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Practical knowledge and artroom design Alexander, George Shepard 1990

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PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE AND ARTROOM DESIGN By GEORGE SHEPARD ALEXANDER B.Ed., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Visual and Performing Arts in Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 1990 ©George Shepard Alexander, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) 11 Abstract F i e l d research methodology was employed to describe how the personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge of three art teachers has helped shape their junior secondary artrooms. Through interviews, photographic analysis, and participant observation a description of each s i t e i s provided to show that some aspects of each teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge find expression in the artroom environment. Each artroom had i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e features, but what held these three s i t e s in common was the way in which p r a c t i c a l knowledge functioned in the design of the f l e x i b l e elements of the room's environment. Each teacher employed s p e c i f i c coping strategies to manage the classroom and increase th e i r sense of comfort in th e i r professional r o l e . An image of an artroom was held by each teacher which both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y influenced th e i r decisions about artroom design. The findings were used to construct a conceptual framework r e l a t i n g p r a c t i c a l knowledge and the artroom to the teacher's personal history and the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on the artroom by school l i f e and the room's physical l i m i t a t i o n s . i l l Table of Contents L i s t of F i g u r e s v Acknowledgements v i I. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of The Problem 1 I I . L i t e r a t u r e review 10 I I I . Methodology 25 Research i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s 25 Research d e s i g n 36 A n a l y s i s 40 Sampling 41. Instrumentation 44 Photographic a n a l y s i s 45 Research C a t e g o r i e s 48 Memos 50 I n t e g r a t i n g Memos and Diagrams 56 Summary 65 IV. Three t e a c h e r s and t h e i r artrooms 66 Marti n ' s artroom 67 Ma r t i n as a teacher 79 Tom's artroom 88 Tom as a teacher 100 Cathy's artroom I l l Cathy as a teacher 122 V. C o n c l u s i o n 132 Recommendations 141 i v Implications 143 References 146 Appendix A: Protocols from interviews 151 B: Interview Schedule 256 C: F i e l d notes 260 D: Photographic analysis 281 E: Code descriptions 326 V L i s t of Figures Figure 1 8 Figure 2 43 Figure 3 51 Figure 4 58 Figure 5 61 Figure 6 76 Figure 7 77 Figure 8 78 Figure 9 97 Figure 10 98 Figure 11 99 Figure 12 119 Figure 13 120 Figure 14 121 Acknowledgements I wish to thank my wife, L e s l i e , and my three sons, John, Mark, and Jeremy for their understanding and support throughout the course of t h i s study. My gratitude i s also extended to Walter Werner for introducing me to the l i t e r a t u r e on teacher knowledge, and for asking the questions that helped to focus my thinking. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to acknowledge Graeme Chalmers for his guidance through the research process. His a b i l i t y to l i s t e n , and his steady counsel were greatly appreciated. 1 Chapter 1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of The Problem Throughout the course of t h e i r careers art teachers make c u r r i c u l a r decisions that shape the learning environment of their classrooms. The teacher enters the physical se t t i n g of the classroom and creates an environment for learning that is e s s e n t i a l l y an expression of that teacher's knowledge, experience, and b e l i e f s . That expression is mediated by the li m i t a t i o n s of the room's architecture and the demands of the school culture. This study examines the learning environment of three d i f f e r e n t junior secondary artrooms in order to describe what makes each se t t i n g an expression of that teacher's personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge. There are several facets to t h i s question which need to be understood. 1. What has each teacher's background contributed to the b e l i e f s that they hold about education and art education? 2 . How do t h e i r backgrounds and b e l i e f s contribute to an image of what an artroom should be li k e ? 3 . To what degree does that image find expression within their classrooms? 4. What strategies has each teacher developed to handle the discrepancy between the ideals of 2 classroom d e s i g n t h a t they hold and the r e a l i t i e s of the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n ? To address these q u e s t i o n s , i t was necessary to enter the world of three j u n i o r secondary artrooms, to t a l k with the t e a c h e r s , to d e s c r i b e t h e i r rooms, and to experience the rooms " i n a c t i o n " d u r i n g the s c h o o l day. Fundamental to t h i s study i s the assumption t h a t t e a c h e r s possess a body of knowledge t h a t i s " p r a c t i c a l " . T h i s i s the knowledge t h a t they g a i n through the d a i l y experience of t e a c h i n g i n the v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s they encounter over the course of t h e i r c a r e e r s . P r a c t i c a l knowledge separates the experienced teacher from the n o v i c e . T h i s knowledge pro v i d e s the teacher with m u l t i p l e s t r a t e g i e s to cope with the s t r e s s e s of t e a c h i n g , from classroom d i s c i p l i n e to s t a f f r o o m p o l i t i c s . The d e c i s i o n s t h a t a teacher makes about classroom design are guided by t h i s knowledge and the classroom i s a r e f l e c t i o n , a l b e i t incomplete, of the content of t h a t knowledge. E l b a z (1981) sought to develop a more adequate c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g by examining not on l y the content of te a c h e r ' s knowledge, but how they " h o l d " and "use" t h a t knowledge. This study examines how a r t teachers express t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge through classroom d e s i g n w i t h i n the p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the room, and the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the s c h o o l i n which they teach. 3 The notion o£ "Image", derived from the work of Elbaz (1981) and Clandinin (1986), i s also central to this study. Elbaz states that image functions as a guide and organizer of the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge combining "feelings, values, needs, and b e l i e f s " in " . . . b r i e f metaphoric statements of how teaching should be" (p. 61). It is the researcher's thesis that the image an art teacher holds of an artroom guides him,or her in expressing some of th e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge through the creation of a classroom learning environment. The source of thi s image is the memories gathered from a l l the artrooms the teacher has ever been i n . Some have been rejected, others have been ide a l i z e d ; together they comprise an art teacher's image of the kind of place an artroom should be. [see Chapter 4 ] The term environment i s used to describe a classroom. Although i t s origins are ecological rather than educational, the notion of an environment, as a place where a complex web of interactions occurs, seems to f i t the classroom s e t t i n g . An artroom i s a physical space that may be f i l l e d with desks, cupboards, shelves, art materials and artwork, but i t is also a space meant to be f i l l e d with people who are growing, learning, interacting, and expressing themselves. There is a physical, or non l i v i n g , part of an artroom and a l i v i n g part, the intangible human q u a l i t i e s ; the 4 thoughts, id e a s , f e e l i n g s and emotions that make the room a unique environment. In c r e a t i n g a l e a r n i n g environment, the a r t teacher may show what he or she b e l i e v e s to be the best i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge f o r that s e t t i n g . B e l i e f s l have a d e f i n i t e r o l e to p l a y i n t h i s p r o c e s s . A tea c h e r ' s b e l i e f s enable him or her to s i f t through p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , and to decide what to add to t h e i r s t o r e of p r a c t i c a l knowledge, and what to throw away. B e l i e f s s c r e e n new input to p r a c t i c a l knowledge and b e l i e f s a f f e c t the ex p r e s s i o n of th a t knowledge. Werner (1988) e x p l a i n s , " . . . b e l i e f s are d i f f e r e n t than formal premises, and are more l i k e o r i e n t a t i o n s t o the classroom t h a t are assumed u n r e f l e c t i v e l y " (p. 5). The b e l i e f s t h a t guide p r a c t i c e , Werner c o n t i n u e s , "...are embedded i n the ongoing d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s taken i n our t e a c h i n g and p l a n n i n g . . . . u n t i l something 'goes wrong'" (p. 5). When b e l i e f s f a i l to match the r e a l i t y of a s i t u a t i o n , q u e s t i o n s a r i s e which lead e i t h e r to a r e v i s i o n or to a r e a f f i r m a t i o n of the b e l i e f s i n q u e s t i o n . The r e a l i t i e s of the artroom c h a l l e n g e a r t t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s about the environment they are t r y i n g to c r e a t e , l e a d i n g them to develop s t r a t e g i e s f o r room des i g n and management c o n s i s t e n t with the b e l i e f s they h o l d . S u s i (1989) p o i n t s out th a t these s t r a t e g i e s r e q u i r e a "balance between the b a s i c room s t r u c t u r e , 5 the f u r n i t u r e resources a v a i l a b l e , and the p e r s o n a l values and p r e f e r e n c e s of the t e a c h e r " (p. 43). T h i s s t r u g g l e f o r balance between b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e i s one mechanism by which the t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge evolves to keep pace with the changing r e a l i t i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . Teachers d i s c o v e r how to cope with the v a r i o u s demands t h a t s c h o o l s , the s t u d e n t s , and the community place upon them. The process i s a d a p t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r i n v o l v i n g the accommodation and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of one's b e l i e f s to the r e a l world of the classroom (Hargreaves, 1984). T h i s study accepts the r e a l i t y t h a t p a r t of t e a c h i n g i s l e a r n i n g how to cope, i n a p o s i t i v e sense, with the d a i l y p r e s s u r e s of the job. Hargreaves (1984) adds, coping s t r a t e g i e s are the product of c o n s t r u c t i v e and c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y on the part of t e a c h e r s . The concept of coping s t r a t e g y thus lends weight to the view that teachers respond to the 'demands' of t h e i r world not i n the ' t h o u g h t l e s s ' manner of S k i n n e r i a n r a t s or programmed r o l e - p l a y e r s but as c o n s t r u c t i v e meaning makers (p. 66). He goes on to e x p l a i n t h a t these s t r a t e g i e s a r e : not o n l y c o n s t r u c t i v e but a l s o a d a p t i v e . They are c r e a t i v e l y a r t i c u l a t e d s o l u t i o n s to r e c u r r i n g d a i l y problems. The more these s o l u t i o n s 'work' the more they become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , r o u t i n i z e d 6 and hence, u l t i m a t e l y , taken f o r granted as the d e f i n i t i o n not of a v e r s i o n of t e a c h i n g but of t e a c h i n g i t s e l f (p. 67). The artroom may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a p h y s i c a l r e c o r d of the a r t teac h e r ' s coping s t r a t e g i e s , f o r the environment i s designed i n such a way that i t all o w s the teacher to cope with a l l t h a t takes place t h e r e . Room des i g n , as a coping s t r a t e g y , i s another assumption t h a t guides t h i s study. T h i s study a l s o examines the l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t a r t teachers face when s e t t i n g up t h e i r artrooms. The p h y s i c a l l i m i t s may be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d as w a l l s , windows, doorways, s i n k s , and other b u i l t - i n s t r u c t u r e s t h a t form the "non l i v i n g " p a r t of the artroom environment. These form the boundaries t h a t the a r t teacher must work w i t h i n to de s i g n a classroom t h a t " f i t s " t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge of room d e s i g n . Other p h y s i c a l l i m i t s may come i n the form of f u r n i t u r e d e s i g n and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of storage and d i s p l a y space. S t r a t e g i e s must be developed t h a t work w i t h i n these l i m i t s i f the teacher i s going to move beyond s u r v i v a l i n the classroom. There are l i m i t s imposed by "school l i f e " 2 t h a t must be n e g o t i a t e d as w e l l , i n c l u d i n g student a t t i t u d e , behavior, t i m e t a b l i n g , s c h o o l p o l i c y and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r e x p e c t a t i o n s . These l i m i t s are l e s s w e l l d e f i n e d and t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t to d e a l with. 7 S t r a t e g i e s such as time management, a l t e r e d c a r e e r or student e x p e c t a t i o n s , and a s t r e a m l i n e d approach to classroom t e a c h i n g are examples of t e a c h e r s ' attempts to cope with these more amorphous demands of s c h o o l l i f e . The assumptions and terms d e s c r i b e d above were r e l a t e d to one another, at the outset of the study, through a t e n t a t i v e conceptual framework (see F i g u r e 1). T h i s framework p o r t r a y s the c o n t r i b u t i o n of p e r s o n a l experience to the development of an a r t teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge which encompasses, among other t h i n g s , b e l i e f s , an image of the artroom, and coping s t r a t e g i e s . The artroom l e a r n i n g environment i s seen as a p h y s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of the p r a c t i c a l knowledge t h a t the teacher h o l d s . The room i t s e l f i s regarded as a r e c o r d of some of the coping s t r a t e g i e s , b e l i e f s , and images t h a t the teacher employs. Artroom d e s i g n i s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the b u i l d i n g ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e and s c h o o l l i f e . T h i s study b u i l d s on theory about the development and use of p r a c t i c a l knowledge ( E l b a z , 1981, C l a n d i n i n , 1986) by attempting to understand how a r t teachers make use of i t w i t h i n the s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g of the j u n i o r secondary artroom. How does the knowledge gained through experience manifest i t s e l f i n the d e s i g n of an artroom? Through a photographic a n a l y s i s of the artroom a thorough d e s c r i p t i o n of each s i t e was Personal History Teacher P r a c t i c a l Knowledge - Beliefs - Coping Strategies - Image The Artroom Learning Environment Limitations Architecture School L i f e Figure 1. Factors influencing the design of the artroom learning environment. oo 9 developed that recorded concrete expressions of each teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The o r i g i n and content of t h i s knowledge was explored through interviews and classroom observation. The conceptualization proposed i n i t i a l l y (see Figure 1) was enhanced through the analysis undertaken in t h i s study r e s u l t i n g in a clearer understanding of the interaction between the teacher's personal history, p r a c t i c a l knowledge, artroom design, and the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the school building and culture. 10 Chapter 2 Literature Review Teaching involves an internal dialogue. A dialogue between one's p r a c t i c a l knowledge and the external culture of the school and classroom. Over the course of one's teaching career the i n t e n s i t y of the dialogue waxes and wanes, and yet, i t is always there, p e r s i s t e n t l y shaping the character of one's professional l i f e . It is the interaction of the knowledge that one possesses about teaching, and one's experience of the r e a l i t i e s of the place and culture where one teaches, that shapes professional growth and development (Sikes, 1985). A teacher's professional growth, in turn, has an influence on the learning environment that they create within t h e i r classrooms. Susi (1989), in his study of the artroom environment and e f f e c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e , explains that art teachers "draw on a combination of factors that includes personal preferences, individual values, and professional experience to provide learning experiences for their students" (pp. 37,38). The artroom environment then, becomes a meaningful record of the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge. Teaching i s a value laden enterprise. In the face of s o c i a l , technological, and p o l i t i c a l pressure teachers are c a l l e d upon to make decisions In the classroom that are guided by t h e i r personal b e l i e f s . 11 Huebner (1966) c a l l s teachers t o r e d i s c o v e r t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g through c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i s s u e s of v a l u e . E d u c a t i o n , i f i t i s looked upon not simply as a p r o f e s s i o n or as a way of making a l i v i n g but as a v o c a t i o n i n the sense of a c a l l i n g , or even as an honest attempt to l i v e f u l l y , i s one of the f i n e s t l i f e s t y l e s f o r d i s c o v e r i n g again and again the nature of e x i s t e n c e as l i v e d - f o r the une a r t h i n g of v a l u e . (p.12) Ar t teachers may make the b e l i e f s t h a t guide t h e i r p r a c t i c e e x p l i c i t i n the way t h a t they organize t h e i r artrooms. P a r t of the a r t tea c h e r ' s r o l e i n v o l v e s the c r e a t i o n of a l e a r n i n g environment, w i t h i n the s h e l l of the classroom, t h a t i s meaningful. The a r t teacher g i v e s p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n to h i s or her p r a c t i c a l knowledge through a process of d e s i g n . Rapoport (1982, p. 21) e x p l a i n s "that the meaning of many environments i s generated through p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n - t h r o u g h t a k i n g p o s s e s s i o n , completing i t , changing i t " . The artroom environment then, takes on i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r , or meaning, as a p h y s i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The room's environment i s a c o l l e c t i o n of symbols t h a t are meaningful f o r the teacher, which the teacher may share with h i s or her st u d e n t s . As these meanings are shared 12 between people a common understanding may be established that creates a sense of belonging (Kauppinen, 1990). This nonverbal orchestration of symbols i s an important mechanism that people use to communicate about themselves. When people decorate their o f f i c e s and workplaces with their own belongings, they attempt to change a stereotyped environment into one symbolic of themselves. (Kauppinen, 1990, p.19) In a similar manner art teachers may take the stereotyped environment of their classrooms and transform i t into a place that r e f l e c t s t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge. When a teacher i s confronted with a classroom se t t i n g and school culture his or her b e l i e f s may be thrown into question. Questioning and doubt have an important role in bringing understanding and c l a r i t y to the b e l i e f s that a teacher holds u n r e f l e c t i v e l y (Werner, 1988, p.5). The teacher engages in a process of r e f l e c t i o n when his or her b e l i e f s are questioned. Often, an innovation from the school culture w i l l promote t h i s process, for the teacher must share in the be l i e f s inherent in an innovation as they implement i t . If t h i s sharing does not occur then the c o n f l i c t must be resolved. Through the process of resolution, the teacher either rejects or modifies the Innovation, having c l a r i f i e d his or her b e l i e f s and affirmed them 13 or, accepts the i n n o v a t i o n a l o n g with the co r r e s p o n d i n g changes to h i s or her own b e l i e f system r e q u i r e d to put them i n t o p r a c t i c e . The d i s t i n c t f e a t u r e s of the s c h o o l c u l t u r e and the artroom s e t t i n g p rovide an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the teacher to develop g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y to the b e l i e f s they h o l d . These b e l i e f s become key o r g a n i z e r s w i t h i n the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge. Both E l b a z (1981) and C l a n d i n i n (1986) address inadequate views of t e a c h e r s ' knowledge i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h i n t o teacher p r a c t i c a l knowledge. E l b a z suggests t h a t p a s s i v e or pragmatic views of the teac h e r ' s r o l e i n c u r r i c u l u m implementation need to be r e p l a c e d by a view r e c o g n i z i n g the value and complexity of t e a c h e r s ' knowledge. She b u i l d s on the r e s e a r c h t h a t underscores the "importance of the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s e f f o r t to d i s c l o s e meanings t h a t are not merely i n l i n e with the demands of the p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n but are a l s o an e x p r e s s i o n of p e r s o n a l values and purposes" (pp. 44,45). The view of t e a c h i n g that E l b a z holds corresponds to the view I have developed through my own expe r i e n c e . She views t e a c h i n g as the e x e r c i s e of a p a r t i c u l a r kind of knowledge t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s : s e l f knowledge, knowledge d e r i v e d from p r a c t i c e , and knowledge gained through i n t e r a c t i o n . In her r e s e a r c h she goes beyond merely c a t a l o g i n g the 14 content of t h a t knowledge, to examine the ways t h a t t e a c h e r s "hold and use" t h a t knowledge. C l a n d l n l n (1986, p. 4) d e s c r i b e s one component of p r a c t i c a l knowledge through the concept of image. T h i s n o t i o n of "image" provided her with a means f o r understanding how a teacher thought about t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s and c h i l d r e n on a g e n e r a l , and a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l . C l a n d i n i n sees "image as a c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t f o r understanding teacher's p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge and f o r l i n k i n g such knowledge t o past experience and to ongoing p r a c t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s " (p. 19). Through examining the ex p r e s s i o n s of image i n the classroom, i n i n t e r v i e w s , and other s c h o o l s e t t i n g s she was able to d e s c r i b e i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l the content and use of t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge. One of her two s u b j e c t s , Stephanie, employed the image of "classroom as home" to organize and express her p r a c t i c a l knowledge. As C l a n d i n i n e x p l o r e d t h i s image she was able to i d e n t i f y i t s moral and emotional dimensions as w e l l as concrete e x p r e s s i o n s of image i n the classroom environment. Stephanie's memories of home, as a place where "people cooperate and i n t e r a c t t o g e t h e r " (p. 132), served as an image t h a t guided her i n c r e a t i n g a classroom environment where students f e l t "comfortable and cared f o r " (p. 132). These q u a l i t i e s provided her with a standard by which to judge the moral and emotional c l i m a t e of her classroom. Gardening was an 15 important p a r t of Stephanie's home experience and so she i n c o r p o r a t e d a number of p l a n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t o her program, t h a t surrounded the students with greenery, i l l u s t r a t i n g the l i n k between p e r s o n a l experience and the classroom environment. A r t e d u c a t i o n i s beginning to re c o g n i z e r e s e a r c h that focuses on the impact of the workplace on a r t te a c h e r s . The work environment of s c h o o l s i s a l s o being r e c o g n i z e d as a f a c t o r t h a t shapes the p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e of a r t educ a t o r s . May (1989, p. 143) d i s c u s s e s the l i n k between knowledge and experience from the p e r s p e c t i v e of an a r t educator. Teachers' knowledge i s grounded i n experi e n c e , i t s l e g i t i m a c y determined by how w e l l ideas make p r a c t i c a l sense and 'work' i n the context of s c h o o l . . . . Teacher b e l i e f s and t h e o r i e s are shaped r e f l e x i v e l y by t h e i r experiences and i n t e r a c t i o n s with the work s e t t i n g . Often t h i s knowledge i s i n t u i t i v e or t a c i t . T h e o r i e s - i n - a c t i o n may be d i f f i c u l t f o r teach e r s to a r t i c u l a t e to others (at l e a s t as others would have theory a r t i c u l a t e d ) ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , teacher b e l i e f s and t h e o r i e s guide teacher a c t i o n s . May acknowledges the r o l e of the s c h o o l environment i n shaping the teacher's knowledge, morale, goals and b e l i e f s . In d e s c r i b i n g the optimum s c e n a r i o f o r c u r r i c u l u m , she re c o g n i z e s the d i a l e c t i c a l nature of 16 theo r y and p r a c t i c e "encountered both i n academe and the f i e l d " , and recommends t h a t " p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to te a c h e r s , t h e i r e x p e r t i s e , and the c u l t u r a l r e g u l a r i t i e s t h a t weave the f a b r i c of t h e i r work and the ways i n which t h e i r b e l i e f s and a c t i o n s can be understood i n the workplace" (p. 153). The p r a c t i c a l knowledge t h a t guides the p r a c t i c e of t e a c h i n g i s shaped by the " c u l t u r e " of t e a c h i n g as w e l l . Although each s c h o o l has unique aspects to i t s c u l t u r e there i s much about teac h e r s and t h e i r work th a t makes up the common c u l t u r e of t e a c h i n g . Waller (1932), Becker (1952), L o r t i e (1975), and Hargreaves (1989) have a l l c o n t r i b u t e d to a growing understanding of the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . The p e c u l i a r i t i e s of t e a c h i n g as a p r o f e s s i o n a f f e c t the c h a r a c t e r of the p r a c t i c a l knowledge t h a t teachers develop. The p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e , p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h i n g , and the p r o f e s s i o n a l h e i r a r c h y a l l impact the tea c h e r ' s sense of s e l f esteem and m o t i v a t i o n . Waller (1932), i n The S o c i o l o g y of Teaching, d e s c r i b e s f a c t o r s t h a t continue to shape t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e today. These i n c l u d e : m a i n t a i n i n g the a u t h o r i t y r o l e , having good s t a n d i n g with one's peers, the trend toward s o c i a l c onservatism, the waning of c r e a t i v i t y and a d e s i r e to l e a r n , and working i n s t e r e o t y p e d s i t u a t i o n s . Becker (1952) develops the concept of the teacher's c a r e e r . He d e s c r i b e s the v a r i o u s forms of m o b i l i t y t h a t 17 teachers experience within the profession. The " v e r t i c a l aspect" refers to mobility through a hierarchy of ranked positions within the school d i s t r i c t . This he contrasts to the "horizontal aspect" or movement among the various positions at one l e v e l of the hierarchy. It i s inte r e s t i n g to note Bennet's findings (1985) that indicate that art teacher's view the i r careers in a non t r a d i t i o n a l way. Many are not interested in the v e r t i c a l or horizontal aspects of career mobility but see teaching as a stable, rewarding occupation from which to pursue their work as a r t i s t s . This depends somewhat on the art teacher's t r a i n i n g . Those trained in a college of education art program were more interested in v e r t i c a l mobility than those trained in art school. The perception that teachers hold of the career opportunities before them influences their desire for professional growth. Sikes (1985) examined the impact of aging on the teacher's experience of the profession. She described the e f f e c t of aging on motivation, commitment and, the teacher's a b i l i t y to gauge effectiveness and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Elbaz (1981) underscores the importance of no longer viewing teaching in a fragemented way, reducing teachers to passive conduits for curriculum, but in a way that recognizes the complexity of teaching. Research into teacher culture enhances our perceptions 18 of teacher's knowledge by placing them within the context of t h e i r unique c u l t u r a l framework. This study is also rooted in a perspective that recognizes the complexity of educational change. Teachers making decisions about change for their classrooms are influenced by an array of complex factors. In The Meaning of Educational Change, Fullan (1982) describes the following interplay between these multiple factors associated with change: ... the purpose of acknowledging the objective r e a l i t y of change l i e s in the recognition that there are new p o l i c i e s and programs "out there" and that they may be more or less s p e c i f i c in terms of what they imply for changes in materials, teaching practices, and b e l i e f s . The r e a l crunch comes in the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these new programs or p o l i c i e s and the thousands of subjective r e a l i t i e s embedded in people's individual and organizational contexts and t h e i r personal h i s t o r i e s . How these subjective r e a l i t i e s are addressed or ignored i s c r u c i a l for whether potential changes become meaningful at the l e v e l of i n d i v i d u a l use and effectiveness. It i s perhaps worth repeating that changes in actual practice along the three dimensions-in materials, teaching approaches, belie£s-what 'people do and think'-determine the outcome of change. (p. 35) 19 The teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge assesses the meaning of any educational change, from minor adjustments in d a i l y routines, to the report of the Royal Commission on Education (1988). Reflection on the subjective and objective r e a l i t i e s of the classroom, and the innovations that t r y to shape them, is needed to bring the c l a r i t y that the teacher needs to make c u r r i c u l a r decisions. Art teachers may be better equipped to r e f l e c t on the meaning and si g n i f i c a n c e of subjective and objective r e a l i t i e s of educational change, for art i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the changing r e a l i t i e s of our world. The a b i l i t y of a teacher to examine practice with a view toward understanding and change is an important coping s k i l l . Schon (1983) c a l l s t h i s an "epistemology of practice". The conceptual framework proposed in t h i s thesis suggests that teachers might be able to r e f l e c t on their artrooms in order to bring c l a r i t y to their understanding of t h e i r own p r a c t i c a l knowledge. Through r e f l e c t i o n , c e r t a i n areas of practice may be c a l l e d into question and changes proposed. The curriculum f i e l d has long acknowledged the role of the teacher in curriculum design and implementation. Huebner (1966) c a l l s for the classroom to become a place for the unearthing of values and the teacher, a designer of meaningful educational a c t i v i t i e s and the environment that conveys them. The 20 image of the teacher that Huebner presents is that of an a r t i s t ; the curriculum the a r t i s t ' s medium of expression. Eisner (1979) furthers t h i s theme in The  Educational Imagination where he describes teaching as an active process that requires one "to construct meaningful patterns out of experience. At base, such patterns are a r t i s t i c constructions, a means through which the human creates a conception of r e a l i t y " (p. 271). Meaning emerges from complexity through the construction of patterns in schools and classrooms that help both teachers and students to understand the nature of r e a l i t y . This process i s not e a s i l y r e a l i z e d in practice and yet within the art teaching profession there are many who take t h i s struggle s e r i o u s l y . Teachers, l i k e a r t i s t s , c l a r i f y their v i s i o n of the world through t r i a l and error. The a r t i s t incorporates what is learned in one painting into the next work. In a si m i l a r manner classroom teachers add to the i r reservoir of p r a c t i c a l knowledge as they plan, teach, and r e f l e c t on " a r t i s t i c constructions" in the i r classrooms. The design of meaningful artroom environments, however, may find considerable opposition from a r c h i t e c t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s , the students, the school culture, and the community. School classrooms are public places and often the ground where c o n f l i c t i n g public values are encountered. In the face of this 21 tension art teachers learn to cope with the stress by exercising t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge in the form of coping strategies; personal responses to the day to day demands of teaching. Stress i s conceptualized as an outcome r e f l e c t i n g the lack of congruence between individual needs and goals with the opportunities and constraints afforded by the school s e t t i n g . When environmental constraints d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y thwart such goals or expectations, the individual attempts to cope with the s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n . Manifestations of t h i s process in the school s e t t i n g may include changes in teaching methods, class disruptions or p a r t i c i p a t i o n , persistence, s p a t i a l u t i l i z a t i o n patterns, task performance or attention and d i s t r a c t i o n . (Ahrentzen, Jue, Skorpanich, & Evans, 1982, p. 224) The need to cope with environmental stresses is a force that leads the teacher to refine and expand th e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge. Coping strategies enable the art teacher to deal with p o t e n t i a l l y s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s , such as materials d i s t r i b u t i o n and clean up, in a constructive manner. As these strategies are developed through experience, the seasoned art teacher acquires a repertoire of these responses within t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge. 22 Research into p r a c t i c a l knowledge has been furthered by those studies that deal with teacher strategies (Hargreaves, 1984; Woods, 1984). One ce r t a i n way that p r a c t i c a l knowledge is expressed i s through strategies that teachers develop to cope with d a i l y routines and stresses. On one l e v e l these are creative responses to the challenges of teaching that enable the teacher to cope e f f e c t i v e l y (Hargreaves, 1984), on another l e v e l , they are techniques for su r v i v a l when the teacher's professional l i f e i s threatened. As the teacher confronts the culture of the school and the classroom the b e l i e f s they hold are challenged. In some instances b e l i e f s and ideals must be modified to cope with the r e a l i t i e s of the si t u a t i o n , in other cases teachers impose their b e l i e f s on the culture e f f e c t i n g a transformation. This re l a t i o n s h i p between b e l i e f s and coping strategies becomes evident when one examines artroom design. Ahrentzen et a l . (1982, p. 243) discuss the notion of a person - environment f i t . When a person's values " f i t " the environment s t a b i l i t y i s achieved, i f a mismatch occurs disharmony i s the r e s u l t . No artroom i s perfect. Every art teacher must reach a compromise between what the room should be and, what the room i s . Reaching t h i s compromise represents the development of design strategies, management strategies, and p o l i t i c a l strategies that become part of a teacher's unique store 23 of p r a c t i c a l knowledge. These may be expressed verbally, through words and instructions, or physically, through the design and arrangement of the artroom environment. Experience becomes the greatest contributor to p r a c t i c a l knowledge. When teachers accounted for th e i r practice, they drew overwhelmingly not on logic and p r i n c i p l e s of formal educational theory but on their own experience....experience of the classroom, and e s p e c i a l l y of t h e i r classroom, present or past, which teachers c i t e d most extensively. (Hargreaves, 1989) As t h i s study w i l l show art teachers seem no d i f f e r e n t . The design of their classrooms is strongly influenced by th e i r experiences in other artrooms, and teaching-learning s i t u a t i o n s . Environments communicate through cues the kinds of choices that people make e l i c i t i n g emotions, interpretations and behaviors (Rapoport, 1982, p. 81). Rapoport explains that the environment functions as a mnemonic reminding people of the behavior expected of them, the linkages and separations in space and time-who does what, where, when, and with whom. It takes the remembering from the person and places the reminding in the environment. (1982, p. 81) 24 In t h i s way a r t teachers design i n t o t h e i r artrooms what they remember about other artrooms. D i s p l a y s , s e a t i n g arrangements, c l e a n l i n e s s , and the t e a c h e r ' s desk are examples of cues t h a t express the a r t t e a c h e r ' s memories of other experiences i n artroom s e t t i n g s . These are held w i t h i n the t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge as an image, and expressed i n the artroom environment, conveying meaning to both the teacher and s t u d e n t s . The artroom i t s e l f then, becomes a r i c h resource f o r g a i n i n g i n s i g h t i n t o the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge. A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of cues w i t h i n the room's environment provide p h y s i c a l evidence of the b e l i e f s , image, and coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t are i n c l u d e d i n t h a t t e a c h e r ' s s t o r e of p r a c t i c a l knowledge. 25 Chapter 3 Methodology The research perspective adopted in this study is best described by the term, f i e l d research. This approach has a q u a l i t a t i v e and n a t u r a l i s t i c emphasis that builds i t s theory on observations of the empirical world. The environment of the classroom is the world being observed in t h i s study. The data upon which theory are based were gathered through interviews, photographs, and participant observation. This chapter w i l l focus on the assumptions that underlie f i e l d research, and the methods and procedures employed to c o l l e c t and analyze the data. Research in Natural Settings F i e l d research seeks to match the goals of s o c i a l science with methods appropriate to the study of human beings. Because t h i s approach emphasizes studying human subjects in their natural s e t t i n g , in t h i s case the artroom, i t is termed " n a t u r a l i s t i c " . Guba (1978, p. 1) points out that t h i s t r a d i t i o n has i t s roots in ethnography, a branch of anthropology concerned with c u l t u r a l d escription. Bruyn (1966, p. 6) supports t h i s emphasis in his work, The Human Perspective in  Sociology. He argues that the study of humans requires a unique approach that recognizes the contribution of the humanities to our understanding of human inte r a c t i o n . While c a l l i n g for a n a t u r a l i s t i c approach 26 to inquiry researchers in thi s f i e l d are not suggesting a s h i f t in the epistemological ground for the i r work. Denzin (1978) stresses the importance of accepting the empirical world as given: "...the empirical world remains the constant referent, and i t is to t h i s r e a l i t y that the theories are applied for the i r major tests, since i t s phenomena are assumed to be causally related" (p. 38). So, while not ignoring the world we perceive through the senses, f i e l d researchers approach the i r work searching for meaning, as well as, causal categories. Society, history, schools and classrooms are d i s t i n c t l y human products; the resu l t of thoughts and emotions that are not e a s i l y reducible to study through controlled experimentation. This, however, is not to advocate a position of philosophical idealism that sees r e a l i t y as ex i s t i n g only in human experience. Blumer (1969) strongly denounces t h i s p o s i t i o n . One errs i f he thinks that since the empirical world can exist for human beings only in terms of images or conceptions of i t , therefore r e a l i t y must be sought in images or conceptions independent of an empirical world....The position is untenable because of the fact that the empirical world can "talk back" to our pictures of i t or assertions about i t - talk back in the sense of challenging and r e s i s t i n g , not bending to, our 27 images or conceptions of i t . This resistance gives the empirical world an obdurate character that is the mark of r e a l i t y , (p. 22) The goal then, i s to develop a method of inquiry that blends t h i s concern for the human perspective with a desire to be firml y rooted in the r e a l i t y of the empirical world. Symbolic Interactionism and f i e l d research. To address the above goal f i e l d research draws on the perspective of Symbolic Interactionism, a term coined by Blumer in 1937. Blumer (1969) elaborated on the thought of G.H. Mead to develop th i s way to study human group l i f e and conduct. Symbolic interactionism i s concerned with the way in which humans esta b l i s h meaning about themselves, s o c i a l objects, ideas, groups and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Blumer argues that meaning is not inherent in s o c i a l objects, instead, i t i s established through s o c i a l i nteraction. People through a process of action and interpretation, interact with the other members of the culture to create s o c i a l meanings and understanding. Interaction i s not simply the vehicle of human response, as psychologists might define i t , but the actual process by which s o c i a l objects acquire their meaning. The environment thus communicates, through a whole set of cues, the most appropriate choices to be made: The cues are meant to e l i c i t appropriate 28 emotions, interpretations, behaviors, and transactions by set t i n g up the appropriate situations and contexts. (Rapoport, 1982, p.80) The artroom environment, designed by the teacher, thus contains cues which carry meaning. The study of these cues offers insight into the personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge of the teacher who designed them into the environment. F i e l d research methodology. Leaders in the f i e l d of n a t u r a l i s t i c inquiry stress a rigorous approach to methodology. Blumer (1969, p. 28) sets a high standard for f i e l d research in the s o c i a l sciences. The empirical world becomes the reference point and testing ground for: the epistemological foundations of the study, the research problem, and the v a l i d i t y of the data c o l l e c t e d . Also, the empirical world must be considered independent of the study to see i f the re l a t i o n s , interpretations, and concepts uncovered by the research a c t u a l l y match the empirical world they refer to. While Blumer convincingly argues for a strongly empirical approach to methodological treatment, the approach of the n a t u r a l i s t i c empiricist i s not as controlled as some researchers may want. Woods (1986) captures the exploratory character of the f i e l d researcher's approach in his introduction to ethnography. 29 The ethnographer is interested in what l i e s beneath the subject's view, which may contain alte r n a t i v e views, and th e i r views of each other. From these, the ethnographer may perceive patterns in accounts, or in observed behaviors, which may suggest cert a i n interpretations. The s o c i a l r e a l i t y is thus seen to be composed of layers. Moreover, i t i s recognized that i t i s constantly changing.... The ethnographer thus aims to represent the r e a l i t y studied in a l l i t s various layers of s o c i a l meaning in i t s f u l l richness, (p. 5) In t h i s way the f i e l d researcher explores beneath the surface of the s e t t i n g , peeling away layers of meaning, and attempting to understand the symbols and lines of action that explain the culture. This involves a profound respect for the se t t i n g as the researcher seeks to understand the world from the perspective of those being studied. This guided, exploratory process of c u l t u r a l description c a l l e d ethnography is given greater c l a r i t y by the concept of " r e f l e x i v i t y " . Simply stated by Hammersley and Atkinson (1983), r e f l e x i v i t y is the recognition that the researcher i s part of the s o c i a l world he or she chooses to study. Three important p r i n c i p l e s proceed from t h i s concept. F i r s t , researchers must work with the "common-sense" knowledge 30 of people in the i r ordinary contexts. Second, rather than t r y i n g to eliminate researcher e f f e c t s the researcher becomes part of the culture under study. The researcher becomes the "research instrument"; observing and interacting with those he or she studies. F i n a l l y , r e f l e x i v i t y suggests that f i e l d research has a role in theory development; grounding theory in the researcher's experience of the culture. The methodology of f i e l d research is not one of detachment but one of involvement and rel a t i o n s h i p with the world being studied. Role and re l a t i o n s h i p in f i e l d research. F i e l d r e l a t i o n s and the roles adopted by researchers create a challenge that taxes their interpersonal s k i l l s . The c e n t r a l i t y of human relationships to the nature of the data and the outcome of the study is strongly underscored by Punch (1986). He describes the range of human emotions that are as much a part of this research as academic discussions of technique and analysis. Furthermore, acute moral dilemmas may be encountered while a semi-conscious p o l i t i c a l process pervades fieldwork. And both elements, p o l i t i c a l and e t h i c a l , often have to be resolved simultaneously, without the chance of armchair r e f l e c t i o n , (p. 13) The exploratory nature of this research may leave the f i e l d worker open to a greater element of " r i s k " and 31 "uncertainty" than other methodological approaches. Integrity, honesty and a willingness to r e f l e c t on one's own experience become es s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s . Powdermaker (1966) addresses t h i s issue in her work, Stranger and Friend, Although there must, inevitably, be some s e l e c t i v i t y in the d e t a i l s , of prime importance in any account of research i s i t s honesty. But no matter how good the memory, how complete the journals, how deep the insight, how strong the desire to be honest, we know man's f a l l i b i l i t y in a l l these respects. It i s impossible to be t o t a l l y objective towards one's s e l f as towards the people one studies, (p. 14) Here the human q u a l i t i e s of n a t u r a l i s t i c Inquiry are no longer philosophical abstractions. In the r e l a t i o n a l aspects of f i e l d research they become a concrete part of the method. The researcher and research design. The process of f i e l d research proceeds through several interdependent stages. In t h i s case these included the development of the research problem, s e l e c t i o n of s i t e s , gaining access, data c o l l e c t i o n (interviews, photographs, and participant observation), coding, memos, and analysis. Each of these stages were employed in a f l e x i b l e manner during the research process as the researcher practiced r e f l e x i v i t y . The 32 guiding influence in t h i s process is the research problem, often expressed in terms of foreshadowed questions that are brought to the inquiry. However, during the course of data c o l l e c t i o n new questions may aris e that are deemed more s i g n i f i c a n t than those i d e n t i f i e d in the i n i t i a l stages of the research. These "new" questions may lead to a r e v i s i o n Of the strategies for data c o l l e c t i o n . Guba (1978) comments, the design emerges as the investigation proceeds: moreover, i t i s in constant flux as new information is gained and new insights are formed. Thus "emergent", "variable" designs are among the hallmarks of n a t u r a l i s t i c inquiry, (p. 14) This approach places the researcher at the heart of the process. The researcher becomes the primary research instrument, probing, Investigating, l i s t e n i n g , and inter a c t i n g with the people and the s e t t i n g . Through p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the culture the researcher is able to uncover s o c i a l meanings unique to the s e t t i n g . My p a r t i c u l a r role as an art teacher/researcher was a d i s t i n c t advantage in entering into artroom culture. Time, however, is s t i l l required for t h i s process of c u l t u r a l description. Before the f i n a l analysis can be undertaken the researcher must reach a point of saturation, where l i t t l e new data are being c o l l e c t e d . When thi s point is reached the setting is so "known" by 33 the researcher that very l i t t l e that is unfamiliar or unexpected i s happening. The researcher attempts to remain r e f l e x i v e throughout t h i s process; aware of the theories and assumptions he or she has brought to the culture and sensitive to the patterns and categories that emerge during data c o l l e c t i o n . Making notes of questions and puzzling b i t s of data become as important as seeking the solutions to problems that were foreshadowed from the beginning. In t h i s way assumptions and theories are tested against the r e a l world of the culture and new theories "grounded" (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in the data are nurtured and developed. The goal of t h i s methodology is a f u l l and accurate description of the people and se t t i n g under study. Careful checks are performed to see that there is agreement between these various information sources. C o n f l i c t i n g accounts would suggest the need for further observation or a reworking of the i n i t i a l s e n s i t i z i n g theories brought to the s e t t i n g . Confirmation between and among these various methods becomes f e r t i l e ground for the development of s o c i a l theory. Generating theory. Discussion of f i e l d research must begin and end with the development of theory. Theory guides the research a c t i v i t y and theory emerges from the data c o l l e c t e d . Glaser and Strauss (1967, p.6) describe theory generation as an integral part of the research process. There i s a constructive dialogue 34 that takes place between formal s o c i a l science theory and those theories generated from the data. Theory in sociology is a strategy for handling data in research, providing modes of conceptualization for describing, and explaining.... Theory that can meet these requirements must f i t the s i t u a t i o n being researched, and work when put into use. (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, p. 3) The " f i t " that Glaser and Strauss c a l l for re f e r s , not only to the rel a t i o n s h i p between the theory and the data, but to the re l a t i o n s h i p of theory to the empirical s e t t i n g . Thus, theory is not viewed as separate from the world of r e a l i t y , but as something very much part of i t . The question of " f i t " between research data and actual practice raises the issue of v a l i d i t y in f i e l d research. Becker in 1958 (p. 26) c a l l e d for a systematic, sequential analysis of data in order to convince others of i t s v a l i d i t y . He acknowledges the r i c h but varied data f i e l d research produces. Denzin (1978, p.28) introduces the concept of triangulation suggesting that multiple methods of data c o l l e c t i o n be used since no method i s free from d i s t o r t i n g " r i v a l causal factors". Laboratory s c i e n t i s t s exercise control to eliminate factors that may negatively influence the outcome of their experiments. F i e l d 35 researchers re l i n q u i s h control but exercise s e l e c t i o n , focusing in on data sources that w i l l provide a f u l l d escription of the s e t t i n g . This f l e x i b l e approach l i m i t s external r e l i a b i l i t y in f i e l d research for each set t i n g requires a research design that in some sense is unique. Internal r e l i a b i l i t y , or the extent to which independent researchers agree within the same sett i n g (Wiersma, 1986, p.254), is also d i f f i c u l t to achieve since f i e l d researchers often work alone. When researchers work in a team, often the d i f f e r e n t members w i l l study d i f f e r e n t aspects making r e l i a b i l i t y cross checks d i f f i c u l t . The team approach offers substantial benefits however, when i t comes to v a l i d a t i n g theory. Multiple research perspectives in data c o l l e c t i o n makes tria n g u l a t i o n possible. S e n s i t i z i n g theories can be checked, for example, from the perspective of f i e l d notes, documents, or interviews. If these perspectives confirm each other the v a l i d i t y of theory generated from the data Is enhanced. Exhaustive attention to d e t a i l and multiple data c o l l e c t i o n procedures improves internal v a l i d i t y but external v a l i d i t y , or the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s , i s often more d i f f i c u l t to achieve. External v a l i d i t y is secured as linkage i s established between the data, grounded theory, and s o c i a l theory in general. 