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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Season extension for strawberries in British Columbia Baumann, Thomas Ernst 1990

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SEASON EXTENSION FOR STRAWBERRIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA By THOMAS ERNST BAUMANN Dipl.  Ing. Agr., J u s t u s - L i e b i g U n i v e r s i t a t Giessen, West-Germany, 198 3 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f P l a n t S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1990 © Thomas E r n s t Baumann, 1990  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial  University of  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying  of this thesis for  department  or  by  his  scholarly purposes may be granted  or  her  representatives.  It  is  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Plant  Science  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  April  10,  1990  ii  Abstract The P a c i f i c Northwest i s r e c o g n i z e d f o r p r o d u c i n g h i g h q u a l i t y s t r a w b e r r i e s ( F r a g a r i a x ananassa Duch.). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e a r e produced over an e x t r e m e l y s h o r t season o f no more than 4 weeks. T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s i d e a l f o r t h e p r o c e s s i n g market b u t not t h e f r e s h market where an extended season i s e s s e n t i a l . However, t h e r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d p r o d u c t i o n systems t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s have t h e p o t e n t i a l to e x t e n d t h e season. The purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s was t o examine t h e s e systems and t h e v a r i o u s day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s i n s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. The p r o d u c t i o n systems i n v e s t i g a t e d were t h e w a i t i n g bed and t h e r a i s e d h i l l row. Both systems i n v o l v e t r a d i t i o n a l J u n e - b e a r i n g ( s h o r t day) c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d s e q u e n t i a l l y , r e s u l t i n g i n a h a r v e s t season o f a t l e a s t 10 weeks. Among t h e c u l t i v a r s t e s t e d i n t h e w a i t i n g bed system, ' R a i n i e r was t h e most p r o m i s i n g and 'Hood' t h e l e a s t ; 'Totem' and S h u k s a n gave i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s p o n s e s . I n t h e h i l l row ' R a i n i e r ' was a g a i n t h e most p r o m i s i n g . However, i n t h e second y e a r o f b o t h systems, when p r o d u c t i o n o c c u r s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l 4 week t i m e p e r i o d , 'Totem' was t h e most p r o m i s i n g . Comparing t h e 2 systems, h i l l rows were more p r o f i t a b l e t h a n w a i t i n g beds. 1  1  1  Day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s b e g i n f l o w e r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e m o n t h a f t e r p l a n t i n g , and f r u i t i n g o c c u r s from June o r e a r l y J u l y u n t i l October. I n t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , t h e y were grown a t v a r i o u s s p a c i n g s on r a i s e d beds, c o v e r e d w i t h b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t e d . The most p r o m i s i n g c u l t i v a r s t e s t e d were ' S e l v a ' and ' T r i b u t e ' and t h e most p r o m i s i n g s p a c i n g was 30 cm.  Index T i t l e Page Abstract Index  L i s t of a b b r e v i a t i o n s Acknowledgements Introduction  1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. 1.8. 1.9. 1.10. 2.  i i i i i  L i s t of t a b l e s  1.  i  Cultivars Mulches I r r i g a t i o n and F e r t i l i z a t i o n Spacing P l a n t i n g Date and P l a n t S i z e W a i t i n g Bed C u l t u r a l System H i l l Row C u l t u r a l System Runner Removal C u l t u r e o f day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s O b j e c t i v e s of Research  M a t e r i a l s and Methods  v vi v i i 1 2 6 9 11 15 17 18 23 25 26 28  2.1. P l a s t i c mulch 28 2.2. R a i s e d beds 29 2.3. I r r i g a t i o n system 30 2.4. Data c o l l e c t i o n . . . 31 2.5. W a i t i n g bed c u l t u r a l system 32 2.5.1. 1986 p l a n t e d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l 32 2.5.2. 1987 p l a n t e d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l 33 2.6. S h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l s 35 2.6.1. 1986 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l 36 2.6.2. 1987 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l 37 2.6.3. 1987 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l w i t h d o u b l e rows 37 2.6.4. 1988 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l 37 2.7. Day n e u t r a l and ever b e a r i n g c u l t i v a r t r i a l s . 3 8 2.7.1. 'Selva' spacing t r i a l 39 2.7.2. Day n e u t r a l and ever b e a r e r c u l t i v a r yield t r i a l . . 39 2.7.3. D a y - n e u t r a l f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l 40 2.7.4. D a y - n e u t r a l s p a c i n g t r i a l 40  iv 2.8.  Economic assessment o f t h e w a i t i n g bed, hill  3.  row and d a y - n e u t r a l s  41  R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n  44  3.1. W a i t i n g bed c u l t u r a l system 44 3.1.1. 1986 p l a n t e d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l 44 3.1.2. 1987 p l a n t e d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l 47 3.1.3. 1987 p l a n t e d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l u s i n g mother p l a n t s 50 3.1.4. E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e w a i t i n g beds 53 3.2. S h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l s 55 3.2.1. 1986 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l 55 3.2.2. 1987 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l 56 3.2.3. 1987 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l w i t h d o u b l e rows 60 3.2.4. 1988 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l 62 3.3. Day n e u t r a l and e v e r b e a r i n g c u l t i v a r t r i a l s . 6 4 3.3.1. Day n e u t r a l and e v e r b e a r i n g c u l t i v a r yield trial 64 3.3.2. ' S e l v a ' s p a c i n g t r i a l 67 3.3.3. D a y - n e u t r a l f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l 68 3.3.4. D a y - n e u t r a l s p a c i n g t r i a l 69 3.4. Economic assessment o f t h e w a i t i n g bed, h i l l row and d a y - n e u t r a l s 70 4.  Recommendations and c o n c l u s i o n s  73  W a i t i n g bed system S h o r t day c u l t i v a r s on h i l l Day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s Trickle irrigation P l a s t i c mulch R a i s e d beds  73 75 77 79 80 80  4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6.  rows  Literature cited  82  Tables  94  V  L i s t of Tables Table  1. The e f f e c t o f p l a n t i n g d a t e upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d o f f o u r s h o r t day s t r a w b e r r y c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n 1986, u s i n g p l a n t s from a w a i t i n g bed 94 T a b l e 2. The e f f e c t o f f e r t i l i z e r and p l a n t i n g d a t e upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d o f f o u r s h o r t day s t r a w b e r r y c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n 1987, u s i n g p l a n t s from a w a i t i n g bed . , 95 T a b l e 3. The e f f e c t o f f e r t i l i z e r and p l a n t i n g d a t e upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d o f t h r e e s h o r t day s t r a w b e r r y c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n 1987, u s i n g mother p l a n t s . . . 96 T a b l e 4. Comparing s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d s o f f i v e s h o r t day c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n 1986 i n h i l l rows 97 T a b l e 5. The e f f e c t o f f e r t i l i z e r and p l a n t i n g d a t e upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d o f f o u r s h o r t day s t r a w b e r r y c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n h i l l rows i n 1987 98 T a b l e 6. The e f f e c t o f two s p a c i n g s upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d o f two s h o r t day s t r a w b e r r y c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n double h i l l rows i n 1987 99 T a b l e 7. The e f f e c t o f p l a n t i n g d a t e and s p a c i n g s upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d o f t h r e e s h o r t day s t r a w b e r r y c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n h i l l rows i n 1988 100 T a b l e 8. Day n e u t r a l and e v e r b e a r i n g c u l t i v a r w i n t e r s u r v i v a l , 1989 101 T a b l e 9. Comparing s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d s o f two e v e r b e a r i n g and t h r e e day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n 1988 i n double h i l l rows 102 T a b l e 10. The e f f e c t o f p l a n t s p a c i n g upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d o f ' S e l v a ' day n e u t r a l s t r a w b e r r y c u l t i v a r , p l a n t e d i n 1988 i n a double h i l l row 103 T a b l e 11. The e f f e c t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r by c u l t i v a r upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d o f two day n e u t r a l s t r a w b e r r y c u l t i v a r s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f a 1989 double h i l l row p l a n t i n g 104 T a b l e 12. The e f f e c t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r and c u l t i v a r upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d o f two day n e u t r a l s t r a w b e r r y c u l t i v a r s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f a 1989 p l a n t e d double h i l l row spacing t r i a l 105  vi L i s t of Abbreviations  DN  day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r ( s )  SD  s h o r t day  EB  ever bearing  WB  w a i t i n g bed c u l t u r a l system(s)  MR  matted row c u l t u r a l system(s)  HR  h i l l row c u l t u r a l system(s)  RB  r a i s e d bed(s)  cultivar(s) cultivar(s)  vii ACKNOWLE DGMENT  I am g r a t e f u l f o r t h e s u p p o r t and guidance r e c e i v e d from Prof.  Eaton d u r i n g t h e s e p r o j e c t s .  His help w i t h the  s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s and c r i t i c a l comments r e g a r d i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t were i n v a l u a b l e .  Thanks a r e a l s o extended  o t h e r members o f t h e t h e s i s committee, Dr. H.A.  t o the  Daubeny,  Dr. B. E. E l l i s and Dr. H. Kennedy.  The work was  l a r g e l y s u p p o r t e d by an A g r i - F o o d R e g i o n a l  Development S u b s i d u a r y Agreement (ARDSA) g r a n t t o  The  F r a s e r V a l l e y S t r a w b e r r y Growers A s s o c i a t i o n . Thanks a r e extended H.A.  t o t h e S t e e r i n g Committee composed o f C.  Daubeny, M. D r i e d i g e r , W.S.  Crossfield,  P e t e r s and J . Quapp.  Without  t h e g e n e r o s i t y and s u p p o r t o f M. D r i e d i g e r and A. Krause  who  p r o v i d e d f i e l d f a c i l i t i e s and s u p p o r t , t h i s s t u d y c o u l d not have been completed.  P a r t i a l s u p p o r t was a l s o d e r i v e d from NSERC  O p e r a t i n g Grant A2 02 3 awarded t o Dr. G.W.  Eaton.  L. Hurd, BCMAF,  A b b o t s f o r d , e v a l u a t e d t h e economic d a t a c o l l e c t e d . a s s i s t a n c e o f summer s t u d e n t s J.L. Hesketh, F.M.  The  technical  L. P e t r i e , S. R i e k ,  Seywerd and I . V e r s o z a i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.  I am v e r y g r a t e f u l t o my p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e , h e l p and understanding d u r i n g the d i f f i c u l t  times of t h i s  thesis.  1 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  The  P a c i f i c Northwest has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d as p r o d u c i n g  h i g h q u a l i t y s t r a w b e r r i e s comparable o r s u p e r i o r t o t h o s e produced anywhere i n N o r t h America. June-bearing to  P r o d u c t i o n i s on s h o r t - d a y ,  (SD) c u l t i v a r s over a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t season o f 3  4 weeks i n t h e l a t e s p r i n g o r e a r l y summer.  T h i s i s an i d e a l  s i t u a t i o n f o r p r o c e s s i n g which has been t h e main o u t l e t f o r t h e f r u i t produced i n t h e r e g i o n , b u t i t r e s t r i c t s t h e f r e s h market season.  Moreover, i n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n c r e a s e i n t h e demand f o r h i g h q u a l i t y f r e s h f r u i t over a l o n g p e r i o d and, a t t h e same t i m e , a demand f o r g r e a t e r s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y i n strawberry production.  Unfortunately the  a v a i l a b l e day n e u t r a l (DN) c u l t i v a r s d i d n o t have t h e q u a l i t y o r p r o d u c t i v i t y t o meet t h e s e demands.  The  B r i t i s h Columbia s t r a w b e r r y i n d u s t r y has been based  a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e p r o c e s s i n g market.  For t h i s the  i n d u s t r y has r e l i e d on matted row (MR) c u l t u r e and SD c u l t i v a r s . For s e v e r a l y e a r s now t h e p r i c e s f o r p r o c e s s e d  f r u i t have n o t  been f a v o r a b l e and, a t t h e same t i m e , p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s have risen. cheap.  Imports from Mexico and C a l i f o r n i a have been r e l a t i v e l y The f r e s h market, however, has n o t been f a v o r e d by t h e  i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. i s l a r g e l y undeveloped.  Shipping t o the p r a i r i e  provinces  The f r u i t i n g season i s from t h e m i d d l e  2  o f June i n t o J u l y and t h e r e i s no l o c a l f r u i t a v a i l a b l e a f t e r that period.  I n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e r e has been i n t e r e s t i n  expanding f r e s h market p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s market r e q u i r e s l a r g e , h i g h q u a l i t y f r u i t produced over an extended season. These requirements  a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y met  purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was systems u s i n g DN,  1.1.  ever-bearing  by MR  c u l t u r e . Thus t h e  to evaluate a l t e r n a t i v e (EB) as w e l l as SD  cultural  cultivars.  Cultivars  There have been many changes i n t h e l a s t few decades as improved c u l t i v a r s , w i t h r e s i s t a n c e t o p e s t s and d i s e a s e s increased winterhardiness  and  have become a v a i l a b l e (Daubeny 1989).  D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f most s t r a w b e r r y c u l t i v a r s a r e a v a i l a b l e ( S j u l i n and B a r r i t t 1984, Dale 1989,  Anon. 1987,  Daubeny 1971,  Pritts  and  B r i n g h u r s t and V o t h 1987a, B r i n g h u r s t and V o t h 1987b,  B r i n g h u r s t and V o t h 1987c, B r i n g h u r s t and V o t h 1987d, B r i n g h u r s t and V o t h 1987e). techniques  P r o d u c t i o n has expanded c o n s i d e r a b l y  and  o f growing have s t a r t e d t o change i n some r e g i o n s  (Daubeny 1989,  B r i n g h u r s t and V o t h 1989).  DN c u l t i v a r s  and  annual p r o d u c t i o n , m a i n l y i n C a l i f o r n i a a r e c h a n g i n g t h e p i c t u r e rapidly.  I n t h e P a c i f i c Northwest t h e need f o r v i r u s t o l e r a n c e  and w i n t e r h a r d i n e s s have been t h e more i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r b r e e d i n g new  cultivars  (Lawrence 1989,  Daubeny 1979).  r e g i o n s i n N o r t h America have d i f f e r e n t problems and  Other  different  3  approaches t o t h e problems i n t h e i r r e g i o n s i n c l u d i n g d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l methods (Luby 1989, G a l l e t t a 1989, C a l d w e l l 1989, Dale 1989).  SD c u l t i v a r s i n i t i a t e f l o w e r s when d a y l e n g t h s a r e l e s s t h a n 13.5 h o u r s (Hellman and T r a v i s 1988).  F l o w e r development  can be  i n t e r r u p t e d , by e i t h e r c o l d t e m p e r a t u r e , o r h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e . F l o w e r bud i n i t i a t i o n o f SD o c c u r s from l a t e August t o t h e f i r s t frosts i n British  Columbia.  In C a l i f o r n i a , i n i t i a t i o n of flowers  t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e s p r i n g a l s o and f l o w e r i n g can o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t the  summer, as l o n g as t e m p e r a t u r e s do n o t exceed t h e maximum  (40° C) f o r i n i t i a t i o n . daylength e f f e c t . April  Temperature  I n B.C.  seems t o o v e r r i d e t h e  f l o w e r i n g g e n e r a l l y commences i n l a t e  and c o n t i n u e s t h r o u g h May w i t h f r u i t r i p e n i n g from mid-June  t o t h e f i r s t week o f J u l y .  Runnering w i l l  occur a f t e r  fruiting  (Durner and P o l i n g 1988) and can be stopped by 3 0° C t e m p e r a t u r e s ( G a l l e t t a and B r i n g h u r s t 1990).  Under l o n g days, a x i l l a r y  d e v e l o p i n t o r u n n e r s , which a r e p r o s t r a t e , 2-noded stems.  buds Branch  crown development may o c c u r d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d between f l o w e r i n g and r u n n e r i n g , when days a r e t o o s h o r t f o r r u n n e r b u t n o t s h o r t enough f o r f l o w e r i n i t i a t i o n  development,  (Durner e t a l . 1984).  F l o w e r bud i n i t i a t i o n o f EB c u l t i v a r s , which a r e l o n g day p l a n t s , o c c u r s d u r i n g most o f t h e growing season e x c e p t t h e e a r l y s p r i n g , when i n i t i a l f r u i t i n g  t a k e s p l a c e (Durner and P o l i n g  4 1988) .  T h i s t i m e depends on l a t i t u d e .  Runner p r o d u c t i o n w i l l  a l s o t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e growing season (Durner e t a l . 1984) .  DN c u l t i v a r s i n i t i a t e f l o w e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e growing season u n l e s s t e m p e r a t u r e s exceed 3 0° C, when f l o r a l i n d u c t i o n i s greatly inhibited  ( B r i n g h u r s t and Voth 1987).  There a r e s t r o n g  and weak DN, b u t e r r o r s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can o c c u r d u r i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n s t a g e i n b r e e d i n g programs,  f o r example, c h i l l i n g t i m e s  can i n f l u e n c e t h e f l o r a l b e h a v i o r o f t h e p l a n t s ( N i c o l l and G a l l e t t a 1987).  Runner p r o d u c t i o n i s s p a r s e compared t o t h e SD  c u l t i v a r s and o c c u r s d u r i n g l o n g days (Durner and P o l i n g 1988). Runner p r o d u c t i o n i s enhanced by l o n g days (Durner and P o l i n g 1988, Durner e t a l . be promoted  1984, P r i t t s and Dale 1989).  R u n n e r i n g can  i n some c u l t i v a r s w i t h c y t o k i n i n s , b u t e l e v a t e d  l e v e l s o v e r an extended p e r i o d reduce p r o d u c t i o n o f r u n n e r s ( P r i t t s 1986).  I n o t h e r c u l t i v a r s f l o w e r development  i s not  i n f l u e n c e d by c y t o k i n i n s .  I n l a t i t u d e s l i k e t h a t o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f l o w e r t a k e s p l a c e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 months b e f o r e SD f l o w e r i n g 1987) .  initiation (Strik  I n i t i a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e when d a y l e n g t h becomes l e s s t h a n  13.5 h o u r s and would u n t i l t h e day l e n g t h exceeds t h i s i n t h e s p r i n g ( S t r i k and P r o c t o r 1988b). dormancy p e r i o d .  I n i t i a t i o n h a l t s during the  Most crowns, e x c e p t f o r t h e s m a l l e s t ,  initiate  5  flowers.  I t i s important  t h a t optimum c o n d i t i o n s a r e  provided  d u r i n g t h e f a l l t o i n i t i a t e enough f l o w e r s f o r t h e n e x t season. I n c o n t r a s t , DN c u l t i v a r s i n i t i a t e f l o w e r s under any  daylength  and can t h e r e f o r produce f r u i t d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e g r o w i n g season. Depending on c u l t i v a r , s e v e r a l f l u s h e s of f r u i t i n g fruiting  is  occur  or  continuous.  F l o w e r t r u s s e s d e v e l o p t e r m i n a l l y and once t h e y have formed, no f u r t h e r growth w i l l o c c u r i n t h i s a x i s o f growth (Dana Anderson 1983).  The  axillary  bud  immediately  below t h e t r u s s  w i l l d e v e l o p i n t o a b r a n c h crown which w i l l t a k e o v e r as major e x t e n s i o n growth.  1981,  the  The t r u s s e s appear t o a r i s e l a t e r a l l y  t h e y a r e d i s p l a c e d t o t h e s i d e s when t h e crowns d e v e l o p . t h e t r u s s f i r s t one p r i m a r y  f l o w e r i s formed, t h e n  growing p o i n t s appear below t h i s f l o w e r and f l o w e r s , u s u a l l y 2.  described stages branching  initiate  secondary  F u r t h e r f l o w e r i n i t i a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e below  This v a r i e s with c u l t i v a r .  i s s e p a r a t e d by 2 l e a v e s .  quartenary  Each o f t h e  A t r u s s w i t h such a  h a b i t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y a b l e t o b e a r u n l i m i t e d numbers  o f f r u i t s , but u s u a l l y f l o w e r i n i t i a t i o n i s t e r m i n a t e d quartenary  Within  lateral  t h e s e and t h e r e a r e 4 t e r t i a r y f l o w e r s n e x t and t h e n 8 f l o w e r s and so on.  as  or quinary stages.  