UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Crime under the influence : the effects of alcohol intoxication during a crime on subsequent physiological… O'Toole, Dennis Michael 1988

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1988_A1 O86.pdf [ 6.27MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0098163.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0098163-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0098163-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0098163-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0098163-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0098163-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0098163-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0098163-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0098163.ris

Full Text

CRIME UNDER THE INFLUENCE: THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL INTOXICATION DURING A CRIME SUBSEQUENT PHYSIOLOGICAL DETECTION OF DECEPTION By DENNIS MICHAEL O'TOOLE M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P s y c h o l o g y ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1988 ©Dennis M i c h a e l O'Toole, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 i i A b s t r a c t E i g h t y male undergraduate s t u d e n t s were randomly a s s i g n e d to one of f i v e groups i n an analogue i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c r i m e -i n t o x i c a t i o n on the p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e t e c t i o n o f d e c e p t i o n . S i x t y -f o u r of the s u b j e c t s committed a mock crime and h a l f of these were l e g a l l y i n t o x i c a t e d d u r i n g the c r i m e . S i x t e e n s u b j e c t s committed no crime and s e r v e d as i n n o c e n t c o n t r o l s . R e s u l t s o n l y p a r t i a l l y r e p l i c a t e d those of B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984). Whereas they found c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t i o n d i m i n i s h e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of both the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n t e s t (CQT) and the g u i l t y knowledge t e s t (GKT), the p r e s e n t study found c r i m e -i n t o x i c a t i o n d i m i n i s h e d the a c c u r a c y of the CQT o n l y f o r c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s ; those who r e p o r t e d h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d u r i n g the cr i m e . R e s u l t s showed no a l c o h o l e f f e c t on the GKT. In l i g h t of t h e i r r e s u l t s B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h suggested t h a t a l c o h o l may a c t through e m o t i o n a l or memory p r o c e s s e s i m p o r t a n t to p o l y g r a p h i c e x a m i n a t i o n . In a f u l l y f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n , the p r e s e n t study i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of t h r e a t d u r i n g the crime and memory f o r crime d e t a i l s on p o l y g r a p h outcome. As w e l l , the e f f e c t of a l c o h o l on these "emotion" and memory v a r i a b l e s was examined. Memory was found t o be an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n GKT ac c u r a c y but not i m p o r t a n t t o CQT a c c u r a c y . T h r e a t , as o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d f o r the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , had no e f f e c t on e i t h e r the CQT or the GKT but a component of the t h r e a t v a r i a b l e , s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l , was found to a f f e c t GKT a c c u r a c y but not t h a t of the CQT. R a s k i n ' s (1979) two-response model of d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n i s used to e x p l a i n the r e s u l t s of t h i s study a l t h o u g h i i i the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l to p o l y g r a p h outcome i s u n c l e a r and r e q u i r e s e x a m i n a t i o n i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . i v T a b l e of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s v i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i Acknowledgement v i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 H i s t o r y of D e t e c t i o n of D e c e p t i o n 3 P o l y g r a p h T e s t i n g P r o c e d u r e s 10 D e t e c t i o n of a L i e Response: P o l y g r a p h V a l i d i t y 19 F i e l d vs L a b o r a t o r y S t u d i e s of P o l y g r a p h V a l i d i t y .... 27 Countermeasures 36 Study R a t i o n a l e 42 Method 46 S u b j e c t s 46 Apparatus 47 Study D e s i g n 48 Pro c e d u r e 50 P o l y g r a p h Chart A n a l y s i s 59 R e s u l t s 63 Independent V a r i a b l e M a n i p u l a t i o n s 65 Accura c y of P o l y g r a p h T e s t s 71 E f f e c t of Independent V a r i a b l e s on P o l y g r a p h Outcome 80 Post hoc A n a l y s i s of E f f e c t s due to A r o u s a l 85 Memory Test Outcome 100 A d d i t i o n a l A n a l y s e s 104 V D i s c u s s i o n 109 E f f e c t s of A l c o h o l 109 E f f e c t s of Threat 112 E f f e c t s of Memory P r i m i n g 123 Summary 129 Re f e r e n c e s 131 Appendix I 136 Appendix I I 138 Appendix I I I 140 Appendix IV 141 Appendix V 143 Appendix VI 148 Appendix V I I . 149 v i L i s t of T a b l e s Table 1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A c c u r a c y f o r V a r i o u s C u t o f f L i m i t s 75 Table 2 C e l l Means - CQT Composite Scores 82 T a b l e 3 CQT H i t Rates 83 Table 4 C e l l Means - GKT Composite Scores 86 Table 5 GKT H i t Rates 87 Tab l e 6 GKT N u m e r i c a l Scores 91 Table 7 GKT C a t e g o r i c a l Scores 92 Table 8 CQT Nu m e r i c a l Scores 94 Tab l e 9 CQT C a t e g o r i c a l Scores 98 v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e 1 Study Design 49 F i g u r e 2 Mean S y s t o l i c P r e s s u r e s f o r High and Low Threa t Groups 69 F i g u r e 3 Mean S y s t o l i c P r e s s u r e f o r A l c o h o l and No A l c o h o l Groups 70 F i g u r e 4 Mean STAI Scores f o r High and Low Threa t Groups 72 F i g u r e 5 Mean SCR Scores f o r S u b j e c t i v e A r o u s a l x A l c o h o l I n t e r a c t i o n 95 F i g u r e 6 Mean R e s p i r a t i o n Scores f o r S u b j e c t i v e A r o u s a l x A l c o h o l I n t e r a c t i o n 96 F i g u r e 7 Mean STAI Scores f o r S u b j e c t i v e A r o u s a l Groups 106 F i g u r e 8 Mean Blo o d P r e s s u r e Scores f o r High and Low A r o u s a l Groups 107 v i i i Acknowledgements I would l i k e to thank my t h e s i s committee f o r t h e i r guidance and s u g g e s t i o n s : Dr. John Y u i l l e ( S u p e r v i s o r ) , Dr. E r i c E i c h , and Dr. Demetrios P a p a g e o r g i s . I would a l s o l i k e to thank Dr. W i l l i a m Iacono and Dr. C h r i s P a t r i c k f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n p l a n n i n g t h i s s t u d y . S i n c e t h i s was a l a r g e study i n v o l v i n g many s u b j e c t s i t c o u l d not have been done w i t h o u t the c a p a b l e h e l p of Dr. Y u i l l e ' s r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s . Thanks to Vanessa F a r r , Doreen Kum, and Mark Tu r n e r , and a s p e c i a l thanks to E v e l y n Tan who was o f t e n c o o l under p r e s s u r e and p r o v i d e d an e s s e n t i a l amount of humour. 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n In an age of t e c h n o l o g y , w i t h i n c r e a s i n g r e l i a n c e on t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v i c e s to a s s i s t us, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t g r e a t i n t e r e s t has been aroused by the p o l y g r a p h or " l i e d e t e c t o r " . Such a d e v i c e o f f e r s many advantages, e s p e c i a l l y t o law enforcement a g e n c i e s , not the l e a s t b e i n g the e l i m i n a t i o n of human b i a s . However, as a p p e a l i n g as the p o l y g r a p h ' s p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s might be, and a l t h o u g h proponents c l a i m i t to be a s c i e n t i f i c and o b j e c t i v e method, i t s use s h o u l d not be a c c e p t e d u n c r i t i c a l l y . As w i t h any m e d i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t , the p o l y g r a p h t e s t s h o u l d be s u b j e c t e d t o r i g o r o u s e v a l u a t i o n of i t s v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . G i v e n the widesp r e a d use and acceptance of the p o l y g r a p h one would assume a s t u r d y f o u n d a t i o n of e v i d e n c e was s u p p o r t i n g i t s v a l i d i t y , but a r e v i e w of the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t the q u e s t i o n of v a l i d i t y i s s t i l l not s e t t l e d . There remain i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s t o answer and p r o c e d u r a l problems to s o l v e , many of which are complex and d i f f i c u l t . What i s known as the l i e d e t e c t o r t e s t i s a te c h n i q u e t h a t measures p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s i v i t y . I t d e t e c t s d e c e p t i o n i n a suspe c t on the b a s i s of c e r t a i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes r e f l e c t e d i n c a r d i o v a s c u l a r , r e s p i r a t o r y , and e l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n s e s . Research suggests t h a t p o l y g r a p h t e c h n i q u e s which u t i l i z e such p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes can be h i g h l y a c c u r a t e i n c r i m i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s when conducted by w e l l t r a i n e d and s k i l l e d examiners. J u s t how a c c u r a t e the p o l y g r a p h i s i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e has y e t to be u n e q u i v o c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d , and 2 more f i e l d r e s e a r c h i s needed to p r o v i d e a good e s t i m a t e . One of the o b v i o u s problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p o l y g r a p h t e c h n i q u e , b e s i d e s e r r o r s i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of g u i l t y s u s p e c t s , i s e r r o r s i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the i n n o c e n t s u s p e c t s . E s t i m a t e s of the f a l s e p o s i t i v e r a t e range from a low of 8% i n l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s t o a h i g h of 55% i n f i e l d s t u d i e s . Even low r a t e s of f a l s e p o s i t i v e e r r o r s can have s u b s t a n t i a l e f f e c t s i f the base r a t e of i n n o c e n t s u s p e c t s i s h i g h i n the p o p u l a t i o n b e i n g t e s t e d , a s i t u a t i o n t h a t l i k e l y o c c u r s i n government and employment s c r e e n i n g programs. I n d i s c r i m i n a t e use of the p o l y g r a p h i n s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e s i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e but even i n a p p r o p r i a t e a p p l i c a t i o n s the p r a c t i c e of p o l y g r a p h y i s " o f t e n plagued by l e s s than o p t i m a l l e v e l s of t r a i n i n g , competence and i n t e g r i t y among p o l y g r a p h p r a c t i t i o n e r s " ( R a s k i n , 1986, p. 73). R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p o l y g r a p h v a l i d i t y i s s t i l l i n c o m p l e t e , the American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (APA) d r a f t e d a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t was made p u b l i c i n an APA P r e s s R e l e a s e on F e b r u a r y 1, 1986. The r e s o l u t i o n s a i d i n p a r t : " P o l y g r a p h t e s t s used i n a l l a p p l i e d s e t t i n g s s h o u l d be based on adequate p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . T h e i r use by p s y c h o l o g i s t s must be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the (APA) Standards f o r E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Tes t i n g and the (APA) E t h i c a l P r i n c i p l e s of P s y c h o l o g i s t s . They s h o u l d be used o n l y when such use i s j u s t i f i e d by the e x i s t e n c e of s u f f i c i e n t d a t a on t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y f o r the p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n , c o n t e x t and s p e c i f i c purpose." The p r e s e n t study was d e s i g n e d to look at one p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e r e l e v a n t to p o l y g r a p h t e s t v a l i d i t y : the e f f e c t of a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n at 3 the time of the crime on subsequent p o l y g r a p h t e s t r e s u l t s . H i s t o r y of D e t e c t i o n of D e c e p t i o n S h o r t l y a f t e r people l e a r n e d to communicate w i t h language, they p r o b a b l y l e a r n e d to use i t to d e c e i v e . On the h e e l s of e a r l y a t t e m p t s to d e c e i v e w i t h l i e s came attempts to d e t e c t such d e c e p t i o n . A n c i e n t s o c i e t i e s developed many e x o t i c methods to unmask p o t e n t i a l or s u s p e c t e d l i a r s . T o r t u r e was, and c o n t i n u e s to be, a w i d e l y used method to e x t r a c t the t r u t h . The t h e o r y b e h i n d t h i s p r a c t i c e seems to be a crude a p p l i c a t i o n of the n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t paradigm: t e l l us what we want to hear and the p a i n w i l l s t o p . Lykken (1981) o u t l i n e s s e v e r a l o t h e r modes of a s c e r t a i n i n g t r u t h t h a t have been used throughout h i s t o r y . T r i a l s by o r d e a l , such as h o l d i n g one's arm i n b o i l i n g water or b l e e d i n g from an i n c i s i o n , were p r e d i c a t e d on r e l i g i o u s or m a g i c a l b e l i e f s t h a t the i n n o c e n t p e r s o n would somehow be empowered to endure the o r d e a l l o n g e r than a g u i l t y p e r s o n . In m e d i e v a l Germany an i n t e r e s t i n g method was used to s e t t l e m a r i t a l d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g i n f i d e l i t y . The husband's l e f t arm was bound behi n d him w h i l e he h e l d a s h o r t c l u b i n h i s r i g h t hand, and he s t o o d i n a tub b u r i e d w a i s t deep i n the ground. The w i f e wore a b l o u s e which had one s l e e v e l o n g e r than the o t h e r , and the s l e e v e had a rock sewn i n t o i t . The w i f e was then r e q u i r e d to dance around the t u b , a t t e m p t i n g to s m i t e the husband, who was h i m s e l f busy t r y i n g to c l u b the w i f e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , how t h i s p r o c e s s was e x p e c t e d to d e c i d e the t r u t h of the matter i s not r e c o r d e d . The a n c i e n t Hindus employed a p r o c e s s t h a t was more a p s y c h o l o g i c a l 4 t h a n a p h y s i c a l o r d e a l . A s u s p e c t was r e q u i r e d t o chew a m o u t h f u l o f r i c e a n d t h e n s p i t i t o u t on t o a l e a f . The p e r s o n who s u c c e s s f u l l y s p a t o u t t h e r i c e was t r u t h f u l w h i l e t h e p e r s o n who was l e f t w i t h g r a i n s o f r i c e s t i c k i n g t o h i s t o n g u e o r p a l a t e was c o n s i d e r e d g u i l t y . T h i s r i c e t e s t was a p r i m i t i v e p r e c u r s o r o f m o d e r n p h y s i o l o g i c a l t e s t s o f d e c e p t i o n . The f e a r o f b e i n g f o u n d o u t , i n t h e g u i l t y p a r t y , w o u l d l e a d t o s y m p a t h e t i c a r o u s a l i n t h e a u t o n o m i c n e r v o u s s y s t e m and i n t u r n s a l i v a t i o n w o u l d d e c r e a s e and s a l i v a w o u l d become more v i s c i d , c a u s i n g t h e r i c e t o s t i c k i n t h e m o u t h . T h e r e w a s , o f c o u r s e , no way t o g u a r a n t e e t h a t i n n o c e n t p a r t i e s w o u l d n o t be as f e a r f u l i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n as t h e g u i l t y . As i n v e s t i g a t o r s became more s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o d e t e c t p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s i n t h e g u i l t y , more d i r e c t m e a s u r e s o f f e a r and a n x i e t y w e r e u s e d . S u c h s i g n s as s w e a t i n g , b l u s h i n g , t r e m b l i n g , u n s t e a d y g a z e , a n d a r a c i n g p u l s e w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n d i c a t i o n s o f l y i n g . P e r h a p s t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t t o o b j e c t i v e l y m e a s u r e t h e s e p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n d i c a n t s was made by t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y I t a l i a n c r i m i n o l o g i s t , L o m b r o s o . He a n d h i s s t u d e n t , M o s s o , a d a p t e d a p l e t h y s m o g r a p h , w h i c h m e a s u r e d c h a n g e s i n v o l u m e o f a l i m b , t o p r o d u c e a c o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d o f p u l s e and b l o o d p r e s s u r e ( L o m b r o s o , 1 8 9 5 ) . A . R . L u r i a i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e m e a s u r e d f i n g e r t r e m o r and r e a c t i o n t i m e o f c r i m i n a l s w h i l e t h e y w e r e b e i n g i n t e r r o g a t e d , a n d F r a n c i s G a l t o n f o u n d t h a t g u i l t y s u s p e c t s s h o w e d d i s t u r b a n c e s i n w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n t a s k s i n v o l v i n g c r i m e r e l e v a n t w o r d s ( L y k k e n , 1 9 8 1 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m o d e r n p o l y g r a p h i c " l i e d e t e c t o r " d i d n o t o c c u r u n t i l e a r l y t h i s c e n t u r y . W . M . M a r s t o n , a p s y c h o l o g i s t , 5 i s g e n e r a l l y c r e d i t e d w i t h b e i n g one of the e a r l i e s t f ounders of p o l y g r a p h y because of h i s r e p o r t s , p u b l i s h e d p r i o r t o 1921, o u t l i n i n g a s p e c i f i c l i e response which, i n h i s immodest words, "marked the end of man's l o n g , f u t i l e s t r i v i n g f o r a means of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r u t h - t e l l i n g from d e c e p t i o n " ( M a r s t o n , 1938, p. 45). Marston f e l t t h i s s p e c i f i c l i e response was p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n n a t u r e and c o u l d be d e t e c t e d as a t r a n s i t o r y i n c r e a s e i n s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e when the person was f e a r f u l of d e t e c t i o n but t r y i n g to m a i n t a i n an outward composure. A l t h o u g h Marston made e x t r a v a g a n t c l a i m s f o r h i s new methodology, h i s e a r l y work d i d have an i n f l u e n c e on John A. L a r s o n , a C a l i f o r n i a p o l i c e o f f i c e r who l a t e r became a f o r e n s i c p s y c h i a t r i s t . L a r s o n began e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h measurement of a s u s p e c t ' s b l o o d p r e s s u r e , p u l s e , and r e s p i r a t i o n d u r i n g q u e s t i o n i n g . He m o d i f i e d Marston's d i s c o n t i n u o u s method of r e c o r d i n g b l o o d p r e s s u r e by r e c o r d i n g a c o n t i n u o u s measure which c o u l d be examined a f t e r the i n t e r r o g a t i o n was complete. L a r s o n seems to have had some doubts about the v a l i d i t y of h i s t e c h n i q u e because he c o n c l u d e d a 1938 paper w i t h the wa r n i n g , "Because of the e r r o r s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and these have been found to be l a r g e , a d e c e p t i o n t e s t a lone s h o u l d never be used as c o u r t e v i d e n c e " ( L a r s o n , 1938, p. 895). La r s o n a l s o wrote, " I o r i g i n a l l y hoped t h a t i n s t r u m e n t a l l i e d e t e c t i o n would become a l e g i t i m a t e p a r t of p r o f e s s i o n a l p o l i c e s c i e n c e . I t i s l i t t l e more than a r a c k e t . The l i e d e t e c t o r , as used i n many p l a c e s , i s n o t h i n g more than a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h i r d -degree aimed at e x t o r t i n g c o n f e s s i o n s as the o l d p h y s i c a l b e a t i n g s were. At times I'm s o r r y I ever had any p a r t i n i t s 6 development" ( L a r s o n , 1955, p. 714). I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the procedure used at the time of Lar s o n ' s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t was one c a l l e d the Re l e v a n t / 1 r r e l e v a n t f o r m a t , which c o n s i s t s of a m i x t u r e of i r r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s , such as: " I s your name John Doe?" and q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to the c r i m e : " D i d you k i l l Mr. Smith?" A j u n i o r c o l l a b o r a t o r of L a r s o n ' s , Leonarde K e e l e r , was p r o b a b l y the f i r s t t o add g a l v a n i c s k i n response to the t h r e e measures of b l o o d p r e s s u r e , p u l s e , and r e s p i r a t i o n . He a l s o d e v e l o p e d and manufactured a p o r t a b l e f i e l d p o l y g r a p h , and t h i s i s the machine used, w i t h few changes, by many p o l y g r a p h f i r m s today. K e e l e r e v e n t u a l l y moved to Chicago and opened one of the f i r s t s c h o o l s of p o l y g r a p h y , where examiners were t r a i n e d i n h i s newly dev e l o p e d t e c h n i q u e . In Chicago K e e l e r met John R e i d , another p o l y g r a p h e n t h u s i a s t . R e i d a l s o opened a s c h o o l i n Chicago, but more i m p o r t a n t l y t o the f i e l d he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g the C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test (CQT), the most w i d e l y used t e c h n i q u e today. The CQT i n c l u d e s q u e s t i o n s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o the matter under i n v e s t i g a t i o n and c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s t h a t are not r e l a t e d but are n e v e r t h e l e s s i n t e n d e d t o cause an e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n . I d e a l l y , these c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s are ambiguous and phrased i n a way t h a t would l e a d the su s p e c t to l i e or at l e a s t to be u n c e r t a i n about the t r u t h f u l n e s s of h i s res p o n s e . Such a q u e s t i o n might be: "B e f o r e the age of 18 d i d you ever s t e a l a n y t h i n g of v a l u e ? " The c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s are c o n s t r u c t e d by the examiner a f t e r a p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w w i t h the s u s p e c t . A c c o r d i n g t o C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test t h e o r y , an i n n o c e n t s u s p e c t s h o u l d be more concerned w i t h the c o n t e n t of the c o n t r o l 7 q u e s t i o n s and w i l l r e a c t more s t r o n g l y to these than to r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s such as: "Did you s t e a l the money?" C o n v e r s e l y , the g u i l t y s u b j e c t w i l l r e a c t more s t r o n g l y t o the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s . A d e c i s i o n about the s u s p e c t ' s t r u t h f u l n e s s i s made by comparing h i s responses to the c o n t r o l and r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n p a i r s . V a r i a t i o n s of t h i s t e c h n i q u e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . A R e i d s t u d e n t , C l e v e B a c k s t e r , advanced the concept of the C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test and developed a v a r i a t i o n known as the Zone of Comparison format (ZOO. The ZOC q u e s t i o n sequence i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e comparison zones and a s c o r e f o r responses i n each zone i s de t e r m i n e d . The q u e s t i o n sequence does not change on each c h a r t except t h a t the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n e l i c i t i n g the g r e a t e s t response i s p l a c e d i n the middle p o s i t i o n on the f o l l o w i n g c h a r t . Under the ZOC s c o r i n g system t h i s g i v e s an advantage to the in n o c e n t s u s p e c t . B a c k s t e r was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing n u m e r i c a l s c o r i n g , as an a l t e r n a t i v e to the g l o b a l s c o r i n g system which had been i n use u n t i l then. In a g l o b a l s c o r i n g system the p o l y g r a p h e r makes s u b j e c t i v e judgments of the p o l y g r a p h t e s t r e s u l t s , and these may be i n f l u e n c e d by i m p r e s s i o n s of the sus p e c t or o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o the cas e . A l t h o u g h B a c k s t e r ' s o r i g i n a l n u m e r i c a l s c o r i n g procedure had many s h o r t c o m i n g s , i t was the p r e c u r s o r of more r e l i a b l e systems such as those d e v e l o p e d at the U n i v e r s i t y of Utah and by the U n i t e d S t a t e s Army ( c f . R a s k i n , 1986) which have s y s t e m a t i z e d a n a l y s i s and g r e a t l y reduced the s u b j e c t i v e element i n c h a r t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . F u t u r e use of computer programs, now b e i n g d e v e l o p e d , w i l l f u r t h e r reduce a p o l y g r a p h e r ' s r o l e i n the 8 a n a l y s i s . In the n u m e r i c a l s c o r i n g procedure responses to q u e s t i o n s are s c o r e d on a s c a l e of +1 to +3 i f the response t o the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n i s l a r g e r than t h a t to the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n , and s c o r e d -1 to -3 i f the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n response i s s m a l l e r . The sum of these s c o r e s i n each p o l y g r a p h c h a n n e l , and f o r a l l r e p e t i t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n p a i r s , y i e l d s a t o t a l s c o r e . I f the t o t a l s c o r e i s s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e and n e g a t i v e the susp e c t i s judged g u i l t y , and i f the s c o r e i s l a r g e and p o s i t i v e the susp e c t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n n o c e n t . Any s c o r e between these two c u t o f f p o i n t s i s c o n s i d e r e d as i n c o n c l u s i v e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s n u m e r i c a l s c o r i n g i n n o v a t i o n was t h a t i t c o n f e r r e d , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , the s t a t u s of a " t e s t " to the p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n . A l t h o u g h s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of s c o r i n g does not make a t e s t v a l i d and r e l i a b l e , i t at l e a s t a l l o w s f o r e v a l u a t i o n of these parameters. I n t e r r o g a t i o n w i t h the p o l y g r a p h u s i n g a g l o b a l s c o r i n g method cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a t r u e t e s t because the g l o b a l s c o r i n g method depends h e a v i l y on s u b j e c t i v e judgments of the examiner f o r r e s u l t s , making i t d i f f i c u l t to asses s the a c c u r a c y of the p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e i t s e l f . S i n c e the 1950s the use of the p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n , i n s e t t i n g s r a n g i n g from s c r e e n i n g of p o t e n t i a l employees to c r i m i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , has been i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y . I t i s known to be used i n many c o u n t r i e s of the w o r l d i n c l u d i n g the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada, Mexico, B r a z i l , A r g e n t i n a , P u e r t o R i c o , F r a n c e , I s r a e l , I r a n , Japan, C h i n a , T h a i l a n d , and the P h i l i p p i n e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s cannot be v e r i f i e d , i t s use i s l i k e l y even more wi d e s p r e a d than the above l i s t s uggests ( B a r l a n d & 9 R a s k i n , 1973). D e s p i t e i t s w i d e s p r e a d use, the p r e s e n t - d a y p o l y g r a p h has not changed much s i n c e the 1930s. The major changes have been a r e d u c t i o n of s i z e and w e i g h t , the replacement of vacuum tubes by t r a n s i s t o r s ( B a r l a n d and R a s k i n , 1973), and e l e c t r o n i c enhancement of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l s i g n a l s (Iacono & P a t r i c k , 1987). A t y p i c a l f i e l d p o l y g r a p h w i l l r e c o r d measures of r e s p i r a t i o n , g a l v a n i c s k i n r e s p o n s e , and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r changes. One a d d i t i o n a l improvement t h a t can be found on some machines i s a measure of muscular a c t i v i t y (EMG) t h a t can be used to d e t e c t muscular f l e x i n g t h a t might be used by a s u s p e c t to d i s t o r t o t h e r p o l y g r a p h measures. A l t h o u g h t h e r e has been l i t t l e change i n the p o l y g r a p h machinery, t h e r e has been a r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n i n t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e . In a d e p a r t u r e from the t r a d i t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e of t r y i n g to d e t e c t when a person i s b e i n g d e c e p t i v e i n answering q u e s t i o n s , a t e c h n i q u e has been dev e l o p e d which attempts to a s s e s s whether or not a s u s p e c t has knowledge of crime d e t a i l s . T h i s method, c a l l e d the G u i l t y Knowledge Test (GKT), was o r i g i n a l l y proposed by Hugo Munsterberg and more r e c e n t l y advanced by D a v i d Lykken (see Lykken, 1981). In t h i s new approach the examiner must f i r s t e s t a b l i s h a number of f a c t s about the i n c i d e n t under i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t o n l y a g u i l t y p erson would know. The f a c t s are then p r e s e n t e d i n a m u l t i p l e c h o i c e format and are embedded i n a s e t of a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t seem e q u a l l y p l a u s i b l e . The b a s i c assumption of t h i s t e s t i s t h a t the g u i l t y s u b j e c t w i l l show g r e a t e r autonomic a r o u s a l to the s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r n a t i v e . Those who are i n n o c e n t would respond randomly to the 10 a l t e r n a t i v e s s i n c e , to them, a l l have s i m i l a r s t i m u l u s v a l u e . E m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e to date suggests t h a t the G u i l t y Knowledge Test c o u l d be a r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e or a d d i t i o n to some of the c u r r e n t p o l y g r a p h p r a c t i c e s (see Iacono & P a t r i c k , 1987; K l e i n m u n t z & Szucko, 1982; Lykken, 1981). However, none of the s t u d i e s have been done under f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s . While f i e l d s t u d i e s a w a it to be done, t h e r e are s t i l l i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s t h a t can be answered i n the l a b o r a t o r y , and some of these q u e s t i o n s have been addressed i n t h i s t h e s i s . P o l y g r a p h T e s t i n g Procedures In an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n the t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n i s conducted by an e x p e r i e n c e d examiner i n an environment t h a t i s f r e e of d i s t r a c t i o n s and p o t e n t i a l i n t e r r u p t i o n s . T y p i c a l l y , the c l i e n t i s seen i n a r e l a t i v e l y q u i e t o f f i c e t h a t i s p l a i n l y f u r n i s h e d but c o m f o r t a b l e (Orne, Thackray & P a s k e w i t z , 1972). The f i e l d p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n i s b a s i c a l l y of two t y p e s : s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n or p e r s o n n e l s c r e e n i n g ( B a r l a n d & R a s k i n , 1973). In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e a pers o n i s s u s p e c t e d of h a v i n g committed a s p e c i f i c c r i m e , or of b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n a r e l a t e d i n c i d e n t , and i s g i v e n a p o l y g r a p h t e s t t o determine i f he or she i s indeed g u i l t y . T h i s type of e x a m i n a t i o n i s u s u a l l y done by p o l i c e examiners i n law enforcement a g e n c i e s , but i n some cases p r i v a t e examiners w i l l conduct such an e x a m i n a t i o n f o r companies as p a r t of an i n t e r n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The second type of p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n i s t h a t used i n p e r s o n n e l s c r e e n i n g . In many s i t u a t i o n s where employees have access to money, c l a s s i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n , or are i n p o s i t i o n s 11 t h a t c o u l d be compromised by b l a c k m a i l , employers make use of the p o l y g r a p h to s c r e e n a p p l i c a n t s b e f o r e they are h i r e d . The s c r e e n i n g t e s t may i n v o l v e a s k i n g a p p l i c a n t s q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e s , use of i l l e g a l d r u g s , or past c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The i s s u e s of i n t e r e s t to employers are g e n e r a l l y much br o a d e r than the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s asked i n a c r i m i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s t a g e s : 1. the p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w , 2. the t e s t i n g s t a g e , and 3. the p o s t t e s t i n t e r r o g a t i o n ( B a r l a n d & R a s k i n , 1973). The e x a m i n a t i o n g e n e r a l l y l a s t s 2 hours or more, and about h a l f of t h i s time i s devoted to the p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w . B e f o r e the p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w the examiner becomes a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the s u s p e c t ' s d o s s i e r and the f a c t s of the c a s e , and may be b r i e f e d by an i n v e s t i g a t o r on the t o p i c s t o be d i s c u s s e d i n the e x a m i n a t i o n . At t h i s p o i n t the p o l y g r a p h equipment i s s e t up and c a l i b r a t e d . The p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w opens w i t h the examiner meeting the s u s p e c t and e x p l a i n i n g t h a t he w i l l be c o n d u c t i n g the p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n . The s u s p e c t i s then asked to s i g n a statement of consent to take the p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n . Once these d e t a i l s are taken c a r e o f , the examiner e x p l a i n s t h a t the p o l y g r a p h i s a s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t which w i l l i n d i c a t e when the s u s p e c t i s l y i n g . The s u s p e c t i s l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t the d e t e c t i o n of l y i n g can be done w i t h c e r t a i n t y , t h e r e f o r e any attempts at d e c e p t i o n are p o i n t l e s s because they w i l l be r e v e a l e d ( c f . Orne et a l . , 1972). The tone of the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w i s meant to maximize the s u s p e c t ' s b e l i e f i n the machine's a b i l i t y t o d e t e c t l i e s . The 12 q u e s t i o n s to be asked are d e v i s e d w i t h the c o o p e r a t i o n of the s u s p e c t and t h o r o u g h l y r e v i e w e d w i t h him so t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no s u r p r i s e s . The examiner emphasizes at t h i s p o i n t t h a t a l l q u e s t i o n s must be answered t r u t h f u l l y s i n c e any doubts or r e s e r v a t i o n s about the answers w i l l be r e f l e c t e d on the p o l y g r a p h c h a r t s . The s u s p e c t i s encouraged to d i s c u s s any m i s g i v i n g s he may have about the q u e s t i o n s w i t h the examiner b e f o r e the p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n has begun. The examiner does not want the sus p e c t t o f e e l he i s t r y i n g t o o b t a i n a c o n f e s s i o n , but merely a t t e m p t i n g t o o b t a i n a l l the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n to conduct an adequate e x a m i n a t i o n . I f the su s p e c t i s b o t h e r e d by any p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n , i t can be reworded. T h i s i s o f t e n done when the su s p e c t r e v e a l s some p r e v i o u s l y unmentioned i n f o r m a t i o n . For example, i f the q u e s t i o n i s , " D i d you ever s t e a l a n y t h i n g of v a l u e from an employer?" the susp e c t might r e v e a l t h a t he had s t o l e n a package of c i g a r e t t e s when he was working i n a g r o c e r y s t o r e . The q u e s t i o n can then be p r e f a c e d w i t h the phr a s e , "Except f o r what you have t o l d me, d i d you ever ?" T h i s p r o c e s s of c l a r i f y i n g the meaning of each q u e s t i o n , and s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t i s v i t a l t h a t t h e r e be no c o n f u s i o n about the answers, i s d e s i g n e d to i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t r u t h f u l n e s s i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the s u s p e c t ' s own good (Orne et a l . , 1972). The essence of the p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w i s to focus the s u b j e c t ' s " p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e t " on the a p p r o p r i a t e s e t of q u e s t i o n s ; c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s f o r the i n n o c e n t s u s p e c t , and r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s f o r the g u i l t y s u s p e c t . Only a f t e r a l l the q u e s t i o n s have been c a r e f u l l y f o r m u l a t e d and c l a r i f i e d does the p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n b e g i n . P o l y g r a p h 13 procedure emphasizes t h a t the examiner e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t w i t h the suspe c t so t h a t a n x i o u s s u s p e c t s w i l l r e l a x b e f o r e t e s t i n g . The p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w a l s o s e r v e s to r e a s s u r e the i n n o c e n t s u s p e c t s about the i n f a l l i b i l i t y of the p o l y g r a p h and h o p e f u l l y reduce t h e i r a n x i e t y . The g u i l t y s u s p e c t , on the o t h e r hand, s h o u l d become m a x i m a l l y r e s p o n s i v e under the same c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Once the examiner i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t the su s p e c t has u n d e r s t o o d the meaning of a l l the q u e s t i o n s , and i s p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y f i t to take the p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n , the su s p e c t i s a t t a c h e d to the in s t r u m e n t ( B a r l a n d and R a s k i n , 1972). There are some v a r i a t i o n s i n the above p r e t e s t p r o c e d u r e when conducted by p o l y g r a p h e r s u s i n g the K e e l e r t e c h n i q u e ( H a r r e l s o n , 1964), or the R e i d t e c h n i q u e ( R e i d and Inbau, 1966). Both the R e i d and K e e l e r t e c h n i q u e s employ a s h o r t e r i n t e r v i e w of 20-30 minutes as compared to a minimum of 1 hour f o r the p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w o u t l i n e d above. Users of the R e i d t e c h n i q u e a l s o advocate a t t a c h i n g the e l e c t r o d e s , and o t h e r p o l y g r a p h s e n s o r s , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the s u s p e c t ' s a r r i v a l . A t h i r d , and perhaps more i m p o r t a n t , d i f f e r e n c e i n the R e i d t e c h n i q u e i s t h a t s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s are asked f o r the purpose of o b s e r v i n g and r e c o r d i n g b e h a v i o r a l changes, which can be used to supplement c h a r t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In f i e l d p o l y g r a p h y , the s u b j e c t i s s e a t e d i n a p l a i n , wooden c h a i r f a c i n g away from the p o l y g r a p h , so t h a t the c h a r t i s not v i s i b l e . The p o l y g r a p h i s put i n t o o p e r a t i o n by engaging the r e s p i r a t i o n measure f i r s t , then the s k i n conductance measure, and f i n a l l y the c a r d i o v a s c u l a r measure. The reason f o r t h i s o r d e r , 14 a c c o r d i n g t o B a r l a n d and R a s k i n (1973), i s t w o f o l d . By s t a r t i n g w i t h r e s p i r a t i o n and s k i n conductance the p o l y g r a p h e r o b t a i n s about 15 seconds of b a s e - l i n e d a t a t h a t may prove u s e f u l i n c h a r t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . As w e l l , by i n f l a t i n g the c a r d i o c u f f l a s t the l e n g t h of time i t i s i n f l a t e d i s m i n i m i z e d , and t h i s r e l i e v e s the s u b j e c t of added d i s c o m f o r t . The t y p i c a l commercial p o l y g r a p h equipment measures o n l y the t h r e e p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses mentioned above: s k i n conductance, r e s p i r a t i o n , and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r changes. S k i n conductance i s a measure of autonomic a c t i v i t y t h a t r e f l e c t s the amount of sweat exuded by the s k i n . T h i s r e s p o n s e , a l s o c a l l e d the e l e c t r o d e r m a l response (EDR), i s r e c o r d e d by p l a c i n g e l e c t r o d e s on a s u i t a b l e a r e a of s k i n , u s u a l l y the d i s t a l p o r t i o n of two f i n g e r s . The r e s p i r a t i o n measure g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e s a system of tubes and b e l l o w s t h a t are a t t a c h e d around both the c h e s t and the abdomen. The p o l y g r a p h r e c o r d s the c y c l e s of r e s p i r a t i o n as the s u b j e c t i n h a l e s and e x h a l e s . The c a r d i o v a s c u l a r measure, o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as " r e l a t i v e b l o o d p r e s s u r e , " i s not s t r i c t l y a measure of b l o o d p r e s s u r e . A pneumatic b l o o d p r e s s u r e c u f f i s used, but i t i s i n f l a t e d t o an a r b i t r a r y p o i n t somewhere between s y s t o l i c and d i a s t o l i c p r e s s u r e . The b e h a v i o r of the " c a r d i o " channel appears to depend on whether the pneumatic c u f f i s i n f l a t e d above or below the s u b j e c t ' s mean a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e . Geddes and Newberg (1977) showed t h a t t h r e e changes i n the c h a r t a m p l i t u d e of p u l s a t i l e o s c i l l a t i o n s can oc c u r w i t h an i n c r e a s e of b l o o d p r e s s u r e . When the p r e s s u r e c u f f i s i n f l a t e d above mean a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e ( p o i n t of maximum o s c i l l a t i o n s ) an i n c r e a s e i n b l o o d p r e s s u r e w i l l cause an i n c r e a s e i n a m p l i t u d e of o s c i l l a t i o n s . 