on  i s on  ascendancy.  the  (64)  and,  at  out  by  played filter  p o i n t s out,  " c o u l d h a v e been s y m b o l s o f  anything:  of her  who  two  literary two  o f male  and  S a n d r a G i l b e r t and S u s a n G u b a r , The Madwoman i n t h e A t t i c : The Woman W r i t e r and t h e N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y Literary I m a g i n a t i o n (New Haven: Y a l e UP, 1979) e s p . s e c t i o n one, "Towards a F e m i n i s t P o e t i c s . "  108 female, the  o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d  u n t u t o r e d , o f upper  adult,  savage  the  symbols  of refinement versus  c l a s s and w o r k i n g  and u r b a n "  t h e main d i f f i c u l t y ,  States,  (64).  class,  c h i l d and  The o p t i o n s a r e c o v e r e d ;  suggests J i l e s ,  i s n o t t o a s c e r t a i n what  or s t e r e o t y p e s a r e but t o f i n d  a way o f d i s c a r d i n g  them; t h u s t h e " h e r o i n e , " c o n s u l t i n g h e r d i a g r a m s ,  asks  herself  ruefully: How c a n we c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e o u r l i v e s , and everything? A r e these t h i n g s r e a l l y b l u e p r i n t s which a s s u r e us t h a t n o t h i n g s u r p r i s i n g w i l l e v e r h a p p e n ? ... A t r a i n made o f d i a g r a m s , where s p e c t r e s experience only the expected experiences, think the f a s h i o n a b l e thoughts of t h e i r generation of spectres. There i s s e a t i n g only f o r people e x a c t l y l i k e t h e m s e l v e s who move l i k e t r a i n s on p r e d i c t a b l e t r a c k s , d w i n d l i n g i n t o t h e d i s t a n c e , l o n e l y and dead. (58)  The  diagram  in Sitting  Deuxieme Monopoly, means i n n o c u o u s  i n the Club Car, l i k e  i s analogous t o a s u p e r f i c i a l  boardgame,  p l a y e r s have o n l y  to f u l f i l  Leopied  i n Harvey's  respect  the rules;  novel,  i n which their  romance, J i l e s perils instead medicine bend"  and h e r e b u l l i e n t  show, a s o r t  But l i k e  inJiles s 1  g l a n c e back  refuses to t o the genteel  conventions of Hollywood narrator  and t h e t r a i n performance, of g e n t e e l  The d i a g r a m  roles.  Canada and, more r e c e n t l y , t o  male-dominated  a "a p e r p e t u a l  (84) .  given  s o , w i t h an i r o n i c  of conformism,  b u t by no  t h e r u l e s a r e s e t and t h e  the narrator  e t i q u e t t e manuals of V i c t o r i a n the melodramatic,  t h e map i n L e  escape  from t h e  "made o f d i a g r a m s " a carnival,  a  becomes  traveling  p s y c h ward g o i n g a r o u n d t h e  at the front  of the n o v e l  turns  109 out  t o be  i r r e l e v a n t ; beguiled  "truth-seeking" that  "the  no  reader-detectives,  n a t u r e of  endure without  absolute  a frontal  we  are  eventually  truth i s that  lobotomy,  and  r o l e of informed  i t i s too  there  boring  to  i s f o r most of  us  v i r t u e i n i t " (77). A s i m i l a r s e n s e of  Australian writer  sardonic  Thea A s t l e y  s t o r i e s Hunting the W i l d  the  Pineapple  presents  alternatives" metaphors of  really  (1978).  Jiles  t h e map  "the  top  i n an  the  blue  end  care"  tent"  only  precarious,  (3) .  short mocks  as  a  But  the  middle-class  protagonists.  instructive,  with  the  simulacrum  i t s narrator of  truth  but  the m u l t i p l e v a r i a t i o n s of a l i t t l e map"  of  (3)  is  to h i s c o l l e c t i o n the  blue,  l o s t w o r l d " of  by  is a  the  s p r i n k l e of  r e s t of  the  suggests the  d i r e c t i o n and outposts  of  related  Northern  show  b u b b l e s of The  first  green i s  people -  these  "who and  narrator a kind  have p i t c h e d  s u c h as  the  the  country  a s e c o n d - r a t e Eden ...  as A s t l e y p r o c e e d s t o  which m e r c i l e s s l y burst  a r b i t e r s of  Queensland,  t h o s e who've l o s t  last-stand  not  the  i m p r o b a b l e l a n d s c a p e where t h e too  (3).  as  by  of  unending a c c r e t i o n  i n t r o d u c i n g us  i s "maybe ...  for  "an  draw you  t h e y ' v e been f o r g o t t e n  archly, limbo  of  Here,  g r e e n and  don't  collection  ridicules  maps a r e  " L e t me  set at  Australia.  as  f a b r i c a t i o n , of  n a r r a t o r ' s way stories,  life  (175),  storyteller.  feel  i s evinced  " t r u t h ; " f o r , i n a c o l l e c t i o n which,  suggests,  too  humour  i n her  " e x p l i c a t o r y " diagram; A s t l e y of  i n t o p l a y i n g the  of  a  are  i n a s e r i e s of s t o r i e s their story  hypocritical i s the  most  i t s c a u s t i c m o c k e r y of m i d d l e - c l a s s  escapism:  110 Queensland's  hippie  the narrator, "new  urban  their  new  suburbia  c o m m u n i t i e s and  are l i t t l e  trendies, elysiums  so  bitterness  p e o p l e " he  depicts  conformist that  to escape"  shines through,  in his stories,  as  I suggested,  (19).  One  they are a l s o  illusion  becomes t h e  stories  art.  break  her  their  fantasies),  stereotypical  t h e y may  "lost  this  same  one  like  the worst  i t i s clear female  illusions  person  persuades  i s seeing, of  thus  the  Harvey's  and  treatment  i n her  t h o s e who  imagine  H e r k ' s r e c e n t n o v e l No distinguishes which  often  of  i f not  are caught  all,  up i n  So w h i l e t h e v a r i o u s  t h e W i l d P i n e a p p l e a r e none o f them  n o n e t h e l e s s have t h e i r  about  t h a t most,  alike,  dreams o f f r e e d o m .  More o b v i o u s l y f e m i n i s t  map,  of  f o r the i l l u s i o n i s m  f o r although  c h a r a c t e r s , male and  Edens o f H u n t i n g  tell  The  i s r e s e r v e d f o r her women c h a r a c t e r s (as v i c t i m s  m a l e d e s i r e s and of  the  fabrications,  the  o f what he  A s t l e y ' s feminism,  is indirect:  turning  i s shattered, another  reality  i r o n i c metaphor  storyteller's Jiles's,  i n the  of  f o r of a l l t h e  c o n s t r u c t e d ; mapmaking, t h e means by w h i c h to b e l i e v e  are  the  he h i m s e l f i s t h e most  c o n s t r u c t e d f i c t i o n s which  they p r e s e n t .  another  they  H i s maps a r e t h e i r o n i c v e h i c l e s  disorientation;  that  sadly  suggests  c o u n t e r p a r t s of  into a bedraggled t r a n s c r i p t i o n  narrator's  artfully  more t h a n p a t h e t i c  t h e y have been t r y i n g  disoriented.  assorted dropouts,  unpleasant  "true,"  "truths"  to  them. in inspiration  Fixed Address  (1987).  i n t h e n o v e l between t h e  designates a fixed,  i s Aritha Van  Van  Herk  s y m b o l i c v a l u e of  inherently  l i m i t e d view,  the and  that  Ill of  the  spider,  potentially The  which  e x p r e s s e s a m o b i l e but  s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e view  former view  limitations  of  is implicitly  patriarchy,  unadventurous l i f e s t y l e Telfer. lover  The  victims  of Van  i n but  destruction i t s own  and  view  also  (like  the  kind).  The  out  the  the  spider  difference  l i n e s which  outline  the  desire  Finding  herself  t o move t h r o u g h  "sink by  but  Thomas  the  multiple unwary  own  flies,  will  eat  conformist  the w o r l d  is  f o r Thomas, maps  landscape; f o r Arachne  increasingly attracted  drawn maps, A r a c h n e  of  between Thomas's  map:  neat  s u c k her  f o r her  starved  to the  shape t h e  like  text,  i n d e p e n d e n t v i e w s of  in their reaction  the  Thomas's wayward  deceit,  potential  which,  the  cartographer  i s i d e n t i f i e d with  contain  with  in p a r t i c u l a r with  professional  and  world.  Herk's d e f t l y s t r u c t u r e d  Arachne's f i e r c e l y  brought draw  of  and  the  associated  A r a c h n e M a n t e i a , whose webs o f  filaments  of  latter  of  deceptive  into" i t  they  (260).  Thomas's e x q u i s i t e l y  sees  t h e l i n e s e n t i c i n g h e r t o q u e s t beyond t h e c i t y [Calgary]'s radius. She g e t s i n t o t h e c a r and s e t s t h e b o n n e t t o w a r d s t h e sun. She i s l e a r n i n g t r a v e l , t h e p a c e and p r o g r e s s i o n of j o u r n e y , t h e m u l t i f a r i o u s s e d u c t i o n of movement ... [Thomas] i s t h e a u t h o r of t h o s e maps but he has n e v e r known t h e i r u l t i m a t e a f f i r m a t i o n , t h e consummation o f t h e p a c t between t r a v e l e r and t r a v e l e d . He o n l y draws them; she t r a c e s them f o r him, l e a v i n g t h e p e n - l i n e of her p a s s i n g ... [she] t r a v e l s t o t r a v e l . Her only p a r a d o x i s a r r i v i n g somewhere, her o n l y s o l u t i o n i s t o l e a v e f o r somewhere e l s e . (164)  Arachne duly a l l o w s her  to  t a k e s on indulge  a job i n her  as  a t r a v e l i n g salesperson  wander-  (and  other  which  forms of)  lust;  112 she  always  until  her  returns, final  artificially  b i d f o r freedom, which takes  constructed  limited  her  further  i n t o the  North.  As  and  however, t o Thomas, a t l e a s t ,  experience  centres  b o u n d a r i e s w h i c h have  to the  Arachne's f i n a l ,  o f her  predominantly  end  "uncivilized  f u r t h e r away from  the  previous realist  existence,  and  individual  the  i s overridden  psyche.  met;  Arachne  improbably  murderer: her her  life,  take  and  Island  road-sign  A r a c h n e has  by  the  the  further emotional  apply;  the  journey on  the  the  can  no  longer  a thief, who  the  have  be  a "shaped"  sign-painter  moved i n t o a d i f f e r e n t  she  had  f o r an  airline  dimension of  d i m e n s i o n of  past  f r a m e of  transcend  her  horrors"  (117)  themselves,  time  own  but  so e a s i l y , ...  past,  she the  now  lead  [so t h a t ]  i t s rude, discovers  [her] she  s p a c e ; but  time.  a  she  Whereas lead  through h i s t o r y i n t o  would  be  able  uneven measure, that  of  company,  p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d t h a t Thomas's o l d maps " c o u l d  i n t o the  she  i n d i c a t e s through h i s conversion  i n t o a commercial  a  verisimilitude  t h e men As  from  mode.  need t o e x p r e s s  of  extreme  also shifts  demand f o r  those  a l s o moved i n t o a d i f f e r e n t  another  the  the  impose l i m i t s  representation  has  [her]  longer  on m y t h i c p r o p o r t i o n s .  m e e t s on V a n c o u v e r "standard"  no  becomes a k i d n a p p e r ,  existence,  of  still  progresses  novel  d e s i r e to  Similarly,  which d e l i m i t s c a r t o g r a p h i c  (317)  implicitly,  the  the  t h e n on  i n c r e a s i n g l y mythical  becomes an  world  beyond  previously  road,  one-way j o u r n e y  principles  physical  the  u r b a n and,  t o an  one,  of  territories"  Thomas's c a r t o g r a p h i c inner  her  that i s ,  i t i s not  s p a c e s between them, t h o s e  to  i t s gaps  and  t h e maps unaccounted  gaps  113 she Like  had once w i s h e d  to f i l l ,  self-discovery  on t h e f l o o r ,  has no t e m p o r a l  inconclusively,  2.  "lead her through h i s t o r y . "  A r a c h n e and Thomas who, h a v i n g made l o v e ,  between t h e maps s c a t t e r e d  "no  that  a t the l e v e l  fall  asleep  Van Herk i m p l i e s  or s p a t i a l  o f t h e dream  limits;  that  i t operates,  i n a r e a l m which has  f i x e d address." MAPS AND MYTHS Van  Herk's q u e s t i o n i n g  of the v e r i f i c a t o r y  procedures of  maps, and h e r d e l i b e r a t e  contrast  between an h i s t o r i c a l l y  f o u n d e d and a m y t h i c a l l y  intuited  approach  knowledge, c a l l  towards  (self-)  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between maps and  myths i n s e v e r a l  contemporary  h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l novels i n  Canada and A u s t r a l i a . In  Peter  history the  Illywhacker  (1985), f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e  o f modern A u s t r a l i a i s c h a r t e d  gradual  natural era  Carey's  development  environment,  of m u l t i n a t i o n a l  of t e c h n o l o g y ,  through  a d e s c r i p t i o n of  i t s impact  on t h e  and i t s a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y capitalism.  In t h e process,  Carey  e x p l o d e s a number o f myths a b o u t A u s t r a l i a , n o t a b l y concerning narrator nation  the r i g h t f u l i s informed  when t h e B r i t i s h  development  the  of A u s t r a l i a n  i s that  came h e r e "  radical-democratic  The nationalism i s  a myth as n e c e s s a r y t o  promulgation of a p o s t - c o l o n i a l A u s t r a l i a n was t o t h e f i r s t  "the whole  i t was n o t a l r e a d y  (307).  exposed as a r h e t o r i c a l c o n s t r u c t ,  myth o f d i s c o v e r y  f o r , as t h e  by h i s f r i e n d L e a h G o l d s t e i n ,  i s b a s e d on a l i e w h i c h  occupied  also  ownership of the land;  that  i d e n t i t y as t h e  European c o l o n i z e r s .  But  114 Carey's  s a t i r e does n o t  restrict  itself  to the  so-called  4 "Australian  tradition;"  E u r o p e a n and, antipodes.  more r e c e n t l y ,  The  "exotic" f l o r a  and  and  fauna,  including  a promotional  history  fraudulence his  of  narrator  for  suggests Carey,  Badgery, used  t h i s pseudo-history;  or  political  no  myth b a s e d on funded  of  the  own  car  to  of  by  in a  car"  bottle  (a  General  is rife  joint Motors).  with  a perfect  topic  for  confidence the  i n d e e d , maps t h e m s e l v e s  spurious  map  Charles  "genuine"  s a l e s m a n and  organisations The  the  its  more r e l i a b l e t h a n myths i n  interests.  window d i s p l a y  i t s display  p r e j u d i c i a l misconception,  of  rise  government and  charting  and  gives  "Australia's  Maps a r e  conjecture,  A u s t r a l i a with  a c a g e d Chinaman, a d r a g o n  Australian  Herbert  embody a k i n d  stereotypical  p e r c e p t i o n s of  example,  trickster. of  of  petshop with  Australia,  and  in  American,  for  display  v e n t u r e between t h e The  takes  naive a s s o c i a t i o n  Badgery's s e l f - p a r o d i c Australiana  i t also  of  Badgery Pet  "discovery," with vested  fuelled  commercial  A u s t r a l i a decorating  Emporium  is a  by  case  in  the point:  T h e r e a r e some words, but I am more t a k e n by t h e l i t t l e r o c k - w a l l a b i e s w h i c h hop t o and f r o a c r o s s t h i s p r e t t y s c e n e and one o f them, i n p a r t i c u l a r , e a t i n g an a p p l e , h o l d i n g i t d a i n t i l y between i t s two f r o n t paws. (493) Garlanded  i n fake  C a r e y ' s m o c k e r y of the  fact  that  the  flowers, the  the  map  becomes t h e  inauthenticity  display  of  target  for  European p a s t o r a l ;  i s a promotional  venture for  but  American  See, f o r example, A.A. P h i l l i p s , The A u s t r a l i a n T r a d i t i o n : S t u d i e s i n a C o l o n i a l C u l t u r e ( M e l b o u r n e : Longman, 1 9 5 8 ) .  115 industry  also  indicates that  t h a n one c u s t o m e r .  A u s t r a l i a h a s " s o l d o u t " t o more  So t h e map,  often  of  national  to  i n t e r n a t i o n a l powerbroking; l i k e  forecast be"  i d e n t i t y , becomes i n t h i s  of r a i n which  agents of personal  as e x p r e s s i o n s  Relations of vested  protect  the determined  the place  determined  both v e r b a l  however, t a k e s p l a c e h i s minions, map"  Rupert  i n their  The  locus  community the  attempt  villagers world,  residents  protect  destroy  battle,  Fall  back  "on t h e  p a t t e r n s of  I a n M c T a g g a r t and  bind  tools,  of l o c a l i z e d  together  the v i l l a g e r s  myth.  the  i s t h e "magic m o u n t a i n " w h i c h  them.  of gold,  patterns  myths w h i c h  know b u t do n o t w i s h  the s i t e  A s e r i e s of  o f s t r u c t u r e : H a l l o r a n and  f o r h i s crescent-shaped  of Whitey's F a l l  unpropitiated,  it.  t o put Whitey's  another: the c i r c u l a r  that  inhabitants to  noted f o r h i s c o n c e n t r i c a l l y - a r r a n g e d  of the various  spirits  i n Southern  l e d by t h e  one "camp": t h e g r i d l i n e  t h e former  novel  own, and t h e e q u a l l y  government,  at the l e v e l  g a r d e n and t h e l a t t e r representing  The  of Whitey's F a l l  t o renovate  d e v e l o p m e n t ; and l o c a l  Ping,  interests.  and p h y s i c a l , e n s u e ; a n o t h e r  (261) r e p r e s e n t i n g  regional  ( 1 9 8 2 ) , maps a r e s i m i l a r l y  t h e y have made t h e i r  obsequious Senator H a l l o r a n , battles,  t o be t h e  e f f o r t s of i t s ageing  e f f o r t s of the l o c a l  b u t ... w o u l d  will.  on t h e d e c a y e d community  Australia,  testament  farmer L e s C h a f f e y ' s  are discovered  and c o r p o r a t e  In Rodney H a l l ' s J u s t  focuses  c a s e an i r o n i c  "was n o t on t h e map y e t ,  (424) , maps i n I l l y w h a c k e r  considered  i n t e r p r e t e d a s a symbol  houses  b u t may a l s o , i f  The m o u n t a i n i s a l s o ,  as t h e  to d i s c l o s e to the outside  the h i s t o r i c a l l y  founded l o c a t i o n  116 of  the m y t h i c a l  accident forcing  and  "Golden F l e e c e . "  the v i l l a g e  i t s veteran  into disuse,  the world  map;  first risks, the  the  place  trenchant  map  i s one  the  on  sacrificial  and  destroy  the  "the  the  ...  at  place,  i n t o the  perverse The  the G o l d  s i d e of  s c a r s on Mrs.  the  affectionate  p o r t r a y a l of  progress  banish  the v i l l a g e r s ,  them f r o m  the  to which,  body, and  and  the  ultimately syntactic  however, by  whose r e f u s a l  official  the  Brinsmeads,  r i t u a l i z e d v i o l e n c e and countered,  of  "official"  of d e s e c r a t i o n  d e s i r e t o dismember  with  territorial  the magic mountain,  and  own  produces  range  desire  Rupert Ping's  Ping  of  territorial/  to the  a symbol  Rush  Hall  employing a  of  the  into their  Senator H a l l o r a n ' s  and  finding  foreign spirit  a n a l o g y between  corresponding  on  fleeting association,  a l l this  once a symbol  to  its  naming t h i n g s ,  greed,  the  Fall,  r e g i o n a l , but  the v a l u e s  absorbing  of J u s t R e l a t i o n s a r e  may  on  f o r c e s , the  commercial  ceremonial  self.  just  by  developers,  Whitey's  ecological devastation,  m u t i l a t i o n s of  to the  and  p r e v i o u s l y been a l l o w e d  a r t of  disfiguration.  carved  relates  prospectors  however, o f  t o enact  acquire  self-inflicted  i s rediscovered  j u x t a p o s i n g memories of  appropriation  road  violations  By  such d e v i c e ,  (re)name and like  placated,  devices  linguistic  had  natural  contemporary  and  linguistic  the  satire  structuring  loss,  the magical  (467).  reminders of a  the  tricks, t o be  survival"  i t s mines,  t r e a s u r e d most:  occasions,  by  i s r e l o c a t e d not  at  i n h a b i t a n t s had  overrun  Fleece  inhabitants into exile.  whose h i s t o r y , l i k e fall  The  map  but  Hall's of  guarantees  117 the  survival  shaped,  quirky geopolitical "official"  translates  have i n v e n t e d , and  i n Yvon R i v a r d ' s  are offered  conflict  staged  and " m y t h i c a l " c o n c e p t i o n s  into a mock-tribunal view  they  f o r themselves.  The between  of t h e m y t h i c a l w o r l d  1979 n o v e l  i n which  novel  of place  L'Ombre e t l e d o u b l e  a number o f d i f f e r e n t  on t h e f a m i l i a r  p o i n t s of  Q u £ b e c o i s theme o f " l a q u e t e  du p a y s . "  At f i r s t  the quest,  n a r r a t o r - p r o t a g o n i s t Thomas i s e v e n t u a l l y a c q u i t t e d  by  a jury  believes carte can  consisting, that  by r e n a m i n g i t .  laden with  beyond t h e a r b i t r a r y  into  like  frontiers  sought  to  like  "l'inconnu  allusion,  which  of cartography  and l u d i c  The i t ,  by h i s c o m p a t r i o t s w i l l  always remain  and t h e t o p o n y m i s t ,  Cartographic  knowledge,  on  by e x c l u d i n g t h e unknown o r i r r a t i o n a l ;  construct  precisely  the world which Unable t o accept  i m p l i e s R i v a r d , seeks  detailed  but n a r r o w l y  hidden  who  track  ( 201).  t o impose  limits  maps  c o n c e i v e d models of  a r e i n c a p a b l e o f accommodating t e m p o r a l t h e easy  is  that the c u l t u r a l  a l a p £ r i p h £ r i e e t non au c e n t r e du p a y s "  the world  takes  a kind of Aquinian  at last  the cartographer  une  Thomas d u l y engages i n  t h e i n q u e s t w h i c h had p r e c e d e d  i n c o n c l u s i v e ; Thomas r e a l i z e s  avec  b e l i e v e s t h a t he  where he c o n f r o n t s h i s shadow s e l f .  confrontation,  those,  who  Classical  boundaries  ( r e ) d e f i n i t i o n s o f toponymy  who  t o u j o u r s par c o i n c i d e r  ( 9 4 ) , and a t o p o n y m i s t  o f h i s own,  to participate i n  among o t h e r s , o f a c a r t o g r a p h e r  recreate the world  nether-realm  for h i s refusal  "l'espace f i n i t  bien f a i t e "  a quest him  indicted  i n Hall's  cartographical distinctions  flux.  between  118 the  known and  allegory rather space  than  unknown, t i m e  myth  i n search  reduces  or  and  space,  rejects,  the  inexplicable,  dimension.  