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Harmonious perfection : the development of English studies in nineteenth-century Anglo-Canadian colleges Hubert, Henry A. 1989

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH STUDIES IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY ANGLO-CANADIAN COLLEGES BY HENRY ALLAN HUBERT B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1965 M.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1989. (5) Henry A l l a n Hubert, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 ABSTRACT Hubert i i In the l a s t t h r e e decades, E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n Anglophone c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada have seen a marked d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a r e t u r n toward an h i s t o r i c a l l y normative program f e a t u r i n g both p o e t i c s and r h e t o r i c . Such a b a lanced program, p r e s e n t a t c o l l e g e s l i k e D a l housie and M c G i l l a t the time of Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n , developed from the e a r l i e r c l a s s i c a l program of s t u d i e s t h a t i t s e l f i n c l u d e d both p o e t i c s and r h e t o r i c i n L a t i n and Greek i n each c o l l e g e ' s C l a s s i c s 'i o f f e r i n g s . The e a r l i e s t Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e s , opened i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h century, were products of the r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s of separate s o c i a l groups each r o o t e d i n p a r t i c u l a r t r a d i t i o n s . A n g l i c a n c o l l e g e s s t r e s s e d a c u r r i c u l u m modeled on Oxford and Cambridge, who f e a t u r e d l i b e r a l s t u d i e s emphasizing c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g i n both content and language. P r e s b y t e r i a n c o l l e g e s , modeled on S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s , i n c l u d e d c l a s s i c a l s t u d i e s but i n c l u d e d a p r a c t i c a l emphasis on r h e t o r i c a l study i n the v e r n a c u l a r . Methodist educa t i o n , i n f l u e n c e d by both E n g l i s h and American t i e s , was the most p r a c t i c a l , w i t h a s t r o n g r h e t o r i c a l emphasis i n the v e r n a c u l a r . S h o r t l y a f t e r mid-century, E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e began t o g a i n a p l a c e i n non-Anglican c o l l e g e s , and the r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s focus of C l a s s i c a l s t u d i e s g r a d u a l l y moved t o E n g l i s h . In the 1880s, however, the development of E n g l i s h s t u d i e s was suddenly Hubert i i i d i v e r t e d from an expansion of r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s together t o a s t r o n g l i t e r a r y focus. I n s t r u c t i o n i n o r a l r h e t o r i c v i r t u a l l y d i e d , and the t e a c h i n g o f wr i t t e n r h e t o r i c was subsumed i n t o a focus on e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g as a means of examining l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . The new curriculum, f o l l o w i n g Matthew Arnold's emphasis on "the best t h a t has been known and thought," featured h i s t o r i c a l masterpieces i n B r i t i s h l i t e r a t u r e . The focus of t h i s c u r r i c u l u m was supported by a p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l i s m t h a t combined h i s t o r i c C h r i s t i a n thought with neo-Hegelianism i n l i b e r a l P r o t e s t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s throughout the nation at the ce n t u r y ' s end. The narrowing of the curriculum was f u r t h e r f o s t e r e d by academic s p e c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t swept Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e s j u s t as i d e a l i s m took a strong hold on l i b e r a l academic thought. T h i s l a t e nineteenth-century i d e a l i s t i c curriculum c o n t r o l l e d Anglo-Canadian E n g l i s h s t u d i e s u n t i l the l a t e 1960s. TABLE OF CONTENTS Hubert i v A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgments v I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter 1 S c o t t i s h and E n g l i s h T r a d i t i o n s : Democracy v s . E l i t i s m 17 Chapter 2 R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n s and the R h e t o r i c a l C u r r i c u l u m i n B r i t i s h North America, 1800-1853 44 Chapter 3 E n g l i s h S t u d i e s i n V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n 97 Chapter 4 Anglo-Canadian Developments, 1853-1884 171 Chapter 5 S p e c i a l i z a t i o n , I d e a l i s m and B r i t i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n Canada, 1884-1900 229 C o n c l u s i o n 302 B i b l i o g r a p h y 358 S t a t u t e s , Calendars Consulted 383 Hubert v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish t o thank Cariboo C o l l e g e f o r i t s support through f i v e y e a r s o f graduate study and r e s e a r c h , the E n g l i s h Department a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r making these f i v e y e ars i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y rewarding, the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia l i b r a r y f o r s e a r c h i n g f o r obscure h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s , copying m i c r o f i c h e , or simply m a i l i n g monographs q u i c k l y , and 1 the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Research C o u n c i l o f Canada f o r a year's support toward completion of the p r e s e n t study. At the p e r s o n a l l e v e l , I am g r a t e f u l t o Andrea Lun s f o r d , t o Alexander Globe, and t o Eva-Marie K r o e l l e r f o r t h e i r e n t h u s i a s t i c p e r s o n a l support, and e s p e c i a l l y t o Nan Johnson f o r s h a r i n g her wealth o f h i s t o r i c a l data, f o r o f f e r i n g s t r a t e g i c a d v i c e , and f o r the h i g h e s t d e d i c a t i o n i n s u p e r v i s i o n . Hubert 1 INTRODUCTION The l a s t t h r e e decades have seen remarkable changes i n the undergraduate E n g l i s h s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m i n Anglo-Canadian u n i -v e r s i t i e s . These changes have expanded course o f f e r i n g s from what t h i r t y y e a r s ago was a remarkably homogeneous program nat-i o n a l l y t o a p r e s e n t program w i t h wide d i v e r s i t y , both w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l E n g l i s h departments and among programs i n d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s . The t r a d i t i o n a l program focused l a r g e l y on poet-i c s . I t f e a t u r e d the works of h i s t o r i c a l B r i t i s h authors, as Northrup Frye puts i t , "from Beowulf t o V i r g i n i a Woolf" ( H a r r i s 1988, i x ) . To t h i s pre-1960 core c u r r i c u l u m were added s i n g l e c ourses on Anglo-Saxon, the h i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h language, and the h i s t o r y o f c r i t i c i s m . Composition was subsumed under the study of l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i r s t year; o f t e n composition was not Ct s p e c i f i c a l l y taught, e x i s t i n g o n l y as feedback on essays of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , such essays b e i n g the c h i e f — o f t e n the o n l y — form o f w r i t i n g i n E n g l i s h courses. In c o n t r a s t , p r e s e n t prog-rams i n c l u d e the study of a wide range of n o n - B r i t i s h l i t e r a t u r e i n E n g l i s h , a wealth of authors i n t r a n s l a t i o n , numerous courses i n c r i t i c i s m ( i n c l u d i n g the most contemporary t h e o r i s t s ) , courses i n l i n g u i s t i c s , s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l study of, r h e t o r i c and composition (with w r i t i n g i n a v a r i e t y of formats and s t y l e s ) , and, i n some n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l programs, s t u d i e s i n Hubert 2 t h e a t r e , dance, f i l m , and communication t h e o r y . 1 In t h i s expan-s i o n , the Anglo-Canadian E n g l i s h s t u d i e s curriculum has begun a r e t u r n t o the f u l l t r a d i t i o n s of p o e t i c s and r h e t o r i c l o s t s i n c e two decades a f t e r Confederation. S i n c e c l a s s i c a l times, t h i s combination of r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s has been the t h e o r e t i c a l norm, although often i n s t i t u -t i o n a l p r a c t i c e has not followed t h i s norm. Cicero describes as "absurd and u n p r o f i t a b l e and repr e h e n s i b l e " the "severance bet-ween the tongue and the brai n , l e a d i n g t o our having one set of p r o f e s s o r s t o teach us t o think and another to teach us t o speak" (De O r a t o r e I I I . x v i . 61). Cicero's concern f o r separating thought and speech would, i n contemporary E n g l i s h s t u d i e s , t r a n s -l a t e ' i n t o concern f o r separating thought ( l i t e r a t u r e ) and w r i t -i n g . In the l a t e 1870s, Dalhousie College i n H a l i f a x followed the C i c e r o n i a n norm. Dalhousie r e q u i r e d a l l i t s f i r s t - y e a r s tudents t o read Elizabethan and V i c t o r i a n w r i t e r s and to study Anglo-Saxon as p a r t of a f u l l h i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h language; t h i s course of study a l s o p r e s c r i b e d Whately's Elements of Rhet- o r i c and Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric, and assigned d a i l y e x e r c i s e s and weekly essays i n composition. Oratory (or e l o c u -t i o n ) was s t u d i e d f o r h a l f of the academic year. Dalhousie's honours students a l s o f u l f i l l e d these general requirements but added l i t e r a t u r e from Chaucer to Pope. A decade e a r l i e r , M c G i l l -'-The c o n c l u d i n g chapter of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n includes a review o f twentieth-century E n g l i s h s t u d i e s developments i n Anglo-Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . Hubert 3 C o l l e g e i n Montreal had o f f e r e d the same broad scope, but with a g r e a t e r depth i n courses since i t o f f e r e d E n g l i s h i n a l l years. However, M c G i l l and Dalhousie o f f e r i n g s between 1860 and 1880 were not t y p i c a l of the E n g l i s h studies and r h e t o r i c c u r r i c u l a i n Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e s throughout the century. R e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s , g e n e r a l l y Anglican or Presbyterian, founded or a t l e a s t c o n t r o l l e d the e a r l i e s t Anglo-Canadian c o l -l e g e s . The A n g l i c a n Church was associated with the c u l t u r e of England; the P r e s b y t e r i a n t r a d i t i o n was associated with a Scot-t i s h h e r i t a g e . In the e a r l y part of the nineteenth century, however, n e i t h e r the Anglican nor Presbyterian c o l l e g e had an E n g l i s h c u r r i c u l u m with a strong l i t e r a t u r e component. This became standard only at the end of the nineteenth century. In-deed, the e a r l y c o l l e g e s had l i t t l e E n g l i s h of any kind i n the c u r r i c u l u m . The two oldest c o l l e g e s , one at Windsor, Nova Scot-i a , and one a t F r e d e r i c t o n , New Brunswick, had c u r r i c u l a modeled on England's Oxford College. The Oxford curriculum was c l a s s i c a l i n both language and content; i t , therefore, focused on Greek and L a t i n grammar and l i t e r a t u r e , with the c l a s s i c a l works i n c l u d i n g both r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s . So strong was the c l a s s i c a l i n -f l u e n c e , however, t h a t the s t a t u t e s of Windsor's King's College, which p r e s c r i b e d the curriculum and c l a s s e x e r c i s e s , l i m i t e d the extent of E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n to one E n g l i s h theme ( i n prose or verse) every second week, a l t e r n a t i n g weekly with a L a t i n theme. In a d d i t i o n , every Saturday two students presented a memorized Hubert 4 r e c i t a t i o n i n L a t i n , Greek, or E n g l i s h . The s t a t u t e s suggest t h a t no E n g l i s h language i n s t r u c t i o n beyond the c o r r e c t i n g of the themes was a n t i c i p a t e d f o r Canada's f i r s t anglophone c o l l e g e s . The F r e d e r i c t o n c u r r i c u l u m followed the same general pattern as Windsor's. At c o l l e g e s such as Dalhousie, and Queen's College i n King-s t o n , Upper Canada, S c o t t i s h t r a d i t i o n s modified the c l a s s i c a l c u r r i c u l u m by adding a s p e c i f i c emphasis on E n g l i s h composition. A t D a l h o u s i e and Queen's, the bulk of students' education i n r h e t o r i c and r e a d i n g a l s o occurred i n the c l a s s i c s c l a s s e s , where t r a n s l a t i o n from E n g l i s h to Greek and L a t i n , and from the c l a s s i -c a l languages t o E n g l i s h , took place c o n t i n u a l l y . The only e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s strong c l a s s i c a l focus i n the curriculum before the middle of the nineteenth century was at Cobourg's V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e , a Methodist i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t opened i n 1842. V i c t o r i a s t r e s s e d c o l l e g e work as both a l i b e r a l and a u t i l i t a r i a n prepar-a t i o n f o r the p r o f e s s i o n s , with an emphasis on the C h r i s t i a n m i n i s t r y . V i c t o r i a , t herefore, included r h e t o r i c a l theory and both o r a t o r y and composition i n the vernacular. Before 1850, V i c t o r i a ' s l i t e r a t u r e program continued to be c l a s s i c a l . N e i t h e r V i c t o r i a nor any of the other e a r l y c o l l e g e s allowed o p t i o n s : a l l students studied the same curriculum. Professors of r h e t o r i c (who g e n e r a l l y a l s o taught c l a s s i c s ) a t a l l the c o l l e g e s were i n v a r i a b l y clergymen, who themselves had but three or four years o f the g e n e r a l c l a s s i c a l education that they now t r a n s -Hubert 5 m i t t e d t o t h e i r students. In s t r o n g c o n t r a s t to i t s r e l a t i v e absence i n t h i s e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m , E n g l i s h studies was a s p e c i a l t y by the end of the century, o f t e n with several s e n i o r - l e v e l options as w e l l as honours programs f o r those d e s i r i n g a B.A. with an area con-c e n t r a t i o n . By 1900, the professors were also almost a l l Eng-l i s h s p e c i a l i s t s ; ordained m i n i s t e r s were an exception. E n g l i s h programs i n a l l anglophone c o l l e g e s no longer focused on c l a s s i -c a l or r h e t o r i c a l studies, but almost wholly on E n g l i s h l i t e r a -t u r e . R h e t o r i c as a separate t h e o r e t i c a l study had been absorbed i n t o l i t e r a t u r e c l a s s e s as c r i t i c i s m and composition. E l o c u t i o n had d i s appeared. This E n g l i s h s t u d i e s curriculum, which domin-ated E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s t i l l a f t e r the middle of the twentieth century, and which s t i l l has a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e today, p r i v i l e g e d l i t e r a t u r e over l a n -guage, and l i t e r a r y a n a l y s i s and a p p r e c i a t i o n over r h e t o r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n speaking, but i n w r i t i n g as w e l l . The p r e s e n t d i s s e r t a t i o n i s an h i s t o r i c a l study whose prim-ary purpose i s t o d e t a i l t h i s development of E n g l i s h studies i n Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e s . Since t h i s i s an h i s t o r i c a l study, the warning o f I s a i a h B e r l i n i s i n order: " H i s t o r i c a l explanation i s t o a l a r g e degree arrangement of the discovered f a c t s i n patterns which s a t i s f y us because they accord with l i f e as we know i t and imagine i t " (qtd. i n Sherman, 214). The t h e s i s t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s meant t o s a t i s f y i s that the E n g l i s h studies curriculum t h a t Hubert 6 e v o l v e d i n Anglo-Canadian coll e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a t the end of t h e n i n e t e e n t h century was strongly l i t e r a r y owing t o strong i d e o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s . These pressures derived from a philosoph-i c a l i d e a l i s m t h a t , i n the wake of Darwinism and of German higher c r i t i c i s m o f the B i b l e , swept over Canadian l i b e r a l thought i n t h e l a t e V i c t o r i a n p eriod. This idealism, as manifested i n B r i t i s h l i t e r a t u r e , was strongly i n f l u e n c e d by Matthew Arnold's s e a r c h f o r "the best that i s known and thought i n the world" (1865, 440) . A secondary assumption i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t h a t t h i s s t r o n g l y l i t e r a r y curriculum was an a b e r r a t i o n from the c l a s s i c a l norm, which combined r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the C i c e r o n i a n t r a d i t i o n . While p r e s e n t i n g a warning about the n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e r p r e -t i v e stance of any h i s t o r i c a l study, I s a i a h B e r l i n ' s statement i s a l s o a r e p h r a s i n g of the t r a d i t i o n a l argument f o r h i s t o r i c a l study of almost any kind; namely, t h a t i t rev e a l s t o us our past w i t h i n a context meaningful to our present. Richard E. Young, an American composition scholar who advocates h i s t o r i c a l study, s t a t e s , "We cannot understand what i s happening unless we under-stand what happened. . . . Furthermore, without a knowledge of h i s t o r y , we have no way of knowing what i s genuinely new, what i s redundant, what i s promising, what has been t r i e d before and found wanting" (qtd. i n Murphy 1982, v) . Young sees h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s as adding a comparative perspective e s p e c i a l l y valuable d u r i n g times of c r i s i s (Young 45). Although some might argue Hubert 7 t h a t Anglo-Canadian E n g l i s h studies are not i n a f u l l - b l o w n c r i s i s , t he present s t a t e of r a p i d c u r r i c u l a r development i s c e r t a i n l y not normal i n h i s t o r i c terms. 2 I t i s now a hundred years since E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s underwent a r a d i c a l s h i f t from a primary emphasis on r h e t o r i c to a strong emphasis on p o e t i c s . Leading up t o t h a t s h i f t was a far-r e a c h i n g change i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and ep i s t e m o l o g i c a l conceptions that broke i n t o the open w i t h the emergence of German higher c r i t i c i s m and Darwinian thought j u s t a f t e r the middle of the nineteenth century. A f t e r a century, the Anglo-Canadian E n g l i s h s t u d i e s curriculum i s once ag a i n i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l period; we need a wide perspective to understand the impetus f o r the present changes, the nature of the changes, and the p o t e n t i a l scope of the changes to help us i n d i r e c t i n g t h e i r course. The presence of t h i s change i s , of course, i n e v i t a b l e . To some extent, a t l e a s t the scope of pres-ent change w i t h i n Anglo-Canadian u n i v e r s i t y E n g l i s h studies can be determined by the scope of the curriculum i n the past, f o r the l i m i t s o f E n g l i s h studies have been i n i t i a l l y defined there, 2 T h e twentieth-century overview i n the l a s t chapter of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n shows that though the E n g l i s h s t u d i e s curriculum a c r o s s t h e n a t i o n remained f a i r l y s t a b l e from 1890 t o the l a t e 1950s, s i n c e 1960 E n g l i s h studies o f f e r i n g s at many Anglo-Canad-i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s have more than t r i p l e d , with the scope of Eng-l i s h departments broadening d r a m a t i c a l l y . In 1980, f o r i n -stance, M c G i l l o f f e r e d three options i n E n g l i s h s t u d i e s : L i t e r a -t u r e , Drama, and F i l m and Communication. In a d d i t i o n t o courses i n l i t e r a t u r e , York, i n 1980, o f f e r e d such courses as dance, f i l m , and t h e a t r e . In h i s t o r i c a l terms, t h i s r a p i d change i n focus and scope i s remarkable. Hubert 8 whether o r not the l i m i t s are now redefined. The past a t l e a s t p r o v i d e s the present with an o b j e c t i v e standard. 3 The p r e s e n t i n q u i r y began as an attempt to f i n d reasons f o r the s t r o n g and sometimes v i r t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e focus of Anglo-Canadian E n g l i s h studies on l i t e r a t u r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y B r i t i s h l i t e r a t u r e , through the f i r s t s i x t y years of t h i s century. Given the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century r h e t o r i c a l roots of E n g l i s h studies, g i v e n the c o n t i n u i n g need f o r c o l l e g e graduates t o communicate e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e i r own language, given repeated complaints t h a t s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g s k i l l s were weak, 4 and given a l t e r n a t i v e c u r r i c u l a r models i n America (always a powerful influence on Canada), the s t r o n g tendency toward excluding r h e t o r i c from the e a r l y twentieth-century E n g l i s h curriculum needs explanation. The emphasis on l i t e r a t u r e without a corresponding emphasis on r h e t o r i c had such a strong i n f l u e n c e on Anglo-Canadian E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n Canada i n the f i r s t s i x decades of the present century (and i t s t i l l i n f l u e n c e s the c o l l e g e - l e v e l curriculum), that the E n g l i s h s t u d i e s p r o f e s s i o n needs t h i s h i s t o r i c a l perspective t o understand many of i t s own a t t i t u d e s toward p o e t i c s and r h e t o r i c 3The b a s i c s of the Ehninger argument are taken from Richard Young's review of Ehninger as given i n Young's "Paradigms and Problems: Needed Research i n R h e t o r i c a l Invention" (1978). Ehninger's o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e , "On Systems of Rhetoric," appeared i n P h i l o s o p h y and Rhetoric 1 (1968): 131-144. 4 C o n c e r n s about poor student w r i t i n g have dogged the strong l i t e r a t u r e c u r r i c u l u m through the decades. R. S. H a r r i s records the concern a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto as e a r l y as 1892 (R. S. H a r r i s 1988, 32) ; see Ha r r i s 1953, 8, as w e l l as Broadus 1927. Hubert 9 even today. T h i s study, t h e r e f o r e , explores the development o f t h e nineteenth-century Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e E n g l i s h s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m t o determine the roots of the dominating l i t e r a r y c o n t e n t and focus, and the r e s i l i e n c e of t h i s p o e t i c s - o r i e n t e d Anglo-Canadian E n g l i s h studies curriculum that r e s i s t e d s i g -n i f i c a n t change f o r almost a century. One o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t i d e o l o g i c a l features of the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h curriculum was i t s emphasis on an i d e a l c u l t u r e embedded i n the works of h i s t o r i c B r i t i s h authors, from the Anglo-Saxon w r i t e r s i n the eighth and n i n t h centuries t o Tennyson and other l a t e V i c t o r i a n s . In t h i s i d e a l i s t i c bent, the c u r r i c u l u m was i n f l u e n c e d by the p h i l o s o p h i c a l environment. In the l a s t decades of the nineteenth century, Anglo-Canada d e v e l -oped a s t r o n g sense of the i d e a l i n both t h e o r e t i c a l philosophy and i n l i b e r a l c u l t u r e , which included higher education as w e l l as a l a r g e segment of mainline protestantism. In l a r g e measure, t h i s i d e a l i s t i c emphasis p r i v i l e g e d p o e t i c s over r h e t o r i c i n E n g l i s h s t u d i e s , and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m over a l l other modes of w r i t i n g . T h i s i d e a l i s m derived from roots deep i n B r i t i s h r e l i g i o u s and educational t r a d i t i o n s , both S c o t t i s h and E n g l i s h , although t h e two d i f f e r e d considerably from each other. However, the s t r e n g t h of t h i s l a t e nineteenth-century i d e a l i s m i n the c u r r i c u l u m overpowered these c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and n a t i o n a l backgrounds i n Canada. This i d e a l i s m also overcame a strong u t i l i t a r i a n i s m t h a t emerged with the d e c l i n e of the c l a s s i c a l Hubert 10 c u r r i c u l u m j u s t a f t e r mid-century. The strong importance ac-corded B r i t i s h l i t e r a t u r e i n anglophone Canada a l s o derived from an h i s t o r i c a l l y strong c o l o n i a l attachment toward B r i t a i n . T h i s commitment t o B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s went back not only t o the B r i t -i s h i n f l u e n c e i n eighteenth-century settlement, but also, and perhaps even more importantly, t o the a r r i v a l i n the Canadian c o l o n i e s of the U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s a f t e r the American Revol-u t i o n a r y War. The p r o - B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e was f u r t h e r deepened by the War of 1812, which, together with already e x i s t i n g l o y a l i s t sentiment, r e s u l t e d i n a strong anti-Americanism t h a t drove Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l (as well as p o l i t i c a l and i n d u s t r i a l ) p o l i -c i e s up t o Confederation, and which l i n g e r e d long a f t e r 1867. T h e r e f o r e , the E n g l i s h s t u d i e s curriculum emerging from Anglo-Canadian h i g h e r education at the beginning of the twentieth century was the r e s u l t of numerous c u l t u r a l f o r c e s . To date no extended a n a l y s i s of c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s on the E n g l i s h studies c u r r i c u l u m has been done. A number of small studies of E n g l i s h departments a t i n d i v i d u a l c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s have, of course, been w r i t t e n . An example would be R. D. McMaster's U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a study, e n t i t l e d "The Department of E n g l i s h , 1908-1982," w r i t t e n p r i m a r i l y as a review of the careers of e a r l y department heads, and, i n t h i s case, w r i t t e n f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a ' s 75th anniversary. Such s t u d i e s have not been meant as comprehensive works on E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n Canada. A h i g h l y v a l u a b l e study of an i n d i v i d u a l u n i v e r s i t y , however, was pub-Hubert 11 l i s h e d i n the s p r i n g of 1988 by P r o f e s s o r R. S. H a r r i s of I n n i s C o l l e g e a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto. H a r r i s ' work i s a f u l l -l e n g t h h i s t o r i c a l monograph e n t i t l e d E n g l i s h Studies a t Toronto:  A H i s t o r y . 5 H a r r i s ' study i s e s p e c i a l l y important because i t d e t a i l s developments from 1853 to 1985 i n what became Canada's l e a d i n g u n i v e r s i t y within decades of i t s founding i n 1843. 6 V a l u a b l e as w e l l f o r a study of E n g l i s h studies i n the present c e n t u r y i s P r o f e s s o r H a r r i s ' 1953 d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , "The P l a c e of E n g l i s h Studies i n a U n i v e r s i t y Program of General E d u c a t i o n , " which reviews a l l programs i n anglophone univer-s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s i n Canada i n 1951-52. 7 ^ P r o f e s s o r H a r r i s was kind enough to give me a d r a f t copy of h i s book w e l l i n advance of i t s p u b l i c a t i o n , so the present d i s s e r t a t i o n has had the b e n e f i t of Professor H a r r i s ' research even though I began w r i t i n g well before the book was published. 