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A survey of music teaching strategies in Ghanaian elementary schools as a basis for curriculum development Addo, Akosua Obuo 1990

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c. SURVEY OF MUSIC TEACHING STRATEGIES IN GHANAIAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AS A BASIS FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT By AKOSUA OBUO ADDO B.MUS. U n i v e r s i t y of Cape Coa s t , Ghana, 1985 Dip.Ed. U n i v e r s i t y of Cape C o a s t , Ghana, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n Ed u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1990 © Akosua Obuo Addo, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of v i s u a l & Performing Arts i n Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 9th., October, 1990. DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Changes occurring i n the educational system of Ghana since independence in 1957 have been many and varied. The recent inclusion of the Cultural Studies program as part of the compulsory core curriculum i s an example of such a change. The Cultural Studies program was designed to nurture c u l t u r a l awareness and appreciation i n the Ghanaian school c h i l d through music, drama, r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l systems. The focus of t h i s study was Music in the Cultural Studies program. The approach of the music teacher to music teaching and learning determines the successful r e a l i z a t i o n of the curriculum. Music teaching strategies employed in Ghanaian elementary schools are many and varied. The content of the curriculum the teacher has to work with also enhances the r e a l i z a t i o n of the program objectives. The purpose of t h i s study was to i d e n t i f y and describe music teaching strategies and t h e i r degree of use i n Ghanaian elementary schools and also of f e r suggestions for improving music ins t r u c t i o n drawing on Ghanaian indigenous methods of music education, the Orff-Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy. In a survey involving f i f t y - s i x music teachers from f i v e of the ten regions of Ghana, the researcher drew the following conclusions: ii a) the most frequently used teaching strategies included singing games, vocables, solfege, speech and poetry, movement and dance. b) there was evidence to suggest that the music teaching strategies of teachers are not related to t h e i r regional location, d i s t r i c t , gender, teaching experience, or academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . c) I t i s f e a s i b l e to combine the approaches of the K o d c t l y pedagogy, the Orff-Schulwerk, and Ghanaian indigenous forms of music education i n the development of a curriculum framework aimed at improving music i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology in Ghanaian elementary schools. Supervisor Approval Dr. Allen E. Clingman in ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S I would l i k e to thank a l l who have in many ways helped to make t h i s project possible. Special thanks go to my family, who have supported me in every manner possible. God Bless You. I am indebted to my supervisor and chairperson of t h i s thesis committee, Prof. Alle n Clingman, for the constant support and guidance given me throughout the writing of t h i s project. I am also grat e f u l to Mrs. Shirley Clingman for proof reading the manuscript. Sincere gratitude goes to Prof. Harold Ratzlaff, and Assoc. Prof. Sandra Davis, members of my thesis committee, for i n s i g h t f u l and valuable advice given me. I am grateful to the Curriculum Research and Development Divis i o n , Ministry of Education, Ghana, and a l l Subject Organizers for music, at D i s t r i c t Centers of Education i n the f i v e regions v i s i t e d for a l l the support and material made available to me. To Dr. Akrofi, University of Cape Coast, who took time to read portions of the manuscript, I express my thanks. To a l l my friends in Ghana, and Canada, especially, Charity, Judy, Gudrun, J i l l , Marilyn, John, and Emmanuel who kept me focussed on t h i s thesis, I say thank you. I regret I am not able to mention a l l of you by name. i v DEDICATION MY MOTHER, THE BEST EXAMPLE OF A GOOD TEACHER, WHO TAUGHT ME HOW TO TEACH. v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT 11 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S i v DEDICATION v LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF FIGURES x m Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM 1 Background of the Study Context of the Problem Purpose of Study Sp e c i f i c Research Objectives J u s t i f i c a t i o n for the Study Limitations Operational D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Summary 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 16 Music Teaching Strategies Conceptual Framework H i s t o r i c a l Framework The Orff-Schulwerk vi H i s t o r i c a l Framework Conceptual Framework Kodaly Pedagogy H i s t o r i c a l Framework Conceptual Framework Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Methods of Music Education H i s t o r i c a l Framework Conceptual Framework Adapting and Combining Different Music Teaching Strategies Trends in Music Curriculum Development: Ghana Summary STUDY DESIGN AND EXECUTION Research Design Population Sample Method of Selecting Sample Pretesting the Research Instrument The Research Instrument Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures Description of scores and completion rate Description of variables and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to research objectives Methods of Data Analysis Descriptive s t a t i s t i c s Nonparametric tests v i i Summary 4. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 72 Introduction: Overview S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures The Sample Research Question #1: What teaching strategies do teachers of music in Ghana employ in t h e i r Classes? Research Question #2: To what extent do such factors as region, d i s t r i c t , gender, academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and teaching experience, re l a t e to music teaching strategies? Research Question #3: To what extent can a framework, be developed within which a combination of p a r t i c u a l r music teaching strategies are employed? Comments from respondents 5. CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS 109 Research Problem and Method Discussion of Results 1. Music teaching strategies employed by teachers of music i n Ghanaian elementary schools 2. Differences in music teaching strategies with respect to region, d i s t r i c t , gender, V l l l academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and years of teaching experience 3. The development of a music curriculum framework based on the combination of p a r t i c u l a r music teaching strategies Limitations of the Study Implications for Curriculum Development Implicaions for Further Research Conclusions SOURCES CONSULTED 126 APPENDICES Appendix A Letters of Introduction 140 Appendix B Questionnaire, Cover Letter, and Thank you Letter 145 Appendix C Map of Ghana Showing Areas Covered by Research 152 Appendix D Tables 1 1 - 5 0 154 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. R e l i a b i l i t y of Research Instrument 73 2. Gender D i s t r i b u t i o n 74 3. Regional Location of Respondents 76 4. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n 77 5. Academic Qu a l i f i c a t i o n s of Respondents 78 6. Years of Teaching Experience 79 7. Subjects and Number of Classes Taught 81 8. Number of Classes Taught by School Assignment. . 82 9. Description of Teaching Strategies 85 10. Chi-Square Tests on Teaching Strategies . . . . 86 11. Ga-Adangbe Region 155 12. Central Region 156 13. Eastern Region 157 14. Volta Region 158 15. Ashanti region 159 16. Regional Differences in Teaching Strategies. . . 160 17. D i s t r i c t Differences in Teaching Strategies. . . 161 18. Teaching Strategies by Urban D i s t r i c t 162 19. Teaching Strategies by Rural D i s t r i c t 163 20. Teaching Strategies by Female Teachers 164 21. Teaching Strategies by Male Teachers 165 J x 22. Gender Differences i n Teaching Strategies. . . . 166 23. Teaching Strategies by 1-10 years of Experience 167 24. Teaching Strategies by 11-20 Years of Experience 168 25. Teaching Strategies by 21-33 Years of Experience 169 26. Teaching Strategies by Years of Teaching Experience 170 27. Teaching Strategies by Q u a l i f i c a t i o n (Teaching Ce r t i f i c a t e ) 171 28. Teaching Strategies by Q u a l i f i c a t i o n (GCE 07A level) 172 29. Teaching Strategies by Q u a l i f i c a t i o n (Diploma/Degree) . 173 30. Teaching Strategies by Academic Q u a l i f i c a t i o n . . 174 31. Description of the Cultural Studies Program. . . 101 32. Music by Teaching Strategies 175 33. Music by Content 176 34. Elements (Rhythm) by Teaching Strategies . . . . 177 35. Elements (Melody) by Teaching Strategies . . . . 178 36. Elements (Harmony) by Teaching Strategies. . . . 179 37. Elements (Form) by Teaching Strategies 180 38. Elements (Dynamics) by Teaching Strategies . . . 181 39. Elements (Timbre) by Teaching Strategies . . . . 182 40. Ghanaian Children's Songs by Teaching Strategies 183 41. Non-Ghanaian Children's Songs by Teaching Strategies 184 42. Songs created by Ghanaian Children by Teaching Strategies 185 43. Ghanaian Traditional Folk Songs by Teaching Strategies 186 x i 44. Non-Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Folk Songs Teaching Strategies 187 45. Motor Sensory S k i l l s by Teaching Strategies. . . 188 46. Auditory Development by Teaching Strategies. . . 189 47. Speech and Language Development by Teaching Strategies 190 48. Singing/Pitch Development by Teaching Strategies 191 49. Audiation by Teaching Strategies 192 50. Literacy Development 193 xii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background to the Study The f l u i d , changing nature of Ghanaian music education i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the country's endeavors to promote c u l t u r a l awareness and re-awakening i n the l i v e s of i t s people. The Cultural Studies Program was designed to nurture c u l t u r a l awareness and appreciation in the Ghanaian elementary school c h i l d . Music i s no longer an exclusive subject in the curriculum of Ghanaian elementary schools, but has been implemented as part of the Cultural Studies Program since September, 1988. This study originates in Amoaku's proposal that there are p a r a l l e l s between the African t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education and the Orff-Schulwerk. 1 Amoaku believes that of a l l the contemporary approaches to music education, Orff-Schulwerk comes closest to the African t r a d i t i o n a l forms and therefore proposes the adaptation of the Orff-Schulwerk for use in African music education. Amoaku, however, defines the le v e l of adaptation in terms of being neither "African or European," which implies integration W^.K. Amoaku, "Parallelisms i n the Traditional African System of Music Education and Orff-Schulwerk," Journal of  International Library of African Music, 6, no. 2 (1982): 116-119. 1 2 rather than adaptation. He makes a stronger case for integration b u i l t on the argument that i t would be erroneous to ignore African t r a d i t i o n a l forms which have stood the te s t of time and those that have been affected by Western influence. Amoaku further states that the Orff-Schulwerk i s a p o s i t i v e addition to the existing process. Nketia approaches music education i n the dynamic society i n terms of context and content.^ If the primary objective of education i s the transmission of society's c u l t u r a l heritage, then, he argues, t h i s must form the guiding philosophy for i n s t r u c t i o n . Nketia, therefore, draws the reader's attention to the work of Kodaly in integrating folk music into the Hungarian national music curriculum, as an example of music ins t r u c t i o n based on the philosophy of c u l t u r a l transmission i n education. Thus, i f one of the course objectives as stated in the C u l t u r a l  Studies Syllabus for Primary Schools, under which music i s addressed, i s to "develop the awareness that music plays a v i t a l r ole in our society," then the Kodaly pedagogy i s worth considering for suggestions i n contributing to the f u l f i l l m e n t of the objective.-^ Like Nketia, Twerefoo also believes that the changing nature of Ghana's music education should be considered in 1J.H.Kwabena Nketia, "New Perspectives in Music Education," in ISME Yearbook VI (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1978), 104-111. •^Curriculum Research and Development Divis i o n , Ghana Education Service, Cultural Studies Syllabus for Primary  Schools. (Accra: Ghana Education Service, 1989), 5. 3 terms of content, s p e c i f i c a l l y in the area of i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials.^ Neither Nketia nor Twerefoo in these a r t i c l e s address the changing educational system from the point of view of i n s t r u c t i o n a l strategy. In fact, studies in African music education have not dealt d i r e c t l y with the problem of teaching strategies beyond recommending the need to research into i t . ^ i t behoves the teacher, the p r i n c i p a l transmitter of educational nuances, to adapt i n s t r u c t i o n a l strategies that contribute to the r e a l i z a t i o n of the curriculum which, in turn, serves to promote the educational p o l i c i e s of the nation in question. These more v i s i b l e approaches to music education, together with Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods, of f e r suggestions for improving music teaching and learning in Ghana i f Amoaku's arguments are v a l i d . Secondly, i f he i s r i g h t , then the study of existing music teaching strategies w i l l reveal the presence of strategies that w i l l create a conducive atmosphere for the implementation of these suggestions. Since these observed strategies may vary with respect to certain a t t r i b u t e variables, the extent to which they vary w i l l also be investigated. ^Gustav Oware Twerefoo, "Music Educators Materials for a Changing African Society," in ISME Yearbook VIII (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western Aust r a l i a , 1981), 74-79. 5Robert Manford, "The Status of Music Teacher Education in Ghana with Recommendations for Improvement." (Ph.D. diss. , Ohio State University, 1982); E r i c A y i s i Akrofi, "The Status of Music Programs i n Ghanaian Public Schools." (Ed.D. diss. , University of I l l i n o i s , 1982). 4 Context of the Problem In the l i g h t of the recent changes i n educational p o l i c y , Akrofi states, "Although the ministry of education regards music as an important subject in the curriculum of f i r s t and second cycle i n s t i t u t i o n s and has, since Ghana's independence, produced several syllabuses to guide the content and conduct of music education programmes i n such i n s t i t u t i o n s , most schools are unable to give children any meaningful music e d u c a t i o n . T h e author believes that the reason for t h i s may be found in the varied music teaching strategies employed in the schools, most of these lacking in t h e i r p o t e n t i a l for producing musically l i t e r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . On teaching strategies, Akrofi draws the reader's attention to the musical a c t i v i t i e s recommended by the ministry of education: singing, theory, rhythmic movement, folk dancing and drumming, instrumental playing, and l i s t e n i n g . He further notes that of the six recommended a c t i v i t i e s , l i s t e n i n g i s the most r a r e l y taught due to lack of i n s t r u c t i o n a l equipment and materials. Akrofi states that folk dancing, drumming, and instrumental playing are incorporated as extracurricular a c t i v i t i e s in schools that can o f f e r them. 7 Variations in music teaching strategies are further exarcerbated by the varying academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the ^E r i c A y i s i Akrofi, "Is Extracurricular Music Education going to Displace Curricula Music Education in Ghana?" The  Oquaa Educator 9, no. 1 (October, 1988), 12. 7 I b i d . , 13. 5 teachers at the basic education l e v e l i n Ghana. Most of the teachers of music i n the elementary schools are general teachers and not music s p e c i a l i s t s . This may be due to the fact that the output of music s p e c i a l i s t s from the National Academy of Music and the Music Department of the University of Cape Coast cannot meet the needs of the 19,757 f i r s t and second cycle i n s t i t u t i o n s . Secondly, the s p e c i a l i s t teachers f i n d i t more prestigious, and f i n a n c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l to teach i n second cycle i n s t i t u t i o n s rather than f i r s t cycle schools; f i r s t cycle i n s t i t u t i o n s are thus l e f t to r e l y on general teachers. F i r s t cycle i n s t i t u t i o n s here refers to elementary schools. Such teachers, Akrofi confirms, are only able to teach a few songs they know and randomly select other a c t i v i t i e s recommended by the syllabus depending upon t h e i r background t r a i n i n g and i n t e r e s t s . ^ A t h i r d problem that has arisen in the past year l i e s in the inclusion of music as part of the Cultural Studies Program. The general teachers of music in elementary schools tend, therefore, to address t h e i r strongest area which may be music, dance, drama, art, r e l i g i o n , or c r a f t s . This has contributed to the variations i n the qu a l i t y of music teaching strategies in f i r s t cycle i n s t i t u t i o n s and also presupposes that i n some elementary schools, music may not be taught at a l l during the Cultural Studies Program. Ibid. 6 This study i s a survey of music teaching strategies in Ghanaian elementary schools as a basis for curriculum development. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study i s : a) to i d e n t i f y and describe existing music teaching strategies and t h e i r degree of use within the Cultural Studies Program in Ghanaian schools, and b) to offer suggestions, for improving music i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology in Ghanaian elementary schools, drawing on Ghanaian indigenous forms of music education, the Orff Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy. Specific Research Objectives The questions that are central to the design of the study are: 1. What teaching strategies do teachers of music in Ghana employ in t h e i r classes? 2. To what extent do such factors as regional location, d i s t r i c t location of schools, gender, academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and teaching experience relate to music teaching strategies employed by teachers of music in Ghanaian elementary classrooms? 3 . To what extent can a framework be developed within which a combination of p a r t i c u l a r music teaching strategies are 7 employed with the view of improving i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology? J u s t i f i c a t i o n for the Study Even though much of the curriculum development that has taken place i n A f r i c a since the 1970s has perpetuated the indigenizing of content and adaptation of modern pedagogical practices in use in developing countries,** studies have not r e f l e c t e d the integration of such contemporary music teaching strategies into African music education. 1^ The information generated by t h i s study provides d e t a i l s of music i n s t r u c t i o n a l strategies by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and description employed by music teachers i n Ghana's elementary schools. In i d e n t i f y i n g and describing current music teaching strategies, the study w i l l provide a basis for the generation of further research on teaching strategies and also on the p a r t i c u l a r music teaching strategies discussed in t h i s study. Since such a study cannot possibly eschew i t s e l f from problems exi s t i n g in current Ghanaian basic y K e i t h Lewin, "Quality in Question: A New Agenda for Curriculum Reform in Developing Countries," Comparative  Education 21, no. 2 (1985), 117-133. •'•^W.K. Amoaku, "Parallelisms i n the t r a d i t i o n a l African system of music education and Orff-Schulwerk". Journal of  International Library of African Music 6, no 2 (1982): 116-119: Kwabena Nketia, New Perspectives i n Music Education" ISME Yearbook VI (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1978), 104-111. 8 education, i t w i l l also i d e n t i f y some of the current needs of music ins t r u c t i o n within the Cultural Studies Program in Ghana and recommend actions which w i l l improve music teaching and learning. The integration of Ghanaian indigenous methods of music education, Orff Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy in the development of a Ghanaian music curriculum framework encourages a continual r e l a t i o n s h i p with the creative arts i n the l i f e l o n g education of the c h i l d . A detailed discussion of these three approaches to music education i s presented i n the second chapter of t h i s study. Limitations The study was limited to music s p e c i a l i s t s and teachers of music from f i v e of the ten regions of Ghana. It was further limited to teachers of music who were employed i n elementary schools i n regional c a p i t a l s . The study focused on aspects of integrated a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices, and p a r t i c u l a r approaches to the development of l i t e r a c y s k i l l s i n the description and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of music teaching strategies. The extent to which music teaching strategies varied were investigated with respect to p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e variables, namely, regional location, d i s t r i c t location of schools, gender, academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and teaching experience. These have been addressed with respect to the lim i t a t i o n s of s t a t i s t i c a l tools employed. 9 Operational D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The nature of the study demands the d e f i n i t i o n of terms and variables i n operation therein, especially since many may be applicable only in the Ghanaian s i t u a t i o n . The Cultural Studies Program: This program exists in Ghanaian basic education (Primary 1-6 and JSS1-3) and covers drama, music, r e l i g i o n , and s o c i a l systems. The general course objectives are for pupils to be able to: 1. appreciate a great deal of basic s o c i a l systems of the Ghanaian (people) 2. be aware of a culture which i s Ghanaian 3. appreciate the way our people worship develop the awareness that music plays a v i t a l role i n our s o c i e t y . ^ 1 S p e c i a l i s t Music Teachers: The National Academy of Music (NAM), Winneba, Ghana, and the University of Cape Coast (UCC), Cape Coast, Ghana, t r a i n music educators for Ghana. The NAM awards a diploma in music education, as well as a c e r t i f i c a t e . The University of Cape Coast, on the other hand, awards the Bachelor of Music degree with a Diploma in Education, and the Bachelor of Arts (Music) degree as well as a diploma in Education. The University of Ghana also trains 1 •'•Curriculum Research and Development Divis i o n , Ghana Education Service, Cultural Studies Syllabus f o r Primary  Schools. (Accra: Ghana Education Service, 1989), 5. 10 music educators for the nation. In t h i s case, however, students have to obtain a Postgraduate C e r t i f i c a t e in Education after completing a B.Mus or B.A (Mus) degree at the University of Ghana. A teacher holding any one of these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i s considered a s p e c i a l i s t music teacher. General Teachers: Teachers holding a teaching diploma are c e r t i f i e d to teach a l l subject areas in the elementary school. Teachers at t h i s l e v e l would normally have undergone the three-year Post Secondary Teacher Training program or the four-year Post Middle Teacher Training program i n Ghana. Each general teacher i s assigned a grade l e v e l at the elementary school. Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Music Education: This involves the transmission of musical values through oral t r a d i t i o n s . A c t i v i t i e s in Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music education include playing with toy instruments, watching and imitating parents and other adults involved in musical a c t i v i t y i n the community. Speech, rhythm, and movement form the basis of the transmission of musical t r a d i t i o n s . Orff-Schulwerk: Carl Orff, the progenitor of t h i s pedagogy, c a l l e d the Schulwerk an integration of elemental music, 11 speech, and movement. The philosophy behind t h i s teaching style i s emphasis on material not only written for children but also written by children. Singing, speaking, dancing, playing, improvisation, and c r e a t i v i t y form the basis of the Schulwerk. The Schulwerk thus i s described as a process oriented approach to music learning. The c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l implications of learning experiences also form the hallmark of Orff pedagogy. Koda'ly Pedagogy: In t h i s pedagogy the c u l t u r a l background and physiological development of the c h i l d i s considered i n the selection of musical a c t i v i t y . The fundamental philosophy underlying t h i s pedagogy, i s the importance of music l i t e r a c y in the ac q u i s i t i o n of musical independence and the voice as the natural instrument for a l l . Learning experiences, for example, in the use of the moveable "doh" are expected to progress from simple to various degrees of complexity. In t h i s approach the highest q u a l i t y of folk music and art music i s the vehicle to music l i t e r a c y . Primary Classes: This term used i n the questionnaire i s unique to the Ghanaian s i t u a t i o n . The educational system at the elementary school l e v e l consists of a six-year primary program known as Primary Classes 1 -6. It i s in contrast to the North American usage, 12 where Primary refers to the f i r s t three years of elementary schooling. Basic Education: This system has undergone a number of str u c t u r a l changes through the years in educational reforms. It has progressed from a six-year primary program at the elementary school, with a four year middle school program through an experimental six year primary and three year junior secondary program i n the mid-seventies, to a compulsory six year primary program with a three year junior secondary program in 1987. Basic education therefore comes up to a t o t a l of nine years of school. The term, "basic education," as used in t h i s study w i l l be interchangeable with " f i r s t cycle i n s t i t u t i o n " and "elementary schools." General C e r t i f i c a t e of Education: This i s administered at two lev e l s , namely, the Ordinary (0) l e v e l for 16+-year-olds and the Advanced (A) l e v e l for students who anticipate entering degree program at the University. The Ordinary l e v e l students are equivalent to grade ten students in North America and the Advanced are equivalent to those entering University. The examination i s administered under the auspices of the West African Examinations Council for Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Gambia, and L i b e r i a . 