The  a c t u a l and r e l a t i v e l e n g t h of  t r u s s e s , branches and p e d i c e l s v a r y i n response t o f a c t o r s , such as d a y l e n g t h ,  a t the  t e m p e r a t u r e and w i n t e r  Time o f t r u s s i n i t i a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s s i z e o f i t .  environmental chilling.  With the  6 emphasis on l a r g e f r u i t s i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o not have any beyond t h e t e r t i a r y s t a g e .  fruit  P r i m a r y f r u i t s u s u a l l y have around  400 achenes ( s e e d s ) , w h i l e q u a r t e n a r y w i l l have o n l y 80.  Achene  number g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e s i z e o f t h e f r u i t .  1.2.  Mulches  O r g a n i c mulches have been i n use i n some g r o w i n g r e g i o n s f o r a l o n g t i m e w h i l e p l a s t i c mulches have become p o p u l a r more r e c e n t l y . However, i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y o f B r i t i s h Columbia o r g a n i c mulches have not been used as w i n t e r r a i n s not o n l y r o t t h e m a t e r i a l used f o r t h e mulch b u t a l s o cause crown r o t s i n t h e p l a n t s t h e y a r e supposed t o p r o t e c t .  Also, fluctuating winter  t e m p e r a t u r e s cause e a r l y emergence under t h e mulch and subsequent f r e e z i n g o f t h e p l a n t and/or t h e f l o w e r s .  I n I n d i a , c l e a r p l a s t i c mulch improved y i e l d s by 68% and p i n e n e e d l e s by 33 % compared t o no mulch ( B a l d i y a l a and Aggarwal 1981).  P i n e n e e d l e s i n c r e a s e d f r u i t s i z e . P l a s t i c mulch r e s u l t e d  in earlier fruit.  Q u a l i t y o f f r u i t was b e t t e r w i t h p i n e n e e d l e s  a p p l i e d a t a r a t e o f 10 tonnes p e r h e c t a r e .  I n F l o r i d a , b i o d e g r a d a b l e paper mulches c o a t e d w i t h p o l y e t h y l e n e were j u s t as e f f e c t i v e as b l a c k p l a s t i c mulches and l a s t e d f o r t h e 7 month season, a f t e r w h i c h i t had degraded and  7  d i d n o t need t o be removed  ( A l b r e g t s and Howard 1972).  I n Nova S c o t i a , y i e l d i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f a p l a n t i n g  was  i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y by b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch and a d o u b l e row compared t o a s i n g l e row.  I n t h e second y e a r o f t h e p l a n t i n g ,  i r r i g a t i o n was t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n c r e a s i n g b o t h f r u i t s i z e and t o t a l y i e l d  ( B l a t t 1984).  I n Oregon,  leaflet  e l o n g a t i o n , f l o w e r and f r u i t numbers and s u b s e q u e n t l y y i e l d s were i n c r e a s e d u s i n g b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch a t 2 d r i p i r r i g a t i o n  levels,  p r o b a b l y t h r o u g h t h e warming o f t h e s o i l t h r o u g h o u t t h e upper 2 0 cm ( R e n q u i s t e t a l .  1982b).  The mulched p l a n t s used w a t e r more  e f f i c i e n t l y , b u t v e g e t a t i v e growth was even more enhanced t h a n was f r u i t y i e l d .  (Renquist e t a l .  1982a, R e n q u i s t e t a l . 1982c).  I n M i n n e s o t a , h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e s were found under p o l y foam mulches t h a n under Sudangrass mulch o r no mulch (Hertz and S t u s h n o f f 1982).  Mulch p r o t e c t e d t h e p l a n t s more e f f e c t i v e l y  t h a n no mulch i n t h e w i n t e r ; however, i t a l s o advanced f l o w e r i n g and e a r l y f r o s t s k i l l e d many f l o w e r s , t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g t h e advantage. E a r l i e r b u t l o w e r y i e l d s were o b t a i n e d from c l e a r p o l y e t h y l e n e mulched p l o t s (Hertz 1979).  Sudangrass p l a c e d under  t h e p l a s t i c r e d u c e d f r u i t s i z e and y i e l d , b u t when a p p l i e d on t o p o f t h e p l a s t i c mulch i n c r e a s e d y i e l d .  Non-mulched p l o t s had  about t h e same y i e l d as Sudangrass mulched p l o t s . p o l y e t h y l e n e was n e a r l y as e f f e c t i v e as Sudangrass.  Black  8  I n E n g l a n d , l a r g e r y i e l d s on r i d g e s were o b t a i n e d w i t h b l a c k o r c l e a r p l a s t i c mulch compared t o no mulch (Anderson and G u t t r i d g e 1978).  I n Vermont, manmade o r n a t u r a l snow, used as a  mulch, a t 15 cm depth p r o v i d e d b e t t e r i n s u l a t i o n and  winter  p r o t e c t i o n t h a n d i d s t r a w mulch (Boyce and L i n d e 1986). on r a i s e d beds (RB) were c o l d e r t h a n on f l a t beds, and w i t h o u t p l a s t i c mulch c o l d e r t h a n w i t h p l a s t i c .  Crowns those  A combination  of  no mulch and RB caused s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d l o s s t h r o u g h f r e e z i n g (Boyce and Reed 1983).  Temperatures were h i g h e r under c l e a r , b l a c k and w h i t e mulch and b l a c k p l a s t i c i n c r e a s e d r u n n e r and Virginia  (Himmelrick  1982).  plastic  f r u i t numbers i n  The g r e a t e s t y i e l d came from c l e a r  o r b l a c k p l a s t i c mulched beds.  A i r s p a c e between c l e a r p l a s t i c  mulch and s o i l p r o v i d e d i n s u l a t i o n from low t e m p e r a t u r e s . I n Wisconsin,  c l e a r p l a s t i c mulch i n c r e a s e d y i e l d and advanced the  season ( S c h e e l 1982b).  I n Iowa, DN p l a n t s w i t h straw o r w h i t e on b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch f l o w e r e d and y i e l d e d more t h a n d i d p l a n t s on c l e a r o r p l a s t i c mulch (Fear and Nonnecke 1989).  white  More crowns p e r p l a n t ,  r u n n e r s p e r p l o t and g r e a t e r l e a f , crown and r o o t dry w e i g h t s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l e a r p l a s t i c t h a n w i t h t h e o t h e r s .  It is  s u g g e s t e d t h a t i f DN are grown on mulches which moderate t e m p e r a t u r e t h e r e w i l l be l e s s v e g e t a t i v e but more r e p r o d u c t i v e  9  growth.  In Norway, t u n n e l s o f p l a s t i c over t h e p l a n t s and b l a c k mulch on t h e s o i l ,  i n c r e a s e d y i e l d more t h a n j u s t c l e a r mulch on t h e  beds (Nestby 1985c, Nestby 1979).  B l a c k p l a s t i c mulched p l o t s  had l a r g e r f r u i t , more f r u i t r o t ( B o t r y t i s c i n e r e a P e r s . ex Fr.) and l o w e r y i e l d s t h a n d i d p l o t s w i t h w h i t e p l a s t i c mulch 1985b).  I t was  (Nestby  a l s o noted, t h a t any p l a s t i c mulch can h e l p  c o n t r o l weeds and f r u i t r o t and gave a c l e a n e r , more a t t r a c t i v e fruit  (Nestby  1985c).  In Germany, under f l o a t i n g c l e a r p l a s t i c mulch w i t h 500-800 h o l e s per m , 2  h a r v e s t time was  advanced by as much as 8 days  ( E u l e n s t e i n 1983). F l o a t i n g mulch was Good y i e l d was  removed b e f o r e  obtained with close spacing.  pollination.  However f l o a t i n g  c l e a r mulches were not recommended because o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y  in  a p p l y i n g them.  1.3.  I r r i g a t i o n and  Fertilization  Many f a c t o r s can i n f l u e n c e the uptake o f n u t r i e n t s from the s o i l by t h e p l a n t (Johanson 1981).  Temperature, d a y l e n g t h ,  i n t e n s i t y , humidity, s o i l moisture content, organic c o n t e n t , pH, t i l l a g e ,  matter  s o i l amendments, h e r b i c i d e s and  the  light  10 p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r n u t r i e n t s c a n be i n v o l v e d .  Important n u t r i e n t s  f o r s t r a w b e r r i e s a r e n i t r o g e n , p o t a s s i u m , c a l c i u m , phosphorus and magnesium i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts and i n l e s s e r amounts manganese, i r o n , copper, boron, z i n c , s u l f u r and molybdenum.  The mode o f f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n i s r e l e v a n t .  Where a h i l l  system was used i n F l o r i d a , s o i l a p p l i e d , s i d e d r e s s e d n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r i n i n c r e a s i n g r a t e s i n c r e a s e d y i e l d and f r u i t  number  whereas f o l i a r a p p l i e d n i t r o g e n i n c r e a s e d f o l i a g e c o l o r and p l a n t s i z e , but not y i e l d Howard 1986a).  ( A l b r e g t s and Howard 198 6b, A l b r e g t s and  I n New Z e a l a n d , i t was found t h a t t o o much  n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n i n d u c e d A l and Mn t o x c i c i t y and l i m i t e d the y i e l d  (Haynes and Goh 1987).  When n i t r o g e n and p o t a s h were a p p l i e d d r y , y i e l d s were s i m i l a r f o r s t r a w b e r r i e s watered w i t h a t r i c k l e o r overhead i r r i g a t i o n system i n Ohio ( G o u l a r t and Funt 1985).  However, when  p a r t o f t h e f e r t i l i z e r was a p p l i e d w i t h t h e i r r i g a t i o n water, w h i c h i s r e f e r r e d t o as f e r t i g a t i o n , y i e l d s were 25 % g r e a t e r w i t h t r i c k l e t h a n w i t h overhead and 50 % g r e a t e r compared t o no irrigation  ( L o c a s c i o and Meyers 1975, L o c a s c i o  1981).  i r r i g a t i o n a l s o r e q u i r e d l e s s water t h a n overhead al.  1977).  Trickle  (Locascio et  The s o l u b l e s a l t c o n t e n t o f t h e s o i l was h i g h e s t i n  t h e n o n - i r r i g a t e d f i e l d s and l o w e s t f o r t h e t r i c k l e  irrigated  p l o t s i n F l o r i d a ( L o c a s c i o and Meyers 1975, L o c a s c i o e t a l .  1977).  N i t r o g e n l e v e l s of l e a f t i s s u e were not i n f l u e n c e d by  f e r t i l i z e r treatments  the  o r i r r i g a t i o n , however, p o t a s h l e v e l s were  greatly elevated with t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n L o c a s c i o and M a r t i n 1985).  ( L o c a s c i o e t a l . 1977,  I n Cyprus, n i t r o g e n l e v e l s i n the  t i s s u e increase with increase i n f e r t i g a t i o n nitrogen (Papadopoulos 1987). was  Again i n F l o r i d a , decreased n u t r i e n t l o s s  found when t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n was  used t o d e l i v e r  the  n i t r o g e n i n small p o r t i o n s r a t h e r than i n t o t a l at the o f t h e season ( M a n s e l l e t a l . 1977). non-irrigated plots.  L e a c h i n g was  beginning  h i g h e r than i n  T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n a l l o w s not  only  f e r t i l i z e r and p e s t i c i d e s t o be a p p l i e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e system, but a l s o b i o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l agents,  such as entomopathogenic  nematodes, f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f w e e v i l p e s t s of s t r a w b e r r i e s  (Curan  and P a t e l 1988).  1.4.  Spacing  I n N o r t h C a r o l i n a , i n a h i l l row (15 and 2 0 cm)  (HR), t h e c l o s e s t s p a c i n g s  gave t h e g r e a t e s t y i e l d s f o r 6 of 7 SD and  f r u i t s i z e s l i g h t l y f o r a l l t h e SD c u l t i v a r s 1986) .  Durner  S p a c i n g had no e f f e c t on s i z e of t h e f r u i t i n F l o r i d a  ( A l b r e g t s and Howard 1974,  B r i g h t w e l l 1964,  c l o s e r s p a c i n g s produced t h e g r e a t e s t y i e l d 1987)  ( P o l i n g and  reduced  t h e r e and a l s o i n M a r y l a n d .  L o c a s c i o 1972) (Maas and  but  Cathey  I n B r i t i s h Columbia, runner  production  was  dependent on p l a n t i n g age,  At the c l o s e spacing, s i z e , which represents  c u l t i v a r and  spacing.  fewer r u n n e r s per a r e a were found.  Leaf  the p h o t o s y n t h e t i c a l l y a c t i v e area,  was  g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between c u l t i v a r s  and  spacings,  1989,  y e a r by s p a c i n g  H e s k e t h e t a l . 1990a). 'Shuksan*, 'Totem' and  and y e a r by c u l t i v a r  I n t h e h i l l row  The  system, ' R a i n i e r ' ,  'Sumas' p l a n t s were examined a t d i f f e r e n t  s p a c i n g s (Hesketh e t a l . 1990b). the c u l t i v a r s .  (HR)  There were d i f f e r e n c e s among  highest c o n t r i b u t i o n to marketable y i e l d  from crowns p e r p l a n t and t r u s s e s per crown. components due  (Hesketh  to plant competition  was  Decreases i n y i e l d  were not g r e a t enough t o  overcome t h e p o s i t i v e y i e l d e f f e c t s of i n c r e a s e d  planting  d e n s i t i e s on an a r e a b a s i s .  I n M a r y l a n d , i n c r e a s e d p l a n t d e n s i t y reduced l e a v e s crowns p e r p l a n t , r o o t w e i g h t and y i e l d  (Swartz e t a l . 1989b).  Runner removal i n c r e a s e d t h e crown number mother p l a n t s , but y i e l d was The  removal and  i t i s suggested t h a t s p a c i n g  factor.  and  r o o t w e i g h t of  i n c r e a s e d o n l y i n one  cultivars.  e f f e c t of s p a c i n g was  and  the  of 3  g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t of runner i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t  H i g h p l a n t d e n s i t y d e c r e a s e d t h e y i e l d per p l a n t m o s t l y  t h r o u g h number o f f r u i t , and  l e s s t h r o u g h t h e s i z e of t h e  fruit.  I n O n t a r i o , genotypes d i f f e r e d i n number of crowns, crown dry w e i g h t , l e a f a r e a , number of l e a v e s , l e a f d r y w e i g h t , l e a f a r e a ,  number o f s t o l o n s , average s t o l o n l e n g t h and r u n n e r d r y weight p e r p l a n t ( S t r i k and P r o c t o r 1988a).  Some o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s can  i n f l u e n c e t h e u l t i m a t e d e n s i t y o f p l a n t s i n a matted row system.  In E n g l a n d , v e g e t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h y i e l d s were t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f r u i t number and f r u i t s i z e 1973) .  (Lacey  G r e a t e r y i e l d s were o b t a i n e d f o r u n t h i n n e d s o l i d beds  compared t o i n t e r m e d i a t e t h i n n e d s o l i d beds; s i n g l e p l a n t beds gave t h e l o w e s t y i e l d s  (Anderson  and G u t t r i d g e 1976).  Invariably  t h e most crowns and t r u s s e s p e r p l a n t were on t h e s i n g l e p l a n t s , b u t i n t h e MR t h e g r e a t e r number o f p l a n t s compensated f o r m u l t i p l e crowns and t r u s s e s .  The number o f crowns and t r u s s e s  p e r a r e a was c l e a r l y h i g h e r i n t h e MR which was made up by m o s t l y r u n n e r p l a n t s by t h e t i m e o f h a r v e s t i n t h e f i r s t f r u i t i n g y e a r .  In North C a r o l i n a , i n t h e p l a n t i n g year, y i e l d s i n c r e a s e d l i n e a r l y w i t h c l o s e r s p a c i n g s (Durner and P o l i n g 1986).  Fruit  s i z e was g r e a t e r f o r t h e w i d e r s p a c i n g s b u t r u n n e r number p e r a r e a was h i g h e r i n t h e c l o s e r s p a c i n g s .  I n t h e second y e a r , t h e  f i r s t f u l l p r o d u c t i o n y e a r , y i e l d s a g a i n were g r e a t e s t f o r t h e c l o s e r spacings w h i l e f r u i t s i z e increased l i n e a r l y w i t h wider spacings.  When MR were e s t a b l i s h e d a t d i f f e r e n t s p a c i n g s , t h e  c l o s e r spaced p l a n t i n g s had t h e h i g h e s t y i e l d s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r . C u l t i v a r s p r o d u c i n g r e l a t i v e l y h i g h numbers o f r u n n e r s t e n d t o compensate a t w i d e r s p a c i n g s and d i f f e r e n c e s due t o t h e c l o s e r  s p a c i n g s a r e m i n i m a l i n t h e second y e a r ( P o l i n g 1984). s i z e was l a r g e r w i t h t h e w i d e r s p a c i n g s .  Fruit  When 'Totem' and  'Shuksan' were compared i n MR and HR i n t h e P a c i f i c Northwest,  MR  was t h e h i g h e s t y i e l d i n g system; t h e MR w i t h a v e r y h i g h d e n s i t y o f p l a n t s can compensate f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f v i r u s d i s e a s e s i n 'Shuksan' a t l e a s t (Daubeny and Freeman 1977), b u t p r o b a b l y not in  'Totem* w h i c h i s r e l a t i v e l y v i r u s t o l e r a n t ( B a r r i t t  and  Daubeny 1982).  There have been c o n t r a s t i n g r e s u l t s from r e d u c i n g t h e number o f r u n n e r s . F o r example,  i n Nova S c o t i a , C r a i g e t a l .  (1983)  found i n c r e a s e d f r u i t s i z e but no y i e l d d i f f e r e n c e s , whereas i n Norway B r a n d s t v e i t (1987) found g r e a t e r y i e l d s .  Y i e l d per p l a n t  was a g a i n h i g h e s t i n p l a n t s k e p t r u n n e r l e s s but MR o u t y i e l d e d t h e HR i n M i c h i g a n (Hancock e t a l .  generally  1982b).  had v a r y i n g e f f e c t s on y i e l d w i t h d i f f e r e n t c u l t i v a r s .  Spacing While a  removal o f l a t e season r u n n e r s by machine l e a d t o a d e c r e a s e i n y i e l d , so d i d t h e w i d e r s p a c i n g s f o r t h e mother p l a n t s i n A r k a n s a s ( B u c k l e y and Moore 1982).  Narrower MR beds w i t h c l o s e r  s p a c i n g s , b o t h between t h e beds and between t h e p l a n t s , o u t y i e l d e d t h e MR beds w i t h w i d e r s p a c i n g s .  Comparisons o f 2 MR w i d t h s i n M a r y l a n d showed t h a t t h e n a r r o w e r rows r e c e i v e d more l i g h t and t h e p l a n t s produced more crowns and were more p r o d u c t i v e ( T r e n t e t a l .  1985, Swartz e t a l .  1982, W i l s o n and D i c k s o n 1988).  P e r c e n t r o t and f r u i t  were not i n f l u e n c e d by s p a c i n g ( W i l s o n and D i c k s o n Comparing HR and MR  quality  1988).  i n M i c h i g a n , t h e l a t t e r produced g r e a t e r  y i e l d s and l a r g e r f r u i t  (Hancock 1984). I n t h e HR i n Norway,  c l o s e r s p a c i n g s r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r y i e l d and l a r g e r  fruit  (Nestby 1987). There were r e d u c t i o n s i n t r u s s e s p e r crown, p e r c e n t o f f r u i t s e t and f r u i t weight a t h i g h e r crown d e n s i t i e s i n Maryland  (Swartz e t a l . 1982).  R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i s known about t h e s p a c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e DN s t r a w b e r r i e s compared t o t h e SD-types.  However, a l i n e a r  i n c r e a s e i n y i e l d w i t h c l o s e r s p a c i n g s was r e c o r d e d f o r ' T r i b u t e ' i n t h e f i r s t and second y e a r s i n New S h e a v l y 1989).  York  ( P r i t t s and Eames-  Recent d a t a w i t h DN suggest t h a t t h e optimum  s p a c i n g i s an o f f s e t p l a n t i n g v e r s u s a l i n e a r p l a n t i n g a t t h e same d e n s i t y .  1.5.  P l a n t i n g Date and P l a n t S i z e  When r u n n e r p l a n t s were dug f r e s h and p l a n t e d a t i n t e r v a l s i n F l o r i d a from t h e end o f September t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f November, y i e l d s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r were d e c r e a s e d w i t h e v e r y d e l a y i n planting  ( A l b r e g t s and Howard 1974,  1972); t h e same e f f e c t was 1967).  B r i g h t w e l l 1964,  found i n England  Locascio  (Mason 1987,  Hughes  S i m i l a r l y , i n Norway, d e l a y e d p l a n t i n g i n t h e s p r i n g o r  summer r e s u l t e d i n reduced y i e l d s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , when number o f f l o w e r s were g e n e r a l l y reduced (Nestby 1982, 1985a, Nestby 1987). A s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n was  Nestby  found between t h e  number o f b r a n c h crowns and t h e y i e l d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r (Nestby 1975).  A comparison o f s m a l l and l a r g e r o o t e d p l a n t s showed no d i f f e r e n c e s i n runner production,  but t h e l a r g e p l a n t s had more  crowns a f t e r one growing season i n s e v e r a l s t a t e s o f t h e ( S k i r v i n e t a l . 1987). I n Lebanon, w i t h e a r l y f r u i t i n g  U.S.  cultivars,  l a r g e p l a n t s produced g r e a t e r y i e l d s t h a n s m a l l e r p l a n t s ; t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t shown w i t h l a t e r f r u i t i n g c u l t i v a r s and Duna 1986). C u l t i v a r s v a r i e d i n r u n n e r p r o d u c t i o n  (Rice  i n the  U.S.  ( S k i r v i n e t a l . 1987). P l a n t s i z e was found t o be r e l a t e d t o p l a n t i n g y e a r y i e l d s and f r u i t w e i g h t i n Quebec ( G o s s e l i n e t a l . 1985).  Mother p l a n t s t h a t produced r u n n e r p l a n t s i n S c o t l a n d  were n o t a f f e c t e d i n number o f i n f l o r e s c e n c e s produced, when d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s o f p l a n t s i z e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d (Mason 1987), b u t y i e l d s dropped l i n e a r l y w i t h s m a l l e r p l a n t s . W i t h p l a n t s grown i n E n g l a n d , t h e number o f i n f l o r e s c e n c e s i n c r e a s e d r u n n e r s i z e , w h i c h i n t u r n was r e l a t e d t o a x i l l a r y development,  with  bud  i n f l o r e s c e n c e i n i t i a t i o n and t h e number o f p o t e n t i a l  cropping trusses  (Hughes 1967).  17 1.6.  W a i t i n g Bed C u l t u r a l  System  I n southwest B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e w a i t i n g bed  (WB)  system, w h i c h has t h e p o t e n t i a l o f p r o d u c i n g f r u i t on  cultural locally  adapted s h o r t - d a y c u l t i v a r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer and i n t o t h e f a l l , has been i n v e s t i g a t e d  (Baumann and Daubeny 1989).  