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The effect of electrical stimulation on some parameters of postmortem avian muscle Sundeen, Garfield Byron 1987

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THE EFFECT OF ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON SOME PARAMETERS OF POSTMORTEM AVIAN MUSCLE  By GARFIELD B.Sc.  (Agr..),  M.Sc,  BYRON  The U n i v e r s i t y  The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  of B r i t i s h  of B r i t i s h  IN PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR  SUNDEEN  FOR  OF  THE  Columbia,  Columbia,  FULFILMENT DEGREE  OF  PHILOSOPHY  in THE  We  FACULTY  GRADUATE  (Department  of Food  accept  thesis  to  THE  OF  this  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  STUDIES  Science)  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1987 ©Garfield  Byron  S u n d e e n , 1987  1973  1978  OF  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis  in partial  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or  thesis by  for  his  of this thesis  or  British Columbia, and study. scholarly her  the  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  requirements  I agree that the  for  an  purposes  representatives.  may be It  is  granted  advanced  Library shall make it  I further agree that permission for  for financial gain shall not  permission.  DE-6(3/81)  fulfilment of  by the  understood  that  extensive  head  of my  copying  or  be allowed without my written  ii  ABSTRACT  Four  studies  shock its  In  on  several  ultimate  the  on  in  a  of  cooked  a of  the  assess  parameters  of  avian  commercial muscle  force  from  tender  the  of  those  various  isometric  whereas  and  electrical  that  contribute  broilers  preslaughter processed  samples  was  evaluated  This  to  stunned no  birds  stun  postmortem The  stimulation,  of m u s c l e was  development  as  was  Postmortem samples  was  P e c t o r a l i s major less  used  the  was  time  samples  time  to  single  that  (p<0.01).  and  the  glycolytic  pH  times  technique.  tenderness  significantly  controls  s t i m u l a t o r y c u r r e n t on  rigor  handled  Kramer  were  duration, frequency  One.  and  The by  electric  evaluation indicated  the  sampling  significantly  of  assessed.  P e c t o r a l i s maj o r  development.  of  was  the  the  Study  tension  electrical  required  and  postmortem  glycolysis  f emoris  in  of  from  varying  mortis  investigated  use  manner  values.  post-exsanguin ation rigor  the  muscle  effect  electrically  than  effects  the  tenderness  breast  shear  samples more  to  quality.  standard  blade  conducted  p r e l i m i n a r y study,  stunning  The  were  voltage  development  rate  were  homogenates  as  an  index  monitored  by  glycolysis  of  at  of the  in  accelerated course  of  Biceps  by  rigor  from  treated  carcasses  develop  maximum  tension  i i i  than  control  samples the  samples  from  time  these  to achieve  differences  P e c t o r a l i s maj o r s a m p l e s minutes lower  at either  tension  differences observed tension  The  than  the time  was  further  again  was  monitored  examined  reduced  amount  initial  reduced at the  reduced  parameters  70V f o r 2  No  significant  of p u l s e s  were  maximum  the development Rigor  tension  developed  periods.  development  types  were  Electrical  by B i c e p s  f e m o r i s and  tension  by b o t h  of  t e c h n i q u e and  muscle  f o r the l a t t e r  but  this  (p<0.05). muscle  The  types  was  stimulation.  stimulation,  of i s o m e t r i c  on  maximum  a n d ATP c o n t e n t s  sampling  with  techniques.  required  by e l e c t r i c a l  by e l e c t r i c a l  to  significantly  number  Two.  f o r both  to reach  tension  compared  developed.  i n Study  the time  glycogen  subsequent  treated  to achieve  stimulation  significant  of i s o m e t r i c  similarly  The  only  required  analytical  P e c t o r a l i s maj o r s a m p l e s was  or t o t a l  contents  by e n z y m a t i c  decreases i n  significant.  (p<0.05).  by t h e i s o m e t r i c  in metabolite  stimulation  exhibited  carcasses  tension  femoris  t e n s i o n when  not  samples  of e l e c t r i c a l  rigor  decrease  were  from  control  for either  determined  maximum  due t o t h e v o l t a g e  influence  also  Biceps  40 o r 80 p u l s e s / s d e v e l o p e d  o r t h e maximum  changes  Although  stimulated carcasses  required  controls,  (p<0.05).  of both  as were  Several  muscles  their  ATP  correlations  t e n s i o n and m e t a b o l i t e  were contents between  contents  i v  were the to  noted  and r e g r e s s i o n  significant relationships. electrical  release  were  stimulated rapidly  In  equations  observed,  carcasses  than  their  the f i n a l  stimulation analytical changes  stimulation  but P e c t o r a l i s  released  Study  their  on m u s c l e methods  f o r TCA s o l u b l e  in protein were  during  f o r one day a t 2 ° C .  Electrical to  reach  tension muscle  their  When  achieved  for Pectoralis  the muscle measure  similar  their  Biceps  femoris  dispersibility electrical  samples  were  indicated  manner,  activity  assessed In  neither  nor protein  stimulation.  samples  required  t h e maximum  maj o r a n d B i c e p s  developed  and  the time  and d e c r e a s e d  b y two  addition,  and t r e a t e d  reduced  more  electrical  was  material.  maj o r s a m p l e s  released  respective  samples.  in control  (p<0.05)  Pectoralis  again  femoris  significantly  tension  samples.  neither a  stimulation  maximum  carcasses  followed  from  tension  of  due  tension  maj o r s a m p l e s  extractability, dispersibility  hydrophobicity storage  of i s o m e t r i c  the e f f e c t  proteolytic  to express  developed  Biceps  Three,  developed  significant differences  i n the rate  respective  study,  No  were  from  f emoris  treated  tension  faster  than  samples.  analysed  f o r nonprotein  a s i g n i f i c a n t treatment extractable  protein,  hydrophobicity  were  nitrogen,  effect.  protein affected  by  In  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  ABSTRACT TABLE  11  OF  CONTENTS  LIST  OF  TABLES  vii  LIST  OF  FIGURES  x  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xi  INTRODUCTION  1  LITERATURE  3  REVIEW  1. 8  E l e c t r i c a l stimulation E f f e c t s ort m e a t t e n d e r n e s s E f f e c t s on meat flavour E f f e c t s on h e a t r i n g f o r m a t i o n E f f e c t s on q u a l i t y grades E f f e c t s on r e t a i l c a s e l i f e E f f e c t s of e l e c t r i c a l stimulation hot b o n i n g on meat quality E f f e c t s on f u r t h e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g properties E f f e c t s on p o s t m o r t e m g l y c o l y s i s  2 . 2 , 2, 2,  The m e c h a n i s m o f i m p r o v e d meat t e n d e r n e s s The p r e v e n t i o n o f c o l d shortening Myofibrillar disruption Increased proteolytic activity  23 23 25 26  3, 3, 3,  Isometric tension meat quality Isometric tension Factors affecting Obj e c t i v e s  35 35 39 42  1 . 1. 1  1. 7  MATERIALS 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 RESULTS  AND  5.1 5.2 5 .3 5.4  development p o u l t r y meat  Study  analysis  12 15 18  poultry  quality  44 45 49 52 56 58  DISCUSSION  Preliminary S t u d y One S t u d y Two Study Three  and  an d  44  METHODS  Preliminary S t u d y One S t u d y Two Study Three Statistical AND  development  3 3 7 8 8 10  Study  58 59 77 102  vi  Page SUMMARY LIST  AND  CONCLUSIONS  OF R E F E R E N C E S  APPENDIX APPENDIX  1: 2:  APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX  3: 4: 5:  Home e v a l u a t i o n r a t i n g f o r m T a b l e 25: T h e e f f e c t o f t o t a l number of p u l s e s and v o l t a g e on p o s t m o r t e m pH d e c l i n e Correlation matrices ANOVA S t u d y One ANOVA S t u d y Two  115 117 193  195 197 203 226  vii  LIST  OF  TABLES Page  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  V o l t a g e , f r e q u e n c y and d u r a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s of t h e p o s t - e x s a n g u i n a t i o n e l e c t r i c a l shock ( S t u d y One)  47  V o l t a g e , f r e q u e n c y and d u r a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s of t h e p o s t - e x s a n g u i n a t i o n e l e c t r i c a l shock ( S t u d y Two)  50  The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e m o d e l s a n a l y s i s i n S t u d y One a n d S t u d y  57  used Two  f o r data  Mean s c o r e s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f r o m home e v a l u a t i o n o f t e n d e r n e s s , juiciness and a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f l e g s and t h i g h s  59  T h e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on s e v e r a l postmortem parameters of avian muscle (Study One)  68  The e f f e c t o f v o l t a g e o f t h e p o s t e x s a n g u i n a t i o n e l e c t r i c a l s h o c k on s e v e r a l postmortem parameters of avian muscle ( S t u d y One)  70  The e f f e c t o f t h e t o t a l number o f p u l s e s the p o s t - e x s a n g u i n a t i o n e l e c t r i c a l shock s e v e r a l postmortem parameters of avian m u s c l e ( S t u d y .One)  71  of on  D u n c a n ' s New M u l t i p l e R a n g e A n a l y s i s o f t r e a t m e n t means f r o m S t u d y One  72  T h e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on t h e development of r i g o r mortis i n avian muscle ( S t u d y Two)  78  10. T h e e f f e c t o f v o l t a g e o f t h e p o s t e x s a n g u i n a t i o n e l e c t r i c s h o c k on i s o m e t r i c tension development i n avian muscle (Study Two)  79  11. The e f f e c t o f t h e t o t a l number o f p u l s e s o f t h e p o s t - e x s a n g u i n a t i o n e l e c t r i c s h o c k on i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n development i n avian m u s c l e ( S t u d y Two)  80  12. T h e e f f e c t o f g l y c o g e n , ATP muscle (Study  e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on a n d HMP c o n t e n t o f a v i a n Two )  81  viii  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  13. The e f f e c t o f v o l t a g e o f t h e p o s t e x s a n g u i n a t i o n e l e c t r i c s h o c k on t h e g l y c o g e n , ATP a n d HMP c o n t e n t o f a v i a n muscle (Study Two) 14.  15.  T h e e f f e c t o f t h e t o t a l number o f p u l s e s of the p o s t - e x s a n g u i n a t i o n e l e c t r i c shock on t h e g l y c o g e n , ATP a n d HMP c o n t e n t o f avian muscle (Study Two)  83  D u n c a n ' s New M u l t i p l e R a n g e A n a l y s i s o f t r e a t m e n t means f r o m S t u d y Two  85  1 6 . Mean d i f f e r e n c e v a l u e s o f s e v e r a l postmortem parameters of a v i a n muscle (Study Two) 17.  82  86  Stepwise l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s f o r the parameters e x a m i n e d i n S t u d y Two  95  Regression l i n e parameters f o r tension r e l e a s e (dependent v a r i a b l e ) versus time post-maximum t e n s i o n ( i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) f o r a v i a n m u s c l e f r o m S t u d y Two  98  19. L i n e c o m p a r i s o n a n a l y s i s f o r t h e a r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t e n s i o n r e l e a s e (dependent v a r i a b l e ) versus time post-maximum t e n s i o n ( i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) f r o m S t u d y Two  99  18.  2 0 . T h e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on t h e development of r i g o r m o r t i s i n avian muscle (Study Three) 21.  22.  102  Regression l i n e parameters f o r tension r e l e a s e (dependent v a r i a b l e ) versus time post-maximum t e n s i o n ( i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) f o r a v i a n muscle from Study Three  104  Line comparison a n a l y s i s f o r the a r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t e n s i o n r e l e a s e (dependent v a r i a b l e ) versus time post-maximum t e n s i o n ( i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) from Study Three  105  2 3 . The e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l extent of p r o t e o l y s i s i n (Study Three)  s t i m u l a t i o n on t h e avian muscle 107  ix  Table  Table  Table  Table  24.  25.  26.  27.  The e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on extractable protein, protein dispersibility and p r o t e i n h y d r o p h o b i c i t y i n P e c t o r a l i s maj o r ( S t u d y Three)  111  The e f f e c t v o l t a g e on  196  o f t o t a l number o f p u l s e s p o s t m o r t e m pH d e c l i n e  and  C o r r e l a t i o n matrix f o r parameters studied f o r the C o n t r o l group from Study Two  198  C o r r e l a t i o n matrix f o r parameters studied f o r c a r c a s s e s s h o c k e d w i t h 70V (40s ) for 60s ( S t u d y Two)  199  C o r r e l a t i o n matrix for parameters studied f o r c a r c a s s e s s h o c k e d w i t h 70V ( 4 0 s ) f or 120s (Study Two)  200  C o r r e l a t i o n matrix f o r parameters studied f o r c a r c a s s e s s h o c k e d w i t h 140V (40s~l) for 60s ( S t u d y Two)  201  C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r p a r a m e t e r s s t u d i ed f o r c a r c a s s e s s h o c k e d w i t h 140V (40 s - l ) f o r 120s (Study Two)  202  - 1  Table  28.  - 1  Table  Table  29.  30.  LIST  OF  FIGURES Page  Figure  Figure  Figure  Figure  1A.  IB.  2A.  2B.  T h e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on p o s t m o r t e m pH d e c l i n e f o r t h e B i c e p s f e m o r i s : t h e e f f e c t o f t h e t o t a l number of p u l s e s  61  T h e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on p o s t m o r t e m pH d e c l i n e f o r t h e B i c e p s f e m o r i s : the e f f e c t of v o l t a g e  62  T h e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on p o s t m o r t e m pH d e c l i n e f o r t h e P e c t o r a l i s maj o r ; t h e e f f e c t o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f pulses  63  T h e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on p o s t m o r t e m pH d e c l i n e f o r t h e P e c t o r a l i s major: the e f f e c t of v o l t a g e  64  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The a u t h o r w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s h i s most s i n c e r e appreciation to h i s a d v i s o r , D r . J . F . R i c h a r d s , P r o f e s s o r , Department of Food S c i e n c e , f o r h i s c o n t i n u e d g u i d a n c e and s u p p o r t d u r i n g the c o u r s e of t h i s s t u d y . He i s a l s o g r a t e f u l f o r t h e c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f t h e members o f h i s g r a d u a t e committee: Dr. Dr. Dr.  R. F i t z s i m m o n s , D e p a r t m e n t o f P o u l t r y S c i e n c e , M.A. T u n g , D e p a r t m e n t o f F o o d S c i e n c e , a n d J . V a n d e r s t o e p , Department of Food S c i e n c e .  The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o t h a n k M r . M e l H u d s o n a n d t h e s t a f f o f t h e p o u l t r y farm f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s study. The t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e o f Ms. A i l e e n W r i g h t , M r . J o h n D y e r a n d Mr. D a l b i r B a i n s as w e l l as t h e c o m p u t e r a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d by M i s s L y n n e R o b i n s o n a r e g r e a t l y appreciated. To my t y p i s t , thanks . For  BDB,  I would  like  to express  t h e p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f my  a special  friends,  my  note of  thanks.  -  1  -  INTRODUCTION  It  has  per  recently  cent  of  been  estimated  commercially  produced  individually-quick-frozen There they for  i s , however, tend  this  to  be use  In  developed of  an  of  view  which  may  the  provide  bone,  years,  be  processed  these  products: reasons  related  to  shortening  p r o c e s s i n g methods these  i.e.  as  1985).  probable  cold  sixty  Fiset,  shortening  shock,  poultry  of  The  eliminate  electrical  will  quality  fact, or  five  (P.P.  tougher.  from  this  minimize  parts  include  muscle of  additional  stimulation,  for  tenderness  excision  rigor.  concern  within  poultry  poultry  significantly  reduced  pre-rigor thaw  be  that,  and/or should  phenomena.  The  electrical  processors with  the  required  process.  Electrical death  or  stimulation  after  of  carcass  animal  dressing  received  considerable attention  practice  i n the  literature  confirms  accelerates  the  conflicting  data  lamb,  mutton,  Henrickson and  by  of  meat  or  which  yet  limited  Recent  (1979),  (1982)  electrical  Most  of  has  the markedly  but  improvement  reviews  by  and  suggested  stimulation  after  commercial  glycolysis,  Pearson  have  that  stimulation  tenderness  beef.  immediately  procedure  industry.  postmortem  Cross  Cross  is a  electrical  regarding  goat  and  that  rate  (1982),  Seideman  mechanisms  Canadian  carcasses  presents in  Ashgar  Dutson three  could  cooked and (1985),  possible  influence  -  meat  tenderness  disruption  of  proteolytic  Busch  et  course changes  of  (1972) use  tool  development  assess  the  reduction or  by  for  of  cold  increased  its effect  et  influence  shortening,  activity  used on  in  rigor  (1974) were  provides  those  by  the  of  is  poultry,  studies  development  an  the  the  to  time to  important of  cooked  rigor meat  on  the  use  isometric  reported in  first  sensitivity  available and  the  follow  factors  subsequent  the  to  technique's  information for  al.  technique  shortening  stimulation been  This  measuring  Little  has  Jungk  isometric  mortis.  which  tenderness.  technique  and  postmortem  analytical  electrical  the  myofibrils  rigor  in  by  -  enzymes.  al.  extensively  -  2  herein  broiler  of tension to  muscle.  -  3 -  LITERATURE  1.  Electrical  The by  earliest  the  first  Stimulation  reported  Benjamin  Franklin  patents  use in  for  meat  (1951)  to  Rentschler  on  the  for  improved  1.1  The  1.1.1  workers  a l . , 1967;  Greathouse 1980;  an to  (1951). of  and  kill  and  Herbert,  aid  to  Harsham  and  electrical  their  effects  stimulation  turkeys 1975),  improve  Subsequent  the  electrical  et  McKeith  et  or  voltage  1984 ;  a l .,  Savell  et  et  1977 ,  and  Deatherage  shock  on  was  the  research  on  (Bouton  instrumentally  et  et  1981b; 1981;  Taylor  electrical  generally  Elgasim  meat  has  necessary  meat  quality.  tenderness  confirmed  by  et  Sonaiya 1980;  and  of  voltage  a l . ,  a l . , 1982; et  and  Powell  can  cooked  sensory  (Busch  1981;  Judge  et a l . ,  a l . ,  1983;  Stouffer,  Cornell,  stimulation  tenderness  high  Naewbanji  a l . , 1978,  1978b;  assessed  either  Hostetler  1978c,  a l .,  that  a l . , 1984;  a l . , 1980b,  M a r s h a l l , 1980)  improvement  reported  a l . , 1983;  et  low  have  Cross  Savell  and  as  granted  efficiency  of  (Lopez  to  Beef  Several et  were  parameters  effect  electricity  i t s use  of  focused  of  1749  tenderness and  REVIEW  1982 )  et a l . ,  1985;  Taylor  improve  the  beef  -  an  evaluation.  Cross  -  et  a l . ( 1984 ) s u g g e s t e d  electrical  stimulation  deficiencies whereas  in  Devine  bull and  that  quality  Chrystall be  noted  slaughter.  Smith  et  a l . (1979)  ratings  calves  hide-off),  cows  and  intact  or  Several no  steers  could  split  other  Bowles  stimulation  d i d not  unfrozen  and  steaks.  Jeremiah chilling  Bratzler  and  grades  of  Froehlich,  carcass  Riley  et  grade  on  that  weights,  no  stressed.prior  improved  dressing  electrically  have  to  tenderness  style  (hide-on  suggested  that  stimulated either  nor  et  a l . (1983)  and  as  stimulation  alterations no  force  the  These  after latter  examined  the  carcasses  of  neither  tenderness  authors  of  of  differences for  three in  steaks  handling  concluded  sensory  and  values  produced  found  effect  electrical  force  commercial  influenced  was  beef  that  that  significant  v a l u e s , were  beef  beef  noted  in  there  Semimembranosus  electrical  significantly  Choice  dorsi  shear  also  Canadian 1983).  reported  reduce  that  stimulated  a l . (1985)  Similarly, shear  suggested  for electrically  Lon g i s s imus  et  a l . (1982)  stimulation  were  for  carcass  cautioned  a l . (1980a)  consistently  meaningful  Warner three  Axe  frozen  muscles.  et  however,  advantage  bovine  compensate  reported of  voltage  carcasses.  carcasses.  consistent,  be  workers,  particular  delayed  McKeith  high  heavier  i f animals  irrespective  while  of  at  (1984)  would  vs.  use  partially  improvement  for  -  the  could  meat  4  from (Wood  that  tenderness.  electrical  concluded  that  i t  -  could This  not improve variable  (1981a), affect but  who  response  the tenderness  located  i n the  Although  compared were  i n those  that  Cornell,  1985).  The  or  earliest  voltages  muscles and  when  Babiker, been  tenderness  carcasses,  similarly  on l a m b  no  values  a l .  d i d not  o f t h e arm of  region  muscles  improved  ratings  aged  shear  when  significant  f o r treated  carcasses,  f o r one m i n u t e )  could  when  force  et  and  differences control  f o r 28 d a y s  (Taylor  and  mutton  studies  Hagyard,  noted  panel  of the f l e e c e ,  stimulation  stimulation  significantly  parameters  had been  (3600V  resistance  tender.  by M c K e i t h  muscles  the shear  stimulation  to u n s t i m u l a t e d  Lamb  electrical  already  hindquarter.  carcasses  1.1.2  were  observed  of the major  and s e n s o r y  observed  -  which  also  that  reduced  electrical  values  muscles was  suggested  significantly  force  those  5  reduce  compared  to t h e i r  1975, 1 9 7 6 ) .  either  to overcome  demonstrated shear  force  that  values  respective  Similar  low ( C h r y s t a l l  1983) o r h i g h  using  (Chrystall  extremely  the  high  high  electrical f o r l e g and  controls  improvements  loin  (Chrystall  have  e t a l . , 1984; L e w i s  been and  e t a l . , 1984) v o l t a g e s  have  used.  Bouton  et a l .  (1984)  indicated  that  electrical  stimulation  can  - 6 improve  the tenderness  transient values  o n e a s no  were  carcasses  1.1.3  Pork  There  i s limited  stimulation ( 1978), could and  hand,  Bratzler and  the e f f e c t  quality.  Longissimus  muscle  any t e n d e r n e s s that,  and James  control  may  be a  shear  treated  at 0°C.  improvement  L o n g i s s imus  ageing  carcass  suggested  little  Gigiel  days  pork  not detect  tender,  the  on  after  but the e f f e c t  i n Warner  i n f o r m a t i o n on  examining  further  differences  observed  f o r four  of mutton,  electrical  Westervelt  differences  due  as t h e L o n g i s s i m u s should  and  a t 24 h o u r s  conventionally  Stouffer  postmortem, to  stimulation  i s already  be e x p e c t e d .  (1984) observed  f o r both  of  On  improved  the other  tenderness  and r a p i d l y  of  chilled  carcasses.  1.1.4  Savell  Goat  et a l . (1977)  stimulation  of goats  shear  values  force  Longissimus  dorsi  differences  were  the  legs.  reported  that,  significantly  and improved muscles  when  although reduced  sensory compared  n o t o f t h e same  the  Warner  panel  electrical Bratzler  tenderness  to c o n t r o l s ,  magnitude  of  these  f o r the muscles  of  -  1.2  The  1.2.1  In  effect  of  electrical  general, on  electrical  the  flavour  fabricated  from  al.,  Elgasim  1982;  Griffin (Cross  et et  al .,  stimulation  amount  of  in  prepared al .,  slight  negative  observed  Jeremiah  on  tissue,  however,  (Cross  effect et  on  al.,  of et  and and  meat  flavour  either  steaks  and  Davey,  1982a)  electrical  1982a).  juiciness  et  bulls  Significant  tenderness, and  overall  for  Longissimus  steaks  steer  carcasses  (Calkins  stimulation  did  roasts  1976;  and  desirability  stimulated  or  Calkins  myofibrillar  noted  and  detrimental  a l . , 1983;  Martin,  of  been  little  Martin,  flavour  parameters  had  Gilbert  ratings  Although  tenderness  Axe  Jeremiah  electrically  1983).  sensory  (Bowles  sensory  has  juiciness  a l . , 1981;  1981;  have,  from  and  et  connective  palatability  stimulation  steers  a l . , 1983;  improvements  1.2.2  -  Beef  effect  et  7  not  affect  scores  has  improved flavour,  also  a  been  1984).  Pork  Crenwelge  et  electrical  a l . ( 1984  stimulation  palatability  of  these  authors  paler  and  compared  ) did  less to  pork  found firm,  untreated  on  not  cooking  Lon g i s s imus that and  observe loss,  exhibited at  8,  effect  cooking  muscle.  electrically  muscles  any  On  stimulated  increased 11  the  and  due  time  to or  other  muscles  separation 21  hand,  hours  were when  -  8  -  post-stimulation.  1.3  The  effect  of  electrical  stimulation  on  heat  ring  f ormat i o n  The  formation  that  has  of  been  a  dark  chilled  too  differential  chill  1985).  mechanism  The  recent  study  postmortem increase in  a  has  cold  myofibrillar Both  high  in  al.,  1980a,b;  1.4  The  1.4.1  The  low  bulls,  steers Orcutt  et  the  been  ribeye  ring",  muscle  the  band  area  capacity  of  the  of  to  reflect  fluid  the  probable the  voltage  band  stimulation  severity  cows  (Cross  a l . , 1984;  and  Salm  and  less  would  result incident  et  al.,  have  1984).  been of  a l . , 1984; et  a  the  incidence  et  the  slower  (which  of  (Orcutt  to  but  a  muscle  cause  beef  (Smith,  is unclear  in  dark  in  attributed  i n t e r a c t i o n between  the and  has  "heat  an  within  decreasing  in  al.,  layer  and  or  i t s formation  rate  recession  ring  et  for  shortening,  voltage  effective  within  holding  surface  band,  rapidly  suggested  water  thinner  light)and  rate  glycolytic  the  coarse  a l . , 1981;  found  heat  McKeith  et  Savell  1978a).  effect  of  electrical  stimulation  on  quality  grades  Beef  major  enticement  stimulation  has  been  in the  the  United  process'  States effect  to on  use  electrical  appearance,  since  -  marbling  and  colour  assigned  (Marsh,  influence  1985).  significant  improvement  stimulation  In  lean  marbling  scores  Tennent,  1980;  1981b; al.,  Salm  1984;  1983;  Klastrup  al.,  et  (McKeith  a l . , 1984  has  Several  reports  have  to  high  a l . , 1983; Sleper  al .,  1980),  et  a l . , 1981b;  lean  et  et  these  texture  and  Cross  and  Stiffler (Crouse  a l . , 1983),  et  et  et a l . ,  heifers  and  mature  stimulation  a l . , 1978b;  al .,  a  a l . , 1980a,  1983;  voltage  Savell  is  electrical  bulls  et  Low  carcass  indicated  a l . , 1981b),  (McKeith  improved  a  a l . , 1980;  McKeith  Sleper  McKeith  heifers  et  et  Henrickson,  also  colour,  (Calkins  a l . , 1980a,b). et  voltage  lean  a l . , 1984;  ) and  1978c)  et  a l . , 1984;  (McKeith  steers et  et  and et  grade  due  a l . , 1981;  Tang  (Klastrup cows  et  quality  steers  Cross  -  the  maturity,  for  9  1981b;  of  Stiffler  Savell  et  grade-determining  characteristics.  Electrical  stimulation  higher-than-justifled Crouse al.  et  grades  for  appear  that  stimulated pigment  and  the  Salm  McKeith  treated  1980).  Sleper  and  observed  treated et  but  stimulation  decreasing  anaerobic  grades  generally  (Calkins  veal,  be by  et  enhancement  higher (Tang  recently  influence  al.,  by  in  muscle  metmyoglobin-reducing  would  electrically  changes  in  of  Henrickson,  suggested  et  improved  It  percentage and  in  1980;  McKeith  reported  respectively.  explained a  resulted  although  a l . (1982) have  carcasses  may  not  a l . , 1981),  a l . (1983)  electrical  has  colour  cannot  concentration, in  et  et  beef  carcasses  oxymyoglobin  beef  carcass  a l . , 1983;  (1981a)  of  that  colour activity  by and  total  -  inducing  1.4.2  metmyoglobin  -  formation.  Pork  Johnson and  more  10  et  al.  softer  (1982)  textured  loin  stress-susceptible, unstimulated cook  loss,  reported  palatability  when  short-fasted  carcasses. Warner  eyes  lighter  No  Bratzler  ratings  were  coloured  electrically  pigs  were  significant shear  ham  force  observed  muscles  stimulated,  compared  to  differences  in  values  between  or  the  thaw  or  sensory  control  and  stimulated.carcasses.  1.5  The  1.5.1  The  effect  of  electrical  retail  caselife carcasses  treatment,  whereas  were  brighter  those  from  (1982b)  and  of  ground  was top  not  steaks less  when  (Hall  et  a l . , 1980).  observed  no  significant  extent loss  fabricated  of or  surface retail  from  prepared  significantly  round  exhibited  beef  controls  conditions  drip  on  retail  caselife  Beef  stimulated  the  stimulation  stored  from  surface under  stimulated  or  for  those  by  in  than  display  Jeremiah  differences  the  carcasses  discoloration  However,  control  same  identical  boneless  electrically  influenced  discoloration, retail  caselife  from  lean  and  Martin  colour,  acceptability,  rib  steaks  carcasses.  Although  Ockerman  and  Szczawinski  electrical  stimulation  values  beef  other  for  studies  initial  or  Kotula,  have  (Hall  1980;  stimulation of  prepared  (Riley  al .,  1.5.2  Lamb  or  Riley  et  weight racks  al.  losses and  reported  that  detrimentally another  been  of  counterparts  found  count  microflora,  due  Jeremiah ).  In  effect or  on  the  to  several  and  Martin,  addition,  shrink for  in  either  electrical  either  displayed  no  the  weight  loss  two  1982b;  electrical  of  to  loss  retail  three  s i g n i f i c a n t changes  vacuum-packaged due  electrical  to  affect  stimulation  prepared the  loin  (Riley  et  and  from  quality  chops  stimulated  bacterial  wholesale  stimulation.  discoloration  chops  study,  lower  mixed  plate  days  ).  (1980a)  electrically had  aerobic  that  significant reduction  1982  and  indicated  mutton  surface loin  al .,  them  shoulders)  decreased boneless  et  subprimals  1982  a  a l . , 1980;  apparent  from  et  and  et  no  no  the  b a c t e r i a l numbers  Riley has  with  reported  vacuum-packaged  cuts  In  inoculated  terminal  stimulation  decreased  (1983)  improved  those  from  wether  were  more  counts al.,  improved  than  1980b).  muscle the  lambs, from  loins,  authors  also  colour,  appearance and  did  spring  carcasses  desirable  their  the  (legs,  These  old-crop of  cuts  in  not  lambs.  that in  of  had  appearance  non-stimulated  -  1.5.3  Pork  Crenwelge  et al .  significant ratings, pork  electrical  and e x h i b i t e d  carcasses  affect  These  were  Electrical  i n shear  stimulation  negative  rapidly,  variable  1.6  response  The e f f e c t meat  there  or  treated  separation  three  days  e f f e c t on  carcasses when  reduced  tissue  i f these chilled.  d i dnot  of storage  a t 0-2°C,  the thermoresistance  There  a slight  no a t t e m p t s  (Ockerman  of e l e c t r i c a l  piantarum were  made  and S z c z a w i n s k i ,  stimulation  decrease and  were  compared  influence was  no  palatability  conventionally,  pork  were  of  i n the  Pseudomonas  to e x p l a i n  this  1984).  and h o t boning  on  quality  1.6.1  Beef  "Hot  boning  that  involves  chilling"  reported  from  than  of L a c t o b a c i l l u s  although  values  e f f e c t s were  after  faecalis.  although  had a d e t r i m e n t a l  of i n o c u l a t e d  did i t significantly  putrefaceins,  force  muscle  rather  b a c t e r i a l growth  thermoresistance  that  muscles  increased  stimulation  Streptococcus  to  indicated  Longissimus  controls.  nor  (1984)  differences  quality.  paler to  12 -  on  is a relatively the removal (Cross  new  process  of lean  and S e i d e m a n ,  meat  of carcass  fabrication  and f a t f r o m  1985).  the i n t e r a c t i o n of e l e c t r i c a l  Several  bone  studies  stimulation  prior have  and h o t  -  boning  and c o n c l u d e d  that  steaks  (Ray  e t a l . , 1982) p r e p a r e d  were  comparable  The  beneficial  treated  and c o n t r o l  (Seideman Lawrie  (1983)  and h i g h  temperature  for five  hours  processed  muscle  minimize later  when  same  aged  overall on  (1985)  f o r mature  muscle  over  manner.  electrical  stimulation influence  packaged  tended  that  be m a i n t a i n e d  steaks  to  of hot boning.  confirmed  and T a y l o r  no  In a  acceptable  during  et a l . (1981)  was  and young  beef  14 d a y s o f  also  This  reported  cows,  lack  found  was  d e t e c t a b l e changes  desirability.  palatability  - i.e.,  significantly  Longissimus  s t i m u l a t e d , h o t boned  flavour  of  ageing -  and  1985).  controls,  effect  a combination  stimulation  effect  authors could  days  d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  although  et a l .,  e t a l . (1979)  that  controls.  five  of p o l y v i n y l c h l o r i d e  darkening  colour  electrically  similarly for  these  (Claus  Seideman  hot boning  day p e r i o d ,  display  storage  demonstrated  colour  the muscle  study  muscle  with  display  a five  of h o t boned  meat  Babiker  to c h i l l i n g  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  et a l . (1984)  combination  prior  roasts  to d i m i n i s h i f  f o r at least  stimulation  controls  over  appeared  that  the tenderness  the  aged  counterpart  reported  improved  in  to t h e i r  recently  or 40°C  Claus  were  1983 ) o r  s t i m u l a t e d , hot-boned  of s t i m u l a t i o n  cuts  et a l .,  e t a l . , 1979; T a y l o r e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) .  electrical 30°C  (Lyon  from  i n tenderness effect  13 -  of  compared  were  to  observed  treatment  by H a w r y s h  although  that  and  Wolfe  the p a l a t a b i l i t y  of  -  electrically young, that  stimulated,  control  mature  carcasses.  from  control  compared  to those  d i d approach  et a l .  flavour  bull  from  cows  Shivas  the i n t e n s i t y of beef  prepared  14 -  was  (1985)  greater  Semimembranosus  electrically  that  of  recently in  steaks  muscle  stimulated,  noted  when  h o t boned  muscles.  The  combination  appear  to have  meat.  Berry  problems muscles 3°C.  of e l e c t r i c a l a variable  and K o t u l a  held  under  On  the other  hand,  extended  the shelf  life  not  alter  the nature  Henrickson,  1.6.2  Lamb  Stern  (1980)  stimulation concluded surface  1.6.3  Reagan  effect  (1982)  due t o t r e a t m e n t were  stimulation  when  vacuum  on  and h o t b o n i n g  the m i c r o b i a l  found  no m a j o r  strip  loin  packaging  electrical of ground  of the s p o i l a g e  q u a l i t y of  microbial  or eye of f o r seven  stimulation  beef  round days at  significantly  (by three  flora  would  days)  (Raccach  but d i d  and  1980).  examined on  that  the effect  the m i c r o b i a l the l a t t e r  bacterial  of hot boning  quality  of various  and  electrical  lamb  cuts  d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  influence  recently  that  and  numbers.  Pork  and H o n i k e l  (1985)  demonstrated  t o p and  -  bottom  hams  from  hot  combination  with  electrical  levels  of  control  purge  processed  after  samples.  processing  of  being  less  juicy  other  differences  Loin  than  suggested  produce those  1.7  of  cuts  from  The  In  a  hot  flavour,  that  use  of  storage  processed  electrical  were  than  also  rated  c a r c a s s e s , but  values  of  stimulation  lower  as  no  tenderness,  shear  the  in  conventional  control  Bratzler  electrical  and by  were  noted.  conditioning  or  and  rapid  chilling  carcasses  equal  or  conventionally processed  effect  a could  superior  to  systems.  