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A survey of music teaching strategies in Ghanaian elementary schools as a basis for curriculum development Addo, Akosua Obuo 1990

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c. SURVEY OF MUSIC TEACHING STRATEGIES I N GHANAIAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AS A B A S I S FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT By AKOSUA OBUO ADDO B.MUS. U n i v e r s i t y o f Cape C o a s t , Ghana, 1985 D i p . E d . U n i v e r s i t y o f Cape C o a s t , Ghana, 1985  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to therequired standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1990 © A k o s u a Obuo Addo, 1990  In  presenting  this thesis  in partial fulfilment of  the  requirements  for an  advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. copying  of this thesis for scholarly  department  or  by  his  or  her  I further agree that permission for  purposes  may be granted by the head of  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without permission.  Department of v i s u a l & Performing A r t s i n Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  9th., October, 1990.  extensive  copying  my or  my written  ABSTRACT Changes o c c u r r i n g i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system of Ghana s i n c e independence i n 1957 have been many and v a r i e d .  The  r e c e n t i n c l u s i o n of the C u l t u r a l Studies program as p a r t of the compulsory core c u r r i c u l u m i s an example change.  of such a  The C u l t u r a l Studies program was designed t o  nurture c u l t u r a l awareness and a p p r e c i a t i o n i n the Ghanaian school c h i l d through music, drama, r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l systems.  The focus of t h i s study was Music i n the C u l t u r a l  Studies program.  The approach of the music teacher t o music  t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g determines the s u c c e s s f u l of the c u r r i c u l u m .  realization  Music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed i n  Ghanaian elementary schools are many and v a r i e d .  The  content of the c u r r i c u l u m the teacher has t o work with a l s o enhances the r e a l i z a t i o n of the program  objectives.  The purpose of t h i s study was t o i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r degree of use i n Ghanaian elementary schools and a l s o o f f e r suggestions f o r improving music i n s t r u c t i o n drawing on  Ghanaian indigenous  methods of music education, the Orff-Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy. In a survey i n v o l v i n g f i f t y - s i x music teachers from f i v e of the t e n r e g i o n s of Ghana, the r e s e a r c h e r drew the following  conclusions:  ii  a) the most f r e q u e n t l y used t e a c h i n g  strategies  i n c l u d e d s i n g i n g games, vocables, s o l f e g e , speech and poetry, movement and dance. b) there was  evidence to suggest t h a t the music  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s of teachers are not r e l a t e d to t h e i r r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n , d i s t r i c t , gender, t e a c h i n g experience, or academic  qualifications.  c) I t i s f e a s i b l e to combine K o d c t l y pedagogy,  the approaches of the  the Orff-Schulwerk, and Ghanaian indigenous  forms of music e d u c a t i o n i n the development of a c u r r i c u l u m framework aimed a t improving music i n s t r u c t i o n a l  methodology  i n Ghanaian elementary s c h o o l s .  Supervisor Approval  Dr. A l l e n E. Clingman  in  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S I would l i k e t o thank a l l who have i n many ways helped to make t h i s p r o j e c t p o s s i b l e . S p e c i a l thanks go t o my f a m i l y , who have supported i n every manner p o s s i b l e .  me  God B l e s s You.  I am indebted to my s u p e r v i s o r and c h a i r p e r s o n of t h i s t h e s i s committee, P r o f . A l l e n Clingman, f o r the constant support and guidance project.  g i v e n me throughout  the w r i t i n g of t h i s  I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o Mrs. S h i r l e y Clingman f o r  proof r e a d i n g the manuscript. S i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e goes to P r o f . Harold R a t z l a f f , and Assoc.  P r o f . Sandra Davis, members of my t h e s i s committee,  f o r i n s i g h t f u l and v a l u a b l e advice g i v e n me. I am g r a t e f u l t o the C u r r i c u l u m Research and Development D i v i s i o n , M i n i s t r y of Education, Ghana, and a l l Subject Organizers f o r music, a t D i s t r i c t Centers of Education i n the f i v e r e g i o n s v i s i t e d f o r a l l the support and m a t e r i a l made a v a i l a b l e t o me. To Dr. A k r o f i , U n i v e r s i t y of Cape Coast, who took to read p o r t i o n s of the manuscript,  I express my  To a l l my f r i e n d s i n Ghana, and C h a r i t y , Judy, Gudrun, J i l l ,  thanks.  Canada, e s p e c i a l l y ,  M a r i l y n , John, and Emmanuel who  kept me focussed on t h i s t h e s i s , I say thank you. I am not able t o  time  mention a l l of you by name.  iv  I regret  DEDICATION MY MOTHER, THE BEST EXAMPLE OF A GOOD TEACHER, WHO  TAUGHT ME HOW  v  TO TEACH.  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  11  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S  iv  DEDICATION  v  LIST OF TABLES  ix  LIST OF FIGURES  x m  Chapter  1. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM  1  Background of the Study Context of the Problem Purpose of Study S p e c i f i c Research O b j e c t i v e s J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Study Limitations O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Summary  2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE  16  Music Teaching S t r a t e g i e s Conceptual Framework H i s t o r i c a l Framework The Orff-Schulwerk  vi  H i s t o r i c a l Framework Conceptual Framework Kodaly Pedagogy H i s t o r i c a l Framework Conceptual Framework Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Methods of Music E d u c a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l Framework Conceptual Framework Adapting and Combining D i f f e r e n t Music Teaching Strategies Trends i n Music C u r r i c u l u m Development: Ghana Summary  STUDY DESIGN AND EXECUTION Research Design Population Sample Method of S e l e c t i n g Sample P r e t e s t i n g the Research Instrument The Research Instrument Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures Description  of scores and completion r a t e  Description  of v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r  r e l a t i o n s h i p to r e s e a r c h Methods of Data  Analysis  Descriptive  statistics  Nonparametric t e s t s  vii  objectives  Summary  4. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS  72  I n t r o d u c t i o n : Overview  Statistical  Procedures  The Sample Research Question #1:  What t e a c h i n g  s t r a t e g i e s do t e a c h e r s of music i n Ghana employ i n t h e i r C l a s s e s ? Research Question #2: To what extent do such f a c t o r s as r e g i o n , d i s t r i c t , gender,  academic  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and t e a c h i n g experience, r e l a t e to music t e a c h i n g  strategies?  Research Question #3: To what extent can a framework, be developed w i t h i n which a combination of p a r t i c u a l r music  teaching  s t r a t e g i e s are employed? Comments  5. CONCLUSIONS,  from respondents  DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS  109  Research Problem and Method D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s 1. Music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by teachers of  music i n Ghanaian  elementary  schools 2. D i f f e r e n c e s i n music t e a c h i n g with r e s p e c t to r e g i o n , d i s t r i c t ,  Vlll  strategies gender,  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and years of teaching experience 3. The development of a music c u r r i c u l u m framework based on the combination of p a r t i c u l a r music teaching s t r a t e g i e s  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Curriculum  Development  I m p l i c a i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research Conclusions SOURCES CONSULTED  126  APPENDICES Appendix A  L e t t e r s of I n t r o d u c t i o n  Appendix B  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , Cover L e t t e r , and  Thank you L e t t e r Appendix C  145  Map of Ghana Showing Areas Covered  by Research Appendix D  140  Tables  152 11-50  154  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1.  Reliability  of Research Instrument  73  2.  Gender D i s t r i b u t i o n  74  3.  Regional L o c a t i o n of Respondents  76  4.  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n  77  5.  Academic Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Respondents  78  6.  Years of Teaching Experience  79  7.  Subjects and Number of C l a s s e s Taught  81  8.  Number of C l a s s e s Taught by School Assignment.  9.  D e s c r i p t i o n of Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  .  82 85  10.  Chi-Square T e s t s on Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  11.  Ga-Adangbe Region  155  12.  C e n t r a l Region  156  13.  E a s t e r n Region  157  14.  V o l t a Region  158  15.  Ashanti region  159  16.  R e g i o n a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n Teaching S t r a t e g i e s .  . . 160  17.  D i s t r i c t D i f f e r e n c e s i n Teaching S t r a t e g i e s .  . . 161  18.  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by Urban D i s t r i c t  162  19.  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by R u r a l D i s t r i c t  163  20.  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by Female Teachers  164  21.  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by Male Teachers  165  x  . . . .  86  J  22.  Gender D i f f e r e n c e s  23.  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by 1-10 Experience  24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.  i n Teaching S t r a t e g i e s .  . . . 166  years of 167  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by 11-20 Experience  Years of  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by 21-33 Experience  Years of  168 169  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by Years of Teaching Experience  170  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by Q u a l i f i c a t i o n Certificate)  171  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by (GCE 07A l e v e l )  Qualification  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by  Qualification  (Diploma/Degree)  (Teaching  172  .  173  30.  Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by Academic Q u a l i f i c a t i o n .  31.  D e s c r i p t i o n of the C u l t u r a l Studies Program. . . 101  32.  Music by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  175  33.  Music by  176  34.  Elements (Rhythm) by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  . . . .  177  35.  Elements (Melody) by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  . . . .  178  36.  Elements (Harmony) by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s .  37.  Elements (Form) by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  38.  Elements (Dynamics) by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  39.  Elements (Timbre) by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  40.  Ghanaian C h i l d r e n ' s  41.  Non-Ghanaian C h i l d r e n ' s Songs by Teaching Strategies Songs created by Ghanaian C h i l d r e n by Teaching Strategies  42. 43.  . 174  Content  . . . 179 180 . . . 181  . . . .  Songs by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Folk Songs by Strategies  xi  182 183 184 185  Teaching 186  44.  Non-Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Folk Songs Teaching Strategies  187  45.  Motor Sensory S k i l l s by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s .  . . 188  46.  Auditory  . . 189  47.  Speech and Language Development by Teaching Strategies S i n g i n g / P i t c h Development by Teaching  48.  Development by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s .  Strategies 49.  Audiation  50.  L i t e r a c y Development  190 191  by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  192 193  xii  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background to the Study The f l u i d ,  changing nature of Ghanaian music education  i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the country's endeavors to promote c u l t u r a l awareness and re-awakening i n the l i v e s of i t s people.  The C u l t u r a l Studies Program was designed t o  nurture c u l t u r a l awareness and a p p r e c i a t i o n i n the Ghanaian elementary school c h i l d .  Music i s no longer an e x c l u s i v e  s u b j e c t i n the c u r r i c u l u m of Ghanaian elementary s c h o o l s , but has been implemented as p a r t of the C u l t u r a l  Studies  Program s i n c e September, 1988. T h i s study o r i g i n a t e s i n Amoaku's proposal t h a t there are p a r a l l e l s between the A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education and the O r f f - S c h u l w e r k .  1  Amoaku b e l i e v e s  t h a t of a l l the contemporary approaches to music education, Orff-Schulwerk comes c l o s e s t t o the A f r i c a n  traditional  forms and t h e r e f o r e proposes the a d a p t a t i o n of the O r f f Schulwerk f o r use i n A f r i c a n music education.  Amoaku,  however, d e f i n e s the l e v e l of a d a p t a t i o n i n terms of being n e i t h e r " A f r i c a n or European," which i m p l i e s  integration  ^W.K. Amoaku, " P a r a l l e l i s m s i n the T r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n System of Music Education and Orff-Schulwerk," J o u r n a l of I n t e r n a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of A f r i c a n Music, 6, no. 2 (1982): 116-119.  1  2 r a t h e r than a d a p t a t i o n .  He makes a stronger case f o r  i n t e g r a t i o n b u i l t on the argument t h a t i t would be  erroneous  to ignore A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l forms which have stood the t e s t of time and those t h a t have been a f f e c t e d by Western influence.  Amoaku f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t the Orff-Schulwerk  a p o s i t i v e a d d i t i o n to the e x i s t i n g  is  process.  N k e t i a approaches music education i n the dynamic s o c i e t y i n terms of context and content.^  I f the  primary  o b j e c t i v e of education i s the t r a n s m i s s i o n of s o c i e t y ' s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , then, he argues, guiding philosophy f o r i n s t r u c t i o n .  t h i s must form the Nketia, therefore,  draws the reader's a t t e n t i o n to the work of Kodaly i n i n t e g r a t i n g f o l k music i n t o the Hungarian n a t i o n a l music c u r r i c u l u m , as an example of music i n s t r u c t i o n based on the p h i l o s o p h y of c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n i n education. one  Thus, i f  of the course o b j e c t i v e s as s t a t e d i n the C u l t u r a l  S t u d i e s S y l l a b u s f o r Primary addressed,  i s to "develop  Schools, under which music i s  the awareness t h a t music p l a y s a  v i t a l r o l e i n our s o c i e t y , " then the Kodaly pedagogy i s worth c o n s i d e r i n g f o r suggestions  i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the  f u l f i l l m e n t of the objective.-^ L i k e N k e t i a , Twerefoo a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t the  changing  nature of Ghana's music education should be c o n s i d e r e d i n 1J.H.Kwabena N k e t i a , "New P e r s p e c t i v e s i n Music E d u c a t i o n , " i n ISME Yearbook VI (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music Education and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1978), 104-111. •^Curriculum Research and Development D i v i s i o n , Ghana Education S e r v i c e , C u l t u r a l Studies S y l l a b u s f o r Primary Schools. (Accra: Ghana Education S e r v i c e , 1989), 5.  3  terms of content, materials.^ address  s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the area of  instructional  N e i t h e r N k e t i a nor Twerefoo i n these  the changing  articles  e d u c a t i o n a l system from the p o i n t of  view of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y .  In f a c t , s t u d i e s i n A f r i c a n  music education have not d e a l t d i r e c t l y with the problem of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s beyond recommending the need to r e s e a r c h into i t . ^  i t behoves the teacher, the p r i n c i p a l t r a n s m i t t e r  of e d u c a t i o n a l nuances, to adapt i n s t r u c t i o n a l  strategies  t h a t c o n t r i b u t e to the r e a l i z a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m which, i n t u r n , serves to promote the e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s of the nation i n question. These more v i s i b l e approaches to music education, t o g e t h e r with Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods, o f f e r suggestions f o r improving  music t e a c h i n g and  Ghana i f Amoaku's arguments are v a l i d .  learning in  Secondly,  r i g h t , then the study of e x i s t i n g music t e a c h i n g w i l l r e v e a l the presence conducive  i f he i s strategies  of s t r a t e g i e s t h a t w i l l c r e a t e a  atmosphere f o r the implementation  s u g g e s t i o n s . Since these observed  of these  s t r a t e g i e s may  vary with  r e s p e c t to c e r t a i n a t t r i b u t e v a r i a b l e s , the extent to which they v a r y w i l l a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  ^Gustav Oware Twerefoo, "Music Educators M a t e r i a l s f o r a Changing A f r i c a n S o c i e t y , " i n ISME Yearbook VIII (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music Education and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1981), 74-79. R o b e r t Manford, "The Status of Music Teacher Education i n Ghana with Recommendations f o r Improvement." (Ph.D. d i s s . , Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , 1982); E r i c A y i s i A k r o f i , "The Status of Music Programs i n Ghanaian P u b l i c Schools." (Ed.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1982). 5  4  Context of the Problem In the l i g h t of the recent  changes i n e d u c a t i o n a l  p o l i c y , A k r o f i s t a t e s , "Although the m i n i s t r y of education regards music as an important subject  i n the c u r r i c u l u m of  f i r s t and second c y c l e i n s t i t u t i o n s and has, s i n c e Ghana's independence, produced s e v e r a l s y l l a b u s e s  t o guide the  content and conduct of music education programmes i n such i n s t i t u t i o n s , most schools  are unable t o give c h i l d r e n any  meaningful music e d u c a t i o n . T h e  author b e l i e v e s t h a t the  reason f o r t h i s may be found i n the v a r i e d music s t r a t e g i e s employed i n the schools,  most of these l a c k i n g i n  t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r producing m u s i c a l l y individuals.  On teaching  teaching  literate  s t r a t e g i e s , A k r o f i draws the  reader's a t t e n t i o n t o the musical a c t i v i t i e s recommended by the m i n i s t r y of education: s i n g i n g , theory, rhythmic movement, f o l k dancing and drumming, i n s t r u m e n t a l and  listening.  activities,  He f u r t h e r notes t h a t of the s i x recommended  l i s t e n i n g i s the most r a r e l y taught due t o lack  of i n s t r u c t i o n a l equipment and m a t e r i a l s .  Akrofi  t h a t f o l k dancing, drumming, and i n s t r u m e n t a l incorporated can  playing,  states  p l a y i n g are  as e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n schools  o f f e r them.  that  7  V a r i a t i o n s i n music teaching exarcerbated by the v a r y i n g  s t r a t e g i e s are f u r t h e r  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the  ^ E r i c A y i s i A k r o f i , " I s E x t r a c u r r i c u l a r Music Education going t o D i s p l a c e C u r r i c u l a Music E d u c a t i o n i n Ghana?" The Oquaa Educator 9, no. 1 (October, 1988), 12. 7  Ibid.,  13.  5  teachers at the b a s i c education l e v e l i n Ghana. teachers of music i n the elementary  Most of the  schools are g e n e r a l  teachers and not music s p e c i a l i s t s .  T h i s may  be due  to the  f a c t t h a t the output of music s p e c i a l i s t s from the N a t i o n a l Academy of Music and the Music Department of the U n i v e r s i t y of  Cape Coast cannot meet the needs of the 19,757 f i r s t  second c y c l e i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Secondly,  teachers f i n d i t more p r e s t i g i o u s , and  the  and  specialist  financially  b e n e f i c i a l to teach i n second c y c l e i n s t i t u t i o n s r a t h e r than first to  c y c l e s c h o o l s ; f i r s t c y c l e i n s t i t u t i o n s are thus  r e l y on g e n e r a l t e a c h e r s .  r e f e r s to elementary  schools.  left  F i r s t cycle institutions  here  Such teachers, A k r o f i  confirms, are only able to teach a few  songs they know and  randomly s e l e c t other a c t i v i t i e s recommended by the s y l l a b u s depending upon t h e i r background t r a i n i n g and  interests.^  A t h i r d problem t h a t has a r i s e n i n the past year i n the i n c l u s i o n of music as p a r t of the C u l t u r a l Program.  The  g e n e r a l teachers of music i n  schools tend, t h e r e f o r e , to address which may  lies  Studies  elementary  t h e i r s t r o n g e s t area  be music, dance, drama, a r t , r e l i g i o n ,  or c r a f t s .  T h i s has c o n t r i b u t e d to the v a r i a t i o n s i n the q u a l i t y of music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n f i r s t  cycle institutions  a l s o presupposes t h a t i n some elementary  and  s c h o o l s , music  may  not be taught a t a l l d u r i n g the C u l t u r a l Studies Program.  Ibid.  6  T h i s study i s a survey of music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n Ghanaian elementary schools as a b a s i s f o r c u r r i c u l u m development.  Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study i s : a) to i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e e x i s t i n g music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r degree of use w i t h i n the C u l t u r a l Studies Program i n Ghanaian schools, and b) to o f f e r suggestions, f o r improving music i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology  i n Ghanaian elementary s c h o o l s ,  drawing on Ghanaian indigenous forms of music education, the O r f f Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy.  S p e c i f i c Research O b j e c t i v e s The q u e s t i o n s that are c e n t r a l to the design of the study a r e : 1. What t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s do teachers of music i n Ghana employ i n t h e i r 2.  classes?  To what extent do such f a c t o r s as r e g i o n a l  district  l o c a t i o n of schools, gender,  qualifications,  location,  academic  and teaching experience r e l a t e to music  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by teachers of music i n Ghanaian elementary classrooms? 3.  To what extent can a framework be developed w i t h i n which  a combination of p a r t i c u l a r music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s are  7 employed with the view of improving  instructional  methodology?  J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the  Study  Even though much of the c u r r i c u l u m development t h a t taken p l a c e i n A f r i c a s i n c e the 1970s has perpetuated i n d i g e n i z i n g of content p r a c t i c e s i n use  and  adaptation  i n developing  of modern  has  the  pedagogical  countries,** s t u d i e s have not  r e f l e c t e d the i n t e g r a t i o n of such contemporary music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n t o A f r i c a n music e d u c a t i o n . ^ 1  The  i n f o r m a t i o n generated by t h i s study p r o v i d e s d e t a i l s of music i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s by i d e n t i f i c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n employed by music teachers  and  i n Ghana's elementary  schools. In i d e n t i f y i n g and d e s c r i b i n g c u r r e n t music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , the study w i l l provide a b a s i s f o r the generation  of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and  a l s o on the p a r t i c u l a r music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s study.  Since such a study cannot p o s s i b l y eschew  i t s e l f from problems e x i s t i n g i n c u r r e n t Ghanaian b a s i c  K e i t h Lewin, " Q u a l i t y i n Question: A New Agenda f o r Curriculum Reform i n Developing C o u n t r i e s , " Comparative Education 21, no. 2 (1985), 117-133. y  •'•^W.K. Amoaku, " P a r a l l e l i s m s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n system of music education and Orff-Schulwerk". J o u r n a l of I n t e r n a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of A f r i c a n Music 6, no 2 (1982): 116119: Kwabena N k e t i a , New P e r s p e c t i v e s i n Music Education" ISME Yearbook VI (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music Education and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1978), 104-111.  8 education, i t w i l l a l s o i d e n t i f y some of the c u r r e n t needs of music i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n  the C u l t u r a l Studies Program i n  Ghana and recommend a c t i o n s  which w i l l  t e a c h i n g and  improve music  learning.  The i n t e g r a t i o n of Ghanaian indigenous methods of music education, O r f f Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy i n the development of a Ghanaian music c u r r i c u l u m framework encourages a c o n t i n u a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the c r e a t i v e  i n the l i f e l o n g education of the c h i l d . discussion  arts  A detailed  of these three approaches to music education i s  presented i n the second chapter of t h i s study.  Limitations The study was  l i m i t e d to music s p e c i a l i s t s and teachers  of music from f i v e of the ten r e g i o n s of Ghana. further  I t was  l i m i t e d to t e a c h e r s of music who were employed i n  elementary schools i n r e g i o n a l  capitals.  The study focused on aspects of i n t e g r a t e d  activities,  p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s , and p a r t i c u l a r approaches to the development of l i t e r a c y s k i l l s  i n the d e s c r i p t i o n  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . which music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s v a r i e d were  The extent to investigated  with r e s p e c t to p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e v a r i a b l e s , regional  location, d i s t r i c t  namely,  l o c a t i o n of schools, gender,  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and t e a c h i n g experience.  These  have been addressed with r e s p e c t t o the l i m i t a t i o n s of s t a t i s t i c a l tools  employed.  and  9 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The nature of the study demands the d e f i n i t i o n of terms and v a r i a b l e s i n o p e r a t i o n t h e r e i n , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e many may  be a p p l i c a b l e only i n the Ghanaian  The C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s Program: Ghanaian b a s i c education  situation.  T h i s program e x i s t s i n (Primary 1-6  covers drama, music, r e l i g i o n ,  and JSS1-3) and  and s o c i a l systems.  The  g e n e r a l course o b j e c t i v e s are f o r p u p i l s t o be able t o : 1. a p p r e c i a t e a g r e a t d e a l of b a s i c s o c i a l of the Ghanaian  systems  (people)  2. be aware of a c u l t u r e which i s Ghanaian 3. a p p r e c i a t e the way  our people  worship  develop the awareness t h a t music p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e i n our  S p e c i a l i s t Music  society.^  Teachers:  1  The N a t i o n a l Academy of  Music  (NAM), Winneba, Ghana, and the U n i v e r s i t y of Cape  Coast  (UCC), Cape Coast, Ghana, t r a i n music  f o r Ghana.  The NAM  awards a diploma  education, as w e l l as a c e r t i f i c a t e . Cape Coast,  educators  i n music The U n i v e r s i t y of  on the other hand, awards the Bachelor of  Music degree with a Diploma i n Education, and  the  Bachelor of A r t s  diploma  i n Education.  (Music) degree as w e l l as a  The U n i v e r s i t y of Ghana a l s o  trains  •'•Curriculum Research and Development D i v i s i o n , Ghana Education S e r v i c e , C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s S y l l a b u s f o r Primary Schools. (Accra: Ghana Education S e r v i c e , 1989), 5. 1  10  music educators f o r the n a t i o n .  In t h i s case, however,  students have to o b t a i n a Postgraduate Education a f t e r completing at the U n i v e r s i t y of Ghana.  Certificate in  a B.Mus or B.A  (Mus)  degree  A teacher h o l d i n g any  one  of these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i s c o n s i d e r e d a s p e c i a l i s t music t e a c h e r .  General Teachers: diploma  Teachers  holding a teaching  are c e r t i f i e d to teach a l l s u b j e c t areas  i n the elementary  school.  Teachers  at t h i s l e v e l would  normally have undergone the t h r e e - y e a r Post Secondary Teacher  T r a i n i n g program or the f o u r - y e a r Post  Middle Teacher  T r a i n i n g program i n Ghana.  Each  g e n e r a l teacher i s assigned a grade l e v e l at the elementary  school.  Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Music  Education:  T h i s i n v o l v e s the  t r a n s m i s s i o n of m u s i c a l values through  oral  traditions.  A c t i v i t i e s i n Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music education i n c l u d e p l a y i n g with toy instruments, watching  and  i m i t a t i n g parents and other a d u l t s i n v o l v e d i n m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the community.  Speech, rhythm, and  movement form the b a s i s of the t r a n s m i s s i o n of musical traditions.  Orff-Schulwerk:  C a r l O r f f , the p r o g e n i t o r of t h i s pedagogy,  c a l l e d the Schulwerk an i n t e g r a t i o n of elemental music,  11  speech, and movement. teaching  The philosophy  behind  s t y l e i s emphasis on m a t e r i a l not only w r i t t e n  f o r c h i l d r e n but a l s o w r i t t e n by c h i l d r e n . speaking,  dancing,  Schulwerk thus i s d e s c r i b e d as a process approach to  Singing,  p l a y i n g , i m p r o v i s a t i o n , and  c r e a t i v i t y form the b a s i s of the Schulwerk.  music l e a r n i n g .  The  oriented  The c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l  i m p l i c a t i o n s of l e a r n i n g experiences hallmark  this  a l s o form the  of O r f f pedagogy.  Koda'ly Pedagogy:  In t h i s pedagogy the c u l t u r a l background  and p h y s i o l o g i c a l development of the c h i l d i s considered  i n the s e l e c t i o n of musical  fundamental philosophy the  activity.  The  u n d e r l y i n g t h i s pedagogy, i s  importance of music l i t e r a c y i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of  musical  independence and the v o i c e as the n a t u r a l  instrument  for a l l .  Learning  experiences,  f o r example,  i n the use of the moveable "doh" are expected t o progress  from simple  t o v a r i o u s degrees of complexity.  In t h i s approach the h i g h e s t q u a l i t y of f o l k music and a r t music i s the v e h i c l e t o music  Primary C l a s s e s :  literacy.  T h i s term used i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s  unique t o the Ghanaian s i t u a t i o n .  The e d u c a t i o n a l  system a t the elementary school l e v e l c o n s i s t s of a s i x - y e a r primary program known as Primary C l a s s e s 1 6.  I t i s i n c o n t r a s t t o the North American usage,  12  where Primary r e f e r s to the f i r s t elementary  schooling.  B a s i c Education:  T h i s system has undergone a number of  s t r u c t u r a l changes through reforms.  the years i n e d u c a t i o n a l  I t has progressed from a s i x - y e a r primary  program at the elementary middle  three years of  s c h o o l , with a f o u r year  school program through  an experimental  primary and three year j u n i o r secondary  s i x year  program i n the  mid-seventies, to a compulsory s i x year primary program with a t h r e e year j u n i o r secondary  program i n  1987.  