It  i n v o l v e s t h e use o f c o l d - s t o r e d m u l t i - c r o w n e d r u n n e r p l a n t s . These a r e produced i n t h e p r e v i o u s season by t h e d e f l o w e r i n g and d e r u n n e r i n g o f s i n g l e crowned p l a n t s p l a c e d i n t h e f i e l d i n l a t e s p r i n g t o c o n c e n t r a t e development al.  1982b).  of b r a n c h crowns (Hancock e t  P r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e m u l t i - c r o w n e d p l a n t s i s what  makes t h e system u n i q u e .  Subsequently, i n l a t e f a l l ,  dormant  p l a n t s a r e dug and s t o r e d a t -1° C, u n t i l t h e y a r e p l a n t e d i n the f i e l d a t d e s i g n a t e d i n t e r v a l s t h e f o l l o w i n g g r o w i n g season (Baumann and Daubeny 1989). weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g .  F r u i t i n g begins approximately 6 to 8  I n H o l l a n d , where t h e system  was  d e v e l o p e d , f r e s h f r u i t i s now a v a i l a b l e f o r a t l e a s t 4 months of the  y e a r and p r o d u c t i o n i n greenhouses d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r i s  p o s s i b l e from t h e WB.  The system i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g used  s u c c e s s f u l l y i n England as w e l l .  There, 130 grams o f f r u i t per  p l a n t i s r e c o g n i z e d as t h e break even p o i n t f o r p r o f i t .  18  1.7.  H i l l Row  C u l t u r a l System  In B r i t i s h Columbia,  t h e s t a n d a r d growing p r a c t i c e i s t h e  MR  on a f l a t bed. P l a n t s a r e s e t out a t t h e r a t e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18,000 p l a n t s p e r h e c t a r e and a l l o w e d t o r u n n e r f r e e l y , w h i l e c u l t i v a t i o n r e s t r i c t s t h e runner growth t o t h e rows. I n c o n t r a s t , t h e HR system  i n v o l v e s t h e use o f c o l d - s t o r e d s i n g l e - c r o w n e d  r u n n e r p l a n t s , s e t out a t c l o s e s p a c i n g a t a r a t e o f 150,000 p l a n t s p e r h e c t a r e ( R o t t h o f f 1981, G a l l e t t a and B r i n g h u r s t 199 0 ) . T h i s system has a l s o been named r i b b o n row i n t h e a f t e r R o t t h o f f c o i n e d t h e term i n 1981, i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h HR.  and was  literature,  used  For t h e purpose o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y  HR  w i l l be used t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t . Many c o m b i n a t i o n s o f MR and HR a r e p o s s i b l e ( W e t h e r e l l 1981, Unger and S t r i k 1988).  The  has t h e p o t e n t i a l o f p r o d u c i n g f r u i t on l o c a l l y adapted c u l t i v a r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer and i n t o t h e f a l l . a r e produced  system  short-day  The p l a n t s  i n t h e p r e v i o u s season by p r o p a g a t i o n n u r s e r i e s .  They a r e dug w h i l e dormant and s t o r e d a t -1° C, u n t i l t h e next y e a r , when t h e y a r e p l a n t e d i n t h e f i e l d a t d e s i g n a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g growing season.  Fruiting  intervals  begins  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 t o 8 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g .  In C a l i f o r n i a , an annual system  i s used w i t h HR and RB  1981). Optimum growing c o n d i t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e  (Voth  success  of t h e p l a n t i n g s . C l e a r ( i n s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ) o r w h i t e ( i n  "  n o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ) p l a s t i c mulch i s used t o c o v e r t h e r a i s e d beds and p l a n t s a r e s e t a t h i g h d e n s i t y u s u a l l y i n d o u b l e rows during the wintertime.  Summer p l a n t i n g s a r e p o s s i b l e , b u t because  o f a d d i t i o n a l s t r e s s t o t h e p l a n t s , i t i s even more i m p o r t a n t t o g i v e optimum growing c o n d i t i o n s . Not a l l c u l t i v a r s a r e s u i t e d t o summer p l a n t i n g s  (Voth 1967). P l a n t s i n summer p l a n t i n g s need t o  be pruned and p l a s t i c mulch a p p l i e d l a t e r t h a n i n w i n t e r p l a n t i n g s i f maximum f r u i t s i z e and q u a l i t y a r e t o be a c h i e v e d (Voth 1961, V o t h and B r i n g h u r s t important that c h i l l i n g  1967). F o r w i n t e r p l a n t i n g s i t i s  r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e met and t h e l e v e l o f  n i t r o g e n i s low (Voth and B r i n g h u r s t  1976).  RB a r e a means f o r c o n t r o l o f r o o t d i s e a s e s ,  such as  P h y t o p h t h o r a f r a g a r i a e Hickman, on heavy, wet s o i l s P o l i n g 1986).  (Durner and  P i c k i n g i s e a s i e r and e a r l i e r growth and r i p e n i n g  can be e x p e c t e d as t h e s o i l warms up q u i c k e r  (Durner and P o l i n g  1986, G o s s e l i n e t a l . 1985, G o u l a r t and Funt 1985). I n a r e v i e w o f s e v e r a l p a p e r s from t h e U.S. (Hancock 1987), comparing t h e MR w i t h t h e HR, RB never o u t y i e l d e d f l a t beds and were o f no advantage, e x c e p t when f l o o d i n g was a problem. increased r o o t temperature.  R a i s i n g t h e beds  F r u i t was k e p t r e l a t i v e l y  clean  w h i c h reduced f r u i t r o t and i n c r e a s e d p i c k i n g e f f i c i e n c y . system was more d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n ,  The  e s p e c i a l l y i f mulches and  i r r i g a t i o n systems were used i n c o m b i n a t i o n (Hancock and Roueche 1983, Boyce and Reed 1983). Comparing MR and HR i n New York, i n  20  t h e f i r s t f r u i t i n g y e a r , mulched p l o t s w i t h e i t h e r l a t e x o r straw were more p r o d u c t i v e t h a n unmulched p l o t s f o r t h e HR ( P r i t t s and Eames-Sheavly 1988).  The h i g h e s t y i e l d  o b t a i n e d from MR w i t h l a t e x mulch.  i n t h e second y e a r was  With low r a t e s o f l a t e x ,  r u n n e r s were a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h , water c o u l d permeate t h e mulch and t h e mulch was almost c o m p l e t e l y degraded a t t h e end o f t h e l i f e of the planting.  H i g h p l a n t q u a l i t y i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f an o u t - o f - s e a s o n p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r as p l a n t s a r e s u b j e c t e d t o a d d i t i o n a l s t r e s s ( T i e t z and Gebhart 1979).  One o f  t h e more i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f r u n n e r p l a n t s , f o r s t o r a g e b e f o r e p l a n t i n g , i s t h e degree o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y a t t h e t i m e o f d i g g i n g and s t o r a g e . a t l e a s t 3 f u l l y developed many f e e d e r r o o t s .  P l a n t s s h o u l d have  l e a v e s and r o o t l e n g t h s o f 5 cm w i t h  A l a b o r a t o r y t e s t f o r s t a r c h content i s  h e l p f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e degree o f m a t u r i t y reached by t h e plants.  P l a n t s a r e n o t a b l e t o s u r v i v e -1° C s t o r a g e u n l e s s they  have a t l e a s t 50 % s t a r c h c o n t e n t i n t h e e p i d e r m i s .  In M a r y l a n d ,  HR o u t y i e l d e d MR when c l o s e s p a c i n g was used.  To f i n d t h e p o i n t a t which t h e r e i s optimum p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r w i t h no n e g a t i v e e f f e c t t h r o u g h crowding  i n the  subsequent y e a r s i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t (Hancock 1984, Swartz e t a l . 1982).  I t i s suggested  t h a t y i e l d s o f a HR have t o be a t l e a s t  6.7  T/ha h i g h e r t h a n f o r t h e MR t o j u s t i f y a s w i t c h from MR t o HR  i n Ohio (Funt 1983).  The f r u i t was h a r v e s t e d i n t h e p l a n t i n g  y e a r t o make up f o r t h e e x t r a c o s t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e HR which i n v o l v e a l a r g e r number o f p l a n t s and r u n n e r r e m o v a l , b u t y i e l d s i n t h a t y e a r were g e n e r a l l y e x t r e m e l y low and t h e r e f o r never covered the e x t r a cost.  I n Oregon,  t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , but 25 T/ha T/ha  f r u i t was not h a r v e s t e d i n  i n t h e f i r s t f r u i t i n g y e a r and 39  i n t h e second f r u i t i n g y e a r were o b t a i n e d from a HR-type  system (Unger and S t r i k 1988). Runner removal was e v e r y 3 weeks i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r and i n f r e q u e n t t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s .  I n t h e y e a r a f t e r p l a n t i n g , t h e HR o u t y i e l d e d t h e MR a t h i g h d e n s i t y ( s p a c i n g w i t h i n t h e row was from 7.5 t o 15 cm)  only,  compared t o t h e t h i r d y e a r , i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n N o r t h America ( B u c k l e y and Moore 1982, Durner and P o l i n g 1986, Kaps and 1986, G o s s e l i n e t a l .  Odneal  1985, G o u l a r t and Funt 1985, Hancock and  Cameron 1986, Hancock e t a l . S c h e e l 1982a, Swartz e t a l .  1982a, Popenoe and Swartz  1985,  1982, Walsh and Geyer 1983).  After  t h e f i r s t y e a r o f f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n , r e n o v a t i o n o f p l a n t s by mowing had no e f f e c t on y i e l d , but g e n e r a l l y MR had h i g h e r y i e l d s t h a n d i d HR i n South C a r o l i n a ( C a l d w e l l and Grimes 1987a). produced l a r g e r f r u i t , but MR had more f r u i t s Grimes  ( C a l d w e l l and  1987b).  P l a n t s on RB had deeper r o o t d i s t r i b u t i o n , p o o r e r r u n n e r  HR  establishment,  higher photosynthetically a c t i v e r a d i a t i o n  p e n e t r a t i o n and e a r l i e r y i e l d s compared t o t h o s e on f l a t beds ( G o u l a r t and Funt 1986a). the f r u i t i n g .  Y i e l d was  The  c l o s e r the spacing, the  earlier  not e f f e c t e d by t h e d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s  ( G o u l a r t and Funt 1986a, G o u l a r t and Funt 198 6b, C r a i g Aalders  and  1966). I n t h e y e a r a f t e r p l a n t i n g , h i g h e r y i e l d s from  HR  were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d crown numbers and l a r g e r l e a f a r e a s per p l a n t i n M a r y l a n d and Ohio (Popenoe and Swartz Hancock e t a l . 1982a, G o u l a r t and Funt 1986a).  1985,  I f p l a n t s were  spaced i n narrow rows, e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l y i n t h e y e a r and c u t o f f , p l a n t v i g o r was  h i g h and  t h e second f u l l c r o p y e a r .  l i k e l y lead to overcrowding i n  M o d i f i e d MR  were removed o r row w i d t h was  systems, where r u n n e r s  r e s t r i c t e d , were not found t o be  improvement f o r y i e l d o v e r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  In Wisconsin,  i t was  runners  an  MR.  observed t h a t h a r v e s t  i s easier with  the  HR as f r u i t l a y s i n a r i b b o n a l o n g t h e rows, f r u i t r o t i s d e c r e a s e d , f r u i t i s p i c k e d c l e a n as i t i s more v i s i b l e and  a  l o w e r p e r c e n t a g e i s damaged by t h e p i c k e r s ( S c h e e l 1982a). 'Totem' and  'Shuksan' were compared i n MR  Northwest i t was  c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e MR was  and HR  i n the  the highest  When  Pacific yielding  system as o n l y t h e MR w i t h a v e r y h i g h d e n s i t y o f p l a n t s  can  compensate f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e of v i r u s d i s e a s e , which i s a p a r t i c u l a r problem w i t h  'Shuksan' (Daubeny and Freeman 1977).  23  1.8. Runner Removal  Runner removal i s q u i t e e x p e n s i v e and many methods have been i n v e s t i g a t e d t o reduce t h e amount n e c e s s a r y .  Most d e r u n n e r i n g i s  s t i l l done by hand, a l t h o u g h some c h e m i c a l methods have been considered.  F o r MR,  r u n n e r s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o make up t h e p l a n t  p o p u l a t i o n ; t h e e x c e s s i s r o t o v a t e d o f f by machine.  I n t h e HR  system t h e removal o f r u n n e r s i s e s s e n t i a l and e x p e n s i v e . p r o d u c t i o n as such i s i n f l u e n c e d by c u l t i v a r , c h i l l i n g , p l a n t i n g , day l e n g t h and l i g h t i n t e n s i t y .  Runner  date of  I t i s f a v o r e d by l o n g  days and h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s ( G a l l e t t a and B r i n g h u r s t 1990). r u n n e r s a r e u s u a l l y produced by SD c u l t i v a r s t h a n by cultivars.  More  DN  The l a t t e r a r e sometimes even d i f f i c u l t t o propagate  because o f t h e l a c k o f r u n n e r s . in propagation.  Thus t h e r e i s an added expense  When r u n n e r s were l e f t on t h e p l a n t s y i e l d s were  reduced n o t o n l y i n t h i s y e a r but a l s o t h e n e x t f o r ' T u f t s ' but n o t f o r 'Dover' i n F l o r i d a  ( A l b r e g t s and Howard 1986).  A l t h o u g h y i e l d p e r p l a n t was h i g h e r i n r u n n e r l e s s p l a n t s , y i e l d e d more p e r p l o t i n M i c h i g a n (Hancock e t a l . 1982b).  MR  The  g r e a t e s t e f f e c t o f t h e v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d was from p r e - p l a n t f u m i g a t i o n , c u l t i v a r s e l e c t i o n and t h e w i d t h o f t h e MR.  There  was no e f f e c t o f r a i s i n g t h e bed because o f t h e g r o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n M a r y l a n d (Walsh 1982).  When v e g e t a t i v e v i g o r  enhanced by removing r u n n e r s o r t r u s s e s , f r u i t s e t was  was  enhanced  24  dependent on t h e c u l t i v a r .  Removal o f l e a v e s d u r i n g  caused reduced s e t and y i e l d  Various  flowering  (Swartz e t a l . 1989a).  t r e a t m e n t s have been s t u d i e d t o c o n t r o l r u n n e r  growth. I n Kentucky, f l u r p r i m i d o l was used a t 0 t o 1,000 ppm on container plants. chemical,  With increase i n concentration  of the  mean p e t i o l e l e n g t h , runner number p e r p l a n t and runner  l e n g t h were reduced ( A r c h b o l d were h i g h e s t .  1986). A t 250 ppm crown d r y w e i g h t s  Ancymidol had no e f f e c t on growth and f r u i t i n g .  P a c l o b u t r a z o l a p p l i e d t o f i e l d grown p l a n t s reduced t h e growth o f r u n n e r s more e f f i c i e n t l y t h a n d i d f l u r p r i m i d o l .  I n W i s c o n s i n , p a c l o b u t r a z o l had been found t o s u p p r e s s t h e growth o f r u n n e r s w h i l e n o t n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c i n g y i e l d and Weis 1985, Stang and Weis 1984).  (Stang  I n M i c h i g a n , removal o f  flowers d i d not p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e y i e l d i n the f o l l o w i n g year (Hancock and Roueche 1983). regulators tested  There have been s e v e r a l o t h e r  growth  ( 6 - b e n z y l a m i n o p u r i n e , p a c l o b u t r a z o l , BAS 111-  04W and Prism) f o r r u n n e r s u p p r e s s i o n  i n DN and SD s t r a w b e r r i e s ,  some o f w h i c h u n f o r t u n a t e l y d e p r e s s y i e l d  (Hasse e t a l . 1989).  Only P r i s m was found t o o n l y suppress r u n n e r s w h i l e remained t h e same.  yield  Response o f t h e DN c u l t i v a r s was d i f f e r e n t  from t h a t o f t h e SD t e s t e d i n New York and Oregon (Hasse e t a l . 1989, M a r t i n 1985).  I n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n greenhouse s t u d i e s ,  chlormequat and p a c l o b u t r a z o l a l s o i n h i b i t e d r u n n e r growth,  25  whereas f e r t i l i z a t i o n  increased runner production  (McArthur and  E a t o n 1988, M c A r t h u r and Eaton 1987).  1.9.  C u l t u r e o f day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s  Recent DN r e l e a s e s from s e v e r a l b r e e d i n g programs promise t o be v e r y p r o d u c t i v e o v e r an extended t i m e p e r i o d ( B r i n g h u r s t and V o t h 1989).  To d a t e , t h e a v a i l a b l e DN c u l t i v a r s have l a c k e d t h e  good f r u i t q u a l i t i e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e most o f t h e P a c i f i c Northwest SD c u l t i v a r s . amounts o f ' S e l v a  1  However, C a l i f o r n i a s h i p s  considerable  f o r t h e f r e s h market.  I n V i r g i n i a , removal o f f l o w e r s h e l p e d e s t a b l i s h DN  strawberry  p l a n t s and enhanced t h e y i e l d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c r o p p i n g c y c l e s i n t h e same y e a r ( S h a f f e r e t a l . 1986).  The p l a n t s had a h i g h e r  l e a f , crown and r o o t d r y w e i g h t t h a n non d e f l o w e r e d p l a n t s and increased rates of f r u i t production.  S t o r e d c a r b o h y d r a t e s were  u t i l i z e d i n t h e next c y c l e s of f r u i t production 1985).  (Shaffer et a l .  A l s o , t h e removal o f t h e f i r s t s e t o f f l o w e r s p r e v e n t e d  t h e h a r v e s t o f t h e DN t o c o i n c i d e w i t h SD season, which would mean l o w e r p r i c e s and c o m p e t i t i o n from t h e h i g h e r q u a l i t y SD fruit.  D u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r t h e optimum removal p e r i o d f o r  f l o w e r s i n ' T r i b u t e * and ' T r i s t a r ' was 24 days ( L e b l a n c e t a l . 1987).  F r u i t s i z e was l a r g e r t h r o u g h o u t t h e season w i t h  flower  removal.  I n t h e second y e a r no e f f e c t  on m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d o r  f r u i t s i z e was found when f l o w e r s were removed.  Similarly,  maximum f i r s t y e a r y i e l d s were o b t a i n e d i f c u l t i v a r s d e f l o w e r e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g . of d e f l o w e r i n g was p o s i t i v e l y  were But l e n g t h  c o r r e l a t e d with the y i e l d i n the  second y e a r o f p r o d u c t i o n i n New York ( L e b l a n c e t a l . 1987, P r i t t s and Worden 1988).  L i m i t e d removal o f f l o w e r s i n t h e  second y e a r h e l p e d s h i f t t h e p r o d u c t i o n somewhat l a t e r , which a v o i d t h e main season; y i e l d was n o t a f f e c t e d  (Leblanc et a l .  1987) .  I n N o r t h C a r o l i n a , bed h e i g h t had no i n f l u e n c e on y i e l d i n DN c u l t i v a r s  (Durner and P o l i n g 1986).  I n New York, HR  o u t y i e l d e d MR i n t h e f i r s t b u t not t h e second y e a r and mulched beds were h i g h e r y i e l d i n g S h e a v l y 1988). yields,  t h a n were unmulched ( P r i t t s and Eames-  P l a n t i n g o f DN c u l t i v a r s  l a t e r e s u l t e d i n reduced  compared t o e a r l i e r p l a n t i n g s ; t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t no  compensation t o o k p l a c e ( P r i t t s and Eames-Sheavly 1989). the  Mowing  second y e a r p l a n t i n g s i n t h e s p r i n g h e l p e d a v o i d i n g an i n -  season c r o p , b u t a g a i n y i e l d compensation d i d n o t o c c u r and f r u i t s i z e was reduced.  1.10.  O b j e c t i v e s o f Research  The main o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h were t o s t u d y t h e  p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f e x t e n d i n g t h e f r e s h market season f o r s t r a w b e r r i e s i n s o u t h w e s t e r n B.C.  from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l 4 weeks i n  e a r l y summer t h r o u g h t o l a t e September o r even i n t o October. S e v e r a l c u l t u r a l methods, u s i n g b o t h SD and DN c u l t i v a r s , were i n v e s t i g a t e d . An extended season would not o n l y c a p i t a l i z e on t h e good q u a l i t y o f P a c i f i c Northwest produced f r u i t , b u t would  lead  t o a g r e a t e r degree o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n s t r a w b e r r y p r o d u c t i o n .  The c u l t u r a l systems i n v o l v e d t h e WB w h i c h had been developed and s u b s e q u e n t l y used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h e N e t h e r l a n d s as w e l l as i n E n g l a n d , and t h e HR, which had been used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s i n C a l i f o r n i a and i n v a r i o u s o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e U.S.  Both systems use SD c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d s e q u e n t i a l l y and  i n v o l v e f r u i t i n g i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r . The DN c u l t i v a r s , a l t h o u g h of  i n f e r i o r f r u i t q u a l i t y compared t o t h e s t a n d a r d P a c i f i c  Northwest SD c u l t i v a r s , were seen as a n o t h e r o p t i o n i n season e x t e n s i o n and would p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u o u s s u p p l y o f f r u i t i n t h e y e a r o f p l a n t i n g from J u l y t h r o u g h t o October. S e v e r a l c u l t i v a r s were examined a t v a r i o u s p l a n t s p a c i n g s and f e r t i l i t y  levels.  28  2.  MATERIALS AND  METHODS  E x p e r i m e n t a l p l o t s were l o c a t e d a t D r i e d i g e r B r o s . Farms i n 1986-88 and a t Krause Bros. Farms i n 1988-89, b o t h i n L a n g l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia, on sandy loam s o i l s .  F i e l d s were  prepared  a c c o r d i n g t o s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e s , which i n c l u d e d t h e use o f green manure c r o p s and t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f c h i c k e n manure and  lime  ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s 1987). RB were mulched w i t h b l a c k p l a s t i c .  C e r t i f i e d strawberry plants  were s u p p l i e d by Sakuma Bros. N u r s e r i e s of B u r l i n g t o n , Washington, e i t h e r from t h e i r B u r l i n g t o n s i t e o r from t h e i r e l e v a t i o n n u r s e r i e s i n Northern  2.1.  