stimulation  on  further  properties  Beef  study  Contreras from  Warner  from  manufacturing  1.7.1  from  i n sensory  These  combination  produced  or  exhibited  stimulated cuts  chops  or  carcasses, alone  packaging  chops  desirability,  -  stimulation,  vacuum  electrically  authors  15  which and  utilized  Harrison  electrically  sensitive counts. chilled  to  and  comparable 1981). negative  (1981)  authors  cooking  Similarly, influence  and  sensory  the  and  later  muscle had  beef was  lower  prepared  more microbial  that c o n v e n t i o n a l l y  properties stimulation  physical,  system,  ground  s t i m u l a t e d , hot  electrical on  beef  that  boned  formation  reported  electrically  ground  found  s t i m u l a t e d , hot  metmyoglobin  These  a model  boned  ground  (Contreras did  sensory  or  not  beef  had  et a l . ,  exert  cooking  a  -  properties at  of ground  one, t h r e e  1981).  Berry  freezing  beef  16 -  from  Utility  a n d 24 h o u r s  postmortem  and S t i f f l e r  (1981),  losses  when  ground  beef  stimulated,  The  salt-soluble protein  muscle  was  treatment 1982a), sides  more a f f e c t e d than  a n d when  were  used  significant overall those recent and  differences  prepared study  were  1984).  from  has i n d i c a t e d emulsion  I t was  suggested  in stimulated  and  decrease  to  control  1.7.2  It  muscles  were  no  colour, compared  the emulsifying muscle  stimulation  the rapid  protein  salt-soluble protein  would  in a  pH  model  et a l . , decline  solubility  content  compared  muscles.  appear  that  effects  to e l e c t r i c a l  there  a r e no m a j o r  on f u n c t i o n a l  stimulation  beneficial  properties  (Whiting  or  o f lamb  et a l .,  A  capacity  (Choi  postmortem  change  to  et a l . , 1982b).  of preblended  may  stimulated  visual when  et a l . ,  Lamb  detrimental due  their  that  temperature  there  (Terrell  both  from  carcasses.  from  shrinkage  by e l e c t r i c a l  observed thus  that  made  (Terrell  external  sides  stability  decreased  and  frankfurters,  and p r o c e s s  increased  Semimembranosus  and p l a t e s  in their  control  state  boned  Tennent,  noted  control,  stimulation  flanks  to prepare  desirability  thermal  system  clods,  and  were  of beef  by r i g o r  by e l e c t r i c a l  however,  than  carcasses  (Cross  patties  electrically  per cent  rather  grade  1981).  muscle  - 17 Electrical  stimulation  consistent  or  significant  protein  solubility,  cooking  loss  manufactured chilled  loss,  and from  but  Warner  properties  no  when  of  exhibited  capacity,  to  changes  gel  values,  those  from  few  capacity,  frankfurters  stimulated,  rapidly  emulsion  smokehouse  force  had  strength,  improved in  but  holding  Furthermore,  slightly  shear  length  water  electrically  significant  compared  on  strength.  muscles  Bratzler  sarcomere  effects  emulsifying  binding  carcasses  stability  increased  cook  weight  loss  or  sensory  non-stimulated  carcasses.  1.7.3  Both  Pork  tumbling  distribution but  the  related of and  and of  sodium  contents to  nitrite  electrical  of  storage and  salt  Dowiercial,  time  and  and  Kwiatek,  these  sodium cure  anatomical  greater  has  migration  cylindrical and  and  in  enhanced chloride  in  ingredients location -  the  the  lean  bacon,  were the  portion  highly content  (Ockerman  1980).  absorption  (Ockerman  of and  was  stimulation  of  nitrite  each  Electrical  depths  stimulation  Kwiatek, 1985b,c).  of  also  significantly  nitrite,  samples  salt  prepared  1985a,c)  or  hot  improved  and  from boned  glucose  either  the into a l l  cold  muscles  boned  (Ockerman  -  1.8  The e f f e c t  of e l e c t r i c a l  18 -  stimulation  on  postmortem  glycolysis  1.8.1  The  Beef  study  of the e f f e c t  postmortem from  of  lactate  beef  g l y c o l y s i s i n beef  any s p e c i e s  variability  of e l e c t r i c a l  - has been  that  normally  production.  carcasses  muscle  exists  Bendall  (1978)  that  and T r i c e p s  required  to reach  from  after  between  temperature  two-fold 10-12°C  correction  variability.  This  and i n c r e a s e d  than  13°C ( J e a c o c k e ,  Many  of the e a r l y  on  with  during  stimulation (1977)  studies  accelerated  the rate  Semimembranosus control  muscles.  rate  o f pH  value  these  o f pH  increasing  monitored  decline  these  there  Biceps  the time  o f pH  7.1  were  was  and  rates i n  dorsi,  values  decline  compared  still  a  was  minimal  temperatures  greater  shock  (dpH/dt).  electrical o f pH  of  i n muscle  at  stimulation pH  that  ( A p H ) and a f t e r t h e  McCollum  and  stimulation  decline  voltage  the e f f e c t  the change  and S u p r a s p i n a t u s Low  high  b r a c h i i muscles  initial  When  the e l e c t r i c a l  that  the  muscle  1 977 ) .  had c e a s e d  observed  matter,  examined  ( t o 38°C),  g l y c o l y s i s by d e t e r m i n i n g  occurred  an  8 t o 16 h o u r s .  on  f o r Longissimus  Semimembranosus  ranged  by  i n the rate  femoris,  6.0  - f o r that  complicated  and r e p o r t e d  pH  stimulation  Henrickson  significantly  i n L o n g i s s imus muscles  when  stimulation  also  dorsi,  compared  to  effectively  -  enhanced  the postmortem  (Nichols  and  1985). of  Several  high-energy  adenosine al.,  due  studies  indicated  compounds  -  (1978) had  decline  unaffected  carcasses  1977; V o g e l  a more  rapid  creatine  glycogen  et a l . ,  catabolism  phosphate  and  1983; V o g e l (Swatland,  et  1975,  stimulation.  shock  o f t h e pH  i n beef  e t a l . , 1982,  e t a l . , 1979) - and  the e l e c t r i c a l  was  rate  and W a l k e r ,  (Calkins  and D e v i n e  magnitude  Shaw  have  to e l e c t r i c a l  Chrystall  dpH/dt  1980;  triphosphate  -  glycolytic  phosphate  1985; W i l l  1977)  of  Cross,  19  by  suggested  that  a considerable during  the pulse effect  stimulation  the s u b t l e t i e s  of the  frequency  on t h e  ( ApH)  and  that  stimulation  conditions.  Although muscle  a review  fibre  classically electrical confirmed  types  i s beyond  "white"  muscles  stimulation  in  severely  (Cross  (Devine  that  improving  been  than  histochemica1ly  measurements suggested  of the s i m i l a r i t i e s  carcass  1983).  have  differences  of t h i s  responded  "red" muscles.  (Swatland,  stimulation  more  r e a d i l y to  This  1981) and  of  their  between  report,  has  by  been  pH  I t has r e c e n t l y will  only  glycogen  stores  been  be e f f e c t i v e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i f the muscles  depleted  et a l . ,  the scope  et a l . , 1984a).  electrical  and  due  have to  not  stress  -  1.8.2  Lamb  or  Electrically accelerated rates  of  20  mutton  stimulated rates  of  lamb  lactic  energy-rich  carcasses acid  phosphate  carcasses  (Bendall,  had  immediate  fall  of  rapid,  pH  decline  controls. been  This  observed  voltage  one  of  shock  influenced  recent  et  suggested the  lamb  indirect, appear  i.e.,  that  critical  to  Newbold,  a  leg  the that  sustained  rate  that pH  was  low et  the  voltage  of  nervous  effectiveness  of  system low  voltage  and  A  found  both The  electrical  rate.  however,  is  high  1983a,b).  the  glycolytic  system,  also  stimulation,  affected  nervous  has  extremely  al.,  stimulatory  the  in  voltage  most  of  observed decline  electrical  a l . (1980),  muscles  a  voltage.  through  1982).  and  Rashid  the  to also  stimulating  functional  the  of  compared  received or  post-stimulation  of  concluded  have  increased  carcasses  times  1975)  only  et  pH  highly  These  postmortem  which  that  response  authors  of  studies  Chrystall  by  three  and  when  1976).  a l . , 1984b;  by  and  production  muscle  Hagyard,  study  application  and  and  earliest  (1973)  to  carcasses  (Devine  the  two  in  acceleration  in  Carse  the  was  (Chrystall  stimulation  In  that  exhibited  turnover  unstimulated a  -  by  more  that  delay  latter  effect i t  was  would  particularly systems  (Morton  in  -  1.8.3  Other  Devine  -  species  and C h r y s t a l l  anaesthetized  rats  accelerating slaughter. electrical  21  (1984) observed  prior  postmortem I t was  that  to s l a u g h t e r  was  g l y c o l y s i s than  also  noted  that,  stimulation  ceased  stimulation  has a l s o  by  to have  the s t i m u l a t i o n less  of  effective in  stimulation 30 m i n u t e s  an e f f e c t  on  after  postmortem, pH  decline.  Electrical rabbit 1985)  s k e l e t a l muscle although  high  enhanced  (Bendall,  voltages  t h e pH  1976; H o r g a n  may  be  required  decline i n  and  Kuypers,  f o r the  greater  decline.  1.8.4  General  Several data  considerations  authors  reported  Bendall  creatine decline  found  This decline  was  study,  Hintz  fibres  varied  cautious  same  metabolism.  normally  o f pH  decline  and o f l a c t i c  author  suggested  sufficiently  than  1979).  found  that  to produce  levels.  later  of c r e a t i n e  faster  (Bendall,  et a l . (1982)  of metabolite  of muscle  muscles  i n the r a t i o  pH  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  beef  a c t u a l l y much  i n muscle  spectrum  that  i n the rates  production. postmortem  advocated  f o r any e x a m i n a t i o n  (1978)  variability  have  exhibit  that  high  acid  the  phosphate  to  anticipated  from the  In a r a t h e r  elegant  i n d i v i d u a l r a t muscle an a l m o s t  continuous  - 22 -  The  mechanism  effect Some the  on  by  which  postmortem  research  rate  levels  (Bendall,  during  (Newbold  enzymes  to  1979) and  increase the  electrically glycolysis  in  as  the  alterations increase  in  the  Tume,  Several  and  pressurization .  untreated  of  in  for  muscles  required  may  this  certain  that  greater  catalytic  intermediates  may  also  reticulum,  calcium  a  suggested  reflect  Kuypers,  from  microenvironment  stimulation  and  glycolytic  muscles and  of  which  would  have  been  another The  noted  newer  latter  processing  process  phosphate,  Semimembranosus  muscles  The was  between  permanent  in  turn  (Joseph  could  et a l . ,  rate  of  also  adenosine muscles ATP  approximately  electrically  has  electrical aid,  stimulated  the  triphosphate  and  turnover three muscles  prerigor accelerated  when  compared for  times  be  this  cause  concentration  <a  enzyme  reported  Psoas  of  1980).  creatine  beef  of  unclear.  phosphorylase  (Horgan  after  its  acceleration  or  metabolic  the  the  of  carcasses  sarcoplasmic  controls.  pressurized observed  beef  remains  activity  binding of  exerts  higher  a l . ( 1980)  filaments  cytoplasmic 1979,  stimulation  glycogen  the  within  the  parallels  catabolism  et  that  either  higher  Clarke  Electrical  reactions  from  1985)  in  stimulation  suggested  Small,  stimulated  concentrated  'particle'.  1980;  actin  or  stimulated  effectiveness highly  have  results  1985 ) s t i m u l a t i o n . significant  biochemical  reports  glycolytic  electrical  to  prerigor the  rate  (Elkhalifa  et  -  al.,  1984a,b).  in  the  be  responsible  2.  The  sarcoplasmic for  mechanism  Electrical excellent detailed  i t s effect  on  postmortem  improved  meat  and  Seideman  and  reduction  these  should  be  and  meat  Cross,  1982).  three  possible  (3)  by  the  quality  by  the  increased  number  to  on  for  may  noted, by  more  and  (1)  1985;  these  which  reviews  electrical by  the  d i s r u p t i o n of  activity  of  muscle  Dutson,  tenderness:  (2)  a  (Ashgar  and  mechanisms  shortening;  of  effect  previously  meat  muscles  glycolysis.  referred  Pearson  As  influence  cold or;  1979;  treated  subject  biophysics  could  myofibrils,  the  process'  Cross,  of  been  the  suggested  stimulation  has  some a l t e r a t i o n s  tenderness  of  1982;  that  pressure  descriptions  Henrickson,  suggested of  of  reviews  (1981)  -  reticulum  stimulation  biochemistry,  have  Hohorst  23  of  the  proteolytic  enzymes.  2.1  The  The  cold  prevention  shortening  tendency  of  has  reduced  been  1963).  This  2°C  as  from  cold  below  is  shortened  as  has  to  about  freezing great  shortening  muscles  tendency  the  be  cold  phenomenon  prerigor  approaches can  of  been  shorten  described when  as  their  temperature  15°  to  19°C  greater  as  the  muscle  temperature  that  muscle  shortening  point that  muscle  such  which was  occurs  (Locker  the  at  significantly  and  37°C.  Hagyard,  Cooked  tougher  than  at meat that  from  Two  postrigor  muscles  mechanisms  According  to  system  temperatures there  is  other  hand,  Buege  phenomenon  a  can  and  be  +  ions,  release  more  Ca 2  Cold  shortening  Marsh,  1975; Locker  1983)  and  and  white  et  al .,  of  predominantly  reflect  developed  temperatures.  cold  shortening.  (1967) p r e r i g o r Ca ^  into  +  stimulates high  ATP  (1975)  the  release  that of  These  sarcotubular  systems  still  than  capable  mitochondria could  be  On  in  the  the  Ca ^  from  +  latter  of  at  contraction  concentration.  conditions.  both  sarcoplasm  muscle  suggested  the  muscle's  of  authors  red  and  accumulating red  effectively  muscles  would  reabsorbed  has  been  demonstrated  and  Newbold,  Hagyard, muscles and  white  1963;  1967;  Marsh  Richards, muscles  et  to  red  (Buege  Lockyer, The  exhibit and  a  (Cornforth  and  et a l . ,  a l . , 1974;  1974b).  numbers  system  both  Cornforth  ( D r a n s f i e l d and  mitochondrial  sarcotubular  in  Mickelson,  1985;  reduced  Smith tendency  this  phenomenon  more  extensively  et  a l . , 1980;  et  a l . (1976)  suggested  that  cold  shortening  may  Lawrie,  1979) .  Bendall  by  system.  1969 ; Wood  lower  for  more  numerous  Cassens  1980;  the  ions  +  sarcotubular  Marsh  are  more  its  Newbold  anoxic  fibres  the  proposed  a t t r i b u t e d to  although  Ca 2  similar  relatively  believe  muscle  to  thereby  under  white  exposed  releases  mitochondria that  -  and  and  while  24  been  Cassens  sarcotubular low  have  -  should  -  not  occur  to  reached  less  muscles  of  al.  and  carcasses  5.7  the  the from  2.2  reports  improved  severe  has  been  with  either al.,  1982;  of  with to  the  that  both  the  band et  shearing.  This  light  6.0  within  one  Davey  et  beef temperature  associated  et  i n hot  with  also  cold  been  a l . (1977) boned  development or  tearing  a l . , 1982;  the  that  this  possible  as  beef  et Will  stimulated  electron  to  for  muscles  was  structural microscopy,  of  ' c o n t r a c t u r e bands'  of  the  myofibrils  a l . , 1985; et  either  on  Sonaiya  a l . , 1980).  myofilament  resistance  mechanism  diminished  and  (Fabiansson  suggested lower  one  electrically  stretching  Sorinmade  therefore  mechanical  suggested  disruption.  observed  of  major  disruption  tenderness  a l . (1978a)  would  carcasses.  attributed  side  pH  Gilbert  stimulated  muscle  electrically  s h o r t e n i n g has  and  the  internal  normally  (1976)  the  stimulated  their  cold  of  stimulation.  improvement  have  concomitant  from  pH  that  reached  after  before  range  Davey  the  from  tenderness  myofibrillar  integrity,  et  for  Myofibrillar  the  and  electrically  Several  well  p r e v e n t i o n of  Gilbert  thigh  hours  muscles  temperature  The  mechanism  rigor  and  carcasses  2.5  that  once  demonstrated  back  beef  -  extent  and  within  reached  shortening. by  6.0  forelimb,  reported  approached  cited  pH  undressed  pH  (1976)  significant  than  the  stimulated, hour,  any  25  Savell  stretching chewing  et  or  -  Marsh the  et a l . (1981)  sole  were  reason  indicated  was  negligible  contribution improvement intact  c a r c a s s e s were  muscles  from  from  'Contracture  bands'  samples  control  from  prepared effect  from  George  myofibrillar denatured  recently  carcasses  artefact  i n tissue  studies  rather  reported that  that  proteins bands  though  the  i n muscle suggests  has been  (Fabiansson  and  the  improperly specific  Libelius,  observed  carcasses  noted  than  their  and t h e r e f o r e n o t a  and f u r t h e r  f o r the dark  sides  as  - a finding  stimulation  sarcoplasmic  tenderness  et a l . , 1980a).  been  s t i m u l a t e d beef  damage  account  (McKeith  which  The  s t i m u l a t e d , even  as t e n d e r  was  H z ) , whereas the  (2 H z ) .  to  e t a l . ( 1980 ) h a d e a r l i e r  electrically  might  have  of e l e c t r i c a l  1985 ) .  electrically  f o r microscopy  (50-60  disruption  disruption  i n carcasses  t o be g r e a t e r when  the sides  a r e a common  tenderness  frequencies  t h e c a r c a s s e s were  counterparts  bands  at lower  appeared  myofibrillar  frequency  of m y o f i b r i l l a r also  -  that  f o r the enhanced  s t i m u l a t e d at a normal  effect  26  that  d i d not  muscles  exhibit  irregular  bands of  on m y o f i b r i l l a r  surfaces  observed  in  which  light  microscopy.  2.3  Increased  2.3.1  proteolytic  activity  General considerations  Several  review  articles  on t h e  postmortem  changes  which  occur  -  during  the  ageing  literature  or  (Ashgar  and  Parrish  (1977)  have  (1)  removal  or  the  Lusby,  myofibril; the  Z  (2)  disc;  appearance  (3) of  a  extractability has  also  and  the  m y o f i b r i l at  dalton  protein that  that  would  appear  architecture  of  tenderness  Marsh,  1981;  suggested  that the  intracellular  the  large  this  protease.  Parrish  et  initial was  and  early  can  and  contractile  not  Yeates,  of  changes  a  postmortem  (1978)  On  in  the  either  respectively.  in  the  molecular  for  the  promotion  al.,  Ishiura  et  al.  degradation  agreed  actin  Parrish  et  the  the  enzymes  and  that  1983; (1982)  of  process  calcium-activated  (1983)  was  Barrett  Goll  non-lysosomal  to  in  Bechtel  necessary  of  changes  hydrolysing  changes  1978;  near  proteinases,  proteins  structural  a  (4)  or  the  aldolase.  and  significant  step  and  as:  the  i n a c t i v a t e the  (1978)  Lusby  protease  and,  capable  B  are  T  lysosomal  a l . , 1983).  initiation  calcium-activated in  and  proteins  attributed  any  muscle  Pearson  are  Yeates  major  (Ashgar  that  consequence  and  the  acidic  D,  from  alpha-actinin.  diphosphatase  observe  or  troponin  protein;  cathepsin  fructose  not  of  and  the  and  sarcoplasmic  of  of  degradation  line  the  and  modifications  fragmentation  myosin,  (1983) d i d  Cheng  Z  C  Ashgar  a l ., 1983).  primary  in  1981;  the  cathepsin  hand,  appeared  Etherington,  et  the  have  of  and  other  It  Pearson  B  glucokinase,  meat  disappearance  30,000 of  of  1978;  described  the  suggested  cathepsin  Yeates,  1983;  the  -  conditioning  and  Parrish  27  and neutral  the  probably  the  protease  muscle,  but  several  of authors  28  have  stressed  protease Valin,  a cooperative  and l y s o s o m a l  1981; P e a r s o n  of lysosomal  Three  distinct  regions  i n vertebrate  acidic  activity but  pH  as t h e s e  connective degradation 1977;  Thirteen seven  C have  been  derivatives have  assigned has been  optimum  i s higher (Pearson  authors  neutral  at a l k a l i n e  The pH  cells  (Drabikowski  have  et  been  a l . ,  identified  skeletal  muscle  carboxypeptidase  activities  respectively,  a major  levels,  of  B  and t h e s e  postmortem  role.  for cathepsin  the u l t i m a t e  H,  and  cells: (Goll  of c a t h e p s i n s  f o r synthetic peptides  suggested  than  at a l k a l i n e ,  to the postmortem  inside  and l y s o s o m a l  of d i p e p t i d e s  role  Several  located  been  et a l . , 1982).  hydrolases  The p r o t e o l y t i c  limited  muscle  been  Goll  have  i n t h e mast  i s limited  demonstrated only  not been  1981; O u a l i and  et a l . , 1977).  i s optimum  contribution  peptide  A,B,C,D,H,L  1983 ) .  muscle:  are contained  e t a l . , 1981a;  have  activity  (Drabikowski  of the m y o f i b r i l  of these  a l.,  skeletal  their  lysosomal  cathepsins et  enzymes  Dayton  the n e u t r a l  enzymes  proteases  tissue,  (Etherington,  of a u t o l y t i c  conditions  of s e r i n e  between  et a l . , 1983).  The r o l e  and  mechanism  enzymes  2.3.2  observed  -  A and  or  two  enzymes  Similarly,  a  a s i t s pH  pH v a l u e  reported f o r  t h e most  active  et a l . , 1983).  have  suggested  that  lysosomal  -  proteases (Dutson, et  in  postmortem  1983;  actin 4.0,  and  chains, lower  Dutson  hours,  5  beef  days,  increasing  has  -  been  proteins  an  The  7  days  et  pH  i s capable  D  of  pH  degrading  troponin  T  and  L Pearson  hydrolyse  optima  of  B,D,  a l . , 1983;  cathepsin  et  examined  and  not  or  allows  such  that  14  et  only  and  both  5.2  and  myosin  troponin  days  they  a l . ,  of  a  at  activity  with the  of  one  postmortem  I  pH  heavy at  a  more  hour,  acidic  increased  tenderness.  condition  changes  It  of  activity  in  susceptible  24  found  with  increases catheptic  are  lysosomal  and  improved  but  myofibrillar to  proteolytic  1983).  calcium-activated neutral  neutral  Ishiura  characterized  that  release  muscle  configurational  a l . (1976a) were  and  dorsi  suggested  muscle  role  the  beta-glucuronidase  calcium-dependent muscle,  Goll  increase associated  (Yates  Dayton  and  cathepsins  respective  (1974)  recently  denatures  2.3.3  B  Longissimus  free  postmortem  attack  are  1981;  alpha-actinin,  Lawrie  in  storage  the  -  optimum.  and  enzymes  at  cathepsin L  actin,  pH  Cathepsin  myosin  whereas  muscle  Etherington,  a l . , 1983 ) .  29  et  the  first  protease  a l . (1978)  similar  calcium  activated  factor  neutral  protease)  has  protease (CAF  been  or  found  proteases  to  isolate  a  from  porcine  skeletal  purified  and  from  chicken.  CANP  -  calcium  i n non-muscle  partially Although  this  activated cells  such  as  -  rat  kidney,  porcine  erythrocytes (Szpacenko  kidney  (Sasaki  in striated  1978a,b;  Koohmaraie  et  a l . , 1981),  Kawashima al.,  pork  Schollmeyer,  K.  et  a l . , 1983; S u z u k i  majority weight 30K  of reports  daltons  1983;  e t a l . , 1976a,b, e t a l . , 1976),  80,000 have  indicated  dalton  and I m a h o r i ,  Tsuji  and I m a h o r i  polypeptide  the existence  maximum  activity.  that  was  necessary  o f t h e 30K  rabbit  (Azanza et  and  1982;  e t a l . , 1975; Reddy and I m a h o r i ,  both  but the  i t has a  Goll  suggested  molecular  chains  o f 80K a n d  e t a l . , 1983;  e t a l . , 1984; S a s a k i  et a l . ,  e t a l . , 1981; W h e e l o c k ,  suggested  that  only  for proteolytic  dalton  1981;  et a l . , 1983).  polypeptide  1981; T s u j i (1981)  Dayton  polypeptide,  e t a l . , 1976a,b;  e t a l . , 1984; K a w a s h i m a  Tsuji  1982).  (Dayton  and  1981b;  e t a l . (1978)  dalton  two  (Barth  et  e t a l . , 1978, 1980; Kawashima  and r a t ( F a g a n  and I s h i u r a  1982; N a g a i n i s  and T a k a h a s h i ,  e t a l . , 1982; T s u j i  o f 110K a n d c o n t a i n s  Inomata  that  i s a single  or  and P a r r i s h , 1977,  hamster  e t a l . , 1974; Reddy  e t a l . , 1983),  e t a l . (1979)  platelets  e t a l . , 1977; P a r r i s h  and W o l f e ,  e t a l . , 1972; H a t t o r i  a l . , 1984; O k i t a n i  CAF  Olson  human  implicated  (Cheng  et a l . , 1981a,b),  e t a l . , 1983, 1984; Kang  Vidalenc  been  and  ( I s h i u r a e t a l . , 1978, 1979, 1982;  (Dayton  et  that  of beef  e t a l . , 1984b;  1981; R e v i l l e  1979; B u s c h  Azanza  i t has a l s o  muscles  chicken  1983; S u z u k i ,  Inomata  e t a l . , 1 9 8 3 ) a n d human  e t a l . , 1984; N a g a i n i s  Elce,1981),  al.,  and e r y t h r o c y t e s ,  e t a l . , 1981),  isolated  30 -  chain  was  t h e 80K  activity,  but  required f o r  -  There  is  general  agreement  calcium-activated Calpain  II  neutral  requires  activity  in  Busch  a l . , 1972;  et  1976a; 1980; et  the  now  that  protease  millimolar  range  of  pH  Cheng  levels  6.0-7.5  and  et  a l . , 1979,  1982;  1982), levels  and  would  appear  5.5  to  8.5  pH  of to  calpain  Ca 2, +  be  (Dayton  active et  1984;  Kawashima  et  1979;  Sasaki  a l . , 1983;  Although derived  et  two  1981a,b),  the  Wheelock,  of  neutral  calcium  one  al ., both  muscle,  protease  sensitivity  calpain  reports  Sasaki  skeletal  neutral  I  1983;  that II  of  concluded  from  the  II the  other  Wheelock,  calpain whereas to  I  calpain  (Suzuki,  calpain  results  similar was  have  and  1980;  pH  from  pH  al.,  1982).  suggested  1983,  rabbit  at  at  et  phosphorylation  in  active  Mellgren  Mellgren,  or  observed  activity  1981;  1983,  proteolysis  (1984)  Imahori,  Reddy  al.,  unlikely  al.  a l . , 1974;  et  is  et  Mellgren,  Inomata  calpain  et  and  al.,  a l . , 1981b;  and  1984;  a l . , 1978;  et  range,  between  it  1979;  pH  differences that  al.,  broader  studies  recent  maximum  r  Dayton  et  muscle.  a  autolysis  several  et  o  completely  optimal over  a l . , 1984;  earlier  from  has  is  f  +  Tsuji I  this  skeletal  1977;  et  of  Ca 2  Okitani  a l . , 1983;  whereas  of  Parrish,  Mellgren  et  in  (Azanza  Ishiura  Sasaki  forms  exist  a l . , 1984;  micromolar  its  two  et  Wheelock,  a  -  Inomata  a l . , 1975;  only  31  and  chicken rabbit  I  K. that  are  was et  al.,  the  substantial,  limited (Inomata  1982  ).  calpain muscle calpain  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher.  et  al.,  Kawashima II  activity  contained II,  though  -  Reville in  a  et  a l . (1976)  membrane-bound  must  therefore  be  concentration.  A  subcellular  recent  of  the  discs  of  myofibrils.  more  also  complex  contain  functions 1976;  The  cytoplasm  a  than  remain  Otsuka  activity  of  has  confirmed  the  that  cultured  1980;  et  on  very  specific.  The  myofibrils  were  incubated  with  was  the  removal  a l . , 1972;  Dayton  1978;  Reddy  et  a l . , 1975,  1983).  polyacrylamide release the  several  integrity  Kang et  of  et  gel  of  a l . , 1981),  calpains actin  have  and  proteins Z  and  that  disc:  z-nin  (Suzuki,  Wolfe,  whose  the  however, muscles  Okitani  et a l . ,  1983).  effect  or  are  A.  hydrolytic  et a l . ,  the  responsible et  al.,  for  al.,  zeelin  activity et  Z  have  a l . , 1981,  Nagainis  the  sulphate-  (Goll  1983),  of  Kang  demonstrated  thought  et  when  purified  studies  dodecyl  and  is  disappearance  Several  Z  vivo  a l . , 1976a,b;  a l . , 1975,  1982;  at  i^n  al.,  alpha-actinia  et  some  discrete  striated  crude or  sodium  Reddy  exhibited  (Nagainis  et  electrophoresis  the  a l . , 1978;  with  in  its activity,  noticeable  either  et  occurrence  et  an  and  a l . , 1983;  most  (Busch  this  CAF  activity  myofibrillar proteins  disc  examined  of  Pearson  calpains  preparations  of  its +  located  postulated:  inhibitor (Goll  is  located  Ca 2  by  myoblasts  regulation  apparently  calpain  CAF  not  that  study  originally  Goll,  and  was  intracellular  The  unclear  and  particle  CAF  the  of  protein  that  by  technique  areas  -  suggested  regulated  immunocytochemica1  is  first  32  1982;  (Bullard  1983). toward 1983),  Z  The disc  -  nebulin and  (Robson  filamin  this  a l .,  (Davies  activity  al.,  et  to  et  et  removal  a l . (1972)  (O'Shea  but  the  tenderization  of  Z  lines  suggested from  for  process  operative  have  was  reported  activity calpain  the  i n stored activity that  stored  muscle  was  even  though  course study  decline  et  a l . , 1979),  significance i s unknown  muscle:  the  of  (Goll  et  higher  t h e r e were  activity,  or  has  indicated  that  when  rabbit  but  progressively  CAF  inhibitor  improve  meat  enzymes  responsible  the  also  noted  on  the  use  the  of  Ca 2  of  stored of  both  electrical  tenderness  of  Cross  meat  in  Suzuki  calpain  for  (Vidalenc  f o r aged  calpain  decrease  crude  et  the  studies  et a l .  CAF  of  postmortem, i n the  dependencies.  +  and  to  differences  in electrically  Seideman  responsible  of  that  Recent  immediately  activity was  a  probably  and  respect  whereas  activity  and  tension  found  muscle  pH  the  muscle  quality,  for  and  decreasing levels  were  review  study  was  death.  with  significant  Proteolytic activity  their  after  a l . , 1977),  than  no  calcium-specific  isometric  results  yield  of  constant  of  one  et  the  s k e l e t a l muscle  immediately  (Olson  found  that  rabbit  contradictory  (1982)  the  desmin  a l . , 1978),  postmortem  responsible  In  1984),  -  1983).  Busch  2.3.4  33  Another  I I was  s i x days calpain  time  nearly  at I  4°C, and  the  a l . , 1983).  stimulated  stimulation (1982)  tenderness  electrically  muscles  to  commented were  also  stimulated  that  -  meat due  and to  that  activity,  stimulated end  Several the  to  from  of  the  authors  following  the  acidification  possible  these  can  postulated that  enzymes  may  be  the  muscle  Kang  et  that in  exhibit  pH  pH  the  of  line  has  is a  lesser  electrically values  in  the  range.  contribution  in stimulated  glycogen et  a l . , 1983;  Z  protease  relative  (Dutson  the  there  enzyme  enhanced  depletion  of  neutral  effective  proteolysis  in stimulated  degradation  particular  as  rapid  d u r a t i o n of  (1981) b e l i e v e s  this  Etherington,1981;  and  of  muscles  early  a l . , 1980a,b;  Smith  et  a l . , 1979;  Wu  et  1985).  Dutson per  and/or  initial  enzyme's  of  -  calcium-dependent  muscles,  lysosomal  al.,  the  Etherington  contribution  rate  p r o t e i n a s e s was  Although  attributed  lower  enhanced  lysosomal  muscles. been  an  34  et  cent  a l . (1980b) free  cathepsin controls  activity  C when at  decreases  one  of  f o r both  hour the  both  specific  enzymes  differences  supernatant  due  even  more  muscles,  they  relatively  to  high  in  were the  stimulation.  lysosomal  were  also  body  significant  sides  were  Although  observed, specific These were  and  to  total were  activity authors  of  no the  suggested  released  Higher  and  compared  there  susceptible,to  temperatures.  the  concomitant  sedimentable  enzymes  more  increase in  beta-glucuronidase  postmortem.  significant  though  a  s t i m u l a t e d lamb  i n both  activities  reported  that,  in stimulated  autolysis soluble  at  the  activities  -  beta-glucuronidase  of  muscles  from  reported  Salm  et  degradation  rate  if  the  hours at  in  16°C  1981).  Z  When  temperature  2  and  3.  3.1  In  a  benefit  rapidly  proteins  Isometric  to  is  losing rigor  dalton  chilled. was  to  enhanced  well  as  protein  was  observed  as  early  increased  that  (Elgasim  had  degradation  study,  as  24  been  with  high  of  myosin  light  and  poultry  meat  extensibility, development the  chain  quality  development  on  held  (Babiker,1985).  development  and  unrestrained the  presence  extent of  has  et a l . ,  combined  myosin,  that  eliminated  earlier  was  an  tenderness  an  chilling  especially  dependent  also  from  In  carcasses  observed  as  stimulation  stimulation  -  was  tension  during  contraction  -  tension  Isometric  addition  prior  30K  T  postmortem  to  stimulated  conditioning,  T  due  degradation  hours  troponin  shortens  i n d i c a t o r of  were  have  muscles  exhibited  for  electrical  myofibrillar  carcasses  appearance  line  12  beef  that  of  electrically for  indicated  troponin  This  dorsi  1985).  recently  as  carcasses  beef  and  carcasses  pronounced  for Longissimus  alpha-act in in  served  improvement.  B  stimulated  al.,  stimulated of  previously  et  (1983)  electrically  increased  (Wu  -  cathepsin  electrically  been  al.  and  35  ATP  muscle of  and  the on  -  temperature. believed  The mechanism  t o be t h e same details  reviews  1975; M u r r a y  occurrence follow  of t h i s  postmortem  as m u s c u l a r  presently-known (Cohen,  36 -  of which  contraction  c a n be f o u n d  and Weber,1974,  has l e d to the development  the time  course  of r i g o r :  shortening i s  i n recent 1980).  o f a new  isometric  jin v i v o , t h e  This  technique to  tension  development.  Busch  e t a l . (1967)  and Jungk  pattern  of postmortem  decline  i n bovine  further  demonstrated  in  bovine  Nuss  and W o l f e ,  (Khan, and  (Busch  isometric  and r a b b i t  tension  muscle.  This  t o be a w i d e s p r e a d  1981; Okubanjo  porcine  1970),  rabbit  (Busch  e t a l . , 1972; J u n g k  turkey  muscle  (Jungk  and M a r i o n ,  parameters maximum  a r e the time  tension  investigated  the response  relationship  to m e t a b o l i t e  Although technique  Busch  Most  tension  1971;  frequently  reported  and t h e amount o f  treatments  studies  as w e l l  as t h e  levels.  e t a l . (1972)  to q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  1974a,b,  e t a l . , 1968,  of the i n d i c a t e d  to v a r i o u s  chicken  e t a l . , 1 9 7 4 ) , and  The most  t o maximum  developed.  1975),  1970; M a r i o n ,  1974).  occurring  e t a l . , 1980; W h i t i n g  e t a l . , 1972; S c h m i d t  and R i c h a r d s ,  has been  e t a l . , 1967, 1974;  and R i c h a r d s ,  1975),  Vanderstoep  (Busch  and  pattern  and S t o u f f e r ,  Wood  reported the  phenomenon  and Kim, 1975; S u n d e e n  1975, 1978a,b,c;  first  development  e t a l . , 1967, 1972; Jungk  1974; Khan  Richards,  e t a l . (1967)  developed monitor  the i s o m e t r i c  the time  course  tension of  rigor,  -  it  was  recognized  probably These  not l i n e a r l y  authors  rigorometer small  enter  into  rigor that  required (Busch  that  tension  unaffected  generation  Busch  less  that  than  developed  at both  developed  Several  studies  temperature  on  Semitendinosus  tension  within  onset i n  a fibre and  bundle  further  onset  occurs  a t pH  of these  a t pH  6.7.  have  been  reduces  by  i n both  rabbit  also  Psoas  conducted  (Wood a n d  muscles  that  t h e amount  strips  were  from  of t e n s i o n was  tensions  on t h e e f f e c t  strips  However,  a t pH 6.3  i n turn  of i s o m e t r i c  that the  was  o f pH 5 . 5 - 7 . 0 .  muscle  pH l e v e l s  muscle  Psoas  reported  5.8; t h e maximum  the development  the time  P e c t o r a l i s muscle  suggested  Pectoralis  and Psoas  isometric  of r i g o r  rigor  markedly  pH i n t h e r a n g e  achieved  of the  of t e n s i o n - g e n e r a t i n g  by r a b b i t  (1974a)  by c h i c k e n  on  postmortem  et a l . (1972)  developed  and R i c h a r d s  of s h o r t e n i n g .  1984).  maximum  by b u f f e r  effect  during  and b r e a k i n g  was  microdisplacements,  fibres  times  of the b u f f e r  developed  that  individual  e t a l . , 1972) and c h i c k e n 1974a).  developed  as t h e t r a n s d u c e r s  on t h e k i n e t i c s  (Jeacocke,  t h e pH  to the degree  to a large  at d i f f e r e n t  force  of t e n s i o n  of measuring  study  to develop  Richards, maximum  that,  lead  s u c c e s s i v e making  Decreasing  Wood  may  noted  crossbridges  related  capable  A recent  suggested the  were  muscle  t h e amount  suggested  variations  tension. beef  that  37 -  smaller  of  tension. beef  When  carcasses  than  -  were  exposed  isometric at  to environmental  observed  that  beef  t o maximum  37°C,  whereas  Biceps  tension  was  between muscle  temperature strips,  even  The  of muscle  development would muscle than  has been  appear  that  fibres  those  fibre  however,  influenced  to a greater  The  fibre  nature  type  shear  force  Busch  et a l . (1967)  content  values  during  large  tension  observed tension  i n turkey  tension  of authors  and i t  of predominantly r e d more  1975 ) .  