13 Rural D i s t r i c t : Subdivision of an administrative area where agriculture i s the predominant occupation and the means of l i v e l i h o o d dependent on the a l l o c a t i o n of rights of land, marketing, and sharing of i t s produce.^ Urban D i s t r i c t : Subdivision of an administrative area where land i s required to provide shelter access routes, commercial and administrative buildings, and recreational f a c i l i t i e s . 1 3 Music Teaching Strategies: Music teaching strategies may be defined as the regular pattern of processes through which the teacher takes the c h i l d in order to develop a conceptual understanding of musical elements. This process consists of learning behaviors arranged in an order that best encourages the a c q u i s i t i o n of musical knowledge. Since decisions need to be taken on these learning behaviors, teaching strategies would involve a pattern of decisions in the a c q u i s i t i o n , retention, and u t i l i z a t i o n of information that serves to meet certain objectives. 1 3 l z E . Acquaye, "Land u t i l i z a t i o n for e f f e c t i v e r u r a l development," in Rural Development i n Ghana, ed. C.K. Brown (Accra: Ghana Uni v e r s i t i e s Press, 1986), 70. 1 3 I b i d . 1 4Jerome S. Bruner, A Study of Thinking (New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc. 1967), 54. 14 Teaching experience: This refers to the number of years spent teaching in the public service since the educator q u a l i f i e d . Region: The land of Ghana has been partitioned into ten regions in accordance with p o l i t i c a l administrative p o l i c i e s and among other factors such as economic planning and converging ethnic groups. This i s to enable central government to decentralize i t s administration. Solfege: A system of musical notation introduced i n the eleventh century by the Benedictine monk, Guido D'Arreso. Another name for solfege i s the moveable doh. Summary This chapter has provided a b r i e f introduction to the l i t e r a t u r e which forms the background information leading to the organization of the study. It has stated the problem and detailed p a r t i c u l a r research questions to be addressed. After o u t l i n i n g the purpose of the study and i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n , t h i s chapter outlined the design of the study. The second chapter w i l l deal with a review of relevant l i t e r a t u r e . The study design and execution w i l l be discussed in the t h i r d chapter. The fourth chapter w i l l •^E. Acquaye, "Land u t i l i z a t i o n for e f f e c t i v e r u r a l development," i n Rural Development i n Ghana, ed. C.K. Brown (Accra: Ghana Univ e r s i t i e s Press, 1986), 64. present the re s u l t s of the study. A discussion of the resu l t s and t h e i r implications for the development of a curriculum model i s discussed in the f i f t h chapter. This f i n a l chapter i s also a summary and conclusion of the study with recommendations for further research. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The intent of thi s study i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and description of the strategies teachers of music in Ghanaian elementary schools employ as a basis for curriculum development. Labuta 1 believes that a curriculum organized around a sequence of musical a c t i v i t i e s i s cl o s e l y related to method. The method used contributes to focussing curriculum i n curriculum development. This review addresses the h i s t o r i c a l background and development of contemporary thought on the concept of music teaching strategies, the Orff-Schulwerk, Kod^ly pedagogy, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music teaching. The review w i l l also address trends in the development of music c u r r i c u l a for Ghanaian elementary schools. Music Teaching Strategies A Conceptual Framework Ef f e c t i v e communication i s the hallmark of e f f e c t i v e teaching. Teaching cannot occur devoid of communication, i n •••Joseph A Labuta, "Curriculum development for music education," i n Symposium i n Music Education: A f e s t s c h r i f t  for Charles Leonhard (Urbana-Champaign: University of I l l i n o i s , 1982), 127. 16 17 fact, i t i s manifest in communication. The teaching strategies the teacher employs serve as a vehicle for communication. These teaching strategies are dependent on the subject matter, a c t i v i t i e s , and materials a v a i l a b l e . The teacher, therefore, needs to select the teaching strategies to be used in the classroom, and t h i s requires planning. The concept of teaching strategy has changed over the years i n sympathy with changes i n s o c i e t a l values, philosophies, and patterns of l i v i n g . A consideration of pedagogy should be encouraged i f in s t r u c t i o n i s to improve. With respect to music ins t r u c t i o n , Hargreaves and Paynter both believe that emphasis on the t r i v i a l i t i e s , what Hargreaves c a l l s the "academic" aspects of music have s t i f l e d the objectives of l i f e l o n g music education.^ Thus, Hargreaves observed that in B r i t i s h music education, students who have no intention of developing careers in music are not interested in the d i s c i p l i n e . Hargreaves also alludes that the status of music education in B r i t i s h public schools i s p a r t l y due to the limited research l i t e r a t u r e on music pedagogy.-^ The style of teaching i s p o s i t i v e l y related to student inter e s t and opinions of the d i s c i p l i n e . Strategies must progress ^David J. Hargreaves, The Developmental Psychology of  Music (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986); J. Paynter, Music in the Secondary School Curriculum (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). •^David J. Hargreaves, The Developmental Psychology of  Music (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 2. 18 with s o c i e t a l changes. Unfortunately t h i s has not been so in the case of music education. Although progressive strategies exist, teachers continue to adhere to t r a d i t i o n a l teacher-centered and d i d a c t i c methods. In Ghana, Mensah-Aggrey conducted a survey on the opinions of Ghanaian secondary school students regarding t h e i r music education programs. 4 Mensah-Aggrey selected schools i n the Central region of Ghana. Students from these selected schools were expected to answer questions on t h e i r teacher's style of teaching, materials, and the content of the curriculum. The re s u l t s of t h i s study showed that the music programs i n Ghanaian secondary schools did not a t t r a c t the students because the students had a low opinion of the subject caused by the teacher's style of teaching, teacher's attitude, lack of teaching aids. At the elementary education l e v e l , Fadlu-Deen experimented with pedagogical approaches to the teaching of music that took into consideration the environment of the West African school child.-> In exploring the success of these experiments, Fadlu-Deen defines implications for music education which seek to draw on the raw materials that are available and relevant i n the Ghanaian society. ^Dorothy Mensah Aggrey, "Opinions of Ghanaian Secondary School Students to Music Education Programs," African Music  Education 3, (A p r i l , 1984), 20. ^ K i t t y Fadlu-Deen, "An Exploration of Music Education for African Children," African Music Education 6, ( A p r i l , 1988) . 19 Other external factors determine the status of music education with reference to the selection of the most appropriate teaching strategies. Doyle and Carter, in t h e i r study of the factors that a f f e c t the teachers choice of a means of i n s t r u c t i o n , maintain that the content of the lesson of any p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e determines the organization of classroom a c t i v i t i e s . ^ Studies have shown that i n general, students spend 60 - 70% of t h e i r time in seatwork and 25 - 35% of t h e i r time in whole class presentation and r e c i t a t i o n . 7 This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident in music i n s t r u c t i o n where much of the time i s spent on the "academics." Doyle and Carter maintain that high levels of involvement in classroom a c t i v i t i e s are p o s i t i v e l y related to retention and r e c a l l . Studies have revealed that in as much as student involvement i s d i r e c t l y related to the teaching strategies of the teacher, p a r t i c u l a r strategies are more e f f e c t i v e in attaining high student involvement. 8 The l e v e l of student involvement from high to low are: small groups, then whole class r e c i t a t i o n s , teacher presentations, seatwork, and f i n a l l y , pupil presentations. Prolonged pupil presentations have been shown to produce low student involvement.^ Doyle and Carter further discuss the W^. Doyle and K.Carter, "Choosing a means of Instruction," in Educators Handbook: A research Perspective ed. V i r g i n i a Richardson- Koehler et a l . , (New York: Longman, 1987), 188-206. 7 I b i d . , 191. 8 I b i d . 20 physical arrangement of the classroom, the complexity of the a c t i v i t y , and the time put into each a c t i v i t y as other factors determining the teacher's s t r a t e g i e s . 1 ^ Approaches to music ins t r u c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y , the Orff Schulwerk, the Kodaly pedagogy, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music inst r u c t i o n , demand varying levels of student involvement, classroom arrangement, complexity of a c t i v i t y and time required for each a c t i v i t y . A H i s t o r i c a l Framework Modern perspectives on the concept of teaching strategies have been influenced by changing philosophies, s o c i e t a l values, and patterns of l i v i n g . 1 1 A h i s t o r i c a l consideration of the development of teaching strategies enhances the understanding of contemporary practices in teaching.* 1 Shenan, i n her discussion of the major approaches to music education presents a h i s t o r i c a l background on the yGump, P.V. "Intra-setting analysis: The t h i r d grade classroom as a special but i n s t r u c t i v e case," in N a t u r a l i s t i c viewpoints i n psychological research ed. E. Williams & H.Rausch (New York: Holt Reinehart and Winston. 1969); P a t r i c i a Shehan, "Major Approaches to Music Education: On Account of Method," Music Educators Journal 72, no. 6 (February, 1986), 27-31. 1 W^. Doyle and K.Carter, "Choosing a means of Instruction," Educators Handbook: A research Perspective ed. V i r g i n i a Richardson- Koehler et a l . , (New York: Longman, 1987), 188-206. 1 : 1 P a t r i c i a Shehan, "Major Approaches to Music Education: On Account of Method," Music Educators Journal 72, no. 6 (February, 1986), 27-31. Ibid., 28. 21 concept of teaching methods. She begins t h i s h i s t o r i c a l account with the teaching strategies of Ar i s t o t l e a n times, in which student a c t i v i t y was given prominence. It was believed then, Shenan relates, that as students became performers, they would develop better c r i t i c a l l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . The Greeks proposed a kinesthetic approach to music i n s t r u c t i o n . The early use of hand signs to represent differences i n scale tones was the Guidonian Hand introduced by the eleventh century Benedictine monk, Guido d'Arrezzo. 1^ This r e l a t i v e s o l f a (moveable doh) f i r s t appeared with six s y l l a b l e s : J0 m • 1 mm m S . m cm FA so Adapted from E. Szonyi, " H i s t o r i c a l Roots of Hungarian Music Education in Other European Pedagogical Systems." Kodaly's  Princi p l e s in Practise, (UNESCO., Corina Press, 1973), 18. Doh replaced ut in the seventeenth century and s i was introduced as the seventh degree of the scale l a t e r i n the same century. John Spencer Curwen popularized t h i s method of music i n s t r u c t i o n in England i n the eighteenth century, and the score reading c a p a b i l i t i e s of amateur English choral groups increased greatly during the period. Zoltan Kodaly - L JE. Szonyi, " H i s t o r i c a l Roots of Hungarian Music Education in Other European Pedagogical Systems," Kodaly's  Princi p l e s in Practice, (UNESCO., Corina Press. 1973); P a t r i c i a Shenan., "Major Approaches to Music Education: On account of method." Music Educators Journal 72, no. 6 (February, 1986), 27-31. 22 studied John Curwen's system of hand signs and incorporated i t into the Hungarian music education system. Hand signs representing the d i f f e r e n t scale tones i s now one of the distinguishing factors of Kodaly pedagogy. The early development of formal music in s t r u c t i o n was centered on supporting the demand for church choir s i n g e r s . 1 4 In Ghana, t h i s began with missionary a c t i v i t y . The e a r l i e s t record of missionary a c t i v i t y was i n 1752 with the a r r i v a l of Rev. Thomas Thompson from America, a missionary with the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. From then on, other missions arrived and began to work through schools and i n technical education. 1^ Formal musical t r a i n i n g i n these schools was aimed at preparing students for church choirs. Song books served as guides in the study of notation with oral imitation as the p r i n c i p a l teaching strategy. Performance was the major channel to musical understanding and l i t e r a c y . This practice i s s t i l l very popular among choral groups in Ghana today. The value that educational reformers of the eighteenth and nineteenth century placed on the educational 1 4 P a t r i c i a Shehan, "Major Approaches to Music Education: On Account of Method," Music Educators Journal 72, no 6 (February, 1986), 27-31; J.H. Nketia, "New Perspectives in Music Education," ISME Yearbook V (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western Au s t r a l i a , 1978) 104-111; Gustav Twerefoo, "Music Educators Materials for a Changing African Society," ISME Yearbook VIII, (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1981), 74-79. 15W. E. F. Ward, A History of Ghana. (London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1967), 200. 23 c a p a b i l i t i e s of music restored the d i s c i p l i n e to the schools. Jean-Jacque Rousseau espoused the experimental nature in music learning displayed i n play. The learning environment was to be as natural and as unrestricted as possible. In Shenan's view, Spencer of the nineteenth century s i m i l a r l y believed that students should be given the opportunity to explore and experience t h e i r prepared learning environments.* 7 She does not however explain what she means by "prepared natural environments." A review of the h i s t o r i c a l development of music in s t r u c t i o n cannot, according to Shenan, eschew the contribution of Johann Hienrich Pestalozzi. He stressed the value of spontaneity in singing and drawing on the music which i s most natural to the c h i l d . The strategies of Pestalozzi that are most evident in music i n s t r u c t i o n today include sequential presentation of concepts from simple to complex, the repeated study of lesson material through incessant exercise and d r i l l , and the animated delivery of information by teachers ... Most importantly, the emphasis on extensive sensory experiences and learning-by-doing . 1 8 P r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and manual s k i l l s had a premium i n John Dewey's school of thought. Dewey's ideas were 1 D P a t r i c i a Shenan., "Major Approaches to Music Education: On Account of Method," Music Educators Journal 72, no. 6 (February, 1986), 27-31. 1 7 I b i d . , 28. 1 8 I b i d . 24 influenced by his pragmatic philosophy. This philosophy of the twentieth century complemented what had been occurring in the l a s t couple of centuries i n education. The movement from d i d a c t i c methods to discovery learning encouraged child-centered learning. It was the inte r e s t of the c h i l d that determined the curriculum. For the purposes of t h i s study, h i s t o r i c a l and conceptual l i t e r a t u r e pertaining to the Orff-Schulwerk, Kodaly pedagogy, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education w i l l be reviewed. The Orff-Schulwerk A H i s t o r i c a l Framework Carl Orff, the progenitor of the Orff-Schulwerk was born i n Munich, July 1895. He came from a Bavarian family of Army o f f i c e r s . In order to adequately perceive the Orff-Schulwerk, i t i s important to address the l i f e of the progenitor i n the evolution of the approach to music education. Andreas Liess, i n a study on the l i f e of Carl Orff, recounts Orff playing with his mother, a l l the pianoforte transcriptions of the symphonic and operatic music within his g r a s p . ^ Liess also reports that Orff sang duets with his mother. He created stories by the time he was ten years of age. He wrote puppet plays and composed ^Andreas Liess, Carl Orff. (London: Calders and Boyers, 1966), 12. 25 music for publication. In 1917, Orff i s reported to have joined the army. Liess relates that t h i s was a period of emotional c r i s i s which involved a complete change in his work.2u m 1919, Orff i s reported to have returned to Munich to devote himself e n t i r e l y to composition. Another work that addresses the history behind the Orff-Schulwerk in the l i f e of Carl Orff i s Jane Frazee's book Discovering Orff. In t h i s work, Frazee, in collaboration with Kent Kreuter, report that the Orff-Schulwerk began in the early twenties, at a time when physical a c t i v i t y , such as sport, dance, and gymnastics were in vogue. Carl Orff was attracted to and inspired by the work of Mary Wigman, a dance teacher, and Rudolf van Laban, a choreographer. In 1924, Orff founded the Guentherschule, a school of dance, gymnastics, and music with Dorothee G'unther. Frazee states, These two women (Mary Wigman & Dorothee Giinther) were re v o l u t i o n a l i z i n g dance in Germany,... Out of t h i s association, no doubt f u e l l e d by the excitement born of much talk and collaboration, came the decision in 1923 to found the Guntherschule in Munich, place where young aspiring musicians could deepen and enrich t h e i r musical understanding through a synthesis of music and dance. Gunild Keetman, a student of the Guentherschule i n the mid-twenties became Orff's collaborator i n preparing the f i r s t z u I b i d . , 15. ^ J ane Frazee and Kent Kreuter, Discovering Orff: A  Curriculum for Music Teachers (New York: Schott Music Corporation, 1987), 9. 26 writing about the Orff Schulwerk i n 1930. This was c a l l e d Orff-Schulwerk: Musik fur Kinder (Music for Children). Based on his b e l i e f that children should create t h e i r own music, Orff developed an instrumental ensemble that would serve t h i s purpose. With the advice of Curt Sach, an ethnomusicologist, and Carl Maendler, a harpsichord and pianoforte builder, Orff created a wide range of percussion instruments. Following the design of an African xylophone given to Orff, Meandler constructed the f i r s t Orff xylophone. The t y p i c a l Orff ensemble included tuned mallet percussion instruments, such as xylophones, metailophones, and glockenspiels; melodic instruments were represented by a quartet of recorders (soprano, a l t o , tenor, and bass); bass instruments (timpani, c e l l o s , and v i o l a da gamba) were supported bass mallet percussion instruments; the plucked stringed instruments were guitars and lutes; and the rhythmic instruments included a wide variety of untuned percussion such as hand drums, cymbals, triangles, and b e l l s . National Socialism began i n Germany i n 1933. In a short period of time the Guentherschule and a l l that i t stood for was destroyed and most of the instruments were t o t a l l y damaged. Frazee does not t e l l us what happened to Orff during t h i s period. Apparently, during the 1936 Olympic games, Frazee recounts that Orff was asked to compose music for the "opening f e s t i v i t i e s . " 2 2 This turned 2 2 I b i d . , 10. 27 out to be a professional music and dance group, i n which thousands of children participated. Annemarie Schambeck, Director of school broadcasts in Austria, heard t h i s music twelve years l a t e r , and asked Orff i f he could compose music that young children could play. Carl Orff took up the challenge and t h i s led to the r e b i r t h of the Orff-Schulwerk i n 1948. The r e b i r t h generated the integration of movement, singing, and playing with more emphasis on singing. Rudolf Kirmeyer, Gunild Keetman, and Carl Orff began to work on the f i r s t radio broadcasts, which were to span f i v e years (1950-1954), and resulted in the f i v e volumes c a l l e d Orf f-Schulwerk: Musik fur Kinder (Music for Children). The growing i n t e r e s t in the Orff-Schulwerk has led to the t r a n s l a t i o n of the approach i n German, English, Swedish, Dutch, Latin-American Portuguese, Japanese, Spanish, French, Welch, Czechoslovakia, Chinese, Danish, Korean, I t a l i a n , and an adaptation for the United States. Supplements and other versions have come from B r a z i l , Ghana, B o l i v i a , and Estonia. ^ In summation, the Orff-Schulwerk grew out of work for and with children. This approach to music education stimulates children's c r e a t i v i t y and t h e i r interest in music. It makes use of material created by children and for children. In fact, the d i s t i n c t i v e feature i n t h i s approach i s that a l l teaching material should be written not merely Ibid., 5. 28 for children but from the child ' s point of view. This i s what Carl Orff the progenitor of the approach, c a l l s "elemental" music, speech, and movement. The s i m p l i c i t y of t h i s approach and materials u t i l i z e d within i t are important factors that distinguish i t from other approaches to music education. A Conceptual Framework A study was conducted by Margaret Siemens, to determine the differences between the Orff-Schulwerk and t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods with respect to music achievement, intere s t , attitude, and feelings of success i n music p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 2 4 The subjects in t h i s study included 458 f i f t h grade children of which 233 pupils from two schools formed the experimental group, and 225 pupils from three schools formed the control group. Siemens distinguishes the t r a d i t i o n a l approach as one that has been i n practice for many years and the Orff approach as one that was i n i t i a t e d i n the selected schools three years e a r l i e r as a p i l o t project. She does not, however, define what she means by the t r a d i t i o n a l approach. The researcher found that the Orff approach generated more student interest but did not improve musical achievement scores to a greater extent than did t r a d i t i o n a l methods. Z i*Margaret T. Siemens, "A Comparison of Orff and Tr a d i t i o n a l Instructional Methods in Music," Journal of  Research i n Music Education 17, no. 3 ( F a l l , 1969), 272-285. 29 Munsen embarked on a study of the description and analysis of the Orff-Schulwerk program of music education.25 She addressed the following questions: 1. What are the classroom dynamics? 2. (a) What i s the l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n in musical a c t i v i t y ? (b) What i s the attitude of students towards those a c t i v i t i e s ? 3. What are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of question/answer improvisation? 4. To what extent do the improvisations of students in grades 1,3, and 5, d i f f e r ? Munsen drew the following conclusions: 1. U t i l i z i n g both quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e techniques i n a dramatic portrayal of the classroom provided a more representative picture of the program. 2. The s t y l e was d i r e c t yet included a high l e v e l of student t a l k . 3. The approach emphasized singing and playing in Grades 1 and 3, and playing l i s t e n i n g and c r e a t i v i t y in grade 5. 4. Students r e f l e c t e d increasingly negative attitudes towards music and musical a c t i v i t y from grades 1-5. " S y l v i a Cossette Munsen, "A Description and Analysis of an Orff-Schulwerk Program of Music Education," (Ed.D. diss. , University of I l l i n o i s Urbana-Champaign, 1986). 30 5. The a b i l i t y of students to improvise in question and answer format appeared to peak at grade 3. Frazee, in her curriculum for music teachers, perceives the elements of the Orff-Schulwerk i n three dimensions: Orff media, which includes speech, movement, song, instruments, and l i s t e n i n g ; Orff pedagogy, which includes imitation, exploration, l i t e r a c y , and improvisation; and f i n a l l y Orff theory, which includes o s t i n a t i , melody, pedals and borduns, moving borduns, and other accompaniments such as the use of the dominant major, or minor t r i a d , and the subdominant in minor.^6 From the review of conceptual l i t e r a t u r e , i t may be concluded that the development of the Orff-Schulwerk curriculum begins with rhythm and introduces children to melody, texture, form, dynamics, and timbre through speech, music, and movement. The Orff-Schulwerk i s intended for group work. I t involves a high l e v e l of involvement on the part of learners and teachers a l i k e . Everyone i s involved i n some musical a c t i v i t y throughout the lesson. The underlying p r i n c i p l e s of the Orff-Schulwerk are: a) the integration of performing arts--music, movement, speech, and drama; b) c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l dimensions of music learning ^ DJane Frazee and Kent Kreuter, Discovering Orff: A  Curriculum for Music Teachers (New York: Schott Music Corporation, 1987). 31 experiences; c) elemental music making in which the c h i l d i s given the opportunity for improvisation and c r e a t i v i t y . Kodaly Pedagogy A H i s t o r i c a l Framework Bidner, i n her study of the folk songs approach to music reading for upper elementary levels based on the Kodaly method, reviews a h i s t o r i c a l background of the Kodaly pedagogy. 2 7 Zoltan Kodaly, born in December, 1882, in the town of Kecskemet, Hungary, studied music at the Franz L i s z t Academy of Music, Budapest, from 1900 to 1904. Bidner reports that Kodaly, having received a degree from the Pazmany University i n 1905, returned to the d i s t r i c t of Galanta, where he had l i v e d as a boy for seven years since 1885, and c o l l e c t e d 150 folksongs. In 1905, KodSly completed his doctoral thesis, e n t i t l e d , "A magyar nepal strofaszerkezete" (The S t r o f i c Structure of Hungarian Folk song) to receive the Doctor of Philosophy degree i n 1906 from Pazmany U n i v e r s i t y . 2 8 Zoltan Kodaly began his work in music education aft e r deliberating on the qua l i t y of music education i n Hungary, his home country. Kodaly's main concern was for Hungarian 2 7 S a r a h S. Bidner, "Folksongs Approach to Music Reading for Upper Elementary Levels Based on the K o d c t l y Method," (Ph.D. di s s . , Louisiana State University and Agriculture college, 1978). 2 8 I b i d . , 10. audiences to be raised from the "primitive state of musical comprehension."