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Harmonious perfection : the development of English studies in nineteenth-century Anglo-Canadian colleges Hubert, Henry A. 1989

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH STUDIES IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY ANGLO-CANADIAN  COLLEGES  BY HENRY ALLAN HUBERT B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1965 M.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the required  standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1989. (5)  H e n r y A l l a n H u b e r t , 1989  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by his or  her  representatives.  It  is understood that copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  Hubert i i  ABSTRACT  In  the  colleges  last  and  three  universities  diversification, normative balanced at the  including  program  present  English  in a  featuring  program,  return  both  at  program  rhetoric  of  in  Latin  and  have  poetics  that  like  an  in  Anglophone a  historically  Dalhousie  Such  and  earlier  both  college's  a  McGill  from the  included  each  marked  rhetoric.  developed  itself  Greek  and  in seen  toward  colleges  studies  studies  Canada  time of Canadian Confederation,  classical and  decades,  poetics Classics  'i  offerings. The half  earliest  of  the  interests  nineteenth  of  separate  traditions. Oxford  Anglo-Canadian  Anglican  and  learning  colleges,  modeled  studies the  but  included  vernacular.  and  American  rhetorical  place  focus 1880s,  in  of  who both  Classical  however,  the  in  the  the in  particular  curriculum  modeled  studies  language.  e m p h a s i s on  most  first  religious  Presbyterian classical  r h e t o r i c a l study  influenced practical,  on  emphasizing  u n i v e r s i t i e s , included  by  both  with  a  in  English strong  vernacular. English  colleges,  studies  and  education, the  a  of  rooted  liberal  content  a f t e r mid-century, non-Anglican  each  stressed  a practical  was  opened  products  groups  Scottish  Methodist ties,  were  featured  emphasis i n the  Shortly a  in on  social colleges  Cambridge,  classical  century,  colleges,  and  gradually  development  of  literature the  moved  English  began t o  rhetoric to  and  English.  studies  was  gain  poetics In  the  suddenly  Hubert  diverted strong  from  a n e x p a n s i o n o f r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s t o g e t h e r  literary  focus.  Instruction i n oral  died,  and t h e t e a c h i n g  focus  on  expository  criticism. emphasis  The  liberal century's  was  end. by  academic  colleges  just  means  o f examining  following  i n British literature. by  a  narrowing  with  throughout of  specialization  late  Arnold's  nineteenth-century  featured  The f o c u s o f t h i s idealism  the nation  the curriculum that  literary  neo-Hegelianism  swept  a s i d e a l i s m took a s t r o n g h o l d  This  Matthew  philosophical  thought  institutions  The  a  rhetoric virtually  t h a t has been known and t h o u g h t , "  Christian  Protestant  as  to a  r h e t o r i c was subsumed i n t o a  curriculum,  supported  historic  fostered  thought.  new  masterpieces  curriculum combined  writing  on " t h e b e s t  historical  of written  iii  was  that in  at the further  Anglo-Canadian  on l i b e r a l  idealistic  academic  curriculum  c o n t r o l l e d Anglo-Canadian English studies u n t i l the l a t e  1960s.  Hubert i v  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Acknowledgments  v  Introduction  1  Chapter  1  S c o t t i s h and E n g l i s h T r a d i t i o n s : Democracy v s . E l i t i s m  Chapter  2  Religious A f f i l i a t i o n s Rhetorical  17 and t h e  Curriculum i n B r i t i s h  North America,  1800-1853  44  Chapter  3  English Studies i n V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n  97  Chapter  4  Anglo-Canadian  171  Chapter  5  S p e c i a l i z a t i o n , I d e a l i s m and Literature  D e v e l o p m e n t s , 1853-1884 British  i n Canada, 1884-1900  229  Conclusion  302  Bibliography  358  Statutes,  383  Calendars Consulted  Hubert  v  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I wish years the  t o thank Cariboo C o l l e g e f o r i t s support through  o f graduate  University  of  searching simply  At  the University  of  historical  English  f o r making  these  rewarding,  British texts,  quickly,  Department a t  the  Columbia copying  five  Alexander  years  Extension  library  for  microfiche, or  and t h e S o c i a l 1  S c i e n c e s and  C o u n c i l o f Canada f o r a y e a r ' s s u p p o r t t o w a r d  completion  study.  the personal level,  personal  Columbia  professionally  f o r obscure  the present  wealth  and  m a i l i n g monographs  Research of  and r e s e a r c h , t h e  of British  intellectually Services  study  five  Globe, support,  I am g r a t e f u l  and t o Eva-Marie and e s p e c i a l l y  of historical  data,  Kroeller  t o Andrea Lunsford, t o for their  t o Nan J o h n s o n  for offering  the highest d e d i c a t i o n i n supervision.  strategic  enthusiastic  f o rsharing her a d v i c e , and f o r  Hubert 1  INTRODUCTION  The  last  t h r e e decades  undergraduate  English  versities. what  These  thirty  ionally  years  to  a  individual  It  Northrup 1988,  the  Frye  on  of  puts To  of  a  remarkable  expanded  remarkably  program  with and  traditional  program  works  of  i t , "from  this  literature  i n the  core  in  from  British  of the E n g l i s h was  poet-  authors,  as  (Harris  added  single  language,  subsumed  often  within  on  Woolf"  c u r r i c u l u m were  nat-  different  largely  to Virginia  year;  both  programs  focused  Composition first  uni-  offerings  diversity,  historical  the h i s t o r y  i n the  course  among  Beowulf  pre-1960  criticism.  changes  homogeneous p r o g r a m  wide  departments  Anglo-Saxon,  history  study  The  seen  c u r r i c u l u m i n Anglo-Canadian  have  was  featured the  ix) .  courses  ago  present  universities. ics.  studies  changes  English  have  and  under  the  c o m p o s i t i o n was  not  Ct  specifically literary  criticism,  form  of  rams  include  writing  in English, in in  criticism  and  styles),  existing  only  as  feedback  study  courses.  In contrast,  o f a wide range  a wealth of authors  essays  specific  in translation,  composition in  attention  to  (with w r i t i n g  some  the  the  non-traditional  prog-  literature  numerous c o u r s e s  theorists), traditional  in a  of  only—  present  of non-British  ( i n c l u d i n g t h e most c o n t e m p o r a r y  and,  on  such essays b e i n g the c h i e f — o f t e n  i n English  the  linguistics,  rhetoric and  taught,  variety  programs,  of  courses study  of,  formats  studies  in  Hubert 2  theatre, sion,  dance,  film,  t h e Anglo-Canadian  return  t o the f u l l  Since poetics tional  English  classical  times,  this  and u n p r o f i t a b l e  professors  t h i s norm.  leading  of  although  and r e p r e h e n s i b l e "  and t h e b r a i n ,  t o teach  Oratore  combination  t h e t h e o r e t i c a l norm,  p r a c t i c e has not followed  ween t h e t o n g u e  curriculum  has begun  ing. the  often  institu-  Cicero describes t h e "severance  t o our having  concern  Cicero's  f o r separating  In the late  students  1870s,  norm.  t o read  concern  thought  Dalhousie  Dalhousie  Elizabethan  for  this  course  o f study also prescribed  oric  and  was  honours added  of a f u l l  Campbell's  studied  students  literature  bet-  separating  essays  for half also  and t o s t u d y language;  W h a t e l y ' s Elements o f R h e t -  of Rhetoric,  and a s s i g n e d Oratory  o f t h e academic  year.  these  from Chaucer t o Pope.  -'-The c o n c l u d i n g chapter review o f twentieth-century Anglo-Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s .  followed  a l l i t s first-year  i n composition.  fulfilled  trans-  and w r i t -  i n Halifax  h i s t o r y of the English  Philosophy  and weekly  College  and V i c t o r i a n w r i t e r s  as p a r t  tion)  as  one s e t o f  (literature)  required  Anglo-Saxon  exercises  and  us t o t h i n k and a n o t h e r t o t e a c h u s t o speak"  I I I . x v i . 61).  Ciceronian  a  since  rhetoric  t h o u g h t a n d s p e e c h would, i n contemporary E n g l i s h s t u d i e s , late ' into  expan-  Confederation.  has been  "absurd  studies  In t h i s  1  t r a d i t i o n s o f p o e t i c s and r h e t o r i c l o s t  two d e c a d e s a f t e r  (De  and communication t h e o r y .  general  daily  (or e l o c u Dalhousie's  requirements but  A decade e a r l i e r ,  McGill  of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n includes a English studies developments i n  Hubert 3  College  i n M o n t r e a l had  greater  depth  o f f e r e d the  i n courses  However,  McGill  and  were n o t  typical  since  same b r o a d s c o p e , b u t  Dalhousie  offerings  founded  or  leges.  The  England; tish  at  Presbyterian  heritage.  however, English  deed,  neither  standard the  on  the  the  and  at  with at  a  two  the  both  grammar rhetoric  fluence,  and  however,  which p r e s c r i b e d  nor  that the  the  with  English  of  e v e r y s e c o n d week, a l t e r n a t i n g Saturday  two  an This In-  in  a t Windsor, Nova  the  Scot-  c u r r i c u l a modeled was  focused  classical  on Greek  was  the  classical  class exercises,  one  had  kind  s t a t u t e s o f Windsor's K i n g ' s  instruction to  century,  and  c l a s s i c a l works i n c l u d i n g  strong  and  of  Scot-  century.  any  Oxford c u r r i c u l u m  w i t h the  curriculum  a  nineteenth  nineteenth  col-  culture  component.  verse)  every  the  literature  of  addition,  with  college  extent  In  Anglo-Canadian  Brunswick, had  So  1880  Presbyterian,  Presbyterian  content; i t , t h e r e f o r e ,  poetics.  English  the  of the  The  or  associated  of  little  New  literature,  and  was  part  end  England's Oxford College.  Latin  associated  o l d e s t c o l l e g e s , one  Fredericton,  i n b o t h l a n g u a g e and  earliest  strong  c o l l e g e s had  The  one  early  and  rhetoric curricula in  Anglican  tradition  Anglican  only  early  curriculum. ia,  In  curriculum  became  Church was  1860  century.  generally  l e a s t c o n t r o l l e d the Anglican  the  between  o f t h e E n g l i s h s t u d i e s and  interests,  a  i t offered English i n a l l years.  A n g l o - C a n a d i a n c o l l e g e s throughout the Religious  with  E n g l i s h theme  in-  College,  l i m i t e d the ( i n prose  or  w e e k l y w i t h a L a t i n theme.  students  presented  a  memorized  Hubert 4  recitation t h a t no themes The  in  Latin,  Greek,  or  English.  The  statutes  suggest  E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n beyond t h e c o r r e c t i n g o f t h e was  anticipated  f o r Canada's  first  F r e d e r i c t o n c u r r i c u l u m followed the  anglophone  colleges.  same g e n e r a l p a t t e r n  as  Windsor's. At ston,  c o l l e g e s such  Upper  curriculum At  Canada,  by  adding  Dalhousie  rhetoric  and  translation cal  and  and  traditions  the  bulk  of  from  E n g l i s h t o Greek and  to  of  the  English,  took  place  strong c l a s s i c a l nineteenth  Methodist  century  the  oratory  institution  p r o f e s s i o n s , with  Victoria,  Victoria's  classical  education  and  at  t h a t opened  an  and  in  classi-  The  only  i n the  Cobourg's  Victoria  i n 1842.  Victoria  a utilitarian  emphasis  therefore, included  composition  from t h e  continually.  was  c o l l e g e work as b o t h a l i b e r a l  both  the  focus i n the curriculum before  stressed  ministry.  students'  L a t i n , and  a  for  modified  a s p e c i f i c emphasis on E n g l i s h c o m p o s i t i o n .  College,  ation  Queen's C o l l e g e i n K i n g -  r e a d i n g a l s o o c c u r r e d i n t h e c l a s s i c s c l a s s e s , where  languages  middle  Scottish  Queen's,  exception to t h i s the  as D a l h o u s i e ,  on  the  rhetorical  vernacular.  l i t e r a t u r e program c o n t i n u e d t o be  prepar-  Christian theory  Before  and 1850,  classical.  N e i t h e r V i c t o r i a n o r any o f t h e o t h e r e a r l y c o l l e g e s a l l o w e d options:  a l l s t u d e n t s s t u d i e d t h e same c u r r i c u l u m .  rhetoric  (who  were years  g e n e r a l l y a l s o taught c l a s s i c s ) a t a l l the c o l l e g e s  invariably of  the  Professors of  clergymen,  general  who  classical  themselves education  had  but three or f o u r  that  they  now  trans-  Hubert  mitted  to their  In  students.  strong  curriculum,  contrast  English  century,  often  honours  programs  centration. lish  cal  or  ture.  as  those  till  after  the  and  production, The  purpose  ordained  ministers  a  of  but  This  literary  criticism  longer  and  studies  i n Anglo-Canadian of the  analysis  detail  this  area  English  litera-  been a b s o r b e d Elocution  which  century,  and  which  s t u d y whose p r i m studies study,  as we  is  meant  to  i n Sherman, 214).  satisfy  i s that  the  with l i f e The  English  in the  " H i s t o r i c a l explanation  which s a t i s f y  imagine i t " (qtd.  lan-  i n w r i t i n g as w e l l .  facts i n  because they accord  still  over  t o a l a r g e d e g r e e arrangement o f t h e d i s c o v e r e d us  domin-  over r h e t o r i c a l  i s an h i s t o r i c a l  B e r l i n i s i n order:  English  c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s  appreciation  this  con-  classi-  development o f E n g l i s h  Since  as  on  privileged literature and  the  well  composition.  d i s s e r t a t i o n i s an h i s t o r i c a l  colleges.  Isaiah  focused  curriculum,  twentieth  today,  an  of  a l s o a l m o s t a l l Eng-  a l m o s t w h o l l y on  English  as  with  early  end  were an e x c e p t i o n .  e s p e c i a l l y i n speaking, but  i s to  the  options  B.A.  were  in this  a s e p a r a t e t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d y had  influence  Anglo-Canadian warning  senior-level  professors  middle  present  absence  s p e c i a l t y by  the  studies  strong  guage,  a  desiring  c l a s s e s as  disappeared. English  ary  for  r h e t o r i c a l studies,  literature  a  was  i n a l l anglophone c o l l e g e s no  ated  has  i t s relative  several  1900,  Rhetoric  into had  By  to  studies  with  specialists;  programs  5  is  patterns  know i t and  thesis this dissertation studies  curriculum  that  Hubert  evolved the  i n A n g l o - C a n a d i a n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a t t h e end  nineteenth  century  was  ideological pressures. ical  idealism that, of  the  Victorian  British  for  (1865,  440) . A  this  strongly  classical in  "the  swept  period. was  best  strong  over  Canadian  This  idealism,  strongly  that  and o f German h i g h e r liberal  influenced  i s known  and  as  by  thought  in  manifested  in  Matthew A r n o l d ' s  thought  i n the  world"  i n this dissertation i s that  literary  was  which  the Ciceronian  tive  to  s e c o n d a r y assumption  norm,  While  owing  of  These p r e s s u r e s d e r i v e d from a p h i l o s o p h -  Bible,  literature,  search  literary  i n t h e wake o f Darwinism  criticism late  the  strongly  6  curriculum combined  an  rhetoric  aberration  and  poetics,  from  the  especially  tradition.  presenting  a warning  about  the n e c e s s a r i l y  interpre-  s t a n c e o f any h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y , I s a i a h B e r l i n ' s s t a t e m e n t i s  also  a  rephrasing  s t u d y o f a l m o s t any  of  the  traditional  argument  states, stand  composition "We  what  history,  we  redundant, found  as  scholar  .  h a v e no way what  advocates  .  . Furthermore,  ( q t d . i n Murphy 1982,  of  historical  study,  has v) .  been  (Young  45).  tried  Young s e e s  a comparative p e r s p e c t i v e  crisis  under-  w i t h o u t a knowledge  o f knowing what i s g e n u i n e l y new,  i s p r o m i s i n g , what  adding  times  who  R i c h a r d E. Young, an  u n d e r s t a n d what i s h a p p e n i n g u n l e s s we  happened.  wanting"  studies during  cannot  historical  k i n d ; namely, t h a t i t r e v e a l s t o us our p a s t  w i t h i n a c o n t e x t m e a n i n g f u l t o our p r e s e n t . American  for  what i s  before  and  historical  especially  Although  of  valuable  some m i g h t  argue  Hubert 7  that  Anglo-Canadian  crisis,  the  certainly It  present  English state  studies of  rapid  n o t normal i n h i s t o r i c  i s now  a hundred  are not  full-blown  c u r r i c u l a r development  terms.  years  in a  since  2  English  studies  i n Anglo-  C a n a d i a n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s underwent a r a d i c a l s h i f t a  primary  Leading  emphasis  up  to  on r h e t o r i c t o a s t r o n g  that  shift  was  epistemological  a  and  open w i t h  t h e emergence o f German h i g h e r  conceptions  change  that  again  in a  transitional  English  period;  we  studies need  u n d e r s t a n d t h e impetus f o r the present changes,  and  directing course, ent be  the potential  their  course.  inevitable.  change  within  scope The  of  English  After a  curriculum  i s once  presence  have  to  changes, t h e n a t u r e o f t h e  of this  t o help change  us i n i s , of  a t l e a s t t h e scope o f p r e s -  Anglo-Canadian u n i v e r s i t y E n g l i s h  studies  into the  a wide p e r s p e c t i v e  d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e scope o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m  limits  broke  century.  o f t h e changes  To some e x t e n t ,  i n social  c r i t i c i s m and D a r w i n i a n  thought j u s t a f t e r the middle of the nineteenth t h e Anglo-Canadian  from  emphasis on p o e t i c s .  far-reaching  attitudes  century,  is  been  s t u d i e s can  i n the past,  initially  defined  f o r the there,  T h e twentieth-century overview i n t h e l a s t chapter o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n shows t h a t though t h e E n g l i s h s t u d i e s curriculum a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n remained f a i r l y s t a b l e from 1890 t o t h e l a t e 1950s, s i n c e 1960 E n g l i s h s t u d i e s o f f e r i n g s a t many Anglo-Canadi a n u n i v e r s i t i e s have more t h a n t r i p l e d , w i t h t h e s c o p e o f Engl i s h departments broadening d r a m a t i c a l l y . I n 1980, f o r i n stance, M c G i l l o f f e r e d three options i n English studies: L i t e r a t u r e , Drama, a n d F i l m and Communication. In a d d i t i o n t o courses in literature, Y o r k , i n 1980, o f f e r e d such c o u r s e s as dance, f i l m , and t h e a t r e . I n h i s t o r i c a l t e r m s , t h i s r a p i d change i n f o c u s and scope i s remarkable. 2  Hubert 8  whether o r n o t t h e l i m i t s provides The the  the present present  strong  Canadian  the  English  i n their  students'  curricular Canada), early  studies  need own  language,  the strong  tendency  had  of  specifically  AngloBritish  of t h i s century.  Given  strong  given  (always toward  4  a  repeated  powerful  excluding  influence  on  r h e t o r i c from t h e needs  a corresponding  influence  complaints  and g i v e n a l t e r n a t i v e  curriculum  without  t o communicate  explanation. emphasis  on  on A n g l o - C a n a d i a n  English  i n Canada i n t h e f i r s t s i x d e c a d e s o f t h e p r e s e n t  century  i n f l u e n c e s the c o l l e g e - l e v e l  studies  understand  a  focus  graduates  were weak,  English  literature  such  literature,  f o r college  writing skills  on  3  exclusive  s i x t y years  i n America  i tstill  English  on  models  emphasis  standard.  at least  century r h e t o r i c a l roots o f E n g l i s h s t u d i e s ,  twentieth-century  rhetoric  (and  studies  the continuing  that  virtually  through the f i r s t  effectively  The  sometimes  e a r l y nineteenth  given  w i t h an o b j e c t i v e  The p a s t  i n q u i r y began a s an attempt t o f i n d r e a s o n s f o r  and  literature,  a r e now r e d e f i n e d .  many  p r o f e s s i o n needs t h i s  curriculum),  historical  that the  perspective t o  o f i t s own a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d p o e t i c s and r h e t o r i c  T h e b a s i c s o f t h e E h n i n g e r argument a r e t a k e n from R i c h a r d Young's r e v i e w o f E h n i n g e r a s g i v e n i n Young's "Paradigms and Problems: Needed Research i n Rhetorical Invention" (1978). E h n i n g e r ' s o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e , "On Systems o f R h e t o r i c , " appeared i n P h i l o s o p h y a n d R h e t o r i c 1 (1968): 131-144. 3  C o n c e r n s a b o u t p o o r s t u d e n t w r i t i n g have dogged t h e s t r o n g l i t e r a t u r e c u r r i c u l u m through t h e decades. R. S. H a r r i s r e c o r d s t h e c o n c e r n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o a s e a r l y as 1892 (R. S. H a r r i s 1988, 32) ; s e e H a r r i s 1953, 8, a s w e l l a s Broadus 1927. 4  Hubert 9  even  today.  This  the  nineteenth-century  curriculum content  to  and  focus,  and  English  explores  Anglo-Canadian the the  roots  studies  the  college  of  the  resilience  c h a n g e f o r almost a  One  of  this  curriculum  and  curriculum last  and as  a in  a  this  was  curriculum  was  l a t e V i c t o r i a n s . In t h i s  decades  of  sense  liberal  the  the  literary  poetics-oriented  that  resisted  sig-  i t s emphasis  of the  ideal  c u l t u r e , which  idealistic  emphasis  studies,  writing.  This  religious  and the  backgrounds  idealism  two  this  overpowered in  utilitarianism  ninth centuries to  p h i l o s o p h i c a l environment.  In  century,  Anglo-Canada  i n both t h e o r e t i c a l  included  higher  protestantism. poetics  criticism  derived  from  traditions,  Canada. that  late  philosophy  education  as  This  in  o v e r a l l o t h e r modes  of  roots  over  deep  in  British English,  emerged  with  the  also  decline  However,  idealism  d i f f e r e n c e s and  idealism  well  I n l a r g e measure,  b o t h S c o t t i s h and  cultural  devel-  rhetoric  nineteenth-century  these  an  authors,  d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from each o t h e r .  of  on  the  privileged  literary  educational  strength  curriculum  and  late  i d e a l i s t i c bent,  nineteenth  l a r g e segment o f m a i n l i n e  although  studies  i n t h e works o f h i s t o r i c B r i t i s h  i n f l u e n c e d by  strong  English  the  other  of  century.  English  c u l t u r e embedded  Tennyson  oped  English  dominating  f r o m t h e A n g l o - S a x o n w r i t e r s i n t h e e i g h t h and  the  development  o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t i d e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e  nineteenth-century ideal  therefore,  determine  Anglo-Canadian nificant  study,  overcame of  the  in  the  national a  strong  classical  Hubert  curriculum corded an  British  after  to  strong  even  in more  United  utionary  War.  The  of  1812,  sentiment, Canadian c i e s up  resulted  in  extended  the  the  has  departments  University  strong  the  cultural  written.  heads,  of  Alberta's  as  comprehensive  valuable  and  that  An  emerging  colleges example  study, e n t i t l e d  forces.  on  the  small  and would "The  and,  in this  works  of  an  on  case,  drove  1867.  a t the beginning of the  influences  from  twentieth To  date  English  studies  R.  D.  no  studies  of  English  u n i v e r s i t i e s have, be  by  industrial) p o l i -  curriculum  A number o f  75th anniversary.  study  Canadian  existing loyalist  of  McMaster's  Department o f E n g l i s h ,  1908-1982," w r i t t e n p r i m a r i l y as a r e v i e w o f t h e c a r e e r s department  and  f u r t h e r deepened  anti-Americanism  studies  education  individual  of Alberta  Brit-  also,  and w h i c h l i n g e r e d l o n g a f t e r  English  of  but in  with already  (as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l  b e e n done.  at  been  arrival  r e s u l t o f numerous c u l t u r a l  analysis  curriculum  course,  a  to Confederation,  was  the  This  Empire L o y a l i s t s a f t e r t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l -  Anglo-Canadian higher century  to  which, t o g e t h e r  Therefore,  acfrom  only t o the  settlement,  p r o - B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e was  educational  importance  c o l o n i a l a t t a c h m e n t toward B r i t a i n .  importantly,  of the  War  strong  i n anglophone Canada a l s o d e r i v e d  eighteenth-century  colonies  the  The  B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s went back not  influence  perhaps  mid-century.  literature  historically  commitment ish  just  10  f o r the  University  Such s t u d i e s have n o t  been meant  English  written  of e a r l y  studies  i n Canada.  individual university,  however,  A was  highly pub-  Hubert  lished  i n the  College length A  at  spring  the  5  Harris'  developments  leading  university  century Place  as is  of  Education," sities  and  by  Professor  monograph e n t i t l e d  details  Valuable  1988  U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto.  historical  History.  of  well  study from  Professor  English which  to  decades  study o f  Harris'  Studies reviews  in  S.  Harris  H a r r i s ' work  English  Studies  e s p e c i a l l y important  1853  within  for a  is  R.  of  of  Innis  is a  full-  at  its  founding  studies  doctoral  University  a l l programs  c o l l e g e s i n Canada i n 1951-52.  in  Toronto:  because  i n what became  English  1953 a  1985  in  i n the  i t  Canada's 1843.  6  present  dissertation, Program  11  "The  of  General  anglophone  univer-  7  ^ P r o f e s s o r H a r r i s was k i n d enough t o g i v e me a d r a f t copy o f h i s b o o k w e l l i n advance o f i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , so t h e present d i s s e r t a t i o n has had t h e b e n e f i t o f P r o f e s s o r H a r r i s ' r e s e a r c h e v e n t h o u g h I began w r i t i n g w e l l b e f o r e t h e book was published. N o t o n l y d i d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o become t h e l a r g e s t u n i v e r s i t y i n Canada b e f o r e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , a s t a t u s i t has h e l d e v e r s i n c e , b u t , as a r e s u l t , i t has g r a d u a t e d more s t u d e n t s i n E n g l i s h t h a n any o t h e r Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o has a l s o had a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n Canada as a r e s u l t o f i t s g r a d u a t e program. I t produced i t s f i r s t Ph.D. i n E n g l i s h i n 1920 (R. K. Gordon, who became t h e s e c o n d E n g l i s h Department head a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a ) , and f r o m t h e n t o 1984 t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o has g r a n t e d 40% o f Canada's d o c t o r a t e s i n E n g l i s h : 492 o f a t o t a l o f 1231 (R. S. H a r r i s 1988, 291). 6  A n t i c i p a t i n g the p r e s e n t emphasis on w r i t i n g a c r o s s the curriculum, Professor Harris' dissertation argues t h a t w r i t i n g s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n a l l g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s i n a u n i v e r s i t y program. I t a l s o a r g u e s t h a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g comp o s i t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e i n E n g l i s h d e p a r t m e n t s h u r t s b o t h comp o s i t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e . H a r r i s concludes that E n g l i s h Departments, as the most i m p o r t a n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of traditional h u m a n i s t i c s t u d y , s h o u l d t e a c h l i t e r a t u r e e x c l u s i v e l y , though they might coordinate the w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n throughout the o t h e r u n i v e r s i t y programs.  Hubert  Professor analysis studies first  of  the  Similar  attempt studies  States.  The  most  a  recent  Language and  D.  J.  been  English  to  the  both  Rise  Rise  cultural  have  been  (1984) (1987), leges.  two  departments  reviews  recent  of  Berlin  of  and,  these  McMurtry,  o f an  Acade-  present  dis-  has  also  rise  of  S c o t t i s h t r a d i t i o n s as (Guthrie,  Kitzhaber  most r e c e n t l y ,  f o r the  present  James B e r l i n ,  nineteenth-century  Although  i n the  Eagleton, excellent  by J o  Creation  rhetoric  (Parker)  works by  twentieth-century  an  United  i n t e r e s t s of England e s p e c i a l l y ,  review  valuable  Terry  o f t h e s e monographs r e l a t e t h e  studies  most  by  the  Canada.  the  of E n g l i s h S t u d i e s  well.  The  English  in  and  includes  importance  discussions  tion.  are  L i t e r a t u r e : The  includes  1953) , E n g l i s h  studies  o f E n g l i s h , " and  a l t h o u g h McMurtry American  extended  i n which  Britain  Introduction  Palmer's The  A l l three  English  studies  of great  been v a l u a b l e . studies  in  British  "The  environment  for  done  An  however, attempt an  dissertation i s , therefore,  task  been  Theory:  D i s c i p l i n e has  sertation.  