implications, for Rivard*s  obvious  Rivard turns  to  of a model w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s ,  i s a l s o g i v e n a temporal  cultural most  and  the  The  and  model  "Quebec," l i k e  precursor Jacques Perron,  i s an  i n which has  t h a t of  oneiric  his  "pays  5  incertain;"  above a l l ,  however,  accommodate t h e a r t i s t i c to  merely d e s c r i b i n g , the world  irrationalist to  the  philosophy  For  connotations;  explained  i n h i s 1977  t h e G r e a t War,  which is  i n the  belies  clear  the  ( r e ) i n v e n t i n g , as  i n terms of  form  of c u l t u r a l  F i n d l e y , myth has  becomes a means of  attempt  a  novel  rather  The  Wars,  has  The an  'concentrated  hygiene. different f o r example, i t  historical  underlying mythological  fragmentary  t h a t , a t one  Wars, an  level,  nature the  of  full  opposed  referentiality  e x p l a i n i n g what c a n n o t o t h e r w i s e  text.  to  Nietzschean  i t , c e l e b r a t e s myth as a  as a n e c e s s a r y  Timothy  of  which, p r o b l e m a t i z i n g  p o i n t of n e g a t i n g  image' and  of  process  i t r e p r e s e n t s an  be  reconstruction structure  i t s surface realism. s t o r y of t h e  It  young  See i n p a r t i c u l a r F e r r o n ' s p a r a b l e i n t h e C o n t e s du p a y s i n c e r t a i n ( M o n t r e a l : H u r t u b i s e HMH, 1968) o f t h e c a r t o g r a p h e r who a t f i r s t t a i l o r s h i s maps t o t h e d i c t a t e s o f h i s p o l i t i c a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l e m p l o y e r s but f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e o n l y " t r u e " maps a r e t h o s e w h i c h s a t i s f y t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of h i s a r t alone. "Quebec," i m p l i e s F e r r o n , s h o u l d a c c o r d i n g l y be p e r c e i v e d as a f i c t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t which o u t s t r i p s the i d e o l o g i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d d e f i n i t i o n s o f r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c s and institutionalized religion. C f . D i a n a B r y d o n , " ' I t C o u l d Not be T o l d ' : M a k i n g M e a n i n g i n T i m o t h y F i n d l e y ' s The W a r s , " J o u r n a l of Commonwealth L i t e r a t u r e 21 ( 1 9 8 6 ) : 62-79.  119 Canadian s o l d i e r  Robert Ross's traumatic  Great  be  War  cannot  mythological elemental  But  6  interpretation  i m a g e r y and  humans and to  told.  animals,  of  the the  experience  possibility  design  narrative.  a different  Another  i s to consider  statement  t h a t the  stable  drill  and  simple  at f i r s t  a  a metamorphic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  provides  the  approach  gaps i n  to t h i s the  s i g h t : the Great  (28-9). War  can  horses;  of  contrast  symbolized  seems in  alliance  power.  The  i m p l i c a t i o n s , however, a r e w i d e r : f o r maps n o t  provide  a paradigm reference  neither  case,  precise  details  and  f o g of  the  different,  d i s c o u r s e which,  external world,  the  case  of m i l i t a r y  tactical them  only  those  of  obscured  historical  t o an  i n attempting  research  are  perceptions  g a i n a r m i e s a few  of  of  t o impose m e a n i n g  a d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of  Not  the mud  order  the  of  hundred y a r d s but  but  on  it.  In  an  space  absurdity  unifying devices,  a  in  i n the  s t r a t e g y , t h e map's c o m b i n a t i o n  s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d men.  And  i t s s e p a r a t i o n from  reinforcing  only  also provide  history.  often conflicting,  consequences,  moves w h i c h  they  physical  adequate; f o r  s t r a t e g y are  reiterates  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n with  have d e v a s t a t i n g  they  Maps, m o r e o v e r , b e l o n g  the  abstract  F i n d l e y , are  Somme, w h i l e by  operations;  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of  of m i l i t a r y  same e v e n t .  scientific  f o r the  suggests  the  problematized  for military  s t r a t e g y and  the  destructive  f r a m e of  between i n t e l l e c t u a l  the  narrator's  The be  impulse  contrapuntal  "days w e r e made of maps and range"  between  r e a d i n g whose  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  artillery  the  t e x t , b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on  u n i t y works t o w a r d s b r i d g i n g c o n s p i c u o u s  presented  of  of  may of  the  lose  agents  of  120 destruction; expressions can  be  of  defined  achieve.  symbols o f  the as  fear the  What, t h e n ,  illustrator man  not  Rodwell  whose l o v e of  absurdity  of  a n t i t h e s i s o f what t h e y of  horses?  tells  horses  destruction;  horses  the  "good" and  i s stronger  order  fable,  of  documentary  taking i n a l l ,  versions.  purport  Thus,  colleague  Levitt,  Yet  the  and  i s an  of  constructed  socially the  "abnormal,"  made and  remade a c c o r d i n g  to the  l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s which  the world  but  always defer  Findley's product  of  socially  i s given  Marian Engel account  of  suggestion  Findley's  a female a r c h i v i s t ' s  legend  and  competing  "made of  reconstructed  text  are  perceptual  shape and  transform  a view  and  "history" i s  modulated v e r s i o n s  the  two  Engel's trip  of  meaning.  t h a t what p a s s e s f o r  A u d r e y Thomas.  the  number of  a f e m i n i s t s l a n t by and  between  these were  in  infinite  its final  constructed  the  oppositions  the mythoforms of  War  symbol  vulnerability  a s e r i e s of  the Great  an  self-  ambivalent  a u t h o r i z i n g none, of  pages of  "any  Robert  the  days of  horses,"  and  illustrates  r e a l i s m and  i f the  to  animal-lover  t o murder  S e t t i n g up  maps and  past  (90) .  " n o r m a l " and  but  Findley,  t h a n h i s f e a r of b e i n g  t h e map,  eventually  "evil").  but  t o b r e a k them down, F i n d l e y ' s t e x t o s c i l l a t e s  objects  and  me"  like  (between t h e the  the  his troubled  potential perniciousness)  differences  As  d r i v e s him  horse,  whose r e v e r s i b i l i t y  order,  a b s u r d i t y : maps, s u g g e s t s  i s a l l right with  Ross's l o v e  (and  of  rationalistic  of  Canadian w r i t e r s Bear  (1976),  the  t o a remote i s l a n d  in  the  the  121 Northern  O n t a r i o where her  t u r n s out bear,  t o be more t h a n  inherited  gentility  guides  of T r a i l l  and  and  i t s attempt  indirect  protagonist she  Lou  has  (Rousseau,  precursors  are  the  (Shakespeare,  bequest  t o i n v e s t i g a t e and  ignobly bear.  p e r c e p t i o n s of  represented As  the  novel  i n the f i g u r e progresses,  f o r m s of h i s t o r i c a l from  briefed  "numerical  internally  and  her  more a b o u t  library. her,  she  spent the  her  the  among  e m b r o i d e r e d map,  i n a c c e s s i b l e manuscript,  has  history somewhat  the  bear;  originally  numbers w o u l d t e a c h  t h a t the  richly  and  a structure devised  bear  Cary's now  p a p e r s and  the  the  unsightly  can  the  seems p e r f u n c t o r y has  i l l u m i n a t e d but the  symbol  to  been  o v e r w r i t t e n maps"  become f o r h e r  her  teach  mind t h a n  t h a t much of her w o r k i n g l i f e  like  be  becomes  a mind h e r  s t a t e of C o l o n e l  "undecipherable  cannot  entire  the ageing,  on  Accustomed t o a task which understands  Cary  L o u ' s a d d i c t i o n t o maps  order  realizes  The  s a v a g e , " now  obsession with  p e r s o n a l l y by  t o d i s c o v e r " (42) , she  "noble of  and  or c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n  documentation  indistinguishable t o impose  the  Canadian  catalogue  h i s h e r i t a g e h o u s e ; f o r i t embraces an  sterotypical  s h e l v e s of h i s l i b r a r y  But  of C o l o n e l  walls  of  of  Byron)  Defoe).  to the  other  local  e x o t i c romances of  Chateaubriand,  d i s c o v e r s t h a t the  been s e n t  the V i c t o r i a n  Engel's  what  t o b r e a k down  confined  of  a  representation.  t a r g e t s are  Moodie,  European Romantics  which  friendship with  s t r u c t u r e s of p a t r i a r c h a l  w h e r e a s Atwood's p r i m a r y  their  a casual  i s o v e r s h a d o w e d by  owes much t o Atwood's S u r f a c i n g f o r i t s p a r o d y  nineteenth-century  the  research  of  (43):  122 unsatisfied for an  desire.  her f r u s t r a t e d inherited  skin  The b e a r , sexual  symbol  least  both  from  temporarily,  o f male d o m i n a t i o n ;  thus,  of symbolic  her imagined from  romantic  "noble  (with  t h e o l d m£tisse Lucy)  when i t r i p s t h e Lou i s  involvement  the male-dominated  savage" i s exploded,  conduit  r e c o g n i z e d as  erasure,  her.  and t h e b e a r ' s  i s restored,  and, a t  "romantic  i m a g i n a t i o n " which had p r e v i o u s l y entrapped the  as a  desire, i s eventually  o f f h e r back i n a g e s t u r e  liberated  acting i n i t i a l l y  The myth o f  closest  implying  a  alliance  link  between t h e h y b r i d h e r i t a g e o f Canada and t h e c a r n i v a l i z e d history  of European c o l o n i a l i s m .  protagonist w r i l y considers into  Colonel  brass  C a r y ' s house,  screws,  globes."  Leaving  the island, the  the l i k e l i h o o d  "takting] the telescope  and smash t i n g ] t h e c e l e s t i a l  "Well,  of vandals  l e t the world  breaking  for  its  and t e r r e s t r i a l  be smashed," s h e c o n c l u d e s ,  " t h a t was t h e way t h i n g s were bound t o go.  The b e a r was s a f e "  (139) .  Her p r o t e c t i v e n e s s t o w a r d s t h e b e a r  supplants her  earlier  p r o t e c t i v e n e s s t o w a r d s h e r maps and m a n u s c r i p t s ;  time,  however, h e r knowledge o f t h e New W o r l d  unconsciously through  a resharpened  perceptions colonial a  mediated  entail.  a w a r e n e s s o f what t h o s e from  of the Old, but Eurocentric  an  implicitly  t o a p o s t - c o l o n i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and f r o m  g y n o c e n t r i c view  image o f t h e n o v e l globe  i s not  through her p e r c e p t i o n s  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  with  a view  thirty-seven  of h i s t o r y , which,  i s corroborated  replacing Colonel  of t h e s t a r s i n which  thousand v i r g i n s  kept  this  an a n d r o - t o  i n the f i n a l  Cary's  "the Great  h e r company"  celestial Bear  (141),  and h i s  123 sublimates in  both  her l u s t  f o r t h e bear  a c o n s t e l l a t i o n which  enslaves,  guides  and h e r a d d i c t i o n t o maps  and p r o t e c t s , r a t h e r  the self.  Like  B e a r , A u d r e y Thomas's n o v e l  employs an i s l a n d  setting  t o explore  Intertidal  Life  a  g y n o c e n t r i c view  Thomas, l i k e  literature  of r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y .  focus  of e x p l o r a t i o n .  The c e n t r a l  question  i s "what i f women h a d been t h e e x p l o r e r s ?  would,  of personal  Life  channel  of h i s t o r y  As i t s t i t l e  i n the  Would  things  that  emphasizes an  i n exploring:  The s i t u a t i o n ,  of t h e i n t e r -  the early coast  h a d no  t h a t of i n t e r p e r s o n a l e m p h a s i z e s Thomas, c a n n o t be  by a change o f e m p h a s i s f r o m male  self-glorification  f o r the root of t h e problem  l a n g u a g e w h i c h men have u s e d t o d e s c r i b e and j u s t i f y c o n q u e s t s and w h i c h women have t e n d e d , and use i n t h e i r  estranged  from  turn.  a wilful  suggests,  metaphor  of t h e Canadian west  t o female s e l f - a n a l y s i s ,  accept  uses  asked  r e l a t i o n s h i p s r a t h e r than  t o i n v e s t i g a t e an a r e a w h i c h  interest  relationships. redressed  Thomas s u g g e s t s  uses t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l  discoverer-navigators apparent  (15) .  of t h e o u t s i d e world.  Intertidal island  then?"  f o r her g y n o c e n t r i c view  understanding conquest  Engel,  i s on e x o t i c romance, Thomas's i s on t h e  h a v e been d i f f e r e n t they  revisionist,  t o debunk t h e n o t i o n o f male h e r o i s m , b u t w h e r e a s  literature novel  (1984)  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of  f e m a l e i n d e p e n d e n c e and t o p u t f o r w a r d  Engel's  than  their  often unconsciously, t o  Thus t h e p r o t a g o n i s t  her husband P e t e r  i s the  Alice,  and s e a r c h i n g f o r new  124 directions  i n her  life,  e x p l a i n s her  f a s c i n a t i o n with  maritime  imagery: I'm l i k e J o h n Donne i n h i s l o v e p o e t r y . N a v i g a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s , new l a n d s , maps, merchant s h i p s . H i s l a n g u a g e r e f l e c t s what was g o i n g on a r o u n d him i n t h e o u t s i d e world. I r e a d a b o u t p r i z e s and shipwrecks and p l u n d e r , s t r a n g e i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h measure the a r t i f i c i a l h o r i z o n , about c o n q u e s t s and c o n v e n t i o n s , t h i s w h o l e m a l e w o r l d o f t h e age of e x p l o r a t i o n and I see t h a t women a r e g o i n g t o have t o g e t out t h e r e and do t h e same t h i n g . (170) The  danger,  of  course,  l a n g u a g e of c o n q u e s t aware of  this,  instruments  but  may  as  merely  she  t o t r y and  we're competent  i s t h a t women's a s s u m p t i o n  says,  f i x our  reinforce "we new  enough t o t r y and  Thomas s t r e s s e s ,  t o change and  s t e e r by  they  "related  shape." shape (206).  Women, on  shifters The  disabused  of  but  resistant  t o the the oh  dilemma, their  move i n d i r e c t i o n s  sun,  other  the  hand, a r e  so p r e d i c t a b l e i n then,  i s a double  illusions other  than  of  stars"  think (171).  temporary  Men  sun  tend  never  blind  one: and  changes h i s  of  [their]  dictated  t o be  interpretations:  "sisters  security,  those  new  u n l e s s we  the  to a l t e r n a t i v e [and]  maps,  is  coordinates are s u s c e p t i b l e  open t o r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  c h a n g e s or  are  a l l need new  however, t h a t maps a r e o n l y  to these  the  patriarchy; Alice  positions,  c o n s t r u c t s whose c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and  of  how how  t h e moon,  shifting" can men  be  can women  by men?  The  site  For a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f Donne's m a r i t i m e i m a g e r y , see a l s o J e a n n e Shami, "John Donne: G e o g r a p h y as M e t a p h o r , " i n W. M a l l o r y and P. S i m p s o n - H o u s l e y , e d s . , G e o g r a p h y and L i t e r a t u r e ( S y r a c r u s e : S y r a c u s e UP, 1987) 161-168_  125 Thomas c h o o s e s f o r h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e dilemma "intertidal washed up, rich  one,  t h o s e a r e a s and t h e i r  then l e f t  tranquil  currents.  The  the i n t e r t i d a l  of  loss  shell  (like  zone,  may  t h e one  are a l l insecure, starfish) (like  one,  lost,  beneath  like  exchange  of a l i f e  does n o t m e r e l y  o f one  usually  intertidal  some  kind  protective  discard i t s  grow a new  arm  to  self-containment  To  i s as  illusory  change  the  a b r o k e n m a r r i a g e or  f o r another,  the  "dependence"  an a d m i s s i o n o f t h e  the necessity  yet  fragility  s u g g e s t s Thomas, i s t h a t  i n male terms; f o r the language  of c o n q u e s t ,  creatures  p r o b l e m w i t h maps, as w i t h  relationships,  defined  that  The  the  t h e r e m a k i n g o f a map,  entails  of a l l d e f i n i t i o n s ,  a l l human c o n t a c t .  interpersonal  entail  s e t of d e f i n i t i o n s  "independence;" i t a l s o  vulnerability  after  an  barnacle).  but t h e n o t i o n of t o t a l  the r e b u i l d i n g  often  by c h a n g i n g  t h e c r a b may  secure r e l a t i o n s h i p .  is a  of the  or b u i l d i n g  or t h e s t a r f i s h  are  b e h i n d or  suffering  the crab or  breed r e s i l i e n c e ;  of t h e t o t a l l y  relationship  like  exposed  or c a u g h t a d r i f t  the amputated  f o r a new  metaphor,  of  all,  the h e r m i t - c r a b i n i t s inadequate s h e l l )  as t h a t  for  surface  around themselves  Vulnerability  above  c h a r a c t e r s o f Thomas's n o v e l ,  of  (like  and,  o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s  apparently  replace  left  by t h e m a l e e x p l o r e r s ; o f t h e u n c h a r t e d but  vulnerability  old  The metaphor  of the domestic problems  backwaters of h i s t o r y ;  barriers  l i f e - f o r m s which  b e h i n d , by t h e t i d e s .  suggestive  concealed crucial  zone:"  i s the  i s inherently  zone p o s e s a c h a l l e n g e  of  patriarchal.  to this  they are  definition, Thomas's  definitional  language,  126 not merely area,  between books  and w i t h  t h e over  resisting  with  t h e spaces  i n lover,  etc.),  other  self-containment:  and V a n Herk,  the i l l u s o r y  writers,  nature of  zone  i s a dangerously  interpersonal  one.  Thus,  like  Atwood  between a s a b r e a c h i n E n g e l , as a flaw  i n the  b u t , more t h a n any o f them, s h e a s s e r t s  t h e need f o r human r e l a t i o n s h i p s : d i f f e r e n c e may be one t h i n g ,  the certainty  but t h a t  of female  of p e r s o n a l  independence  another.  3.  MAPS AND DREAMS Thomas's r e m i n d e r  contingency their for  herself  a s Atwood, E n g e l and  any o f t h e s e  she c o n s i d e r s t h e spaces  of h i s t o r y ;  i n words.  definition, the  Thomas a l i g n s  i d e o l o g y of p a t r i a r c h y ; and, l i k e  male view  (the other i n  between t h e l e t t e r s  such  phrases,  o f womanhood o c c u p i e s t h e 'space  her i n t e r t i d a l  d e c e p t i v e but committedly  is  wordgames  To a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n  however, Thomas i n d i c a t e s  Life);  between l a n g u a g e s ,  feminist writers  Herk whose i n s c r i p t i o n  the  i n Intertidal  t h e c l o s u r e of t h e d i c t i o n a r y  Canadian  indefinite  intertextuality:  book, t h e mapped t e r r i t o r y ,  between.'  the  with  (and many a r e c i t e d  interlanguage:  completed  Van  itself  i n an i n t e r m e d i a r y ,  even, a s i n Thomas's r e v i s i o n i s t  mother, By  itself  b u t by a s s o c i a t i n g  spaces  or  by s i t u a t i n g  of t h e c u l t u r a l  o f maps draws a t t e n t i o n  authoritative  s t a t u s and t h e i r  and h i s t o r i c a l  t o t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between approximative  a l t h o u g h maps a r e s e t up a s " t r u t h f u l "  are g e n e r a l l y accepted  a s " t r u e " by t h e i r  function;  by t h e i r makers, and readers, they a r e  127 necessarily specific the  imperfect  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f an h i s t o r i c a l l y  s e t of s o c i a l  r e l a t i o n s and c u l t u r a l  case of a t t i t u d e s which,  into apparently  "coherent"  may come t o r e p r e s e n t , s t a t u s quo w h i c h representations serve  majority  over  attitudes.  generations,  systems,  have  solidified  s u c h a s p a t r i a r c h y , maps  o r be e x p l o i t e d i n o r d e r  ignores,  In  to represent,  s u p p r e s s e s or negates a l t e r n a t i v e  t o i t s own.  For t h i s  reason,  maps t e n d t o  i n t e r e s t s or to r e i n f o r c e the s t a t u s of the p  powerful  i n any g i v e n  embodied  by maps, m o r e o v e r ,  conquistadorial  society.  The t e l e o l o g i c a l  has h i s t o r i c a l  and e x p a n s i o n i s t  R e n a i s s a n c e and e a r l y modern  links  discourse with  r e g i m e s i n t h e New  European  imperialist  World. p o l i c i e s of  territorial  a p p r o p r i a t i o n and r e n o m i n a t i o n ,  f o r example, were  well  by t h e map, w h i c h a u t h e n t i c a t e d  the i l l u s i o n  the  served  s o - c a l l e d "discoverers" of continents  A u s t r a l i a were n o t o n l y  first  there,  that  s u c h a s A m e r i c a and  b u t had somehow  produced  9 the  land  i n their  d o v e t a i l i n g with an  ideology  own image. that  The t r o p e  o f " d i s c o v e r y , " was c a l l e d  of conquest  by f o s t e r i n g t h e n o t i o n  empty s p a c e w h i c h b e l i e d t h e e x i s t e n c e population. course, original  The c o n t i n e n t s  already  o f "mapmaking,"  of America  been d i s c o v e r e d  o f an  i n to of a  support  socially  indigenous  and A u s t r a l i a  t o a large extent  had, o f  by t h e i r  i n h a b i t a n t s ; t h e " f i r s t " maps drawn up by E u r o p e a n  cartographers  and i m p r o v e d  Cf.  Harley:  300-302.  