^9 The average Hungarian could not follow the musical structure i n a piece beyond a short song. This concern for low musical conservation was raised i n a speech Kodaly gave i n 1939 in which he argued that the nation needed to express i t s e l f in a higher art form, and thi s had to be achieved by r a i s i n g the c u l t u r a l l e v e l of music i n the nation. Kodaly, therefore, embarked on a campaign to promote the adoption and enjoyment of musical values among Hungarian peoples. 3^ Bidner states that the rationale behind the pedagogy i s the development of musically l i t e r a t e children. In a biography on the progenitor of the approach, Bidner proposes that the pedagogy began with Kodaly's early research i n folk music and the part that both Bartok and Kodaly together played i n establishing the study of folk music as an essential part of the Hungarian music curriculum. Form 1906 to 1913, Kodaly and Bartok, c o l l e c t e d over 3,000 folksongs. This research project had to be discontinued because of the f i r s t World War, but then began again aft e r the war and led to the publication of Corpus musicae popularies Hungaricae (Collection of Hungarian Folk Music) 2 9 I b i d . , 7. 3 0 I b i d . , 8. 3 1 I b i d . , 11. Much of what constitutes Kodaly's work today may be attributed to the work of his students at the academy, one of these being Jeno Adam. Kodaly encouraged Adam to attend a seminar by German musician F r i t z Jode i n Saarbrucken. After attending t h i s seminar, Adam inv i t e d Jode to present a workshop to Hungarian music educators, at the Magyar Enektanitok Orszagos Egyesulete (National Society for Hungarian Music Education) in 1938. Bidner alludes Kodaly's acquaintance with r e l a t i v e solmization to t h i s meeting. Adam's most valuable contribution to the development of the approach was in the decision taken with Kodaly to endorse a s p e c i f i c method for teaching music contained in the co l l e c t i o n s of song books published by Kodaly and his stude n t s . 3 2 Bidner writes that Adam published Mddszeres  enektanitas a r e l a t i v szolmizacio alapjan (Systematic Instruction of Singing Based on Relative Solmization) i n 1944. The English tr a n s l a t i o n edition, Growing i n Music  with Moveable Do, was published i n 1971. Bidner also recounts that, as Kodaly's ideas began to be accepted i n Hungarian schools, post war changes were manifested i n the socioeconomic p o l i c i e s of Hungary. I t was compulsory for a l l Hungarian children to go to school. Prior to 1945, 10 percent of Hungarian children did not go to school. Kodaly and Marta Nemeszzeghy persuaded the Ministry of Education to allow the teaching of music i n one Ibid., 15. class every day in Kecskemet as an experiment. The success of t h i s school led to the beginning of a series of what was to be c a l l e d singing primary schools in Hungary. Singing primary schools were l i k e regular primary schools, but according to Bidner, with additional music i n s t r u c t i o n . Regular primary schools provided music in s t r u c t i o n for the eight years of a Hungarian c h i l d ' s primary education and two years i n secondary s c h o o l . 3 3 Kodaly composed many choral works but s p e c i a l l y valued those he composed for children. Kodcfly's influence on Hungarian music education, which began in about 1908, grew and spread with concerts of children's choruses across the nation. T h i r t y - f i v e years after Kodaly's 1939 speech Lois Chosky writes of Hungary, "A man (in Hungary) without a musical education i s considered i l l i t e r a t e . Almost a l l play instruments; almost a l l sing. Concert h a l l s are f u l l . " 3 ^ While t h i s may be attributed to cooperative e f f o r t s of many Hungarians, i t i s for the most part due to the work of Zoltan Kodaly. 3 3 I b i d . , 18. 3 4 L o i s Chosky, The Kodaly Method: Comprehensive Music  Education from Infant to Adult (Enqlewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1974), 7. A Conceptual Framework The Kodaly approach to music teaching has grown out of folk music research. Lois Chosky, i n her book The Kodaly Method, addresses the concept of the approach. Chosky perceives the approach in three dimensions: sequence, tools materials. She, as do Sinor, and Vikar, views the approach as a child-developmental learning sequence and advocates the c h i l d ' s exposure to musical experiences at the e a r l i e s t possible age.3-* She states, The child-developmental approach to sequence within a subject requires the arrangement of the subject matter into patterns that follow normal c h i l d a b i l i t i e s at various stages of growth.36 Within t h i s framework of c h i l d development, Chosky outlines the implication for rhythmic and melodic development. She d e t a i l s p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of musical development that must determine any developmental sequence. They are: 1. The range i n which a young c h i l d can sing songs comfortably and c o r r e c t l y . . . . 2. ...New tonal patterns should be approached through songs in which the i n t e r v a l occurs i n a descending melody l i n e . 3. Small skips are easier for children to sing in than small steps... 4. In terms of range, one study has shown that l e f t to his own devices the young c h i l d w i l l most often p i t c h 3 ^ L o i s Chosky, The Kodaly Method: Comprehensive Music  Eduction from Infant to Adult. (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1988), 12; Jean Sinor, "The ideas of K o d c i l y in America," Music Educators Journal. 72, 6 (February, 1986), 32-37.; Laszlo Vikar, "Folkmusic research and music education," International Music Education. 10, (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1983), 31-35 Chosky, 12. the upper note of the minor t h i r d around F . Thus the keys of D, E and E would seem to be indicated for pitching teacher i n i t i a t e d rote songs. ' 36 The tools for thi s approach according to Chosky, are the moveable-do system, the use of rhythmic durational s y l l a b l e s , and hand s i g n s . 3 8 The moveable-do system was introduced by the Benedictine monk, Guido d'Arezzo in the eleventh century. Emile Joseph Cheve(1804-1864) introduced an aid to the teaching and writing of rhythms which was la t e r modified for use i n Hungary. They are: CO t«- t i C O - a h t W - O - / a . fc>'- l\'-ti - «"i S y w - C O - f>a Kodaly modified the Curwen system of hand signs by introducing the upward pointed index finger to indicate t i , the seventh degree of the scale tones, and the downward pointed index finger for tan, the lowered t i by a half step. S i m i l a r l y Kodaly introduced the accidentals fah and f i with thumbs pointed down and up respectively. "37 Ibid., 13. 38 Ibid., 14-15. Curwen Signs Adapted Kodaly Signs F i n a l l y , Chosky states that the materials of the Koda'ly approach should come from three sources. These are: 1. Authentic childrens games and nursery songs 2. Authentic folk music 3. Good composed music, i . e . , music written by :ognized composers. * recognj In summation, the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the Koda'ly approach are, a) a child-developmental learning sequence and advocates the child' s exposure to musical experiences at the e a r l i e s t possible age, b) every one i s equally e n t i t l e d to share in musical culture, 40 c) the voice, unaccompanied by J y l b i d . , 17. 4 ^ L o i s Chosky, The Kodaly Method: Comprehensive Music  Eduction from Infant to Adult (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1988), 12; Jean Sinor, "The ideas of Kodaly i n America," Music Educators Journal. 72, 6 (Feb. 1986), 32-37.; Laszlo Vikar, "Folkmusic Research and Music Education," International Music Education. 10, (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1983), 31-35. 38 other instruments, 4 1 d) the folk, songs of a p a r t i c u l a r culture are the musical mother tongue of the people within the c u l t u r e , 4 2 e) the use of the r e l a t i v e scale system in musical learning and the p r i n c i p l e of experiences before notation. Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Methods of Music Education A H i s t o r i c a l Perspective Older generations have from time immemorial passed on musical t r a d i t i o n s to younger generations through oral transmission. This method of teaching music has not changed over the years, but the attitude of people towards the transmission of musical t r a d i t i o n s has changed. Technological advancement and c u l t u r a l dynamism has had i t s effects in the manifestation of the educated, westernized Ghanaian e l i t e . This, however, has led to the deterioration of the knowledge of indigenous c u l t u r a l and musical values among the educated Ghanaian e l i t e . Nketia points out the differences in attitudes toward the education of state musicians in t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s . 4 3 People are 4 1"Questions and Answers: Congregation of the Arts," Zoltan Kodaly i n North America (Toronto: The Avondale Press. 1986), 13. 4 2 Z o l t a n Kod'aly, "Folksongs: C o l l e c t i n g them and using them in Composition." Address to Convocation on the occasion of receiving the degree of Doctor of Music at the University of Toronto, July 7, 1966. Zoltan Kodaly in North America. (Toronto: The Avondale Press, 1986) . 43J.H.Kwabena Nketia, "The ro l e of the Drummer in Akan Society." African Music 1, (1954), 34-43. 39 turning towards more economically lucrat i v e professions and the older generations are encouraging i t . Shenan, i n her study of oral transmission among selected Asian cultures, i d e n t i f i e s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s t y l e of music i n s t r u c t i o n with African t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s . 4 4 The teaching of music in Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s has always occurred within the context of culture. Since the study of music i n t r a d i t i o n a l Ghanaian societ i e s i s e s s e n t i a l l y o r a l , a consideration of i t s implication must be addressed i n r e l a t i o n to i t s h i s t o r i c a l framework. Literature on oral transmission has been descriptive and do not show a perceptible change in the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the strategy. A conceptual framework The nature of the method of teaching music i n Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , that i s , oral transmission, may be described as informal. It i s informal because i t exists within the context of everyday l i f e . In Ghana, the teaching of music i s part of the s o c i a l i z i n g process, and the channels of transmission of musical a c t i v i t i e s are through parents, 4^ through apprenticeship, 4^ or through playmates. 4 7 4 4 P a t r i c i a Shehan, "The Oral Transmission of Music i n Selected Asian Cultures," Council for Research i n Music  Education, 92 (Summer 1987), 1-6. 4^Adolphus Turkson, "Music and Games in Early African Childhood Education" African Music Education. 7 ( A p r i l , 1989); Allan Merriam, The Anthropology of Music. (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1964), 146. 40 Oral transmission of musical nuances means rote learning. In t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , the development of a good ear i s essential to the learning process. P a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the method include spontaneity in musical expression, which begins at the e a r l i e s t possible age and continues throughout l i f e t i m e , imitation, the use of vocables, memorization, and c r e a t i v i t y . Merriam believes that close attention has not been given to teaching methods in t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s by ethnomusicologists and educators. 4 8 Merriam argues that, although i t i s assumed that t h i s i s the work of the ethnomusicologist, i t i s the work of the music educator. Thus, the conceptual framework w i l l have to be considered in terms of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o r a l t r a d i t i o n strategies, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r methods and p r i n c i p l e s within the approach, and the outcome of the approach. As music i s associated with s o c i a l l i f e i n Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , musicianship may be ascribed or achieved depending on the s o c i a l arrangement of the society in question. The context of the study of music depends on whether a musician i s ascribed or achieved. In s o c i e t i e s were musicianship i s ascribed, the study of music occurs 4 ^ A l l a n Merriam, The Anthropology of Music. (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1964), 146. 4 7Adolphus Turkson, "Music and Games in Early African Childhood Education." African Music Education. 7, (April 1989) . 4 8 A l l a n Merriam, The Anthropology of Music (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1964), 155. 41 within families or clans, where older members of the families pass on the musical t r a d i t i o n . Achieved musicianship occurs within the context of apprenticeship, where a c h i l d may study under a master musician. Whether achieved or ascribed, children also learn musical t r a d i t i o n s from one another. In considering the conceptual framework, of Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music education, i t i s important to i d e n t i f y i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Informal oral transmission of musical knowledge i s based on observation and active p a r t i c i p a t i o n . An in d i v i d u a l can achieve musicianship by excelling in par t i c i p a t o r y s i t u a t i o n s . Oral music t r a d i t i o n s are structured such that the learning process takes place at the time of the event. In a s t o r y - t e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n , members of the audience observe and p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y in songs int e r j e c t e d into the narration. Music education in t r a d i t i o n a l Ghanaian societies i s a continuous process and i s therefore present i n the l i f e l o n g education of the c h i l d . Chernoff writes that to the Dagombas of northern Ghana, "...drumming has no end and no one can know a l l drumming. Each drummer can learn only his extent and even old drummers characterize themselves as s t i l l learning more."4^ ^John M i l l e r Chernoff, "Music-making Children of A f r i c a " The Orff Echo 21, no. 3.(Spring, 1989), 2-5. 42 Imitation i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of oral t r a d i t i o n s i n the study of music i n Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s . Imitation involves observation and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and thus, levels of student involvement are very high. This, in part, accounts for the f l o u r i s h i n g musical t r a d i t i o n s in such s o c i e t i e s . Jones comments on the imitative musical behavior of the Ewe of Ghana. 5^ Nketia further espouses imitation as a strategy in the Akan music educational s i t u a t i o n s . 5 1 F i n a l l y , Chernoff writes that Dagomba children learn t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l dances by watching and l a t e r p r a c t i s i n g when they meet t h e i r friends to play i n the evening.-*2 In t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education, i t i s essential that teaching begins at the e a r l i e s t possible age. There are musical genres for every stage of human l i f e . Chernoff writes, "When a drummer's wife gives b i r t h , he takes a drum outside his house and beats i n praise of God and of the chiefs of Yendi. When the c h i l d i s three years old, his father w i l l make a small drum by attaching two half calabashes back-to-back by simply covering a metal with skin" for the c h i l d . 5 3 Turkson also writes that a child ' s A.M. Jones, Studies in African Music (London: Oxford University Press. 1959), 70-71. 5 1J.H. Kwabena Nketia, "The ro l e of the Drummer in Akan society." African Music 1, (1954): 34-43. 5 2John M i l l e r Chernoff, "Music-making Children of A f r i c a . " The Orff Echo 21, 3 (Spring, 1989), 4. 5 3 I b i d . , 3. 43 f i r s t experience with music i s through the singing of cradle songs by the mother or older s i s t e r s f or the purpose of comforting the c h i l d or putting the c h i l d to sleep.54 Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education make use of vocables i n the study of rhythmic patterns for dances and other musical types. Memorization i s also an important feature of t r a d i t i o n a l Ghanaian methods of music education. The absence of written repertoire forces the musician to mentally store a wide range of musical material from which to draw during performance. The aim of t h i s method of music education i s c r e a t i v i t y . Improvisation i s highly encouraged as the student builds a repertoire of musical materials. Out of th i s improvisation, complex compositions emerge that often amaze the older people in the community. One example i s , Atikatika i s a dance created by the children of the Dagomba community,--the children planned the music, songs, and dancing.5^ The r o l e of the teacher i n t h i s method i s simply to motivate, guide, and reward the students accordingly, for t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n of musicianship and appropriate performance practices.56 Motivation may be in the form of 5 4Adolphus Turkson, "Music and Games in Early African Childhood Education," African Music Education 7 (April 1989), 3. 55john M i l l e r Chernoff, "Music-making Children of A f r i c a , " The Orff Echo 21, no. 3 (Spring, 1989), 4. 44 the continual singing of songs by mothers to children (mothers are part of the teaching process in these communities), or scolding, warning, r i d i c u l e , punishment, and the use of sarcasm. The teacher demonstrates and regulates the random responses of the students i n order to guide them towards musicianship. Rewards may be a word of praise or encouragement or g i f t s as the s o c i e t a l norms demand. Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education can be applied to formal music i n s t r u c t i o n . Being e s s e n t i a l l y o r a l , they do not in themselves contribute to the t o t a l musical education of the c h i l d . As in language acquisition, we are considered l i t e r a t e when we can read and write a language. The researcher would l i k e to argue that t h i s i s essen t i a l i n developing a musically l i t e r a t e i n d i v i d u a l , and i t i s in thi s l i g h t that we turn to both the Orff-Schulwerk and Kodaly pedagogy to f u l f i l l t h i s . Adapting and Combining Different Music Teaching Strategies Adapting and combining d i f f e r e n t approaches to music education has been the subject of debate among many music educators throughout the world. Some hold the opinion that eclectism in teaching strategies presents a more comprehensive approach to teaching and, best serves the D D A l l a n Merriam, The Anthropology of Music (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1964), 151; Adolphus Turkson, "Music and Games i n Early African Childhood Education," African Music Education 7 (Ap r i l , 1989). needs of the c h i l d . 3 ' This section w i l l consider opinions on the adaptation of teaching strategies to s u i t d i f f e r e n t environments and opinions on the combination of music teaching strategies for use i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n . This i s being done in view of the fact that the second purpose of t h i s study i s to draw on the methods of the Orff-Schulwerk, Kodaly pedagogy, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education i n the development of a curriculum framework. The p r i n c i p l e of c h i l d development and the role that music plays within i t i s embodied i n a l l three approaches to music education under discussion i n thi s study. The approach which now bears the name of Kodaly was i n i t i a l l y designed for Hungarian people and as Kodaly stated, "...the Hungarian people have provided one of the best examples of how to use folksongs for educational purposes."58 The use of the word "example" here supports the p r i n c i p l e of adaptation. Kodaly further suggested that " . . . t h i s foundation may vary with d i f f e r e n t peoples. ...international motives (therein) v e r i f y the unity of mankind. However, 5 7Michael Mark, Contemporary Music Education 2d ed. (London: Schirmer Books, 1986.); Grace Nash, "Media for Human Development," i n The E c l e c t i c Curriculum i n American  Music Education: Contributions of Dalcroze, Kodcily and Orff ed. Landis and Carder (Music Educators National Conference, 1972). D O Z o l t a n Kodaly, "Folk song in Pedagogy," in The E c l e c t i c Curriculum i n American Music Education: Contributions of Dalcroze, Kodaly and Orff ed. Landis and Carder (Music Educators National Conference, 1972), 141. 46 since the singing games of every country are strongly dependent on t h e i r respective languages, even they are colored with n a t i o n a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . " 5 9 Kodaly suggested that each country draws on i t own folksongs t r a d i t i o n for use in music education. He did not suggest that Hungarian folk songs should be transported into another culture. Nketia further strengthens his argument by r e f e r r i n g to the work of Kodaly with projections for Ghanaian music education.60 He suggests the need for music education to seek to "enable the musician and music lover to grow as c i t i z e n s of t h e i r own respective countries and as c i t i z e n s of interacting world communities."61 Music educators in A f r i c a , interested i n introducing western music i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y , have therefore, a wide range of materials they can use and adapt. Nketia states that "although there i s a growing accumulation of materials on African cultures through f i e l d recordings and ethnomusicological description of music, these do not constitute c u r r i c u l a materials u n t i l they are properly sorted out and systemized for i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes."62 With respect to the Orff-Schulwerk, Orff stated Delegates to international conferences held at the 5^ 'Ibid., 142. 60J.H. Kwabena Nketia, "New Perspectives i n Music Education." ISME Yearbook V (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1978), 104-111. 6 1 l b i d . , 109. 6 2 i b i d . , 110. 47 Mozarteum became acquainted with the Schulwerk and decided to make use of i t i n t h e i r own countries.... It (was) using a country's f o l k l o r e , i t s nursery rhymes, and children's songs in the same way as the German ones were used in the o r i g i n a l . 3 Amoaku and May have suggested s i m i l a r i t i e s in the African t r a d i t i o n a l system of music education and the Orff-Schulwerk.^ 4 Amoaku supports the adaptation of the Orff-Schulwerk for use in Ghanaian music education. May, on the other hand, considers the t r a d i t i o n a l system of music education in Ghana to be a l i v i n g Schulwerk.^6 Arguments against the adaptation of these "progressive methods into African music education" are raised by New.**7 He maintains that the adaptation of methods to s u i t the African s i t u a t i o n i s "no answer to the problem of what to do for the average adolescent in the music c l a s s . " New further argues that, Orff's t r a i n i n g in rhythms seems l o g i c a l and progressive on paper, because New believes that educators 6 3 C a r l Orff, "The Schulwerk- Its Origins and Aims," in The E c l e c t i c Curriculum in American Music Education:  Contributions of Dalcroze, Kodaly and Orff ed. Landis and Carder (Music Educators National Conference, 1972), 160. 64W.K. Amoaku, "Parallelisms i n the Tr a d i t i o n a l African system of music education and Orff-Schulwerk," Journal of  the International Library of African Music 6, no. 2, (1982): 116-119.; Jan May, "Kopeyia, Ghana: The Living Schulwerk" The Orff Echo 21, no. 2 (1989): 10-11. 65Amoaku, "Parallelisms," 118. 6 6May, "Kopeyia:Ghana," 10. 67L.H.New, "Progressive Western Methods and Traditional African Methods of Teaching Music: A comparison," International Journal of Music Education (May, 1983): 25 -31. 48 need to take into consideration the fact that the African c h i l d ' s f i r s t rhythmical experiences defy accurate notation. In New's opinion, an adaptation of these progressive methods would require v i s i o n and f l e x i b i l i t y on the part of African music teachers, headteachers, and administrators a l i k e . The combination of these approaches also y i e l d s diverse opinions. In North America, the issue of combining the Orff-Schulwerk and Kodaly pedagogy has been compounded by people who t r y to combine them and yet have very l i t t l e knowledge of the two methods.68 j n c e r t a i n cases these two approaches have been referred to as interchangeable. Denise Bacon, in her discussion of the use of Orff with Kodaly, states that educators interested in combining the two f i n d d i f f i c u l t y in deciding how to do it.69 Bacon argues that " . . . i t i s far more sensible to use Orff with Kodaly by making Kodaly the base and Orff, the f r u i t of the labor." She maintains that Orff should not be put into a sequentially structured mould, but feels that Orff w i l l accomplish i t s objectives more successfully i f i t i s used in conjunction with Kodaly as a base. Bacon sees Orff and Kodaly as two sides to the same coin. She solves her debate by "doing Kodaly one day a week and Orff one day a week."7^ D°Michael Mark, Contemporary Music Education. 2d. ed. (London: Schirmer Books, 1986), 131. 6 9Denice Bacon. "Using Orff with Koda'ly," Muzart. XXI no.5, (April-May, 1969), 45-47 . / uDenice Bacon, "Kodaly and Orff: Report from Europe." Music Educators Journal LV, no. 8 ( A p r i l , 1969) : 55. 49 Whereas Bacon sees a potential i n the combination of the Orff-Schulwerk and Kodaly pedagogy, Arnold Walter thinks otherwise. In Walter's opinion, "...the Orff approach i s the nearest thing to inci d e n t a l learning a school can provide.... The Schulwerk does not attempt to teach a l l about music. On the contrary, i t leaves a great deal out.... It i s based on the premise that children can assimilate music in exactly the same way that they learn to speak. If that premise i s f a l s e , the Schulwerk has obviously l i t t l e value. If the premise i s correct, we ought to be consistent, we ought to keep the pedagogical framework i n t a c t . " 7 1 Nash argues for combining d i f f e r e n t approaches to music education. She writes "we need both Orff and Kodaly, and Laban as well -- not only to educate our children but f i r s t to restore our f i v e year olds to mental health, and then to help them b u i l d towards sensitive, complete adults even musically l i t e r a t e ones." 7 2 In a chapter on teaching methods in Mark's Contemporary  Music Education, Mark discusses the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Orff-Schulwerk and the Kodaly pedagogy that make i t possible to combine them. 7 3 Some of these s i m i l a r i t i e s may also be observed in Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music 7 1 A r n o l d Walter, "The Orff-Schulwerk in American Education." Orff Re-echoes 1 (1977): 23. 