B a s i c education t h e r e f o r e comes up to a t o t a l of nine years of s c h o o l .  The term, " b a s i c e d u c a t i o n , " as  i n t h i s study w i l l be i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e with " f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n " and  "elementary  T h i s i s a d m i n i s t e r e d at  l e v e l s , namely, the Ordinary  y e a r - o l d s and the Advanced  cycle  schools."  General C e r t i f i c a t e of Education: two  used  (0) l e v e l f o r  16+-  (A) l e v e l f o r students  who  a n t i c i p a t e e n t e r i n g degree program a t the U n i v e r s i t y . The Ordinary l e v e l students are e q u i v a l e n t to grade ten students i n North America and the Advanced are e q u i v a l e n t t o those e n t e r i n g U n i v e r s i t y . examination  The  i s administered under the a u s p i c e s of the  West A f r i c a n Examinations  C o u n c i l f o r Ghana, N i g e r i a ,  S i e r r a Leone, Gambia, and  Liberia.  13  Rural D i s t r i c t :  S u b d i v i s i o n of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e area where  a g r i c u l t u r e i s the predominant occupation  and  the means  of l i v e l i h o o d dependent on the a l l o c a t i o n of r i g h t s of land, marketing, and  Urban D i s t r i c t :  s h a r i n g of i t s p r o d u c e . ^  S u b d i v i s i o n of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e area where  land i s r e q u i r e d to p r o v i d e commercial and recreational  s h e l t e r access  administrative buildings, facilities.  Music Teaching S t r a t e g i e s :  routes, and  1 3  Music t e a c h i n g  s t r a t e g i e s may  d e f i n e d as the r e g u l a r p a t t e r n of processes which the teacher conceptual process  takes the c h i l d  through  i n order to develop a  understanding of m u s i c a l  elements.  c o n s i s t s of l e a r n i n g behaviors  This  arranged i n an  order t h a t best encourages the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge.  musical  Since d e c i s i o n s need to be taken on these  l e a r n i n g behaviors,  teaching  s t r a t e g i e s would i n v o l v e a  p a t t e r n of d e c i s i o n s i n the a c q u i s i t i o n , r e t e n t i o n , utilization objectives.  be  of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t serves  and  to meet c e r t a i n  1 3  E. Acquaye, "Land u t i l i z a t i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e r u r a l development," i n R u r a l Development i n Ghana, ed. C.K. Brown (Accra: Ghana U n i v e r s i t i e s Press, 1986), 70. l z  1 3  Ibid.  J e r o m e S. Bruner, A Study of Thinking Wiley and Sons Inc. 1967), 54. 14  (New  York: John  14  Teaching experience:  T h i s r e f e r s to the number of years  spent t e a c h i n g i n the p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n c e the  educator  qualified.  Region:  The  land of Ghana has been p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o ten  r e g i o n s i n accordance  with p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  p o l i c i e s and among other f a c t o r s such as economic p l a n n i n g and converging e t h n i c groups.  T h i s i s to  enable c e n t r a l government to d e c e n t r a l i z e i t s administration.  S o l f e g e : A system of m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d i n the e l e v e n t h century by the B e n e d i c t i n e monk, Guido D'Arreso.  Another name f o r s o l f e g e i s the moveable  doh. Summary T h i s chapter has p r o v i d e d a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the l i t e r a t u r e which forms the background i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the study.  I t has s t a t e d the problem  and d e t a i l e d p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s to be  addressed.  A f t e r o u t l i n i n g the purpose of the study and i t s justification, study.  The  t h i s chapter o u t l i n e d the design of the  second  chapter w i l l d e a l with a review  relevant l i t e r a t u r e .  The  of  study design and execution w i l l  d i s c u s s e d i n the t h i r d chapter.  The  f o u r t h chapter  be  will  •^E. Acquaye, "Land u t i l i z a t i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e r u r a l development," i n R u r a l Development i n Ghana, ed. C.K. Brown (Accra: Ghana U n i v e r s i t i e s Press, 1986), 64.  present  the r e s u l t s of the study.  A d i s c u s s i o n of the  r e s u l t s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the development of a c u r r i c u l u m model i s d i s c u s s e d i n the f i f t h chapter. f i n a l chapter  This  i s a l s o a summary and c o n c l u s i o n of the study  with recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The i n t e n t of t h i s study i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of the s t r a t e g i e s teachers of music i n Ghanaian elementary s c h o o l s employ as a b a s i s f o r c u r r i c u l u m development.  Labuta  1  b e l i e v e s t h a t a c u r r i c u l u m organized  around a sequence of m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i s c l o s e l y to method.  related  The method used c o n t r i b u t e s t o f o c u s s i n g  c u r r i c u l u m i n c u r r i c u l u m development.  T h i s review addresses  the h i s t o r i c a l background and development of contemporary thought on the concept of music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , the Orff-Schulwerk, Kod^ly pedagogy, and Ghanaian methods of music t e a c h i n g .  traditional  The review w i l l a l s o address  trends i n the development of music c u r r i c u l a f o r Ghanaian elementary s c h o o l s .  Music Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  A Conceptual Framework E f f e c t i v e communication i s the hallmark of e f f e c t i v e teaching.  Teaching cannot occur devoid of communication, i n  •••Joseph A Labuta, "Curriculum development f o r music education," i n Symposium i n Music E d u c a t i o n : A f e s t s c h r i f t f o r C h a r l e s Leonhard (Urbana-Champaign: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1982), 127. 16  17  fact,  i t i s m a n i f e s t i n communication.  s t r a t e g i e s the teacher employs communication.  The t e a c h i n g  serve as a v e h i c l e f o r  These t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s are dependent  the s u b j e c t matter, a c t i v i t i e s ,  on  and m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e .  The teacher, t h e r e f o r e , needs to s e l e c t the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s to be used i n the classroom, and t h i s planning.  requires  The concept of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y has changed over  the years i n sympathy w i t h changes i n s o c i e t a l  values,  p h i l o s o p h i e s , and p a t t e r n s of l i v i n g . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of pedagogy should be encouraged i f i n s t r u c t i o n i s to improve.  With r e s p e c t to music  i n s t r u c t i o n , Hargreaves and Paynter both b e l i e v e t h a t emphasis on the t r i v i a l i t i e s , what Hargreaves c a l l s the "academic" a s p e c t s of music have s t i f l e d the o b j e c t i v e s of l i f e l o n g music education.^  Thus, Hargreaves observed t h a t  i n B r i t i s h music education, students who  have no  intention  of d e v e l o p i n g c a r e e r s i n music are not i n t e r e s t e d i n the discipline.  Hargreaves a l s o a l l u d e s t h a t the s t a t u s of  music education i n B r i t i s h p u b l i c s c h o o l s i s p a r t l y due to the l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on music pedagogy.-^  The  s t y l e of t e a c h i n g i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to student i n t e r e s t and o p i n i o n s of the d i s c i p l i n e .  S t r a t e g i e s must p r o g r e s s  ^David J . Hargreaves, The Developmental Psychology of Music (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1986); J . Paynter, Music i n the Secondary School Curriculum (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1982). Music  •^David J . Hargreaves, The Developmental Psychology of (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1986), 2.  18  with s o c i e t a l changes.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s has not been so  i n the case of music education.  Although p r o g r e s s i v e  s t r a t e g i e s e x i s t , teachers continue t o adhere to t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r - c e n t e r e d and d i d a c t i c methods. Aggrey conducted secondary programs.  In Ghana, Mensah-  a survey on the o p i n i o n s of Ghanaian  s c h o o l students r e g a r d i n g t h e i r music education 4  Mensah-Aggrey s e l e c t e d schools i n the C e n t r a l  r e g i o n of Ghana.  Students  from these s e l e c t e d schools were  expected to answer q u e s t i o n s on t h e i r teacher's s t y l e of t e a c h i n g , m a t e r i a l s , and the content of the c u r r i c u l u m . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study showed t h a t the music programs i n Ghanaian secondary  schools d i d not a t t r a c t the  students  because the students had a low o p i n i o n of the s u b j e c t caused by the t e a c h e r ' s s t y l e of t e a c h i n g , t e a c h e r ' s a t t i t u d e , l a c k of t e a c h i n g a i d s . Deen experimented  At the elementary  education l e v e l ,  Fadlu-  with p e d a g o g i c a l approaches to the  t e a c h i n g of music t h a t took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the environment of the West A f r i c a n school child.-> the success of these experiments,  In e x p l o r i n g  Fadlu-Deen d e f i n e s  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r music education which seek to draw on the raw m a t e r i a l s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e  and r e l e v a n t i n the  Ghanaian s o c i e t y .  ^Dorothy Mensah Aggrey, "Opinions of Ghanaian Secondary School Students to Music Education Programs," A f r i c a n Music Education 3, ( A p r i l , 1984), 20. ^ K i t t y Fadlu-Deen, "An E x p l o r a t i o n of Music Education f o r A f r i c a n C h i l d r e n , " A f r i c a n Music Education 6, ( A p r i l , 1988) .  19  Other  e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s determine  the s t a t u s of music  education w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the s e l e c t i o n of the most appropriate teaching s t r a t e g i e s .  Doyle and C a r t e r , i n t h e i r  study of the f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t the t e a c h e r s c h o i c e of a means of i n s t r u c t i o n , maintain t h a t the content of the l e s s o n of any p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e determines o r g a n i z a t i o n of classroom a c t i v i t i e s . ^  the  S t u d i e s have shown  t h a t i n g e n e r a l , students spend 60 - 70% of t h e i r time i n seatwork and 25 - 35% of t h e i r time i n whole c l a s s p r e s e n t a t i o n and r e c i t a t i o n .  7  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident  i n music i n s t r u c t i o n where much of the time i s spent on the "academics." involvement  Doyle and C a r t e r maintain t h a t high l e v e l s of i n classroom a c t i v i t i e s are p o s i t i v e l y  to r e t e n t i o n and r e c a l l .  Studies have r e v e a l e d t h a t i n as  much as student involvement  i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s of the teacher, p a r t i c u l a r are more e f f e c t i v e i n a t t a i n i n g high student The  l e v e l of student involvement  small groups,  related  strategies involvement.  8  from high to low a r e :  then whole c l a s s r e c i t a t i o n s ,  teacher  p r e s e n t a t i o n s , seatwork, and f i n a l l y , p u p i l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Prolonged p u p i l p r e s e n t a t i o n s have been shown to produce student involvement.^  low  Doyle and C a r t e r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s the  ^W. Doyle and K.Carter, "Choosing a means of I n s t r u c t i o n , " i n Educators Handbook: A r e s e a r c h P e r s p e c t i v e ed. V i r g i n i a Richardson- Koehler et a l . , (New York: Longman, 1987), 188-206. 7  Ibid.,  8  Ibid.  191.  20 p h y s i c a l arrangement of the classroom, the complexity of the a c t i v i t y , and the time put i n t o each a c t i v i t y as other f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g the t e a c h e r ' s s t r a t e g i e s . ^ 1  Approaches  to music i n s t r u c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y , the O r f f Schulwerk, the Kodaly pedagogy,  and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music  i n s t r u c t i o n , demand v a r y i n g l e v e l s of student involvement, classroom arrangement, complexity of a c t i v i t y and time r e q u i r e d f o r each a c t i v i t y .  A H i s t o r i c a l Framework Modern p e r s p e c t i v e s on the concept of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s have been i n f l u e n c e d by changing p h i l o s o p h i e s , s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , and p a t t e r n s of l i v i n g . c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the development  1 1  of t e a c h i n g  A historical strategies  enhances the understanding of contemporary p r a c t i c e s i n teaching.*  1  Shenan,  i n her d i s c u s s i o n of the major approaches to  music education p r e s e n t s a h i s t o r i c a l background on the Gump, P.V. " I n t r a - s e t t i n g a n a l y s i s : The t h i r d grade classroom as a s p e c i a l but i n s t r u c t i v e case," i n N a t u r a l i s t i c viewpoints i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h ed. E. W i l l i a m s & H.Rausch (New York: H o l t R e i n e h a r t and Winston. 1969); P a t r i c i a Shehan, "Major Approaches to Music Education: On Account of Method," Music Educators J o u r n a l 72, no. 6 (February, 1986), 27-31. y  ^W. Doyle and K.Carter, "Choosing a means of I n s t r u c t i o n , " Educators Handbook: A r e s e a r c h P e r s p e c t i v e ed. V i r g i n i a R i c h a r d s o n - Koehler et a l . , (New York: Longman, 1987), 188-206. 1  P a t r i c i a Shehan, "Major Approaches to Music E d u c a t i o n : On Account of Method," Music Educators J o u r n a l 72, no. 6 (February, 1986), 27-31. 1 : 1  Ibid.,  28.  21  concept  of t e a c h i n g methods.  She begins t h i s  historical  account with the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s of A r i s t o t l e a n i n which  student a c t i v i t y was  g i v e n prominence.  b e l i e v e d then, Shenan r e l a t e s , performers, skills.  music i n s t r u c t i o n .  listening  a k i n e s t h e t i c approach to  The e a r l y use of hand s i g n s to r e p r e s e n t  d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c a l e tones was  the Guidonian  Hand i n t r o d u c e d  by the e l e v e n t h century B e n e d i c t i n e monk, Guido This r e l a t i v e s o l f a  I t was  t h a t as students became  they would develop b e t t e r c r i t i c a l  The Greeks proposed  times,  (moveable doh)  f i r s t appeared  d'Arrezzo. ^ 1  with s i x  syllables: J0  S.  m  mm  m  cm  FA  •  m  1  so  Adapted from E. Szonyi, " H i s t o r i c a l Roots of Hungarian Music Education i n Other European Pedagogical Systems." Kodaly's P r i n c i p l e s i n P r a c t i s e , (UNESCO., C o r i n a Press, 1973), 18.  Doh  r e p l a c e d ut i n the seventeenth  century and s i was  i n t r o d u c e d as the seventh degree of the s c a l e l a t e r i n the same century. of  John Spencer Curwen p o p u l a r i z e d t h i s method  music i n s t r u c t i o n i n England  i n the eighteenth century,  and the score r e a d i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s of amateur E n g l i s h c h o r a l groups i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d .  Z o l t a n Kodaly  - E. Szonyi, " H i s t o r i c a l Roots of Hungarian Music Education i n Other European Pedagogical Systems," Kodaly's P r i n c i p l e s i n P r a c t i c e , (UNESCO., C o r i n a Press. 1973); P a t r i c i a Shenan., "Major Approaches t o Music Education: On account of method." Music Educators J o u r n a l 72, no. 6 (February, 1986), 27-31. LJ  22 s t u d i e d John Curwen's system of hand s i g n s and i n c o r p o r a t e d it  i n t o the Hungarian music education system.  r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i f f e r e n t s c a l e tones d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r s of Kodaly The  i s now  Hand s i g n s one  of the  pedagogy.  e a r l y development of formal music i n s t r u c t i o n  was  centered on s u p p o r t i n g the demand f o r church c h o i r singers. The  1 4  In Ghana, t h i s began with m i s s i o n a r y  e a r l i e s t r e c o r d of m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y was  the a r r i v a l  of Rev.  i n 1752  with  Thomas Thompson from America, a  m i s s i o n a r y with the S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation Gospel.  activity.  of the  From then on, other missions a r r i v e d and began to  work through  schools and  i n technical education. ^ 1  m u s i c a l t r a i n i n g i n these schools was students f o r church c h o i r s .  Formal  aimed at p r e p a r i n g  Song books served as guides i n  the study of n o t a t i o n with o r a l i m i t a t i o n as the p r i n c i p a l teaching strategy.  Performance was  m u s i c a l understanding  and  literacy.  the major channel  to  This practice i s s t i l l  very popular among c h o r a l groups i n Ghana today. The value t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l reformers  of the  eighteenth  and n i n e t e e n t h century p l a c e d on the e d u c a t i o n a l P a t r i c i a Shehan, "Major Approaches to Music E d u c a t i o n : On Account of Method," Music Educators J o u r n a l 72, no 6 (February, 1986), 27-31; J.H. Nketia, "New P e r s p e c t i v e s i n Music Education," ISME Yearbook V (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music Education and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1978) 104-111; Gustav Twerefoo, "Music Educators M a t e r i a l s f o r a Changing A f r i c a n S o c i e t y , " ISME Yearbook V I I I , (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music Education and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1981), 74-79. 1 4  W. E. F. Ward, A H i s t o r y of Ghana. (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1967), 200. 15  23 c a p a b i l i t i e s of music r e s t o r e d the d i s c i p l i n e t o the schools.  Jean-Jacque Rousseau espoused the experimental  nature i n music l e a r n i n g d i s p l a y e d i n p l a y .  The l e a r n i n g  environment was t o be as n a t u r a l and as u n r e s t r i c t e d as possible. In  Shenan's view, Spencer of the n i n e t e e n t h century  s i m i l a r l y b e l i e v e d that students should be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o explore and experience t h e i r prepared l e a r n i n g environments.*  7  She does not however e x p l a i n what  she means by "prepared n a t u r a l environments." A review of the h i s t o r i c a l development of music i n s t r u c t i o n cannot, a c c o r d i n g to Shenan,  eschew the  c o n t r i b u t i o n of Johann H i e n r i c h P e s t a l o z z i .  He s t r e s s e d the  value of s p o n t a n e i t y i n s i n g i n g and drawing on the music which i s most n a t u r a l t o the c h i l d .  The s t r a t e g i e s of  P e s t a l o z z i t h a t are most evident i n music i n s t r u c t i o n today include s e q u e n t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of concepts from simple to complex, the repeated study of l e s s o n m a t e r i a l through i n c e s s a n t e x e r c i s e and d r i l l , and the animated d e l i v e r y of i n f o r m a t i o n by t e a c h e r s ... Most i m p o r t a n t l y , the emphasis on e x t e n s i v e sensory experiences and l e a r n i n g by-doing . 1  8  P r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and manual s k i l l s had a premium i n John Dewey's school of thought.  Dewey's ideas were  P a t r i c i a Shenan., "Major Approaches to Music Education: On Account of Method," Music Educators J o u r n a l 72, no. 6 (February, 1986), 27-31. 1 D  1 7  I b i d . , 28.  1 8  Ibid.  24  i n f l u e n c e d by h i s pragmatic p h i l o s o p h y .  T h i s philosophy of  the t w e n t i e t h century complemented what had been o c c u r r i n g in  the l a s t couple of c e n t u r i e s i n e d u c a t i o n .  from d i d a c t i c methods to d i s c o v e r y l e a r n i n g child-centered learning. t h a t determined  I t was  The movement  encouraged  the i n t e r e s t of the c h i l d  the c u r r i c u l u m .  For the purposes  of t h i s study, h i s t o r i c a l  and  conceptual l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to the Orff-Schulwerk, Kodaly pedagogy, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education w i l l be  reviewed.  The  Orff-Schulwerk  A H i s t o r i c a l Framework C a r l O r f f , the p r o g e n i t o r of the Orff-Schulwerk born i n Munich, J u l y 1895. of  Army o f f i c e r s .  He came from a Bavarian f a m i l y  In order t o adequately p e r c e i v e the O r f f -  Schulwerk, i t i s important to address the l i f e p r o g e n i t o r i n the e v o l u t i o n of the approach education.  was  of the  t o music  Andreas L i e s s , i n a study on the l i f e of C a r l  O r f f , recounts O r f f p l a y i n g with h i s mother, a l l the p i a n o f o r t e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the symphonic and music w i t h i n h i s g r a s p . ^  Liess also reports that Orff  sang duets w i t h h i s mother. he was  ten years of age.  operatic  He c r e a t e d s t o r i e s by the time  He wrote puppet p l a y s and composed  ^Andreas Liess, Carl Orff. Boyers, 1966), 12.  (London: C a l d e r s and  25  music f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . j o i n e d the  army.  In 1917,  L i e s s r e l a t e s t h a t t h i s was  emotional c r i s i s which i n v o l v e d work.2u  m  Orff i s reported  1919,  a period  to have r e t u r n e d to  e n t i r e l y to  composition.  Another work t h a t addresses the h i s t o r y behind Orff-Schulwerk i n the book D i s c o v e r i n g  In t h i s work, Frazee, i n  c o l l a b o r a t i o n with Kent Kreuter, r e p o r t  physical a c t i v i t y , in  vogue.  t h a t the  such as sport, dance, and a t t r a c t e d to and  work of Mary Wigman, a dance teacher, and  a school G'unther.  In 1924,  gymnastics were  i n s p i r e d by Rudolf van  O r f f founded the  of dance, gymnastics, and Frazee  Orff-  e a r l y twenties, at a time when  C a r l O r f f was  a choreographer.  the  l i f e of C a r l O r f f i s Jane Frazee's  Orff.  Schulwerk began i n the  of  a complete change i n h i s  O r f f i s reported  Munich to devote himself  to have  the Laban,  Guentherschule,  music with Dorothee  states,  These two women (Mary Wigman & Dorothee Giinther) were r e v o l u t i o n a l i z i n g dance i n Germany,... Out of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , no doubt f u e l l e d by the excitement born of much t a l k and c o l l a b o r a t i o n , came the d e c i s i o n i n 1923 to found the Guntherschule i n Munich, p l a c e where young a s p i r i n g musicians could deepen and e n r i c h t h e i r m u s i c a l understanding through a s y n t h e s i s of music and dance. Gunild  Keetman, a student of the Guentherschule i n the  twenties became O r f f ' s c o l l a b o r a t o r  z u  Ibid.,  i n preparing  the  midfirst  15.  ^ J a n e Frazee and Kent Kreuter, D i s c o v e r i n g O r f f : A C u r r i c u l u m f o r Music Teachers (New York: Schott Music C o r p o r a t i o n , 1987), 9.  26  w r i t i n g about the O r f f Schulwerk i n 1930. Orff-Schulwerk: Musik f u r Kinder  T h i s was  called  (Music f o r C h i l d r e n ) .  Based on h i s b e l i e f t h a t c h i l d r e n should c r e a t e t h e i r own  music,  O r f f developed an i n s t r u m e n t a l ensemble t h a t  would serve t h i s  purpose.  With the advice of C u r t Sach,  an  e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t , and C a r l Maendler, a h a r p s i c h o r d and p i a n o f o r t e b u i l d e r , O r f f c r e a t e d a wide range instruments.  of p e r c u s s i o n  F o l l o w i n g the d e s i g n of an A f r i c a n  g i v e n to O r f f , Meandler c o n s t r u c t e d the f i r s t xylophone.  xylophone  Orff  The t y p i c a l O r f f ensemble i n c l u d e d tuned m a l l e t  p e r c u s s i o n instruments, such as xylophones,  metailophones,  and g l o c k e n s p i e l s ; melodic instruments were r e p r e s e n t e d by a q u a r t e t of r e c o r d e r s (soprano, a l t o , tenor, and b a s s ) ; bass instruments  (timpani, c e l l o s , and v i o l a da gamba) were  supported bass m a l l e t p e r c u s s i o n instruments; the plucked s t r i n g e d instruments were g u i t a r s and  l u t e s ; and  the  rhythmic instruments i n c l u d e d a wide v a r i e t y of untuned p e r c u s s i o n such as hand drums, cymbals,  triangles,  and  bells. N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m began i n Germany i n 1933. s h o r t p e r i o d of time the Guentherschule stood f o r was  Frazee does not t e l l  Orff during t h i s period.  us what happened to  Apparently, d u r i n g the  games, Frazee recounts t h a t O r f f was  compose music f o r the "opening 2 2  and a l l t h a t i t  destroyed and most of the instruments were  t o t a l l y damaged.  Olympic  Ibid.,  In a  10.  festivities."  1936  asked t o 2 2  T h i s turned  27  out t o be a p r o f e s s i o n a l music and dance group, thousands  of c h i l d r e n  i n which  participated.  Annemarie Schambeck, D i r e c t o r of school broadcasts i n A u s t r i a , heard t h i s music twelve years l a t e r , and asked  Orff  i f he c o u l d compose music t h a t young c h i l d r e n c o u l d p l a y . C a r l O r f f took up the c h a l l e n g e and t h i s l e d to the r e b i r t h of the Orff-Schulwerk i n  1948.  The r e b i r t h generated the i n t e g r a t i o n of movement, s i n g i n g , and p l a y i n g with more emphasis on s i n g i n g . Rudolf Kirmeyer,  G u n i l d Keetman, and C a r l O r f f began to work on the  f i r s t r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s , which were to span f i v e years  (1950-  1954), and r e s u l t e d i n the f i v e volumes c a l l e d Orf f Schulwerk: Musik f u r Kinder growing  (Music f o r C h i l d r e n ) .  The  i n t e r e s t i n the Orff-Schulwerk has l e d t o the  t r a n s l a t i o n of the approach  in  German, E n g l i s h , Swedish, Dutch, Latin-American Portuguese, Japanese, Spanish, French, Welch, C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , Chinese, Danish, Korean, I t a l i a n , and an a d a p t a t i o n f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Supplements and other v e r s i o n s have come from B r a z i l , Ghana, B o l i v i a , and E s t o n i a . ^ In summation, the Orff-Schulwerk grew out of work f o r and w i t h c h i l d r e n .  T h i s approach  to music education  s t i m u l a t e s c h i l d r e n ' s c r e a t i v i t y and t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n music.  I t makes use of m a t e r i a l c r e a t e d by c h i l d r e n and f o r  children.  In f a c t , the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e i n t h i s  i s t h a t a l l t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l should be w r i t t e n not  Ibid.,  5.  approach merely  28  f o r c h i l d r e n but from the c h i l d ' s p o i n t of view. what C a r l O r f f the p r o g e n i t o r of the approach, "elemental" music, speech, and movement.  This i s  calls  The s i m p l i c i t y of  t h i s approach and m a t e r i a l s u t i l i z e d w i t h i n i t are important f a c t o r s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h i t from  other approaches to music  education.  A Conceptual Framework A study was  conducted by Margaret Siemens,  the d i f f e r e n c e s between the Orff-Schulwerk and i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods w i t h r e s p e c t t o music  to determine traditional  achievement,  i n t e r e s t , a t t i t u d e , and f e e l i n g s of success i n music participation.  2 4  The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study i n c l u d e d  f i f t h grade c h i l d r e n of which 233 p u p i l s from two  458  schools  formed the experimental group, and 225 p u p i l s from three s c h o o l s formed the c o n t r o l group.  Siemens d i s t i n g u i s h e s the  t r a d i t i o n a l approach as one t h a t has been i n p r a c t i c e f o r many years and the O r f f approach as one t h a t was  initiated  i n the s e l e c t e d schools t h r e e years e a r l i e r as a p i l o t project.  She does not, however, d e f i n e what she means by  the t r a d i t i o n a l approach.  The r e s e a r c h e r found  t h a t the  O r f f approach generated more student i n t e r e s t but d i d not improve m u s i c a l achievement scores t o a g r e a t e r extent than d i d t r a d i t i o n a l methods.  *Margaret T. Siemens, "A Comparison of O r f f and T r a d i t i o n a l I n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods i n Music," J o u r n a l of Research i n Music E d u c a t i o n 17, no. 3 ( F a l l , 1969), 272-285. Zi  29  Munsen embarked on a study of the d e s c r i p t i o n a n a l y s i s of the Orff-Schulwerk  program of music  and  education.25  She addressed the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What are the classroom dynamics? 2.  (a) What i s the l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n musical activity? (b) What i s the a t t i t u d e of students towards those activities?  3. What are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  question/answer  improvisation? 4. To what extent do the i m p r o v i s a t i o n s of students i n grades  1,3,  and 5,  differ?  Munsen drew the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. U t i l i z i n g both q u a n t i t a t i v e and  qualitative  techniques i n a dramatic p o r t r a y a l of the classroom p r o v i d e d a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p i c t u r e of the program. 2. The student  s t y l e was  d i r e c t yet i n c l u d e d a high l e v e l of  talk.  3. The approach emphasized s i n g i n g and p l a y i n g i n Grades 1 and 3, and p l a y i n g l i s t e n i n g and c r e a t i v i t y i n grade 5. 4. Students r e f l e c t e d i n c r e a s i n g l y negative a t t i t u d e s towards music and m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y from grades  1-5.  " S y l v i a C o s s e t t e Munsen, "A D e s c r i p t i o n and A n a l y s i s of an Orff-Schulwerk Program of Music Education," (Ed.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Urbana-Champaign, 1986).  30  5. The a b i l i t y of students t o improvise i n q u e s t i o n and answer format appeared  t o peak a t grade 3.  Frazee, i n her c u r r i c u l u m f o r music t e a c h e r s , p e r c e i v e s the elements  of the Orff-Schulwerk i n three dimensions:  media, which i n c l u d e s speech, movement, song, and  listening;  Orff  instruments,  O r f f pedagogy, which i n c l u d e s i m i t a t i o n ,  exploration, l i t e r a c y ,  and i m p r o v i s a t i o n ; and f i n a l l y  Orff  theory, which i n c l u d e s o s t i n a t i , melody, pedals and borduns, moving borduns,  and other accompaniments such as the use of  the dominant major, or minor t r i a d , and the subdominant i n minor.^6  From the review of conceptual l i t e r a t u r e ,  i t may be  concluded t h a t the development of the Orff-Schulwerk c u r r i c u l u m begins with rhythm and i n t r o d u c e s c h i l d r e n t o melody, t e x t u r e , form, dynamics, and timbre through music,  and movement.  group work.  speech,  The Orff-Schulwerk i s intended f o r  I t i n v o l v e s a high l e v e l of involvement  p a r t of l e a r n e r s and teachers a l i k e . i n some m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y throughout  Everyone  on the  i s involved  the l e s s o n .  The  u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s of the Orff-Schulwerk a r e : a) the i n t e g r a t i o n of performing a r t s - - m u s i c , movement, speech, and drama; b) c u l t u r a l  and s o c i a l dimensions  of music  learning  ^ J a n e Frazee and Kent K r e u t e r , D i s c o v e r i n g O r f f : A Curriculum f o r Music Teachers (New York: Schott Music C o r p o r a t i o n , 1987). D  31  experiences; c) elemental music making i n which the c h i l d i s given the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i m p r o v i s a t i o n and  creativity.  Kodaly Pedagogy  A H i s t o r i c a l Framework Bidner, i n her study of the f o l k songs approach to music r e a d i n g f o r upper elementary l e v e l s based on the Kodaly method, reviews a h i s t o r i c a l background pedagogy.  