Cf.  Boelhower:  44-50.  upon w i t h  the data  provided  by  a  128 consequent already  explored  explorers to  explorations  different:  shown i n t h e i r indicates  For  and c h a r t e d .  and A b o r i g i n a l s  say, q u i t e  belief  were t h u s s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n s  recent  a Western  peoples,  But t h e s y s t e m s u s e d by W e s t e r n  t o "read"  t h e c o u n t r y were,  a s Hugh B r o d y  conceptualization  of space a l l i e d  Canadian Native  Indian  culture.  working both w i t h i n have f i c t i o n a l i z e d modes o f s p a t i a l Aboriginal  view  writers  and a g a i n s t this  to the 1  Aboriginal  i n d i f f e r e n t terms a l t o g e t h e r ,  Several  clash  perception  and s u p p o r t i n g  the Western l i t e r a r y  an  tradition,  between W e s t e r n and A b o r i g i n a l  u s i n g what t h e y assume t o be an  of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y  i n order  involved  i n t h e r h e t o r i c a l a s s u m p t i o n o f an A b o r i g i n a l  n o t t o be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d ,  imperatives.  t o undertake a  of Western t e r r i t o r i a l  comparison  a s an  i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a ,  critique  are  map  cultures. ^  or A u s t r a l i a n  communications network s e r v i n g  orally-based  needless  and B r u c e C h a t w i n have  s u p e r i o r i t y of l i t e r a t e  t h e map i s s e e n  elaborate  terrain  works, t h e " s t a n d a r d " t o p o g r a p h i c a l  i n the i n t r i n s i c  the various  on a  The  difficulties voice  a s shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  between a W h i t e C a n a d i a n and an A b o r i g i n a l  Australian's  treatment  of a s i m i l a r t o p i c :  the relation  For B r o d y and C h a t w i n , t h e W e s t e r n map r e g i s t e r s and j u s t i f i e s the desire f o r personal a c q u i s i t i o n , while the A b o r i g i n a l map r a t h e r p r o v i d e s a means o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s brought out i n t h e r i g i d d e m a r c a t i o n o f s p a c e i n W e s t e r n maps a s o p p o s e d t o t h e more f l e x i b l e n e g o t i a t i o n s o f s p a c e i n N a t i v e I n d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n A b o r i g i n a l maps w h i c h i n d i c a t e a network o f s h a r e d v a l u e s rather than a d i v i s i o n of (personal) property. A similar d i s t i n c t i o n i s made by B e n t e r r a k , Muecke and Roe i n R e a d i n g t h e Country: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Nomadology ( F r e m a n t l e : Fremantle A r t s Press, 1984). For a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of Benterrak, Muecke and Roe's a p p r o a c h , s e e t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  129 between c a r t o g r a p h i c dispossession. title  story  Mackenzie  The w o r k s i n q u e s t i o n  of p a r a b o l i c  invectives against  c o n s i s t s of a s e l f - i n d i c t i n g  hypothetical  Brody,  journal  kept  embodied  Western c u l t u r e s .  For the Native  designated  "dreamers" c o i n c i d e ;  industrial  extensions  nineteenth-century  journal  becomes t h e s i t e  t h e maps o f  and t h o s e  however, maps  possibilities"  connection,  I n d i a n and  of t h e t r i b e ' s  f o r t h e E u r o p e a n s e t t l e r s and  o f a dream w h i c h v i e w s  the l a t t e r  "the North (115).  or r a t h e r  represent as a p l a c e of  Fawcett's emphasis i s  disconnection,  expose t h e f a l s e  inconsistency arguments,  visions  accuracy  c o n s c i o u s n e s s on w h i c h h i s maps a r e  The a n n o t a t i o n s t o M a c k e n z i e ' s j o u r n a l  between t e x t  f o r the  o f dreams and h a l l u c i n o g e n i c  undermine Mackenzie's d e s i r e f o r c a r t o g r a p h i c  predicated. play  story, f o r  drawing i n s p i r a t i o n from  Indians,  the tribe  entrepreneurs,  l i m i t l e s s material  and  consumerism  from a  by maps and dreams i n N a t i v e  hunters w i t h i n  which  deliver a  The t i t l e  by t h e i l l u s t r i o u s  individual  on  Journal  (1983).  F a w c e t t e x a m i n e s t h e d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s between and  attitudes  later  D o c t o r Wooreddy's  excerpt  Alexander Mackenzie i n which,  Fawcett's  of Alexander  industrial  t h e contemporary Canadian Northwest.  explorer  Journal  f o r Enduring t h e Ending of the World  s t o r i e s c o l l e c t e d i n The S e c r e t  example,  dispossession,  here are B r i a n  (1985) a n d C o l i n J o h n s o n ' s n o v e l  The  in  and t e r r i t o r i a l  i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n The S e c r e t  Prescription  series  inscription  and s u b - t e x t  which  introduce  further highlights the  o f M a c k e n z i e ' s maps, t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f h i s  and t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w i t h i n  h i s character.  The  a  130 obstacle-ridden  text  itself  reads as a k i n d  whose key does n o t c o r r e s p o n d Mackenzie,  similarly,  between h i s l u r i d insistence journal,  comes a c r o s s  which  emphasize t h e greed t h a t  self-restraint  (16),  prosecution"  that  and t h e m e n t a l  and h i s  and m o r a l  f e a r s and d e s i r e s  atrophy  symbolic  Indian  of Western c u l t u r e ' s )  women, one w h i t e ,  His  u n d e r l i e s h i s apparent  Three  are the Native  that  erodes h i s  "witnesses f o r the  C a n c r e who, a s h i s name  inner  sickness,  (and, by and t h e two  one n a t i v e , who p r o p h e s y h i s f u t u r e ,  g l o r i o u s , the other  in  ignominious terms.  women and between c o n f l i c t i n g and c o n t e m p l a t i o n , divided against  t h e one  T o r n between t h e  Hamletian tendencies  towards  M a c k e n z i e becomes t h e symbol itself;  for a  t h e d i s j u n c t i o n between h i s  s e l f - g l o r i f y i n g maps and h i s s e l f - i n c r i m i n a t i n g dreams serves  a s an i n d i c t m e n t  g r e e d and a s a r e m i n d e r man and h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , ance of m a t e r i a l Unlike Indian"  thus  and m a t e r i a l  of t h e disharmony brought about and w i t h i n man, by "a b l i n d  between  further-  f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l body" ( 2 7 ) .  F a w c e t t , who p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y  Cancre as a r h e t o r i c a l  narrative voice voices  of Western t e r r i t o r i a l  well-being  torn  " I am a man n o t much  o p e r a t e s as a p r o j e c t i o n of Mackenzie's  extension,  culture  and c o n q u e s t  exposes repressed  p r o g r e s s i v i s t work-ethic.  action  personality,  on t h e h a r d work b o r n e o f s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e .  t o t h e dream"  two  notations;  as a s p l i t  dreams o f a m b i t i o n  given  in  to i t s graphic  controverting h i s belief  suggests,  o f map, b u t one  device  employs t h e  "Native  t o u n d e r m i n e t h e dominant  o f M a c k e n z i e , J o h n s o n a l t e r n a t e s between t h e  o f h i s two m a i n p r o t a g o n i s t s ,  t h e Bruny  Island  Aborigine  131 Wooreddy and  t h e w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d but  e v a n g e l i s t George Robinson.  The  s t o r y of  eventual  extermination  of  from  counteracting  perspectives  two  separate subtle, the  codified an  believes that  Robinson,  mattered.  rainforest  and (66) .  to help  The  different  connotations,  The  "marking" of  to look  the  allocation  territory)  writing  and  systematic  (as a form  of  scriptural  Aborigines  understand).  writing  are  conceived  cartography, susceptible justifies  of  as  legitimizing  i n i t s t u r n the  complicitous  twin  the  The  r e n a m i n g and  resettlement  are  instances  the  future,  of  teleological  hence Robinson,  unaware t h a t  of  i t has  the  few  nature  i n t e n t on already  signatures  of  the  Mapping  and  tradition and  colonialism  "civilization" of  the  native  remaining of  other, and  but population.  Aborigines  cartographic  "marking" the  been  of  designation:  between s e l f  r h e t o r i c s of  extermination  several  activities;  a Western l i t e r a r y  a l l e g e d l y ensure the  facilitate  discourse:  cannot  t o Manichaean d i s t i n c t i o n s  evangelism which actually  they  the  r e s o l u t i o n to  organisation  crossed  a petition  all  an  t h e marks i n R o b i n s o n ' s j o u r n a l , t h e on  land,  at  l a n d has (as  often  " t h a t was  the  told  "tracking"  Diemen's  turned  and  distinctly  " m a r k i n g " and  the A b o r i g i n e s : he  i s thus  d i f f e r e n c e s are  among them mapping  appropriation,  dispossession  w i t h i n two  h i s body s t i f f e n e d w i t h  land"  and  and  between  Resolutely  mark t h i s  English  Tasmanian A b o r i g i n e s  systems.  that  the  newly a r r i v e d i n Van  i t his mission  really  thick  cultural  example b e i n g  country.  the  misguided  land  "marked" b e f o r e  in him  the  132 (if  in a different  mode); o r G o v e r n o r  map o u t l i n e s p l a n s Aboriginal suggests of  history;  hand, w i t h the is for  the ( r h e t o r i c a l )  seem  invisible  they  (and, c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y ,  R o b i n s o n and Wooreddy, c a r t o g r a p h y  the l a t t e r  renewal  a certain  they  the Great  terrain  pertain to a different cultural)  has  between  no p r e v i o u s  unmapped t e r r a i n country  with  Tracking,  in this  land,  and, beyond context, t h e a g e n c y of  b u t t h e maps o f them a r e i s unable t o  and "improper" paths  as impenetrable  b e c a u s e he  the wilderness  Wooreddy's and t h e o t h e r suggests  w i l d e r n e s s , Wooreddy knows t h e  of " s h o r t c u t s c u t t i n g o f f l o o p s " i n which  " t r a c k s meandering o f f i n t o  the  goal,  involve a  immediate a n c e s t o r s  on t h e i s l a n d ,  "proper"  the  knowledge of t h e l a n d and i s a p t t o d i s m i s s  as a s e r i e s  (68-9).  mapmaking  towards a p a r t i c u l a r  i n Wooreddy's h e a d ; s o , w h e r e a s R o b i n s o n distinguish  perception.  i s a system of  a c t i v i t e s which  Ancestor.  P a t h s do e x i s t  tracker,  t o Robinson not  becomes a r e c u p e r a t i v e a c t made p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h memory.  endures i n  o p e r a t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e  a r e mental  of acquaintance  them, w i t h  on t h e o t h e r  n e g o t i a t i o n ; but whereas f o r the former,  reading are s c r i p t u r a l  "making"  Wooreddy, an e x p e r t  want o f e y e s i g h t b u t b e c a u s e  movement t h r o u g h for  against the  o f an a n c e s t r a l p a s t w h i c h  able t o f o l l o w paths which  territorial and  i s associated with  and i n t o t h e f u t u r e .  military  marking of the country,  the p h y s i c a l t r a c k i n g of the country,  mode o f s p a t i a l For  The s c r i p t u r a l  the r e t r a c i n g  present  whose  f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n t o be t a k e n  rebels.  Johnson,  Arthur,  Johnson,  complicated  Aborigines'  i s atavistic  t h e way"  relationship  with  and i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e ;  133 the  i n c u r s i o n of  t h e W h i t e Man  (70),  however, g i v e s  unity  between man  the  land  itself  impression, although  of  the  and  land  course,  Wooreddy's t e r m s , while  i s not  Aboriginal  Johnson's account  clash  between two  conjunction if  thus  mutually  irony,  the  with  the  enduring the life  and  of  Aboriginal  ending of the  that  the  new  killed  e x t i n c t i o n of  die  the the  in a  triumphant and  reuniting  h i s dream cost  a  systems.  colony,"''"''  to f u l f i l at  or  e f f e c t s of  Robinson,  "skytracks"  but  land,  "resolves" i t s e l f  island  the  The  of  him  of  his  own  Tasmanian  peoples.  cultures,  established  and  (in  discursive  dreams of  the w o r l d ,  Less dramatic than the Native  of  "the  f o r the  tragicomic  ultimately  e n a b l e s him  impending  by  communities are  h i s new  vision  that  (51)  recognition  incompatible  of  Great Ancestor  of  "polluted")  between t h e maps and  Wooreddy, whose f i n a l  impression  u n f o u n d e d one,  reaps the  clash  s h o r t - l i v e d governor  the  even d i s a p p e a r i n g .  an  and  "mark- m a k i n g " ways  been s e v e r e d "  i s a l t e r e d out  out.  With f u r t h e r  [has]  "scarred"  the  his  Aborigines  i s f r a g m e n t i n g or  i t remains,  settlers,  and  but  equally  d e n i z e n s of  Canada and  A u s t r a l i a and  literature  both  about  the  and  new by  historical  clash  problematic, hybrid  i s that  c u l t u r e s of  migrants. the  between W h i t e  various  An  between  contemporary  increasingly  ethnic  and  rich  groups  The c o n n e c t i o n between J o h n s o n ' s R o b i n s o n and D e f o e ' s i s , o f c o u r s e , h a r d l y g r a t u i t o u s . D e f o e ' s t e x t i s an u n d e r s t a n d a b l y p o p u l a r t a r g e t f o r p o s t - c o l o n i a l w r i t e r s s e e k i n g t o s u b v e r t or invert abiding c o l o n i a l i s t hierarchies.  134 o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the m u l t i c u l t u r a l , Canada and  Australia  has  "re-mapping" of both  resulted  countries.  polyphonic  in a Two  of boundaries  Australia, the  the  r e - or  "Asian" novels  metaphorical  c r o s s i n g , realignment,  ( a s , f o r example,  n o v e l s of A n d r e V a c h o n and  J a n e t t e Turner  dislocation  of C . J .  of  Koch and  across  cultural  new  links with  irrevocably  "other."  between t h e new by and  naturalized of N o r t h e r n  t h e h o r i z o n s of internal  citizens  of Canada and  European descent,  w r i t t e n by  are  such  tendencies t h e map  countries often belies  parents,  as D a v i d  broaden of  Kogawa i n  Australia,  Michael  towards d i s p e r s a l  and  displacement  Malouf,  i s sensitive  the  Ondaatje,  for necessary,  comforting  but  these  converge  so t h a t  illusory,  A u s t r a l i a n - b o r n of B r i t i s h to the a b i d i n g l y  whose  In t h e work of  and  becomes a metaphor  white  somehow  as J o y  Malouf  redefinition.  written  E u r o p e a n or n o n - E u r o p e a n d e s c e n t , new  as  distinguish  those  newcomers t o Canada and  t e n e t s of n o n - p a r t i s a n m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . writers  second  seeking to  (such  (as i n Both  usually  e s t a b l i s h e d but  relative  of t h e i r  to  r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r e s ; and  C a n a d a ) , or by  experience  the  Australia,  who  "hyphenated" c i t i z e n s  of S o u t h e r n  here  in  cutting  of g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s p e r s a l  compromised or  usually  the f i r s t  i t i s necessary  literatures  displacement  d'Alpuget).  cultures previously constructed But  their  and,  coordinates  difference,  or  recent  Hospital);  Blanche  destabilizing,  forging  i n the  spatial  patterns are predominantly r e c e i v e d n o t i o n s of  of  p a t t e r n s of c a r t o g r a p h i c  i m a g e r y a r e p r e v a l e n t : i n Canada, t h e dissolution  societies  and  misunderstood,  Lebanese  135 s u p p r e s s e d or  ignored  n a t i o n ; Ondaatje, continuing  status  of Dutch  l a c k of  ethnic  o f A u s t r a l i a as  and  Tamil  diversity  map  c o n s e q u e n t l y becomes a metaphor  the  need f o r a b r o a d e r  culture  but  which,  suggests at  the  definition  through  short  comprehensiveness.  1975  novel  revisionist  "has  continent  itself  mind  ...  novel  unclearly  a similarly  as  where,  confesses history referred apologize worth  a metaphor  As  f o r the  " t r u t h " of  ...  too  to  i n the  and  can  has  no  or  novel] only  that  Malouf's t h e map  of  o u t l i n e ...  Ondaatje,  Family  fall  the  big to hold  in  but  the  whose  (1982) t a k e s  i n S r i Lanka,  these memories? novel, ...  disapprove  say  of  that  (206).  the  s h a p i n g o f memory; but  gesture  pretensions  genealogical  For  by  inevitably  i n Malouf's novel,  i n h i s p o s t s c r i p t to the a portrait  provided  him  the  map  c o n c e p t , more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d  truth.  a thousand f a c t s "  portrait  I know t h e  express  usage,  ...  ...  Running i n the  questionable  i s the  but  will  The  Canadian  protagonist  remembered c h i l d h o o d  rumour t h a n w i t h  functions  than  i s a mystery  to  definition  the  A u s t r a l i a i s impossible!"  autobiographical  and  new  parodic  f o r c e d t o admit  i s c l e a r enough  i s beyond t h a t  back t o an  or  a p o i n t where I a l w a y s go wrong  what  with  through which  inclusive,  Thus,  Johnno f i n d s h i m s e l f  Australia  is  or  the  i n Canadian w r i t i n g .  o f A u s t r a l i a n or  same t i m e t h a t any  however  of  extraction, to  i t s ironic  t h e map,  a multicultural  and of  As  "the  what,  Ondaatje  book i s n o t  i f those  the  map  a  [people  fictional,  then  I  i n S r i Lanka a w e l l - t o l d l i e i s Ondaatje's  to exactitude;  autobiographical more f a m i l y  chronicle, i t s i n t e r r e l a t e d sketches  romance and  136 anecdotes  compile a charming  u n r e l i a b l e mythology. mythology:  fabled  " f a l s e maps" w h i c h for  S r i Lanka  island, reveal  i n v a s i o n and t r a d e ,  tales  ... t h r o u g h o u t  b u t , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , i s an i d e a l  subject  site  for this  of Ondaatje's brother's  "rumours o f t o p o g r a p h y ,  the routes  and t h e d a r k mad m i n d o f t r a v e l l e r s '  A r a b and C h i n e s e and m e d i e v a l  (64).  The name and shape  times,  Ondaatje  of t h e i s l a n d  i n f o r m s us, s o t h a t  records"  have changed  many  i t h a s come t o be " t h e w i f e  o f many m a r r i a g e s , c o u r t e d by i n v a d e r s who s t e p p e d a s h o r e and claimed  e v e r y t h i n g w i t h t h e power o f t h e i r  language"  (64). Visual  sword  o r b i b l e or  analogues f o r s e l f - a g g r a n d i z i n g 12  European Sri  dreams o f t h e ' f a b u l o u s O r i e n t , "  Lanka  which  catalysts dark  f o r as O n d a a t j e  reminds  c h a n n e l l e d and t r a n s m u t e d  e x c e s s e s o f h i s own f a m i l y violence  and c o m m e r c i a l  names and s h a p e s it  i n v a s i o n and c o m m e r c i a l redefinitional  with  attest  through  enterprise  strategies  Moreover,  the changing  to a history  which  The s t a n d a r d t e x t on t h i s s u b j e c t O r i e n t a l i s m (NY: V i k i n g , 1 9 7 9 ) .  language.  i s closely  imposed  upon  of m i l i t a r y  b u t , above a l l ,  o f a dominant  of imperialism  of S r i  t h e d i s a s t e r s and  the workings  o f maps, s u g g e s t s O n d a a t j e ,  the r h e t o r i c  their  h a s been one o f m i l i t a r y  exploitation.  of the i s l a n d  a l s o have  us, t h e h i s t o r y  through  history,  from w i t h o u t , n o t merely  discourse  b r o t h e r and a c t a s  f o r h i s own rumours o f t o p o g r a p h y  side;  Lanka,  f a s c i n a t e Ondaatje's  t h e v a r i o u s maps o f  through the The associated  j u s t i f i e s the remains  Edward S a i d ' s  137 acquisition,  r e n o m i n a t i o n and  while  s e n s e maps a r e t h e p r o d u c t s o f p r e c i s e  in  i n one  another  signed  "truth."  had  seen  geese  Ondaatje  i n the p r e f a t o r y  "evidence" of  Friar  "in this  h a v i n g two and  was  thought  the world  no more  that  achieve wider strategies  written  through  the broader of  effects  levels  country  "rumour" o f  will  English  Ondaatje,  itself  continually of  specific  s y n a e s t h e s i a and  and  pastiche.  The  the f o r m u l a t i o n of the t e x t  of d i s c o u r s e , such  to  as t h e  " T a b u l a A s i a e " and from  the  although  t h e employment  enable  is  linguistic  highlighting  (English),  d i s c o u r s e which proceeds  uses  usually  combats t h e  of parody  the  The  suggests  of h i s t e x t which,  "correspondences"  " c a r t o g r a p h i c d i s c o u r s e " of surrealist  i t produces  i m p e r i a l i s m by  he  a dominant l a n g u a g e  " a c c e p t e d " c o n v e n t i o n s and  between d i f f e r e n t  accepted  of the c u l t u r e which  as zeugma, c a t a c h r e s i s and  unexpected  the o u t s e t  (14).  the world,  i t s usage t h r o u g h  such  which,  spurious  "knowledge o f  flat"  Ondaatje  i n a dominant l a n g u a g e  disruption  their  influence  (ex-centricity)  devices  from  c o n t r a s t s the  t h e e a r t h was  credibility.  defamiliarizes  new,  because  the v e r s i o n  of c u l t u r a l  eccentricity  point  i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d by  but  a c q u i r e the  the unacceptable  to reconstruct  that  "real,"  makes t h i s  So  research,  [ C e y l o n ] f o w l s as b i g a s our  T a m i l s who,  depends on t h e power and it;  lands.  