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Fast mapping and success in French immersion programs Houston, Ruth Anne 1990

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FAST MAPPING AND SUCCESS IN FRENCH IMMERSION PROGRAMS By RUTH ANNE HOUSTON BA., University of Western Ontario, 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The School of Audiology and Speech Sciences  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1990 © Ruth Anne Houston, 1990  In  presenting  degree at the  this  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of British Columl Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  ii ABSTRACT A s a result of the high price p a i d in time a n d c o n c e r n by s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s a n d e d u c a t o r s in e d u c a t i n g a child in F r e n c h Immersion only to find that s / h e w o u l d be better off in a n E n g l i s h c l a s s r o o m , a predictor is n e e d e d to d e c i d e early in a child's life w h e t h e r or not s/he is a g o o d c a n d i d a t e for F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n . A ' g o o d c a n d i d a t e ' w o u l d be s o m e o n e w h o w o u l d be able to learn F r e n c h a n d , a s a corollary, not be h a n d i c a p p e d a c a d e m i c a l l y b y b e i n g instructed in F r e n c h . T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y is a n e x a m i n a t i o n of the L2 learning a s p e c t of F r e n c h Immersion.  In particular this  p a p e r will e x p l o r e the possibility that 'fast mapping'.the ability to q u i c k l y m a k e a partial representation of the m e a n i n g , form a n d u s e of a w o r d after hearing it only a few t i m e s , m a y b e a predictor of s u c c e s s in acquiring a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e irrespective of overall a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . In a p r o c e d u r e a d a p t e d from D o l l a g h a n (1985) e i g h t e e n s t u d e n t s in G r a d e 2 F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n , s e v e n t e e n in G r a d e 3 F r e n c h Immersion a n d five former F r e n c h Immersion s t u d e n t s now in the G r a d e 3 E n g l i s h p r o g r a m w e r e e x p o s e d to a n u n u s u a l l y s h a p e d , a s yet u n n a m e d object in the c o u r s e of a hiding g a m e . T h i s object w a s r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d o n e of a s e t of n o n s e n s e n a m e s . T h e children w e r e then a d m i n i s t e r e d a 10 minute oral F r e n c h C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t a s a distractor before b e i n g t e s t e d for their c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d production of the n e w w o r d . T h e s c o r e s on t h e s e t a s k s , w h i c h are an indication of "fast m a p p i n g " skill, did not correlate with i) n u m b e r of y e a r s e x p o s u r e to . a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , ii) a g e , iii) t e a c h e r ratings of oral F r e n c h or iv) a c a d e m i c ability, v) oral F r e n c h c o m p r e h e n s i o n or vi) inclusion in F r e n c h Immersion.  T h i s s u g g e s t s that this s e t of fast m a p p i n g  t a s k s is not a g o o d predictor of s u c c e s s in s e c o n d l a n g u a g e learning or F r e n c h Immersion.  More  r e s e a r c h is n e e d e d to a s c e r t a i n the r e c i p r o c a l effect of L2 learning on fast m a p p i n g skills, the d e v e l o p m e n t of fast m a p p i n g skills with a g e , a n d the effect of a m o r e c o m p l e x fast m a p p i n g task on the fast m a p p i n g p e r f o r m a n c e of s c h o o l a g e children.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract T a b l e of C o n t e n t s List of T a b l e s Acknowledgements C h a p t e r 1 Introduction 1.0 Introduction 1.1 L e x i c a l L e a r n i n g 1.2 F a s t M a p p i n g 1.21 S u m m a r y 1.3 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d L a n g u a g e A c q u i s i t i o n 1.31 S e c o n d L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g 1.32 S e c o n d L a n g u a g e Instruction 1.33 S u m m a r y 1.4 S u c c e s s in F r e n c h Immersion 1.41 P r e d i c t o r s of S u c c e s s 1.42 S u m m a r y 1.5 T h i s S t u d y Chapter 2  Method 2.1 O v e r v i e w 2.2 S u b j e c t s 2.3 P r o c e d u r e 2.31 E x p o s u r e T a s k 2.32 F r e n c h C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t  iv 2.33 C o m p r e h e n s i o n T a s k  26  2.34 P r o d u c t i o n T a s k  26  2.35 R e c o g n i t i o n T a s k  26  2.36 Literacy T e s t s  26  2.37 T e a c h e r R a t i n g s  27  Chapter 3 Results 3.1 F a s t M a p p i n g  28  3.11 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d G r o u p M e m b e r s h i p  28  3.12 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d O r a l F r e n c h P r o d u c t i o n  29  3.13 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d G e n e r a l A c a d e m i c Ability  30  3.14 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d W o r d R e c o g n i t i o n  31  3.15 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d W o r d M e a n i n g  32  3.16 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d O r a l F r e n c h C o m p r e h e n s i o n  32  3.17 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d A g e  32  3.2 R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e t w e e n M e a s u r e s of F r e n c h P r o f i c i e n c y  33  Chapter 4 Discussion 4.1 F a s t M a p p i n g  35  4.11 S u m m a r y  37  4.2 T h e P r o b l e m of P r e d i c t i o n  38  4.21 S u m m a r y  39  References  40  Appendix A: Teacher Questionnaire  42  LIST OF TABLES Table I. Percentage correct in various fast mapping studies. Table II. List of target words and their distractors. Table III. Distribution of fast mapping production scores by instructional group. Table IV. Distribution of fast mapping production scores by teacher rating of oral French production skill. Table V. Distribution of fast mapping production scores by teacher rating of math abilities. Table VI. Distribution of fast mapping production scores by age. Table VII. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for relationships between various measures of French proficiency.  VI  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sincere thanks to the students, parents, teachers and staff of the Grades 2 and 3 classes who supported and participated in this study.  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION As a result of the high price paid in time and concern by students, parents and educators in educating a child in French Immersion only to find that s/he would be better off in an English classroom, a predictor is needed to decide early in a child's life whether or not s/he is a good candidate for French Immersion. A 'good candidate' would be someone who would be able to learn French and , as a corollary, not be handicapped academically by being instructed in French. The present study is an examination of the L2 learning aspect of French Immersion. In particular this paper will explore the possibility that fast mapping, the ability to quickly make a partial representation of the meaning, form and use of a word after hearing it only a few times, may be a predictor of success in acquiring a second language irrespective of overall academic achievement. This chapter will present a review of the current literature concerning fast mapping and predictors of success in French Immersion.  1.1 LEXICAL LEARNING A fascinating question in the study of language acquisition is: How do children analyze the complex, continuous string of sounds that comprise speech? This question encompasses i) How do they determine the relevant units for speech production/perception? (phones) and ii) How do they determine the relevant units for language production/comprehension in : a) phonemes, b) words (morphology and semantics), c) sentences (morphology, semantics and syntax) and d) discourse (morphology, semantics, syntax and pragmatics). The present project will address only the problem of the comprehension and production of words. In order to be able to understand and produce a word correctly a child must be exposed to  2  a production of that word from another speaker. This production of the word, from which the child will build a representation, will be embedded in several different but related contexts. First, the word will often be part of a continuous stream of sounds which somehow must be broken down perceptually into meaningful units. Children seem to do this based on which units they have heard before and paid attention to (Peters, 1983). Some children extract units the size of adult phrases which include several morphemes (e.g. 'What's that?'). Others extract small ones the size of adult words (e.g. 'doggie') but all normal children divide the speech stream into manageable 'chunks' which I will refer to as words. Second, the word is embedded in a phrase or clause, which in turn is a product of the syntactic system of the language. For adults there is no one-to-one correspondence between word form class (e.g. noun) and meaning (e.g. object). When simple morphological rules are applied, words can change syntactic form while retaining the essence of their meaning (e.g. 'burglar' vs. 'burglarized'). The language addressed to, and used by, young children is simpler than this. Syntax is apt to be a more reliable cue to meaning (e.g. 'the' is predictably followed by an object label). For a child learning language a partial understanding of syntax can give clues as to whether a word refers to the name of an object (noun), an attribute of objects (adjective) or an action objects perform (verb) ( Maratsos and Chalkley, 1980; Peters, 1983). In this way the child will be able to, consciously or unconsciously, decide things like: "That word ended in 'ing' so it must be an action", and thus be able to narrow down the possible field of meanings for the new word. Third, the word will be embedded in the structure of the discourse going on between the child and the conversational partner. While young children have difficulty producing the complex cohesive ties adults use to delineate old versus new information (Ruthven, 1989), they show an early ability to identify the topic of a conversation (Carroll, 1987) and to stick to that topic. Thus, the child will be able to predict what the speaker will mean next, irrespective of the form that meaning comes in  3 s i m p l y b y b e i n g familiar with the topic of c o n v e r s a t i o n . Finally, the first time a child h e a r s a n e w w o r d will b e a point in time w h e n the child is in a particular p l a c e , p a y i n g attention to certain activities or objects in the e n v i r o n m e n t .  This n o n -  linguistic context will a l s o provide c l u e s a s to w h a t the w o r d m e a n s a n d w h e n it s h o u l d be u s e d . T h e child m a y o v e r g e n e r a l i z e or u n d e r g e n e r a l i z e u s e of the w o r d on the b a s i s of a n a l y s i s of this context, but will h a v e a g e n e r a l s e n s e of w h a t ' s 'right'. T h u s , in order to u n d e r s t a n d a n e w w o r d the child must b e a b l e to r e c o g n i z e units of the l a n g u a g e , h a v e a g e n e r a l i d e a of w h i c h syntactic forms c o r r e s p o n d to w h i c h s e m a n t i c content in that l a n g u a g e , a n d d e r i v e c u e s from the d i s c o u r s e a n d n o n - l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e x t s a s to w h a t the w o r d m a y mean.  In order to p r o d u c e the w o r d in a n a d u l t - l i k e w a y the child m u s t h a v e d o n e the a b o v e to  s o m e extent a n d m u s t a l s o interpret the p r e s e n t linguistic a n d n o n - l i n g u i s t i c contexts a s s o m e h o w b e i n g similar to that in w h i c h s / h e first h e a r d the w o r d .  S / h e m u s t then b e a b l e to retrieve the  appropriate p h o n o l o g i c a l information from m e m o r y in order to p r o d u c e it.  1.2 F A S T M A P P I N G C h i l d r e n learn l a n g u a g e in a n a m a z i n g l y short p e r i o d of time s o it s h o u l d not b e surprising that they a r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y , v e r y g o o d at learning n e w w o r d s . T e m p l i n (cited in R i c e a n d W o o d s m a l l , 1988) reported that children b e t w e e n the a g e s of 1;6 a n d 6;0 learn a n a v e r a g e of nine n e w w o r d s per d a y . T h i s ability to q u i c k l y a c q u i r e information about a n e w w o r d from both the linguistic a n d the n o n - l i n g u i s t i c context is k n o w n a s "fast m a p p i n g " ( C a r e y , 1978). C a r e y a n d Bartlett (1978) h y p o t h e s i z e d that fast m a p p i n g is the first s t a g e in the acquisition of a n e w lexical item, the result of w h i c h is a partial representation in the child's m e m o r y of the w o r d ' s p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , its m e a n i n g , the linguistic a n d n o n - l i n g u i s t i c context in  w h i c h it  o c c u r r e d or a n y c o m b i n a t i o n of the a b o v e . T h e s e c o n d , " e x t e n d e d " , s t a g e of acquisition involves  4 the s l o w refinement of this fast m a p p e d representation into the adult form of the w o r d . T h i s s e c o n d s t a g e m a y take y e a r s to c o m p l e t e . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s p r o v i d e s o n e e x p l a n a t i o n for the o b s e r v a t i o n that s m a l l children m a y u s e the w o r d 'kitty' correctly to refer to their pet but a l s o incorrectly to refer to any s m a l l , furry a n i m a l .  