6 N o t on l y d i d the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto become the l a r g e s t u n i v e r s i t y i n Canada before Confederation, a status i t has h e l d ever s i n c e , but, as a r e s u l t , i t has graduated more students i n E n g l i s h than any other Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto has a l s o had a strong i n f l u e n c e on E n g l i s h studies i n Canada as a r e s u l t of i t s graduate program. I t produced i t s f i r s t Ph.D. i n E n g l i s h i n 1920 (R. K. Gordon, who became the second E n g l i s h Department head at the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a ) , and from then t o 1984 the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto has granted 40% of Canada's d o c t o r a t e s i n E n g l i s h : 492 of a t o t a l of 1231 (R. S. H a r r i s 1988, 291). A n t i c i p a t i n g the present emphasis on writing across the c u r r i c u l u m , P r o f e s s o r H a r r i s ' d i s s e r t a t i o n argues that w r i t i n g should be taught i n a l l general education courses i n a u n i v e r s i t y program. I t a l s o argues that the combination of teaching com-p o s i t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e i n E n g l i s h departments hurts both com-p o s i t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e . H a r r i s concludes that E n g l i s h Depart-ments, as the most important r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t r a d i t i o n a l h u m a n i s t i c study, should teach l i t e r a t u r e e x c l u s i v e l y , though they might c o o r d i n a t e the w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n throughout the o t h e r u n i v e r s i t y programs. Hubert 12 P r o f e s s o r H a r r i s 7 works do not, however, attempt an extended a n a l y s i s o f the h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l environment i n which E n g l i s h s t u d i e s developed. The present d i s s e r t a t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , the f i r s t t o attempt such a task f o r E n g l i s h studies i n Canada. S i m i l a r s t u d i e s have been done i n both B r i t a i n and the United S t a t e s . The most recent B r i t i s h s tudies are by Terry Eagleton, whose L i t e r a r y Theory: An Introduction includes an e x c e l l e n t f i r s t c h a pter e n t i t l e d "The Rise of E n g l i s h , " and by Jo McMurtry, whose E n g l i s h Language and L i t e r a t u r e : The Creation of an Acade- mic D i s c i p l i n e has been of great importance i n the present d i s -s e r t a t i o n . D. J . Palmer's The Rise of E n g l i s h Studies has a l s o been v a l u a b l e . A l l three of these monographs r e l a t e the r i s e of E n g l i s h s t u d i e s t o the c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s of England e s p e c i a l l y , a lthough McMurtry includes discussions of S c o t t i s h t r a d i t i o n s as w e l l . American st u d i e s review r h e t o r i c (Guthrie, Kitzhaber 1953) , E n g l i s h departments (Parker) and, most r e c e n t l y , composi-t i o n . The most v a l u a b l e of these f o r the present d i s s e r t a t i o n have been two r e c e n t works by James B e r l i n , the f i r s t of which (1984) reviews nineteenth-century developments, and the second (1987), twentieth-century r h e t o r i c a l c u r r i c u l a i n American c o l -l e g e s . Although B e r l i n focuses on w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n rather than E n g l i s h s t u d i e s g e n e r a l l y , h i s a n a l y s i s i s important, f o r i t i s based on the premise that "the transformations t h a t occur i n a s o c i e t y ' s r h e t o r i c s are a l s o r e l a t e d to l a r g e r s o c i a l and p o l i t i -c a l developments. In taking i n t o account t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , we Hubert 13 are i n an area o f thought commonly designated as ideology" (1987, 4) . Although the present d i s s e r t a t i o n does not s t r i v e t o categ-o r i z e c u r r i c u l a by narrowly i d e n t i f i e d i d e o l o g i e s , as B e r l i n ' s s t u d i e s do, t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n assumes B e r l i n ' s b a s i c stance t h a t changes i n a s o c i e t y ' s r h e t o r i c a l and p o e t i c c u r r i c u l a are " r e -l a t e d t o l a r g e r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l developments." To develop a coherent argument, t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n proceeds c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , with the study d i v i d e d i n t o three main periods. The f i r s t p e r i o d , 1800 to 1853, focuses on the founding of c o l -l e g e s i n the t h r e e main regions of the B r i t i s h North American c o l o n i e s : the Maritimes, Lower Canada, and Upper Canada. A l l of these e a r l y c o l l e g e s opened with a u n i f i e d , predominantly c l a s s -i c a l c u r r i c u l u m compulsory f o r a l l students. The second period, 1853 t o 1884, a t r a n s i t i o n a l period, leads from the e a r l y c l a s s i -c a l c u r r i c u l u m t o the strongly i d e a l i s t i c , l i t e r a r y curriculum at the end o f the century. The year 1853 marks the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto's appointment of Daniel Wilson t o a p o s i t i o n as Professor of E n g l i s h H i s t o r y and L i t e r a t u r e . Although Wilson's p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e d two s u b j e c t s , Wilson was B r i t i s h North America's f i r s t p r o f e s s o r o f E n g l i s h as a separate c o l l e g e subject. Wilson r e t a i n e d t h i s p o s t u n t i l 1889, when W. J . Alexander came t o Toronto as i t s f i r s t appointment s o l e l y i n E n g l i s h . The f i n a l p e r i o d , however, begins with Alexander i n 1884, when Alexander was appointed as the f i r s t George Munro Professor of E n g l i s h Language and L i t e r a t u r e a t Dalhousie, the e a r l i e s t Canadian Hubert 14 s p e c i a l i s t appointment e x c l u s i v e l y i n E n g l i s h s t u d i e s . Since the Canadian development of the E n g l i s h curriculum i s so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o developments i n B r i t a i n , each of the three periods d i s c u s s e d i s preceded by a d i s c u s s i o n of p r i o r developments i n B r i t a i n . The B r i t i s h dates do not c o n s i s t e n t l y conform to the c a l e n d a r e s t a b l i s h e d f o r Canada, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e B r i t i s h c o l -l e g e s o f t e n developed slowly what was then implemented f a i r l y d i r e c t l y on t h i s s i d e of the A t l a n t i c . Apart from the conclusion, which reviews the f i r s t s i x decades of the present century, and which includes a b r i e f d i s -c u s s i o n o f reasons f o r recent changes i n Anglo-Canadian E n g l i s h s t u d i e s , the f o l l o w i n g d i s s e r t a t i o n focuses on the nineteenth century. T h i s study's primary c u r r i c u l a r emphasis i s the s h i f t -i n g focus between r h e t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y concerns i n E n g l i s h s t u d i e s . The development of s p e c i f i c p h i l o l o g i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c t o p i c s , although not excluded, i s i n c i d e n t a l r a t h e r than c e n t r a l f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , since the study of language, as grammar, was r e l a t e d t o r h e t o r i c i n c l a s s i c a l study. The main d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d t o e i g h t c o l l e g e s , a l l es-t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1855, since the E n g l i s h studies curriculum spread t o the Canadian West a f t e r g a i n i n g i t s unique focus i n O n t a r i o , Quebec, and the Maritimes. The c o l l e g e s chosen were among the f i r s t or the most t y p i c a l i n each area. In the Mari-times, t h i s i n c l u d e d the two King's Colleges (one a t Windsor, Nova S c o t i a and one at F r e d e r i c t o n , New Brunswick—King's C o l -Hubert 15 t l e g e , F r e d e r i c t o n was named the College of New Brunswick u n t i l 1828, t h e n King's College u n t i l 1859, when i t became the Univer-s i t y o f New Brunswick); Dalhousie College, i n H a l i f a x ; M c G i l l C o l l e g e , i n Montreal; V i c t o r i a College, i n Cobourg, Ontario u n t i l 1890 (when i t j o i n e d the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto f e d e r a t i o n i n T o r o n t o ) ; Queen's College, i n Kingston; King's College, i n Toron-t o ( a f t e r 1850, U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e ) ; and T r i n i t y College, i n Toronto ( a f t e r 1904 also p a r t of the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto feder-a t i o n ) . The f o l l o w i n g study uses the terms " c o l l e g e " and " u n i -v e r s i t y " somewhat interchangeably. S t r i c t l y speaking, a c o l l e g e was g e n e r a l l y considered to be an i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r i n g an under-graduate l i b e r a l a r t s degree. A l l the e a r l i e s t i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , began as c o l l e g e s . A l l , however, also developed i n t o i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l or graduate schools as course o f f e r i n g s s p e c i a l i z e d and d i v i d e d , so, by the end of the c entury, a l l the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h i s study o f f i c i a l l y were u n i v e r s i t i e s , although t h e i r common names s t i l l c a r r i e d the c o l l e g e d e s i g n a t i o n . 8 R h e t o r i c and c l a s s i c s , and then E n g l i s h studies, formed the h u m a n i s t i c core of the l i b e r a l a r t s program, the major focus of these i n s t i t u t i o n s ' c u r r i c u l a . The present study now turns t o t h i s c o r e , t o determine how and why a developing Anglo-Canadian c u l t u r e i n the nineteenth century s h i f t e d the focus of i t s foun-8 I t was common f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s t o have both names, such as " U n i v e r s i t y of T r i n i t y College" i n Toronto, f o r instance, or " U n i v e r s i t y o f King's College" i n Windsor. Hubert 16 d a t i o n c o u rses i n the l i b e r a l studies program from a combination o f r h e t o r i c and l i t e r a t u r e i n the e a r l y p e r i o d t o an almost e x c l u s i v e l y l i t e r a r y focus at century's end. Under a strong S c o t t i s h u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , r h e t o r i c balanced p o e t i c s as Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e s t u d i e s turned to the vernacular i n the decades f o l l o w i n g the middle of the nineteenth century, but, i n the l a s t two decades o f the century, a growing i d e a l i s m overshadowed the h i s t o r i c emphasis on r h e t o r i c i n the Anglo-Canadian l i b e r a l a r t s c u r r i c u l u m , p r e p a r i n g the way f o r the strong emphasis on B r i t i s h l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t y p i f i e d Anglo-Canadian E n g l i s h studies u n t i l a f t e r the middle of the twentieth century. Hubert 17 CHAPTER 1: SCOTTISH AND ENGLISH TRADITIONS: DEMOCRACY VS. ELITISM The e a r l i e s t E n g l i s h language c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h North America were founded by E n g l i s h and S c o t t i s h s e t t l e r s , w i t h the E n g l i s h s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s , newly-a r r i v e d f o l l o w i n g the American R e v o l u t i o n a r y War. Although both the E n g l i s h and the Scots spoke the same language, they s e t t l e d i n d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s and tended t o keep t h e i r own c u l t u r e s . The E n g l i s h , t o g e t h e r w i t h the U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s , e s t a b l i s h e d c o l l e g e s funded by the E n g l i s h crown and the A n g l i c a n church, w i t h c u r r i c u l a modeled on Oxford and Cambridge. The S c o t t i s h s e t t l e r s , on the o t h e r hand, excluded from the A n g l i c a n c o l l e g e s by s t a t u t e s and s o c i a l p r e s s u r e t h a t r e q u i r e d s tudents t o belong t o the Church o f England, funded t h e i r own c o l l e g e s , or, as i n the case o f Dalhousie, and, t o some extent M c G i l l , dominated i n -s t i t u t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by government funds. The S c o t s ' c u r r i c u l a d e r i v e d from the u n i v e r s i t i e s of S c o t l a n d . To understand the e d u c a t i o n a l dynamics of those e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c o l l e g e s , as w e l l as the r i v a l r i e s t h a t soon developed between the two p a r t i e s , i t i s necessary t o t u r n b r i e f l y t o B r i t a i n t o review the e d u c a t i o n a l c u l t u r e of England and S c o t l a n d . E s p e c i a l l y impor-t a n t a r e t h e i r h i s t o r i c a t t i t u d e s towards p o e t i c s and r h e t o r i c , the two concerns most d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the development of E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n B r i t i s h North America i n the n i n e t e e n t h cen-t u r y . Hubert 18 In 1809, R. L. Edgeworth, an A n g l o - I r i s h s o c i a l and educa-t i o n a l reformer, published Essays on P r o f e s s i o n a l Education, a volume t h a t a t t a c k e d the t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h system of u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s t h a t s t r o n g l y emphasized c l a s s i c a l thought and c l a s s i c a l languages. Edgeworth's volume focused on a debate that would i n f l u e n c e h i g h e r education not only i n B r i t a i n but a l s o i n Canada f o r the next hundred years. The debate h i g h l i g h t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between S c o t t i s h and Eng l i s h higher education, but, instead of i n i t i a t i n g a convergence between the two systems, Edgeworth's essays r e i n f o r c e d t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . The S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t y system c o n t i n u e d i t s evolut i o n toward a p r a c t i c a l education, emphasizing u n i v e r s a l access and use of the vernacular; the E n g l i s h system, i n contrast, reacted t o the attack by r e a s s e r t i n g the importance of a n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n curriculum s t r e s s i n g the c l a s s i c s i n both language and content. Following Edgeworth's concern about the l a c k of u s e f u l a p p l i c a t i o n i n a curriculum predominantly made up of c l a s s i c a l language and l e a r n i n g , The  Edinburgh Review i n October of the same year p r i n t e d an a r t i c l e t h a t a l s o a t t a c k e d the u n i v e r s i t i e s of England: What ought the term U n i v e r s i t y t o mean, but a place where every science i s taught which i s l i b e r a l , and a t the same time u s e f u l to mankind. Nothing would so much tend t o b r i n g c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e w i t h i n proper bounds, as a steady and i n v a r i a b l e appeal t o u t i l i t y i n our a p p r e c i a t i o n of a l l human knowledge. (qtd. i n Hubert 19 Sanderson 37-38) The S c o t t i s h attacks incensed Oxford and Cambridge, who s t o u t l y defended t h e i r curriculum. The f o l l o w i n g year, Edward Co p l e s t o n o f O r i e l College, Oxford, wrote A Reply t o the Calum- n i e s o f the Edinburgh Review Against Oxford, Containing an  Account o f S t u d i e s Pursued at the U n i v e r s i t y . Copleston argued t h a t a u n i v e r s i t y education was not meant p r i m a r i l y t o t r a i n i t s graduates f o r employment: Without d i r e c t l y q u a l i f y i n g a man f o r any of the em-ployments of l i f e , i t enriches and ennobles a l l . . I f a question a r i s e concerning the comparative u t i l i t y of two things, i t can only be determined by c o n s i d e r i n g the nature of the ends to which they r e s -p e c t i v e l y lead. . . . There must s u r e l y be a c u l t i v a t i n g of the mind, which i s i n i t s e l f a good: a good of the highest order. C o p l e s t o n argued t h a t a c l a s s i c a l education regarded i n t h a t l i g h t would be found f a u l t l e s s (Sanderson 37-38) . The purpose of an E n g l i s h u n i v e r s i t y education was not to t r a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s but t o prepare young men f o r a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g by l a y i n g a s t r o n g f o u n d a t i o n i n mental competence, r e l i g i o n , and morality. The same argument was made repeatedly by l a t e r Oxford professors, most n o t a b l y by John Henry Newman, who elu c i d a t e d the p o s i t i o n c l e a r l y even a f t e r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n from Oxford. In The Idea of a  U n i v e r s i t y (1852) , Newman defined the goals of Oxford and Cam-Hubert 20 b r i d g e when he d e f i n e d a l i b e r a l education as the "process o f t r a i n i n g , by which the i n t e l l e c t , i n s t e a d of being formed or s a c r i f i c e d t o some p a r t i c u l a r or a c c i d e n t a l purpose, some s p e c i -f i c t r a d e o r p r o f e s s i o n , or study or science, i s d i s c i p l i n e d f o r i t s own sake, f o r the perception of i t s own proper object, and f o r i t s own h i g h e s t c u l t u r e " (211) . George E l d e r Davie's The Democratic I n t e l l e c t , an h i s t o r i c study o f the development of S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s , points out t h a t the concerns of Edgeworth and the attacks of the Edinburgh  Review, i n f a c t , c o i n c i d e d with a debate t h a t had begun i n Scot-l a n d i t s e l f , a debate that would continue through most of the century. The disagreements between Scotland and England on the m e r i t s o f u t i l i t a r i a n education versus the merits of a c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n arose out of d i f f e r i n g t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s of the univer-s i t y i n S c o t l a n d and England. During the eighteenth century, Oxford and Cambridge had begun to s p e c i a l i z e i n c l a s s i c a l l e a r n -i n g , but the S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s had remained general i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m . Whereas the En g l i s h system r e s t r i c t e d entrance t o those e i g h t e e n years or older, thereby allowing Oxford and Cam-br i d g e t o demand a preparation t h a t only a s o p h i s t i c a t e d secon-dary e d u c a t i o n c o u l d produce, the S c o t t i s h system s t i l l o f f e r e d h i g h e r l e a r n i n g t o a l l who desired i t , even i f t h e i r secondary e d u c a t i o n l a c k e d the f i n i s h of expensive E n g l i s h schools. As a r e s u l t , toward the end of the eighteenth century some Scots had begun t o worry t h a t t h e i r n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t i e s were f a l l i n g Hubert 21 behind Oxford and Cambridge. This f e a r l e d to the i n i t i a l debate on c u r r i c u l u m i n Scotland. According to Davie, the object of the S c o t t i s h s t r u g g l e was to decide whether the approach of the u n i v e r s i t y should be p h i l o s o p h i c a l or c l a s s i c a l , focusing on fundamentals of thought i n mental, moral, and n a t u r a l philosophy, and de-emphasize the c l a s s i c s , or whether p u b l i c schools should focus on the b a s i c s of the c l a s s i c a l languages, e s s e n t i a l l y completing them before the student even l e f t school. The u n i v e r -s i t y would then develop c l a s s i c a l thought from t h i s base set i n the s c h o o l s , t h a t i s , follow the E n g l i s h model (Davie 5) . More than two centuries of t r a d i t i o n separated the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y S c o t t i s h and the E n g l i s h educational systems, i n c l u d i n g both school and u n i v e r s i t y , so the debate addressed fundamental i s s u e s . During the p r o t e s t a n t reformation i n Scot-l a n d , John Knox had i n s i s t e d t h a t the populace be educated i n o r d e r t o read the B i b l e . The S c o t t i s h school system was thus both u n i v e r s a l and democratic, a t l e a s t i n theory. R e f l e c t i n g t h i s S c o t t i s h b e l i e f i n the a c c e s s a b i l i t y of the complete educa-t i o n system from the e a r l i e s t years through to the f i n a l years at a u n i v e r s i t y , the well-known reformer and U n i v e r s i t y Member of P a r l i a m e n t Lyon Pl a y f a i r , as l a t e as 1871, argued that Primary and secondary education are. . . so thoroughly i n g r a i n e d i n Scotland t h a t you cannot deal with them s e p a r a t e l y , nor would Scotchmen give one f a r t h i n g f o r a system of n a t i o n a l i n i t i a l education i n which they were Hubert 22 separated. The great Napoleon used t o say t h a t every s o l d i e r c a r r i e d h i s Marshall's baton i n h i s knapsack; so every Scotch peasant, when he goes t o school, c a r -r i e s i n h i s satc h e l a m i n i s t e r ' s gown, or the emblem of a l e a r n e d profession, and i t i s h i s own f a u l t i f he l o s e i t . (qtd. i n Anderson 108) The same s p i r i t was r e f l e c t e d i n the r e p o r t of the A r g y l l Commis-s i o n i n t o S c o t t i s h education i n 1867-68: I t cannot be too often repeated, that the theory of our School system, as o r i g i n a l l y conceived, was to supply every member of the country with the means of o b t a i n i n g f o r h i s c h i l d r e n not only the elements of education, but such i n s t r u c t i o n as would f i t him to pass to the Burgh school, and thence t o U n i v e r s i t y , or d i r e c t l y t o the U n i v e r s i t y from the P a r i s h school. . . . (qtd. i n Anderson 106) The S c o t t i s h h i s t o r y of education, from school entrance t o u n i v e r s i t y graduation, thus combined three r e l a t e d concerns: r e l i g i o n , democracy and economics. Davie's study emphasizes the f i r s t two, and a l a t e r study by R. D. Anderson, Education and  Opport u n i t y i n V i c t o r i a n Scotland, adds the t h i r d concern, through h i s emphasis on u t i l i t y i n education. Part of the Scot-t i s h d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the Oxford emphasis on c l a s s i c s was the l a c k o f p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of a hi g h l y c l a s s i c a l education. While the E n g l i s h system could be content t o serve the p r i v i l e g e d Hubert 23 c l a s s e s t h a t had no need to apply t h e i r education to gain employ-ment o u t s i d e the church, the S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s were s t r o n g l y d r i v e n by the economic i n t e r e s t s of the middle c l a s s . The popu-l a r emphasis on u n i v e r s a l access t o a u n i v e r s i t y education, r e g a r d l e s s of the economic status of the student, accentuated t h i s economic impetus i n the shaping of the S c o t t i s h curriculum. Indeed, Anderson suggests that, since the u n i v e r s i t i e s were d r i v e n by the economic i n t e r e s t s of the middle c l a s s , the concept of S c o t t i s h education as t o t a l l y democratic was l i t t l e but a myth. Even as a myth, however, i t exerted a powerful impact on the S c o t t i s h c u r r i c u l u m (Anderson 336). T h i s emphasis on u n i v e r s a l education, then, i n theory i n -c l u d i n g u n i v e r s i t y f o r those d e s i r i n g i t and able to complete the necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e s i n p u b l i c l y funded schools, n e c e s s i t a t e d a n o n - s p e c i a l i z e d , p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n i v e r s i t y curriculum t h a t s t r e s s e d g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s over d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s with which some of t h e students could not have coped. The p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach t o education was a l s o f o s t e r e d by the emphasis on l e a r n e d d i s c o u r s e , e s p e c i a l l y as p r a c t i c e d i n Scotland's Pres-b y t e r i a n p u l p i t s . The r e s u l t was a " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y humanist f l a v o u r " i n the S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t y system (Davie 13). Even the study of c l a s s i c s focused on a e s t h e t i c s and c r i t i c i s m , an em-p h a s i s "condemned by Oxonians as yet one more instance of the S c o t t i s h v i c e of premature i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m , and of unreasonable a d d i c t i o n t o metaphysics" (Davie 206). Hubert 24 In 1826, a u n i v e r s i t y reform commission was e s t a b l i s h e d t o examine the need f o r changes i n Scotland's u n i v e r s i t i e s . The p r e v i o u s year, George Jardine, Professor of Logic at Glasgow, had p u b l i s h e d the second e d i t i o n of h i s Outlines of a P h i l o s o p h i - c a l E d u c a t i o n , i n which he "contrasted the S c o t t i s h system with the E n g l i s h one, and pointed out the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e that, whereas the former aimed at a general education, the l a t t e r was devoted c h i e f l y t o the cause of s p e c i a l i z e d education," Oxford f o c u s i n g on c l a s s i c s and Cambridge on mathematics. Jardine argued t h a t s c i e n c e s , both p h y s i c a l and mental, were more impor-t a n t than a focus e x c l u s i v e l y c l a s s i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l (Davie 10) . The concern f o r competing with the E n g l i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s emanated from E n g l i s h admirers. William I l l s l e y ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n on the h i s t o r y of teaching E n g l i s h i n Scotland substantiates Davie's p o s i t i o n , f i n d i n g the roots of E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e i n the e i g h t e e n t h century: Almost throughout t h i s century many S c o t t i s h i n t e l l e c t u a l s were concerned i n schemes to improve t h e i r E n g l i s h pronunciation, e i t h e r because of awakening i n t e r e s t i n the vernacular, or because o f r e c o g n i t i o n (however reluc t a n t ) that, subse-quent t o the Act of Union, c u l t i v a t i o n of a form o f speech comprehensible i n South as w e l l as i n North B r i t a i n was becoming a n e c e s s i t y . ( I l l s l e y 189) Hubert 25 T h i s i n t e r e s t i n E n g l i s h e l o c u t i o n l e d t o the great success f o r Thomas Sheridan, the leader of what became known as the " e l o c u -t i o n a r y movement," and f o r John Walker, who published a pronounc-i n g d i c t i o n a r y i n 1774 ( I l l s l e y 215). 1 The study of r h e t o r i c i n Scotland was thus not always r e s t -r i c t e d t o a c h a i r of r h e t o r i c . Indeed, r h e t o r i c was most often a component o f the course i n l o g i c . At Glasgow, f o r instance, George J a r d i n e , Professor of Logic from 1787 to 1827, supple-mented h i s l e c t u r e s by d a i l y o r a l questioning and by frequent w r i t t e n essays on a wide v a r i e t y of general themes (Anderson 33) . P r i o r t o J a r d i n e ' s time, Glasgow's Professor of Moral Philosophy, none other than Adam Smith, i n 1762-63 gave Lectures  on R h e t o r i c and B e l l e s L e t t r e s . subsequently published from student notes. Smith's l e c t u r e s d e a l t with argument, they em-p h a s i z e d a p l a i n , n a t u r a l s t y l e and simple arrangement, and they r e l a t e d r h e t o r i c t o a l l l i t e r a t u r e . P r i o r t o g a i n i n g a professorship a t Glasgow, however, Smith had g i v e n a s e r i e s of p u b l i c l e c t u r e s on r h e t o r i c i n Edinburgh, where the s t r o n g e s t r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s i n the eighteenth and e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d . Here John Stevenson taught l o g i c f o r over f o r t y years, up to 1775. S i r Alexander Grant, h i s t o r i a n o f the U n i v e r s i t y of Edinburgh, s t a t e s that "the •'-The e l o c u t i o n a r y movement d i d not confine i t s e l f t o S c o t l a n d . Walker's and Sheridan's works, which s h i f t e d the meaning o f e l o c u t i o n from s t y l e t o d e l i v e r y (Corbett 620), were wid e l y read i n England and i n the c o l o n i e s , and remained i n f l u e n -t i a l w e l l i n t o the nineteenth century. Hubert 26 most important and f r u i t f u l p a r t o f Stevenson's work was t h a t which he d i d as a teacher of Rhetoric, which subject, although not named i n h i s t i t l e , was considered t o belong t o h i s Ch a i r " (Grant I I , 279) . He read with h i s c l a s s A r i s t o t l e ' s Poetics and Longinus On the Sublime as a basi s f o r t r e a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of c r i t i c i s m . He discussed e x t r a c t s from the prose discourses and p r e f a c e s o f Dryden, Addison's papers i n the Spectator, Pope's notes, and French authors. Stevenson's course included a strong emphasis on composi-t i o n . Stevenson, of course, taught during the very period of concern f o r l e a r n i n g proper E n g l i s h pronunciation and other a spects o f E n g l i s h c u l t u r e , i n c l u d i n g l i t e r a t u r e . In h i s study o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t a i n , Stephen P o t t e r writes, only h a l f -f a c e t i o u s l y , t h a t t o the S c o t t i s h , E n g l i s h was a f o r e i g n tongue: "to l e c t u r e i n good En g l i s h was i n i t s e l f no unimportant f e a t " (104) . Grant a l l u d e s to the academic s p i r i t of the time when he remarks t h a t Stevenson's l e c t u r e s "had r e a l l y an extraordinary e f f e c t ; they were d e l i v e r e d j u s t a t a pe r i o d when a c e r t a i n a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r l i t e r a t u r e was beginning to be f e l t i n Edi n -burgh, when an i n t e l l e c t u a l r e v i v a l , a f t e r the Covenanting dark age, was i n the a i r " (II, 280) . In 1782, Hugh B l a i r , Stevenson's student, was given a new c h a i r o f R h e t o r i c and B e l l e s L e t t r e s , p a r t of the teaching t h a t had belonged t o Stevenson. As i s w e l l known from h i s published L e c t u r e s on R h e t o r i c and B e l l e s L e t t r e s , B l a i r , u n l i k e Stevenson, Hubert 27 but l i k e Adam Smith, l e c t u r e d i n E n g l i s h . B l a i r focused on c u l -t i v a t i n g a proper t a s t e , which h i s second l e c t u r e defines as "The power of r e c e i v i n g pleasure from the beauties of nature and a r t . " B l a i r ' s published l e c t u r e s became enormously s u c c e s s f u l , and were subsequently used throughout the B r i t i s h empire, i n a d d i t i o n t o being p r i n t e d i n numerous t r a n s l a t i o n s . U n l i k e Stevenson and Ja r d i n e , however, B l a i r included no composition assignments w i t h h i s l e c t u r e s (Meikle 94) . The strength o f B l a i r ' s r h e t o r i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n was thus more p h i l o s o p h i c a l than u t i l i t a r i a n . 