cultural present  such  chapter e n t i t l e d  whose E n g l i s h mic  The  have  Literary  first  works do n o t ,  7  historic  developed. to  whose  Harris  12  the  developments,  dissertation  first and  composi-  of  the  which second  r h e t o r i c a l c u r r i c u l a i n American focuses  on  writing  instruction  col-  rather  t h a n E n g l i s h s t u d i e s g e n e r a l l y , h i s a n a l y s i s i s important, f o r i t is  b a s e d on  the  p r e m i s e t h a t "the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  that occur i n a  s o c i e t y ' s r h e t o r i c s a r e a l s o r e l a t e d t o l a r g e r s o c i a l and cal  developments.  In  taking  i n t o account t h i s  politi-  relationship,  we  Hubert  13  a r e i n a n a r e a o f t h o u g h t commonly d e s i g n a t e d a s i d e o l o g y " (1987, 4) .  Although  orize  t h e p r e s e n t d i s s e r t a t i o n does n o t s t r i v e t o c a t e g -  curricula  by narrowly  studies  do, t h i s  changes  i n a society's  lated  dissertation  develop  a  chronologically, first  leges  as  Berlin's  and p o e t i c  curricula  are " r e -  developments."  argument,  this  w i t h t h e study d i v i d e d  i n the three  main  regions  t h e Maritimes,  early  dissertation  proceeds  i n t o t h r e e main p e r i o d s .  colleges  of the British  North  American  Lower Canada, and Upper Canada.  opened w i t h a u n i f i e d ,  c u r r i c u l u m compulsory  f o r a l l students.  1853  t o 1884, a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d , l e a d s from t h e e a r l y  cal  curriculum t o the strongly i d e a l i s t i c ,  the  end o f t h e c e n t u r y .  of  retained  History  of English this  post  Toronto  as  period,  however,  was  as a until  i t s first  appointed  Language  The second p e r i o d , classi-  l i t e r a r y curriculum a t  1853 marks t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f  and L i t e r a t u r e .  two s u b j e c t s , W i l s o n  professor  class-  appointment o f Daniel Wilson t o a p o s i t i o n as P r o f e s s o r  English  included  The y e a r  A l l of  predominantly  ical  Toronto's  that  p e r i o d , 1800 t o 1853, f o c u s e s on t h e f o u n d i n g o f c o l -  colonies: these  rhetorical  coherent  ideologies,  assumes B e r l i n ' s b a s i c s t a n c e  t o l a r g e r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l To  The  identified  and  as  was B r i t i s h  separate  with  the f i r s t  Literature  at  W.  George  Dalhousie,  subject.  i n English.  Professor  the  first Wilson  came t o The  i n 1884, when  Munro  position  America's  J . Alexander  solely  Alexander  Wilson's  North  college  1889, when  appointment  begins  Although  final  Alexander of English  earliest  Canadian  Hubert  specialist Canadian  appointment e x c l u s i v e l y i n E n g l i s h s t u d i e s . development  related  to  is  Britain.  The  leges  preceded  often on  Apart  from  reasons  slowly  This  ing  between  was  and  dissertation  r h e t o r i c a l and  not  excluded,  before  spread  the  Nova  1855,  Canadian  Quebec,  Scotia  and or  one  since West  the  the  included and  fairly  first  six  a brief  dis-  i n Anglo-Canadian focuses  on  the  English  nineteenth  concerns  in  study. to  the  after  at  eight  gaining  Maritimes.  two  The  English  most t y p i c a l the  shiftEnglish  linguistic  s t u d y o f language, as  dissertation is restricted  first  col-  i s i n c i d e n t a l rather than c e n t r a l  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , since the  this  the  development o f s p e c i f i c p h i l o l o g i c a l and  tablished  times,  reviews  literary  related to rhetoric in classical  among t h e  in the  British  implemented  which i n c l u d e s  changes  was  Ontario,  periods  p r i o r developments  then  which  this  to  three  s t u d y ' s p r i m a r y c u r r i c u l a r emphasis i s t h e  although  this  of  the  closely  especially since  for  of  of  so  c o n s i s t e n t l y conform t o  what  f o r recent  following  century.  topics,  Canada,  century,  of  The  not  present  cussion  studies.  do  conclusion,  the  the  discussion  the  of  focus  for  each  is  the  s i d e of the A t l a n t i c .  decades  studies,  a  curriculum  Britain,  dates  developed this  English  in  by  British  established  directly  the  developments  discussed  calendar  of  Since  14  King's  Fredericton,  The  main d i s c u s s i o n  colleges, studies  colleges  i n each a r e a .  New  (one  all  es-  curriculum  i t s unique  Colleges  grammar,  focus  chosen In the at  in  were Mari-  Windsor,  Brunswick—King's  Col-  Hubert  15  t  lege,  Fredericton  1828,  then  sity  of  1890  named  King's College  New  College,  was  until  Brunswick);  i t  joined  (after  1850,  the  ( a f t e r 1904 The  versity"  somewhat  generally  graduate therefore,  institutions course  century,  all  universities,  humanistic  this  containing  an  degree.  and of  culture  to  i n the  McGill  federation  Trinity  terms  Strictly institution  until  College,  of Toronto  "college"  professional  their  or  divided,  "unicollege  o f f e r i n g an  under-  institutions,  in  this  common  graduate so,  by  study  names  in  feder-  and  speaking, a  earliest  in  i n Toron-  A l l , however, a l s o d e v e l o p e d schools  the  end  as  of  officially  still  into  the were  carried  c l a s s i c s , and the  liberal  d e t e r m i n e how  and  then E n g l i s h  studies,  a r t s program, t h e The  present  why  a developing  nineteenth century s h i f t e d the  formed  major focus  study  now  turns  the of to  Anglo-Canadian  focus of  i t s foun-  I t was common f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s t o have b o t h names, such "University of T r i n i t y College" i n Toronto, f o r instance, " U n i v e r s i t y o f K i n g ' s C o l l e g e " i n Windsor. 8  the  8  institutions' curricula. core,  Univer-  Halifax;  Toronto  and  A l l the  institutions  although  core  t o be  s p e c i a l i z e d and  the  in  until  i n Cobourg, O n t a r i o of  College);  colleges.  designation.  Rhetoric  these  as  Brunswick  i n Kingston; King's College,  interchangeably.  arts  offerings  college  College,  study uses the  considered  began  New  a l s o p a r t of the U n i v e r s i t y  following  liberal  of  when i t became t h e  University  University  ation) .  was  1859,  i n Montreal; V i c t o r i a College,  (when  Toronto  College  Dalhousie  T o r o n t o ) ; Queen's C o l l e g e , to  the  as or  Hubert  dation of  courses  rhetoric  exclusively Scottish Canadian  the  focus  literature  s t u d i e s program from a in  at  the  early  century's  rhetoric  studies turned  of  the  century, on  preparing that  a  period end.  balanced  growing  combination  to  an  almost  a  strong  Under poetics  t o the v e r n a c u l a r  m i d d l e of the nineteenth  emphasis  curriculum,  a f t e r the  literature  literary  college  decades  historic  and  liberal  utilitarianism,  following two  i n the  century,  as  Anglo-  i n the  decades  but,  i n the  typified  f o r the  strong  Anglo-Canadian  m i d d l e of the twentieth  last  i d e a l i s m overshadowed  r h e t o r i c i n the Anglo-Canadian l i b e r a l t h e way  century.  emphasis on  English  16  studies  the arts  British until  Hubert  CHAPTER 1:  SCOTTISH AND  ENGLISH TRADITIONS:  DEMOCRACY VS.  The  earliest  English  were  English  strongly  influenced  arrived  following  the  the in  founded  English  and  the  together  colleges  funded  with  curricula  settlers,  on  by  statutes  to  the  the  case  stitutions derived  the  social of  established the  dynamics  as  the  parties,  as  the  are two  English tury.  funded  and, by  to  of  required  t h e i r own  those  that  of  their historic concerns studies  in  most  England  and  attitudes directly  British  North  church,  Anglican  colleges  students to  To  to  curricula  the  America  i n the  and  the  colleges, the  two  review  Especially  poetics  in in-  understand  to B r i t a i n  to  as  dominated  between  related  belong  or,  Scots'  developed  towards  The  Scottish  The  Scotland.  settled  established  nineteenth-century  soon  both  The  some e x t e n t M c G i l l ,  early  they  colleges,  Scotland.  newly-  Anglican  from the  government funds.  rivalries  culture  the  the  cultures.  Cambridge.  i t i s necessary to turn b r i e f l y  educational tant  excluded  with  Although  Loyalists,  and  and  u n i v e r s i t i e s of  educational well  crown  pressure that  England,  War.  same l a n g u a g e ,  Empire  Oxford  o t h e r hand,  Dalhousie,  from  United  North  Loyalists,  t o k e e p t h e i r own  English on  British  settlers,  Empire  Revolutionary  spoke t h e  the  in  Scottish  United  tended  modeled  and  of  with  colleges  and  by  American  and  by  the  Church  English  Scots  d i f f e r e n t regions  English,  by  ELITISM  language  America  17  the  impor-  rhetoric,  development nineteenth  of  cen-  H u b e r t 18  In tional  1809, R. reformer,  volume t h a t studies  L. Edgeworth, published  attacked  that  languages.  an A n g l o - I r i s h  Essays  on P r o f e s s i o n a l  strongly  emphasized c l a s s i c a l  Edgeworth's  the next  between  hundred  Scottish  initiating  a  volume  reinforced  system  continued  emphasizing English the  focused  concern  about  predominantly  made  Review  that  attacked What  up  tend  on a d e b a t e  t h e two  would  toward  and  reacted  use  a of  of c l a s s i c a l  of  Edgeworth's  Scottish  university  practical  education,  the vernacular;  the  t o t h e a t t a c k by r e a s s e r t i n g curriculum  and c o n t e n t .  of useful  but, instead  stressing the  Following  application language  Edgeworth's  in a  curriculum  and l e a r n i n g ,  o f t h e same y e a r p r i n t e d  an  The  article  t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s o f England:  ought  the term science  University  bring  t o mean,  but a  i s t a u g h t which i s l i b e r a l ,  same t i m e u s e f u l t o mankind. to  that  differences  systems,  The  non-utilitarian  i n October  where e v e r y the  access  language  t h o u g h t and c l a s s i c a l  education,  differences.  i t s evolution  the lack  Edinburgh also  their  of a  i n both  a  i n B r i t a i n b u t a l s o i n Canada  higher  between  i n contrast,  importance  Education,  The d e b a t e h i g h l i g h t e d  and E n g l i s h  universal  system,  classics  years.  convergence  essays  and e d u c a -  t h e t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h system o f u n i v e r s i t y  i n f l u e n c e h i g h e r education not only for  social  classical  place and a t  N o t h i n g would so much  literature  within  proper  b o u n d s , a s a s t e a d y and i n v a r i a b l e a p p e a l t o u t i l i t y i n our  appreciation  of  a l l human  knowledge.  (qtd. i n  Hubert 19  Sanderson The  Scottish  stoutly  defended  Copleston nies  of  Account that  37-38) attacks  their  of Oriel  incensed  curriculum.  Review  o f S t u d i e s Pursued  graduates  Against  Oxford,  at the University.  directly  utility  a  o f two t h i n g s ,  pectively  C o n t a i n i n g an  C o p l e s t o n argued  Copleston  concerning  t h e comparative  i t c a n o n l y be determined  t h e n a t u r e o f t h e ends t o which  they  by res-  must  surely  be a c u l t i v a t i n g  o f t h e mind,  i s i n i t s e l f a good: a good o f t h e h i g h e s t o r d e r .  argued  that  a  classical  l i g h t would be found f a u l t l e s s English  a man f o r any o f t h e em-  lead. . . .  There  university  education  regarded  (Sanderson 37-38) .  e d u c a t i o n was n o t t o t r a i n  i n that  The purpose o f professionals  t o p r e p a r e y o u n g men f o r a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g by l a y i n g  a s t r o n g f o u n d a t i o n i n m e n t a l competence, r e l i g i o n ,  most  Edward  i t e n r i c h e s and e n n o b l e s a l l . .  question arise  considering  which  qualifying  of l i f e ,  If  The  year,  e d u c a t i o n was n o t meant p r i m a r i l y t o t r a i n i t s  ployments  but  The f o l l o w i n g  who  f o r employment: Without  an  and Cambridge,  C o l l e g e , O x f o r d , wrote A R e p l y t o t h e Calum-  t h e Edinburgh  a university  Oxford  and m o r a l i t y .  same argument was made r e p e a t e d l y by l a t e r O x f o r d p r o f e s s o r s , n o t a b l y by John  clearly  even  University  Henry  Newman, who e l u c i d a t e d  a f t e r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n from O x f o r d . (1852) , Newman d e f i n e d  the position  I n The Idea o f a  t h e goals of Oxford  and Cam-  H u b e r t 20  bridge  when  training,  he d e f i n e d a l i b e r a l  by  sacrificed  which  the i n t e l l e c t ,  trade  its  own  for  i t s own h i g h e s t c u l t u r e "  o r p r o f e s s i o n , or study  sake,  George  that  Elder  t h e concerns  land  i n fact,  itself,  century. merits  Davie's  or science, i s disciplined f o r  a  The D e m o c r a t i c of Scottish  debate  t h a t would  arose  curriculum.  education versus  and  England.  result, begun  years  During  through  t o worry  most  of the  and E n g l a n d  on t h e  the eighteenth  the finish  their  learn-  remained g e n e r a l i n t h e i r restricted  entrance  a l l o w i n g Oxford  system  d e s i r e d i t , even of expensive  to  and Cam-  a s o p h i s t i c a t e d secon-  the S c o t t i s h  t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h that  century,  specialize i n classical  o r older, thereby  c o u l d produce,  lacked  toward  points out  the merits of a c l a s s i c a l  t h e E n g l i s h system  l e a r n i n g t o a l l who  education  an h i s t o r i c  universities,  t o demand a p r e p a r a t i o n t h a t o n l y  education  o b j e c t , and  out of differing t r a d i t i o n a l roles of the univer-  Whereas  eighteen  higher  Intellect,  continue  i n g , b u t t h e S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s had  dary  or  (211) .  a n d C a m b r i d g e had begun t o  bridge  formed  c o i n c i d e d w i t h a d e b a t e t h a t had begun i n S c o t -  i n Scotland  those  of  o f Edgeworth and t h e a t t a c k s o f t h e E d i n b u r g h  of utilitarian  Oxford  "process  of being  The d i s a g r e e m e n t s between S c o t l a n d  education sity  instead  f o r t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f i t s own p r o p e r  o f t h e development  Review,  as t h e  t o some p a r t i c u l a r o r a c c i d e n t a l p u r p o s e , some s p e c i -  fic  study  education  still  i f their  offered secondary  English schools. century  As a  some S c o t s had  national universities  were  falling  Hubert  behind on  Oxford  and  Cambridge. T h i s f e a r l e d t o t h e i n i t i a l  c u r r i c u l u m i n Scotland.  Scottish  struggle  university  was  should  to  be  and  de-emphasize  focus  on  the  completing sity the  the  decide  the  whether  would then  develop  than  two  focusing  o r whether p u b l i c s c h o o l s  the  classical  classical  centuries  nineteenth-century including  both  languages,  thought  fundamental land,  John  order  to  issues. Knox  read  of  S c o t t i s h and  school  During  had  the  and  both  u n i v e r s a l and  this  Scottish  tion  system  the  the  The  democratic,  belief  so  the  the  well-known  Lyon P l a y f a i r , Primary  and  ingrained  in  the  debate  be  at  i n theory.  and  as l a t e as 1871,  Scotland  the  school  reformer  secondary  separated  Scottish  i n the a c c e s s a b i l i t y  education that  you  early  systems, addressed in  Scot-  educated  system  was  in thus  Reflecting  o f t h e complete  educa-  to the f i n a l years  at  U n i v e r s i t y Member  of  argued t h a t are.  . . so  cannot  s e p a r a t e l y , n o r would Scotchmen g i v e one system of n a t i o n a l i n i t i a l  univer-  (Davie 5) .  populace  least  should  base s e t i n  English educational  from the e a r l i e s t years through  university,  The  protestant reformation  that  on  essentially  from t h i s  tradition  university,  insisted  Bible.  of  and n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y ,  s c h o o l s , t h a t i s , f o l l o w t h e E n g l i s h model  Parliament  approach  classical,  i n mental, moral,  of  the  them b e f o r e t h e s t u d e n t even l e f t s c h o o l .  More  a  the  classics,  basics  debate  A c c o r d i n g t o Davie, t h e o b j e c t o f  p h i l o s o p h i c a l or  fundamentals o f thought  21  thoroughly  deal with  them  farthing for a  e d u c a t i o n i n which t h e y were  H u b e r t 22  separated. soldier so  a  carried  every  ries  t o say t h a t  h i s M a r s h a l l ' s baton  S c o t c h peasant,  every  i n h i s knapsack;  when he goes t o s c h o o l , c a r -  i n h i s s a t c h e l a m i n i s t e r ' s gown, o r t h e emblem o f  learned  lose i t . The  The g r e a t N a p o l e o n u s e d  p r o f e s s i o n , and i t i s h i s own  fault  i f he  ( q t d . i n Anderson 108)  same s p i r i t was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r e p o r t o f t h e A r g y l l Commis-  s i o n i n t o S c o t t i s h e d u c a t i o n i n 1867-68: It  cannot  School  be t o o o f t e n r e p e a t e d , t h a t t h e t h e o r y o f o u r  system,  as o r i g i n a l l y  conceived,  was t o s u p p l y  e v e r y member o f t h e c o u n t r y w i t h t h e means o f o b t a i n i n g for  h i s children  but  such  Burgh the  not only  instruction  a s would  s c h o o l , and thence  University  from  t h e elements  of education,  f i t him t o pass  t o University,  to the  or d i r e c t l y t o  the P a r i s h school.  . . . (qtd.  in  A n d e r s o n 106) The  Scottish  university religion, first  graduation, democracy  two,  Opportunity through tish of the  history  and a in  o f education,  thus  combined  and economics.  later  study  Victorian  by R.  school entrance  three  Davie's  Scotland,  h i s e m p h a s i s on u t i l i t y  from  related  concerns:  s t u d y emphasizes t h e  D. Anderson, adds  to  the  i n education.  Education  third  and  concern,  Part of the Scot-  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e O x f o r d emphasis on c l a s s i c s was t h e l a c k  practical English  application system  of a highly c l a s s i c a l  could  be  content  to  education.  serve  the  While  privileged  Hubert  classes  that  had  ment o u t s i d e driven lar  by  emphasis  this  driven  the  Even  cluding  on  some  a  university  economic  status  of  the  student,  accentuated  Scottish  curriculum.  impetus  i n the  suggests  education  that,  since  the  as  totally  learned  (Anderson  on  education,  education  discourse,  byterian  pulpits.  flavour"  in  phasis Scottish addiction  philosophical  students  the  The  then,  not  have  also  by  on  premature  to metaphysics"  the  fostered  necessitated  curriculum  analysis The  by  practiced  the  in  with  that which  philosophical emphasis  Scotland's  on  Pres-  a " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y humanist  as  yet  one  (Davie  and  206).  13).  Even  the  criticism,  an  em-  more i n s t a n c e  of  the  i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m , and  (Davie  on  a b l e t o complete  coped.  aesthetics  Oxonians  impact  a  in-  university  u n i v e r s i t y system  focused  but  i n theory  schools,  detailed  r e s u l t was  Scottish  "condemned of  was  over  e s p e c i a l l y as  classics  vice  could  concept  little  a powerful  i n p u b l i c l y funded  principles  was  were  336).  universal  prerequisites  to  of  universities  democratic  a myth, however, i t e x e r t e d  emphasis  the  approach  study  shaping of the  education,  economic i n t e r e s t s of the m i d d l e c l a s s , the  as  popu-  to  the  general  of  The  access  non-specialized,  stressed  strongly  universal  u n i v e r s i t y f o r t h o s e d e s i r i n g i t and  necessary  employ-  the S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s were middle c l a s s .  S c o t t i s h curriculum This  a  the  Scottish  myth.  church,  Anderson by  need t o a p p l y t h e i r e d u c a t i o n t o g a i n  economic i n t e r e s t s o f the  of  economic  Indeed,  of  the  the  regardless  no  23  of  unreasonable  In  1826,  examine  a u n i v e r s i t y reform  the  previous  need  year,  had  published  cal  Education,  the  English  the  devoted  chiefly  argued  than  10) .  The  emanated on  the  Davie's  and  former to  the  focus  of  position,  eighteenth  cause and  of  competing  teaching  at  of a  with  Glasgow,  Philosophi-  difference the  that,  Oxford Jardine  and  in  philosophical  (Davie  English universities Illsley's dissertation  Scotland  English  substantiates  influence  in  century: Almost  throughout  this  century  many  Scottish  i n t e l l e c t u a l s were c o n c e r n e d i n schemes t o their  English  awakening of  to  speech  North 189)  i n t e r e s t i n the  recognition  quent of  pronunciation,  the  Act  (however of  comprehensible  B r i t a i n was  either  reluctant)  in  or  as  subse-  of a well  becoming a n e c e s s i t y .  of  because  that,  cultivation South  improve  because  vernacular,  Union,  was  m e n t a l , were more impor-  the  of  with  latter  mathematics.  William  roots  The  S c o t t i s h system  basic  on  English  f i n d i n g the  to  s p e c i a l i z e d education,"  Cambridge  admirers.  established  Logic  education,  b o t h p h y s i c a l and  for  English  history  the  exclusively classical  concern from  out  24  universities.  of  the  aimed a t a g e n e r a l  sciences,  a  Professor  "contrasted  pointed  classics  that  tant  Jardine,  i n w h i c h he  the  i n Scotland's  second e d i t i o n of h i s O u t l i n e s  one,  on  changes  George  whereas  focusing  for  commission was  Hubert  form as  in  (Illsley  the  Hubert  This  interest  i n E n g l i s h e l o c u t i o n l e d t o the  Thomas S h e r i d a n ,  the  f o r John Walker, who  ing  (Illsley  d i c t i o n a r y i n 1774  ricted  study  of rhetoric  of  the  George  Jardine,  mented  his  written 33) .  essays Prior  student  where t h e  taught Grant,  Logic oral  variety  Jardine's  and  logic.  daily  wide  1  thus  n o t always  Indeed, r h e t o r i c was  of  time,  At  Glasgow,  from  1787  questioning of  general  Glasgow's  for  to  Smith's  Lettres.  instance,  1827,  and  by  (Anderson  Professor  lectures dealt with  n a t u r a l s t y l e and  simple  supplefrequent  themes  subsequently  rest-  most o f t e n a  of  t h a n Adam Smith, i n 1762-63 gave  Belles  "elocu-  Moral  Lectures  published  argument,  they  arrangement, and  from emthey  rhetoric to a l l literature.  given  early  a  a plain,  Prior had  by  none o t h e r  notes.  phasized related  on  to  Rhetoric  in  Professor  lectures  Philosophy, on  course  215).  the  for  p u b l i s h e d a pronounc-  i n S c o t l a n d was  t o a c h a i r of rhetoric.  component  success  l e a d e r o f what became known as  t i o n a r y movement," and  The  great  25  to a  g a i n i n g a p r o f e s s o r s h i p a t Glasgow, however, S m i t h  series  strongest  nineteenth logic  for  historian  o f p u b l i c l e c t u r e s on rhetorical  traditions  rhetoric i n the  in  Edinburgh,  eighteenth  and  c e n t u r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d . Here J o h n S t e v e n s o n over  forty  years,  up  to  1775.  o f the U n i v e r s i t y of Edinburgh,  S i r Alexander states that  "the  •'-The e l o c u t i o n a r y movement did not confine itself to Scotland. W a l k e r ' s and Sheridan's works, w h i c h s h i f t e d the m e a n i n g o f e l o c u t i o n from s t y l e t o d e l i v e r y ( C o r b e t t 620), were w i d e l y r e a d i n E n g l a n d and i n t h e c o l o n i e s , and r e m a i n e d i n f l u e n t i a l w e l l i n t o the nineteenth century.  H u b e r t 26  most  important  which not  and  fruitful  he d i d as a teacher  named  (Grant  in his title,  I I , 279) .  of and  criticism. prefaces  He  t o belong t o h i s Chair"  fortreating  extracts  that  a  from  strong  taught  proper  culture,  education  lecture  included  o f course,  of English  facetiously, "to  during  English  i n Britain,  i n good  English  was  in itself  that  Stevenson's  effect;  they  were  after  when  Pope's  emphasis  on  the very  composi-  period and  of  other  In h i s study only h a l f -  t o t h e S c o t t i s h , E n g l i s h was a f o r e i g n tongue:  remarks  lectures  delivered  literature  an i n t e l l e c t u a l  just was  no u n i m p o r t a n t  o f t h e t i m e when he  "had r e a l l y at a  period  beginning  revival,  feat"  an  extraordinary  when  t o be  felt  a  certain i n Edin-  a f t e r t h e Covenanting  dark  was i n t h e a i r " ( I I , 280) . In  chair had  discourses  Stephen P o t t e r w r i t e s ,  a l l u d e s t o t h e academic s p i r i t  age,  the prose  including literature.  Grant  burgh,  the p r i n c i p l e s  pronunciation  (104) .  aspiration  although  w i t h h i s c l a s s A r i s t o t l e ' s P o e t i c s and as a b a s i s  course  f o r learning  of higher  subject,  that  authors.  Stevenson,  aspects  work was  o f Dryden, A d d i s o n ' s p a p e r s i n t h e S p e c t a t o r ,  Stevenson's  concern  which  was c o n s i d e r e d  discussed  n o t e s , and French  tion.  o f Stevenson's  of Rhetoric,  He r e a d  L o n g i n u s On t h e S u b l i m e  part  1782, Hugh B l a i r ,  of Rhetoric  belonged  Lectures  Stevenson's  student,  and B e l l e s L e t t r e s , p a r t  t o Stevenson.  on R h e t o r i c  As i s w e l l  was  given  of the teaching  a new that  known from h i s p u b l i s h e d  and B e l l e s L e t t r e s , B l a i r , u n l i k e  Stevenson,  Hubert 27  but  like  Adam S m i t h , l e c t u r e d  tivating "The  a  proper  taste,  i n English.  which  Blair  h i s second  f o c u s e d on c u l -  lecture  defines  power o f r e c e i v i n g p l e a s u r e from t h e b e a u t i e s o f n a t u r e a n d  art."  B l a i r ' s published  and  were  addition  subsequently to  Stevenson  being  Blair's  with  became enormously  throughout  the B r i t i s h  i n numerous  however,  h i s lectures  Blair (Meikle  successful, empire, i n  translations. included 94) .  no  the focus  and  oratory  composition  The  strength  i n s t r u c t i o n was t h u s more p h i l o s o p h i c a l  of rhetoric  toward  i n h i s university  aesthetics  A t Edinburgh,  and t h e r e a d i n g o f E n g l i s h  litera-  to rhetoric.  was t h u s  related  more c l o s e l y t o  tures  o f Adam S m i t h and Hugh B l a i r t h u s began a s h i f t the f u l l  study  Scottish  centuries,  The emphasis on a e s t h e t i c s  of poetics  with English  the professor In  than  writing  than  by  of  from  writing  chair  logic  literature,  Unlike  Indeed, B l a i r ' s emphasis on b e l l e s l e t t r e s s h i f -  2  ted  ture.  printed  rhetorical  utilitarian.  lectures  used  and J a r d i n e ,  assignments  see  as  shift  from  classics  i n the l e c that to  l i t e r a t u r e a t Edinburgh i n i t i a l l y  would  English taught  of rhetoric. universities  s p e c i f i c chairs  of the eighteenth  were h i g h l y  adaptable  and n i n e t e e n t h t o t h e demands  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , none o f t h e works c o n s u l t e d i n t h i s study r e v i e w e d p r o g r a m s i n o r a t o r y a t any o f t h e S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s p r i o r t o t h e V i c t o r i a n period. I l l s l e y p o i n t s out t h a t Sheridan and Walker, along w i t h numerous o t h e r itinerant lecturers, created a strong interest i n elocution, which was sometimes incorporated i n t o s c h o o l programs, b u t no mention i s made o f u n i v e r s i t y p r o g r a m s ( I l l s l e y , Ch. 6) . Perhaps d a i l y r e c i t a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t t o t r a i n s t u d e n t s i n o r a t o r y . 2  Hubert  of  the  sor  academic  of  Moral  tures  into  he  dealt  concrete  .  his  .  them i n t h e  .  [T]he  poetical,  (345).  well-known  to  also  as  writer  was  conscientious  composition,  ding  Blair's  from  immediate Blair's Royal  remarkable  on  errors  on  97).  education  the  choice or  of  words,  inadvertances  the which  a  before  writing.  Grant  Professoriate  than  a l l the  belles lettres,  Belles Lettres  criticized  lectures the  chair  Spal-  at  from  "the  low  Edin-  Blair's  fell  state of  i s l a n d , and  the  works even o f t h e  t i m e was  the  himself  after  In a d d i t i o n , a r e p o r t of the  i n the  professor's  was  classes, William  of  i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s p a r t of the prevalent  from  philoso-  commenting on  poor  popularity  on,  ( I I , 345) .  and  Owing t o  the  (Meikle  idioms  and  so  Stevenson  r h e t o r i c and  of Rhetoric  1845.  successors,  a result, the  to  in  i n his  i n h i s philosophy  chair  retirment  provincial As  1840  Commission  matical  Like  h i s numerous c l a s s e s "  including  writes  towards and  North,"  students  lec-  illustrations  abstract  critic.  Concurrent with Wilson teaching  burgh  with  the  d i l i g e n c e i n reading  e s s a y s p r o d u c e d by  his  Grant  h i s n a t u r e was  than  his  Profes-  v i r t u e s , d u t i e s , and  "Christopher and  more  a l s o turned  belles lettres.  concrete,  rather  encouraged  "Nothing  held  1853,  tendency o f  Wilson,  Scottish  Wilson  states,  from 1820  i n r h e t o r i c and  with  and  phical"  At Edinburgh, John Wilson,  " t r e a t e d o f the p a s s i o n s ,  literature.  him,  Philosophy  classes  that Wilson but  environment.  28  1826 gram-  local  and  learned."  "employed i n m i n u t e remarks  structure  of  obstructed  sentences, the  and  perspicuity  the of  Hubert  composition"  after  Blair,  focus.  