UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cross-cultural study of test-wiseness Man, Daisy Wailing 1990

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1990_A8 M36.pdf [ 6.77MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0098029.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0098029-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0098029-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0098029-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0098029-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0098029-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0098029-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0098029-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0098029.ris

Full Text

CROSS-CULTURAL  STUDY OF TEST-WISENESS by  DAISY WAILING B.A.(Hons), U n i v e r s i t y B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y  MAN  of Winnipeg,  of Winnipeg,  1987  1988  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER  OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY  We  accept to  this  thesis  the required  STUDIES AND  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH July  SPECIAL EDUCATION  COLUMBIA  1990  © DAISY WAILING  MAN  In  presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the  requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of E d u c a t i o n a l  Psychology  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6  (2/88)  August  9, 1 9 9 0 .  and Special  Education  ABSTRACT The  o b j e c t i v e s of  cultural  differences  Canadian  students;  investigate  the  i n t e s t - w i s e n e s s between C h i n e s e  and  to study  British  Columbia Grade  Chinese  students  relationship ability,  of  this  study  the  were t o  impact  12 p r o v i n c i a l  in B r i t i s h  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s  examination  C o l u m b i a ; and  t e s t - w i s e n e s s , and  results  t o examine  four c o r r e l a t e s  achievement m o t i v a t i o n , l e n g t h of  Canada, m u l t i p l e c h o i c e e x p e r i e n c e )  on among  the  (verbal  residency in  among t h e  Chinese  students. The  Test  questionnaire students 1990. from  who  The  test  The account  Grade  12  examinations  foreign in  Chinese  January  were compared w i t h  the  same d a t a  immigrant  who  wrote  Chinese  results  i n June  indicated  students  1989.  The  the  d a t a were a n a l y z e d  by  that e t h n i c i t y  students  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Chinese  scored  immigrant  significantly  results  also  for a  t e s t - w i s e than  students. Foreign lower  than  of  both  Chinese  the o t h e r  stem-options  two  groups  link  and  Test-wiseness.  showed t h a t t e s t - w i s e n e s s d i d not  for a significant scores  less  different-options,  s u b t e s t s i n the Test  examination  accounted  amount of v a r i a n c e i n t e s t - w i s e n e s s . F o r e i g n  in absurd-options, guessing  t o 41  Survey  r e g r e s s i o n model.  C a n a d i a n and students  data  examination  significant Chinese  Student  wrote the p r o v i n c i a l  C a n a d i a n and  linear  and  were a d m i n i s t e r e d  Completed  provincial a  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s  amount of v a r i a n c e  (English  12 and  n  Algebra  in p r o v i n c i a l  12). The  four  correlates  together accounted  for very  little  t e s t - w i s e n e s s . None of them s i g n i f i c a n t l y test-wiseness, correlated ethnic  except  positively  with  g r o u p s showed no  motivation  but  lower  Chinese  than  t h a t l e n g t h of  than  Canadian The  imply  significant Chinese  comprehend t h e  Chinese test  residency  students  scored  who  examination language  coaching  significantly in turn  skills.  in  to  hence t h e i r  that these  as w e l l a s  part in  E n g l i s h language  were u n a b l e  q u e s t i o n s , and  skills  lower  ability.  inadequate  I t i s suggested  three  i n achievement  scored  p e r f o r m a n c e were v e r y c l o s e t o what would be random g u e s s i n g .  the  t h a t language p l a y s a c r u c i a l  students  with  i n Canada  differences  students  in verbal  s i t u a t i o n s . With  foreign  correlated  test-wiseness. F i n a l l y ,  immigrant  students  findings  test-taking skills,  foreign  variance in  satisfactorily test  expected students  improvement  from require  in English  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT L I S T OF TABLES L I S T OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  i i vi v i i vi i i  CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5  1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l E x a m i n a t i o n s 1 D e f i n i t i o n s Used i n The S t u d y 2 B a c k g r o u n d o f The P r o b l e m 6 S t a t e m e n t o f The P r o b l e m . .. 9 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s o f The S t u d y ....10 1.51 Major Hypothesis 10 1.52 H y p o t h e s i s One 10 1.53 H y p o t h e s i s Two ( a ) . . 11 1.54 H y p o t h e s i s Two (b) 11 1.55 Hypothesis Three 11 R a t i o n a l e o f The H y p o t h e s e s 12 S e l e c t i o n and Measurement o f I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s . . . 1 5 S e l e c t i o n o f Dependent V a r i a b l e s 16 J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f The S t u d y 17  CHAPTER TWO 2.1  2.2  2.3  - LITERATURE  REVIEW  B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Examinations 19 2.11 H i s t o r i c a l Context 19 2.12 The E x a m i n a t i o n - D e v e l o p m e n t Process 22 2.13. Impact o f The P r o v i n c i a l E x a m i n a t i o n s 26 Concept of T e s t - w i s e n e s s 26 2.21 D e f i n i t i o n of Test-wiseness 26 2.22 T h e o r e t i c a l Approaches t o Test-wiseness........32 2.23 C o n s t r u c t of Test-wiseness 34 2.24 T e s t - w i s e n e s s and B i a s 36 Test-wiseness Research 40 2.31 C o r r e l a t e s of Test-wiseness 40 2.32 T e s t - w i s e n e s s and S e l e c t i o n Item 45 2.33 T e s t - w i s e n e s s and V a r i a b i l i t y o f T e s t S c o r e . . . . 5 0 2.34 T e s t - w i s e n e s s and C u l t u r a l D i f f e r e n c e s 51  CHAPTER THREE - METHODOLOGY 3.1 3.2  3.3 3.4  Subjects Instrumentations 3.21 Grade Twelve P r o v i n c i a l E x a m i n a t i o n s 3.22 Test of Test-wiseness 3.23 Student Survey 3.24 Language P r o f i c i e n c y I n d e x . . . . Procedure S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses 3.41 Major H y p o t h e s i s  iv  59 61 61 61 66 67 68 69 69  3.5  3.42 H y p o t h e s i s One 3.43 H y p o t h e s i s Two (a) 3.44 H y p o t h e s i s Two (b) 3.45 H y p o t h e s i s Three Method o f A n a l y s i s 3.51 Major H y p o t h e s i s 3.52 H y p o t h e s i s One 3.53 H y p o t h e s e s Two (a) S> (b) 3.54 Hypothesis Three  CHAPTER FOUR - ANALYSIS AND 4.1  4.2  4.3  5.2 5.3 5.4  RESULTS  B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e Sample 4.11 Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 4.12 Experience i n M u l t i p l e - c h o i c e Examinations 4.13 Grade Twelve P r o v i n c i a l E x a m i n a t i o n s T e s t s of Hypotheses 4.21 P r o v i n c i a l E x a m i n a t i o n s , T e s t - w i s e n e s s and Four C o r r e l a t e s 4.22 E t h n i c i t y and T e s t - w i s e n e s s 4.23 P r o v i n c i a l E x a m i n a t i o n s and T e s t - w i s e n e s s 4.24 C o r r e l a t e s of T e s t - w i s e n e s s C o m p a r i s o n o f F o r e i g n C h i n e s e , C h i n e s e Immigrant, and C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s  CHAPTER F I V E 5.1  ..71 71 72 73 74 75 75 76 77  79 79 80 82 84 84 89 90 92 94  - DISCUSSION  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of F i n d i n g s 5.11 E t h n i c i t y and T e s t - w i s e n e s s . . 5.12 B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l E x a m i n a t i o n s and Test-wiseness 5.13 C o r r e l a t e s of T e s t - w i s e n e s s . . . . Summary o f F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study I m p l i c a t i o n s and D i r e c t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h  REFERENCES  100 100 104 107 111 113 115 1 20  APPENDIX A. S t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n w e i g h t s and a d j u s t e d R i n each s t e p of d e l e t i o n of t h e major h y p o t h e s i s 2  B.  C.  R e s u l t s o f i t e m a n a l y s i s o f s u b t e s t s ID1, ID2, ID3 and IIB4 i n t h e T e s t o f T e s t - w i s e n e s s Items u s e d  f o r the v a l i d a t i o n  wiseness D.  Student  E.  Test of Test-wiseness  126 .127  of the T e s t of T e s t 130  Survey  133 139 v  LIST OF TABLES Table  1 - An O u t l i n e  Table  2 - L e v e l of Achievement and the E q u i v a l e n t Reported P e r c e n t a g e s of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Examinations  25  Table  3 - Composition  63  Table  4  Table Table Table  Table  of Test-wiseness P r i n c i p l e s  4  of the Test of Test-wiseness  Psychometric P r o p e r t i e s of the Test of Test-wiseness  5 - Composition of the Test of Test-wiseness f o r Validation  65  6 - Experience i n Multiple-choice C h i n e s e Sample  81  Examinations of  7 - G r a d e 12 P r o v i n c i a l E x a m i n a t i o n R e s u l t s i n the M u l t i p l e C h o i c e S e c t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e S t u d e n t s and t h e P r o v i n c i a l Average 8 - Pearson  C o r r e l a t i o n s of F i v e  9 - Summary  Statistics  of Major  Hypothesis  Table  10 - Summary S t a t i s t i c s  o f H y p o t h e s i s One  Table  11 - Summary  o f H y p o t h e s i s Two  Table  12 - Summary S t a t i s t i c s  Table  13 - C o m p a r i s o n o f T h r e e E t h n i c G r o u p s on T e s t - w i s e n e s s , Language P r o f i c i e n c y Index and A c h i e v e m e n t M o t i v a t i o n 14 - C o m p a r i s o n o f T h r e e E t h n i c G r o u p s on F i v e Subtests i n the Test of Test-wiseness  Table  Statistics  85 87 90  (a)  of H y p o t h e s i s Three  vi  83  Independent  V a r i a b l e s and Two Dependent V a r i a b l e s Table  64  92 93  96 97  L I S T OF FIGURES Figure Figure  1 - S m i t h ' s Model o f T e s t - t a k i n g S k i l l e d Test Takers  B e h a v i o r of 47  2 - G r a p h i c C o m p a r i s o n o f T h r e e E t h n i c G r o u p s on Four S u b t e s t s i n the T e s t of T e s t - w i s e n e s s . . 9 9  vn  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S  I would  like  t o e x p r e s s my d e e p e s t  s u p e r v i s e r , Dr. David Bateson, encouragement, and guidance thank  members  o f my t h e s i s  David Whittaker editing  this  As w e l l , and  fortheir  gratitude  t o my  thesis  f o r h i scontinued support,  throughout committee,  helpful  this  thesis.  Dr. Walter  I  Boldt  also and D r .  comments a n d p a t i e n c e i n  thesis. an acknowledgement  Dr. P a t r i c i a A r l i n  fortheir  my p r o g r a m a t UBC.  vin  i s offered guidance  t o D r . Todd  Rogers  and i n s p i r a t i o n i n  1  CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1  The B r i t i s h Columbia The  provincial  examinations  i n t r o d u c e d by t h e B r i t i s h 1983  f o r e v e r y Grade  Comprised  of each  contributes  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  of m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e ,  grade  Examinations  to graduate.  c o m p l e t i o n and s h o r t  from  their  were  of Education i n  of these t e s t s counted  student  40% toward  Columbia  Ministry  12 s t u d e n t who w i s h e d  q u e s t i o n s , performance final  Provincial  essay  50% t o w a r d t h e  1983 t o 1989, a n d now  final  grade  i n examinable  Grade  12 s u b j e c t s . Instituted Provincial by  Examinations  committees  These  i n January  o f 1983, t h e B r i t i s h  are carefully  of p r a c t i c i n g  teachers are selected  Branch  of the M i n i s t r y  committee using  committee,  inclusion to  on e a c h  Each  Assessment  subject  area  of d e v e l o p i n g t e s t  test.  area.  In a d d i t i o n ,  reviewed  a n d a l s o by a d i f f e r e n t  new  items a r e developed area  by measurement panel of p r a c t i c i n g  area before the t e s t  Machine s c o r e a b l e , s e l e c t i o n - t y p e  area  for potential  of the c u r r i c u l u m i n the s u b j e c t  f o r the subject  items  Items from p r e v i o u s  i t e m banks a r e r e v i e w e d  The i t e m s a r e t h e n  specialists, teachers  subject  and p i l o t e d  insure coverage  tested.  C o o r d i n a t o r and  from t h e Student  of E d u c a t i o n .  area.  o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n s p r e p a r e d by t h e s u b j e c t  f o r that  examinations  subject  by t h e E x a m i n a t i o n  i s given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  the t a b l e  c o n s t r u c t e d and r e v i e w e d  t e a c h e r s i n each  t h e Manager o f t h e E x a m i n a t i o n s  Columbia  i s distributed.  (multiple-choice)  items  2  constitute the  50% t o 80% o f t h e q u e s t i o n s  remainder  o f t h e items  arewritten  i n c l u d e d i n each  test;  (supply-type)  questions. Following  the administration of the tests  June f o r semestered to  a l l students  s c h o o l s ; June  enrolled  f o r non-semestered  i n examinable courses,  committees comprised  of p r a c t i c i n g  a r e a mark t h e s u p p l y  items.  with  the responses  teachers  The s c o r e s  i n t o a computer  results  of t h e item a n a l y s e s , together  review the by  to the P r o v i n c i a l  and c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  students'  final  the P r o v i n c i a l  1.2  items,  Board  with  along  items, a r e then The  t h e comments o f  scoring staff, are of Examiners f o r i t s  Items a r e r e t a i n e d o r r e j e c t e d  from  s c o r e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e d e c i s i o n s made  Board  of Examiners.  D e f i n i t i o n s Used i n t h i s The  i n each s u b j e c t  f o r s c o r i n g and item a n a l y s e s .  the marking committee and t h e t e c h n i c a l submitted  schools)  marking  f o r these  t o each of t h e s e l e c t i o n  entered  then  (January and  main t e r m s u s e d  Study  in this  study  were d e f i n e d a s  follows: 1. Test-Wiseness:  (also c a l l e d  sophistication, orientation Millman, it  test-taking  test-familiarization,  a high  Bishop  of the t e s t score.  test-  test-taking  and test-wisdom). and E b e l  (1965) f i r s t  a s "a s u b j e c t ' s c a p a c i t y t o u t i l i z e  formats  strategies,  and/  or t e s t  Test-wiseness  attempted  to define  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  taking situations  i slogically  to receive  independent  of the  3 e x a m i n e e ' s knowledge o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r are  supposedly The  limited  measure"  definition to the  developed  by R o g e r s and  comprised  (1D2),  strategies  propensity  1 for a f u l l i t includes to guess.  responses  from  2 . Test - wi  sex  Students  (1990b). (1964),  study  Adapted this  Three,  and  description  from  a s c o r e of  of t h e s e  and  Bateson,  '17  was  test-  Similar-options  Stem-options  T h i s measure was  the  instrument  (1D1),  items d e s i g n e d  was  Test-wiseness  Link  four  (1D4)  strategies).  to assess students' validated  students' interviews during  (Rogers  the c u t - o f f  from  test-taking.  o r a b o v e ' on  1990b).  The  criteria  f o r t e s t - w i s e n e s s was  Section  3.22.  the  the T e s t of  determination  stated  in  ve :  Students Test-wiseness Section  the  (1D3),  10  received  Test-wiseness  3. Test-nai  Gibb  i n the T e s t of  of A b s u r d - o p t i o n s  Different-options  Moreover,  Chapter  Bateson  in this  o f 24 m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e i t e m s c o v e r i n g t h e  (see T a b l e  of  used  (1966) and  items  707).  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s used  strategies  work o f M i l l m a n  wiseness  (p.  f o r which the  3.22  received (Rogers  a s c o r e of and  Bateson,  '11  o r below' on  1990b).  the T e s t of  (See C h a p t e r  f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the c u t - o f f  Three,  criteria)  4  Table 1 An  O u t l i n e of T e s t - w i s e n e s s  Principles  I . E l e m e n t s i n d e p e n d e n t of t e s t c o n s t r u c t o r o r t e s t p u r p o s e A. T i m e - u s i n g s t r a t e g y 1. B e g i n a work as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h r e a s o n a b l e a s s u r a n c e of a c c u r a c y 2. S e t up a s c h e d u l e f o r p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h t h e t e s t 3. Omit o r g u e s s a t i t e m s ( s e e I.C. and I I . B . ) w h i c h r e s i s t a quick response 4. Mark o m i t t e d i t e m s , o r i t e m s w h i c h c o u l d use f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t o a s s u r e easy r e l o c a t i o n 5. Use t i m e r e m a i n i n g a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of t h e t e s t t o r e c o n s i d e r answers B. E r r o r - a v o i d a n c e s t r a t e g y 1. Pay c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o d i - r e c t i o n s , d e t e r m i n i n g c l e a r l y t h e n a t u r e of t h e t a s k and t h e i n t e n d e d b a s i s f o r response 2. Pay c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i t e m s , d e t e r m i n i n g c l e a r l y t h e n a t u r e of t h e q u e s t i o n 3. Ask e x a m i n e r f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n when n e c e s s a r y , i f i t is permitted 4. Check a l l a n s w e r s C. G u e s s i n g s t r a t e g y 1. A l w a y s g u e s s i f r i g h t a n s w e r s o n l y a r e s c o r e d 2. A l w a y s g u e s s i f t h e c o r r e c t i o n f o r g u e s s i n g i s l e s s severe than a " c o r r e c t i o n f o r g u e s s i n g " formula t h a t g i v e s an e x p e c t e d s c o r e o f z e r o f o r random responding 3. A l w a y s g u e s s even i f t h e u s u a l c o r r e c t i o n o r a more s e v e r e p e n a l t y f o r g u e s s i n g i s e m p l o y e d , Whenever e l i m i n a t i o n of o p t i o n s p r o v i d e s s u f f i c i e n t c h a n c e of profiting D. D e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g s t r a t e g y 1. E l i m i n a t e o p t i o n s w h i c h a r e known t o be i n c o r r e c t and c h o o s e from among t h e r e m a i n i n g o p t i o n s 2. Choose n e i t h e r o r b o t h of two o p t i o n s w h i c h i m p l y t h e c o r r e c t n e s s of e a c h o t h e r 3. Choose n e i t h e r or one (but not b o t h ) o f two s t a t e m e n t s , one of w h i c h , i f c o r r e c t , would i m p l y the i n c o r r e c t n e s s of o t h e r 4. R e s t r i c t c h o i c e t o t h o s e o p t i o n s w h i c h encompass a l l two o r more g i v e n s t a t e m e n t s known t o be c o r r e c t 5. U t i l i z e r e l e v a n t c o n t e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n o t h e r t e s t i t e m s and o p t i o n s I I . E l e m e n t s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e t e s t c o n s t r u c t o r o r p u r p o s e A. I n t e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t r a t e g y 1. I n t e r p r e t and answer q u e s t i o n s i n view o f p r e v i o u s i d i o s y n c r a t i c emphases o f t h e t e s t c o n s t r u c t o r of i n v i e w of t h e t e s t p u r p o s e  5 Table  1  (continued)  2. Answer i t e m s a s t h e t e s t c o n s t r u c t o r i n t e n d e d 3. A d o p t t h e l e v e l o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t h a t i s e x p e c t e d 4. C o n s i d e r t h e r e l e v a n c e o f s p e c i f i c d e t a i l B. C u e - u s i n g s t r a t e g y 1. R e c o g n i z e and make u s e o f any c o n s i s t e n t i d i o s y n c r a s i e s of the t e s t c o n s t r u c t o r which d i s t i n g u i s h t h e c o r r e c t answer from i n c o r r e c t options a . He makes i t l o n g e r ( s h o r t e r ) t h a n t h e i n c o r r e c t options b. He q u a l i f i e s i t more c a r e f u l l y , o r makes i t r e p r e s e n t a h i g h e r degree of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n c . He i n c l u d e s more f a l s e ( t r u e ) s t a t e m e n t s d. He p l a c e s i t i n c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l p o s i t i o n among an ordered s e t of o p t i o n s (such as the middle of the sequence) e. He p l a c e s i t i n a c e r t a i n l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n among an ordered s e t of o p t i o n s (such as the middle of the sequence) f . He i n c l u d e s (does n o t i n c l u d e ) i t among s i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t s , o r makes (does n o t make) i t one o f a p a i r of d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s i t e statements g. He composes (does n o t compose) i t o f f a m i l i a r o r stereotyped phraseology h. He d o e s n o t make i t g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e stem 2. C o n s i d e r t h e r e l e v a n c y o f s p e c i f i c d e t a i l when answering a g i v e n item 3. R e c o g n i z e and make u s e o f s p e c i f i c determiners 4. R e c o g n i z e and make u s e o f r e s e m b l a n c e s between t h e o p t i o n s and an a s p e c t o f t h e stem 5. C o n s i d e r t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r and d i f f i c u l t y o f n e i g h b o r i n g i t e m s when i n t e r p r e t i n g and a n s w e r i n g a given item Source:  Millman  e t a l . , 1965, p . 707  6  4.  Selection and  Items'.  s t r u c t u r e d response  Thorndike "one  (also c a l l e d  a n d Hagen  multiple-choice, objective  items)  (1969) d e f i n e d t h i s  s u p p l i e d by t h e t e s t  himself. The  T h i s type  of item  maker r a t h e r t h a n  i s a l s o termed  form o f t h e o b j e c t i v e i t e m s  such  as t r u e - f a l s e ,  choices,  multiple-choice with  or matching"  this  ' o b j e c t i v e item'.  three t o f i v e  answer  ( p . 9 3 ) . The t e r m s ' m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e ' interchangeably i n  study.  5. Canadi an  students:  They were s t u d e n t s origin,  were n o t b o r n visa.  students. Southeast  of European  i n Canada.  students:  They were s t u d e n t s  student  who were w h i t e C a u c a s i a n  a n d who were b o r n  6. Chinese  1.3  producing i t  may be a l t e r n a t i v e - r e s p o n s e  i t e m a n d ' s e l e c t i o n - t y p e ' i t e m were u s e d  whose e t h n i c o r i g i n  was C h i n e s e , who  i n Canada a n d who came t o s t u d y They were a l s o c a l l e d  T h e i r p l a c e of o r i g i n  i n Canada on a  foreign or i n t e r n a t i o n a l  might  be Hong Kong, o r o t h e r  Asian countries.  B a c k g r o u n d o f The P r o b l e m Dating  back t o T h o r n d i k e ' s  reliability, one s o u r c e  work al.  o f items a s  i n w h i c h t h e e x a m i n e e s must c h o o s e h i s answer f r o m t h e  options  as  type  (1951) o r i g i n a l  lack of consistency of t e s t of error variance  i n test-wiseness (1965) ( s e e T a b l e  i n test  work  i n test  s c o r e s was c o n s i d e r e d scores.  was t h e taxonomy d e v e l o p e d  A  seminal  by M i l l m a n e t  1 ) . They d e f i n e d t e s t - w i s e n e s s  a s "a  7  student's of  capacity  the test  score"  and/or  (p. 707).  test-wiseness score  to u t i l i z e  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  test-taking situation Sarnacki  test-wiseness.  (1979) f u r t h e r p o i n t e d  students  T e s t - w i s e n e s s may g i v e  examinations are s u s c e p t i b l e to t h e development  little  differences  focused  white Caucasian this  construct  Educators  population, could  performance of m i n o r i t y tests, lack  It  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s  and  & Docter,  i s p o s s i b l e that  research  that  inconclusive Further  (e.g.,  research  this  out, r e l a t i v e l y group  d e v e l o p e d among t h e  ethnic  finding  1981; G o s l i n , E p s t e i n  of the poor  achievement  i s a f u n c t i o n of a 1953; K a l e c h s t e i n , & Halloch,  groups are l e s s  1965).  test-wise,  t h e taxonomy c a n n o t be  population.  Generally,  d i f f e r e n c e i n test-wiseness Lo & S l a k t e r ,  with  whether  groups.  documentation  & Cordova,  the minority  on c u l t u r a l  construct.  i t h a s n o t been d e t e r m i n e d  (Anastasi  to minority  i n the  test-wiseness,  g r o u p s on s t a n d a r d i z e d  i t i s a l s o possible that  generalized  ethnic  Originally  considerable  and have s u g g e s t e d  Kalechstein  (1985) p o i n t e d  be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r  have p r o v i d e d  an u n f a i r  i f the items  to this  on i d e n t i f y i n g  i n test-wiseness.  l e v e l s of  test-wiseness.  a t t e n t i o n h a s been g i v e n  research  of t e s t  some s t u d e n t s  o f t h e taxonomy o f  However, a s S c r u g g s and L i f s o n  high  out that  possess d i f f e r e n t  a d v a n t a g e on e x a m i n a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  considerable  to receive a  could p o s s i b l y depress the v a l i d i t y  because d i f f e r e n t  Since  and formats  minority  the a v a i l a b l e was  1973; Wu & S l a k t e r ,  populations  1978).  i s required in  8 order  t o shed  light  on t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s  to other p o p u l a t i o n s . Canada  is a pluralistic  society  l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of immigrants. Chinese second  immigrants  School Chinese the  East  .  From t h e c e n s u s  t h e second  data  Columbia  Indian immigrants.  (1989) s t u d y on e t h n i c Board,  i s made up o f a  from Hong Kong i n B r i t i s h  i n number a f t e r  Echols'  that  relations  largest  ethnic  i n 1986, ranked  In F i s h e r and  i n the Vancouver group  i n V a n c o u v e r was  A p p a r e n t l y , one o f t h e d o m i n a n t m i n o r i t y g r o u p s i n  schools i n B r i t i s h  Columbia,  particularly  Vancouver,  is  Chinese. Despite  a l l the c r i t i c i s m s  examinations, Grade  i t s e x i s t e n c e i s a matter  12 s t u d e n t who w i s h e s  the E n g l i s h therefore  12 o r C o m m u n i c a t i o n s  program study  a significant  number o f t e s t  examinations  (Rogers  scores  test-wise  bias  cues  to test-wiseness  groups  t o make b e t t e r  t o choose  s t u d e n t s would be c o m p e t i t i v e l y  that  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  the scores f o r c e r t a i n  flaws or secondary  that the  1990a) i n d i c a t e d  strategies.  i n test-wiseness a b i l i t i e s  s t u d e n t s tended  is  to a l l students.  regarding the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  since differences  unfairly  items  It  to ensure  and i s f a i r  and B a t e s o n ,  Every  must w r i t e a t l e a s t  of educators  were s u s c e p t i b l e  leads t o concerns  of r e a l i t y .  12 e x a m i n a t i o n .  i s not abused  A preliminary  This  to graduate  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  examination  surrounding the p r o v i n c i a l  their  of the may  of students.  use o f t e s t answers,  disadvantaged.  If  item  test-naive Such  9  differences  in test-taking  a s s e s s m e n t and  1.4  d e c i s i o n s about  Statement of The Suggested  different  by  levels  examinations. the  behavior  examine t h i s  problem addressed  test-wiseness an  important  investigated  skills. impact  Chinese  the  of t e s t  12 p r o v i n c i a l  skills  was  in B r i t i s h  study  was  from  the p r o v i n c i a l  students, t h i s  examinations. from  examined.  and  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  the  students  study  students  study  the  on  or  not  in  test-  explored  demographic  the Chinese  research questions  had  i n f l u e n c e d the  students  this  on  also  A l s o , whether  Finally,  Chinese  examinations  the Canadian  t h e b a c k g r o u n d s of  Columbia.  whether  Canadian  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e s t - w i s e n e s s and  characteristics  investigated  s c o r e s r e c e i v e d by C h i n e s e  students d i f f e r e d  wiseness the  Since  study  the degree t o which t e s t - w i s e n e s s  interpretation the Grade  on  would d i f f e r  brought  p e r f o r m a n c e on m u l t i p l e  students  in this  students  provincial  claim, this  t e s t - w i s e n e s s and  significantly  incorrect  ability.  (1990a),  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s t o t h e  To  to  students'  Bateson  c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s among C h i n e s e  students  lead  Problem  R o g e r s and  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  The  the  may  students.  investigated  were  as  scores  on  follows: 1.  Do  C a n a d i a n and  Chinese  students d i f f e r  in their  test-wiseness? 2.  Do  the  choice  test  s c o r e s of t h e C h i n e s e  items  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  students  on m u l t i p l e -  examinations  in Physics,  10 Algebra, and 3.  H i s t o r y and/or E n g l i s h r e l a t e  i f s o , what  Do t h e s c o r e s relate  among t h e C h i n e s e  length of residency  with multiple-choice the  wiseness;  i s the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p ?  on t e s t - w i s e n e s s  to their  to test  items,  i n Canada,  verbal a b i l i t y  Language P r o f i c i e n c y I n d e x ) ,  students experience  (measured by  and a c h i e v e m e n t  motivation?  1.5  R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s o f The S t u d y This  study  hypothesized  selection  items  i n Physics, Algebra,  examinations of the B r i t i s h would  i n c r e a s e as t h e i r  wiseness  increased.  described  i n Chapter  that  subjects' test  scores  Provincial  Examinations  i n the Test  The n u l l - f o r m s t a t i s t i c a l 3.  on t h e  H i s t o r y , and/or E n g l i s h  Columbia  test  scores  The r e s e a r c h  of Testh y p o t h e s e s were  hypotheses a r e s t a t e d as  follows: Major  1.51  The  performance of the f o r e i g n Chinese  provincial Physics  residency  1.52  examinations  students  on t h e  i n History, English, Algebra,  i s a f u n c t i o n of test-wiseness,  variables,  choice  Hypothesis'.  and f o u r  namely t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y I n d e x , i n Canada, a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n  and/or  related length of  and m u l t i p l e  experience. Hypothesis  Foreign from C a n a d i a n  One  Chinese  students  students  a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  in their  scores  different  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s , as  11  m e a s u r e d by t h e T e s t o f T e s t - w i s e n e s s d e v e l o p e d Bateson 1.53  (1990b).  Hypothesis The  Two  and/or E n g l i s h  s t u d e n t s who p o s s e s s  abilities foreign  (a)  s c o r e s on t h e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e  Algebra, History, Chinese  by R o g e r s a n d  are significantly  Chinese  items  i n the Physics,  examinations  of the f o r e i g n  t e s t - w i s e n e s s s k i l l s and different  from  s t u d e n t s who p o s s e s s  less  those of the o f t h e same  abilities. 1.54  Hypothesis The  items  Two  (b)  variability  o f t h e s c o r e s on t h e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e  i n the Physics, Algebra, History,  examinations wiseness  of the f o r e i g n  s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s  that  of the foreign  same  abilities.  1.55  Hypothesis The  Chinese  English  s t u d e n t s who p o s s e s s  i ssignificantly  different  s t u d e n t s who p o s s e s s  s c o r e s on t e s t - w i s e n e s s o f t h e f o r e i g n  from  of the  Chinese  i n c r e a s e as the f o l l o w i n g  and the f o l l o w i n g  significant  less  test-  Three  students s i g n i f i c a n t l y increase,  Chinese  and/or  variables  account  amount o f v a r i a n c e on t h e i r  variables  fora  scores of t e s t -  wiseness : 1.  Language  2.  Length  3. Multiple  Proficiency of  Residency Choice  4. Achievement  Index in  Canada  Experience  Motivation  (LPI); (RES);  (MCE); a n d  (AM).  12 1.6  Rationale  of The  Hypotheses  T e s t - w i s e n e s s has error  variance  Koehler Prell  and  been c o n s i d e r e d  b i a s on  & Slakter,  1974;  stated that  w i s e n e s s c u e s on  a test  and  test-wise  low  might  Furthermore, c u l t u r a l l y evaluated  by  school  standardized If  these  test  of  understanding score  pervasive find  out  results  et  results  the  antecedent Since  of  the  of  c h i l d r e n were o f t e n the  eliminated.  basis  provincial future,  a significant  impact  source  of e r r o r v a r i a n c e  1979)  a l s o suggested  to  the  that  and  bias  i f the eliminated,  to t h i s  reduced  f a c t o r would be  (1964) and  variability  been w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , t h i s  study  students  S l a k t e r , Koehler  opposite of  view.  with  &  had  to explore  higher  or  Since  test-wiseness  attempted  on  Kalechstein  were somehow r e d u c e d or  However, G i b b  the  on  to  have  i t i s imperative  Sarnacki,  of  an  examinations  C r e h a n e t a l . , 1974;  variability  any  p r e c e d e d by  1988;  inter-group  of  variables that contributed  (1970) seemed t o h o l d an  a r g u m e n t s on  be  (Benson,  t e s t s due  students  examinations.  one  test-wiseness on  has  provincial  from b e i n g  the  test-  ( K a l e c h s t e i n e t a l . , 1981).  students'  i f test-wiseness  variability  score  test-wise  and  differentially.  c h i l d r e n should  i n f l u e n c e on  a l . , 1981;  Hampton  students  Prell  p r e s e n c e of  reward h i g h  different  score  these of  studies  effects  the  of  Crehan,  p r o f e s s i o n a l s p r i m a r i l y on  variance.  Apart tests,  1988;  source  t e s t s were s u s c e p t i b l e t o t e s t - w i s e n e s s ,  evaluations  test  t e s t s (Benson,  one  K a l e c h s t e i n e t a l . , 1981).  (1986) p a r t i c u l a r l y  penalize  t o be  levels  of  not  i f the test-  13 wiseness this  w o u l d be d i f f e r e n t  from  those  who p o s s e s s e d  l e s s of  skill. Chinese  students  demonstrated students  i n t h e U.S.A. were  i n r e s e a r c h t o be l e s s  (Lo & S l a k t e r ,  investigated  1973; Wu  and C a n a d i a n  Chinese  s t u d e n t s on p r o v i n c i a l  because they  students.  were l e s s  (Lo & S l a k t e r ,  & Slakter,  American  1978).  This  examinations  test-wise?  different  American  students  explored  i f the Chinese from  I f s o , would t h e r e s u l t  study  i n two s t u d i e s  1978), C h i n e s e  students  test-wiseness strategies  i n attempting  questions.  students  from t h e  T h i s study  s t u d e n t s w o u l d behave  the Canadian  of the  be a f f e c t e d  Furthermore,  1973; Wu & S l a k t e r ,  t o adopt  different  t e s t - w i s e than  i f t h e same r e l a t i o n s h i p w o u l d h o l d t r u e between  Chinese  tended  consistently  further  significantly  in test-taking  situations. Test-wiseness factors.  the l e v e l  correlation documented (1988); study,  t o be c o r r e l a t e d  B a s e d on some r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s ,  were s e l e c t e d to  was f o u n d  in this  study  to find  four  correlates  studies,  (1972) and S a r n a c k i  immigrated  Chinese.  language  (1979).  In t h i s  o f most o f t h e  ( a s m e a s u r e d by t h e  I n d e x ) was e x a m i n e d .  (1975) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t  Benson  T h e r e f o r e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between t e s t - w i s e n e s s and v e r b a l a b i l i t y Language P r o f i c i e n c y  The  h a s been  such as A r d i f f . ( 1 9 6 5 ) ;  E n g l i s h was n o t t h e f i r s t  related  students.  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s and v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s in several  several  o u t i f t h e y were  o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s among C h i n e s e  Diamond and E v a n s  recently  with  standardized tests,  Furthermore, with  Samuda  the exception  14 of p e r f o r m a n c e loaded. would  or n o n v e r b a l t e s t s ,  Therefore,  likely  Anastasi  familiarity  be a b e n e f i t  and C o r d o v a  had  to test  intelligence component  tests.  performance.  (1953) f o u n d t h a t  a l r e a d y mastered  verbally  w i t h the language of the  the p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h t h o s e who  were h e a v i l y  children  scored  Therefore,  language  i n d e t e r m i n i n g the t e s t  In  addition,  who  were i n  consistently  the language used i s an  performance  test  lower  than  on  important of  immigrant  children. Another  factor  t h a t might  affect  the l e v e l  t e s t - w i s e n e s s of the C h i n e s e immigrant since a r r i v a l  i n Canada.  l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y E n g l i s h and Columbia  factor  i n Canada would  familiarity  which  This  was  would  relate  affect  taking  skills  Chinese Kong.  that  test  to t h e i r  their  s c o r e s were h i g h l y  (Kalechstein  et a l . ,  students in B r i t i s h  test  They  differing  arrived  examinations.  type  been  items has  (Sarnacki,  Prior  populations by  has  testof t h e from Hong  t i m e s and have  had  particularly  experience with  f o u n d t o be c o r r e l a t e d  selection-  with test-wiseness  1979).  Another  factor  that  may  be  related  to the l e v e l  w i s e n e s s among C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s i s a c h i e v e m e n t Eels,  of  in British  were i m m i g r a n t s  experiences with examinations,  selection-type  mastery  A majority  a t Canada a t d i f f e r e n t  The  performance.  affected  1981).  Columbia  time  a l s o examined.  with the school c u r r i c u l u m  in turn,  use o f  students i s the  R e s e a r c h on t e s t - w i s e n e s s and m i n o r i t y demonstrated  and  David, Havighurst, Herrick  and T y l e r  of  test-  motivation.  (1951) d e m o n s t r a t e d  that Caucasian  children  displayed different minority children  from low socioeconomic  problem s o l v i n g  lacked s k i l l s  backgrounds  s t y l e s because the  i n guessing  strategies,  a p p r o p r i a t e v o c a b u l a r y , and m o t i v a t i o n t o s u c c e s s . (1975) f u r t h e r p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a p e r s o n ' s a c a d e m i c a l l y was i t s e l f and  need t o e x c e l  a f u n c t i o n of e t h n i c i t y ,  test-taking experience.  Samuda  social  class  Therefore, c u l t u r a l differences  i n m o t i v a t i o n c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d .  Often  i g n o r e d by  c o n t e m p o r a r y p s y c h o m e t r i c i a n s , D u b o i s (1964) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the Chinese testing.  had p r o l o n g e d  Chinese  and i n t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e  c u l t u r e has a l o n g t r a d i t i o n  e m p h a s i s on e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t . examinations  i n China  Civil  were t r a d i t i o n a l l y  c a r e e r and hence t o s o c i a l advancement.  service  Chinese  immigrants  forpublic  w h i c h i s t h e major venue f o r advancement i n  career or higher education  1.7  of heavy  t h e m a i n means t o a  f r o m Hong Kong a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y m o t i v a t e d examinations,  with  i n Hong K o n g .  S e l e c t i o n and Measurement o f Independent V a r i a b l e s T h i s s t u d y examined i f t e s t - w i s e n e s s and f o u r  namely v e r b a l a b i l i t y , examinations,  experience  correlates,  with writing multiple-choice  l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c y i n Canada, and achievement  m o t i v a t i o n would s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t p r o v i n c i a l examinations.  Test-wiseness  t h e s t u d e n t s ' s c o r e s on and t h e f o u r c o r r e l a t e s  are t h e independent v a r i a b l e s i n t h e major  hypothesis.  S i n c e t h i s study a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d i f Canadian and Chinese  students would d i f f e r  significantly  on t e s t - w i s e n e s s ,  16  test-wiseness ethnicity  a l s o used as  became t h e  Similarly, a  was  independent  t o examine  significant  i f the  level  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s of  in test-wiseness,  the  of  test-wiseness  developed  by  was  R o g e r s and  (I) background  information  origin  prior  and  examinations;  experience  ( I I ) an  the  students'  and  compete;  the  Student  Evans,  described  skills  The  English test  in test-wiseness.  containing i n the  the  largest  previous  representative  Survey,  The  Student of  students'  four ethnic  test  measuring  verbal a b i l i t y .  this  on  the  study  Test  Based of  investigated  above.  Variables  was  found  should The  (Ardiff, t o be  provincial  items  with  examinations,  students  1965;  Diamond &  related  t h e r e f o r e be  English test,  numbers o f  sample of  Test  ( I I I ) sentence s t r u c t u r e  information  in several studies  1972), t e s t - w i s e n e s s  ability.  made up  the  the  (1990b).  from the  was  on  their  addressed  S e l e c t i o n of Dependent As  cues  and  r e s p o n s e s and  research questions  1.8  four  in writing multiple-choice  (IV) E n g l i s h usage m e a s u r i n g  Test-wiseness  Bateson  achievement m o t i v a t i o n  d e s i r e to achieve  the  the  m e a s u r e d by  f o u r c o r r e l a t e s were o b t a i n e d  sections:  on  One.  independent v a r i a b l e s in  questionnaire  and  and  f o u r c o r r e l a t e s would c o n t r i b u t e  S u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The  their  variable  Three.  Students'  scores  the  dependent  v a r i a b l e in Hypothesis  amount of v a r i a n c e  c o r r e l a t e s were u s e d as Hypothesis  the  to verbal  s u s c e p t i b l e to  though  not  test-wiseness would  from t h e d i s t r i c t s  insure a sampled,  17because from  a l l students  12 p r o v i n c i a l  write English The  History  12 r a t h e r  examinations were f o u n d  was  Findings  component.  The  foreign  12. because  P h y s i c s and  (Rogers  understand,  particularly  a r e made b a s e d  s t u d y may the  improve  influence  groups,  s h o u l d shed  be  used  examinations, groups,  and  taking  skills.  ethnic  T h i s impact i n view  Bateson, students  insuring  on  on  a  the  larger  important  test-taking  constructors with useful f l a w s of the  the p o s s i b l e  bias  decisions This  behavior ethnic  Also,  results  information that provincial  for certain  to design materials to instruct  of  to  these examinations.  i n m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e items.  the  impact  provincial  o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s upon d i f f e r e n t  lessen  Algebra  items  i s important  of t h e  s c o r e s from  to minimize  i t also  subject areas  and  light  groups  the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  particularly  provide test  on  thus  elect  Study  study  government e x a m i n a t i o n s .  or  students.  of the  in this  graduate  students  These two  examinations,  t e s t - w i s e n e s s among d i f f e r e n t  could  investigated  investigated.  i n t h e s e two  Justification  will  Most  than Communications  to test-wiseness s k i l l s  sample o f C h i n e s e  that  12  Moreover, a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of C h i n e s e  participate  1.9  the E n g l i s h  t o c o n t a i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f  susceptible 1990a).  were a l s o  wishing to  examination.  examination  involved a strong verbal  and  Columbia  h i g h s c h o o l must w r i t e e i t h e r  Communications to  in B r i t i s h  ethnic  s t u d e n t s on  test-  18  Furthermore, related  test-taking  R e s e a r c h on pressing the  this  Vancouver.  explored  whether  behavior  would be  culturally  e t h n i c groups with  because  student  study  such  students  population  and  Other p l a u s i b l e  or  e t c . c o u l d be  c o u l d hence level  of  w i s e n e s s may  test-wiseness.  background  seems  a large proportion  Columbia, p a r t i c u l a r l y  verbal a b i l i t y , culturally  prior  of in such  test-taking  o r i e n t e d or i n f l u e n c e d  students'  test-taking  A cross-cultural  this postulation.  or  related.  c o r r e l a t e s of t e s t - w i s e n e s s ,  i n f l u e n c e the  clarify  make up  in B r i t i s h  as a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n , experience,  a Chinese  test-wiseness  study  behavior of  test-  19 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1  British  2.11  Hi st orical  Columbia  various  examinations  The f i r s t  identify  those  students  school.  Four  examinations  progress  who were a c a d e m i c a l l y  teacher  efficiency high  a High School  high  B.C. s c h o o l  that the  students  basis of t h e i r  standards previous the  teachers'  and t e a c h e r 25 y e a r s .  examinations,  final  be a b l e  tests  such  r a t h e r than  overemphasizing  f o r high  arithmetic,  for high  results  school,  (Calam,  i n 1883, s t u d e n t s  of Education,  t o enter  t o teach  were i n order  i n 1924 t o s u r v e y  (1925) recommended  high  school  s o l e l y on  recommendations because  they  1980).  1898).  government  teaching  had improved over t h e  criticized  as l e a d i n g teachers  examination  ready  Departmental Examinations  qualifications  Further,  i n 1876 t o  had the a u t h o r i t y t o grant  s y s t e m , Putnam a n d W e i r  should  school i n  s c h o o l and t o a s s e s s  Diploma, but s t a r t i n g  R e q u e s t e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l the  students  school p r i n c i p a l s  (Superintendent  high  In 1876-1924, government  on t h e b a s i s o f t e s t  t o pass t h e annual  graduate  were t e s t e d :  through  have e x i s t e d  were a d m i n i s t e r e d  were u s e d t o s e l e c t  their  Columbia  of the f i r s t  and geography.  monitor  Previously,  tests  subjects areas  grammar, s p e l l i n g  to  in British  forms s i n c e t h e o p e n i n g  the p r o v i n c e .  required  Examinations  Cont ext :  Provincial in  Provincial  the f u l l  subjects while  the misuses of  t o prepare f o r curriculum, i g n o r i n g other  20  a r e a s , c a u s i n g undue g r a d e s t u d e n t s t o withdraw In  1931,  s t u d e n t s up required order  from  retardation,  t o Grade  to graduate.  s t u d e n t s wrote  11.  Grade  pass  In  o b t a i n e d a C+  provincial  of T e s t s ,  Division  12 and  provincial  Support 1960  to for  report  maintain s a t i s f a c t o r y  The  examination  Departmental provincial  testing  1966/67.  