2 Indeed, B l a i r ' s emphasis on b e l l e s l e t t r e s s h i f -t e d the focus of r h e t o r i c i n h i s u n i v e r s i t y c h a i r from w r i t i n g and o r a t o r y toward a e s t h e t i c s and the reading of E n g l i s h l i t e r a -t u r e . At Edinburgh, w r i t i n g was thus r e l a t e d more c l o s e l y t o l o g i c than t o r h e t o r i c . The emphasis on a e s t h e t i c s i n the l e c -t u r e s o f Adam Smith and Hugh B l a i r thus began a s h i f t that would see the f u l l study of poetic s s h i f t from c l a s s i c s t o En g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , w i t h E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e at Edinburgh i n i t i a l l y taught by the p r o f e s s o r o f r h e t o r i c . In S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s of the eighteenth and nineteenth c e n t u r i e s , s p e c i f i c c h a i r s were h i g h l y adaptable to the demands 2 I n t e r e s t i n g l y , none of the works consulted i n t h i s study reviewed programs i n oratory a t any of the S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s p r i o r t o the V i c t o r i a n period. I l l s l e y p o i n t s out t h a t Sheridan and Walker, along with numerous other i t i n e r a n t l e c t u r e r s , c r e a t e d a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n e l o c u t i o n , which was sometimes i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o school programs, but no mention i s made of u n i v e r s i t y programs ( I l l s l e y , Ch. 6) . Perhaps d a i l y r e c i t a t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t to t r a i n students i n oratory. Hubert 28 of the academic environment. At Edinburgh, John Wilson, P r o f e s -s o r o f Moral Philosophy from 1820 t o 1853, a l s o turned h i s l e c -t u r e s i n t o c l a s s e s i n r h e t o r i c and b e l l e s l e t t r e s . Grant w r i t e s t h a t W ilson " t r e a t e d of the passions, v i r t u e s , d u t i e s , and so on, but he d e a l t w i t h them i n the concrete, with i l l u s t r a t i o n s from l i t e r a t u r e . . . . [T]he tendency of h i s nature was towards the c o n c r e t e and p o e t i c a l , rather than the abstract and p h i l o s o -p h i c a l " (345). Wilson, as "Christopher North," was himself a well-known S c o t t i s h w r i t e r and c r i t i c . Like Stevenson before him, Wilson a l s o encouraged h i s students i n w r i t i n g . Grant s t a t e s , "Nothing was more remarkable i n h i s P r o f e s s o r i a t e than h i s c o n s c i e n t i o u s d i l i g e n c e i n reading and commenting on a l l the essays produced by h i s numerous c l a s s e s " (II, 345) . Concurrent with Wilson teaching r h e t o r i c and b e l l e s l e t t r e s , i n c l u d i n g composition, i n h i s philosophy c l a s s e s , William S p a l -d i n g h e l d B l a i r ' s c h a i r of Rhetoric and B e l l e s L e t t r e s at Edin-burgh from 1840 t o 1845. Owing t o poor l e c t u r e s from B l a i r ' s immediate succ e s s o r s , the p o p u l a r i t y of the c h a i r f e l l a f t e r B l a i r ' s r e t i r m e n t (Meikle 97). In a d d i t i o n , a report of the 1826 Royal Commission on education c r i t i c i z e d "the low s t a t e of gram-m a t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s p a r t of the i s l a n d , and the l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l idioms prevalent i n the works even of the learned." As a r e s u l t , the professor's time was "employed i n minute remarks on the c h o i c e of words, the s t r u c t u r e of sentences, and the e r r o r s or inadvertances which obstructed the p e r s p i c u i t y of Hubert 29 composition" (qtd. i n Meikle 97). In the years a f t e r B l a i r , r h e t o r i c a t Edinburgh thus developed a grammatical focus. Essays were v o l u n t a r y , the course had no exams, and teaching was mostly by l e c t u r e . S p a l d i n g t r i e d to change the p a t t e r n when he ascended to the c h a i r i n 1839. Although attendance alone was required f o r the degree, S p a l d i n g assigned weekly essays and examinations f o r students t o complete i f they wished to compete f o r p r i z e s t h a t S p a l d i n g p r o v i d e d . With only a small c l a s s of twenty t o t h i r t y s t u d e n t s , however, Spalding soon l e f t f o r the c h a i r of l o g i c a t St. Andrews. S p a l d i n g ' s successor, William Edmonstoune Aytoun, not only r e v e r s e d the s l i d e of r h e t o r i c and b e l l e s l e t t r e s as a separate s u b j e c t a t Edinburgh, he followed B l a i r i n s h i f t i n g the whole d i r e c t i o n o f S c o t t i s h r h e t o r i c a l study toward a c r i t i c a l reading of l i t e r a t u r e i n the vernacular. But that i s to a n t i c i p a t e . Important here i s Aytoun's a t t i t u d e toward the question of u t i l -i t y , i n which Aytoun took a decidedly S c o t t i s h p o s i t i o n . I f students came t o the u n i v e r s i t y unprepared f o r advanced work, he would t e a c h them. As f o r the argument that i t i s beneath the d i g n i t y of a U n i v e r s i t y to deal with rudimentary elements, we d i s -miss t h a t a t once with the contempt which i t deserves. No h i g h e r p r i v i l e g e i s granted t o man than the power of i n s t r u c t i o n , however humble or l i m i t e d that i n s t r u c t i o n may be. (Aytoun 82) Hubert 30 As f o r t h e q u e s t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y teaching p r a c t i c a l matters, Aytoun a g a i n a s s e r t e d the p o s i t i o n of most of h i s countrymen, making t h e p o i n t that Scotland's wealth and c u l t u r e were d i f -f e r e n t from t h a t o f England, so the E n g l i s h system should not be taken as a model. " S c h o l a s t i c l e a r n i n g commands but a low p r i c e i n the g e n e r a l market when o f f e r e d i n i t s own shape," he argued. "Combined wi t h other material, i t becomes of much higher value" (80). The S c o t t i s h system of r h e t o r i c and composition i n s t r u c t i o n p r i o r t o Aytoun i n 1845, therefore, was b u i l t on l o g i c as a base, and, from Adam Smith onward, included a study of b e l l e s l e t t r e s i n the v e r n a c u l a r . But only Edinburgh had a separate c h a i r i n r h e t o r i c , i t s c h a i r d e r i v i n g from B l a i r ' s regius appointment i n 1762. The i n t e r e s t i n composition and b e l l e s l e t t r e s overlapped s u b j e c t s though, with composition taught i n l o g i c , r h e t o r i c , and ph i l o s o p h y courses, with philosophy a l s o i n c l u d i n g b e l l e t r i s t i c i n t e r e s t s . The curriculum featured a general education r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i c d i v i s i o n of labor. Within t h i s context, the focus appears t o have been on the development of a l i t e r a t e student a b l e t o compose at l e a s t h i s w r i t t e n thought with p e r s p i -c u i t y . T h i s emphasis on the student as one who should graduate as a l i t e r a t e person d e r i v e d from three f a c t o r s already mentioned: the economic, the / r e l i g i o u s , and the democratic. The l a t t e r two concerns went back t o the Knox reformation, and the consequent Hubert 31 growth of a s c h o o l system that would teach everyone t o read the B i b l e . In the nineteenth century, however, the economic impetus f o r e d u c a t i o n gained ascendancy, as the middle c l a s s e s a s s e r t e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n a u t i l i t a r i a n education, an i n t e r e s t which n a t u r a l l y emphasized the vernacular over the c l a s s i c a l . Added t o a l o c a l u t i l i t a r i a n i s m was a l s o the S c o t t i s h r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t S c o t l a n d ' s p o l i t i c a l union with England demanded an e x p e r t i s e i n the v e r n a c u l a r of the South, which dominated the whole B r i t i s h economy and government. Related to the i n t e r e s t i n the v e r -n a c u l a r was a l s o an a e s t h e t i c consciousness, e s p e c i a l l y i n the c u l t u r e d c i t i z e n s of the c a p i t a l c i t y of Scotland. In 1762, t h i s had l e d Edinburgh to take the lead i n r h e t o r i c a l innovation by s u p p o r t i n g Hugh B l a i r , the p r e s t i g i o u s m i n i s t e r of the h i s t o r i c St. G i l e s church, f o r the Edinburgh c h a i r i n r h e t o r i c , a c h a i r w i t h l e c t u r e s focused on sound c r i t i c i s m and t a s t e . T h i s E d i n -burgh focus on r h e t o r i c and a e s t h e t i c s would continue under Aytoun. These b a s i c economic, r e l i g i o u s and democratic concerns r e l a t e d t o r h e t o r i c were to be foremost i n the c u l t u r e that was c a r r i e d t o e a r l y nineteenth-century B r i t i s h North America by Scotsmen i n v o l v e d i n the b i r t h of higher education i n the Mari-times and i n Upper and Lower Canada i n the f i r s t h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h century. The S c o t t i s h emphasis on u n i v e r s a l acces-s i b i l i t y i n B r i t i s h North America would r e l a t e t o access f o r a l l , r e g a r d l e s s o f r e l i g i o n , n a t i o n a l i t y , or economic s t a t u s . Within Hubert 32 t h i s c o n t e x t , both the democratic and the u t i l i t a r i a n emphasis i n S c o t t i s h education would s t r e s s the importance of r h e t o r i c a l study i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r . The development of the r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n England up t o 1850 c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y with t h a t of i t s northern counterpart, the c o n t r a s t s becoming more and more pronounced a f t e r the French r e v o l u t i o n . J u s t as the S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s developed w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of a whole Presbyterian c u l t u r e , s t r e s s i n g education and democracy w i t h i n the framework of general r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l v a l u e s , so the E n g l i s h system, f e a t u r i n g Oxford and Cam-b r i d g e as f i n i s h i n g schools f o r the upper c l a s s e s , grew out of E n g l i s h r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e s and s o c i a l values. England's sixteenth-century i n t e r e s t i n the vernacular has been w e l l documented i n numerous h i s t o r i e s of both E n g l i s h l i t e r -a t u r e and r h e t o r i c . 3 Both Oxford and Cambridge f l o u r i s h e d i n E l i z a b e t h a n England., However, i n the turbulent seventeenth c e n t u r y , the c i v i l war and subsequent r e s t o r a t i o n of the monarchy r e s u l t e d i n a r e a c t i o n against the vernacular by the upper c l a s s e s , a r e a c t i o n that a l s o l e d t o a hardening of s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s . The 1662 Act of Uniformity not only deprived the non-conformist c l e r g y of t h e i r l i v i n g s , but a l s o denied t h e i r sons the o p p o r t u n i t y of gaining degrees from England's two u n i -JEdward Corbett's C l a s s i c a l Rhetoric f o r the Modern Student [(New York: Oxford UP) 1965] presents an overview; Wilbur S. Howell's L o g i c and Rhetoric i n England. 1500-1700 [(Princeton: P r i n c e t o n UP) 1956] provides a d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y . Hubert 33 v e r s i t i e s . Often the newly unemployed c l e r i c s turned to educa-t i o n , s e t t i n g up t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n s , known as " d i s s e n t i n g academies," many of which soon replaced L a t i n with E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n (Palmer 5-7) . At Oxford, f i r s t - y e a r enrolment f e l l from over 450 b e f o r e the Act of Uniformity t o about 300 by the end of the century. As competition f o r p o s i t i o n s i n the church i n c r e a s e d , the wealthy gained the advantage of p o l i t i c a l i n -f l u e n c e t o g a i n employment. Since poor Anglican f a m i l i e s could not a f f o r d adequate c l a s s i c a l schooling, L a t i n became more and more a mark of an Anglican gentleman (Stone 3 6 f f . ) . R i c h a r d A l t i c k ' s The English Common Reader: A S o c i a l H i s t o r y  of the Mass Reading P u b l i c 1800-1900 s t a t e s that i n an attempt t o prevent another c i v i l war, p u b l i c p o l i c y allowed the o l d idea of "degree" t o harden " i n t o a r i g i d p a t t e r n of s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . . . and everywhere there was an i n t e n s i f i e d awareness of s t a -t u s " (31) . One way of ensuring peace was t o keep the masses i g n o r a n t . As an added advantage, t h i s p o l i c y ensured a supply of cheap l a b o r as the nation entered a p e r i o d of r a p i d expansion i n i n d u s t r y . The f e a r of r e v o l t pervaded s o c i e t y through the e i g h t e e n t h century and i n t o the nineteenth. The r e s u l t s of t h i s f e a r l e d t o a moral dilemma f o r those with r e l i g i o u s concerns about the n a t i o n . Devout Anglicans and d i s s e n t e r s a l i k e wished t o propagate the C h r i s t i a n gospel through p r i n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n an age when t r a c t s were a c h i e f means of reaching the masses. The A n g l i c a n founders of the Society f o r Promoting C h r i s t i a n Know-Hubert 34 ledge i n 1699 argued that a knowledge a t l e a s t of reading was necessary, f o r without that, how could p i e t y , m o r a l i t y , i n d u s t r y , and u n q u e s t i o n i n g l o y a l t y t o the Protestant f a i t h be impressed upon the masses? ( A l t i c k 32-34). The Methodist f o l l o w e r s of John Wesley, g e n e r a l l y among the lower c l a s s e s , a l s o s t r e s s e d reading f o r the same reasons. "Reading C h r i s t i a n s , " wrote Wesley, " w i l l be knowing C h r i s t i a n s " (qtd. i n A l t i c k 35) . At the end of the eighteenth century, the a t r o c i t i e s of the French R e v o l u t i o n redoubled opposition t o popular education, i n t e n s i f y i n g the h i s t o r i c E n g l i s h f e a r of r e v o l u t i o n . When Thomas Paine's The Rights of Man gained popular n o t i c e i n 1791-92, l e a d e r s of the Sunday school movement, which had s t r e s s e d r e a d i n g , were c a s t as p u b l i c enemies f o r having provided the l e s s o n s t h a t now allowed the lower c l a s s e s to read s e d i t i o u s l i t e r a t u r e ( A l t i c k 67). Even the l i b e r a l l y educated, l i k e Samuel T a y l o r C o l e r i d g e , shared the fear o f l i t e r a c y extending beyond r e a d i n g t o w r i t i n g and to oratory. "Of the l a b o r i n g c l a s s e s . . . more than t h i s [reading] i s not . . . perhaps g e n e r a l l y d e s i r -a b l e , " C o l e r i d g e s a i d . "They are not sought f o r i n p u b l i c coun-s e l > nor need they be found where p o l i t i c sentences are spoken. I t i s enough i f every one i s wise i n the working of h i s own c r a f t : so b e s t w i l l they maintain the s t a t e of the world" (em-p h a s i s i n o r i g i n a l ; qtd. i n A l t i c k 144). The r e l a t i o n s h i p of Oxford and Cambridge t o t h i s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e was, of course, obvious, but i t i s presented poignantly Hubert 35 by C h a r l e s K i n g s l e y ' s A l t o n Locke (1850), whose main character muses as he scans the s p i r e s of Oxford: You r e f u s e t o admit any who . . . w i l l not sig n the dogmas of the Church of England, whether they b e l i e v e a word of them or not. Useless formalism! which l e t s through the r e c k l e s s , the p r o f l i g a t e , the ignorant, the h y p o c r i t i c a l ; and only excludes the honest and the c o n s c i e n t i o u s , and the mass of i n t e l l e c t u a l working men. Why are we to be shut out from the u n i v e r s i t i e s , which were founded f o r us. . . . I t i s not merely because we are bad churchmen that you exclude us. . . . Nol The r e a l reason f o r our exclusion, churchmen or not, i s , because we are poor." (qtd. i n Sanderson 54-55) At the beginning of the nineteenth century e s p e c i a l l y , Oxford and Cambridge had the reputation of r e q u i r i n g v a st sums of money, f o r the sons of England's s o c i a l e l i t e attended more t o g a i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s ' stamp of approval as gentlemen than t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o human h i s t o r y and philosophy, n a t u r a l or moral. Emphasizing the u t i l i t a r i a n nature of S c o t t i s h education, but c o n t r a s t i n g the requirements of the southern" u n i v e r s i t i e s with those of S c o t l a n d , Lyon P l a y f a i r t o l d the House of Commons, "The E n g l i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s . . .teach men how to spend one thousand pounds a y e a r w i t h d i g n i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e while the Scotch U n i v e r s i t i e s t each them how to make one thousand pounds a year Hubert 36 w i t h d i g n i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e " (qtd. i n Anderson 35). Although Oxford and Cambridge became the f i n i s h i n g schools of the wealthy, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Anglican church and the two u n i v e r s i t i e s was a l s o c e n t r a l t o the E n g l i s h way of l i f e . W i l l i a m Whewell, a Cambridge philosopher, stated t h a t the church c o u l d not e x i s t without the p r e v a i l i n g system of education (Sand-erson 201) . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Church of England and the u n i v e r s i t i e s was of f i n a n c i a l importance f o r a l l graduates as w e l l as f o r the Anglican church, f o r a degree from Oxford and Cambridge normally l e d d i r e c t l y i n t o an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l i v i n g . In o r d e r t o prevent widespread unemployment among graduates of the two u n i v e r s i t i e s , the number of students could not exceed by much the a v a i l a b l e annual p o s i t i o n s i n the church. Given the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between u n i v e r s i t y and church and the complex question of s o c i a l c l a s s , the 1809 Edin- burgh Review a t t a c k c a s t i g a t i n g Oxford and Cambridge f o r t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e on the c l a s s i c s , f o r the Scots an a n t i - u t i l i t a r i a n f o c us, r e s u l t e d i n Coplestone's h i g h l y i d e a l i s t i c defense, as reviewed a t the beginning of t h i s chapter. Further, given the growth of u t i l i t y - o r i e n t e d d i s s e n t i n g academies f o r the r i s i n g non-Anglican middle c l a s s , i n s t i t u t i o n s which d e f l e c t e d much p o t e n t i a l c r i t i c i s m from the c l a s s i c a l curriculum of the two u n i v e r s i t i e s , f o r c e s f o r change i n Oxford and Cambridge had l i t t l e e f f e c t . I n s o f a r as the d i s s e n t i n g academies needed u n i -v e r s i t y - l e v e l support, that was supplied by S c o t t i s h connections. Hubert 37 D. J . Palmer suggests that the S c o t t i s h c o l l e g e s may even have been the models f o r the E n g l i s h d i s s e n t i n g academies (7-9) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the exclusion of non-Anglicans i r r i t a t e d many of the wealthy middle c l a s s i n London. Although these Londoners despised the r e l i g i o u s e x c l u s i v e -ness o f Oxford and Cambridge, and although they r i d i c u l e d the c l a s s i c a l c u r r i c u l u m , the l a c k of an opportunity to gain u n i v e r -s i t y degrees upset enough i n f l u e n t i a l c i t i z e n s t h at a f t e r the Napoleonic wars the B r i t i s h government founded U n i v e r s i t y C o l -l e g e , a non-Anglican i n s t i t u t i o n , i n London (1826) . Because i t was not a f f i l i a t e d formally with a r e l i g i o u s body, i t q u i c k l y became known as "the Godless i n s t i t u t i o n on Gower S t r e e t . " Palmer s t a t e s t h a t i t s curriculum was modeled a f t e r the S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y since most of the e a r l y professors were themselves Scotsmen (16). U n i v e r s i t y College, t h e r e f o r e , o f f e r e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n the vernacular, i n c l u d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . I n i t i a l l y , however, the new c o l l e g e could not o f f e r d e g r e e s . 4 The f i r s t p r o f e s s o r of E n g l i s h a t the "Godless I n s t i t u t i o n " 4 I n o f f e r i n g a curriculum without allowing a degree, U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , i n f a c t , resembled Cambridge, s i n c e d i s -s e n t e r s c o u l d a l s o get a c o l l e g e education there, though not a degree s i n c e the oath of a l l e g i a n c e t o the Thirty-Nine A r t i c l e s was taken a t the end of the course of studies'. In Scotland l e a v i n g the u n i v e r s i t y without o b t a i n i n g a degree was a l s o a commonplace. Three y e a r s a f t e r U n i v e r s i t y College opened i n 1828, the Church o f England founded King's College, a l s o i n London. In 183 6 both were a f f i l i a t e d under the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e umbrella of the U n i v e r s i t y o f London, which then began granting i t s own degrees. Hubert 38 was an e v a n g e l i c a l clergyman, the Rev. Thomas Dale. Dale im-m e d i a t e l y c l a r i f i e d h i s p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e to p u b l i c concern about g o d l e s s n e s s . In t h i s he set the d i r e c t i o n f o r the next h a l f c e n t u r y i n the study of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . His inaugural l e c t u r e , d e l i v e r e d a t U n i v e r s i t y College i n October 1828, s t r e s s e d t h a t "moral c u l t u r e should be connected with moral i n s t r u c t i o n , and both e n l i s t e d i n the s e r v i c e of R e l i g i o n " (Palmer 19) . H i s course included the h i s t o r y , philosophy and "use and a p p l i c a t i o n s " of the language i n the var i o u s kinds of speaking and composition, "commencing with the p l a i n and p e r s p i c -uous, and proceeding upward to the elevated and majestic s t y l e . " H i s main concern, however, expressed i n s u i t a b l e flowers of eloquence, was c l e a r l y m o r a l i t y : But i n a l l my Lectures, more p a r t i c u l a r l y when t r e a t i n g upon t h a t g l o r i o u s and inex h a u s t i b l e subject, the LITERATURE of our c o u n t r y — I s h a l l esteem i t my d u t y — -and I t r u s t I s h a l l f i n d i t my d e l i g h t — t o i n c u l c a t e l e s s o n s of v i r t u e , through the medium of the mastery of our language. . . . [N]ever, i n t r a c k i n g the course of those b r i l l i a n t luminaries t h a t sparkle i n the firma-ment of our l i t e r a t u r e — n e v e r w i l l I s u f f e r the eye of inexperienced youth t o be dazzled by the b r i l l i a n c y of genius, when i t s broad l u s t r e obscures the deformity of v i c e ; never w i l l I a f f e c t t o s t i f l e the expression of a j u s t i n d i g n a t i o n , when wit, t a s t e , and t a l e n t , have Hubert 39 been designedly p r o s t i t u t e d by t h e i r unworthy posses-s o r s t o the excitement of unholy passions, the p a l l i a -t i o n o f g u i l t y indulgences, the r i d i c u l e of v i r t u e , or the disparagement of r e l i g i o n . (Palmer 20) The b u l k o f Dale's i n s t r u c t i o n at U n i v e r s i t y College, how-ever, was not i n l i t e r a t u r e but i n language, i n which subject he l e c t u r e d t h r e e times a week. Palmer i s not impressed with the q u a l i t y o f Dale's i n s t r u c t i o n , f o r from examination questions i t appears t h a t "the p r i n c i p l e [ s i c ] t e s t was of a b i l i t y t o remember the P r o f e s s o r ' s p r e s c r i b e d answers" t o questions such as the f o l l o w i n g : Who i s the f i r s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d w r i t e r of E n g l i s h prose? Point out the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of h i s s t y l e , and say i n what respect i t d i f f e r s from that of Lord Clarendon. . . . When i s the t r a n s l a t i o n of an idiomatic expression p e r f e c t ? . . . Why i s D a p e r f e c t l e t t e r ? (qtd. i n Palmer 22) These are q u e s t i o n s from a f i v e - p a r t exam covering the His t o r y of the E n g l i s h Language, E n g l i s h Grammar, P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e of E n g l i s h Composition, T r a n s l a t i o n s from C l a s s i c a l Authors i n t o E n g l i s h , and R h e t o r i c (Palmer 21). In i t s e a r l y years, E n g l i s h study at U n i v e r s i t y College f o l l o w e d the e m p i r i c i s t t r a d i t i o n of emphasizing f a c t u a l materi-a l , which a r i g i d examination system forced the students t o Hubert 40 l e a r n . The t i t l e s of Dale's l e c t u r e s suggest an approach through r h e t o r i c a l forms: Dramatic Poetry (8 l e c t u r e s ) , E p i c Poetry (6 l e c t u r e s ) , D i v i n i t y (5 l e c t u r e s ) , and the H i s t o r y of Romantic F i c t i o n (one l e c t u r e ) . Dale a l s o t r e a t e d the H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e ; the f a c t u a l nature of such l e c t u r e s i s revealed i n a l e t t e r from John Ruskin to h i s f a t h e r : "Four l e c t u r e s on t h i s s u b j e c t have spoken of four celebrated authors of o l d t i m e — S i r John M a n d e v i l l , S i r John Gower, Chaucer and W i c k l i f f e . We are made acqu a i n t e d with t h e i r b i r t h , parentage, education, etc. ; the c h a r a c t e r of t h e i r w r i t i n g s i s spoken of, and e x t r a c t s are read as examples of t h e i r s t y l e " (qtd. i n Palmer 23) . Although Dale resigned a f t e r two years, the nature of the course changed l i t t l e f o r the next twenty years. An h i s t o r i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l emphasis only g r a d u a l l y replaced the organiza-t i o n by r h e t o r i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Except to note t h a t student compositions were assigned, n e i t h e r Palmer nor other h i s t o r i e s of U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e reviewed f o r t h i s study comment f u r t h e r on formal r h e t o r i c a l study. Important f o r the present a n a l y s i s i n Anglo-Canadian st u d i e s i n r h e t o r i c and E n g l i s h , therefore, i s an a p p r e c i a t i o n for' the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between education and the Church of England, as w e l l as a d i s t i n c t c l a s s consciousness r e l a t e d to a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n i n England. Whereas U n i v e r s i t y College included i n -s t r u c t i o n i n the verncaular, the Church of England's concept of an e d u c a t i o n a t Oxford and Cambridge was d i s t i n c t l y c l a s s i c a l i n Hubert 41 nature: t h e concern was more the production o f a s o p h i s t i c a t e d gentleman than the development of an immediately u s e f u l p r o f e s -s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . In i t s a t t i t u d e toward u t i l i t y , the Oxford system d i f f e r e d from the S c o t t i s h i n both philosophy and p r a c -t i c e . In t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the church, both systems d i f -f e r e d as w e l l . Oxford and Cambridge degrees l e d d i r e c t l y i n t o church l i v i n g s ; S c o t t i s h degrees guaranteed no p o s i t i o n . Since S c o t l a n d ' s democratic philosophy o s t e n s i b l y ensured a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n t o a l l deserving students, the S c o t t i s h system produced f a r more graduates than Scotland could employ. T h i s , i n p a r t , would account f o r the strong S c o t t i s h i n f l u e n c e i n the h i s t o r y of Canadian h i g h e r education, f o r Scotland r e g u l a r l y exported i t s e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i e s with i t s graduates. 