Essays  were v o l u n t a r y , t h e c o u r s e had no exams, and t e a c h i n g was  mostly  rhetoric  (qtd.  lecture.  to  the c h a i r  the  degree,  i n 1839.  the  years  required f o r  e s s a y s and e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r  complete  to  Spalding  provided.  students,  A l t h o u g h a t t e n d a n c e a l o n e was  ascended  S p a l d i n g a s s i g n e d weekly  to  i f t h e y wished  compete  for prizes  With o n l y a s m a l l c l a s s o f twenty  however,  S p a l d i n g soon  left  to  that  thirty  f o r the c h a i r of l o g i c  at  Andrews. Spalding's  reversed subject  the at  direction  in  students  successor, William  slide  of rhetoric  Edinburgh,  of Scottish  literature  Important ity,  In  S p a l d i n g t r i e d t o change t h e p a t t e r n when he  students  of  97).  a t E d i n b u r g h thus developed a grammatical  by  St.  i n Meikle  29  here which  in  he  followed B l a i r  But  that  a  the  a critical i s to  only  whole  reading  anticipate.  the question of  decidedly Scottish  came t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y u n p r e p a r e d  not  as a s e p a r a t e  in shifting  a t t i t u d e toward  took  Aytoun,  lettres  s t u d y toward  vernacular.  i s Aytoun's Aytoun  and b e l l e s  rhetorical  the  Edmonstoune  util-  position.  f o r advanced  If  work,  he  w o u l d t e a c h them. As  f o r t h e argument t h a t i t i s b e n e a t h t h e d i g n i t y o f a  University miss No  that  to deal  with rudimentary  elements,  a t once w i t h t h e contempt which  h i g h e r p r i v i l e g e i s g r a n t e d t o man  be.  (Aytoun  82)  dis-  i t deserves.  t h a n t h e power o f  i n s t r u c t i o n , however humble o r l i m i t e d t h a t may  we  instruction  H u b e r t 30  As  f o rt h e question of the university teaching p r a c t i c a l  Aytoun  again  making  the point  ferent  from  taken in  asserted  the position  that  Scotland's  t h a t o f England,  as a model.  wealth  with  o f h i s countrymen,  and c u l t u r e  were  dif-  so t h e E n g l i s h system s h o u l d n o t be  "Scholastic learning  t h e g e n e r a l m a r k e t when o f f e r e d  "Combined  o f most  matters,  commands b u t a low p r i c e  i n i t s own shape," he  argued.  o t h e r m a t e r i a l , i t becomes o f much h i g h e r v a l u e "  (80). The  Scottish  system o f r h e t o r i c  and c o m p o s i t i o n  instruction  p r i o r t o A y t o u n i n 1845, t h e r e f o r e , was b u i l t on l o g i c as a b a s e , and, in  from  Adam  Smith  onward, i n c l u d e d a s t u d y  the vernacular.  rhetoric, 1762.  i t s chair  The i n t e r e s t  subjects  though,  philosophy interests. than  a  focus  deriving  composition  with  division  t o have  taught also  lettres  i n logic,  chair i n  Within  overlapped  r h e t o r i c , and  including  featured a general  on  lettres  r e g i u s appointment i n  and b e l l e s  of labor.  been  had a s e p a r a t e  Blair's  philosophy  The c u r r i c u l u m  appears  from  i n composition  with  courses,  specific  student  But o n l y E d i n b u r g h  of belles  belletristic  education  this  t h e development  rather  context, t h e of a  a b l e t o compose a t l e a s t h i s w r i t t e n t h o u g h t w i t h  literate perspi-  cuity. T h i s e m p h a s i s on t h e s t u d e n t a s one who s h o u l d g r a d u a t e literate economic, concerns  person  d e r i v e d from t h r e e f a c t o r s a l r e a d y mentioned: t h e  the/religious, went  as a  back  and t h e d e m o c r a t i c .  t o t h e Knox r e f o r m a t i o n ,  The l a t t e r  two  and t h e consequent  Hubert  growth  of  Bible. for  a  In  the  education  their  local  gained in  ascendancy,  a  political of  was  union  the  and  government.  nacular  was  also  cultured  citizens  had  Edinburgh  supporting Giles  with  Hugh  an  middle  education,  to  Related  take  Blair,  on  which  the  the  on  the  recognition that  the  whole  interest  in  Edinburgh  chair  the  and  aesthetics  in  the this  innovation  taste.  would  ver-  I n 1762,  in rhetoric,  and  British  especially  lead i n rhetorical  sound c r i t i c i s m  rhetoric  Added t o  p r e s t i g i o u s m i n i s t e r of the  f o r the  which  demanded an e x p e r t i s e i n  dominated to  impetus  interest  of the c a p i t a l c i t y of Scotland.  church,  focus  Scottish  w i t h England  the  classes asserted  an  a e s t h e t i c consciousness,  l e c t u r e s focused  burgh  the  a l s o the  South,  economy  St.  as  utilitarian  utilitarianism  vernacular  led  everyone t o r e a d  emphasized the v e r n a c u l a r over the c l a s s i c a l .  Scotland's the  system t h a t would t e a c h  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , however, t h e economic  interest  naturally a  school  31  by  historic a  chair  This  Edin-  continue  under  Aytoun. These related carried  to to  Scotsmen times  economic,  early  i n the  century.  birth  and  Lower  The  and  foremost  nineteenth-century  i n Upper  nineteenth  religious  r h e t o r i c were t o be  involved  and  sibility  basic  Scottish  i n the  British  of higher Canada  democratic  in  culture that North  America  education  i n the  the  half  emphasis  first on  of  religion,  nationality,  o r economic s t a t u s .  was by  Mariof  universal  i n B r i t i s h N o r t h America would r e l a t e t o a c c e s s  regardless  concerns  the  acces-  for a l l , Within  Hubert  this  context,  Scottish study  i n the  would  and  stress  t h e u t i l i t a r i a n emphasis i n  the  importance  of  rhetorical  vernacular.  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n E n g l a n d up  c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y with t h a t of i t s northern counterpart,  contrasts  becoming  revolution. the  the democratic  education  The 1850  both  Just  context  and  of  democracy  social  values,  bridge  as  more as  the  more  pronounced  after  Scottish universities  within  the  so  E n g l i s h system,  the  finishing  England's  and  framework  schools  f o r the  s t r u c t u r e s and  sixteenth-century  of  developed  within  general  education  religious  rhetoric.  Elizabethan  England.,  century,  the  civil  resulted  in  classes,  a  non-conformist the  war  However, and  reaction  and  in  The  1662  i n the  vernacular  Cambridge  the  clergy  opportunity  of of  has  liter-  flourished  turbulent  in  seventeenth  subsequent r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e monarchy against  Act  of  values.  interest  Oxford  Cam-  u p p e r c l a s s e s , grew out  the  vernacular  r e a c t i o n that a l s o l e d t o a hardening  differences.  sons  a  Both  3  and  and  b e e n w e l l documented i n numerous h i s t o r i e s o f b o t h E n g l i s h and  the  French  f e a t u r i n g Oxford  social  to  the  a whole P r e s b y t e r i a n c u l t u r e , s t r e s s i n g  English religious  ature  32  of their  Uniformity livings,  g a i n i n g degrees  by  the  upper  of s o c i a l  not  only  deprived  but  also  denied  from E n g l a n d ' s two  class the their uni-  E d w a r d C o r b e t t ' s C l a s s i c a l R h e t o r i c f o r t h e Modern S t u d e n t [(New Y o r k : O x f o r d UP) 1965] p r e s e n t s an overview; Wilbur S. H o w e l l ' s L o g i c and R h e t o r i c i n E n g l a n d . 1500-1700 [ ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP) 1956] p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y . J  Hubert  versities. tion,  O f t e n t h e newly  setting  academies," instruction from end  over  up  their  own  many  of  which  (Palmer  450  5-7) .  increased,  the  fluence  gain  not  afford  clerics  institutions, soon  replaced  At Oxford,  As  wealthy  as  Latin  first-year  "dissenting  with  English  enrolment  t o about  300  prevent another c i v i l  of  "degree"  advantage  political  .  .  . and  tus"  everywhere  (31) .  ignorant. cheap  One  the  of  S i n c e poor A n g l i c a n schooling,  Latin  families  labor  became more  to age  History  i n an  attempt  p u b l i c p o l i c y allowed the o l d idea  t h e r e was  an  ensuring  intensified peace  was  fear  of  revolt  pervaded  c e n t u r y and i n t o t h e n i n e t e e n t h .  led to the  states that  "into a r i g i d pattern of s o c i a l  of  and  to  attitudes  awareness keep  of  the  sta-  masses  as t h e n a t i o n e n t e r e d a p e r i o d o f r a p i d e x p a n s i o n i n The  eighteenth  about  way  could  (Stone 3 6 f f . ) .  1800-1900  war,  in-  As an added advantage, t h i s p o l i c y e n s u r e d a s u p p l y o f  industry.  fear  Public  t o harden  the  gained  R i c h a r d A l t i c k ' s The E n g l i s h Common Reader: A S o c i a l  to  by  i n the church  more a mark o f an A n g l i c a n gentleman  t h e Mass R e a d i n g  fell  for positions  classical  of  educa-  competition  employment.  adequate  turned to  known  b e f o r e the Act of U n i f o r m i t y  of the century.  to  unemployed  33  a  moral  nation.  dilemma  Devout  society  through  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s  f o r those with r e l i g i o u s  A n g l i c a n s and  the  dissenters  concerns  alike  wished  p r o p a g a t e t h e C h r i s t i a n g o s p e l t h r o u g h p r i n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n an when t r a c t s  Anglican  were a c h i e f means o f r e a c h i n g t h e masses.  founders o f the Society  f o r Promoting  The  C h r i s t i a n Know-  Hubert  ledge  i n 1699  necessary, and  argued  upon t h e masses?  for be  loyalty  At  reasons.  Revolution  intensifying  the  Paine's  leaders  reading, lessons  "Reading  impressed  The M e t h o d i s t f o l l o w e r s o f J o h n also stressed  Christians,"  reading  w r o t e Wesley,  "will  ( q t d . i n A l t i c k 35) .  redoubled historic  o f t h e Sunday  that  opposition  English  cast now  (Altick  as  67).  of  revolution.  enemies  t h e lower  the fear  this  classes  education,  they  It  i f every  craft:  so best  will  educated,  of literacy  When  phasis  i n original;  stressed  provided the seditious  like  Samuel  extending  beyond  "Of t h e l a b o r i n g c l a s s e s .  "They a r e n o t sought  be found where p o l i t i c one i s w i s e  they maintain  had  t o read  [reading] i s n o t . . . perhaps  s e l > n o r need i s enough  which  f o r having  Even t h e l i b e r a l l y  shared  Coleridge said.  The  popular  s c h o o l movement,  public  allowed  Coleridge,  than  to  fear  r e a d i n g t o w r i t i n g and t o o r a t o r y .  able,"  be  The R i g h t s o f Man g a i n e d p o p u l a r n o t i c e i n 1791-  were  literature  more  was  t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e a t r o c i t i e s o f t h e  French  Taylor  of reading  t o the Protestant f a i t h  ( A l t i c k 32-34).  knowing C h r i s t i a n s "  92,  at least  g e n e r a l l y among t h e lower c l a s s e s ,  t h e same  Thomas  a knowledge  f o r w i t h o u t t h a t , how c o u l d p i e t y , m o r a l i t y , i n d u s t r y ,  unquestioning  Wesley,  that  34  . .  generally desir-  f o r i n public  coun-  sentences  a r e spoken.  i n t h e working  o f h i s own  the state  o f the world"  (em-  q t d . i n A l t i c k 144).  relationship  o f Oxford  and  Cambridge  to this  social  s t r u c t u r e was, o f c o u r s e , o b v i o u s , b u t i t i s p r e s e n t e d p o i g n a n t l y  Hubert  by  Charles  K i n g s l e y ' s A l t o n Locke  muses a s he  scans  You  admit  any  dogmas o f t h e Church of  through  them  or  .  .  . will  not  sign  the  o f E n g l a n d , whether t h e y b e l i e v e  not.  and  conscientious, men.  Why  which  were  Useless  we  . . Nol not,  only  and  a r e we  because  or  who  formalism!  which  a  lets  the r e c k l e s s , the p r o f l i g a t e , the ignorant, the  hypocritical;  .  whose main c h a r a c t e r  the s p i r e s of Oxford:  refuse to  word  (1850),  35  the  t o be  founded are The  excludes mass  bad  of  s h u t out  for  us.  the  .  honest  and  intellectual from t h e .  churchmen  . It that  the  working  universities, i s not  you  merely  exclude  us.  r e a l r e a s o n f o r our e x c l u s i o n , churchmen  i s , because we  are poor."  (qtd. i n  Sanderson  54-55) At  the  beginning  Oxford  and  money,  f o r the  gain gain  the  of  the  sons  of  universities'  England's stamp  the  utilitarian  contrasting  the  requirements  English pounds  of  social  elite  approval  as  nature of  the  S c o t l a n d , Lyon P l a y f a i r t o l d Universities  a  especially,  year  Universities  a t t e n d e d more gentlemen  than  i n t o human h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y , n a t u r a l o r  Emphasizing  of  century  C a m b r i d g e had t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f r e q u i r i n g v a s t sums o f  insight  those  nineteenth  with  teach  .  .  . t e a c h men  dignity them  how  and  of  Scottish  education,  intelligence  t o make one  spend  one  while  thousand  the  but with  t h e House o f Commons, to  to  moral.  southern" u n i v e r s i t i e s  how  to  "The  thousand Scotch  pounds a  year  Hubert  with dignity  and  Although of  intelligence"  Oxford  the wealthy,  and  ( q t d . i n Anderson  Cambridge became t h e  u n i v e r s i t i e s was  William  Whewell,  201) .  a  as  In the  two  of f i n a n c i a l importance  A n g l i c a n church,  normally  order  to  of  led directly  prevent  widespread  universities,  for a into  church (Sand-  o f England  and  f o r a l l graduates  degree  an  and  life.  of education  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Church  f o r the  Cambridge  schools  Cambridge p h i l o s o p h e r , s t a t e d t h a t t h e  t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s was well  finishing  a l s o c e n t r a l t o t h e E n g l i s h way  c o u l d n o t e x i s t w i t h o u t t h e p r e v a i l i n g system erson  35).  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h  t h e two  from  Oxford  ecclesiastical  unemployment  36  as and  living.  among g r a d u a t e s  of  t h e number o f s t u d e n t s c o u l d n o t exceed  by  much t h e a v a i l a b l e a n n u a l p o s i t i o n s i n t h e c h u r c h . Given church burgh  and  n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between u n i v e r s i t y  the  complex  Review  insistence focus,  on  of  at  the  the  in  criticism  effect.  versity-level  forces  Oxford  f o r the  Coplestone's  beginning  middle  universities, little  classics,  of  utility-oriented  non-Anglican potential  question of s o c i a l  attack castigating  resulted  reviewed growth  the  from for  Scots  in  s u p p o r t , t h a t was  which  for their  anti-utilitarian defense,  f o r the  as the  rising  deflected  curriculum of  much  the  two  Cambridge  had  academies needed  uni-  Oxford  I n s o f a r as t h e d i s s e n t i n g  Edin-  Further, given  academies  classical  change  an  idealistic  institutions  the  t h e 1809  Cambridge  chapter.  dissenting  class,  and  highly  this  class,  and  and  s u p p l i e d by S c o t t i s h c o n n e c t i o n s .  Hubert  D.  J.  Palmer  been  the  suggests  models  Nevertheless, the  the  the  the  S c o t t i s h c o l l e g e s may  English  exclusion  of  dissenting  non-Anglicans  even  academies irritated  have  (7-9) . many  of  w e a l t h y m i d d l e c l a s s i n London. Although  ness  of  sity  Napoleonic a  Londoners d e s p i s e d  and  Cambridge,  curriculum,  degrees  lege,  these  Oxford  classical  was  for  that  37  upset  wars  the  non-Anglican  not  affiliated  became  known  Palmer  states  universities,  as  formally  "the  that  Godless  founded  i n London  with  a  was  instruction  in  vernacular,  literature.  Initially,  the  that  University  however, t h e  new  it  Gower  Street." Scottish  instruction in could  Col-  quickly  early professors  college  the  Because i t  University College, therefore, including  the  univer-  after  modeled a f t e r t h e  e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e most o f t h e (16).  to gain  (1826) .  on  exclusive-  ridiculed  r e l i g i o u s body,  institution  i t s curriculum  t h e m s e l v e s Scotsmen  degrees.  citizens  government  institution,  they  opportunity  influential  British  religious  although  l a c k o f an  enough  the  and  the  were  offered English  not  offer  4  The  first  professor  of E n g l i s h a t the  "Godless I n s t i t u t i o n "  In offering a curriculum without allowing a degree, University College, i n f a c t , r e s e m b l e d Cambridge, s i n c e diss e n t e r s c o u l d a l s o get a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n t h e r e , though not a degree s i n c e the oath of a l l e g i a n c e t o the T h i r t y - N i n e A r t i c l e s was t a k e n a t t h e end o f t h e c o u r s e o f studies'. In Scotland l e a v i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t y w i t h o u t o b t a i n i n g a d e g r e e was also a commonplace. T h r e e y e a r s a f t e r U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e opened i n 1828, the C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d founded K i n g ' s C o l l e g e , a l s o i n London. I n 183 6 b o t h w e r e a f f i l i a t e d under t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u m b r e l l a o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f London, which t h e n began g r a n t i n g i t s own d e g r e e s . 4  Hubert 38  was  an  evangelical  clergyman,  mediately c l a r i f i e d godlessness. century lecture, stressed  instruction, (Palmer "use  study  delivered that  19) .  he  at  University  culture  both  H i s course  College  should  enlisted  s p e a k i n g and c o m p o s i t i o n ,  His  literature.  be  i n the  included  concern,  But  that  LITERATURE -and  glorious  with  of  moral  Religion"  philosophy  i n the various  and  kinds  of  and m a j e s t i c  i n suitable  style."  flowers  of  more p a r t i c u l a r l y when t r e a t i n g  and  inexhaustible  of our c o u n t r y — I find  shall  subject,  esteem i t my  i t my d e l i g h t — t o  the  duty—  inculcate  o f v i r t u e , t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e m a s t e r y o f  language.  those  1828,  morality:  I trust I shall  lessons our  expressed  i n a l l my L e c t u r e s ,  upon  inaugural  October  service  half  "commencing w i t h t h e p l a i n and p e r s p i c -  however,  e l o q u e n c e , was c l e a r l y  in  connected  a n d p r o c e e d i n g upward t o t h e e l e v a t e d  main  His  the history,  a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s " o f t h e language  uous,  Dale im-  s e t t h e d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e next  of English  "moral and  Dale.  h i s p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o p u b l i c concern about  In this  i n the  t h e Rev. Thomas  . . .  brilliant  [N]ever, i n t r a c k i n g t h e c o u r s e o f  luminaries  that  sparkle  ment o f o u r l i t e r a t u r e — n e v e r w i l l inexperienced  y o u t h t o be  i n the firma-  I s u f f e r t h e eye o f  d a z z l e d by t h e b r i l l i a n c y o f  g e n i u s , when i t s b r o a d l u s t r e o b s c u r e s t h e d e f o r m i t y vice;  never w i l l  I a f f e c t t o s t i f l e the expression  just  indignation,  when  wit, taste,  and  talent,  of  of a have  H u b e r t 39  been  designedly prostituted  sors  t o t h e excitement o f unholy p a s s i o n s , t h e p a l l i a -  tion  of guilty  the The ever,  o f Dale's  three  times  quality  o f Dale's  appears  that  the  of religion.  posses-  instruction  (Palmer 20)  at University  was n o t i n l i t e r a t u r e b u t i n l a n g u a g e ,  lectured  unworthy  indulgences, t h e r i d i c u l e of v i r t u e , o r  disparagement  bulk  by t h e i r  a week.  instruction,  "theprinciple  Professor's prescribed  Palmer  College,  i n which  how-  s u b j e c t he  i s n o t impressed w i t h t h e  f o r from  examination questions i t  [ s i c ] t e s t was o f a b i l i t y t o remember answers"  t o questions  such  as t h e  following: Who  i s the f i r s t  distinguished  prose?  Point  style,  and s a y i n what r e s p e c t  Lord  writer  out the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Clarendon.  of English  features  i tdiffers  ofh i s  from t h a t o f  . . .  When i s t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f an i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n perfect?  . . .  Why i s D a p e r f e c t l e t t e r ? These the  a r e q u e s t i o n s from a f i v e - p a r t exam c o v e r i n g t h e H i s t o r y o f  E n g l i s h Language, E n g l i s h Grammar, P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e o f  English  Composition,  English,  a n d R h e t o r i c (Palmer 2 1 ) .  In followed al,  ( q t d . i n Palmer 22)  i t s early  Translations  years,  the empiricist  which  a  rigid  English  tradition  examination  from  study  Classical  at University  o f emphasizing system  Authors  forced  into  College  factual materithe students t o  Hubert  learn.  The  titles  o f D a l e ' s l e c t u r e s s u g g e s t an a p p r o a c h t h r o u g h  rhetorical  forms:  lectures) ,  Divinity  Fiction  (one  Literature; letter  from  subject John  Dramatic (5  lectures), Epic  and  the  History  Poetry  of  Dale a l s o t r e a t e d t h e H i s t o r y o f  Ruskin  spoken  Mandevill,  of  to  his  father:  four celebrated  "Four  S i r J o h n Gower, Chaucer  and  old  as  of  their  writings  i s spoken o f ,  examples o f t h e i r s t y l e " Although  course and  Dale  changed  biographical  tion  by  a f t e r two  f o r the  emphasis  only  c o m p o s i t i o n s were a s s i g n e d ,  formal  College  rhetoric  close  years,  gradually  reviewed  the  replaced  Except  etc. ; the are  for  this  nature An  read  study  of  the  historical  the  organiza-  to note t h a t  n e i t h e r Palmer nor  f o r the present  student  other h i s t o r i e s of comment  further  and  English,  a n a l y s i s i n Anglo-Canadian  therefore,  r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n  as w e l l  as  on  i s an and  appreciation  the  Church  of  studies for' the England,  a d i s t i n c t c l a s s consciousness r e l a t e d to a u n i v e r s i t y  education  in  struction  i n the  an  are  r h e t o r i c a l study.  Important in  We  extracts  n e x t twenty y e a r s .  rhetorical classification.  University  this  ( q t d . i n Palmer 23) .  resigned  little  on  Wickliffe.  and  in a  time—Sir  made a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e i r b i r t h , p a r e n t a g e , e d u c a t i o n , character  English  lectures  authors of  (6  Romantic  f a c t u a l nature of such l e c t u r e s i s r e v e a l e d  John  have  (8  Poetry  lectures),  lecture). the  40  education  England.  at  Whereas U n i v e r s i t y  verncaular, O x f o r d and  the  College  included  in-  Church  of England's concept  of  Cambridge was  distinctly classical  in  H u b e r t 41  nature:  t h e concern  gentleman  than  t h e development  sional  education.  system  differed  tice.  In their  fered  Oxford  livings;  Scotland's  the Scottish  relationships  Scottish  democratic  of a sophisticated  o f an immediately  In i t s a t t i t u d e  from  as w e l l .  church  was more t h e p r o d u c t i o n  toward  i n both  useful profes-  utility,  the  philosophy  t o t h e church,  and p r a c -  systems  dif-  and Cambridge d e g r e e s l e d d i r e c t l y  into  degrees guaranteed  philosophy  both  Oxford  no p o s i t i o n .  o s t e n s i b l y ensured  Since  a university  education  t o a l l d e s e r v i n g s t u d e n t s , t h e S c o t t i s h system p r o d u c e d  far  graduates  more  would account Canadian  than  Scotland  could  employ.  f o r the strong Scottish influence i n the history of  higher  education,  f o r Scotland  regularly  e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s with i t s graduates. The higher from  battle  very  accessibility, rhetorical in  both  between  education  their  the S c o t t i s h  to British  inception.  Scotland's  a n d on t h e v e r n a c u l a r  exported i t s  5  and E n g l i s h approaches t o  was c a r r i e d  training,  logic  This, i n part,  North  American c o l l e g e s  emphasis  on u t i l i t y ,  s t r e s s e d t h e importance o f  e s p e c i a l l y i n w r i t i n g , which S c o t l a n d  and r h e t o r i c  classes.  on  Oxford  taught  and Cambridge i n -  ^Thomas M c C u l l o c h and J o h n S t r a c h a n , two s e m i n a l f i g u r e s i n A n g l o - C a n a d i a n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g chapter, i l l u s t r a t e well the Scottish educational influence i n t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t o f B r i t i s h N o r t h America. This influence continued throughout the century. O t h e r i n f l u e n t i a l alumni o f S c o t t i s h u n i v e r i s i t i e s discussed i n t h i s dissertation include S i r J . W. Dawson, P r e s i d e n t o f M c G i l l , S i r Daniel Wilson, Professor of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y a t T o r o n t o , t h e Rev. W. T. L e a c h , P r o f e s s o r o f R h e t o r i c and l a t e r o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e a t M c G i l l , a n d James Cappon, P r o f e s s o r o f E n g l i s h a t Queen's.  Hubert  fluences  in  utilitarian  British approach,  phasized the onies,  however,  the  not  be  future  social  tional  philosophy  early  contrast, to  and  s e p a r a t e d by  national  turned  and  education  national  and  were  as  differences  tied  each of these a s s o c i a t e d  In t h e  col-  Scottish As  and  col-  English  a means o f  ensuring  i n the  educa-  These d i f f e r e n c e s ,  religious lines, all  em-  and  Scottish  the  and  boundaries.  p r a c t i c e were o b v i o u s .  colleges  organizations,  to  Anglicans,  English  both  economic s t a b i l i t y ,  followed  Canadian  between  s e t t l e r s of  denounced  content.  differences  and  therefore,  * naturally,  in  r e s t r i c t e d access  administrators  heritage,  America,  c l a s s i c s , b o t h i n l a n g u a g e and  systems would onial  North  42  to  given  official  that  the  religious  w i t h p a r t i c u l a r immigrant  groups. In  British  Scottish  roots  religious  tion hand,  of  education  the  entering in  the  students.  The  suit  of  classical, strong  concern  Scottish  The  elocution  c o r r e c t pronunciation  with  social  roots  that  and  affirmed  a  the  curriculum  on  with also  em-  strongly  the  was  other  strongly  vernacular—except  i n i t s most b a s i c  emphasized  no  Thirty-nine  of the King's E n g l i s h .  thus  with  economic s i t u a -  colleges,  formal a t t e n t i o n t o the  for English  colleges  arguing  t h o s e who  colleges  i n r e l i g i o n but  early Anglican  Church of England.  with l i t t l e  namely, t h e colleges  the  the  early  These  vernacular,  d i d not  colonies.  therefore,  Presbyterian  r e s t r i c t e d entrance to  Articles  a  for  rhetoric  classical  America,  t e n d e d t o be  bars  phasized  North  an  sense; Whereas  education  with  H u b e r t 43  practical  economic  benefits,  the Anglican  colleges,  colonies,  s t r o v e t o produce an u p p e r c l a s s A n g l i c a n  even  i n the  gentleman.  Hubert 44  CHAPTER 2:  RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS AND THE RHETORICAL CURRICULUM IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA, 1800 - 1853  In  early  utilitarian separated  values  a  e d u c a t i o n a l system.  Scottish  system,  from  revolutionary elitism  was  America.  only  the United  because  also  had  were  t o have  a strong  important  modified  Loyalists,  religious  brought  o f Upper  countries  In B r i t i s h  impact  f o r a profession  were  North  and  from  came n o r t h  experience  i n l a r g e measure  Many o f t h e L o y a l -  convictions,  on e d u c a t i o n  post-  the English  by t h e d e m o c r a t i c  who  t o the  Canada b y e m i -  America,  s t r o n g E n g l i s h attachments.  strong  languages  the professions  These v a l u e s  British  slightly  Empire  of their  ists  two  classical  and  The E n g l i s h s y s t e m was e l i t i s t ; t h e  democratic.  the  Britain,  i n the vernacular  to training  o f Nova S c o t i a a n d t h e t o w n s h i p s  grants  in  from t h a t o f Oxford  valued  considered  in their  of  system  unrelated  the Scots  education  on i n s t r u c t i o n  university  education  graduation;  shores  higher  The E n g l i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s  liberal  after  and emphasis  the Scottish  Cambridge. and  nineteenth-century  convictions  which  i n the Loyalists'  new  home. The in  n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between  the B r i t i s h  differences their  North  American  i n religious  the Scots  c o l o n i e s were  practice,  with  P r e s b y t e r i a n order, which p e r m i t t e d  autonomy,  and t h e E n g l i s h  committed  and t h e E n g l i s h  marked  the Scots  overtly  by  committed  to  a f a i r measure o f l o c a l  t o the Anglican  hierarchy,  H u b e r t 45  tied  d i r e c t l y t o E n g l i s h authority, both p o l i t i c a l  and r e l i g i o u s .  B e c a u s e o f t h e i r s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e two g r o u p s established The to The  separate  r h e t o r i c a l programs o f t h e e a r l y  the social colleges  tarian  objectives  curriculum  these  the  colonies  as  rhetoric  was  fitted  the social  f o r economic growth. emphasized b o t h  familiarity well  constituencies.  