15 C o n v e r s e l y , i f c u f f p r e s s u r e i s s e t below mean a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e an i n c r e a s e i n b l o o d p r e s s u r e r e s u l t s i n a decrease i n o s c i l l a t i o n a m p l i t u d e . A c u f f p r e s s u r e t h a t i s eq u a l t o the mean a r t e r i a l p r e s s u r e w i l l r e s u l t i n no change i n a m p l i t u d e of o s c i l l a t i o n s when b l o o d p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e s . The above study suggests t h a t c h a r t changes due to b l o o d p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e or decrease are not u n i f o r m , but depend l a r g e l y on the l e v e l of i n f l a t i o n of the p r e s s u r e c u f f and s h o u l d o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d as a r e l a t i v e measure. Once the se n s o r s are a t t a c h e d and the c a r d i o - c u f f i s i n f l a t e d , the s u b j e c t i s inf o r m e d t h a t t e s t i n g i s about to b e g i n . Q u e s t i o n s are asked i n a low, a u d i b l e v o i c e , w i t h o u t any i n f l e c t i o n s which may i n f l u e n c e a s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e . The q u e s t i o n s are those t h a t have been f o r m u l a t e d and d i s c u s s e d w i t h the s u b j e c t d u r i n g the p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w and u s u a l l y r e q u i r e a si m p l e yes or no answer. Between each q u e s t i o n the i n t e r r o g a t o r w a i t s 15-20 seconds to a l l o w each of the t h r e e measures to r e t u r n to a r e a s o n a b l y s t a b l e b a s e l i n e . D u r i n g q u e s t i o n i n g the i n t e r r o g a t o r makes n o t a t i o n s on the c h a r t of r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n such as s e n s i t i v i t y of p o l y g r a p h a m p l i f i e r s , when q u e s t i o n s b e g i n and end, o b s e r v a t i o n s of movement, and so on. A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of the f i r s t s e t of q u e s t i o n s i t i s common p r a c t i c e to perform a c a r d t e s t ( a l s o c a l l e d a " s t i m " t e s t ) w i t h the s u b j e c t ( B a r l a n d & R a s k i n , 1973). Some p o l y g r a p h e r s may use the c a r d t e s t b e f o r e the f i r s t s e t of q u e s t i o n s i s asked (Orne et a l . , 1972). The purpose of the c a r d t e s t i s to i n c r e a s e the s u b j e c t ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n the a c c u r a c y of the p o l y g r a p h . The s u b j e c t i s asked to p i c k one of a 16 number of p l a y i n g c a r d s and c o n c e a l i t , then the p o l y g r a p h e r names each c a r d and asks i f i t was the one chosen; the s u b j e c t r e p l i e s "no" each t i m e . The o s t e n s i b l e r e ason f o r t h i s t e s t i s to c a l i b r a t e and a d j u s t the p o l y g r a p h , but i n f a c t some p o l y g r a p h e r s a r r a n g e t h i n g s so t h a t they know which c a r d the s u b j e c t p i c k e d r e g a r d l e s s of what the p o l y g r a p h s a y s . The p o l y g r a p h e r then t e l l s the s u b j e c t which c a r d was p i c k e d and says the equipment i s o p e r a t i n g w e l l and t e s t i n g can b e g i n . T h i s d e m o n s t r a t i o n i s seen as a way to enhance the s u b j e c t ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n the p o l y g r a p h , and c o n s e q u e n t l y makes g u i l t y s u b j e c t s more r e a c t i v e and i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s l e s s f e a r f u l of f a l s e d e t e c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g the c a r d t e s t , p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g i s c o n t i n u e d ( o r begun, i f the c a r d t e s t i s done f i r s t ) . The q u e s t i o n s e t i s g e n e r a l l y asked t h r e e t i m e s , y i e l d i n g t h r e e " c h a r t s " , but a f o u r t h or f i f t h c h a r t may sometimes be n e c e s s a r y to make a d e c i s i o n as to g u i l t or innocence. Between each t e s t the i n t e r r o g a t o r may a l l o w the s u b j e c t to r e c o n c i l e or e x p l a i n any u n u s u a l or i n c r i m i n a t i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s . The t r e a t m e n t of the s u b j e c t a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of t e s t i n g depends upon the r e s u l t s . I f the s u b j e c t i s f e l t to be i n n o c e n t , he may be t o l d the outcome and i n f o r m e d t h a t the r e s u l t s w i l l be g i v e n to the i n v e s t i g a t o r s . I f the e x a m i n a t i o n suggests t h a t the s u s p e c t was b e i n g d e c e p t i v e , he may be i m m e d i a t e l y i n t e r r o g a t e d so as to e x p l o i t any p s y c h o l o g i c a l advantage i n h e r e n t i n the t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . G u i d e l i n e s f o r c o n d u c t i n g p o s t t e s t i n t e r r o g a t i o n s v a r y among p o l y g r a p h s c h o o l s , but d e t a i l e d s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e ( c f . B a r l a n d & R a s k i n , 1973). There are s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s of the CQT (see Lykken, 1981) 17 each w i t h i t s own sequence of q u e s t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n . In some, the sequence i s p r e d e t e r m i n e d and i n f l e x i b l e , i n o t h e r s the sequence i s a l t e r e d from c h a r t to c h a r t to a v o i d h a b i t u a t i o n . One commonly used format i s the Zone of Comparison (ZOO t e s t d e v e l o p e d by B a c k s t e r (1962). The ZOC procedure u t i l i z e s a number of s a f e g u a r d s d e s i g n e d to compensate f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n s u b j e c t r e a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n . The ZOC q u e s t i o n format a l s o i n c l u d e s i r r e l e v a n t , n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g q u e s t i o n s to p r o v i d e a r e s t s t o p between more a r o u s i n g q u e s t i o n s , and o u t s i d e i s s u e q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d f o r the s i t u a t i o n i n which the s u b j e c t might be concerned about o t h e r d i s t u r b i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Such a q u e s t i o n might be, "Do you u n d e r s t a n d you w i l l o n l y be asked the q u e s t i o n s we have d i s c u s s e d ? " I f the s u b j e c t appears d i s t u r b e d by t h i s q u e s t i o n , t e s t i n g can be postponed u n t i l he i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t o n l y the s p e c i f i e d q u e s t i o n s w i l l be asked. The q u e s t i o n s i n the ZOC t e s t t h a t are a c t u a l l y used to determine g u i l t or innocence are the l i e c o n t r o l and crime r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s . The c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s are d e s i g n e d to a c t as a b a s e l i n e of the s u b j e c t ' s p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s when he i s l y i n g . R e i d and Inbau (1977) e x p l a i n t h a t the p o l y g r a p h e r s h o u l d choose as c o n t r o l s o n l y q u e s t i o n s to which the s u s p e c t shows symptoms of d e c e p t i o n , such as h e s i t a t i o n , b r e a k i n g eye c o n t a c t or s q u i r m i n g . Some examiners choose q u e s t i o n s t h a t r e f e r to t h i n g s they f e e l everyone has done, so any "no" answer i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y assumed to be d e c e p t i v e . An example of a l i e c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n i s , " B e f o r e age 19 d i d you ever l i e to get out of t r o u b l e ? " In the c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a CQT format was employed t h a t 18 c o n s i s t e d of 9 q u e s t i o n s ; 3 q u e s t i o n s i r r e l e v a n t to the c r i m e , and 3 c o n t r o l / r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n p a i r s . To m a i n t a i n c o n s i s t e n c y , the q u e s t i o n s were p r e d e t e r m i n e d and i d e n t i c a l f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . S i m i l a r l y , s u b j e c t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d 3 c h a r t s , r e g a r d l e s s of whether t h e i r c h a r t s appeared to be i n c o n c l u s i v e or n o t . The f u l l CQT q u e s t i o n format used i n t h i s s t u d y , a l o n g w i t h the d e s i g n a t i o n of each q u e s t i o n (eg. l i e c o n t r o l ) , can be seen i n Appendix V. An a l t e r n a t i v e to the CQT, which does not depend on the examiner's s k i l l i n m a n i p u l a t i n g a s u b j e c t ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s and b e l i e f s , i s the G u i l t y Knowledge T e s t . The GKT c o n s i s t s of q u e s t i o n s to which o n l y g u i l t y s u b j e c t s c o u l d know the answer. The q u e s t i o n s are posed i n a m u l t i p l e c h o i c e format, w i t h o n l y one c o r r e c t answer, and the s u b j e c t must e i t h e r r e p e a t each a l t e r n a t i v e or answer "no" to each one. A t y p i c a l GKT q u e s t i o n might be, " I f you murdered Mary Jones, you would know what the murder weapon was. Was i t a gun?.... a hammer?.... a k n i f e ? . . . . a r o p e ? . . . . a b o t t l e ? " When c o n f r o n t e d w i t h such i n f o r m a t i o n the g u i l t y p e r s o n i s e x p e c t e d to g i v e the l a r g e s t p h y s i o l o g i c a l response to the c o r r e c t answer, i f not out of g u i l t or f e a r of d e t e c t i o n then p o s s i b l y out of r e c o g n i t i o n . An i n n o c e n t p e r s o n , knowing none of the s p e c i f i c s of the c r i m e , would y i e l d random p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses to the same q u e s t i o n s . The advantage of the GKT i s t h a t i t o f f e r s p r o t e c t i o n to the i n n o c e n t . In a s e r i e s of 10 q u e s t i o n s , w i t h 5 a l t e r n a t i v e c h o i c e s i n each, and assuming each a l t e r n a t i v e i s e q u a l l y a r o u s i n g , the chance of an i n n o c e n t s u s p e c t g i v i n g h i s l a r g e s t response to the c o r r e c t a l t e r n a t i v e on each q u e s t i o n i s 1/5 r a i s e d to the power of 10, which i s one 19 chance i n 10 m i l l i o n . The a c c u r a c y of the GKT can be compromised i n f a v o r of the g u i l t y s u s p e c t s i f too few q u e s t i o n s are asked or i f the q u e s t i o n s are not c a r e f u l l y f o r m u l a t e d . C r i t i c i s m s l e v e l e d at the GKT are t h a t i t i s o f t e n i m p r a c t i c a l to use i n c r i m i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and i t i s not c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the t a s k of p e r s o n n e l s c r e e n i n g . P o d l e s n y and R a s k i n (1978) a l s o argue t h a t b o th i n n o c e n t and g u i l t y c r i m i n a l s u s p e c t s have t y p i c a l l y been exposed to much of the crime r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e t e s t i n g . They s t a t e f u r t h e r t h a t , "Time consuming f i e l d work and c o n s i d e r a b l e i n g e n u i t y are r e q u i r e d to c o n s t r u c t a v a l i d GK t e s t , w h i l e a CQ t e s t may be used i m m e d i a t e l y " (p. 345). On the o t h e r hand, R e i d and Inbau (1977) d e s c r i b e some w e l l c o n c e i v e d and s u c c e s s f u l uses of the s i n g l e - i t e m , g u i l t y knowledge method i n the f i e l d . R e g a r d l e s s of the arguments mounted f o r or a g a i n s t the GKT, i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n the f i e l d has not been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t u d i e d and i t remains to be v a l i d a t e d i n the c o n t e x t of r e a l c r i m i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . T h i s study w i l l use a GKT procedure t h a t asks 5 q u e s t i o n s about crime r e l e v a n t i t e m s , and each q u e s t i o n w i l l have 5 a l t e r n a t i v e c h o i c e s . The GKT format i s o u t l i n e d i n Appendix V. D e t e c t i o n of a L i e Response: P o l y g r a p h V a l i d i t y What has become known as the l i e d e t e c t i o n t e s t i s , i n f a c t , s i m p l y a p h y s i o l o g i c a l measure of r e a c t i v i t y to q u e s t i o n i n g . The c o r n e r s t o n e assumption of a t e s t i n g procedure deemed to be a d e t e c t o r of l y i n g must be t h a t a s p e c i f i c , p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h attempts to d e c e i v e . I t f o l l o w s t h a t any 20 p h y s i o l o g i c a l response to d e c e p t i o n must be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r responses t h a t can be ex p e c t e d of a person d u r i n g q u e s t i o n i n g , such as a n x i e t y , s t r e s s , or a r o u s a l . I t i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t l y i n g , f o r many p e o p l e , i s accompanied by some p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s ; a f t e r a l l most people have the s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of " g u i l t " when l y i n g . However, can we r e a s o n a b l y assume t h a t t h e r e i s a s p e c i f i c l i e r e s p o n s e , some i n v o l u n t a r y but d i s t i n c t i v e p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n t h a t i s produced by people o n l y when they are l y i n g and never when they are b e i n g t r u t h f u l ? C o n t r a r y to the b e l i e f of many, t h e r e i s no ev i d e n c e to support the i d e a of such a s p e c i f i c l i e r e s p o n s e . S i n c e we can d i s t i n g u i s h our own v a r i o u s e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s , such as d e l i g h t , f e a r , anger, or sadness, as w e l l as g u i l t , i t i s n a t u r a l to assume t h a t each of these emotions i s e x p r e s s e d i n i t s own p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n . I f t h i s were t r u e , the response a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g u i l t might be a good c a n d i d a t e f o r the s p e c i f i c l i e r e s p o n s e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t p h y s i o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s of response to v a r i o u s emotions are c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s i n d i v i d u a l s . A l b e r t Ax (1953) measured many d i f f e r e n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g b l o o d p r e s s u r e , h e a r t r a t e , s t r o k e volume, r e s p i r a t i o n , f a c e and hand te m p e r a t u r e , s w e a t i n g , and muscle t e n s i o n , w h i l e s u b j e c t s were i n a s t a t e of f e a r or anger. He c o n c l u d e d t h a t the two s t i m u l u s c o n d i t i o n s of f e a r and anger produced p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n p a t t e r n s t h a t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s . However, he a l s o found t h a t f o r each emotion t h e r e was a g e n e r a l l a c k of c o r r e l a t i o n between the p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s a c r o s s i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s l a c k of c o r r e l a t i o n s u p p o r t e d the h y p o t h e s i s 21 t h a t people are unique i n the p h y s i o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r emotions. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by the f i n d i n g t h a t the between s u b j e c t v a r i a n c e of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r than the w i t h i n - s u b j e c t v a r i a n c e . S c h a c h t e r (1957) conducted a study s i m i l a r to t h a t of Ax. The S c h a c h t e r study had groups e x p e r i e n c i n g f e a r and anger but i t a l s o i n c l u d e d a t h i r d group which e x p e r i e n c e d " c o l d p r e s s o r " p a i n , and f i v e p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s not used by Ax were r e c o r d e d : s y s t o l i c p r e s s u r e , d i a s t o l i c p r e s s u r e , p e r i p h e r a l s k i n r e s i s t a n c e , c a r d i a c o u t p u t , and i n s p i r a t o r y i n d e x . R e s u l t s of the S c h a c h t e r (1957) study are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those of Ax. C o n s i d e r i n g a l l s u b j e c t s , the average response p a t t e r n s were d i f f e r e n t f o r the p a i n , anger, and f e a r groups, but the response p a t t e r n s of i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s were v a r i a b l e . T h i s suggests t h a t u s i n g a s p e c i f i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n to d i s t i n g u i s h when an i n d i v i d u a l i s i n p a i n , as opposed to b e i n g f e a r f u l or angry, would not be h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l , r e g a r d l e s s of the a c c u r a c y of measurement. The c o n c l u s i o n s from these and o t h e r s t u d i e s of autonomic response to emotions converge on the same p o i n t , t h a t g e n e r a l i z e d and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a r o u s a l i s e a s i l y d e t e c t e d , but as we t r y and d i s t i n g u i s h between more d i s t i n c t emotions such as g u i l t , shame, or anger, d e t e c t i o n becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y unsound. S i n c e the p o l y g r a p h i s t y p i c a l l y used to measure p e r i p h e r a l , autonomic r e s p o n s e s ( i e . c a r d i o v a s c u l a r , e l e c t r o d e r m a l , and r e s p i r a t i o n ) , i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t i t w i l l ever be a b l e to a c c u r a t e l y d e t e c t q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t e m o t i o n a l responses i n the 22 i n d i v i d u a l . The p o l y g r a p h can t e l l the e x p e r i e n c e d o p e r a t o r i f a s u b j e c t i s more aroused by one s t i m u l u s than a n o t h e r , but i t can not r e v e a l w i t h c e r t a i n t y i f t h a t a r o u s a l i s due to p r i d e , g u i l t , anger, or u n b r i d l e d f e a r . In a d d i t i o n to s t u d i e s of the p h y s i o l o g y of emotion t h e r e have been i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t approach the l i e response i s s u e from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . These s t u d i e s were aimed at u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n the p h y s i o l o g i c a l response to d e c e p t i o n . Kugelmass,, L i e b l i c h , and Bergman (1967), employing a procedure s i m i l a r to the c a r d t e s t d i s c u s s e d above, found t h a t s u b j e c t s c o u l d be d e t e c t e d even when they had been i n s t r u c t e d to answer "yes" r a t h e r than "no" to each q u e s t i o n . In answering "yes" they were t e c h n i c a l l y t e l l i n g the t r u t h when asked about the c r i t i c a l item but were n e v e r t h e l e s s found to be d e c e p t i v e . Such f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t the v e r b a l a c t of l y i n g i t s e l f may not be as i m p o r t a n t as the i n h e r e n t l y a r o u s i n g n a t u r e of the c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s . A study by Thackray and Orne (1968) i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the n a t u r e of the q u e s t i o n s can a f f e c t d e t e c t a b i 1 i t y . S u b j e c t s memorized t h r e e c r i t i c a l "code" words t h a t had been randomly chosen by the e x p e r i m e n t e r , then they were t o l d t h a t they would be i n t e r r o g a t e d about these code words and about t h e i r f i r s t names, l a s t names, and date of b i r t h . The p o l y g r a p h e r was b l i n d to the s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and t o the code words. T h i s procedure a l l o w e d the a u t h o r s to compare the r a t e of d e t e c t i o n of the s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n (which i n h e r e n t l y has more meaning to the s u b j e c t than randomly chosen words) w i t h the d e t e c t i o n r a t e of the word l i s t . The d e t e c t i o n r a t e of the p e r s o n a l m a t e r i a l was found to be 23 h i g h e r than t h a t of the o v e r - l e a r n e d words. T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s the i d e a t h a t c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s a c q u i r e a r o u s a l p r o p e r t i e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o d e t e c t i o n a p a r t from f e a r or e f f o r t t o d e c e i v e . L i k e a person's name, crime r e l a t e d d e t a i l s may evoke a c o n d i t i o n e d p h y s i o l o g i c a l response i n the su s p e c t t h a t can be r e l i a b l y d e t e c t e d . A p o l y g r a p h method, such as the GKT, t h a t u t i l i z e s the c o n d i t i o n e d p r o p e r t i e s of c r i m e - r e l e v a n t d e t a i l s a v o i d s the problem of h a v i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h a " l i e " r e s p o n s e , a problem i n h e r e n t i n t r a d i t i o n a l d e t e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . However, the s t r e n g t h of the GKT i s a l s o i t s weakness because many s i t u a t i o n s such as employment s c r e e n i n g , or i n t e r r o g a t i o n s t h a t are of a g e n e r a l n a t u r e , do not l e n d themselves to the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l a n a l y s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of the GKT. A l t h o u g h the p o l y g r a p h cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a t r u e " l i e d e t e c t o r , " f o r the reasons o u t l i n e d above, i t can be c o n s i d e r e d as a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l . The v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of such a t o o l depends h e a v i l y on how i t i s used and how the r e s u l t s are i n t e r p r e t e d . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f ocus on some methods t h a t are used i n the f i e l d of p o l y g r a p h y , the l o g i c of each approach, and a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of how these methods work. The i d e a t h a t t h e r e i s a s p e c i f i c response to l y i n g , and t h a t the p o l y g r a p h can i n f a l l i b l y d e t e c t i t , i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o c u r r e n t l i e d e t e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . The importance of a s u b j e c t ' s b e l i e f i n the i n f a l l i b i l i t y of the t e s t i s r e f l e c t e d i n a comment by Waid and Orne (1981): The o s t e n s i b l e purpose of the I c a r d l t e s t i s to a s s e s s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s t y p i c a l response to d e c e p t i o n , but the a c t u a l purpose i s to demonstrate to the s u b j e c t t h a t the p o l y g r a p h 2 4 can, i n d e e d , d i s t i n g u i s h between t r u t h f u l and d e c e p t i v e answers. Such a d e m o n s t r a t i o n i s viewed as enhancing the b e l i e f i n the a c c u r a c y of the t e s t and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , enhancing the p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses of the d e c e p t i v e s u b j e c t w h i l e a l s o r e d u c i n g the f e a r of f a l s e d e t e c t i o n s among t r u t h f u l s u b j e c t s (p. 66-67). Another p e r c e i v e d advantage of the s u b j e c t ' s b e l i e f i n the p o l y g r a p h ' s i n f a l l i b i l i t y i s t h a t t h i s may h e l p e l i c i t b e h a v i o r a l r e a c t i o n s t h a t can be used by the p o l y g r a p h e r i n h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n of g u i l t or inn o c e n c e . For example, i f the s u b j e c t b e l i e v e s i n the a c c u r a c y of the p o l y g r a p h and h i s r e a c t i o n t o t e s t i n g i s h o s t i l i t y , annoyance, or some o t h e r u n s y m p a t h e t i c r e s p o n s e , g u i l t i s i n d i c a t e d . A statement by R e i d and A r t h e r (1953) i s r e v e a l i n g : T h i s b e l i e f t h a t the i n n o c e n t have i n the a c c u r a c y of the l i e - d e t e c t o r , and t h a t they w i l l be e x o n e r a t e d , i s u s u a l l y shown by t h e i r a t t i t u d e . T h i s a t t i t u d e i s one of genuine c o n f i d e n c e i n both the machine and the examiner. Because of t h i s c o n f i d e n c e they r e g a r d the e x a m i n a t i o n as an e x p e r i e n c e they w i l l want to r e l a t e to t h e i r f a m i l y and f r i e n d s (p. 106). Both a s p e c t s of the p o l y g r a p h t e s t ; t h a t the s u b j e c t be l e d to b e l i e v e i n the p r o c e d u r e , and t h a t t h e r e are b e h a v i o r a l i n d i c e s of d e c e p t i o n , r a i s e an i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n . Is the a c t u a l l i e d e t e c t o r the machine or the o p e r a t o r ? Some p o l y g r a p h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t the examiner i s the r e a l d e t e c t o r of d e c e p t i o n , as i n d i c a t e d by B a r l a n d and R a s k i n (1973): Among f i e l d examiners t h e r e are two s c h o o l s of thought r e g a r d i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n to be c o n s c i o u s l y used i n making the [ t r u t h f u l or u n t r u t h f u l ] d e c i s i o n . One s c h o o l advocates t h a t o n l y by u t i l i z i n g a l l p o s s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o him from e v e r y source does the examiner o p t i m i z e the p r o b a b i l i t y of making the c o r r e c t 25 d e c i s i o n The o t h e r s c h o o l advocates the p o s i t i o n t h a t a l l e x t r a n e o u s s o u r c e s of d a t a , w h i l e sought out b e f o r e and d u r i n g the p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w , must be r i g o r o u s l y e x c l u d e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n when the d e c i s i o n i s made (p. 436). P o l y g r a p h e r s of the f i r s t s c h o o l use p o l y g r a p h r e c o r d i n g s o n l y as an a d j u n c t i n r e a c h i n g t h e i r d i a g n o s i s . These p r a c t i t i o n e r s t h i n k of themselves as e x p e r i e n c e d d i a g n o s t i c i a n s who r e l y h e a v i l y on the f e e l , or g e s t a l t , of a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n ( i e . p o l i c e r e c o r d s , observed b e h a v i o r , and c o u r t r e c o r d s ) when making t h e i r d e c i s i o n . In c o n t r a s t , some of the more r e c e n t l y t r a i n e d p o l y g r a p h e r s p l a c e more emphasis on the p o l y g r a p h c h a r t s . A l t h o u g h the s u b j e c t i v e , a l l - i n c l u s i v e approach to d e t e c t i o n i s the most w i d e l y used, i t i s the most d i f f i c u l t to e v a l u a t e . The i n t e r r o g a t i o n p r o c e d u r e i s as much a r t as s c i e n c e , and outcome depends a g r e a t d e a l on how the p o l y g r a p h e r s y n t h e s i z e s a l l a v a i l a b l e d a t a . The dangers of i n t u i t i v e l y i n t e g r a t i n g d a t a have been o u t l i n e d i n the c o n t e x t of p s y c h o m e t r i c t e s t i n g (see Wi g g i n s , 1973), as w e l l as w i t h p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g i t s e l f . Szuko and K l e i n m u n t z (1981) a n a l y z e d the judgments of p o l y g r a p h e x p e r t s who b l i n d l y e v a l u a t e d the p o l y g r a p h c h a r t s of s u b j e c t s who were g u i l t y or i n n o c e n t of c o m m i t t i n g a mock c r i m e . The a u t h o r s found t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the c h a r t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y o u t p e r f o r m e d the ju d g e s . They c o n c l u d e t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l methods of i n t e r p r e t i n g p o l y g r a p h d a t a s h o u l d be developed and used. However, b e f o r e s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t i s t i c a l models can be d e v e l o p e d , the s u b j e c t i v e approach to s c o r i n g w i l l have to be abandoned i n f a v o r of a s t a n d a r d i z e d o b j e c t i v e s c o r i n g system. Such o b j e c t i v e systems, a l t h o u g h they e x i s t ( c f . R a s k i n , 1986), are o f t e n not 26 used by p r a c t i c i n g f i e l d p o l y g r a p h e r s (Ben-Shakhar, L i e b l i c h , & B a r - H i l l e l , 1982). The p r e s e n t study employed an o b j e c t i v e s c o r i n g system ( d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n the Method s e c t i o n ) i n the a n a l y s i s of both the CQT and GKT t e c h n i q u e s . As may be apparent from the above d i s c u s s i o n of the l i e r e s p o n s e , any p r a c t i c a l r e a l i z a t i o n of CQT t h e o r y r e s t s h e a v i l y on the s k i l l of the examiner i n m a n i p u l a t i n g the s u b j e c t ' s " p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e t " as i s done when c h o o s i n g c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s or c o n v i n c i n g the s u b j e c t of the machine's i n f a l l i b i l i t y . I g n o r i n g , f o r the moment, problems of s c o r i n g , the outcome of t e s t i n g depends on the i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t ' s r e l a t i v e a r o u s a l t o c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s and the g u i l t y s u b j e c t ' s a r o u s a l to the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s . However, t h e r e i s no good r e a s o n , p h y s i o l o g i c a l or o t h e r w i s e , to b e l i e v e t h a t an i n n o c e n t person would not be aroused by an e m o t i o n a l l y laden q u e s t i o n such as "Did you murder Mr. Smith?" Proponents argue t h a t CQT t h e o r y can o n l y be a p p r e c i a t e d when viewed i n the c o n t e x t of the whole t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e , i n c l u d i n g the p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w . Great ca r e i s t a k e n , as p o i n t e d out i n the above d i s c u s s i o n of p o l y g r a p h t e s t p r o c e d u r e , to impress upon the s u b j e c t t h a t attempts at l y i n g are u s e l e s s and t h a t he must be t r u t h f u l at a l l t i m e s . T a c t i c s l i k e the " s t i m t e s t " are o f t e n used to a i d i n c o n v i n c i n g the s u b j e c t t h a t the p o l y g r a p h i s i n f a l l i b l e i n i t s d e t e c t i o n of l y i n g . Those who b e l i e v e i n the v a l i d i t y of the CQT are c o n v i n c e d t h a t c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n of the s u b j e c t w i l l have d i f f e r e n t consequences f o r the g u i l t y and the i n n o c e n t . The i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t , who i s c o n v i n c e d the machine i s i n f a l l i b l e , w i l l have l i t t l e worry about the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s but w i l l be aroused by the c o n t r o l 27 q u e s t i o n s , which are d e s i g n e d to c r e a t e doubt about the answer. The o p p o s i t e i s t r u e of the g u i l t y s u b j e c t s , who focus on the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s . They are aroused by t h e i r answers because they know they must l i e , and have been l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t d e t e c t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e . Whether these m a n i p u l a t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t l y have the d e s i r e d e f f e c t or not i s an e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n and must be d e c i d e d through c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . An a n a l y s i s of the v a l i d i t y of c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , on the b a s i s of e x i s t i n g d a t a , i s done i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . F i e l d vs L a b o r a t o r y S t u d i e s of P o l y g r a p h V a l i d i t y N e i t h e r f i e l d s t u d i e s nor l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s are adequate, on t h e i r own, to p r o v i d e a good e s t i m a t e of p o l y g r a p h v a l i d i t y . A l t h o u g h the l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s s t u d i e s of both s o r t s , each of these approaches has i t s own s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. Many of the v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g p o l y g r a p h outcome can be c o n t r o l l e d i n a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g , but the c o n t r i v e d n a t u r e of these s t u d i e s makes the r e s u l t s q u e s t i o n a b l e when g e n e r a l i z e d to a r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n . In the l a b o r a t o r y , s u b j e c t s are o f t e n n a i v e i n d i v i d u a l s who commit a mock c r i m e , and a l t h o u g h t h i s crime p r o v i d e s an unambiguous c r i t e r i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g g u i l t or i n n o c e n c e , i t l e a v e s i n q u e s t i o n the m o t i v a t i o n a l and e m o t i o n a l concerns of the s u b j e c t . In comparison to c r i m i n a l s i t u a t i o n s , a s u b j e c t i n the l a b o r a t o r y o f t e n has l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e to pass the p o l y g r a p h t e s t . Both g u i l t y and i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s have l i t t l e at s t a k e i f they are found to be d e c e p t i v e . A l t h o u g h a f i e l d study p r o v i d e s the r e q u i s i t e e m o t i o n a l and 28 m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , and i n v o l v e s a c t u a l c r i m i n a l s u s p e c t s , the i s s u e of g u i l t or innocence i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to de t e r m i n e . R e l i a n c e on j u d i c i a l outcome i s not a s u i t a b l e r e c o u r s e s i n c e some peopl e w i l l be f a l s e l y c o n v i c t e d of a c r i m e , and p r o b a b l y a g r e a t e r number w i l l be a b s o l v e d of crimes they d i d commit on t e c h n i c a l grounds or l a c k of e v i d e n c e . The matter i s e q u a l l y u n c e r t a i n i f c o n f e s s i o n i s used as a s t a n d a r d , because c o n f e s s i n g may not be independent of the p o l y g r a p h i n t e r r o g a t i o n . Those who do p o o r l y on the p o l y g r a p h t e s t may be moved to c o n f e s s i n the b e l i e f t h a t t h e i r d e c e p t i o n has been exposed, and those who do w e l l i n t e s t i n g may be l e s s prone to c o n f e s s . And, f o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s , some i n n o c e n t v i c t i m s may g i v e a f a l s e c o n f e s s i o n . Any of the above s c e n a r i o s would r e s u l t i n a b i a s e d e s t i m a t e of p o l y g r a p h v a l i d i t y . When r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t addresses the i s s u e of v a l i d i t y , the l i m i t a t i o n s of both the f i e l d and the l a b o r a t o r y study must be kept i n mind. In a r e v i e w of l i e d e t e c t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , Iacono and P a t r i c k (1987) p o i n t out t h a t t h e r e have been 9 f i e l d s t u d i e s conducted to a s s e s s CQT a c c u r a c y . These s t u d i e s were conducted by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t r a i n e d i n e x p e r i m e n t a l methodology and by p o l y g r a p h e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the R e i d C o l l e g e f o r D e t e c t i o n of D e c e p t i o n . Two im p o r t a n t p r o c e d u r a l p o i n t s can be used to d i s t i n g u i s h among these s t u d i e s : method of d e t e r m i n i n g g u i l t or innocence and method of s c o r i n g c h a r t s . E s t a b l i s h i n g ground t r u t h i s o b v i o u s l y n e c e s s a r y when l o o k i n g at v a l i d i t y , and the s c o r i n g method i s an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e when the r o l e of the p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l t e s t i s to be c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y from the examiner's i n p u t i n d e t e r m i n i n g g u i l t or innocence. I f a 29 s u b j e c t i v e s c o r i n g system i s used, t h e r e i s no way to t e l l how v a r i a b l e s such as the s u s p e c t ' s demeanor, p o l i c e e v i d e n c e , or p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d the p o l y g r a p h e r ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . I f a n u m e r i c a l s c o r i n g system i s used the c h a r t s can be s c o r e d b l i n d l y so t h a t v a r i a b l e s o t h e r than c h a r t s c o r e s do not e n t e r i n t o the f i n a l d e c i s i o n . In the 9 s t u d i e s , d e t e r m i n a t i o n of g u i l t or innocence was made i n two ways, by p a n e l or by c o n f e s s i o n . Bersh (1969) conducted a study i n which the p o l y g r a p h examiner's d e c i s i o n was compared to the d e c i s i o n of a p a n e l of f o u r a t t o r n e y s . The a t t o r n e y s made t h e i r judgment on the b a s i s of the s u s p e c t ' s l e g a l f i l e , which d i d not c o n t a i n any p o l y g r a p h e v i d e n c e . S i n c e the p o l y g r a p h e r a l s o had access to case i n f o r m a t i o n p r i o r to p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g , the r o l e p l a y e d by the p o l y g r a p h alone i n h i s d e c i s i o n cannot be e s t i m a t e d . T h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , cannot be used i n a s s e s s i n g CQT a c c u r a c y . B a r l a n d and R a s k i n (1976) a l s o used a p a n e l , c o m p r i s i n g 2 defense a t t o r n e y s , 2 c r i m i n a l p r o s e c u t o r s , and a judge, t o e s t a b l i s h g u i l t or innocence. A weakness of t h i s s t u d y , a c c o r d i n g t o the a u t h o r s , i s t h a t s u s p e c t d a t a used by the p a n e l were c o m p i l e d by " i n e x p e r i e n c e d " s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t i n g i n c o m p l e t e n e s s of the su s p e c t f i l e s may have l e d to c r i t e r i o n e r r o r s by the p a n e l . A s t r e n g t h of t h i s s tudy i s the use of a n u m e r i c a l s c o r i n g system i n which the s c o r e s were summed over a l l of the s u s p e c t ' s c h a r t s . The c h a r t s were then a n a l y z e d by a perso n b l i n d to the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups. The r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy i n d i c a t e d t h a t 45% of the i n n o c e n t s u s p e c t s were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d , and 98% of the g u i l t y were i d e n t i f i e d , 30 f o r a t o t a l a c c u r a c y of 71%. Three s t u d i e s used c o n f e s s i o n s as the ground t r u t h c r i t e r i o n . