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The influence of slat material, slat coverage and breeder age on broiler breeder reproduction and progeny… Decolongon, Joji 1990

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THE INFLUENCE OF SLAT MATERIAL, SLAT COVERAGE AND BREEDER AGE ON BROILER BREEDER REPRODUCTION AND PROGENY GROWTH by JOJI B.Sc.  (Agr.)  DECOLONGON  The U n i v e r s i t y o f  A THESIS  SUBMITTED.IN  B r i t i s h Columbia,  PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in , THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL  We a c c e p t to  this the  thesis  OF BRITISH  JULY JOJI  as  conforming  required standard  THE UNIVERSITY  (c)  SCIENCE)  COLUMBIA  1990  DECOLONGON,  1990  1986  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It is understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r financial gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SCIENCE The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: 31 JULY 1990  ABSTRACT T h i s study plastic  was conducted  slats  as  b r o i l e r breeders. than wood s l a t s , to  flooring  t o examine the material  Although p l a s t i c plastic  potential  of  f o r maintenance  of  s l a t s are more expensive  s l a t s are more  durable and e a s i e r  clean. Wood and p l a s t i c  flooring  s l a t s were  t o determine  b r o i l e r breeder  t e s t e d as f u l l  the i d e a l  floors.  proportion  Space a l l o t m e n t  on a l l f l o o r treatments.  and p a r t i a l  of s l a t s  for  was 2040 cm^/bird  . Arbor Acres b r o i l e r breeders, one  of the more common s t r a i n s  i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  were  raised  to 58 weeks of age t o monitor the i n f l u e n c e of s l a t m a t e r i a l and s l a t coverage on egg one p r o d u c t i o n  p r o d u c t i o n and progeny  cycle.  Since the pens were not of  eggs l o s t  actually  plastic  over-all  higher  slats  treatments.  s e t up t o determine  through s l a t s ,  egg r e c o v e r y  significantly  growth over  (PPS)  "egg p r o d u c t i o n "  values. on  p a r t i a l wood  than  on  Breeders on f u l l  egg p r o d u c t i o n  O v e r - a l l egg  of  wood s l a t s  than those  values were recovery was  (PWS)  either  and  the (FWS)  on f u l l  the number  partial  full  slat  had higher  plastic  slats  (FPS) . Differences  were  significant  p e r i o d s , but s l a t s d i d not of  f l o o r eggs  f o r three  biweekly  i n f l u e n c e the o v e r - a l l i n c i d e n c e  and cracked  f l o o r eggs.  ii  The  i n c i d e n c e of  ABSTRACT  cracked n e s t than i n PWS  eggs was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  h i g h e r i n FWS  and FPS  and PPS pens d u r i n g four l a y p e r i o d s and over-  all. The taken  p r o p o r t i o n of  as an  non-cracked  approximation of  eggs, was higher f o r p a r t i a l and FWS  pens had  a higher  the  nest  eggs, which  p r o p o r t i o n of  settable  s l a t pens than f u l l s l a t p r o p o r t i o n of  was  non-cracked  pens, nest  eggs than FPS pens. To  monitor  incubated a t  fertility  37, 42, 46,  and 50 and  hatchability, 56 weeks of  of t o t a l eggs s e t  eggs  were  breeder age.  Fertility,  hatchability  and h a t c h a b i l i t y  of f e r t i l e  eggs was not a f f e c t e d by type of s l a t s .  Progeny from the hatch a t 37, 46 and 56 week of breeder age were grown i n Petersime age.  The progeny  b a t t e r y cages t o three weeks of  of breeders  on FPS had lower  weight g a i n  than the other  l o s s when 7  FPS progeny were l o s t d u r i n g  trial.  Weekly  progeny  groups due  f i r s t week to moisture  the second growth  and o v e r - a l l feed c o n v e r s i o n  of progeny was  not a f f e c t e d by types of s l a t s used by p a r e n t s . The 56th cages t o  week progeny were grown  market age ( s i x weeks).  h i g h e r t h i r d week weight g a i n s i x t h week, FWS and PWS FPS and PPS progeny.  PWS and FPS  progeny had  than PPS progeny.  During the  progeny  The  i n Petersime b a t t e r y  had h i g h e r weight g a i n than  s i x t h week f e e d . c o n v e r s i o n of FPS  in  ABSTRACT  progeny  was h i g h e r  groups.  No other d i f f e r e n c e s were seen.  As long as  than t h a t  of the  s l a t s were used as  other three  progeny  p a r t i a l f l o o r i n g , there  were no  differences i n  egg p r o d u c t i o n  slats.  The p r o p o r t i o n  of " s e t t a b l e " eggs,  f e r t i l i t y , and  of  breeders  hatchability comparable  of  eggs  with t h a t  plastic  of wood  on wood  slat  s l a t breeders  or p l a s t i c  were  r e g a r d l e s s of  s l a t coverage.  There were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the 3-  week growth of  37th, 46th and 56th week progeny  week  growth of  56th  week progeny  types, but the d i f f e r e n c e s were There  was  no  interaction  material, therefore  on  the d i f f e r e n t  not due t o s l a t  between breeder  the i n f l u e n c e  and the 6slat  treatments.  age  and  of s l a t m a t e r i a l  slat  on egg  p r o d u c t i o n and progeny  growth d i d not vary w i t h breeder age.  Although egg r e c o v e r y  and the number of  lower f o r FPS breeders, breeders  s e t t a b l e eggs were  on p l a s t i c s l a t s  performed  as w e l l as those on wood s l a t s i n the p r e s e n t study.  IV  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  Page i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  V  LIST OF TABLES  v i i  LIST OF FIGURES  viii  LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  X  1.  1  2.  3.  INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW . . . 2.1. STUDIES ON SLATS 2.1.1. S l a t s and Egg P r o d u c t i o n 2.1.2. S l a t s and t h e I n c i d e n c e o f C r a c k e d Eggs 2.1.3. S l a t s and F e r t i l i t y 2.1.4. S l a t s and H a t c h a b i l i t y 2.1.5. S l a t s and Labor Requirements 2.1.6. C o n c l u s i o n s 2.2. STUDIES ON BREEDER AGE 2.2.1. Breeder Age and Egg P r o d u c t i o n 2.2.2. Breeder Age and F e r t i l i t y 2.2.3. Breeder Age and H a t c h a b i l i t y 2.2.4. Breeder Age and Embryo M o r t a l i t y 2.2.5. Breeder Age and Progeny Growth 2.2.6. C o n c l u s i o n s OBJECTIVES  2 2 2 6 .6 7 10 .11 11 11 13 ..16 19 21 24 25  4.  MATERIALS AND METHODS 4.1. BROODING PROCEDURES 4.2. LIGHTING 4.3. HOUSING DURING LAY 4.4. FEEDING PROGRAM 4.5. EGG COLLECTION 4.6. FERTILITY AND HATCHABILITY TESTS 4.7. GROWTH TRIALS 4.8. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS  5.  RESULTS 41 5.1. THE INFLUENCE OF SLAT MATERIAL AND SLAT COVERAGE . 41 5.1.1. Egg Recovery 41 5.1.2. I n c i d e n c e o f F l o o r Eggs 42  v  26 26 27 27 32 32 32 33 ...35  TABLE OF' CONTENTS 5.1.3. 5.1.4. 5.1.5. 5.1.6.  I n c i d e n c e o f C r a c k e d F l o o r Eggs 42 I n c i d e n c e o f C r a c k e d Nest Eggs ..42 Percent "Settable" Eggs.. 43 F e r t i l i t y , H a t c h a b i l i t y o f T o t a l Eggs S e t (TES) and H a t c h a b i l i t y o f F e r t i l e Eggs (FES) 49 5.1.7. Temporal D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Embryo M o r t a l i t y ... 49 5.1.8. Growth, from Hatch t o Three Weeks o f Age, o f 3 7 t h , 4 6 t h and 5 6 t h Week Progeny 52 5.1.9. Growth, from Hatch t o S i x Weeks o f Age, o f 56th Week Progeny . .55 5.2. THE INFLUENCE OF BREEDER AGE 58 5.2.1. F e r t i l i t y , H a t c h a b i l i t y o f T o t a l Eggs S e t (TES) and H a t c h a b i l i t y o f F e r t i l e Eggs (FES) 58 5.2.2. Temporal D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Embryo M o r t a l i t y ... 60 5.2.3. Growth, from H a t c h t o Three Weeks o f Age, o f 37th, 4 6 t h and 56th Week Progeny 62 5.3. THE INFLUENCE OF SEX OF PROGENY ON.GROWTH 68 5.3.1. Growth, from Hatch t o S i x Weeks o f Age, o f 56th Week Progeny 68 6.  7.  DISCUSSION 71 6.1. THE INFLUENCE OF SLAT MATERIAL AND SLAT COVERAGE . 71 6.1.1. Egg Recovery 71 6.1.2. The I n c i d e n c e o f F l o o r Eggs 77 6.1.3. The I n c i d e n c e o f C r a c k e d F l o o r Eggs ... 78 6.1.4. The I n c i d e n c e o f C r a c k e d N e s t Eggs 78 6.1.5. P e r c e n t " S e t t a b l e " Eggs 79 6.1.6. F e r t i l i t y 80 6.1.7. H a t c h a b i l i t y o f T o t a l Eggs S e t (TES) and F e r t i l e Eggs (FES) 81 6.1.8. Temporal D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Embryo M o r t a l i t y ... 82 6.1.9. The Growth, from Hatch t o Three Weeks o f Age, of 37th, 4 6 t h and 56th Week Progeny 83 6.1.10. Growth, from Hatch t o S i x Weeks o f Age, o f 56th Week Progeny 84 6.1.11. C o n c l u s i o n s 84 6.2. THE INFLUENCE OF BREEDER AGE 86 6.2.1. F e r t i l i t y . 86 6.2.2. H a t c h a b i l i t y o f T o t a l Eggs S e t (TES) and F e r t i l e Eggs (FES) 88 6.2.3. Temporal D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Embryo M o r t a l i t y ... 89. 6.2.4. Growth, from Hatch t o Three Weeks o f Age, o f 37th, 46th and 56th Week Progeny .. 93 6.2.5. C o n c l u s i o n s 96 6.3. THE INFLUENCE OF SEX OF PROGENY 97 6.3.1. C o n c l u s i o n s 98 BIBLIOGRAPHY  99  APPENDIX  104  V  i  LIST OF TABLES Page T a b l e 1. T a b l e 2. Table Table Table Table Table Table  Table Table Table Table  Table  Table  The I n f l u e n c e o f S l a t s o n E g g R e c o v e r y 44 The I n f l u e n c e o f S l a t s on t h e I n c i d e n c e o f F l o o r Eggs . 45 3. T h e I n f l u e n c e o f S l a t s o n t h e I n c i d e n c e o f C r a c k e d F l o o r Eggs 46 4. The I n f l u e n c e o f S l a t s o n t h e I n c i d e n c e o f C r a c k e d N e s t Eggs 47 5. T h e I n f l u e n c e o f S l a t s on t h e S e t t a b i l i t y o f Eggs 48 6. The I n f l u e n c e o f S l a t s o n P e r c e n t F e r t i l i t y a n d Hatchability . 50 7. The Influence of Slats on the Temporal D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Embryo M o r t a l i t y . . . . 51 8. The I n f l u e n c e o f B r e e d e r S l a t s on Body Weight, Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake and Feed C o n v e r s i o n , f r o m H a t c h t o T h r e e Weeks o f A g e , o f 3 7 t h , 4 6 t h a n d 5 6 t h Week P r o g e n y 53 9. The I n f l u e n c e o f S l a t s on Body W e i g h t , Body W e i g h t G a i n , Feed I n t a k e and Feed C o n v e r s i o n , from Hatch t o S i x Weeks o f A g e , o f 5 6 t h Week P r o g e n y 56 10. P e r c e n t F e r t i l i t y and H a t c h a b i l i t y o f Eggs a t D i f f e r e n t B r e e d e r Ages 59 1 1 . The I n f l u e n c e o f B r e e d e r Age on t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Embryo M o r t a l i t y 61 12. The I n f l u e n c e o f B r e e d e r Age on Body W e i g h t , Body Weight G a i n , Feed I n t a k e And Feed Conversion, f r o m H a t c h t o T h r e e Weeks o f A g e , o f 3 7 t h , 4 6 t h a n d 5 6 t h Week P r o g e n y . . 64 1 3 . The I n f l u e n c e o f B r e e d e r Age on Body W e i g h t , Body Weight G a i n , Feed I n t a k e And Feed Conversion, f r o m H a t c h t o T h r e e Weeks o f A g e , o f 3 7 t h , 4 6 t h and 5 6 t h Week P r o g e n y , with Adjusted Hatching Weight ..... 66 14. Body W e i g h t , Body W e i g h t G a i n , F e e d I n t a k e a n d F e e d C o n v e r s i o n , f r o m H a t c h t o S i x Weeks o f A g e , of Male and Female Progeny o f 56-Week O l d Breeders 69  vi i  LIST OF  FIGURES  Page F i g u r e 1. F i g u r e 2. F i g u r e 3.  Dimensions o f Pens 30 Dimensions o f Wood and P l a s t i c S l a t s 31 Weekly Egg P r o d u c t i o n o f Study F l o c k and T y p i c a l Arbor Acres Flock 75  viii  LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES Page A p p e n d i x T a b l e 1. A p p e n d i x T a b l e 2. A p p e n d i x T a b l e 3. A p p e n d i x T a b l e 4. Appendix T a b l e 5. Appendix T a b l e 6. Appendix T a b l e 7.  Weekly Egg Recovery on D i f f e r e n t S l a t Types 105 Weekly Egg Recovery on Wood v s . P l a s t i c Slats 106 Weekly Egg Recovery on F u l l v s . P a r t i a l Slats 107 The I n f l u e n c e o f Breeder Age on H a t c h i n g Egg Weight 108 C o m p o s i t i o n o f C h i c k S t a r t e r D i e t s ... 109 Composition of Developer D i e t s 110 C o m p o s i t i o n o f Breeder D i e t s I l l  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S  This t h e s i s would not have been without the p a t i e n t guidance of my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , Dr. Robert Fitzsimmons. I thank the members of my a d v i s o r y committee, Dr. R. B l a i r , Dr. K. M. Cheng and Dr. J . Hunt f o r t h e i r advice and suggestions on the experiments and the t h e s i s . Dr. Mark Newcombe's assistance with statistics is greatly appreciated. The h e l p of the f o l l o w i n g farm s t a f f was invaluable i n the maintenance of the b r o i l e r breeder and progeny f l o c k s : Ray Soong, Robert Chan, A l a n Enns and C h r i s Shingera. E l l e n Teng o f f e r e d r e l i a b l e and e f f i c i e n t help i n the weighing of b r o i l e r prog.eny. I am g r a t e f u l f o r having been made r e c i p i e n t of the B r i t i s h Columbia Egg Marketing Board Award i n 1988 and 1989. S p e c i a l thanks are due to my husband, Andy Hickman, f o r h i s l o v i n g support and i n t e r e s t i n my p u r s u i t s . I express my g r a t i t u d e to my parents f o r t h e i r t o l e r a n c e of my i d e a s . This project received financial support from the British Columbia Broiler Breeder Hatching Egg Producers Association.  1. Housing has  INTRODUCTION  become an important aspect  p o u l t r y p r o d u c t i o n systems. total  confinement of  of present-day-  In n o n - t r o p i c a l l a t i t u d e s , the  p o u l t r y has  made p o s s i b l e  the year-  round p r o d u c t i o n of eggs and meat d e s p i t e seasonal v a r i a t i o n i n daylength  and environmental  temperatures.  P o u l t r y can  now be grown and eggs produced a t a l l seasons by c o n t r o l l i n g light,  temperature and  (Wilson,  ventilation in  "windowless"  houses  1974).  Prior  to  the  development  of e n v i r o n m e n t - c o n t r o l l e d  housing, p o u l t r y house c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the U n i t e d States and Canada v a r i e d the  from one r e g i o n  b e s t of l o c a l c l i m a t i c  t o another i n order  conditions.  c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n poor p r o d u c t i o n The  advent  enclosed In  America, p a r t i a l  popular  (Wilson, dirty  solutions  1974).  and  production, conditions, weight  l a r g e commercial  houses n e c e s s i t a t e d  North  became  of  contaminated respiratory a l l leading  g a i n among  to  birds  flocks  the problem  eggs,  and  t o poor  egg  (Wilson  and Vohra,  1974) .  1  totally-  and wire of  cages  wet  known t o  increased  distress  in  f l o o r management.  flooring  has been  i n weather  (Wilson, 1974) .  changes i n slat  Wet l i t t e r  Extremes  t o make  litter  result in  ammonia ( N H 3 ) other  disease  p r o d u c t i o n and  poor  1980; Wilson,  2.  2.1.  STUDIES ON SLATS  S l a t s and Egg P r o d u c t i o n  2.1.1.  Broiler litter kept  LITERATURE REVIEW  breeders  have  g e n e r a l l y been  f l o o r s at 3600 c m / b i r d . only  on  litter  combination with l i t t e r and B a r n e t t , 1972).  but  Osborn  hatchability  also  Consequently,  et a l . , were  1959;  not  for  breeders  s t u d i e s on  Barnett, 1972;  lower  egg  1959).  to u s i n g  production  m o r t a l i t y , and more  per b i r d ,  using f u l l  (1959)  ft /bird, 2  f l o o r s were more  2  on  2  Cooper and  as f o l l o w s :  non-layers,  higher  50 eggs d u r i n g The  s l a t f l o o r s were as f o l l o w s : 2.5  or 2787 c m / b i r d  broiler  r e p o r t e d t h a t the  b i r d s l a y i n g fewer than  eggs produced per square f o o t on  egg  1965).  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e 6- and 5-month experiments. to  advantages  times as many  s l a t f l o o r as on l i t t e r  litter  and  l e a d i n g the  types f o r  Parkhurst, 1974;  f u l l slat  slats  Fertility  were u s e f u l , floor  (1959) and Yao  Cooper  Nevertheless,  Nordskog and Schierman,  Osborn et a l . disincentives  1988;  in  (Magruder and Nelson,  reported.  (Andrews et a l . ,  floors  e a r l i e r s t u d i e s on  Yao,  alternative  slat  (Wilson, 1974;  layers  p r o d u c t i o n data from these s t u d i e s way  on  or wire f l o o r s  were conducted using commercial 1965;  on  Layers, however, have been  2  not  maintained  vs. 1 f t / b i r d , 2  or  (3 929  LITERATURE REVIEW cm^/bird  on s l a t s )  (1959) found the  lower mature  statistically  two f l o o r  egg  and a  significant  per square  foot  Because of the d i f f e r e n c e i n  produced on s l a t s than on A longer,  that m o r t a l i t y  lower  on f u l l  Osborn et a l . s a i d about reported  by Magruder and  was higher,  and  (1959) .  feed, although  (1959).  p r o d u c t i o n and compared to (Madrid  et a l . ,  (1965)  litter  was  than on f u l l  litter.  body weight I t has  later explain as good  been found t h a t  1981/ Carew  al.,  Carew et  al.,  the i n f l u e n c e of cage  g a i n was not  Greaves, 1970) and  b i r d decreased  Nelson  was  d i d not support the i n f e r e n c e put  Mather and 1981;  with  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  performance would  litter.  was  Although nothing  Studies conducted to i n v e s t i g a t e on l a y e r  (1965)  Space a l l o t m e n t per b i r d was 675 crn^  on s l a t s , vs. 1800 cm^ on  density  Nelson  weight, Magruder and  This l a s t f i n d i n g  forward by Yao  (1959)  i n agreement  r e q u i r e d to produce a dozen eggs on f u l l slats.  weight.  egg p r o d u c t i o n  T h i s was  (1959) and Yao  mature body  mature body  litter.  slat floors.  that less  and  consumed f o r each dozen of eggs  3-year study  found  p r o d u c t i o n per b i r d ,  mature body weight, Yao  i n f e r r e d t h a t l e s s feed was  Yao  d i f f e r e n c e s between  systems i n terms of egg  production  body weight.  et a l . ,  3  on s l a t s  egg p r o d u c t i o n  1980; Sefton,  body weight g a i n  1980) decreased  and the number  why egg  of b i r d s per  as the  1976;  (Madrid et area per  cage i n c r e a s e d  LITERATURE REVIEW within a certain  range.  a high p r o p o r t i o n was  Madrid  of the energy consumed  spent f o r maintenance r a t h e r  egg  production,  production  body w e i g h t  on s l a t s  s l a t s than on f u l l The  lower on than on  Producers  at f i r s t  r e s u l t e d was  than on f u l l  and B a r n e t t  slat floor  of  found  that  hen-day  (1972), i n  53.2%  on 50%  Average  2  slat-50% l i t t e r  egg p r o d u c t i o n was  on a l l f l o o r  4  ;  partial  s l a t f l o o r found  Each  b i r d had  Parkhurst  p r o d u c t i o n was  v s . 51.9%, 55.2%, 55.0%  2000 c m / b i r d  slats that  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on  higher, than  56.3%,  the 1672  (1974)  but  on f u l l  57.0%, 55.5%  not slat and  and 54.4%, on f u l l v s . p a r t i a l  slat respectively, for 4 different was  yet higher  comparing the  both f l o o r t y p e s . egg  in  was  f l o o r s were compared  (59.7% v s . 53.2%).  f l o o r space on  significantly, floor.  slat  (60% s l a t , 40% l i t t e r ) w i t h f u l l  partial slat floors  bird density  s l a t s and  of  as p a r t i a l  Cooper and B a r n e t t , 1972).  t h a t hen-day egg p r o d u c t i o n was  2  full  the c o m b i n a t i o n  so much i n t e r e s t  f l o o r s and f u l l  ( P a r k h u r s t , 1974;  Cooper  egg  p l a c e d on  what i s known today  There was  only combination  the lower  b i r d s were  found t h a t o p t i m a l  partial slats litter.  thus,  (i.e.,  litter.  l i t t e r f l o o r s , or  slat floor.  that  by crowded l a y e r s  than f o r p r o d u c t i o n  gain);  when more  compromise t h a t  s l a t and  cm  e t a l . (1981) suggested  strains.  types.  