36 Research Design The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s e l a b o r a t e d i n the f i r s t two chapters r e q u i r e d a unique r e s e a r c h d e s i g n t h a t enabled me to work as a f u l l - t i m e a r t teacher and a part-time r e s e a r c h e r . The n e c e s s i t y of c o n t i n u i n g f u l l - t i m e employment had advantages when i t came to g a i n i n g access and e n t e r i n g i n t o the s c h o o l c u l t u r e , but i t l i m i t e d the time I was able to spend a t each s i t e . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n r e q u i r e d that I develop some means to "take the s i t e home" f o r the purposes of r e f l e c t i o n , thus I adopted photo a n a l y s i s techniques from the f i e l d of v i s u a l anthropology to supplement my i n t e r v i e w s and f i e l d notes. These three data c o l l e c t i o n methods: (a) i n t e r v i e w s ; (b) photographic a n a l y s i s ; (c) p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , provided the b a s i s f o r t r i a n g u l a t i o n enhancing the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the study s i n c e I was the s o l o r e s e a r c h e r . I was able to o b t a i n a t h i n s l i c e of data from each of the three s i t e s . The data c o l l e c t i o n was focused on a d e s c r i p t i o n of each artroom as evidence of the a r t teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The f o l l o w i n g i s an o u t l i n e of the p r o g r e s s i v e stages of my r e s e a r c h and an e l a b o r a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c data c o l l e c t i o n procedures t h a t were employed. Gai n i n g a c c e s s . During the study I was employed as a j u n i o r secondary a r t teacher i n a suburban lower mainland s c h o o l d i s t r i c t known by the pseudonym Westwood. I have worked i n the d i s t r i c t f o r n e a r l y 37 fourteen years. During that time I have come to know many of the other secondary art teachers through our Local S p e c i a l i s t Association (L.S.A.) of the B.C. Art Teachers' Association. This was a natural avenue to explore when sel e c t i n g s i t e s . Once my research proposal was approved by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Behavioral Sciences Screening Committee and the di r e c t o r of inst r u c t i o n for the school d i s t r i c t , I was able to d i s t r i b u t e my l e t t e r of contact at a L.S.A. meeting in September. This i n i t i a l contact was followed with a phone c a l l which enabled me to secure the three s i t e s needed for the study. The c r i t e r i a 3 used in s i t e s e l ection were: (a) the subject had to be a junior secondary art teacher; (b) the subject had to have a minimum of ten years experience in teaching a r t ; and (c) the subject had to be the only art teacher in the school. Once the subjects agreed to participate appointments were scheduled for the f i r s t interviews. By October 4 , 1989 the three subjects had agreed to pa r t i c i p a t e . This entire process began on July 20, 1989 with the submission of my Request for E t h i c a l Review. Keeping a f i e l d diary. A f i e l d diary was kept to record the thoughts, impressions, notes and quotes that have guided t h i s entire research process. This book has proven to be immensely valuable for i t i s not only a chronological record of the progress of things but a 38 guide to data c o l l e c t i o n , analysis and theory construction as I interact and comment on i t s contents. Interviews. Interviews were selected as the best means of obtaining data on each subject's professional history and p r a c t i c a l knowledge. Two interviews were conducted at each s i t e . These took place after school in the artroom. A l l interviews were audio recorded and transcribed into protocols for coding and analysis (see Appendix A). The f i r s t interview focused on the teacher's personal and professional hi s t o r y as i t had contributed to his or her p r a c t i c a l knowledge (see Appendix B). Of pa r t i c u l a r interest in these interviews were the subjects' entry into teaching, the situations they have worked i n , th e i r b e l i e f s about education and art education, the limi t a t i o n s they have to cope with, and the i r image of what an artroom should be l i k e . The second Interviews were descriptive in character. Each subject was asked to describe how they have set up the i r artroom and why. This formed the basis for a recorded tour of each artroom. I was able to ask questions as the tour proceeded for purposes of c l a r i f i c a t i o n but the respondent structured the dialogue. Photographing the s i t e . Having had limited experience with photography and no experience using photography as a research tool I r e l i e d heavily on C o l l i e r & C o l l i e r ' s (1986) book, Visual Anthropology. 39 T h i s r e f e r e n c e proved Invaluable both In determining data c o l l e c t i o n procedures and d e s i g n i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e means to analyze the photographs t h a t were taken. F o l l o w i n g the second i n t e r v i e w I made a photographic r e c o r d of each s i t e . I developed a s h o o t i n g plan based on C o l l i e r ' s p r i n c i p l e s of an i n c r e a s i n g l y narrowing focus on the s i t e . The f o l l o w i n g a spects of each room were photographed u s i n g black and white f i l m : panoramic shots of the four c o r n e r s of the artroom, the entrance to the classroom, the tea c h e r ' s desk, student s e a t i n g , windows, l i g h t i n g , s t o r a g e , s i n k s , s p e c i a l t y areas, and d i s p l a y s . When the f i l m was developed nine to elev e n negatives were s e l e c t e d from each s i t e f o r enlargement to a 5x7 format f o r a n a l y s i s . Photographs were s e l e c t e d t h a t presented new i n f o r m a t i o n about the s i t e . Because t h i s i s not a comparative study but p r o f i l e s of three d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s the f a c t t h a t the photos were not taken a t the same time was not a l i m i t a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n . The f i n a l v i s i t to each s i t e was conducted d u r i n g the s c h o o l day to observe the artroom i n use. I spent approximately two and one-half hours at each s i t e making f i e l d notes of how the classroom "works" and n o t i n g s p e c i f i c changes to the room s i n c e my l a s t v i s i t . These f i e l d notes were t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o p r o t o c o l s f o r coding and a n a l y s i s (see Appendix C). The f i n a l v i s i t to a s i t e f o r data 40 c o l l e c t i o n took place on March 9, 1990, six months after data c o l l e c t i o n began. Together these sources of data provided a view of each of the three s i t e s for analysis. Ana 1 ys i s Analysis in q u a l i t a t i v e research i s an integral part of the entire process, from the f i r s t f i e l d notes to writing the f i n a l publication. As soon as the f i r s t data are c o l l e c t e d , the analysis begins. In t h i s way the researcher i s guided in further data c o l l e c t i o n by the insights gained from the i n i t i a l impressions of the s e t t i n g . In f i e l d research, analysis a c t u a l l y has two important functions, one is to provide methodological guidance, the other i s to build theory. The l a t t e r function relates the data being c o l l e c t e d to the o r i g i n a l research problem. In t h i s way the data are processed in a meaningful way l i n k i n g empirical findings to a larger t h e o r e t i c a l framework. This study is guided by a conceptual framework that sees the physical environment of the artroom as an expression of the art teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge (see Figure 1). This knowledge is shaped by the teacher's personal experiences and the influence of the school culture. The purpose of t h i s framework was to make e x p l i c i t a focus for data c o l l e c t i o n in the i n i t i a l stages of the study. As Miles and Huberman (1984, p. 27) point out, there are arguments for and 41 against prestructured or " t i g h t " q u a l i t a t i v e designs. The opposite approach is to enter the se t t i n g with few preconceptions, allowing the design to emerge from the data as the study progresses. The middle ground between these extremes Is where most research takes place. Miles and Huberman characterize i t in t h i s way: Something Is known conceptually about the phenomenon, but not enough to house a theory. The researcher has a f a i r l y good idea of the parts of the phenomenon that are not well understood, and knows where to look for these things - in which settings, among which actors, within which processes or during what class of event. F i n a l l y , the researcher usually has some i n i t i a l ideas about how to gather the information - through interviews, observations, document c o l l e c t i o n , perhaps even with a well-validated instrument that w i l l allow for some comparison between the proposed study and e a r l i e r ones. (p. 28) Following t h i s i n i t i a l conceptualization are decisions about research questions, sampling, and instrumentation. Sampllng Three subjects were selected for t h i s study: Martin at Grandview Junior Secondary, Tom at Mariner Junior Secondary, and Cathy at P r a i r i e Junior Secondary. These teachers f i t a l l the c r i t e r i a and 42 were w i l l i n g to r i s k opening t h e i r classrooms f o r the purposes of r e s e a r c h . The s i z e of t h i s sample was guided by the d e s i r e to sample more than one s i t e f o r the purposes of c r o s s v a l i d a t i o n . The sample s i z e was l i m i t e d by the time a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h s i n c e the r e s e a r c h e r was a f u l l time a r t teacher as w e l l . The f i r s t two v i s i t s to each s i t e took p l a c e a f t e r s c h o o l . The t h i r d v i s i t took p l a c e d u r i n g the day so t h a t the artroom c o u l d be seen when students were pres e n t . An average of three hours and f i f t y three minutes was spent i n data c o l l e c t i o n at each s i t e with 4 hours 11 minutes being spent a t Mariner and o n l y 3 hours and 36 minutes a t P r a i r i e . T h i s sampling p l a n provided access to each s i t e at d i f f e r e n t times i n the day and at three d i f f e r e n t times d u r i n g the f i r s t seven months of the s c h o o l year. The f i r s t v i s i t took p l a c e at Grandview on September 13, 1989 and the f i n a l v i s i t took p l a c e on March 9, 1990 at Mariner (see F i g u r e 2). M a r t i n Grandview J r . Secondary Interview A l October 4 Interview A2 Photographs October 14 Classroom Observation A3 February 27 Tom Mariner J r . Secondary Interview B l October 11 Inter v i e w B2 Photographs December 13 Classroom Observation B3 March 9 Cathy P r a i r i e J r . Secondary Interview C l October 17 Interview C2 Photographs December 19 Classroom Observation C3 February 20 Fi g u r e 2. Sampling Plan 44 Given the r e s e a r c h e r ' s f a m i l i a r i t y with the j u n i o r high artroom s e t t i n g and the a b i l i t y of photographs to "preserve" the s e t t i n g f o r more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s t h i s was viewed as an adequate sample f o r r e s e a r c h . Instrumentation M u l t i p l e s t r a t e g i e s f o r data c o l l e c t i o n were chosen to provide t r i a n g u l a t i o n i n order to enhance the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the study. Since time i n each s i t e was l i m i t e d an approach had to be developed that allowed the r e s e a r c h e r to become s a t u r a t e d with the necessary data. Ethnographic i n t e r v i e w s were s e l e c t e d as a means to gather data on each s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y , b e l i e f s , images of an artroom, and s t r a t e g i e s f o r coping with the l i m i t a t i o n s of the a r c h i t e c t u r e and the s c h o o l c u l t u r e . An i n t e r v i e w schedule was prepared to guide the d i s c u s s i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t v i s i t to each s i t e . Although the same instrument was used, the open ended nature of the q u e s t i o n s and the d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y of each informant r e s u l t e d i n three very d i f f e r e n t c o n v e r s a t i o n s (see Appendix B f o r i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e ) . The second i n t e r v i e w was l e s s s t r u c t u r e d f o r p a r t of the d e s i g n was to see how the respondent d e s c r i b e d t h e i r artroom. Each s u b j e c t was asked to d e s c r i b e what they had done with t h e i r artroom and why. The s u b j e c t then walked the r e s e a r c h e r around the room d e s c r i b i n g i t s p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s and r e l a t i n g 45 background Information concerning design decisions and coping strategies that they had developed. Following this interview a series of photographs was taken of the s i t e as a record of the teacher's description and a source of v i s u a l data to capture those d e t a i l s of the room's design that was missed in e a r l i e r interviews. The f i n a l phase of data c o l l e c t i o n occurred through a two hour classroom observation during the school day. As a participant observer in the s e t t i n g , the researcher recorded impressions of the room through f i e l d notes (see Appendix C). Photographic Analysis As has been stated the method developed for the analysis of the photographs taken in t h i s study was adapted from a helpful work e n t i t l e d Visual  Anthropology by John and Malcolm C o l l i e r (1986). They are quick to point out that "we can responsibly analyze only vis u a l evidence that is contextually complete and sequentially organized" (p. 163). And l a t e r , "the significance of what we find in analysis is shaped by the context established by systematic recording during fleldwork" (p. 163). The interviews and f i e l d notes gathered through t h i s study provide the contextual background needed for the meaningful analysis of the photographic record. Given t h i s context for analysis a procedure had to be developed for the abstraction of each photograph into a written account that could be 46 coded and related to the major research categories. C o l l i e r and C o l l i e r (1986, p.172) suggest a process that allows the researcher to focus on the d i f f e r e n t layers of the photographic record. I n i t i a l l y , general impressions of the photograph are recorded, next a detailed log i s created of the contents of the photo that are relevant to the research categories being investigated, and f i n a l l y a larger perspective i s taken as the contents are placed in the context of the entire photographic record. In ideal analysis they suggest that the "process allows the data to lead to i t s own conclusions through a dynamic interplay between open and structured procedures" (p. 172). The s p e c i f i c procedures employed in t h i s study were as follows. Guided by the shooting plan approximately twenty photographs were taken at each s i t e . These were developed and the negatives studied in order to select those images that were most representative of the s i t e . Nine to eleven photographs from each s i t e were then enlarged to a 5x7 black and white p r i n t . The sel e c t i o n was made according the information contained in the photograph and the l e v e l of d e t a i l . The attempt was made to represent the character of each artroom environment. When two photographs contained e s s e n t i a l l y the same information, only one was selected for enlargement. These prints 47 became the objects of analysis (see Appendix D). There were four phases to the process: 1. The photographs for the s i t e were examined as a group. F i r s t impressions of the artroom were written based on the combined impact of the entire set of photographs. The photographs were then arranged in the order in which they were taken for the next phase of analysis. 2 . Each photo was analyzed separately for i t s content. A detailed description, or log, was written for each photo. The degree of d e t a i l in the written description was appropriate for the q u a l i t a t i v e nature of this study. 3 . Once the log was completed a structured analysis was undertaken which i d e n t i f i e d those aspects of the photo that were relevant to each of the major research categories. 4. A n a l y t i c a l memos were written whenever the photographic analysis revealed new insights into the sett i n g or were in support of insights already gleaned from the data. This process of analysis provided important grounding for the concepts and connections drawn from the interviews and f i e l d notes. The vi s u a l record revealed physical evidence, within each artroom, of the b e l i e f s and knowledge held by that teacher. For example, Cathy's image of an artroom as a "happening". The 48 photographs provided a d i r e c t way to ground the s e n s i t i z i n g concepts and theories in the empirical world of the artroom. Research Categories Once the data have been processed from audio tapes, f i e l d notes, and photographic analysis, the process of Identifying categories begins. Through coding the researcher immerses himself in the data, searching one l i n e , one word at a time for categories relevant to the conceptual framework. New categories also may be discovered emerging from the data, that revise or replace e x i s t i n g ones. Strauss (1987, p. 28) points out that, "the aim of coding is to open up the inquiry". Although guided by theories and concepts brought into the work, the researcher holds these t e n t a t i v e l y , open to new d i r e c t i o n s that the data may reveal. As the study proceeds the categories become more c l e a r l y defined and subcategories begin to appear. When t h i s occurs the analysis s t a r t s to take shape and a foundation is l a i d for the t h e o r e t i c a l work to come. Rather than allowing categories to multiply at random, Miles and Huberman (1984, p.57) suggest a general accounting scheme for codes "that i s not content s p e c i f i c but points to the general domains in which codes w i l l have to be inductively developed". For t h i s study a l i s t was developed that showed the research categories, with subcategories i d e n t i f i e d within each 49 major category (see Appendix E). The codes on this l i s t were also related to the i n i t i a l research questions that guided the study. Once several protocols had been coded and checked for consistency a glossary was developed that s p e c i f i e d c l e a r l y the meaning of each code. New codes that emerged as the analysis proceeded were added to the l i s t as subcategories. The major research categories remained intact throughout the analysis. The procedure for i d e n t i f y i n g categories was as follows. F i r s t the entire protocol was read, sections were underlined and marginal comments and notes were made. Then the protocol was studied l i n e by l i n e for i t s content and the passages that related to the categories or subcategories were coded. If a s i g n i f i c a n t passage was i d e n t i f i e d for which there was no category a provisional code would be entered. If the need for t h i s category appeared again several times then the category would be entered and defined in the glossary. In each case that a new category was developed i t f i t within the e x i s t i n g conceptual framework. The same coding procedure was used for interviews f i e l d notes and the logs describing each photograph. Once the coding of material was complete i t became possible to examine each research category, in turn, across a l l of the s i t e s . 50 Memos. Memos are bri e f written statements that capture a hunch, a question, or an insight for consideration at some later stage of analysis. Three types of memos were used in t h i s study: summarizing or within s i t e memos, integrating memos, and the o r e t i c a l memos. The relati o n s h i p between these three types can be seen in Figure 3 . Photographic A n a l y s i s Photographic Analys i s Photographic Analys i s Interviews Interviews Interviews F i e l d Notes F i e l d Notes F i e l d Notes SITE A SITE B SITE C Within S i t e Memos Within S i t e Memos Within S i t e Memos I n t e g r a t i n g Memos Fi g u r e 3 . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i o u s forms of memos. 52 Memos allow a solo researcher to interact with the data. E a r l i e r memos are more l i k e notes that guide and di r e c t the course of research. The memos that are written later attempt to build on the content of e a r l i e r memos, weaving them together into t h e o r e t i c a l propositions supported by the research. Strauss (1987, p. 110) describes memoing as part of the thought process of q u a l i t a t i v e research: Even when a researcher i s working alone on a project, he or she is engaged in continual internal dialogue - for that i s , after a l l , what thinking i s . When two or more researchers are working together the dialogue i s overt. In any event, the memos are an ess e n t i a l part of those dialogues, a running record of insights, hunches, hypotheses, discussions about the implications of codes, additional thoughts, whatnot. Cumulatively, the memos add up to and feed into the f i n a l integrative statements and the writing for publication. Writing memos i s , to a large degree, the stage of analysis where the synthesis that i s the goal of the research takes place. Through writing memos the data are integrated with relevant theory toward the goal of producing the th e o r e t i c a l conclusions of the study. For the sake of brevity i t i s not possible to include 53 a l l the memos from t h i s study but I include several passages to i l l u s t r a t e how one memo builds on another toward integration. An early memo (October 30, 1989; Protocol A l ) : In discussing the p r a c t i c a l knowledge gained through his early teaching appointments the handling of supplies and clean-up procedures seem to be paramount. He f e l t that the univ e r s i t y did not prepare him in the least for coping with materials in large classes (page 4). "Nobody r e a l l y talked about classroom organization at unive r s i t y " . It's inte r e s t i n g however, that when i t comes to describing his image of an artroom that he seems to be most strongly influenced by the room of a sponsor teacher he worked with on his practicum. Later he mentions that a sponsor teacher taught him more "about t h i s job than any other single person" (page 5). This does not seem to f i t his negative view of his teacher t r a i n i n g . In t h i s memo, written after coding the f i r s t interview with Martin, i t is apparent that he did not f e e l prepared for the management role that an art teacher i s expected to adopt. He f e l t unprepared for the stresses of managing an art classroom. The modeling of his sponsor teacher was, for Martin, the most positive aspect of his teacher t r a i n i n g . The next memo written at the conclusion of the data c o l l e c t i o n in March 1990 picks up on the theme of an art teacher's career i n i t i a t i o n in a more sophisticated manner. This is an example of a summarizing memo within a single s i t e . Al-9/6 I'm getting the impression that the f i r s t years of teaching are very formative years with regard to managing materials, clean-up and time in an art classroom. Once a teacher develops an approach that s u i t s them and maintains peace in the classroom there is l i t t l e need for them to change. 54 Al-9/41-45 There is a sense of comfort that comes with experience. A knowledge that you can cope because you've been there before. This assumes that the students and the schools don't change either. Research by Goodlad and L o r t i e seems to point to the constancy of school culture in spite of dramatic s o c i a l change. This may be because school culture is shaped by what is comfortable for the teacher. Once these patterns of comfort are established they become very r e s i s t a n t to change because change threatens the status quo. The notions of comfort and status quo are further developed in t h i s integrating memo from March 18, 1990. A fresh thought just occurred to me a f t e r spending most of the afternoon reading and getting organized in an attempt to focus my analysis. Another way to look at t h i s study i s as an examination of the way in which art teachers achieve a kind of educational equilibrium within th e i r artrooms. In order to achieve a positive working environment that has some sense of comfort and freedom from stress a c e r t a i n amount of adaptation or coping must take place. Ideals must be modified to incorporate the r e a l i t i e s of the school culture and the physical l i m i t a t i o n s of the environment in the classroom. There is a tendency for these patterns, once they have been established within the f i r s t years of one's career, to s o l i d i f y into a rather r i g i d view of art education. The isolationism of teacher culture and the marginality of art education from the c e n t r a l , p o l i t i c a l debate over curriculum re s u l t s in these patterns forming the background for an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , some may say eccentric, approach to teaching. Population decline, a reduced teaching force, and economic uncertainty have a l l contributed to a lack of career mobility among art teachers. Bennet (1985) points out that art teacher's have rather d i f f e r e n t views of their careers r e s u l t i n g from the. low status of their subject area, the a r t i s t - t e a c h e r or teacher-artist dilemma, and the non-traditional t r a i n i n g they have received. Art teachers, according to Bennet, enjoy the unique opportunities they have to relate to their students within t h e i r artrooms. Few art teachers are w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e t h i s for more t r a d i t i o n a l teaching settings or administrative 55 positions. Some maintain a keen, growing interest in art throughout th e i r careers that i s viewed with equal importance to their teaching, thus s a t i s f a c t i o n i s not pursued s o l e l y within the framework of teaching. Maintaining s a t i s f y i n g involvement in th e i r work improves the qu a l i t y of thei r t o t a l careers, and i f the conditions of teaching are not too fr u s t r a t i n g , and the p u l l of art not too strong, teachers may have good reason to stay in teaching, where they derive s a t i s f a c t i o n from their relationships with children. (Bennet, 1985,p.131) She also points out that art school trained teachers had a d i f f e r e n t view of thei r careers than those who trained in a faculty of education. This would seem to be s i g n i f i c a n t for t h i s study for both Tom and Martin came from an art school background into education, while Cathy and I studied art within the education faculty. This memo incorporates e a r l i e r memos from a single s i t e with a perspective gained from the study of a l l three s i t e s . The memo also establishes a link between t h i s study and research on art teachers and their careers (Bennet, 1985). This connection to the l i t e r a t u r e lends t h e o r e t i c a l weight to the theory emerging from the data. It i s intere s t i n g to note that the idea of teacher comfort within the artroom environment arose from some reading I was doing for pleasure. Witold Rybczynskl's book, Home (1986), examines the evolution of our notion of comfort within domestic settings. My reading prompted me to write this memo within my f i e l d diary: (January 20, 1990) I started reading Witold Rybczynski's, Home, la s t night. It struck me with the notion of comfort that he introduces. Our society i s a culture of comfort and thi s notion pervades our homes and our workplaces. I wonder how much a teacher's career is shaped by comfort. 56 Independence, i s o l a t i o n , and f a m i l i a r i t y with surroundings and situations seem to be big factors for middle-aged teachers with established careers. The thought of giving up a degree of comfort to teach in a new setting is very threatening. As I examine the three s i t e s I am investigating, i t seems that each teacher has created a classroom environment that i s comfortable for them. The three are d i f f e r e n t environments, but they are also three unique people. The environments they have created are a'n expression of their own comfort needs as teachers given the demands of their professional l i v e s , (diary, p. 65) This i s an example of how researchers, can estab l i s h creative links between the data and the context of things they are learning in th e i r personal l i v e s . Andy Hargreaves encouraged t h i s kind of broad reading and association of ideas in a course I took from him in the summer of 1989 on "Teachers and Their Work". Through the examples and the discussion above i t i s obvious that memos play a c r u c i a l role in reducing the volume of the datum and establishing meaningful connections between one piece of data and another. This occurs both within the study I t s e l f , and between the study and the wider body of theo r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . Integrating Memos and Diagrams The focus of th i s phase of analysis i s to create a clear picture of the concepts and categories described in t h i s research; to cast the findings of the study in such a way that they may be concisely presented through words and integrative diagrams. At thi s l e v e l the thinking must be conceptual and unifying in nature rather than on the l e v e l of s p e c i f i c s i t e s or cases. 57 Integrative diagrams. A tentative conceptual framework for th i s study was shown in the f i r s t chapter (see Figure 1). This framework guided the c o l l e c t i o n of data, but It was f l e x i b l e , tentative, w i l l i n g to be reshaped in l i g h t of discoveries made in studying the empirical world of the artroom. As analysis reached the integrative phase i t became necessary to build a new framework from the data rather than to impose the o r i g i n a l framework on the data. If the categories and connections emerging from the new framework correspond to the old, then t h i s confirms the value of the o r i g i n a l conceptual scheme. The new framework, although patterned aft e r the old, has greater conceptual density for the categories and relationships i t conveys are grounded in the data and the l i t e r a t u r e . Time was spent reviewing the data and the memos, and sketching rough diagrams in an attempt to find a new framework that i l l u s t r a t e d the data more c l e a r l y . The r e s u l t of these e f f o r t s was a clearer version of the o r i g i n a l framework, but the new diagram had much greater conceptual meaning (see Figure 4). P e r s o n a l E x p e r i e n c e PERSONAL PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE Beliefs Image Coping Strategies p h y s i c a l b o u n d a r i e s ' T H E A R T R O O M \ \ \ >• \ f l e x i b l e <4 'elements of / t i I <• i room design * S c h o o l L i f e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t e a c h e r s s t u d e n t s F i g u r e 4 . C o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , p r a c t i c a l k n o w l e d g e , t h e a r t r o o m , a n d s c h o o l l i f e . 59 The data from th i s study have provided a clearer understanding of an art teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge as i t relates to classroom design. As an art teacher's career develops, the p r a c t i c a l knowledge that he or she hold concerning artroom procedures, organization, and management becomes better defined. These are among that subset of p r a c t i c a l knowledge known as coping strategies and they make up the technical, or applied side of teaching. Martin, Tom, and Cathy can r e a d i l y explain their methods for handling clean-up, d i s t r i b u t i n g materials, and storing work in progress. These strategies have been added to th e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge through the experience of teaching a r t . They influence the design of the room, by d i c t a t i n g seating arrangements, use of storage, and classroom rules. The r e s u l t of the imposition of these strategies is a more comfortable environment for the art teacher, and i n d i r e c t l y , the students. When i t came to the image of the artroom that the teacher held, the data provided some new insight into the role that image plays in shaping the environment of the classroom. The notion of an image of the artroom, seemed to be held by these art teachers in a less c l e a r l y defined way than the o r i g i n a l conceptual framework anticipated. Although each teacher could describe ideal aspects of an artroom they did not hold 60 a c l e a r l y defined image of an artroom that they were working towards, as a well defined goal. The three teachers seemed to hold their image of what an artroom should be as a guiding p r i n c i p l e that they were not completely aware of. The physical environment of each artroom held evidence of the image that each teacher held, but th i s evidence was expressed in an unconscious rather than a deliberate fashion. Thus, where coping strategies, in response to s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s , are applied in a d i r e c t , conscious manner, image is expressed less d i r e c t l y , through the many design decisions the teacher makes about the room's environment. The room, i t s e l f , in the f i n a l analysis is seen to be composed of physical boundaries such as walls, b u i l t in storage and plumbing, and f l e x i b l e elements such as furniture, displays, movable storage, and signs which serve as physical evidence of organizational strategies. It is noteworthy that the f l e x i b l e environment becomes less f l e x i b l e once an arrangement that is comfortable to the teacher has been reached. This comfort seems to depend on an equilibrium between the physical boundaries of the artroom, the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the school culture, and the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge. These three factors can be related v i s u a l l y through a simple diagram (Figure 5). 61 Architectural Limitations P r a c t i c a l , ' , , ^ » School Knowledge L i f e Figure 5. Factors influencing teacher comfort in the artroom. 62 These integrative diagrams serve to bring the course of the research into focus. As Strauss (1987) points out, an integrative diagram "puts together into a larger pattern, however pr o v i s i o n a l , a l o t of other wise scattered materials - or scattered sense of those materials - into a sense that t h i s project 'has r e a l l y gone somewhere'" (p. 185). In thi s case the integrative diagrams, although related to the o r i g i n a l conceptual framework, have succeeded in grounding that framework in the empirical base provided by the data that have been c o l l e c t e d . Integrative memos. The f i n a l phase of analysis, prior to writing t h i s thesis, involved the preparation of integrative memos. These memos are designed to bring together, in writing, sequences of thought contained in e a r l i e r s i t e s p e c i f i c or th e o r e t i c a l memos. They are written following a thorough review of a l l the data, and l i t e r a t u r e , and are summaries of the sa l i e n t findings. It is on these memos that the f i n a l conclusions of the study are based. The following memos have been included to i l l u s t r a t e the way in which the data speaks to the issues of individualism and i s o l a t i o n in teaching. The f i r s t relates the researcher's enhanced understanding of the dynamics of the artroom environment to his personal experience within his own artroom. 63 3/23/90 From the perspective of an outside observer i t may seem that an Individual teacher's classroom is a rather chaotic environment, a product of random interactions between a teacher, the students and the curriculum. This study views the classroom as a dynamic balance between the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge, including t h e i r background, b e l i e f s , and whatever image they hold of the ideal artroom, and the culture of the school and i t s students. If the teacher is going to cope with teaching they must maintain a balance in thi s environment, a personal balance that they impose. This is achieved through a process of acceptance and transformation. Some aspects of the environment must be taken as givens, or boundaries that the teacher must work within, while others become the focus of transformation through the teacher's application of the i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The classroom becomes a r e f l e c t i o n of the struggle between the personal, Inward l i f e of the teacher, and the public, external world of the classroom and the school culture where the teacher must operate. At points in the year my personal b e l i e f s about teaching seem to be losing the battle to the forces of the school culture that try to disrupt the harmonious classroom environment I wish to create. At these times I go into a retreat, or sur v i v a l mode in my teaching. At other points I reassert my fundamental b e l i e f s about teaching and art education and restore the environment to a more accurate r e f l e c t i o n of these b e l i e f s . There is a sense where th i s struggle occurs with each cla s s , on a microscopic l e v e l , and within one's career on a macroscopic l e v e l . There i s l i t t l e that is uniform about th i s struggle because i t occurs within the confines of each teacher's isolated classroom. This requires that very personal strategies are developed that ' f i t ' the s p e c i f i c circumstances of each s e t t i n g . Is preparation for this struggle what is lacking in teacher t r a i n i n g for art educators? (Integrative memo, pp. 6,7) The second example relates the work of Lor t i e (1975, p.210) on individualism to the development of coping strategies within the artroom environment. The suggestion is that the system encourages individualism 64 by o f f e r i n g l i t t l e help to beginning teachers. The i n i t i a l coping strategies that a new teacher employs to establish an equilibrium within the artroom environment are personally developed and maintained as p r a c t i c a l knowledge, to some extent even independent of teaching colleagues. March 18, 1990 (Integrative Memo) On Individualism: Teachers are faced with ambiguous c r i t e r i a for gauging t h e i r own success and so they develop their own standards based on thei r own capacities and in t e r e s t s . This i s evident in Martin's comments about not being sure whether or not he i s being successful at what he does. One would think that after 20 years in a profession, that one would know, but for teachers th i s i s often not the case. Teacher's develop the i r coping strategies by themselves. The c r i t i c i s m leveled at teacher t r a i n i n g should possibly be directed toward a system that encourages individualism. L i t t l e help is offered to beginning teachers because those in the profession didn't receive any help when they started e i t h e r . This means that the development of a teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge is guided by the need for coping and su r v i v a l rather than c l e a r l y defined philosophical or pedagogical objectives. Teachers put up a front of mutual cooperation within the school or profession denying c o n f l i c t but, in fact, the culture i s composed of a loosely knit together group of i n d i v i d u a l i s t s who are hesitant and uneasy about the course they have chosen. (Lortie, 1975,p.210) In the manner demonstrated by these two examples, integrative memos explore the sign i f i c a n c e of the findings and the implications for theory construction from t h i s research. This work sets the stage for the f i n a l phase of the research, writing. 6 5 Summary. Analysis is the heart of t h i s research study. The phases of coding, memolng, and the construction of integrating diagrams and memos progressively reduce the large volume of data into meaningful concepts and theories that can be discussed. The process also involves the abstraction of a physical s e t t i n g , depicted in photographs, into words. The v i s u a l must be made verbal before the analysis can proceed and meaningful patterns begin to emerge. 66 Chapter 4 M a r t i n , Tom and Cathy Three Art Teachers and T h e i r Artrooms The a n a l y s i s undertaken i n t h i s study can best be represented through d e s c r i p t i v e accounts of the three teachers and t h e i r artrooms. Each artroom i s an e x p r e s s i o n of that teacher's b e l i e f s about edu c a t i o n and a r t e d u c a t i o n . These b e l i e f s have been shaped by the teacher's personal background and p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r y . The room a l s o expresses the teacher's image of an i d e a l artroom l e a r n i n g environment. T h i s image never reaches f u l l e x p r e s s i o n , f o r i t i s l i m i t e d , by the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g and the s c h o o l c u l t u r e , but i t i n f l u e n c e s the d e s i g n of the l e a r n i n g environment. F i n a l l y , the d e s i g n of each room r e f l e c t s the s p e c i f i c coping s t r a t e g i e s t h at each teacher has developed to manage the classroom and the dynamics of the s c h o o l c u l t u r e . B e l i e f s , image, and coping s t r a t e g i e s are three aspects of the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge for which evidence can be found w i t h i n the room's d e s i g n . Both the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g of t h e i r artrooms, and each teacher's d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r background and that s e t t i n g , were the focus f o r data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . The v i s u a l appearance of the room i t s e l f , and the teacher's r a t i o n a l e f o r that d e s i g n , o f f e r i n s i g h t i n t o the content and use of each teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge. Artroom design i s a complex 67 i n t e r a c t i o n between the r e a l i t i e s of the p h y s i c a l space, the s c h o o l c u l t u r e and the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e s of the three s i t e s p o r t r a y t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of each room w i l l be given followed by an i n depth d e s c r i p t i o n of the teacher's desk, student workspace, artroom tone, d i s p l a y s , and the room's s t a t e of c l e a n l i n e s s and o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s account w i l l be followed by a d i s c u s s i o n of each teacher's c a r e e r . F i n a l l y , three aspects of the p r a c t i c a l knowledge t h a t each teacher holds, b e l i e f s , image, and coping s t r a t e g i e s w i l l be presented. S e v e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e photographs f o r each s i t e have been in c l u d e d to complement the w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n s . Grandview J u n i o r Secondary Martin's Artroom Upon e n t e r i n g Martin's room one i s s t r u c k by the c h e e r f u l n e s s of the environment. The room appeared w e l l o r g a n i z e d . The desks were c l e a n and arranged i n rows with s t o o l s or c h a i r s on top. The space, however, was crowded even i n the absence of s t u d e n t s . Four l a r g e d i s p l a y panels along the back w a l l commanded a t t e n t i o n . Two s e t s of student drawings, r e p r o d u c t i o n s , p o s t e r s , and a s i l k s c r e e n e d s w e a t s h i r t b e a r i n g the s c h o o l s name were arranged i n a w e l l planned d i s p l a y . There were two other student works that dominated one's v i s u a l impression of the room: the 68 l a r g e whimsical mural of a c a t , i n s u n g l a s s e s , p e e r i n g through a f i s h tank, and an e i g h t f o o t t a l l dragon mask hanging next to the chalkboard. The v i s u a l c l u t t e r of the room seemed to r a d i a t e from the teacher's desk (see F i g u r e 6 ) . The desk contained a r t m a t e r i a l s that "go m i s s i n g " i f they aren't accounted f o r , such as s c i s s o r s , r u l e r s , rubber cement, p e n c i l s , masking tape, and X-acto k n i v e s . School documents i n c l u d i n g n o t i c e s , a s c h o o l c a l e n d a r , teacher's manual, attendance forms and other papers were l o o s e l y organized i n t o a three t i e r e d desk t r a y . On the f l o o r to the r i g h t of the desk were at l e a s t t h i r t y books with r e p r o d u c t i o n s of artwork and t e a c h i n g examples. To the l e f t of the desk were two t a b l e s with Apple I l g s computers. Above the computers was an e c l e c t i c b u l l e t i n board t h a t d i s p l a y e d student work, a poster of A l b e r t E i n s t i e n , complete with Groucho Marx g l a s s e s , buttons with a v a r i e t y of slogans, an i l l u m i n a t e d manuscript t h a t d e s c r i b e d the e v i l s of smoking, a r e p r o d u c t i o n of a student's work that had been s e l e c t e d f o r the B . C . Young A r t i s t s ' E x h i b i t i o n , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t n e w s l e t t e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n f o r m a t i o n , attendance l i s t s and an a r t hazards p o s t e r . In s p i t e of the f r i e n d l y , open d i s p l a y s i t was d i f f i c u l t to a v o i d f e e l i n g cramped and c l o s e d i n . A w a l l of black c u r t a i n s to the south covered l a r g e 69 windows. I t was a c l e a r October day but the c u r t a i n s were c l o s e d s h u t t i n g out the n a t u r a l l i g h t . Walls j u t t e d i n t o the room d i v i d i n g a good s i z e d room i n t o three s m a l l e r spaces, an entrance hallway, a storage and k i l n a rea, and a student workspace. The student work area with i t s rows of desks was d i v i d e d from the storage area by a sink i s l a n d c o n t a i n i n g a long s t a i n l e s s s t e e l s i n k . There was adequate storage i n the room but some of the c a b i n e t s were p o o r l y designed with the wrong dimensions f o r standard s i z e s of paper. There was a locked storeroom, which was on l y c l o s e t s i z e . In s p i t e of these drawbacks, the ge n e r a l impression of the artroom's environment was a p o s i t i v e one. M a r t i n managed to work with the f l e x i b l e elements of the room's environment to optimize h i s use of the l i m i t e d space a v a i l a b l e . Martin's Desk. The desk gave the impression t h a t M a r t i n was neat and organized, but not to a f a u l t (see Fi g u r e 7) . Although the t r a y s were l o o s e l y p i l e d with an assortment of books and papers, there was the f e e l i n g t h a t M a r t i n could f i n d anything he needed i n a moment. The desk was a standard metal teacher's desk; not the l e a s t b i t imposing. T h i s r e f l e c t s Martin's unimposing manner with h i s s t u d e n t s . Rather than d i r e c t i n g from the f r o n t of the artroom or h i s desk, he comes along beside students and i n t e r a c t s with them i n d i v i d u a l l y . The top had i t s storage c a p a c i t y 70 i n c r e a s e d by the a d d i t i o n of desk t r a y s . Items that e a s i l y disappear were kept on the desk where they could e a s i l y be kept i n s i g h t . The desk s u r f a c e was c l e a r , o f f e r i n g a good workspace f o r w r i t i n g or p l a n n i n g . The desk was s e t up to f u n c t i o n as a workplace f o r the teacher. He c o u l d be working at h i s desk and s t i l l have at h i s d i s p o s a l many m a t e r i a l s t h a t students might need. M a r t i n has organized h i s desk i n a manner that g i v e s him c o n t r o l over c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s that students may need. M a t e r i a l s i n an a r t room need to managed e f f i c i e n t l y or they d i s a p p e a r , p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l items l i k e p e n c i l s , s c i s s o r s , r u l e r s or X-acto k n i v e s . M a r t i n developed the s t r a t e g y of keeping these items c l o s e at hand. Desk o r g a n i z a t i o n i s one coping s t r a t e g y employed by a r t t e a c h e r s . M a r t i n a l s o keeps m a t e r i a l s at h i s f i n g e r t i p s as a s t r a t e g y to save time. He can respond e f f i c i e n t l y to the requests of students t h a t need a s s i s t a n c e without having to walk over to the storage area to f i n d s u p p l i e s . I t ' s s o r t of a s t a t i o n . Some of the s u p p l i e s are kept here, the small t h i n g s and items that I l i k e to keep my eye on. I have some s c i s s o r s up here because they're g e t t i n g used by v a r i o u s people i n the s c h o o l a l l the time; X-acto k n i v e s , s t a p l e s and s t a p l e r s and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . I have a b i t of paper i n here too. Some t h i n g s I have to r e f e r to a l o t l i k e the teachers manual, t h i n g s l i k e t h a t are here i n t h i s desk. Anything I need a l o t of. I keep f i l m i n here f o r the cameras and e l a s t i c bands and tacks and of course my attendance book and my mark book I u s u a l l y keep them on the desk. And I use the desk to do a l i t t l e b i t of work myself from time to time. So i t ' s j u s t a s o r t of s t a t i o n . And e v e r y t h i n g 71 eventually ends up here at my desk. There's erasers here and pencils...A student doesn't know where to put anything, they put i t on my desk, and I ' l l take care of i t . It gets projects p i l e d up on i t and equipment pi l e d up on i t . I'm sure i t must drive substitutes crazy. (Protocol A2: p. 3, 10-42) Martin also uses his desk as a c a t c h - a l l for student work and papers that need his attention. This strategy gives him a place to put things when there is n ' t time, during the pressure of a cl a s s , to f i l e them away properly. If something is on his desk Martin knows i t is safe and he can deal with i t , in a calmer moment, later in the day. The location of the desk is also a st r a t e g i c classroom management decision. Martin positioned his desk to allow him to survey the classroom while seated. Any student entering or leaving the classroom has to walk past his desk. The computers were located immediately to the right of the desk because of their value and the need to c a r e f u l l y supervise the students who use them. This ensures the safety of the computers and allows Martin the proximity to interact with the students from his desk. Student workspace. The student workspace consisted of twenty-seven desks forced into a crowded arrangement between sink island and south wall. Rows of desks, according to Martin, are the best possible arrangement given the amount of space and the fact that the room Is used for both art and s o c i a l studies. In 72 s p i t e of the crowded space, he f e e l s t h a t the room i s f l e x i b l e . ...One good t h i n g about i t i s , i t i s a f l e x i b l e room. I t can become an academic room at the snap of the f i n g e r . . . I can adapt t h i s room to j u s t about a n y t h i n g . ( P r o t o c o l A l : p. 16, 16-24) He has ad j u s t e d to the idea of having students seated i n rows of i n d i v i d u a l desks f o r a r t and does not seem bothered by the use of the artroom f o r other s u b j e c t s . The arrangement of desks r e p r e s e n t s Martin's s o l u t i o n to managing the maximum number of students i n a l i m i t e d space. There r e a l l y i s n ' t enough room to seat as many students as I have to i n t h i s room. Ah, there's so much f u r n i t u r e and so many students you can't move around i n the room. There's no freedom of movement. The desks are not the type of desks I would choose f o r a r t . I would choose bigger t a b l e s so they c o u l d do l a r g e r p r o j e c t s . But t h i s room has to be used f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s , i t has to be used f o r Math, sometimes French so these are the o n l y p r a c t i c a l way. And I don't l i k e to s l i d e the desks around every hour of every day cause t h a t ' s c h a o t i c . So I j u s t leave them l i k e t h i s and the students have got used to that and I don't th i n k t h a t ' s been a problem. ( P r o t o c o l A l : p. 19, 31-47) The students observed were comfortable with the room. During p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i t was noted that they were allowed to move around f r e e l y , h e l p i n g themselves to m a t e r i a l s . The s i z e of the student workspace i s not a s e r i o u s l y l i m i t i n g f a c t o r f o r Mart i n or h i s stud e n t s . Artroom Tone. The atmosphere of Martin's classroom was easy and r e l a x e d . The students f e l t "at home" and there was no t e n s i o n between teacher and 73 student expectations. The students knew where to find the materials they needed. They had unrestricted access to storage areas, materials and even, the teacher's desk. Martin spent most of the period on his feet interacting with student after student, answering questions or off e r i n g assistance. He employed a calm, quiet voice and was always encouraging in his remarks. Occasionally, he demonstrated a pa r t i c u l a r technique d i r e c t l y on a student's work. The storage areas in the room were not labeled, but the students seemed to know where to find things. Participant observation indicated that the room is very accessible to the students, and that they are able to use that freedom respons i b l y . Displays. The vi s u a l displays in Martin's room f e l l into three classes: teaching posters, examples of student work, and e c l e c t i c c o l l e c t i o n s of vi s u a l material. Four, c a r e f u l l y hand let t e r e d , wall posters dealing with the elements and pr i n c i p l e s of design were examples of teaching posters. These were mounted high on the wall in the back corner of the room where they could be referred to during lessons. The West wall contained display boards that were floor to c e i l i n g in height (see Figure 8). Approximately 80% of the space contained student work, the remaining 20% contained an e c l e c t i c display of posters, art reproductions, and notices. The student work consisted of two sets of 74 drawings: Imaginary Insects and a series of four tone studies of the same object with each image magnified over the previous one. The size and qual i t y of the display of student work added interest to the room's visua l environment. Only well-executed, finished examples of student work were on display. In th i s way the display r e f l e c t e d a standard, or Martin's b e l i e f s about successful work, that students could look to as a goal. Martin offered this rationale for the design of his displays. I surround them with as many art things as I can get away with and I keep tryi n g to change things around... I want to have their own works up on the wall more, or other things that might be v i s u a l l y appealing to them, and that way they can come and see their own work and t h i s w i l l be always a room where people can come and have something to look at and see.