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , a c o n f e s s i o n - v e r i f i e d sample has s e v e r a l t h r e a t s to i t s v a l i d i t y , not the l e a s t of which i s a p r o b a b l e b i a s towards c o n f i r m i n g the examiner's d e c i s i o n by those s u b j e c t ' s deemed to be g u i l t y . H orvath and R e i d (1971) conducted a study i n which they used case i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t had been conducted by the s e n i o r a u t h o r . In these cases 75 s u b j e c t s had been o r i g i n a l l y t e s t e d but o n l y 40 s u b j e c t s were used i n the s t u d y . The 35 s u b j e c t s not used were e l i m i n a t e d because t h e i r c h a r t s were deemed, by the a u t h o r s , to be " d r a m a t i c a l l y i n d i c a t i v e of t r u t h or d e c e p t i o n " (p. 276). T h i s s u b j e c t i v e e l i m i n a t i o n of c h a r t s l e a v e s an e x p e r i m e n t a l sample of unknown c o m p o s i t i o n . The c h a r t s were s c o r e d b l i n d l y by ten t r a i n e d p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n e r s , but a n u m e r i c a l s c o r i n g system was not used. The ten examiners a c h i e v e d an average of 91% i n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y i n g i n n o c e n t s u s p e c t s and an 85% i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of g u i l t y s u s p e c t s , f o r an o v e r a l l a c c u r a c y of 88%. H o r v a t h (1977) used cases drawn from the f i l e s of a l a r g e p o l i c e agency, and s e l e c t e d those from " v e r i f i e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , " v e r i f i c a t i o n b e i n g d e f i n e d as a case i n which the p o l y g r a p h e r ' s d e c i s i o n was c o n f i r m e d by c o n f e s s i o n . Ten f i e l d - t r a i n e d p o l y g r a p h examiners e v a l u a t e d the c h a r t s as i n d i c a t i n g " t r u t h f u l n e s s , " " d e c e p t i o n , " or b e i n g " i n c o n c l u s i v e . " The e v a l u a t o r s were b l i n d to the outcome of the o r i g i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , but they used the o r i g i n a l c h a r t s and n o t a t i o n s to a r r i v e at t h e i r d e c i s i o n . N u m e r i c a l s c o r i n g was not used. In t h i s study i t was found t h a t 51% of i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s and 77% of g u i l t y s u b j e c t s were 31 c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d , f o r an o v e r a l l average of 64%. The f i n a l s tudy u s i n g c o n f e s s i o n as a d e t e r m i n a n t of ground t r u t h was t h a t of K l e i n m u n t z and Szucko (1984a). The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s tudy were f i f t y c o n f e s s e d t h i e v e s and f i f t y i n n o c e n t s u s p e c t s who had been c l e a r e d by the c o n f e s s i o n s of o t h e r s . There i s no i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n as to how or when c o n f e s s i o n s were made, l e a v i n g open the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the o r i g i n a l examiner o b t a i n e d some or a l l c o n f e s s i o n s based on c h a r t r e s u l t s t h a t i n d i c a t e d d e c e p t i o n . Another problem w i t h the s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n i s t h a t a l l were s u s p e c t s i n cases of t h e f t and such s u s p e c t s may be ha r d e r t o d e t e c t ( H o r v a t h , 1977). The c h a r t s i n t h i s s tudy were s c o r e d b l i n d l y , u s i n g a g l o b a l s c o r i n g system, by s i x p o l y g r a p h examiners who were r e p o r t e d i n a subsequent paper ( K l e i n m u n t z & Szucko, 1984b) to be " p o l y g r a p h t r a i n e e s . " In a d d i t i o n , o n l y one c h a r t was s c o r e d f o r each s u b j e c t where i t i s s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e to use t h r e e or more. These a s p e c t s of the K l e i n m u n t z and Szucko (1984a) i n v e s t i g a t i o n may have d i m i n i s h e d a c c u r a c y r a t e s . Of the in n o c e n t s u s p e c t s 63% were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d , and 75% of the g u i l t y were i d e n t i f i e d , y i e l d i n g an o v e r a l l a c c u r a c y r a t e of 69%. The r e m a i n i n g 3 s t u d i e s (Hunter & Ash, 1973; S l o w i c k & B u c k l e y , 1975; W i c k l a n d e r & Hunter, 1975), which were p u b l i s h e d i n law enforcement j o u r n a l s , d i d not r e p o r t the c r i t e r i a t h a t were used to e s t a b l i s h ground t r u t h . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were o t h e r weaknesses of these s t u d i e s they are overshadowed by the absence of a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d ground t r u t h measure, w i t h o u t which t h e r e can be no c o n f i d e n c e at a l l p l a c e d i n the f i n d i n g s . On the b a s i s of the f i e l d s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d above, i t i s 32 apparent t h a t CQT v a l i d i t y has y e t to be c l e a r l y d e t e r m i n e d . T h i s e v i d e n c e suggests t h a t the CQT c o r r e c t l y d etermines g u i l t at above chance l e v e l s (range 75-98%) but i t c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e s the i n n o c e n t at a p o o r e r r a t e (range 45-91%). T h i s means t h a t 9-55% of i n n o c e n t s u s p e c t s were b e i n g m i s c l a s s i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e i n the above s t u d i e s . R a s k i n (1986) p r e s e n t s a somewhat b r i g h t e r p i c t u r e of CQT v a l i d i t y i n h i s r e v i e w of 5 l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s conducted between 1978 and 1982. These 5 s t u d i e s a l l employed non-student s u b j e c t s , f i e l d p o l y g r a p h t e c h n i q u e s , t r a i n e d p o l y g r a p h e r s , and used a mock crime p r o c e d u r e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of g u i l t y s u b j e c t s ranged from 89% to 100% c o r r e c t , w h i l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s ranged between 82% and 100% c o r r e c t . The combined a c c u r a c y r a t e f o r a l l s u b j e c t s was 95% w i t h an i n c o n c l u s i v e r a t e of 8%. Of the m i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , 8% of the i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s were determined to be g u i l t y ( f a l s e p o s i t i v e s ) and 3% of the g u i l t y were c l a s s i f i e d as i n n o c e n t ( f a l s e n e g a t i v e s ) . R a s k i n s t a t e s t h a t these m i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s " i n d i c a t e the l i m i t a t i o n s of the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n t e c h n i q u e , even when i t i s performed under c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s by h i g h l y s k i l l e d examiners w i t h e x t e n s i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g and e x p e r t i s e " (p. 42). I t appears t h a t the GKT i s not used much i n the f i e l d ( Iacono & P a t r i c k , 1987), so i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e r e have been no f i e l d s t u d i e s of GKT v a l i d i t y . The f i r s t l a b o r a t o r y study w i t h the GKT was done by Lykken (1959) when 98 u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s were a s s i g n e d to one of f o u r groups: a mock t h e f t group, a mock murder group, a group t h a t committed both mock c r i m e s , and a c o n t r o l group t h a t committed no c r i m e . The t e s t c o n s i s t e d of 33 s i x m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s f o r each of the two c r i m e s . Of 50 g u i l t y s u s p e c t s t e s t e d , 44 were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d as g u i l t y , w h i l e a l l 48 i n n o c e n t s u s p e c t s were c o r r e c t l y judged to be i n n o c e n t , f o r an o v e r a l l a c c u r a c y of 94%. These r e s u l t s have s i n c e been r e p l i c a t e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s . G e i s e n and R o l l i s o n (1980) had 20 s u b j e c t s commit a mock crime and then t e s t e d them a l o n g w i t h 20 i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s . L i k e t h a t of Lykken (1959) the GKT c o n s i s t e d of s i x items and was a b l e to c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y a l l the i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s and 95% of the g u i l t y . P o d l e s n y and R a s k i n (1978) used o n l y f i v e items i n an experiment of s i m i l a r d e s i g n and c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d a l l i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s and 90% of the g u i l t y s u b j e c t s . A l t h o u g h a l l l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s have found f a l s e n e g a t i v e r a t e s to be g r e a t e r than f a l s e p o s i t i v e r a t e s , the g u i l t y " h i t " r a t e has v a r i e d . However, a v i r t u e of the GKT method, not shared by more t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s , i s t h a t the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of g u i l t y from i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s can be i n c r e a s e d by i n c r e a s i n g the number of c r i t i c a l items i n the t e s t . Lykken (1981, p. 300) has d e v i s e d a t a b l e s u g g e s t i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l a c c u r a c y of the GKT f o r t e s t s of i n c r e a s i n g l e n g t h . A c c o r d i n g to the t a b l e , a GKT of f i v e items would be e x p e c t e d to produce a t r u e p o s i t i v e r a t e of 87.2% whereas a GKT of s i x t e e n items s h o u l d be 99.3% a c c u r a t e . The r a t e s p r e d i c t e d by the t a b l e are based on the assumption t h a t a l l q u e s t i o n s have been c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d . F a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n of q u e s t i o n s such as which d e t a i l s of the crime are l i k e l y to be remembered and what c o n d i t i o n s might i m p a i r r e c o l l e c t i o n of the crime are m a t t e r s t h a t r e q u i r e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h both i n the l a b o r a t o r y and 34 u l t i m a t e l y i n the f i e l d . The p r e s e n t study has examined some of the memory and a f f e c t i v e i s s u e s t h a t c o u l d have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n . W h i l e some s t u d i e s , f o r reasons of e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l , are bes t conducted i n the l a b o r a t o r y , s t e p s can be taken to moderate the a r t i f i c i a l s i t u a t i o n . S e v e r a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e s i m p o r t a n t to l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s are c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . One c r i t i c i s m o f t e n l e v e l e d at l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s i s t h a t s u b j e c t s have l i t t l e m o t i v a t i o n to a v o i d d e t e c t i o n . G u s t a f s o n and Orne (1963) demonstrated the importance of s u b j e c t m o t i v a t i o n . In t h a t study one group l i s t e n e d t o a tape t h a t t o l d them: a) the experiment was d e s i g n e d to see how w e l l the s u b j e c t c o u l d keep i n f o r m a t i o n from the e x p e r i m e n t e r , b) t h a t t h i s was e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t and o n l y persons w i t h s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e and g r e a t e m o t i o n a l c o n t r o l c o u l d succeed, c) they were to t r y as hard as they c o u l d t o beat the e x p e r i m e n t e r and the equipment, and d) i f they were s u c c e s s f u l , they would be p a i d . The second ( c o n t r o l ) group had no pr e e x p e r i m e n t i n s t r u c t i o n s . S u b j e c t s p i c k e d a p l a y i n g c a r d and then the e x p e r i m e n t e r used the p o l y g r a p h to determine which c a r d had been chosen. R e s u l t s showed t h a t the c o n t r o l group had t h e i r c a r d d e t e c t e d at r a t e s no b e t t e r than chance, w h i l e the m o t i v a t e d group were d e t e c t e d at r a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than chance. In the p r e s e n t study a pro c e d u r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t of G u s t a f s o n and Orne (1963) was used to i n c r e a s e m o t i v a t i o n i n a l l groups. A l l s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d the m o t i v a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above a l t h o u g h payment d i d not depend on " b e a t i n g " the p o l y g r a p h . Another i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i s t h a t of crime s a l i e n c e . Many 35 l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s use s i m p l e t a s k s , such as memorizing a l i s t of words or c h o o s i n g a c a r d , which r e q u i r e l i t t l e i n volvement or a t t e n t i o n by the s u b j e c t . S i n c e the importance of a t t e n t i o n to s t i m u l i i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n d i n g has been demonstrated ( C o r t e e n , 1969; McLean, 1969; Sampson, 1969) i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n v o l v e the s u b j e c t as much as p o s s i b l e i n the t a s k , and presumably the more s a l i e n t the t a s k the more a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d t o r e l e v a n t s t i m u l i . F o l l o w i n g the procedure of B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) each s u b j e c t i n the p r e s e n t study r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s which o u t l i n e d the crime and some s u b j e c t s had t h e i r memories primed f o r s a l i e n t d e t a i l s a f t e r they committed the crime (see Method s e c t i o n ) . One f i n a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e worth n o t i n g i s a s i t u a t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n made by Ben Shakhar, L i e b l i c h , and Kugelmass (1970), t h a t of " c e r t a i n " and " u n c e r t a i n " s i t u a t i o n s . In the " c e r t a i n " s i t u a t i o n i t i s known t h a t the s u b j e c t d i d i n f a c t do something, eg. p i c k a c a r d from a deck of f i v e . The examiner's t a s k i s to determine which of the car d s was p i c k e d . In t h i s case the examiner knows one response i s d e c e p t i v e and must i d e n t i f y i t . In an " u n c e r t a i n " s i t u a t i o n the examiner i s not sure t h a t the s u b j e c t i s g u i l t y so he i s no l o n g e r concerned w i t h m a x i m i z i n g c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s but he must a l s o attempt to c o n t r o l misses and f a l s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s . C l e a r l y , " u n c e r t a i n " s i t u a t i o n s are a much more r i g o r o u s and r e a l i s t i c t e s t f o r p o l y g r a p h i c d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . By d e s i g n the p r e s e n t study c o n f r o n t e d the examiner w i t h an " u n c e r t a i n " s i t u a t i o n s i n c e t h e r e was an i n n o c e n t c o n t r o l group who p r o v i d e d no d e c e p t i v e responses d u r i n g 36 t e s t i n g . Countermeasures As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , the commonly used f i e l d p o l y g r a p h p r o c e d u r e s tend to y i e l d h i g h f a l s e p o s i t i v e r a t e s ( 9 - 5 5 % ) . T h i s i s s u e i s i m p o r t a n t because our l e g a l system i s d e s i g n e d , and s h o u l d s e r v e , to p r o t e c t the i n n o c e n t . Another i s s u e , i m p o r t a n t i n terms of p o l y g r a p h v a l i d i t y , i s t h a t of f a l s e n e g a t i v e s , or the number of g u i l t y s u s p e c t s who "beat" the t e s t . There are a v a r i e t y of countermeasures t h a t can p o t e n t i a l l y be used by the g u i l t y to appear i n n o c e n t , i n c l u d i n g : mental countermeasures, p r a c t i c e i n making f a l s e r e s p o n s e s , h y p n o s i s , p h y s i c a l countermeasures such as u n o b t r u s i v e f l e x i n g of a muscle, p a i n , a d r e n a l e x h a u s t i o n , c o n t r o l l i n g r e s p i r a t i o n , and c h e m i c a l countermeasures ( B a r l a n d & R a s k i n , 1973). Of t h e s e , one t h a t has a t t r a c t e d r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t i s t h a t of c h e m i c a l countermeasures. Drugs are o f t e n a v a i l a b l e , even to i n d i v i d u a l s i n p r i s o n , and t h e i r use b e f o r e or d u r i n g p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g c o u l d r e p r e s e n t a s e r i o u s t h r e a t to v a l i d i t y . Waid, Orne, Cook, and Orne (1981) found t h a t 73% of g u i l t y s u b j e c t s were a b l e to a v o i d d e t e c t i o n w h i l e under the i n f l u e n c e of the t r a n q u i l i z e r meprobamate. T h e i r study was conducted i n a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g and the " g u i l t y " c o n d i t i o n c o n s i s t e d of h a v i n g s u b j e c t s o v e r l e a r n a l i s t of s i x common words. The g u i l t y s u b j e c t s were randomly a s s i g n e d to one of t h r e e groups: a group which r e c e i v e d a 400 mg dose of meprobamate, a group which r e c e i v e d a p l a c e b o , and a c o n t r o l group which r e c e i v e d no drugs. T h i r t y minutes a f t e r i n g e s t i n g the drug, both i n n o c e n t and g u i l t y 37 s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a p o l y g r a p h t e s t (GKT) by an e x p e r i m e n t e r who was b l i n d to the s u b j e c t ' s assignment. A f t e r the t e s t the examiner r a t e d the s u b j e c t ' s drug c o n d i t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g whether or not i t appeared t h a t a t r a n q u i l i z e r had been t a k e n . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 73% of g u i l t y s u b j e c t s who were under the i n f l u e n c e of meprobamate escaped d e t e c t i o n , w h i l e the p l a c e b o group escaped d e t e c t i o n o n l y 23% of the t i m e , and 100% of the i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , the drug a f f e c t e d b e h a v i o r so s u b t l y t h a t the examiner c o u l d not d i s t i n g u i s h between t r a n q u i l i z e d and n o n t r a n q u i 1 i z e d s u b j e c t s . In c o n t r a s t to the Waid et a l . (1981) s t u d y , Iacono, B o i s v e n u , and F l e m i n g (1984) found t h a t 100% of g u i l t y s u b j e c t s who had t aken a t r a n q u i l i z e r , i n t h i s case diazepam, were d e t e c t e d . S i m i l a r l y 100% of g u i l t y s u b j e c t s who took a s t i m u l a n t ( m e t h y l p h e n i d a t e ) were i d e n t i f i e d . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of g u i l t or innocence was made on the b a s i s of b l i n d l y s c o r e d c h a r t s . The examiner i n t h i s case c o u l d i d e n t i f y those s u b j e c t s who had t aken a t r a n q u i l i z e r . A p a r t from the d i f f e r e n c e i n t r a n q u i 1 i z i n g drug used, these two s t u d i e s a l s o d i f f e r e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y . S u b j e c t s i n the Iacono et a l . (1984) study watched a v i d e o t a p e d e p i c t i n g a b u r g l a r y r a t h e r than memorize a l i s t of words, and s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d to see what d e t a i l s of the v i d e o t a p e each had remembered. A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a b i l i t y of s u b j e c t s to r e c a l l c r i m e - r e l a t e d d e t a i l s and d e t e c t a b i 1 i t y was found; those who remembered more d e t a i l s were more l i k e l y to be d e t e c t e d . In l i g h t of the p r o c e d u r a l and drug d i f f e r e n c e s i n these s t u d i e s , the m a t t e r of t r a n q u i l i z e r e f f e c t s remains u n r e s o l v e d . 38 E v i d e n c e f o r another s o r t of drug countermeasure has r e c e n t l y emerged. B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) conducted a study i n which s u b j e c t s committed a mock crime w h i l e e i t h e r a l c o h o l -i n t o x i c a t e d o r sober. The f o l l o w i n g day the group of g u i l t y s u b j e c t s was f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d so t h a t h a l f underwent p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g w h i l e i n t o x i c a t e d and h a l f w h i l e sober. Each s u b j e c t was t e s t e d w i t h both the G u i l t y Knowledge Test and the C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n T e s t . The p r i n c i p a l c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s s tudy was t h a t a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n d u r i n g commission of the crime reduced subsequent d e t e c t a b i 1 i t y on both the GKT and CQT. I n t o x i c a t i o n w h i l e t a k i n g the p o l y g r a p h appeared not to be an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e , which argues a g a i n s t i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a countermeasure d u r i n g t e s t i n g . In a d d i t i o n , the examiner, a l t h o u g h b l i n d to the a l c o h o l s t a t e , c o u l d a c c u r a t e l y judge which s u b j e c t s were i n e b r i a t e d at the time of t e s t i n g . A l t h o u g h the a l c o h o l e f f e c t s appeared to be s u b s t a n t i a l w i t h b oth the CQT and GKT, the a u t h o r s c o u l d not e x p l a i n why the a l c o h o l had a c t e d to reduce d e t e c t a b i 1 i t y . They s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the a l c o h o l a f f e c t e d e m o t i o n a l and memory p r o c e s s e s t h a t are im p o r t a n t to p o l y g r a p h i c d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . T h i s stems from the assumption t h a t the CQT r e l i e s on a person's e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n t o a q u e s t i o n whereas the GKT depends more on memory f o r crime d e t a i l s . The i s s u e of e m o t i o n a l i t y at the time of the crime and i t s subsequent e f f e c t s on p o l y g r a p h outcome i s not w e l l u n d e r s t o o d . D a v i s (1961) o u t l i n e s t h r e e t h e o r i e s t h a t attempt to e x p l a i n why p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses to p o l y g r a p h q u e s t i o n s o c c u r : c o n d i t i o n e d r e s p o n s e , c o n f l i c t , and punishment. C o n d i t i o n e d response r e f e r s to a p r o c e s s whereby the r e l e v a n t p o l y g r a p h q u e s t i o n s are s t i m u l i 39 c o n d i t i o n e d to evoke e m o t i o n a l responses because of an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c r i m e . The c o n f l i c t t h e o r y assumes people are s o c i a l i z e d to be t r u t h f u l , and d e c e i t causes c o n f l i c t w i t h t h i s t r u t h f u l tendency l e a d i n g t o the p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s ponse. The t h i r d t h e o r y , punishment, suggests t h a t f e a r of the consequences of d e t e c t i o n i s what causes an autonomic response. None of these t h e o r i e s a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n s a l l the s i t u a t i o n s i n which s u c c e s s f u l d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n has been obse r v e d (see R a s k i n , 1979). In an attempt to account f o r p r e v i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , R a s k i n (1979) d e s c r i b e s a c o n c e p t u a l framework based on the i d e a s of a r o u s a l and a t t e n t i o n . He suggests t h a t q u e s t i o n s on the CQT would c r e a t e g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l a r o u s a l i n the s u b j e c t than q u e s t i o n s on the GKT. T h i s i s a r e s u l t of the CQT r e l e v a n t and c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s b e i n g a c c u s a t o r y , t h r e a t e n i n g , and p e r s o n a l , and the f a c t t h a t these q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v e a d i r e c t d e n i a l of g u i l t by the s u b j e c t . R a s k i n f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e s t h a t the GKT and CQT may be u t i l i z i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s . Where the GKT may be e v o k i n g an o r i e n t i n g response (OR) to r e l e v a n t i t e m s , the CQT may be e v o k i n g a d e f e n s i v e response (DR). I t f o l l o w s t h a t events at the time of the crime t h a t i n some way d i s r u p t one or the o t h e r of these responses would a f f e c t p o l y g r a p h outcome, and would a f f e c t the CQT and the GKT d i f f e r e n t i a l l y . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t memory i s an im p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n response to the GKT q u e s t i o n s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s u l t s of Iacono e t a l . (1984) which suggested t h a t the a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l c rime d e t a i l s i s r e l a t e d t o d e t e c t a b i l i t y . However, a r e c o g n i t i o n 40 memory t e s t g i v e n by B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) showed h i g h r a t e s of r e c a l l a c r o s s a l l groups. The au t h o r s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e i r memory t e s t may have been i n s e n s i t i v e t o memory d i s t u r b a n c e s f o r two r e a s o n s . The GKT was s e r i a l and a u d i t o r y , and thus the s u b j e c t s had to make a d e c i s i o n about each word as they heard i t , which may have caused some u n c e r t a i n t y about the c r i t i c a l i t e m . The f i n a l memory t e s t , i n c o n t r a s t , p r e s e n t e d a l l items s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and asked the s u b j e c t t o r e c o g n i z e the c r i t i c a l i t e m , which may have been an e a s i e r t a s k . The second p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r memory t e s t i n s e n s i t i v i t y i s t h a t i t came a f t e r the GKT, and t h e r e f o r e the s u b j e c t s were g i v e n exposure to the c r i t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e the memory t e s t which may have a i d e d them i n r e c a l l . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e t h a t memory e f f e c t s s h o u l d not be d i s c o u n t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r r e s u l t s . A l t h o u g h B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) d i d not demonstrate any memory e f f e c t s as a r e s u l t of a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n , t h e r e i s ev i d e n c e t h a t such e f f e c t s do o c c u r . The e f f e c t s of v a r i o u s d r u g s , i n c l u d i n g those i n common use such as m a r i j u a n a and a l c o h o l , have been s t u d i e d and r e p o r t e d i n the st a t e - d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g l i t e r a t u r e . In r e f e r e n c e t o r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n and dr u g - i n d u c e d s t a t e , E i c h (1977) s t a t e s , "A person asked to remember a s i m p l e event such as the appearance of a f a m i l i a r word i n an o t h e r w i s e u n f a m i l i a r l i s t or c o l l e c t i o n of o t h e r words, t y p i c a l l y shows i m p a i r e d r e t r i e v a l f o r the word-event when h i s s t a t e i s changed between the study and t e s t s e s s i o n s of the ex p e r i m e n t , i n comparison w i t h c o n d i t i o n s where h i s s t a t e remains the same on b o t h o c c a s i o n s " (p. 141). In a re v i e w of drugs t h a t have been shown to produce memory e f f e c t s E i c h (1977) r e p o r t e d 41 t h a t the e f f e c t i v e dose of a b s o l u t e e t h a n o l was between 0.92 to 1.58 rals/kg of body w e i g h t . However, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between memory d i s t u r b a n c e s and drug dosage has not y e t been t h o r o u g h l y r e s e a r c h e d . Another p e r s p e c t i v e comes from r e s e a r c h on the p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g y of a t t e n t i o n and memory, which has shown t h a t c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g of s t i m u l u s i n f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g the p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t i n the d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . C o r t e e n (1969) showed t h a t when a l i s t of words i s p r e s e n t e d to a s u b j e c t , those t h a t are remembered l a t e r are words which produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r e l e c t r o d e r m a l responses d u r i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n . Those t h a t were f o r g o t t e n tend to be words t h a t produced the s m a l l e r e l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n s e s . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been o b t a i n e d i n s t u d i e s by Sampson (1969) and McLean (1969). The assumption of these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i s t h a t the more i n t e n s e l y a s u b j e c t f o c u s e s on the s t i m u l u s , the g r e a t e r the e l e c t r o d e r m a l response w i l l be and the more l i k e l y the s u b j e c t w i l l be to remember the word. These and o t h e r s t u d i e s of a r o u s a l and memory suggest t h a t s u b j e c t s who do not f u l l y p r o c e s s the semantic i n f o r m a t i o n of each q u e s t i o n show reduced e l e c t r o d e r m a l responses and may be d e t e c t e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y on a p o l y g r a p h t e s t . F a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y a f f e c t the p r o c e s s i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n a r e : c o g n i t i v e countermeasures such as c o u n t i n g backwards by t h r e e s , drugs which would d i s t u r b the focus of a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g t e s t i n g , and the s a l i e n c e of the t e s t i t e m s . With r e g a r d to t h i s f a c t o r of s a l i e n c e , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e to suggest t h a t more a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d to items t h a t have 42 g r e a t e r meaning f o r the s u b j e c t . T h i s e f f e c t would be e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n the G u i l t y Knowledge Test which depends on item r e c o g n i t i o n . Any c o n d i t i o n t h a t a f f e c t s a person's memory f o r crime d e t a i l s , or the p r o c e s s i n g of these d e t a i l s d u r i n g the c r i m e , c o u l d a f f e c t the u t i l i t y of those items i n a p o l y g r a p h t e s t and reduce d e t e c t a b i 1 i t y . Memory f o r crime d e t a i l s was l o o k e d at i n s e v e r a l ways i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . A f t e r the p o l y g r a p h t e s t was g i v e n to each s u b j e c t he was asked to complete t h r e e memory t e s t s : one a f r e e r e c a l l t a s k o f t e n used i n r e s e a r c h on e y e w i t n e s s memory of crime (see Y u i l l e & C u t s h a l l , 1986) which s i m p l y asks the s u b j e c t to remember and note a l l the d e t a i l s he can, one a r e c a l l t e s t which asks f o r s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n , and the t h i r d a r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t i n which the s u b j e c t must choose the r e l e v a n t item from a l i s t of i r r e l e v a n t items (see Appendix V I I ) . The r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t c o n t a i n e d c r i m e - r e l e v a n t items not i n c l u d e d i n the G u i l t y Knowledge Test as w e l l as those t h a t were. In t h i s way a c o r r e l a t i o n can be c a l c u l a t e d between p o l y g r a p h s c o r e s and memory f o r g e n e r a l crime d e t a i l s as w e l l as between p o l y g r a p h s c o r e s and memory f o r items s p e c i f i c to the t e s t . Study R a t i o n a l e One a r e a of study t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of p o l y g r a p h v a l i d i t y i s the i s s u e c o n c e r n i n g e f f e c t s of drugs on p o l y g r a p h outcome. S p e c i f i c a l l y , e v i d e n c e has emerged s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n at the time of the crime has an e f f e c t on subsequent p o l y g r a p h performance. S i n c e the use of a l c o h o l i s wid e s p r e a d i n t h i s s o c i e t y ( L e d a i n Commission R e p o r t , 1972) and 43 many cri m e s are committed under i t s i n f l u e n c e ( G l a s e r , 1978) any e f f e c t i t might have t h a t s e r v e s to decrease p o l y g r a p h v a l i d i t y would be i m p o r t a n t . B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) r e p o r t e d t h a t a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n d u r i n g a mock crime can s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e c r e a s e d e t e c t a b i l i t y by a p o l y g r a p h t e s t ( b o t h CQT and GKT) a d m i n i s t e r e d the f o l l o w i n g day. A l t h o u g h they found an a l c o h o l e f f e c t , they c o u l d not e x p l a i n why t h i s had o c c u r r e d . S i n c e the mechanisms of p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n d i n g , which are the b a s i s of the p o l y g r a p h method, are p o o r l y u n d e r s t o o d , the a u t h o r s c o u l d o n l y s p e c u l a t e t h a t a l c o h o l a c t e d through memory or e m o t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t e i t h e r one or both of these p r o c e s s e s are i m p o r t a n t i n the d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . And i f R a s k i n (1979) i s c o r r e c t i n h i s p r o p o s a l t h a t the CQT and GKT r e l y on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses to d e t e c t d e c e p t i o n , memory f o r crime d e t a i l s and e m o t i o n a l responses d u r i n g the crime c o u l d a f f e c t each t e s t d i f f e r e n t l y . The p r e s e n t study l o o k e d at the e f f e c t s t h a t emotion ( t h r e a t ) and memory f o r crime d e t a i l s have on the outcome of both p o l y g r a p h methods. The p r e s e n t study was a l s o an attempt to r e p l i c a t e the f i n d i n g s of B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) and to i n v e s t i g a t e how e t h a n o l i n t o x i c a t i o n might a f f e c t e m o t i o n a l and memory p r o c e s s e s as they r e l a t e to p o l y g r a p h outcome. S u b j e c t s r e c r u i t e d from undergraduate c l a s s e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d both a C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test and a G u i l t y Knowledge Test two days a f t e r they had committed a s i m u l a t e d c r i m e . P r o c e d u r e s were s i m i l a r to those of B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) 44 w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e . C o n d i t i o n s o f t h r e a t , memory f o r c r i m e d e t a i l s , a n d a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n w e r e m a n i p u l a t e d i n a f u l l y f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n . G u i l t y s u b j e c t s c o m m i t t e d t h e mock c r i m e u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f h i g h o r l o w t h r e a t , t h e n w e r e p r i m e d o r n o t f o r c r i m e d e t a i l s , a n d h a l f o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n e a c h o f t h e s e g r o u p s w e r e i n t o x i c a t e d w h i l e h a l f w e r e n o t . Some s u b j e c t s came t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y b u t d i d n o t c o m m i t t h e mock c r i m e a n d w e r e t o l d none o f t h e r e l e v a n t d e t a i l s . T h e y s e r v e d as i n n o c e n t c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t h e p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g , w h i c h a l l s u b j e c t s u n d e r w e n t two d a y s a f t e r c o m m i t t i n g t h e mock c r i m e . The p o l y g r a p h e r was b l i n d t o g r o u p a s s i g n m e n t o f s u b j e c t s a t t h e t i m e o f t e s t i n g , a n d a f t e r t h e s t u d y was c o m p l e t e d t h e c h a r t s w e r e s c o r e d b l i n d l y . A l l c h a r t s w e r e n u m b e r e d a n d a l l i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was r e m o v e d . B e s i d e s t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h r e a t a n d memory , p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e m o n i t o r e d a t s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . As w e l l , e x t e n s i v e memory t e s t i n g was done f o l l o w i n g t h e p o l y g r a p h s e s s i o n t o d e t e r m i n e wha t e f f e c t s t h e v a r i o u s e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s h a d on r e c a l l a n d r e c o g n i t i o n o f c r i m e d e t a i l s . Ou tcome o f p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h f a c t o r s ( e m o t i o n d u r i n g t h e c r i m e , memory f o r c r i m e d e t a i l s , and a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n ) w e r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e t e c t i o n o f d e c e p t i o n . The p r i m a r y h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g t e s t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s c o n c e r n s t h e e f f e c t s o f a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n a t t h e t i m e o f t h e c r i m e : i f a s u b j e c t i s i n t o x i c a t e d w h i l e c o m m i t t i n g a mock c r i m e t h e n he w i l l be more d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t as g u i l t y on p h y s i o l o g i c a l t e s t s o f d e c e p t i o n . A s e c o n d a r y h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n s t h e m e c h a n i s m t h r o u g h w h i c h a l c o h o l m i g h t a c t : i f c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t i o n d o e s 45 reduce subsequent p o l y g r a