7 2Grace Nash, "Media for Human Development." The  E c l e c t i c Curriculum in American Music Education:  Contributions of Dalcroze, Kodaly and Orff (Music Educators National Conference, 1972), 173. 7 3 M i c h e a l Mark, Contemporary Music Education. 2nd. ed. (London: Schirmer Books, 1986.), 133. 50 education making i t possible to combine the three. The s i m i l a r i t i e s Mark puts forward w i l l therefore be considered in r e l a t i o n to the Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education. 1) Bodily movement i s an integral part of a l l three methods. Externalizing musical awareness in the nature of dance gestures in performance and games that require body movement i s t y p i c a l of Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music education. Orff-Schulwerk uses bodily movement for creating music, and Kodaly incorporates movement as an aid to reading music. 2) The c h i l d i s at the center of a l l three methods of music education. The stages of c h i l d development determine the music the c h i l d w i l l be able to create. 3) The c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l heritage of the learner are ess e n t i a l in the selection of repertoire for the c h i l d ' s music education and are an important component to the three methods. 4) A l l three methods place importance in the development of the voice. In the Kodaly pedagogy, unaccompanied voice i s considered to be the chil d ' s natural instrument. The Orff-Schulwerk uses speaking and singing i n conjunction with drama and dance. In Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music education, the voice i s developed with dance, music, and drama. 5) Group a c t i v i t y i s a predominant feature i n music education for a l l three approaches. The children are taught 51 i n groups, and ensemble music i s important to a l l three approaches. 6) Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these methods i s rhythmic and melodic improvisation. In Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music education and Orff-Schulwerk, these are thought to be essential for developing musical f e e l i n g and c r e a t i v i t y . In Kodaly pedagogy, they are thought to be important for the development of musical f e e l i n g and reading s k i l l s . 7) A l l three approaches stress the development of musical vocabulary. Kodaly pedagogy uses verbal and hand signs to accomplish t h i s , Orff uses movement, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music education uses vocables and movement. 8) A l l three methods share s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r insistence that a c h i l d can and should benefit from musical in s t r u c t i o n . Trends i n Music Curriculum Development: Ghana The purpose of thi s section i s to discuss music c u r r i c u l a development trends i n Ghana, goals of music education, a c t i v i t i e s suggested i n the s y l l a b i , and the la t e s t document on music education put forward by the Ghanaian Ministry of Education. In an attempt to promote a psychosociological change through c u r r i c u l a development, the government of Ghana has, since independence in 1957, t r i e d to encourage e f f o r t s at c u r r i c u l a reformation that i d e n t i f y with the needs of the s t a t e . I n Guthie's opinion, these attempts have been derived from innovative reactions i n the former colonizers countries. Guthie reviewed current research i n developing countries which focussed on the impact of curriculum reform on teachers and classrooms. 7 5 In t h i s study, Guthie reviewed such issues as the nature of old and new c u r r i c u l a , the nature of the teaching force, whether the reforms were appropriate to teaching styles, and the nature of c u r r i c u l a change strategies. He i d e n t i f i e s major conclusions from each study reviewed and offers recommendations for c u r r i c u l a change strategies. Menka writes that systematic c u r r i c u l a development in A f r i c a i s very recent. 7^ The Curriculum Research and Development Di v i s i o n of the Ghana Education Service was started in 1967. The development of c u r r i c u l a materials was undertaken by the members of subject panels who were professional educators and subject s p e c i a l i s t s . A review of Music Curricula Formal education in Ghana, i n i t i a t e d by missionary a c t i v i t y , colonialism, and trade i n the eighteenth century, brought with i t the c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l of the governing / 4 1Gerard Guthie "Current Research in Developing Countries: The Impact of Curriculum reform on teaching," Teaching and Teacher Education 2, 1 (1986): 81. 7 5 I b i d . , 81. 7 ^ A l b e r t F. Menka, "Curriculum Development Trends in African Countries," Prospects VI, no.3, (1976): 451. 53 nation. The material superiority of the missionaries over the Africans provided an image of wealth and power that the Africans sought to imitate and emulate. 7 7 Despite c u r r i c u l a reformation since independence i n 1957, some Ghanaians have continued to i d e n t i f y with the culture of the west as the hegemonic culture. Others have, on the other hand, attempted to blend western culture with Ghanaian indigenous culture. A t h i r d group has continued to r e j e c t everything non-Ghanaian. In an attempt to define and re l a t e the exis t i n g culture to education, the Ministry of Education i n Ghana has put together a number of curriculum packages over the years. These include: Music Syllabus for Primary  Schools (1959); Elementary School Music: A Draft Syllabus  for the Eight Year course (1970); Music Syllabus for Primary  Schools (1978); Music Curriculum for Secondary Schools in  Ghana (1975); Music Syllabus for Junior Secondary Schools (1976); Suggested Music Syllabus for 4 - Year Teacher  Training Colleges (1975); Suggested Music Syllabus for 3 - Year Post Secondary Teacher Training Colleges (1975); Cultural Studies Syllabus for Primary Schools (1989); Cultural Studies Syllabus for Junior Secondary Schools (1988). The Music Syllabus for Primary Schools (1959) suggested that the aims of music teaching are: ''Stephen J. B a l l , "Imperialism, Social Control and the Colonial Curriculum in A f r i c a , " Journal of Curriculum  Studies, 15, no. 3 (1983): 241. 54 a) to develop children's appreciation for melodic and rhythmic patterns; b) to widen t h e i r f i e l d of musical enjoyment; c) to teach children some of the elements of musical grammar. Suggested a c t i v i t i e s for each primary school year are presented under the headings singing, theory, rhythmic movement, and appreciation. Each primary school year i s provided with a l i s t of suggested singing materials under the headings of Ghanaian songs and English songs. The suggested singing materials were contained in songbooks of which three were by Ghanaian authors, and f i f t e e n by western authors. Suggested methods for teaching songs were by rote. Rhythmic t r a i n i n g was e s s e n t i a l l y by rote using body percussion. Melodic t r a i n i n g was done through the study of solfege and s t a f f notation. Akrofi, i n his study of the status of music programs i n Ghanaian public s c h o o l s , 7 8 notes that the Syllabus places emphasis on notation and sight reading for the study of theory. The Music Syllabus for Primary School (1978) , which i s in English, Music, Religious Education, Art Education, and  Environmental Studies for a 6 year Primary School Course emphasizes the development of concepts i n the cognitive domain. 7 9 T n e purpose of the Syllabus i s to serve as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l guide for teachers i n order to ensure the 7 8 E r i c A y i s i Akrofi, "The Status of Music Programs In Ghanaian Public Schools," (Ed.D. diss . , University of I l l i n o i s , 1982) 7 9 I b i d . , 36. 55 development of a balanced program of musical growth for elementary school pupils. The Syllabus encourages high levels of student involvement. It states that, It i s imperative to remember that music concepts are learned from r e a l experiences with music, therefore ... a c t i v i t i e s in the process of development are performing, composing, writing, analyzing, and discussing music, which should c l a r i f y the mental image for generalizing about any s p e c i f i c concept.°® The Syllabus also suggests a s p i r a l curriculum i n which the same concepts may appear in various class l e v e l s . It i s anticipated that by using the same concept i n a preceding class the pupils w i l l grasp a more mature understanding of the same fundamental i d e a . 8 1 The Syllabus, divided into four sections, rhythm, melody, form, and tone color, approaches the study of concepts related to these elements under the headings concepts, objectives, and a c t i v i t i e s . The performance program, which i s the f i n a l section of t h i s guide i s approached i n terms of singing, drumming and dancing, and instrumental playing. The curriculum guide suggests the study of both Western and Ghanaian musical instruments. The method suggested i s primarily oral/aural or playing by ear. The curriculum for Music, now part of the Cultural Studies Program, i s included i n the Cultural Studies  Syllabus for Primary Schools (1989). This Syllabus i s ^Curriculum Research and Development Division, Music  Syllabus for Primary Schools, (Accra: Ghana Education Service, 1976), 1. 8 1 I b i d . 56 designed for pupils aged 6-11 i n the primary school. Like the 1978 Syllabus, t h i s guide covers the areas of rhythm, melody, song forms, tone color, and performance. Each of these areas i s considered under the topics, concepts, objectives, suggested a c t i v i t i e s , and remarks. In Primary 1 and 2, pupils are expected to " i d e n t i f y pulse with rhythm i n music by l i s t e n i n g , and accompanying songs by clapping or t a p p i n g . " 8 2 Suggested a c t i v i t i e s for i d e n t i f y i n g pulse in music i n Primary 3 are " i d e n t i f y i n g the rotation for the beat and rhythm patterns, and i d e n t i f y i n g the rhythms of melodies of f a m i l i a r songs played on musical instrument" 8 3 In Primary 4 (nine year olds), pupils begin to i d e n t i f y simple duple time (2/4) in musical notation, strong and weak beats in accentuation, and differences i n the durational value of notes. A c t i v i t i e s suggested for Primary 4, are not d i f f e r e n t from the ones the pupils experienced i n previous years. A c t i v i t i e s include discussing the notations, singing songs, clapping to notes and waving hands to rests, and matching the duration of rests with t h e i r corresponding notes written on cards and blackboard. 8 4 U n t i l the pupils reach Primary 4, they are primarily expected to i d e n t i f y pulse as a concept in rhythm. "^Curriculum Research and Development Divis i o n , Cultural Studies Syllabus for Primary Schools, (Accra: Ghana Education Service, 1989), 9, 13. 8 3 I b i d . , 18. 8 4 I b i d . , 23. In the development of melodic awareness the pupils are expected to demonstrate melodic movement as high or low. The section on performance shows an emphasis on material that i s e s s e n t i a l l y Ghanaian. General course objectives are presented for the Cultural Studies Program (see Chapter 1). Course objectives are not outlined for music i n p a r t i c u l a r but for each of the concepts being studied in each music section. Tyler proposes four major tasks i n his rationale for curriculum development: a) determining objectives and stating them i n proper form, b) selecting and devising learning experiences, c) organizing experiences ( a c t i v i t i e s ) for continuity and sequence, and 4) evaluating the extent to which objectives have been at t a i n e d . 8 ^ Determining objectives in curriculum development depends upon the philosophical orientation of the program. According to the 1989 Syllabus, the Cultural Studies Program i s to be an integrated program w i l l provide a s o l i d foundation for the pupils c u l t u r a l heritage as Ghanaians. 8^ Integration has been the subject of debate in the education 8->Ralph Tyler, " S p e c i f i c Approaches to Curriculum Development," Strategies for Curriculum development quoted in Joseph A Labuta, "Curriculum Development for Music Education," Symposium in Music Education: A f e s t s c h r i f t for  Charles Leonhard (University of I l l i n o i s , (1982), 118. ^Curriculum Research and Development Division, Cultural Studies Syllabus for Primary Schools (Accra: Ghana Education Service, 1989), 5. 58 world whether i n the area of i n s t r u c t i o n a l strategies, content, or context. It may be defined as the condition where diverse elements are combined and coordinated to form a more complete harmonious whole. However, the approach to music i n the 1989 Cultural Studies Syllabus, i s d i s t i n c t and not integrated with the other areas of the study: s o c i a l systems, drama, drumming and dancing, and r e l i g i o n . 8 7 A c r i t i c a l review of the 1989 document indicates that some of the objectives and selected learning experiences do re l a t e to the c u l t u r a l heritage of the Ghanaian pupils. In t h i s respect i t may f u l f i l l , to some extent, the f i r s t two objectives of Tyler's rationale for curriculum development. However, i t does not provide an adequate selection of learning experiences, nor does i t organize the learning experiences for continuity and sequence or provide a means of evaluating the extent to which the objectives stated have been achieved. E a r l i e r documents reviewed (1959 and 1978) state more c l e a r l y the philosophical orientation of the program, program objectives, and therefore learning experiences. The 1989 Cultural Studies Syllabus as i t exists today i s not an integrated syllabus. Summary The purpose of t h i s study i s to survey music teaching strategies i n Ghanaian elementary schools as a basis for curriculum development. The above review of l i t e r a t u r e has 8 7 I b i d . therefore addressed the conceptual and h i s t o r i c a l framework of teaching strategies. This l i t e r a t u r e review has also discussed contemporary thought on p a r t i c u l a r approaches to teaching music using Orff-Schulwerk, Kodaly pedagogy, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music methods. Music curriculum development trends since Ghana's independence were also addressed with a b r i e f review of three s y l l a b i which mark three d i f f e r e n t stages i n Ghana's educational his t o r y . CHAPTER 3 STUDY DESIGN AND EXECUTION Research Design The study explores the p o s s i b i l i t y of drawing on p a r t i c u l a r pedagogical practices in o f f e r i n g suggestions and recommendations for improving i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology and, in e f f e c t , c u r r i c u l a design in Ghanaian music education. I t i s , therefore, imperative that the researcher describes and i d e n t i f i e s pedagogical practices already existing within the i d e n t i f i e d population. This study, designed to survey teaching strategies teachers of music employ i n Ghanaian elementary schools, i s e s s e n t i a l l y a descriptive study. The study r e l i e s on quantitative data i n the gathering of descriptive information and the basis for generalizations made. The researcher chose the survey research method because i t best served the needs of the study as outlined i n the research problem, research questions, and purpose of the study. The survey research approach provided the researcher with the opportunity to i d e n t i f y and describe music teaching strategies and t h e i r degree of use i n Ghanaian elementary schools. It also provided, as Babbie states, a "search" device for the researcher to begin inquiring into the f e a s i b i l i t y of drawing on the pedagogical practices of 60 61 Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music methods, Orff Schulwerk, and Kodaly for improving music i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology i n Ghanaian elementary schools. 1 Considering the fact that the researcher's aim was a single-time description, a cross-sectional survey was most appropriate. Population This study was i n i t i a l l y designed to involve only music s p e c i a l i s t s employed in Ghanaian elementary schools. Studies and f i e l d work, however, revealed a minimal number of music s p e c i a l i s t s employed i n those i n s t i t u t i o n s . 2 The research, therefore, involved a l l teachers of music employed in elementary schools. The Sample The sample of f i f t y - s i x respondents was drawn from f i v e of the ten regions of Ghana: Ashanti region, Central region, Eastern region, Ga-Adangbe region, and the Volta region. The study involved a cross section of music teachers employed in the regional ca p i t a l s of the f i v e selected regions. Generalisations w i l l therefore be made to these f i v e regions since the sample represents teachers i n those p a r t i c u l a r regions. 1 E a r l Babbie, Survey Research Methods. ( C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1977). 2E.A. Akrofi, "Is extracurricular music education going to replace c u r r i c u l a music education i n Ghana," The Oguaa  Educator. 9, 1, University of Cape Coast, (October, 1989): 12-20. 62 Method of selecting sample Several factors influence the size of a sample and may make i t d i f f i c u l t to set a sample size from the beginning of a study. 3 Letters of introduction and a request for the l i s t of music s p e c i a l i s t s were sent to the Ghana Music Teachers Association (GMTA), a l l ten Regional Centers of education, and the Ghana Education Service (GES)(see Appendix A). The response to these l e t t e r s and the r e s u l t s of the p i l o t study contributed to the methods used in selecting the sample. The sample was selected on the basis of f u l f i l l i n g the objectives of the study, i t s measurability, i t s p r a c t i c a l i t y , and i t s economy.4 In the Ga-Adangbe region, questionnaires and l e t t e r s of introduction were sent to a l l teachers of music in elementary schools of the regional c a p i t a l who were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an i n t e r - d i s t r i c t choral competition. In a l l other regions, teachers were contacted through the subject organizer for music, since the schools were out-of-session. The sample was representative of the region as the teachers were contacted through subject organizers who provided the l i s t of a l l teachers of music i n t h e i r respective regions. ^Walter Borg & M G a l l , Educational Researcher. 5th ed. (New York & London: Longman Inc., 1989). 4William Wiersma, Research Methods in Education:An  Introduction. 4th ed. (Toronto: All y n and Bacon, Inc., 1986) . 63 There also exist varying degrees of inter-regional differences i n the regions selected for t h i s study. Regional differences are manifest in population d i s t r i b u t i o n , socio-economic development, and educational development. Huq states that the regional d i s t r i b u t i o n of school enrollments in 1981 shows s i g n i f i c a n t differences among regions.^ Many of these differences have been the r e s u l t of the l e v e l of urbanization attained in any one p a r t i c u l a r region. Urban population had a growth rate of 3.2 per cent, while r u r a l population growth was 2.3 per cent between 1970 and 1984. The Ga-Adangbe region and Ashanti region have the highest population growth. It i s believed the Eastern, Central, and Volta regions are losing t h e i r population to the adjacent c a p i t a l c i t y of Accra which i s situated i n the Ga-Adangbe region.^ Pretesting the Research Instrument A p i l o t study was conducted to pretest the research instrument. Each member of the p i l o t study received, i n person, a questionnaire and l e t t e r of explanation. The p i l o t study was conducted on educators not currently employed i n the elementary school system but with elementary school teaching experience. Eight of the ten questionnaires sent out were returned to the researcher v i a M.M. Huq, The Economy of Ghana. (New York: St. Martins Press. Inc., 1989),59. 6 I b i d . 64 a contact person. The completed questionnaires revealed ambiguity i n some of the questions. Such questions were changed or were deleted from the study completely. The questionnaire was thus revised before the study began. Each p i l o t study questionnaire received an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number to a s s i s t in data analysis. The researcher also tested methods of analyzing data co l l e c t e d through the questionnaire. A coding scheme was set up to a s s i s t content analysis. Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s , means, and standard deviations of responses per item were calculated. L i k e r t scaling analysis techniques 7 were applied to responses item by item i n the section that demanded i t . The chi-square NGoodness-of-fit' test and vTest of association' were also tested. Thus, the p i l o t study not only tested the contents of the research instrument, but also the data analysis procedures. The Research Instrument A questionnaire made up of seventeen items addressing music teaching strategies, seventeen items addressing music teaching content, and eleven questions designed to provide demographic information served as the research instrument (Appendix B). The researcher also provided a section for additional comments in the questionnaire. This research 'Earl Babbie, Survey Research Methods.(California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1977). instrument was designed to provide information on music teaching strategies employed i n Ghanaian elementary schools and explore the differences with respect to the following variables: region, d i s t r i c t , gender, teaching experience, and academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The questions on teaching strategies and content were not arranged in any p a r t i c u l a r order. Each member of the study received in person a questionnaire and l e t t e r of introduction. Each questionnaire was returned v i a the subject organizer of each selected region and c o l l e c t e d i n person by the researcher. Upon completion, each respondent received a note of appreciation from the researcher. Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures The researcher v i s i t e d the regional centers of education i n the regions named, contacting the subject organizer for music at the elementary school l e v e l . In some places, the subject organizers were known to be i n charge of art and culture. Music was thus considered under the broad umbrella of culture. In each region, the subject organizer indicated the number of teachers teaching music. The researcher l e f t the required number of questionnaires, and cover l e t t e r s to be d i s t r i b u t e d to a l l teachers of music in each designated area. The length of time between the deposit of the questionnaire and i t s c o l l e c t i o n was a week. The procedure reduced time l i k e l y to have been spent on data c o l l e c t i o n procedures i f the instrument had been mailed. 66 Although questionnaires were to be treated as anonymous, the subject organizers were able to i d e n t i f y a respondent's questionnaire. The questions i n the research instrument did not contain any sensitive issues and thus would not cause any reluctance to respond on the part of the respondents i f i d e n t i f i e d with a p a r t i c u l a r questionnaire. According to Borg and G a l l , 8 anonymity does not necessarily a f f e c t responses. The return rate displayed in the next section shows that the method of c o l l e c t i n g data did not a f f e c t the returns negatively. Each completed questionnaire received an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number to a s s i s t the analysis of data. A coding scheme was set up to a s s i s t content analysis. No attempt was made, however, to i d e n t i f y a response with a p a r t i c u l a r teacher. Description of Scores and Completion Rate Measures used in t h i s study were categorical in the f i r s t section of the research instrument and dichotomous i n the section on r e t r i e v i n g demographic information. F i f t y -six of the sixty-two questionnaires sent out were returned, thus making a return rate of 90.32%. The response rate according to Borg and G a l l , determines the saliency of the questionnaire. For t h i s study the response rate was over °Walter Borg & M. G a l l , Educational Researcher. 5th Ed. (New York & London: Longman Inc., 1989). 67 77%, and therefore s a l i e n t according to Borg and G a l l . Below are the d e t a i l s of the completion rate. Region Sent Out Returns Ashanti 4 4 Central 10 8 Eastern 7 7 Ga-Adangbe 32 29 Volta 9 8 Total 62 56 Description of Variables and t h e i r Relationship to Research Objectives Since, as stated e a r l i e r , music i s now included as a subject i n the Cultural Studies Program, the f i r s t question on the questionnaire was designed to determine the extent to which music was embodied i n the program (see Appendix B). The researcher also gave the respondents the opportunity to respond to questions on the extent to which other c u l t u r a l studies subjects were included i n the program in order to give a more accurate picture of the p o s i t i o n of music. Research Question #1: The selection of p a r t i c u l a r teaching strategies i n Section A, questions #2, #3, and #6, of the research instrument (Appendix B), provided the researcher 9 I b i d . 