Y e t there are no n o r m a l adults w h o call all s m a l l furry a n i m a l s 'kitty'.  Our  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the full m e a n i n g a n d connotation of a w o r d g r o w s with our e x p o s u r e to a n d interaction with l a n g u a g e . S t u d i e s into the first s t a g e of lexical a c q u i s i t i o n , the fast m a p p i n g s t a g e , h a v e t a k e n a variety of f o r m s . C a r e y a n d Bartlett (1978) e x p l o r e d 3 a n d 4 - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n ' s fast m a p p i n g of the new c o l o u r term chromium (olive) in a natural c l a s s r o o m situation. T h e children w e r e individually told " B r i n g m e the c h r o m i u m tray, not the blue o n e , the c h r o m i u m o n e " w h e n p r e s e n t e d with two trays differing only in colour. O n e w e e k later the children w e r e t e s t e d to s e e if they u n d e r s t o o d the w o r d , if they k n e w that it w a s a c o l o u r term a n d if they c o u l d p r o d u c e it. At least half of the children w e r e a b l e to d e m o n s t r a t e that they h a d l e a r n e d s o m e t h i n g about the w o r d after b e i n g e x p o s e d to it only o n c e , o n e w e e k previously. In a s t u d y of 35 2 through 5 - y e a r - o l d s D o l l a g h a n (1985) e x p o s e d children to a n o v e l , u n c l a s s i f i a b l e object c a l l e d a koob in the c o u r s e of a hiding g a m e with a puppet. After hiding s o m e familiar o b j e c t s e a c h child w a s a s k e d to hide the koob (the r e m a i n i n g object) in the r e m a i n i n g hiding p l a c e . T h e y w e r e then i m m e d i a t e l y tested to s e e if they u n d e r s t o o d the w o r d ("Give m e the koob"), c o u l d p r o d u c e it ("What's this?"), c o u l d r e c o g n i z e it if they couldn't p r o d u c e it ("Is this a k o o b , a s o o b or a teed?") a n d if they c o u l d r e m e m b e r s o m e n o n - l i n g u i s t i c information c o n c e r n i n g the object ( " W h e r e did y o u hide this?"). B y a g e 4 all the children in the study c o u l d perform the initial task without a s k i n g for clarification. A n a v e r a g e of 8 1 % of the children c o u l d perform the c o m p r e h e n s i o n task a n d 4 5 % c o u l d p r o d u c e two of the three p h o n e m e s in the w o r d (at this point they h a d h e a r d the w o r d twice). Of t h o s e w h o did not attempt to n a m e the object, 6 2 % c o u l d r e c o g n i z e the w o r d w h e n  5 they heard it again. Dollaghan interpreted these results to mean that phonetic information, as opposed to semantic or syntactic information, is the most vulnerable aspect of fast mapping, especially the retrieval of this phonetic information for spontaneous production of the new word. 1  While not designed to look for developmental differences in fast mapping, the response percentages at each age level revealed some interesting trends in performance across ages. General trends seem to be i) an increasing ability to perform the initial task with age, ii) a constant ability to comprehend the new word from ages 2-5 years and iii) an extremely variable ability to produce a new word ( 2 yrs.- 57%, 3 y r s - 0%, 4 y r s - 45%, 5 yrs - 71% ). Further research has substantiated the claim that children are able to remember a significant amount of information as long as one week after the initial exposure task. The ability to understand a new word in running speech seems constant from age 2 to 5, while the ability to produce a new word varies greatly. This variation in production ability is not, apparently, because of increasing age. Perhaps elements of personality, such as risk taking, and personal learning style are responsible for the different productive abilities at one age. The two studies mentioned above epitomize the simplest type of fast mapping task. Each child is expected to learn one new word either real or 'nonsense' ( and all unfamiliar words are, in a sense, initially nonsense ).  The word in question refers to either an object or a salient  characteristic of objects. The child manually experiences the object in question and there is little ambiguity as to which object/characteristic matches the new word.  Other researchers have  investigated the effect of a variety of factors on fast mapping ability by manipulating the basic task paradigm. Factors studied include the effect of i) form class types other than nouns and adjectives, ii) content class types other than object and characteristic, iii) multisyllabic vs monosyllabic targets, iv) degree of interaction with the object the word represents, v) multiple targets presented in multiple  It is unclear whether Dollaghan means phonetic or phonological information in this instance.  :  6 c o n t e x t s a n d vi) a g e differences a m o n g the s u b j e c t s . H e i b e c k a n d M a r k m a n (1987) i n v e s t i g a t e d fast m a p p i n g of unfamiliar w o r d s from the s e m a n t i c d o m a i n s of colour, s h a p e a n d texture in 2 to 4 - y e a r - o l d s u s i n g C a r e y a n d Bartlett's (1978) contrastive e x p o s u r e p r o c e d u r e ("Bring m e the X o n e , not the Y o n e , the X o n e " ) . After a 10 minute c o n v e r s a t i o n a l d e l a y the children w e r e a s k e d to d e s c r i b e the o n e target c o l o u r / s h a p e / t e x t u r e term they h a d b e e n e x p o s e d to from a n array of s e v e r a l familiar (objects a n d atributes they c o u l d n a m e ) a n d unfamiliar ( objects a n d attributes for w h i c h they h a d no n a m e s ) objects. T o further p r o b e the c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d o m a i n of the n e w w o r d , the children w e r e a s k e d h y p o n y m q u e s t i o n s of the t y p e : " S e e this b o x ? It's not fibrous [target] b e c a u s e it's  " . If the child r e s p o n d e d with  a texture term it w a s inferred that they k n e w "fibrous" to b e a texture term. Finally the children w e r e a s k e d to identify the target adjective from a n array of distractors, s h o w i n g that they u n d e r s t o o d the n e w w o r d (e.g. " C a n y o u s h o w m e the c h a r t r e u s e one?"). T h e results s h o w e d that fast m a p p i n g o c c u r r e d in all three d o m a i n s although l e s s information w a s retained for texture t e r m s than for colour, a n d l e s s for c o l o u r than for s h a p e . T h e r e w a s no significant a g e effect for the c o m p r e h e n s i o n task ( a v e r a g e s c o r e for all three a g e g r o u p s w a s 61%). T h e ability to perform the h y p o n y m t a s k did i n c r e a s e with a g e (2 y r s - 64%, 3 y r s . - 89%, 4 y r s . - 95%) but this w a s not true of the production task ( 2 yrs - 13%, 3 yrs - 2 2 % , 4 y r s . - 19%). A s u b s e q u e n t s t u d y p r e s e n t e d in the s a m e article f o u n d no significant difference in fast m a p p i n g b e t w e e n situations in w h i c h the target w o r d w a s p r e s e n t e d with explicit linguistic contrast a s in the first e x p e r i m e n t , a n d w h e n it w a s p r e s e n t e d with a n implicit linguistic contrast ( e . g . "Bring m e the X o n e , not the other o n e " ) . T h e y c o n c l u d e d from this t h a t " w h e n the context is c o m p e l l i n g , c h i l d r e n d o not s e e m to rely on or benefit from h e a r i n g a n e w w o r d c o n t r a s t e d with a familiar w o r d " ( H e i b e c k a n d M a r k m a n , 1987:1030) but are a b l e to rely o n the n o n - l i n g u i s t i c context. H e i b e c k a n d M a r k m a n cite a study in p r o g r e s s w h i c h s h o w s that children rely on n o n - l i n g u i s t i c information  more  7 than linguistic information a n d will interpret the m o s t u n u s u a l a n d salient s h a p e / c o l o u r / t e x t u r e p r e s e n t a s b e i n g the referent of the n e w w o r d ( H e i b e c k a n d M a r k m a n , 1987). H e i b e c k a n d M a r k m a n a l s o f o u n d s m a l l but significant correlations b e t w e e n prior v o c a b u l a r y within the s e m a n t i c d o m a i n s they s t u d i e d (i.e. colour, s h a p e or texture ) a n d fast m a p p i n g p e r f o r m a n c e with a n e w w o r d from that d o m a i n . C h i l d r e n k n e w m o r e s h a p e t e r m s than colour terms a n d m o r e c o l o u r t e r m s than texture terms. T h e y s u g g e s t that children m a y fast m a p better with w o r d s f r o m a particular d o m a i n either b e c a u s e the children h a v e l e a r n e d m o r e w o r d s in that d o m a i n or b e c a u s e they find the d o m a i n to be m o r e salient than others. T h e y point out, h o w e v e r , that t h e s e s m a l l correlations b e t w e e n v o c a b u l a r y a n d fast m a p p i n g c a n n o t a c c o u n t for the w h o l e effect of domain dominance.  C a t e g o r y l a b e l s h a v e b e e n f o u n d to h a v e s p e c i a l status for  children  ( M a c n a m a r a , 1982). It is p o s s i b l e that the s h a p e t e r m s m a y h a v e b e e n interpreted a s n o u n s rather than a d j e c t i v e s . S i n c e n o u n s s e e m e a s i e r for children to learn this c o u l d e x p l a i n the difference in s c o r e s b e t w e e n the s e m a n t i c t y p e s of w o r d s u s e d in this experiment.  In o r d e r to investigate this  possibility H e i b e c k a n d M a r k m a n c o m p a r e d the fast m a p p i n g p e r f o r m a n c e of children e x p o s e d to s e n t e n c e s like "Bring m e the h e x a g o n , not the triangle" a n d t h o s e e x p o s e d to "Bring m e the h e x a g o n a l o n e , not the triangular o n e " .  T h e r e w a s no significant difference in fast m a p p i n g  p e r f o r m a n c e b e t w e e n the two g r o u p s , s u g g e s t i n g that the difference in s c o r e s b e t w e e n the s h a p e a n d colour/texture g r o u p s w a s not m e r e l y the result of children interpreting s h a p e terms a s n o u n s . In  a  presentation  at  the  American S p e e c h - L a n g u a g e - H e a r i n g Association Annual  C o n v e n t i o n in 1987, A p e l a n d K a m h i d i s c u s s e d their e x p e r i m e n t s involving both n o r m a l a n d language impaired preschoolers.  O n e e x p e r i m e n t ( A p e l a n d K a m h i , 1987) w a s c o n d u c t e d to  d i s c o v e r the effect of multisyllabic w o r d s on fast m a p p i n g in l a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d children. T h e y found that there w a s no significant difference in c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d recognition s c o r e s b e t w e e n children e x p o s e d to m o n o s y l l a b i c w o r d s a n d children e x p o s e d to multisyllabic w o r d s . N o n e of the l a n g u a g e  8 i m p a i r e d children w e r e a b l e to p r o d u c e a n y of the w o r d s . T h e other e x p e r i m e n t , involving normal l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n , f o u n d a t e n d e n c y for production s c o r e s to be l o w e r after a half hour p a u s e than i m m e d i a t e l y after the e x p o s u r e task, e v e n though the c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s w e r e the s a m e in both c o n d i t i o n s . F o r both n o r m a l a n d l a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n , p h o n o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x i t y w a s not found to affect fast m a p p i n g significantly. R i c e a n d W o o d s m a l l (1988) e x p a n d e d the s c o p e of fast m a p p i n g s t u d i e s b y investigating fast m a p p i n g of object, a c t i o n , attribute a n d affective state w o r d s p r e s e n t e d to 3 a n d 5 - y e a r - o l d s in two 6 minute television p r o g r a m s . T h e children d i d not interact in a n y w a y with the p r o g r a m s . T h e w o r d s w e r e unfamiliar to p r e s c h o o l e r s (e.g. g r a m o p h o n e , m a l i c i o u s ) a n d e a c h story c o n t a i n e d 20 n e w w o r d s , e a c h a p p e a r i n g five times in a variety of c o n t e x t s . T h e y f o u n d that the 5 - y e a r - o l d s l e a r n e d m o r e than the 3 - y e a r - o l d s e v e n w h e n prior v o c a b u l a r y w a s taken into a c c o u n t . W o r d s w h i c h p r o v e d e a s y to r e m e m b e r a n d u s e w e r e t h o s e from the form c l a s s e s w h i c h o c c u r early in l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . W o r d t y p e s w h i c h are a c q u i r e d first in l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n , s u c h a s object, action a n d attribute w o r d s , w e r e fast m a p p e d relatively e a s i l y , while affective state w o r d s , w h i c h are a c q u i r e d later in l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , w e r e relatively difficult for all the children. In contrast to the previously m e n t i o n e d s t u d i e s R i c e a n d W o o d s m a l l p r e s e n t e d the w o r d s in a variety of s e m a n t i c , g r a m m a t i c a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t s , often with m o r e than o n e n e w w o r d in a s e n t e n c e .  