Oderic i n the f o u r t e e n t h century that  island  power of l a n g u a g e  culture,  e p i g r a p h , he  heads" w i t h  Sinhalese poor,  o f new  a r e t h e p r o j e c t i o n s o f dreams or v i s i o n s  i n t h e name o f a d o m i n a n t  badge of when,  they  redisposition  the  "tabula  oscillate  imperialist renovatory,  rasa."  138 Neither  discourse  ensures the Ondaatje s  wins out;  heterogeneity intermediary  1  post-colonial  nations  f r o m more p o w e r f u l , revelatory construct  of  the  their  exotic  particular  the  notion  of  "tabula  and  but  of  " i t i s not  constructs  Rimbaud.  an  down on  imaginary  i t the v a r i o u s The  island  and  site  Ironically, extensions colonial,  their  island  true  exoticisms  built  places "South  of  rather  rebelling  Eurocentric world i s "not  i t represents  of  h i s parents.  down i n any  a metaphorical  map"  from never  Seas"  of against  selects Selakhi  fantasies.  than r e a c t i o n s against,  are  the r e s i d u a l l y S e l a k h i may  but,  be  a  i n another  r e m a p p i n g of  a  on  Stevenson,  dream-child  c i v i l i z e d world,  held  inspiration  i n the  Hughes who,  an  (Sri  (Selakhi)  map;  Virgo  Ondaatje  however, D a r i e n ' s h a l l u c i n o g e n i c v i s i o n s  dreamworld which sense,  narrowly  refashion  Taking  any  i s the  Sean  i s l a n d w h i c h has  for his garish, p r i m i t i v i s t i c  of,  both  cultures  whereas  island  European e x o t i c i s m .  his  the  marginalized  European i m a g i n a t i o n  a mythical  poete maudit Darien  as  endorses  c u l t u r e s but  those  But  myth-surrounded  adolescent family  both  rasa" to  ( S e l a k h i ; 1987).  contains within  Kipling  S r i Lanka),  Maltese-born Canadian w r i t e r  envisions  dictum  are," Virgo which  (Canada and  the  real  foundations  Melville's  implicitly  two  p o s i t i o n between two m u l t i c u l t u r a l  f a s c i n a t i o n f o r the  Lanka), Virgo  t e x t and  between t h e  authority.  "Lost World" a  the  " f a l s e maps" on w h i c h  surrealist  re-envisions  of  a dialectic  supposedly mainstream,  L i k e Ondaatje, uses the  but  the  "colonial  139 unconscious." recreate  Believing that  Lost Worlds  (a r e c u r r e n t  s t r e e t m a p of A t l a n t i s ' he  i s a v i c t i m of  registering zero"  -  i s the  out  of  u n d e r s t o o d not an  as  the  operation;  underline  poetry, false  an  o l d and the  perceptual false  to the  cultural  Family,  of  issue:  i s the  for  paradise  "native  literature; Virgo's  "looking  "Going  native"  Selakhi  do  not  Language, a s  in  pretentious nurtured  r e i n f o r c e d through  implicit  c u l t u r e thus works towards e n d o r s i n g  as  consciousness  a s i c k mind and  but  i s l a n d e r s , " but  it.  Darien's  transmitted  au  legacy.  transformation  of  that  therefore  this false  product  'a  from  consciousness.  the  holding  realize  tired  novel  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  i s a key  suggests V i r g o , notions  c u l t u r e of  to  "recommencement  f o r D a r i e n ' s d r e a m - e x p e r i e n c e s on  European e x o t i c i s t colonial  of  to  far  d e f i n i n g i t " (248) , i s  a means of  h i s own  Running the  fails  surrealist  most o b v i o u s example of  accommodate him  on  and  image s e e s D a r i e n  used throughout  o r g a n i s a t i o n a l medium of  provides in  - the  r e c y c l e d product  the w o r l d  i t i n h i s power  his poetic vision,  beginning  Mapmaking, a metaphor  has  i n h i s p a l m ) , he  them:  a new  he  critique  the  of  multi-  I am r e f e r r i n g p r i m a r i l y h e r e t o t h e psychopathological s t u d i e s o f F r a n t z Fanon ( e . g . Peau n o i r e , masques b l a n c s Paris: S e u i l , 1962). Note, however, Fanon's v i e w t h a t t h e v a r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x e s w h i c h a r e p r o d u c e d under c o l o n i a l c o n d i t i o n s do not c o n s t i t u t e a c o l l e c t i v e c o l o n i a l u n c o n s c i o u s but r a t h e r an a c q u i r e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e s u l t i n g from t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f one c u l t u r e ' s myths and p r e j u d i c e s upon another's. The " c o l o n i a l u n c o n s c i o u s " s h o u l d be s e e n , i n t h i s c o n t e x t , n o t as a r e c o r d o f p s y c h i c i n h e r i t a n c e ( f o r b o t h c o l o n i z e r and c o l o n i z e d ) b u t as a r e c e p t a c l e f o r t h e s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d v i e w s w h i c h shape - and, as V i r g o ' s n o v e l shows, d i s t o r t - one c u l t u r e ' s v i e w of a n o t h e r .  140 cultural,  post-colonial status  of h i s adopted  (Canada) by p r o m u l g a t i n g a m o b i l i t y within  cultural  If  mosaics  Ondaatje  multiculturalism in  between c u l t u r e s  (Canada-Sri Lanka;  and V i r g o of t h e i r  are i m p l i c i t l y adopted  celebratory  of the  c o u n t r y , many o t h e r  writers  (1981) p r o v i d e s a n example o f one f o r m on r a c i a l  Kogawa's Obasan  of c u l t u r a l  discrimination; Maillet's  (1979) o f a n o t h e r , b a s e d  Pglagie-la-Charrette  demonstrate  use maps p r i m a r i l y as m e t a p h o r s o f f a l s e l y an a l t e r n a t i v e , more c o n s t r u c t i v e  Couani,  however, by w r i t e r s  work,  s u c h a s A u s t r a l i a ' s Anna  f a c i n g migrant  caught  b u t d i s a d v a n t a g e d by l i v i n g  Australia  that  of other contemporary  however, w h i c h  of t h e fragmented  may be r e c o n s t i t u t e d  The map i s employed thus,  i n the short  which  I quote  a s a metaphor prose piece  i n i t s entirety:  between two  i n a country Couani's  m i g r a n t women w r i t e r s i n  (Vicky V i i d i k a s , Antigone K e f a l a ,  f o c u s e s on t h e p o r t r a y a l  Couani.  and P o l i s h  an u n f l a t t e r i n g h i s t o r y o f male d o m i n a t i o n . like  authority;  use o f t h e map m e t a p h o r i s  i n A u s t r a l i a , who a r e n o t o n l y  (or more) c u l t u r e s with  implanted  has w r i t t e n w i d e l y of t h e problems  women w r i t e r s  Both  i n t h e next chapter,  a s e c o n d - g e n e r a t i o n A u s t r a l i a n o f Greek  extraction,  critique,  on e t h n i c m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n .  Kogawa and M a i l l e t , a s I s h a l l  proposed,  and/or  Canada-Malta).  Canada and A u s t r a l i a a r e more c r i t i c a l .  based  country  through  Ania Walwicz), female  self,  a self,  t h e a c t of w r i t i n g .  forthis reconstitution;  "The Map o f t h e W o r l d "  (1983),  141 The map o f t h e w o r l d i s f e l t f r o m i n s i d e . Rough a r o u n d t h e c o a s t l i n e s and smooth o v e r t h e h i l l s and sand dunes. Warm and m o i s t through the r i v e r s which l e a d outside t o the f o r e s t s l i k e l o n g h a i r t h e n s p a r s e r l i k e s h o r t e r more b r i s t l y h a i r t o t h e touch. Reading a globe of t h e w o r l d with i t s topography i n r e l i e f . Reading w i t h the f i n g e r s as though b l i n d . Feeling i t with the back, down t h e s p i n e . Making c o n t a c t w i t h t h e n i p p l e s a n d t h e nose o n l y . Moving a t a f a s t r a t e underwater through t h e oceans and l a r g e lakes. Most o f t h e o c e a n s c o n n e c t up w i t h e a c h other. M o v i n g s o f a s t t h a t y o u become aware o f the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e being curved. F l y i n g low but f a s t a c r o s s t h e l a n d m a s s e s . Make y o u r s e l f f e e l l i k e the world. As o l d b u t n o t a s t r o u b l e d . The  authority  reinvested from of  i n t h e geography  an e x t e r n a l ,  t h e map a l s o  construction The  others  perceiving other  reflects  of s e l f  perceive  s o u r c e s and  o f t h e body's e x p e r i e n c e .  a shift  tactile  of emphasis from  The move  appreciation the s o c i a l  reconstitution.  v a l i d a t e d n o t a s a means t h r o u g h  and d e f i n e  us b u t a s a means o f  and d e f i n i n g o u r s e l v e s .  Couani a l i g n s h e r s e l f with  such as Walwicz  ( i n A u s t r a l i a ) and  ( i n Canada) f o r whom w r i t i n g d e n o t e s an i n s c r i p t i o n o f  f e m a l e body.  culturally inside,  outside  t o i t s phenomenological  feminist writers  Brossard  from  v i s u a l t o an i n t e r n a l ,  map i s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y  which  the  o f t h e map i s d i v e s t e d  situated:  Couani  constructed affinity  Couani's w r i t i n g ,  cultural,  counters those  flagwaving  i s also  as t o a r t i f i c i a l l y  She f u r t h e r  suggests that the  owes a s much t o p e r s o n a l  constructed  identity.  but r a c i a l l y  from  i n h e r c o u n t r y who have  h e r a s an o u t s i d e r .  or n a t i o n a l  theirs,  by f e e l i n g t h e map o f t h e w o r l d  between p e o p l e and p l a c e s  experience  like  notions  of personal,  Thus, h e r r e s p o n s e  selective nationalism  to the  of A u s t r a l i a i s  142 not  so much t o p r o c l a i m  its  d i f f e r e n c e , a s t o remap t h e w o r l d  own e x p e r i e n c e ,  both  lived  a dream, b u t a t l e a s t  4  •  MAPS AND 1  as  i s h e r own.  novel  of personal  Badlands  experience;  experience.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e mapmaker i s o b s e s s i v e Dawe, d e s c r i b e d  by h i s d a u g h t e r ,  accept  and e n d u r e d e s t i n y  (109).  Dawe's m e t i c u l o u s towards l i f e  "maliciously  meditated  like  eccentric Albertan falling  badlands,  ... [ b u t ]  which,  like  during  are only  are intended  all  static  the world  recovery. two  and e x e c u t e d  (109).  their  complementary  ...  intended  Dawe's maps, he and h i s  madcap o d y s s e y  into the  a l t e r n a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s which, merely accentuate to foreclose.  Moreover,  a male view  i n h i s t u r n by t h e  of the novel,  'accompanies'  they a r e  o f d i s p o s s e s s i o n and  i s dispossessed  female p r o t a g o n i s t s  the p r i n c i p l e of  reinforcing  b a s e d on Dawe's p r i n c i p l e s  Dawe, however,  chance"  h i s a t t i t u d e towards sex, i s  representations  squaw Anna Y e l l o w b i r d who but  could not abide  ... o r g a n i z e d  randomness t h e y  of  "would  maps and f i e l d n o t e s t y p i f y h i s  of completion,  essentially  novel's  palaeontologist William  h i s f i e l d - n o t e s and t h e f o s s i l s  crew u n e a r t h  short  The  i t i s rejected  Anna, a s a man who  t o f o r e c l o s e on randomness i t s e l f " however,  i n Robert  ( 1 9 7 5 ) , by c o n t r a s t ,  a f o r e c l o s u r e of p e r s o n a l  attitude  The map may o n l y be  t h e r e c o n s t i t u t e d map i s u s e d a s a v e h i c l e  the a r t i c u l a t i o n  Kroetsch's  i n accordance with her  and i m a g i n a r y .  t h e dream  or t o s i g n a l  MAZES  In C o u a n i s p i e c e , for  h e r own e t h n i c i d e n t i t y ,  the Indian  him on h i s e x p e d i t i o n ,  c o n s i s t e n t l y outmaneouvres h i m / i t ; and h i s daughter,  143 Anna, who i n i t i a l l y discards, on  attempts t o decipher,  h i s precious  fieldnotes.  randomness i s f u r t h e r s u b v e r t e d  storyteller,  Web, whose t a l l  tales  but e v e n t u a l l y  Dawe's a t t e m p t  to foreclose  by t h e a l t e r n a t i v e implicitly  mock t h e p r e c i s e  n o t a t i o n s o f Dawe's f i e l d b o o k and t h e p i n p o i n t a c c u r a c y maps. also  Web and Dawe, two v o i c e s be c o n s i d e r e d  i n a polyphonic  a s two a l t e r n a t i v e  a m u l t i - l a y e r e d n a r r a t i v e which, d u r i n g a s t o r m midway t h r o u g h  like  many m i s e s en abime f o r t h e n o v e l ) , sky,  mapped t h e b l u e  counterpoint,  sky b l a c k  s t r u c k almost  [them] t o e a c h  other"  web as  and w h i t e ;  ( i n one o f t h e  and then,  The c o u n t e r p o i n t o f t h e map  t h e photograph) and t h e d e l i c a t e  (and i t s  t r a c e r y of the  t h e tornado)  i n t h e t e x t s o f F i n d l e y and O n d a a t j e , s t r u c t u r e emerges.  in final  ... s h o w t i n g ] ...  emphasis).  (and i t s d e s t r u c t i v e r e v e r s e - i m a g e ,  encompassing  lightning  "webbed and p a t t e r n e d t h e  between t h e b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e d i s t i n c t i o n s counterpart,  principles in  the exemplary  on t o p o f them  (103; my  n a r r a t i v e , can  structural  the e x p e d i t i o n  of h i s  t h a t no  Similarly,  ensures,  single  there  i s no  c o m p l e t e p a l a e n t o l o g i c a l s p e c i m e n , no a b s o l u t e e x p l i c a t o r y truth;  the notion of (physical) completion,  (metaphysical) by  truth,  Dawe's p r i z e  tail  that the As  i s e x p o s e d a s an i l l u s i o n ,  dinosaur,  "complete" o n l y  has been added t o r e p l a c e  t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e  simile  the missing  f o r Kroetsch's  o f t h e l a b y r i n t h w h i c h , however, Minotaur  of the 'journey  that of characterized  because a  replica  fragment.  Perhaps  open-ended t e x t i s  " c o n c e a l t s ] n o t so much  ... a s an a b s e n c e a t t h e ' c e n t r e ' "  R u s s e l l McDougall has p o i n t e d  parody  like  out, Kroetsch s 1  into the i n t e r i o r ; 1  (McDougall 2 2 ) . novel  isa  i t s m o t i f s of  144 exploration  and e x c a v a t i o n  are i m p l i c i t l y  self-ironic,  the  only  " d i s c o v e r i e s " made a r e i n c o m p l e t e  the  cost  of a l i f e ,  same e x p l o s i o n the  that  " l e v e l s " throughout  correspondences"  (45),  similarly,  significance,  o f t h e boy Tune, whose b u r i a l  only  of i n v e r s i o n which  the novel  of a decentred  fieldnotes;  ones, and t h o s e a t  text.  operates a t several  and i m p l i c i t l y  reinforces the  " T h e r e a r e no t r u t h s ,  Kroetsch's text  a pattern  reveals  maze t h a n w i t h  t h e e x p l i c a t o r y map.  through  the operations  artifice  involved  Both  of mimesis,  in fictional  the other  creation.  suggests,  i s as incapable  reality  a s t h e maze i s o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y consequently  between t h e " r e a l w o r l d " "invented  world(s)"  statement  that  (Kroetsch  95) i s o n l y  implicitly, as  to sail  point  of a c c u r a t e l y  situates itself  reality  celebrating the  The map,  Kroetsch  reflecting  falsifying  i t : his  i n the i n t e r s t i c e s  (of t h e map-convention) and t h e  (of t h e m a z e - c o n v e n t i o n ) .  he and h i s crew a r e " s a i l i n g  a transference  regional  a r e metaphors f o r  t h e one c o n v e n t i o n a l i z i n g  further  own f i c t i o n  the i l l u s i o n i s t  But a r e t h e map and t h e  one a n o t h e r ?  representation,  no c e n t r e o f  o f a l t e r n a t i n g c o n n e c t i o n s and  w h i c h have more i n common w i t h  maze so d i f f e r e n t from  only  Anna remarks o f her f a t h e r ' s  disconnections  artistic  i nthe  w h i c h u n e a r t h s t h e "Daweosaurus" d e m o n s t r a t e s  r h e t o r i c a l device  notion  since  Thus,  o f f t h e map"  a half-truth, for to sail  onto another.  Although  on K r o e t s c h ' s p a r t  of view, t h e f o c u s  from  Dawe's  this  o f f one map i s , could  a national  of t h i s p o i n t  be s e e n  to a  o f view i s  14 C f . K r o e t s c h ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f C a n a d i a n w r i t i n g a s 'a l i t e r a t u r e o f d a n g e r o u s m i d d l e s ' ( f r o m "Beyond N a t i o n a l i s m : A P r o l o g u e , " M o s a i c 14.2 (1981) v - x i ) . See a l s o R o b e r t L e c k e r ' s  145 ambivalent: collection Kroetsch  14 of  thus,  speaking  essays  describes  and  the  h a v e been mapped l i k e lost  i n them  reading  so  finally,  landscape  definition:  (1985). A s u c c e s s i o n pieces  together  emotionally  in  life"  the  subject an  (241),  of  ideal  [his]  dreamer  to  still  of  f r u s t r a t e s or i n the  is  get like  even  text i s ,  Landscape with  i t s narrator,  "discover  the  runs the  making.  i n Borges's  a  attempting  The  s t o r y who  someone e l s e ' s dream,' ' 1  thoughts'  can  is Australian novelist  constructed  eventually h i s own  you  "they  is lost.  w r i t e r who,  landscape which  but  stories-within-stories,  life  fiction  a l a b y r i n t h of  like  of  unstable  multi-layered [his]  the  roads,  to orient oneself  Murnane's c r a f t i l y  Voice,  Reading Badlands  invites yet  t h a t one  of  entitled  his native prairies:  (Neuman 8 0 ) .  A more l a b y r i n t h i n e t e x t Gerald  of  g r i d s , a l l those  easily"  t o admit  appropriately  interviews Labyrinths  a landscape which  precludes  i n the  5  the  Murnane's t e x t  peripatetic, through  p a t t e r n of risk  Landscape  of  his  [him]self  losing  principle  is  finds himself narrator,  himself Borgesian: the  searching  'corresponds to obscure places  (Murnane 231)  i s himself  the  subject  and  of  for  in someone  16 else's  search  (which,  i n turn  ...  etc.  Th us,  like  the  continued d i s c u s s i o n of K r o e t s c h ' s ' b o r d e r l i n e a e s t h e t i c s ' i n " B o r d e r i n g On: R o b e r t K r o e t s c h * s A e s t h e t i c , " J o u r n a l of C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s 17.3 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 124-133. 15 J . - L . B o r g e s , "The C i r c u l a r R u i n s , " i n F i c c i o n e s , ed. A. K e r r i g a n (NY: G r o v e P r e s s , 1962) 57-64. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n o t i o n o f t h e l a b y r i n t h i n B o r g e s ' s work, and o f o t h e r ' s y m b o l i c l a n d s c a p e s ' i n modern f i c t i o n , see Wendy F a r i s , L a b y r i n t h s o f Language ( B a l t i m o r e : J o h n s H o p k i n s VP, 1988) .  146 interpolated Nu"  of  pattern never  reach  those  the  text  itself  reveal  Minotaur,  it  h o l d s no  Acosta  primary  narrator)  who  no  m y t h s : so,  (97),  at  a  "an  suburb a t  i n an  Also  implicit region  he  (Melbourne)  reads is a  the  centre  from which  the  true  the  narrator  substantiate beyond t h e according  the  reach to the  in this  needless to  or say,  of  my  of  of  that  part  i s never  of  where of  of  the  is a  as  draw a map  poetic  another  drawn, f o r  curving  centrist  cultural  ...  the  in  Like  that  cultural  metonymical  culture, emblematic  cohesiveness. "a  blank  of  f e e l i n g he  space  visible"  attempt  s i z e d and  Melbourne"  but  Murnane  s u b u r b s w o u l d be  might  to  an  i t s centre,  ironically  normal p e r c e p t i o n  i n t e n s i t y of that  "he  readers  h i s t e x t u a l maze h o l d s  moves t a n g e n t i a l l y away i n an  belief  but  the  s e l f - p a r o d i c centre  the  a  emphasis).  i n t o Canadian  Melbourne  pattern  end  "the  attempt  h e d g e s and  (Alberta)  hackneyed A u s t r a l i a n d e s i r e f o r  Perceiving  in  Kroetsch,  parody  his  Any  place  the  (197,  like  as  tend towards  as  actual  "revelation" at  all.  ambivalence  Murnane's c i t y  redirected,  sees  ...  deferral.  suggests that  while Kroetsch's  the  and  i n a maze"  only  land]  Murnane i n v o l v e s  a s t r e e t bordered with  terrifying  centre  this l o s t  to f i n d  a pathway  decentres h i s text  felt  B a t t l e of  equations which  itself:  Murnane not  no  (14),  "The  displacement  f o r l o r n quest  like  Kroetsch,  the  the  i s t h w a r t e d or  unmapped t r a m l i n e ,  for  story  g r a p h s of  endless  mystery would  site  of  a certain axis"  a game of  narrator's  of  the  [ h i s ] j o u r n e y s towards  like  unravel  on  of  (a d i s p l a c e d v e r s i o n  routes  in  narrator  to  the  city  spaced had  (13).  once  The  t h e mapmaker's a t t e m p t  map, to  147 rationalize any  case,  h i s dreams i s i t s e l f  t h e l a n d or d i s t r i c t  somewhere e l s e . novel which, contain longer The  Thus,  like  r e c o g n i z e d a s a dream; a n d , i n  he dreams a b o u t  t h e v a r i o u s dream l a n d s c a p e s  once i d e n t i f i e d ,  n a r r a t o r compares h i s p o s i t i o n  high-ceilinged details  "under  of t h e p r o j e c t ,  "paint ting] g r i d s alternate  to that  night,  (210).  he t h e n a s k s  o f t h e monks i n t h e  map,  i n corners of  [add] s t i l l  more  And, a s i f t o s t r e s s t h e us t o e n v i s i o n a man  o f s t r e e t - p a t t e r n s on c l e a r  g l a s s p a n e s and  s u r f a c e s of systems of m i r r o r s , p r e p a r i n g t o f u l f i l  t h e dreams o f t h o s e who had a l w a y s w a n t e d t o s e e somehow  a p a r t o f t h e maps t h e y had p o r e d  symbolic  of the a l i e n a t i o n  over"  between i t s e l f  themselves (210).  