Space a l l o t m e n t  LITERATURE L a t e r , Andrews full  litter,  covered wire,  slat-1/3  wire) at 2730  respectively. production  et a l . (1988) compared egg p r o d u c t i o n on  2/3  plastic-covered  REVIEW  litter  and  full  cm /,  slat  1740  2  combination floors  cm /  and  2  (wood  of  plastic-  1660  cm /bird,  They found s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  (59.8%) and s i g n i f i c a n t l y  or  2  hen-day egg  l e s s feed consumed per  dozen eggs  produced among  b r o i l e r breeders  full  litter  f l o o r than  on other f l o o r  types; the l a t t e r f i n d i n g  is in  agreement with were no  t h a t of Magruder  significant  consumption types d e s p i t e partial  s l a t s , 50.5% on f l o o r s 50.3% on f l o o r s An  in  cages,  litter  of  egg  conducted  three  p r o d u c t i o n on  51.7% on  and  the  p a r t i a l wood  by  floor.  Johnston  and  cm  2  i n cages and  No s i g n i f i c a n t  found between  f o r 7.3% and 6.3%, slatted  Zindel  p r o d u c t i o n was  61.0% floor.  2088 cm  2  on  d i f f e r e n c e s i n egg  the l a t t e r two  floor  As a p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l number of eggs l a i d ,  litter  floor  between f u l l and  f l o o r and 56.0% on s l a t t e d  per b i r d was 405  and s l a t t e d  accounted  or feed  p a r t i a l p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d s l a t s and  t h a t percent hen-day egg  p r o d u c t i o n were  There  of f u l l p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d wire.  60.5% on l i t t e r  F l o o r space  Hen-day as f o l l o w s :  e a r l i e r study,  (1963) found  the other  differences i n bird density  types were  (1965) .  i n egg p r o d u c t i o n  eggs between  s l a t treatments.  other f l o o r  and Nelson  differences  per dozen  on  types.  floor  eggs  r e s p e c t i v e l y , from the b i r d s on  f l o o r . Without any  5  c l a r i f i c a t i o n i n the  LITERATURE REVIEW s a i d study about the f l o o r to mean  f u l l y slatted  types, " s l a t t e d  floor  f l o o r " was taken  i n the c o n t e x t of  the p r e s e n t  study.  2.1.2.  S l a t s and the Incidence of Cracked Eggs  The  study  by Cooper  and  Barnett  cracked eggs comprised 2.3% and on f u l l  v a l u e s , Magruder  the percentage of and f u l l  litter  broken  and Nelson  No  distinction  cracked nest eggs and cracked f l o o r  2.1.3.  (1965)  Without  found t h a t  f o r f u l l wood  was . made between  eggs.  S l a t s and F e r t i l i t y  Cooper fertility full  respectively.  s h e l l s was the same  floors.  that  2.9% of t o t a l eggs produced  s l a t and p a r t i a l s l a t f l o o r s ,  s t a t i n g the  (1972) found  and  Barnett  was higher  slat floors.  (1972)  floors  During  nine 28-day  period.  Neither  cumulative  first  than on the  p e r i o d s , Parkhurst  i n P i l c h - D e K a l b breeders  h i g h e r on the p a r t i a l d u r i n g the  that  on the combination f l o o r s  (1974) found that f e r t i l i t y to be  found  slat floors  28-day  Cooper and  and the  than on  full  l a s t four  B a r n e t t (1972)  tended slat  28-day  nor Parkhurst  (1974) found these d i f f e r e n c e s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . Nordskog fertility litter,  and  of White  Schierman Leghorns  and f u l l s l a t f l o o r s .  6  (1965) on  full  examined litter,  cumulative 50% s l a t - 5 0 %  F l o o r space per b i r d was 2945  LITERATURE REVIEW cm  2  f o r a l l f l o o r types.  trials,  fertility  d u r i n g the  first  They found that i n one of the two  was b e s t on days of  mating.  d i f f e r e n c e i n percent f e r t i l i t y  between  lowest t e s t  ten  litter  group was only  2%.  caused a lag. i n normal mating  and p o o r e s t  on s l a t s  A f t e r 18  days the  the h i g h e s t and the  They suggested  activity in  that  slats  some males which  may extend f o r a week t o 10 days. Through  seven 28-day  found s i g n i f i c a n t  p e r i o d s , Andrews  differences i n f e r t i l i t y  second 28-day p e r i o d , and only and p a r t i a l p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d wire (94.7%)  and f u l l  intermediate.  p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d wire plastic slats birds  (93.5%).  on s l a t s  (92.2%) s l a t s .  fertility  slats  (full  only  (1988)  d u r i n g the  between p a r t i a l wood (97.2%)  p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d wire  Cumulative  et a l .  (95.2%)  slats  was  Full  litter  (95.6%)  highest f o r  and lowest  p a r t i a l , both  full  for partial  There was no drop i n f e r t i l i t y or  were  wood and  among  plastic-  covered wire) d u r i n g  the second h a l f of  by Parkhurst (1974).  In the study by Andrews et a l . (1988),  birds  on  fertility  slats  d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y  a t the s t a r t of p r o d u c t i o n .  s l a t s gave improved  2.1.4. In  over-all  p r o d u c t i o n as seen  exhibit  a  lag i n  Instead, p a r t i a l wood  fertility.  S l a t s and H a t c h a b i l i t y this  section,  a l l hatchability  data  will  be  h a t c h a b i l i t y of a l l eggs s e t except where s t a t e d otherwise.  7  LITERATURE REVIEW Parkhurst  (1974) and Cooper and  f i n d any s i g n i f i c a n t between f u l l  and p a r t i a l  slat  floors.  found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n  the h a t c h a b i l i t y of t o t a l eggs s e t t h i r d 28-day  and  full  wire pens was  full  litter  and p a r t i a l  et  al.  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the of the  that i n  in  (92.8%)  partial  pens  s l a t pens  than i n  full  (88.7%) pens.  (1988)  also  reported  h a t c h a b i l i t y of f e r t i l e  second, t h i r d  wire  and seventh 28-day  significant  eggs  a t the end  periods,  although  none was found i n o v e r - a l l h a t c h a b i l i t y of f e r t i l e eggs. the  end  of  the  second  and  seventh  h a t c h a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r and wire  97.2%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) slat  (94.1%  and  than 94.2%,  28-day  in full  in partial  full  plastic-covered  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) pens.  wire  respectively)  At the  8  slat  At  periods,  litter  (97.4%  plastic-covered  i n t e r m e d i a t e i n p a r t i a l wood (97.0% and 96.3%, and  was  plastic-covered  p a r t i a l plastic-covered  wood (92.8%)  p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d wire s l a t Andrews  slat  wood (93.1%)  At the end of t h i r d p e r i o d , h a t c h a b i l i t y  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  (92.8%)  (92.2%), p a r t i a l wire  higher than  (86.8%).  but not i n  At the end of the second p e r i o d ,  plastic-covered  significantly  a t the end of the second  p e r i o d s a f t e r 24 weeks of age,  the o v e r - a l l h a t c h a b i l i t y . hatchability in  (1972) d i d not  d i f f e r e n c e s i n cumulative h a t c h a b i l i t y  Andrews et a l . (1988)  and  Barnett  (97.1%  pens,  and  respectively) and  95.3%,  end of the t h i r d 28-day  period,  LITERATURE REVIEW hatchability  was  significantly  higher  in  partial  (96.2%) than i n f u l l p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d w i r e ' s l a t and i n t e r m e d i a t e i n f u l l covered wire s l a t Andrews e t differences in  litter  wood  (92.4%) pens,  (92.6%) and p a r t i a l  plastic-  (95.2%) pens. a l . (1988)  suggested that  hatchability at  the s i g n i f i c a n t  the end of  certain periods  w h i l e none was found i n o v e r - a l l h a t c h a b i l i t y was due to the immaturity  of some  of the  males or  the v a r i a t i o n  i n the  h a n d l i n g of eggs p r i o r to i n c u b a t i o n . B a c t e r i a l contamination•of h a t c h i n g eggs i s an i n h e r e n t r i s k i n keeping et  al.  (1968), average  were higher litter  breeders on l i t t e r .  in litter  counts of than  In a  b a c t e r i a on  i n wire  f l o o r houses averaged 5  study by Quarles egg s u r f a c e  f l o o r houses.  t o 10 times as many b a c t e r i a  per c u b i c meter as i n a i r of wire f l o o r houses.  Hatchability  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r eggs from wire f l o o r A l a t e r study by Quarles comparison,  confirmed the  the  of  number  bacteria  c o r r e l a t e d with the but  neither  egg  100%  of  94% of  a i r was  surface  c o r r e l a t e d with h a t c h a b i l i t y . showed t h a t  the  number of b a c t e r i a on  a i r nor  significantly  the egg s u r f a c e , was  Examination of unhatched  eggs  litter  9  Furthermore,  count  pipped eggs and  c u l l c h i c k s from  houses.  et a l . (1970) u s i n g a s i m i l a r  previous r e s u l t s . in  Air in  bacterial  l a t e dead  floor tested  embryos and positive for  LITERATURE REVIEW coliform bacteria  compared with 33% and  of those from wire f l o o r When wire  C a r t e r et  f l o o r s , they  shell  surface  houses.  Counts  b a c t e r i a counts in  not compared between the  C a r t e r et  isolated  more  breeders  on p a r t i a l  the presence  compared p a r t i a l  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  Instead,  wire f l o o r .  a l . (1973)  of b a c t e r i a i n the a i r were  h a t c h a b i l i t y was  al.  types of  respectively,  (Quarles et a l , 1970).  found t h a t  was  20%,  (1973)  on the partial  slat  not taken, two  bacteria  of e n t e r i c b a c t e r i a  and  f l o o r types. and  from c h i c k s  from c o u n t e r p a r t s  No f u r t h e r study was  and egg  c h i l l - s t r e s s e d chicks  enteric  s l a t than  slat  on  of  total  done to t e s t the e f f e c t of on the growth  of b r o i l e r  chicks.  2.1.5.  S l a t s and Labor  Requirements  Because more b i r d s litter less  were housed on s l a t  f l o o r s than on  f l o o r s , producers were able to handle more b i r d s with work, and  (Wallace's  thus u t i l i z e  Farmer, 1962;  chore  Marley,  time more 1959;  efficiently  Wallace's  Farmer,  1958). Barn c l e a n - o u t  was  required less frequently  with  slat  f l o o r s ; producers c l e a n e d out once  a year or a f t e r s h i p p i n g  a  Marley,  flock  (Wallace's  Farmer, 1958) . flocks  has  been  Farmer, 1962;  This  1959;  " a l l - i n - a l l - o u t " practice  recognized  10  as  an  effective  Wallace's of housing method  of  LITERATURE REVIEW  controlling the  the  subsequent  spread of  full  slat  by  France  floors  These  per  (1965)  to  instead  19.7  of  (1959) ,  full  by a b o u t  half.  studies  space,  hen.  full  found a  reduction in  and  labor  m i n u t e s / b i r d / y e a r by litter  slat  gave t h e  Egg q u a l i t y ,  best  floors.  floors  As  using  forecast  reduced  labor  of  p l a c i n g more b i r d s p e r  l a b o r but  by t h e  today's  lower  of  slats.  however large  s l a t s may be t h e  egg  labor  flocks  favor  ideal  are  Full  the  unit  production  and h a t c h a b i l i t y  use  egg p r o d u c t i o n ,  Partial  2.2.  by  fertility  affected  space requirements slats.  show t h a t  s l a t s minimize  significantly  not  litter  and the  floor use  of  middle ground.  STUDIES ON BREEDER AGE  2.2.1.  Breeder Age and Egg P r o d u c t i o n  At  the  quickly  start  increase  weeks o f  age  egg  of  egg  production,  numbers,  (Nordskog,  M a t h e r and L a u g h l i n caged  previous  Conclusions  2.1.6.  floor  Nelson  from 3 5 . 3  requirements  the  flock.  M a g r u d e r and requirement  d i s e a s e between  b r o i l e r breeders,  layers  and  r e a c h i n g a peak a t  breeders  about  30-32  1980). (1979) the  11  have  average  found evidence length  of  the  that  in  clutch  LITERATURE REVIEW decreases from 4.15 weeks l a t e r .  p a r t l y due to the i n c r e a s e  non-productive  Laughlin longer  peak, p r o d u c t i o n to 1.10  (1979)  days  between  a l s o suggested  time i n  the o v i d u c t  production  that the  of o l d e r  progressively  50.3%  breeders  from the  class.  was  of  the r e s u l t i n g  showed t h a t the f i r s t spread  spend a have not  eggs  the  represent  t o t a l eggs  chicken  a  laid.  eggs i n t o  2-  frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n  of the eggs from the 29-week o l d <47-gram to  At 58 weeks of age, the f i r s t  the same breeders was  eggs may  and  claim.  a l . (1978) grouped  weight c l a s s e s ,  Mather  birds,, but  larger  larger proportion  When McNaughton et gram  progresses,  i n the number  clutches.  found any evidence to support t h e i r As  eggs 48  T h e r e f o r e , the d e c l i n e i n egg p r o d u c t i o n among  o l d e r breeders i s of  eggs a t  spread  52.2%  the 55-56  gram  of the eggs from  from the 51-52-gram to the 65-  66-gram c l a s s . Four-week  production  data  from 3  different  Ross  b r o i l e r breeder f l o c k s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the average egg c o n s i s t e n t l y i n c r e a s e d from  55 grams a t 28 weeks  75-76 grams at 60-62 weeks of age In  (Kirk et a l . ,  a study i n v o l v i n g 3 commercial  same s t r a i n , Mather and L a u g h l i n  at  flock,  mean egg weight  28 weeks of age to 66.3  of age to  1980).  breeder f l o c k s of the  a l l of the f l o c k s .  increased  from 54.5  grams at 53 weeks of age.  12  weight  (1979) found t h a t the mean  egg weight c o n s i s t e n t l y i n c r e a s e d i n the f i r s t  I  In  grams In the  LITERATURE REVIEW second f l o c k , the mean egg at  30  weeks to 67.2  flock,  from 60.4  weight i n c r e a s e d from 57.4  grams at 55  grams at  weeks; and,  32 weeks  in  to 69.3  grams  the  third  grams at  57  weeks.  2.2.2.  B r e e d e r Age  and  Fertility  Studies i n v o l v i n g chicken i n d i c a t e t h a t f e r t i l i t y , egg p r o d u c t i o n ,  i n c r e a s e s at the beginning  of the  like  production  c y c l e , peaks and then slowly d e c l i n e s . K i r k et a l .  (1980) noted  stock had a peak f e r t i l i t y of  age;  of  at 60 weeks of age,  The breeders,  fertility with  days  of 160  days  37.1 34th  was weeks  weeks) of p r o d u c t i o n .  a t t a i n e d d u r i n g days 51-100 of age).  week of  age,  d e t e c t e d by K i r k The p r o p o r t i o n 87.1%  This the  at  The  among b r o i l e r  breeders  (22.8  weeks) at  study p e r i o d  of p r o d u c t i o n  et a l . (1980) i n Ross  (1974)  Hampshire  A peak f e r t i l i t y  which  eggs d e c l i n e d  d u r i n g days 201-250 to 81.4% Parkhurst  89%.  of New  production period  age  of f e r t i l e  at about 34 weeks  monitored by Tomhave (1958) f o r  d i v i d e d i n t o 50-day p r o d u c t i o n p e r i o d s . 90.0%  breeding  d e c l i n e d to about  of 12 d i f f e r e n t f l o c k s  an average age  (52.1  I broiler  n e a r l y 100%  fertility  the s t a r t of p r o d u c t i o n , was 365  t h a t Ross  observed on a i l  13  was of  (30.1-  i n c l u d e s the  peak f e r t i l i t y I broiler  was  breeders.  c o n s i d e r a b l y from  d u r i n g days 251-300. an i n c r e a s e  in  f u l l and p a r t i a l  fertility wood s l a t s  LITERATURE REVIEW during the f i r s t  three 28-day p e r i o d s  with  peaking  fertility  Thereafter,  fertility  during  et a l .  (1980) observed a  Ross I breeders.  the  decreased.  i n c l u d e s week 34 of breeder  a f t e r 23 weeks of  The  age,  age,  third  test  period.  third  28-day p e r i o d  the time d u r i n g which K i r k  peak of n e a r l y 100%  A d d i t i o n a l l y , the t h i r d  fertility  in  28-day p e r i o d i s  i n c l u d e d w i t h i n days 51-100, the p e r i o d of peak f e r t i l i t y  in  the study by Tomhave (1958) . Andrews et a l . (1988) fertility  between p a r t i a l  flooring  of  found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n wood s l a t  plastic-covered  differences in  fertility  wire,  between  litter was  period after (94.7%)  and  intermediate;  over-all  24 weeks  full  found  significant (97.2%)  of age.  Fertility  f u l l p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d wire  third  on  (95.6%)  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were  and  full slats  found i n  fertility.  detected  an i n c r e a s e  of p u t t i n g full  floors  partial  (92.2%) during the  Regardless of f l o o r type, Nordskog and  and  and  p a r t i a l wood  p a r t i a l p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d wire s l a t s 28-day  and  male and litter  showing  elaborate  on  in f e r t i l i t y female  floors, a slower  fertility  Schierman  during the  first  White Leghorns on with b i r d s increase.  trends  production.  14  on The  a f t e r the  (1965) 10 days  partial  the p a r t i a l report first  10  did  slat slat not  days of  LITERATURE REVIEW  Reinhart laid  at  and H u r n i k  3 3 - 3 5 weeks o f  (p<0.001)  (1984) breeder  compared w i t h  5 0 - 5 2 weeks o f  age  found t h a t  those  (96.3% vs.  age was  fertility  significantly  l a i d by t h e  age  that  of  in Single  breeder)  was  but  2 0 weeks o f fertility  experimental  al.  (1970)  Comb W h i t e L e g h o r n s , p r o d u c t i o n  (i.e.,  correlated  to  breeder  with  fertility;  increased  6 1 . 5 grams.  laying  production  and  efficiently  as  lower A  Mussehl large" had t h e  chicken  as  Tindell  the  last  quarter  noted  that  the  early  in  peak,  of  the  eggs  eggs being  study, that  (46-49  fertility  different  of  hatcheries  egg w e i g h t  increased  from  the  eggs were  laid  and M o r r i s  small  showed  best  average  counterparts  lowest f e r t i l i t y the  from  small  were n o t their  (1922),  grams had  periods  no d i s t i n c t  the  Assuming t h a t  fertility  very  (1964)  collected  by o l d e r b r e e d e r s ,  the  fertility  14-day test  T h e r e was  during  Morris  eggs  females  age.  declined  and  progressively 42.5  at  period.  Tindell chicken  higher  91.9%).  increased with production during sixteen after  eggs  same b r e e d e r s  W i t h o u t r e p o r t i n g egg p r o d u c t i o n , Q u a r l e s e t stated  of  larger (1964)  were  stated that  just  covered laying  coming  by t h e  into  males  l a r g e r eggs,  the  as  hence  eggs. conducted  by  Halbersleben  "extremely  small  and 5 9 - 6 5  grams,  (80-81%),  fertility  15  while  (87%) .  and  and  extremely  respectively)  eggs w e i g h i n g The a u t h o r s  50-58  did  not  LITERATURE REVIEW mention  the breed s t u d i e d , or whether the d i f f e r e n t s i z e s of  eggs came from hens of d i f f e r e n t Proudfoot and fertility  (1981) d i d not  between chicken eggs weighing  57 grams. not  Hulan  ages.  46-50 grams and  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded  influenced  by egg  size.  H a l b e r s l e b e n and Mussehl  In  (1922),  light  grams than  i n those weighing  and Hulan  of the  study  by  (1981)  i n eggs weighing 46-50  53-57 grams.  mentions the breed of chicken  53-  that f e r t i l i t y i s  Proudfoot and Hulan  should have observed higher f e r t i l i t y  same  see d i f f e r e n c e s i n  Neither report  used f o r the study. Proudfoot  (1981) obtained a l l egg s i z e s from breeders of the  age,  statement  but  Halbersleben  in this respect. .  and Mussehl  (1922)  made  no  T h e r e f o r e the d i s c r e p a n c y c o u l d  not be a t t r i b u t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the breed used or to the fact that  egg s i z e s  r e p r e s e n t e d d i f f e r e n t breeder  ages i n  one study and not i n the o t h e r .  2.2.3.  Breeder Age and  The  influence  Hatchability  of breeder age on  be a f u n c t i o n of egg weight. been  shown to  intermediate.  have lower Since  consistently increase al.,  1980;  Egg s i z e s i n the extreme have h a t c h a b i l i t y than  chicken in size  Mather and L a u g h l i n ,  near the beginning of l a y  h a t c h a b i l i t y seems to  eggs  have  those i n been  as the f l o c k ages  found  the to  (Kirk et  1979)> extremely s m a l l eggs  and extremely l a r g e eggs near the  16  LITERATURE REVIEW end  of l a y would have  lower h a t c h a b i l i t y  d u r i n g t h e m i d d l e of the l a y i n g Except  when s t a t e d  In  the  study  h a t c h a b i l i t y of  by  a l lhatchability  data  of t o t a l eggs s e t .  