With w o r d s  p r e s e n t e d in this variety of contexts the 5 - y e a r - o l d s u n d e r s t o o d a n a v e r a g e of 4.87 n e w w o r d s a n d the 3 - y e a r - o l d s 1.56 n e w w o r d s from w a t c h i n g 15 minutes of carefully e n g i n e e r e d television. N o p r o d u c t i o n d a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d s o w e c a n n o t k n o w w h e t h e r this trend of i n c r e a s i n g s c o r e s with a g e w o u l d h a v e o c c u r r e d in that t a s k a s well a s the c o m p r e h e n s i o n task. D i c k i n s o n (1984) c o m p a r e d the fast m a p p i n g of s c h o o l a g e children in three conditions. N o u n s a n d a d j e c t i v e s w e r e p r e s e n t e d in c o n v e r s a t i o n a l contrast a s in C a r e y a n d Bartlett (1978), in a story or a s a definition. In testing the children w e r e a s k e d to d e c i d e w h e t h e r e a c h of a list (including  9 the target) of familiar a n d n o n s e n s e w o r d s w e r e ' w o r d s ' . A l l of the c h i l d r e n , r e g a r d l e s s of condition, r e c o g n i s e d the target a s b e i n g a ' w o r d ' after only o n e e x p o s u r e . T h e n the children w e r e a s k e d to d e c i d e if s o m e s e n t e n c e s u s e d the ' w o r d s ' correctly.  In the first e x p e r i m e n t ( w h e n there w a s no  p a u s e b e t w e e n the e x p o s u r e a n d testing t a s k s ) only 2 5 % of first g r a d e r s w e r e a b l e to d o this correctly, c o m p a r e d to 7 8 % of sixth g r a d e r s . In the s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t ( w h e n there w a s a p a u s e of three to s e v e n d a y s b e t w e e n e x p o s u r e a n d testing), there w e r e no significant d i f f e r e n c e s within the a g e g r o u p s i n c l u d e d in p e r f o r m a n c e of this t a s k ( 4 - 5 yrs - 2 1 % , 6 - 7 y r s - 28 %, 8 - 9 yrs - 44%). T h e s e c o n d study d i d not include G r a d e 6 s t u d e n t s .  T h e only p r o d u c t i o n d a t a c o l l e c t e d w e r e t h e  c h i l d r e n ' s definitions of the target w o r d s in the story a n d definition c o n d i t i o n s . A c c e p t a b l e definitions w e r e s y n o n y m s a n d s e n t e n c e s correctly using the n e w w o r d . First g r a d e r s did e q u a l l y poorly at this 2  in both the story (0%) a n d definition c o n d i t i o n s (3%) conditions. Sixth g r a d e r s did m u c h better ( 6 0 % , 67%), p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e of their s u p e r i o r metalinguistic k n o w l e d g e . T h e r e w a s n o difference in p e r f o r m a n c e o n this production test b e t w e e n tests c o n d u c t e d i m m e d i a t e l y after e x p o s u r e a n d those c o n d u c t e d three to s e v e n d a y s afterwards.  T h e r e w a s a t e n d e n c y for n e w w o r d s referring to  p e r i p h e r a l , not e a s i l y c a t e g o r i z a b l e o b j e c t s / c o l o u r s to b e e a s i e r to r e m e m b e r . T h i s a p p e a r e d to b e b e c a u s e of a n o v e r a l l " r e s i s t a n c e to r e d u n d a n c y " ( D i c k i n s o n 1984:371) in t h e c o n c e p t u a l s y s t e m .  1.21 S u m m a r y T h u s , the d a t a o n the fast m a p p i n g p h e n o m e n o n to d a t e indicate that it o c c u r s in children a s y o u n g a s 2 y e a r s o l d a n d m a y b e r e s p o n s i b l e for the 'word burst' p h e n o m e n o n w h i c h allows children to learn a s m a n y a s nine n e w w o r d s a d a y b e t w e e n the a g e s of 1;6 a n d 6;0. Y o u n g children are a p p a r e n t l y a b l e to form partial r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s in m e m o r y of w o r d s p r e s e n t e d with or without explicit  No data is given concerning what percentage of the children correctly produced the word itself, or about the precise distribution of the conditions. 2  10 linguistic contrast a n d with or without interaction with objects . T h e y c a n m a p w o r d s from the linguistic d o m a i n s of real or n o n s e n s e object, action , affective state a n d attribute w o r d s . M o r e o v e r , they c a n k e e p a partial representation of t h e s e w o r d s in m e m o r y at least a s long a s a w e e k , s u g g e s t i n g that the w o r d s h a v e actually e n t e r e d the l e x i c o n a n d h a v e not merely b e e n m e m o r i z e d a s bits of information u n c o n n e c t e d to prior k n o w l e d g e . T h e r e s e e m s to b e no difference in 'fast m a p ability' of m o n o s y l l a b i c a n d multisyllabic w o r d s . A difference w a s f o u n d to exist in the a m o u n t of information retained b a s e d on the d o m a i n of n e w adjectives. T h i s effect m a y h a v e b e e n c a u s e d by the fact that the children s t u d i e d w e r e p r e d i s p o s e d to p a y attention to certain attributes of objects (e.g. s h a p e ) m o r e than others (e.g. texture) or b y the fact that the c h i l d r e n k n e w m o r e v o c a b u l a r y a b o u t the s h a p e d o m a i n than other d o m a i n s a n d t h u s w e r e a b l e to narrow d o w n the m e a n i n g of the n e w w o r d in this d o m a i n more efficiently than the others. T h e m o s t v u l n e r a b l e a s p e c t of the fast m a p p i n g p r o c e s s , r e g a r d l e s s of w o r d type, a p p e a r s to b e the retrieval of p h o n o l o g i c a l information for s p o n t a n e o u s production of the n e w w o r d . C h i l d r e n i n c o r p o r a t e n o n - l i n g u i s t i c information with linguistic information to form h y p o t h e s e s about the m e a n i n g of the u n k n o w n w o r d a n d m a y in fact rely more heavily o n n o n - l i n g u i s t i c information to form t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s . T h e y o v e r w h e l m i n g l y a s s o c i a t e the n e w w o r d with a n object/attribute they h a v e no n a m e for t h e m s e l v e s . In H e i b e c k a n d M a r k m a n ' s 1987 study only 2 of 150 s u b j e c t s b e h a v e d a s if the n e w w o r d referred to the familiar object for w h i c h they a l r e a d y h a d a n a m e . In order to b e a b l e to fast m a p , o n e must h a v e s o m e k n o w l e d g e of the s y n t a x of the l a n g u a g e , e v e n if it is a s rudimentary a s w o r d order, from w h i c h to postulate the g r a m m m a t i c a l c l a s s of the w o r d u s e d . T h e t e n d e n c y to a s s u m e that a n e w w o r d refers to s o m e n e w a s p e c t of a n object a s w e l l a s to a s s u m e that t e r m s are mutually e x c l u s i v e h a s b e e n n o t e d in s e v e r a l fast m a p p i n g s t u d i e s ( D i c k i n s o n , 1984; H e i b e c k a n d M a r k m a n , 1987). T h i s principle is a l s o the b a s i s of recent t h e o r i e s of lexical a c q u i s i t i o n s u c h a s those p r o p o s e d b y Barrett ( 1978) a n d C l a r k (1983).  Fast  11 m a p p i n g s e e m s to entail s o m e set of cognitive a n d l a n g u a g e m e c h a n i s m s w h i c h c a n be a p p l i e d to linguistic p r o b l e m s . A s the child g r o w s older a n d m a t u r e s the c o m p o n e n t p r o c e s s e s p r e s u m a b l y a l s o m a t u r e , allowing the child to s o l v e i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x linguistic p r o b l e m s . T h u s children are a b l e to fast m a p in v a r i o u s s e m a n t i c a n d syntactic d o m a i n s ( H e i b e c k a n d M a r k m a n , 1987; R i c e a n d W o o d s m a l l , 1988), in v a r i o u s contexts ( R i c e a n d W o o d s m a l l , 1988; D i c k i n s o n , 1984) a n d more than o n e w o r d at o n c e ( R i c e a n d W o o d s m a l l , 1988). A s c a n be s e e n from T a b l e I, in spite of s e v e r a l recent s t u d i e s the picture of fast m a p p i n g abilities is c l o u d y . C l e a r differences in fast m a p p i n g ability with a g e c a n n o t be s e e n , p e r h a p s a s a result of s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e s in e a c h a g e g r o u p in s o m e s t u d i e s . H o w e v e r , there d o s e e m to be s o m e p r o c e d u r e related d i f f e r e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y evident in the 3 - y e a r - o l d ' s d a t a . It is difficult though to be.  T a b l e I. P e r c e n t a g e correct in v a r i o u s fast m a p p i n g s t u d i e s .  Age  2 yrs  3 yrs  4 yrs  5 yrs  Study  Comp  Prod  Comp  Prod  Comp  Prod  Comp  Prod  D o l l a g h a n (1985)  71%  57%  83%  0%  91%  45%  71%  71%  [objects]  (10 subjects)  (7 subjects)  (11 s u b j e c t s )  Heibeck and Markman  61%  61%  61%  [attributes] (1987)  (27 subjects)  13%  22%  (30 subjects)  (7 subjects)  19%  (26 subjects)  R i c e a n d W o o d s m a l l (1988)  44% object  7 0 % object  [objects a n d attributes  5 0 % attribute  6 2 % attribute  in c o m p l e x context]  (27 subjects)  (34 subjects)  12  s u r e that d i f f e r e n c e s in p e r f o r m a n c e a c r o s s s t u d i e s are c a u s e d by d i f f e r e n c e s in p r o c e d u r e s a n d not d i f f e r e n c e s in s a m p l e s i z e a n d s e l e c t i o n .  1.3 F A S T M A P P I N G A N D L A N G U A G E A C Q U I S I T I O N F a s t m a p p i n g w o u l d s e e m to be s o m e set of q u i c k p r o b l e m s o l v i n g m e c h a n i s m s w h i c h yield information n e c e s s a r y for the e l e m e n t a r y c o m p r e h e n s i o n  a n d p r o d u c t i o n of w o r d s .  S t u d i e s of  children with a s p e c i f i c l a n g u a g e impairment s u g g e s t that s u c c e s s in performing fast m a p p i n g t a s k s m a y b e related to s u c c e s s in overall l a n g u a g e learning. T h e s e s t u d i e s h a v e s h o w n that children with a s p e c i f i c l a n g u a g e impairment perform significantly w o r s e on fast m a p p i n g t a s k s than d o a g e - or M L U - m a t c h e d n o r m a l l a n g u a g e p e e r s ( D o l l a g h a n , 1987; R i c e , B u h r a n d N e m e t h , 1989; A p e l a n d K a m h i , 1987). L a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d children require significantly m o r e e x p o s u r e s to a w o r d than a n o r m a l child before they c a n p r o d u c e it, a n d e v e n then they h a v e difficulty retrieving the w o r d after a half hour p a u s e ( A p e l a n d K a m h i , 1987). T h i s correlation c a n n o t p r o v e that p o o r fast m a p p i n g skills c a u s e l a n g u a g e d e l a y s . It m a y be that s o m e underlying deficit c a u s e s both the g e n e r a l l a n g u a g e i m p a i r m e n t a n d the l a c k of fast m a p p i n g skills. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s t u d i e s of l a n g u a g e impaired children support the v i e w that the fast m a p p i n g p a r a d i g m m e a s u r e s s o m e set of skills, either directly or indirectly, that is important in natural l a n g u a g e learning. T h e s t u d y of fast m a p p p i n g thus o p e n s up a n e w w a y of studying l a n g u a g e learning capabilities a n d p e r h a p s e v e n the m e c h a n i s m s of learning t h e m s e l v e s .  1.31 S e c o n d L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g A n a s p e c t of l a n g u a g e learning that fast m a p p i n g c o u l d potentially enlighten is that of s e c o n d l a n g u a g e acquisition in children w h o h a v e a l r e a d y attained a firm g r a s p of their first l a n g u a g e before  13 b e i n g e x p o s e d to their s e c o n d .  T h e r e are s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n the a c q u i s i t i o n of a first  l a n g u a g e ( L l ) a n d a s u b s e q u e n t s e c o n d l a n g u a g e (L2).  First, L2 l e a r n e r s  already  h a v e one  l a n g u a g e s y s t e m in p l a c e . A s a result of this they are implicitly familiar with the notion of s o u n d s r e p r e s e n t i n g objects a n d i d e a s . T h e y a l r e a d y k n o w w h a t a w o r d is a n d that w o r d s c a n be c o m b i n e d to form s e n t e n c e s . T h e y a l r e a d y h a v e w o r d s for the most c o m m o n objects a n d i d e a s in their lives a n d m a y be resistant to learning n e w w o r d s for the ' s a m e thing'. In m a n y c a s e s the L2 learner d o e s not h a v e to s p e a k L2 in order to be u n d e r s t o o d a n d c a n fall b a c k on L l w h e n n e c e s s a r y . T h i s may b e e s p e c i a l l y p r e v a l e n t in the c a s e of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g North A m e r i c a n s w h o are explicitly taught a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e in a n unnatural c l a s s r o o m context.  L2 is not n e c e s s a r y for c o m m u n i c a t i o n in  such circumstances. S e c o n d , L2 l e a r n e r s are not u n d e r g o i n g the rapid a n d c o m p l e m e n t a r y cognitive  and  n e u r o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t that L l l e a r n e r s d o in the first three y e a r s of life. O p i n i o n s v a r y c o n c e r n i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t of the auditory s y s t e m in infants, but there is a possibility that children y o u n g e r than 2 y e a r s of a g e h a v e a n auditory s y s t e m that is still maturing. T h u s the quality of the a c o u s t i c information r e a c h i n g a n L l learner early in her/his l a n g u a g e e x p e r i e n c e m a y b e quite different from that of a n L2 learner with a mature a n d s t a b l e auditory s y s t e m .  