27  of the Kodaly  Z o l t a n Kodaly, born i n December, 1882,  town of Kecskemet, Hungary,  i n the  s t u d i e d music a t the Franz  L i s z t Academy of Music, Budapest,  from 1900  to 1904.  Bidner  r e p o r t s t h a t Kodaly, having r e c e i v e d a degree from the Pazmany U n i v e r s i t y i n 1905,  r e t u r n e d t o the d i s t r i c t of  Galanta, where he had l i v e d as a boy f o r seven years s i n c e 1885,  and c o l l e c t e d 150 f o l k s o n g s .  In 1905,  completed h i s d o c t o r a l t h e s i s , e n t i t l e d , strofaszerkezete"  KodSly  "A magyar nepal  (The S t r o f i c S t r u c t u r e of Hungarian Folk  song) to r e c e i v e the Doctor of Philosophy degree i n 1906 from Pazmany U n i v e r s i t y .  2 8  Z o l t a n Kodaly began h i s work i n music e d u c a t i o n a f t e r d e l i b e r a t i n g on the q u a l i t y of music education i n Hungary, h i s home c o u n t r y .  Kodaly's main concern was  f o r Hungarian  S a r a h S. Bidner, "Folksongs Approach to Music Reading f o r Upper Elementary L e v e l s Based on the K o d c t l y Method," (Ph.D. d i s s . , L o u i s i a n a State U n i v e r s i t y and A g r i c u l t u r e c o l l e g e , 1978). 2 7  2 8  Ibid.,  10.  audiences  t o be r a i s e d from the " p r i m i t i v e s t a t e of m u s i c a l  comprehension."^9  The average  Hungarian  c o u l d not f o l l o w  the m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n a p i e c e beyond a s h o r t song.  This  concern f o r low musical c o n s e r v a t i o n was r a i s e d i n a speech Kodaly gave i n 1939 i n which he argued needed t o express  itself  t h a t the n a t i o n  i n a h i g h e r a r t form, and t h i s had  to be achieved by r a i s i n g the c u l t u r a l l e v e l of music i n the nation.  Kodaly,  t h e r e f o r e , embarked  on a campaign t o  promote the adoption and enjoyment of m u s i c a l values among Hungarian  peoples. ^ 3  Bidner s t a t e s t h a t the r a t i o n a l e behind the pedagogy i s the development of m u s i c a l l y l i t e r a t e c h i l d r e n . In a biography  on the p r o g e n i t o r of the approach,  t h a t the pedagogy began with Kodaly's  Bidner  proposes  early research i n folk  music and the p a r t t h a t both Bartok and Kodaly  together  played i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the study of f o l k music as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the Hungarian to 1913,  Kodaly and Bartok,  music c u r r i c u l u m .  Form 1906  c o l l e c t e d over 3,000 f o l k s o n g s .  T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t had t o be d i s c o n t i n u e d because of the f i r s t World War, but then began again a f t e r the war and l e d to the p u b l i c a t i o n of Corpus musicae p o p u l a r i e s ( C o l l e c t i o n of Hungarian  2 9  I b i d . , 7.  3 0  Ibid.,  3 1  I b i d . , 11.  8.  Folk Music)  Hungaricae  Much of what c o n s t i t u t e s Kodaly's work today may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the work of h i s students a t the academy, one of these being Jeno Adam.  Kodaly encouraged Adam to a t t e n d  a seminar by German musician F r i t z Jode i n Saarbrucken. A f t e r a t t e n d i n g t h i s seminar, workshop t o Hungarian  Adam i n v i t e d Jode t o present a  music educators, a t the Magyar  Enektanitok Orszagos Egyesulete Hungarian  Music  Education)  (National Society f o r  i n 1938. Bidner a l l u d e s Kodaly's  acquaintance with r e l a t i v e s o l m i z a t i o n t o t h i s meeting. Adam's most v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the development of the approach was i n the d e c i s i o n taken with Kodaly t o endorse a s p e c i f i c method f o r t e a c h i n g music contained i n the c o l l e c t i o n s of song books p u b l i s h e d by Kodaly and h i s students.  3 2  Bidner w r i t e s t h a t Adam p u b l i s h e d Mddszeres  enektanitas a r e l a t i v  s z o l m i z a c i o a l a p j a n (Systematic  I n s t r u c t i o n of Singing Based on R e l a t i v e Solmization) i n 1944.  The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n e d i t i o n , Growing i n Music  with Moveable Do, was p u b l i s h e d i n 1971. Bidner a l s o recounts t h a t , as Kodaly's be accepted i n Hungarian manifested  s c h o o l s , post war changes were  i n the socioeconomic  compulsory f o r a l l Hungarian  p o l i c i e s of Hungary.  I t was  c h i l d r e n to go to s c h o o l .  P r i o r t o 1945, 10 percent of Hungarian to s c h o o l .  ideas began t o  c h i l d r e n d i d not go  Kodaly and Marta Nemeszzeghy persuaded the  M i n i s t r y of Education t o allow the t e a c h i n g of music i n one  I b i d . , 15.  c l a s s every day i n Kecskemet as an experiment.  The success  of  t h i s school l e d t o the beginning of a s e r i e s of what was  to  be c a l l e d s i n g i n g primary  schools i n Hungary. S i n g i n g  primary schools were l i k e r e g u l a r primary a c c o r d i n g to Bidner, with a d d i t i o n a l music Regular primary  schools  s c h o o l s , but instruction.  p r o v i d e d music i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the  e i g h t years of a Hungarian  c h i l d ' s primary education and two  years i n secondary  3 3  school.  Kodaly composed many c h o r a l works but s p e c i a l l y valued those he composed f o r c h i l d r e n . Hungarian  Kodcfly's i n f l u e n c e on  music education, which began i n about 1908, grew  and spread with c o n c e r t s of c h i l d r e n ' s choruses  a c r o s s the  nation. T h i r t y - f i v e years a f t e r Kodaly's  1939 speech  Lois  Chosky w r i t e s of Hungary, "A man ( i n Hungary) without a m u s i c a l education i s considered i l l i t e r a t e . all  sing.  Almost a l l p l a y instruments;  Concert h a l l s are f u l l . " ^ 3  While t h i s may be  a t t r i b u t e d to c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s of many Hungarians, for  almost  i t is  the most p a r t due t o the work of Z o l t a n Kodaly.  3 3  I b i d . , 18.  L o i s Chosky, The Kodaly Method: Comprehensive Music Education from I n f a n t to A d u l t (Enqlewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1974), 7. 3 4  A Conceptual Framework The Kodaly approach to music t e a c h i n g has grown out of f o l k music r e s e a r c h . L o i s Chosky, i n her book The Kodaly Method,  addresses the concept of the approach.  Chosky  p e r c e i v e s the approach i n three dimensions: sequence, t o o l s materials.  She, as do Sinor, and V i k a r , views the approach  as  a c h i l d - d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e a r n i n g sequence and advocates  the  c h i l d ' s exposure to m u s i c a l experiences a t the e a r l i e s t  p o s s i b l e age. -* 3  She  states,  The c h i l d - d e v e l o p m e n t a l approach to sequence w i t h i n a s u b j e c t r e q u i r e s the arrangement of the s u b j e c t matter i n t o p a t t e r n s t h a t f o l l o w normal c h i l d a b i l i t i e s at v a r i o u s stages of growth.36 W i t h i n t h i s framework the  of c h i l d development, Chosky  outlines  i m p l i c a t i o n f o r rhythmic and melodic development.  d e t a i l s p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of musical  She  development  t h a t must determine any developmental sequence. They a r e : 1. The range i n which a young c h i l d can s i n g songs comfortably and c o r r e c t l y . . . . 2. ...New t o n a l p a t t e r n s should be approached through songs i n which the i n t e r v a l occurs i n a descending melody l i n e . 3. Small s k i p s are e a s i e r f o r c h i l d r e n to s i n g i n than small s t e p s . . . 4. In terms of range, one study has shown t h a t l e f t to h i s own d e v i c e s the young c h i l d w i l l most o f t e n p i t c h ^ L o i s Chosky, The Kodaly Method: Comprehensive Music Eduction from I n f a n t to A d u l t . (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1988), 12; Jean Sinor, "The ideas of K o d c i l y i n America," Music Educators J o u r n a l . 72, 6 (February, 1986), 32-37.; L a s z l o V i k a r , "Folkmusic r e s e a r c h and music e d u c a t i o n , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Music Education. 10, (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music Education and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1983), 31-35 3  Chosky,  12.  36  the upper note of the minor t h i r d around F . Thus the keys of D, E and E would seem to be i n d i c a t e d f o r p i t c h i n g teacher i n i t i a t e d r o t e songs. ' The  t o o l s f o r t h i s approach a c c o r d i n g t o Chosky, are  the moveable-do system, the use of rhythmic d u r a t i o n a l s y l l a b l e s , and hand s i g n s .  3 8  The moveable-do system was  i n t r o d u c e d by the B e n e d i c t i n e monk, Guido d'Arezzo i n the e l e v e n t h century.  Emile Joseph Cheve(1804-1864)  introduced  an a i d t o the t e a c h i n g and w r i t i n g of rhythms which was l a t e r modified  CO  f o r use i n Hungary.  t«- t i  CO-ah  Kodaly m o d i f i e d  tW-O  They a r e :  - / a . fc>'- l\'-ti - «"i  f>  a  the Curwen system of hand signs by  i n t r o d u c i n g the upward p o i n t e d index  f i n g e r to i n d i c a t e t i ,  the seventh degree of the s c a l e tones, p o i n t e d index  S y w - C O -  and the downward  f i n g e r f o r tan, the lowered t i by a h a l f step.  S i m i l a r l y Kodaly i n t r o d u c e d the a c c i d e n t a l s fah and f i with thumbs p o i n t e d down and up r e s p e c t i v e l y .  "37 I b i d . , 13.  38 I b i d . , 14-15.  Curwen Signs  Adapted Kodaly Signs  F i n a l l y , Chosky s t a t e s t h a t the m a t e r i a l s of the Koda'ly approach should come from t h r e e sources. These a r e : 1. A u t h e n t i c c h i l d r e n s games and n u r s e r y songs 2. A u t h e n t i c f o l k music 3. Good composed music, i . e . , music w r i t t e n by recognj :ognized composers. * In summation, the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g the Koda'ly approach are, a) a c h i l d - d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e a r n i n g sequence and advocates the c h i l d ' s exposure t o m u s i c a l experiences a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e age,  b) every one i s e q u a l l y e n t i t l e d to  share i n m u s i c a l c u l t u r e , 40  J y  lbid.,  c) the v o i c e , unaccompanied  by  17.  ^ L o i s Chosky, The Kodaly Method: Comprehensive Music Eduction from Infant t o A d u l t (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1988), 12; Jean Sinor, "The i d e a s of Kodaly i n America," Music Educators J o u r n a l . 72, 6 (Feb. 1986), 32-37.; L a s z l o V i k a r , "Folkmusic Research and Music Education," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Music E d u c a t i o n . 10, (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music E d u c a t i o n and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1983), 31-35. 4  38  other i n s t r u m e n t s ,  4 1  d) the folk, songs of a p a r t i c u l a r  c u l t u r e are the m u s i c a l mother tongue the  culture,  4 2  of the people w i t h i n  e) the use of the r e l a t i v e s c a l e system i n  m u s i c a l l e a r n i n g and the p r i n c i p l e of experiences b e f o r e notation.  Ghanaian  T r a d i t i o n a l Methods of Music Education  A H i s t o r i c a l Perspective Older g e n e r a t i o n s have from time immemorial passed on m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n s t o younger g e n e r a t i o n s through transmission.  oral  T h i s method of t e a c h i n g music has not changed  over the y e a r s , but the a t t i t u d e of people towards the t r a n s m i s s i o n of m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n s has changed. T e c h n o l o g i c a l advancement and c u l t u r a l dynamism has had i t s e f f e c t s i n the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the educated, westernized Ghanaian  elite.  T h i s , however, has l e d t o the  d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the knowledge of indigenous c u l t u r a l and m u s i c a l v a l u e s among the educated Ghanaian  elite.  Nketia  p o i n t s out the d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s toward the education of  s t a t e musicians i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s .  4 3  People are  " Q u e s t i o n s and Answers: Congregation of the A r t s , " Z o l t a n Kodaly i n North America (Toronto: The Avondale Press. 4 1  1986), 13.  Z o l t a n Kod'aly, "Folksongs: C o l l e c t i n g them and u s i n g them i n Composition." Address to Convocation on the o c c a s i o n of r e c e i v i n g the degree of Doctor of Music a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, J u l y 7, 1966. Z o l t a n Kodaly i n North America. (Toronto: The Avondale Press, 1986) . 4 2  J.H.Kwabena N k e t i a , "The r o l e of the Drummer i n Akan S o c i e t y . " A f r i c a n Music 1, (1954), 34-43. 43  39  t u r n i n g towards more economically  l u c r a t i v e p r o f e s s i o n s and  the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n s are encouraging i t . Shenan, i n her study of o r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n among s e l e c t e d A s i a n c u l t u r e s , i d e n t i f i e s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s t y l e of music i n s t r u c t i o n with A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l The  societies.  4 4  t e a c h i n g of music i n Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s  always occurred w i t h i n the context  of c u l t u r e .  has  Since the  study of music i n t r a d i t i o n a l Ghanaian s o c i e t i e s i s e s s e n t i a l l y o r a l , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i t s i m p l i c a t i o n must be addressed  i n r e l a t i o n to i t s h i s t o r i c a l framework.  L i t e r a t u r e on o r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n has been d e s c r i p t i v e and  do  not show a p e r c e p t i b l e change i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the strategy.  A conceptual framework The nature of the method of t e a c h i n g music i n Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , t h a t i s , o r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n , may d e s c r i b e d as i n f o r m a l .  I t i s i n f o r m a l because i t e x i s t s  w i t h i n the context of everyday  life.  In Ghana, the t e a c h i n g  of music i s p a r t of the s o c i a l i z i n g process, and channels  the  of t r a n s m i s s i o n of musical a c t i v i t i e s are  p a r e n t s , ^ through 4  be  a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , ^ or through 4  through  playmates.  P a t r i c i a Shehan, "The O r a l Transmission of Music i n S e l e c t e d A s i a n C u l t u r e s , " C o u n c i l f o r Research i n Music Education, 92 (Summer 1987), 1-6. 4 4  ^Adolphus Turkson, "Music and Games i n E a r l y A f r i c a n Childhood Education" A f r i c a n Music E d u c a t i o n . 7 (April, 1989); A l l a n Merriam, The Anthropology of Music. (Evanston: Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1964), 146. 4  47  40  O r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n of musical nuances means r o t e l e a r n i n g . In t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , the development of a good ear i s e s s e n t i a l to the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s .  Particular  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the method i n c l u d e s p o n t a n e i t y i n musical e x p r e s s i o n , which begins a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e age continues throughout  lifetime,  vocables, memorization, and  and  i m i t a t i o n , the use of  creativity.  Merriam b e l i e v e s t h a t c l o s e a t t e n t i o n has not been given to t e a c h i n g methods i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s by e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t s and e d u c a t o r s . although  4 8  Merriam argues t h a t ,  i t i s assumed t h a t t h i s i s the work of the  ethnomusicologist,  i t i s the work of the music  educator.  Thus, the conceptual framework w i l l have to be c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o r a l t r a d i t i o n  strategies,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r methods and p r i n c i p l e s w i t h i n the approach, and the outcome of the approach. As music i s a s s o c i a t e d with s o c i a l l i f e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , m u s i c i a n s h i p may  i n Ghanaian  be a s c r i b e d or  achieved depending on the s o c i a l arrangement of the s o c i e t y in question.  The  whether a musician  context of the study of music depends on i s a s c r i b e d or achieved.  In s o c i e t i e s  were m u s i c i a n s h i p i s a s c r i b e d , the study of music ^ A l l a n Merriam, The Anthropology of Music. Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1964), 146. 4  occurs (Evanston:  A d o l p h u s Turkson, "Music and Games i n E a r l y A f r i c a n Childhood Education." A f r i c a n Music Education. 7, ( A p r i l 1989) . 47  A l l a n Merriam, The Anthropology of Music Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1964), 155. 4 8  (Evanston:  41  w i t h i n f a m i l i e s or c l a n s , where o l d e r members of the f a m i l i e s pass on the m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n .  Achieved  m u s i c i a n s h i p occurs w i t h i n the context of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , where a c h i l d may study under a master m u s i c i a n .  Whether  achieved or a s c r i b e d , c h i l d r e n a l s o l e a r n m u s i c a l  traditions  from one another. In c o n s i d e r i n g the conceptual framework, of Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music education, i t i s important its characteristics. knowledge i s based  to i d e n t i f y  Informal o r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n of musical  on o b s e r v a t i o n and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  An i n d i v i d u a l can achieve m u s i c i a n s h i p by e x c e l l i n g i n participatory  situations.  O r a l music t r a d i t i o n s are s t r u c t u r e d such t h a t the l e a r n i n g process takes p l a c e a t the time of the event. s t o r y - t e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n , members of the audience  In a  observe  and p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n songs i n t e r j e c t e d i n t o the narration. Music  education i n t r a d i t i o n a l Ghanaian s o c i e t i e s i s a  continuous process and i s t h e r e f o r e present i n the l i f e l o n g education of the c h i l d .  Chernoff w r i t e s t h a t to  the  Dagombas of northern Ghana, "...drumming has no end and no one can know a l l drumming.  Each drummer can l e a r n only h i s  extent and even o l d drummers c h a r a c t e r i z e themselves still  as  l e a r n i n g more." ^ 4  ^ J o h n M i l l e r Chernoff, "Music-making C h i l d r e n of A f r i c a " The O r f f Echo 21, no. 3.(Spring, 1989), 2-5.  42  I m i t a t i o n i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of o r a l t r a d i t i o n s i n the study of music i n Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l societies.  I m i t a t i o n i n v o l v e s o b s e r v a t i o n and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and thus, very h i g h .  l e v e l s of student  T h i s , i n p a r t , accounts  f u r t h e r espouses  are  f o r the f l o u r i s h i n g  m u s i c a l t r a d i t i o n s i n such s o c i e t i e s . i m i t a t i v e m u s i c a l behavior  involvement  Jones comments on the  of the Ewe of Ghana. ^ 5  Nketia  i m i t a t i o n as a s t r a t e g y i n the Akan music  educational s i t u a t i o n s .  F i n a l l y , Chernoff w r i t e s t h a t  5 1  Dagomba c h i l d r e n l e a r n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l dances by watching and  l a t e r p r a c t i s i n g when they meet t h e i r f r i e n d s to p l a y i n  the  evening.-*  2  In t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education, e s s e n t i a l t h a t teaching begins  i t is  a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e age.  There are m u s i c a l genres f o r every stage of human l i f e . Chernoff w r i t e s , "When a drummer's wife g i v e s b i r t h , he takes a drum o u t s i d e h i s house and beats and of the c h i e f s of Yendi.  i n p r a i s e of God  When the c h i l d i s three  years  o l d , h i s f a t h e r w i l l make a small drum by a t t a c h i n g two h a l f calabashes  back-to-back by simply c o v e r i n g a metal with  s k i n " f o r the c h i l d .  5 3  Turkson a l s o w r i t e s t h a t a c h i l d ' s  A.M. Jones, Studies i n A f r i c a n Music U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1959), 70-71.  (London: Oxford  J . H . Kwabena N k e t i a , "The r o l e of the Drummer i n Akan s o c i e t y . " A f r i c a n Music 1, (1954): 34-43. 5 1  J o h n M i l l e r Chernoff, "Music-making C h i l d r e n of A f r i c a . " The O r f f Echo 21, 3 (Spring, 1989), 4. 5 2  5 3  Ibid.,  3.  43  f i r s t experience with music i s through  the s i n g i n g of c r a d l e  songs by the mother or o l d e r s i s t e r s f o r the purpose of c o m f o r t i n g the c h i l d or p u t t i n g the c h i l d t o sleep.54 Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education make use of vocables i n the study of rhythmic p a t t e r n s f o r dances and other m u s i c a l types. Memorization  i s a l s o an important  f e a t u r e of  t r a d i t i o n a l Ghanaian methods of music education.  The  absence of w r i t t e n r e p e r t o i r e f o r c e s the musician  to  m e n t a l l y s t o r e a wide range of m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l from which to draw d u r i n g performance. The aim of t h i s method of music education i s creativity.  I m p r o v i s a t i o n i s h i g h l y encouraged as the  student b u i l d s a r e p e r t o i r e of m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s . t h i s i m p r o v i s a t i o n , complex compositions amaze the o l d e r people  i n the community.  Out of  emerge t h a t o f t e n One example i s ,  A t i k a t i k a i s a dance c r e a t e d by the c h i l d r e n of the Dagomba community,--the c h i l d r e n planned  the music, songs, and  dancing.5^ The r o l e of the teacher i n t h i s method i s simply t o motivate, guide, and reward the students a c c o r d i n g l y ,  for  t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n of m u s i c i a n s h i p and a p p r o p r i a t e performance p r a c t i c e s . 5 6  M o t i v a t i o n may be i n the form of  5 Adolphus Turkson, "Music and Games i n E a r l y A f r i c a n Childhood E d u c a t i o n , " A f r i c a n Music Education 7 (April 1989), 3. 4  55john M i l l e r Chernoff, "Music-making C h i l d r e n of A f r i c a , " The O r f f Echo 21, no. 3 (Spring, 1989), 4.  44  the c o n t i n u a l s i n g i n g of songs by mothers to c h i l d r e n (mothers are p a r t of the t e a c h i n g process i n these communities),  or s c o l d i n g , warning, r i d i c u l e , punishment,  and the use of sarcasm.  The teacher demonstrates and  r e g u l a t e s the random responses  of the students i n order to  guide them towards m u s i c i a n s h i p .  Rewards may be a word of  p r a i s e or encouragement or g i f t s as the s o c i e t a l norms demand. Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education can be a p p l i e d t o formal music i n s t r u c t i o n .  Being  essentially  o r a l , they do not i n themselves c o n t r i b u t e t o the t o t a l m u s i c a l education of the c h i l d .  As i n language a c q u i s i t i o n ,  we are c o n s i d e r e d l i t e r a t e when we can read and w r i t e a language.  The r e s e a r c h e r would l i k e t o argue t h a t t h i s i s  e s s e n t i a l i n developing a m u s i c a l l y l i t e r a t e i n d i v i d u a l , and it  i s i n t h i s l i g h t t h a t we t u r n t o both the Orff-Schulwerk  and Kodaly pedagogy t o f u l f i l l  Adapting  this.  and Combining D i f f e r e n t Music Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  Adapting  and combining d i f f e r e n t approaches t o music  education has been the s u b j e c t of debate among many music educators  throughout  the world.  Some h o l d  the o p i n i o n t h a t  e c l e c t i s m i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s presents a more comprehensive approach t o t e a c h i n g and, best serves the  A l l a n Merriam, The Anthropology of Music (Evanston: Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1964), 151; Adolphus Turkson, "Music and Games i n E a r l y A f r i c a n Childhood Education," A f r i c a n Music Education 7 ( A p r i l , 1989). D D  needs of the c h i l d . ' 3  This section w i l l consider opinions  on the a d a p t a t i o n of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o s u i t  different  environments and o p i n i o n s on the combination of music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r use i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n . T h i s i s being done i n view of the f a c t t h a t the second purpose of t h i s study i s t o draw on the methods of the O r f f Schulwerk, Kodaly pedagogy, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education i n the development  of a c u r r i c u l u m  framework. The p r i n c i p l e of c h i l d development  and the r o l e t h a t  music p l a y s w i t h i n i t i s embodied i n a l l t h r e e approaches t o music e d u c a t i o n under d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s study.  The  approach which now bears the name of Kodaly was i n i t i a l l y designed f o r Hungarian people and as Kodaly s t a t e d , "...the Hungarian people have p r o v i d e d one of the b e s t examples of how t o use f o l k s o n g s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes."58  The use  of the word "example" here supports the p r i n c i p l e of adaptation.  Kodaly f u r t h e r suggested t h a t  "...this  f o u n d a t i o n may vary w i t h d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e s . . . . i n t e r n a t i o n a l motives  (therein) v e r i f y the u n i t y of mankind.  However,  5 M i c h a e l Mark, Contemporary Music E d u c a t i o n 2d ed. (London: Schirmer Books, 1986.); Grace Nash, "Media f o r Human Development," i n The E c l e c t i c C u r r i c u l u m i n American Music E d u c a t i o n : C o n t r i b u t i o n s of D a l c r o z e , Kodcily and O r f f ed. Landis and Carder (Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference, 1972). 7  Z o l t a n Kodaly, "Folk song i n Pedagogy," i n The E c l e c t i c C u r r i c u l u m i n American Music E d u c a t i o n : C o n t r i b u t i o n s of D a l c r o z e , Kodaly and O r f f ed. Landis and Carder (Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference, 1972), 141. D O  46  s i n c e the s i n g i n g games of every country are s t r o n g l y dependent on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e languages, colored with n a t i o n a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . " t h a t each country draws on i t own use i n music e d u c a t i o n .  5 9  even they are Kodaly  suggested  folksongs t r a d i t i o n f o r  He d i d not suggest t h a t  f o l k songs should be t r a n s p o r t e d i n t o another  Hungarian  culture.  N k e t i a f u r t h e r strengthens h i s argument by r e f e r r i n g to the work of Kodaly with p r o j e c t i o n s f o r Ghanaian music education.60  He  suggests the need f o r music education  to  seek to "enable the m u s i c i a n and music l o v e r to grow as c i t i z e n s of t h e i r own of  r e s p e c t i v e c o u n t r i e s and as  i n t e r a c t i n g world communities."61  Africa,  Music  i n t e r e s t e d i n i n t r o d u c i n g western  interculturally,  i s a growing through of music,  of m a t e r i a l s  N k e t i a s t a t e s t h a t "although there  accumulation  field  educators i n  music  have t h e r e f o r e , a wide range  they can use and adapt.  citizens  of m a t e r i a l s on A f r i c a n  cultures  r e c o r d i n g s and e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n  these do not c o n s t i t u t e c u r r i c u l a m a t e r i a l s u n t i l  they are p r o p e r l y s o r t e d out and systemized f o r instructional  purposes."62  With r e s p e c t to the Orff-Schulwerk, O r f f  stated  Delegates to i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences h e l d a t the 5 ^'Ibid.,  142.  60J.H. Kwabena N k e t i a , "New P e r s p e c t i v e s i n Music E d u c a t i o n . " ISME Yearbook V (Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music Education and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , 1978), 104-111. 6 1  lbid.,  109.  6 2  ibid.,  110.  47  Mozarteum became acquainted w i t h the Schulwerk and decided t o make use of i t i n t h e i r own c o u n t r i e s . . . . I t (was) u s i n g a country's f o l k l o r e , i t s nursery rhymes, and c h i l d r e n ' s songs i n the same way as the German ones were used i n the o r i g i n a l . 3  Amoaku and May have suggested s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l system of music education and the O r f f Schulwerk.^  4  Amoaku supports the a d a p t a t i o n of the O r f f -  Schulwerk f o r use i n Ghanaian music education.  May,  on  the other hand, c o n s i d e r s the t r a d i t i o n a l system of music education i n Ghana to be a l i v i n g  Schulwerk.^6  Arguments a g a i n s t the a d a p t a t i o n of these " p r o g r e s s i v e methods i n t o A f r i c a n music education" are r a i s e d by New.**  7  He maintains t h a t the a d a p t a t i o n of methods to s u i t the A f r i c a n s i t u a t i o n i s "no answer to the problem of what to do f o r the average adolescent i n the music c l a s s . "  New  further  argues t h a t , O r f f ' s t r a i n i n g i n rhythms seems l o g i c a l and p r o g r e s s i v e on paper, because New  b e l i e v e s t h a t educators  C a r l O r f f , "The Schulwerk- I t s O r i g i n s and Aims," i n The E c l e c t i c C u r r i c u l u m i n American Music Education: C o n t r i b u t i o n s of Dalcroze, Kodaly and O r f f ed. Landis and Carder (Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference, 1972), 160. 6 3  W.K. Amoaku, " P a r a l l e l i s m s i n the T r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n system of music education and Orff-Schulwerk," J o u r n a l of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of A f r i c a n Music 6, no. 2, (1982): 116-119.; Jan May, "Kopeyia, Ghana: The L i v i n g Schulwerk" The O r f f Echo 21, no. 2 (1989): 10-11. 64  65  Amoaku, " P a r a l l e l i s m s , "  66  May, "Kopeyia:Ghana,"  118.  10.  L.H.New, " P r o g r e s s i v e Western Methods and T r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n Methods of Teaching Music: A comparison," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Music E d u c a t i o n (May, 1983): 25 31. 67  48  need t o take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e f a c t t h a t the A f r i c a n c h i l d ' s f i r s t r h y t h m i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s defy a c c u r a t e n o t a t i o n . In New's o p i n i o n , an a d a p t a t i o n of these p r o g r e s s i v e methods would r e q u i r e v i s i o n and f l e x i b i l i t y on the p a r t of A f r i c a n music t e a c h e r s , headteachers, and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s The combination of these approaches o p i n i o n s . In North America, Schulwerk who  alike.  also y i e l d s  t h e i s s u e of combining  diverse  the O r f f -  and Kodaly pedagogy has been compounded by people  t r y t o combine them and y e t have very l i t t l e  of the two methods.68  j  n  knowledge  c e r t a i n cases these two approaches  have been r e f e r r e d t o as i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . Denise Bacon, i n her d i s c u s s i o n of the use of O r f f with Kodaly, s t a t e s t h a t educators i n t e r e s t e d i n combining the two f i n d d i f f i c u l t y argues t h a t " . . . i t  i n d e c i d i n g how t o do i t . 6 9  Bacon  i s f a r more s e n s i b l e t o use O r f f w i t h  Kodaly by making Kodaly the base and O r f f , t h e f r u i t of the labor."  She maintains that O r f f should not be put i n t o a  s e q u e n t i a l l y s t r u c t u r e d mould, but f e e l s t h a t O r f f accomplish i t s o b j e c t i v e s more s u c c e s s f u l l y  will  i f i t i s used  i n c o n j u n c t i o n with Kodaly as a base.  Bacon sees O r f f and  Kodaly as two s i d e s t o the same c o i n .  She s o l v e s her debate  by "doing Kodaly one day a week and O r f f one day a week." ^ 7  °Michael Mark, Contemporary Music E d u c a t i o n . 