Kirk  Ross I  laid  cycle.  otherwise,  p r e s e n t e d w i l l be h a t c h a b i l i t y  than eggs  et  a l . (1980)  b r o i l e r breeder  the  eggs was  maximum 91%, and  o c c u r r e d a t 44 weeks of age; average egg w e i g h t a t t h i s time was 65 grams. t o 82%,  A t 60 weeks of age, h a t c h a b i l i t y had d e c l i n e d  and average  h a t c h a b i l i t y before  egg w e i g h t and a f t e r  due, i n p a r t , t o an e f f e c t an o p t i m a l eggs from  egg w e i g h t  grams.  The lower  t h e peak - was thought  of egg w e i g h t .  was i n v o l v e d ,  a young f l o c k and  f l o c k were n o t  was 75  I t appeared  and t h a t  that  the smaller  t h e l a r g e r eggs from  as h a t c h a b l e as t h o s e w e i g h i n g  t o be  an o l d e r  c l o s e t o the  optimal weight. No mention was made of egg weight i n a study by Tomhave (1958), b u t i t was found t h a t t h e age of b r e e d e r s had i n f l u e n c e on  t h e h a t c h a b i l i t y d u r i n g the  t e s t p e r i o d s (250 d a y s ) .  Hatchability  little  f i r s t f i v e 50-day  s l o w l y i n c r e a s e d from  the s t a r t of p r o d u c t i o n u n t i l i t peaked a t 79.7% d u r i n g days 151-200 of p r o d u c t i o n , and then days 201-250 t o 69.3% d u r i n g  decreased from 77.4% d u r i n g  days 251-300.  The peak p e r i o d  c o v e r s weeks 44-51 of age, and c o n f i r m s the r e s u l t s from t h e study by K i r k eggs s e t was  e t a l . (1980) where peak seen a t 44 weeks of age.  17  h a t c h a b i l i t y of a l l The h a t c h a b i l i t y of  LITERATURE REVIEW fertile  eggs  remained c o n s i s t e n t l y  from days 1-250,  McNaughton et a l .  to e i t h e r  those from 58-week groups.  at  or 57-62-gram  The h a t c h a b i l i t y  e i t h e r the of the t h r e e  d i f f e r e n t from each other. hatchability  i n t e r m e d i a t e (80.3 a t 29  58 weeks of age)  ages  from 29-week o l d  the 47-52  group had the h i g h e s t  57-62-gram group was and 81.4%  Eggs  o l d breeders to  weight groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y The l i g h t e s t  differences  p a r e n t s of d i f f e r e n t  s i z e s were d i f f e r e n t .  57-62 or 67-74-gram  251 to the  (1978) found s i g n i f i c a n t  were a s s i g n e d  groups, and  90.3%  (day 365).  i n h a t c h a b i l i t y between eggs from  breeders  and  and stayed w i t h i n 85% from day  end of the study p e r i o d  only when egg  between 88.1  and the  (86%), the  weeks of age  67-74-gram group the  lowest (75.4%). Without s t a t i n g t h a t eggs of d i f f e r e n t s i z e groups came from  p a r e n t s of  (1922)  reported that  extremely small those  d i f f e r e n t ages, "extremely  H a l b e r s l e b e n and large  Mussehl  (59-65 grams)  and  (46-49 grams) eggs" d i d not hatch as w e l l as  weighing 50-58  grams.  Average h a t c h a b i l i t i e s  were  29%, 33% and 41.6%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Proudfoot and intermediate  s i z e ranges,  size d i f f e r e n t i a l s . of eggs  Hulan  (1981)  concluded t h a t  hatchability  was  unaffected  T h e i r study i n d i c a t e d t h a t  weighing 46-50 grams (56.5%)  18  was  not  w i t h i n the by  hatchability significantly  LITERATURE d i f f e r e n t from  t h a t of  eggs weighing 53-57  grams  No e x p l a n a t i o n was given f o r the low o v e r - a l l  2.2.4.  B r e e d e r Age a n d Embryo  Although incubation documented  in  chicken  hatchability.  Mortality of  and  work has been  embryo  turkey  mortality  eggs  has  during  been  done to i n v e s t i g a t e  well  the changes  i n the p a t t e r n with the change i n breeder  The two  c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s found by  the i n c u b a t i o n of days  pattern  (.58.6%).  (Byerly et a l . , 1933; B y e r l y , 1930; Payne, 1919),  very l i t t l e t h a t occur  the  REVIEW  Payne  (1919) d u r i n g  chicken eggs occurred on days  18-20 ' of i n c u b a t i o n ,  and  were  age.  4-6 and on  consistent for  both  n a t u r a l and a r t i f i c i a l i n c u b a t i o n . Insko  and M a r t i n  embryo m o r t a l i t y ;  (1935) found  one on day 2  two  peaks of  and the other on  chicken  day 19 of  i n c u b a t i o n , with the e a r l y peak being two days e a r l i e r and the l a t e peak c o i n c i d i n g with Payne's The two  critical  p e r i o d s d e t e c t e d by  (1935) i n the development of 25 of  incubation.  However,  (1919). Insko and M a r t i n  turkey embryos were days 4 and  They s t a t e d  peak o c c u r r e d at the same  t h a t the  second m o r t a l i t y  r e l a t i v e time as i n chicken eggs.  the f i r s t peak d i d not, and Insko and M a r t i n  attributed  than,  this difference  t o the  g r e a t e r length  (1935) of time  r e q u i r e d to heat turkey eggs to i n c u b a t i o n temperature.  19  LITERATURE REVIEW Reinhart  and  (1984)  Hurnik  divided  p e r i o d o f c h i c k e n eggs i n t o days 1-8, 21  to correspond  studies  (Insko  during  days  eggs f r o m 19-21  breeders.  1935;  and M a r t i n , and  Payne,  9-18  days  significantly  breeders. higher  For both breeder  s m a l l , medium,  with  average weight  of  weight group. predominated usually was  Therefore, when  l a r g e eggs  19-21,  i t  the  no  significant  but  not  during  days  the  older  extra  large  and 6 9 . 6  not state the  grams  p r o p o r t i o n of  age g r o u p s i n  50-52  e a c h egg  is  Embryo m o r t a l i t y d u r i n g d a y s  1-8  similar for a l l  mortality  in  weeks  eggs  o l d , as  t h e medium a n d  was  Mortality  i s unknown w h e t h e r l a r g e r  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than i n the was  65.6  but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  d u r i n g days 9-18  from  l a r g e and  63.0,  b r e e d e r s were  than i n  earlier  o l d breeders than i n Mortality  two b r e e d e r  seen f o r c h i c k e n s .  higher,  days  59.3,  The r e p o r t d i d  each of t h e  i n the  19-  a g e s , t h e eggs were a s s i g n e d t o  weight groups:  eggs f r o m  and days  higher,  i n eggs  four  respectively.  incubation  1919).  was  i n eggs f r o m 5 0 - 5 2 - w e e k  33-35-week o l d  was  days 9-18  w i t h the m o r t a l i t y periods  1-8  significantly,  the  i n the small  and  l a r g e eggs.  Mortality  weight  extra  group.  large  weight.  20  During  eggs  other three groups.  i n t e r a c t i o n between b r e e d e r  extra  was There  age and  egg  LITERATURE REVIEW 2.2.5.  Breeder Age and Progeny Growth  A consistent  r e l a t i o n s h i p has  been found  between the  weight of the unincubated egg and the weight of the c h i c k at hatch.  In a  summary  species,  Shanawany (1987)  depended upon I t was  of  studies  in six  concluded  a linear function  domestic  that hatching  of egg weight  bird weight  at s e t t i n g .  estimated t h a t h a t c h i n g weight i n c r e a s e s by 0.59  f o r every  gram i n c r e a s e  reported turkey,  that  on  average,,  duck, goose,  63.0%, 57.8%,  i n egg  weight.  d i f f e r e n t between  hatching  pheasant and  58.9%, 62.0%  unincubated egg  weight.  Shanawany (1987)  weight  chicken, 68.0%,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , of the  The percentage  the s p e c i e s  of  quail represent  and 66.9%,  gram  was  significantly  except between the  duck and  the goose. Since K i r k et reported  that  a l . (1980) and McNaughton  larger  breeders, c h i c k s  eggs predominate  et a l . (1978)  in  from these breeders would  older  chicken  be h e a v i e r than  those from younger b r e e d e r s . Numerous s t u d i e s have been conducted t o i n v e s t i g a t e the influence  of  egg weight  on  Hulan, 1981/  Deaton  et  and  1964/  Goodwin,  Morris,  Skoglund et a l . ,  1952/  and Mussehl, 1922)  chick  a l . , 1979/  Wiley,  1961/ 1950/  growth Gardiner, Kosin Upp,  but few have addressed  21  (Proudfoot 1973/ et  and  Tindell  al.,  1952/  1928/ H a l b e r s l e b e n the i n f l u e n c e of  LITERATURE REVIEW egg weight on  c h i c k growth as r e l a t e d to  et a l . , 1985; In  McNaughton et a l . ,  two  experiments,  breeder age  (Pone  1978).  McNaughton  et  al.  (1978)  i n v e s t i g a t e d the i n f l u e n c e of breeder age on the body weight of c h i c k s using eggs of comparable  weight.  From 29-week o l d  breeders, eggs weighing 47-54 and 57-62 grams were obtained, and  from  Broilers  58-week  old  breeders, 57-62  from the h e a v i e r eggs  1 day and 2, 4 and  the  two sexes s e p a r a t e .  marketed of age  67-74  grams.  were c o n s i s t e n t l y h e a v i e r at  6 weeks of age.  were made between the body  and  Statistical  weights at market  In the f i r s t  comparisons  age only, with  experiment, b i r d s were  at 8 weeks of age, and a t seven weeks and four days i n the second  trial.  there were no s i g n i f i c a n t  Both experiments  differences  showed t h a t  i n the body weight of  female c h i c k s from 29- and 58-week o l d breeders when the egg weights were uniform. of 29-week  On the o t h e r hand, the female progeny  o l d breeders  grams were s i g n i f i c a n t l y and the progeny  were  broilers  significantly  weighing 47-54 were d e t e c t e d al.  lighter  grams.  No  weighing 47-54  than those from 57-62 grams  of 58-week o l d b r e e d e r s .  experiment, male grams  o b t a i n e d from eggs  During the  hatched from eggs heavier  than  weighing 67-74  those  d i f f e r e n c e s i n male  d u r i n g the second experiment.  (1978) concluded that the  22  first  from  eggs  body weight McNaughton et  age of parents i n f l u e n c e d the  LITERATURE REVIEW market body weights of t h e i r egg weights.  •  Without choosing 42 and  a p a r t i c u l a r egg weight  52 of breeder age, male c h i c k s  breeders.  The b r o i l e r s were  p a r e n t a l age  from 27-, 42-  one day  compared the  and 52-week  o l d Cobb  r a i s e d s e p a r a t e l y according to  and i n t e r m i n g l e d , both on  covered p e r f o r a t e d metal  group a t 27,  Pone et a l . (1985)  growth of  At  progeny through d i f f e r e n c e s i n  litter  and p l a s t i c -  floors.  of age,. body weights  f o r the  respective  p a r e n t a l age groups were 36.1, 41.2 and 42.7 grams.  The 31-  day body weights were 948, 998 and 1030 grams, r e s p e c t i v e l y . At  both times,  the body weight of the .three progeny  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r .  groups  At 44, 47 and  52 days of age, the body weights of progeny from 42- and 52week  old  breeders  significantly  were  statistically  higher than  t h a t of  equal  progeny of  and  were  27-week o l d  breeders. Grouping flooring,  the male  Pone et  b r o i l e r s according  a l . (1978)  found t h a t  t o the  type of  those r a i s e d  on  s l a t s were c o n s i s t e n t l y h e a v i e r than those r a i s e d on l i t t e r . When male b r o i l e r s intermingled  from a l l p a r e n t a l age  on each  of the  two f l o o r  were s i g n i f i c a n t only a t 52 days of age. when  the  parental  age  groups  d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t  were  groups were grown types, d i f f e r e n c e s On the other hand,  raised  separately,  a t 44 and 47 days of  23  age. I t  LITERATURE REVIEW  was  concluded  competitive) chick  the  d i d not  alter  showing  feed  type  of  the  rearing  influence  of  (separate  vs.  p a r e n t a l age  on  weight. Without  (1985)  stated  consumed In  that  that  consumption  broilers  less  feed  at  agreement  with  McNaughton e t  (1985)  concluded that  growth of  progeny i s  each  from  the  of  the  the  not manifested  days  (1978),  of  Pone  youngest  weighing al.  effect  values,  et  parents  mentioned.  Pone e t  breeder  age  when egg  al.  on  al. the  weights  are  after  the  equalized.  2.2.6.  Conclusions  Hatchability beginning growth  of  and  fertility  shortly  egg p r o d u c t i o n , peak and t h e n d e c l i n e .  however,  increases  Information  on  mortality  insufficient  is  increase  the  constantly  influence  with  of breeder  age  f o r any c o n c l u s i o n t o  24  egg on  Progeny weight. embryo  be made.  3. Present-day require the Wood s l a t s some  intensive  use o f s l a t s h a v e been  interest  b e n e f i t s of  OBJECTIVES poultry  production  systems  a s a manure  management  practice.  however t h e r e  has been  w i d e l y used,  i nplastic  plastic  slats.  Some o f  slats are cleaner  the  flooring  apparent  and g r e a t e r  durability. This study  was c o n d u c t e d  o f wood a n d p l a s t i c or  as  full  parameters progeny  slats, either  flooring,  on t h e  the influence  i n combination with  i m p o r t a n t economic  o v e r one p r o d u c t i o n following  1)  Plastic  hypotheses slats result fertility  The p r o g e n y  litter  performance  o f A r b o r A c r e s b r o i l e r b r e e d e r s and growth  The  2)  to investigate  of the  cycle. were  tested:  i n h i g h e r egg p r o d u c t i o n , and  of p l a s t i c efficiently  hatchability.  s l a t b r e e d e r s grow more t h a n wood s l a t  progeny.  4.  4.1.  MATERIALS AND METHODS  BROODING PROCEDURES Arbor  Acres  broiler  7  breeders housed  Science P o u l t r y Unit breeder barn The Arbor Acres Male and adhered t o  at  the  Animal  were used f o r t h i s study.  Female Management  Guide  (1985) was  i n r a i s i n g the b r o i l e r breeders to 24  weeks of  age. Brooder heat lamps were used during brooding. maintained every  A temperature of 32°C a t  f o r the  3 days  t o supply a d d i t i o n a l heat  until  first  3  f l o o r l e v e l was  days. Temperature  21-22°C  was a t t a i n e d .  lamps were removed a t 26 days  was dropped  The  l a s t heat  of age. Room temperature was  maintained near 15°C t h e r e a f t e r . From one day to 4 weeks brooded t o g e t h e r on  of age, males and females were  wood shavings a t 159 b i r d s  e i g h t 3 m x 3.6 m pens.  f o r each of  At 4 weeks of age, 60 cm-high  slats  were i n s t a l l e d on 60% of the f l o o r area of a l l the pens. 11  weeks  installed  of  breeder  age,  full  slat  arrangements  At were  i n h a l f of the 24 pens, and b i r d s i n each of the 8  b r o o d i n g pens were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups and assigned t o r e s p e c t i v e pens. At  13 weeks  of age, the c h i c k s were  staphylococcus i n f e c t i o n , and were  diagnosed to have  given t e t r a c y c l i n e f o r a  week, f o l l o w e d by p e n i c i l l i n a t 17, 19 and 30 weeks of age.  26  MATERIALS AND METHODS The  chicks  one day and  were v a c c i n a t e d a g a i n s t Marek's  of age, and  disease at  against Newcastle/Bronchitis at  2, 10  16 weeks of age.  4.2.  LIGHTING Lighting  in  each  pen  was  incandescent bulb from the time through  t o the  provided the heat  end of the 17th week.  by  a  100-watt  lamps were removed  In each hallway,  one  22-watt c i r c l e f l u o r e s c e n t lamp was p r o v i d e d f o r each of two adjacent pens.  The b r o i l e r breeders were  hours of l i g h t week.  At  from one day of  the  start  one  of the  hour  p r o v i d e d with 10  age to the end 18th  increased  by  attained.  Photoperiod was maintained  of the 17th  week, photoperiod  every week,  until  14  hours  was was  at 14 hours u n t i l the  end of the study.  4.3.  HOUSING DURING LAY S h o r t l y p r i o r t o the onset  of b i r d s per pen was e q u a l i z e d  of l a y (week 22) the number i n t o 47 females  and 6 males.  Dead and c u l l e d females were r e p l a c e d u n t i l 28 weeks of age. Each pen was 3 m x 3.6 m, and f l o o r space a l l o t m e n t was 2040 c m / b i r d .  The pens  2  were separated pens 1  were s i t u a t e d i n two  by the feedroom.  t o 8, and  The f i r s t  the second contained  pens formed two l i n e s down the middle  rooms which  room contained  pens 9 t o 24.  of each room.  The  MATERIALS AND The i n f l u e n c e s l a t coverage  of s l a t m a t e r i a l (wood  ( f u l l vs. p a r t i a l )  diet,  Tables 5, effect,  formulas  6 and  7.  replicates  this thesis.  each of the  from  treatments.  Since there  the  S i x pens were  are l i s t e d was no  parameters  i n Appendix  significant  material  diet  a n a l y s i s of  name, s l a t t y p e , was  f o u r k i n d s of  slat  and  B r e e d e r s were f e d two  combined f o r the  Another v a r i a b l e  to d i s t i n g u i s h resulting  f o r which  have been  vs. p l a s t i c )  were examined on  which w i l l be mentioned s u b s e q u e n t l y . t y p e s of  METHODS  created  flooring  systems  slat  coverage  and  a s s i g n e d randomly t o each of the  4 s l a t type t r e a t m e n t s . The  s l a t type names were as f o l l o w s :  1)  F u l l wood s l a t s  2)  P a r t i a l wood s l a t s  (PWS)  3)  Full plastic slats  (FPS)  4)  Partial plastic slats  (FWS)  Each of the 8 v a r i a b l e  c o m b i n a t i o n s was  one pen i n the room c o n t a i n i n g i n the o t h e r room. regular  pens 1 t o 8, and by two pens  The rooms were a s s i g n e d t o t r e a t m e n t s a t  1 illustrates  slats  covered w i t h and the  r e p r e s e n t e d by  interval.  Figure partial  (PPS)  (PWS  and PPS),  s l a t s r a i s e d 60  r e s t of t h e f l o o r  wood s h a v i n g s .  t h e pen  A  slatted  60%  of the  cm above t h e  a r e a was step-up,  28  set-up.  In pens f l o o r area concrete  covered w i t h 30 cm  with was  floor,  5 cm-deep  wide and  30  cm  MATERIALS AND above the concrete f l o o r , was on recommendation of s l a t pens  (FWS  slats raised  p l a c e d along the s l a t t e d  the b r o i l e r breeder company.  and FPS),  with s l a t s r a i s e d  60% of the f l o o r  30 cm above the  and one hanging  cm diameter. s i t u a t e d on  each of two  extended  the nests was over the  of the n e s t s was extended  1.8  automatic waterer  of every pen a t  floor.  at  area.  the  s l a t s and the In f u l l  slat  34.3 was  uniform  In p a r t i a l s l a t pens,  one  other over  pens, one  end  slats.  an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the  slats.  cm x 9.3  The p l a s t i c  cm openings  dimensions  s l a t s were 1.2  of wood  cm wide,  and  which were separated by 0.8  cm-  The wood s l a t s were 3.5  cm wide  apart.  Waste throughout pens was  41.9  sides  s t r i p along the s h o r t a x i s . and 2 cm  tube feeders with pans at  floor.  s e t over the 60-cm high s l a t s and the other  Figure 2 i s  had  with  round  over the 30-cm high  and p l a s t i c  full  the r e s t  set on the  litter  area  covered  A 12-hole metal nest, with wooden perches,  h e i g h t of 60 cm above the end of  In  area was  60 cm above the f l o o r , and  Each pen had f o u r 20-k.g cm diameter  METHODS  was  allowed  to accumulate  the study, but the  periodically  changed.  under the  s l a t area  wood shavings i n p a r t i a l  slat  M A T E R I A L S AND  F i g u r e 1.  D i m e n s i o n s of P e n s *  60  c m - h i g h slats  \  \ 30  \  cm-high slats  3.6  FULL  3.0 rrr  \  m  SLAT  PENS  60 cm-high slats  \  \  step-up litter  3.6  PARTIAL  m  SLAT  PENS  •Not drawn to scale. N ests.  30  3.0  m  METHODS  MATERIALS AND M E T H O D S  F i g u r e 2.  D i m e n s i o n s of S l a t s *  9.3 cm 0.8 cm PLASTIC  •Not  drawn  to  SLATS  scale.  31  MATERIALS AND METHODS 4.4.  FEEDING PROGRAM Breeders were f e d s t a r t e r d i e t s  the end of 3 developer  weeks.  diets  From 4 t o 20  on a  limited  ad l i b from day one t o weeks, breeders were f e d  feed  Wednesday and Sunday of each week. the end  program s k i p p i n g the From 21 weeks of age t o  of the study, breeder d i e t s  recommended  by the Arbor Acres  Female Feeding are l i s t e d  4.5.  