isometric fibres  tension  (Busch et  I t has r e c e n t l y  tension  parameters  by t e m p e r a t u r e ,  rather  been  are than  by  1981).  that  exist  between  t e n s i o n parameters  i s subject  Marion  significantly  composed  and W o l f e ,  isometric  and  developed.  isometric  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  concentrations,  t o maximum  of d e v e l o p i n g  extent  0 to  relationship  p r o p o r t i o n of white  that  (Nuss  Jungk  by a number  and R i c h a r d s ,  from  i n c r e a s e d o n l y as  on i s o m e t r i c  strips  a higher  suggested,  muscle  type  recently decreasing  varied  linear  temperature  examined  muscle  a l . , 1972 ; W h i t i n g  15°C.  of t e n s i o n  are capable  with  beyond  37°C,  minimal  (1981)  exhibited  developed  a significant  though  t h e amount  and W o l f e  muscles  tension  and t h e t i m e  influenced  effect  Nuss  16 a n d  a t 2°C and  as t h e t e m p e r a t u r e  raised  d i d not observe  o f 2,  maximal  femoris  t h e maximum  temperature  (1970)  was  et a l . , 1967).  times  the  temperatures  t e n s i o n development  16°C (Busch  38 -  t o wide  and cooked  variation.  relatively development  small  metabolite  Although  changes  i n beef  meat  i n ATP  -  Semitendinosus  muscles  at 2°C, there  difference  between  those  a t 16°C, where  held  authors muscle found  reported  value  t h e ATP c o n t e n t  that  tension  no d i r e c t  ATP  content  and s h e a r  that  initial  glycogen  glycolysis  rate  of ground  workers  were  muscle  that  whereas  (1973)  found  relationship  with  associations  between  and/or but  glycogen  neither  could  muscles  (Nuss  Factors  There  (4°C)  were  tension  according  and W o l f e ,  that  quality when  or extreme  force  shear  minimal;  these  between  L e e e t a l . ( 1976 )  with  observed  tension  the shear  by  other  Khan  appeared  t o be  (1974) directly  developed,  had a p o s i t i v e  and t i m e . t o maximum  Significant positive tension  by S u n d e e n  to the d e c l i n e to a recent  with  et a l .  t o maximum i n muscle  study  ATP (1980),  tension ATP o r  on s e l e c t e d  beef  1981).  meat  quality  available  and p o s t m o r t e m  of poultry  b r o i l e r s were  cold  a t 2°C and  existed  correlated  nor the time  of reports  the antemortem  was  and Kim, 1975).  noted  affecting poultry  ultimate  reported  that  held  and t h e postmortem  isometric  the time  related  a r e a number  describe the  content  levels  tension  content  be d i r e c t l y  glycogen  3.2  both  maximum  resistance.  shear  t o t h e maximum  significant  relationship  1966; Khan  the ultimate  no  of muscles  - an a s s o c i a t i o n  proportional Wood  was  developed  significantly  (de Fremery,  reported  39 -  (-20°C)  meat.  i n the l i t e r a t u r e factors  which  Lee et a l .  exposed  to heat  f o r s i x hours  that  influence  (1976) (38°C),  before  cold  slaughter,  -  both  the heat  and c o l d  although  significant  f o r the heat  heat  content  stressed  compared  antemortem from  exhibited  compared  Several exert  to  stages  electrical  force  allowed  lower ageing  a n d Ma  muscles  initial lower  excised  glycogen u l t i m a t e pH when any  t e n s i o n parameters even  less  controls;  though  time  due t o  muscles  to  develop  cold-stressed  t o maximum  t e n s i o n when  shear  a clear  breast  were  values  f o r 24 h o u r s  Significant,  freely  thresholds,  small  tendency  required muscle  electrically when  compared  at 2°C  from  elevated  onset.  for increased rigor  commercially  stunned  had  to no—stun  turkeys  decreased  rigor  to reach  can  quality.  that  exhibited  d u r a t i o n and an a c c e l e r a t e d  study,  product  et a l . (1971) noted  response  as t h e t i m e  that  p r o c e s s i n g of p o u l t r y  on t h e f i n a l  to s t r u g g l e  observed  values  broilers  influence  stimulatory  also  a later  from  i n the commercial  (1973)  contractility authors  those  only  d i d not observe  required  i n c r e a s e d times  a significant  were  (1973)  was  controls.  and A d d i s  which  had h i g h e r  temperatures,  heat-stressed broilers  muscles  affected  Breast  i n isometric  environmental  t e n s i o n than  In  Wood  differences  maximum  Ma  treatment.  pH a n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  to c o n t r o l s .  significant  adversely  the i n c r e a s e i n toughness  broilers  and m u s c l e  -  treatments  tenderness,  from  40  These  shear  decreased. processed  significantly controls  after  (Lee e t a l . , 1979).  increases i n broiler  toughness  have  been  - 41 observed time  either  i s increased  affect to  when  (Pool  tenderness  has been  severe  mechanical  feather  scald  1966).  temperatures  additive, tension  Yates  adverse  but  e t a l . ( 1976 ) f o u n d or f l a v o u r  d i d observe  muscles  May  excised  excised  from  from  significantly  conditioning meat  broiler 1948; with  that  plucking  exposed  e t a l . , 1 9 5 9 ; de free  struggle,  can have of  significant  hot  an  isometric  42  strain  females  reported tender  persisted  of p o u l t r y  animals:  postmortem  suggested  that  crosses  sex e f f e c t : were  both  that  in  either  of b r o i l e r s  uniform cooked  significantly  than  72 week 10 week  throughout  which  occur  are thought turkey  (May e t a l . , 1 9 6 2 ; P o o l  van den B e r g  differences  and e v a l u a t e d u n d e r  g e n e r a l , the changes  other  adverse  that  conditions,  Pectoralis tougher  than  males.  less  difference  no  a significant  et a l . (1962)  the  (Pool  the parameters  among  reared, processed  those  on  and a s i m i l a r  suggested  and m e c h a n i c a l effect  scalding  reported for carcasses plucking  (1973)  or the  development.  tenderness were  Wood  temperature  e t a l . , 1959),  on  Fremery,  In  the scald  o l d chickens o l d chickens  carcass  during t o be  Van  that  ageing.  the ageing similar  or  to those i n  e t a l . , 1959; S t e w a r t  den B e r g  the tenderization  and  ( K l o s e e t a l . , 1959) and  e t a l . , 1963, 1964a,b)  storage.  were  tenderness  e t a l . (1963,  of c h i c k e n  breast  et a l . , improve 1964a)  and l e g  -  muscles  occurs  exhibit  an  3.3  two  additional  there  electrical  species,  postmortem  tenderization  tension  i s considerable stimulation  only  information,  a  few  2-5  and  that  days  together  measurement  leg  muscles  later.  availability  f o r the  The  primary  (1)  to  assess  in  a  to  examine  recognized and  research  objectives the  the  commercial how  tension  frequency  and  to  changes  muscle  of  operation  isometric  sensitivity in  This the  in this  thesis  technique, of  were,  poultry as  use  animal  lack  of  isometric  between  provided  the  thesis.  preslaughter on  the  postmortem  contraction,  development,  duration  of  on  several  interrelationships  f o r the  rigor  of  for poultry.  presented  influence  available  processing  exist  technique  metabolite impetus  the  with  and  literature  i n the  reports  shortening  (2)  days  -  Obj e c t i v e s  Although of  within  42  therefore, electric  stunning  tenderness, monitored  is affected  by  by  the  a post-exsanguination  the  voltage, electric  shock, (3)  to  determine  post-mortem the (4)  the  of  g l y c o l y s i s as  concentrations  to  assess  whether  of  proteolysis  stimulation,  effect  of  and  of  electrical measured  several  some avian  by  muscle  functional muscles  stimulation pH  and  changes  in  metabolites,  properties  were  by  on  altered  or  the  rate  by  electrical  -  to  further  chemical avian  evaluate  and  muscle  electrical  the  biophysical and  how  43  -  relationships  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  these might  stimulation.  among  be  several postmort  influenced  by  44  MATERIALS  4.1  A  Preliminary  preliminary  differences samples  study  was  in  chicken  broilers  processed  electric  stunning.  A  Twenty-two  birds  electrical  stunning  not  were  processing stunning 70V  DC  total  before plant.  for  a  stunned,  The  immediately  transported  refrigerated held  at  within  days  Tenderness that  (P.  carcasses,  each  were  to  wing  the  until of  by  maj o r placed  tested. manner  24  bagged,  this  was  used  to  22  birds  packed Food in  in  were  ice  and  Science  ice  frozen  A l l analyses  local  similarly  of  hours  a  with  of  other  tagged,  a  shock  stunner  Department  analysed.  were  otherwise  in  preslaughter  standard  The  if  muscle  handled  electric  2s.  were  of  bleeding.at  commercial  approximately  in  at  were  at  a  -10°C  and  completed  slaughter.  measurements  reported  muscles  For  determine  without  the  after  of  and  carcasses  in  cooler, individually  -10°C 30  held  44  to  tenderness  or  and  but  carcasses  were  of  duration  processed.  They  a  the  with  processed  process,  electrically  UBC.  order  observed  operation  deliver  in  be  commercial  double  METHODS  conducted  standard  poultry  AND  Study  could  from  -  de  were  Fremery  and  P_.  between  performed and  minor) two  in  a  Pool  (1960).  were  excised  aluminum  manner  plates  similar  Single from held  to  breast  thawed apart  at  a  -  constant then  thickness,  cooled  parallel meat.  i n cold  fibres,  Testing  Corporation, shear  sensitivity  of  was  obtained.  Leg  and  thigh  carcasses Science of  using  and  a full of  were  excised  also  evaluated.  i n any  manner  f o r tenderness, eight  point  4.2  Study  The  purpose  they  preferred  scale  the values  from  and  most  1 t o 8,  the value  1  and  desired  with  per  the  of  22  to  bird  Food pairs  prepare  evaluate  the  acceptability to  least  the e v a l u a t i o n t h e most  (See Appendix  a  of  asked  overall  of a n a l y s i s ,  with  t h e thawed  total  were  blade  load  t o members  judges  juiciness  For the purpose  having  The  Engineering  tests  from  A  cooked  single  s i x shear  evaluation.  were  Instron  scale  of  Instron  performed  A minimum  f o r home  category  on  kg.  mm/min  were  department  assigned  shock  100  tests  the  an  a Kramer  allocated  an  several  A l l shear  with  randomly  desired. were  fitted  1122,  minutes,  Strips  from  m e a s u r e d ' on  were  portions  samples  MA)  portions  and  samples  the  (Model  f o r 10  minutes.  prepared  Instrument  of 10  were was  Canton,  speed  wide,  for five  to c u t t i n g  attachment.  crosshead  mm  -  i n b o i l i n g water  tap water  10  Resistance  Universal  immersed  45  levels  desirable  1).  One  of  this  study  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of some  chemical  and  was  to assess  the i n f l u e n c e  the p o s t - e x s a n g u i n a t i o n biophysical  parameters  of  electric of  avian  -  muscle. this  The  shock  effect  on  development,  force  values  4.2.1  Sampling  study  began  experiment One  of  sampling  bird  daily  through bleed  weeks  placed  of  (as  and  duration  measured  strength  was  and  therefore  age  by  of  pH),  subsequent  shear  examined.  were  from  the  penned  in  plastic  a  stimulated in 12  by  an  jugular  birds  birds  were  Table  1.  controls  and  weeks  flock  of  treated  a  cut  allowed  one  52  on  (to  controls to  old.  neck  and  as  total 40  12  first  the  outside  assigned A  the  funnel  vein,  served  in  until  birds  exsanguinated and  broilers  continued  the  first  Unstimulated  study:  and  when  artery  described  strain  selected  head  carotid  this  tensile  completed,  freely.  in  frequency  glycolysis  commercial  struggling),  treatments  voltage,  samples  randomly  electrically  used  the 6  was  the  -  procedure  at  basis,  minimize  fibre  cooked  of  was  the  post-mortem  rigor  The  of  46  to  while  of  the  broilers (five  were  birds  per  treatment).  Electrical  stimulation  manufactured  by  Modifications available pulse  the  were  fish  frequency  was  performed  Bio-Resource made  in  stimulator could  be  the  using  Engineering  design  of  a  (Electro-Fisher) varied  a  from  40  to  stimulator Department.  commercially such 80  s  that - i  ;  (a)  (b)  the the  -  range  f o r pulse  could  be  current to  width  directed was  a l e g and  was  4  47  t o 8 ms;  to the output  delivered another  by  -  and  connector.  the attachment  clamp  (c) 0  to the s k i n  t o 150V  This  o f one exposed  DC  output  electrode by  clamp  the o u t s i d e  neck c u t .  Table  1:  V o l t a g e , f r e q u e n c y and d u r a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s of the post-exsanguination electrical s h o c k ( S t u d y One)  Treatment number  Voltage (V)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  70 70 140 140 70 70 140 140  IConstant  4.2.2  The  pulse  Isometric  development  using  Frequency (pulses/s)  1  a n E&M  40 80 40 80 40 80 40 80  width  of 4  D u r a t i on (s)  T o t a l number of pulses  60 60 60 60 120 120 120 120  2400 4800 2400 4800 4800 9600 4800 9600  ms  t e n s i o n measurement  and  decline  6-channel  Narco-Bio-Systems  o f i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n was  physiograph  Inc., Houston,  TX)  (manufactured fitted  with  monitored  by isometric  -  transducers. strips  from  each  immediately according was  7.2,  strips  was  4.2.3.  pH  were  postmortem  resulting  The were  at  from  0,  with  acid  (Gomori,  treatment  (1974a).  temperature,  0.15  measurement  stimulation Richards  muscle  in  Tension  phosphate  1955).  The  e x s a n g u i n a t i o n to the attachment  0.5,  muscle  determinations.  One  t o two  excised  the  same  the  carcass  (Bendall,  evaluated Scientific  properties  from  side  of n e u t r a l i z e d  solution  samples  of  was  i c e and  f e m o r i s and and  10 mL  1.0,  Biceps 4.0  (Fisher  Tensile  both  2.0,  homogenate  meter  crushed  strength  femoris  f o r tension  and  at ambient  Biceps  of  minutes.  f o r pH  iodoacetic  4.2.4  prepared  o f Wood  o b t a i n e d from  blended  pH/ion  maj o r a n d  measurement  maj o r m u s c l e s  were  ionic  lapse  20  -  e x s a n g u i n a t i o n and  to develop  time  Samples  were  t o the method  pH  maximum  Pectoralis  bird  after  allowed  buffer  Three  48  used  and  0.005  1973)  using  an  Co.,  the c a r c a s s  of each  bird.  cold  room  t h e pH  tension and  in a  wrap, at  muscle  of the  Model  230  PA).  measurements  femoris  held  of  sodium  Accumet  tenderness  Saran  grams  Pittsburgh,  for isometric  with  hours  M  and  the B i c e p s  covered  6.0  Pectoralis  measurements  Pectoralis The  packed  2°C  maj o r  remainder in  f o r 24  drained hours.  from of  -  Muscle  strips  Pectoral is similar  maj o r  to that  Universal 2A  were  fibre  capacity,  500  Pectoralis  cm  and  their at  was  area.  separation  of  20  cm/min.  calculated  The  initial  tensioning)  was  as  load  properties  10  bird  such  Each  strip  were  1122)  cell  of  'B'  that was  muscle  force  required  gram  force  p e r cm^  calculated  from  area  and  f o r the remaining  major  performed  cooked  This  Study  study  effects mortis  on  i n the p r e l i m i n a r y  extended each  prior  to  determined  the weight  of the  samples  study,  intact  according  i . e . , with  Pectoralis to t h e method  the  single  cell.  Two  was  conducted  of e l e c t r i c a l as  that  1973).  measurements  4.3  of 5  cross-sectional  (i.e.,  Tenderness  shear  to break  the  were  such  subsequently  a previously area  type  load  cut to a length  The  cross-sectional  with  fibres  and  cm  method  cut from  3.5  (Wood,  blade  were  was  muscle  described  fitted  (maximum  strips  a  Instron  i n the clamps  for cross-sectional  were  The was  sampled  using  placed  relationship strip  the p r e v i o u s l y  (Model  A minimum  Strips  from  et a l . (1971).  tensile  parallel.  -  tensile  Instrument  and  weighed.  a rate  Stanley  maj o r o f e a c h  initial  strip  of  kg).  approximately  excised  to e v a l u a t e  Testing clamps  then  49  assessed  by  i n order  stimulation  to f u r t h e r on  the i s o m e t r i c  examine the  the development tension  of  technique.  rigor The  -  changes due  i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  t o s t i m u l a t i o n and  also  determined.  4.3.1  Sampling  The  sampling  that  of  were  Table  2.  treated weeks  experiment,  Table  total  (10 b i r d s  of age  except  that  t o one  development,  of  50  study  was  the e l e c t r i c a l l y  of the treatments  broilers  was  per treatment).  were  and  used:  The  identical  to  stimulated  described in 10  birds  controls were  completion  6 and  and  40  17  of the  respectively.  Voltagel (V)  Frequency (pulses/s)  Duration (s)  T o t a l number of p u l s e s  40 40 40 40  60 120 60 120  2400 4800 2400 4800  70 70 140 • 140  ^Constant  pulse  Muscle  width  of 4  ms  preparation  preparation  strips  of the second  at the i n i t i a t i o n  1 2 3 4  The  to r i g o r  metabolites,  2: V o l t a g e , f r e q u e n c y a n d d u r a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e post-exsanguination e l e c t r i c a l shock (Study Two)  Treatment number  4.3.2  of s e v e r a l muscle  in relation  procedure  assigned A  -  procedure  the f i r s t  birds  50  of P e c t o r a l i s  for isometric  tension  maj o r a n d  Biceps  m e a s u r e m e n t s was  f emoris performed  muscle as i n  -  Study  One.  analysis  Samples  were  also  stimulation. was  An  (LN2),  stored  additional  Briskey (1974). macro  The  model  for  the  sample  was  replaced  4.3.3  1.5  remained  by  samples  at  6 hours  from  frozen  the  the  were  rpm.  at  and  Virtis Care  packages  nitrogen  of  and Borchert  pulverized  was  and  Richards  Co.  in a  Inc., Gardiner,  taken  The  and  maj o r  hours  -35°C  and  a l l times.  foil  0.0  method  removed  (The  Pectoralis  at  Vanderstoep  11,000  frozen  to  post-  in liquid  envelopes  according  i n aluminum  Metabolite  ATP  to  ensure  powdered  stored  at  sample  -35°C  (1973).  and  Muscle  glucosidase by  method  (Dalrymple the  5'-diphosphate alpha-1,4  6-phosphate  Trautschold glycogen  enzymatic  D-glucose  analysis  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were  Lamprecht  amylo  foil  homogenizer  minutes  2 and  sample  were  modified  frozen  for metabolite  extracted.  Tissue  an  as  Virtis  NY)  until  i n aluminum  (1965)  0,  type  d e t e r m i n a t i o n at  samples  powdered  -  muscle  o b t a i n e d at  These  subsequently  by  each  obtained for glycogen  postmortem.  of  of  51  method  was  conducted  (1963)  extracted  modified from  by  amylo  alpha-1,4  and  1973)  and  of  Hamm,  Pfleiderer  alpha-1,6  dehydrogenase adenine  (G-8878),  samples  as  Adenosine  (A-3514),  hexokinase  dinucleotide  Wood  determined  (1963).  method  alpha-1,6  5'-triphosphate  glucosidase  the  powdered  utilizing  (A-6521 ), a d e n o s i n e  beta-nicotinamide  as  following  (A-6144),  glucose (H-5125)  phosphate  and  (N-0505) f o r  -  these  enzyme  (St.  Louis,  Cary  210  Inc.,  MO).  Paolo  Study  The  effect  purchased  from  Sigma  measurements (Varian  Chemicals  were  made  with  Associates  Co.  CA).  Three  of  by  influence  in the  on  of  electrical  and  examined  indices  -  spectrophotometer  Alto,  proteolysis  measured  were  A l l absorbance  recording  4.4  was  analyses  52  stimulation  some  functional  this  study.  release  functional  protein  of  the  properties  The TCA  on  rate  of  soluble  properties  was  extractability,  rate of  of  avian  muscles  proteolysis  was  material  whereas  assessed  by  dispersibility  the  using  the  and  hydrophobicity.  4.4.1  The  Sampling  sampling  study  began  experiment birds  at was  served  received pulse  of  a  the  White  twelve  Leghorn  weeks  completed, as  140V  width).  and  five  The  preparation  strips  procedure  controls shock A  at  of  one  age  14  while  for  total  of  males and  weeks  used  continued of  age.  electrically minute  in  (40  the  third  until  Unstimulated  stimulated  pulses/s,  10  birds  was  used:  Pectoralis  maj o r  and  Biceps  the  five  4  birds  msec  controls  treated.  for  of  isometric  tension  measurements  was  femoris performed  muscle as  in  a  -  Study 24  One.  hours  soluble maj o r  Samples  of  each  post-slaughter  and  material.  was  An  excised  extractable  53  muscle  were  obtained  at  immediately  analysed  for  additional  at  each  protein,  -  sample  sampling  protein  of  time  the  and  1,  and  TCA  Pectoralis  examined  dispersibility  6  for  and  hydrophobicity.  4.4.2  Chemical  4.4.2.a  TCA  tests  soluble  material  TCA  soluble  material  al.  (1977),  except  blended one  with  15  minute.  that  mL  The  was  of  prepared 6  20  g  samples  per  filtrates  as  cent  were  described of  both  by  Strange  et  types  were  muscle  tricholoroacetic acid  assayed  with  the  for  following  methods .  Tyrosine the  equivalents  method  of  filtrate  was  NaOH  3 mL  and  temperature nm  and  the  were  Strange mixed  with  Folin  for  15  et  analysed a l . ( 1977  2.5  reagent. minutes,  tyrosine  mL  in ).  triplicate A  distilled After  the  equivalents  2.5  aliquot  water,  incubation  absorbance were  mL  was  according  10 at  of  mL  the  0.5N  room  measured  calculated  to  as  mg  at  660  Tyr/g  muscle.  The in  tricholoroacetic acid-soluble triplicate,  using  the  material  was  also  trinitrobenzenesulfonic  analysed,  acid  method  -  (Kwan  et  mixed  with  2.0  mM  TNBS.  of  4.0  al .,  temperature the  The  expressed  4.4.2.b  Salt  as  to  mL  of  MgCl2»  6.1  and and  seconds  filtered protein  grams  the  a  through  (Brewer  of  using et  a l .,  NaH2P04 at  9.2)  stand  reaction  measured  maj o r  was  was  and at  1.0  mL  ambient  terminated  containing  18  420  the  muscle  Li-Chan  nm  and  et  samples  by  mM results  ground  fitted  with  a  of  the  ground  3.9  mM  sodium  was  plate meat  azide  15  wool. the 1974  was  The  0.6  M  at  3,300  allowed at  pass  3/16  inch  were  added 1  mM  buffer  rpm  for  to  (pH 30  Instruments,  to  stand  10,000  extracts  some  NaCl,  extracting  biuret-phenol ).  prepared  single  with  (Brinkman  minutes  a  sample  2  homogenized  for  by  NaH P04,  Polytron  were  a l . (1984) with  were  homogenate  glass  M  extract  (pH  to  Muscles  cent  centrifuged  buffer  allowed the  the  preparation  Brinkman The  of  muscle.  2  mixture  content  2.0  Na HP04, per  was  and  was  method  mM  ON).  hour,  of  aliquot 2  pectoralis  grinder  0.02  using  Rexdale,  method  mL  -  Na B407  mixture  modifications.  Fifteen  M  glycine/g  the  meat  mL  minutes  1.0  of  holes.  one  0.05  extract  a  6.5),  30  mg  through  150  of  0.2  absorbance  Muscle  according  A  The  of  extracts  minor  mL  for  addition  Na2S03«  1983).  54  were  x  g  at  4°C  for  (4°C)  and  analysed  for  spectrophotometric  -  4.4.2.C  Protein  Aliquots  of  27,000  g  x  the for  supernatants in  section  of  the  4.4.2.d  Protein  Protein  surface  and  Aliquots  previously protein  x  muscle  was  the  diluted  Co.,  Inc., of  the  fluorescent  the  were  at  OR)  as  were  dispersibility  was  supernatant )/(protein  of  Springs,  intensity  acid 1.0.  in  buffer  The  net  by  MD) 2  to  75  method  such  namely  with that  probe.  the a  range  0.001%  to  were  of  0.0275% added  the  c i s - p a r i n a r i c acid  at  325  nm  at  420  A mL  and nm  (American  standard of  in  served  their in  decane  100 to  full  an Instrument  used  scale,  adjust  the  relative fluorescent  to  relative  consisting was  of  (CPA,  and  .  in  the  fluorescent  cis-parinaric acid  measured  buffer  a  diluted  achieved,  excited  c i s - p a r i n a r i c acid  blank  described  cis-parinaric acid  spectrophotofluorometer  Silver  cis-parinaric  City,  extracts  i n t e n s i t y was  /XL  the  method  determined  utilizes  extracting  2.0  conjugates  was  extracts  microlitres  Aminco-Bowman  of  of  at  sample)].  which  Junction  described  fluorescent  content the  protein  content  hydrophobicity  Ten  protein  to  centrifuged  hydrophobicity  concentrations  of  protein  cent  [(protein  (1980),  the  were  according  per  protein. mL  the  uncentrifuged  Probes, of  The  extracts  and  determined  100  Nakai  Molecular  muscle  minutes  4.4.2.b.  content  Kato  above  was  as  -  dispersibility  30  calculated  55  to  of  10 adjust  whereas intensity  intensity  of  for  -  each the  dilution protein  was  dilution  cis-parinaric (Monroe, (by  A  acid.  regression  This  Monroe  o f t h e same  dilution  N J ) was  was  with  to  slope  calculate  of the net  the percentage  defined  as  added  calculator  used  the i n i t i a l  i n t e n s i t y versus slope  the i n t e n s i t y of  1880 p r o g r a m m a b l e  Co, O r a n g e ,  of  S . 0  analysis  1880 p r o g r a m m a b l e  regression  analysis  hydrophobicity. on  that  analysis)  initial  Statistical  -  by s u b t r a c t i n g  A Monroe  fluorescent  protein.  4.5  from  The C a l c u l a t o r  linear  relative  calculated  56  was  used  f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  A l lother  the U n i v e r s i t y  calculator  statistical  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  of  for linear  protein  analyses Amdahl  were  performed  470 V/8  mainframe  computer.  The  data,  analyzed and  using  multiple  Duncan MFAV  excluding  analysis  f o r the p r e l i m i n a r y of v a r i a n c e  comparisons  procedure  (Halm  that  among  o f t h e same  and L e , 1 9 7 5 ) .  One  and S t u d y  and  indicate  Two that  measured  variable  variance  models  have  been  the e f f e c t was  t h e means  computer  included  were  3.  model  using i.e.,  the UBC  f o r both  as A p p e n d i c e s  according  i n Table  done  outputs  were  effects  package,  of e l e c t r i c a l  assessed  outlined  for a fixed  statistical  The  study,  Study  4 a n d 5,  stimulation  on  to the a n a l y s i s  each  of  -  Table  3:  57  -  The a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e models analysis i n S t u d y One a n d S t u d y  Degrees Source  of  Treatment Control/Treated Voltage Total pulses Voltage x pulses  the the  of  for  data  freedom  variation Study  Error Total  used Two  1  error above  t e r m was terms  used  to  test  One  Study  8  4  1 1 3 3  1 1 1 1  43 51  45 49  the  significance  Two  of  a l l of  -  RESULTS  5.1  Preliminary  The  shear  for  cooked  1.06  kg)  stunned test.  This  stunning in  the  Pool  (2.67  from  the  to  to  minutes.  samples  those  2°C.  This  after  of the  identified (Khan, 1973).  that  "stunned"  shear no  effect free  et  as  muscle  stun of  struggle  of of  et  the  be  birds  bleeding to  a l . , 1971;  the Ma  and  the  from  a  ±  Student's  t  decrease  would  for  that  30  cent  for  24  to  immediately factor  totals  breast  per  ageing  used  in of  15  electrically  yielded  Addis,  and  be  carcasses  development and  those  Fremery  attributed  a  (3.40  therefore  voltages  after  birds  in a  De  stunning  were  force  preslaughter  reported  that  can  by  resulted  broilers  controls  contributing Ma  high  values  stunning  of  glycolysis  with  than  samples.  but  shear  control  determined  electrical  a l . (1979)  force  average  from  exclusion  processed  commencement  1977;  the  postmortem  Lee  from  as  kg),  breast  commercially  than  degree  were  with  samples  i n c r e a s e d toughness,  study  the  (p<0.01) g r e a t e r  0.66  that  of  hasten  their  stunned,  ±  suggested  to  contribute  maj o r  that  processing operation  tenderness  expected  DISCUSSION  indicated  significantly  suggests  (1960)  30  data  Pectoralis  birds  AND  -  Study  force  was  58  of  1973;  lower hours  the  before  which  meat  has  reduced and been  toughness Wood,  at  -  59 -  T a b l e 4: Mean s c o r e s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f r o m home e v a l u a t i o n o f t e n d e r n e s s , j u i c i n e s s and a c c e p t a b i l i t y of l e g s and t h i g h s  Tenderness  Juiciness  S t u n n e d ( n = 22 ) 2 . 32 ± 0 . 5 8 N o - s t u n ( n = 2 2 ) 2.66 ± 0.90 mean  The  ±  standard  results  from  that  were  tender,  more  controls panel  gave  exclusion the  home  consumer with  less  Study  5.2.1  2. 28 2. 55  and more  ± ±  0.66 0.81  i t was  with  cooking  respect  when  this  effect  a similar  less  such  to age, sex,  to  the  trend.  While  typical experiment  as d i f f e r e n t and  compared  from  controlled  procedures  birds  consumer  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  a much  factors,  thighs  the stunned  from  o f an  i t d i d suggest be m o r e  from  and  acceptable  the data  conclusive evidence  different  of legs  prepared  Although  confounding  methods  of  non-uniformity  etc.  One  The e f f e c t  Electrical both  4).  reaction,  participants  5.2  juicier  e v a l u a t i o n may  many  0.81 1.00  evaluation  samples  of s t u n n i n g ,  preparation, of  cooked  (Table  ± ±  acceptability  deviation  t h e home  suggested  2.65 3.00  1  Overall  Biceps  of e l e c t r i c a l  s t i m u l a t i o n on m u s c l e  s t i m u l a t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d the rate femoris  and P e c t o r a l i s  o f pH  maj o r m u s c l e  pH  decline for  samples  -  (Figures to  1 and  voltage  were  whereas  pH  1A,  It  IB,  obtained  values  yielded  the 2B),  for  pooled  slightly  pH  -  values  nearly  were  identical  electrically on  the  basis  different  pooled  patterns  stimulated of  the  patterns  according pH  muscles,  total  of  of  number  decline  of  (Figures  2A).  should  study  be  might  samples,  noted more  as  the  concurrently  minutes  only the  of  shown  errors  for  As  a l l of  it  would  stages  samples the  for  initial  the (See  pH  samples  slaughter.  pH  values  designated  analyses excised  as  were  for  of  Further,  standard  data  Appendix  2  for  for  clarity  the  0.25  hour  isometric  were  control  means  present  prepared  preparations the  the  tension  completed  of  error  within bars  are  presentation  and  of  standard  pH.)  the  stimulated muscles  appear  that  this  p r e v i o u s l y noted  beef  (Chrystall  both  during  were  the  A l l sample  for  figures.  that  a p p r o p r i a t e l y be  with  measurements. 20  When  (Figures  decline  pulses  2).  60  and  lower  acceleration  in  Devine,  lamb  and  initial  occurs  (Chrystall  1978),  stimulation (ApH)  observed.  had  et  in  pH  the  values, two  a l . , 1980)  where  dramatic  after  stimulation  and  changes, (dpH/dt),  -  pH  6.3  -  6.1  -  5.9  -  5.7  -  61  -  5.5  Time  Figure  1A.  postmortem  (h)  T h e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on p o s t m o r t e m pH d e c l i n e f o r t h e B i c e p s f e m o r i s : t h e e f f e c t o f t h e t o t a l number o f p u l s e s 2400 p u l s e s ( n = 1 0 ) A A , c o n t r o l (n = 1 2 ) 0 O 4800 p u l s e s (n = 2 0 ) • — — • 9600 p u l s e s ( n = 1 0 ) O ~ - O Bars  denote ±  one  standard  error.  -  6.3  62  -  -  6.1  pH  5.9  -  5.7  5.5  Time  Figure  IB.  The e f f e c t pH d e c l i n e voltage  denote  (h)  of e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on p o s t m o r t e m f o r the B i c e p s f e m o r i s : the e f f e c t of  c o n t r o l (n=12)0 140 V ( n = 20 ) • Bars  postmortem  ±  •  one  O  70  standard  V  (n = 20)A-  error.  A  -  Figure  2A.  63 -  T h e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on p o s t m o r t e m pH d e c l i n e f o r t h e P e c t o r a l i s maj o r : t h e e f f e c t o f t h e t o t a l number o f p u l s e s control  ( n = 12) O  O,  2400  4800  pulses  (n = 20)D  Bars  denote  ± one s t a n d a r d  0  ,  pulses 9600  (n = 1 0 ) A  pulses  error.  A ,  (n = 1 0 ) O - - 0  -  64  -  6.3  6.1  PH  5.9  5.7  -  5.5 2 Time  Figure  2B.  The e f f e c t pH d e c l i n e voltage  postmortem  (h)  of e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n f o r t h e P e c t o r a l i s maj o r :  c o n t r o l (n = 1 2 ) 0 — O 140 V ( n = 20 ) • • Bars  4  denote ±  one  70  standard  V  (n = 20) A  error.  on p o s t m o r t e m the e f f e c t of  A  -  Bendall pH  (1978)  decline  muscles there  demonstrated  and  and  of  lactic  further  more  likely  three,  decline.  electrical  stimulation  electrical  shock  glycolytic  rate  studies  Hagyard,  stimulation 1985;  accelerating  Chrystall delay  in  and  when  the  that  most  of  and  that  found  reduced  the  was  both  that  the  postmortem  that  low  voltage  recent decay  be  on  of  high and  et  of  the  of al.  (1976)  important. (Chrystall  low  Fabiansson equally  that  and  voltage and  Libelius,  e f f e c t i v e in  stimulation  nerve be  protracted  These  e f f e c t was  studies in  a  magnitude  applied.  stimulatory  several  Bendall was  muscle  rate.  (1978)  stimulus  voltage  pulses  a l . , 1984a;  studies  of  beef  patterns  acceleration  a l . , 1980)  glycolytic  Devine  the  of  a l . , 1 9 8 3 a , b ) can  stimulation  ApH  system  the  et  the  whereas  number  indicated  the  rates  particular  earliest  that  for  1973),  total  et  the  suggested  Chrystall  et  of  critical  (Devine  Rashid  One  (Carse,  have  1975;  and  the  selected  two,  pH  Later  in a  postmortem  the  production  in  within  least  that  acid  variability  that  at  concluded  high  -  reported  were  was  65  have  the  eventual  authors  through  nervous  their  makes  shortly  suggested  the  supported  function  applied  of  postmortem  view  i t essential  after  death  -  (Chrystall Newbold, were  et  al .,  1982).  As  stimulated  delay  factor  1980;  Devine  a l l of  within  should  66  the  five  not  -  et  al .,  1979 ; M o r t o n  b r o i l e r s used  minutes  of  significantly  in  and  this  study  exsanguination, influence  the  the  data  obtained.  Chicken  Pectoralis  maj o r  fast-twitch  glycolytic  enriched  slow-twitch  in  1978).  Thus,  the  reflect  these  muscle  of  the  voltage,  shock.  Devine  Cutaneus  et  while  carcasses  had  predominantly  to  This  a l .  previously are  stimulation been  slow  of  pH  and  Masseter ApH  response  twitch  an  the that  than  also  effect  stimulatory fast  twitch  from  ox pH  decline  these  increased  electrical  f i b r e s was  any  stimulated  an  highly  probably  accelerated  nor  is  et a l . ,  decline  muscles  to  femoris  rather  electrically ApH  predominantly  (Lebherz  of  indicated  distinct  minimal  muscle  i f animals in  Cross  will  severely  twitch a  Biceps  fibres  duration  from  indicated,  and,  Additionally,  the  of  rate  of  stimulation  observed  by  (1980).  lower  slaughter  or  large  neither  by  et  a  slow  decline.  composed  differences,  a l . (1984a)  (dpH/dt),  values  fibre  t run c i m u s c l e s  pH  and  oxidative  frequency  exhibited  As  fibres  is  d i f f e r e n t patterns  carcasses  Houlier  muscle  the et  only  depleted  have  case  of  glycogen been  stores  severely  poultry,  by  a l . ( 1983 ) s u g g e s t e d be of  effective if their  the  glycogen  and  initial  stressed  free that  muscles stores.  prior  struggle. electrical have  pH  not  Although  67  -  care  was  taken  minimize  free  contributed initial  5.2.2  during  struggle,  somewhat  pH v a l u e s  The e f f e c t tension  Both  Biceps  postmortem average  stimulated  birds  tension  t o maximum  less  from  time  control  birds  by B i c e p s  shock  that  value  carcasses  types,  means w e r e  (p<0.05, that  this  Table were  140V  a t 80 p u l s e s / s  with  140V a t  since  stimulated  required  time 5).  