p h d e t e c t a b i l i t y then e m o t i o n a l and memory p r o c e s s e s at the time of the crime w i l l have been d i s r u p t e d i n the i n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s . E x p e c t a t i o n s based on c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e are t h a t c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t i o n w i l l reduce d e t e c t a b i l i t y of d e c e p t i o n by both the CQT and GKT p r o c e d u r e s . The l i t e r a t u r e does not p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e to a l l o w such a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p r e d i c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the mechanism of a l c o h o l ' s a c t i o n , but i t i s apparent t h a t memory i s an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n the GKT proce d u r e and the CQT procedure appears to r e l y on a s u b j e c t ' s e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n to r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s . The e x p e c t a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s t h a t memory d i s r u p t i o n s due to i n t o x i c a t i o n would be i m p o r t a n t to the GKT procedure and e m o t i o n a l d i s r u p t i o n s would be i m p o r t a n t to the CQT. 46 M e t h o d Subj e c t s E i g h t y male u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s were r e c r u i t e d from u n d e r g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study i n v o l v i n g the d e t e c t i o n of hi d d e n i n f o r m a t i o n . The mean age of the s u b j e c t s was 20.53 y r s w i t h a range from 19 y r s ( t h e l e g a l d r i n k i n g age) to 51 y r s . Most of the s u b j e c t s were C a u c a s i a n , but the group a l s o i n c l u d e d some who were of O r i e n t a l d e s c e n t . B e f o r e they v o l u n t e e r e d , s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a consent form to read and s i g n (see Appendix I ) . The consent form t o l d the s u b j e c t s t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t was i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s of a l c o h o l on the d e t e c t i o n of c o n c e a l e d i n f o r m a t i o n , and they would be asked to v o l u n t e e r about 3 hours of t h e i r time over 2 days. On the f i r s t day, most s u b j e c t s would be r e q u i r e d to perform a t a s k which i n v o l v e d t a k i n g money from a room, and they might a l s o be asked to d r i n k a l c o h o l . A l l s u b j e c t s were to r e t u r n two days a f t e r the i n i t i a l l a b v i s i t to undergo a p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n . S i n c e some s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o d r i n k a l c o h o l , they had to agree to remain i n the l a b o r a t o r y w i t h a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t f o r one hour f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t s e s s i o n to a l l o w some of the a l c o h o l ' s e f f e c t to wear o f f . S u b j e c t s who had consumed a l c o h o l were c h a u f f e u r e d home by a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t . S u b j e c t s who were a s s i g n e d t o the a l c o h o l group were a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d a m e d i c a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t asked f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about g e n e r a l h e a l t h and consumption of drugs or a l c o h o l (see Appendix I I ) . Any s u b j e c t who r e p o r t e d a major h e a l t h problem 47 would be r e q u i r e d to o b t a i n a p h y s i c i a n ' s w r i t t e n c e r t i f i c a t i o n t h a t he c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . There was a p h y s i c i a n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study who a s s i s t e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the h e a l t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e and who was on c a l l i n case any m e d i c a l problems arose d u r i n g the s t u d y . A l s o , s u b j e c t s who were to be i n the a l c o h o l group were asked not to eat f o r 2 hours and not to consume a l c o h o l f o r 24 hours b e f o r e coming to the l a b . In a d d i t i o n , they were asked not to d r i n k c o f f e e or smoke c i g a r e t t e s 1 hour b e f o r e coming f o r the p o l y g r a p h t e s t . Apparatus A Beckman R612 p o l y g r a p h was used to r e c o r d t h r e e p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n n e l s : s k i n conductance response (SCR), r e s p i r a t i o n , and f i n g e r p u l s e a m p l i t u d e . SCR was r e c o r d e d u s i n g Ag-AgCl e l e c t r o d e s a t t a c h e d to the m e d i a l phalanges on the f i r s t and second f i n g e r s of the l e f t hand. The e l e c t r o d e s were f i l l e d w i t h Unibase NaCI e l e c t r o d e p a s t e . A Beckman S k i n Conductance C o u p l e r , type 9844, was used to p r o c e s s the s i g n a l . R e s p i r a t i o n was measured w i t h a s i n g l e c h e s t b e l l o w s p o s i t i o n e d above the diaphragm. The b e l l o w s were a t t a c h e d through a s t r a i n gage to a Beckman I n t e g r a t i n g S t r a i n Gage C o u p l e r , type 9825. F i n g e r p u l s e a m p l i t u d e was r e c o r d e d w i t h a p h o t o e l e c t r i c t r a n s d u c e r a t t a c h e d to the m i d d l e f i n g e r of the r i g h t hand and c o v e r e d w i t h a b l a c k , foam f i n g e r s h e a t h . The s i g n a l went to a Beckman P h o t o c e l l C o u p l e r , type 9874, and was r e c o r d e d w i t h the time c o n s t a n t s e t at .03 second. The 50% bandwidth f o r h i g h f r e q u e n c y f i l t e r i n g was set at 30 H e r t z f o r a l l t h r e e c h a n n e l s . Chart speed f o r a l l 48 s u b j e c t s was 2.5 mm/sec. B l o o d p r e s s u r e and h e a r t r a t e was mon i t o r e d throughout the study w i t h a low-weight sphygmomanometer w i t h p r e s s u r e c u f f , a manual pump, and a m i c r o p r o c e s s o r w i t h d i g i t a l d i s p l a y (model UA 102, Thought Technology I n c . , M o n t r e a l ) . Study Design The d e s i g n of t h i s study i n v o l v e d a t o t a l of 80 s u b j e c t s : 64 had committed a s i m u l a t e d c r i m e , and 16 had committed no crime s e r v i n g as i n n o c e n t c o n t r o l s (see F i g u r e 1 ) . The g u i l t y s u b j e c t s were s u b d i v i d e d so t h a t h a l f (32) were i n t o x i c a t e d w i t h a l c o h o l at the time of the c r i m e , and h a l f were sober. The a l c o h o l and no a l c o h o l groups were a l s o d i v i d e d , i n t o a group of 16 s u b j e c t s who committed the crime under c o n d i t i o n s of h i g h t h r e a t and a group of 16 who were under low t h r e a t c o n d i t i o n s . Each of the t h r e a t groups had 8 s u b j e c t s who read a l i s t of d e t a i l s r e l e v a n t t o the c r i m e , and 8 s u b j e c t s who d i d n o t . These s u b j e c t s s e r v e d as the primed memory group and unprimed memory group r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l s u b j e c t s r e t u r n e d two days a f t e r c o m m i t t i n g the crime ( o r j u s t h a v i n g t h e i r b a s e l i n e measurements t a k e n , i n the case of i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s ) t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d the p o l y g r a p h t e s t s . The two p o l y g r a p h t e s t s used were the t r a d i t i o n a l C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test (CQT) and the G u i l t y Knowledge Test (GKT). The o r d e r of t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d i n each group so t h a t h a l f of the s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d the CQT f i r s t , and h a l f r e c e i v e d the GKT f i r s t . In summary, the d e s i g n f o r the g u i l t y s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d 2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n at the time of the crime ( s o b e r , 4 9 F i g u r e 1 Study Design Condi t i o n A l c o h o l No A l c o h o l Innocent Primed n = 8 n = 8 High T h r e a t n = 16 UnPrimed n = 8 n = 8 Primed n = 8 n = 8 Low Threat Unprimed n = 8 n = 8 Note: Order of p o l y g r a p h t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d i n each f a c t o r i a l c e l l 50 l e g a l i n t o x i c a t i o n ) , 2 l e v e l s of e m o t i o n a l s a l i e n c e of the crime ( h i g h t h r e a t , low t h r e a t ) , and 2 l e v e l s of a b i l i t y to r e c a l l crime d e t a i l s ( p r i m e d , unprimed). As w e l l , t h e r e were 2 o r d e r s of p o l y g r a p h t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (CQT f i r s t , GKT f i r s t ) . P r o c e d u r e B e f o r e v o l u n t e e r i n g f o r the s t u d y , each s u b j e c t was informed t h a t he would be r e q u i r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n two e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n s , two days a p a r t . On the f i r s t day each s u b j e c t was met and e s c o r t e d i n t o the l a b by a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t . About f i v e minutes was spent e x p l a i n i n g the s u b j e c t ' s p a r t i n the s t u d y , and answering any q u e s t i o n s he might have. The r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s were i n s t r u c t e d to answer q u e s t i o n s i n a broad way w i t h o u t r e v e a l i n g the s p e c i f i c purpose of the experiment or any d e t a i l s t h a t might compromise the outcome. The s u b j e c t was then g i v e n the consent form to r e a d and s i g n . Once the s u b j e c t u n d e r s t o o d what was r e q u i r e d of him, and had s i g n e d the consent form, he was asked to complete the f i r s t of t h r e e S t a t e A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r i e s ( S p i e l b e r g e r , Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970). I t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t the s u b j e c t s h o u l d be honest i n answering the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h a t none of the i n f o r m a t i o n would be a v a i l a b l e to the p o l y g r a p h e r . Next, the s u b j e c t ' s b l o o d p r e s s u r e and h e a r t r a t e were r e c o r d e d w h i l e he was s e a t e d . The above procedure was the same f o r a l l s u b j e c t s , and o n l y a f t e r the b l o o d p r e s s u r e measurements were made d i d the treatment of s u b j e c t s b e g i n to d i f f e r , depending on the e x p e r i m e n t a l group to which they were randomly a s s i g n e d . Those s u b j e c t s who were a s s i g n e d to the a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n 51 group were asked t h e i r body w e i g h t . The r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t then d e t e r m i n e d the amount of e t h a n o l needed to a d m i n i s t e r a dose of 1.32 mis per kg of body weight by r e f e r r i n g to the a l c o h o l - w e i g h t c h a r t p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix I I I . The a l c o h o l was s e r v e d i n t h r e e d r i n k s made w i t h a m i x t u r e of orange and p i n e a p p l e j u i c e . The s u b j e c t had 15 minutes to f i n i s h each d r i n k , so the t o t a l time taken to consume the a l c o h o l dose was 45 minutes. S u b j e c t s were then asked to remain s e a t e d f o r 10 minutes to a l l o w the a l c o h o l to be absorbed i n t o the b l o o d s t r e a m . A f t e r f i n i s h i n g the d r i n k s the s u b j e c t was read e i t h e r the High Threat or the Low Threat crime i n s t r u c t i o n s (see Appendix I V ) . The i n s t r u c t i o n s o u t l i n e d a crime s c e n a r i o t h a t the s u b j e c t would c a r r y o u t . In the High T h r e a t c o n d i t i o n , the s u b j e c t was t o l d he had j u s t gone to buy a p s y c h o l o g y l a b manual i n h i s p r o f e s s o r ' s o f f i c e (an o f f i c e s e t up s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s s t u d y ) . He has seen some money i n a cashbox and now d e c i d e s to s t e a l i t . The p r o f e s s o r has l e f t the o f f i c e f o r a s h o r t time and t h e . s u b j e c t must go i n , get the key to the cashbox from a coat p o c k e t , remove the cashbox from the desk, s t e a l the money, and r e t u r n w i t h i t to the l a b . The o f f i c e number was g i v e n and the i m p o r t a n t s t e p s n e c e s s a r y to a c c o m p l i s h the crime were o u t l i n e d . The High T h r e a t i n s t r u c t i o n s s t r e s s e d t h a t the s u b j e c t s h o u l d be u n o b t r u s i v e and v e r y c a r e f u l because he has no i d e a when the p r o f e s s o r w i l l r e t u r n to the o f f i c e . The s u b j e c t was a l s o t o l d t h a t people i n the a r e a of the o f f i c e had not been i n f o r m e d of t h i s s t u d y , and due to r e c e n t t h e f t s from o f f i c e s i n the b u i l d i n g , he had to be c a r e f u l not to arouse s u s p i c i o n s . The 52 s u b j e c t was g i v e n d i r e c t i o n s to the o f f i c e and was r e q u i r e d to go t h e r e by h i m s e l f . A l t h o u g h the o f f i c e i s on the same f l o o r as the l a b , i t i s l o c a t e d on the o p p o s i t e s i d e of the b u i l d i n g , so the s u b j e c t had to walk down t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o r r i d o r s to get to i t . When the s u b j e c t had u n d e r s t o o d the i n s t r u c t i o n s , h i s b l o o d p r e s s u r e and h e a r t r a t e were r e c o r d e d f o r a second t i m e , then he proceeded on h i s own to the crime o f f i c e . Once i n s i d e the o f f i c e the High Threat s u b j e c t e n c o u n t e r e d s e v e r a l crime f e a t u r e s d e s i g n e d to i n c r e a s e h i s a r o u s a l . To b e g i n , t h e r e was a c i g a r e t t e b u r n i n g i n an a s h t r a y on the desk. The i n t e n t i o n was to g i v e an appearance t h a t someone had j u s t l e f t the o f f i c e and was l i k e l y to r e t u r n s h o r t l y . The s u b j e c t passed the desk and went to get the cashbox key from a coat hanging on a coat r a c k . When he reached i n t o the coat pocket a c o n c e a l e d t r i p w i r e caused some empty pop cans to f a l l o f f a ledge b e h i n d the c o a t . There were many cans s t a c k e d a l o n g the l e d g e , and the s e t up gave the appearance t h a t the s u b j e c t had been clumsy i n h a n d l i n g the coat and had knocked the cans over h i m s e l f . The i d e a was t h a t the n o i s e of the f a l l i n g cans would s t a r t l e the s u b j e c t and perhaps i n c r e a s e h i s a n x i e t y t h a t someone would hear him. F i n a l l y , when the s u b j e c t opened the desk drawer to get the cashbox he a l s o found a bag of s i m u l a t e d m a r i j u a n a . T h i s was a f i n a l attempt to i n c r e a s e a r o u s a l by h a v i n g the s u b j e c t u n e x p e c t e d l y e n c o u n t e r something w i t h h i g h s t i m u l u s v a l u e . When a s u b j e c t i n the Low Threat group had f i n i s h e d h i s l a s t d r i n k he was a l s o r e a d i n s t r u c t i o n s , but these d i f f e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the High T h r e a t i n s t r u c t i o n s (see Appendix 53 I V ) . The Low Threat s u b j e c t was t o l d t h a t we were i n t e r e s t e d i n how the a c t of removing some money from a cashbox a f f e c t s b l o o d p r e s s u r e and h e a r t r a t e . The same o u t l i n e f o r f i n d i n g the money was g i v e n ; the s u b j e c t had to get a key from the coat p o c k e t , r e t r i e v e the cashbox from the desk, u n l o c k i t , and take the money. There was no t h r e a t i m p l i e d i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s , and the r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s attempted to be as c a s u a l as p o s s i b l e i n answering any q u e s t i o n s . To keep the s c e n a r i o low key, the s u b j e c t was accompanied by a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t from the l a b to the door of the crime room. While the r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t w a i t e d o u t s i d e , the s u b j e c t went i n and got the money. U n l i k e the High T h r e a t c o n d i t i o n , t h e r e was no b u r n i n g c i g a r e t t e , no t r i p w i r e to the pop cans, and no m a r i j u a n a i n the desk. Apart from^ the t h r e a t e n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s and a r o u s a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s , the Low Threat s u b j e c t s saw the same t h i n g s and performed the same a c t i o n s as the High Threat s u b j e c t s d i d i n s i d e the crime room. The g o a l was to have the High and Low Threat crime s i t u a t i o n s d i f f e r o n l y i n the amount of a r o u s a l the s u b j e c t e x p e r i e n c e d w h i l e t a k i n g the money. The same High Threat and Low Threat s c e n a r i o s were c a r r i e d out w i t h s u b j e c t s i n the No A l c o h o l group, so t h a t t h e r e were 16 s u b j e c t s i n each of f o u r groups: A l c o h o l / H i g h T h r e a t , A l c o h o l / L o w T h r e a t , No A l c o h o l / H i g h T h r e a t , No Alco h o l / L o w T h r e a t . A f t e r t a k i n g the money from the cashbox, a l l s u b j e c t s , r e g a r d l e s s of group assignment, were met o u t s i d e the crime room and i m m e d i a t e l y asked to s i t i n a c h a i r . T h e i r b l o o d p r e s s u r e and h e a r t r a t e were r e c o r d e d f o r a t h i r d time and they completed the 54 S t a t e A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y f o r a second time. Each s u b j e c t was then taken back to the l a b . Those who were i n a primed memory group were taken i n t o a s m a l l room and re a d a paragraph t h a t d e s c r i b e d 11 d e t a i l s of the crime room, 5 of which would l a t e r be used on the G u i l t y Knowledge Test (see Appendix V I ) . The s u b j e c t was then q u i z z e d on each item t o make sure he had remembered a l l the d e t a i l s . S u b j e c t s who were to ser v e as i n n o c e n t c o n t r o l s came to the l a b , read and s i g n e d the consent form, then had t h e i r b l o o d p r e s s u r e and h e a r t r a t e r e c o r d e d . I n s t e a d of h a v i n g High or Low Threat i n s t r u c t i o n s r ead to them, a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n of the e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e was g i v e n and they were t o l d they would be f u n c t i o n i n g as c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s , b e i n g i n n o c e n t of the mock cr i m e . No d e t a i l s of the crime s c e n a r i o were g i v e n t o them. B e f o r e l e a v i n g the l a b a l l s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a reminder s l i p w i t h an appointment time f o r the p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n s t o meet the p o l y g r a p h e r . A l s o , the purpose of the p o l y g r a p h s e s s i o n was e x p l a i n e d : the p o l y g r a p h e r was g o i n g to t r y and f i n d o u t , by measuring p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses to q u e s t i o n s , i f the s u b j e c t had removed money from the cashbox. The s u b j e c t was to a c t as i f he d i d not know a n y t h i n g about the m i s s i n g money but to o t h e r w i s e c o o p e r a t e w i t h the p o l y g r a p h e r . I t was a l s o e x p l a i n e d t h a t the p o l y g r a p h e r would not know i f the s u b j e c t was g u i l t y because he was t e s t i n g b oth i n n o c e n t and g u i l t y s u b j e c t s and was b l i n d t o t h e i r group assignment. F i n a l l y , a l l s u b j e c t s were asked not to d i s c u s s the d e t a i l s of the study w i t h anyone e l s e . Two days a f t e r the mock c r i m e , s u b j e c t s r e t u r n e d to the 55 p s y c h o l o g y b u i l d i n g and met the p o l y g r a p h e r near the main e n t r a n c e . The s u b j e c t was taken t o the p o l y g r a p h room, l o c a t e d two f l o o r s up from the l a b and crime room, and was s e a t e d i n a s t r a i g h t - b a c k e d c h a i r . The p o l y g r a p h e r then had the s u b j e c t f i l l out the t h i r d S t a t e A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y , and r e c o r d e d h i s b l o o d p r e s s u r e and h e a r t r a t e f o r the f o u r t h t i m e . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the p o l y g r a p h e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t the s u b j e c t was s u s p e c t e d of t a k i n g some money from a p r o f e s s o r ' s o f f i c e , and the p o l y g r a p h would be used to f i n d out i f the s u b j e c t was g u i l t y or i n n o c e n t . The p o l y g r a p h e r r e i t e r a t e d t h a t he d i d not know i f the s u b j e c t was g u i l t y because both i n n o c e n t and g u i l t y s u b j e c t s came f o r p o l y g r a p h t e s t i n g . While the s u b j e c t was h a v i n g the p o l y g r a p h e l e c t r o d e s and s e n s o r s a t t a c h e d t o him, a g e n e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n of p o l y g r a p h p r i n c i p l e s was g i v e n . The s u b j e c t was t o l d t h a t the p o l y g r a p h was v e r y good at d e t e c t i n g g u i l t y s u b j e c t s , and o n l y people who were i n t e l l i g e n t and e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e would be a b l e to l i e and go u n d e t e c t e d . T h i s p l o y was an attempt to i n c r e a s e the s u b j e c t ' s a r o u s a l to p o l y g r a p h q u e s t i o n s , and i s d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y below. Once a l l attachments were made, and the a m p l i f i e r s e n s i t i v i t y i n each channel was a d j u s t e d , a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the machine's o p e r a t i o n was conducted. The s u b j e c t p i c k e d a p l a y i n g c a r d from a deck of f i v e and p l a c e d i t fa c e up on h i s knee. The p o l y g r a p h e r , s t a n d i n g b e h i n d the s u b j e c t , asked i f he had p i c k e d a g i v e n c a r d i n the deck and the s u b j e c t , as i n s t r u c t e d , answered "no". The p o l y g r a p h e r asked the q u e s t i o n about each of the f i v e c a r d s i n the deck, w i t h the s u b j e c t answering "no" each time. 56 T h i s p r o c e d u r e f o r c e d the s u b j e c t t o l i e about the c a r d he had a c t u a l l y p i c k e d . S i n c e the s u b j e c t had the c a r d f a c e up on h i s knee the p o l y g r a p h e r knew i t s i d e n t i t y , and at the a p p r o p r i a t e moment he a d j u s t e d the g a i n on the GSR channel to make the s u b j e c t ' s response to the t a r g e t c a r d the l a r g e s t of the f i v e . The s u b j e c t was s u b s e q u e n t l y shown the c h a r t paper and the p o l y g r a p h e r p o i n t e d out t h a t the s u b j e c t ' s response to the t a r g e t c a r d was the l a r g e s t , i n d i c a t i n g he was b e i n g d e c e p t i v e when he answered "no". The o s t e n s i b l e purpose of the c a r d t e s t was to demonstrate, f o r the s u b j e c t , how the p o l y g r a p h works, but the r e a l i n t e n t i o n was to make the t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n more t h r e a t e n i n g than i t might o t h e r w i s e have been and to th e r e b y enhance the s u b j e c t ' s p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s . G u s t a f s o n and Orne (1965) and B r a d l e y and J a n i s s e (1981) demonstrated t h a t i f a s u b j e c t b e l i e v e s he has responded e m o t i o n a l l y (as r e f l e c t e d on the p o l y g r a p h c h a r t ) to a r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n , he i s more l i k e l y t o be aroused by subsequent q u e s t i o n s . T h i s a r o u s a l , c o u p l e d w i t h the i d e a t h a t d e t e c t i o n of h i s g u i l t would i n d i c a t e he was u n i n t e l l i g e n t or e m o t i o n a l l y u n s t a b l e , s h o u l d have the e f f e c t of enhancing the s u b j e c t ' s p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses to the p o l y g r a p h quest i o n s . Immediately f o l l o w i n g the c a r d t e s t , the f i r s t of the p o l y g r a p h t e s t s was a d m i n i s t e r e d , o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n b e i n g b a l a n c e d i n each e x p e r i m e n t a l group. The C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test c o n s i s t e d of 9 q u e s t i o n s : 3 q u e s t i o n s i r r e l e v a n t to the c r i m e , 3 c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s , and 3 r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s (see Appendix V ) . P r i o r t o t u r n i n g the p o l y g r a p h on f o r the CQT, a 5-10 minute i n t e r v i e w was conducted w i t h the s u b j e c t . He was t o l d t h a t the 57 t e s t c o n s i s t e d of a s e t of 9 q u e s t i o n s and the set would be asked t h r e e t i m e s . The q u e s t i o n s were then r e v i e w e d . The main purpose of the i n t e r v i e w was to d i s c u s s a n y t h i n g i n the s u b j e c t ' s p a s t t h a t might p r e v e n t him from answering "no" to the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the s u b j e c t answer i n the n e g a t i v e t o c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s so t h a t a comparison can be made to the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s , as d i s c u s s e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n . I f the s u b j e c t d i d r a i s e some a m b i g u i t y ( e . g . t o the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n : Have you ever s t o l e n a n y t h i n g of v a l u e ? he might say: I once s t o l e a r e c o r d from a f r i e n d . ) the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n would be p r e f a c e d by the st a t e m e n t , "Except f o r what you have t o l d me...." When the s u b j e c t was s a t i s f i e d he c o u l d answer "no" to a l l the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s , the p o l y g r a p h e r t u r n e d on the p o l y g r a p h and asked each of the q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r . A f t e r the s e t of 9 q u e s t i o n s was asked the p o l y g r a p h was shut o f f and the s u b j e c t was a l l o w e d t o s t r e t c h and make h i m s e l f c o m f o r t a b l e b e f o r e the next s e t of q u e s t i o n s was asked. In each q u e s t i o n s e t the o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c o n t r o l and r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s was changed (see Appendix V ) . The G u i l t y Knowledge Test q u e s t i o n s were not rev i e w e d p r i o r to p r e s e n t a t i o n . The s u b j e c t was informed t h a t i f he had taken the money t h e r e were c e r t a i n d e t a i l s about the crime t h a t he would know. He would be asked s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s about the room where the money was t a k e n , and he was to answer "no" to each one. There were 5 GKT q u e s t i o n s asked, each w i t h 5 a l t e r n a t e responses (see Appendix V ) . Each of the 5 c r i t i c a l items was embedded i n a set of s i m i l a r items t h a t were d e t e r m i n e d , i n p i l o t t e s t i n g , to 5 8 be e q u a l l y p l a u s i b l e r e s p o n s e s . The key item i n each s e t was randomly a s s i g n e d t o one of the l a s t f o u r p o s i t i o n s . The f i r s t item i n each s e t s e r v e d as a b u f f e r q u e s t i o n and was not c o n s i d e r e d i n s c o r i n g the t e s t . Between the f i r s t and second p o l y g r a p h t e s t , each s u b j e c t was d i s c o n n e c t e d from the machine and taken f o r a f i v e minute walk through the b u i l d i n g . S i n c e the e n t i r e t e s t i n g s e s s i o n took a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 hour, d u r i n g which the s u b j e c t was r e q u i r e d t o s i t v e r y s t i l l , the walk was d e s i g n e d to g i v e the s u b j e c t a break and t o de c r e a s e h a b i t u a t i o n to the t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . A f t e r the f i n a l p o l y g r a p h t e s t the s u b j e c t moved to a se p a r a t e room and was asked t o complete t h r e e memory t e s t s (see Appendix V I I ) . The f i r s t was a r e c a l l t e s t t h a t r e q u i r e d the s u b j e c t t o l i s t a l l the d e t a i l s he c o u l d remember about the crime room, i n c l u d i n g : d e s c r i p t i o n s and l o c a t i o n s of f u r n i t u r e , d e c o r a t i o n s , and o t h e r o b j e c t s i n the room, as w e l l as p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of the room. When he had f i n i s h e d , the s u b j e c t put h i s answer sheet i n an envelope so the p o l y g r a p h e r would not see what he had w r i t t e n . S u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d to w a i t at l e a s t f i v e m i n u t e s , even i f they were i n n o c e n t , b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g the envelope t o the examiner. The s u b j e c t then completed the cued r e c a l l t e s t , i n which answers to s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s were r e q u i r e d , such as: "What was the amount of money t a k e n ? " When the cued r e c a l l t e s t was r e t u r n e d , the s u b j e c t completed h i s f i n a l t a s k , a r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t i n which he s i m p l y had to p i c k the c o r r e c t answer from a c h o i c e of f i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s . For each of these t e s t s i t was s t r e s s e d t h a t the s u b j e c t s h o u l d answer h o n e s t l y and t r y t o do h i s b e s t , and t h a t the p o l y g r a p h e r would 59 not see the memory t e s t r e s u l t s u n t i l a f t e r the p o l y g r a p h c h a r t s were s c o r e d . S u b j e c t s were a l s o asked to make a guess on the r e c o g n i t i o n and cued r e c a l l t e s t s i f they were not sure of the answer or i f they were i n n o c e n t . Once a l l the memory t e s t s were completed, the p o l y g r a p h e r showed the s u b j e c t h i s p o l y g r a p h c h a r t s and e x p l a i n e d whether he appeared i n n o c e n t or g u i l t y , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the s u b j e c t s h o u l d n o t , even at t h i s p o i n t , r e v e a l what group he was i n . Any q u e s t i o n s the s u b j e c t had were answered, and he was d e b r i e f e d w i t h r e g a r d t o the c a r d t e s t . He was t o l d t h a t d e t e c t i o n of g u i l t d i d not depend on the s u b j e c t ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e or e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y , and t h a t t h i s was s a i d at the b e g i n n i n g of t e s t i n g merely to enhance h i s responses to the p o l y g r a p h q u e s t i o n s . L a s t l y the s u b j e c t was thanked f o r h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n and asked once more not to d i s c u s s d e t a i l s of the study w i t h anyone e l s e . P o l y g r a p h Chart A n a l y s i s Three dependent measures were d e r i v e d from the p o l y g r a p h r e c o r d i n g s : s k i n conductance response (SCR), r e s p i r a t i o n c y c l e r e s p o n s e , and f i n g e r p u l s e a m p l i t u d e . S c o r i n g of these r esponses was done a c c o r d i n g t o the Utah system and was taught t o the p o l y g r a p h e r by Dr. David R a s k i n . The SCR was measured as the maximum i n c r e a s e i n conductance ( i n d i c a t e d as an upward pen d e f l e c t i o n on the c h a r t ) o c c u r r i n g i n the i n t e r v a l from the b e g i n n i n g of the q u e s t i o n up to 5 seconds a f t e r the r e s p o n s e . A r e s p i r a t i o n response was c o n s i d e r e d to be any s h o r t e n i n g of the r e s p i r a t i o n c y c l e d u r i n g the same i n t e r v a l d e s c r i b e d f o r the SCR. 60 A s h o r t e n i n g of the r e s p i r a t i o n c y c l e c o u l d be m a n i f e s t e d on the c h a r t as an i n c r e a s e i n c y c l e b a s e l i n e , a d e c rease i n a m p l i t u d e , or a c e s s a t i o n of b r e a t h i n g (apnea). A c a r d i o v a s c u l a r r e s p o n s e , i n t h i s case f i n g e r p u l s e a m p l i t u d e , was c o n s i d e r e d to be any d e c r e a s e i n p u l s e a m p l i t u d e d u r i n g the time p e r i o d used f o r SCR and r e s p i r a t i o n r e s p o n s e . The d e c rease was c a l c u l a t e d by t a k i n g the d i f f e r e n c e i n mm between the l a r g e s t p u l s e a m p l i t u d e a f t e r the onset of the q u e s t i o n , and the s m a l l e s t p u l s e a m p l i t u d e w i t h i n 5 seconds f o l l o w i n g the s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e . The e x p e c t a t i o n i n u s i n g these t h r e e p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures i s t h a t a d e c e p t i v e response by a s u b j e c t w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by an i n c r e a s e i n s k i n conductance, a s h o r t e n i n g of r e s p i r a t i o n ( s h a l l o w b r e a t h i n g ) , and a decrease i n f i n g e r p u l s e a m p l i t u d e . A s u b j e c t may respond i n a l l these c h a n n e l s , one or two c h a n n e l s , or he may not respond i n any. N u m e r i c a l s c o r i n g of the C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test c h a r t s was done u s i n g the Utah method (see R a s k i n , 1986), and the G u i l t y Knowledge Test was s c o r e d f o l l o w i n g the procedure d e s c r i b e d by Lykken (1959). For each p a i r of c o n t r o l and r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s on the CQT the s t r e n g t h of each p h y s i o l o g i c a l response was compared, and a s c o r e was a s s i g n e d f o r each comparison. There were 3 q u e s t i o n p a i r s and 3 p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures, r e s u l t i n g i n 9 s c o r e s f o r each c h a r t . Three c h a r t s were r e c o r d e d f o r each s u b j e c t . The s c o r e s on each q u e s t i o n p a i r can range from +3 i f the p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n to the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n i s d r a m a t i c a l l y s t r o n g e r than t h a t of the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n , to -3 i f the r e a c t i o n to the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n i s d r a m a t i c a l l y s t r o n g e r . I f the p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a l but not 61 d r a m a t i c , a s c o r e of + 2 or -2 i s a s s i g n e d , but most s c o r e s are +1 or -1, i n d i c a t i n g a s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e , or 0, i n d i c a t i n g no d i f f e r e n c e between responses t o the c o n t r o l and r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s . A t o t a l s c o r e f o r each s u b j e c t i s c a l c u l a t e d by adding the s c o r e s f o r each q u e s t i o n p a i r , i n each p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n n e l , a c r o s s a l l t h r e e c h a r t s . S u b j e c t s whose s c o r e s are i n the p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n would be r e s p o n d i n g more s t r o n g l y t o the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s , an i n d i c a t i o n of innocence. The conve r s e i s t r u e f o r g u i l t y s u b j e c t s , they would s c o r e i n the n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n . In most s c o r i n g systems, t o t a l s c o r e s of +6 or h i g h e r are c o n s i d e r e d i n d i c a t i v e of t r u t h f u l n e s s , -6 or lower would i n d i c a t e d e c e p t i o n , and s c o r e s f a l l i n g i n between these two s c o r e s are c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n c l u s i v e . On the G u i l t y Knowledge T e s t , a l l 3 p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n n e l s i n each of the 5 q u e s t i o n sequences r e c e i v e d a s c o r e of 2, 1, or 0, depending on the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h of the response t o the c r i t i c a l i t e m . I f the response t o the c r i t i c a l item was s t r o n g e s t , i t r e c e i v e d a s c o r e of 2, i f the response was second s t r o n g e s t or e q u a l i n magnitude to the s t r o n g e s t response i t r e c e i v e d a s c o r e of 1, and any o t h e r response r e c e i v e d a s c o r e of 0. There were 5 q u e s t i o n sequences and 3 p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures, so the range of p o s s i b l e s c o r e s was 0 to 30. To make a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of d e c e p t i v e or t r u t h f u l , the s t r a t e g y o u t l i n e d by Lykken (1960) was used. The c u t o f f s c o r e was s e t at 50% of the s u b j e c t ' s p o s s i b l e SCR s c o r e . I f a s u b j e c t d i d not make a p h y s i o l o g i c a l response to any of the 5 a l t e r n a t i v e answers to a q u e s t i o n , t h a t q u e s t i o n was e x c l u d e d from the s c o r i n g . The t e s t 62 was c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n c l u s i v e i f a s u b j e c t d i d not respond at a l l to 3 or more of the 5 q u e s t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , a s u b j e c t who gave an SCR response to 4 q u e s t i o n s would have a t o t a l p o s s i b l e s c o r e of 8 and would have to s c o r e 4 or h i g h e r to be c o n s i d e r e d d e c e p t i v e . A s c o r e of l e s s than 4 would i n d i c a t e t r u t h f u l n e s s . Any s u b j e c t r e s p o n d i n g to 2 or l e s s q u e s t i o n s would be c l a s s i f i e d as i n c o n c l u s i v e . 63 R e s u l t s In t h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s w i l l b e g i n w i t h an a n a l y s i s of the t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s t o determine i f a l l m a n i p u l a t i o n s had the d e s i r e d e f f e c t s . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an e v a l u a t i o n of p o l y g r a p h a c c u r a c y and a comparison i s made to o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t have used s i m i l a r t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . Next, the i n f l u e n c e s of a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n , t h r e a t , and memory p r i m i n g on p o l y g r a p h outcome are i n v e s t i g a t e d . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the t h r e a t v a r i a b l e i s conducted by l o o k i n g at i t s two components; s u b j e c t i v e and p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l . A l s o , an e v a l u a t i o n of memory t e s t s c o r e s i s done and the r e l a t i o n of memory to p o l y g r a p h s c o r e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e d . To c o n t r o l f o r any l i b e r a l b i a s i n the r e p e a t e d measures ANOVAs f o l l o w i n g , the Green h o u s e - G e i s s e r (1959) c o r r e c t i o n was used. T h i s c o r r e c t i o n procedure a d j u s t s the degrees of. freedom of the F - t e s t based on the homogeneity of both the v a r i a n c e s and c o v a r i a n c e s of the r e p e a t e d measures. When t h e r e i s reason to q u e s t i o n the homogeneity assumptions a more c o n s e r v a t i v e F - t e s t i s used. The degrees of freedom are a d j u s t e d by a f a c t o r (£) t h a t r e f l e c t s the degree of h e t e r o g e n e i t y of the r e p e a t e d measures v a r i a n c e s and c o v a r i a n c e s . As w e l l , s i n c e most of the c h i square a n a l y s e s w i l l c o n t a i n some s m a l l e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s ( i e . <5) c a l c u l a t i o n s were made u s i n g a f o r m u l a t h a t i n c l u d e s the Y a t e s ' c o r r e c t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i t y . For s m a l l v a l u e s of N the curve of the sam p l i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h i square may p r o v i d e a poor f i t to the da t a which c o u l d r e s u l t i n a p p r e c i a b l e e r r o r when e s t i m a t i n g p r o b a b i l i t i e s . The Y a t e s ' c o r r e c t i o n reduces by .5 the o b t a i n e d 64 f r e q u e n c i e s t h a t are g r e a t e r than e x p e c t a t i o n and i n c r e a s e s by .5 those f r e q u e n c i e s t h a t are l e s s than e x p e c t a t i o n . T h i s c o r r e c t i o n s h o u l d always be used when 20% or more of the ex p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s are l e s s than 5 and some s t a t i s t i c i a n s recommend a c u t o f f f r e q u e n c y of 10 (Ferguson, 1976). In the cou r s e of e v a l u a t i n g these d a t a , m u l t i p l e ANOVAs and c h i square a n a l y s e s were o f t e n c a r r i e d out f o r the sake of complete i n v e s t i g a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a b l e s . When t h i s s i t u a t i o n a r o s e Type I e r r o r r a t e was c o n t r o l l e d by r e d u c i n g the a l p h a l e v e l , a c c o r d i n g to the B o n f e r r o n i approach ( c f . H a r r i s , 1975), i n both the i n i t i a l a n a l y s e s and the post hoc t e s t s . In o r d e r not to l o s e e x c e s s i v e power i n the t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e the i n i t i a l a l p h a l e v e l was s e t at a l i b e r a l 0.1 r a t h e r than the u s u a l .05, and i t was reduced by the a p p r o p r i a t e s t e p s to a l e v e l c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the number of a n a l y s e s performed. Wherever t h i s was done the B o n f e r r o n i a l p h a l e v e l i s i n d i c a t e d w i t h the F v a l u e s . One way to c o n t r o l the a l p h a l e v e l i s to do i t i n an ex p e r i m e n t - w i s e manner, or i n o t h e r words, c o n s i d e r a l l a n a l y s e s done i n the s t u d y . T h i s was not done because i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s s i z e the e s t i m a t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n c e would be too c o n s e r v a t i v e . I n s t e a d , the B o n f e r r o n i i n e q u a l i t y p r i n c i p l e was a p p l i e d i n a f a m i l y - w i s e manner. That i s , the a l p h a l e v e l was c o n t r o l l e d f o r t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d s e t s of a n a l y s e s . An example of t h i s would be the case where u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s were done w i t h each of the t h r e e GKT dependent measures and each of the t h r e e CQT dependent measures. I n s t e a d of a d j u s t i n g the a l p h a l e v e l f o r s i x u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s the CQT and GKT were t r e a t e d as 65 t h e o r e t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t cases and the a l p h a l e v e l was a d j u s t e d f o r th r e e a n a l y s e s . The model of MANOVA used to e v a l u a t e the dependent v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n was the same f o r a l l cases where i t was a p p l i e d . The model i s a f u l l y f a c t o r i a l , between s u b j e c t s d e s i g n w i t h no c o v a r i a t e s , and t h r e e dependent v a r i a b l e s . T h i s d e s i g n p r o v i d e s f o r a n a l y s i s of a l l the main e f f e c t s as w e l l as i n t e r a c t i o n s of the independent v a r i a b l e s . Whenever the r e s u l t s of a MANOVA are r e p o r t e d the l e v e l s of independent v a r i a b l e s are i n d i c a t e d eg. 3-way MANOVA (2 l e v e l s of t h r e a t x 2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l x 2 l e v e l s of p r i m i n g ) . Given t h a t t h e r e were 3 dependent v a r i a b l e s and t h a t the main e f f e c t s were c a l c u l a t e d w i t h an N=32, and the two-way i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h an N=16, the power of the a n a l y s e s i s s u f f i c i e n t . However, the three-way i n t e r a c t i o n s were n e c e s s a r i l y c a l c u l a t e d w i t h a s m a l l e r number of s u b j e c t s (N=8) and the power of these a n a l y s e s i s c o n s e q u e n t l y weaker. Independent V a r i a b l e M a n i p u l a t i o n s To ensure t h a t the independent v a r i a b l e s ( a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n , memory p r i m i n g , and t h r e a t ) were a p p r o p r i a t e and adequate t r e a t m e n t s , s e v e r a l m a n i p u l a t i o n checks were c a r r i e d out. Those s u b j e c t s i n the a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n group were a d m i n i s t e r e d a 1.32 ml/kg of body weight dose of e t h a n o l , as d e s c r i b e d i n the method s e c t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e was to r a i s e t h i s group's b l o o d a l c o h o l c o n c e n t r a t i o n above the l e g a l l y d e f i n e d l e v e l of i n t o x i c a t i o n ; 80 mg et h a n o l / 1 0 0 mis of b l o o d (commonly e x p r e s s e d as .08). In a s i m i l a r study conducted i n t h i s l a b a few 66 months e a r l i e r , o f f i c e r s from the l o c a l R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e detachment were asked to g i v e a b r e a t h a l i z e r t e s t to twel v e s u b j e c t s drawn from the same s u b j e c t p o o l used i n t h i s s t u d y ; male u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . Ten minutes a f t e r h a v i n g consumed 3 d r i n k s c o n t a i n i n g a t o t a l of 1.32 ml/kg e t h a n o l , each s u b j e c t was g i v e n a b r e a t h a l i z e r t e s t . The average b l o o d - a l c o h o l l e v e l was 97 mg/100 mis w i t h a range of 61 to 115 mg/100 mis. Of the twelve s u b j e c t s , o n l y two were below, but c l o s e t o , the l e g a l l i m i t . T h e i r r e a d i n g s were 61 and 77 mg/100 mis. These b l o o d - a l c o h o l r e a d i n g s c o n t r a s t w i t h those r e p o r t e d by B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984). They gave s u b j e c t s l e s s a l c o h o l (1.0 ml/kg body weight) over a s i m i l a r time p e r i o d (1 h r ) and they i n d i c a t e t h a t the b l o o d a l c o h o l l e v e l of t h e i r s u b j e c t s approached 120 mg/100 mis, a somewhat h i g h e r l e v e l than t h a t a c h i e v e d i n t h i s s t u d y , but t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t they conducted a b r e a t h a l i z e r check, and no e x p l a n a t i o n of how they a r r i v e d at the .12 e s t i m a t e . Memory f o r crime d e t a i l s was m a n i p u l a t e d i n two groups: one group was primed f o l l o w i n g the crime and the o t h e r was n o t . F o l l o w i n g the p o l y g r a p h s e s s i o n t h r e e t e s t s of memory were a d m i n i s t e r e d , two of which are r e l e v a n t to the i s s u e of memory f o r s p e c i f i c crime d e t a i l s : a cued r e c a l l t e s t and a r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . A 3-way ANOVA (2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l x 2 l e v e l s of t h r e a t x 2 l e v e l s of p r i m i n g ) was performed w i t h s c o r e s on the r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . There was found to be a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of p r i m i n g [F(1,56)=293.42, p<.0011. The primed group had a mean t e s t s c o r e of 10.31 out of a p o s s i b l e 11, compared to a s c o r e of 6.28 f o r the unprimed group. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s of a l c o h o l or t h r e a t on r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s c o r e s , nor were t h e r e any 67 s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s between memory p r i m i n g , t h r e a t , or a l c o h o l . The same 3-way ANOVA was conducted w i t h the cued r e c a l l t e s t s c o r e s . The ANOVA showed a s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e between the primed and unprimed groups, w i t h the mean of the primed group (19.56 out of a p o s s i b l e 22) b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the unprimed group (10.47) [F(1,56)=355.16, p<.0011. In c o n t r a s t to the r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s c o r e a n a l y s e s , a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on cued r e c a l l s c o r e s [F( 1,56)=28.89 , p<.011. A l t h o u g h t h i s a l c o h o l main e f f e c t was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t the mean d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups was not s u b s t a n t i a l , w i t h the mean s c o r e of the a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s (14.34) b e i n g o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s than t h a t of the sober s u b j e c t s (15.69). T h i s a l c o h o l e f f e c t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p o l y g r a p h t e s t outcome. To determine i f m a n i p u l a t i o n of the t h r e a t v a r i a b l e had been s u c c e s s f u l , b oth p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e measures of a r o u s a l were taken at v a r i o u s p o i n t s d u r i n g the s t u d y . The p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures were c a r d i o v a s c u l a r responses ( h e a r t r a t e , s y s t o l i c and d i a s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e ) and the s u b j e c t i v e measure was the S t a t e p o r t i o n of the S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y ( S p i e l b e r g e r , Gorsuch, and Luchene, 1970). A l t h o u g h the p o s t c r i m e measures of a r o u s a l were made imm e d i a t e l y a f t e r the s u b j e c t l e f t the crime room, t h e r e was a few minutes d e l a y b e f o r e a l l r e a d i n g s were completed. Due to t h i s d e l a y , and the f a c t t h a t the s u b j e c t s were young, h e a l t h y s t u d e n t s whose p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses r e c o v e r q u i c k l y , we e x p e c t e d t h a t the b e s t p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r of a r o u s a l would be s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e , s i n c e i t i s r e s p o n s i v e 68 to changes i n a r o u s a l and i s s u s t a i n e d l o n g e r than h e a r t r a t e changes. T h i s t u r n e d out to be the case as a 3-way (2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l x 2 l e v e l s of t h r e a t x 4 time p e r i o d s ) r e p e a t e d measures ANOVA i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e i n s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e a c r o s s time CF(3,171)=4.54, p<.0251. Simple e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s of mean s c o r e s showed the mean s y s t o l i c p r e s s u r e of the h i g h t h r e a t group t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the mean of the low t h r e a t group i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the crime LF(1,59)=7.48, p<.0251 but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at any o t h e r time (see F i g u r e 2 ) . There was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n of a l c o h o l and time [F(3,171)=3.56, p<.0251. Simple e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s of the means showed t h a t the a l c o h o l group had lower mean s y s t o l i c p r e s s u r e s h o r t l y a f t e r d r i n k i n g , l i k e l y due to the v a s o d i l a t i o n p r o p e r t i e s of e t h a n o l , but t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t when the B o n f e r r o n i adjustment of a l p h a was made [F(1,59)=6.75, p>.0081. See F i g u r e 3. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s time i n e i t h e r d i a s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e (F(3,171)=0.68, p>.051 or h e a r t r a t e [F(3,171)=2.64, p>.051 nor were t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h a l c o h o l . B l o o d p r e s s u r e measurements of the i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s were taken o n l y at b a s e l i n e and b e f o r e the p o l y g r a p h s e s s i o n , but the mean p r e s s u r e s of 127.62 mm/Hg at b a s e l i n e and 138.56 mm/Hg b e f o r e t e s t i n g are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the mean p r e s s u r e s of the o t h e r s u b j e c t s . The s u b j e c t i v e , s t a t e a n x i e t y measures were taken at t h r e e p o i n t s i n the s t u d y : b a s e l i n e , post c r i m e , and the b e g i n n i n g of the p o l y g r a p h s e s s i o n . A 3-way (2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l x 2 l e v e l s of t h r e a t x 3 time p e r i o d s ) r e p e a t e d measures ANOVA, u s i n g STAI s c o r e s as the dependent measure, showed no main e f f e c t due t o FIGURE 2 MEAN SYSTOLIC PRESSURE FOR HIGH AND LOW THREAT GROUPS Legend - HIGH THREAT - LOW THREAT BASELINE POST POST POLYGRAPH INSTRUCTION CRIME SESSION TIME OF MEASUREMENT 7 0 FIGURE 3 MEAN SYSTOLIC PRESSURE FOR ALCOHOL AND NO ALCOHOL GROUPS 155-1 71 a l c o h o l I F ( 1 , 59)=3 .13 , p>.051 but t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t of t h r e a t [F(1,59)=7.34. p<.05], the h i g h t h r e a t group h a v i n g a h i g h e r mean STAI s c o r e (42.0) than the low t h r e a t group ( 3 7 . 8 ) . There was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between t h r e a t and time [F=(2.118)=21.88, p<.0251. Simple e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e between means o n l y at the post crime measurement [F(1,61)=6.10, p>.0251. See F i g u r e 4. The mean STAI s c o r e s of the i n n o c e n t group at b a s e l i n e (36.26) and at the p o l y g r a p h s e s s i o n (35.00) were of s i m i l a r magnitude as those of the low and h i g h t h r e a t groups. In summary, m a n i p u l a t i o n s of the t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s appear to have r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t and s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups. S u b j e c t s i n the h i g h t h r e a t group s c o r e d h i g h e r on both a p h y s i o l o g i c a l and a s u b j e c t i v e measure of a r o u s a l taken i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the c r i m e . T e s t s of memory f o r s p e c i f i c c r ime d e t a i l s showed t h a t s u b j e c t s i n the primed memory group remembered s u b s t a n t i a l l y more d e t a i l s t h a t those i n the unprimed group, i n b o t h r e c o g n i t i o n and cued r e c a l l of i t e m s . F i n a l l y , b r e a t h a l i z e r t e s t s done p r i o r to t h i s s tudy suggest t h a t the mean b l o o d - a l c o h o l l e v e l of our s u b j e c t s would be i n the range of 97 mg/100 mis, w e l l above the l e g a l l y d e f i n e d i n t o x i c a t i o n p o i n t of 80 mg/100 mis. A c c u r a c y of P o l y g r a p h T e s t s The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e f a c t o r s at the time of a crime t h a t might a f f e c t subsequent p o l y g r a p h t e s t outcome. I t was not d e s i g n e d to answer broader q u e s t i o n s about the v a l i d i t y of p o l y g r a p h t e s t s , and t h a t s o r t of d i s c u s s i o n 72 FIGURE 4 MEAN STAI SCORES FOR HIGH AND LOW THREAT GROUPS 6O-1 73 would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . However, b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h an a n a l y s i s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s some comparisons of p o l y g r a p h a c c u r a c y i n t h i s s tudy t o t h a t i n o t h e r s t u d i e s w i l l be made to be sure t h a t the procedures were c a r r i e d out w e l l enough to s u p p o r t the proposed h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g . U s i n g an i n c o n c l u s i v e range of +5 to -5 as d e s c r i b e d i n the Method s e c t i o n , an assessment of d e c e p t i v e or t r u t h f u l was made f o r each s u b j e c t based on the C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test r e s u l t s . Of those s u b j e c t s c l a s s i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e or t r u t h f u l 73.5% were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e ( t r u e p o s i t i v e s ) and 26.5% were wrongly i d e n t i f i e d as t r u t h f u l ( f a l s e n e g a t i v e s ) . However, 46.9% of the s u b j e c t s i n the crime c o n d i t i o n f e l l i n the i n c o n c l u s i v e range and c o u l d not be c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r d e c e p t i v e or t r u t h f u l . Of the i n n o c e n t c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s , 83% of those c l a s s i f i e d were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d as t r u t h f u l ( t r u e n e g a t i v e s ) and 17% were c l a s s i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e ( f a l s e p o s i t i v e s ) w i t h 62.5% f a l l i n g i n the i n c o n c l u s i v e range. T a k i n g i n t o account both g u i l t y and i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s , the o v e r a l l r a t e of c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was 78.2%. T h i s compares w i t h a s u r v e y of CQT f i e l d s t u d i e s c o m p i l e d by Iacono and P a t r i c k (1987) i n which they compared the r e s u l t s of 8 s t u d i e s done between 1969 and 1984. The o v e r a l l mean a c c u r a c y r a t e i n these s t u d i e s was 81.6% c o r r e c t d e c i s i o n s , w i t h a range of 64% to 93%. R a s k i n (1986) r e p o r t e d 5 mock crime s t u d i e s of the c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n t e s t t h a t used non-s t u d e n t s u b j e c t s . These s t u d i e s were conducted m a i n l y by R a s k i n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s w i t h f i e l d p o l y g r a p h t e c h n i q u e s and t r a i n e d p o l y g r a p h examiners. The mean a c c u r a c y of d e c i s i o n s i n these s t u d i e s was 95% c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w i t h a range of 91% to 74 96%. The i n c o n c l u s i v e r a t e was 8%. A post hoc m a n i p u l a t i o n of the i n c o n c l u s i v e r e g i o n , u s i n g the t o t a l s c o r e from a l l t h r e e c h a r t s , was done f o r c u t o f f p o i n t s r a n g i n g from ±1 to ±5. I t i s e v i d e n t from Table 1 t h a t the h i t r a t e , t h a t i s the p e r c e n t of a c c u r a t e d e c i s i o n s , does not change s u b s t a n t i a l l y even when the c u t o f f s c o r e s are d e c r e a s e d to ±1. At the same time the number of s u b j e c t s b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d as i n c o n c l u s i v e i s g r e a t l y reduced. C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s t u d i e s of B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) and R a s k i n and Hare (1978), c u t o f f p o i n t s of +2 and -2 were found to y i e l d good a c c u r a c y of d e c i s i o n s w h i l e k e e p i n g the number of i n c o n c l u s i v e s low. In a d d i t i o n to u s i n g the method of c u t o f f s c o r e s to d e termine g u i l t or i n n o c e n c e , a m u l t i v a r i a t e , d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was a l s o conducted. A d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n o p t i m a l l y w e i g h t s a l l dependent v a r i a b l e s so t h a t maximal d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between the two t a r g e t groups i s a c h i e v e d . The a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s a t e s t of the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the two groups are i d e n t i c a l i n terms of the dependent measures. In t h i s case the i n t e r e s t was i n s e e i n g how w e l l the i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the g u i l t y on the b a s i s of n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e to s t a n d a r d c u t o f f s c o r e s which weight the t h r e e p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures e q u a l l y . S i n c e a d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s can be b i a s e d by unequal sample s i z e s , i t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t the r a t i o of i n n o c e n t to g u i l t y s u b j e c t s be e q u a l , or i n o t h e r words, s i n c e t h e r e are o n l y 16 i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s i n the s tudy o n l y 16 g u i l t y s u b j e c t s c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . The g u i l t y group used was the h i g h t h r e a t / n o a l c o h o l group s i n c e the t r e a t m e n t of t h i s group most c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d s to t h a t of Table 1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A c c u r a c y f o r V a r i o u s C u t o f f L i m i t s C u t o f f L i m i t s ±5 +4 +3 ±2 +1 D e c e p t i v e 25 (73%) 28 (76%) 32 (74%) 37 (71%) 38 (68%) G u i l t y T r u t h f u l 9 (27%) 9 (24%) 11 (26%) 15 (29%) 18 (32%) Subj e c t s I n c o n c l u s i v e 30 (47%) 27 (42%) 21 (33%) 12 (19%) 8 (12%) Decept i v e Innocent T r u t h f u l Subj e c t s I n c o n c l u s i v e 1 (17%) 2 (22%) 2 5 (83%) 7 (78%) 8 10 (63%) 7 (44%) 6 (20%) 4 (33%) 4 (29%) (80%) 8 (67%) 10 (71%) (37%) 4 (25%) 2 (12%) 76 o t h e r l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s and the f i e l d s i t u a t i o n . A d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g the i n n o c e n t group and the h i g h t h r e a t / n o a l c o h o l group of g u i l t y s u b j e c t s , w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e s b e i n g n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s d e r i v e d from the t h r e e p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures of the C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n T e s t , showed t h a t g u i l t y s u b j e c t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d i n 75.0 % of the c a s e s , and the i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d 68.8% of the t i m e , making the f a l s e p o s i t i v e r a t e 31.2%. A c h i square a n a l y s i s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s showed group s e p a r a t i o n to be s i g n i f i c a n t I X 2 ( 3 ) = 9 . 3 0 , p<.051. The r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s , which m a x i m a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t e s between the two groups, compare w i t h the t r u e p o s i t i v e r a t e of 71.1%, a t r u e n e g a t i v e r a t e of 66.6%, and a f a l s e p o s i t i v e r a t e of 33.4% r e s u l t i n g from the c a t e g o r i c a l s c o r i n g system w i t h c u t o f f p o i n t s of +2 and -2. T h i s s uggests t h a t a c u t o f f r e g i o n of +2 y i e l d s near o p t i m a l a c c u r a c y of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h i l e s u b s t a n t i a l l y d e c r e a s i n g the number of s u b j e c t s i n the i n c o n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r y . U n l i k e the CQT, the G u i l t y Knowledge Test has not been used i n f i e l d s t u d i e s and t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t the GKT i s used to any e x t e n t by f i e l d p o l y g r a p h e r s (Iacono and P a t r i c k , 1987). For the purposes of comparison then, e s t i m a t e s of GKT a c c u r a c y d e r i v e d from l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s must be used. In a r e v i e w of s t u d i e s t h a t used mock crime i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , c a r r i e d out between 1959 and 1984, Iacono and P a t r i c k (1987) r e p o r t e d t h a t GKT a c c u r a c y r a t e s f o r g u i l t y s u b j e c t s ranged from 59% to 92%. The mean c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t e i n these seven s t u d i e s was 80% f o r g u i l t y s u b j e c t s and 97% f o r i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s . S i n c e the GKT i s not w i d e l y used t h e r e i s no w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d procedure of 77 d e t e r m i n i n g c u t o f f s c o r e s f o r g u i l t or i n n o c e n c e , but as d i s c u s s e d i n the Method s e c t i o n , the s t r a t e g y used i n t h i s study i s the one o u t l i n e d by Lykken (1960). With the c u t o f f s c o r e b e i n g 50% of a s u b j e c t ' s t o t a l p o s s i b l e s c o r e , the a c c u r a c y r a t e f o r the t h r e e groups was as f o l l o w s : 26 s u b j e c t s i n the primed memory group were c l a s s i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e ( 8 6 . 6 % ) , 21 of the unprimed group were c l a s s i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e ( 7 2 . 4 % ) , and 15 of the i n n o c e n t group were c l a s s i f i e d as t r u t h f u l (97.7%) making the o v e r a l l h i t r a t e 82.6% w i t h a t o t a l of 5 s u b j e c t s (6.2%) f a l l i n g i n the i n c o n c l u s i v e range. The one i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t who was c l a s s i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e had a SCR s c o r e of 7 out of a p o s s i b l e 10 and appeared to have knowledge of the crime d e t a i l s s i n c e he responded s t r o n g l y and c l e a r l y o n l y to the r e l e v a n t i t e m s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note a l s o t h a t h i s s c o r e of -8 on the CQT a l s o put him c l e a r l y i n the d e c e p t i v e c a t e g o r y . I attempted to c o n t a c t him a f t e r the r e s u l t s had been t a b u l a t e d but f a i l e d to r e a c h him so h i s case remains a mystery. The primed memory group s u b j e c t s are p r o b a b l y most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s u b j e c t s used i n l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s of the GKT, s i n c e many s t u d i e s have the s u b j e c t memorize r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n or use w e l l l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l ( i e . mother's name) as the t a r g e t f o r p o l y g r a p h d e t e c t i o n . An aggregate of the primed and unprimed groups, which i n c l u d e s people who remember a l l r e l e v a n t crime d e t a i l s and those who remember o n l y some, may be more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a f i e l d s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s aggregate group of g u i l t y s u b j e c t s , 47 of 59 or 79.7% were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e on the GKT. The same d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s conducted w i t h the 78 CQT d a t a was performed u s i n g the t h r e e p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures d e r i v e d from the G u i l t y Knowledge T e s t . In t h i s a n a l y s i s , g u i l t y s u b j e c t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d as g u i l t y i n 75.0% of the cases and i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d i n 93.8% of the c a s e s , meaning t h e r e was a f a l s e p o s i t i v e r a t e of 6.2%. A c h i square a n a l y s i s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s showed t h a t the s e p a r a t i o n of the groups was s i g n i f i c a n t [X (3)=9.8, p<.051. S i n c e some r e s e a r c h e r s use o n l y the SCR measure when c o n d u c t i n g a GKT i n t e r r o g a t i o n ( c f . Lykken, 1960; Iacono, B o i s v e n u , & F l e m i n g , 1984) i t i s a l s o of i n t e r e s t to see how w e l l the i n n o c e n t and g u i l t y groups can be s e p a r a t e d on the b a s i s of t h i s measure a l o n e . A d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g j u s t SCR channel of the GKT c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d 75.0% of the g u i l t y s u b j e c t s and 68.8% of the i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s , g i v i n g a f a l s e p o s i t i v e r a t e of 31.3%. The h i t r a t e w i t h g u i l t y s u b j e c t s i s the same i n b o t h d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s , but u s i n g o n l y the SCR measure i n c r e a s e s the r a t e of f a l s e p o s i t i v e s from 6.2% to 31.3%. However, n e i t h e r of these a n a l y s e s c l a s s i f i e s s u b j e c t s as w e l l as Lykken's (1960) c a t e g o r i c a l system which, as o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r , c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d 79.7% of the g u i l t y s u b j e c t s and 97.7% of the i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s , making the f a l s e p o s i t i v e r a t e o n l y 3.3%. The d i f f e r e n c e i n h i t r a t e s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n and Lykken's c a t e g o r i c a l system may l i e i n the f a c t t h a t the c a t e g o r i c a l system, i n a s s i g n i n g a s u b j e c t , uses o n l y the GKT q u e s t i o n s to which the s u b j e c t r esponds, whereas the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n uses the t o t a l s c o r e , o b s c u r i n g the f a c t t h a t some s u b j e c t s do not respond at a l l t o c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s . When a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was performed u s i n g 79 both the GKT and CQT d a t a ( i e . 6 dependent v a r i a b l e s ) the a c c u r a c y of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was i n c r e a s e d markedly. In t h i s combined s c o r e a n a l y s i s , g u i l t y s u b j e c t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d i n 81.3% of the c a s e s , and i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s i n 93.7% of the c a s e s , w i t h a f a l s e p o s i t i v e r a t e of o n l y 6.3%. In summary, i t appears t h a t the a c c u r a c y of the CQT and GKT p r o c e d u r e s made i n t h i s study i s comparable to a c c u r a c y a c h i e v e d i n s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d by Iacono and P a t r i c k (1987), but the CQT c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t e was somewhat lower than t h a t a c h i e v e d i n s e v e r a l l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s done by R a s k i n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (see R a s k i n , 1986). One d i f f i c u l t y i n u s i n g the CQT i n t h i s s tudy was the l i m i t a t i o n of h a v i n g to run o n l y 3 c h a r t s per s u b j e c t . In a f i e l d s i t u a t i o n the p o l y g r a p h e r would run more c h a r t s i f , a f t e r 3 c h a r t s , the s u s p e c t s c o r e d i n the i n c o n c l u s i v e range. In t h i s s t u d y , however, the d e s i g n c a l l e d f o r two d i f f e r e n t t e s t p r o c e d u r e s (CQT and GKT) which were c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e d f o r o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n , and i n the i n t e r e s t of c o n s i s t e n c y the two t e s t s had to be kept a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same l e n g t h . U s i n g 3 c h a r t s i n the CQT p r o c e d u r e meant the s u b j e c t was asked 27 q u e s t i o n s , making i t about the same l e n g t h as the GKT which had 25 q u e s t i o n s . Running more c h a r t s f o r those s u b j e c t s i n the i n c o n c l u s i v e range would have meant i n c r e a s e d and unbalanced t e s t i n g t i m e . As w e l l , the p o l y g r a p h e r was b l i n d to the s u b j e c t ' s e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n and d i d not s c o r e the c h a r t s u n t i l a l l s u b j e c t s had been run. A l t h o u g h the i n c o n c l u s i v e r a t e was h i g h when the t r a d i t i o n a l CQT c u t o f f l i m i t s of +5 to -5 were used, a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s suggested t h a t near o p t i m a l s e p a r a t i o n of the i n n o c e n t 80 and g u i l t y groups c o u l d be a c h i e v e d when an i n c o n c l u s i v e range of +2 to -2 was used. The +2 c u t o f f i s o p t i m a l i n terms of m a i n t a i n i n g a h i g h h i t r a t e among g u i l t y s u b j e c t s w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g the number of those f a l l i n g i n the i n c o n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r y . T h i s i s a l s o the i n c o n c l u s i v e range used by B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) i n the i n i t i a l study of a l c o h o l e f f e c t s on p o l y g r a p h outcome. C o n s i d e r i n g the above d a t a , the a c c u r a c y of both the C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test and the G u i l t y Knowledge Test appears to be w e l l w i t h i n the range of a c c u r a c y a c h i e v e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s u s i n g s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e s . R e l i a b i l i t y of the CQT and GKT s c o r i n g p r o cedures was examined and shown to be h i g h . F i f t e e n of the p o l y g r a p h c h a r t s were randomly chosen and b l i n d l y r e s c o r e d by the p o l y g r a p h e r 6 months a f t e r the i n i t i a l s c o r i n g . Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s of the two s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each channel of the CQT and GKT c h a r t s . The SCR s c o r e s of the CQT c o r r e l a t e d h i g h e s t (.99) f o l l o w e d by the f i n g e r p u l s e a m p l i t u d e s c o r e s (.98) and r e s p i r a t i o n (.78). The c o r r e l a t i o n between t o t a l CQT s c o r e and r e s c o r e was .99. The p a t t e r n of c o r r e l a t i o n s was the same f o r the GKT procedure w i t h SCR s c o r e s c o r r e l a t i n g h i g h e s t (.99) f o l l o w e d by f i n g e r p u l s e a m p l i t u d e (.86) and r e s p i r a t i o n (.83). The c o r r e l a t i o n of the the t o t a l GKT s c o r e s was .94. On the b a s i s of the above c o r r e l a t i o n s i t appears t h a t t h i s n u m e r i c a l s c o r i n g system i s r e l i a b l e . E f f e c t of Independent V a r i a b l e s on P o l y g r a p h Outcome As d e s c r i b e d i n the Method s e c t i o n , the d e s i g n of t h i s study was f u l l y f a c t o r i a l w i t h t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s ; t h r e a t , 81 a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n , and memory p r i m i n g , and a l l groups c o n t a i n e d an e q u a l number of s u b j e c t s . The a n a l y s i s of the e f f e c t s of these t h r e e v a r i a b l e s was done i n two ways; m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of the n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s and n o n p a r a m e t r i c a n a l y s i s of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t e s . Outcome of bo t h the GKT and CQT pro c e d u r e s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s manner. To determine i f any of the t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test r e s u l t s , a f u l l y f a c t o r i a l , 3-way (2 l e v e l s of t h r e a t x 2 l e v e l s of memory p r i m i n g x 2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n ) MANOVA was performed u s i n g the n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s d e r i v e d from the t h r e e dependent measures (SCR, r e s p i r a t i o n , and f i n g e r p u l s e a m p l i t u d e ) . R e s u l t s showed t h a t the mean CQT s c o r e s of s u b j e c t s were u n a f f e c t e d by the m a n i p u l a t i o n s ; n e i t h e r t h r e a t [F(3,54)=1.89, p>.05] nor memory p r i m i n g [F(3,54)=0.68, p>.051 nor a l c o h o l [F(3,54)=0.18, p>.051 produced s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o l y g r a p h s c o r e s . S i m i l a r l y , none of the 2-way i n t e r a c t i o n s or the 3-way i n t e r a c t i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t . T able 2 summarizes the CQT t o t a l s c o r e s f o r each of the f a c t o r i a l c e l l s . A l t h o u g h m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s showed no mean n u m e r i c a l s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e s between groups, t h e r e was a l s o a c c u r a c y of c l a s s i f y i n g s u b j e c t s i n t o d e c e p t i v e or t r u t h f u l c a t e g o r i e s to be c o n s i d e r e d . F o l l o w i n g the post f a c t o procedure of m a n i p u l a t i n g c u t o f f b o u n d a r i e s t h a t was d i s c u s s e d above and o u t l i n e d by R a s k i n and Hare (1978), and u s i n g the optimum i n c o n c l u s i v e range of +2 to -2, outcome of the p o l y g r a p h t e s t was a s s e s s e d based on t o t a l s c o r e s of a l l t h r e e c h a r t s . T a b l e 3 shows the r e s u l t s of 82 T a b l e 2 C e l l Means - CQT Composite Scores C o n d i t i o n A l c o h o l No A l c o h o l Innocent Primed -5.38 -6.75 High Threat 5.19 UnPrimed 0.00 -3.63 Primed -4.88 1.00 Low Threat UnPrimed -0.38 -6.25 Table 3 CQT H i t Rates C o n d i t i o n A l c o h o l No A l c o h o l Innocent High Threat Primed UnPrimed D e c e p t i v e 6 T r u t h f u l 2 I n c o n c l u s i v e 0 D e c e p t i v e 3 T r u t h f u l 4 I n c o n c l u s i v e 1 4 0 4 5 1 2 4 8 4 Low Threat Primed UnPrimed D e c e p t i v e 7 T r u t h f u l 1 I n c o n c l u s i v e 0 D e c e p t i v e 4 T r u t h f u l 4 I n c o n c l u s i v e 0 3 2 3 5 1 2 84 c l a s s i f y i n g a l l the g u i l t y s u b j e c t s on the b a s i s of CQT s c o r e s . Chi square t e s t s of independence were conducted to determine i f a l c o h o l , t h r e a t , or memory p r i m i n g had a f f e c t e d the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . A g a i n , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s found; n e i t h e r a l c o h o l EX 2(1 ) = 0 . 94 , p>. 05 3 nor t h r e a t [ X 2 ( 1 ) = 0 . 0 3 , p>.051 nor memory p r i m i n g [ X 2 ( l ) = 1 . 0 9 , p>.05] a f f e c t e d s u b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The r e s u l t s of the G u i l t y Knowledge Test were s u b j e c t e d to the same a n a l y s i s conducted above w i t h the CQT r e s u l t s . A 3-way (2 l e v e l s of t h r e a t x 2 l e v e l s of memory p r i m i n g x 2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n ) MANOVA, u s i n g the n u m e r i c a l d a t a d e r i v e d from each of the GKT p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n n e l s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean s c o r e s of the two t h r e a t groups [F(3,54)=0.55, p>.053 or i n the mean a l c o h o l group s c o r e s [F(3,54)=.016, p>.05]. However, i n c o n t r a s t to the CQT a n a l y s i s , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the memory p r i m i n g groups. The mean s c o r e f o r the primed memory group (11.75) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the mean of the unprimed group ( 8 . 6 6 ) , [F(3,54)=3.05, p<.051. None of the 2-way i n t e r a c t i o n s or the 3-way i n t e r a c t i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the mean GKT s c o r e of the unprimed group ( 8 . 6 6 ) , a l t h o u g h s m a l l e r than t h a t of the primed group, i s s t i l l s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r than the mean s c o r e of the i n n o c e n t group ( 5 . 0 0 ) . U n i v a r i a t e t e s t s of the i n d i v i d u a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures r e v e a l e d t h a t the mean SCR s c o r e of the primed group (6.87) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t of the unprimed group ( 4 . 7 5 ) , CF(1,56)=8.20, p<.011. The f i n g e r p u l s e a m p l i t u d e LF(1,56)=.073, p>.051 and r e s p i r a t i o n IF(1,56)=1.52, p>.051 s c o r e s d i d not 8 5 d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the two groups. Table 4 summarizes the GKT t o t a l s c o r e s f o r each of the f a c t o r i a l c e l l s . As w i t h the CQT method, s u b j e c t s can be c l a s s i f i e d as t r u t h f u l , d e c e p t i v e , or i n c o n c l u s i v e , based on the GKT s c o r e . As d e s c r i b e d i n the method s e c t i o n , t o be c l a s s i f i e d as g u i l t y the s u b j e c t had to have an SCR s c o r e t h a t was at l e a s t 50% of the t o t a l p o s s i b l e s c o r e . I f h i s s c o r e was l e s s than 50% of the t o t a l p o s s i b l e , he was c l a s s i f i e d i n n o c e n t , and i f he d i d not g i v e a response i n at l e a s t 3 of the 5 GKT q u e s t i o n s h i s c h a r t was c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n c l u s i v e . The h i t r a t e based on t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was a n a l y z e d t o determine i f a l c o h o l , t h r e a t , or memory p r i m i n g v a r i a b l e s would have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . C h i square t e s t s of independence showed t h a t none of the independent v a r i a b l e s , n e i t h e r a l c o h o l [ X 2 ( l ) = 0 . 