situation  of a  The r h e t o r i c a l  first  half  colleges  curriculum  and speech i n t h e  with  which  largely  marked  a gentleman  The A n g l i c a n  to reading  o f t h e nineteenth  developments British  Oral  exercises  well,  1  century  but i n order  i n the  curriculum  classical  o f c o u r s e , a l s o f o c u s e d on c l a s s i c a l  as  new  c o l l e g e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, emphasized  b a c k t o L a t i n and Greek.  English,  related  emphasized a u t i l i -  composition  as i n England.  confined  were  in  authors t o  t h e i r l a n g u a g e s by t r a n s l a t i n g them i n t o E n g l i s h ,  English and  o f t h e two r e s p e c t i v e  The A n g l i c a n  classics,  learn  that  colleges  vernacular.  colleges  d o m i n a t e d by S c o t t i s h p r o f e s s o r s  colony struggling of  colleges.  and from  i n Greek, learning.  Latin The  saw o t h e r groups e s t a b l i s h  to trace  t h e most  important  o f e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Anglophone e d u c a t i o n i n  North  most p r o m i n e n t  America,  this  study  traces  t r a d i t i o n s , the Anglican  t h e two e a r l i e s t and  and P r e s b y t e r i a n .  These  T h e most common r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n s , most o f which were i n v o l v e d i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , were A n g l i c a n , P r e s b y t e r i a n , Wesl e y a n , a n d Roman C a t h o l i c ( g e n e r a l l y F r e n c h ) . Other e a r l y c o l leges not discussed i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i n c l u d e A c a d i a (Bapt i s t ) , Mt. A l l i s o n ( M e t h o d i s t ) , B i s h o p ' s ( A n g l i c a n ) , and Bytown ( O t t a w a — R . C a t h o l i c and b i l i n g u a l ) . 1  Hubert 46  two  a r e then  combined  British  emphasis and  f o l l o w e d by t h e W e s l e y a n - M e t h o d i s t  on u t i l i t y .  Methodists  elitism, in  ially  found  with  common  ground  i n Upper Canada.  friction,  education  pietism  a  colonial  almost  i n the f i r s t  half  i n rhetoric.  i n opposing  This  constantly  American  Anglican  opposition  associated  of the century.  o f c o u r s e , were r e f l e c t e d  i n different  However, t o u n d e r s t a n d  resulted  with  higher  Differences i n curricula,  rhetorical  understand t h e l a r g e r c o l o n i a l i s s u e s  ing  Anglicans  affected  t h e development  English pointed  interests  by London.  colonial were  uneducated  poor,  North  the  mother  country.  34) .  America  to Halifax,  issues  by c o l o n i a l  which  ruling  leaders class,  In  therefore,  Colonial  would  government  leaders  i n B r i t i s h North America. generally  ap-  these  remained thus  Indeed,  S i r David  back t o England,  us t o defend  I t i s certainly against  some  Milne,  a fine  newly  "From what I have reid  country but too distant  so p o w e r f u l a n e i g h b o u r "  N i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Canadian  saw  a s n o t h i n g b u t a burden f o r  1816, A d m i r a l  wrote  have  i t w o u l d b e l u c k y f o r t h i s c o u n t r y [ E n g l a n d ] t o be weel  i t [Canada] .  for  controlled  and who,  f o r colleges  British  of  were  As members o f E n g l a n d ' s  saw  seen  Presbyterians,  o f t h e whole c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l u m .  i n England.  need  appointed  and  relat-  l e a d e r s h a d a low o p i n i o n o f t h e c o l o n i s t s , most o f whom  relatively  little  to  espec-  develop-  ments, we must f i r s t especially  which  I n t h i s emphasis on u t i l i t y , P r e s b y t e r i a n s  often  especially  social  values,  dissenting  tradition,  historian  ( q t d . i n Agnew  J . G. B o u r i n o t s u g -  H u b e r t 47  gests  t h a t t h i s v i e w , though m a g n i f i e d  by t h e p o l i t i c a l  f o l l o w i n g t h e A m e r i c a n and F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n s , them.  As  f a r back  Plains  o f Abraham  doubts  about  gests ing,  London  The  i n 1759, t h e B r i t i s h  the value  feared  of this  o f t h e French  on t h e  as w e l l as t h e French had  northern  the future costs  both o f  region.  Bourinot  o f defending  sug-  notwithstandthese  colonies  1881, 1 6 ) . a t t i t u d e o f t h e Church o f E n g l a n d t o t h e c o l o n i e s  American  Reviewing 1832,  conquest  antedated  t h a t , t h e w e a l t h o f t h e f i s h e r y and f u r t r a d e  (Bourinot  • the  as Wolfe's  situation  Revolution  the Anglican  Archdeacon  mers, P r o f e s s o r  John  corresponded  Church's Strachan  record  of  i n colonial  the  crown.  America  in  Chal-  o f D i v i n i t y a t Edinburgh: settlements,  before the revolu-  no a t t e n t i o n whatever was p a i d  ernment  t o the r e l i g i o u s  in  matter they  and  that  o f T o r o n t o w r o t e t o Thomas  In t h e British-American tion,  to  before  this  laboured  by i m p e r i a l  instruction  were l e f t  gov-  of the colonists:  entirely  t o themselves;  under t h e most s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s ;  they  were i n d e e d  so g r e a t , t h a t , had n o t t h e S o c i e t y f o r t h e  Propagation  o f the Gospel  i n Foreign  Parts  taken  pity  upon h e r members, and s e n t them m i s s i o n a r i e s , an e p i s copal  c l e r g y m a n would have been h a r d l y  North-America tations,  found i n B r i t i s h  at the era of the revolution.  as t h e c o l o n i e s  were t h e n  called,  The P l a n were  con-  s i d e r e d a p a r t o f t h e s p i r i t u a l charge of t h e Bishop o f  H u b e r t 48  London,  b u t no p r e l a t e o f t h e Church had e v e r  them.  The c l e r g y and p a r i s h e s were w i t h o u t  dence;  t h e c h u r c h e s and b u r i a l  superinten-  grounds remained u n c o n -  s e c r a t e d ; t h e c h i l d r e n were w i t h o u t (Strachan  beheld  confirmation.  . . .  1832, 4-5)  A l t h o u g h t h e a r r i v a l o f L o y a l i s t s from America f o l l o w i n g t h e Revolutionary British  North  personal  ties  low  rebellion onies. Upper  owing  t o many  t o t h e mother c o u n t r y , concerns.  These  was  r e i n f o r c e d with Durham's R e p o r t ,  grieved,"  he wrote,  Government  o f the L o y a l i s t s ' the colonies  o r even  attempted,  still  attitudes spilled  strong ranked into  view t h a t education  bred  the revolution of Thirteen  Col-  f o l l o w i n g t h e 1837 r e b e l l i o n s i n that t h i s  a t t i t u d e had e x i s t e d .  " t o be o b l i g e d  has, s i n c e  indifference to  over  a n d Lower Canada, c o n f i r m s  British  London's  England's eighteenth-century  Lord  am  done,  n e c e s s a r i l y changed  America,  i n England's  education.  "I  War  t o remark,  i t s possession  nothing  of this  f o r t h e promotion  that the Province,  of  general  education" (72). The ies  perspective  after  political  ies,  who  clergy,  leaders  differed many  as m i s s i o n a r i e s  from  o f them  i n the colonthat  of the  United  Empire  i n the Thirteen  Colon-  t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e c h u r c h was paramount i n t h e  culture.  that,  religious  Revolution  The  had served  recognized  colonial out  t h e American governors.  Loyalists  of Anglican  Canadian c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n S. F . Wise p o i n t s  a t t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h  century,  " i t was t h e  Hubert  clergy, for  not  the  politicians,  interpreting He  who  bore  the  t h e meaning o f Europe's  large."  the  days  the  p e o p l e t h r o u g h t h e newspaper (Wise 82) .  agitators Loyalist  not  journalist  surprising,  f o r colleges clergymen.  education  and  In  politician  then,  i n early  that  the  gained access t o  important  Canada were a l m o s t  fact,  the  first  Anglican  exclusively  concerns  f o r higher  i n t h e M a r i t i m e s were t r a n s m i t t e d t o London b e f o r e two  - o f t h e s e c l e r g y m e n had 1783,  society  n o t e s t h a t clergymen were e x t r e m e l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n  before the  is  responsibility  convulsions to  at  It  chief  49  even a r r i v e d  i n Nova S c o t i a .  e i g h t e e n C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d c l e r g y m e n i n New  On March  8,  York formulated  "A P l a n o f R e l i g i o u s and L i t e r a r y I n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f Nova and  Scotia." a  seminary,  grammar  school  October  18,  Carleton,  the  original  American he  learning  t h e p l a n was  then group  clergyman would  included churches, church lands,  academy o r c o l l e g e . for  1783  Guy  1787,  The p l a n  in  The p l a n  the  o f e i g h t e e n was about  become  classical  reaffirmed  Commander-in-Chief  a t New  for a  languages.  York.  Charles I n g l i s ,  North  called  On  and s e n t t o London w i t h  t o e m i g r a t e t o Nova British  also  clergy,  A member o f an  Irish-born  Scotia,  where, i n  America's  first  Anglican  bishop. For ters. bishop: proper  Inglis,  t h e Church needed  In January "There  are  1788, two  he  wrote  objects  a college for training from Nova S c o t i a  which  E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e Church  I  have  in this  minis-  t o the Arch-  i n view—one  Province,  is a  by an A c t  Hubert  of the  L e g i s l a t u r e ; the other i s , the Establishment  without in  R.  w h i c h C h u r c h m a t t e r s must be V.  Harris  envisioned  for  education This  112).  his  linked  link  was  proximity  to  Thus,  new to  charge the  the  church  especially  important  to  seek  beginnings  in  of  culture in p o l i t i c s ,  • distrust would  American  influence  the  British  development  B r i t i s h North America u n t i l  of  to  of  higher  authority,. Scotia's  had  forcibly  Loyalists to  the  religion  colleges  bishop  Nova  l e d the  colonies  Confederation  of  which  i d e a l s which had the  Anglican  government  America,  British  state" (qtd.  pattern  because  rejected new  ideals,  first  English  and  post-revolutionary  of a college,  i n an i m p e r f e c t  Canada's  50  i n the  north.  and  2  A  education  colonies  of  i n 1 8 6 7 — a n d even a f t e r  that. I n g l i s had personally loyalty  2  In  to  served  as a m i s s i o n a r y  experienced the  British  the  anger o f  monarchy.  3  p r i e s t i n A m e r i c a , and  the An  had  revolutionaries for his  even  more  serious  social  1790, I n g l i s wrote i n a l e t t e r : W i t h r e s p e c t t o our s e m i n a r y , one o f my principal m o t i v e s f o r pushing i t forward was t o prevent the i m p o r t a t i o n o f American D i v i n e s and A m e r i c a n p o l i c i e s i n t o the province. U n l e s s we have a s e m i n a r y here, t h e y o u t h o f Nova S c o t i a w i l l be s e n t f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n t o the Revolted Colonies—the i n e v i t a b l e consequence w o u l d be a c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s " ( q t d . i n Vroom 25).  A l t h o u g h a c t u a l incidents are d i f f i c u l t to f i n d , s t o r i e s c i r c u l a t i n g among Church o f E n g l a n d w o r s h i p p e r s t o l d o f a t t a c k s on p r i e s t s by t r o o p s w a i t i n g o u t s i d e t h e c h u r c h u n t i l t h e p r i e s t p r a y e d f o r the K i n g i n the " I n t e r c e s s i o n , " p a r t of the s e r v i c e of h o l y communion. S i n c e p r a y e r f o r t h e B r i t i s h k i n g was an a c t o f t r e a s o n , t h e p r i e s t s were branded as t r a i t o r s and t r e a t e d as s u c h . 3  H u b e r t 51  disintegration however,  i n Nova  indicated ideal  that  i n America,  was,  even w h i l e I n g l i s p l a n n e d  fora  S. F. Wise h o l d s t h a t f o r I n g l i s , t h e  was an e v e n t  without  precedent  God's  For Inglis, Britain's victory approval  i n God's w i l l ,  84,85).  institution physical  like  i n human  his-  i t was t h e r e s u l t o f i m p i e t y i n t h e u p p e r o r d e r s o f t h e  European n a t i o n .  (Wise  revolution  Scotia.  Revolution  tory—and  an  a  t a k i n g p l a c e i n France,  college French  than  The  social  o r d e r , which, a s  I n g l i s wished t o implement i n Nova S c o t i a  college,  f o r training  wealth  of the B r i t i s h  i n t h e F r e n c h war  therefore,  lawyers  o f the colony.  was  not primarily  and merchants  an  t o increase the  I t was an i n t e g r a l  p a r t o f God's  k i n g d o m on e a r t h . But ired,  Inglis  owing  political  is  with  meet  difficulty  Governor  Parr:  "He h o l d s  about h i s  literature  i n great . . . It  t h a t I c a n g e t him and t h e o t h e r G o v e r n o r s t o r e l a t i v e t o i t [ t h e C o l l e g e ] and when met,  ( q t d . i n Vroom  One o f t h e o t h e r  25).  o f t h e c o l l e g e was A l e x a n d e r who,  des-  Scotia's English  A t p r e s e n t I seem t o r o l l  Canterbury,  subscribe  o f Nova  he so  g o e s on h e a v i l y .  stone"  Admiralty,  attitudes  the college  I n 1790, he w r o t e t h e A r c h b i s h o p  on a n y b u s i n e s s  governors  of  with  founding  and o f t e n h i n t s t h a t i t does h u r t t o mankind.  the business phean  t o the e l i t i s t  leaders.  difficulties contempt,  had d i f f i c u l t y  against insisted  Inglis' that  Croke,  a Sisy-  troublesome  Vice-judge  of the  p r o t e s t a t i o n s t o the Archbishop  a l l students  t o the Thirty-nine Articles  o f t h e new  college  o f t h e Church o f E n g l a n d .  Croke  also  British  those the  s e t an  by  about  parent  college  this  seminary  tion  of  the and  The the in  "We  to  English  he  the  charter  of  1802  was  would  be  accompto  first  professors  of  e s p e c i a l l y concerned small  importance  p r a c t i c e and  undebased  "a  by  local  to  pronunciaor  national  37). King's College,  officially  as  Anglican  was  o f Governors dominated by  professors,  Divinity  and  Natural  Philosophy,  Logic.  The  with  the  duties  Latin  except last all  college  and  Astronomy;  divisions:  Metaphysics; Mathematics,  and  Grammar,  Rhetoric  and  f o r t h i s l a s t p r o f e s s o r were p r e s c r i b e d :  1st. and  The  following teaching  Hebrew; M o r a l S c i e n c e s and  Croke.  but  statutes  the  four  curriculum,  on  e x c l u s i v e n a t u r e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n u l t i m a t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d by  have  proposed  proclaimed  based  the  to  only the  men  also  Board  not  These  generation  the  U n i v e r s i t y of but  at  rising  i t i s o f no  ( q t d . i n Vroom  of  the  g e n u i n e use,  language,  solecisms"  of  duties,  the  studied  Croke h e l d t h a t  institution  In charging  think that  teach  present  new  manners  their  statutes  royal 1803,  the  state."  with  elocution:  accents  of  a s s i m i l a t i n g the  of the  new  object  had  52  Church o f E n g l a n d .  E n g l i s h "tone o f c h a r a c t e r . "  principal  lished  on h i r i n g o n l y p r o f e s s o r s who  u n i v e r s i t i e s l i n k e d to the  were t o very  insisted  Hubert  He  shall  i n Grammar, and  C l a s s i c s , a l t e r n a t e l y , every  Sundays  days,  lecture  and  from n i n e  Students  during  day,  Holydays,  the  first,  to ten.  And  his Pupils  their  third  and  and  the  Greek  in  term,  the  two  shall  be  fourth years;  he  Hubert  shall he  read  read the f i r s t .  2d.  In Rhetoric,  past  eleven.  first  And  shall  (Statutes  complishments"  except  term,  either  . . the  from h a l f p a s t t e n t o h a l f  shall  be a l l S t u d e n t s d u r i n g  every  days,  day,  i n term.  . . the  from t w e l v e t o one. during t h e i r  first  His year.  1803, 4)  Music,  were  nature  uates  .  those  were  allowed  French,  private  Riding,  particu-  instruction  "and o t h e r p o l i t e  in ac-  ( S t a t u t e s 1803, 1 3 ) .  Exercises  as  day, i n t e r m  be a l l S t u d e n t s  Students  Dancing,  fully  from  t o be p r o c u r e d t o t e a c h Modern Languages,  French.  classical  i n Logic,  and t h e two l a s t  pupils  Drawing,  His Pupils  year  year.  3d.  were  every  and t h e two l a s t days,  the f i r s t  larly  books t h e second  shall  first  Masters  different  53  also  stipulated.  These r e f l e c t e d  o f the curriculum, with  important  as t h a t  Civilians"  classical  of the vernacular.  were t o compose  the strong work  deemed  " A l l Undergrad-  "a Theme e v e r y week i n  i n p r o s e o r v e r s e , i n E n g l i s h and L a t i n  alternately"  (Statutes  1803; " E x e r c i z e s , " 1) E v e r y S a t u r d a y u n d e r g r a d u a t e s  Bachelors  o f A r t s were t o r o t a t e i n g i v i n g two d e c l a m a t i o n s , one  in  English  passages from  and  from  the  other  English,  i n Latin.  Every  selected  L a t i n o r Greek a u t h o r s were t o be r e c i t e d  memory b y two o r more u n d e r g r a d u a t e s .  c a l l y demanded t h a t  Saturday,  and  in all  The s t a t u t e s  specifi-  H u b e r t 54  declamations, in  which  r e c i t a t i o n s , and i n a l l o t h e r  t h e Students  public,  great  pronunciation, accents,  themselves (Statutes In with  informal  English  ducing his  analysis  and  extracts  gether  with  logical The  t h e emphasis  Each  o r Greek,  student  a l l Provincial  and  shall  i n proper  deliver emphasis.  on c l a s s i c a l  o f the curriculum  of  arguments  of the finest  Sunday  was t o make  material as p r o -  collections, i n  " e i t h e r by abridgement,  h i s own c r i t i c i s m ,  every  their  j u s t as f a m i l i a r w i t h Greek and L a t i n a s w i t h  resolution  making  to  4)  1 1  r e f l e c t e d the goal  culture.  Latin,  and  o r speak i n  paid  avoid  improprieties,  correctness  aloud be  shall  1803, " E x e r c i z e s ,  again  English,  finally,  with  read  shall  they  other  exercises,  a graduate  native  attention that  and  shall  exercises,  there  into  o r most  by a  logical  syllogisms,  o r by  material,  and o b s e r v a t i o n s were  t o be  passages, t o -  upon them.  disputations,  And  "either  or rhetorical." e m p h a s i s on e d u c a t i o n  also stressed.  a s a t r a i n i n g i n m o r a l c u l t u r e was  S t u d e n t s ' p r i v a t e b e h a v i o r was t o be m o n i t o r e d by  tutors: It  shall  be  the o f f i c e  of t h e Tutor  examine t h e p r i v a t e s t u d i e s in  c a s e he s h a l l  Classics religious  upon  t o d i r e c t and  of h i s Pupil,  particularly  f i n d him d e f i c i e n t i n Grammar and t h e  admission;  conduct;  to  to  control  inspect  h i s moral  h i s expences;  and  and t o  H u b e r t 55  regulate  a l l those  parts  o f education  and  behaviour,  w h i c h a r e n o t w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f any o f t h e P r o f e s sors,  and a r e t o o minute  President. Non-Anglican were  f o r the attention  ( S t a t u t e s 1803, "Of The T u t o r s " )  religious  practice  and n o n - a r i s t o c r a t i c  principles  s t r o n g l y p r o s c r i b e d a s A n g l i c a n e x c l u s i v e n e s s mixed w i t h an  anti-American  consciousness  was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e s t a t u t e s :  No member o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y s h a l l h o l d , or  teach,  any a t h e i s t i c a l ,  doctrines, or  No Romish ians,  First,  member mass,  faith,  of the B r i t i s h  o f the U n i v e r s i t y s h a l l  o r t h e meeting  Houses  B a p t i s t s , o r Methodists,  Con-  o f England,  or shall  tions,  or  rebellious  t h e beginning,  Inglis  to the religious school,  c o l l e g e had a d i f f i c u l t  dissenters  from t h e  a t any s e d i -  (Statutes  1803, "Of  3)  had p r o t e s t e d  and f a r t o o grandiose  of the Presbyter-  be present  meetings.  C o n d u c t and B e h a v i o r "  frequent t h e  or the Conventicles o r  Church  preparatory  or democratical  a s by Law E s t a b l i s h e d . . . .  When t h e c o l l e g e f i n a l l y  adequate the  or subversive  o f any o t h e r  owing  maintain,  contrary to the Christian  o f Worship,  restrictive  colony.  morals,  deistical,  places  Moral From  principles  t o good  stitution  too  of the  Croke's p l a n s  and expensive  as  f o r a small  opened, h i s f e a r s p r o v e d  true.  p r e s c r i p t i o n s and t h e l a c k o f an there  time  were  few s t u d e n t s .  finding  a teaching  Second,  staff  that  Hubert  met  Croke's  situated few  stipulations.  at  Windsor,  part-time  sities. sors  students,  The  to  Dublin,  its first  force  Professor  of  day's j o u r n e y such as  since  the  Grammar, no  even  Rhetoric,  the  o n l y two  then.  and  from  Notwithstanding  was  from H a l i f a x , i t a t t r a c t e d  profes-  financial difficulties  layoffs  incumbent  college  were common i n S c o t t i s h u n i v e r -  years, with  temporary  since  procured.  third,  c o l l e g e , therefore, struggled with  through  cient  a  And  56  Logic  Oxford  reality  was  or of  In  addition, a  the  graduate  Cambridge  the  suffi-  of  could  situation,  be  Croke  insisted  t h a t t h i s professor d e l i v e r h i s Logic lectures i n Latin,  "because  t h i s was  Cochran  readily  the  consented,  ent."  In Rhetoric  tilian  i n the  Within together  with  that  McCulloch, tially  the  the  of  exclusive  i t was  of  Academy  appar-  read  Quinc-  classical  focus,  50).  Anglican  c o n f i n e s o f t h e new  Presbyterian  Church  of  t o stay the winter.  P i c t o u Academy was itself  England  was  the  o r i e n t a t i o n had  college.  minister  repercus-  In the f a l l  not  from  In Mcculloch's  a  deep  represented  opposed t o  i n the  a  by  of  the  Thomas  Glasgow,  swayed by t h e  laid—and  embodied  establishment  M c C u l l o c h was  "Dr.  soon  h i s students  f o r P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , was  Pictou  Windsor.  (Vroom  emigrant  of P i c t o u Scots foundation  folly  s t a t u t e s o f K i n g ' s C o l l e g e were p r o c l a i m e d ,  an  bound  the  Vroom w r i t e s t h a t  d e c a d e o f Windsor's o p e n i n g ,  s i o n s beyond the year  but  though, "Cochran and  Latin"  a  custom a t O x f o r d . "  ini-  appeals  agreement  the  necessity  for  resistance  to  King's College  religious  college,  the at but  Hubert  his  Scottish  that  heritage  students  education. tian,  adhere  Although  revolted to  a  against  specific  a  university  creed  i n order  57  demanding  to  gain  an  S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s were d e c i d e d l y C h r i s -  o f t e n w i t h a strong Presbyterian f l a v o r , they p r e s c r i b e d  no  r e l i g i o u s t e s t s , w e l c o m i n g Roman C a t h o l i c , A n g l i c a n o r P r e s b y t e r ian without  prejudice.  McCulloch's Croke's  4  Presbyterianism  Anglicanism,  with  philosophy of education. - • for a  healthy  original the  individual  tual  and  moral  superiors  those  a  for  from  McCulloch*'s  a basic  necessity  healthy society.  has  (1819,  i n which man  been d e s i g n e d 3).  from  However,  "The  themselves;  putting  in  for intellecbecause  especially  deep-  potential, in  youth,  "everything tending t o  i t s place  "whatever  good and u s e f u l and c a l c u l a t e d t o encourage  man  end in  of a l i b e r a l intelligence  h i s subsequent  duty and  e d u c a t i o n , t h e n , was and  with  i s placed,"  a c h i e v i n g one's  remove from t h e i n d i v i d u a l  The of  improve  disposition,"  t o be  provement of  as  circumstances  "show t h a t he  cannot  of  "(4).  basis  as w e l l  improvement"  must  depravity p e a r [s]  results  E d u c a t i o n f o r a l l was  i m p e r f e c t i o n s p r e v e n t one  individuals  tion  of  McCulloch,  rooted  important  significantly  c o n f o r m a t i o n and s t a t e o f t h e human mind, c o n n e c t e d  peculiarity  stated  differed  moral  happiness"  principle,  ap-  imita-  "the  im-  as  the  (6) . A s t r o n g  sense  W. B. H a m i l t o n ' s a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Thomas M c C u l l o c h : Advoc a t e o f N o n - S e c t a r i a n E d u c a t i o n " d i s c u s s e s M c C u l l o c h ' s commitment t o n o n - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Nova Scotia. 4  Hubert  of  duty  and  arose  society:  of o f f i c e s of  from  t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i n d i v i d u a l  "The e x i s t e n c e o f a s o c i a l s t a t e produces  p a r t s o f s o c i e t y , u l t i m a t e l y t e n d t o t h e bene-  o f t h e whole."  could  not perform  tained both duty lay  a variety  a n d d u t i e s , which, by p r o m o t i n g t h e s a f e t y and c o m f o r t  the individual  fit  58  F u r t h e r , e d u c a t i o n was i m p o r t a n t because one's  " u n l e s s he have p r e v i o u s l y  i t s n a t u r e and t h e mode o f p e r f o r m a n c e "  t o know  one's  social  the necessity  McCulloch's  duty  responsibilities  of teaching  rhetoric,  (7).  ascerIn t h i s  and t o p e r f o r m which  was  one  them  central  to  concept of learning:  A liberal science, both  education, beside unfolding the p r i n c i p l e s o f i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c a l c u l a t e d t o q u a l i f y t h e mind  f o r the acquisition  knowledge. conducted also,  t h e communication  I n e v e r y w e l l r e g u l a t e d seminary, as  to  t o connect  corresponding tion.  and  exercise  the thinking  the acquisition  improvement  of  i t i s so  powers; and,  o f knowledge w i t h  i n t h e power  a  o f communica-  ( M c C u l l o c h 1819, 18)  To g a i n k n o w l e d g e w i t h o u t t h e a b i l i t y t o a c t on i t o r communicate it  would  McCulloch  have  defeated  therefore  t h e purpose  believed  heavily  emphasizing  classical  Scotia,  for practical  that  of  the curriculum  languages,  as w e l l  McCulloch's of  was u n s u i t e d  as f o r r e l i g i o u s  academy. King's, f o r Nova  and s o c i a l  rea-  sons. McCulloch  soon  determined  to  establish  a  non-sectarian  Hubert  school  in  Pictou.  hoping  to  gain  to  the  In  a  King's  council  in  Halifax,  titudes  and  jealous  of  them  To  school)  important dent  of  College  in  at  competition  since  had  elitist  legislative English  f o r King's College,  also  the  legislative  not  allowed  a  of the next generation,  Kingston, o f New  council,  at-  stood (most  against  non-denominational  J . W.  Three  Dawson, p r e s i -  the  William  Brydon  Jack,  president  of  the to  f r o m Glasgow, M c C u l l o c h ' s alma mater. surface, to  emphasis  reputation  and  Brunswick, p r o c e e d e d from P i c t o u t o S c o t l a n d  in  the  parallel on  natural philosophy,  stance,  c o n t r o l l e d by  The  go  M c G i l l C o l l e g e , George Munro G r a n t , p r e s i d e n t o f Queen's  appeared  the  Windsor.  t o t r a v e l to the United States or to Scotland.  r e c e i v e M.A.s  have  at  unable t o  g a i n degrees, t h e r e f o r e , P i c t o u graduates  educators  University  On  famous P i c t o u Academy,  c o l l e g e f o r those  College  o f any  wishes,  had  opened t h e  however,  Presbyterian,  McCulloch's  he  degree-granting  Anglicans'  i n h i s way.  1809,  59  the  r e q u i r e d the  Second  Academy  course  studies  practical  subjects  in  mathematics  The  1830  statutes  of  Pictou,  and wide  for i n -  following curriculum:  year: Year:  Year:  may  t h a t o f King's C o l l e g e , except perhaps  L a t i n and Logic,  Greek;  including  R h e t o r i c ; L a t i n and Third  of  r e f l e c t i n g M c C u l l o c h ' s h i g h i n t e r e s t and  geology.  First  Pictou  Moral Philosophy,  general  Grammar  Greek  continued;  Mathematics w i t h  p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , Algebra;  and  their  Hubert  Fourth  Year:  Natural  Philosophy,  Algebra William  McCulloch,  biography  of  teaching  in  analysis  and  the  that  son  and  taught  the  in  the  practical  education  well  vernacular,  the  versed  oral  1838,  by  at  in  his  the  Scottish  focus  students  so  in  1816,  on  legislative Lord  of  left  to  George  Anglican  strife  within  almost  from  for  in  the  Ramsay,  Ninth to  a  liberal,  U n i v e r s i t y of  Earl  Nova  of  himself the  had  Nova  Scotia  the  was  A  Scot,  removal  to  In  college,  1838,  from long  up  community,  the  the  after  sectarian  i n Pictou, f i n a l l y take  he  non-Anglicans,  opening t i l l  Presbyterian days  Pictou  Dalhousie,  Resistance  colony.  McCulloch's e a r l i e s t from  Col-  Scotia.  Edinburgh.  left  of King's  non-denominational  from  first  T h i s c o l l e g e t o o grew  exclusiveness  c o u n c i l kept Dalhousie  Dalhousie  McCulloch's  founded  the  by  they  P i c t o u Academy t o become t h e  lieutenant-governor  he  that  rhetoric  p a u c i t y of educational opportunities f o r  1818  modelled  determined  fundamentals  the  noted the  set  as w e l l as w r i t t e n .  McCulloch  as  o f s t u d i e s was  i t is  McCulloch's concerns  reaction  appointed  his  Further,  out  In  of  (179).  College i n H a l i f a x .  lege.  part  as  stressed  of Dalhousie  a  the  McCulloch  president of  in  Pictou,  curriculum. of  that  wrote  c u r r i c u l u m as w e l l , b u t ,  the  and  146)  McCulloch,  however,  English  i n S c o t t i s h teaching not  In  Thomas  classical  professor,  be  of  Rhetoric  composition  the  would  (qtd. i n McMullin  e l d e r McCulloch,  Grammar  universities clear  the  Mathematics  60  present led to  presidency  at  Hubert  Dalhousie. in  Halifax.  