Infant L l l e a r n e r s are a l s o  d e v e l o p i n g s u c h cognitive notions a s object p e r m a n e n c e while they are learning their l a n g u a g e . T h e s e c o n c e p t s are a l r e a d y in p l a c e for the L2 learner. T h i r d , L2 l e a r n e r s , no matter h o w y o u n g , h a v e c o n c e p t s a b o u t the culture involved with L2 a n d c a n s e e the r e a c t i o n s of r e l a t i v e s / p e e r s to that culture w h e n they s p e a k the l a n g u a g e . If t h e s e r e a c t i o n s are negative they c a n l e a d to a situation w h e r e the L2 learner d o e s not w a n t to learn the l a n g u a g e s i n c e s / h e will then be p e r c e i v e d a s ' s n o b b i s h a n d s i s s y ' or 'lower c l a s s a n d vulgar'. Is it realistic, g i v e n t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n first a n d s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n , to e x p e c t fast m a p p i n g to play a role in the acquisition of a  second  l a n g u a g e ? I think that it is.  14 T h e first difference m e n t i o n e d w a s that L2 l e a r n e r s a l r e a d y h a v e a l a n g u a g e in p l a c e . G i v e n that it is p o s s i b l e to a c q u i r e a n L2, the fact that the s p e a k e r k n o w s L I a l r e a d y d o e s n ' t tell u s m u c h a b o u t h o w L2 is l e a r n e d . L2 l e a r n e r s h a v e h a d p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e extracting m e a n i n g from the n o n - l i n g u i s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t a n d the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l context.  T h e y h a v e a l r e a d y g o n e through the  p r o c e s s of extracting a n d s e g m e n t i n g strings of s o u n d s into m e a n i n g f u l units in o n e l a n g u a g e . P e r h a p s they d e v e l o p m o r e mature lexical learning strategies for s e c o n d l a n g u a g e learning, but the p h o n o l o g i c a l a n d m o r p h o l o g i c a l s y s t e m of the n e w l a n g u a g e still must b e l e a r n e d . T h e p r o c e s s of learning a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e h a s b e e n the subject of m u c h d e b a t e but it s e e m s intuitively c l e a r that 3  the ability to q u i c k l y m a p information about the m e a n i n g , u s e a n d form of n e w w o r d s into m e m o r y w o u l d b e a s u s e f u l in s e c o n d l a n g u a g e learning a s in first l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . T h e s e c o n d difference b e t w e e n y o u n g L I l e a r n e r s a n d slightly older L2 l e a r n e r s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e w a s the incredible a m o u n t a n d rate of cognitive a n d n e u r o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t occurring while children learn their first l a n g u a g e but not while learning their s e c o n d . T h u s L2 l e a r n e r s h a v e better c o n c e p t u a l a n d p e r c e p t u a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to t h e m than L I learners.  If w e a s s u m e that fast  m a p p i n g d o e s n ' t o c c u r in L I l e a r n e r s u n d e r 2 y e a r s of a g e b e c a u s e of this l a c k of r e s o u r c e s , then w e c o u l d postulate that fast m a p p i n g m a y actually p l a y a bigger role in L2 learning than L I s i n c e it w o u l d b e g i n earlier in children's L2 e x p e r i e n c e than in their L I e x p e r i e n c e . A n o t h e r difference b e t w e e n the two t y p e s of l a n g u a g e learning is the p o s s i b l e effect of the attitudes of relatives, p e e r s a n d the child her/himself with r e s p e c t to the culture a s s o c i a t e d with the s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a n d that a s s o c i a t e d with the first l a n g u a g e . If the L2 culture is negatively v a l u e d , or v a l u e d l e s s than L I culture, the child m a y n e v e r a c h i e v e f l u e n c y a n d / o r a l w a y s retain a 'foreign' a c c e n t r e g a r d l e s s of her/his true ability to learn. T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y true in the c a s e of minority groups ' s u b m e r g e d ' in a larger l a n g u a g e group.  3  T h e s e minority g r o u p s tend to retain a distinctive  For a discussion of theories of second language acquisition see Brown, 1987.  15 a c c e n t / g r a m m a r in their L 2 , not n e c e s s a r i l y in rejection of the L 2 culture, but to k e e p their o w n identity a s a g r o u p of L l s p e a k e r s ( W a r d h a u g h , 1986). T h i s difference b e t w e e n L l a n d L 2 learning e s s e n t i a l l y a m o u n t s to a c o n s c i o u s ( or u n c o n s c i o u s ) d e c i s i o n to u s e o r not u s e their full range of l a n g u a g e learning skills w h i c h m a y include fast m a p p i n g . H o w e v e r , if the child d o e s d e c i d e to learn the L 2 , it w o u l d s e e m r e a s o n a b l e to s u p p o s e that fast m a p p i n g w o u l d play a part in this learning.  1.32 S e c o n d L a n g u a g e Instruction A fourth a n d frequently m e n t i o n e d difference b e t w e e n L l a n d L 2 learning is that L 2 is often taught explicitly i n s t e a d of l e a r n e d implicitly.  But this is not a l w a y s the c a s e . F r e n c h Immersion is  a foreign l a n g u a g e learning situation in w h i c h the E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g majority culture students are taught the s c h o o l curriculum in F r e n c h . F r e n c h Immersion is a C a n a d i a n invention w h i c h started a l m o s t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y in T o r o n t o a n d M o n t r e a l in 1965. S i n c e the publication of n u m e r o u s studies of the pilot c l a s s e s s h o w i n g no negative long term a c a d e m i c effects o n the s t u d e n t s a s a result of t e a c h i n g in a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ( L a m b e r t a n d T u c k e r , 1972; S w a i n , 1972), F r e n c h Immersion h a s rapidly b e c o m e a high prestige form of e d u c a t i o n in C a n a d a a s s o c i a t e d with high i n c o m e , w e l l e d u c a t e d families. In this s y s t e m of instruction the t e a c h e r is fluent in the first l a n g u a g e a n d culture of the children a n d t h e s e things are n e v e r d e n i g r a t e d . Indeed the w o r t h i n e s s of L l is d e m o n s t r a t e d b y the fact that, b y G r a d e 6, 5 0 % of the curriculum is taught in E n g l i s h , not F r e n c h . In this F r e n c h s p e a k i n g situation a n y c o m m u n i c a t i o n in F r e n c h is a p p l a u d e d a n d e n c o u r a g e d , e v e n if not 'correct'. T h e t e a c h e r m o d i f i e s her/his output to the s t u d e n t s , m a k i n g it c o m p r e h e n s i b l e by s p e a k i n g slowly with h e a v y intonation, lots of repetition a n d paralinguistic c u e s ( C u m m i n s , 1984) . 4  In the traditional s e c o n d l a n g u a g e c l a s s r o o m , with its lists of v o c a b u l a r y to b e m e m o r i z e d ,  This is completely unlike the 'submersion' experience of a child whose L l is unknown to the teacher, blamed for his/her academic problems and not recognized as valuable. 4  16 p r o n u n c i a t i o n drills a n d explicit e x p l a n a t i o n s of g r a m m a t i c a l rules, it is c o n c e i v a b l e that fast m a p p i n g w o u l d h a v e a negligible role in L2 learning. In s u c h a situation e x p e r i m e n t i n g with the l a n g u a g e is not a priority; everything is taught, not ' d i s c o v e r e d ' . In the F r e n c h Immersion setting, h o w e v e r , children are e n c o u r a g e d to e x p e r i m e n t with F r e n c h , to g u e s s w h a t things m e a n a n d h o w best to express themselves.  In s u c h a c o m m u n i c a t i v e learning e n v i r o n m e n t the ability to perform fast  m a p p i n g t a s k s w o u l d p r o b a b l y h e l p the L 2 l e a r n e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y .  1.33 S u m m a r y In a n y s e c o n d l a n g u a g e learning situation (i.e. l a n g u a g e learning after the first l a n g u a g e is functional) the L 2 m u s t b e  teamedsomehow.  T h e children are cognitively a n d n e u r o l o g i c a l l y more  mature than w h e n they l e a r n e d their first l a n g u a g e , but w h a t m u s t b e l e a r n e d in order to k n o w a l a n g u a g e h a s not c h a n g e d . If this L 2 learning w e r e to t a k e p l a c e in a naturalistic setting s u c h a s F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n , it s e e m s realistic to e x p e c t s o m e sort of fast m a p p i n g to take p l a c e a s well. C h i l d r e n i m p a i r e d in their first l a n g u a g e are significantly p o o r e r at p r o d u c i n g ( D o l l a g h a n , 1987) a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( R i c e , B u h r a n d N e m e t h , 1989) n e w w o r d s p r e s e n t e d only a few times than are their a g e - a n d M L U - m a t c h e d p e e r s . G i v e n this correlation b e t w e e n first l a n g u a g e acquisition s u c c e s s a n d fast m a p p i n g , a n d the fact that fast m a p p i n g c o u l d b e i n v o l v e d in the learning of any l a n g u a g e , it s e e m s logical to investigate a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n s e c o n c f l a n g u a g e acquisition s u c c e s s a n d fast m a p p i n g .  1.4 S U C C E S S IN F R E N C H  IMMERSION  R e g a r d l e s s of the naturalistic e x p o s u r e to F r e n c h a n d high prestige of F r e n c h Immersion s o m e children d o not d o well in this p r o g r a m . T h i s c a u s e s a great d e a l of e x p e n s e a n d c o n f u s i o n to all c o n c e r n e d s i n c e a large a m o u n t of time is i n v e s t e d in e d u c a t i n g a child in F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n , time  17 s p e n t b y the child, t e a c h e r s a n d parents.  If it is eventually d e e m e d b e s t for s o m e children to  d i s c o n t i n u e the F r e n c h p r o g r a m a n d enter the E n g l i s h p r o g r a m b e f o r e G r a d e 3 (which is w h e n E n g l i s h literacy training b e g i n s in F r e n c h Immersion), then t h e s e children m a y p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s a s failures in F r e n c h a n d will find t h e m s e l v e s a s m u c h a s two y e a r s b e h i n d in E n g l i s h , simply b e c a u s e they h a v e n e v e r b e e n taught E n g l i s h literacy skills. In a n effort to a v o i d s u c h difficulties, m a n y investigators h a v e tried to find predictors for s u c c e s s in F r e n c h Immersion that c o u l d b e u s e d to s c r e e n out children at risk for p r o b l e m s from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of the p r o g r a m .  S u c h efforts h a v e met with limited s u c c e s s , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e of  s o m e c o n f u s i o n a s to w h a t constitutes ' s u c c e s s ' in F r e n c h Immersion a n d a l s o c o n f u s i o n about the .goal of this prediction. Intuitively, s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s in F r e n c h Immersion w o u l d s e e m to be a c l a s s of children w h o d o a s w e l l a c a d e m i c a l l y in F r e n c h a s they w o u l d h a v e in E n g l i s h , a n d w h o a l s o h a v e b e c o m e fluent in F r e n c h . ' F a i l u r e ' w o u l d then o c c u r if a student failed to b e c o m e fluent in F r e n c h or p e r f o r m e d w o r s e in c l a s s e s taught in F r e n c h than in t h o s e taught in E n g l i s h . But this is not the definition of s u c c e s s u s e d by r e s e a r c h e r s , or by. the s c h o o l s or the p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d .  F r e n c h Immersion is  e x p e c t e d to create s t u d e n t s w h o are literate in F r e n c h a n d w h o u n d e r s t a n d s p o k e n F r e n c h , but not necessarily people who can  speak F r e n c h . I n d e e d , a report o n o n e of the earliest s y m p o s i u m s on  bilingual e d u c a t i o n in C a n a d a stated that F r e n c h Immersion w a s not i n t e n d e d to create fluency, but that after a p p r o x i m a t e l y three m o n t h s in a F r e n c h e n v i r o n m e n t , g r a d u a t e s of F r e n c h Immersion p r o g r a m s s h o u l d be " r e a s o n a b l y fluent" ( S w a i n , 1972:77).  F r e n c h Immersion h a s a l s o b e c o m e  s o m e w h a t elitist, l e a d i n g to c l a s s e s w h e r e the a v e r a g e IQ a n d a c h i e v e m e n t level is s o high that a child performing at a n a g e - a p p r o p r i a t e a c a d e m i c level m a y be at the bottom of the c l a s s a n d p e r c e i v e d a s a 'failure' ( C u m m i n s , 1984). Further c o n f u s i o n h a s resulted from failure to distinguish b e t w e e n criteria w h i c h c a n be u s e d  18 to predict g e n e r a l a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s (including that involved in F r e n c h Immersion) a n d criteria w h i c h c a n b e u s e d to predict w h i c h children w o u l d actually be h a n d i c a p p e d a c a d e m i c a l l y b y instruction in F r e n c h a s o p p o s e d to E n g l i s h .  