that  paved  was  examinations  created  seen a g a i n  i n the  (Chant, L i e r s c h  provide  establish  the p u b l i c  University  i n Grade  the  &  e x a m i n a t i o n s would h e l p  t h e way  a t Grades  1946,  a d m i n i s t e r the Grade  on E d u c a t i o n  stated  The  Examinations  These  In  pass  programs.  examinations  throughout  program.  examinations  t o w r i t e and  progress in school,  Commission Report  had  examinations.  required  a b l e s t u d e n t s t o work h a r d e r , and instruction  12  s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g non-  t o o v e r s e e and  achievement  The  and who  S t a n d a r d s and Measurement was  for provincial  1960).  s t a n d a r d of  the  the p r o v i n c i a l  R o y a l Commission. R e p o r t  Walrod,  a l l Grade  modified; those  in order to graduate.  the E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t r y  in  were recommended f o r  h i g h s c h o o l s were s t i l l  new  that  high school,  s t u d e n t s and  Examinations  was  still  examinations  the requirement  s t a n d i n g or b e t t e r ,  Departmental  in  provincial  examinations  without w r i t i n g  t o promote  12 s t u d e n t s were  final  1937,  However, non-recommended  weaker  school before graduation.  s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g an a c c r e d i t e d  accredited  encouraging  t e a c h e r s were g r a n t e d a u t h o r i t y  t o w r i t e and  graduation  and  incentive  a more u n i f o r m  school  system.  f o r more c h a n g e s t o Programme  11 and  12 were r e p l a c e d  12 c o u r s e s d u r i n g 1965/66  were s e t and marked by  by and  t h e same  21  p r o c e d u r e s p r e v i o u s l y used Examinations. with the  school final  entirely easily  and  that  e x a m i n a t i o n s were  e a c h component a c c o u n t e d  mark.  In  1969,  made up  of  s e l e c t i o n - t y p e i t e m s so  scored  the  by  the  Departmental  period,  school  were r e p l a c e d  l e a v i n g , or Grade  12  by  the  Classroom Achievement Test  Provincial  Learning  S c h o l a r s h i p Examination  Program was  who  w i s h e d t o be  f o r government  which they  to  curriculum  school  diagnosing the  i s s u e of G r a d e what was  of E d u c a t i o n the  The  designed  f o r the  Provincial  etc.  12  The  strength of  and the  examinations  perceived  t o be  re-introduced  1982/83 s c h o o l  allocation  teachers  still  in  the particular resources, Test  in assigning  assessing  the  final  students.  programs,  l i n g e r e d on.  d e c l i n i n g standards,  Only a l i m i t e d  the  Concerned the  Minster  province-wide examinations at year.  They  Assessment  of  w e a k n e s s e s of new  students  senior courses Learning  in  1980.  scholarships.  Classroom Achievement  to a s s i s t  existence  in  for  t h e M i n i s t r y on  achievement data,  introduced  Despite  of  set  In  Program  Program  of p r o v i n c e - w i d e a s s e s s m e n t s , w i t h  revision,  Program was  end  examinations  e s t a b l i s h e d to advise  implementation  with  considered  were e n r o l l e d .  P r o g r a m was  be  Program,  Assessment  The  the  could  discontinued  S c h o l a r s h i p Examination  1976/77 and  g r a d e s and  they  were  examinations.  the  reference  that  of  s e r i o u s c o n c e r n s were r a i s e d a b o u t  s u p p l e m e n t e d by  would w r i t e  f o r 50%  Examinations  r e g u l a r D e p a r t m e n t a l E x a m i n a t i o n s were  the  combined  computer.  this  worth of  1973,  marks f r o m t h e s e  marks so  During the  The  f o r the U n i v e r s i t y Program  the  v e r s i o n of  a  22  full In  examination  September  p r o g r a m was i m p l e m e n t e d  o f t h e 1983/84 s c h o o l y e a r ,  E d u c a t i o n announced t h a t  Grade  i n the f i r s t  the M i n i s t e r of  12 D e p a r t m e n t a l  Examinations  w o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d a n n u a l l y on a p r o v i n c e - w i d e count this  f o r 50% o f a s t u d e n t ' s decision  school  of  the public  January  schools  standard of high criteria  and r e a s s u r e t h e p u b l i c (Heinrich,  the c o m p l e t i o n  first  semester  of second-semester  f o r s t u d e n t s who w i s h  basis to  The r e a s o n s f o r  to a  of the q u a l i t y  1983). the provincial  have been a d m i n i s t e r e d t h r e e t i m e s  following  August  an e q u a l a d m i s s i o n  t h e 1983/84 s c h o o l y e a r ,  examinations  in  ensure  or university,  Since  standing.  were t o m a i n t a i n a c o n s i s t e n t  graduates,  college  final  year.  courses;  a year  i n June  and f u l l to write a  year  following  c o u r s e s ; and  supplemental  examination  t o improve a c o u r s e  were u n a b l e  to write either  o f t h e p r e v i o u s two due t o  extenuating  circumstances.  Examinations  offered: 12,  English  Physics  Geography German  12, H i s t o r y  12, S p a n i s h  teachers'  12, F r e n c h  12, a n d L a t i n  t h e 1989/90 s c h o o l y e a r .  2.12  The Examination-Development The  current provincial  provincial  12, B i o l o g y  12, L i t e r a t u r e 12,  12, F r a n c a i s - l a n g u e 12, 12.  To p u t more e m p h a s i s on  of these examinations has  t o 40% i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n  since  i n 15 c o u r s e s a r e  12, A l g e b r a  12, G e o l o g y  assessment, t h e weight  been r e d u c e d  s t a n d i n g a n d f o r s t u d e n t s who  12, C o m m u n i c a t i o n s  12, C h e m i s t r y  -in  of f i n a l  course  marks  Process:  examinations  a r e based  on t h e  c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s and i n v o l v e h u n d r e d s o f t e a c h e r s  23 in  translating  actual  and  goals,  first  and  intents  into  s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s i s t h e p r o d u c t i o n of a  of e x a m i n a t i o n  s t u d e n t s w i t h an  levels  specifications indication  t o be c o v e r e d by e a c h  10 t e a c h e r s h e l p r e v i e w and specifications After the  objectives,  examinations questions.  The table  curricula  f o r each  the t a b l e  guidelines  examinations  Branch  examination. establish  by  of  the t a b l e  has  the p r e p a r a t i o n committees  are edited  about  of  been  teachers.  by  The  the s t a f f  established,  June,  and  consisting  first  o f E d u c a t i o n , and  reviewed  of the  Assessment  by  specialists.  consensus  of t h e e x a m i n a t i o n  August  d r a f t s of  of the Student  c o - o r d i n a t o r s and measurement  i t e m s and  cognitive  Every year,  are transformed i n t o January,  review process i s repeated u n t i l content  o f t h e t o p i c s and  of s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  of t h e M i n i s t r y  examination  provides teachers  course.  e x p e r i e n c e d and q u a l i f i e d examinations  which  The  i s r e a c h e d on  as a whole  the  (Carbol,  1987). The  standard-setting  examinations  relies  on  p r o c e s s of the  the  namely c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . examinations will  and  Teachers  to determine  (A t h r o u g h F ) .  76/100 s h o u l d be the  judgements of e x p e r t  particular  markers proceed  For  opinion,  a r e employed  t o mark  the  the standards or c u t - s c o r e s t h a t  r e p r e s e n t student performance  grades  provincial  a l o n g the range  instance,  m a r k e r s may  of  letter  decide  that  t h e a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d f o r an A s t a n d i n g on  examination  they are marking.  t o s c o r e the w r i t t e n  portion  Then, of  the  the  24 examinations. a new  set of  When t h e y have a l m o s t i n f o r m a t i o n on  standard-setting m a r k e r s may After  change t h e i r  the adjustment,  teacher-awarded two  session.  basis  f o r the  presented  final  distribution.  (Carbol,  final  percentages  The  distribution Board  and  adjustment  a midpoint  revised  The  the  board  distributions  and  makes  examination  student examination  accurately  between  marks  of Examiners.  to the  to  s t a n d a r d s become t h e  of e x a m i n a t i o n  teacher-mark  the adopted  marks a r e  then  distributions  s c h o o l marks i n c o u r s e s t h a t  are transformed as  from  shown i n T a b l e  percentage  certain  letter  that  2.  grade.  of  letter  difficulty  have  s c o r e s and  provincial r e p o r t e d as  A c c o r d i n g to the  B.C.  i s not t o s e t p r e -  s t u d e n t s must o b t a i n i n o r d e r  i n t e n d e d to s t a n d a r d i z e the grades  raw  intent  is  Ministry  for cut-scores.  s t a n d a r d s a r e compared  of E d u c a t i o n , t h e i r  determined attain  i n f o r m a t i o n , some  standards  initial  1987).  examinations  Ministry  t h e new  marker  Finally,  to r e f l e c t  The  With  t o the P r o v i n c i a l  necessary  scaled  of the  original  • r e v i e w s the"exam-mark and any  results  i s found.  final  they are given  the  mark d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  distributions  completed,  The  standard s e t t i n g  reporting  procedure  of d i f f e r e n t  d u r i n g the s c h o o l year a c c o r d i n g t o  o f t e s t s and  of E d u c a t i o n ,  other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( B r i t i s h 1989).  to  levels the Columbia  Table  2  L e v e l of A c h i e v e m e n t and t h e E q u i v a l e n t R e p o r t e d of t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Examinations Level  A  of  Achievement  Reported  (Excellent) Good)  Range of  86  100  73  85  B  (Very  C+  (Satisfactory)  67  72  C  (Satisfactory)  60  66  P  (Passing)  50  59  F  (Failing)  below  Source:  British  Generally, also  s i t on  and/or  Columbia M i n i s t r y  review  committees  of  from  the program,  (Carbol,  the  raw  can  and  s c o r e s of  The  raw  students'  developing  be  t e a c h e r s who  setting  test  items of  To  date,  the  scaling  over  aspects  to marking  provincial  T h e s e t e a c h e r s make j u d g e m e n t s a b o u t t h e r e f o r e the  may  committees,  c o n s i d e r e d as a t e a c h e r - c e n t e r e d  process the  c u t - s c o r e s , based  on  examinations.  scores are  interpreted  knowledge of t h e  However, t o t h e e x t e n t of a b i l i t y  i~989.  involved in various  Hence, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  1989).  letter-grade,  of E d u c a t i o n ,  f o r the e x a m i n a t i o n s .  t e a c h e r s have been  examinations  50  committees,  2,200 d i f f e r e n t  examinations.  Scores  the markers are e x p e r i e n c e d  specification  Percentages  t o be  s u b j e c t under  t h a t the  raw  t o employ t e s t - w i s e n e s s  reflective  of  examination.  s c o r e s may strategies  be  reflective  rather  than  26  reflective  o f knowledge o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r ,  these  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s may be a f f e c t e d .  2.13  Impact  of  Although constructed, worthwhile  the  Provincial  Examinations'.  theprovincial there i ss t i l l  and adverse  examinations a continual  effects.  performance  examinations basically concepts  test  over  their  examination  means  Further, the p r o v i n c i a l  only a s p e c i f i c  (Anderson, Muir,  debate  which s t u d e n t , s c h o o l and  i s compared.  at a superficial  are well-  Provincial  have become t h e s t a n d a r d a g a i n s t district  t h e v a l i d i t y of  level  portion  of information  of understanding of the  Bateson,  Blackmore, and Rogers,  1990). Development  of thecurrent  forms o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l  examinations has c a r e f u l l y  c o n s i d e r e d both t h e l e v e l of  questioning  of the q u e s t i o n s .  and t h e format  q u e s t i o n s have been strategies  to  t o be s u s c e p t i b l e  (Rogers and Bateson,  item c o n s t r u c t i o n questions.  found  2.2  Concept  2.21  Definition The  ability enter  possible  a r e so c r u c i a l  relationship  with  attention.  of Test-wiseness  concept  Thorndike  examinations  their  further  flaws of  nature of m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e  Since thep r o v i n c i a l  test-wiseness deserves  to test-wiseness  1990a) due t o b o t h  and t h e b a s i c  the high school graduate,  Y e t , many o f t h e  of  Test-wiseness  o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s was f i r s t  (1951).  He c o n s i d e r e d t e s t - w i s e n e s s a s " g e n e r a l  t o comprehend  i n t o any t e s t  i n t r o d u c e d by  instruction  ...  [and i s ] l i k e l y t o  s c o r e " (p. 588), c o n t r i b u t i n g  t o one  27  source that  of variance  test  with  was f a m i l i a r  with  factors,  results.  Thorndike  s c o r e was a f u n c t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t  individual insight  in test  regards  such  regard  extraneous  with  tests  (1951) a r g u e d  t o which the  a n d had t h e d e g r e e o f  t o t r i c k s o f t a k i n g them.  as "freedom  from e m o t i o n a l  Therefore,  tension,  shrewdness  t o when t o g u e s s , and a keen eye f o r s e c o n d a r y cues"  particularly  ( p . 569) w o u l d be u s e f u l i n many  poorly constructed  and  tests,  ones.  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e v a r i a n c e w h i c h was common i n a l l tests,  Thorndike  (1951) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t e a c h t e s t  v a r i a n c e w h i c h came from t h e p e r s i s t e n t individuals, cannot  be i g n o r e d b e c a u s e t h e y  variance test"  namely t e s t - w i s e n e s s .  (Thorndike,  reliability will  can  1951, p. 5 6 9 ) .  performance t e s t s a source  t o t h e abilities  be c o n s i d e r e d a s a s o u r c e  specific  "systematic  invalid  to particular  susceptible  rather  of the  view,  test-  than  i t represents q u a l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l  i n s t e a d of being  is specific  of the  characteristics  In Thorndike's  a problem of v a l i d i t y  because  affect  Moreover, that  represent  characteristics  s e r v i n g s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t o reduce the v a l i d i t y  wiseness presents  that  Such  had some  test  t o a 'chance'  at a particular  time.  of systematic  variance  being  tested,  of e r r o r v a r i a n c e  items  and i s l i k e l y  test-wiseness that i s t o be  factor.  In one o f t h e e a r l i e s t e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s o f t e s t wiseness, profitably 5).  Gibb  (1964) d e f i n e d  t o the presence  i t as "the a b i l i t y  of secondary  cues  F u r t h e r m o r e , he c o n f i n e d h i s d e f i n i t i o n  to react  i n a t e s t " (p. t o i n c l u d e "the  28  ability in  of a t e s t e e t o r e a c t  ways a d v a n t a g e o u s t o h i m s e l f  knowledge of imply He  that  factual  d i d recognize  Thorndike  that  than o t h e r ,  (1965).  test  of o t h e r  work of  the  test-wiseness i t as  characteristics situation  logically  of  f o r w h i c h the  B a s e d on  an  and  "a  was  the  The  who  t o 240  created  by  were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e  verbalizing  some t e s t - w i s e n e s s  for  students  included  taking  score.  they  and/or  1, C h a p t e r  existing  the  Test-wiseness  d e v e l o p e d an  administering  high-achieving  The  reviewing  test  to  (p.  behaviors.  elements  the  et  ^Outline  1) w h i c h i s  e x p l i c a t i o n of  test-wiseness.  o u t l i n e was  questionnaire students  of  absent.  items supposedly measures"  concise  of  with  the  e m p i r i c a l study,  most c o m p l e t e and  cues.  e x a m i n e e ' s knowledge o f  by  construct  agreed  done by M i l l m a n  f o r m a t s of  (see T a b l e  the  he  not  kinds  subject's capacity  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s P r i n c i p l e s ' f a r the  did  to secondary  fact,  of  t o g u e s s more  to receive a high  independent  subject matter  However, he  components or  In  cues  test  even when s e c o n d a r y c u e s were  They d e f i n e d  taking  707).  (p. 5 ) .  s e n s i t i v e only  existence  secondary  a multiple-choice  some i n d i v i d u a l s t e n d e d  A seminal  utilize  was  p r e s e n c e of  cues to c o r r e c t answers.  judiciously  al.  the  on  information"  test-wiseness  undesirable  is  to the  i n the  literature  were f o u n d  suburban h i g h their  test  t o be  capable  principles.  unstructured school  taking of  Additional  taxonomy were i d e n t i f i e d  r e l a t e d to t e s t  examinations.  an  from  c o n s t r u c t i o n or  advice  29  The parts  outline  (taxonomy) o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s  - ( I ) "Elements  independent  of t e s t  includes  two main  constructor  or test  p u r p o s e " a n d ( I I ) " E l e m e n t s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e t e s t constructor  or purpose".  terms of t e s t guessing  omitted  reasoning.  of responding,  items  omitting  i f time a l l o w s .  seen as comprehension to information  reviewing  answers or r e q u e s t i n g  r e s p o n s e s on a c o m p l e t e l y  indirectly, knowledge Part purpose,  and r e t u r n i n g  Error-avoidance  when  paying  i t e m s and  necessary.  chance b a s i s .  Deductive  methods o f o b t a i n i n g  reasoning  the c o r r e c t with  answers  partial  only. I I , elements dependent includes  obtaining  s t r a t e g i e s that constructor's  feedback  upon t h e t e s t  views or the t e s t  from s i m i l a r t e s t s .  s t r a t e g i e s , examinees c o n s i d e r  Cue-using  constructor's  and p a s t  strategies.  experiences  strategies include  purpose, or  Millman  category  consideration  constructor  c o n s t r u c t o r or  t h e examinee may u s e a f t e r  and c u e - u s i n g  shorter)  includes  t h e examinee t o r e c e i v e c r e d i t f o r  consideration  test.  t o the  s t r a t e g i e s can  clarification  (1965) o u t l i n e d two s t r a t e g i e s i n t h i s  test  strategies refer  or c o r r e c t l y answering a q u e s t i o n  knowing t h e t e s t after  with  Time-using items,  in  error-avoidance,  i n the d i r e c t i o n s or w i t h i n  s t r a t e g i e s enable  strategies deal  are organized  of i n s t r u c t i o n s which  attention  Guessing  I, s k i l l s  s t r a t e g i e s - time-using,  and d e d u c t i v e  to pacing  be  taking  In Part  et a l .  - intent  In i n t e n t the i n t e n t of the  i n dealing with  t h e same  the r e c o g n i t i o n of t e s t  i d i o s y n c r a s i e s , such as use of l o n g e r (or  correct a l t e r n a t i v e s , greater  q u a l i f i c a t i o n or  30 generalization (or  false)  position  of correct  responses,  statements, p l a c i n g  more o f t e n ,  stereotyping  inclusion  the correct  the use of s i m i l a r  p h r a s e s and t h e presence  o f more  option  true  i n one  o p t i o n s , t h e use of  of grammatical  cues.  M i l l m a n e t a l . ' s (1965) ^Taxonomy o f T e s t - w i s e n e s s ' provides  t h e ground  wiseness.  work f o r most s u b s e q u e n t  In a study o f t h e e f f e c t s  m a t e r i a l s on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t disadvantaged c h i l d r e n , as  "the a b i l i t y  the  and format  of p r e s c h o o l  (1972) d e f i n e d t e s t - w i s e n e s s  t o manifest test-taking  characteristic  of t e s t -  of test-wiseness  performance  Oakland  studies  of a t e s t  skills  which  utilize  and/or  test-taking  situation  i n o r d e r t o r e c e i v e a s c o r e commensurate w i t h t h e  abilities  b e i n g measured"  to  Millman  possession test  except  of the s k i l l s  enhance  correlates  obtain matter" Gibb's  credit  content  scores.  on t h e s e  proposes  that  the s k i l l s of c o g n i t i v e (1972) d e f i n e d  c l u e s and t o  knowledge o f t h e s u b j e c t definition  i s similar to  e t a l . ' s as they a l l b e l i e v e  that  e n a b l e e x a m i n e e s t o make u s e o f  or secondary  credit  extraneous  Diamond and E v a n s '  skills  commensurate  ina  t o respond advantageously t o  items without  (1964) a n d M i l l m a n  i s similar  considers that  I n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  as "the a b i l i t y  ( p . 135).  test-wiseness  obtain  et a l .  c h o i c e items, c o n t a i n i n g  extraneous  Oakland  o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s , Diamond a n d Evans  construct  multiple  test  that  Hisdefinition  would o n l y r e s u l t  score; while Millman  would  this  et al.'s,  (p. 355).  cues  o f some f l a w e d i t e m s a n d t o  w i t h no, o r o n l y p a r t i a l  b e i n g measured.  knowledge o f t h e  31 In d e f i n i n g t e s t - w i s e n e s s , out  that  "neither  guessing  TW  (test-wiseness)"  as  a cognitive ability  could area  use  to  (p.  skills  faculties  He  set  and  allow  but  taking  tests"  skills no  that  TW  situations. to  (p.  253).  t e s t or  specific  "(test-taking)  composite  exploit specific s e n s e of he  t e s t wiseness  to the  content  in p a r t i c u l a r ,  More i m p o r t a n t ,  e t a l . (1965) t h a t  test-taker  that  These  to experience a general  of  test-wiseness  m a t t e r what t h e  (test-wiseness)  only  a  pointed  synonyms  then d e s c r i b e d  score  e x a m i n e e s not  also  to o b j e c t i v e  of  sets are  further elaborated  t o a number of  flaws,  Millman  or  (1979) f i r s t  response  253).  He  in general,  generalize  nor  improve h i s / h e r  of a t e s t was.  Sarnacki  test  security in  disagrees  i s neither  with confined  strategies limited  by  them. Furthermore,  in exploring  the  construction  used  w i s e n e s s and  item  items, Smith  (1980,  create not  1982)  d i s t r a c t o r s using  outlined  strategy,  noted a  item  constructor  answer, and  various  correct alternatives.  not  interpreted  then c o n s t r u c t s  "bear a l o g i c a l  to the  "testwiseness  between c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of test  format"  (p.  214).  (1965).  d e v e l o p s the the  (p. 2 1 4 ) . be  which With  to was this  question  and  d i s t r a c t o r s using  Smith p o i n t e d  might  multiple-choice  strategy'  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  wrong a n s w e r s "  that  first  test-  t e s t makers t e n d e d  'convergence  correct  but  that  to develop  i n M i l l m a n e t a l . ' s taxonomy  the  distractors  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  In  out the  that  r i g h t answer,  this  v i e w e d as  a t e s t - t a k e r and  these  way,  he  interaction  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  32  Some more r e c e n t wiseness along  similar  (1983) c o n s i d e r e d perform test  abilities  situation al.'s  test-wiseness  Stanley  no m a t t e r what a r e a  research  of t h i s to  (1979) s u g g e s t e d  is).  Test-wiseness  problems of v a l i d i t y ,  Nunnally  clerical  impact i n  three  cues  exists  i npoorly  e r r o r s i n responding, estimates  but rather as create  because  invalid  that  because of  constructed  will  reliability  (1967) a r g u e d  G e n e r a l l y , proponents of t h i s  (1951),  (1972), t h e f i r s t  test-wiseness  r a t h e r than  consistency  i t was u s e d  approaches t o i n t e r p r e t  i s viewed, not as a t r a i t , Also,  or set  thesis.  