required  sensitive  with  tension  was  I t would  samples  one m i n u t e  samples  A similar  of the the c o n t r o l from  either  a n d two  significantly  to the  was d i f f e r e n t  d i f f e r e n t from  o r 140V a t 40 p u l s e s / s  80 p u l s e s / s  8).  50 p e r c e n t  femoris  and  required  of the shock  only  Biceps  less  The  by  isometric  Table  (Table  was  significantly 8).  influenced  i n the average samples  of  femoris  carcasses  (p<0.05,  muscle  patterns  Biceps  maximum  or the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  t h e two m u s c l e  treatment  femoris  from  P e c t o r a l i s maj o r  to develop  exhibited  however,  5).  stimulated  due t o s t i m u l a t i o n  for  on t h e  and d e c l i n e .  f o r both  definitely  (Table  reduction  electric  have  isometric  normal  development  was  electrically  significantly  appear,  on  maj o r s a m p l e s  exhibited  tension  stimulation  those  may  decline.  stimulation  and P e c t o r a l i s  electrical  than  factors  made t o  parameters  maj o r s a m p l e s  from  were  of s t i m u l a t i o n  o f pH  of e l e c t r i c a l  Pectoralis  excised  of these  to the e f f e c t  isometric  time  each  and a t t e m p t s  and p a t t e r n s  f emoris  electrically  handling  -  70V o r  minutes  less  time to  T a b l e 5:  The e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on s e v e r a l postmortem parameters of avian muscle (Study One)  1  2  6  7  8  70V,60s 80s (n=5)  140V,60s 140V,60s 70V,120s 70V,120s 140V,120s 140V,120s 40s 80s 40s 80s" 40s 80s (n=5) (n=5) (n=5) (n=5) (n=5) (n=5) - 1  - 1  - 1  74 95 (±133)6 (± 44)  113 (± 70)  88 (± 31)  108 (± 35)  112 (± 55)  73 (± 20)  200 (±172)  105 (± 31)  .001  332 (±218)  149 (±117)  107 (± 44)  122 (± 43)  168 (±113)  177 (±113)  236 (±145)  152 (± 90)  .070  72.5 51.1 (±19.6) (±24.7)  50.5 (±21.2)  45.6 (±15.7)  66.4 (±13.2)  38.1 (±20.2)  39.7 (±16.6)  54.3 (±25.8)  55.4 (± 9.5)  .022  BF  71.0 42.7 (±29.8) (±22.0)  64.6 (±28.9)  33.8 (±21.4)  71.6 (±21.6)  38.2 (±21.8)  46.0 (±20.9)  58.2 (± 9.6)  57.3 (±26.4)  .062  PM  0.97 1.11 (±0.23) (±0.180  1.24 (±0.19)  1.12 (±0.16)  1.21 (±0.28)  1.12 (±0.11)  1.18 (±0.04)  1.13 (±0.09)  1.15 (±0.19)  .185  KramerShear PM Force (kg)  2.66 2.43 (±0.70) (±0.17)  2.50 (±0.48)  2.46 (±0.08)  2.44 (±0.33)  2.95 (±1.22)  2.45 (±0.21)  2.23 (±0.24)  2.50 (±0.78)  .791  Parameter Muscle C o n t r o l (n=12)  TMT(min)l  P M  4  BF  MT(g/cm ) 2  FTS (kg/cm )3  2 P  M  2  70V,60s 40s (n=5)  Treatment 4 5  3  - 1  2  5  234 (±129)  - 1  time to maximum t e n s i o n 2 maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n developed 3 f i b r e t e n s i l e strength 1  1  - 1  - 1  4 P e c t o r a l i s maj or 5 B i c e p s femoris v a l u e s w i t h i n parentheses a r e standard 0  Fprob  deviations  -  develop  tension  No  significant  of  pulses  Analysis on  the  maj o r  from  stimulated  for  two  shock  developed  controls  (p<0.05,  strips  tension length at  a  observed  than of  frequency  voltage  (Table  influenced  the  or  (p<0.05).  the  of  40  Table the  total  number  minute)  of  80  6)  nor  muscle  8).  with  No  the of  at  the  number  tension  40  70V,  or  tension  one  However, with  significantly  same  of  the  voltage  Table  8).  by  140V  less same  (140V)  but  Neither  pulses  developed  those  treatment  minute  for  80  than  samples.  stimulated  (p<0.05,  total  a  significant  for  effect  Pectoralis from  less  developed  and  by  strips  femoris  treated  pulses/s  amount  that  carcasses  treatment  developed  Biceps  pulses/s  from  (one  significant  minutes  carcasses  those  time  carcasses  voltage  significantly  for  from  frequency  to  tension  such  muscle a  isometric 5),  was  control  indicated a  (Table  effect  at  of  samples  from  -  observed.  variance  amount  carcasses  those  d i f f e r e n c e s due  were  of  pulses/s  than  69  (Table  either  7)  muscle  type .  There  are  several  electrical first  stimulation  would  structural  possible  consider and  possibility examinations  the  cellular  cannot were  Ultrastructural  on  be not  explanations isometric  effect  integrity  completely performed  studies  of  have  for  this  tension  development.  stimulation of  the  shown  any  on  muscle  disregarded on  of  regions  effect  the of  as  of The  the  cells.  This  histological  samples. super-  -  Table  6:  70  -  The e f f e c t o f v o l t a g e o f t h e p o s t - e x s a n g u i n a t i o n e l e c t r i c a l s h o c k on s e v e r a l p o s t m o r t e m p a r a m e t e r s avian muscle (Study One)  of  Voltage Parameter  TMT  (min)l  Muscle  Control (n=12)  PM^ BF  274±133 332*218  5  MT  FTS  (g/cm )2 2  49  126± 154*  94 98  p r ob  0.351 0.558  44.8*20.1 47.9*24.0  55.4*17.5 55.2*23.6  0.088 0.344  ( k g / c m 2 ) 3 PM  0.97*0.23  1 .16*0.12  1.15*0.18  0.915  2.58*0.65  2.41*0.42  0 . 360  PM  t o maximum  2  . 66±0.70  tension  maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n fibre tensile strength ^ P e c t o r a l i s maj o r Biceps femoris mean ± s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n D  98±  181*112  F  72.5*19.6 71.0*29.8  1 time  3  6  140V (n=20)  PM BF  Kramer Shear Force (kg)  o  70V (n=20)  developed  Table  7:  T h e e f f e c t o f t h e t o t a l number o f p u l s e s o f t h e p o s t - e x s a n g u i n a t i o n s h o c k on s e v e r a l p o s t m o r t e m p a r a m e t e r s o f a v i a n m u s c l e ( S t u d y One)  Total  number  of  electrical  pulses  4800  Parameter  Muscle  Control (n=12)  TMT  (min)  1  P M  4  BF  MT  (g/cm )  5  274±133 332*218  6  2400  40x120  60x80  (n=10)  (n=10)  (n=10)  9 2 ± 36 169±110  156*129 202±128  111± 135±  9600  F  prob  F  VxP prob  (n=10)  52 84  89± 164±  30 97  0.350 0.777  0.635 0.526  PM BF  72.5±19.6 71.0*29.8  48.3*19.7 38.2*21.0  46.2±23.5 48.2±19.0  58.5*18.6 68.1±24.4  47.5±15.2 51.7±23.2  0.468 0.064  0.513 0.610  PM  0.97*0.23  1.11±0.16  1.13±0.10  1.22±0.22  1.16±0.13  0.539  0.998  Kramer PM Shear Force (kg)  2.66±0.70  2.45*0.13  2.59*0.92  2.46±0.39  2.47±0.54  0.950  0.445  2  FTS (kg/cm )  2  2  t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n 2 maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n 3 fibre tensile strength  .  1  developed  «  ^ P e c t o r a l i s maj o r 5 Biceps femoris 6 mean * s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n  -  8:  Table  Parameter  TMT  MT  2  1  D u n c a n ' s New M u l t i p l e m e a n s f r o m S t u d y One  72 -  Range  Analysis  Muscle  PM BF^  PM  BF  3  6 3 1 8 4 5 2 < C (p<0.05) 3 4 2 8 < C (p<0.05)  Treatment Treatment  means means  Treatment Treatment  mean 6 < C a n d 5 < 4,C ( p < 0 . 0 5 ) mean,V 7 0 V , 140V < C ( p < 0 . 0 5 )  Treatment Treatment  mean mean.TNP  t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n P e c t o r a l i s maj o r 4 Biceps femoris as d e s i g n a t e d i n T a b l e 1 voltage 7 t o t a l number o f p u l s e s  5  6  7  1  2  3  5  0  of treatment  developed  3 < 4 2400<C  (p<0.05) (p<0.05)  -  contracture,  depleted  mitochondria  when  either  ox  carcasses treated  soon  et  of  and  integrity  isometric  tension.  emphasis,  as  (1)  was  by  both  shown  carcasses; were  (2)  capable  controls; bovine  of  and,  of  A  explanation  stimulation  stimulation  on  metabolites  which  glycogen.  catabolism phosphate 1983;  Vogel  respond  have  a  role  1977)  'white' more  deserve  et  development from  similar  triphosphate  due  to  muscles,  readily  to  et  muscles  those been  of  of  observed  electrical of  the  shortening: a  more  compounds  -  creatine  (Calkins  the  electrical  in  little  indicated  a l . , 1979)  as  decline  1984a).  stimulation. such  great  and  i s otherwise  postmortem  phosphate  Will  to  c o n c e n t r a t i on  have  the  stimulated  often  effect  or  possess  stimulated  a l .,  the  in  studies  a l . , 1985;  1975,  not  muscle  availability  adenosine  et  classically also  the  high-energy  and  maintain  tensions  (Devine  concomitant  and  of  from  of  develop may  1980)  excised  not  electrically  this  muscles  may  excised  considers  Several  of  (Swatland,  the  although  by  and  types  a l . ,  exhibiting  s u p e r c o n t r a c t u r e has  affected  second  the  et  from  they  pattern  developing  Masseter,  to  (Will  regions  possibility  muscle  (3)  If  numerous  required  prepared  steer  sarcomeres,  normal  some  or  swollen  been  therefore regions  This  a  and  have  stimulation.  neighbouring  structural  content  samples  contained  supercontracture,  -  a l . , 1984a)  after  carcasses  tearing  glycogen  muscle  (Devine  73  et and  major ATP  rapid  a l . , 19 82, glycogen  Additionally,  Pectoralis stimulation  major, than  'red'  74  muscles,  such  Swatland,  The  noticeable  treated  birds  the time  differences observed maximum  Two  confirms reports  et a l .,  that  1984a;  with  t o maximum  could  rate  that  f emoris  of  much  and ATP, w h i l e  Sundeen  Vanderstoep  fifty  t o maximum  i n the i n i t i a l glycogen the time  ATP  content  by et a l .  (1974)  of the observed  tension  could  content  of turkey  t o maximum  (1980)  the time to  and R i c h a r d s  per cent  has a l s o  samples  of the variatio.n  be e x p l a i n e d  ATP c o n t e n t .  tension  postmortem  p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between  i n the time  Muscle  noted  tension  approximately  differences  associated  have  time  and B i c e p s  an i n c r e a s e d  i n the i n i t i a l  significant  variations  maj o r .  (Devine  i n the average  P e c t o r a l i s maj o r  t o maximum  tension  reported  by  decrease  by b o t h  glycolysis. in  femorls.  1981)  exhibited of  as t h e B i c e p s  -  been  tension  be  explained Pectoralis  significantly  (Sundeen  et a l . ,  1980) .  An  accelerated  metabolite explain  of g l y c o l y s i s  concentration  the reduced  samples. design  rate  These  i n the stimulated  maximum  tension  considerations  and e x e c u t i o n  and a l o w e r  values  provided  of the second  initial  samples achieved  the basis  study.  may in  for  also these the  -  5.2.3  The  effect  strength  Neither  of  and  muscle  electrical shear  break  values  were  5,  7).  According  decline rigor, for  in and  several  catheptic  (Dutson,  1983;  et  al .,  in  muscle  total  1983  by  break  the  the  all  of  day  the  this to  a  may  there  fibre  significant  be  but  muscle  that of  was  may  effect  due  to  ageing  that a  data  that  of  role  process Pearson  an  increase  decrease were  in  later  decreasing in  in  structural  et  a  not  and  muscle  al.,  necessary  be  stimulation  1978;  activity in  far  observed. may  in  isometric  enough  changes  also  for  1983).  decline  proceeded  to  changes  Yeates,  enzyme  structural  strength  of  resolution  with  are  (Ashgar  have  period  a l . , 1983;  large  sufficient  not  (Tables  samples.  muscle  result  the  decreases  Pearson  necessary  tensile  or  contradictory  with  shear  significant  ) noted  found  blade  the  a  associated  1981;  to  to  et  ( 1973  tenderness  the  tensile  stimulation  (1972)  Goll  ( 1 9 8 0 ) who  samples  produce in  1981;  suggested  activity  al.  suggested  Stanley  Marsh,  muscle  et  associated  meat  fibre  single  'resolution'  architecture  i t appears  difference of  of  on  electrical  have  dystrophied  a l . , 1983;  tension, one  was  have  molecular  Although  al.  Kramer  corresponds  this  and  et  of  reports  et  in  activity,  activity  promotion  Goll  authors  strength  Will  strength  Several  tension  Eino  break  catheptic  in  ).  by  Busch  Etherington,  catheptic  reported  to  enzymes  stimulation  nor  influenced  isometric  -  values  strength  force 6,  75  for  in a  The  lack  reflect  -  that  other  factors,  contribute  The  lack  e.g., connective  to muscle  break  o f an e f f e c t  maj o r  muscle  which  have  76 -  the f i n d i n g s  that  electrical  produce  consistent  (Bowles  Axe e t a l . , 1983; J e r e m i a h  Froehlich, stimulation tender. use  could  musculature  for  could  24  give  values  hours  were the  at 2°C.  treated  tension),  that  ageing  period  rigor  alone.  determined  required  sufficient  poultry  only  after  time  breast  muscle  to achieve  when  that which  or c o l d  holding  to  needed  minimum s h e a r  already the  conditions  shortening,  and n o t  study,  shear  the carcasses  of the ageing  for  (1974)  a 20 h o u r force  (as  maximum  elapsed Khan  for  period  carcasses  to reach  as w e l l .  were  advocated  In t h e p r e s e n t  time  electrical  the prerigor  and s t i m u l a t e d  only  studies does n o t  t o be e x p o s e d  had o b v i o u s l y  of the c o n t r o l s  found  recently  the lengths  less  Pectoralis  i n tenderness  muscles  (1985)  f o r the c o n t r o l  birds  tenderization  t o thaw  of s e v e r a l  stimulation  (1982)  is likely  Although  can  e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ; Wood a n d  those  stimulation  improvement  were  different  et a l .  and D e v i n e  rise  of cooked  alterations  not improve  of a carcass  tenderness  force  Riley  Chrystall  of e l e c t r i c a l  that  meaningful  1983).  content,  strength.  on t h e t e n d e r n e s s  corroborates  indicated  tissue  the suggested  postmortem  values.  -  5.3  Study  5.3.1  Two  The e f f e c t tension  Electrical rigor  treatment  of  stimulation  mean  either  develop Tables the  Table  excised  less  I t would  i s an i m p o r t a n t from  carcasses  when  Although  required no  15).  tension  10, 1 5 ) .  tension,  isometric  significant  than  parameter,  differences  the  were  voltage  stimulated  less  to controls  samples  Each  as P e c t o r a l i s  had been  stimulation  femoris  9).  of  for control  that  significantly  electrical  course  (Table  that  appear  that  compared  f o r Biceps  the time  maj o r s a m p l e s  o r 140V r e q u i r e d  maximum  time  on  accelerated  significantly  shock  70V  markedly  in Pectoralis  was  (p<0.05,  maj o r m u s c l e s  stimulation  parameters  the e l e c t r i c  with  of e l e c t r i c a l  development  samples  77 -  time  to  (p<!0.05, also  reduced  to reach  maximum  noted  (Tables  9,  15).  The  amount  samples  of i s o m e t r i c  d i d not appear  electrical  stimulation  (Tables  15).  9,  stimulated isometric stimulated pulses/s, 15).  t o be even  Biceps  carcasses, tension.  tension  The l a c k  significantly though  femoris  by P e c t o r a l i s affected  a reduction  samples  from  was  tended  to develop  For muscle  strips  excised  difference  with was  of a s i g n i f i c a n t  treatment  by observed  less  from  140V a t a f r e q u e n c y significant  maj o r  electrically  however,  f o r one m i n u t e this  developed  (p<!0.05, effect  carcasses o f 40 Tables  may  be  9,  Table  9: T h e e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l m u s c l e ( S t u d y Two)  s t i m u l a t i o n on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  of r i g o r  mortis  i n avian  Treatmen t 2  Parameter  TMT  (min)  Muscle  PM BF  1  4  MT  1  2  3  4  5  (g/cm ) 2  2  PM BF  3  Control  289± 7 8 402±198  70V, 6 0 s 40s~l  5  50.6±11.5 47 . 0 ± 1 5 . 7  70V, 1 2 0 s 40s - 1  140V, 6 0 s 40s  140V, 1 2 0 s 40s  - 1  F  prob  - 1  1 2 4 ± 74 365±155  9 8 ± 47 341±246  1 4 4 ± 31 296*261  1 5 2 ± 87 278±165  0.001 0.673  35.2±21 . 7 42.2±16.1  38.7±19.8 37.8±15.4  4 2 . 7 ± 7.1 28.4±15.2  42.0±11.6 35.3±12.3  0. 248 0.084  t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n developed P e c t o r a l i s maj o r Biceps femoris mean ( n = 1 0 ) ± s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n  -  attributed tension effect the  9).  Other  for Pectoralis number  influenced (Tables  Table  to the o b s e r v e d , l a r g e  (Table  total  79  than  -  variations  the p r e v i o u s l y  maj o r s a m p l e s ,  of pulses  neither  of the e l e c t r i c  the parameters  i n the developed  of i s o m e t r i c  noted  voltage  the voltage  shock  tension  nor  significantly  development  10, 1 1 ) .  10: T h e e f f e c t o f v o l t a g e o f t h e p o s t - e x s a n g u i n a t i o n e l e c t r i c s h o c k on i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n d e v e l o p m e n t i n avian muscle (Study Two)  Voltage Parameter  TMT(min)  1  MT(g/cm ) 2  Muscle  Control (n=10)  PM BF ^  289± 7 8 402*198  3  2  PM BF  5  50.6*11.5 47.0*15.7  70V (n=20)  140V (n=20)  1 1 1 ± 62 353*200  1 4 8 ± 64 289±212  0.087 0. 320  36.9±20.3 40.0±15.5  4 2 . 6 ± 9.5 31.8*13.9  0.250 0.092  t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n d e v e l o p e d P e c t o r a l i s maj o r B i c e p s f emor i s mean ± s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n  F  prob  -  Table  80  -  11: The e f f e c t o f t h e t o t a l number o f p u l s e s o f t h e post-exsanguination electric s h o c k on i s o m e t r i c tension development i n avian muscle (Study Two)  Total Parameter  TMT(min)  Muscle  PM BF  1  MT(g/cm2)2  P  289± 7 8 402*198  3  pulses  4800 (n=20)  Fprob  VxP Fprob  1 3 4 ± 56 331±212  1 2 5 ± 73 310*206  0.669 0. 754  0.433 0. 962  39.2*16.3 35.3*16.8  40.5*15.9 36.5*13.6  0.816 0.802  0.637 0.240  5  50.6±11.5 47.0*15.7  M  BF  of  2400 (n-20)  Control (n=10)  4  number  t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n 2 maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n P e c t o r a l i s maj o r B i c e p s f emo r i s mean * s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1  developed  3  4  5  5.3.2  The  effect  of e l e c t r i c a l  s t i m u l a t i o n on  muscle  me t a b o l i t e s  Several  significant  contents (Table  of both  12).  muscle  contents  samples,  and  was  f o r one  f o r each  data  was  2400  pulses  effects were  on  the  observed  of both  pooled had  (p<0.05,  Table  received  4800  minute  Pectoralis  with  either  (p<0.05,  Table  of  these  treatments  on  this  a 15)  basis,  significantly than  pulses.  metabolite in this  s t i m u l a t i o n decreased maj o r a n d  f o r P e c t o r a l i s maj o r s a m p l e s  significant  pulses  types  Electrical  glycogen  shocked  treatment  either  70  15).  or The  was  those lower  from 140V total  2400,  the  study initial  Biceps  f emoris  carcasses this  reduction  number  of  a n d when  carcasses  which  initial  glycogen  the c o n t r o l s or those  the  received content  which  Table  12: The e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l m u s c l e ( S t u d y Two)  stimulation  on  g l y c o g e n , ATP  a n d HMP  content  of  avian  Treatmen t 1  Metabolite  Mus c l e  Time  1  Con t r o 1  2  70V, 6 0 s 40s  ATP  3  HMP^  2  PM BF  4  70V, 1 2 0 s 40s  140V, 6 0 s 40s  9.94*3.38 5.60*2.93  12.62*6.78 5.40*3.64  8.78*3.18 3.08*1.11  12.76*2.71 5.50*2.70  0. 013 0. 025  - 1  Glycogen  3  - 1  - 1  140V, 1 2 0 s 40s  F  pro  - 1  0 0  16 . 0 0 ± 6 . 0 0 7 .48*2.99  PM  0 2 6  2 .96±1.00 2 .85±1.99 0 .70±0.38  0.99*0.43 0.39*0.11 0.50*0.17  0.98*0.30 0.51*0.20 0.60*0.20  1 .22*0.43 0.46*0.11 0.62*0.21  0.96*0.54 0.53*0.16 0.58*0.13  0. 001 0. 001 0. 408  BF  0 2 6  1 .65*0.61 0 .43±0.28 0 .32*0.16  1 .15*0.68 0.42*0.12 0.29*0.11  0.88*0.38 0.37*0 .12 0.36*0.09  0.47*0.11 0.32*0.05 0.26*0.11  0.58*0.26 0.31*0.07 0.32*0.08  0. 001 0. 248 0. 450  PM  0 2 6  0 .68*0.47 0 .21*0.23 0 .85±0.74  0. 15*0.12 0.81*0.73 2.45*1.30  0.45*0.42 1 .16*0.99 2.89*1.80  0.29*0.21 0.94*0.71 3.05*1 .74  0.75*1.47 1 .38*1.09 3.54*0.96  0. 286 0. 028 0. 001  BF  0 2 6  0 .61*0.39 0 .24*0.32 0 .71*0.60  0.81*0.71 0.26*0.35 0.65*0.74  0.55*0.45 0.26*0.30 0.76±0.74  0.57*0.70 0.47*0.43 0.59*0.54  0.80*0.90 0. 3 6 * 0 . 1 6 0.87*0.32  0. 820 0. 488 0. 874  5  6  7  1 time p o s t s l a u g h t e r i n hours m i c r o m o l e g l y c o s y l u n i t s / g wet w e i g h t 3 m i c r o m o l e / g wet w e i g h t 4 h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e i n m i c r o m o l e / g wet  5 P e c t o r a l i s maj o r 6 Biceps femoris 7 mean ( n = 1 0 ) * s t a n d a r d  2  weight  deviation  - 82 -  Table  13: The e f f e c t o f v o l t a g e o f t h e p o s t - e x s a n g u i n a t i o n e l e c t r i c s h o c k on t h e g l y c o g e n , ATP a n d HMP content of a v i a n m u s c l e ( S t u d y Two)  Voltage Metabolite  Muscle  3  HMP  4  Control (n=10)  70V (n=20)  140V (n=20)  0. 733 0. 180  2. 9 6 ± 1 . 00 2. 8 5 ± 1 . 99 0. 7 0 ± 0 . 38  0. 9 9 ± 0 . 36 0. 4 5 ± 0 . 17 0. 5 4 ± 0 . 19  1 .0 9 ± 0 . 49 0. 5 0 ± 0 . 14 0. 6 0 ± 0 . 17  0. 587 0. 867 0. 488  0 2 6  1 .6 5 ± 0 . 61 0. 4 3 ± 0 . 28 0. 3 2 ± 0 . 16  1 .0 2 ± 0 . 55 0. 4 0 ± 0 . 12 0. 3 2 ± 0 . 10  0. 5 2 ± 0 . 20 0. 3 1 ± 0 . 06 0. 2 9 ± 0 . 10  0. 001 0. 088 0. 433  PM  0 2 6  0. 6 8 ± 0 . 47 0. 2 1 ± 0 . 23 0. 8 5 ± 0 . 74  0. 3 0 ± 0 . 34 0. 9 8 ± 0 . 87 2. 6 7± 1 .55  0. 5 2 ± 1 . 01 1. 1 6 ± 0 . 93 3. 3 0 ± 1 . 39  0. 318 0. 419 0. 156  BF  0 2 6  0. 6 1 ± 0 . 39 0. 2 4 ± 0 . 32 0. 7 1 ± 0 . 60  0. 6 8 ± 0 . 59 0. 2 6 ± 0 . 32 0. 7 1 ± 0 . 72  0. 6 9 ± 0 . 80 0. 4 2 ± 0 . 32 0. 7 3 ± 0 . 45  0. 964 0. 135 0. 901  PM  0 2 6  BF  6  7  *  time p o s t s l a u g h t e r i n hours m i c r o m o l e g l y c o s y l u n i t s / g wet w e i g h t m i c r o m o l e / g wet w e i g h t h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e i n m i c r o m o l e / g wet P e c t o r a l i s maj o r 6 B i c e p s f emor i s mean ± s t a n d a r d deviation 3  5  7  prob  10. 7 7 ± 3 . 52 4. 3 0 ± 2 . 36  16. 0 0 ± 6 . O O 7 . 4 8 ± 2 . 99  5  2  4  F  1 1 .2 8 ± 5 . 40 5. 5 0 ± 3 . 22  0 0  PM BF  ATP  Timel  weight  Table  14: T h e e f f e c t o f t h e t o t a l number o f p u l s e s o f t h e p o s t - e x s a n g u i n a t i o n electric s h o c k on t h e g l y c o g e n , ATP a n d HMP c o n t e n t o f a v i a n m u s c l e ( S t u d y Two)  Total Metabolite  Muscle  Time  1  Con t r o 1 (n=10)  number  of  pulses  2400  4800  (n=20)  (n=20)  F  prob  F  prob  VxP Glycogen 2  ATP  HMP  3  4  PM BF  0 0  16.00±6.00 7.48±2.99  9.36*3.25 4.35*2.52  12.69*5.03 5.45±3.12  0.030 0.220  0.666 0.146  PM  0 2 6  2.96±1.00 2 . 8 5 ± 1 .99 0.70±0.38  1 . 11±0.44 0.42±0.11 0.56±0.20  0.97*0.42 0.52±0.17 0 . 5 9 ± 0 . 17  0.486 0.732 0.671  0.527 0.932 0. 366  BF  0 2 6  1.65±0.61 0.43±0.28 0.32±0.16  0.81±0.59 0.37±0.11 0.28±0.11  0.73±0.35 0 . 3 4 ± 0 . 10 0.34±0.08  0.557 0.510 0.089  0.201 0. 696 0.897  PM  0 2 6  0.6 8 ± 0 . 4 7 0.21±0.23 0.85*0.74  0.22*0.18 0.87*0.71 2.75±1.53  0.60±1.03 1 . 2 7 ± 1 .02 3.22*1.44  0.096 0.125 0. 289  0.732 0.866 0.953  BF  0 2 6  0.61±0.39 0.24±0.32 0.71±0.60  0.69*0.70 0.36*0.40 0.62*0.63  0.68*0.71 0.31*0.24 0.82±0.56  0.944 0.596 0.317  0.240 0.643 0.678  5  6  time p o s t s l a u g h t e r i n hours 2 m i c r o m o l e g l y c o s y l u n i t s / g wet w e i g h t m i c r o m o l e / g wet w e i g h t h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e i n m i c r o m o l e / g wet  7  1  5  3  7  4  weight  P e c t o r a l i s maj o r 6 Biceps f emoris mean ± s t a n d a r d deviation  -  Electrical content 12).  than  stimulation significantly  of P e c t o r a l i s  Duncan's  treatment  significant  140V  was  70V,  and b o t h  were  samples  a t two h o u r s  significant  monophosphate  lower  were  control  were  of Biceps  time,  increased  postmortem treated controls  (p<0.05,  maj o r s a m p l e s  birds  Table  birds  receiving  receiving  the values  f o r the maj o r  significantly treatment  mean  was  f o r the hexose samples  compared 15).  postmortem  J  hexose  (p<0.05).  stimulated  had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  at s i x hours  A  (Table 15).  t h e 2 and 6 hour  when  15).  of P e c t o r a l i s  observed femoris  less  f o r the Biceps  than  also  each  a t any  but e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n  carcasses  content  Table  f o r those  values  that  ATP  (Table  significantly  of those  values  70 o r 140V h a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  monophosphate  was  noted  lower  samples  indicated  (p<0.05,  that  the i n i t i a l  f emoris  s t i m u l a t i o n and each  than  content  from  than  postmortem  of P e c t o r a l i s  maj o r s a m p l e s  content  T h e ATP  differences  sampling  significantly  either  (p<0.05).  by e l e c t r i c a l  significantly  also  significantly  birds  content  lower  types,  values  was  the i n i t i a l  significantly  postmortem  muscle  effect  control  No  analysis  respective control  samples:  affected  range  f o r both  voltage  decreased  maj o r a n d B i c e p s  multiple  mean,  their  femoris  84 -  monophosphate Pectoral is  f o r two m i n u t e s  greater  hexose  t o c o n t r o l s a t two  A l l of the samples greater  Table  hours  from  concentrations  (p<0.05,  with  15).  than  -  Table  1 5 : D u n c a n ' s New M u l t i p l e means f r o m S t u d y Two  Parameter  -  Range  Analysis  PM  MT  BF5  2  4  Treatmen t T r e a tmen t  mean s 6 mean s , V  Treatmen t  mean  " Glycogen  Treatmen t "  mean s  BF  •t  ti  PM BF  Treatmen t  mean s  PM  -0 h o u r -0 h o u r  -2 -6  3  hour hour  (p<0. 05) (P<0. 05)  3 < C 140V < C  (p<0. 05) (p<0. 05)  3 ,  TNP  2400 <  7  PM  Treatmen t  mean s  PM PM  Treatmen t  mean s  1 < C 4800, C 3 < C  4 2 1 3 3 4 3 4 2 1 140V < 70V  *•  " ,v -2 h o u r  2 1 3 4 < C 70V,140V < C  ,v  II  HMP  of treatment  Muscle  TMTl  ATP  85  (p<0. 05) (p<0. 05) (p<0. 05)  < C < 1 < C < C  (p<0. 05) (p<0. 05) (p<0. 05) (p<0. 05)  1 3 2 4 < C  (p<0. 05)  C < 2 4 1 2 3 4  (p<0. 05) (p<0. 05)  C <  t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n d e v e l o p e d hexose monophosphate c o n t e n t , time p o s t s l a u g h t e r P e c t o r a l i s maj o r Biceps femoris as d e s i g n a t e d i n T a b l e 2 t o t a l number o f p u l s e s  5.3.2.a  In  The i n f l u e n c e  an a t t e m p t  to e l u c i d a t e  electrical  stimulation  difference  values  calculated,  of muscle  tested  by  type  the nature  of response to  the d i f f e r e n t  f o r the examined for significance  muscle  postmortem (t test)  types,  mean  parameters  were  and a r e p r e s e n t e d  -  in  Table  16.  carcasses, less  time  For both  Pectoral is  control  86  and  (p<0.05).  The  Pectoralis  shocked  f o r one  two  minutes  femoris  more  samples  tension  (p<0.01  than  and  required  tension  samples  significantly  electrically  maj o r s a m p l e s  t o d e v e l o p maximum  or  -  than  significantly  Biceps  maj o r s a m p l e s  with  140  their  p<0.05,  stimulated  femoris from  carcasses  V developed  respective  Biceps  respectively).  T a b l e 16: Mean d i f f e r e n c e v a l u e s o f s e v e r a l parameters of avian muscle (Study Two)  postmortem  1  Treatmen t Parameter  Control  70V,60s 40s - 1  TMT MT  -113*  2  3  3. 64  -215** -2.17  Glycogen  8.50**  4.34**  ATP  -0 -2 -6  hour hour hour  1.32** 2.69** 0.39*  HMP  -0 -2 -6  hour hour hour  0.07 -0.04 0. 14  70V,120s 40s - 1  -204* 6. 40  140V,60s 40s - 1  140V,120s 40s - 1  -152*  -126*  14.3**  6.77*  7.23  5.70**  7.26**  -0.16 -0.03 -0.21**  0.10 0.14* 0.24**  0.75** 0.14** 0.35**  0.39** 0.23** 0.26**  -0.66** 0.47 1.80**  - 0 . 10 0.91** 2.12**  -0.28 0.47* 2.46**  -0.06 1.02** 2.67**  1 d i f f e r e n c e c a l c u l a t e d as t h e v a l u e o f t h e p a r a m e t e r f o r t h e P e c t o r a l i s maj o r m i n u s t h a t o f t h e B i c e p s f e m o r i s t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n 3 maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n d e v e l o p e d 4 m e a n s b a s e d on n=10 * * , * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 1 a n d 5% l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y respectively 2  -  As  expected,  Pectoralis  significantly femoris  samples.  electrical (1985)  higher  significantly  in  a  maj o r  content  between  samples  to  remain  Whereas  control  greater  ATP  postmortem  The  from  smaller  than  of  that  the of  the  birds  control  samples  significantly  postmortem  According  that  from  at  of  the  the  f emoris  Biceps by  4  femoris  for  control  femoris  in  of  muscle.  be  expected  initial the  Pectoralis  maj o r  only  the  the  a  period.  at  two  each  Pectoralis  similar  No  values  monophosphate  at  latter  were g e n e r a l l y significant  were  observed  contents six  for  Pectoralis  carcasses  and  maj o r  pattern.  However,  stimulated  samples  significantly  samples  samples.  sampling  hexose  would  had  exhibited  monophosphate any  by  Reutersward  for  and  samples  difference the  account  (p<0.05),  3 and  had  than  their  hours  (p<0.05).  to  Marsh  (1985)  "there  a  stimulation.  maj o r  Biceps  had  Biceps  content  differences to  than  affected  glycogen  sufficient  birds  stimulation  glycogen  catabolism  electrically  higher  Biceps  electrical  soluble  period  i n hexose  respective  Laser  than  differences  maj o r  and  Treatments  magnitudes  content  Fabiansson  Pectoralis  sampling  control  not  unaffected  content  from  glycogen  samples,  are  samples  was  the  rapid  -  relationship  suggested  more  relationship  samples  This  lowered  Pectoralis  glycogen  initial  stimulation.  recently  Although  maj o r  87  i s no  reason  to  suppose  that  88  the it  final  composition  i s in rigor,  corresponding It  would  isometric  concentrations  The  i n a n y way  nonstimulated  parameters  reflect  or muscle  study  tension  support  the observation  porcine  muscles  with  than  those  fibres  muscle chicken et  require  composed  (Vastus  difference  (Whiting  on t h e t i m e  muscle.  t o maximum  et a l . (1970)  maximum  of slow-twitch, evidence  of  f o r mechanically  and W i l l i a m s ,  and R i c h a r d s ,  on t h e  of g l y c o l y t i c  to achieve  Further  indicated  (Stephenson  of p r e r i g o r  by S c h m i d t  predominantly  in either  metabolite  proportion  time  'set' condition".  fibres  tension oxidative  this skinned r a t  1981),  1978) and b e e f  that  as w e l l muscles  as f o r (Busch  a l . , 1967 ) .  The less  results  f o r t h e amount  o f maximum  c o n c l u s i v e , as t h e P e c t o r a l i s  carcasses values  stimulated  than  their  and R i c h a r d s  samples  developed  a significant  demonstrated  (1975)  more  difference  in a later  study  achieved  Biceps  found  tension  tension  developed  maj o r s a m p l e s  f o r two m i n u t e s  corresponding  Whiting  but  less  lateralis) .  has been  fibres  a higher  once  of a  of'stimulation  events  of the present  (Longis simus)  that  muscle,  the d i f f e r e n c e s  the e f f e c t  and b i o p h y s i c a l  findings  from  o n e i n t h e same  therefore, that  tension  biochemical  of a p r e v i o u s l y s t i m u l a t e d  differs  follow,  -  the chicken  than  Biceps  i n maximum (Whiting  from  higher  femoris  are  tension  samples. Pectoralis  femoris  tension  maj o r  samples,  was n o t  and R i c h a r d s ,  1978a).  -  Busch  et  a l . (1972)  observed  porcine  Semitendinosus  maximum  tension  1  mM  Ca  was  + 2  muscles  were  increased samples a  from  developed from  ambient  isolated  observed  the  the  same  f o r the f o r two  muscle  from  significantly  fibres  greater  muscle  or  temperature  carcasses stimulated of  fibres  surrounding buffer  an  tension  proportion  with  the  postmortem  support al.  the  (1984a)  their  bovine  that  glycogen, and  to  of  2°C.  minutes being  when  i f the  Pectoralis  The maj o r  may  reflect  activated  muscle,  constituted  glycolytic  Hintz  et  (1975,  white  by  Dalrymple  and  more  a l . ( 1982 ) s u g g e s t e d  maintenance more  slow-twitch  than  of  per  unit  time  isometric  high-energy muscles,  the  than  do  by  and  et  more  red  fibres.  (1975)  ground found  that  fruetose-6-phosphate  (1)  per  More more  fast-twitch  tension  Devine  in prerigor Hamm  in  acceleration  respond  a l l times. as  an  and  ninety-five  that,  are  stimulation,  1977)  fibres  glycolysis  m e t a b o l i t e s at  i s performed  expends  electrical  glucose, glucose-6-phosphate,  lactate  study  indicate  stimulation  postmortem  rabbit  present  that  Swatland  classically  of  the  following  electrical  total  work  of  in  reports  glycolysis  study  and  noted  numerous  findings  dramatically  the  to  red  fibres  the  m e t a b o l i t e changes  accord  In  to  exposed  that  muscle  white  -  stimulus.  The  of  added  maximum  greater  the  than  89  cent  compounds  metabolic  changes  the  recently mechanical  muscles  in fast-twitch  phosphate  of  when  and  muscles  compared  reported  (2)  for  to  these  -  fibres  reflect  enzymic during  not  capacity low  ten-fold  only  to  voltage  increase  meet  in  consumption  is  (Fabiansson  and  enolase,  of  times  reflect  -  remains  of  Small,  but  or  greater  glycolytic  enzymes  glycolytic  potential  compared  As  with  the to  the  metabolite  more those  noted  appropriately  be  of  pH  of  the  values  the  control  in  that  muscles  mechanism  in  three  the for  the  muscle either  higher  Kuypers,1985;  Newbold  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  al.,1980). maj o r in  The  samples  femoris  One,  present  study  might  0.25  hour  may  anaerobic therefore  concentrations  samples.  the  and  'bound'  marked  metabolite  Biceps  and  enzyme  suggested  19 79 ) ,  to  muscles  stimulated  have  and  are  of  aldolase,  and  leg  synthesis  Study  as  a  energy  muscle  of  designated  is  and  specifically  ( Ben da 11 ,  changes  in  -  The  Pectoralis  dramatic  initial values  of  of  in  reported  catalytic et  that  there  dehydrogenase  rate  (Horgan  (Clarke  rate  found  reports  a_ l e v e l s  estimated  consumption,  breast  1978).  several  a_ a c t i v i t y  1985)  explain  al .,  their  1985).  levels rates  also  carcasses  energy  enzymes  glycolytic  phosphorylase  phosphorylase  the  relative et  beef  that  chicken  but  been  3-phosphate  adult  the  unclear,  has  Reutersward,  than  (Lebherz  acceleration  higher  in  of  times  glycolytic  increased  proteins  rate  two  Laser  higher  It  demand  s t i m u l a t i o n , the  glyceraldehyde  phosphorylase four  still  the  energy  i t .  the  following  levels  -  s t i m u l a t i o n of  immediately  The  the  90  '0  hour'  more  samples,  as  the  -  samples  for metabolite  concurrently  with  the  91  analyses samples  -  were  also  excised  prepared  for  isometric  tension  measuremen t s.  The  ATP  values  for  control  significantly  higher  each  time  of  sampling  the  Hintz  Pectoralis et  muscle the  rat.  was  This  particularly  at  Richards  two  content in  Biceps  femoris  hours  in  two  the  the  that  of  to  Biceps  greater  through ATP  postmortem  was  femoris  of  'red' fibres  type  by  in  was  (Table  Pectoralis  noted  at  glycolysis.  muscle  fibre  of  were  capability  content  'white'  content  postmortem  a  muscle  hours  ATP  ATP  that  due  samples  control  reflect  produce  than  at  Pectoralis  anaerobic  expected  in  that  higher  (and  predominantly  effective  in  carcasses  than  initial  Although  potential  voltage  white  s t i m u l a t i n g the  ATP  the  lower  contents  are  in  of  of  the  16),  and  a  maj o r  Whiting  and  significantly  corresponding  twelve  sampling  differences to  ATP  femoris  used  in  3  values  and  Treatments  femoris  samples  fibre  might  be  likely  4 was  muscles  X  in  i t i s more  Treatments  times  between  persist  higher  muscles),  Biceps  was  the  likely  Biceps  voltage  for  out  therefore  used  samples  than  for nine  16).  carcasses  maj o r  carcasses  samples  (Table  stimulated  the  of  stimulated  treatments  The  in  for  maj o r  (1978b).  higher  types  to  reported  evident  samples  ATP  maj o r  difference  elevation  those  probably  lower  similar  The  and  a l . (1982)  fibres  than  Pectoralis  of  more these  1 and from  2.  -  carcasses  stimulated  those  from  Table  15).  c o n t r o l s or It  throughout study  Bendall pulses and  not  et  significant  were  the  from case  of  of  lower  samples. from Table  The  carcasses 16).  stimulation. high-energy  difference increased  again  at  voltage, the  The  their was  with  lower  two  Biceps  due  Biceps  to  hexose  femoris  at  has  lamb  been  one  f emoris times.  however, monophosphate  major  minute  samples  femoris samples  (p<0.01, response  probably  during  had  stimulation  initial  more  contents  f o r muscle  appeared a  of in  sampling  carcasses,  samples  their  muscles  possibly  and  differential  rates  and  number  effect  respective Biceps  maj o r  turnover  (1976)  Pectoralis  the  present  1973).  initial  for  lower  glycolysis  postmortem  70V  than  (p<0.05,  the  total  of  significant  reflects  would the  maj o r  any  70V  monophosphate  stimulated  Pectoralis  which  (Carse,  stimulated  stimulated  phosphate  of  of  the  voltage  hexose  noted.  difference  between  stimulation  birds  those  The  a l . , 1982)  in  of  Bendall  that  lower  remained  results  of  a  Pectoralis  were  This  those  However,  electrically than  The  with  levels  acceleration  electrically  contents  their  carcasses  the  control  changes  et  the  significantly  stimulated  reported  differences  dramatic  were  lamb  e x h i b i t e d by  samples In  for  beef,respectively. for  that  with  -  were  period.  accord  critical  demonstrated  No  sampling in  V  carcasses  al.(1976),who  was  140  i s apparent  the  are  with  92  to  values. diminish  effective  higher  voltages.  to higher (Hintz  The with  -  With  the exception  stimulated samples hexose  from  samples  o f some  (Fabiansson  due  of t h i s  Metabolite  Biceps  or s i x hours  contents  Hintz  enzymes  muscles.  by an due  to the  Several  of  e t a l . , 1982;  concentrations  that the  phosphofructokinase levels  to a d e c l i n e  influence metabolite  studies  glycolysis  1985; H i n t z  the a c t i v a t i o n  due  maj o r  a c c e l e r a t i o n of  e t a l . ( 1982 ) s u g g e s t e d  enzyme  more  femoris  in Pectoralis  and c r e a t i n e p h o s p h a t e  same  maj o r  postmortem.  to s t i m u l a t i o n and/or  Reutersward,  ATP  carcasses  contained  f o r the a c c e l e r a t i o n of  between  significantly  5.3.2b  two  of s t i m u l a t e d  e t a l . , 1985 ) .  inhibition  counterpart  of the g l y c o l y t i c  and L a s e r  existing  carcasses  by a g r e a t e r  due  evidence  to d i m i n i s h i n g  would  at e i t h e r  glycolysis  provided  balance  their  monophosphate  acidification  Vogel  than  from  the P e c t o r a l i s  stimulated  be e x p l a i n e d  inactivation  samples  f o r one m i n u t e ,  sampled  hexose  may  postmortem  have  70V  electrically  when  higher  rapid  o f t h e two h o u r  monophosphate  samples The  with  93 -  and t h e  i n muscle  pH  levels.  and i s o m e t r i c  tension  parameters  The  relationship  metabolite  between  concentrations  coefficients  determined  c a n be  for this  Significant  correlations  tension  metabolite  and  isometric  between  contents  tension  seen  when  study  the were  parameters the  and  correlation  are examined.  parameters found  of i s o m e t r i c  f o r both  muscle  -  types to  in control  30).  This  regression variables simple  and t r e a t e d b i r d s  data  was  analysis. were  94 -  then  regressions  subjected  Although  originally best  (see Appendix  3, T a b l e s  to stepwise  several potential  linear independent  implicated, i t i s evident  express  the s i g n i f i c a n t  26  that  relationships  (Table 17).  For to  control develop  initial the  Pectoralis maximum  glycogen  extent  maj o r m u s c l e  tension  content  of r i g o r  was  (F prob.  development  t o be h i g h l y  content  (F prob.  samples  exhibited a significant  to  maximum  r  =  2  =  2  .037, r  (maximum  .723).  dependent =  2  .438),  isometric  related  required on t h e while  tension)  to the i n i t i a l  ATP  Biceps  f emo r i s  muscle  relationship  between  the  and t h e 6-hour  ATP c o n t e n t  (F prob.  time  = .030,  . 466 ) .  The  only  the  Biceps  total  common  relationship  femoris  o f 2400  hexose  samples  pulses  monophosphate  required an  tension  =  significantly  .002, r  the time  significantly  appears  =  samples,  by t h e s e  increase  time.  (F  =  tension content;  from  strips  significantly  was f o r  received a initial  i n f l u e n c e s t h e time  to develop  maximum  tension  such  monophosphate  content  extends  the  For carcasses  be e x p l a i n e d  approximately  that  70V o r 1 4 0 V : t h e i r  stimulated  .020) o f t h e v a r i a t i o n  could  f o r treated birds  carcasses  either  content  i n hexose  required prob.  with  noted  i n t h e time  by d i f f e r e n c e s  60 p e r c e n t  with  70V, 51 p e r c e n t t o maximum  in initial  (F prob.  =  that  HMP  .009) o f t h e  -  Table  17:  Mus c l e  = =  2 8 . 23 112. 7  + +  TMT  =  127. 5  MT TMT  = =  BF  TMT TMT  BF  B F  2  3  PM  70V,60sl  BF  120s  1  1  140V,120s 1  PM  p PM BF  1  2  3  F  MT TMT  PM  Control  140V,60s  -  S t e p w i s e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s and their s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s f o r the parameters examined Study Two  Treatment  70V,  95  M  prob.  in  r  2  (0 - A T P ) (0-- G l y c )  0. 037 0. 002  .438 .723  + 859. 9  (6 - A T P )  0. 030  .466  5 2 . 49 238. 4  —  (2--HMP) ( 0 -HMP)  0. 018 0. 020  .524 .513  = =  112. 6 98. 6  —  (0--ATP ) (0 - G l y c )  0. 022 0. 035  . 503 .445  TMT  =  131 . 4  + 287 . 8  ( 0 -HMP)  0. 009  . 59 6  MT TMT MT  = = =  51 . 5 49. 1 16. 1  (2 -HMP)  0. 045 0. 037 0. 023  .413 .437 .494  40 p u l s e s / s P e c t o r a l i s maj o r B i c e p s f emor i s  + +  _  + +  7. 56 11 . 03  21 . 43 157 12. 61 4 4 . 97  6. 81 106 33. 4  CO-- A T P ) CO-- A T P )  96  variation initial  in  HMP  receiving  the  contents a  Pectoralis  140V maj o r  significantly (Table  For  to  It  samples  from  which  received  tension  femoris  is  initial  were  tension  was  interesting both  of  glycogen  attributed  samples to  these  from note  to  carcasses that  treatments  content  (F  femoris  prob.  =  the  (F  nature  isometric  of  tension  subject  to  wide  results  of  the  (1973) noted creatine  phosphate  ATP  Sundeen  than  were  the had  controls  for  the  with  0.437 ) a n d  for  that  that  normally  Biceps  exist  between  concentrations to  compare  ones.  initial  glycogen  pH,  and  ATP  the  and  later to  in maintaining of  Richards  (1974)  reported  turkey  ATP  Pectoralis  demonstrated maximum  rigor  creatine  either  initial  the  them  content maj o r ,  with  a  and  significant  tension  is  Bendall  than  between in  and  effective  muscle  the  respectively.  previous  low  the  tension  content  metabolite  f a r more  time  maximum  ATP  =  2 minutes,  g e n e r a l l y exhibited shortened  of  tension  2  of  .494),  and  with  values  a l . (1980)  =  r  for  i t is difficult  study  association  associations  2  relationships  content  maximum et  r  Vanderstoep  significant to  0.023 ,  0.037 ,  suggested  together  separately.  initial  muscles  further  postmortem  the  variation,  phosphate  and  on =  present  shock  amount  parameters  that  140V  the  prob.  the  a  and  dependent  maj o r  time  B iceps  shock.  Pectoralis  times  in  maximum  lower  maximum  developed  As  to  15).  carcasses  time  time  -  ATP  the  while positive and/or  -  glycogen  content  5.3.2.C  Tension  The  data  raw  tension  f o r chicken  release  (expressed  achieved),  transformation, post-maximum  muscle  each  are presented  the a r c s i n e  differences noted  when  controls.  were  observed  When  Biceps  birds  were  f emo r i s  of  tension  were  observed.  electrically within  tension  a  than  release  and  19).  line Upon  1 9 ) , no tension  Pectoralis were  to  linear  parameters f o r closer  examination  significant release  were  maj o r s a m p l e s  compared  several  arcsine  tension  subjected  18.  (Table  an  to  from  their  significant  Pectoralis  maj o r s a m p l e s  significant  differences  or  the magnitude  contrasts  stimulated  with  carcasses:  significantly their  was  and  t h e maximum  differences  intercepts.  and  This  isometric  isometric  a p a r t i c u l a r treatment,  exhibited  Table  of  birds  c o m p a r e d , no  rate  of  in Table  However,  f o r the  f r a c t i o n of  the r e g r e s s i o n  femoris  stimulated  maj o r .  a logarithmic  types  transformation  Biceps  respective  and  i n the r a t e  electrically  as  f o r the r e l e a s e  analysis,  of  Pectoralis  a decimal  as w e l l  i n both  -  patterns  as  regression group  97  more  respective  of  the  the e f f e c t when  from  control  in either  the  intercepts noted  comparisons  a l l P e c t o r a l i s maj o r rapid  release  of  Biceps  femoris  samples  in were  made  samples  isometric (p<0.05,  Table  18: Regression l i n e parameters f o r t e n s i o n r e l e a s e (dependent v a r i a b l e ) v e r s u s time post-maximum t e n s i o n (independent v a r i a b l e ) f o r a v i a n muscle from Study Two  Raw data Muscle Treatment  1 2 3 4  3  Intercept  slope  Y' = log(lOOxY) r  2  Control 1 2 3 4  0.950 0.965 0.977 0.884 0.936  -0.054 -0.053 -0.050 -0.069 -0.044  .155 .151 .567 .163 .320  Control 1 2 3 4  0.989 0.912 0.949 0.947 0.983  -0.085 -0.110 -0.082 -0.120 -0.107  .518 .268 .651 .570 .854  slope  r  Y' =  sig  Intercept  AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA AAA  1.986 2.004 1.992 1.946 1.969  -0.045 -0.057 -0.026 -0.073 -0.023  .118 .092 .548 .091 .281  2.007 1.935 1.986 2.018 2.008  -0.055 -0.144 -0.051 -0.110 -0.068  .426 .120 .562 .339 .785  2  sig  Intercept  AAA AA AAA AA AAA AAA AA AAA AAA  80.08 81.88 82.00 75.29 78.61  -5.18 -5.59 -5.13 -6.36 -4.70  .242 .271 .593 .228 .411  82.73 76.75 78.61 78.77 80.79  -7.50 -9.60 -7.00 -9.51 -8.50  .618 .307 .650 .602 .824  •kick  B i c e p s femoris P e c t o r a l i s maj or as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2 AAA^ AA A s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.1, 1 and 5% l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y S  ArcsinA/T~ slope  r  2  sig  AAA AAA AAA A AA ***  A* A AAA AAA AAA AAA  1  VO 00 1  Table  19: L i n e c o m p a r i s o n a n a l y s i s f o r t h e a r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of tension (dependent v a r i a b l e ) versus time post-maximum t e n s i o n ( i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m S t u d y Two  Comparison I.  II.  Within muscle f i b r e types (a) Biceps femoris Con t r o l vs. Treatment Con t r o l vs . Con t r o l vs . vs. Control T r e a tmen t 1 v s . Treatmen t 2 v s . Treatment 2 vs . Treatmen t 3 vs . ( b ) P e c t o r a l i s maj o r Con t r o l vs. Treatment Con t r o l vs . Con t r o l vs . Con t r o l vs . Treatmen t 1 vs . Treatment 1 vs . Treatmen t 2 vs . T r e a tmen t 2 v s . Treatmen t 3 vs . Within treatment groups Control BF v s PM T r e a t m e n t 1, 2, 3, 4,  1 2 3 4 3 3 4 4  NS  1 2 3 4 2 4 3 4 4  NS NS NS  AAA  NS  *** NS NS NS  ***  A AA A *A *A * NS  **  AAA  Slopes  Intercepts  NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS  NS NS C NS 1 2 2 3  NS NS NS NS NS NS 2 > 3, * 2 > 4 ,* NS  C C C C 1 1 2 NS 3  >  3  >  3» 3 * ** 4 * 4  >  1 2 * 3 *** 4 2 4 3  > > >  >  > > < < < <  AA AA AA  AAA AA A A AA  4  AA »  AAA NS NS  AAA AAA  NS BF BF BF BF  > PM,* > PM,* >PM,* >PM,***  NS BF > PM,*** BF > PM,*** NS BF < PM,***  s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.1, 1 a n d 5% l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y . NS i n d i c a t e s n o n s i g n i f i c a n c e . A l l of the slopes are negative; t h e r e f o r e , i f BF > PM, t h i s i n d i c a t e s a more r e l e a s e i n t h e P e c t o r a l i s maj_o_r s a m p l e .  AAA A A  Note: rapid  Homogeneity o f residual variances  release variable)  -  Jeacocke onset  (1984)  occurs  suggested  by  the  100  that  force  successive  crossbridges.  decline  isometric  with  the  maximum  resolution  studies  have  maximum  tension  tension  more  slowly.  reported  rapidly  than  do  has  Richards,  1974a)  tension  et  breast  faster that  and  leg  samples. found  muscles  Berg  exhibited  et an  with  that  by  the  Both  occurred  a l . (1963, additional  be  Stewart  in  correspond Several  develop this  which  into  several  go  their  rigor  species  (Wood  Marion,  that,  the  maintain  chicken  the  and  1970).  although tension  amount  was  at  indicative  Wood  the  released  tenderness  thigh, rates  3  of  to  12  the  al.  24  upon  the  suggested  tenderization  i t was  the  breast  originally  analysis  maj o r  ( 1948)  hours  of  tenderization  Pectoralis  a l l , of  within  and  of  detected  et  not  1964a)  to  not  the  control  most,.if  to  a l . 1972).  amount  that  differential  the  of  hand,  rapidly  rigor  birds.  of  would  thought  post-maximum  i t was  indicated  than  that  hours  is  and  indicated  among  muscles  f emoris  (Jungk  tension,  these  released  poultry  2  differences  tension  (1959)  also  other  muscles  a l . , 1967),  turkey  correlated  a l . (1948)  believed  et  the  ability  those  during  breaking  which  demonstrated  by  post-maximum  increased  den  and  released  tenderness  Lowe  (Busch  (1974a)  significantly hours  been  and  et  muscles their  beef  of  (Busch  lose  This  Richards  rigor that  On  tension  also  including  and  of  generation  making  tension-generating in  -  and  and  of  et  tenderization  that  leg  the  Biceps  Pool  postmortem,  upon  of  but  al . of van  muscles  further  storage.  -  Although release  the c o n t r o l their  negative  differences developed  more  than  quickly,  Biceps  lines  i n tension  maj o r s a m p l e s  have  already  samples,  to  more  the  significant  of r e s i d u a l v a r i a n c e s  preclude  release  tended  i.e. slightly  femoris  i n the homogeneity  regression  variations  P e c t o r a l i s maj o r s a m p l e s  tension  slopes,  101 -  rates  been  valid  comparisons.  f o r chicken  reported  of the  (Wood  Large  Pectoralis and  Richards,  1974a).  As  previously  treated their  birds  noted,  P e c t o r a l i s maj o r s a m p l e s  exhibited  respective  more  Biceps  rapid  femoris  samples  homogeneity  of r e s i d u a l  variances  significant  differences  in tension  fibre  type  were  observed  for  o n e o r two m i n u t e s  al.  (1972)  suggested  responsible that  this  several  and 1981;  process  that  between  lysosomal Pearson  release  (Table  also  release  t h e maximum  examined,  however,  that  Although  discovered  enzymes  (Etherington ,  et a l .,  1983).  1981; O u a l i  may  cooperative proteases  and  be  and  death,  neutral  70V  Busch et  tension  after is a  with  process  isometric  tenderization  the r e c e n t l y  due t o m u s c l e  stimulated  19).  immediately  than d i d When t h e  rates  i n carcasses  a l l of the  19).  a calcium-stimulated  i s operative  stress  was  (p<I!0.05, T a b l e  f o r decreasing  authors  mechanism  only  tension  from  Valin,  5.4  Study  5.4.1  tension  Electrical  of e l e c t r i c a l  stimulation  t o maximum  tension  (F prob.  reduced  the extent  =  isometric  tension)  generally  support  suggest  stimulation  Table  stimulation  on  isometric  parameters  samples  and  -  Three  The e f f e c t  time  102  that  significantly  decreased  in Pectoralis  .001 a n d F p r o b . of r i g o r i n both  i s to enhance  maj o r a n d B i c e p s  muscles  the rate  (i.e.,  (Table  maximum  20).  These  of the previous  consistent  femoris  .019, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and  development  the observations t h e most  =  the average  effect  of  of r i g o r  results  experiments  electrical  development.  20: The e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n development of r i g o r mortis i n avian Three)  on t h e muscle  (Study  Treatmen t Parameter  TMT(min)  Muscle  PM BF5  2  MT(g/cm2)3  Control  279 ± 7 2 301 ± 85  4  P  M  BF  6  ES  6  3.4 ± 7.8 6 5 . 2 ± 14.0  117 ± 8 172 ± 49  3  4  ±  _ 1  )  prob  0.001 0.019  51.1 ± 15.0 36.6 ± 2 6 . 9  e l e c t r i c a l l y s t i m u l a t e d w i t h 140V ( 4 0 s 2 t i m e t o maximum tension maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n developed P e c t o r a l i s maj o r 5 Biceps femoris 6 mean ( n = 5 ) standard deviation 1  F  1  f o r 60s  0.140 0.069  -  The  raw  data,  tension the  achieved,  release  muscle that and  expressed  as w e l l  of i s o m e t r i c  types  was  i n Study 22.  as  No  and  observed  samples  from  electrically  respective  intercept Table  values  22).  When  when  Biceps  two  but  muscle  treatment  group,  developed  tension significantly  B i ceps  When  the r e s u l t s  compared 17,  18)  types, to  in  some  release  could  heterogeneity  rates  femoris  and  and  were  Three  i n Study  Two  samples.  made  i n the r e s i d u a l  21,  as  different respectively,  22)  treated  22)  rapidly  when In  3:  there  than  Pectoralis  was  Two,  than  birds.  were  similar  Study  a  their  faster  For both  treatment,  noted  maj o r  compared  Tables muscle  stimulated carcasses  a  21  of t e n s i o n  (Treatment  t e n s i o n more  were  i n Tables  released  and  identified.  as  compared w i t h i n  Table  (Tables  both  analysis  were  p<0.05,  types  in  Pectoralis  significantly  (p<0.01,  Within  femoris n o t be  i n the r a t e  maj o r s a m p l e s  electrically  carcasses.  regression  the c o n t r o l  were  developed  to Biceps  comparisons  Study  obtained  from  their  control  tension  i n both  similarities  samples  compared  from  to those  release  from  the P e c t o r a l i s  f emori s samples  tension  are presented  (p<0.01  t h e maximum  transformation, for  stimulated carcasses  noted  these  of  post-maximum  t o t h e same  controls,  were  fraction  arcsine  differences  were  their  an  tension  release  to  as  the r e s u l t s  significant  -  a decimal  subjected  Two  103  tended did  increases maj o r  valid  significant  v a r i a n c e s , whereas the  those  were  Table  21: R e g r e s s i o n l i n e p a r a m e t e r s f o r t e n s i o n r e l e a s e ( d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) v e r s u s t i m e post-maximum t e n s i o n ( i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) f o r a v i a n m u s c l e from Study T h r e e  Raw Mus c l e  BF  1  Treatmen t  2  Slope  r  Y' 2  Con t r o l ES  0.998 0.967  -0.031 -0.058  0.696 0.380  Control ES  1.023 0.970  -0.126 -0.130  0.766 0.731  3  PM  Intercept  data  1 B i ceps f emoris P e c t o r a l i s maj o r 3 e l e c t r i c a l l y s t i m u l a t e d w i t h 140V 4 ** A significant a t t h e 1 a n d 5%  sig  4  AA AA  AA  Intercept  =  Arcsin  Slope  (  r  2  sig  85.61 81 .99  -4.16 -5 .79  0.720 0.446  AA AA  85.01 79.91  -10.11 -9 . 86  0.805 0.735  AA AA  2  ( 4 0 s l ) f o r 60s l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y -  A/T  Table  L i n e c o m p a r i s o n a n a l y s i s f o r t h ea r c s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t e n s i o n (dependent v a r i a b l e ) v e r s u s time post-maximum t e n s i o n (independent from Study Three  Comparison  I.  II.  Within  muscle  fibre  (a)  Biceps  (b)  Pectoralis  Within (a) (b)  Homogeneity o f residual variances  Control, ES,  maj o r ,  vs.  ES  C v s . ES  NS NS  C > E S , ** C >ES,*  NS NS  groups  BF v s . PM BF v s . PM  NS NS  BF > PM,** BF >PM,**  a l lof the slopes are negative; therefore, i f BF>PM, t h i s i n d i c a t e s i n t h e P e c t o r a l i s maj o r s a m p l e * * , * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 1 a n d 5% l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y . non-significance 1  Intercepts  types  f e m o r i s C  treatment  Slopes  release variable)  BF BF  >PM,** >PM,**  a more NS  rapid  indicates  release  -  regression  lines  homogeneity  5.4.2  in residual  The e f f e c t material  An  attempt  in  the rates  muscle be  developed  (i.e.,  was  made  treatment,  of tension were  23, n e i t h e r o r mg  sampling should  short  of time  changes  sufficient not  have  (1977)  proteolysis  may  acid  by  exopeptidases.  of  lysosomal  Longissimus 1974) 1980).  soluble  muscles  soluble  assumed  with  (i.e.,  As c a n material  exhibited  a discernible type.  the  trend  This  as  24 h o u r s ) ,  of r i g o r  due t o  lack  caution  a  of (1) a and  may  release  (2) the  have  tension,  very  been  b u t may  of  material.  that  within  the lysosomal  by e n d o p e p t i d a s e s  reports  from  or e l e c t r i c a l l y  o f TCA  by a s i g n i f i c a n t  during  when  measure  of the developed  initiated  differences  nitrogen.  or muscle  some  Two  the e a r l y  Tyr equivalents/g)  soluble  enzymes  I t was  TCA  be d e t e c t e d  the r e s o l u t i o n  suggested be  could  had e l a p s e d  during  whether  interpreted  accompanied  trichloroacetic  Barrett  be  to r e l e a s e  been  on  f o r nonprotein  or even  time  significance  initial  release  analysed  difference  period  exhibited  stimulation  to determine  glycine/g  significant  Three  variances.  of e l e c t r i c a l  i n Table mg  i n Study  •  samples  seen  106 -  have  demonstrated  the postmortem  unstimulated  stimulated  and  carcasses  i n the present  study  and  (Dutson that  completed  the  storage  (Dutson  system,  of  release beef  Lawrie, et a l . ,  the  Table  23: The e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l muscle (Study Three)  stimulation  TCA  1 hour Treatment  PM  Control ES  5.43±2.36 4.83±0.58  Control ES  4.39±1.11 4.95*0.57  1  3  BF2  mg  Gly/g  4  mg  in  avian  material  24 h o u r s  Gly/g  mg T y r equivalents/g  mg  Gly/g  mg T y r equivalents/g  0.33±0.13 0.32*0.09  6.10±1.26 5.49±0.53  0.43±0.14 0.42±0.11  5.61*2.46 5.32*2.42  0.42±0.14 0.42±0.08  0.30±0.08 0.31*0.08  6.55±1.76 5.11*0.43  0.40*0.13 0.36±0.10  4.79±1.60 4.93*2.67  0.30±0.07 0.32±0.04  1 P e c t o r a l i s maj o r Biceps femoris e l e c t r i c a l l y s t i m u l a t e d w i t h 140V mean ( n = 5 ) ± s t a n d a r d deviation  4  proteolysis  hours  2  3  of  postslaughter 6  mg T y r equivalents/g  the extent  Soluble  Time  Muscle  on  (40s l) -  f o r 60s  -  activities the in  of the c a l c i u m - a c t i v a t e d  released vivo  108 -  lysosomal  enzymes  neutral  would  protease(s)  proceed  and  as p o s t u l a t e d  for  proteolysis.  The  apparently  in  the tension  Pectoralis  discordant release  rates  maj o r s a m p l e s  discernible  trend  findings  between  within  i n TCA  of s i g n i f i c a n t Biceps  femoris  a treatment  soluble  material  differences  group  may  be  and  a n d y e t no explained  as  follows: (a)  the exopeptidases  extensively in  free  amino  cleavages alter  degraded  by  acids  (b)  when  the  products  1982);  from  Other the  contributing  natural short  variability  period  suggested  (Ashgar  either high  leaving  activity  to  and  results in acids  1977).  of c o n s i s t e n c y would  rates  Although of t h i g h  weights  t h e amino  (Barrett,  of t e n d e r i z a t i o n  the tenderness  separate  t h e low  action  only  in tenderization  to  molecular  to the lack  f o r the analyses.  that  be n e c e s s a r y  i s used  of endopeptidase  factors  indices  increase  and,  or r e l a t i v e l y  exopeptidase  be  a few s e l e c t i v e  may  stereostructure  precipitation -  possible  and o n l y  of p r o t e o l y s i s ,  the products  their  occurs  may  a significant  trichloroacetic acid  concentration of  before  the endopeptidases  the protein  Henrickson,  and p r o t e i n s  include and  Lowe  muscles  the  between  the relatively  et a l .  (1948)  increased  less  -  rapidly of  than  the carcasses  the  same  extent  microscopy. different fibre  labile the  tenderization Abbott  sequence  A  similar  stored  tyrosine maximum  beef  muscles  appeared  were  tension  (1964)  breast  storage  reported  of chickens  period)  a t 0,  by  (1984),  also  value As  coincided  the chicken  only  i t is likely  during that  but that  to c h e m i c a l l y  detect  with  longer  noted  carcasses  the f i r s t  was that  of the  increased 2 or indicated t h e peak of  present  activity  to account f o r  would  the r e s o l u t i o n  in  hours  proteolytic  samples ageing  24  more  muscle.  the attainment  sufficient  i n a l l of the muscle  slightly  nonprotein  equivalents  evaluated  release,  the  in tyrosine who  'white'  occurred  increase Cohen  the  t o be  noted  to muscle  o f t h e same  that  a 7 week  that  light  both  due  changes  and l e g m u s c l e s (over  with  (1978)  indicated  that a l l  d i d not e x h i b i t  examined  i n avian  Semitendinosus  tenderness.  occurred  order  rates  reported  group  and H i k i d a  et a l . (1977)  equivalent  postmortem, had  aged  as i n t h e ' r e d ' p o r t i o n  f o r both  increasing  study  also  to a u t o l y s i s but u l t r a s t r u e t u r a l  nitrogen  5°C.  a particular  et a l . (1973c)  and van den B e r g  with  they  o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n when  of p o r c i n e  same  Khan  of the b r e a s t s , from  Hay  type.  portion  for  that  109 -  of  be r e q u i r e d i n rigor.  -  5.4.3  The e f f e c t protein,  of e l e c t r i c a l  protein  no  -  stimulation  dispersibility  on  and  extractable  protein  hydrophobicity  It  had o r i g i n a l l y  been  postmortem  glycolysis  sufficient  to a f f e c t  proteins.  As  did or  postmortem  Although  time  electrically  highly  soluble.  course  hour may  high  into  would  f o r samples  carcasses, be n o t e d  Several  be  stimulation dispersibility  samples  from  from  at any  to increase  both  control  suggested  pre-rigor  and  study  protein  was  improved  muscle  examination  of t h i s  with  not a s i g n i f i c a n t  the extracted  have  a close  i n the samples  appear  i t was  that  studies  Thus,  dispersibility from  be e x p e c t e d from  rigor  may  (Hamm, 1 9 8 2 ;  of the time  may  offer  some  f o r the r e s u l t s .  samples  samples  protein maj o r  of  of s a l t - s o l u b l e  24, e l e c t r i c a l  protein,  protein  f o r proteins  of r i g o r  explanation  The  also  et a l . , 1984).  stimulation  properties  of P e c t o r a l i s  postmortem  I t should  the a c c e l e r a t i o n  time.  stimulated  functionality Wood  i n Table  hydrophobicity  the extractable  increased  trend.  the f u n c t i o n a l  the extractable  sampling  that  due t o e l e c t r i c a l  c a n be s e e n  not a f f e c t protein  believed  electrically  as b o t h  the treated  as t h e y  of the e x t r a c t a b l e stimulated  are in a prerigor birds  achieved  have  maximum  protein  f o r t h e one  and c o n t r o l state,  probably tension  birds  although the  proceeded  further  approximately  one  Table 24: The e f f e c t o f e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n on e x t r a c t a b l e p r o t e i n , p r o t e i n d i s p e r s i b i l i t y h y d r o p h o b i c i t y i n P e c t o r a l i s major (Study Three)  Time  1 hour  and p r o t e i n  post-stimulation  6 hours  24 hours  Treatment E x t r a c t a b l e P r o t e i n Protein Extractable Protein Protein Extractable Protein Protein protein d i s p e r s i - hydropho- p r o t e i n d i s p e r s i - hydropho- p r o t e i n d i s p e r s i - hydropho(%) bility(%) bicity (%) bility(%) bicity (%) bility(%) bicity  Control  2.40±0.49  ES  2.16±0.24  1  2  J  2  97±12  162±101  2.56±0.46  104±12  113±24  2.77±0.63  100±20  112±46  99±10  89±39  2.25*0.13  99± 8  113±54  2.37*0.53  100±28  148±47  e l e c t r i c a l l y s t i m u l a t e d with 140V (40s !) f o r 60s mean (n=5) ± standard d e v i a t i o n  -  hour  later  (Table  samples  in  each  muscle,  thus  20).  On  treatment  their  112  the  other  have  soluble  -  been  protein  hand,  the  excised content  6  and  from would  24  hour  postrigor reflect  not  Ok.  only  the  extent  proteolysis the  that  state  studies  Regenstein readily recent that  (1978)  a  breast  had  with  in  their  muscle.  that  Sternomandibularis before  et  al.  (1982a)  soluble  protein  of  beef state  chicken  found  that  and  protein  was  more  myofibrils.  muscle  protein  increased et  that  Semimembranosus  muscle  and  than  there  al . ,  the  was  by  A  demonstrated  (Wood  reported  temperature  support  Galluzo  extraction  also  to  emulsification  However,  earlier  salt-extractable  rigor  timed  beef  time  tend  of  ( 1 9 8 2 ) who  uncontracted  Terrell  by  for  degree  results  from  1984).  affected  the  Regenstein  indicated  post-slaughter  decrease  but  These  and  unimportant  extracted  as  Gaska  chicken  study  development  occurred.  of  was  with  rigor  has  observations  rigor  was  of  per  cent  more  electrical  stimulation .  Protein  solubility  functional  is  properties  capacity  of  gelation  performance  described  often  meat  by  and  emulsion in  Kinsella  respectively.  Several  hydrophobicity  of  these both  functional protein  the  used  its  and  comminuted and  recent  and  indicator on  on  meat  Li-Charf  et  may  et  hydrophobicity  of  al.  has  been  that  contribute  a l . (1984) were  and  (1981),  indicated also  other  emulsifying  binding  products  have  protein  the  the  Schmidt  studies  extracted  properties.  an  importance  systems  (1976)  solubility  as  found  useful  the to that  -  predictors capacity, of  of and  proteins  fillet  in  were  sulfhydryl  salt  of  content  as  measurement performed probe  (Kato  unsaturated that  this  of  the  are  probe  number  measures by  the  developed  and  resolved  surface  samples  from  control birds  for  same  samples  the  this  d i f f e r e n c e was  sample-to-sample hour in  values  the  for  not  the  a  greater  samples  are  of  degree  compared  of  to  rockfish  favoured and  (CPA)  Since  CPA  chain,  the  is  composed  hour  was  almost treated  hydrophobic  controls.  muscles  might  expect of  Pectoralis the  probably 24).  would  Similar  maj o r observed  However, to  The  lower  which  development  the  due  suggest  groups,  changes  value  carcasses.  Table  suggested  residues  the  twice  an  protein  acid  as  of  been  hydrophobicity  one  sampled  to  The  fluorescent  i t has  one  the  rigor  is  was  as  amino  The  (See  data  hydrophobicity  significant,  of  and  capacity  contributing factors.  mortis,  the  treated  which  Therefore,  variability  accessibility  reflect  from  round  hydrophobicity  acid  properties. of  top  hydrophobicity  aliphatic  rigor  emulsifying  emulsifying  contribution  1985).  proteins  the  beef  effective  exposed  Nakai,  salt-extracted  protein  or  and  a l . , 1985).  hydrocarbon  and  protein  et  1980).  (Hayakawa  in  a  Nakai,  aliphatic  hydrophobicity  from  cis-parinaric  and  that  dispersibility,  surface  using  index  conditions  (Li-Chan  there of  under  high  interpretation  difficult  later  extracts  improved  -  activity  demonstrated  combinations  The  emulsifying  113  when  protein  the  a  high one  decrease  in  turn  these  may  -  hydrophobicity stimulated obtained higher or  6  muscles  for  than  hour  values  the  results, range  -  5.5.  functional  functional suggested  fibre used  in  such  this  and  the  study.  et  a  and  same  a  was  due  somewhat  an  for  may  to  in  the  control increased  the  ageing  possessed the pH  parameters  as  The  parameters,  a  a  recently  species.  consider  to  at  isoelectric  descriptor  require  electrical  have  contributed  tension  longer  value  determined  (1985) have  ageing  project  regions  samples  al.  was  suggests  samples  have  isometric  variability),  types  those  the  ageing.  muscle  properties  properties  reduce  in  electrically  i t s respective  hydrophobic  would  and  while  hours  result  physiochemica1  between  that  either  This  the  which  In  24  hydrophobicity  Li-Chan  changes  at  postmortem  but  values  relationships  (to  6.3,  particularly  4.5  as  with  protein  of  pH  suggested well  muscles  control  postmortem,  for  aliphatic  -  for  samples  samples.  pH  different  treated  to  noted  hours  treated  study,  constant  6  observed  stimulated  this  at  those  accessibility  In  were  114  further  protein  study.  It  larger  sample  size  period,  both  muscle  stimulation  conditions  is  115  SUMMARY  Cooked  breast  carcasses  were  non-stunned results  The  a  of  from  when  from  by  electrical  as  by  dpH/dt,  P e c t o r a l i s maj o r  strength  nor  appeared  to  Electrical  be  control  tension  than  Electrical isometric Pectoralis their  force  their  tension maj o r  developed  values by  control  in  required  did  for from  at  a  from The  also  were  more  samples.  carcasses  was  This  increased  both  Biceps  femoris  Neither  fibre  tensile  Pec t o r a l i s  maj o r  samples  for  rate,  stimulation.  the  time  and  P e c t o r a l i s maj o r  longer  samples  not  broiler  thighs  broiler  electrical  femoris  release  tension  of  influenced  samples  and  carcasses  samples.  respective  stimulation  legs  observed  Biceps  carcasses  prepared  stimulation.  was  affected  Both  than  stunned  instrumentally.  stunned  muscle  stimulation  development. from  shear  of  glycolysis  accelerated  and  those  evaluated  acceptable  postmortem  measured  than  evaluation  samples and  CONCLUSIONS  electrically  tender  home  that  juicy  rate  more  controls  from  suggested tender,  muscles  AND  -  appear either treated  to  course  reach  from to  significantly  samples  carcasses.  the  type  carcasses  rigor  maximum  treated  affect  muscle  of  rate  of  although did  faster  release  rate  than  116  their  respective  Several  significant  contents  of  Electrical glycogen  both  and  ATP  content  of  by  when  Electrical  a  proteolysis,  On  the  to  be  basis  electrical  can  It  also  can  would  influence  parameters  birds  protein  by  unaffected  of  this  data during  enhance appear several  related  to  the that  2°C  TCA  to  for  soluble  by  electrical  i t  can  the  be  the  use  of  this  was  monophosphate  nor  the  protein  day.  The  material,  rate  of  also  stimulation.  the  that  quality  the  processing resultant  electrical  chemical  textural  femor i s  alter  one  commercial of  initial  controls.  concluded  tenderness  the  hexose  significantly  postmortem the  in  study.  Biceps  samples  compared  at  this  postmortem  and  dispersibility  storage  measured  in  the  maj o r  increase  not  metabolite  decreased  maj o r  were  did  the  accelerated  Pectoralis  significant  stunning  broilers  and  on  observed  significantly  Pectoralis  during as  were  For  protein,  hydrophobicity  types  in  treated  samples.  effects  ATP  stimulation  extractable  appeared  muscle  contents  samples.  accompanied  f emori s  treatment  stimulation  disappearance muscle  Biceps  -  and of  use  of product.  stimulation biophysical  avian  of  muscle.  -  LIST  Abbott,  M.T.,  A.M.  porcine  Abugroun,  1985a. beef:  Part  youthful  .  of  J.C. 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Postmortem  S c i . 38:  -  .  1976.  fibers  Wood,  Distribution  meat.  PhD  Some  Thesis,  Hydrophobicity post-rigor Institute  beef  neck  stimulation three  handling.  muscle.  Sci.  .  Columbia.  of p r e Canadian  27th  Annual  1983.  The e f f e c t  and p h y s i c a l  Food  beef  of  properties after  electrical of steaks  commercial  S c i . T e c h n o l . J . 16: 5 2 - 5 6 .  