(Protocol A l : p. 17, 25-37) The displays Martin chose gave the room a l i g h t hearted, almost humourous f e e l . The mural of the cat staring through the f i s h tank, the plant, the poster of Einstein with Groucho Marx glasses and a bandana a l l contributed to a warm, f r i e n d l y learning environment. This is in keeping with his desire to have students fe e l "at home" in his artroom (Protocol A l : p.17, 40-41) . Cleanliness and organization. Martin's room appeared clean bright and organized. The floors shined, there was no accumulation of materials and student work on the shelves and countertops. 75 Cleanliness was a dominant value in the school culture which Martin adopted in his artroom. I have to keep the floors spotless a l l the time, I got used to that and I don't mind. We take pride in the cleanliness of the school and I think that's good for the whole school...So ah, you get used to anything l i k e that. (Protocol A l : p. 20, 7-21) He appreciated the pride that students and s t a f f took in the appearance of the school but, he found that the standard of cleanliness, that was imposed on the artroom, took a l i t t l e getting used to. By keeping sinks and counters clean a l l the time Martin was able to prevent his standards of cleanliness and order from deteriorating. This standard was obviously adhered to throughout the room given the condition of the f l o o r s , desks, and chairs. Martin does not include cleanliness as an esse n t i a l element of his image of an artroom. He admits that some of the rooms that inspired him from art school were downright messy. His standards of cleanliness and room organization have developed as coping strategies that enable him to manage the room e f f e c t i v e l y and cooperate with the values of the school culture. 76 Figure 7 . Martin's desk. 78 F i g u r e 8. The d i s p l a y boards a l o n g the back w a l l of the s t u d e n t workspace i n M a r t i n ' s room. 79 M a r t i n as a Teacher. Career assessment. Martin's i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t i n a r t e d u c a t i o n grew from a sense of d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t with commercial a r t , h i s f i r s t c a r e e r c h o i c e . He completed four years of a r t s c h o o l but, i n h i s f i n a l year, he had a sense that something was m i s s i n g . He enjoyed working with d i f f e r e n t a r t m a t e r i a l s and processes but he lacked d i r e c t i o n as an a r t i s t . Commercial a r t no longer seemed to hold the promise of becoming a s a t i s f y i n g c a r e e r f o r him. On the s u g g e s t i o n of a f e l l o w student, M a r t i n decided to enter a r t education at U.B.C. To h i s s u r p r i s e he d i s c o v e r e d , d u r i n g the course of h i s t r a i n i n g , t h a t he enjoyed t e a c h i n g . "I l i k e d t e a c h i n g a l o t more than I thought I would have. I found t h a t the k i d s responded p o s i t i v e l y and I was q u i t e happy with i t so I'decided to c a r r y on" ( P r o t o c o l A l : p.2, 1 - 4 ) . The two years M a r t i n spent at u n i v e r s i t y held l i t t l e value f o r him. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with a comment he made, t h a t t e a c h i n g i s "10% t r a i n i n g and 90% p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e " . Much of the knowledge that M a r t i n employs i n h i s t e a c h i n g i s p r a c t i c a l knowledge, gained from h i s 20 years of e x p e r i e n c e . In d i s c u s s i n g the p r a c t i c a l knowledge gained through h i s e a r l y t e a c h i n g appointments, the h a n d l i n g of s u p p l i e s and clean-up procedures seem to be paramount. He f e l t t h a t 80 the u n i v e r s i t y d i d not prepare him i n the l e a s t f o r coping with m a t e r i a l s i n l a r g e c l a s s e s . "Nobody r e a l l y t a l k e d about classroom o r g a n i z a t i o n a t u n i v e r s i t y " ( P r o t o c o l A l : p.4, 14-15). However, when d e s c r i b i n g h i s image of an i d e a l artroom, M a r t i n concedes that h i s sponsor teacher, d u r i n g student t e a c h i n g practicum, taught him "more about t h i s job than any other s i n g l e person" ( P r o t o c o l A l : p.5, 37). T h i s i s not c o n s i s t e n t with h i s negative view of h i s teacher t r a i n i n g , but i t does r e f l e c t the value t h a t he a t t a c h e s to p r a c t i c a l exper i e n c e . Martin's assessment of h i s c a r e e r i s marked by u n c e r t a i n t y about h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a teacher. He s t a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t he went i n t o t e a c h i n g to do something about the poor q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g that he had experienced; however, at present, he f i n d s i t hard to measure h i s success. Maybe I can be an e f f e c t i v e t e acher, I don't know, i t ' s hard to measure that and maybe I've been a t o t a l washout. But t h a t ' s what I've t r i e d to do and i f I f e l t I was having a negative e f f e c t or no e f f e c t on the k i d s . . . I wish someone would have t o l d me about i t and I c o u l d have got out of i t and done something e l s e . ( P r o t o c o l A l : p.7, 44-52) He has a sense that i t ' s working but doesn't know how to measure i t . T h i s seems to f i t with the i s o l a t i o n t h a t many teacher's f e e l , and the d i f f i c u l t y they experience i n measuring p r o f e s s i o n a l growth (Hargreaves, 1984, pp. 142,143). 81 One unique aspect of Martin's view of his career is the change in his attitude toward administrators. This p a r a l l e l s the softening of his ideals as a r e s u l t of age and experience. I now f e e l a l o t closer to my administrators.... But I think you view things d i f f e r e n t l y when you get a l i t t l e older. I think you tend to be a l i t t l e narrower when you're younger too. You've got your mind and other things and you're looking so hard for that i d e a l . After a few years go by you r e a l i z e i t ' s not going to be there and you just have to work with things the way they r e a l l y are. It's not going to be there so why t r y to change the whole thing, why t r y to beat your head against a brick wall.... And you learn to accept that. I think you learn to become more accepting of things.(Protocol A l : p.13, 16-30) For Martin, his career has been shaped by a desire to minimize the c o n f l i c t between his own values and those inherent in the system. This general attitude toward the school system is summed up in t h i s passage: "You learn the rules of the game and you just play the game according to the rules, or get out of the game, I guess" (Protocol A l : p.21, 42-45). Martin's P r a c t i c a l Knowledge. B e l i e f s . Art is a vehicle for reaching, for influencing, someone's l i f e in a positive d i r e c t i o n . This b e l i e f is foundational to Martin's teaching and is a primary indicator of teaching effectiveness for him. Art education, according to Martin, opens the door to appreciating the v i s u a l world that surrounds us. I f e e l that art teaches so many other things about just, ah, pla i n l i v i n g and appreciating the world, opening up your eyes to things. And i t can open up 82 whole doors f o r people, how to see t h i n g s , how to a p p r e c i a t e t h i n g s v i s u a l l y " ( P r o t o c o l A l : p.11, 44-50). Th i s b e l i e f i s r e f l e c t e d i n the c a r e f u l l y designed d i s p l a y s of student work and other v i s u a l m a t e r i a l i n h i s room. The work on d i s p l a y r e p r e s e n t s a wide range of images from a s a t e l l i t e photo and computer g r a p h i c s , to a carved duck decoy, a Chinese dragon mask, and numerous drawings and p a i n t i n g s . Aside from the advantage of i n c r e a s e d v i s u a l awareness, M a r t i n b e l i e v e s t h a t the study of a r t has other b e n e f i t s : I t can teach a l o t of s k i l l s t h a t a person can use i n other areas, no doubt about i t , c o o r d i n a t i o n , ah, being able to use t o o l s , how to c r e a t e c e r t a i n e f f e c t s . Everybody has to do a c e r t a i n amount of that i n t h e i r l i v e s , so not every student i s coming through a r t to be an a r t i s t . ( P r o t o c o l A l : p.12, 1-8) He a l s o uses c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g as a r a t i o n a l e f o r a r t , c l a i m i n g that a r t helps students "to be more c r e a t i v e i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g , r a t h e r than j u s t l a t e r a l , I t h i n k , to look at the whole p i c t u r e r a t h e r than j u s t p a r t of i t " ( P r o t o c o l A l : p.12, 22-25). He a l s o uses the metaphor " a r t as a v e h i c l e " , to d e s c r i b e the way he uses a r t to get p h i l o s o p h i c a l ideas through, to teach students how to get along with each o t h e r . Another s t r o n g b e l i e f f o r M a r t i n i s that t e a c h i n g i n v o l v e s e f f e c t i v e communication. He i s c r i t i c a l of those a d u l t s that t r i e d to communicate to him, when he was a student. ...As a young person I was q u i t e c r i t i c a l myself of many a d u l t s . . . of the way they t r i e d to 83 influence young people ... teach young people ... help young people. I f e l t that they may have been so far out of i t that they r e a l l y couldn't communicate... But I ahh...I think that you have to make things meaningful to young people and sometimes you have to go out of your way to do that, to overemphasize that part of i t . (Protocol A l : p.10, 27-44) Martin t r i e s to improve his communication with his students by seeking to find both content and teaching approaches that are relevant to the students l i v e s . Notes from participant observation r e c a l l the hand carved duck decoy that he brought to class as an example of one former teacher's application of his art background (Protocol A-3: p.2, 18-24). Martin's in s t r u c t i o n is delivered in a po s i t i v e , upbeat fashion which i s also an essential element of his b e l i e f s about teaching. "I l i k e to keep things as positive as possible" (Protocol A l : p.5, 5). The f i e l d notes i l l u s t r a t e that he demonstrates th i s attitude in the classroom through his interactions with his students (Protocol A3: p.3, 33). One of his central b e l i e f s about helping students is expressed in t h i s statement of his philosophy of teaching: You can help some of them or maybe one or two of them to become a better person somehow through your course, and your course i s just a vehicle, art is just a vehicle for.you to reach someone's l i f e and you might not have any e f f e c t on them but chances are you probably w i l l because you're a tremendous influence on young people. (Protocol A l : p.11, 14-24) 84 He r e c o g n i z e s the p o t e n t i a l t h a t teachers have to p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e t h e i r s t u d e n t s . T h i s goal motivates him w i t h i n the classroom i n h i s d e a l i n g s with s t u d e n t s . He g i v e s each student i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n , l i s t e n i n g , responding with ideas and s u g g e s t i o n s , and a s s i s t i n g with t e c h n i q u e s . He t a l k s about h i s students work with p r i d e and enthusiasm; p r a i s i n g t h e i r accomplishments. Martin's image of an artroom. In comments about h i s image of an i d e a l artroom environment, M a r t i n c o n s i s t e n t l y underplayed the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p h y s i c a l elements of the room's environment. He b e l i e v e s t h at the " p h i l o s o p h i c a l environment" i s more important than the p h y s i c a l environment to the st u d e n t s . "That the k i d s f e e l good about themselves and being t h e r e , not what the room r e a l l y looks l i k e " ( P r o t o c o l A l : 16, 48). The sources of h i s image of an artroom suggest to him both the t a n g i b l e and the i n t a n g i b l e q u a l i t i e s of an artroom. The two primary sources t h a t Martin's image i s d e r i v e d from are a r t s c h o o l , and h i s sponsor teacher's room from p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g . From a r t s c h o o l , he e x p l a i n s t h a t the rooms had, "An a r t y kind of f e e l . . . o f t e n j u s t p l a i n messy, but there was r e a l l y a f e e l i n g t h a t something was being done t h e r e " ( P r o t o c o l A l : p.4, 34-37). The image d e r i v e d from h i s memories of h i s sponsor teacher's classroom i s much more d e t a i l e d . 85 ...There was always a fresh display of student work up and i t was current. There was also interesting posters that i l l u s t r a t e d certain points that the teacher was try i n g to get across.... There was subjects in the room that the students could get v i s u a l i n s p i r a t i o n from, hanging from the c e i l i n g . Yet the room wasn't messy or cl u t t e r e d . Good l i g h t i n g . . . there was ah...just a feeling that t h i s was a place where art takes place and ah, i t looked more l i k e a l i v e studio than just a room with a bunch of desks in i t . (Protocol A l : p. 4,5; 50-14) Martin seems to idealize the art school experience when attempting to describe the ethos of a productive art classroom. There is an intangible q u a l i t y about an e f f e c t i v e environment for learning about art that he has experienced but, he has d i f f i c u l t y expressing i t c l e a r l y . Some of the tangible q u a l i t i e s that he sketches in his description include a comfortable, reasonably well equipped f a c i l i t y where students are surrounded with as many art things as possible. The displays should be changed frequently and include student works and other images that are v i s u a l l y appealing. The s o c i a l environment of the classroom should make students f e e l at home. There should be freedom of movement and s o c i a l exchange for students without excessive noise and d i s t r a c t i o n . The s o c i a l dynamics of the classroom should not interfere with the students work, representing a balance between freedom and control. Martin employs his image of an artroom to design improvements for his current classroom. He would l i k e to see bigger tables, more open space, have 86 g r e a t e r access to a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s , and s a f e t y equipment such as a proper v e n t i l a t i o n f a n . Coping s t r a t e g i e s . Experience has taught M a r t i n how to cope i n the classroom. A r t teachers are p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e when i t comes to managing m a t e r i a l s , clean-up, and time d u r i n g a l e s s o n . M a r t i n ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge enables him to respond to the range of classroom s i t u a t i o n s t hat he encounters. "I f e e l much more at ease i n the job someways now a f t e r a l l those years because those t h i n g s are not a problem to you and j u s t , i t flows very smoothly" ( P r o t o c o l A l : p.9, 41-45). S k i l l and f i n e s s e i n classroom d i s c i p l i n e i s o b v i o u s l y a prime component of a t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge. You get a f e e l i n g f o r i t a f t e r a while and you can handle the problems i n a calm and e f f e c t i v e manner. You don't get e x c i t e d about them or s t a r t a r g u i n g with s t u d e n t s . I spent time doing that i n my e a r l i e r y e a r s , too, and t h a t was a waste of time...But you l e a r n those t h i n g s over the years. ( P r o t o c o l A l : p.10, 3-18) Ma r t i n has managed to c r e a t e a p o s i t i v e l e a r n i n g environment i n h i s classroom. The students seem r e l a x e d and comfortable with the classroom s e t t i n g . They know where t h i n g s are, they know how to c l e a n up, and they have freedom when i t comes to using t h e i r time. Students are a l s o f r e e to t a l k and move about the room without M a r t i n q u e s t i o n i n g t h e i r behavior. T h i s freedom r e s u l t s from M a r t i n t a k i n g time to help students understand h i s classroom s t r a t e g i e s . T h i s 87 reduces the stress on teacher, and students, allowing the proper environment for a r t i s t i c expression. He i s positive in his approach to engaging off task students in their work by focusing on their art work and not their behavior. Although these are not s p e c i f i c strategies, the tone of the classroom r e f l e c t s the fact that Martin's management strategies are in place and working. Martin takes a philosophical approach to coping with the physical l i m i t s of his classroom. I'm stuck in a physical building and I pretty well have to l i v e with i t because I'm not going to get the changes. And I don't think I'm ever going to get to design my own artroom...So I f e e l you might as well get on with the job and forget about it...why waste my time in a negative way complaining about my room....Everybody i s going to go into situations in their l i v e s and these students w i l l some day where i t s not an ideal work si t u a t i o n for them or i t ' s not an ideal house that they're l i v i n g in and t h e y ' l l just have to. (Protocol A l : p.24, 16-37) Again i t i s evident that the physical design of the classroom is less important than what happens in the classroom. He even suggests that situations that are less than ideal may be part of a student's education. For Martin coping involves learning to accept the things he can't change and moving on from there. The 'school places some li m i t a t i o n s on the design of the artroom environment with their space and timetabling needs. The pride they take in cleanliness and order also imposes l i m i t s on the artroom. Martin, however, 88 is w i l l i n g to adjust. "Every school has some framework or structure, you can't get away from i t . If you do get away from i t you've got chaos" (Protocol A l : p. 21, 17-20) . Mariner Junior Secondary Tom's Artroom Tom's artroom was a clean, well organized environment. The f l o o r s , desks and counters were spotless and clear of student work and supplies. Every d e t a i l was looked a f t e r . The desks were a l l turned around so that the storage shelf under the desk was not accessible to students. They were arranged in groups of four or s i x , p a r a l l e l to the walls of the room with one stool placed neatly on the center of each desk (see Figure 9). There was no teacher's desk in the classroom but Tom employed a t a l l storage cupboard and the counters and shelves in the storage room as his work and storage area. This U-shaped classroom was separated into two separate rooms. Each room had a crowded fee l i n g with 24 desks, stools and a large sink island. Most cupboard doors underneath the counter could not be opened without running into a desk or a chair. A wall of windows that faced north had the e f f e c t of opening up these two small rooms. The windows looked into a forested h i l l s i d e , that sloped away from the building, providing a pleasant outlook. Only one room was used 89 as a t e a c h i n g space, the s m a l l e r one, with the l a r g e r room re s e r v e d f o r e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s or s m a l l groups of students who work there d u r i n g c l a s s time. Tom a l s o used the spare room when he had work to do f o r the s c h o o l t h a t r e q u i r e d space. I t was a l s o an o v e r f l o w storage area f o r s u p p l i e s and student work when the other storage f a c i l i t i e s were f u l l . The paper c u t t e r s were t h e r e , as w e l l as l a r g e sheets of paper and boxes of poster p a i n t . The c e n t r a l storage area was long and narrow but adequate i n s i z e f o r t h i s a r t f a c i l i t y . One s i d e contained t a l l , l o cked, storage cupboards. The other s i d e , a long counter, with open s h e l v i n g above and below, and the k i l n with a fume hood above i t . One end of the room was a doorway and the other end l a r g e storage shelves f o r flatwork and r o l l s of paper. E v e r y t h i n g was w e l l o r g a n i z e d . Paper was stacked n e a t l y on the s h e l v e s , p a i n t b o t t l e s were organized a c c o r d i n g to c o l o r , books and papers were not j u s t thrown on the counter they appeared to be placed there i n a t h o u g h t f u l manner. Clean, organized, c o n t r o l l e d , t h o u g h t f u l , these are words t h a t capture the atmosphere of Tom's artroom. Tom's desk. Tom designed a t a l l , two-door, l o c k i n g cupboard to be h i s t e a c h i n g center i n s t e a d of the t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g desk (see F i g u r e 10). He c i t e s a lack of space as the primary reason f o r 90 choosing t h i s u p r i g h t desk, but t h i s i s a l s o i n keeping with the c o n t r o l l e d access t h a t he g i v e s students to the l i m i t e d space i n the room. A t r a d i t i o n a l desk seems too open and a c c e s s i b l e f o r Tom. The s h e l v e s i n h i s cupboard r e f l e c t e d the order of the classroom, with books, magazines and notebooks a l l i n t h e i r p l a c e . A number of the notebooks were l a b e l l e d with c u r r i c u l u m or s u b j e c t themes such as: landscapes, a r t i s t s , animals, food and s c i - f i c t i o n . The t i t l e s of the books i n c l u d e d : Anatomy f o r the A r t i s t , g r a p h i s p o s t e r s . Our  U n i v e r s e , Teaching Color and Form i n the Secondary  School, and By Design. The middle s h e l f was a t y p i c a l l y d i s o r g a n i z e d , with loose p i l e s of papers, magazines and notebooks, and a f l a t box that contained e s s e n t i a l desk s u p p l i e s such as tape, p e n c i l s , s c i s s o r s and paper c l i p s . The c a b i n e t doors had n o t i c e s tacked to them, as w e l l as a photograph of the boys b a s k e t b a l l team and two s m a l l c a r d s . T h i s cupboard desk i s an e x p r e s s i o n of the d i s t a n c e t h a t Tom maintains between h i m s e l f and h i s s t u d e n t s . Although he f r e e l y i n t e r a c t s with h i s students i n a f r i e n d l y , calm manner there i s a sense t h a t he chooses to keep a d i s t a n c e which corresponds to h i s sense of a u t h o r i t y as a teacher. He expresses a c e r t a i n need f o r p r i v a c y . At one p o i n t he uses d i s t a n t sounding, p r o f e s s i o n a l language to d e s c r i b e h i s s t u d e n t s . "I've never f e l t these are my f r i e n d s , these 91 are my c l i e n t s , that's a l l " (Protocol BI: p.21, 15-16). Tom views himself as the one in control. He expects his students to "work the way he wants" and not the way they want to work. Student workspace. Tom's comments about the workspace in his room give a strong image of the crowding. This room is 22 feet by 26 . f e e t . . . i t 1 s a t i n y room...you see there's twenty seven seats in here counting those three that are against the wall. That one there in that doorwell is an i l l e g a l seat. Workman's Compensation and the F i r e Department says no.... There's no choice about the arrangement of desks. There's not room to set up individual rows, you couldn't do i t . (Protocol B2: p . l , 3-42) Having devoted considerable thought to the use of space, he decided that grouping desks together four or six at a time was the best possible solution. Three " i s o l a t i o n " desks were tucked away in doorways and nooks, along the south wall, for students who have d i f f i c u l t y working in groups. The room has no natural focal point from which to teach and so Tom explains that he is always moving, "I walk a l l the time when I teach" (Protocol B2: p. 2; 23). He has structured his teaching so that a small proportion of his time i s spent le c t u r i n g to the class and the rest of the time he is involved in one to one interactions with his students. The students were very familiar with the room. As they entered the class they began to gather the 92 materials they needed for the day. They a l l knew what they needed and where to find i t . Tom did not have to give any instructions. The sink island appeared to be one point in the room where students lingered to s o c i a l i z e as they waited their turn to pick up paint. The room functioned e f f i c i e n t l y with adequate space for the students to work on 18"x24" a c r y l i c paintings. The lack of counter space for the d i s t r i b u t i o n of materials was evident. The only accessible counter space, when the room is f u l l of students, i s a small space on the end of the sink island. The layout of the desks and the workspace in Tom's artroom represent an application of his p r a c t i c a l knowledge in the form of a coping strategy. The room's design allows Tom to work with students in a way that s u i t s his objectives for art education. He has learned how to work with students in a variety of media, in limited space. He has also developed strategies for the d i s t r i b u t i o n , and clean up of materials that create a minimum amount of disruption. Artroom tone. The students in Tom's classes were very purposeful about their time in the artroom. They knew what they were there for. The room functioned well for the students as a studio space for painting. Tom did not have to remind them about their work or where to find materials. The students entered the classroom, found their work, coll e c t e d paint and 93 brushes, and started painting. Clean-up at the end of the period also proceeded smoothly because cert a i n routines had been established. There was quiet conversation between students as they worked but the environment in the room remained productive. The students d e f i n i t e l y had access to the materials they needed, they were free to help themselves and move about the room without the teacher's permission. The only exception to thi s was one student, seated in an " i s o l a t i o n seat", who had much less freedom of movement than the other students. Tom's response to disruptive behavior in the artroom was to l i m i t that student's access to the main student workspace. The student had to s i t by the door at an individual desk away from the rest of the c l a s s . Displays. The v i s u a l environment of the room ref l e c t e d the current emphasis that Tom was taking with his students. The amount of display work appears to grow as the term progresses. The room was bare compared to the other s i t e s , but even the empty display boards ref l e c t e d a concern for color and design. On these Tom had placed a narrow band of colored paper to divide a yellow background into a balanced composition. One of the pipes running across the c e i l i n g was wrapped with b r i g h t l y colored surveyors tape transforming an i n s t i t u t i o n a l c e i l i n g into a rainbow of color. Tom's s e n s i t i v i t y to design and color was evident from the 94 e a r l i e s t v i s i t although the display boards were largely empty. By the f i n a l v i s i t the room had been transformed by p o s t e r s , student murals, s i l k s c r e e n frames, and p a i n t i n g s i n p r o g r e s s . The room was v i s u a l l y e x c i t i n g and the d i s p l a y s f i t the work t h a t the students were doing. Tom uses one d i s p l a y board as a f o c a l p o i n t f o r h i s t e a c h i n g (see F i g u r e 11). I t r e c e i v e d the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i n photographic a n a l y s i s , The d i s p l a y c o n s i s t s of a l a r g e photograph of the E a r t h from space. On top of t h i s photo, and along the top of the d i s p l a y board are three p o r t r a i t photographs. Two of the photos are s t r i k i n g i n t h e i r c l a r i t y and e x p r e s s i o n . These employ a dramatic use of l i g h t i n g to capture the contours of the face and the s u b t l e g r a d a t i o n s of tone. The photo appears to be taken from a magazine add f o r there i s a block of t e x t at the bottom of the photo. T h i s photo i s a p o r t r a i t of a M a r i l y n Monroe look a l i k e . At the bottom l e f t corner of the E a r t h photo i s a s m a l l poster of the C a l i f o r n i a R a i s i n s . One i s l e f t to s p e c u l a t e on the c o n n e c t i o n between these f i v e images. (Photo A n a l y s i s B: p.7; 10-26) La t e r Tom e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h i s board was h i s t e a c h i n g board. The E a r t h i s a constant backdrop but he adds other v i s u a l s as needed, to i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t s he i s making with h i s c u r r e n t s e r i e s of l e s s o n s . T h i s i s another s t r a t e g y t h a t Tom has developed. He minimizes d i s t r a c t i o n by f o c u s i n g the w e l l planned d i s p l a y s on the c u r r e n t s e r i e s of l e s s o n s . C l e a n l i n e s s and o r g a n i z a t i o n . Tom's artroom was very c l e a n . The f l o o r s shined, the counters and desktops were f r e e of p a i n t and ink. Student work was 95 stored in p a r t i c u l a r places so that the cupboards and counters were not cluttered with materials. The organization and structure that Tom brings to his teaching is r e f l e c t e d in the well ordered environment of his artroom. Tom learned a d i s c i p l i n e d approach to art during his art school t r a i n i n g . In art school, and later as a commercial a r t i s t , Tom learned to work in a cooperative environment where people shared materials and ideas. He c r e d i t s t h i s experience with "saving him" during his f i r s t days as a teacher. Feeling i l l prepared af t e r his teacher t r a i n i n g he f e l l back on his school and professional experiences. I had no idea what being an art teacher meant. What saved me was the fact that I'd had four years of art school, okay, and that I was a studio painter myself. That I had been involved in ah, using cooperative space at the art school, at the unive r s i t y and in the stores where I worked. That was cooperative space. We a l l had to work in an area, you had to be organized, you had to be neat and you had to have things at hand. But nobody told me that at university. Nobody told me that the biggest hassle in t h i s job was going to be getting things out and putting things away and cleaning up. (Protocol BI: p.4; 14-29) Tom's room is business-like and professional. It gives a very clear impression that something serious happens there. There are few v i s u a l d i s t r a c t i o n s in t h i s well ordered environment. Tom's image of an artroom, as a professional, cooperative space i s evident. The maintenance of cleanliness and order is also an important coping strategy for Tom. Two factors threaten the harmony of the artroom environment, the 96 small room size and student behavior. Organization and control are key elements in making e f f e c t i v e use of crowded classroom space. The room size leaves Tom with no alternative but to use the space cooperatively. Tension and stress build r a p i d l y in an artroom when students are allowed to behave in a disruptive, undisciplined manner. Tom maintains a calm, productive environment that flows from his sense of order. He considers himself to be a harsh teacher who s a c r i f i c e s an easy going, relaxed r e l a t i o n s h i p with his students in order to maintain control. Tom's early days as a teacher were spent with a v i c e - p r i n c i p a l who was "the world's worst administrator". He f e l t unsupported in dealing with behavior problems in the classroom, "There was no back up in the o f f i c e , so you had to deal with i t in the classroom" (Protocol B l : p.3; 31-33). Control became a means of sur v i v a l from the e a r l i e s t stages of Tom's career. He admits that he is "much more l a i d back now than I used to be" (Protocol B l : p.9; 10-11) but control and organizational strategies are important components of his p r a c t i c a l knowledge. 97 F i g u r e 9 . The s t u d e n t w o r k s p a c e i n T o m ' s a r t r o 98 Figure 1 0 . Tom's cupboard. 99 Figure 11. Student workspace with Tom's teaching board on the l e f t . 100 Tom as a Teacher Career assessment. Tom i s confident in his a b i l i t y to teach a r t . His confidence seems to be rooted in his art school t r a i n i n g , subsequent work experience, and his twenty years of experience as an art teacher. Tom's love for art was well established in his own junior high school years: I was 'gung ho', I mean I loved t h i s subject and I figured that, I could remember myself as a high school art student, junior high art student... nobody ever had to t e l l me to s i t down and get to work. Ah, nobody ever had to t e l l me to be quiet. I mean, as soon as the period started I got involved in art and I was always surprised when the period was fini s h e d . I always took things home and thought about them at home. I always did my assignments. I loved i t . (Protocol B l : 5; 12-24) His personal experience of art motivated him to enter a career in art education. He expected his students to share his enthusiasm for the subject. Instead, he was surprised to find that "most of the kids didn't want to learn" (Protocol B l : 5;1,2). Tom's response to thi s attitude has been to impose his d i s c i p l i n e d view of art education on his students. He offers t h i s measure of his success, "now I would guess that I have one out of eight not working the way I want them to" (Protocol B l : p. 5; 32-34). Tom's f i r s t teaching assignment was to teach art f u l l time at Foster Junior Secondary. He found the students d i f f i c u l t and had to devote a large amount of 101 energy to c o n t r o l l i n g them in the classroom. This s i t u a t i o n was compounded by the fact that his vi c e -p r i n c i p a l was weak on d i s c i p l i n e , o f f e r i n g l i t t l e support in dealing with classroom behavior problems. Tom learned through adversity how to handle d i s c i p l i n e problems in the artroom. At Foster I was much more of a t y r a n t . . . . i t was very hard. Loud noises were cause for teacher explosions. There was no back up in the o f f i c e , so you had to deal with i t in the classroom. (Protocol B l : 3; 28-33) His estimation of the administration at Mariner is much more p o s i t i v e . He finds the students easier to teach, "they tow the line quicker" (Protocol B l : p.3;45-48). Tom places a high value on student cooperation and attitud e . Being able to control students, to have them work the way he wants them to, is strongly linked to his sense of success as a teacher. At th i s stage in his career Tom is confident in his a b i l i t y to do t h i s . Tom cre d i t s his peers for teaching him much of what he knows about teaching. He provides a detailed description of how to d i s c i p l i n e a student based on an approach learned from an administrator at Mariner.' I mean GS taught me how to demand a student's attention when you were d i s c i p l i n i n g them. That stands out. Never l e t kids eyes wander, don't l e t him put his hands in his pockets and play with his change, make him look at you, don't l e t him fid d l e with things, don't l e t him undo buttons and that sort of thing. And make him give you his undivided attention and there's a good chance i t w i l l be so uncomfortable for him because he's so unused to doing i t that h e ' l l never want to do i t 102 again and you won't have to deal with him that often. (Protocol BI: p. 5,6; 47-12) Tom cred i t s art teachers with introducing him to various approaches for teaching art techniques to students. Martin taught him how to teach silkscreening to a class after Tom's f i r s t attempt l e f t him convinced he would never t r y i t again. Tom feels that i t is important to adapt the ideas learned from colleagues to your own pa r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . You.know how i t i s , you see somebody's idea, ask them how they did i t . You know i t won't work for you but you l i k e the idea so you change i t a l i t t l e b i t and adapt i t to whatever you're doing. (Protocol BI: p.6; 13-19) Tom's convictions about teaching art are strong, he i s not a person e a s i l y swayed by waves of educational innovation. It seems that the p r a c t i c a l knowledge that guides his teaching has s o l i d i f i e d into a r i g i d structure that is not open to substantial modification. He has an image of the type of teacher he has become and he seems to accept that. New ideas about teaching must be incorporated into his ex i s t i n g structure. Tom's view of himself as a teacher is not e n t i r e l y p o s i t i v e . He lays the blame for the harsher aspects of his teaching approach on his f i r s t v i c e - p r i n c i p a l , mentioned previously. "I could t e l l you six years of horror s t o r i e s about that man not doing his job and making mine tough" (Protocol BI: p.21; 27-29). He comes across as being i n f l e x i b l e , but there i s a sense 103 that he i s i l l at ease i n that r o l e . One i n f l u e n t i a l i n c i d e n t , from Tom's experience as a grade 7 a r t student, suggests some of the ambivalence t h a t he f e e l s toward h i s own t e a c h i n g s t y l e . Tom r e a l l y enjoyed h i s high s c h o o l a r t teacher, as a person, but i n r e t r o s p e c t , he f e e l s t h a t he a c t u a l l y d i d n ' t l e a r n v e r y much from t h i s man. When Tom d i d enter a r t s c h o o l he f e l t t h a t the other students were way ahead of him. He resented having to c a t c h up. F o l l o w i n g h i s a p p r a i s a l of h i s s e n i o r high a r t teacher he turns h i s a t t e n t i o n to the "legendary Miss B." whom he c r e d i t s with keeping him out of a r t c l a s s e s from grade 8 to grade 11. I never took a r t from grade 8 to grade 11 because of t h i s woman. I f e l l o f f my s t o o l one time, they had these 'Z' shaped s t o o l s , and I was a s m a l l k i d and these desks were high and I was l e a n i n g forward and the t h i n g s l i p p e d out and I landed with my c h i n on the t a b l e and I cut my l i p , b i t my tongue I guess, cut my tongue. We were i n some s o r t of 'nobody t a l k e d ' time span and t h a t noise was a breaking of the r u l e . I got the s t r a p f o r t h a t . I got the s t r a p f o r i t and I had to get my tongue f i x e d . I t e l l you I d i d n ' t l i k e t h i s woman ver y much at a l l . ( P r o t o c o l B l : p. 8; 13-28) This i n c i d e n t with Miss B i s f i r m l y i n s c r i b e d i n Tom's memory. I t has played an important r o l e i n shaping Tom's whole approach to t e a c h i n g a r t . He a c t u a l l y admits, when d e s c r i b i n g h i s t e a c h i n g s t y l e , t h a t "I f i t c l o s e r to B., who I hated, than D., who I l i k e d " ( P r o t o c o l B l : p.9; 1,2). In Tom's case t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t has been very formative i n h i s t e a c h i n g approach. T h i s p o i n t s out the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e t h a t 104 personal background plays in shaping p r a c t i c a l knowledge. Powerful memories have shaped what Tom has learned about teaching. Tom's approach to teaching displays his s e n s i t i v i t y to school culture. He draws an interesting comparison between the student and parent communities in the two schools where he taught. Well, the c l i e n t e l e is completely d i f f e r e n t . Foster doesn't exist anymore but the c l i e n t e l e at Foster was, I forget what they used to c a l l i t , they wore the big black boots and the Daytons and the Macs. We had a name for them. It was more, not even so much blue c o l l a r as you might c a l l i t professional blue c o l l a r . Lots of mechanic fathers, and ah, they made good money these parents. To l i v e in that area you had to make decent money, but i t was not.. This is a school of children of professionals by a good percentage of the population. These are men who are at least middle management. The homes around here are even more expensive than they were around Foster. So they have d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t e l e s . (Protocol BI: p. 3; 7-23) On the basis of t h i s comparison he goes on to explain that the current group of students are easier to teach, more compliant than the students he dealt with at Foster. Later in the interview Tom compares the students of present to the "70's kid, the flower power era kid" who, in Tom's opinion, were far more capable than the students he deals with today. In the seventies Tom f e l t his program r e a l l y prepared students for art school. Today he feels he caters more to the students interests adding "about half cute projects" to his curriculum. These generalizations 105 about students f i t Tom's outlook on teaching. The comments, however, do reveal a certa i n awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y to student needs, that suggests Tom has more empathy and compassion than he would care to admit. P r a c t i c a l Knowledge. B e l i e f s . Tom's p r a c t i c a l knowledge seems to be based on pa r t i c u l a r b e l i e f s he has about a r t . These seem rooted in his own love of art and the d i s c i p l i n e d t r a i n i n g he received at art school. This has led to the development of an approach to art education that is founded on a strong work et h i c . Nothing requires more d i s c i p l i n e , nothing requires more s e l f d i s c i p l i n e than to do art well. Nothing requires a greater i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity and a greater i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r a i n than to do art well. So i f you think l i k e that, i f you think that t h i s , you see I figure that art i s probably, i t s c e r t a i n l y the most creative subject in any school. There isn't anything that even touches i t . ( P r o t o c o l B l : p. 10; 5-15) The notion of art as a serious f i e l d of study, a creative d i s c i p l i n e , elevates i t above other school subjects according to Tom. He believes that to treat art as a c r a f t is to demean the central place i t holds in education. This has a d i r e c t impact on Tom's view of the classroom and his concern for control. For Tom, student d i s c i p l i n e and order go hand in hand. The clean, organized room provides the ideal environment for his approach to art education. 106 T h i s v i e w o £ a r t a s a s u b j e c t t h a t r e q u i r e s s e r i o u s s t u d y , a l s o h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T o m ' s v i e w o f t e a c h i n g . To t e a c h a r t w i t h d i s c i p l i n e , one must m a i n t a i n a d i s c i p l i n e d e n v i r o n m e n t , Tom w o u l d s u g g e s t . He b e l i e v e s t h a t s t u d e n t s o u g h t t o s t u d y a r t t o m a s t e r t h e s k i l l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s t h a t w i l l make t h e m s u c c e s s f u l a r t i s t s . Tom l e a r n e d a c e r t a i n work e t h i c i n a r t s c h o o l f r o m o b s e r v i n g t h e most s u c c e s s f u l a r t s t u d e n t s a n d d e c i d e d t o e m u l a t e i t . T h r o u g h t e a c h i n g , Tom a t t e m p t s t o p a s s t h e s e v a l u e s a l o n g . T h e s e b e l i e f s a l s o h a v e d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r h i s v i e w o f h i s s t u d e n t s . E a r l i e r , Tom r e f e r s t o h i s s t u d e n t s a s c l i e n t s . A more f i t t i n g w o r d t o d e s c r i b e T o m ' s v i e w o f h i s s t u d e n t s m i g h t be a p p r e n t i c e s . A s a r e s u l t , s t u d e n t s c o n t r i b u t e l i t t l e t o t h e a r t r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t o n e a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y T o m , t h e s t u d e n t s a r e t h e r e t o work a n d p r a c t i c e t h e t e c h n i q u e s a n d a p p r o a c h e s t h a t he t e a c h e s . I f e e l t h a t I ' v e s e t up a c o u r s e where i t ' s , i n g r a d e 8 e s p e c i a l l y , i t ' s we s t a r t a t p o i n t A a n d we e n d a t p o i n t Z a n d b e t w e e n t h e r e i s a w h o l e v o l u m e o f t h i n g s , one o f w h i c h b u i l d s on t h e o t h e r . We, on o u r f i r s t p r o j e c t , we l e a r n t o do a t y p e o f s h a d i n g t h a t we w i l l t h e n u s e w i t h p e n c i l c r a y o n on t h e s e c o n d p r o j e c t , t h e n we u s e t h o s e two t h i n g s b u t we c h a n g e t h e s t y l e o f i t . And w h i l e w e ' r e d o i n g t h a t p h y s i c a l s t r e a m , t h e m a n i p u l a t i v e s t r e a m w e ' r e a l s o d o i n g a n a e s t h e t i c s t r e a m n e x t t o i t w i t h r u l e s o f c o m p o s i t i o n a n d s o on a n d s o f o r t h . S o , i f y o u do i t t h a t w a y , i t c o l o r s t h e way y o u h a n d l e y o u r c l a s s r o o m . O b v i o u s l y , I d o n ' t h a v e k i d s , we d o n ' t l i s t e n t o r a d i o s a n d we d o n ' t g e t up a n d do a l o t o f w a n d e r i n g a r o u n d . We d o n ' t h a v e l i t t l e g r o u p s , I 107 c a l l them c o f f e e c l a t c h e s , we don't have them. ( P r o t o c o l B l : p.10; 27-49) Students need to be c o n t r o l l e d , g i v e n l i m i t s to t h e i r behavior, i n order to l e a r n . T h i s passage from the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w might give the impression that Tom goes overboard i n r e s t r i c t i n g the p e r s o n a l freedom of h i s stu d e n t s . T h i s i s an unbalanced assessment. P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n y i e l d e d a d i f f e r e n t impression of the way i n which Tom's b e l i e f s are expressed. Tom's remarks concerning h i s b e l i e f s should not be i n t e r p r e t e d to mean t h a t h i s student's freedom of e x p r e s s i o n i s l i m i t e d as w e l l . He summarizes h i s approach to t e a c h i n g i n statements recorded i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i e l d notes. Tom a l s o e x p l a i n s t h a t people have the impression t h a t he i s a s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n a r i a n , which i s t r u e , but he a l s o cares very much about a r t . He has two goals f o r h i s studen t s , the f i r s t i s to c r e a t e an environment where students can develop s e l f d i s c i p l i n e . The second i s to c r e a t e an environment where they are f r e e to be themselves, f r e e to q u e s t i o n , u n a f r a i d of the teacher or the environment. They should f e e l f r e e to t r y any t h i n g . He uses sarcasm and jokes as h i s primary means of c o n t r o l . He s a i d , " you probably n o t i c e d t h a t the students don't h e s i t a t e to say anything they want i n here." ( P r o t o c o l B 3: p.9; 1-17) Tom b e l i e v e s that boundaries are important f o r students but w i t h i n those boundaries they must be f r e e to be themselves, to t r y t h i n g s out, to take r i s k s . The classroom must be a safe environment f o r students where they can be themselves and express themselves s o c i a l l y , as w e l l as, a r t i s t i c a l l y . 