ganized to  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , McCulloch  as  Unable a  support  high  school u n t i l  1838  necessity  of  classical  languages,  Greek  Latin  and  especially  said,  a  but  helped  Dalhousie  reor-  when Nova S c o t i a n s  education. for  one  Christian  more  rallied  a t Dalhousie stressed the  He  supported  specific  studying  reasons:  understand  the  scriptures.  "He  that  classical who  the  Hebrew,  writings,  teaches  these  However, l e a r n i n g one's n a t i v e  t h a t boys s h o u l d i n H a l i f a x o r elsewhere y e a r s upon L a t i n and  seven  in  c o l l e g e p a r t l y o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e same languages of  stances  human or  Dalhousie be  adapted  neither  p r o s p e r i t y of  College not  stitution in  the  life  Greek and  by  an  acquire  H a r r i s 1976,  of  to  and  Oxford,  practical  f o u r more  the  Scotia.  usefulness  imitation  o f s c i e n c e and  Nova  then  spend s i x  or  will  he  important:  waste  is a  circum-  . . .  If  eminence i t  but  as  intelligence,  an i n (qtd.  33)  o p e n e d w i t h o n l y s i x t e e n s t u d e n t s , most o f them w i t h o u t  p r e p a r a t i o n , so M c C u l l o c h  composition Murray's  him,  years  i n D a l h o u s i e C o l l e g e s h o u l d know h i s b u s i n e s s w e l l , "  But  good  1863,  as r e s p e c t a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d .  Dalhousie  without  i n a u g u r a l address  practical  the  t o n g u e was  a  continue  only f i v e  i t s r e v i v a l as a n o n - s e c t a r i a n u n i v e r s i t y .  McCulloch's  - languages  to  died after  61  and  logic  English  (Harvey  Grammar  f  held  1938,  with  the  special  52-3).  night classes i n  McCulloch used L i n d l e y  subtitle  "Adapted  for Dif-  Hubert  ferent  Classes  of Learners."  emphasis  on  Crawley,  a King's-educated  McCulloch  the classics,  McCulloch  i n spite  o f McCulloch  thus  writing  and  i n early  P i c t o u Academy New  deriving was  Brunswick,  still by  G.  which  New  i n New  Thomas  sciences"  (Bailey  Scotia  repeated  that  York,  first  educational  in  problems  five  Brunswick  16) .  originally  petitioned  Having  o t h e r New  reasons  Unlike  emigrated  Brunswick  Parr  for a to  leaders,  of  liberal  i n Nova  Scotia,  s e t t i n g a s i d e 6,000 a c r e s o f l a n d By 1787 an academy was  t o prosper.  proposed  O d e l l was a l s o one o f  C a r l e t o n f o r "an academy  of Fredericton.  sees  themselves.  i n 1783.  with  immediately,  but i t f a i l e d  Bailey  clergy  Governor  the parish  tion,  Nova  1785, O d e l l ,  C a r l e t o n responded in  the  provincial secretary.  Loyalist  while  and  Scotia,  both  doctor,  Brunswick  arts  Nova  on  e n v i s i o n e d by Rev. J o h n O d e l l , p o e t , c l e r g y m a n ,  of  petitioned  emphasis  college  the  New  colonial  Scottish i n -  A  and f i r s t  college  The  5  led to a practical  Anglican elitism  politician group  Dr.  and t h e n i n D a l h o u s i e C o l l e g e .  from  first  an undue  o f s t r o n g p r e s s u r e from  f o r the presidency of Dalhousie.  oratory  resisted  c o n v e r t t o t h e B a p t i s t s and a r i v a l t o  fluence  In  also  62  The New  Brunswick  f o r t h e weakness  i n opera-  historian  of the  A.  academy,  t o elevate t o degree-granting s t a -  ^Crawley i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e l i b e r a l and n o b l e sentiments f o s t e r e d i n t h e mother c o u n t r y a r o s e from E n g l a n d ' s emphasis on classical literature. M c C u l l o c h , r e s i s t i n g C r a w l e y ' s emphasis, h e l d t h a t r e l i g i o n , n o t t h e c l a s s i c s , had e n n o b l e d t h e B r i t i s h ( H a r v e y 1938, 5 2 - 3 ) .  Hubert  tus:  the  area  enrolled  (17  lacked in  the  qualified academy  instructors;  in  1793) ;  the  too 1793  63  few  students  draft  charter  restricted  m a t r i c u l a t i o n to Anglicans;  to  the  B r u n s w i c k c o l l e g e b e c a u s e i t would weaken t h e  college  at  Windsor  nearby;  rule  the  New  divide-and-conquer  mutual 1776  cooperation,  last  regarding tion.  political  hand o f  were  unspoken p o l i c y  meant  inevitably  i n E n g l a n d , and  keep  opposition  to  colonies  by  from  London a f t e r  the  (17-18) .  of  these  five  c o n t r o l of  the  t h r e e concerns,  the  to  implemented by  reasons colony  Anglican  church  intertwined,  relate  to  concerns  rather than to  t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h was  London's c o l o n i a l p o l i c y .  America,  union  an  mentality,  consciously  three  In these  North  official  g i v e n the union  educa-  to act  I n the h i s t o r y o f  and  thus i n the c o l o n i e s .  as  British  colonial  policy  o f c h u r c h and  state  Problems a r i s i n g from  this  i n e v i t a b l y b e d e v i l e d B r i t i s h N o r t h America. Originally  Fredericton support  by  for  a new  annual  as in  the  College  1828,  o f New  attempted  a b o l i s h i n g the A n g l i c a n r e s t r i c t i o n s  faculty,  Although  chartered  institution,  and  cal  finally,  American r e b e l l i o n The  the  and,  Bishop I n g l i s '  and  to  charter. the  gain The  the  curriculum,  waste of time.  the  c o l l e g e was  plan failed,  w h i c h New Further,  to  popular  on b o t h  students  by  t h u s renamed K i n g ' s c h a r t e r and  the c o n t i n u e d  asking  College.  provided  owing t o t h e c o n t i n u i n g  Brunswick t i m b e r  the  gain  E n g l i s h crown's s u p p o r t  crown a g r e e d t o t h e new  funding,  Brunswick,  modest classi-  merchants c o n s i d e r e d  a  Anglican e l i t i s t attitudes  Hubert  of  the  not  college,  alter,  at  a practical  irritated  Fredericton  factor that the revised statutes d i d  many, whether w e a l t h y o r n o t .  were n o t  solved  until  The  1855-60, when a  problems commission  o f e d u c a t o r s f r o m o u t s i d e t h e p r o v i n c e recommended changes, were  implemented  largely  64  after  the  1859  resignation  of  which  Oxford-  e d u c a t e d P r e s i d e n t Edwin J a c o b . I n U p p e r Canada, r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l Church  of  England  t o problems, Upper  personalities John  Simcoe,  situation were  Strachan  somewhat.  involved,  Strachan,  Toronto.  t o mass e d u c a t i o n once  in was  1839  one to  invited  As of  in  the  become to  Nova  the  Upper  Canada from  by  keep  of  Bishop  John  the of  Graves  1791-95.  Sim-  Englishman.  Simcoe d e t e r m i n e d t o  a s c h o o l system c u l m i n a t i n g i n a u n i v e r s i t y i n o r d e r t o  young  where t h e i r To  upon b e i n g a p p o i n t e d g o v e r n o r ,  strong  that  Anglican  c o e ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d e d u c a t i o n were a t y p i c a l f o r an  establish  again l e d  Scotia,  strongest  L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r o f Upper Canada  Immediately  from  a l t h o u g h a strong Methodist presence complicated the  Canada  Rev.  restrictions  f r i c t i o n deriving  men  from  having to gain t h e i r  political  sensibilities  pay  for this  system,  and  Simcoe  arranged  to  set aside  have  would  to finance  education i n America, be p e r v e r t e d  (Ross 9) .  t h e work o f t h e  huge t r a c t s  of public  church, land.  6  E d u c a t e d a t E t o n and a t O x f o r d , Simcoe n e v e r t h e l e s s saw t h e n e e d f o r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e c o l o n y . He a r g u e d t h a t "a c o l l e g e o f a h i g h e r c l a s s w o u l d be e m i n e n t l y u s e f u l , and would g i v e a t o n e o f p r i n c i p l e and manners t h a t would be o f i n f i n i t e s u p p o r t t o Government" (Hodgins I, 11). Simcoe, t h e r e f o r e , s e t i n motion l e g i s l a t i o n , a p p r o v e d i n 1798, t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e d a l m o s t 300,000 a c r e s a s an endowment f o r a u n i v e r s i t y (Ross 1896, 1 1 ) . 6  Hubert  Before  he  Prior  to  could  complete  leaving,  however,  Aberdeen graduate to  help  i n the  Strachan course, the  John  he  - Following  i n K i n g s t o n on t h e  replaced. a  recent  or u n i v e r s i t y . "  l a s t day  o f 1799,  arrival  from  forced  years  When  he was,  impoverished  as  the  British  young  a private  North  Scot  to  tutor  America alter  after  before  his  i n Kingston,  t h e m i n i s t r y o f t h e Church o f E n g l a n d  plans. Strachan  and moved t o  Corn-  where he became famous f o r t h e manner i n which he t a u g h t  Cornwall  Grammar  School,  attended  by  many t h e  Upper Canada's Tory e l i t e .  Strachan's  reflected  of h i s students:  i n a l e t t e r t o one In  conducting  o b j e c t s has credit after  the be  f o r you think  office  accomplish  yourselves:  this  bounds,  disposition,  i s one  of  Spragge,  an  editor  of  my  principal  t o which you may this,  i t was  here-  necessary  I  have  always  and en-  w h i c h when p r e s e r v e d w i t h i n  the  of  of  f o r discharging with  accordingly  p o s s i b i l i t y be a c q u i r e d , George  one  always been t o f i t you  To  at  educational philosophy i s  education,  d u t i e s o f any  children  t o be accustomed f r e q u e n t l y t o depend upon,  couraged due  your  called.  for  of  f o r c e d t o s t a y i n Upper Canada.  reassignment  three  was  Strachan,  d i s a p p o i n t e d i n h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s , but,  Strachan's  the  invited  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f "a c o l l e g e  arrived  Simcoe's  wall,  he  however,  r e p u t e d t o be a good t e a c h e r , t o come t o Canada  l o n g j o u r n e y , he was  entered  h i s plans,  65  greatest benefits that  (qtd. i n Scadding Strachan's  can  161)  letters,  suggests  Hubert  that Strachan sake ing  of out  life." them  expected  the colony,  and,  of  plans, t o take  his  To  practice  also  system, xii).  own  train  a prominent  place  them  in  public  f u t u r e v o c a t i o n s , he  issues  chosen  frequently  gave being  By t h i s method  h i s students with the B r i t i s h  preparing  f o r the  f o r the e f f e c t u a l c a r r y -  f r o m t h e B r i t i s h House o f Commons.  stress  on  Cornwall  grammar  Anglican  view  been  in  the  sakes,  parliamentary  for future leadership  (Spragge  xi-  7  The  can  debating,  familiarized thus  very probably,  his pupils for their  in  famous d e b a t e s he  h i s s t u d e n t s " f o r t h e i r own  66  rooted views,  society, other  the  apart  motives,  other not.  were  members  the  traditional  Strachan's t h e one On  the  of  Tory  upper-class,  with other  hand, S t r a c h a n ' s  establishment  have Angli-  students  families,  to  assert  being which  a  prepared  traditional  Scotsman, education  views  Strachan was  to take  so  the  t h e i r place i n  effectively.  had right  grown up of  every  E v e n a s an A n g l i c a n , S t r a c h a n appears  t o have e s p o u s e d  al  In  Scottish  Strachan's  f o c u s on d e b a t e may  compatible one  set  c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s would become community  able  in  English oratory  from  Hence t h e y were t o be  hand,  vironment  in  of education.  Cornwall  leaders.  school  i n two  S t r a c h a n was  facility  values  in  education.  the  Anglican  On  the  i n an  en-  citizen. traditionChristian  A comprehensive d i s c u s s i o n of Strachan's t e a c h i n g a t Cornw a l l , where h e , a p p e a r s t o have c o n c e i v e d much o f h i s l a t e r e d u c a tional philosophy, i s g i v e n i n G. W. Spragge, "The Cornwall S c h o o l Under John Strachan," i n Ontario H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y Papers and R e c o r d s 34 (1942): 63-85. 7  Hubert  Record tic  of  1819,  Strachan stated c l e a r l y h i s b e l i e f  education intimately associated with It  was  into  reserved  practice  people. every  c o u n t r y , where i t has  holy  solicitude  of  tions,  view  that  the  been  f o r the  leading  scriptures.  confined  f o r the  of  suggest  educating  education  to  one,  and  Nor but  i s the  hierarchy,  the  S t r a c h a n was  f o r he  social  1962,  of  due  of to  ancient  Strachan  youth,  of  this  a  and  the  conduct  a l l denomina-  class Anglican  clergy  the  citing Israel.  rose  denominations  a r t i c l e . The  i n the  Church  problem  of  more t h e A n g l i c a n  England position  o f E n g l a n d d e s e r v e d an e x c l u s i v e p o s i t i o n of  British  A n g l i c a n church  the  affirmed  state,  in  55)  t h e common upper  a c c e p t e d more and  structure  the  sermon t o he  i n c r e a s e as  Church  position  whole  e d u c a t i o n threatened the s o c i a l order.  to  the  put  shown  doctrines  praise  i s equally  ( q t d . i n Purdy  young  important  l a t e r n a r r o w e d f r o m t h e c h a r i t y o f t h i s 1819  that  a  established,  S t r a c h a n ' s e a r l y acceptance of other C h r i s t i a n  appeared  and  a t g r e a t p a i n i n d i r e c t i n g t h e i r minds t o a know-  ledge  Not  work  to  . . . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e C h r i s t i a n Church has,  becoming been  sublime  i n a democra-  Christianity.  for Christianity  the  67  He  enjoyed  America,  history  precedents of  Jewish  similar  i n England.  of the E s t a b l i s h e d  biblical  the  North  Church  In  within to  an  1836  o f Upper Canada,  o f u n i o n between c h u r c h support  the  f o r the  temple  begged h i s opponents t o " l o o k t o E n g l a n d  and in and  Hubert  Scotland, they  each  were  nations" Thomas  o f w h i c h had a r e l i g i o u s  mainly  indebted  ( q t d . i n Ryerson  Chalmers  for their  o f Edinburgh  w i t h Bishop Hobart  establishment, t o which  vast  1883, 2 1 5 ) .  68  superiority  t o other  W r i t i n g t o t h e Rev. Dr.  i n 1832, he r e v i e w e d  o f New Y o r k about t h e American  an argument  model o f s e p a r -  a t i n g c h u r c h and s t a t e : Such  influence  [ o f t h e American  Episcopal  Church]  on  t h e manner and h a b i t s o f t h e p e o p l e i s n e x t t o n o t h i n g . . the  Add t o t h i s  people  t h e dependence o f y o u r  for support—a  state  clergy  of things  a t t e n d e d w i t h most p e r n i c i o u s consequences. the  duty  their  of  boundaries,  i n Ryerson As  Strachan's  narrow  views  to  ecclesiastical  . . . It i s  constitute  establishment.  d u t i e s i n t h e Church  advocacy  on  nations  which i s  within (qtd.  1883, 215)  official  ever-increasing  Christian  upon  f o r t h e Church,  the priority  o f England  Strachan's  o f t h e Church  l e d t o an  increasingly  o f England  i n the  colony l e d t o a s h i f t i n h i s educational p r i o r i t i e s . S t r a c h a n ' s c o n c e r n about a weak e p i s c o p a l c h u r c h was b u t one of  several  Drawn i n t o  fears  ideals.  t o the influence  leadership of the l o c a l m i l i t i a  came t o s h a r e cal  related  Loyalist He t h u s  sentiments t h a t  o f American  ways.  i n t h e War o f 1812, he  d e s p i s e d American  feared t h e propagation o f those  politi-  ideals i n  Hubert  American  education.  "atheistic" of  church  bedrock tion  to  education o f God  approach and  S t r a c h a n was to  state.  particularly  education following Regardless of  a p p a l l e d by  from t h e  be  founded  Church  on  Christian  o f England c l e r g y  principles. he  asked,  b u t t h e knowledge o f t h e G o s p e l ?  The given  Thomas Chalmers first  best  I n h i s 1836  "Now  what  holiness  provement,  and  glory  of  ad-  is solid  . . . I s n o t t h e word  i n E d i n b u r g h , he  purpose  the  t h a t a l l educa-  t h e t r u e mine o f c h r i s t i a n e d u c a t i o n ? " (4 6) .  l e t t e r t o Rev.  the  separation  h i s other positions,  o f S t r a c h a n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y was  must  dress  8  69  1832  stated,  education,  and  t o e v e r y scheme  i s t o c o n n e c t t h o u g h t and  In the  which  has  f o r i t s im-  p r i n c i p l e by  the  S t r a c h a n ' s a t t i t u d e toward America i s r e v e a l e d i n an 1815 f u n e r a l sermon h o n o r i n g R i c h a r d C a r t w r i g h t , a L o y a l i s t magistrate. S t r a c h a n ' s sermon followed praise of B r i t a i n with a v i t r i o l i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f America i n t h e N a p o l e o n i c wars: The A m e r i c a n Government, l i k e c o r m o r a n t s , d e l i g h t e d i n t h e c o n t e s t s which a g i t a t e d Europe, l a u g h e d a t t h e g r o a n s o f t h e d y i n g , and f e d upon t h e s l a i n , had no sympathy w i t h t h e f a l l e n ; and when a t l e n g t h t h e d e s p o t had t r a m p l e d upon a l l t h e c o n t i n e n t a l n a t i o n s , and nothing was seen b u t d e s o l a t i o n and d e s p a i r , when B r i t a i n a l o n e was l e f t t o combat w i t h h i s c o l o s s a l power, and h e r means o f r e s i s t a n c e a p p e a r e d t o be f a s t d i m i n i s h i n g , t h i s government, l o s t t o e v e r y f e e l i n g o f h o n o r and g l o r y , h a s t e n e d t o j o i n i t s e l f t o t h e o p p r e s s o r o f n a t i o n s , and t o c o n g r a t u l a t e him on t h e t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e l i b e r t y o f t h e w o r l d . . . . Post e r i t y , b e t t e r t h a n t h e p r e s e n t age, w i l l be a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e two governments during the convulsions i n Europe, and w h i l e B r i t a i n will a p p e a r an example o f magnanimity, u n e q u a l l e d i n h i s t o r y , t h e s t a r t h a t has d i r e c t e d t h e European f a m i l y t o happiness and peace, America w i l l be c o n s i g n e d t o b i t t e r e x e c r a t i o n , as t h e b e t r a y e r o f t h e l i b e r t y and i n d e p e n d e n c e o f mankind. ( S t r a c h a n 1815, 39-40) 8  Hubert  fullest that  demonstration of t r u t h .  is  r e l i g i o u s i n man;  shipper  of  species.  God  (Strachan  Possibly  r e f e r r i n g to  well  to  as  British  unrest  revealed  a  permitted  Anglican  elitism  do  ledge  we  see  without  between  the  disregard  and  i n education. i n Europe  of  good  men,  just  c o n t r o l and  Christian religion.  agreement  of  ica.  p r o b l e m l a y i n how  The  a l l other  Strachan's concern within  for the  rising  education Anglican  of  of  the  growing  of  that  knowpublic  of  their  union  natural  insubordination,  religion,  the  as  1832,  society  of crime, the  of  of  bonds  s o c i e t y and  denuncia-  impatience  contempt o f  of  sound  i n t e r r u p t i o n of honest  faith  i n the  tenets  S t r a c h a n would have had  educators  in British  t h a t f a i t h should  power w i t h i n  Church  his  28)  In t h i s ,  generally,  of  consequence o f  f o r S t r a c h a n was  leading  wor-  asked,  salutary restraint,  1832,  Act  perversion  weakening of  view  the  The  mockery  (Strachan  friend  Reform  He  as  e x p e r i e n c e , and  bedrock of a l l education the  the  t o t h e laws, i n c r e a s e  industry.  of  to  protectors,  tion  true  French Revolution,  aristocratic  daily  forth a l l  32)  humble r a n k s  l e a r n i n g and  The  1832,  the  self-denying  religion?  the  guardians  the  leading  growing  principle,  i t makes him  events f o l l o w i n g the  Strachan  What  and  This brings  70  the and  be  Church for  specifically,  an  his  the  N o r t h Amer-  practiced. of  England,  educated concern  his  clergy  that  the  H u b e r t 71  morals  o f young  ciples,  men  be p r o t e c t e d  and h i s p o l i t i c a l  from  influence—all  concerns  t h r u s t him i n t o the s t r u g g l e  in  Canada.  Upper  Gordon on  Drummond,  education  Scottish  I n 1815 a l r e a d y ,  i n t h e colony.  d e r i v i n g from  to S i r  a report Strachan's educa-  including a university.  Stra-  f o r Upper  chan's  system  was b a s e d on t h e s u c c e s s 1964, 45-64).  and  a universal  scheme  (Purdy  circumstances  had s u b m i t t e d  had c o n t a i n e d  Canada,  prin-  to establish a university  Obviously  the report  American  o f Upper Canada,  tional  Cornwall  these  Strachan  acting administrator  heritage,  anarchic  The  o f h i s grammar s c h o o l a t scheme  d i d not  stipulate  Church o f England professors i n the c o l l e g e , nor d i d a school a c t that  Strachan  drafted  i n 1816 c a l l  teachers.  I n proposing  anticipated  a non-sectarian  however,  The  vernacular, classical  and  In  a t York,  institution.  plan  also  stressed  practical  Strachan  This board  rather  had a l s o  institution  rhetorical  studies  school  was,  and an A n g l i c a n concerns  than  i n the  predominantly  texts.  However,  his  a college  t o be c o n t r o l l e d by an A n g l i c a n  president.  funding  f o r Church o f E n g l a n d  i n 1827, when  and a c h a r t e r  earlier  liberal  a pamphlet  Literature,  Strachan-  went  t o England  f o r a u n i v e r s i t y i n Upper Canada, many o f  a t t i t u d e s toward education  seemed t o v a n i s h .  e n t i t l e d An A p p e a l t o t h e F r i e n d s  In Behalf  to win  o f R e l i g i o n and  o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Upper Canada,  presented  t h e proposed  College,"  important  u n i v e r s i t y as  i n preserving  "essentially  a  Strachan  Missionary  t h e young men o f Upper Canada  H u b e r t 72  from  the corruption  written  under  College  o f an A m e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n  Strachan's  under  strictly  were n o t r e q u i r e d  supervision  (14).  The c h a r t e r ,  i n England, l e f t  s e c t a r i a n governance,  although  King's  students  t o submit t o t h e T h i r t y - n i n e A r t i c l e s — b u t t h e y  were e x p e c t e d t o a t t e n d  the d a i l y Anglican  chapel  services.  B a s e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e argument t h a t p u b l i c money was used  for strictly  raised not  such  open  Bishop  the  Strachan  would  college.  nature  ing late  as  include with  1837  guages. Grammar,  educational Strachan  biases  division  Composition,  was  also  money  a curriculum (  based  was t o  English  and f o r e i g n  to  include  Logic,  Cambridge,  was t o i n c l u d e  and M e d i c i n e again  which  both  and  Jurisprudence  i n 1827, a s  and Modern L i t e r a t u r e " ,  Oxford  the institution  English  In s p i t e o f h i s pander-  and Modern H i s t o r y ,  universities,  curriculum,  King's  role i n  of a p r a c t i c a l  Style,  Unlike  This  now  o f more t h a n a  prominent  i n raising  "Classical  including  professors.  Theology,  Strachan,  o f t h e new  i f he t o o k a  had promoted  Literature  This  wishes,  the controversy  In the matter  i n s t r u c t i o n i n both  Modern  charter  the university d i d  president  S t r a c h a n was a l s o o v e r r u l e d .  to English  1827  he d i d n o t w i s h t o h i g h l i g h t t h e s e c t a r i a n  of the college.  curriculum,  that  be renewed  Further,  h i s own  appointed  believed  Strachan's  Canada t h a t  Against  was  simply  purposes,  i n Upper  1843.  Toronto,  College. decade  opposition  until  of  sectarian  being  (Ross  lan-  Rhetoric,  served  but l i k e  by two Scottish  the professions 1896, Appendix  on S t r a c h a n ' s C o r n w a l l  of C) .  experience,  Hubert  had  a l r e a d y b e e n r e j e c t e d by L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r J o h n C o l b o r n e i n  1828.  Colborne  classical b o r n e 's  had  demanded t h a t K i n g ' s C o l l e g e u s e  curriculum, rejection,  based  on  Strachan  Oxford  again  a p p e a r s t o have been a c c e p t e d  1837,  when t h e  278) .  1843, The  •" B i s h o p  reputation  from  but  Dublin. to  R.  A.  1932, 1927,  attracted  most  of  before  1829,  i n the years From  1843.  the  curriculum attacks  i n 1843. on  most  exams  school  for  course from  As  social  curriculum,  of  the  reasons  every  a  Irish  what  1844  Upper  for a  student  i n e q u i t i e s by  high  of  and  course  at  four  in  that  it  College,  an  served  been  from  thorough"  difficult Canada  of  Classical  President  o p e n i n g was  Anglican  of  required  "long so  not  daughter  The  Toronto  was  delayed  scholar  Professor  of  (Ross  c u r r i c u l u m was  a t which McCaul had  t h a t King's College  good  of C o l -  curriculum.  the  Upper Canada C o l l e g e had  were  his  Belles Lettres.  students  perspective  there  was  U n i v e r s i t y of  The  its  preparatory  and  the  109).  spite  college shortly  McCaul,  College,  title  years  Falconer,  cipal  College,  three  labelled  (Falconer  Anglican  Rhetoric  in  standard  C o l l e g e Board i n J u n e  classical  John  Trinity  official  Logic,  covered  t h e 1843 Rev.  Dublin's  McCaul's  Literature,  the  a  o p e n i n g o f K i n g ' s C o l l e g e was  f o r c e behind  Strachan  King's  the  i t began w i t h a s o l i d l y c l a s s i c a l  main  Oxford.  by  In  forward  e x p e c t e d t o open t h e  However, when t h e  until  1907  Board  models.  put  which  the  73  as  prin-  established i n delayed.  governors  conservative,  of  King's  classical  o f C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y knows, Joseph  Papineau  in  Lower  Hubert  C a n a d a a n d by W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie in  the f a l l  The  o f 1837,  Family  related  by  intimately Masters' King's  lion  t o p o p u l i s t u p r i s i n g s , b r i e f but shocking t o the  colony's  ruling  marriage  and  business  ties.  connected  faculty,  Compact  of  with  either  - conservative citizens  barred and like  from  written  power  points  group  by  base out  that  Torontonians,  themselves  Given  that  non-Anglican  College,  of  the  The  /America,  10  into  students  were  Family rebel-  the a  most reac-  not  matriculation,  the u n i v e r s i t y ' s  rhetoric  s i m p l y have meant e d u c a t i n g more  W i l l i a m Lyon  would  Mackenzie  C.  original  1837  among  was  D.  t o well-known  or blood.^  North  inter-  i n Toronto.  marriage  in British  closely  King's  members were r e l a t e d  leading  shell.  this  Toronto  five  members,  shocked  tionary  i n Upper Canada f i n a l l y l e d ,  Compact,  history  74  de-  teaching of o r a t o r y  o r o t h e r outspoken  men  opponents o f  the  a t King's,  like  Tories. The the  curriculum in rhetoric  c u r r i c u l u m a t the  derived  from  the  and  composition  other colleges  social  values  and  discussed i n this  p o l i t i c a l views  chapter,  of those  in  D. C. M a s t e r s t r a c e s t h e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s as e v i d e n c e f o r a r g u i n g t h a t " t h e u n i v e r s i t y had. . . an o f f i c i a l and A n g l i c a n a i r " ( 4 0 ) . M a s t e r s a r g u e s t h a t "From t h e time o f t h e o r i g i n a l a c t c h a r t e r i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f K i n g ' s C o l l e g e i n 1827 i t h a d a p p e a r e d c e r t a i n t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y would be l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n a b r a n c h o f t h e F a m i l y Compact. T h i s p r o b a b i l i t y seemed c o n f i r m e d when K i n g ' s C o l l e g e was f i n a l l y opened i n 1843, i n s t r u c t i o n beginning i n the o l d Parliament Buildings. The Compact was s t r o n g l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y C o u n c i l o f 1842" (39). 9  C h a r l e s Dickens Toryism of Toronto was 1 0  i n 1842 w r o t e t h a t "the w i l d and a p p a l l i n g " ( q t d . i n M a s t e r s 20) .  rabid  Hubert  power  i n the u n i v e r s i t y .  Oxford-educated  Tories i n the  75  colonies  e x p e c t e d h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n t o p r o v i d e a g r a d u a t e w i t h t h e stamp o f culture,  which  meant  a  facility  i n the  classical  a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , oped  mind.  liberal  The  purpose  education, the  Tory  classical  leaders  o f which  was  i n the colonies,  curriculum—though  perhaps  to  provide  knowledge  n e i t h e r t h e o l o g i c a l nor  financial.  advantage  the  vernacular, a  admitting Further, oughly ity,  point  a l l applicants, a  graduate  of  o f prime  importance  regardless  the  of  classical  i n the  unspoken—was  t h a t u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s would n o t be r e a d y s p e a k e r s and in  a  unattached  an added advantage an  an  and a w e l l - d e v e l -  h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n was  object  t o any p a r t i c u l a r end, For  of  languages,  in a  religious  writers  university  affiliation.  c u r r i c u l u m would  be  imbued w i t h n o b l e t h o u g h t s and c o n c e r n s f o r s o c i a l  thorstabil-  and t h u s n o t g i v e n t o r a d i c a l , p o l i t i c a l  action.  Before  College i n Toronto  could  have  stressed value  onto,  the and  sistent  been  influenced  teaching  1837  Strachan's  uprisings),  the  rather  Scottish  a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n , views  h i s views  in  by  i n King's  e d u c a t i o n f o r everyone  with  education  King's  t h e developments  universal  o f an  (after  1837,  Anglican than  Cornwall.  