5 The b a t t l e between the S c o t t i s h and En g l i s h approaches t o h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n was c a r r i e d t o B r i t i s h North American c o l l e g e s from t h e i r v e r y i n c e p t i o n . Scotland's emphasis on u t i l i t y , on a c c e s s i b i l i t y , and on the vernacular s t r e s s e d the importance of r h e t o r i c a l t r a i n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n w r i t i n g , which Scotland taught i n both l o g i c and r h e t o r i c c l a s s e s . Oxford and Cambridge i n -^Thomas McCulloch and John Strachan, two seminal f i g u r e s i n Anglo-Canadian hi g h e r education and discussed i n the fo l l o w i n g chapter, i l l u s t r a t e w e l l the S c o t t i s h educational influence i n the e a r l y development of B r i t i s h North America. This influence c o n t i n u e d throughout the century. Other i n f l u e n t i a l alumni of S c o t t i s h u n i v e r i s i t i e s discussed i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n include S i r J . W. Dawson, Pr e s i d e n t of M c G i l l , S i r Daniel Wilson, Professor of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and H i s t o r y a t Toronto, the Rev. W. T. Leach, P r o f e s s o r o f Rhetoric and l a t e r of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e a t M c G i l l , and James Cappon, Professor of E n g l i s h a t Queen's. Hubert 42 f l u e n c e s i n B r i t i s h North America, i n contrast, denounced the u t i l i t a r i a n approach, r e s t r i c t e d access t o Anglicans, and em-p h a s i z e d the c l a s s i c s , both i n language and content. In the c o l -o n i e s , however, the d i f f e r e n c e s between E n g l i s h and S c o t t i s h systems would not be separated by n a t i o n a l boundaries. As c o l -o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s e t t l e r s of both S c o t t i s h and E n g l i s h h e r i t a g e , t h e r e f o r e , turned to education as a means of ensuring f u t u r e s o c i a l and economic s t a b i l i t y , d i f f e r e n c e s i n the educa-t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e were obvious. These d i f f e r e n c e s , * n a t u r a l l y , f o l l o w e d n a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s l i n e s , given that the e a r l y Canadian c o l l e g e s were a l l t i e d t o o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , each of these associated with p a r t i c u l a r immigrant groups. In B r i t i s h North America, t h e r e f o r e , e a r l y c o l l e g e s with S c o t t i s h r o o t s tended to be Presbyterian i n r e l i g i o n but with no r e l i g i o u s bars f o r entering students. These c o l l e g e s also em-p h a s i z e d r h e t o r i c i n the vernacular, arguing that a s t r o n g l y c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d i d not s u i t the s o c i a l and economic s i t u a -t i o n o f the c o l o n i e s . The e a r l y Anglican c o l l e g e s , on the other hand, r e s t r i c t e d entrance to those who affirmed the T h i r t y - n i n e A r t i c l e s o f the Church of England. The curriculum was s t r o n g l y c l a s s i c a l , w i t h l i t t l e formal a t t e n t i o n t o the v e r n a c u l a r — e x c e p t a s t r o n g concern f o r E n g l i s h e l o c u t i o n i n i t s most b a s i c sense; namely, the c o r r e c t pronunciation of the King's E n g l i s h . Whereas c o l l e g e s w i t h S c o t t i s h roots thus emphasized an education with Hubert 43 p r a c t i c a l economic b e n e f i t s , the Anglican c o l l e g e s , even i n the c o l o n i e s , s t r o v e t o produce an upper c l a s s Anglican gentleman. Hubert 44 CHAPTER 2: RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS AND THE RHETORICAL CURRICULUM IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA, 1800 - 1853 In e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t a i n , u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e s and emphasis on i n s t r u c t i o n i n the v e r n a c u l a r s e p a r a t e d the S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t y system from t h a t o f Oxford and Cambridge. The E n g l i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s v a l u e d c l a s s i c a l languages and a l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n u n r e l a t e d t o t r a i n i n g f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n ; the Scots c o n s i d e r e d the p r o f e s s i o n s important i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l system. The E n g l i s h system was e l i t i s t ; the S c o t t i s h system, democratic. These v a l u e s were brought t o the shores o f Nova S c o t i a and the townships of Upper Canada by emi-g r a n t s from t h e two B r i t i s h c o u n t r i e s and from p o s t -r e v o l u t i o n a r y America. In B r i t i s h North America, the E n g l i s h e l i t i s m was o n l y s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d by the democratic experience of the U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s , who came n o r t h i n l a r g e measure because o f t h e i r s t r o n g E n g l i s h attachments. Many o f the L o y a l -i s t s a l s o had s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s , c o n v i c t i o n s which were t o have a s t r o n g impact on ed u c a t i o n i n the L o y a l i s t s ' new home. The n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the Scots and the E n g l i s h i n the B r i t i s h North American c o l o n i e s were marked o v e r t l y by d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e , w i t h the Scots committed t o t h e i r P r e s b y t e r i a n order, which p e r m i t t e d a f a i r measure of l o c a l autonomy, and the E n g l i s h committed t o the A n g l i c a n h i e r a r c h y , Hubert 45 t i e d d i r e c t l y t o E n g l i s h a u t h o r i t y , both p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s . Because of t h e i r s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s , the two groups e s t a b l i s h e d separate c o l l e g e s . The r h e t o r i c a l programs of the e a r l y c o l l e g e s were r e l a t e d t o the s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s of the two res p e c t i v e c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . The c o l l e g e s dominated by S c o t t i s h professors emphasized a u t i l i -t a r i a n c u r r i c u l u m that f i t t e d the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n of a new colony s t r u g g l i n g f o r economic growth. The r h e t o r i c a l curriculum of these c o l l e g e s emphasized both composition and speech i n the v e r n a c u l a r . The Ang l i c a n c o l l e g e s , on the other hand, emphasized the c l a s s i c s , f a m i l i a r i t y with which marked a gentleman i n the c o l o n i e s as w e l l as i n England. The Anglican curriculum i n r h e t o r i c was co n f i n e d l a r g e l y to reading c l a s s i c a l authors t o l e a r n t h e i r languages by t r a n s l a t i n g them i n t o E n g l i s h , and from E n g l i s h back t o L a t i n and Greek. Oral exercises i n Greek, L a t i n and E n g l i s h , o f course, a l s o focused on c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g . The f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century saw other groups e s t a b l i s h c o l l e g e s as w e l l , 1 but i n order t o t r a c e the most important developments o f e a r l y nineteenth-century Anglophone education i n B r i t i s h North America, t h i s study t r a c e s the two e a r l i e s t and most prominent t r a d i t i o n s , the Anglican and Presbyterian. These 1The most common r e l i g i o u s denominations, most of which were i n v o l v e d i n h i g h e r education, were Anglican, Presbyterian, Wes-ley a n , and Roman C a t h o l i c (generally French). Other e a r l y c o l -l e g e s not d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n include Acadia (Bap-t i s t ) , Mt. A l l i s o n (Methodist), Bishop's (Anglican), and Bytown (Ottawa—R. C a t h o l i c and b i l i n g u a l ) . Hubert 46 two a r e then f o l l o w e d by the Wesleyan-Methodist t r a d i t i o n , which combined B r i t i s h d i s s e n t i n g p i e t i s m with a c o l o n i a l American emphasis on u t i l i t y . In t h i s emphasis on u t i l i t y , Presbyterians and M e t h o d i s t s o f t e n found common ground i n opposing Anglican e l i t i s m , e s p e c i a l l y i n Upper Canada. This opposition r e s u l t e d i n s o c i a l f r i c t i o n , almost constantly associated with higher e d u c a t i o n i n the f i r s t h a l f of the century. Differences i n v a l u e s , o f course, were r e f l e c t e d i n d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l a , espec-i a l l y i n r h e t o r i c . However, t o understand r h e t o r i c a l develop-ments, we must f i r s t understand the l a r g e r c o l o n i a l issues r e l a t -i n g e s p e c i a l l y t o Anglicans and Presbyterians, issues which a f f e c t e d the development of the whole c o l l e g e curriculum. E n g l i s h i n t e r e s t s were c o n t r o l l e d by c o l o n i a l leaders ap-p o i n t e d by London. As members of England's r u l i n g c l a s s , these c o l o n i a l l e a d e r s had a low opinion of the c o l o n i s t s , most of whom were r e l a t i v e l y poor, and who, th e r e f o r e , would have remained uneducated i n England. C o l o n i a l government leaders thus saw l i t t l e need f o r c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h North America. Indeed, some saw B r i t i s h North America generally as nothing but a burden f o r the mother country. In 1816, Admiral S i r David Milne, newly appointed t o H a l i f a x , wrote back to England, "From what I have seen i t would be luc k y f o r t h i s country [England] t o be weel r e i d of i t [Canada] . I t i s c e r t a i n l y a f i n e country but too d i s t a n t f o r us t o defend a g a i n s t so powerful a neighbour" (qtd. i n Agnew 34) . Nineteenth-century Canadian h i s t o r i a n J . G. Bourinot sug-Hubert 47 g e s t s t h a t t h i s view, though magnified by the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the American and French r e v o l u t i o n s , antedated both of them. As f a r back as Wolfe's conquest of the French on the P l a i n s o f Abraham i n 1759, the B r i t i s h as well as the French had doubts about the value of t h i s northern region. Bourinot sug-g e s t s t h a t , the wealth of the f i s h e r y and f u r trade notwithstand-i n g , London f e a r e d the future costs o f defending these c o l o n i e s (Bourinot 1881, 16). The a t t i t u d e of the Church of England to the colonies before • the American Revolution corresponded t o t h a t of the crown. Reviewing the A n g l i c a n Church's re c o r d i n c o l o n i a l America i n 1832, Archdeacon John Strachan of Toronto wrote to Thomas Chal-mers, P r o f e s s o r of D i v i n i t y at Edinburgh: In the British-American settlements, before the r e v o l u -t i o n , no a t t e n t i o n whatever was pa i d by imperial gov-ernment t o the r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n of the c o l o n i s t s : i n t h i s matter they were l e f t e n t i r e l y t o themselves; and laboured under the most serious d i f f i c u l t i e s ; they were indeed so great, that, had not the Society f o r the Propagation of the Gospel i n Foreign Parts taken p i t y upon her members, and sent them mi s s i o n a r i e s , an e p i s -c o p a l clergyman would have been hardly found i n B r i t i s h North-America at the era of the r e v o l u t i o n . The Plan-t a t i o n s , as the colo n i e s were then c a l l e d , were con-s i d e r e d a pa r t of the s p i r i t u a l charge of the Bishop of Hubert 48 London, but no p r e l a t e of the Church had ever beheld them. The c l e r g y and parishes were without superinten-dence; the churches and b u r i a l grounds remained uncon-s e c r a t e d ; the c h i l d r e n were without confirmation. . . . (Strachan 1832, 4-5) Although the a r r i v a l of L o y a l i s t s from America f o l l o w i n g the R e v o l u t i o n a r y War n e c e s s a r i l y changed London's i n d i f f e r e n c e t o B r i t i s h North America, owing t o many of the L o y a l i s t s ' strong p e r s o n a l t i e s t o the mother country, the colonies s t i l l ranked low i n England's concerns. These a t t i t u d e s s p i l l e d over i n t o e d u c a t i o n . England's eighteenth-century view that education bred r e b e l l i o n was r e i n f o r c e d with the r e v o l u t i o n of Thirteen C o l -o n i e s . Lord Durham's Report, f o l l o w i n g the 1837 r e b e l l i o n s i n Upper and Lower Canada, confirms that t h i s a t t i t u d e had e x i s t e d . "I am g r i e v e d , " he wrote, "to be obliged to remark, that the B r i t i s h Government has, since i t s possession of t h i s Province, done, or even attempted, nothing f o r the promotion of general e d u c a t i o n " (72). The p e r s p e c t i v e of Anglican r e l i g i o u s leaders i n the c o l o n -i e s a f t e r the American Revolution d i f f e r e d from t h a t of the p o l i t i c a l governors. The cl e r g y , many of them United Empire L o y a l i s t s who had served as miss i o n a r i e s i n the Th i r t e e n Colon-i e s , r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the r o l e of the church was paramount i n the c o l o n i a l c u l t u r e . Canadian c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n S. F. Wise p o i n t s out t h a t , a t the end of the eighteenth century, " i t was the Hubert 49 c l e r g y , not the p o l i t i c i a n s , who bore the c h i e f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the meaning of Europe's convulsions t o s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . " He notes t h a t clergymen were extremely i n f l u e n t i a l i n the days b e f o r e the j o u r n a l i s t and p o l i t i c i a n gained access to the people through the newspaper (Wise 82) . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , then, t h a t the important Anglican a g i t a t o r s f o r c o l l e g e s i n e a r l y Canada were almost e x c l u s i v e l y L o y a l i s t clergymen. In f a c t , the f i r s t concerns f o r higher e d u c a t i o n i n the Maritimes were transmitted to London before two - of these clergymen had even a r r i v e d i n Nova S c o t i a . On March 8, 1783, e i g h t e e n Church of England clergymen i n New York formulated "A P l a n of R e l i g i o u s and L i t e r a r y I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Province of Nova S c o t i a . " The p l a n included churches, church lands, c l e r g y , and a seminary, academy or c o l l e g e . The plan a l s o c a l l e d f o r a grammar s c h o o l f o r l e a r n i n g i n the c l a s s i c a l languages. On October 18, 1783 the plan was reaffirmed and sent to London with Guy C a r l e t o n , then Commander-in-Chief a t New York. A member of the o r i g i n a l group of eighteen was Charles I n g l i s , an I r i s h - b o r n American clergyman about to emigrate t o Nova S c o t i a , where, i n 1787, he would become B r i t i s h North America's f i r s t Anglican bishop. For I n g l i s , the Church needed a c o l l e g e f o r t r a i n i n g minis-t e r s . In January 1788, he wrote from Nova S c o t i a t o the Arch-bishop: "There are two objects which I have i n view—one i s a proper Establishment of the Church i n t h i s Province, by an Act Hubert 50 of the L e g i s l a t u r e ; the other i s , the Establishment of a c o l l e g e , without which Church matters must be i n an imperfect s t a t e " (qtd. i n R. V. H a r r i s 112). Thus, Canada's f i r s t A nglican bishop e n v i s i o n e d f o r h i s new charge the E n g l i s h p a t t e r n of higher e d u c a t i o n l i n k e d t o the church and t o government authority,. T h i s l i n k was e s p e c i a l l y important because of Nova S c o t i a ' s p r o x i m i t y t o p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y America, which had f o r c i b l y r e j e c t e d B r i t i s h i d e a l s , i d e a l s which had l e d the L o y a l i s t s t o seek new beginnings i n the B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s to the n o r t h . 2 A • d i s t r u s t o f American c u l t u r e i n p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n and education would i n f l u e n c e the development of c o l l e g e s i n the colonies of B r i t i s h North America u n t i l Confederation i n 1867—and even a f t e r t h a t . I n g l i s had served as a missionary p r i e s t i n America, and had p e r s o n a l l y experienced the anger of the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s f o r h i s l o y a l t y t o the B r i t i s h monarchy. 3 An even more seri o u s s o c i a l 2 I n 1790, I n g l i s wrote i n a l e t t e r : With r e s p e c t to our seminary, one of my p r i n c i p a l motives f o r pushing i t forward was t o prevent the i m p o r t a t i o n of American Divines and American p o l i c i e s i n t o the province. Unless we have a seminary here, the youth of Nova S c o t i a w i l l be sent f o r t h e i r education t o the Revolted C o l o n i e s — t h e i n e v i t a b l e consequence would be a corruption of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s " (qtd. i n Vroom 25). 3 A l t h o u g h a c t u a l i n c i d e n t s are d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d , s t o r i e s c i r c u l a t i n g among Church of England worshippers t o l d of attacks on p r i e s t s by troops waiting outside the church u n t i l the p r i e s t prayed f o r the King i n the " I n t e r c e s s i o n , " p a r t of the s e r v i c e of h o l y communion. Since prayer f o r the B r i t i s h king was an act of t r e a s o n , the p r i e s t s were branded as t r a i t o r s and t r e a t e d as such. Hubert 51 d i s i n t e g r a t i o n than a r e v o l u t i o n l i k e that i n America, was, however, t a k i n g p l a c e i n France, even while I n g l i s planned f o r a c o l l e g e i n Nova S c o t i a . S. F. Wise holds t h a t f o r I n g l i s , the French R e v o l u t i o n was an event without precedent i n human h i s -t o r y — a n d i t was the r e s u l t of impiety i n the upper orders of the European n a t i o n . For I n g l i s , B r i t a i n ' s v i c t o r y i n the French war i n d i c a t e d God's approval of the B r i t i s h s o c i a l order, which, as an i d e a l i n God's w i l l , I n g l i s wished to implement i n Nova S c o t i a (Wise 84,85). The co l l e g e , therefore, was not p r i m a r i l y an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t r a i n i n g lawyers and merchants t o increase the p h y s i c a l wealth of the colony. I t was an i n t e g r a l p a r t of God's kingdom on e a r t h . But I n g l i s had d i f f i c u l t y founding the c o l l e g e he so des-i r e d , owing t o the e l i t i s t a t t i t u d e s of Nova S c o t i a ' s E n g l i s h p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s . In 1790, he wrote the Archbishop about h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s with Governor Parr: "He holds l i t e r a t u r e i n great contempt, and o f t e n h i n t s that i t does hurt to mankind. . . . I t i s w i t h d i f f i c u l t y t h a t I can get him and the other Governors t o meet on any business r e l a t i v e t o i t [the College] and when met, the b u s i n e s s goes on h e a v i l y . At present I seem t o r o l l a S i s y -phean stone" (qtd. i n Vroom 25). One o f the other troublesome governors o f the c o l l e g e was Alexander Croke, Vice-judge of the Ad m i r a l t y , who, against I n g l i s ' p r o t e s t a t i o n s t o the Archbishop of Canterbury, i n s i s t e d t h a t a l l students of the new c o l l e g e s u b s c r i b e t o the T h i r t y - n i n e A r t i c l e s of the Church of England. Hubert 52 Croke a l s o i n s i s t e d on h i r i n g only professors who had s t u d i e d a t B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s l i n k e d to the Church of England. These men were t o s e t an E n g l i s h "tone of character." Croke he l d that "a v e r y p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t of the new i n s t i t u t i o n would be accomp-l i s h e d by a s s i m i l a t i n g the manners of the r i s i n g generation t o those o f the parent s t a t e . " In charging the f i r s t p r o fessors of the new c o l l e g e with t h e i r d u t i e s , he was e s p e c i a l l y concerned about e l o c u t i o n : "We think that i t i s of no small importance t o t h i s seminary t o teach the genuine use, p r a c t i c e and pronuncia-t i o n o f the E n g l i s h language, undebased by l o c a l or n a t i o n a l accents and s o l e c i s m s " (qtd. i n Vroom 37). The s t a t u t e s of the U n i v e r s i t y of King's College, based on the r o y a l c h a r t e r of 1802 but o f f i c i a l l y proclaimed as s t a t u t e s i n 1803, p r e s e n t not only the proposed curriculum, but a l s o the e x c l u s i v e nature of the i n s t i t u t i o n u l t i m a t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d by the A n g l i c a n Board of Governors dominated by Croke. The c o l l e g e was t o have f o u r p r o f e s s o r s , with the f o l l o w i n g teaching d i v i s i o n s : D i v i n i t y and Hebrew; Moral Sciences and Metaphysics; Mathematics, N a t u r a l Philosophy, and Astronomy; and Grammar, Rhetoric and L o g i c . The d u t i e s f o r t h i s l a s t p r o f e s s o r were prescribed: 1 s t . He s h a l l l e c t u r e i n Grammar, and the Greek and L a t i n C l a s s i c s , a l t e r n a t e l y , every day, i n term, except Sundays and Holydays, the f i r s t , and the two l a s t days, from nine to ten. And h i s P u p i l s s h a l l be a l l Students during t h e i r t h i r d and fourth years; he Hubert 53 s h a l l read d i f f e r e n t books the second year from those he s h a l l read the f i r s t . 2d. In Rhetoric, every day, i n term . . . the f i r s t and the two l a s t days, from h a l f past ten to h a l f p a s t eleven. His P u p i l s s h a l l be a l l Students during the f i r s t year. 3d. And i n Logic, every day, i n term. . . the f i r s t and the two l a s t days, from twelve t o one. His p u p i l s s h a l l be a l l Students during t h e i r f i r s t year. ( S t a t u t e s 1803, 4) Masters were t o be procured to teach Modern Languages, p a r t i c u -l a r l y French. Students were allowed p r i v a t e i n s t r u c t i o n i n Drawing, Dancing, Music, French, Riding, "and other p o l i t e ac-complishments" (Statutes 1803, 13). E x e r c i s e s were a l s o s t i p u l a t e d . These r e f l e c t e d the strong c l a s s i c a l nature of the curriculum, with c l a s s i c a l work deemed f u l l y as important as that of the vernacular. " A l l Undergrad-uates except C i v i l i a n s " were to compose "a Theme every week i n term, e i t h e r i n prose or verse, i n E n g l i s h and L a t i n a l t e r n a t e l y " ( S t a t u t e s 1803; " E x e r c i z e s , " 1) Every Saturday undergraduates and Bachelors of A r t s were to rotate i n g i v i n g two declamations, one i n E n g l i s h and the other i n L a t i n . Every Saturday, s e l e c t e d passages from E n g l i s h , L a t i n or Greek authors were to be r e c i t e d from memory by two or more undergraduates. The s t a t u t e s s p e c i f i -c a l l y demanded t h a t i n a l l Hubert 54 declamations, r e c i t a t i o n s , and i n a l l other e x e r c i s e s , i n which the Students s h a l l read aloud or speak i n p u b l i c , g r e a t a t t e n t i o n s h a l l be paid t o t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i o n , that they s h a l l avoid a l l P r o v i n c i a l accents, and other i m p r o p r i e t i e s , and s h a l l d e l i v e r themselves with correctness and i n proper emphasis. (Sta t u t e s 1803, "Exercizes, 1 1 4) In i n f o r m a l exercises, the emphasis on c l a s s i c a l m a t e r i a l w i t h E n g l i s h again r e f l e c t e d the goal of the curriculum as pro-d u c i n g a graduate j u s t as f a m i l i a r with Greek and L a t i n as with h i s n a t i v e c u l t u r e . Each student was t o make c o l l e c t i o n s , i n E n g l i s h , L a t i n , or Greek, " e i t h e r by abridgement, by a l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s and r e s o l u t i o n of arguments i n t o syllogisms, or by making e x t r a c t s of the f i n e s t or most m a t e r i a l , passages, t o -gether w i t h h i s own c r i t i c i s m , and observations upon them. And f i n a l l y , every Sunday there were to be di s p u t a t i o n s , " e i t h e r l o g i c a l o r r h e t o r i c a l . " The emphasis on education as a t r a i n i n g i n moral c u l t u r e was a l s o s t r e s s e d . Students' p r i v a t e behavior was to be monitored by t u t o r s : I t s h a l l be the o f f i c e of the Tutor t o d i r e c t and examine the p r i v a t e studies of h i s P u p i l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n case he s h a l l f i n d him d e f i c i e n t i n Grammar and the C l a s s i c s upon admission; t o inspect h i s moral and r e l i g i o u s conduct; t o c o n t r o l h i s expences; and to Hubert 55 r e g u l a t e a l l those p a r t s of education and behaviour, which are not with i n the province of any of the P r o f e s -s o r s , and are too minute f o r the a t t e n t i o n of the P r e s i d e n t . (Statutes 1803, "Of The Tutors") Non-Anglican r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e and n o n - a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s were s t r o n g l y p r o s c r i b e d as Anglican exclusiveness mixed with an anti-American consciousness was r e i n f o r c e d by the s t a t u t e s : No member of the U n i v e r s i t y s h a l l hold, maintain, or teach, any a t h e i s t i c a l , d e i s t i c a l , or democratical d o c t r i n e s , p r i n c i p l e s contrary to the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , or t o good morals, or subversive of the B r i t i s h Con-s t i t u t i o n as by Law E s t a b l i s h e d . . . . No member of the U n i v e r s i t y s h a l l frequent the Romish mass, or the meeting Houses of the Presbyter-i a n s , B a p t i s t s , or Methodists, or the Conventicles or p l a c e s o f Worship, of any other d i s s e n t e r s from the Church of England, or s h a l l be present at any s e d i -t i o n s , or r e b e l l i o u s meetings. (Statutes 1803, "Of Moral Conduct and Behavior" 3) From the beginning, I n g l i s had prot e s t e d Croke's plans as too r e s t r i c t i v e and f a r too grandiose and expensive f o r a small c o l o n y . When the c o l l e g e f i n a l l y opened, h i s f e a r s proved t r u e . F i r s t , owing t o the r e l i g i o u s p r e s c r i p t i o n s and the l a c k of an adequate p r e p a r a t o r y school, there were few students. Second, the c o l l e g e had a d i f f i c u l t time f i n d i n g a teaching s t a f f t h a t Hubert 56 met Croke's s t i p u l a t i o n s . And t h i r d , since the c o l l e g e was s i t u a t e d a t Windsor, a day's journey from H a l i f a x , i t a t t r a c t e d few p a r t - t i m e students, such as were common i n S c o t t i s h u n i v e r -s i t i e s . The c o l l e g e , therefore, s t r u g g l e d with only two p r o f e s -s o r s through i t s f i r s t years, with f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s s u f f i -c i e n t t o f o r c e temporary l a y o f f s even then. In a d d i t i o n , the P r o f e s s o r of Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic was a graduate of D u b l i n , s i n c e no incumbent from Oxford or Cambridge could be procured. Notwithstanding the r e a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n , Croke i n s i s t e d t h a t t h i s professor d e l i v e r h i s Logic l e c t u r e s i n L a t i n , "because t h i s was the custom at Oxford." Vroom writes that "Dr. Cochran r e a d i l y consented, but the f o l l y of i t was soon appar-ent." In R h e t o r i c though, "Cochran and h i s students read Quinc-t i l i a n i n the L a t i n " (Vroom 50). W i t h i n a decade of Windsor's opening, the c l a s s i c a l focus, t o g e t h e r w i t h the e x c l u s i v e Anglican o r i e n t a t i o n had repercus-s i o n s beyond the confines of the new c o l l e g e . In the f a l l of the y e a r t h a t the s t a t u t e s of King's College were proclaimed, Thomas McCulloch, an emigrant Presbyterian m i n i s t e r from Glasgow, i n i -t i a l l y bound f o r Prince Edward Island, was swayed by the appeals of P i c t o u Scots t o stay the winter. In Mcculloch's agreement the f o u n d a t i o n o f P i c t o u Academy was l a i d — a n d i n the n e c e s s i t y f o r P i c t o u Academy i t s e l f was embodied a deep r e s i s t a n c e to the Church o f England establishment represented by King's College a t Windsor. McCulloch was not opposed t o a r e l i g i o u s c o l l e g e , but Hubert 57 h i s S c o t t i s h h e r i t a g e revolted against a u n i v e r s i t y demanding t h a t students adhere t o a s p e c i f i c creed i n order to gain an e d u c a t i o n . Although S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s were decidedly C h r i s -t i a n , o f t e n w i t h a strong Presbyterian f l a v o r , they p r e s c r i b e d no r e l i g i o u s t e s t s , welcoming Roman C a t h o l i c , Anglican or Presbyter-i a n without p r e j u d i c e . 