high  California.  P l a s t i c mulch  B l a c k p l a s t i c mulch was  s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f  i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h e Western Washington Research and  unpublished  Extension  C e n t e r a t Mt. Vernon, where t r i a l s w i t h v a r i o u s o t h e r t y p e s c o l o r s of p l a s t i c  ( b l a c k , w h i t e , brown, c l e a r , w h i t e w i t h b l a c k  b a c k i n g and b l a c k w i t h w h i t e backing)  concluded  t h a t f o r our  r e g i o n b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch gave t h e b e s t r e s u l t s f o r both and weed c o n t r o l .  and  yield  The b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch i s a l s o r e l a t i v e l y  cheap, compared t o o t h e r p l a s t i c mulches, and g i v e s weed c o n t r o l I t a l s o i s t h e most d u r a b l e , as t h e b l a c k c o l o r g i v e s p r o t e c t i o n from u l t r a v i o l e t r a y s .  This p r o t e c t i o n i s very expensive  to  29  b u i l d i n t o other types of p l a s t i c s .  2.2.  R a i s e d beds  I n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f RB, deeply-worked, l o o s e s o i l was r i d g e d up t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e row and a shaper p r e s s e d t h e bed i n t o t h e f i n a l shape.  The bed was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0 cm h i g h and was s l o p e d  t o t h e s i d e s f o r a p a r a b o l i c shape t o d r a i n w a t e r away from t h e plants.  B l a c k p l a s t i c mulch was l a i d over t h e beds and a t t h e  same t i m e t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n tape was r o l l e d onto t h e beds w i t h a machine h i g h enough t o c l e a r t h e RB, a n c h o r i n g t h e mulch w i t h soil.  As t h e mulch and tape n o r m a l l y l a s t 3 t o 4 y e a r s , t h e s e  m a t e r i a l s were n o t r e a p p l i e d .  A p l a s t i c l a y i n g machine manufactured by Kenco Mfg. ( F l o r i d a ) was used t o p l a c e t h e b l a c k p l a s t i c t r i c k l e tubing.  mulch and t h e  One o r two rows were c o v e r e d a t t h e same t i m e .  Shoes opened t h e s o i l and t h e p l a s t i c mulch was p r e s s e d down i n t o t h e s e f u r r o w s a l o n g t h e RB and d i s c s c l o s e d t h e f u r r o w s by c o v e r i n g t h e edges o f t h e p l a s t i c w i t h s o i l .  The t r i c k l e t u b i n g  was mounted above t h e p l a s t i c r o l l s and f e d under t h e p l a s t i c , g u i d e d by 2 s m a l l r o l l e r s . i n the middle  There was one t r i c k l e tube p e r bed,  i f a double row was used and s l i g h t l y o f f s e t from  t h e c e n t e r t o a l l o w t h e p l a n t s t o be s e t i n t o t h e c e n t e r o f t h e bed f o r a s i n g l e row.  30  2.3.  I r r i g a t i o n System  A t b o t h farm s i t e s , w e l l water f o r i r r i g a t i o n was brought from t h e farm w e l l v i a an e x i s t i n g main water l i n e , t h r o u g h a c o n n e c t i o n and p a s t a s h u t o f f v a l v e which was used t o disengage t h e system i n w i n t e r .  A pressure reducer kept pressure a t the  optimum l e v e l w i t h o u t b r e a k i n g t h e t r i c k l e t a p e .  An a d a p t e r was  f i t t e d t o accommodate t h e f e r t i l i z e r i n j e c t i o n and t h e n a 2 - f i l t e r system was used t o c a t c h p a r t i c u l a t e m a t e r i a l s , such as u n d i s s o l v e d f e r t i l i z e r i n t h e water s u p p l y , t o p r e v e n t c l o g g i n g of the t r i c k l e l i n e s .  A p r e s s u r e gauge and f l o w gauge completed  t h e i n t a k e p o r t i o n o f t h e system.  The w a t e r f l o w e d t h r o u g h 2.5cm PVC l i n e s t o t h e f i e l d where e l e c t r i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d v a l v e s f e d t h e secondary l i n e s which were connected t o p l a s t i c r i s e r s l i n k i n g the t r i c k l e tape.  The t r i c k l e t a p e was 2-chambered.  An i n t e r m e d i a t e t h i c k n e s s  s u f f i c e d s i n c e t h e r e i s no UV l i g h t under t h e b l a c k p l a s t i c .  A  main chamber d i s t r i b u t e d t h e water t o a secondary chamber, which reduced t h e f l o w t o l a s e r - d r i l l e d h o l e s , 30 cm a p a r t , where t h e w a t e r was e m i t t e d . RB.  The t r i c k l e l i n e r e s t e d on t h e s o i l above t h e  As t h e w a t e r s p u r t e d up i t was s p r e a d f u r t h e r by t h e p l a s t i c  through c a p i l l a r y  action.  31  Watering i n t e r v a l s controller. interfere  and d u r a t i o n were s e t on an e l e c t r o n i c  T h i s system a l l o w e d w a t e r i n g a t any t i m e and d i d not w i t h p l a n t i n g , h a r v e s t o r o t h e r maintenance  An automated-pump i n j e c t i o n  system was used t o i n j e c t  operations. soluble  f e r t i l i z e r i n t o t h e water stream, and a l l o w e d a c c u r a t e d e l i v e r y of f e r t i l i z e r t o t h e r o o t s .  Fertilizer  was a p p l i e d as many as 20  t i m e s p e r season.  2.4.  Data  collection  V a r i a b l e s measured i n t h e y i e l d t r i a l s i n c l u d e d f r u i t the  size,  w e i g h t o f c u l l s and f r u i t and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d o f f r u i t .  Mean f r u i t s i z e was d e t e r m i n e d f o r each p l o t by w e i g h i n g a 25-fruit  sample on each h a r v e s t d a t e and l a t e r d i v i d i n g  accumulated w e i g h t by t h e t o t a l number o f f r u i t s .  the  Rotten,  misshapen, s m a l l and o t h e r unmarketable f r u i t s were r e c o r d e d as culls.  The y i e l d s  o f b o t h c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e f r u i t were e x p r e s s e d  as tonnes p e r h e c t a r e and as p e r c e n t a g e s o f t o t a l y i e l d . marketable y i e l d represented the f r u i t a c t u a l l y  Thus  s o l d by t h e  grower w h i l e t o t a l y i e l d was an u n d e r e s t i m a t e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l y i e l d that the p a r t i c u l a r were no unmarketable  s e t o f f a c t o r s c o u l d produce, i f t h e r e  fruit.  32  2.5.  W a i t i n g bed c u l t u r a l system  2.5.1.  1986  p l a n t e d w a i t i n g bed  trial  To produce p l a n t s of 'Hood , ' R a i n i e r , 'Shuksan' and 1  for  t h e WB  'Totem'  1  t r i a l , normal r u n n e r p l a n t s were p l a n t e d i n 1985  s p a c i n g o f 22.5  cm by 107 cm f i e l d , d e f l o w e r e d  d e r u n n e r e d 10 t i m e s .  twice  and  The p l a n t s grew m u l t i p l e crowns w i t h  average o f 8 crowns p e r p l a n t .  at a  an  The dormant p l a n t s were l i f t e d  out o f t h e ground w i t h a t r e e - n u r s e r y r o o t - p r u n e r and s t o r e d i n p l a s t i c - l i n e d b i n s a t -1°  i n J a n u a r y 198 6  C.  The p l a n t s were t a k e n out of c o l d s t o r a g e a t 10-day i n t e r v a l s and p l a n t e d i n l e v e l beds, from May s p a c i n g o f 3 0 cm by 8 5 cm. c a r e was  P l a n t i n g was  (Table 1) a t a  done w i t h s h o v e l s  and  t a k e n t o s e t t h e p l a n t s a t t h e same s o i l depth from  w h i c h t h e y had been  The WB  t o J u l y 1986  t r i a l was  dug.  arranged  as 6 randomized complete b l o c k  each p l a n t e d on a s e p a r a t e d a t e .  designs  Each d a t e i n c l u d e d 4 rows as  b l o c k s and 3 0 - p l a n t p l o t s of 4 c u l t i v a r s i n each row.  The  c u l t i v a r s used were 'Hood', ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Shuksan' and  'Totem'.  H a r v e s t i n g commenced 6 t o 8 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g .  Marketable  y i e l d , w e i g h t o f c u l l s , and t h e weight of a 2 5 - f r u i t sample were recorded  f o r a l l p l o t s a t each h a r v e s t .  I n 1987  data  on  33  performance were o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l season, f o r SD t y p e s , o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y  fruiting  3 t o 4 weeks b e g i n n i n g i n  mid-June.  2.5.2.  In twice.  1987  1986, The  per p l a n t . and  p l a n t e d w a i t i n g bed  p l a n t s were p r e p a r e d  trial  as i n 1985,  r e s u l t i n g multiple-crowned The  'Totem'.  but derunnered o n l y  p l a n t s averaged 3.5  crowns  c u l t i v a r s used were 'Hood', ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Shuksan'  Further multiple-crowned  p l a n t s , w i t h 3 crowns per  p l a n t were o b t a i n e d from n u r s e r i e s ; t h e s e were d i s c a r d e d mother-plants plants.  w h i c h had been used f o r p r o d u c t i o n o f  runner  These 2 t y p e s o f source p l a n t s were used i n 1987  e s t a b l i s h a second WB second t r i a l  was  U n l i k e t h e f i r s t WB  trial,  this  on RB c o v e r e d w i t h b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch and  trickle irrigation. 'Shuksan' and  trial.  to  The mother p l a n t c u l t i v a r s were ' R a i n i e r ' ,  'Totem'.  A s e t o f machinery from Kenco Mfg.  ( F l o r i d a ) was  r a i s e and shape t h e beds t o a h e i g h t o f 15 cm. between t h e beds was  The  used t o distance  k e p t a t 107 cm f o r c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h  e x i s t i n g t r a c t o r s i n use on t h e farm.  Fertilizer  was  i n c o r p o r a t e d w h i l e s h a p i n g t h e beds a t recommended r a t e s Columbia M i n i s t r y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s 1990).  (British This  ensured t h a t f e r t i l i z e r was p l a c e d c l o s e t o t h e r o o t s .  P l a n t i n g was done w i t h a wooden s t i c k .  The t i p o f t h e r o o t  mass was c u r l e d around t h e end o f t h e s t i c k and pushed t h r o u g h t h e p l a s t i c mulch.  I t was v e r y i m p o r t a n t  to firm the plants into  t h e s o i l , as an exposed crown and r o o t system made them v u l n e r a b l e t o d e s s i c a t i o n and w i n t e r damage. i r r i g a t e d immediately for  The p l a n t s were  a f t e r p l a n t i n g and 2 t o 4 t i m e s p e r week  one hour p e r day.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  d e s i g n c o n s i s t e d o f 2 4 randomized complete  b l o c k s w i t h 7 c u l t i v a r s p e r b l o c k and 3 0 p l a n t s p e r p l o t . b l o c k was t h u s a row o f 210 p l a n t s .  Each  Twelve o f t h e b l o c k s o r rows  were i n a f i e l d w i t h s u l f u r c o a t e d n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r w h i l e t h e o t h e r 12 b l o c k s o r rows were i n a n o t h e r f i e l d w i t h o r g a n i c a l l y coated n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r .  I n each o f t h e f i e l d s t h e r e were 6  p l a n t i n g d a t e s , w i t h 2 rows o r b l o c k s p l a n t e d on each d a t e .  The  7 p l o t s w i t h i n one row o r b l o c k c o n s i s t e d o f ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Shuksan' and  'Totem' from t h e 2 s o u r c e s d e s c r i b e d and f o r t h e WB, t h e  a d d i t i o n o f 'Hood'.  P l a n t s p a c i n g w i t h i n t h e row was 30 cm.  S i z e , p e r c e n t a g e c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d were r e c o r d e d . 1988,  In  t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c u l l s f o r t h e f i r s t p l a n t i n g d a t e was  determined i n every harvest.  For l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates, the  p e r c e n t a g e o f c u l l s was d e t e r m i n e d a t t h e f i r s t h a r v e s t o n l y and r e s u l t s a d j u s t e d f o r c u l t i v a r s and f e r t i l i z e r .  I n b o t h y e a r s t h e f e r t i l i z e r r a t e s recommended f o r matted rows were used ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s 1987).  I n 1987 2 d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f slow r e l e a s e  f e r t i l i z e r were i n c o r p o r a t e d .  One f e r t i l i z e r was a s u l f u r - c o a t e d  n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r mix, t h a t r e l e a s e d N f o r up t o 3 months and t h e o t h e r was a mix which used a l o n g - c h a i n allowed  r e l e a s e o v e r a 5-month  o r g a n i c c o a t i n g and  period.  I n 1987, t h e WB p l a n t e d i n 1986 had grown i n t o a MR and produced f r u i t planted  i n t h e normal J u n e - J u l y  season.  I n 1988, t h e WB  i n 1987, as w e l l as mother p l a n t s on t h e p l a s t i c mulch,  had b o t h produced l a r g e m u l t i p l e - c r o w n e d p l a n t s . and  Yield,  culls  s i z e i n d i c e s were r e c o r d e d from t h e s e second y e a r h a r v e s t s as  w e l l as from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i r s t y e a r p l a n t i n g s .  2.6.  Short-day h i l l  row t r i a l s  The HR system, which has t h e p o t e n t i a l o f p r o d u c i n g f r u i t on l o c a l l y adapted SD c u l t i v a r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer and i n t o t h e fall,  i n v o l v e s t h e use o f c o l d - s t o r e d  runner-plants  single-crowned  a v a i l a b l e from t h e p r o p a g a t i o n n u r s e r i e s .  They a r e  s t o r e d a t -1 C, u n t i l p l a n t i n g i n t h e f i e l d a t d e s i g n a t e d i n t e r v a l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer months.  F r u i t i n g begins  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 t o 8 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g .  Sequential  d a t e s ensure c o n t i n u o u s f r e s h - f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n  planting  i n the planting  36  year.  Second y e a r p r o d u c t i o n o c c u r i n g i n t h e normal  June-July  season.  As i n t h e WB  system, h a r v e s t t i m e i n t h e HR  d e t e r m i n e d by p l a n t i n g d a t e . 'Sumas' and  'Totem'.  The  system i s  c u l t i v a r s used were ' R a i n i e r , 1  'Sumas', a r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d c u l t i v a r , i s  p r o d u c t i v e and has v i r u s t o l e r a n c e and w i n t e r h a r d i n e s s , 1987).  I t was  used i n s t e a d of 'Hood' which had not performed  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n a p r e l i m i n a r y t r i a l i n 1986. t e s t e d as  (Daubeny  'BC 76-7-2 0' and r e l e a s e d as  'Shuswap'  'Shuswap' i n 1990  was (Daubeny  e t a l . 1990). I t produces p a r t i c u l a r l y f i r m , g l o s s y , l i g h t r e d f r u i t w i t h some r o t r e s i s t a n c e . on  Spacing between rows was  107  cm  center.  2.6.1.  1986  I n 1986  planted short-day  p l a n t i n g was  h i l l row  trial  i n l a t e June on a RB c o v e r e d w i t h b l a c k  p l a s t i c mulch w i t h no t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n .  The d e s i g n was  randomized complete b l o c k w i t h 2 rows as r e p l i c a t i o n s and cultivars arranged  'Hood', ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Shuksan', 'Shuswap' and randomly w i t h i n each row.  row w i t h 2 0 p l a n t s p e r  plot.  S p a c i n g was  a the  'Totem'  15 cm i n a s i n g l e  37  2.6.2.  In  1987 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l  row t r i a l  1987, a randomized complete b l o c k d e s i g n was used w i t h 2  fertilizers,  6 p l a n t i n g dates per f e r t i l i z e r ,  2 r e p l i c a t i o n s per  d a t e o f 4 c u l t i v a r s p l a c e d randomly w i t h i n t h e row, 30 p l a n t s p e r plot. 4).  P l a n t i n g d a t e s were 10 days a p a r t from May t o J u l y  (Table  P l a n t s were spaced a t 15 cm i n s i n g l e rows i n b l a c k p l a s t i c -  c o v e r e d beds a p p r o x i m a t e l y  15 cm h i g h as d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e WB.  T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n was used. 'Shuksan', 'Sumas  2.6.3.  1  C u l t i v a r s used were ' R a i n i e r ' ,  and 'Totem'.  1987 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l  row t r i a l w i t h d o u b l e rows  T h i s t r i a l was s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e v i o u s , except t h a t double rows, 2 0 cm a p a r t , were used i n t h e RB.  ' R a i n i e r ' and 'Totem'  were compared on t h e same f e r t i l i z e r regime f o r 2 s p a c i n g s w i t h i n t h e d o u b l e rows.  Spacings were 15 and 2 5 cm w i t h i n t h e rows.  The d e s i g n was a randomized complete b l o c k w i t h 4 rows, 2 r e p l i c a t i o n s p e r row, 2 c u l t i v a r s , 2 s p a c i n g s , and 40 p l a n t s p e r plot.  2.6.4.  In  1988 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l  1988 2 B.C.  row t r i a l  homemade ( D r i e d i g e r B r o s . Farms) machines  were used t o r a i s e t h e s o i l and shape t h e beds.  Two m o d i f i e d  38 s u b s o i l e r s threw s o i l i n t o a h i g h wide band.  A second pass over  t h e band w i t h a bedshaper m o d i f i e d t h e bed t o new c l o s e t o t h o s e used i n C a l i f o r n i a .  The bed was  specifications  3 0 cm h i g h i n the  c e n t e r , s l o p i n g t o t h e s i d e s as t o e s t a b l i s h a p a r a b o l i c shape t o t h e bed,  t h a t was  approximately  50 cm wide.  The h e i g h t  was  needed so t h a t t h e t r u s s e s o f t h e p l a n t s would not l i e on  the  s o i l and t h e w i d t h needed so t h a t d o u b l e rows c o u l d be p l a n t e d on a s i n g l e bed.  The  s l o p e d crown was  needed t o p r e v e n t water from  c o l l e c t i n g on t o p o f t h e p l a s t i c c o v e r e d bed.  These  new  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were t h e r e s u l t o f t h e t r i a l s c a r r i e d out 1986  and 1987  p l a n t e d SD  HR.  A randomized complete b l o c k d e s i g n was dates, 4 r e p l i c a t i o n s per date 3 0 cm),  3 cultivars,  used w i t h 2 p l a n t i n g  (rows), 4 s p a c i n g s  ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Sumas' and  randomly w i t h i n t h e row,  and 3 0 p l a n t s p e r p l o t . P l a n t i n g d a t e s were May  12. T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n was  used.  Day  n e u t r a l and e v e r b e a r i n g c u l t i v a r  F i v e c u l t i v a r s were e v a l u a t e d , t h e EB, t h e DN,  ' S e l v a * , ' T r i b u t e ' and  (15, 20, 25  Double rows 22 and June  trials  'Ostara' and  'Tristar'.  and  'Totem', p l a c e d  were p l a n t e d 2 0 cm a p a r t .  2.7.  earlier,  ' R a p e l l a ' and  Only ' S e l v a '  ' T r i b u t e ' were used f o r s p a c i n g and f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s  and  reported  here.  I f n o t o t h e r w i s e n o t e d , p l a n t s were d e f l o w e r e d f o r 3 weeks  a f t e r p l a n t i n g , t o give the p l a n t s time t o e s t a b l i s h .  The  f o l l o w i n g c y c l e s o f f l o w e r s and f r u i t were e x p e c t e d t o be more prolific,  s i n c e t h e p l a n t s would be b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d .  Trickle  i r r i g a t i o n and b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch on 3 0 cm h i g h RB were used t h r o u g h o u t t h e DN e x p e r i m e n t s .  2.7.1.  'Selva' spacing  trial  I n 1989, p l a n t s o f t h e DN c u l t i v a r i n d o u b l e rows 2 0 cm a p a r t .  ' S e l v a ' were e s t a b l i s h e d  There were 4 rows as randomized  complete b l o c k s , 2 d a t e s o f d e f l o w e r i n g  (3 and 6 weeks a f t e r  p l a n t i n g ) , 3 s p a c i n g s (22, 30 and 38 cm w i t h i n t h e r o w s ) , 2 r e p l i c a t i o n s p e r s p a c i n g and 40 p l a n t s p e r p l o t .  2.7.2.  Day n e u t r a l and e v e r b e a r e r c u l t i v a r y i e l d  I n 1989, p l a n t s o f t h e EB 'Ostara' 'Tristar',  trial  and ' R a p e l l a ' and t h e DN  ' T r i b u t e ' and ' S e l v a ' were s e t 3 0 cm a p a r t  d o u b l e rows 2 0 cm a p a r t .  within  There were 3 rows as b l o c k s o f a  randomized complete b l o c k d e s i g n w i t h t h e 6 c u l t i v a r s and 4 0 plants per p l o t .  P l a n t s were d e f l o w e r e d f o r 3 weeks a f t e r  p l a n t i n g t o a i d i n establishment.  40  tral fertilizer  trial  W i t h i n a 4 a c r e f i e l d o f ' T r i b u t e * and ' S e l v a ' , a r e p l i c a t e d f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l was e s t a b l i s h e d .  Two r a t e s o f  n i t r o g e n were compared, 112 and 224 kg/ha a p p l i c a t i o n as i n s e c t i o n 2.3.3.  The f i e l d was p l a n t e d f o r commercial h a r v e s t and  one t h i r d o f t h e a r e a p l a n t e d w i t h with  'Selva'.  ' T r i b u t e ' and 2 t h i r d s  planted  Each c u l t i v a r s e c t i o n had 2 a r e a s o f low and 2  areas of high nitrogen f e r t i l i z a t i o n .  F o r each o f t h e s e 4  s e c t i o n s , 2 randomized complete b l o c k d e s i g n s were p l a c e d i n t h e field.  Four p l o t s p e r c u l t i v a r were p l a c e d randomly w i t h i n t h e  b l o c k s w i t h 20 p l a n t s p e r p l o t .  P l a n t s were spaced 30 cm  apart  i n a d o u b l e row 2 0 cm a p a r t .  2.7.4.  Day-neutral  spacing  trial  I n 1990, p l a n t s o f t h e DN c u l t i v a r s  ' S e l v a ' and ' T r i b u t e '  were p l a c e d i n d o u b l e rows (20 cm between t h e 2 r o w s ) . were 2 randomized b l o c k s , w i t h e i t h e r a low n i t r o g e n N/ha) and h i g h N (224 kg N/ha) t r e a t m e n t . as b l o c k s w i t h 2 s p a c i n g s c u l t i v a r s completely  There  (N) (112 kg  Each d e s i g n had 4 rows  (20 and 3 0 cm between p l a n t s ) and t h e 2  random w i t h i n a row.  There were 2  r e p l i c a t i o n s p e r s p a c i n g and 80 p l a n t s p e r p l o t .  The f e r t i l i z e r t r e a t m e n t s used 35 kg N/ha 13-9-16 (N-P-K) i n g r a n u l a r s l o w r e l e a s e form, i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e s o i l hilling,  before  f o l l o w e d by 4 a p p l i c a t i o n s o f 12-45-10 as a s t a r t e r  f e r t i l i z e r a t p l a n t i n g t i m e and t h e n 16 a p p l i c a t i o n s o f a l t e r n a t i n g c a l c i u m n i t r a t e and ammonium n i t r a t e .  