were f e d everyday as  Broiler  and Management Guide  Breeder Male and  (1985) .  Diet  formulas  i n Appendix Tables 5, 6 and 7.  EGG COLLECTION S t a r t i n g a t 24  the n e s t s and times a  Eggs t h a t  Eggs on  eggs i n the n e s t .  fell  the f l o o r The  from  through  the s l a t s  were counted  were not  s e p a r a t e l y from  numbers of cracked eggs on the f l o o r  and i n the nest were a l s o commercial  were c o l l e c t e d  the s l a t and s l a t - l i t t e r f l o o r i n each pen 3  day.  counted.  weeks of age, eggs  recorded.  hatchery once a week  Eggs were shipped t o a  f o r hatching.  The breeders  were shipped a f t e r 58 weeks of age.  4.6.  FERTILITY AND HATCHABILITY  TESTS  S e t t a b l e eggs were incubated t o hatch a t the UBC Animal Science  Poultry Unit  approximately  s t a r t i n g a t 37 weeks of As i n commercial  every  five  (5)  weeks  age f o r f e r t i l i t y and h a t c h a b i l i t y .  h a t c h e r i e s , d i r t y , cracked and t h i n - s h e l l e d  32  MATERIALS AND METHODS eggs were d i s c a r d e d . Eggs  were  left  incubation. 18 days  Sample s i z e was 75-100  overnight  A r e l a t i v e humidity  and 80% d u r i n g  aimed a t , relative  a t room  the l a s t  3 days of  short periods  temperature was more c o n s i s t e n t 99.2°F +_ 0.90  temperature  prior  to  of 60-70% during the f i r s t  but the Robbins i n c u b a t o r s humidity f o r  eggs per pen.  i n c u b a t i o n was  fluctuated greatly in of  time.  Incubator  and thermometer readings of  (37.3°C +.0.50) were a t t a i n e d .  The eggs t h a t were s e t were candled between the 7th and 10th days of dead  i n c u b a t i o n t o remove i n f e r t i l e  embryos.  Viable  embryos  as  eggs and e a r l y  determined d u r i n g  the  c a n d l i n g were t r a n s f e r r e d t o a Robbins hatcher a t day 18 f o r hatching.  Those unhatched a f t e r  opened t o  determine the f i n a l  record  21 days of i n c u b a t i o n were stage of development  and to  abnormalities.  The time of stages: e a r l y  death of the embryo was  (days 0-7), middle  21) and pipped  c l a s s i f i e d into 4  (days 8-14), l a t e  f o r embryos t h a t break the egg  (days 15-  s h e l l but do  not hatch.  4.7.  GROWTH TRIALS Chicks were  s e l e c t e d from the  46th-week c o l l e c t i o n s and from the 56th (six  weeks).  hatch of the  grown out t o three  week c o l l e c t i o n were grown out Except  for  33  discarding  the  37th- and  weeks.  Chick  to market age deformed  and  MATERIALS AND METHODS crippled chicks, groups  of  brooders weight  no c u l l i n g  was p r a c t i c e d .  ten c h i c k s  were  randomly  to r e p r e s e n t  each  of the  and feed  i n t a k e were  Two  replicate  a s s i g n e d to parental  measured a t  battery  pens.  the end  Body of each  week. B a t t e r y cages c h i c k s from the cm(W) of  x 24  (Petersime Chick B a t t e r i e s ) used to house  f i r s t to the t h i r d week were  cm(H).  The 48 b a t t e r y cages  12 cages each; i n each  6 high, s i d e 63  by s i d e .  cm-long  feed  Heating c o i l s the  first  maintained  were on 4 t r o l l e y s  Each b a t t e r y cage and 67  when  27°C.  was  cm-long  i n each cage p r o v i d e d  near  x 69  t r o l l e y the 12 cages were stacked  troughs  two weeks,  98 cm(L)  battery  Thereafter,  equipped with  water  troughs.  a d d i t i o n a l heat d u r i n g cage temperature  was  the  was  temperature  maintained near 20°C. The 56th week weighed only  progeny were taken only  66-78 grams b e f o r e i n c u b a t i o n .  for  this  growth  trial,  was  from eggs which  T h i s procedure, done aimed  at  minimizing  v a r i a t i o n due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n egg weight and i n i t i a l weight.  The c h i c k s were  sexed a f t e r h a t c h i n g , so that each  p a r e n t a l pen was r e p r e s e n t e d by and one  group of 10 female  10  b i r d s was  allotment  in  reduced  one group of 10 male c h i c k s  chicks.  feed i n t a k e were measured on of  chick  A f t e r body  weight and  the t h i r d week, each r e p l i c a t e to  grower cages;  7  birds for  cripple  34  and  optimum  weak b i r d s  space were  MATERIALS AND d i s c a r d e d , and i n pens without c r i p p l e chicks  were randomly  picked  out.  METHODS  or weak b i r d s , Body  weight  excess  and  feed  i n t a k e were measured on the 5th and 6th weeks. During the t h i r d to the s i x t h week of the l a s t grow-out trial,  c h i c k s were housed i n 66 cm(L)  cages.  x 36 cm  (H)  Each of the 4 t r o l l e y s of 12 cages had 3 groups of 4  cages h i g h .  The feed and water troughs were 60 cm long.  The b r o i l e r c h i c k s feed.  x 66 cm(W)  were g i v e n non-medicated  During the f i r s t  23% p r o t e i n was  used.  three weeks, b r o i l e r  During  commercial  starter  the f o u r t h and f i f t h weeks of  the l a s t t r i a l , b r o i l e r grower with 20% p r o t e i n was the c h i c k s ,  and b r o i l e r  with  f i n i s h e r with  given to  18% p r o t e i n  on the  s i x t h week. Feed and throughout  the  hung about  water were experiment.  1 meter  l i b to  A 100-watt  above each  hours a day throughout  4.8.  p r o v i d e d ad  the  broilers  incandescent bulb,  t r o l l e y , provided  l i g h t 24  the study.  STATISTICAL ANALYSIS A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  L i n e a r Models procedure  (ANOVA), s p e c i f i c a l l y the General  of SAS  the egg p r o d u c t i o n and progeny showed effects,  that  except i n  (1985) , was  a p p l i e d to a l l of  growth parameters.  interactions  with  Analysis  the other  main  breeder- d i e t d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e any of  the parameters  measured.  T h e r e f o r e , means  35  of breeder  diet  MATERIALS AND METHODS groups were combined to  and t h e degrees of  freedom were added  the e r r o r term i n subsequent a n a l y s e s . Parameters measured i n c l u d e d p e r c e n t b i w e e k l y and over-  all  egg p r o d u c t i o n , p e r c e n t  cracked f l o o r were  f l o o r eggs,  c r a c k e d nest eggs,  eggs and " s e t t a b l e " eggs.  Percentage v a l u e s  transformed  statistical  using  arcsine  a n a l y s i s ( L i , 1964) .  transformation  for  The s t a t i s t i c a l model used  was: Y  = P  ijkl  and Yijkl  R  i  +  j k < >jk  M  + c  i = l,2,...,6;  = one  of  p r o d u c t i o n , ,% floor  +  eggs  ^  j = l,2;  f l o o r eggs,  or %  +  E  ijkl'  k=l,2;  % cracked  "settable" t h e Y^-h p  population  r e p l i c a t i o n , Mj = or p l a s t i c ,  mean,  1 = 1,2, . . .,24;  variables  e n D  Y  f ^he  R^  where  (% b i w e e k l y  egg  n e s t eggs,. % c r a c k e d  eggs) .  s l a t m a t e r i a l and t h e k ^  theoretical  partial;  M C  t h e dependent  p r o d u c t i o n s t a t u s of the j  +  ijkl i  t  n  ^  s  t  h  e  e <  3  g  replicate with  s l a t coverage; yx = t h e =  effect  e f f e c t of whether s l a t  of  the  i*-*  m a t e r i a l was wood  = e f f e c t of whether s l a t coverage was f u l l o r  ( M C ) = effect  o f two-way  interaction involving  main e f f e c t s ; E ^ j ^ ^ = random e r r o r . The coverage percent  influence  of b r e e d e r  on p e r c e n t i n c i d e n c e of  fertility,  age, s l a t m a t e r i a l  percent h a t c h a b i l i t y ,  embryo m o r t a l i t y  u s i n g ANOVA w i t h r e p e a t e d  measures.  36  and s l a t  were a l s o  Arcsine  and  analyzed  transformation  1  MATERIALS AND METHODS (Li,  1964)  was  statistical Y  applied  analysis.  ijkln  = >»  +  i  R  +  j  M  and i = l , 2 , . .,6; i jkln  Y  fertility, ijkln  -*-  pen of  i  Y  k -^  st  h  k  t  + (AMC)  k l  o  n  coverage,  k  (MC) j  ijk  E 1  + E2  +  A  i j k l n  l  before  ( ) jl  +  AM  ,  dependent  variables  % i n c i d e n c e of embryo  (%  mortality).  of the females i n the. n  the j the  mean,  t  h  and the  breeder  u  l  Rj_  t h  s l a t material t  n  =  effect  e f f e c t of whether s l a t  age; of  the  material  = i -* 1  was wood  = e f f e c t of whether s l a t coverage was f u l l or k  = e f f e c t of Elj_ i  two-way i n t e r a c t i o n between the  error  =  k  term  for testing  e f f e c t s of. two-way i n t e r a c t i o n s three-way  k  e f f e c t s and  the  main  of a s p e c i f i c breeder age, (AM)  (AMC) j ] _ = e f f e c t of  main  +  j k l  the  during  e f f e c t s , A]_ = the e f f e c t  age,  values  k=1,2; 1 = 1,2, . . , 5; n=l,2,..,120;  °f  e  population  effects,  k  MC  r e p l i c a t i o n with  h  or p l a s t i c , C  (AC) ] _ =  < >jk  +  j = l,2;  s  ^ r e p l i c a t i o n , Mj =  main  c  reproductive status  e  theoretical  partial,  +  % hatchability,  slat  1  i  =  percentage  The s t a t i s t i c a l model used was:  + (AC)  where  to  breeder  involving  breeder  i n t e r a c t i o n between the  age, E 2 ^ j ] _ k  n  =  e r r o r term  for  t e s t i n g the s u b - p l o t e f f e c t s . The  influence  of breeder  coverage on •the three-week week progeny  age, s l a t m a t e r i a l  growth of  were a n a l y z e d u s i n g the  and s l a t  37th, 46th following  and 56th  statistical  model: Y  ijklmn  = ?  +  R  i  +  R  P  i j  +  M  k  37  +  c  l  +  < >kl + E l MC  i  j  k  l  1  MATERIALS AND METHODS +  and'  A  m  ( >km  +  AM  i=l,2,..,6;  progeny  (body  conversion) . the  j  t  and  parental  pen,  parental the  parental  slat  ^  1  1=1,2;  i  t  gain,  parental  h  R ^ i j •= e f f e c t pen, M  feed intake,  effects,  Elijk.i  = effect  effect (AMC)  k  of  ]_  m  effects  sub-plot  effect  t  =  error  p e a was  interaction  full  of three-way  1  o f whether  or  (AM)  t h e main k  partial,  effects,  a n d (AC.) ^  m  involving'  breeder  =  m  age;  i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e main  b r e e d e r age E 2 j _ j ] _ k  = error-term  m n  for  testing  effects.  H a t c h i n g w e i g h t o f p r o g e n y was a d j u s t e d analysis  of the i*-* •  between t h e main  term f o r t e s t i n g  interactions  breeder  material of  C]_ = e f f e c t  o f a s p e c i f i c b r e e d e r age, two-way  t h  slat  t h  progeny cage from t h e  h  of whether s l a t  the • p a r e n t a l o f two-way  = effect and  of the j  feed  o f t h e progeny i n  pen w i t h t h e k  p e n was wood o r p l a s t i c ,  = effect  k  =  k  ,  rrt=l,2,3;  coverage during t h e m  1  i j k l m n  one o f t h e g r o w t h p a r a m e t e r s  s  the g r o w t h s t a t u s  s  t h e I -* s l a t  coverage of  (MC) ] _  the  ijklmn  + E2  k I l t l  J J = t h e o r e t i c a l p o p u l a t i o n mean,. Rj_ = e f f e c t  age;  m  k=l,2;  weight, weight  cage from t h e  h  material  A  Y  ^  =  + (AMC)  l m  j=l,2;  n=l,..,144; where ^ i j k i r a n of  (AC)  +  to eliminate  growth of progeny  the effect of  (Hicks,  1982).  i n a covariance  breeder  a g e on t h e  The f o l l o w i n g  statistical  m o d e l was u s e d : Y  ijklmn  = P  +  + A  R  m  i  +  R  P  i j  •+ ( A M )  +  M  k  +  c  l  + (AC)  k m  38  < >kl  +  M C  l m  +  E  + (AMC)  1  ijkl  k l m  . +  E2  i  j  k  l  m  n  MATERIALS AND METHODS  +  and  k  (body  conversion). j  j=l,2;  where Y j _ j ] _  progeny  the  ijklnuv  i=l,2,..,6;  n=l,..,144; of  H B W T  Y  m a t e r i a l and  s  o  n  °f  e  weight, weight  ijk.imn ^  the 1  n  growth  e  gain,  p ' parental t  m=l,2,3;  parameters  feed i n t a k e ,  pen with the  1  slat  t h  t  1=1,2;  feed  the growth s t a t u s of the progeny i n  s  cage from the  t l r i  ^  = m n  k=l,2;  coverage d u r i n g  the  m  k^  th  slat  breeder  age; J J = t h e o r e t i c a l p o p u l a t i o n mean, Rj_ = e f f e c t of the i p a r e n t a l pen, RPj_j = e f f e c t of the j i  t  parental  h  pen, M  =  k  t  h  t  h  progeny cage from the  e f f e c t of whether  slat  m a t e r i a l of  the p a r e n t a l pen was wood or p l a s t i c , C]_ = e f f e c t of whether slat  coverage of  (MC) ]_  = effect  k  effects; A  m  the  p a r e n t a l pen  of two-way  Elijki  =  of  (AMC) ] _ k  m  two-way  interaction  interactions  e f f e c t s and breeder  partial,  between the  main  the main e f f e c t s ,  breeder age, ( A M )  = e f f e c t of three-way  the s u b - p l o t  f u l l or  e r r o r term f o r t e s t i n g  = e f f e c t of a s p e c i f i c  effect  was  km  involving  and ( A C ) , = l m  breeder  age;  i n t e r a c t i o n between the main  age, E 2 ^ j ] _ n k  m  = error  e f f e c t s , HBWTj_j^i^n = the  term f o r t e s t i n g  covariate,  hatching  weight of progeny. In the  a n a l y s i s of  progeny,  the  material,  s l a t coverage  the six-week  independent  growth  variables  of  involved  and sex of progeny.  ijkln  = P  +  R  i  +  M  j  +  C  +  s  k  39  l  +  <MC)  + jk  were  slat  The f o l l o w i n g  s t a t i s t i c a l model was used: Y  56th week  (MS)ji  MATERIALS AND METHODS -  (CS)  and i=l,2.,,6; Y  ijkln  ^  =  s  o  n  e  k l  + (MCS)  j  k  l  °^  r e p l i c a t i o n , produced t h  Mj = e f f e c t of whether  parental whether (CS) ] _ = k  effects;  C  pen was sex of  kl  =  sex  Y  ijkin  i n the i - ^ 1  jth ] _ t m a t e r i a l S  a  p = t h e o r e t i c a l population  or  partial  progeny was male or  (MCS)j  t h  (body  mean,  s l a t m a t e r i a l of the p a r e n t a l pen was  full  e f f e c t s of  s l a t coverage of the  slat,  S]_  female;  = effect  (MC) j , k  two-way i n t e r a c t i o n s between the  between the main e f f e c t s ; The p d i f f  of the 1  = e f f e c t of whether  k  progeny  feed c o n v e r s i o n ) .  by breeders on the  s l a t coverage;  wood or p l a s t i c ,  ,  the growth parameters of  growth s t a t u s of progeny  and the k  i j k l n  j=l,2; k=l,2; 1=1,2; n=1,2,...,48; where  weight, weight gain, feed i n t a k e , i s the  + E  effect Ej_j ]_ k  procedure of  (1985) was used to evaluate means i n a l l ' of the above  n  of three-way  of  (MS) j]_,  the main  interaction  = random e r r o r .  the SAS General  Linear  Models  treatment d i f f e r e n c e s among the analyses.  40  5. The  i n f l u e n c e of s l a t m a t e r i a l and s l a t coverage on egg  production, f e r t i l i t y , m o r t a l i t y and will  RESULTS  be  growth of  presented.  fertility,  hatchability, 37th,  The  46th  37th,  the i n f l u e n c e of progeny w i l l  influence  breeder  of embryo  sex of progeny on the growth  age  on  mortality as w e l l as  of 56th week  l i k e w i s e be presented.  the i n c i d e n c e of f l o o r eggs,  weekly data, egg p r o d u c t i o n ,  cracked nest and cracked  eggs were analyzed on a biweekly  floor  basis (lay p e r i o d s ) .  THE INFLUENCE OF SLAT MATERIAL AND SLAT COVERAGE  5.1.1.  Egg Recovery  The  slat  material  significant for wood (PWS)  full plastic  o v e r - a l l egg  1  (FPS) s l a t pens, than FPS pens.  12, 13 and 14, PWS  16,  coverage  recovery  (Table 1 ) .  and FWS pens had During  had"higher  41  (FWS) or  higher egg  l a y p e r i o d s 5,  i n FWS  6, 7,  egg recovery  Except during l a y p e r i o d s  was higher  was  Partial  e i t h e r f u l l wood  and PPS pens h a d h i g h e r  FWS or FPS.  egg recovery  interaction  (PPS) s l a t pens  recovery r a t e than  recovery rate  than e i t h e r  x slat  and p a r t i a l p l a s t i c  o v e r - a l l egg  and  of  week progeny  46th and 56th week progeny,  Due to wide v a r i a t i o n s i n  10,  and 56th  hatchability, distribution  and growth of  5.1.  d i s t r i b u t i o n of embryo  pens than  12, 15 i n FPS  RESULTS pens.  The  replication  effect  was s i g n i f i c a n t  during l a y  p e r i o d s 2, 5 and 6.  5.1.2.  Incidence of F l o o r Eggs  Although  the i n c i d e n c e of f l o o r eggs d u r i n g l a y p e r i o d s  4, 9 and 15 was of f l o o r eggs 9, the  was not (Table 2 ) .  i n c i d e n c e of f l o o r  pens than PPS  i n f l u e n c e d by s l a t s , the o v e r - a l l  in  FWS pens.  pens had  a higher  During  eggs was  During  incidence  l a y p e r i o d s 4 and  higher i n PWS  lay period  p r o p o r t i o n of  15, PWS,  f l o o r eggs  and FPS FPS and than  FWS  pens. 5.1.3.  Incidence of Cracked  During  F l o o r Eggs  l a y p e r i o d s 10 and  f l o o r eggs was higher i n FPS During  lay  p e r i o d 14,  pens than i n PWS  FPS pens had  cracked f l o o r eggs than PWS,  5.1.4.  11, the i n c i d e n c e of cracked and PPS pens.  a higher  FPS and PPS pens  i n c i d e n c e of (Table 3 ) .  Incidence of Cracked Nest Eggs  The i n c i d e n c e  of cracked nest  eggs was higher  i n FWS  and FPS pens than i n PWS  and PPS pens d u r i n g l a y p e r i o d s 4,  8, 9  D i f f e r e n c e s were seen  and 11  (Table 4 ) .  two other l a y  periods; during l a y period  of cracked nest eggs was higher PWS pens; and,  i n FWS  12, the i n c i d e n c e  and FPS pens than i n  d u r i n g l a y p e r i o d 16, FPS pens  i n c i d e n c e of cracked  nest eggs than FWS,  42  only during  PWS  had a higher and PPS pens.  RESULTS The o v e r - a l l FWS and  i n c i d e n c e of c r a c k e d  FPS pens  reflected  n e s t eggs was  than i n PWS and PPS  higher i n  pens, and t h i s was  i n the higher o v e r - a l l incidence  of c r a c k e d  nest  eggs i n f u l l than p a r t i a l s l a t pens.  5.1.5.  P e r c e n t " S e t t a b l e " Eggs  When t h e number of non-cracked e s t i m a t e of p e r c e n t slat material (Table 5 ) . "settable"  x slat PWS  "settable"  n e s t eggs was used as an  eggs, i t was  coverage i n t e r a c t i o n  and PPS  pens had a h i g h e r  eggs than e i t h e r FWS  o r FPS pens.  found t h a t t h e was s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n ofAdditionally,  the p r o p o r t i o n was h i g h e r i n FWS pens than i n FPS pens .  43  RESULTS Table 1.  The I n f l u e n c e of S l a t s Recovery  on Egg  1  Breeder Lay Age P e r i o d (Weeks) 1 2* 3 4 5* 6* 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  Slat Type FWS  PWS  24-25 26-27 28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 36-37 38-39 40-41 42-43 44-45 46-47 48-49 50-51 52-53 54-55 Mean  9 .2 42 .2 66 .6 69 • 3 72 .0 70 .9 66 .6 65 .4 63 . l 59 .8 58 .7 55 .3 52 50 .4 47 . l 47 . l 56 .0  Mean Mean  58 .4 (Wood) 52 .7 ( F u l l )  x x  a  FPS  10 .0 45 .7 70 .4 75 .4 78 .8 76 .9 72 .5 69 a , b 68 .0 67 .3 63 .7 60 .8 57 .4 54 .6 53 .9 51 . 6 ' 61 . l a  a  a  a  a  b  b  a  a  b  a  b  a  b  > 9  b  a  b  a  a  a  b  a  a  b  a  b  b  a  a  a a  b  Standard Error of the Mean  2  PPS  6.1 33. 5 55. 3 60.8 62.3° 61.4 59.5 59.0 56.l 53.5 52. 2 50.2 47 .7 46.0 44.7 43.7 49. 5 b  b  b  C  C  C  C  c  C  a  b  b  C  a  b  C  9.9 44.9 67. 3 71.6 ' 77.5 76.8 73. 6 70. 9 66.8 ' 65.4 •64. 4 62. 5 60. 6 57 . 5 53. 2 54. 0 61. l a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a a a  a a a a  55.2 (Plastic) 60. 9 ( P a r t i a l )  a  b  D  a  b  a  b  1 .00 1 .15 2 .05 i .67 l .33 l .21 l .50 l .64 l .38 l .58 2 . 17 1 .76 1 .59 1 .38 •1 .84 1 .65 1 .20 0 .84 0 .84  Percent hen-day egg r e c o v e r y . FWS = f u l l wood s l a t s ; PWS = p a r t i a l wood s l a t s ; FPS = f u l l p l a s t i c s l a t s ; PPS = p a r t i a l p l a s t i c slats. Values f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a l i n e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05). S l a t m a t e r i a l x s l a t coverage i n t e r a c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t (P<0.05). S i g n i f i c a n t r e p l i c a t i o n e f f e c t (P<0.05).  44  RESULTS  T a b l e 2. The I n f l u e n c e of S l a t s on t h e Incidence o f F l o o r Eggs 1  Breeder Lay Age P e r i o d (Weeks) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  24-25 26-27 28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 36-37 38-39 40-41 42-43 44-45 46-47 48-49 50-51 52-53 54-55 Mean Mean Mean  S l a t Type FWS  PWS  10. 