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Season extension for strawberries in British Columbia Baumann, Thomas Ernst 1990

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SEASON EXTENSION FOR STRAWBERRIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA By THOMAS ERNST BAUMANN D i p l . Ing. Agr., J u s t u s - L i e b i g U n i v e r s i t a t Giessen, West-Germany, 198 3 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P l a n t Science) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1990 © Thomas Ernst Baumann, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P l a n t S c i e n c e The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date A p r i l 10, 1990 DE-6 (2/88) i i A b s t r a c t The P a c i f i c Northwest i s recognized f o r producing high q u a l i t y s t r a w b e r r i e s ( F r a g a r i a x ananassa Duch.). Unfortunately, these are produced over an extremely short season of no more than 4 weeks. This s i t u a t i o n i s i d e a l f o r the processing market but not the f r e s h market where an extended season i s e s s e n t i a l . However, the r e c e n t l y introduced production systems together with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s have the p o t e n t i a l to extend the season. The purpose of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n s was t o examine these systems and the v a r i o u s day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. The production systems i n v e s t i g a t e d were the w a i t i n g bed and the r a i s e d h i l l row. Both systems i n v o l v e t r a d i t i o n a l June-bearing (short day) c u l t i v a r s planted s e q u e n t i a l l y , r e s u l t i n g i n a harvest season of at l e a s t 10 weeks. Among the c u l t i v a r s t e s t e d i n the w a i t i n g bed system, ' R a i n i e r 1 was the most promising and 'Hood' the l e a s t ; 'Totem' and 1Shuksan 1 gave intermediate responses. In the h i l l row ' R a i n i e r ' was again the most promising. However, i n the second year of both systems, when production occurs i n the t r a d i t i o n a l 4 week time p e r i o d , 'Totem' was the most promising. Comparing the 2 systems, h i l l rows were more p r o f i t a b l e than w a i t i n g beds. Day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s begin f l o w e r i n g approximately one month a f t e r p l a n t i n g , and f r u i t i n g occurs from June or e a r l y J u l y u n t i l October. In these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , they were grown at v a r i o u s spacings on r a i s e d beds, covered w i t h black p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t e d . The most promising c u l t i v a r s t e s t e d were 'Selva' and 'Tribute' and the most promising spacing was 30 cm. Index T i t l e Page i A b s t r a c t i i Index i i i L i s t of t a b l e s v L i s t of a b b r e v i a t i o n s v i Acknowledgements v i i 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.1. C u l t i v a r s 2 1.2. Mulches 6 1.3. I r r i g a t i o n and F e r t i l i z a t i o n 9 1.4. Spacing 11 1.5. P l a n t i n g Date and P l a n t S i z e 15 1.6. Waiting Bed C u l t u r a l System 17 1.7. H i l l Row C u l t u r a l System 18 1.8. Runner Removal 23 1.9. C u l t u r e of day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s 2 5 1.10. O b j e c t i v e s of Research 2 6 2. M a t e r i a l s and Methods 28 2.1. P l a s t i c mulch 28 2.2. Raised beds 29 2.3. I r r i g a t i o n system 30 2.4. Data c o l l e c t i o n . . . 31 2.5. Waiting bed c u l t u r a l system 32 2.5.1. 1986 planted w a i t i n g bed t r i a l 32 2.5.2. 1987 p l a n t e d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l 33 2.6. Short-day h i l l row t r i a l s 3 5 2.6.1. 1986 planted short-day h i l l row t r i a l 36 2.6.2. 1987 planted short-day h i l l row t r i a l 37 2.6.3. 1987 planted short-day h i l l row t r i a l w i t h double rows 37 2.6.4. 1988 p l a n t e d short-day h i l l row t r i a l 37 2.7. Day n e u t r a l and ever bearing c u l t i v a r t r i a l s . 3 8 2.7.1. 'Selva' spacing t r i a l 39 2.7.2. Day n e u t r a l and ever bearer c u l t i v a r y i e l d t r i a l . . 39 2.7.3. Day-neutral f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l 40 2.7.4. Day-neutral spacing t r i a l 40 i v 2.8. Economic assessment of the w a i t i n g bed, h i l l row and day-neutrals 41 3. R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n 4 4 3.1. Waiting bed c u l t u r a l system 44 3.1.1. 1986 plante d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l 44 3.1.2. 1987 plante d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l 47 3.1.3. 1987 planted w a i t i n g bed t r i a l u s i ng mother p l a n t s 50 3.1.4. E v a l u a t i o n of the w a i t i n g beds 53 3.2. Short-day h i l l row t r i a l s 55 3.2.1. 1986 plante d short-day h i l l row t r i a l 55 3.2.2. 1987 plante d short-day h i l l row t r i a l 56 3.2.3. 1987 plante d short-day h i l l row t r i a l w i t h double rows 60 3.2.4. 1988 planted short-day h i l l row t r i a l 62 3.3. Day n e u t r a l and ever bearing c u l t i v a r t r i a l s . 6 4 3.3.1. Day n e u t r a l and ever bearing c u l t i v a r y i e l d t r i a l 64 3.3.2. 'Selva' spacing t r i a l 67 3.3.3. Day-neutral f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l 68 3.3.4. Day-neutral spacing t r i a l 69 3.4. Economic assessment of the w a i t i n g bed, h i l l row and day-neutrals 70 4. Recommendations and conclusions 73 4.1. Waiting bed system 73 4.2. Short day c u l t i v a r s on h i l l rows 7 5 4.3. Day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s 7 7 4.4. T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n 79 4.5. P l a s t i c mulch 80 4.6. Raised beds 8 0 L i t e r a t u r e c i t e d 82 Tables 94 V L i s t of Tables Table 1. The e f f e c t of p l a n t i n g date upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of four short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n 1986, using p l a n t s from a w a i t i n g bed 94 Table 2. The e f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r and p l a n t i n g date upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of four short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s planted i n 1987, us i n g p l a n t s from a w a i t i n g bed . , 95 Table 3. The e f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r and p l a n t i n g date upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of three short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n 1987, using mother p l a n t s . . . 9 6 Table 4. Comparing s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d s of f i v e s hort day c u l t i v a r s planted i n 1986 i n h i l l rows 97 Table 5. The e f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r and p l a n t i n g date upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of four short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s planted i n h i l l rows i n 1987 98 Table 6. The e f f e c t of two spacings upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of two short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s planted i n double h i l l rows i n 1987 99 Table 7. The e f f e c t of p l a n t i n g date and spacings upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of three short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s planted i n h i l l rows i n 1988 100 Table 8. Day n e u t r a l and ever bearing c u l t i v a r w i n t e r s u r v i v a l , 1989 101 Table 9. Comparing s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d s of two ever bearing and three day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s p l a n t e d i n 1988 i n double h i l l rows 102 Table 10. The e f f e c t of p l a n t spacing upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of 'Selva' day n e u t r a l strawberry c u l t i v a r , planted i n 1988 i n a double h i l l row 103 Table 11. The e f f e c t of the i n t e r a c t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r by c u l t i v a r upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of two day n e u t r a l strawberry c u l t i v a r s i n the f i r s t year of a 1989 double h i l l row p l a n t i n g 104 Table 12. The e f f e c t of the i n t e r a c t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r and c u l t i v a r upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of two day n e u t r a l strawberry c u l t i v a r s i n the f i r s t year of a 1989 planted double h i l l row spacing t r i a l 105 v i L i s t of A b b r e v i a t i o n s DN day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r ( s ) SD short day c u l t i v a r ( s ) EB ever bearing c u l t i v a r ( s ) WB w a i t i n g bed c u l t u r a l system(s) MR matted row c u l t u r a l system(s) HR h i l l row c u l t u r a l system(s) RB r a i s e d bed(s) v i i ACKNOWLE DGMENT I am g r a t e f u l f o r the support and guidance r e c e i v e d from Prof. Eaton during these p r o j e c t s . His help w i t h the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses and c r i t i c a l comments regarding the manuscript were i n v a l u a b l e . Thanks are a l s o extended t o the other members of the t h e s i s committee, Dr. H.A. Daubeny, Dr. B. E. E l l i s and Dr. H. Kennedy. The work was l a r g e l y supported by an Agri-Food Regional Development Subsiduary Agreement (ARDSA) grant t o The Fraser V a l l e y Strawberry Growers A s s o c i a t i o n . Thanks are extended t o the S t e e r i n g Committee composed of C. C r o s s f i e l d , H.A. Daubeny, M. D r i e d i g e r , W.S. Peters and J . Quapp. Without the g e n e r o s i t y and support of M. D r i e d i g e r and A. Krause who provided f i e l d f a c i l i t i e s and support, t h i s study could not have been completed. P a r t i a l support was a l s o d e r i v e d from NSERC Operating Grant A2 02 3 awarded to Dr. G.W. Eaton. L. Hurd, BCMAF, Abbotsford, evaluated the economic data c o l l e c t e d . The t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e of summer students J.L. Hesketh, L. P e t r i e , S. Riek, F.M. Seywerd and I . Versoza i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. I am very g r a t e f u l t o my parents f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e , help and understanding during the d i f f i c u l t times of t h i s t h e s i s . 1 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n The P a c i f i c Northwest has long been recognized as producing high q u a l i t y s t r a w b e r r i e s comparable or s u p e r i o r t o those produced anywhere i n North America. Production i s on short-day, June-bearing (SD) c u l t i v a r s over a r e l a t i v e l y s hort season of 3 t o 4 weeks i n the l a t e s p r i n g or e a r l y summer. This i s an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n f o r processing which has been the main o u t l e t f o r the f r u i t produced i n the region, but i t r e s t r i c t s the f r e s h market season. Moreover, i n recent years there has been a considerable i n c r e a s e i n the demand f o r high q u a l i t y f r e s h f r u i t over a long p e r i o d and, at the same time, a demand f o r g r e a t e r s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y i n strawberry production. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the a v a i l a b l e day n e u t r a l (DN) c u l t i v a r s d i d not have the q u a l i t y or p r o d u c t i v i t y t o meet these demands. The B r i t i s h Columbia strawberry i n d u s t r y has been based almost e x c l u s i v e l y on the processing market. For t h i s the i n d u s t r y has r e l i e d on matted row (MR) c u l t u r e and SD c u l t i v a r s . For s e v e r a l years now the p r i c e s f o r processed f r u i t have not been f a v o r a b l e and, at the same time, production c o s t s have r i s e n . Imports from Mexico and C a l i f o r n i a have been r e l a t i v e l y cheap. The f r e s h market, however, has not been favored by the i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Shipping t o the p r a i r i e provinces i s l a r g e l y undeveloped. The f r u i t i n g season i s from the middle 2 of June i n t o J u l y and there i s no l o c a l f r u i t a v a i l a b l e a f t e r t h a t p e r i o d . In recent years, there has been i n t e r e s t i n expanding f r e s h market production. This market r e q u i r e s l a r g e , high q u a l i t y f r u i t produced over an extended season. These requirements are not n e c e s s a r i l y met by MR c u l t u r e . Thus the purpose of the present study was t o evaluate a l t e r n a t i v e c u l t u r a l systems u s i n g DN, ever-bearing (EB) as w e l l as SD c u l t i v a r s . 1.1. C u l t i v a r s There have been many changes i n the l a s t few decades as improved c u l t i v a r s , w i t h r e s i s t a n c e t o pests and diseases and increased winterhardiness have become a v a i l a b l e (Daubeny 1989). D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of most strawberry c u l t i v a r s are a v a i l a b l e ( S j u l i n and B a r r i t t 1984, Anon. 1987, Daubeny 1971, P r i t t s and Dale 1989, B r i n g h u r s t and Voth 1987a, Br i n g h u r s t and Voth 1987b, Br i n g h u r s t and Voth 1987c, Bringhurst and Voth 1987d, Bringhurst and Voth 1987e). Production has expanded c o n s i d e r a b l y and techniques of growing have s t a r t e d t o change i n some regions (Daubeny 1989, Bringhurst and Voth 1989). DN c u l t i v a r s and annual production, mainly i n C a l i f o r n i a are changing the p i c t u r e r a p i d l y . In the P a c i f i c Northwest the need f o r v i r u s t o l e r a n c e and w i n t e r hardiness have been the more important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r breeding new c u l t i v a r s (Lawrence 1989, Daubeny 1979). Other regions i n North America have d i f f e r e n t problems and d i f f e r e n t 3 approaches t o the problems i n t h e i r regions i n c l u d i n g d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l methods (Luby 1989, G a l l e t t a 1989, Ca l d w e l l 1989, Dale 1989). SD c u l t i v a r s i n i t i a t e flowers when daylengths are l e s s than 13.5 hours (Hellman and T r a v i s 1988). Flower development can be i n t e r r u p t e d , by e i t h e r c o l d temperature, or high temperature. Flower bud i n i t i a t i o n of SD occurs from l a t e August t o the f i r s t f r o s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In C a l i f o r n i a , i n i t i a t i o n of flowers takes place i n the s p r i n g a l s o and f l o w e r i n g can occur throughout the summer, as long as temperatures do not exceed the maximum (40° C) f o r i n i t i a t i o n . Temperature seems t o o v e r r i d e the daylength e f f e c t . In B.C. f l o w e r i n g g e n e r a l l y commences i n l a t e A p r i l and continues through May wit h f r u i t r i p e n i n g from mid-June to the f i r s t week of J u l y . Runnering w i l l occur a f t e r f r u i t i n g (Durner and P o l i n g 1988) and can be stopped by 3 0° C temperatures ( G a l l e t t a and Bringhurst 1990). Under long days, a x i l l a r y buds develop i n t o runners, which are p r o s t r a t e , 2-noded stems. Branch crown development may occur during the p e r i o d between f l o w e r i n g and runnering, when days are too short f o r runner development, but not short enough f o r flower i n i t i a t i o n (Durner et a l . 1984). Flower bud i n i t i a t i o n of EB c u l t i v a r s , which are long day p l a n t s , occurs during most of the growing season except the e a r l y s p r i n g , when i n i t i a l f r u i t i n g takes place (Durner and P o l i n g 4 1988) . This time depends on l a t i t u d e . Runner production w i l l a l s o take p l a c e during the e n t i r e growing season (Durner et a l . 1984) . DN c u l t i v a r s i n i t i a t e flowers throughout the growing season unless temperatures exceed 3 0° C, when f l o r a l i n d u c t i o n i s g r e a t l y i n h i b i t e d (Bringhurst and Voth 1987). There are strong and weak DN, but e r r o r s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can occur during the s e l e c t i o n stage i n breeding programs, f o r example, c h i l l i n g times can i n f l u e n c e the f l o r a l behavior of the p l a n t s ( N i c o l l and G a l l e t t a 1987). Runner production i s sparse compared t o the SD c u l t i v a r s and occurs during long days (Durner and P o l i n g 1988). Runner production i s enhanced by long days (Durner and P o l i n g 1988, Durner et a l . 1984, P r i t t s and Dale 1989). Runnering can be promoted i n some c u l t i v a r s w i t h c y t o k i n i n s , but elevated l e v e l s over an extended p e r i o d reduce production of runners ( P r i t t s 1986). In other c u l t i v a r s flower development i s not i n f l u e n c e d by c y t o k i n i n s . In l a t i t u d e s l i k e t h a t of B r i t i s h Columbia, flower i n i t i a t i o n takes place approximately 9 months before SD f l o w e r i n g ( S t r i k 1987) . I n i t i a t i o n takes place when daylength becomes l e s s than 13.5 hours and would u n t i l the day length exceeds t h i s i n the s p r i n g ( S t r i k and Pr o c t o r 1988b). I n i t i a t i o n h a l t s during the dormancy p e r i o d . Most crowns, except f o r the s m a l l e s t , i n i t i a t e 5 f l o w e r s . I t i s important t h a t optimum c o n d i t i o n s are provided d u r i n g the f a l l t o i n i t i a t e enough flowers f o r the next season. In c o n t r a s t , DN c u l t i v a r s i n i t i a t e flowers under any daylength and can t h e r e f o r produce f r u i t during the e n t i r e growing season. Depending on c u l t i v a r , s e v e r a l f l u s h e s of f r u i t i n g occur or f r u i t i n g i s continuous. Flower t r u s s e s develop t e r m i n a l l y and once they have formed, no f u r t h e r growth w i l l occur i n t h i s a x i s of growth (Dana 1981, Anderson 1983). The a x i l l a r y bud immediately below the t r u s s w i l l develop i n t o a branch crown which w i l l take over as the major extension growth. The t r u s s e s appear to a r i s e l a t e r a l l y as they are d i s p l a c e d t o the s i d e s when the crowns develop. Within the t r u s s f i r s t one primary flower i s formed, then l a t e r a l growing p o i n t s appear below t h i s flower and i n i t i a t e secondary f l o w e r s , u s u a l l y 2. Further flower i n i t i a t i o n takes place below these and there are 4 t e r t i a r y flowers next and then 8 quartenary flowers and so on. This v a r i e s w i t h c u l t i v a r . Each of the d e s c r i b e d stages i s separated by 2 leaves. A t r u s s w i t h such a branching h a b i t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y able t o bear u n l i m i t e d numbers of f r u i t s , but u s u a l l y flower i n i t i a t i o n i s terminated at the quartenary or quinary stages. The a c t u a l and r e l a t i v e length of t r u s s e s , branches and p e d i c e l s vary i n response to environmental f a c t o r s , such as daylength, temperature and w i n t e r c h i l l i n g . Time of t r u s s i n i t i a t i o n determines s i z e of i t . With the 6 emphasis on l a r g e f r u i t s i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o not have any f r u i t beyond the t e r t i a r y stage. Primary f r u i t s u s u a l l y have around 400 achenes (seeds), w h i l e quartenary w i l l have only 80. Achene number g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e s the s i z e of the f r u i t . 