68 with a description of music teaching strategies within controlled boundaries. Research Question #2: Questions #1 through #11, i n the second section of the research instrument, provided not only demographic information, but also information for determining the extent to which such factors as regional location, d i s t r i c t , gender, academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and teaching experience r e l a t e to the music teaching strategies teachers of music employ in t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l classrooms. Research Question #3: The choice of items the respondents were expected to answer r e f l e c t e d the unique forms of teaching strategies (Section A, question #2, #3, and #6) embodied in Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l forms of music education, the Orff Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy. The development of an understanding of music elements (see Section A, question #5) and concepts (see Section A, question #7) form the basis for the development of music c u r r i c u l a . Since the researcher believes that i n s t r u c t i o n a l improvement can be made within the framework of curriculum development, the scope of the teachers' use of selected teaching strategies(see Section A, question #2, #3, and #6) in the development of an understanding of music elements (see Section A, question #5,) and concepts (see Section A, question #7) were investigated. The relevance of musical material to a p a r t i c u l a r society i s the bedrock of a l l three forms of music education being investigated. The researcher investigated the relevance of music material i n 69 questions on song repertoire (Section A, question #4), included i n music c u r r i c u l a of Ghanaian elementary schools. Methods of Data Analysis Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s Being a single descriptive survey designed to i d e n t i f y and describe the existing music teaching strategies, the researcher used descriptive s t a t i s t i c s to analyze the data. Intensity structure created among response items i n the questionnaire demanded a Likert-type scaling format in data analysis. The f i v e response categories were numbered 1-5, with 5 denoting "to a great extent" and 1 "to no extent at a l l . " Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s , means and standard deviations were determined for items on the questionnaire. Frequencies were registered as percentages. Tables representing the values on the teaching strategy(n) variables were given numerical values 0 - 5 . In cases were there was no response 0 was given. Each response was tabulated and summed for each column vector(v). The column vector was mult i p l i e d by the number of responses for each column. These were divided by the t o t a l number of responses to give the mean of the responses. These tables are presented i n Chapter 4. A mean greater than three showed a movement towards the positive "to a great extent" end of the scale and would therefore be interpreted as such. Code 0. No response 1. To no extent at a l l 2 . To a small extent > Negative 3 . To some extent 4. To a considerable extent Positive 5. To a great extent Nonparametric Tests The extent to which responses i n the questionnaire were equally d i s t r i b u t e d among response categories was determined by a Chi-square (Goodness-of-fit) test. The alpha was i n i t i a l l y set at .05. A Chi-square (Test of Association) was also conducted to investigate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the extent to which teachers employed p a r t i c u l a r strategies and each of the following variables -- gender, region, d i s t r i c t , academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and years of teaching experience. Regional differences were considered i n d i v i d u a l l y . The Ga-Adangbe region had the greatest representative number of respondents. Central, Eastern, and Volta regions share s i m i l a r i t i e s in population growth, urbanization trends ^ a n c j educational development. The Ashanti region, however, shares a similar population growth rate with the Ga-Adangbe region, but does not display si m i l a r mobility q u a l i t i e s as far as socio-economic and 1UM.M. Huq, The Economy of Ghana. (New York: St. Martins Press. Inc., 1989), 59. 71 educational trends are concerned. The Ashanti region was the least represented i n terms of teachers of music. In analyzing the extent to which years of teaching experience contributed to differences in teaching strategies, the researcher divided the i n i t i a l l y continuous variable (years of teaching experience) into three categories: low ( 1 - 1 0 years), medium (11 - 20 years), and high (21 -33 years). Contingency tables are provided. The results are presented in Chapter 4. Summary In the foregoing chapter, the researcher outlined the study design and i t s execution. The researcher f i r s t established the type of research design being applied i n t h i s study and the reasons for i t s appropriateness. The researcher described the defined population and the method used i n selecting the sample from t h i s population. A r e l a t i v e l y detailed description of the sample being studied was provided. A b r i e f report on the p i l o t study was presented to further validate the r e l i a b i l i t y of the research methodology. Procedures followed i n the c o l l e c t i o n of data and occurrences that would influence the res u l t s were a r t i c u l a t e d . F i n a l l y , methods used in analyzing data were also presented. CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS Introduction: Overview of S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures The central interest of t h i s study was the survey of music teaching strategies in Ghanaian elementary schools as a basis for curriculum development. The s p e c i f i c purposes being a) to i d e n t i f y and describe the existing music teaching strategies and t h e i r degree of use within the c u l t u r a l studies program in Ghanaian school, and b) to offer suggestions and recommendations for improving i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology i n Ghanaian elementary schools drawing on Ghanaian indigenous forms of music education, the Orff Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy. The researcher used descriptive s t a t i s t i c s to analyze the data generated from the survey. Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s , means, and standard deviations were reported for a l l teaching strategy variables. Frequencies were registered as v a l i d percentages as there were some missing cases reported in some items. As stated in Chapter 3 , a mean greater than three would be interpreted as a high p o s i t i v e score, and t h i s s i g n i f i e d the extensive use of a p a r t i c u l a r variable and therefore rendered i t fe a s i b l e in the Ghanaian elementary classroom. A low mean score s i g n i f i e d the under use of a p a r t i c u l a r 72 73 variable. The discussion i n Chapter 5 w i l l therefore take into account these differences. The extent to which the responses on the questionnaire were equally d i s t r i b u t e d across response categories were determined by a chi-square (Goodness-of-fit) t e s t . A Chi-square (Test of Association) was conducted to determine the relations between the extent to which teachers employed p a r t i c u l a r teaching strategies and such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as gender, regional location of schools, the d i s t r i c t location of the schools, academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and years of teaching experience. This chapter w i l l present the r e s u l t s of the questionnaire by f i r s t describing the sample, and then answering s p e c i f i c research questions. To determine the i n t e r n a l consistency of the research instrument, Cronbach's alpha was computed for the whole scale and then for the seventeen teaching strategy variables and the seventeen content variables separately. Table 1 shows the d e t a i l s of t h i s r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t . Table 1 . — R e l i a b i l i t y of research instrument n alpha no of items Teaching Strategy 41 0.80 17 Teaching Content 41 0.85 17 Approach (Total) 41 0.90 3_4_ 74 The Sample The participants i n the study were expected to respond to questions that would provide the demographic information and determine the representativeness of the sample. The method of selecting the sample showed that the sample was representative i n view of the fact that i t was drawn from the targeted population, and therefore represented demographic features t y p i c a l of elementary school music teachers throughout the country. The sample of 56 respondents were made up of ten females and f o r t y - s i x males (Table 2). Table 2. —Gender Di st r i b u t i o n ITEM FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Female 10 17.9 Male 46 82.1 Total 56 100 .0 Gender proportions at the various class levels are displayed in Figure 1. The only teacher who indicated teaching in the kindergarten was male. Respondents were asked to indicate the class levels they taught, and only one respondent did not indicate t h i s . The res u l t s showed that in the upper primary classes (Primary 4-6) and i n the Junior Secondary 1-3, there ex i s t considerably higher proportions of male teachers i n music education than female. 75 FIGURE 1 GENDER PROPORTIONS AT VARIOUS CLASS LEVELS F R E Q U E N C Y KNDERG. CLASS 1-3 CLASS 4-6 JSS 1-3 CL 1 -JSS3 OTHERS NO RESPONSE CLASS LEVELS • FEMALE E2MALE The respondents, drawn from f i v e of the ten regions of Ghana, were asked to indicate regional locations of the schools i n which they taught, and only one respondent did not indicate t h i s . Regional differences i n number could be attributed to urban migration. The Ga-Adangbe region has been known to have the highest population density and s o c i a l mobility r a t e . 1 The information generated from the demographic data r e f l e c t s t h i s assertion. A l i t t l e over half the sample came from the Ga-Adangbe region. The smallest representation came from the Ashanti region with 7.3% of the sample. M^.M.Huq, The Ecomony of Ghana: The F i r s t 25 Years  since Independence. (New York: St. Martins'Press, 1989). 76 Table 3.—Regional Location of Respondents' Schools REGION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Ga-Adangbe 28 51.0 Central 8 14.5 Eastern 7 12.7 Volta 8 14.5 Ashanti 4 7.3 Total 55 100.0 Missing cases: 1 Of the f i f t y - s i x respondents, fourteen were from the r u r a l areas and forty-two from urban communities. Figure 2 i s a graph showing d i s t r i c t location within each region. FIGURE 2 DISTRICT LOCATION WITHIN REGIONS Ga-Adangbe Central Eastern Volta Ashanti No response REGIONS • rural • urban 77 The highest frequency count of teachers' age was twenty-five and t h i s was indicated between the ages of t h i r t y and t h i r t y - n i n e . The next highest frequency was nineteen and t h i s was between the ages of twenty and twenty-nine. Only one respondent was younger than twenty. Table 4.—Age Di s t r i b u t i o n AGE RANGE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Less than 20 1 1.8 20 - 29 years 19 33.9 30 - 39 years 25 44.6 40 - 49 years 6 10.8 50 - 59 years 5 8.9 Total 56 100.0 The recent national service scheme i n Ghana requires students completing secondary school to work for a year under the scheme. The National Service Secretariat which controls the placement, places some of these students i n elementary schools. It i s the purpose of t h i s study to determine the extent to which academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s affected the teaching styles of Ghanaian teachers of music in elementary schools. The national service students from secondary schools hold a General C e r t i f i c a t e of Education (GCE), A l e v e l or 0 l e v e l c e r t i f i c a t e s . They are not c e r t i f i e d teachers. This group formed 25.9 percent of the sample in t h i s study (Table 5). The respondents who 78 indicated that they were c e r t i f i e d to teach formed almost half of the sample. The rest of the sample had diplomas or' degrees. Only four members of the sample indicated that they held degrees. Two respondents did not state t h e i r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s when asked to do so. Table 5.--Academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of respondents QUALIFICATIONS FREQUENCY PERCENT Teaching C e r t i f i c a t e 26 48.2 Diploma/Degree 14 25.9 GCE O/A levels 14 25.9 Total 54 100.0 The participants in t h i s study had taught for various lengths of time. The researcher has placed these periods of time into three categories: low (1-10 years), medium (11-20 years), and high (21-33 years). Respondents were asked to indicate the number of years they had spent teaching (to the nearest whole year). Ghana Education Service has had a trend of losing i t s teaching personnel to other d i s c i p l i n e s which are more lucrative in the l i g h t of the country's economic s i t u a t i o n . A detailed consideration of the sample showed that 42.3 percent of the respondents had taught for f i v e years or less. Four respondents did not indicate the number of years they had spent teaching in the public sector. The r e s u l t s showed 79 that 55.8% of the resppondents had ten years teaching experience or less. Below are the d e t a i l s of the years of teaching experience of the members of t h i s sample. Table 6. Years of teaching experience ITEM FREQUENCY PERCENT 1 - 1 0 years 29 55.8 11 - 20 years 13 25.0 21 - 33 years 10 19.2 Total 52 100.0 The researcher also considered gender differences with respect to teaching experience. Figure 3 shows that a l l the females i n t h i s study had less than f i f t e e n years of teaching experience. Only one female and three males did not indicate the number of years of teaching experience they had. Figure 3 shows the d e t a i l s of the r e s u l t s . 80 FIGURE 3 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN TEACHING EXPERIENCE 30 1-10 YEARS 11-20 YEARS 21-33 YEARS NO RESPONSE TEACHING EXPERIENCE • FEMALE 0MALE Other Attributes The researcher i d e n t i f i e d the regular classroom teachers by determining the number of classes taught each day. This helped to i d e n t i f y regular classroom teachers from subject s p e c i a l i s t teachers. Th i r t y percent of the teachers i n the sample indicated that they taught only one primary class each day, suggesting that they are regular classroom teachers. Such teachers are assigned s p e c i f i c designated classes for which they are accountable. The respondents were asked to indicate the number of subject d i s c i p l i n e s they taught each day. This helped to further i d e n t i f y regular classroom teachers. Table 7 i s a cross tabulation showing the number of classes versus the number of other subject d i s c i p l i n e s taught. Figures showed that seven respondents did not teach any other subjects apart form the c u l t u r a l studies program. A consideration of th e i r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s would support an argument that they are s p e c i a l i s t teachers. Table 7.—Subjects and number of classes taught ITEMS NUMBER OF OTHER SUBJECTS TAUGHT 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 Primary class 0 0 1 12 2 1 2 Primary classes 1 4 0 2 0 0 3 or 4 Primary classes 3 2 1 1 0 0 5 or more Primary classes 1 1 —> 0 0 1 Other 2 0 2 4 1 1 The data analysis showed that 47.2 percent of the respondents taught more than two other subjects and six t y -f i v e percent were not assigned to any other school. Sixteen teachers teach more than two other subjetcs apart from music, and they also teach one primary class a week. These teachers are most probably regular classroom teachers. The three teachers who do not teach any other subject apart from music and are assigned to only one school (Table 8) are most probably s p e c i a l i s t music teachers. 82 Table 8.—Number of Classes taught by School Assignment CLASSES TAUGHT SCHOOL ASSIGNMENT YES NO 1 Primary class 0 16 2 Primary classes 1 6 3 or 4 Primary classes 5 3 5 or more Primary classes 4 2 Other 7 4 Here, seven respondents did not indicate the primary classes they taught. Two of these were assigned to more than one school and the other f i v e were not. The sixteen teachers (Table 8) who taught one primary class d a i l y and were not assigned to any other school are most probably regular classroom teachers. 83 Research question #1. What teaching strategies do teachers  of music i n Ghana employ in th e i r classes? The respondents were expected to answer seventeen questions on music teaching strategies they employed i n the classes. The music teaching strategies selected by the researcher for the respondents to react to are drawn from the Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education, Kodaly pedagogy and Orff Schulwerk. The respondents response to questions on the teaching strategies provided information for answering the second purpose of the study which was to offer suggestions and recommendations for improving music i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology i n Ghanaian elementary schools drawing on the Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education, the Orff Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy. L i k e r t scaling analysis were administered to responses for each item on the research instrument. The coding scheme i s presented below for the tables presented i n the rest of t h i s chapter. CODE 0 . No response 1. To no extent at a l l 2 . To a small extent 3 . To some extent 4. To a considerable extent 5. To a great extent 84 n Number of respondents x Mean s Standard deviation (std dev. in text) Chi-square observed Chi-square c r i t i c a l df Degrees of Freedom sign Level of s t a t i s t i c a l significance The r e s u l t s of the data analysis showed that singing games was the most frequently used integrated a c t i v i t y by the members of t h i s sample. The teachers' responses produced a mean of 3.655 and a standard deviation of 1.205 (Table 9). There was a predominant use of the teacher's voice manifested i n the results of the analysis. The child's voice, although dominant, was not used to the same extent as the teacher's voice. The r e s u l t s showed that although the respondents a l l used the p a r t i c u l a r approaches to l i t e r a c y s k i l l s i d e n t i f i e d to a considerable extent (see Table 9), the standard deviation for the items indicated a spread of scores rather than homogeneity. Table 9 gives a more detailed resentation of the data analysis. "My voice" in Table 9, under i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices refers, to the teachers voice. In the same way, "instruments played by children and me" refers to instruments played by the children and the teacher. That i s to say, each time the personal pronoun i s used in the tables presented, i t refers to the teacher. 85 Table 9 . — D e s c r i p t i o n of teaching strategies ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 1 4 6 10 20 15 55 3 .65 1 .20 Improvisation 1 5 16 16 13 5 55 2 .95 1 .13 Imitation 1 2 19 20 8 6 55 2 .94 1 .04 Pantomime 2 14 25 9 6 2 54 2 .13 0 .93 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 6 5 9 36 56 4 .34 1 .03 Child's voice 0 4 3 14 18 17 56 3 .73 1 . 17 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 9 10 16 11 10 56 3 .05 1 .33 Instruments played by teacher 0 9 17 14 7 9 56 2 .82 1 .31 Instruments played by children & me 0 10 13 14 15 4 56 2 .82 1 .22 Instruments played by children 0 14 12 14 9 7 56 2 .70 1 .35 >PROACHES TO LITERACY ; SKILLS Vocables 0 1 6 15 14 20 56 3 .82 1 .10 Movement and Dance 0 5 4 19 12 16 56 3 .54 1 .23 Solfege 3 4 6 17 14 12 53 3 .45 1 .19 Speech and Poetry 1 3 9 21 11 10 55 3 .34 1 .17 Sound Exploration 1 6 11 12 12 14 55 3 .31 1 .34 Staff Notation 0 11 10 12 10 13 56 3 .07 1 .45 Instrumental Play 0 9 14 10 12 11 56 3 .04 1 .39 Table 9 i s a display of the data regarding the description of music teaching strategies employed by Ghanaian teachers of music in the elementary school classroom. Although there have been attempts in education to move towards child-centered education, i t i s obvious from these r e s u l t s that the teacher continues to be the focus of attention in the classroom. 86 Table 10. Chi-Square tests on Teaching Strategies. ITEM RESPONSES INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by children Instruments played by children and me *15 *23 *15 63 63 48 11.45 *46.71 *18.46 2.75 6.14 3.46 7.04 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance 3.27 *20.61 11.24 0.61 *27.14 1.32 *15.61 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.60 0.19 0.43 0.13 0.51 0.01 0.24 0.96 0.01 0.86 0.01 To give an e x p l i c i t picture of the teaching strategies music teachers employ i n the elementary classroom in Ghana, the researcher applied Chi-square (Goodness of f i t ) test to each item on teaching strategies. The results i n Table 10 showed that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences among respondents i n the use of sound exploration, s t a f f notation, and every form of instrumentation. 87 The alpha at 0.05 was lowered because of repeated tests 9 on variables. This would reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of significance by chance alone. S i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were s t i l l generated for singing games, imitation, pantomime, the use of the teachers voice, the use of the c h i l d ' s voice, vocables, speach and poetry, movement and dance. Tables 11- 50 to which reference w i l l be made in subsequent writing are found in Appendix D. ^Roger E. Kirk, Experimental Design. 2d ed. (New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., 1982), 106. 88 Research question #2. To what extent do such factors as  regional location, d i s t r i c t location of schools, gender,  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and teaching experience, r e l a t e to  music teaching strategies employed by music teachers in  Ghanaian elementary schools? Regional differences in teaching strategies The f i v e regions presented were considered separately in the data analysis to determine in d i v i d u a l regional differences i n teaching strategy. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the responses to each teaching strategy variable. The f i v e regions were then considered c o l l e c t i v e l y to determine the extent to which they varied across response categories i n a Chi-square (Test of Association). The d e t a i l s of the regional differences in teaching strategies for each region are displayed in Tables 11-15. The Ga-Adangbe Region The largest teacher representation came from the Ga-Adangbe region, the region i n which the c a p i t a l of Ghana i s situated. Apart from the use of the teacher's voice (mean 4.21; std dev. 1.134); the other predominant music teaching strategies found in t h i s region included the use of vocables (mean 3.96 std dev 0.962), the use of s t a f f notation (mean 3.61 std dev 1.343), and the child' s voice(mean 3.61 std dev. 1.257). Even though the data analysis results from the 89 Ga-Adangbe regional sample showed a considerable use of sound exploration, instrumental play, speech and poetry, and singing games, t h e i r standard deviations i l l u s t r a t e d a considerable spread of scores (Table 11). The Central Region Even though the results of the teaching strategies employed by the sample from the Central region showed some amount of predominance given to the ch i l d ' s voice (mean 3.37, std dev. 1.06) the teacher's voice (mean 3.87, std dev. 1.36) s t i l l had the highest p o s i t i v e mean score. The Central regional sample also registered p o s i t i v e mean scores on movement and dance, the use of singing games, speech and poetry i n the classroom. The lowest mean scores were generated by the teacher's use of instruments i n the sample from the Central region. Table 12 gives the d e t a i l s of t h i s analysis. The Eastern Region The significance of the teacher's voice (mean 5, std dev 0.00) as a predominant i n s t r u c t i o n a l device i n the Eastern region was generated in the re s u l t s of the analysis of data from that region. The standard deviation generated supports the predominance of the teacher's voice. High mean scores were also registered for the chi l d ' s voice (mean 4.71. std dev. 0.49). Other high mean scores y i e l d i n g teaching strategies included singing games, (mean 4.28 std 90 dev 0.756), vocables (mean 3.71 std dev 1.380), and solfege (mean 3.83 std dev 1.60). Low mean scores were registered in the use of instruments for clas s , s t a f f notation, and movement and dance, si g n i f y i n g the under use of these variables. The d e t a i l s of the re s u l t s of t h i s test are displayed i n Table 13 of appendix D. The Volta Region Figures generated from the data on teaching strategies in the Volta region displayed high positive mean scores for such variables as singing games (4.375), vocables (4.375), solfege (4.125), and movement and dance (4.375). Here again, the teachers voice was the most predominant feature in the classroom with the highest mean score of 4.63, and a standard deviation of 0.53. The lowest mean scores were yielded by such variables as pantomime, the use of instruments, and s t a f f notation. Table 14 in appendix D presents the d e t a i l s of the res u l t s of the test on the Volta region. The Ashanti Region It was s i g n i f i c a n t to note that in the Ashanti region, although the sample was small i n comparison with a l l other regions, the highest mean scores were scored on a l l teaching strategy variables. Recent research has proven that the chi-square test gives a f a i r l y accurate p r o b a b i l i t y even 91 with small sample sizes(N=20) and a degree of freedom which i s more than one. 3 The lowest mean scores were registered i n the use of instruments by students and teachers. The academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the members of t h i s sample could account for high mean scores generated in the data analysis (Table 15) . It was the intent of the researcher to determine the differences i n the music teaching strategies with respect to regional location of schools i n the r e s u l t s displayed in Tables 11 to 15. There were s i m i l a r i t i e s in the use of the teacher's voice and the c h i l d ' s voice. Differences arose in the use of other teaching strategies. A l l regions selected in the sample except the Eastern region, yielded p o s i t i v e mean scores in the use of movement and dance. The chi-square test (Table 16), however, manifests evidence to suggest that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between the regional location of schools and the use of movement and dance. Analysis of the contingency table showed that there were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between the regional location of schools and these teaching strategy variables: vocables, solfege, s t a f f notation, and instrumental play among the members of the sample. The r e s u l t s from the chi-square 3 C h r i s Spatz & James O.Johnston, Basic S t a t i s t i c s :  Tales of D i s t r i b u t i o n . 4th ed. (Pac i f i c Grove, C a l i f o r n i a : Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1989), 246. 92 test of association (see table 16) s t i l l generated s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s on the use of the child' s voice, vocables, solfege, s t a f f notation, instrumental play, after the alpha of 0.05 had been dropped. Therefore, although the re s u l t s from the contingency table yielded s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s these were unimportant. Differences in teaching strategies with respect to d i s t r i c t There are notable differences in the d i s t r i c t and r u r a l environments in Ghana. Teachers were therefore asked to indicate the d i s t r i c t in which they taught, and the researcher was able to determine the differences in teaching strategies used with respect to t h e i r school d i s t r i c t . The analysis of the data did not indicate s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s in the d i s t r i c t location of school and the teaching strategies teachers of music employed i n t h e i r schools. The X 2 observed for each variable was considerably less than i t s respective c r i t i c a l value, even a f t e r the alpha of 0.05 had been dropped. The r e s u l t s are presented i n table 17 of Appendix D. Urban D i s t r i c t For each individual d i s t r i c t i t was interesting to note the differences in teaching strategies. Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s , means and standard deviations were used to determine these differences. The researcher has therefore provided the d e t a i l s of these r e s u l t s i n Tables 18 and 19. 