A t t h e end o f  t h e growing season an a p p l i c a t i o n o f 4-18-34 f e r t i l i z e r was applied t o a i d i n maturity p r i o r t o the winter. from t h e d i f f e r e n t f e r t i l i z e r s treatments.  The t o t a l N  made up t h e 2 N f e r t i l i z e r  A l l o t h e r elements were k e p t t h e same.  Except f o r t h e granular a p p l i c a t i o n , f e r t i l i z e r s i n j e c t e d a t 5 o r 10 kg/ha p e r week.  were  The i n j e c t i o n was w i t h a 0-  22 1/min pump from a t a n k where t h e f e r t i l i z e r was mixed.  The  s o l u t i o n was i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e i r r i g a t i o n stream and d e l i v e r e d t o t h e s o i l and p l a n t r o o t s v i a t h e t r i c k l e t u b i n g . system i t was p o s s i b l e t o s p l i t  W i t h such a  f e r t i l i z e r applications to  d e l i v e r f e r t i l i z e r t o t h e p l a n t s over t h e e n t i r e season.  2.8.  Economic assessment o f t h e w a i t i n g bed, h i l l row and  day-neutrals  A comparison was made between t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l system, t h e MR, and t h e HR system.  U s i n g t h e Farm Income I n s u r a n c e Cost o f  P r o d u c t i o n Model ( F I I COPM) ( B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n o f  A g r i c u l t u r e 1986), a model o f a s t a n d a r d based on 8 h e c t a r e s o f p r o d u c t i o n . s t r a w b e r r i e s as t h e o n l y c r o p .  farm was c o n s t r u c t e d  The c r o p r o t a t i o n i n c l u d e d  Year one was l a n d p r e p a r a t i o n ,  y e a r 2 was p l a n t i n g and t h e n e x t 3 y e a r s were c r o p y e a r s .  Since  t h e HR produced i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , t h i s means t h e r e i s an e x t r a p r o d u c t i o n y e a r from t h e system.  A l l c o s t s a r e e s t i m a t e d on t h e h i g h s i d e , a l l r e t u r n s a r e estimated conservatively. included. above: land;  The c o s t o f r u n n e r removal i s  Assumptions a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l 3 comparisons mentioned  (1) t h e farm produces s t r a w b e r r i e s o n l y on 8 h e c t a r e s o f (2) c r o p r o t a t i o n i s one p r e p a r a t i o n y e a r , one p l a n t i n g  y e a r and 3 f u l l p r o d u c t i o n y e a r s ; picked.  (3) f r u i t  i s commercially  F e r t i l i z e r p r i c e s w i l l v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y , depending on  how much and w h i c h q u a l i t y o f slow r e l e a s e f e r t i l i z e r i s used.  Y i e l d s r e f l e c t e d very conservative estimations, the p o t e n t i a l i f a p p l i e d p r o p e r l y can exceed t h e g i v e n f i g u r e s . system c o s t s v a r y e x t r e m e l y farm.  The i r r i g a t i o n  depending on t h e p r e s e n t  setup o f t h e  The HR system w i t h SD f i g u r e s a r e based on t h e c u l t i v a r  'Rainier' only.  DN d a t a a r e based on ' S e l v a ' and ' T r i b u t e '  y i e l d s only.  An a n a l y s i s o f t h e DN d a t a was a l s o conducted, b u t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d p r e l i m i n a r y , s i n c e second-year d a t a were n o t a v a i l a b l e  43  at the  time.  44  3.  R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n  Results given are s t a t i s t i c a l l y unless otherwise noted i n t h e t e x t . be o b t a i n e d from t h e t a b l e s .  s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 % l e v e l L e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e can  S i n g l e degree o f freedom  comparisons were used i n t h e a n a l y s i s , b u t more comparisons were computed l a t e r . T h e r e f o r S c h e f f e ' s t e s t , a c o n s e r v a t i v e method, was used f o r comparing t h e c u l t i v a r means ( S t e e l and T o r r i e 1960).  3.1.  W a i t i n g bed c u l t u r a l system  3.1.1.  1986 p l a n t e d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l  I n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r o f 1986 t h e r e were l i n e a r and q u a d r a t i c e f f e c t s o f p l a n t i n g d a t e s upon f r u i t s i z e f o r t h e o u t - o f - s e a s o n production.  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e l a r g e f r u i t s i z e on t h e  f i r s t date, s i z e increased with p l a n t i n g date delay  (Table 1 ) .  No e f f e c t s were found o f p l a n t i n g d a t e upon s i z e i n t h e n e x t year.  P l a n t s had more f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e l a t e r  p e r i o d o f t h e season as t e m p e r a t u r e s i n c r e a s e d and f r u i t may have b e n e f i t e d from t h i s .  The l a r g e r s i z e a t t h e f i r s t d a t e may be  due t o a l o n g e r i n t e r v a l from p l a n t i n g t o h a r v e s t and more t i m e for the f r u i t t o s i z e .  In 1986 p e r c e n t c u l l s were h i g h e s t f o r t h e e a r l i e r d a t e s and d e c r e a s e d o v e r t i m e .  planting  T h i s was most l i k e l y due t o t h e  c o o l e r and more m o i s t weather d u r i n g t h e e a r l i e r h a r v e s t d a t e s and t h e d r i e r and warmer c o n d i t i o n s l a t e r .  I n 1987, no  d i f f e r e n c e s were found b u t c u l l s averaged 12 % compared w i t h an average o f 7 % f o r 1986 (Table 1 ) . The h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f c u l l s was due t o t h e c o l d and wet weather, which caused more f r u i t r o t d u r i n g t h e normal June h a r v e s t i n g p e r i o d o f 1987.  W i t h l a t e r p l a n t i n g d a t e s , y i e l d s i n c r e a s e d t o a maximum a t t h e t h i r d p l a n t i n g d a t e and d e c l i n e d toward t h e 6 t h d a t e . t r e n d was s i m i l a r  i n t h e second y e a r .  The  Again, the highest y i e l d  was r e c o r d e d f o r t h e t h i r d d a t e (Table 1 ) .  Conditions f o r set  and development o f t h e f r u i t were a p p a r e n t l y o p t i m a l .  For l a t e r  p l a n t i n g d a t e s , t h e summer heat reduced p l a n t growth and increased f r u i t m a t u r i t y r a t e g i v i n g lower  •Rainier  1  yields.  had t h e l a r g e s t f r u i t i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r 1986.  C u l t i v a r s d i d n o t d i f f e r i n f r u i t s i z e i n t h e n e x t y e a r , 1987 (Table 1 ) .  F r u i t was s m a l l e r i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r t h a n i n t h e  next year.  •Rainier year.  1  and 'Hood' produced t h e most c u l l s i n t h e p l a n t i n g  I n the year f o l l o w i n g ,  t h e most c u l l s  'Totem  1  produced l e a s t and  'Hood'  (Table 1 ) . The f i r m f r u i t o f 'Totem' proved t o be  l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o f r u i t r o t i n b o t h y e a r s , whereas ' R a i n i e r ' w i t h a r a t h e r s o f t f r u i t was h i g h l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o f r u i t r o t ( B a r r i t t 198 0).  'Hood' had many s m a l l f r u i t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e  culls.  • R a i n i e r ' had t h e h i g h e s t m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , and 'Hood' t h e l o w e s t . had formed a MR,  The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , when t h e p l a n t s  'Totem' produced more m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d d u r i n g  t h e r e g u l a r June season t h a n t h e o t h e r s ( T a b l e 1 ) .  'Rainier' i s  o u t s t a n d i n g i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r p r o d u c t i o n , which i s d i s c u s s e d later.  I n t h e n e x t y e a r , t h e r e l a t i v e y i e l d s among c u l t i v a r s  were as e x p e c t e d ; 'Totem' i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s n o t e d f o r i t s h i g h yield  (Daubeny e t a l . 1990).  There were more c u l l s i n 1987 t h a n i n 1986 and more m a r k e t a b l e f r u i t was produced year (Table 1 ) .  i n t h e former t h a n i n t h e p l a n t i n g  Rot d u r i n g t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r was n e g l i g i b l e  because f r u i t i s produced d u r i n g t h e r e l a t i v e l y d r y summer months; however, t h e June-season  crop the f o l l o w i n g year  e x h i b i t e d normal amounts o f r o t .  I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y over t h e p l a n t s i n t o t h e second year t o r e c o v e r t h e c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n growing t h e m u l t i p l e crown plants.  The o p t i o n t o l e t t h e p l a n t s r u n n e r and grow i n t o a MR  i s cost effective.  The c o s t s o f runner removal, from p l a n t s kept  as s i n g l e , m u l t i - c r o w n p l a n t s i n a h i l l system, i s e x t r e m e l y high.  F u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e h i l l system w i l l be d e s c r i b e d  i n t h e second WB t r i a l .  Y i e l d s from t h e MR grown from t h e  m u l t i p l e crown WB p l a n t s were h i g h f o r a l l c u l t i v a r s , e x c e p t 'Hood', w h i c h a l r e a d y showed v i r u s problems i n t h e f i r s t y e a r .  3.1.2.  1987 p l a n t e d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l  F e r t i l i z e r t r e a t m e n t s had no e f f e c t on s i z e , c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d , e x c e p t i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , when t h e f r u i t s i z e was s m a l l e r from t h e second t y p e o f f e r t i l i z e r coated) ( T a b l e 2 ) . the  (organically  The n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t o f t h e f e r t i l i z e r was  same, b u t t h e r e l e a s e mechanism d i f f e r e d .  T h i s caused a  s l o w e r r e l e a s e o f n i t r o g e n f o r t h e second and f a s t e r r e l e a s e f o r the  other f e r t i l i z e r .  R e s u l t s show t h a t t h e r e i s n o t much  d i f f e r e n c e from t h e s e s i m i l a r  fertilizers.  In t h e 1987 p l a n t i n g y e a r , f r u i t s i z e was l a r g e r from l a t e r dates but f e l l o f f i n the l a s t dates.  There was a l i n e a r  effect  f o r t h e second y e a r s i z e , w i t h t h e l a r g e s t f r u i t s i z e o b t a i n e d from t h e l a t e r p l a n t i n g d a t e s .  Delayed p l a n t i n g r e s u l t e d i n  l a r g e r f r u i t s i z e on most d a t e s as was o b s e r v e d i n t h e f i r s t WB trial  (Table 2 ) .  P l a n t s had more f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e  l a t e r p e r i o d o f t h e season as t e m p e r a t u r e s i n c r e a s e d and f r u i t  48 may have b e n e f i t e d from t h i s ; t h i s s i t u a t i o n a l s o o c c u r r e d i n t h e 1986 p l a n t e d WB t r i a l .  In  1987, t h e amounts o f c u l l e d f r u i t were d i f f e r e n t among t h e  p l a n t i n g d a t e s , b u t t h e r e was no t r e n d (Table 2 ) .  I n t h e next  y e a r , 1988, c u l l d a t a were o b t a i n e d o n l y from t h e f i r s t p l a n t i n g date.  With l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates, y i e l d s decreased t r e n d was r e v e r s e d f o r t h e second y e a r .  linearly.  This  The h i g h e s t y i e l d was  r e c o r d e d on t h e f i f t h d a t e and t h e minimum a t t h e f i r s t p l a n t i n g date  (Table 2 ) .  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n comparison w i t h t h e f i r s t  t r i a l c o u l d be due t o t h e use o f t h e p l a s t i c mulch and irrigation.  WB  trickle  A l s o , p l a n t s i n t h e second y e a r o f t h e 1987 p l a n t e d  t r i a l were n o t a l l o w e d t o form r u n n e r s and were s t i l l  single  p l a n t s b u t w i t h many crows, whereas t h e p l a n t s i n t h e 1986 p l a n t e d t r i a l were a l l o w e d t o form a MR. marketable  There were h i g h e r  y i e l d s r e c o r d e d form t h e second y e a r where t h e MR  system was used.  A l s o , y i e l d s i n 1988 from HR were r a t h e r low,  as r a i n d u r i n g t h e h a r v e s t caused h i g h l e v e l s o f r o t .  ' R a i n i e r ' had t h e l a r g e s t f r u i t i n 1987 and 1988, 'Hood' t h e s m a l l e s t i n both years. t h e 1986 p l a n t e d t r i a l  These r e s u l t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e from (Table 2 ) . Average f r u i t s i z e was s m a l l  i n t h e f i r s t y e a r , when t h e p l a n t s were under s t r e s s from t h e  49  e f f e c t s o f immediate f l o w e r and f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n .  'Hood  1  produced  t h e l e a s t and ' R a i n i e r * t h e most c u l l s i n t h e  p l a n t i n g y e a r and ' R a i n i e r ' t h e most. produced  I n the next year  t h e most c u l l s and ' R a i n i e r ' t h e l e a s t .  'Totem'  A g a i n , because  of l o s s o f samples on t h e second t h r o u g h 6 t h p l a n t i n g d a t e , means f o r t h e c u l t i v a r s a r e a d j u s t e d f o r t h e f i r s t d a t e  cull  (Table  2) .  I n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , ' R a i n i e r ' had t h e h i g h e s t  marketable  y i e l d , and 'Hood' t h e l o w e s t (Table 2 ) . A g a i n , t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e 1986 p l a n t e d t r i a l . the p l a n t i n g year production. harvest period  'Rainier' i s outstanding i n  The f o l l o w i n g y e a r i n t h e June  ' R a i n i e r ' s t i l l produced  the highest y i e l d s .  These r e s u l t s d i f f e r from t h e 1986 p l a n t e d t r i a l ,  where second  y e a r p r o d u c t i o n was much h i g h e r (Table 1 ) . A p p a r e n t l y  'Totem'  w i l l produce a v e r y h i g h y i e l d w i t h more runner p l a n t s b u t • R a i n i e r ' a g a i n performed  best with multiple-crown plants.  F r u i t s were l a r g e r i n 1987 t h a n i n 1988 b u t c o n s i d e r a b l y more marketable  f r u i t was produced  i n t h e second y e a r t h a n i n t h e  p l a n t i n g y e a r (Table 2 ) . As f r u i t was produced  d u r i n g t h e summer  months i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , r o t was n e g l i g i b l e , however, t h e June-season c r o p t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r e x h i b i t e d e x p e c t e d amounts o f rot.  R e s u l t s o f t h e 1987 p l a n t e d t r i a l g e n e r a l l y agreed w i t h from t h e 1986 p l a n t e d t r i a l .  those  Second y e a r y i e l d was l e s s t h a n i n  t h e 1986 p l a n t e d t r i a l as p l a n t s were i n a h i l l system and n o t a l l o w e d t o r u n n e r , which was n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e p l a s t i c mulch. Only ' R a i n i e r  1  y i e l d s seem t o be h i g h enough t o make up f o r t h e  increased input costs.  Second y e a r y i e l d s a g a i n compared  f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h e y i e l d s from MR on f l a t  soil,  b u t no major  g a i n s o v e r t h e MR were o b t a i n e d w i t h t h i s system. b e n e f i t was t h e o u t - o f - s e a s o n  3.1.3.  The o n l y  f r u i t i n t h e p l a n t i n g year.  1987 p l a n t e d t r i a l w a i t i n g bed t r i a l u s i n g mother p l a n t s  T h i s t r i a l used t h e same c u l t i v a r s and was p a r t o f t h e 1987 p l a n t e d WB t r i a l , b u t because t h e p l a n t s were produced d i f f e r e n t l y , r e s u l t s are discussed separately.  F e r t i l i z e r treatments  had l i t t l e e f f e c t on f r u i t s i z e .  t h e second y e a r s i z e was l e s s f o r t h e second f e r t i l i z e r . was a l s o found i n t h e 1987 p l a n t e d WB t r i a l .  In This  As w i t h t h e 1987  p l a n t e d WB, t h e c u l l s were d e t e r m i n e d o n l y f o r t h e f i r s t p l a n t i n g d a t e s and t h e r e f o r means f o r y e a r , f e r t i l i z e r adjusted t o t h a t date. 3).  Marketable  No i n f l u e n c e on c u l l s was noted  y i e l d was h i g h e r a t f e r t i l i z e r  coated) i n 1988.  and c u l t i v a r s were (Table  2 (organically  These r e s u l t s can be e x p l a i n e d i n t h e same way  51 as t h e r e s u l t s from t h e  I n t h e 1987  WB.  out-of-season  production, f r u i t s i z e  increased  w i t h delayed p l a n t i n g , then f e l l o f f i n the l a t e r dates.  There  were no e f f e c t s o f d a t e of p l a n t i n g on f r u i t s i z e i n 1988 3).  (Table  These r e s u l t s were somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h e WB p l a n t s but  i n f l u e n c e o f p l a n t i n g d a t e s upon s i z e was  I n 1987,  l e s s pronounced.  t h e p e r c e n t c u l l s were d i f f e r e n t f o r p l a n t i n g d a t e s  and showed a q u a d r a t i c t r e n d . recorded  the  I n 1988,  t h e number of c u l l s  o n l y f o r t h e f i r s t p l a n t i n g d a t e (Table 3 ) .  p e r c e n t a g e c u l l s was  The  greater  due t o t h e i n c l e m e n t weather d u r i n g  normal June h a r v e s t i n g p e r i o d of  was  the  1988.  P r o g r e s s i v e l y l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates r e s u l t e d i n decreased y i e l d s i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , t h i s t r e n d was  reversed i n the  second y e a r , when y i e l d s i n c r e a s e d w i t h l a t e r p l a n t i n g d a t e s of the previous year  (Table 3 ) .  t h o s e produced i n t h e 1987 g r o w i n g system. WB  These y i e l d s were t h u s s i m i l a r t o  p l a n t e d WB,  which used t h e same  The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s t r i a l and t h e  t r i a l c o u l d be due t o t h e use o f t h e p l a s t i c mulch and  irrigation. were s t i l l t h e 1986  A l s o p l a n t s i n t h e second y e a r of t h e 1987 s i n g l e , m u l t i p l e crowned p l a n t s whereas t h e  p l a n t e d t r i a l had  marketable y i e l d s recorded  formed a MR.  first  trickle trial  plants in  There were h i g h e r  form t h e second y e a r where t h e  MR  system was used. low,  M a r k e t a b l e y i e l d s i n 1988 from HR were r a t h e r  as r a i n d u r i n g t h e h a r v e s t  caused h i g h l e v e l s o f r o t .  As  mother p l a n t s a r e cheaper f o r t h e grower, t h i s method would be p r e f e r r e d t o t h e w a i t i n g bed, however t h e s e p l a n t s a r e i n v e r y limited  supply.  I n 1987 ' R a i n i e r ' had t h e l a r g e s t f r u i t and 'Totem t h e smallest with the next year, cultivars  'Shuksan' p r o d u c i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e  sized f r u i t .  In  1988, t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e  (Table 3 ) . F r u i t s i z e o f a l l c u l t i v a r s was s m a l l e r i n  t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r t h a n i n t h e next and t h i s r e f l e c t s s t r e s s o f producing f r u i t r i g h t a f t e r p l a n t i n g .  I n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s f o r p e r c e n t c u l l s among t h e c u l t i v a r s .  'Totem' proved t o be l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e  t o f r u i t r o t i n t h e n e x t y e a r , whereas ' R a i n i e r ' and 'Shuksan' w i t h r a t h e r s o f t f r u i t were more s u s c e p t i b l e t o f r u i t r o t and produced t h e most c u l l s .  I n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r ' R a i n i e r ' produced more m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d t h a n 'Totem' (Table 3 ) . These r e s u l t s a r e l i k e t h o s e o f t h e 1986 and  1987 p l a n t e d WB t r i a l s and y i e l d s compared f a v o r a b l y w i t h WB  plants.  The f o l l o w i n g y e a r 'Totem' and ' R a i n i e r * had more  m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d i n t h e r e g u l a r June h a r v e s t p e r i o d t h a n 'Shuksan'.  These y i e l d s were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e 1987  53  p l a n t e d WB  trial.  F r u i t was f r u i t was first  l a r g e r i n 1987  t h a n i n 1988,  and more m a r k e t a b l e  produced i n t h e second y e a r o f t h e p l a n t i n g t h a n i n the  (Table 3 ) .  As f r u i t was  i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , r o t was  produced d u r i n g t h e summer months a g a i n n e g l i g i b l e , however, t h e June  c r o p t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r e x h i b i t e d normal amounts o f r o t  (Data  adjusted t o the f i r s t p l a n t i n g date).  year  During the f i r s t  p l a n t s d e v e l o p e d more crowns and t h e r e f o r produced much more f r u i t i n the next  year.  Mother p l a n t s y i e l d e d s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n t h e WB (Tables  1, 2, 3 ) .  Mother p l a n t s are s t i l l more e c o n o m i c a l t o  when t h e c o s t of p r o d u c i n g WB f a c t o r i s p l a n t supply.  plants i s considered.  Y i e l d s from t h e 1986  v a r y w i t h p l a n t i n g d a t e , but i n t h e 1987  The  p l a n t e d WB  use  limiting did  not  planted t r i a l there  was  a decrease i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y of l a t e r p l a n t i n g s . standpoint  plants  From t h e  o f p r o f i t , i t would s t i l l be w o r t h w h i l e i n t h e  Pacific  N o r t h w e s t t o p l a n t so as t o s c h e d u l e t h e h a r v e s t i n g from t h e  end  of J u l y t o t h e f i r s t f r o s t , d e s p i t e a d e c r e a s e i n y i e l d because o f h i g h e r p r i c e s and h i g h e r t o t a l  3.1.4.  The  returns.  E v a l u a t i o n of t h e w a i t i n g beds  r e s u l t s from t h e 2 WB  t r i a l s and t h e mother p l a n t s were  v e r y s i m i l a r and agreed t h a t  ' R a i n i e r ' was t h e p r e f e r r e d c u l t i v a r  f o r t h i s system because i t can produce s u f f i c i e n t f r u i t t o make harvesting  f r u i t out o f season w o r t h w h i l e .  