1.2. Mulches Organic mulches have been i n use i n some growing regions f o r a long time wh i l e p l a s t i c mulches have become popular more r e c e n t l y . However, i n the Fraser V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia organic mulches have not been used as w i n t e r r a i n s not only r o t the m a t e r i a l used f o r the mulch but a l s o cause crown r o t s i n the p l a n t s they are supposed t o p r o t e c t . A l s o , f l u c t u a t i n g winter temperatures cause e a r l y emergence under the mulch and subsequent f r e e z i n g of the p l a n t and/or the flowers. In I n d i a , c l e a r p l a s t i c mulch improved y i e l d s by 68% and pine needles by 33 % compared t o no mulch ( B a l d i y a l a and Aggarwal 1981). Pine needles increased f r u i t s i z e . P l a s t i c mulch r e s u l t e d i n e a r l i e r f r u i t . Q u a l i t y of f r u i t was b e t t e r w i t h pine needles a p p l i e d at a r a t e of 10 tonnes per hectare. In F l o r i d a , biodegradable paper mulches coated w i t h p o l y e t h y l e n e were j u s t as e f f e c t i v e as b l a c k p l a s t i c mulches and l a s t e d f o r the 7 month season, a f t e r which i t had degraded and 7 d i d not need t o be removed (Albregts and Howard 1972). In Nova S c o t i a , y i e l d i n the f i r s t year of a p l a n t i n g was increased g r e a t l y by black p l a s t i c mulch and a double row compared t o a s i n g l e row. In the second year of the p l a n t i n g , i r r i g a t i o n was the most important f a c t o r i n c r e a s i n g both f r u i t s i z e and t o t a l y i e l d ( B l a t t 1984). In Oregon, l e a f l e t e l o n g a t i o n , flower and f r u i t numbers and subsequently y i e l d s were increased u s i n g black p l a s t i c mulch at 2 d r i p i r r i g a t i o n l e v e l s , probably through the warming of the s o i l throughout the upper 2 0 cm (Renquist et a l . 1982b). The mulched p l a n t s used water more e f f i c i e n t l y , but v e g e t a t i v e growth was even more enhanced than was f r u i t y i e l d . (Renquist et a l . 1982a, Renquist et a l . 1982c). In Minnesota, higher temperatures were found under po l y foam mulches than under Sudangrass mulch or no mulch (Hertz and Stushnoff 1982). Mulch protected the p l a n t s more e f f e c t i v e l y than no mulch i n the w i n t e r ; however, i t a l s o advanced f l o w e r i n g and e a r l y f r o s t s k i l l e d many flowers, thus e l i m i n a t i n g the advantage. E a r l i e r but lower y i e l d s were obtained from c l e a r p o lyethylene mulched p l o t s (Hertz 1979). Sudangrass placed under the p l a s t i c reduced f r u i t s i z e and y i e l d , but when a p p l i e d on top of the p l a s t i c mulch increased y i e l d . Non-mulched p l o t s had about the same y i e l d as Sudangrass mulched p l o t s . Black polyethylene was n e a r l y as e f f e c t i v e as Sudangrass. 8 In England, l a r g e r y i e l d s on r i d g e s were obtained w i t h black or c l e a r p l a s t i c mulch compared to no mulch (Anderson and G u t t r i d g e 1978). In Vermont, manmade or n a t u r a l snow, used as a mulch, at 15 cm depth provided b e t t e r i n s u l a t i o n and w inter p r o t e c t i o n than d i d straw mulch (Boyce and Linde 1986). Crowns on r a i s e d beds (RB) were c o l d e r than on f l a t beds, and those without p l a s t i c mulch c o l d e r than w i t h p l a s t i c . A combination of no mulch and RB caused s i g n i f i c a n t y i e l d l o s s through f r e e z i n g (Boyce and Reed 1983). Temperatures were higher under c l e a r , b l a c k and white p l a s t i c mulch and b l a c k p l a s t i c increased runner and f r u i t numbers i n V i r g i n i a (Himmelrick 1982). The g r e a t e s t y i e l d came from c l e a r or b l a c k p l a s t i c mulched beds. Airspace between c l e a r p l a s t i c mulch and s o i l provided i n s u l a t i o n from low temperatures. In Wisconsin, c l e a r p l a s t i c mulch increased y i e l d and advanced the season (Scheel 1982b). In Iowa, DN p l a n t s w i t h straw or white on black p l a s t i c mulch flowered and y i e l d e d more than d i d p l a n t s on c l e a r or white p l a s t i c mulch (Fear and Nonnecke 1989). More crowns per p l a n t , runners per p l o t and greater l e a f , crown and root dry weights were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l e a r p l a s t i c than w i t h the others. I t i s suggested t h a t i f DN are grown on mulches which moderate temperature there w i l l be l e s s v e g e t a t i v e but more repro d u c t i v e 9 growth. In Norway, tunnels of p l a s t i c over the p l a n t s and black mulch on the s o i l , increased y i e l d more than j u s t c l e a r mulch on the beds (Nestby 1985c, Nestby 1979). Black p l a s t i c mulched p l o t s had l a r g e r f r u i t , more f r u i t r o t ( B o t r y t i s c i n e r e a Pers. ex Fr.) and lower y i e l d s than d i d p l o t s w i t h white p l a s t i c mulch (Nestby 1985b). I t was a l s o noted, t h a t any p l a s t i c mulch can help c o n t r o l weeds and f r u i t r o t and gave a cl e a n e r , more a t t r a c t i v e f r u i t (Nestby 1985c). In Germany, under f l o a t i n g c l e a r p l a s t i c mulch w i t h 500-800 holes per m2, harvest time was advanced by as much as 8 days ( E u l e n s t e i n 1983). F l o a t i n g mulch was removed before p o l l i n a t i o n . Good y i e l d was obtained w i t h c l o s e spacing. However f l o a t i n g c l e a r mulches were not recommended because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n a p p l y i n g them. 1.3. I r r i g a t i o n and F e r t i l i z a t i o n Many f a c t o r s can i n f l u e n c e the uptake of n u t r i e n t s from the s o i l by the p l a n t (Johanson 1981). Temperature, daylength, l i g h t i n t e n s i t y , humidity, s o i l moisture content, organic matter content, pH, t i l l a g e , s o i l amendments, h e r b i c i d e s and the 10 presence of other n u t r i e n t s can be in v o l v e d . Important n u t r i e n t s f o r s t r a w b e r r i e s are n i t r o g e n , potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts and i n l e s s e r amounts manganese, i r o n , copper, boron, z i n c , s u l f u r and molybdenum. The mode of f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n i s r e l e v a n t . Where a h i l l system was used i n F l o r i d a , s o i l a p p l i e d , s i d e dressed n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r i n i n c r e a s i n g r a t e s increased y i e l d and f r u i t number whereas f o l i a r a p p l i e d n i t r o g e n increased f o l i a g e c o l o r and pl a n t s i z e , but not y i e l d (Albregts and Howard 198 6b, A l b r e g t s and Howard 1986a). In New Zealand, i t was found t h a t too much ni t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n induced A l and Mn t o x c i c i t y and l i m i t e d the y i e l d (Haynes and Goh 1987). When n i t r o g e n and potash were a p p l i e d dry, y i e l d s were s i m i l a r f o r s t r a w b e r r i e s watered w i t h a t r i c k l e or overhead i r r i g a t i o n system i n Ohio (Goulart and Funt 1985). However, when p a r t of the f e r t i l i z e r was a p p l i e d w i t h the i r r i g a t i o n water, which i s r e f e r r e d t o as f e r t i g a t i o n , y i e l d s were 25 % gre a t e r w i t h t r i c k l e than w i t h overhead and 50 % gre a t e r compared t o no i r r i g a t i o n (Locascio and Meyers 1975, Locascio 1981). T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n a l s o r e q u i r e d l e s s water than overhead (Locascio et a l . 1977). The s o l u b l e s a l t content of the s o i l was highest i n the n o n - i r r i g a t e d f i e l d s and lowest f o r the t r i c k l e i r r i g a t e d p l o t s i n F l o r i d a (Locascio and Meyers 1975, Locascio et a l . 1977). Nitrogen l e v e l s of l e a f t i s s u e were not i n f l u e n c e d by the f e r t i l i z e r treatments or i r r i g a t i o n , however, potash l e v e l s were g r e a t l y e l e v a t e d w i t h t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n (Locascio et a l . 1977, Locascio and M a r t i n 1985). In Cyprus, n i t r o g e n l e v e l s i n the t i s s u e i n crease w i t h increase i n f e r t i g a t i o n n i t r o g e n (Papadopoulos 1987). Again i n F l o r i d a , decreased n u t r i e n t l o s s was found when t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n was used to d e l i v e r the n i t r o g e n i n small p o r t i o n s r a t h e r than i n t o t a l at the beginning of the season (Mansell et a l . 1977). Leaching was higher than i n n o n - i r r i g a t e d p l o t s . T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n allows not only f e r t i l i z e r and p e s t i c i d e s t o be a p p l i e d throughout the system, but a l s o b i o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l agents, such as entomopathogenic nematodes, f o r the c o n t r o l of w e e v i l pests of s t r a w b e r r i e s (Curan and P a t e l 1988). 1.4. Spacing In North C a r o l i n a , i n a h i l l row (HR), the c l o s e s t spacings (15 and 2 0 cm) gave the g r e a t e s t y i e l d s f o r 6 of 7 SD and reduced f r u i t s i z e s l i g h t l y f o r a l l the SD c u l t i v a r s ( P o l i n g and Durner 1986) . Spacing had no e f f e c t on s i z e of the f r u i t i n F l o r i d a ( A l b r e g t s and Howard 1974, B r i g h t w e l l 1964, Locascio 1972) but c l o s e r spacings produced the g r e a t e s t y i e l d (Maas and Cathey 1987) there and a l s o i n Maryland. In B r i t i s h Columbia, runner production was dependent on p l a n t i n g age, c u l t i v a r and spacing. At the c l o s e spacing, fewer runners per area were found. Leaf s i z e , which represents the p h o t o s y n t h e t i c a l l y a c t i v e area, was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the i n t e r a c t i o n between c u l t i v a r s and spacings, year by spacing and year by c u l t i v a r (Hesketh 1989, Hesketh et a l . 1990a). In the h i l l row (HR) system, ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Shuksan*, 'Totem' and 'Sumas' p l a n t s were examined at d i f f e r e n t spacings (Hesketh et a l . 1990b). There were d i f f e r e n c e s among the c u l t i v a r s . The highest c o n t r i b u t i o n t o marketable y i e l d was from crowns per p l a n t and t r u s s e s per crown. Decreases i n y i e l d components due t o p l a n t competition were not great enough to overcome the p o s i t i v e y i e l d e f f e c t s of increased p l a n t i n g d e n s i t i e s on an area b a s i s . In Maryland, increased p l a n t d e n s i t y reduced leaves and crowns per p l a n t , root weight and y i e l d (Swartz et a l . 1989b). Runner removal increased the crown number and root weight of the mother p l a n t s , but y i e l d was increased only i n one of 3 c u l t i v a r s . The e f f e c t of spacing was greater than t h a t of runner removal and i t i s suggested t h a t spacing i s the most important f a c t o r . High p l a n t d e n s i t y decreased the y i e l d per p l a n t mostly through number of f r u i t , and l e s s through the s i z e of the f r u i t . In Ontario, genotypes d i f f e r e d i n number of crowns, crown dry weight, l e a f area, number of leaves, l e a f dry weight, l e a f area, number of s t o l o n s , average s t o l o n length and runner dry weight per p l a n t ( S t r i k and Pro c t o r 1988a). Some of these v a r i a b l e s can i n f l u e n c e the u l t i m a t e d e n s i t y of p l a n t s i n a matted row system. In England, v e g e t a t i v e characters a s s o c i a t e d w i t h y i e l d s were those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f r u i t number and f r u i t s i z e (Lacey 1973) . Greater y i e l d s were obtained f o r unthinned s o l i d beds compared t o intermediate thinned s o l i d beds; s i n g l e p l a n t beds gave the lowest y i e l d s (Anderson and Gutt r i d g e 1976). I n v a r i a b l y the most crowns and t r u s s e s per p l a n t were on the s i n g l e p l a n t s , but i n the MR the gre a t e r number of p l a n t s compensated f o r m u l t i p l e crowns and t r u s s e s . The number of crowns and t r u s s e s per area was c l e a r l y higher i n the MR which was made up by mostly runner p l a n t s by the time of harvest i n the f i r s t f r u i t i n g year. In North C a r o l i n a , i n the p l a n t i n g year, y i e l d s increased l i n e a r l y w i t h c l o s e r spacings (Durner and P o l i n g 1986). F r u i t s i z e was gr e a t e r f o r the wider spacings but runner number per area was higher i n the c l o s e r spacings. In the second year, the f i r s t f u l l p roduction year, y i e l d s again were g r e a t e s t f o r the c l o s e r spacings w h i l e f r u i t s i z e increased l i n e a r l y w i t h wider spacings. When MR were e s t a b l i s h e d at d i f f e r e n t spacings, the c l o s e r spaced p l a n t i n g s had the highest y i e l d s i n the f i r s t year. C u l t i v a r s producing r e l a t i v e l y high numbers of runners tend to compensate at wider spacings and d i f f e r e n c e s due t o the c l o s e r spacings are minimal i n the second year ( P o l i n g 1984). F r u i t s i z e was l a r g e r w i t h the wider spacings. When 'Totem' and 'Shuksan' were compared i n MR and HR i n the P a c i f i c Northwest, MR was the highest y i e l d i n g system; the MR w i t h a very high d e n s i t y of p l a n t s can compensate f o r the occurrence of v i r u s diseases i n 'Shuksan' at l e a s t (Daubeny and Freeman 1977), but probably not i n 'Totem* which i s r e l a t i v e l y v i r u s t o l e r a n t ( B a r r i t t and Daubeny 1982). There have been c o n t r a s t i n g r e s u l t s from reducing the number of runners. For example, i n Nova S c o t i a , C r a i g et a l . (1983) found increased f r u i t s i z e but no y i e l d d i f f e r e n c e s , whereas i n Norway B r a n d s t v e i t (1987) found g r e a t e r y i e l d s . Y i e l d per p l a n t was again highest i n p l a n t s kept runnerless but MR g e n e r a l l y o u t y i e l d e d the HR i n Michigan (Hancock et a l . 1982b). Spacing had v a r y i n g e f f e c t s on y i e l d w i t h d i f f e r e n t c u l t i v a r s . While a removal of l a t e season runners by machine l e a d t o a decrease i n y i e l d , so d i d the wider spacings f o r the mother p l a n t s i n Arkansas (Buckley and Moore 1982). Narrower MR beds w i t h c l o s e r spacings, both between the beds and between the p l a n t s , o u t y i e l d e d the MR beds wi t h wider spacings. Comparisons of 2 MR widths i n Maryland showed t h a t the narrower rows r e c e i v e d more l i g h t and the p l a n t s produced more crowns and were more productive (Trent et a l . 1985, Swartz et a l . 1982, Wilson and Dickson 1988). Percent r o t and f r u i t q u a l i t y were not i n f l u e n c e d by spacing (Wilson and Dickson 1988). Comparing HR and MR i n Michigan, the l a t t e r produced g r e a t e r y i e l d s and l a r g e r f r u i t (Hancock 1984). In the HR i n Norway, c l o s e r spacings r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r y i e l d and l a r g e r f r u i t (Nestby 1987). There were reductions i n t r u s s e s per crown, percent of f r u i t set and f r u i t weight at higher crown d e n s i t i e s i n Maryland (Swartz et a l . 1982). R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i s known about the spacing requirements of the DN s t r a w b e r r i e s compared to the SD-types. However, a l i n e a r i n c r e a s e i n y i e l d w i t h c l o s e r spacings was recorded f o r 'Tribute' i n the f i r s t and second years i n New York ( P r i t t s and Eames-Sheavly 1989). Recent data w i t h DN suggest t h a t the optimum spacing i s an o f f s e t p l a n t i n g versus a l i n e a r p l a n t i n g at the same d e n s i t y . 1.5. P l a n t i n g Date and P l a n t S i z e When runner p l a n t s were dug f r e s h and p l a n t e d at i n t e r v a l s i n F l o r i d a from the end of September to the beginning of November, y i e l d s i n the f o l l o w i n g year were decreased w i t h every delay i n p l a n t i n g (Albregts and Howard 1974, B r i g h t w e l l 1964, Locascio 1972); the same e f f e c t was found i n England (Mason 1987, Hughes 1967). S i m i l a r l y , i n Norway, delayed p l a n t i n g i n the s p r i n g or summer r e s u l t e d i n reduced y i e l d s i n the f o l l o w i n g year, when number of flowers were g e n e r a l l y reduced (Nestby 1982, Nestby 1985a, Nestby 1987). A strong c o r r e l a t i o n was found between the number of branch crowns and the y i e l d the f o l l o w i n g year (Nestby 1975). A comparison of small and l a r g e rooted p l a n t s showed no d i f f e r e n c e s i n runner production, but the l a r g e p l a n t s had more crowns a f t e r one growing season i n s e v e r a l s t a t e s of the U.S. ( S k i r v i n et a l . 1987). In Lebanon, wi t h e a r l y f r u i t i n g c u l t i v a r s , l a r g e p l a n t s produced greater y i e l d s than s m a l l e r p l a n t s ; these d i f f e r e n c e s were not shown w i t h l a t e r f r u i t i n g c u l t i v a r s (Rice and Duna 1986). C u l t i v a r s v a r i e d i n runner production i n the U.S. ( S k i r v i n et a l . 1987). P l a n t s i z e was found to be r e l a t e d t o p l a n t i n g year y i e l d s and f r u i t weight i n Quebec (Go s s e l i n et a l . 1985). Mother p l a n t s t h a t produced runner p l a n t s i n Scotland were not a f f e c t e d i n number of i n f l o r e s c e n c e s produced, when d i f f e r e n t grades of p l a n t s i z e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d (Mason 1987), but y i e l d s dropped l i n e a r l y w i t h s m a l l e r p l a n t s . With p l a n t s grown i n England, the number of i n f l o r e s c e n c e s increased w i t h runner s i z e , which i n t u r n was r e l a t e d t o a x i l l a r y bud development, i n f l o r e s c e n c e i n i t i a t i o n and the number of p o t e n t i a l cropping t r u s s e s (Hughes 1967). 17 1.6. Waiting Bed C u l t u r a l System In southwest B r i t i s h Columbia, the w a i t i n g bed (WB) c u l t u r a l system, which has the p o t e n t i a l of producing f r u i t on l o c a l l y adapted short-day c u l t i v a r s throughout the summer and i n t o the f a l l , has been i n v e s t i g a t e d (Baumann and Daubeny 1989). I t i n v o l v e s the use of c o l d - s t o r e d multi-crowned runner p l a n t s . These are produced i n the previous season by the deflowering and derunnering of s i n g l e crowned p l a n t s placed i n the f i e l d i n l a t e s p r i n g t o concentrate development of branch crowns (Hancock et a l . 