responsible f o r systematic  internal  items) and  Since Millman e t  adopted,  a s s e r t s that test-wiseness  a measurement p r o b l e m .  affect  test  S u p p o r t e d by T h o r n d i k e  e x i s t e n c e o f some s p e c i f i c  guessing,  t h e method o f  Test-wiseness  (1971) a n d Diamond a n d E v a n s  Nevertheless,  2).  i n any t e s t i n g  the greatest  a n d h a s been w i d e l y  of test-wiseness.  consistently  (p.  i n flawed  of a test  exerted  Approaches  interpretation  items.  tested"  choice  o f t h e t e s t - t a k e r (a c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y  Theoretical  nature  being  on a m u l t i p l e  t h a t an examinee c a n employ  Sarnacki  test-  of the t e s t - t a k e r t o  encompasses b o t h  the operational d e f i n i t i o n  2.22  the  ability  chance l e v e l  (1965) d e f i n i t i o n  subsequent  the  i t t o be " t h e  ( t e s t - w i s e cues p r o v i d e d  characteristics  to define  F o r example, D o l l y a n d W i l l i a m s  no m a t t e r what t h e c o n t e n t  measurement  as  lines.  a t a b e t t e r than  Basically,  of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s tend  i t  variance.  f a c t o r s such a s etc.  would  also  of r e l i a b i l i t y .  interpretation  emphasize t h e  is  33  elimination  of these  step to accurate  item cues  and v a l i d  i n examinations  Thorndike  (1951).  of d i f f e r e n t  persistent  traits  study,  Gibb  amounts o f c e r t a i n  of t e s t - t a k i n g  (1964) f o u n d  test-wiseness  was f i r s t  He d e s c r i b e d t e s t - w i s e n e s s  possession  abilities.  abilities.  reliable  this  through  interpretation  understood  maintain  as a b i l i t i e s ,  individual  synthesis  that test-wiseness  strategies,  or t r a i t s  method o f measurement taker"  (p. 267).  delimiting  that  variance  This approach enjoys  fact,  Smith  (1982) a l s o s h a r e d  a p p r o a c h by s a y i n g , characteristics perspective issue  e x p l a i n the  of the t e s t -  i n the c o n s t r u c t ,  that account  f o r most  ( S a r n a c k i , 1979).  a similar  o f an i t e m and a p e r s o n  between t h e  i s viewed  from t h e  i t i s generally considered  o f i t e m c o n s t r u c t i o n ; when v i e w e d  In  v i e w o f an i n t e g r a t e d  "when t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  of the item,  n e i t h e r of  the advantage of  of variance  performance  isa  encompass b o t h t h e  and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  i n test-wiseness  (1979),  Since  "test-wiseness  as w e l l a s t r a c k i n g down s o u r c e s  i s best of i n d i v i d u a l  can s u f f i c i e n t l y  a l l p o s s i b l e sources  over  of t e s t s .  two a p p r o a c h e s .  t h e above two a p p r o a c h e s a l o n e he p r o p o s e d  and S l a k t e r  characteristic  a p p r o a c h , p r o p o s e d by S a r n a c k i  of the p r e v i o u s  construct,  differences in  G e n e r a l l y , proponents of  e x a m i n e e s , and n o t by c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The t h i r d  as the  I n an e m p i r i c a l  A l s o , Crehan, Koehler  11 s t u d e n t s .  suggested  g e n e r a l and  (1974) d e m o n s t r a t e d a s t a b l e t e s t - w i s e n e s s Grades f i v e  critical  measurement.  The s e c o n d a p p r o a c h t o t e s t - w i s e n e s s by  as a  t o be an  from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e  34  of  the person,  testwiseness" Dolly  i ti sconsidered ( p . 211).  and W i l l i a m ' s  t o be an i s s u e o f  Such c o n j e c t u r e  (1986) s t u d y  i s demonstrated i n  of using  test-taking  strategies  t o maximize m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t  found  i f an examinee p o s s e s s e d  that  examination  contained  circumstances training.  would  Since  interpretation theoretical  One  approach of t h i s  examinee.  was  a lasting  formats.  Thorndike general  comprehensive  i t was a d o p t e d a s t h e  of t h e concept  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s  (1951) s u g g e s t e d  trait  Supporting  i n regard  test-wiseness  be  to basic  related  Weiten  differences  to certain  intellectual  in internal  r a t h e r than  that  i s to  types  ability.  to find  that test-wiseness  specific  and a l a s t i n g of t e s t s  idea, Stanley  reliability  specific  test-wiseness  t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  t o be a p e r s i s t e n t  (1984) f a i l e d  argued  cues;  Thorndike's  considered  trait  t h e most  thesis.  t o g u e s s and i d e n t i f y  therefore  test-wiseness  Test-wiseness  w h i c h was r e l a t e d  study,  and i f the  i t as a c o g n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( s ) of  the  trait  of  m a j o r component  interpret  ability  approach provided  They  t h e two c o m b i n e d  scores a f t e r  of test-wiseness,  Construct  2.23  this  test-wiseness,  s u s c e p t i b l e items,  improve  scores.  or item  (1971) a l s o  trait  that  I n a more  might  recent  any s i g n i f i c a n t of flawed  test  items.  seemed t o be a g e n e r a l  t o the cues p r o v i d e d  i n flawed  items. With r e s p e c t trait(s)  t o the g e n e r a l i t y or s p e c i f i c i t y  of test-wiseness, Millman  He  of the  e t a l . (1965) t r i e d t o  test  demonstrate t h i s idea They c o n s i d e r e d academic  subject  specific  test  specificity  the s k i l l s  item.  and/or  specificity,  They  (1) strategies  a n d (2) s t r a t e g i e s  Millman  when a n s w e r i n g a  b r o k e down t h e i d e a o f  t e s t purpose.  test-wiseness  i n terms o f t h e  , b u t specific  further  dependent  dependent  To v a l i d a t e  on t h e t e s t  h i s argument f o r  (1966) d e v e l o p e d an i n s t r u m e n t  s t r a t e g i e s / s k i l l s (guessing,  stem-option  similarity,  response options)  i n four  history-political  science,  However, when he t r i e d did  t o be general  i n t o two components:  constructor  reasoning,  t h e taxonomy o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s .  of the t e s t  upon t h e t e s t - t a k e r ,  four  using  t o study  deductive  and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  academic a r e a s  (English  i n the  literature,  mathematics, and b i o l o g y ) .  to validate  h i s measure, t h e s u b s c a l e s  (1972) a l s o  tried  n o t h o l d up. Diamond a n d E v a n s  instrument cue-using  designed  (longer  Comparing  strategies  s p e c i f i c determiners,  overlapping  the c o r r e l a t i o n s  among t h e f i v e grammatical  of the  subscales  cues, and  d i s t r a c t o r ) , Diamond a n d E v a n s r e p o r t e d low  correlations  o f .02 t o .33 a n d r e s u l t s o f f a c t o r  showed s e p a r a t e suggest  that  several  skills  loading  instead  fourth-  test-wiseness  of the subscales.  Their  analysis results  use of secondary cues a r e a c t u a l l y a s e t of  More r e c e n t l y , surveyed  t o measure d i f f e r e n t e l e m e n t s o f s e c o n d a r y  strategies.  secondary cue-using  t o d e v e l o p an  o f one g e n e r a l  Benson  through  using  skill.  i n 1985 ( c i t e d i n B e n s o n , 1988)  sixth-grade  s t u d e n t s on knowledge o f  a 20-item L i k e r t - t y p e  scale  originally  36  designed  t o measure o f t i m e ,  of  and guessing  cues,  the  20 i t e m s  e r r o r avoidance,  strategies.  obtained  an a l p h a  m o t i v a t i o n , use  An i n i t i a l  item a n a l y s i s of  o f .40. F i v e i t e m s  deleted  because of negative  scores,  l e a v i n g a 1 5 - i t e m s c a l e (r=.54) w h i c h was s u b m i t t e d t o  exploratory analyses  analytic  and another  four-factor as  factor  correlation  procedures.  confirmatory  solution.  factor  with  total  were test  Both o f these a n a l y s i s produced a  The f a c t o r s were t e n t a t i v e l y  labelled  t h o r o u g h n e s s , p r e p a r a t i o n , achievement m o t i v a t i o n and  perseverance.  C o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e s e  f r o m -.08 t o .57, s u g g e s t i n g skills.  M o r e o v e r , Benson  coefficient  some s p e c i f i c i t y  (1988) m a i n t a i n e d  skill.  He f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d  seemed t o i n c o r p o r a t e s e v e r a l t r a i t s children  support  factors  ranged  of test-wiseness  that the alpha  was n o t h i g h enough t o i n d i c a t e a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l  test-wiseness  both  four  and a d u l t s .  Benson's case,  Although  some s t u d i e s  that  test-wiseness  a n d c o u l d be measured i n research d i d not strongly (Slakter et a l . ,  1970;  C r e h a n e t a l . , 1974; Benson, Urman, a n d H o c e v a r , 1986) basically  viewed  construct,  test-wiseness  specific  t o item  as a multidimensional  format,  general  academic  s u b j e c t , and l a s t i n g  However,  i t i s beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s  argue t h e s p e c i f i c  details  or p e r s i s t e n t  i n relation to i n nature.  thesis  t o e x p l o r e and  of the underlying c o n s t r u c t of  test-wiseness. 2.24  Test-wiseness  and  A n o t h e r component with  Bias of the concept  of test-wiseness  t h e i s s u e o f measurement p r o b l e m s .  deals  Test-wiseness has  37  been w i d e l y threat Prell  r e c o g n i z e d a s one  to test and  validity  Prell,  Thorndike,  1986;  1951).  (Millman Sarnacki,  Millman  teaching  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s  wiseness  differences,  Moreover, McPhail error  Furthermore, could and  be  i t s effect  viewed  (p.  Smith from  1979;  Oakland,  a  1972;  S l a k t e r e t a l . , 1970; advocated  the  inter-examinee  r e d u c i n g measurement  testerror.  "testwiseness operates  i s to reduce  validity  as  and  168).  (1982) s u g g e s t e d  that  t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of b o t h  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  what p e r s p e c t i v e one  v a r i a n c e and  e t a l . , 1965;  to minimize  thereby  of t e s t s "  of e r r o r  et a l . f u r t h e r  (1978) a r g u e d ,  v a r i a n c e and  reliability  source  of t e s t - t a k e r .  accepts,  test-wiseness the  test  However, no  items  matter  test-wiseness w i l l contribute  some unwanted v a r i a n c e o r b i a s i n t e s t test-wiseness c o n t r i b u t e s at least  results.  The  some measurement  fact  that  error  seems i n d i s p u t a b l e . Research generally after  on  training  suggested  receiving  that test  instruction  principles.  In two  test-taking  skills,  that  programs.  programs of  significant  Samson  the  training  score  s u b j e c t matter  practice the  on  Kulik  test-wiseness  effects  at  in test-taking  of  30  and  s t u d i e s of  similar  conclusion  skills  produced  i n students' achievement  tested (true  training  studies  (1983) r e v i e w e d  arrived  skills  much e n h a n c e d  (1985) e x a m i n e d 24  i s a composite  being  test-wiseness  p e r f o r m a n c e was  and  They b o t h  improvements  A student's  coaching  m e t a - a n a l y s e s on  B a n g e r t - D r o w n s , K u l i k and coaching  and  of t h e i r  test  scores.  knowledge of  s c o r e ) and  an  error  38 component. possess will are  In t h i s  will  case,  partly  determine  c o n t r i b u t e to the independent  t h e amount of t e s t - w i s e n e s s  test  of t e s t  how  p o i n t e d out  or  deflated  logically If to  an  by  content.  due  Smith  t o an  the  these  test  less  of t e s t  be  trait  subject  b e i n g measured" of  matter.  "inflated  unfair  (p.  211).  t e s t - w i s e n e s s can  performance, those  i n an  test-wiseness  s c o r e s w o u l d be  t e s t - w i s e n e s s o r have n o t  skills will  skills  ( t e s t - w i s e n e s s ) which i s  p o s s e s s i o n or l e a r n i n g  improvement  possess  (1982),  of t h e  In o t h e r word,  knowledge of t h e  ability  independent  component  score, since test-wiseness  c o u l d mask a s t u d e n t ' s a c t u a l As  much t h e e r r o r  students  students  lead who  received instruction  position.  In  fact,  on  i t has  been a s s e r t e d i n many s t u d i e s ( B a n g e r t - D r o w n s e t a l . , 1983; Fueyo,  1977;  test-taking error  Samson, skills  resulting  s c o r e s , and  1985;  tended  from  the  alleviated  Sarnacki,  1979)  to decrease  that training  some of t h e  measurement  i n f l u e n c e of t e s t - w i s e n e s s on  the h a n d i c a p  of  1988,  1977,  in  some s t u d e n t s  test  on  this  aspect. Research 1986,  (Benson,  Sarnacki,  tended  to r e l a t e  reasoning  1979)  s k i l l s , cue-using and  level  knowledge on  with  less  likely  a l s o demonstrated  to f a m i l i a r i t y  testing, of  Fueyo,  of these  test  abilities  t o o b t a i n a lower  have more t e s t - w i s e n e s s .  that  test  strategies,  language a b i l i t y . the  with  test  For  Prell  Prell,  test-wiseness  format,  amount o f  students with  content  deductive previous the  same  b e i n g measured,  or e x p e r i e n c e s score  and  than  will  those  be  those  more  students  who  39  The error  fact  variance  whether  t o be  c o n s t i t u t e s a l a r g e enough s o u r c e  of  cited  by  their  test-wiseness. argument by  First,  low  to  Metfessel  and  quantitative  of  by  (1979) f a i l e d  Sarnacki  of v a r i a n c e which  S c r u g g s and  performance  Lifson  the  data.  be  Despite  results  v a r i a n c e c o n t r i b u t e d by from h a v i n g  been c l e a r l y  Research  in regard  demonstrated  some b i a s o r e r r o r t o t e s t  (1976) s t u d y  in this  in t h i s  skill.  performance.  t o o much, s k i l l  p.  97).  Second, score  and of  y  large'  area  the  source  has  score  However, what  has  contributes  In a d d i t i o n , more  have t o o  1965,  was  or t h e a c t u a l g a i n  to o r i g i n a t e  (Ebel,  and  i s that test-wiseness  r a t h e r than  and  L i f s o n ' s attempt,  measurement e r r o r " i s l i k e l y little,  risk-taking  t o t h e amount of e r r o r  test-wiseness  trained  studies.  because of a l a c k  S c r u g g s and  r e m a i n s unknown.  i n two  for inflated  justified  to  is attributable  of v a r i a n c e .  (1958) argument  c o u l d not  (1985) a r g u e d  further substantiated  fallacies  in Gross's  a l a r g e source  Sax's  a t mixed  obtained  Lifson  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e s t - w i s e n e s s  variance  arrived  S c r u g g s and  p o i n t i n g out  identify  test-wiseness  mythical  next  c o r r e l a t i o n s among t e s t - w i s e n e s s ,  mathematics t e s t unable  The  of is  of c o n c e r n .  the d i s s e r t a t i o n  f o r a source question  demonstrate a l a r g e source to  accounts  seems u n q u e s t i o n a b l e .  test-wiseness  variance that  that test-wiseness  from s t u d e n t s in taking  who tests"  40  2.3  Test-wiseness  2.31  Correlates It  (1965), other or has  was  Research  of  Te s t ~wi s e ne s s  suggested  that  i f the  by  Sarnacki  e s t a b l i s h e d through  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the v a l i d i t y  been e s t a b l i s h e d .  construct  m i g h t be  If not,  has  been  intelligence  (Diamond and  (Bajtelsmit,  1977;  further  found  Evans,  Diamond and  t o be  related  1972), and  Evans,  low  wiseness  (Ardiff,  1965;  (Borrello  intelligence  negative 1977;  and  c o r r e l a t i o n s with Millman  Thompson,  test-takers,  In Diamond and  is related  i t should  relate  Evans' study  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  specific  t e s t - w i s e n e s s cues  grammar).  and  the  The  Iowa T e s t  Rowley,  and  (1972) w i t h  found  between  to  intelligence  (stem-cue, s p e c i f i c  of B a s i c S k i l l s  moderately  were n o t .  intelligence.  six-grade students,  with  Test  (Form 2) were u s e d  (longer a l t e r n a t i v e s  total  and  With the v a r i a b i l i t y  of  and  a  three  determiners  Intelligence  intelligence,  distractors)  test-  to the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y  positively  Lorge-Thorndike  cues  of  personality  scores c o r r e l a t e d specific  1974).  anxiety  Although  two  to  Dunn and G o l d s t e i n ,  m e a s u r e s of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s .  use  the  positively  correlations  test  e t a l . , 1965)  positive  and  of  1985).  Since test-wiseness of  logical  v e r b a l achievement  1972;  obtained  (Bajtelsmit,  and  of t h e c o n s t r u c t  refinement  However, some r e s e a r c h has  1959), and  et a l .  necessary.  Test-wiseness  with  Millman  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e s t - w i s e n e s s  e s t a b l i s h e d c o n s t r u c t s was  theoretical  (1979) and  (Form  AA)  as  test-wiseness the a b i l i t y  overlapping the  to  correlation  between v a r i o u s t e s t - w i s e n e s s c u e s  intelligence, was  specific  Diamond and to c e r t a i n  However, ability  and  guessing, the  and  and it  not  (1965) s t u d y ,  reasoning a b i l i t i e s ) but  not  expected.  and  logical  has  not  that these  deductive  other c o n s t r u c t s i s necessary  1985).  of extraneous sentence  reasoning  of  in order  testto  ( S a r n a c k i , 1979).  been  found  to  correlate  is verbal a b i l i t y .  Since  c u e s r e q u i r e s knowledge of  structure,  i t i s reasonable  t e s t - w i s e n e s s cues  and  similar  a l l have a r r i v e d  e m p i r i c a l evidence  t e s t - w i s e n e s s and  at  or  ability  grammar, to  t o a l s o have h i g h v e r b a l a b i l i t y .  determiner  populations,  of  test-wiseness  using similar  providing  t h a t has  because  to general mental  Further examination  i t s construct v a l i d i t y  Another v a r i a b l e  specific  related  been v e r i f i e d  and  studies  relationship  test-wiseness  to assert  t e s t - w i s e person  Diamond  of  wiseness  and  level.  However, t h e d i s s o c i a t i o n  Lifson,  recognition  at  s t r o n g as i t  and  with  related  as  (Scruggs  a  reading  i s not  s t r a t e g i e s a r e not  vocabulary  trait.  (1965) and  t h a t the  guessing  positively  t o be  six-grade  test-wiseness  several cognitive a b i l i t i e s  establish  a general  were f o u n d  at the  (1972) s t u d i e s s u g g e s t s  intelligence  i s not  test-wiseness  intelligence,  t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between A r d i f f ' s  w o u l d be  that  components of t e s t - w i s e n e s s ( c a r e f u l n e s s ,  and  Evans'  between  c u e s o n l y , and  in Ardiff's  third-grade level  Perhaps,  Evans c o n c l u d e d  and  expect Several  (stem-options,  o p t i o n s ) but  different  similar conclusions,  f o r the  verbal a b i l i t y .  theoretical  relationship  Test-wiseness  was  found  42 t o be  correlated positively  Scholastic Verbal  Aptitude  Test  Achievement Test  with  of  multiple-choice  vocabulary  literature,  As  by  the  test  among h i g h  find  other  populations,  with  school  i f the  in  among a  students  h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with  ( L P I ) , was  as  used  measured  in  same r e l a t i o n s h i p would h o l d  particularly  with  the  this characteristic,  Language P r o f i c i e n c y Index to  Battery  1972); and  seems t o be  Therefore,  study  Skills  c o n s i s t e n t l y demonstrated  test-wiseness  verbal a b i l i t y .  Evans,  the  ( B a j t e l s m i t , 1977);  Iowa B a s i c  (Diamond and  1974).  v e r b a l s c a l e of  among a d u l t s  grade s c h o o l e r s  (Rowley,  the  this  true  with  English-as-a-second-language  students. The further  idea that test-wiseness strengthened  wiseness with (Ferrell, other  by  the  1972;  own  positive  Borrello  and  study  Thompson,  on  of h i g h  school  achievement  demonstrated.  skills  tests  s t u d i e d the  among  Test-wiseness wiseness  was  162 was  p e r f o r m a n c e on  c o r r e l a t e s of  university  reasoning  a  u s e d t o measure t h e  Z;  standardized  The  Borrello  students'  and  test-wiseness Ferrell  elements of  s t r a t e g i e s and  and  and  relationship  Test  of  test-  cue-using  p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s were measured by  Type I n d i c a t o r - F o r m  by  test-wiseness  selected  students.  test-  Supported  Similarly,  u s e d t o measure two  (deductive  strategies); Briggs  was  1985).  students,  and  of  in several studies  c o r r e l a t e s of  between t e s t - w i s e n e s s  Thompson  correlation  achievement, as d e m o n s t r a t e d  empirical literature  Ferrell's  i s a cognitive construct i s  the American  Myers  College  Test  c o g n i t i v e achievement.  43 Results  showed t h a t c o g n i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t  significantly predictors  larger  (iJ^=.l9) w i t h  Thompson's s t u d y primarily  be  The  skills"  was  Working with high  differences  relationship  achievement  test-wiseness.  c o g n i t i v e in nature,  these  (p. of  further  198  s c h o o l , he  choice  He  then  format  interval  of  five  correlations, response  and  he  be  in inclination  students  obtained  from  others  f o r reasons  both  free  i n m a t h e m a t i c s and  that p a r t i a l  favored c e r t a i n  being  to develop  is crucial  to and  (1974).  Ontario  students'  response  with  types  of  vocabulary  an partial  free  Lord's test-wiseness but  not  with  that multiple-choice  e x p l a i n e d by  A l s o , the n a t u r e  in determining  using  the  of e x a m i n e e s and be  with  Using  of  risk-  and m u l t i p l e  vocabulary,  correlations  w h i c h c o u l d not  tested.  may  sensitive  a n x i e t y , t e s t - w i s e n e s s and  Rowley t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d  tests  skills  a southern  i n f o r m a t i o n on  were s i g n i f i c a n t  format  and  i n Rowley's study  tested for significance  found  mathematics.  tested  not  c o r r e c t e d f o r the u n r e l i a b i l i t y  risk-taking  material  may  weeks between a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s .  s c o r e and  statistic,  Borrello  "test-wiseness  and  demonstrated  administered  tests  personality  t e s t - w i s e n e s s and c o g n i t i v e  achievement m o t i v a t i o n , t e s t taking.  shared  128).  nine-grade first  than  2  t h e r e f o r e suggested  personality-related manifest  (R =.5S)  variance  alone  penalized the  of t h e m a t e r i a l b e i n g  which type  of t e s t  format  is  suitable. Moreover, Rowley's study that  t h e use  (1974) f a i l e d  of m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t s  to  demonstrate  would f a v o r or p e n a l i z e  44 students  i n t e r m s of a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n  However, h i s s t u d y between  does not r e f u t e the p o s s i b l e  test-wiseness  wiseness  i n school achievement. a correlation  motivation  as  .60  achiever In f a c t ,  t o .72  Test.  A l s o , Benson  by  Therefore,  this  w i s e n e s s would  study  Russell  (1969)  scores  on  (1988) d i d an e x p l o r a t o r y  i n her study  attempted to f i n d  be r e l a t e d  i t is  California  a n a l y s i s and came up w i t h a f a c t o r  'achievement m o t i v a t i o n '  test-  t o be w e l l  between  a n d a c h i e v e m e n t a s measured  Achievement factor  of  Since  to c o g n i t i v e achievement,  a l s o p e r t i n e n t f o r a h i g h academic  obtained  relationship  and a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n .  