f o r Murnane's t h e o r y o f t h e  creative  articulated  i m a g i n a t i o n which,  f o r a landscape which w i l l  thoughts,  bases  itself  unattainability  correspond  on t h e d i s j u n c t i o n  f o r m u l a t i o n and v e r b a l p r o d u c t i o n representation).  through  The  and i t s maker,  a l s o o p e r a t e s as a paradigm  search  i s no  of i t s maker(s).  shaded desk-lamps  rooms, n i g h t a f t e r  ... t o f a n t a s t i c maps"  absurdity  once drawn,  o f accommodating t h e d e s i r e ( s )  M e l b o u r n e p r e s b y t e r y who  of the  a r e no l o n g e r w i d e enough t o  t h e d r e a m e r ' s i d e a o f them, t h e map, capable  i s always  the narrator's  t o h i s innermost  between  ( t h e map a s i d e a ;  conceptual t h e map a s  Combining t h e Romantic n o t i o n of with  diffFrance,Murnane  the p o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s t illustrates  concept of  the intermediary  Murnane's t h e o r y o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n h a s been d i s c u s s e d i n s e v e r a l e s s a y s by J o h n T i t t e n s o r , e . g . i n t h e s u r v e y a r t i c l e "Inner A u s t r a l i a : The N o v e l s o f G e r a l d Murnane," i n X. Pons and M. R o c a r d , e d s . : 97-107.  148 discursive  position  embodies a v i s i o n but a r t i c u l a t e s  of h i s t e x t which,  nor  registers  a space  the f a i l u r e  engenders  other texts;  i s propelled  neither  t o embody a  still  The  thus the reader, instead  further  vision, map,  f o r o t h e r maps, and  provided with a " d e f i n i t i v e " version tion,  t h e map,  between s u c c e s s i v e v i s i o n s .  s u g g e s t s Murnane, a c t s as a c a t a l y s t text  like  or  into  the  of being  "accurate" representa-  the  intertextual  labyrinth. In Quebec w r i t e r  Robert  ( 1 9 8 6 ) , t h e n o t i o n o f an by  a proliferation  1  of s p a t i a l  1  central  an  'absent'  Melbourne  whose house  i s the point  for  But  shouldering their from  and  Diana,  South  (Brazil)  the f e t i d  despair:  Diana  Denise  Landscape, textual  and  concept,  adults,  feel  b r e a k i n g away from  (Ungava) and  i n s e a r c h of p e r s o n a l and  professional  cut  Denise of  t h e Deep  the a r c t i c w a s t e s of the North  j u n g l e s of the South  the c r o s s i n g  Baillie;  c o u p l e embark on a s e r i e s  neither  both  who,  t a k e them t o t h e F a r N o r t h  At f i r s t ,  Diana,  are  suggests  f o r t h e two  Finally  but  of d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e  but J e a n n e and G i n o  responsibilities  the newly-married  fulfilment. nor  and  the o u t s i d e w o r l d .  t r a v e l s which  with  young w a r d s J e a n n e and G i n o ,  blindness i s a relative  i t i s not Denise  off  friends  outwards  U n l i k e the  i s marked n o t by  f o r t h e two  blind.  centre.  Voyants  i s supported  radiate  i n Landscape  by p e r c e p t u a l a b s e n c e :  p e r e g r i n a t i o n s of t h e i r  labyrinth  r e f e r e n c e s which  however, t h e c e n t r e i n L e s V o y a n t s  i n Montreal  recent novel Les  (inter)textual  (as i n M u r n a n e s t e x t ) from "blank space" of  Baillie s  do more t h a n c o n f i r m  of g e o g r a p h i c a l f r o n t i e r s  their  registers  the  149 passage from  one f o r m  of emptiness t o another.  through  the v i c a r i o u s experience  of death  William  B e l l o w ) o r an e q u i v a l e n t  form  own s e p a r a t i o n , they  are able  source  to confront  rebirth.  adolescence, 1'immensity  this  boss (their  of the R i o Carnival)  inner/outer  that  emptiness n o t as a  Thus, w h e r e a s p r e v i o u s l y , i n h i s t r o u b l e d  G i n o had c o n s i d e r e d  " [ l ' J e s p a c e i n t e r i e u r ou  d e s e m o t i o n s ne c o n n a i s s a i t aucune mesure ... f o u l  ou e n n a i t r e  1 ' a b s e n c e e t du v i d e  same empty  surveyor/  ... tune] r u p t u r e he i s b r o u g h t  space as a source  f o r the establishment  i n a remote c o r n e r  previously  intgrieure"  thermodynamic p r i n c i p l e concentrically  dessinee  exactes  e t conformes"  element  of i t s c e n t r a l du monde a v a i t  sa p u p i l l e "  absent,  i n later  of j o y .  royaume de  definitive life  to confront  Employed a s a  of a thermal  of t h e Far North.  "unseeing"  (197),  i s readjusted  of entropy.  according  arpentee,  centre  totale,  l e d on t h e c o o r d i n a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s  "cartographie  grille  vaste  s'y e r i g e r  g e o l o g i s t f o r a m i n i n g company, G i n o i s made  responsible station  ne p o u v a i t  de d e s t i n " a s "tun]  d'avec l a v i e " (51-2),  oeil,  their  of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n  geometre, n u l g£ologue, n u l a r p e n t e u r  en v o y a n t  the  rituals  (Diana,  o f d e s p a i r b u t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , o f p h y s i c a l e n e r g y and  spiritual  nul  the anarchic  I t i s only  Gino's  to the  The s t a t i o n ,  et cartographies i s discovered  s e t out t o u t e une  s e l o n d e s normes t o be f l a w e d ,  sounding device m i s s i n g perdu son contenu,  life,  of h i s  t o "des c a l c u l s g t a b l i s ,  (179),  (192).  prospecting  an  "comme s i l e  sa substance,  Gino's p r o j e c t i s ruined,  son  but t h i s  c e n t r e p a r a d o x i c a l l y g i v e s him a c c e s s t o  150 the  interior  the  thermodynamic system  release  vision  of G i n o ' s own  anarchic  rhythms o f  libidinal  always coveted:  pent-up energy,  (and h i s w i f e )  international  "all-seeing" section itself:  of  but  the  the  d i s r u p t i o n of  but  k i n d of  system:  big business.  exploitative  novel  the world,  and  not  the a  realized  the product "blind"  Jeanne the  of  kills  remains  computer  which  world, i n the  final  thousands,  of  and  l e a v e s many more b l i n d e d f o r l i f e .  For  Murnane  shortcomings  are  i m p l i c a t e d i n the  problematic impossible other a  cartographic vision  process task  of  of  artistic  s u b s t a n t i a t i n g a dream.  hand, c a r t o g r a p h i c v i s i o n ,  system which  w o r k i n g s or  " c e n t r e , " may substantiating The  does n o t  take  taken  a stage  en  prose  (1980).  sets i t s e l f  the  Baillie,  on  the  as t h e  tool  of  i t s own l a b y r i n t h i n e  the p o t e n t i a l l y  the very  realistic  fatal  flaw  possibility  at i t s  of  nightmare.  desystematization  is  spatial  of  For  the  misappropriated  understand  account  s e t up a  c r e a t i o n , which  a  his  produces a c a t a s t r o p h i c mirror-image  a c c i d e n t at Bhopal which  of  they  surrender  from  It i s this  uncaring,  the  r e l e a s e of  as  of a  i n Rio  but w h e r e a s G i n o l i b e r a t e s h i m s e l f  trapped w i t h i n a d i f f e r e n t of  as  had  i s r e i n t e r p r e t e d not  consuming d e s i r e t o s y s t e m a t i z e  circuit  just  t r i g g e r e d the  "cartographic" vision  senses;  the  becomes t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r  samba had  "Seeing"  systematized the  had  e n e r g y w h i c h he  possessed.  to  he  of  c a r t o g r a p h i c space  i n Les  f u r t h e r i n Yolande V i l l e m a i r e ' s novel Like B a i l l i e ,  t r a n s g r e s s i o n and  Voyants La  Vie  V i l l e m a i r e e m p l o y s m e t a p h o r s of  extension  (the c r o s s i n g of  151 geographical of  borders;  the  "foreign" countries)  deterritorialization. Baillie,  however,  Vie as  en  i n her  a form  of  conventions  of  scriptural cinematic  A playful,  through  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  as  like  r e f e r r e d to  icons etc.)  are  form)  resemblance  to r e a l i t y .  typographic  d i s p l a y of  function  of  the  of  of W e s t e r n  interwoven novel, of w r i t i n g and  lecture."  of  the  novel  La  writing  the  typewriter,  other  an  sign  forms  of  systems  Like  the  of  p r o s e draws p a r t i c u l a r  map,  approximate  cartographic one  The  (hieroglyphics,  reality.  bears only  Comparing her  en  patterns  incorporated within  the  (as a l i t e r a r y  those  to  than  contradictory  i n the  relation  n a r r a t o r s of L a V i e  a form  evocation  cultural  critique  i t s i n s c r i b e d " c o m i t y de  w h i c h have a p r o b l e m a t i c novel  of  these  skilfully  the v a r i o u s  prose f i c t i o n ,  notation  effect  deconstructive  investigates l i f e life  an  a p p l i c a t i o n of  t o the  systems.  prose  to achieve  hypothetical  V i l l e m a i r e i s more e c l e c t i c  deterritorialization signifying  d e s c r i p t i o n or  the  grid  to  the  multiple  attention to  the  spacer:  L a b a r r e g u i commande l ' e s p a c e m e n t n ' e s t que l a p r o t h e s e m e c a n i q u e de c e t t e o p e r a t i o n mentale q u i c o n s i s t e a trouer l e c h a o s du l a n g a g e en l u i r a v i s s a n t l e s t e r m e s du l e x i q u e pour f a i r e l e r e l a i s c a r t o g r a p h i q u e d'une i n t r i g u e d o n t l e t e r r i t o i r e reste secret. (160) Typographic p r i n t , itself  upon a s p a c e  s p a c e s as text, it  like  cartographic  i t cannot  operational  fill;  moreover,  elements w i t h i n  s u g g e s t s V i l l e m a i r e , does n o t  deconstructs  notation,  itself.  superimposes i t incorporates  i t s system.  need t o be  A f u r t h e r analogy  The  printed  deconstructed;  i s that  between  the  152 layering are  techniques  palimpsestic  narrator's novel  of  cartography  operations;  comments on  (itself  prose  a palimpsestic  se  perdant  ( V i l l e m a i r e 2 91). reconstructions, spatial order  of  access but  the  en  The  rather  to obfuscate  a c c u m u l a t i o n of narrator(s)  quips,  or  "ces  of  effect,  l a y e r s so t h a t ,  of  which, e l u d i n g  definition  through  correspondingly  p r o c e d u r e s of  semiotic  d£dale onomastique" bewilders  and  her  also  give layers  the  (one ne  of)  the  seront  territoire  de  referential the  self-referential  text  approximative  mocks t h e  "scientific"  definitional  More maze t h a n map,  of La V i e  a p p r o x i m a t i v e analogues of like  to  accreted  as  en  But  like  the  Kroetsch  m a t t e r s f u r t h e r by  one  "tie]  prose d e l i b e r a t e l y  mazes, a p p r o x i m a t i v e a n a l o g u e s of  map,  the  i s not  implicates  " d i s l o c a t e s " i t s readers.  "deconstructed"  autre"  a c c r e t i o n of  Murnane, V i l l e m a i r e p r o b l e m a t i z e s t h a t maps and  own  produit,  an  analysis.  (310)  du  se  de  multiple  [du t e x t e ]  undermining the  operations  her  a l l belong to  s t r i p p i n g down o f  Villemaire also  to  d'une  d i s p l a c e meaning through  By  her  anagrammatic  however,  t r e s approximative  t h e map,  celle  a s s o c i a t i o n s and  the the  cela qui  sur  devices,  deconstructive  analogies,  bien  micro-verites  R e a l i t e " (215).  authority  c'est  surimpression  supplementary  e n c o r e qu'une c a r t e l'Ultime  Et  Both  " ' I l est question  of V i l l e m a i r e ' s novel  t o meaning t h r o u g h  fiction.  dedication  citation):  doubling  palimpsestic;  of  as V i l l e m a i r e says v i a  "free" verbal  references  those  Nicole Brossard's  deux g e o g r a p h i e s a l a f o i s ? cette  and  another; f o r  "decentred"  maze,  the  and  suggesting text,  are  the exemplifies  153 a directional deride,  system  whose i n b u i l t  i t s original  In a t e x t w i t h en p r o s e ,  similar  incorporated  i n t o an  tourists,  World Tour  but  by  Biv  shepherded  gaining insight  prejudices. and  The  Zoellner  cultivation  of  "exact  satire  t h e map  shielded  science" i s  on t o u r i s m :  from  the  provides a different s t y l e which  a group of their  Grand  "outside world,"  more t h a n t h e i r  L o n d o n shop o f t h e two  operates  classification.  between museums on  into l i t t l e  of a l i t e r a r y  fetishization  as an  exuberant  carefully  (1980),  for "exhaustive"  of c a r t o g r a p h y  Australian  even  e n c y c l o p e d i c t e n d e n c i e s t o La V i e  Murray B a i l ' s H o m e s i c k n e s s  B a i l ' s mockery  undermine, or  directives.  as a s e l f - p a r o d i c p a r a d i g m  up  fallacies  eccentric  own  end  cultural  bibliophiles  example of t o u r i s m :  the  i n v o l v e s the  t h e word as a c o l l e c t o r ' s  item:  Words had been c o l l e c t e d f r o m a l l c o r n e r s o f t h e g l o b e and s t o r e d i n bound v o l u m e s , s i n g l y or i n s e t s ... Z o e l l n e r and B i v r e t a i l e d e v e r y d i c t i o n a r y and w o r d - b i n g e i m a g i n a b l e ... g l o s s o l o g i e s , l a n g u a g e maps, s e m a n t i c a t l a s e s on G l e e k , A n g l i s h , J a p p i s c h , E a s t I n d i a n , P t y d e p e and J a r m a n , D o u b l e D e u t s c h , and an i n d i s p e n s a b l e p h r a s e book on S w i s s . (259) Amid t h i s  " p o l y g l o t ' s t r o v e " (259), the  irrepressible  Biv 17  holds f o r t h  t o t h e two  "men  of  s c i e n c e " Whitehead  and  North,  B a i l i s poking f u n here, of course, a t the " d e s c r i p t i v e g e o m e t r y " o f A l f r e d N o r t h W h i t e h e a d , w h i c h b a s e s i t s e l f on "a d e f i n i t e s e t of [ g e o m e t r i c ] t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s f o r m i n g a congruence-group, r e s u l t i n g i n a s e t of measure r e l a t i o n s w h i c h a r e i n no r e s p e c t a r b i t r a r y " ( 1 9 2 ) . B a i l would appear t o take p r e c i s e l y t h e v i e w t h a t W h i t e h e a d r e f u t e s , namely t h a t " i t i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y unmeaning t o ask w h i c h system of m e t r i c a l g e o m e t r y i s t r u e of t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d . Any one of t h e s e s y s t e m s c a n be a p p l i e d , and i n an i n d e f i n i t e number of ways" (192). For a l e n g t h i e r d i s c u s s i o n see t h e s e c t i o n "Axioms -Continued-  154 the former lover  a dentist,  o f maps who  cartography: sea l e v e l ) , Tundra), per  the l a t t e r  dresses unwittingly  yellow  corduory  the j a c k e t  shirt  annum)"  t r u t h s , " B i v then proceeds  display  of  (less  first  to  " r a v f e ] on  directories"  "scientific"  Sasha] suddenly  confusion.  dropping the  I t h i n k I'm  (261).  during their It  expresses  this  knowledge and  verifiable  North  261).  ignore  "'My  life,  ' i s one  big  But  Indeed,  funnily f o r a l l the  ( d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d ) knowledge  on t h e f i n a l  distinction  of  this  t h e y have n o t l e a r n e d v e r y much a t  i s the Russian guide  best of  travels,  of  rainfall  the mystery  colleague:  e x p e r i e n c i n g t o o much.  hungry consumption  above  F a s c i n a t e d by  set-square,  (Bail  of  "maps make about  stage  of t h e i r  between t h e h a s t y  the gradual p r o c e s s of  of  (Antarctic  knowledge, W h i t e h e a d and  enough, n o t h i n g much h a p p e n s ' " tourists'  "gentle pastels  than 1 inch  that  t h e more p e r c e p t i v e comment of t h e i r [said  i n the  self-confessed  t r o u s e r s (6000-9000 f e e t  peach  Asserting  street  and  o f d a r k l y woven maroon  of V i y e l l a  (68).  maps, e v e n o f  a zoologist  tour  all. who  acquisition  understanding:  ' T r a v e l has h e i g h t e n e d y o u r s e n s e s ... perhaps you a r e l e s s n a i v e ? ' He l o o k e d a t e a c h one o f them, t a k i n g h i s t i m e . 'But a p p e a r a n c e s , o f e v e n t s and t h i n g s s e e n a r o u n d , a r e d e c e p t i v e . What c a n we b e l i e v e any more? What i s r e a l ? Appearances a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y exact. The a p p e a r a n c e o f -Continuedo f G e o m e t r y " i n W h i t e h e a d ' s E s s a y s i n S c i e n c e and P h i l o s o p h y (NY: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1948) 177-194; f o r t h e r e l e v a n c e o f W h i t e h e a d ' s g e o m e t r i c t h e o r i e s t o B a i l , see a l s o H e l e n D a n i e l ' s c h a p t e r on B a i l i n L i a r s : A u s t r a l i a n New Novelists (Ringwood: Penguin, 1987).  155  t h i n g s i s g e n e r a l l y a l i e ... where i s t h e t r u t h , t h e r e a l e x i s t e n c e of t h i n g s ? I n c r e a s i n g l y , t h e e d g e s a r e b l u r r e d . (310) 1  Like  Anna Dawe i n B a d l a n d s ,  truths, system  only correspondences. o f p o i n t s and l i n e s  deceptively absolute The  uniform  The map  i s a case  of c o n n e c t i o n ,  i n point:  only the g u l l i b i l i t y  "Definitions,  bewilderingly profuse  tourists,  b e g i n t o see t h e m s e l v e s : one, and t h e y  disintegrating: elbow, n o s e ,  shoes,  (317).  The j o u r n e y  which  suggests  before  heart,  movement,  cigarette,  trees,  geographical  space  i s thus  an a t o m i z a t i o n o f t e x t u a l  space  in a  process  t h a t t h e o b s e s s i v e need t o d e f i n e o n e s e l f , o n e ' s  o r one's v i e w  cultural  frailty  of t h e w o r l d  i s less  ("home-sickness") t h a n  of l i n g u i s t i c  reveals a f f i n i t i e s with metaphors of apparent  origins. t h e maze:  control  a l w a y s q u e s t i o n a b l e , may false.  r e a d a l o u d one  squashed t o g e t h e r  ear, p e l v i s ,  mural,  shadow, p o s t c a r d s , memory, m o u n t a i n "  through  culture,  the f i x i t y  o f an i n c o m p l e t e  a i r , r i b cage, b l a d d e r ,  penis,  i n which the  "The words were b e i n g  shoulder-blades,  eyes,  into  i s t h e r e f o r e the  the d e t a i l s  followed remaining  thorax,  converted  interior,  together  succinct  Maps" i s i n s t a r k c o n t r a s t w i t h  museum a t t h e end o f t h e n o v e l  piecing  f o r the  of i t s p e r c e i v e r .  1  sign:  a  i t provides a  appearance of r e a l i t y which, t a k e n  " t r u t h , " proves  'unclassified'  by  i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e a r e no  c o u n t e r p a r t t o B i v and Z o e l l n e r s shop, whose  outside its  the guide  based  a symptom o f  of a n a i v e  belief in  Thus, once a g a i n , both,  suggests  t h e map  B a i l , are  on an a u t h o r i t y w h i c h ,  t u r n o u t i n t h e end t o be  demonstrably  156 In  Nicholas Hasluck's  authority  invested  challenged within n a t u r e and  o f law  threatens the  expressed  the wider  potential  involvement  Grotius  i n and  n o v e l The  escalates  cult  British  i n t o an  labyrinth  of  legalistic the  navigators World.  s u b - and  t h e map,  refers  labyrinth,  a literal  agent  are analogues an a r t f u l  not  imperial  designed  necessarily  f o r the d i v e r s i o n a r y  a  than  reveal, maps  Portuguese)  i n the novel  construct designed  of  evasive  interests  i n the  New  f o r the  operates  of p o l i t i c a l  but  do  (and  the  which,  times t o the f a l s e  intelligence,  promise  the t r u t h  of  Pacific,  intrigue  i n an  to  original  h i s readers through  commercial  a metaphor  of the  South  to conceal, rather  are a r t f u l l y  itself  political  several  their  son o f t h e  to concern the p r o t e c t i o n  suggests Hasluck,  too,  the  at f i r s t  the o b f u s c a t i o n of Dutch  designed  the  the  surrounding the outbreak  Conducting  the  recounts  scandal, linked  c o u n t e r p l o t s couched  to protect  novel  the  i n a scandal which  implicating  events  secrets.  m a n i p u l a t i v e misuse with  The  s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Dutch  The  The  r e p u t a t i o n of h i s c o l l e g e ,  i n t h e end  language  by  into  to involve  " t r u t h , " Hasluck  drawn up  inquiry  international  t u r n s out military  framework o f an  i n the seventeenth-century  seeming i n i t i a l l y history,  is  i n Holland.  i n the v i o l e n t  Rosicrucian  t h e map  student Leon Davies  t h e d i s c o v e r y of a document Grotius  (1984),  through  abuse of j u s t i c e .  international  Institute  Bellarmine Jug  i n tandem  subterfuge:  both,  c o n s t r u c t s which provide i t .  Both,  strategies  of the  t o d e c e i v e the  unwary  text,  157 reader.  As i n H o m e s i c k n e s s ,  (Borgesian?)  a p p e a r a n c e s l i e , and a s t h e  l i b r a r i a n Niesmann a s k s  Leon:  What i s t h e t r u t h when y o u have a m e l t i n g p o t o f c r o s s p u r p o s e s ? When p e o p l e a r e a c t i n g strangely, d i s g u i s i n g t h e i r motives, t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y one o f t h e o l d u n m e n t i o n a b l e s a t t h e bottom o f i t a l l . G r e e d , p e r h a p s . Sex. L u s t f o r power. W h i c h e v e r one i t i s w i l l be s k i l l f u l l y t u c k e d o u t o f s i g h t , b u r i e d b e n e a t h an avalanche of noble phrases. What w o u l d we b e l i e v e - the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n or the g l i n t i n t h e e y e , t h e p l a u s i b l e words o r t h e p e r p l e x i n g a c t , t h e s u r f a c e or t h e h i d d e n truth? P e r h a p s y o u have t h e a n s w e r ? (141)  The  question,  like of and  so many p o s e d  the examination question:  the stronger  party"  rise  critique  later  to the reconstructed  be d i s c u s s e d  i n the novel,  "Justice i s i n the i n t e r e s t s  during  events of the novel) t h e i s s u e s  but not d e f i n i t i v e l y  systems.  