1982b). Production of these multi-crowned p l a n t s i s what makes the system unique. Subsequently, i n l a t e f a l l , dormant p l a n t s are dug and s t o r e d at -1° C, u n t i l they are p l a n t e d i n the f i e l d at designated i n t e r v a l s the f o l l o w i n g growing season (Baumann and Daubeny 1989). F r u i t i n g begins approximately 6 to 8 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g . In Holland, where the system was developed, f r e s h f r u i t i s now a v a i l a b l e f o r at l e a s t 4 months of the year and production i n greenhouses during the w i n t e r i s p o s s i b l e from the WB. The system i s c u r r e n t l y being used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n England as w e l l . There, 130 grams of f r u i t per p l a n t i s recognized as the break even p o i n t f o r p r o f i t . 1 8 1.7. H i l l Row C u l t u r a l System In B r i t i s h Columbia, the standard growing p r a c t i c e i s the MR on a f l a t bed. P l a n t s are set out at the r a t e of approximately 18,000 p l a n t s per hectare and allowed t o runner f r e e l y , w h i l e c u l t i v a t i o n r e s t r i c t s the runner growth to the rows. In c o n t r a s t , the HR system i n v o l v e s the use of c o l d - s t o r e d single-crowned runner p l a n t s , set out at c l o s e spacing at a r a t e of 150,000 p l a n t s per hectare (Rotthoff 1981, G a l l e t t a and B r i n g h u r s t 199 0 ) . This system has a l s o been named ribbon row i n the l i t e r a t u r e , a f t e r R o t t h o f f coined the term i n 1981, and was used interchangeably w i t h HR. For the purpose of the present study HR w i l l be used throughout the t e x t . Many combinations of MR and HR " are p o s s i b l e (Wetherell 1981, Unger and S t r i k 1988). The system has the p o t e n t i a l of producing f r u i t on l o c a l l y adapted short-day c u l t i v a r s throughout the summer and i n t o the f a l l . The p l a n t s are produced i n the previous season by propagation n u r s e r i e s . They are dug w h i l e dormant and stored at -1° C, u n t i l the next year, when they are planted i n the f i e l d at designated i n t e r v a l s throughout the f o l l o w i n g growing season. F r u i t i n g begins approximately 6 t o 8 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g . In C a l i f o r n i a , an annual system i s used w i t h HR and RB (Voth 1981). Optimum growing c o n d i t i o n s are important f o r the success of the p l a n t i n g s . C l e a r ( i n southern C a l i f o r n i a ) or white ( i n northern C a l i f o r n i a ) p l a s t i c mulch i s used t o cover the r a i s e d beds and p l a n t s are set at high d e n s i t y u s u a l l y i n double rows du r i n g the wintertime. Summer p l a n t i n g s are p o s s i b l e , but because of a d d i t i o n a l s t r e s s t o the p l a n t s , i t i s even more important to gi v e optimum growing c o n d i t i o n s . Not a l l c u l t i v a r s are s u i t e d to summer p l a n t i n g s (Voth 1967). P l a n t s i n summer p l a n t i n g s need to be pruned and p l a s t i c mulch a p p l i e d l a t e r than i n wi n t e r p l a n t i n g s i f maximum f r u i t s i z e and q u a l i t y are t o be achieved (Voth 1961, Voth and Bringhurst 1967). For w i n t e r p l a n t i n g s i t i s important t h a t c h i l l i n g requirements are met and the l e v e l of ni t r o g e n i s low (Voth and Bringhurst 1976). RB are a means f o r c o n t r o l of root diseases, such as Phytophthora f r a g a r i a e Hickman, on heavy, wet s o i l s (Durner and P o l i n g 1986). P i c k i n g i s e a s i e r and e a r l i e r growth and r i p e n i n g can be expected as the s o i l warms up quicker (Durner and P o l i n g 1986, G o s s e l i n et a l . 1985, Goulart and Funt 1985). In a review of s e v e r a l papers from the U.S. (Hancock 1987), comparing the MR w i t h the HR, RB never o u t y i e l d e d f l a t beds and were of no advantage, except when f l o o d i n g was a problem. R a i s i n g the beds increased r o o t temperature. F r u i t was kept r e l a t i v e l y c l e a n which reduced f r u i t r o t and increased p i c k i n g e f f i c i e n c y . The system was more d i f f i c u l t t o maintain, e s p e c i a l l y i f mulches and i r r i g a t i o n systems were used i n combination (Hancock and Roueche 1983, Boyce and Reed 1983). Comparing MR and HR i n New York, i n 2 0 the f i r s t f r u i t i n g year, mulched p l o t s w i t h e i t h e r l a t e x or straw were more productive than unmulched p l o t s f o r the HR ( P r i t t s and Eames-Sheavly 1988). The highest y i e l d i n the second year was obtained from MR w i t h l a t e x mulch. With low r a t e s of l a t e x , runners were able t o e s t a b l i s h , water could permeate the mulch and the mulch was almost completely degraded at the end of the l i f e of the p l a n t i n g . High p l a n t q u a l i t y i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the success of an out-of-season production i n the p l a n t i n g year as p l a n t s are subjected t o a d d i t i o n a l s t r e s s ( T i e t z and Gebhart 1979). One of the more important aspects of the production of runner p l a n t s , f o r storage before p l a n t i n g , i s the degree of p h y s i o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y at the time of di g g i n g and storage. P l a n t s should have at l e a s t 3 f u l l y developed leaves and root lengths of 5 cm wi t h many feeder r o o t s . A l a b o r a t o r y t e s t f o r s t a r c h content i s h e l p f u l i n determining the degree of maturity reached by the p l a n t s . P l a n t s are not able t o s u r v i v e -1° C storage unless they have at l e a s t 50 % s t a r c h content i n the epidermis. In Maryland, HR o u t y i e l d e d MR when c l o s e spacing was used. To f i n d the p o i n t at which there i s optimum production i n the p l a n t i n g year w i t h no negative e f f e c t through crowding i n the subsequent years i s very d i f f i c u l t (Hancock 1984, Swartz et a l . 1982). I t i s suggested t h a t y i e l d s of a HR have t o be at l e a s t 6.7 T/ha higher than f o r the MR t o j u s t i f y a s w i t c h from MR to HR i n Ohio (Funt 1983). The f r u i t was harvested i n the p l a n t i n g year t o make up f o r the e x t r a cost t o e s t a b l i s h the HR which i n v o l v e a l a r g e r number of p l a n t s and runner removal, but y i e l d s i n t h a t year were g e n e r a l l y extremely low and t h e r e f o r never covered the e x t r a cost. In Oregon, f r u i t was not harvested i n the p l a n t i n g year, but 25 T/ha i n the f i r s t f r u i t i n g year and 39 T/ha i n the second f r u i t i n g year were obtained from a HR-type system (Unger and S t r i k 1988). Runner removal was every 3 weeks i n the p l a n t i n g year and infrequent the f o l l o w i n g years. In the year a f t e r p l a n t i n g , the HR o u t y i e l d e d the MR at high d e n s i t y (spacing w i t h i n the row was from 7.5 t o 15 cm) only, compared t o the t h i r d year, i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n North America (Buckley and Moore 1982, Durner and P o l i n g 1986, Kaps and Odneal 1986, G o s s e l i n et a l . 1985, Goulart and Funt 1985, Hancock and Cameron 1986, Hancock e t a l . 1982a, Popenoe and Swartz 1985, Scheel 1982a, Swartz et a l . 1982, Walsh and Geyer 1983). A f t e r the f i r s t year of f r u i t production, renovation of p l a n t s by mowing had no e f f e c t on y i e l d , but g e n e r a l l y MR had higher y i e l d s than d i d HR i n South C a r o l i n a (Caldwell and Grimes 1987a). HR produced l a r g e r f r u i t , but MR had more f r u i t s ( Caldwell and Grimes 1987b). P l a n t s on RB had deeper root d i s t r i b u t i o n , poorer runner establishment, higher p h o t o s y n t h e t i c a l l y a c t i v e r a d i a t i o n p e n e t r a t i o n and e a r l i e r y i e l d s compared to those on f l a t beds (Goulart and Funt 1986a). The c l o s e r the spacing, the e a r l i e r the f r u i t i n g . Y i e l d was not e f f e c t e d by the d i f f e r e n t treatments (Goulart and Funt 1986a, Goulart and Funt 198 6b, C r a i g and Aalders 1966). In the year a f t e r p l a n t i n g , higher y i e l d s from HR were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h increased crown numbers and l a r g e r l e a f areas per p l a n t i n Maryland and Ohio (Popenoe and Swartz 1985, Hancock et a l . 1982a, Goulart and Funt 1986a). I f p l a n t s were spaced i n narrow rows, e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l y i n the year and runners cut o f f , p l a n t v i g o r was high and l i k e l y l e a d t o overcrowding i n the second f u l l crop year. M o d i f i e d MR systems, where runners were removed or row width was r e s t r i c t e d , were not found to be an improvement f o r y i e l d over the conventional MR. In Wisconsin, i t was observed t h a t harvest i s e a s i e r w i t h the HR as f r u i t l a y s i n a ribbon along the rows, f r u i t r o t i s decreased, f r u i t i s picked c lean as i t i s more v i s i b l e and a lower percentage i s damaged by the p i c k e r s (Scheel 1982a). When 'Totem' and 'Shuksan' were compared i n MR and HR i n the P a c i f i c Northwest i t was concluded t h a t the MR was the highest y i e l d i n g system as only the MR w i t h a very high d e n s i t y of p l a n t s can compensate f o r the occurrence of v i r u s disease, which i s a p a r t i c u l a r problem w i t h 'Shuksan' (Daubeny and Freeman 1977). 23 1.8. Runner Removal Runner removal i s q u i t e expensive and many methods have been i n v e s t i g a t e d t o reduce the amount necessary. Most derunnering i s s t i l l done by hand, although some chemical methods have been considered. For MR, runners are e s s e n t i a l t o make up the p l a n t p o p u l a t i o n ; the excess i s rotovated o f f by machine. In the HR system the removal of runners i s e s s e n t i a l and expensive. Runner production as such i s i n f l u e n c e d by c u l t i v a r , c h i l l i n g , date of p l a n t i n g , day le n g t h and l i g h t i n t e n s i t y . I t i s favored by long days and high temperatures ( G a l l e t t a and B r i n g h u r s t 1990). More runners are u s u a l l y produced by SD c u l t i v a r s than by DN c u l t i v a r s . The l a t t e r are sometimes even d i f f i c u l t t o propagate because of the l a c k of runners. Thus there i s an added expense i n propagation. When runners were l e f t on the p l a n t s y i e l d s were reduced not only i n t h i s year but a l s o the next f o r 'Tufts' but not f o r 'Dover' i n F l o r i d a (Albregts and Howard 1986). Although y i e l d per p l a n t was higher i n runnerless p l a n t s , MR y i e l d e d more per p l o t i n Michigan (Hancock et a l . 1982b). The g r e a t e s t e f f e c t of the v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d was from p r e - p l a n t fumigation, c u l t i v a r s e l e c t i o n and the width of the MR. There was no e f f e c t of r a i s i n g the bed because of the growing c o n d i t i o n s i n Maryland (Walsh 1982). When v e g e t a t i v e v i g o r was enhanced by removing runners or t r u s s e s , f r u i t set was enhanced 24 dependent on the c u l t i v a r . Removal of leaves during f l o w e r i n g caused reduced set and y i e l d (Swartz et a l . 1989a). Various treatments have been st u d i e d t o c o n t r o l runner growth. In Kentucky, f l u r p r i m i d o l was used at 0 t o 1,000 ppm on co n t a i n e r p l a n t s . With increase i n con c e n t r a t i o n of the chemical, mean p e t i o l e length, runner number per p l a n t and runner l e n g t h were reduced (Archbold 1986). At 250 ppm crown dry weights were hig h e s t . Ancymidol had no e f f e c t on growth and f r u i t i n g . P a c l o b u t r a z o l a p p l i e d t o f i e l d grown p l a n t s reduced the growth of runners more e f f i c i e n t l y than d i d f l u r p r i m i d o l . In Wisconsin, p a c l o b u t r a z o l had been found t o suppress the growth of runners wh i l e not n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c i n g y i e l d (Stang and Weis 1985, Stang and Weis 1984). In Michigan, removal of flowers d i d not p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e y i e l d i n the f o l l o w i n g year (Hancock and Roueche 1983). There have been s e v e r a l other growth r e g u l a t o r s t e s t e d (6-benzylaminopurine, p a c l o b u t r a z o l , BAS 111-04W and Prism) f o r runner suppression i n DN and SD s t r a w b e r r i e s , some of which u n f o r t u n a t e l y depress y i e l d (Hasse et a l . 1989). Only Prism was found t o only suppress runners w h i l e y i e l d remained the same. Response of the DN c u l t i v a r s was d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the SD t e s t e d i n New York and Oregon (Hasse et a l . 1989, M a r t i n 1985). In B r i t i s h Columbia, i n greenhouse s t u d i e s , chlormequat and p a c l o b u t r a z o l a l s o i n h i b i t e d runner growth, 25 whereas f e r t i l i z a t i o n increased runner production (McArthur and Eaton 1988, McArthur and Eaton 1987). 1.9. C u l t u r e of day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s Recent DN r e l e a s e s from s e v e r a l breeding programs promise to be very p r o d u c t i v e over an extended time p e r i o d (Bringhurst and Voth 1989). To date, the a v a i l a b l e DN c u l t i v a r s have lacked the good f r u i t q u a l i t i e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e most of the P a c i f i c Northwest SD c u l t i v a r s . However, C a l i f o r n i a s h i p s considerable amounts of 'Selva 1 f o r the f r e s h market. In V i r g i n i a , removal of flowers helped e s t a b l i s h DN strawberry p l a n t s and enhanced the y i e l d i n the f o l l o w i n g cropping c y c l e s i n the same year (Shaffer et a l . 1986). The p l a n t s had a higher l e a f , crown and root dry weight than non deflowered p l a n t s and increased r a t e s of f r u i t production. Stored carbohydrates were u t i l i z e d i n the next c y c l e s of f r u i t production (Shaffer et a l . 1985). A l s o , the removal of the f i r s t set of flowers prevented the harvest of the DN t o c o i n c i d e w i t h SD season, which would mean lower p r i c e s and competition from the higher q u a l i t y SD f r u i t . During the f i r s t year the optimum removal p e r i o d f o r flowers i n 'Tribute* and ' T r i s t a r ' was 24 days (Leblanc et a l . 1987). F r u i t s i z e was l a r g e r throughout the season w i t h flower removal. In the second year no e f f e c t on marketable y i e l d or f r u i t s i z e was found when flowers were removed. S i m i l a r l y , maximum f i r s t year y i e l d s were obtained i f c u l t i v a r s were deflowered f o r approximately 6 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g . But length of d e f l owering was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the y i e l d i n the second year of production i n New York (Leblanc et a l . 1987, P r i t t s and Worden 1988). L i m i t e d removal of flowers i n the second year helped s h i f t the production somewhat l a t e r , which avoid the main season; y i e l d was not a f f e c t e d (Leblanc et a l . 1987) . In North C a r o l i n a , bed height had no i n f l u e n c e on y i e l d i n DN c u l t i v a r s (Durner and P o l i n g 1986). In New York, HR o u t y i e l d e d MR i n the f i r s t but not the second year and mulched beds were higher y i e l d i n g than were unmulched ( P r i t t s and Eames-Sheavly 1988). P l a n t i n g of DN c u l t i v a r s l a t e r e s u l t e d i n reduced y i e l d s , compared t o e a r l i e r p l a n t i n g s ; t h i s suggests t h a t no compensation took place ( P r i t t s and Eames-Sheavly 1989). Mowing the second year p l a n t i n g s i n the s p r i n g helped a v o i d i n g an i n -season crop, but again y i e l d compensation d i d not occur and f r u i t s i z e was reduced. 1.10. O b j e c t i v e s of Research The main o b j e c t i v e s of the current research were t o study the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of extending the f r e s h market season f o r s t r a w b e r r i e s i n southwestern B.C. from the t r a d i t i o n a l 4 weeks i n e a r l y summer through t o l a t e September or even i n t o October. Several c u l t u r a l methods, using both SD and DN c u l t i v a r s , were i n v e s t i g a t e d . An extended season would not only c a p i t a l i z e on the good q u a l i t y of P a c i f i c Northwest produced f r u i t , but would lead t o a g r e a t e r degree of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n strawberry production. The c u l t u r a l systems i n v o l v e d the WB which had been developed and subsequently used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the Netherlands as w e l l as i n England, and the HR, which had been used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s i n C a l i f o r n i a and i n v a r i o u s other p a r t s of the U.S. Both systems use SD c u l t i v a r s planted s e q u e n t i a l l y and i n v o l v e f r u i t i n g i n the p l a n t i n g year. The DN c u l t i v a r s , although of i n f e r i o r f r u i t q u a l i t y compared t o the standard P a c i f i c Northwest SD c u l t i v a r s , were seen as another o p t i o n i n season extension and would provide a continuous supply of f r u i t i n the year of p l a n t i n g from J u l y through t o October. Several c u l t i v a r s were examined at v a r i o u s p l a n t spacings and f e r t i l i t y l e v e l s . 2 8 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental p l o t s were l o c a t e d at D r i e d i g e r Bros. Farms i n 1986-88 and at Krause Bros. Farms i n 1988-89, both i n Langley, B r i t i s h Columbia, on sandy loam s o i l s . F i e l d s were prepared according t o standard p r a c t i c e s , which i n c l u d e d the use of green manure crops and the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of chicken manure and lime ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s 1987). RB were mulched w i t h black p l a s t i c . C e r t i f i e d strawberry p l a n t s were s u p p l i e d by Sakuma Bros. Nurseries of B u r l i n g t o n , Washington, e i t h e r from t h e i r B u r l i n g t o n s i t e or from t h e i r high e l e v a t i o n n u r s e r i e s i n Northern C a l i f o r n i a . 2.1. P l a s t i c mulch Black p l a s t i c mulch was s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of unpublished i n f o r m a t i o n at the Western Washington Research and Extension Center a t Mt. Vernon, where t r i a l s w i t h v a r i o u s other types and c o l o r s of p l a s t i c (black, white, brown, c l e a r , white w i t h black backing and b l a c k w i t h white backing) concluded t h a t f o r our r e g i o n b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch gave the best r e s u l t s f o r both y i e l d and weed c o n t r o l . The b lack p l a s t i c mulch i s a l s o r e l a t i v e l y cheap, compared t o other p l a s t i c mulches, and gives weed c o n t r o l I t a l s o i s the most durable, as the black c o l o r g i v e s p r o t e c t i o n from u l t r a v i o l e t rays. This p r o t e c t i o n i s very expensive t o 29 b u i l d i n t o other types of p l a s t i c s . 