108 Images. Although Tom s t a t e d that he had no image of what an artroom should be l i k e when he s t a r t e d t e a c h i n g , i t i s obvious from e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n t h a t an image e x i s t s i n h i s s t o r e of p r a c t i c a l knowledge. He i s guided by h i s a r t s c h o o l background, h i s view of a r t as a d i s c i p l i n e , and h i s concern f o r a safe place f o r h i s s t u d e n t s . Tom has c a r e f u l l y s t r u c t u r e d h i s artroom environment. He has had to cope with space l i m i t a t i o n s and student behavior as h i s primary o b s t a c l e s , but to a l a r g e measure he has been s u c c e s s f u l i n c r e a t i n g a room that i s an e x p r e s s i o n of h i s p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The room he has c r e a t e d i s a c o n t r o l l e d , c l e a n , e f f i c i e n t environment. Very l i t t l e waste of space or reso u r c e s i s e v i d e n t . The students are comfortable i n the room, and yet they t r e a t the artroom with obvious r e s p e c t . Clean up r o u t i n e s are fo l l o w e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y by students without o r c h e s t r a t i o n on Tom's p a r t . He has cr e a t e d an environment that f i t s h i s image of co o p e r a t i v e s t u d i o space. Coping s t r a t e g i e s . E s t a b l i s h i n g c o n t r o l has been the major focus of Tom's a b i l i t y to cope i n the artroom. His worst memories of t e a c h i n g are those i n c i d e n t s where h i s c o n t r o l has been threatened. The layout of the classroom, the c u r r i c u l u m , the r o u t i n e s , even the d i s p l a y s a l l r e f l e c t t h i s concern f o r c o n t r o l . The s e a t i n g arrangement al l o w s Tom to seat 27 students i n a smal l classroom and r e t a i n the freedom to move to 109 a l l the students desks for individual assistance. His approach to ins t r u c t i o n is also controlled. He teaches through a series of projects that hold student interest and yet, are structured. His students' work is t e c h n i c a l l y sophisticated, indicating that Tom teaches his students to s k i l l f u l l y control t h e i r materials. The routines he has established give students clear expectations of how to behave so that Tom does not di r e c t their actions through the period. During participant observation Tom spoke very l i t t l e and yet the students went about their work in a productive manner. The displays in the room related d i r e c t l y to the work the students were involved i n . There were d i f f e r e n t displays designed for the d i f f e r e n t classes but each was current, and each functioned to provide examples for students or a s s i s t them with the work they were currently Involved i n . For Tom d i s c i p l i n e has been the key to operating his program. In spite of his s e l f c r i t i c i s m that presents his teaching in a harsh l i g h t , Tom manages to s e n s i t i v e l y and s k i l l f u l l y structure the artroom environment to achieve the goals he firmly believes i n . Tom also demonstrates s k i l l in coping with the p o l i t i c s of the school culture. He expresses his p r a c t i c a l knowledge in th i s area through a series of p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s that he has successfully employed in dealing with the school administration. 110 To run a successful art program you yourself have got to believe in i t . Then you've got to be such a rotten SOB that nobody wants to fight you. You've got to r e a l l y stink and squeal and squawk and when you f e e l that you're becoming a dumping ground then you better l e t i t be known. Okay. You've got to have the counsellors on your side.(Protocol Bl:p.16,17; 43-3) You know what you're doing in art and value your subject area and you're able to get i t across to your p r i n c i p a l who has some sort of art background, even i f i t ' s only one of his kids l i k e s i t and does well at i t , and he supports you, both f i n a n c i a l l y and ah, the other ways - l i k e he compliments your displays and he t r i e s to, whenever possible, keep your classes within some sort of reasonable l e v e l and gives you some choice about who w i l l take the subject. Okay, i t ' s not just where you put the kids who won't f i t anywhere else. However, i f you run a good program i t won't become that because the kids w i l l avoid i t . ( P r o t o c o l BI: p.l8;30-47) The administrators, they're going to control the money, so you've got to have them on your side. You got to s e l l the program, you've got to pump i t a l l the time.(Protocol BI: p.19; 38-42) These strategies were developed by Tom to maintain the status of art within the t o t a l school program. Tom's s e n s i t i v i t y to culture has been an asset in developing strategies that enable him to cope with the competition between the subject areas that make up the t o t a l school program. I l l P r a i r i e Junior Secondary Cathy's Artroom. This room was impressive in a number of respects. Although the floor space was not s u b s t a n t i a l l y larger than the other s i t e s , the eighteen foot c e i l i n g s gave a f e e l i n g of spaciousness. This space however, was f u l l . Student work was everywhere, materials were everywhere, there was the strong impression that t h i s was an active place (see Figure 12). Cathy has managed to design a classroom environment that is accessible to her students and there is every indica t i o n that the students have responded p o s i t i v e l y . Students were always using the room outside of class time to complete their artwork or work on projects for the school. Every corner of the room was in use, the space was crowded but t h i s did not prevent students, who were working in a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t media, from sharing the room. Cathy has designed the f l e x i b l e space of the room, but the students have been allowed to make their own contribution. The result is a v i s u a l l y exciting space, with i t s own unique character, that expresses some of the p r a c t i c a l knowledge Cathy employs when teaching a r t . The artroom is p h y s i c a l l y isolated from the rest of the school at the end of the i n d u s t r i a l education wing. Students must walk outside the school, under a 112 covered walkway, to reach the entrance to the room. This separation means that only those students and s t a f f involved in the art program ever enter the room. The classroom was U-shaped with a central storage room similar to the floorplan at Site B but the high c e i l i n g s gave i t the appearance of a much larger room. There was one main entrance to the classroom. Students had to pass through the f i r s t room to get to the second (see Figure 13). Both rooms are used as teaching areas. The f i r s t room was used for grade 8 classes, ceramics and sculpture, the second room for drawing, painting, and Cathy's l o c a l l y developed course in visua l technology that includes photography, video, and computer graphics. The f i r s t room contained four large round tables with a maximum of 8 chairs per table. Some sections of the room although in d i s r e p a i r , were s t i l l in use. The metal trim was f a l l i n g off the display boards, the floors are dusty, and the chairs showed signs of wear. The teacher's desk occupied one corner, of thi s room. The desk, table, shelves, cabinets and f i l i n g cabinets suggested that this area was a resource for both students and the teacher. The word "ASK" was painted in large l e t t e r s across the front of the desk. This same classroom also contained a ceramics area that was divided p a r t i a l l y from the rest of the room by a shelf unit. This served as a storage area for clay, glaze materials, and student 113 work in progress. Cathy has allowed the room to evolve and change to r e f l e c t the p a r t i c u l a r kind of work that the students are doing. She has moved fixed counters and shelves, and gathered cast offs from around the school d i s t r i c t to make the room as functional as possible for her p a r t i c u l a r approach to art education. Cathy's desk. Cathy refers to her desk as a "command post" (see Figure 14). She describes i t as being s t r a t e g i c a l l y located, enabling her to monitor the f i r s t classroom, and the entrance, while keeping the second room in sight down the hallway. She moved the desk to t h i s position from i t s o r i g i n a l location as a conscious management decision. I found that i t was r e a l l y hard to look and have kids working in both areas...It's r e a l l y hard to keep an eye on them. So what I did very early was to move the desk over to the corner of the room here, that way I can control the flow of t r a f f i c in and out of the room...I moved the desk there for a management reason, because the room is so by the sheer size of i t , unruly. (Protocol B2: p.2,3; 33-10) It was an imposing structure that consisted of a closed front demonstration table and a long rectangular table joined end to end. The r e s u l t i n g desk surface was nearly 12 feet long. Behind the desk were shelves, storage cabinets, and f i l e cabinets which contained teaching resources and materials. The f i l i n g cabinets were labeled with f e l t pen on masking tape indicating the lesson materials stored inside. The labels included: Grade 8 (drawing, masks, colour wheel); 114 Painting, designs and colour; Drawing, food sculptures, architecture; Ceramics, glazing, masks 9/10; C l i p art/odds and ends; Extras; Calligraphy papers!; Odds and ends. This range of t i t l e s offers some insight into the lessons Cathy includes in her program. The labels also suggest another key aspect of Cathy's artroom environment, a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Even her "command post" was designed to be accessible to students. "Anything behind my desk b a s i c a l l y , is accessible to the students" (Protocol C2: p.5; 17-18). The art teacher, according to Cathy, is a resource person and not a distant authoritarian figure. She considers i t her role to have the resources, or know where to find them, so that the students may be equipped with the s k i l l s necessary to create their own artwork. There is a relaxed openness about her artroom that gives students access to the information and resources they need to function more independently. Terms l i k e openness, and a c c e s s i b i l i t y , might seem incompatible with e f f e c t i v e classroom management but th i s is not the case. Cathy has conveyed to her students a sense of personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and she has established clear expectations, that form the boundaries for their freedom. The desk and surrounding area evolved out of Cathy's pa r t i c u l a r teaching approach. The items that she employs in her teaching are close at hand. The 115 notebooks and lesson plans, the f i l e drawers f u l l of notes and handouts, and the class set of the book, Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, a l l express her p r i o r i t i e s in terms of resources and teaching materials. The f i l e drawers were organized and in current use. Cathy uses many handouts to complement her teaching. Many of these she has created herself or adapted from workshops, conferences, or her own reading and study. Student workspace. Cathy's artroom exists for her students, i t is not s o l e l y her t e r r i t o r y . There was a loose organization to the room that gave i t an untidy impression. Cleanliness was not a major element of this environment. The room was reminiscent of art school studios where the character of the space is shaped by the work that the students are doing. This has resulted in an environment that is v i s u a l l y r i c h and stimulating as i t evolves from one a c t i v i t y to the next. Functionality takes precedence over room decor in Cathy's artroom. She a c t i v e l y r e f l e c t s on the room's design in order to improve the room's e f f i c i e n c y . "I s i t at my desk there and look, you know, my mind's going on a l l the time about how I could change th i s room and make i t more e f f i c i e n t " (Protocol B2: p.4,5; 44-2). She coll e c t e d shelving and cupboards from around the school to enhance storage space and to 116 d i v i d e the room i n t o areas which f e a t u r e p a r t i c u l a r kinds of media. She has even r e l o c a t e d b u i l t - i n c a b i n e t s and d i s p l a y boards to achieve her ends. Cathy a l s o pays c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to the s o c i a l environment of the artroom. She designed the s e a t i n g i n such a way th a t students cannot help but i n t e r a c t with one another. The f i r s t room has four l a r g e round t a b l e s each s e a t i n g e i g h t people. Students s i t a c c o r d i n g to a s e a t i n g plan t h a t can be rearranged i f necessary. Cathy makes a p o i n t of s i t t i n g with the students at t h e i r t a b l e s ; i n t e r a c t i n g with them and model l i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n , as she works on her own a r t p r o j e c t s . Artroom tone. The q u a l i t y of a c c e s s i b i l i t y permeates Cathy's room d e s i g n . She has made the room, the m a t e r i a l s , and concepts of a r t educ a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to the s t u d e n t s . The grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s , i n v o l v e d i n mask-making, have a l l the steps c l e a r l y l a i d out i n words and diagrams. The grade nine and ten students s t u d y i n g photography, have a complete handbook of i n f o r m a t i o n to a s s i s t them i n completing the c l a s s assignments. For Cathy, space, m a t e r i a l s , r esources and knowledge are a l l made a c c e s s i b l e so th a t students can become i n v o l v e d i n , and r e s p o n s i b l e f o r , t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . T h i s approach would c o l l a p s e without the students d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and ownership. Cathy teaches her students how to show 117 r e s p e c t f o r the room and the m a t e r i a l s i n i t and she s u p e r v i s e s t h e i r behavior c l o s e l y . Having c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d her r o l e i n the classroom Cathy f r e e s her students to l e a r n through the a c t i v i t i e s she has planned. D i s p l a y s . The d i s p l a y s i n Cathy's room serve two f u n c t i o n s ; they make i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to students and they provide examples of f i n i s h e d student work. She manages to use the d i s p l a y space e f f e c t i v e l y to achieve these ends although many of the d i s p l a y boards are almost i n a c c e s s i b l e because they are mounted e i g h t f e e t o f f the f l o o r . Cathy compensates for t h i s by using p o r t a b l e d i s p l a y boards t h a t are f r e e s t a n d i n g . These a l s o serve as room d i v i d e r s when needed. C l e a n l i n e s s and o r g a n i z a t i o n . C l e a n l i n e s s and order have a d e f i n i t e p l a c e i n Cathy's artroom but they are not p r i o r i t i e s . Cathy's b e l i e f s about a r t e d u c a t i o n and the needs of her students are the primary f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n of her classroom. She o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g comments about the s t a t e of her artroom, not c l e a n , but not d i r t y " and " i t ' s l i k e the room has a l i f e of i t s own and i t j u s t grows and moves and sometimes i t ' s r e a l l y d i r t y and sometimes i t s s o r t of c l e a n . . . I know where e v e r y t h i n g i s and t h a t ' s the s c a r y p a r t . ( P r o t o c o l CI: p. 5,6;39 & 5-10 ) Cathy views the room, not as an end i n i t s e l f , but as a means to c r e a t i n g the best environment f o r the a r t 118 program she offers her students. Cathy's students are familiar with her expectations and, as a r e s u l t , they display a high degree of cooperation during clean-up routines. She monitors the room, observing i t s cycles and changes, responding when necessary to keep the "happening" under contr o l . 119 artroom. 120 Figure 13. The teaching ceramics and s c u l p t u r e . area f o r grade 8 c l a s s e s and 121 Figure 14. Cathy's desk. 122 Cathy as a Teacher Career assessment. Cathy's career r e f l e c t s a commitment to p r o f e s s i o n a l growth and change. Her i n t e r e s t i n t e a c h i n g began with own primary s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . I always knew I was going to be a teacher 'cause I guess the f i r s t day I went to s c h o o l i n Grade 1 my mother s a i d I came home and was p u l l i n g out my books and had a l l my younger brot h e r s and s i s t e r s p l a y i n g s c h o o l . So I always knew t h a t . ( P r o t o c o l CI: p. 1; 13-19) The d e c i s i o n to teach was not a q u e s t i o n f o r her. Her d e c i s i o n to teach a r t , however, was s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by her high s c h o o l a r t t e a c h e r s . She has tremendous re s p e c t f o r these two teachers and has modeled some of her present approach to a r t e d u c a t i o n a f t e r t h e i r program. Under t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n Cathy d i s c o v e r e d her i n t e r e s t i n a r t . Coupled with her i n t e r e s t i n t e a c h i n g , she had no t r o u b l e d e c i d i n g on a r t e d u c a t i o n as her course of study i n u n i v e r s i t y . She regards her u n i v e r s i t y program with ambivalence. The a r t education program o f f e r e d her a great d e a l i n terms of her p e r s o n a l growth, but she f e l t t h a t the teacher t r a i n i n g she r e c e i v e d was very inadequate. I found that i t focused more on what I was doing as an a r t i s t and l e s s on how to teach or l e s s on the t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s . And I r e a l l y found that to be a r e a l shortcoming when I got out and s t a r t e d t e a c h i n g . ( P r o t o c o l C l : p.2; 27-31) 123 The studio courses in the program were helpful in broadening her own personal imagery, as an a r t i s t , but she f e l t they did not equip her with the p r a c t i c a l and technical s k i l l s she needed at the s t a r t of her career. Her f i r s t teaching assignment, in Vernon, required her to teach drama, s o c i a l studies, and a r t . With two new subject areas to contend with she devoted l i t t l e time to the art curriculum and resorted to "bag a r t " projects, as she c a l l e d them. These were isolated art a c t i v i t i e s with l i t t l e curriculum planning to t i e them together. After 2 years she moved to P r a i r i e where she taught a r t , drama, woodwork, metalwork, and d r a f t i n g . I n i t i a l l y , there was another part time art teacher in the school, so i t was not u n t i l her s i x t h year of teaching that Cathy assumed a f u l l teaching load of a r t . This possibly explains her expertise in using standard classroom teaching methods. Cathy's approach to teaching is marked by her personal honesty. She expresses her thoughts and emotions in a clear straightforward manner that is very much part of the teaching s t y l e that her students have come to respect. She explains, "...my own inadequacies as an a r t i s t , or as an art teacher, have r e a l l y , have r e a l l y ! become the centre of my art teaching" (Protocol C l : p.3; 35-38). Her growth as a teacher has been part of her personal journey. The discovery of Betty Edwards' approach to teaching drawing dramatically 124 altered her whole approach to teaching. She taught the "Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain" approach for several years successfully without ever trying i t herself. Once she decided to practice what she had been teaching, i t revolutionized her approach to drawing i n s t r u c t i o n . She had personally experienced the value of what she was teaching, i t was no longer just lesson content to be presented in a detached manner. "So, the thing that I was t r u l y inadequate at, which I was just banging my head against the wall was drawing, and that's the thing I f e e l comfortable with now" (Protocol CI: p.4; 11-15). Cathy has found the study of art to be an enriching aspect of her own l i f e and she transmits t h i s personal conviction through her teaching. Cathy acknowledges the help she has received from other teachers in her growth as a professional. She has found primary and intermediate workshops most helpful in shaping her teaching with their emphasis on processing s k i l l s and not just art techniques. She is confident in her knowledge of a r t , but credits professional workshops with changing the way she delivers her lessons. Her discoveries about drawing also were prompted by a workshop that she attended. Drawing was the door that opened up Cathy's study of brain integration research. This has become the central theme for Cathy's personal and professional 125 development i n recent y e a r s . T h i s excerpt from the f i e l d notes i l l u s t r a t e how she i n c o r p o r a t e s t h i s knowledge i n t o her t e a c h i n g . The l e s s o n s h i f t s to an i n t r o d u c t i o n to Cathy's approach to t e a c h i n g drawing. She g i v e s her pe r s o n a l background and p h i l o s o p h y to e x p l a i n why drawing means so much to her. She shows the c l a s s 3 framed g r a p h i t e drawings of her c h i l d r e n . These, she e x p l a i n s , were made a f t e r she d i s c o v e r e d how to draw. The s e c r e t she f e e l s i s b r a i n i n t e g r a t i o n . She has taken courses i n "Touch f o r H e a l t h " and " E d u c a t i o n a l K i n e s i o l o g y " . She t e l l s the c l a s s how d i f f i c u l t drawing was f o r her at u n i v e r s i t y and shows examples of her o l d sketchbook. "What we have to do i s get both halves of our b r a i n working t o g e t h e r " , she exclaims. She uses a student to demonstrate one of her f i r s t e xperiences with t h i s theory. She asks a boy to hold h i s arm s t r a i g h t out and t r i e s to push i t down with her f i n g e r . He r e s i s t s . Next, she d i s t r a c t s him by making a few comments th a t make him f e e l more s e l f - c o n s c i o u s . Now when she t r i e s to push h i s arm down she accomplishes i t e a s i l y . 2:53 pm Cathy now turns to the po s t e r s t h a t the students copied notes from at the beginning of the p e r i o d . One i s e n t i t l e d "I can't draw because I can't see, and I can't see because I speak !" The second showing the d i f f e r e n t thought f u n c t i o n s of the two s i d e s of the b r a i n had no s p e c i f i c heading. She d e s c r i b e s how b r a i n i n t e g r a t i o n changed her a b i l i t y to read and t h a t she became so i n t e r e s t e d t h a t she took a course r e c o g n i z e d i n the State of C a l i f o r n i a , t h a t q u a l i f i e s her to be a C h i r o p r a c t i c a s s i s t a n t . She continues to show her drawings from her u n i v e r s i t y years and i s very c r i t i c a l of them. She laughs and the students laugh with her. 2:59 pm The students are f a s c i n a t e d and a t t e n t i v e . ( P r o t o c o l C3: p.5,6; 32-27) Cathy c a l l s her approach to t e a c h i n g , " r a d i c a l " ( P r o t o c o l C l : p.8; 36). Seven years ago, when she 126 began to d i s c u s s what she was l e a r n i n g with her c o l l e a g u e s , they were s k e p t i c a l . She was l a b e l e d " f l a k y " or, " t o u c h y - f e e l y " to begin with, but now she f i n d s t h a t as the knowledge she has a c q u i r e d gains support i n the f i e l d s of psychology and medicine, s e v e r a l of her c o l l e a g u e s are a l s o showing i n t e r e s t . T h i s i s p r o v i d i n g a support group as she continues to r e f i n e the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s knowledge i n her classroom. Cathy's P r a c t i c a l Knowledge B e l i e f s . Cathy i s a r t i c u l a t e when i t comes to e x p r e s s i n g her b e l i e f s about a r t e d u c a t i o n . She f e e l s t h a t a r t makes up the m i s s i n g h a l f of a c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n . She i s committed to doing a l l i n her power "to r a i s e the p r o f i l e of the a r t s " ( P r o t o c o l C l : p. 4; 3 9-40). A r t e d u c a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to Cathy, i s very much i n step with the i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m being implemented by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . What we do i s e v e r y t h i n g they're t a l k i n g about with the new c u r r i c u l u m . We don't j u s t teach theory, we apply theory, we are c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n a c t i o n . We a p p l y math, we apply chemistry and s c i e n c e and we apply i t with a e s t h e t i c s , with the p r i n c i p l e s and elements of d e s i g n . ( P r o t o c o l C l ; p. 4 , 5 ; 41-3) Although f r u s t r a t e d with the marginal view of a r t , widely held by s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , Cathy i s determined to change t h e i r t h i n k i n g . Cathy expresses to her students the importance of r e c o g n i z i n g the p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e of a r t i n t h e i r day 127 to day l i v e s . She t r i e s to put students in touch with a l l that art has to offer them. "Even i f they're not an a r t i s t , they're touched by designers and a r t i s t s in everything they do. Their clothes, their house, their underwear, everything" (Protocol C l : p.13; 44-47). This influence she considers to be both powerful and subtle. An awareness of the s u b t l e t i e s in l i f e , Cathy explains, is a valuable capacity that students can develop through a r t . A r t i s t s have the a b i l i t y to see the obvious and then they have the a b i l i t y to see the subtleness. It's the subtleness, i t ' s the awareness I think of the subtleties that help us get through l i f e . And because sensitive people can help us get through jobs and relationships and a l l sorts of things. (Protocol C l : p.14,15; 45-1) For Cathy, art becomes a way of seeing and appreciating the world. She views her teaching as a way to enhance the l i v e s of her students by passing on t h i s v i s i o n . Cathy invests a great deal in her teaching, believing that i t is what teachers bring to their work that determines how students respond, "our personality, our depth, our sense of humour" (Protocol C l : p.12; 2-3). She sees herself as a f a c i l i t a t o r , whose role involves teaching students to respect themselves and others. Low self-esteem i s an issue that many adolescents experience and Cathy addresses this issue through her teaching. Kids at t h i s age in junior high are going through some of the hardest l i v i n g of their entire l i f e . They're big, but they're not, they're tr y i n g to 128 cope with hormones and everything else and sometimes the picture they get of themselves is not a very nice one. And I think part of my job as a teacher is to mirror the goodness I can see, even i f they can't. (Protocol C l : p.13; 28-37) She believes that she can enhance a student's s e l f respect by adopting an attitude toward her students that involves both d i s c i p l i n e and love. "I guess i t ' s my job to sort of slap them in the face with one hand, and catch them with the other so that they make mistakes but they learn from i t " (Protocol C l : p.14; 8-12). She helps her students develop a positive image of themselves by encouraging them to do their best and recognizing their accomplishments. Cathy also feels that i t is esse n t i a l for her students to fe e l safe in her artroom. This is an important q u a l i t y that Cathy builds into the psychological component of her artroom environment. "I want a place where kids can take some chances a r t i s t i c a l l y , emotionally, personally, and ah, know that they don't have to stand up to r i d i c u l e by and insensitive teacher or insensitive kids" (Protocol C l : p.19; 39-44). Images. Cathy's image of an artroom is rooted in her memories of the room where she studied art in high school. She describes i t as being "a smorgasbord for the eyes", a place where you are never bored because there is always something to look at. She sees an artroom as a place that is constantly evolving; a "happening". This image requires that the room be 129 f l e x i b l e so t hat d i f f e r e n t spaces can be c r e a t e d f o r the d i f f e r e n t media and techniques the students are working with. She has modified the e x i s t i n g room she i s i n by moving counters and s h e l v e s and adding a d d i t i o n a l s t o r a g e , t h a t she has managed to r e c y c l e from around the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . She has given the q u e s t i o n of artroom design c o n s i d e r a b l e thought, even to the p o i n t of d e s i g n i n g a $80 000 r e n o v a t i o n to her room. Her new f a c i l i t y would be a l a r g e space d i v i d e d i n t o three or four areas by g l a s s w a l l s . Each area would f e a t u r e d i f f e r e n t media such as ceramics, drawing and p a i n t i n g , and media and f i l m making. The artroom would f u n c t i o n as a resource center i n the s c h o o l where students could drop i n d u r i n g the day to l e a r n through a r t . A lready Cathy's room f u n c t i o n s as a resource center f o r s t u d e n t s , working i n d i v i d u a l l y , or as p a r t of a c l u b ; students are always i n the room. Coping s t r a t e g i e s . Cathy i s a r e f l e c t i v e teacher who r e v i s e s the s t r a t e g i e s she uses i n l i g h t of her knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e . She has developed a sound approach to classroom management which b u i l d s on a thorough i n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t she g i v e s at the beginning of each course. And my r u l e i n the classroom i s don't touch i t i f you don't know what i t i s or you don't have anything to do with i t . So the c l a y k i d s come i n and they do t h e i r c l a y but they don't touch the p a i n t . The p a i n t k i d s come i n and do t h e i r p a i n t but they don't touch the c l a y . And I work very hard, probably the f i r s t two to three weeks of the 130 year s e t t i n g up classroom management techniques and being r e a l l y s t r i c t . You know, almost a bag lady about what they can and can't touch. And as long as they l e a r n to r e s p e c t the area and r e s p e c t the t o o l s and s u p p l i e s , and what I've found i s happened, i s t h a t whether I'm here or not they know. They know, and they c a r r y along and they work along. And we have l i t t l e or no damage to equipment or s u p p l i e s or other people's a r t work. ( P r o t o c o l C2: p.6,7; 36 - 4 ) She has four or f i v e r u l e s t h a t she emphasizes with students along with clean-up procedures. In a d d i t i o n to these management s t r a t e g i e s t h a t she employs, she a l s o teaches s o c i a l s k i l l s . Each course begins with a d i s c u s s i o n and hand out m a t e r i a l s on love and r e s p e c t f o r persons. She makes use of c o o p e r a t i v e groups i n some c l a s s e s by b r i n g i n g together students who don't normally a s s o c i a t e with each other. The students i n these groups l e a r n how to i n t e r a c t and work t o g e t h e r . These may seem l i k e t e a c h i n g approaches r a t h e r than ways to cope i n the classroom, but by e s t a b l i s h i n g these i n i t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i n a c l e a r f a s h i o n , Cathy e s t a b l i s h e s a classroom tone t h a t she can cope with. The room has f o r c e d Cathy to r e d e s i g n the f l e x i b l e elements of the classroom i n order to cope with a l a r g e awkward f a c i l i t y . She takes advantage of the space a v a i l a b l e by t e a c h i n g i n both halves of her U-shaped room, a l t e r n a t i n g from s i d e to s i d e depending on the a c t i v i t i e s the students are i n v o l v e d i n . What I've got to now i s most of the wet work i s handled i n t h i s s i d e of the room. Kid's making masks, c l a y and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e l i k e t h a t . Most of what I c a l l the dry s t u f f , the drawing and the p a i n t i n g and s o r t of more the theory o r i e n t e d , the 131 year book - that's what they're doing over there. Right now, they've got the whole side of the room tied up there with their yearbook layouts a l l over the place. So i t ' s just been kind of an evolutionary thing. I s i t at my desk there and look, you know, my mind's going on a l l the time about how I could change th i s room and make i t more e f f i c i e n t . (Protocol C2: p.4,5; 33-2) The room functions well for Cathy. Short of the major renovations she has proposed, the artroom environment is one that well suits her approach to teaching. When asked whether the school culture placed any li m i t s on her approach to art education Cathy responded with an emphatic,"No! on the contrary, I influence them" (Protocol C l : p. 17; 40-41). She does not expect the school to understand her goals for her program. I think i t ' s my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i f I'm an advocate for the ar t s , which I am, that I've got to be out there doing something. It can't be a l l show and no go. It's not l i k e I can s i t back here and say "kids should be taking art because i t ' s wonderful for them". That's not why they're taking i t . They come here to take i t because of me, and because I guess I've b u i l t a name for myself and I've b u i l t a name for the program. (Protocol C l : p.17,18; 41-6) There is a decidedly p o l i t i c a l edge to Cathy's approach to dealing with the school culture. She accepts her role as an advocate for the arts and ca r r i e s out her mission by becoming very involved in the administration of the school. She s i t s on eight d i f f e r e n t committees responsible for student a c t i v i t i e s and school administration. In t h i s way, she senses the pulse of what is going on in the school and weighs the p o l i t i c a l opportunities that come along. 132 Chapter 5 C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Study The focus of t h i s study i s the l e a r n i n g environment of three j u n i o r secondary a r t classrooms. However, the study i s not o n l y about artrooms, i t i s a l s o about the t e a c h e r s t h a t teach i n those rooms and the knowledge they have a c q u i r e d through the experience of t e a c h i n g . The i n t e n t of the r e s e a r c h was to d e s c r i b e each s e t t i n g , and the p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s t h a t make that s e t t i n g a unique e x p r e s s i o n of the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The r e s e a r c h c a t e g o r i e s t h a t guided the data c o l l e c t i o n and coding were: P r a c t i c a l Knowledge, Image of the Artroom, D e s c r i p t i o n of the Artroom, R a t i o n a l e s f o r Artroom Design, and L i m i t a t i o n s of the A r c h i t e c t u r e and the School C u l t u r e (see Appendix E ) . Each of these c a t e g o r i e s were developed from the conceptual framework t h a t was b u i l t i n the i n i t i a l stages of t h i s r e s e a r c h (see F i g u r e 1). Coding and a n a l y s i s added to the conceptual d e n s i t y of the framework, c l a r i f y i n g c a t e g o r i e s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them. The p h y s i c a l environment of the artroom was found to be a p a r t i a l r e c o r d of each teacher's p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge. F i e l d r e s e a r c h methodology i n v o l v i n g i n t e r v i e w s , photographic a n a l y s i s , and p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n was used to provide a p r o f i l e 133 of each of the three s i t e s . The p r o f i l e s i n c l u d e d a d e s c r i p t i o n of each artroom and a d i s c u s s i o n of each teacher's p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n terms of the b e l i e f s , image and coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t he or she h e l d . Although each s i t e had i t s own d i s t i n c t f e a t u r e s , what held the s i t e s i n common was the way that p r a c t i c a l knowledge f u n c t i o n e d i n the de s i g n of the f l e x i b l e elements of the room's environment. The three teachers a l l employed s p e c i f i c coping s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e i r classroom which enhanced the sense of comfort that they f e l t about being a r t t e a c h e r s . B e l i e f s and an i d e a l image of an artroom were expressed l e s s d i r e c t l y yet they s t i l l i n f l u e n c e d the teacher's day to day d e c i s i o n s about the artroom environment and school l i f e . A conceptual framework was developed to d e p i c t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the teacher's p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y , p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge, the artroom, and the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by a r c h i t e c t u r e and sch o o l l i f e . Conclus ions The artroom, as an e x p r e s s i o n of the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge, was the major focus of t h i s study. The three artrooms s t u d i e d were very d i f f e r e n t from one another, as were the t e a c h i n g approaches of the teachers who taught i n them. What held the three s i t e s i n common was the way i n which p r a c t i c a l knowledge f u n c t i o n e d i n artroom d e s i g n . P r a c t i c a l knowledge was 134 expressed in each artroom through the coping strategies that each teacher had developed, and through certain q u a l i t i e s of the room's environment. These q u a l i t i e s were physical expressions of an ideal image of an artroom that each teacher held. Coping strategies are the highly individual techniques that teachers develop to cope with the stresses and demands of teaching. These express p r a c t i c a l knowledge d i r e c t l y , shaping the environment through the design of the f l e x i b l e elements of the classroom, and the rules, routines, and procedures of classroom management. These strategies are developed in the f i r s t years of a teacher's career, as a means of s u r v i v a l . Later, these are refined through experience and become a well defined expression of the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge. These strategies make a fundamental contribution to the degree of comfort that experienced teachers f e e l in their r o l e . The teacher's image of an artroom was held less c l e a r l y , in a l l three cases, than the o r i g i n a l framework had anticipated. Personal experience had contributed in each case to an image of what an artroom should be. The physical environment of each artroom contained evidence of the image that teacher held but, the data indicates that t h i s image evolved into the room design gradually. Cathy describes her room as "a happening" that is constantly changing and evolving in response to the student a c t i v i t i e s taking place. This 135 is an apt description of her artroom with i t s v i s u a l l y stimulating, busy environment. Tom sees his room as a serious, d i s c i p l i n e d , workspace. He discusses i t in language drawn from his art school background, and his bri e f experience as a display a r t i s t . His attitude is evident in the clean, well ordered room where he teaches. Martin t r i e s to create a "homey f e e l " to his room where the students f e e l relaxed. This i s evident in his manner of dealing with students, always positive and encouraging, and in the rather humorous and e c l e c t i c room displays. From these examples i t seems that image i s expressed i n d i r e c t l y in the artroom, while coping strategies are applied as a d i r e c t , conscious response to a pa r t i c u l a r need. When faced with a new teaching s i t u a t i o n , each teacher responded by establishing control through s p e c i f i c coping strategies. The design of the student seating arrangement is an example of a s p e c i f i c coping strategy that d i r e c t l y influences the design of the artroom environment. The image of the artroom held by these teachers was not expressed as a d i r e c t response, but as an unconscious influence on teacher decisions about room design. Martin's image of a room as a "homey place", Tom's image of a "cooperative workspace", and Cathy's image of "a happening" have guided the countless decisions they have made about their rooms. 136 There is evidence of these images, for they have t a c i t l y influenced t h e i r choices. Each of the teachers studied are in the middle years of their careers and have established a sort of equilibrium within their artrooms. Teaching continues to have stresses and demands but these are of a d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i t y than the early years. Martin: . . . i n my e a r l i e r years...ah, i t would take me too long to give things out to the students some time, or I wouldn't have the method down, or they would a l l end up at the sink at the same time...you have to watch your time very c a r e f u l l y and i f the b e l l rings then they have to go off to the next c l a s s . Then you're stuck with a t e r r i b l e mess...I've been stuck a couple of times and I knew way back then that was never going to happen again and I've taken steps to make sure that i t doesn't happen. (Protocol A l : p. 4, 6-23) The strategies they have developed for teaching, classroom management, and r e l a t i n g to the school culture are in place and working. They are comfortable with their r o l e s . To reach t h i s position a cert a i n amount of adaptation has occurred to their p r a c t i c a l knowledge enabling them to cope. Ideals have had to be modified in response to the r e a l i t i e s of the classroom and the school culture. Tom: I'm much more l a i d back now than I used to be. I'm s t i l l probably uh, a f a i r l y s t r i c t teacher. I watch kids leaving the classroom and make sure they're not abusing the going to the washroom p r i v i l e g e s . I pay attention to how they work in c l a s s . I want them to be working, not gossiping. I want work in on time. I phone parents i f i t isn't....But I've relaxed my standards since I've started because the kid that I'm teaching now is far less capable than the flower power era kid, the 70's kid. Far less 137 capable. Not as mature ei t h e r . . . . But, ah, p a r t l y I got older and I'm less energetic. I've changed the course quite a b i t . (Protocol BI: p.9, 10-34) Experience provides the teacher with a sense of comfort in their r o l e , a feeling of being able to handle things because you've been through i t before. There is a tendency for these patterns to s o l i d i f y into a rather r i g i d approach to art education. This i s compounded by the isolationism of teacher culture and the marginality of art education from the ce n t r a l , p o l i t i c a l debate over curriculum. Goodlad (1983) and Lortie (1975) describe the constancy of school culture, and teaching approach, in spite of dramatic s o c i a l change. The fact that school culture i s shaped by what i s comfortable for the teacher c e r t a i n l y contributes to t h i s resistance to change. The environment that each teacher has created in their artroom is influenced by their own comfort needs, given the demands of their professional l i v e s . This suggests that one function of p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s the maintenance of a stable, comfortable teaching environment. The combined e f f e c t of the image of the artroom that the teacher holds, the coping strategies they have developed, and the teacher's comfort needs, suggest a complex process that guides practice. This personal, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c approach to teaching that Martin, Tom and Cathy exhibit is connected to the way in which teachers enter their 138 p r o f e s s i o n . Teachers are l e f t to develop t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge by themselves. The c r i t i c i s m l e v e l e d at teacher p r e p a r a t i o n should be r e d i r e c t e d to a p r o f e s s i o n t h a t a l l o w s i t s f l e d g l i n g members to s u r v i v e on t h e i r own. T h i s encourages i n d i v i d u a l i s m and i s o l a t i o n among t e a c h e r s . The r e s u l t being that the development of a teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s guided by the need f o r coping and s u r v i v a l r a t h e r than c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l or pedagogical o b j e c t i v e s . The above f i n d i n g s concerning the c h a r a c t e r of the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge f i n d t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n i n the unique environment of each classroom. T h i s study sees the artroom environment as a dynamic balance between the teacher's p r a c t i c a l knowledge, i n c l u d i n g image and coping s t r a t e g i e s , and the c u l t u r e of the s c h o o l and i t s s t u d e n t s . In order to cope with the l i m i t a t i o n s a teacher encounters i n the room and the s c h o o l c u l t u r e , a balance must be maintained; a p e r s o n a l balance that i s achieved through the acceptance of some l i m i t a t i o n s and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of o t h e r s . Consider the t o l e r a n c e of mess i n an artroom. Of the three s i t e s , Cathy has the h i g h e s t t o l e r a n c e and Tom the lowest. Each has achieved a markedly d i f f e r e n t balance of c l e a n l i n e s s and order i n t h e i r rooms environment. Each room has i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s which must be accepted, but 139 what d i s t i n g u i s h e s each s i t e , i s the degree to which the environment i s transformed through the use of the f l e x i b l e elements of the classroom. These elements i n c l u d e desks, d i s p l a y s , equipment, m a t e r i a l s and s t o r a g e . The teacher uses these elements to express t h e i r idea of what an artroom should be. The room becomes a r e f l e c t i o n of the s t r u g g l e between the p e r s o n a l , p r a c t i c a l knowledge of the teacher and classroom and s c h o o l c u l t u r e where the teacher works. Cathy d e s c r i b e s the p e r s o n a l nature of s t r u g g l e she has gone through to achieve a sense of balance i n her room. I've l e a r n e d t h a t they (artrooms) change and what looks good for one year doesn't n e c e s s a r i l y look good or f i t good for another year. I've got the h y d r a u l i c jacks i n here and r i p p e d cupboards o f f the w a l l and unbolted the blackboards and b o l t e d them up i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s and unscrewed t h i n g s and r i p p e d t h i n g s around. I know that i t has to be something that has to be f l e x i b l e . . . . L i k e I f e e l so o f t e n t h a t I'm l i m i t e d by the space and I l i k e easy access f o r k i d s . I don't lock e v e r y t h i n g up! ( P r o t o c o l C l : p. 6; 27-46) Ma r t i n on the other hand has been much more a c c e p t i n g of the l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s classroom and chooses to c a r r y on with t e a c h i n g r a t h e r than r e n o v a t i n g h i s artroom. So the room i t s e l f , I don't know how important that i s . I think i t ' s i n the students minds. I f they're at ease and they're on task and they f e e l good about a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n and I hope t h a t ' s the way i t i s i n my c l a s s e s . I know i t s not always that way but t h a t ' s what I s t r i v e f o r and t h a t ' s what I hope f o r . That the k i d s themselves f e e l good about themselves and about being t h e r e , not what the room r e a l l y looks l i k e . ( P r o t o c o l A l : p. 16, 41-50) 140 I t h i n k the t e a c h i n g space i s o n l y so important. I think you have to be comfortable and the students have to be reasonably w e l l equipped and you have to be equipped as a teacher, but a s i d e from t h a t . . . ( P r o t o c o l A l : p. 17, 19-24) Ma r t i n accepts the p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the room as givens and s t r i v e s to c r e a t e the r i g h t p s y c h o l o g i c a l environment w i t h i n h i s classroom. There i s a sense that t h i s s t r u g g l e , between p r a c t i c a l knowledge and the environment of the classroom, occurs on a m i c r o s c o p i c l e v e l , w i t h i n each classroom, and a macroscopic l e v e l , w i t h i n each teacher's c a r e e r . Cathy has committed her c a r e e r to t r a n s f o r m i n g people's a t t i t u d e s toward the a r t s , while M a r t i n i s much more w i l l i n g to f i t i n t o the system and c o n c e n t r a t e on working with i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . Cathy's s t r u g g l e to renovate and r e s t r u c t u r e the l e s s f l e x i b l e p a r t s of her classroom i s a micro e x p r e s s i o n of her a t t i t u d e toward her c a r e e r . I teach l i k e a barracuda. My f i g h t i s to r a i s e the p r o f i l e of the a r t s . What we do i s e v e r y t h i n g they are t a l k i n g about i n the new c u r r i c u l u m , (p. 4) I've become a barracuda because most people s o r t of looked at a r t as kind of something wimpy and not important. And I s o r t of think i t ' s the other h a l f , i n the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n , i t r e a l l y makes up the other h a l f of the t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s . ( P r o t o c o l C l : p. 4, 39-43; p. 5, 4-10) There i s l i t t l e about t h i s s t r u g g l e t h a t i s uniform f o r i t occurs w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of each teacher's classroom and c a r e e r . Each teacher develops s t r a t e g i e s and approaches t h a t ' f i t ' the s p e c i f i c circumstances of each s e t t i n g . I t i s t h i s s t r u g g l e that shapes the 141 course of each teacher's c a r e e r . I t i s t h i s s t r u g g l e t h a t Heubner (1966) r e f e r s to when he d e s c r i b e s t e a c h i n g as a l i f e s t y l e f o r "unearthing v a l u e " . The de s i g n of an artroom i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the a r t teacher's very p e r s o n a l s t r u g g l e to express the knowledge, v a l u e s , and b e l i e f s t h a t they h o l d . Recommendat ions An i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l between the three s i t e s was each teacher's concern f o r a classroom environment where students f e l t s afe to take c r e a t i v e r i s k s with t h e i r artwork. Cathy: I want k i d s to take chances... You see, most areas, l i k e math, we have a tendency as teachers to y e l l at them, or any p l a c e , i f they get t h i n g s wrong t h a t ' s not good. Yet, I think q u i t e o f t e n our most e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g takes p l a c e from our mistakes, not what we get r i g h t . So I want a place where k i d s can take some chances a r t i s t i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y , p e r s o n a l l y , and ah, know they don't have to stand up to r i d i c u l e by an i n s e n s i t i v e teacher or i n s e n s i t i v e k i d s . I want them to f e e l s a f e . ( P r o t o c o l C l : p. 19, 28-45) F i e l d notes f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n Tom's c l a s s : He has two goals f o r h i s studen t s , the f i r s t i s to c r e a t e an environment where students can develop s e l f d i s c i p l i n e . The second i s to c r e a t e an environment where they are f r e e to be themselves, f r e e to q u e s t i o n , u n a f r a i d of the teacher or the environment. They should f e e l f r e e to t r y an y t h i n g . ( P r o t o c o l B3: p. 9, 5-13) M a r t i n : I t r y to keep t h i n g s as p o s i t i v e as p o s s i b l e . I don't l i k e to see negative thoughts or ah, negative trends i n young people ah, or i n old e r people. And I d e f i n i t e l y t r y to s t e e r them i n t o p o s i t i v e areas and p o s i t i v e thoughts and encourage them to be e n e r g e t i c , to be themselves and ah, t h a t kind of t h i n g . ( P r o t o c o l A l : p. 11, 5-13) 142 T h i s n o t i o n of a safe environment was something t h a t emerged from the data and was not an aspect of the artroom environment that was o r i g i n a l l y a n t i c i p a t e d . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to see i f t h i s concept i s held by other a r t t e a c h e r s . The q u e s t i o n that f o l l o w s i s : How can we c r e a t e artroom environments where students are safe to f r e e l y express t h e i r own thoughts and b e l i e f s ? The data c o l l e c t e d c o n t a i n p r o f i l e s of three h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l approaches to t e a c h i n g a r t . The i s s u e of i n d i v i d u a l i s m and i s o l a t i o n among a r t teachers needs f u r t h e r study. What encourages i s o l a t i o n ? How can a r t teachers begin to open the world of t h e i r classrooms to each other and share the knowledge they have gained through experience? How can p r a c t i c a l knowledge best be shared? A r t conferences o f t e n provide a forum f o r s h a r i n g ideas and approaches to t e a c h i n g a r t techniques. But where i s there a forum f o r a r t teachers to present the techniques they have learned about artroom management, student d i s c i p l i n e , or the p o l i t i c s of a r t on the s c h o o l l e v e l . These are the i s s u e s t h a t a r t teachers c o n f r o n t d a i l y but i n p r o f e s s i o n a l c i r c l e s we are seldom encouraged to d i s c u s s them. Art educators need to r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s to more e f f e c t i v e l y communicate the v a l u a b l e resource that e x i s t s i n p r a c t i c a l knowledge of experienced t e a c h e r s . 