C o l l e g e i n 1843  i n society.  S t r a c h a n had  on e d u c a t i o n  had  emphasis  the p r a c t i c a l , Strachan's made no  that  views affirmed  By 1843,  become B i s h o p  that the  however of  Tor-  become c o n s e r v a t i v e , c o n on  an  elitist,  rhetorical address  mention  at  classical  emphasis o f h i s the  o f the l o s s  opening  of  of the v e r -  Hubert  nacular  curriculum  King's  in rhetoric.  College  interest.  From  was  his  personal  Montreal.  I n d e e d , he  of  When t h e  Hon.  and  a  sum  " -• M c G i l l ' s  about  again,  l a y i n the  an  leaving  10,000 pounds  from  to various  England,  a  religious  how  and  to  a  growth  Strachan of M c G i l l  had  College  by  bequest  for  marriage, public  i n 1813,  he  build  university.  a  left  the  first.  proceed.  The  In  February  i n the  dangers  a in  pos-  education. of  As  land  one  1815,  since  he  of the  wrote  enterprise, giving his  importance  expensive v e n t u r e  possibility,  political  the  a tract  of  the  f a c t t h a t i t s absence f o r c e d young men  worse  had  w i t h James M c G i l l , a w e a l t h y  Strachan  persons involved to  onward,  S t r a c h a n became i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g  d a n g e r o u s and  even  discussed  James M c G i l l d i e d  college  days  related to  McGill's  views  ca,  had  four executors,  Montreal letters  of  John Strachan's only c o l l e g e - r e l a t e d  i n t e r e s t i n the  entrepreneur  sibility  not  Cornwall  continuing  Montreal  76  1 1  ,  America  o r t o go  college, t o go  to  to  Ameri-  presented  untold  f o r impressionable  minds.  1 2  The  • S t r a c h a n w r o t e t o Thomas Chalmers i n E d i n b u r g h t h a t i n t h e A m e r i c a n c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , owing t o t h e l a c k o f A n g l i c a n s u p e r v i s i o n i n B r i t i s h N o r t h America, e v e r y c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e m i n i s t r y was under t h e n e c e s s i t y o f g o i n g t o Europe f o r o r d i n a t i o n — a voyage so d a n g e r o u s , from t h e i m p e r f e c t s t a t e o f n a v i g a t i o n at t h a t p e r i o d , t h a t no l e s s t h a n o n e - f i f t h o f t h e young men who a s p i r e d to serve the Lord i n the sanctuary, p e r i s h e d i n t h e ocean. ( S t r a c h a n 1832, 5) 1  ^ I n h i s famous A p p e a l t o t h e F r i e n d s o f R e l i g i o n and L i t e r a t u r e , S t r a c h a n i n 1827 r a i s e d funds f o r K i n g ' s C o l l e g e w i t h a n t i - A m e r i c a n arguments s u c h as t h e f o l l o w i n g : Now i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a custom p r e v a i l s unknown t o 1  Hubert  c o l l e g e o f h i s p l a n s was religious the  principal  being to  character  Moral  Philosophy,  be m o d e l e d on t h e  Cambridge  be  were  not  hire  the  accommodation (Spragge who  ests  68-9).  hoped  opening  to  to  of the  from  The  rich  England:  circumstance  college.  legal  having  institution  and  populous  labour cannot  (I may be  maneuvers by  McGill property  Oxford  and  they say  may  have  drudgery)  expected  of  McGill's  f o r himself,  a was in  and  them"  step-son,  delayed  During the delay, strong A n g l i c a n  g r a d u a l l y came t o dominate t h e c u r r i c u l u m .  and  learned  Similarly, McGill  "Learning  was  . . because  f o u r t h o f t h e Expence."  i n d u s t r y the  the  by  the  c l e r g y m a n , w i t h h i s department  but not f o r a colony.  However,  win  ensured  " S c o t c h and German U n i v e r s i t i e s .  graduates but  t o be  L o g i c and R h e t o r i c .  p r a i s e d f o r "so  as England,"  abundance,  c o l l e g e was  done a t one  country to  the  a Church o f England  much more may  "  of  t o have no r e l i g i o u s t e s t s , a l t h o u g h  77  the  inter-  McGill College,  o r u n p r a c t i c e d by any o t h e r n a t i o n ; i n a l l o t h e r c o u n t r i e s m o r a l s and r e l i g i o n a r e made t h e b a s i s o f p u b l i c i n s t r u c t i o n , and t h e f i r s t books p u t i n t o t h e hands o f children t e a c h them t h e d o m e s t i c , the s o c i a l , and r e l i g i o u s v i r t u e s ; but i n the United S t a t e s p o l i t i c s p e r v a d e t h e whole system o f e d u c a t i o n ; t h e s c h o o l books from t h e v e r y f i r s t elements are s t u f f e d w i t h p r a i s e s o f t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n s and b r e a t h e h a t r e d t o e v e r y thing English. To s u c h a c o u n t r y o u r y o u t h may go s t r o n g l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d and t o a l l i t s e s t a b l i s h ments, b u t by h e a r i n g them c o n t i n u a l l y d e p r e c i a t e d and t h o s e o f America p r a i s e d , t h i s attachment w i l l i n many be g r a d u a l l y weakened; and some may become f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h a t l i b e r t y which has d e g e n e r a t e d into licent i o u s n e s s , and imbibe, p e r h a p s u n c o n s c i o u s l y , sentiments u n f r i e n d l y t o t h i n g s o f which E n g l i s h m e n a r e p r o u d . ( S t r a c h a n 1827, 5-6)  H u b e r t 78  therefore, however, ting  religious sectarian, as  leadership Leach  - Leach of  isolated  of British  tions  England  church,  attracting well  assuming  Catholics,  Professor  o f Edinburgh,  of McGill  college  educational  i n both  i n Kingston.  byterians  had  College  As  of trained originally  denomina-  of Anglican  Literature  concerned  a Church  the u n i v e r s i t y  o f S t . George's o f Montreal.  was  i n 184 6.  Strachan,  and t h e  church i n  He s e r v e d a s  1886 ( C o l l a r d 503) .  s t r u g g l e d f o r decades  leadership  t r u l y non-  protestant  but, l i k e  from 1846 u n t i l  that  was  c u r r i c u l u m , w i t h t h e Rev. W.  of Classical  He h e l d p o s t s  i n other  had a h i s t o r y o f  the influence  1841 t o 1865 as R e c t o r  the lack  affairs  of various  I t s set-  strife  the college  a n d t h e r e a f t e r as archdeacon  Another  faculty.  since Montreal  i n a classical  a graduate cleric.  students  a l l religions.  the r e l i g i o u s  Although  1 3  Roman  resulted  Vice-President  King's  as  U n l i k e t h e King's C o l l e g e s ,  from  i t from  America,  cooperation.  from  Montreal,  about  North  appointed  was  college  1829.  i t m a t r i c u l a t e d students  i n Montreal  areas  T.  d i d n o t open u n t i l  Queen's, as o t h e r  before a  finally  Presbyterian  religious  groups  m i n i s t e r s i n Upper Canada, t h e P r e s requested  that  the publicly  endowed  include a Presbyterian professor i n i t s d i v i n i t y  Given of state  the  importance  of the Presbyterian  Church i n  i n S c o t l a n d , t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s o f Upper Canada  F o r t w e n t y y e a r s b e f o r e 1789 t h e E p i s c o p a l c o n g r e g a t i o n u s e d t h e Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h b u i l d i n g o f t h e R e c o l l e c t F a t h e r s ( M a c M i l l a n 33) . B i s h o p I n g l i s o f Nova S c o t i a preached i n t h i s c h u r c h on h i s f i r s t v i s i t t o M o n t r e a l i n 1784 (R. V. H a r r i s 101) . 1 3  Hubert  considered cans.  their  political  B u t when K i n g ' s was  rights  time  when  city. the  Kingston  Owing  to  the  was  to those  d e l a y e d i n opening,  g a i n e d a c h a r t e r f o r t h e i r own a  equal  the  the Presbyterians  considered  the  likely  j u s t two  future  t o an  1844  college  d e l a y e d opening - C o l l e g e had Methodist  college,  (Hodgins  writing  and  Victoria  College his  stating  that and  tongues.  i n a u g u r a t e d a new  I t attempted  t o implement a  persuasively in  I n h i s i n a u g u r a l speech June  rhetorical  21,  concerns  1842, back  English  to  in  Egerton  Aristotle  i s o f t h e h i g h e s t importance" and  Roman c u l t u r e  a direct provision  f o r the  teaching  of  dead  prop-  Ryerson  their  own  should  languages  tongue: "Why and  of  Cicero,  (18).  for cultivating  s t u d y o f t h e p e o p l e s ' own  both  Ryerson  and  f o r e x c e l l e n c e i n E n g l i s h , not through c l a s s i c a l  be  practi-  " t h e a r t o f s p e a k i n g and w r i t i n g w i t h p u r i t y ,  Greek  rhe-  a t t h e opening  President  in  direc-  I n l i k e manner, he h e l d , t h e contemporary w o r l d  but through should  on  elegance,  praised  strive  110) , V i c t o r i a  communicate  speaking.  related  also  A Wesleyan  an e x i s t i n g Wesleyan u n i v e r s i t y  i n English.  to  the  B u i l t i n Cobourg, V i c t o r i a  c u r r i c u l u m t h a t would g i v e V i c t o r i a g r a d u a t e s t h e  expertise  riety,  IV,  in  while Kings' C o l l e g e i n Toronto  Victoria College.  modeled on  for rhetoric  torical cal  was  split  decades.  no t i e s w i t h e i t h e r S c o t l a n d o r E n g l a n d .  Connecticut tion  established  capital  y e a r s a f t e r Queen's opened,  c o l l e g e s t r u g g l e d s i m p l y t o s u r v i v e f o r more t h a n two Another  Angli-  c o l l e g e , p l a c i n g i t at Kingston a t  s m a l l s t u d e n t body and  P r e s b y t e r i a n Church  of  79  foreign  there lan-  Hubert 8 0  guages, is  and  none  f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f o u r own  a phenomenon f o r which I can  prejudice" Ryerson Belles  (10).  quoted  Deflecting  the  Lettres,  tenth  which  riculum, course; - age is  first  defining  Belles-Lettres.  of p r i n t i n g of the l a s t  and  assembly,  both:  of  a  of  English  and  as  a  vocabulary. in  his  cur-  to  dis-  . .as r e l a t i n g then added  eloquent  orator  able w r i t e r e x e r t s over writer"  soldier,  or  are  sounding  the  position,  t h a t "In  an  importance." an  ready  and  a l l i t s v a r i e t i e s — t o write well  o f more p o t e n t  world,  He  his  speaking  "Rhetoric.  strument  his  and  custom  i n Rhetoric  advantages  to writing."  which and  Lectures  writing  writing—in  power  "pen  the  but  against  owing t o i t s r i c h  both  [ i . e . , most]  The  Blair's  listed  considered  reason  arguments  of  l a n g u a g e o v e r o t h e r languages Ryerson  a s s i g n no  v e r n a c u l a r tongue,  has  than  sceptre of the  h i s audience;  and  over  a country.  f r e q u e n t l y proved  power,  board,"  exerts  and  the  monarch. a  nation,  of  the  "heavens  i f not  h i s productions w i l l  t e n e d t o w i t h e d i f i c a t i o n and  The  an i n -  sword The  an  the  be  lis-  d e l i g h t , by t h o u s a n d s  m i l l i o n s whom t h e human v o i c e c o u l d n e v e r r e a c h .  and  (1842,  18-19) R y e r s o n was ies  to  case,  not w i l l i n g  chance, especially  extraneous  to  or  to with  to leave e i t h e r literary  of these important  societies,  practice  academic i n t e r e s t s .  in The  as  oratory,  was  so  often  stud-  often  the  considered  s t u d y o f both' w r i t i n g  and  Hubert  speaking  needed classroom the of  oral  and  good  and  efficient  *• s t u d y  ENGLISH  "a  an  his  inaugural  or  differed  from  havior,  student  superadded  with  the  of  the  He  introduced  allowing  that  Language. S c i e n c e ,  the  of oratory  on  an  God,  and  and  but  he  was  English  t o p i c of  "the  English  admission  of  an  Literature. into  [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ]  on  might be  confident  composition which,  traditions  state,  but  of both  an  a  regarded  that t h i s  oratory  in-  micro-  derived  strongly  Presbyterianism not  intensely  part  Anglicanism  and  and  of the  Angliofficial  p r i v a t e matter.  to  some e x t e n t  emphasized t h e  from  protestant,  doctrine of p r e d e s t i n a t i o n placed  individual's faith, and  and  although  them, Methodism was  Presbyterian for  the  19)  by  environment,  the  most  d e f e c t s , remedying beauties  to  (10).  Unlike  1 4  Calvinist sibility  of  emphasis  Methodist  culture  must be  w o u l d become as commonplace as t h e t e l e s c o p e , t h e  Ryerson's  canism.  the  c u l t i v a t i n g the  innovation,"  s c o p e , o r compass  his  furnish  innovation.  Institution"  novelty,  novation  and  (1842,  DEPARTMENT  Collegiate  composition  aware t h a t h i s p r o p o s e d emphasis on p r a c t i c a l  was  in  and  i n s t r u c t i o n s o f a competent j u d g e  a i d i n c o r r e c t i n g the  , writing.  rhetoric  critical  will  blemishes,  R y e r s o n was  instruction:  speaking  rules,  81  The responhis  r o l e of the  becom-  S e e Goldwin French, " E g e r t o n R y e r s o n and t h e Methodist M o d e l f o r U p p e r Canada" i n E g e r t o n R y e r s o n and H i s Times, e d i t e d by N. M c D o n a l d and A. C h a i t o n . 1 4  Hubert  munity  i n the  on  o t h e r hand,  the  relationship stressed  worship  and  that  individual  and  stressed  duty  the  faith  to  the  of  In  his  theology  e d u c a t e young men  tive  of  their  Methodists,  o f each  1842  alone  individual's  inaugural, d i d not  Ryerson  qualify  an  Church .  .  f o r the sacred m i n i s t r y — i r r e s p e c -  talents  character—has  filled  some  .When a young man his  heart  perpetual  and  special  [emphasis  in original]  and  in  scriptural  personal  commitment  who  spiritual sections  has  that  than  workman t h a t needeth  sense  or  attainments of  the  and  Christian  w i t h u n c o n v e r t e d M i n i s t e r s o f God's H o l y Word.  feels  charged  importance  God.  study  individual.  t o serve i n the church: To  This  o f an  82  been  constraining:  kindling .  .  for  ^born  within  from  desire, to  to  x  study  that  save  .what can be more  him  above'  to  souls  rational  become  a  n o t t o be ashamed?' (1842, 19-20)  gave  Ryerson's  Christianity  a  more  o f d u t y t h a n t h e A n g l i c a n i s m o f S t r a c h a n , and  even  more t h a n t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m o f M c C u l l o c h . In  i t s insistence  for  the  social,  was,  at  one  differed and  with  from  state,  political  and  cultural  P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m and  both  of the C h r i s t i a n  tradition  o r d e r , Wesleyan Methodism Anglicanism.  However, i t  i n i t s i n s i s t e n c e on t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f  s i n c e r e l i g i o n was  not of s o c i a l p o l i t y . the concept  on t h e p r i m a c y  church  a matter o f the p r i v a t e conscience,  From t h e emphasis on t h e i n d i v i d u a l  o f r e l i g i o u s and c i v i l  liberty  flowed  f o r a l l , although  this  Hubert  was  not a licence  morality true  f o r anti-social behavior.  F o r Ryerson,  83  public  a n d r e s p e c t f o r t h e crown were s i m p l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f  religion.  But t h e i n t e n s e  focus  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l  made  n e c e s s a r y t h e development o f each i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y , a n e c e s s i t y w h i c h i n v o l u n t a r i l y demanded u n i v e r s a l e d u c a t i o n . of  personal  early was  life,  deeply  Egerton, - pointment and  duty  t o b o t h God and man was  reflected  f o l l o w i n g h i s conversion t o Methodism. disturbed  from  historic  strengthened  t o prove  by  the turning  of  Episcopalianism. Ryerson s  the u t i l i t y  7  r e s o l v e both  o f h i s newfound  i n Ryerson's 15  h i s sons, This  The s e n s e  His father especially  parental disap-  t o improve h i m s e l f  religion  to a  strict  father: From  that  quickness  time and  I became strength  a  diligent  seemed  t o be  student, imparted  and to  new my  T h e i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l commitment t o t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h became i m p o r t a n t t o Ryerson as a c h i l d . In h i s autobiography Ryerson r e l a t e s a c o n v e r s i o n e x p e r i e n c e so i m p o r t a n t t h a t i t r e m a i n e d w i t h him t h r o u g h l i f e : A t t h e c l o s e o f t h e American. War, i n 1815, when I was t w e l v e y e a r s o f age, my t h r e e e l d e r b r o t h e r s , George, William, and John, became d e e p l y r e l i g i o u s , and I i m b i b e d t h e same s p i r i t . My c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f g u i l t and s i n f u l n e s s was humbling, o p p r e s s i v e , and d i s t r e s s i n g ; and my e x p e r i e n c e o f r e l i e f , r e f r e s h i n g and j o y o u s . In t h e end I s i m p l y t r u s t e d i n C h r i s t , and l o o k e d t o Him f o r a p r e s e n t s a l v a t i o n ; and, a s I l o o k e d up i n my bed, t h e l i g h t appeared t o my mind, and, as I t h o u g h t , t o my b o d i l y eye a l s o , i n t h e form o f One, w h i t e - r o b e d , who a p p r o a c h e d t h e b e d s i d e w i t h a s m i l e , and w i t h more o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f the countenance o f T i t i a n ' s C h r i s t t h a n o f any p e r s o n whom I h a v e e v e r seen. I turned, r o s e , t o my knees, bowed my h e a d , and c o v e r e d my f a c e , r e j o i c e d w i t h t r e m b l i n g , s a y i n g t o a b r o t h e r who was l y i n g b e s i d e me, t h a t t h e S a v i o r was now n e a r u s . ( R y e r s o n 1883, 25) 1 5  Hubert  understanding more t h a n  how  i n d u s t r i o u s , i n s t e a d o f l a z y , as some s a i d ,  ion  made  during  a  person.  moral  - affairs both  an  I  studied  the  morning,  the  day  to  improve  odd my  here  in  be  of  education  f o r the province ment  from  omy;  Or,  presented applying  of Ontario.  office, How  i n my  philosophy  every  a Country  of  duty  individual  six  pocket  reading  or  aloud  as  well  as  religious  p u b l i c hallmark  as  l a t e r , as t h e s u p e r i n -  and,  after  Confederation,  the year a f t e r h i s r e t i r e -  Ryerson p u b l i s h e d E l e m e n t s o f P o l i t i c a l  I n d i v i d u a l s and  his to  In 1877,  and  (26)  Ryerson's  f o r Canada West  book  relig-  s t u d i e s o f t h e day  practical  would  three  moments by  i t i n e r a n t M e t h o d i s t m i n i s t e r , and,  tendent  a  out i n t h e e v e n i n g .  seriousness  reflected  between  carried  and t h e n reviewed  while walking  I  o r d i n a r y day's work, t h a t i t might show  in  learning,  high  W h i l e working on t h e farm  did  o'clock  The  and memory.  84  Become R i c h ,  i n pragmatic  Econ-  i n which  economic  he  terms,  t h e economic p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t i n g  to  business: as  a l l gains  arise  tions,  and  it  manifest  is  greatly the  net  every with  man  from s m a l l and  as almost  every product  that  diminish, revenue  an  not  entirely  establishment.  s h o u l d be t o u n i t e e v e r y  industry,  and  i s l i a b l e t o waste,  h a b i t u a l ' negligence  i f i t do of  s u c c e s s i v e accumula-  to  keep  i t so  .  .  .  must  consume, a l l The  effort  fraction of united  of  capital  continually.  Hubert 85  Any  g a i n , even t h e s m a l l e s t , i s b e t t e r t h a n no g a i n a t  all. Ryerson relation the a  applied  individual  ment  this  t o education.  Christian  of  (24) economic  country  in  h i s d u t i e s and e x e r c i s e h i s r i g h t s a s  whatever may be h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  o r p r o f e s s i o n " (1877,  150).  He t h e n  and by p r i n c i p l e s ,  E d u c a t i o n , both b y  t h e student  " t o understand  and  v a l u e t h e l a w s and government o f h i s c o u n t r y ,  and t o p e r f o r m  his  duties  and e x e r c i s e h i s r i g h t s  citizen."  In  government,  thereby  property. strated  fitted  employ-  r e l a t e d the education  i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e economy o f a n a t i o n .  knowledge  to a  F i r s t , he d e f i n e d e d u c a t i o n a s q u a l i f y i n g  " t o perform  citizen,  principle  contrast,  an  illiterate  citizen  a skilled  o f an e d u c a t i o n  o r educated  individual  strong  and i n t h e w e l f a r e  utilitarian  approach  individuals  improved  ety,  and  only  corporately based  dual  as  could  interest  themselves individuals  society  itself  a l o n e was demon-  (1877, 150).  laid  i n the vernacular.  curriculum  Ryerson supported  in a  classical  Only  c o u l d t h e y be e f f e c t i v e i n society advance.  public  of the  t h e base f o r a  improved  as  in socithemselves  An e d u c a t i o n a l system  on t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s would n o t f o s t e r o r d e f e n d  classical  o f l i f e and  i n the welfare  of the state  to rhetoric  civil  l a b o r e r was p a i d a h i g h e r  wage t h a n a n u n s k i l l e d o r uneducated w o r k e r Methodism's  Christian  weakened  p r e s e n t i n g a danger t o s e c u r i t y  T h e economic v a l u e  each time  a s an i n t e l l i g e n t ,  university.  Like  an e l i t i s t , McCulloch,  l e a r n i n g , b u t t h i s s u p p o r t was u t i l i -  Hubert  tarian, read  f o r w i t h o u t knowing Hebrew and  the  and  s c r i p t u r e s i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l tongue. F u r t h e r ,  sacred  pupil  literature  with  personal the  Greek, m i n i s t e r s c o u l d  the  conviction  industry  p r i v a t e and  practical  provided  and  of  "both the  the  mind  dignity  enterprise with  and  and  g e n i u s and  public relations of l i f e "  not  classical  heart  duty  86  of  of  the  uniting  learning in a l l  (1842, 15).  a p p l i c a t i o n o f e v e r y k i n d o f l e a r n i n g was,  Thus,  the  f o r Ryerson,  paramount. In - learned oirs,  his  memoirs,  rhetorical  J . G.  Ryerson  excellence.  Hodgins' writes  He  was  an  he  in early life  grammar, too,  tongue  logic,  he  how  he  rhetoric—and  pen,  Ryerson learned Ryerson  career  and  so t h o r o u g h l y  in English  the  a  that  with  as  often  the  a  power  classics,  writer and  subjects— and  and  that,  controverwith  t h o s e who  thoroughness  (1883,  did  that, in h i s  readiness  astonished  laborious  mental p r e p a r a t i o n .  his were  of  his  xiv-xv)  E n g l i s h grammar by t h e p a r s i n g method i n a system  termed  having  himself  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e mem-  ground h i m s e l f  evinced  and  previous  "the  charts,  o f words"  grammar w i t h  the  of  of Ryerson,  active  unacquainted  government  review  u n d e r t h e most a d v e r s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  sialist,  nessed,  In  a  i n d e f a t i g a b l e student;  subsequent  which  left  most e f f e c t i v e  etc.,  to  (1883, 2 3 ) .  Murray's E x p o s i t i o n s  I have e v e r s i n c e  illustrate  the  Ryerson followed and  wit-  agreement the  study  and of  E x e r c i s e s . Karnes' Elements  Hubert  of  Criticism,  the  notes  and  till  teachers  fell  course the  the  end  "Thus,  instruction,  languages  grammar  - aided  by  his life.  When one  a t t h e age  of f i f t e e n ,  before  g r e a t e s t advantage  his  of  a s a t e a c h e r , by  of  foreign  L e c t u r e s on R h e t o r i c , o f which he  i l l , Ryerson,  substitute. inducted  Blair's  than  school  the  I was  l e c t u r i n g on my  and  he  t o me,  not  less  i n u s i n g my  own"  Ryerson  four-year  kept  o f h i s grammar was  asked  writes,  "I  n a t i v e language.  exercises i n English,  training,  standard  sixteen,"  (1883, 2 5 ) . largely  to  to was  This  have p r o v e d  i n e n a b l i n g me  was  87  of  study  Apart  from  self-taught,  apprenticeship f o r  Methodist  m i n i s t e r s without a formal higher education. Ryerson's of cal  rhetorical skills  therefore highly in  a  own  c a r e e r c o n s t a n t l y p r o v e d t o him t h e  skills  i n b o t h s p e a k i n g and w r i t i n g .  e n a b l e d him also  his  important. series  of  published letters  the  of  heart  which  to  His writing s k i l l s ,  influence.  His  t o s e r v e h i s c h u r c h and h i s God  country,  h o n o u r and  importance  1 6  rhetoric,  to  This a b i l i t y and  of  Loyalist  well,  and  Methodists  was  e s p e c i a l l y as Strachan  oratori-  demonstrated  i n 1828,  won  him  to influence others lay at  education:  "Not  to  be  able  to  In 1827, R y e r s o n , a young M e t h o d i s t m i n i s t e r , sprang t o prominence i n the clergy r e s e r v e s debate about whether t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h c o u l d a c t as a s t a t e c h u r c h — t h e r e b y a l o n e benef i t t i n g f r o m t h e huge l a n d t r a c t s t h a t L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r Simc o e , i n 1795, had s e t a s i d e f o r t h e c h u r c h . I n 1827, d i s s e n t i n g m i n i s t e r s l a c k e d even t h e l e g a l r i g h t t o p e r f o r m m a r r i a g e s and o f f i c i a l funeral duties. Ryerson a l s o a d d r e s s e d t h e A n g l i c a n exc l u s i v e n e s s o f t h e 1827 K i n g ' s C o l l e g e c h a r t e r , t a k i n g s p e c i a l o f f e n c e a t S t r a c h a n ' s charge t h a t M e t h o d i s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r A m e r i c a n c o n f e r e n c e b r e d d i s l o y a l t y t o t h e B r i t i s h crown. ( R y e r s o n 1828) 1 6  H u b e r t 88  communicate out  knowledge.  sense  (1842,  t o ourselves,  18).  But, a g a i n ,  with-  and t o be i n t h e f u l l e s t  o u r knowledge must be the u t i l i t y  communi-  was f o r t h e s o c i e t y  l a r g e , n o t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s , as R y e r s o n s t r e s s e d i n  the  conclusion  lected, one  o f h i s 1842  but, to prefer  t o thousands. The  - of t h i s  the  senior  College  College taking such  together also  life,  school  as  component  neg-  i s to prefer  included  English a  course.  be g i v e n  Merchants,  college,  department  Engineers,  o f the course  address,  integrated  the V i c t o r i a reading,  In addition,  The c u r r i c u l u m  as t h o r o u g h  that  spelling,  grammar.  commercial  inaugural  studies  with  Language, can be i m p a r t e d  either  English  t o h i s country,  Emphasizing  division  contained  will  English  it.  with  the classical  pupils  i s n o t t o be  i n E n g l i s h and r h e t o r i c a r i s i n g o u t  o f grammar  preparatory  writing,  "Self  was appended t o R y e r s o n ' s  with  years  one's s e l f  curriculum  philosophy  publication  inaugural:  11  specific  for  the  b e t t e r t h a n t o be  T o be u s e f u l t o o t h e r s ,  advantageous  cated" at  o u r knowledge, i s b u t l i t t l e  Victoria  f o r those  guide  a preparation  and  stated,  not "To  as, through  f o r the active business o f o r Mechanics,"  focusing  with the  on E n g l i s h grammar and  composition. Distinctive sophical by  emphasis  Ryerson,  a b o u t V i c t o r i a , however, was n o t o n l y t h e p h i l o on r h e t o r i c and b e l l e s  b u t a l s o the d i v i s i o n  y e a r , when R y e r s o n s e r v e d  lettres,  as understood  of the faculty.  In the f i r s t  i n Cobourg as p r e s i d e n t  of the college,  Hubert  he  himself  taught  professor,  as  rhetoric—it  was  before  mid-century  Spencer  is listed  ably  an  indication  same  division  The  William  Ormiston  Thomas G. sor  sor  S.  of  and  especially  is  little  that of  he  taught  labor  not 29,  and  later  still  held  in  delivery,  relation in his  in  to  institutions  after.  A  Rev.  Department,"  J.  prob-  preparatory d i v i s i o n . i n 1848/49, w i t h  Rev.  Philosophy,  journal  r a t h e r than  rules  president.  both  i n the  the  wrote,  "The  only understands 26]). on  In  of  with  1848  that  rhetoric:  taught  in rules."  oratory, Cicero, wide  ex-  "Experience  from w i t h i n .  It is  N e l l e s agreed  I n a n o t h e r undated  with  journal  o r a t o r s h o u l d t h i n k upon h i s theme u n t i l every p a r t o f i t , but  o r d e r t o be  then  and  Agreeing  fall  must be  mind  h i s s u b j e c t : "Get  and  N e l l e s analyzed  composition  should govern  to  encase  i n the j o u r n a l s  s t u d e n t , i n t h e 1850s p r o f e s -  preaching.  good  burningly  classics  pondered and d e l i b e r a t e d on a r r a n g -  A man  centrate  the  (Classics).  college  Rhetoric.  [p.  by  P r o f e s s o r o f R h e t o r i c and M e n t a l  best  he  two  i n the  C i c e r o ' s e m p h a s i s on emotion as w e l l . entry  or  i n the E n g l i s h  an-early V i c t o r i a  and  wrote  the  decade  "Teacher  s p e a k e r s , and  style  perience  as  for a  concern f o r r h e t o r i c i s r e f l e c t e d  Nelles,  situations  Nelles  and  Greek Languages  rhetoric,  ement,  taught  common i n o t h e r A n g l o - C a n a d i a n  as  o f L a t i n and  S.  not  C h e s n u t as E n g l i s h t e a c h e r , and John W i l s o n as P r o f e s -  Victoria's of  was  89  effective life  f e e l s i t deeply"  the  speaker  inward—think  l e t t h e words m a r s h a l  should  he  (File con-  intensely—feel  themselves"  (File  29,  H u b e r t 90  Fall to  1848) . oratory:  1848),  curriculum  reveals  classical  fury  at Victoria  nineteenth  " emphasis  that  principles  situational,  the  with  i n Anglo-Canadian  course,  the  "Write  and  correct  with  phlegm"  (Fall  1 7  The ground  He a p p l i e d t h i s p r i n c i p l e t o c o m p o s i t i o n a s w e l l a s  colleges.  