Pectoralis  Isometric  maj o r  tension  muscle.  J . Food  39: 525-529.  1974b.  Pectoralis  Cold major.  and  Canada.  of Canadian  Can. I n s t .  on c h i c k e n  38,  S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y  Froehlich.  grades  breast  a n d S. N a k a i . 1 9 8 4 .  Abstract  D.F. and J . F . R i c h a r d s . 1974a. studies  S c i . 55: 562-572.  of B r i t i s h  E. Li-Chan  on s e n s o r y  alpha-W  aspects of b r o i l e r  University  Vancouver,  Wood, D . F . a n d D.A.  alpha-R,  and w a t e r - h o l d i n g p a r a m e t e r s  o f Food  Conference,  Poul.  postmortem  Wood, D . F . , C.A. C a m p b e l l ,  Wood,  of beta-R,  i n turkey muscles.  D.F. 1973.  from  190 -  shortening J . Food  i n chicken  broiler  S c i . 39: 530-531.  -  .  1975.  Effects  postmortem Poul.  Wu,  F.Y.,  aspects  S c i . 54:  T.R.  1985.  tenderness and  Wu,  steer  of  C.  index,  Dutson  lysosomal  time  and  tissue  from  broiler  stressors  on  Pectoralis  Z.L.  Cross enzyme  muscle.  S.B.  their  the  possible  components  of  and  stimulated  meat  bull  1025-1028.  C a r p e n t e r . 1981. on  Smith.  activities  S c i . 50:  temperature  and  and  electrically  J . Food  and  enzymes  connective  chicken  lysosomal  in muscles  postmortem  antemortem  V a l i n , H.R.  carcasses.  J . J . , T.R.  some  -  528-531.  Dutson,  Aging  of  191  Effect  release  effect  muscle.  on  of  of bovine  J . Food  S c i . 46:  1132-1135.  Yamamoto, study  K., of  storage  K.  Samejima  the at  changes  4°C  and  and  T.  i n hen  -20°C.  Yasui.  1977.  pectoral J . Food  A  comparative  muscle  during  S c i . 42(6):  1642-1645.  Yates, of  J.D.,  C.C.  certain  Brunson  biochemical,  characteristics 369-378.  and  of  J . E . Webb. physical  broiler  and  muscles.  1976.  Relationships  quality Poul.  S c i . 55:  -  Yates,  L.D.,  T.R.  1983.  Dutsoa,  Effect  degradation  of  192  -  J . Caldwell  temperature  of m y o f i b r i l l a r  and  and pH  Z.L. on  proteins.  Carpenter.  the postmortem Meat  S c i . 9:  157-179.  Young,  O.A.  1982.  Further  muscles.  Biochem.  .  The  bovine  1984.  muscle.  studies  J . 203:  biochemical Meat  on  single  fibres  of  bovine  179-184.  basis  S c i . 11:  of  fibre  123-137.  types  in  - 193 -  APPENDIX 1:  HOME EVALUATION RATING FORM  - 194 -  HOME EVALUATION RATING FORM  The samples you have r e c e i v e d a r e from c h i c k e n b r o i l e r s p r o c e s s e d by two d i f f e r e n t commercial methods. P l e a s e prepare the samples by the cooking method of your c h o i c e and note the d e t a i l s i n the space p r o v i d e d . (Each t a s t e r )  COOKING:  P l e a s e r a t e both samples of a d e s i g n a t e d p a i r and r e c o r d your r e a c t i o n s on t h i s form. I f you r a t e more than one p a i r of samples, p l e a s e use a s e p a r a t e form f o r each time.  METHOD:  TIME:  TEMPERATURE: PART SAMPLED:  1  END PT. TEMPERATURE  LEG  THIGH  TENDERNESS  Very  LEG & THIGH  tender  •• Extremely Very  tender  Moderately  OVERALL ACCEPTABILITY  JUICINESS  • •  Extremely  ( i f known):  tender  juicy  juicy  Moderately  Extremely a c c e p t a b l e Very a c c e p t a b l e  juicy  Slightly  tender  Slightly  Slightly  tough  S l i g h t l y dry  Slightly  Moderately dry  Moderately  Very d r y  Very  Extremely d r y  Extremely  Moderately Very  tough  Extremely  COMMENTS:  tough  tough  juicy  _Moderately a c c e p t a b l e S l i g h t l y acceptable unacceptable unaccept.  unacceptable unaccept.  - 195 -  APPENDIX 2:  Table  25: The e f f e c t of t o t a l number of p u l s e s and v o l t a g e on post-mortem pH d e c l i n e  -  Table  25: The e f f e c t postmortem  196  -  o f t o t a l number pH d e c l i n e  of p u l s e s  and v o l t a g e  on  pH  Time  Treatmen t  Control  0  1  (h)  2  4  6  6. 24 (0. 07) 5. 89 (0. 04) 5. 88 ( 0 . 03) 5. 77 ( 0 . 03 ) 5. 85 ( 0 . 03 ) 5. 86 (0. 03)  6. 21 ( 0 . 06 ) 5. 83 ( 0 . 04 ) 5. 79 (0. 04) 5. 70 ( 0 . 04 ) 5. 77 ( 0 . 04 ) 5. 78 ( 0 . 03 )  6. 06 (0. 08) 5. 69 (0. 03) 5. 67 ( 0 . 02 ) 5. 64 (0. 04) 5. 67 ( 0 . 02 ) 5. 67 ( 0 . 03 )  5. 85 ( 0 . 07) 5. 68 ( 0 . 03 ) 5. 64 ( 0 . 02 ) 5. 62 ( 0 . 04 ) 5. 65 ( 0 . 03 ) 5. 64 ( 0 . 02 )  5. 78 (0. 05) 5. 68 ( 0 . 03 ) 5. 65 ( 0 . 02 ) 5. 59 ( 0 . 03 ) 5. 63 ( 0 . 02 ) 5. 66 ( 0 . 02 )  6. 34 ( 0 . 03 ) 6. 12 ( 0 . 03) 6. 14 ( 0 . 02 ) 6 . 10 ( 0 . 04 ) 6. 11 ( 0 . 02 ) 6. 14 ( 0 . 02 )  6. 29 (0. 04) 6. 05 (0. 04) 6. 06 ( 0 . 02 ) 6. 05 ( 0 . 04 ) 6. 04 (0. 02) 6. 06 ( 0 . 02)  6. 14 (0. 05) 6. 01 ( 0 . 05) 5. 99 ( 0 . 02) 5. 96 ( 0 . 04 ) 5. 99 ( 0 . 03 ) 5. 98 (0. 04)  6. 10 ( 0 . 06 ) 6. 02 ( 0 . 06) 5. 95 ( 0 . 02 ) 5. 96 ( 0 . 04 ) 5. 97 ( 0 . 03) 5. 98 ( 0 . 03 )  6. 09 (0. 05) 6. 02 (0. 05) 5. 96 ( 0 . 02 ) 5. 95 ( 0 . 03 ) 5. 96 ( 0 . 03 ) 5 .99 ( 0 . 03 )  Pectoralis maj o r Biceps femoris TNP, t o t a l n u m b e r o f p u l s e s values within parentheses are standard  errors  PM  J  TNP,2400 TNP,4800 TNP,9600 70 V 140 V  BF'  Con t r o l TfcJP ,2400 TNP,4800 TNP,9600 70 V 140 V  3  6. 15 (0. 0 7 ) 5. 90 ( 0 . 04 ) 5. 88 ( 0 . 03) 5. 82 ( 0 . 04 ) 5. 87 ( 0 . 03 ) 5. 87 ( 0 . 03 )  0 .5  postmortem  6. 32 (0. 03) 6. 15 ( 0 . 03 ) 6. 14 ( 0 . 02) 6. 13 (0. 04) 6. 12 ( 0 . 02 ) 6 . 16 ( 0 . 02 )  4  - 197 -  APPENDIX 3:  CORRELATION MATRICES  Table  26: C o r r e l a t i o n  TMT  TMT  matrix  MT  . 656*  2  f o rparameters  Glycogen  studied  f o rthe Control  group  6ATP  OHMP  2 HMP  6 HMP  .850***  .756**  .691**  .416  .284  . 662*  .100  .608*  . 622*  . 622*  .073  . 360  .430  .002  .689**  .611*  .192  .127  .682*  .368  .913***  . 327  - . 184  . 808**  -.273  .604*  -.308  .801**  -.445  -.283  .431  -.462  -.471  .501  Glycogen  .134  .448  OATP  . 188  .372  .217  .343  . 528*  .734**  . 284  .245  . 291  -.195  .045  .622*  -.469  -.017  2HMP8  -.154  .014  . 690**  -.302  .042  . 142  .910***  6 HMP 9  .144  .402  .724**  -.142  .170  .242  .681*  -.202  5  6ATP  6  OHMP  7  . 683*  1  Two  2 ATP  .601*  2 ATP  Study  OATP  MT3  4  from  -.045 -.095  -.256 .820**  v a l u e s b e l o w d i a g o n a l were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e B i c e p s f e m o r i s ; v a l u e s f o r t h e P e c t o r a l i s maj o r l i e a b o v e t h e d i a g o n a l ; a l l v a l u e s b a s e d on n = 10 t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n 3 maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n developed ATP c o n t e n t a t Oh p o s t s l a u g h t e r ATP c o n t e n t a t 2h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 6 ATP c o n t e n t a t 6h p o s t s l a u g h t e r h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t Oh p o s t s l a u g h t e r 8 h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t 2h p o s t s 1 a u g h t e r 9 h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t 6h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 10 * * * * * * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.1, 1 a n d 5% l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y respectively 2  4  5  7  }  }  Table  27: C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r p a r a m e t e r s ( 4 0 s ) f o r 60s ( S t u d y T w o ) - 1  TMT  TMT MT  .066  3  Glycogen OATP  MT  .581*  2  4  studied  f o rcarcasses  shocked  Glycogen  .244 -.119  . 334  - . 168  -.636*  .279  OATP  70V  2 ATP  6 ATP  OHMP  . 593*  -.596*  -.528*  .040  .411  -.162  .587*  -.204  .320  . 344  -.088  .435  .434  .026  -.373  -.174  -.030  .425  . 365  -.091  .687**  .965**  .617* -.203  -.150  -.190  2 ATP ^  .184  . 572*  .318  6 ATP 6  .181  .011  .770**  -.121  .202  OHMP  .716*  -.253  . 706**  -.603  .050  .630*  2 HMP 8  .364  -.225  .506  -.393  -.189  . 557*  .788**  6 HMP 9  . 307  -.200  .731**  -.300  .040  .718**  .748**  7  with  1  .471  . 342  2HMP  6HMP  -.442  -.447  -.724**  -.659*  -.056  .013 .741**  . 896***  v a l u e s b e l o w d i a g o n a l were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e B i c e p s f e m o r i s ; v a l u e s f o r t h e P e c t o r a l i s maj o r l i e a b o v e t h e d i a g o n a l ; a l l v a l u e s b a s e d on n = 10 2 t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n 3 maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n d e v e l o p e d 4 ATP c o n t e n t a t Oh p o s t s l a u g h t e r 5 ATP c o n t e n t a t 2h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 6 ATP c o n t e n t a t 6h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 7 h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t Oh p o s t s l a u g h t e r 8 h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t 2h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 9 h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t 6h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 10 * * * * * * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0 . 1 , 1 a n d 5% l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y respectively >  }  Table  28: C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r p a r a m e t e r s ( 4 0 s ~ l ) f o r 120 s ( S t u d y T w o )  studied  for  carcasses  shocked  with  70 V  1  TMT  TMT MT  MT  .414  2  .322  3  Glycogen  OATP  2 ATP  6 ATP  OHMP  2HMP  6 HMP  -.052  . 709**  .048  . 267  . 238  . 302  . 122  -.331  .362  .500  .186  .034  . 664*  . 727 *  .877***  .773**  .118  .392  .617  .060  .448  .042  . 122  .162  -.041  .872***  .57 1*  .935***  . 588*  .933***  -.272  -.106  Glycogen  . 667*  .444  OATP  .312  .320  .339  -.057  -.333  -.171  -.179  6 ATP 6  .182  .220  .152  .198  -.358  OHMP  7  .127  .155  . 431  .304  .037  2HMP  8  .632*  .254  .862***  .106  -.084  .213  .112  .636*  . 302  .964***  .172  -.032  .116  . 346  2 ATP  4  5  6 HMP ^  1  2  3  4  5  6 7  8 9 10  -.698**  .567*  -.383  .700** .928***  *  v a l u e s b e l o w d i a g o n a l were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e B i c e p s f e m o r i s ; v a l u e s f o r t h e P e c t o r a l i s maj o r l i e a b o v e t h e d i a g o n a l ; a l l v a l u e s b a s e d on n = 10 t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n developed ATP c o n t e n t a t Oh p o s t s l a u g h t e r ATP c o n t e n t a t 2h p o s t s l a u g h t e r ATP c o n t e n t a t 6h p o s t s l a u g h t e r h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t Oh p o s t s l a u g h t e r h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t 2h p o s t s l a u g h t e r h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t 6h p o s t s l a u g h t e r * * * * * * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0 . 1 , 1 a n d 5% l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y respectively }  f  Table  29: C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o rp a r a m e t e r s ( 4 0 s ) f o r 60s ( S t u d y T w o ) - 1  TMT  TMT 2 MT  MT  .143 -.121  3  studied  Glycogen  OATP  2 ATP  2HMP  6 HMP  -.201  - . 174  -.238  -.196  -.488  .021  -.239  -.253  -.077  -.337  -.114  .079  .448  . 325  .486  .478  .405  .217  .580*  -.364  .207  . 340  .429  -.039  .098  .116  -.309  .948***  .367  .579*  .738**  .301  .443  . 545*  . 568*  6 ATP 6  .247  .052  . 566*  .207  .429  OHMP  7  .772**  -.190  .438  .311  . 105  8  .145  .045  .521  .077  -.133  .276  .390  .718**  .426  .513  6 HMP ^  OHMP  -.291  OATP  2 HMP  6 ATP  -.341  .511  5  w i t h 140V  .006  . 243  2 ATP  shocked  -.202  Glycogen 4  f o rcarcasses  1  .437  .491 .543*  .509  . 646*  .476  .051 -.340  .745**  v a l u e s b e l o w d i a g o n a l were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e B i c e p s f e m o r i s ; v a l u e s f o r t h e P e c t o r a l i s maj o r l i e a b o v e t h e d i a g o n a l ; a l l v a l u e s b a s e d on n = 10 2 t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n developed ATP c o n t e n t a t Oh p o s t s l a u g h t e r ATP c o n t e n t a t 2h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 6 ATP c o n t e n t a t 6h p o s t s l a u g h t e r h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t Oh p o s t s l a u g h t e r 8 h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t 2h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 9 h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t 6h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 10 * * * * * * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0 . 1 , 1 a n d 5% l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y respectively 1  3  4  5  7  }  }  Table  30: C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r p a r a m e t e r s ( 4 0 s ) f o r 120s ( S t u d y T w o ) - 1  TMT  TMT 2 MT  MT  .064 .193  3  Glycogen  OATP  OHMP  -.175  -.321  .539*  .398  -.146  .035 .019  .229  .703**  2 ATP 5  .216  .421  -.026  .091  6ATP  .260  .510  .022  .499  .164  . 346  .473  . 351  2 HMP ^  .221  .389  -.185  6 HMP ^  .143  -.449  -.218  1  6 ATP  -.427  OATP  7  2 ATP  -.006  .177  OHMP  shocked  .661*  .011  6  f o rcarcasses  -.035  Glycogen 4  studied  w i t h 140V  1  - . 105 .337  2HMP  6 HMP  -.360  -.501  .088  -.642*  -.477  -.386  -.602*  .114  -.121  -.282  -.069  -.417  -.815**  -.403  -.323  -.121  - . 129  .764**  .685**  -.413  -.220  .067  .281  .280  .368  -.439  .136  .031  -.337  .477 -.057  .627** .446 .436  . 350  values f o r the P e c t o r a l i s v a l u e s b e l o w d i a g o n a l were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e B i c e p s femoris m a j o r l i e a b o v e t h e d i a g o n a l ; a l l v a l u e s b a s e d on n=10 2 t i m e t o maximum t e n s i o n 3 maximum i s o m e t r i c t e n s i o n developed 4 ATP c o n t e n t a t Oh p o s t s l a u g h t e r 5 ATP c o n t e n t a t 2h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 6 ATP c o n t e n t a t 6h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 7 h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t Oh p o s t s l a u g h t e r 8 h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t 2h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 9 h e x o s e m o n o p h o s p h a t e c o n t e n t a t 6h p o s t s l a u g h t e r 10 * * * * * * s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0 . 1 , 1 a n d 5% l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y respectively >  }  -  APPENDIX  4:  203 -  ANOVA  The f o l l o w i n g a b r e v i a t i o n s were included in this appendix:  Study  used  One  f o r the computer  outp  MTW  -  maximum  isometric  tension,  Pectoralis  MTR  -  maximum  isometric  tension,  Biceps  TW  -  time  t o maximum  tension,  P e c t o r a l i s maj o r  TR  -  time  t o maximum  tension,  Biceps  FTS  -  fibre  tensile  SHKG  -  shear  force  strength,  values,  maj o r  femoris  femoris  Pectoralis  maj o r  kg, P e c t o r a l i s  maj o r  VARIABLE DATA  NAMES  -  FORMAT  ELECTRICAL  MTW  MTR  STIMULATION  STUDY  ANALYSIS SOURCE  1 1 1 1  GRAND  STANDARD  TREAT FREQUENCIES MN MTW SO MTW  FTS  SHKG  VARIANCE MEAN  -  MTW ERROR  SO  F-VALUE 2.5624 12.538 3.0391 0.86306 0.77776  946.85 4632.9 1123.0 3 18.91 287 . 39 369.51  0.22197E-01 0.973I9E-03 O.884 30E-01 0.4S75G 0.51286  O 4>  55.298  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  MEANS.  OF  VARIABLE  STANDARD  1  IS  DEVIATIONS 9 . . .  1 . 12 72.53 19.60  5 5 1 .06 24 . 6 7  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  TEST.  5 50.54 21.17  RANGES 3.0970  ARE 3 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 6. 3 . 2 , 8. 5. 4. 9) 6 . 3. 7 ) 2. 8. 9. 5. 2 , 8. 9, 7. 3. 1 )  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433 THERE FOR A  OF  7574.8 4632.9 1123.0 95S.73 8 6 2 . 17 15889. 23464.  1 3 3 43 51  MEAN  TR  I  SUM SO  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  THERE FOR A ( ( (  TW  ( 4 I 2.4X.2F6.2.3F6 . 1.2F6.3 I  6. 2 .  SUBSETS WHICH ARE 9. 1 )  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  5 39.67 16.63  3.2188  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T 3.780 4.026 4.218  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 5 , 3 .  FOR  5 38.06 20.21  5 66 . 45 13 . 18  5 45 . 58 15 . 6 6  3.2632  3.2991  5 54 .31 25 .80  5 55.37 9.460  3.3284  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05 4.373 4.504  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  STUDENT I ZED 4.617  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  RANGE  . 1. .  FREQUENCIES MN MTW S D MTW  1 VOLT  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 7) I)  O.3983E-0I  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  DF  WHICH D I F F E R  Bv  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SECONDS.  40 S O . 13 19.35  12 72.53 19.60  .3  20 44.83 20.11  RANGE 99BB  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 )  20 55.43 17.46  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS  D  FOR  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 3) 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 3.433  TIME  IS  2  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  THERE FOR A ( (  TEST,  .2. .  12 72.53 19.60  DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE 2.8524 2  THERE FOR A ( (  TESTS  . 1  FREQUENCIES MN MTW SD MTW  (  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 4 . 5. 6. 3. 2 . 8, 9. S. 6. 3, 2. 8. 9, 7.  1 C/EXP  THERE FOR A (  FOR  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2, 3) 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE FREQUENCIES MN MTW S D MTW  RANGE  1 12 72.53 19.60  SUBSETS W H I C H ARE  TEST,  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  ...2 10 48.32 19.70  TEST,  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA = 0 . 0 5  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS  0.5729E-02  J 10 58.50 18.62  SECONDS.  ...4 10 46.18 23.47  .5 10 47.52 15.20  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A ( (  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4. 5, 2. 3) 3 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  THERE FOR A ( (  TIME  1 VXP  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  . . 1 . FREQUENCIES MN MTW S O MTW . . 2 . FREQUENCIES MN MTW S D MTW . .3. FREQUENCIES MN MTW S D MTW  ...  TUKEY'S  RANGE  1  0.0 0.0  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  ...  12 72 53 19.60  0.0 0.0  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4. 5. 2. 3) 3 . 1 ) FOR  RANGES 3.0970  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.780 4.026  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4. 5. 2, 3) 3 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 4.026  THERE FOR A ( (  TEST,  IS  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO P A I R  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ...3 O  NO P A I R  ALPHA=0.05  0.7721E-02  2  O.O 0.0  FOR  0.0 0.0  SECONDS.  ...4 0  PAIR  0.0 0.0  ...5 0  0.0 0.0  0  O  5 51.06 24.67  5 50.54 2 1.17  5 38.06 20.21  5 39.67 16.63  O  5 45 . 58 15.66  5 66.45 1 3 . 18  5 54.31 25.80  5 55.37 9.4G0  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S ; ' NON EMPTY C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND SO O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  TEST.  RANGES 3.0970  THERE ARE 3 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E ( 4. 5. 6, 3. 2. 8. 9) ( 5. 6. 3, 2. 8. 9. 7) ( 3. 2. 8. 9. 7. 1) STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  FOR  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  3.2188  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.780 4.026 4.218  ALPHA'0.05 4.373 4,504  NO  3.2632  PAIR  4.617  OF  HAVE  3.2991  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  3.3284  THAN  THE  THERE FOR A ( (  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 4 , 5. 6. 3 . 2. 8. 9. 6. 3. 2. 8 . 9 . 7. 1)  STUDENT I ZED 4 . 6 17  FOR  TUKEY'S  FOR  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TESTS  SOURCE  SUM  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  8 1 1 3 3 43 S 1  MEAN  STANOARD  TREAT. FREQUENCIES MN M T R S D MTR  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 7) 1)  0.1311E-01  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  Bv  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SECONDS  VARIANCE MEAN  SO  97G7.3 3489.7 543.91 4638.7 1095.0 25591. 35358  MEANS.  OF  SO  ERROR  1220.9 3489.7 543.91 1546.2 364.99 595.14  VARIABLE  STANDARD  F-VALUE  PROB 0.62580E-01 0.I9747E-01 O.34442 0.64500E-01 0.61010  2 . 0 5 15 5.8638 0.91392 2.598 1 0.61329  o  2  IS  DEVIATIONS  1 . 12 7 I .00 29.84  5 42 . 66 2 1 . 99  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  TEST.  RANGES 3.0970  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E ( 6 . 4 . 2 , 5 . 9 , 8 , 3 ) ' ( 4, 2, 5. 9. 8. 3. 1. STUDENT I ZED  PAIR  56.040  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  OF  IS  NO  ALPHA=0.05  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 4, 5. 6. 3. 2. 8, 9. 5, 6. 3, 2, 8, 9. 7,  ANALYSIS  1 1 1 1  TEST,  i  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  RANGE  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 7)  RANGES  FOR  5 64 . 64 28.93 FOR  5 33 . 8 2 2 1 . 45  5 7 1 .65 2t . 6 3  5 5 8 . 15 9.604  5 57 . 34 26 . 40  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 7)  NEWMAN-KEUL'S TEST.  5 4 5 . 99 20.88  5 3 8 . 17 21 . 7 8  ALPHA=0.05  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  2.852  THERE FOR A (  3.433  THERE FOR A (  FOR  RANGE  MULTIPLE  1 C/EXP  FOR  TUKEY'S  RANGE  . 1 . .  1 VOLT  TESTS  TEST.  FOR  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY MORE  T H A N THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1. 7)  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  T H A N THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  1049E-01  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  B Y MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SECONDS.  20 55.24 23.59  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 2 . 3 ) ( 3 . 1 ) MULTIPLE  NO  ALPHA=0.05  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NEWMAN-KEUL•S TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 3) 3. 1)  FOR  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1. 7)  4 .G 17  . 3 .  20 47.87 24.01  S T U D E N T I Z E D R A N G E S FOR 2.B52 3.433  RANGE  O  . 2 .  12 7 1.00 29.84  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 ) 3 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 3.433  IS  4.004  40 51.55 23.79  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  TIME  TEST.  4.373  .2..  12 71.00 29.84  .1.  FREQUENCIES: MN M T R SD MTR  THERE FOR A ( (  4.218  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 6, 4. 2. 5. 9. 8, 3.  FREQUENCIES MN MTR SD MTR  THERE FOR A ( (  4.026  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 6, 4. 2. 5, 9. 8. 3.  STUDENT I ZED 4 617  TIME  3.780  RANGE  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  1ESIS  IS  O  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  5898E-02  SECONDS.  MORE  1  PULSE  1  FREQUENCIES MN M T R SD MTR  2  12 71.00 29.84  10 38.24 2 1.00  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FDR A ( (  THERE FOR A ( (  TIME  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 VXP . . 1 . FREQUENCIES MN M T R SD M T R . . 2 . FREQUENCIES MN M T R SD MTR . .3. FREQUENCIES MN M T R SD MTR  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  RANGE  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  12 7 1 OO 29 . 84  0.0 0.0  0.0 0.0  0.0 0.0  FOR  10 4 8 . 1G 19.05  10 51.67 23.23  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  .3 O  •>  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  0.7409E-02  . . .2  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  0.0 0.0  SECONDS.  • O  . . .5  4.  0.0 0.0  O  O O 0.0  O  0  5 42 . 6 6 21 . 9 9  5 64 .64 28.93  5 3 8 . 17 2 1 . 7B  5 45 . 99 20.88  0  5 33.82 21 . 4 5  5 7 1 .65 21 . 6 3  5 5 8 . 15 9.604  5 57 . 34 26 . 4 0  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S : ' NON EMPTY C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 A N D SO O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A  RANGES 0970  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2, 4 . 5. 3) 4 . 5 . 3 . 1 ) FOR  3  -l  10 68.14 24.3G  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.780 4.026  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 4, 5) 4 , 5 . 3 . 1 )  STUDENTIZED 4.026  THERE FOR A ( (  TEST,  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 , 4 . 5 ) 4 . 5 . 3 . 1)  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  :>  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E )  RANGES 3.0970  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  3.2188  ( S U B S E T S DF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO  3.2632  PAIR  OF  HAVE  3  WHICH D I F F E R  2991  BY  MORE  3.3284  THAN  THE  2 . 5. STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  THERE FOR A (  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T , 3.780 4.026 4.218  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 6, 4, 2. 5, 9. 8. 3.  STUDENT I ZED 4 6 17  THERE FOR A ( TIME  9 . 8 .  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST,  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TESTS  IS  4.617  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1. 7)  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 6, 4, 2. 5. 9. 8. 3. FOR  ALPHA^O.OG 4.373 4.504  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1, 7)  0.1113E-01  SECONDS.  I ANALYSIS SOURCE  1 1 I  1  SUM  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  VARIANCE  SO  MEAN  0.29440E*06 O. 2 4 3 4 1E+0G 7579.0 28708. 14699. O.36663E+06 0.66103E+06  1 1 3 3 43 51  O  SO  ERROR  36800. 24341E+06 7579.0 9569.5 4899.5 8526.3  I— O  1  F-VALUE 4.3160 28.548 O.88890 I.1224 0.57464  70820E-03 32686E-05 35104 35060 63479  I  MEAN  STANDARD  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  OF  MEANS.  TREAT  VARIABLE  STANDARD  12 274 . 1 133 . 0  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  ARE  3  IS  DEVIATIONS  1 .  FREQUENCIES M N TW S D TW  THERE  OF  2  5 94 . 6 6 44 . 36 TEST.  HOMOGENEOUS  RANGES 3.0970  SUBSETS  5 112.7 70.07 FOR  5 111.5 54 . 77  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  (SUBSETS  OF  5 72 . 82 2 0 . 28  3.2188  ELEMENTS,  NO  5 88 . 54 30.76  3.2632 PAIR  OF  WHICH  5 200 O 17 1 . 8  5 108 . 5 35 . 2 1  3.2991 DIFFER  BY  MORE  5 104 . 9 3 1.47  3.3284 THAN  1 HE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  FOR ( (  A  S U B S E T OF 5. G. 8 . 1 )  THAT 2 .  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  THERE FOR A I (  THERE FOR A ( (  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  FREQUENCIES MN TW S D TW  1 VOLT  FOR  TUKEY'S  RANGE  . 1. .  TEST,  TESTS  12 274.1 133.0  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 8)  4.617  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BV  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 8)  SECONDS.  . .3.  20 97.94 49.4 1 TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 ) 1 ) FOR  FOR  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  20 125.5 94.30 FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NEWMAN-KEUL'S TE5T.  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 2, 3) ( 1 ) RANGE  ALPHA=0.05 4.373 4.504  0.1109E-01  . .2.  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 1 8524 2.9988  STUDENT I ZED 3 433  FOLLOWS  40 1117 75.60  12 274.1 133.0  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  IS  AS  .2. .  . . 1.  FREQUENCIES, MN TW S D TW  LISTED 8)  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.780 4.026 4.218  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5. 6, 2. 9. 7. 4. 3. 8 . 1 )  1 C/EXP  THERE FOR A ( (  ARE 3.  ARE . 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5, 6, 2, 9. 7. 4. 3. 8 . 1 )  5TUDENTI ZED 4 . 6 17  TIME  S I Z E ) WHICH 9. 7 . 4 .  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  TEST.  ALPHA = 0 . 0 5  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0  05  T H E R E ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS T O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E I ( 2 . 3 ) ( 1 ) TIME  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE  RANGE  ...1  FREQUENCIES M N TW S D TW  TESTS  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.780 4.026  FOR  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 5. 2. 3. 4) 1) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 VXP  . . 1 . FREQUENCIES MN TW. S D TW . . 2 . FREQUENCIES MN TW S D TW . . 3 . FREQUENCIES MN TW S D TW  EMPTY  RANGE  CELLS  ...  RANGE  1  0.0 0.0  0.0 0.0  HAVE  IS  2  0.0 0.0  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS  TEST,  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S DF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.7214E-02  0.0 0.0  SECONOS  ... 4 0  0.0 0.0  ... 0  5  0.0 0.0  0  5 112.7 70.07  5 111.5 54.77  5 72.82 20.28  O  5 88.54 30.76  5 108.5 35.21  5 200.O 17 1 . 8  5 104.9 31.47  FROM  BY  10 88.84 30.14  5 94.66 44.36  DELETED  WHICH D I F F E R  . . .5  10 155.8 128.9  0  BEEN  OF  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  .3 0  PAIR  ALPHA=0.05  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  ...  12 274.1 133.0  TEST.  TESTS  . . .4  10 110.6 52.33 FOR  NO  SECONDS.  ...3  T E S T . RANGES . 3.0970  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 5, 2. 3. 4) 1)  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.1771E-01  10 91 6 0 36.13  T H E R E ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 5. 2. 3. 4 ) ( 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 4 .026  IS  ...2  12 274 1 133.0  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A ( (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TESTS  NON  EMPTY  CELLS  HAVE  BEEN  RENUM6ERE0,  THE F I R S T  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  NON EMPTY  TEST.  CELL  RANGES 3.0970  Bf.ING  LABELLED  F O R ALP1IA»0.05 3.1636  < A N D SO O N .  3.2188  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . F O R A S U B S E T DF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E L I S T E D A S F O L L O W S ( 5. 6, 2. 9. 7. 4. 3. 8) ( 8 . 1 ) STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.780 4.026 4.218  ALPHA=0.05 4.373 4.504  RANGE  FOR T U K E Y ' S  TEST,  FOR M U L T I P L E  RANGE  TESTS  IS  3.3284  OF WHICH  DIFFER  B Y MORE  THAN THE SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO P A I R  OF WHICH  DIFFER  B Y MORE  THAN THE SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO P A I R  OF WHICH  DIFFER  B Y MORE  THAN  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S ( S U B S E T S DF E L E M E N T S . F O R A S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E L I S T E D A S F O L L O W S ( 5, 6. 2. 9. 7, 4. 3. 8) ( 8 , 1 ) TIME  3.299 1  4.617  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E L I S T E D A S F O L L O W S ( 5, 6. 2, 9. 7, 4, 3. 8) ( , 8. 1) STUDENTIZED 4 617  NO P A I R  3.2G32  0.1246E-01  THE SHORTEST  I  SECONDS.  CO I ANALYSIS SOURCE TREAT 1 C/EXP 1 VOLT 1 PULSE 1 VXP ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  1 3 3 43 51  MEAN  STANDARD  M E A N SO  0.32547E*06 O.24993E+06 7086.2 22431. 46027. O.87549E+06 O 12010E+07  40684. 0.24993E*06 7086.2 7476.9 15342. 20360.  205.52  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  TREAT  OF V A R I A N C E  SUM 5 0  MEANS.  OF V A R I A B L E  STANDARD  4  IS  DEVIATIONS  153.45  ERROR  F-VALUE I 9982 12.275 0.34804 O.36723 O.75354  G9669F-01 10B52E-02 5583 I 77700 52636  FREQUENCIES MN TR SD T R  12 332.1 218.4  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A ( (  THERE FOR A (  THERE FOR A (  RANGE  FOR  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  TUKEY'S  TEST,  .  5  ALPHA=0.05 4.373 4 504  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS F O L L O W S 8. 1)  FOR  MULTIPLE  . 1 . .  FREQUENCIES M N TR SO TR  1 VOLT  RANGE  TESTS  2  5 236 5 144.6  5 151.7 90.29  3.3284  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  4.617  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SECONDS.  .3  20 180.9 111.9 TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 , 2 ) 1 )  ARE  3.299 1  5  ALPHA=0.05  0.1048E-01  2  12 332.1 218.4  S T U D E N T I Z E D R A N G E S FOR 2.852 3.433  NO P A I R  121.6 42.79  40 t67 5 104.5  . . 1.  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  3.2G32  5  107.1 43.50  .2  12 332.1 218.4  FREQUENC i ES MN T R SD TR  IS  5  177.2 112.9  3.2188  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 8)  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.780 4 026 4 218  FOR  5 167.5 112.8  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E L I S T E D A S F O L L O W S 6 , 7 , 3 . 9 . 4 . 5 . 2 . 8 . 1)  1 C/EXP  THERE  RANGES 3.0970  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 6. 7. 3, 9. 4. 5. 2.  STUDENT I ZED 4.617  THERE FOR A ( (  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 6. 7. 3, 9. 4. 5. 2. 4 . 5 . 2 . 8 . 1)  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  TIME  5 148.7 117.3  230.0 125.1  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  HOMOGENEOUS  SUBSE1S  20 154.2 97.70 FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST,  ALPHA = 0 . 0 5  (SUBSETS  OF  ELEMENTS.  THE  FOR A ( <  S U B S E T OF T H A T 3 . 2 ) 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 3 . 433  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  RANGE  FOR  SIZE)  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 ) 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE  RANGE  ...t  FREQUENCIES MN T R SD T R  (  (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  IS  TEST.  LISTED  AS  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ...4  10 135 2 84.48  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  NO  FOR  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SECONDS.  ...3  RANGES 3.0970  FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  0.6172E-02  10 168.6 109.5  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3. 5. 2, 4)  ...5  10 202.0 127.6  10 164.5 97.31  ALPHA'O.OS 3.1636  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N I S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  D  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.780 4.026  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 3. 5. 2. 4)  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TEST,  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  D  STUDENT I ZED 4 .026  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3. 5. 2. 4) ( 5 , 2 . 4 . 1 ) TIME  TEST,  TESTS  12 332.1 218.4  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.B52 3.433  THERE FOR A (  ARE  ...2  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A (  WHICH  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 VXP . . 1 . FREQUENCIES MN T R ' SD TR . . 2 . FREQUENCIES MN TR  RANGE  ...1  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  ...2  12 332.1 218.4  0.0  TEST.  0  0.0 0.0  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  O.7786E-02  ...3 0  5 230.0  0.0 0.0  SECONDS.  ...4 O  5 148.7  0.0 0 0  ...5 0  5 167.5  0.0 0.0  0  5 177.2  SD  TR  . . 3 . FREQUENCIES MN TR SD TR  0.0 0  0.0 0.0  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  THERE FOR A (  112.9  5 107 I 43.50  5 12 1 . 6 42.79  5 236.5 144.6  5 151.7 90.29  TEST,  RANGES 3.0970  FOR  THERE FOR A (  RANGE  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.7BO 4.026 4.218  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST,  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TESTS  ANALYSIS SOURCE  SUM  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  8 1 1 3 3 43 5 I  MEAN  STANDARD  OF  IS  ALPHA=0.05 4.373 4.504  3.2632  PAIR  3.2991  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SECONDS.  VARIANCE  SO  VARIABLE  MEAN  SO  52 197. O.33732E+06 403.23 25374. 1242.5 34764.  5  IS  3.3284  4.617  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 8. 1)  0.1089E-01  O. 4 1 7 5 8 E + 0 6 0.33732E+06 403.23 76123. 3727.5 O.14948E+07 O.19124E+07  OF  NO  HAVE  ALPHA=0.05  1112.8  DEVIATION  3.2188  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 8. 1)  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 6. 7. 3. 9. 