2.2. Raised beds In the formation of RB, deeply-worked, loose s o i l was ridged up t o the middle of the row and a shaper pressed the bed i n t o the f i n a l shape. The bed was approximately 3 0 cm high and was sloped to the s i d e s f o r a p a r a b o l i c shape t o d r a i n water away from the p l a n t s . Black p l a s t i c mulch was l a i d over the beds and at the same time t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n tape was r o l l e d onto the beds with a machine high enough t o c l e a r the RB, anchoring the mulch w i t h s o i l . As the mulch and tape normally l a s t 3 t o 4 years, these m a t e r i a l s were not r e a p p l i e d . A p l a s t i c l a y i n g machine manufactured by Kenco Mfg. (F l o r i d a ) was used t o place the black p l a s t i c mulch and the t r i c k l e t u b i n g . One or two rows were covered at the same time. Shoes opened the s o i l and the p l a s t i c mulch was pressed down i n t o these furrows along the RB and d i s c s c l o s e d the furrows by covering the edges of the p l a s t i c w i t h s o i l . The t r i c k l e tubing was mounted above the p l a s t i c r o l l s and fed under the p l a s t i c , guided by 2 small r o l l e r s . There was one t r i c k l e tube per bed, i n the middle i f a double row was used and s l i g h t l y o f f s e t from the center t o a l l o w the p l a n t s t o be set i n t o the center of the bed f o r a s i n g l e row. 3 0 2.3. I r r i g a t i o n System At both farm s i t e s , w e l l water f o r i r r i g a t i o n was brought from the farm w e l l v i a an e x i s t i n g main water l i n e , through a connection and past a s h u t o f f v a l v e which was used t o disengage the system i n win t e r . A pressure reducer kept pressure at the optimum l e v e l without breaking the t r i c k l e tape. An adapter was f i t t e d t o accommodate the f e r t i l i z e r i n j e c t i o n and then a 2 - f i l t e r system was used t o catch p a r t i c u l a t e m a t e r i a l s , such as und i s s o l v e d f e r t i l i z e r i n the water supply, t o prevent clogging of the t r i c k l e l i n e s . A pressure gauge and flow gauge completed the i n t a k e p o r t i o n of the system. The water flowed through 2.5cm PVC l i n e s t o the f i e l d where e l e c t r i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d v a l v e s fed the secondary l i n e s which were connected t o p l a s t i c r i s e r s l i n k i n g the t r i c k l e tape. The t r i c k l e tape was 2-chambered. An intermediate t h i c k n e s s s u f f i c e d s i n c e there i s no UV l i g h t under the b l a c k p l a s t i c . A main chamber d i s t r i b u t e d the water t o a secondary chamber, which reduced the flow t o l a s e r - d r i l l e d h oles, 30 cm apart, where the water was emitted. The t r i c k l e l i n e r e s t e d on the s o i l above the RB. As the water spurted up i t was spread f u r t h e r by the p l a s t i c through c a p i l l a r y a c t i o n . 3 1 Watering i n t e r v a l s and d u r a t i o n were set on an e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l l e r . This system allowed watering at any time and d i d not i n t e r f e r e w i t h p l a n t i n g , harvest or other maintenance operations. An automated-pump i n j e c t i o n system was used t o i n j e c t s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r i n t o the water stream, and allowed accurate d e l i v e r y of f e r t i l i z e r t o the r o o t s . F e r t i l i z e r was a p p l i e d as many as 20 times per season. 2.4. Data c o l l e c t i o n V a r i a b l e s measured i n the y i e l d t r i a l s i n c l u d e d f r u i t s i z e , the weight of c u l l s and f r u i t and marketable y i e l d of f r u i t . Mean f r u i t s i z e was determined f o r each p l o t by weighing a 2 5 - f r u i t sample on each harvest date and l a t e r d i v i d i n g the accumulated weight by the t o t a l number of f r u i t s . Rotten, misshapen, small and other unmarketable f r u i t s were recorded as c u l l s . The y i e l d s of both c u l l s and marketable f r u i t were expressed as tonnes per hectare and as percentages of t o t a l y i e l d . Thus marketable y i e l d represented the f r u i t a c t u a l l y s o l d by the grower w h i l e t o t a l y i e l d was an underestimate of the p o t e n t i a l y i e l d t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r set of f a c t o r s could produce, i f there were no unmarketable f r u i t . 32 2.5. Waiting bed c u l t u r a l system 2.5.1. 1986 p l a n t e d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l To produce p l a n t s of 'Hood1, ' R a i n i e r 1 , 'Shuksan' and 'Totem' f o r the WB t r i a l , normal runner p l a n t s were plante d i n 1985 at a spacing of 22.5 cm by 107 cm f i e l d , deflowered twice and derunnered 10 times. The p l a n t s grew m u l t i p l e crowns w i t h an average of 8 crowns per p l a n t . The dormant p l a n t s were l i f t e d out of the ground w i t h a tree-nursery root-pruner i n January 198 6 and s t o r e d i n p l a s t i c - l i n e d b i n s at -1° C. The p l a n t s were taken out of c o l d storage at 10-day i n t e r v a l s and p l a n t e d i n l e v e l beds, from May t o J u l y 1986 (Table 1) at a spacing of 3 0 cm by 8 5 cm. P l a n t i n g was done w i t h shovels and care was taken t o set the p l a n t s at the same s o i l depth from which they had been dug. The WB t r i a l was arranged as 6 randomized complete block designs each p l a n t e d on a separate date. Each date i n c l u d e d 4 rows as blocks and 3 0-plant p l o t s of 4 c u l t i v a r s i n each row. The c u l t i v a r s used were 'Hood', ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Shuksan' and 'Totem'. Harvesting commenced 6 to 8 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g . Marketable y i e l d , weight of c u l l s , and the weight of a 2 5 - f r u i t sample were recorded f o r a l l p l o t s at each harvest. In 1987 data on 33 performance were obtained during the conventional f r u i t i n g season, f o r SD types, of approximately 3 t o 4 weeks beginning i n mid-June. 2.5.2. 1987 planted w a i t i n g bed t r i a l In 1986, p l a n t s were prepared as i n 1985, but derunnered only t w i c e . The r e s u l t i n g multiple-crowned p l a n t s averaged 3.5 crowns per p l a n t . The c u l t i v a r s used were 'Hood', ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Shuksan' and 'Totem'. Further multiple-crowned p l a n t s , w i t h 3 crowns per p l a n t were obtained from n u r s e r i e s ; these were discarded mother-plants which had been used f o r production of runner p l a n t s . These 2 types of source p l a n t s were used i n 1987 t o e s t a b l i s h a second WB t r i a l . U n l i k e the f i r s t WB t r i a l , t h i s second t r i a l was on RB covered w i t h black p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n . The mother p l a n t c u l t i v a r s were ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Shuksan' and 'Totem'. A set of machinery from Kenco Mfg. ( F l o r i d a ) was used to r a i s e and shape the beds to a height of 15 cm. The d i s t a n c e between the beds was kept at 107 cm f o r c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h e x i s t i n g t r a c t o r s i n use on the farm. F e r t i l i z e r was i n c o r p o r a t e d w h i l e shaping the beds at recommended r a t e s ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s 1990). This ensured t h a t f e r t i l i z e r was placed c l o s e t o the r o o t s . P l a n t i n g was done w i t h a wooden s t i c k . The t i p of the root mass was c u r l e d around the end of the s t i c k and pushed through the p l a s t i c mulch. I t was very important t o f i r m the p l a n t s i n t o the s o i l , as an exposed crown and root system made them v u l n e r a b l e t o d e s s i c a t i o n and winter damage. The p l a n t s were i r r i g a t e d immediately a f t e r p l a n t i n g and 2 t o 4 times per week f o r one hour per day. The experimental design c o n s i s t e d of 2 4 randomized complete bl o c k s w i t h 7 c u l t i v a r s per block and 3 0 p l a n t s per p l o t . Each block was thus a row of 210 p l a n t s . Twelve of the blocks or rows were i n a f i e l d w i t h s u l f u r coated n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r w h i l e the other 12 bl o c k s or rows were i n another f i e l d w i t h o r g a n i c a l l y coated n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r . In each of the f i e l d s there were 6 p l a n t i n g dates, w i t h 2 rows or blocks p l a n t e d on each date. The 7 p l o t s w i t h i n one row or block c o n s i s t e d of ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Shuksan' and 'Totem' from the 2 sources described and f o r the WB, the a d d i t i o n of 'Hood'. P l a n t spacing w i t h i n the row was 30 cm. S i z e , percentage c u l l s and marketable y i e l d were recorded. In 1988, the percentage of c u l l s f o r the f i r s t p l a n t i n g date was determined i n every harvest. For l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates, the percentage of c u l l s was determined at the f i r s t harvest only and r e s u l t s adjusted f o r c u l t i v a r s and f e r t i l i z e r . In both years the f e r t i l i z e r r a t e s recommended f o r matted rows were used ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s 1987). In 1987 2 d i f f e r e n t types of slow r e l e a s e f e r t i l i z e r were incorporated. One f e r t i l i z e r was a s u l f u r - c o a t e d n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r mix, t h a t r e l e a s e d N f o r up t o 3 months and the other was a mix which used a long-chain organic c o a t i n g and allowed r e l e a s e over a 5-month p e r i o d . In 1987, the WB planted i n 1986 had grown i n t o a MR and produced f r u i t i n the normal June-July season. In 1988, the WB planted i n 1987, as w e l l as mother p l a n t s on the p l a s t i c mulch, had both produced l a r g e multiple-crowned p l a n t s . Y i e l d , c u l l s and s i z e i n d i c e s were recorded from these second year harvests as w e l l as from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i r s t year p l a n t i n g s . 2.6. Short-day h i l l row t r i a l s The HR system, which has the p o t e n t i a l of producing f r u i t on l o c a l l y adapted SD c u l t i v a r s throughout the summer and i n t o the f a l l , i n v o l v e s the use of c o l d - s t o r e d single-crowned runner-plants a v a i l a b l e from the propagation n u r s e r i e s . They are sto r e d at -1 C, u n t i l p l a n t i n g i n the f i e l d at designated i n t e r v a l s throughout the summer months. F r u i t i n g begins approximately 6 t o 8 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g . Sequential p l a n t i n g dates ensure continuous f r e s h - f r u i t production i n the p l a n t i n g 3 6 year. Second year production occuring i n the normal June-July season. As i n the WB system, harvest time i n the HR system i s determined by p l a n t i n g date. The c u l t i v a r s used were ' R a i n i e r 1 , 'Sumas' and 'Totem'. 'Sumas', a r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d c u l t i v a r , i s p r o d u c t i v e and has v i r u s t o l e r a n c e and w i n t e r hardiness, (Daubeny 1987). I t was used i n s t e a d of 'Hood' which had not performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n a p r e l i m i n a r y t r i a l i n 1986. 'Shuswap' was t e s t e d as 'BC 76-7-2 0' and r e l e a s e d as 'Shuswap' i n 1990 (Daubeny et a l . 1990). I t produces p a r t i c u l a r l y f i r m , g l o s s y , l i g h t red f r u i t w i t h some r o t r e s i s t a n c e . Spacing between rows was 107 cm on center. 2.6.1. 1986 p l a n t e d short-day h i l l row t r i a l In 1986 p l a n t i n g was i n l a t e June on a RB covered w i t h black p l a s t i c mulch w i t h no t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n . The design was a randomized complete block w i t h 2 rows as r e p l i c a t i o n s and the c u l t i v a r s 'Hood', ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Shuksan', 'Shuswap' and 'Totem' arranged randomly w i t h i n each row. Spacing was 15 cm i n a s i n g l e row w i t h 2 0 p l a n t s per p l o t . 3 7 2.6.2. 1987 planted short-day h i l l row t r i a l In 1987, a randomized complete block design was used w i t h 2 f e r t i l i z e r s , 6 p l a n t i n g dates per f e r t i l i z e r , 2 r e p l i c a t i o n s per date of 4 c u l t i v a r s placed randomly w i t h i n the row, 30 p l a n t s per p l o t . P l a n t i n g dates were 10 days apart from May t o J u l y (Table 4) . P l a n t s were spaced at 15 cm i n s i n g l e rows i n bl a c k p l a s t i c -covered beds approximately 15 cm high as described f o r the WB. T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n was used. C u l t i v a r s used were ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Shuksan', 'Sumas1 and 'Totem'. 2.6.3. 1987 planted short-day h i l l row t r i a l w i t h double rows This t r i a l was s i m i l a r t o the previous, except t h a t double rows, 2 0 cm apart, were used i n the RB. ' R a i n i e r ' and 'Totem' were compared on the same f e r t i l i z e r regime f o r 2 spacings w i t h i n the double rows. Spacings were 15 and 2 5 cm w i t h i n the rows. The design was a randomized complete block w i t h 4 rows, 2 r e p l i c a t i o n s per row, 2 c u l t i v a r s , 2 spacings, and 40 p l a n t s per p l o t . 2.6.4. 1988 planted short-day h i l l row t r i a l In 1988 2 B.C. homemade (D r i e d i g e r Bros. Farms) machines were used t o r a i s e the s o i l and shape the beds. Two modified 38 s u b s o i l e r s threw s o i l i n t o a high wide band. A second pass over the band w i t h a bedshaper modified the bed t o new s p e c i f i c a t i o n s c l o s e t o those used i n C a l i f o r n i a . The bed was 3 0 cm high i n the center, s l o p i n g t o the s i d e s as t o e s t a b l i s h a p a r a b o l i c shape to the bed, t h a t was approximately 50 cm wide. The height was needed so t h a t the t r u s s e s of the p l a n t s would not l i e on the s o i l and the width needed so t h a t double rows could be planted on a s i n g l e bed. The sloped crown was needed to prevent water from c o l l e c t i n g on top of the p l a s t i c covered bed. These new s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were the r e s u l t of the t r i a l s c a r r i e d out e a r l i e r , 1986 and 1987 p l a n t e d SD HR. A randomized complete block design was used w i t h 2 p l a n t i n g dates, 4 r e p l i c a t i o n s per date (rows), 4 spacings (15, 20, 25 and 3 0 cm), 3 c u l t i v a r s , ' R a i n i e r ' , 'Sumas' and 'Totem', placed randomly w i t h i n the row, and 3 0 p l a n t s per p l o t . Double rows were plante d 2 0 cm apart. P l a n t i n g dates were May 22 and June 12. T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n was used. 2.7. Day n e u t r a l and ever bearing c u l t i v a r t r i a l s F i v e c u l t i v a r s were evaluated, the EB, 'Ostara' and 'Rapella' and the DN, 'Selva*, 'Tribute' and ' T r i s t a r ' . Only 'Selva' and 'Tribute' were used f o r spacing and f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s reported here. I f not otherwise noted, p l a n t s were deflowered f o r 3 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g , t o gi v e the p l a n t s time t o e s t a b l i s h . The f o l l o w i n g c y c l e s of flowers and f r u i t were expected t o be more p r o l i f i c , s i n c e the p l a n t s would be b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d . T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n and b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch on 3 0 cm high RB were used throughout the DN experiments. 2.7.1. 'Selva' spacing t r i a l In 1989, p l a n t s of the DN c u l t i v a r 'Selva' were e s t a b l i s h e d i n double rows 2 0 cm apart. There were 4 rows as randomized complete b l o c k s , 2 dates of deflowering (3 and 6 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g ) , 3 spacings (22, 30 and 38 cm w i t h i n the rows), 2 r e p l i c a t i o n s per spacing and 40 p l a n t s per p l o t . 2.7.2. Day n e u t r a l and ever bearer c u l t i v a r y i e l d t r i a l In 1989, p l a n t s of the EB 'Ostara' and 'Rapella' and the DN ' T r i s t a r ' , 'Tribute' and 'Selva' were set 3 0 cm apart w i t h i n double rows 2 0 cm apart. There were 3 rows as blo c k s of a randomized complete block design w i t h the 6 c u l t i v a r s and 4 0 p l a n t s per p l o t . P l a n t s were deflowered f o r 3 weeks a f t e r p l a n t i n g t o a i d i n establishment. 40 t r a l f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l W i t h i n a 4 acre f i e l d of 'Tribute* and 'Selva', a r e p l i c a t e d f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l was e s t a b l i s h e d . Two r a t e s of n i t r o g e n were compared, 112 and 224 kg/ha a p p l i c a t i o n as i n s e c t i o n 2.3.3. The f i e l d was planted f o r commercial harvest and one t h i r d of the area planted w i t h 'Tribute' and 2 t h i r d s planted w i t h 'Selva'. Each c u l t i v a r s e c t i o n had 2 areas of low and 2 areas of high n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n . For each of these 4 s e c t i o n s , 2 randomized complete block designs were placed i n the f i e l d . Four p l o t s per c u l t i v a r were placed randomly w i t h i n the bl o c k s w i t h 20 p l a n t s per p l o t . P l a n t s were spaced 30 cm apart i n a double row 2 0 cm apart. 2.7.4. Day-neutral spacing t r i a l In 1990, p l a n t s of the DN c u l t i v a r s 'Selva' and 'Tribute' were placed i n double rows (20 cm between the 2 rows). There were 2 randomized b l o c k s , w i t h e i t h e r a low n i t r o g e n (N) (112 kg N/ha) and high N (224 kg N/ha) treatment. Each design had 4 rows as b l o c k s w i t h 2 spacings (20 and 3 0 cm between pla n t s ) and the 2 c u l t i v a r s completely random w i t h i n a row. There were 2 r e p l i c a t i o n s per spacing and 80 p l a n t s per p l o t . The f e r t i l i z e r treatments used 35 kg N/ha 13-9-16 (N-P-K) i n gra n u l a r slow r e l e a s e form, incorporated i n t o the s o i l before h i l l i n g , f o l l o w e d by 4 a p p l i c a t i o n s of 12-45-10 as a s t a r t e r f e r t i l i z e r a t p l a n t i n g time and then 16 a p p l i c a t i o n s of a l t e r n a t i n g calcium n i t r a t e and ammonium n i t r a t e . At the end of the growing season an a p p l i c a t i o n of 4-18-34 f e r t i l i z e r was a p p l i e d t o a i d i n mat u r i t y p r i o r t o the wint e r . The t o t a l N from the d i f f e r e n t f e r t i l i z e r s made up the 2 N f e r t i l i z e r treatments. A l l other elements were kept the same. Except f o r the granular a p p l i c a t i o n , f e r t i l i z e r s were i n j e c t e d at 5 or 10 kg/ha per week. The i n j e c t i o n was wit h a 0-22 1/min pump from a tank where the f e r t i l i z e r was mixed. The s o l u t i o n was i n j e c t e d i n t o the i r r i g a t i o n stream and d e l i v e r e d to the s o i l and p l a n t r o o t s v i a the t r i c k l e t u b i n g . With such a system i t was p o s s i b l e t o s p l i t f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s t o d e l i v e r f e r t i l i z e r t o the p l a n t s over the e n t i r e season. 