A  the u t i l i t a r i a n to British  century.  and  college  on  of rhetoric.  reflection,  approach  simply  In creating  new of  applied  i n the middle o f  definition  of r h e t o r i c  appropriateness—indeed,  on a u d i e n c e i n a l l c l a s s i c a l  centre  moment's  N o r t h America  Aristotle's  h i s stress  thus broke e n t i r e l y  as the  rhetoric—puts  utility at  the Victoria  curriculum,  N e l l e s ' j o u r n a l e n t r i e s c o v e r t o p i c s r a n g i n g from p r e s e n t a t i o n i n o r a t o r y , t o arrangement, t o c o n t e n t . He much p r e f e r r e d a s u b d u e d t o a Demosthenic s t y l e ( F i l e 30, J a n u a r y 1849, pp. 27, 29); h e b e l i e v e d i n a p l a i n i n t r o d u c t i o n ( F i l e 29, June 1847), a l o g i c a l body, and an e m o t i o n a l , b u t s t i l l subdued, conclusion ( F i l e 30, p . 2 9 ) ; he s t r e s s e d a s t r o n g emphasis on u n i t y i n b o t h o r a t o r y a n d w r i t i n g ( F i l e 29, J a n . 1849). R y e r s o n was o b v i o u s l y a model f o r N e l l e s , b o t h p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y . Observing Ryerson's o r a t o r y a t a conference i n T o r o n t o i n J u n e 1847, he wrote, Dr. R y e r s o n made a l e n g t h y o r a t i o n on t h e U n i o n quest i o n . And p r e f a c e d i t w i t h a huge exordium about himself. H i s speech was f u l l o f s o p h i s t r y and seemed t o have little w e i g h t — n o t because they detected h i s s o p h i s m s b u t because Dr. R y e r s o n has l o s t h i s i n f l u ence. No one t r u s t s him. He has t o o much v a n i t y t o s u c c e e d i n a n y t h i n g — l e a s t o f a l l i n genuine eloquence. ( F i l e 29) However, l a t e r N e l l e s p r a i s e d R y e r s o n ' s s t y l e , p e r h a p s because i t especially f i t N e l l e s ' own i n t e r e s t i n a c o n t r o l l e d , low-key p r e s e n t a t i o n : " T h e r e i s a c e r t a i n measured slowness o f u t t e r a n c e which adds f o r c e t o d e l i v e r y . A lingering of the s y l l a b l e s — y e t not s o a s t o d r a g " ( F i l e 30, a f t e r J u n e 2 7 ) . N e l l e s acknowledged t h a t t h i s manner was Rev. Mr. R y e r s o n ' s g r e a t f o r t e , b u t i t r e q u i r e d g r e a t p r e s e n c e o f mind and p r e p a r a t i o n , and was d i f f i c u l t f o r a young speaker. 1 7  Ryerson  simply  indicated  by  followed  the  advice  of  Aristotle  of  the  College, leges and  and  McGill,  - morality worth  that  arising  of  an  dividual  context  and  of  these  from  based  as  the  importance  and  the  the  on  Dalhousie these  British  col-  religious protestant  in  the  values  individual  and  public  a p p r e c i a t i o n of  of  developing  that  a h i g h a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the  that  the  valued i n the  colonial  economics  divergence  found-  an  i n the  social  an  education  inBrit-  cultural did  came from t h e  situation  was  and  the  not  absence o f a h e r e d i t a r y  f o r college education  with  a  shared  traditional  colonists  emphasis  commonality,  also  and  fundamental  a l l sharing  Christian values,  speech. the  Colleges,  on  a l l e g i a n c e to i t . Further,  support  Academy  Victoria  colleges  education,  Finally, the  Cicero,  surrounding  Pictou  economic divergence:  class,  class,  Besides  culture:  those  wide  class.  curriculum  individual,  through  crown  include  values.  to  College,  Queen's and a  culture,  relating  upper  King's  a l l supported  Christian  ish  three  social  91  h i s r e f e r e n c e s t o them i n h i s i n a u g u r a t i o n  In s p i t e of the p o l i t i c a l controversy ing  and  Hubert  solidly  paramount.  curriculum  middle middle  Given  of these  this  colleges  is  p u z z l i n g i f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c u l t u r a l r o o t s a r e i g n o r e d . " From  a  late  twentieth-century  i n s i s t e n c e on practical tive,  the  rhetorical  perspective,  therefore,  the  English  a c l a s s i c a l c u r r i c u l u m m i g h t be p u z z l i n g , g i v e n  demands o f a c o l o n i a l question practice  i s not in  why  English  economy. Victoria as  of  From a modern College  the  chose to  highest  goal  the  perspecstress of  the  Hubert  curriculum, other  be  To  the  other  c o l l e g e s d i d not.  Did  a b l e t o communicate r e a d i l y what he had  a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n , we  Anglican  largely  from  situation all  the  "- ^ o n l y  learned?  must t u r n t o t h e s p e c i f i c  Presbyterian  England  i n the college  one  on  and  college  Scotland  various  r a t h e r t h a n from t h e  born.  before  His  derived immediate  North America.  mid-century,  Ryerson was  Of the  from  Episcopalianism,  a n a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l model, t o  Methodism, b a s e d  congregationalist  form  conversion  colon-  chapter.  constituencies  colonies i n B r i t i s h  presidents  native  structured a  and  the  s h a r e Ryerson's v i e w s t h a t a c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e  c u l t u r e o f e a c h o f t h e t h r e e groups r e v i e w e d i n t h i s  The  on  r a t h e r why  c o l l e g e s not  should  ial  but  92  of  church  governance,  reinforced  i m m e d i a t e and  practical  i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r than h i e r a r c h i c a l v a l u e s  in  society.  Added t o t h i s ,  church  and  educated,  so  experience as  well  as  as the  concerns  of  in  a t t i t u d e s toward  the need  the  the  general for  social  institutions  constituencies values  and  were shaped  by  for  like  Anglican  his  instance,  end  of the  to  century.  colonists,  in Britain  were  Divisions  continued  which  contrast,  colleges  Britain.  first-generation  a t t i t u d e s rooted  In  P i c t o u Academy, D a l h o u s i e  through to the of  and  new-world Methodism,  ministry.  s i t u a t i o n of  lives  College  educated  Presbyterian  Presbyterianism,  Queen's  t h r u s t of  an  Scottish of  education  largely self-  a c i r c u i t preacher w i t h i n the Methodist conventions  by  stressed  rooted  his  R y e r s o n was  the both  within  affect  the  College  and  The  college  therefore,  r a t h e r than i n the  had  colon-  Hubert  93  ies. However, lectual faith The  and  religious  settlers  pulsed with v i g o r i n both  endeavors.  Combined w i t h a  intel-  thorough-going  i n d e m o c r a c y , t h e s e a t t i t u d e s demanded a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n .  late  eighteenth-century  modified cially  the  traditional  i n l a n g u a g e and  English  learning  elocution -• a s  Scottish  well  and  especially  concern  translated  in  an  into  at the  aesthetic  a t Edinburgh.  desire for English culture  for classical  literature.  composition  as  Scottish  learning,  espe-  In S c o t l a n d , t h i s concern f o r rhetorical end  of the  interest  For McCulloch  in  education eighteenth English  in  both  century,  literature,  i n Nova S c o t i a ,  a l l these  S c o t t i s h a t t i t u d e s r e s u l t e d i n b a s i c E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y courses, necessary, to  and  historian  fellow  Scots  clergymen" yet  i n a general  spent  ments  "a  and  quirements Articles,  part  1933,  "moulded  teachers,  a  lawyers,  generation  scientists,  of and  i n e d u c a t i o n were a l s o a t t a c h e d t o an o l d  Unlike  of  thus  democratic  ideals the  were  social  thoroughly  curriculum, for  in  according  (15).  concerns  Anglican  and  Harvey  that,  s e r i e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l movements t h a t have n o t  themselves"  were  England,  C.  journalists,  culture.  however, which  as  and  Anglican world  D.  e d u c a t i o n a l program  as  molded  to  by  in  Presbyterianism,  Oxford  s t r u c t u r e of the elitist  i n addition  students  ideals  to  i n both being  swear a l l e g i a n c e  and  Cambridge,  ruling  entrance  expensive. to  class  in  requireThe  re-  the T h i r t y - n i n e  e i t h e r a t m a t r i c u l a t i o n or graduation, ensured t h a t the  Hubert  educational by  a  thrust  a t Oxford  utilitarianism  dustrial  class  utilitarian Cambridge teenth  of  early  stance  to  was  i n t e n s i f i e d by  in  an  to  meant,  theoretically  dents'  rather  than  - the in in  King's Colleges a colony. all  d i d not  that  creatively.  would  I f those  That  human  help  the  student  them,  and  classical  and To  and  demanded  that  the  rhetorical  Methodists  placed  in  force  developing i n urging  curriculum  and  Greek* r a t h e r  the  classical  v i e w o f h i s own them,  these  foremost  of  a  eloquence  in  poetics—but  of  place  liberal and  student that  in  the  their  education  o p i n i o n s and  i n c l u d e d r h e t o r i c and  c u r r i c u l u m taught  stu-  t h e same  skills  Toward t h i s  i n English.  and  critically  (216) .  than  them"  an  nine-  the  as out  think  and  supporters  q u o t e John Henry Newman, a t r u e l i b e r a l  truth  a n t i - •>  t h i n k i n g powers were d e v e l o p e d , t h e  "a c l e a r c o n s c i o u s  a  to  in-  language  develop  curriculum  condition  taught  a  The  America, in  to  Faculty  see t h e i r  Scots  ments,  North  classics  estate.  n a t u r a l l y l e a r n the u t i l i t a r i a n  g a v e a man  England.  least,  would  curriculum.  rising  They b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e human c o n d i t i o n was  situations.  education  the  stamped  e a r l y decades o f t h e  on  at  of  be  r e a c t i o n of Oxford  British  emphasis  his  the  i n the  literature, mind  hallmark  nineteenth-century  Transferred  resulted  Cambridge would n o t  became t h e  S c o t t i s h attacks  century.  attitudes  that  and  94  judg-  expressing end,  the  in Latin  F u r t h e r m o r e , toward t h i s  r h e t o r i c n o t as a "knack," b u t  end as  H u b e r t 95  an  "art,"  goal  n o t t o w a r d an immediate u s e , b u t toward t h e u l t i m a t e  1 8  o f educating  a r e s p o n s i b l e , p r o d u c t i v e member  o f t h e com-  munity. In p r a c t i c a l , tion  political  terms, however, t h e c l a s s i c a l  was meant t o s e t an A n g l i c a n u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e  ( i n t h e T o r y v i e w , above) h i s f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . supported that  by  placed  lative  Colleges  Cambridge. King's  focus  requirements,  These  concerns  power arts  reflected were  the l a t e r  on  was  even  curricula and  t h e wishes  of the three  Toronto)  as  well  of a King's  as t h e  or u n o f f i -  o f O x f o r d and  f u r t h e r supported  by f a c u l t y o f  graduates  o f Oxford,  Cambridge,  Oxford.  nineteenth-century  the early  legis-  t h e concerns  i n Anglo-Canadian  exclusively  This e l i t i s m  structure of the colonies  to defy  i n D u b l i n , modeled a f t e r  studies  from  body, whether by o f f i c i a l  colleges, invariably  understand  apart  powers i n t h e hands o f a T o r y  Fredericton,  o f t h e student  or of T r i n i t y  English  enough  (Windsor,  entrance  To  with  political  Hence t h e l i b e r a l  composition  the  decision-making  council  - governor.  cial  the effective  educa-  development  c o l l e g e s , however, nineteenth-century  of  one c a n n o t differences  among t h e t h r e e e d u c a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e A n g l i cans,  Presbyterians,  nineteenth  century,  three traditions  and M e t h o d i s t s .  I n t h e second h a l f  t h e deep-rooted  divisions  of the  separating  i n r h e t o r i c would g r a d u a l l y d i s a p p e a r ,  the  producing  I n P l a t o ' s G o r g i a s , S o c r a t e s d e f i n e s an " a r t " a s an a c t i v i t y g i v i n g t h o u g h t t o t h e s o u l ' s b e s t i n t e r e s t ; a "knack" i s concerned only with the soul's pleasure (74). 1 8  H u b e r t 96  in  a l lAnglo-Canadian  strong  and  resilient  almost a century. ical  enough  and  were  public  preciation finally,  to resist  arising  classical  of  study  significant  religion,  change f o r  traditional  C h r i s t i a n values,  crown,  and a l l e g i a n c e  curriculum  philosoph-  The components o f t h i s  from  individual a high  t o i t , and,  c o l l e g e s , by tradition  a n d by t h e g r o w i n g emphasis on t e x t as an o b j e c t  developments  o f the next  i n t h e O l d World,  colleges  reacted  and i n areas t h a t  culture.  decades,  s o we must  t o r i a n developments i n B r i t a i n , Anglo-Canadian  ap-  f o s t e r e d by t h e  i n a l l the early  i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y s c i e n t i f i c  itself  curriculum  on " t a s t e " encouraged by t h e b e l l e t r i s t i c  Hugh B l a i r ,  roots  English  an a e s t h e t i c appreciation o f l i t e r a t u r e ,  of  The  the Christian  f o r the British  emphasis  ric.  common  T h i s l a t e r u n i t y r e f l e c t e d a common  morality  traditional  ric  a  s u b s t r a t u m among a l l t h e t r a d i t i o n s .  substratum  the  colleges  therefore,  now t u r n  before  had t h e i r  back t o t r a c e  r e t u r n i n g again  Vic-  t o see how  t o t h e s e changes, b o t h i n r h e t o -  a f f e c t e d t h e development o f r h e t o -  Hubert  CHAPTER 3:  British of  t r a d i t i o n s played  B r i t i s h North America's  the  first  half  College,  in  colleges the  King's were  of  or  the  College  present  in  Nova  Anglican  opened  in  of  colleges The  context  curricula emphasized  purpose  of  intellectual ostensibly  and  an  Colleges,  colleges.  and  strongly  treal,  the  The  the  and  strong  in  1843.  was  King's  British and  in  Anglican  1829  strong  originally  and  Brunswick,  These t h r e e  colleges  i n England.  language  operated  was  to  teach  This  the  culture  facility  in  thought,  c u l t u r a l mores.  to  of  College  in  McGill as  a  the  King's  establish their  Queen's C o l l e g e  under  content.  Christian  orientation  opened  Anglican  and  thought, and  dissociat-  these  ruling class.  in  two  Another  College  classical  either  decade.  career,  creative  Dalhousie also  New  education consciously  learning  in  by  Maritimes,  in  first  c o l o n i s t s were o b l i g e d  influenced  although McGill  one  professional  a  anglophone  of Oxford College  Scots established  influence  institution  at  early  In the  and  of upper c l a s s E n g l i s h  non-Anglican  own  Scottish  of  languages  of  a  critical  appreciation  Because  from  in  that  liberal  education  included  classical  a  Scotia  classical  culture  the  the  from V i c t o r i a  s t u d y were i n f l u e n c e d  Toronto  Within  development  universities in  Apart  all  Church i n the  m o d e l e d on  their  century.  S c o t t i s h academic h e r i t a g e . one  i n the  English-speaking  Canada,  taught a curriculum  ing  central part  first  Upper  i n the  Colleges,  the  a  nineteenth  Cobourg,  o p e n e d by  King's  the  examined  English  97  ENGLISH STUDIES IN VICTORIAN BRITAIN  in  the  Kingston, Maritimes.  College,  in  Mon-  non-denominational  Anglican  control  until  Hubert  mid-century. affirmed that  a  The  the  value  colonial  value.  The  S c o t t i s h educators of  Scots,  cal  curriculum  colleges,  the  The  from  homeland's  St.  The the of  the  Scots  colonial  of  British  and  Scots  culture  and  English  derived  to  thus  on  have the  lectual  movements  in  toria's  Latin  access  and  of  to  educational  Edinburgh,  colleges  educational  the  their values  Glasgow,  reign  continued The  Aber-  ensured  unabated  general  traditions  graduates  a  profound  and  the  (after  social defy  effect  developments  society at  a f f e c t e d by  developments of  century.  Canadian r h e t o r i c a l  these  complexity  in  classi-  the  direct  prominence  1867,  i n the  these  the  brief  large,  of  Domin-  instituAs  included  social  of  England  curriculum.  curricular  general  the  intel-  developments  movements,  and  rhetoric itself.  The  in Britain  analysis.  Canadian  in Britain  discipline  developments  on  in  influence  E d u c a t i o n a l developments i n S c o t l a n d and  advanced,  specific  at  their  i n B r i t i s h North America  century  within  utilitarian  exclusiveness open  British universities  British-educated  continued  tions,  insisted  Andrews.  i o n of Canada). thus  poetics  emphasized  second h a l f of the nineteenth  impact  and  religious  universities  i n f l u e n c e of  Scottish  also  must have a b a s i c  rhetoric  opposing  colleges.  d e e n and  America  spoken, i n a d d i t i o n t o t e a c h i n g t h e  containing  Vehemently  their  they  North  t h e r e f o r e , i n s i s t e d on t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h r h e t o -  b o t h w r i t t e n and  Anglican  British  c u l t u r e , but  c o l l e g e education  ric,  Greek.  classical  in  98  However,  during forced  Queen V i c to  use  a  Hubert  single  word  "change." into  to  describe  I n The  the  era,  to  say,  V i c t o r i a n Frame o f Mind. W a l t e r Houghton  leads  his  first  paragraph  t h a t they  lived  i n a time of t r a n s i t i o n  Queen V i c t o r i a ' s considered  committed  in  1837,  a  the  of  the  most  thought  i t s birth  institution  basic  that  ties  thought century,  Darwin,  Gower and  which  education  to  saw  spurred  on  universities.  brought  shift  the  Mill, by  By  by  new  was  by  the  the  of  course.  radical English  the a  called break  radical  change  in  studies  to  began  "the  the  concept.  By  inquiry  from r e l i g i o u s t o  in  of  Charles  criticism  Godless  between  educational  institutions  of  London  itself  philosophies  biblical  of  gradually  eighteenth  s t r o n g momentum i n t h e  science  Britain  U n i v e r s i t y o f London  This t r a n s i t i o n  religion,  both  toward  then  domination  i t gained  1901,  from a r e l i g i o u s  because  educational  formal but  and  1826,  Street,"  religious  already,  Stuart  the  the  of  nor Cambridge even  University  for  eventually  intolerable.  thought,  their  John  on  end,  considered  stimuli  n a t i o n was  recognized  Indeed, i n a l l o f G r e a t  i n U n i v e r s i t y College, at f i r s t  church  century's  lar  well  At the beginning  i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r as a s e p a r a t e  c o l l e g e s i n the  Anglican  do  Victorians  (1).  recently-established  s e c u l a r i z e d s o c i e t y . In  had  that  n e i t h e r Oxford  themselves to i t .  literature  educational all  r e i g n i n 1837,  only  One  noting  would  English literature for their curricula.  had  taught  by  one  99  Jeremy Lyell  was  secubreak  century  nineteenth Bentham and  originating in  and  Charles German  H u b e r t 100  The  general  universities lum,  focus  had other  o n e o f t h e most  specialization. curriculum riculum  ies  with  tutes,  subject  originally  University est  stitutes  focus  interest  then  culture  changes  new f o c u s  appeared  with  on d i s c r e e t  stud-  Insti-  f o r t h e new c l a s s  a t t h e same time  soon  ever  areas o f  o f Mechanics  training  England  however,  from  as t h e  A keen p u b l i c i n t e r -  saw t h e Mechanics I n This  popular  l e d t o the introduction o f English studies into the  t o have  a  The new f o c u s on d i s c r e e t  o f women's e d u c a t i o n .  significant  impact  areas  o f study  By t h e 1870s,  i n college-level  women  studies,  i n t h e study o f E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e .  study  historically  school  this  a cur-  e d u c a t i o n came t o f o c u s on  a t t e n t i o n on v e r n a c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e .  the rise  only  and g u a d r i v i u m ,  to the establishing  literature,  also  The  curricular  i n industrial  o f London.  especially  toward  changes i n u n i v e r s i t y  providing technical  University  began  curricu-  a s t r o n g movement  o f London was b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d .  i n English  aided  structural  I n England,  men  on t h e B r i t i s h  trivium  However, a s  areas,  led initially  working  being  f o s t e r e d by German  transmitting a traditional  t o generation,  ease.  learning  not  important  remained d i f f i c u l t .  -• g r e a t e r  effects  on t h e m e d i e v a l  concerned  discreet  of  profound  thought  As l o n g a s h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n s i s t e d on a s i n g l e  based  generation  on c r i t i c a l  o f r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s w i t h i n t h e c o l l e g e s e t t i n g  belonged  t h e study  level,  t o the c l a s s i c s of c l a s s i c a l  but also  t h e study  c u r r i c u l u m , which i n c l u d e d  languages o f Greek  beyond  t h e grammar  and L a t i n  poetry,  drama,  and  oratory,  these f i e l d s .  As  early  as  there  spreading  theory given  and to  English  oratory  1830s, and  the  to  derived  from  of  culture after that  literature e m p h a s i s on  With  mixed  saw  the  a  of  focus  from  rhetorical  with  o f r h e t o r i c changed  from  the  an  was  factors  style,  emphasis on  Arnold  ideals  enough p o p u l a r  Church,  on  on The  aesthetics stress  embedded  in  were  on in  spearheading  a  English  religion.  This  a e s t h e t i c guide f o r support  t h a t , by  Cambridge, newly f r e e d 1  moral  e s p e c i a l l y strong  for traditional  even O x f o r d and Anglican  focusing  emphasis  Matthew  cultural  the from  literature.  aesthetics  was  the w r i t i n g of  composition  classical  gained  studies into their the  and  poetics  E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e as a m o r a l and  to  i n 1845,  o f r h e t o r i c and  incorporated  substitute  century,  of  as  traditional  British  of  All  shift  soon  mid-century,  end  English  p r o m i n e n c e — i n London  A b e r d e e n — t h e study of  prose  with  eventually  ties  to  to  nation  formal  this  poetics  the  the  to  theory  i n Edinburgh beginning  study  become  relating  classical  o f n a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e and  addition the  101  i n E n g l i s h grew as more and more a t t e n t i o n  persuasion  in  movement  the  E n g l i s h , however, t h e  focus  England  as  Glasgow, and  reading  culture  moral  to  poetics  and  the  well  E n g l i s h studies gained  language.  classics  - and  the  as  Hubert  forced  to  the from  introduce  curricula. listed  above—cultural  a c a d e m i c s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , women's e d u c a t i o n ,  secularization,  the s h i f t o f r h e t o r i c  •'•The s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Test Acts, which had required m a t r i c u l a n t s a t O x f o r d and g r a d u a t e s a t Cambridge t o a f f i r m t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e t o A n g l i c a n dogma, were r e p e a l e d i n 1871 (Moorman 409) .  Hubert  and on  poetics  from  cultural  British tury,  ideals  North  so  they  general  fluence. Charles  require  -  cal  close  of  these  review  gained  faith  criticism,  as  features,  and  acceptance  i n Germany  3  from  basis was  had  such as  i n C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s was  originating  the  thus  around  the  emphasis  England  to  of the nineteenth cen-  Secularization  t h e works o f s c i e n t i s t s  Darwin  finally,  carried  i n t h e second h a l f  education.  As  traditional  in literature—were  America  Anglo-Canadian most  c l a s s i c s t o E n g l i s h , and,  102  of  undoubtedly  in the  the broadest i n Charles L y e l l  mid-century shaken. added  change  2  to  and  Higher the  and  later, bibli-  doubt  in-  Charles Lyell p u b l i s h e d a three-volume study entitled P r i n c i p l e s o f G e o l o g y (1830-33), which found t h a t n a t u r a l p r o c e s ses c o u l d e x p l a i n g e o l o g i c a l phenomena, b u t t h a t t h e s e p r o c e s s e s r e q u i r e d f a r l o n g e r t h a n p r o v i d e d by a t r a d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g o f Genesis. C h a r l e s Darwin's On t h e O r i g i n o f S p e c i e s (1859) argued t h a t e v o l u t i o n b a s e d on n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l i f e on e a r t h . 2  C u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n Brian Fraser defines Higher C r i t i c i s m r e l a t e s i t t o s e c u l a r i z a t i o n as f o l l o w s : H i g h e r C r i t i c i s m was t h e c r i t i c a l s t u d y o f t h e t e x t i n S c r i p t u r e i n i t s o r i g i n a l h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g , as d i s t i n c t f r o m Lower C r i t i c i s m , w h i c h endeavored t o a r r i v e at the o r i g i n a l text. I t had i t s modern o r i g i n s i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , where B i b l i c a l S c h o l a r s t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h a pure s c i e n c e o f B i b l i c a l r e s e a r c h t h a t w o u l d y i e l d i m p a r t i a l , o b j e c t i v e answers t o t h e questions p o s e d by r e p e t i t i o n s , d i s c r e p a n c i e s and cont r a d i c t i o n s i n t h e c a n o n i c a l arrangement o f t h e S c r i p tures. They d e v e l o p e d an h i s t o r i c a l - c r i t i c a l method t o a n a l y z e h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y q u e s t i o n s . In the a t m o s p h e r e o f f r e e i n q u i r y p r o v i d e d by t h e l o o s e t i e s b e t w e e n t h e German c h u r c h e s and t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s , many German s c h o l a r s f o l l o w e d t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s i n t o unb e l i e f , unable t o r e c o n c i l e t h e i r c r i t i c a l understanding o f the B i b l e with the C h r i s t i a n orthodoxy of the d a y . (28) 3  and  Hubert 103  stilled  by  thought.  that  it  to  follow  of Victorian  Darwin's  England,  evolutionary  Walter  and s o c i e t y  which  burst  over  F r o u d e , C a r l y l e ' s b i o g r a p h e r , wrote,  intellectual  Houghton  lightships  had b r o k e n  from  their  England"  (66) .  " A l l round u s , moorings,  and  was t h e n a new and t r y i n g e x p e r i e n c e " ( q t d . i n Houghton 66) . Britain's  the  came  " V i c t o r i a n s were u t t e r l y u n p r e p a r e d f o r t h e r a d i c a l  i n thought  James A n t h o n y the  who  I n h i s study  reflects crisis  those  new e r a .  - o f t h e new  himself: after  that belief  shade  pure  h a d darkened  nature,  Arnold  i n "Dover  into  the l o s s  Unbelief,"  g r i m l y over your s o u l ,  Tartarean black"  The  moral  felt  till  "shade  you have t h e f i x e d ,  ("The E v e r l a s t i n g t h e same  he w r i t e s ;  No").  condition,  As l a t e  addressed  Sea o f F a i t h too, at the f u l l ,  and round e a r t h ' s s h o r e  Lay l i k e t h e f o l d s of a b r i g h t g i r d l e  furled.  B u t now I o n l y h e a r melancholy,  long, withdrawing  roar,  R e t r e a t i n g , t o the breath Of t h e n i g h t wind, down t h e v a s t edges d r e a r And  of .  Beach":  Was once,  Its  protagonist  was t h e l o s s o f e v e r y t h i n g , " b u t he cannot h e l p  goes  Matthew  notably  age i n S a r t o r R e s a r t u s . C a r l y l e ' s  "fora  "Doubt  starless, 1867,  As e a r l y as 1830, Thomas C a r l y l e sensed t h e coming  secular  recognises religious  foremost l i t e r a r y a r t i s t s r e f l e c t e d t h e anguish o f  naked  shingles of the world.  as  most  In  1850,  peared,  even  b e f o r e Darwin's Of  the O r i g i n  Hubert  104  o f S p e c i e s had  ap-  T e n n y s o n ' s " I n Memoriam" a l r e a d y asked, A r e God  and Nature t h e n a t  strife,  T h a t N a t u r e l e n d s such e v i l  dreams?  So c a r e f u l o f t h e t y p e she seems, So c a r e l e s s o f t h e s i n g l e l i f e . The went  back  whole  to  was  England,  experience learning focused  challenge to t r a d i t i o n a l  Renaissance  and  religious  were i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d  linked  to  the  Bacon's Advancement  The  and  to the  crisis  in  university curriculum. of Learning  (1605),  t h e use o f t h e p h y s i c a l  c o u n t e r to the medieval  senses.  for  university  T h i s approach emphasis,  on t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f knowledge d e r i v i n g from through and taught  traditional  transmission  faith  a s s e r t e d t h e need t o g a i n knowledge t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l  ran  Greek  trivium  inevitably  Francis  transmitted  the  the  thus  example, h a d  cal  of this  f o c u s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g i n W e s t e r n Europe.  * faith In  roots  (LV)  of  Latin the  the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n , culture. traditional  pattern that  In  The  the  i n grammar,  and t h e  in rhetoric.  classi-  university,  languages  in logic,  which  revelation  m o d i f i e d by  medieval  classical  of thought  thought  the  to  traditional  quadrivium  then  f o c u s e d on t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e c u l t u r e t r a n s m i t t e d from g e n e r a t i o n to  generation.  controlled lay  the  And  i n the  Middle  Ages,  content of the c u r r i c u l u m .  