1.41 P r e d i c t o r s of S u c c e s s in F r e n c h Immersion It is a p p a r e n t then that ' s u c c e s s in F r e n c h Immersion' is not n e c e s s a r i l y the s a m e a s ' s u c c e s s in learning F r e n c h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ' a n d that a predictor of s u c c e s s a s portrayed in the literature d o e s not n e c e s s a r i l y differentiate b e t w e e n children w h o w o u l d d o poorly in a n y program a n d t h o s e w h o w o u l d only d o poorly in F r e n c h . T h e results of s t u d i e s s e a r c h i n g for predictors of ' s u c c e s s ' reflect t h e s e disparities. Trites (1976) d e v e l o p e d a T a c t u a l P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t requiring children to p l a c e v a r i o u s s i z e s a n d s h a p e s of b l o c k s into a form b o a r d with either h a n d while blindfolded. H e f o u n d that children h a v i n g difficulty in F r e n c h Immersion, or w h o h a d actually d r o p p e d out into the E n g l i s h p r o g r a m , w e r e significantly p o o r e r at the T P T than t h o s e children still in F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n . difficulty on  Performance  the T P T w a s p o s t u l a t e d to b e the result of a maturational lag in the t e m p o r a l lobe  r e g i o n s of the b r a i n , r e g i o n s w h i c h are well k n o w n c e n t r e s of l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . Trites c l a i m e d that children with difficulty in F r e n c h Immersion are a g r o u p distinct from a n y other child d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i s o r d e r a n d that t h e s e children w o u l d do-better in their native l a n g u a g e than in F r e n c h (Trites a n d P r i c e , 1979). Trites did not provide a n y e v i d e n c e from C T - s c a n s for his c l a i m , nor s p e c i f y w h i c h h e m i s p h e r e this lag o c c u r s in. A n e x a m i n a t i o n of Trites' d a t a by C u m m i n s (1984) s h o w e d that the children w h o d r o p p e d out of F r e n c h Immersion into E n g l i s h did not i m p r o v e their a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t to e x p e c t e d levels for their a g e w h e n taught in their o w n l a n g u a g e , s u g g e s t i n g that w h a t e v e r deficit the T P T w a s picking up w a s not specifically c a u s e d or e x a c e r b a t e d by instruction in F r e n c h . T h u s , while the T P T m a y h a v e p r e d i c t e d failure in F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n , the failure d o e s not  19 s e e m to b e s p e c i f i c to L 2 instruction. If a n y t h i n g , the T P T s e e m s to identify children w h o are poor c l a s s r o o m a c h i e v e r s r e g a r d l e s s of l a n g u a g e of instruction. R e s e a r c h e r s h a v e a l s o s t u d i e d the personality traits of children in F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n . S w a i n a n d B u r n a b y (1976) a s k e d t e a c h e r s to subjectively rate their s t u d e n t s o n a variety of personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (e.g. clinging to o n e ' s o w n o p i n i o n , i n d e p e n d e n c e ) . T h e y f o u n d that " q u i c k n e s s at g r a s p i n g n e w c o n c e p t s " correlated positively with s e v e r a l objective m e a s u r e s of F r e n c h ability, while " p e r f e c t i o n i s m " c o r r e l a t e d negatively with pronunciation ( S w a i n a n d B u r n a b y , 1976). T h i s type of prediction is of limited u s e f u l n e s s a s little is k n o w n about h o w p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p s o v e r time.  A  child w h o is " i n d e p e n d e n t " in K i n d e r g a r t e n m a y b e c o m e " a n x i o u s " b y G r a d e 3. A l s o , the t e a c h e r s ' s u b j e c t i v e ratings m a y b e unintentionally b i a s e d by w h e t h e r or not they like the child. IQ h a s b e e n f o u n d to be a g o o d predictor of a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e in F r e n c h Immersion a n d of acquisition of literacy skills in F r e n c h ( G e n e s e e , 1976). T h i s is not surprising s i n c e the prediction of a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s in g e n e r a l is e s s e n t i a l l y the p u r p o s e of IQ s c o r e s . But IQ d o e s not predict c o n v e r s a t i o n a l , oral F r e n c h skills ( C u m m i n s , 1984) s o it c a n n o t be s a i d to be a predictor of s u c c e s s in F r e n c h Immersion a s a w h o l e , merely o n e a s p e c t of it. M o r o v e r , in a critical review of "existing r e s e a r c h related to the suitability of F r e n c h Immersion for d i s a d v a n t a g e d a n d minority group c h i l d r e n " G e n e s e e (1976) s u g g e s t s that a child's motivation to learn the l a n g u a g e a n d attitude toward the culture i n v o l v e d with the l a n g u a g e interacts with her/his IQ to g i v e a g o o d predictor of ' s u c c e s s ' in F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n .  T h u s children with high motivation a n d low IQ's might well b e suitable for  F r e n c h Immersion p r o g r a m s . A n o t h e r predictor of s u c c e s s in F r e n c h Immersion that h a s b e e n investigated is a previously d i a g n o s e d l a n g u a g e d i s o r d e r . B r u c k (1978,1982), G e n e s e e (1976) a n d C u m m i n s (1984) are of the o p i n i o n , b a s e d on solid w e l l - r e p l i c a t e d r e s e a r c h , that l a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d children d o no w o r s e in F r e n c h Immersion than they d o in m a i n s t r e a m E n g l i s h c l a s s e s . B e i n g taught in a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e  20 d o e s not s e e m to e x a c e r b a t e their p r o b l e m or retard their a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t a n d actually may raise their self e s t e e m (Bruck, 1978). F r o m o n e p e r s p e c t i v e t h e n , it c o u l d b e a r g u e d that l a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d children w o u l d benefit f r o m inclusion in F r e n c h Immersion p r o g r a m s s i n c e they c o u l d gain s o m e c o m p e t e n c e in a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e in t h e s e p r o g r a m s . O p p o n e n t s of this v i e w might argue that, while F r e n c h Immersion d o e s n ' t d i m i n i s h the a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e of l a n g u a g e impaired c h i l d r e n , the fact r e m a i n s that l a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d children d o poorly in s c h o o l , no matter what l a n g u a g e they are taught in.  F r o m this p e r s p e c t i v e l a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d children s e e m unable to  s u c c e e d in F r e n c h Immersion p r o g r a m s , a s ' s u c c e s s ' is now c o n c e i v e d . Indeed it h a s b e e n f o u n d that there is a significant positive correlation b e t w e e n E n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h literacy skills in all children in F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n , s u g g e s t i n g that there is s o m e underlying ' g e n e r a l ability' - or disability - in L a n g u a g e that will manifest itself r e g a r d l e s s of the specific l a n g u a g e the s p e a k e r is u s i n g ( C u m m i n s , 1984). L a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d children w o u l d represent the far e n d of this ability c o n t i n u u m . M o v i n g i n w a r d s towards the m e a n , there m a y a l s o be a g r o u p of children w h o s e g e n e r a l l a n g u a g e ability is a d e q u a t e for a c a d e m i c a c h e i v e m e n t in L l but insufficient to h a n d l e c l a s s r o o m instruction in L2. W h e t h e r s u c h a g r o u p of children exists is u n k n o w n s i n c e there h a s b e e n surprisingly little r e s e a r c h d o n e to investigate this q u e s t i o n in the F r e n c h Immersion setting. M o s t of the existing literature in F r e n c h Immersion a s k s w h e t h e r the p r o g r a m h a s affected the c h i l d r e n ' s a c a d e m i c skills a n d / o r personality, not v i c e v e r s a .  T h e a b o v e review represents  virtually all the s t u d i e s that h a v e tried to d i s c o v e r w h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the child brings to the F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n e x p e r i e n c e that m a y affect her/his p e r f o r m a n c e therein?  1.42 S u m m a r y F r e n c h Immersion is a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e learning situation in a s c h o o l context but the l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g is implicit, m u c h like the situation for natural l a n g u a g e learning.  ' S u c c e s s in  21 F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n ' h a s c o m e to incorporate a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s a s w e l l a s s u c c e s s in learning F r e n c h . T h i s h a s m a d e the s e a r c h for predictors of s u c c e s s in F r e n c h Immersion c o n f u s i n g , s i n c e a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s is not a prerequisite to learning a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ( C u m m i n s , 1984; G e n e s e e , 1976); but not u n d e r s t a n d i n g the subject matter, b e c a u s e it is p r e s e n t e d in F r e n c h (the s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ) , c a n limit a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s . IQ h a s p r o v e n to b e a g o o d predictor of the literate a n d a c a d e m i c portion of F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n ( C u m m i n s , 1984). A previously d i a g n o s e d l a n g u a g e d i s o r d e r in the first l a n g u a g e s e e m s to a l s o impair the learning of a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e (Bruck, 1978; G e n e s e e , 1976; C u m m i n s , 1984). Interacting with both of t h e s e a r e a s of g e n e r a l cognitive ability a n d l a n g u a g e proficiency are p e r s o n a l i t y a n d cultural factors w h i c h v a r y widely from child to child.  1.5 T H I S S T U D Y A s a result of the high price p a i d in time, a c a d e m i c p r o g r e s s a n d attitudes t o w a r d s c h o o l by s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s a n d e d u c a t o r s in e d u c a t i n g a child in F r e n c h Immersion only to find that s / h e w o u l d b e better off in a n E n g l i s h c l a s s r o o m , a predictor is n e e d e d to d e c i d e early in a child's life w h e t h e r or not s / h e is a g o o d c a n d i d a t e for F r e n c h Immersion. A ' g o o d c a n d i d a t e ' w o u l d b e s o m e o n e w h o w o u l d b e a b l e to learn F r e n c h a n d , a s a corollary, not be h a n d i c a p p e d a c a d e m i c a l l y by being instructed in F r e n c h . T h e p r e s e n t study is a n e x a m i n a t i o n of the L 2 learning a s p e c t of F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n . In particular this p a p e r will e x p l o r e the possibility that fast m a p p i n g m a y be a predictor of s u c c e s s in acquiring a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . T h e fast m a p p i n g skills of a g r o u p of children in a P r i m a r y F r e n c h Immerison P r o g r a m w e r e t e s t e d a n d then a n a l y s e d to s e e if there w a s a n y relationship b e t w e e n fast m a p p i n g skills a n d 1) F r e n c h r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , 2) F r e n c h oral c o m p r e h e n s i o n , 3) F r e n c h oral e x p r e s s i o n , 4) t e a c h e r ratings of overall a c a d e m i c ability a n d 5) w h e t h e r or not the child w a s still e n r o l l e d in the Primary  22  French Immersion program. It was expected that the "underlying general [language] ability" mentioned by Bruck (1978) would be captured by the three measures of French ability and that these in turn would correlate with fast mapping skill. If a child has specific problems with the literacy aspect of language, then the two oral measures would be expected to correlate with fast mapping while the reading measure would not. If those children who are now in English programs after 'failing' in French Immersion have significantly lower fast mapping scores than those children still in the program, this would imply that fast mapping is a predictor of French Immersion success and taps into whatever faculties school administrators base such decisions on.  23 CHAPTER 2 METHOD 2.1 O V E R V I E W S t u d e n t s p r e s e n t l y a n d formerly e n r o l l e d in an E a r l y F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n p r o g r a m at a n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l in British C o l u m b i a w e r e tested o n their fast m a p p i n g skills using a p r o c e d u r e m o d i f i e d from D o l l a g h a n (1985). T h e children w e r e e x p o s e d to a n unfamiliar object, for w h i c h they d i d not yet h a v e a n a m e from the electrical s u p p l i e s d e p a r t m e n t of a h a r d w a r e store. In the c o u r s e of a hiding g a m e the  n o n s e n s e n a m e of this object w a s m e n t i o n e d .  