2.8. Economic assessment of the w a i t i n g bed, h i l l row and day-neutrals A comparison was made between the conventional system, the MR, and the HR system. Using the Farm Income Insurance Cost of Production Model (FII COPM) ( B r i t i s h Columbia Federation of A g r i c u l t u r e 1986), a model of a standard farm was constructed based on 8 hectares of production. The crop r o t a t i o n i n c l u d e d s t r a w b e r r i e s as the only crop. Year one was land p r e p a r a t i o n , year 2 was p l a n t i n g and the next 3 years were crop years. Since the HR produced i n the p l a n t i n g year, t h i s means there i s an e x t r a production year from the system. A l l c o s t s are estimated on the high s i d e , a l l r e t u r n s are estimated c o n s e r v a t i v e l y . The cost of runner removal i s inc l u d e d . Assumptions a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l 3 comparisons mentioned above: (1) the farm produces s t r a w b e r r i e s only on 8 hectares of land; (2) crop r o t a t i o n i s one p r e p a r a t i o n year, one p l a n t i n g year and 3 f u l l production years; (3) f r u i t i s commercially p i c k e d . F e r t i l i z e r p r i c e s w i l l vary c o n s i d e r a b l y , depending on how much and which q u a l i t y of slow r e l e a s e f e r t i l i z e r i s used. Y i e l d s r e f l e c t e d very conservative e s t i m a t i o n s , the p o t e n t i a l i f a p p l i e d p r o p e r l y can exceed the given f i g u r e s . The i r r i g a t i o n system c o s t s vary extremely depending on the present setup of the farm. The HR system w i t h SD f i g u r e s are based on the c u l t i v a r ' R a i n i e r ' only. DN data are based on 'Selva' and 'Tribute' y i e l d s only. An a n a l y s i s of the DN data was a l s o conducted, but should be considered p r e l i m i n a r y , s i n c e second-year data were not a v a i l a b l e 43 a t t h e t i m e . 44 3. R e s u l t s and Dis c u s s i o n R e s u l t s given are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 % l e v e l unless otherwise noted i n the t e x t . Levels of s i g n i f i c a n c e can be obtained from the t a b l e s . S i n g l e degree of freedom comparisons were used i n the a n a l y s i s , but more comparisons were computed l a t e r . Therefor Scheffe's t e s t , a co n s e r v a t i v e method, was used f o r comparing the c u l t i v a r means ( S t e e l and T o r r i e 1960). 3.1. Waiting bed c u l t u r a l system 3.1.1. 1986 planted w a i t i n g bed t r i a l In the p l a n t i n g year of 1986 there were l i n e a r and quadratic e f f e c t s of p l a n t i n g dates upon f r u i t s i z e f o r the out-of-season production. With the exception of the l a r g e f r u i t s i z e on the f i r s t date, s i z e increased w i t h p l a n t i n g date delay (Table 1). No e f f e c t s were found of p l a n t i n g date upon s i z e i n the next year. P l a n t s had more favorable c o n d i t i o n s during the l a t e r p e r i o d of the season as temperatures increased and f r u i t may have b e n e f i t e d from t h i s . The l a r g e r s i z e at the f i r s t date may be due t o a longer i n t e r v a l from p l a n t i n g t o harvest and more time f o r the f r u i t t o s i z e . In 1986 percent c u l l s were highest f o r the e a r l i e r p l a n t i n g dates and decreased over time. This was most l i k e l y due t o the c o o l e r and more moist weather during the e a r l i e r harvest dates and the d r i e r and warmer c o n d i t i o n s l a t e r . In 1987, no d i f f e r e n c e s were found but c u l l s averaged 12 % compared w i t h an average of 7 % f o r 1986 (Table 1). The high percentage of c u l l s was due t o the c o l d and wet weather, which caused more f r u i t r o t during the normal June h a r v e s t i n g p e r i o d of 1987. With l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates, y i e l d s increased t o a maximum at the t h i r d p l a n t i n g date and d e c l i n e d toward the 6th date. The tr e n d was s i m i l a r i n the second year. Again, the highest y i e l d was recorded f o r the t h i r d date (Table 1). Conditions f o r set and development of the f r u i t were apparently o p t i m a l . For l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates, the summer heat reduced p l a n t growth and increased f r u i t m a t u r i t y r a t e g i v i n g lower y i e l d s . • R a i n i e r 1 had the l a r g e s t f r u i t i n the p l a n t i n g year 1986. C u l t i v a r s d i d not d i f f e r i n f r u i t s i z e i n the next year, 1987 (Table 1). F r u i t was sma l l e r i n the p l a n t i n g year than i n the next year. • R a i n i e r 1 and 'Hood' produced the most c u l l s i n the p l a n t i n g year. In the year f o l l o w i n g , 'Totem1 produced l e a s t and 'Hood' the most c u l l s (Table 1). The f i r m f r u i t of 'Totem' proved to be l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o f r u i t r o t i n both years, whereas ' R a i n i e r ' w i t h a r a t h e r s o f t f r u i t was h i g h l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o f r u i t r o t ( B a r r i t t 198 0). 'Hood' had many small f r u i t s i n c l u d e d i n the c u l l s . • R a i n i e r ' had the highest marketable y i e l d i n the p l a n t i n g year, and 'Hood' the lowest. The f o l l o w i n g year, when the p l a n t s had formed a MR, 'Totem' produced more marketable y i e l d during the r e g u l a r June season than the others (Table 1). ' R a i n i e r ' i s outstanding i n the p l a n t i n g year production, which i s discussed l a t e r . In the next year, the r e l a t i v e y i e l d s among c u l t i v a r s were as expected; 'Totem' i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s noted f o r i t s high y i e l d (Daubeny et a l . 1990). There were more c u l l s i n 1987 than i n 1986 and more marketable f r u i t was produced i n the former than i n the p l a n t i n g year (Table 1). Rot during the p l a n t i n g year was n e g l i g i b l e because f r u i t i s produced during the r e l a t i v e l y dry summer months; however, the June-season crop the f o l l o w i n g year e x h i b i t e d normal amounts of r o t . I t i s necessary t o c a r r y over the p l a n t s i n t o the second year to recover the cos t s i n v o l v e d i n growing the m u l t i p l e crown p l a n t s . The o p t i o n t o l e t the p l a n t s runner and grow i n t o a MR i s c o s t e f f e c t i v e . The cos t s of runner removal, from p l a n t s kept as s i n g l e , multi-crown p l a n t s i n a h i l l system, i s extremely high. Further i m p l i c a t i o n s of the h i l l system w i l l be described i n the second WB t r i a l . Y i e l d s from the MR grown from the m u l t i p l e crown WB p l a n t s were high f o r a l l c u l t i v a r s , except 'Hood', which already showed v i r u s problems i n the f i r s t year. 3.1.2. 1987 plante d w a i t i n g bed t r i a l F e r t i l i z e r treatments had no e f f e c t on s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d , except i n the p l a n t i n g year, when the f r u i t s i z e was s m a l l e r from the second type of f e r t i l i z e r ( o r g a n i c a l l y coated) (Table 2). The n i t r o g e n content of the f e r t i l i z e r was the same, but the r e l e a s e mechanism d i f f e r e d . This caused a slower r e l e a s e of n i t r o g e n f o r the second and f a s t e r r e l e a s e f o r the other f e r t i l i z e r . R e s u l t s show t h a t there i s not much d i f f e r e n c e from these s i m i l a r f e r t i l i z e r s . In the 1987 p l a n t i n g year, f r u i t s i z e was l a r g e r from l a t e r dates but f e l l o f f i n the l a s t dates. There was a l i n e a r e f f e c t f o r the second year s i z e , w i t h the l a r g e s t f r u i t s i z e obtained from the l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates. Delayed p l a n t i n g r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e r f r u i t s i z e on most dates as was observed i n the f i r s t WB t r i a l (Table 2). P l a n t s had more favorable c o n d i t i o n s during the l a t e r p e r i o d of the season as temperatures increased and f r u i t 48 may have b e n e f i t e d from t h i s ; t h i s s i t u a t i o n a l s o occurred i n the 1986 plante d WB t r i a l . In 1987, the amounts of c u l l e d f r u i t were d i f f e r e n t among the p l a n t i n g dates, but there was no trend (Table 2). In the next year, 1988, c u l l data were obtained only from the f i r s t p l a n t i n g date. With l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates, y i e l d s decreased l i n e a r l y . This t r e n d was reversed f o r the second year. The highest y i e l d was recorded on the f i f t h date and the minimum at the f i r s t p l a n t i n g date (Table 2). The d i f f e r e n c e s i n comparison w i t h the f i r s t WB t r i a l could be due t o the use of the p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n . A l s o , p l a n t s i n the second year of the 1987 planted t r i a l were not allowed t o form runners and were s t i l l s i n g l e p l a n t s but w i t h many crows, whereas the p l a n t s i n the 1986 pla n t e d t r i a l were allowed t o form a MR. There were higher marketable y i e l d s recorded form the second year where the MR system was used. A l s o , y i e l d s i n 1988 from HR were r a t h e r low, as r a i n d u r i n g the harvest caused high l e v e l s of r o t . 'R a i n i e r ' had the l a r g e s t f r u i t i n 1987 and 1988, 'Hood' the s m a l l e s t i n both years. These r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r t o those from the 1986 p l a n t e d t r i a l (Table 2). Average f r u i t s i z e was small i n the f i r s t year, when the p l a n t s were under s t r e s s from the 49 e f f e c t s of immediate flower and f r u i t p roduction. 'Hood1 produced the l e a s t and 'Rainier* the most c u l l s i n the p l a n t i n g year and ' R a i n i e r ' the most. In the next year 'Totem' produced the most c u l l s and 'R a i n i e r ' the l e a s t . Again, because of l o s s of samples on the second through 6th p l a n t i n g date, c u l l means f o r the c u l t i v a r s are adjusted f o r the f i r s t date (Table 2) . In the p l a n t i n g year, ' R a i n i e r ' had the highest marketable y i e l d , and 'Hood' the lowest (Table 2). Again, these r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r t o the 1986 planted t r i a l . ' R a i n i e r ' i s outstanding i n the p l a n t i n g year production. The f o l l o w i n g year i n the June harvest p e r i o d ' R a i n i e r ' s t i l l produced the highest y i e l d s . These r e s u l t s d i f f e r from the 1986 planted t r i a l , where second year production was much higher (Table 1). Apparently 'Totem' w i l l produce a very high y i e l d w ith more runner p l a n t s but • R a i n i e r ' again performed best w i t h multiple-crown p l a n t s . F r u i t s were l a r g e r i n 1987 than i n 1988 but co n s i d e r a b l y more marketable f r u i t was produced i n the second year than i n the p l a n t i n g year (Table 2). As f r u i t was produced d u r i n g the summer months i n the p l a n t i n g year, r o t was n e g l i g i b l e , however, the June-season crop the f o l l o w i n g year e x h i b i t e d expected amounts of r o t . R e s u l t s of the 1987 planted t r i a l g e n e r a l l y agreed w i t h those from the 1986 planted t r i a l . Second year y i e l d was l e s s than i n the 1986 pl a n t e d t r i a l as p l a n t s were i n a h i l l system and not allowed t o runner, which was not p o s s i b l e w i t h the p l a s t i c mulch. Only ' R a i n i e r 1 y i e l d s seem t o be high enough t o make up f o r the increased input c o s t s . Second year y i e l d s again compared f a v o r a b l y w i t h the y i e l d s from MR on f l a t s o i l , but no major gains over the MR were obtained w i t h t h i s system. The only b e n e f i t was the out-of-season f r u i t i n the p l a n t i n g year. 3.1.3. 1987 planted t r i a l w a i t i n g bed t r i a l u s i n g mother p l a n t s This t r i a l used the same c u l t i v a r s and was p a r t of the 1987 pla n t e d WB t r i a l , but because the p l a n t s were produced d i f f e r e n t l y , r e s u l t s are discussed s e p a r a t e l y . F e r t i l i z e r treatments had l i t t l e e f f e c t on f r u i t s i z e . In the second year s i z e was l e s s f o r the second f e r t i l i z e r . This was a l s o found i n the 1987 planted WB t r i a l . As w i t h the 1987 pla n t e d WB, the c u l l s were determined only f o r the f i r s t p l a n t i n g dates and t h e r e f o r means f o r year, f e r t i l i z e r and c u l t i v a r s were adjusted t o t h a t date. No i n f l u e n c e on c u l l s was noted (Table 3). Marketable y i e l d was higher at f e r t i l i z e r 2 ( o r g a n i c a l l y coated) i n 1988. These r e s u l t s can be explained i n the same way 51 as the r e s u l t s from the WB. In the 1987 out-of-season production, f r u i t s i z e increased w i t h delayed p l a n t i n g , then f e l l o f f i n the l a t e r dates. There were no e f f e c t s of date of p l a n t i n g on f r u i t s i z e i n 1988 (Table 3). These r e s u l t s were somewhat s i m i l a r t o the WB p l a n t s but the i n f l u e n c e of p l a n t i n g dates upon s i z e was l e s s pronounced. In 1987, the percent c u l l s were d i f f e r e n t f o r p l a n t i n g dates and showed a q u a d r a t i c trend. In 1988, the number of c u l l s was recorded only f o r the f i r s t p l a n t i n g date (Table 3). The greater percentage c u l l s was due t o the inclement weather during the normal June h a r v e s t i n g p e r i o d of 1988. P r o g r e s s i v e l y l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates r e s u l t e d i n decreased y i e l d s i n the p l a n t i n g year, t h i s t rend was reversed i n the second year, when y i e l d s increased w i t h l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates of the previous year (Table 3). These y i e l d s were thus s i m i l a r to those produced i n the 1987 planted WB, which used the same growing system. The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s t r i a l and the f i r s t WB t r i a l c o u ld be due t o the use of the p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n . A l s o p l a n t s i n the second year of the 1987 t r i a l were s t i l l s i n g l e , m u l t i p l e crowned p l a n t s whereas the p l a n t s i n the 1986 p l a n t e d t r i a l had formed a MR. There were higher marketable y i e l d s recorded form the second year where the MR system was used. Marketable y i e l d s i n 1988 from HR were r a t h e r low, as r a i n d u r i n g the harvest caused high l e v e l s of r o t . As mother p l a n t s are cheaper f o r the grower, t h i s method would be p r e f e r r e d t o the w a i t i n g bed, however these p l a n t s are i n very l i m i t e d supply. In 1987 ' R a i n i e r ' had the l a r g e s t f r u i t and 'Totem the sm a l l e s t w i t h 'Shuksan' producing intermediate s i z e d f r u i t . In the next year, 1988, there were no d i f f e r e n c e s among the three c u l t i v a r s (Table 3). F r u i t s i z e of a l l c u l t i v a r s was sm a l l e r i n the p l a n t i n g year than i n the next and t h i s r e f l e c t s s t r e s s of producing f r u i t r i g h t a f t e r p l a n t i n g . In the p l a n t i n g year there were no d i f f e r e n c e s f o r percent c u l l s among the c u l t i v a r s . 'Totem' proved t o be l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o f r u i t r o t i n the next year, whereas ' R a i n i e r ' and 'Shuksan' wi t h r a t h e r s o f t f r u i t were more s u s c e p t i b l e t o f r u i t r o t and produced the most c u l l s . In the p l a n t i n g year ' R a i n i e r ' produced more marketable y i e l d than 'Totem' (Table 3). These r e s u l t s are l i k e those of the 1986 and 1987 pl a n t e d WB t r i a l s and y i e l d s compared f a v o r a b l y w i t h WB p l a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g year 'Totem' and 'Rainier* had more marketable y i e l d i n the r e g u l a r June harvest p e r i o d than 'Shuksan'. These y i e l d s were s i m i l a r t o those of the 1987 5 3 p l a n t e d WB t r i a l . F r u i t was l a r g e r i n 1987 than i n 1988, and more marketable f r u i t was produced i n the second year of the p l a n t i n g than i n the f i r s t (Table 3). As f r u i t was produced during the summer months i n the p l a n t i n g year, r o t was again n e g l i g i b l e , however, the June crop the f o l l o w i n g year e x h i b i t e d normal amounts of r o t (Data adjusted t o the f i r s t p l a n t i n g date). During the f i r s t year p l a n t s developed more crowns and t h e r e f o r produced much more f r u i t i n the next year. Mother p l a n t s y i e l d e d s l i g h t l y l e s s than the WB p l a n t s (Tables 1, 2, 3). Mother p l a n t s are s t i l l more economical to use when the c o s t of producing WB p l a n t s i s considered. The l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i s p l a n t supply. Y i e l d s from the 1986 p l a n t e d WB d i d not vary w i t h p l a n t i n g date, but i n the 1987 p l a n t e d t r i a l t here was a decrease i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y of l a t e r p l a n t i n g s . From the standpoint of p r o f i t , i t would s t i l l be worthwhile i n the P a c i f i c Northwest t o p l a n t so as t o schedule the h a r v e s t i n g from the end of J u l y t o the f i r s t f r o s t , d e s p i t e a decrease i n y i e l d because of higher p r i c e s and higher t o t a l r e t u r n s . 3.1.4. E v a l u a t i o n of the w a i t i n g beds The r e s u l t s from the 2 WB t r i a l s and the mother p l a n t s were very s i m i l a r and agreed t h a t ' R a i n i e r ' was the p r e f e r r e d c u l t i v a r f o r t h i s system because i t can produce s u f f i c i e n t f r u i t t o make ha r v e s t i n g f r u i t out of season worthwhile. One reason f o r ' R a i n i e r ' s ' r e l a t i v e l a r g e f r u i t s and u l t i m a t e l y g r e a t e r y i e l d i n the p l a n t i n g year may be t h a t i t f r u i t s l a t e r than the other c u l t i v a r s and thus may have more time t o develop a more extensive r o o t system and stronger p l a n t . 