143 Implicat ions This study generates several implications. In general, these c a l l for a closer r e l a t i o n s h i p between theoreticians and p r a c t i t i o n e r s in education. This re l a t i o n s h i p must be b u i l t on a mutual respect of the d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t knowledge base that each brings to education, and a commitment to working together to implement positive change in schools and classrooms. Teacher t r a i n i n g must be seen as something that encompasses un i v e r s i t y programs and the teacher's f i r s t years in the profession. This t r a i n i n g must incorporate a blend of t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l knowledge and the support, of teachers and academics, to apply that theory-in-action (Schon, 1983). This approach would move the f i r s t years of teaching from a time of survival and growing i s o l a t i o n , to a time for building a philosophical and pedagogical foundation to guide one's career. To accomplish t h i s task, teachers and theoreticians must c o l l e c t i v e l y c r i t i c i z e the process of teacher t r a i n i n g , and build a twofold approach that recognizes the contribution of p r a c t i c a l knowledge and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge to teacher preparat ion. Research into teacher knowledge and the classroom environment also has implications for curriculum implementation. Much space in art education journals is devoted to curriculum content but l i t t l e attention 144 is paid to research that t r i e s to understand the classrooms and the teachers who bring the curriculum to l i f e . Curriculum designers must recognize that teachers are not passive vessels that transfer curriculum innovations to the classroom. This study has shown that art teachers create a dynamic balance in their classrooms and any innovation that threatens the comfortable environment that they have established w i l l be viewed with suspicion. Teachers must be given a greater opportunity to influence the course of educational research from the perspective of their own p r a c t i c a l knowledge. F i n a l l y , t h i s study has had personal implications for my own practice as an art teacher. My struggle for a dynamic balance has been helped by my three colleagues who participated in this study. Their willingness to open their rooms, the i r thoughts and emotions has given me a profound respect for the work teachers undertake on a d a i l y basis. My approach to teaching is d i f f e r e n t from these three but we are a l l involved in the same struggle through our careers. We are trying to reconcile our inward l i v e s with the external world of the classroom and the school culture. At points in the year my personal b e l i e f s about teaching seem to be losing the battle to the forces of school culture that want to disrupt the comfortable classroom environment I am trying to create. At these 145 times I r e t r e a t i n t o a s u r v i v a l mode i n my t e a c h i n g . At other p o i n t s I am able to r e a s s e r t my fundamental b e l i e f s about t e a c h i n g and a r t educ a t i o n and r e s t o r e the classroom to a more accurate r e f l e c t i o n of those b e l i e f s . 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London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 150 Footnotes l A l t h o u g h I acknowledge t h a t a d i s t i n c t i o n may be made between b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and i d e a l s I am us i n g the term " b e l i e f " i n a broad sense t h a t encompasses a l l these n o t i o n s . Werner (1988, p.5) p o i n t s out t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a c t on the b a s i s of t h e i r own "common-sense b e l i e f s " which are d i f f e r e n t from formal, p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . I t i s t h i s "common-sense" d e f i n i t i o n of the term " b e l i e f " t h a t I am adopting i n t h i s study. 2The r e s e a r c h e r r e c o g n i z e s many d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of c u l t u r e . "School c u l t u r e " has generated an e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e . For the purposes of t h i s study, with i t s emphasis on p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge, the more g e n e r a l term "school l i f e " has been s e l e c t e d . School l i f e r e f e r s t o those aspects of s c h o o l be they p o l i c i e s , c o n s t r a i n t s , or o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the p h y s i c a l design of the artroom. 3The r e s e a r c h e r employed these c r i t e r i a i n s i t e s e l e c t i o n because he wished to study s u b j e c t s i n a context s i m i l a r to the one he had worked i n f o r 14 y e a r s . I t was important to s e l e c t s c h o o l s with o n l y one a r t teacher so th a t the artroom d e s i g n r e f l e c t e d the p r a c t i c a l knowledge of a s i n g l e t eacher, and not the combined knowledge of an a r t department. F i n a l l y , i t was d e s i r a b l e to s e l e c t s u b j e c t s with e x t e n s i v e experience i n one s e t t i n g so t h a t both t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge, and room de s i g n had a leng t h y time p e r i o d f o r development. P r o t o c o l A - l Appendix A 151 P r o t o c o l No. A - l Researcher: Shep Alexander October 4, 1989 Sub j e c t : Ethnographic I n t e r v i e w STARTING TIME: 3:30 PM I: What I r e a l l y want to expl o r e i n the i n t e r v i e w i s the t h i n g s i n your p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r y and your p e r s o n a l background t h a t might have shaped the way t h a t you decide on how to d e s i g n your classroom and s e t i t up as a l e a r n i n g environment. I'd l i k e t o s t a r t by a s k i n g some g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s . What t h i n g s i n your past have i n f l u e n c e d your d e c i s i o n to become an a r t teacher i n the f i r s t p l a ce? R: I went about i t d i f f e r e n t l y than q u i t e a few other people. I was determined to become a commercial a r t i s t and when I was out of high s c h o o l I went to a r t s c h o o l f o r four y e a r s . Before I reached the end of the four years I knew I wasn't going to be a commercial a r t i s t and a matter of f a c t i n my l a s t year I went i n t o Fine A r t s . I l o s t f a i t h i n something I thought would be there t h a t wasn't r e a l l y there i n commercial a r t I knew I r e a l l y d i d n ' t have i t i n me to become t h a t and I got very i n t e r e s t e d i n a l l the processes of the Fine A r t s and of course when I was f i n i s h e d with my a r t s c h o o l t r a i n i n g I had some knowledge i n s c u l p t u r e , drawing, p a i n t i n g and de s i g n a r e a s , printmaking but r e a l l y d i d n ' t have a d i r e c t i o n to go as an a r t i s t myself -although I saw a l o t of a r t i s t i c people t h e r e . I was a l i t t l e envious of them because I d i d n ' t f e e l l i k e a p a i n t e r or a printmaker and one of them suggested to me "we l l go and t r y UBC and see what t h e y ' l l do f o r you and t h e y ' l l g i v e you some c r e d i t f o r your a r t s c h o o l you know and you co u l d t r y e d u c a t i o n " . So I went out to UBC and I was t o l d they would give me two years f o r my four years of a r t s c h o o l and I d i d n ' t think i t sounded too bad so I thought i t was worth a t r y . So I t r i e d i t out. I had one year of u n i v e r s i t y before I went to a r t scho o l so i t was j u s t another two years of u n i v e r s i t y . I d i d n ' t care much f o r u n i v e r s i t y but I stuck i t out and I found I Page - } P r o t o c o l A - l Appendix A 152 l i k e d t e a c h i n g a l o t more than I that thought I would have. I found the k i d s responded p o s i t i v e l y and I was q u i t e happy with i t so I decided to c a r r y on. I: So was i t a t u n i v e r s i t y t h a t you r e a l l y d ecided t h a t you were i n t e r e s t e d i n becoming a teacher or was t h a t something t h a t you'd always thought about i n terms of vo c a t i o n ? R: No, i t was at u n i v e r s i t y t h a t I decided to become a te a c h e r . I wouldn't r e a l l y g i ve much c r e d i t to the u n i v e r s i t y , I f e l t a l i t t l e , I d i d n ' t f e e l , a p a r t of the u n i v e r s i t y . I t wasn't u n t i l I got out to the s c h o o l s and I met the students i n the sch o o l s and i n the high s c h o o l s and t a l k e d to some of the teach e r s t h a t I d i s c o v e r e d I had a f e e l i n g f o r i t . I f e l t t h a t I had a f e e l i n g f o r i t . I'm s t i l l not a 100% sure, one never knows 100%. You do the best you can and hope t h a t i t ' s good. I: So would you say t h a t your u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g had any impact on the way you teach a r t r i g h t now? R: I t must have had some... I'm sure there are a l o t of t h i n g s t h a t I had at u n i v e r s i t y I would never ... I would.not be able to use as a teacher . . s t a t i s t i c s , t h i n g s , a l i t t l e b i t of ph i l o s o p h y we had and some other t h i n g s t h a t may have gi v e n you some ideas and some gen e r a l d i r e c t i o n s but I found u n i v e r s i t y was q u i t e out of touch with the way t h i n g s r e a l l y were at s c h o o l s . For example, c l a s s s i z e s , s u p p l i e s , they gave one a f e e l i n g i t was an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n out i n the s c h o o l s . But when I got out i n the s c h o o l s I found I had much l a r g e r c l a s s e s , fewer s u p p l i e s to work with and the s i t u a t i o n was f a r from i d e a l . I had to invent a l o t of t h i n g s myself. I: How many years have you been t e a c h i n g a r t ? R: I'm i n my t w e n t i e t h year. I: Can you d e s c r i b e some of the t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s you have worked i n . Page - £ P r o t o c o l A - l Appendix A 153 R: I began t e a c h i n g i n Burnaby. I spent two years t h e r e . I was v e r y unhappy at the s c h o o l I was i n Burnaby. I f e l t the s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y was not what I would have l i k e d to have seen. The s c h o o l and the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was v e r y i l l s u p p l i e d f o r s u b j e c t s l i k e a r t and shops. I knew I needed a change and when an opening came up i n Westwood I had a l r e a d y heard that Westwood was q u i t e a dynamic s c h o o l d i s t r i c t so I decided to g i v e i t a t r y . And I'm c e r t a i n l y not s o r r y I d i d t h a t because I've c e r t a i n l y enjoyed t e a c h i n g i n Westwood. I've found t h a t they have been t h a t , a v e r y a l i v e , dynamic s c h o o l d i s t r i c t to work i n . I: What s c h o o l s have you taught i n and f o r how many years? R: I've o n l y been i n two s c h o o l s i n Westwood... The f i r s t one, I spent 9 years i n Carnarvon not v e r y f a r from here where we had a very l a r g e a r t department. At i t s ' peak there were two f u l l time a r t teachers and two p a r t time a r t t e a c h e r s . I t was a b i g a r t program however, as the years went on the s c h o o l i t s e l f seemed to loose i t ' s p r i d e or i t ' s f e e l i n g t h a t i t had t h a t i t was a good s c h o o l . No one enjoyed being there and I t h i n k i t was p o s s i b l y the s c h o o l p h i l o s o p h y at t h a t time. Things have changed there now. I t ' s turned around there t o t a l l y , I understand, t h a t ' s good. But I f e l t I d e s p e r a t e l y needed a change at the time and I had the chance to come to a s m a l l e r s c h o o l where I d i d n ' t get to have a f u l l load of a r t but, again the p h i l o s o p h y of the s c h o o l came i n t o p l a y and I f e l t i t was v e r y important f o r me to work i n a p l a c e t h a t I f e l t my ideas would j i b e a l i t t l e with the s c h o o l . I: Do you t h i n k t h a t there are t h i n g s t h a t you learned from the other t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s a t Carnarvon or even Burnaby th a t e f f e c t the way you teach now. R: D e f i n i t e l y ! With the huge c l a s s s i z e s I've had i n the past t h a t I had at Carnarvon and at the other s c h o o l i n Burnaby I had to l e a r n to organize s u p p l i e s , to speak to a l a r g e group and t r y to get everyone's a t t e n t i o n and keep everyone's a t t e n t i o n when the time was Page - 3 Protocol A - l Appendix A 154 necessary. Like I say I started off with t h i s thing about supplies and I don't think everyone r e a l i z e s how important i t i s to be organized giving out and c o l l e c t i n g supplies and clean up messes and making sure 36 young people do the same and that's where I r e a l l y learned about that kind of thing. I had no idea about that, I didn't get any advanced warning about that in my t r a i n i n g either at art school or at university. Of course at art school I r e a l l y wouldn't blame them because they weren't t r a i n i n g teachers. Nobody r e a l l y talked about classroom organization at university. If i t was mentioned, i t was barely mentioned. That's where I learned about the r e a l i t y of dealing with these big numbers and ... not always having classes that you were prepared to teach. In my f i r s t year of teaching I was automatically, by default, department head and I had two classes of a l l g i r l s c r a f t and I was t o t a l l y unequipped for that. So I had to learn as I went. The g i r l s taught me more about c r a f t than I taught them. I: Do you think, when you started teaching, that you had a picture in your mind of the kind of place that you wanted your art room to be, the kind of atmosphere you wanted to have there for students? R: D e f i n i t e l y , ah... there was ah... well having been to art school of course I... art school had a very arty kind of a f e e l to i t . Often i t was just p l a i n messy but there was r e a l l y a f e e l i n g that something was being done there ah... I'm in a school now where there's more emphasis on keeping the school t i d y and clean and can't r e a l l y turn t h i s into a art room but I s t i l l enjoy the school and I'm able to work within those l i m i t s . But I do have an idea of an art room being a c e r t a i n kind of place and maybe p a r t l y from one of the sponsor teachers I had in the high school for one of my practicums who had a very i n t e r e s t i n g art room. I: Can you describe i t a l i t t l e b i t ? R: Well i t ' s ah... there was always a fresh display of student work up and i t was current. There was also interesting Page - ^ Protocol A - l Appendix A 155 posters that i l l u s t r a t e d c e r t a i n points that the teacher was t r y i n g to get across in c e r t a i n lessons in a r t . There was subjects in the room that the student's could get v i s u a l i n s p i r a t i o n from, hanging from the c e i l i n g . Yet the room wasn't messy or too c l u t t e r e d . Good l i g h t i n g , of course that was part of the physical plant and the teacher was lucky to get that but there was ah'... just a f e e l i n g that t h i s was a place where art takes place and ah, i t looked more l i k e a l i v e studio than just a room with a bunch of desks in i t . It was a f l e x i b l e room too, where you could move desks and tables and create d i f f e r e n t situations in the room. I r e a l l y thought i t was a good room. I haven't had anything l i k e that. I taught at Carnarvon school. I taught in a Math room and a Science room. I: I would l i k e to think next about the kinds of things you have learned from other teachers over the course of your career. Are there p r a c t i c a l things that you f e e l you use in your art room that you have learned from other teachers? R: There are, d e f i n i t e l y every teacher has a d i f f e r e n t method, a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e getting through to students. I've r e a l l y appreciated some of them, perhaps more than others. And I think a l o t of them that have influenced me, perhaps I'm not aware of them even. It's hard for me to be s p e c i f i c at t h i s point. I had a sponsor teacher when I was a student whose philosophy I r e a l l y enjoyed, he taught me more about t h i s job than any other single person I think. Although there's been others, not only art teachers, but teachers from other subject areas that have taught me - just getting points through to young people and d i f f e r e n t ways of doing that. I: Things l i k e questioning techniques... R: Questioning techniques, that's r i g h t , that's correct. Ways to handle audio v i s u a l equipment, l i t t l e games that you can play in the classroom, thing that junior high school students might respond to more than older students or even younger students. Learning how that p a r t i c u l a r age P a g e - 5 Protocol A - l Appendix A 156 group responds to d i f f e r e n t things ... classroom organization urn I: So do you f e e l l i k e , in terms of your own professional input, do you f e e l l i k e i t ' s come from other teachers, administrators or workshops and conferences you've gone to? R: It's been a l i t t l e b i t of a l l those things but i t ' s probably mostly from other teachers, rubbing off from other teachers, observing other s t a f f members observing them at work I think that's very important. Learning things l i k e ... you must keep a sense of humour. It's hard to learn that I guess you sort of have that but I've appreciated that in some of the other teachers. I've observed, even some of the ones I've had as a student. I think i t ' s necessary to keep your own sense of humour not that you have to act l i k e a clown in class a l l the time but you have to have a sense of humour yourself just to get through the day sometimes. Things l i k e that, that you pick up somehow just from the job. I: You learn to put things in perspective by t a l k i n g to colleagues... R: Administrators sometimes have been h e l p f u l . I: In what way? R: Well, you know, for ironing out l i t t l e problems you might have and they usually have pretty good advice, I think. In later years administrators have been more w i l l i n g and able to do that. That's what I've found anyway rather than in e a r l i e r years but ahh... i t a l l rubs off and a f f e c t s what you do in the class room. I: If you think back to your own experiences as an art student either at high school or at art school, as you mentioned, how do you think that influences how you teach art? R: I guess i t does influence me. I don't tr y to do much of the things I had done to me by the art teachers there. I know I had Page - 6 Protocol A - l Appendix A 157 a French teacher in high school who was a lot more interested in being a French teacher and not that happy that she had to do some art although i t was one of her interests. It seemed to me i t was getting in her way and she would give very vague lessons and i n s i s t on t o t a l class d i s c i p l i n e and there was very l i t t l e talk about the art projects and we were to l d to be quiet and just do t h i s and do that. Maybe I'm not being f a i r because I know, you see i t d i f f e r e n t l y when you're a student but I didn't r e a l l y f e e l that teacher's personality allowed them to get involved with the student's work very much or take that much of an interest ah... although that p a r t i c u l a r teacher did t e l l me that I should think some day of going to art school and I did appreciate that. But I don't think i t ' s that d i f f i c u l t to notice talent in young people and to encourage i t . I don't think that's a r e a l l y hard part of the job so I don't know i f I would give a person much cr e d i t i f they do that. But then ah... other art teachers I've, had may have influenced me a l i t t l e b i t ah, in their methods. It's hard to say, some of the teachers I had in school I know d e f i n i t e l y have helped shaped me, but to what extent I don't know. I: Were there some negative things that you thought, well, i f I were ever going to be in a teaching s i t u a t i o n I d e f i n i t e l y wouldn't want to do that? R: D e f i n i t e l y , in a matter of fact that's probably what interested, er ah, f i n a l l y interested me in going into education for teaching. You know, a person doesn't have to be... ah, I didn't care much for that many of my teachers. I remember some that I liked but, ah... maybe I can get up there and do something about that. you know, why would I want to complain about i t , unless I'm r e a l l y in there. Maybe I can be an e f f e c t i v e teacher, I don't know, i t ' s hard to measure that and maybe I've been a t o t a l washout. But that's what I've t r i e d to do and i f I f e l t I was having a negative e f f e c t or no ef f e c t on the kids, the young people I've been facing over the la s t 20 years then I uh, I wish someone would have t o l d me about i t and I could Page - 7 Protocol A - l Appendix A 158 have got out o£ i t and done something else. So here I am and i t seems to be working, and you know, how you measure i t ... I: How do you f e e l the r e a l i t i e s of r e l a t i n g to students in the classroom a f f e c t s the way you set up your art room and organize i t . ? R: Again, the r e a l i t i e s . . . . I: You know, the actual day to day interactions with the students, how does that shape the way you set up your art room and organize i t ? R: Um... day to day interactions with students ah I',m not... too me that's a tough question to answer... I do know that in the school that we're in now we put a l o t of emphasis in the teachers showing a l o t of respect for the students and the students showing respect for the teachers. There's a good relat i o n s h i p that way, students here are b a s i c a l l y very f r i e n d l y , there's not very many problems with teachers having c o n f l i c t s with students, you know... the c o n f l i c t s are handled somewhere else in the school and i t ' s a very good fee l i n g between teachers and students and, ah, I think that helps me. If I need to get the attention of a whole class to give them in s t r u c t i o n , then I can do that, there's no problem that way. And i f you have to organize them so that they go one row at a time or one person at a time to pick up things, then no problem at a l l . There's a l o t of cooperation, an awful l o t of cooperation. There's never been a problem with that. If they're not told what to do though they won't do i t , and ah, you can see that sometimes i f you're not at school and maybe you haven't l e f t clear enough instructions while you're gone, but the students have just gone crazy maybe because they get a chance, to get out of that t r a i n i n g , you can't just l e t a big group of students go over to an area and do something at the same time t h e y ' l l go crazy. I: Are there s p e c i f i c situations where as an art teacher maybe you r e a l l y f e e l you got burned on a series of lessons by a Page - % Protocol A - l Appendix A 159 group of students so you decided you're going to do things d i f f e r e n t l y ? R: A l l right I: Can you give an example? Are there some key things R: That's r i g h t , in my e a r l i e r years I probably wasn't ... ah, i t would take me too long to give out things to the students some time, or I wouldn't have the method down, or they would a l l be at the sink cleaning up at the same time. E s p e c i a l l y in certa i n classes where you're working with certa i n materials such as clay or whatever or paint, where everyone needs to wash up at the end. Now, ... that you have to watch your time very c a r e f u l l y and i f the b e l l rings then they have to go off to the next class then you're stuck with a t e r r i b l e mess, and that's not... and I've been stuck a couple of times and I knew way back then that was never going to happen again and I've taken steps to make sure that doesn't happen. The only time that happens now i s i f a surprise comes up and ah... the o f f i c e , the PA comes on and they say t h i s period i s going to be cut short 10 or 15 minutes and I've not been informed of that. Usually now we're informed but that's happened a few times and you can get caught that way. Or i f a student has a t e r r i b l e accident - drops a whole big container of paint or something and you have to clear away the whole room. I: yeah... (chuckle) R: If you l e t them clean i t up they don't do a very good job even though they're trying and so you're stuck with i t . But that doesn't happen very often. I: You think in a much more preventative kind of way ... R: Yeah, that's right and I don't ... I f e e l much more at ease in the job someways now aft e r a l l those years because those things are not a problem to you and just, i t flows very smoothly. Same thing, as ah, class d i s c i p l i n e . Art teachers have an advantage there because they're working in Page - a Protocol A - l Appendix A 160 a course that students b a s i c a l l y enjoy and you're not apt to have as many d i s c i p l i n e problems as in an academic class and you get a fe e l i n g for i t afte r a while and you can handle the problems in a calm, e f f e c t i v e manner. You don't get excited about them or s t a r t arguing with students. I spent some time doing that in my e a r l i e r years, too, and that was a waste of time -arguing with the students, when I'm not getting paid to do that and that's someone else's job. And you just have to be calm and ask them to leave the room. You want to t r y to solve i t in your own classroom and you t r y to, but that can get fr u s t r a t i n g and rubs off on the rest of the clas s . But you learn those things over the years. I: In the next questions, I'd l i k e to ask you questions about your philosophy in teaching um... what do you think are some of the ah... b e l i e f s that you hold about teaching and about students that guide you in teaching? Can you a r t i c u l a t e any of those? R: well, ...I know as a student myself and as a young person I was quite c r i t i c a l myself of many adults and sometimes very c r i t i c a l of the way they t r i e d to influence young people or the way they t r i e d to teach young people or the way they t r i e d to help young people. I f e l t that they may have been so far out of i t that they r e a l l y couldn't communicate. I t r i e d to understand that when I f i r s t became a teacher ah I didn't want to go too far in the other d i r e c t i o n but, . so that the young people and the things I said to them would have some meaning to them, they wouldn't just turn a blind ear to i t . But I ah... I think that you have to make things meaningful to young people and sometimes you have to go out of your way to do that, to overemphasize that part of i t . I: yes R: I know I teach Social Studies as well and that is a real challenge ah, they might enjoy most art projects, but most Socials projects they just don't enjoy at a l l and they don't see the relevance of i t in the i r Page - 10 Protocol A - l Appendix A 161 l i v e s . So I spend a l o t of time at that, try i n g to find ways to make i t relevant to their l i v e s . And sometimes I ' l l pick subject matters that might interest them a l i t t l e b i t more and yet I t r y to keep things as positive as possible. I don't l i k e to see negative thoughts or ah, negative trends in young people ah, or in older people. And I d e f i n i t e l y t r y to steer them into positive areas and positive thoughts and encourage them to be energetic, to be themselves and ah, that kind of thing. But, ah, as far as philosophy goes, you f e e l that, you know, you can help some of them or maybe one or two of them to become a better person somehow through your course, and your course i s just a vehicle, art i s just a vehicle for you to reach someone's l i f e and you might not have any a f f e c t on them at a l l but chances are you probably w i l l because you're a tremendous influence on young people, teachers are more of an influence on young people. But, i f you can a f f e c t them in a positive way for the future then i t might help them do whatever, as long as i t ' s a positive thing. Then I think that you're doing a job as a teacher. I think you're doing an e f f e c t i v e job then. But i t , ah, has to be um, directed to help the student improve his or her l i f e , something that i s just to keep them busy... I: I was going to say, where would you see art f i t t i n g into a students t o t a l education? R: Oh, Oh ... I: What are your feelings about the importance of art in an education? R: I wouldn't be doing t h i s job i f I didn't f e e l i t was very important. I ah,think that people get the wrong idea about the subject of a r t , "that, well, my son or daughter is n ' t going to be an a r t i s t anyway so why take a r t " . Well I f e e l that art teaches so many other things about just, ah, plain l i v i n g and appreciating the world, opening up your eyes to things. And i t can open up whole doors for people, how to see things, how to appreciate things v i s u a l l y . It ah, is a good group a c t i v i t y . -Page - /J Protocol A - l Appendix A 162 It can teach a l o t of s k i l l s that a person can use in other areas, no doubt about i t , coordination, ah, being able to use your hands and being able to use t o o l s , how to create certain e f f e c t s . Everybody has to do a cert a i n amount of that in their l i v e s , ah, so not every student is coming through art to be an a r t i s t . In fact, very very few of them w i l l ever become a r t i s t s but I think i t ' s a very valuable experience and i t ' s part of their growing up that they can't do without. I : yes R: I'm not, I don't think I've come anywhere near giving a l l the reasons for that but I think i t ' s a valuable part of l i f e . I: yes R: It's a d i f f e r e n t concept. You're teaching them ... ah, creative thinking, ah, you can't r e a l l y teach anyone creative thinking but you're helping them to be more creative in t h e i r thinking, rather than just l a t e r a l , I think, to look at the whole picture rather than just part of i t . I: yes R: And I guess the emphasis is that way in many of the other subjects now in school. I heard a Math teacher t a l k i n g about that the other day. I: and R: laughter R: But art is I think one of the easiest ones to do that because the kids pick up on i t so quickly and so e a s i l y and they a l l enjoy i t . And l i k e I say i t ' s just a vehicle for you to get philosophical ideas through, to teach them how to get along with one another without being too preacherly ah I: yes R: I forgot the question now... I: Well, that's okay. Do you think some of these ideas that you've mentioned as Page - \% Protocol A - l Appendix A 163 part of your philosophy of teaching um,.. do you see those b e l i e f s as being constant throughout your teaching career or have things happened that have added to or, have you changed your picture of what teaching is a l l about? R: Yes, ah, I guess age changes everyone anyhow. I think as a young person you have a d i f f e r e n t way of seeing things. For example, I ah, used to f e e l a l i t t l e b i t that the administration in the school where I worked would be almost my ah,.. not my enemy but almost someone to be avoided. I think some of t h i s has come from the administrations end as well but as the years have gone on I now f e e l a l o t closer to my administrators. Maybe some of t h i s is because I'm closer in age and we're closer in ideas, in the way we see things. But I think you view things in a d i f f e r e n t way as you get a l i t t l e older. I think you tend to be a l i t t l e narrower when you're younger too. You've got your mind on other things and you're looking so hard for that i d e a l . After a few years go by you r e a l i z e i t ' s not going to be there and you just have to work with things the way they r e a l l y are. It's not going to be there so why t r y to change the whole thing, why t r y to h i t your head against a brick wall. I: yes R: And you learn to accept that. I think you become more accepting of d i f f e r e n t things. I: Have there been points in your teaching career where somethings happened and you've had to question or doubt your b e l i e f s about teaching, a re a l turning point or change in your teaching, or has i t been a gradual thing? R: I don't know i f I've had any one major thing but I do know that ah, every once in a while I have personal doubts, maybe I'm doing something a l l wrong um, maybe I've just been wasting my time over t h i s whole year or I've done something wrong with t h i s class or with that student or with t h i s student, I should have done t h i s , I should Page - 13 Protocol A - l Appendix A 164 have done that. And i t ' s an overwhelming f e e l i n g sometimes. I: yes R: Boy, maybe I'm just a big fake and I've been taking taxpayers money doing t h i s job. I: laughter R: But those feelings go away and, I: yeah R: I don't r e a l l y , b a s i c a l l y , I don't r e a l l y f e e l that way but i t isn't any one thing that happened, ah, to me that I can think of... Or one incident or thing l i k e that. But the f e e l i n g comes every once in a while. I: Is i t looking at the work students are producing, i t ' s not what you think they should be doing or... R: Yeah, sometimes that's true. Sometimes I worry about the q u a l i t y of t h e i r work, ah,., you know I think i t should be better. But then again I think we should be r e a l i s t i c that we're dealing with kids that are just out of elementary school too and we can't expect them to be or they r e a l l y shouldn't be as a whole competing with unive r s i t y students or ah... Emily Carr art students ei t h e r . What I f e e l , is that ah, more and more as the years go on I feel they're learning the elements, the basics and foundations are very important and not just do your own thing, I don't think that does anything for anyone. Where I might have thought more that way when I was younger. As the years go on I've f e l t less and less that way and I think the t r a i n i n g is an important thing now. I: yes R: And I think I've seen the students work improve every year, or maybe i t ' s I'm just imagining that, I don't know. I: So, there haven't been par t i c u l a r experiences in d i f f e r e n t schools where you have either watched other teachers work, or Page - |4-Protocol A - l Appendix A 165 di f f e r e n t administrators t e l l i n g you thi s or that have r e a l l y made you question what you were doing? R: um I think maybe sometimes, that's true. It's not an overwhelming thing, nothing , but I think ever now and then there's been a few things where another s t a f f member or an administrator or a fellow art teacher that has shown me something or done or said something that has made me think something, or triggered something. I'm sure that's happened quite a l o t a c t u a l l y . I can't be s p e c i f i c and think of any, any p a r t i c u l a r examples. I know that other people have been a tremendous influence on the way I've ... ah ... I think I've seen that since I've been in t h i s d i s t r i c t that I've seen the q u a l i t y of the art in a l l of the schools going up but I think that's because there's been a concentrated e f f o r t to make that happen. I:yes,yes...Do you think that um,...I'm just t r y i n g to decide how to phrase th i s next question in l i g h t of what you've been saying... R: Well, don't ask me to help you I: and R: laughter I: No, that's okay...Maybe I ' l l just skip down here to t h i s next question....Can you describe for thi s room the kind of learning environment you're trying to create for students? R: Well, uh... I l i k e to have things close at hand that I can use, and the back cupboards there f u l l of very good, big art examples and books. I have lots and lots of v i s u a l aids and books at hand here that I can refer to. I keep changing l i b r a r y books a l l the time and some of them I get from our school l i b r a r y which is limited of course and some from the New Westminster l i b r a r y . I keep trying to have new examples to show them, I think examples are r e a l l y an important way of teaching. I also believe now that the demonstrations are r e a l l y important. I find when I do demonstrations for a class that they Page - \$ P r o t o c o l A - l Appendix A 166 respond much more p o s i t i v e l y to the task a t hand and do a b e t t e r job u s u a l l y . I f you show them what to do or how to do something and have them gather around they enjoy that I t h i n k , j u s t s i t t i n g there a l l hour i s not the best way. And you can s i t and have a d i s c u s s i o n about some other aspect of a r t and spend a l i t t l e time with c r i t i q u e s and d i s c u s s i n g a r t h i s t o r y , some of the other a r t i s t s and how they've s o l v e d c e r t a i n t h i n g s , problems or how they've t a c k l e d c e r t a i n t h i n g s , or how they've expressed themselves i n c e r t a i n ways by using d i f f e r e n t elements of a r t . You can show them d i f f e r e n t examples of t h i s . I can q u i t e r e a d i l y i n t h i s room, one good t h i n g about i t i s a f l e x i b l e room. I t can become an academic room at the snap of the f i n g e r . We have black out c u r t a i n s . I have my movie screen and I've got, I can get T.V. equipment i n here and video s t u f f and f i l m p r o j e c t o r i n here v e r y q u i c k l y , v e r y e a s i l y . I can adapt t h i s room to j u s t about an y t h i n g , so you can do t h a t kind of t h i n g with k i d s . But I t h i n k i t ' s the, ah, the c e r t a i n , ah, mood t h a t young people are i n . I t ' s d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e . They have to f e e l good about being there and the f a c t t h a t they're doing what they're doing and t h a t t h e r e ' s a purpose to i t . Yet, they have to r e s p e c t each others r i g h t to c o n c e n t r a t e on what they're doing without making too much of a fuss or too much n o i s e . I t h i n k t h a t comes p r e t t y n a t u r a l with grade 10's and 9's but sometimes i t ' s the 8's t h a t have to be reminded of t h i s c o n t i n u a l l y . Of course, the c l a s s e s are u s u a l l y b i g g e r . I t h i n k i t ' s the ah, environment has to be a p h i l o s o p h i c a l environment as w e l l . So the room i t s e l f I don't know how important t h a t i s . I t h i n k i t ' s i n the students minds. I f they're a t ease and they're on task and they f e e l good about a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n and I hope t h a t ' s the way i t i s i n my c l a s s e s . I know i t ' s not always t h a t way but t h a t ' s what I s t r i v e f o r and t h a t ' s what I hope f o r . That the k i d s themselves f e e l good about themselves and about being t h e r e , not what the room r e a l l y looks l i k e . I t h i n k a teacher has to be equipped with a l l the t h i n g s they're going to use to get t h e i r p o i n t s a c r o s s , i t sure h e l p s . J u s t t r y i n g to e x p l a i n t h i n g s to people, doesn't ah, Page - J(, Protocol A - l Appendix A 167 you can talk yourself s i l l y , you have to be able to show them I: You've got to have i t at your finger t i p s , you don't have to go rummaging around for things... R: That's r i g h t . Explaining i s . . . you know... So I think i t helps for an art teacher to be just a l i t t l e a r t i s t i c himself so you can go with a pencil and show them how to do something. They can learn i t a l o t faster than i f you t r y to t e l l them. I: yes R: One pictures worth a thousand words, as Confuscious says. I: Do you um, how do you personally f e e l about th i s teaching space. R: Well I almost answered that l a s t question, in that I think the teaching space is only so important. I think you have to be comfortable and the students have to be reasonably well equipped and you have to be equipped as a teacher, but aside from that ah, you have to , well... I surround them with as many art things as I can get away with and I keep trying to change things around. This is a l l my s t u f f in the room right now, i t a l l has to go, I've got tons of student work p i l i n g up and p i l i n g up. I just haven't had a chance to get i t up on the walls yet and that's coming. I want to have there own works up on the wall more or other things that might be v i s u a l l y appealing to them and that way they can come and see their own work and th i s w i l l be always a room where people can come and have something to look at and see. My rooms always open at lunch time for kids who want to come in and work at art or anything else. So I want them to f e e l at home here, I don't want them to feel alienated from th i s room. I: What about the kind of s o c i a l interaction that you l i k e to go on in an art room? Page - 17 Protocol A - l Appendix A 168 R: o h , I think i t ' s a h , . I wish I could force them to be a l i t t l e more that way sometimes, ah, for example, I ah, some teacher somewhere must have taught me t h i s , maybe i t was at art school, i t might have been at art school. But to get up, take a l i t t l e b i t of a break half way through a drawing lesson, walk around the room, look at some of the peoples work. I find that students are so s e l f conscious of th e i r work they don't want to do that. If someone comes and looks at i t , they hide i t , But i f they a l l get up and wander around, them I think that l i t t l e break can be good for them sometimes. Ah, you know, so that kind of thing can be h e l p f u l . To change the monotony of s i t t i n g in a room for an hour. If you can stop them, show them something, where i t ' s pertinent. Sometimes you don't want to do that , where they're on a r o l l or they're doing such a great job on the project that you don't want to stop i t . But, ah, other times I think i t ' s important, just to... you need var ie t y . I: Do you allow students to talk with one another while they're working or do you l i k e to have i t quiet? R: That's a good question, because I think you can have r e a l trouble with that and I think I've arrived at a real good space now with i t . I'm not an extremist. I don't l i k e t o t a l quiet in an art room, i t makes me nervous. I don't l i k e i t when i t ' s too noisy, that's even worse. I l i k e my voice to be the loudest in the classroom by a long shot, and that's a l l the others put together. I want mine to be the loudest voice, because I want them to hear me i f they have to, i f I f e e l they have to. But ah, how you ar r i v e at that, i t ' s hard to say. I think you have to t r y t h i s and t r y that and change your ways over the years and eventually you ar r i v e at a common space and you think that's i t , I f e e l pretty comfortable with t h i s . If the talking is going to interfere with their work i f i t ' s going to be the p r i o r i t y in the class then i t has to stop. If the talking can be second nature to the art work and not interfere with other students concentration on what they're doing then that doesn't Page - [% P r o t o c o l A - l Appendix A 169 bother me. But you have to check i t every now and then, you have to check i t and remind the students and t e l l them and you j u s t t e l l them t h a t . Be honest with them and say " i f your t a l k i n g i s going to i n t e r f e r e with your a b i l i t y to do f i n e a r t work or your neighbour's a b i l i t y to do good a r t work, then I have to stop you" And maybe i t ' s going to make me have to stop the whole c l a s s and t h i n k about i t . . . And I, ah, once the students get to know you and know th a t t h a t ' s your way you don't have a problem a t a l l . I've never had t r o u b l e , i n the l a s t three or four years I haven't had one problem, Oh I shouldn't say t h a t , cause I know with grade 8's they have to be t r a i n e d t h a t way, but I don't have a problem with t h a t anymore, And I don't have e x c e s s i v e l y n o i s y c l a s s e s although every once i n a while I ' l l have to say "keep i t down over t h e r e " or "do you thin k you two f e l l o w s c o u l d be q u i e t , I don't want to hear any more out of you" t h a t kind of t h i n g . But i t ' s j u s t c h ecking. I: Yes, yes. R i g h t . What would you say are some of the f r u s t r a t i o n s you run i n t o i n t r y i n g to make your classroom environment the way you want i t ? Can you i d e n t i f y some t h i n g s ? R: Oh yes, Obvious t h i n g s l i k e ah, the p h y s i c a l nature of the room There r e a l l y i s n ' t enough room to seat as many students as I have to i n t h i s room. Ah, there's so much f u r n i t u r e and so many students you can't move around i n the room. There's no freedom of movement. The desks are not the type of desks I would choose f o r a r t . I would choose bigger t a b l e s so they c o u l d do l a r g e r p r o j e c t s . But h i s room has to be used f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s , i t has to be used fo r Math, sometimes French so these are the o n l y p r a c t i c a l way. And I don't l i k e to s l i d e the desks around every hour of every day cause t h a t ' s c h a o t i c . So I j u s t leave them l i k e t h i s and the students have got used to t h a t and I don't th i n k t h a t ' s been a problem. They can get used to t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . There's probably an elementary e r r o r i n the de s i g n of t h i s room. There's l o t s of wasted space and ah, some ideas that looked l i k e they might have been good ideas to someone who never had to Page - \<\ Protocol A - l Appendix A 170 teach a r t . It's just the design o£ the room is not very good. It needs to be more open space, larger and ah, there was never a fan put in t h i s room. I think i t ' s coming, I've been on i t for years now and I think t h i s year I'm going to get i t put i n . I have to keep the fl o o r s spotless a l l the time, I got used to that and I don't mind. We take pride in the cleanliness of the school and I think that's good for the whole school. It's r e a l l y something to see students picking up garbage in the hallways and i t ' s not even theirs and throwing i t in the garbage cans. It's unreal. So t h i s room is a l i t t l e b i t l i k e that and I liked to t r y to keep that. I don't l i k e the f l o o r to get too d i r t y . The j a n i t o r , he only does the floor every two or three times a year. So ah, you get used to anything l i k e that but I don't think the art room is an ideal art room, not by a long shot. I: We've talked about the physical space and what i t ' s l i k e . Have there been changes in curriculum that you've found f r u s t r a t i n g in teaching art? R: I guess so. The thing I find f r u s t r a t i n g is a l l the plans. You get a l l these books, these o f f i c i a l curriculum books and they're the d u l l e s t books I've ever seen in my l i f e , the f i n e s t p r i n t . I r e a l l y can't get too excited about them. I don't read them at a l l , to t e l l you the truth. But I get the general idea of what the change, the s h i f t of emphasis i s a l l about and I agree with a l o t of that. And i f I know the general idea of the s h i f t of emphasis, for example, spending more time on c r i t i q u e s , art history and the l i k e , well that's f i n e . I do go along with that. I do think that's a v a l i d thing and I've been s t r i v i n g to change that and change comes slowly, but every year a l i t t l e b i t more. I think when we get some better f a c i l i t i e s in t h i s in our learning centre that we can a l l go after with more videos on hand or s l i d e s things to use and they're there for us then I think we'll be a l l doing i t a l o t more. I : yes Page - £ 0 Protocol A - l Appendix A 171 R: Because i t ' s easy to s l i d e into a trap in art where the kids love doing so much and i t ' s a l l you do. You never get a chance to talk about i t or and to , they can r e a l l y be fascinated by i t , i f you have discussions on art and d i f f e r e n t things. They quite often are very interested. Some of them absolutely hate c e r t a i n pieces of art and some of them love them, and you know, a l l the rest are in between. And I think they a l l learn something from i t . I: Yes. Have there been things about th i s school, either procedures or time tabling that you find f r u s t r a t i n g about the a f f e c t that has on your art program? R: No. I think you can adjust to a l l that kind of s t u f f , whatever framework. Every school has some sort of framework or structure, you can't get away from i t . If you do get away from i t , you've got chaos and uh, I think we t r i e d that in the s i x t i e s , with the open and free schools. And the students cannot teach themselves that much and they can't - you know i t ' s fine to give them a l l the freedom in the world and l e t them do the i r own thing , but I think they need a certa i n amount of structure and I think they look for i t , most of the students. I, sure, they get i t , and they t r y to rebel against i t too. But I think they b a s i c a l l y do expect and need some structure. Some of the students that come to thi s school, i t ' s the only structure they have. They don't get much structure away from the school at a l l and I think i t ' s good for them. I r e a l l y do. I haven't got that much problem with i t . I think that you can adapt to that. So what kind of a timetable you have or how your b e l l system works or whatever that's a l l things you have to adapt to and you can work in i t . You learn the rules of the game and you just play the game according to the rules, or get out of the game, I guess. I: It sounds l i k e you have good rapport with other teachers or the administration here. Are there other departments in t h i s school or other teachers who have a funny view of the art program or,... do you find that frustrating? Page - Z\ Protocol A - l Appendix A 172 R: Ah, yes, you don't r e a l l y hear from those people too often. In fact in t h i s job you don't hear from a l o t of the other s t a f f members too often, except at s t a f f meetings. Because they 1 re a l l busy doing their job and you're busy doing yours in a d i f f e r e n t room. But you wouldn't l e t i t , c e r t a i n l y as an art teacher you have to l e t that kind of thing bother you. And I think a l l art teachers go through that. And maybe i t would have bothered me more at one time than i t does now. I think most of the s t a f f show a tremendous amount of support for the art program in t h i s school. And they know that I l i k e magazines and they keep me supplied with them continually,or i f I need newspapers. They give me examples of a r t , or a r t i c l e s in magazines they've seen on art and ah, they're very, very supportive. And the rest of them don't say a thing. And I get compliments on students work ah, a l o t of support from the s t a f f . This is a very good s t a f f that way. We're very good to cooperate with each other. I'm a cooperative type of art teacher. I know I could shut my door and nobody gets anything and that's the way i t i s . But a l o t of the supplies in here were supplies that were bought for the whole school, I just keep them in here and t h i s is where they're kept. So i f somebody comes to get them I don't l i k e being interrupted at cert a i n times of the day, and they've learned that and they've adjusted and they come at the right times and they ask properly, they get anything they want almost, within reason. I won't give them any of my supplies for my classes or my projects but I do have certa i n things they can use and things they can't. The students are b a s i c a l l y pretty good here. They're not rude, they don't interrupt. The teachers are the ones who are responsible for that in a way ah. They're very good i f they have to use the room for anything, I make sure there's a teacher who makes them clean up, ah, i t ' s been very good. Every once in a while, I can get kind of cranky i f they s t a r t using up a lot of supplies. I hate to see waste, I hate to see them take good st u f f and make a poster out of expensive paper when i t ' s going in the garbage two days l a t e r . I don't l i k e that Page - ZZ Protocol A - l Appendix A 17 3 at a l l . That's part of the f r u s t r a t i n g . . . working in a big plant l i k e t h i s and having to cooperate with other people and other departments. I f e e l pretty good about t h i s because there is a band teacher next door and we do our drama in that room as well, so the fine art department has got i t ' s place down here in the dungeon