One r e a s o n f o r  ' R a i n i e r ' s ' r e l a t i v e l a r g e f r u i t s and u l t i m a t e l y g r e a t e r y i e l d i n the p l a n t i n g y e a r may be t h a t i t f r u i t s  l a t e r than the other  c u l t i v a r s and t h u s may have more t i m e t o d e v e l o p a more r o o t system and s t r o n g e r  extensive  plant.  'Totem' might out-produce ' R a i n i e r ' i n t h e second y e a r but t h e s i z e and amount o f f r u i t produced i n t h e f i r s t y e a r a r e not sufficient to justify  t h e use o f t h i s c u l t i v a r i n t h e system.  O u t - o f - s e a s o n f r u i t i s e n t i r e l y f o r t h e f r e s h market as t h e l o c a l processing  i n d u s t r y w i l l not a c c e p t f r u i t a f t e r t h e main season.  Also processing  p r i c e s a r e not h i g h enough t o compete w i t h t h e  o u t - o f - s e a s o n f r e s h market.  Thirdly,  'Rainier' i s better  f o r t h e f r e s h market because i t has a b e t t e r appearance f l a v o r t h a n 'Totem'.  Because  suited  and  ' R a i n i e r ' f r u i t i s s o f t , i t must  be s o l d a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e d e t e r i o r a t i o n due t o r o t and l o s s of c o l o r .  The newly r e l e a s e d  'Shuswap' w i t h e x c e l l e n t  market q u a l i t i e s and e s p e c i a l l y f i r m f r u i t c o u l d p o s s i b l y  fresh  be  adapted t o a WB system (Daubeny e t a l . 1990).  'Hood' i s n o t s u i t e d f o r t h e WB system because i t i s v e r y s u s c e p t i b l e t o v i r u s d i s e a s e s and t h r o u g h o u t t h e t r i a l s showed s e v e r e v i r u s symptoms, k i l l i n g a t l e a s t 50% o f t h e p l a n t s i n t h e  55  second y e a r  (data n o t presented)  sometimes s m a l l f r u i t .  and produced unmarketable and  'Shuksan' has a good f r e s h market f l a v o r ,  but y i e l d s i n b o t h y e a r s were n o t enough t o be p r o f i t a b l e and t h e f i r s t flush of f r u i t s i s often fasciated.  A l t h o u g h no comparisons can be made between t h e w a i t i n g bed t r i a l s and between each o f t h e s e and t h e mother p l a n t t r i a l , t h e h i g h e s t y i e l d s were o b t a i n e d from t h e 1986 p l a n t e d WB  trial.  T h i s i s l i k e l y due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n y e a r s , b u t some may be due t o t h e d i f f e r e n t system used w i t h t h e 1987 WB and t h e mother plant t r i a l ,  3.2.  i n v o l v i n g p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e  Short-day  3.2.1.  irrigation.  h i l l row t r i a l s  1986 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l  As a r e s u l t o f h a r v e s t i n g i n t h e warm and d r y summer months, few c u l l s were noted and 'Shuswap' had t h e l e a s t c u l l s i n t h e second y e a r . No o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s were noted 4).  i n this trial  (Table  A l t h o u g h m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p l a n t i n g year  were g r e a t , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n c e a c h i e v e d because t h e t r i a l was s m a l l .  L a r g e r s i z e f r u i t was o b t a i n e d i n 1987 compared t o 1988, more  c u l l s were h a r v e s t e d  i n 1987 and c o n s i d e r a b l y more m a r k e t a b l e  f r u i t was produced i n t h e second y e a r o f t h e p l a n t a t i o n t h a n i n the p l a n t i n g year.  As f r u i t was produced d u r i n g t h e summer  months i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , r o t was a g a i n n e g l i g i b l e , however t h e normal June-season c r o p t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r e x h i b i t e d expected amounts o f r o t .  D u r i n g t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r p l a n t s d e v e l o p e d more  crowns and t h e r e f o r produced much more f r u i t i n t h e n e x t y e a r t h a n was p o s s i b l e i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r when t h e number o f f l o w e r s were p r e d e t e r m i n e d b e f o r e  The  planting.  l a s t t r i a l was r a t h e r s m a l l and t h e r e f o r o n l y good f o r  detecting large differences. d i r e c t i o n future research  I t gave an i n d i c a t i o n o f what  s h o u l d t a k e toward f i n d i n g a l e s s  e x p e n s i v e system t h a n t h e WB f o r p r o d u c i n g o u t - o f - s e a s o n from SD c u l t i v a r s .  fruit  As y i e l d compared f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h a t from  w a i t i n g bed and mother p l a n t s , t h e same amount o f f r u i t might be produced from much cheaper p l a n t s . the h i l l  The r u n n e r p l a n t s used f o r  row t r i a l s a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e a t t h e n u r s e r i e s and  a r e t h e same p l a n t s t h a t a r e c u r r e n t l y used t o e s t a b l i s h MR plantings. and  This l e d t o the further t r i a l s described  i n t h e 1987  1988 p l a n t e d HR t r i a l s .  3.2.2.  1987 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l  row t r i a l  F e r t i l i z e r t r e a t m e n t s had no e f f e c t on s i z e i n e i t h e r y e a r .  P e r c e n t c u l l s were h i g h e r f o r f e r t i l i z e r one i n 1988, n o t d i f f e r e n t i n 1987. fertilizer  Marketable  y i e l d was n o t i n f l u e n c e d by  (Table 5 ) . As was t r u e f o r t h e 1987 p l a n t e d WB and  mother p l a n t t r i a l s , t h e n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t o f t h e f e r t i l i z e r was t h e same, b u t t h e r e l e a s e mechanism d i f f e r e d .  T h i s caused a  s l o w e r r e l e a s e o f n i t r o g e n f o r one and f a s t e r r e l e a s e f o r t h e other f e r t i l i z e r .  R e s u l t s show t h a t t h e r e r e a l l y i s n o t much  d i f f e r e n c e f o r these s i m i l a r f e r t i l i z e r s , except t h a t there seemed t o be more n i t r o g e n a v a i l a b l e from one f e r t i l i z e r t o influence the c u l l s .  I t i s possible that the extra N i s  c o n d u c i v e t o f r u i t r o t development (Freeman and P e p i n 1983, T u r n e r and M u i r ,  1985).  I n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , 1987, i n t h e o u t - o f - s e a s o n  production,  t h e r e were l i n e a r and q u a d r a t i c e f f e c t s f o r f r u i t s i z e o v e r t h e 6 p l a n t i n g dates.  F r u i t s i z e decreased l i n e a r l y w i t h  progressing  p l a n t i n g d a t e s , t h e f i r s t d a t e was s l i g h t l y t o o low t o f i t t h e line.  The r e v e r s e was t r u e f o r t h e n e x t y e a r when s i z e  w i t h l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates.  increased  A possible explanation f o r t h i s i s  t h e h e a t i n t h e summer o f t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , when l a t e r p l a n t i n g d a t e s produced f r u i t f a s t e r and t h e s e r i p e n e d more r a p i d l y . Therefor  f r u i t d i d n o t s i z e as much d u r i n g l a t e r d a t e s .  In the  second y e a r a l l f r u i t i s produced d u r i n g t h e normal June season and  f r u i t s i z e s h o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d i n a s i m i l a r way by t h e  weather (Table 5 ) . T h i s i s d i f f e r e n t form t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e W B  58 t r i a l s , where f r u i t s i z e i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r seemed t o i n c r e a s e with later plantings.  L a t e r p l a n t i n g s tended t o have a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f c u l l s i n b o t h y e a r s ( T a b l e 5 ) , which i s l i k e l y due t o t h e amount o f unmarketable  small f r u i t  produced.  As p l a n t i n g d a t e s were d e l a y e d , y i e l d s d e c r e a s e d t o a minimum.  T h i s t r e n d was n o t seen i n t h e second y e a r .  As t h e r e  was d o u b l e t h e y i e l d r e c o r d e d i n t h e f i r s t y e a r i n t h e e a r l i e r p l a n t i n g d a t e s o v e r t h e l a t e r d a t e s , i t seems n e c e s s a r y t o p l a n t quite e a r l y , e s p e c i a l l y since p l a n t i n g year y i e l d b r i n g s the h i g h e s t p r i c e s , because i t i s produced o u t o f season  (Table 5 ) .  T h i s t r e n d i s t h e r e v e r s e t o t h a t o f t h e WB t r i a l s and an e x p l a n a t i o n a g a i n can be found i n t h e s m a l l e r f r u i t produced a t l a t e r p l a n t i n g d a t e s , when t h e p l a n t s were under i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s due t o h o t weather.  ' R a i n i e r ' and 'Shuksan' had t h e l a r g e s t f r u i t i n 1987, 'Totem' t h e s m a l l e s t (Table 5 ) . the l a r g e s t f r u i t .  I n t h e second y e a r , 'Sumas' had  ' R a i n i e r ' produced t h e l a r g e s t f r u i t i n t h e  p l a n t i n g y e a r , s i m i l a r t o i t s WB performance.  One r e a s o n f o r  ' R a i n i e r * s ' r e l a t i v e l a r g e f r u i t and g r e a t e r y i e l d i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r may be t h a t i t produces f r u i t l a t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r cultivars  and t h u s may have more t i m e t o d e v e l o p a more e x t e n s i v e  59 r o o t system and s t r o n g e r p l a n t .  •Sumas  1  produced t h e most c u l l s i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r and  'Totem' and 'Shuksan' t h e l e a s t .  I n t h e n e x t y e a r 'Shuksan' had  t h e most c u l l s and t h e o t h e r c u l t i v a r s s i m i l a r s m a l l e r amounts (Table 5 ) .  I n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r ' R a i n i e r ' had t h e h i g h e s t m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d , t h e o t h e r c u l t i v a r s produced much l o w e r y i e l d s . f o l l o w i n g y e a r 'Sumas' and ' R a i n i e r ' produced  The  t h e most.  'Rainier' i s the best suited c u l t i v a r f o r producing f r u i t i n the p l a n t i n g year.  T h i s i s due t o t h e l a t e - r i p e n i n g h a b i t which  a l l o w s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a l a r g e r p l a n t i n c l u d i n g a more e x t e n s i v e r o o t system.  I t n o t o n l y h e l p s t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e  o u t - o f - s e a s o n f r u i t b u t a l s o produces a r e s p e c t a b l e y i e l d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g year.  These f e a t u r e s a r e b o t h v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r  p r o f i t a b l e r e t u r n s over an e n t i r e growing c y c l e (Table 5 ) .  L a r g e r f r u i t s were r e c o r d e d i n 1988 t h a n i n 1987.  W h i l e more  c u l l s were d i s c a r d e d i n 1988 t h a n i n 1987, c o n s i d e r a b l y more m a r k e t a b l e f r u i t was produced  i n t h e second y e a r p l a n t a t i o n than  i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r (Table 5 ) . When f r u i t s had more t i m e t o s i z e up, t h e r e were much l a r g e r f r u i t s produced. produced  As f r u i t was  d u r i n g t h e summer months i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , r o t was  60  n e g l i g i b l e , however t h e normal June-season y e a r e x h i b i t e d normal amounts o f r o t .  crop t h e f o l l o w i n g  During the p l a n t i n g year  p l a n t s d e v e l o p e d more crowns and t h e r e f o r produced much more f r u i t i n t h e next year.  The m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d s from t h e o u t - o f - s e a s o n f i r s t  planting  y e a r o f SD c u l t i v a r s , compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h o s e produced w i t h t h e WB system.  P l a n t s a r e much cheaper, e a s i e r t o h a n d l e and  r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e as many p l a n t s have t o be p l a n t e d i n t h e HR t h a n i n t h e o t h e r 2 systems.  S u b s e q u e n t l y , i t was i m p o r t a n t t o determine t h e o p t i m a l s p a c i n g f o r t h e SD o u t - o f - s e a s o n p r o d u c t i o n .  3.2.3.  1987 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l w i t h double rows  A t t h e same t i m e as t h e HR w i t h s i n g l e s p a c i n g was p l a n t e d i n 1987,  a s m a l l experiment was undertaken t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s o f  s p a c i n g v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n and between rows.  ' R a i n i e r ' and  'Totem* were t h e c u l t i v a r s used because t h e former had performed b e s t i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r s and t h e l a t t e r i n t h e next y e a r s and, a t t h e same t i m e , was t h e most w i d e l y p l a n t e d c u l t i v a r i n t h e region.  61 With d o u b l e row s p a c i n g s , t h e y i e l d s were c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r t h a n from a s i n g l e row. year,  ' R a i n i e r * had l a r g e r f r u i t t h a n  previous t r i a l s  (Table 6 ) .  'Totem', as i n most o f t h e  I n t h e n e x t y e a r t h i s was r e v e r s e d .  G e n e r a l l y t h e r e were fewer c u l l s , 1987 and 'Totem' i n 1988.  In the p l a n t i n g  b u t ' R a i n i e r ' had more c u l l s i n  ' R a i n i e r ' had a h i g h e r y i e l d  'Totem' i n t h e f i r s t y e a r , b u t i n t h e next y e a r out-produced  than  'Totem'  ' R a i n i e r ' , as i n some p r e v i o u s t r i a l s .  These h i g h  y i e l d s i n both years represent y e t another step i n decreasing the cost of production per u n i t of f r u i t  harvested.  The c l o s e r s p a c i n g o f 15 cm produced more f r u i t  (Table 6 ) .  The c l o s e r s p a c i n g a l s o caused s m a l l e r f r u i t and more c u l l s i n 1987 a l t h o u g h t h e r e v e r s e was t r u e f o r c u l l s i n 1988. a much h i g h e r y i e l d , as e x p e c t e d , more c u l l s and l a r g e r s i z e d f r u i t . spacing  There was  i n t h e second y e a r , as w e l l as There were no c u l t i v a r by  interactions.  T h i s t r i a l gave t h e f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t double rows w i t h c l o s e spacings are probably best f o r out-of-season w i t h HR.  A separate t r i a l  production  (Hesketh e t a l . 1990a, Hesketh e t a l .  1990b) s u g g e s t s , t h a t t h e s p a c i n g o f p l a n t s w i t h i n a row s h o u l d be as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e .  As second y e a r y i e l d s now r i v a l e d  those  produced by t h e most p r o l i f i c second y e a r MR system, t h e p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e  i r r i g a t i o n were thought t o have p o t e n t i a l s i n c e  t h e i n c r e a s e d c o s t s i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r were q u i c k l y o f f s e t w i t h a y i e l d i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r which i s n o n - e x i s t e n t f o r t h e MR. The o u t - o f - s e a s o n p r o d u c t i o n a l s o b r i n g s h i g h e r p r i c e s and g i v e s an added b e n e f i t t o t h e system.  F r u i t was e x t r e m e l y c l e a n , and a  premium p r i c e c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f o r i t .  3.2.4.  1988 p l a n t e d s h o r t - d a y h i l l row t r i a l  I n t h e f i r s t y e a r , t h e e a r l i e r p l a n t i n g gave l a r g e r s i z e and more m a r k e t a b l e f r u i t , p r o b a b l y because t h e i n t e r v a l from p l a n t i n g t o h a r v e s t was l o n g e r t h a n f o r t h e l a t e r d a t e (Table 7 ) . I n t h e second y e a r p l a n t i n g d a t e s d i d n o t a f f e c t s i z e .  There were no e f f e c t s o f p l a n t s p a c i n g upon s i z e and c u l l s , e x c e p t i n t h e second y e a r when f r u i t s i z e i n c r e a s e d w i t h w i d e r spacings (Table 7 ) . Marketable y i e l d i n c r e a s e d l i n e a r l y w i t h c l o s e r s p a c i n g , b o t h i n t h e y e a r o f p l a n t i n g and i n t h e n e x t year.  F r u i t s i z e was l a r g e r a t t h e w i d e r s p a c i n g s t h a n a t c l o s e r  s p a c i n g s i n t h e second y e a r .  I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e r e was no  e f f e c t on t h e c u l l s as one would expect more r o t i n a c l o s e r spaced s i t u a t i o n w i t h l e s s a i r movement.  Marketable y i e l d  was  i n c r e a s e d w i t h c l o s e r s p a c i n g s , which can be e x p e c t e d from t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , when t h e p o t e n t i a l amount o f f r u i t i s predetermined a t p l a n t i n g time.  I n t h e second y e a r , a p o s s i b l e  63  crowding e f f e c t could l i m i t the p r o d u c t i o n of marketable y i e l d . C o m p e t i t i o n f o r l i g h t , water and n u t r i e n t s c o u l d e x p l a i n such an effect.  However a t t h e s p a c i n g s used no d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s were  observed.  ' R a i n i e r ' and 'Sumas' had t h e l a r g e s t f r u i t i n 1987 and • R a i n i e r ' t h e l a r g e s t i n 1989 (Table 7 ) .  'Totem' produced t h e  most c u l l s i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r and ' R a i n i e r ' t h e most t h e f o l l o w i n g year (Table 7 ) . to the other c u l t i v a r s the  i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r can be e x p l a i n e d by  amount o f s m a l l and misshapen  'Sumas'. the  The low c u l l s f o r ' R a i n i e r ' compared  f r u i t d i s c a r d e d f o r 'Totem' and  I n normal p r o d u c t i o n , i n t h e n e x t y e a r , ' R a i n i e r ' had  most c u l l s , because o f h i g h r o t .  ' R a i n i e r ' produced t h e g r e a t e s t m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r and t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r 'Sumas' had t h e g r e a t e s t (Table 7 ) .  These r e s u l t s a g a i n agreed w i t h e a r l i e r  b u t 'Totem' performed r a t h e r p o o r l y i n t h i s  experiments  trial.  S m a l l e r f r u i t s were found i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , 1988, t h a n i n t h e n e x t y e a r , p r o b a b l y because o f t h e s t r e s s o f p r o d u c i n g more f r u i t q u i c k l y  (Table 7 ) . There were more c u l l s i n t h e second  y e a r and c o n s i d e r a b l y more m a r k e t a b l e f r u i t was produced i n t h e second t h a n i n t h e f i r s t y e a r .  When f r u i t s had more t i m e t o s i z e  up, much l a r g e r f r u i t s were produced.  As f r u i t was produced  d u r i n g t h e summer months i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , r o t was negligible,  however i n t h e normal June-season  crop the f o l l o w i n g  y e a r more r o t was e v i d e n t (Baumann and Daubeny 1989).  Plants  d e v e l o p e d more crowns d u r i n g t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r and t h e r e f o r produced much more f r u i t i n t h e next y e a r .  Marketable y i e l d s i n t h i s t r i a l d i d not reach the l e v e l of t h e e a r l i e r p l a n t i n g s , b u t t h i s l a s t experiment was s i t u a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n and h i l l s were now r a i s e d t o t w i c e t h e h e i g h t t h e y were i n e a r l i e r  3.3.  trials.  Day n e u t r a l and e v e r b e a r i n g c u l t i v a r  trials  T r i a l s o f EB and DN c u l t i v a r s were s t a r t e d a t t h e same t i m e as t h e 1988 p l a n t e d HR  t r i a l s i n c e i t was thought t o be  advantageous t o produce f r u i t not o n l y o u t - o f - s e a s o n , b u t a l s o t produce i t from t h e same p l a n t s o v e r t h e e n t i r e season; i n o t h e r words i t would be more e c o n o m i c a l .  3.3.1.  Day n e u t r a l and e v e r b e a r i n g c u l t i v a r y i e l d  trial  The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t o f t h e s t u d y was t o t e s t 5 EB and DN cultivars  i n 1988 f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f one y e a r .  Subsequently  most p l a n t s s u r v i v e d t h e u n u s u a l l y h a r s h 1988-1989 w i n t e r , w i t h  t e m p e r a t u r e s below -10° C and s t r o n g winds. only  ' R a p e l l a ' had r e l a t i v e low s u r v i v a l r a t e s  p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by "wide s p a c i n g " protection.  (Table 8 ) ,  and t h u s l a c k o f  I t was d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e  t h e second y e a r .  t o test the plants f o r  As DN c u l t i v a r s f r u i t a l l season,  damaged i n t h e b e g i n n i n g and  Among t h e c u l t i v a r s ,  f r u i t production  o f t h e season p l a y e d  continued  flowers  o n l y a minor r o l e  t o October, 1989.  Data f o r ' R a p e l l a ' and 'Ostara'  f o r t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r have t o  be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n s i n c e t h e p l a n t s a r r i v e d from B r i t a i n i n p o o r c o n d i t i o n and e s t a b l i s h e d s l o w e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r cultivars.  A l s o p l o t s f o r ' R a p e l l a ' had o n l y a few p l a n t s  surviving.  Y i e l d was e s t i m a t e d  other c u l t i v a r s .  Therefor  on a p e r p l a n t b a s i s as f o r t h e  p r e c i s i o n i s l o w e r f o r ' R a p e l l a ' and  because o f l e s s c r o w d i n g , means and v a r i a n c e may be i n f l a t e d .  ' R a p e l l a ' produced t h e l a r g e s t f r u i t i n b o t h y e a r s , though i t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n 'Ostara' p l a n t i n g year,  (Table 9 ) .  1988, c u l t i v a r s d i d n o t d i f f e r i n p e r c e n t  In the culls.  I n 1989 ' R a p e l l a ' had t h e l e a s t c u l l s and o n l y  'Tribute' d i f f e r e d  from ' R a p e l l a ' .  