After  the  French  C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d a s a distractor the children w e r e t e s t e d to s e e w h e t h e r they k n e w w h a t the w o r d referred to a n d if they c o u l d p r o d u c e the w o r d . T h e results of the fast m a p p i n g test w e r e c o m p a r e d to the c h i l d r e n ' s results o n : i) the T o u r o n d tests d i a q n o s t i q u e s d e lecture, a s t a n d a r d i z e d F r e n c h reading test w h i c h is u s e d in part to m e a s u r e their s u c c e s s in F r e n c h , ii) t e a c h e r ratings of overall a c a d e m i c ability, iii) t e a c h e r ratings of oral F r e n c h ability a n d iv) T h e F r e n c h C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t , a n oral F r e n c h c o m p r e h e n s i o n test.  2.2 S U B J E C T S S u b j e c t s w e r e G r a d e 2 a n d 3 s t u d e n t s with a w i d e r a n g e of F r e n c h skills. E i g h t e e n students w e r e in G r a d e 2 F r e n c h Immersion a n d h a d b e e n e x p o s e d to F r e n c h s i n c e K i n d e r g a r t e n (3 years). S e v e n t e e n s t u d e n t s w e r e in G r a d e 3 F r e n c h Immersion a n d h a d b e e n e x p o s e d to 4 y e a r s of F r e n c h . F i v e s t u d e n t s w e r e former F r e n c h Immersion students w h o h a d s w i t c h e d to a m a i n s t r e a m E n g l i s h p r o g r a m a n d w e r e in G r a d e 3. T h e s e s t u d e n t s h a d e a c h b e e n in F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n for 3 y e a r s . All s u b j e c t s s p o k e E n g l i s h a s a first l a n g u a g e . S i n c e this w a s not i n t e n d e d to b e a s t u d y of the d e v e l o p m e n t of fast m a p p i n g skills, but rather a s e a r c h for the relationship b e t w e e n fast m a p p i n g a n d the d e v e l o p m e n t of a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , no  24 attempt w a s m a d e to h a v e e q u a l n u m b e r s of s t u d e n t s of v a r i o u s a g e s . T h e s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d e l e v e n 7 - y e a r - o l d s , twenty 8 - y e a r - o l d s a n d nine 9 - y e a r - o l d s .  2.3 P R O C E D U R E All children i n v o l v e d in the study w e r e t e s t e d individually in a quiet r o o m a l l o c a t e d by the s c h o o l . S e s s i o n s c o n s i s t e d of a p e r i o d of c o n v e r s a t i o n to a c q u a i n t the child with the investigator a n d the following five t a s k s .  All instructions w e r e g i v e n in E n g l i s h .  T h e entire p r o c e d u r e took  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 m i n u t e s . E a c h child p e r f o r m e d the t a s k s in the s a m e o r d e r a n d w a s t a p e r e c o r d e d .  2.31 E x p o s u r e T a s k O n a table b e t w e e n the child a n d the e x a m i n e r w e r e p l a c e d three objects ( p e n , fork a n d X ) a n d three p l a c e s to put the objects ( a b o x , a bowl a n d s o m e t i s s u e p a p e r ) . T h e child w a s instructed first to hide the p e n , then the fork a n d t h e n — w h e n there w a s no c h o i c e of object or hiding p l a c e left— - t h e u n k n o w n object. If, after 5 s e c o n d s , the child did not hide the object, the e x a m i n e r s a i d " Y o u hide it". T h e n a m e of the object w a s m e n t i o n e d only o n c e . It w a s n e c e s s a r y that the child's only e x p o s u r e s to the n o n s e n s e w o r d s s h o u l d b e during the s e s s i o n . T o a v o i d the possibility of children d i s c u s s i n g the p r o c e d u r e with e a c h other a n d inadvertently telling e a c h other the w o r d they w o u l d h a v e to r e m e m b e r a variety of target C V C n o n s e n s e w o r d s w e r e u s e d ( s e e T a b l e 11). C h i l d r e n w e r e t e s t e d individually, c l a s s by c l a s s . E a c h child w a s a s s i g n e d a n u m b e r 1 through 6 a n d the target w o r d from T a b l e II c o r r e s p o n d i n g to that n u m b e r . C h i l d r e n w e r e then tested in order of n u m b e r s (i.e. first the child with w o r d #1, then w o r d #2, etc.)  25 T a b l e II. List of target w o r d s a n d their distractors.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  TARGET  DISTRACTOR  [kut]  [zut], [pid] [zit], [bud] [zut], [kid] [zit], [pud] [shid], [put] [shud], [pit]  [git] [put] [kit] [bud] [kid]  E a c h w o r d c o n t a i n e d a high, t e n s e v o w e l ([i] or [u]). V e l a r a n d labial s t o p s o c c u r w o r d initially m o r e often than in a n y other position in the s p e e c h of children in G r a d e s 2 a n d 3 ( M a d e r , 1954 a s cited in S h r i b e r g a n d Kent, 1982). T o e n s u r e that the w o r d s w e r e not s o u n u s u a l that the children w o u l d p a y e x t r a attention to t h e m , or s o hard that s o m e children w o u l d b e u n a b l e to p r o n o u n c e them, all of the n o n s e n s e l a b e l s c o n t a i n e d a v e l a r or labial stop a s the first c o n s o n a n t . A l v e o l a r s t o p s o c c u r w o r d finally m o r e often than in a n y other position in this a g e r a n g e (ibid) a n d s o the final c o n s o n a n t s w e r e all a l v e o l a r s .  2.32 F r e n c h C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t T h e F r e n c h C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t is a n oral F r e n c h c o m p r e h e n s i o n test d e v e l o p e d by the O n t a r i o Institute for S t u d i e s in E d u c a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y for children in F r e n c h Immersion p r o g r a m s . C h i l d r e n w e r e t e s t e d to d e t e r m i n e , i n d e p e n d e n t of p o s s i b l e t e a c h e r b i a s , w h a t their F r e n c h oral c o m p r e h e n s i o n w a s with r e s p e c t to other children in F r e n c h Immersion situations. T h i s a l s o s e r v e d a s a distractor task b e t w e e n the e x p o s u r e a n d testing t a s k s . T h e children w e r e all a d m i n i s t e r e d the ' W o r d s a n d S e n t e n c e s ' s u b t e s t of the F r e n c h C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . T h e y w e r e a s k e d to point to the picture that m a t c h e d b e s t the F r e n c h w o r d or s e n t e n c e s p o k e n by the e x a m i n e r .  26 2.33 C o m p r e h e n s i o n T a s k T w o n e w unfamiliar objects w e r e a d d e d to the three objects u s e d in 2.31 a b o v e . F r o m the array of two k n o w n a n d three u n k n o w n objects, the child w a s a s k e d to give the e x a m i n e r the p e n , the X , a n d then the fork.  2.34 P r o d u c t i o n T a s k T h e child w a s then a s k e d to n a m e e a c h object a s the e x a m i n e r held it up. E n c o u r a g e m e n t w a s g i v e n to g u e s s after 5 s e c o n d s with no attempt.  2.35 R e c o g n i t i o n T a s k T h i s t a s k w a s g i v e n to t h o s e children w h o failed to attempt the labelling task. T h e child w a s a s k e d "Is this a n X , a Y or a Z ? " All w o r d s w e r e n o n s e n s e w o r d s m a x i m a l l y distinct from the target n o n s e n s e C V C ( s e e T a b l e II).  2.36 Literacy T e s t s A l l children i n v o l v e d in the s t u d y h a d t a k e n the T o u r o n d tests d i a g n o s t i q u e s d e lecture at the e n d of the p r e v i o u s a c a d e m i c year. T h e s e are a set of F r e n c h r e a d i n g tests d e s i g n e d for Early F r e n c h Immersion s t u d e n t s by the Ontario Institue for S t u d i e s in E d u c a t i o n . T h e principal of the s c h o o l a n d the F r e n c h L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r m a d e t h e s e s c o r e s a v a i l a b l e to the r e s e a r c h e r . T h e s u b t e s t s c o r e s u s e d in the p r e s e n t study w e r e from P a r t s I a n d II of both the G r a d e 1 a n d G r a d e 2 tests ( p e r f o r m e d b y the children currently in G r a d e s 2 a n d 3, respectively).  Part I ( W o r d  R e c o g n i t i o n ) t e s t e d the children's ability to d e c i p h e r the g r a p h e m e / p h o n e m e relationship in F r e n c h b y a s k i n g the children to circle the written F r e n c h w o r d that the t e a c h e r s a i d . Part II ( W o r d M e a n i n g ) t e s t e d the s t u d e n t ' s c o m p r e h e n s i o n of written F r e n c h by a s k i n g t h e m to circle the w o r d , from a field  27  of four, that matched the picture.  2.37 Teacher Ratings In addition to these direct measures of performance, the classroom teachers of all the children involved in the study were asked to rate each child's math skills and oral French skills with respect to their classmates using a four point rating system (see Appendix A). Areas of classroom instruction in the age range used in this study are commonly divided between 'language' and 'maths/sciences'. It was hoped that a measure of the child's math skills would indicate general, non-language academic ability. Teachers were asked to rate each child's oral French ability, since no standardized tests of oral French production were available.  28 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS 3.1 F A S T M A P P I N G T h e p u r p o s e of this s t u d y w a s to a s c e r t a i n what, if a n y , relationship there is b e t w e e n fast m a p p i n g a n d s u c c e s s in F r e n c h Immersion (FI) p r o g r a m s . In order to a n s w e r this q u e s t i o n children either currently or formerly enrolled in E a r l y F r e n c h Immersion w e r e g i v e n a set of fast m a p p i n g t a s k s a n d five m e a s u r e s of s u c c e s s in F r e n c h Immersion. T h e s e m e a s u r e s w e r e a t e a c h e r rating of oral F r e n c h p r o d u c t i o n , a F r e n c h reading test, a t e a c h e r rating of math proficiency a n d a n oral F r e n c h c o m p r e h e n s i o n test. T h e fifth m e a s u r e of s u c c e s s w a s w h e t h e r o r not the student w a s still e n r o l l e d in F r e n c h Immersion. T h e s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d i n c l u d e d G r a d e 3 children no longer e n r o l l e d in FI, G r a d e 3 children in FI a n d G r a d e 2 children in FI. All of the children a c h i e v e d 100% s u c c e s s in both the e x p o s u r e a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n t a s k s . D a t a from t h e s e t a s k s will therefore not be a n a l y z e d further. In the production t a s k 27 s u b j e c t s p r o d u c e d all three p h o n e m e s in the target w o r d , 7 p r o d u c e d only two p h o n e m e s a n d 6 s u b j e c t s w e r e u n a b l e to p r o d u c e any.  3.11 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d G r o u p M e m b e r s h i p T h e relationship b e t w e e n t h e s e results a n d c o n t i n u e d enrollment in F r e n c h Immersion w a s t e s t e d u s i n g a c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s . T h e distribution of fast m a p p i n g production s c o r e s per g r a d e c a n b e f o u n d in T a b l e III. N o significant relationship b e t w e e n g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p a n d fast m a p p i n g production w a s f o u n d {%= .79, df=4,O(=.05). A s c a n be s e e n in T a b l e III, three of the children no longer in F r e n c h Immersion w e r e a b l e to provide all three p h o n e m e s of the target w o r d while three of the children still in G r a d e 3 F r e n c h Immersion c o m p l e t e l y failed the task. T h e r e a l s o w a s n o  29 significant difference in fast m a p p i n g ability with i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r of y e a r s of e x p o s u r e to a s e c o n d language.  T a b l e III. Distribution of fast m a p p i n g production s c o r e s by instructional g r o u p .  Group  Fast Mapping  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 3  F r e n c h Immersion  F r e n c h Immersion  English  (n=18)  (n=17)  (n=5)  Score  F a i l (0 or 1  2  3  1  3  4  l  13  10  3  of 3 p h o n e m e s ) Partial P a s s (2 of 3) Pass (3 of 3 p h o n e m e s )  3.12 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d O r a l F r e n c h P r o d u c t i o n A s s t a n d a r d i z e d m e a s u r e s of s p o k e n F r e n c h w e r e u n a v a i l a b l e , t e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d to rate their s t u d e n t s in this a r e a ( s e e A p p e n d i x A). T h e s e four point ratings w e r e u s e d to investigate the relationship b e t w e e n fast m a p p i n g production p e r f o r m a n c e a n d oral F r e n c h production.  Cross-  t a b u l a t e d distributional d a t a for t h e s e two m e a s u r e s are p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e IV. C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d no significant relationship b e t w e e n t h e s e two m e a s u r e s (75=2.1, df=6#=.05). C h i l d r e n rated  30 poorly in F r e n c h p r o d u c t i o n skills p e r f o r m e d no better or w o r s e in fast m a p p i n g than t h o s e rated well.  T a b l e IV. Distribution of fast m a p p i n g production s c o r e s by oral F r e n c h p r o d u c t i o n skill.  Rating S c a l e  1 (worst)  2  3  4 (best)  Fail  1  2  Partial P a s s  1  2  2  2  Pass  1  7  7  8  Fast Mapping Score  1  1  3.13 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d G e n e r a l A c a d e m i c Ability A s a m e a s u r e of e a c h child's o v e r a l l , n o n - l a n g u a g e a c a d e m i c ability t e a c h e r s rated the c h i l d r e n ' s m a t h abilities u s i n g the s a m e four point s y s t e m a s a b o v e . A c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s s h o w e d no significant relationship b e t w e e n fast m a p p i n g a n d math ability o£=9.l, df=6C<=.05). A s c a n be s e e n in T a b l e V , n o n e of the children rated a s p o o r e s t in math skills failed the fast m a p p i n g task.  31 T a b l e V . Distribution of fast m a p p i n g production s c o r e s by t e a c h e r rating of math abilities.  