2d. ed. (London: Schirmer Books, 1 9 8 6 ) , 1 3 1 . D  6 9  no.5,  D e n i c e Bacon. "Using O r f f with Koda'ly," Muzart. XXI (April-May,  1969),  45-47.  D e n i c e Bacon, "Kodaly and O r f f : Report from Europe." Music Educators J o u r n a l LV, no. 8 ( A p r i l , 1 9 6 9 ) : 5 5 . /u  49  Whereas Bacon sees a p o t e n t i a l i n the combination of the Orff-Schulwerk and t h i n k s otherwise.  Kodaly pedagogy, A r n o l d Walter  In Walter's o p i n i o n ,  "...the O r f f approach i s the n e a r e s t t h i n g t o i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g a school can p r o v i d e . . . . The Schulwerk does not attempt t o teach a l l about music. On the c o n t r a r y , i t l e a v e s a g r e a t d e a l out.... I t i s based on the premise t h a t c h i l d r e n can a s s i m i l a t e music i n e x a c t l y the same way t h a t they l e a r n t o speak. I f t h a t premise i s f a l s e , the Schulwerk has o b v i o u s l y l i t t l e v a l u e . I f the premise i s c o r r e c t , we ought t o be c o n s i s t e n t , we ought t o keep the p e d a g o g i c a l framework intact." 7 1  Nash argues f o r combining d i f f e r e n t approaches t o music education.  She w r i t e s "we need both O r f f and Kodaly, and  Laban as w e l l -- not only t o educate our c h i l d r e n but f i r s t to r e s t o r e our f i v e year o l d s to mental h e a l t h , and then t o help them b u i l d towards musically l i t e r a t e  s e n s i t i v e , complete a d u l t s  ones."  even  7 2  In a chapter on t e a c h i n g methods i n Mark's  Contemporary  Music E d u c a t i o n , Mark d i s c u s s e s the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Orff-Schulwerk  and the Kodaly pedagogy t h a t make i t  p o s s i b l e t o combine t h e m .  73  Some of these s i m i l a r i t i e s may  a l s o be observed i n Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music  A r n o l d Walter, "The Orff-Schulwerk i n American E d u c a t i o n . " O r f f Re-echoes 1 (1977): 23. 7 1  G r a c e Nash, "Media f o r Human Development." The E c l e c t i c C u r r i c u l u m i n American Music E d u c a t i o n : C o n t r i b u t i o n s of D a l c r o z e , Kodaly and O r f f (Music Educators N a t i o n a l Conference, 1972), 173. 7 2  M i c h e a l Mark, Contemporary Music E d u c a t i o n . 2nd. ed. (London: Schirmer Books, 1986.), 133. 7 3  50  education making i t p o s s i b l e to combine the t h r e e . s i m i l a r i t i e s Mark puts forward w i l l t h e r e f o r e be  The  considered  i n r e l a t i o n to the Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education. 1)  B o d i l y movement i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a l l t h r e e  methods.  E x t e r n a l i z i n g musical awareness i n the nature  of  dance gestures i n performance and games t h a t r e q u i r e body movement i s t y p i c a l of Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music e d u c a t i o n . Orff-Schulwerk Kodaly  uses b o d i l y movement f o r c r e a t i n g music,  i n c o r p o r a t e s movement as an a i d to r e a d i n g  2)  The  and  music.  c h i l d i s a t the center of a l l three methods of  music education.  The  stages of c h i l d development determine  the music the c h i l d w i l l be able to c r e a t e . 3)  The c u l t u r a l and  s o c i a l h e r i t a g e of the l e a r n e r are  e s s e n t i a l i n the s e l e c t i o n of r e p e r t o i r e f o r the music education and are an important  child's  component to the three  methods. 4)  A l l three methods p l a c e importance i n the  development of the v o i c e .  In the Kodaly  pedagogy,  unaccompanied v o i c e i s considered to be the c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l instrument.  The Orff-Schulwerk  uses speaking  c o n j u n c t i o n with drama and dance.  and  singing i n  In Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l  music education, the v o i c e i s developed  with dance, music,  and drama. 5) Group a c t i v i t y i s a predominant f e a t u r e i n music education f o r a l l t h r e e approaches.  The  c h i l d r e n are  taught  51  i n groups, and ensemble music i s important  to a l l three  approaches. 6) Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and melodic  improvisation.  education and essential  of these methods i s rhythmic  In Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music  Orff-Schulwerk,  these are thought  t o be  f o r developing m u s i c a l f e e l i n g and c r e a t i v i t y .  Kodaly pedagogy, they are thought  t o be important  development of musical f e e l i n g and r e a d i n g  In  f o r the  skills.  7) A l l t h r e e approaches s t r e s s the development of m u s i c a l vocabulary. s i g n s t o accomplish  Kodaly pedagogy uses v e r b a l and hand t h i s , O r f f uses movement, and  Ghanaian  t r a d i t i o n a l music education uses vocables and movement. 8) A l l t h r e e methods share s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e t h a t a c h i l d can and should b e n e f i t from musical instruction.  Trends i n Music C u r r i c u l u m Development: Ghana The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s to d i s c u s s music c u r r i c u l a development trends i n Ghana, goals of music education, a c t i v i t i e s suggested  i n the s y l l a b i , and the  l a t e s t document on music education put forward by the Ghanaian M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . In an attempt to promote a p s y c h o s o c i o l o g i c a l change through  c u r r i c u l a development, the government of Ghana has,  s i n c e independence i n 1957, t r i e d t o encourage e f f o r t s a t c u r r i c u l a r e f o r m a t i o n t h a t i d e n t i f y with the needs of the  s t a t e . I n  Guthie's o p i n i o n , these attempts  have been  d e r i v e d from i n n o v a t i v e r e a c t i o n s i n the former countries.  Guthie reviewed c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n developing  c o u n t r i e s which focussed on the impact on teachers and c l a s s r o o m s . reviewed  colonizers  75  of c u r r i c u l u m reform  In t h i s study, Guthie  such i s s u e s as the nature of o l d and  new  c u r r i c u l a , the nature of the t e a c h i n g f o r c e , whether the reforms were a p p r o p r i a t e t o t e a c h i n g s t y l e s , and the nature of c u r r i c u l a change s t r a t e g i e s .  He  i d e n t i f i e s major  c o n c l u s i o n s from each study reviewed and  offers  recommendations f o r c u r r i c u l a change s t r a t e g i e s . Menka w r i t e s t h a t systematic c u r r i c u l a development i n A f r i c a i s very r e c e n t . ^ 7  The C u r r i c u l u m Research  and  Development D i v i s i o n of the Ghana Education S e r v i c e was s t a r t e d i n 1967. undertaken  The development of c u r r i c u l a m a t e r i a l s was  by the members of s u b j e c t panels who  were  p r o f e s s i o n a l educators and s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t s .  A review of Music Formal  Curricula  education i n Ghana, i n i t i a t e d by m i s s i o n a r y  a c t i v i t y , c o l o n i a l i s m , and trade i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, brought with i t the c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l of the governing  G e r a r d Guthie "Current Research i n Developing C o u n t r i e s : The Impact of C u r r i c u l u m reform on t e a c h i n g , " Teaching and Teacher Education 2, 1 (1986): 81. /41  7 5  Ibid.,  81.  ^ A l b e r t F. Menka, "Curriculum Development Trends i n A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s , " Prospects VI, no.3, (1976): 451. 7  53  nation.  The m a t e r i a l s u p e r i o r i t y of the m i s s i o n a r i e s over  the A f r i c a n s p r o v i d e d an image of wealth and power t h a t the A f r i c a n s sought to i m i t a t e and e m u l a t e . r e f o r m a t i o n s i n c e independence  i n 1957,  77  Despite c u r r i c u l a  some Ghanaians  have  c o n t i n u e d t o i d e n t i f y with the c u l t u r e of the west as the hegemonic c u l t u r e .  Others have, on the other hand,  attempted to blend western c u l t u r e with Ghanaian culture.  indigenous  A t h i r d group has continued to r e j e c t e v e r y t h i n g  non-Ghanaian.  In an attempt to d e f i n e and r e l a t e the  e x i s t i n g c u l t u r e to education, the M i n i s t r y of Education i n Ghana has put together a number of c u r r i c u l u m packages the y e a r s . Schools  These i n c l u d e : Music S y l l a b u s f o r Primary  (1959); Elementary School Music: A D r a f t  f o r the E i g h t Year course Schools  over  Syllabus  (1970); Music S y l l a b u s f o r Primary  (1978); Music C u r r i c u l u m f o r Secondary  Schools i n  Ghana (1975); Music S y l l a b u s f o r J u n i o r Secondary (1976); Suggested Music S y l l a b u s f o r 4 - Year  Schools  Teacher  T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e s (1975); Suggested Music S y l l a b u s f o r 3 Year Post Secondary  Teacher T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e s (1975);  C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s S y l l a b u s f o r Primary Schools C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s S y l l a b u s f o r J u n i o r Secondary  (1989); Schools  (1988).  The Music S y l l a b u s f o r Primary Schools  (1959) suggested  t h a t the aims of music t e a c h i n g a r e : ''Stephen J . B a l l , "Imperialism, S o c i a l C o n t r o l and the C o l o n i a l C u r r i c u l u m i n A f r i c a , " J o u r n a l of C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s , 15, no. 3 (1983): 241.  54  a) to develop c h i l d r e n ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r melodic  and  rhythmic p a t t e r n s ; b) to widen t h e i r f i e l d of m u s i c a l enjoyment; c) to teach c h i l d r e n some of the elements grammar. are  Suggested  a c t i v i t i e s f o r each primary s c h o o l year  presented under the headings  movement, and a p p r e c i a t i o n . p r o v i d e d with a l i s t the headings  of m u s i c a l  s i n g i n g , theory, rhythmic  Each primary s c h o o l year i s  of suggested s i n g i n g m a t e r i a l s under  of Ghanaian  songs and E n g l i s h songs.  The  suggested s i n g i n g m a t e r i a l s  were c o n t a i n e d i n songbooks of  which three were by Ghanaian  authors, and f i f t e e n by  authors.  western  Suggested methods f o r t e a c h i n g songs were by r o t e .  Rhythmic t r a i n i n g was percussion.  e s s e n t i a l l y by r o t e u s i n g body  Melodic t r a i n i n g was  s o l f e g e and s t a f f n o t a t i o n .  done through the study of  A k r o f i , i n h i s study of the  s t a t u s of music programs i n Ghanaian  public s c h o o l s ,  7 8  notes t h a t the S y l l a b u s p l a c e s emphasis on n o t a t i o n and s i g h t r e a d i n g f o r the study of t h e o r y . The Music  S y l l a b u s f o r Primary School  (1978) , which i s  i n E n g l i s h , Music, R e l i g i o u s Education, A r t Education, and Environmental S t u d i e s f o r a 6 year Primary School Course emphasizes the development of concepts i n the c o g n i t i v e domain.  79  T  n e  purpose  of the S y l l a b u s i s to serve as an  i n s t r u c t i o n a l guide f o r teachers i n order to ensure the E r i c A y i s i A k r o f i , "The Status of Music Programs In Ghanaian P u b l i c Schools," (Ed.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1982) 7 8  7 9  Ibid.,  36.  55  development of a balanced program of musical growth f o r elementary s c h o o l p u p i l s .  The  S y l l a b u s encourages  l e v e l s of student involvement.  high  I t states that,  I t i s imperative to remember t h a t music concepts are l e a r n e d from r e a l experiences with music, t h e r e f o r e ... a c t i v i t i e s i n the process of development are performing, composing, w r i t i n g , a n a l y z i n g , and d i s c u s s i n g music, which should c l a r i f y the mental image f o r g e n e r a l i z i n g about any s p e c i f i c concept.°® The S y l l a b u s a l s o suggests a s p i r a l c u r r i c u l u m i n which the same concepts may anticipated  appear  in various class l e v e l s .  It i s  t h a t by using the same concept i n a preceding  c l a s s the p u p i l s w i l l grasp a more mature understanding of the same fundamental  idea.  8 1  The S y l l a b u s , d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s , rhythm, melody, form, and tone c o l o r , approaches concepts r e l a t e d to these elements  under the  concepts, o b j e c t i v e s , and a c t i v i t i e s . program, which i s the f i n a l approached  the study of  The  s e c t i o n of t h i s  headings  performance guide i s  i n terms of s i n g i n g , drumming and dancing, and  instrumental playing.  The c u r r i c u l u m guide suggests the  study of both Western and Ghanaian  musical instruments.  The  method suggested i s p r i m a r i l y o r a l / a u r a l or p l a y i n g by ear. The c u r r i c u l u m f o r Music, now  p a r t of the C u l t u r a l  Studies Program, i s i n c l u d e d i n the C u l t u r a l Studies S y l l a b u s f o r Primary Schools  (1989).  This Syllabus i s  ^ C u r r i c u l u m Research and Development D i v i s i o n , Music S y l l a b u s f o r Primary Schools, (Accra: Ghana Education S e r v i c e , 1976), 1. 8 1  Ibid.  56  designed f o r p u p i l s aged 6-11 the 1978  i n the primary  school.  Like  S y l l a b u s , t h i s guide covers the areas of rhythm,  melody, song forms,  tone c o l o r , and performance.  these areas i s c o n s i d e r e d under the t o p i c s , o b j e c t i v e s , suggested In Primary  activities,  concepts,  and remarks.  1 and 2, p u p i l s are expected  to  p u l s e with rhythm i n music by l i s t e n i n g , and songs by c l a p p i n g or t a p p i n g . "  8 2  Suggested  i d e n t i f y i n g p u l s e i n music i n Primary  instrument"  8 3  "identify  accompanying activities for  3 are " i d e n t i f y i n g  r o t a t i o n f o r the beat and rhythm p a t t e r n s , and the rhythms of melodies  Each of  the  identifying  of f a m i l i a r songs p l a y e d on m u s i c a l  In Primary  4 (nine year o l d s ) , p u p i l s begin  to i d e n t i f y simple duple time  (2/4)  i n musical notation,  strong and weak beats i n a c c e n t u a t i o n , and d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d u r a t i o n a l value of notes. Primary  A c t i v i t i e s suggested f o r  4, are not d i f f e r e n t from the ones the p u p i l s  experienced i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s .  A c t i v i t i e s include  d i s c u s s i n g the n o t a t i o n s , s i n g i n g songs, c l a p p i n g to notes and waving hands to r e s t s , and matching the d u r a t i o n of r e s t s with t h e i r corresponding notes w r i t t e n on cards blackboard.  8 4  U n t i l the p u p i l s reach Primary  p r i m a r i l y expected  and  4, they are  to i d e n t i f y p u l s e as a concept  i n rhythm.  "^Curriculum Research and Development D i v i s i o n , C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s S y l l a b u s f o r Primary Schools, (Accra: Ghana Education S e r v i c e , 1989), 9, 13. 8 3  Ibid.,  18.  8 4  Ibid.,  23.  In the development of melodic expected  awareness the p u p i l s are  to demonstrate melodic movement as high or low.  The  s e c t i o n on performance shows an emphasis on m a t e r i a l t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l l y Ghanaian.  General course o b j e c t i v e s are  presented f o r the C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s Program (see Chapter  1).  Course o b j e c t i v e s are not o u t l i n e d f o r music i n p a r t i c u l a r but f o r each of the concepts being s t u d i e d i n each music section. T y l e r proposes f o u r major t a s k s i n h i s r a t i o n a l e f o r c u r r i c u l u m development: a) determining b)  o b j e c t i v e s and s t a t i n g them i n proper  form,  s e l e c t i n g and d e v i s i n g l e a r n i n g experiences,  c) o r g a n i z i n g experiences sequence,  (activities)  f o r c o n t i n u i t y and  and  4) e v a l u a t i n g the extent to which o b j e c t i v e s have been attained. ^ 8  Determining  o b j e c t i v e s i n c u r r i c u l u m development depends  upon the p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the program. According to the 1989  S y l l a b u s , the C u l t u r a l Studies Program  i s to be an i n t e g r a t e d program w i l l p r o v i d e a s o l i d foundation f o r the p u p i l s c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e as Ghanaians. ^ 8  I n t e g r a t i o n has been the s u b j e c t of debate i n the  education  ->Ralph T y l e r , " S p e c i f i c Approaches to C u r r i c u l u m Development," S t r a t e g i e s f o r C u r r i c u l u m development quoted i n Joseph A Labuta, "Curriculum Development f o r Music Education," Symposium i n Music E d u c a t i o n : A f e s t s c h r i f t f o r C h a r l e s Leonhard ( U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , (1982), 118. 8  ^ C u r r i c u l u m Research and Development D i v i s i o n , C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s S y l l a b u s f o r Primary Schools (Accra: Education S e r v i c e , 1989), 5.  Ghana  58  world whether i n the area of i n s t r u c t i o n a l content, or context.  I t may  strategies,  be d e f i n e d as the c o n d i t i o n  where d i v e r s e elements are combined and c o o r d i n a t e d to form a more complete harmonious whole. music i n the 1989  However, the approach to  C u l t u r a l Studies S y l l a b u s , i s d i s t i n c t  not i n t e g r a t e d with the other areas of the study: systems, drama, drumming and dancing, A c r i t i c a l review  of the 1989  some of the o b j e c t i v e s and  and  and  social  religion.  8 7  document i n d i c a t e s t h a t  s e l e c t e d l e a r n i n g experiences  do  r e l a t e to the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e of the Ghanaian p u p i l s . In t h i s r e s p e c t i t may  fulfill,  to some extent, the f i r s t  two  o b j e c t i v e s of T y l e r ' s r a t i o n a l e f o r c u r r i c u l u m development. However, i t does not p r o v i d e an adequate s e l e c t i o n of l e a r n i n g experiences, nor does i t organize the l e a r n i n g experiences of  f o r c o n t i n u i t y and sequence or p r o v i d e a means  e v a l u a t i n g the extent to which the o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d have  been achieved.  E a r l i e r documents reviewed  (1959  and  1978)  s t a t e more c l e a r l y the p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the program, program o b j e c t i v e s , and t h e r e f o r e l e a r n i n g experiences. e x i s t s today  The  1989  C u l t u r a l Studies S y l l a b u s as i t  i s not an i n t e g r a t e d s y l l a b u s .  Summary The purpose of t h i s study i s to survey music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n Ghanaian elementary c u r r i c u l u m development. 8 7  Ibid.  The  schools as a b a s i s f o r  above review  of l i t e r a t u r e  has  t h e r e f o r e addressed the conceptual and h i s t o r i c a l of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s .  framework  T h i s l i t e r a t u r e review has a l s o  d i s c u s s e d contemporary thought on p a r t i c u l a r approaches to t e a c h i n g music using Orff-Schulwerk, Kodaly pedagogy, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music methods.  Music c u r r i c u l u m  development trends s i n c e Ghana's independence were a l s o addressed w i t h a b r i e f review of t h r e e s y l l a b i which mark three d i f f e r e n t stages i n Ghana's e d u c a t i o n a l  history.  CHAPTER 3 STUDY DESIGN AND Research The  EXECUTION Design  study explores the p o s s i b i l i t y of drawing  p a r t i c u l a r pedagogical  on  p r a c t i c e s i n o f f e r i n g suggestions  recommendations f o r improving  i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology  and and,  i n e f f e c t , c u r r i c u l a design i n Ghanaian music education. is,  t h e r e f o r e , imperative t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r d e s c r i b e s  i d e n t i f i e s pedagogical i d e n t i f i e d population.  It and  p r a c t i c e s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g w i t h i n the T h i s study,  designed  to  survey  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s teachers of music employ i n Ghanaian elementary s c h o o l s , i s e s s e n t i a l l y a d e s c r i p t i v e study.  The  study r e l i e s on q u a n t i t a t i v e data i n the g a t h e r i n g of d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and the b a s i s f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s made. The  r e s e a r c h e r chose the survey r e s e a r c h method because  i t best served the needs of the study as o u t l i n e d i n the r e s e a r c h problem, r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , and purpose of the study.  The  survey r e s e a r c h approach p r o v i d e d the  researcher  with the o p p o r t u n i t y to i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r degree of use schools.  i n Ghanaian elementary  I t a l s o p r o v i d e d , as Babbie s t a t e s , a "search"  d e v i c e f o r the r e s e a r c h e r to begin feasibility  inquiring into  of drawing on the p e d a g o g i c a l  60  the  p r a c t i c e s of  61  Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l music methods, O r f f Schulwerk, Kodaly f o r improving  music i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology i n  Ghanaian elementary s c h o o l s . researcher's  aim was  s e c t i o n a l survey was  and  1  C o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t t h a t the  a single-time description, a crossmost a p p r o p r i a t e .  Population T h i s study was  i n i t i a l l y designed  to i n v o l v e only music  s p e c i a l i s t s employed i n Ghanaian elementary Studies  and  f i e l d work, however, r e v e a l e d a minimal number  of music s p e c i a l i s t s employed i n those  institutions.  r e s e a r c h , t h e r e f o r e , i n v o l v e d a l l teachers i n elementary  2  The  of music employed  schools.  The The  schools.  Sample  sample of f i f t y - s i x respondents was  drawn from f i v e  of the ten r e g i o n s of Ghana: Ashanti r e g i o n , C e n t r a l r e g i o n , E a s t e r n r e g i o n , Ga-Adangbe r e g i o n , and The  study  the V o l t a r e g i o n .  i n v o l v e d a c r o s s s e c t i o n of music  teachers  employed i n the r e g i o n a l c a p i t a l s of the f i v e s e l e c t e d regions.  G e n e r a l i s a t i o n s w i l l t h e r e f o r e be made to  f i v e r e g i o n s s i n c e the sample r e p r e s e n t s particular  teachers  i n those  regions.  E a r l Babbie, Survey Research Methods. Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1977). 1  these  (California:  E.A. A k r o f i , "Is e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r music education going to r e p l a c e c u r r i c u l a music education i n Ghana," The Oguaa Educator. 9, 1, U n i v e r s i t y of Cape Coast, (October, 1989): 12-20. 2  62  Method of s e l e c t i n g  sample  S e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the s i z e of a sample and  may  make i t d i f f i c u l t to set a sample s i z e from the beginning a study. list  L e t t e r s of i n t r o d u c t i o n and a request f o r the  3  of music s p e c i a l i s t s were sent to the Ghana Music  Teachers  A s s o c i a t i o n (GMTA), a l l ten Regional Centers  education, and the Ghana Education Appendix A). of  The response  Service  of  (GES)(see  to these l e t t e r s and the  results  the p i l o t study c o n t r i b u t e d to the methods used i n  s e l e c t i n g the sample. of  of  fulfilling  The  sample was  s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s  the o b j e c t i v e s of the study, i t s  m e a s u r a b i l i t y , i t s p r a c t i c a l i t y , and Ga-Adangbe r e g i o n , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and  i t s economy.  4  In the  l e t t e r s of  i n t r o d u c t i o n were sent to a l l teachers of music i n elementary  schools of the r e g i o n a l c a p i t a l who  were  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an i n t e r - d i s t r i c t c h o r a l c o m p e t i t i o n . all  other r e g i o n s , teachers were contacted through  In  the  s u b j e c t o r g a n i z e r f o r music, s i n c e the schools were out-ofsession.  The  sample was  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r e g i o n as the  teachers were contacted through p r o v i d e d the l i s t  subject organizers  who  of a l l teachers of music i n t h e i r  respective regions.  (New  ^Walter Borg & M G a l l , E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher. York & London: Longman Inc., 1989).  5th ed.  W i l l i a m Wiersma, Research Methods i n Education:An I n t r o d u c t i o n . 4th ed. (Toronto: A l l y n and Bacon, Inc., 1986) . 4  63  There a l s o e x i s t v a r y i n g degrees of i n t e r - r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e g i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s Regional  d i f f e r e n c e s are manifest  study.  i n population  distribution,  socio-economic development, and  development.  Huq  s t a t e s t h a t the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  school enrollments among r e g i o n s . ^  educational  i n 1981  shows s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  Many of these d i f f e r e n c e s have been the  r e s u l t of the l e v e l of u r b a n i z a t i o n a t t a i n e d i n any particular region. 3.2  and  one  Urban p o p u l a t i o n had a growth r a t e of  per cent, while r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n growth was  between 1970  of  1984.  The  2.3  Ga-Adangbe r e g i o n and  r e g i o n have the h i g h e s t p o p u l a t i o n growth.  cent  Ashanti  It i s believed  the Eastern, C e n t r a l , and V o l t a r e g i o n s are l o s i n g p o p u l a t i o n to the adjacent  per  their  c a p i t a l c i t y of Accra which i s  s i t u a t e d i n the Ga-Adangbe r e g i o n . ^  P r e t e s t i n g the Research Instrument A p i l o t study was instrument.  conducted to p r e t e s t the  research  Each member of the p i l o t study r e c e i v e d , i n  person, a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and p i l o t study was  l e t t e r of e x p l a n a t i o n .  conducted on educators  not c u r r e n t l y  employed i n the elementary school system but elementary school t e a c h i n g experience.  The  with  E i g h t of the  ten  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent out were r e t u r n e d to the r e s e a r c h e r v i a  M.M. Huq, The Economy of Ghana. (New Press. Inc., 1 9 8 9 ) , 5 9 . 6  Ibid.  York: St.  Martins  64  a c o n t a c t person. ambiguity  The completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e v e a l e d  i n some of the q u e s t i o n s .  Such questions were  changed or were d e l e t e d from the study completely.  The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was thus r e v i s e d b e f o r e the study began. pilot  study q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e c e i v e d an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  to a s s i s t i n data  Each  number  analysis.  The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o t e s t e d methods of a n a l y z i n g data c o l l e c t e d through  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  set up to a s s i s t content a n a l y s i s .  A coding scheme was Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  means, and standard d e v i a t i o n s of responses calculated.  Likert scaling analysis techniques  a p p l i e d to responses demanded i t . v  per item were 7  were  item by item i n the s e c t i o n t h a t  The chi-square G o o d n e s s - o f - f i t ' t e s t and N  T e s t of a s s o c i a t i o n ' were a l s o t e s t e d . Thus, the p i l o t study not only t e s t e d the contents of  the r e s e a r c h instrument,  but a l s o the data a n a l y s i s  procedures.  The Research Instrument A q u e s t i o n n a i r e made up of seventeen music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , seventeen  items  addressing  items addressing music  t e a c h i n g content, and eleven questions designed demographic i n f o r m a t i o n served as the r e s e a r c h  to p r o v i d e instrument  (Appendix B ) . The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o p r o v i d e d a s e c t i o n f o r a d d i t i o n a l comments  i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  This r e s e a r c h  ' E a r l Babbie, Survey Research M e t h o d s . ( C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1977).  instrument  was  designed  to p r o v i d e  i n f o r m a t i o n on music  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed i n Ghanaian elementary and  schools  explore the d i f f e r e n c e s with r e s p e c t to the f o l l o w i n g  v a r i a b l e s : r e g i o n , d i s t r i c t , gender, teaching and academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . s t r a t e g i e s and order.  The  questions  content were not arranged  experience,  on  teaching  i n any  particular  Each member of the study r e c e i v e d i n person a  q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n .  Each  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  r e t u r n e d v i a the s u b j e c t o r g a n i z e r of each  s e l e c t e d r e g i o n and c o l l e c t e d i n person by the Upon completion,  researcher.  each respondent r e c e i v e d a note of  a p p r e c i a t i o n from the  researcher.  Data C o l l e c t i o n  Procedures  The r e s e a r c h e r v i s i t e d the r e g i o n a l c e n t e r s education  i n the regions named, c o n t a c t i n g the  of  subject  o r g a n i z e r f o r music at the elementary school l e v e l . p l a c e s , the s u b j e c t o r g a n i z e r s were known to be a r t and c u l t u r e . umbrella  Music was  of c u l t u r e .  thus considered  researcher cover  i n charge of  under the broad  In each r e g i o n , the s u b j e c t  i n d i c a t e d the number of teachers  In some  organizer  t e a c h i n g music.  The  l e f t the r e q u i r e d number of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ,  l e t t e r s to be d i s t r i b u t e d to a l l teachers  each designated  area.  The  and  of music i n  l e n g t h of time between the  d e p o s i t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  i t s c o l l e c t i o n was  The procedure reduced time l i k e l y to have been spent c o l l e c t i o n procedures i f the instrument  had been  a week. on  mailed.  data  66  Although q u e s t i o n n a i r e s subject organizers  were to be t r e a t e d as anonymous, the  were able to i d e n t i f y a respondent's  questionnaire.  The  not c o n t a i n any  s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s and  any  reluctance  questions  i n the r e s e a r c h thus  would not  responses.  cause  to respond on the p a r t of the respondents i f  i d e n t i f i e d with a p a r t i c u l a r questionnaire. Borg and G a l l ,  instrument d i d  8  The  According  anonymity does not n e c e s s a r i l y  to  affect  r e t u r n r a t e d i s p l a y e d i n the next s e c t i o n  shows that the method of c o l l e c t i n g data d i d not a f f e c t the returns negatively.  Each completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e  received  an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number to a s s i s t the a n a l y s i s of data. coding  scheme was  set up to a s s i s t content a n a l y s i s .  A  No  attempt was  made, however, to i d e n t i f y a response with a  particular  teacher.  D e s c r i p t i o n of Scores and Completion Rate Measures used i n t h i s study were c a t e g o r i c a l i n the first  s e c t i o n of the r e s e a r c h  instrument and  dichotomous i n  the s e c t i o n on r e t r i e v i n g demographic i n f o r m a t i o n . s i x of the sixty-two  questionnaires  thus making a r e t u r n r a t e of 90.32%. according  The  returned,  response r a t e  to Borg and G a l l , determines the s a l i e n c y of  questionnaire.  (New  sent out were  Fifty-  For t h i s study the response r a t e was  the  over  °Walter Borg & M. G a l l , E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher. 5th York & London: Longman Inc., 1989).  Ed.  67  77%,  and t h e r e f o r e s a l i e n t a c c o r d i n g to Borg and  Below are the d e t a i l s of the completion  Region  Sent Out  rate.  Returns  Ashanti  4  4  Central  10  8  Eastern  7  7  32  29  Volta  9  8  Total  62  56  Ga-Adangbe  Gall.  