93 The least frequently used items in the urban d i s t r i c t included imitaion (mean 2.98 std dev. 1.11), pantomime (mean 2.07 std dev. 0.89), improvisation (mean 2.88 std dev. 1.08) (Table 18). There was a double entry registered on speech and poetry i n the urban d i s t r i c t of the members of t h i s sample. Low mean scores were also generated for every variable connected with the use of music instruments other than the voice from urban community data. Rural D i s t r i c t The r e s u l t s of the analysis from the r u r a l areas indicated the under use of imitation (mean 2.86 std dev. 0.86), pantomime (mean 2.29 std dev. 1.07), s t a f f notation (mean 2.50 std dev. 1.45), and instruments played by the teacher(mean 2.71 std dev. 1.14). Interestingly, high mean scores were generated for the use of instruments by the children (Table 19). Gender Differences in Teaching Strategies I t was also the intent of t h i s study to determine the differences i n teaching strategies with respect to gender. The teaching strategies employed by gender categories were therefore investigated. Female Female teachers thought they did not u t i l i z e integrated a c t i v i t i e s of imitation (mean 2.60, std dev. 0.51), 94 pantomime (mean 2 . 1 0 std dev. 0 . 8 7 ) , and improvisation (mean 2 . 7 0 std dev. 1 . 0 6 ) in t h e i r music classes. Results also indicated that the use of the unaccompanied voice was more predominant among the females in t h i s sample than the use of voice accompanied by instruments (Table 2 0 ) . Male The male respondents indicated responses which generated mean scores registered at 3 and below for pantomime, improvisation, s t a f f notation, and the use of instruments either by teachers or children. Conversely, a mean score which was higher than 3 was registered for the use of the voice accompanied by instruments (Table 2 1 ) . The double entry by one of the respondents to the variable speech and poetry was manifest i n the data analysis on the teaching strategies of male respondents employed. Table 22 i l l u s t r a t e s the re s u l t s of the test to determine whether there i s a rel a t i o n s h i p between gender and the teaching strategies employed i n the Ghanaian elementary classroom. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded for responses to instruments played by the teacher and students ( X 2 1 2 . 3 2 ; p_< 0 . 0 1 ) , and the use of solfege ( X 2 1 5 . 1 7 ; p_ < 0 . 0 1 ) , as an approach to music l i t e r a c y . 95 Differences in teaching strategies with respect  to years of teaching experience Four respondents did not indicate the number of years they had spent teaching i n the public schools. The frequencies and the means and standard deviations with respect to teaching strategies the non respondents employed were computed separately. The res u l t s showed the extensive use of the teachers voice and solfege (mean. 4.5, std dev. 1.0), vocables, (mean 4.50, std dev. 0.57), speech and poetry and sound exploration (mean 4.00, std dev 1.41). Table 23 i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the results of the teaching strategies employed by teachers in the sample with 1-10 years of teaching experience. Twenty-nine members of the sample had 1-10 years of teaching experince. The results of the analysis showed that apart from singing games (mean 3.21, std dev. 1.26), integrated a c t i v i t y variables were the least used by teachers with 1-10 years teaching experience. Other approaches to music l i t e r a c y yielded high mean scores, but t h e i r respective standard deviations i l l u s t r a t e d a spread of scores, s i g n i f y i n g v a r i a b i l i t y . Compared with the sample of teachers with 1-10 years of teaching experience, the sample of teachers with 11-20 years experience indicated the under use of s t a f f notation (mean 2.54; std dev. 1.45) in t h e i r music classes. Higher means scores were registered for the following a c t i v i t i e s : singing 96 games (mean 4.38; std dev. 0.65), imitation (mean 3.31; std dev. 1.38), and improvisation (mean 3.46; std dev. 1.05). Table 24 gives the d e t a i l s of the re s u l t s on the means and standard deviations among the teachers with 11-20 years of teaching experience. It was interesting to note the differences i n the means generated by the sample of teachers with 20-33 years of teaching experience (Table 25). There was a considerably lower number of posit i v e mean scores among t h i s sample compared with the samples in the other two categories. Higher mean scores were registered for singing games (mean 3.90; std dev. 1.19), imitation (mean 3.10; std dev. 1.19), and improvisation (mean 3.20; std dev. 1.13). The Chi-square (Test of Association) to determine the rel a t i o n s h i p between the years of teaching experience and the teaching strategies employed i n the classroom yielded some s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . Only s t a f f notation (X 2 20.74; p_ < 0.01) yielded s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , implying a relat i o n s h i p between the years of teaching experience and t h i s p a r t i c u l a r teaching strategies (Table 26) . 97 Differences i n teaching strategies with respect  to academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s F i n a l l y , the researcher investigated the differences in teaching strategies employed by the members of the sample with respect to t h e i r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n . The degree holders in the study were combined with the members of the sample who had diplomas. Only four members of the sample indicated having a bachelors degree. Teaching C e r t i f i c a t e Over half the members of the sample had teaching c e r t i f i c a t e s . The highest mean score recorded, apart from that for the dominance of the teacher's voice, and the child's voice, i s that for the use of singing games (mean 4.15; std dev. 0.88) as an integrated a c t i v i t y i n the development of musical understanding. Other frequently used strategies included vocables (mean 4.00; std dev. 1.16), and movement and dance (mean 3.57; std dev. 1.27). Table 27 presents the d e t a i l s of t h i s analysis. GCE O/A Levels Low mean scores were recorded for a l l integrated a c t i v i t i e s , the members of the sample with GCE 0 or A levels were to respond to. Although high mean scores were recorded for such variables as sound exploration (mean 3.21; std dev. 1.58), vocables (mean 3.50; std dev. std dev 1.09), solfege (mean 3.50; std dev. 1.09), s t a f f notation (mean 3.36; std 98 dev 1.28), instrumental play (mean 3.07; std dev. 1.33), speech and poetry (mean 3.15; std dev. 1.07), and movement and dance (mean 3.36; std dev. 1.22), the standard deviation for each of these indicated a spread of scores. Compared with the teachers from the other two categories, those with teaching c e r t i f i c a t e s , and those with diplomas or degrees, the teachers with GCE 0 or A l e v e l c e r t i f i c a t e s scored the least number of posit i v e mean scores. Table 28 i n Appendix D presents the d e t a i l s of analysis. Degree/diplomas The analysis of the data on teachers with degrees or diplomas revealed a higher number of mean scores than did the other two categories already considered. The dominance of the teacher's voice, even though evident in these r e s u l t s , did not dismiss an increased amount of integrated a c t i v i t y among the teachers with degrees or diplomas. High mean scores were recorded for imitation (mean 3.50 std dev. 1.16) compared with those for teachers i n the other two categories. Table 29 i l l u s t r a t e s the d e t a i l s of these r e s u l t s . 99 A chi-square test of association was again u t i l i z e d i n determining i f the academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the teachers in elementary schools in Ghana were related to the teaching strategies they employed i n t h e i r respective classrooms. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded for the use of singing games (X 2 20.44; p_ < 0.01), and the use of s t a f f notation (X 2 21.38; p_ < 0.01) i n developing l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . The d e t a i l s of these r e s u l t s (Table 30) i l l u s t r a t e that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of teachers in elementary schools in Ghana and the teaching strategies they employ i n t h e i r music classes i s minimal. 100 Research question #3 To what extent can a framework be  developed within which a combination of p a r t i c u l a r music  teaching strategies are employed with the view of improving  i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology? There were seventeen questions that would give the reader a clearer description of the working content of the music curriculum. These questions were included in the study, because the content determines the teaching strategies to be used. Cross tabulations were computed for the seventeen content variables which were i d e n t i f i e d i n three groups: elements of music, s k i l l development, and song repertoire. These three content areas cover the content areas for Orff-Schulwerk, Kodaly pedagogy, and the Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l forms of music i n s t r u c t i o n . The researcher was able to i d e n t i f y the elements of music which were most frequently addressed by the teachers in the sample. Respondents were asked to respond to the song repertoire they u t i l i z e d in t h e i r classrooms, and these were then cross tabulated against t h e i r teaching strategies. The extent to which p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s were developed by the members of t h i s sample was investigated. 101 Music as part of the Cultural Studies Program The research instrument was designed to i d e n t i f y the subjects that make up the Cultural Studies Program and the extent to which they were part of the program. The res u l t s of the respondents answers on subjects that make up the Cult u r a l Studies Program showed that music was an essential and predominant part of the curriculum (mean 4.304, std dev 0.989 ). The re s u l t s are presented i n Table 31. Table 31.—Description of Cultural Studies Program Item Responses 0 1 2 3 4 5 n X S Music 4 9 9 34 56 4.304 0.98 Religion 2 1 2 12 12 27 54 4.148 1.01 Art 4 4 6 14 11 17 52 3.596 1.27 Dance - 2 11 18 8 17 56 3.482 1.22 Crafts 3 8 7 10 16 12 53 3.321 1.37 Drama - 4 13 15 13 11 56 3.250 1.22 Other 45 - 3 - 3 5 11 3.909 1.30 After i d e n t i f y i n g music as a predominant part of the curriculum, the researcher determined the extent to which music teaching strategies and music teaching content variables were addressed. It i s within t h i s framework that the researcher would be able to determine the extent to which a combination of p a r t i c u l a r music teaching strategies could be employed to improve i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology in Ghanaian elementary schools. 102 Music by Teaching Strategies Table 32 d e t a i l s the res u l t s of the test to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the concept of music teaching and p a r t i c u l a r teaching strategy variables. The r e s u l t s of the analysis indicated s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t figures for the use of singing games (X 2 26.24; p_ < 0.01), sound exploration (X 2 27.07; p_< 0.01), solfege (X 2 27.15; p_< 0.01), and s t a f f notation (X 2 25.79; p_< 0.01). Music by Content Table 33, on the other hand i s a cross tabulation of the teachers responses to the content of t h e i r music c u r r i c u l a and the teaching strategies they employ i n t h e i r classes. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded for rhythm, Ghanaian and non-Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l folk songs, and speech and language. A review of the frequency tabulations on these variables i l l u s t r a t e s high p o s i t i v e mean scores. There i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between these above named variables and the teaching of music i n Ghanaian elementary schools of thefive selected regions. 103 Strategies employed i n the teaching of music elements The development of the understanding of music elements form the basis for development of music c u r r i c u l a . The teaching strategies employed in the teaching of these elements have to be i d e n t i f i e d . Tables 34 - 39 d e t a i l the r e s u l t s of the tests done on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the elements taught and the music teaching strategies. The test on rhythm (see Table 34) and teaching strategies revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n i n the use of vocables (X 2 27.76, p_ < 0.01) and solfege (X 2 26.39, _p_< 0.01) . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded for the r e l a t i o n s h i p the use of the teaching strategie being addressed and the teaching of melody. Harmony, when tested against the music teaching strategies, conversely yielded s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s on vocables (X 2 31.57, p_ < 0.01), s t a f f notation (X 2 36.71, p_ < 0.01), and speech and poetry (X 2 37.37, p_ < 0.01). No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded for the selected integrated a c t i v i t y items. These are r e f l e c t e d in the r e s u l t s of Table 36. When cross tabulated against teaching strategy, the elements of musical form yielded s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t 104 r e s u l t s for speech and poetry (X 2 45.73, p_ < 0.01), instruments played only by children (X 2 30.86, p_ < 0.01), and instruments played by children together with t h e i r teachers (X 2 27.71, p_< 0.01). Table 37 i s a presentation of the d e t a i l s of the test r e s u l t s . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were i d e n t i f i e d in the teaching of dynamics through the teaching strategies being addressed in t h i s study. The results are presented in Table 38. It was interesting to note the re s u l t s of the test on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between timbre and teaching strategies employed i n Ghanaian elementary classrooms. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded for timbre and teaching strategies employed in Ghanaian elementary classrooms of the f i v e selected regions. 105 Song repertoire by teaching strategies. Since a l l three approaches being addressed i n t h i s study place importance on the nature of the material used i n the development of musical understanding, i t was necessary for the researcher to determine also the relationship between the song repertoire and the teaching strategies employed by the teachers. Tables 40-44 d e t a i l the results of t h i s t e s t . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t (Table 40) yielded in the teaching of Ghanaian children's songs and singing games (X 2 32.10, p_ < 0.01), the teacher's voice (X 2 25.59, p_ < 0.01), and movements and dance (X 2 36.26, p_ < 0.01). The relevance of t h i s w i l l be discussed in Chapter 5. With respect to non-Ghanaian children's songs, no r e l a t i o n s h i p was noted in the use of any of the strategies addressed i n the study. Table 41 presents the d e t a i l s of t h i s r e s u l t . It was i n t e r e s t i n g to note the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the use of songs created by Ghanaian and instrumental play by children alone (X 2 33.28, p_ < 0.01), and the voice accompanied by instruments(X 2 31.97, p_ < 0.01). The r e s u l t s are outlined in Table 42. The teaching of Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l folk songs in the elementary classroom i s related to singing games (X 2 42.99 p_ < 0.01) . Table 43 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis. F i n a l l y , the test of association yielded s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between the teaching of non-Ghanaian 106 t r a d i t i o n a l folk songs and sound exploration (X 2 31.12, p_ < 0.01). Table 44 shows the re s u l t s of t h i s t e s t . The development of concepts and teaching strategies The researcher investigated the degree of use of p a r t i c u l a r teaching strategies i n the development of motor sensory s k i l l s (Table 45), Auditory s k i l l s (Table 46), Speech and Language s k i l l s (Table 47), Singing and Pitch s k i l l s (Table 48), Audiation (Table 49), and Literacy s k i l l s (Table 50). S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t results were recorded for the use of sound exploration in the development of singing and pi t c h s k i l l s (X 2 33.18, p_ < 0.01). The same was true for the development of singing and pi t c h s k i l l s (X 2 32.97, _p_< 0.01), and speech and language s k i l l s (X 2 45.42, p_ < 0.01), through singing games. Movement and dance were also recorded as related to the development of speech and language s k i l l s (X 2 32.95, p_ < 0.01), and auditory s k i l l s (X 2 31.70, p_ < 0.01). Improvisation was recorded as related to the development of motor sensory s k i l l s (X 2 36.55, p_ < 0.01). No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded in the development of audiation through any of the teaching strategies being addressed i n the study. 107 Comments The respondents were asked to make any further comments they had on t h e i r teaching s t y l e . Very few respondents answered here. The few comments received are l i s t e d below. * My present teaching style has been developed over the years of experience. Not a l l methods I employ are conventional. I try to combine serious study with the enjoyment of the subject i n my own way. * I more often r e l y on answers from my students in giving them short notes I wish to give them. My reason for doing t h i s i s that I f e e l they w i l l be able to read and understand what they say themselves than merely copying from books. *I use t r a d i t i o n a l musical instruments to teach oral l i t e r a t u r e . * I s t a r t by creating interest by imitating an aspect of music. That i s , i f I want to teach a dance, say agbadza, I s t a r t playing the b e l l , ask children what dance i s before I s t a r t the lesson. * Lack of musical instruments make music teaching d i f f i c u l t , however, percussion instruments (improvised) do help. * Materials for teaching are sometimes lacking, for example, manuscript books, instruments — e s p e c i a l l y western instruments—are hard to come by and make teaching d i f f i c u l t . Summary The foregoing chapter has presented the re s u l t s of the data canalysis for thi s study. These results have been addressed i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n to answering the s p e c i f i c research questions being addressed in the study. A discussion of the results are presented i n the following chapter. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND IMPLICATIONS This chapter provides the conclusions to the study of music teaching strategies as a basis for curriculum development in Ghanaian elementary schools. It w i l l summarize the research problem and method, provide a discussion on the findings i n r e l a t i o n to s p e c i f i c research questions, a r t i c u l a t e the limitations of the study, and f i n a l l y and previous research cite d , suggest implications for curriculum development and recommendations for further research. Research Problem and Method There are a variety of music teaching strategies employed in Ghanaian elementary schools and many of these are lacking i n t h e i r p o t e n t i a l for creating musically l i t e r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . Several factors may account for variety in teaching which may include academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , teaching experience, the teachers knowledge of contemporary practises i n music education, a v a i l a b i l i t y of materials for teaching, regional locations of schools, gender location, and d i s t r i c t location of schools. Changes occurring i n the educational system of Ghana have included 109 110 the creation of a Cultural Studies Program as part of the compulsory core curriculum i n Ghanaian elementary schools. Music i s included as a subject i n the Cultural Studies Program, there i s the problem that i n some schools music may not even be taught depending on the strength of the teacher. The purpose of t h i s study was to i d e n t i f y and describe music teaching strategies and t h e i r degree of use i n Ghanaian elementary schools, and to o f f e r suggestions for improving music in s t r u c t i o n drawing on Ghanaian indigenous methods of music education, the Orff-Schulwerk, and K o d a l y pedagogy. The study involved 56 music teachers employed in elementary schools i n f i v e of the ten regions of Ghana. The research instrument, a written questionnaire, was designed to provide information on music teaching strategies employed in Ghanaian elementary schools and explore the differences in teaching with respect to the following variables: region, gender, d i s t r i c t , teaching experience, and academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n . Upon completion of the questionnaire, each respondent received, by personal delivery, a thank you note for p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the study. The researcher then proceeded with data analysis procedures. Ill Discussion of r e s u l t s Music teaching strategies employed i n Ghanaian elementary schools This study was based on the teachers description of t h e i r own teaching practices. The approach of the music teacher to music teaching and learning i s d i r e c t l y related to the successful r e a l i z a t i o n of the nature of the d i s c i p l i n e . The r e s u l t s of the survey indicated the predominance of the teacher's r o l e i n the classroom. Teaching, i n t h i s context, i s conceived as the teacher being the sole transmitter of knowledge. Even though the results indicated some amount of student input, t h i s was n e g l i g i b l e . In the Ghanaian society, the researcher observes that knowledge i s i d e n t i f i e d with status and power and t h i s reinforces the s t y l e of teaching exi s t i n g there. This style of teaching i s one i n which the teacher, being the p r i n c i p a l unquestioned source of knowledge continues to be the predominant personality i n administering the school curriculum. As Perret-Clermont and Schubauer-Leoni would have us believe, t h i s generates a pattern of behavior in which teachers and students a l i k e would tend to hide t h e i r ignorance i n order to protect t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . 1 The music teaching strategies more frequently observed in the Ghanaian elementary schools include singing games, the use of vocables, solfege, speech and poetry, movement 1Anne-Nelly Perret-Clermont & Maria-Luisa Schubauer-Leoni, "Social Factors in Learning and Teaching: Towards an Integrative Perspective," International Journal of  Educational Research 13, 6 (1989): 575-601. 112 and dance. Musical a c t i v i t i e s such as these have a propensity for high student involvement. 2 Studies have also supported a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between student involvement and musical a c t i v i t i e s . The teachers in selecting these strategies more than any other indicated that these were p o t e n t i a l l y more informative i n administering the curriculum. The results showed the under use of instrumental play, imitation, improvisation, pantomime, sound exploration, and s t a f f notation. Differences i n music teaching strategies with respect to region, d i s t r i c t , gender, academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and years of teaching experience Although the overa l l r e s u l t s showed the predominance of p a r t i c u l a r teaching strategies, the researcher t r i e d to determine whether or not there was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the strategies teachers employ in t h e i r classrooms and the regional location, d i s t r i c t , gender, academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and years of teaching experience. The r e s u l t s showed that the teachers in the d i f f e r e n t regions tended not to agree on the use of vocables, solfege, s t a f f notation, and instrumental play. The teachers from the Ga-Adangbe region were favorably disposed towards the zW.l. Sims, "The E f f e c t of High versus Low Teacher Teacher E f f e c t and Passive versus Active Student A c t i v i t y during Music Listening on Preschool Children's Attention, Piece Preference, Time Spent Listening and Piece Recognition," Journal of Research in Music Education. 34, no. 2 (Summer, 1982): 173-191. 113 use of a l l four stated variables. The respondents in the Central region, on the other hand were equally d i s t r i b u t e d on the use of s t a f f notation and rather favored the use of instruments, singing games, speech and poetry. The sample from the Eastern region tended to favor the use of vocables, solfege, and also singing games. Interestingly, the sample from the Volta region agreed on the use of singing games, vocables, solfege, and movement and dance. The r e s u l t s showed that the d i s t r i c t , as opposed to region, in which the teacher was employed did not necessarily a f f e c t the music teaching strategies they employed in t h e i r classrooms. Majority of the female teachers i n t h i s sample taught in Primary classes 4-6, made up of children between the ages of 9 and 12. Opinions d i f f e r e d on the use of the accompanied or unaccompanied voice when the sample was sorted according to gender. The female teachers preferred to use an unaccompanied voice and the males preferred otherwise. The findings regarding music teaching strategies and the years of teaching experience of the members of the sample indicated s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t figures at the 0.05 l e v e l for imitation, solfege, and s t a f f notation. Music teaching has in the past placed a l o t of importance on the teaching of s t a f f notation as an avenue for music l i t e r a c y . Even though i t continues to dominate many music programs i n Ghana, the development of tonal d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n 114 through solfege--a s k i l l which belonged to the church c h o i r s — i s gaining a strong place i n the elementary classroom. A consideration of the means and frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of solfege and s t a f f notation showed an increased use of solfege among the members of the sample with 1-10 years and 11-20 years of teaching experience. The teachers indicated a decrease in the use of the selected music teaching strategies included i n the questionnaire. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the teachers' academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and music teaching strategies was i d e n t i f i e d in the use of singing games, s t a f f notation, and the chil d ' s voice unaccompanied by instrumentation. The teachers with GCE 0 or A levels, are not q u a l i f i e d to teach, but have been recruited as part of the National Service Scheme which requires individuals to work for a year before entering university. Interestingly, the r e s u l t s in t h i s sample, r e f l e c t e d the lack of formal teaching s k i l l s i n the minimal use compared to the other categories of a l l selected teaching strategy variables. Studies have revealed, on the other hand, greater attentiveness and p o s i t i v e attitudes in students taught by t h e i r peers or near peers, with no special teacher t r a i n i n g s k i l l s . Yarbrough and Price, i n t h e i r study of sequential patterns of i n s t r u c t i o n in music, observed high p o s i t i v e reinforcement r a t i o for untrained teachers (freshmen) and trained teachers (sophomores). 