Rating Scale  1 (worst)  2  3  4 (best)  Fail  0  3  2  1  Partial P a s s  1  0  5  2  Pass  1  3  12  10  Fast Mapping Score  T h e s e results s h o w no c o n s i s t e n t c h a n g e in fast m a p p i n g skill related to c o n t i n u e d inclusion in F r e n c h Immersion, length of e x p o s u r e to a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , productive l a n g u a g e skills in the s e c o n d l a n g u a g e or overall a c a d e m i c ability. T h e final two m e a s u r e s of F r e n c h Immersion s u c c e s s , the T o u r o n d r e a d i n g test a n d the F r e n c h C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t , w e r e s t a n d a r d i z e d tests yielding an o r d e r e d c o n t i n u u m of p e r c e n t a g e s a n d raw s c o r e s . It w a s p o s s i b l e therefore to a n a l y s e t h e s e d a t a with a m o r e powerful p a r a m e t r i c p r o c e d u r e .  3.14 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d W o r d R e c o g n i t i o n P a r t I of the T o u r o n d tests d i a q n o s t i q u e s d e lecture ( W o r d R e c o g n i t i o n ) tests the students' g r a s p of the g r a p h e m e / p h o n e m e relationship by h a v i n g the children circle the written w o r d or syllable that the t e a c h e r s a y s . T h e S p e a r m a n ' s rank correlation coefficient for the relationship b e t w e e n the fast m a p p i n g production t a s k a n d this s u b t e s t w a s f o u n d to b e quite low (r= .31) , d e m o n s t r a t i n g a s  5  This Spearman coefficient has not been corrected for ties, the corrected value would be even lower.  32 w e a k correlation b e t w e e n p e r f o r m a n c e on the two tests.  C h i l d r e n w h o w e r e g o o d at d e c o d i n g  written F r e n c h w e r e not n e c e s s a r i l y g o o d at fast m a p p p i n g .  3.15 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d W o r d M e a n i n g Part II of the T o u r o n d ( W o r d M e a n i n g ) t e s t e d the children's u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the m e a n i n g of written F r e n c h w o r d s b e a s k i n g t h e m to c h o o s e the correct w o r d ( o n e of four) to d e s c r i b e a picture.  T h e S p e a r m a n ' s rank correlation coefficient for the relationship b e t w e e n this reading  c o m p r e h e n s i o n test a n d the fast m a p p i n g production task a l s o i n d i c a t e d a v e r y w e a k correlation b e t w e e n s c o r e s (r= .26) . 6  3.16 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d O r a l F r e n c h C o m p r e h e n s i o n T h e F r e n c h C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t investigated the s u b j e c t ' s oral F r e n c h c o m p r e h e n s i o n . C h i l d r e n w e r e a s k e d (in E n g l i s h ) to point to the picture (one of four) that b e s t m a t c h e d the F r e n c h w o r d o r s e n t e n c e s p o k e n b y the e x a m i n e r .  A n a l y s i s of t h e s e d a t a a l s o s h o w e d a very s m a l l  correlation to the fast m a p p i n g s c o r e s (r= .28) . 7  3.17 F a s t M a p p i n g a n d A g e S i n c e n o n e of the five original m e a s u r e s w e r e f o u n d to b e e v e n m o d e r a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d with fast m a p p i n g abilities, the possibility that fast m a p p i n g m a y i m p r o v e with a g e w a s investigated using a c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s . N o significant relationship b e t w e e n a g e a n d fast m a p p i n g w a s f o u n d ic=7.6, df=4CX=.05). A s c a n b e s e e n in T a b l e VI, the 7 - y e a r - o l d s p e r f o r m e d n o better or w o r s e o n the fast m a p p i n g production t a s k than d i d the 9 - y e a r - o l d s .  6  7  see footnote #4. This Spearman coefficient has not been corrected for ties, the corrected value would be even lower.  33 T a b l e VI. Distribution of fast m a p p i n g production s c o r e s by a g e .  Age  7 years  8 years  9 years  (11 subjects)  (20 subjects)  (9 subjects)  Fail  0  5  0  Partial P a s s  4  4  1  Pass  7  11  8  Fast Mapping Score  3.2 R E L A T I O N S H I P S B E T W E E N M E A S U R E S O F F R E N C H P R O F I C I E N C Y C o n t i n u e d enrollment in F r e n c h Immersion, n u m b e r of y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e in a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , j u d g e m e n t s of e x p e r t i s e in math a n d ability in r e a d i n g , u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d / o r s p e a k i n g F r e n c h w e r e all f o u n d to b e unrelated to fast m a p p i n g production skills in this study. T h e s e results raise o n e further q u e s t i o n . W h a t is the relationship b e t w e e n the v a r i o u s m e a s u r e s of l a n g u a g e s u c c e s s ? S h o u l d the a b o v e results be v i e w e d a s three v e r s i o n s of the s a m e relationship (or lack thereof) or d o they r e v e a l that fast m a p p i n g is unrelated to three, s e p a r a t e a s p e c t s of F r e n c h p r o f i c i e n c y , (i.e., r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , oral c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d oral production)? T o e x p l o r e this q u e s t i o n S p e a r m a n ' s rank order correlation coefficients w e r e c a l c u l a t e d for all p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s of the F r e n c h proficiency m e a s u r e s ( s e e T a b l e VII).  34 T a b l e VII. S p e a r m a n ' s rank correlation coefficients for relationships b e t w e e n v a r i o u s m e a s u r e s of F r e n c h proficiency (corrected for ties).  ORAL Production  LITERACY Comprehension  Word Recognition  ORAL Comprehension  .32  LITERACY Word Recognition  .33  .35  Word Meaning  .41*  .53*  .55*  * these values are significantCX=.01.  M o d e r a t e correlations w e r e found b e t w e e n oral c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d reading c o m p r e h e n s i o n ( W o r d M e a n i n g ) (r=.53, c o r r e c t e d f o r t i e s ) a n d b e t w e e n the two reading m e a s u r e s (r=.55, corrected for ties) but all other relationships w e r e quite w e a k . T h i s is c o n s i s t e n t with the h y p o t h e s i s that t h e s e m e a s u r e s t a p p e d into different, relatively i n d e p e n d e n t , a s p e c t s of F r e n c h proficiency. T h u s , it s e e m s that fast m a p p i n g , a s t e s t e d in this study, w a s not a s s o c i a t e d with a n y of s e v e r a l different a s p e c t s of L 2 ability. T h e s e d a t a provide e v i d e n c e that F r e n c h proficiency involves different factors related to i) modality, i.e., oral l a n g u a g e v s . print, a n d ii) l a n g u a g e p r o c e s s , i.e., c o m p r e h e n s i o n v s . production.  35 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION 4.1 F A S T M A P P I N G C o n t r a r y to e x p e c t a t i o n s , p e r f o r m a n c e o n the fast m a p p i n g t a s k d i d not s h o w significant r e l a t i o n s h i p s with a n y of the l a n g u a g e a n d a c a d e m i c m e a s u r e s u s e d in this study. T h i s m a y not h o w e v e r , indicate a true l a c k of relationship b e t w e e n fast m a p p i n g a n d oral or literate s e c o n d l a n g u a g e skills but m a y rather be d u e to a ceiling effect.  O n l y six of the 40 children tested w e r e  u n a b l e to p r o d u c e a n y of the p h o n e m e s in the target w o r d a n d only s e v e n c o u l d p r o d u c e two of the three p h o n e m e s . All other s u b j e c t s p e r f o r m e d all the t a s k s with n o difficulty. O n e p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n for the ceiling effect is that the level of fast m a p p i n g t a s k u s e d in this study m a y b e fully within the capabilities of all 7 y e a r olds ( t h e y o u n g e s t children in the study). T h e r e is insufficient d a t a at this time to m a k e strong c l a i m s c o n c e r n i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t of fast m a p p i n g skills with a g e . A s r e v i e w e d in C h a p t e r l it is difficult to c o m p a r e results b e t w e e n studies b e c a u s e the r e s e a r c h d o e s not i) all centre on the s a m e a g e r a n g e , ii) include c o m p a r a b l e t a s k s e v e n if they are studying the s a m e a g e r a n g e a n d iii) include e n o u g h s u b j e c t s within a n a g e range to p r o v i d e reliable results (specifically D o l l a g h a n ' s study). It is interesting to note h o w e v e r that there is a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e in s c o r e s f r o m D o l l a g h a n ' s 5 - y e a r - o l d s (71%,71%) to this study's 7 y e a r o l d s (100%, 98%) u s i n g the s a m e p r o c e d u r e . T h i s i n c r e a s e m a y b e the result of the d e v e l o p m e n t children undergo between a g e s 5-7 years. A s e c o n d p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n m a y b e that e x p o s u r e to a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e actually i n c r e a s e s o n e ' s fast m a p p i n g ability. T h e very act of learning a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e m a y s o m e h o w i n c r e a s e o n e ' s fast m a p p i n g ability, p e r h a p s b y forcing a c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the arbitrariness of the w o r d - r e f e r e n t relationship.  If this is the c a s e , m a y b e children w h o h a v e h a d s o m e e x p o s u r e to a  s e c o n d l a n g u a g e are m o r e actively i n v o l v e d in postulating m e a n i n g s for u n k n o w n w o r d s than  36 m o n o l i n g u a l s of the s a m e a g e s i n c e they h a v e b e e n e x p o s e d to m o r e n e w w o r d s . D i f f e r e n c e s in fast m a p p i n g abilities b e t w e e n m o n o l i n g u a l s a n d bilinguals is b e y o n d the s c o p e of this study but w o u l d b e a n intriguing topic for further r e s e a r c h . R e g a r d l e s s of w h e t h e r the ceiling effect w a s the result of e x p o s u r e to a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e or a g r o u p of s u b j e c t s w h o w e r e too o l d for the task, it s e e m s likely from a r e v i e w of the literature that a h i g h e r level fast m a p p i n g t a s k w o u l d h a v e elicited a w i d e r r a n g e of p e r f o r m a n c e . C o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the t a s k s u s e d by other r e s e a r c h e r s offers s o m e indication of the w a y s in w h i c h the fast m a p p i n g p a r a d i g m c o u l d b e altered s o a s to capture d e v e l o p m e n t during the s c h o o l y e a r s . T w o f e a t u r e s that c o u l d b e v a r i e d are the  number and context of the target words. In the  p r e s e n t s t u d y only o n e target w o r d w a s u s e d a n d it w a s only s p o k e n twice. T h i s w o r d w a s p r e s e n t e d in only o n e fixed linguistic a n d n o n - l i n g u i s t i c context. In R i c e a n d W o o d s m a n ' s (1988) p r o c e d u r e children ( 2 7 , 3 - y e a r - o l d s ; 34, 5 - y e a r - o l d s ) w e r e e x p o s e d to 20 n e w w o r d s .  E a c h word was  p r e s e n t e d five t i m e s in a variety of contexts in a T V p r o g r a m . R i c e a n d W o o d s m a l l f o u n d that object, action a n d attribute w o r d s w e r e e q u a l l y a m e n a b l e to fast m a p p i n g a n d that 5 - y e a r - o l d s w e r e significantly better at d o i n g this than 3 - y e a r - o l d s . P e r h a p s 7 to 9 - y e a r - o l d s w o u l d do e v e n better at this task. R i c e a n d W o o d s m a l l ' s c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s for the 5 - y e a r - o l d s e x p o s e d to object w o r d s (70%) are the s a m e a s the results in D o l l a g h a n ' s study (71%; s e e T a b l e I) but their s c o r e s for the 3 - y e a r - o l d s are c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than D o l l a g h a n ' s . T h i s s u g g e s t s that context a n d n u m b e r of w o r d s m a y effect c o m p r e h e n s i o n p e r f o r m a n c e in fast m a p p i n g . S i n c e c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s are a l w a y s h i g h e r than production s c o r e s in fast m a p p i n g s t u d i e s , it s e e m s likely that there w o u l d be a n e v e n m o r e m a r k e d d e v e l o p m e n t a l difference in  production s c o r e s w h e n context a n d n u m b e r of  w o r d s are v a r i e d . A n o t h e r factor that c o u l d b e v a r i e d is the  semantic field of the target word. T h e p r e s e n t study  u s e d only a n object label a s the target. R i c e a n d W o o d s m a l l (1988) u s e d a c t i o n , object, attribute a n d  37 affective state w o r d s in their p r o c e d u r e . T h e y f o u n d that affective state w o r d s w e r e significantly m o r e difficult to fast m a p than the other three w o r d t y p e s . P e r h a p s the u s e of this type of w o r d w o u l d h a v e e l i m i n a t e d the ceiling effect in the p r e s e n t study. Increasing the time lag between exposure and testing c o u l d a l s o affect p e r f o r m a n c e o n a fast m a p p i n g task. T h e p r o c e d u r e u s e d in this study t e s t e d c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d production of the new w o r d relatively s o o n after the e x p o s u r e task (10 minutes). D i c k i n s o n (1984) f o u n d that w h e n 4 to 9 y e a r - o l d children w e r e a s k e d to d e c i d e if a n e w w o r d w a s a w o r d , a n d if a n e w w o r d w a s u s e d correctly in a s e n t e n c e there w a s no significant difference in their ability to d o this b e t w e e n testing d o n e 5 - 1 0 m i n u t e s after e x p o s u r e a n d that d o n e three to s e v e n d a y s later.  