of h i s wider  Institute  the i n t e r r o g a t i o n which  resolved.  of the a l l e g e d l y t r u t h - s e r v i n g l e g a l  paradigmatic  i s rhetorical;  (given t o Leon a t t h e G r o t i u s  r e i t e r a t e d many y e a r s  gives may  like  deconstruction  Hasluck's  system i s  of Western  signifying  As t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l y named l e c t u r e r a t t h e G r o t i u s 18  Institute, binding? whole. illusion  Mondrian, I t must  exemplifies:  belong  The s t a t e i t s e l f and e v e r y t h i n g  "What makes a r u l e o f law  t o a system which i s merely  i s effective  a fiction.  c o l l a p s e s " (219) .  as a  Puncture the  A system,  The i l l u s i o n i s t g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n s o f M o n d r i a n ' s p a i n t i n g s are of equal relevance t o t h e d e c e p t i v e l y s t r u c t u r e d f i c t i o n s o f B a i l and Murnane and t o t h e " r e v i s i o n i s t c a r t o g r a p h y " o f B r o s s a r d and C a m p b e l l ( s e e n e x t c h a p t e r ) .  158 suggests Hasluck, of  rationalizing  false also  (or p r o t e c t i n g )  consciousness. nurture  brittle  contemporaries, in  i s an i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t ,  Hasluck  of t h i s  deconstruction)  i s aware o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  World"  (both  metaphysical  relativity  the  o f t h e "New  and t o ponder  their  connections:  a reading  o f t h e "new  first,  that  territories"  the process of p a t r i a r c h a l  between maps and myths,  historical  which  coercive  t h e map,  considered  instrumental  that  i n which  the mythic located  ethnic  multicultural mazes,  groups  t h e map,  identified  i s desystematized  i n the p r o j e c t s of  i n post-colonial,  s o c i e t i e s ; and f o u r t h ,  i n which  construct,  minority)  construct,  of t h e " c o l o n i a l u n c o n s c i o u s , "  o f t h e New W o r l d , " and t h e r e c u p e r a t i v e  (and o t h e r  critique  between maps and dreams, i n  unmasking o f r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g i e s i m p l e m e n t e d  "discovery  device  as a s e l f - s e r v i n g o n e i r i c  i n the critique  i n which  representation;  o f t h e map p e r m i t s a c u l t u r a l l y veracity; third,  by f o u r  between maps and men,  map o p e r a t e s a s a c o n s t r i c t i v e and/or  that  wider  implications.  reconstruction  the  uses t h e p r i n c i p l e s of  C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n f i c t i o n may be i n f o r m e d  second,  is  Hasluck a l s o  E u r o - and e t h n o c e n t r i c )  working w i t h i n  of  In showing t h e  t o unmask i d e o l o g i e s  I have s u g g e s t e d t h a t  modal  involved  p r o c e s s t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n (and  of f i c t i o n ,  philosophical  e f f e c t i v e systems,  L i k e many o f h i s A u s t r a l i a n  t h e p r o c e s s o f mapmaking and r e a d i n g .  applicability  of  o n e ' s v i e w s and a f o r m o f  Maps and mazes, b o t h illusions.  a t once a means  that  between maps and  as a spurious  definitional  i n a process paradigmatic of the  159 t r a n s g r e s s i o n or d e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Western s i g n i f y i n g The  prevalence  o f t h e map t o p o s  Canada and A u s t r a l i a the  critique  transformation New W o r l d .  explained  imperialism  by i t s u t i l i t y i n  and i n t h e p e r c e p t u a l  o f e t h n o - and/or p h a l l o c e n t r i c h i s t o r i e s  The c o n n e c t i o n  decentralization  of the  between t e x t u a l and c u l t u r a l  i n much o f t h e r e c e n t  however, t h a t t h e map vehicle  i n contemporary w r i t i n g from  c a n be p a r t l y  of c u l t u r a l  systems.  fiction  suggests,  i s n o t u s u a l l y employed a s a  metaphorical  f o r the r e c u p e r a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l ( p o s t - c o l o n i a l )  identity  b u t , by c o n t r a s t , a s a s e l f - p a r o d i c d e v i c e  critique  of p o l i t i c a l l y  versions  of c u l t u r a l  implicit  i n the c e n t r i f u g a l  contemporary  imposed a n d / o r  centrism.  imaginatively  The c r i t i q u e  or l a t e r a l  i nthe conceived  of c e n t r i s m  displacements  C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n f i c t i o n  takes  o f much  a v a r i e t y of  forms:  t o g e n e r a l i z e , i n Anglo-Canadian w r i t i n g t h e tendency  t o move  " o f f " t h e map  imaginatively the  decentring  operations  centre  to the l i t e r a t u r e  to a p r o l i f e r a t i o n Orient)  exemplified  (and I am  of s p a t i a l  instability,  though  references  of c u l t u r a l  In  French-  referring  o f Quebec) a s e r i e s  of Quebec, t h e c i t y  implies a process  or  "between" maps.  hand  a designated,  (the province  i s complemented by  as a l o c u s of ambiguity  C a n a d i a n w r i t i n g , on t h e o t h e r  movements away from  limits  then  of r e g i o n a l w r i t i n g i n which the  t h e n o t i o n o f a movement  primarily  towards,  "beyond," g e o g r a p h i c a l  "region," i d e n t i f i e d implies  by g r a v i t a t i n g  here  of t a n g e n t i a l  f r e q u e n t l y ambiguous, of M o n t r e a l ) , (America,  allied  Europe, t h e  deterritorialization  by t h e t r a n s g r e s s i o n o r d i s s i p a t i o n  of n a t i o n a l  160 boundaries. series from  In A u s t r a l i a ,  the f i c t i o n a l  presentation  o f d i s i n t e g r a t i v e or d i v e r s i o n a r y movements d e f l e c t i n g  an a b s e n t  centre,  i n v e r t i n g or t r a n s p o s i n g  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mythic patterns Stow, W h i t e e t c . ) , nationalist  perceptual  a common  of e a r l i e r w r i t i n g  which  Despite  transform  of cartographic  r e g i o n a l or n a t i o n a l  by t h e w r i t e r s  f o r the  s p a c e and f o r t h e debunk, d e s t a b i l i z e or  conventions.  towards g e o g r a p h i c a l / s t r u c t u r a l displacement increasing  themselves,  C a n a d i a n and  i n the f i c t i o n ,  o f "new t e r r i t o r i e s " w h i c h  assumed c a r t o g r a p h i c  towards  o f t e r r i t o r i a l and  i n contemporary  Australian writing, particularly  proclamation  these  are problematized  c o n c e r n c a n be f o u n d  desystematization  (by Hope,  and i n d i c a t e s a n i m p u l s e  r e i n f o r c e d by n o t i o n s  readjustment.  differences,  one o f t h e  i n v o l v e s or i m p l i e s t h e c r i t i q u e of  ethnocentrism  internationalism  French  of a  The new  tendency  i s allied  number o f t e x t s w h i c h , d r a w i n g i n s p i r a t i o n  and L a t i n A m e r i c a n  "new n o v e l , "  but a d a p t i n g  t o an from t h e  i tto their  19 own g e o g r a p h i c a l or  discredit  l o c a t i o n and c u l t u r a l  the notions  referentiality.  This  much-asked q u e s t i o n s  of l i n g u i s t i c  suggests that, of c u l t u r a l  purposes,  problematize  and i c o n i c  rather  identity,  than many  rephrasing contemporary  See H e l e n D a n i e l ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Latin-American f i c t i o n on t h e 'new n o v e l ' i n A u s t r a l i a ( i n L i a r s , op. c i t . ) ; a l s o Andre B e l l e a u , L e R o m a n c i e r f i c t i f (Quebec: L e s P r e s s e s de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e du Quebec, 1980) f o r an a p p l i c a t i o n o f F r e n c h nouveau roman t h e o r y t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e "new n o v e l " i n Quebec; a n d M i c h a e l O n d a a t j e ' s t r i b u t e t o G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez i n F i g u r e s i n a G r o u n d , e d . D. B e s s a i and D. J a c k e l ( S a s k a t o o n : W e s t e r n P r o d u c e r P r a i r i e Books, 1978) 19-31.  161 writers  i n Canada and  Australia prefer  s e m a n t i c and  epistemological,  problematics  of  manifested  by  definition.  many of  phallogocentric uncertain  one,  and  of  those  w h i c h do  not  post-colonial contestatory The  following  for  their  New  elaborates  comparatively;  c u l t u r e but  operations  of  heterodoxy, chapter,  an  the  concern  alliance,  textual  or  a number of  dramatization  of  cartographic  briefly,  in this  chapter,  passant,  and  nexus of  i s s u e s which  others  contemporary w r i t e r s  are  "disputes." with  those  others  The  disputes. "  texts  I have o m i t t e d , c e n t r a l to the  selected  problems, should  I have d i s c u s s e d ,  to which  i n Canada and  texts  the of  "territorial  on  f o r , along  however,  engage i n a k i n d  agenda of  i f an  deconstruction  redefine  focussing  these  the  cultural  operations,  reappropriate rather  on  to d e f a m i l i a r i z e  decolonization;  necessarily  still  the  W o r l d myths i n d i c a t e s an  cultural  some of  as  Furthermore,  these w r i t e r s  between t h e  specific  as w e l l  to concentrate  be  read  albeit  I have r e f e r r e d  en  they  a  constitute  concerns  Australia.  of  Chapter  Four  TERRITORIAL  DISPUTES  Territoire,  je  (Robert  l'habiterai.  Melancon)  163 (1)  M a p b r e a k e r s R e s p o n s e and Mapmakers: L i t e r a r y C a r t o g r a p h y and t h e I m a g i n a t i v e R e s p o n s e t o P a t r i a r c h y  (i)  T r a n s f o r m i n g C a r t o g r a p h i c Space: and t h e T r a d i t i o n o f D i s s i d e n c e I suggested p r e v i o u s l y  topos  the prevalence  Location  o f t h e map  i n c o n t e m p o r a r y women's w r i t i n g i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a  owes much t o a p e r c e i v e d some c a s e s ,  dismantle  traditionally to  that  Geographical  find  that  served  need t o r e v i s e ,  or d i s c a r d ,  spatial  patriarchal culture.  critics  reformulate  paradigms which  such as  H u t c h e o n , and o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n  literatures,  s u c h a s D o r o t h y J o n e s and S u s a n McKernan, u s e  cartographic  and o t h e r  their  studies  respective and  related spatial  o f c o n t e m p o r a r y women's w r i t i n g i n t h e i r  countries." " 1  Jones's  c o r r e l a t i o n between mapmaking  a d o p t i o n o f A u d r e y Thomas's metaphor for  the d e l i b e r a t e  women w r i t e r s of  metaphors t o inform  mythmaking i n A u s t r a l i a n women's w r i t i n g ,  account  slippage  between p r e s c r i b e d  g e n r e and g e n d e r ,  women w r i t e r s  have  So i t i s no s u r p r i s e  of the Canadian l i t e r a t u r e s ,  B a r b a r a G o d a r d and L i n d a  and, i n  from  exemplify  both  of " s h a p e s h i f t i n g " t o e f f e c t e d by many C a n a d i a n  d e f i n i t i o n s or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  the continuing  countries  and H u t c h e o n ' s  part  i na tradition  i n w h i c h women a r e moved t o c o u n t e r a c t  their  p l a y e d by  of dissidence  involvement i n  B a r b a r a G o d a r d , "Mapmaking," i n G y n o c r i t i c s : 2:30; L i n d a H u t c h e o n , "'Shape s h i f t e r s ' : C a n a d i a n Women N o v e l i s t s and t h e C h a l l e n g e t o T r a d i t i o n , " i n S. Neuman and S. K a m b o u r e l i , e d s . A Mazing Space. Edmonton: Newest, 1 9 8 6 : 214-228; D o r o t h y J o n e s , "Mapping and Mythmaking: Women W r i t e r s and t h e A u s t r a l i a n L e g e n d , " A r i e l 17.4 ( 1 9 8 6 ) : 64-86; S u s a n McKernan, " C r o s s i n g t h e Border: R e g i o n a l W r i t i n g i n A u s t r a l i a , " Meani i n 38.2 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 225-234.  164 systems o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  that  subject  them t o a d i s c o u r s e o f  2 male a u t h o r i t y . the  reality  facticity  to i l l u s t r a t e  o f p a t r i a r c h a l modes o f a u t h o r i t y  w i t h which  constructed notion  The map i s an a p t metaphor  t h e knowledge t h a t  and t h e  they disseminate i s  as i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e " t r u t h . "  In t h i s  o f mapbreaking/mapmaking c a n be p e r c e i v e d  common m e t a p h o r i c a l  practice within  specific  sense, not only  f o r the general  state  Such g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ,  misleading,  overlooking  and  to locate  a tradition  production  constituted would  writers, their  like  of dissidence  t o say t h a t  representation,  from  i n turn  Moreover,  local  that  differences i n  culture.  So w h i l e i t  number o f A u s t r a l i a n women are resistant to  the h i s t o r y of p a t r i a r c h a l the nature of t h i s  determines t h e n a t u r e of t h e i r  c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e and f r o m  C f . Kay S c h a f f e r . 1 9 8 8 ) , e s p . Ch. One.  t h e attempt  o f c u l t u r e and i n t h e  counterparts,  i t i s clear that  culture's historical  arise  i n C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n  significant  a large  Canadian  implication within  (which  over  and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  their  arepotentially  individual texts  operate.  p o s i t i o n o f women w i t h i n  be f a i r  critical  a s t h e y do t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l and  individual writers  women's w r i t i n g g l o s s e s the  of course,  c i r c u m s t a n c e s out of which  i n which  as a  o f women's w r i t i n g i n b o t h  countries.  historical  t h e dual  t e x t s w r i t t e n by  C a n a d i a n and A u s t r a l i a n women b u t a s an a p p r o p r i a t e paradigm  both  stage  implication  resistance)  differs  t o s t a g e o f each  transformation. Women and t h e Bush.  ( M e l b o u r n e : CUP,  165 A few g e n e r a l Australia,  comments c a n be made n o n e t h e l e s s .  a tradition  necessitated relatively  of m i l i t a n t m a s c u l i n i t y  a r e a c t i o n of female d i s s i d e n c e  output  by  women.  of  Australian nationalism  current  I t may w e l l  but,  and t h e p e r c e i v e d  until discrepancy  impact  have t a k e n t h e r e c e n t  of w r i t i n g  ongoing  to t r i g g e r a reevaluaton  critique  of the  s t a t e o f women's w r i t i n g , o f i t s p l a c e w i t h i n  more u s u a l l y , a g a i n s t  -  and  of i t s v i a b i l i t y  the  p u b l i c marketplace.  writing  has not o n l y  r e c e n t l y , h a s a l s o p r o d u c e d a marked  between t h e a c t u a l  In  previously  within  It i s certainly  place  true  or,  traditions,  t h e academic i n s t i t u t i o n  i n A u s t r a l i a has o n l y  "appointed"  constructed  -  as w e l l as  t h a t women's  emerged r e c e n t l y from i t s  i n t h e shadows o f a s e l f - p r i v i l e g i n g  male  tradition. The  same c o u l d  n o t be s a i d , however, o f women's w r i t i n g i n  Canada, w h i c h h a s e n j o y e d a h i g h literary  profile  throughout i t s  h i s t o r y , i f not always t h e h i s t o r y of i t s c r i t i c a l  representation.  A further distinction  needs t o be made  h e r e between women's w r i t i n g i n E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g the m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s  afforded  Canada, where  by a v a r i e t y o f r e g i o n a l  components have p r o d u c e d a nexus o f l i t e r a t u r e s w h i c h problematize  homogeneous c a t e g o r i e s  t h e m s e l v e s more e a s i l y  and t h e r e f o r e  to the c r i t i q u e  lend  of p a t r i a r c h a l  constraints,  and women's w r i t i n g i n F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g  particularly  Quebec, where t h e j e a l o u s  often  perceived  insubstantial,  by i t s more p o w e r f u l the closeknit t i e s  e l u d e or  Canada,  p r o t e c t i o n of a c u l t u r e  n e i g h b o u r s a s "minor" o r  between c h u r c h  and l a n d  ina  166 predominantly agrarian parochial  s o c i e t y , and t h e e n c l o s e d ,  nature of that  perpetuation  of narrowly defined  demand a more c o n c e r t e d , t o male  s o c i e t y , have a r g u a b l y  even f a c i l i t a t e d the  p a t r i a r c h a l values  which  and i n some c a s e s v i r u l e n t ,  resistance  domination.  Despite  these  differences, a fruitful  made between t h e v a r i o u s Australia  have r e a c t e d  the  bush as a p a s s i v e  and  domesticated,  comparison  c a n be  ways i n w h i c h women w r i t e r s i n  against or a l i e n  the feminine p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of e l e m e n t t o be subdued,  mastered  and t h e r e c a s t i n g o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s i n  C a n a d i a n women's w r i t i n g n o t a s a p r o j e c t i o n o f male f e a r s o f or  desires  f o r an unknown  exploration 17).  o f t h e unknown r e g i o n s  I suggested  desires  geographical  but as a "symbolic of the female  reflected  The p a r o d y  writings  challenge  drawing i m a g i n a t i v e l y  such  male w r i t e r s  of conquest  as Garner  a s a symbol  emblem o f n a t i o n a l  illustrates  fiction a  recent  t o challenge  and c o n t a i n m e n t ,  and A s t l e y ,  yet this  f o r whom t h e map  of p a t r i a r c h a l a u t h o r i t y  as w e l l  a l l e g i a n c e and whose c r i t i q u e  homogenizing p r i n c i p l e s of c a r t o g r a p h i c t o view  on t h e  i s t a k e n f u r t h e r , and i n some c a s e s r e d i r e c t e d , by  women w r i t e r s functions  (Howells  i n t h e language of  o f A u s t r a l i a i n contemporary  and o t h e r  notions  self"  of e x p l o r e r s '  i n the Australian l i t e r a t u r e s  nationalistic  space f o r  t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f male f e a r s and  i s often  "discovery"  Murnane, C a r e y  tendency  that  exploration.  and o t h e r  geographical by  before  onto t h e land  journals  "other"  t h e map i n t e r m s o t h e r  discourse  than those  as a n  of t h e f a l s e l y allows  them  of a male d e s i r e f o r  3  167 identity  and a u t h o r i t y .  undertaken t o w r i t e of  view  favour Ann  "pioneer"  "symbol  by C a n a d i a n women w r i t e r s  Atwood's S u r f a c i n g  instead,  space"  (15).  and E n g e l s 1  as a symbolic  Coral  Bear,  c r i t i q u e of  of p a t r i a r c h a l  an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f  of the wilderness;  o f s p a c e s between  such as p a t r i a r c h y ,  writing  t e x t s " such as  the feminist  entail  t h e unmapped t e r r i t o r i e s  through  as a  prescribed  and d i s c u r s i v e f o r m a t i o n s ,  such  t h e map, e n c o d e s women's w r i t i n g a s a s e t o f i n t e r v e n t i o n a r y  strategies patriarchal with  designed  both  discourse  t o u n d e r m i n e t h e dominance o f  and t o a v o i d  any one s e t o f c u l t u r a l  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  or a e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d s .  evasiveness problematizes Howells's t h e s i s that has  space.  But a s I showed i n my  representation  the a r t i c u l a t i o n  discourses,  own p o i n t  of the wilderness  "wilderness  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  women w i t h  also  i n t o terms which  t o be t r a n s f o r m e d  a n a l y s i s of exemplary  authority  their  of female imaginative  o f unmapped t e r r i t o r y  cartography  have  f o r example, h a s drawn a t t e n t i o n t o t h e  female imaginative  earlier  myths f r o m  t h e map t o p o s  the t e r r i t o r i a l i t y  appropriation  as  male  and t o r e f o r m u l a t e  Howells,  into  I n Canada, women w r i t e r s  represented  a "condition of p o s s i b i l i t y  of  C a n a d i a n women w r i t e r s "  in  the notion  conditions efforts  which  C a n a d i a n women w r i t e r s allied  f o r t h e emergence resides  s p a c e p e r se t h a n  govern i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . the p o l i t i c s  of p a t r i a r c h a l  have c r i t i c a l l y  to the construction  This  the wilderness  But t h e p r o b l e m  of female imaginative  t o combat  strategies  (11).  o f women  less  i n the  So i n t h e i r representation,  reexamined r h e t o r i c a l o f woman-as-other n o t  168 so much a s a means o f c r e a t i n g a n d g u a r d i n g t h e i r imaginative resistance  space but r a t h e r  transformation, regulated  as a means o f r e g i s t e r i n g t h e i r  t o and d i s s o c i a t i o n f r o m  them by p a t r i a r c h y .  