0 7 , p>.053, or t h r e a t t X 2 ( l ) = 0 . 8 2 , p>.05I or memory p r i m i n g [ X 2 ( l ) = 1 . 0 7 , p>.051 had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the outcome of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I t appears t h a t a l t h o u g h memory p r i m i n g produced a s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e i n mean n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s , i t d i d not a f f e c t the f i n a l judgment of t r u t h f u l or d e c e p t i v e . Table 5 shows the r e s u l t s of c l a s s i f y i n g s u b j e c t s on the b a s i s of the SCR da t a o n l y . To f u r t h e r a s s e s s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between memory f o r crime d e t a i l s and GKT s c o r e , Pearson p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s between SCR s c o r e and the r e c o g n i t i o n and cued r e c a l l memory s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d . R e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s c o r e c o r r e l a t e d .53 w h i l e cued r e c a l l t e s t s c o r e c o r r e l a t e d .54 w i t h the SCR s c o r e of the GKT. Post hoc A n a l y s i s of E f f e c t s due to A r o u s a l In most e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n s t h e r e are s u b j e c t s who 86 Table 4 C e l l Means - GKT Composite Score C o n d i t i o n A l c o h o l No A l c o h o l Innocent Primed 11.25 12.25 High Threat 5.00 UnPrimed 9.50 6.88 Primed 12.00 11.50 Low Threat UnPrimed 9.63 8.63 87 Table 5 GKT H i t Rates - Based on SCR s c o r e s o n l y C o n d i t i o n Pr imed High T h r e a t UnPrimed A l c o h o l D e c e p t i v e 7 T r u t h f u l 0 I n c o n c l u s i v e 1 D e c e p t i v e 7 T r u t h f u l 1 I n c o n c l u s i v e 0 No A l c o h o l 7 1 0 4 2 2 Innocent 1 15 0 D e c e p t i v e 6 Primed T r u t h f u l 1 I n c o n c l u s i v e 1 Low Threat UnPrimed D e c e p t i v e 4 T r u t h f u l 3 I n c o n c l u s i v e 1 6 2 0 6 2 0 88 respond b e t t e r to the independent v a r i a b l e m a n i p u l a t i o n s than o t h e r s . In an attempt to compensate f o r any s u b j e c t s who may not have been aroused by the h i g h t h r e a t m a n i p u l a t i o n o r , c o n v e r s e l y , may have been aroused i n the low t h r e a t c o n d i t i o n , i t was d e c i d e d to regroup s u b j e c t s on the b a s i s of t h e i r p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l at the time of the c r i m e . Rachman (1978) o u t l i n e d a t h r e e - s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s of f e a r c o m p r i s i n g t h r e e components: s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of a p p r e h e n s i o n , p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes, and attempts to a v o i d or escape c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s . In t h i s s tudy the s u b j e c t s were d i r e c t e d t o commit the c r i m e , so avoidance as a measure of t h r e a t was not f e a s i b l e ; t h e r e f o r e we have to r e l y on p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l to e s t i m a t e the s u b j e c t ' s e x p e r i e n c e of t h r e a t . As w e l l , Rachman (1978) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s t h e r e would be a d i s c o r d a n c e between the t h r e e systems, a p e r s o n c o u l d d i s p l a y h i g h p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l and low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l , or v i c e v e r s a . D i s c o r d a n c e was i n f a c t e v i d e n t i n t h i s s tudy as the p o s t c r i m e STAI s c o r e s and s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e were not h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d (Pearson r=.26). Given t h a t the p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e components c o u l d r e f l e c t a d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t of t h r e a t , i t was d e c i d e d to a s s e s s each i n d e p e n d e n t l y . The approach was to do a median s p l i t w i t h i n the a l c o h o l and no a l c o h o l groups so t h a t s u b j e c t s who s c o r e d h i g h e s t on the p o s t - c r i m e STAI, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r t h r e a t group assignment, were put i n t o a new group: h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l . Those s u b j e c t s below the median were a s s i g n e d to the low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group. The same procedure was done w i t h the p o s t - c r i m e s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e measure, r e s u l t i n g i n a group 89 of s u b j e c t s who showed h i g h p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the crime and a group w i t h low p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l . The STAI s c o r e and s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e were used i n the median s p l i t s because they proved t o be the measures t h a t b e s t d i s c r i m i n a t e d between the h i g h t h r e a t and low t h r e a t groups as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . When the a l c o h o l group was s p l i t on the b a s i s of STAI s c o r e s , 4 s u b j e c t s p r e v i o u s l y i n the h i g h t h r e a t c o n d i t i o n moved to the low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l c o n d i t i o n , b e i n g r e p l a c e d by 4 s u b j e c t s p r e v i o u s l y i n the low t h r e a t c o n d i t i o n , and 5 s u b j e c t s changed groups i n the no a l c o h o l group. The s p l i t on the b a s i s of s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e r e s u l t e d i n 6 s u b j e c t s i n the a l c o h o l group moving from the h i g h t h r e a t c o n d i t i o n t o the low p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l c o n d i t i o n , and 4 s u b j e c t s i n the no a l c o h o l group changing c o n d i t i o n s . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s s i m i l a r to those performed on the o r i g i n a l t h r e a t groups were conducted on the new groups c r e a t e d by the median s p l i t s . S i n c e the s p l i t s were done w i t h o u t r e g a r d to memory p r i m i n g , the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s was a 2-way (2 l e v e l s of a r o u s a l x 2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n ) MANOVA. Usi n g the d a t a d e r i v e d from the t h r e e p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n nels of the GKT, the MANOVA r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s between the h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l and low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l groups IF(3,58)=1.44, p>.051 and the a l c o h o 1 / s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n was a l s o not s i g n i f i c a n t IF(3,58)=1.01, p>.051. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d when GKT d a t a of the h i g h and low p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l groups were examined. The 2-way MANOVA suggested t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between GKT sc o r e s of these groups CF(3,55)=1.40, p>.051 nor was t h e r e a 90 s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n of a l c o h o l w i t h p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l tF(3,55)=0.28, p>.051. S i n c e the GKT c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e used i n t h i s study depended on o n l y the e l e c t r o d e r m a l measure, a s e p a r a t e a n a l y s i s of the SCR s c o r e s was a l s o conducted. A one-way ANOVA showed the SCR measure to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between groups [F(1,60)=4.33, p<.051, the h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group had a h i g h e r mean s c o r e (6.59) than the low a r o u s a l group ( 5 . 0 3 ) . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s i m p o r t a n t t o note because u n l i k e the CQT, the GKT c a t e g o r i c a l s c o r e s were based s o l e l y on n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s d e r i v e d from the SCR channel and o n l y changes i n t h i s measure can a f f e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s u b j e c t s . Table 6 summarizes the t o t a l GKT s c o r e s as w e l l as the SCR s c o r e s f o r each of the m u l t i v a r i a t e f a c t o r i a l c e l l s . In a d d i t i o n to m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , n o n p a r a m e t r i c a n a l y s e s of GKT c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t e s were done. When the a c c u r a c y of c l a s s i f y i n g s u b j e c t s as d e c e p t i v e or t r u t h f u l i n the h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group was compared to the a c c u r a c y of c l a s s i f y i n g s u b j e c t s i n the low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the 2 x 2 c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e was found IX (1)=6.77, p<.016] w i t h s u b j e c t s i n the low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group b e i n g h a r d e r to d e t e c t as g u i l t y (see Table 7 ) . A check of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n the memory p r i m i n g c o n d i t i o n showed t h a t the median s p l i t r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group c o n t a i n i n g 15 s u b j e c t s whose memory had been primed f o r crime d e t a i l s and a low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group c o n t a i n i n g 17 primed s u b j e c t s , t h e r e f o r e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c h i square i s not due to an i n a d v e r t e n t u n b a l a n c i n g of groups w i t h r e s p e c t to the p r i m i n g v a r i a b l e . 91 Table 6 GKT N u m e r i c a l Scores - S u b j e c t i v e A r o u s a l Groups C o n d i t i o n A l c o h o l No A l c o h o l Composite 11.37 11.25 High S u b j e c t i v e A r o u s a l SCR 6.75 6.43 Composite 9.81 8.37 Low S u b j e c t i v e A r o u s a l SCR 5.31 4.75 92 T a ble 7 GKT C a t e g o r i c a l Scores - S u b j e c t i v e A r o u s a l Groups (SCR o n l y ) C o n d i t i o n A l c o h o l No A l c o h o l D e c e p t i v e 15 15 High S u b j e c t i v e T r u t h f u l 1 1 A r o u s a l I n c o n c l u s i v e 0 0 D e c e p t i v e 9 8 Low S u b j e c t i v e T r u t h f u l 4 6 A r o u s a l I n c o n c l u s i v e 3 2 93 The a n a l y s e s done above w i t h the h i g h and low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l groups were r e p e a t e d f o r the h i g h and low p h y s i o l o g i c a l groups. A 2-way MANOVA u s i n g n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s from a l l t h r e e p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n nels of the GKT showed no s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e between the h i g h and low p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l groups EF(3,55)=1.40, p>.051 nor a s i g n i f i c a n t a l c o h o l / p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n [F(3,55)=0.28, p>.05]. A c h i square t e s t of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a c c u r a c y s i m i l a r l y showed t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n d e t e c t i o n r a t e s between the two groups DC 2( 1 ) = 0 . 04 , p>.051. The C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test d a t a of the two median s p l i t groups was e v a l u a t e d i n the same way as the GKT d a t a . A 2-way MANOVA (2 l e v e l s of s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l x 2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n ) showed t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean CQT s c o r e s between the two groups formed by a median s p l i t of the p o s t - c r i m e STAI s c o r e s IF(3,58)=0.85, p>.051. Table 8 shows the n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s f o r each of the f a c t o r i a l c e l l s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s , the a l c o h o l by s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t £F(3,58=4.59, p<.01I. U n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of the i n d i v i d u a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures r e v e a l e d t h a t both r e s p i r a t i o n [F(1,60)=6.20, p<.0161 and s k i n conductance response IF(1,60)=8.96, p<.016] s c o r e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n the a l c o h o l i n t e r a c t i o n . F i g u r e s 5 and 6 show t h a t a l c o h o l i n t e r a c t s w i t h the c o n d i t i o n of h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l t o produce p o s i t i v e SCR and r e s p i r a t i o n s c o r e s , meaning t h a t s u b j e c t s who are both s u b j e c t i v e l y aroused and i n t o x i c a t e d d u r i n g the crime tend t o s c o r e more i n the T a b l e 8 CQT C e l l Means - S u b j e c t i v e A r o u s a l Groups C o n d i t i o n A l c o h o l No A l c o h o l High S u b j e c t i v e A r o u s a l 1.00 -5.50 Low S u b j e c t i v e A r o u s a l -6.31 -2.31 FIGURE 5 MEAN SCR SCORES FOR SUBJECTIVE AROUSAL x ALCOHOL INTERACTION 1-1 Legend 'UGH AROUSAL -LOW AROUSAL NO ALCOHOL ALCOHOL 1 1 ALCOHOL CONDITION 96 FIGURE 6 MEAN RESPIRATION SCORES FOR SUBJECTIVE AROUSAL x ALCOHOL INTERACTION In Legend -HIGH AROUSAL •LOW AROUSAL \ \ NO ALCOHOL ALCOHOL ALCOHOL CONDITION 97 t r u t h f u l d i r e c t i o n . A n a l y s i s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t e s showed t h a t the n u m e r i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between groups, which suggest t h a t h i g h a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s w i l l be l e s s e a s i l y d e t e c t e d when i n t o x i c a t e d , were l a r g e enough to s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t s u b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h the CQT p r o c e d u r e . Chi square a n a l y s i s of h i t r a t e s (2 l e v e l s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n x 2 l e v e l s of a r o u s a l ) showed t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between h i g h a r o u s a l and low a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s when they were i n t o x i c a t e d [ X 2 ( l ) = 4 . 4 9 , p<.051. More s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h a r o u s a l group were m i s c l a s s i f i e d as t r u t h f u l than i n the low a r o u s a l group (see T a b l e 9 ) . The same c h i square a n a l y s i s was conducted w i t h the no a l c o h o l group but t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e [ X 2 ( 1 ) = 0 . 2 0 , p>.051 between h i g h a r o u s a l and low a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s (see Table 9 ) . The f i n a l n o n p a r a m e t r i c a n a l y s i s conducted w i t h these groups was between c r i m e - s o b e r s u b j e c t s and c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h a r o u s a l group. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found between these groups [ X 2 ( l ) = 2.46, p>.051. When CQT d a t a of the two groups formed by a median s p l i t of the post crime s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e measure were examined, t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s found. The 2-way MANOVA showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s of the h i g h p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l group and the low a r o u s a l group [F(3,55)=0.13, p>.051 and t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t a l c o h o l / p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n [F(3,55)=1.31, p>.051. S i m i l a r l y , c h i square a n a l y s i s of the h i t r a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l and low a r o u s a l groups 98 Table 9 CQT C a t e g o r i c a l Scores Condi t i o n A l c o h o l No A l c o h o l D e c e p t i v e 7 8 High S u b j e c t i v e T r u t h f u l 9 2 A r o u s a l I n c o n c l u s i v e 0 6 D e c e p t i v e 13 9 Low S u b j e c t i v e T r u t h f u l 2 2 A r o u s a l I n c o n c l u s i v e 1 5 99 [ X 2 ( l ) = . 0 0 2 , p>.05]. To summarize the above a n a l y s e s , i t appears t h a t a l l t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s ( t h r e a t , memory p r i m i n g , and a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n ) c o n t r i b u t e d to p o l y g r a p h t e s t outcome i n some way. U n l i k e the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984), t h i s s t udy found t h a t a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n d i d not produce any s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u m e r i c a l or c a t e g o r i c a l s c o r e s on e i t h e r the CQT or GKT. However, when s u b j e c t s were regrouped on the b a s i s of t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d u r i n g the c r i m e , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t a l c o h o l e f f e c t found. Those s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group s c o r e d h i g h e r ( i . e . i n the i n n o c e n t d i r e c t i o n ) on the CQT when i n t o x i c a t e d , and t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s was s u b s t a n t i a l enough to be r e f l e c t e d i n the c a t e g o r i c a l s c o r e s where the c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t e d , h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s were m i s c l a s s i f i e d as t r u t h f u l s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n than t h e i r low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . There was no e v i d e n c e of t h i s a l c o h o l / s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n the GKT n u m e r i c a l or c a t e g o r i c a l s c o r e s . When s u b j e c t s were grouped a c c o r d i n g t o p o s t c r i m e p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l , no a l c o h o l / a r o u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were found i n e i t h e r the GKT or CQT s c o r e s . A n a l y s i s of the t h r e a t v a r i a b l e showed t h a t i t had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the n u m e r i c a l or c a t e g o r i c a l s c o r e s of e i t h e r the CQT or GKT p r o c e d u r e s . But when t h r e a t was examined i n terms of i t s s e p a r a t e components, p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l , a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was e v i d e n t i n the GKT s c o r e s . S u b j e c t s i n the low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e l e s s o f t e n than s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h 100 a r o u s a l g r o u p , t h a t i s , l o w a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s e s c a p e d d e t e c t i o n more o f t e n t h a n h i g h a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s . T h i s e f f e c t was n o t s e e n i n a n a l y s e s o f t h e CQT s c o r e s , a n d t h e e f f e c t was n o t f o u n d i n e i t h e r t h e GKT o r CQT s c o r e s when t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e s p l i t on t h e b a s i s o f p o s t c r i m e p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l . Memory f o r s p e c i f i c c r i m e d e t a i l s was f o u n d t o h a v e no e f f e c t on CQT n u m e r i c a l o r c a t e g o r i c a l s c o r e s b u t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f t h e memory m a n i p u l a t i o n on t h e GKT o u t c o m e . T h o s e s u b j e c t s i n t h e p r i m e d memory g r o u p h a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s on t h e GKT t h a n s u b j e c t s whose memory was n o t p r i m e d . A l t h o u g h t h e mean g r o u p s c o r e s w e r e d i f f e r e n t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r i m e d a n d u n p r i m e d g r o u p s when t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e o r t r u t h f u l . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t memory f o r c r i m e d e t a i l s may be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g a s u b j e c t ' s GKT s c o r e , so t h a t v a r i a b l e i s e x a m i n e d more c l o s e l y i n t h e a n a l y s e s o f memory t e s t s c o r e s . Memory T e s t O u t c o m e As o u t l i n e d i n t h e M e t h o d s e c t i o n , t h r e e t e s t s o f memory f o r t h e mock c r i m e d e t a i l s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o e a c h s u b j e c t i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e p o l y g r a p h s e s s i o n . The t e s t s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o f r e e l y r e c a l l i n f o r m a t i o n , r e c a l l i n f o r m a t i o n when g i v e n c u e s , a n d t o r e c o g n i z e c r i m e d e t a i l s i n a l i s t o f 5 a l t e r n a t i v e s . The s c o r i n g s y s t e m u s e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e f r e e r e c a l l t e s t p r o d u c e d s c o r e s i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : t o t a l number o f c o r r e c t d e t a i l s r e c a l l e d , number o f d e t a i l s i n c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d , and 101 u n s c o r a b l e r e s p o n s e s . The u n s c o r a b l e responses were u s u a l l y s u b j e c t i v e judgments such as "a p r e t t y c o l o r " or "a t y p i c a l c h a i r . " S i n c e much of the s c o r i n g of t h i s t e s t was s u b j e c t i v e , a se t of g u i d e l i n e s was f o r m u l a t e d and used f o r s c o r i n g , then 15 of the 64 t e s t s were randomly chosen and b l i n d l y r e s c o r e d by a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t u s i n g the same g u i d e l i n e s . The r e l i a b i l i t y of s c o r i n g v a r i e d f o r each of the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . T o t a l d e t a i l s r e c a l l e d was the most r e l i a b l e c a t e g o r y , h a v i n g an i n t e r r a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of .90 f o l l o w e d by d e t a i l s i n c o r r e c t w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n of .85, and the p o o r e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , .68, was w i t h u n s c o r a b l e r e s p o n s e s . The r e s u l t s of the f r e e r e c a l l t e s t were a n a l y z e d i n a 3-way (2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n x 2 l e v e l s of t h r e a t x 2 l e v e l s of memory p r i m i n g ) MANOVA w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e s b e i n g each of the 3 s c o r i n g c a t e g o r i e s . Of the main e f f e c t s , a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n [F(3,54)=2.95, p<.05] and memory p r i m i n g [F(3,54)=5.28, p<.011 were s i g n i f i c a n t , but t h r e a t was not tF(3,54)=1.75, p>.051. U n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of the a l c o h o l e f f e c t s showed t h a t s u b j e c t s who were i n t o x i c a t e d at the time of the crime made more e r r o r s i n r e c a l l i n g crime d e t a i l s (3.47) than s u b j e c t s who were sober (1.91) [F(1,56)=6.86, p<.0161 but t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l d e t a i l s r e c a l l e d or u n s c o r a b l e r e s p o n s e s . I n s p e c t i o n of the u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s of memory p r i m i n g e f f e c t s showed, not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h a t the s u b j e c t s i n the primed memory group remembered more d e t a i l s (28.91) than those i n the unprimed group (21.66) IF(1,56)=12.29, p<.0161. There were no group d i f f e r e n c e s i n the number of i n c o r r e c t d e t a i l s r e c a l l e d or i n u n s c o r a b l e r e s p o n s e s . The MANOVA 102 a l s o showed no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . The cued r e c a l l t e s t d a t a were s u b j e c t e d t o a 3-way (2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n x 2 l e v e l s of t h r e a t x 2 l e v e l s of memory p r i m i n g ) ANOVA. Two of the main e f f e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t : a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n IF( 1, 56)= 7.75, p<.01] and memory p r i m i n g [F(1,56)=355.16, p<.0011 but the e f f e c t due t o t h r e a t was not 1F(1,56)=2.62, p>.051. The mean s c o r e of the primed memory group (19.56 out of 22) was s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e r than the unprimed group (10.47). In c o n t r a s t , the mean s c o r e of the a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t e d group (14.34) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y but n o t , i n p r a c t i c a l terms, s u b s t a n t i a l l y s m a l l e r than the sober group (15.69). None of the ANOVA i n t e r a c t i o n s was s i g n i f i c a n t . When the r e s u l t s of the r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t were a n a l y z e d i n the same 3-way ANOVA d e s i g n as above, t h e r e was o n l y one main e f f e c t found to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The mean s c o r e of the primed memory group (10.31 out of 11) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r [F(1,56)=293.42, p<.0013 than t h a t of the unprimed group ( 6 . 2 8 ) . The e f f e c t s on t e s t s c o r e s of t h r e a t IF(1,56)=0.86, p>.051 and a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n IF(1,56)=0.02, p>.051 were not s i g n i f i c a n t . A g a i n , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . Along w i t h memory f o r g e n e r a l crime d e t a i l s t h e r e i s a l s o the i s s u e of how w e l l s u b j e c t s remember d e t a i l s t h a t are c e n t r a l to the p o l y g r a p h t e s t . Both the r e c o g n i t i o n and the cued r e c a l l t e s t c o n t a i n e d the 5 c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t made up the GKT as w e l l as 6 q u e s t i o n s about p e r i p h e r a l crime d e t a i l s . The 5 c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s a l l concerned items the s u b j e c t had come i n d i r e c t p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t r e s u l t s was done to determine i f t h e r e was any d i f f e r e n c e between 103 the primed and unprimed groups i n terms of memory f o r c e n t r a l or p e r i p h e r a l d e t a i l s . When a one-way ANOVA was conducted w i t h each of the 5 c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s the mean s c o r e s of the two memory groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t on o n l y 2 of the 5 q u e s t i o n s . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h the sc o r e on the p e r i p h e r a l q u e s t i o n s where the primed group s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on a l l 6 q u e s t i o n s . T h i s means the d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c o g n i t i o n memory t e s t s c o r e between the two memory primed groups i s due l a r g e l y t o d i f f e r e n c e s on the p e r i p h e r a l q u e s t i o n s . I t a ppears, from the above a n a l y s e s , t h a t the t h r e a t m a n i p u l a t i o n had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on memory f o r crime d e t a i l s s i n c e t h e r e were no group d i f f e r e n c e s i n any of the memory s c o r e s . A l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n d i d have an e f f e c t t h a t r e s u l t e d i n the i n t o x i c a t e d group making more e r r o r s on the f r e e r e c a l l t e s t and on the cued r e c a l l t e s t , but a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p a i r the performance on the r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . The most c o n s i s t e n t e f f e c t on t e s t s c o r e s was due to the memory p r i m i n g m a n i p u l a t i o n . The primed memory group remembered more d e t a i l s on the f r e e r e c a l l t e s t and s c o r e d h i g h e r on both the cued r e c a l l t e s t and the r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . S i n c e s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group s c o r e d h i g h e r on the GKT, they may have had a b e t t e r r e c o l l e c t i o n of the c e n t r a l d e t a i l s . A 2-way (2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n x 2 l e v e l s of s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l ) ANOVA was performed w i t h the t o t a l s c o r e on the 5 c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s of the r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t b e i n g the dependent v a r i a b l e . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e due to s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l [F(1,60)=1.67, p>.05] and no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n of a l c o h o l w i t h a r o u s a l . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e 104 were no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s of a r o u s a l on the r e c a l l of p e r i p h e r a l d e t a i l s when s u b j e c t e d t o the same a n a l y s i s . The same ANOVA was conducted w i t h d a t a from the cued r e c a l l t e s t . A g a i n t h e r e were no group d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l s c o r e on the 5 c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s due to s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l [F(1,60)=2.24, p>.05] nor was the a l c o h o l by a r o u s a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t . R e s u l t s were s i m i l a r l y n o n s i g n i f i c a n t when the a n a l y s i s was conducted w i t h the t o t a l s c o r e on cued r e c a l l of p e r i p h e r a l d e t a i l s . The above a n a l y s e s suggest t h a t s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l had no e f f e c t on r e c o g n i t i o n memory f o r e i t h e r p e r i p h e r a l or c e n t r a l crime d e t a i I s . A d d i t i o n a l A n a l y s e s To r e i t e r a t e the major r e s u l t s w i t h r e s p e c t to p o l y g r a p h t e s t outcome, the d a t a have suggested t h a t s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l at the time of the crime has an e f f e c t on subsequent GKT r e s u l t s . S u b j e c t s i n the low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group were l e s s d e t e c t a b l e w i t h the GKT proce d u r e than s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h a r o u s a l group, and t h i s group d i f f e r e n c e appears t o be m a n i f e s t e d i n the SCR cha n n e l o n l y . S u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l was a l s o shown to i n t e r a c t w i t h a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group r e c e i v i n g h i g h e r n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s on the CQT and thus b e i n g l e s s e a s i l y d e t e c t e d as g u i l t y i f they were i n t o x i c a t e d at the time of the c r i m e . G i v e n the above r e s u l t s , the q u e s t i o n t h a t suggests i t s e l f i s : do the low and h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l groups d i f f e r i n ways o t h e r than STAI s c o r e at the time of the crime? I t i s of i n t e r e s t to know i f the groups d i f f e r e d on p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e 105 measures at o t h e r times d u r i n g the s t u d y . A 2-way (2 l e v e l s of s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l x 2 time p e r i o d s ) r e p e a t e d measures ANOVA showed t h a t the groups d i d have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t STAI s c o r e s throughout the stu d y . The h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group s c o r e d h i g h e r on the STAI at both b a s e l i n e and at the b e g i n n i n g of the p o l y g r a p h s e s s i o n , than the low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group (see F i g u r e 7 ) . The mean STAI s c o r e f o r the h i g h a r o u s a l group (37.68) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the low a r o u s a l mean (34.22) IF(1,61)=5.03, p<.051. In c o n t r a s t t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n STAI s c o r e s found above, a s i m i l a r 2-way (2 l e v e l s of s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l x 3 time p e r i o d s ) ANOVA showed no d i f f e r e n c e s between groups i n s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e CF(1,59)=.03, p>.051 at e i t h e r b a s e l i n e , post i n s t r u c t i o n s , or d u r i n g the p o l y g r a p h s e s s i o n . The i n t e r a c t i o n of time w i t h s y s t o l i c BP measures was a l s o not s i g n i f i c a n t [ F(1,6])=.07, p>.05]. See F i g u r e 8. S i n c e s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l at the time of the crime has been shown to be i m p o r t a n t i n GKT outcome and to i n t e r a c t w i t h a l c o h o l i n d e t e r m i n i n g CQT outcome, i t i s of i n t e r e s t to know how w e l l the crime STAI s c o r e c o r r e l a t e s w i t h p o l y g r a p h s c o r e s . Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d but none was s i g n i f i c a n t . The crime STAI s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h CQT t o t a l s c o r e was .06 (p>.05), and w i t h the CQT e l e c t r o d e r m a l s c o r e i t was .08 (p>.05). The c o r r e l a t i o n of STAI s c o r e and GKT t o t a l s c o r e was .11 (p>.05) and w i t h the GKT e l e c t r o d e r m a l s c o r e i t was .17 (p>.05). T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l i t s e l f , as measured by the STAI, and any of the p o l y g r a p h t e s t s c o r e s . R e s u l t s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s , d i s c u s s e d 106 FIGURE 7 MEAN STAI SCORES FOR SUBJECTIVE AROUSAL GROUPS Legend -HIGH AROUSAL -LOW AROUSAL BASELINE POLYGRAPH SESSION 1 1 TIME OF MEASUREMENT 107 FIGURE 8 MEAN BLOOD PRESSURE SCORES FOR HIGH AND LOW AROUSAL GROUPS Legend -UGH AROUSAL -LOW AROUSAL BASELINE POST POLYGRAPH INSTRUCTIONS SESSION 1 1 1 TIME OF MEASUREMENT 108 e a r l i e r i n the r e s u l t s s e c t i o n , suggested t h a t the use of the CQT and GKT t o g e t h e r would g i v e b e t t e r s e p a r a t i o n of the in n o c e n t and g u i l t y s u b j e c t s than e i t h e r t e s t a c h i e v e d on i t s own. T h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of o r d e r e f f e c t s . Does the use of one procedure b e f o r e the o t h e r a f f e c t the t e s t r e s u l t s ? To i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r a 3-way (2 l e v e l s of a l c o h o l x 2 l e v e l s of t h r e a t x 2 l e v e l s of o r d e r ) MANOVA was performed on the GKT and CQT n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s . Order of p r e s e n t a t i o n was c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d i n t h i s study so each procedure was a d m i n i s t e r e d f i r s t the same number of times t h a t i t was a d m i n i s t e r e d as the second t e s t . As w i t h the o t h e r MANOVAs performed i n t h i s study the dependent measures were d e r i v e d from the t h r e e p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n n e l s ; SCR, f i n g e r p u l s e a m p l i t u d e , and r e s p i r a t i o n . The MANOVA of GKT r e s u l t s showed no e f f e c t of o r d e r [F(3,54)=2.05, p>.05] nor were t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the a l c o h o l [F(3,54)=.94, p>.051 or t h r e a t [F(3,54)=.98, p>.05] v a r i a b l e s . S i m i l a r l y , the MANOVA of CQT r e s u l t s showed no o r d e r e f f e c t s [F(3,54)=1.42, p>.051 and no i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a l c o h o l IF(3,54)=.65, p>.05] or t h r e a t tF(3,54)=.65, p>.051. I t appears then, t h a t u s i n g the two p o l y g r a p h p r o cedures w i t h the same s u b j e c t w i l l not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the outcome of e i t h e r , r e g a r d l e s s of the o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n . 1 0 9 D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s of t h i s study demonstrate t h a t a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n d u r i n g the enactment of a mock c r i m e , s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d u r i n g the c r i m e , and memory f o r crime d e t a i l s , are a l l f a c t o r s t h a t can have an e f f e c t on the subsequent p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . The e f f e c t s , however, are not always s u b s t a n t i a l and are m a n i f e s t e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n the C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test and the G u i l t y Knowledge T e s t . M a n i p u l a t i o n checks c o n f i r m e d t h a t the independent v a r i a b l e s ; a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n , t h r e a t , and memory p r i m i n g , were s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented and the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s o r g a n i z e d around t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l and combined e f f e c t s on p o l y g r a p h outcome. The p r i m a r y purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of these independent v a r i a b l e s and the power of the a n a l y s e s of main e f f e c t s and i n t e r a c t i o n s i s f e l t t o be adequate. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the d i s c u s s i o n of these r e s u l t s i s on f i r m ground. However, the post-hoc and n o n p a r a m e t r i c a n a l y s e s t h a t were done (such as the a n a l y s i s of the two t h r e a t components) may be l e s s p o w e r f u l and t h e r e f o r e these r e s u l t s c o u l d be l e s s r e l i a b l e . With t h i s i n mind the d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s of these l a t t e r a n a l y s e s s h o u l d be re g a r d e d as s p e c u l a t i v e a l t h o u g h s u g g e s t i v e of d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . E f f e c t s of A l c o h o l In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , s u b j e c t s who consumed a l c o h o l p r i o r to c o m m i t t i n g the mock crime d i d n o t , as a group, show s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s c o r e s on the CQT than s u b j e c t s who were c r i m e - s o b e r . 110 U n l i k e the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984), r e s u l t s i n the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l no g e n e r a l i z e d e f f e c t of a l c o h o l on e i t h e r n u m e r i c a l or c a t e g o r i c a l p o l y g r a p h s c o r e s . B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) r e p o r t e d t h a t a m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t of t h e i r p o l y g r a p h s c o r e s showed t h a t s u b j e c t s who were i n t o x i c a t e d at the time of the crime had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r CQT n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s ( i e . i n the d i r e c t i o n of t r u t h f u l n e s s ) than c r i m e - s o b e r s u b j e c t s . U n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e l e c t r o d e r m a l s c o r e s of the c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than those of the sober group, but r e s p i r a t o r y and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r measures d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r . As w e l l as the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n e l e c t r o d e r m a l s c o r e s , B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s u b j e c t s as d e c e p t i v e , t r u t h f u l , or i n c o n c l u s i v e , was l e s s a c c u r a t e w i t h the crime i n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s . U s i n g a 3 x 2 c h i square a n a l y s i s they found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between sober and i n t o x i c a t e d groups when s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s of the composite s c o r e ( i e . the t o t a l of 3 p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures). There appear, however, to be some problems w i t h the way the c h i square a n a l y s i s was conducted. A l t h o u g h the e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c y was l e s s than 5 i n 4 of t h e i r 6 c e l l s ( 6 7 % ) , they d i d not use the Y a t e s ' c o r r e c t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i t y , and t h i s c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s h o u l d be used where 20% of the e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s are l e s s than 5, w i t h some s t a t i s t i c i a n s s u g g e s t i n g 10 (see Ferguson, 1976, p. 201). Without the c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r the a n a l y s i s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t e s y i e l d s X (2)=6 . 