i s highly related  motivated  and t e s t - a n x i e t y .  tentatively with  sixth  labelled  graders.  o u t whether  test-  t o the achievement m o t i v a t i o n  of t h e  students. One  of t h e g e n e r a l  test-taking  experience.  significantly previous  (1968)  as w e l l .  s u b j e c t s who conjectured  Second,  showed d e f i c i e n t that their  of r e c e n t  found  intelligence  that t h i r d test  scores  intelligence  or t e s t  formats  First, tests. t o be  studied adult  skills;  d e f i c i e n c y c o u l d have  on  needed  B a j t e l s m i t (1977)  exposure t o t e s t s .  procedures  experience  test-taking  after  tests.  by a number o f f a c t o r s .  test  graders  test-taking  c o u l d not guarantee f u t u r e success  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p r e v i o u s  considered  to test-wiseness i s  (1979) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t  c o u l d be tempered  mere e x p e r i e n c e  testing  related  exposure to three d i f f e r e n t  experience  lack  Kreit  increased their  However, S a r n a c k i  The  factors  and  been due  to a  T h i r d , t h e use of a l t e r n a t e might modify  test-taking  45 experience.  In t h i s  test-taking  experience  hope o f c o n t r i b u t i n g Other include  study,  level,  to the e x i s t i n g  related  Research  sex,  test  Slakter  (1965) r e p o r t e d no r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  Thompson  relationship Sarnacki with  (1985) f a i l e d  and  anxious  own  race.  related to  a negative  2.32  Millman  relationship.  domain,  Borrello  variables.  such as  The e x a m i n e e s may f e e l i s administered  less  stressful  by someone o f t h e i r supported  evidence.  a summary, t e s t - w i s e n e s s a p p e a r s t o achievement and v e r b a l  to test  t o be m o d e r a t e l y  ability;  not highly  and p o s s i b l y  related  negatively  anxiety.  Test-wiseness  straight  eta l .  of test-wiseness  However, s u c h c o n j e c t u r e was n o t w e l l  Multiple-choice being  (1988),  t o demonstrate a s i g n i f i c a n t  i n t e l l i g e n c e and p e r s o n a l i t y ;  related  i s l i m i t e d and  o f t h e e x a m i n e r w h i c h may s e r v e a s g e n e r a l  when t h e t e s t  empirical  s e x was  between t h e two v a r i a b l e s , b u t  of thea f f e c t i v e  cues t o the examinees.  As  anxiety  (1979) d e m o n s t r a t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p  characteristics  of the  l e v e l was.  between t e s t - w i s e n e s s a n d p e r s o n a l i t y  some a r e a s  with  but grade  As p o i n t e d o u t by Benson  (1977) o b s e r v e d  studied  e t a l . (1970) f o u n d  on t e s t - w i s e n e s s a n d t e s t  Bajtelsmit  have been  anxiety, characteristics  to test-wiseness a b i l i t i e s  conflicting.  prior  body o f r e s e a r c h .  of test-wiseness that  examiner and p e r s o n a l i t y . not  between  t e s t - w i s e n e s s was e x a m i n e d , w i t h t h e  correlates  grade  the relationship  and Selection (selection)  forward,  easy  item: items  enjoy  t h e advantage of  t o s c o r e a n d e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d by  46  test-takers; Vick  they  a l s o have some s h o r t c o m i n g s .  (1986) p o i n t e d out  likelihood in  but  that guessing  easily  interact i n an  with  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  resulting  1982).  M u l t i p l e choice questions  inflated  Sarnacki  phenomena.  First,  as a stem and  occur.  Second,  construct  than  selection five  application  of  items.  item, this  reasons  for  this  be  cues  may  to  more s u s c e p t i b l e t o  flaws allowing  the  principles.  item  behavior  of  i s best  test-wiseness  illustrated  p r o p o s e d by  Smith  in  (1980).  in the (see  1)  The take  e t a l . ' s (1965)  a r e more d i f f i c u l t  t e s t - t a k e r makes use  test-taking  to  c o n t a i n many components,  including  answering a m u l t i p l e choice  Figure  two  They may  test-wiseness  a skilled  model of  items  items  test-  (Smith,  o p t i o n s , where t e s t - w i s e n e s s  selection supply  options  a r e o f t e n more v u l n e r a b l e  (1979) s u g g e s t e d  numerous c o n s t r u c t i o n f l a w s  How  the  of  or d e f l a t e d s c o r e s  t e s t - w i s e components as o u t l i n e d i n M i l l m a n taxonomy.  and  In a d d i t i o n , m u l t i p l e c h o i c e  takers,  such  increase  o f m a r k i n g a c o r r e c t answer among a l l t h e  a multiple choice question.  questions  could  Dolly  model r e f l e c t s  various routes a s k i l l e d  t o d e t e r m i n e what o p t i o n and  which routes are  to s e l e c t  used.  on  There are  examinee  may  a multiple choice f o u r components  in  model: A.  the  c o g n i t i v e monitor  going B.  the  t o be  u s e d t o answer t h e  individual's  to the  trait  which c o n t r o l s which s k i l l s  abilities  being  and  measured;  item  skills  are  ; that are  related  47  C. t h e s e t o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h a r e to D.  relevant  t h e t e s t ; and  the response recording  of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( t h e s e l e c t i o n and of a  choice).  Cognitive Monitor for Test Taking (A) No  solution  Found  Most  D e f i n i t i o n of Appropriate Strategies  A b i l i t i e s Relevant to T r a i t Being Measured (B)  Solution  1 ;  D e t e r m i n a t i o n of Need f o r Cues  Test-wiseness S t r a t e g i e s Relevant to Author(s) S t y l e (C)  <—  1  Found  Best Guess  Response and Refinement of Test-wiseness (D) Figure  Takers  Taken  Relevant Strategies  S m i t h ' s M o d e l of T e s t Test  l i k e l y Choice(s) Determined  (Smith,  Taking 1980)  Behavior  of  Skilled  Smith read  (1980) s u g g e s t e d  that a s k i l l e d  t h e stem o f a m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e i t e m  recognize, tested,  using  what  knowledge a b o u t  test  taker  and t h e n  the p e r c e i v e d  attempted to  content  listed.  I f t h e answer was  would a p p l y  the s e t of t e s t - w i s e n e s s  she  possessed.  When a match was made, a t e s t - w i s e  was  recorded.  the  t e s t - t a k e r has e x h a u s t e d a l l of h i s or her  I f t h e r e was  the s k i l l e d Therefore,  test-wiseness, being  i s supported  Hermann  taker  were  between  selection  items  by e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h .  (1969) f o u n d  ambiguous  a significant  items.  performed e q u a l l y w e l l  between However,  However,  little  items and  could  high  items,  i n both  (1974) a l s o f o u n d  test-wiseness  specifically,  that  was  types  favor c e r t a i n  in risk-taking  and  score.  test-  Alker,  they  correlation  failed  of  to  to  penalized  s i n c e the  Carlson,  students  students  questions.  high p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s  found  Rowley's study  test  positive  and m u l t i p l e c h o i c e  effect  content  p e r f o r m a n c e and a b i l i t y  favorable to supply  Rowley  respond  f u r t h e r suggests  demonstrate that m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s who  test-wiseness  would p r o b a b l y  S m i t h ' s model  between m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t recognize  response  t e s t - w i s e cues or because  c o n t r i b u t e t o any s t u d e n t ' s  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  test  item  s t r a t e g i e s t h a t he o r  i n a d d i t i o n t o knowledge of t h e t e s t  tested, w i l l  wiseness  no  from  n o t f o u n d , he o r  she  randomly.  being  he o r she b e l i e v e d t o be t h e c o r r e c t answer  among t h e o p t i o n s  strategies,  first  test  on s u p p l y  showed  that  e x a m i n e e s who  propensity.  scores.  items.  More  t h e use of  selection  were h i g h l y  test-wise  However,  the extent  to  49  which these test;  examinees are  a verbal  test  favored  d e p e n d s on  the  nature  seems more s u s c e p t i b l e t h a n a  of  numerical  test. Furthermore, m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e questions 'convergence related  to the  which the  is first  followed  d i s t r a c t o r s are  correctness  (Smith,  p r o c e d u r e of  stem  formulated, The  strategy'  with  by  1982).  developing  the  the  to the  demonstrated  stem and  t o the  c o n v e r g e on  the  correct option  strategy  performed  Aptitude  Test  instruction out, major  school  other  susceptibility flaw  students  verbal  items.  demonstrates a p e c u l i a r i t y  of  interaction  being  concern  with  to test  particularly content  areas  the  the  trait  this  constructors.  without  provincial  Such  students  being  giving  by  to  chance  a Scholastic  As  who  Smith  received  pointed  s t r a t e g y d i d not More i m p o r t a n t ,  type  of  item  and  measured, which  Therefore,  multiple-choice questions  i n the  converge.  than d i d those  convergence  in multiple choice  will  the  t r a i n e d i n convergence  test-taking skills. to the  would s e l e c t  r e s p o n s e s were f o u n d  b e t t e r on  subtest  of  c o r r e c t answer.  more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n  significantly  (SAT)  on  Students'  degrees  i n which the  response options  questions.  high  individual  is  distractors.  various the  i n h i s study  the  Also,  of  correct option  stem o f  alone.  s e l e c t i o n items i n  generation  because the  were e x p o s e d o n l y  is  the  correct  was  strategy  c o r r e c t response  that a test-wise  assertion  susceptible a  w r i t t e n , then the  Smith a s s e r t e d option  This  usually written with  regard  are  this of  examinations.  the  it  its  i s of  study  mean a  greater  examined  selected  50  Test-wiseness  2.33  As  studies  (Benson,  be  1972; P r e l l  be r e d u c e d  their  Nevertheless,  skill,  demonstrated. improve  those  study,  He n o t e d  More  reliable  In t h e i r  would  who d i d n o t p o s s e s s o r  with  t h e above  individual differences  of test-wiseness  he p o i n t e d  group r e l a t i v e out that  of scores"  did to the  "the t r a i n i n g  individuals,  increasing  ( p . 5 2 ) . In h i s  seemed t o i n f l a t e  rather  variability.  e t a l . (1970) a l s o a r r i v e d  study,  t o assume  i n t e s t - w i s e n e s s was  d i f f e r e n c e s between  score  or had  and they  findings conflicted  an i n c r e a s e o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s  reduce t e s t  factor  1964; S l a k t e r e t a l . ,  that t r a i n i n g  important,  that  skill.  d i s p e r s i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n  Slakter  possessed  i t w o u l d be l o g i c a l l y  and u n t r a i n e d group  a l s o accentuated  than  I f students  the performance of the t r a i n e d  untrained.  study,  on t e s t s due t o t h i s  two s t u d i e s ( G i b b ,  In Gibb's  between t r a i n e d  the  on t h i s  seemed t o d e m o n s t r a t e  argument.  i n various  were somehow  s c o r e s would be l e s s v a r i a b l e ,  n o t been t r a i n e d  1970)  scores  1986;. S a r n a c k i ,  of test-wiseness  or" e l i m i n a t e d . "  on t h i s  test  test  The r e s e a r c h a l s o s u g g e s t e d  a more homogeneous g r o u p than  had  and P r e l l ,  or eliminated, v a r i a b i l i t y  been t r a i n e d that  to students'  1988; C r e h a n e t a l . , 1974; K a l e c h s t e i n e t  the d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s  could  Score:  t h a t t e s t - w i s e n e s s has  of variance  S l a k t e r e t a l . , 1970).  reduced  Test  and i t was w e l l d e m o n s t r a t e d  1981; O a k l a n d ,  1979; if  one s o u r c e  unquestionable,  al.,  of  d i s c u s s e d above, t h e f a c t  contributed was  and Variability  senior high  school  at similar  students  were  findings.  randomly  51  assigned text  t o two g r o u p s :  one g r o u p was t r a i n e d  of s e l e c t e d aspects  received  a programmed  text designed  items  on an e x a m i n a t i o n  found  t o be e f f e c t i v e  program d e c r e a s e d  the test  teaching  reduction  of v a r i a b i l i t y  could  not expect Test  the  their  Slakter study This  score variance.  i n test  the t o t a l  on t e s t - w i s e n e s s .  examined  i n order  would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  students  who p o s s e s s e d  Test-wiseness In M i l l m a n  less  objective  tests  cultural  and real  Lifson  o f t h e same  (1985),  conceptions  test-wiseness  of test-wise  from t h a t o f t h o s e skill.  Differences: of t e s t -  out that test-wiseness  found i n  determined.  However,  research  was s c a t t e r e d a n d  a t any c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t s .  i n h i s review  Scruggs  of t h e c u r r e n t m y t h i c a l and  of test-wiseness,  skills  arguments.  article  was c u l t u r a l l y  to arrive  more e m p i r i c a l  their  different  addressed i n  (1964) a n d  some e v i d e n c e ,  differences i n test-wiseness  insufficient  reduced.  been d i r e c t l y  to verify  they  be low a n d one  t o be  e t a l . ' s (1965) s e m i n a l  i t was p o i n t e d  they  aspects of  Though G i b b  and Cultural  wiseness,  on  still  i f the score v a r i a b i l i t y  students  2.34  would  variability  e t a l . (1970) p r o v i d e d  study  Moreover,  only mastered c e r t a i n  attainment  would be needed  Therefore,  the R  would n o t guarantee a  score.  score variance has r a r e l y  literature  E a c h programmed t e x t was  test-wiseness  i f students  test-wiseness,  group  i n i n c r e a s i n g mean s c o r e b u t o n l y  that  that  and t h e other  t o teach answering a l l  (R p r o g r a m ) .  concluded  claimed  of test-wiseness;  on a programmed  pointed  t h a t d e f i c i e n c y on  e x h i b i t e d by m i n o r i t y g r o u p s have  simply  52  been assumed r a t h e r t h a n r e s e a r c h has The  earliest  facilities students  was  on  comparative  with p a r t i c u l a r  performance.  found  Other  facility  Attempting Setijadi  Indonesian  study  item  deficit.  with  respect to  H i s study  two  students  on  not  national  test  may  national  to v a l i d a t e Vernon's  (1966) compared  was  test  and  the  groups  (1962) s t a t e m e n t ,  of A l g e b r a  test  A l l students  the  students Their  had  no  results  a d v a n t a g e on Indonesian  year  prior  experience  a l g e b r a , but  with  students  answer.  students  with  experience  little  evaluated adversely A m a j o r i t y of groups tests  in national r e s e a r c h on  enjoyed  items. an  the  also  suggested  o b j e c t i v e items  testing  that  might  be  programs.  t e s t - w i s e n e s s among e t h n i c  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has or  -  w i t h t h e m e c h a n i c s of  T h e i r study with  and  Indonesian  objective test  were f a m i l i a r i z e d  the c o r r e c t  achievement  completed  t h e o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s , even a f t e r  choosing  /cultural  had  of e l e m e n t a r y  showed t h a t A m e r i c a n  students  Millman  items  with  o f one  the  t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of A m e r i c a n  three types  the  groups.  poor m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e items  equivalent  and  also affect  plausible  options.  in test  testing  with  implausible  that  reason  open ended q u e s t i o n s , good m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e i t e m s o p t i o n s and  American  suggested  s u c h a s method of  of d i f f e r e n t  little  that  formats  between t h e  factors,  relatively  (1962) w i t h B r i t i s h  i n h a n d l i n g the  assessment process  and  identifying  done by V e r n o n  differences  subjects'  on  reading comprehension.  familiarity for  focused  documented, and  standardized test  f o c u s s e d on  lower  s c o r e s t h a t were  caused  53 by  cultural  students. training  differences, particularly  American m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n  Dreibach  1976)  on t e s t - w i s e n e s s  investigated 43 B l a c k  performed  that  and Keogh,  the e f f e c t  group  Black,  receiving inner-city  test-taking  skills. taught  kindergarten  children  performed  children  i n both  R e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e skill  b e t t e r on t h e SAT t h a n no s i m i l a r children  skills  training).  the c o n t r o l They  b e n e f i t t e d from Dreisbach  test-wiseness  skills  concluded  instruction in  and Keogh  (1982)  t o Mexican-American  f r o m a low s o c i o e c o n o m i c  b e t t e r on a R e a d i n e s s T e s t  E n g l i s h and S p a n i s h  training)  level. than  Trained  untrained  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of that  A l s o , p e r f o r m a n c e was i m p r o v e d when t h e t e s t . w a s  taken on  on t e s t - t a k i n g  received test-taking  Likewise,  successfully  children  of i n s t r u c t i o n  (those  (e.g., F r i e r s o n ,  K a l e c h s t e i n e t a l . (1981)  children.  significantly  (those  test.  or H i s p a n i c  (e.g., K a l e c h s t e i n e t a l . ,  1982) o r a d u l t s  skills.  inner-city  experimental  group  black  Hence, much a t t e n t i o n h a s been drawn t o r e s e a r c h on  1981;  of  with  i n Spanish,  then  i n E n g l i s h ; b u t no i n f l u e n c e o f E n g l i s h  s u b s e q u e n t p e r f o r m a n c e was f o u n d  administration  was r e v e r s e d .  may be p a r t i c u l a r l y economically primary  first  important  disadvantaged  when t h e l a n g u a g e o f  They commented, when t e s t i n g  "test-wiseness  children  from  b a c k g r o u n d s a n d / o r where t h e  l a n g u a g e o f t h e home i s n o t s t a n d a r d  E n g l i s h " (p.  228). The Keogh,  above s t u d i e s  1982) e v a l u a t e d  subsequent  ( K a l e c h s t e i n e t a l . , 1981; D r e i b a c h a n d t h e impact  of t e s t - t r a i n i n g  s c o r e s on a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t ,  on t h e  and c o n c l u d e d  that  these  minority  these  standardized tests.  validly First, black  students  addressed without  comparing  told  wiseness. groups,  the  f o r low  left  have  not  performance  of  test-wiseness  differences in  referring  to other  training  socio-economic  in doing  investigation.  groups, the  about c u l t u r a l  the  skills  results  their  exposure to a  i s s u e of whether  p o p u l a t i o n s was  test-  comparable  was  particularly  s t a t u s or m i n o r i t y  unanswered  in Dreisbach  and  Keogh's  study.  Likewise, conducted minority  to address  populations children  test-wiseness wiseness  subtest  failed  students  directly  performed  of  predict  wiseness,  one  nor  test  in test-wiseness  However, t h e s e supporting McPhail's  black  the the  verbal  Achievement T e s t . that  scores.  be  the used  Their  minority  Again,  level  of  was  their  study  test-  to p r e d i c t  cultural  in general.  studies provided  some e m p i r i c a l  (1978) a s s e r t i o n t h a t  a  test-  that test-wiseness  m i n o r i t y g r o u p on  t h e r e f o r e i t c o u l d not  differences  whether  However,  s c o r e s on  the assumption  achievement  (1976)  i s s u e of  s c o r e s on  the C a l i f o r n i a  lacked test-wiseness,  examined o n l y  the  Green  s i g n i f i c a n t l y above c h a n c e on  A l s o , the  d i d not  to support  to t h e i r  F i s h m a n and  lacked test-wiseness.  instrument.  instrument  achievement results  Diamond, A y r e s ,  a study  inner-city  related  after  little  of  to other  Second, without  important  (1982)  However, t h e i r  the q u e s t i o n s  second graders  treatment  lacked test-wiseness  evidence  test-wiseness  55  studies  on  b l a c k and  minority students  were  still  inconclusive. Perhaps,  cross-cultural  the unanswered q u e s t i o n s . the e f f e c t s  of  would a d d r e s s  Benson e t a l . (1986)  test-wiseness t r a i n i n g  g r a d e B l a c k , W h i t e and experimental  comparison  with  Mexican-American  third  among them.  instruction  on  directions,  time-using,  two  experimental  four t e s t - t a k i n g  guessing,  and  r a c e , the  then  training  students, except and  Hispanic  fifth  performed  Although  initial  Reading  t o f a v o r the  similarly  t e s t - w i s e n e s s was  evidence  certain  student  testing  situations  develop  remediation  equity  with  p o i n t e d out  subgroups  failed  or d i f f e r e n t techniques  their  e f f e c t i v e n e s s by  that understanding to apply  test and  terms  white  third  assumed t o be  showed no  However, t h e y  In  white  a c r o s s the  for low-achieving minority students,  group.  The  and  i n which the  effective  for d i f f e r e n t i a l  received  - following  month l a t e r .  i n t h e d e l a y e d math t e s t  students  grades.  tended  (no  answer-changing.  t e s t e d a g a i n one effects  fifth  Both  group then  strategies  g r o u p s were p o s t - t e s t e d u s i n g t h e SAT  M a t h e m a t i c s , and of  The  and  control  t r a i n i n g ) g r o u p s were p r e - t e s t e d t o i d e n t i f y differences  investigated  students.  ( t e s t - w i s e n e s s t r a i n i n g ) and  some of  test  formats  and  more  study ethnic why  strategies  would h e l p  on  to  improve t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  for a l l students.  Apart  from  Black  and  (1973) and  Wu  the t e s t - w i s e n e s s Hispanic c u l t u r a l  and  s t u d i e s done groups,  predominantly  Lo and S l a k t e r ' s  S l a k t e r ' s (1978) s t u d i e s w i t h  Chinese  56  s t u d e n t s have a l s o been commonly u s e d  to demonstrate  differences  Slakter  Grade  in test-wiseness.  12 C h i n e s e and A m e r i c a n  b e h a v i o r and city  Lo and  test-wiseness.  i n N o r t h e r n Taiwan,  s t u d e n t s on Drawn f r o m  131  Chinese  (1973) compared  their  two  cultural  risk-taking  high schools in a  s t u d e n t s were  administered  a Chinese version  of S t a n d a r d E d u c a t i o n a l  Intelligence  Test  c o n t a i n e d two  taking and  (SEIT) which  on O b j e c t i v e E x a m i n a t i o n  parts:  (RTOOE) m e a s u r e d  (II) content-free multiple-choice  (I) r i s k  risk  items measured  taking, four  test-wiseness behaviors (stem-options, absurd-options, similar-options, showed t h a t  and  Chinese  s c o r e s on a l l f o u r counterparts, Also,  but  they found  rather  specific  inability  t e s t - w i s e n e s s s u b s c a l e s than no d i f f e r e n c e s  that  Chinese  of C h i n e s e  system  and  Chinese  language.  L i k e w i s e , Wu  options with a s p e c i f i c  to detect  a different  and  were o b s e r v e d  s t u d e n t s tended  the d i f f e r e n c e s  writing  Slakter  i n the cues  students  urban  t o Lo and SEIT  Slakter's  items  in part  the t h r e e grade  and  and  levels  American  i n RTOOE. to  select,  determiner.  s u b s c a l e s to the  eleven  different  different  were u s e d .  forms They  and  Chinese  s c h o o l s i n Taiwan.  s e c t i o n s were u s e d .  I I and  their  from a v a s t l y  (1973) s t u d y , a C h i n e s e  w i t h t h e same two  choice of  rural  four  lower mean  (1978) examined r i s k - t a k i n g eight,  both  results  mode o f e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e  t e s t - w i s e n e s s of Grade f i v e , from  Their  students obtained s i g n i f i c a n t l y  than e l i m i n a t e ,  They a t t r i b u t e d  determiners).  