Hence t h e i r  established  upon  c e n t r a l concern with the  space through which  a displacement of  codes governing t h e p r o d u c t i o n of  c u l t u r e and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n paradoxically  the s t a s i s conferred  m o b i l i z a t i o n and d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n of  cartographic  previously  own  ensures t h e i r  o f women w i t h i n own p l a c e  within  that  culture  a t r a d i t i o n of  dissidence.  (ii)  M o b i l i z i n g C a r t o g r a p h i c Space: G e o g r a p h i c R e l o c a t i o n and t h e M o d i f i c a t i o n o f G e n r e and G e n d e r . One way i n w h i c h  Australia  have  representation from  rural  envisaged  rallied  against  i s through  settings  subordinate  c o n t e m p o r a r y women w r i t e r s  the s t r i c t u r e s of p a t r i a r c h a l  a shift  of emphasis i n t h e i r  i n w h i c h women have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  r o l e t o urban l o c a t i o n s  both  i n Canada and  as a s i t e  of r a d i c a l  i n which  writing played  a  the c i t y i s  instability  and a s a n  3 energizing  force  This  i s most n o t i c e a b l e  shift  i n the representation  f r o m Quebec i n w h i c h writers  that  patriarchal  many o f t h e i r  sexuality.  i n c o n t e m p o r a r y women's w r i t i n g  a s h a r e d awarenes on t h e p a r t  t h e Quebec c o u n t r y s i d e space"  of female  (Gould  t e x t s from  h a s been  6) h a s m o t i v a t e d an i m p l i c i t l y  o f women  "an u n e q u i v o c a l l y  the r e l o c a t i o n of  "outdated" r u r a l  to a  Cf. Karen Gould, " S p a t i a l P o e t i c s , S p a t i a l P o l i t i c s : Quebec F e m i n i s t s on t h e C i t y and t h e C o u n t r y s i d e , " A m e r i c a n Review o f C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s 12.1 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 1-9.  169 demonstrably Brossard,  "modern" u r b a n s e t t i n g .  f o r example, a c o n n e c t i o n  distribution  of  urban topography  the  f e m a l e body a s s o c i a t e s  the  e r o t i c i s m of  ambivalent; f o r energy, map  the  the  city  confinement  But  provides  e x c l u s i o n which  self-expression.  Yet,  a  although  t h e map  a metaphor  f o r the  a r t i c u l a t o n of Brossard  texts  technique which  r e f l e c t i o n with also the  spiral  symbolic in  the  -  representation  embodiment and  vie privge,"  une  carte  this is  an  fictif  l a langue  et th^orique"  sense, does not  purport  primarily a hypothetical  to  of  female  a l s o be  as  employed  as as  a  t h r o u g h her  employment  (1981) o f  holographic  longer  of  sph£rique d i n f l u e n c e s de  disallow  two-dimensional  narrator  1  patterns  i s employed p r i m a r i l y  a  cartographic  refraction,  consists in  impersonal  enactment  says the  tourne autour  quotidien  of  topographical  she  alternative configuration  whose f u n c t i o n no  "Ma  elle  replaces  i n t o an  remains  regulated or  with  libidinal  the  P i c t u r e theory  three-dimensional  t r a n s f o r m s t h e map  of  n e g a t e s t h e map  in  fictional  city  of  " l i b e r a t e d " female  representational device s u c h as  the  connection  i t may  two-dimensional experimental  composition  of  source  restrict  for patriarchal coercion,  So w h i l e  this  f o r the  a metaphor  experience.  energy  Nicole  arterial  organic  constrains:  a c e n t r a l metaphor  and  the  vibrant  i t a l s o f r u s t r a t e s and  emerges as  between t h e  and  body/text.  i f the  In t h e work o f  environment  (inter) personal  the but  points  de  comme h y p o t h e s e (Brossard  107).  represent  construct.  the  rather  experience.  of P i c t u r e t h e o r y ,  e t de  -  "est  rencontre, et f i l t r e The  map,  du in  "real" world;  It i s also a  i t  linguistic  170 construct,  but language  reflecting  reality  art);  i s not put i n t o t h e s e r v i c e here of  (as i n the r e f e r e n t i a l  i t c r e a t e s r a t h e r a new k i n d o f r e a l i t y  down e s t a b l i s h e d b a r r i e r s outlines in  illusion  or a t l e a s t  between t h e " r e a l "  the intermediary  blurring  which,  breaking  conventional  and t h e " f i c t i o n a l , " l o c a t e s  itself  domain o f " l e f i c t i f - t h £ o r i q u e . "  T h i s domain i m p l i e s a c o n n e c t i o n (among o t h e r  of mimetic  practitioners  on t h e p a r t o f B r o s s a r d  i n Quebec o f ' e c r i t u r e  feminine')  between t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a f e m i n i s t p o e t i c s and t h e s u b v e r s i o n of  "standard"  perceived of  modes and c o n v e n t i o n s  t o have p l a y e d  patriarchal  operates  literary  culture.  as a v i s u a l  connections disruption  a significant  role  So B r o s s a r d ' s  "spherical  i n the perpetuation  analogue f o r the changing  of female experience of ' f i x e d '  which a r e  patriarchal  map" n o t o n l y  p a t t e r n s and  but as a c a t a l y s t  f o r the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f g e n r e and  4 gender.  The r a n g e o f g e o g r a p h i c a l  characters, Brossard's stasis  locations,  and above a l l e x t r e m e v o l a t i l i t y  m o b i l i t y of  of language i n  t e x t f u r t h e r demonstrates her c h a l l e n g e  she a s s o c i a t e s w i t h  patriarchal  to the  modes o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  See L o u i s e F o r s y t h , " D e s t r u c t u r i n g F o r m a l S p a c e / A c c e l e r a t i n g M o t i o n i n t h e Work o f N i c o l e B r o s s a r d , " i n S. Neuman and S. K a m b o u r e l i , e d s . A M a z i n g S p a c e : 334-344. A d i f f e r e n t k i n d of d e / r e s t r u c t u r a t i o n o f 'formal space' i s c a r r i e d out i n Louky B e r s i a n i k ' s n o v e l L e P i g u e - n i q u e s u r l ' A c r o p o l e ( M o n t r e a l : VLB, 1979), i n which t h e l a t e r a l space c o n v e n t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Western w r i t i n g i s converted i n t o a s e r i e s of i r r e g u l a r , v e r t i c a l spaces. By i n t e r p o l a t i n g a s e r i e s o f u n s t a b l e g e o m e t r i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n t o her t e x t , B e r s i a n i k i m p l i c i t l y d i s r u p t s the s t a t i c g r i d o f c a r t o g r a p h i c s p a c e , c r e a t i n g i n i t s s t e a d an a l t e r n a t i v e s p a t i a l t r a j e c t o r y w h i c h a l l o w s f o r change and movement and t h u s accommodates i t s e l f t o t h e rhythms o f t h e female body/text.  171 Brossard s  e m p h a s i s on  1  interaction sensation  allows  and  her  patterns both  t o open up  of womanhood.  territories  do  they  not  illustrate  entail  rather  a r i s e when t h e map unforeseen t h i r d its  previously  t h i s way, map  static  map  the  (like  the  (like  the  the  the  these  new  paradigm;  acquiring  patterns  function.  The of  the  a third  dimension,  expression  the  spherical  contours  'standard'  new  In  spiral  the  affords  an  negate  p a t r i a r c h a l system,  of  celebratory  which  hologram) t o  two-dimensional  of movement w h i c h and  for  sphere) t o a c q u i r e  made t o d e s t a b i l i z e i t .  by  physical  t h e map  representational  configurations  achievement  of  alternative possibilities  r e i n f o r c i n g the  displace  map;  joy  territories  a r e j e c t i o n of  the  synergetic  I suggested,  deflected prismatic  p e r m i t s a freedom for  of  rectilinear  (patriarchal)  as  two-dimensional  and  holographical  But  d i m e n s i o n and  i s paradoxically  projections  figural  i s allowed  instead  f u s i o n and  t o a f f i r m the  new  inscription  of  and  the  map  possibilities of  female  liberation. A by  the  novel  rather  d i f f e r e n t approach  Anglo-Canadian w r i t e r Surfacing  b e c a u s e Atwood writing*  I discussed  t o t h e map  metaphor  M a r g a r e t Atwood, whose i n a previous  i s l e s s concerned w i t h  ( e c r i t u r e feminine) than with  the  chapter. expression  the  exercise  i s taken earlier Different, of of  'female feminist  5 critique; challenge  thus although, the  status  of  the  like map  Brossard, as  she  a symbol  seeks  to  of p a t r i a r c h a l  C f . L o u i s e M i l o t , " M a r g a r e t Atwood e t N i c o l e Brossard: l a q u e s t i o n de l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , " V o i x e t images 11.1 (1985): 56-63.  172 authority,  her  e m p h a s i s i s on  conventions  rather  aesthetic.  Atwood's r e v i s i o n i s t  Tale it  t h a n on  the  (1985) i s a c a s e  draws much of  urban s e t t i n g social  combined  i n the  focus  as  i n Brossard's  female biology. space  terms which  of  But  through her  i n The  liberation. to  and  Handmaid's T a l e  patriarchal  a  on  for  between  and  contours  the  and  t h a n one  compared  (23),  of  a site  of  town  i t i s one  which  allocation  out  i n the  totalitarian  and  m a i n t e n a n c e of  and  s u r v e i l l a n c e of  strictly  and is  upon  the space i s borne  r e g i m e of G i l e a d , where t h e  a s e r i e s of  continual  which  i s imposed  defined  a  Gilead  Gilead  T h i s a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e towards  appropriation,  of  "constructed  t h a n one  reality,  the  female  but  rather  topos  rhythms o f  intimacy.  a map,  the  t h e map  eventual  t o a model  p e o p l e used t o l i v e "  This  mobilizes  spontaneity  reality.  the  city-state  as  of  in  cyclical  expense of  against  As  s p a c e p r i m a r i l y as  The  perceived  which  futuristic  a s p i r e s to p e r f e c t i o n at the  tested  from  prevailing  whereas B r o s s a r d  enforcement.  rather  Ironically  It i s like  Handmaid's  novel  a metaphor  cartographic  i s duly  oppression  show t h e way  as  transformation  accommodate t h e  restriction  female  The  1984,  attack  urban topography  f e m a l e body, Atwood e n v i s a g e s l o c u s of  i n the  text, a contrast  patterns  cartographic  a new  patriarchal self-authorization.  patterns  of  of  satire  Orwell's  f o r an  existing  contemporary western w o r l d .  rectilinear  into  f o r as  Atwood employs t h e map  s t r a t e g i e s of  involves,  dystopian  in point;  becomes t h e  of  establishment  i t s inspiration,  conditions  Surfacing,  the  critique  imposition  spatial  173 hierarchies elite.  confirm  Gilead,  physiological that and  moreover,  left mine"  o f t h e map,  which might  "some s p a c e  her from  satire  a diagram  l e a d nowhere"  of f u t i l i t y , (135).  involves  o f a new  on a t u r n i n g  of genre as w e l l  works towards t h e liberates  representation,  itself Atwood  t h e combined e f f e c t s o f i r o n y ,  The r e s u l t i s a m u l t i - l a y e r e d  an i r o n i c  or v e r s i o n rejoinder  G i l e a d Research A s s o c i a t i o n , of h i s t o r y  "responsible  world"  ( 2 8 1 ) , t h e handmaid's t a l e  essentialist  notions  t o dominate;  t o t h e convenor  of t h e  . . f o r r e d r a w i n g t h e map o f t h e  " f i r s t - h a n d " account  document b u t a c o n c a t e n a t i o n  i s allowed  text i n  who p r o n o u n c e s t h e G i l e a d e a n  period  undercut  text,  o f p a t r i a r c h a l t r a d i t i o n s and c o n v e n t i o n s  and p a s t i c h e .  comprehensive  "[her]  crisscrossed with  As i n B r o s s a r d * s  "female genre" which  themselves through  i f to provide  I can c l a i m as  v i s i o n of  the reassessment  But w h e r e a s B r o s s a r d  w h i c h no s i n g l e p e r s p e c t i v e as  . . . that  the imprisoning  f r o m p a t r i a r c h a l modes o f ( l i t e r a r y )  against  of the c i t y  p a r a m e t e r s o f h e r own body, i s  h e r own t e r r i t o r y  a map,  new p e r s p e c t i v e  relies  the walls  perspective  this  establishment  f r u s t r a t i o n , so  s h e s e e k s a new, l i b e r a t i n g  roads t h a t  gender.  t o a s t a t e of  t h e imposed  tiny  as  of i t s t h e o c r a t i c  against  release  own s k i n l i k e  trapped w i t h i n  defined  desperately  (47). Staking  design  c o r r e s p o n d s both  doubly  the s o c i a l l y  seeking  authority  c l a u s t r a t i o n and o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l  the narrator, within  the prelocated  provides  neither  nor a r e l i a b l e  a historical  o f s t o r i e s and e v e n t s w h i c h of "coherence" and " v e r a c i t y . "  174 Inherent,  then,  Handmaid's T a l e of  is a  a l l a c c o u n t s of  bias  b e h i n d them.  tale  as  i n Atwood's c r i t i q u e  of  t h e map  recognition  of  the  not  the  historical  The  narrator  just  past  but  realizes  of  The  unreliability  the  this,  in  inevitable  describing  her  a l l a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . . . i t ' s i m p o s s i b l e t o say a t h i n g e x a c t l y t h e way i t was, b e c a u s e what you say can n e v e r be e x a c t , you a l w a y s have t o l e a v e s o m e t h i n g o u t , t h e r e a r e t o o many p a r t s , s i d e s , c r o s s c u r r e n t s , n u a n c e s , t o o many s h a p e s w h i c h can n e v e r be f u l l y d e s c r i b e d . (126)  But the  the  past,  perception  only  debilitating;  that  a s e r i e s of f o r as  the  there  partial  freedom  spaces at  . . .  we  T h i s memory of narrators further  of  lived  The  limiting  pragmatic,  rather  former,  s t a n c e s of  recognizing  reconstruct  and  of  already  of the  be  in  I t gave us  t h e map  more  "established"  (53). the  but  the  between  the  and  the  book i n d i c a t e s a  A contrast  fiction  the  stories"  text  o u t l o o k on  Atwood's and her  need n o t  pre-Gileadean  Surfacing;  more s p e c i f i c a l l y  that  of  " s p a c e s between" c o n n e c t s  structures  society.  record  lived  gaps between t h e  than a Utopian,  contemporary western between t h e  print.  c o n v e n t i o n s of  o f women, and  the  "we  i n Atwood's more r e c e n t  definitional  accurate  of  available,  Handmaid's T a l e  inherently  position  i n the  no  recalls  edges o f  i n h a b i t i n g the  connection  imprisoning  the  be  reconstructions,  narrator  d a y s when n e w s p a p e r s w e r e s t i l l blank white  can  the  marginalized  of women w r i t e r s , can  be made h e r e  Brossard's narrators: can  do  in  no  (patriarchal)  more  than  convention,  the  175 turns  her  latter  a t t e n t i o n t o d i s r u p t i n g t h e s e from w i t h i n ;  employs U t o p i a n  genre" which  dissociates itself  Atwood*s and one  organic  converge space  and  attempt  as  instrumental  both  traditional f o r m u l a t e an conventions  the  rural  and  This  geographical  (the  i n outlook;  the  and  the  t o a modern u r b a n s e t t i n g and  in  Atwood's  subversive  paradigm reinforcement  mobilization  r e l o c a t i o n of  displaces  cartographic  a spatial  construction  6  nonetheless  realign  p r o c e s s of  past.  poetics  i n outlook) and  "female  (patriarchal)  transform  i n the  a e s t h e t i c which (as  the  pragmatic  to mobilize  patriarchal authority.  involves  and  Utopian  i n ways w h i c h d i s r u p t  perceived of  i n form  i n form  i n the  from  a new  Brossard's d i s s i m i l a r spatial  de/reconstructive  other  r h e t o r i c to proclaim  the  text the  established  from  a  attempt  to  literary  juxtaposition  of  Utopian  7  and  pastoral  s u c h as  modes)  character,  fission/fusion experimental  of  or w h i c h v i e w s s t a n d a r d s e t t i n g and  constituent  "physics"  Cf. the r h e t o r i c of (1975) 39-54.  plot  literary  i n terms of  b u n d l e s of  energy  a  devices  volatile (Brossard's  of w r i t i n g ) . Cixous's  "Le  Rire  de  l a m£duse," L'Arc  7  C f . Atwood's U t o p i a n s a t i r e ( G i l e a d ) and a n t i - p a s t o r a l ( S e r e n a Joy's garden). Note a l s o t h a t Atwood's a n t i - p a s t o r a l r e f l e c t s i r o n i c a l l y on t h e e a r l i e r r u r a l i d y l l s o f Connor and Buckler, h i g h l i g h t i n g t h e l i n k i n b o t h of t h e s e t e x t s between a c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e l a n d and a j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f f e m a l e s u b s e r v i e n c e . So w h i l e , i n The Handmaid's T a l e , a s u b s c r i p t i o n t o t h e " i d e a l community" o f t h e c i t y i s e x p o s e d as one f r a u d u l e n t myth, t h e r e t u r n t o " s i m p l e c o u n t r y v a l u e s " i s e x p o s e d as a n o t h e r . By d e b u n k i n g b o t h myths, Atwood i n d i c a t e s her d i s s o c i a t i o n f r o m - i f not her d e s t r u c t i o n of - the p a t r i a r c h a l l i t e r a r y systems which c o n t i n u e t o d i c t a t e the r o l e of women i n W e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s , and t h u s r e s t r i c t t h e i r freedom.  176  (iii)  D e t e r r i t o r i a l i z i n g C a r t o g r a p h i c Space: Geographical D i s l o c a t i o n and t h e A e s t h e t i c s o f E v a s i o n . A s i m i l a r s e t o f g e o g r a p h i c and a e s t h e t i c  be  discerned  Probably  i n c o n t e m p o r a r y women's w r i t i n g i n A u s t r a l i a .  t h e most n o t i c e a b l e  shifts  i n the recent  been t o " f o r e i g n " o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s Indonesia,  Corbett's  redefinitions of The  Astley  Japan,  of the "periphery"  and J o l l e y ,  period  have  (d'Alpuget's  Farmer's Greece) and t o (the d e f a m i l i a r i z e d  the mythicized  de- o r r e t e r r i t o r i a l i z i n g  redefined  r e l o c a t i o n s can  l o c a t i o n s suggest  "suburbs" o f Hanrahan).  impulses  that  "regions"  inherent  i n these  i t i s a primary  new o r  concern of  many c o n t e m p o r a r y women w r i t e r s  i n Australia to dissociate  themselves from  or e x p l i c i t l y )  the ( i m p l i c i t l y  geography of p r e v i o u s  A u s t r a l i a n w r i t i n g and t o f a s h i o n  t e r r i t o r i e s more s u i t e d t o t h e e x p l o r a t i o n female The  new  and a r t i c u l a t i o n o f  experience. clearest instances  I have p r e v i o u s l y to  patriarchal  r e f e r r e d t o as "cartographic  say, t h e r e g u l a t e d  representation)  of a d e / r e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n  space(s) o f abstract  are i n experimental  space"  o f what (that i s  geographical  fictions written  about  g  experiences of e x p a t r i a t i o n  or migration,  often  by w r i t e r s who  I am u s i n g h e r e H a l l v a r d D a h l i e ' s d i s t i n c t i o n between e x i l e as "a [more] p e r m a n e n t c o n d i t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s l o c a t i o n , a l i e n a t i o n , and d i s p o s s e s s i o n " ( D a h l i e 4) a n d e x p a t r i a t i o n a s a " t e m p o r a r y a b s e n c e from t h e homeland, u s u a l l y m o t i v a t e d by t h e b e l i e f t h a t c e r t a i n p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r l i v i n g o r f o r a r t a r e more f a v o u r a b l e e l s e w h e r e " ( D a h l i e 5 ) . But a s D a h l i e p o i n t s o u t , t h e two t e r m s are- o f t e n u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , c r e a t i n g , as t h e Canadian w r i t e r M a v i s G a l l a n t s a y s , a number o f " v a r i e t i e s o f e x i l e . " With t h i s c a v e a t , my main d i s t i n c t i o n h e r e i s a c o n c e p t u a l one between the e n f o r c e d l i m i t a t i o n s o f a c o l o n i a l i s t " c a r t o g r a p h y of e x i l e " b a s e d on t h e s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f " O l d W o r l d " v a l u e s o n t o t h e "New  177 are  themselves  migrants periods  e x p a t r i a t e s (Janette Turner  Hospital) or  (Anna C o u a n i ) , o r by w r i t e r s who have s p e n t of t h e i r  comparison  lives  abroad  Campbell).  A  fruitful  c a n be made, f o r example, between two n o v e l s by  Hospital  and C a m p b e l l w h i c h  physical  and e m o t i o n a l  conceptual  (Marion  extensive  draw an a n a l o g y  experience  displacement  between t h e  of d i s l o c a t i o n  of p a t r i a r c h a l  and t h e  aesthetics.  Thus, i n  H o s p i t a l ' s B o r d e r l i n e and C a m p b e l l ' s L i n e s o f F l i g h t , written assert the  i n 1985, t h e e f f o r t s herself  search  strictures  i n a male-dominated a r t world  for a pictorial of mimetic  composition  of both  patriarchal  run p a r a l l e l free  with  from t h e  The i r r e g u l a r  and t h e f i c t i o n a l ; artists  protagonist to  i n search  connection  f o r H o s p i t a l and of a s t y l e  which  them t o combat t h e empowering c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e system  individualistic novels,  representation.  a r e themselves  might enable  s t y l e which breaks  texts indicates a further  between t h e p i c t o r i a l Campbell  o f a young f e m a l e  both  and t o a s s e r t  their  forms of n a r r a t i v e  the search  own h i g h l y  expressionism.  