and we're happy down here. I: Oh that's good. R: We're j i b i n g together pretty good as a department. I: Oh, that's good. How about f i n a n c i a l l y , do you f e e l you get your f a i r share of... R: That's, there's one of those things you're never going to get a yes out of that from anybody. But, ah, I find that the budgets I've been given at this school was way lower than at any other school. I did a l i t t l e research to prove that and now that, I'm kind of try i n g to get through to the p r i n c i p a l I've explained that to him and I think he understands that a l i t t l e more because he gave me more than he thought he would l a s t year. I went purposely over budget on the r e q u i s i t i o n and he allowed me to go that. I've found that even though i t is a smaller school i t ' s not that much smaller than some of the other ones. My budget was that much lower than any of the other ones so I was a l i t t l e , I had to do a l i t t l e research to find that out. Once I found i t out, I could go to my p r i n c i p a l with some figures. He had no idea and I r e a l l y believe i t was nothing to do with him. It seems to be improving now and ah, but yes, money is trouble. I don't think an art program costs as much as l a l o t of the other programs do. This art program, you get used to being a scrounge you can save things and end up with too much of things. But you have to be very c a r e f u l . You can run your program without spending a l o t of money, i t ' s easy to be wasteful. When I was at Carnarvon I had a tremendous budget there and I was ordering things that were on the budget that I didn't r e a l l y need. Page -2.1 Protocol A - l Appendix A 174 Now I go through the r e q u i s i t i o n l o t more c a r e f u l l y and when I have to make my cuts I don't know what to cut. But at Carnarvon I was ordering things just because I had to spend the money, which was not a good s i t u a t i o n either. I've never had an in between s i t u a t i o n , i t ' s one or the other. I: Is there anything that you fe e l you would l i k e to say on designing your art room, setting i t up, things that ... R: ah, no. i f I r e a l l y sat down and thought about i t there would be a l o t of things I wouldn't do, I wouldn't have an art room l i k e t h i s at a l l . I would have an area in school that was d i f f e r e n t than t h i s but as I say I'm stuck in a physical building and I pretty well have to l i v e with i t because I'm not going to get the changes. And I don't think I'm ever going to get to design my own art room. Maybe I w i l l , but I don't think so. So ah, urn, I fee l that you might as well get on with the job and forget about i t . There's not much I can do about i t here anyway. I enjoy the school, so i f I want to stay, then why waste my time in a negative way complaining about my room. There i s , there are things about i t , but once you get in the job , get involved with the students you forget a l l about i t , forget a l l those problems. And i f i t ever comes up you can make a joke out of i t and nobody cares. Everybody i s going to go into situations in their l i v e s and these students w i l l some day where i t ' s not an ideal work s i t u a t i o n for them or not an ideal house that they're l i v i n g in and t h e y ' l l just have to, you know, u n t i l something better comes along. I don't feel that i t ' s been a problem. I don't fe e l i t ' s impeded the progress of the students, r e a l l y . There would be lots of furniture changes I would l i k e to make and I'm working on i t . I've got a few desks that a c t u a l l y go up l i k e t h i s now, just to add to i t here and there, I know there's a l o t of things I'd l i k e to do. B a s i c a l l y , I'm pretty happy with things the way they are I: I r e a l l y appreciate you taking the time to go through a l l these things. INTERVIEW CONCLUDED 4:35 PM Page - Z^t Protocol A-2 Appendix A 175 Protocol No. A-2 Researcher: Shep Alexander October 18, 1989 Subject: Room Tour INTERVIEW BEGUN 3:36 PM I: If you would talk about your room, s t a r t i n g from the front or the teachers desk . . . R: I ' l l s t a r t with the doorway. You f i r s t come in the door, there's some cupboard space on your right and a l o t of the paper is kept there. Most of that paper is for the rest of the school. I find that teachers or students w i l l come down from other departments and ask i f they can have construction paper for t h i s or paper off the big r o l l for that and that's where I keep most of that. I have also a paper cutter over there and I've ordered a new one for this year, so I ' l l have two -I ' l l have a bigger one and a small one. I had a bigger one and i t f i n a l l y gave up the ghost. I: yes R: Um, there's a l i t t l e desk space there, next to the, uh, you can use for stacking v i s u a l aids or books or anything you l i k e - student work. You can have a student work over there i f you want to is o l a t e someone from the rest of the kids or they're working on a special project. That's a good place to do i t , that l i t t l e hallway there. Then, the f i l e cabinet, of course has four drawers in i t , and gives you lots of space so i f you're doing a l l ar t , then you can keep a l l that in one and then you've got three for whatever else you want to use i t . The cupboard right across from i t , that big cupboard, I keep giant r o l l s of paper in i t . I don't know where else to keep i t , the big heavy paper. It also doubles as a closet i f you want to hang up a coat. Sometimes a student comes in with a nice leather jacket and you hang i t up cause Page - / Protocol A-2 Appendix A 176 you're using India ink or something or s i l k screen ink. I: okay R: ah, the computer is a new addition th i s year and ah, we keep i t right between the f i l e cabinet and I want to keep i t close to the desk and keep an eye on i t . And i f you have a student working on i t then you can kind of keep an eye on them, you know....so that's kind of new. This is the only r e a l l y l o g i c a l place for the teachers desk. I've t r i e d i t in other places but you have to be, i f you're at your desk, you have to keep your eye on the front door, so, on both doors. So i f you're at the back of the room, I'd probably be better back there, but you can't r e a l l y see that and i t ' s f r u s t r a t i n g . So t h i s seems to be the only place even though i t ' s hard to get through. But t h i s whole room i s sort of l i k e that, i t ' s a l i t t l e on the small side. Its d i f f i c u l t to get through anywhere. Ah, the desks in the main part of the room are arranged in rows because i t has to double as a Social Studies and Math clas s , sometimes French. I: What is your actual teaching load in terms of classes you teach? R: This p a r t i c u l a r semester I have five art classes, one Social Studies class and one guitar c l a s s . So... I: Are you the only one who uses th i s room, or do other teachers,...? R: No, there were two other teachers. However, one moved into another room, so there's one other teacher who teaches Math right now. So I a c t u a l l y have the room free during my spare period which at the beginning of the year I didn't. And a l l l a s t year and the year before and the year before that I didn't eit h e r . I had to move out of my room and l e t somebody else work here. So i t ' s a l i t t l e f r u s t r a t i n g , as i t never quite becomes an art room 100% although the teachers that work in here Page ~Z Protocol A-2 Appendix A 177 understand that i t r e a l l y is an art room and don't mind so much i f there are some things that are a l i t t l e b i t that way. If you have art projects and sometimes there's no space for them or nowhere to put them so you have to put them on the floo r or the blackboard whatever l i k e I do. And, ah, you have ah, sometimes the desks are cleaned up a l i t t l e late and some of them might be damp i f the kids have just washed them. That kind of thing. But they tolerate that, they expect i t . I: yes R: It would be l i k e teaching a Math class in the shops and with sawdust a l l over the desks. I: That's right (laughter) I: You were tal k i n g about the desks... R: I use my desk, i t ' s not r e a l l y a desk. I don't spend that much time at i t at a l l . I think i f you talk to the students I have in here, they don't see me s i t t i n g in my desk, except for possible SSR(sustained s i l e n t reading) or sometimes at lunch. Other than that, I'm on my feet and around the classroom and ah, I l i k e i t that way. I wouldn't do i t any other way. Its sort of a stat i o n . Some of the supplies are kept here, the small things and items that I l i k e to keep my eye on. I have some sciss o r s up here because they're getting used by various people in the school a l l the time; exacto knives, staples and staplers and things l i k e that. I have a b i t of paper in here too. Some things I have to refer to a lot l i k e teachers manual, things l i k e that are here in this desk. Anything I need a l o t of I keep f i l m in here for the cameras and e l a s t i c bands and tacks and of course my attendance book and my mark book I usually keep them on the desk. And I use the desk to do a l i t t l e b i t of work myself from time to time. So i t ' s just a sort of st a t i o n . And everything Page - 3 Protocol A-2 Appendix A 178 eventually ends up here at my desk. There's erasers here and pencils. I: Yes R: A student doesn't know where to put anything, they put i t on my desk, and I ' l l take care of i t . It gets projects p i l e d up on i t and equipment pi l e d up on i t . I'm sure i t must drive substitutes crazy. I: Laughter R: Now, we have two rooms here. The big room I've talked about already. There's a corner down there where there's some cupboard space where I keep art samples from previous students work down there. I have thousand and thousand of things that students have done in previous years going back about 16 years worth. I find them very handy for examples sometimes, for other students. I find i t an extremely helpful teachers aid because the students are looking at other students work. They can i d e n t i f y with that. Sometimes i f you use professional a r t i s t ' s work to show them they get a l i t t l e discouraged by that, because i t ' s so good or, how could I ever do that? I: That's r i g h t . R: So i f they look at other students work and you t e l l them that another 15 year old did t h i s a few years ago then/ I: It seems a l i t t l e more attainable. R: That's r i g h t . There's a table down there in that corner that I use for s i l k screening. It has drawers and has s i l k screen ink in i t . Its hinged so you can set your s i l k screening up right there. And there's plenty of drawers to keep a l l your s i l k screen ink, a lot of inks and spatulas and what not, rags down there. I open a window in that corner. It acts as my fan. I don't have a fan at t h i s time although i t is coming this year I understand. Now, well we have separated the main room from the Page - 4 Protocol A-2 Appendix A 179 ceramics room. There's a sink area i t ' s in an island. You can walk right around i t . I: I've only got one tap. A huge sink but only one tap. R: That would be t e r r i b l e . I find t h i s r e a l l y handy. If you get a class of 32 grade 8's doing India ink or something and they have to clean up at the end of the period. Then they come over in groups of 4 or 5 and can clean up very quickly. Ah, and there's some soap and sponges, what not. And that's about i t . There's some cupboard space underneath just to keep things related to cleaning up. I: Yes. R: So there's buckets down there. And there's ....right at the end of the sink that's a door, i t ' s a l i t t l e supply room. There's quite a few shelves in there and quite a b i t of room for just about a l l the supplies I need in a year. I: Are there just open shelves in there ? R: There's not much in there because I haven't got my... I'm s t i l l waiting for my supplies for l a s t year! I: Is that r i g h t ? ! R: Yeah, they never came. See There's not much room here. And when i t ' s in order, there's glue, I have a c r y l i c paints on one shelf and water colour on another etc. etc. and inks on another shelf and s i l k screen on another shelf. Now, paper is stored in the ceramics room on the other side of the sink. Its ah, the f i r s t cupboard I use for storage for ceramics classes, s l o t t e d shelves that l e t , ah, a i r helps the products dry slowly. These shelves here, I cleared them a l l out because I thought my paper had arrived, but I found out later i t was a l l paper for another school. It came down here and I unpacked i t a l l , but i t was a l l yellow Page -5 Protocol A-2 Appendix A 180 and red, so I don't know why, I don't know who ordered i t but i t wasn't me but, I thought well, I might as well put i t away, so I put i t away, then I had to pack i t a l l up again. Seventy boxes of i t , they just came and picked i t up again today. So a l l my paper storage that I use for painting, drawing etc. is in here. And, ah, you can see I'm down to my precious l a s t l i t t l e b i t of paper. I: I know. Well, that's exactly what I'm doing too. R: I use this old table here for ceramics and sometimes for giving out India ink supplies which are getting r e a l l y shabby because I haven't got my new ink or my new pens yet. This i s a l l s t u f f from two years ago and i t ' s pretty shabby but i t ' s better than nothing, I guess. And ah, the counter, we keep our k i l n in here. Quite often I ' l l wheel i t out i f we need to. For safety reasons we're supposed to that, I don't always do that. I don't think i t ' s much of a safety problem but Workman's Compensation seemed to think i t was. So they asked i f I would wheel i t out from the wall. And ah, there's lots of cupboard space here for storing ceramics related items, I stack my s i l k screens up in here. I keep my frames from year to year so I can use them again. I also, have ah, ... .a couple of bins for plaster. I: Oh yeah. R: Wallpaper paste her and plaster over there so, these are real handy, p a r t i c u l a r l y for plaster or wallpaper paste, they're excellent. My f i n a l drying shelves for ceramics over here and ah, i t ' s not bad for by the k i l n area . I: So, w i l l you have the whole class do ceramics at the same time? R: Yes, I have a ceramics c l a s s . Its a l l they do. Its not a ceramics cl a s s , i t ' s a 3-D class but most of their work is clay. We do other things as well, we Page -Protocol A-2 Appendix A 181 do paper mache, some woodwork, some even some metal st u f f for individual students. But ah, mainly i t ' s clay work, both pottery and sculpture. ....And that's about i t . There's a big display wall on one end and I t r y to keep i t changing with current student work on i t . Although most of the student work is around the school. In the main h a l l , in the main area there's lots and lots of s t u f f . I put some of the most successful pieces up there because i t ' s most v i s i b l e . I t r y to make i t seem l i k e a sort of art g a l l e r y in the main h a l l . I: Do you do that display work or do the students do that? R: Oh, we, I get students to help me put them up. I do some of i t , i f I have time I ' l l do some of i t . I l i k e to make sure i t gets put up s t r a i g h t . If you're not there to make sure i t does, then i t usually doesn't. I l i k e to help them learn too, about displays and things. Once I get, sometimes I get a couple of people trained, Grade 10's or Grade 9's trained, to do i t and I can trust them every time. If some of them want to do i t , put them up and take them down, then that's r e a l l y good So the room serves as a display for the art students that come in here and I have a l i t t l e art use corner here now. So things I don't want to bother too much with in class , l i k e contests - there's a Christmas card contest but i t would be there. I might mention i t to them and they can go look at i t for their information. Um, but you can see the rooms equipped p a r t l y for Social Studies, maps I: Oh, yeah... R: I have my overhead screen, my overhead projector. I: What's thi s mask? R: That was a costume for Halloween. I had some art students do that dragon. There was three of them involved in Page - 7 P r o t o c o l A-2 Appendix A 18 2 t h a t . They got i n s i d e t h i s b i g dragon. A b i t l i k e the dragons i n Chinatown d u r i n g Chinese New Years c e l e b r a t i o n . And they walked around l i k e t h a t . I: So t h a t was an a r t p r o j e c t or S o c i a l s t u d i e s ? R: I t was a combined a r t and.Halloween t h i n g . They worked on i t i n a r t c l a s s and a f t e r s c h o o l , d u r i n g year book meetings I: Oh, w e l l , i t ' s r e a l l y neat. R: But i t was a good costume. I thin k there were p r i z e s . I: Do you u s u a l l y keep the c u r t a i n s c l o s e d ? R: Well, I should open them more o f t e n now s i n c e we got them (windows) t i n t e d l a s t year. Before then, i t was unquestionable. You co u l d not leave the c u r t a i n s open. I t was too hot. I t s too bad because there i s a nice view t h e r e , I ' l l show i t to you now. I: yeah. We'll get t h i s view on tape. R: Not bad, h o r r i b l e p a r k i n g l o t . But you can see over D e l t a , Surrey, New Westminster, a l l the br i d g e s i n c l u d i n g Alex F r a s e r . I: yeah, i s n ' t t h a t something! R: And i f you walk j u s t out to the edge of the par k i n g l o t you can see the Port Mann, so i t i s a neat view. The band l o s t t h e i r s when we had to put our p o r t a b l e up. I'm j u s t hoping they won't put another one out t h e r e . They keep t a l k i n g about g e t t i n g another one. I don't know where i t would go. I: So you j u s t have one p o r t a b l e now? R: Yeah. The onl y t h i n g I don't l i k e about i t i s th a t the people want to come through the a r t room to get there i n s t e a d of going around. Students are no problem but some teachers wanting to Page - & P r o t o c o l A-2 Appendix A 183 come through with s u p p l i e s I can't r e a l l y say no to them because they don't want to get soaking wet with t h e i r s t u f f . And ah, you get q u i t e a b i t of window space i n here. I t r y to open up the c u r t a i n s . On hot days i t s t i l l gets too warm i n here and the l i g h t w i l l bother some of the students eyes. You j u s t can't l i v e with i t . So I'm j u s t used to l e a v i n g them shut but on d u l l days I should open them. I f you open them on a sunny day i t ' s kind of l i k e a greenhouse i n here. I t gets r e a l l y warm i n here and i f you've got the k i l n on then i t ' s r e a l l y double t r o u b l e So t h a t ' s r e a l l y about i t . There's two entrances or e x i t s . I: So do you sometimes use the o u t s i d e ? R: I use the o u t s i d e a l l the time. I park here and perhaps go through the c a f e t e r i a down the hallway and I j u s t leave here a l l the time. The teachers compete f o r pa r k i n g p l a c e s up top and I don't want to be part of t h a t . So I park r i g h t here and two or three feet, and I'm i n my c a r . I can sneak out i f I want to (l a u g h t e r ) I: Do you ever have c l a s s e s work out there? R: Yep. We go s k e t c h i n g i n the s p r i n g . We've done i t i n the f a l l too. We d i d n ' t do i t t h i s year. I guess you know, you come i n armed with a l l these p r o j e c t s you want to do. I should have taken them out there but I d i d n ' t . But i n the s p r i n g , s p r i n g c l a s s e s we go out s k e t c h i n g , at l e a s t once each c l a s s and sometimes a couple, two or three times. If a c l a s s can handle i t w e l l then w e ' l l go out but i f they go out there and t r y to use i f f o r suntanning then you're s o c i a l i z i n g then sometimes w e ' l l make i t one t r i p . I f i n d a l o t of studen t s , i f they're a c t u a l l y i n s i d e they complain, i f they're o u t s i d e they complain. " I t ' s too hot, i t ' s too whatever, can we go back i n " . So you can never please them a l l . So you j u s t have to make up your Page - <f P r o t o c o l A-2 Appendix A 184 mind. And when we do have a p o l i c y i n the s c h o o l here t h a t , ah, too , leave the p r i n c i p a l some b a s i c , s o r t of defend, so everybody knows you're not j u s t going o u t s i d e to slough o f f , to take a r e s t . And I give a l i t t l e l e s s o n before we go out too. I f i n d a whole hour o u t s i d e a l i t t l e too much f o r them. I: I t s hard to know what to focus on. R: So I say " t h i s i s what I'd l i k e from you today, when you're out t h e r e , we're going to look f o r t h i s , look f o r t h a t " . And then t h a t ' l l be pa r t of t h e i r s ketch book assignments. So we take advantage of t h a t because there's some good s k e t c h i n g areas out here, j u s t out t h i s way. I: In terms of the way the students access p a r t s of the room, are areas out of bounds? What areas do s t u d e n t s / R: I don't l i k e people, any students say at lunch hour going i n t o the ceramics room, because the k i l n ' s on q u i t e o f t e n and i t co u l d be dangerous. There's a l s o t o x i c fumes coming out of t h e r e . So you, they don't touch i t and burn themselves or they might breathe i n something they shouldn't. And ah, so I don't l i k e t h a t too much. I f I'm not i n my room at lunch or i n the morning I leave the door l o c k e d . Although at noon, I have q u i t e a group come i n here at lunch hour. Some of them work on homework, some of them j u s t t a l k and s o c i a l i z e , some do a r t p r o j e c t s , some p l a y games. I t s j u s t a s o r t of l i t t l e drop i n centre here a t lunch time. And I eat my lunch i n here every day. I: During c l a s s do students have access to the paper cupboards and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t ? Or do you t e l l them? R: I t e l l them to help themselves. Sometimes I get the paper out myself, i f i t ' s a s p e c i f i c s i z e or kind of paper otherwise they know where the paper i s and where to go to get i t . U s u a l l y , . . . I f e e l grade 9's and 10's e s p e c i a l l y should be able to do th a t and not hound Page - jo P r o t o c o l A-2 Appendix A 185 me f o r i t a l l the time. So i f they can do i t themselves, do i t themselves. And ah, a l s o , my desk area - I a p p r e c i a t e i t when they do borrow t h i n g s from my desk I a p p r e c i a t e them a s k i n g me. I t e l l them, i t ' s l i k e my l o c k e r and I wouldn't go i n t h e i r l o c k e r without a s k i n g them. Most of them understand t h a t and most of them are p r e t t y good that way. Some of them get a l i t t l e s p o i l t and j u s t walk by and help themselves and then I ' l l t e l l them t h a t , you know, give i t back and ask p r o p e r l y . I: One other t h i n g , what about audio v i s u a l equipment t h a t you use i n the classroom as p a r t of your teaching? R: I f I need a monitor I've got, i n the bookroom they keep a monitor and a VCR and what not. We've got th a t r i g h t a c r o s s the hallway. And ah, l i k e I say, there's an overhead p r o j e c t o r here and I have an opaque p r o j e c t o r i n the s c h o o l as w e l l that I can use. I have ah, f i l m s t r i p s u p s t a i r s i n the resource c e n t r e . There's ah, q u i t e a few a r t videos that I've ordered here. I have seven or e i g h t a r t vi d e o s , and v a r i o u s other t h i n g s up there t h a t I can use. I have an awful l o t of student work t h a t I was mentioning before t h a t I use as examples. I f there's an Ind i a ink p r o j e c t t h a t I want to t r y then I j u s t go to my Ink f o l d e r and p u l l out any number of t h i n g s that are q u i t e good examples, t h a t some students have j u s t l e f t behind. I would r a t h e r they take them home. I: That's r i g h t . Well thank you. CONCLUDED 3:52 PM [F o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v i e w a s e r i e s of s t i l l photographs was taken to provide a v i s u a l r e c o r d of the areas mentioned i n our c o n v e r s a t i o n , 11 photos were taken.] Page - i l P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 186 P r o t o c o l No. B - l Researcher: Shep Alexander October 11, 1989 S u b j e c t : Ethnographic I n t e r v i e w STARTING TIME 3:40 pm I: What I r e a l l y want to explore today i s to look a l i t t l e b i t at your t e a c h i n g background and the t h i n g s t h a t have i n f l u e n c e d your idea of what an a r t room should be l i k e . And so, to begin with I'd l i k e to ask you what t h i n g s i n your past have i n f l u e n c e d your d e c i s i o n to become an a r t teacher i n the f i r s t p l a c e ? What i s a f a m i l y t h i n g ? Have you thought about i t from q u i t e a young age or i s i t something you picked up d u r i n g s c h o o l or what? R: I went to a r t s c h o o l , to become a commercial a r t i s t . When I was done with the a r t s c h o o l I got a job and i t was a pots and pans job. What t h a t i s , you i l l u s t r a t e pots and pans. I: Oh, i s t h a t r i g h t ! R: For Woodward's. I got onto f l o o r d i s p l a y and the pay wasn't very good and I d i d n ' t l i k e working t h e r e . I t r i e d another s t o r e . I thought i t might be j u s t t h a t s t o r e , t h a t i t wasn't what I had i n mind. So I s t a r t e d to look , around. M a r t i n , as a matter of f a c t , went to UBC to become a teacher and he was t e l l i n g me what they were doing and e v e r y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . So I thought, w e l l , I ' l l give i t one year and I d i d n ' t mind i t , so I became an a r t teacher. I: So you thought of i t as a more i n t e r e s t i n g c a r e e r ? R: Well, i t c e r t a i n l y paid b e t t e r , at entrance l e v e l anyhow. I: yes R: You know, u l t i m a t e l y I don't suppose i t would have paid more. Page - J P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 187 I: Did, your u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g have much of an i n f l u e n c e on the way you teach a r t ? R: No, p r a c t i c a l l y none. I don't think i t has much i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h i n g p e r i o d . I : Is there anything p a r t i c u l a r t h a t you remember about i t , i n terms of not being h e l p f u l ? R: Oh, w e l l . I never took that many a r t courses at UBC because I'd taken my a r t courses at a r t s c h o o l . The ones I took, uh, I would say they were designed, not f o r a r t t e a c h e r s , but f o r a r t i s t s . I t was a mickey mouse a r t program and i t was an even more mickey mouse a r t teacher program because they ran i t l i k e a s t u d i o course. I t d i d n ' t give you the best of e i t h e r one. I t d i d n ' t give you the best of the s t u d i o course which i s at the a r t sch o o l and i t d i d n ' t give you much p r a c t i c a l knowledge of how to teach a r t . I: Okay. So how many years of a r t te a c h i n g experience do you have? R: I t ' s my t w e n t i e t h . I: Can you b r i e f l y l i s t of the d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s you've worked in? R: I've had two, F o s t e r and t h i s one. I: And have you been the onl y a r t teacher i n those s c h o o l s ? R: I was the onl y one i n Fo s t e r and I was here with another a r t teacher f o r four years or f i v e years, I can't remember. I: So you've been i n t h i s s c h o o l f o r how long then? R: Uh, seven years I'd say, e i g h t y e a r s . [ a c t u a l l y 13 years] I: Did you l e a r n anything i n those d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s about t e a c h i n g a r t , Page - Z. P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 188 i n F o s t e r or here with the other t e a c h e r . What do you t h i n k you've learned about t e a c h i n g a r t from those two e x p e r i e n c e s , those two s e t t i n g s ? R: Well, the c l i e n t e l e i s c ompletely d i f f e r e n t . F o s t e r doesn't e x i s t anymore but the c l i e n t e l e a t F o s t e r was, I f o r g e t what they used to c a l l i t , they wore the b i g black boots and the Daytons and the Macs. We had a name f o r them. I t was more, not even so much blue c o l l a r as you might c a l l i t p r o f e s s i o n a l blue c o l l a r . Lots of mechanic f a t h e r s , and ah, they made good money these parents. To l i v e i n t hat area you had to make decent money, but i t was not... T h i s i s a s c h o o l of c h i l d r e n of p r o f e s s i o n a l s by a good percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n . These are men who are at l e a s t middle management. The homes around here are even more expensive than they were around F o s t e r . So they have d i f f e r e n t c l i e n t e l e s . I: Do you f i n d you have to take a d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g approach. R: Well, we a l s o had the world's worst v i c e - p r i n c i p a l at F o s t e r . So I was, at F o s t e r I was much more of a t y r a n t than. I am here. I t was very hard. Loud no i s e s were cause f o r teacher e x p l o s i o n s . There was no back up i n the o f f i c e , so you had to d e a l with i t i n the classroom I: Deal with i t i n the f r o n t l i n e s . R: My p h i l o s o p h y was, of course, was t h a t the a r t room i s a place of b u s i n e s s . I t i s n ' t , i t , s not there f o r fun and t h e r e ' s c e r t a i n kinds of noises that I w i l l t o l e r a t e and i t ' s c e r t a i n l y not c h a t t y n o i s e s and i t ' s not g i g g l y noises and s t u p i d t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . I f t h e r e ' s a buzz, f i n e , i f you're head i s down and you're working and the t a l k i n g i s secondary and so on and so f o r t h . These k i d s are e a s i e r to teach here. They tow the l i n e q u i c k e r . Um, when I came here the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was DG and GS they were super, marvelous. The Page - 3 P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 189 classroom s i t u a t i o n was so easy compared to what I was used t o . I: Because of the tone i n the s c h o o l -R: yes I: Do you t h i n k when you s t a r t e d out as an a r t teacher you had an image i n your mind of the kind of place you wanted your a r t room to be? R: No, I d i d n ' t , not i n the l e a s t . You know, when we were t a l k i n g a l i t t l e e a r l i e r about what u n i v e r s i t y does f o r you, i t doesn't t r a i n you to become a tea c h e r . I t doesn't give you any t h i n g . I mean I had no idea what being an a r t teacher meant. What saved me was the f a c t t h a t I'd had four years of a r t s c h o o l , okay, and t h a t I was a s t u d i o p a i n t e r myself. That I had been i n v o l v e d i n ah, us i n g c o o p e r a t i v e space at the a r t s c h o o l , at the u n i v e r s i t y and i n the s t o r e s t h a t I worked. That was co o p e r a t i v e space. We a l l had to work i n an area, you had to be organized, you had to be neat and you had to have t h i n g s at hand. But nobody t o l d me t h a t at u n i v e r s i t y . Nobody t o l d me t h a t the bi g g e s t h a s s l e i n t h i s job was going to be g e t t i n g t h i n g s out and p u t t i n g t h i n g s away and c l e a n i n g up. I: yeah. Right, a l l i n an hour. R: With 45 minutes of work and 5 minutes of s e t up at one end and 10 minutes of c l e a n up at l e a s t at the other end. You know. So I d i d n ' t have any i d e a , I d i d n ' t know how to order, I d i d n ' t know what you needed. I copied the other t e a c h e r ' s order form or v i r t u a l l y r e p l i c a t e d i t . Even a f t e r a year of t e a c h i n g , and I was o r d e r i n g f o r the second. You d i d t h a t at Christmas. Even a f t e r four months, I had no idea, you know, "what am I going to use next? I know what I'm t e a c h i n g but- ah, oh yeah, you got to remember the gl u e " . I: So are there any other t h i n g s that came as a s u r p r i s e to you when you f i r s t s t a r t e d teaching? Page - 4 Protocol B-l Appendix A 190 R: Yeah, most of the kids didn't want to learn. (laughter) R: They didn't. I followed a good art teacher too, but her style was completely d i f f e r e n t . Its funny, I followed her here, but with a four or five year gap. She had r e t i r e d four years before I came here. And I followed some not very good ones when I came here. But, ah, when I got to Foster eh, I was 'gung ho', I mean I loved t h i s subject and I figured that, I could remember myself as a highschool art student, junior high art student, highschool art student, ah, nobody ever had to t e l l me to s i t down and get to work. Ah, nobody ever had to t e l l me to be quiet. I mean, as soon as the period started I got involved in the art and I was always surprised when the period fin i s h e d . I always took things home and thought about them at home. I always did my assignments. I loved i t . I didn't r e a l i z e that was only one out of six kids, eight kids. And I was determined i t was going to be more that one out of eight. And i t is now. I can almost reverse, ah, the f i r s t year that I taught I would guess that I had one out of eight kids working the way I wanted them to and now I would guess that I have one out of eight not working the way I want them to. I: That's great. What kind of things do you think you've learned from other teachers over the course of your career that you use in teaching art? Can you give examples of something say you've learned from other teachers on s t a f f or other art teachers in the d i s t r i c t , or administrators? Things that stand out-R: Things that stand out. I'm sure that everything, I'm sure that most of what I am as a teacher now I've learned from somebody, r i g h t . But I couldn't...I mean GS taught me how to demand a students attention when you were d i s c i p l i n i n g them. That stands Page - 3 P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 191 out. Never l e t k i d s eyes wander, don't l e t him put h i s hands i n h i s pockets and p l a y with h i s change, make him look at you, don't l e t him f i d d l e with t h i n g s , don't l e t him undo buttons and t h a t s o r t of t h i n g . And make him give you h i s undivided a t t e n t i o n and there's a good chance i t w i l l be so uncomfortable f o r him because he's so unused to doing i t t h a t h e ' l l never want to do i t again and you won't have to d e a l with him t h a t o f t e n . From a r t t e a c h e r s , you pick t h i n g s up. You know how i t i s , you see somebody's i d e a , ask them how they d i d i t . You know i t won't work f o r you but you l i k e the idea so you change i t a l i t t l e b i t and I: adapt i t to your s i t u a t i o n . R: adapt i t to whatever you're d o i n g . M a r t i n taught me how to s e t up s i l k s c r e e n . I mean, I knew how to do s i l k s c r e e n . We get back to t h i s u n i v e r s i t y t h i n g . I mean, I was a s i l k . . . I was a gr a p h i c a r t i s t at a r t s c h o o l . That was my two majors, g r a p h i c a r t and commercial a r t and drawing I guess. I had drawing f o r three years which was a l l you co u l d take t h e r e . I was a s t u d i o s i l k s c r e e n e r . I was p r e t t y good. I was g e t t i n g to the p o i n t where they weren't s i l k screens anymore t h e r y were s e r i g r a p h s and I was s t a r t i n g to mix c o l o r f o r people making a l i t t l e b i t of s i d e money doing t h a t s o r t of t h i n g . When I got i n t o a classroom s i t u a t i o n the f i r s t time I d i d s i l k screen with k i d s , which was one of my f a v o r i t e endeavors, I swore I'd never do i t ag a i n . ( l a u g h t e r ) I: I've had a s i m i l a r e xperience. R: And I d i d n ' t . I d i d n ' t do i t f o r , I d i d n ' t do i t u n t i l I got here. So eleven years at W. I d i d i t one year. F i n a l l y , K. t o l d me "you've got to do i t t h i s way" and i f you do i t t h i s way you s o l v e that h a l f of i t , i t ' s so messy. So K. was the f i r s t one to f i g u r e out t h a t you co u l d use a c r y l i c p a i n t to s i l k Page -b P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 192 screen and th a t you could use water base f i l m s and a c r y l i c p a i n t and you'd o n l y get three or four p r i n t s o f f of i t , but t h a t ' s a l l most k i d s want. I: That's r i g h t . R: So you do i t a l l water based and wash i t up. I: That's g r e a t . I haven't heard t h a t . I ' l l have to ask him about t h a t . Do you thi n k t h a t your own experiences as an a r t student, then, both i n high s c h o o l and i n a r t sch o o l have shaped the way you view t h i s a r t room that you work in? R: I don't understand the question? I: Well, you know we've a l l s a t i n a r t c l a s s e s and we've been taught i n d i f f e r e n t kinds of t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s and as you've d e s c r i b e d a b i t about the kind of a t t i t u d e you want the students to have R: Oh, I see then d i d my own a r t teachers I: Yeah, d i d the way you were taught, your experience of being i n a r t s c h o o l , d i d t h at have an impact on the way you teach a r t ? Do you model a f t e r ways you've been taught? R: Well, l e t me see. I r e a l l y l i k e d my s e n i o r high a r t tea c h e r . okay. urn, I don't know how he d i d i t but h i s c l a s s e s were always q u i e t . But that was a d i f f e r e n t time, I'm 45 years now, so I went to sch o o l i n the days when you d i d n ' t smirk teachers and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . I: More business l i k e . . . R: Well, I don't know about t h a t , i t ' s j u s t a d i f f e r e n t g e n e r a t i o n . You d i d n ' t q u e s t i o n teachers about what they d i d you j u s t d i d what they were t o l d . We had q u i e t c l a s s rooms, nobody f o o l e d around. I mean, I l i k e d t h a t guy, I r e a l l y l i k e d t h a t guy. But he h a r d l y , he never t r i e d to i n f l u e n c e what I was Page - 7 P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 193 doing. Ah, he q u i t e h o n e s t l y d i d n ' t teach me a l l that much. When I got to a r t s c h o o l , I was miles behind the other k i d s who were coming from the Vancouver s c h o o l s , f o r i n s t a n c e . They had done t h i n g s t h a t they were a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r with t h i n g s t h a t I wouldn't become f a m i l i a r with u n t i l the end of my f i r s t year of a r t s c h o o l . They've had b i t s and p i e c e s of i t . And my a r t teacher before t h a t , I had i n Grade 7, her name was Miss B. Legendary! A legend! In grade 8, I never took a r t from grade 8 to grade 11 because of t h i s woman. I f e l l o f f my s t o o l one time, they had these 'Z' shaped s t o o l s , and I was a small k i d and these desks were high and I was l e a n i n g forward and the t h i n g s l i p p e d out and I landed with my c h i n on the t a b l e and I cut my l i p , b i t my tongue I guess, cut . my tongue. We were i n some s o r t of 'nobody t a l k e d ' time span and that noise was a breaking of the r u l e . I got the s t r a p f o r t h a t . I got the s t r a p f o r i t and I had to get my tongue f i x e d . I t e l l you I d i d n ' t l i k e t h i s woman very much at a l l . ( l a u g h t e r ) R: Now, i f I thin k about those two a r t s i t u a t i o n s , my c l a s s e s are probably c l o s e s t to hers than i t i s to h i s . Okay. I l i k e a q u i e t room and D., the guy, got the q u i e t room but i t was expected. He never had to t e l l us to be q u i e t , i t was j u s t expected. Maybe i t was because i t was s e n i o r secondary, I don't know. But B. was a t y r a n t . I would guess that i f you ask most k i d s i f you gave them three or four s e l e c t i o n s , l i k e easy going, s t r i c t but f a i r , s t e r n or t y r a n t , h a l f of them would say t y r a n t . The other h a l f would say s t r i c t or f i r m , none of them would say easy going. I: In terms of the type teacher they'd p r e f e r ? R: No, the type of teacher I am. I: Okay, the type of teacher you'd f i t . Page - $ P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 194 R: L i k e , I mean, I f i t c l o s e r to B. who I hated than D. who I l i k e d . And of' course, at a r t s c h o o l you d i d what you wanted t o , you d i d i t or you d i d n ' t do i t . I: You had a l o t of freedom. Do you think t h a t your i n t e r a c t i o n s with k i d s i n your c l a s s e s has changed the way you teach over time, over you c a r e e r ? R: Oh yeah. I'm much more l a i d back now than I used to be. I'm s t i l l p r obably uh, a f a i r l y s t r i c t t e a c h e r . I watch kid s l e a v i n g the classroom and make sure they're not abusing the going to the washroom p r i v i l e g e s . I pay a t t e n t i o n to how they work i n c l a s s I want them to be working, not g o s s i p i n g . I want work i n on time. I phone parents i f i t i s n ' t . My e x p e c t a t i o n s of what t h e y ' l l do and what t h e y ' l l produce i s very high. I won't accept shoddy work. I make them do i t over, t h a t s o r t of t h i n g . But I've r e l a x e d my standards s i n c e I've s t a r t e d because the k i d t h a t I'm t e a c h i n g now i s l e s s capable than the flower power era k i d , the 70's k i d . Far l e s s capable. Not as mature e i t h e r . That's not a bad t h i n g , you know, I think the k i d s i n the 70's grew up a l i t t l e b i t too quick, s t a r t i n g to do dope when they were 12, t h a t s o r t of t h i n g . But, ah, p a r t l y I got o l d e r and I'm l e s s e n e r g e t i c . I've changed the course q u i t e a b i t . I t ' s not n e a r l y as a r t s c h o o l o r i e n t e d . I used to teach a course that would, i f you went to a r t sc h o o l from i t , you wouldn't be u n f a m i l i a r with a l o t of the s t u f f t h a t was being handled t h e r e . And now, i t ' s l e s s so. There's a l o t more, th e r e ' s some, I've thrown i n about h a l f 'cute' t h i n g s , fun t h i n g s . When you do ceramics i t ' s not there to teach the k i d s to be a great c e r a m a c i s t , i t ' s there f o r the k i d to do something he can take home and give to h i s parents. I: So i t ' s something he can f e e l he has success with and i t ' s something he can enjoy. What would you say are some of your c e n t r a l b e l i e f s as a teacher or your c e n t r a l p h i l o s o p h y that guides you Page - ^ Protocol B-l Appendix A 195 in your teaching? Is there any way you could describe that? R: (pause)ah 7 sure! I'm probably borrowing this from somebody. (pause) How would you put i t ? Nothing requires more d i s c i p l i n e , nothing requires more s e l f d i s c i p l i n e than to do art well. Nothing requires a greater i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity and a greater i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r a i n than to do art well. So i f you think l i k e that, i f you think that t h i s , you see I figure that art is probably, i t ' s c e r t a i n l y the most creative subject in any school. There isn't anything that even touches i t . Drama doesn't touch i t , band is n ' t even, I don't even put i t on the scale, on the creative scale. English i s more creative than band. Cooking is more creative than band. . Ah, i f you look at i t that way, then i t colors the way you're going to tackle i t . If i t ' s there as a c r a f t , i f you're treating i t l i k e a c r a f t then you're going to handle i t d i f f e r e n t l y i f you're treating i t l i k e a d i s c i p l i n e . I: yes. R: Now t h i s i s , ah, I f e e l that I've set up a course where i t ' s , in grade 8 e s p e c i a l l y , i t ' s we s t a r t at point A and we end at point Z and between there is a whole volume of things, one of which builds on the other. We, on our f i r s t project, we learn to do a type of shading that we w i l l then use with pencil crayon on the second project then we use those two things but we change the st y l e of i t . And while we're doing that physical stream, the manipulative stream we're also doing an aesthetic stream next to i t with rules of composition and so on and so forth. I: That sounds good. R: So, i f you do i t that way, i t colors the way you handle your classroom. Obviously, I don't have kids, we don't l i s t e n to radios and we don't get up and do a l o t of wandering around. We don't have l i t t l e groups, I c a l l them coffee clatches, we don't have them. As a Page - 10 Protocol B-l Appendix A 196 matter of fact, I just had a very bad day today. (laughter) R: Both my grade 10 classes, and I don't know why, i t might be the change in the weather I: the weather probably R: But both my, neither one of my grade 10 classes, they're on this project right here. Now that is a very demanding thing. Neither one of them would s e t t l e down to do i t . And when the second, when the f i r s t class I kind of the class was half gone before I realized that they were sucking me in to talk i n g about a l l sorts of things I: Instead of getting to work. R: Yeah, instead of getting to i t . We were talking about my sons art work back there and so on and so forth. "How old is he, S i r ? " and you know, Then the second group of grade 10's came in and they were acting the same way I went quite nutso on them. After 15 minutes of trying to s e t t l e them down I moved people a l l over the place and I had a l l the i s o l a t i o n seats f u l l and I had kids spread out on the tables that were l e f t and so on. I : So thi s theme that art is, a d i s c i p l i n e has been quite a consistent thing right through your teaching career? R: Well, you know, the one thing that they taught, one thing I learned right in art school nobody gave a s h i t whether you won or l o s t . If you wanted to do that, i f you wanted to party a l l , every night - and a lot of guys did, for a lot of guys art school was a one year stop - nobody cared. I mean, you had to submit volumes of work twice a year and i f you didn't do i t I: As long as you did i t . . . Page - // Protocol B-l Appendix A 197 R: Even i f you didn't do i t , there didn't seem to be a pass or f a i l there. So kind of what I learned, is that the one's that were doing well, you know, the ones that were being successful and producing good work were the one's that worked. I mean, you'd go in and you'd find them most days in one of the rooms, in a studio and they worked. They were l i k e they were punching a clock. I'd get there at quarter to nine in the morning and they would already be set up and working. And, I would go for lunch at quarter to twelve and they would work to quarter past twelve. And they would come back at one and I'd come back at quarter past one. You know, i t only took me to Christmas to r e a l i z e that I was wasting the money i f I wasn't going to you know. So I started coming at quarter past eight and staying u n t i l four, f o u r - t h i r t y or whatever. I set up a studio on my own so I could work outside the school and things l i k e that. I: ye s . R: That d i s c i p l i n e thing that goes back, i t goes back to my parents. You're raised that way or you're born that way. I don't know, but you don't, I don't think that anybody, i t ' s part of your personality. I: So there's nothing r e a l l y in your teaching career that has caused a dr a s t i c change in the way you view art teaching, sort of turnaround or a change in direction? R: That would have to have happened after I started teaching? I: yes. R: (pause) Moving schools caused a big change in the way I taught. Uh, funny thing i s , i t was horrendous moving. Cause my standards or my methods, the way I did things, what I expected, how I treated kids and so on, bore no resemblance, none at a l l , to the teacher that was here before me. When I moved here - these two rooms are separated by Page - tZ P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 198 one of those p l a s t i c draw c u r t a i n s -Here's an i n c i d e n c e t h a t stands out. We had t h i s Novemeber 11 Remebrance Day i n our rooms. I have no idea why we d i d i t tha t way but i t was i n our rooms. And I passed out the poppies and I got the ki d s sat down and e v e r y t h i n g l i k e t h a t and a c r o s s the P.A. comes t h i s , and we're a l l s i t t i n g there l i s t e n i n g and j u s t a f . . . i n g r i o t over t h e r e . I t was j u s t going nuts. Damn that guy he's i n the can or something, so I go a c r o s s , go through t h i s l i t t l e door here and I j u s t s t a r t reeming them out. "What are you doing? This i s remembrance day? People d i e d so you can" You know, g i v i n g them the standard l e c t u r e r i g h t ( l a u g h t e r ) R: I'm r e a l l y reeming them out. They're s i t t i n g t h e r e , they've s a t down and they're s i t t i n g there l o o k i n g a t me. And then I see a few of the eyes are d r i f t i n g over towards one of the doors at the back of the room and the r e ' s the a r t t e a c h e r . He's s i t t i n g t h e r e , he's got h i s head down and he's drawing away l i k e mad. (l a u g h t e r ) R: I used to go i n there and he d e a l t with b a s i c a l l y four or f i v e k i d s . The r e s t of them d i d what they wanted. The r e a l l y good k i d s got a l o t out of him and the r e s t of the c l a s s some of the l e v e l of work was laughable. Even from the good k i d s they weren't being s t r e t c h e d at a l l . P i c k i n g up some p r e t t y bad h a b i t s too. So when I came here, I ' l l t e l l you what changed. I f o r the f i r s t four months, u n t i l I accomodated to the way he was t e a c h i n g , I mean I had to make some adjustments. I j u s t could not have a q u i e t classroom here because we had th a t p l a s t i c draw t h i n g here. I had been used to t e a c h i n g by myself f o r a long time and I was i n complete c o n t r o l of the s u p p l i e s . With t h i s guy I'd go to get a j a r of white a c r y l i c p a i n t and he had used a l l of h i s and a l l of mine and you'd f i n e b o t t l e s h a l f gone but with the l i d o f f d r y i n g of Page - J3 P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 19 9 a l l over the bloody p l a c e . So I had to make a l o t of adjustments. I d i d more drawing and found out that I l i k e d i t . Less p a i n t i n g as I c o u l d not get i n v o l v e d i n long term t h i n g s cause I c o u l d not get these k i d s a t t e n t i o n . You know they were used to whipping o f f t h i n g s i n h a l f an hour and then "On, t h i s i s what I wanted". I had to t r a i n them and i t took me three years to get the s i t u a t i o n t h a t I wanted. And then a f t e r t h a t my r e p u t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d and the k i d s came i n t o t h i s room, they d i d a c e r t a i n t h i n g . A few of them were too dumb to r e a l i z e t h a t r i g h t away, but they caught on p r e t t y quick cause most of the k i d s knew. I: So you j u s t b a s i c a l l y t r i e d to ignore what he was doing and do what you wanted? R: Well, I had to make a l o t of adjustments as f o r i n s t a n c e , I'd t r y to do most of my t e a c h i n g at a c e r t a i n time of the p e r i o d because the beginning or end of those p e r i o d s I c o u l d n ' t make myself heard here. And I put i n a work order to get a wooden door put i n here and when the wooden door came and got i n i t was b e t t e r but i t wasn't - they put i n a hollow core door so i t d i d n ' t r e a l l y stop that much sound. The other change of course was that the c l i e n t e l e was - when I got them used to my methods and what I wanted they responded r e a l l y w e l l . These are b r i g h t k i d s and they, they're p a r e n t a l i n s t i l l e d success syndrome, you know. And they expect to be pushed. So you push them. Well, you've seen the a r t shows. There's some good work comes out of t h i s c l a s s . And you don't get t h a t j u s t because the teacher i s doing the r i g h t t h i n g . You've a l s o got to have the c l i e n t e l e to go with the teacher and you've got to have the p r i n c i p a l ' s support i n the teacher and so on and so f o r t h . I: How do you f e e l about t h i s as an a r t t e a c h i n g space r i g h t now? R: This i s the s h i t t i e s t room imaginable. I t ' s square f o r one t h i n g Page - /4* P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 200 as you've probably n o t i c e d . I t ' s s m a l l . There a r e , take a look around, there are twenty-seven sea t s i n here and i t would be very d i f f i c u l t to put any more i n here . I: Yes. you c o u l d n ' t get any more i n . R: Three of the sea t s are behind you a g a i n s t the w a l