D e s c r i p t i o n of V a r i a b l e s and t h e i r R e l a t i o n s h i p to Research O b j e c t i v e s Since, as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , music i s now  i n c l u d e d as a  s u b j e c t i n the C u l t u r a l Studies Program, the f i r s t on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was which music was  designed  question  to determine the extent  embodied i n the program  to  (see Appendix B).  The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o gave the respondents the o p p o r t u n i t y to respond to questions on the extent to which other  cultural  s t u d i e s s u b j e c t s were i n c l u d e d i n the program i n order to g i v e a more accurate p i c t u r e of the p o s i t i o n of music.  Research Question  #1:  The  s e l e c t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r  s t r a t e g i e s i n S e c t i o n A, questions r e s e a r c h instrument  9  Ibid.  #2,  #3,  and  (Appendix B), p r o v i d e d the  #6,  teaching of the  researcher  68  with a d e s c r i p t i o n of music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s w i t h i n controlled  boundaries.  Research Question  #2:  Questions  #1  through #11,  second s e c t i o n of the r e s e a r c h instrument,  i n the  p r o v i d e d not  only  demographic i n f o r m a t i o n , but a l s o i n f o r m a t i o n f o r determining  the extent to which such f a c t o r s as r e g i o n a l  location, d i s t r i c t ,  gender, academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,  t e a c h i n g experience  r e l a t e to the music teaching s t r a t e g i e s  teachers of music employ i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l Research Question were expected  #3:  The  and  classrooms.  c h o i c e of items the respondents  to answer r e f l e c t e d the unique forms of  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s (Section A, q u e s t i o n #2,  #3,  embodied i n Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l forms of music the O r f f Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy. of music elements  education,  (see S e c t i o n A,  #5)  (see S e c t i o n A, q u e s t i o n #7)  f o r the development of music c u r r i c u l a .  #6)  The development of  an understanding and concepts  and  question  form the b a s i s  Since  the  r e s e a r c h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l improvement can  be  made w i t h i n the framework of c u r r i c u l u m development, the scope of the t e a c h e r s ' use of s e l e c t e d teaching s t r a t e g i e s ( s e e S e c t i o n A, q u e s t i o n #2, development of an understanding S e c t i o n A, q u e s t i o n #5,) q u e s t i o n #7)  and  #6)  of music elements  and concepts  were i n v e s t i g a t e d .  #3,  The  i n the (see  (see S e c t i o n A, r e l e v a n c e of musical  m a t e r i a l to a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y i s the bedrock of a l l three forms of music education being i n v e s t i g a t e d .  The  r e s e a r c h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l e v a n c e of music m a t e r i a l i n  69  questions on song r e p e r t o i r e  ( S e c t i o n A, q u e s t i o n #4),  i n c l u d e d i n music c u r r i c u l a of Ghanaian elementary  schools.  Methods of Data A n a l y s i s Descriptive  Statistics  Being a s i n g l e d e s c r i p t i v e survey designed t o i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e the e x i s t i n g music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , the r e s e a r c h e r used d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s t o analyze the data. I n t e n s i t y s t r u c t u r e c r e a t e d among response  items i n the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e demanded a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l i n g format analysis.  The f i v e response  with 5 denoting all."  i n data  c a t e g o r i e s were numbered 1-5,  " t o a great extent" and 1 "to no extent a t  Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s , means and standard  d e v i a t i o n s were determined  f o r items on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Frequencies were r e g i s t e r e d as percentages.  Tables  r e p r e s e n t i n g the values on the t e a c h i n g strategy(n) v a r i a b l e s were g i v e n numerical values 0 - 5 . there was no response  0 was g i v e n .  In cases were  Each response  was  t a b u l a t e d and summed f o r each column v e c t o r ( v ) .  The column  v e c t o r was m u l t i p l i e d by the number of responses  f o r each  column.  These were d i v i d e d by the t o t a l number of responses  to g i v e the mean of the responses. presented  i n Chapter  4.  These t a b l e s are  A mean g r e a t e r than three showed a  movement towards the p o s i t i v e " t o a g r e a t extent" end of the s c a l e and would t h e r e f o r e be i n t e r p r e t e d as such.  Code 0. No  response  1. To no extent at a l l 2.  To a s m a l l  3.  To some extent  4.  To a c o n s i d e r a b l e  5. To a g r e a t  >  extent  extent  Negative  Positive  extent  Nonparametric T e s t s The  extent to which responses i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were  e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among response c a t e g o r i e s was by a Chi-square initially was  (Goodness-of-fit) t e s t .  s e t at .05.  A Chi-square  The  determined  alpha  was  (Test of A s s o c i a t i o n )  a l s o conducted to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the extent to which t e a c h e r s employed p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t e g i e s and  each of the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s -- gender, r e g i o n ,  district,  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and years of t e a c h i n g  experience. individually.  Regional d i f f e r e n c e s were c o n s i d e r e d The Ga-Adangbe r e g i o n had the g r e a t e s t  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e number of respondents.  C e n t r a l , Eastern,  and  V o l t a r e g i o n s share s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p o p u l a t i o n growth, u r b a n i z a t i o n trends ^  a n c  j e d u c a t i o n a l development.  The  A s h a n t i r e g i o n , however, shares a s i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e with the Ga-Adangbe r e g i o n , but does not d i s p l a y s i m i l a r m o b i l i t y q u a l i t i e s as f a r as socio-economic  M.M. Huq, The Economy of Ghana. (New Martins P r e s s . Inc., 1989), 59. 1U  and  York: St.  71  e d u c a t i o n a l trends are concerned.  The Ashanti r e g i o n was  the l e a s t r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms of teachers of music. In a n a l y z i n g the extent t o which years of t e a c h i n g  experience  c o n t r i b u t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , the r e s e a r c h e r d i v i d e d the i n i t i a l l y continuous of  t e a c h i n g experience)  i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : low ( 1 - 1 0  y e a r s ) , medium (11 - 20 y e a r s ) , and high Contingency i n Chapter  v a r i a b l e (years  t a b l e s are p r o v i d e d .  (21 -33 y e a r s ) .  The r e s u l t s are presented  4.  Summary In the f o r e g o i n g chapter, the r e s e a r c h e r o u t l i n e d the study design and i t s e x e c u t i o n .  The r e s e a r c h e r f i r s t  e s t a b l i s h e d the type of r e s e a r c h design being a p p l i e d i n t h i s study and the reasons  f o r i t s appropriateness.  The  r e s e a r c h e r d e s c r i b e d the d e f i n e d p o p u l a t i o n and the method used i n s e l e c t i n g the sample from t h i s p o p u l a t i o n .  A  r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample being s t u d i e d was p r o v i d e d .  A b r i e f r e p o r t on the p i l o t study was  presented t o f u r t h e r v a l i d a t e the r e l i a b i l i t y r e s e a r c h methodology. of  data and occurrences  were a r t i c u l a t e d .  Procedures  of the  f o l l o w e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n  t h a t would i n f l u e n c e the r e s u l t s  F i n a l l y , methods used i n a n a l y z i n g data  were a l s o presented.  CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS  I n t r o d u c t i o n : Overview of S t a t i s t i c a l The  Procedures  c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t of t h i s study was the survey of  music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n Ghanaian elementary schools as a b a s i s f o r c u r r i c u l u m development.  The s p e c i f i c purposes  being a) to i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e the e x i s t i n g music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r degree of use w i t h i n the c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s program i n Ghanaian s c h o o l , and b) t o o f f e r suggestions  and recommendations f o r improving  instructional  methodology i n Ghanaian elementary schools drawing on Ghanaian indigenous  forms of music education,  Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy.  the O r f f  The r e s e a r c h e r used  d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s t o analyze the data generated the survey.  from  Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s , means, and standard  d e v i a t i o n s were r e p o r t e d f o r a l l t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y variables.  Frequencies  were r e g i s t e r e d as v a l i d  percentages  as there were some missing cases r e p o r t e d i n some items.  As  s t a t e d i n Chapter 3 , a mean g r e a t e r than t h r e e would be i n t e r p r e t e d as a high p o s i t i v e score, and t h i s s i g n i f i e d the extensive use of a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e and t h e r e f o r e rendered  i t f e a s i b l e i n the Ghanaian elementary  classroom.  A low mean score s i g n i f i e d the under use of a p a r t i c u l a r  72  73  variable.  The  d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter 5 w i l l  therefore  take  i n t o account these d i f f e r e n c e s . The  extent to which the responses on the  questionnaire  were e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d across response c a t e g o r i e s were determined by a chi-square square  (Goodness-of-fit)  (Test of A s s o c i a t i o n ) was  test.  A Chi-  conducted to determine the  r e l a t i o n s between the extent to which teachers p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and  employed  such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  as  gender, r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n of s c h o o l s , the d i s t r i c t l o c a t i o n of the s c h o o l s , academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and years teaching experience.  T h i s chapter w i l l present  of  the  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e by f i r s t d e s c r i b i n g the sample, then answering s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h  Cronbach's alpha was  and  questions.  To determine the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the instrument,  results  research  computed f o r the whole  s c a l e and then f o r the seventeen t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y v a r i a b l e s and  the seventeen content  variables separately.  shows the d e t a i l s of t h i s  Table  reliability  1 . — R e l i a b i l i t y of r e s e a r c h n  alpha  Table 1  test.  instrument no of items  Teaching  Strategy  41  0.80  17  Teaching  Content  41  0.85  17  Approach  (Total)  41  0.90  3_4_  74  The  Sample  The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study were expected t o respond to q u e s t i o n s  t h a t would p r o v i d e the demographic  and determine the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s  information  of the sample.  The  method of s e l e c t i n g the sample showed t h a t the sample was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n view of the f a c t t h a t i t was drawn from the t a r g e t e d p o p u l a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e  represented  demographic f e a t u r e s t y p i c a l of elementary school music teachers  throughout the country.  The sample of 56  respondents were made up of t e n females and f o r t y - s i x males (Table 2 ) .  Table 2. — G e n d e r D i s t r i b u t i o n ITEM  FREQUENCY  PERCENTAGE  Female  10  17.9  Male  46  82.1  Total  56  100 .0  Gender p r o p o r t i o n s a t the v a r i o u s c l a s s l e v e l s are d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 1.  The only teacher who i n d i c a t e d t e a c h i n g i n the  k i n d e r g a r t e n was male.  Respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e  the c l a s s l e v e l s they taught, not i n d i c a t e t h i s .  and only one respondent d i d  The r e s u l t s showed t h a t i n the upper  primary c l a s s e s (Primary  4-6) and i n the J u n i o r Secondary 1-  3, there e x i s t c o n s i d e r a b l y higher p r o p o r t i o n s of male teachers  i n music education  than female.  75  FIGURE  1  GENDER PROPORTIONS AT VARIOUS CLASS LEVELS  F R E Q U E N C Y  KNDERG. CLASS 1-3 CLASS 4-6 JSS 1-3  CL 1-JSS3 OTHERS NO RESPONSE  CLASS LEVELS • FEMALE  E2MALE  The respondents,  drawn from f i v e of the ten r e g i o n s of  Ghana, were asked to i n d i c a t e r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n s of the s c h o o l s i n which they taught, not i n d i c a t e t h i s .  and only one respondent d i d  Regional d i f f e r e n c e s i n number c o u l d be  a t t r i b u t e d to urban m i g r a t i o n .  The Ga-Adangbe r e g i o n  been known to have the h i g h e s t p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and mobility r a t e .  i n f o r m a t i o n generated  from the  demographic data r e f l e c t s t h i s a s s e r t i o n .  A little  1  The  h a l f the sample came from the Ga-Adangbe r e g i o n .  has social  over  The  s m a l l e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n came from the A s h a n t i r e g i o n with 7.3%  of the  sample.  ^M.M.Huq, The Ecomony of Ghana: The F i r s t 25 Years s i n c e Independence. (New York: St. M a r t i n s ' P r e s s , 1989).  76  Table 3 . — R e g i o n a l L o c a t i o n o f Respondents' Schools FREQUENCY  REGION Ga-Adangbe  PERCENTAGE  28  51.0  Central  8  14.5  Eastern  7  12.7  Volta  8  14.5  Ashanti  4  7.3  55  100.0  Total Missing cases:  1  Of the f i f t y - s i x respondents, f o u r t e e n were from the r u r a l areas and forty-two from urban communities. graph showing d i s t r i c t  Figure 2 i s a  l o c a t i o n w i t h i n each r e g i o n .  FIGURE 2 DISTRICT LOCATION WITHIN REGIONS  Ga-Adangbe  Central  Eastern  Volta  REGIONS • rural  • urban  Ashanti  No response  77 The h i g h e s t frequency count of t e a c h e r s ' age  was  t w e n t y - f i v e and t h i s was  i n d i c a t e d between the ages of  t h i r t y and t h i r t y - n i n e .  The next h i g h e s t frequency  nineteen and t h i s was nine.  was  between the ages of twenty and twenty-  Only one respondent  was  younger than twenty.  Table 4.—Age D i s t r i b u t i o n AGE  RANGE  Less than  FREQUENCY 20  PERCENTAGE  1  1.8  20 - 29  years  19  33.9  30 - 39  years  25  44.6  40 - 49  years  6  10.8  50 - 59  years  5  8.9  56  100.0  Total  The r e c e n t n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e scheme i n Ghana r e q u i r e s students completing under the scheme.  secondary  school to work f o r a year  The N a t i o n a l S e r v i c e S e c r e t a r i a t which  c o n t r o l s the placement, p l a c e s some of these students i n elementary determine  schools.  I t i s the purpose of t h i s study t o  the extent to which academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  a f f e c t e d the t e a c h i n g s t y l e s of Ghanaian teachers of music i n elementary secondary  schools.  The n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e students  from  schools hold a General C e r t i f i c a t e of Education  (GCE), A l e v e l or 0 l e v e l c e r t i f i c a t e s .  They are not  c e r t i f i e d teachers.  T h i s group formed 25.9  sample i n t h i s study  (Table 5 ) .  percent of the  The respondents  who  78 i n d i c a t e d that they were c e r t i f i e d to teach formed almost h a l f of the sample. degrees.  The r e s t of the sample had diplomas or'  Only f o u r members of the sample i n d i c a t e d t h a t  they h e l d degrees.  Two  respondents  d i d not s t a t e  their  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s when asked t o do so.  Table 5.--Academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of QUALIFICATIONS  respondents  FREQUENCY  PERCENT  Teaching C e r t i f i c a t e  26  48.2  Diploma/Degree  14  25.9  GCE  14  25.9  54  100.0  O/A  levels  Total  The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study had taught f o r v a r i o u s lengths of time.  The r e s e a r c h e r has p l a c e d these p e r i o d s of  time i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : low y e a r s ) , and high  (21-33 y e a r s ) .  (1-10 y e a r s ) , medium (11-20 Respondents were asked to  i n d i c a t e the number of years they had spent t e a c h i n g (to the n e a r e s t whole y e a r ) .  Ghana Education S e r v i c e has had a  t r e n d of l o s i n g i t s t e a c h i n g personnel to other d i s c i p l i n e s which are more l u c r a t i v e i n the l i g h t of the country's economic s i t u a t i o n . showed t h a t 42.3  A d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the sample  percent of the respondents  had taught f o r  f i v e years or l e s s .  Four respondents  d i d not i n d i c a t e the number of years they  had spent t e a c h i n g i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r .  The r e s u l t s showed  79  t h a t 55.8% of the resppondents had t e n years t e a c h i n g experience or l e s s . Below are the d e t a i l s of the years of t e a c h i n g experience of the members of t h i s  sample.  Table 6. Years of t e a c h i n g experience ITEM 1-10  FREQUENCY  PERCENT  years  29  55.8  11 - 20 years  13  25.0  21 - 33 years  10  19.2  Total  52  100.0  The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o c o n s i d e r e d gender d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t e a c h i n g experience.  F i g u r e 3 shows t h a t a l l the  females i n t h i s study had l e s s than f i f t e e n years of t e a c h i n g experience.  Only one female and three males d i d  not i n d i c a t e the number of years of t e a c h i n g experience had.  Figure 3  shows the d e t a i l s of the r e s u l t s .  they  80  FIGURE 3 30  GENDER DIFFERENCES IN TEACHING EXPERIENCE  1-10 YEARS  11-20 YEARS  21-33 YEARS  NO RESPONSE  TEACHING EXPERIENCE • FEMALE  0MALE  Other A t t r i b u t e s The r e s e a r c h e r i d e n t i f i e d the r e g u l a r classroom teachers by determining day.  the number of c l a s s e s taught each  T h i s helped t o i d e n t i f y r e g u l a r classroom  from s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s .  teachers  T h i r t y percent of the  teachers i n the sample i n d i c a t e d t h a t they taught only one primary c l a s s each day, suggesting t h a t they a r e r e g u l a r classroom t e a c h e r s .  Such teachers a r e a s s i g n e d  specific  designated c l a s s e s f o r which they are accountable. respondents  The  were asked t o i n d i c a t e the number of subject  disciplines  they taught each day.  T h i s helped t o f u r t h e r  i d e n t i f y r e g u l a r classroom t e a c h e r s .  Table 7 i s a c r o s s  t a b u l a t i o n showing the number of c l a s s e s versus t h e number of other s u b j e c t d i s c i p l i n e s  taught.  F i g u r e s showed t h a t  seven respondents  d i d not teach any other s u b j e c t s apart  form the c u l t u r a l  s t u d i e s program.  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i r  would support an argument t h a t they  are s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s .  Table 7 . — S u b j e c t s  and number of c l a s s e s taught  ITEMS  NUMBER OF OTHER SUBJECTS TAUGHT 1 0 2 4 3 5  1 Primary  class  0  0  1  12  2  1  2 Primary c l a s s e s  1  4  0  2  0  0  3 or 4 Primary c l a s s e s  3  2  1  1  0  0  5 or more Primary c l a s s e s  1  1  —>  0  0  1  Other  2  0  2  4  1  1  The data a n a l y s i s showed t h a t 47.2 p e r c e n t of the respondents  taught more than two other s u b j e c t s and s i x t y -  f i v e percent were not a s s i g n e d t o any other s c h o o l . S i x t e e n t e a c h e r s teach more than two other s u b j e t c s apart from music, and they a l s o teach one primary c l a s s a week. These teachers are most probably r e g u l a r classroom t e a c h e r s . The three t e a c h e r s who do not teach any other s u b j e c t apart from music and are a s s i g n e d t o only one school (Table 8) are most probably s p e c i a l i s t music t e a c h e r s .  82  Table 8.—Number of C l a s s e s taught by School Assignment CLASSES TAUGHT  SCHOOL ASSIGNMENT YES NO  1 Primary  class  0  16  2 Primary  classes  1  6  5  3  4  2  7  4  3 or 4 Primary  classes  5 or more Primary  classes  Other  Here, seven respondents d i d not i n d i c a t e the primary c l a s s e s they taught.  Two of these were assigned t o more  than one s c h o o l and the other f i v e were not. teachers  The s i x t e e n  (Table 8) who taught one primary c l a s s d a i l y and  were not a s s i g n e d t o any other s c h o o l are most probably r e g u l a r classroom t e a c h e r s .  83  Research q u e s t i o n #1. What t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s do teachers of music i n Ghana employ i n t h e i r c l a s s e s ?  The respondents  were expected  t o answer  seventeen  q u e s t i o n s on music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s they employed i n the classes.  The music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s s e l e c t e d by the  r e s e a r c h e r f o r the respondents  to r e a c t t o are drawn from  the Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education,  Kodaly  pedagogy and O r f f Schulwerk. The respondents  response  to q u e s t i o n s on the t e a c h i n g  s t r a t e g i e s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r answering the second purpose of the study which was t o o f f e r suggestions and recommendations f o r improving music methodology i n Ghanaian elementary  instructional schools drawing on the  Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education, the O r f f Schulwerk, and  Kodaly  pedagogy.  were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o responses  Likert scaling analysis f o r each item on the r e s e a r c h  instrument. The presented  coding scheme i s presented below f o r the t a b l e s i n the r e s t of t h i s  chapter.  CODE 0.  No  1.  To no extent a t a l l  2.  To a small extent  3.  To some extent  4.  To a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent  5.  To a g r e a t extent  response  84  n  Number of  x  Mean  s  Standard  df sign  respondents  d e v i a t i o n ( s t d dev. i n text)  Chi-square  observed  Chi-square  critical  Degrees of Freedom L e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l  significance  The r e s u l t s of the data a n a l y s i s showed t h a t s i n g i n g games was the most f r e q u e n t l y used i n t e g r a t e d a c t i v i t y by the members of t h i s sample.  The t e a c h e r s ' responses  produced a  mean of 3.655 and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 1.205 (Table 9 ) . There was a predominant use of the t e a c h e r ' s v o i c e manifested  i n the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s .  The c h i l d ' s  v o i c e , although dominant, was not used t o the same extent as the teacher's v o i c e . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t although the respondents a l l used the p a r t i c u l a r  approaches t o l i t e r a c y  i d e n t i f i e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent  skills  (see Table 9), the  standard d e v i a t i o n f o r the items i n d i c a t e d a spread of scores r a t h e r than homogeneity.  Table 9 g i v e s a more  d e t a i l e d r e s e n t a t i o n of the data a n a l y s i s . "My v o i c e " i n Table 9, under i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s r e f e r s , t o the teachers voice.  In the same way, "instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and  me" r e f e r s t o instruments p l a y e d by the c h i l d r e n and the teacher.  That  i s t o say, each time the p e r s o n a l pronoun i s  used i n the t a b l e s presented,  i t r e f e r s t o the teacher.  85  Table 9 . — D e s c r i p t i o n of t e a c h i n g ITEM  strategies  0  RESPONSES 1 2 3  1 1 1 2  4 5 2 14  6 16 19 25  0 0  0 4  6 3  0  9  0  9  4  5  n  10 16 20 9  20 13 8 6  15 5 6 2  55 55 55 54  3 .65 2 .95 2 .94 2 .13  1 .20 1 .13 1 .04 0 .93  5 14  9 18  36 17  56 56  4 .34 3 .73  1 .03 1 . 17  10  16  11  10  56  3 .05  1 .33  17  14  7  9  56  2 .82  1 .31  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Improvisation Imitation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n  0  10  13  14  15  4  56  2 .82  1 .22  0  14  12  14  9  7  56  2 .70  1 .35  6 4 6 9 11 10 14  15 19 17 21 12 12 10  14 12 14 11 12 10 12  20 16 12 10 14 13 11  56 56 53 55 55 56 56  3 .82 3 .54 3 .45 3 .34 3 .31 3 .07 3 .04  1 .10 1 .23 1 .19 1 .17 1 .34 1 .45 1 .39  >PROACHES TO LITERACY ;SKILLS Vocables Movement and Dance Solfege Speech and Poetry Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Staff Notation Instrumental Play  0 0 3 1 1 0 0  1 5 4 3 6 11 9  Table 9 i s a d i s p l a y of the data r e g a r d i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n of music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by Ghanaian t e a c h e r s of music i n the elementary school classroom.  Although  there have been attempts i n education  to move towards c h i l d - c e n t e r e d education,  i t i s obvious  from  these r e s u l t s t h a t the teacher continues t o be the focus of a t t e n t i o n i n the classroom.  86  Table 10. Chi-Square t e s t s on Teaching S t r a t e g i e s . ITEM  RESPONSES  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  *15 63 *23 63 *15 48 11.45  0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02  *46.71 *18.46  0.01 0.01  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me  2.75  0.60  6.14  0.19  3.46  0.43  7.04  0.13  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  3.27 *20.61 11.24 0.61 *27.14 1.32 *15.61  0.51 0.01 0.24 0.96 0.01 0.86 0.01  To g i v e an e x p l i c i t p i c t u r e of the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s music teachers employ i n the elementary classroom the r e s e a r c h e r a p p l i e d Chi-square  i n Ghana,  (Goodness of f i t ) t e s t to  each item on t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . The r e s u l t s i n Table 10 showed t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among respondents i n the use of sound e x p l o r a t i o n , s t a f f n o t a t i o n , and every form of i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n .  87  The alpha a t 0.05 was lowered because of repeated  tests  9  on v a r i a b l e s .  T h i s would reduce  s i g n i f i c a n c e by chance alone. still  generated  the p o s s i b i l i t y of  S i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were  f o r s i n g i n g games, i m i t a t i o n , pantomime, the  use of the t e a c h e r s v o i c e , the use of the c h i l d ' s v o i c e , v o c a b l e s , speach  and p o e t r y , movement and dance.  Tables 11- 50 t o which r e f e r e n c e w i l l be made i n subsequent w r i t i n g are found i n Appendix D.  ^Roger E. K i r k , Experimental Design. 2d ed. (New York: Brooks/Cole P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1982), 106.  88 Research q u e s t i o n #2. To what extent do such f a c t o r s as regional location, d i s t r i c t  l o c a t i o n of s c h o o l s , gender,  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and t e a c h i n g experience,  relate to  music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by music teachers i n Ghanaian elementary  schools?  Regional d i f f e r e n c e s i n teaching s t r a t e g i e s The  f i v e r e g i o n s presented were c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y  i n the data a n a l y s i s t o determine i n d i v i d u a l r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n teaching strategy.  Means and standard  d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the responses t o each teaching strategy v a r i a b l e .  The f i v e r e g i o n s were then  c o n s i d e r e d c o l l e c t i v e l y t o determine the extent t o which they v a r i e d a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s i n a Chi-square  (Test  of A s s o c i a t i o n ) . The  d e t a i l s of the r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g  s t r a t e g i e s f o r each r e g i o n are d i s p l a y e d i n Tables 11-15.  The Ga-Adangbe Region The  l a r g e s t teacher r e p r e s e n t a t i o n came from the Ga-  Adangbe r e g i o n , the r e g i o n i n which the c a p i t a l of Ghana i s situated.  Apart  from the use of the teacher's v o i c e  (mean  4.21; s t d dev. 1.134); the other predominant music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s found  i n t h i s r e g i o n i n c l u d e d the use of vocables  (mean 3.96 s t d dev 0.962), the use of s t a f f n o t a t i o n (mean 3.61 s t d dev 1.343), and the c h i l d ' s voice(mean 3.61 s t d dev.  1.257).  Even though the data a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s from the  89  Ga-Adangbe r e g i o n a l sample showed a c o n s i d e r a b l e use of sound e x p l o r a t i o n , i n s t r u m e n t a l p l a y , speech and poetry, and s i n g i n g games, t h e i r standard  deviations i l l u s t r a t e d a  c o n s i d e r a b l e spread  (Table 11).  of scores  The C e n t r a l Region Even though the r e s u l t s of the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by the sample from the C e n t r a l r e g i o n showed some amount of predominance given to the c h i l d ' s v o i c e 3.37, s t d dev. 1.06) the teacher's dev.  1.36) s t i l l  voice  (mean  (mean 3.87,  std  had the h i g h e s t p o s i t i v e mean score.  The  C e n t r a l r e g i o n a l sample a l s o r e g i s t e r e d p o s i t i v e mean scores on movement and dance, the use of s i n g i n g games, speech and poetry  i n the classroom.  The lowest mean scores were  generated by the teacher's from the C e n t r a l r e g i o n .  use of instruments Table  i n the sample  12 g i v e s the d e t a i l s of t h i s  analysis.  The The dev  E a s t e r n Region  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the teacher's  voice  (mean 5, s t d  0.00) as a predominant i n s t r u c t i o n a l device i n the  E a s t e r n r e g i o n was generated i n the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of data from t h a t r e g i o n . supports  The standard  d e v i a t i o n generated  the predominance of the t e a c h e r ' s  voice.  scores were a l s o r e g i s t e r e d f o r the c h i l d ' s v o i c e 4.71. s t d dev. 0.49).  Other high mean scores  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e d s i n g i n g games,  High mean (mean  yielding  (mean 4.28 s t d  90  dev  0.756), vocables  (mean 3.71  (mean 3.83 s t d dev 1.60). i n the use of instruments  s t d dev 1.380), and s o l f e g e  Low mean scores were r e g i s t e r e d f o r class, staff notation,  and  movement and dance, s i g n i f y i n g the under use of these variables.  The d e t a i l s of the r e s u l t s of t h i s t e s t are  d i s p l a y e d i n Table 13 of appendix D.  The V o l t a Region F i g u r e s generated  from the data on teaching s t r a t e g i e s  i n the V o l t a r e g i o n d i s p l a y e d high p o s i t i v e mean scores f o r such v a r i a b l e s as s i n g i n g games (4.375), vocables  (4.375),  solfege  Here  (4.125), and movement and dance (4.375).  again, the teachers v o i c e was the most predominant f e a t u r e i n the classroom  with the h i g h e s t  standard d e v i a t i o n of 0.53.  mean score of 4.63, and a  The lowest mean scores were  y i e l d e d by such v a r i a b l e s as pantomime, the use of instruments,  and s t a f f n o t a t i o n .  Table 14 i n appendix D p r e s e n t s  the d e t a i l s of the  r e s u l t s of the t e s t on the V o l t a r e g i o n .  The A s h a n t i Region I t was s i g n i f i c a n t to note t h a t i n the A s h a n t i r e g i o n , although  the sample was small i n comparison with a l l other  r e g i o n s , the h i g h e s t mean scores were scored on a l l t e a c h i n g strategy variables.  Recent r e s e a r c h has proven t h a t the  c h i - s q u a r e t e s t g i v e s a f a i r l y accurate p r o b a b i l i t y even  91  with small sample sizes(N=20) and a degree of freedom which i s more than The  one.  3  lowest mean scores were r e g i s t e r e d i n the use  instruments  by students and t e a c h e r s .  