i s associated with  geographical  In both dispersal:  W o r l d " e n v i r o n m e n t ( s e e my l a t e r comments on R o b e r t S e l l i c k ' s term) a n d t h e new " r h e t o r i c a l s p a c e s " o p e n e d up by f i c t i o n a l i z e d e x p e r i e n c e s of e x p a t r i a t i o n or m i g r a t i o n which e f f e c t a d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n of r e g u l a t e d " c a r t o g r a p h i c s p a c e " and a consequent d e s t a b i l i z a t i o n of the p r e l o c a t e d a u t h o r i t a r i a n d i s c o u r s e s w h i c h s u p p o r t i t . On t h e f u r t h e r c o n n e c t i o n between d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n and women's w r i t i n g , s e e C a r e n K a p l a n , "Deterritorializations: The R e w r i t i n g o f Home and E x i l e i n W e s t e r n F e m i n i s t D i s c o u r s e , " C u l t u r a l C r i t i q u e 6 ( 1 9 8 9 ) : 187-198. For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e c o n c e p t o f e x i l e and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e ( p o s t ) c o l o n i a l w r i t e r , s e e Andrew G u r r , W r i t e r s i n E x i l e ( B r i g h t o n : H a r v e s t e r Press, 1981); George Lamming, The P l e a s u r e s o f E x i l e (NY: A l l i s o n and Busby, 1 9 8 4 ) ; J . P . Matthews, T r a d i t i o n i n E x i l e ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1962) .  178 spatial the  motifs  central  o f t r a n s g r e s s i o n and/or  pictorial  motif  conventional  boundaries  and  from  in  diverges  patriarchal  Felicity Flight) real  -  the  "set" a r t i s t i c  geographical than  Finnerty  borders  marks them o u t a s  "mapmakers," a s c h a l l e n g e r s t o t h e  post-structuralists Gilles  have a r g u e d ,  necessarily  imply  ( i n L i n e s of  p a t t e r n s and i n c r o s s i n g  r o l e as p u r e l y d i s r u p t i v e would  Guattari  invested  The d e l i g h t t a k e n by  representations of p a t r i a r c h a l  French  blurs  and t h e ' f i c t i o n a l '  f o r m s and s t e r e o t y p e s  ( i n B o r d e r l i n e ) and R i t a  "mapbreakers" r a t h e r  their  between t h e ' r e a l '  modes o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  or i m a g i n a r y  underscore  of a non-mimetic canvas which  the standard  i n subverting  "standard"  dislocation  space.  But t o s e e  be m i s l e a d i n g .  For, as  D e l e u z e and F e l i x  t h e n o t i o n o f t h e map does n o t  limitation;  on t h e c o n t r a r y ,  l a c a r t e e s t o u v e r t e , e l l e e s t c o n n e c t a b l e dans t o u t e s ses dimensions, demontable, r e n v e r s a b l e , s u s c e p t i b l e de r e c e v o i r constamment d e s m o d i f i c a t i o n s . E l l e peut e t r e d e c h i r £ e , s ' a d a p t e r a d e s montages de t o u t e n a t u r e ; e t r e m i s e en c h a r t i e r p a r un i n d i v i d u , un g r o u p e , une f o r m a t i o n s o c i a l e . On p e u t l a d e s s i n e r s u r un mur, l a c o n c e v o i r comme une o e u v r e d ' a r t , l a c o n s t r u i r e comme une a c t i o n p o l i t i q u e ou comme une m e d i t a t i o n . ( D e l e u z e and G u a t t a r i 2 0 ) . According of  t o D e l e u z e and G u a t t a r i , maps f a s h i o n s p a c e  "territorial  overcoding', lines  Guattari  kinds  (Deleuze  But s i n c e t h e s e  o f maps a r e a l l i n t e r c o n n e c t e d ,  lestrois  "C'est  call  three  D e l e u z e and  p l u t 6 t comme un e s p a c e ou  s o r t e s de l i g n e s e t r o i t e m e n t  and G u a t t a r i 2 7 1 ) .  D e l e u z e and G u a t t a r i  'generalized  and ' d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z i n g  ( ' l i g n e s de f u i t e s ' ) .  concede t h a t  coexistent  (*segmantarite'),  ('surcodage g e n e r a l ' )  of f l i g h t '  different  segmentation,"  i n terms  This  melees"  i s t h e space o c c u p i e d  t h e rhizome, which,  like  by what  t h e map,  179 traces  back t o p r i n c i p l e s  o f h e t e r o g e n e i t y and m u l t i p l e  connection/ disconnection.  The m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l  H o s p i t a l ' s and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , demonstrates  these  model  I analyzed  Les Voyants  Campbell's  from  tion,  subsequently  lines  of f l i g h t '  use o f D e l e u z e  a feminist  produces  cartography  spaces through  (notably  and G u a t t a r i ' s  which,  dissociating representa-  i t s 'deterritorializing  an a l t e r n a t i v e map c h a r a c t e r i z e d  or r e g i m e n t a t i o n o f space  centrifugal  displacements.  "revisionist  other  H o s p i t a l ' s and  of p a t r i a r c h a l  containment  The  But u n l i k e  and B a i l ' s Homesickness),  the "overcoded"  clearly  i n previous chapters  t e x t s make s p e c i f i c  to articulate  itself  texts  "rhizomatic" impulses.  "rhizomatic" texts Baillie's  Campbell's  structure of  n o t by t h e  but by a s e r i e s o f  cartography" of Hospital's text  focuses  on h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n o t i o n o f t h e b o r d e r .  At borders,  says t h e n a r r a t o r i n h i s p r e f a c e t o t h e novel,  "no amount o f  prior  planning w i l l  applies. of  necessarily  In t h e nature  the t r a v e l l e r "  (1).  avail.  The law o f b o u n d a r i e s  of t h i n g s , c o n t r o l So w h i l e  i s n o t i n t h e hands  the various  travellers,  r e f u g e e s and o u t s i d e r s who make up t h e u n u s u a l Borderline social  a l l share a d e s i r e  or p o l i t i c a l  control,  boundaries" a p p l i e s : unexpectedly, real  t o escape i n each  allegiances  form o f  t h e "law of  and r e f o r m  and t h e c h a r a c t e r s , moving between a s e r i e s o f  and i m a g i n a r y  locations, i n fact,  have no c l e a r  belong.  The b o r d e r ,  although  the protagonist F e l i c i t y  •borderlines'  one or a n o t h e r  case  shift  c a s t of  o f male f a n t a s y  sense  o f where  i s a p a r a d o x i c a l concept;  they  so  i s trapped w i t h i n the  (her l o v e r  Seymour's  paintings,  180 the  narrator  Jean-Marc's f i c t i o n ) ,  those very  pictorial  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  symbolize  a p a t r i a r c h a l l y motivated  regulate  experience paradoxically  uncertainty, Hospital  resistance  working the novel  e x p o s e d " images w h i c h existence)  cast  suggest  narrative  openness,  or r e d u c t i v e  into a concatenation of "multiply ( o r even t h e  a n d by e m p l o y i n g  techniques which  suggest a  opposition  t o p a t r i a r c h a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f gender.  Hospital's  text  the  semiotic  media,  within  but a l s o  and t e c h n o l o g y  tendency  and/or p s y c h o l o g i c a l  Hospital  a u t h o r i t a r i a n assumptions of p a t r i a r c h y freedom  imposed  o f women f r o m p e r s o n a l ,  of L i n e s  i n Borderline,  of evasion"  assertions  of unity  Hospital's  text  (multi-  confinement  o f women  by i l l u s t r a t i n g a n  thus undermines t h e and u l t i m a t e l y  political  t h e anagrammatic,  of F l i g h t i n d i c a t e s an attempt  "aesthetics  images o f  culture  upon them by t h e g o v e r n i n g p a t r i a r c h a l As  So w h i l e  t o w a r d s d i s l o c a t i o n and t h e m u l t i p l e  exposure o f t h e (female) s e l f .  the  specific  industries, etc.), i t also  p a t r i a r c h a l modes o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  alternative  general  o f a r t and, more r e c e n t l y , i n  systems of contemporary western  the physical  a more  a s e r i e s of s t e r e o t y p i c a l  i n the history  information  offsets  categorization,  juxtapositional  to rigid  women e x e m p l i f i e d  arrangement.  by b l u r r i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s between  resistance  features  which  t o e n c l o s e and  doubt on t h e n a t u r e  of the " o r i g i n a l ; "  palimpsestic  i n the novel  attempt  to inhibition  emphasizes t h e p o i n t  characters,  and  "borderlines"  geographical,  which  the perceived  and p o e t i c  "norms"  system. convoluted  style  t o produce an  controverts  and u n i f o r m i t y .  asserts  patriarchal  I suggested that i n  ambivalence  of the  geographical  181 borderline, function "fixed"  simultaneously  of the a r t i s t i c status  casting  doubt  pictureframe  on t h e d e f i n i t i o n a l  implicitly  y  o f women a s c o n s t i t u t e d  objects  displaces the  of p a t r i a r c h a l  9  representation. pictorial but  displacements  whereas H o s p i t a l  women w i t h i n like  A s i m i l a r s e r i e s of geographical  patriarchal  systems which  construction system  -  t o discover Rita's  example,  her e a r l y  i n the c o n f l i c t  Campbell  underwrite the s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l  Rita  topography." from  text;  t h e complex  language as a  The h i g h l y  c a n be s e e n a s a c o u n t e r p a r t  narrator/protagonist  Finnerty's  attempt  what s h e c a l l s  experiments  a  irregular to  i n h e r artwork (as  "differential  i n structure  (leading, f o r  i n t e r e s t i n "exploded organic  between  "the rebel  and e v e n t u a l  of geometric p e r f e c t i o n .  forms"  r e a l and t h e g e o m e t r i c  t o t h e "auto-iconoclasm" of her f i n a l  i n d i c a t e s her d i s t r u s t of, notion  interrogates  systems,  o f women by e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h  syntax of the text  ideal"  representational  of codebreaking d i f f e r e n c e s .  i n her l i f e )  i n Campbell's  c h o o s e s t o f o c u s on t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f  Quebec's B r o s s a r d  semiotic  and  c a n be d i s c e r n e d  and  exhibition)  dismissal  Her f r a c t u r e d  of,  artwork,  the like  Cf. Jacques D e r r i d a ' s p r o b l e m a t i z a t i o n of the conceptual d i s t i n c t i o n between what l i e s i n s i d e , and what r e m a i n s o u t s i d e , the frame. Framing, says D e r r i d a , i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f any a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t , b u t t h e f r a m e i t s e l f i s s u p p l e m e n t a r y to t h e object i t frames: t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e f r a m e and what i t f r a m e s c a n t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d one of r e p e a t e d dislocation. T h i s " u n d o i n g o f t h e work o f t h e f r a m e " ( i n D e r r i d a ' s t e r m s ) i s a p p l i e d by H o s p i t a l and C a m p b e l l t o t h e d e m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n o f women i n p a t r i a r c h a l c u l t u r e . For a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n o t i o n o f ' ( u n ) f r a m i n g ' i n D e r r i d a ' s work, s e e Culler.  182 her  often  f r a n t i c movements f r o m  increasingly disruptive desire  to  a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour,  l a n g u a g e of controvert  experience  she  constricting a t t e m p t s of  her  the  d e s i g n s of to  duly  professional  from  the  instead Rita's  her  notion of  her  the  of  flight"  also  landscape p a i n t i n g  " L i g n e s de  (aboriginal) "set" a  of  D e l e u z e and  perception  (western) p a t t e r n s  of  painting  aboriginal  promulgates  of  expatriation and  the  evasion  her  work o f  adoption flexibility. Campbell's  K r i m B e n t e r r a k , whose Fuite"  1983  (drawing s p e c i f i c a l l y promotes a  Australian  enclosure.  "nomadology"  against  Featured  anthropologist  s t o r y t e l l e r Paddy Roe,  on  "nomadic"  country which m i l i t a t e s  territorial  of  dissociation  cartographic  recall  the  of  an  "differential  e n c l o s u r e and  Guattari)  c o l l a b o r a t i v e venture with  Muecke and  of  as  for personal  The  the  the  o n g o i n g p r o c e s s of  concept  colleague  theories  work, and  experience  resist  self-motivated  work r e g i s t e r s her  western A u s t r a l i a n  the  the  her  of  i n p a r t i c u l a r to  search  cartographic  Deleuzian  " l i n e s of  and  patterns  life,  her  playfully  p e e r s t o l a b e l her  an  next,  a l l demonstrate  s o c i a l expectation. life  to the  the  sterile  and  Rita's  improvement as  t o p o g r a p h y " of  but  down" h e r  so much t h e  forms of  and  upon her  "pin  Australian."  becomes n o t  different  neat  men  c o n d e s c e n d i n g e f f o r t s of  place  narrative,  sees around her,  critics  "expatriate  one  in  Stephen  Benterrak's  as  an a e s t h e t i c / p o l i t i c a l s t a n c e [which] i s c o n s t a n t l y i n f l i g h t f r o m i d e a s or p r a c t i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s i n g u l a r , the o r i g i n a l , the uniform, the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y , the h i e r a r c h y . . . without f o r t h a t a s c r i b i n g t o any form of a n a r c h y . (15)  183  Fig. Lignes  de  Fujte,  11 Benterrak,  1983  184 It  is precisely this  Rita's  espousal  Flight,  her  exhibition, only  psychological, of  Once a g a i n , The  to the  evasion,  the  Borderline,  geographical) individual,  space. Hospital -  expectation.  The  But and  widely  issue  course,  they  live  and  the  selves  point  of  origin;  protagonist  Rita,  i s a west  of  of  A u s t r a l i a but  of  itself.  are  at  which  conformist as  the  creative  respective  by  social  the  an  expatriate  protagonist preclude  Australian,  a l s o to the  Australia's representations  and  Hospital,  like  often  a "fixed" her  marginalized  i s o l a t e d a t home, s e n s i t i v e t o demeaning  stereotypes  flight'  for  problematized  w h i l e Campbell, coast  one's  Rita's  s t r i c t u r e s of  effectively  no  disappearance  their  t r a v e l l e d , r e s e m b l e s her  whose m u l t i p l e  were  (as w e l l  claims  like  the  f o r w h i c h we  'line  cultural  work:  art  both  "conclusions."  aware of  of  to p l o t  own  -  i s further  or  of  there  reading,  their  Campbell  final  required  'mock  definition  are  and  despite  remain w e l l  i n which  Australian,  abroad,  was  registers a final  social  the  d i r e c t e d towards  F e l i c i t y ' s mysterious  personal,  protagonists  identity  in Rita's  d i s t i n g u i s h e s between i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  c o n c e p t i o n s of  Felicity,  like  our  of  "framed" system  r e f e r s , of  t e x t we  g e s t u r e of  countries  Thus,  i t seemed, one  white passage  underpins  of  aesthetic  " i n t h i s white passage,  i n v i t e d to provide  implicitly  a  g a l l e r y are  ironically  of  critique  and  l a n g u a g e as  t o the  that  g a l l e r y and  end  social  s y n t a c t i c markers.  which  topography" i n L i n e s  a l l i a n c e between h e r  visitors  (291).  to the  of  to f i n d  markers. own"  "differential  deconstruction  s e m a n t i c and  exit  a  p r o d u c i n g an  determinism' and  of  "nomadic" c o u n t e r d i s c o u r s e  European  l i m i t e d nature  185 The  e x p r e s s i o n i n H o s p i t a l ' s and C a m p b e l l ' s  forms  of physical  therefore of  and c o n c e p t u a l d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n c a n  be s e e n a s r e f l e c t i n g  both w r i t e r s  paradoxically  of the c u l t u r a l  an i r o n i c  avoidance  c l i c h e s which  on t h e p a r t  shape  d i v i s i v e myths o f n a t i o n h o o d and w h i c h  collude  i n the process i n the p a t r i a r c h a l  In t h i s  sense,  Campbell's  texts of various  Hospital's  o f women.  i n t e r m e d i a r y b o r d e r z o n e s and of f l i g h t  o p e r a t e not merely as  m e t a p h o r s f o r t h e ambiguous a s s e r t i o n ,  but f o r the necessary  evasion,  centrifugal  entrapment  often  of a s t y l e . The  experience an  c o n n e c t i o n I have o u t l i n e d  of g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s l o c a t i o n  "aesthetics  women w r i t e r s response sense  here  between t h e  and t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f  o f e v a s i o n " i s m o d i f i e d i n t h e work o f m i g r a n t i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a whose i m a g i n a t i v e  t o the experience of immigration o f t e n  of double  socially  lines  or m u l t i p l e m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n  reflects a  i n which t h e  c o n s t r u c t e d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f r a c e and gender a r e  compounded by t h e imposed  limitations  But  l i m i t a t i o n s may be t u r n e d t o t h e  these very l i n g u i s t i c  migrant w r i t e r ' s  advantage,  the d e l i b e r a t e l y  ungrammatical  Couani, V i c k y V i i d i k a s and W a l w i c z ' s  as i s i l l u s t r a t e d ,  and A n i a W a l w i c z .  prose fragments to unsettle  linguistic  usage.  The map i s employed  Anna  Viidikas's  f o r m s and  or d i s p l a c e " c o n v e n t i o n a l "  f o r p e r c e p t u a l adjustment, of Couani's  f o r example, i n  Couani's,  use n o n - s t a n d a r d  linkage  visions  language.  usage o f A u s t r a l i a n m i g r a n t s  non-linear  metaphor  of a second  i n t h e process as a  as i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  "A Map o f t h e W o r l d "  (to which  I referred i n  186 the  p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ) and V i i d i k a s ' s  alternatively Walwicz's artistic writing the  as a p a r o d y  repetitive designs.  but  of  "A V i e w  o f t h e Map,"  reproductive precision,  slightly  distorted  S n e j a Gunew has  by m i g r a n t women p l a y s an  or  as i n  literary  and  suggested that experimental important r o l e  i n challenging  "automation p r o c e s s e s " of l i n g u i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n : L a n g u a g e s p r o d u c e us i n s u c h f u n d a m e n t a l ways t h a t t h e p r o c e s s seems a u t o m a t i c and beyond q u e s t i o n . But what happens when, i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e e n d - p r o d u c t of a p a r t i c u l a r l a n g u a g e i s d r o p p e d i n t o a l i e n t e r r i t o r y where t h e c u s t o m a r y s i g n a l s d o n ' t o p e r a t e ? What h a p p e n s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l who has dropped from t h a t p a r t i c u l a r automation p r o c e s s ? For one t h i n g , t h e e r s t w h i l e r o b o t i s i n d a n g e r of developing a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s concerning the a r b i t r a r y n a t u r e o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s p r o d u c e d by language. I n i t i a l l y , t h i s f o r c e d r e c o g n i t o n o f what was a u t o m a t i c c a n h i n d e r c o o r d i n a t i o n a t t h e s i m p l e s t l e v e l s . (1)  The  linguistic  context  c o n t r i v a n c e s of Walwicz  b o t h as e x p r e s s i o n s o f  identity. the  and,  fictionalized  (such  e x p e r i e n c e of e x p a t r i a t i o n  and  the profound sense  Campbell  p r o v i d e s the space  for writers  which  such  of a l i e n a t i o n w h i c h  as  often  "migrant e x p e r i e n c e " produces a counter-impulse  towards  reterritorialization willed  oneself  n o t a t t h e edge of someone e l s e ' s ,  o n e ' s own  and  " n o r m a t i v e " p r o c e s s e s of c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n  Couani  acompanies the  as  cultural  of c a r t o g r a h i c  as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i t y ) ,  Walwicz  of  s u c h as H o s p i t a l  momentum f o r a d e t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n problematizes  in this  f o r c e s a t work i n t h e  through language,  Whereas f o r w r i t e r s  seen  " h i n d e r e d c o o r d i n a t i o n " and  s u b v e r s i o n s of the powerful normative p r o d u c t i o n of language  c a n be  world.  by  t h e need  Thus w h i l e f o r C a m p b e l l  to  locate  but a t t h e c e n t r e of t h e need  to  "plot  187 o n e ' s own" i s p r i m a r i l y offset  an a e s t h e t i c  personal  women's w r i t i n g future,  i ti s difficult  work t o w a r d s p h y s i c a l continue  that  the developing  and c o n c e p t u a l  To d a t e ,  the greater  experienced  to struggle  established  p h a l l o c r a t i c notions  has  t e n d e d t o p r o d u c e more e x p e r i m e n t a l l y  speaking parts the  critical  which  suggest  perceived the  of l i n g u i s t i c  politicized,  o f Canada.  and/or that,  primarily  impulse  these  and c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y oriented  writing  than  are reflected i n  construct  doubt  c o n t e m p o r a r y women's w r i t i n g diversity  expressed  t e c h n i q u e s as w e l l  perceived  aesthetic.  are unlikely to withstand  for without  allied to  whereas i n  f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a feminist  examination;  metaphors  Canada, t h e map i s  as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l of patriarchy,  and, i n some  i n English-  use o f c a r t o g r a p h i c  i n English-speaking  generalisations  i n their  patriarchal societies  F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g Canada and A u s t r a l i a i t i s a l