4 McCulloch's Presbyterianism d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from Croke's Anglicanism, with important r e s u l t s f o r McCulloch*'s p h i l o s o p h y of education. Education f o r a l l was a b a s i c n e c e s s i t y - • f o r a h e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as a healthy s o c i e t y . "The o r i g i n a l conformation and state of the human mind, connected with the p e c u l i a r i t y of those circumstances i n which man i s placed," s t a t e d McCulloch, "show that he has been designed f o r i n t e l l e c -t u a l and moral improvement" (1819, 3). However, because deep-r o o t e d i m p e r f e c t i o n s prevent one from achieving one's p o t e n t i a l , i n d i v i d u a l s cannot improve themselves; e s p e c i a l l y i n youth, s u p e r i o r s must remove from the i n d i v i d u a l "everything tending t o d e p r a v i t y of d i s p o s i t i o n , " p u t t i n g i n i t s place "whatever ap-pear [s] t o be good and u s e f u l and c a l c u l a t e d t o encourage i m i t a -t i o n " ( 4 ) . The end of a l i b e r a l education, then, was "the im-provement of man i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and moral p r i n c i p l e , as the b a s i s o f h i s subsequent duty and happiness" (6) . A strong sense 4W. B. Hamilton's a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Thomas McCulloch: Advo-ca t e of Non-Sectarian Education" discusses McCulloch's commitment t o non-denominational education i n e a r l y nineteenth-century Nova S c o t i a . Hubert 58 of duty arose from the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y : "The existence of a s o c i a l s t a t e produces a v a r i e t y of o f f i c e s and d u t i e s , which, by promoting the sa f e t y and comfort of the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s of society, u l t i m a t e l y tend t o the bene-f i t o f the whole." Further, education was important because one c o u l d not perform one's duty "unless he have p r e v i o u s l y ascer-t a i n e d both i t s nature and the mode of performance" (7). In t h i s duty t o know one's s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and to perform them l a y the n e c e s s i t y of teaching r h e t o r i c , which was c e n t r a l t o McCulloch's concept of l e a r n i n g : A l i b e r a l education, beside u n f o l d i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of s c i e n c e , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c a l c u l a t e d t o q u a l i f y the mind both f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n and the communication of knowledge. In every well regulated seminary, i t i s so conducted as to exercise the t h i n k i n g powers; and, a l s o , t o connect the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge with a corresponding improvement i n the power of communica-t i o n . (McCulloch 1819, 18) To g a i n knowledge without the a b i l i t y t o act on i t or communicate i t would have defeated the purpose of McCulloch's academy. McCulloch t h e r e f o r e b e l i e v e d that the curriculum of King's, h e a v i l y emphasizing c l a s s i c a l languages, was unsuited f o r Nova S c o t i a , f o r p r a c t i c a l as w e l l as f o r r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l r e a -sons. McCulloch soon determined t o e s t a b l i s h a non-sectarian Hubert 59 s c h o o l i n P i c t o u . In 1809, he opened the famous Pictou Academy, hoping t o g a i n a degree-granting c o l l e g e f o r those unable t o go t o t h e A n g l i c a n s ' King's College at Windsor. The l e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l i n H a l i f a x , however, c o n t r o l l e d by e l i t i s t E n g l i s h a t -t i t u d e s and j e a l o u s of any competition f o r King's College, stood i n h i s way. To g a i n degrees, t h e r e f o r e , P i c t o u graduates (most of them P r e s b y t e r i a n , s i n c e the l e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l , against McCulloch's wishes, had a l s o not allowed a non-denominational school) had t o t r a v e l to the United States or to Scotland. Three important educators of the next generation, J . W. Dawson, p r e s i -dent o f M c G i l l College, George Munro Grant, president of Queen's C o l l e g e a t Kingston, and William Brydon Jack, president of the U n i v e r s i t y o f New Brunswick, proceeded from P i c t o u to Scotland to r e c e i v e M.A.s from Glasgow, McCulloch's alma mater. On the s u r f a c e , the P i c t o u Academy course of studies may have appeared t o p a r a l l e l t h a t of King's College, except perhaps i n the emphasis on the p r a c t i c a l subjects i n mathematics and n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y , r e f l e c t i n g McCulloch's high i n t e r e s t and wide r e p u t a t i o n i n geology. The 1830 s t a t u t e s of Pictou, f o r i n -stance, r e q u i r e d the f o l l o w i n g curriculum: F i r s t year: L a t i n and Greek; Second Year: Logic, i n c l u d i n g general Grammar and Rhetoric; L a t i n and Greek continued; T h i r d Year: Moral Philosophy, Mathematics with t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , Algebra; Hubert 60 Fourth Year: N a t u r a l P h i l o s o p h y , Mathematics and Algebra (qtd. i n McMullin 146) W i l l i a m McCulloch, the son of Thomas McCulloch, wrote i n the biography o f the e l d e r McCulloch, however, that as p a r t of h i s t e a c h i n g i n Grammar and Rhetoric a t Pictou, McCulloch s t r e s s e d a n a l y s i s and composition i n E n g l i s h (179). Further, S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s taught the c l a s s i c a l curriculum as w e l l , but, i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n S c o t t i s h teaching the focus of studies was set by the p r o f e s s o r , not by the curriculum. McCulloch's concerns f o r the p r a c t i c a l education of h i s students determined t h a t they would be w e l l versed i n the fundamentals of r h e t o r i c i n the v e r n a c u l a r , o r a l as w e l l as w r i t t e n . In 1838, McCulloch l e f t P i c t o u Academy to become the f i r s t p r e s i d e n t of Dalhousie College i n H a l i f a x . This c o l l e g e too grew out o f a r e a c t i o n to the Anglican exclusiveness of King's C o l -l e g e . In 1816, George Ramsay, Ninth E a r l of Dalhousie, was appointed as lieutenant-governor to Nova S c o t i a . A Scot, he noted the p a u c i t y of educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r non-Anglicans, so i n 1818 he founded a l i b e r a l , non-denominational c o l l e g e , modelled on the U n i v e r s i t y of Edinburgh. Resistance from the l e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l kept Dalhousie from opening t i l l long a f t e r L ord Dalhousie h i m s e l f had l e f t the colony. In 1838, s e c t a r i a n s t r i f e w i t h i n the Nova S c o t i a Presbyterian community, present almost from McCulloch's e a r l i e s t days i n Pictou, f i n a l l y l e d t o McCulloch's removal from P i c t o u to take up the presidency a t Hubert 61 Da l h o u s i e . Unfortunately, McCulloch d i e d a f t e r only f i v e years i n H a l i f a x . Unable t o continue without him, Dalhousie r e o r -g a n i z e d as a h i g h school u n t i l 1863, when Nova Scotians r a l l i e d t o support i t s r e v i v a l as a non-sectarian u n i v e r s i t y . McCulloch's 1838 inaugural address a t Dalhousie stressed the n e c e s s i t y o f a p r a c t i c a l education. He supported studying the c l a s s i c a l languages, but f o r s p e c i f i c reasons: that Hebrew, Greek and L a t i n helped one understand the c l a s s i c a l w r i t i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y the C h r i s t i a n s c r i p t u r e s . "He who teaches these - languages i n Dalhousie College should know h i s business w e l l , " he s a i d , as r e s p e c t a b i l i t y required. However, l e a r n i n g one's n a t i v e tongue was more important: But t h a t boys should i n H a l i f a x or elsewhere spend s i x or seven years upon L a t i n and Greek and then four more i n c o l l e g e p a r t l y occupied with the same languages i s a waste of human l i f e adapted n e i t h e r t o the circum-stances or the p r o s p e r i t y of Nova S c o t i a . . . . I f Dalhousie College acquire usefulness and eminence i t w i l l be not by an i m i t a t i o n of Oxford, but as an i n -s t i t u t i o n of science and p r a c t i c a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , (qtd. i n H a r r i s 1976, 33) Dalhousie opened with only s i x t e e n students, most of them without a good p r e p a r a t i o n , so McCulloch h e l d s p e c i a l n i g h t c l a s s e s i n composition and l o g i c (Harvey 1938, 52-3). McCulloch used L i n d l e y Murray's E n g l i s h Grammarf with the s u b t i t l e "Adapted f o r D i f -Hubert 62 f e r e n t C l a s s e s of Learners." McCulloch a l s o r e s i s t e d an undue emphasis on the c l a s s i c s , i n s p i t e of strong pressure from Dr. Crawley, a King's-educated convert t o the B a p t i s t s and a r i v a l t o McCulloch f o r the presidency of Dalhousie. 5 The S c o t t i s h i n -f l u e n c e o f McCulloch thus l e d t o a p r a c t i c a l emphasis on both w r i t i n g and o r a t o r y i n e a r l y c o l o n i a l Nova S c o t i a , f i r s t i n P i c t o u Academy and then i n Dalhousie College. In New Brunswick, the Nova S c o t i a educational problems d e r i v i n g from A n g l i c a n e l i t i s m repeated themselves. A c o l l e g e was f i r s t e n v i s i o n e d by Rev. John O d e l l , poet, clergyman, doctor, p o l i t i c i a n and f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l s e c r e t a r y . O d e l l was a l s o one of the group o f L o y a l i s t c l e r g y that o r i g i n a l l y p e t i t i o n e d f o r a c o l l e g e w h i l e s t i l l i n New York, i n 1783. Having emigrated t o New Brunswick by 1785, O d e l l , with other New Brunswick leaders, p e t i t i o n e d Governor Thomas Carleton f o r "an academy of l i b e r a l a r t s and s c i e n c e s " (Bailey 16) . U n l i k e Parr i n Nova S c o t i a , C a r l e t o n responded immediately, s e t t i n g aside 6,000 acres of land i n t he p a r i s h o f F r e d e r i c t o n . By 1787 an academy was i n opera-t i o n , but i t f a i l e d to prosper. The New Brunswick h i s t o r i a n A. G. B a i l e y sees f i v e reasons f o r the weakness of the academy, which New Brunswick proposed t o e l e v a t e t o degree-granting s t a -^Crawley i n s i s t e d that the l i b e r a l and noble sentiments f o s t e r e d i n the mother country arose from England's emphasis on c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . McCulloch, r e s i s t i n g Crawley's emphasis, h e l d t h a t r e l i g i o n , not the c l a s s i c s , had ennobled the B r i t i s h (Harvey 1938, 52-3). Hubert 63 t u s : t h e area lacked q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s ; too few students e n r o l l e d (17 i n the academy i n 1793) ; the 1793 d r a f t c h a r t e r r e s t r i c t e d m a t r i c u l a t i o n to Anglicans; Bishop I n g l i s ' o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e New Brunswick c o l l e g e because i t would weaken the c o l l e g e a t Windsor nearby; and, f i n a l l y , an unspoken p o l i c y t o r u l e by the divide-and-conquer mentality, meant to keep c o l o n i e s from mutual c o o p e r a t i o n , consciously implemented by London a f t e r the 1776 American r e b e l l i o n (17-18) . The l a s t t h r e e of these f i v e reasons r e l a t e t o concerns r e g a r d i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l of the colony rather than to educa-t i o n . In these three concerns, the Anglican church was to act as the hand of London's c o l o n i a l p o l i c y . In the h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h North America, the Anglican church and o f f i c i a l c o l o n i a l p o l i c y were i n e v i t a b l y intertwined, given the union of church and s t a t e i n England, and thus i n the c o l o n i e s . Problems a r i s i n g from t h i s u nion i n e v i t a b l y b edeviled B r i t i s h North America. O r i g i n a l l y chartered as the College of New Brunswick, the F r e d e r i c t o n i n s t i t u t i o n , i n 1828, attempted to gain popular support by a b o l i s h i n g the Anglican r e s t r i c t i o n s on both students and f a c u l t y , and t o gain the E n g l i s h crown's support by asking f o r a new c h a r t e r . The c o l l e g e was thus renamed King's College. Although the crown agreed to the new c h a r t e r and provided modest annual funding, the plan f a i l e d , owing t o the continuing c l a s s i -c a l c u r r i c u l u m , which New Brunswick timber merchants considered a waste of time. Further, the continued Anglican e l i t i s t a t t i t u d e s Hubert 64 of the c o l l e g e , a p r a c t i c a l f a c t o r t h a t the r e v i s e d s t a t u t e s d i d not a l t e r , i r r i t a t e d many, whether wealthy or not. The problems a t F r e d e r i c t o n were not solved u n t i l 1855-60, when a commission o f educators from outside the province recommended changes, which were implemented l a r g e l y a f t e r the 1859 r e s i g n a t i o n of Oxford-educated P r e s i d e n t Edwin Jacob. In Upper Canada, r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l f r i c t i o n d e r i v i n g from Church o f England r e s t r i c t i o n s to mass education once again l e d t o problems, although a strong Methodist presence complicated the Upper Canada s i t u a t i o n somewhat. As i n Nova S c o t i a , strong p e r s o n a l i t i e s were involved, one of the strongest that of the Rev. John Strachan, i n 1839 to become the Anglican Bishop of Toronto. Strachan was i n v i t e d to Upper Canada by John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada from 1791-95. Sim-coe's a t t i t u d e s toward education were a t y p i c a l f o r an Englishman. Immediately upon being appointed governor, Simcoe determined t o e s t a b l i s h a s c h o o l system culminating i n a u n i v e r s i t y i n order t o keep young men from having to gain t h e i r education i n America, where t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s e n s i b i l i t i e s would be perverted (Ross 9) . To pay f o r t h i s system, and to finance the work of the church, Simcoe arranged t o have set aside huge t r a c t s of p u b l i c l a n d . 6 6 E d u c a t e d a t Eton and a t Oxford, Simcoe nevertheless saw the need f o r e d u c a t i o n i n the colony. He argued that "a c o l l e g e of a h i g h e r c l a s s would be eminently u s e f u l , and would give a tone of p r i n c i p l e and manners t h a t would be of i n f i n i t e support to Gov-ernment" (Hodgins I, 11). Simcoe, therefore, set i n motion l e g i s l a t i o n , approved i n 1798, that appropriated almost 300,000 ac r e s as an endowment f o r a u n i v e r s i t y (Ross 1896, 11). Hubert 65 B e f o r e he c o u l d complete h i s plans, however, he was replaced. P r i o r t o l e a v i n g , however, he i n v i t e d John Strachan, a recent Aberdeen graduate reputed to be a good teacher, to come to Canada t o h e l p i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of "a c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y . " When Strachan a r r i v e d i n Kingston on the l a s t day of 1799, he was, of course, d i s a p p o i n t e d i n h i s expectations, but, impoverished a f t e r the long journey, he was forced to stay i n Upper Canada. Simcoe's reassignment from B r i t i s h North America before Strachan's a r r i v a l forced the young Scot to a l t e r h i s plans. - F o l l o w i n g t h r e e years as a p r i v a t e t u t o r i n Kingston, Strachan e n t e r e d the m i n i s t r y of the Church of England and moved to Corn-w a l l , where he became famous f o r the manner i n which he taught a t the Cornwall Grammar School, attended by many the c h i l d r e n of Upper Canada's Tory e l i t e . Strachan's educational philosophy i s r e f l e c t e d i n a l e t t e r to one of h i s students: In conducting your education, one of my p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t s has always been to f i t you f o r discharging with c r e d i t the d u t i e s of any o f f i c e to which you may here-a f t e r be c a l l e d . To accomplish t h i s , i t was necessary f o r you t o be accustomed f r e q u e n t l y t o depend upon, and t h i n k f o r yourselves: a c c o r d i n g l y I have always en-couraged t h i s d i s p o s i t i o n , which when preserved w i t h i n due bounds, i s one of the g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t s that can p o s s i b i l i t y be acquired, (qtd. i n Scadding 161) George Spragge, an e d i t o r of Strachan's l e t t e r s , suggests Hubert 66 t h a t Strachan expected h i s students " f o r t h e i r own sakes, f o r the sake o f the colony, and, very probably, f o r the e f f e c t u a l c a r r y -i n g out o f h i s own plans, t o take a prominent place i n p u b l i c l i f e . " To t r a i n h i s p u p i l s f o r t h e i r f uture vocations, he gave them p r a c t i c e i n debating, the issues chosen frequently being famous debates from the B r i t i s h House of Commons. By t h i s method he a l s o f a m i l i a r i z e d h i s students with the B r i t i s h parliamentary system, thus p r e p a r i n g them f o r future leadership (Spragge x i -x i i ) . 7 The s t r e s s on f a c i l i t y i n E n g l i s h oratory set Strachan's Cornwall grammar school apart from the t r a d i t i o n a l upper-class, A n g l i c a n view of education. Strachan's focus on debate may have been r o o t e d i n two motives, the one compatible with other A n g l i -can views, the other not. On the one hand, Strachan's students i n Cornwall were members of Tory establishment f a m i l i e s , so Strachan was convinced that these students would become community l e a d e r s . Hence they were to be prepared to take t h e i r place i n s o c i e t y , a b l e t o a s s e r t t r a d i t i o n a l views e f f e c t i v e l y . On the o t h e r hand, being a Scotsman, Strachan had grown up i n an en-vironment i n which education was the r i g h t of every c i t i z e n . Even as an A n g l i c a n , Strachan appears t o have espoused t r a d i t i o n -a l S c o t t i s h v a l u e s i n education. In the Anglican C h r i s t i a n 7 A comprehensive d i s c u s s i o n of Strachan's teaching a t Corn-w a l l , where he,appears to have conceived much of h i s l a t e r educa-t i o n a l p hilosophy, i s given i n G. W. Spragge, "The Cornwall School Under John Strachan," i n Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society Papers  and Records 34 (1942): 63-85. Hubert 67 Record o f 1819, Strachan stated c l e a r l y h i s b e l i e f i n a democra-t i c e d u c a t i o n i n t i m a t e l y associated with C h r i s t i a n i t y . I t was reserved f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y t o suggest and put i n t o p r a c t i c e the sublime work of educating a whole people. . . . Accordingly, the C h r i s t i a n Church has, i n every country, where i t has been est a b l i s h e d , shown a becoming s o l i c i t u d e f o r the education of youth, and been a t great pain i n d i r e c t i n g t h e i r minds t o a know-ledge of the leading and important d o c t r i n e s of the h o l y s c r i p t u r e s . Nor i s the p r a i s e of t h i s conduct c o n f i n e d to one, but i s equally due to a l l denomina-t i o n s , (qtd. i n Purdy 1962, 55) Not f o r the young Strachan was the common upper c l a s s Anglican view t h a t e d u c a t i o n threatened the s o c i a l order. Strachan's e a r l y acceptance of other C h r i s t i a n denominations l a t e r narrowed from the c h a r i t y of t h i s 1819 a r t i c l e . The problem appeared t o i n c r e a s e as Strachan rose i n the Church of England h i e r a r c h y , f o r he accepted more and more the Anglican p o s i t i o n t h a t the Church of England deserved an e x c l u s i v e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of B r i t i s h North America, s i m i l a r to the p o s i t i o n the A n g l i c a n church enjoyed i n England. In an 1836 sermon t o the c l e r g y of the E s t a b l i s h e d Church of Upper Canada, he a f f i r m e d the b i b l i c a l precedents of union between church and s t a t e , c i t i n g the h i s t o r y of Jewish support f o r the temple i n a n c i e n t I s r a e l . He begged h i s opponents to "look t o England and Hubert 68 S c o t l a n d , each o f which had a r e l i g i o u s establishment, t o which they were mainly indebted f o r t h e i r v a s t s u p e r i o r i t y t o other n a t i o n s " (qtd. i n Ryerson 1883, 215). W r i t i n g t o the Rev. Dr. Thomas Chalmers of Edinburgh i n 1832, he reviewed an argument w i t h Bishop Hobart of New York about the American model of separ-a t i n g church and s t a t e : Such i n f l u e n c e [of the American Episcopal Church] on the manner and h a b i t s of the people i s next t o nothing. . Add to t h i s the dependence of your c l e r g y upon the people f o r s u p p o r t — a s t a t e of things which i s attended with most p e r n i c i o u s consequences. . . . I t i s the duty of C h r i s t i a n nations to c o n s t i t u t e w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries, e c c l e s i a s t i c a l establishment. (qtd. i n Ryerson 1883, 215) As Strachan's o f f i c i a l d uties i n the Church of England l e d to an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g advocacy f o r the Church, Strachan's i n c r e a s i n g l y narrow views on the p r i o r i t y of the Church of England i n the co l o n y l e d t o a s h i f t i n h i s educational p r i o r i t i e s . Strachan's concern about a weak ep i s c o p a l church was but one of s e v e r a l f e a r s r e l a t e d t o the i n f l u e n c e of American ways. Drawn i n t o l e a d e r s h i p of the l o c a l m i l i t i a i n the War of 1812, he came t o share L o y a l i s t sentiments t h a t despised American p o l i t i -c a l i d e a l s . He thus feared the propagation of those i d e a l s i n Hubert 69 American e d u c a t i o n . 8 Strachan was p a r t i c u l a r l y appalled by the " a t h e i s t i c " approach t o education f o l l o w i n g from the separation of church and s t a t e . Regardless of h i s other p o s i t i o n s , the bedrock o f Strachan's educational philosophy was that a l l educa-t i o n must be founded on C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s . In h i s 1836 ad-d r e s s t o Church of England c l e r g y he asked, "Now what i s s o l i d e d u c a t i o n but the knowledge of the Gospel? . . .Is not the word of God the t r u e mine of c h r i s t i a n education?" (4 6) . In the 1832 l e t t e r t o Rev. Thomas Chalmers i n Edinburgh, he stated, The f i r s t best purpose of education, and which has g i v e n h o l i n e s s and g l o r y to every scheme f o r i t s im-provement, i s to connect thought and p r i n c i p l e by the 8 S t r a c h a n ' s a t t i t u d e toward America i s revealed i n an 1815 f u n e r a l sermon honoring Richard Cartwright, a L o y a l i s t magis-t r a t e . Strachan's sermon followed p r a i s e of B r i t a i n with a v i t r i o l i c d e s c r i p t i o n of America i n the Napoleonic wars: The American Government, l i k e cormorants, delighted i n the contests which a g i t a t e d Europe, laughed a t the groans of the dying, and fed upon the s l a i n , had no sympathy with the f a l l e n ; and when at length the despot had trampled upon a l l the c o n t i n e n t a l nations, and noth i n g was seen but d e s o l a t i o n and despair, when B r i t a i n alone was l e f t t o combat with h i s c o l o s s a l power, and her means of r e s i s t a n c e appeared t o be f a s t d i m i n i s h i n g , t h i s government, l o s t t o every f e e l i n g of honor and gl o r y , hastened to j o i n i t s e l f t o the oppres-s o r of nations, and to congratulate him on the t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n of the l i b e r t y of the world. . . . Pos-t e r i t y , b e t t e r than the present age, w i l l be able t o a p p r e c i a t e the conduct of the two governments during the convulsions i n Europe, and while B r i t a i n w i l l appear an example of magnanimity, unequalled i n h i s -t o r y , the s t a r that has d i r e c t e d the European family t o happiness and peace, America w i l l be consigned t o b i t t e r execration, as the betrayer of the l i b e r t y and independence of mankind. (Strachan 1815, 39-40) Hubert 70 f u l l e s t demonstration of t r u t h . This b r i n g s f o r t h a l l t h a t i s r e l i g i o u s i n man; i t makes him the true wor-s h i p p e r of God and the s e l f - d e n y i n g f r i e n d of h i s s p e c i e s . (Strachan 1832, 32) P o s s i b l y r e f e r r i n g t o events following the French Revolution, as w e l l as t o B r i t i s h unrest leading to the Reform Act of 1832, Strachan r e v e a l e d a growing a r i s t o c r a t i c view of s o c i e t y t h a t p e r m i t t e d A n g l i c a n e l i t i s m i n education. He asked, What do we see i n Europe as the consequence of know-ledge without r e l i g i o n ? The p e r v e r s i o n of p u b l i c p r i n c i p l e , the d a i l y weakening of the bonds of union between the humble ranks of s o c i e t y and t h e i r n a t u r a l g u a r d i a n s and protectors, growing insubordination, d i s r e g a r d to the laws, increase of crime, the denuncia-t i o n of good men, mockery of r e l i g i o n , impatience of j u s t c o n t r o l and s a l u t a r y r e s t r a i n t , contempt of sound l e a r n i n g and experience, and the i n t e r r u p t i o n of honest i n d u s t r y . (Strachan 1832, 28) The bedrock of a l l education f o r Strachan was f a i t h i n the tenets o f the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . In t h i s , Strachan would have had the agreement of a l l other leading educators i n B r i t i s h North Amer-i c a . The problem l a y i n how that f a i t h should be p r a c t i c e d . Strachan's r i s i n g power w i t h i n the Church of England, h i s concern f o r education generally, and f o r an educated c l e r g y w i t h i n the A n g l i c a n Church s p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s concern that the Hubert 71 morals o f young men be protected from anarchic American p r i n -c i p l e s , and h i s p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e — a l l these circumstances and concerns t h r u s t him i n t o the s t r u g g l e to e s t a b l i s h a u n i v e r s i t y i n Upper Canada. In 1815 already, Strachan had submitted to S i r Gordon Drummond, a c t i n g administrator of Upper Canada, a r e p o r t on e d u c a t i o n i n the colony. Obviously d e r i v i n g from Strachan's S c o t t i s h h e r i t a g e , the report had contained a u n i v e r s a l educa-t i o n a l scheme f o r Upper Canada, i n c l u d i n g a u n i v e r s i t y . S t r a -chan's system was based on the success of h i s grammar school a t Cornwall (Purdy 1964, 45-64). The scheme d i d not s t i p u l a t e Church of England professors i n the c o l l e g e , nor d i d a school a c t t h a t Strachan d r a f t e d i n 1816 c a l l f o r Church of England school t e a c h e r s . In proposing a c o l l e g e a t York, Strachan had a l s o a n t i c i p a t e d a non-sectarian i n s t i t u t i o n . This i n s t i t u t i o n was, however, t o be c o n t r o l l e d by an Ang l i c a n board and an Anglican p r e s i d e n t . The p l a n also s t r e s s e d r h e t o r i c a l concerns i n the v e r n a c u l a r , and p r a c t i c a l s t u d i e s r a t h e r than predominantly c l a s s i c a l t e x t s . However, i n 1827, when Strachan- went to England to win fun d i n g and a c h a r t e r f o r a u n i v e r s i t y i n Upper Canada, many of h i s e a r l i e r l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s toward education seemed t o vanish. In a pamphlet e n t i t l e d An Appeal t o the Friends of R e l i g i o n and  L i t e r a t u r e , In Behalf of the U n i v e r s i t y of Upper Canada, Strachan p r e s e n t e d the proposed u n i v e r s i t y as " e s s e n t i a l l y a Missionary C o l l e g e , " important i n preserving the young men of Upper Canada Hubert 72 from the c o r r u p t i o n of an American education (14). The char t e r , w r i t t e n under Strachan's s u p e r v i s i o n i n England, l e f t King's C o l l e g e under s t r i c t l y s e c t a r i a n governance, although students were not r e q u i r e d t o submit t o the T h i r t y - n i n e A r t i c l e s — b u t they were expected t o attend the d a i l y Anglican chapel s e r v i c e s . Based p r i m a r i l y on the argument t h a t p u b l i c money was being used f o r s t r i c t l y s e c t a r i a n purposes, Strachan's 1827 char t e r r a i s e d such o p p o s i t i o n i n Upper Canada that the u n i v e r s i t y d i d not open u n t i l 1843. Against h i s own wishes, Strachan, now Bishop of Toronto, was appointed president of the new King's C o l l e g e . Strachan b e l i e v e d t h a t the controversy of more than a decade would simply be renewed i f he took a prominent r o l e i n the c o l l e g e . Further, he d i d not wish t o h i g h l i g h t the s e c t a r i a n nature of the c o l l e g e . In the matter of a p r a c t i c a l E n g l i s h c u r r i c u l u m , Strachan was al s o overruled. In s p i t e of h i s pander-i n g t o E n g l i s h educational biases i n r a i s i n g money i n 1827, as l a t e as 1837 Strachan had promoted a ( curriculum which was t o i n c l u d e i n s t r u c t i o n i n both " C l a s s i c a l and Modern L i t e r a t u r e " , w i t h Modern L i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d i n g both E n g l i s h and f o r e i g n l a n -guages. T h i s d i v i s i o n was al s o t o include Logic, Rhetoric, Grammar, Composition, S t y l e , and Modern His t o r y , served by two p r o f e s s o r s . U n l i k e Oxford and Cambridge, but l i k e S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s , the i n s t i t u t i o n was t o include the professions of Theology, Ju r i s p r u d e n c e and Medicine (Ross 1896, Appendix C) . T h i s c u r r i c u l u m , based again on Strachan's Cornwall experience, Hubert 73 had a l r e a d y been r e j e c t e d by Lieutenant-Governor John Colborne i n 1828. Colborne had demanded that King's College use a standard c l a s s i c a l c u r r i c u l u m , based on Oxford models. In s p i t e of C o l -borne 's r e j e c t i o n , Strachan again put forward h i s curriculum, which appears t o have been accepted by the College Board i n June 1837, when the Board expected t o open the c o l l e g e s h o r t l y (Ross 278) . However, when the opening of King's College was delayed u n t i l 1843, i t began with a s o l i d l y c l a s s i c a l curriculum. The main f o r c e behind the 1843 c l a s s i c a l curriculum was not •" Bishop Strachan but the Rev. John McCaul, a s c h o l a r of high r e p u t a t i o n from Dublin's T r i n i t y College, the I r i s h daughter of Oxford. McCaul's o f f i c i a l t i t l e was Professor of C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e , L o g i c , Rhetoric and B e l l e s L e t t r e s . The course at King's covered i n three years most of what required four i n D u b l i n . R. A. Falconer, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto President from 1907 t o 1932, l a b e l l e d the exams f o r 1844 "long and thorough" ( F a l c o n e r 1927, 109). The course was so d i f f i c u l t that i t a t t r a c t e d most of i t s students from Upper Canada College, an A n g l i c a n p r e p a r a t o r y school at which McCaul had served as p r i n -c i p a l b e f o r e 1843. Upper Canada College had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1829, i n the y e a r s t h a t King's College opening was delayed. From the p e r s p e c t i v e of the Anglican governors of King's C o l l e g e , t h e r e were good reasons f o r a conservative, c l a s s i c a l c u r r i c u l u m i n 1843. As every student of Canadian h i s t o r y knows, the a t t a c k s on s o c i a l i n e q u i t i e s by Joseph Papineau i n Lower Hubert 74 Canada and by W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie i n Upper Canada f i n a l l y l e d , i n t h e f a l l o f 1837, to p o p u l i s t u p r i s i n g s , b r i e f but shocking t o The Family Compact, the colony's r u l i n g group c l o s e l y i n t e r -r e l a t e d by marriage and business t i e s . King's College, was i n t i m a t e l y connected with t h i s power base i n Toronto. D. C. Masters' h i s t o r y of Toronto p o i n t s out that of the o r i g i n a l King's f a c u l t y , f i v e members were r e l a t e d to well-known Family Compact members, e i t h e r by marriage or blood.^ The 1837 r e b e l -l i o n shocked l e a d i n g Torontonians, themselves among the most - c o n s e r v a t i v e c i t i z e n s i n B r i t i s h North /America, 1 0 i n t o a r e a c -t i o n a r y s h e l l . Given that non-Anglican students were not de-b a r r e d from m a t r i c u l a t i o n , the u n i v e r s i t y ' s teaching of oratory and w r i t t e n r h e t o r i c would simply have meant educating more men l i k e W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie or other outspoken opponents of the T o r i e s . The c u r r i c u l u m i n r h e t o r i c and composition at King's, l i k e t he c u r r i c u l u m a t the other c o l l e g e s discussed i n t h i s chapter, d e r i v e d from the s o c i a l values and p o l i t i c a l views of those i n 9D. C. Masters traces the fa m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s as evidence f o r a r g u i n g t h a t "the u n i v e r s i t y had. . . an o f f i c i a l and A n g l i -can a i r " ( 4 0 ) . Masters argues t h a t "From the time of the o r i g i n -a l a c t c h a r t e r i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of King's College i n 1827 i t had appeared c e r t a i n t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y would be l i t t l e b e t t e r than a branch of the Family Compact. This p r o b a b i l i t y seemed con-f i r m e d when King's College was f i n a l l y opened i n 1843, i n s t r u c -t i o n b e g i n n i n g i n the o l d Parliament B u i l d i n g s . The Compact was s t r o n g l y r e presented i n the U n i v e r s i t y Council of 1842" (39). 