The  of  academic  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the members of t h i s sample c o u l d account f o r high mean scores generated  i n the data a n a l y s i s (Table  15) .  I t was  the i n t e n t of the r e s e a r c h e r to determine the  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s with r e s p e c t to r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n of schools i n the r e s u l t s d i s p l a y e d i n Tables  11 to 15.  There were s i m i l a r i t i e s  i n the use of the  t e a c h e r ' s v o i c e and the c h i l d ' s v o i c e . D i f f e r e n c e s arose i n the use of other strategies.  teaching  A l l r e g i o n s s e l e c t e d i n the sample except  the  Eastern r e g i o n , y i e l d e d p o s i t i v e mean scores i n the use movement and dance. however, manifests  The  chi-square t e s t  evidence  to suggest  (Table  of  16),  t h a t there was  no  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n of schools and the use of movement and dance. contingency  A n a l y s i s of the  t a b l e showed t h a t there were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n of schools and these teaching s t r a t e g y v a r i a b l e s : vocables, s o l f e g e , s t a f f n o t a t i o n , and members of the sample.  i n s t r u m e n t a l p l a y among the  The r e s u l t s from the  chi-square  C h r i s Spatz & James O.Johnston, B a s i c S t a t i s t i c s : T a l e s of D i s t r i b u t i o n . 4th ed. ( P a c i f i c Grove, C a l i f o r n i a : Brooks/Cole P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1989), 246. 3  92  t e s t of a s s o c i a t i o n (see t a b l e 16) s t i l l  generated  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s on the use of the c h i l d ' s v o i c e , vocables,  solfege, s t a f f notation, instrumental play,  the alpha of 0.05 had been dropped. r e s u l t s from the contingency  Therefore,  table yielded  after  although the  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s these were unimportant.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s with r e s p e c t to d i s t r i c t There are notable d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d i s t r i c t and r u r a l environments i n Ghana. to  i n d i c a t e the d i s t r i c t  Teachers were t h e r e f o r e asked  i n which they taught,  and the  r e s e a r c h e r was able t o determine the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s used with r e s p e c t to t h e i r school d i s t r i c t .  The  a n a l y s i s of the data d i d not i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n the d i s t r i c t  l o c a t i o n of school and the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s  t e a c h e r s of music employed i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . The X for  2  observed  each v a r i a b l e was c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than i t s r e s p e c t i v e  c r i t i c a l value, even a f t e r the alpha of 0.05 had been dropped. The  r e s u l t s are presented  i n t a b l e 17 of Appendix D.  Urban D i s t r i c t For each i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t  i t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s .  Frequency  d i s t r i b u t i o n s , means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were used t o determine these d i f f e r e n c e s .  The r e s e a r c h e r has t h e r e f o r e  p r o v i d e d the d e t a i l s of these r e s u l t s i n Tables  18 and 19.  93  The  l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y used items i n the urban  included imitaion  district  (mean 2.98 s t d dev. 1.11), pantomime (mean  2.07 s t d dev. 0.89), i m p r o v i s a t i o n (mean 2.88 s t d dev. 1.08) (Table 18). There was a double e n t r y r e g i s t e r e d on speech and p o e t r y i n the urban d i s t r i c t of the members of t h i s sample.  Low mean scores were a l s o generated f o r every  v a r i a b l e connected with the use of music  instruments other  than the v o i c e from urban community data.  Rural  District  The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s from the r u r a l i n d i c a t e d the under use of i m i t a t i o n  areas  (mean 2.86 s t d dev.  0.86), pantomime (mean 2.29 s t d dev. 1.07), s t a f f n o t a t i o n (mean 2.50 s t d dev. 1.45), teacher(mean  and instruments p l a y e d by the  2.71 s t d dev. 1.14).  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , high mean  scores were generated f o r the use of instruments by the children  (Table 19).  Gender D i f f e r e n c e s i n Teaching  Strategies  I t was a l s o the i n t e n t of t h i s study to determine the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s with r e s p e c t t o gender. The t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by gender c a t e g o r i e s were therefore  investigated.  Female Female t e a c h e r s thought they d i d not u t i l i z e a c t i v i t i e s of i m i t a t i o n  integrated  (mean 2.60, s t d dev. 0.51),  94  pantomime (mean 2 . 1 0 2.70  s t d dev.  1.06)  s t d dev.  0.87),  and i m p r o v i s a t i o n (mean  i n t h e i r music c l a s s e s .  Results also  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the use of the unaccompanied v o i c e was  more  predominant among the females i n t h i s sample than the use of v o i c e accompanied by instruments  (Table  20).  Male The male respondents  i n d i c a t e d responses which  mean scores r e g i s t e r e d at 3 and below f o r  generated  pantomime, i m p r o v i s a t i o n , s t a f f n o t a t i o n , and the use of instruments e i t h e r by teachers or c h i l d r e n . mean score which was  higher than 3 was  Conversely, a  r e g i s t e r e d f o r the  use of the v o i c e accompanied by instruments  (Table  The double entry by one of the respondents  21).  to the  v a r i a b l e speech and poetry was m a n i f e s t i n the data a n a l y s i s on the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s of male respondents  employed.  Table 22 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e s u l t s of the t e s t to determine whether there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed i n the Ghanaian classroom.  elementary  S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded  f o r responses t o instruments p l a y e d by the teacher and students 15.17;  (X  2  12.32;  p_ < 0 . 0 1 ) ,  p_<  0.01),  as an approach  and the use of s o l f e g e ( X to music  literacy.  2  95  D i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s with r e s p e c t to years of t e a c h i n g experience Four respondents  d i d not i n d i c a t e the number of years  they had spent t e a c h i n g i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s .  The  f r e q u e n c i e s and the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s with r e s p e c t t o t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s the non respondents were computed s e p a r a t e l y .  employed  The r e s u l t s showed the e x t e n s i v e  use of the teachers v o i c e and s o l f e g e (mean. 4.5, s t d dev. 1.0), v o c a b l e s ,  (mean 4.50, s t d dev. 0.57), speech and  poetry and sound e x p l o r a t i o n (mean 4.00, s t d dev 1.41).  Table 23 i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by teachers i n the sample with 1-10 years of t e a c h i n g experience.  Twenty-nine members of  the sample had 1-10 years of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i n c e .  The  r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s showed t h a t a p a r t from s i n g i n g games (mean 3.21, s t d dev. 1.26), i n t e g r a t e d a c t i v i t y  variables  were the l e a s t used by t e a c h e r s with 1-10 years t e a c h i n g experience.  Other approaches t o music l i t e r a c y y i e l d e d high  mean s c o r e s , but t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e standard d e v i a t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e d a spread of s c o r e s , s i g n i f y i n g  variability.  Compared with the sample of t e a c h e r s with 1-10 years of t e a c h i n g experience, the sample of teachers with 11-20 years experience i n d i c a t e d the under use of s t a f f n o t a t i o n (mean 2.54;  s t d dev. 1.45) i n t h e i r music c l a s s e s .  Higher means  scores were r e g i s t e r e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : s i n g i n g  96  games (mean 4.38; s t d dev. 0.65), i m i t a t i o n  (mean 3.31; s t d  dev. 1.38), and i m p r o v i s a t i o n (mean 3.46; s t d dev. 1.05). Table 24 g i v e s the d e t a i l s of the r e s u l t s on the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s among the t e a c h e r s with 11-20 years of teaching  experience.  I t was i n t e r e s t i n g to note the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the means generated by the sample of teachers with 20-33 years of t e a c h i n g experience  (Table 25).  There was a c o n s i d e r a b l y  lower number of p o s i t i v e mean scores among t h i s  sample  compared with the samples i n the other two c a t e g o r i e s . Higher mean scores were r e g i s t e r e d f o r s i n g i n g games (mean 3.90; s t d dev. 1.19), i m i t a t i o n  (mean 3.10; s t d dev. 1.19),  and i m p r o v i s a t i o n (mean 3.20; s t d dev. 1.13).  The Chi-square  (Test of A s s o c i a t i o n ) t o determine the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the years of t e a c h i n g experience and the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed i n the classroom some s t a t i s t i c a l l y (X  2  20.74;  results,  significant results.  yielded  Only s t a f f n o t a t i o n  p_ < 0.01) y i e l d e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  implying a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the years of  t e a c h i n g experience and t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s (Table 26) .  97  D i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s with r e s p e c t to academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s Finally,  the r e s e a r c h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d the d i f f e r e n c e s  i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by the members of the sample with r e s p e c t t o t h e i r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n .  The degree  h o l d e r s i n the study were combined with the members of the sample who had diplomas.  Only f o u r members of the sample  i n d i c a t e d having a b a c h e l o r s  Teaching  degree.  Certificate  Over h a l f the members of the sample had t e a c h i n g certificates.  The h i g h e s t mean score recorded,  apart from  t h a t f o r the dominance of the teacher's v o i c e , and the c h i l d ' s v o i c e , i s t h a t f o r the use of s i n g i n g games (mean 4.15; s t d dev. 0.88) as an i n t e g r a t e d a c t i v i t y i n the development of musical understanding. s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e d vocables  Other f r e q u e n t l y used  (mean 4.00; s t d dev. 1.16), and  movement and dance (mean 3.57; s t d dev. 1.27).  Table 27  presents the d e t a i l s of t h i s a n a l y s i s .  GCE O/A L e v e l s Low mean scores were recorded activities,  f o r a l l integrated  the members of the sample with GCE 0 or A l e v e l s  were t o respond t o .  Although  high mean scores were recorded  f o r such v a r i a b l e s as sound e x p l o r a t i o n (mean 3.21; s t d dev. 1.58), vocables  (mean 3.50; s t d dev. s t d dev 1.09), s o l f e g e  (mean 3.50; s t d dev. 1.09), s t a f f n o t a t i o n  (mean 3.36; s t d  98  dev  1.28), i n s t r u m e n t a l p l a y (mean 3.07; s t d dev. 1.33),  speech and p o e t r y  (mean 3.15; s t d dev. 1.07), and movement  and dance (mean 3.36; s t d dev. 1.22), the standard d e v i a t i o n f o r each of these i n d i c a t e d a spread of s c o r e s .  Compared  with the t e a c h e r s from the other two c a t e g o r i e s , those with t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s , and those with diplomas  or degrees,  the t e a c h e r s with GCE 0 or A l e v e l c e r t i f i c a t e s scored the l e a s t number of p o s i t i v e mean s c o r e s .  Table 28 i n  Appendix D p r e s e n t s the d e t a i l s of a n a l y s i s .  Degree/diplomas The a n a l y s i s of the data on teachers with degrees or diplomas  r e v e a l e d a h i g h e r number of mean scores than d i d  the other two c a t e g o r i e s a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r e d .  The dominance  of the t e a c h e r ' s v o i c e , even though e v i d e n t i n these r e s u l t s , d i d not d i s m i s s an i n c r e a s e d amount of i n t e g r a t e d a c t i v i t y among  the teachers with degrees  mean scores were recorded f o r i m i t a t i o n  or diplomas.  (mean 3.50 s t d dev.  1.16) compared with those f o r teachers i n the other two c a t e g o r i e s . Table 29 i l l u s t r a t e s the d e t a i l s of these results.  High  99 A c h i - s q u a r e t e s t of a s s o c i a t i o n was again u t i l i z e d i n determining  i f the academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the teachers  i n elementary  schools i n Ghana were r e l a t e d t o the t e a c h i n g  s t r a t e g i e s they employed i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e classrooms. Statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded f o r the  use of s i n g i n g games (X s t a f f n o t a t i o n (X  2  2  21.38;  20.44;  p_ < 0.01), and the use of  p_ < 0.01)  i n developing  literacy  skills. The d e t a i l s of these r e s u l t s  (Table 30) i l l u s t r a t e t h a t  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of teachers i n elementary  schools i n Ghana and the  teaching  s t r a t e g i e s they employ i n t h e i r music c l a s s e s i s minimal.  100  Research q u e s t i o n #3 To what extent can a framework be developed w i t h i n which a combination of p a r t i c u l a r music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s are employed with the view of improving instructional  methodology?  There were  seventeen q u e s t i o n s t h a t would g i v e the  reader a c l e a r e r d e s c r i p t i o n of the working content of the music c u r r i c u l u m . study, because the  These q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n the content determines the t e a c h i n g  s t r a t e g i e s t o be used. Cross t a b u l a t i o n s were computed f o r the seventeen content v a r i a b l e s which were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h r e e groups: elements of music, s k i l l development, and song r e p e r t o i r e . These three content areas cover the content areas f o r  Orff-  Schulwerk, Kodaly pedagogy, and the Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l forms of music i n s t r u c t i o n .  The r e s e a r c h e r was able to  i d e n t i f y the elements of music which were most f r e q u e n t l y addressed by the teachers i n the sample.  Respondents were  asked to respond t o the song r e p e r t o i r e they u t i l i z e d i n t h e i r classrooms, and these were then c r o s s t a b u l a t e d against t h e i r teaching s t r a t e g i e s .  The extent to which  p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s were developed by the members of t h i s sample was  investigated.  101  Music as p a r t of the C u l t u r a l Studies The r e s e a r c h instrument  was designed  Program  t o i d e n t i f y the  s u b j e c t s t h a t make up the C u l t u r a l Studies Program and the extent t o which they were p a r t of the program. of the respondents answers C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s Program  on s u b j e c t s t h a t make up the  showed t h a t music was an e s s e n t i a l  and predominant p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m 0.989 ).  The r e s u l t s are presented  (mean 4.304, s t d dev  i n Table 31.  Table 3 1 . — D e s c r i p t i o n of C u l t u r a l Studies Item Music Religion Art Dance Crafts Drama Other  0  1  2  2 4  1 4 2 8 4  4 2 6 11 7 13 3  -3 45  The r e s u l t s  -  Program  Responses 4 3 5  n  34 27 17 17 12 11 5  56 54 52 56 53 56 11  9 12 14 18 10 15  -  9 12 11 8 16 13 3  X 4.304 4.148 3.596 3.482 3.321 3.250 3.909  S 0.98 1.01 1.27 1.22 1.37 1.22 1.30  A f t e r i d e n t i f y i n g music as a predominant p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m , the r e s e a r c h e r determined the extent t o which music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and music t e a c h i n g v a r i a b l e s were addressed.  content  I t i s w i t h i n t h i s framework t h a t  the r e s e a r c h e r would be a b l e t o determine the extent t o which a combination of p a r t i c u l a r music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d be employed  t o improve i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology i n  Ghanaian elementary s c h o o l s .  102  Music by Teaching  Strategies  Table 32 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s of the t e s t t o determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the concept of music t e a c h i n g and p a r t i c u l a r teaching  strategy  variables.  The r e s u l t s of the  analysis indicated s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t figures  for  the use of s i n g i n g games (X 26.24; p_ < 0.01), sound 2  exploration  (X  2  27.07;  p_< 0.01), s o l f e g e  0.01), and s t a f f n o t a t i o n  (X 27.15; p_< 2  (X 25.79; p_< 0.01). 2  Music by Content Table 33, on the other hand i s a c r o s s  t a b u l a t i o n of  the t e a c h e r s responses t o the content of t h e i r music c u r r i c u l a and the teaching classes.  s t r a t e g i e s they employ i n t h e i r  S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded  f o r rhythm, Ghanaian and non-Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k songs, and speech and language. tabulations mean s c o r e s .  on these v a r i a b l e s  A review of the frequency i l l u s t r a t e s high p o s i t i v e  There i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between these  above named v a r i a b l e s and the teaching elementary s c h o o l s of t h e f i v e s e l e c t e d  of music i n Ghanaian regions.  103  S t r a t e g i e s employed i n the t e a c h i n g of music elements The  development of the understanding  of music elements  form the b a s i s f o r development of music c u r r i c u l a . teaching  s t r a t e g i e s employed i n the t e a c h i n g of  elements have to be  i d e n t i f i e d . Tables  The  these  34 - 39 d e t a i l  the  r e s u l t s of the t e s t s done on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the elements taught  The  and  the music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s .  t e s t on rhythm  (see Table  34)  and  teaching  s t r a t e g i e s r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n i n the of vocables  (X  2  27.76,  p_ < 0.01)  and  solfege  (X  2  use  26.39, _p_<  0.01) .  No  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded  for  the r e l a t i o n s h i p the use of the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e being addressed and  the t e a c h i n g of melody.  Harmony, when t e s t e d a g a i n s t the music strategies, conversely y i e l d e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e s u l t s on vocables (X  2  (X  2  31.57,  36.71, p_ < 0.01), and  0.01).  No  significant  p_ < 0.01), s t a f f  speech and poetry  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded  s e l e c t e d i n t e g r a t e d a c t i v i t y items. the r e s u l t s of Table  teaching  (X  2  notation 37.37,  f o r the  These are r e f l e c t e d i n  36.  When c r o s s t a b u l a t e d a g a i n s t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y , elements of musical  p_ <  form y i e l d e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y  the  significant  104  r e s u l t s f o r speech and p o e t r y  (X  2  45.73,  instruments p l a y e d only by c h i l d r e n and instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n teachers  (X  27.71,  2  p_<  (X  2  p_ < 0.01), 30.86, p_ < 0.01),  together with t h e i r  0.01). Table 37 i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n  of the d e t a i l s of the t e s t r e s u l t s .  No  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were i d e n t i f i e d i n  the t e a c h i n g of dynamics through the t e a c h i n g being addressed Table  strategies  i n t h i s study. The r e s u l t s are presented i n  38.  I t was  i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the r e s u l t s of the t e s t on  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between timbre and t e a c h i n g  strategies  employed i n Ghanaian elementary  No  statistically  classrooms.  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded f o r timbre  and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s  employed i n Ghanaian  classrooms of the f i v e s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s .  elementary  105  Song r e p e r t o i r e  by  teaching  strategies.  Since a l l three approaches being addressed i n t h i s study p l a c e importance on the nature of the m a t e r i a l the development of musical understanding, i t was for  the r e s e a r c h e r to determine a l s o the  between the  song r e p e r t o i r e  employed by  the  of t h i s t e s t . (Table 40)  teachers. There was  yielded  and  i n the games (X  25.59, p_ < 0.01), and  p_ < 0.01).  i n Chapter  The  strategies  2  results  significant result  t e a c h i n g of Ghanaian  voice 36.26,  relationship  teaching  a statistically  singing  2  necessary  Tables 40-44 d e t a i l the  songs and (X  the  used i n  children's  32.10, p_ < 0.01), the movements and  teacher's  dance  r e l e v a n c e of t h i s w i l l be  (X  2  discussed  5.  With r e s p e c t to non-Ghanaian c h i l d r e n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p was  noted i n the  addressed i n the  study.  use  Table 41  of any  songs,  of the  no  strategies  p r e s e n t s the d e t a i l s  of  this result. I t was use  i n t e r e s t i n g to note the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  of songs c r e a t e d by Ghanaian and  c h i l d r e n alone  (X  accompanied by  instruments(X  are  outlined The  2  instrumental play  33.28, p_ < 0.01), and  i n Table  2  the  by  voice  31.97, p_ < 0.01).  The  results  42.  t e a c h i n g of Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k songs i n  elementary classroom i s r e l a t e d to s i n g i n g < 0.01)  .  games (X  Table 43 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s of t h i s  F i n a l l y , the relationships  the  t e s t of a s s o c i a t i o n  between the  yielded  2  the  42.99 p_  analysis. significant  t e a c h i n g of non-Ghanaian  106  t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k songs and sound e x p l o r a t i o n (X 0.01).  Table 44 shows the r e s u l t s of t h i s  2  31.12,  p_ <  test.  The development of concepts and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s The r e s e a r c h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d the degree of use of p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n the development of motor sensory  skills  (Table 45), A u d i t o r y s k i l l s  Speech and Language s k i l l s  (Table 46),  (Table 47), S i n g i n g and P i t c h  skills  (Table 48),  Audiation  skills  (Table 50).  S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were  recorded of  (Table 49), and L i t e r a c y  f o r the use of sound e x p l o r a t i o n i n the development  s i n g i n g and p i t c h s k i l l s  (X  2  33.18, p_ < 0.01).  The same  was t r u e f o r the development of s i n g i n g and p i t c h s k i l l s 32.97, _p_<  0.01), and speech and language s k i l l s (X  < 0.01), through s i n g i n g games.  2  (X  2  45.42, p_  Movement and dance were  a l s o recorded as r e l a t e d to the development of speech and language s k i l l s (X to  2  (X  2  32.95,  31.70, p_ < 0.01).  p_ < 0.01), and a u d i t o r y  Improvisation was recorded as r e l a t e d  the development of motor sensory  0.01).  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y  skills  skills  (X  2  36.55, p_ <  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were recorded  i n the development of a u d i a t i o n through any of the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s being addressed i n the study.  107  Comments The respondents were asked t o make any f u r t h e r comments they had on t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t y l e . Very few respondents answered here. The few comments r e c e i v e d are l i s t e d below.  * My p r e s e n t t e a c h i n g s t y l e has been developed over the years of e x p e r i e n c e . conventional.  Not a l l methods I employ are  I t r y to combine s e r i o u s study with the  enjoyment of the s u b j e c t i n my own way.  * I more o f t e n r e l y on answers from my students i n g i v i n g them s h o r t notes I wish t o g i v e them. My reason f o r doing t h i s i s t h a t I f e e l they w i l l be able t o read and understand what they say themselves  than merely copying from  books.  *I use t r a d i t i o n a l m u s i c a l instruments t o teach  oral  literature.  * I s t a r t by c r e a t i n g i n t e r e s t  by i m i t a t i n g  an aspect  of music. That i s , i f I want t o teach a dance, say agbadza, I s t a r t p l a y i n g the b e l l ,  ask c h i l d r e n what dance i s b e f o r e  I s t a r t the l e s s o n .  * Lack of musical instruments make music t e a c h i n g difficult, help.  however, p e r c u s s i o n instruments  (improvised) do  * M a t e r i a l s f o r t e a c h i n g are sometimes l a c k i n g , f o r example, manuscript  books, instruments  —especially  western  i n s t r u m e n t s — a r e hard t o come by and make t e a c h i n g difficult.  Summary The f o r e g o i n g chapter has presented the r e s u l t s of the data c a n a l y s i s addressed  f o r t h i s study.  These r e s u l t s have been  i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n to answering the s p e c i f i c  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s being addressed discussion chapter.  i n the study.  A  of the r e s u l t s are presented i n the f o l l o w i n g  CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND  T h i s chapter  IMPLICATIONS  p r o v i d e s the c o n c l u s i o n s to the study  of  music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s as a b a s i s f o r c u r r i c u l u m development i n Ghanaian elementary s c h o o l s .  It will  summarize the r e s e a r c h problem and method, p r o v i d e a d i s c u s s i o n on the f i n d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n to s p e c i f i c questions,  research  a r t i c u l a t e the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study,  and  f i n a l l y and p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h c i t e d , suggest i m p l i c a t i o n s for  c u r r i c u l u m development and recommendations f o r f u r t h e r  research.  Research Problem and Method There are a v a r i e t y of music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed i n Ghanaian elementary schools and many of  these  are l a c k i n g i n t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i n g m u s i c a l l y literate  individuals.  S e v e r a l f a c t o r s may  v a r i e t y i n t e a c h i n g which may  account f o r  i n c l u d e academic  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , t e a c h i n g experience,  the teachers  of contemporary p r a c t i s e s i n music education,  knowledge  availability  of m a t e r i a l s f o r t e a c h i n g , r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n s of s c h o o l s , gender l o c a t i o n , and d i s t r i c t  l o c a t i o n of s c h o o l s .  Changes  o c c u r r i n g i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system of Ghana have i n c l u d e d  109  110  the c r e a t i o n of a C u l t u r a l Studies Program as p a r t of the compulsory core c u r r i c u l u m i n Ghanaian elementary Music i s i n c l u d e d as a s u b j e c t i n the C u l t u r a l  schools.  Studies  Program, t h e r e i s the problem t h a t i n some schools music  may  not even be taught depending on the s t r e n g t h of the t e a c h e r . The purpose of t h i s study was  to i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e  music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r degree of use i n Ghanaian elementary  s c h o o l s , and to o f f e r suggestions f o r  improving music i n s t r u c t i o n drawing on Ghanaian methods of music education, the Orff-Schulwerk,  indigenous and  Kodaly  pedagogy. The  study i n v o l v e d 56 music t e a c h e r s employed i n  elementary  s c h o o l s i n f i v e of the ten r e g i o n s of Ghana.  r e s e a r c h instrument,  a w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , was  The  designed  to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed i n Ghanaian elementary  schools and e x p l o r e the d i f f e r e n c e s  i n t e a c h i n g with r e s p e c t to the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : r e g i o n , gender, d i s t r i c t , qualification. respondent  t e a c h i n g experience,  Upon completion  and  academic  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , each  r e c e i v e d , by p e r s o n a l d e l i v e r y , a thank you  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study.  The r e s e a r c h e r  proceeded w i t h data a n a l y s i s procedures.  then  note  Ill D i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s Music  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed i n Ghanaian elementary  T h i s study was t h e i r own  based  schools  on the t e a c h e r s d e s c r i p t i o n of  teaching p r a c t i c e s .  The  approach of the music  teacher to music t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g i s d i r e c t l y  related  to the s u c c e s s f u l r e a l i z a t i o n of the nature of the discipline.  The r e s u l t s of the survey i n d i c a t e d  predominance of the teacher's r o l e i n the Teaching,  the  classroom.  i n t h i s context, i s c o n c e i v e d as the teacher being  the s o l e t r a n s m i t t e r of knowledge.  Even though the r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t e d some amount of student i n p u t , t h i s was  negligible.  In the Ghanaian s o c i e t y , the r e s e a r c h e r observes t h a t knowledge i s i d e n t i f i e d with s t a t u s and power and  this  r e i n f o r c e s the s t y l e of t e a c h i n g e x i s t i n g t h e r e .  This style  of t e a c h i n g i s one unquestioned  i n which the teacher, being the p r i n c i p a l  source of knowledge continues t o be  the  predominant p e r s o n a l i t y i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the s c h o o l curriculum.  As Perret-Clermont  and  Schubauer-Leoni  would  have us b e l i e v e , t h i s generates a p a t t e r n of behavior i n which t e a c h e r s and  students a l i k e would tend to hide t h e i r  ignorance i n order to p r o t e c t t h e i r s o c i a l  position.  1  The music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s more f r e q u e n t l y observed i n the Ghanaian elementary  schools i n c l u d e s i n g i n g games,  the use of v o c a b l e s , s o l f e g e , speech  and poetry, movement  A n n e - N e l l y Perret-Clermont & M a r i a - L u i s a SchubauerLeoni, " S o c i a l F a c t o r s i n Learning and Teaching: Towards an I n t e g r a t i v e P e r s p e c t i v e , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research 13, 6 (1989): 575-601. 1  112  and dance.  Musical a c t i v i t i e s  p r o p e n s i t y f o r high student supported  such as these have a  involvement.  Studies have a l s o  2  a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  involvement  and musical a c t i v i t i e s . The  s e l e c t i n g these  student  teachers i n  s t r a t e g i e s more than any other i n d i c a t e d  t h a t these were p o t e n t i a l l y more i n f o r m a t i v e i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the c u r r i c u l u m .  The r e s u l t s showed the under  use of i n s t r u m e n t a l p l a y , i m i t a t i o n , pantomime, sound e x p l o r a t i o n , and  improvisation,  staff notation.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s with r e s p e c t to r e g i o n , d i s t r i c t , gender, academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and of t e a c h i n g Although  years  experience  the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s showed the predominance of  p a r t i c u l a r teaching s t r a t e g i e s ,  the r e s e a r c h e r t r i e d  determine whether or not t h e r e was  to  a significant  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s t r a t e g i e s teachers employ i n t h e i r classrooms  and the r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n , d i s t r i c t ,  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and years of t e a c h i n g  gender, experience.  