Similar  translation Different of SEIT found  of  multiple  f o r each  that  the  57 relationship Chinese  of g r a d e  students  than  students, higher lower  graders.  examinations  f o r American  graders  students.  The  for further teacher  and  authors  to pass  to respond  to maturation  eliminate The  that Chinese  options with a b o v e two  test-wiseness. lower  be  b e c a u s e of  test-taking  the  about d i f f e r e n c e s  questionable  remained, or hold  i f the  t r u e when t h e y  i f the  groups.  with  tests. to  be Wu  the rather  than  structural  support  f o r American  seemed  consistently their  their  research  flaws.  First,  any  two  the  conclusive  cultural  c u e s of t h e  been t r a n s l a t e d  in  firmly  However,  prohibited  between t h e  students  differences  posed a t h r e a t to  same t e s t - w i s e n e s s had  the  simply  American  than  to address  validity  was  and  some m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  and  Also,  to select  strategies  cultural  instrument,  higher  may  s t u d i e s d i d not  of S E I T i n t o C h i n e s e  It  tended  for Chinese  justified  exhibited  support  for cultural  their  the  determiners.  translation  statements  further  students  score  d e m o n s t r a t e d between two r e s u l t s c o u l d not  grades  or more e x p e r i e n c e  specific  Although  students, d i f f e r e n t  of  s c o r e s than  explained that  s t u d i e s with Chinese  test-wiseness  questions  Chinese  hence were o f t e n  s c o r e s over  seem t o p r o v i d e some e v i d e n c e  a  risk  to a l l items.  S l a k t e r (1978) a l s o p r o v i d e d  observation  For  for  highly competitive  education,  i n c r e a s e of t e s t - w i s e n e s s attributed  quite different  students.  obtained higher  s t u d e n t s had  e n c o u r a g e d by  w i t h RTOOE was  However, t h e o p p o s i t e p a t t e r n was  among A m e r i c a n grade Chinese  level  strategies  two  groups. versions  would  i n t o another  still  language.  58  In o t h e r  words, t h e i r  differences  resulted  p r o b l e m s , or although Chinese  real  they and  their  rather one  students  some i m p o r t a n t  i s not  What  in test  two  other  All  the  s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e on  American  American  counterparts.  scored  and  but favor  Other  samples.  Slakter  on than  and  t h e RTOOE t h a n this  study,  e t h n i c g r o u p s and  (1969) showed t h a t their  very  little  test-wiseness the  educational  of any d i f f e r e n c e s . attempted  S l a k t e r ' s (1973) and  Chinese  sake,  to  cultural differences  been done i n Canada t o examine  study  to provide  i s o f more c o n c e r n  eighth graders  lower  among d i f f e r e n t  This  any  results.  on A m e r i c a n  students  implications  or  not  affect  g r o u p s t h a t would  the  Canadian  did  enough t o  examinations  tests.  they  t h e d i f f e r e n c e f o r i t s own  compared C a n a d i a n and  the  Second,  in test-wiseness,  over  behavior  whether  d i f f e r e n c e s between  d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t  were b a s e d e n t i r e l y  and  some c u l t u r a l  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  r e s e a r c h has  address  differences in test-wiseness.  or achievement  educators  c o u l d not  language d i f f e r e n c e s , t r a n s l a t i o n  demonstrated  s c o r e s on  standardized the  from  American  show i f t h e s e  results  t o overcome t h e major Wu  and  students.  of  S l a k t e r ' s (1978) s t u d i e s  some e m p i r i c a l work of Canadian  flaws  the  test-taking  Lo and  behaviors  of  59  CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY The  principal  the c u l t u r a l  objective  differences  of t h i s  i n t e s t - w i s e n e s s between C h i n e s e a n d  Canadian  s t u d e n t s ; a n d t h e impact  Columbia  Grade  students  in British  12 P r o v i n c i a l  administered provincial was  t o Grade  checked,  coded,  r e s u l t s among C h i n e s e the Test  Survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e  of T e s t -  were  s t u d e n t s who w r o t e t h e  i n January  1990.  Completed  test  data  s c o r e d , a n a l y z e d , a n d compared w i t h t h e  same d a t a f r o m C a n a d i a n examinations  Briefly,  12 C h i n e s e  examinations  o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s on B r i t i s h  Examination  Columbia.  wiseness and t h e Student  s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e  i n June  s t u d e n t s who w r o t e  1989.  t h e methods u t i l i z e d  Specific  i s described  the p r o v i n c i a l  information  under  pertaining to  separate headings  below.  3.1  Subjects The  C h i n e s e sample u s e d  Coquitlam College. composed  largely  Canada t o p u r s u e Forty-one Chinese the Grade provincial ethnic  collected  of f o r e i g n senior  community  s t u d e n t s from A s i a ,  Algebra, Physics, i n January  was C h i n e s e were Canadian  by R o g e r s  college  who came t o  h i g h s c h o o l and t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n .  s u b j e c t s were o b t a i n e d from  examinations  A comparable  s t u d y was o b t a i n e d f r o m  I t i s an i n d e p e n d e n t  12 E n g l i s h ,  background  in this  and/or  1990.  Only  included  t h o s e who History  s u b j e c t s whose  i n the study.  sample was o b t a i n e d from  and Bateson  wrote  (1990a) i n t h e i r  the data  s t u d y on t h e  60 impact  o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s upon p r o v i n c i a l  performance the  of Grade  10 s c h o o l s t h e y  s u b j e c t s was drawn Algebra, 10  English,  12 s t u d e n t s .  those  a random sample o f  i n June  a c r o s s t h e Lower M a i n l a n d ,  C o a s t a l area of B r i t i s h  selected  schools cover  Columbia.  a sample t h a t  English,  study  (1990a),  Since the Chinese  foreign  s t u d e n t s who r e c e n t l y  students  i n June  of the Chinese  in this  sample  1989 i n  in this  i n Canada,  in this  study  in this  study with  as ' f o r e i g n  s e c t i o n s ) were compared w i t h study  (1990a).  analyses.  students  Chinese'  those Chinese  i n the students  S i n c e t h e y have been  t o Canada, t h e y a r e t h e r e f o r e t e r m e d a s ' C h i n e s e t h e subsequent  other between  Therefore, the Chinese  (distinguished  Rogers and Bateson's  they  p o p u l a t i o n s i n Canada.  students  and t e s t - w i s e n e s s .  origin  s t u d y were a l l  i n Canada f o r a much l o n g e r p e r i o d and a r e l a r g e l y  in  12  s t u d e n t s may h e l p t o r e v e a l any r e l a t i o n s h i p  subsequent  range  students of Chinese  came t o s t u d y  may n o t r e p r e s e n t o t h e r C h i n e s e  in  C e n t r a l , and  r e p r e s e n t s a good  P h y s i c s , and/or H i s t o r y  study.  ethnicity  The  Therefore, the  were s o r t e d o u t t o compare w i t h t h e C h i n e s e  used  1989.  among a l l t h e s t u d e n t s who w r o t e G r a d e  R o g e r s and B a t e s o n ' s  Chinese  12  ability.  Further,  Comparison  Canadian  s t u d e n t s who w r o t e G r a d e  Northern  Algebra,  t h e 936 s t u d e n t s i n  P h y s i c s , and/or H i s t o r y  schools d i s t r i b u t e d  of a c a d e m i c  Among  investigated, from  examination  immigrants immigrants'  61  3.2  Instrumentations  3.21  Grade  Twelve  Provincial  Examinations  P e r f o r m a n c e on t h e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e i t e m s examinations in  ( f o r Canadian  the January  and Chinese  1990 e x a m i n a t i o n s  immigrant  (for foreign  s t u d e n t s ) were t h e d e p e n d e n t o r c r i t e r i o n m a j o r h y p o t h e s i s a n d h y p o t h e s i s two. these  i n t h e June 1989 s t u d e n t s ) and  Chinese  variable  The t e s t  f o r the  results for  s u b j e c t a r e a s were p r o v i d e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f  Education. 3.22  Test  The  of  Test-wiseness  Test of Test-wiseness  developed  from  (1966),  and S l a k t e r  be c o n t e n t  thecontent  designed  to assess  F o r some i t e m s ,  reasoning  s t u d y was  I t was m o d i f i e d a n d (1964),  This test  Millman  was d e s i g n e d t o  t h e r e was no c o r r e c t  fictitious.  four d i f f e r e n t  1. t h r e e d e d u c t i v e  answer  The i n s t r u m e n t was  aspects of test-wiseness: strategies:  ID1  - e l i m i n a t e o p t i o n s known t o be i n c o r r e c t ,  ID2  - choose n e i t h e r or both imply  ID3  o f two o p t i o n s w h i c h  t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f each  o t h e r , and  - c h o o s e n e i t h e r o r one o f two o p t i o n s , one o f which,  i fcorrect,  incorrectness 2.  by G i b b  e t a l . (1970).  was e n t i r e l y  in this  (1990b).  t h e items developed  free.  E)  (TTW) u s e d  by R o g e r s a n d B a t e s o n  adapted  since  (see Appendix  would  imply t h e  of t h e o t h e r ; and  one c u e - u s i n g s t r a t e g y : IIB4 - r e c o g n i z e and use s i m i l a r i t i e s stem a n d t h e o p t i o n s .  between t h e  62 The  selection  most  of these  t e s t - w i s e n e s s e l e m e n t s was b a s e d  f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g item  multiple-choice examinations  items  Chemistry,  guessing  was a l s o  courses  included.  evenly  across  10  from  items  Section  four content  but  students  - "zero p o i n t s w i l l  (for  was  minutes.  in Table  3.  involving Columbia.  t o s e l e c t an  1990b).  936 s t u d e n t s  A l l the students  Students  recorded  answer  sheets  time  of Test-wiseness i s  of t h i s  enrolled  answered  Administration  The c o m p o s i t i o n  i n 10 p u b l i c  question  s u b j e c t s ) o r on t h e t e s t  subjects).  and v a l i d i t y  In  i s a correction for  t o each omitted  A copy o f t h e T e s t  i n Appendix E.  reliability  1990b).  S e c t i o n I was  f o r each q u e s t i o n  immigrant  Chinese  included  The  - English,  and Bateson,  on s e p a r a t e m a c h i n e - s c o r e a b l e  (for foreign  thirty  enrollments  that there  and Bateson,  Canadian and Chinese  booklet  o f f o u r G r a d e 12  S e c t i o n I I was made up o f  be g i v e n  be d e d u c t e d  (Rogers  responses  a n d was  and f o u r - o p t i o n m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e .  I I , s u b j e c t s were t o l d  two p o i n t s w i l l  their  (Rogers  four p o s s i b l e options.  incorrectly"  areas  i n w h i c h s u b j e c t s were a s k e d  - true/false  guessing  face v a l i d i t y , the  was made up o f two s e c t i o n s .  composed o f 24 i t e m s answer  s e c t i o n on  was u n f a m i l i a r t o t h e s t u d e n t s  A l g e b r a , H i s t o r y , and B i o l o g y test  A separate  To p r o v i d e  t h a t have t h e l a r g e s t  The  from t h e  i n c l u d e d i n t h e 1988 p r o v i n c i a l  and A l g e b r a .  of t h e items  distributed  identified  i n t h e s u b j e c t s of E n g l i s h , Geography, H i s t o r y ,  Biology,  content  faults  on t h e  of the t e s t  test  were  i s shown  assessed  s c h o o l s throughout  British  i n E n g l i s h 12 p r o v i n c i a l  63  examination  i n June  1989.  economic background represented  and  g e n d e r and  They c o v e r e d a d i v e r s e  a wide range ethnic  groups  socio-  of a c h i e v e m e n t ,  and  distribution  the  of  province.  Table  3  Composition  of the T e s t of  Test-wiseness Subject  Areas  Test-wiseness Elements Algebra  " Biology  History  English  3*  7  13,17  9,22  6  12,18  21  4,15  16,23  1  5  10,20  14  2,24  8,19  11  5  6  6  7  Guessing  3  5,6  2  Non-guessing  8  1  2  3"  Section I Absurd  0ptions(ID1)  Similar  0ptions(ID2)  Different (ID3)  Options  Stem-options (IIB4)  Link  Total  Items  No.  Section  Total * =  of  II  No.  of  Items  i t e m number  The  (see Appendix  psychometric in Table  4.  As  seen  (internal  consistency) indices  7  4 2  3  E)  properties  presented  9,10  of t h i s  in Table  instrument 4,  the  i n s u b t e s t s ID1,  are  reliability ID2,  ID3,  and  64  IIB4 are of  the  and  relatively  students  low  Table  which  internal  Bateson,  low.  I t was  t o the  random  responses  i n t u r n c o n t r i b u t e d t o measurement  c o n s i s t e n c y of t h e  instrument  (Rogers  error  and  1990a).  4  Psychometric  P r o p e r t i e s of  Subtests  Absurd  Max.  Options(ID2)  Different  Options(ID3)  Stem-options L i n k ( l I B 4 ) Test-wiseness  Total  Guessing  The  validity  interviews.  Two  administration  of t h i s  of  schools  (n = 41) i n the  interviewer  to  initial  are doing"  the  14 q u e s t i o n s . i n order  or  "how  SD  Rel.  SEM  1 .02 ,  .22  6  3.,70  1 .30 .  .36  6  3..06  1 .23 ,  .16  1 .02 ,  6  3..47  1 .23 ,  .24  1 .00 ,  .95  14..0  2,.79  .37  2,.17  24  15,.70  4 .76  .50  3,.21  was  assessed  the data  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s , (n  sample.  = 36)  d i d you  The to  by  individual  collection  were o b t a i n e d  and from  of the  a subsample low  get your  t h e method by  of or  of the" 10  s t u d e n t s were a s k e d  " d e s c r i b e and  group  s c o r i n g (11  s i x out  by  the  e x p l a i n what  answer" f o r e a c h  T h e i r comments were r e c o r d e d  to determine  i  24  "think aloud",  you  M  1 .27 ,  or a b o v e )  students  Test-wiseness  3.,66  test  the T e s t  of  6  weeks a f t e r  t h e h i g h s c o r i n g (17 below)  the T e s t  Score  Options(IDI)  Similar  form  due  on  which the  a  of  different  students  65  arrived  at t h e i r  validation  answers.  i s presented  The  in Table  items  i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix  Table  5  Composition  of  composition  the Test  5 and  of  t h e TTW  the c o n t e n t  for  of  these  C.  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s  for Validation  Subject Areas Test-wiseness Elements Algebra Absurd  Options  Similar  Different  Options  Stem-options  Link  Guessing  *  9  8  -  4,7  -  -  2,5  1  6  10  3  13  -  1 1  14  Options  History  Biology  Non-guessing Total  No.  of  12 Items  * = i t e m number  3  were a l s o  test-wiseness scored  any  recorded.  C)  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by  Results  were b e i n g  indicated  used  by  the  students  11  r a t h e r than  a p p l y i n g any  of t h e  wiseness  skills  wise  or a b o v e ) and  consistently.  The  cut-off  t e s t - n a i v e (11  standard  appeared  d e v i a t i o n above and  to  who be  test-  criteria  o r below)  the  that several  s c o r e d below  randomly  one  0  T h o s e who  guessing  approximately  5  additional  strategies  17 o r more.  (17  6  (see Appendix  S t r a t e g i e s and students  English  of  test-  was below t h e mean  66  in  the Section  I o f t h e TTW o f t h e i n i t i a l  SD  = 2.8) ( R o g e r s a n d B a t e s o n , However, t h e r e s u l t s  meaningful  i f they  (M = 1 3 . 9 ,  sample  1990b).  of this  test  would be more  are i n t e r p r e t e d i n the l i g h t  of a  phenomenon p r o p o s e d by S m i t h  (1980) a n d a l s o o b s e r v e d by  Rogers and Bateson  As t h e y  (1990b).  must have knowledge o f t h e c o n t e n t apply  a test-wise  which  i s flawed  with  strategy  Student  3.23  This 1.  instrument  Students cultural  2.  This Russell's scale  (see Appendix  d i d n o t have  were u n a b l e t o engage a  D)  was made up o f f o u r s e c t i o n s .  Information were a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y  their  own e t h n i c o r  i n f o r m a t i o n about  their  previous  examinations.  Motivation  s e c t i o n i s composed o f 16 i t e m s (1969) T e s t  adapted  of Achievement M o t i v a t i o n .  c o n s i s t e d o f 30 i t e m s  in  reading,  mathematics and language.  be  reliable  and v a l i d  d e s i r e t o compete.  from The o r i g i n a l  w h i c h measure s t u d y i n g ,  w i l l i n g n e s s t o compete, a n d p e r c e i v e d  motivation  item  knowledge  motivation,  and  they can  t o answer t h e i t e m .  i n writing multiple-choice  Achievement  students  I f students  d i d n o t have  t e s t e d , they  r o o t , and p r o v i d e  experience  they  i n an a t t e m p t  Survey  Background  tested before  t e s t - w i s e cues.  t o the content  test-wise  out,  s t r a t e g y t o answer a m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e  knowledge o r b e l i e v e d t h a t relevant  pointed  The i t e m s  school  achievement were f o u n d t o  f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of w i l l i n g n e s s t o t r y Product  moment c o r r e l a t i o n s o f  s c o r e s and achievement  scores  (California  67  Achievement all  T e s t ) ranged  had a r e l i a b i l i t y  3. S e n t e n c e  of  The c h o s e n  r a n g i n g from  .75 t o .95.  3 and 4 of the Student Survey  Proficiency  16 i t e m s  Usage  Index  Measurement R e s e a r c h G r o u p  Language  The for  coefficient  f r o m t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y  Educational 3.24  .60 t o .72.  S t r u c t u r e a n d 4. E n g l i s h  Both o f S e c t i o n s adapted  from  were  ( L P I ) d e v e l o p e d by  (EMRG)  Index  Language P r o f i c i e n c y  Index  (LPI) i s a t e s t  designed  the post secondary schools t o determine a student's l e v e l competence  in English  e s s a y c o m p o s i t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n o f  common e r r o r s  in English  usage  and sentence  construction  (Educational  R e s e a r c h Measurement G r o u p ,  is  u s e d by 10 p o s t - s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s  currently  Columbia  to place  newly  EMRG, 1989).  The LPI  in British  admitted students i n a s u i t a b l e  first-  year E n g l i s h course. The  L P I i s composed o f f o u r  Structure,  (2) E n g l i s h Usage,  s e c t i o n s - (1) S e n t e n c e  (3) P a r a g r a p h  Development,  S t r u c t u r e a n d C o n t e n t , a n d (4) E s s a y W r i t i n g . s e c t i o n s a r e made up o f 30 s h o r t various topics development,  English  The e s s a y s e c t i o n  different  markers.  Columbia  These  These  (multiple-choice)  marks a r e t r a n s l a t e d  t h r o u g h EMRG i n v a r i o u s  three  and t h e  i s marked o u t o f 40, by two  0 (not w r i t t e n ) t o 6 (above-average w r i t i n g ) . administered  usage,  and c o n t e n t o f a p a r a g r a p h .  items, a r e machine-scoreable, s e l e c t i o n - t y p e items.  three  answer q u e s t i o n s c o v e r i n g  of sentence s t r u c t u r e ,  structure,  The f i r s t  times a year.  In t h i s  sites  to a level The LPI  throughout  study, only  from  is  British  Sentence  68 Structure  (10 i t e m s ) a n d English  were u s e d  a s a measure o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' v e r b a l  Reliability total  (internal  s c o r e d e r i v e d from  used  in this  five  years  3.3  study  (cited  (10 i t e m s ) S e c t i o n s  consistency) coefficients  forms p a r a l l e l  ranged  ability. f o r the  t o t h e two s e c t i o n s  between .65 a n d .73 o v e r  i n R o g e r s and B a t e s o n ,  the l a s t  1990a).  Procedure For  the f o r e i g n  immediately  after  examinations. English  provincial  took  o f A l g e b r a 12,  12, i m m e d i a t e l y  i n the present  results  were a s k e d  from  a f t e r the  t h e y were a s k e d t o  the investigator  examination  place  provincial  study.  They were  t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y and a s k e d  t o permit  Students  to sign a  to obtain  the M i n i s t r y  their of E d u c a t i o n .  t o answer a l l q u e s t i o n s a s b e s t  f o r the S e c t i o n I of the Test of Test-wiseness  Student  Survey.  wiseness, formula asked  the examinations,  participate  form  testing  On t h e d a y s o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s  informed about  could  subjects,  12, P h y s i c s 12, and H i s t o r y  voluntarily  consent  Chinese  they wrote the January  students completed  s t u d e n t s were  t o be u s e d  during proceed  informed  and t h e  when s c o r i n g  of a p e n a l t y f o r guessing this  section.  Students  answer on t h e t e s t - b o o k l e t  immigrant  the t e s t i n g  subjects).  sessions.  as best they c o u l d .  were  (foreign  s u b j e c t s ) o r on t h e answer s h e e t s p r o v i d e d  Chinese  they  For the S e c t i o n II of the Test of T e s t -  to record their  Chinese and  Usage  (Canadian  F u r t h e r h e l p was n o t g i v e n  Students  were e n c o u r a g e d  to  69  For done by  the  f o r e i g n Chinese students,  the p r i n c i p a l  investigator.  the  administration  Testing  required  about  m i n u t e s (30 m i n u t e s f o r t h e T e s t o f T e s t - w i s e n e s s and minutes f o r the  Student Survey).  measured d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t s , administration For  the  was  left  administration R o g e r s and  was  Except t h a t ,  c o m p l e t e d by  the p r i n c i p a l  to the  Education  in British  3.41  Major  The  instruments  test  same.  according  Statistical  o r d e r of  two  the  students.  s e t out  by  the  the i n v e s t i g a t o r s of  (1990a) or the c l a s s r o o m  guidelines  teachers  the M i n i s t r y  of  Columbia.  Hypotheses  Hypothesis  p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e  f o r e i g n C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s on  p r o v i n c i a l examinations in H i s t o r y , English, Algebra, Physics  i s a f u n c t i o n of t e s t - w i s e n e s s ,  and  four  R e s i d e n c y i n Canada, Achievement M o t i v a t i o n ,  The Y  i  the  and/or  related  v a r i a b l e s , n a m e l y Language P r o f i c i e n c y I n d e x , l e n g t h  Choice  50  20  Chinese immigrant s u b j e c t s ,  Bateson's study  3.4  the  the  t o the p r e f e r e n c e of the  C a n a d i a n and  t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e was  Since  was  and  of  Multiple  Experience. f u l l model t e s t e d = 00  where  +  Mli  +  was:  02 2i x  = s c o r e s of t h e  +  03 3i X  +  04 4i X  +  05 5i X  +  e  f o r e i g n Chinese students  multiple-choice  items i n Algebra,  H i s t o r y , and/or P h y s i c s  i on English,  examinations;  70 = s c o r e s of the  foreign  Chinese  s t u d e n t s on  Chinese  s t u d e n t s on  Test-wi seness; = s c o r e s of the  foreign  Language P r o f i c i e n c y = number o f months t h a t  x  4i  =  s  c  o  r  e  °f  s  t  n  foreign  e  Index;  the  s t u d e n t s have been  the  foreign  Chinese  i n Canada;  Chinese  s t u d e n t s on  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n ; X i 5  = Multiple  C h o i c e E x p e r i e n c e of the  Chinese 01'  02'  03'  04'  the The  statistical  a n o  foreign  s t u d e n t s ; and -  05  =  above f i v e  hypothesis  fc  ^  treatment  e  variables  o  :  pop y.12345 =  0  H  l  :  pop y.12345 *  0  R 2  R 2  foreign  multiple-choice Algebra, 1 = s c o r e s of t h e  respectively.  was:  H  where y = s c o r e s of t h e  e f f e c t s of  Chinese items  s t u d e n t s on  in History,  English,  and/or P h y s i c s e x a m i n a t i o n s ; foreign  Chinese  s t u d e n t s on T e s t -  foreign  Chinese  s t u d e n t s on  wiseness; 2 = s c o r e s of the  Language P r o f i c i e n c y 3 = number o f months t h a t  the f o r e i g n  s t u d e n t s have been 4 = s c o r e s of the f o r e i g n  Index; Chinese  i n Canada;  Chinese  s t u d e n t s on  A c h i e v e m e n t M o t i v a t i o n ; and  the  71  5 = scores of the f o r e i g n Multiple  The 3.42  secondary  Hypothesis  Foreign  Chinese  s t u d e n t s on  Choice Experience.  