'Totem' might out-produce ' R a i n i e r ' i n the second year but the s i z e and amount of f r u i t produced i n the f i r s t year are not s u f f i c i e n t t o j u s t i f y the use of t h i s c u l t i v a r i n the system. Out-of-season f r u i t i s e n t i r e l y f o r the f r e s h market as the l o c a l p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r y w i l l not accept f r u i t a f t e r the main season. A l s o p r o c e s s i n g p r i c e s are not high enough t o compete w i t h the out-of-season f r e s h market. T h i r d l y , ' R a i n i e r ' i s b e t t e r s u i t e d f o r the f r e s h market because i t has a b e t t e r appearance and f l a v o r than 'Totem'. Because ' R a i n i e r ' f r u i t i s s o f t , i t must be s o l d almost immediately before d e t e r i o r a t i o n due t o r o t and l o s s of c o l o r . The newly rele a s e d 'Shuswap' w i t h e x c e l l e n t f r e s h market q u a l i t i e s and e s p e c i a l l y f i r m f r u i t could p o s s i b l y be adapted t o a WB system (Daubeny et a l . 1990). 'Hood' i s not s u i t e d f o r the WB system because i t i s very s u s c e p t i b l e t o v i r u s diseases and throughout the t r i a l s showed severe v i r u s symptoms, k i l l i n g at l e a s t 50% of the p l a n t s i n the 55 second year (data not presented) and produced unmarketable and sometimes small f r u i t . 'Shuksan' has a good f r e s h market f l a v o r , but y i e l d s i n both years were not enough t o be p r o f i t a b l e and the f i r s t f l u s h of f r u i t s i s o f t e n f a s c i a t e d . Although no comparisons can be made between the w a i t i n g bed t r i a l s and between each of these and the mother p l a n t t r i a l , the hig h e s t y i e l d s were obtained from the 1986 pl a n t e d WB t r i a l . T h is i s l i k e l y due t o the d i f f e r e n c e i n years, but some may be due t o the d i f f e r e n t system used w i t h the 1987 WB and the mother p l a n t t r i a l , i n v o l v i n g p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n . 3.2. Short-day h i l l row t r i a l s 3.2.1. 1986 planted short-day h i l l row t r i a l As a r e s u l t of h a r v e s t i n g i n the warm and dry summer months, few c u l l s were noted and 'Shuswap' had the l e a s t c u l l s i n the second year. No other d i f f e r e n c e s were noted i n t h i s t r i a l (Table 4). Although marketable y i e l d d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p l a n t i n g year were great, there was no s i g n i f i c a n c e achieved because the t r i a l was s m a l l . Larger s i z e f r u i t was obtained i n 1987 compared t o 1988, more c u l l s were harvested i n 1987 and cons i d e r a b l y more marketable f r u i t was produced i n the second year of the p l a n t a t i o n than i n the p l a n t i n g year. As f r u i t was produced during the summer months i n the p l a n t i n g year, r o t was again n e g l i g i b l e , however the normal June-season crop the f o l l o w i n g year e x h i b i t e d expected amounts of r o t . During the p l a n t i n g year p l a n t s developed more crowns and t h e r e f o r produced much more f r u i t i n the next year than was p o s s i b l e i n the p l a n t i n g year when the number of flowers were predetermined before p l a n t i n g . The l a s t t r i a l was r a t h e r small and t h e r e f o r only good f o r d e t e c t i n g l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s . I t gave an i n d i c a t i o n of what d i r e c t i o n f u t u r e research should take toward f i n d i n g a l e s s expensive system than the WB f o r producing out-of-season f r u i t from SD c u l t i v a r s . As y i e l d compared f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h a t from w a i t i n g bed and mother p l a n t s , the same amount of f r u i t might be produced from much cheaper p l a n t s . The runner p l a n t s used f o r the h i l l row t r i a l s are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e at the n u r s e r i e s and are the same p l a n t s t h a t are c u r r e n t l y used t o e s t a b l i s h MR p l a n t i n g s . This l e d t o the f u r t h e r t r i a l s d escribed i n the 1987 and 1988 pl a n t e d HR t r i a l s . 3.2.2. 1987 planted short-day h i l l row t r i a l F e r t i l i z e r treatments had no e f f e c t on s i z e i n e i t h e r year. Percent c u l l s were higher f o r f e r t i l i z e r one i n 1988, not d i f f e r e n t i n 1987. Marketable y i e l d was not i n f l u e n c e d by f e r t i l i z e r (Table 5). As was t r u e f o r the 1987 planted WB and mother p l a n t t r i a l s , the n i t r o g e n content of the f e r t i l i z e r was the same, but the r e l e a s e mechanism d i f f e r e d . This caused a slower r e l e a s e of n i t r o g e n f o r one and f a s t e r r e l e a s e f o r the other f e r t i l i z e r . R e s u l t s show t h a t there r e a l l y i s not much d i f f e r e n c e f o r these s i m i l a r f e r t i l i z e r s , except t h a t there seemed t o be more n i t r o g e n a v a i l a b l e from one f e r t i l i z e r t o i n f l u e n c e the c u l l s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the e x t r a N i s conducive t o f r u i t r o t development (Freeman and Pepin 1983, Turner and Muir, 1985). In the p l a n t i n g year, 1987, i n the out-of-season production, t h e r e were l i n e a r and quadratic e f f e c t s f o r f r u i t s i z e over the 6 p l a n t i n g dates. F r u i t s i z e decreased l i n e a r l y w i t h progressing p l a n t i n g dates, the f i r s t date was s l i g h t l y too low t o f i t the l i n e . The reverse was t r u e f o r the next year when s i z e increased w i t h l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s the heat i n the summer of the p l a n t i n g year, when l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates produced f r u i t f a s t e r and these ripened more r a p i d l y . Therefor f r u i t d i d not s i z e as much during l a t e r dates. In the second year a l l f r u i t i s produced during the normal June season and f r u i t s i z e should be i n f l u e n c e d i n a s i m i l a r way by the weather (Table 5). This i s d i f f e r e n t form the r e s u l t s of the WB 58 t r i a l s , where f r u i t s i z e i n the p l a n t i n g year seemed t o increase w i t h l a t e r p l a n t i n g s . L a t e r p l a n t i n g s tended t o have a higher percentage of c u l l s i n both years (Table 5), which i s l i k e l y due t o the amount of unmarketable small f r u i t produced. As p l a n t i n g dates were delayed, y i e l d s decreased t o a minimum. This t r e n d was not seen i n the second year. As there was double the y i e l d recorded i n the f i r s t year i n the e a r l i e r p l a n t i n g dates over the l a t e r dates, i t seems necessary t o p l a n t q u i t e e a r l y , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e p l a n t i n g year y i e l d b r i n g s the highest p r i c e s , because i t i s produced out of season (Table 5). This t r e n d i s the reverse t o t h a t of the WB t r i a l s and an e x p l a n a t i o n again can be found i n the sm a l l e r f r u i t produced at l a t e r p l a n t i n g dates, when the p l a n t s were under increased s t r e s s due t o hot weather. ' R a i n i e r ' and 'Shuksan' had the l a r g e s t f r u i t i n 1987, 'Totem' the s m a l l e s t (Table 5). In the second year, 'Sumas' had the l a r g e s t f r u i t . ' R a i n i e r ' produced the l a r g e s t f r u i t i n the p l a n t i n g year, s i m i l a r t o i t s WB performance. One reason f o r ' R a i n i e r * s ' r e l a t i v e l a r g e f r u i t and g r e a t e r y i e l d i n the p l a n t i n g year may be t h a t i t produces f r u i t l a t e r than the other c u l t i v a r s and thus may have more time t o develop a more extensive 59 roo t system and stronger p l a n t . •Sumas1 produced the most c u l l s i n the p l a n t i n g year and 'Totem' and 'Shuksan' the l e a s t . In the next year 'Shuksan' had the most c u l l s and the other c u l t i v a r s s i m i l a r s m a l l e r amounts (Table 5). In the p l a n t i n g year ' R a i n i e r ' had the highest marketable y i e l d , the other c u l t i v a r s produced much lower y i e l d s . The f o l l o w i n g year 'Sumas' and 'R a i n i e r ' produced the most. 'R a i n i e r ' i s the best s u i t e d c u l t i v a r f o r producing f r u i t i n the p l a n t i n g year. This i s due t o the l a t e - r i p e n i n g h a b i t which allows f o r the establishment of a l a r g e r p l a n t i n c l u d i n g a more extensive root system. I t not only helps t o c a p i t a l i z e on the out-of-season f r u i t but a l s o produces a res p e c t a b l e y i e l d i n the f o l l o w i n g year. These features are both very important f o r p r o f i t a b l e r e t u r n s over an e n t i r e growing c y c l e (Table 5). Larger f r u i t s were recorded i n 1988 than i n 1987. While more c u l l s were discarded i n 1988 than i n 1987, c o n s i d e r a b l y more marketable f r u i t was produced i n the second year p l a n t a t i o n than i n the p l a n t i n g year (Table 5). When f r u i t s had more time t o s i z e up, there were much l a r g e r f r u i t s produced. As f r u i t was produced during the summer months i n the p l a n t i n g year, r o t was 60 n e g l i g i b l e , however the normal June-season crop the f o l l o w i n g year e x h i b i t e d normal amounts of r o t . During the p l a n t i n g year p l a n t s developed more crowns and t h e r e f o r produced much more f r u i t i n the next year. The marketable y i e l d s from the out-of-season f i r s t p l a n t i n g year of SD c u l t i v a r s , compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h those produced w i t h the WB system. P l a n t s are much cheaper, e a s i e r t o handle and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t approximately twice as many p l a n t s have t o be planted i n the HR than i n the other 2 systems. Subsequently, i t was important t o determine the optimal spacing f o r the SD out-of-season production. 3.2.3. 1987 plante d short-day h i l l row t r i a l w i t h double rows At the same time as the HR w i t h s i n g l e spacing was plante d i n 1987, a small experiment was undertaken t o study the e f f e c t s of spacing v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n and between rows. ' R a i n i e r ' and 'Totem* were the c u l t i v a r s used because the former had performed best i n the p l a n t i n g years and the l a t t e r i n the next years and, at the same time, was the most widely planted c u l t i v a r i n the re g i o n . 61 With double row spacings, the y i e l d s were c o n s i d e r a b l y higher i n the p l a n t i n g year than from a s i n g l e row. In the p l a n t i n g year, 'Rainier* had l a r g e r f r u i t than 'Totem', as i n most of the previous t r i a l s (Table 6). In the next year t h i s was reversed. G e n e r a l l y there were fewer c u l l s , but ' R a i n i e r ' had more c u l l s i n 1987 and 'Totem' i n 1988. 'R a i n i e r ' had a higher y i e l d than 'Totem' i n the f i r s t year, but i n the next year 'Totem' out-produced ' R a i n i e r ' , as i n some previous t r i a l s . These high y i e l d s i n both years represent yet another step i n decreasing the c o s t of production per u n i t of f r u i t harvested. The c l o s e r spacing of 15 cm produced more f r u i t (Table 6). The c l o s e r spacing a l s o caused s m a l l e r f r u i t and more c u l l s i n 1987 although the reverse was t r u e f o r c u l l s i n 1988. There was a much higher y i e l d , as expected, i n the second year, as w e l l as more c u l l s and l a r g e r s i z e d f r u i t . There were no c u l t i v a r by spacing i n t e r a c t i o n s . This t r i a l gave the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t double rows wi t h c l o s e spacings are probably best f o r out-of-season production w i t h HR. A separate t r i a l (Hesketh et a l . 1990a, Hesketh et a l . 1990b) suggests, t h a t the spacing of p l a n t s w i t h i n a row should be as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e . As second year y i e l d s now r i v a l e d those produced by the most p r o l i f i c second year MR system, the p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n were thought t o have p o t e n t i a l since the increased c o s t s i n the p l a n t i n g year were q u i c k l y o f f s e t with a y i e l d i n the p l a n t i n g year which i s non-existent f o r the MR. The out-of-season production a l s o b r i n g s higher p r i c e s and gives an added b e n e f i t t o the system. F r u i t was extremely c l e a n , and a premium p r i c e could be obtained f o r i t . 3.2.4. 1988 plante d short-day h i l l row t r i a l In the f i r s t year, the e a r l i e r p l a n t i n g gave l a r g e r s i z e and more marketable f r u i t , probably because the i n t e r v a l from p l a n t i n g t o harvest was longer than f o r the l a t e r date (Table 7). In the second year p l a n t i n g dates d i d not a f f e c t s i z e . There were no e f f e c t s of p l a n t spacing upon s i z e and c u l l s , except i n the second year when f r u i t s i z e increased w i t h wider spacings (Table 7). Marketable y i e l d increased l i n e a r l y w i t h c l o s e r spacing, both i n the year of p l a n t i n g and i n the next year. F r u i t s i z e was l a r g e r at the wider spacings than at c l o s e r spacings i n the second year. I t i s s u r p r i s i n g t h a t there was no e f f e c t on the c u l l s as one would expect more r o t i n a c l o s e r spaced s i t u a t i o n w i t h l e s s a i r movement. Marketable y i e l d was increa s e d w i t h c l o s e r spacings, which can be expected from the p l a n t i n g year, when the p o t e n t i a l amount of f r u i t i s predetermined at p l a n t i n g time. In the second year, a p o s s i b l e 63 crowding e f f e c t could l i m i t the production of marketable y i e l d . Competition f o r l i g h t , water and n u t r i e n t s could e x p l a i n such an e f f e c t . However at the spacings used no d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s were observed. ' R a i n i e r ' and 'Sumas' had the l a r g e s t f r u i t i n 1987 and • R a i n i e r ' the l a r g e s t i n 1989 (Table 7). 'Totem' produced the most c u l l s i n the p l a n t i n g year and ' R a i n i e r ' the most the f o l l o w i n g year (Table 7). The low c u l l s f o r ' R a i n i e r ' compared to the other c u l t i v a r s i n the p l a n t i n g year can be explained by the amount of small and misshapen f r u i t d i s carded f o r 'Totem' and 'Sumas'. In normal production, i n the next year, ' R a i n i e r ' had the most c u l l s , because of high r o t . ' R a i n i e r ' produced the g r e a t e s t marketable y i e l d i n the p l a n t i n g year and the f o l l o w i n g year 'Sumas' had the g r e a t e s t (Table 7). These r e s u l t s again agreed w i t h e a r l i e r experiments but 'Totem' performed r a t h e r p o o r l y i n t h i s t r i a l . Smaller f r u i t s were found i n the p l a n t i n g year, 1988, than i n the next year, probably because of the s t r e s s of producing more f r u i t q u i c k l y (Table 7). There were more c u l l s i n the second year and co n s i d e r a b l y more marketable f r u i t was produced i n the second than i n the f i r s t year. When f r u i t s had more time t o s i z e up, much l a r g e r f r u i t s were produced. As f r u i t was produced d u r i n g the summer months i n the p l a n t i n g year, r o t was n e g l i g i b l e , however i n the normal June-season crop the f o l l o w i n g year more r o t was evident (Baumann and Daubeny 1989). P l a n t s developed more crowns during the p l a n t i n g year and t h e r e f o r produced much more f r u i t i n the next year. Marketable y i e l d s i n t h i s t r i a l d i d not reach the l e v e l of the e a r l i e r p l a n t i n g s , but t h i s l a s t experiment was s i t u a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n and h i l l s were now r a i s e d t o twice the height they were i n e a r l i e r t r i a l s . 3.3. Day n e u t r a l and ever bearing c u l t i v a r t r i a l s T r i a l s of EB and DN c u l t i v a r s were s t a r t e d at the same time as the 1988 plante d HR t r i a l s i n c e i t was thought t o be advantageous t o produce f r u i t not only out-of-season, but a l s o t produce i t from the same p l a n t s over the e n t i r e season; i n other words i t would be more economical. 3.3.1. Day n e u t r a l and ever bearing c u l t i v a r y i e l d t r i a l The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t of the study was t o t e s t 5 EB and DN c u l t i v a r s i n 1988 f o r the d u r a t i o n of one year. Subsequently most p l a n t s s u r v i v e d the unusually harsh 1988-1989 w i n t e r , w i t h temperatures below -10° C and strong winds. Among the c u l t i v a r s , only 'Rapella' had r e l a t i v e low s u r v i v a l r a t e s (Table 8), probably i n f l u e n c e d by "wide spacing" and thus l a c k of p r o t e c t i o n . I t was decided t o continue t o t e s t the p l a n t s f o r the second year. As DN c u l t i v a r s f r u i t a l l season, flowers damaged i n the beginning of the season played only a minor r o l e and f r u i t production continued t o October, 1989. Data f o r 'Rapella' and 'Ostara' f o r the p l a n t i n g year have to be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n s i n c e the p l a n t s a r r i v e d from B r i t a i n i n poor c o n d i t i o n and e s t a b l i s h e d slower than those of the other c u l t i v a r s . A l s o p l o t s f o r 'Rapella' had only a few p l a n t s s u r v i v i n g . Y i e l d was estimated on a per p l a n t b a s i s as f o r the other c u l t i v a r s . Therefor p r e c i s i o n i s lower f o r 'Rapella' and because of l e s s crowding, means and variance may be i n f l a t e d . 'Rapella' produced the l a r g e s t f r u i t i n both years, though i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than 'Ostara' (Table 9). In the p l a n t i n g year, 1988, c u l t i v a r s d i d not d i f f e r i n percent c u l l s . In 1989 'Rapella' had the l e a s t c u l l s and only 'Tribute' d i f f e r e d from 'Rapella'. Most of the c u l l s represented misshapen (some winterdamage) or small f r u i t and, i n the case of 'Rapella' and •Ostara' s o f t f r u i t , t h a t was b r u i s e d . There was a l s o some r o t , s i n c e the summer was r e l a t i v e l y wet (Table 9). 66 In the p l a n t i n g year, there were no d i f f e r e n c e s i n marketable y i e l d s between the c u l t i v a r s d e s p i t e the l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n means. In 1989 'Ostara' and 'Rapella' had the l a r g e s t y i e l d and 'Tribute' the lowest (Table 9). S i z e d i d not d i f f e r between years, but c u l l s were much higher i n the second year (48.0 % compared to 9.7 %) and marketable y i e l d lower i n the second year (Table 9). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t o t a l production from 'Ostara', 'Rapella' and T r i s t a r ' was g r e a t e r i n the second year. However, much of the f r u i t produced was c l a s s e d as c u l l s . The amount of c u l l s might be decreased by u s i n g f u n g i c i d e sprays t o reduce f r u i t r o t . 'Selva' was the most c o n s i s t e n t producer. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the conclusions from t h i s t r i a l are not e n t i r e l y based on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the marketable y i e l d produced, but are p a r t i a l l y dependent on the acceptance of the f r u i t on the market. I t became obvious during the t r i a l t h a t although the f r u i t appeared s a l a b l e , the grower who cooperated i n the t r i a l s r e j e c t e d the f r u i t because he considered the f l a v o r unacceptable. I t i s t h e r e f o r important to i n c l u d e consumer acceptance and storage t r i a l s i n c u l t i v a r t r i a l s . T h i s s o r t of research was not p a r t of t h i s t h e s i s . ' T r i s t a r ' , 'Ostara' and 'Rapella' f r u i t was deemed non 67 s a l a b l e by the grower, because of poor shape and f l a v o r and extreme s o f t n e s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 'Selva 1 performed the best of a l l these c u l t i v a r s and was s o l d s u c c e s s f u l l y throughout the season. 'Tribute' produced much f r u i t i n the beginning of the season but by the middle i t s small s i z e was unmarketable. There i s i n t e r e s t i n s e v e r a l of the c u l t i v a r s f o r p o t e n t i a l season extension. In p a r t i c u l a r , 'Selva' i s promising because of i t s l a r g e s i z e and good appearance which compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h imported C a l i f o r n i a f r u i t . 'Tribute', which has a b e t t e r f l a v o r and higher y i e l d s w i l l a l s o be of i n t e r e s t d e s p i t e i t s s m a l l e r f r u i t s i z e . 3.3.2. 'Selva* spacing t r i a l 'Selva' produced s m a l l e r f r u i t i n the p l a n t i n g year, when placed at c l o s e r spacings. No such e f f e c t was found i n the next year. C u l l s were not a f f e c t e d by c l o s e spacings i n e i t h e r year. This i s noteworthy as one might expect a crowding e f f e c t i n the second year when the l e a f canopy has grown together. Production of marketable f r u i t i n the p l a n t i n g year increased when c l o s e r spacings were used (Table 10). A s i m i l a r trend was found f o r the second year, but was l e s s pronounced. Y i e l d s , even i n the p l a n t i n g year, f a r exceeded the y i e l d s of MR or HR i n f u l l 68 production. Most of the f r u i t i s out-of-season and production from the same f i e l d continues t o the end of October. The l a r g e s i z e i s e x c e p t i o n a l and p r i c e s per u n i t were twice as high on the average as those f o r the SD c u l t i v a r s i n season. 3.3.3. Day-neutral f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l 'Selva' produced 3 3 % c u l l s , whereas 'Tribute' produced over 50 % (Table 11). C u l l s were mostly because of small f r u i t . There was a l s o some f r u i t r o t as the summer of 1989 was r e l a t i v e l y wet. 'Selva' produced the same amount of marketable y i e l d as 'Tribute' (Table 11). These y i e l d s were r e l a t i v e l y low as the farm's c r i t e r i a f o r marketable f r u i t were used and a l a r g e number of f r u i t were discarded as unsalable. F r u i t which was misshapened, damaged, showed r o t and/or was considered too s m a l l , was discarded. C u l t i v a r by f e r t i l i z e r i n t e r a c t i o n s were noted f o r percent c u l l s and marketable y i e l d (Table 11). At the high n i t r o g e n l e v e l 'Selva' f r u i t was l a r g e and marketable y i e l d high. At the low n i t r o g e n l e v e l f r u i t s i z e was sm a l l e r and the y i e l d was l e s s . The opposite was t r u e f o r 'Tribute' which produced the l a r g e s t 69 f r u i t and most marketable y i e l d at the low n i t r o g e n l e v e l . This t r i a l was i n a commercial f i e l d and a l l maintenance work was c a r r i e d out by the farm crew. This and the farm grading system decreased o v e r a l l y i e l d , i n comparison w i t h s i m i l a r t r i a l s maintained by the author. The l a r g e amounts of small f r u i t i n the c u l l s f o r 'Tribute' are a drawback, as t h a t f r u i t has t o be p i c k e d at h i g h cost and then discarded, because abandoned f r u i t w i l l serve as a source of the f r u i t r o t causal organism inoculum. The amount of f r u i t r o t during the r e l a t i v e l y wet summer of 1989 g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t there i s s t i l l room f o r improvement of e i t h e r c u l t u r a l methods and/or t h a t f u n g i c i d a l sprays are necessary. 3.3.4. Day-neutral spacing t r i a l Spacings had no e f f e c t on the y i e l d per area, which means t h a t fewer p l a n t s and l e s s l a b o r f o r derunnering and deflowering can s t i l l produce the same y i e l d (Table 12). 'Selva' again had the l a r g e s t s i z e f r u i t but 'Tribute' f r u i t s i z e became too small f o r the market at the end of August, ending a very l u c r a t i v e out of season market. C u l l s were extremely high as the farm c r i t e r i a were used f o r determining undersized f r u i t . 'Selva' had 35 % c u l l s and 'Tribute' 4 7 % which compares w i t h the r e s u l t s from the f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l i n s e c t i o n 3.4.3. Marketable y i e l d of 'Selva' 7 0 was c o n s i d e r a b l y higher than t h a t f o r 'Tribute'. Again 'Selva' c o n s i s t e n t l y produced f r u i t of l a r g e s i z e throughout the season. F e r t i l i z e r again had no main e f f e c t s , but c u l t i v a r by f e r t i l i z e r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n f l u e n c e d s i z e (Table 12). 'Selva' f r u i t was l a r g e r at the high n i t r o g e n l e v e l w h i l e the reverse was t r u e f o r 'Tribute' which produced i t s l a r g e s t f r u i t a t the low n i t r o g e n l e v e l . These r e s u l t s f u r t h e r emphasize the f a c t t h a t s p e c i f i c c u l t i v a r s may d i f f e r i n t h e i r f e r t i l i z e r responses and needs. 3.4. Economic Assessment of the w a i t i n g bed, h i l l row and day-neutrals A comparison was made between the MR, and the HR system. Using the Farm Income Insurance Cost of Production Model (FII COPM), a model of a standard farm was constructed based on 8 hectares of production. The crop r o t a t i o n i n c l u d e d s t r a w b e r r i e s as the only crop. Year one was land p r e p a r a t i o n , year 2 was p l a n t i n g and the next 3 years were crop years. The HR produced i n the p l a n t i n g year. This means there i s an e x t r a production year from the system. A f t e r comparing cost a g a i n s t income, the net present value was c a l c u l a t e d and a b e n e f i t / c o s t r a t i o r e s u l t e d i n the HR system being 1.12 times more b e n e f i c i a l than the MR system. In the standard MR system, a year would elapse before any r e t u r n s could be r e a l i z e d . The f r u i t from the HR system i s very c l e a n , due t o the use of p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n . I t i s t h e r e f o r e of e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y f o r out-of-season f r e s h market production and subsequently fetches a high s e l l i n g p r i c e . A l l costs are estimated on the high s i d e , a l l r e t u r n s are estimated c o n s e r v a t i v e l y . The cost of runner removal i s i n c l u d e d . In a l l three assessments, i t i s assumed, t h a t (1) the farm produces s t r a w b e r r i e s only on 8 hectares of land, (2) the crop r o t a t i o n i s one p r e p a r a t i o n year, one p l a n t i n g year and 3 f u l l p r o d uction years and (3) a l l f r u i t i s commercially picked, U-pick i s not considered i n t h i s model and could increase r e t u r n s even f u r t h e r . The MR system i s the common p r a c t i c e u s i n g f l a t beds, no p l a s t i c mulch and about 25,000 p l a n t s per hectare. R a i s i n g the beds, p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n i s o p t i o n a l , but helps g i v e c l e a n f r u i t of b e t t e r q u a l i t y . Y i e l d s r e f l e c t very c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t i o n s , the p o t e n t i a l i f a p p l i e d p r o p e r l y can exceed the given f i g u r e s . The i r r i g a t i o n system c o s t s vary depending on the present setup of the farm. The HR system f i g u r e s have been d e r i v e d f o r the c u l t i v a r ' R a i n i e r ' only. DN data are based on 'Selva' and 'Tribute' y i e l d s only. An a n a l y s i s of the WB compared to the MR showed the WB system under the c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n s w i t h p l a s t i c mulch and the t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n i s not economically f e a s i b l e , even though the 130 grams per p l a n t used as a t h r e s h o l d i n England i s e a s i l y achieved i n B r i t i s h Columbia. An a n a l y s i s of the DN data was a l s o conducted, but should be considered p r e l i m i n a r y , s i n c e second-year data were not a v a i l a b l e at the time. This a n a l y s i s showed t h a t i t could be p r o f i t a b l e t o engage i n growing DN c u l t i v a r s . Up t o 4 times the y i e l d s can be obtained out-of-season compared t o the best performing c u l t i v a r ' R a i n i e r ' i n the HR system. The main disadvantage i s t h a t the f r u i t doesn't have a p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e f r e s h e a t i n g q u a l i t y . Nevertheless, i t has not been d i f f i c u l t t o s e l l t h i s f r u i t because the main competition at t h a t time comes from imported C a l i f o r n i a f r u i t of s i m i l a r q u a l i t y . 73 4. Recommendations and conclusions 4.1. Waiting bed system • R a i n i e r ' was the most v a l u a b l e c u l t i v a r f o r extended season pro d u c t i o n w i t h the WB system. Flowering occurred an average of one week l a t e r than the other SD, P a c i f i c Northwest c u l t i v a r s . The p l a n t s t h e r e f o r e have more time t o e s t a b l i s h a root system before f l o w e r i n g and f r u i t i n g , which i s the p o s s i b l e reason f o r i t s s u p e r i o r performance i n the system. The other c u l t i v a r s d i d not produce enough s a l a b l e f r u i t f o r economic r e t u r n i n the p l a n t i n g year, although by standards i n England, i t would s t i l l be p r o f i t a b l e (Baumann and Daubeny, 1989). This would be the hig h p r i c e year as out-of-season f r u i t i s produced. Therefor there i s no i n c e n t i v e f o r growers t o go through the production of these r a t h e r expensive p l a n t s . Mother p l a n t s are cheaper t o use i n the WB system but are u s u a l l y i n short supply and would not s u s t a i n a commercial i n d u s t r y . There are no more than a few thousand of these p l a n t s a v a i l a b l e f o r each c u l t i v a r per year. There are enough mother p l a n t s from 'Totem' a v a i l a b l e , s i n c e i t i s the most widely p l a n t e d c u l t i v a r i n the P a c i f i c Northwest, but 'Totem' y i e l d s f o r the p l a n t i n g year are too low. I t seems t o be economically f e a s i b l e t o use the WB as a method of growing out-of-season f r u i t , but i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the p l a n t s go through at l e a s t one, and b e t t e r 2, more f u l l in-season harvests t o make the system pay. F r u i t production f o r the WB has s e v e r a l advantages, i n c l u d i n g avoidance of blossom damage from l a t e s p r i n g f r o s t s and when r a i s e d beds and p l a s t i c mulch are used, r e d u c t i o n i n f r u i t r o t i n c i d e n c e s . Water seems to be the s i n g l e most important f a c t o r f o r the newly-planted, multi-crown, WB p l a n t s as they w i l l emerge from dormancy i n t o temperatures sometimes above 2 0° C and w i l l produce a l e a f canopy and f r u i t w i t h i n 6 t o 8 weeks. The WB u s i n g p l a s t i c mulch i s even more l a b o r i n t e n s i v e than the MR or WB without mulch. Derunnering i s r e q u i r e d . A f t e r harvest the p l a n t s s t a r t growing runners, which can not root on the p l a s t i c and are not allowed t o grow between the rows. Therefor they have to be removed completely. The c u r r e n t method of removing runners i s t o cut them o f f manually, us i n g a k n i f e . Attempts were made t o develop new methods. A p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n i s t o use a p a i n t r o l l e r coated w i t h a contact h e r b i c i d e mounted behind the t r a c t o r t o apply the h e r b i c i d e . The p a i n t r o l l e r brushes a narrow band of contact h e r b i c i d e on the runners t h a t l i e on the p l a s t i c . The h e r b i c i d e never touches the main p l a n t i t s e l f . The chemical method w i l l not work i f the runners have 75 been allowed t o mature and the t i s s u e has l i g n i f i e d . Another method i s t o mow the runners o f f w i t h a lawn edger. This r e q u i r e s good q u a l i t y p l a s t i c and an experienced operator t o not destroy the p l a s t i c mulch. This method has been s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r runner removal both i n the WB and the HR. 4.2. Short-day c u l t i v a r s on h i l l rows As i n the WB system, ' R a i n i e r ' again seems t o be the most v a l u a b l e SD c u l t i v a r f o r extended season production on HR. Flowering occurred an average of one week l a t e r than a l l other c u l t i v a r s a f t e r p l a n t i n g . The p l a n t s t h e r e f o r e had more time to e s t a b l i s h a strong root system before f l o w e r i n g and f r u i t i n g . The other P a c i f i c Northwest c u l t i v a r s t e s t e d d i d not produce s u f f i c i e n t marketable f r u i t f o r economic r e t u r n i n the p l a n t i n g year. I t seems t o be economically f e a s i b l e t o use the HR as a method of growing out-of-season f r u i t , but, as w i t h the WB a l s o , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the p l a n t s go through at l e a s t one and even b e t t e r , 2 or more f u l l in-season harvests t o make the system pay. This goal i s more e a s i l y achieved w i t h the HR p l a n t s than w i t h the WB and mother p l a n t s . The cost f o r the runner p l a n t s i s r e l a t i v e l y low compared to the WB p l a n t s , and runner p l a n t s are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and no s p e c i a l technology and management i s needed, as i t i s f o r the WB p l a n t s . Second-year y i e l d s come i n the normal season and do not get the high p r i c e t h a t the out-of-season, p l a n t i n g year, y i e l d s achieve. That i s why a high y i e l d i n the second year, such as obtained from 'Sumas' or 'Totem' does not n e c e s s a r i l y guarantee success f o r the system. The costs of p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n have t o be gained back i n the year of p l a n t i n g i n order t o make t h i s p r o f i t a b l e . As the f r u i t i n the p l a n t i n g year i s produced dur i n g the u s u a l l y dry summer months, there i s much l e s s f r u i t r o t . R a i s i n g and mulching the beds w i t h p l a s t i c adds to t h a t b e n e f i t . A l s o , there i s l e s s danger t h a t the flowers w i l l be damaged by l a t e f r o s t s . F r o s t o f t e n damages flowers i n the r e g u l a r season, but the HR p l a n t s are s t i l l dormant i n c o l d storage then and p l a n t i n g occurs l a t e r when the weather i s much mi l d e r . As f o r the WB, immediate i r r i g a t i o n seems to be the s i n g l e most important f a c t o r i n the success f o r the newly plant e d p l a n t s as they w i l l emerge from dormancy i n t o temperatures sometimes above 20° C and w i l l produce a l e a f canopy and f r u i t w i t h i n 6 t o e i g h t weeks. The l a t e f l o w e r i n g ' R a i n i e r ' has an advantage over the e a r l i e r f l o w e r i n g c u l t i v a r s . T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n and p l a s t i c mulch c o n t r i b u t e t o the success of such a system. The much higher beds i n the l a t e r experiments are conducive t o b e t t e r f r u i t appearance. With the lower beds the t r u s s e s and f r u i t l i e on the s o i l between the rows. Any p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n d i r t on the f r u i t s which made i t u n a t t r a c t i v e f o r the f r e s h market. The high beds, however, could be s t i l l wider and higher as the r a i n sometimes s t i l l splashes sandy s o i l s up onto the f r u i t s . The HR system i s an improvement to the WB method and i s v i a b l e f o r our re g i o n f o r the f r e s h market. A p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n without p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n may prove t o be the system favored f o r the processing i n d u s t r y . The second year p l a n t i n g would then resemble a low d e n s i t y matted row. Input c o s t , above t h a t of the normal MR system, a r i s e s from the r i d g i n g of the s o i l . This w i l l a l s o r a i s e the ro o t s out of the zone of stagnant water during the wi n t e r , which u s u a l l y causes root r o t organisms t o p r o l i f e r a t e and damage or even k i l l the p l a n t s . I t has t o be noted, however, t h a t s u f f i c i e n t overhead i r r i g a t i o n must be a v a i l a b l e f o r the dry summer months as r a i s e d beds can dry out more q u i c k l y . 4.3. Day n e u t r a l c u l t i v a r s The t a s t e of the l o c a l P a c i f i c Northwest s t r a w b e r r i e s i s c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r t o t h a t of the DN c u l t i v a r s introduced from other 78 regions. Although t h i s f a c t was acknowledged by the consumers i n t e s t marketing, i t was shown t h a t consumers i n v a r i a b l y p r e f e r r e d the n i c e r l o o k i n g f r u i t i n the off-season, obtained from the DN c u l t i v a r 'Selva' (Data not rep o r t e d ) . Not only do they look b e t t e r , but the f r u i t s from C a l i f o r n i a are u s u a l l y extremely f i r m and keep f o r s e v e r a l days longer on the s h e l f than the f r u i t from P a c i f i c Northwest c u l t i v a r s . Growing these c u l t i v a r s l o c a l l y ensures t h a t they are picked r i p e r and get t o the markets quicker than they p o s s i b l y could from C a l i f o r n i a f i e l d s , and w i l l t h e r e f o r have b e t t e r f l a v o r than f r u i t p icked at a more immature stage. Coupled w i t h the p o t e n t i a l of extremely high y i e l d s , mostly i n the o f f season, the DN lend themselves t o e x p l o i t a t i o n f o r the f r e s h market. Y i e l d s can be 3 and 4 times higher than those f o r the SD i n MR and p r i c e s obtained can be double. The p l a s t i c mulch, t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n and RB seem t o be p r e f e r a b l e , as root diseases are avoided, f r u i t i s c l e a n , b e t t e r a i r c i r c u l a t i o n reduces f r u i t r o t and f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n over the e n t i r e season i s more accurate. An added b e n e f i t of the p l a s t i c mulch i s t h a t no h e r b i c i d e s are used on the p l a n t s . DN c u l t i v a r s w i l l produce fewer l e s s runners throughout the season than do the SD. The removal of runners i s a problem i n the p l a n t i n g year before the f i r s t f r u i t i s formed. U s u a l l y c u t t i n g runners once w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t . As these c u l t i v a r s then produce f r u i t a l l season long, there can be no chemical derunnering and the derunnering w i t h the lawn edger i s im p o s s i b l e , as a l l the f r u i t would be destroyed. The best method i s t o do i t manually using knives. The l a b o r requirements are q u i t e low as the production of runners i s almost i n s i g n i f i c a n t d u r i n g f r u i t i n g . 