the  Catholic  Part of t h a t  church control  i n t h e f a c t t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s s t u d i e d t h e same c u r r i c u l u m . Though  somewhat m o d i f i e d , t h i s  medieval  approach  to  educa-  H u b e r t 105  tion  was  essentially  teenth century classical and  the c l a s s i c a l  i n England  languages,  an  atmosphere,  new  than  tradition,  a past  ture.  The  relating The become  century  tied  included  In such  the study  of t h e  l e a r n i n g t o a contemporary  o f t h e new, looked  t o Germany,  rather  the e x i s t i n g  experimental  German  solution  struc-  learning i n the  where  t h e problems  i n v o l v e d t h r e e major p r e r e q u i s i t e s .  r e l e v a n t i n the nineteenth century,  control.  specialized,  The  were  vernacular  simply  knowledge  teenth  and i n A n g l i c a n E n g l a n d .  i n e v i t a b l y threatened  thus  authorities,  t o t h e c l a s s i c a l c u r r i c u l u m had been d e a l t w i t h .  vernacular,  guages  itself  advocates  - nineteenth  A l l students studied t h e  to ecclesiastical  l e a r n i n g , which  which  new  acceptable  i n P r e s b y t e r i a n Scotland  vernacular,  be  and S c o t l a n d .  nine-  a l l s t u d i e d e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same c u r r i c u l u m ,  a l l l e a r n i n g was  both  curriculum of the early  and  was  freed  too i n f l e x i b l e  4  Specialization  church—or  because  was  state—  classical  t o communicate  and t h e p a t t e r n s o f t h o u g h t  century.  t h e c u r r i c u l u m had t o  from  necessary  To  the wealth  lanof  demanded i n t h e n i n e -  necessary  because  the ex-  To i l l u s t r a t e h i s argument i n f a v o r o f t h e v e r n a c u l a r , F r i e d e r i c h P a u l s e n ' s 1906 s t u d y o f German u n i v e r s i t i e s c i t e s t h e a r g u m e n t o f a C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g i a n who had l e c t u r e d i n L a t i n : N o t h i n g c o u l d be more d e s i r a b l e and c o n v e n i e n t f o r t h e m e d i o c r e and weak t e a c h e r , who has o n l y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t o i m p a r t , t h a n t h e u s e o f t h e L a t i n l a n g u a g e . H i s own l a c k o f c l e a r n e s s o f t h o u g h t and meagreness o f i d e a s c a n be a d m i r a b l y d i s g u i s e d i n t h e w e l l - w o r n r u t s and impoverished idioms o f t h i s language i n i t s modern form. Commonplaces which would be u n b e a r a b l e when c l o t h e d i n German always sound somewhat more r e s p e c t a b l e i n L a t i n d i s g u i s e " (Paulsen 50). 4  plosion  of  discreet  knowledge  areas.  interference grew o u t ted  in  physical  the  - religious  In  rooted  the  iance ing  the  search  rather  to  the  formal  values  curriculum Scotland,  in  John  of  of  were  to  and  political  f o r new  knowledge  than  from a u t h o r i t i e s  tradition.  were,  British  the  Knox's  England,  of  course,  Christian,  universities  reinforced  with  positions.  capstones  of  an  sixteenth-century and  educational Presbyterian  Cambridge were f o r m a l l y  students  Thirty-nine Articles, church  restricted  t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s , though open t o a l l  In England, Oxford  Church  gained  experience  denominations,  reformation. to  C h r i s t i a n dogma  because  Victorian social  values.  be  106  L o c k i a n p r e m i s e s t h a t knowledge o r i g i n a -  human  classical  system  research  dogma f r o m r e l i g i o u s o r p o l i t i c a l  Early  those  that  from  necessary  o f B a c o n i a n and  deriving  and  Freedom  5  was  demanded  Hubert  and  As  having  with  to  swear  alleg-  the p r o f e s s o r s  British  university  tied  hold-  culture  a Baconian perspective i n l e a r n i n g i t i n e v i t a b l y developed  philosophical  tensions  and  classical  thought.  and  the  s t a t e , which  ventions,  grew  as  with  i t s traditions  These t e n s i o n s  combined b o t h  the  century  rooted  in Christian  between t h e  political  progressed,  as  and  universities  religious  illustrated  con-  in  the  e a r l y V i c t o r i a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f Benjamin J o w e t t , t h e f u t u r e M a s t e r of  Balliol  College,  who  wrote o f h i s  o r d i n a t i o n as  a priest  in  T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n German u n i v e r s i t i e s i s presented w e l l i n Ben-David and Zlowczower's " U n i v e r s i t i e s and A c a d e m i c S y s t e m s i n Modern S o c i e t i e s , " i n t h e European J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y 3 ( 1 9 6 2 ) : 45-84. 5  H u b e r t 107  1845: The  B i s h o p asked, among o t h e r  the  candidate  Paley's  signed  questions,  the [Thirty-nine]  s e n s e . ' "What does P a l e y  absurdity  i n what s e n s e  i f the Legislature  say?"  meant  Articles. x  T h a t i t i s an  t o say that  a s s e n t e d t o f o u r o r f i v e hundred disputed It  only  Church  meant t h a t  you were a n a t t a c h e d  o f England.'  The answer  »In  you  propositions. member  satisfied  of the  the Bishop.  ( F a b e r 184) - For Jowett, Anglican  advancement  priest,  a  ment.  T h e new  tional  restrictions  conservative University the  context The  of a liberal  although  between until  required  thought.  as John  (1852) , argued  required  ordination  as  s t i p u l a t e d by t h e c i v i l  however,  to free  scholar  increased 6  requirement  learning,  tensions  learning control,  a  a t Oxford  Henry  f o r t h e new  By  freedom  govern-  from  t h e 1850s,  an  tradi-  even  Newman, i n The Idea freedom o f t h o u g h t  so  of a within  education. C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s and contemporary higher  the process  learning was  slow.  was f r e e d  from  Church  The i n f l u e n c e  of the  T h e c a r e e r o f C h a r l e s L y e l l i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s growing d i v e r gence between l e a r n i n g and Church. L y e l l matriculated a t Oxford i n 1816, a n d s t u d i e d law upon g r a d u a t i n g . His geological intere s t s , however, l e d t o h i s p u b l i s h i n g P r i n c i p l e s o f Geology (183033) , w h i c h s t r e s s e d c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n a s a b a s i s o f t h e o r y . He won r e p e a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l honors, and was k n i g h t e d i n 1848. He a l s o t a u g h t b r i e f l y a t K i n g ' s C o l l e g e i n London. He was, t h e r e f o r e , a l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n E n g l i s h c u l t u r e , respected i n both r e l i g i o u s and s c i e n t i f i c c i r c l e s . A l t h o u g h h i s own g e o l o g i c a l work r e f u t e d t r a d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g o f t h e b i b l i c a l c r e a t i o n a c c o u n t , a n d a l t h o u g h he was i m p r e s s e d by Darwin's work, he i n i 6  H u b e r t 108  church  and  state  on  learning  i n England  was  brought  home  to  Matthew A r n o l d  i n 1865, when he went t o t h e C o n t i n e n t t o examine  education.  He  was  especially  impressed  by  German  academic  freedom: Lehrfreiheit and  liberty  and L e r n f r e i h e t .  (Arnold This  emphasis  Oxford and  the  fundamental  ideas  of  fitted  the  beginning  freedom  o f t h e mind  the d i s i n t e r e s t e d  nature  the  system.  Following  traditional  of  this  Oxford  learning.  interests at  i t was now t o be f r e e  from  t r a d i t i o n back  Newman t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c e n t u r y , A r n o l d The  i n and f o r  education, f o r Oxford  was t o be f r e e from p r o f e s s i o n a l  o f t h e century,  control.  science,  1874, 165)  stressed  as education  gious  are  p u r s u e d and p r i z e d  a n d Cambridge emphasis on a l i b e r a l  Cambridge  Just the  on  f o r the teacher  f o r t h e l e a r n e r ; and W i s s e n s c h a f t .  knowledge s y s t e m a t i c a l l y itself,  liberty  reli-  through  stressed:  aim and o f f i c e o f i n s t r u c t i o n , s a y many p e o p l e , i s  t o make a man a good c i t i z e n ,  o r a good C h r i s t i a n , o r a  g e n t l e m a n ; o r i t i s t o f i t h i m t o g e t on i n t h e w o r l d , or  i t i s t o e n a b l e h i m t o do h i s d u t y i n t h a t  state o f  t i a l l y questioned the evolutionary hypothesis, b u t i n 1865 he a f f i r m e d D a r w i n ' s v i e w s , t h e r e b y a l i e n a t i n g many o f h i s e a r l i e r s u p p o r t e r s w i t h i n t h e church. Of t h i s s h i f t , Darwin s t a t e d , " C o n s i d e r i n g h i s age, h i s f o r m e r v i e w s , and p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y , I t h i n k h i s a c t i o n h a s been h e r o i c " (Macomber 209). Even b e f o r e 1865, however, L y e l l a g i t a t e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m i n E n g l i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s ; he o b j e c t e d t o c h u r c h c o n t r o l o f t h o u g h t i n c o l l e g e studies.  Hubert  life the  t o w h i c h he  modern s p i r i t more and  of these. to The  thrust  urged  the  England don, ing -  interests.  higher  Oxford  and  Further,  were n o t  the  rise  from c h u r c h c o n t r o l .  human  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  for  s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of  s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of  the  associated  instruction.  experience  rather  move  from  The  chair  for instance.  universities,  with  the  The  new  than  on  of  to  c h a i r , as  rhetoric to Further,  clearly  d i s t i n g u i s h courses  was  development of the  the  Scottish  use  focus a  of  given  Spalding  did  Glasgow's  study.  student  the  of  by  speciali-  rooted  in in  transmitted  i n the i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t  The  seen p r o f e s -  i n moving  chair  the t r a d i t i o n a l  of  and  vernacular  learning body  those  accompanied  the  of  Lon-  relig-  as  a whole,  was  of  universities  e a r l y u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l u m had  chair  thus  in free-  severe  f e a t u r e o f German l e a r n i n g ; namely, academic  itself  Edinburgh's 1845,  as  s o c i e t y as  information.  sors  England  problems o f  of course,  k n o w l e d g e f o r c e d an e v e r narrower f o c u s of  The  growing  university  in  169)  o f the U n i v e r s i t y of  church.  second  zation,  education  f o r m a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e  The gradual  in  ( A r n o l d 1874,  man  Cambridge from narrow Church  c o n t r o l i n S c o t l a n d were not,  especially  none  i s to enable a  o f U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , a l s o l e d t h e way  education  and  more d i s c e r n s i t t o be  the world.  mid-Victorian  especially  ious  the  know h i m s e l f and of  I t i s none o f t h e s e ,  . . . i t s prime d i r e c t aim  f r e e i n g of  higher  i s called.  109  logic  in  curriculum did  not  object  as much as  of  from  of  i t was  education the  trans-  Hubert  mission  of  distinct tury,  a  distinct  chair.  Thus,  composition  logic,  with  wore  the  on,  cipline of  was  in  reflected  this  was  lagged of  faded  as  taught  were  of  Matthew  senschaft  (science),  Germany's freedom "most This  but  to  need  alone,  also  on  antiquity, 179). thus  to  The  borrow  and  on on  geology,  gradual  and  the l a c k  dons, who  of as-  As t h e c e n t u r y  and  from  research.  instruction,  to  German  German  though  Lehrfreihet  especially the  dis-  As  increasing  universities.  was  s e e t h e d o c t o r a l degree  British  (freedom  focused  of  and  of both  study  evolution  the  for  to  of  on  physics, the s p i r i t  the  British  not  original higher  Wis-  lacked  learn  i n science that Britain  chemistry  a  concern  German u n i v e r s i t i e s "  learning  through  rhetoric  o f s t u d y became composed  the  that  Wissenschaft  a thorough gained  from  cen-  In h i s t o u r of the Continent  emphasized  t e a c h ) , i t was  of  a  s t u d i e s i n which s u c c e s s f u l r e s e a r c h  stating  Lernfreiheit  emphasis  world  Arnold  use  teaching  r e c o g n i z e d by d o c t o r a l d e g r e e s . 1865,  i n both  o f p r o f e s s o r s moving  attracted  specialized  professor i n  of learning.  i n providing specialized  scholars  a  In England,  courses  bodies  by  of the nineteenth  i n Oxford's  practice  discreet  Germany o f f e r e d was  beginning  Edinburgh  discipline  more  numbers  a t the  knowledge  t h e more i m p o r t a n t .  however,  ever  of  s t u d e n t s i n a l l branches  to  - Britain  at  logic  specialization sisted  body  110  and had  (1874, 166) . the  physical  f o r instance, and  power o f  works  (1874,  e d u c a t i o n would  change from an h o n o r a r y  t o an  earned  Hubert  research  degree.'  The for  the  growth  concept  of  full  studies  lishing  of  already,  specialization i n England  i n England.  d i d not  sake r a t h e r t h a n  of  reformers  utilitarian  • parliamentarian  London. saw  Early  the  need  reasons.  For  nineteenth  educating  the  century,  masses  progressive thinkers  the  Church  Revolution much Out  more of  l e d to  need  L o n d o n f o u n d e d by 500 well  such as  a s o c i a l and  widespread  this  The  literacy  rose  the  whole  like  for  n e e d e d a much more u t i l i t a r i a n f o c u s t h a n t h a t p r o v i d e d by institutions.  the  estab-  Cambridge, o r even i n  the  for  f o r the  of  system  England  Brougham,  However, t h e b i r t h  and  in  the  educational  of  Henry  central to  have t o w a i t  d o c t o r a l programs i n O x f o r d  University  openly  o f knowledge v a l u e d f o r i t s own  s a k e o f c r e a t i n g an E n g l i s h gentleman was  English  the  111  changes wrought by  the  i n d u s t r i a l complexity than  had  Mechanics'  requiring  p r e v i o u s l y been Institutes,  Henry Brougham as e a r l y as 1823.  the By  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c e l l s were b r i n g i n g l i t e r a r y s c i e n c e t o t h e masses (Palmer  Industrial a  needed. first  1850  in over  c u l t u r e as  31).  'Abraham F l e x n e r ' s 1930 s t u d y o f t h e development o f A m e r i c a n British and German u n i v e r s i t i e s sees the "new universities" f u n c t i o n a s t h a t o f d e v e l o p i n g knowledge (311) . Mid-victorian O x f o r d and Cambridge c o u l d n o t do t h i s . D e s p i t e t h e e f f o r t s o f p h i l o s o p h e r s and r e f o r m e r s , t h e English universities. . .formed a c l o s e s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e up t o a l m o s t t h e l a s t q u a r t e r o f the nineteenth century. They were. . .organs o f t h e A n g l i c a n Church; t h e y were h o s t i l e t o d i s s e n t ; t h e y were a s i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a t y p e — t h e E n g l i s h gentleman, a moral and s o c i a l r a t h e r t h a n an i n t e l l e c t u a l t y p e . (224)  Hubert 112  The to  original give  purpose  working  and .  I n s t i t u t e s was  men an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c  p r i n c i p l e s underlying from  o f t h e Mechanics'  t h e i r new m e c h a n i c a l t r a d e s .  t h e beginning the appetite f o r self-improvement,  f o r useful  knowledge,  t o o k o t h e r forms a s w e l l .  . . most o f them i n c l u d e d programmes,  l e c t u r e s on E n g l i s h and t h r o u g h  their  i n their  they  e n a b l e d many members t o d e v e l o p t h e r e a d i n g h a b i t  ture.  libraries  more  lectures. anical on  lectures accessible  required  lectures.  Further,  circulation"  (Palmer 3 4 ) .  Also  t o t h e development  related  Institutes,  tional  reformers  of  soon o u t r a n k e d mech"lectures  o f cheap  sensational  fiction  of English  then  studies  coming  i n Eng-  was such  the r i s e as  Henry  o f women's Brougham  education. and  F.  D.  EducaMaurice  t h e need f o r e d u c a t i o n i n a l l o f s o c i e t y , female as w e l l  male.  tain,  technical  a s t o r e f o r m s t h a t l e d t o t h e development o f Mech-  anics'  as  than  were  t o mechanics would make them l e s s open t o c o r r u p -  into  stressed  men  they  many r e f o r m e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t  b y t h e abundance  as w e l l  background,  therefore,  tion  land,  no  t o t h e working  L i t e r a r y discussions,  literature  litera-  (Palmer 33)  literary  generally  litera-  ture  and t o make some a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l  Because  But  Concurrent  therefore,  women's  with  t h e growth o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n B r i -  came t h e r i s e  o f working  men's e d u c a t i o n , t h e n  e d u c a t i o n , and l a t e r t h e merging  o f t h e sexes  i n co-  Hubert 113  education.  The r o l e  advancement Victorian submissive obey—and and  bring  upper  s t u d i e s was  important  o f women's e d u c a t i o n from t h e b e g i n n i n g .  concept  o f t h e female  to the  The common  r o l e i n s o c i e t y was t h a t o f " t h e  w i f e whose whole excuse  f o r b e i n g was t o l o v e ,  honor,  a m u s e — h e r l o r d and m a s t e r , and t o manage h i s h o u s e h o l d up h i s c h i l d r e n "  classes,  ments.  of English  (Houghton 348).  women, e s p e c i a l l y  F o r t h e middle and  young women, were s o c i a l  orna-  B e a t r i c e P o t t e r Webb d e s c r i b e d t h e "London Season" o f t h e  ' e i g h t i e s as follows: with  i t s derivative  regarded their  by  wealthy  daughters,  fessional being  that  country-house parents  visiting,  as the e q u i v a l e n t , f o r  of the university  training  e d u c a t i o n and p r o -  afforded for their  marriage  [ i t ] was  t o a man o f t h e i r  sons;  the reason  own o r a h i g h e r  s o c i a l g r a d e was t h e o n l y r e c o g n i s e d v o c a t i o n f o r women not  compelled  Ideas Such nestness  their  own l i v e l i h o o d .  conflicted  Victorian  with  society,  a deeply-rooted a  moral  more  earoften  S i n c e women were  l e s s c a p a b l e o f r i g o r o u s t h o u g h t t h a n men, E n g l i s h was  suitable  already  moral  earnestness  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h women and w i t h l i t e r a t u r e . considered  (qtd. i n  a n d B e l i e f s 352)  frivolity in  t o earn  seen  than  Classics  f o r the sensitive  sex, since,  i n t h e emphasis on E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e  ics'  Institutes,  the  intellectual  t h e study o f E n g l i s h rigor  demanded  by  as  i n t h e Mechan-  literature did notrequire classical  studies  i n the  Hubert 114  university  curricula.  A c c o r d i n g t o T e r r y E a g l e t o n , E n g l i s h was  considered  "an u n t a x i n g s o r t o f a f f a i r ,  feelings  r a t h e r than  with  academic  "'disciplines,'  o f f on t h e l a d i e s "  1877  Royal  Commission,  a suitable  rate  (28).  Eagleton  suggesting that  ' - students ther,  intellectually  because  because  they  inferior,  filled  of their  sex, t h e y  the integration  c l a s s e s proceeded cited  as a  University into  the  o f bona  a witness  t o an  English  literature  might  (28).  Though women were  were  welcomed  with  o f women  into  i n this  i n London amended  degrees  years, mixed  considered  would  t o women,  teaching  their  male  regular  university  venture.  this  enrol.  the f i r s t  so e s o t e r i c  course  year  allow-  Presumably  a course  that  no  ( s u c h a s would c o r r u p t young  I n 1878, U n i v e r s i t y  and i n t h a t  I n 1863,  i t s c h a r t e r t o a l l o w women  A c c o r d i n g t o Henry S o l l y ,  non-academic i n t e r e s t s  men's m o r a l s )  Fur-  (McMurtry 13) .  women t o e n r o l was i n P o s t - B i b l i c a l Hebrew (308).  female  as new  i n t h e new c o l l e g e s .  d i d not threaten  t o advancement  College  authorities  and t h i r d -  s l o w l y , w i t h t h e f e a r o f d e c l i n i n g morals o f t e n  barrier  classes.  fide  quotes  they  classes  p r o f e s s o r s with t h e loss of jobs However,  topics  s u b j e c t f o r "women. . .and t h e s e c o n d -  men who . . .became s c h o o l m a s t e r s "  considered  ing  virile  with the f i n e r  . . . a convenient sort o f non-subject t o  palm  be  t h e more  concerned  Henry  Morley,  C o l l e g e opened who had been  a t women's c o l l e g e s and i n women's e x t e n s i o n c l a s s e s f o r  opened classes  h i s lectures spread  t o co-education.  only g r a d u a l l y , i n both  The p r a c t i c e o f England  and S c o t -  H u b e r t 115  land, But  with  integration  everywhere  with  coming t o Glasgow, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n 1894.  t h e moral  role  of English  t h e g u i d i n g and u p l i f t i n g  Queen's speare  Gardens"  reviews  and S c o t t ,  counsellors,"  qualities  the evidence  l i t e r a t u r e was e q u a t e d o f women.  i n Homer,  where women a r e " i n f a l l i b l y  by  their  weakness and v i c e  virtue  and wisdom  R u s k i n ' s "Of Dante,  faithful  redeeming  Shake-  and w i s e men  ( q t d . i n Houghton 350) .  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p o f English l i t e r a t u r e with c u l t u r a l was  not restricted  «= E n g l i s h sity  studies  t o co-education.  change  i n a whole c u l t u r e w h i c h ,  and e s p e c i a l l y  i n British  suggested  studies  i n literature,  culture  importance o f  except f o r t h e U n i v e r -  above,  t h e major  i n Victorian  century  reflected  i n the last  t h e depth o f  decades o f t h e c e n t u r y .  impetus  f o r the r i s e  of English  E n g l a n d was t h e s e n s e o f l o s t n e s s  f r o m t h e f a d i n g power o f t h e C h r i s t i a n the  The growing  ideals  o f London, h a d l o n g r e j e c t e d t h e need f o r such s t u d y i n b o t h  language  As  from  already.  Robert  Scholes  resulting  f a i t h i n the f i r s t half of p o i n t s out t h a t  literary  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r i s e s out a r e a d e r ' s sense o f incompleteness, and criticism  arises  (22-25) .  The r i s e  lish  studies  reflected any  o f both c r i t i c i s m  i n t h e second  c o u l d understand  was d e l i b e r a t e l y  cultural  of disorder  half  beliefs  fully  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  every  t o such  work  i n Engthus  i t was no l o n g e r t r u e t h a t a u t h o r , n o t because t h e  c o n f u s i n g b u t because  had s h i f t e d  in a literary  o f t h e nineteenth century  a new d i s s o n a n c e i n s o c i e t y :  reader  author  o u t o f a sense  social  an extent  v a l u e s and  that  deepest  Hubert  cultural ism,  a s s u m p t i o n s were no  associated with  utilitarian  a  philosophy  new  longer shared. scientific  and  the  social  The  world  116  rising secular-  view  and  with  d i s r u p t i o n brought  both  by  the  I n d u s t r i a l Revolution, forced  B r i t i s h society to re-evaluate i t s  beliefs  of  at  Eagleton  the  writes  explanation teenth  The social  one  " I f one  were  interest  c o u l d do  worse t h a n  (Palmer  century London feeling o n l y be  r e p l y : *the  a  single nine-  failure  of  therefore, a general  s p e c i f i c a l l y academic.  o f t h e c e n t u r y , Chandos C l a s s i c s ,  series 35) .  of  to provide  i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e was,  phenomenon, r a t h e r than one  this  asked  Terry  (22) .  publication  parts  n a t i o n a l consciousness.  f o r t h e growth o f E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n t h e l a t e r  second h a l f  and  levels  baldly,  century,  religion'"  sive  deepest  of  British  was  only  classics,  one  of  sold  a popular, 3.5  the  inexpen-  million  many a v a i l a b l e  In  volumes,  a t modest  cost  R i c h a r d A l t i c k p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e s a l e i n monthly  Dickens' onward,  Journal  novels  popular had  toward  averaged  40,000  copies,  papers  like  the  circulations  into  s i x figures.  British  literary  figures,  Family  and  from  Herald  Altick  The  mid-  and  the  depth  suggests,  of can  g i v e n i n anecdote: It  is  not  irrelevant  to  recall  the  many  stories  S c o t t ' s fame among a l l c l a s s e s o f s o c i e t y — f o r of awe of  a  of  example,  London workman a c c o s t i n g C h a r l e s Lamb t o p o i n t i n t o t h e a u t h o r o f Waverly c r o s s t h e s t r e e t .  the  old  charwoman who  never  missed  We  hear  a subscription  Hubert  tea  conducted  snuff read of  shop the  the  on  the  over  which  newest  in  will  shake  both  - that  England  shaped  well  as  and  English  me  the  when  Gardens  saying,  by  the  the  Son  who  landlord . . .  .  .  .  hand,  I'm  seven, b u t  damned  if I  [or]  plucked  "Look h e r e , s i r , h e r e am of  a  if  ever  I. you get  (2) Scotland, studies,  i n r h e t o r i c and  Owing t o  lodged,  drunk f o r s i x d a y s o u t  drunk again. In  she  Covent  Tennyson's sleeve, been  Monday o f e v e r y month a t  number o f Dombey and  vagrant  I've  first  117  both  was  the  social  in poetics  and  environment criticism  as  composition.  differing  England,  this  educational  traditions in  Scotland  and  countries  p r o c e e d e d l a r g e l y i n d e p e n d e n t l y , though developments i n  both countries of  s o c i e t y and  ture,  beginning In  parallel shifting  both  from  written  poetics focus was  on  with  classics  from a strong  stronger  in  too,  both  to  first  the  the general s e c u l a r i z -  English  rhetoric  English,  Further,  focus  culture England  litera-  and  studies and  developed  poetics  than  in  gradually  rhetoric itself  shifting  t o an emphasis on s t y l e  both c o u n t r i e s  saw  a shift  on a e s t h e t i c s i n c l a s s i c s t o a  i n English  two  y e a r s o f Queen V i c t o r i a ' s  emphasis on p e r s u a s i o n  composition.  moral  the  countries,  patterns,  in  the burgeoning p o p u l a r i t y of E n g l i s h  even before  from a t r a d i t i o n a l in  c u r r i c u l a r developments  were s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by  ation  reign.  the  s o c i a l and  studies,  i n Scotland.  though t h i s Finally,  in  rising  movement  toward  the  Hubert  end  of  the  toward shift  century,  both  i d e a l i s m i n the was  Jowett's  led  by  Balliol  study  Matthew school  Edward  Caird  ture.  This blend  countries experienced of l i t e r a t u r e .  Arnold,  i n philosophy,  and  tish  English traditions  focus  - i n t o the  that  John  would  carried  to  form  a  sities. course, of  studies  The  beginning  the  shift  litera-  t o Canada by b o t h remarkably  different  position  strong  Scotideal-  English studies  century. r h e t o r i c from  routes  at  in rhetoric  classics  individual  univer-  i n t h e n a t i o n was,  of  In  l e c t u r i n g on r h e t o r i c  of the nineteenth  century,  However, s i n c e t h e E d i n b u r g h in  Scotland  until  classical  nineteenth  clergymen  i n the v e r n a c u l a r B l a i r had  before  a l r e a d y begun  o f r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s from c l a s s i c s t o E n g l i s h s t u d i -  converting the  took  premier  Edinburgh.  unique  especially  Hugh B l a i r ' s h i s t o r i c c h a i r i n r h e t o r i c a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  the  es.  this  Benjamin  in English  dominate A n g l o - C a n a d i a n  second h a l f of the twentieth  English  by  a t Glasgow:  Nichol  shift  England,  Scotland  I n S c o t l a n d , t h e s h i f t o f p o e t i c s and to  In  strong  o f S c o t t i s h p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l i s m and E n g l i s h  i d e a l i s m would l a t e r be  istic  in  o f neo-Hegelians  cultural and  and  a  118  to  rhetoric  century.  hold  after  this  c h a i r i n r h e t o r i c was mid-century,  into  Blair chair;  main  thrust i n  E n g l i s h studies occurred  had the  the  t o remain  been last  the was  first the  of  Reverend  in  three Dr.  Andrew Brown, o f f e r e d t h e c h a i r a f t e r W a l t e r  S c o t t t u r n e d i t down  in  1801  (Meikle  Commission  in  182 6,  the  95) .  According  to a Royal  o b j e c t o f t h e c o u r s e f o r Brown was  to  appointed  Hubert  119  c o n v e r t t h e a r t o f C r i t i c i s m , w h i c h had h i t h e r t o r e s t e d on  the  a u t h o r i t y of  works,  into  genius, those  illustrious  a l l the  departments  o p e r a t i o n s and nature,  to  laws o f which  Royal  Commission  far  below  the  - employed of  ideal:  regular  degree, ric  and  perspicuity  cause  the  class  This  the  of  taken  power  not  design,  sensitive  and  that  to  intel-  aspires  (qtd. i n Meikle noted  of  to  96-7)  that practice  P r o f e s s o r ' s time  was  fell .  . .  or  inadvertances  composition" i n the  obstructed  (qtd. i n Meikle  class  was  not  97).  required  recommended t h a t "the s e p a r a t e  t o be  continued  but  of  logic  and  should  rhetoric  i n a u s p i c i o u s c a r e e r ended from  the  Belles  Lettres  own  supporters with  the  domain  of  which  be  Befor  a  Rheto-  again u n i t e d  o f L o g i c " ( q t d . i n M e i k l e 97) .  and  Whigs,  William  so  a t Edinburgh,  they  f o r the  kept  the  not t o  next  thirty  (1839-45),  The  of these  f o r Aytoun's r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  The