l . There's a s t o r y behind t h i s room, I ' l l t e l l i t to you when you want to t a l k about the a r t room. I: Okay, next time. R: Can you hear the noise here? I: Yes. R: J u s t l i s t e n to the 'way, way'[echo] See that shouldn't happen i n a classroom. I: You get t h a t echo. So there's other c l a s s e s r i g h t i n t h i s next space r i g h t around the c o r n e r . R: No, I'm using t h a t , do you want to see i t . I t used to be the other a r t room (both walk i n t o the other room and t a l k f o r a few minutes o f f the tape) R: A l l my grade 8 c l a s s e s I've got t h i s year are a l l t h i r t y , so o b v i o u s l y - I can get t h i r t y k i d s i n here but I have to drag two, push t h a t down and b r i n g two t a b l e s i n , then you can't move here. You're blocked o f f completely to get to a k i d i n the c e n t r e . You've got a space about t h i s b i g here. Or go down to the other end, you can't move those any more that way because the cupboard doors won't open. I've t r i e d every arrangement i n here and t h i s , I've never wanted more than four t a b l e s together at once . I: Yes. S i x i s a p r e t t y b i g group. R: Nothing I can do about i t . Page - \£ Protocol B-l Appendix A 201 I: What is your current teaching load t h i s year? R: It's a l l a r t . What did I have l a s t year? Oh, I had a graphic art which is b a s i c a l l y a photography and annual club was thrown in here. The population here is on the r i s e again so i t reaches a cert a i n number and i t ' s perfect. You get your seven classes and I: You don't have to share your teaching space. R: Right. You get the seven classes and the numbers are nice. That was what happened la s t year. Let's see what did I have. I had two nines l a s t year and a ten, three eights. I had 23 in eights on average, the ten was a big class of about 28. But somehow or other that's easy to handle at ten. The nines were nice comfortable 25's. And I mean nice, comfortable. They were good kids. Now, thats when i t was id e a l . Now I've got a l l art at the upper end of i t where the numbers are f a i r l y small s t i l l , l i k e we're 189-90 per nine and ten classes, i t ' s f i n e . I get classes of 23, 26, 24, 24. In the grade eight I got 30 in three of them. Which means we've passed the hump. Now I ' l l have large nines and the new crop of eights w i l l be just as large, so I ' l l have large eights and large nines and ultimately we'll get to that point where there's an extra block of art and then I don't know what t h e y ' l l do. I: Yes. Right. Are there other things that come from the school that frustrate what you t r y and do in the art room? Do you sense there's anything in the way the school's program is organized or expectations of the art program that come from outside? R: To run a successful art program you yourself have got to believe in i t . Then you've got to be such a rotten SOB that nobody wants to fight you. You've got to r e a l l y stink and squeal and squawk and when you f e e l that you're becoming a dumping ground then you Page - \(o P r o t o c o l B - l A p p e n d i x A 202 b e t t e r l e t i t be k n o w n . O k a y . Y o u ' v e g o t t o h a v e t h e c o u n s e l l o r s on y o u r s i d e . J . M . i s m a r v e l o u s , b u t t h e o t h e r c o u n s e l l o r , t h e b o y s c o u n s e l l o r , i f I w a s n ' t t a k i n g h i m , a n d f i g u r a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , t a k i n g h i m a n d s h a k i n g h i m e v e r y m o n t h o r s o , I ' d e n d up w i t h c l a s s e s o f 34 a n d i t w o u l d be a l l k i d s who c a n ' t h a c k i t i n F r e n c h o r g o t k i c k e d o u t o f Drama o r n e v e r made i t w i t h t h e b a n d t e a c h e r who h a s v e r y h i g h s t a n d a r d s . O k a y , t h e k i d w o n ' t p r a c t i c e a t h o m e , g i v e h i m a n o t h e r e l e c t i v e . W e l l , I s a y , we s o l v e d t h i s a l o n g t i m e a g o , b u t w e ' r e now s o l v i n g i t w i t h a new c o u n s e l l o r , l i k e w i t h t h i s c o u n s e l l o r -h e ' s b e e n a t i t f o r t w o y e a r s . H e ' d n e v e r s a y i t , a n d i t ' s n o t o b v i o u s , b u t a r t i s o f no v a l u e . T h i s i s a man w i t h o u t a n i m a g i n a t i o n . H i s k i d s w e n t t h r o u g h h e r e a n d t h e y w e r e m a r v e l o u s k i d s , m a r v e l o u s , m a r v e l o u s k i d s b u t t w o , a l l o f t h e m , e v e r y s i n g l e one o f t h e m d i d n ' t h a v e a n i m a g i n a t i o n o r a c r e a t i v e bone i n t h e i r b o d y . I t ' s y o u r b a s i c k i n d o f g o o d , s o l i d G o d -f e a r i n g , C h r i s t i a n , m o n o - e t h i c . T h e r e i s no - i t ' s b l a c k a n d i t ' s w h i t e , i t ' s down t h i s l i n e . The o n l y r e a s o n t h e c o u r s e s l i k e a r t , d r a m a e x i s t i s t o t a k e c a r e o f t h e k i d s . w h o c a n ' t h a n d l e b a n d . A n d y o u ' v e g o t t o h a v e some p l a c e t o p u t t h e m . ( l a u g h t e r ) R: And t h e r e a r e t h e s e w i e r d k i d s , who f o r some r e a s o n , e n j o y t h i s . So l e t ' s p u t t h e m t h e r e b e c a u s e t h e y w o n ' t c a u s e a n y t r o u b l e when t h e y ' r e t h e r e . So w h a t t h a t g u y w i l l d o , y o u k n o w , t h e y a l l do i t i n d i f f e r e n t ways - t h e one we h a d b e f o r e w o u l d b u t t e r y o u up f i r s t a n d t h e n g i v e y o u a c o m p l e t e d o g , some k i d t h a t n o b o d y c o u l d h a n d l e . And w h a t was n o r m a l l y a g o o d c l a s s a l l o f a s u d d e n b e c o m e s a n o t g o o d c l a s s r o o m . T h i s g u y w i l l s i m p l y dump u n t i l y o u s h a k e h i m , y o u k n o w , u n t i l y o u p u t y o u r f o o t d o w n . C o u n s e l l o r s w i l l g i v e y o u t h i s r o u t i n e -" t h e b o s s s a y s t o do i t " a n d I s a y , " l e t ' s go s e e t h e b o s s " . Now, t h e o l d c o u n s e l l o r , he w o u l d s a y t h a t a n d t h e n w e ' d go s e e t h e b o s s a n d h a l f way down P a g e - 17 P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 203 there he'd t e l l me " w e l l , the boss never r e a l l y s a i d t h a t " . We'd s t i l l go see the boss cause the o i d c o u n s e l l o r wanted to see what I would say to the boss. "Does he have enough nerve to say what he s a i d to me to the boss?" But i f you e s t a b l i s h t h a t a couple of times, then the boss gets the idea t h a t i t ' s not a dumping ground. Here's my standards -some dumb ass k i d who doesn't want to do anything, he's not going to be happy i n here. I'm going to be l e a n i n g on him, "do some work". I t ' s going to be as bad as i t was when he was i n French. We don't want t h i s k i d s i t t i n g i n the o f f i c e a l l the time because he got kicke d out of here, don't do i t . And then a f t e r a while they get the idea t h a t you w i l l k i c k them out i f they won't do the work, or whatever. So, they don't want to d e a l with i t down th e r e , aha, avoidance techniques you know, so they t e l l the c o u n s e l l o r "put t h i s k i d somewhere e l s e , put him i n drama". So the poor drama teacher i s going out of her t r e e . ( l a u g h t e r ) I: yes. Somebody's got to take him. In terms of what the sc h o o l expects R: S u c c i n c t l y ? Here's the annual s i t u a t i o n . You know what you're doing i n a r t and value your s u b j e c t area and you're able to get i t ac r o s s to your p r i n c i p a l who has some s o r t of a r t background, even i f i t ' s o n l y one of h i s k i d s l i k e s i t and does w e l l at i t , and he supports you, both f i n a n c i a l l y and ah, the other ways - l i k e he compliments your d i s p l a y s and he t r i e s t o , whenever p o s s i b l e , keep your c l a s s e s w i t h i n some s o r t of reasonable l e v e l and g i v e s you some ch o i c e about who w i l l take the s u b j e c t . Okay, i t ' s not j u s t where you put the k i d s who won't f i t anywhere e l s e . However, i f you run a good program i t won't become t h a t because the ki d s w i l l a v o i d i t . I: They r e a l i z e they've got to work i n t h e r e . Page - |fl Protocol B-l Appendix A 204 R: In this school, you know this is a private tape, i t doesn't go anywhere else. In thi s school, they go down there, down in the shop cause they can do anything they want down there. Ah, you need the counsellors on your side, you absolutely have to have i t because they do a l l the programing. And J.M., she makes sure, l i k e she encourages kids to take a r t , which I l i k e , e s p e c i a l l y in Grade eight because you l i k e to build a program and you want to get as many kids in as possible. And unfortunately a lot of g i r l s and a l o t of bright kids head to the band area you know, without ever giving t h i s a chance. I: That's r i g h t , right out of elementary school. R: Well, they're used to art at elementary school, you know, which was pretty mickey mouse, not r e a l l y art at a l l . Just kind of play time. So she encourages them but at the same time but when one of these questionable ones comes along s h e ' l l come and talk to me f i r s t and we'll discuss i t . I ' l l talk to the kid and i f I fee l that I can handle the g i r l , the boy - the l a s t one that happened was a g i r l . If I fe e l that I can handle i t then I ' l l take her and at least give her a t r y . And i f i t doesn't work, i t doesn't work. But just to have them show up with a piece of paper is a p i s s o f f . It doesn't make anybody feel happy, so you heed the counsellors on your side. I: Right. R: The administrators, they're going to control the money, so you've got to have them on your side. You got to s e l l the program, you've got to pump i t a l l the time. Ah, when we do the show down there, making your p r i n c i p a l f e e l g u i l t y because he didn't go and see i t is worth another, at least $150.oo on your budget, i t i s . Don't ever be a f r a i d to go and ask for money and don't go in begging, "say I need, I have to have", "Well, we're awfully short of money, we're awfully tight on the budget", Page - \<\ Protocol B-l Appendix A 205 "Well, come on H., you just gave Science $2000, a l l I'm asking for i s $110. You know come on, you can spring for $110. I ' l l buy you a beer sometime". You know, you get your money. (laughter) R: You may have to l i s t e n to a song and a dance, but you get i t . You should always take i t . You know, the way you get your budget up is I: to make sure you spend i t . R: Yeah, always spend i t . And there's a l o t of st u f f you can stockpile so that when the bad years come you can never not a f f e c t you, but you can kind of get through. You can stockpile paper, stockpile the expensive paints, always glazes, get cupboards f u l l of them because they always go quickly and they're expensive as h e l l . But i f you spend i t and you go back for more, i f your p r i n c i p a l ' s smart and he's keeping his finger on things and his eyes to the school he understands that you're coming to him a l l the time for more money, you know. And your budget w i l l creep up. It may only go up $200 a year but over four years that's $800. So I've got my budget now where - once again t h i s i s between you and I - I had d i f f i c u l t y spending the l a s t spending $400. I managed, so I went out and bought a few luxury items. I bought a compass set for $52. Things l i k e that. I: Well, that's great. Is there anything else that you can think of from your background, from your experience as an art teacher that shapes the way you do things today that you haven't mentioned already? Is there anything else you'd l i k e to add? R: A poem? (laughter) (pause) Page - AO P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 206 R: God, I don't know. Well, you know I've got a whole i n my l e f t ear and loud noises bother me. I mean, they're q u i t e p a i n f u l f o r me. Ah, I don't t h i n k w e l l i n d i n , i n cacophony or whatever you c a l l i t . I h o n e s t l y can't t h i n k v e r y w e l l . When the noise l e v e l i n the c l a s s gets up and I'm t r y i n g to show a k i d something, I can't , I can't. I can't keep the t h i n k i n g processes going. I t ' s p a r t l y t h a t the ear s t a r t s to r e v e r b e r a t e . I was born i n a d i f f e r e n t g e n e r a t i o n than these k i d s . I never f e l t about them, you know, I've never f e l t these are my f r i e n d s , these are my c l i e n t s , t h a t ' s a l l . I: That's good. I'm not j u s t s a y i n g R: You know what might have been i n f l u e n t i a l on me? I bet I would have r e l a x e d i n t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l o t sooner i f I hadn't had N. as my v i c e - p r i n c i p a l f o r s i x ye a r s . Now you taught with N. for a while so you know how incompetant the man was. I: Yeah, I know. R: I mean, he j u s t was not t h e r e . I can t e l l you s i x years of horror s t o r i e s about t h a t man not doing h i s job and making mine tough. Sending k i d s to him to be, you know a k i d t e l l s you to " f . o f f " and you send him to N. and the k i d comes back and you expect t h a t there's going to be a p r e t t y d r a s t i c apology and the k i d walks i n and s i t s down. "What's going on?" "Well, Mr. N. t o l d me to come back here." "Well, you haven't got my permissi o n to be i n here, there's some hoops you've got to jump through f i r s t " and he says i t again " f . you" and l e a v e s . R i g h t . So as f a r as I'm concerned that k i d s out of s c h o o l . He's got no more r i g h t s i n s c h o o l . But as far as N. concerned h e ' l l do anything to avo i d the c o n f r o n t a t i o n between h i m s e l f and the k i d and the parent. So we end up with a s t i c k y s i t u a t i o n where N. i s sa y i n g to me t h i n g s l i k e " w e l l , are you sure he s a i d ' f . you'" "Well, he d i d say i t twice N., I'm s o r r y , but he d i d say i t twice" "Ah, but i t couldn't be Page -2\ P r o t o c o l B - l Appendix A 207 anything e l s e . He says t h a t he d i d n ' t say i t , t h a t he s a i d 'duck'" "oh, r i g h t N. I know a l l kind of kids that go aroung s a y i n g 'duck'". I: So, good. Wei1 R: He was so awful t h a t I'm sure i t made me a harder, harsher teacher. I: Great. F i e l d Notes recorded before and a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w Tom was r e l u c t a n t to r e t u r n my i n i t i a l phone c a l l s f o l l o w i n g up on my p r e s e n t a t i o n to the L.S.A... However, when I f i n a l l y made co n t a c t he i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s to take p a r t . When I phoned f o r the i n i t i a l v i s i t he s a i d what about tomorrow I have to meet a parent at 4:30. The day i s dark and wet, the f i r s t r e a l r a i n of the f a l l . I hope I w i l l be able to approach the i n t e r v i e w i n an upbeat manner. I t ' s 3:10 pm A f t e r v i s i t i n g with two teach e r s I used to work with I went to Tom's room. I a r r i v e d 5 minutes before the appointed time of 3:30 pm, there were 4 students seated by the window. I asked them what they were working on. One student showed me a drawing of a c a r o u s e l that she was working on. She was using p e n c i l crayons with c o n s i d e r a b l e s k i l l and c o n t r o l . The other 3 students were j u s t s i t t i n g . Two boys seemed to have a d e t e n t i o n u n t i l 3:30. The room was yellow, very y e l l o w . The w a l l s were i n s t i t u t i o n a l y e llow and the cupboards were a b r i g h t d a f f o d i l y ellow. The room was very c l e a n with o n l y 5 or 6 examples of student work on d i s p l a y . A watercolor p a i n t i n g of a tomato c r o s s -s e c t i o n was on a board i n f r o n t of the windows. The counters and sh e l v e s were t o t a l l y bare. When the i n t e r v i e w was completed Tom wanted to show me the watercolor work he Page - ZZ Protocol B-l Appendix A 208 was doing with his students. He f e l t that he was having re a l success in teaching students how to build up color in layers. They were painting large cross-sections of vegetables and f r u i t (18"x 22") against white backgrounds. Technically these were very sophisticated works. I asked i f these were grade 10 students, he said that they were. He feels that watercolor should not be t r i e d with grade 8's and most grade 10's are too young for i t too. That's why he would l i k e to teach senior high. He feels that some of the Senior High students are less capable. However, he conceded that there is not one art teacher in the d i s t r i c t that doesn't think he's the best! I thanked him again and headed o f f . INTERVIEW CONCLUDED 4:35 pm Page -XZ P r o t o c o l B-2 Appendix A 209 P r o t o c o l No. B-2 Researcher: Shep Alexander December 13, 1989 Subject: Room Tour I: T e l l me what you've done with t h i s classroom and why? R; This room i s 22 feet by 26. I: So i t ' s not huge i s i t . R: No i t ' s not, i t ' s a t i n y room. So the t h i n g that saves t h i s room i s that I've got the one next door. I mean i f I look around you see that there's 27 seats i n here counting those three seats that are against the w a l l . That one there i n that doorwell i s an i l l e g a l seat. Workman's Compensation and the F i r e Department says no. I: Yeah, r i g h t . R: I don't have a grade eig h t c l a s s under 30. So ob v i o u s l y , ah, 208, the other room i s a boon for somebody, I'm not sure whether i t ' s me. I: So you a c t u a l l y have the overflow go i n the room next door. Where do you do the teaching from? R: I teach here i n t h i s room. Cause you've seen the colours i n the other room. I t ' s very d u l l , i t ' s a very dark room. So I teach i n here, but you can see, there's hardly any room. So i f you've got, w e l l the grade eig h t c l a s s e s are a l l large but they're smaller people. I f you put the same number of grade tens i n here then you wouldn't move at a l l . Last time I had a c l a s s of grade tens over 30 there was 32 i n i t , and I v i r t u a l l y s p l i t the group. I think I put 20 i n t h i s room and the other 12 i n the other room. And then i t ' s s u r v i v a l for everybody. I f you don't do that when you get those b i g bodies i n here a l l you've got i s s p i l l s and mucking about. There's no choice about the arrangment of desks. There's not room i n here to set up i n d i v i d u a l rows, you couldn't do i t . Page - J P r o t o c o l B-2 Appendix A 210 I: yeah. R: You know, you've got to cut the a i s l e way space down as much as p o s s i b l e , so you use i s l a n d s of desks. You can see t h a t there's r e s t r i c t e d movement t h e r e . You can't get by at the end of the t a b l e s t h e r e . I f you d i d t h i s any other way you would have t o , the o n l y other way you co u l d do i t i s to t u r n those two around and run a long s t r i n g s t r a i g h t through there but then you'd end up with ah, 4 x 3 , 12 i n a row there and you don't want t h a t . I mean s i x here i s bad enough. Once again those seats there are i s o l a t i o n s e a t s , f o r k i d s who can't work i n groups. I: you've got three of those. R: Yeah, i n one c l a s s I've got f i v e k i d s who need a seat l i k e t h a t , so. I: yeah, I co u l d b e l i e v e i t . Where do you teach from i n t h i s room? Do you use the board .. R: I walk a l l the time when I teach. You can see t h a t the main a i s l e s there i s no p o i n t i n going past here. Once you get past here you t r a p y o u r s e l f . (Laughter) R: I use t h i s whole space i n here a l l the way around. I ' l l f o o l around while I'm t a l k i n g and get back to the board when I have to draw, when I have to use the board. But you know the s u b j e c t , you might t a l k f o r h a l f an hour and not again f o r , l i k e you might t a l k f o r m a l l y for h a l f an hour and you might not have a s e t l e s s o n f o r another s i x hours. I: Yeah, r i g h t . But I n o t i c e you don't have a desk or a t e a c h i n g c e n t r e . R: There's no room f o r a t e a c h i n g desk. For two years now I've been t r y i n g to get a f i l i n g c a b i n e t which I ' l l put i n t h i s work room t h e r e . I was wondering where would you put a f i l i n g c a b i n e t . Page -X P r o t o c o l B-2 Appendix A 211 I: Right, r i g h t . You don't have room. R: This i s a t i n y , t i n y room. Even the c e i l i n g i s not a l l that high. I: What about, how do you use the storage i n t h i s room? R: Anything I don't want s t o l e n i s i n hereCcentral storage room}. That's f o r c l a y storage here. Well not c l a y storage, whatever we're working on, c l a y p r o j e c t s w i l l go over here q u i t e n i c e l y . This i s very badly designed. M.W. designed t h i s room. Then they went about completely i g n o r i n g what she wanted. Just pissed her o f f t e r r i b l y . That's probably why she q u i t so q u i c k l y . She thought that she'd have a chance, a once i n a l i f e time chance r i g h t . Brand new s c h o o l . P r i n c i p a l who appreciated her and was w i l l i n g to l e t her. You know she had i t a l l f i g u r e d out. These cupboards here would be a c e r t a i n width and a c e r t a i n depth so they would hold 24 by 36 inch paper. Okay. And at the end of i t hear we're going to be two rows that w i l l j u s t f i t . Just hold these l i k e that[18"x24"paper]. Well you can't get 24 by 36 inch paper i n here. The same t h i n g happened i n the work room. She designed a s h e l v i n g system that would e x a c t l y f i t a l l of the s t y l e s of paper that we use and then on the opposite sides of the paper racks two w a l l cupboards which would have had drawers so you j u s t have pen nibs and pens that would a l l be dumped i n here. So t h i s paper room i s r i d i c u l o u s . And there's not a s i n g l e cupboard that holds paper l o g i c a l l y . So you don't store anything i n t h i s room that there i s n ' t room to s t o r e . You put your p r o j e c t s there up i n the top. That long cupboard there used to have paint i n i t . But since W. l e f t I've put the pa i n t s on the other s i d e . Have you ever seen a worse sink setup you can get. I: Well at l e a s t you have three taps. My sink only has one. Page - 3 P r o t o c o l B-2 Appendix A 212 R: You only have one sink and one tap? I: yeah. R: You can get four people at t h i s s i n k . Which means you have to use the other s i d e . Which means that ah, (turns water on ) i f somebody s t i c k s a p a i n t t r a y i n t h e r e . I: They're s h o o t i n g the guy on the other s ide . R: P a i n t s t o r a g e . I mean t h a t ' s adequate enough. You know what we would l i k e , there should be s i n k s on t h i s s i d e and s i n k s on the other s i d e and then you d e f i n i t e l y need a place other than t h i s You get by with i t , you know, you can always handle i t . But t h a t ' s not the place where you want brushes. I: no, no. R: I t means that at the end of every p e r i o d I v i r t u a l l y have to do t h i s , you know, go through and make sure they're a l l s t a n d i n g up the r i g h t way, have they a l l washed t h e i r brushes. Of course they haven't, you have to go through and wash h a l f the brushes. At W. I had a system above the sink f o r a l l the brushes, here above t h e i r head, and you coul d n ' t get them, you cou l d n ' t put them t h i s way. You had to do t h i s , and you coul d walk to the back and look, they're a l l c l e a n or t h i s one's d i r t y and you give i t to the k i d you hate the most....You get by you know, the problem with t h i s room i s the s i z e you know, and we've a l l seen C's a r t room. I: yeah R: Now i f t h i s was the o n l y room that I had, I'd have to e l i m i n a t e from the program any l a r g e claywork because I wouldn't have the storage f a c i l i t i e s , I would have to get r i d of s i l k s c r e e n i n g because i t j u s t takes too much room and i t s too messy. You a l r e a d y have a f u l l c lassroom here and you a l s o t r y to do s i l k s c r e e n you won't stand a chance. Page - 4* P r o t o c o l B-2 Appendix A 213 I: Right. So, I n o t i c e you keep your counters c l e a r and e v e r y t h i n g , the tops of the shelves, does that f i t your idea of what you'd l i k e the room to be l i k e , instead of having work p i l i n g up a l l around. R: Well, the counters, when we're using paper those counters are where the paper goes, so normally... you see t h a t ' s another t h i n g she had f i g u r e d out, marvelous, a l l those cupboards were storage so you could put your paper i n there permanently or semi-permanently. When you needed c a r t r i d g e a l l you had to do was go s h e l f #5 i s what your using today. Now you end up ah, they were open cupboards too, now they have doors on them so i t ' s p o i n t l e s s to put paper i n them, cause you can't open the doors because the t a b l e ' s too c l o s e to the damn doors so you use the top of the counter to put the paper on. You know what happens then, i t gets s c a t t e r e d and mixed i n with the f o l i o s and nobody w i l l take the top pi e c e , r i g h t . I: What about those cupboards over there, the b i g t a l l ones? R: I have t h i s one here for when you have large c l a y p r o j e c t s , you want them out of the way. See the, problem here [ t r i e s open the cupboard and the door h i t s a student desk] I don't have very many r i g h t know, u l t i m a t e l y that kind of t h i n g w i l l be stored i n here. I can get one grade 9 c l a s s i n here. Grade 8, I use a locked cupboard for the grade 8 p r o j e c t s cause they're very d e l i c a t e . And the other grade 9 c l a s s i n here for claywork and then l a t e r i n the year t h i s becomes a canvas storage area. That's my own cupboard... I: So you have one cupboard that you kind of use as a desk. R: I've got things i n here that I don't want kids to touch without permission they go to the bookrack, the junk box they w i l l use anything I have. The mark book i s i n here. Page - 5 P r o t o c o l B-2 Appendix A 214 I: So does the room change much throughout the year depending upon what your doing? R: There i s no way, a b s o l u t e l y no way, of using t h i s room bet t e r i n terms of movement or... there i s n ' t . I've t r i e d i t , when I f i r s t came here I walked i n here, the teacher had a desk, remember those things s o r t of l i k e science t a b l e s about that high. She had one of those r i g h t here i t ran from there way back to i n here then she had a l l these t a b l e s that were s i t t i n g here r i g h t now crammed i n t o the r e s t of the room. Okay? That t h i n g was the f i r s t t h i n g that went and the next t h i n g that I d i d was I got r i d of four seats then t o l d every body that there were only t h i s many desks. I s t a r t e d experimenting when I came i n here. I spent I b e t j a four hours lo o k i n g at i t screwing around with i t before school s t a r t e d . The only way I could get twenty-four, I t r i e d to get twenty s i x seats i n here to s t a r t with and I couldn't. I: I ' l l j u s t move the tape recorder and you can t e l l me a l i t t l e b i t about what goes on i n the other room. So, what goes on here? R: In grade 8 t h i s i s the overflow room so i n a c l a s s of 32 I ' l l end up with, w e l l I don't have 32 t h i s year, i n my c l a s s of 31 I ' l l have 5 ... 6 kids i n here. So I pick 6 kids that can handle i t , or that I think can handle i t , and I t r y to change i t at l e a s t once every two months. Part of the l e a r n i n g process i s being i n a room and l i s t e n i n g or watching, seeing what everyone e l s e i s doing and so on and so f o r t h . You can a l s o see that I've got t h i n g s . . . Where would you put a paper c u t t e r over there? So there's a place to leave i t out here otherwise i t would have to be i n t h i s room and brought out when you have to use i t . Overflow storage i s i n here and with the tens I a l l o w them to come i n here and work i f they ask f i r s t and as long as... You know what the t r i p i s r i g h t ? Somebody comes over and he asks, can I go to 208 and work? Why? I j u s t Page - (o P r o t o c o l B-2 Appendix A 215 need some quie t today. Oh, okay, go ahead, go ahead Trevor. A couple of minutes l a t e r somebody el s e w i l l come up, you know, hmm, w e l l okay sure, sure Josh go ahead. I ' l l l e t him walk and get almost i n here and I ' l l say, "Don't s i t anywhere near Trevor". That's to l e t the other three, who are going to come and ask me next, that they can't. There are some kids that love i t i n here. I: I can b e l i e v e that there are some who would l i k e t h i s space. R: I've got one k i d the best that I've got. I f I'd l e t him he'd come i n here every p e r i o d . I f I l e t him come i n here every period then the c l a s s won't see how he works, won't see how he operates, I b e l i e v e t h a t ' s important to them.... This i s an annual cupboard and t h i s i s a paint storage. I do a l l my own work i n here too, i f I got things that I want ot do, comment cards was the l a s t one, I set i t up i n here cause i t can stay nobody has to d i s t u r b i t . I: So, f o r e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r s t u f f , annual and that kind of t h i n g , does that happen i n here? R: This i s the annual room. I don't r e a l l y want the annual job r e a l l y . . . but, I'm going to give them a choice next year. I'm going to ask them what they would rather have me do, e i t h e r b a s k e t b a l l or the annual. I: Do you ever use areas outside the classroom, l i k e the hallways or take kids outside to work? R: No, we have a p o l i c y here not to take kids out because i t got abused. I t h a r d l y ever happens except i n the l a s t week of school and i t became very obvious, I t h i n k , to everybody. That's not my nature anyhow, you know, we used to go o u t s i d e , we used to go s i t on the edge of the ravine and draw the patterns of leaves against the dark background or over i n t o M Park which i s neat, that was our f a l l t r i p and t h i s i s our s p r i n g Page - 7 P r o t o c o l B-2 Appendix A 216 one. We get the mushrooms, we c o l l e c t mushrooms and draw them, which i s a marvelous drawing assignment. But, t h i s i s r e a l l y funny the second year I was here, DG was s t i l l the p r i n c i p a l , he was an older f e l l o w , and he had p r e t t y s o l i d ideas about what he wanted out of a s c h o o l . I looked out here one day and the whole bank had c l a s s e s on i t s t a r t i n g there there was one up there, there was one s i t t i n g down here, there was another one gathered i n there, a l l the way along the bank. This i s on Tuesday and we dismissed the kids on a F r i d a y . Right a f t e r that t h i s announcement came down, a piece of paper, " I f you wish to take a c l a s s o u t s i d e , we c e r t a i n l y would not h e s i t a t e to a l l o w i t i f i t was e d u c a t i o n a l l y v i a b l e . Would you please submit the educational v i a b i l i t y to us before you do i t . I: Is there anything e l s e you can think of about the way you've set things up or the way you use the room? R: Are you u l t i m a t e l y going to design a good a r t room? I: That's not r e a l l y the focus of t h i s study. I'm i n t e r e s t e d more i n what people do and how they cope with the l i m i t a t i o n s that they're given. R: I f only we c o u l d . . . t h i s could be b e a u t i f u l a r t set up, the two rooms. I: You have the p o t e n t i a l with t h i s space. R: This would have to go [ i n d i c a t e s present c e n t r a l storage a r e a ] , t h i s whole storage area would get whapped against t h i s w a l l , okay? Probably, i t would probably end here, you could put i t r i g h t up against there, c l o s i n g a window so the room would end here. You would put your c l a y and everything e l s e i n t h i s corner, and a l l the d i r t y crap. And you'd have the r e s t of i t . . . I: Yeah, f l e x i b l e space... Page - 8 P r o t o c o l B-2 Appendix A 217 R: That would be the t r i c k . I f a k i d was g i v i n g you, you know some k i d can't get along i n groups and c r i p e s , I'm gonna see 18 parents t o n i g h t and 16 of them have k i d s e x a c t l y l i k e t h a t . I f a k i d can't get along i n a group you don't have to i s o l a t e them, you j u s t have to move them where t h e r e ' s h a r d l y anybody around them i n s t e a d of having to put them over i n a door where they've got no l i g h t or an y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . However,... I: We have to work with what we're g i v e n . . . R: I t ' s too bad about t h i s , t h i s was going to be one artroom. I: I t was s o r t of a l a s t minute d e c i s i o n . . . R: Yeah,the s t a f f r o o m was going to be bigger and the artroom was going to be here and i t was going to run through to about...I t h i n k they took four f e e t o f f the e l e c t r i c a l room there so, t h i s i s a c t u a l l y four f e e t f a r t h e r t h at way than i t was gonna be and they took 10 f e e t o f f of the s t a f f r o o m and at the time t h i s s c h o o l was planned f o r I think 800 maximum which would of meant that there would have been 50 teachers i n here. We've got 32 teachers now and there's no room i n t h a t s t a f f r o o m . Now no one's doing noon hour s u p e r v l s o n so everyone goes i n there and eats t h e i r lunch, you can't get near the p l a c e . You can't f i n d a seat i n t h e r e . I: Okay, w e l l I ' l l stop then. Page -P r o t o c o l C - l Appendix A 218 P r o t o c o l No. C - l Researcher: Shep Alexander October 17, 1989 Subject: Ethnographic Interview S t a r t i n g time: 3:25 pm I: This i s focusing on your personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r y that has c o n t r i b u t e d to your idea of the kind of place you want your a r t room to be. The questions are open ended so i f you f e e l that things come to mind as you're t a l k i n g please f e e l free to throw i t i n . R: Is that your s c r i p t S? I: That's my s c r i p t . So, what things i n your past i n f l u e n c e d your d e c i s i o n to become an a r t teacher? R: I always knew I was going to be a teacher 'cause I guess the f i r s t day I went to school i n Grade 1 my mother s a i d I came home and was p u l l i n g out my books and had a l l my younger brothers and s i s t e r s p l a y i n g s c h o o l . So I always knew t h a t . I guess what inf l u e n c e d me was the a r t teachers I had. I found them to be a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t breed than my normal teachers. I went to Gladstone, I had two r e a l l y f i r s t c l a s s a r t teachers. I had JW and DJ and they were j u s t super and I don't know, i t j u s t sparked something. I s t a r t e d o f f as .a p o t t e r . I: So you were i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t but you weren't n e c e s s a r i l y t h i n k i n g of a r t teaching r i g h t away? R: No. I was i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t . I never thought I was good enough to do i t and then I r e a l i z e d by the time I got to Grade 12 that I was b e t t e r than the average bear at doing i t but not as good as the best people. But I had t h i s a b i l i t y to s o r t of teach or whatever. I: Communicate with people... R: Communicate. Yeah, I guess. Page - / Protocol C-l Appendix A 219 I: Did you think that your univ e r s i t y art education t r a i n i n g had much to do with the way you teach now? R: No! Nothing! I find , I find that , ah, in general, with the exception of one class with JM, i t was pretty much a waste. Um, i t was good in some respects, good for me as a person. But for teaching, no. Developing personal imagery - a wonderful idea. I: (laughter) R: The man laughs. He teaches Junior High. I f e l t very inadequate t e c h n i c a l l y to come out as - we're generalists s p e c i a l i s t s . And I have a very good grounding on my own in pottery. Um, I did a double major in graphics and design. Through design we used fabrics e x c l u s i v e l y and f i b r e s . Um, through graphics i t was b a s i c a l l y oriented more towards a fine a r t i s t than an art teacher. I f e l t that, and I'm sure they managed to weave, or they were tryin g to weave a certain amount of personal imagery development around techniques but I found that i t focused more on what I was doing as an a r t i s t and less on how to teach or less on the technical aspects. And I r e a l l y found that to be a real shortcoming when I got out and started teaching. How about you? I: Yeah, same thing. 'Cause I found that you know, the idea of how to take something that you know how to do and communicate i t to others was something I f e l t was R: Yeah, doing i t and t e l l i n g them how to do i t are two d i f f e r e n t things. I: Can you describe the d i f f e r e n t teaching situations you've worked in since you've been an art teacher? R: Okay, um, I was a bag art teacher for the f i r s t five years. And I say bag because i t was a grab bag. I started teaching and I got a teaching assignment up in Vernon and um, I was teaching art Page - Z P r o t o c o l C - l Appendix A 220 and drama and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . So I had to l e a r n how to be a s o c i a l s t u d i e s teacher, I had to l e a r n the c u r r i c u l u m . I had a l o t of work to do t h e r e . I had a l o t of work to do with drama so I p u l l e d a r t t h i n g s out of the bag. L i t t l e p r o j e c t s , s o r t of i s o l a t e d l i t t l e b lobs - "here, do t h i s " . Urn, I guess the kinds of t h i n g s t h a t I'm not s a y i n g they were, but i t reminds me of an elementary s c h o o l teacher who has k i d s do p o t t e r y and then when the p o t t e r y i s f i n i s h e d they have them sand i t . I: yeah, r i g h t . R: They co u l d have sponged before they put i t i n the k i l n and i t o n l y would have taken them f i v e or ten minutes to sponge i t but now i t s f i r e d and i t ' s going to take three hours to sand. And the three hours i t ' s j u s t k i d s i n t e n t l y sanding. And t h a t ' s kind of the p r o j e c t s I d i d , l i t t l e 'bag' p r o j e c t s . ( l a u g h t e r ) R: And then I came down here to P r a i r i e and urn, I had another p l a t e f u l l and I was t e a c h i n g woodwork, metalwork, d r a f t i n g as w e l l as drama. So I was i n t o doing bag p r o j e c t s then and i t wasn't t i l my f i f t h year, I was i n t o my s i x t h year of t e a c h i n g when I had s t r a i g h t a r t and t h a t ' s when I s t a r t e d f o c u s i n g on l e a r n i n g how to do some th i n g s l i k e drawing which I f e l t that I d i d not have a very good grounding i n . And, ah, my own inadequacies as an a r t i s t or as an a r t teacher have r e a l l y , have r e a l l y become the centre of my a r t te a c h i n g . I: You focused on areas you thought were weaknesses f o r you? R: Where I, you know, drawing i s the b a s i s to e v e r y t h i n g and yet a drawing, a drawing l e s s o n out at UBC was stand and look and draw. And nobody ever came around and s o r t of taught you how to look or what to look f o r . Maybe i t ' s because they d i d n ' t know. And I'm i n t o t h i s r i g h t b r a i n , l e f t b r a i n s t u f f . Now Page - 3 P r o t o c o l C - l Appendix A 221 I've got, I c a l l i t p o r t r a i t c o n s t r u c t i o n you know, knowing the formula for the proportions of the face, mapping, knowing where to put i t and how big i t has to be, s i t i n g gives us the shape of the f a c i a l features and the head and s t u f f . And then you get to drawing adding the l i t t l e unique t h i n g s . And i t s the f i r s t few steps that everybody has t r o u b l e with and nobody has broken i t down. So, the t h i n g that I was t r u l y inadequate at which I was j u s t banging my head against the w a l l was drawing and that's the t h i n g I f e e l r e a l l y comfortable with now. I: Good. Well, I f i n d the same t h i n g i n teaching drawing, i f you show them some things then a l l of a sudden they kind of wake up to what things look l i k e R: I do a drawing i n f r o n t of the kids and I went through high school and u n i v e r s i t y and to date, the only other person - now i f you do a drawing i n f r o n t of your kids from s t a r t to f i n i s h then t h a t ' s d i f f e r e n t and I can I know two people that do that you and DP. I: I do t h a t . R: Nobody e l s e I know gets up there and does i t . Let's j u s t s o r t of draw t h i s . I: A l l together then, how many years have you been teaching a r t ? R: This year, I'm i n year f i f t e e n . I: So, i f you think about a l l these d i f f e r e n t teaching s i t u a t i o n s that you've worked i n can you comment on how you think that a f f e c t s the way you teach now? R: I teach l i k e a barracuda. My f i g h t i s to r a i s e the p r o f i l e of the a r t s . What we do, i s everything they're t a l k i n g about now with the new c u r r i c u l u m . We don't j u s t teach theory, we apply theory, we are c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n a c t i o n . We apply math, we apply p h y s i c s , we apply chemistry and science and we apply i t with the Page - 4/ Protocol C-l Appendix A 222 aesthetics, with the pr i n c i p l e s and elements of art and design. And ah, I've become a barracuda because most people sort of looked at art as kind of something wimpy and not important. And I sort of think i t ' s the other half, in the school s i t u a t i o n , i t r e a l l y makes up for the other half of the thinking process. So I've been very vicious, very, very structured (interrupted by a student question) No, I was saying I've been a barracuda. And the other thing is because of the perception, not just of kids but of the administration, who sort of see i t as a mamby pamby time f i l l e r . And i t ' s not! I: Something to round out the program. R: And i t ' s not. So I go out and tear bikes up and things. I: So you're saying, you've come to this conclusion because you've f e l t the teaching situations you've been i n , art hasn't been valued as much as i t should be, so you've had to take R: The value comes with me. The value comes with l i k e me or you, the teacher, and how much we are w i l l i n g to stand up for and I guess we a c t u a l l y end up doing a mount of preaching. I: When you started your teaching career and thought about your f i r s t art room or even before you walked into i t , did you have an idea of the kind of place or kind of atmosphere you wanted to have in that art room? R: Yep. I: Can you describe that a l i t t l e b i t ? R: Not clean, but not d i r t y . Uh, lots of s t u f f on the walls - well t h i s i s what i t i s , a smorgasbord for the eyes. Where do you look, what do you look at? Never get bored in here 'cause there's always something to look at. This a c t u a l l y i s , i s , I mean, that's the kind of art room that I was brought up i n . A l l three art rooms that I had at Page - 5 P r o t o c o l C - l Appendix A 223 high s c h o o l and most of the a r t rooms, with the e x c e p t i o n of the design room, out at UBC were t h i s conglomeration of happening. J u s t , i t ' s l i k e the room has a l i f e of i t s own and i t j u s t grows and moves and sometimes i t ' s r e a l l y d i r t y and sometimes i t ' s s o r t of c l e a n but i t ' s j u s t . And I know where e v e r y t h i n g i s and t h a t ' s the s c a r y p a r t . I can put my hand on the books, I mean i f I was to design my own room i t would look s i m i l a r to t h i s but d i f f e r e n t . Very, o b v i o u s l y you can see i t was not designed by an a r t person. A c t u a l l y , t h i s one was but, boy! I thin k I can speak as an expert a f t e r being i n here f o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s . ( l a u g h t e r ) I: O.K. Well, i f you thin k about the time you've been t e a c h i n g and the p r a c t i c a l experience you've had of working i n t h i s room and t e a c h i n g d i f f e r e n t groups of st u d e n t s , what are some of the t h i n g s you thin k you've learned about how to run t h i n g s i n an a r t room? R: Well, I've lear n e d t h a t they change and what looks good and f i t s good f o r one year doesn't n e c e s s a r i l y look good or f i t good f o r another year. I've got the h y d r a u l i c jacks i n here and r i p p e d cupboards o f f the w a l l and unbolted the blackboards and b o l t e d them up i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s and unscrewed t h i n g s and r i p p e d t h i n g s around. I know t h a t i t has to be something that has to be f l e x i b l e . I'd l i k e to see f l o o r to c e i l i n g s h e l v e s but a l o t of other s t u f f I'd l i k e to see i t be movable. So i f I wanted to have a b i g area I co u l d have cupboards on wheels and r o l l them i n t o the next room and stack them a l l p i l e d up there and use the - a r e a . L i k e I f e e l so o f t e n t h a t I'm l i m i t e d by the space and I l i k e easy access f o r k i d s . I don't lock e v e r y t h i n g up! I l i k e to have t h i n g s a v a i l a b l e , l i k e the p a i n t hangs around and e v e r y t h i n g j u s t hangs around and e v e r y t h i n g s j u s t there to look at and see. E v e r y t h i n g that they're allowed to use. Page - (o P r o t o c o l C - l Appendix A 224 I: Do you thin k t h a t , that you've, w e l l you've s o r t o£ t a l k e d about the a r t room as having a l i f e of i t s own,, s o r t of growing out of the people and t h i n g s t h a t you're doing. But would you say you've had any ou t s i d e input i n t o what you're doing? R: T h i s room has not been painted f o r eleven y e a r s ! I b a t t l e , "I need a couple of cupboard doors! Oh pl e a s e , come and f i x the e l e c t r i c a l o u t l e t s i t ' s f a l l i n g out and some k i d has j u s t shocked h i m s e l f ! " I haven't had a l o t of i n p u t . No. I: How about input about teachinng a r t from say, conferences or other a r t teache r s or teachers on t h i s s t a f f ? R: I.don't understand t h a t . Have anybody e l s e get in v o l v e d ? I: Well, not n e c e s s a r i l y get i n v o l v e d , but say, teach you something about t e a c h i n g that a f f e c t s the way you run t h i n g s i n here. R: Oh, an i n c r e d i b l e amount, and mostly I get i t from intermediate and primary workshops. And modify, because they do process development r a t h e r than ah, they work on p r o c e s s i n g s k i l l s and thought processes r a t h e r than d e a l i n g with t e c h n i q u e s . And a r t i s t i c a l l y I thi n k my techniques I know what I'm t a l k i n g about, I know what I'm doing and i t ' s the way that I d e l i v e r my lessons t h a t has changed. Is t h a t what you're a s k i n g me? I: yes. R: yeah, urn, I've got mostly from o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s , nothing from A r t conf e r e n c e s . I think the bulk of the a r t , every once i n a while there's something t h a t ' s a f f e c t e d me. And I must admit you know, I'm on t h i s r o l e and I got i n t o a l l t h i s b r a i n s t u f f because of l i s t e n i n g to a lady t a l k about drawing on the r i g h t s i d e of the b r a i n . But I can't even remember i f i t was an a r t conference or a PIMA Page - 7 P r o t o c o l C - l Appendix A 225 conference, an intermediate conference. But t h a t r e a l l y i n f l u e n c e d me. Yeah, so I'm always out there l o o k i n g f o r other t h i n g s , and coop l e a r n i n g and I'm always l o o k i n g f o r other t h i n g s to b r i n g i n t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n a l l the time. But I don't u s u a l l y look towards a r t people. I: You f i n d you don't n e c e s s a r i l y look towards secondary people too much either'. R: No, too i s o l a t e d . You know. You and I are an e x c e p t i o n a l case. No I don't. I'd say we're not f a n a t i c a l , we're not p o l i t i c a l , urn, I thin k we're both t e a c h i n g j u n i o r high because we're wanting to teach j u n i o r h igh. And when I get out with my c o l l e a g u e s there j u s t seems to be so much j o c k e y i n g . "I want to be the d i s t r i c t c o o r d i n a t o r , I want to get to s e n i o r high, I want to do t h i s , I want to do t h a t " and I f i n d myself yeah, and I thin k t h e r e ' s a two t i e r e d s t r a t a which I've t o l d you bef o r e . There's the secondary wonderful people, the s e n i o r s , and then t h e r e ' s us j u n i o r high scumballs. And urn, yeah I haven't got much input from them. I would say i n that case I must sound l i k e a l i t t l e b i t of an ego wrap, but I'd say I was the one who was out on the limb, they're c l o s e r to the trunk. I: How about the s t a f f here i n the school? Do you f e e l l i k e t h e re's other people on the s t a f f here? R: I have very r a d i c a l t e a c h i n g methods, you know t h a t . And um, I guess I s t a r t e d g e t t i n g r a d i c a l when I s t a r t e d u s ing t h a t drawing on the r i g h t s i d e of the b r a i n book, um And I was s i t t i n g down t h i n k i n g , i t was seven years ago, I'm s t a r t i n g i n year e i g h t now, and I've modified and brought i n a l o t of other s t u f f now. And when I f i r s t s t a r t e d they used to tease me, "ooh, f l a k y , ooh, touchy f e e l y , ooh, wierdo" and now the whole idea of v i s u a l imagery i s s o r t of g a i n i n g ground. There using that i n cancer therapy and they're using i t a l l over the p l a c e , they're using i t f o r s t r e s s r e d u c t i o n . Biofeedback i s Page - % Protocol C-l Appendix A 226 a c t u a l l y v i s u a l imagery, think about lowering your blood pressure and then you lower i t . I stood out there to a l o t of r i d i c u l e , now I'm getting support, because they're bringing in speakers from a l o t of other places that are t a l k i n g about things that I've been ta l k i n g about for a long time. So I'm getting some support and um, the band guy here at the school i s quite interested in the s t u f f that I'm doing and my teaching methods, the way that I'm using to teach kids using v i s u a l imagery and brain repatterning and things. Yeah, so I'm getting some support. I: But you find you're out there breaking the new ground here. R: I'm d e f i n i t e l y out there breaking the new ground. It crumbles underneath me my every step. I'm just waiting for the quicksand. (laughter) I: You've talked a b i t about the art classes that you've been in and what you've liked about them. Is there anything more that you want to say about that about how that a f f e c t s what you do. You know, thinking about you own experience about being in art class in high school. R: I think of myself as an art teacher not necessarily an a r t i s t . I'm coming to think of myself as somewhat of an a r t i s t right now. What r e a l l y , there was t h i s part of me that I never even knew existed u n t i l my art teachers sort of helped me find myself. And I have mixed emotions about that, because in one respect I owe them so much, because I love my job and I love where I'm at and they r e a l l y played a big influence on me because obviously I wanted to emulate them I wanted to be l i k e them. And now, as I've gotten older and I think that's why I wanted to be, ah, They were just the coolest guys, a d i f f e r e n t kind of people, d i f f e r e n t from a l l the other teachers, and I know they Page - ? Protocol C-l Appendix A 227 played such a big role in my l i f e , I spent so much time in the art room. Now I'm kind of choked because, and obviously they would have given me, they gave me everything they had and they had no more to give and they didn't know, I: some of the st u f f that you've found out. R: some of the s t u f f , you know. They were s t i l l , I guess there are s t i l l tons of teachers out there doing i t out of Nicolaides which is where they were at. I had an art, maybe i t ' s best i f I explain i t t h i s way. I had an art student come into me today who is doing an advanced placement class in the d i s t r i c t and was t e l l i n g me about one of her teachers since me. And you've got to remember that I'm the junior high art teacher. But she was saying to me that, you know, "You gave us the tools that we needed, you showed us how to draw. You didn't come in and do our drawings. You didn't say i t doesn't make any sense to us, you only spoke to us always on a technical l e v e l , and the aesthetic part you mentioned to us but didn't force i t down our throats." The one she has now, and everything she does, and she