3 s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . U s i n g Y a t e s ' c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r the a n a l y s i s y i e l d s X (2)=3.5 which i s o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .20 l e v e l . In a d d i t i o n 111 to o m i t t i n g the Yates* c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r from the c a l c u l a t i o n s , the a u t h o r s i n c l u d e d an i n c o n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r y i n the a n a l y s i s . In such a l a b o r a t o r y study where m o t i v a t i o n t o beat the t e s t may be low and where s u b j e c t s are o n l y a d m i n i s t e r e d 3 c h a r t s i n s t e a d of the 5 c h a r t s commonly a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the f i e l d , i n c l u d i n g the i n c o n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r y i n the a n a l y s i s c o u l d be m i s l e a d i n g . I f the c h i square a n a l y s i s i s r e p e a t e d w i t h o n l y the d e c e p t i v e and t r u t h f u l c a t e g o r i e s , the r e s u l t i s even l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t ; 1)=.?5, p>.30. I t c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be argued t h a t a l t h o u g h B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t n u m e r i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n CQT s c o r e s of the c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t e d and c r i m e -sober groups, these d i f f e r e n c e s d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s u b j e c t s . So i n terms of h i t r a t e s , the p r e s e n t study has r e p l i c a t e d the r e s u l t s but not the c o n c l u s i o n s of B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) because n e i t h e r study demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t e d and c r i m e -sober groups when s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s of CQT sc o r e s (see Ta b l e 3 ) . The GKT d a t a were s u b j e c t e d t o the same s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s as the CQT d a t a , and the r e s u l t s were s i m i l a r t o those of B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984). The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u m e r i c a l GKT s c o r e s between the c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t e d and c r i m e - s o b e r groups, and c h i square a n a l y s i s showed no group d i f f e r e n c e i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t e . B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) a l s o found no s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of GKT n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s , but they r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t u n i v a r i a t e d i f f e r e n c e between i n t o x i c a t e d 112 and sober groups on the e l e c t r o d e r m a l measure, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the i n t o x i c a t e d group had a lower ( l e s s d e c e p t i v e ) mean sco r e than the sober group. T h i s may be m i s l e a d i n g because by u s i n g the u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s from the MANOVA they have n e g l e c t e d to c o n t r o l the a l p h a l e v e l . I f the B o n f e r r o n i i n e q u a l i t y p r i n c i p l e i s a p p l i e d t o a d j u s t the a l p h a l e v e l of the t h r e e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s (p<.016) the e l e c t r o d e r m a l group d i f f e r e n c e i n the B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) study LF(1,24)=5.45, p<.05] would no lo n g e r be s i g n i f i c a n t . The a u t h o r s d i d not conduct a c h i square a n a l y s i s of the GKT c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t e because of low e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s . I t appears, then, t h a t i n terms of GKT r e s u l t s the p r e s e n t s t u d y has r e p l i c a t e d the r e s u l t s but a g a i n d i f f e r e d i n the c o n c l u s i o n s of B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984), s i n c e n e i t h e r study c o u l d demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the i n t o x i c a t e d and sober groups on e i t h e r the n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s . When s t a t i s t i c a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) study are ad d r e s s e d , the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r r e s u l t s and those of the p r e s e n t study i s t h e i r f i n d i n g of an a l c o h o l e f f e c t on the e l e c t r o d e r m a l n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s of the CQT. The p r e s e n t study d i d not f i n d t h i s e f f e c t on CQT s c o r e s . A reason why t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s u l t s between the two s t u d i e s may have o c c u r r e d came to l i g h t when e f f e c t s of the t h r e a t v a r i a b l e were examined, and these r e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d below. E f f e c t s of Thre a t In l i g h t of t h e i r r e s u l t s , B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) s p e c u l a t e d t h a t a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n at the time of the crime 113 might o p e r a t e through e m o t i o n a l or memory p r o c e s s e s t o a f f e c t p o l y g r a p h r e s u l t s . They suggested t h a t i f d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n by the CQT depended on " e m o t i o n a l a r o u s a l " of g u i l t y s u b j e c t s to c r i m e - r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s , these q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be l e s s a r o u s i n g i f the crime were committed w h i l e i n t o x i c a t e d . That i s , a l c o h o l may reduce the e m o t i o n a l impact of com m i t t i n g the crime so subsequent q u e s t i o n s about the crime would be l e s s a r o u s i n g . The r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n suggest t h a t t h e i r h y p o t h e s i s i s not t e n a b l e f o r two re a s o n s ; a l c o h o l d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the e m o t i o n a l impact of the c r i m e , and emotion d u r i n g the crime d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the subsequent p o l y g r a p h r e s u l t s . For purposes of the p r e s e n t study " e m o t i o n a l a r o u s a l " was d e f i n e d i n terms of t h r e a t to a s u b j e c t d u r i n g the crime and was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as measures of p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l . R e s u l t s of the m a n i p u l a t i o n check r e v e a l e d t h a t the h i g h t h r e a t group had s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r s c o r e s on the p o s t - c r i m e STAI measure and h i g h e r p o s t - c r i m e s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e than the low t h r e a t group, but the 3-way ANOVA i n d i c a t e d no e f f e c t of a l c o h o l on e i t h e r of these measures. The mean p o s t - c r i m e STAI s c o r e f o r the a l c o h o l group was 46.58 compared to 48.94 f o r the no a l c o h o l group, and s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e was 147.16 mm/Hg and 149.78 mm/Hg r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s suggests t h a t a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n , at the l e v e l used i n t h i s s t u d y , does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y b l u n t the e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e of the c r i m e . F u r t h e r , a n a l y s i s of the t h r e a t v a r i a b l e e f f e c t s on p o l y g r a p h r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the h i g h and 114 low t h r e a t groups on e i t h e r CQT or GKT outcome. T h i s i s t r u e f o r the n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s and c a t e g o r i c a l s c o r e s of both p r o c e d u r e s . On the b a s i s of the above r e s u l t s i t seems c l e a r t h a t c r i m e -i n t o x i c a t i o n d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce the s u b j e c t ' s e x p e r i e n c e of t h r e a t i n t h i s s t u d y . A l c o h o l a f f e c t e d n e i t h e r the s u b j e c t i v e nor the p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures of a r o u s a l . In a d d i t i o n , t h r e a t had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the p o l y g r a p h outcome, so even i f the e m o t i o n a l impact of the crime was to be reduced i n some way, i t would not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . A l t h o u g h the t h r e a t v a r i a b l e d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t p o l y g r a p h outcome, some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d when the two components, p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l , were examined s e p a r a t e l y . S i n c e the p o s t - c r i m e STAI s c o r e and s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e measures were not h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d (r=.26) and each c o u l d p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t a d i f f e r e n t e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e , a n a l y s e s of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t s on p o l y g r a p h r e s u l t s were c a r r i e d o ut. The approach used was to c r e a t e two groups by c o n d u c t i n g a median s p l i t of s u b j e c t s on the b a s i s of t h e i r s c o r e s on each measure. A s p l i t on the b a s i s of s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e gave two groups, one composed of s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e f o l l o w i n g the crime and the o t h e r w i t h low s y s t o l i c b l o o d p r e s s u r e . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t these two groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , n u m e r i c a l l y or c a t e g o r i c a l l y , on e i t h e r CQT or GKT s c o r e s . However, when s u b j e c t s were formed i n t o h i g h and low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l groups on the b a s i s of p o s t - c r i m e STAI s c o r e s , s i g n i f i c a n t p o l y g r a p h d i f f e r e n c e s were found. While m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of n u m e r i c a l 115 s c o r e s showed no d i f f e r e n c e i n GKT s c o r e s between the h i g h and low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l groups, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system used i n t h i s study u t i l i z e s o n l y the e l e c t r o d e r m a l s c o r e so a s e p a r a t e a n a l y s i s u s i n g o n l y the SCR s c o r e s was done. U n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s u s i n g the SCR s c o r e s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups. The low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group had s m a l l e r SCR s c o r e s , making them more d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t than h i g h a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s . T h i s n u m e r i c a l s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e was s u b s t a n t i a l enough t h a t i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s u b j e c t s ; low a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e l e s s o f t e n than h i g h a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s (see Table 7 ) . Thus the s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l v a r i a b l e had not o n l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s but a l s o c l i n i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s as r e f l e c t e d i n the h i t r a t e s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n of a l c o h o l and s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o GKT s c o r e s as was found w i t h the CQT. S u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l had a s u b s t a n t i a l and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d e f f e c t on the GKT r e s u l t s but the same can not be s a i d f o r i t s e f f e c t on the CQT r e s u l t s . When a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of CQT sc o r e s was performed, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the h i g h and low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l groups; however, a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between a l c o h o l and a r o u s a l was r e v e a l e d . S u b j e c t s i n the h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l group who were i n t o x i c a t e d at the time of the crime had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r CQT s c o r e s , meaning t h a t they were ha r d e r t o d e t e c t as d e c e p t i v e . U n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s showed t h a t both r e s p i r a t i o n and SCR measures were s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the i n t e r a c t i o n . I t i s apparent 116 from F i g u r e s 5 and 6 t h a t c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d both the SCR and r e s p i r a t i o n s c o r e s of s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h a r o u s a l group. C r i m e - i n t o x i c a t i o n does not have the same e f f e c t on s u b j e c t s i n the low a r o u s a l group, and i n f a c t t h e r e i s a t r e n d f o r t h i s group to have lower s c o r e s i f i n t o x i c a t e d d u r i n g the c r i m e . These n u m e r i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s are not o n l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t but are s u b s t a n t i a l enough to r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t e s . A n a l y s i s of h i t r a t e s showed t h a t 9 of 16 i n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s who r e p o r t e d h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d u r i n g the crime were m i s c l a s s i f i e d as t r u t h f u l and t h i s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the 2 of 15 i n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g low crime a r o u s a l who were m i s c l a s s i f i e d . T h i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n h i t r a t e s was not found i n c r i m e - s o b e r s u b j e c t s where 2 of 10 s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d u r i n g the crime were m i s c l a s s i f i e d as t r u t h f u l and 2 of 9 s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g low a r o u s a l were m i s c l a s s i f i e d (see Table 9 ) . G iven the above r e s u l t s one might expect t h a t the c r i m e -i n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h a r o u s a l group would be more d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t than c r i m e - s o b e r , h i g h a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a t r e n d i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t e d h i g h a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s were not m i s c l a s s i f i e d more o f t e n than t h e i r c r i m e - s o b e r c o u n t e r p a r t s . The a l t e r n a t e e x p l a n a t i o n of why no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the two h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l groups had to do w i t h s m a l l sample s i z e . S i n c e more s u b j e c t s i n the no a l c o h o l group were c l a s s i f i e d as i n c o n c l u s i v e t h e r e were o n l y 10 s u b j e c t s from t h i s group, compared to 16 s u b j e c t s i n the a l c o h o l group, i n c l u d e d i n the c h i square a n a l y s i s . T h i s s m a l l e r number of h i g h a r o u s a l , no a l c o h o l 117 s u b j e c t s may have d e c r e a s e d the power of the a n a l y s i s s i n c e the v a l u e of c h i square i s r e l a t e d to sample s i z e . I f a t r e n d i n the d a t a r e p r e s e n t s an a c t u a l group d i f f e r e n c e , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e w i l l i n c r e a s e w i t h sample s i z e and the a s s o c i a t e d p r o b a b i l i t y w i l l d e c r e a se (see Ferguson, 1976, p. 204). Thus, i f our sample s i z e was l a r g e r the n o n p a r a m e t r i c a n a l y s e s would have been more p o w e r f u l . To r e i t e r a t e the above d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s apparent t h a t a l c o h o l d i d not have a g e n e r a l e f f e c t on p o l y g r a p h r e s u l t s i n t h i s s t u d y , but a l c o h o l was found to i n t e r a c t w i t h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l t o make i n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s who e x p e r i e n c e d h i g h a r o u s a l d u r i n g the crime more d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t w i t h the CQT p r o c e d u r e . A l t h o u g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d u r i n g the crime d i d not i t s e l f s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the CQT outcome, i t d i d a f f e c t GKT r e s u l t s . S u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d u r i n g the crime were more d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t as d e c e p t i v e w i t h the GKT procedure than h i g h a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s . U n l i k e the CQT, the GKT r e s u l t s were not a f f e c t e d by the c o m b i n a t i o n of h i g h a r o u s a l and i n t o x i c a t i o n . S u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l seems to have a somewhat c o n t r a r y e f f e c t on the CQT and GKT p r o c e d u r e s . While h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l combined w i t h i n t o x i c a t i o n d e c r e a s e s d e t e c t a b i l i t y w i t h the CQT p r o c e d u r e , i t i s low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l t h a t reduces d e t e c t a b i l i t y w i t h the GKT p r o c e d u r e . A l t h o u g h t h i s may seem p a r a d o x i c a l i t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h R a s k i n ' s (1979) e x p l a n a t i o n of d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n i n terms of o r i e n t i n g and d e f e n s i v e r e s p o n s e s . He o u t l i n e d a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n t h a t i s based on the concepts of a r o u s a l 118 and a t t e n t i o n . He suggested: "(1) t h a t d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n and the s u c c e s s f u l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of g u i l t y and d e c e p t i v e s u b j e c t s are based on the d i f f e r e n t i a l a r o u s a l v a l u e of v a r i o u s s t i m u l i f o r d e c e p t i v e and t r u t h f u l s u b j e c t s , and (2) t h a t a r o u s a l v a l u e of the s t i m u l i i s d etermined by the b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t s of the d e c e p t i v e c o n t e x t and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e t e s t a b l i s h e d by the e x a m i n a t i o n procedure t h a t induces d i f f e r e n t i a l amounts of s i g n a l v a l u e to v a r i o u s s t i m u l i and sometimes produces i n f o r m a t i o n -p r o c e s s i n g i n response to c e r t a i n s t i m u l i w i t h i n the s t i m u l u s sequence (p. 588)." He f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e d t h a t a s u b j e c t ' s responses to the s t i m u l u s q u e s t i o n s of the CQT and GKT may be mediated by d i f f e r e n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . The r e l e v a n t CQT q u e s t i o n s are a c c u s a t o r y , t h r e a t e n i n g , and p e r s o n a l , and r e q u i r e a d i r e c t d e n i a l of g u i l t , t h e r e f o r e the s u b j e c t responds i n a d e f e n s i v e manner. In comparison, the GKT q u e s t i o n s are not a c c u s a t o r y but are an attempt to determine i f the s u b j e c t has knowledge of crime d e t a i l s t h a t o n l y a g u i l t y p erson would know. The c r i t i c a l item has g r e a t e r s i g n a l v a l u e than n o n c r i t i c a l items f o r the g u i l t y s u b j e c t but not f o r the i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t . The s i g n a l v a l u e of the c r i t i c a l item f o r a g u i l t y s u b j e c t would produce a l a r g e o r i e n t i n g response to t h a t item whereas the i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t ' s response to the c r i t i c a l item would be no l a r g e r than h i s responses to the n o n c r i t i c a l i t e m s . O r i e n t i n g and d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n s s e r v e d i f f e r e n t b i o l o g i c a l p u r p oses. The o r i e n t i n g response p r e p a r e s the body to d e a l w i t h a new or i m p o r t a n t s t i m u l u s i n the environment and i n v o l v e s a p h y s i c a l and mental o r i e n t a t i o n towards the s t i m u l u s . A h i g h l y s a l i e n t s t i m u l u s , such as a c h i l d ' s c r y , w i l l c o n t i n u e to evoke 119 an o r i e n t i n g response r e g a r d l e s s of f a m i l i a r i t y . The d e f e n s i v e response i s a more d r a m a t i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l response t h a t p r e p a r e s the body f o r a t h r e a t e n i n g s t i m u l u s . I f the CQT produces r e a c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e f e n s i v e responses and the GKT r e a c t i o n s are p r e d o m i n a n t l y o r i e n t i n g r e s p o n s e s , the p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of responses to the two t e s t s s h o u l d be d i f f e r e n t . R a s k i n (1979) p r e s e n t e d e v i d e n c e t h a t p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses observed w i t h the GKT d i f f e r from those o b t a i n e d w i t h the CQT. The r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t s t u d y f u r t h e r s u p port the two-response t h e o r y a l b e i t from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . I f the CQT and GKT r e l i e d on the same p h y s i o l o g i c a l response system one would expect s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l to a f f e c t both t e s t s i n the same way. T h i s i s not the case because h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l when a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l c o h o l d i m i n i s h e s the a c c u r a c y of the CQT and has no e f f e c t on the GKT. C o n v e r s e l y , low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d i m i n i s h e s the a c c u r a c y of the GKT but has no e f f e c t on the CQT. T h i s suggests t h a t each procedure i s mediated by d i f f e r e n t response systems. F o l l o w i n g R a s k i n ' s (1979) model, the s i g n a l v a l u e of the CQT r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s i s e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the p o l y g r a p h s e s s i o n w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n and r e v i e w of q u e s t i o n s , but the s i g n a l v a l u e of the c r i t i c a l GKT items i s e s t a b l i s h e d at the time of the c r i m e . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t i f a s u b j e c t i s h i g h l y aroused at the time of the c r i m e , d e t a i l s of the event would be more m e a n i n g f u l and thus a c q u i r e more s i g n a l v a l u e than they would f o r the low a r o u s a l s u b j e c t , and c o n v e r s e l y , a n y t h i n g which reduced the s i g n a l v a l u e would reduce the s u b j e c t ' s response to the 120 c r i t i c a l item and c o n s e q u e n t l y would reduce the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power of the GKT. A r o u s a l then, would have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on how a s u b j e c t responds on the GKT. S i n c e response to the CQT q u e s t i o n s depends h e a v i l y on what t r a n s p i r e s i n the p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w , a r o u s a l at the time of the crime would not be such an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r w i t h t h a t p r o c e d u r e . R e s u l t s i n the p r e s e n t study are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i d e a t h a t l e v e l of a r o u s a l d u r i n g the crime would i n f l u e n c e the GKT but not the CQT. However, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l to GKT s c o r e i s not c l e a r . S u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d u r i n g the crime s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on the GKT and t h e r e f o r e a v o i d d e t e c t i o n more o f t e n than s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h a r o u s a l group, y e t s c o r e s on the p o s t - c r i m e STAI do not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h GKT e l e c t r o d e r m a l s c o r e or w i t h the GKT t o t a l s c o r e . T h i s suggests t h a t i t may not be s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l i t s e l f t h a t a f f e c t s GKT s c o r e ; r a t h e r , STAI s c o r e may be an index of another d i m e n s i o n , p o s s i b l y a p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n , t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t to d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n w i t h the GKT p r o c e d u r e . Iacono, B o i s v e n u , & F l e m i n g (1984) a l s o found t h a t p r e c r i m e s c o r e on the A - S t a t e p o r t i o n of the STAI d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h GKT e l e c t r o d e r m a l s c o r e . In a d d i t i o n , they a d m i n i s t e r e d the D i f f e r e n t i a l P e r s o n a l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (DPQ), an omnibus p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y , to s u b j e c t s and found no c o r r e l a t i o n between p e r s o n a l i t y s c o r e s and GKT s c o r e s . But s i n c e t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y was c u r s o r y , they may not have touched on dimensions i m p o r t a n t to GKT outcome. Such a t r a i t would have t o c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h A - S t a t e measures of crime a r o u s a l and persons s c o r i n g h i g h on measures of t h i s t r a i t would 121 be e x p e c t e d to s c o r e h i g h e r on the STAI even d u r i n g b a s e l i n e c o n d i t i o n s , as the h i g h a r o u s a l group d i d i n t h i s s t u d y . In terms of t h i s s t u d y , persons s c o r i n g h i g h on the proposed t r a i t would be more l i k e l y t o be engaged by the e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e might a t t a c h more importance and meaning to d e t a i l s of the c r i m e . The crime d e t a i l s would then i n t u r n have more s i g n a l v a l u e when encountered on the GKT. C o n v e r s e l y , s u b j e c t s s c o r i n g low on measures of t h i s t r a i t would not a t t a c h as much meaning to the crime d e t a i l s and would g i v e s m a l l e r o r i e n t i n g responses when p r e s e n t e d w i t h these d e t a i l s on the GKT. I t i s tem p t i n g to e x p l a i n the e f f e c t s of s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l i n terms of a t t e n t i o n t o , and memory o f , crime d e t a i l s , but memory t e s t s r e v e a l e d no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e c a l l or r e c o g n i t i o n of r e l e v a n t d e t a i l s between the h i g h and low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l groups. A p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n r e l a t e d to STAI s c o r e , as d e s c r i b e d above, would a l s o have to account f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n of a l c o h o l w i t h the h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s which r e s u l t e d i n t h i s group b e i n g h a r d e r t o d e t e c t w i t h the CQT pro c e d u r e . R a s k i n ' s (1979) d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n model suggests a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s model, the p r e t e s t i n t e r v i e w c r e a t e s a s i t u a t i o n where the s i g n a l v a l u e of the r e l e v a n t CQT q u e s t i o n s i s s t r o n g f o r g u i l t y s u b j e c t s but i s reduced f o r i n n o c e n t s u b j e c t s . The s i g n a l v a l u e of r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s i s s t r o n g f o r g u i l t y s u b j e c t s because they are i n a s i t u a t i o n where they have to deny or be d e f e n s i v e about t h e i r g u i l t . The s i g n a l v a l u e of the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s i s l e s s f o r the in n o c e n t s u b j e c t s because they have been c o n v i n c e d t h a t the 122 p o l y g r a p h i s a c c u r a t e and they do not have to be as d e f e n s i v e i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . The r e s u l t s i n the p r e s e n t study suggest t h a t the s i g n a l v a l u e of the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s has been reduced f o r the c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t e d , h i g h a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s . T h i s would be p o s s i b l e i f the s u b j e c t ' s sense of g u i l t or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was d i m i n i s h e d by the f a c t t h a t he had been i n t o x i c a t e d d u r i n g the cr i m e . S u b j e c t s who s c o r e d h i g h on a p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n r e l a t e d t o the STAI measure might be more l i k e l y to see the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the t h e f t l e s s as a p e r s o n a l matter and more as an e x t e r n a l or s i t u a t i o n a l m a tter r e l a t e d to i n t o x i c a t i o n . These h i g h a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s would then be l e s s e a s i l y d e t e c t e d than the h i g h a r o u s a l s u b j e c t s who d i d not have the excuse of i n t o x i c a t i o n because the r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s would have l e s s s i g n a l v a l u e f o r the i n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s . I t may be the case t h a t the study of B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) had a l a r g e number of s u b j e c t s who f e l l i n t o the h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l c a t e g o r y and t h e r e f o r e they found s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t CQT n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s between the a l c o h o l and no a l c o h o l groups, whereas t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not found i n the p r e s e n t study u n t i l a median s p l i t was conducted. S i n c e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c r i m e - a r o u s a l was done i n a p o s t -hoc a n a l y s i s , no d e f i n i t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n can be made f o r i t s mode of a c t i o n . I t seems c l e a r t h a t s u b j e c t s who e x p e r i e n c e low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d u r i n g the crime are more d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t as d e c e p t i v e w i t h the GKT p r o c e d u r e , and s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l are more d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t w i t h the CQT procedure when they are i n t o x i c a t e d d u r i n g the c r i m e . C l a r i f i c a t i o n of why t h i s o c c u r s w i l l r e q u i r e e x a m i n a t i o n of the 123 s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l v a r i a b l e i n an a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . Such a study would m a n i p u l a t e s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l i n the same manner as the t h r e a t v a r i a b l e was m a n i p u l a t e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . T h i s would be the f i r s t s t e p i n d e t e r m i n i n g i f s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l i t s e l f i s im p o r t a n t t o p o l y g r a p h t e s t outcome or whether i t merely r e f l e c t s a p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n t h a t i s not o n l y a f a c t o r i n a s u b j e c t ' s response t o p o l y g r a p h q u e s t i o n s but i s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by a l c o h o l . E f f e c t s of Memory P r i m i n g B e s i d e s e m o t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s , B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) a l s o suggested memory as a p r o c e s s through which a l c o h o l might work to reduce d e t e c t a b i l i t y w i t h the p o l y g r a p h , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the GKT p r o c e d u r e . In t h e i r s tudy they found no d i f f e r e n c e between the i n t o x i c a t e d and sober groups on a r e c o g n i t i o n memory t e s t composed of 9 crime r e l e v a n t i t e m s , but the a u t h o r s f e l t t h a t a s i m p l e r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t of memory may not have been p o w e r f u l enough to d i s c r i m i n a t e d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups. They suggested t h a t group d i f f e r e n c e s i n memory f o r crime d e t a i l s might emerge w i t h a nonprompted r e c a l l t e s t . In the p r e s e n t study t h r e e t e s t s of memory were employed: a r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s i m i l a r t o t h a t used by B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984), a cued r e c a l l t e s t , and a f r e e r e c a l l t e s t . R e s u l t s of the r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r e s between the i n t o x i c a t e d and sober groups, as was the case i n the B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984) s t u d y . As ex p e c t e d t h e r e was a l a r g e and s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s c o r e due to memory 124 p r i m i n g , an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the m a n i p u l a t i o n of t h i s independent v a r i a b l e was s u c c e s s f u l . Threat had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on memory s c o r e s . R e s u l t s of the cued r e c a l l t e s t were markedly d i f f e r e n t than those of the r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . As p o s t u l a t e d by B r a d l e y and A i n s w o r t h (1984), e f f e c t s of crime i n t o x i c a t i o n were seen i n cued r e c a l l t e s t s c o r e s . I n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower (14.34) than c r i m e - s o b e r s u b j e c t s ( 1 5 . 6 9 ) , but d e s p i t e the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between the groups, the p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e i s m i n i m a l . A d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r e of 1.35 between the two groups, w i t h r e s p e c t to a t o t a l p o s s i b l e s c o r e of 22, does not seem s u b s t a n t i a l . The e f f e c t of memory p r i m i n g on cued r e c a l l s c o r e was s i g n i f i c a n t and much more s u b s t a n t i a l than the a l c o h o l e f f e c t . The primed memory group had a mean s c o r e of 19.56 out of 22 and the unprimed group s c o r e d o n l y 10.47. As w i t h the r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s c o r e s , t h r e a t was not a f a c t o r i n cued r e c a l l t e s t s c o r e s . Three s e p a r a t e s c o r e s were g e n e r a t e d from the f r e e r e c a l l t e s t : number of e r r o r s , t o t a l d e t a i l s r e c a l l e d , and u n s c o r a b l e r e s p o n s e s . M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t i o n had a s i g n i f i c a n t a f f e c t on o n l y one s c o r e , number of e r r o r s . C r i m e - i n t o x i c a t e d s u b j e c t s , on average, made more e r r o r s (3.47) i n r e c a l l i n g c r ime d e t a i l s than d i d c r i m e - s o b e r s u b j e c t s ( 1 . 9 1 ) , but t h e r e were no group d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l d e t a i l s or u n s c o r a b l e r e s p o n s e s . Memory p r i m i n g a l s o had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t , as one would e x p e c t , r e s u l t i n g i n the primed group r e c a l l i n g more d e t a i l s (28.91) than the unprimed group (21.66 ) , but group d i f f e r e n c e s i n e r r o r s and u n s c o r a b l e responses were not 125 s i g n i f i c a n t . As w i t h the o t h e r two memory t e s t s , t h r e a t had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . The e f f e c t s of a l c o h o l on memory r e p o r t e d above are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the st a t e - d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g l i t e r a t u r e which suggests t h a t uncued r e c a l l of t a r g e t events i s r e l i a b l y d i s r u p t e d by a l c o h o l i n t o x i c a t i o n at the time of l e a r n i n g , but r e c o g n i t i o n of the events i s n o t . Cued r e c a l l of events i s l e s s r e l i a b l y d i s r u p t e d than f r e e r e c a l l (see E i c h , 1977). Given t h a t a l c o h o l has had the ex p e c t e d e f f e c t on memory p r o c e s s e s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the l a r g e r i s s u e of how these memory d i s t u r b a n c e s i n f l u e n c e p o l y g r a p h outcome can be addressed. I t i s c l e a r t h a t s u b j e c t s i n t o x i c a t e d d u r i n g the crime r e c a l l l e s s on a cued r e c a l l t e s t of memory and make more e r r o r s on a f r e e r e c a l l memory t e s t , but w h i l e these d i f f e r e n c e s are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t they are not l a r g e . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n t u r n s out to be im p o r t a n t because the a c t i o n of a l c o h o l on memory pr o c e s s e s was not s u b s t a n t i a l enough to a f f e c t p o l y g r a p h outcome. The r e s u l t s of the GKT, a procedure p o t e n t i a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o memory d i s t u r b a n c e s , were not a f f e c t e d by a l c o h o l . And the CQT r e s u l t s , a l t h o u g h a f f e c t e d by an i n t e r a c t i o n of a r o u s a l and a l c o h o l , were not a f f e c t e d by memory d i s t u r b a n c e s s i n c e b o t h h i g h and low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l groups had s i m i l a r memory t e s t s c o r e s . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t a l c o h o l d i d not d i s r u p t memory p r o c e s s e s s u f f i c i e n t l y to a f f e c t p o l y g r a p h s c o r e s , memory f o r crime d e t a i l s was shown to be an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e . R e s u l t s of the memory p r i m i n g m a n i p u l a t i o n showed t h a t the primed memory group had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r e l e c t r o d e r m a l s c o r e s on the GKT 126 than the unprimed group. In c o n t r a s t , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n CQT s c o r e between the primed and unprimed group, but t h i s i s a r e a s o n a b l e f i n d i n g s i n c e memory i s not thought to be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the CQT pro c e d u r e . A l t h o u g h the primed memory group had h i g h e r n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s on the GKT, when s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d as d e c e p t i v e or t r u t h f u l t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n h i t r a t e s but t h e r e was a t r e n d f o r unprimed s u b j e c t s t o go u n d e t e c t e d more o f t e n than primed s u b j e c t s . The reason f o r t h i s i n c o n g r u i t y i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of n u m e r i c a l and c a t e g o r i c a l s c o r e s i s l i k e l y due to the f a c t t h a t s u b j e c t s i n both the primed and unprimed groups s c o r e d w e l l on the c e n t r a l r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t q u e s t i o n s , q u e s t i o n s about items which made up the GKT. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r e on o n l y 2 of 5 r e c o g n i t i o n q u e s t i o n s , and l i k e l y i t i s these two q u e s t i o n s which were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the n u m e r i c a l GKT s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e , but s i n c e the group d i f f e r e n c e s were c o n f i n e d to o n l y 2 c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s the c a t e g o r i c a l s c o r e was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s the importance of c h o o s i n g the GKT q u e s t i o n s w e l l . When the GKT q u e s t i o n format was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the p r e s e n t study o n l y o b j e c t s the s u b j e c t came i n p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h were used as t a r g e t d e t a i l s . T h i s a s s u r e s t h a t the s u b j e c t has a t t e n d e d t o , at l e a s t b r i e f l y , each of the t a r g e t d e t a i l s . In the p r e s e n t study t h i s approach was s u c c e s s f u l because even the unprimed group remembered the c e n t r a l d e t a i l s w e l l . The same can not be s a i d f o r the p e r i p h e r a l d e t a i l s , of which a l l 6 were r e c o g n i z e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n by s u b j e c t s i n the primed memory group. The above r e s u l t s , which i n d i c a t e t h a t memory f o r crime 127 d e t a i l s i s i m p o r t a n t to GKT outcome, are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s u l t s of Waid, Orne, Cook, & Orne (1978) and Iacono, B o i s v e n u , & F l e m i n g (1984). The l a t t e r study found a c o r r e l a t i o n of r=.53 (p<.0001) between a crime d e t a i l r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s c o r e and GKT e l e c t r o d e r m a l s c o r e . T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l to the one c a l c u l a t e d i n the p r e s e n t study between the f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s c o r e and SCR s c o r e (r=.53, p<.0001) and c l o s e to the c o r r e l a t i o n of cued r e c a l l t e s t s c o r e w i t h SCR s c o r e (r=.51, p<.0001). A l t h o u g h the c o r r e l a t i o n s are h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t they i n d i c a t e t h a t memory f o r crime d e t a i l s o n l y accounts f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 28% of the v a r i a n c e seen i n GKT s c o r e and t h i s suggests t h a t o t h e r v a r i a b l e s such as s a l i e n c e or s i g n a l v a l u e of the crime d e t a i l s a l s o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n GKT d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . T h i s i s congruent w i t h the f i n d i n g of the p r e s e n t study t h a t s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l at the time of the crime can i n f l u e n c e GKT s c o r e i n a manner t h a t may i n v o l v e changes i n s i g n a l v a l u e of crime r e l e v a n t d e t a i l s . F u r t h e r support f o r the i d e a t h a t item s a l i e n c e i s i m p o r t a n t was p r o v i d e d by B r a d l e y and W a r f i e l d (1984). l n t h e i r study they found t h a t s u b j e c t s who had a c t u a l l y committed a mock crime s c o r e d h i g h e r on the GKT than s u b j e c t s who o n l y w i t n e s s e d the crime or s u b j e c t s who were merely t o l d the c r i m e - r e l e v a n t d e t a i l s . Together the memory da t a and the a n a l y s e s of the t h r e a t v a r i a b l e s u pport R a s k i n ' s (1979) h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the o c c u r r e n c e of autonomic responses to the GKT and CQT q u e s t i o n s are mediated by d i f f e r e n t p h y s i o l o g i c a l response systems, the o r i e n t i n g and d e f e n s i v e r e s p o n s e s . In f a c t none of the independent v a r i a b l e s 128 a f f e c t e d the GKT or CQT i n the same way. While low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l was found to decrease GKT s c o r e s , i t was h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l t h a t was im p o r t a n t to the CQT. Memory v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t e d GKT r e s u l t s but not CQT r e s u l t s , and the o p p o s i t e was t r u e of a l c o h o l which s e l e c t i v e l y a f f e c t e d CQT r e s u l t s but not GKT r e s u l t s . R a s k i n ' s model p r o v i d e s a framework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g why some of the seemingly p a r a d o x i c a l e f f e c t s of the independent v a r i a b l e s o c c u r . A s i d e i s s u e t h a t the p r e s e n t study was a b l e to address i s t h a t of o r d e r e f f e c t s . D i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s of the CQT and GKT r e s u l t s showed t h a t both t e s t s used t o g e t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t e d the d e c e p t i v e and t r u t h f u l s u b j e c t s b e t t e r than e i t h e r t e s t c o u l d do on i t s own. A l t h o u g h the GKT i s not used much i n f i e l d s i t u a t i o n s , r e s u l t s here suggest t h a t i t might be a u s e f u l a d j u n c t to the CQT. An obvi o u s p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t y of u s i n g b oth t e s t s i s t h a t one t e s t might d e t r a c t from the procedure i t p r e c e d e s . Such t h i n g s as h a b i t u a t i o n , boredom, or f a t i g u e d u r i n g the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n c o u l d d i m i n i s h the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the procedure a d m i n i s t e r e d l a s t . R e s u l t s i n the p r e s e n t study i n d i c a t e t h a t o r d e r of t e s t p r e s e n t a t i o n d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e c r ease the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e i t h e r the CQT or the GKT. S u b j e c t s were taken f o r a 5 minute walk through the b u i l d i n g between a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the f i r s t and second t e s t p r o c e d u r e , and t h i s may have h e l p e d to m a i n t a i n a l e r t n e s s and i n t e r e s t . Under the above c o n d i t i o n s i t appears t h a t b oth the CQT and GKT procedures can be used s e r i a l l y w i t h a s u b j e c t w i t h o u t compromising the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e i t h e r . 129 Summary In c o n c l u s i o n , the p r i m a r y h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g t e s t e d , t h a t c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t i o n w i l l d ecrease a s u b j e c t ' s d e t e c t a b i l i t y w i t h the CQT and GKT p r o c e d u r e s , has o n l y been p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d . While i t appears t h a t t h e r e i s no g e n e r a l i z e d e f f e c t of a l c o h o l , c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t i o n d i d reduce d e t e c t a b i l i t y w i t h the CQT procedure i n some s u b j e c t s . S u b j e c t s who r e p o r t e d h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l at the time of the c r i m e , and who were i n t o x i c a t e d , were m i s c l a s s i f i e d as t r u t h f u l more o f t e n than o t h e r s u b j e c t s . S i n c e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l was done post-hoc e x p l a n a t i o n s of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to p o l y g r a p h s c o r e s can o n l y be s p e c u l a t i v e , a l t h o u g h i t appears t h a t s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l i s not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to p o l y g r a p h outcome but may i n s t e a d be an index of another i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n , p o s s i b l y a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t . A l c o h o l had none of the above e f f e c t s on GKT s c o r e s , so w h i l e the p r i m a r y h y p o t h e s i s was p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d w i t h r e s p e c t to CQT outcome, no support was found i n terms of GKT outcome. The a n a l y s i s of s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l i s a l s o r e l e v a n t to the second h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g addressed i n t h i s t h e s i s : a l c o h o l a c t s through memory and e m o t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . A n a l y s i s of the e f f e c t s of memory p r i m i n g showed t h a t memory f o r crime d e t a i l s has a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on GKT s c o r e s ; those s u b j e c t s who remember more d e t a i l s s c o r e h i g h e r on the GKT. R e s u l t s a l s o c l e a r l y showed t h a t c r i m e - i n t o x i c a t i o n d i d i m p a i r a s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o remember crime d e t a i l s , but t h i s impairment was not s u b s t a n t i a l enough to a f f e c t the GKT s c o r e . As e x p e c t e d , memory f o r crime d e t a i l s was not a f a c t o r i m p o r t a n t to CQT s c o r e . A n a l y s i s of the t h r e a t 130 v a r i a b l e suggested t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e of t h r e a t d u r i n g the crime was not a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the outcome of e i t h e r the GKT or CQT, but when t h r e a t was examined i n terms of i t s components, p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l , an e f f e c t was found. I f a s u b j e c t r e p o r t s low s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d u r i n g the crime he i s more d i f f i c u l t to d e t e c t as d e c e p t i v e on the GKT. T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h the CQT r e s u l t s which i n d i c a t e t h a t s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l a lone has no e f f e c t on p o l y g r a p h s c o r e , but when h i g h s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l i s combined w i t h i n t o x i c a t i o n , s u b j e c t s are l e s s e a s i l y d e t e c t e d as d e c e p t i v e . Thus the second h y p o t h e s i s was a l s o o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d . Memory p r o c e s s e s are impo r t a n t f o r GKT outcome, but memory i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y a f f e c t e d by a l c o h o l ( a t the dose used i n t h i s s t udy) to s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i m i n i s h GKT s c o r e s , and e m o t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s d u r i n g the crime may be im p o r t a n t to p o l y g r a p h outcome but they appear to be more i m p o r t a n t t o the GKT r a t h e r than the CQT. F u t u r e r e s e a r c h w i l l be n e c e s s a r y to more f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s u b j e c t i v e a r o u s a l d u r i n g the crime to p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . 131 R e f e r e n c e s Ax, A.F. (1953). The p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between f e a r and anger i n humans. Psy c h o s o m a t i c M e d i c i n e , 15, 433-4 42. B a c k s t e r , C. (1962). Methods of s t r e n g t h e n i n g our p o l y g r a p h t e c h n i q u e . P o l i c e . 6, 61-68. B a r l a n d , G.H., and R a s k i n , D.C. (1973). D e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . In W.F. Pr o k a s y & D.C. R a s k i n ( E d s . ) , E l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y  i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . New York: Academic P r e s s . B a r l a n d , G.H., & R a s k i n , D.C. (1976). V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y  of p o l y g r a p h e x a m i n a t i o n s of c r i m i n a l s u s p e c t s . (Report No. 76-1, C o n t r a c t No. Nl-99-0001). Washington, D.C: N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of J u s t i c e , Department of J u s t i c e . Ben-Shakhar, G., L i e b l i c h , 1., & B a r - H i l l e l , M. (1982). An e v a l u a t i o n of p o l y g r a p h e r ' s judgements: A r e v i e w from a d e c i s i o n t h e o r e t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d  P s y c h o l o g y . 67, 6, 701-713. B e r s h , P.J. (1969). A v a l i d a t i o n study of p o l y g r a p h examiner judgements. J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y . 53, 393-403. B r a d l e y , M.T., & A i n s w o r t h , D. (1984). A l c o h o l and the p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . P s y c h o p h y s i o l o g y .  21 . 63-71. C o r t e e n , R.S. (1969). S k i n conductance changes and word r e c a l l . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y . 60_,_ 81-84. Davidson, W.A. (1979). V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the c a r d i o a c t i v i t y m o n i t o r . P o l y g r a p h . 8, 104-111. E i c h , J.E. (1977). State-dependent r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n i n human e p i s o d i c memory. In I.M. Birnbaum & E.S. P a r k e r ( E d s . ) , A l c o h o l and human memory. H i l l s d a l e , N.J.: Erlbaum. Ferguson, G.A. (1976). S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n ps y c h o l o g y &  educat i o n . 4th ed., M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, New York. Geddes, L.A., & Newberg, D.C. (1977). C u f f p r e s s u r e o s c i l l a t i o n s i n the measurement of r e l a t i v e b l o o d p r e s s u r e . Psychophys i o l o g y , 14, 198-202. G e i s e n , M., & R o l l i s o n , M. (1980). G u i l t y knowledge v e r s u s i n n o c e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s : E f f e c t s of t r a i t a n x i e t y and s t i m u l u s c o n t e x t on s k i n conductance. J o u r n a l of Research i n  P e r s o n a l i t y . 14, 1. G l a s e r , D. (1978). Crime i n our changing s o c i e t y . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i l s o n . 132 G u s t a f s o n , L.A., & Orne, M.T. (1963). E f f e c t s of h e i g h t e n e d m o t i v a t i o n on the d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d  P s y c h o l o g y . 47, 408-411. Greenhouse, S.W., & G e i s s e r , S. (1959). On methods i n the a n a l y s i s of p r o f i l e d a t a . P s y c h o m e t r i k a . 24. 95-112. H a r r e l s o n , L.H. (1964). K e e l e r P o l y g r a p h I n s t i t u t e t r a i n i n g  g u i d e . C h i c a g o . I l l i n o i s : K e e l e r P o l y g r a p h I n s t i t u t e . H a r r i s , R. (1975). A p r i m e r of m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c s . Academic P r e s s , New York. H o r v a t h , F.S., & R e i d , J.E. (1971). The r e l i a b i l i t y of p o l y g r a p h examiner d i a g n o s i s of t r u t h and d e c e p t i o n . The J o u r n a l of C r i m i n a l Law. C r i m i n o l o g y and P o l i c e S c i e n c e . 62. 276-281. H o r v a t h , F.S. (1977). The e f f e c t s of s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p o l y g r a p h r e c o r d s . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d  P s y c h o l o g y , 62, 127-136. Hunter, F.L. & Ash, P. (1973). The a c c u r a c y and c o n s i s t e n c y of p o l y g r a p h examiner's d i a g n o s e s . J o u r n a l of P o l i c e S c i e n c e and  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 1. 370-375. Iacono, W.G., B o i s v e n u , G.A., & F l e m i n g , J.A. (1984). The e f f e c t s of diazepam and m e t h y l p h e n i d a t e on the e l e c t r o d e r m a l d e t e c t i o n of g u i l t y knowledge. J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y .  69. 289-299. Iacono, W.G. (1986). The g u i l t y knowledge t e s t : An a c c u r a t e a l t e r n a t i v e to the t r a d i t i o n a l l i e d e t e c t o r t e s t . In p r e s s . T r a n s a c t i o n a l / S o c i a l S c i e n c e and Modern S o c i e t y . Iacono, W.G., B o i s v e n u , G.A., & F l e m i n g , J.A. (1984). E f f e c t s of diazepam and m e t h y l p h e n i d a t e on the e l e c t r o d e r m a l d e t e c t i o n of g u i l t y knowledge. J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y . 69 No. 69, 289-299. Iacono, W.G., & P a t r i c k , C. (1987). What p s y c h o l o g i s t s s h o u l d know about l i e d e t e c t i o n . In I.B. Weiner & A. Hess ( E d s ) , Handbook  of f o r e n s i c p s y c h o l o g y . New York: W i l e y . K l e i n m u n t z , B., & Szucko, J . (1982). On the f a l l i b i l i t y of l i e d e t e c t i o n . Law and S o c i e t y Review, 17. 84-104. K l e i n m u n t z , B., & Szucko, J . (1984a). A f i e l d s t udy of the f a l l i b i l i t y of p o l y g r a p h i c l i e d e t e c t i o n . Nature. 308, 449-450. K l e i n m u n t z , B., & Szucko, J . (1984b). L i e d e t e c t i o n i n a n c i e n t and modern t i m e s : A c a l l f o r contemporary s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y . American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 39. K l o n o f f , H. (1974). M a r i j u a n a and d r i v i n g i n r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . 133 S c i e n c e . 186. 317-324. Kugelmass, S., L i e b l i c h , I . , & Bergam, Z. (1967). The r o l e of " l y i n g " i n p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e t e c t i o n . Psychophys i o l o g y , 3 , 312-315. L a r s o n , J.A. (1932). L y i n g and i t s d e t e c t i o n . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , c i t e d i n Lykken, D.T. (1981). A tremor i n the b l o o d . New York: McGraw H i l l . L a r s o n , J.A. (1938). The l i e d e t e c t o r p o l y g r a p h : I t s h i s t o r y and development. J o u r n a l of the M i c h i g a n S t a t e M e d i c a l S o c i e t y .  37. 893-897. L a r s o n , J.A. (1955). C i t e d i n S k o l n i c k , J.H. (1961). S c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y and s c i e n t i f i c e v i d e n c e : An a n a l y s i s of l i e - d e t e c t i o n . The Y a l e Law J o u r n a l , 70, p. 714. L e d a i n G. (1973). F i n a l r e p o r t . Ottawa, I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, x x v i , 1148 p. 1. Drug abuse - Canada. 2. N a r c o t i c h a b i t - Canada. 3. [Drug and n a r c o t i c c o n t r o l - Canada.] 4. Drug and n a r c o t i c c o n t r o l - Canada. 5. Drugs - Law and l e g i s l a t i o n - Canada. 6. [Substance abuse - Occurrence - Canada.] 7. [Substance dependence - occurence - Canada.] Lombroso, C. L'homme c r i m i n e l . (2nd French e d i t i o n , 1895); c i t e d i n P.V. T r o v i l l o (1932). A h i s t o r y of l i e d e t e c t i o n . J o u r n a l of C r i m i n a l Law, C r i m i n o l o g y , and P o l i c e S c i e n c e . 30. 848-881 . Lykken, D.T. (1960). The v a l i d i t y of the G u i l t y Knowledge t e c h n i q u e : The e f f e c t s of f a k i n g . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d  P s y c h o l o g y . 44. 258-262. Lykken, D.T. (1981). A tremor i n the b l o o d . New York: McGraw H i l l . M a r s t o n , W.M. (1938). The l i e d e t e c t o r t e s t . New York: R i c h a r d R. Smith, p. 45, c i t e d i n Lykken D.T. (1981). A tremor i n the b l o o d . New York: McGraw H i l l . McLean, P.D. (1969). Induced a r o u s a l and time of r e c a l l as d e t e r m i n a n t s of p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e r e c a l l . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of  P s y c h o l o g y , 60, 57-62. M c N i c h o l , D. (1972). A pr i m e r of s i g n a l d e t e c t i o n t h e o r y . London: A l l e n and Unwin. Orne, M.T., Thackray, R.I., & P a s k e l v i t z , D.A. (1972). On the d e t e c t i o n : A model f o r the study of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t i m u l i . In N.S. G r e e n f i e l d & R.A. S t e r n b a c h ( E d s . ) . Handbook of p s y c h o p h y s i o l o g y . (p. 743-785). New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston. P o d l e s n y , J . , & R a s k i n , D. (1978). E f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e c h n i q u e s 134 and p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures i n the d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . Psychophys i o l o g y , 15, 3 4 4-359. P o d l e s n y , J.A., & R a s k i n , D.C. (1978). P h y s i o l o g i c a l measures and the d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 84 . 782. Rachman, S.J. (1978). Fear and Courage. San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman. R a s k i n , D.C, & Hare, R.D. (1978). Psychopathy and d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n i n a p r i s o n p o p u l a t i o n . Psychophys i o l o g y ,  15 . 126- 136. R a s k i n , D.C, (1979). O r i e n t i n g and d e f e n s i v e r e f l e x e s i n the d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n , l n H.D. Kimmel, E.H. Van 0 1 s t , & J.F. O r l e b e k e ( E d s . ) , The o r i e n t i n g r e f l e x i n humans. 587-605, New York: John W i l e y & Sons. R a s k i n , D.C, (1986). The p o l y g r a p h i n 1986: S c i e n t i f i c , p r o f e s s i o n a l and l e g a l i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n and acceptance of p o l y g r a p h e v i d e n c e . Utah Law Review, 1 . 29-74. R e i d , J.E., & A r t h e r , R.O. (1953). B e h a v i o r symptoms of l i e d e t e c t o r s u b j e c t s . J o u r n a l of C r i m i n a l Law. C r i m i n o l o g y and  P o l i c e S c i e n c e . 44. 10 4-108. R e i d , J.E., & Inbau, F.E. (1966). T r u t h and d e c e p t i o n : The  p o l y g r a p h ( " l i e - d e t e c t o r " ) t e c h n i q u e . B a l t i m o r e , M a r y l a n d : W i l l i a m s & W i l k i n s . R e i d , J.E. & Inbau, F.E. (1977). T r u t h and d e c e p t i o n : The  p o l y g r a p h ( " l i e d e t e c t o r " ) t e c h n i q u e . 2nd Ed. B a l t i m o r e : W i l l i a m s & W i l k i n s . Sampson, J.R. (1969). F u r t h e r study of encoding and a r o u s a l f a c t o r s i n f r e e r e c a l l of v e r b a l and v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . Psychonomic S c i e n c e . 16, 221-222. S c h a c h t e r , J . (1957). P a i n , f e a r , and anger i n h y p e r t e n s i v e s and n o r m o t e n s i v e s . P s y c h o s o m a t i c M e d i c i n e , 15, 433-442. S k o l n i c k , J.H. (1961). S c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y and s c i e n t i f i c e v i d e n c e : An a n a l y s i s of l i e - d e t e c t i o n . The Y a l e Law J o u r n a l .  70. p. 714. S l o w i c k , S.M., & B u c k l e y , J.P. (1975). R e l a t i v e a c c u r a c y of p o l y g r a p h examiner d i a g n o s i s of r e s p i r a t i o n , b l o o d p r e s s u r e , and GSR r e c o r d i n g s . J o u r n a l of P o l i c e S c i e n c e and  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 3. 305-309. S p i e l b e r g e r , CD., Gorsuch, R.L., & Lushene, R.E. (1970). STAI  manual f o r the S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y . P a l o A l t o , 135 C a l i f . : C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s . Szucko, J . J . , & K l e i n m u n t z , B. (1981). S t a t i s t i c a l v e r s u s c l i n i c a l l i e d e t e c t i o n . American P s y c h o l o g i s t .  36, 488-496. Waid, W.M., Orne, E.E., Cook, M.R., & Orne, M. T. ( 1978). E f f e c t s of a t t e n t i o n , as indexed by subsequent memory, on e l e c t r o d e r m a l d e t e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y . 63. 728-733. Waid, W.M., Orne, E.C., Cook, M.R.. & Orne. M.T. (1981). Meprobamate reduces a c c u r a c y of p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e t e c t i o n of d e c e p t i o n . S c i e n c e . 212. 71-73. W i c k l a n d e r , D.E., & Hunter, F.L. (1975). The i n f l u e n c e of a u x i l a r y sources of i n f o r m a t i o n i n p o l y g r a p h d i a g n o s i s . J o u r n a l of P o l i c e S c i e n c e and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 3^. 405-409. W i g g i n s , J.S. (1973). P e r s o n a l i t y and p r e d i c t i o n : P r i n c i p l e s of  p e r s o n a l i t y assessment. Reading. Mass.: Addison-Wesley. Y u i l l e , J.C. & C u t s h a l l , J.L. (1986). A case study of e y e w i t n e s s memory f o r a c r i m e . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y .  71 ( 2 ) , 291-301. 136 Appendix I Consent Form The purpose of t h i s p r o j e c t i s to study the e f f e c t s of a l c o h o l on the p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e t e c t i o n of hidden or c o n c e a l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . The study i n v o l v e s two s e s s i o n s . In the f i r s t , I w i l l be asked to perform a c e r t a i n t a s k , which may i n v o l v e t a k i n g some money from a room. 1 may a l s o be asked to d r i n k a l c o h o l . At the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s s e s s i o n , I r e a l i z e t h a t I may s t i l l , to some e x t e n t , be under the i n f l u e n c e of the a l c o h o l I have r e c e i v e d . 1 agree to remain i n the l a b o r a t o r y w i t h a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t f o r one hour f o l l o w i n g the s e s s i o n to a l l o w some of the a l c o h o l ' s e f f e c t to wear o f f . 1 a l s o agree to a v o i d , f o r at l e a s t f o u r hours a f t e r l e a v i n g the l a b o r a t o r y , any t a s k t h a t r e q u i r e s mental a l e r t n e s s such as o p e r a t i n g machinery or d r i v i n g a motor v e h i c l e . A l s o , I agree to r e f r a i n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d from t a k i n g any o t h e r drugs or a l c o h o l . I w i l l be asked to r e t u r n one week l a t e r f o r a second s e s s i o n i n which my body's p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses w i l l be r e c o r d e d w h i l e I respond to some q u e s t i o n s . E l e c t r o d e s w i l l be a t t a c h e d to my f i n g e r t i p s t o measure s k i n conductance and on my arms to measure h e a r t r a t e . A b e l t around my c h e s t w i l l m o n i t o r r e s p i r a t i o n . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g dangerous or ha r m f u l about these p rocedures and t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l and used o n l y f o r the purposes of t h i s s t u d y . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d by a s s i g n i n g code numbers to c o l l e c t e d d a t a and by r e s t r i c t i n g a c c e s s to the d a t a to those working on t h i s p r o j e c t . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h i s s tudy w i l l r e q u i r e about 3 hours of my time over 2 137 days. I a l s o r e a l i z e t h a t I may ask c l a r i f y i n g q u e s t i o n s at any p o i n t d u r i n g the s e s s i o n and t h a t 1 am f r e e to withdraw from the study at any time w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e . I have r e a d the above st a t e m e n t , answered the m e d i c a l s u r v e y , and agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y . I a l s o hereby acknowledge r e c e i v i n g a copy of t h i s consent form. S i g n a t u r e : P r i n t Name: Date: Study I.D. 9: W i t n e s s : 138 A p p e n d i x II M e d i c a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C a l l e r Date S u b j e c t Name Address Age Weight Phone # 1. Have you been under the c a r e of a p h y s i c i a n f o r any m e d i c a l problems over the past 2 y e a r s ? I f yes what are they? 2. Have you ever been under a d o c t o r ' s c a r e f o r e m o t i o n a l or nervous problems ( i e . d e p r e s s i o n , a n x i e t y , e t c . ) ? 3. Have you ever had any u n u s u a l drug r e a c t i o n s , drug a l l e r g i e s or a l l e r g i e s of any k i n d ? 4. Have you ever had any of the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : S e i z u r e s or l o s s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s ? yes no P e r s i s t e n t headaches? yes no Head i n j u r y w i t h l o s s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s ? yes no D i z z i n e s s ? yes no Problems w i t h v i s i o n or glaucoma? yes no P e r s i s t e n t muscle weakness (mya s t h e n i a ) ? yes no R e s p i r a t o r y problems, i n c l u d i n g asthma? yes no Heart c o n d i t i o n , h y p e r t e n s i o n , or o t h e r c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s ? yes no 5. Do you use any of the f o l l o w i n g drugs? Major t r a n q u i l i z e r s how o f t e n ? Minor t r a n q u i l i z e r s how o f t e n ? B a r b i t u r a t e s how o f t e n ? 139 Amphetamines how o f t e n ? Any o ther drugs how o f t e n ? 6. How many d r i n k s of a l c o h o l do you have each week on average? a) b o t t l e s of beer b) g l a s s e s of wine c) l i q u o r 7. Have you ever had an adverse r e a c t i o n to a l c o h o l or orange j u i c e and p i n e a p p l e j u i c e ( w i l l be mixed wi th a l c o h o l ) ? A l c o h o l / W e i g h t Chart l b s Kg 120 54.43 125 56.70 130 58.97 135 61.23 140 63.50 145 65.77 150 68.04 155 70.31 160 72.57 165 74.84 170 77.11 175 79.38 180 81.65 185 83.91 190 86.18 195 88.45 200 90.72 205 92.99 210 95.25 215 97.52 220 99.79 225 102.06 Appendix I I I T o t a l dose = 1.32 ml/kg dose (mis) 1/3 dose 1/2 dose 72 24 36 75 25 37.5 78 26 39 81 28 40.5 84 28 42 87 29 43.5 90 30 45 93 31 46.5 96 32 48 99 33 49.5 102 34 51 105 35 52.5 108 36 54 111 37 55.5 114 38 57 117 39 58.5 120 40 60 123 41 61.5 126 42 63 129 43 64.5 132 44 66 135 45 67.5 141 Appendix IV Crime I n s t r u c t i o n s - High Threat You are about to commit a t h e f t and t h i s i s the s c e n e r i o . L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y . I t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t you do t h i s c o r r e c t l y . You have gone to see a p s y c h o l o g y p r o f e s s o r i n h i s o f f i c e t o buy a l a b manual. You see he has some money i n a cashbox t h a t i s i n h i s desk. He has l e f t the o f f i c e and you d e c i d e t o go i n and s t e a l the money. You have a l r e a d y seen the p r o f and now you are go i n g back to s t e a l the money. The o f f i c e number i s 1234. You have no i d e a when the p r o f w i l l r e t u r n so you must a c c o m p l i s h the deed as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . In o r d e r to i n c r e a s e the r e a l i s m of t h i s crime we have not t o l d o t h e r people i n the ar e a of the o f f i c e a n y t h i n g about t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , so you must be as u n o b t r u s i v e as p o s s i b l e and don't arouse s u s p i c i o n s . There have been s e v e r a l t h e f t s i n the b u i l d i n g r e c e n t l y so people are s u s p i c i o u s of s t r a n g e r s . I w i l l show you the way to get to the o f f i c e . What you must do when you get i n t o room 1234 i s : - F i r s t , get the cashbox key from the coat p o c k e t . - Second, u n l o c k the cashbox and take the money. - T h i r d , r e t u r n here w i t h the money. A g a i n , be v e r y c a r e f u l and do not make a mi s t a k e i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s c r i m e . Do you have any q u e s t i o n s ? 142 Crime I n s t r u c t i o n s - Low Threat We are i n t e r e s t e d i n s e e i n g i f the a c t of removing some money from a cashbox has any e f f e c t on b l o o d p r e s s u r e or h e a r t r a t e . I w i l l take you to a room, have you g o i n and remove some money, and then measure your b l o o d p r e s s u r e and h e a r t r a t e . A f t e r w a r d s , you w i l l f i l l out a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which w i l l g i v e us a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about t h i s t a s k . I w i l l take you to the room which i s numbered 1234. What you must do when you get i n t o room 1234 i s : - F i r s t , get the cashbox key from the coat p o c k e t . - Second, get the cashbox from the desk, u n l o c k i t , and take the money. I w i l l be w i t h you when you f i n i s h , w a i t i n g o u t s i d e the door. 143 Appendix V GKT I n s t r u c t i o n s I f you took the money you w i l l be aware of c e r t a i n crime d e t a i l s . I am g o i n g to ask you some q u e s t i o n s about the crime and a f t e r each one I want you to answer no, as you d i d e a r l i e r i n the c a r d t e s t . Is t h a t c l e a r ? GKT Q u e s t i o n s 1. The key to the cashbox was taken from a coat p o c k e t . Was t h a t coat hanging. a) i n a c l o s e t b) on the back of a c h a i r c) on a wooden s t a n d d) on a w a l l hook e) on the back of the door 2. Regarding the amount of money taken from the cashbox. Was i t a) $5 b) $10 c) $20 d) $50 e) $100 3. The cashbox was taken from a drawer of a desk. Was t h a t drawer on: a) the lower l e f t s i d e b) the upper r i g h t s i d e c) the upper l e f t s i d e d) the m i d d l e 144 e) the lower r i g h t s i d e The cashbox key was a t t a c h e d to someth ing . Was that o b j e c t a) a r a b b i t ' s foot b) a b o t t l e opener c) a w h i s t l e d) a k n i f e e) a s m a l l wrench There was something e l s e b e s i d e s money in the cashbox . Was that t h i n g : a) a n e c k l a c e b) a cheque book c) a d i a r y d) a pocket watch e) a s a v i n g s bond C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test Format: Chart 1 The t e s t i s about to b e g i n : 1. Do you l i v e i n Vancouver? 2. R e g a r d i n g the t h e f t , do you i n t e n d to answer a l l q u e s t i o n s about i t t r u t h f u l l y 3. Are you c o n v i n c e d t h a t I w i l l o n l y ask q u e s t i o n s on t h i s t e s t t h a t you have a l r e a d y okayed? 4. B e f o r e the age of 18, d i d you ever s t e a l a n y t h i n g of v a l u e ? 5. D id you take the money from the p r o f e s s o r ' s o f f i c e ? 6. Have you ever l i e d about s t e a l i n g something to s t a y out of t r o u b l e ? 7. D i d you take the money from the cashbox? 8. When you were younger d i d you ever s t e a l any money? 9. D i d you take the money from the o f f i c e ? C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test Format: Chart 2 146 The t e s t i s about to b e g i n : 1. Were you born i n the month of ? 2. Regarding the t h e f t , do you i n t e n d to t e l l the t r u t h ? 3. Are you c o n v i n c e d t h a t I w i l l o n l y ask q u e s t i o n s on t h i s t e s t t h a t you have a l r e a d y okayed? 4. Have you ever l i e d about s t e a l i n g something to s t a y out of t r o u b l e ? 5. D i d you take the money from the p r o f e s s o r ' s o f f i c e ? 6. B e f o r e the age of 18 d i d you ever s t e a l a n y t h i n g of v a l u e ? 7. D i d you take the money from the o f f i c e ? 8. When you were younger d i d you ever s t e a l any money? 9. D i d you take the money from the cashbox? 147 C o n t r o l Q u e s t i o n Test Format: Chart 3 The t e s t i s about to b e g i n : 1. Is your f i r s t name ? 2. Regarding the t h e f t , do you i n t e n d to t e l l the t r u t h ? 3. Are you c o n v i n c e d t h a t I w i l l o n l y ask q u e s t i o n s on t h i s t e s t t h a t you have a l r e a d y okayed? 4. When you were younger d i d you ever s t e a l any money? 5. D id you take the money from the cashbox? 6. Have you ever l i e d about s t e a l i n g something to s t a y out of t r o u b l e ? 7. D i d you take the money from the p r o f e s s o r ' s o f f i c e ? 8. B e f o r e the age of 18 d i d you ever s t e a l a n y t h i n g of v a l u e ? 9. Did you take the money from the o f f i c e ? 148 Appendix VI Memory P r i m i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s You have j u s t taken some money and below are some d e t a i l s you s h o u l d have n o t i c e d w h i l e i n the o f f i c e . You e n t e r e d the o f f i c e and took $20 from a cashbox w i t h a y e l l o w t o p , found i n the upper r i g h t - h a n d drawer. A l s o i n the cashbox was a pocket watch. The key to the cashbox was i n the pocket of a grey coat which was hanging on a wooden c o a t - r a c k near a brown r e c l i n e r c h a i r . A t t a c h e d to the key was a s m a l l wrench. On the c o a t - r a c k next to the coat was a s c a r f . Immediately b e h i n d the desk was a p a i n t i n g hung on the w a l l . J u s t i n s i d e the o f f i c e door, on the f l o o r , was a s t a c k of c a r d b o a r d boxes. 149 Appendix V I I R e c o g n i t i o n Test 1. The key to the cashbox was taken from a coat p o c k e t . Was t h a t coat hanging. a) i n a c l o s e t b) on the back of a c h a i r c) on a wooden s t a n d d) on a w a l l hook e) on the back of the door 2. Re g a r d i n g the amount of money taken from the cashbox. Was a) $5 b) $10 c) $20 d) $50 e) $100 3. The cashbox was taken from a drawer of a desk. Was t h a t drawer on: a) the lower l e f t s i d e b) the upper r i g h t s i d e c) the upper l e f t s i d e d) the middl e e) the lower r i g h t s i d e 4. The cashbox key was a t t a c h e d to something. Was t h a t o b j e c t a) a r a b b i t ' s f o o t b) a b o t t l e opener c) a w h i s t l e d) a k n i f e e) a s m a l l wrench 150 5. There was something e l s e b e s i d e s money i n the cashbox. Was t h a t t h i n g : a) a n e c k l a c e b) a cheque book c) a d i a r y d) a pocket watch e) a s a v i n g s bond 151 R e c a l l Test On the sheet p r o v i d e d I would l i k e you to l i s t f e a t u r e s of the crime and the room where the t h e f t o c c u r r e d . These d e t a i l s of the crime can i n c l u d e your a c t i o n s ; d e s c r i p t i o n s and l o c a t i o n s of f u r n i t u r e , d e c o r a t i o n s , and o b j e c t s i n the room; as w e l l as p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of the room i t s e l f . I would l i k e you to l i s t as many d e t a i l s as you can. The o r d e r i n which you l i s t t h i n g s i s not i m p o r t a n t . When you are f i n i s h e d p l e a s e p l a c e the answer sheet i n the envelope p r o v i d e d and r e t u r n i t to the examiner. I f you d i d not commit the c r i m e , i t i s not n e c e s s a r y to complete t h i s t a s k but I would l i k e you to p l a c e the answer sheet i n the e n v e l o p e , and then w a i t 5 minutes b e f o r e you r e t u r n the env e l o p e . Thank you. Name Date 152 Cued R e c a l l Test 1. The top of the cashbox was a d i s t i n c t i v e c o l o r . What c o l o r was i t ? 2. The room was i l l u m i n a t e d by a lamp. D e s c r i b e the lamp and i t s l o c a t i o n . 3. What was the amount of money taken? 4. The key to the cashbox was taken from a coat p o c k e t . Where was the coat hanging? 5. Which drawer of the desk was the cashbox taken from? 6. Immediately b e h i n d the desk was something hanging on the w a l l . What was t h a t t h i n g ? 7. The key to the cashbox was found i n a coat p o c k e t . What was the c o l o r of t h a t c o a t ? 8. What was the cashbox key a t t a c h e d to? 9. Name one o b j e c t t h a t was on top of the desk. 10. Near the coat was another a r t i c l e of c l o t h i n g . What was t h a t a r t i c l e ? 153 11. B e s i d e the door, j u s t i n s i d e the o f f i c e , t h e r e was something on the f l o o r . What was t h a t t h i n g ? 12. There was a s t u f f e d r e c l i n e r c h a i r i n the o f f i c e . What was the c o l o r of t h a t c h a i r ? 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0098163/manifest

Comment

Related Items