3 ^Cornelia Yarbrough, and Harry E. Price, "Sequential Patterns of Instruction i n Music." Journal of Research in  Music Education. 37, 3, ( F a l l , 1989): 179-187. 115 Positive reinforcement encourages greater attentiveness and positi v e a t t i tudes. Teachers with teaching c e r t i f i c a t e s were favorably disposed towards the use of singing games as a means to music l i t e r a c y . The res u l t s showed that the selected music strategies were more in use among the teachers with diplomas or degrees. The development of a curriculum framework based on the combination of p a r t i c u l a r music teaching strategies The researcher established the question of music as an essential and predominant part of the Cultural Studies curriculum i n Ghanaian elementary schools. Subject organizers indicated that the four basic areas of the Cultural Studies Program are music, art and c r a f t , Ghanaian languages, and r e l i g i o n . The educational trends in the Ghanaian society indicate movements away from teaching for examinations to teaching for the development of the individual as an e f f e c t i v e member of society. The style of teaching therefore has demanded the use of strategies that encourage active p a r t i c i p a t i o n and involvement on the part of the student. The three approaches being addressed demand varying levels of student involvement depending on the task involved. The researcher addressed the study of music in the l i g h t of developing an understanding of basic concepts in music through the development of p a r t i c u l a r musical s k i l l s drawn from the 116 Orff-Schulwerk, Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education, and Kodaly pedagogy. The research instrument was thus designed to serve t h i s purpose. The re s u l t s therefore determined the extent to which a combination of strategies from these three approaches to music education could be used in the development of a curriculum framework. The r e s u l t s showed that, with respect to the development of p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s , the most frequently developed were singing and pitch, speech and language, followed by motor sensory s k i l l s and auditory s k i l l s . The development of speech and language s k i l l s were evident i n strategies that employed singing games, imitation, the use of the voice accompanied by instruments, vocables, solfege, movement and dance. Singing and p i t c h s k i l l s were developed most often through singing games, instruments played by children and the teacher, sound exploration, and vocables. These s k i l l s are developed in the teachers' attempt to teach rhythm, and they are s k i l l s developed in the Orff approach and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education and Kodaly pedagogy. As Munsen observed, the Orff approach i s dire c t with high levels of student involvement, 4 and the researcher has observed the same for Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods and Kodaly pedagogy. The r e s u l t s of the study confirmed the use of singing games, instruments played by children and the teacher, vocables, solfege, and movement 4 S y l v i a Cossette Munsen, "Description and Analysis of an Orff-Schulwerk Program of Music Education," (Ed.D. di s s . , University of I l l i n o i s Urbana-Champaigne, 1986). 117 and dance as the predominant strategies in the the teaching of the study of rhythm. There are, however, other elements in music education that need to be addressed through these and other s k i l l s selected in the research instrument. Since the research instrument was designed to i d e n t i f y music teaching strategies drawing on strategies from the Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l forms of music education, the Orff-Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy, the i d e n t i f i e d strategies were d i r e c t l y related to these p a r t i c u l a r approaches. These phenomena require high levels of student involvement through active p a r t i c i p a t i o n and, according to research studies, they are p o s i t i v e l y related to retention and r e c a l l . ^ The researcher believes that the combination of these strategies encouraged a continual re l a t i o n s h i p with the creative arts i n the l i f e long education of the c h i l d . The pot e n t i a l in these phenomena for retention and r e c a l l would therefore support the l i f e l o n g music education of the c h i l d . Song repertoire, an important aspect of a l l three approaches under study, displayed some encouraging re s u l t s in the survey. The teachers were favorably disposed towards the use of Ghanaian children's songs, Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l folk songs, and non-Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l folk songs. The use of children's songs supports the demands of the Orff-Schulwerk. Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k songs i n school music °W.Doyle and K. Carter, "Choosing a Means of Instruction," Educators Handbook: A research Perspective ed. V i r g i n i a Richardson-Koehler et a l . , (New York: Longman 1987), 188-206. repertoire support the claims of Kodaly pedagogy and the Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music i n s t r u c t i o n . Hargreaves et a l . , observed that a child's a b i l i t y to perceive musical material that i s f a m i l i a r may be greater than that of material that i s unfamiliar.^ The most f a m i l i a r musical material i n Kodaly's opinion i s f o l k music. Limitations of the Study The study was limited to music teachers from f i v e of the ten regions of Ghana. I t was also conducted at a time when schools were out of session, therefore i t did not benefit from classroom observations which would have further strengthened the r e s u l t s of the study. It could be argued that the fact that the research instrument had to be administered v i a the subject organizers generated a low response rate on the additional comments section. The study focussed on p a r t i c u l a r aspects of music teaching strategies and t h e i r extent of use with respect to p a r t i c u l a r attribute variables: region, d i s t r i c t , gender, academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and years of teaching experience. Implications for Curriculum development In the development of music c u r r i c u l a for Ghanaian elementary schools, i t i s important to i d e n t i f y and describe 6D.J. Hargreaves, K. C. C a s t e l l , & R.D. Crowther, "The Effects of Stimulus F a m i l i a r i t y on Conservation Type Responses to Tone Sequences: A Cross Cultural Study," Journal of Research in Music Education. 34, no. 2, (Summer, 1986): 88-100. 119 the existing practices, and from t h i s , determine which areas need more attention than others. This proposed curriculum framework considers the curriculum guide put forward by the Ghanaian Ministry of Education to serve the purposes of the Cultural Studies Program. 7 The f i v e content areas addressed in the 1989 Syllabus are rhythm, melody, song form, tone color, and performance. The Syllabus, disturbingly, does not address tempo, dynamics, or harmony since these have an important part to play i n the musical development of the i n d i v i d u a l . If, indeed, the Cultural Studies Program i s an integrated program, then the curriculum would r e f l e c t t h i s . Since the Cultural Studies Syllabus does not r e f l e c t integration, and the r e s u l t s of the survey have established that music i s an essential part of the curriculum, the researcher proposes a thematic approach to the study of music within the Cultural Studies Program. The researcher proposes that themes, such as greetings, manners, the weather, the family, f e s t i v a l s must r e f l e c t the changing concept of culture within the Ghanaian society. The functional integration of music and culture must therefore, take into consideration the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and interdependence of c u l t u r a l dynamism and curriculum development. 'Curriculum Research and Development Division, C u ltural  Studies Syllabus for Primary Schools. (Accra: Curriculum Research and Development Division, Ghana Education Service, 1989) . 120 Secondly, since the study of music cannot eschew the assimilation of western culture by the Ghanaian society, the researcher proposes a curriculum of dual musicality. This i s to say, the program must encourage both c u l t u r a l integration and individualism. The re s u l t s of the survey on song repertoire supports the f e a s i b i l i t y of t h i s proposal. Finnaly, therefore, with music as a basis, s o c i a l systems, drama, and r e l i g i o n would be interwoven to create a Cultural Studies Program. This would not take away from the essentials i n music, i n fact, the related areas of s o c i a l systems, drama, and r e l i g i o n would complement the study of music. Nevertheless, the central in t e r e s t for the teacher must be the development of musical s k i l l s and an understanding of musical concepts through music and the related areas. Swanson states, the curriculum in music for the elementary grades includes both the development of musical s k i l l s and the building of concepts about music. After selecting themes to be addressed, the researcher proposes the development of a program around a concept teaching model. This concept teaching model i s based on the content structure of the d i s c i p l i n e and the organization of i n s t r u c t i o n a l design. It i s i n the organization of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l design that the combination of the three pedagogical approaches addressed in the study come into play. The content structure of the program includes the 8B.R. Swanson, Music i n the Education of Children. 3d. ed., ( C a l i f o r n i a , Belmont: Wadsworth, 1969), 11. 121 elements of the d i s c i p l i n e , the related concepts of these elements, musical s k i l l s , and cognitive s k i l l s . 9 The sequential arrangement of the learning a c t i v i t i e s and tools determine the organization of i n s t r u c t i o n a l design. These a c t i v i t i e s and tools, the researcher draws from the Orff-Schulwerk, Kodaly pedagogy, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music i n s t r u c t i o n . In Figure 4, an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the curriculum framework, GTM refers to Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of instruction, Orff, refers to the Orff-Schulwerk and Kodaly refers to Kodaly pedagogy. The teaching cycle, as defined by Yarbrough and Price includes the teacher's presentation of musical information (verbalization), students' response (p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) , and reinforcement (approval versus disapproval). 1^ Within the proposed curriculum framework, the following plan of action i s suggested to f u l f i l l the Yarbrough and Price teaching cycle: 1. Distinguish learning styles and c a p a b i l i t i e s of the learner, 2. Select themes to be studied, 3. Determine musical content, 4. Determine strategies i n selecting a c t i v i t i e s and procedures, ^Robert Evans Nye and Vernice T. Nye, Music i n the  Elementary School. 5th. ed., (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1985), 101. 1 0 C o r n e l i a Yarbrough, and Harry E. Price, "Sequential Patterns of Instruction in Music." Journal of Research i n  Music Education. 37, 3, ( F a l l , 1989): 180. 122 5. Select available and adaptable resources, and 6. Determine methods of assessment. FIGURE 4 A C U R R I C U L U M F R A M E W O R K THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC Expressive Elements Constituent Elements Tempo Rhythm Dynamics Melod Tone Color Harmony Form J \ CONCEPTS Attribute characteristics of Elements DEVELOPMENT OF MUSICAL SKILLS Motor sensory Auditory Speech and Language Singing and Pitch Literacy Creativity STRATEGIES Sound Exloration (GTM, Orff) Instrumental Play (GTM, Orff) Vocables (GTM, Orff) Solfege (Kodaly) Staff Notation (Kodaly, Orff) Movement and Dance(GTM,Orff,Kodaly) Speech and Poetry (GTM, Orff) Integrated Activities (GTM, Orff) 123 Implications for Further Research Based on the findings of t h i s study, the researcher proposes the following implications for further research: 1. The r e p l i c a t i o n of the survey study to determine the changing nature of music teaching strategies in Ghanaian elementary schools, and to ascertain the forces of change. 2 . After development and implementation, the evaluation of the music based Cultural Studies Program, to determine the extent to which i t f u l f i l l s the general educational objectives of Ghana. 3. A study to determine the strategies employed in the teaching of p a r t i c u l a r elements of music in elementary schools i n a l l administrative regions of Ghana. 4. The development and implementation of a music based Cultural Studies Program with projections from Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education, the Orff-Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy. Conclusions This study i d e n t i f i e d and described the music teaching strategies employed in Ghanaian elementary schools in the f i v e selected regions as a basis for curriculum development. It then offered suggestions for improving i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology (Figure 4) drawing on the Orff-Schulwerk, the Kodaly pedagogy, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music ins t r u c t i o n in the development of a curriculum framework. 124 The study proposed a plan of action to f u l f i l l t h i s framework. Three major conclusions can be drawn. The most frequently used strategies included singing games, the use of vocables, solfege, speech and poetry, movement and dance. There i s a need to strengthen, areas that involve the use of instruments, l i s t e n i n g , improvisation, and imitation i n music in s t r u c t i o n i n Ghanaian elementary schools. Secondly, the teaching strategies were universal among the teachers i n the f i v e selected regions. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences suggested by regional location, d i s t r i c t , gender, teaching experience, or academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Based upon the f i r s t two conclusions, the researcher concludes that i t would be f e a s i b l e to combine approaches of Kodaly pedagogy, the Orff-Schulwerk, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education since the strategies from these three approaches are found, to a considerable extent, to be complementary. The curriculum framework the researcher proposes i s a music based Cultural Studies Program developed on a) a thematic approach, b) dual musicality, and c) a sequentially developed concept-teaching model. The f i r s t chapter provided an introduction to the study and the second chapter reviewed related l i t e r a t u r e on the study. In the t h i r d chapter the researcher presented the study design and execution. The fourth chapter was a presentation of the findings. 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"Popular Music in West A f r i c a . " African  Music 3. no.l. (1962). Stephens, Ron. ed. "Music Reading - Is Kodaly the Answer?" Elements, Translating Theory into Practice. 11, no.5 (January 1980) . Szonyi, E. " H i s t o r i c a l roots of Hungarian Music Education in other European Pedagogical Systems." Kodaly's  Pri n c i p l e s i n Practise. UNESCO., Corina Press. 1973. Turkson, Adolphus. "Music and Games i n Early African Childhood Education." African Music Education 7 (Ap r i l , 1989) Twerefoo, Gustav Oware. "Music Educators Materials for a Changing African Society." ISME Yearbook VIII Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western A u s t r a l i a , (1981): 74-79 , "Music Education with the Mentally Retarded Children in Ghana." ISME Yearbook VI Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western Australia, (1979): 65-73. , "Overcoming Direc t i o n a l Singing i n Ghanaian schools" Council for Research in Music Education. Bui 50 Spring (1977): 67-71. , "Traditional Music i n Lifelong Education: The Situation in Ghana." ISME Yearbook III Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western A u s t r a l i a , (1975-1976): 35-39. Vikar, Laszlo. "Folk Music Research and Music Education". International Music Education. 10 Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : International Society for Music Education and University of Western Aus t r a l i a , (1983): 31-35. Unpublished Materials. Aduonum, Kwasi. "A Compilation, Analysis and Adaptation of Selected Ghanaian Folktale Songs for use i n the Elementary General Music c l a s s . " Ph.D. di s s . , University of Michigan, 1980. 138 A k r o f i , E r i c A y i s i . "The Status of Music Programs i n Ghanaian Public Schools." Ed.D. diss., University of I l l i n o i s , 1982. Bidner, Sarah S. "A Folk song Approach to Music Reading for Upper Elemetary Levels based on the Koda'ly method." Ph.D. d i s s . , Lousianna State University and A g r i c u l t u r a l College, 1978. Ezegbe, Clement Chukuemeka. "The Development of a Sociocultural Curriculum i n Nigerain Studies: An Integration of Ethnimusicology and Social Studies. Ed.D. diss . , The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981. Frega, Ana Lucia. Comparative Teaching Strategies i n Music  Education (From Jacque Dalcrose to Murray  Schafer). Presented as part of a Visual & Performing Arts i n Education Departmental Noon-hour seminar at U.B.C., Faculty of Education, Feburary 8, 1989. Hayford, Bernard Kodjo. "Staff Development Programs i n Ghana: An a n a l y t i c a l Study of the Growth and Development on In-Service Education for Ghanaian Elementary School Teachers: 1951-1981." Ph.D. diss., ' University of Connecticut, 1981. Helgadottir, Gudrun. "A Survey of the Attitudes of Icelandic Art and Craft Teacher Toward Curriculum and Practice i n t h e i r Subject Area." MA thesis., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989. Hudgens, C e c i l i a Kay Knox. "A study of the Koda'ly Approach to Music teaching and an investigation of four approaches to teaching selected s k i l l s i n f i r s t grade Music Class." Ph.D. diss . , North Texas State University, 1987 Manford, Robert. "The Status of Music Teacher Education in Ghana with Recommendations for Improvement." Ph.D. di s s . , Ohio State University, 1982. Munsen, Sylvia Cossette. "A Description, and Analysis of an Orff-Schulwerk Program of Music Education. Ed.D. diss . , University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana-Champaigne. 1986 Ofei, Patrick Sakyi. "A basis for the development of a music Curriculum for Ghanaian Elementary Schools." Ph.D. di s s . , University of Colorado, 1973. Omibiyi, Mosunmola Ayinke. "A Model of African music 139 Curriculum for Elementary Schools i n Nigeria." Ph.D. diss . , University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, 1972. Otto, Donna. "An Orff-Schulwerk Curriculum for Grades One to Seven." M.Ed, major paper, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984. Schermbrucker, Sharon Faith. "A Music Curriculum for Primary Music Teachers: Incorporating Elements from Orff-Schulwerk into a M u l t i c u l t u r a l and Thematic Approach." M.Ed, major paper, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989. Zemke, S i s t e r Lorna. "The Kodaly Method and a Comparison of the Effects of a Kodaly Adopt Music Instruction Sequence and a more Typical Sequence Auditory Musical Achievement i n Fourth Grade Students." D.M.A. diss., University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1973. Appendix A Letters of Introduction -Ghana Education Service -Ghana Music Teachers Association -Regional Centers of Education Appendix B Questionnaire, Cover Letter, Thank you l e t t e r . 146 TEACHING STRATEGY:MUSIC IN CULTURAL STUDIES PROGRAM. A. Instructions: Using the code below, please c i r c l e , for each item the responses which most closely describe your teaching s t y l e , and content of lesson. Please answer a l l questions. As much as possible answer these questions on f i r s t thought. CODE: 1. To no extent at a l l 2. To a small extent 3. To some extent 4. To a considerable extent 5. To a great extent Example: I speak to the headteacher a) Each morning before classes. a) 1 2 3 4 5 b) During the break times. b) 1 2 3 4 5 c) After school hours. c) 1 2 3 4 5 *********************************************************** 1. These subjects are a part of the c u l t u r a l studies program i n my school. a) Music a) 1 2 3 4 5 b) Dance b) 1 2 3 4 5 c) Drama c) 1 2 3 4 5 d) Art d) 1 2 3 4 5 e) Religion e) 1 2 3 4 5 f) Crafts f) 1 2 3 4 5 g) Other, please specify. g) i 2 3 4 5 I make use of an integrated approach which includes a c t i v i t i e s such as a) Singing games a) 1 2 3 4 5 b) Imitation b) 1 2 3 4 5 c) Pantomime c) 1 2 3 4 5 d) Improvisation d) 1 2 3 4 5 3. Instructional devices I u t i l i z e include a) My voice, (acapella) a) 1 2 3 4 5 b) Child's voice, (acapella) b) 1 2 3 4 5 c) Voice accomp. by instruments c) 1 2 3 4 5 d) Instruments played s o l e l y by me d) 1 2 3 4 5 e) Instruments played by children e) 1 2 3 4 5 f) Instruments played by children & me f) 1 2 3 4 5 The song repertoire I use i n my classes includes a) Ghanaian children's songs a) 1 2 3 4 5 b) Non-Ghanaian children's songs b) 1 2 3 4 5 c) Songs created by Ghanaian children c) 1 2 3 4 5 d) Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Folksongs d) 1 2 3 4 5 e) Non-Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Folksongs e) 1 2 3 4 5 I teach basic concepts i n music such as a) Rhythm a) 1 2 3 4 5 b) Melody b) 1 2 3 4 5 c) Texture c) 1 2 3 4 5 d) Form d) 1 2 3 4 5 e) Dynamics e) 1 2 3 4 5 f) Timbre f) 1 2 3 4 5 , I encourage the development of s k i l l s such as a) Motor Sensory a) 1 2 3 4 5 b) Co-ordination b) 1 2 3 4 5 c) Auditory c) 1 2 3 4 5 d) Speech/Language d) 1 2 3 4 5 e) Singing/ Pitch e) 1 2 3 4 5 f) Audiation f) 1 2 3 4 5 g) Literacy g) 1 2 3 4 5 . I approach l i t e r a c y s k i l l s in the use of a) Sound exploration a) 1 2 3 4 5 b) Vocables i n t r o . rhythmic patterns b) 1 2 3 4 5 c) Solfege (Moveable doh) c) 1 2 3 4 5 d) Staff notation from the onset d) 1 2 3 4 5 e) Speech and poetry e) 1 2 3 4 5 f) Instrumental play f) 1 2 3 4 5 g) Movement and dance g) 1 2 3 4 5 . I incorporate these i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods into my teaching s t y l e . a) Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods a) 1 2 3 4 5 b) Kodaly pedagogy b) 1 2 3 4 5 c) Orff-Schulwerk c) 1 2 3 4 5 d) The Edwin Gordon Method d) 1 2 3 4 5 e) Other, Please specify e) 1 2 3 4 5 148 B. Demographic information: Instructions: Please take a few moments to answer the following questions. Please indicate answers with a t i c k ( ), or more i n the spaces provided. Where the question demands an answer other than a t i c k , please respond accordingly. 1. Gender: a) Female b) Male. 2. In which region i s your school d i s t r i c t located? 3. In what area i s your school d i s t r i c t located? a) Rural b) Urban 4. In which age range are you? less than 20 20 - 29 30 - 39 40 - 49 5. Which classes are you currently teaching: Kindergarten Classes 1-3 Classes 4-6 Other, please specify 6. Years (to the nearest whole year) of f u l l time music teaching experience 7. What other subject(s) do you teach? 50 - 59 60 & Over Number of primary classes I teach d a i l y : 1 5 or more 2 None 3 or 4 Other, please specify. 9. My school enrollment i s : under 200 200 - 399 400 - 599 600 - 1,000 1,000 and over 10. Are you assigned to work in more than one school? Yes No. If yes, how many other schools? 11. What academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s do you hold? 149 12. Any further comments you wish to make with regards to your teaching s t y l e w i l l be most welcome. Thank you f o r your co-operation. 152 Appendix C Map of Ghana Showing Areas Covered by Researcher « Fig. S GHANA ! ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS AND CAPITAL X J Area covered by Research. *tt Renamed Ga-Adangbe Region since the writing of this thesis. 154 Appendix D Tables 11 - 50 155 Table 11.— Ga-Adangbe Region ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n x s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 1 2 Imitation 1 0 Improvisation 1 4 Pantomime 1 10 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 Child's voice 0 3 Instruments played by teacher 0 1 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 4 Instruments played by children 0 6 Instruments played by children & me 0 4 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables 0 0 1 10 6 11 28 3 .96 0 .96 Staff Notation 0 2 5 5 6 10 28 3 .61 1 .34 Sound Exploration 0 3 4 7 4 10 28 3 .50 1 .40 Instrumental Play 0 3 7 2 5 11 28 3 .50 1 .50 Solfege 1 0 5 10 7 5 27 3 .44 1 .01 Speech and Poetry 1 1 5 9 6 6 27 3 .41 1 .15 Movement and Dance 0 1 3 14 4 6 28 3 .39 1 .07 5 6 10 4 27 3.33 1.17 7 13 5 2 27 3.07 0.87 9 7 7 0 27 2.63 1.04 2 2 3 0 27 1.93 0.96 4 3 4 17 28 4.21 1.13 0 11 5 9 28 3.61 1.26 7 10 4 6 28 3.25 1.17 4 10 4 6 28 3.11 1.29 5 5 6 6 28 3.04 1.48 6 6 8 4 28 1.07 1.30 156 Table 12.—Central Region ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 0 1 Improvisation 0 0 Imitation 0 1 Pantomime 1 1 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 Child's voice 0 0 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 0 Instruments played by children & me 0 1 Instruments played by children 0 1 Instruments played by teacher 0 2 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Speech and Poetry 0 0 Movement and Dance 0 1 Staff Notation 0 1 Vocables 0 0 Sound Exploration 0 1 Instrumental Play 0 2 Solfege 1 3 1 1 4 1 8 3.37 1.30 3 5 0 0 8 2.62 0.52 5 1 0 1 8 2.37 1.19 4 2 0 0 7 2.14 0.69 2 1 1 4 8 3.87 1.36 2 2 3 1 8 3.37 1.06 3 2 3 0 8 3.00 0.93 1 4 2 0 8 2.87 0.99 3 3 1 0 8 2.50 0.93 5 1 0 0 8 1.87 0.64 2 3 1 1 8 3.50 1.41 1 1 3 2 8 3.50 1.41 1 4 1 1 8 3.00 1.19 4 3 1 0 8 2.62 0.74 4 2 1 0 8 2.37 0.92 3 1 2 0 8 2.37 1.19 1 3 0 0 7 2.00 1.00 157 Table 13.