quit taking the art classes because everything she does now, i t has to make sense to them not to her. And the kids s i t t i n g there thinking I'm the a r t i s t , i t doesn't have to make sense to you, i t has to make sense to me. And I think that's one thing that we tend to f i l l , or I think, my teachers tend to f i l l me up with imagery before I had the techniques down. In other words, to do beautiful drawings you have to know how to draw you have to know how to see. I: You had a l l these ideas and images but you r e a l l y had d i f f i c u l t y t r a n s l a t i n g these into works of a r t . R: There was no t r a n s l a t i o n . And i t ' s one of the big things I t e l l kids, I ' l l go to my grave, I guess, t e l l i n g them that their work is their's and i t ' s th e i r perception of the world. I can talk about p r i n c i p l e s of art and design Page - IQ Protocol C-l Appendix A 228 and I can t e l l them why something doesn't look good but I have no right to go up to them and say "I don't understand t h i s " or "to me i t doesn't make sense" or " i t ' s not making i t to me". And that r e a l l y made me crazy. Like with the drawing I'd say " S i r , I can't make the nose!" "Well t h i s i s how you do i t , you kind of go l i k e t h i s , t h i s , t h i s , t h i s " , and there was the nose! And I didn't know how to draw the nose. He came by and he drew the nose, he knew how to draw noses. He couldn't t e l l me, he knew he had a l l the information and he knew he knew i t but he didn't know how to t e l l me. It's almost as though he had no metacognition. He hadn't broken i t down into the parts. I: I think that's a similar way that I approach i t too, to l e t them discover th e i r own aesthetic. You know, don't worry about that too much, but the means to take the ideas that they've got and express them. R: The tecniques, the vehicle. You can put something in the vehicle but you can't go anywhere u n t i l you have i t . I: Okay, can you, is there anything, you've talked about the positive aspects of being an art student, but are there any p a r t i c u l a r negative things that stand out? And you said, "I never want to run a class l i k e that or I never want to set up my art room l i k e that". R: I had several art teachers that were t e r r i b l y condescending to me at a l l parts of the lesson. I mean I could understand them being condescending to me when they were giving me the theory but past the theory kind of an 'upitiness', kind of an 'avante gardeness*, so absorbed about being unique that they l o s t their a t t r a c t i o n as being people. And I think as teachers, for the most part, where we get hooked and where we hook children um. A l o t of people don't necessarily learn for the love of learning. The teacher is an integral part and what we Page - // P r o t o c o l C - l Appendix A 229 b r i n g , our p e r s o n a l i t y , our depth, our sense of humour. I guess t h a t ' s what I'm t r y i n g to say, they had no sense of humour. (l a u g h t e r ) R: Well, one or two of them d i d . I: They had to be so s e r i o u s a l l the time. R: Well, I mean s e r i o u s to a f a u l t . " L i s t e n to every word I say and hang o f f of every word I say" and I'm, s a y i n g "I want to hang you with every word you say" . I: T h i n k i n g about the students you've worked with s i n c e the beginning of your c a r e e r to know, how do you thin k your r e l a t i o n s h i p with your students has changed the way you teach or a f f e c t e d the way you teach? R: How has my r e l a t i o n s h i p with my students a f f e c t e d the way I teach? I don't think i t ' s a f f e c t e d the way I teach but i t ' s a f f e c t e d where I te a c h . I'm here at j u n i o r high because I can r e l a t e to them. And I guess the best way I can. As teachers we can teach k i d s t h i n g s , and we want to know t h a t what we've given them they c a r r y away with them. We want to know that we've i n f l u e n c e d them i n some way. And I was at a wedding two weeks ago, and I was a bridesmaid i n the wedding f o r a g i r l who i s t w e n t y - f i v e years o l d , who I taught twelve years ago and whom I have been f r i e n d s with over the twelve y e a r s . And she d i d her t h i n g , went to A r t s c h o o l , went to UVic and now she's down at Emily Carr i n her t h i r d year of design and I guess that was a r e a l eye opener f o r me. Watching somebody go from being an ado l e s c e n t at t h i r t e e n to being a mature woman of tw n e t y - f i v e and the way she sees me hasn't changed. So I t r u t h f u l l y can say I haven't changed. I've mellowed out a b i t , you know, but t h a t ' s a p e r s o n a l t h i n g . I don't y e l l as much. My stand up i s a l i t t l e f a s t e r , l i k e I P a g e - tZ P r o t o c o l C - l Appendix A 230 t a l k f a s t e r . I don't labour t h i n g s as much as I used t o . I: That comes with e x p e r i e n c e . R: With experience and m a t u r i t y . I: You've a l r e a d y t a l k e d about some of the b e l i e f s t h a t guide you i n your t e a c h i n g . Is there anything e l s e t h a t you would c o n s i d e r c e n t r a l b e l i e f s t h a t guide you about teaching? R: What have I s a i d about b e l i e f s t h a t guide me? ( l a u g h t e r ) I: Well, you've mentioned t h i n g s about t e a c h i n g s k i l l s and techniques as important. R: I hand out sheets on l o v e , r e s p e c t . I guess I've always looked at myself as a f a c i l i t a t o r . I t a l k about winners and l o s e r s . I t a l k about a winner says ' l e t s f i n d out' and a l o s e r says 'nobody knows'. When a winner makes a mistake they say 'they were wrong, when a l o s e r makes a mistake they say ' i t was my f a u l t ' , a winner goes through a problem a l o s e r goes aroung i t but never gets past i t . A biggy, a winner makes committments, a l o s e r makes promises. Kids at t h i s age i n j u n i o r high are going through some of the hardest l i v i n g of t h e i r e n t i r e l i f e . They're b i g , but they're not, they're t r y i n g to cope with hormones and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e and sometimes the p i c t u r e they get of themselves i s not a very n i c e one. And I think p a r t of my job as a teacher i s to m i r r o r the goodness I can see, even i f they can't. I t a l k about r e s p e c t too, about the f a c t they have to r e s p e c t me, but I have to earn i t and the f a c t t h a t I have to r e s p e c t them, but they have to earn i t . Um, and t a l k about what I can give to them as an a r t person, and what a r t can b r i n g to them, even i f they're not an a r t i s t , t h a t they're touched by d e s i g n e r s and a r t i s t s i n e v e r y t h i n g they do. T h e i r c l o t h e s , t h e i r house, t h e i r underwear, Page - 1 3 Protocol C-l Appendix A 2 31 everything. That the impact is so broad sweeping and so devastating and so subtle that sometimes they don't even know i t . I want them to f e e l good about who they are and to have some confidence in who they are. I want them to have a good picture of themselves, I want them to be their best. And I guess i t ' s my job to sort of slap them i f the face with one hand, and catch them with the other so that they make mistakes but they learn from i t . I: Can you comment on how you see art lending i t s e l f , to help kids discover those things or learn those things. R: It's a one size kind of f i t s a l l things. I give a kid a technique and then the kid can do with i t what they want. They can apply combinations of techniques and ideas and they don't ever have to set themselves up against anybody else. They only set themselves up against themselves. You know, i t s , um, what i t gives them i s the other half of their l i f e . The other half that most t r a d i t i o n a l schooling doesn't give them, the side that says l e t them be creative, l e t ' s be d i f f e r e n t , l e t ' s be innovative. Most classroom situations r e a l l y don't allow kids to talk to one another in a kind of a f r i e n d l y sort of a way. I keep on hearing these things "on task, on task". I think i t just allows kids a l i t t l e b i t of a breather e s p e c i a l l y for Grade Eights. I c a l l i t 'creative play', some time where you can come down and maybe think of d i f f e r e n t kinds of things, look at things in a d i f f e r e n t way. I give them a sheet on awareness and thought, "look at thi s and what do you see", and then a l t e r their consiousness so that they see one thing to s t a r t and then they see something else. And I t e l l them that's what a r t i s t s have, a r t i s t s have the a b i l i t y to see the obvious and then they have the a b i l i t y to see the subtleness. It's the subtleness, i t ' s the awareness I think of the subtleties that help us get through l i f e . And because sensitive people can help us get through jobs and Page -P r o t o c o l C - l Appendix A 232 relationships and a l l sorts of things. I do a l o t of preaching I guess. I: Well, that sounds great, i t sounds l i k e worthwhile, you know, worthy things to be preached. Do you sense that these kind of attitudes, these kind of b e l i e f s that you've been ta l k i n g about have changed or have they been pretty constant throughout your teaching career? R: They've been very constant. Um, I don't they've been constant in the rest of the building or in the school system but they tend to be as far as my practice is concerned. What I've been doing, I've been doing for six or seven, or eight or ten or fourteen, f i f t e e n years, whatever, you know. The school system is now catching up to where I'm at. I r e a l l y , you know. I: That's interesting, cause you r e a l l y do see some of that. R: They're catching up to where I am. A l l t h i s talk about the new curriculum i t ' s not new. I'm sure i t ' s what most art teachers have been doing forever. I: Just to focus a l i t t l e more on the physical setting in th i s place here. R: This place! I: Yeah, t h i s actual place where i t a l l happens. Can you describe the way that you fe e l about the way that t h i s art room works? Is i t the way that you'd l i k e i t to be working? Are you happy with i t ? R: No, no. Um, this art room needs more than one person in i t . It's too much for one person to handle. I would l i k e i t to, well, i t ' s been used as a multi purpose area right now. People come in and do posters and whatnot. But with the amount of equipment and supplies and s t u f f you have to sort of ah, l i k e I work on an honor system and I've been very lucky. I've been very lucky because I guess nothing been Page - /6T Protocol C-l Appendix A 233 stolen or wrecked or abused or anything l i k e that. But p h y s i c a l l y i t ' s a hard room to cont r o l . It's a very large space but because of the way i t ' s l a i d out i t ' s not e a s i l y commanded by one spot. It's broken up, i t ' s two rooms with a passage way. I: I know, you can't see half of what's going on at a l l . R: You can't see, no. And you know junior high kids. The teachers out of sight they're out of mind. I: Can you describe just what teaching load you have th i s year. R: Um, I'm teaching fiv e next semester. I'm doing four art and half a learning centre. And t h i s semester I'm doing four arts and I have a prep. I do two blocks of Art Eight, period one and period fiv e and I do that next semester as well. This semester I'm doing a block of ceramics, next semester that w i l l be a block of general art and I'm doing a block of drawing and painting this semester and one next semester and a block of media. And somebody else is doing the media here. So there's more, there's enough for more than one art teacher . I: So how is t h i s room used? Are there other things that go on next door here? R: No, there can't be. We've t r i e d running two classes in here and you can hear yourself the amount of noise coming from the kids next door. It's v i r t u a l l y impossible to run a class with a... . And when I'm standing in here, t h i s is my normal speaking voice and what are you, you're two feet away from me and you can hear that's there's so much background noise from them that you're probably going to have trouble typing this . I: yeah, there w i l l be a b i t of noise, that's for sure. Okay. Are there, Page - /& P r o t o c o l C - l Appendix A 234 R: The o n l y reason there i s n ' t another c l a s s here i s because I went to ' l e a r n i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s ' and s a i d t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e . And so t h a t ' s when the p o r t a b l e s s t a r t e d to come. I: Are there t h i n g s here t h a t l i m i t you in t r y i n g to c r e a t e the kind of classroom t h a t you want to have? R: I want a classroom t h a t ' s a g e n e r a l i s t area and the way i t ' s s e t up r i g h t now, um. I would love to have the room d i v i d e d up i n t o mayble three or four areas with g l a s s w a l l s i n between, so I co u l d see what's happening. I've put a l o t of thought i n t o t h i s one. L i k e o f f i c e s , o n l y not o f f i c e s . So I could have the c l a y k i d s i n one area and they c o u l d be banging dust aroung and the dust wouldn't get i n t o the drawing and p a i n t i n g area where I would do drawing and p a i n t i n g and g r a p h i c s kind of work. And the dust wouldn't get i n t o the media area because I'm on the push r i g h t now to do some desk top video and filmmaking and what I ' l l j u s t c a l l t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y r e c o r d i n g a r t s . So yeah, i f I had the money and I co u l d s e t t h i s room up d i f f e r e n t l y , i t would be set up q u i t e a b i t d i f f e r e n t l y . I: Do you f e e l t h a t the sch o o l i n any way l i m i t s what you want to do i n your program or do you f e e l t h a t you're f r e e to , R: What do you mean? I: The e x p e c t a t i o n of where a r t f i t s i n t o the s c h o o l program? R: L i m i t s me!? I: Does t h a t l i m i t you at a l l i n doing the t h i n g s you want to do? R: No! On the c o n t r a r y , I i n f l u e n c e them. And I thin k i t ' s my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i f I'm an advocate f o r the a r t s , which I am, that I've got to be out there doing something. I t can't be a l l show and no go. I t ' s not l i k e I can s i t back here and say "kids should Page - 17 Protocol C-l Appendix A 235 be taking art because i t ' s wonderful for them". That's not why they're taking i t . They come here to take i t because of me, and because I guess I've b u i l t a name for myself and I've b u i l t a name for the program. E s p e c i a l l y the drawing and painting. I bet you I could f i l l four classes. Oh maybe they are l i m i t i n g me. I bet I could f i l l two classes each semester with drawing and painting but because they only timetable two that's a l l there i s . It's normal for me to have anywhere from t h i r t y f i v e to f o r t y kids in a drawing class because I won't turn them away. I mean, when there's not enough room then you have to sta r t turning them away. I've taken t h i r t y - s i x , t h i r y - e i g h t , f o r t y kids in a class and yet in other areas that they deem more important. Yeah, so I guess they are l i m i t i n g me somewhat. But I don't take i t laying down. I: In terms of, do you find in terms of f i n a n c i a l support for things that you've got that? To expand programs and equipment and things l i k e that. R: It depends on the value that the administration puts on what you do. When DK was here, he put an extreme amount of value on what I did and um; I ac t u a l l y got three new potters wheel and a new k i l n . And, um, they were going to hire an extra lab assistant and the lab assistant was going to come down here to help me cause this was such a v i t a l place. And i t was going to be someone who could help with organizing p u b l i c i t y and posters and paper and scissors and glue and a l l the kind of administrative things that you have to do in a room that's got a l o t of tools and supplies and stuff as well as teach. With the next administration I didn't get very much support at a l l . They were sort of a t h l e t i c a l l y inclined and I think that's when I took on my barracuda or pirrhana persona. Pirrhana persona! Anyway, um, i t ' s when I took that on and money was very limited. Like right now, I've done studies um, I've done i t for the l a s t three or four years. I have just as many kids, I have twenty-five kids less Page - IS P r o t o c o l C - l Appendix A 236 than I.E. d i d three years ago. They got $26.78 per student s u b s i d y from the s c h o o l . I got $8.29 per student from the s c h o o l . So you can see where the value l i e s . And I'm i n the midst of t r y i n g to s h u f f l e t h a t . The present p r i n c i p a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are r e a l l y gungho. I want to get computers i n here. I've been working on a media course. We're i n our t h i r d or f o u r t h year now. And um, f i n a l l y now they're s t a r t i n g to l i s t e n and some s u p p l i e s and some money and maybe some room ren o v a t i o n s are f i n a l l y going to s t a r t coming t h i s way. So I guess i t ' s not j u s t ah, I guess the b i g pa r t of i t i s how the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p e r c e i v e s what you're doing, or what you're worth, I don't know. I: J u s t to s o r t of wrap up. Are there any other t h i n g s t h a t we haven't t a l k e d about t h a t you t h i n k have been a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on the way teach a r t , i n the way you operate i n the classroom. R: Not th a t I can think o f . I th i n k we've t a l k e d about most of them. I: Okay R: I want k i d s to take chances. I: So you want the r i g h t kind of environment where they f e e l l i k e they can. R: They can take a chance where they won't have, You see, most areas, l i k e math, we have a tendency as teachers to y e l l at them, or any p l a c e , i f they get th i n g s wrong t h a t ' s not good. Yet, I think q u i t e o f t e n our most e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g takes place from our mistakes, not what we get r i g h t . So I want a pla c e where k i d s can take some chances a r t i s t i c a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y , p e r s o n a l l y , and ah, know that they don't have to stand up to r i d i c u l e by an i n s e n s i t i v e teacher or i n s e n s i t i v e k i d s . I want them to f e e l s a f e . I want them to want to come here. Not because they have t o . I: Thank you very much. Page - 1^  Protocol C-l Appendix A 237 R: Oh you're welcome. Concluded 4:05 pm FIELD NOTES: I arrived at P r a i r i e just as school was f i n i s h i n g . I was surprised to see the condominium development in the area, rows and rows bordering on the school property. The school has been freshly painted and at least three portables have been added. A fascinating interview, almost too much to comprehend. Impressions: the room was a mess, much a c t i v i t y , students hanging around wanting to talk to the teacher about their a r t . Interesting and varied displays; old and new, dusty and fresh. Light, high c e i l i n g s . Communication between teacher and student: extremist comments delivered in a f r i e n d l y but authoritative manner. Page - J.0 P r o t o c o l C-2 Appendix A 238 P r o t o c o l No. C-2 Researcher: Shep Alexander December 19, 1989 Subjec t : Room Tour Inte r v i e w S t a r t e d : 3:23 pm I: The purpose of t h i s i n t e r v i e w i s to have you d e s c r i b e what you have done with t h i s classroom and, why you have decided to do th i n g s t h i s way. Take me on a tour of the room, s t a r t anywhere and e x p l a i n what you have done. R: Everybody that comes i n here always says t h i s i s such an awesome f a c i l i t y I guess because i t has a high c e i l i n g . I: yeah, you do tend to look up as soon as you walk i n . R: yeah, and everybody seems to t h i n k i t ' s such a great area and such a wonderful p l a c e to work i n . I t could be great I guess i s what I'm s a y i n g . When I got here t h i n g s were very much d i f f e r e n t and over the years I have done as much as I p h y s i c a l l y can p o s s i b l y do to ah, change the workroom because i t wasn't p h y s i c a l l y workable. Um, i t used to be a room, t h i s i s c l a s s e d as two classrooms, even though i t doesn't r e a l l y f u n c t i o n w e l l as two classrooms. I t ' s a one classroom area. And when I f i r s t came i n here i t was s e t up as two classrooms and there were two teachers working i n here and t h a t was kind of awkward. Um, you can here from the r a d i o over t h e r e , and i t ' s a c t u a l l y q u i t e low, and th a t i s r e a l l y hard to f u n c t i o n when there's two people t r y i n g to get, you know, i n f o r m a t i o n or t h i n g s happening and then you add t h i r t y k i d s i n here, or t h i r t y - s i x k i d s , or how many i s i n a c l a s s and i t tends to get r e a l l y f u l l . I t was o r i g i n a l l y designed with a wet area over here. And I s t i l l use that as a wet area but ther e , l i k e I s a i d , very strange t h i n g s f o r an a r t room. M a s s i v e l y high c e i l i n g s but no s h e l v i n g s up the w a l l s which i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from anything e l s e t h a t I've ever seen. Any w e l l f u n c t i o n i n g a r t room t h a t I've ever seen has f l o o r to Page - \ Protocol C-2 Appendix A 239 c e i l i n g shelves and l i t t l e cubby holes and places to put paper. You know, a set up that was similar to maybe a science room or an i n d u s t r i a l ed room or a home ec room. I: With counters around the sides R: With counters and cupboards and d i f f e r e n t sizes and d i f f e r e n t shapes. Specialty cupboards b u i l t and s p e c i a l t y things b u i l t so that they could be used quite e a s i l y . I: Specialty shelving R: There's no s p e c i a l t y shelving units or anything in here. Alot of the art rooms I've been i n , for example, N.K. art room up at C , has a series of narrow but very deep shelves that take larger sizes of drawing paper, 20 by 30 sizes, and things l i k e that. None of that was put in here. And there was no lock up f a c i l i t i e s . There was these two l i t t l e storage areas that you see here but other than that there was no kind of lock up f a c i l i t y around the room. So what I did when I came into the room, the administration area or the teachers desk was right in front of the l i t t l e green door over there and that's where the f i l i n g cabinet was and everything kind of moved around from there. And I ac t u a l l y started on the far side of the room. When the other art teacher l e f t I moved over here and I found that i t was r e a l l y hard to look and have kids working in both areas because you can't, unless you're continually walking back and forth a l l the time. Kids just need to pop over to the other side and around the corner and then they're out of sight and then they can be doing whatever they want to be doing. It's r e a l l y hard to keep an eye on them. So what I did very early was to move the desk over to the corner of the room here, that way I can control the flow of t r a f f i c in and out of the room. That's why i t was put there. And I can see from the desk, i f I'm s i t t i n g there, marking or doing something, I can see who is at least going into the other room. And I've got Page Protocol C-2 Appendix A 240 quite a good distance and I can see them i f they're walking, I can say " hey, what are you going in there for, come back over here". I can see them darting around and I can see a c t u a l l y some of the shadows darting around some of the time. So It's working out a c t u a l l y pretty good. I moved the desk there for a management reason, because the room is so by the sheer size of i t , unruly. It's about the size of a small gym act u a l l y , i f you were totake the central storage area out of i t . Um, I've in the other room, not here, but in the other room, there's counters about three quarters of the way around the room. And I ripped them out because there was counter and then there was bare wall and then the tack board was so far up that even with a large extension ladder you couldn't get up to i t . So there was a l o t of s i l l y things. The tack boards were too high, they were awkward to get at. There was no shelving and where they was shelving i t was very poor use of shelving. Um, the k i l n areas, I: the K i l n room. R: What they did was they put the k i l n s in a secure area in between the two rooms but i t s not vented properly. They say i t s vented properly but i t s r e a l l y not. And i t makes i t r e a l l y awkward. I: Does the temperature get r e a l l y hot, i t must get r e a l l y hot in there. R: It gets quite hot in there. And i t ' s also your main storage area. You've got the k i l n right in with your main storage area. So I don't know what they were thinking of when they did t h i s . What I've done to work around i t is l i k e I told you. I got in here with a hydraulic jack over the year, and I ripped some cupboards out of some places and I moved them into other places and I ripped the blackboards off and I moved the blackboards around. There a c t u a l l y was a counter over In the corner here and I ripped i t out. And I put the bookcase in back over there. These Page - 3 Protocol C-2 Appendix A 241 cupboards were there but there was no lock up f a c i l i t i e s so I had the doors. That's pretty much the only work that's been done in t h i s room for the thirteen years that I've been in here. I: So has i t been l i k e t h i s for how long? R: For thirteen years, i t hasn't been painted. I: So you changed i t a l l in the f i r s t year then, make most of these changes? R: No, i t didn't a l l happen the f i r s t year. It's sort of been happening in evolution. And every time I can get an extra shelf or an extra, you know, there's someone throwing out a bookcase or something l i k e that, and I go and grab i t and bring i t down here. And I've t r i e d to create sort of l i t t l e sub rooms. Like in the clay area these two things weren't there and that thing wasn't there. It was just a l l an open space, you know, a great big open space but a very much of a waste because in an art room there's so much storage of equipment and materials and supplies and then finished art works. I: yeah. R: And I mean I s t i l l don't have a print dryer in this room. I: I know, you don't. R: Which is quite bizarre. What I've got to now i s most of the wet work is handled in thi s side of the room. Kid's making masks, clay and everything else l i k e that. Most of what I c a l l the dry s t u f f , the drawing and the painting and sort of more the theory oriented, the year book - that's what they're doing over there right now, they've got the whole side of the room tie d up there with their yearbook layouts a l l over the place. So i t ' s just been kind of an evolutionary thing. I s i t at my desk there and look, you know, my mind's going on a l l the time about how I could Page - -4} Protocol C-2 Appendix A 242 change this room and make i t more e f f i c i e n t . Um, and I'd sure l i k e to have the people that designed t h i s . They said this was designed by an art teacher. If t h i s was designed by an art teacher I'd sure l i k e to meet him. I: yeah. What ah, do you want to talk about what role does your desk play? Like, how do you use that corner of the room? I see that you've got a l l the books, l i t t l e folders for d i f f e r e n t hand out sheets. R: Yeah, that's kind of l i k e my command post. Not that this is a war, but. I've got an in class l i b r a r y and I've got most of the good l i b r a r y books. And anything that's behind my desk b a s i c a l l y is accessible to the students but with i t being behind there i t ' s more obvious to anybody, i f I'm standing here any kids out here w i l l see them behind my desk w i l l say "what are you doing behind there?" So even though i t s very e a s i l y accessible i t ' s s t i l l r e a l l y obvious. So that's kind of the command post and my f i l i n g cabinets are there and a l l my l i t t l e um, my day book and a l l my sort of odds and ends of things that I need to function, paper c l i p s and s t u f f l i k e that is a l l right there. And I've got my ah, binders with my copies of d i f f e r e n t notes right up there. So i t ' s l i k e s i t t i n g at a desk only I don't have a r o l l i n g chair and being able to r o l l over and pick d i f f e r e n t things o f f , so when I need something i t ' s right there. I: Do you tend to teach from that area too? R: No I don't. I: Do you do demonstrations from there? R: No, um, that's s t r i c t l y when the kids are doing there own thing. Sometimes I take the attendance from back there. Actually, I just started going back there in the last um, maybe the l a s t month. Where I teach from is b a s i c a l l y right in front of the door usually. Again because i t s a good Page - S Protocol C-2 Appendix A 243 str a t e g i c command post. I'm in the way between anybody getting in and out of the room. That's why I did i t that way. I: Okay. In terms of, you said you wanted to have students have open access to materials, how do you handle that? Do they um, do you sort of t i g h t l y control the materials they use for the projects or do they sort of go where things are stored and help themselves or do you set up materials in one are for a pa r t i c u l a r project that you're doing? R: It depends on how expensive the material are. Some , i f i t ' s r e a l l y expensive s t u f f I usually t r y to put i t on a t r o l l e y . Or something that everybody would l i k e to get their hands on. If i t ' s interesting or ex c i t i n g , what we'll c a l l i nteresting and e x c i t i n g materials, I put i t on a d o l l y . It's wheeled out at the beginning of the class and i t s wheeled back. And usually the dolley's i f I'm s i t t i n g behind my desk, the dolley's usually put right by the door or f a i r l y close into the area of my desk so that even i f I'm not standing there, and i t ' s very accessible to the kids, but I'm back away from i t I can see everything that they do. And in that way I control the d i s t r i b u t i o n but I do i t from a distance. Everything else, the paint, the s c i s s o r s , the brushes per se, buckets, paint containers, paper next door, ah, those kind of bulk supplies are a l l easy access. And my rule in the classroom i s don't touch i t i f you don't know what i t is or you don't have anything to do with i t . So the clay kids come in and they do their clay but they don't touch the paint. The paint kids come in and do thei r paint but they don't touch the clay. And I work very hard, probably the f i r s t two to three weeks of the year setting up classroom management techniques and being r e a l l y s t r i c t . You know almost a bag lady about what they can and can't touch. And as long as they learn to respect the area and respect the tools and supplies and what I've found is happened is that whether I'm here or not they know. They know, Page - Q> Protocol C-2 Appendix A 244 and they carry along and they work along. And we have l i t t l e or no damage to equipment or supplies or other peoples art work. Very, very, I mean the vandalism is so small I can't even say i t e x i s t s . I: How about, how i s the room organized for clean up? Do you f e e l i t ' s adequate in terms of sinks? R: Well, lots of sinks. Lots of sinks, there's four r e a l l y good sized sinks in here but they're a l l in the same place. Um, I would have like d to see the sinks put around the room. Um, here they are we have t h i s wonderful wet area here with no water! Um, and a l l the sinks are set up over here. They're set up kind of science s t y l e and you know, with long skinny sinks and I would have rather lik e d i t washing tub s t y l e sinks or the type they have in the power mechanics room or in the I.E. room. So , I don't know how much thought i f any , went into that. Obviously, no offense meant, but i t reeks of being designed by a man. (student comes to ask a question) I: Can you comment on the way you use the student seating area, the way i t ' s evolved? R: Um, there was big long tables in here and I found i t r e a l l y awkward, cause when you get the wet area and the cupboards around the side, then the working area for the kids i f very, very, very small. It's a c t u a l l y , I think, 20 by 20 foot square and you've got to jam anywhere from 20 to 35 or 36 kids in i t . Ah, so maybe about 7 or 8 years ago, I guess at the beginning of the 80's, you know before the money crunch came, I ordered new tables in here and I went with the round ones because I could seat, i t was the most e f f i c i e n t . Um, I could s i t comfortably 8 kids at a table and each kid could have their binders open and s t i l l work. I'm finding now that t h i s may be a l i t t l e awkward, That's on t h i s side. On the other side Page - 7 Protocol C-2 Appendix A 245 of the room there's long tables and I'd l i k e to get r i d of those now and go to individual art desks so I can go in clusters of 4, i n d i v i d u a l l y or whatever. Anyways, so ah, I don't know i f I want tables over there, round tables, because i t gets, t h i s is hard to do large banners and f l a t work on. So I think over there I ' l l keep a couple of the long tables but in the most case I ' l l go with student art desks. I: Individual ones, more f l e x i b l e . So do you find that with so many students grouped around the table here, that that's a hard s i t u a t i o n to teach to? Do they tend to s o c i a l i z e with one another? R: They tend to s o c i a l i z e with one another. But then I put them in groups and they're forced to s i t , well in grade eight they're forced to s i t beside the people. And what I do is I force them to rotate tables. I don't have a seating plan, as per se, they're welcome to come in and s i t down where they l i k e and s i t with who they l i k e and i f I find problems developing then I come in and deal with i t seating plan wise. And what they do i s they rotate tables because I ususally stand here f a i r l y dlose to the command centre. I'm usually at t h i s front table most often and what I was finding that the guys at the back table there away from me, SI never r e a l l y got to know. And quite often I a c t u a l l y s i t down at the tables and talk to them, and when they're doing s t u f f I do s t u f f too. When they're painting t h e i r masks, I always give demonstrations, I'm painting too. Not that I always do my demos, sometimes I move around, but thi s has got the, this front table has got the easiest access to the door, the command centre, the paint, the sink, the paper towels, most of the equipment that I'm using. So I tend to work here a great amount of the time. And so what I do is have the kids rotate around. Each week they rotate and so that I get to spend sort of what I c a l l non-teaching time, you know, instruction time with the kids. So i t ' s kind of neat. Page - 3 Protocol C-2 Appendix A 246 I: So you can work with small groups at a time. R: When I teach in the other side, i t ' s a d i f f e r e n t set up. I stand at the front in front of the board and i t ' s more of a lecture format because I teach drawing and painting and i t ' s structured d i f f e r e n t l y . I: So, do you want to talk about the differences then that goes on there? So the class moves from side to side depending on what a c t i v i t i e s you're doing? R: It depends. UM, generally speaking what I have is I have ceramics and art 8, general art on t h i s side. Because that's the mucky, tucky messy s t u f f . And I have ah, Art 9, 10 Drawing and Painting, which is b a s i c a l l y drawing. I don't get into a l o t of paint over there, per se. But i t ' s more Fine Arts oriented I guess. And then I do the Media over there. Kind of the dry f l a t work gets done b a s i c a l l y over there and the mucky things over here. I: I noticed you have a good access to the outside. Do you ever use, in the good weather, do you use the outside? Does the room, R: Yeah, but i t r e a l l y doesn't, um, i t r e a l l y doesn't, there's r e a l l y no way, i t ' s not set up. There used to be benches there but they moved the benches out. There never, I a c t u a l l y scored a couple of tables out there now, so i t ' s made i t easier. Before i t was just too hard to run tables in and out. Um, so yeah, sometimes we use i t . And I give the kids access to i t . In decent weather. I've currently got a proposal in that's got the room changed so that the exterior wall would be out over the overhang and that exterior area would be storage. And then th i s inner storage would be able to get r i d of thi s inner storage area here and Page - ^  Protocol C-2 Appendix A 24 7 I: That would r e a l l y make a difference wouldn't i t . R: And then that room over there would be sort of used as a hyper lab, a computer lab and a media room. I: Oh, that would be f a n t a s t i c . R: Yeah, I mean I have a l l these wonderful things in the plans. I've a c t u a l l y drawn the plans up and submitted them to the school and had an assistant superintendent out to look at them. But that's a s i x t y or seventy thousand d o l l a r renovation. I; What about display space. How do you use the boards around, or the walls? R: I don't, I don't. In t h i s room they're just too awkward. It's hard to get up, i t ' s too hard to get down. Um, in t h i s room I use mostly for v i s u a l s , visuals that s i refer to on an ongoing basis. I l i k e to keep my visuals up for a long time, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l ones. And where I have my short term, sort of lesson plans s t u f f is on the lower, our display boards that we have for the art show. I'd love to have one of those old home ec kind of blackboards that there was two or three that you pulled up and down and then you pulled them up and there was cubby holes in behind them. That would be great and then every kid could have there own l i t t l e cubby hole. The room should be set up a l o t more li k e a science or a home ec room. There's things, I go up to science and I see r e a l l y great, you know they've got long drawers that you could lock up and you could put the paper in there. One of the reasons I sort of have, I don't l i k e to lock a l o t of my s t u f f up from the kids, and one of the reason I don't have a l o t of fancy, d i f f e r e n t paper is that I have no where to put i t , no security. And I have nowhere to store my v i s u a l s . I mean, I have what you see up around t h i s room, I have ten times t h i s amount in visuals but there's nowhere to store them. And i t ' s so awkward, um, i t ' s so awkward getting up Page - 10 Protocol C-2 Appendix A 248 that high and getting down. I need, I ac t u a l l y asked for a set, a l i b r a r y ladder, I asked for a 9 foot l i b r a r y ladder, which i s l i k e I; It's on wheels R: It's on wheels and you can push i t and lock i t so that the kids. And lots of r e a l l y stupid things, l i k e a l l the display boards are up above the sinks and areas that are, even i f you push the ladder right in you're s t i l l you know, 18 inches or 24 inches away from the wall. So even i f you've got a big, high ladder to get up to the height, you're s t i l l stretching forward. You know, r e a l l y strange, r e a l l y strange. Not well though out at a l l as far as I'm concerned. I: And i t ' s r e a l l y high. R: And you're a t a l l guy so. I: Even I coudn't put things up there. R: So i t r e a l l y cuts down, i t just turns into a major acrobatic scene anytime you t r y to get anything put up or taken down. I: Yeah. Another thing, do you find that you use much in the way of audio-v i s u a l things during, in your teaching. R: Up u n t i l last year I couldn't because there was sunlight in thi s room and you couldn't blacken the room out. Now I went away on a sabbatical and in two weeks when I was gone, in a two week period, someone shot the windows out twice. I: Is that r i g h t . R: I mean, I begged them to give me curtains. I begged them to black them out. They would not do i t . And i t wasn't u n t i l somebody had blown the windows out there twice that they came and blocked them a l l o f f . So now I can secure the room, and get i t dark enough Page - 11 Protocol C-2 Appendix A 249 to show movies and show s l i d e s . That was up u n t i l a year ago. I: I sort of have the same problem as I have that whole wall of glass. So how much, well do you have your own equipment here that you use or do you have to go and get i t from a central AV place. R: I don't l i k e working l i k e that. I have, um, I have ah, what I'm using now is my own s l i d e projector from home. But there are two in there. But no trays. I have my own TV and my own video camera down here because of the media c l a s s . My own tape deck. Ah, a lot of the media s t u f f , what I do is I take i t out at the beginning of the year and then i t goes back in June and i t ' s down here. And then that way I can watch over i t and i t ' s quite often less wear and tear on the equipment. And i t ' s easier i f people have to come down here to use the equipment I can keep tabs on i t and police i t , I guess i s the word I'm looking for. I kind of see the art room kind of as a media centre similar to what a l i b r a r y i s in a l o t of ways. During the course of the day thi s room is used by um, just incredible amount of people. I've got kids now in here. They're making masks from art 8 and I have kids in for drawing and painting next door and I've got kids in for ceramics and I have kids coming in to do dance decorations. And kids always coming down, they, the students council paper i s on the r o l l s down here and the scissors and the equipment and a l l the supplies is here so um, gee I forgot what I was going to say. I: You were tal k i n g about the room being a media centre. Kids b a s i c a l l y in here everyday, before school, lunch, after school. R: They'd be here before school i f I was here. I don't come ' t i l late in the morning, but they're here a l l the time. They're here at lunch, they're here afte r school, they're here when they shouldn't be here. You know, i t ' s a Page - 12 Protocol C-2 Appendix A 250 nice atmosphere, i t ' s kind of loose. I have kids that a c t u a l l y have skipped every class of the day except t h i s one and come here. Because I mean i t ' s not, I'm not a clean fanatic. I t , I kind of c a l l the art room "a happening". And i t ' s very v i s u a l l y stimulating. There's a l o t of st u f f in here. I'm not a maniac about rules. I have my five or six rules I work on and um, the rest of the time i t ' s l i k e t r a i n i n g them to clean up after themselves. That's the big thing, I don't know, I guess in your art room i t ' s the same too. It's tr a i n i n g them to clean up after themselves, put things away, "put the brushes away so the next guy w i l l know where they are, put the paint away so i t doesn't get dried up". That's r e a l l y the biggest problem that I have. I: Just to f i n i s h o f f , so you f e e l that you've sort of been able to rearrange and allow t h i s room to evolve so that i t f i t s your s t y l e of teaching and 'cause from the l a s t interview you said some things about how you want to f e e l comfortable and you want them to fe e l safe in here, l i k e they can t r y things. So you fe e l l i k e your own b e l i e f s about how to teach have guided you in how thi s room has been set up and designed. R: Yep. And honestly too alot of i t too is that i t ' s very much l i k e the art room I grew up in when I was in high school. It was very much a happening, i t was a very long room and in a l o t of ways i t was set up kind of similar to th i s although i t was set up better. And I don't know, I guess I always refer to i t as "a happening" and I guess that's what I c a l l t h i s , "a happening". It's evolving a l l the time, everyday, the stu f f that comes in , the s t u f f that goes out. And nothing i s in the same place twice. (chuckle) R: So that part i s kind of awkward. If I could come through here and change some things I most c e r t a i n l y would change things. But, yeah, i t ' s evolved Page - \Z Protocol C-2 Appendix A 251 into something that's functional for me, which I think Is probably the f a c i l i a t a t o r s t y l e . I get up and I do my demo and I do my lecture and then I back o f f . I kind of go hide behind the desk and i f they need me they can come and get me. And I'm not breathing down there neck a l l the time. I don't spend a l l my time f l i t t i n g about s t i c k i n g my nose into there work, cause that drives me nuts. And I guess the desk kinds of acts as a b i t of a barr i e r and i t gives them some freedom, cause th i s space is the i r s . I: Um, with the room out here at the end of thi s wing, do you f e e l cut off from the rest of the school? R: I f e e l l i k e I'm sort of cut off from the rest of t h i s school. When people come to my door that I don't normally see, and I mean I do have the occassional person that does come down here, but nine times out of ten, there's maybe two people that walk into t h i s room - teachers - on an ongoing basis, the rest of them when their face comes to the door my f i r s t question i s "What do you want? I know you're not out here to see me or to have a v i s i t , you want something". (laughter) R: "You want to borrow something." I: "You want to borrow something or you want me to do something for you", and that's kind of where i t ' s at. It's kind of nice, though, in a way too. It's almost l i k e having your own building which i s nice in a way. So there's plusses and there's minuses. I'd l i k e to see the f a c i l i t i e s , there's so many people have a, i f i t was in a more central place I think I could move towards t h i s . I think i t might get much more use. I: I'm right in the middle of things, just looking straight into the o f f i c e . Page -Protocol C-2 Appendix A 252 R: So do you find that you tend to, in your school day, i t ' s b a s i c a l l y you spend your time here, you're not sort of, at lunch times are you here rather than in the s t a f f room? I: Depends what's going on. It's gaged by what sort of kids are here. And ususally, l i k e the group that's here right now, um, S,C, are the older ones. I'd probably say to S. "you're in charge, you're the la s t one out of here. Go out the front door, i t ' s locked so p u l l i t behind you i t ' s closed. Make sure you turn the l i g h t s and the music o f f . Good bye." And that's what i t ' s l i k e at lunch time. I'm not there monitoring everything. And I don't agree with that. They have to learn to be responsible for themselves and they have to learn to be responsible for others. It's not that you can just look out for yourselves anymore, t h i s i s what we've discovered. And i f i t goes down then that a f f e c t s a l l of them. And that's kind of what I'm tryi n g to promote. I'm in and out of here a l o t during the day an incredible amount. Like there's no telephone. It wouldn't be so bad i f I was stuck out in l e f t f i e l d i f there were a few conveniences. The I.E. shops both have lock up o f f i c e s with glasses, with glass, they have the phone, they have the computer networks. I think i f I was going to equate myself to a continent I would d e f i n i t e l y have to be, they'd be South America but I'd be Antartica. (laughter) I: Are there any other sort of limi t a t i o n s that you've had to overcome to get things working as you'd l i k e , that you haven't mentioned. R: It's so hard to think back I've been in here for so, I: Any l i t t l e p e c u l i a r i t i e s ? R: Well you know I asked them for one of those big mirrors that goes in the, that they have in the, you know those Page - 15" Protocol C-2 Appendix A 253 s h o p l i f t i n g mirrors. And I wanted the s h o p l i f t i n g mirror put up in the corner over there so I could s i t here l i k e t h i s . I: That makes a l o t of sense. R: I know, i t makes a lo t of sense because, I'm serious I could monitor 60 kids in a classroom. I could monitor 60 kids in a class i f I could see to the far side of the room and I can't. So unfortunately I... I: Yeah, you need a periscope or some way of getting around the corner there. R: Yeah, just r e a l l y wierd, r e a l l y wierd. I: And in terms of f a c i l i t i e s for the d i f f e r e n t kinds of things that you teach from graphics to ceramics to painting and drawing. Which is the weakest area would you say? R: Um, graphics media area. Media I'd hhave to say. Like I don't have a print dryer and we've been running a media class here for four years. This is the fourth year. We just got a camcorder, so we've got an old portapac camera that belongs to the school, a camcorder that belongs to the department. And thanks to my f r i e n d l y l i b r a r i a n I've got a l o t of audiovisual s t u f f , tape recorders l o t s of other things. You know i t ' s building i t up, you've got to be in there. I go to so many meetings, I go to meetings that I don't have time for just because I have my finger in every pie so that I know what's coming down. They were going to throw a washing machine out and I'm forever sending, because I'm doing, I've gone a c t u a l l y quite funny, I'm not using quite so much paper towels. I'm using a l o t more rags, l i k e dishcloths. It works r e a l l y wonderfully. And I would never of thought of that before because they're so scummy. And the kids are using smocks and they get scummy and everything else. So I scored a washing machine and I'm going to um,next when we Page - lfe> Protocol C-2 Appendix A 254 get back after Christmas I'm going to have the metal flammable, one of those metal flammable cabinets moved and s l i d e the washing machine in there and see about getting a hook up for the washing machine. And I scored some lockers from when they ripped lockers out of Winslow. Like just from being in the right place at the right time. And I've got lockers over there next door so I put some of the Media s t u f f , l i k e tripods and things l i k e that, video l i g h t s , things that there was no place to store. I put them in there and lock them up. So I've got those in there bolted to the wall. I spoke rea l nice to the maintenance guys when they came over, they weren't supposed to bolt them on but they thought SI was nice so they did. So I mean i t ' s l i k e sl'm the ultimate recycler and the scrounge supremo and i f anybody throws anything out come down here. I: Check with you f i r s t . R: Check with me f i r s t , because i f I can't use i t I might be able to save i t for some future date when I can trade i t off or give i t to somebody else for something that I need or something that I want. I: Well, that's great. Is there anything else that you'd l i k e to say about your room? R: I didn't design i t . I sort of undesigned i t . Well, I just hope, SI've got t h i s r e a l l y good fee l i n g i t ' s going to have t h i s major renovation and then I ' l l have something r e a l l y nice. Nextg door w i l l be a media studio and i t ' l l have a sound booth and a viewing room and a projection room and a dark room. You know. Just dumb things l i k e there's just on e t i n y dark room in t h i s school but i t s over on the other side of the school. Because t h i s school wasn't very well planned out and thi s whole school has evolved. I: Yeah, things are kind of sprawling. Page - 17 Protocol C-2 Appendix A 255 R: The whole thing was put together kind of piecey. But what can I say. I; Yeah, we'll have a giant complex we'll have to name i t afte r you. A Fine Arts wing. Interview Concluded: 3:52 pm Page - \$ Appendix B 256 Interview Schedule Bl The purpose of t h i s interview i s to explore the development of your image of an artroom. Many aspects of your personal and professional history may have contributed to t h i s ideal picture, i t is these influences that I wish to explore in t h i s interview. A l l of the material from the interview w i l l remain s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . If there are no objections, I would l i k e to tape t h i s conversation so I can be clear about the d e t a i l s we cover. I have planned a series of questions to guide our inter a c t i o n . Many of the questions are open-ended so please answer them as f u l l y as possible. Also please f e e l free to add any other insights that may arise during the course of our discussion. 1. What past events or experiences influenced your decision to become an art teacher? Did family or early school experience have a role in shaping your interest in art? in teaching? Did your university/teacher t r a i n i n g experience have an impact on the way you practice the teaching of art? Appendix B 257 2.