8 6.0 4 .3 2.4 3.4 3.2 2.2 2.6 2.8 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 1.9 1 .3 2.4 3.2 a  13.2 9.6 7.3 5.9 6.8 6.5 5.4 5.0 5.3 4.9 4.6 2 .9 4. l 3.2 3.0 4. l 5.7 a  a  a  b  a  a  a  a a  a  b  a  a  a  4 .4 (Wood) 4 .3 (Full)  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  5.1 ( P l a s t i c ) 5.2 (Partial)  a  a  a  a  b  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  b  a  a  a  a  a  6.6 6.8 5.8 4.7 ' 4.6 4.8 5.0 4 .7 4.7 ' 4.7 4 .5 3.8 4. l 3.2 4.l 4.8 4 .8  a  a  a  8.0 6.9 5.5 4.9 7.5 7 ,3 6.4 5.8 6.4 5.1 4 .0 3.6 4.3 2.4 4 .2 3.7 5.4 a  a  a  PPS  a  a  a  ' FPS a  a  Standard Error of the Mean  2  b  3.11 1.43 1.02 0.92 1.05 1.05 0.95 0.90 0.86 0.93 1.07 0.75 0.99 0.62 0.67 1.00 0.77 0.54 0.54  F l o o r eggs as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l egg p r o d u c t i o n f o r a given l a y period. FWS = f u l l wood s l a t s ; PWS = p a r t i a l wood s l a t s ; FPS = f u l l p l a s t i c s l a t s ; PPS = p a r t i a l p l a s t i c s l a t s . V a l u e s f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a l i n e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05).  45  RESULTS Table 3. The I n f l u e n c e of S l a t s on the I n c i d e n c e of Cracked F l o o r Eggs 1  Lay Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  Breeder Age (Weeks)  Slat FWS  PWS  Mean  16.7 17.8 13.3 22.6 20 . l 15.5 30.5 24 .4 15.8 16.8 ' 16.2 ' 19.3 13.2 14 .8 35.2 26.l 19.9  Mean Mean  16.6 (Wood) 21.8 (Full)  24-25 26-27 28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 36-37 38-39 40-41 42-43 44-45 46-47 48-49 50-51 52-53 54-55  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  b  a  b  a  b  a  a  a  a b b a  a  a  b  a  a  1.6 24.3 . 17.l 14.2 14 .4 13.2 13. 0 5.3 11.3 10.2 3.8 5.6 16.l 12. 4 13.9 10.7 11.7 a  a  a a  a  a  a  a  a a a a  a  a  3  a  a  a  a  a  13.9 20.5 22. l 18.9 27. 5 20. 3 18.0 23. 2 27.l 27.l 20.2 24.4 17.9 40.5 37.l 21. 0 23. 7 a  a  a  PPS  a  a  a  a  a  16.7 18. l 15.l 9.6 14.0 9.8 16.4 18.8 12. l 7.8 1.3 21. 3 15.l 12. 6 13. 8 8.5 13.2  Standard Error of the Mean  2  FPS  a  a  Type  a  a  b  b  a  a  a  a a a  b  a  a  a  17.7 (Plastic) 12. 4 ( P a r t i a l )  a  a  a  a  a  6.90 4..52 3.99 5.31 5.35 3.61 5.13 6.73 4.55 3.26 4.84 6.90 5.87 6.85 9.90 7.85 2.76 2.01 2.18  Cracked eggs on the f l o o r as a percentage of the number of f l o o r eggs f o r a given l a y p e r i o d . FWS = f u l l wood s l a t s ; PWS = p a r t i a l wood s l a t s ; FPS = f u l l p l a s t i c s l a t s ; PPS = p a r t i a l p l a s t i c s l a t s . Values f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a l i n e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05).  46  RESULTS Table 4. The Influence of S l a t s on the I n c i d e n c e of Cracked Nest Eggs 1  Lay Period 1 2 3 .4 5 6 7 8 9 10. 11 . 12* 13 14 15 16  Breeder Age (Weeks)  FWS  24-25 26-27 28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 36-37 38-39 40-41 42-43 44-45 46-47 48-49 50-51 52-53 54-55 Mean  0 .8 . I .4 1. l 1 .5 1 .8 1. l 1 .5 1 .6 2. l 2 .2 1 .8 1 .5 2. l 1 .9 3 .3 1 .9 1 .7  Mean Mean  Slat Type ; ; PWS FPS 2  a a  0 .2 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.8 1. l 1.6 2.0 1.5 0.9  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  b  a a  a  a  a  a  b  a  b  a a  a  a  a  a  a  b  b  a  b  a  a  b  b  a  a a  a  a  •S  1 .3 (Wood) 1 . 8 (Full)  a  a  a  a  0.3 1.0 0.2 0.7 0.9 0.8 0 .7 0.8 0.8 1. 0 1.0 1.0 ' 1 .0 1.5 2.3 2.0 1 .0 a  a  a  a  a  a  b  a  0 .9 1 .4 1. l 1 .5 2• 0 1 .6 1 .8 2 -2 1 .9 1 .5 2 .3 2 .2 1 .9 2 .5 2 .8 3 .2 1 .9  a  a  a  0  PPS  a  a  a  b  b  a  b  a  a  a  a  b  1 5 (Plastic) 1 .0 ( P a r t i a l )  a  a  b  b  b  Standard Error f the Mean 0 .50 0 .20 0 .23 0 .22 0 .26 0 .30 0 .36 0 .23 0 .19 0 .26 0 .22 0 .29 0 .32 0 . 45 0 .56 0 .34 0 .13 0 .09 0 .09  Cracked eggs i n the nest as a p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l number of eggs i n the nest. FWS = f u l l wood s l a t s ; PWS = p a r t i a l wood s l a t s ; FPS = f u l l p l a s t i c s l a t s ; PPS = p a r t i a l p l a s t i c s l a t s . Values f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a l i n e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05). S i g n i f i c a n t r e p l i c a t i o n e f f e c t (P<0.05).  47  RESULTS Table 5.  Percent S e t t a b l e Eggs-  Variable Slat Type FWS PWS FPS PPS SEM  3  53. 4 57 .2 45.9 57.5 1.16  b  a  C  a  4  Slat Material Wood Plastic SEM  x  Slat Coverage Full Partial SEM  x  (5300) (5786) (4622) (5779) (150.7) 2  (5543) 55 3 51 ,7 (5200) (106.5) 0 .82 a  b  4  4  The I n f l u e n c e of S l a t s on the S e t t a b i l i t y of Eggs  49 b (4961) (5782) 57 3 (106.5) 0 ,82 7  a  The number of non-cracked nest eggs as a p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l number of eggs i n the nest and on the floor. Values i n parentheses are the cumulative number of non-cracked nest eggs from 24 t o 56 weeks of breeder age. FWS = f u l l wood s l a t s ; PWS = p a r t i a l wood s l a t s ; FPS = f u l l p l a s t i c s l a t s ; PPS = p a r t i a l p l a s t i c slats. Standard e r r o r of the mean. Values f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a column and w i t h i n a v a r i a b l e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05). S l a t m a t e r i a l x s l a t coverage i n t e r a c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t (P<0.05).  48 '  RESULTS  5.1.6.  Fertility,  Hatchability  Hatchability Table  6  hatchability  of F e r t i l e  shows t h a t of  of T o t a l  total  slats  Eggs Set (TES) and  Eggs (FES)  did  eggs s e t  not  influence  (TES) and  hatchability  fertile  eggs  5.1.7.  Temporal D i s t r i b u t i o n of Embryo M o r t a l i t y  Except material  and  distribution slat  of  (FES).  for  the  slat of  breeders,  breeders,  fertility,  incidence  coverage  of  d i d not  embryo m o r t a l i t y as  opposed  had a h i g h e r  e a r l y dead  (Table  to  incidence  49  influence  eggs of  7). from  e a r l y dead  embryos, the  slat  temporal  Eggs from wood plastic (ED)  slat  embryos.  RESULTS Table 6. The I n f l u e n c e of S l a t s on Percent F e r t i l i t y and H a t c h a b i l i t y  Fertility  Hatchability of T o t a l Eggs Set (TES)  Hatchability of F e r t i l e Eggs (FES)  S l a t Type FWS PWS FPS PPS SEM  90.8 94.4 93.9 91.0 0.91  67.6 71.8 67. 8 69.9 1.35  73.9 75. 8 72.l 76.3 1.25  Slat Material Wood Plastic SEM  92. 6 92.5 0.74  69.7 68 .9 1 .04  74.8 74.2 0.92  S l a t Coverage Full Partial SEM  92.3 92 . 7 0.74  67 .7 70.9 1.04  73.0 76. 0 0.92  Variable  1  1  1  1 2 a, b  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  Standard e r r o r of the mean. FWS = f u l l wood s l a t s ; PWS = p a r t i a l wood s l a t s ; FPS = f u l l p l a s t i c s l a t s ; PPS = p a r t i a l p l a s t i c - s l a t s . Means f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a column and w i t h i n a v a r i a b l e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05).  50  RESULTS Table 7.' The I n f l u e n c e of S l a t s on t h e Temporal D i s t r i b u t i o n of Embryo Mortality Embryo M o r t a l i t y ' 1  Variable S l a t Type FWS PWS FPS PPS SEM 4  ED  MD  6. , 9 6. , l 5. . 2 5. . 2 0, .50  0. 0. 0. 0. o.  a  a  a  a  .at M a t e r i a l Wood 6 .5 Plastic 5.. 2 SEM 0..35 a  a  1 2 3 4  a, b  a  7.8 7 .5 10.3 7.6 0.79  a  7.6 6.8 0.44  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  1. , 2 •1., 3 1. ,4 1.. 2 0,.21  a  a  a  6.8 7.6 0.44  0.7 0.6 0.13  PD  a  a  a  a  S l a t Coverage Full 6.0 Partial5.7 SEM • 0.35  6.7 6.9 8.4 6.7 0.62 a  a  a  4  PA  a  a  0.7 0.6 0 .13  a  b  4  6 8 8 3 18  LD  a  7.6 9.0 0.56 a  9.0 7. 6 0.56 a  a  1.3 1.3 0 .15 a  a  '  a  1.3 1. 3 0.15 a  a  Values r e p r e s e n t p e r c e n t m o r t a l i t y of t o t a l eggs s e t . ED = e a r l y dead; MD = mid-dead; LD = l a t e dead; PA = pipped a l i v e ; PD = p i p p e d dead. FWS = f u l l wood s l a t s ; PWS = p a r t i a l wood s l a t s ; FPS = f u l l p l a s t i c s l a t s ; PPS = p a r t i a l p l a s t i c s l a t s . Standard e r r o r of the mean. Means f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a column and w i t h i n a v a r i a b l e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05).  51  RESULTS 5.1.8.' Growth, from Hatch t o Three Weeks o f Age, o f 37th, 46th and 56th Week Progeny The progeny  weekly body was not  weight of  affected  by the  coverage i n the p a r e n t a l pens The  first  37th, 46th slat  (Table  week weight g a i n  and 56th  week  m a t e r i a l and  slat  8).  (BWT'GN-1) of FWS,  PPS progeny was higher than t h a t of FPS progeny. gain of progeny d u r i n g the  PWS and  The weight  r e s t of the three-week study was  not a f f e c t e d by s l a t s . PWS  progeny had  higher f e e d  intake d u r i n g  week ( F I - 1 ) , as w e l l as higher t o t a l feed i n t a k e the other three progeny groups. and  PWS progeny  progeny.  had higher  During  e f f e c t i n the second week  (C-FI) than  the second week, FWS  feed intake  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t  the f i r s t  than FPS  and PPS  p a r e n t a l pen r e p l i c a t i o n  and o v e r - a l l feed i n t a k e and feed  conversion. D e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n weight gain significant differences all  feed conversion  and feed i n t a k e , no  were found i n the  weekly and over-  of the d i f f e r e n t progeny groups.  52  T a b l e 8. The I n f l u e n c e o f B r e e d e r S l a t s on Body Weight, Body Weight G a i n , Feed I n t a k e and Feed C o n v e r s i o n , from Hatch t o Three Weeks o f Age, o f 37th, 46th and 56th Week Progeny  Slat FWS  PWS  Body w e i g h t ( g ) 3. H-BWT 47 , BWT-1 154 . 370, BWT-2 674 , BWT-3 Body w e i g h t BWTGN-1 BWTGN-2 BWTGN-3 C-BWTGN  Type  FPS  PPS  47 . 2 156.5' 376. 5* 688 . 8^  47.2 148 . 6' 363 .7' 662 . 0'  47 . 2 153.9 365.8 668.5  109.3' 220 . 0' 312.3 641. 6'  101.4" 215.l 298.3 614.8  106.7  C  gain(g) : 106 . 6' 216.7 303 . 7' 627 . 0'  Standard Error of t h e Mean  1 , 2  C  a  a  a  a  0.20 1.40 3 .31 7 . 67  4  J  Feed i n t a k e ( g ) : 125 r x-x 299 FI-2' 483 C-FI' 908  a  c  e  a  a  211.9 302.7 621.3  1, 34 2 ,54 6,54 7 63  a  a a a  5  .2 .9 .5 . 6*  3 4 5 6  307.6 497 . 8 935.2 a  £  Feed c o n v e r s i o n : FC-1 1.17 FC-2* 1.38 FC-3 1.59 C-FC* 1.45 1 2  123 . 0* 296.6 484 . 0' 903 . 6*  129.8*  A  C  1  a  a  a a a a  1.19 1.40 1.59 1.46  a a a a  1.21' 1. 38' 1. 62' 1.47'  12 6 . 8r 297.2°  481.2 905.2~ a  1. 19' 1.40' 1. 59 1.46' J  1, 44 2 ,86 17 63 0.013 0.012 0.033 0 . 014  Each r e p l i c a t e was a cage o f t e n b i r d s . FWS = f u l l wood s l a t s ; PWS' = p a r t i a l wood s l a t s ; FPS = f u l l p l a s t i c s l a t s ; PPS = p a r t i a l p l a s t i c s l a t s . H-BWT, BWT-1, BWT-2 and BWT-3 a r e body w e i g h t a t h a t c h and a t t h e end o f Weeks 1, 2 and 3, r e s p e c t i v e l y . (BWTGN-1) = (BWT-1)-(H-BWT); BWTGN-2 = (BWT-2)-(BWT-1); (BWTGN-3) = (BWT-3)-(BWT-2); C-BWTGN = (BWT-3)-(H-BWT). F I - 1 , F I - 2 , FI-3 a r e f e e d i n t a k e d u r i n g Weeks 1, 2 and 3, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; (C-FI) = ( F I - 1 ) + ( F I - 2 ) + ( F I - 3 ) . (FC-1) = (FI-1)/(BWTGN-1); (FC-2) = (FI-2)/(BWTGN-2);  53  (FC-3) = (FI-3)/(BWTGN-3); (C-FC) = (C-FI)/(C-BWTGN). V a l u e s f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a l i n e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05). S i g n i f i c a n t r e p l i c a t i o n e f f e c t (P<0.05).  54  RESULTS 5.1.9.  Growth, from Hatch t o S i x Weeks of Age, of 5 6 t h Week Progeny  Parental influence  slat  the body  progeny a t  material weight  any time d u r i n g  and  slat  and feed  coverage  intake  d i d not  of 56th  the 6-week growth  trial  week (Table  9) . The t h i r d  week body weight  gain  (BWTGN-3) of  FPS progeny was higher than t h a t of PPS progeny. sixth  week, FWS and PWS  PWS and  During the  progeny had higher weight g a i n than  FPS and PPS progeny. FPS progeny had h i g h e r s i x t h 6)  than  the  other  three  week feed conversion (FC-  progeny  groups.  d i f f e r e n c e s i n feed c o n v e r s i o n were seen.  55  No  other  RESULTS Table 9. The I n f l u e n c e of S l a t s on Body Weight, Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake and Feed Conversion, from Hatch t o S i x Weeks of Age, of 56th Week Progeny  Slat T y p e ' ' , PWS FPS 1  FWS Body weight(g) H-BWT 50. 2 BWT-1 152. 0 BWT-2 371 . 0 BWT-3 699. 5 BWT-5 .1488 . 8 BWT-6 1881 . 8 Body weight gain(g) 5. BWTGN-1 101'. 8 BWTGN-2 219. 0 BWTGN-3 328 . a , b BWTGN-5 789 . 3 BWTGN-6 393. 0 C-BWTGN 1831 . 6 Feed i n t a k e ( g ) : FI-1 114 . 7 FI-2 292. 2 FI-3 490 . 5 FI-5 1697 . 3 FI-6 1101. 8 C-FI 3696 .5 Feed conver sion"^ : FC-1 1 .1 3 FC-2 1 .3 3 FC-3 1 .4 9 FC-5 2 .1 5 FC-6 2. 8 0 C-FC 2. 0 2  50 157 373 709 1524 1908  a  a a  a  a  a  a  a  5  a  a  a  b  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  b  a  1  .6 .9 .4 .9 .4 .7  107 .3 215 .5 336 .5 814 .5 384 .4 1858 .2 126 298 510 1720 1045 3701  .4 .7 .3 .4 .8 .6  a a a a a a  a a a a a a  a a a a a a  1 . 18 1 .39 1 .52 2. l l 2 .72 1 .99 a  a  a  b  a  a  2  50 153 364 699 1496 1838  .0 .4 .5 .3 .4 .4  103 211 334 797 342 1788  .4 .l .9 .l .0 .5  a  115 292 493 1651 1058 3610  .2 .3 .0 .2 .6 .3  a  Standard Error of the Mean  3  PPS  .8 .0 .2 .8 .2 .4  a  104 .2 219 .3 316 .6 808 .4 37 6 .2 1824 •7  a  49 154 373 689 1498 1874  a a a a a a  a a  a b a  a a a a  2 .57 3 .47 5 .40 14 .90 14 .53 • 27 .54  a b a b a  115 • 5 291 .4 481 -8 1714 .7 1031 • 8 3635 .2  a  0 .44 2 .56 4.24 7 .14 17 .76 27 .54  a  3 .26 3 .30 7 .74 28 .92 29 .49 59 .13  a  a  a  a  a  a  a a  a  a  1. l l 1 .38 1 . 47 2 . 07 3 . 10 2 .02 a  a  1. l l 1 .33 •1 .52 2 . 12 2 .74 1 . 99 a  a  a  a a a  a  a  b  a  0 .043 0 .019 0 .019 0 .030 0 .136 0 .020  The range of weight of hatching eggs was 66-78 grams. Each p a r e n t a l s l a t type was r e p r e s e n t e d by 6 cages of 10 male and s i x cages of 10 female c h i c k s from hatch t o three weeks of age. From the f o u r t h t o the s i x t h week, the number of b i r d s per cage was reduced t o 7. FWS = f u l l wood s l a t s ; PWS = p a r t i a l wood s l a t s ; FPS = f u l l p l a s t i c s l a t s ; PPS = p a r t i a l p l a s t i c s l a t s . H-BWT, BWT-1, BWT-2, BWT-3, BWT-5 and BWT-6 are body weight a t hatch and a t the end of Weeks 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, r e s p e c t i v e l y . (BWTGN-1) = (BWT-1)-(H-BWT); (BWTGN-2) = (BWT-2)-  56  RESULTS (BWT-1); (BWTGN-3) = (BWT-3)-(BWT-2); (BWTGN-5) = (BWT-5)-(BWT-3); (BWTGN-6) = (BWT-6)- (BWT-5); (C-BWTGN) = (BWT-6)-(H-BWT). FI-1, FI-2, FI-3, FI-5 and FI-6 are f e e d . i n t a k e d u r i n g Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, and 6, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; (C-FI) = (FI-1) + (FI-2) + (FI-3) + (FI-5) + (FI-6) . (FC-1) = (FI-1)/(BWTGN-1); (FC-2) = (FI-2)/(BWTGN-2); (FC-3) = (FI-3)/(BWTGN-3); (FC-5) = (FI-5) /(BWTGN-5) ; (CFC-6) = (FI-6)/(BWTGN-6); (C-FC) = (C-FI)/(C-BWTGN). Values f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a l i n e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05) .  57  RESULTS 5.2.  THE INFLUENCE OF BREEDER AGE  5.2.1.  Fertility,  H a t c h a b i l i t y of T o t a l Eggs Set (TES) and  H a t c h a b i l i t y of F e r t i l e Eggs (FES) Table when  10 shows  breeders  were  s i g n i f i c a n t decrease breeder age.  that f e r t i l i t y 37,  42  and  in fertility  A further,  was high 46  weeks  was  (94.8-96.7%) of  age.  seen a t 50  decrease i n f e r t i l i t y  A  weeks of  o c c u r r e d when  breeders were 56 weeks o l d . The h a t c h a b i l i t y of t o t a l by the  breeder age x  slat material  s l a t m a t e r i a l x s l a t coverage h a t c h a b i l i t y of f e r t i l e of breeder  age.  eggs s e t (TES) was i n f l u e n c e d and the breeder  interactions  (Table 10). The  eggs (FES) was h i g h e s t  FES decreased  a t 42  a t 37 weeks  weeks, and  decrease again u n t i l 56 weeks of breeder age.  58  age x  d i d not  RESULTS Table 10. Percent F e r t i l i t y and H a t c h a b i l i t y of Eggs a t D i f f e r e n t Breeder A g e s 1  Breeder Age (Weeks)  x  96.7  a  42  94.8  a  46  95.4  a  70.8  50  89.4  b  56  86. 3  C  2  1  2  a,b,c,d  y  Fertility  37  SEM  x  Hatchability Hatchability of F e r t i l e of T o t a l Eggs(FES) Eggs S e t ( T E S ) ' y . 86.6 70. 5  1.17  a  89.7  a  74. l  b  b  74 ,3  b  65. 2  C  73. 0  b  53.3  d  61.5  b  1.50  C  1.39  Mean egg weight was 68.1, 68.6, 70.6 and 71.8 g a t 42, 46, 50 and 56 weeks of breeder age, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; egg weight a t 37 weeks of age was unknown. Standard e r r o r of the mean. v a l u e s f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a column are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05). Breeder age x s l a t m a t e r i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t (P<0.05). Breeder age x s l a t m a t e r i a l x s l a t coverage i n t e r a c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t (P<0.05).  59  RESULTS  5.2.2.  Temporal D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Embryo M o r t a l i t y  The i n c i d e n c e embryos both  of e a r l y  dead  (ED)  increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y  time when  breeders were  weeks of  breeder age, ED  37 weeks  and l a t e  dead (LD)  at 42 weeks  o l d (Table  and LD embryos  from the  11).  At 56  increased further  over the 50th week i n c i d e n c e . The i n c i d e n c e of pipped a l i v e embryos i n c r e a s e d  a t 42 weeks  (PA) and pipped dead (PD)  of breeder age, and  d i d not  increase further. The  incidence  of MD  embryos  breeder age.  60  was  not i n f l u e n c e d  by  RESULTS Table 11. The I n f l u e n c e of Breeder Age on the D i s t r i b u t i o n of Embryo M o r t a l i t y Breeder Age (Weeks)  Embryo M o r t a l i t y ,2,3 1  MD  ED  LD  37  2.9  C  0.4  42  4.9  b  l.l  46  6.4  b  0.5  50  6.2  b  56  8.9  SEM  4  a  0.56  PA  PD  a  2.4  C  3.9  b  0.4  a  6.2  b  10. 3  a  1.7  a  a  7.9  b  8.5  a  1.2  a  0.5  a  7.8  b  8.1  a  1.6  a  0.5  a  1.6  a  11 .5  0.21  a  0.69  10.6  a  0.88  •  b  0.23  Mean egg weight was 68.1, 68.6, 70.6 and 71.8 g a t 42, 46, 50 and 56 weeks of breeder age, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; egg weight was not taken a t 37 weeks of age. Values r e p r e s e n t percent m o r t a l i t y of t o t a l eggs ED = E a r l y dead; MD = Mid-dead; LD = Late dead; PA = Pipped a l i v e ; PD = Pipped dead. Standard e r r o r of the mean. Values f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a column are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05).  61  RESULTS  5.2.3.  Growth, from Hatch t o Three Weeks o f Age, o f 37th, 46th and 56th Week Progeny  The weight  56th week  progeny had  (H-BWT), f o l l o w e d by the  week progeny had the lowest  the h i g h e s t  46th week progeny;  h a t c h i n g weight  other s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the gain  of progeny  were found  h a t c h i n g body the 37th  (Table 12) .  No  body weight and weight  except where  the BWTGN-1  was  higher f o r the 37th week progeny. The second  37th week  progeny had  (FI-2) week and o v e r - a l l  higher f i r s t feed i n t a k e  week  (FI-1),  (C-FI) than the  other two progeny groups.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , the f i r s t week feed  intake  week progeny was h i g h e r than t h a t  of the  (FI-1) of the 46th  56th  week progeny.  56th week  The o v e r - a l l  progeny was  (C-FI) feed  h i g h e r than  t h a t of  intake of 46th week  progeny. The 37th  week progeny  had h i g h e r weekly  and o v e r - a l l  feed c o n v e r s i o n than the other two progeny groups. week progeny  had h i g h e r  f i r s t week feed  than the 56th week progeny.  The 46th  c o n v e r s i o n (FC-1)  The second week feed c o n v e r s i o n  (FC-2) of the 56th week progeny was h i g h e r than t h a t of 46th week progeny.  