hypotheses  a r e as f o l l o w s :  One  Chinese  from Canadian  students a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  students i n t h e i r  scores of t e s t - w i s e n e s s , as  m e a s u r e d by t h e T e s t o f T e s t - w i s e n e s s d e v e l o p e d Bateson  different  by R o g e r s a n d  (1990b).  The  model t e s t e d was: Y  i j  = 0o  h  +  x  1 i j  + e  i j  where Y ^ j = s c o r e s o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s on t h e T e s t o f Test-wiseness; X^j  = ethnicity  of a p a r t i c u l a r  group  (Chinese or  Canadian); and |3  1  The  statistical  where 3.43  = treatment  The  Two  0, = 0  H1:  0  1  effect  *0 of e t h n i c i t y  (a)  and/or E n g l i s h  items  examinations  i n the Physics, of the foreign  s t u d e n t s who p o s s e s s t e s t - w i s e n e s s s k i l l s a n d  abilities foreign  Ho:  s c o r e s on t h e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e  Algebra, History, Chinese  of e t h n i c i t y .  h y p o t h e s i s was  = treatment  Hypothesis  effect  are significantly  Chinese  abilities.  different  s t u d e n t s who p o s s e s s  from less  those of the o f t h e same  72  Four  separate analyses  f o r four subject areas  were  performed. The  model t e s t e d  was Y  i  =  0o  M l i  +  i  + e  where Y^ = s c o r e s o f t h e f o r e i g n multiple-choice Algebra,  Chinese  items  in History,  and/or P h y s i c s  = scores of the f o r e i g n  s t u d e n t s on English,  examinations;  Chinese  s t u d e n t s on  T e s t - w i s e n e s s ; and j3  = treatment  1  The  statistical  where $y 3.44  Hypot  The  Two  HO  :  01 = 0  HI  :  01 * 0  effect  o f t h e s c o r e s on t h e s e l e c t i o n  the P h y s i c s , A l g e b r a , H i s t o r y , foreign  and  abilities  foreign  Chinese  and/or E n g l i s h  s t u d e n t s who p o s s e s s  is significantly  Chinese  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s .  (b)  variability  the  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s .  h y p o t h e s i s was:  = treatment  hesi s  effect  different  s t u d e n t s who p o s s e s s  less  items i n  examinations  test-wiseness from  that  of  skills  of the  o f t h e same  abilities. The  model t e s t e d  statistical  where a  was t h e same a s h y p o t h e s i s 2 (a) and t h e  h y p o t h e s i s was: .  2 1  = test  HO  : o]  =  a  2  HI  : o ! *  a  2  2  2  2  2  score variance of test-wise  Chinese  foreign  s t u d e n t s on m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e i t e m s  73  in  Physics, Algebra, History,  English a^2  test  =  same Hypothesis  The students  examinations; and  score variance of the test-naive Chinese  3.45  i n the  examinations.  Three  significantly  of the f o r e i g n  Chinese  i n c r e a s e as the f o l l o w i n g  and t h e f o l l o w i n g  significant  foreign  s t u d e n t s on t h e same i t e m s  s c o r e s on T e s t - w i s e n e s s  increase,  and/or  variables  account  amount o f v a r i a n c e on t h e i r  variables  for a  scores of t e s t -  wiseness : 1.  Language  2.  Length  Proficiency of  3. Multiple  Residency Choice  4. Achievement  The  Index in  (LPI),  Canada  Experience  (RES),  (MCE),  Motivation  and  (AM).  model t e s t e d was: Y  = 00  i  where  01 1i  +  x  +  02 2i x  +  03 3i x  = scores of the f o r e i g n  04 4i  +  x  Chinese  +  e  i  s t u d e n t s on  Test-wiseness; = scores of the f o r e i g n  Chinese  Language P r o f i c i e n c y x  2i  =  n  u  m  D  e  r  °f months t h a t  s t u d e n t s have been X3j  = scores of the foreign  s t u d e n t s on t h e  Index;  the foreign  Chinese  i n Canada; Chinese  s t u d e n t s on  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n ; X4j  = scores of the foreign Multiple  Choice  Chinese  s t u d e n t s on  E x p e r i e n c e ; and  01'  02'  03'  above The  a n c  ^  04  =  t  *  treatment  i e  effects  of  the  four v a r i a b l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  statistical  hypothesis  was:  H  0  :  pop y-1234  H  l  :  pop  R 2  where y = s c o r e s  of  R 2  yl234 the  =  0  *  0  f o r e i g n Chinese  students  on  Test-wiseness; 1 = scores  of  the  f o r e i g n Chinese  students  on  t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y I n d e x ; 2 = number of months t h a t t h e students 3 = scores  have been  of  the  i n Canada;  f o r e i g n Chinese  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n ; 4 = scores  of  the  Multiple  3.5  on  students  on  and  foreign Chinese  Choice  students  Experience.  Method of A n a l y s i s Descriptive  and  background  place  of  statistics  information  origin.  Before  were o b t a i n e d of  the  testing  on  scores  on  Physics,  the and  would h e l p four  the  hypotheses,  to determine  or n o t .  follows:  as The  i f i t was  four  on  examinations  E n g l i s h ) to determine  subject areas  variables as  four p r o v i n c i a l  the  performance  s u b j e c t s , such as  Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d  is  f o r e i g n Chinese  their  the  age  and  Pearson students'  (Algebra, History,  relationship.  This  worthwhile to consider  separate  dependent  the  (criterion)  method of a n a l y s i s f o r e a c h  hypothesis  75  Major  3.51  Hypothesis  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d determine variable  t h e amount o f v a r i a n c e on e a c h ( s c o r e s on t h e H i s t o r y ,  examinations the  five  of the foreign  independent Index,  Length  Motivation,  and M u l t i p l e  f o r by  ( T e s t - w i s e n e s s , Language i n Canada,  Achievement  Choice Experience of the f o r e i g n  i n the following  1. T e s t - W i s e n e s s obtained total  independent  from S e c t i o n  were  scores that  the students  I i n t h e T e s t o f T e s t - w i s e n e s s (a  o f 24 i t e m s ) ;  obtained  Index  was t h e t o t a l  i n E n g l i s h Usage and S e n t e n c e  t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y  3. L e n g t h  variables  ways:  was t h e t o t a l  2. Language P r o f i c i e n c y  of Residency  s c o r e they Structure Sections  Index;  was t h e number o f months t h e y have  been  Canada;  4. A c h i e v e m e n t Section 5. M u l t i p l e  M o t i v a t i o n was b a s e d II i n the Student  on t h e i r  Survey,  score i n  the t o t a l  score they  i n q u e s t i o n s 5, 6 a , 7a, a n d 8 i n t h e S t u d e n t with  ' y e s , t h r e e o r more t i m e s ' c o d e d  once o r t w i c e ' c o d e d Hypothesis  total  Survey; and  C h o i c e E x p e r i e n c e was b a s e d  obtained  3.52  students) accounted  of Residency  scores of the f i v e  determined  in  of t h e dependent  students).  The  in  regression to  E n g l i s h , A l g e b r a , and P h y s i c s  Chinese  variables  Proficiency  Chinese  using multiple  One  a s 3,  a s 2, a n d 'no, n e v e r ' a s 1.  'yes,  76  Using  effect  coding with  C a n a d i a n as  this  regression.  With e t h n i c i t y  (predictor) variable  accounted  hypothesis  and  (criterion) variable,  foreign  as  Chinese  was  the c a t e g o r i c a l  test  for a significant  '1'  and  tested using multiple  t e s t - w i s e n e s s as  the  as  determined  the  independent dependent  whether  ethnicity  p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e on  Test-  wiseness. Hypotheses  3.53  Part  (a) o f  regression. students  Two  (a)  this  &  (b)  hypothesis  With Test-wiseness  as  the  independent  was of  tested using multiple  t h e " f o r e i g n Chinese  variable  and  their  s c o r e s on  P h y s i c s , A l g e b r a , H i s t o r y , and/or E n g l i s h e x a m i n a t i o n s dependent v a r i a b l e , Test-wiseness on  accounted  the p r o v i n c i a l  performed  (b) o f  determined  criteria  into  examinations.  Four  subject  groups,  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s  o r below'  -  for test-naive.  Based  provincial  examinations test  determine  whether  wise  foreign  that  of t h e  tested using  or a b o v e '  of t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e  Barlett's  on  the  two  students  test-naive foreign  was  of  the  cut-off and  standard  g r o u p s on  done  the the to  s c o r e s of t h e  significantly  Chinese  students  for test-wise  of h o m o g e n e i t y of v a r i a n c e was  Chinese  were  Barlett's  four subjects areas,  the v a r i a b i l i t y  variance  separate analyses  Foreign Chinese  deviations  i n the  the  s c o r e s of  amount o f  a c c o r d i n g t o the  '17  as  areas.  t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was  two  whether t h e  for a significant  of h o m o g e n e i t y of v a r i a n c e s .  were d i v i d e d  '11  test  in four d i f f e r e n t  Part test  the  the  students.  test-  different  from  77  Hypothesis  3.54  This forced the  h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d  entry  regression  a n d t h e Language Length of Residency  Choice Experience as the independent  variables,  t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d  t h e amount o f v a r i a n c e  accounted  to assess  f o r i n test-wiseness  the four  variables  would be s i g n i f i c a n t .  independent  variables  were e n t e r e d a s i n t e r v a l - s c a l e  variables.  Also,  at  by e l i m i n a t i n g  A l l the four  the variables  a time and c a l c u l a t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e  variance  using  With t e s t - w i s e n e s s as  Index, Achievement M o t i v a t i o n ,  (predictor)  by  (criterion) variable  Canada a n d M u l t i p l e  whether  by m u l t i p l e  a n d backward e l i m i n a t i o n .  dependent  Proficiency in  Three  b a c k w a r d l y one  i n the increment of  a c c o u n t e d by e a c h o f them, i t was p o s s i b l e t o  determine  the unique v a r i a n c e  contributed  by e a c h v a r i a b l e t o  Test-wiseness. The  alpha  level  set f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e test  accounted  f o r by t h e i n d e p e n d e n t  variables  was 0.05.  To Chinese  further  explore  students,  item a n a l y s i s  was p e r f o r m e d on t h e T e s t o f Chinese  was made among f o r e i g n  Canadian  s t u d e n t s on t h e T e s t  Language P r o f i c i e n c y  students.  Also, to  Chinese, Chinese  Chinese  Index, and Achievement  subjects,  immigrant  of Test-wiseness, the  Owing t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s m a l l foreign  of t h e dependent  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of t e s t - w i s e n e s s and e t h n i c i t y , a  comparison and  variance  t h e n a t u r e o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s among  T e s t - w i s e n e s s among t h e f o r e i g n affirm  variables  of  Motivation.  sample  no c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n  size  f o r the  check c o u l d  be  78  carried  out.  to explore,  Therefore, rather  the  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was  than p r e d i c t the  variables investigated.  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  only the  able  79  CHAPTER FOUR A N A L Y S I S AND RESULTS This chapter presents the r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n three parts.  The f i r s t  part  i s demographic  the f o r e i g n Chinese sample. presented  regarding  The t e s t s o f h y p o t h e s e s a r e  i n t h e second p a r t .  C h i n e s e sample  information  The l a s t p a r t c o m p a r e s t h e  i n t h i s study w i t h t h e Canadian and Chinese  s t u d e n t s i n Rogers and Bateson's study  (1990a).  D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were c a l c u l a t e d items i n the Student Survey.  Items  f o r r e s p o n s e s on  i n the Test of Test-  w i s e n e s s a n d t h e f o u r G r a d e 12 p r o v i n c i a l  examinations  ( A l g e b r a , E n g l i s h , H i s t o r y , a n d P h y s i c s ) were a n a l y z e d . The assumptions of normality,  independence,  homogeneity o f  v a r i a n c e , o u t l i e r s , and l i n e a r i t y u n d e r l y i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l m o d e l s were e x a m i n e d  by a n a l y z i n g t h e r e s i d u a l s .  m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n was e m p l o y e d ,  Where  the treatment e f f e c t of the  i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s was e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f s t a n d a r d i z e d regression coefficients  (/3). S i n c e s t a n d a r d i z e d  regression  c o e f f i c i e n t s were b a s e d on s t a n d a r d s c o r e s , a c o m p a r i s o n o f the r e l a t i v e  i m p o r t a n c e among t h e v a r i a b l e s was f a c i l i t a t e d .  4.1  Background  4.11  Demographic  The  I n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e Sample  C h i n e s e sample  Characteristics  i n t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f 41  s t u d e n t s , 21 m a l e s a n d 20 f e m a l e s . not r e p o r t t h e i r date o f b i r t h .  Twenty-five subjects d i d  F o r t h e 26 s t u d e n t s who  r e p o r t e d , t h e i r m e d i a n a g e was 19.39 y e a r s w h i c h was s l i g h t l y  80 older  than  that  of the Canadian  (Median  students  years).  A l l of the Chinese  s t u d e n t s were b o r n  Canada.  They were a l l f u l l  time  which  i s an i n d e p e n d e n t  students.  and  one from  school c a t e r i n g mainly  to foreign  t h e r e were 32 from  Hong  I n d o n e s i a , t h r e e from Macau, two from  Singapore.  ethnic  or c u l t u r a l  varied  from  five  o u t s i d e of  students i n Coquitlam College  Among t h e 41 s u b j e c t s ,  Kong, t h r e e from  = 18.98  A l l identified  root.  Their  Chinese  China,  as t h e i r  l e n g t h of Residency  i n Canada  t o 30 months, w i t h M = 12.53 months a n d SD =  5.95. Experience  4.12  Questions  in  Mul l i pi e-c hoi ce  Examinations  5 t o 9 i n the Student  previous experience  in writing  b o t h a t home a n d i n Canada. questions are displayed  Survey  dealt  with  their  m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e examinations,  Detailed  results  t o these  i n T a b l e 6.  In q u e s t i o n 5, 23 (56.1%) r e p o r t e d 'yes, t h r e e o r more times'  in writing  country.  m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e examinations  When t h e y were a s k e d  i f they had r e c e i v e d  coaching  i n test  never'.  Among t h e 18 s t u d e n t s who s a i d  received  coaching  question  7a, ' h a v i n g  teachers, and it  taking  in their  'yes',  10 (55.6%)  Similarly, in  informal consultation  on t e s t - t a k i n g  home c o u n t r i e s . papers  any f o r m a l  home c o u n t r i e s .  23 (56.1%) s a i d ,  among t h e 18 s t u d e n t s who s a i d  examination  home  ( q u e s t i o n 6 a ) , 23 (56.1%) s a i d 'no,  parents or f r i e n d s ' ,  in their  in their  'yes , 1  forpractice'  'no, n e v e r ' ;  10 (55.6%)  In ' u s i n g p r e v i o u s  from  received  provincial  ( q u e s t i o n 8 ) , 25 (61%) s a i d ,  ' y e s , once o r t w i c e ' b u t t h o s e who s a i d  ' y e s , t h r e e o r more  81  times',  4 (9.8%) were f e w e r t h a n  (29.3%).  Twenty-two  would w r i t e but most  point  or had w r i t t e n  o f them  five  those  said  percent  provincial  (77.5%) d e n i e d  'no, n e v e r ' , 12  indicated  that  they  scholarship examinations  interest  i n the s c h o l a r s h i p  program.  Table 6 Experience  i n Multiple-choice N  5  (MCE at  6a  (Formal  7a  8  (%)  'No,never  Questions  home) Coaching)  (Informal Consultati  E x a m i n a t i o n s o f C h i n e s e Sample N t  'Yes,once or t w i c e '  7b  10  (24.4)  23 ( 5 6 . 1)  13  (31.7)  ' 5 (12.2)  23 ( 5 6 . 1)  13  (31.7)  5 (12.2)  Exam  12 ( 2 9 . 3)  25 (61) Home  Coaching)  (Informal Consul t at i on)  (Schol Exami  23  (56.1)  ars hip nation)  4  country  (9.8)  Elsewhere  2 ( 1 1 . 1)  10  (55.6)  6 (33.3)  3 ( 1 6 .6)  10  (55.6)  5 (27.8)  Yes 9  'Y e s , t h r e e < more t i m e s '  on)  (Provincial Practice)  (Formal  (%)  8 ( 1 9 .5)  Canada  6b  N  (%)  9 (22.5)  No 31  (77.5)  Note: r e f e r t o t h e Student Survey i n Appendix D f o r the s p e c i f i c wording of the q u e s t i o n s  82  In t h e s u b s e q u e n t experience  tests  of hypotheses,  i n m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e examinations  a total  s c o r e of  was b a s e d  on t h e  sum o f s c o r e s on q u e s t i o n s 5, 6a, 7a and 8.  The t o t a l  score  was c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e b e s t q u a n t i t a t i v e measure o f student's p r i o r constituted (MCE) u s e d  the v a r i a b l e  The  Twelve  foreign  in this  termed  i n the following  Grade  4.13  experience  'Multiple Choice  i n January  and/or P h y s i c s . wrote A l g e b r a ,  Experience'  Examinations  subjects i n this  s t u d y were t h o s e who  w r o t e any one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g G r a d e examinations  It  analyses.  Provincial  Chinese  type of examination.  o f 1990:  Algebra, English,  Among t h e 41 f o r e i g n 16 w r o t e E n g l i s h ,  12 p r o v i n c i a l  Chinese  History,  s u b j e c t s , 35  f o u r wrote H i s t o r y  and t h r e e  wrote P h y s i c s .  S i n c e t h e r e were o n l y a v e r y  foreign  s t u d e n t s who w r o t e H i s t o r y a n d P h y s i c s i n t h i s  study,  Chinese their  population.  performance  which p r o v i n c i a l variables. in  i n the following examinations  The f o r e i g n  Comparatively, Algebra  (58.2%) t h a n  Physics  (33.3%).  results,  tests  were u s e d  Chinese  the multiple-choice section  r e s u l t s are presented  on  may n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e o v e r a l l  Therefore, only the r e s u l t s  E n g l i s h were u s e d  Chinese  i n A l g e b r a and of hypotheses i n as t h e dependent  students' examination  results  along with the p r o v i n c i a l  i n T a b l e 7.  Chinese  students performed  i n English  raw s c o r e o f t h e f o r e i g n  the m u l t i p l e choice section  better i n  (33.8%), H i s t o r y  Compared t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l  the average  s m a l l number o f  was l o w e r  than  (35%)  or  examination Chinese that  students  of the  83  province  i n both Algebra  Particularly less  in English  than h a l f  (66.6%) a n d E n g l i s h 12, f o r e i g n  Chinese  (77.0%). students scored  o f t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by a v e r a g e  students i n  the p r o v i n c e .  Table 7 G r a d e 12 P r o v i n c i a l E x a m i n a t i o n R e s u l t s i n t h e M u l t i p l e C h o i c e S e c t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e S t u d e n t s and t h e P r o v i n c i a l A v e r a g e Algebra  English  Chinese  Province  Chinese  Province  Number o f s t u d e n t s  35  3251  16  6423  M  29. 1 4  33.3  8. 15  SD  8.72  9. 1 3 2. 78  20.80 3.35  Mean % C o r r e c t  58. 30  66.6  33. 8  77.0  Total  50  50  27  27  No. o f Items  N o t e : The above p r o v i n c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n r e s u l t s were s t a t e d i n raw s c o r e s . P l e a s e r e f e r t o C h a p t e r Two S e c t i o n 2.12, 'The E x a m i n a t i o n - D e v e l o p m e n t P r o c e s s ' on t h e p r o c e d u r e o f t r a n s f o r m i n g raw s c o r e s t o p e r c e n t a g e s and r e p o r t e d grades.  84  Furthermore,  a correlation  coefficient  between t h e s c o r e s o f t h e f o r e i g n Algebra (r  and E n g l i s h examinations.  = .27) was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  coefficients  f o r theother  hypotheses,  and  s u b j e c t s on t h e  The r e s u l t i n g significant.  correlation  Correlation  s u b j e c t a r e a s c o u l d n o t be computed  b e c a u s e o f t h e s m a l l sample  English  Chinese  was computed  sizes.  In t h e subsequent  s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d  s c o r e s a s t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s  t e s t s of  w i t h A l g e b r a and  (major  hypothesis  hypothesis 2a).  4.2  T e s t s of Hypotheses The  r e s e a r c h hypotheses  presented  here  rejection  of t h e hypotheses  Provincial  4.21  Cor r el  The foreign  again  presented  f o r easy  Examinations,  i n Chapter  reference.  Three  were  The c r i t e r i o n f o r  was t h e a l p h a  level  Test-wiseness  and  of  .05.  Four  ates  major h y p o t h e s i s Chinese  students  s t a t e d that the performance of the on t h e p r o v i n c i a l  examinations  ( A l g e b r a a n d E n g l i s h ) would be a f u n c t i o n o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s (TW),  and f o u r r e l a t e d  variables,  namely v e r b a l a b i l i t y ( a s  m e a s u r e d by t h e L P I ) , l e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c y  i n Canada  (RES),  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n  (AM), a n d M u l t i p l e  Choice  with  correlations  Experience  (MCE). Before  proceeding  theanalysis,  computed among a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s independent  variables  the c o r r e l a t i o n  matrix  t o determine  were c o r r e l a t e d .  whether t h e  As seen  f o ra l l thev a r i a b l e s ,  were  i n T a b l e 8,  three  85  correlation  c o e f f i c i e n t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  T e s t - w i s e n e s s and E n g l i s h scores  scores  and Achievement M o t i v a t i o n  low,  therefore,  results  was n o t l i k e l y  of the r e g r e s s i o n  (r  English  = .62, p<.0'\)  independent  i t was c o n c l u d e d  multicollinearity  (r = .44, p<.0S),  ( r = -.29, p<.05).  Residency and T e s t - w i s e n e s s c o r r e l a t i o n s among o t h e r  significant:  and  The  v a r i a b l e s were  that  relatively  the problem of  to s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the  analysis.  Table 8 Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s of F i v e Dependent V a r i a b l e s 1 ALG 1. ALG  Independent V a r i a b l e s  2  3  4  5  ENG  TW  LPI  RES  6  7  AM  MCE  1  2.  ENG  .27 (13)  3.  TW  -.075 (35)  .44* (16)  1  4.  LPI  -.01 (35)  .35 (16)  .067 (41)  5.  RES  -.12 (35)  -.41 (16)  -.29* (41)  -.22 (41)  1  6. AM  -.26 (35)  .62** (16)  .024 (41)  .073 (41)  -.082 (41 )  7.  -.12 (35)  -.0075 (16)  -.056 (41)  -.025 (41).  .092 (41)  MCE  a n d Two  1  1  1 .18 (41)  * /?<.05 ** JP<.01 ( ) = (number o f c a s e s ) A L G = A l g e b r a exam s c o r e s E N G = E n g l i s h exam s c o r e s TW = T e s t - w i s e n e s s LPI=Language P r o f i c i e n c y Index R E S = R e s i d e n c y i n Canada AM =Achievement M o t i v a t i o n MCE=Multiple Choice Experience  86  Multiple  regression with  determine whether the independent  amount of v a r i a n c e  v a r i a b l e s (Test-wiseness,  Index, R e s i d e n c y Choice  (Algebra  or E n g l i s h s c o r e s )  the  The  Two Algebra  of  and  presented  not  higher,  seen  i n , they or R  2  9,  the  Test-wiseness,  from  identified  at  met. were p e r f o r m e d  scores  with  as d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s  regression analyses  when a l l t h e  =  .099  and  are  independent v a r i a b l e s 10%  of  the  variance  t h a t amount of v a r i a n c e  significant.  