1 0 C h a r l e s Dickens i n 1842 wrote t h a t "the w i l d and r a b i d Toryism o f Toronto was a p p a l l i n g " (qtd. i n Masters 20) . Hubert 75 power i n the u n i v e r s i t y . Oxford-educated Tories i n the c o l o n i e s expected h i g h e r education to provide a graduate with the stamp of c u l t u r e , which meant a f a c i l i t y i n the c l a s s i c a l languages, an a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , and a w e l l - d e v e l -oped mind. The purpose of higher education was to provide a l i b e r a l education, the object of which was knowledge unattached t o any p a r t i c u l a r end, n e i t h e r t h e o l o g i c a l nor f i n a n c i a l . For Tory l e a d e r s i n the colonies, an added advantage i n the c l a s s i c a l c u r r i c u l u m — t h o u g h perhaps an advantage unspoken—was t h a t u n i v e r s i t y graduates would not be ready speakers and w r i t e r s i n the v e r n a c u l a r , a poin t of prime importance i n a u n i v e r s i t y a d m i t t i n g a l l a p p l i c a n t s , regardless of r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . F u r t h e r , a graduate of the c l a s s i c a l curriculum would be t h o r -oughly imbued with noble thoughts and concerns f o r s o c i a l s t a b i l -i t y , and thus not given to r a d i c a l , p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . B efore 1837, the developments i n King's College i n Toronto c o u l d have been i n f l u e n c e d by Strachan's S c o t t i s h views t h a t s t r e s s e d u n i v e r s a l access to education, views that affirmed the v a l u e of an education f o r everyone i n s o c i e t y . By 1843, however ( a f t e r the 1837 u p r i s i n g s ) , Strachan had become Bishop of Tor-onto, and h i s views on education had become conservative, con-s i s t e n t w i t h the Anglican emphasis on an e l i t i s t , c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r a t h e r than the p r a c t i c a l , r h e t o r i c a l emphasis of h i s t e a c h i n g i n Cornwall. Strachan's address at the opening of King's C o l l e g e i n 1843 made no mention of the l o s s of the v e r -Hubert 76 n a c u l a r c u r r i c u l u m i n r h e t o r i c . King's C o l l e g e was not John Strachan's only c o l l e g e - r e l a t e d i n t e r e s t . From h i s Cornwall days onward, Strachan had had a c o n t i n u i n g p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the growth of M c G i l l College i n M o n t r e a l . Indeed, he had discussed with James M c G i l l , a wealthy Montreal entrepreneur r e l a t e d t o Strachan by marriage, the pos-s i b i l i t y o f M c G i l l ' s l e a v i n g a bequest f o r p u b l i c education. When the Hon. James M c G i l l died i n 1813, he l e f t a t r a c t of land and a sum of 10,000 pounds to b u i l d a u n i v e r s i t y . As one of " -• M c G i l l ' s f o u r executors, Strachan became involved i n planning the Montreal c o l l e g e from the f i r s t . In February 1815, he wrote l e t t e r s t o v a r i o u s persons involved i n the e n t e r p r i s e , g i v i n g h i s views about how t o proceed. The importance of the c o l l e g e , again, l a y i n the f a c t t h at i t s absence forced young men t o go to England, a dangerous and expensive v e n t u r e 1 1 , or to go to Ameri-ca, an even worse p o s s i b i l i t y , s i n c e America presented untold r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l dangers f o r impressionable minds. 1 2 The 1 •Strachan wrote to Thomas Chalmers i n Edinburgh t h a t i n the American c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , owing to the l a c k of Anglican super-v i s i o n i n B r i t i s h North America, every candidate f o r the m i n i s t r y was under the neces-s i t y of going to Europe f o r o r d i n a t i o n — a voyage so dangerous, from the imperfect s t a t e of navigation at t h a t p e r i o d , t h a t no l e s s than o n e - f i f t h of the young men who a s p i r e d to serve the Lord i n the sanctuary, p e r i s h e d i n the ocean. (Strachan 1832, 5) 1 ^ I n h i s famous Appeal to the Friends of R e l i g i o n and L i t e r - a t u r e , Strachan i n 1827 r a i s e d funds f o r King's College with anti-American arguments such as the f o l l o w i n g : Now i n the United States a custom p r e v a i l s unknown t o Hubert 77 c o l l e g e of h i s plans was t o have no r e l i g i o u s t e s t s , although the r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r of the c o l l e g e was to be ensured by having the p r i n c i p a l a Church of England clergyman, with h i s department b e i n g Moral Philosophy, Logic and Rhetoric. The i n s t i t u t i o n was t o be modeled on the "Scotch and German U n i v e r s i t i e s . . . because much more may be done at one fourth of the Expence." Oxford and Cambridge were p r a i s e d f o r "so r i c h and populous and learned a c o u n t r y as England," but not f o r a colony. S i m i l a r l y , M c G i l l was not t o h i r e graduates from England: "Learning they may have i n " abundance, but the i n d u s t r y the labour (I may say drudgery) and accommodation t o circumstance cannot be expected of them" (Spragge 68-9). However, l e g a l maneuvers by M c G i l l ' s step-son, who hoped t o win the M c G i l l property f o r himself, delayed the opening of the c o l l e g e . During the delay, strong Anglican i n t e r -e s t s g r a d u a l l y came to dominate the curriculum. M c G i l l College, or u n p r a c t i c e d by any other n a t i o n ; i n a l l other coun-t r i e s morals and r e l i g i o n are made the b a s i s of p u b l i c i n s t r u c t i o n , and the f i r s t books put i n t o the hands of c h i l d r e n teach them the domestic, the s o c i a l , and r e l i g i o u s v i r t u e s ; but i n the United States p o l i t i c s pervade the whole system of education; the school books from the very f i r s t elements are s t u f f e d with p r a i s e s of t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n s and breathe hatred to every t h i n g E n g l i s h . To such a country our youth may go s t r o n g l y a t -tached t o t h e i r n a t i v e land and to a l l i t s e s t a b l i s h -ments, but by hearing them c o n t i n u a l l y depreciated and those of America p r a i s e d , t h i s attachment w i l l i n many be g r a d u a l l y weakened; and some may become f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h a t l i b e r t y which has degenerated i n t o l i c e n -t i o u s n e s s , and imbibe, perhaps unconsciously, s e n t i -ments u n f r i e n d l y to things of which Englishmen are proud. (Strachan 1827, 5-6) Hubert 78 t h e r e f o r e , d i d not open u n t i l 1829. Unlike the King's Colleges, however, i t m a t r i c u l a t e d students from a l l r e l i g i o n s . I t s s e t -t i n g i n Montreal i s o l a t e d i t from the r e l i g i o u s s t r i f e i n other areas o f B r i t i s h North America, since Montreal had a h i s t o r y of r e l i g i o u s c o o p e r a t i o n . 1 3 Although the c o l l e g e was t r u l y non-s e c t a r i a n , a t t r a c t i n g students of various p r o t e s t a n t denomina-t i o n s as w e l l as Roman Ca t h o l i c s , the i n f l u e n c e of Anglican l e a d e r s h i p r e s u l t e d i n a c l a s s i c a l curriculum, with the Rev. W. T. Leach appointed Professor of C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e i n 184 6. - Leach was a graduate of Edinburgh, but, l i k e Strachan, a Church of England c l e r i c . He he l d posts i n both the u n i v e r s i t y and the church, from 1841 to 1865 as Rector of St. George's church i n Montreal, and t h e r e a f t e r as archdeacon of Montreal. He served as V i c e - P r e s i d e n t of M c G i l l from 1846 u n t i l 1886 ( C o l l a r d 503) . Another c o l l e g e t h a t struggled f o r decades before f i n a l l y assuming e d u c a t i o n a l leadership was Queen's, a Presbyterian c o l l e g e i n Kingston. As concerned as other r e l i g i o u s groups about the l a c k o f t r a i n e d m i n i s t e r s i n Upper Canada, the Pres-b y t e r i a n s had o r i g i n a l l y requested t h a t the p u b l i c l y endowed King's C o l l e g e i n c l u d e a Presbyterian p r o f e s s o r i n i t s d i v i n i t y f a c u l t y . Given the importance of the Presbyterian Church i n a f f a i r s o f s t a t e i n Scotland, the Presbyterians of Upper Canada 1 3 F o r twenty years before 1789 the Episcopal congregation used the Roman C a t h o l i c church b u i l d i n g of the R e c o l l e c t Fathers (MacMillan 33) . Bishop I n g l i s of Nova S c o t i a preached i n t h i s church on h i s f i r s t v i s i t t o Montreal i n 1784 (R. V. H a r r i s 101) . Hubert 79 c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s equal to those of the A n g l i -cans. But when King's was delayed i n opening, the Presbyterians gained a c h a r t e r f o r t h e i r own c o l l e g e , p l a c i n g i t at Kingston a t a time when Kingston was considered the l i k e l y future c a p i t a l c i t y . Owing t o the small student body and to an 1844 s p l i t i n the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church j u s t two years a f t e r Queen's opened, the c o l l e g e s t r u g g l e d simply t o s u r v i v e f o r more than two decades. Another c o l l e g e e s t a b l i s h e d while Kings' College i n Toronto d e l a y e d opening was V i c t o r i a College. B u i l t i n Cobourg, V i c t o r i a - C o l l e g e had no t i e s with e i t h e r Scotland or England. A Wesleyan Method i s t c o l l e g e , modeled on an e x i s t i n g Wesleyan u n i v e r s i t y i n C o n n e c t i c u t (Hodgins IV, 110) , V i c t o r i a inaugurated a new d i r e c -t i o n f o r r h e t o r i c i n E n g l i s h . I t attempted to implement a rhe-t o r i c a l c u r r i c u l u m t h a t would give V i c t o r i a graduates the p r a c t i -c a l e x p e r t i s e t o communicate p e r s u a s i v e l y i n E n g l i s h i n both w r i t i n g and speaking. In h i s inaugural speech a t the opening of V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e on June 21, 1842, President Egerton Ryerson r e l a t e d h i s r h e t o r i c a l concerns back t o A r i s t o t l e and Cicero, s t a t i n g t h a t "the a r t of speaking and w r i t i n g with p u r i t y , prop-r i e t y , and elegance, i s of the highest importance" (18). Ryerson a l s o p r a i s e d Greek and Roman c u l t u r e f o r c u l t i v a t i n g t h e i r own tongues. In l i k e manner, he held, the contemporary world should s t r i v e f o r e x c e l l e n c e i n E n g l i s h , not through c l a s s i c a l languages but through a d i r e c t study of the peoples' own tongue: "Why there s h o u l d be p r o v i s i o n f o r the teaching of dead and f o r e i g n l a n -Hubert 8 0 guages, and none f o r the teaching of our own vernacular tongue, i s a phenomenon f o r which I can assign no reason but custom and p r e j u d i c e " (10). D e f l e c t i n g arguments against h i s p o s i t i o n , Ryerson quoted the tenth of B l a i r ' s Lectures i n Rhetoric and  B e l l e s L e t t r e s , which l i s t e d the advantages of E n g l i s h as a language over other languages owing t o i t s r i c h vocabulary. Ryerson considered both w r i t i n g and speaking i n h i s c u r -r i c u l u m , f i r s t d e f i n i n g both: "Rhetoric. . .as r e l a t i n g to d i s - course; B e l l e s - L e t t r e s . to w r i t i n g . " He then added t h a t "In an - age of p r i n t i n g and w r i t i n g — i n a l l i t s v a r i e t i e s — t o w r ite w e l l i s o f the l a s t [ i . e . , most] importance." The power which an eloquent orator exerts over an assembly, and able w r i t e r exerts over a country. The "pen of a ready w r i t e r " has frequently proved an i n -strument of more potent power, than the sword of the s o l d i e r , or the sceptre of the monarch. The "heavens are h i s sounding board," and a nation, i f not the world, h i s audience; and h i s productions w i l l be l i s -tened t o with e d i f i c a t i o n and d e l i g h t , by thousands and m i l l i o n s whom the human v o i c e could never reach. (1842, 18-19) Ryerson was not w i l l i n g to leave e i t h e r of these important stud-i e s t o chance, or t o l i t e r a r y s o c i e t i e s , as was so o f t e n the case, e s p e c i a l l y with p r a c t i c e i n oratory, often considered extraneous t o academic i n t e r e s t s . The study of both' w r i t i n g and Hubert 81 speaking needed classroom i n s t r u c t i o n : the o r a l and c r i t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s of a competent judge o f good speaking and composition must be superadded t o r u l e s , and w i l l f u r n i s h the student with the most e f f i c i e n t a i d i n c o r r e c t i n g the defects, remedying the blemishes, and c u l t i v a t i n g the beauties of oratory and , w r i t i n g . (1842, 19) Ryerson was aware t h a t h i s proposed emphasis on p r a c t i c a l E n g l i s h r h e t o r i c was an innovation. He introduced the t o p i c of E n g l i s h *• study i n h i s inaugural by allowing t h a t "the admission of an ENGLISH DEPARTMENT of Language. Science, and L i t e r a t u r e . i n t o a C o l l e g i a t e I n s t i t u t i o n " [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ] might be regarded "a n o v e l t y , or innovation," but he was confident that t h i s i n -n o v a t i o n would become as commonplace as the telescope, the micro-scope, o r compass (10). Ryerson's emphasis on composition and oratory derived from h i s Methodist environment, which, although strongly protestant, d i f f e r e d from the t r a d i t i o n s of both Presbyterianism and A n g l i -c a n i s m . 1 4 U n l i k e them, Methodism was not part of the o f f i c i a l c u l t u r e of the s t a t e , but an i n t e n s e l y p r i v a t e matter. The C a l v i n i s t P r e s b y t e r i a n doctrine of p r e d e s t i n a t i o n placed respon-s i b i l i t y f o r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s f a i t h , and to some extent h i s be-h a v i o r , on God, and Anglicanism emphasized the r o l e of the com-1 4 S e e Goldwin French, "Egerton Ryerson and the Methodist Model f o r Upper Canada" i n Egerton Ryerson and His Times, edi t e d by N. McDonald and A. Chaiton. Hubert 82 munity i n the worship and f a i t h of an i n d i v i d u a l . Methodists, on t h e o t h e r hand, stressed the importance of each i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p and duty to God. In h i s 1842 inaugural, Ryerson s t r e s s e d t h a t the study of theology alone d i d not q u a l i f y an i n d i v i d u a l t o serve i n the church: To educate young men f o r the sacred m i n i s t r y — i r r e s p e c -t i v e of t h e i r t a l e n t s or s p i r i t u a l attainments and c h a r a c t e r — h a s f i l l e d some sections of the C h r i s t i a n Church with unconverted M i n i s t e r s of God's Holy Word. . . .When a young man who has been ^born from above' f e e l s i n h i s heart t h a t constraining: d e s i r e , t h a t p e r p e t u a l and s p e c i a l k i n d l i n g within to save souls [emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ] . . .what can be more r a t i o n a l and s c r i p t u r a l than f o r him to x study t o become a workman t h a t needeth not to be ashamed?' (1842, 19-20) T h i s p e r s o n a l commitment gave Ryerson's C h r i s t i a n i t y a more charged sense of duty than the Anglicanism of Strachan, and even more than the Presbyterianism of McCulloch. In i t s i n s i s t e n c e on the primacy of the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n f o r the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l order, Wesleyan Methodism was, a t one w i t h Presbyterianism and Anglicanism. However, i t d i f f e r e d from both i n i t s i n s i s t e n c e on the separation of church and s t a t e , s i n c e r e l i g i o n was a matter of the p r i v a t e conscience, not o f s o c i a l p o l i t y . From the emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l flowed the concept of r e l i g i o u s and c i v i l l i b e r t y f o r a l l , although t h i s Hubert 83 was not a l i c e n c e f o r a n t i - s o c i a l behavior. For Ryerson, p u b l i c m o r a l i t y and r e s p e c t f o r the crown were simply manifestations of t r u e r e l i g i o n . But the intense focus on the i n d i v i d u a l made neces s a r y the development of each i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y , a neces-s i t y which i n v o l u n t a r i l y demanded u n i v e r s a l education. The sense of p e r s o n a l duty t o both God and man was r e f l e c t e d i n Ryerson's e a r l y l i f e , f o l l o w i n g h i s conversion t o Methodism. 1 5 His fa t h e r was deeply d i s t u r b e d by the t u r n i n g of h i s sons, e s p e c i a l l y Egerton, from h i s t o r i c Episcopalianism. This p a r e n t a l disap-- pointment strengthened Ryerson 7s r e s o l v e both t o improve himself and t o prove the u t i l i t y of h i s newfound r e l i g i o n to a s t r i c t f a t h e r : From t h a t time I became a d i l i g e n t student, and new quickness and strength seemed to be imparted to my 1 5 T h e i n t e n s e l y personal commitment to the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h became important t o Ryerson as a c h i l d . In h i s autobiography Ryerson r e l a t e s a conversion experience so important that i t remained w i t h him through l i f e : A t the c l o s e of the American. War, i n 1815, when I was twelve years of age, my three e l d e r brothers, George, W i l l i a m , and John, became deeply r e l i g i o u s , and I imbibed the same s p i r i t . My consciousness of g u i l t and s i n f u l n e s s was humbling, oppressive, and d i s t r e s s i n g ; and my experience of r e l i e f , r e f r e s h i n g and joyous. In the end I simply t r u s t e d i n C h r i s t , and looked to Him f o r a present s a l v a t i o n ; and, as I looked up i n my bed, the l i g h t appeared t o my mind, and, as I thought, to my b o d i l y eye al s o , i n the form of One, white-robed, who approached the bedside with a smile, and with more of the expression of the countenance of T i t i a n ' s C h r i s t than of any person whom I have ever seen. I turned, rose ,to my knees, bowed my head, and covered my face, r e j o i c e d with trembling, saying to a brother who was l y i n g beside me, that the S a v i o r was now near us. (Ryerson 1883, 25) Hubert 84 understanding and memory. While working on the farm I d i d more than ordinary day's work, that i t might show how i n d u s t r i o u s , instead of l a z y , as some s a i d , r e l i g -i o n made a person. I s t u d i e d between three and s i x o ' c l o c k i n the morning, c a r r i e d a book i n my pocket d u r i n g the day to improve odd moments by reading or l e a r n i n g , and then reviewed my studies of the day aloud w h i l e walking out i n the evening. (26) The h i g h moral seriousness i n p r a c t i c a l as w e l l as r e l i g i o u s - a f f a i r s r e f l e c t e d here would be Ryerson's p u b l i c hallmark as both an i t i n e r a n t Methodist minister, and, l a t e r , as the superin-tendent o f education f o r Canada West and, a f t e r Confederation, f o r the p r o v i n c e of Ontario. In 1877, the year a f t e r h i s r e t i r e -ment from o f f i c e , Ryerson published Elements of P o l i t i c a l Econ- omy; Or, How I n d i v i d u a l s and a Country Become Rich, i n which he p r e s e n t e d h i s philosophy of duty i n pragmatic economic terms, a p p l y i n g t o every i n d i v i d u a l the economic p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t i n g t o b u s i n e s s : as a l l gains a r i s e from small and successive accumula-t i o n s , and as almost every product i s l i a b l e t o waste, i t i s manifest that h a b i t u a l ' negligence . . . must g r e a t l y diminish, i f i t do not e n t i r e l y consume, a l l the net revenue of an establishment. The e f f o r t of every man should be to u n i t e every f r a c t i o n o f c a p i t a l w i t h i n d u s t r y , and to keep i t so united c o n t i n u a l l y . Hubert 85 Any g a i n , even the smallest, i s b e t t e r than no gain a t a l l . (24) Ryerson a p p l i e d t h i s economic p r i n c i p l e t o a country i n r e l a t i o n t o education. F i r s t , he def i n e d education as q u a l i f y i n g the i n d i v i d u a l " t o perform h i s duties and exerc i s e h i s r i g h t s as a C h r i s t i a n c i t i z e n , whatever may be h i s circumstances, employ-ment or p r o f e s s i o n " (1877, 150). He then r e l a t e d the education of i n d i v i d u a l s with the economy of a nation. Education, both by knowledge and by p r i n c i p l e s , f i t t e d the student "to understand and v a l u e the laws and government of h i s country, and t o perform h i s d u t i e s and e x e r c i s e h i s r i g h t s as an i n t e l l i g e n t , C h r i s t i a n c i t i z e n . " In c o n t r a s t , an i l l i t e r a t e c i t i z e n weakened c i v i l government, thereby presenting a danger t o s e c u r i t y of l i f e and p r o p e r t y . The economic value of an education alone was demon-s t r a t e d each time a s k i l l e d or educated l a b o r e r was pa i d a higher wage than an u n s k i l l e d or uneducated worker (1877, 150). Methodism's strong dual i n t e r e s t i n the welfare of the i n d i v i d u a l and i n the welfare of the s t a t e l a i d the base f o r a u t i l i t a r i a n approach t o r h e t o r i c i n the vernacular. Only as i n d i v i d u a l s improved themselves could they be e f f e c t i v e i n s o c i -ety, and o n l y as i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y improved themselves c o r p o r a t e l y c o u l d s o c i e t y i t s e l f advance. An educational system based on t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s would not f o s t e r or defend an e l i t i s t , c l a s s i c a l c u r r i c u l u m i n a p u b l i c u n i v e r s i t y . Like McCulloch, Ryerson supported c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g , but t h i s support was u t i l i -Hubert 86 t a r i a n , f o r without knowing Hebrew and Greek, m i n i s t e r s could not read the s c r i p t u r e s i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l tongue. Further, c l a s s i c a l and s a c r e d l i t e r a t u r e provided "both the mind and heart of the p u p i l w i t h the c o n v i c t i o n of the d i g n i t y and duty of u n i t i n g p e r s o n a l i n d u s t r y and e n t e r p r i s e with genius and l e a r n i n g i n a l l the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s of l i f e " (1842, 15). Thus, the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of every kind of l e a r n i n g was, f o r Ryerson, paramount. In h i s memoirs, Ryerson l e f t a review of how he himself - l e a r n e d r h e t o r i c a l excellence. In the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the mem-o i r s , J . G. Hodgins' writes of Ryerson, He was an i n d e f a t i g a b l e student; and so thoroughly d i d he i n e a r l y l i f e ground himself i n E n g l i s h s u b j e c t s — grammar, l o g i c , r h e t o r i c — a n d the c l a s s i c s , and that, too, under the most adverse circumstances, that, i n h i s subsequent a c t i v e career as a w r i t e r and controver-s i a l i s t , he evinced a power and readiness with h i s tongue and pen, t h a t o f t e n astonished those who were unacquainted with the l a b o r i o u s thoroughness of h i s p r e v i o u s mental preparation. (1883, xiv-xv) Ryerson l e a r n e d E n g l i s h grammar by the parsing method i n a system which Ryerson termed "the most e f f e c t i v e I have ever since w i t -nessed, having c h a r t s , etc., to i l l u s t r a t e the agreement and government of words" (1883, 23). Ryerson followed the study of grammar w i t h Murray's Expositions and E x e r c i s e s . Karnes' Elements Hubert 87 of C r i t i c i s m , and B l a i r ' s Lectures on Rhetoric, of which he kept the notes t i l l the end of h i s l i f e . When one of h i s grammar t e a c h e r s f e l l i l l , Ryerson, at the age of f i f t e e n , was asked t o s u b s t i t u t e . "Thus, before I was s i x t e e n , " he w r i t e s , "I was i n d u c t e d as a teacher, by l e c t u r i n g on my native language. T h i s course of i n s t r u c t i o n , and exercises i n E n g l i s h , have proved of the g r e a t e s t advantage t o me, not l e s s i n enabling me to study f o r e i g n languages than i n using my own" (1883, 25). Apart from h i s grammar sc h o o l t r a i n i n g , Ryerson was l a r g e l y s e l f - t a u g h t , - a i d e d by the standard four-year apprenticeship f o r Methodist m i n i s t e r s without a formal higher education. Ryerson's own career constantly proved to him the importance of r h e t o r i c a l s k i l l s i n both speaking and w r i t i n g . His o r a t o r i -c a l s k i l l s enabled him to serve h i s church and h i s God w e l l , and t h e r e f o r e a l s o h i s country, which to L o y a l i s t Methodists was h i g h l y important. His w r i t i n g s k i l l s , e s p e c i a l l y as demonstrated i n a s e r i e s of p u b l i s h e d l e t t e r s to Strachan i n 1828, won him honour and i n f l u e n c e . 1 6 This a b i l i t y t o in f l u e n c e others l a y a t the h e a r t of r h e t o r i c , and of education: "Not to be able to 1 6 I n 1827, Ryerson, a young Methodist m i n i s t e r , sprang t o prominence i n the c l e r g y reserves debate about whether the A n g l i c a n church c o u l d act as a s t a t e c h u r c h — t h e r e b y alone bene-f i t t i n g from the huge land t r a c t s t h a t Lieutenant-Governor Sim-coe, i n 1795, had s e t aside f o r the church. In 1827, d i s s e n t i n g m i n i s t e r s l a c k e d even the l e g a l r i g h t t o perform marriages and o f f i c i a l f u n e r a l d u t i e s . Ryerson a l s o addressed the Anglican ex-c l u s i v e n e s s of the 1827 King's College charter, t a k i n g s p e c i a l o f f e n c e a t Strachan's charge t h a t Methodist r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r American conference bred d i s l o y a l t y to the B r i t i s h crown. (Ryerson 1828) Hubert 88 communicate our knowledge, i s but l i t t l e b e t t e r than t o be w i t h -out knowledge. To be u s e f u l to others, and to be i n the f u l l e s t sense advantageous to ourselves, our knowledge must be communi-ca t e d " (1842, 18). But, again, the u t i l i t y was f o r the s o c i e t y a t l a r g e , not f o r the students themselves, as Ryerson s t r e s s e d i n the c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s 1842 inaugural: " S e l f i s not t o be neg-l e c t e d , but, t o p r e f e r one's s e l f t o h i s country, i s to p r e f e r one t o thousands. 