The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the teachers i n the  different  r e g i o n s tended not to agree on the use of vocables, s o l f e g e , s t a f f n o t a t i o n , and  instrumental play.  The  teachers  from  the Ga-Adangbe r e g i o n were f a v o r a b l y disposed towards the  W.l. Sims, "The E f f e c t of High versus Low Teacher Teacher E f f e c t and Passive versus A c t i v e Student A c t i v i t y d u r i n g Music L i s t e n i n g on Preschool C h i l d r e n ' s A t t e n t i o n , Piece Preference, Time Spent L i s t e n i n g and Piece R e c o g n i t i o n , " J o u r n a l of Research i n Music Education. 34, no. 2 (Summer, 1982): 173-191. z  113  use  of a l l f o u r s t a t e d v a r i a b l e s .  Central region, on the use  The  respondents i n the  on the other hand were e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d  of s t a f f n o t a t i o n  and  r a t h e r favored  instruments, s i n g i n g games, speech and from the Eastern s o l f e g e , and  region  The  tended to f a v o r the use  agreed on the use  v o c a b l e s , s o l f e g e , and movement and  region,  poetry.  sample  sample  of s i n g i n g games,  dance.  r e s u l t s showed t h a t the d i s t r i c t , i n which the teacher was  of  of vocables,  a l s o s i n g i n g games. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the  from the V o l t a r e g i o n  The  the use  as opposed to  employed d i d  n e c e s s a r i l y a f f e c t the music t e a c h i n g  not  s t r a t e g i e s they  employed i n t h e i r classrooms. Majority  of the female teachers i n t h i s sample taught  i n Primary c l a s s e s 4-6, of 9 and  12.  made up of c h i l d r e n between the ages  Opinions d i f f e r e d on the use  accompanied or unaccompanied v o i c e s o r t e d according to use  to gender.  The  of  when the  the sample  female teachers  an unaccompanied v o i c e and  was  preferred  the males p r e f e r r e d  otherwise. The  findings regarding  the years of teaching  music teaching  experience of the members of  sample i n d i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y 0.05  the t e a c h i n g literacy.  has  i n the past p l a c e d  of s t a f f n o t a t i o n  staff  and  the  s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s at  l e v e l f o r i m i t a t i o n , s o l f e g e , and  Music teaching  strategies  the  notation.  a l o t of importance  on  as an avenue f o r music  Even though i t continues to dominate many music  programs i n Ghana, the development of t o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  114  through s o l f e g e - - a s k i l l which belonged to the c h o i r s — i s g a i n i n g a strong p l a c e i n the classroom.  elementary  A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the means and  d i s t r i b u t i o n s of s o l f e g e and  church  frequency  s t a f f n o t a t i o n showed an  i n c r e a s e d use of s o l f e g e among the members of the sample with  1-10  years and  11-20  years of t e a c h i n g experience.  teachers i n d i c a t e d a decrease  The  i n the use of the s e l e c t e d  music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t e a c h e r s ' academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s was  identified  i n the use of s i n g i n g games, s t a f f n o t a t i o n , and the v o i c e unaccompanied by i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . GCE  The  child's  teachers  with  0 or A l e v e l s , are not q u a l i f i e d to teach, but have been  r e c r u i t e d as p a r t of the N a t i o n a l S e r v i c e Scheme which r e q u i r e s i n d i v i d u a l s to work f o r a year before e n t e r i n g university.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the r e s u l t s i n t h i s  r e f l e c t e d the lack of formal t e a c h i n g s k i l l s  sample,  i n the minimal  use compared to the other c a t e g o r i e s of a l l s e l e c t e d teaching strategy v a r i a b l e s .  Studies have r e v e a l e d , on  the  other hand, g r e a t e r a t t e n t i v e n e s s and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s i n students taught by t h e i r peers  or near peers, with  s p e c i a l teacher t r a i n i n g s k i l l s .  no  Yarbrough and P r i c e , i n  t h e i r study of s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n music, observed  high p o s i t i v e reinforcement  r a t i o f o r untrained  teachers  (freshmen) and t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s  (sophomores).  3  ^ C o r n e l i a Yarbrough, and Harry E. P r i c e , " S e q u e n t i a l Patterns of I n s t r u c t i o n i n Music." J o u r n a l of Research i n Music Education. 37, 3, ( F a l l , 1989): 179-187.  115  P o s i t i v e reinforcement positive attitudes.  encourages g r e a t e r a t t e n t i v e n e s s and  Teachers with t e a c h i n g  were f a v o r a b l y disposed  certificates  towards the use of s i n g i n g games as  a means to music l i t e r a c y .  The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the  s e l e c t e d music s t r a t e g i e s were more i n use  among the  teachers with diplomas or degrees.  The development of a c u r r i c u l u m framework based on the combination of p a r t i c u l a r music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s The  researcher  e s t a b l i s h e d the q u e s t i o n of music as an  e s s e n t i a l and predominant p a r t of the C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m i n Ghanaian elementary s c h o o l s .  Subject  o r g a n i z e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the four b a s i c areas  of the  C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s Program are music, a r t and c r a f t ,  Ghanaian  languages, and r e l i g i o n . The  e d u c a t i o n a l trends  i n the Ghanaian s o c i e t y i n d i c a t e  movements away from t e a c h i n g f o r examinations t o t e a c h i n g f o r the development of the i n d i v i d u a l as an e f f e c t i v e member of s o c i e t y .  The s t y l e of t e a c h i n g t h e r e f o r e has demanded  the use of s t r a t e g i e s t h a t encourage a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  involvement on the p a r t of the student.  approaches being  addressed demand v a r y i n g l e v e l s of student  involvement depending on the task i n v o l v e d . addressed the study understanding  The three  of  The r e s e a r c h e r  music i n the l i g h t of developing an  of b a s i c concepts i n music through the  development of p a r t i c u l a r musical  s k i l l s drawn from the  116  Orff-Schulwerk, Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education, and Kodaly pedagogy.  The r e s e a r c h instrument  thus designed t o serve t h i s purpose. determined  The r e s u l t s t h e r e f o r e  the extent t o which a combination  from these t h r e e approaches  was  of s t r a t e g i e s  t o music education c o u l d be  used  i n the development of a c u r r i c u l u m framework. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t , with r e s p e c t to the development of p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s , the most f r e q u e n t l y developed were s i n g i n g and p i t c h , speech and  language,  followed by motor sensory s k i l l s and a u d i t o r y s k i l l s . development of speech and  language  The  s k i l l s were e v i d e n t i n  s t r a t e g i e s t h a t employed s i n g i n g games, i m i t a t i o n , the use of  the v o i c e accompanied by instruments, vocables, s o l f e g e ,  movement and dance.  S i n g i n g and p i t c h s k i l l s were developed  most o f t e n through s i n g i n g games, instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and the teacher, sound e x p l o r a t i o n , and v o c a b l e s . These s k i l l s are developed  i n the t e a c h e r s ' attempt  rhythm, and they are s k i l l s developed  i n the O r f f  to teach approach  and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education and Kodaly pedagogy. d i r e c t with  As Munsen observed,  the O r f f approach i s  high l e v e l s of student i n v o l v e m e n t ,  4  and  the  r e s e a r c h e r has observed the same f o r Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods and Kodaly pedagogy.  The r e s u l t s of the study  confirmed the use of s i n g i n g games, instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and the teacher, vocables, s o l f e g e , and movement S y l v i a C o s s e t t e Munsen, " D e s c r i p t i o n and A n a l y s i s of an Orff-Schulwerk Program of Music E d u c a t i o n , " (Ed.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Urbana-Champaigne, 1986). 4  117  and dance as the predominant of the study of rhythm. i n music  s t r a t e g i e s i n the the t e a c h i n g  There are, however, other  elements  education t h a t need to be addressed through these  and other s k i l l s  s e l e c t e d i n the r e s e a r c h instrument.  the r e s e a r c h instrument was  designed to i d e n t i f y  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s drawing  on s t r a t e g i e s from the  t r a d i t i o n a l forms of music  Since  music Ghanaian  education, the Orff-Schulwerk,  and Kodaly pedagogy, the i d e n t i f i e d s t r a t e g i e s were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to these p a r t i c u l a r approaches.  These phenomena  r e q u i r e h i g h l e v e l s of student involvement through  active  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and, a c c o r d i n g to r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , they are p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to r e t e n t i o n and r e c a l l . ^  The r e s e a r c h e r  b e l i e v e s t h a t the combination of these s t r a t e g i e s  encouraged  a c o n t i n u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with the c r e a t i v e a r t s i n the long education of the c h i l d .  life  The p o t e n t i a l i n these  phenomena f o r r e t e n t i o n and r e c a l l would t h e r e f o r e support the l i f e l o n g music  education of the c h i l d .  Song r e p e r t o i r e , an important aspect of a l l t h r e e approaches  under study, d i s p l a y e d some encouraging  i n the survey.  results  The teachers were f a v o r a b l y d i s p o s e d towards  the use of Ghanaian  c h i l d r e n ' s songs, Ghanaian  traditional  f o l k songs, and non-Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k songs.  The  use of c h i l d r e n ' s songs supports the demands of the O r f f Schulwerk.  Ghanaian  t r a d i t i o n a l f o l k songs i n s c h o o l music  °W.Doyle and K. C a r t e r , "Choosing a Means of I n s t r u c t i o n , " Educators Handbook: A r e s e a r c h P e r s p e c t i v e ed. V i r g i n i a Richardson-Koehler et a l . , (New York: Longman 1987), 188-206.  r e p e r t o i r e support the c l a i m s of Kodaly pedagogy and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music Hargreaves et a l . , observed  the  instruction.  t h a t a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to  p e r c e i v e musical m a t e r i a l t h a t i s f a m i l i a r may than t h a t of m a t e r i a l t h a t i s u n f a m i l i a r . ^ f a m i l i a r musical m a t e r i a l i n Kodaly's  be g r e a t e r  The most  o p i n i o n i s f o l k music.  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The  study was  l i m i t e d to music teachers from f i v e of  the ten r e g i o n s of Ghana.  I t was  a l s o conducted  a t a time  when schools were out of s e s s i o n , t h e r e f o r e i t d i d not b e n e f i t from classroom strengthened  o b s e r v a t i o n s which would have f u r t h e r  the r e s u l t s of the study.  I t could  t h a t the f a c t t h a t the r e s e a r c h instrument  be argued  had to be  a d m i n i s t e r e d v i a the s u b j e c t o r g a n i z e r s generated response  a  r a t e on the a d d i t i o n a l comments s e c t i o n .  focussed on p a r t i c u l a r aspects of music t e a c h i n g  low The  study  strategies  and t h e i r extent of use with r e s p e c t to p a r t i c u l a r  attribute  v a r i a b l e s : r e g i o n , d i s t r i c t , gender, academic qualifications,  and years of t e a c h i n g  experience.  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C u r r i c u l u m development In the development of music c u r r i c u l a f o r Ghanaian elementary  s c h o o l s , i t i s important  to i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e  D . J . Hargreaves, K. C. C a s t e l l , & R.D. Crowther, "The E f f e c t s of Stimulus F a m i l i a r i t y on Conservation Type Responses to Tone Sequences: A Cross C u l t u r a l Study," J o u r n a l of Research i n Music E d u c a t i o n . 34, no. 2, (Summer, 1986): 88-100. 6  119  the e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s , and  from t h i s , determine which  need more a t t e n t i o n than o t h e r s . framework c o n s i d e r s  curriculum  the c u r r i c u l u m guide put forward  Ghanaian M i n i s t r y of Education C u l t u r a l Studies Program. i n the 1989  T h i s proposed  7  The  areas  by  the  to serve the purposes of the f i v e content  areas  addressed  S y l l a b u s are rhythm, melody, song form, tone  c o l o r , and performance.  The  S y l l a b u s , d i s t u r b i n g l y , does  not address tempo, dynamics, or harmony s i n c e these have an important  p a r t to p l a y i n the m u s i c a l  development of the  individual. If,  indeed,  the C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s Program i s an  i n t e g r a t e d program, then the c u r r i c u l u m would r e f l e c t Since the C u l t u r a l Studies S y l l a b u s does not i n t e g r a t i o n , and  the r e s u l t s of the survey  reflect  have e s t a b l i s h e d  t h a t music i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m , r e s e a r c h e r proposes a thematic  the  approach to the study  music w i t h i n the C u l t u r a l Studies Program.  this.  The  of  researcher  proposes t h a t themes, such as g r e e t i n g s , manners, the weather, the f a m i l y , f e s t i v a l s must r e f l e c t the changing concept of c u l t u r e w i t h i n the  Ghanaian s o c i e t y .  f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n of music and take  The  c u l t u r e must t h e r e f o r e ,  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p  interdependence of c u l t u r a l dynamism and  and  curriculum  development.  'Curriculum Research and Development D i v i s i o n , C u l t u r a l Studies S y l l a b u s f o r Primary Schools. (Accra: Curriculum Research and Development D i v i s i o n , Ghana Education S e r v i c e , 1989) .  120  Secondly, s i n c e the study of music a s s i m i l a t i o n of  western  cannot eschew the  c u l t u r e by the Ghanaian  society,  the r e s e a r c h e r proposes a c u r r i c u l u m of dual m u s i c a l i t y . T h i s i s to say, the program must encourage i n t e g r a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i s m .  both  cultural  The r e s u l t s of the survey on  song r e p e r t o i r e supports the f e a s i b i l i t y of t h i s p r o p o s a l . F i n n a l y , t h e r e f o r e , with music systems,  e s s e n t i a l s i n music,  music.  social  drama, and r e l i g i o n would be interwoven to c r e a t e a  C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s Program.  systems,  as a b a s i s ,  T h i s would not take away from the  i n f a c t , the r e l a t e d areas of s o c i a l  drama, and r e l i g i o n would complement the study of N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t f o r the teacher  must be the development of m u s i c a l s k i l l s and  an  understanding of m u s i c a l concepts through music r e l a t e d areas.  and the  Swanson s t a t e s ,  the c u r r i c u l u m i n music f o r the elementary grades i n c l u d e s both the development of musical s k i l l s and the b u i l d i n g of concepts about music. A f t e r s e l e c t i n g themes to be addressed, the r e s e a r c h e r proposes the development of t e a c h i n g model.  a program around a concept  T h i s concept t e a c h i n g model i s based on the  content s t r u c t u r e of the d i s c i p l i n e and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l design.  I t i s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n t h a t the combination of the three p e d a g o g i c a l approaches play.  The content s t r u c t u r e of the  program i n c l u d e s the  B.R. Swanson, Music i n the Education of C h i l d r e n . ( C a l i f o r n i a , Belmont: Wadsworth, 1969), 11.  8  ed.,  addressed i n the study come i n t o  3d.  121  elements of the d i s c i p l i n e , the r e l a t e d concepts of elements, m u s i c a l  skills,  and  cognitive s k i l l s .  9  these  The  s e q u e n t i a l arrangement of the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and t o o l s determine the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n . a c t i v i t i e s and  These  t o o l s , the r e s e a r c h e r draws from the O r f f -  Schulwerk, Kodaly pedagogy, and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music i n s t r u c t i o n .  In F i g u r e 4, an i l l u s t r a t i o n of  c u r r i c u l u m framework, GTM  the  r e f e r s to Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l  methods of i n s t r u c t i o n , O r f f , r e f e r s to the  Orff-Schulwerk  and Kodaly r e f e r s to Kodaly pedagogy. The  t e a c h i n g c y c l e , as d e f i n e d by Yarbrough and  i n c l u d e s the teacher's p r e s e n t a t i o n of musical ( v e r b a l i z a t i o n ) , students' response reinforcement  (approval versus  information  (participation),  disapproval). ^ 1  Price  and  Within  the  proposed c u r r i c u l u m framework, the f o l l o w i n g p l a n of a c t i o n i s suggested to f u l f i l l  the Yarbrough and  Price teaching  cycle: 1. D i s t i n g u i s h l e a r n i n g s t y l e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s of  the  learner, 2. S e l e c t themes to be 3. Determine musical  studied,  content,  4. Determine s t r a t e g i e s i n s e l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s  and  procedures, ^Robert Evans Nye and V e r n i c e T. Nye, Music i n the Elementary School. 5th. ed., (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1985), 101. C o r n e l i a Yarbrough, and Harry E. P r i c e , " S e q u e n t i a l P a t t e r n s of I n s t r u c t i o n i n Music." J o u r n a l of Research i n Music Education. 37, 3, ( F a l l , 1989): 180. 1 0  122  5. S e l e c t a v a i l a b l e and adaptable resources, and 6.  Determine methods of assessment.  FIGURE 4  A CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK  THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC Expressive Elements Constituent Elements Tempo Rhythm Dynamics Melod Tone Color Harmony Form  \  J  CONCEPTS Attribute characteristics of Elements  DEVELOPMENT OF MUSICAL SKILLS Motor sensory Auditory Speech and Language Singing and Pitch Literacy Creativity  STRATEGIES Sound Exloration (GTM, Orff) Instrumental Play (GTM, Orff) Vocables (GTM, Orff) Solfege (Kodaly) Staff Notation (Kodaly, Orff) Movement and Dance(GTM,Orff,Kodaly) Speech and Poetry (GTM, Orff) Integrated Activities (GTM, Orff)  123  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research  Based on the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study, the r e s e a r c h e r proposes the f o l l o w i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h : 1. The r e p l i c a t i o n of the survey study to determine the changing nature of music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n Ghanaian elementary s c h o o l s , and t o a s c e r t a i n the f o r c e s of change. 2 . A f t e r development and implementation, the e v a l u a t i o n of the music based C u l t u r a l Studies Program, to determine the extent t o which i t f u l f i l l s  the g e n e r a l  educational  o b j e c t i v e s of Ghana. 3.  A study to determine the s t r a t e g i e s employed  i n the  t e a c h i n g of p a r t i c u l a r elements of music i n elementary schools i n a l l  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s of Ghana.  4. The development and implementation of a music based C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s Program with p r o j e c t i o n s from Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education, the Orff-Schulwerk, and Kodaly pedagogy.  Conclusions This study i d e n t i f i e d and d e s c r i b e d the music t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed i n Ghanaian elementary schools i n the f i v e s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s as a b a s i s f o r c u r r i c u l u m development. I t then o f f e r e d suggestions f o r improving i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology  (Figure 4) drawing on the Orff-Schulwerk, the  Kodaly pedagogy,  and Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music  i n s t r u c t i o n i n the development of a c u r r i c u l u m  framework.  124  The  study proposed a p l a n of a c t i o n to f u l f i l l  this  framework. Three major c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn.  The most  f r e q u e n t l y used s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e d s i n g i n g games, the of  use  v o c a b l e s , s o l f e g e , speech and poetry, movement and dance.  There i s a need to strengthen, areas t h a t i n v o l v e the use of instruments,  listening,  i m p r o v i s a t i o n , and i m i t a t i o n i n  music i n s t r u c t i o n i n Ghanaian elementary Secondly,  schools.  the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s were u n i v e r s a l among  the teachers i n the f i v e s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s . s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s suggested  There were no  by r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n ,  d i s t r i c t , gender, t e a c h i n g experience, or academic qualifications. Based upon the f i r s t concludes  two  c o n c l u s i o n s , the r e s e a r c h e r  t h a t i t would be f e a s i b l e to combine approaches of  Kodaly pedagogy, the Orff-Schulwerk,  and Ghanaian  t r a d i t i o n a l methods of music education s i n c e the from these t h r e e approaches are found, extent, to be  strategies  to a c o n s i d e r a b l e  complementary.  The c u r r i c u l u m framework the r e s e a r c h e r proposes i s a music based C u l t u r a l Studies Program developed a) a thematic  on  approach,  b) dual m u s i c a l i t y , and c) a s e q u e n t i a l l y developed The  first  model.  chapter p r o v i d e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the  and the second chapter reviewed study.  concept-teaching  study  r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e on the  In the t h i r d chapter the r e s e a r c h e r presented  the  study d e s i g n and execution. presentation provided  of the f i n d i n g s .  The f o u r t h chapter was a The f i f t h and f i n a l  chapter  a d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  curriculum  development, and the c o n c l u s i o n  to the study.  126  SOURCES CONSULTED Books and Pamphlets Abeles, Harold F., C h a r l e s R. H o f f e r , and Robert H. Klotman. Foundations of Music Education. New York: Schirmer Books, 1984. Amoaku, W.K. 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"Music i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s : Community of c u l t u r e s " . Music Educators J o u r n a l . 69 no. 9 (May, 1983): 30-31 Gump, P.V. " I n t r a - s e t t i n g a n a l y s i s : The T h i r d grade classroom as a s p e c i a l but i n s t r u c t i v e case." i n N a t u r a l i s t i c Viewpoints i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research ed. E. W i l l i a m s & H. Rausch, New York: H o l t , R e i n e h a r t & Winston. G u t h r i e , Gerard. "Current Research i n Deveoping C o u n t r i e s : The Impact of C u r r i c u l u m Reform on Teaching." Teaching and Teacher E d u c a t i o n . 2, n o . l (1986): 81-89. Hargreaves, D.H. "The Teaching of A r t and the A r t of Teaching." i n C u r r i c u l u m P r a c t i c e , ed. Hargreaves, A. and Hammersley, M. Lewes: Falmer Press, (1983) : 127147. Hargreaves, D. J . , C a s t e l l , K.C., & Crowther, R.D. "The E f f e c t s of Stimulus F a m i l i a r i t y on C o n s e r v a t i o n Type Responses t o Tone Sequences: A Cross C u l t u r a l Study."  135  J o u r n a l of Research i n Music E d u c a t i o n . 34 (Summer, 1986): 88-100.  no.2  Hedden, Stephen K. " P r e d i c a t i o n of music achievement i n the elenmentary s c h o o l . " J o u r n a l of Research i n Music E d u c a t i o n . 30 n o . l (Spring, 1982) : 61-68. Hyslop, Graham. "Music and Education i n A f r i c a . " Composer 19 (1966): 22-25. Jaeger, R i c h a r d M. "Survey Research Methods i n E d u c a t i o n . " Complemetary Methods f o r Research i n E d u c a t i o n , ed. R. M. Jaeger Ed. Washington: AERA, (1988): 303-327. Jordan-DeCarbo, Joyce. "A Sound to Symbol Approach to L e a r n i n g Music." Music Educators J o u r n a l . 72, no. 6 (Febuary, 1986): 38-41. Klotman, P h y l l i s & Klotman Robert H. "Impresions of Music Education i n E a s t A f r i c a . " Music Educators J o u r n a l . 59, 2., (1972): 105-106. Labaree, D.F. "Curriculum C r e d e n t i a l s and the Middle C l a s s . " S o c i o l o g y of Education, 59, (1986): 42-57. Labuta, Joseph A. " C u r r i c u l u m Development f o r Music E d u c a t i o n . " i n Symposium i n Music E d u c a t i o n : A F r e s c h r i f t f o r C h a r l e s Leonhard. Urbana-Campaign.: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1982. Lewin, K e i t h . " Q u a l i t y i n Question: A New Agenda f o r Curriuculum reform i n Developing C o u n t r i e s . " Comparative E d u c a t i o n . 21, no. 2. (1985): 117-133. Mathias, P a u l . "The use of a Research P r o j e c t i n the Music of West A f r i c a as a B a s i s f o r an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Music Education." I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Music Education May,  Jan. "Kopeyia, Ghana: L i v i n g Schulwerk." The O r f f Echo 21, 2 (Winter 1989): 10-11.  Menka, A l b e r t F. " C u r r i c u l u m development t r e n d s i n A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . " Prospects 6, 3 (1976): 451-458. Mensah-Aggrey, Dorothy. "Opinions of Ghana Secondary School Student to Music Education Progrms," A f r i c a n Music E d u c a t i o n . 3, (1984): 18-22 Mensah/ A t t a Annan. "The Impact of Western Muisc on the M u s i c a l T r a d i t i o n s of Ghana." Composer. 19 (1966) :1922. More, Connie. "Kodaly - The E c l e c t i c Approach." B r i t i s h Columbia Music Educator 19, ( F a l l 1976): 20-22.  136  New,  L. J."The m u s i c a l background of morden Igbo C o u n c i l f o r Research i n Music E d u c a t i o n . 74  children." (1979):  New,  L. H. " P r o g r e s s i v e Western Methods and T r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n Methods of Teaching Music - a comparison." I n t e r n a t i o n a l Journal of Music E d u c a t i o n . (May, 1983): 25-31.  N k e t i a , J . H. " Music education i n A f r i c a and the west, we can l e a r n from each o t h e r " . Music Educators J o u r n a l . 57 no.3 (1970): 48-55. —*  , " A r t s i t i c Values i n A f r i c a n Music." Composer 19 (1966): 17-19. ,"New P e r s p e c t i v e s i n Music E d u c a t i o n . " ISME Yearbook Vl_Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music E d u c a t i o n and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , (1978) : 104-111.  O f e i , P a t r i c k S. "Music E d u c a t i o n : Harmonising the Person's I n d i v i d u a l i t y to the Needs of the Community." ISME Yearbook VI Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music Education and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , (1979): 34-37. Perret-Clermont Anne-Nelly & M a r i a - L u i s a Schubauer-Leoni, " S o c i a l f a c t o r s i n l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g : towards an i n t e g r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research 13, no. 6 (1989): 575-601. Redfern. H.B. " P h i l o s o p h i c a l A e s t h e t i c s and the Education of t e a c h e r s . " The J o u r n a l Of A e s t h e t i c E d u c a t i o n . 22 no. 2 (1988): 35-46. Shamrock, Mary. "Orff-Sculwerk: An I n t e g r a t e d Foundation." Music Educators J o u r n a l . 72, no. 6 (Febuary 1986): 51-55. Shehan, P a t r i c i a K. "Major Approaches t o Music E d u c a t i o n : An Account of Method" Music Educators J o u r n a l . 72, no. 6 (1986): 27-31. . "The O r a l T r a n s m i s s i o n of Music i n S e l e c t e d A s i a n s o c i e t i e s . " C o u n c i l f o r Research i n Music E d u c a t i o n , 92 (Summer, 1987): 1-14. Siemens, Margaret T. "A comparison of O r f f and T r a d i t i o n a l I n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods i n Music". J o u r n a l of Research i n Music E d u c a t i o n . 17 no.3 ( F a l l , 1969): 272-285  137  S i n o r , Jean. " Z o l t a n Kodaly's Folk T r a d i t i o n " . Music Educators J o u r n a l . 69 no.4 (December 1982): 33-34 , "The Ideas of Kodaly i n America." Music Educators J o u r n a l . 72 no. 6 (Febaury 1986): 32-37. Smith, Edna M. "Popular Music i n West A f r i c a . " Music 3. n o . l . (1962).  African  Stephens, Ron. ed. "Music Reading - I s Kodaly the Answer?" Elements, T r a n s l a t i n g Theory i n t o P r a c t i c e . 11, no.5 (January 1980) . Szonyi, E. " H i s t o r i c a l r o o t s of Hungarian Music Education i n other European Pedagogical Systems." Kodaly's P r i n c i p l e s i n P r a c t i s e . UNESCO., C o r i n a P r e s s . 1973. Turkson, Adolphus. "Music and Games i n E a r l y A f r i c a n Childhood E d u c a t i o n . " A f r i c a n Music Education 7 ( A p r i l , 1989) Twerefoo, Gustav Oware. "Music Educators M a t e r i a l s f o r a Changing A f r i c a n S o c i e t y . " ISME Yearbook V I I I Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music Education and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , (1981): 74-79 , "Music Education with the M e n t a l l y Retarded C h i l d r e n i n Ghana." ISME Yearbook VI Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music Education and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , (1979): 65-73. , "Overcoming D i r e c t i o n a l S i n g i n g i n Ghanaian s c h o o l s " C o u n c i l f o r Research i n Music E d u c a t i o n . B u i 50 Spring (1977): 67-71. , " T r a d i t i o n a l Music i n L i f e l o n g E d u c a t i o n : The S i t u a t i o n i n Ghana." ISME Yearbook I I I Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music Education and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , (1975-1976): 3539. V i k a r , L a s z l o . "Folk Music Research and Music E d u c a t i o n " . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Music E d u c a t i o n . 10 Nedlands, A u s t r a l i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Music E d u c a t i o n and U n i v e r s i t y of Western A u s t r a l i a , (1983): 31-35. Unpublished  Materials.  Aduonum, Kwasi. "A C o m p i l a t i o n , A n a l y s i s and A d a p t a t i o n of S e l e c t e d Ghanaian F o l k t a l e Songs f o r use i n the Elementary General Music c l a s s . " Ph.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1980.  138  A k r o f i , E r i c A y i s i . "The Status of Music Programs i n Ghanaian P u b l i c Schools." Ed.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1982. Bidner, Sarah S. "A Folk song Approach to Music Reading f o r Upper Elemetary L e v e l s based on the Koda'ly method." Ph.D. d i s s . , Lousianna State U n i v e r s i t y and A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , 1978. Ezegbe, Clement Chukuemeka. "The Development of a S o c i o c u l t u r a l C u r r i c u l u m i n N i g e r a i n S t u d i e s : An I n t e g r a t i o n of Ethnimusicology and S o c i a l S t u d i e s . Ed.D. d i s s . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981. Frega, Ana L u c i a . Comparative Teaching S t r a t e g i e s i n Music E d u c a t i o n (From Jacque D a l c r o s e to Murray S c h a f e r ) . Presented as p a r t of a V i s u a l & Performing A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n Departmental Noon-hour seminar a t U.B.C., F a c u l t y of Education, Feburary 8, 1989. Hayford, Bernard Kodjo. " S t a f f Development Programs i n Ghana: An a n a l y t i c a l Study of the Growth and Development on I n - S e r v i c e Education f o r Ghanaian Elementary School Teachers: 1951-1981." Ph.D. d i s s . , ' U n i v e r s i t y of C o n n e c t i c u t , 1981. H e l g a d o t t i r , Gudrun. "A Survey of the A t t i t u d e s of I c e l a n d i c A r t and C r a f t Teacher Toward C u r r i c u l u m and P r a c t i c e i n t h e i r Subject Area." MA t h e s i s . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989. Hudgens, C e c i l i a Kay Knox. "A study of the Koda'ly Approach to Music t e a c h i n g and an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of f o u r approaches to t e a c h i n g s e l e c t e d s k i l l s i n f i r s t grade Music C l a s s . " Ph.D. d i s s . , North Texas State U n i v e r s i t y , 1987 Manford, Robert. "The Status of Music Teacher E d u c a t i o n i n Ghana w i t h Recommendations f o r Improvement." Ph.D. d i s s . , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1982. Munsen, S y l v i a C o s s e t t e . "A D e s c r i p t i o n , and A n a l y s i s of an Orff-Schulwerk Program of Music E d u c a t i o n . Ed.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Urbana-Champaigne. 1986 O f e i , P a t r i c k S a k y i . "A b a s i s f o r the development of a music C u r r i c u l u m f o r Ghanaian Elementary Schools." Ph.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of Colorado, 1973. O m i b i y i , Mosunmola Ayinke. "A Model of A f r i c a n music  139  C u r r i c u l u m f o r Elementary Schools i n N i g e r i a . " Ph.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, 1972. Otto, Donna. "An Orff-Schulwerk C u r r i c u l u m f o r Grades One t o Seven." M.Ed, major paper, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984. Schermbrucker, Sharon F a i t h . "A Music C u r r i c u l u m f o r Primary Music Teachers: I n c o r p o r a t i n g Elements from O r f f Schulwerk i n t o a M u l t i c u l t u r a l and Thematic Approach." M.Ed, major paper, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989. Zemke, S i s t e r Lorna. "The Kodaly Method and a Comparison of the E f f e c t s of a Kodaly Adopt Music I n s t r u c t i o n Sequence and a more T y p i c a l Sequence A u d i t o r y M u s i c a l Achievement i n Fourth Grade Students." D.M.A. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1973.  Appendix  A  L e t t e r s of I n t r o d u c t i o n -Ghana Education S e r v i c e -Ghana Music  Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n  - R e g i o n a l Centers of Education  Appendix  B  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , Cover L e t t e r , Thank you  letter.  146  TEACHING STRATEGY:MUSIC IN CULTURAL STUDIES PROGRAM. A. I n s t r u c t i o n s : Using the code below, please c i r c l e , f o r each item the responses which most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e your t e a c h i n g s t y l e , and content of l e s s o n . Please answer a l l q u e s t i o n s . As much as p o s s i b l e answer these q u e s t i o n s on f i r s t thought. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  To To To To To  CODE: no extent a t a l l a small extent some extent a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent a g r e a t extent  Example: I speak to the headteacher a) Each morning b e f o r e c l a s s e s . a) 1 2 3 4 5 b) During the break times. b) 1 2 3 4 5 c) A f t e r school hours. c) 1 2 3 4 5 *********************************************************** 1. These s u b j e c t s are a p a r t of the c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s program i n my s c h o o l . 2 3 a) Music a) 1 2 3 b) Dance b) 1 2 3 c) Drama c) 1 d) A r t 2 3 d) 1 2 e) R e l i g i o n 3 e) 1 2 3 f) C r a f t s f) 1 g) Other, please specify. 2 3 g) i I make use of an i n t e g r a t e d approach which i n c l u d e s a c t i v i t i e s such as a) S i n g i n g games 2 3 a) 1 b) I m i t a t i o n 2 3 b) 1 2 3 c) Pantomime c) 1 d) I m p r o v i s a t i o n 2 3 d) 1 3. I n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s I u t i l i z e i n c l u d e a) My v o i c e , (acapella) a) b) C h i l d ' s v o i c e , ( a c a p e l l a ) b) c) V o i c e accomp. by instruments c) d) Instruments p l a y e d s o l e l y by me d) e) Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n e) Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n & me f) f)  1 1 1 1 1 1  2 2 2 2 2 2  3 3 3 3 3 3  4 4 4 4 4 4  5 5 5 5 5 5  4  5  4 4 4 4  5 5 5 5  4 4 4 4 4 4  5 5 5 5 5 5  The song r e p e r t o i r e I use i n my c l a s s e s a) Ghanaian c h i l d r e n ' s songs a) b) Non-Ghanaian c h i l d r e n ' s songs b) c) Songs c r e a t e d by Ghanaian c h i l d r e n c) d) d) Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Folksongs e) Non-Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Folksongs e)  includes 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3  4 4 4 4 4  5 5 5 5 5  I a) b) c) d) e) f)  teach b a s i c concepts i n music such as Rhythm a) 1 Melody b) 1 Texture c) 1 Form d) 1 Dynamics e) 1 Timbre f) 1  2 2 2 2 2 2  3 3 3 3 3 3  4 4 4 4 4 4  5 5 5 5 5 5  , I a) b) c) d) e) f) g)  encourage the development of s k i l l s such as Motor Sensory a) 1 2 1 2 Co-ordination b) 2 Auditory c) 1 2 Speech/Language d) 1 Singing/ Pitch 2 e) 1 2 Audiation f) 1 1 2 Literacy g)  3 3 3 3 3 3 3  4 4 4 4 4 4 4  5 5 5 5 5 5 5  . I a) b) c) d) e) f) g)  approach l i t e r a c y s k i l l s i n the use of Sound e x p l o r a t i o n a) 1 Vocables i n t r o . rhythmic p a t t e r n s b) 1 S o l f e g e (Moveable doh) c) 1 S t a f f n o t a t i o n from the onset d) 1 Speech and p o e t r y e) 1 Instrumental p l a y f) 1 Movement and dance g) 1  3 3 3 3 3 3 3  4 4 4 4 4 4 4  5 5 5 5 5 5 5  . I i n c o r p o r a t e these i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods i n t o my teaching s t y l e . 2 3 a) Ghanaian t r a d i t i o n a l methods a) 1 2 3 b) Kodaly pedagogy b) 1 c) Orff-Schulwerk c) 1 2 3 3 2 d) The Edwin Gordon Method d) 1 e) Other, 2 3 Please s p e c i f y e) 1  4 4 4 4  5 5 5 5  4  5  2 2 2 2 2 2 2  148  B. Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n : I n s t r u c t i o n s : Please take a few moments t o answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . Please i n d i c a t e answers with a t i c k ( ), o r more i n the spaces p r o v i d e d . Where the q u e s t i o n demands an answer other than a t i c k , p l e a s e respond accordingly. 1. Gender: a)  Female b)  Male.  2. In which r e g i o n i s your school d i s t r i c t 3. In what area i s your school d i s t r i c t a) Rural b) Urban 4. In which age less 20 30 40 -  range are you? than 20 29 39 49  located?  located?  50 - 59 60 & Over  5. Which c l a s s e s are you c u r r e n t l y t e a c h i n g : Kindergarten C l a s s e s 1-3 C l a s s e s 4-6 Other, p l e a s e s p e c i f y 6. Years (to the n e a r e s t whole year) t e a c h i n g experience  of f u l l time music  7. What other s u b j e c t ( s ) do you teach? Number of primary c l a s s e s I teach 1 2 3 or 4 9. My s c h o o l enrollment i s : under 200 200 - 399 400 - 599  daily: 5 or more None Other, p l e a s e specify. 600 - 1,000 1,000 and over  10. Are you assigned t o work i n more than one school? Yes No. I f yes, how many other schools? 11. What academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s do you hold?  149  12. Any f u r t h e r comments you wish t o make with regards to your teaching s t y l e w i l l be most welcome.  Thank you f o r your c o - o p e r a t i o n .  152  Appendix C Map  «  of Ghana Showing Areas Covered by Researcher  Fig. S  G H A N A ! ADMINISTRATIVE  J  REGIONS AND CAPITAL  X  Area covered by Research.  *tt Renamed  Ga-Adangbe Region since the writing of this thesis.  154  Appendix D Tables 11 - 50  155  Table 1 1 . — Ga-Adangbe Region ITEM  RESPONSES 2 3 4  5  n  2 0 4 10  5 7 9 2  6 13 7 2  10 5 7 3  4 2 0 0  27 27 27 27  3.33 3.07 2.63 1.93  1.17 0.87 1.04 0.96  0 0  0 3  4 0  3 11  4 5  17 9  28 28  4.21 3.61  1.13 1.26  0  1  7  10  4  6  28  3.25  1.17  0  4  4  10  4  6  28  3.11  1.29  0  6  5  5  6  6  28  3.04  1.48  0  4  6  6  8  4  28  1.07  1.30  1 5 4 7 5 5 3  10 5 7 2 10 9 14  6 6 4 5 7 6 4  11 10 10 11 5 6 6  28 28 28 28 27 27 28  3 .96 3 .61 3 .50 3 .50 3 .44 3 .41 3 .39  0 .96 1 .34 1 .40 1 .50 1 .01 1 .15 1 .07  0  1  1 1 1 1  x  s  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Improvisation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice Instruments p l a y e d by teacher V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables Staff Notation Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Instrumental Play Solfege Speech and Poetry Movement and Dance  0 0 0 0 1 1 0  0 2 3 3 0 1 1  156  Table 1 2 . — C e n t r a l  Region  ITEM 0  1  RESPONSES 2 3 4  5  n  0 0 0 1  1 0 1 1  1 3 5 4  1 5 1 2  4 0 0 0  1 0 1 0  8 8 8 7  3.37 2.62 2.37 2.14  1.30 0.52 1.19 0.69  0 0  0 0  2 2  1 2  1 3  4 1  8 8  3.87 3.37  1.36 1.06  0  0  3  2  3  0  8  3.00  0.93  0  1  1  4  2  0  8  2.87  0.99  0  1  3  3  1  0  8  2.50  0.93  0  2  5  1  0  0  8  1.87  0.64  2 1 1 4 4 3 1  3 1 4 3 2 1 3  1 3 1 1 1 2 0  1 2 1 0 0 0 0  8 8 8 8 8 8 7  3.50 3.50 3.00 2.62 2.37 2.37 2.00  1.41 1.41 1.19 0.74 0.92 1.19 1.00  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Improvisation Imitation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by teacher  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Speech and Poetry Movement and Dance Staff Notation Vocables Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Instrumental Play Solfege  0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 1 1 0 1 2 3  157  Table 13.—Eastern  Region  ITEM  0  1  RESPONSES 2 3 4  5  n  0 0 0 0  0 0 1 2  0 2 3 3  1 2 1 2  3 1 2 0  3 2 0 0  7 7 7 7  4 .29 3 .43 2 .57 2 .00  0 .76 1 .27 1 .13 0 .82  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 2  7 5  7 7  5 .00 4 .71  0 .00 0 .49  0  4  0  0  1  2  7  2 .57  1 .99  0  4  1  0  0  2  7  2 .29  1 .89  0  5  0  1  0  1  7  1 .86  1 .57  0  4  2  0  1  0  7  1 .71  1 .11  0 0 0 0 2 2 2  1 1 0 3 1 1 1  1 3 3 1 1 1 0  3 2 1 1 1 0 0  6 7 6 7 7 7 7  3 .83 3 .71 3 .17 2 .86 2 .57 2 .00 1 .57  1 .60 1 .38 1 .72 1 .46 1 .51 1 .15 0 .79  x  s  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Improvisation Imitation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice Instruments played by teacher V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me  APPROACHES TO LITERACY !SKILLS Solfege Vocables Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Movement and Dance Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Staff Notation  0 0 1 0 0 0 0  1 1 2 2 2 3 4  ITEM 0  1  RESPONSES 2 3 4  5  n  0 0 0 0  0 1 0 1  0 2 3 5  1 1 3 1  3 2 1 1  4 2 1 0  8 8 8 8  4.37 3.25 3.00 2.25  0.74 1.49 1.07 0.89  0 0  0 1  0 1  0 0  3 5  5 1  8 8  4.63 3.50  0.52 1.31  0  1  0  3  2  2  8  3.50  1.31  0  0  3  2  3  0  8  3.00  0.93  0  1  3  2  1  1  8  2.75  1.28  0  1  3  3  1  0  8  2.50  0.93  0 0 0 2 0 2 1  1 1 2 3 6 2 1  3 3 3 2 2 3 0  4 4 3 1 0 0 2  8 8 8 8 8 8 8  4.37 4.37 4.12 3.25 3.25 2.87 2.37  0.74 0.74 0.83 1.03 0.46 1.13 1.79  x  s  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games Improvisation Imitation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables Movement and Dance Solfege Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play S t a f f Notation  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 4  159  Table 15. Ashanti Region ITEM  0  1  RESPONSES 2 4 3  5  n  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1  1 2 1 2  0 0 2 1  3 2 1 0  4 4 4 4  4 .50 4 .00 4 .00 3 .00  1 .00 1 .15 0 .82 0 .82  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  1 3  3 1  4 4  4 .75 4 .25  0 .50 0 .50  0  0  2  0  1  1  4  3 .25  1 .50  0  0  1  2  1  0  4  3 .00  0 .82  0  0  1  2  1  0  4  3 .00  0 .82  0  1  1  1  1  0  4  2 .50  1 .29  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 1 0  1 1 2 3 1 3 3  3 3 2 1 2 0 1  4 4 4 4 4 4 4  4 .75 4 .75 4 .50 4 .25 4 .25 3 .75 3 .25  0 .50 0 .50 0 .58 0 .50 0 .96 0 .50 0 .50  X  s  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Improvisation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments played by teacher  APPROACHES TO LITERACY !SKILLS Vocables Movement and Dance Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Solfege Speech and Poetry S t a f f Notation Instrumental Play  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  160  Table 16.—Regional  D i f f e r e n c e s i n Teaching S t r a t e g i e s RESPONSES X-  ITEM  2  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  15.47 22.18 11.97 20.98  0.49 0.13 0.44 0.18  11.35 29.86  0.50 0.02  23.91  0.09  24.18  0.09  21.13  0.17  19.86  0.23  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and me  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  23. *34. *30, *31. 25, 28, 21,  18 59 89 76 62 41 88  0, 11 0, 01 0, 01 0, 01 0 18 0 03 0.15  161  Table 1 7 . - - D i s t r i c t D i f f e r e n c e s i n Teaching ITEM  Strategies  RESPONSES  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  5.20 2.60 3.04 5.19  0.27 0.63 0.38 0.27  4.41 4.35  0.22 0.36  3.35  0.50  5.11  0.27  5.93  0.20  2.76  0.60  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  4. 53 2. 50 3. 83 4, 87 2, 28 3. 30 1. 86  0. 34 0, 64 0, 43 0 30 0 81 0 51 0 76  «  162  Table 1 8 . — T e a c h i n g  S t r a t e g i e s by Urban D i s t r i c t  ITEM  RESPONSES  0  1  2  3  4  1 1 1 2  3 4 2 11  6 11 14 18  9 15 13 8  0 0  0 4  5 3  0  8  0  5  n  l  T  14 8 7 3  9 3 5 0  41 41 41 40  3.49 2.88 2.98 2.07  1 .21 1 .08 1 .11 0 .89  2 9  6 12  29 14  42 42  4.40 3.69  1 .04 1 .28  9  11  7  7  42  2.90  1 .36  8  11  9  7  7  42  2.86  1 .37  0  8  11  11  10  2  42  2.69  1 .18  0  12  10  11  4  5  42  2.52  1 .33  5 4 5 8 8 9 12  11 14 10 14 8 8 6  12 8 11 8 9 7 10  13 12 9 8 11 11 7  42 42 39 40 42 41 42  3 .74 3 .48 3 .41 3 .37 3 .26 3 .19 2 .95  1 .11 1 .27 1 .27 1 .22 1 .41 1 .44 1 .38  s  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Improvisation Imitation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments played by c h i l d r e n  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables Movement and Dance Solfege Speech and Poetry Staff Notation Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Instrumental Play  0 0 3 1 0 1 0  1 4 4 2 6 6 7  163  Table 1 9 . — T e a c h i n g S t r a t e g i e s by R u r a l ITEM 0  RESPONSES 1 2 3  4  District 5  n  x  s  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Improvisation Imitation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL  0 0 0 0  1 1 0 3  0 5 5 7  1 1 7 1  6 5 1 3  6 2 1 0  14 14 14 14  4. 14 3. 14 2. 86 2. 29  1 .10 1 .29 0 .86 1 .07  0 0  0 0  1 0  3 5  3 6  7 3  14 14  4. 14 3. 86  1 .03 0 .77  0  1  1  5  4  3  14  3. 50  1 .16  0  2  2  3  5  2  14  3. 21  1 .31  0  2  2  3  5  2  14  3. 21  1 .3  0  1  6  5  0  2  14  2. 71  1 .141  1 0 2 1 1 2 2  4 5 4 7 7 4 4  2 4 5 3 3 2 1  7 4 3 3 2 4 2  14 14 14 14 14 14 14  4. 07 3. 71 3. 64 3. 57 3. 29 3. 19 2..50  1 .07 1 .14 1 .01 0 .94 1 .07 1 .44 1 .45  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments p l a y e d by teacher  APPROACHES TO LITERACY !SKILLS Vocables Movement and Dance Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Solfege Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Staff Notation  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 1 2 5  164  Table 2 0 . — T e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s by Female ITEM  RESPONSES 1 2 3  0  4  5  n  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Improvisation Imitation Pantomime  0 0 0 0  0 1 0 2  0 4 4 6  3 2 6 1  5 3 0 1  2 0 0 0  10 10 10 10  3.90 2.70 2.60 2.10  0.73 1.06 0.51 0.87  0  0  2  2  2  4  10  3.80  1.23  0  1  0  3  3  3  10  3.70  1.25  0 0  2 0  0 1  2 6  4 2  2 1  10 10  3.40 3.30  1.43 0.82  0  2  1  4  1  2  10  3.00  1.41  0  2  2  3  2  1  10  2.80  1.32  1 1 0 2 1 1 4  2 1 6 3 6 4 5  1 4 2 2 1 3 1  5 3 2 3 2 1 0  10 10 10 10 10 10 10  3.80 3.70 3.60 3.60 3.40 3.20 2.70  1.48 1.34 0.84 1.17 0.97 1.13 0.67  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Child's voice Instruments played by teacher V o i c e accompanied by instruments. APPROACHES TO LITERACY Instrumental Play Speech and Poetry Movement and Dance Staff Notation Vocables Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Solfege  SKILLS 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 0 0 0 1 0  165  Table 2 1 . — T e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s by Male ITEM 0  RESPONSES 1 2 3  1 1 1 2  4 2 4 12  6 15 12 19  0 0  9 4  0  4  5  n  x  s  7 14 14 8  15 8 10 5  13 6 5 0  45 45 45 44  3.60 3.02 3.00 2.14  1 .29 1 .12 1 .15 0 .96  4 2  3 8  7 16  32 16  46 46  4.46 3.83  0 .96 1 .22  7  8  13  9  9  46  3.12  1 .34  0  7  16  10  6  7  46  2.78  1 .30  0  9  13  11  12  1  46  2.63  1 .14  0  12  12  12  5  5  46  2.54  1 .29  5 2 4 10 8 8 13  9 12 13 8 9 20 8  13 13 10 9 8 7 11  18 12 14 13 10 7 6  46 43 46 45 46 44 46  3 .91 3 .63 3 .52 3 .33 2 .96 3 .27 2 .87  1 .11 1 .23 1 .31 1 .40 1 .49 1 .14 1 .33  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Improvisation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments played by c h i l d r e n APPROACHES TO LITERACY Vocables Solfege Movement and Dance Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play  SKILLS 0 3 0 1 0 1 0  1 4 5 5 11 2 8  166  Table 22.—Gender D i f f e r e n c e s i n Teaching ITEM  Strategies  RESPONSES X2  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  4.02 5.54 1.00 2.18  0.40 0.24 0.80 0.70  3.88 9.54  0.27 0.05  0.58  0.96  3.05  0.55  7.74  0.10  *12.32  0.01  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  3.99 7.17 *15.17 3.11 6.91 7.86 4.72  0.41 0.13 0 01 0 54 0.23 0.09 0.32  167  Table 2 3 . — T e a c h i n g  s t r a t e g i e s by 1 - 10 years of experience  ITEM  0  RESPONSES 1 2 3  4  5  n  x  s  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Improvisation Pantomime  1 1 1 2  4 1 5 5  3 11 9 14  8 13 6 4  9 2 8 4  4 1 0 0  28 28 28 27  3.21 2.68 2.61 2.26  1.26 0.82 1.10 0.94  0 0  0 4  3 1  4 10  6 7  16 7  29 29  4.21 3.41  1 .05 1 .29  0  2  8  10  3  6  29  3.10  1 .24  0  4  5  8  9  3  29  3.07  1 .22  0  5  3  14  3.  4  29  2.93  1 .22  0  8  6  5  6  4  29  2.72  1 .44  3 6 2 3 4 7 5  11 8 14 10 14 3 8  7 6 5 5 7 6 5  8 9 5 8 3 9 7  29 29 27 29 28 29 29  3 .69 3 .62 3 .50 3 .41 3 .32 3 .32 3 .21  1 .00 1 .15 1 .11 1 .29 0 .86 1 .49 1 .37  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by c h i l d r e n  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables S t a f f Notation Speech and Poetry Movement and Dance Solfege Instrumental Play Sound E x p l o r a t i o n  0 0 1 0 1 0 0  0 0 1 3 0 4 4  168  Table 24. Teaching  s t r a t e g i e s by 11-20 years of experince  ITEM  0  1  RESPONSES 2 3 4  5  n  0 0 0 0  0 0 1 3  0 2 4 7  1 6 3 1  6 2 1 2  6 3 4 0  13 13 13 13  4 .38 3 .46 3 .31 2 .15  0 .65 1 .05 1 .38 0 98  0 0  0 0  2 1  0 0  2 6  9 6  13 13  4 .38 4 .31  1 .12 0 .85  0  1  3  1  4  4  13  3 .54  1 .39  0  2  2  6  2  1  13  2 .85  1 .14  0  3  2  5  2  1  13  2 .69  1 .25  0  4  4  2  2  1  13  2 .38  1 .32  1 0 1 2 1 3 1  2 3 1 2 5 4 3  3 3 4 4 4 4 3  7 6 4 4 2 1 1  13 13 11 13 13 13 13  4 .23 4 .00 3 .81 3 .61 3 .38 3 .07 2 .54  1 .01 1 .22 1 .33 1 .32 1 .12 1 .11 1 .45  X  s  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games Improvisation Imitation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments p l a y e d by teacher  APPROACHES TO LITERACY I SKILLS Vocables Movement and Dance Solfege Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Staff Notation  «  0 0 2 0 0 0 0  0 1 1 1 1 1 5  169  Table 25. Teaching  s t r a t e g i e s by 21 - 33 years of experience  ITEM 0  RESPONSES 1 2 3  4  5  n  x  s  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games Improvisation Imitation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 3  2 3 5 4  1 4 0 3  3 1 4 0  4 2 1 0  10 10 10 10  3.90 3.20 3.10 2.00  1.19 1.13 1.19 0.82  0 0  0 0  1 1  0 2  1 3  8 4  10 10  4.60 4.00  0 .96 1 .05  0  3  2  1  2  2  10  2.80  1 .62  0  3  3  1  1  2  10  2.60  1 .58  0  3  3  1  3  0  10  2.40  1 .26  0  4  2  2  1  1  10  2.30  1 .42  2 1 1 3 5 3 3  2 4 1 2 2 2 1  2 3 3 2 1 1 0  3 1 2 1 1 0 1  10 10 10 10 10 10 10  3 .40 3 .20 3 .00 2 .89 2 .60 2 .00 1 .90  1 .43 1 .13 1 .63 1 .27 1 .17 1 .05 1 .29  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments played by c h i l d r e n  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables Movement and Dance Solfege Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Staff Notation  0 0 0 1 0 0 0  1 1 3 1 1 4 5  170  Table 26.—Teaching  S t r a t e g i e s by Years of Teaching  Experience ITEM  RESPONSES X2  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation INSTRUCTIONAL  12.79 18.71 4.01 14.69  0.12 0.02 0.67 0.06  4.74 11.46  0.58 0.18  12.85  0.12  7.72  0.46  5.39  0.71  5.52  0.70  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  3.57 8.86 17.59 *20.74 14.05 12.30 5.16  0. 89 0. 35 0. 02 0. 01 0, 17 0.14 0.74  171  Table 2 7 . — T e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s by Q u a l i f i c a t i o n  (Teaching  certificate) ITEM 0  RESPONSES 1 2 3  _ 4  5  n  x  s  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Improvisation Imitation Pantomime INSTRUCTIONAL  0 0 0 0  0 2 1 6  2 9 11 13  2 5 8 3  12 6 4 4  10 4 2 0  26 26 26 26  4.15 3.04 2.80 2.19  0.88 1.25 1.02 0.98  0 0  0 0  2 0  2 6  4 10  18 10  26 26  4.46 4.15  0.95 0.78  0  5  1  7  7  6  26  3.30  1.41  0  4  6  6  9  1  26  2.88  1.18  0  6  5  6  5  4  26  2.85  1.40  0  4  9  6  2  5  26  2.80  1.36  2 0 4 2 6 6 2  5 10 5 11 9 2 7  6 5 8 3 6 6 4  12 8 5 6 3 5 3  26 26 25 25 26 26 26  4 .00 3 .57 3 .32 3 .28 3 .07 2 .85 2 .54  1 .16 1 .27 1 .31 1 .27 1 .13 1 .54 1 .45  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments p l a y e d by teacher  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables Movement and Dance Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Solfege Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Staff Notation  0 0 1 1 0 0 0  1 3 3 3 2 7 10  172  Table 28.—Teaching S t r a t e g i e s by Q u a l i f i c a t i o n ( G C E O/A level) ITEM  0  RESPONSES 1 2 3  4  5  n  _ x  s  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Imitation Improvisation S i n g i n g Games Pantomime  1 1 1 2  0 1 3 5  5 5 2 4  7 5 5 2  1 2 3 1  0 0 0 0  13 13 13 12  2.69 2.61 2.61 1.92  0.63 0.87 1.12 0.99  0 0  0 3  2 0  2 4  2 3  8 4  14 14  4.14 3.36  1.17 1.50  0  2  3  6  1  2  14  2.86  1.23  0  1,  5  5  2  1  14  2.79  1.05  0  4  3  4  2  1  14  2.50  1.29  0  4  3  4  2  1  14  2.50  1.29  2 3 2 5 4 1 5  7 4 5 3 2 8 3  1 4 3 2 1 1 2  4 3 3 4 5 2 3  14 14 14 14 14 14 14  3.50 3.50 3.36 3.36 3.21 3.15 3.07  1.09 1.09 1.22 1.28 1.58 1.07 1.33  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n & me  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables Solfege Movement and Dance Staff Notation Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play  0 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 1 0 2 1 1  173  Table 2 9 . — T e a c h i n g S t r a t e g i e s by Q u a l i f i c a t i o n  (Diploma/  Degree) ITEM 0  RESPONSES 1 2 3  _ 4  5  n  X  S  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Improvisation Pantomime  0 0 0 0  0 0 2 2  1 3 1 7  3 5 6 4  5 2 4 1  5 4 1 0  14 14 14 14  4.00 3.50 3.07 2.29  0.96 1.16 1.14 0.83  0 0  0 1  2 3  1 4  3 4  8 2  14 14  4.21 3.21  1.12 1.19  0  1  3  4  4  2  14  3.21  1.19  0  3  2  3  3  3  14  3.07  1.49  0  2  4  3  3  2  14  2.93  1.33  0  3  3  4  2  2  14  2.78  1.37  1 1 3 2 2 1 2  3 4 1 3 5 2 5  6 4 4 4 3 7 4  4 5 6 5 4 2 3  14 14 14 14 14 13 14  3 .93 3 .93 3 .93 3 .86 3 .64 3 .62 3 .57  0 .92 0 .99 1 .21 1 .10 1 .08 1 .12 1 .02  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p e l l a ) Child's voice Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n & me Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Vocables Speech and Poetry Staff Notation Movement and Dance Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Solfege Instrumental Play  0 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0  174  Table 30.—Teaching  S t a r t e g i e s by Academic Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  ITEM  RESPONSES X2  n  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  *20.44 9.28 4.77 8.40  0.01 0.32 0.57 0.39  1.62 17.06  0.95 0.03  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and me  8.04  0.43  5.59  0.69  1.06  0.99  4.85  0.77  7.70 9.83 11.43 *21.38 9.88 11.18 7.04  0.46 0.28 0.17 0.01 0.27 0.19 0.53  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  «  175  Table 32. Music by Teaching  Strategies  ITEM  RESPONSES X2  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  *26.24 10.07 6.69 16.42  0.01 0.61 0.67 0.17  6.55 5.09  0.68 0.95  20.05  0.07  15.75  0.20  12.65  0.39  10.86  0.54  27.07 14.48 *27.15 *25.79 20.99 14.98 9.24  0.01 0.27 0.01 0.01 0.14 0.24 0.68  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege S t a f f Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  176  Table 3 3 . — M u s i c by content ITEM  RESPONSES  MUSIC ELEMENTS Rhythm Melody Harmony Form Dynamics Timbre  *27.54 14.89 12.76 19.55 2.40 9.89  0.01 0.09 0.39 0.08 0.03 0.62  21.44  0.04  16.19  0.18  16.45  0.17  *36.82  0.01  *25.97  0.01  18.54 15.60 *27.49 18.29 18.66 21.98  0.10 0.21 0.01 0.03 0.09 0.04  SONG REPERTOIRE Ghanaian c h i l d r e n ' s songs Non-Ghanaian C h i l d r e n ' s songs Songs c r e a t e d by Ghanaian c h i l d r e n Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Folk songs Non-Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Folksongs SKILL DEVELOPMENT Motor-sensory Auditory Speech/ Language Singing/ Pitch Audiation Literacy  177  Table 3 4 . — E l e m e n t s  (Rhythm) by Teaching  ITEM  Strategies  RESPONSES  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation INSTRUCTIONAL  24.22 10.61 13.38 9.51  0.02 0.56 0.15 0.66  16.49 13.61  0.06 0.32  19.43  0.07  15.42  0.22  7.65  0.81  21.94  0.04  14.08 *27.76 *26.39 14.84 13.42 10.12 24.57  0. 29 0, 01 0, 01 0, 25 0 57 0 60 0 02  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. - Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  178  Table 3 5 . — E l e m e n t s  (Melody) by Teaching  ITEM  Strategies  RESPONSES  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvi s a t i on INSTRUCTIONAL  16.71 11.91 9.96 21.75  0.16 0.45 0.35 0.04  7.56 15.48  0.58 0.22  21.42  0.04  10.58  0.56  19.97  0.07  19.26  0.08  21.01 23.83 15.86 8.85 27.92 10.69 20.55  0. 05 0. 02 0. 19 0, 71 0 02 0 55 0.06  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  179  Table 36.—Elements (Harmony) by Teaching ITEM  Strategies  RESPONSES X2  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation INSTRUCTIONAL  9.36 18.69 8.89 16.23  0.89 0.28 0.71 0.44  12.16 15.59  0.43 0.48  21.79  0.15  18.39  0.30  20.07  0.22  21.07  0.17  26.11 *31.57 28.21 *36.71 *37.37 17.14 19.11  0.05 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.38 0.26  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  180  Table 37.—Elements  (Form) by Teaching  ITEM  Strategies  RESPONSES  xj^  p  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  17.87 24.27 7.39 19.48  0.33 0.08 0.83 0.24  11.20 18.77  0.51 0.28  27.96  0.03  24.59  0.08  *30.86  0.01  27.71  0.03  *36.37 25.89 15.00 22.29 M5.73 25.75 24.02  0.01 0.05 0.52 0.13 0.01 0.06 0.08  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  181  Table 38.—Elements (Dynamics) by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s RESPONSES  ITEM INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation INSTRUCTIONAL  16.08 23.79 8.58 11.39  0.45 0.09 0.74 0.78  8.69 19.15  0.73 0.26  26.95  0.04  12.84  0.68  24.39  0.08  16.96  0.39  23.04 25.58 17.06 24.11 35.65 17.14 14.65  0.11 0.06 0.38 0.09 0.02 0.38 0.55  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  4  182  Table 3 9 . — E l e m e n t s  (Timbre) by Teaching  ITEM  RESPONSES X2  Strategies p  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation INSTRUCTIONAL  15.98 21.05 12.06 17.68  0.45 0.17 0.44 0.34  11 .14 20 .24  0 .52 0 .21  23 .28  0 .11  14 .57  0 .56  27 .98  0 .03  18 .52  0 .29  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me  APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  15.34 28.87 25.02 19.74 23.26 17.14 14.65  0.50 0.02 0.07 0.23 0.27 0.38 0.55  183  Table 40.—Ghanaian C h i l d r e n ' s Songs by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s RESPONSES X-  ITEM  2  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  *32.10 8.73 17.43 13.75  0.01 0.92 0.13 0.62  *25 .59 10 .83  0 .01 0 .82  14 .42  0 .57  9 .96  0 .87  11 .60  0 .77  17 .20  0 .37  14 .46 29 .21 13 .12 13 .75 18 .83 16 .88 *36 .26  0 .56 0 .02 0 .66 0 .62 0 .53 0 .39 0 .01  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me  PPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  184  Table 41.—Non-Ghanaian C h i l d r e n ' s songs by Teaching Strategies ITEM  RESPONSES X2  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  10.55 21.81 15.07 15.91  0.83 0.15 0.24 0.46  14.29 27.02  0.28 0.04  28.81  0.02  27.90  0.03  13.80  0.61  13.28  0.65  27.77 16.87 16.93 18.77 22.15 14.43 21.69  0.03 0.39 0.39 0.28 0.33 0.56 0.15  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  185  Table 42.—Songs Created by Ghanaian C h i l d r e n by Teaching Strategies  —ITEM "  RESPONSES  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation INSTRUCTIONAL  20.35 15.57 8.91 12.86  0.20 0.48 0.71 0.68  16.06 13.33  0.19 0.64  *31.97  0.01  10.54  0.84  *33.28  0.01  27.83  0.03  26.22 18.39 8.24 17.49 31.37 *33.68 24.35  0.05 0.30 0.94 0.35 0.05 0.01 0.08  DEVICES  My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege S t a f f Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  186  Table 4 3 . — G h a n a i a n T r a d i t i o n a l Folksongs Strategies ITEM  by Teaching  RESPONSES X2  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  M2.99 14.49 12.63 19.17  0.01 0.56 0.39 0.26  14.29 17.23  0.28 0.37  26.13  0.05  12.04  0.74  18.67  0.28  25.28  0.06  16.85 17.29 19.77 21.89 16.95 29.97 19.98  0.39 0.37 0.23 0.15 0.65 0.02 0.22  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  187  Table 44.—Non-Ghanaian T r a d i t i o n a l Folk Songs by Teaching Strategies ITEM  RESPONSES  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  17.34 13.68 19.56 22.99  0.36 0.62 0.07 0.11  15.15 18.55  0.43 0.29  12.13  0.73  22.77  0.12  21.50  0.16  11.00  0.81  *31.12 16.57 17.35 26.21 26.84 20.26 21.95  0.01 0.41 0.36 0.05 0.14 0.21 0.14  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  188  Table 4 5 . — M o t o r sensory  s k i l l s by t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y  ITEM  RESPONSES X2  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  12.74 17.95 8.27 *36.55  0.69 0.32 0.76 0.01  15.60 24.30  0.21 0.08  *49.78  0.01  19.81  0.22  16.49  0.41  12.85  0.68  29.49 18.77 16.92 21.59 31.52 12.45 9.48  0.02 0.28 0.39 0.16 0.05 0.71 0.89  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  189  Table 4 6 . — A u d i t o r y  development by Teaching S t r a t e g i e s  ITEM  RESPONSES  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  28.68 24.54 9.57 7.89  0.03 0.07 0.65 0.95  15.83 27.04  0.19 0.04  15.77  0.46  18.03  0.32  13.40  0.64  8.91  0.92  *30.48 11.61 21.62 21.05 22.28 15.57 31.70  0 02 0 77 0.16 0.18 10 48 01  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege S t a f f Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  190  Table 47.—Speech and Language development by Teaching Strategies ITEM  RESPONSES  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY Singing Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  *45.42 M0.49 10.57 22.72  0.01 0.01 0.56 0.12  9.41 15.62  0.66 0.48  29.32  0.02  14.04  0.56  12.88  0.68  22.29  0.13  17.22 *51.08 23.50 19.61 22.28 13.08 *32.35  0.37 0.01 0.02 0.24 0.10 0.66 0.01  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  191  Table 4 8 . — S i n g i n g / P t i c h development by Teaching ITEM  Strategies  RESPONSES X2  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  *32.97 17.62 11.27 16.47  0.01 0.12 0.26 0.17  11.33 8.78  0.25 0.72  12.92  0.37  14.02  0.29  14.16  0.29  *28.42  0.01  *33.18 Ml.22 12.15 16.10 16.75 14.79 12.74  0. 01 0. 01 0.43 0.19 0. 33 0, 25 0, 39  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  192  Table 49.--Audiation  by Teaching  ITEM  Strategies  RESPONSES  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  22 11 20, 75 14 34 25, 34  0.14 0.19 0.27 0.06  10.63 16.97  0.56 0.39  21.32  0.17  24.34  0.08  22.66  0.12  21.90  0.15  14.93 17.09 21.19 28.97 20.41 17.10 18.60  0.53 0.38 0 17 0 91 0 43 0 38 0 29  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice V o i c e accompanied by instruments. Instruments played by teacher Instruments played by c h i l d r e n Instruments played by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege S t a f f Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  193  Table 5 0 . — L i t e r a c y development by Teaching ITEM  Strategies  RESPONSES  INTEGRATED ACTIVITY S i n g i n g Games Imitation Pantomime Improvisation  17.69 17.82 10.87 29.95  0.34 0.33 0.54 0.02  16.40 19.49  0.17 0.24  15.00  0.52  16.35  0.43  14.53  0.56  16.41  0.42  28.43 22.56 20.53 15.24 23.38 *33.05 17.07  0.03 0.13 0.19 0.51 0.27 0.01 0.38  INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES My V o i c e ( a c a p p e l l a ) Child's voice Voice accompanied by instruments. Instruments p l a y e d by teacher Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n Instruments p l a y e d by c h i l d r e n and me APPROACHES TO LITERACY SKILLS Sound E x p l o r a t i o n Vocables Solfege Staff Notation Speech and Poetry Instrumental Play Movement and Dance  

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