Apel, Kamhi and  D o l l a g h a n (cited in A p e l a n d K a m h i , 1987) report, h o w e v e r , that n o r m a l l a n g u a g e p r e s c h o o l e r s d e m o n s t r a t e d a significant d e c r e a s e in ability to p r o d u c e a n e w w o r d after only a half hour d e l a y b e t w e e n e x p o s u r e a n d testing. T h u s a d e l a y of s e v e r a l d a y s b e t w e e n the e x p o s u r e a n d testing t a s k s might a l s o eliminate the ceiling effect f o u n d in this study. Y e t a n o t h e r p o s s i b l e c o m p l i c a t i n g factor in the fast m a p p i n g p a r a d i g m might be the phonological complexity of the target word. A p e l a n d K a m h i (1987) f o u n d no significant differences in fast m a p p i n g p e r f o r m a n c e b e t w e e n either l a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d or n o r m a l p r e s c h o o l e r s e x p o s e d to m o n o s y l l a b l e s a n d t h o s e e x p o s e d to multisyllables. B a s e d on this e v i d e n c e the u s e of m o n o s y l l a b i c w o r d s in the p r e s e n t study m a y not h a v e b e e n the c a u s e of the ceiling effect.  H o w e v e r , in  c o n j u n c t i o n with s o m e or all of the p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d factors, p h o n o l o g i c a l complexity could i n c r e a s e the difficulty of the fast m a p p i n g task.  4.11 S u m m a r y T h e p u r p o s e of this p a p e r w a s to s e a r c h for a predictor of s u c c e s s in F r e n c h Immersion programs.  F a s t m a p p i n g , a s t e s t e d for in this study, w a s not f o u n d to correlate with a n y of the  38 m e a s u r e s of F r e n c h l a n g u a g e ability, either oral or written a n d thus c a n n o t b e u s e d to predict F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n s u c c e s s . T h i s w a s p r o b a b l y d u e to the fact that m o s t of the s u b j e c t s c o u l d do the t a s k s , r e g a r d l e s s of L2 proficiency.  If a more c o m p l e x fast m a p p i n g t a s k w a s u s e d s o m e significant  correlation might b e f o u n d . It r e m a i n s p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , that fast m a p p i n g abilities are s i m p l y not c o r r e l a t e d to s u c c e s s in F r e n c h Immersion.  4.2 T H E P R O B L E M O F P R E D I C T I O N A n e x a m i n a t i o n of the relationship b e t w e e n the l a n g u a g e m e a s u r e s of F r e n c h proficiency u s e d in this s t u d y r e v e a l e d that the literacy m e a s u r e s w e r e m o d e r a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d with e a c h other, a s w e r e the c o m p r e h e n s i o n m e a s u r e s . But, in g e n e r a l , the oral a n d literacy m e a s u r e s w e r e only w e a k l y a s s o c i a t e d . T h i s s u g g e s t s that t h e s e tests are s e n s i t i v e to different a s p e c t s of L2 proficiency. It is c o n c e i v a b l e that a child c o u l d b e fluent in L2 but illiterate in that l a n g u a g e , just a s this is p o s s i b l e in L I . S t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g tests s u c h a s the T o u r o n d  currently play a large part in e d u c a t o r s '  d e c i s i o n s a s to the p r o p e r c l a s s r o o m p l a c e m e n t of a child in F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n .  T h e lack of  correlation b e t w e e n the oral a n d literacy m e a s u r e s u s e d in this study s h o w s o n c e a g a i n that L2 p r o f i c i e n c y , like L I , is m a d e up of s e v e r a l abilities. S u c c e s s in o n e modality.e.g. oral l a n g u a g e , d o e s not g u a r a n t e e s u c c e s s in another, e.g. print ( C u m m i n s , 1984). N e i t h e r is there a s i m p l e relationship b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e p r o c e s s e s , i.e. c o m p r e h e n s i o n v s p r o d u c t i o n , within a modality. In order to obtain a true picture of the l a n g u a g e abilities of a child, all a r e a s — oral p r o d u c t i o n a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n a s well a s r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g — m u s t be a s s e s s e d . B a s i n g d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g a student's s c h o o l p l a c e m e n t o n only o n e a r e a of ability w o u l d b e s h o r t s i g h t e d .  39  4.21 SUMMARY Although this study found no relationships between fast mapping and oral or written second language skill, number of years exposure to a second language or overall academic proficiency, it is difficult to believe that fast mapping as it exists in researchers' minds has nothing to do with the acquisition of language the second time around. The explanation for the current findings would seem to lie elsewhere—in the effect of L2 experience on fast mapping or in the relative simplicity of the fast mapping task used in this study. Suggestions for further research include i) an examination of the fast mapping skills of monolingual children as compared to bilingual children of the same age and ii) an examination of school age children's fast mapping skills when presented with a task more complex than this study's. The task could be made more complex by a) using affective state words, b) presenting each word in a variety of contexts several times, c) using several new words at once and d) increasing the time lag between exposure and testing from 10 minutes to several days. It is possible that, using a more complex fast mapping task, the relationship between French Immersion success and fast mapping that was sought in this study would emerge. However, French Immersion has become a very complex issue and success in learning French is not the only criterion for being successful in the program. Given the high academic achievement implicitly expected of children in French Immersion, and the effects of home culture and the personality of the child on her/his performance, it is entirely possible that fast mapping will never be found to correlate strongly with success in French Immersion. Perhaps the search for any one predictor of such success is futile. Until such a predictor is found, educators and parents will need to use to the fullest extent both a range of measures of language proficiency and their knowledge of each child's motivation and temperament in order to decide who should remain in French Immersion.  40 REFERENCES A p e l , K., & K a m h i , A . G . (1987). L a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d children's fast m a p p i n g s k i l l s : A m u k e is a m u k e [ S u m m a r y ] . P r e s e n t e d at the A S H A A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n , N e w O r l e a n s .  Barrett, M . (1978). L e x i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d o v e r e x t e n s i o n in child l a n g u a g e . Language, 5,205-19.  J o u r n a l of C h i l d  B r o w n , H. (1987). P r i n c i p l e s of l a n g u a g e learning a n d t e a c h i n g (2nd ed.). N e w J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e Hall. B r u c k , M . (1978). T h e suitability of early F r e n c h i m m e r s i o n p r o g r a m s for the l a n g u a g e - d i s a b l e d child. C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , 3(4), 5 1 - 7 2 . B r u c k , M . (1982). L a n g u a g e impaired children's p e r f o r m a n c e in a n additive bilingual e d u c a t i o n program. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3,45-60. C a r e y , S . (1978). T h e child a s w o r d learner. In M . H a l l e , G . Miller & J . B r e s n a n ( E d s . ) , Linguistic theory a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l reality, (pp.264-293). C a m b r i d g e , M A : MIT P r e s s . C a r e y , S . , & Bartlett, E . (1978). A c q u i r i n g a single n e w w o r d . P a p e r s a n d reports o n child l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t , 1 5 , 1 7 - 2 9 . Dept. of Linguistics, S t a n f o r d University. C a r r o l l , D. W . (1986). P s y c h o l o g y of l a n g u a g e . M o n t e r e y , C A : B r o o k s / C o l e .  C l a r k , E . V . (1983). M e a n i n g a n d c o n c e p t s . In J . F l a v e l l & E . M a r k m a n ( E d s . ) , H a n d b o o k of C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y , V o l III: C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t , (pp.787-840). N.Y.: J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s . C u m m i n s , J . (1984). B i l i n g u a l i s m a n d s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n : I s s u e s in a s s e s s m e n t a n d p e d a g o g y . E x e t e r : S h o r t R u n P r e s s Ltd. D i c k i n s o n , D. K. (1984). First i m p r e s s i o n s : C h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e of w o r d s g a i n e d from a single e x p o s u r e . A p p l i e d P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , 5, 359-374. D o l l a g h a n , C . (1984). F a s t m a p p i n g in normal a n d l a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . P r o c e e d i n g s of the S y m p o s i u m o n R e s e a r c h in C h i l d L a n g u a g e D i s o r d e r s , 5 , 7 3 - 8 9 . D o l l a g h a n , C . (1985). C h i l d m e e t s w o r d : F a s t m a p p i n g in p r e s c h o o l children. J o u r n a l of S p e e c h a n d H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h , 28, 449-454. G e n e s e e , F. (1976). T h e suitability of i m m e r s i o n p r o g r a m s for all c h i l d r e n . L a n g u a g e R e v i e w , 32, 4 9 4 - 5 1 5 .  Canadian Modern  G e n e s e e , F. (1978). Individual differences in s e c o n d l a n g u a g e learning. Language R e v i e w , 34, 490-504.  Canadian Modern  41 H e i b e c k , T. H. , & M a r k m a n , E. M . (1987). W o r d learning in c h i l d r e n : A n e x a m i n a t i o n of fast mapping. C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t 58, 1021-1034. L a m b e r t , W . E . , & T u c k e r , G . R. (1972). Bilingual e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n : T h e St. Lambert experiment. R o w l e y , M A : N e w b u r y H o u s e Inc. L a m b e r t , W . E . , T u c k e r , R. G . , & d ' A n g l e j a n , A . (1973). C o g n i t i v e a n d attitudinal c o n s e q u e n c e s of bilingual s c h o o l i n g : T h e St., L a m b e r t project through G r a d e 5. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 65(2), 141-159. M a c n a m a r a , J . (1982). N a m e s for things: A study of h u m a n learning. C a m b r i d g e , M A : MIT P r e s s .  M a r a t s o s , M . P . , & C h a l k l e y , M . A . (1980). T h e internal l a n g u a g e of c h i l d r e n ' s s y n t a x . N e l s o n (Ed.), C h i l d r e n ' s L a n g u a g e , 2, 127-214. N.Y. : G a r d n e r P r e s s .  In K. E .  P e t e r s , A . M . (1981). L a n g u a g e s e g m e n t a t i o n : O p e r a t i n g principles for the p e r c e p t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s of l a n g u a g e . In D. S l o b i n (Ed.), U n i v e r s a l s of l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . P e t e r s , A . M . (1983). T h e units of l a n g u a g e acquisition. C a m b r i d g e , M A : C a m b r i d g e University Press. R i c e , M . L . , B u h r , J . C . & N e m e t h , M . (in p r e s s ) . F a s t m a p p i n g w o r d learning abilities of l a n g u a g e d e l a y e d p r e s c h o o l e r s . J o u r n a l of S p e e c h a n d H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h . R i c e , M . L . , W o o d s m a l l , L. (1988). L e s s o n s from television: C h i l d r e n ' s w o r d learning w h e n viewing. C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 59, 4 2 0 - 4 2 9 . R u t h v e n , L. (1989). T h e u s e of c o h e s i v e d e v i c e s by s c h o o l - a g e l a n g u a g e i m p a i r e d children. U n p u b l i s h e d M . S c . t h e s i s , University of British C o l u m b i a . S h r i b e r g , L. D . , & K e n t , R. D. (1982). C l i n i c a l p h o n e t i c s . N e w Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s . S w a i n , M . (Ed.). (1972). Bilingual s c h o o l i n g : S o m e e x p e r i e n c e s in C a n a d a a n d the U n i t e d S t a t e s . T o r o n t o : Ontario Institute for S t u d i e s in E d u c a t i o n . S w a i n , M . , & B u r n a b y , B. (1976). P e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d s e c o n d l a n g u a g e learning in y o u n g c h i l d r e n : A pilot study. W o r k i n g p a p e r s in bilingualism ( O I S E ) , IT, 115-128. T r i t e s , R. L. (1976). C h i l d r e n with learning difficulties in F r e n c h i m m e r s i o n . L a n g u a g e R e v i e w , 33, 193-216.  Canadian Modern  Trites, R. L. , & P r i c e , M . A . (1979). A s s e s s m e n t of r e a d i n e s s for primary F r e n c h i m m e r s i o n : K i n d e r g a r t e n f o l l o w - u p a s s e s s m e n t . O t t a w a : University of O t t a w a P r e s s . W a r d h a u g h , R. (1986). A n introduction to s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s . O x f o r d , G B : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l Ltd.  42 APPENDIX A  TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE Student, Grade U s i n g the following rating s y s t e m :  Most capable  Least capable 4  pupil in the ^ Average  class  1.1 w o u l d rate the s t u d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e on math a s s i g n m e n t s a s falling within: a) R a n g e l b) R a n g e 2 c) R a n g e 3 d) R a n g e 4  2. I w o u l d rate the s t u d e n t ' s oral F r e n c h skills a s falling within: a) R a n g e 1 b) R a n g e 2 c) R a n g e 3 d) R a n g e 4  pupil in the c l a s s  

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