1 1 The s p e c i f i c curriculum i n E n g l i s h and r h e t o r i c a r i s i n g out - of t h i s p h i l o s o p h y was appended t o Ryerson's inaugural address, f o r p u b l i c a t i o n with i t . Emphasizing studies that i n t e g r a t e d the s e n i o r y ears of grammar school with c o l l e g e , the V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y d i v i s i o n i ncluded s p e l l i n g , reading, and w r i t i n g , t o g e t h e r with E n g l i s h grammar. In a d d i t i o n , V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e a l s o contained a commercial department f o r those not t a k i n g t h e c l a s s i c a l course. The curriculum guide stated, "To such p u p i l s w i l l be given as thorough a preparation as, through the E n g l i s h Language, can be imparted f o r the a c t i v e business of l i f e , e i t h e r as Merchants, Engineers, or Mechanics," with the E n g l i s h component of the course f o c u s i n g on E n g l i s h grammar and composition. D i s t i n c t i v e about V i c t o r i a , however, was not only the p h i l o -s o p h i c a l emphasis on r h e t o r i c and b e l l e s l e t t r e s , as understood by Ryerson, but a l s o the d i v i s i o n o f the f a c u l t y . In the f i r s t year, when Ryerson served i n Cobourg as president of the c o l l e g e , Hubert 89 he h i m s e l f taught r h e t o r i c — i t was not taught by the c l a s s i c s p r o f e s s o r , as was common i n other Anglo-Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s b e f o r e mid-century and f o r a decade or two a f t e r . A Rev. J . Spencer i s l i s t e d as "Teacher i n the E n g l i s h Department," prob-a b l y an i n d i c a t i o n that he taught i n the preparatory d i v i s i o n . The same d i v i s i o n of labor s t i l l h e l d i n 1848/49, with Rev. W i l l i a m Ormiston as Professor of Rhetoric and Mental Philosophy, Thomas G. Chesnut as E n g l i s h teacher, and John Wilson as P r o f e s -s o r of L a t i n and Greek Languages ( C l a s s i c s ) . V i c t o r i a ' s concern f o r r h e t o r i c i s r e f l e c t e d i n the j o u r n a l s of S. S. N e l l e s , an-early V i c t o r i a student, i n the 1850s p r o f e s -s o r o f r h e t o r i c , and l a t e r c o l l e g e president. N e l l e s analyzed s i t u a t i o n s and speakers, and pondered and d e l i b e r a t e d on arrang-ement, s t y l e and d e l i v e r y , i n both composition and oratory, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o preaching. Agreeing with Cicero, N e l l e s wrote i n h i s j o u r n a l i n the f a l l of 1848 t h a t wide ex-p e r i e n c e r a t h e r than r u l e s should govern r h e t o r i c : "Experience i s the b e s t R h e t o r i c . A man must be taught from w i t h i n . I t i s l i t t l e good t o encase the mind i n r u l e s . " N e l l e s agreed with C i c e r o ' s emphasis on emotion as w e l l . In another undated j o u r n a l e n t r y he wrote, "The orator should t h i n k upon h i s theme u n t i l he not o n l y understands every part of i t , but f e e l s i t deeply" ( F i l e 29, [p. 2 6 ] ) . In order to be e f f e c t i v e the speaker should con-c e n t r a t e on h i s s u b j e c t : "Get l i f e i n w a r d — t h i n k i n t e n s e l y — f e e l b u r n i n g l y and then l e t the words marshal themselves" ( F i l e 29, Hubert 90 F a l l 1848) . He a p p l i e d t h i s p r i n c i p l e t o composition as we l l as t o o r a t o r y : "Write with fury and c o r r e c t with phlegm" ( F a l l 1 8 4 8 ) , 1 7 The c u r r i c u l u m at V i c t o r i a c o l l e g e thus broke e n t i r e l y new ground i n Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e s . A moment's r e f l e c t i o n , of course, r e v e a l s t h a t the u t i l i t a r i a n approach simply a p p l i e d c l a s s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s t o B r i t i s h North America i n the middle of the n i n e t e e n t h century. A r i s t o t l e ' s d e f i n i t i o n of r h e t o r i c as s i t u a t i o n a l , and h i s s t r e s s on appr o p r i a t e n e s s — i n d e e d , the " emphasis on audience i n a l l c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c — p u t s u t i l i t y a t the c e n t r e o f r h e t o r i c . In c r e a t i n g the V i c t o r i a curriculum, 1 7 N e l l e s ' j o u r n a l e n t r i e s cover t o p i c s ranging from presen-t a t i o n i n o r a t o r y , to arrangement, t o content. He much pr e f e r r e d a subdued t o a Demosthenic s t y l e ( F i l e 30, January 1849, pp. 27, 29); he b e l i e v e d i n a p l a i n i n t r o d u c t i o n ( F i l e 29, June 1847), a l o g i c a l body, and an emotional, but s t i l l subdued, conclusion ( F i l e 30, p. 29); he stressed a strong emphasis on uni t y i n both o r a t o r y and w r i t i n g ( F i l e 29, Jan. 1849). Ryerson was obviously a model f o r Ne l l e s , both p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y . Observing Ryerson's oratory at a conference i n Toronto i n June 1847, he wrote, Dr. Ryerson made a lengthy o r a t i o n on the Union ques-t i o n . And prefaced i t with a huge exordium about him-s e l f . H is speech was f u l l of so p h i s t r y and seemed t o have l i t t l e w e i g h t — n o t because they detected h i s sophisms but because Dr. Ryerson has l o s t h i s i n f l u -ence. No one t r u s t s him. He has too much va n i t y t o succeed i n a n y t h i n g — l e a s t o f a l l i n genuine eloquence. ( F i l e 29) However, l a t e r N e l l e s p r a i s e d Ryerson's s t y l e , perhaps because i t e s p e c i a l l y f i t N e l l e s ' own i n t e r e s t i n a c o n t r o l l e d , low-key p r e s e n t a t i o n : "There i s a c e r t a i n measured slowness of utterance which adds f o r c e t o d e l i v e r y . A l i n g e r i n g of the s y l l a b l e s — y e t not so as t o drag" ( F i l e 30, a f t e r June 27). Ne l l e s acknowledged t h a t t h i s manner was Rev. Mr. Ryerson's great f o r t e , but i t r e q u i r e d g r e a t presence of mind and preparation, and was d i f -f i c u l t f o r a young speaker. Hubert 91 Ryerson simply followed the advice of A r i s t o t l e and Cicero, as i n d i c a t e d by h i s references to them i n h i s inauguration speech. In s p i t e o f the p o l i t i c a l controversy surrounding the found-i n g o f t h e t h r e e King's College, P i c t o u Academy and Dalhousie C o l l e g e , and M c G i l l , Queen's and V i c t o r i a Colleges, these c o l -l e g e s a l l supported a curriculum based on fundamental r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l v a l u e s . Besides a l l sharing a B r i t i s h p rotestant C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e , these c o l l e g e s a l s o shared i n the values r e l a t i n g t o t h a t c u l t u r e : t r a d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l and p u b l i c - m o r a l i t y a r i s i n g from C h r i s t i a n values, an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the worth of an i n d i v i d u a l , the importance of developing that i n -d i v i d u a l through education, and a high a p p r e c i a t i o n of the B r i t -i s h crown and a l l e g i a n c e to i t . Further, the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t o f those c o l o n i s t s that valued an education d i d not i n c l u d e wide economic divergence: i n the absence of a h e r e d i t a r y upper c l a s s , support f o r c o l l e g e education came from the middle c l a s s . F i n a l l y , with the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n s o l i d l y middle c l a s s , t h e emphasis on economics was paramount. Given t h i s commonality, the divergence i n the curriculum of these c o l l e g e s i s p u z z l i n g i f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c u l t u r a l r o o t s are ignored. " From a l a t e twentieth-century perspective, therefore, the E n g l i s h i n s i s t e n c e on a c l a s s i c a l curriculum might be p u z z l i n g , given the p r a c t i c a l demands of a c o l o n i a l economy. From a modern perspec-t i v e , the q u e s t i o n i s not why V i c t o r i a College chose to s t r e s s r h e t o r i c a l p r a c t i c e i n E n g l i s h as of the highest goal of the Hubert 92 c u r r i c u l u m , but r a t h e r why the other c o l l e g e s d i d not. Did the o t h e r c o l l e g e s not share Ryerson's views t h a t a c o l l e g e graduate s h o u l d be a b l e t o communicate r e a d i l y what he had learned? To answer t h i s question, we must t u r n to the s p e c i f i c c o l o n -i a l c u l t u r e of each of the three groups reviewed i n t h i s chapter. The A n g l i c a n and Presbyterian c o l l e g e c o n s t i t u e n c i e s d e r i v e d l a r g e l y from England and Scotland r a t h e r than from the immediate s i t u a t i o n i n the various c o l o n i e s i n B r i t i s h North America. Of a l l the c o l l e g e presidents before mid-century, Ryerson was the "- ^  o n l y one n a t i v e born. His conversion from Episcopalianism, s t r u c t u r e d on a n a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l model, to Methodism, based on a c o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t form of church governance, r e i n f o r c e d immediate and p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r than h i e r a r c h i c a l values i n church and s o c i e t y . Added to t h i s , Ryerson was l a r g e l y s e l f -educated, so h i s a t t i t u d e s toward education were shaped by h i s e x p e r i e n c e as a c i r c u i t preacher w i t h i n the Methodist conventions as w e l l as by the general t h r u s t of new-world Methodism, which s t r e s s e d the need f o r an educated m i n i s t r y . In contrast, the concerns o f the Presbyterian and Anglican c o l l e g e s were both r o o t e d i n the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n of B r i t a i n . D i v i s i o n s w i t h i n S c o t t i s h Presbyterianism, f o r instance, continued to a f f e c t the l i v e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e P i c t o u Academy, Dalhousie College and Queen's C o l l e g e through to the end of the century. The c o l l e g e c o n s t i t u e n c i e s of f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n c o l o n i s t s , therefore, had v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s rooted i n B r i t a i n r a ther than i n the c o l o n -Hubert 93 i e s . However, S c o t t i s h s e t t l e r s pulsed with v i g o r i n both i n t e l -l e c t u a l and r e l i g i o u s endeavors. Combined with a thorough-going f a i t h i n democracy, these a t t i t u d e s demanded access to education. The l a t e eighteenth-century S c o t t i s h d e s i r e f o r E n g l i s h c u l t u r e m o d i f i e d the t r a d i t i o n a l concern f o r c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g , espe-c i a l l y i n language and l i t e r a t u r e . In Scotland, t h i s concern f o r E n g l i s h l e a r n i n g t r a n s l a t e d i n t o r h e t o r i c a l education i n both e l o c u t i o n and composition at the end of the eighteenth century, -• as w e l l as i n an a e s t h e t i c i n t e r e s t i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y a t Edinburgh. For McCulloch i n Nova S c o t i a , a l l these S c o t t i s h a t t i t u d e s r e s u l t e d i n b a s i c E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y courses, as necessary, and i n a general educational program that, according t o h i s t o r i a n D. C. Harvey i n 1933, "moulded a generation of f e l l o w Scots as j o u r n a l i s t s , teachers, lawyers, s c i e n t i s t s , and clergymen" and "a s e r i e s of i n t e l l e c t u a l movements t h a t have not y e t spent themselves" (15). A n g l i c a n concerns i n education were a l s o attached to an o l d w o r l d c u l t u r e . U n l i k e democratic i d e a l s i n Presbyterianism, however, A n g l i c a n i d e a l s were molded by Oxford and Cambridge, which were p a r t of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the r u l i n g c l a s s i n England, and thus thoroughly e l i t i s t i n both entrance r e q u i r e -ments and c u r r i c u l u m , i n a d d i t i o n t o being expensive. The r e -quirements f o r students to swear a l l e g i a n c e to the T h i r t y - n i n e A r t i c l e s , e i t h e r a t m a t r i c u l a t i o n or graduation, ensured that the Hubert 94 e d u c a t i o n a l t h r u s t at Oxford and Cambridge would not be stamped by a u t i l i t a r i a n i s m t h a t became the hallmark of the r i s i n g i n -d u s t r i a l c l a s s of e a r l y nineteenth-century England. The a n t i - •> u t i l i t a r i a n stance was i n t e n s i f i e d by the r e a c t i o n of Oxford and Cambridge t o S c o t t i s h attacks i n the e a r l y decades of the n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Transferred to B r i t i s h North America, these a t t i t u d e s r e s u l t e d i n an emphasis on c l a s s i c s i n language and l i t e r a t u r e , meant, t h e o r e t i c a l l y a t l e a s t , to develop the s t u -d e n t s ' mind r a t h e r than h i s e s t a t e . F a c u l t y and supporters of - the King's C o l l e g e s d i d not see t h e i r curriculum as out of p l a c e i n a c o l o n y . They be l i e v e d that the human con d i t i o n was the same i n a l l s i t u a t i o n s . That human c o n d i t i o n demanded a l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t would help the student t o think c r i t i c a l l y and c r e a t i v e l y . I f those thinking powers were developed, the student would n a t u r a l l y l e a r n the u t i l i t a r i a n r h e t o r i c a l s k i l l s that the S c o t s taught and t h a t the Methodists placed foremost i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m . To quote John Henry Newman, a true l i b e r a l education gave a man "a c l e a r conscious view of h i s own opinions and judg-ments, a t r u t h i n developing them, an eloquence i n expressing them, and a f o r c e i n urging them" (216) . Toward t h i s end, the c l a s s i c a l c u r r i c u l u m included r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s — b u t i n L a t i n and Greek* r a t h e r than i n E n g l i s h . Furthermore, toward t h i s end the c l a s s i c a l c u r r i c u l u m taught r h e t o r i c not as a "knack," but as Hubert 95 an " a r t , " 1 8 not toward an immediate use, but toward the u l t i m a t e g o a l o f educating a responsible, productive member of the com-munity. In p r a c t i c a l , p o l i t i c a l terms, however, the c l a s s i c a l educa-t i o n was meant t o s e t an Anglican u n i v e r s i t y graduate apart from ( i n t he Tory view, above) h i s f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . This e l i t i s m was supported by the e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the c o l o n i e s t h a t p l a c e d decision-making powers i n the hands of a Tory l e g i s -l a t i v e c o u n c i l with enough power to defy even the wishes of a - governor. Hence the l i b e r a l a r t s c u r r i c u l a of the three King's C o l l e g e s (Windsor, Fr e d e r i c t o n , and Toronto) as w e l l as the composition o f the student body, whether by o f f i c i a l or u n o f f i -c i a l entrance requirements, r e f l e c t e d the concerns of Oxford and Cambridge. These concerns were f u r t h e r supported by f a c u l t y of the King's c o l l e g e s , i n v a r i a b l y graduates of Oxford, Cambridge, or of T r i n i t y i n Dublin, modeled a f t e r Oxford. To understand the l a t e r nineteenth-century development of E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e s , however, one cannot focus e x c l u s i v e l y on the e a r l y nineteenth-century d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e educational t r a d i t i o n s associated with the A n g l i -cans, P r e s b y t e r i a n s , and Methodists. In the second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h century, the deep-rooted d i v i s i o n s separating the t h r e e t r a d i t i o n s i n r h e t o r i c would g r a d u a l l y disappear, producing 1 8 I n P l a t o ' s Gorgias, Socrates d e f i n e s an " a r t " as an ac-t i v i t y g i v i n g thought t o the sou l ' s best i n t e r e s t ; a "knack" i s concerned o n l y w i t h the soul's pleasure (74). Hubert 96 i n a l l Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e s a common E n g l i s h c u r r i c u l u m s t r o n g and r e s i l i e n t enough t o r e s i s t s i g n i f i c a n t change f o r almost a century. This l a t e r u n i t y r e f l e c t e d a common phil o s o p h -i c a l substratum among a l l the t r a d i t i o n s . The components of t h i s substratum were the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l and p u b l i c m o r a l i t y a r i s i n g from C h r i s t i a n values, a high ap-p r e c i a t i o n f o r the B r i t i s h crown, and a l l e g i a n c e t o i t , and, f i n a l l y , an a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e , fostered by the t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s i c a l curriculum i n a l l the e a r l y c o l l e g e s , by the emphasis on " t a s t e " encouraged by the b e l l e t r i s t i c t r a d i t i o n o f Hugh B l a i r , and by the growing emphasis on t e x t as an object of study i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y s c i e n t i f i c c u l t u r e . The developments of the next decades, therefore, had t h e i r r o o t s i n the Old World, so we must now turn back to tra c e V i c -t o r i a n developments i n B r i t a i n , before r e t u r n i n g again t o see how Anglo-Canadian c o l l e g e s reacted to these changes, both i n rheto-r i c i t s e l f and i n areas that a f f e c t e d the development of rheto-r i c . Hubert 97 CHAPTER 3: ENGLISH STUDIES IN VICTORIAN BRITAIN B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s p l a y e d a c e n t r a l p a r t i n the development of B r i t i s h North America's f i r s t E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the f i r s t h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h century. Apart from V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e , i n Cobourg, Upper Canada, a l l the e a r l y anglophone c o l l e g e s examined i n the p r e s e n t study were i n f l u e n c e d by e i t h e r the E n g l i s h o r S c o t t i s h academic h e r i t a g e . In the Maritimes, two King's C o l l e g e s , one i n Nova S c o t i a and one i n New Brunswick, were opened by the A n g l i c a n Church i n the f i r s t decade. Another King's C o l l e g e opened i n Toronto i n 1843. These t h r e e c o l l e g e s taught a c u r r i c u l u m modeled on t h a t of Oxford C o l l e g e i n England. W i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o n s c i o u s l y d i s s o c i a t -i n g t h e i r c u r r i c u l a from a p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r , these A n g l i c a n c o l l e g e s emphasized c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g i n language and content. The purpose o f e d u c a t i o n a t a King's C o l l e g e was t o t e a c h the i n t e l l e c t u a l c u l t u r e o f the B r i t i s h r u l i n g c l a s s . T h i s c u l t u r e o s t e n s i b l y i n c l u d e d c r i t i c a l and c r e a t i v e thought, f a c i l i t y i n the c l a s s i c a l languages and i n c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n thought, and an a p p r e c i a t i o n of upper c l a s s E n g l i s h c u l t u r a l mores. Because o f the s t r o n g A n g l i c a n o r i e n t a t i o n o f the King's C o l l e g e s , non-Anglican c o l o n i s t s were o b l i g e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own c o l l e g e s . The Scots e s t a b l i s h e d Queen's C o l l e g e i n Kingston, and s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d Dalhousie C o l l e g e i n the M a r i t i m e s . S c o t t i s h i n f l u e n c e was a l s o s t r o n g i n M c G i l l C o l l e g e , i n Mon-t r e a l , a lthough M c G i l l o r i g i n a l l y opened as a non-denominational i n s t i t u t i o n i n 1829 and operated under A n g l i c a n c o n t r o l u n t i l Hubert 98 mid-century. The S c o t t i s h educators i n B r i t i s h North America a f f i r m e d the v a l u e of c l a s s i c a l c u l t u r e , but they a l s o i n s i s t e d t h a t a c o l o n i a l c o l l e g e education must have a b a s i c u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e . The Scots, therefore, i n s i s t e d on teaching E n g l i s h rheto-r i c , both w r i t t e n and spoken, i n a d d i t i o n to teaching the c l a s s i -c a l c u r r i c u l u m c o n t a i n i n g r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s i n L a t i n and Greek. Vehemently opposing the r e l i g i o u s exclusiveness of the A n g l i c a n c o l l e g e s , the Scots emphasized open access to t h e i r c o l l e g e s . The c o l o n i a l Scots derived t h e i r educational values from t h e i r homeland's u n i v e r s i t i e s at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aber-deen and S t . Andrews. The i n f l u e n c e of B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s continued unabated i n the second h a l f of the nineteenth century. The general i n f l u e n c e of S c o t t i s h and E n g l i s h educational t r a d i t i o n s and the d i r e c t impact of B r i t i s h - e d u c a t e d graduates ensured the prominence of B r i t i s h c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h North America ( a f t e r 1867, the Domin-i o n of Canada). Educational developments i n Scotland and England thus continued t o have a profound e f f e c t on Canadian i n s t i t u -t i o n s , and thus on the Canadian r h e t o r i c a l curriculum. As the century advanced, these developments i n B r i t a i n included i n t e l -l e c t u a l movements i n s o c i e t y at l a r g e , c u r r i c u l a r developments w i t h i n c o l l e g e s a f f e c t e d by these general s o c i a l movements, and s p e c i f i c developments i n the d i s c i p l i n e of r h e t o r i c i t s e l f . The complexity of s o c i a l developments i n B r i t a i n during Queen V i c -t o r i a ' s r e i g n defy b r i e f a n a l y s i s . However, forced to use a Hubert 99 s i n g l e word to d e s c r i b e the era, one would do w e l l to say, "change." In The V i c t o r i a n Frame of Mind. Walter Houghton leads i n t o h i s f i r s t paragraph by noting t h a t V i c t o r i a n s recognized t h a t they l i v e d i n a time of t r a n s i t i o n (1). At the beginning of Queen V i c t o r i a ' s r e i g n i n 1837, n e i t h e r Oxford nor Cambridge even c o n s i d e r e d E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h e i r c u r r i c u l a . By 1901, both had committed themselves to i t . Indeed, i n a l l of Great B r i t a i n i n 1837, o n l y the r e c e n t l y - e s t a b l i s h e d U n i v e r s i t y of London taught l i t e r a t u r e i n the vernacular as a separate course. One of the most basic s t i m u l i f o r the r a d i c a l change i n e d u c a t i o n a l thought that eventually brought E n g l i s h studies t o a l l c o l l e g e s i n the nation was the s h i f t from a r e l i g i o u s toward a s e c u l a r i z e d s o c i e t y . In 1826, the U n i v e r s i t y of London i t s e l f had i t s b i r t h i n U n i v e r s i t y College, at f i r s t c a l l e d "the Godless i n s t i t u t i o n on Gower S t r e e t , " because the break between the A n g l i c a n church and education was then a r a d i c a l concept. By c e n t u r y ' s end, r e l i g i o u s domination of educational i n q u i r y was c o n s i d e r e d i n t o l e r a b l e . This t r a n s i t i o n from r e l i g i o u s to secu-l a r thought, which saw educational i n s t i t u t i o n s g r a d u a l l y break t h e i r t i e s t o formal r e l i g i o n , began i n eighteenth century thought a l r e a d y , but i t gained strong momentum i n the nineteenth century, spurred on by the p h i l o s o p h i e s of Jeremy Bentham and John S t u a r t M i l l , by the science of Charles L y e l l and Charles Darwin, and by new b i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m o r i g i n a t i n g i n German u n i v e r s i t i e s . Hubert 100 The g e n e r a l focus on c r i t i c a l thought f o s t e r e d by German u n i v e r s i t i e s had other profound e f f e c t s on the B r i t i s h c u r r i c u -lum, one o f the most important being a strong movement toward s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . As long as higher education i n s i s t e d on a s i n g l e c u r r i c u l u m based on the medieval t r i v i u m and guadrivium, a cu r -r i c u l u m concerned with t r a n s m i t t i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e from g e n e r a t i o n t o generation, s t r u c t u r a l changes i n u n i v e r s i t y stud-i e s remained d i f f i c u l t . However, as education came to focus on d i s c r e e t s u b j e c t areas, c u r r i c u l a r changes appeared with ever -• g r e a t e r ease. In England, t h i s new focus on d i s c r e e t areas of l e a r n i n g l e d i n i t i a l l y to the e s t a b l i s h i n g of Mechanics I n s t i -t u t e s , o r i g i n a l l y p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r the new c l a s s of working men i n i n d u s t r i a l England at the same time as the U n i v e r s i t y o f London was being e s t a b l i s h e d . A keen p u b l i c i n t e r -e s t i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , however, soon saw the Mechanics I n -s t i t u t e s focus a t t e n t i o n on vernacular l i t e r a t u r e . This popular i n t e r e s t then l e d t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h studies into the U n i v e r s i t y o f London. The new focus on d i s c r e e t areas of study a l s o a i d e d the r i s e of women's education. By the 1870s, women began t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact i n c o l l e g e - l e v e l studies, e s p e c i a l l y i n the study of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . The study o f r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s w i t h i n the c o l l e g e s e t t i n g h i s t o r i c a l l y belonged t o the c l a s s i c s curriculum, which included not o n l y the study of c l a s s i c a l languages beyond the grammar s c h o o l l e v e l , but a l s o the study of Greek and L a t i n poetry, Hubert 101 drama, and o r a t o r y , as w e l l as the c l a s s i c a l theory r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e f i e l d s . As E n g l i s h s t u d i e s gained prominence—in London as e a r l y as the 1830s, and i n Edinburgh beginning i n 1845, and from t h e r e s p r e a d i n g t o Glasgow, and Aberdeen—the study of r h e t o r i c a l t h e o r y and p o e t i c s i n E n g l i s h grew as more and more a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o the r e a d i n g of n a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e and the w r i t i n g of the E n g l i s h language. With t h i s s h i f t of r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s from c l a s s i c s t o E n g l i s h , however, the focus of r h e t o r i c changed from o r a t o r y and persuasion to prose composition focusing on s t y l e , - and the focus of p o e t i c s soon incorporated an emphasis on moral c u l t u r e i n a d d i t i o n to the t r a d i t i o n a l emphasis on a e s t h e t i c s d e r i v e d from the study of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The s t r e s s on moral c u l t u r e mixed with a e s t h e t i c s was e s p e c i a l l y strong i n England a f t e r mid-century, with Matthew Arnold spearheading a movement t h a t saw B r i t i s h c u l t u r a l i d e a l s embedded i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e become a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n . T h i s emphasis on E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e as a moral and a e s t h e t i c guide f o r the n a t i o n e v e n t u a l l y gained enough popular support t h a t , by the end o f t h e century, even Oxford and Cambridge, newly freed from formal t i e s t o the Anglican Church, 1 were forced t o introduce E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n t o t h e i r c u r r i c u l a . A l l o f the f a c t o r s l i s t e d a b o v e — c u l t u r a l s e c u l a r i z a t i o n , academic s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , women's education, the s h i f t of r h e t o r i c •'•The seventeenth-century Test Acts, which had required m a t r i c u l a n t s a t Oxford and graduates a t Cambridge to a f f i r m t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e t o A n g l i c a n dogma, were repealed i n 1871 (Moorman 409) . Hubert 102 and p o e t i c s from c l a s s i c s to E n g l i s h , and, f i n a l l y , the emphasis on c u l t u r a l i d e a l s i n l i t e r a t u r e — w e r e c a r r i e d from England t o B r i t i s h North America i n the second h a l f of the nineteenth cen-t u r y , so they r e q u i r e c l o s e review as the b a s i s of change i n Anglo-Canadian education. S e c u l a r i z a t i o n was undoubtedly the most g e n e r a l of these features, and thus had the broadest i n -f l u e n c e . As the works of s c i e n t i s t s such as Charles L y e l l and C h a r l e s Darwin gained acceptance around mid-century and l a t e r , t r a d i t i o n a l f a i t h i n C h r i s t i a n values was shaken. 2 Higher b i b l i -- c a l c r i t i c i s m , o r i g i n a t i n g i n Germany 3 added t o the doubt i n -2 C h a r l e s L y e l l published a three-volume study e n t i t l e d P r i n c i p l e s of Geology (1830-33), which found that n a t u r a l proces-ses c o u l d e x p l a i n g e o l o g i c a l phenomena, but that these processes r e q u i r e d f a r longer than provided by a t r a d i t i o n a l reading of Genesis. C h a r l e s Darwin's On the O r i g i n of Species (1859) argued t h a t e v o l u t i o n based on na t u r a l s e l e c t i o n could account f o r the development of l i f e on earth. 