'Selva' w i l l produce few runners and 'Tribute' w i l l stop runner production almost e n t i r e l y under the P a c i f i c Northwest c o n d i t i o n s . The EB and DN c u l t i v a r s t r i e d showed t h a t only a few lend themselves t o growing i n t h i s area w i t h 'Selva' being the best adapted. New r e l e a s e s from v a r i o u s programs should be monitored f o r t h e i r use i n t h i s area. 4.4. T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n ensures even moisture at the root zone which i s important f o r the establishment phase of any p l a n t i n g and e s p e c i a l l y f o r the DN c u l t i v a r s which produce a l a r g e amount of f r u i t d u r i n g the e n t i r e season. Water use, compared to t h a t f o r overhead i r r i g a t i o n , i s d r a s t i c a l l y reduced, e s p e c i a l l y i n combination w i t h a p l a s t i c mulch t h a t prevents evaporation. I r r i g a t i o n can be done any time during the season, day or n i g h t , without i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h other farm operations. Formerly, sprays 80 and h a r v e s t i n g had t o be coordinated w i t h the overhead i r r i g a t i o n . No water i s a p p l i e d t o the leaves or the f r u i t s and t h i s helps reduce f r u i t r o t and l e a f diseases. T r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n a l s o allows f o r the exact placement of f e r t i l i z e r i n the r o o t zone, w i t h l e s s l e a c h i n g of n u t r i e n t s from the s o i l . 4 . 5 . P l a s t i c Mulch The p l a s t i c mulch prevents e r o s i o n of the beds, keeps the p l a n t area f r e e of weeds and helps keep the f r u i t c l e a n . The warming of the s o i l i s a mixed b e n e f i t , as flowers may emerge too e a r l y i n the second year and perhaps be s u s c e p t i b l e t o damage from l a t e f r o s t s . The discarded p l a s t i c mulch may present a d i s p o s a l problem. 4. 6 . Raised Beds Red-stele (Pj_ f r a q a r i a e ) r o o t - r o t has been a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n some strawberry f i e l d s i n the Fraser V a l l e y . In r e l a t i v e l y m i l d w i n t e r s severe damage can r e s u l t from the disease. A t r i a l w i t h RB and p l a s t i c mulch l o c a t e d i n a commercial f i e l d i n the midst of severe red s t e l e damage showed t h a t p l a n t s were not a f f e c t e d by the pathogen. The root systems of 'Totem' and •Hood 1, the same c u l t i v a r s t h a t were i n the commercial f i e l d , were above the water l e v e l throughout the win t e r . B e t t e r 81 a e r a t i o n i n the p l a n t i n g through RB may a l s o help t o c o n t r o l f r u i t r o t s . I t i s very important t o slope the top of the RB, otherwise water w i l l c o l l e c t , r o t t i n g the f r u i t or s c a l d i n g i t d u r i n g sunshine f o l l o w i n g rainshowers. I t i s s t i l l questionable whether the mulch helps t o prevent winter k i l l or exacerbates i t . Many d i f f e r e n t approaches have been taken t o evaluate the p o t e n t i a l of out-of-season production of s t r a w b e r r i e s i n the Fraser V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The succession of t r i a l s r eported i n t h i s t h e s i s focused on the production of high q u a l i t y f r e s h f r u i t i n the p l a n t i n g year w i t h the o p t i o n of producing f r u i t i n the second year f o r processing. While the WB and HR system w i t h SD show some b e n e f i t s , the HR w i t h DN c u l t i v a r s on RB covered w i t h b l a c k p l a s t i c mulch and t r i c k l e i r r i g a t i o n , emerged as the most p r o f i t a b l e undertaking. 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S t e e l , R.G.D. and T o r r i e , J.H. 1960. P r i n c i p l e s and procedures of s t a t i s t i c s . McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. S t r i k , B.C. 1987. Photosynthesis, y i e l d component a n a l y s i s , and growth a n a l y s i s . Ph.D. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Guelph. 161 pp. S t r i k , B.C. and Proctor, J.T.A. 1988a. Y i e l d component a n a l y s i s of strawberry genotypes d i f f e r i n g i n p r o d u c t i v i t y . J . Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i . 113:124-129. S t r i k , B.C. and Proctor, J.T.A. 1988b. The importance of growth d u r i n g flower bud d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t o maximizing y i e l d i n strawberry genotypes. F r u i t Var. J . 42:45-48. 92 Swartz, H.J., Walsh, C.S., Geyer, A.F., Douglas, L., G a l l e t t a , G.J. and Zimmerman, R.H. 1982. P l a n t crown competition i n strawberry matted rows. Advances i n Strawberry Production 1:6-11. Swartz, H.J., Stutt, G.W., Maas, D. and Bors, R.H. 1989a. 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Lower Mainland Hort. Impr. Assn. 30:100-101. Voth, V. 1967. The e f f e c t of e a r l y mulching on time of summer p l a n t i n g . C a l i f o r n i a Strawberry Advisory Board. 13:No.51. Voth, V. 1981. C a l i f o r n i a c u l t u r a l systems. pp. 67-76. I n : C h i l d e r s , N.F. (ed.). The Strawberry. H o r t i c u l t u r a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , G a i n s v i l l e , F l o r i d a . Voth, V. and Bringhurst, R.S. 1961. Pruning and poyethylene mulching of summer planted s t r a w b e r r i e s i n southern C a l i f o r n i a . J . Amer. Soc. Hort. S c i . 78:275-280. Voth, V. and Bringhurst, R.S. 1967. The e f f e c t of e a r l y mulching on time of summer p l a n t i n g . C a l i f o r n i a Strawberry Advisory Board. 13:No.51. Voth, V. and Bringhurst, R.S. 197 6. E f f e c t s of time of p l a n t i n g and mulching on summer planted Aiko, Cruz, T u f t s and Toro i n southern C a l i f o r n i a . C a l i f o r n i a Strawberry Advisory Board 12:No.49. Waister, P.D. 1979. Y i e l d and i t s components i n the strawberry c u l t i v a r Olympus. F r u i t Var. J . 33:13 6-143. Walsh, C.S. and Geyer, A.F. 1983. Observations of ribbon rows, summer p l a n t i n g systems, r a i s e d beds and conventional c u l t u r a l systems f o r the production of s t r a w b e r r i e s i n Maryland. Advances i n Strawberry Production 2:25-27. Walsh, C.S., Geyer, A.F. and Swartz, H.J. 1982. A f a c t o r i a l comparison of the e f f e c t s of c u l t i v a r and c u l t u r a l system on strawberry y i e l d . HortScience 17:501. Wetherell, R.L. J r . 1981. A spaced row p l a n t i n g system. The Strawberry, pp. 89-94. In: C h i l d e r s , N.F. (ed.). The Strawberry. H o r t i c u l t u r a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , G a i n s v i l l e , F l o r i d a . Wijsmuller, J . 1988. F r i g o p l a n t e n bieden p e r s p e c t i e f . F r u i t t e e l t 78:22-23. Williams, J.M. and O'Dell, C.R. 1986. Mulch s t r a w b e r r i e s w i t h small g r a i n s . American F r u i t Grower 1986:24-25. Wilson, F. and Dixon, G.R. 1988. Strawberry growth and y i e l d r e l a t e d t o p l a n t d e n s i t y using matted row husbandry. J . Hort. S c i . 63:221-227. 94 Table 1. The e f f e c t of planting date upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of four short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s planted i n 1986, using plants from a waiting bed. Size(g) C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha) Year 1986 1987 1986 1987 1986 1987 Mean 8.3 12.9 6.7 12.2 4.4 16.4 P l a n t i n g Date May 29 7.8 11.4 15.9 11.8 2.8 15. 0 June 3 6.6 11.4 11.4 12 . 3 3.8 16.4 June 10 6.9 12 . 6 3.7 12 . 3 5.7 17.7 June 17 8.5 14 . 0 4.3 12.3 5.0 17. 1 June 24 9.7 13 . 6 2 . 6 12.3 4.4 16.1 J u l y 1 10.1 14 .1 2.1 12 . 3 4 . 6 16. 0 Li n e a r ** ** ** ns ** ns Quadratic ** ns ** ns ** * D e v i a t i o n ** ns ** ns ** ns C u l t i v a r 2 Hood 6. l c 11.9 7. lab 16. 5a 2 . 8c 13 . 3c R a i n i e r 11. 3a 14.3 8.5a 11. l b 7. 0a 15.lbc Shuksan 8.8b 13 . 3 5.8b 16. l a 4 . 0b 15.0bc Totem 6. 8c 12.0 5. 3b 5. 3c 3.9b 22. 2a Scheffe's Value 0.7 ns 2 . 3 0.6 1.1 1.9 *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at P=0.05 and 0.01 or not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2 Means i n columns followed by the same l e t t e r are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the 5% l e v e l . Means were separated by Scheffe's t e s t . 95 Table 2. The e f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r and planting date upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of four short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s planted i n 1987, using plants from a waiting bed. Size(g) C u l l ( % ) z Mkt(T/ha) Year 1987 1988 1987 1988 1987 1988 Mean 9.1 13.7 4.3 15.4 4.1 10.8 F e r t i l i z e r Formula 1 9.0 14.1 4.1 12.7 4.1 10.4 Formula 2 9.2 13.2 4.5 18.0 4.1 11.2 F - t e s t ns * ns - ns ns P l a n t i n g Date May 29 8.6 12.8 4.4 15.4 4.7 7.3 June 3 9.1 12.7 5.1 - 4.9 8.4 June 10 10.1 13.7 3.9 - 4.4 11.2 June 17 9.3 13.7 4.3 - 4.1 11.9 June 24 7.9 14 .4 2.4 - 3.3 .13.5 J u l y 1 9.5 14 .7 5.4 - 3.2 12.6 l i n e a r ns ** ns - ** ** q u a d r a t i c * ns ns - ns * d e v i a t i o n ** ns * — ns ns C u l t i v a r y Hood 6.9d 12.2b 2.5c 16.4b 2.4c 8.7b R a i n i e r 11.4a 14.3a 7.9a 9.4c 6. 6a 12.9a Shuksan 10. l b 13 .9a 4.1bc 15.7b 3.8b 9.6b Totem 8. 0c 14.3a 2. 6c 20. l a 3 . 6b 12. 0a Scheffe's Value 0.6 1.6 2.2 4.2 1.2 2 . 2 *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at P=0.05 and 0.01 or not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . z C u l l s adjusted t o f i r s t p l a n t i n g date only. Y Means i n columns followed by the same l e t t e r are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the 5% l e v e l . Means were separated by Scheffe's t e s t . 96 Table 3. The e f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r and planting date upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of three short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s planted i n 1987, using mother plants. Size(g) C u l l ( % ) z Mkt(T/ha) Year 1987 1988 1987 1988 1987 1988 Mean 10.3 15.4 5.5 11.0 3.2 11.9 F e r t i l i z e r Formula 1 10.5 17.1 4.9 12.5 3.3 12 .7 Formula 2 10.2 14.3 6.1 11.7 3.1 10.1 F-Test ns ** ns - ns * P l a n t i n g Date May 29 9.4 15.2 6.7 11.0 4.5 9.7 June 3 9.9 15.1 3.7 - 2.8 11.6 June 10 12.3 16.8 5.4 - 4.1 11.3 June 17 10.1 15.3 5.9 - 2 .1 12.0 June 24 9.9 14.8 4.0 - 2.9 14.8 J u l y 1 10.4 15. 3 7.3 — 2.8 12.0 l i n e a r ns ns ns - ** ** q u a d r a t i c * ns * - * ns d e v i a t i o n ** ns * — ** * C u l t i v a r Y R a i n i e r 12. l a 15.2 8. 9a 12. 5a 3.9a 12.7a Shuksan 11.0b 14.8 5.3b 11.7a 3. 2ab 10. l b Totem 7.9c 16.2 2.3b 8 . 8b 2.5b 12.9a Scheffe's Value 1.0 ns 2.7 1.4 0.9 1.8 *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at P=0.05 and 0.01 or not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2 C u l l s adjusted t o f i r s t p l a n t i n g date only, y Means i n columns followed by the same l e t t e r are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the 5% l e v e l . Means were separated by Scheffe's t e s t . Table 4. Comparing s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d s of f i v e short day c u l t i v a r s planted 1986 i n h i l l rows. Size(g) C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha) Year 1986 1987 1986 1987 1986 1987 Mean 8.5 12.8 2.5 18.4 4.8 10.4 C u l t i v a r s z Hood 7.3 11. 3b 1.6a 20. 0a 4 . Obc 10.0 R a i n i e r 9.2 15.9a 6. l a 25.4a 7 . 3a 10.2 Shuksan 8.2 11.9b 1.5a 26. 3a 4. Obc 9.7 Shuswap 7.1 12.5ab 1.2a 3.4b 3 . 5c 9.9 Totem 10.7 12.5ab 2. 2a 17.0a 5. l b 12.2 Scheffe's Value ns 3 . 6 5.7 10.8 1.4 ns z Means i n columns followed by the same l e t t e r are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the 5% l e v e l . Means were separated by Scheffe's t e s t . 98 Table 5. The e f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r and planting date upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of four short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s planted i n h i l l rows i n 1987. Size(g) C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha) Year 1987 1988 1987 1988 1987 1988 Mean 8.7 15.1 7.2 29.7 3.8 17.7 F e r t i l i z e r Formula 1 8.7 15.4 6.3 34.2 3 . 6 18.3 Formula 2 8.7 14.8 8.1 25.2 4 . 1 17.2 F-Test ns ns ns ** ns ns P l a n t i n g Date May 29 8.4 14 . 0 6.1 28.6 4.7 16. 3 June 3 9.6 14.7 5.4 29.5 4.9 17.9 June 10 9.6 14.7 4.4 30.0 4.1 17.0 June 17 8.5 14.9 8.0 29.4 3 . 8 17.1 June 24 8 . 0 16. 3 6.2 31.6 3 . 4 19 . 5 J u l y 1 8.2 16. 0 13 . 2 30.1 2 . 2 18 . 5 Li n e a r * * * * * ns Quadratic * ns ns ns ns ns D i f f e r e n c e * ns ns ns ns ns C u l t i v a r 2 R a i n i e r 9.8a 14.3b 8. 8ab 29.2b 7. 6a 18.6ab Shuksan 9.3a 14.2b 4.8b 32. 2a 2.5b 14.4c Sumas 8.3b 16. 6a 12.8a 29.0b 2.6b 21.5a Totem 7.4c 15.2ab 2.4b 28.4b 2.7b 16.5bc Scheffe's Value 0.9 1.5 6.1 2.0 1.1 4.1 *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at P=0.05 and 0.01 or not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2 Means i n columns followed by the same l e t t e r are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the 5% l e v e l . Means were separated by Scheffe's t e s t . Table 6. The e f f e c t of two spacings upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of two short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s planted i n double h i l l rows i n 1987. Size(g) C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha) Y i e l d 1987 1988 1987 1988 1987 1988 Mean 8.4 15.5 4.5 8.7 6.7 17.8 C u l t i v a r R a i n i e r 10.1 14.5 6.3 8.3 9.9 14.4 Totem 6.7 16. 5 2.8 9.1 3.5 21.5 F-Test ** ** * * ** ** Spacing 15 cm 8.3 13 . 6 5.6 6.6 8.2 20.4 25 cm 8.6 17.3 3 . 5 10.9 5.2 15.3 F-Test ** ** ** ** ns ns * , * * , n s g i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at P=0. 05 and 0. 01 or not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Table 7. The e f f e c t of planting date and spacings upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of three short day strawberry c u l t i v a r s planted i n h i l l rows i n 1988. Size(g) C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha) Year 1988 1989 1988 1989 1988 1989 Mean 9.0 7.3 9.5 25.9 3.3 11.5 P l a n t i n g Date May 22 9.7 7.1 17.6 26.4 3.9 11.0 June 12 8.3 7 . 5 1.4 25.5 2 . 7 12 . 0 F-Test ** ns ** ns * ns Spacing 15 cm 8.9 7 . 0 8 . 7 25.5 4 . 4 13 .8 20 cm 8.9 7.2 10. 6 27.3 3 . 3 12.2 25 cm 9.0 7.5 9.3 25.5 2.9 10.2 3 0 cm 9.3 7.4 9.4 25.5 2.5 9.8 Li n e a r ns * ns ns ** ** Quadratic ns ns ns ns ns ns D e v i a t i o n ns ns ns ns ns ns C u l t i v a r 2 R a i n i e r 9.8a 8.7a 5.7c 36. 5a 4.7a 8.9b Sumas 9. 7a 7.5b 9.3b 15.6c 2.8b 17.5a Totem 7. 4b 5.7c 13.5a 25.7b 2.4b 8.2b Scheffe's Value 0.9 0.5 3.3 3.3 0.6 1.6 * , * * , n s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at P=0.05 and 0.01 or not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2 Means i n columns followed by the same l e t t e r are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the 5% l e v e l . Means were separated by Scheffe's t e s t . Table 8. Day neutral and ever bearing c u l t i v a r winter s u r v i v a l 1989 C u l t i v a r 2 S u r v i v a l ( % ) Ostara 83a R a p e l l a 36b Selva 84a T r i b u t e 100a T r i s t a r 95a LSD 35 z Means i n columns followed by the same l e t t e r are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the 5% l e v e l . Means were separated by sher's p r o t e c t e d LSD. 102 Table 9. Comparing s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d s of two ever bearing and three day neutral c u l t i v a r s planted 1988 i n double h i l l rows. Year Size(g) C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha) 1988 1989 1988 1989 1988 1989 Mean 11. 6 11. 6 9.7 48.0 20.9 14 . 9 C u l t i v a r 2 Ostara 13.5ab 14.2ab 12.0a 44.7ab 22.2 27 . 3a Ra p e l l a 16. 5a 15.3a 14 . 2a 28.8b 14.7 24 . l a Selva 10.2b 10.Obc 3. 8a 52.lab 33.4 13.2ab T r i b u t e 8.3b 8. 6c 1. 3a 66. 5a 21.2 2 . 5c T r i s t a r 9.5b 9. 7bc 17.0a 48.Oab 13 . 0 7 . 6bc Scheffe's Value 5.5 4.8 15.9 26.1 ns 8.7 *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at P=0.05 and 0.01 or not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2 Means i n columns followed by the same l e t t e r are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the 5% l e v e l . Means were separated by Scheffe's t e s t . Table 10. The e f f e c t of plant spacing upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of 'Selva 1 day neutral strawberry c u l t i v a r planted i n 1988 i n a double h i l l row. Size(g) C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha) Year 1988 1989 1988 1989 1988 1989 Mean 17.0 13.9 6.9 19.2 13.9 21.5 Spacing 22 cm 15.9 13.7 6.3 19.5 16.1 22.8 30 cm 17.0 14.2 6.3 19.6 13.0 21.4 38 cm 18.0 13.9 8.3 18.6 13.4 20.3 l i n e a r * ns ns ns ** * d e v i a t i o n ns ns ns ns ns ns *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at P=0.05 and 0.01 or not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Table 11. The e f f e c t of the i n t e r a c t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r and c u l t i v a r upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of two day neutral strawberry c u l t i v a r s i n the f i r s t year of a 1989 double h i l l row planting. Size(g) C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha) C u l t i v a r means Selva T r i b u t e 15.0 12.6 33.4 50.2 11. 0 10.4 F-Test ** ** ns C u l t i v a r by Nitrogen i n t e r a c t i o n Size(g) C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha) Selva high Nitrogen low Nitrogen 15.3 14.7 30.4 36.3 11.7 10.4 T r i b u t e h i g h Nitrogen low Nitrogen 12.4 12.8 51.7 48 . 7 9.4 11.5 s i g n i f i c a n c e ns ** ** * * i n s S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at P=0.01 or not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Table 12. The e f f e c t of the i n t e r a c t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r and c u l t i v a r upon f r u i t s i z e , c u l l s and marketable y i e l d of two day neutral strawberry c u l t i v a r s i n the f i r s t year of a 1989 planted double h i l l row spacing t r i a l . Size(g) C u l l ( % ) Mkt(T/ha) Selva 18.3 35.3 18.8 T r i b u t e 14.6 47.4 14.7 F-Test ns ** ** E f f e c t of c u l t i v a r by Nitrogen i n t e r a c t i o n upon s i z e Selva T r i b u t e low N 15.6 17.1 high N 21.0 12.2 F-Test ** ** *,**,ns s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at P=0.05 and 0.01 or not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 

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