—Eastern Region ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n x s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 0 0 0 1 3 3 7 4 .29 0 .76 Improvisation 0 0 2 2 1 2 7 3 .43 1 .27 Imitation 0 1 3 1 2 0 7 2 .57 1 .13 Pantomime 0 2 3 2 0 0 7 2 .00 0 .82 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 0 0 0 7 7 5 .00 0 .00 Child's voice 0 0 0 0 2 5 7 4 .71 0 .49 Instruments played by teacher 0 4 0 0 1 2 7 2 .57 1 .99 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 4 1 0 0 2 7 2 .29 1 .89 Instruments played by children 0 5 0 1 0 1 7 1 .86 1 .57 Instruments played by children & me 0 4 2 0 1 0 7 1 .71 1 .11 APPROACHES TO LITERACY ! SKILLS Solfege 0 1 0 1 1 3 6 3 .83 1 .60 Vocables 0 1 0 1 3 2 7 3 .71 1 .38 Sound Exploration 1 2 0 0 3 1 6 3 .17 1 .72 Movement and Dance 0 2 0 3 1 1 7 2 .86 1 .46 Speech and Poetry 0 2 2 1 1 1 7 2 .57 1 .51 Instrumental Play 0 3 2 1 1 0 7 2 .00 1 .15 Staff Notation 0 4 2 1 0 0 7 1 .57 0 .79 ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n x s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 0 0 Improvisation 0 1 Imitation 0 0 Pantomime 0 1 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 Child's voice 0 1 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 1 Instruments played by children & me 0 0 Instruments played by teacher 0 1 Instruments played by children 0 1 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables 0 0 Movement and Dance 0 0 Solfege 0 0 Sound Exploration 0 0 Speech and Poetry 0 0 Instrumental Play 0 1 Staff Notation 0 4 0 1 3 4 8 4.37 0.74 2 1 2 2 8 3.25 1.49 3 3 1 1 8 3.00 1.07 5 1 1 0 8 2.25 0.89 0 0 3 5 8 4.63 0.52 1 0 5 1 8 3.50 1.31 0 3 2 2 8 3.50 1.31 3 2 3 0 8 3.00 0.93 3 2 1 1 8 2.75 1.28 3 3 1 0 8 2.50 0.93 0 1 3 4 8 4.37 0.74 0 1 3 4 8 4.37 0.74 0 2 3 3 8 4.12 0.83 2 3 2 1 8 3.25 1.03 0 6 2 0 8 3.25 0.46 2 2 3 0 8 2.87 1.13 1 1 0 2 8 2.37 1.79 159 Table 15. Ashanti Region ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n X s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 0 0 0 1 0 3 4 4 .50 1 .00 Imitation 0 0 0 2 0 2 4 4 .00 1 .15 Improvisation 0 0 0 1 2 1 4 4 .00 0 .82 Pantomime 0 0 1 2 1 0 4 3 .00 0 .82 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 4 .75 0 .50 Child's voice 0 0 0 0 3 1 4 4 .25 0 .50 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 0 2 0 1 1 4 3 .25 1 .50 Instruments played by children 0 0 1 2 1 0 4 3 .00 0 .82 Instruments played by children & me 0 0 1 2 1 0 4 3 .00 0 .82 Instruments played by teacher 0 1 1 1 1 0 4 2 .50 1 .29 APPROACHES TO LITERACY ! SKILLS Vocables 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 4 .75 0 .50 Movement and Dance 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 4 .75 0 .50 Sound Exploration 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 4 .50 0 .58 Solfege 0 0 0 0 3 1 4 4 .25 0 .50 Speech and Poetry 0 0 0 1 1 2 4 4 .25 0 .96 Staff Notation 0 0 0 1 3 0 4 3 .75 0 .50 Instrumental Play 0 0 0 0 3 1 4 3 .25 0 .50 160 Table 16.—Regional Differences i n Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES X2-INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by children Instruments played by children and me 15.47 22.18 11.97 20.98 11.35 29.86 23.91 24.18 21.13 19.86 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance 23. *34. *30, *31. 25, 28, 21, 18 59 89 76 62 41 88 0.49 0.13 0.44 0.18 0.50 0.02 0.09 0.09 0.17 0.23 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 0 11 01 01 01 18 03 0.15 161 Table 1 7 . - - D i s t r i c t Differences i n Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by children Instruments played by children and me 5.20 2.60 3.04 5.19 4.41 4.35 3.35 5.11 5.93 2.76 0.27 0.63 0.38 0.27 0.22 0.36 0.50 0.27 0.20 0.60 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance 4. 2. 3. 4, 2, 3. 1. 53 50 83 87 28 30 86 0. 0, 0, 0 0 0 0 34 64 43 30 81 51 76 « 162 Table 18.—Teaching Strategies by Urban D i s t r i c t ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n l T s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 1 3 Improvisation 1 4 Imitation 1 2 Pantomime 2 11 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 Child's voice 0 4 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 8 Instruments played by teacher 0 8 Instruments played by children & me 0 8 Instruments played by children 0 12 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables 0 1 5 11 12 13 42 3 .74 1 .11 Movement and Dance 0 4 4 14 8 12 42 3 .48 1 .27 Solfege 3 4 5 10 11 9 39 3 .41 1 .27 Speech and Poetry 1 2 8 14 8 8 40 3 .37 1 .22 Staff Notation 0 6 8 8 9 11 42 3 .26 1 .41 Sound Exploration 1 6 9 8 7 11 41 3 .19 1 .44 Instrumental Play 0 7 12 6 10 7 42 2 .95 1 .38 6 9 14 9 41 3.49 1 .21 11 15 8 3 41 2.88 1 .08 14 13 7 5 41 2.98 1 .11 18 8 3 0 40 2.07 0 .89 5 2 6 29 42 4.40 1 .04 3 9 12 14 42 3.69 1 .28 9 11 7 7 42 2.90 1 .36 11 9 7 7 42 2.86 1 .37 11 11 10 2 42 2.69 1 .18 10 11 4 5 42 2.52 1 .33 163 Table 19.—Teaching Strategies by Rural D i s t r i c t ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n x s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 0 1 0 1 6 6 14 4. 14 1 .10 Improvisation 0 1 5 1 5 2 14 3. 14 1 .29 Imitation 0 0 5 7 1 1 14 2. 86 0 .86 Pantomime 0 3 7 1 3 0 14 2. 29 1 .07 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 1 3 3 7 14 4. 14 1 .03 Child's voice 0 0 0 5 6 3 14 3. 86 0 .77 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 1 1 5 4 3 14 3. 50 1 .16 Instruments played by children 0 2 2 3 5 2 14 3. 21 1 .31 Instruments played by children & me 0 2 2 3 5 2 14 3. 21 1 .3 Instruments played by teacher 0 1 6 5 0 2 14 2. 71 1 .141 APPROACHES TO LITERACY ! SKILLS Vocables 0 0 1 4 2 7 14 4. 07 1 .07 Movement and Dance 0 1 0 5 4 4 14 3. 71 1 .14 Sound Exploration 0 0 2 4 5 3 14 3. 64 1 .01 Solfege 0 0 1 7 3 3 14 3. 57 0 .94 Speech and Poetry 0 1 1 7 3 2 14 3. 29 1 .07 Instrumental Play 0 2 2 4 2 4 14 3. 19 1 .44 Staff Notation 0 5 2 4 1 2 14 2. .50 1 .45 164 Table 20.—Teaching strategies by Female ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 0 0 Improvisation 0 1 Imitation 0 0 Pantomime 0 2 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 Instruments played by children & me 0 1 Instruments played by children 0 2 Child's voice 0 0 Instruments played by teacher 0 2 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 2 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Instrumental Play 0 1 Speech and Poetry 0 1 Movement and Dance 0 0 Staff Notation 0 0 Vocables 0 0 Sound Exploration 0 1 Solfege 0 0 0 3 5 2 10 3.90 0.73 4 2 3 0 10 2.70 1.06 4 6 0 0 10 2.60 0.51 6 1 1 0 10 2.10 0.87 2 2 2 4 10 3.80 1.23 0 3 3 3 10 3.70 1.25 0 2 4 2 10 3.40 1.43 1 6 2 1 10 3.30 0.82 1 4 1 2 10 3.00 1.41 2 3 2 1 10 2.80 1.32 1 2 1 5 10 3.80 1.48 1 1 4 3 10 3.70 1.34 0 6 2 2 10 3.60 0.84 2 3 2 3 10 3.60 1.17 1 6 1 2 10 3.40 0.97 1 4 3 1 10 3.20 1.13 4 5 1 0 10 2.70 0.67 165 Table 21.—Teaching strategies by Male ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n x s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 1 4 Imitation 1 2 Improvisation 1 4 Pantomime 2 12 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 9 Child's voice 0 4 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 7 Instruments played by teacher 0 7 Instruments played by children & me 0 9 Instruments played by children 0 12 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables 0 1 5 9 13 18 46 3 .91 1 .11 Solfege 3 4 2 12 13 12 43 3 .63 1 .23 Movement and Dance 0 5 4 13 10 14 46 3 .52 1 .31 Sound Exploration 1 5 10 8 9 13 45 3 .33 1 .40 Staff Notation 0 11 8 9 8 10 46 2 .96 1 .49 Speech and Poetry 1 2 8 20 7 7 44 3 .27 1 .14 Instrumental Play 0 8 13 8 11 6 46 2 .87 1 .33 6 7 15 13 45 3.60 1 .29 15 14 8 6 45 3.02 1 .12 12 14 10 5 45 3.00 1 .15 19 8 5 0 44 2.14 0 .96 4 3 7 32 46 4.46 0 .96 2 8 16 16 46 3.83 1 .22 8 13 9 9 46 3.12 1 .34 16 10 6 7 46 2.78 1 .30 13 11 12 1 46 2.63 1 .14 12 12 5 5 46 2.54 1 .29 166 Table 22.—Gender Differences i n Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES X2-INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 4.02 Imitation 5.54 Pantomime 1.00 Improvisation 2.18 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 3.88 Child's voice 9.54 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0.58 Instruments played by teacher 3.05 Instruments played by children 7.74 Instruments played by children and me *12.32 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance 3.99 7.17 *15.17 3.11 6.91 7.86 4.72 0.40 0.24 0.80 0.70 0.27 0.05 0.96 0.55 0.10 0.01 0.41 0.13 01 54 0 0 0.23 0.09 0.32 167 Table 23.—Teaching strategies by 1 - 10 years of experience ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n x s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 1 4 3 8 9 4 28 3.21 1.26 Imitation 1 1 11 13 2 1 28 2.68 0.82 Improvisation 1 5 9 6 8 0 28 2.61 1.10 Pantomime 2 5 14 4 4 0 27 2.26 0.94 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 3 4 6 16 29 4.21 1 .05 Child's voice 0 4 1 10 7 7 29 3.41 1 .29 Instruments played by teacher 0 2 8 10 3 6 29 3.10 1 .24 Instruments played by children & me 0 4 5 8 9 3 29 3.07 1 .22 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 5 3 14 3. 4 29 2.93 1 .22 Instruments played by children 0 8 6 5 6 4 29 2.72 1 .44 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables 0 0 3 11 7 8 29 3 .69 1 .00 Staff Notation 0 0 6 8 6 9 29 3 .62 1 .15 Speech and Poetry 1 1 2 14 5 5 27 3 .50 1 .11 Movement and Dance 0 3 3 10 5 8 29 3 .41 1 .29 Solfege 1 0 4 14 7 3 28 3 .32 0 .86 Instrumental Play 0 4 7 3 6 9 29 3 .32 1 .49 Sound Exploration 0 4 5 8 5 7 29 3 .21 1 .37 168 Table 24. Teaching strategies by 11-20 years of experince ITEM 0 1 RESPONSES 2 3 4 5 n X s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 0 0 0 1 6 6 13 4 .38 0 .65 Improvisation 0 0 2 6 2 3 13 3 .46 1 .05 Imitation 0 1 4 3 1 4 13 3 .31 1 .38 Pantomime 0 3 7 1 2 0 13 2 .15 0 98 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 2 0 2 9 13 4 .38 1 .12 Child's voice 0 0 1 0 6 6 13 4 .31 0 .85 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 1 3 1 4 4 13 3 .54 1 .39 Instruments played by children 0 2 2 6 2 1 13 2 .85 1 .14 Instruments played by children & me 0 3 2 5 2 1 13 2 .69 1 .25 Instruments played by teacher 0 4 4 2 2 1 13 2 .38 1 .32 APPROACHES TO LITERACY I SKILLS Vocables 0 0 1 2 3 7 13 4 .23 1 .01 Movement and Dance 0 1 0 3 3 6 13 4 .00 1 .22 Solfege 2 1 1 1 4 4 11 3 .81 1 .33 Sound Exploration 0 1 2 2 4 4 13 3 .61 1 .32 Speech and Poetry 0 1 1 5 4 2 13 3 .38 1 .12 Instrumental Play 0 1 3 4 4 1 13 3 .07 1 .11 Staff Notation 0 5 1 3 3 1 13 2 .54 1 .45 « 169 Table 25. Teaching strategies by 21 - 33 years of experience ITEM RESPONSES 0 1 2 3 4 5 n x s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 0 0 2 1 3 4 10 3.90 1.19 Improvisation 0 0 3 4 1 2 10 3.20 1.13 Imitation 0 0 5 0 4 1 10 3.10 1.19 Pantomime 0 3 4 3 0 0 10 2.00 0.82 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 1 0 1 8 10 4.60 0 .96 Child's voice 0 0 1 2 3 4 10 4.00 1 .05 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 3 2 1 2 2 10 2.80 1 .62 Instruments played by teacher 0 3 3 1 1 2 10 2.60 1 .58 Instruments played by children & me 0 3 3 1 3 0 10 2.40 1 .26 Instruments played by children 0 4 2 2 1 1 10 2.30 1 .42 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables 0 1 2 2 2 3 10 3 .40 1 .43 Movement and Dance 0 1 1 4 3 1 10 3 .20 1 .13 Solfege 0 3 1 1 3 2 10 3 .00 1 .63 Sound Exploration 1 1 3 2 2 1 10 2 .89 1 .27 Speech and Poetry 0 1 5 2 1 1 10 2 .60 1 .17 Instrumental Play 0 4 3 2 1 0 10 2 .00 1 .05 Staff Notation 0 5 3 1 0 1 10 1 .90 1 .29 170 Table 26.—Teaching Strategies by Years of Teaching Experience ITEM RESPONSES X2-INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 12.79 Imitation 18.71 Pantomime 4.01 Improvisation 14.69 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 4.74 Child's voice 11.46 Voice accompanied by instruments. 12.85 Instruments played by teacher 7.72 Instruments played by children 5.39 Instruments played by children and me 5.52 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS 0.12 0.02 0.67 0.06 0.58 0.18 0.12 0.46 0.71 0.70 Sound Exploration 3.57 Vocables 8.86 Solfege 17.59 Staff Notation *20.74 Speech and Poetry 14.05 Instrumental Play 12.30 Movement and Dance 5.16 0. 0. 0. 0. 0, 89 35 02 01 17 0.14 0.74 171 Table 27.—Teaching strategies by Q u a l i f i c a t i o n (Teaching  c e r t i f i c a t e ) ITEM RESPONSES _ 0 1 2 3 4 5 n x s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 0 0 Improvisation 0 2 Imitation 0 1 Pantomime 0 6 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 Child's voice 0 0 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 5 Instruments played by children & me 0 4 Instruments played by children 0 6 Instruments played by teacher 0 4 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables 0 1 2 5 6 12 26 4 .00 1 .16 Movement and Dance 0 3 0 10 5 8 26 3 .57 1 .27 Sound Exploration 1 3 4 5 8 5 25 3 .32 1 .31 Solfege 1 3 2 11 3 6 25 3 .28 1 .27 Speech and Poetry 0 2 6 9 6 3 26 3 .07 1 .13 Instrumental Play 0 7 6 2 6 5 26 2 .85 1 .54 Staff Notation 0 10 2 7 4 3 26 2 .54 1 .45 2 2 12 10 26 4.15 0.88 9 5 6 4 26 3.04 1.25 11 8 4 2 26 2.80 1.02 13 3 4 0 26 2.19 0.98 2 2 4 18 26 4.46 0.95 0 6 10 10 26 4.15 0.78 1 7 7 6 26 3.30 1.41 6 6 9 1 26 2.88 1.18 5 6 5 4 26 2.85 1.40 9 6 2 5 26 2.80 1.36 172 Table 28.—Teaching Strategies by Qualification(GCE O/A  level) ITEM RESPONSES _ 0 1 2 3 4 5 n x s INTEGRATED ACTIVITY 0 5 7 1 0 13 2.69 0.63 1 5 5 2 0 13 2.61 0.87 3 2 5 3 0 13 2.61 1.12 5 4 2 1 0 12 1.92 0.99 Imitation 1 Improvisation 1 Singing Games 1 Pantomime 2 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 0 Child's voice 0 3 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 2 Instruments played by teacher 0 1, Instruments played by children 0 4 Instruments played by children & me 0 4 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables 0 0 Solfege 0 0 Movement and Dance 0 1 Staff Notation 0 0 Sound Exploration 0 2 Speech and Poetry 1 1 Instrumental Play 0 1 2 2 2 8 14 4.14 1.17 0 4 3 4 14 3.36 1.50 3 6 1 2 14 2.86 1.23 5 5 2 1 14 2.79 1.05 3 4 2 1 14 2.50 1.29 3 4 2 1 14 2.50 1.29 2 7 1 4 14 3.50 1.09 3 4 4 3 14 3.50 1.09 2 5 3 3 14 3.36 1.22 5 3 2 4 14 3.36 1.28 4 2 1 5 14 3.21 1.58 1 8 1 2 14 3.15 1.07 5 3 2 3 14 3.07 1.33 173 Table 29.—Teaching Strategies by Q u a l i f i c a t i o n (Diploma/  Degree) ITEM RESPONSES _ 0 1 2 3 4 5 n X S INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 0 Imitation 0 Improvisation 0 Pantomime 0 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acapella) 0 Child's voice 0 Instruments played by children & me 0 Instruments played by teacher 0 Voice accompanied by instruments. 0 Instruments played by children 0 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables 0 0 1 3 6 4 14 3 .93 0 .92 Speech and Poetry 0 0 1 4 4 5 14 3 .93 0 .99 Staff Notation 0 0 3 1 4 6 14 3 .93 1 .21 Movement and Dance 0 0 2 3 4 5 14 3 .86 1 .10 Sound Exploration 0 0 2 5 3 4 14 3 .64 1 .08 Solfege 1 1 1 2 7 2 13 3 .62 1 .12 Instrumental Play 0 0 2 5 4 3 14 3 .57 1 .02 0 1 3 5 5 14 4.00 0.96 0 3 5 2 4 14 3.50 1.16 2 1 6 4 1 14 3.07 1.14 2 7 4 1 0 14 2.29 0.83 0 2 1 3 8 14 4.21 1.12 1 3 4 4 2 14 3.21 1.19 1 3 4 4 2 14 3.21 1.19 3 2 3 3 3 14 3.07 1.49 2 4 3 3 2 14 2.93 1.33 3 3 4 2 2 14 2.78 1.37 174 Table 30.—Teaching Startegies by Academic Quali f i c a t i o n s ITEM RESPONSES X2- n INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games *20.44 0.01 Imitation 9.28 0.32 Pantomime 4.77 0.57 Improvisation 8.40 0.39 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 1.62 0.95 Child's voice 17.06 0.03 Voice accompanied by instruments. 8.04 0.43 Instruments played by teacher 5.59 0.69 Instruments played by children 1.06 0.99 Instruments played by children and me 4.85 0.77 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 7.70 0.46 Vocables 9.83 0.28 Solfege 11.43 0.17 Staff Notation *21.38 0.01 Speech and Poetry 9.88 0.27 Instrumental Play 11.18 0.19 Movement and Dance 7.04 0.53 « 175 Table 32. Music by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES X2-INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games *26.24 Imitation 10.07 Pantomime 6.69 Improvisation 16.42 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 6.55 Child's voice 5.09 Voice accompanied by instruments. 20.05 Instruments played by teacher 15.75 Instruments played by children 12.65 Instruments played by children and me 10.86 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 27.07 Vocables 14.48 Solfege *27.15 Staff Notation *25.79 Speech and Poetry 20.99 Instrumental Play 14.98 Movement and Dance 9.24 0.01 0.61 0.67 0.17 0.68 0.95 0.07 0.20 0.39 0.54 0.01 0.27 0.01 0.01 0.14 0.24 0.68 176 Table 33.—Music by content ITEM RESPONSES MUSIC ELEMENTS Rhythm *27.54 0.01 Melody 14.89 0.09 Harmony 12.76 0.39 Form 19.55 0.08 Dynamics 2.40 0.03 Timbre 9.89 0.62 SONG REPERTOIRE Ghanaian children's songs 21.44 0.04 Non-Ghanaian Children's songs 16.19 0.18 Songs created by Ghanaian children 16.45 0.17 Ghanaian Traditional Folk songs *36.82 0.01 Non-Ghanaian Tr a d i t i o n a l Folksongs *25.97 0.01 SKILL DEVELOPMENT Motor-sensory 18.54 0.10 Auditory 15.60 0.21 Speech/ Language *27.49 0.01 Singing/ Pitch 18.29 0.03 Audiation 18.66 0.09 Literacy 21.98 0.04 177 Table 34.—Elements (Rhythm) by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 24.22 Imitation 10.61 Pantomime 13.38 Improvisation 9.51 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 16.49 Child's voice 13.61 Voice accompanied by instruments. 19.43 - Instruments played by teacher 15.42 Instruments played by children 7.65 Instruments played by children and me 21.94 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 14.08 Vocables *27.76 Solfege *26.39 Staff Notation 14.84 Speech and Poetry 13.42 Instrumental Play 10.12 Movement and Dance 24.57 0.02 0.56 0.15 0.66 0.06 0.32 0.07 0.22 0.81 0.04 0. 0, 0, 0, 0 0 0 29 01 01 25 57 60 02 178 Table 35.—Elements (Melody) by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 16.71 Imitation 11.91 Pantomime 9.96 Improvi s a t i on 21.75 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 7.56 Child's voice 15.48 Voice accompanied by instruments. 21.42 Instruments played by teacher 10.58 Instruments played by children 19.97 Instruments played by children and me 19.26 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 21.01 Vocables 23.83 Solfege 15.86 Staff Notation 8.85 Speech and Poetry 27.92 Instrumental Play 10.69 Movement and Dance 20.55 0.16 0.45 0.35 0.04 0.58 0.22 0.04 0.56 0.07 0.08 0. 0. 0. 0, 0 0 05 02 19 71 02 55 0.06 179 Table 36.—Elements (Harmony) by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES X2-INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 9.36 Imitation 18.69 Pantomime 8.89 Improvisation 16.23 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 12.16 Child's voice 15.59 Voice accompanied by instruments. 21.79 Instruments played by teacher 18.39 Instruments played by children 20.07 Instruments played by children and me 21.07 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS 0.89 0.28 0.71 0.44 0.43 0.48 0.15 0.30 0.22 0.17 Sound Exploration Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance 26.11 *31.57 28.21 *36.71 *37.37 17.14 19.11 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.38 0.26 180 Table 37.—Elements (Form) by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES xj^  p INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 17.87 0.33 Imitation 24.27 0.08 Pantomime 7.39 0.83 Improvisation 19.48 0.24 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 11.20 0.51 Child's voice 18.77 0.28 Voice accompanied by instruments. 27.96 0.03 Instruments played by teacher 24.59 0.08 Instruments played by children *30.86 0.01 Instruments played by children and me 27.71 0.03 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration *36.37 0.01 Vocables 25.89 0.05 Solfege 15.00 0.52 Staff Notation 22.29 0.13 Speech and Poetry M5.73 0.01 Instrumental Play 25.75 0.06 Movement and Dance 24.02 0.08 181 Table 38.—Elements (Dynamics) by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 16.08 Imitation 23.79 Pantomime 8.58 Improvisation 11.39 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 8.69 Child's voice 19.15 Voice accompanied by instruments. 26.95 Instruments played by teacher 12.84 Instruments played by children 24.39 Instruments played by children and me 16.96 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 23.04 Vocables 25.58 Solfege 17.06 Staff Notation 24.11 Speech and Poetry 35.65 Instrumental Play 17.14 Movement and Dance 14.65 0.45 0.09 0.74 0.78 0.73 0.26 0.04 0.68 0.08 0.39 0.11 0.06 0.38 0.09 0.02 0.38 0.55 4 182 Table 39.—Elements (Timbre) by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES X2- p INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 15.98 0.45 Imitation 21.05 0.17 Pantomime 12.06 0.44 Improvisation 17.68 0.34 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 11 .14 0 .52 Child's voice 20 .24 0 .21 Voice accompanied by instruments. 23 .28 0 .11 Instruments played by teacher 14 .57 0 .56 Instruments played by children 27 .98 0 .03 Instruments played by children and me 18 .52 0 .29 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance 15.34 0.50 28.87 0.02 25.02 0.07 19.74 0.23 23.26 0.27 17.14 0.38 14.65 0.55 183 Table 40.—Ghanaian Children's Songs by Teaching Strategies ITEM INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES RESPONSES X2-*32.10 8.73 17.43 13.75 0.01 0.92 0.13 0.62 My Voice(acappella) *25 .59 0 .01 Child's voice 10 .83 0 .82 Voice accompanied by instruments. 14 .42 0 .57 Instruments played by teacher 9 .96 0 .87 Instruments played by children 11 .60 0 .77 Instruments played by children and me 17 .20 0 .37 PPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 14 .46 0 .56 Vocables 29 .21 0 .02 Solfege 13 .12 0 .66 Staff Notation 13 .75 0 .62 Speech and Poetry 18 .83 0 .53 Instrumental Play 16 .88 0 .39 Movement and Dance *36 .26 0 .01 184 Table 41.—Non-Ghanaian Children's songs by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES X2-INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 10.55 Imitation 21.81 Pantomime 15.07 Improvisation 15.91 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 14.29 Child's voice 27.02 Voice accompanied by instruments. 28.81 Instruments played by teacher 27.90 Instruments played by children 13.80 Instruments played by children and me 13.28 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 27.77 Vocables 16.87 Solfege 16.93 Staff Notation 18.77 Speech and Poetry 22.15 Instrumental Play 14.43 Movement and Dance 21.69 0.83 0.15 0.24 0.46 0.28 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.61 0.65 0.03 0.39 0.39 0.28 0.33 0.56 0.15 185 Table 42.—Songs Created by Ghanaian Children by Teaching Strategies — I T E M " RESPONSES INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 20.35 Imitation 15.57 Pantomime 8.91 Improvisation 12.86 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 16.06 Child's voice 13.33 Voice accompanied by instruments. *31.97 Instruments played by teacher 10.54 Instruments played by children *33.28 Instruments played by children and me 27.83 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 26.22 Vocables 18.39 Solfege 8.24 Staff Notation 17.49 Speech and Poetry 31.37 Instrumental Play *33.68 Movement and Dance 24.35 0.20 0.48 0.71 0.68 0.19 0.64 0.01 0.84 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.30 0.94 0.35 0.05 0.01 0.08 186 Table 43.—Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Folksongs by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES X2-INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games M2.99 Imitation 14.49 Pantomime 12.63 Improvisation 19.17 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 14.29 Child's voice 17.23 Voice accompanied by instruments. 26.13 Instruments played by teacher 12.04 Instruments played by children 18.67 Instruments played by children and me 25.28 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 16.85 Vocables 17.29 Solfege 19.77 Staff Notation 21.89 Speech and Poetry 16.95 Instrumental Play 29.97 Movement and Dance 19.98 0.01 0.56 0.39 0.26 0.28 0.37 0.05 0.74 0.28 0.06 0.39 0.37 0.23 0.15 0.65 0.02 0.22 187 Table 44.—Non-Ghanaian Tra d i t i o n a l Folk Songs by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 17.34 Imitation 13.68 Pantomime 19.56 Improvisation 22.99 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 15.15 Child's voice 18.55 Voice accompanied by instruments. 12.13 Instruments played by teacher 22.77 Instruments played by children 21.50 Instruments played by children and me 11.00 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration *31.12 Vocables 16.57 Solfege 17.35 Staff Notation 26.21 Speech and Poetry 26.84 Instrumental Play 20.26 Movement and Dance 21.95 0.36 0.62 0.07 0.11 0.43 0.29 0.73 0.12 0.16 0.81 0.01 0.41 0.36 0.05 0.14 0.21 0.14 188 Table 45.—Motor sensory s k i l l s by teaching strategy ITEM RESPONSES X2-INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 12.74 Imitation 17.95 Pantomime 8.27 Improvisation *36.55 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 15.60 Child's voice 24.30 Voice accompanied by instruments. *49.78 Instruments played by teacher 19.81 Instruments played by children 16.49 Instruments played by children and me 12.85 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 29.49 Vocables 18.77 Solfege 16.92 Staff Notation 21.59 Speech and Poetry 31.52 Instrumental Play 12.45 Movement and Dance 9.48 0.69 0.32 0.76 0.01 0.21 0.08 0.01 0.22 0.41 0.68 0.02 0.28 0.39 0.16 0.05 0.71 0.89 189 Table 46.—Auditory development by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 28.68 Imitation 24.54 Pantomime 9.57 Improvisation 7.89 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 15.83 Child's voice 27.04 Voice accompanied by instruments. 15.77 Instruments played by teacher 18.03 Instruments played by children 13.40 Instruments played by children and me 8.91 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration *30.48 Vocables 11.61 Solfege 21.62 Staff Notation 21.05 Speech and Poetry 22.28 Instrumental Play 15.57 Movement and Dance 31.70 0.03 0.07 0.65 0.95 0.19 0.04 0.46 0.32 0.64 0.92 0 0 02 77 0.16 0.18 10 48 01 190 Table 47.—Speech and Language development by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games *45.42 Imitation M0.49 Pantomime 10.57 Improvisation 22.72 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 9.41 Child's voice 15.62 Voice accompanied by instruments. 29.32 Instruments played by teacher 14.04 Instruments played by children 12.88 Instruments played by children and me 22.29 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 17.22 Vocables *51.08 Solfege 23.50 Staff Notation 19.61 Speech and Poetry 22.28 Instrumental Play 13.08 Movement and Dance *32.35 0.01 0.01 0.56 0.12 0.66 0.48 0.02 0.56 0.68 0.13 0.37 0.01 0.02 0.24 0.10 0.66 0.01 191 Table 48.—Singing/Ptich development by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES X2-INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games *32.97 Imitation 17.62 Pantomime 11.27 Improvisation 16.47 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 11.33 Child's voice 8.78 Voice accompanied by instruments. 12.92 Instruments played by teacher 14.02 Instruments played by children 14.16 Instruments played by children and me *28.42 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration *33.18 Vocables Ml.22 Solfege 12.15 Staff Notation 16.10 Speech and Poetry 16.75 Instrumental Play 14.79 Movement and Dance 12.74 0.01 0.12 0.26 0.17 0.25 0.72 0.37 0.29 0.29 0.01 0. 0. 01 01 0.43 0.19 0. 0, 0, 33 25 39 192 Table 49.--Audiation by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 22 Imitation 20, Pantomime 14 Improvisation 25, INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES 11 75 34 34 My Voice(acappella) 10.63 Child's voice 16.97 Voice accompanied by instruments. 21.32 Instruments played by teacher 24.34 Instruments played by children 22.66 Instruments played by children and me 21.90 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 14.93 Vocables 17.09 Solfege 21.19 Staff Notation 28.97 Speech and Poetry 20.41 Instrumental Play 17.10 Movement and Dance 18.60 0.14 0.19 0.27 0.06 0.56 0.39 0.17 0.08 0.12 0.15 0.53 0.38 0 0 0 0 0 17 91 43 38 29 193 Table 50.—Literacy development by Teaching Strategies ITEM RESPONSES INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games 17.69 Imitation 17.82 Pantomime 10.87 Improvisation 29.95 INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My Voice(acappella) 16.40 Child's voice 19.49 Voice accompanied by instruments. 15.00 Instruments played by teacher 16.35 Instruments played by children 14.53 Instruments played by children and me 16.41 APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound Exploration 28.43 Vocables 22.56 Solfege 20.53 Staff Notation 15.24 Speech and Poetry 23.38 Instrumental Play *33.05 Movement and Dance 17.07 0.34 0.33 0.54 0.02 0.17 0.24 0.52 0.43 0.56 0.42 0.03 0.13 0.19 0.51 0.27 0.01 0.38 

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