misshapen (some  Most o f t h e c u l l s r e p r e s e n t e d  winterdamage) o r s m a l l f r u i t and, i n t h e case o f ' R a p e l l a ' and •Ostara'  s o f t f r u i t , t h a t was b r u i s e d .  There was a l s o some r o t ,  s i n c e t h e summer was r e l a t i v e l y wet (Table 9 ) .  66  I n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d s between t h e c u l t i v a r s d e s p i t e t h e l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n means.  I n 1989  'Ostara' and  ' R a p e l l a ' had t h e l a r g e s t y i e l d  and  ' T r i b u t e ' t h e l o w e s t (Table 9 ) .  S i z e d i d not d i f f e r between y e a r s , but c u l l s were much h i g h e r i n t h e second y e a r (48.0 % compared t o 9.7  %) and  y i e l d l o w e r i n t h e second y e a r (Table 9 ) .  I t i s interesting that  t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n from  'Ostara', ' R a p e l l a ' and T r i s t a r '  g r e a t e r i n t h e second y e a r . was  c l a s s e d as c u l l s .  However, much o f t h e f r u i t  was produced  The amount o f c u l l s might be d e c r e a s e d  u s i n g f u n g i c i d e s p r a y s t o reduce f r u i t r o t . consistent  marketable  ' S e l v a ' was  by  t h e most  producer.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s from  this  t r i a l a r e not e n t i r e l y based on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d produced, acceptance  but a r e p a r t i a l l y dependent on t h e  o f t h e f r u i t on t h e market.  I t became o b v i o u s d u r i n g  t h e t r i a l t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e f r u i t appeared s a l a b l e , t h e grower who  c o o p e r a t e d i n t h e t r i a l s r e j e c t e d t h e f r u i t because he  considered the f l a v o r unacceptable. i n c l u d e consumer acceptance trials.  I t i s t h e r e f o r important to  and s t o r a g e t r i a l s i n c u l t i v a r  T h i s s o r t of r e s e a r c h was not p a r t o f t h i s  'Tristar',  'Ostara' and  ' R a p e l l a ' f r u i t was  thesis.  deemed non  67  s a l a b l e by t h e grower, because o f poor shape and f l a v o r and extreme s o f t n e s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  'Selva  1  performed t h e b e s t o f  a l l t h e s e c u l t i v a r s and was s o l d s u c c e s s f u l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e season.  ' T r i b u t e ' produced much f r u i t i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e  season b u t by t h e m i d d l e i t s s m a l l s i z e was unmarketable.  There i s i n t e r e s t i n s e v e r a l o f t h e c u l t i v a r s f o r p o t e n t i a l season e x t e n s i o n . its  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  ' S e l v a ' i s p r o m i s i n g because o f  l a r g e s i z e and good appearance which compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h  imported C a l i f o r n i a f r u i t .  ' T r i b u t e ' , which has a b e t t e r  flavor  and h i g h e r y i e l d s w i l l a l s o be o f i n t e r e s t d e s p i t e i t s s m a l l e r fruit  3.3.2.  size.  'Selva* s p a c i n g t r i a l  ' S e l v a ' produced s m a l l e r f r u i t i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , when placed a t closer spacings. year.  No such e f f e c t was found i n t h e n e x t  C u l l s were n o t a f f e c t e d by c l o s e s p a c i n g s i n e i t h e r y e a r .  T h i s i s n o t e w o r t h y as one might e x p e c t a c r o w d i n g e f f e c t i n t h e second y e a r when t h e l e a f canopy has grown t o g e t h e r .  Production o f marketable f r u i t i n the p l a n t i n g year increased when c l o s e r s p a c i n g s were used (Table 10).  A s i m i l a r t r e n d was  found f o r t h e second y e a r , b u t was l e s s pronounced.  Yields,  even  i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , f a r exceeded t h e y i e l d s o f MR o r HR i n f u l l  68 production.  Most o f t h e f r u i t i s o u t - o f - s e a s o n and p r o d u c t i o n  from t h e same f i e l d c o n t i n u e s  t o t h e end o f October.  The l a r g e  s i z e i s e x c e p t i o n a l and p r i c e s p e r u n i t were t w i c e as h i g h on t h e average as t h o s e f o r t h e SD c u l t i v a r s  3.3.3.  Day-neutral  i n season.  fertilizer trial  ' S e l v a ' produced 3 3 % c u l l s , whereas ' T r i b u t e ' produced over 50 % (Table 1 1 ) .  C u l l s were m o s t l y because o f s m a l l  fruit.  There was a l s o some f r u i t r o t as t h e summer o f 1989 was r e l a t i v e l y wet.  ' S e l v a ' produced t h e same amount o f m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d as 'Tribute'  (Table 1 1 ) .  farm's c r i t e r i a  These y i e l d s were r e l a t i v e l y low as t h e  f o r m a r k e t a b l e f r u i t were used and a l a r g e number  o f f r u i t were d i s c a r d e d as u n s a l a b l e .  F r u i t w h i c h was  misshapened, damaged, showed r o t and/or was c o n s i d e r e d was  too small,  discarded.  Cultivar  by f e r t i l i z e r i n t e r a c t i o n s were noted f o r p e r c e n t  c u l l s and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d level  (Table 11). A t t h e h i g h  nitrogen  ' S e l v a ' f r u i t was l a r g e and m a r k e t a b l e y i e l d h i g h .  At the  low n i t r o g e n l e v e l f r u i t s i z e was s m a l l e r and t h e y i e l d was  less.  The o p p o s i t e was t r u e f o r ' T r i b u t e ' which produced t h e l a r g e s t  69 f r u i t and most m a r k e t a b l e  T h i s t r i a l was was  y i e l d a t t h e low n i t r o g e n l e v e l .  i n a commercial f i e l d and a l l maintenance work  c a r r i e d out by t h e farm crew.  system d e c r e a s e d  T h i s and t h e farm  grading  o v e r a l l y i e l d , i n comparison w i t h s i m i l a r t r i a l s  m a i n t a i n e d by t h e a u t h o r .  The  l a r g e amounts o f s m a l l f r u i t i n  t h e c u l l s f o r ' T r i b u t e ' a r e a drawback, as t h a t f r u i t has t o be p i c k e d a t h i g h c o s t and t h e n d i s c a r d e d , because abandoned w i l l s e r v e as a s o u r c e o f t h e f r u i t r o t c a u s a l organism  fruit  inoculum.  The amount o f f r u i t r o t d u r i n g t h e r e l a t i v e l y wet summer o f  1989  g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s s t i l l room f o r improvement of e i t h e r c u l t u r a l methods and/or t h a t f u n g i c i d a l s p r a y s  are  necessary.  3.3.4.  Day-neutral spacing  trial  S p a c i n g s had no e f f e c t on t h e y i e l d p e r a r e a , which means t h a t fewer p l a n t s and l e s s l a b o r f o r d e r u n n e r i n g and d e f l o w e r i n g can s t i l l produce t h e same y i e l d (Table 12). the l a r g e s t  s i z e f r u i t but  'Selva' again  had  ' T r i b u t e ' f r u i t s i z e became t o o s m a l l  f o r t h e market a t t h e end o f August, ending a v e r y l u c r a t i v e o f season market.  C u l l s were e x t r e m e l y h i g h as t h e farm  were used f o r d e t e r m i n i n g u n d e r s i z e d f r u i t . c u l l s and  out  criteria  ' S e l v a ' had 35 %  ' T r i b u t e ' 4 7 % which compares w i t h t h e r e s u l t s from t h e  fertilizer trial  i n s e c t i o n 3.4.3.  Marketable y i e l d of 'Selva'  70  was c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t f o r ' T r i b u t e ' .  Again  'Selva'  c o n s i s t e n t l y produced f r u i t o f l a r g e s i z e t h r o u g h o u t t h e season.  F e r t i l i z e r a g a i n had no main e f f e c t s , b u t c u l t i v a r by f e r t i l i z e r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d s i z e (Table 12).  'Selva'  f r u i t was l a r g e r a t t h e h i g h n i t r o g e n l e v e l w h i l e t h e r e v e r s e was t r u e f o r ' T r i b u t e ' which produced i t s l a r g e s t f r u i t a t t h e low nitrogen level.  These r e s u l t s f u r t h e r emphasize t h e f a c t t h a t  s p e c i f i c c u l t i v a r s may d i f f e r i n t h e i r f e r t i l i z e r r e s p o n s e s and needs.  3.4.  Economic Assessment o f t h e w a i t i n g bed, h i l l row and day-neutrals  A comparison was made between t h e MR, and t h e HR system. U s i n g t h e Farm Income Insurance  Cost o f P r o d u c t i o n Model ( F I I  COPM), a model o f a s t a n d a r d farm was c o n s t r u c t e d based on 8 hectares of production. as t h e o n l y c r o p .  The c r o p r o t a t i o n i n c l u d e d s t r a w b e r r i e s  Year one was l a n d p r e p a r a t i o n , y e a r 2 was  p l a n t i n g and t h e n e x t 3 y e a r s were c r o p y e a r s .  The HR produced  i n t h e p l a n t i n g year.  T h i s means t h e r e i s an e x t r a p r o d u c t i o n  y e a r from t h e system.  A f t e r comparing c o s t a g a i n s t income, t h e  n e t p r e s e n t v a l u e was c a l c u l a t e d and a b e n e f i t / c o s t r a t i o r e s u l t e d i n t h e HR system b e i n g 1.12 t i m e s more b e n e f i c i a l t h e MR system.  than  I n t h e s t a n d a r d MR system, a y e a r would e l a p s e  b e f o r e any r e t u r n s c o u l d be r e a l i z e d .  The  f r u i t from t h e  system i s v e r y c l e a n , due t o t h e use o f p l a s t i c mulch and irrigation. out-of-season  HR trickle  I t i s t h e r e f o r e of e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y f o r f r e s h market p r o d u c t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t l y  high s e l l i n g price.  fetches a  A l l c o s t s a r e e s t i m a t e d on t h e h i g h s i d e ,  a l l r e t u r n s are estimated c o n s e r v a t i v e l y .  The  c o s t of runner  removal i s i n c l u d e d .  I n a l l t h r e e assessments, i t i s assumed, t h a t (1) t h e farm produces s t r a w b e r r i e s o n l y on 8 h e c t a r e s of l a n d , (2) t h e  crop  r o t a t i o n i s one p r e p a r a t i o n y e a r , one p l a n t i n g y e a r and 3  full  p r o d u c t i o n y e a r s and i s not c o n s i d e r e d further.  The MR  (3) a l l f r u i t i s c o m m e r c i a l l y  p i c k e d , U-pick  i n t h i s model and c o u l d i n c r e a s e r e t u r n s even system i s t h e common p r a c t i c e u s i n g f l a t beds,  no p l a s t i c mulch and about 25,000 p l a n t s per h e c t a r e .  Raising  t h e beds, p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n i s o p t i o n a l , but h e l p s g i v e c l e a n f r u i t of b e t t e r q u a l i t y .  Y i e l d s r e f l e c t very conservative estimations, the p o t e n t i a l i f a p p l i e d p r o p e r l y can exceed t h e g i v e n f i g u r e s .  The  irrigation  system c o s t s v a r y depending on t h e p r e s e n t setup o f t h e farm. The HR  system f i g u r e s have been d e r i v e d f o r t h e  'Rainier' only. y i e l d s only.  DN d a t a a r e based on  cultivar  ' S e l v a ' and  'Tribute'  An a n a l y s i s of t h e WB  compared t o t h e MR  showed t h e WB  under t h e c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n s w i t h p l a s t i c mulch and t h e i r r i g a t i o n i s not e c o n o m i c a l l y  system trickle  f e a s i b l e , even though t h e  130  grams p e r p l a n t used as a t h r e s h o l d i n England i s e a s i l y a c h i e v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  An a n a l y s i s o f t h e DN d a t a was considered  be  p r e l i m i n a r y , s i n c e second-year d a t a were not a v a i l a b l e  at the time.  T h i s a n a l y s i s showed t h a t i t c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l e t o  engage i n g r o w i n g DN c u l t i v a r s . obtained  a l s o conducted, but s h o u l d  Up t o 4 t i m e s t h e y i e l d s can  o u t - o f - s e a s o n compared t o t h e b e s t p e r f o r m i n g c u l t i v a r  ' R a i n i e r ' i n t h e HR  system.  The  main d i s a d v a n t a g e i s t h a t  the  f r u i t doesn't have a p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e f r e s h e a t i n g quality.  be  Nevertheless,  i t has not been d i f f i c u l t t o s e l l  f r u i t because t h e main c o m p e t i t i o n  a t t h a t t i m e comes from  i m p o r t e d C a l i f o r n i a f r u i t of s i m i l a r q u a l i t y .  this  73 4.  4.1.  Recommendations and c o n c l u s i o n s  W a i t i n g bed system  • R a i n i e r ' was t h e most v a l u a b l e c u l t i v a r f o r extended season p r o d u c t i o n w i t h t h e WB system.  F l o w e r i n g o c c u r r e d an average o f  one week l a t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r SD, P a c i f i c Northwest c u l t i v a r s . The p l a n t s t h e r e f o r e have more t i m e t o e s t a b l i s h a r o o t system b e f o r e f l o w e r i n g and f r u i t i n g , which i s t h e p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r i t s s u p e r i o r performance i n t h e system.  The o t h e r c u l t i v a r s d i d  n o t produce enough s a l a b l e f r u i t f o r economic r e t u r n i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r , a l t h o u g h by s t a n d a r d s i n E n g l a n d , i t would be p r o f i t a b l e  (Baumann and Daubeny, 1989).  still  T h i s would be t h e  h i g h p r i c e y e a r as o u t - o f - s e a s o n f r u i t i s produced.  Therefor  t h e r e i s no i n c e n t i v e f o r growers t o go t h r o u g h t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f these rather expensive p l a n t s .  Mother p l a n t s a r e cheaper t o use i n t h e WB system b u t a r e u s u a l l y i n s h o r t s u p p l y and would not s u s t a i n a commercial industry.  There a r e no more t h a n a few thousand o f t h e s e p l a n t s  a v a i l a b l e f o r each c u l t i v a r p e r y e a r .  There a r e enough mother  p l a n t s from 'Totem' a v a i l a b l e , s i n c e i t i s t h e most w i d e l y p l a n t e d c u l t i v a r i n t h e P a c i f i c Northwest, b u t 'Totem' y i e l d s f o r t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r a r e t o o low.  I t seems t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y  f e a s i b l e t o use t h e WB  method o f g r o w i n g o u t - o f - s e a s o n f r u i t , t h e p l a n t s go t h r o u g h a t l e a s t one, in-season  harvests  f o r t h e WB  but i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t  and b e t t e r 2, more f u l l  t o make t h e system  F r u i t production  as a  pay.  has s e v e r a l advantages, i n c l u d i n g  a v o i d a n c e o f blossom damage from l a t e s p r i n g f r o s t s and when r a i s e d beds and p l a s t i c mulch are used, r e d u c t i o n i n f r u i t incidences. for  Water seems t o be t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r  t h e n e w l y - p l a n t e d , m u l t i - c r o w n , WB  p l a n t s as t h e y w i l l  from dormancy i n t o t e m p e r a t u r e s sometimes above 2 0° C and produce a l e a f canopy and  The WB t h e MR  rot  emerge will  f r u i t w i t h i n 6 t o 8 weeks.  u s i n g p l a s t i c mulch i s even more l a b o r i n t e n s i v e t h a n  o r WB w i t h o u t mulch.  Derunnering i s r e q u i r e d .  After  h a r v e s t t h e p l a n t s s t a r t growing r u n n e r s , w h i c h can not r o o t t h e p l a s t i c and a r e not a l l o w e d Therefor  on  t o grow between t h e rows.  t h e y have t o be removed c o m p l e t e l y .  The  c u r r e n t method  o f removing r u n n e r s i s t o c u t them o f f m a n u a l l y , u s i n g a k n i f e . A t t e m p t s were made t o d e v e l o p new i s t o use a p a i n t r o l l e r  methods.  A possible solution  c o a t e d w i t h a c o n t a c t h e r b i c i d e mounted  behind the t r a c t o r t o apply the h e r b i c i d e .  The  paint  roller  b r u s h e s a narrow band o f c o n t a c t h e r b i c i d e on t h e r u n n e r s t h a t l i e on t h e p l a s t i c . itself.  The  The h e r b i c i d e never t o u c h e s t h e main p l a n t  c h e m i c a l method w i l l not work i f t h e r u n n e r s have  75 been a l l o w e d t o mature and t h e t i s s u e has l i g n i f i e d . method i s t o mow t h e r u n n e r s o f f w i t h a lawn edger. r e q u i r e s good q u a l i t y p l a s t i c and an e x p e r i e n c e d d e s t r o y t h e p l a s t i c mulch.  Another This  operator t o not  T h i s method has been s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r  r u n n e r removal b o t h i n t h e WB and t h e HR.  4.2.  S h o r t - d a y c u l t i v a r s on h i l l  rows  As i n t h e WB system, ' R a i n i e r ' a g a i n seems t o be t h e most v a l u a b l e SD c u l t i v a r f o r extended season p r o d u c t i o n on HR. F l o w e r i n g o c c u r r e d an average o f one week l a t e r t h a n a l l o t h e r cultivars after planting.  The p l a n t s t h e r e f o r e had more t i m e t o  e s t a b l i s h a s t r o n g r o o t system b e f o r e f l o w e r i n g and f r u i t i n g .  The  o t h e r P a c i f i c Northwest c u l t i v a r s t e s t e d d i d n o t produce  s u f f i c i e n t m a r k e t a b l e f r u i t f o r economic r e t u r n i n t h e p l a n t i n g year.  I t seems t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y  method o f g r o w i n g o u t - o f - s e a s o n  f e a s i b l e t o use t h e HR as a  f r u i t , b u t , as w i t h t h e WB a l s o ,  i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e p l a n t s go t h r o u g h a t l e a s t one and even b e t t e r , 2 o r more f u l l i n - s e a s o n h a r v e s t s t o make t h e system pay. T h i s g o a l i s more e a s i l y a c h i e v e d w i t h t h e HR p l a n t s t h a n w i t h t h e WB and mother p l a n t s .  The c o s t f o r t h e r u n n e r p l a n t s i s  r e l a t i v e l y low compared t o t h e WB p l a n t s , and r u n n e r p l a n t s a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and no s p e c i a l t e c h n o l o g y needed, as i t i s f o r t h e WB p l a n t s .  and management i s  Second-year y i e l d s come i n t h e normal season and do n o t g e t the high p r i c e t h a t the out-of-season, p l a n t i n g year, y i e l d s achieve.  That i s why a h i g h y i e l d i n t h e second y e a r , such as  o b t a i n e d from 'Sumas' o r 'Totem' does not n e c e s s a r i l y guarantee s u c c e s s f o r t h e system.  The c o s t s o f p l a s t i c mulch and  trickle  i r r i g a t i o n have t o be g a i n e d back i n t h e y e a r o f p l a n t i n g i n o r d e r t o make t h i s p r o f i t a b l e .  As t h e f r u i t i n t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r i s produced d u r i n g t h e u s u a l l y d r y summer months, t h e r e i s much l e s s f r u i t r o t .  Raising  and m u l c h i n g t h e beds w i t h p l a s t i c adds t o t h a t b e n e f i t .  Also,  t h e r e i s l e s s danger t h a t t h e f l o w e r s w i l l be damaged by frosts.  late  F r o s t o f t e n damages f l o w e r s i n t h e r e g u l a r season, but  t h e HR p l a n t s a r e s t i l l dormant i n c o l d s t o r a g e t h e n and p l a n t i n g o c c u r s l a t e r when t h e weather i s much m i l d e r .  As f o r t h e WB,  immediate i r r i g a t i o n seems t o be t h e s i n g l e  most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e s u c c e s s f o r t h e newly p l a n t e d p l a n t s as t h e y w i l l emerge from dormancy i n t o t e m p e r a t u r e s sometimes above 20° C and w i l l produce a l e a f canopy and f r u i t w i t h i n 6 t o e i g h t weeks.  The l a t e f l o w e r i n g ' R a i n i e r ' has an advantage o v e r  the e a r l i e r flowering c u l t i v a r s .  T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n and p l a s t i c  mulch c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s u c c e s s o f such a system.  The much h i g h e r beds i n t h e l a t e r e x p e r i m e n t s a r e c o n d u c i v e  t o b e t t e r f r u i t appearance.  W i t h t h e l o w e r beds t h e t r u s s e s  f r u i t l i e on t h e s o i l between t h e rows.  and  Any p r e c i p i t a t i o n  r e s u l t e d i n d i r t on t h e f r u i t s which made i t u n a t t r a c t i v e f o r t h e f r e s h market. higher the  The h i g h beds, however, c o u l d be s t i l l w i d e r and  as t h e r a i n sometimes s t i l l s p l a s h e s sandy s o i l s up onto  fruits.  The HR system i s an improvement t o t h e WB method and i s v i a b l e f o r our r e g i o n f o r t h e f r e s h market.  A possible variation  w i t h o u t p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n may p r o v e t o be t h e system f a v o r e d  f o r the processing  industry.  The second y e a r  p l a n t i n g would t h e n resemble a low d e n s i t y matted row.  Input  c o s t , above t h a t o f t h e normal MR system, a r i s e s from t h e r i d g i n g of the s o i l .  T h i s w i l l a l s o r a i s e t h e r o o t s out o f t h e zone o f  s t a g n a n t w a t e r d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r , which u s u a l l y causes r o o t r o t organisms t o p r o l i f e r a t e and damage o r even k i l l  the p l a n t s .  has t o be n o t e d , however, t h a t s u f f i c i e n t overhead  It  irrigation  must be a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e d r y summer months as r a i s e d beds can d r y out more q u i c k l y .  4.3.  Day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s  The t a s t e o f t h e l o c a l P a c i f i c Northwest s t r a w b e r r i e s s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e DN c u l t i v a r s i n t r o d u c e d  i s clearly  from o t h e r  78 regions.  A l t h o u g h t h i s f a c t was acknowledged  by t h e consumers i n  t e s t m a r k e t i n g , i t was shown t h a t consumers i n v a r i a b l y p r e f e r r e d t h e n i c e r l o o k i n g f r u i t i n t h e o f f - s e a s o n , o b t a i n e d from t h e DN cultivar  ' S e l v a ' (Data n o t r e p o r t e d ) . Not o n l y do t h e y l o o k  better, but the f r u i t s  from C a l i f o r n i a a r e u s u a l l y e x t r e m e l y f i r m  and keep f o r s e v e r a l days l o n g e r on t h e s h e l f t h a n t h e f r u i t P a c i f i c Northwest c u l t i v a r s .  