3 C u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n Brian Fraser defines Higher C r i t i c i s m and r e l a t e s i t t o s e c u l a r i z a t i o n as f o l l o w s : Higher C r i t i c i s m was the c r i t i c a l study of the tex t i n S c r i p t u r e i n i t s o r i g i n a l h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g , as d i s -t i n c t from Lower C r i t i c i s m , which endeavored to a r r i v e at the o r i g i n a l t e x t . I t had i t s modern o r i g i n s i n the eighte e n t h century, where B i b l i c a l Scholars t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h a pure science of B i b l i c a l research that would y i e l d i m p a r t i a l , o b j e c t i v e answers to the ques-t i o n s posed by r e p e t i t i o n s , discrepancies and con-t r a d i c t i o n s i n the canonical arrangement of the S c r i p -t u r e s . They developed an h i s t o r i c a l - c r i t i c a l method to analyze h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y questions. In the atmosphere of fre e i n q u i r y provided by the loose t i e s between the German churches and the u n i v e r s i t i e s , many German scholars followed t h e i r conclusions i n t o un-b e l i e f , unable to r e c o n c i l e t h e i r c r i t i c a l understand-i n g of the B i b l e with the C h r i s t i a n orthodoxy of the day. (28) Hubert 103 s t i l l e d by those who came to follow Darwin's e v o l u t i o n a r y thought. In h i s study of V i c t o r i a n England, Walter Houghton r e f l e c t s t h a t " V i c t o r i a n s were u t t e r l y unprepared f o r the r a d i c a l c r i s i s i n thought and s o c i e t y which burst over England" (66) . James Anthony Froude, C a r l y l e ' s biographer, wrote, " A l l round us, the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i g h t s h i p s had broken from t h e i r moorings, and i t was then a new and t r y i n g experience" (qtd. i n Houghton 66) . B r i t a i n ' s foremost l i t e r a r y a r t i s t s r e f l e c t e d the anguish of the new e r a . As e a r l y as 1830, Thomas C a r l y l e sensed the coming - o f the new s e c u l a r age i n Sartor Resartus. C a r l y l e ' s protagonist r e c o g n i s e s t h a t " f o r a pure moral nature, the l o s s of . r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f was the l o s s of everything," but he cannot help h i m s e l f : "Doubt had darkened i n t o U n b e l i e f , " he w r i t e s ; "shade a f t e r shade goes grimly over your s o u l , t i l l you have the f i x e d , s t a r l e s s , T a r t a r e a n black" ("The E v e r l a s t i n g No"). As l a t e as 1867, Matthew A r n o l d f e l t the same condition, addressed most n o t a b l y i n "Dover Beach": The Sea of F a i t h Was once, too, at the f u l l , and round earth's shore Lay l i k e the f o l d s of a b r i g h t g i r d l e f u r l e d . But now I only hear I t s melancholy, long, withdrawing roar, R e t r e a t i n g , t o the breath Of the n i g h t wind, down the v a s t edges drear And naked shingles of the world. Hubert 104 In 1850, even before Darwin's Of the O r i g i n of Species had ap-peared, Tennyson's "In Memoriam" already asked, Are God and Nature then a t s t r i f e , That Nature lends such e v i l dreams? So c a r e f u l of the type she seems, So c a r e l e s s of the s i n g l e l i f e . (LV) The r o o t s of t h i s challenge to t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s f a i t h went back t o the Renaissance and were i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to the whole focus o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g i n Western Europe. The c r i s i s i n * f a i t h was thus i n e v i t a b l y l i n k e d to the u n i v e r s i t y curriculum. In England, F r a n c i s Bacon's Advancement of Learning (1605), f o r example, had a s s e r t e d the need to gain knowledge through personal expe r i e n c e and the use of the p h y s i c a l senses. This approach t o l e a r n i n g r a n counter to the medieval u n i v e r s i t y emphasis, which focused on the transmission of knowledge d e r i v i n g from r e v e l a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d through the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n , modified by c l a s s i -c a l Greek and L a t i n c u l t u r e . In the medieval u n i v e r s i t y , the t r i v i u m taught the t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s i c a l languages i n grammar, the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n of thought i n l o g i c , and the t r a d i t i o n a l t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h a t thought i n r h e t o r i c . The quadrivium then focused on the content of the c u l t u r e transmitted from generation t o g e n e r a t i o n . And i n the Middle Ages, the C a t h o l i c church c o n t r o l l e d the content of the curriculum. Part of t h a t c o n t r o l l a y i n the f a c t t h a t a l l students s t u d i e d the same curriculum. Though somewhat modified, t h i s medieval approach to educa-Hubert 105 t i o n was e s s e n t i a l l y the c l a s s i c a l curriculum of the e a r l y n i n e -t e e n t h century i n England and Scotland. A l l students studied the c l a s s i c a l languages, a l l studied e s s e n t i a l l y the same curriculum, and a l l l e a r n i n g was acceptable t o e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , both i n P r e s b y t e r i a n Scotland and i n Anglican England. In such an atmosphere, new learning, which included the study of the v e r n a c u l a r , which i t s e l f t i e d l e a r n i n g t o a contemporary r a t h e r than a p a s t t r a d i t i o n , i n e v i t a b l y threatened the e x i s t i n g s t r u c -t u r e . The advocates of the new, experimental l e a r n i n g i n the - n i n e t e e n t h century thus looked t o Germany, where the problems r e l a t i n g t o the c l a s s i c a l curriculum had been d e a l t with. The German s o l u t i o n involved three major p r e r e q u i s i t e s . To become r e l e v a n t i n the nineteenth century, the curriculum had t o be v e r n a c u l a r , s p e c i a l i z e d , and freed from c h u r c h — o r s t a t e — c o n t r o l . The vernacular was necessary because c l a s s i c a l l a n -guages were simply too i n f l e x i b l e to communicate the wealth of new knowledge and the patterns of thought demanded i n the ni n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 4 S p e c i a l i z a t i o n was necessary because the ex-4 T o i l l u s t r a t e h i s argument i n favor of the vernacular, F r i e d e r i c h Paulsen's 1906 study of German u n i v e r s i t i e s c i t e s the argument of a C a t h o l i c theologian who had l e c t u r e d i n L a t i n : Nothing could be more d e s i r a b l e and convenient f o r the mediocre and weak teacher, who has only the t r a d i t i o n a l t o impart, than the use of the L a t i n language. His own l a c k of clearness of thought and meagreness of ideas can be admirably d i s g u i s e d i n the well-worn r u t s and impoverished idioms of t h i s language i n i t s modern form. Commonplaces which would be unbearable when c l o t h e d i n German always sound somewhat more respec-t a b l e i n L a t i n d i s g u i s e " (Paulsen 50). Hubert 106 p l o s i o n o f knowledge demanded t h a t research be r e s t r i c t e d t o d i s c r e e t a r e a s . 5 Freedom from C h r i s t i a n dogma and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e was necessary because the search f o r new knowledge grew out o f Baconian and Lockian premises that knowledge o r i g i n a -t e d i n p h y s i c a l human experience r a t h e r than from a u t h o r i t i e s d e r i v i n g dogma from r e l i g i o u s or p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n . E a r l y V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l values were, of course, C h r i s t i a n , and the c l a s s i c a l curriculum of B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s r e i n f o r c e d those v a l u e s . In Scotland, the u n i v e r s i t i e s , though open to a l l - r e l i g i o u s denominations, were the capstones of an educational system r o o t e d i n John Knox's sixteenth-century Presbyterian r e f o r m a t i o n . In England, Oxford and Cambridge were formally t i e d t o the Church of England, with students having to swear a l l e g -i a n c e t o the T h i r t y - n i n e A r t i c l e s , and with the professors h o l d -i n g formal church p o s i t i o n s . As B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e gained a Baconian perspective i n l e a r n i n g i t i n e v i t a b l y developed p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e n s i o n s with i t s t r a d i t i o n s rooted i n C h r i s t i a n and c l a s s i c a l thought. These tensions between the u n i v e r s i t i e s and the s t a t e , which combined both p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s con-v e n t i o n s , grew as the century progressed, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the e a r l y V i c t o r i a n examination of Benjamin Jowett, the future Master o f B a l l i o l C o l l e g e , who wrote of h i s o r d i n a t i o n as a p r i e s t i n 5 T h e development of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n German u n i v e r s i t i e s i s p r e s e n t e d w e l l i n Ben-David and Zlowczower's " U n i v e r s i t i e s and Academic Systems i n Modern S o c i e t i e s , " i n the European Journal of  S o c i o l o g y 3 (1962): 45-84. Hubert 107 1845: The Bishop asked, among other questions, i n what sense the candidate signed the [Thirty-nine] A r t i c l e s . »In Paley's sense.' "What does Paley say?" xThat i t i s an a b s u r d i t y i f the L e g i s l a t u r e meant t o say that you assented t o four or f i v e hundred disputed p r o p o s i t i o n s . I t o n l y meant that you were an attached member of the Church of England.' The answer s a t i s f i e d the Bishop. (Faber 184) - For Jowett, advancement at Oxford r e q u i r e d o r d i n a t i o n as an A n g l i c a n p r i e s t , a requirement s t i p u l a t e d by the c i v i l govern-ment. The new l e a r n i n g , however, r e q u i r e d freedom from t r a d i -t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s t o free thought. By the 1850s, even so c o n s e r v a t i v e a s c h o l a r as John Henry Newman, i n The Idea of a  U n i v e r s i t y (1852) , argued f o r the new freedom of thought w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f a l i b e r a l education. The t e n s i o n s between C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s and contemporary l e a r n i n g i n c r e a s e d u n t i l higher l e a r n i n g was freed from Church c o n t r o l , 6 although the process was slow. The in f l u e n c e of the 6 T h e c a r e e r o f Charles L y e l l i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s growing d i v e r -gence between l e a r n i n g and Church. L y e l l matriculated at Oxford i n 1816, and s t u d i e d law upon graduating. His g e o l o g i c a l i n t e r -e s t s , however, l e d t o h i s p u b l i s h i n g P r i n c i p l e s of Geology (1830-33) , which s t r e s s e d c l o s e observation as a b a s i s of theory. He won repeated p r o f e s s i o n a l honors, and was knighted i n 1848. He a l s o taught b r i e f l y at King's College i n London. He was, the r e -f o r e , a l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n E n g l i s h c u l t u r e , respected i n both r e l i g i o u s and s c i e n t i f i c c i r c l e s . Although h i s own g e o l o g i c a l work r e f u t e d t r a d i t i o n a l reading of the b i b l i c a l c r e a t i o n ac-count, and although he was impressed by Darwin's work, he i n i -Hubert 108 church and s t a t e on le a r n i n g i n England was brought home t o Matthew A r n o l d i n 1865, when he went t o the Continent t o examine e d u c a t i o n . He was e s p e c i a l l y impressed by German academic freedom: L e h r f r e i h e i t and L e r n f r e i h e t . l i b e r t y f o r the teacher and l i b e r t y f o r the l e a r n e r ; and Wissenschaft. science, knowledge s y s t e m a t i c a l l y pursued and p r i z e d i n and f o r i t s e l f , are the fundamental ideas of the system. (Arnold 1874, 165) T h i s emphasis on freedom of the mind f i t t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l Oxford and Cambridge emphasis on a l i b e r a l education, f o r Oxford and Cambridge s t r e s s e d the d i s i n t e r e s t e d nature of l e a r n i n g . J u s t as educa t i o n was to be f r e e from p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a t the b e g i n n i n g of the century, i t was now to be free from r e l i -g i o u s c o n t r o l . Following t h i s Oxford t r a d i t i o n back through Newman t o the beginning of the century, Arnold stressed: The aim and o f f i c e of i n s t r u c t i o n , say many people, i s t o make a man a good c i t i z e n , or a good C h r i s t i a n , or a gentleman; or i t i s to f i t him to get on i n the world, or i t i s to enable him to do h i s duty i n that s t a t e o f t i a l l y q uestioned the evolutionary hypothesis, but i n 1865 he a f f i r m e d Darwin's views, thereby a l i e n a t i n g many of h i s e a r l i e r s u p p o r t e r s w i t h i n the church. Of t h i s s h i f t , Darwin stated, " C o n s i d e r i n g h i s age, h i s former views, and p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y , I t h i n k h i s a c t i o n has been h e r o i c " (Macomber 209). Even before 1865, however, L y e l l a g i t a t e d f o r educational reform i n E n g l i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s ; he objected to church c o n t r o l of thought i n c o l l e g e s t u d i e s . Hubert 109 l i f e t o which he i s c a l l e d . I t i s none of these, and the modern s p i r i t more and more discerns i t t o be none of these. . . . i t s prime d i r e c t aim i s to enable a man t o know himself and the world. (Arnold 1874, 169) The t h r u s t o f m i d - V i c t o r i a n higher education i n England thus urged the f r e e i n g of Oxford and Cambridge from narrow Church of England i n t e r e s t s . Further, the r i s e of the U n i v e r s i t y of Lon-don, e s p e c i a l l y of U n i v e r s i t y College, a l s o l e d the way i n f r e e -i n g h i g h e r education from church c o n t r o l . The problems of r e l i g -- i o u s c o n t r o l i n Scotland were not, of course, as severe as those e s p e c i a l l y i n Oxford and Cambridge, f o r S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s were not f o r m a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by the church. The growing s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y as a whole, and the g r a d u a l s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t i e s , was accompanied by the second f e a t u r e of German l e a r n i n g ; namely, academic s p e c i a l i -z a t i o n , i t s e l f a s s o c i a t e d with the use of the vernacular i n u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t i o n . The new focus of l e a r n i n g rooted i n human experience r a t h e r than on a given body of transmitted knowledge f o r c e d an ever narrower focus i n the i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t of i n f o r m a t i o n . The e a r l y u n i v e r s i t y curriculum had seen p r o f e s -s o r s move from c h a i r to c h a i r , as Spalding d i d i n moving from Edinburgh's c h a i r of r h e t o r i c to Glasgow's c h a i r of l o g i c i n 1845, f o r i n s t a n c e . Further, the t r a d i t i o n a l curriculum d i d not c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h courses of study. The object of education was the development of the student as much as i t was the t r a n s -Hubert 110 m i s s i o n o f a d i s t i n c t body of knowledge by a professor i n a d i s t i n c t c h a i r . Thus, a t the beginning of the nineteenth cen-t u r y , composition a t Edinburgh was taught i n both r h e t o r i c and l o g i c , w i t h l o g i c the more important. In England, the l a c k of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was r e f l e c t e d i n Oxford's use of dons, who as-s i s t e d the students i n a l l branches of l e a r n i n g . As the century wore on, however, t h i s p r a c t i c e of p r o f e s s o r s moving from d i s -c i p l i n e t o d i s c i p l i n e faded as courses o f study became composed of ever more d i s c r e e t bodies of teaching and research. As - B r i t a i n lagged i n p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f s c h o l a r s were a t t r a c t e d t o German u n i v e r s i t i e s . Germany o f f e r e d s p e c i a l i z e d s tudies i n which s u c c e s s f u l research was r e c o g n i z e d by d o c t o r a l degrees. In h i s tour of the Continent i n 1865, Matthew Arnold emphasized the German concern f o r Wis- s e n s c h a f t ( s c i e n c e ) , s t a t i n g t h at though the B r i t i s h lacked Germany's L e r n f r e i h e i t and L e h r f r e i h e t (freedom to learn and freedom t o teach) , i t was e s p e c i a l l y i n science that B r i t a i n had "most need t o borrow from the German u n i v e r s i t i e s " (1874, 166) . T h i s emphasis on Wissenschaft was focused not on the p h y s i c a l world alone, on geology, chemistry and physics, f o r instance, but a l s o on a thorough l e a r n i n g of both the s p i r i t and power of a n t i q u i t y , gained through a study of the o r i g i n a l works (1874, 179). The gradual evolution of B r i t i s h higher education would thus see the d o c t o r a l degree change from an honorary to an earned Hubert 111 r e s e a r c h degree.' The concept of knowledge valued f o r i t s own sake r a t h e r than f o r the sake o f c r e a t i n g an E n g l i s h gentleman was c e n t r a l t o the growth o f f u l l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n England. However, the b i r t h of E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n England d i d not have to wait f o r the estab-l i s h i n g of d o c t o r a l programs i n Oxford and Cambridge, or even i n the U n i v e r s i t y of London. E a r l y i n the nineteenth century, a l r e a d y , reformers saw the need f o r educating the masses f o r openly u t i l i t a r i a n reasons. For progressive t h i n k e r s l i k e the • p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n Henry Brougham, the whole educational system needed a much more u t i l i t a r i a n focus than that provided by Church of England i n s t i t u t i o n s . The changes wrought by the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n l e d to a s o c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l complexity r e q u i r i n g a much more widespread l i t e r a c y than had p r e v i o u s l y been needed. Out of t h i s need rose the Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e s , the f i r s t i n London founded by Henry Brougham as e a r l y as 1823. By 1850 over 500 such a d u l t education c e l l s were b r i n g i n g l i t e r a r y c u l t u r e as w e l l as s c i e n c e t o the masses (Palmer 31). 'Abraham Flexner's 1930 study of the development of American B r i t i s h and German u n i v e r s i t i e s sees the "new u n i v e r s i t i e s " f u n c t i o n as t h a t of developing knowledge (311) . M i d - v i c t o r i a n Oxford and Cambridge could not do t h i s . D e s p i t e the e f f o r t s of philosophers and reformers, the E n g l i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s . . .formed a c l o s e s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e up t o almost the l a s t quarter of the nineteenth century. They were. . .organs of the A n g l i c a n Church; they were h o s t i l e t o d i s s e n t ; they were as i n s t i t u t i o n s concerned with the production of a t y p e — t h e E n g l i s h gentleman, a moral and s o c i a l r a t h e r than an i n t e l l e c t u a l type. (224) Hubert 112 The o r i g i n a l purpose of the Mechanics' I n s t i t u t e s was t o g i v e working men an understanding of the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s underlying t h e i r new mechanical trades. But from the beginning the appe t i t e f o r u s e f u l knowledge, and f o r self-improvement, took other forms as w e l l . . . . most of them included l e c t u r e s on E n g l i s h l i t e r a -t u r e i n t h e i r programmes, and through t h e i r l i b r a r i e s they enabled many members to develop the reading h a b i t and t o make some acquaintance with the n a t i o n a l l i t e r a -t u r e . (Palmer 33) Because l i t e r a r y l e c t u r e s required no background, they were g e n e r a l l y more a c c e s s i b l e to the working men than t e c h n i c a l l e c t u r e s . L i t e r a r y d i s c u s s i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , soon outranked mech-a n i c a l l e c t u r e s . Further, many reformers believed that " l e c t u r e s on l i t e r a t u r e t o mechanics would make them l e s s open to corrup-t i o n by the abundance of cheap s e n s a t i o n a l f i c t i o n then coming i n t o c i r c u l a t i o n " (Palmer 34). A l s o r e l a t e d t o the development of Eng l i s h studies i n Eng-l a n d , as w e l l as t o reforms that l e d to the development of Mech-a n i c s ' I n s t i t u t e s , was the r i s e of women's education. Educa-t i o n a l reformers such as Henry Brougham and F. D. Maurice s t r e s s e d the need f o r education i n a l l o f society, female as w e l l as male. Concurrent with the growth of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n B r i -t a i n , t h e r e f o r e , came the r i s e of working men's education, then o f women's education, and l a t e r the merging of the sexes i n co-Hubert 113 ed u c a t i o n . The r o l e of E n g l i s h s t u d i e s was important to the advancement of women's education from the beginning. The common V i c t o r i a n concept of the female r o l e i n s o c i e t y was that of "the submissive w i f e whose whole excuse f o r being was t o love, honor, o b e y — a n d amuse—her l o r d and master, and to manage h i s household and b r i n g up h i s c h i l d r e n " (Houghton 348). For the middle and upper c l a s s e s , women, e s p e c i a l l y young women, were s o c i a l orna-ments. B e a t r i c e P o t t e r Webb described the "London Season" of the ' e i g h t i e s as f o l l o w s : w i t h i t s d e r i v a t i v e country-house v i s i t i n g , [ i t ] was regarded by wealthy parents as the equivalent, f o r t h e i r daughters, of the u n i v e r s i t y education and pro-f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a fforded f o r t h e i r sons; the reason being t h a t marriage t o a man of t h e i r own or a higher s o c i a l grade was the only recognised v o c a t i o n f o r women not compelled t o earn t h e i r own l i v e l i h o o d . (qtd. i n Ideas and B e l i e f s 352) Such f r i v o l i t y c o n f l i c t e d with a deeply-rooted moral ear-n e s t n e s s i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y , a moral earnestness o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both women and with l i t e r a t u r e . Since women were c o n s i d e r e d l e s s capable of rigorous thought than men, E n g l i s h was more s u i t a b l e than C l a s s i c s f o r the s e n s i t i v e sex, since, as a l r e a d y seen i n the emphasis on E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e i n the Mechan-i c s ' I n s t i t u t e s , the study of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e d i d not requir e the i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g o r demanded by c l a s s i c a l s t u d i e s i n the Hubert 114 u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l a . According t o Terry Eagleton, E n g l i s h was c o n s i d e r e d "an untaxing s o r t of a f f a i r , concerned with the f i n e r f e e l i n g s r a t h e r than with the more v i r i l e t o p i c s of bona f i d e academic " ' d i s c i p l i n e s , ' . . . a convenient sort of non-subject t o palm o f f on the l a d i e s " (28). Eagleton quotes a witness t o an 1877 Royal Commission, suggesting t h a t E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e might be a s u i t a b l e s u b j e c t f o r "women. . .and the second- and t h i r d -r a t e men who . . .became schoolmasters" (28). Though women were c o n s i d e r e d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n f e r i o r , they were welcomed as new ' - students because they f i l l e d c l a s s e s i n the new c o l l e g e s . Fur-t h e r , because of t h e i r sex, they d i d not threaten t h e i r male p r o f e s s o r s with the l o s s of jobs (McMurtry 13) . However, the i n t e g r a t i o n of women i n t o r e g u l a r u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s e s proceeded slowly, with the f e a r of d e c l i n i n g morals o f t e n c i t e d as a b a r r i e r to advancement i n t h i s venture. In 1863, U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e i n London amended i t s charter t o allow women i n t o c l a s s e s . According to Henry S o l l y , the f i r s t course allow-i n g women t o e n r o l was i n P o s t - B i b l i c a l Hebrew (308). Presumably th e a u t h o r i t i e s considered t h i s so e s o t e r i c a course that no female w i t h non-academic i n t e r e s t s (such as would corrupt young men's morals) would e n r o l . In 1878, U n i v e r s i t y College opened degrees t o women, and i n that year Henry Morley, who had been t e a c h i n g a t women's col l e g e s and i n women's extension c l a s s e s f o r y e a r s , opened h i s l e c t u r e s t o co-education. The p r a c t i c e of mixed c l a s s e s spread only gradually, i n both England and Scot-Hubert 115 la n d , w i t h i n t e g r a t i o n coming t o Glasgow, f o r instance, i n 1894. But everywhere the moral r o l e o f E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e was equated w i t h the g u i d i n g and u p l i f t i n g q u a l i t i e s of women. Ruskin's "Of Queen's Gardens" reviews the evidence i n Homer, Dante, Shake-speare and S c o t t , where women are " i n f a l l i b l y f a i t h f u l and wise c o u n s e l l o r s , " by t h e i r v i r t u e and wisdom redeeming men from weakness and v i c e (qtd. i n Houghton 350) . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e with c u l t u r a l i d e a l s was not r e s t r i c t e d to co-education. The growing importance of «= E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n a whole c u l t u r e which, except f o r the Univer-s i t y o f London, had long r e j e c t e d the need f o r such study i n both language and e s p e c i a l l y i n l i t e r a t u r e , r e f l e c t e d the depth of change i n B r i t i s h c u l t u r e i n the l a s t decades of the century. As suggested above, the major impetus f o r the r i s e of E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n V i c t o r i a n England was the sense of lostness r e s u l t i n g from t h e f a d i n g power of the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h i n the f i r s t h a l f of the c e n t u r y already. Robert Scholes points out that l i t e r a r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r i s e s out a reader's sense of incompleteness, and c r i t i c i s m a r i s e s out of a sense of d i s o r d e r i n a l i t e r a r y work (22-25) . The r i s e of both c r i t i c i s m and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n Eng-l i s h s t u d i e s i n the second h a l f of the nineteenth century thus r e f l e c t e d a new dissonance i n s o c i e t y : i t was no longer true t h a t any r e a d e r c o u l d understand f u l l y every author, not because the author was d e l i b e r a t e l y confusing but because s o c i a l values and c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s had s h i f t e d t o such an extent t h a t deepest Hubert 116 c u l t u r a l assumptions were no longer shared. The r i s i n g s e c u l a r -ism, a s s o c i a t e d with a new s c i e n t i f i c world view and with both u t i l i t a r i a n philosophy and the s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n brought by the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , forced B r i t i s h s o c i e t y t o re-evaluate i t s b e l i e f s a t the deepest l e v e l s of n a t i o n a l consciousness. Terry E a g l e t o n w r i t e s b a l d l y , " I f one were asked to provide a s i n g l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the growth of E n g l i s h s t u d i e s i n the l a t e r n ine-t e e n t h century, one could do worse than r e p l y : *the f a i l u r e of r e l i g i o n ' " (22) . The i n t e r e s t i n English l i t e r a t u r e was, therefore, a general s o c i a l phenomenon, ra t h e r than one s p e c i f i c a l l y academic. In the second h a l f of the century, Chandos C l a s s i c s , a popular, inexpen-s i v e p u b l i c a t i o n of B r i t i s h c l a s s i c s , s o l d 3.5 m i l l i o n volumes, and t h i s s e r i e s was only one of many a v a i l a b l e a t modest c o s t (Palmer 35) . Richard A l t i c k p o i n t s out t h a t the sale i n monthly p a r t s of Dickens' novels averaged 40,000 copies, and from mid-c e n t u r y onward, popular papers l i k e the Family Herald and the London J o u r n a l had c i r c u l a t i o n s i n t o s i x f i g u r e s . The depth of f e e l i n g toward B r i t i s h l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s , A l t i c k suggests, can o n l y be g i v e n i n anecdote: I t i s not i r r e l e v a n t to r e c a l l the many s t o r i e s of S c o t t ' s fame among a l l c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y — f o r example, of a London workman accosting Charles Lamb t o p o i n t i n awe t o the author of Waverly cross the s t r e e t . We hear o f the o l d charwoman who never missed a s u b s c r i p t i o n Hubert 117 t e a conducted on the f i r s t Monday of every month at a s n u f f shop over which she lodged, when the l a n d l o r d read the newest number of Dombey and Son . . . [or] o f the vagrant i n Covent Gardens who . . . plucked Tennyson's sleeve, saying, "Look here, s i r , here am I. I've been drunk f o r s i x days out of seven, but i f you w i l l shake me by the hand, I'm damned i f I ever get drunk again. (2) I n both England and Scotland, t h i s was the s o c i a l environment - t h a t shaped E n g l i s h studies, both i n p o e t i c s and c r i t i c i s m as w e l l as i n r h e t o r i c and composition. Owing to the d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l and educational t r a d i t i o n s i n S c o t l a n d and England, the c u r r i c u l a r developments i n the two c o u n t r i e s proceeded l a r g e l y independently, though developments i n both c o u n t r i e s were st r o n g l y influenced by the general s e c u l a r i z -a t i o n of s o c i e t y and the burgeoning p o p u l a r i t y of E n g l i s h l i t e r a -t u r e , b e g i n n i n g even before the f i r s t years of Queen V i c t o r i a ' s r e i g n . In both c o u n t r i e s , too, E n g l i s h studies developed i n p a r a l l e l p a t t e r n s , with both r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s g r a d u a l l y s h i f t i n g from c l a s s i c s to E n g l i s h , and r h e t o r i c i t s e l f s h i f t i n g from a t r a d i t i o n a l emphasis on persuasion to an emphasis on s t y l e i n w r i t t e n composition. Further, both countries saw a s h i f t i n p o e t i c s from a s t r o n g focus on a e s t h e t i c s i n c l a s s i c s t o a r i s i n g f o c u s on moral c u l t u r e i n E n g l i s h s t u d i e s , though t h i s movement was s t r o n g e r i n England than i n Scotland. F i n a l l y , toward the Hubert 118 end of the century, both countries experienced a strong s h i f t toward i d e a l i s m i n the study of l i t e r a t u r e . In England, t h i s s h i f t was l e d by Matthew Arnold, and i n Scotland by Benjamin Jowett's B a l l i o l school of neo-Hegelians at Glasgow: e s p e c i a l l y Edward C a i r d i n philosophy, and John N i c h o l i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a -t u r e . T h i s b l e n d of S c o t t i s h p h i l o s o p h i c a l idealism and E n g l i s h c u l t u r a l i d e a l i s m would l a t e r be c a r r i e d t o Canada by both Scot-t i s h and E n g l i s h t r a d i t i o n s to form a remarkably strong i d e a l -i s t i c focus t h a t would dominate Anglo-Canadian E n g l i s h s t u d i e s - i n t o the second h a l f of the twentieth century. In S c o t l a n d , the s h i f t of p o e t i c s and r h e t o r i c from c l a s s i c s t o E n g l i s h s t u d i e s took d i f f e r e n t routes at i n d i v i d u a l u n i v e r -s i t i e s . The premier p o s i t i o n i n r h e t o r i c i n the nation was, of course, Hugh B l a i r ' s h i s t o r i c c h a i r i n r h e t o r i c a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Edinburgh. In l e c t u r i n g on r h e t o r i c i n the vernacular before the b e g i n n i n g of the nineteenth century, B l a i r had already begun the s h i f t o f r h e t o r i c and p o e t i c s from c l a s s i c s t o E n g l i s h s t u d i -es. However, s i n c e the Edinburgh c h a i r i n r h e t o r i c was to remain unique i n S c o t l a n d u n t i l a f t e r mid-century, the main t h r u s t i n c o n v e r t i n g c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c i n t o E n g l i s h studies occurred i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h century. B l a i r had been the f i r s t of three clergymen t o h o l d t h i s c h a i r ; the l a s t was the Reverend Dr. Andrew Brown, o f f e r e d the c h a i r a f t e r Walter Scott turned i t down i n 1801 (Meikle 95) . According to a Royal Commission appointed i n 182 6, the o b j e c t of the course f o r Brown