There were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n  (FC-3) and o v e r - a l l  the t h i r d week  (C-FC) feed c o n v e r s i o n of  the 46th and  56th progeny. Table 13 (H-BWT)  to  shows t h a t the adjustment 47.2  grams  resulted  62  in  of h a t c h i n g weight the  elimination  of  RESULTS d i f f e r e n c e s i n second (FC-2) and  t h i r d week f e e d  (FC-3) seen i n T a b l e 12, as w e l l as t h e o v e r - a l l feed i n t a k e  (C-FI).  63  conversion  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  RESULTS Table 12. The I n f l u e n c e of Breeder Age on Body Weight, Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake And Feed Conversion, from Hatch to Three Weeks of Age, of 37th, 46th and 56th Week Progeny 1  Breeder Age 37,  (Weeks)  46  Body w e i g h t ( g ) : H-BWT 43 .7 BWT-1 154 .0 367 .5 BWT-2 663 .2 BWT-3 Body weight gain(g) 4 . BWTGN-1 110 .3 BWTGN-2 213 .5 BWTGN-3 295 .7 C-BWTGN 619 .5 Feed i n t a k e (g) ->: FI-1 141 .3 FI-2* 316 .4 508 . l FI-3 C-FI* 963 .6 Feed c o n v e r s i o n " : 1 .27 FC-1 •k 1 .49 FC-2 1 ,75 FC-3 1 .56 C-FC*  Standard Error of the Mean  2  56  J  C  a  a  a  a  a a a  a  a  a  a  1  47 151 371 666  .8 .2 .0 .5  b  103 219 295 618  .4 .8 .5 .7  b  121 291 457 869  .5 .0 .8 .9  a a a  a a a  C  b  a  b  a  104 214 321 641  .3 .8 .9 .0  0.20 1.20 2.77 6.44  a a a a  1.21 2.19 5.48 6.42  b a a a  1.28 2.47 4.42 6.19  C b  •i  a  b  a  .3 .6 .4 .3  115 .8 293 . 7 493 9 903 .4  b b  1 .18 1 .32° 1 .55 1 .41  a  50 154 369 691  b  1. l l 1 .37 1 .54 1 .41  c b b b  0.012 0.011 0.028 0.012  Mean egg weight was 68.6 g and 71.8 g 46 and 56 week; of breeder age, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; egg weight was not taken a t 37 weeks of age. Each p a r e n t a l s l a t type was r e p r e s e n t e d by 12 cages of 10 c h i c k s . For the 56th week growth t r i a l , each p a r e n t a l s l a t type was r e p r e s e n t e d by 6 cages of 10 male and 6 cages of 10 female c h i c k s . H-BWT, BWT-1, BWT-2 and BWT-3 are body weight at hatch, and at the end of Weeks 1, 2 and 3 , respectively (BWTGN-1) = (BWT-1)-(H-BWT); (BWTGN-2) = (BWT-2)(BWT-1); (BWTGN-3) = (BWT-3)-(BWT-2); (C-BWTGN) = (BWT-3)-(H-BWT). FI-1, FI-2, F I - 3 are f e e d i n t a k e d u r i n g Weeks 1, 2 and 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ; (C-FI) = ( F I - 1 ) + ( F I - 2 ) + ( F I - 3 ) . (FC-1) = (FI-1)/(BWTGN-1); (FC-2) = (FI-2)/(BWTGN-2); (FC-3) = (FI-3)/(BWTGN-3); (C-FC) = (C-FI)/(C-BWTGN). Values f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a l i n e  64  RESULTS are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05). S i g n i f i c a n t r e p l i c a t i o n e f f e c t (P<0.05).  RESULTS Table 13. The I n f l u e n c e of Breeder Age on Body Weight, Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake And Feed Conversion, from Hatch to Three Weeks of Age, of 37th, 46th and 56th Week Progeny, with Adjusted Hatching Weight 1  Breeder Age 37  (Weeks)  Mean  56  46  Body w e i g h t ( g ) : H-BWT 47. 2 BWT-1 158. l BWT-2 376. 0 BWT-3 686. 9 Body weight gain(g) 4 . BWTGN-1 110. 8 BWTGN-2 217. 9 BWTGN-3 310. a C-BWTGN 639. 6 Feed i n t a k e ( g ) ^ : FI-1 146. 0 327 . 0 FI-2* FI-3 515. 0 C-FI* 987. 0 Feed c o n v e r s i o n " : FC-1 1. 3 0 1. 5 0 FC-2* 1. 6 9 FC-3 1. 5 5 C-FC*  Standard Error  2  3  47 .2 150.6 369.7 663.0  a  a  a  a  a  b  a  9  a  120.9 289.5 456.9 867.0  a  a  a  a  6  a  103.4 219.l 293. 3 615.8  a  5  a  a a  a a a  2 l 9 8  103. 210. 308. 623.  8 8 8 5  2.46 5.86 13.51  a a a  2.46 4.53 11.63 13.51  b a a a  112. l 284 . b 488. 2 884. 6  2.52 5.03 9.10 12 .75  c  b b  7  a  b b  1.18 1.32 1.59 1.41  a  47. 151. 361. 670.  b  b b a b  1. 0 9 1 .3 6 1. 5 9 1. 4 2  c b a b  0.024 0.010 0.058 .0 .012  Mean egg weight was 68.6 g and 71.8 g 46 and 56 weeks of breeder age, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; egg weight was not taken at 37 weeks of age. Each p a r e n t a l s l a t type was r e p r e s e n t e d by 12 cages of 10 c h i c k s . For the 56th week growth t r i a l , each p a r e n t a l s l a t type was r e p r e s e n t e d by 6 cages of 10 male and 6 cages of 10 female c h i c k s . H-BWT, BWT-1, BWT-2 and BWT-3 are. body weight at hatch, and a t the end of Weeks 1, 2 and 3, respectively (BWTGN-1) = (BWT-1)-(H-BWT); (BWTGN-2) = (BWT-2)(BWT-1); (BWTGN-3) = (BWT-3)-(BWT-2); (C-BWTGN) = (BWT-3)-(H-BWT). FI-1, FI-2, FI-3 are f e e d i n t a k e d u r i n g Weeks 1, 2 and 3, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; (C-FI) = (FI-1)+(FI-2)+(FI-3). (FC-1) = (FI-1)/(BWTGN-1); (FC-2) = (FI-2) /(BWTGN-2); (FC-3) = (FI-3) /(BWTGN-3); (C-FC) = (C-FI)/(C-BWTGN) .  66  RESULTS  a,b,c  v a l u e s f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a l i n e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05)..  67  RESULTS 5.3.  THE INFLUENCE OF SEX OF PROGENY ON GROWTH  5.3.1.  Growth, from Hatch t o S i x Weeks o f Age, o f 56th Week Progeny  From t h r e e  to  six  w e e k l y body w e i g h t , 14).  weeks o f  age,  body w e i g h t  Additionally,  male p r o g e n y  male p r o g e n y had h i g h e r  g a i n and  feed  intake  had h i g h e r o v e r - a l l  Table weight  g a i n and f e e d  i n t a k e than female progeny.  The s e c o n d week  body  (BWT-2)  (BWTGN-2)  weight  influenced material  by  and s l a t  male  conversion the  six-week  between  gain sex  of  were  progeny,  slat  coverage.  progeny. of  weight  an i n t e r a c t i o n  Female p r o g e n y than  and  had h i g h e r No o t h e r  male and f e m a l e growth  t h i r d week  trial.  68  differences  progeny  feed in  conversion the  were d e t e c t e d  feed during  RESULTS Table 14. Body Weight, Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake and Feed Conversion, from Hatch to Six Weeks of Age, of Male and Female Progeny of 56-Week O l d Breeders 1  Sex of Progeny Male  Standard Error of the Mean  2  Female -  Body w e i g h t ( g ) ^ : H-BWT 50 . 0 0.31 50.3 BWT-1 • 155.3 153.6 1.81 3.00 BWT-2^ 378.5 362.6 731.6 667.6 5.05 BWT-3 1569..4 1434.5 12.56 BWT-5 19.47 BWT-6 1970 .2 1781 .4 Body weight g a i n ( g ) : BWTGN-1 1.82 105.0 103.3 2.45 BWTGN-2^ 223.2 209.0 3.82 .305.0 BWTGN-3 353. l 10.53 . 837 .8 766. 9 BWTGN-5 10 .27 BWTGN-6 400.8 347.0 .19.47 C-BWTGN • 1731 .4 1919. 9 Feed i n t a k e ( g ) ^ : 2.30 116.8 119.0 FI-1 2 .33 FI-2 298.4 288 .9 507 . 4 5.48 480 .3 FI-3 20.45 FI-5 1763.8 1627.9 20 .85 1111 . l FI-6 1008.0 3524 . l . 41.81 CF-I 3797.5 Feed c o n v e r s i o n " : FC-1 l.ll . 1.15 0.031 FC-2' 1.34 1.38 0.013 FC-3 1.44 1.57 0.013 FC-5 2.11 2.12 0.020 FC-6 2.77 2.90 0.096 C-FC 1.98 2.04 0.014 1 The range of weight of h a t c h i n g eggs was 66-78 grams. 2 Each p a r e n t a l s l a t type was r e p r e s e n t e d by 6 cages of 10 male and s i x cages of 10 female c h i c k s from hatch to t h r e e weeks of age. From the f o u r t h t o t h e . s i x t h week, the number of b i r d s per cage was reduced t o 7. 3 H-BWT, BWT-1, BWT-2, BWT-3, BWT-5 and BWT-6 are body weight a t hatch and a t the end of Weeks 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 4 (BWTGN-1) = (BWT-1)-(H-BWT); (BWTGN-2) = (BWT-2)(BWT-1); (BWTGN-3) = (BWT-3)-(BWT-2); (BWTGN-5) = a  a  a  a  a  b  a  b  3  b  a  b  a  a  4  a  b  b  a  a  b  a  b  b  a  a  a  a  a  a  b  a  b  a  b  b  a  a  a  a  a  b  a  a  a  a  a  a  a  69  RESULTS  5  6  a  y  ,  b  (BWT-5)-(BWT-3); (BWTGN-6) = (BWT-6)- (BWT-5); (C-BWTGN) = (BWT-6)-(H-BWT). FI-1, FI-2, FI-3, FI-5 and FI-6 a r e feed i n t a k e d u r i n g Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, and 6, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; (C-FI) = (FI-1) + (FI-2) + (FI-3) + (FI-5) + (FI-6) . (FC-1) .= (FI-1) / (BWTGN-1) ; (FC-2) = (FI-2)/(BWTGN-2); (FC-3) = (FI-3) /(BWTGN-3); (FC-5) = (FI-5) /(BWTGN-5) ; (FC-6) = (FI-6)/(BWTGN-6); (C-FC) = (C-FI)/(C-BWTGN) Values f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n a l i n e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y . d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05). Sex of progeny x s l a t m a t e r i a l x s l a t coverage i n t e r a c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t (P<0.05).  70  6.  6.1.  THE INFLUENCE OF SLAT MATERIAL AND SLAT COVERAGE  6.1.1.  Egg R e c o v e r y  In  the present  approximation  of  plastic slats  result  by  DISCUSSION  the  egg  higher egg  However,  as long  study,  (PWS vs.  r e c o v e r y was  production.  The  i n higher egg recovery  as the  c o n s i s t e n t f o r wood and equal  egg  in  taken as  hypothesis  an  that  p r o d u c t i o n i s supported PPS  v s . FWS  p r o p o r t i o n of plastic slats,  (Table  1).  s l a t coverage  was  wood s l a t s  PPS), or b e t t e r (FWS vs.  had as  FPS), egg recovery  as p l a s t i c s l a t s . The  replication  effect  i n d i c a t e s t h a t environmental homogeneous. due  t o the  period  5,  another  replicate  the  value i n lower,  f o r the  lay  periods  the barn was not  e f f e c t d u r i n g l a y p e r i o d 2 was  in  two r e p l i c a t e s .  one r e p l i c a t e  influence  of  During  was higher,  than others; d u r i n g  the value f o r one r e p l i c a t e was lower. explanation  three  conditions i n  The r e p l i c a t i o n higher value  during  and i n  l a y p e r i o d 6,  There i s no pen  lay  location  apparent on  egg  found that, egg p r o d u c t i o n  was  recovery. Parkhurst higher,  (1974), who  although not  slats, believed  s i g n i f i c a n t l y , on  t h a t low egg  71  p a r t i a l than  production i n f u l l  full  s l a t pens  DISCUSSION was  due  to  lower r e c o v e r y of eggs i n the  t h i s hypothesis production i n have to  to e x p l a i n full  and  breakage and  other losses)  s l a t pens, and were l a i d on  the d i f f e r e n c e i n  partial  be made: f i r s t l y ,  l a t t e r pens.  s l a t pens,  two  equal  in f u l l  secondly, an equal p r o p o r t i o n slats  over-all  the number of eggs was  as on l i t t e r  in partial  For egg  assumptions laid  (before  and  partial  of f l o o r  eggs  s l a t pens.  The  d i f f e r e n c e i n egg p r o d u c t i o n would then be a t t r i b u t e d to the higher number of eggs remaining pens.  The  obtained  in partial  slat  pens were not s e t up to count the eggs t h a t broke  and went through determine  on the f l o o r  the s l a t s ,  the extent i n the  to which  present  number of eggs l a i d .  t h e r e f o r e i t i s not p o s s i b l e to the  study  egg p r o d u c t i o n  underestimated  In t h i s r e s p e c t , the "egg  the  values actual  production"  values r e p o r t e d i n Table 1 are a c t u a l l y ^ e g g recovery v a l u e s . Although  d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t  lay p e r i o d s , data i n Table 3 suggest s l a t s were more slats.  If  i n d i c a t i v e of through  the  proportion  the p r o p o r t i o n then  e x p l a i n the lowered  of  cracked  of eggs  Parkhurst's  egg r e c o v e r y  eggs on  eggs on floor  t h a t broke  full  partial eggs  is  and went  (1974) hypothesis c o u l d  in f u l l  s l a t pens compared  s l a t pens (Table 1).  Andrews et a l . (1988), any  that f l o o r  l i k e l y to crack than f l o o r  the s l a t s ,  to p a r t i a l  only during three  significant  on  differences  72  the other hand, d i d not i n "egg  production"  find  between  DISCUSSION full-slat  (plastic-covered  wire)  slat floors  ( p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d wire  per b i r d was  s l i g h t l y higher  full  slat floors  F l o o r space.per  i n the b i r d was  either partial  study by  (1988).  However, the  slat floors  Andrews et  on f u l l  slat  pens by  difference in floor  the  partial•slats  slats, was  F l o o r space per  partial  s l a t pens  space a l l o t m e n t Cooper and  was  was  Barnett  present study.  find  significant  al.  space per  bird  p r o d u c t i o n " on than on  Parkhurst  full  full  (1974),  i n the  and but  study by i n the  s l a t pens.  These  differences  compared wood workers, in  the  slats  with  however, d i d not over-all  "egg  breeders i n p a r t i a l l y f l o o r e d pens of  slat material influenced over-all s l a t pens  slat  results.  n e a r l y equal to t h a t  p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d wire and wood s l a t s .  in f u l l  i n the  higher  h i g h e r than  a l . (1988)  p r o d u c t i o n " of b r o i l e r  and f u l l  (1974) found t h a t "egg p r o d u c t i o n "  and p a r t i a l  material.  a l . (1988) .  a l s o equal f o r  study by  (1972) and  Andrews et  another f l o o r i n g  b i r d was  slightly  Parkhurst  equal f o r f u l l Only  i n the  on  space a l l o t m e n t  found that "egg  significantly  slats.  than  Andrews et  (1972), with equal f l o o r  and p a r t i a l  space  s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than t h a t  would not f u l l y account f o r the disagreement Cooper and B a r n e t t  partial  Floor  uniform f o r p a r t i a l  or f u l l  two  and wood).  on p a r t i a l  pens i n the p r e s e n t study, and was for  and e i t h e r of  egg r e c o v e r y from  but not breeders  73  In the present study,  in partial  breeders  s l a t pens.  DISCUSSION The d i f f e r e n c e s plastic  in over-all  slat  breeders  egg r e c o v e r y between  appear  to  be  wood and  a function  of  slat  coverage. The and  higher o v e r - a l l egg recovery from p a r t i a l s l a t  PPS)  higher  breeders  could  egg numbers  be a t t r i b u t e d ,  compared  breeders during  lay periods  Similarly,  higher  breeders biweekly  the  compared egg  5, 6,  slat  7,  o v e r - a l l egg  to  FPS  numbers among  the study'except  to f u l l  10,  part, (FWS 12,  13  reflects  the former 12,  f l o c k had  F i g u r e 3 shows t h a t peak of  age  flock,  for  both the  after  between the latter.  lower  over-all  the  study f l o c k  flocks  slightly  Despite depressed  of the  over-all  and t y p i c a l  16.  partial  slats,  flocks,  Arbor  i n "egg  egg recovery,  l e v e l s of  respectively.  74  15%  and  Acres  production"  increased i n favor  t y p i c a l Arbor Acres f l o c k with  production  higher  production".  of the  the g e n e r a l shape  of the p r o d u c t i o n curve of the study f l o c k c l o s e l y that  FWS  p r o d u c t i o n occurred at 32-33 weeks  which time the d i f f e r e n c e two  14.  throughout  15 and  "egg  FPS)  and  Compared to t y p i c a l Arbor Acres b r o i l e r breeder the experimental  the  from  breeders 13,  to  and  "recovery"  breeders  f o r l a y p e r i o d s 11,  in  (PWS  resembled  a difference 7% f o r  full  in and  Figure 3. Weekly Egg Production of Study Flock and Typical Arbor Acres Flock 100  %  H e n d a y  p  r o d u c t i o n  24  28  32  36 40 44 Age of Breeders (Weeks)  Typical Flock  Study Flock (Partial Slats)  •  Adapted Irom Arbor Acres Broiler Breeder Male and Female Feeding and Management Guide (1985).  •%r Study Flock (Full  Slats)  DISCUSSION The b r o i l e r breeders had staphylococcus i n f e c t i o n a t 13 weeks of age. observed usual.  The breeders had swollen hocks,  to be  sitting  f o r longer  and some were  periods  of time  than  With m o b i l i t y r e s t r i c t e d , breeders were probably not  consuming  enough  s p e c i f i c a l l y the  nutrients  necessary  development of the r e p r o d u c t i v e  process which commences at about development  for  of r e p r o d u c t i v e  growth, organs,  12 weeks of age.  organs  results  a  Improper  i n lower  egg  production. At 43 and breeders was upper  58 weeks of age, mean body  n e a r l y 6% and 9%,  l i m i t of  Acres Feeding known f a c t production  weight impact  weight suggested  group appeared  than others  for a l l slat  on p a r t i a l  a welllower  egg  No  single slat material  weighing,  mean body  therefore  the  p r o d u c t i o n would have been s i m i l a r  study and  Cooper and B a r n e t t  shown t h a t "egg p r o d u c t i o n " was  Acres was  results in  Arbor  treatments.  The present  slat floors.  It is  to have h i g h e r  during either  of o b e s i t y on egg  by the  f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l and R u r a l  Nordskog, 1980).  coverage  (1985).  i n chickens  (The T e c h n i c a l Centre 1987;  female  r e s p e c t i v e l y , higher than the  and Management Guide  that obesity  Cooperation, nor s l a t  the t a r g e t  weight of  If  higher on p a r t i a l than  "egg p r o d u c t i o n "  obtained from f l o c k s  (1972) have  data s u p p l i e d  by  full Arbor  housed e x c l u s i v e l y or mainly  s l a t s , then'a r e d u c t i o n i n "egg p r o d u c t i o n " c o u l d  76  DISCUSSION be expected  where f u l l  s l a t s are  present  study.  6.1.2.  The I n c i d e n c e o f F l b o r Eggs  the  a l . (1973) observed t h a t  i n c i d e n c e of  eggs was  usually  then  declined  of  progressed.  floor  lay,  and  The same  p a t t e r n was  Dorminey  a r t i f i c i a l lighting  (1974)  was s i m i l a r t o Leghorn hens  production  evident i n  the p r e s e n t  with nests  Dwarf White  The i n c i d e n c e of f l o o r 37-41 and 49-53  The v a l u e s s t a t e d a r e lower than t h a t f o r PWS the p r e s e n t study  d i s c r e p a n c y may be due t o d i f f e r e n c e s  present study i s  (Table  i n the loss  slats.  S i n c e t h e p r o p o r t i o n of eggs  l o s t through s l a t s i n t h e  unknown, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  whichathe r e p o r t e d  (Table 2)  i n c i d e n c e of  on t h e . w a l l f a c i n g  2.8% and 0.9% d u r i n g 25-29,  of f l o o r eggs through  extent to  of  s l a t pens, one of t h e t r e a t m e n t s  t r e a t m e n t a t c o r r e s p o n d i n g ages i n The  influence  l o c a t i o n on the  incandescent bulbs o f f - c e n t e r .  weeks of age.  the  PWS pens i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y .  were p r o v i d e d  eggs was 3.3%,  eggs  the  as  examined  and n e s t  f l o o r eggs i n p a r t i a l wood  2).  highest at  (Table 2 ) . When  100-W  i n the  Dorminey (1974) and H u r n i k e t  beginning  study  used, as was seen  t o determine the  v a l u e s of i n c i d e n c e  u n d e r e s t i m a t e the  actual  v a l u e s , and  impact of such egg l o s s on egg r e c o v e r y r a t e s .  77  of f l o o r the  DISCUSSION 6.1.3.  The I n c i d e n c e o f C r a c k e d F l o o r  No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was was l a i d on l i t t e r  o r on  made as t o whether  a f l o o r egg  s l a t s i n t h e p a r t i a l s l a t pens.  w i l l assume f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n f l o o r eggs  Eggs  were l a i d on t h e  I  t h a t p r o p o r t i o n a l l y as many  s l a t s as on l i t t e r  in partial  s l a t pens. Physically, therefore  slats  i n t h e absence  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  where o n l y  of  eggs would  litter  s l a t s are present  p l a s t i c material-  be c r a c k e d  litter,  slat  in full  pens, than i n  a l s o suggests that  as f l o o r i n g  results  than  in full  The d a t a i n T a b l e 3  p a r t i a l s l a t pens.  pens),  are harder m a t e r i a l  (as i n f u l l  i n a higher  slat  i n c i d e n c e of  c r a c k e d f l o o r eggs. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e may be an  indication  of t h e p r o b a b i l i t y  with a  higher incidence  higher  l o s s of  cracked f l o o r  i n c i d e n c e of c r a c k e d f l o o r o f egg  of cracked f l o o r  f l o o r eggs.  eggs would  Therefore,  n o t be a  loss.  eggs may  Pens have a  the incidence  true r e f l e c t i o n  eggs  of  of t h e  i n f l u e n c e o f s l a t s on t h e i n t e g r i t y o f egg s h e l l s .  6.1.4.  The I n c i d e n c e o f C r a c k e d N e s t  In f u l l  slat  pens, about 15 cm of one  perches overhung t h e 60 cm-high the  30 cm-high  one end  Eggs  slats.  s l a t s and t h e r e s t overhung  I n p a r t i a l s l a t pens  of t h e n e s t p e r c h e s a l s o  78  end of t h e n e s t  about 15 cm of  overhung t h e 60 cm-high  DISCUSSION s l a t s however, the  rest  litter  greater  floor.  