4. 5. 2. FOR  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 8)  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 6, 7. 3, 9. 4. 5. 2.  STUDENTIZED 4.617  1 1 1 1  112.8  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 6. 7. 3. 9. 4, 5. 2. 4, 5, 2. 8. 1)  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  TIME  117.3  B E E N D E L E T E D F R O M M U L T I P L E R A N G E T E S T S ; ' NON E M P T Y C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND SO O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A ( (  125.1  193.64  ERROR  F-VALUE 1 5015 9.7034 O . 1 1 5 9 9 E -- 0 1 0.72991 0.35742E-O1  18509 32703E9 1474 53981 99082  FREQUENCIES.  TREAT  MEANS.  STANDARD  1.  FREQUENCIES MN F T S SD F T S  12 965,7 229.8  THERE FOR A (  THERE FOR A (  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  ALPHA=0.05 3.1G36  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST.  5  RANGE  1 VOLT  TESTS  12 965 7 229.8  3.2991  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  5  1132. 92.26  3  5  5 1150. 187.0  3284  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  3) ALPHA=0.05 4.373 4.504  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 7, 3)  4.617  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  THAN THE  SHORTFST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA = 0 . 0 5  0.1020E-01  2.  12 965.7 229.8  SECONDS.  . .3.  20 1 160. 142.9 TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E )  D  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  20 1 154 . 178.5 FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  3 . 2 ) RANGES  PAIR  2632  12 1 4 . 277.4  40 1157. 159.6  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  STUDENT I ZED  3  5  1119 156.0  . 2. .  . . 1.  FREQUENCIES MN F T S SD F T S  IS  NO  5  1179. 37 0 3  3.2188  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.780 4.026 4.218  . 1. .  FREQUENCIES MN F T S SD F T S  (  FOR  5 1120 111.6  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E L I S T E D A S F O L L O W S 1 . 2 . 6 , 4 . 8 . 9 . 5 . 7 , 3 )  1 C/EXP  (  RANGES 3.0970  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 1, 2. 6. 4. 8, 9. 5.  STUDENT I ZED 4.617  THERE FOR A  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 1 . 2 . 6 . 4 . 8 . 9 . 5 ) 2, 6. 4. 8. 9. 5. 7.  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  TIME  5 123G. 191.5  1106 182.3  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2 9988  THERE FOR A ( (  DEVIATIONS  FOR  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  MORE  2.852  THERE FOR A ( (  3.433  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) t) 3 . 2 )  STUDENT I ZED 3 .433  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 1 ) 3 . 2 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE  RANGE  12 9G5.7 229.8  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  TEST.  RANGE  FOR  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 VXP . . 1 . FREQUENCIES MN F T S  ...  RANGE  1 12 965.7  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  . . .2  0.0  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO P A I R  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  T H A N THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO P A I R  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ...4  FOR  ...5  10 1126 96.73  10 1165. 128.0  ALPHA=0.05 3.163G  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.87G3E-02  . . .3 0  PAIR  SECONDS.  10 1225. 225 O  RANGES 3.0970  NO  ALPHA=0.05  ...3  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 1 . 2 , 4 , 5 ) 2 , 4 . 5, 3 )  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  O.6029E-02  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.780 4.026  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 1. 2. 4, 5) 2. 4. 5. 3)  STUDENT I ZED 4.026  IS  10 1112. 160.1  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 1. 2. 4) 2. 4. 5, 3)  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  THERE FOR A ( (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  2  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A ( (  TEST.  TESTS  ...1  FREQUENCIES MN F T S SD F T S  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  0.0  SECONDS.  . 0  PAIR  4  O.O  . . .5 0  0.0  0  SD  FTS . .2. FREQUENCIES MN F T S SD F T S . .3. FREQUENCIES MN F T S SO F T S  229.8  0.0 0.0  0.0 0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0  5 1I0G. 182.3  5 1236. 19 1 . 5  5 1120. 111.6  5 1179. 37.03  O  5 1 1 19. I5G.0  5 1214. 277.4  5 • 1132. 92.26  5 1150. 187.0  I  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED,  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S : ' NON EMPTY C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND SO O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.998B  THERE FOR A < (  RANGES 3.0970  FOR  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 1 . 2 . 6 , 4 , 8 . 9 . 5 ) 2. 6. 4, 8. 9. 5. 7.  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  THERE FOR A (  THERE FOR A (  RANGE  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T , 3.780 4.026 4.218  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST,  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TESTS  ANALYSIS SOURCE TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  DF 8 1 1 3 3 43 5 1  SUM  OF  SQ  1 .6918 0 . 2 5 1 10 0 31400 0.12880 0.99789 15.756 17.448  IS  ALPHA=0.05 4.373 4 504  NO  3.2632  PAIR  3.299 1  3.3284  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  4.617  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 7, 3)  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 7. 3)  0.1086E-01  VARIANCE MEAN 0. 0. O. 0. 0. 0.  3.2188  3)  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 1. 2, 6, 4, 8, 9, 5, FOR  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 1, 2. 6, 4, 8, 9. 5.  STUDENT I ZED 4 .617  TIME  TEST.  HAVE  -  SECONDS.  SHKG  SO  2 1147 2 5 1 10 3 1400 42934E-01 33263 36642  ERROR  F-VALUE 0. 0 0 0. 0.  5 7 7 13 68529 85693 1 1 7 17 90778  PROB 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.  7908 1 4 1 234 35977 94955 4452 1  GRAND  MEAN  STANDARD  2.5322  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  MEANS.  TREAT FREQUENCIES MN S H K G SD S H K G  OF  VARIABLE  STANDARD  2...  3 . . .  5 2.432 0.1726  5 2.496 0.4799  TEST,  RANGES 3.0970  THERE FOR A (  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST,  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 8. 2. 7. 5. 6. 3. 9. FOR  MULTIPLE  1 C/EXP FREQUENCIES MN S H K G SD S H K G  1 VOLT  RANGE  . 1. . 12 2.659 0.7012  . . 1 .  FREQUENCIES MN S H K G SD S H K G  12 2.659 0.7012  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  ARE  1  FOR  4...  TESTS  IS  5 2.951 1.227  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  5...  6...  S 2.453 0.2063  5 5 2.JG0 2.435 0 8483E-01 0.3307  3.2188  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS 1. 4)  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.780 4.026 4.218  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 8. 2. 7. 5. 6. 3. 9.  STUDENT I ZED 4.617  THERE  DEVIATIONS  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) W H I C H ARE 8. 2. 7, 5. 6. 3. 9,  THERE FOR A (  0.58491  12 2.659 0.7012  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  TIME  IS  1...  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A (  6  ALPHA=0.05 4.373 4.504  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS 1. 4)  3.2632  NO P A I R  7...  3.2991  8...  9 . . .  5 2.231 0.2452  5 2.496 0.7767  3.3284  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  4.617  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  B Y MORE  T H A N THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1. 4)  0.9883E-02  SECONDS.  .2.  0  2  40 494 5498  .2.  0  20 2.583 6546  TEST.  HOMOGENEOUS  . 3 .  RANGES  SUBSETS  20 2.406 0.41BB FOR  ALPHA=0.05  (SUBSETS  OF  ELEMENTS.  FOR (  A  SUBSET 3.  STUDENTIZED 2.852  THERE FOR A (  TIME  1  THAT 1 )  RANGES 3.433  SIZE)  FOR  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  PULSE  RANGE  IS  AS  FOLLOWS  ALPHA-0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO  PAIR  UF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  DF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  SECONDS.  TEST.  10 2 . 465 0.3898  RANGES 3.0970  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.780 4.026  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST.  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 2. 3. 5. 4. 1 ) FOR  TEST.  0.5286E-02  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 2 . 3 . 5 . 4 . 1)  STUDENTIZED 4 .026  TIME  TESTS  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 2 , 3 , 5 . 4 , l !  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  THERE FOR A (  SUBSEIS WHICH ARE  10 2 .446 O. 129 1  12 2 659 0.7012  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A (  TEST.  LISTFO  , 1  FREQUENCIES MN S H K G SD S H K G  THERE FOR A (  ARE  SUBSETS W H I C H ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 . 1 ) FOR  WHICH  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 . 1 )  STUDENTIZED 3 . 433  THERE FOR A (  OF 2.  MULTIPLE  1 VXP . . 1 . FREQUENCIES MN S H K G SD S H K G  RANGE  ...1 12 2.659 0.7012  TESTS  IS  ...2  0.0 0.0  FOR  10 2 . 474 O.5362  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ND  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.6237E-02  3 O  10 2 . 591 0.9161  0.0 0.0  SECONDS  ...4 O  0.0 0.0  ...5 O  0.0 0.0  O  FREQUENCIES MN S H K G SO S H K G . . 3 . FREQUENCIES MN S H K G SD S H K G  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  5 2 . 496 O.4799  5 2 95 1 1 . 227  5 2 . 453 O. 2 0 6 3  5 2 . 460 0.8483E-01  5 2 .435 0.3307  5 2 231 O. 2 4 5 2  5 2 . 496 O.7767  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S ; ' NON EMPTY C E L L S H A V E T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND S O O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A (  5 2 .432 0 . 1726  TEST.  RANGES 3.0970  FOR  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) WHICH ARE 8. 2. 7. 5. 6. 3. 9.  STUDENT 1ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  THERE FOR A (  RANGE  FDR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T , 3.780 4.026 4.218  FOR  TUKEY'S TEST.  FOR  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TESTS  ANALYSIS SOURCE  1 1 1 1  SUM  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  8 1 3 3 43 51  MEAN  2.3181  OF  IS  ALPHA =0.05 4.373 4.504  NO  3.2632  PAIR  2991  3  3284  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  I HAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1. 4)  0.9949E-02  SECONDS.  VARIANCE  SQ  1 .4870 0.28903 0.2t815 0.46201E-01 0.933G7 14.744 16.231  3  4.617  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1. 4)  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S F O R A S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E ( 8. 2. 7. 5. 6. 3. 9. TIME  3.2188  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1. 4)  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 8, 2. 7, 5, 6. 3. 9.  STUDENTIZED 4 .617  ALPHA=0.05 3 1636  ERROR 18588 28903 21815 15400E-01 3 1 122 34288  F-VALUE 0 . 5 4 2 12 O 84294 0.63624 0.44914E-01 O.90767  PROB 0.81811 O.36368 0.42946 0.98718 0.44526  STANDARD  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  TREAT  OF  MEANS.  VARIABLE  STANDARD  1...  FREQUENCIES MN S H C O R R SD SHCORR  12 2.454 0.6559  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A (  THERE FOR A (  THERE FOR A (  RANGE  2...  3...  2.180 0.2361  5 2.333 0.4967  TEST.  RANGES 3 0970  MULTIPLE  1 C/EXP FREQUENCIES MN S H C O R R SO S H C O R R  1 VOLT  FOR  TUKEY'S  RANGE  . 1. . 12 2.454 0.6559  . . 1 .  FREQUENCIES MN S H C O R R SD S H C O R R  FOR  4...  TEST.  12 2.454 0.6559  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  TESTS  IS  5...  5 2.650 1.172  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  6...  5  5  2.241 0.3324  3.2188  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1. 4)  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.780 4.026 4.218  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 8. 7. 2. 5. 6, 9. 3. FOR  0 . 5 6 4 1.1  DEVIATIONS  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 8. 7. 2. 5, 6. 9. 3.  STUDENT I ZED 4.617  THERE FOR A (  IS  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T DF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 8. 7. 2. 5. 6. 9. 3.  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  TIME  7  ALPHA=0.05 4.373 4.504  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS I. 4)  NO  2.308 O.115 1  3.2632  PAIR  7... 5  2.169 0.3150  3.2991  8... 5  9...  2.010 0.2020  5  5 2.326 0.7449  3.3284  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  4.617  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1. 4)  0.9935E-02  SECONDS.  .2. . 40 2.277 0.536 1  ..2.  ..3.  20 .2.351 0.6409 TEST.  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 , 2 . 1 )  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  0  20 2.203 4096  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  THERE FOR A (  TIME  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3. 2. 1)  STUDENTIZED 3 . 433  THERE FOR A (  FOR  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E I 3. 2. 1) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE  RANGE  ...1  FREQUENCIES MN S H C O R R SD S H C O R R  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  RANGES 3.0970  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.780 4.026  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E ( 2. 3. 5. 4. 1) STUDENT I ZED 4 .026  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST.  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E ( 2. 3. 5. 4. 1) TIME  1 VXP  FOR  MULTIPLE  . . 1 . FREQUENCIES MN S H C O R R SO S H C O R R . .2. FREQUENCIES MN S H C O R R  RANGE  ...1  IS  ...2  12 2.454 0.6559  0.0  TESTS  0  O.O 0.0  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  5 2.180  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  B Y MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SECONDS.  ...4  FOR  ...5  10 2.330 0.8618  10 2.284 0.5457  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  B Y MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  O.G654E-02  ...3 0  NO  ALPHA=0.05  10 2.251 0.4015  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 2, 3. 5. 4, 1)  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N 1 S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  . .3  10 2.244 0.1967 TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  0.5339E-02  ...2  12 2.454 O 6559  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TEST.  0.0 0.0  SECONDS.  ...4 O  5 2.333  0.0 0.0  ...5 0  5 2.650  0.0 0.0  O  5 2.24 1  MORE  SO  SHCORR . 3 FREQUENCIES MN S H C O R R SO S H C O R R  0.0  0.0 0 0  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  0  TIME  S 2.308 0 . 145 1  5 2.169 O . 3 ISO  5 2.010 0.2020  5 2.326 0.7449  TEST.  RANGES 3.0970  FOR  ALPHA=0.05 3.1636  3.2188  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1. 4)  FDR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.780 4.026 4.218  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST.  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 8, 7. 2. 5. 6. 9. 3. FOR  ANALYSIS  Execution  $SIG  O.3324  ALPHA=0.05 4.373 4.504  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E L I S T E D A S F O L L O W S 8 . 7 . 2 . 5 . 6 . 9 . 3 . 1 . 4 )  STUDENT I ZED 4.617  THERE FOR A (  1.172  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E . 8 , 7 . 2. 5. 6. 9, 3,  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.852 3.433  THERE FOR A (  0.4967  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S : ' NON EMPTY C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 A N D SO O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8524 2.9988  THERE FOR A (  0.2361  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TESTS  IS  09:06:00  3.2632  PAIR  3.2991  3.3284  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  4.617  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ND  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS 1. 4)  0.2326E-01  SECONDS.  COMPLETE.  terminated  NO  HAVE  T=0.699  RC=0  $0.56  -  APPENDIX  226  ANOVA  5:  Study  The f o l l o w i n g a b r e v i a t i o n s were included in this appendix:  Note:  femoris,  -  used  time  f o r the computer  BFTMT  -  Biceps  PMTMT  -  Pectoralis  BFMT  -  Biceps  PMMT  -  Pectoralis  BFGLY  -  Biceps  PMGLY  -  Pectoralis  OBFA  -  0 hour  ATP, B i c e p s  OPMA  -  0 hour  ATP, P e c t o r a l i s  IBFA  -  2 hour  ATP, B i c e p s  IPMA  -  2 hour  ATP, P e c t o r a l i s  SBFA  -  6 hour  ATP, B i c e p s  SPMA  -  6 hour  ATP, P e c t o r a l i s  maj o r ,  Two  t o maximum  time  major,  f e m o r i s,  tension  isometric tension  maximum  initial  maj o r ,  tension  t o maximum  f e m o r i s , maximum  output  isometric tension  glycogen  initial  glycogen  femoris major  femoris maj o r  f emori s maj o r  The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s f o r hexose were p e r f o r m e d i n a s i m i l a r manner, computer r u n .  monophosphate content with a separate  VARIABLE VARIABLE DATA  NAMES NAMES  -  BFTMT SBFA  FORMAT  ELECTRICAL  PMTMT SPMA  STUDV  ANALYSIS SOURCE  1 1 1 1  SUM  GRAND  STANDARD  TREAT FREQUENCIES MN B F T M T SD B F T M T  OF  MEANS,  SO  MEAN  STANDARD  1  ERROR  F-VALUE  PROB 0.67306 O.27197 O. 3 1 9 5 7 O.75404 0.96158  0.58791 1.2369 1.0130 0.99374E-01 0.23470E-02  IS  DEVIATIONS  2...  10 402.4 197.7  3...  10 365.S 155.2 TEST.  RANGES 3.0932  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5 . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1 ) FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5 . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1 )  STUDENTIZED 4 .018  SO  25731. 54137. 44336. 4349.3 102.72 43767.  VARIABLE  1...  S T U D E N T I Z E D RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A (  VARIANCE  to  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A (  OF  336.59  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES,  P  II  0. 10292E+06 54137. 44336. 4349.3 102.72 0.19695E+07 0.20725E+07  45 49  MEAN  PMMT  (4I1.2X.2F5.1.2F5.2.2F6.3.6F5.3)  STIMULATION  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  BFMT  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST .  4...  10 34 1.4 245.7 FOR  10 295.7 261.1  10 278.0 164.7  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  5...  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  AL1'HA=0.05  DIFFER  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E ( 5 . 4 . 3 , 2 . 1) TIME  1  FOR  MULTIPLE  TESTS  IS  0.2422E-01  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  I HE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SECONDS.  C/EXP  FREQUENCIES MN B F T M T SD B F T M T  1  RANGE  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  VOLT  10 402.4 197.7  .  FREQUENCIES MN B F T M T SD B F T M T  40 320. 1 206.7  1  . .2 .  10 402.4 197.7  20 353.4 2O0.4  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  TEST.  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3, 2. 1) STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  FOR  THERE FOR A ( TIME  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE FREQUENCIES MN B F T M T SD B F T M T  ...  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3. 2. 1) FOR  20 286.8 212.6  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3. 2. 1) STUDENT I ZED 3.428  . .3.  RANGE  1  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  ...  10 402.4 197.7  TEST.  IS  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS  .  20 330.6 212 t  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF 1 H A T S I Z E ) ( 3 . 2 . 1 )  ALPHA=0.05  0.4987E-02  2  TEST,  FOR  RANGES  SECONDS.  3 20 309.7 206.2  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . SUBSETS WHICH ARE L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  DIFFER  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A (  FOR  NFWMAN-KEUI. ' S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3. 2. 1)  STUDENTIZED 3 . 428  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3. 2. 1) TIME  1  FOR  MULTIPLE  VXP  RANGE  . . 1 1  FREQUENCIES MN B F T M T SD BFTMT  TEST.  SUBSFTS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  0.0 0.0  A1.PHA = 0 . 0 5  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BV  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SECONDS.  . . 1 3 O  NO  ALPHA=0.05  0.54I7E-02  . 1 2  10 402.4 197.7  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  1FST,  0.0 0.0  . 2 1 O  0.0 0.0  . 2 2 O  . 2 3  10 365.5 155.2  . 3 1  10 341.4 245.7  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S : ' NON EMPTY C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 A N D SO O N .  0.0 0.0  . 3 2 0  . . 3 3  10 295.7 261.1  10 278.0 164.7  I  HAVE  fO fO UO  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953 THERE FOR A (  TE5T.  3  RANGES 0932  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5, 4. 3. 2. 1)  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2 848 3.428  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4 018  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E ( 5 . 4 . 3 , 2 . 1 ) STUDENT I ZED 4 018  THERE FOR A • ( TIME  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST.  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5 . 4 , 3 . 2 . 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TESTS  ANALYSIS  OF  IS  FOR  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH O I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH O I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S DF E L E M E N T 5 . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S 1 E D AS FOLLOWS  O.7O83E-02  VARIANCE  I  -  PMTMT  SECONDS.  SOURCE  SUM  TREAT 1 C/EXP 1 VOLT t PULSE 1 VXP ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  STANDARD  TREAT  OF  MEANS.  STANDARD  S T U D E N T I Z E D RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  TEST.  RANGE  FOR  PROB 0.67391E-06 O.219I8E-07 0.87 I14E-01 0.66933 0.43283  12.446 4 5 . 9 13 3.0589 0.18480 O.62639  MULTIPLE  .1  DEVIATIONS  3...  4...  10 98.08 47.28  RANGES 3.0932  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3. 2. 4. 5) 1 )  1 C/EXP  F - V A LUE  92.692  FOR  RANGE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  2  TEST.  IS  5...  10 144.0 31.26  10 151.6 86.85  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T , 3.773 4.018  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3. 2. 4. 5) 1 )  FOR  IS  10 123.8 73.49  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3, 2. 4. 5) 1)  STUDENTIZED 4.018  2  2... 10 289.0 77.80  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  552(10. O . 2 0 3 9 3 F . <-06 13587. 820.84 2782.2 444 1 .6  VARIABLE  1  FREQUENCIES MN PMTMT SD PMTMT  THERE FOR A ( <  ERROR  SO  161.31  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  MEAN  O . 2 2 1 I 2 E • OS 0 . 2 0 3 9 3 E ** 0 6 13587. 820.84 2782.2 O.19987E+06 O.42099E+0G  45 49  MEAN  SO  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA«0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.6771E-02  SECONDS  FREQUENCIES MN P M T M T SD P M T M T  1 VOLT  10 289.0 77.80  -10 129.4 64.57  . . 1.  FREQUENCIES MN P M T M T SD PMTMT  . .2.  10 289.0 77.80  20 110.9 61.57  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A (  (  (  FOR  2. 3)  "  RANGE  FOR  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  B V MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  B V MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  TEST.  ALPHA = 0 . 0 5  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  . 1  LI  ALPHA=0.05  I  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 2. 3) 1)  FREQUENCIES MN P M T M T SD P M T M T  ...  RANGE  1  IS  ...  20 133.9 55.93 TEST,  FOR  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.5703E-02  ... 2  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 3 . 2 ) 1 )  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  10 289.0 77.80  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  RANGES  NEWMAN-KEUL'S TEST,  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E )  <  TIME  20 147.8 63.65  D  STUDENT I ZED 3 . 428 THERE FOR A ( (  TEST,  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 , 3 )  STUDENT IZEO RANGES 2.848 3 428  THERE FOR A  . .3.  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  NO P A I R  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  T H A N THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SECONDS.  3 20 124.8 73.39  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  PAIR  THERE FOR A ( (  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 ) 1 )  STUDENTIZED 3 .428  THERE FOR A (  (  TIME  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 3 , 2 )  MULTIPLE  RANGE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  . . 1 1  FREQUENCIES MN P M T M T SD P M T M T  0.0 0.0  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BV  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3. 2. 4. 5) 1)  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  FOR  MULTIPLE  O  0.0 0.0  RANGES 3.0932  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS FOR A S U B S E T O r T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3. 2 . 4 . 5 ) ( 1 ) FOR  SECONDS  . 1 3  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3 . 2 . 4 . 5 ) ( 1 ) RANGE  0.5755E-02  . . 2 1 0  0.0 0.0  . 2 2 O  . . 2 3  10 123.8 73.49  RANGE  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  FOR  . . 3 1  10 98.08 47.28  B E E N D E L E T E D F R O M M U L T I P L E R A N G E T E S T S ; ' N O N F.MP1Y C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND S O O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  STUDENT I ZED 4.018  IS  . 1 2  10 289.0 77.80  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED,  TIME  TEST.  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  D  FOR  1 VXP  THERE FOR A ( (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  0.0 0.0  . . 3 2 0  10 144.0 3 1.26  . . 3 3 10 151.6 86.85  HAVE  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA'0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.7409E-02  SECONDS.  ANALYSIS  OF  SOURCE  SUM  TREAT 1 C/EXP 1 VOLT t PULSE 1 VXP ERROR TOTAL  1985.4 984.39 667.24 14.292 319.51 10139. 12125.  GRAND  45 49  MEAN  STANDARD  TREAT  OF  MEANS,  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A ( TIME  3  IS  TEST,  RANGE  1 C/EXP  .1  4  10 37.78 15.37  RANGES 3 0932  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST.  RANGE  TESTS  2  IS  5... 10 2S.42 15.20  10 35.27 12.32  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.773 4.018  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 4. 5, 3. 2. 1) MULTIPLE  15.730  3...  10 42.24 16.13  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 4 . 5 . 3 . 2 , 1 )  FOR  0.83793E-01 O 4228 IE-01 0.92147E-01 O 802 30 0.23997  DEVIATIONS  2...  10 47.02 15.73  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4. 5. 3. 2) 5. 3. 2. 1)  STUDENTIZED 4.018  F-VALIIE 2.2029 4.3689 2.9613 0.6343 IE-01 1 .4180  49G.36 984.39 667.24 14.292 319.51 225.32  STANDARD  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2 8490 2 9953  THERE FOR A (  RFMT ERROR  VARIABLE  1...  FREQUENCIES MN B F M T SD B F M T  THERE FOR A ( (  -  3 8 . 145  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES,  VARIANCE  SO  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA = 0 . 0 5  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  I S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.7122E-02  SECONDS.  FREQUENCIES MN BFMT SO B F M T  1  VOLT  .  FREQUENCIES MN B F M T SO B F M T  10 47.02 15.73  35 . 9 3 1 5 . 12  1  2  10 47.02 15.73  20 40.01 15.50  AO  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A < (  THERE FOR A ( (  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 ) 2 , 1 )  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  FOR  RANGE  FOR  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE  ...  FREQUENCIES MN B F M T SD B F M T  RANGE  1 10 47.02 15.73  THERE  ARE  RANGES 3.428  1  TEST,  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  TEST.  FOR  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  SUBSE1S  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  I HAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ...  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  HOMOGENEOUS  FOR  0.5977E-02  20 35.33 16.82  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 . 1 )  STUDENTIZED 2.848  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  ... 2  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A (  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3 . 2 ) ( 2 . 1 ) TIME  20 31.84 13.91  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 ) 2, I )  STUDENTIZED 3 . 428  ..3.  SECONDS.  3 20 36.52 13.62  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  (SUBSETS  OF  ELEMENTS.  FOR I  A  S U B S E T OF T H A T 2 . 3 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 3.428  THERE FOR A < TIME  RANGE  SIZE)  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 , 3 . 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 VXP  RANGE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  0.0 0.0  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4, 5, 3, 2) 5 . 3 . 2 . 1 )  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A (  IS  THERE FOR A (  RANGE  0.5247E-02  0  0.0 0.0  MULTIPLE  RANGES 3 0932  TREAT  DF 4  . . 2 1 0  FOR  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  PAIR  OF  WHICH  0.0 0.0  . 2 2 0  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST,  RANGE  TESTS  SUM  OF  IS  DIFFER  BY  . 2 3  10 42.24 16.13  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  . 3 1  10 37.78 15.37  0.0 0.0  . . 3 2 O  10 28.42 15.20  . . 3 3 10 35.27 12.32  HAVE  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  ANALYSIS SOURCE  NO  SECONDS.  . . 1 3  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 4 . 5 . 3 . 2 . 1 ) FOR  FOLLOWS  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 4 , 5 . 3 . 2 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 4.018  AS  B E E N D E L E T E D F R O M M U L T I P L E R A N G E T E S T S : ' NON E M P T Y C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D I AND SO O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  LISTED  ALPHA=0.05  . 1 2  10 47.02 15.73  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  ARE  TEST.  TESTS  . . 1 1  FREQUENCIES MN B F M T SD B F M T  TIME  WHICH  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.7I22E-O2  VARIANCE  -  SO  M E A N SQ  1335.3  333 .83  SECONDS.  PMMT ERROR  F-VALUE 1.4052  PROB 0.24760  1 C/EXP 1 VOLT 1 PULSE 1 VXP ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  945.86 322.74 13.087 53.639 10691. 12026.  45 49  MEAN  STANDARD  3.9814 1.3585 0.550B8E-01 0.22578  0.52UME-01 0.24994 0.81550 0.63697  4 1 .957  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  945.86 322.74 13.087 53.639 237.57  OF  MEANS.  VARIABLE  STANDARD  4  IS  DEVIATIONS  TREAT FREQUENCIES MN PMMT SD PMMT  10 50.66 1153  10 35 . 2 1 2 1.72  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 2 . 3 . 5 . 4 ) 3. 5. 4 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A (  TIME  RANGES 3.0932  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  RANGE  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST.  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E I W H I C H A R E 2 . 3 . 5 . 4 . 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 C/EXP FREQUENCIES MN PMMT S D PMMT  RANGE  . 1. . 10 50.66 11.53  FOR  10 43.2 1 7 507  10 42 .04 1 1 . 58  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  tsJ U> OS  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 2, 3. 5 . 4 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 4.018  THERE FOR A (  TEST.  10 38 . 6 7 19 . 8 2  TESTS  IS  . 2. . 40 3 9 . 78 15.92  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  O.G90IE-02  SECONDS  1 VOLT  1  . .2 .  FREQUENCIES MN PMMT S D PMMT  10 50.GG 11.53  20 36.94 20.3 I  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( <  THERE FOR A (  TIME  RANGES 3.428  FOR  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE FREQUENCIES MN PMMT S D PMMT  ...  RANGE  1  THERE FOR A (  TEST.  FOR  FDR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I T F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  SECONDS.  .3  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  FOR  0.5573E-02  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 2 . 3 . 1 ) RANGE  IS  20 39.21 16.34  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 3. 1)  STUDENT 1 ZED 3 . 4 28  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  10 50.66 11.53  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.848 3 428  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  ... 2  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2 8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A (  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 3. 1) FOR  20 42.62 9.519  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 3 428  THERE FOR A (  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 3) 3 . 1 )  STUDENTIZED 2.848  . .3  TEST.  20 40.35 15.89 FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  THERE FOR A ( TIME  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 . 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 VXP  1  FREQUENCIES MN PMMT SD PMMT  RANGE  1  .1  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  TEST,  THERE FOR A ( TIME  539IE-02  .1 O  0.0 0.0  RANGES 3.0932  MULTIPLE  FOR  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  1  0.0 0.0  ..2  WHICH  . 2  2  10 35.21 2 1.72  O  TEST.  RANGE  TESTS  DF  SUM  4 1 1 1 1 45 49  97 5 1 3 53.497 14.593 12 . 1 9 7 17.227 354.61 4 5 2 . 12  SO  OF  IS  DIFFER  BY  MORE  T H A N THF.  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  3  ...3  10 38.67 19.82  0.0 0.0  I  '  .3  2  10 4 3 21 7.507  O  .3  3  10 42.04 11.58  HAVE  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ANALYSIS 3URCE  .2 O  FOR  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  I  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 2 , 3 . 5 , 4 . 1 ) FOR  OF  SECONDS.  3  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.773 4.018  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 2 . 3 . 5 . 4 . 1 ) RANGE  O  PAIR  B E E N D E L E T E D F R O M M U L T I P L E R A N G E T E S T S ; ' NON E M P T Y C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND SO O N .  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2, 3. 5, 4) 3 . 5 , 4 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 4 .018  IS  NO  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  2  0.0 0.0  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  TESTS  10 50.66 11.53  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  SUBSETS W H I C H ARE  VARIANCE MEAN  I  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.6979E-02  SO  24.378 53.497 14.593 12 . 1 9 7 17.227 7.8802  NS U> 00  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  SECONDS  BFGLY ERROR  F-VALUE 3.0936 6.7888 1 . 8 5 18 1.5478 2.1861  PROB 0 . 2 4 7 4 4 E 01 0 . 1 2 3 9 1 E• 0 1 0.18035 0 . 2 1990 0 . 14623  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  GRAND  MEAN  STANDARD  5 . 4 149  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES,  TREAT  OF  MEANS.  VARIABLE  STANDARD  1...  FREQUENCIES MN B F G L Y SD B F G L Y |  IS  10 7.484 2.995  3...  10 5.606 2.931 TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 4. 3. 5. 2) 3. 5. 2. 1)  3.0376  DEVIATIONS  2 . . .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  5  4...  10 5.398 3.646  RANGES 3.0932  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR  10 3.085 1.115  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST,  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 4, 3, 5. 