Growing t h e s e c u l t i v a r s  from  locally  e n s u r e s t h a t t h e y a r e p i c k e d r i p e r and g e t t o t h e markets q u i c k e r t h a n t h e y p o s s i b l y c o u l d from C a l i f o r n i a f i e l d s ,  and w i l l  t h e r e f o r have b e t t e r f l a v o r t h a n f r u i t p i c k e d a t a more immature stage.  Coupled w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l o f e x t r e m e l y h i g h y i e l d s , m o s t l y i n t h e o f f season, t h e DN l e n d themselves t o e x p l o i t a t i o n f o r t h e f r e s h market.  Y i e l d s can be 3 and 4 t i m e s h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r  t h e SD i n MR and p r i c e s o b t a i n e d can be d o u b l e . mulch, t r i c k l e  The p l a s t i c  i r r i g a t i o n and RB seem t o be p r e f e r a b l e , as r o o t  diseases are avoided, f r u i t i s clean, b e t t e r a i r c i r c u l a t i o n r e d u c e s f r u i t r o t and f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n o v e r t h e e n t i r e season i s more a c c u r a t e .  An added b e n e f i t o f t h e p l a s t i c mulch  i s t h a t no h e r b i c i d e s a r e used on t h e p l a n t s .  DN c u l t i v a r s w i l l produce fewer l e s s r u n n e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e season t h a n do t h e SD.  The removal o f r u n n e r s i s a problem i n  t h e p l a n t i n g y e a r b e f o r e t h e f i r s t f r u i t i s formed.  Usually  c u t t i n g r u n n e r s once w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t .  As t h e s e c u l t i v a r s  then  produce f r u i t a l l season l o n g , t h e r e can be no c h e m i c a l d e r u n n e r i n g and t h e d e r u n n e r i n g w i t h t h e lawn edger i s i m p o s s i b l e , as a l l t h e f r u i t would be d e s t r o y e d . i s t o do i t m a n u a l l y u s i n g k n i v e s .  The l a b o r r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e  q u i t e low as t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f r u n n e r s i s a l m o s t during f r u i t i n g .  The b e s t method  insignificant  ' S e l v a ' w i l l produce few r u n n e r s and  w i l l s t o p r u n n e r p r o d u c t i o n almost e n t i r e l y under t h e Northwest  'Tribute' Pacific  conditions.  The EB and DN c u l t i v a r s t r i e d showed t h a t o n l y a few l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o growing i n t h i s a r e a w i t h adapted.  New  'Selva' being the best  r e l e a s e s from v a r i o u s programs s h o u l d be  monitored  f o r t h e i r use i n t h i s a r e a .  4.4.  Trickle  Trickle  irrigation  i r r i g a t i o n ensures even m o i s t u r e a t t h e r o o t zone  w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t phase o f any  planting  and e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e DN c u l t i v a r s which produce a l a r g e amount of f r u i t d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e season. f o r overhead  Water use, compared t o t h a t  i r r i g a t i o n , i s d r a s t i c a l l y reduced, e s p e c i a l l y i n  c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a p l a s t i c mulch t h a t p r e v e n t s e v a p o r a t i o n . I r r i g a t i o n can be done any t i m e d u r i n g t h e season, day o r n i g h t , without i n t e r f e r i n g  w i t h o t h e r farm o p e r a t i o n s .  Formerly, sprays  80 and h a r v e s t i n g had t o be c o o r d i n a t e d irrigation.  w i t h t h e overhead  No w a t e r i s a p p l i e d t o t h e l e a v e s o r t h e f r u i t s and  t h i s h e l p s reduce f r u i t r o t and l e a f d i s e a s e s .  Trickle  i r r i g a t i o n a l s o a l l o w s f o r t h e e x a c t placement o f f e r t i l i z e r i n t h e r o o t zone, w i t h l e s s l e a c h i n g o f n u t r i e n t s from t h e s o i l .  4.5.  P l a s t i c Mulch  The p l a s t i c mulch p r e v e n t s e r o s i o n o f t h e beds, keeps t h e p l a n t a r e a f r e e o f weeds and h e l p s keep t h e f r u i t c l e a n .  The  warming o f t h e s o i l i s a mixed b e n e f i t , as f l o w e r s may emerge t o o e a r l y i n t h e second y e a r and perhaps be s u s c e p t i b l e t o damage from l a t e f r o s t s .  The d i s c a r d e d p l a s t i c mulch may p r e s e n t a  d i s p o s a l problem.  4.6.  Raised  Red-stele  Beds  (Pj_ f r a q a r i a e ) r o o t - r o t has been a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r  i n some s t r a w b e r r y  f i e l d s i n the Fraser V a l l e y .  In r e l a t i v e l y  m i l d w i n t e r s s e v e r e damage can r e s u l t from t h e d i s e a s e .  A trial  w i t h RB and p l a s t i c mulch l o c a t e d i n a commercial f i e l d i n t h e m i d s t o f s e v e r e r e d s t e l e damage showed t h a t p l a n t s were n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e pathogen.  The r o o t systems o f 'Totem' and  •Hood , t h e same c u l t i v a r s t h a t were i n t h e commercial 1  were above t h e w a t e r l e v e l t h r o u g h o u t t h e w i n t e r .  field,  Better  81 a e r a t i o n i n t h e p l a n t i n g t h r o u g h RB may f r u i t rots.  also help to control  I t i s very important t o slope the top of the  RB,  otherwise water w i l l c o l l e c t , r o t t i n g the f r u i t or s c a l d i n g i t d u r i n g sunshine f o l l o w i n g rainshowers.  It is still  whether t h e mulch h e l p s t o p r e v e n t w i n t e r k i l l  questionable  or exacerbates i t .  Many d i f f e r e n t approaches have been t a k e n t o e v a l u a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l of out-of-season p r o d u c t i o n of s t r a w b e r r i e s i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  succession of t r i a l s  r e p o r t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s f o c u s e d on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h i g h q u a l i t y f r e s h f r u i t i n the p l a n t i n g year w i t h the o p t i o n of f r u i t i n t h e second y e a r f o r p r o c e s s i n g .  producing  W h i l e t h e WB  and  HR  system w i t h SD show some b e n e f i t s , t h e HR w i t h DN c u l t i v a r s on  RB  c o v e r e d w i t h b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n , emerged as t h e most p r o f i t a b l e u n d e r t a k i n g . from t h e DN may in  The q u a l i t y o f t h e  fruits  not be as good, but t h e p o t e n t i a l l y b e t t e r p r i c e  t h e o f f season,  combined w i t h c o n t i n u o u s p r o d u c t i o n o v e r 5  months, o f f e r a g r e a t market p o t e n t i a l .  82 Literature Cited  A l b r e g t s , E.E. and Howard, C M . 1972. 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The  S e p a r a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f s p a c i n g and r u n n e r removal on s t r a w b e r r y p l a n t performance. Advances i n S t r a w b e r r y P r o d u c t i o n 8:14-16.  e f f e c t s o f p l a n t m a n i p u l a t i o n on f r u i t s e t i n s t r a w b e r r y . Advances i n S t r a w b e r r y P r o d u c t i o n 8:17-18.  T i e t z , L. and Gebhart, C. 1979. P h y s i o l o g i s c h e r R e i f e g r a d a l s Masstab zum Roden von E r d b e e r j u n g p f l a n z e n f u r d i e F r o s t u n g . Gartenbau 26:365-366. T r e n t , W.Y.,  Walsh, C.S. and Swartz, H.J. 1985. The i n f l u e n c e o f  matted row w i d t h on l i g h t p e n e t r a t i o n , p l a n t development an y i e l d o f two s t r a w b e r r y c u l t i v a r s . Advances i n S t r a w b e r r y P r o d u c t i o n 4:23-27.  Turner, D. and Muir, K. 1985. The handbook o f s o f t f r u i t growing. D i s e a s e s o f s o f t f r u i t s , pp. 181. Croom Helm L t d . , Beckenhan, Kent. Unger, M. and S t r i k , B.C. 1988. How I g o t 17.5 t o n s p e r a c r e o f •Totem'. P r o c . Lower M a i n l a n d H o r t . Impr. Assn. 30:100-101. Voth, V. 1967. The e f f e c t o f e a r l y m u l c h i n g on t i m e o f summer p l a n t i n g . C a l i f o r n i a S t r a w b e r r y A d v i s o r y Board. 13:No.51. Voth, V. 1981. C a l i f o r n i a c u l t u r a l systems. pp. 67-76. I n : C h i l d e r s , N.F. ( e d . ) . The S t r a w b e r r y . H o r t i c u l t u r a l Publications, Gainsville, Florida. Voth, V. and B r i n g h u r s t , R.S. 1961. P r u n i n g and p o y e t h y l e n e m u l c h i n g o f summer p l a n t e d s t r a w b e r r i e s i n s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . J . Amer. Soc. H o r t . S c i . 78:275-280. Voth, V. and B r i n g h u r s t , R.S. 1967. The e f f e c t o f e a r l y m u l c h i n g on t i m e o f summer p l a n t i n g . C a l i f o r n i a S t r a w b e r r y A d v i s o r y Board. 13:No.51. Voth, V. and B r i n g h u r s t , R.S. 197 6. E f f e c t s o f t i m e o f p l a n t i n g and m u l c h i n g on summer p l a n t e d A i k o , C r u z , T u f t s and Toro i n s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . C a l i f o r n i a S t r a w b e r r y A d v i s o r y Board 12:No.49.  Waister, P.D. 1979. Y i e l d and i t s components i n t h e c u l t i v a r Olympus. F r u i t Var. J . 33:13 6-143.  strawberry  Walsh, C.S. and Geyer, A.F. 1983. O b s e r v a t i o n s of r i b b o n rows, summer p l a n t i n g systems, r a i s e d beds and c o n v e n t i o n a l c u l t u r a l systems f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s t r a w b e r r i e s i n M a r y l a n d . Advances i n S t r a w b e r r y P r o d u c t i o n 2:25-27. Walsh, C.S.,  Geyer, A.F.  and  Swartz, H.J.  1982.  A factorial  comparison o f t h e e f f e c t s of c u l t i v a r and c u l t u r a l system on s t r a w b e r r y y i e l d . H o r t S c i e n c e 17:501.  W e t h e r e l l , R.L. Strawberry, Strawberry.  J r . 1981. A spaced row p l a n t i n g system. The pp. 89-94. I n : C h i l d e r s , N.F. ( e d . ) . The Horticultural Publications, Gainsville, Florida.  W i j s m u l l e r , J . 1988. 78:22-23.  F r i g o p l a n t e n bieden p e r s p e c t i e f . F r u i t t e e l t  W i l l i a m s , J.M. and O ' D e l l , C.R. 1986. Mulch s t r a w b e r r i e s w i t h s m a l l g r a i n s . American F r u i t Grower 1986:24-25. Wilson, F. and Dixon, G.R. 1988. S t r a w b e r r y growth and y i e l d r e l a t e d t o p l a n t d e n s i t y u s i n g matted row husbandry. J . H o r t . S c i . 63:221-227.  94 T a b l e 1. The e f f e c t of p l a n t i n g date upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d o f f o u r s h o r t day strawberry c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n 1986, u s i n g p l a n t s from a w a i t i n g bed.  Size(g)  Mkt(T/ha)  Cull(%)  1986 1987  Year  1986  1987  1986  1987  Mean  8.3  12.9  6.7  12.2  4.4  16.4  7.8 6.6 6.9  11.4 11.4 12 . 6  15.9 11.4 3.7  11.8 12 . 3 12 . 3  2.8  15. 0  3.8 5.7  16.4 17.7  8.5 9.7 10.1  14 . 0 13 . 6 14 .1  4.3  12.3 12.3 12 . 3  5.0 4.4 4.6  17. 1 16.1 16. 0  P l a n t i n g Date May  29  June 3 June 10 June 17 June 24 July 1 Linear Quadratic Deviation Cultivar  2  Hood Rainier Shuksan Totem  Scheffe's  Value  2.6 2.1  **  **  **  **  ns ns  **  **  6. l c 11. 3a 8.8b 6. 8c 0.7  11.9 14.3 13 . 3 12.0 ns  **  ns ns ns  7. l a b 16. 5a 11. l b 8.5a 16. l a 5.8b 5. 3b 5. 3c 2.3  0.6  **  ns  **  *  **  ns  2 . 8c 7. 0a 4 . 0b 3.9b 1.1  *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t P=0.05 and 0.01 o r not significantly different, respectively. Means i n columns f o l l o w e d by t h e same l e t t e r a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 5% l e v e l . Means were s e p a r a t e d by S c h e f f e ' s t e s t .  2  13 . 3c 15.lbc 15.0bc 22. 2a 1.9  95 T a b l e 2. The e f f e c t o f f e r t i l i z e r and p l a n t i n g date upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d o f f o u r s h o r t day strawberry c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n 1987, u s i n g p l a n t s from a w a i t i n g bed.  Size(g)  Cull(%)  z  Mkt(T/ha)  Year  1987  1988  1987  1988  1987  1988  Mean  9.1  13.7  4.3  15.4  4.1  10.8  F e r t i l i z e r Formula 1 Formula 2  9.0  14.1  4.1  12.7  4.1  10.4  9.2  13.2  4.5  18.0  4.1  11.2  ns  *  ns  -  ns  ns  8.6 9.1  4.4 5.1  15.4  4.7 4.9 4.4 4.1  2.4 5.4  -  3.3 3.2  7.3 8.4 11.2 11.9 .13.5 12.6  ns ns  -  **  **  ns ns  *  F-test P l a n t i n g Date May 29 June 3 June 10 June 17  10.1 9.3  June 24 July 1  7.9 9.5  12.8 12.7 13.7 13.7 14 .4 14 .7  ns  **  *  ns ns  linear quadratic deviation Cultivary  Hood Rainier Shuksan Totem  Scheffe's Value  **  3.9 4.3  *  —  6.9d  12.2b  2.5c  11.4a 10. l b  14.3a 13 .9a 14.3a  7.9a  9.4c 4.1bc 15.7b 2. 6c 20. l a  8.7b 6. 6a 12.9a 3.8b 9.6b 3 . 6b 12. 0a  1.6  2.2  1.2  8. 0c 0.6  16.4b  4.2  2.4c  *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t P=0.05 and 0.01 o r n o t significantly different, respectively. C u l l s adjusted t o f i r s t p l a n t i n g date only. Y Means i n columns f o l l o w e d by t h e same l e t t e r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 5% l e v e l . Means were s e p a r a t e d by S c h e f f e ' s t e s t . z  ns  2. 2  96 T a b l e 3. The e f f e c t o f f e r t i l i z e r and p l a n t i n g date upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d o f t h r e e s h o r t day strawberry c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n 1987, u s i n g mother p l a n t s .  Size(g)  Cull(%)  z  Mkt(T/ha)  Year  1987  1988  1987  1988  1987  1988  Mean  10.3  15.4  5.5  11.0  3.2  11.9  F e r t i l i z e r Formula 1 Formula 2  10.5 10.2  17.1 14.3  4.9 6.1  12.5 11.7  3.3  12 .7  3.1  10.1  ns  **  ns  -  ns  *  9.4 9.9 12.3 10.1 9.9 10.4  15.2 15.1 16.8 15.3 14.8 15. 3  6.7 3.7  11.0  4.5 2.8 4.1 2 .1 2.9 2.8  9.7 11.6 11.3 12.0 14.8 12.0  ns  ns ns ns  F-Test P l a n t i n g Date May June June June June July linear quadratic deviation CultivarY  29 3 10 17 24 1  * **  Rainier Shuksan Totem  Scheffe's Value  12. l a 11.0b 7.9c 1.0  15.2 14.8 16.2 ns  5.4 5.9 4.0 7.3 ns * *  8. 9a 5.3b 2.3b 2.7  -  -  —  —  **  **  *  ns  **  *  12. 5a 3.9a 12.7a 11.7a 3. 2ab 10. l b 8 . 8b 2.5b 12.9a 1.4  0.9  1.8  *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t P=0.05 and 0.01 o r n o t significantly different, respectively. C u l l s adjusted t o f i r s t p l a n t i n g date only, y Means i n columns f o l l o w e d by t h e same l e t t e r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 5% l e v e l . Means were s e p a r a t e d by S c h e f f e ' s t e s t . 2  T a b l e 4. Comparing s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d s s h o r t day c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d 1986 i n h i l l rows.  Size(g) Year  1986  Mean  8.5  Cultivars  z  Hood Rainier Shuksan Shuswap Totem  Scheffe's Value z  1987  Cull(%) 1986  1987  of f i v e  Mkt(T/ha) 1986  1987 10.4  12.8  2.5  18.4  4.8  7.3 9.2 8.2 7.1 10.7  11. 3b 15.9a 11.9b  1.6a 6. l a 1.5a 1.2a  20. 0a 25.4a 26. 3a 3.4b  4 . Obc 10.0 7 . 3a 10.2 4. Obc 9.7  2. 2a  17.0a  3 . 5c 9.9 5. l b 12.2  ns  3. 6  5.7  10.8  1.4  12.5ab 12.5ab  Means i n columns f o l l o w e d by t h e same l e t t e r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 5% l e v e l . Means were s e p a r a t e d by S c h e f f e ' s t e s t .  ns  98 T a b l e 5. The e f f e c t o f f e r t i l i z e r and p l a n t i n g date upon s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d o f f o u r s h o r t day strawberry c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n h i l l rows i n 1987.  Size(g)  Cull(%)  fruit  Mkt(T/ha)  Year  1987  1988  1987  1988  1987  1988  Mean  8.7  15.1  7.2  29.7  3.8  17.7  F e r t i l i z e r Formula 1 Formula 2  8.7 8.7  15.4 14.8  6.3 8.1  34.2 25.2  3 . 6 18.3 4 . 1 17.2  ns  ns  ns  **  6.1 5.4  28.6 29.5  4.4 8.0 6.2 13 . 2  30.0 29.4 31.6 30.1  F-Test P l a n t i n g Date May 29 June 3 June 10 June 17 June 24 July 1 Linear Quadratic Difference Cultivar  2  Rainier Shuksan Sumas Totem  Scheffe's Value  8.4 9.6 9.6  14 . 0 14.7 14.7 8.5 14.9 8 . 0 16. 3 8.2 16. 0  ns 4.7 4.9 4.1 3. 8 3. 4 2. 2  ns 16. 3 17.9 17.0 17.1 19 . 5 18 . 5  *  *  *  *  *  *  ns ns  ns ns  ns ns  ns ns  ns ns ns  29.2b 32. 2a 29.0b 28.4b  7. 6a 2.5b 2.6b 2.7b  18.6ab 14.4c 21.5a 16.5bc  *  9.8a 9.3a 8.3b 7.4c 0.9  14.3b 8. 8ab 14.2b 4.8b 16. 6a 12.8a 15.2ab 2.4b 1.5  6.1  2.0  1.1  *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t P=0.05 and 0.01 o r n o t significantly different, respectively. Means i n columns f o l l o w e d by t h e same l e t t e r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 5% l e v e l . Means were s e p a r a t e d by S c h e f f e ' s t e s t . 2  4.1  T a b l e 6. The e f f e c t o f two spacings upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d o f two s h o r t day strawberry c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n double h i l l rows i n 1987.  Size(g)  Cull(%)  Mkt(T/ha)  Yield  1987 1988  1987 1988  1987 1988  Mean  8.4 15.5  4.5  8.7  6.7 17.8  10.1 14.5 6.7 16. 5  6.3 2.8  8.3  9.9 14.4 3.5 21.5  *  *  Cultivar  Rainier Totem F-Test  Spacing  15 cm 25 cm F-Test  **  **  8.3 13 . 6 8.6 17.3 **  **  9.1  5.6  6.6 3 . 5 10.9 **  **  **  **  8.2 20.4 5.2 15.3 ns  * , * * , n s g i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t P=0. 05 and 0. 01 o r not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  ns  T a b l e 7. The e f f e c t o f p l a n t i n g date and spacings upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d o f t h r e e s h o r t day strawberry c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n h i l l rows i n 1988.  Size(g)  Cull(%)  Mkt(T/ha)  Year  1988 1989  1988 1989  1988 1989  Mean  9.0  7.3  9.5  25.9  3.3  P l a n t i n g Date May 22 June 12  9.7 8.3  7.1 7. 5  17.6 1.4  26.4  3.9 11.0 2 . 7 12 . 0  **  ns  **  ns  8.9 8.9 9.0 9.3  7. 0 7.2 7.5 7.4  9.3 9.4  25.5 25.5  2.9 2.5  10.2 9.8  Linear Quadratic Deviation  ns ns ns  *  ns ns ns  **  **  ns ns  ns ns ns  ns ns  ns ns  Rainier Sumas Totem  9.8a 9. 7a 7. 4b  8.7a 7.5b 5.7c  0.9  0.5  F-Test Spacing  15 cm 20 cm 25 cm 3 0 cm  Cultivar  2  Scheffe's Value  25.5  8 . 7 25.5 10. 6 27.3  5.7c 36. 5a 9.3b 15.6c 13.5a 25.7b 3.3  3.3  11.5  *  ns  4 . 4 13 .8 3 . 3 12.2  4.7a 8.9b 2.8b 17.5a 8.2b 2.4b 0.6  * , * * , n s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t P=0.05 and 0.01 o r n o t significantly different, respectively. Means i n columns f o l l o w e d by t h e same l e t t e r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 5% l e v e l . Means were s e p a r a t e d by S c h e f f e ' s t e s t . 2  1.6  T a b l e 8. Day n e u t r a l and  ever b e a r i n g c u l t i v a r w i n t e r s u r v i v a l 1989  Cultivar  2  Ostara Rapella Selva Tribute Tristar  83a 36b 84a 100a 95a LSD  z  Survival(%)  35  Means i n columns f o l l o w e d by t h e same l e t t e r a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 5% level. Means were s e p a r a t e d by s h e r ' s p r o t e c t e d LSD.  102 T a b l e 9. Comparing s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d s o f two ever b e a r i n g and t h r e e day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d 1988 i n double h i l l rows.  Size(g)  Cull(%)  Mkt(T/ha)  Year  1988  1989  1988  1989  1988  1989  Mean  11. 6  11. 6  9.7  48.0  20.9  14 . 9  22.2 14.7 33.4  27 . 3a 24 . l a 13.2ab  Cultivar  2  Ostara Rapella Selva Tribute Tristar  Scheffe's Value  13.5ab 14.2ab 16. 5a 15.3a 10.2b 10.Obc 8.3b  12.0a 44.7ab 14 . 2a 28.8b 3. 8a  52.lab  1. 3a  66. 5a  9.5b  8. 6c 9. 7bc  17.0a  48.Oab  5.5  4.8  15.9  26.1  21.2 13 . 0 ns  2 . 5c 7 . 6bc 8.7  *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t P=0.05 and 0.01 o r n o t significantly different, respectively. Means i n columns f o l l o w e d by t h e same l e t t e r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 5% l e v e l . Means were s e p a r a t e d by S c h e f f e ' s t e s t . 2  T a b l e 10. The e f f e c t o f p l a n t s p a c i n g upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d o f ' S e l v a day n e u t r a l strawberry c u l t i v a r p l a n t e d i n 1988 i n a double h i l l row. 1  Size(g)  Cull(%)  Year  1988 1989  1988 1989  1988 1989  Mean  17.0 13.9  6.9 19.2  13.9 21.5  S p a c i n g 22 cm 30 cm  15.9 13.7 17.0 14.2  6.3 19.5 6.3 19.6  16.1 22.8 13.0 21.4  38 cm  18.0 13.9  8.3 18.6  13.4 20.3  linear deviation  * ns  ns ns  ns ns  Mkt(T/ha)  ns ns  ** ns  * ns  *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t P=0.05 and 0.01 o r not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  T a b l e 11. The e f f e c t o f the i n t e r a c t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r and c u l t i v a r upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d o f two day n e u t r a l strawberry c u l t i v a r s i n the f i r s t year o f a 1989 double h i l l row p l a n t i n g .  Size(g) C u l t i v a r means  Selva  15.0  33.4  11. 0  Tribute  12.6  50.2  10.4  **  **  ns  F-Test  C u l t i v a r by N i t r o g e n  interaction Size(g)  Selva  Tribute  high Nitrogen low Nitrogen  15.3  high Nitrogen low Nitrogen  12.4  significance  C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha)  14.7  12.8 ns  C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha) 30.4 36.3  11.7  51.7 48 . 7  9.4 11.5  10.4  **  * * i S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t P=0.01 o r n o t significantly different, respectively. n s  **  T a b l e 12. The e f f e c t of the i n t e r a c t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r and c u l t i v a r upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d o f two day n e u t r a l strawberry c u l t i v a r s i n the f i r s t year of a 1989 p l a n t e d double h i l l row s p a c i n g trial.  Size(g)  Cull(%)  Mkt(T/ha)  Selva  18.3  35.3  18.8  Tribute  14.6  47.4  14.7  ns  **  **  F-Test  E f f e c t o f c u l t i v a r by N i t r o g e n i n t e r a c t i o n upon s i z e Selva  Tribute  low N high N  15.6 21.0  17.1 12.2  F-Test  **  **  *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t P=0.05 and 0.01 o r n o t significantly different, respectively.  

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