the perches breeder  The  into  pens may  and out  traffic  as  60  cm above the floor  Consequently,  would not be s u b j e c t  those i n  full  slat  pens.  to as  The  lower  i n c i d e n c e of cracked nest eggs i n p a r t i a l s l a t pens may reflection  of lower  and  have r e s u l t e d i n lower  of the n e s t s .  i n p a r t i a l s l a t pens  much hen  was  d i s t a n c e between the  in partial slat  traffic  nest eggs  of the perches  and  be a  breeder  traffic  into  out of  the  litter  on the  floor  traffic  i n and out of nests i n  nests.. The  absence of  reason f o r the higher breeder full  s l a t pens.  i n the  f u l l slat  only f o r  litter  in  for  monitored  egg  and were not laying.  i n the present lower value  another  using the On the  nests not other hand,  had access to l i t t e r  causing any nest the  on  traffic  behaviour  was  the  other not  study.  i n one r e p l i c a t e replication  during  l a y p e r i o d 12  effect.  This  effect  be random.  6.1.5.  the  dusting.  However,  r e s u l t e d i n the s i g n i f i c a n t may  be  present only i n the nests  pens, breeders were  p a r t i a l s l a t pens  floor,  The  was  e g g - l a y i n g but a l s o  breeders  than  Since l i t t e r  may  Percent " S e t t a b l e " Eggs  Since the number of eggs d i s c a r d e d p r i o r  to s h i p p i n g to  commercial hatchery  the  was  79  not  monitored,  number of  DISCUSSION non-cracked  nest  eggs was  taken  as  an a p p r o x i m a t i o n  of  p e r c e n t " s e t t a b l e " eggs (Table 5 ) . As w i t h pens (PWS  o v e r - a l l egg r e c o v e r y  and PPS)  had a  (Table  1), p a r t i a l  higher proportion  eggs than . e i t h e r of t h e f u l l  of " s e t t a b l e "  s l a t pens (FWS and ' FPS), and  the s a i d p r o p o r t i o n was h i g h e r f o r FWS than FPS pens. m a t e r i a l and s l a t coverage n o t but a l s o ,  to a  slat  Slat  o n l y i n f l u e n c e egg r e c o v e r y ,  large extent, the  s u i t a b i l i t y of  eggs f o r  incubation. The  proportion  importance  of  of  flooring  settable systems  eggs and  underlines  management  the  on t h e  p r o f i t a b i l i t y of any o p e r a t i o n .  6.1.6.  Fertility  The  lack  of  f e r t i l i t y due t o  significant  s l a t m a t e r i a l and s l a t  does n o t support t h e h y p o t h e s i s higher  i n over-all  coverage (Table 6)  that p l a s t i c slats r e s u l t i n  fertility.  Likewise,  no  differences  f e r t i l i t y due t o f l o o r type al.,  differences  1988;  Parkhurst,  Nordskog  and  Schierman,  fertility  levels  were  i n previous  1974;  Cooper  1965).  among b r e e d e r s  In  found studies and  (Andrews e t  Barnett,  the present  on s l a t m a t e r i a l  coverage groups were w i t h i n 1% of each o t h e r .  80  i n over-all  1972; study,  and s l a t  DISCUSSION 6.1.7.  Hatchability  of T o t a l Eggs Set (TES) and F e r t i l e  Eggs (FES) The lack of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s of t o t a l eggs s e t and f e r t i l e s l a t coverage  i n the h a t c h a b i l i t y  eggs due to s l a t m a t e r i a l  and  (Table 6) does not support the hypothesis  that  p l a s t i c s l a t s r e s u l t i n higher h a t c h a b i l i t y . Only Andrews et a l . (1988) plastic-covered hatchability  wire of  plastic-covered  for  eggs  wire  has compared wood s l a t s and  hatchability.  from  (FPS),  pens  with  (PPS) and f l o o r s with 2/3 wood (PWS)  al.  (1988) found  three  t h a t the  corresponding Andrews  et  al.  hatchability  of  The same i n the  (1988) found t o t a l eggs  immaturity and egg h a n d l i n g f o r the' v a r i a t i o n of that  s l a t types  significant fertile  of t o t a l  equal  for a l l  found f o r  differences eggs  d i r e c t l y influence  breeder  significant types was  age  in  differences consistent  the in  present  study,  hatchability  throughout  81  on  the study.  male  causes  types, implying hatchability.  Since no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n was found between s l a t and  in  near the  procedures were p o s s i b l e on s l a t  the  (Table 6 ) .  I t was suggested t h a t  hatchability  d i d not  Andrews et  present study  s e t and  beginning and end of the study.  was  of  plastic-covered  slats.  was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  tested.  s l a t types  floors  over-all hatchability  and f e r t i l e eggs  f l o o r types  compared  entire  f l o o r s with 2/3  wire  eggs s e t  They  the  lack  different  type of slat  Therefore, the  DISCUSSION r e s u l t s of  the c u r r e n t study  are c o n s i s t e n t with  those  of  Andrews et a l . (1988). Quarles  et a l .  (1968, 1970)  p o u l t r y houses  may  p o s s i b l y lower  hatchability.  not support  be a  source  their inference.  the presence  of l i t t e r  in  inferred that  l i t t e r in  of contamination  R e s u l t s of Likewise,  and  t h e i r studies did  Table  6 implies that  p a r t i a l s l a t pens d i d (1974) and  could  not  lower  hatchability.  Parkhurst  Cooper  and  Barnett  (1972) r e p o r t e d  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n  the  over-all  h a t c h a b i l i t y of eggs taken from f u l l and p a r t i a l  6.1.8.  s l a t pens.  Temporal D i s t r i b u t i o n of Embryo M o r t a l i t y  No previous  s t u d i e s have  i n v e s t i g a t e d the i n f l u e n c e of  slats  f o r breeders  on embryo  mortality.  In the  study,  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were seen i n the i n c i d e n c e of  e a r l y dead embryos on wood vs. p l a s t i c s l a t s The (Table  higher 7)  incubator embryos were not  is  i n c i d e n c e of ED difficult  has been  to  found to  for  incubator  s l a t pens  Location  i n f l u e n c e the  (Reinhart and Hurnik, 1984). blocked  (Table 7 ) .  embryos i n wood  explain.  present  the  development of  Since s l a t  l o c a t i o n , the  in  treatments  i n f l u e n c e of  s l a t m a t e r i a l on ED m o r t a l i t y c o u l d not be i s o l a t e d from the i n f l u e n c e of v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n the  82  incubator.  DISCUSSION 6.1.9.  The Growth, from Hatch t o Three Weeks of Age, of 37th, 46th and 56th Week Progeny  Seven FPS progeny the second chicks  were l o s t 4 days  growth t r i a l .  and  Water l o s s between death  weighing lowered  (BWTGN-1) of the progeny group  the  first  (Table  progeny  conversion The r e s u l t s  group had  due  improved  of the  week weight  gain  8).  D e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n weight gain one  a f t e r hatch during  and feed i n t a k e , no  weekly  or o v e r - a l l  to p a r e n t a l s l a t m a t e r i a l  feed  or s l a t coverage.  of t h i s study do not support the h y p o t h e s i s that  the progeny  of p l a s t i c s l a t breeders  grow more e f f i c i e n t l y  than those of wood s l a t b r e e d e r s . The s i g n i f i c a n t p a r e n t a l pen second week feed  intake r e s u l t e d  of progeny of breeders i n of progeny of effect intake  in of  the o v e r - a l l progeny  feed i n t a k e  of  replication  effects  in  •apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p  e f f e c t s may  intake  and low feed  intake  intake  feed  progeny,  be random.  83  one  resulted  replication  location therefore  low feed  replicate.  The  i n corresponding  conversion.  between the  of  The  i s due to the  breeders i n  mentioned  e f f e c t i n the  high feed  breeders i n two r e p l i c a t e s .  effects  feed  from the  one r e p l i c a t e  replication  and  replication  There  is  no  of p a r e n t a l pens the  replication  DISCUSSION 6.1.10. Growth, from Hatch t o S i x Weeks o f Age, o f 56th Week  Progeny Although (BWTGN-3)  d i f f e r e n c e s were  and s i x t h  s i x t h week  egg weight Table 9  (BWTGN-6) week  feed c o n v e r s i o n  slat material  significant  (FC-6)  grams, and the  was  have caused  s i n c e h a t c h i n g egg  weight g a i n ,  only the  Variations i n  the d i f f e r e n c e s  seen i n t o 66-78  weight was r e s t r i c t e d  mean h a t c h i n g body weight was  s l a t type groups.  third  a f f e c t e d by p a r e n t a l  (Table 9).  and s l a t coverage  c o u l d not  f o r the  equal f o r a l l  T h i s s l a t type e f f e c t may be random.  6.1.11. C o n c l u s i o n s O v e r - a l l egg r e c o v e r y was on  partial slats,  breeders  on f u l l  from breeders breeders  on  than those  egg  recovery. significant  full  recovery  There  s l a t s was a f f e c t e d (FWS)  generally  on  than  from  egg r e c o v e r y  by s l a t m a t e r i a l :  slats  reflected  apparent  effect  breeders  had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  on'full plastic  i s no  replication  slat material,  (Table 1 ) . The o v e r - a l l  f u l l wood s l a t s  egg numbers biweekly  r e g a r d l e s s of  slats  on  h i g h e r from b r o i l e r  higher  (FPS).  The  o v e r - a l l . egg  explanation  f o r the  egg r e c o v e r y d u r i n g  three  lay periods. PWS and  FPS pens  had h i g h e r  d u r i n g two l a y p e r i o d s ; d u r i n g PPS  pens had  higher  f l o o r eggs  one l a y p e r i o d , PWS, FPS and  i n c i d e n c e of  84  i n c i d e n c e of  floor  eggs (Table  2).  DISCUSSION However,  the  over-all  incidence  of f l o o r  eggs  was  not  i n f l u e n c e d by s l a t s . Low egg p r o d u c t i o n on f u l l lowered by (Table  higher o v e r - a l l  4).  i n c i d e n c e of thought  The  slats  (Table 1) was f u r t h e r  i n c i d e n c e of c r a c k e d  significant replication  cracked nest  eggs d u r i n g  n e s t eggs  effect  on t h e  one l a y p e r i o d was  t o be random.  The  of  "settable"  p r o p o r t i o n of non-cracked  n e s t eggs,  PPS eggs  proportion  than f o r FWS o r  eggs,  based  on t h e  was h i g h e r f o r PWS and  FPS eggs, and was  h i g h e r f o r FWS  than FPS eggs (Table 5 ) . Slat material  and s l a t coverage d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  influence f e r t i l i t y Only slats  and TES o r FES h a t c h a b i l i t y  the incidence  (Table 7 ) .  of ED  embryos  The i n c i d e n c e  (Table 6 ) .  was i n f l u e n c e d  by  of ED embryos was h i g h e r on  wood than on p l a s t i c s l a t s . When t h e i n f l u e n c e  o f p a r e n t a l s l a t s on  37th, 46th and 56th week  progeny was examined, i t was found  t h a t FPS progeny had lower than t h e  t h e growth of  first  o t h e r progeny groups  week weight g a i n (BWTGN-1) (Table 8 ) . T h i s  was l i k e l y  due t o m o i s t u r e l o s s when 7 FPS progeny were l o s t d u r i n g t h e second growth t r i a l . of  the  progeny,  c o n v e r s i o n was The  significant  D i f f e r e n c e s were seen  however  t h e weekly  not i n f l u e n c e d parental  and  by p a r e n t a l  pen r e p l i c a t i o n  85  i n feed intake over-all slat effect  feed  treatment. on t h e  DISCUSSION second  week and  o v e r - a l l feed  intake and  feed  conversion  were thought to be random. Only the t h i r d week (BWTGN-3) weight g a i n week progeny  and s i x t h week  and s i x t h week  (FC-6) feed c o n v e r s i o n  were i n f l u e n c e d by  slats  (Table 9 ) .  FPS  progeny had higher t h i r d week weight gain  PPS  progeny.  During  conversion  of 56th PWS and  (BWTGN-3)  than  the s i x t h week, FWS and PWS progeny had  higher weight gain than FPS and PPS progeny. feed  (BWTGN-6)  (FC-6)  of  FWS, PWS  and  The s i x t h week PPS progeny  was  b e t t e r than t h a t of FPS progeny.  6.2.  THE INFLUENCE OF BREEDER AGE.  6.2.1.  Fertility  Previous  studies  indicate  production,  i s highest  during  production.  When the f i r s t  37 weeks of age, f e r t i l i t y  that f e r t i l i t y , the f i r s t  fertility  at  (1980), Parkhurst fertility  s i x months of  was a t a r e s p e c t a b l e 96.7% (Table flock.  about 37 weeks of age  b r o i l e r breeder f l o c k s .  egg  t r i a l was performed a t  10), which i s t y p i c a l of a well-managed Peak f e r t i l i t y  like  Andrews  i s t y p i c a l of  et a l . (1988), K i r k et a l .  (1974) and Tomhave  (1958) detected peak  a t about the same age.  Reinhart  and Hurnik  eggs l a i d by breeders  was  (1984) found  t h a t the f e r t i l i t y of  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  86  (P<0.001) a t  DISCUSSION 33-35  weeks of  present  study,  age than  a t 50-52  fertility  at  weeks of  50 weeks  age.  of  age  In the  was  also  s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than at 37 weeks of age. Previous increases Mather  s t u d i e s have  as  and  production  Laughlin,  shown t h a t progresses  1979;  average egg  (Kirk  et  McNaughton  et  weight  a l . , 1980; a l . , 1978).  Furthermore, others have shown t h a t eggs which were produced e a r l y and  l a t e d u r i n g the  the extreme  production  weight c l a s s e s d i d  and M o r r i s , 1964; Halbersleben The is  year,  not hatch  as w e l l  as  well  and Mussehl, 1922).  b e h a v i o r a l and  e a r l y p a r t of the  i r r e g u l a r male  Low  ( T i n d e l l and  Morris,  or poor semen q u a l i t y (Moreng and Avens, 1985). in f e r t i l i t y  l a t e i n the  the  study  present  due t o 1964) ,  The d e c l i n e  r e p r o d u c t i v e c y c l e , as was seen i n  (Table  decrease i n the number of  10), may  be  attributed to  males producing  i n d i v i d u a l semen p r o d u c t i o n ,  of the hen (Moreng and Avens, no d i s t i n c t i o n  in  fertility  r e p r o d u c t i v e c y c l e may be  mating a c t i v i t y  levels  p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes  domestic fowls d u r i n g the r e p r o d u c t i o n c y c l e .  in  (Tindell  c o r r e l a t i o n between egg weight and f e r t i l i t y  i n d i c a t i v e of  i n the  as, i n  the  semen and d e c l i n e  as w e l l as the advancing age 1985).  was made between the  In the present  study,  i n f l u e n c e of advancing  male or female age. Foot  and  l e g problems  have been  f r e q u e n t l y among l a y e r s on s l o p i n g  87  wire  found t o  occur more  f l o o r when compared  DISCUSSION w i t h deep l i t t e r  floors  (Simonsen  l e g problems  could i n h i b i t  minimal foot  and l e g problems  e t a l . , 1980).  mating.  Foot and  There appeared  during the laying  t o be  period i n  t h i s study.  Hatchability  6.2.2.  o f T o t a l Eggs Set (TES) and F e r t i l e  Eggs (FES) Hatchability usually time  as seen  slowly  f o r egg  r e a c h e s a peak a t  p r o d u c t i o n and  about t h e same  fertility,  and  then  declines.  The l e v e l of t o t a l h a t c h a b i l i t y  (TES) i n t h i s study was  w i t h i n normal range of t h e t y p i c a l f l o c k a t peak (Table 10) . However, t h e drop a t 42  weeks and l a t e r was s i g n i f i c a n t and  more d r a m a t i c than e x p e c t e d . The  breeder  Interaction explain.  age  in total  x  slat  material  hatchability  (TES)  The b r e e d e r age x s l a t m a t e r i a l  to a dramatic  x  slat  coverage  isdifficult  to  i n t e r a c t i o n i s due  decrease i n t o t a l h a t c h a b i l i t y  (TES) o f eggs  of p l a s t i c s l a t b r e e d e r s a t 42 weeks of b r e e d e r age. The  drop i n TES h a t c h a b i l i t y  b r e e d e r age  coincided  with a  a t 50  and 56  decrease i n f e r t i l i t y  weeks o f a t the  same age (Table 10) . The d e c l i n e a t 42 weeks  i n the h a t c h a b i l i t y of  of age a p p a r e n t l y r e s u l t e d  f e r t i l e eggs (FES)  from  an i n c r e a s e i n  the i n c i d e n c e of e a r l y dead, l a t e dead embryos, p i p p e d a l i v e  88  DISCUSSION and  pipped  d e a d embryos  ( T a b l e 11) .  T h e r e was  a further  s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e i n c i d e n c e of e a r l y dead and d e a d embryos a t decrease  i n FES  The thought  56 weeks  next to  of breeder  age,  late  coinciding with a  hatchability. section  will  discuss  i n c r e a s e embryo  the f a c t o r s  m o r t a l i t y and,  t h a t were  therefore  lower  hatchability.  6.2.3.  T e m p o r a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Embryo  As t h e  breeders  a g e d and egg  Mortality  p r o d u c t i o n d r o p p e d , more  egg c o l l e c t i o n s were r e q u i r e d f o r s u b s e q u e n t h a t c h e s .  Thus,  e g g s were s t o r e d f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s .  three  hatch and  trials,  eggs were c o l l e c t e d  incubated  one d a y a f t e r  the f o u r t h t r i a l , days  and  eggs were  During  the f i f t h  incubated the first in and  storage f o r  in  after  trial,  i n c u b a t i o n and  the  For  consecutive  last  day  of  eggs w e r e c o l l e c t e d f o r days l a t e r ,  and  In the  eggs c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t  d a y were  nine  i n the fourth  trial,  days;  to reduce h a t c h a b i l i t y  number o f e m b r y o n i c d e a t h s by  five  days.  e g g s h a s b e e n shown  by i n c r e a s i n g t h e  f o r three  and a s i x t h d a y f o u r  t h r e e days;  of  days  s i x t h c o l l e c t i o n day.  i n the l a s t t r i a l , Storage  days  day a f t e r t h e  three t r i a l s ,  f o r three consecutive  collected  four  f i v e c o n s e c u t i v e days  the f i r s t  t h e l a s t c o l l e c t i o n day.  incubated  incubation.  During  increasing  89  total  a t a l l stages  incubation  period  DISCUSSION (Mather and the l e n g t h  L a u g h l i n , 1976). of egg storage  retardation  of  r e g a r d l e s s of increasing  growth  shown t h a t  i s directly proportional  and  breeder age  l e n g t h of  I t has a l s o been  number  of  (Mather and  egg storage  could be p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  malformed  to the embryos  L a u g h l i n , 1979).  as the  The  study progressed  the d e c l i n e i n h a t c h a b i l i t y  as the breeders aged. G e n e r a l l y , ED and LD embryos have h i g h e r frequency than MD  embryos.  MD  and  In young breeder f l o c k s , the  LD i s about 3.0%,  older flocks, 1.5%  and 2.0%,  the corresponding  onset  responsible for d u r i n g the known  of  cold  values are  temperature  on  the  mortality  d i s t i n g u i s h from t h a t of breeder K i r k et a l . (1980) and concluded settings.  that larger Most of  t h e r e f o r e hatch optimum f o r  be  It is  fertile  eggs  of  during  ambient  difficult  R e i n h a r t and Hurnik  the eggs l a i d  eggs l a i d  be  a well-  incubation.  influence would  mortality  to  age.  eggs hatch  b e t t e r under  1.0-  partially  embryonic  m o r t a l i t y throughout  case,  embryo  of  In  1989).  (Table 11).  extreme c h i l l i n g  particular  5.0-7.0%,  may  the sudden i n c r e a s e i n  causes embryonic  this  weather  second hatch t r i a l  fact that  storage  the  respectively.  and 3.0-4.0% (Roberson and McDaniel, Sudden  In  0.5%  i n c i d e n c e of ED,  better by o l d e r  (1984) have  at low  breeders would  humidity s e t t i n g s by younger  humidity  breeders.  lower than The  low  DISCUSSION surface-to-volume r a t i o low  humidity  water  loss  setting across  i n large to allow  the  egg  s i z e eggs adequate  shell  necessitates a  gas  needed  exchange for  and  embryonic  development. In the present during  days  1-18  study, and  f l u c t u a t e d f o r short p e r i o d s of time.  The  humidity  s e t t i n g was  to compensate f o r known  to  incubation The  d i f f i c u l t to r e g u l a t e , much l e s s r e - s e t  the i n c r e a s e i n egg increase  higher  and  Hurnik  21 i n eggs from 50-52 33-35  week  malpositions  were  mortality.  throughout  (1984) (LD)  old  reported  be  significantly  m o r t a l i t y d u r i n g days  breeders.  found to  (Table  periods.  week o l d breeders  embryos was  (69.6  grams)  the  19-  compared with  those  Malformations  and  most common  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n  than i n  grams).  