2) ( 3 . 5 . 2 . 1 )  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FDLLDWS  STUDENTIZED 4 018  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  I  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4 , 3 . 5 . 2 ) 3. 5. 2. 1) FOR  MULTIPLE  C/EXP  RANGE  . 1. .  FREQUENCIES MN B F G L Y SD B F G L Y  10 7.484 2.995  1 VOLT  >  FREQUENCIES MN B F G L Y SD B F G L Y  10 7.484 2.995  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  T H A N THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  T H A N THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.7682E-02  40 4.898 2.855  20 5.502 3.221  NO  ALPHA=0.05  .2. .  ..2.  10 5.502 2.703  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  S T U D E N T I Z E D R A N G E S FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' 5 2.848 3.428 3.773 4.018  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  5...  ..3. 20 4.294 2.3G4  SECONDS.  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 ) 2 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.84B 3.428  THERE FOR A ( (  TIME  FOR  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE FREQUENCIES MN B F G L Y SD B F G L Y  ...  RANGE  1  THERE FOR A ( (  THERE FOR A  TEST.  FOR  FOR  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T DF T H A T S I Z E )  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ...  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  FOR  O.S224E-02  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 ) 3 . 1 ) RANGE  IS  20 4.346 2.516  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 ) 3 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 3 . 428  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  10 7.484 2.995  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3 428  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  ... 2  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2 8490 2 9953  THERE FOR A ( (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 ) 2 . 1 ) FOR  RANGES  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3. 2) 2. 1)  STUDENTIZED 3 .428  THERE FOR A ( (  TEST.  SECONDS.  3 20 5.450 3.124  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA = 0 . 0 5  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ( ( TIME  2 , 3 ) 3 . 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 VXP  RANGE  . . 1 1  FREQUENCIES MN B F G L Y SD B F G L Y  0.0 0.0  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  RANGE  MULTIPLE  FOR  1 1 1 1  TREAT C/FXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  RANGE  SUM  1 45 49  0.0 0.0  RANGES 3.0932  . . 2 1 O  FOR  0.0 0.0  . 2 2  . 2 3  10 5 . 60G 2 931  O  TEST,  TEST.  10'' 5.398 3.646  OF  SO  3 14.64 196 8 6 2.6097 1 10 9 8 4.1893 997.84 1312.5  IS  0.0 0.0  . . 3 2 0  10 3.085 1.115  . . 3 3 10 5.502 2.703  HAVE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  . . 3 1  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ANALYSIS SOURCE  O  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 4 . 3 . 5 . 2 ) 3 , 5 . 2 . 1 ) FOR  SECONDS.  . 1 3  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 4. 3. 5, 2) 3. 5. 2. 1)  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T O F THAT S I Z E ) 4. 3. 5, 2) 3. 5. 2. 1 )  STUDENTIZED 4.018  0.6393E-02  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S ; ' NON EMPTY C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E O 1 AND SO O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  IS  . 1 2  10 7.484 2.995  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  THERE FOR A ( (  TESTS  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.7813E-02  VARIANCE MEAN  SO  78.659 196 8 6 2.6097 110.98 4.1893 22.174  SECONDS.  PMGLY ERROR  F- V A L U E 3.5473 8.8778 11769 5 004 9 0. 18893 O  O. 134I4E-01 O.46408E-02 0.73315 O . 30274 E-O1 0.66589  GRAND  MEAN  STANDARD  12.019  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  TREAT  OF  MEANS.  VARIABLE  STANDARD  1...  FREQUENCIES MN P M G L V SD P M G L Y  10 15.99 5.99B  TIME  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 C/EXP  RANGE  RANGES 3.0932  1  SUBSETS W H I C H ARE  2  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  4...  10 12.G2 6.784  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4, 2, 3. 5) 3. 5, I) FOR  3...  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4 018  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4, 2. 3. 5) 3 , 5 . 1 )  STUDENTIZED 4.018  THERE FOR A ( (  TEST.  5.1754  DEVIATIONS  10 9.941 3.382  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4 . 2 , 3 . 5 ) 3. 5. 1)  S T U D E N T I Z E D RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A ( (  IS  2...  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  6  FOR  10 15.99 5.998  40 11.03 4.506  FREQUENCIES MN P M G L Y  10 15.99  20 11.28  10 B . 782 3.179  10 17.7G 2.708  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U E S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST,  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F T E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.7526E-02  .  FREQUENCIES MN P M G L Y SD P M G L Y  5..  10  20 77  SECONDS.  SO  PMGLY  5.998  5.396  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3. 2) 1)  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  FOR  RANGE  FOR  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE FREQUENCIES MN P M G L Y SD P M G L Y  ...  RANGE  1 10 15.99 5.998  RANGES 3.428  RANGE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  IS  FOR  FOR  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  RANGES  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BV  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  I HE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  .  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  S25  0.5716E-02  2  TEST.  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 2 ) ( 3 . 1 ) STUDENT I ZED 3 .428  TEST.  20 9.362 3.249  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2) 3 . 1 )  STUDENTIZED 2.848  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  ...  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  SURSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3 . 2 ) ( 1) T I ME  RANGES  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3. 2) ( 1 > STUOENTI ZED 3 .428  3  I ro 4> OJ  SECONDS.  I  3 20 12.69 5.028  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  DIFFER  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 1 3 . 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 VXP  RANGE  . . 1 1  FREQUENCIES MN P M G L Y SD P M G L Y  IS  0.0 0 0  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  05846E-02  . . 1 2  0.0 0.0  PAIR  OF  W H I C H P I r F E R BV  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4. 2. 3. 5) 3. 5. 1)  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  RANGES 3.0932  . 2 1 O  FOR  0.0 O.O  . . 2 2 0  . 2 3  10 9.941 3.382  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  [HAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  .31  10 12.62 6.7B4  0.0 0.0  . . 3 2 0  10 8.782 3.179  . . 3 3 10 12.7G 2.708  HAVE  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  MORE  SECONDS.  . . 1 3 O  NO  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S ; ' NON EMPTY C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND SO O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  TESTS  10 15.99 5.998  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TEST,  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ^  4> THERE FOR A ( (  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4. 2. 3. 5) 3, 5. 1)  STUDENT I ZED 4.018  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4, 2. 3, 5) 3. 5. 1) FOR  MULTIPLE  RANGE  1 1 1 1  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP  SUM  TEST.  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  OF  IS  8.9954 6.1390 2.4265 0.73788E-OI 0.35608  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.B776E-02  VARIANCE  SQ  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  ANALYSIS SOURCE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  MEAN  -  SECONDS.  OBFA  SQ  2.2489 6.1390 2.4265 0.73788E-01 0.35608  ERROR  F-VALUE 10.649 29.070 1 1 .490 'O . 3 4 9 4 1 1 .686 1  37023E-05 24720E-05 14648E-02 5574 1 20073  '  ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  45 49  MEAN  STANDARD  9.5032 18.499  0.94530  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  TREAT  OF  MEANS.  VARIABLE  STANDARD  10 1.646 0.6097  TIME  0.61443  DEVIATIONS  10 0.8791 0.376 1  RANGES 3.0932  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR  10 0.4724 0.1082  10 0.5752 0.2593  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  Ul  D FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  ARE 3 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4. 5. 3) 3 . 2 ) 1)  STUDENTIZED 4.018  THERE FOR A ( ( (  TEST.  ARE 3 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 4, 5. 3) 3. 2) '  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A ( ( (  IS  10 1.154 0 . 6 8 10  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  (  7  1.  FREQUENCIES MN O B F A SD O B F A  THERE FOR A ( (  0.2UI8  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 3 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 4. 5. 3) 5. 3. 2) 2 . 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 C/EXP FREQUENCIES MN O B F A SD O B F A  RANGE  . 1. . 10 1 .646 0.6097  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  .2. . 40 O.7701 0.4807  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.8008E-02  SECONDS.  1 VOLT  . . 1.  FREQUENCIES MN O B F A SD O B F A  .  10 1.646 0.6097  TEST,  ARE 3 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3) 2)  <  1  ..3.  20 1.016 0.5536  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  ?  20 0.5238 0.2005  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BV  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  >  STUDENTIZED 2.848  RANGES 3.428  FOR  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  THERE ARE 3 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3) ( 2 ) ( 1 ) STUDENT I ZED 3.428  RANGE  FOR  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TEST,  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ,  TUKEY'S  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  £ OS  THERE FOR A ( ( ( TIME  ARE 3 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3) 2) D FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE FREQUENCIES MN O B F A SD O B F A  ...  RANGE  1  TESTS  ...  10 1.646 0.6097  THERE FOR A  FOR  ...  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E )  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.6315E-02  2  TEST.  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3 . 2 ) ( 1 ) RANGES 3.428  IS  20 0.8130 0.5894  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  STUDENTIZED 2.848  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH O I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE 1  SECONDS.  3  20 0.7271 0.3510 FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  NO  PAIR  DF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  DIFFER  ( (  3 . 2 ) 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 3 .426  THERE FOR A ( ( TIME  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 ) 1) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 VXP  RANGE  . 1 1  FREQUENCIES MN O B F A SD O B F A  (  TIME  TEST.  ARE 3 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 4. 5. 3) 3 . 2 )  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.5872E-02  0.0 0 0  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  RANGES 3.0932  . . 2 1 O  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  SECONDS.  . . 1 3 O  NO  0.0 0.0  . 2 2 0  . 2 3  10 1.154 0.6B10  . 3 1  10 0.8791 0.3761  0.0 0.0  . 3 2 0  . . 3 3  10 0.4724 0.1082  10 0.5752 0.2593  HAVE  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D1TFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  D  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  ARE 3 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 4. 5, 3) 3 , 2 ) 1 )  STUDENTIZED 4.018  THERE FOR A ( ( (  IS  ALPHA=0.05  B E E N D E L E T E D F R O M M U L T I P L E R A N G E T E S T S : ' NON E M P T Y C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND SO O N .  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.848 3 428  THERE FOR A ( ( (  TESTS  0.0 0.0  O U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  . 1 2  10 1.646 0.6097  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED,  TEST.  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 3 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 4. 5. 3) 5, 3, 2) 2 . 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  RANGE  TEST,  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.8229E-02  SECONDS  ANALYSIS SOURCE  1 1 1 1  SUM  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  STANDARD  TREAT  VARIANCE  SO  MEAN  0°MA  SO  ERROR  7.5215 29.66 I O.10599 O.17490 O . 1 4 4 12 O.35406  OF  MEANS,  VARIABLE  STANDARD  8  IS  F-VALUE 21.196 83.585 O.29867 O.43287 0 . 4 0 6 13  O.70107E-09 O.79839L- 1 1 O.58742 O.4BG27 O . 5 2 7 17  10 2.966 1.010  0.96948  DEVIATIONS  1 . . .  FREQUENCIES MN O P M A SD OPMA  -  1 .4254  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  r  30.0B6 29.661 O.10599 O.17490 O . 1 4 4 12 15.969 46.055  45 49  MEAN  O  10 0.9949 0.4335  3. . .  4 . . .  10 0.9827 0.2977  10 1.218 0.4311  10 0.9656 O . 5 4 10  Ki co  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2 9953  TEST.  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS FOR A S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) ( 5. 3. 2. 4)  (  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  SUBSETS ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . WHICH ARE L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4 018  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 5. 3, 2. 4) ( 1) STUDENTIZED 4.018  RANGE  TEST.  NO P A I R  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  B Y MORE  THAN  THE SF10RTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO P A I R  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  B Y MORE  THAN  THE S H O R T E S T  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO P A I R  OF W H I C H  DIFFER  B Y MORE  THAN  THE S H O R T E S T  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  SUBSETS ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . WHICH ARE L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  FOR T U K E Y ' S  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS FOR A S U B S E T DF THAT S I Z E ) ( 5 . 3 , 2 . 4 )  (  FOR  D  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  TIME  RANGES 3.0932  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  SUBSETS ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , WHICH ARE L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  D  FOR M U L T I P L E  RANGE  TESTS  IS  O.G809E-02  SECONDS  1 C/EXP  . 1. .  2  FREQUENCIES MN O P M A SD OPMA  10 2.966 1.010  1  1 .  VOLT  FREQUENCIES MN OPMA SD OPMA  40 1.040 0.4303  10 2.966 1.010  20 0.9888 0.3620  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 ) 1 )  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A ( (  TEST.  FOR  RANGE  FOR  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE FREQUENCIES MN O P M A SD OPMA  ...  RANGE  1 10 2.966 1 .010  RANGES 3.428  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  IS  0  2  TEST.  FOR  FOR  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  1 HE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA = 0 . 0 5  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA^O.OS  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  5534E-02  ...  20 1.106 0.4361  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 ) 1 )  STUDENTIZED 2.848  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  ...  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS FOR A S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) ( 2 . 3 ) ( 1) TIME  RANGES  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 ) 1 )  STUDENTIZED 3 428  20 1.092 0.4934  SECONDS.  3  20 0.9741 0.4251 FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  THERE FOR A ( (  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 1 t)  STUDENTIZED 3.428  THERE FOR A (  (  TIME  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 , 2 )  MULTIPLE  1 VXP  RANGE  . . 1 1  TIME  TEST.  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 5. 3. 2. 4)  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  I HAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  IS  0.1792E-01  SECONDS.  . 1 3 O  0.0 0.0  . 2 1 O  0.0 0.0  . 2 2 O  . 2 3  10 0.9949 0.4335  RANGES 3.0932  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR  . 3 1  10 0.9827 0.2977  0.0 0.0  . 3 2 O  . 3 3  10 1.218 0.4311  10 0.965G 0.5410  HAVE  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO P A I R  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO P A I R  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  D  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 5, 3, 2 . 4 )  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  D  STUDENT I ZED 4.018  THERE FOR A ( (  NO  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S ; ' NON EMPTY C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND SO O N .  S T U D E N T I Z E D RANGES 2.848 3.428  (  TESTS  0.0 0.0  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  . . 1 2  10 2.96G 1.010  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED,  (  TEST,  ( S u B S r I S OF E L E M E N T S . L i S T F D AS FOLLOWS  D  FOR  FREQUENCIES MN O P M A SD OPMA  THERE FOR A (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 5. 3. 2. 4) 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  IS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S 01 E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.72S3E-02  SECONDS  PAIR  ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE  I RF A  SOURCE  1 1 1 1  ERRDR 4 1 1 1 1 45 49  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  MEAN  STANDARD  0. 0. 0. 0. 0.  -01 -01 -01 -02  OF  MEANS.  VARIABLE  STANDARD  9  IS  10 0.4226 0.1252  1  TEST.  RANGES 3.0932  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5 , 4 , 3 . 2 , 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 4 018  TIME  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST.  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5. 4 . 3. 2. 1 ) FOR  O  15382  MULTIPLE  C/EXP  FREQUENCIES  RANGE  TESTS  IS  10 0.3203 0.5335E-01  10 0.3720 0.1152  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5. 4. 3. 2. 1)  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.B48 3.428  THERE FOR A (  24790 16609 8 8 0 5 IE 5 104G 69555  3 . . 10 0.4309 0.2782  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A (  0. 0 0 0. 0.  DEVIATIONS  TREAT FREQUENCIES MN I B F A SD I B F A  THERE FOR A (  F-VALUE 1.4043 1.9817 3.0403 0.44010 0.15513  0 321G6E -01 0 45391E -01 0 G9G39E -01 0 . 1 0 0 8 IE - 0 1 0. 35532E -02 0 22906E -01  0.37064  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  128GG 45391E 69639E 10081E 35532E I.0307 1I . 1 5 9 4  FDR  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TE5T.  10 0.3074 0.7306E-0I  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY-MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  T H A N THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANI  RANGE  ALPHA = 0 . 0 5  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.6302E-02  SECONDS.  THE  MN SD  1  IBFA IBF A  0.4309 0.2782  VOLT  0.3556 O. 1034  1 .  FREQUENCIES MN I B F A SD IBFA  10 0.4309 0.2782  20 0. 3973 0.1199  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953 THERE FOR A (  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 . 1 )  STUDENTIZED 2.848  THERE FOR A (  TIME  I  RANGES 3.428  FOR  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  PULSE  FREQUENCIES MN I B F A SO I B F A  ...  RANGE  1  RANGE  IS  TEST.  FOR  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS F0LL0W5  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH O I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH O I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  SECONDS.  . . .3  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  FDR  0.5092E-02  20 0.3714 0.1073  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3 . 2 . 1 ) STUDENT I ZED  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T DF T H A T S I Z E ) 3. 2. 1)  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3 428  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  . . .2  10 0.4309 0.2782  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 , 2 . 1 ) FOR  RANGES  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3 . 2 . 1 )  STUDENTIZED 3 .428  THERE FOR A (  TEST.  20 0.3138 0.6261E-  TEST.  20 0.3397 0.9956E-01 FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  3 . 428  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3 . 2 . 1 ) TIME  1  FOR  MULTIPLE  VXP  RANGE  0.0 O.O  0.0 0.0  THERE FOR A (  TEST.  RANGES 3.0932  THERE FDR A (  RANGE  MULTIPLE  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  FOR  TUKEY'S  RANGE  TEST,  TESTS  ANALYSIS SOURCE TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  0.0 0.0  . . 2 2 O  . 2 3  10 0.4226 0.1252  SUM  OF  IS  TEST.  SO  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  . 3 1  10 0.3720 0.1152  0.0 0.0  . 3 2 O  . 3 3  10 0.3203 O.S335E-01  10 0.3074 0.7306E-01  HAVE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO P A I R  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO P A [ R  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  O.6901E-02  VARIANCE  45.220 45.096 0.22896E-0I 0.96138E-0I O.5880KE-O2 36.498  B Y MORE  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5 . 4 , 3 , 2 . 1) FOR  . . 2 1 O  FOR  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5 , 4 , 3 . 2 , 1 )  STUDENTIZED 4.018  PAIR  SECONDS.  . 1 3 O  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 5 . 4 . 3 . 2 , 1)  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  1 1 1 1  0.5182E-02  NO  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S ; ' NON EMPTY C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D I AND SO O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FDR A (  IS  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  . 1 2  10 0.4309 0.2782  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED,  TIME  TESTS  . . 1 1  FREQUENCIES MN I B F A SO I B F A  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  MEAN  -  SECONDS  IPMA  SQ  11.305 45.096 O. 2 2 8 9 6 E - 0 1 0.96138E-01 O.58806E-02 0. 81106  ERROR  F-VALUE 13.939 55.601 0.2B230E-01 0.11853 0.72505E-02  PROB 0. 17887E-0G 0.21540E-08 0.86732 0.73223 0.93252  MORE  TOTAL  GRAND  49  MEAN  STANDARD  81  0.94882  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  TREAT  718  OF  MEANS,  VARIABLE  STANDARD  1...  FREQUENCIES MN I P M A SO I P M A  10 2.848 1.992  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  THERE FOR A ( (  THERE FOR A (  DEVIATIONS  4...  10 0 3889 0.1101  10 O 5113 0.1953  10 0 . 4 F , 10 0.1085  TEST,  RANGES 3.0932  FOR  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  TEST.  MULTIPLE  1 C/EXP  . 1. .  FREQUENCIES MN I P M A SD IPMA  1 VOLT FREQUENCIES  RANGE  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  IS  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.6953E-02  .2. .  10 2.848 1 .992  . 1  40 0.4740 0. 1530  . . 2. 10  . 20  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ND  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  10 0.5348 0.1597  ALPHA=0.05  O  FOR  5 . . .  ALPHA=0.05 3.1G01  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 4. 3. 5)  (  TIME  RANGE  1.2914  3...  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) 2, 4. 3, 5) 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 4 018  IS  2...  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2, 4. 3. 5) 1)  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  10  .  3 20  SECONDS.  MN SD  IPMA IPMA  2.848 1.992  0.4500 0.1G66  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 3) 1 )  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A (  (  (  TIME  FOR  RANGE  FDR  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 )  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  T H A N THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA = 0 . 0 5  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  D  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE  ...  RANGE  1  TESTS  TEST.  FOR  RANGE  .  FOR  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 ) 1)  STUDENTIZED 3 . 428  0.5521E-02  20 0.4249 0.1127  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2, 3) 1 )  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  IS  ... 2  10 2.848 1.992  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A ( (  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  FOR  D  FREQUENCIES MN I P M A SD I P M A  THERE FOR A ( (  RANGES  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 , 3 1  STUDENTIZED 3 .428  THERE FOR A (  TEST.  0.4979 0.1382  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  TEST.  SECONDS.  3  20 0.5230 0.1741 FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST,  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  THERE FOR A (  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 )  (  TIME  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BV  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  D  FOR  MULTIPLE  1 VXP  RANGE  . . 1 1  FREQUENCIES MN I P M A SD I P M A  TESTS  0.0 O.O  TEST.  THERE ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 2 , 4 . 3 . 5 ) ( 1 ) S T U D E N T I Z E D RANGES 2.848 3.428  SECONDS.  . 1 3 0  . . 2 1 0  0.0 0.0  RANGES 3.0932  FOR  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  0.0 0.0  . . 2 2 O  . 2 3  10 0.3889 0.1101  TEST,  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  . 3 1  10 0.5112 0.1953  0.0 0.0  . 3 2 O  10 0.4610 0.1085  . . 3 3 10 0.5348 0.1597  HAVE  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2.' 4. 3. 5)  (  0.5925E-02  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S ; ' NON EMPTY C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND SO O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  THERE FOR A (  IS  . . 1 2  10 2.848 1.992  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  D  STUDENTIZED 4.018  THERE FOR A < < TIME  SUBSE.'S WHICH ARE  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 2 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 4. 3. 5) 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP  OF 4 1 1 1 1  SUM 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.  ALPHA=0.05  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  ANALYSIS SOURCE  TEST.  OF  IS  0.7253E-02  VARIANCE  SQ  4 7 1 1 1E- 0 1 11139E - 0 2 78400E -02 37946E -01 • 21160E - 0 3  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  MEAN 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.  -  SECONDS.  SBFA  SO  11778E 11139E 78400E 37946E 21160E  ERROR -01 -02 -02 -01 -03  F-VALUE 0 . 9 3 9 18 0.88825E -01 0.62517 3.0258 0.I6873E -01  PROB 0 45004 0 76705 0 .43328 0 8B785E 0. 89723  ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  45 49  MEAN  STANOARO  O 56432 0.61144  O.31026  DEVIATION  FREQUENCIES.  TREAT  OF  MEANS.  VARIABLE  STANDARD  IS  DEVIATIONS  10 O.2888 O . 1 1.15 TEST,  RANGES 3.0932  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 4. 2, 1, 5. 3)  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A (  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4 018  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 4 . 2 . 1 , 5 . 3 )  STUDENTIZED 4.018  THERE FOR A (  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST,  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 4, 2. 1. 5. 3) FOR  O.11171  5 . .  10 O.3197 O.1570  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  TIME  11  1 .  FREQUENCIES MN S B F A SD S B F A  THERE FOR A (  0.12541E-0I  MULTIPLE  1 C/EXP FREQUENCIES MN S B F A SD S B F A  1 VOLT FREQUENCIES MN S B F A SD S B F A  RANGE  . 1. . 10 0.3197 0.1570  1 10 0.3197 0.1570  TESTS  IS  10 O. 3 5 5 0 O.8783E-01  10 O.2654 O.1064  FOR  05  ALPHA=0 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  T H A N THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.6511E-02  SECONDS.  40 0.3079 0.9981E-O1  20 0.3219 0.1034  NO  ALPHA=O.OS  .2. .  2  10 0.3224 O.8 I15E-01  ..3. 20 0.2939 0.96G2E-01  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  TEST.  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3 . 1 . 2 ) STUDENTIZED 2.848  RANGES 3.428  FOR  THERE FOR A ( TIME  RANGE  FOR  MULTIPLE  ...  FREQUENCIES MN S B F A SD S B F A  RANGE 9953  TEST,  FOR  RANGE  FOR  TIME  FOR  MULTIPLE  RANGE  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  TEST.  IS  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THF  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  SECONDS.  3 |  20 0.3387 0.B398E-01  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  T H E R E ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 2 . 1 . 3 )  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ...  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  FOR  0.5182E-02  20 0.2771 0.1068  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 1. 3)  STUDENTIZED 3 . 428  IS  ... 2  10 0.3197 0.1570  RANGES 3.428  TEST,  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 1. 3)  STUDENTIZED 2.848  THERE FOR A (  RANGE  1  DUNCAN'S MULTIPLE 2.8490 2  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U 8 S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 3, 1 . 2 )  1 PULSE  THERE FOR A (  FOR  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 3. 1 . 2 ) STUDENT I ZED 3.428  RANGtS  FOR  jvj ^ 00  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  . NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.5O78E-O2  SECONDS.  FREQUENCIES MN S B F A SD S B F A  10 0.3197 0.1570  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  0.0 0.0  0  0.0 0.0  O  O.O 0.0  10 0.2B88 0.1115  O *  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S ; ' NON EMPTY C F L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND S O O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  TEST.  RANGES 3.0932  FOR  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  STUDENT I ZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  TEST.  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 4. 2. 1. 5. 3)  STUDENT I ZED 4.018  THERE FOR A ( TIME  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S TEST.  MULTIPLE  RANGE  TESTS  ANALYSIS OURCE  DF  TREAT C/EXP VOLT PULSE VXP ERROR TOTAL  GRAND  4 1 1 1 1 45 49  MEAN  STANDARD  SUM  OF  IS  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E O AS FOLLOWS  0.7605E-O2  MEAN  0.22750 0.14327 0.27301E -01 0.10208E -01 0 . 4 6 7 17E - 0 1 2.5155 2.7430  -  OF  VARIABLE  0.56875E -01 0.14327 0 . 2 7 3 0 I E -01 0.10208E -01 0 . 4 6 7 17E - 0 1 0.559O0E -01  12  IS  10 O 3224 0.8115E-01  HAVE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT'RANGE  SECONDS.  SPMA  SO  0.59864  DEVIATION  10 O.7654 0.1064  ALPHA=0.05  VARIANCE  SO  0  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF THAT S I Z E ) W H I C H ARE 4. 2. 1. 5. 3) FOR  0.0 O.O  ALPHA=0.05 3 1601  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E ( 4. 2. 1. 5. 3)  THERE FOR A (  10 0.3550 0.8783L-01  0.23GGO  ERROR  F-VALUE 1.0174 2.5630 0.48838 0.18261 0.83572  PROB 0.40857 0 . 1 1639 0.48825 0 . 6 7 1 18 0.36550  THE  FREQUENCIES.  MEANS.  STANDARD  DEVIATIONS  TREAT FREQUENCIES MN S P M A SD SPMA  10 O.4956 0-1731  10 0-7057 O.3824  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 • 2.9953  THERE FOR A (  TEST.  THERE FOR A (  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S 3.773 4.018  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 2 . 5 , 3 , 4 . 1)  STUDENT I ZED 4.018  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F D R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 2 . 5 . 3 . 4 . 1 ) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 C/EXP FREQUENCIES MN S P M A SD S P M A  1 VOLT  RANGE  . 1. .  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST,  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S , L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TESTS  IS  0.6393E-02  . 2 .  TEST.  FOR  RANGES  SECONDS  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  20 O.. 5 9 8 0 O.17 20 FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  0  OS °  . 3 .  20 O 5457 0.1911  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2 . 3 . 1 )  ' 1  o.1814  10 0.7057 0.3824  RANGES 3.428  SUBSETS W H I C H ARE  10 0.5798 O.1286  40 0 . 5 7 19  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  STUDENTIZED 2.848  TEST,  FOR  10 O.61G2 0.2126  .2, .  10 0.7057 0.3824  . . 1.  FREQUENCIES MN S P M A SD SPMA  THERE FOR A (  RANGES 3,0932  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 2 . 5 , 3 . 4 , 1 )  STUDENTIZED RANGES 2.848 3.428  TIME  10 0.5959 O.2038  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH  DIFFER  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  THERE FOR A (  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E I 2 . 3 . 1 )  STUDENT I ZED 3.428  THERE FOR A < TIME  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2. 3. 1) FOR  MULTIPLE  1 PULSE  ...  FREQUENCIES MN S P M A SD SPMA  RANGE  1  TEST,  FOR  THERE FOR A ( TIME  1  RANGE  FOR  FOR  MULTIPLE  VXP  FREQUENCIES MN SPMA SO SPMA  RANGE  RANGES  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SFIORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  DF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  2  . 3  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  SECONDS.  20 0.5878 O.1661  NEWMAN-KEUL'S  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) 2, 3. 1)  NO  . . .3  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TUKEY'S  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.6O16E-O2  20 0.5559 O 1986  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 2. 3. 1) STUDENT I ZED 3 . 428  IS  .2  THERE ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS F O R A S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) ( 2. 3. I) RANGES 3.428  TEST.  SUBSETS WHICH ARE  TESTS  .  10 0.7057 0.3824  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  STUDENTIZED 2.848  SUBSETS W H I C H ARF  IS  O  FOR  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  TEST.  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  5000E-02  SECONDS.  . 1 1  .2  10 O.7057 0.3824  EMPTY C E L L S HAVE BEEN RENUMBERED.  0.0 0.0  0.0 0.0  0.0 0.0  10 0.4956 O. 1731  B E E N D E L E T E D FROM M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T S ; ' NON EMPTY C E L L S T H E F I R S T N O N E M P T Y C E L L B E I N G L A B E L L E D 1 AND SO O N .  D U N C A N ' S M U L T I P L E RANGE 2.8490 2.9953  TEST.  RANGES 3.0932  FOR  ALPHA=0.05 3.1601  . 3  3  10 O 5959 0.2038  HAVE  0.0 0.0  10 0.6162 0.2126  3  10 O. 5 7 9 8 O.1286  THERE FOR A (  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 2 , 5. 3, 4 . 1)  S T U D E N T I Z E D RANGES 2.848 3.428  THERE FOR A (  THERE FOR A ( TIME  RANGE  FOR  TUKEY'S  TEST.  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 2 . 5 , 3 , 4 , 1) FOR  MULTIPLE  ANALYSIS  COMPLETE  Execution  $SIG  FOR N E W M A N - K E U L ' S T E S T . 3.773 4.018  ARE 1 HOMOGENEOUS S U B S E T S S U B S E T OF T H A T S I Z E ) W H I C H A R E 2 , 5 . 3 . 4 . 1 )  STUDENTIZED 4.018  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  RANGE  terminated  TESTS  IS  08:24:16  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  NO  PAIR  OF  WHICH D I F F E R  BY  MORE  THAN  THE  SHORTEST  SIGNIFICANT  RANGE  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  ALPHA=0.05  ( S U B S E T S OF E L E M E N T S . L I S T E D AS FOLLOWS  0.6823E-02  T=0.B91  SECONDS  RC=0  $0.86  

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