I t was  eggs  responsible  incidence  humidity  form  of  In a d d i t i o n , they observed t h a t the i n c i d e n c e of  l a t e dead  was  mortality  to i n c r e a s e d storage  (P<0.001) l a t e embryo  from  High  compared to eggs of 37-week o l d breeders  Reinhart  eggs  embryonic  size.  i n c i d e n c e of ED embryos from eggs of 50-week  c o u l d be due  higher  d u r i n g days  (Rosenberg, 1989), as w e l l as lower h a t c h a b i l i t y .  o l d breeders 11)  80%  70% but  readings  about  g e n e r a l l y s e t at about 19-21,  humidity  is  RH was  suggested  of l a t e  smaller  s i z e d eggs  t h a t the predominance  f o r the  dead embryos  91  extra large (59.3-65.6 of l a r g e r  s i g n i f i c a n t increase when  breeders  were  i n the 50-52  DISCUSSION weeks of  age.  The  in  s i g n i f i c a n t increase  age  explain  the s i g n i f i c a n t  increase in  the  embryos  at 50  breeder age  (Table 11).  weeks of  study  (Appendix  size  breeder  determination  the present  i n egg  f a i l u r e to old  f i r s t two the  t u r n eggs,  hens,  (Rosenberg, 1989) . the breeders  genetic  The  aged may  study.  thereof, could LD embryos  nutritional problems  increasing  In  the  made between  yet be  The  (Table to  or  deficiencies, stale  length of egg  another f a c t o r .  sperm  storage  None  as  of the  possibly influenced  other f a c t o r s ,  have r e s u l t e d i n the  According  LD  s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , some of  f a c t o r s mentioned c o u l d have  present  may  malpositions.  M a l p o s i t i o n s can be caused by  excessively  4)  i n c i d e n c e of  of LD embryos, no d i s t i n c t i o n was  malformations and  which are  Table  with  or a  combination  i n c r e a s e d i n c i d e n c e of  23). Rosenberg  (1989) ,  malformations  are  u s u a l l y not r e l a t e d to i n c u b a t i o n , but r e s u l t from g e n e t i c s , mating, influence  nutrition of  and  factors  setting mentioned  malformations i n the present Reinhart of  and Hurnik  late-removal  breeders  eggs  the  down. incidence  The of  not determined.  (1984) r e p o r t e d t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n  chicks  l a r g e r eggs  than s m a l l e r eggs.  on  study was  was  significantly  were 50-52 weeks than at  suggested t h a t  upside  higher  when  33-35 weeks of age.  They  r e q u i r e longer  Thus, as breeders  92  age  i n c u b a t i o n time  and produce l a r g e r  DISCUSSION eggs, a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of  the eggs would r e q u i r e  longer  incubation. The  late-removal  c h i c k s t h a t Reinhart  r e f e r r e d to correspond Most of  to PA embryos i n  these embryos would  more time  i n the  findings,  the i n c i d e n c e  and Hurnik  (1984)  the present  study.  have hatched l a t e r  incubator. of  In PA  agreement with embryos was  i n c r e a s e i n the i n c i d e n c e of pipped  42 weeks  of breeder  age may  be due  to  the above  significantly  higher at 50 weeks than at 37 weeks of breeder The  i f allowed  age.  dead embryos at  the onset  of c o l d  weather d u r i n g egg c o l l e c t i o n , as w e l l as the f l u c t u a t i o n i n relative  humidity.  To a t t a i n made f o r  the i n c r e a s e  o l d e r breeders. hatching  optimum h a t c h a b i l i t y , adjustments  chicks  i n the i n c u b a t i o n  time f o r  S e v e r a l hatch p u l l s can be do not stay  too long i n the  should  be  eggs of  done so e a r l y incubator  and  get dehydrated.  6.2.4.  G r o w t h , f r o m H a t c h t o T h r e e Weeks o f Age, o f 37th, 46th and 56th Week P r o g e n y  The and  s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n the hatching weight of 46th  56th  week progeny  (Table 12) egg weights  was  from t h a t of  most l i k e l y due  (Appendix Table  4).  93  to the  the 37th  week progeny  increase i n hatching  DISCUSSION Pone et a l . (1985) r e p o r t e d 52 weeks of breeder age  t h a t hatches at 27,  42  and  r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t increases i n  the h a t c h i n g weight of progeny at 42 and  52 weeks of breeder  age. The  present  differences in one week  variable  involved  and  and c o u l d  (Gardiner,  A high  Upp,  Kosin  by as  e a r l y as have shown  Wiley,  Merritt et a l . ,  separately  by:  (a)  the  1950),  (b)  the sex  and Gowe, 1965; 1952),  breed  Tindell  (c) whether  according  to  1964)  and  of  egg  the  weight  (d) the  type  (Pone et a l . , 1985) . c o r r e l a t i o n has been r e p o r t e d and body weight d u r i n g  (Gardiner,  1928).  influenced  T i n d e l l and M o r r i s ,  or day-old weight of growth  be  1973;  raised  1973;  of f l o o r i n g  significant  Numerous s t u d i e s  a l . , 1952;  (Gardiner,  were  the  to which the body weight advantage c o u l d extend  M o r r i s , 1964;  chicks  that  disappeared  (Table 12).  (Kosin et  the c h i c k s  indicates  body weight had  of age  t h a t the age is  study  1973;  Therefore,  progeny  to have  Instead,  there were no  week body weight  been  Kosin one  the  Wiley,  1950;  the 37th  week  week of  age.  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  first  expect  l i g h t e s t at  (BWT-1) of the progeny  37th week progeny had higher  the e a r l i e r weeks  et a l . , 1952;  would  significant  between hatching  one  groups because the  f i r s t week weight gain  1) .  94  (BWTGN-  DISCUSSION When t h e  h a t c h i n g w e i g h t s were s t a n d a r d i z e d  the i n f l u e n c e of growth,  differences  eliminated, while conversion 3)  feed  egg s i z e and h a t c h i n g weight in first  week  weight  some d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e  t o remove  of c h i c k s on g a i n were  not  second week f e e d  (FC-2) and a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e t h i r d week (FCconversion  indication that,  were  eliminated.  This  independent of egg w e i g h t ,  younger  breeders u t i l i z e  progeny  of o l d e r  feed  breeders,  more  and  may  be  an  t h e progeny o f  e f f i c i e n t l y than  the  this effect  d i s a p p e a r s as  reported that the t r a n s f e r  o f l i p i d s from  progeny age. I t has been yolk t o  c h i c k l i v e r d u r i n g embryogenesis  . and s h o r t l y  after  h a t c h i s n o t as e f f i c i e n t i n t h e progeny of younger b r e e d e r s (Noble breeders  and T u l l e t t , can  1989).  While  adequately u t i l i z e  t h e progeny of  f a t ' both  from d i e t  remnant y o l k , t h e progeny of younger b r e e d e r s largely  on  demonstrated progeny  dietary  fat for  by h i g h e r  with  energy.  feed conversion  adjusted hatching  weight  older  have t o r e l y  This of  and  effect  t h e 37th  (Table  13).  is week The  p o s s i b l e i n e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f y o l k may have r a i s e d t h e feed conversion  of t h e 37th  week progeny u n t i l  week o f growth, r e s u l t i n g i n h i g h e r o v e r - a l l f e e d f o r t h i s progeny  group.  95  t h e second conversion  DISCUSSION The  significance  of  the r e p l i c a t i o n  effect  in  the  second week and o v e r - a l l feed i n t a k e and f e e d c o n v e r s i o n was d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 6.1.9.  6.2.5.  Conclusions  F e r t i l i t y d e c l i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t 50 breeder age  (Table 10).  decreased a t  42, 50  and 56 weeks of  The h a t c h a b i l i t y of t o t a l eggs s e t  and 56  weeks of  breeder age,  with a  dramatic decrease i n t h e h a t c h a b i l i t y of eggs of 42-week o l d - plastic  s l a t breeders.  The  decreased s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t The  influence  of  h a t c h a b i l i t y of  42 and 56 weeks  advancing  fertile  eggs  of breeder  age.  female breeder  age  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h a t of advancing male breeder The  incidence  s i g n i f i c a n t l y at  of  ED  42 and  and  56 weeks,  embryos a t 42 weeks of breeder age i n ED, was  LD,  thought  egg  PA and PD  embryo  embryos  and t h a t  the  m o r t a l i t y were  the onset, of c o l d s a i d hatch  also  increased and  PD  The i n c r e a s e of breeder  age  weather d u r i n g  trial.  attributed  not  age.  of PA  (Table 11).  m o r t a l i t y at 42 weeks  to be due to  collection for  LD  was  Increases  to the  in  increasing  length of egg storage and d i f f i c u l t y i n r e g u l a t i n g humidity. As  breeders  aged,  the  hatching  progeny  increased  progeny  gained more than the other progeny  first  week of  significantly  weight  growth,  and had  96  (Table 12).  the  (H-BWT)  of  The 37th week  groups during the  least favorable  feed  DISCUSSION conversion  throughout the  standardization  of  three-week growth  hatching  body weight  period.  The  eliminated  some  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the second week and o v e r - a l l feed but not i n the f i r s t week weight gain With  adjusted  conversion  hatching  disappeared  by  D i f f e r e n c e s d u r i n g the f i r s t differences first  in over-all  week feed  f o l l o w e d by  t h a t of 46th  weight, d i f f e r e n c e s the  third  week  in  of  feed  growth.  two weeks of growth r e s u l t e d i n  of  37th  (Table 13). • The  progeny was  highest,  week progeny, while t h a t  week progeny was lowest. conversion  (Table 13).  feed c o n v e r s i o n  conversion  conversion,  of 56th  The second week and o v e r - a l l  of ,37th week progeny  feed  was higher than t h a t of the  other two progeny groups.  6.3.  THE INFLUENCE OF SEX OF PROGENY In  mammals,  as w e l l  as  i n b i r d s , males  greater increase i n  e a r l y growth than females,  due,  higher s e c r e t i o n  in  part,  to  levels  exhibit  a  and t h i s i s of  androgens  (Mendel, 1980). Since the of  56-week  h a t c h i n g weights of male  o l d breeders  d i f f e r e n c e s i n body weight weeks of  age (Table  hormone l e v e l s , weight.  Table  were  14 shows  practically  and weight gain  14) could  and not  and female progeny  to any  equal, from two  the to 6  be a t t r i b u t e d  to d i f f e r e n t  advantage i n  hatching egg  t h a t although  male progeny consumed  DISCUSSION s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f e e d f r o m week progeny  utilized  3 t o 6 and o v e r - a l l ,  f e e d more e f f i c i e n t l y  male  only during the t h i r d  week o f g r o w t h . R e s u l t s from  a s t u d y by G a r d i n e r  when m a l e a n d f e m a l e b r o i l e r s same w e i g h t ,  (1973)  feed conversion  h i g h e r weekly  week t o e i g h t weeks o f a g e . f o r the e n t i r e eight-week  s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r males  that  w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m eggs o f t h e  t h e males had c o n s i s t e n t l y  w e i g h t s f r o m one  indicate  body  The o v e r - a l l  s t u d y p e r i o d was  than f o r females, but the opposite  was s e e n i n T a b l e 14. There  seems  t o be  no e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t  sex of progeny  x slat material x  s l a t coverage  in  week  (BWT-1)  t h e second  body w e i g h t  interaction  and w e i g h t  gain  (BWTGN-1).  6.3.1.  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Gentry and G.O. Bressler, 1970. Bacterial contamination in poultry houses and its r e l a t i o n s h i p t o egg h a t c h a b i l i t y . P o u l t r y S c i . 49:6066. R e i n h a r t , B.S. and G.I. H u r n i k , 1984. T r a i t s a f f e c t i n g the hatching performance of commercial chicken broiler eggs. P o u l t r y S c i . 63:240-245. R o b e r s o n , R. and G.R. McDaniel, 1989. Monitoring h a t c h a b i l i t y problems. P o u l t r y J a n u a r y : 15. Rosenberg, B.L., 1989. Chicks on their January:16-23 SAS,  1985. Inc.,  SAS Cary,  pinpoints  Incubation trouble shooting. II: way to making money. Poultry  User's Guide: N.C.  Statistics.  SAS  Institute  Sefton, A.E., 1976. The i n t e r a c t i o n of cage s i z e , cage level, social d e n s i t y , f e a r f u l n e s s , and production of S i n g l e Comb W h i t e L e g h o r n s . P o u l t r y S c i . 55:1922-1926. Shanawany, M.M., 1987. Hatching weight i n weight i n domestic b i r d s . World's 43 (2) :105-115. S i m o n s e n , H.B., K. V e s t e r g a a r d and effect of f l o o r type and P o u l t r y S c i . 59:2202-2206.  102  r e l a t i o n to Poult. S c i .  egg J.  P. W i l l e b e r g , 1980. The density on egg layers.  BIBLIOGRAPHY Skoglund, W.C, K.C Seegar and A.T. Ringrose, 1952. Growth of b r o i l e r c h i c k s hatched from v a r i o u s s i z e d eggs when r e a r e d i n competition with each other. Poultry S c i . 31:796-799. The  T e c h n i c a l Centre f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l and Rural Cooperation, 1987. Manual of P o u l t r y Production i n the T r o p i c s . E n g l i s h ed. R.R. Say, t r a n s l a t o r . CAB I n t e r n a t i o n a l , Oxon, UK.  Tindell, D. and D.R. M o r r i s , 1964. The e f f e c t s of egg weight on subsequent b r o i l e r performance. P o u l t r y S c i . 43:534-538. Tomhave, A.E., 1958. Fertility and h a t c h a b i l i t y of eggs produced by New Hampshire breeders during their f i r s t 365 days of p r o d u c t i o n . P o u l t r y S c i . 37:27-29. Upp,  C , 1928. Egg weight, day o l d chick weight and growth i n s i n g l e comb Rhode I s l a n d Red c h i c k s . S c i . 7:151-155.  Wallace's F.,  1962.  Wallace's F., 1958. 83:44-45.  Slat f l o o r s for poultry? Slatted  floors  r a t e of Poultry  87:49.  for poultry  houses.  Wiley, W.H., 1950. The i n f l u e n c e of egg weight on the prehatching and p o s t - h a t c h i n g growth r a t e i n the fowl. II: Egg weight - c h i c k weight r a t i o s . Poultry S c i . 29:595-604. Wilson, W.O., 1974. Housing. Pages 218-247 i n : American P o u l t r y H i s t o r y , 1823-1973. 1st ed. O.A. Hanke, J.L. Skinner and J.H. F l o r e a , ed. American P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g , Inc., Madison, WI. Wilson, W.O. and P. Vorha, 1980. P o u l t r y management. Pages 641-657 i n : Animal A g r i c u l t u r e : The B i o l o g y , Husbandry and Use of Domestic Animals. 2nd ed. H.H. Cole and W.N. Garrett, ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, San F r a n c i s c o , CA. Yao,  T.S., 1959. The i n f l u e n c e of s l a t t e d f l o o r and l i t t e r f l o o r on the g e n e t i c v a r i a t i o n i n chickens. Poultry S c i . 38:1472-1473.  103  104  APPENDIX Appendix Table 1. Weekly Egg Recovery on D i f f e r e n t S l a t T y p e s 1  Breeder Age (Weeks) 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 1 2  Slat Type FWS 4. .4 14..0 31,.5 52..9 64.. 4 68,.8 68..6 70;.0 72..8 71...2 71 ,. 1 70..8 68..5 ' 64 .7 . 65,. 1 65..7 63,.0 63,.2 60 . ,0 59,.6 58 . ,4 59,. 1 56,.0 54,.6 52,.7 51,.8 51,.0 49,.7 46,.0 48,.1 47,. 1 47 .0 ,  2  PWS  FPS  4, .2 15..9 33,.8 57 .6 . 67..0 73..9 73..7 77,.0 79..9 77..7 77 .7 . 76..2 72.. 1 72..9 70..5 69,. 4 68..2 67,.866.. 1 68,.5 64..4 63,.0 62,.1 59,.5 57,.9 56,.9 55,.5 53,.7 52,.9 54,.8 50,.9 52,.4  2..9 9..3 23..5 43..4 53,.0 57..6 59.. D 62..1 61..2 63..3 61..6 61..2 59..6 59,.4 59,.3 58 . ,8 58,.2 54 .0 , 54 . ,0 52,.9 54 .2 , 50,.1 50,.8 49,.7 47,.6 47,.8 47 .2 , 44 . .8 44,.2 45,.1 44,.0 43,.4  PPS 3..8 16..0 35..3 54..4 63..8 70..8 71.,7 71..4 76..3 78..6 77 . .0 76..6 74..3 73..0 70,.4 71..4 67..8 . 65..8 62..7 68..0 64 . .2 64..6 62..9 62 .2 , 60..5 60,.7 58,.7 56..3 53,.3 53..1 54..3 53..8  Standard Error of the Mean 0..87 1..36 1..50 1..56 2..42 1..98 1..78 1..83 1,.46 1,.32 1,.34 1,.43 1,.64 1,.72 1,.43 2,.09 1,.77 1..38 1,.70 1,.83 1,.99 2,.80 1,.71 2,.05 1..72 1,.80 •1..61 1,.37 1,.82 2,.01 1..80 1,.77  Percent hen-day egg r e c o v e r y . FWS = f u l l wood slats;.PWS = p a r t i a l wood s l a t s ; FPS = f u l l p l a s t i c s l a t s ; PPS = p a r t i a l p l a s t i c s l a t s .  105  APPENDIX Appendix Table 2. Weekly Egg Recovery on Wood vs. P l a s t i c S l a t s 1  Breeder Age (Weeks)  Wood  24 25 26 27 28 29 • 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 • 52 53 54 55  4.2 15.0 32 .7 55.3 65.7 . 71.3 71.2 73.5 76.4 74.5 74 . 4 73.5 70.3 68 .8 67 .8 67 .6 .65.6 65 .5 63 .1 64 . 1 61 .4 61 .0 59.0 57 .0 55 .3 54 . 4 53.3 51.7 49.5 51.5 49.0 49 . 7  Slat Material Plastic 3.3 12.7 29.4 48.9 58.4 64 .2 65.6 66.8 68.7 71.0 69.3 68 .9 66.9 66.2 64 . 8 65 .1 63.0 59.9 . 58.3 60.5 59 .2 57.4 56.8 56.0 54 .0 54 .3 53 .0 50 .5 48.8 49.1 49.2 48.6  Percent hen-day egg r e c o v e r y .  106  Standard Error of the Mean 0.61 0.96 1. 06 1.11 1.71 1 . 40 1.26 1 .29 1 .03 0 .94 0.95 1 .01. 1 .16 1 .22 1.01 1.48 1 .25 0.98 1.20 1 .30 1 . 41 1.98' 1.21 1.45. 1.21 1 .27 1 .14 0 .97 1.29 1 .42 1 .27 • 1 .25  APPENDIX Appendix Table 3. Weekly Egg Recovery on F u l l vs. P a r t i a l S l a t s Breeder Age (Weeks) 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 • 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 " 43 49 50 51 52 53 54 55  S l a t Coverage Full  Partial  3.6 11.7 27 .5 48.2 58.7 63 .2 64 .1 66.0 67 .0 67.3 66.3 66.0 64 . 0 62 .0 62.2 62.2 60 .6 58 .6 57 .0 56 .3 56.3 54 .6 53.4 52 .2 50 .2 49.8 49.1 47 .3 45.1 46.6 45.6 45.2  4.0 16.0 34 .6 56.0 65.4 72.3 72.7 74 .2 78.1 78 .2 77 .3 76.4 73.2 73.0 70 . 4 70.4 68 .0 66.8 64 . 4 68 .3 64 .3 63.8 62.5 60 . 9 59.2 58 . 8 57 . 1 55.0 53.1 54 .0 52.6 53.1  Percent hen-day egg r e c o v e r y .  107  Standard Error of the Mean 0.61 0.96 1.06 1.11 1.71 1.40 1.26 1.29 1.03 0.93 0.95 1.01 1.16 1 .22 1.01 1 .48 1.25 0.98 1 .20 1.30 1.41 1 . 98 1 .21 1 . 45 1.21 1 .27 1.14 0.97 1 .29 1 . 42 1 .27 1 .25  APPENDIX  Appendix Table 4. The I n f l u e n c e o f Breeder Age on H a t c h i n g Egg Weight Hatching Egg Weight (g)  Variable Breeder Age (Weeks) 42 46 50 '• 56 SEM  67.9 68.7 70.6 71.8 . 0.21 d  C  D  a  1  S l a t M a t e r i a l (M) Wood Plastic SEM  69.8 69.6 0.15  S l a t Coverage (M) Full Partial SEM  69.8 69.7 0.15  a  a  1  a  a  1  Slat  Type (M x C ) FWS PWS FPS PPS SEM  2  70.0 69.8 ' 69.6 69.7 0.21 a a  a  a  1  1 2  a,b,c,d  Standard e r r o r of the mean. FWS = f u l l wood s l a t s ; PWS = p a r t i a l wood s l a t s ; FPS = f u l l p l a s t i c s l a t s ; PPS = p a r t i a l p l a s t i c slats. Means f o l l o w e d by d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s w i t h i n one v a r i a b l e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P<0.05).  108  APPENDIX Appendix Table 5. Composition of Chick. Starter Diets Energy Source Ingredient(g/kg)  Fat  Starch  Corn  539.20  339.32  Soybean meal  279.00  287.10  Wheat  132.61  235.02 100.00  Corn s t a r c h 17.01  17.37  Limestone  8.51  8.09  Iodized  5.00  5.00  2.50  2.50  0.42  0.40  15.75 1000.00  5.20 1000.00  19.00  19.00  Calcium  phosphate  salt  Vitamin/mineral  premix  DL Methionine Alphacel  Calculated Protein ME  analysis:  (%)  (kcal/kg)  2800  109  2800  APPENDIX Appendix Table 6. Composition of Developer D i e t s Energy Source Ingredient  (g/kg)  Fat  Starch  Corn  423.71  415.87  Wheat m i d d l i n g s  156.86  201.60  Barley'  200.00  79.44  Soybean meal  148.65  166.29  Wheat  23.84  Corn s t a r c h  100.00  Animal t a l l o w  10.00  Calcium phosphate  18.27  17.62  Limestone  7.82  8.32  Iodized s a l t  5.00  5.00  V i t a m i n / m i n e r a l premix  5.00  5.00  0.85 1000.00  0.86 1000.00  15.00  15.00  DL Methionine  Calculated Protein ME  analysis:  (%)  (kcal/kg)  2700  110  2700  APPENDIX Appendix  Table 7. Composition of Breeder D i e t s Energy Source  Ingredient  (g/kg)  Fat  Starch  Corn  685.,28  570. 69  Soybean meal  200.,14  ' 213.,13 100.,00  Corn s t a r c h 10..33  5..68  7..50  14.,08  Limestone  65..07  64,.81  Calcium phosphate  20,.27  20..09  5,.00  5,.00  V i t a m i n / m i n e r a l premix  5..00  5..00  DL Methionine  0 .92  1,.14  0 .49 1000 .00  0..38 1000 .00  15.50  15.50  Animal t a l l o w H e r r i n g meal  Iodized  salt  L Lysine  Calculated Protein ME  analysis:  (%)  (kcal/kg)  2850  111  2850  

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