Although  the  amount  significant. Algebra  {R  =  2  Therefore, nor  .66)  the  was  null  E n g l i s h scores  was  still  and  Multiple  was not was  f u n c t i o n of  Language P r o f i c i e n c y I n d e x , l e n g t h of  Canada, A c h i e v e m e n t M o t i v a t i o n  was  hypothesis a  to  of  a l l v a r i a b l e s to E n g l i s h scores  regression coefficient  Neither  different  t h e model a s  c o n t r i b u t e d about  c o n t r i b u t e d by  statistically  in  of t h e  and  dependent v a r i a b l e s  significantly  were  the  9.  i n Table  scores  c o n t r i b u t e d by  to  Language P r o f i c i e n c y  regression analyses  in Table  tenable.  was  Chapter  Results  statistically  variance  t o the  E n g l i s h examination  were f o r c e d Algebra  this  separate  respectively.  As  Experience)  assumptions u n d e r l y i n g  beginning  performed  i n Canada, A c h i e v e m e n t M o t i v a t i o n  Multiple  zero.  f o r c e d e n t r y was  Residency  Choice  Experience. Using  backward e l i m i n a t i o n , the  were d e l e t e d o b s e r v e the  from the  equation  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  one  each  independent v a r i a b l e s  at a time  independent  i n order  to  v a r i a b l e to  the  equation. default  Table  The c r i t e r i o n  value  (.1)  for elimination  was  of F-to-remove.  9  Summary S t a t i s t i c s  of Major  Steps  R  Dependent  R  2  Variable  Hypothesis  Change  2  = ALG  {N  F  =  Variables Removed  35)  0  .099  —  .15  (All  1  .095  --.0043  .21  LPI  2  .084  -.011  .28  MCE  3  .079  -.0057  .43  AM  4  .031  --.047  .35  RES  5  .00  -.031  .00  TW  Dependent  Variable  = ENG  0  .66  —  1  .66  2  (N  =  (All  -.0007  3.91*  AM  .62  -.04  4.93*  TW  3  .53  -.096  5.55*  MCE  4  .46  -.063  9.49**  LPI  p<.05  **  in)  16) 2.75  *  b a s e d on t h e  in)  /K.01  A L G = A l g e b r a exam s c o r e s E N G = E n g l i s h exam s c o r e s TW = T e s t - w i s e n e s s LPI=Language P r o f i c i e n c y Index R E S = R e s i d e n c y i n Canada AM =Achievement m o t i v a t i o n MCE=Multiple-choice Experience  88  As  seen  the  steps.  f r o m 5%  independent not  A l s o , the  l e d to very  statistically  the  scores.  least  v a r i a b l e t o be  statistically of e a c h  1%.  None of  In t h e  last  scores.  statistically should  five was  be  independent  the  other  removed  the  When t h e  alpha  =  .05  4.93), and (F[1,  11]  3  re  (LPI), a  indicating to the  that i t  Algebra  which  i n the  was  the  suggested  Algebra  small  10]  (see T a b l e  the v a r i a b l e s remaining  and 9).  i n the  the  scores  A).  s c o r e s were u s e d as  the  were s i g n i f i c a n t  the  1 ( F [ 4 , 8]  = 5.55)  examination  (see Appendix  2  2  drawn.  standardized regression  adjusted R  F - t e s t s of J?  c o u l d be  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the A l g e b r a  i n the  in steps  implication  l a c k of  E n g l i s h examination  (F[2,  e  first  hand, T e s t - w i s e n e s s  firm  corresponding  = 9.49)  significant  no  v a r i a b l e s and  level  w  remained  2  Index  from t h e e q u a t i o n ,  t h a t the  dependent v a r i a b l e ,  the /^-changes  S i n c e none o f / ^ - c h a n g e s were  f u r t h e r demonstrated  w e i g h t s and  (i^-change),  Furthermore, the  amount of v a r i a n c e On  in  independent  l o s s of R  verbal ability,  significant, noted  significant  s t e p , when a l l t h e  g r e a t e r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the v a r i a n c e  examination  dependent  t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y  students'  examination  It  than  significant.  the  its  the  v a r i a b l e s were d e l e t e d , t h e  contributed  last  as  l o s s of v a r i a n c e  significant.  d e l e t e d was  measure o f  Algebra  deletion  little  to less  statistically  variable  with  were not  2  variable ranging  9,  F - t e s t s of R  variable, all  i n Table  at  = 3.91), 2 .01  level  This result  equation  at  ( F [ 3 , 9] in step 4  suggested  that  contributed a  amount of v a r i a n c e t o t h e E n g l i s h  =  examination  89 scores. noted  Moreover,  i n A l g e b r a , r a n g i n g from  variable and  the^-change  removed  the last  the R  a  less  slightly than  larger  one was l e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c y 2  generally  h i g h e r than  However, s i n c e significant, variable  statements about  n o t be made.  e s t i m a t e s was a f f e c t e d  than  were  examination  variable.  none o f t h e . ^ - c h a n g e s  could  As seen  lower  weights  t h o s e when t h e A l g e b r a  conclusive  that  Motivation  i n Canada.  (.42) was s l i g h t l y  s c o r e s were u s e d a s t h e d e p e n d e n t  than  1% t o 10%. The f i r s t  (.66) a n d t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n  2  each  s  from t h e e q u a t i o n was A c h i e v e m e n t  A, The a d j u s t e d R  in Appendix  w  w  e  r  e  statistically  thecontribution of  The s t a b i l i t y  by t h e s m a l l sample s i z e  of the in this  analysis. Ethnicity  4.22  and  Test-wiseness  H y p o t h e s i s one s t a t e d not d i f f e r  significantly  that  foreign  from Canadian  Chinese  s t u d e n t s would  s t u d e n t s on t h e i r  s c o r e s o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e T e s t o f T e s t wiseness. Using '-1',  this  model.  c o d i n g w i t h C h i n e s e a s '1' a n d C a n a d i a n a s  h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d  The C a n a d i a n  students Chinese  effect  i n Rogers  sample was r a n d o m l y  and Bateson's  students i n t h i s  students. independent underlying  The dependent variable  using the l i n e a r  study  drawn  (1990a).  regression  from t h e The f o r e i g n  s t u d y were compared t o t h e C a n a d i a n variable  was T e s t - w i s e n e s s a n d t h e  was E t h n i c i t y .  t h e model a s i d e n t i f i e d  The a s s u m p t i o n s i n the beginning of t h i s  90 Chapter  were met.  Summary  s t a t i s t i c s are presented  i n Table  10.  T a b l e 10 Summary S t a t i s t i c s  o f H y p o t h e s i s One Ethnic  Groups  Chinese (N = 41 ) Mean" Standard R  Canadian (AT = 41)  10.49  14.37  2.89  2.60  Deviation  .34  2  Adjusted R  .33  2  F(1,  80)  40.85**  Std.  Regression  Weights  .58  ** /><.01  As  seen  variance  i n Table  on t e s t - w i s e n e s s , a n d t h i s  significant  a t .01 l e v e l .  was n o t t e n a b l e . poorer  10, e t h n i c i t y  Chinese  accounted finding  f o r 34% o f t h e  was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  I n o t h e r words, t h e n u l l students  (M = 10.49, SD = 2.89) t h a n  performed  hypothesis  significantly  t h e Canadian  students  (M =  14.37, SD = 2.6) i n t h e T e s t o f T e s t - w i s e n e s s . Provincial  4.23  Hypothesis multiple-choice the  foreign  skills  Examinations  and  Test-wiseness  two ( a ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e s c o r e s on t h e items  Chinese  i n E n g l i s h and A l g e b r a  students  who p o s s e s s e d  a n d a b i l i t i e s would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  examinations of  test-wiseness different  from  91 those the  of  the  same  Chinese  students  this  Two  h y p o t h e s i s was  separate  t e s t e d by  Algebra  or E n g l i s h  A s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e model a s beginning  of t h i s C h a p t e r  exception  of  less  the  a linear  of  regression  with  the  identified  were g e n e r a l l y met,  from  two  Examination. at  the  with  the  some l a c k of h o m o g e n e i t y of v a r i a n c e .  the d e p a r t u r e  large,  possessed  a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d  dependent v a r i a b l e s ,  since  who  abilities.  Again, model.  foreign  However,  h o m o g e n e i t y of v a r i a n c e was  r e g r e s s i o n model was  still  apt  for  not  prediction  purpose. As  seen  in Table  11,  the  hypothesis,  the  examination  scores accounted  summary s t a t i s t i c s  amount of v a r i a n c e i n t h e  the R  small.  Although  English  were h i g h e r  and  2  (R  -  2  f o r by  two  t e s t - w i s e n e s s was  .13,  0 =  .36)  .0086), F - t e s t s f o r R  than  those  not  statistically  significant.  was  tenable.  conclusion that a relationship  2  The  between T e s t - w i s e n e s s s c o r e s c o u l d not Hypothesis scores  on  the  examinations  be two  and  the  i n both  Therefore,  Algebra  analyses  the n u l l  or E n g l i s h  were  hypothesis  existed  examination  (b) s t a t e d t h a t t h e v a r i a b i l i t y items  foreign  and  in Algebra  Chinese  test-wise  skills  abilities  different  from  t h a t of t h e  foreign  possessed  less  of t h e  abilities.  same  would be  of  the  and E n g l i s h  s t u d e n t s who  possessed  significantly  Chinese  students  in  in Algebra  justified.  selection of  very  s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n weights  =  .0001, 0 =  this  provincial  (R  2  for  who  92 T a b l e 11 Summary  Statistics  of Hypothesis  Subject Areas  N  R  Algebra  35  .0001  English  16  .13  Adjusted  2  This hypothesis  = 1).  '14  Even  F ( 1 , 10)  2  -.10  group),  .04  1.47  the test-wise  that  the comparison  Moreover,  of t h e i r  significantly  Hypothesis  increase  still  from one t o  be s o u n b a l a n c e d scores  t h e newly c l a s s i f i e d  n o t be c o m p e t e n t l y  s c o r e s would p r o b a b l y  of  three  of  the f o r e i g n Chinese  as  their  scores  would  test-wise  test-wise  so t h e  not d i f f e r  Test-wiseness  stated that students  the scores  would  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s  significantly  increase  i n t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y I n d e x , L e n g t h o f  i n Canada, M u l t i p l e C h o i c e  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n account  i s lowered t o  from t h a t o f t h e t e s t - n a i v e g r o u p .  Correlates  Residency  students  for test-wise  of the v a r i a b i l i t y of t h e i r  group would p r o b a b l y  4.24  test-wise  11 ( t h e u p p e r bound f o r  g r o u p would o n l y  The two g r o u p s w o u l d  be r e l i a b l e .  variance  .36  c o u l d n o t be t e s t e d b e c a u s e t e s t - n a i v e  g r o u p ) a n d 17 ( t h e l o w e r bound  students.  not  .0086  i f thec r i t e r i a of test-wiseness  four  S t d Reg. Weights  .001  o r a b o v e ' , a median p o i n t between  test-naive  on  R  (n = 28) v e r y much outnumbered  students (n  Two ( a )  i n c r e a s e d ; and these  for a significant  test-wiseness.  E x p e r i e n c e , and  amount o f v a r i a n c e  v a r i a b l e s would of t h e i r  scores  93  This hypothesis r e g r e s s i o n model. identified presented the  tested using a multiple  of t h i s  Chapter  were met.  four independent  .48.  variables  i n Canada, M u l t i p l e  With t h i s  multicollinearity testing  (Language P r o f i c i e n c y Choice  being  the case,  was n o t l i k e l y  hypothesis.  Summary  hypothesis are presented  i n Table  Table  this  Experience,  Index,  Achievement .006  the r e s u l t s of  statistics  of t h i s  12.  12  R  Steps  2  J? -Change 2  F  Three  S t d Regress Weights MCE  0  .083  .083  1  .083  2 3  .81  -.031  .00  1.11  -.031  .083  .00  1 .71  -.030  .082  .001  3.47  LPI=Language P r o f i c i e n c y Index AM =Achievement M o t i v a t i o n  As  but  from  the problem of  to affect  Summary S t a t i s t i c s o f H y p o t h e s i s  by  Results  8 d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s among  M o t i v a t i o n ) were g e n e r a l l y low t o m o d e r a t e , r a n g i n g to  linear  A s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e model a s  i n the beginning i n Table  Residency  was a l s o  seen  a l l four  i n Table independent  LPI .002  AM  RES  .0069 -.28 .007  Variables removed  (All  -.28  LPI  -.28  AM  -.29  MCE  R E S = R e s i d e n c y i n Canada MCE=Multiple Choice Experience  12, t h e amount o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r variables  t o t e s t - w i s e n e s s was 8.3%,  t h i s q u a n t i t y was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  The  94  variables  were removed from  according  the d e f a u l t  t h e e q u a t i o n one a t a  criteria  When t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y and  Multiple  Choice  t h e r e was v e r y  and  of  Index, Achievement M o t i v a t i o n ,  little  J? -change.  produce  However, none o f t h e F - t e s t s f o r R  2  2  statements  stopped a t  o f r e s i d e n c y i n Canada would  l o s s of R .  these v a r i a b l e s  The e l i m i n a t i o n  2  /? -change were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  conclusive  i n t h e major h y p o t h e s i s .  E x p e r i e n c e were removed one a t a t i m e ,  s t e p 4 when t h e d e l e t i o n significant  stated  time  significant.  Therefore,  c o u l d n o t be made a b o u t  to test-wiseness.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  Furthermore,  the lack of  r e l a t i o n s h i p , between t e s t - w i s e n e s s and t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s demonstrated therefore,  i n the small r e g r e s s i o n weights.  concluded  Language P r o f i c i e n c y Choice  Experience  significant  that  the n u l l  2  was  I t was  h y p o t h e s i s was t e n a b l e .  Index, A c h i e v e m e n t M o t i v a t i o n , M u l t i p l e  and Residency  i n Canada d i d n o t a c c o u n t f o r  variance in Test-wiseness  among t h e C h i n e s e  students.  4.3  Comparison of f o r e i g n Chinese, Chinese Canadian Since  students  the Chinese  s t u d e n t s who r e c e n t l y represent  students  students  in this  came t o s t u d y  other Chinese  the Chinese  immigrant, and  s t u d y were a l l f o r e i g n  i n Canada, t h e y m i g h t n o t  p o p u l a t i o n s i n Canada.  in this  Comparison of  study with other Chinese  w o u l d h e l p t o a s s e s s and c o n f i r m t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ethnicity used  and t e s t - w i s e n e s s .  in this  study  (termed  between  Therefore, the Chinese  as ' f o r e i g n  Chinese')  students  students  were compared  95  w i t h some C h i n e s e relatively  s t u d e n t s who have been  longer period  immigrant').  o f time  A comparable  i n Canada  fora  (termed as 'Chinese  sample o f C h i n e s e  immigrant  s t u d e n t s was drawn from t h o s e s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n Rogers Grade  and Bateson's 12 E n g l i s h ,  Examinations  study  (1990a) a n d who a l s o w r o t e  Algebra, Physics,  or History  Provincial  i n J u n e 1989.  One-way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d three ethnic Canadian,  multiple  groups,  on t h e i r  Proficiency  Index,  foreign  and Achievement  S i n c e t h e sample  t o weight  analysis  Table groups  on t h e i r  showed t h a t  different  t h e harmonic  in their  the t h r e e groups overall  comparisons  (n = 38.78) was  during  t h e p o s t hoc  ability,  showed t h a t  Motivation. were  F-  Overall  significantly  F(2,  114) = 89.14,  the foreign  114) p<.0l.  Chinese students  (M = 10.49) t h a n b o t h C a n a d i a n  14.14) and C h i n e s e  immigrant  but t h e l a t e r  of the three ethnic  s c o r e s i n t e s t - w i s e n e s s , F(2,  lower  different.  equally  and Achievement  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  wiseness  mean  groups  s c o r e s i n T e s t - w i s e n e s s , Language  = 27.11, /K.01 a n d v e r b a l Multiple  of the t h r e e e t h n i c  1982).  overall  Index,  P o s t hoc  t h e Student-Newman-Keul  13 compares t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  Proficiency tests  sizes  t h e t h r e e samples  (Howell,  immigrant, and  Motivation.  were done u s i n g  were s m a l l a n d u n b a l a n c e d , used  Chinese, Chinese  t o compare t h e  s c o r e s on T e s t - w i s e n e s s , Language  comparisons  procedure.  either  (M = 14.37),  two g r o u p s  p<.05  in test-  were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  (M =  96  Table  13  C o m p a r i s o n o f T h r e e E t h n i c G r o u p s on T e s t - w i s e n e s s , P r o f i c i e n c y Index and A c h i e v e m e n t M o t i v a t i o n Ethnic  Dependent Variable  Foreign Chinese (A^ = 41)  TW LPI' AM **  Groups  Chinese Immigrant {N = 35) .  Canadian (N =  {SD)  M  {SD)  M  M  41) {SD)  114)  F{2,  10.49  (2.89)  14.14  (2.4 )  14.37  (2.6 )  27.11**  4.46  (2.17)  9.91  (4.27)  13.61  (2.73)  89.14**  42.98  (7.64)  41.89  (6.13)  40.51  (5.8 )  1 .43  /7<.01  TW=Test-wiseness LPI= Language AM=Achievement M o t i v a t i o n  On  t h e Language  Proficiency  students performed the worst immigrant 13.61). In  Language  Proficiency  Index, f o r e i g n  {M = 4.46), w i t h  Chinese  Chinese  s e c o n d {M = 9.91), and C a n a d i a n t h e b e s t T h e s e f i n d i n g s were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t  terms of Achievement M o t i v a t i o n ,  Index  {M =  a t t h e .01  no s i g n i f i c a n t  level.  differences  were o b s e r v e d among t h e t h r e e e t h n i c g r o u p s . Further  c o m p a r i s o n s were made among t h e t h r e e  g r o u p s on t h e f i v e results  subtests  are presented  i n the Test  i n Table  14.  ethnic  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s .  The  97  Table  14  Comparison of Three E t h n i c of T e s t - w i s e n e s s  G r o u p s on F i v e  Ethnic Foreign Chinese  Subtests  M  i n the Test  Groups  Chinese Immigrant  (SD)  M  Subtests  Canadian  (SD)  M  (SD)  1 14)  F(l,  ID1  2 .32(1.27)  3 .68(1.17)  3 .69(1.28)  16. 19**  ID2  2 .98(1.23)  4 .5  (1.31)  4 .0  (1.16)  10. 63**  ID3  3 .44(1.36)  2 .83(1.30)  3 .0  (1.61)  IIB4  1 .76(1.09)  3 .71(1.25)  3 .46(1.34)  30. 37**  17 .78(5.02)  14 .83(4.53)  23. 14**  1 1.95(  Guess  **  p  .5 )  <.01  ID1=Absurd o p t i o n s ID3=Different options  Overall F-tests Similar-options  ID2=Similar options Guess=Guessing IIB4=Stem-options Link  in Absurd-options  significant  a t t h e .01  ( F [ 1 , 114] = 23.14) were a l l  level,  groups performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y However, subtest  in  i t was  concluded  d i d not s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  test-naive  showing t h a t different that  subtest  was,  level  therefore,  the three  on t h e s e  the items  discriminate  s t u d e n t s , and t h a t  measuring the student's  guessing  ( F [ 1 , 114] = 16.19),  ( F [ 1 , 114] = 10.63), D i f f e r e n t - o p t i o n s ( F [ 1 ,  114] = 3 0 . 3 7 ) , and g u e s s i n g  and  2. 0  subtests.  i n the guessing  between  might a f f e c t  ethnic  test-wise  its reliability  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s .  The  dropped from the subsequent  98  a n a l y s e s and d i s c u s s i o n . of  The c a l c u l a t i o n  T e s t - w i s e n e s s was b a s e d  ID3,  and I I B 4 .  Keul procedure subtests, As results  Multiple  o n l y on f o u r  comparisons  were p e r f o r m e d  seen  i n F i g u r e 2, t h e g r a p h i c a l  immigrant  the  foreign  significant  Chinese  lower  presentation  comparisons,  and C h i n e s e  immigrant  performed  performed  1.76).  However,  the worst i n ID3  students performed Canadian discussed  students.  i n IIB4  (Similar  slightly  i n the subsequent  (Different  but not s i g n i f i c a n t  chapter.  Overall, lower  more s i m i l a r l y .  Among  foreign o p t i o n s ) {M =  Options), foreign  The i m p l i c a t i o n  and  was n o t  significantly  s u b t e s t s i n the T e s t of T e s t - w i s e n e s s ,  Chinese  Chinese  The  i n these three subtests.  who  of the  foreign  than both Canadian  students performed  t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s four  significant  s t u d e n t s i n ID1, ID2, and I I B 4 .  between C a n a d i a n  statistically  than  ID1, ID2,  u s i n g t h e Student-Newman-  on t h e t h r e e  o f t h e p o s t hoc m u l t i p l e  difference  the  subtests,  scores  ID1, ID2, and I I B 4 .  s t u d e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y Chinese  of the t o t a l  Chinese  better  than  of these d i f f e r e n c e s  was  99  m •  ID1  ID2  ID3  Foreign Chinese Canadian Chinese Immigrant  IIB4  Subtests  Note: * s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Figure  different  from  the  other  two  groups  2 - G r a p h i c Comparison of Three E t h n i c Groups Four S u b t e s t s i n the T e s t of T e s t - w i s e n e s s  on  CHAPTER F I V E DISCUSSION This their  final  c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a r e v i e w o f t h e f i n d i n g s and  interpretation in relation  research  considered  in earlier  t o t h e t h e o r i e s and i s s u e s i n  chapters.  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s .  and  the conclusions  three  includes  are presented  The f i r s t  A summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s  i n t h e second p a r t .  Part  t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y , f o l l o w e d by  i m p l i c a t i o n s and d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  5.1  Interpretation of Findings  5.11  Ethnicity  and  i n part  four.  Test-wiseness  I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t be  part i s  f o r e i g n Chinese s t u d e n t s would  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from Canadian s t u d e n t s i n T e s t -  w i s e n e s s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e T e s t o f T e s t - w i s e n e s s  (Rogers and  Bateson,  Chinese  1990b).  The d a t a s u p p o r t e d t h a t  s t u d e n t s were l e s s t e s t - w i s e , Chinese immigrant  a s compared t o b o t h Canadian and  students.  Some p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s  also supported the claim  C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were l e s s t e s t - w i s e . Slakter's  ( 1 9 7 3 ) a n d Wu a n d S l a k t e r ' s  Chinese students scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y Link,  that  S i m i l a r t o b o t h L o and (1978) s t u d i e s , lower  A b s u r d - o p t i o n s and S i m i l a r - o p t i o n s  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s .  foreign  D i f f e r e n t from t h e i r  foreign  i n Stem-options  subtests  i n the Test  studies, the  i n s t r u m e n t s used i n t h i s study f o r both e t h n i c  g r o u p s were i n  E n g l i s h , the problem of t r a n s l a t i o n o r the p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Chinese characters  would not account f o r  101 the d i f f e r e n c e or  American  support of  i n t e s t - w i s e n e s s between C h i n e s e  students.  In o t h e r words, t h i s s t u d y  Chinese  used  p r o b l e m of E n g l i s h  proficiency  among t h e  students  became a p p a r e n t . for children  primary  l a n g u a g e of t h e home was  wiseness  became v e r y  p o i n t e d out loaded.  that  came from  important.  were  (Anastasi  and  study  months.  over  1953).  90%  Canadians.  proficiency,  of  stems, a r e  likely  the  The  low  level  Index t h a n  to apply  i n s t r u c t i o n s and  test-  studies  further  verbally  t e s t would  the  foreign  the  English,  1975).  learning  likely  Children  who  outperformed language  Chinese  students  f o r n o t more t h a n  them were  their ability  to read  were not  standard  (Samuda,  Without a competent  as a b i l i t y  Although  (1982)  in  30  English-as-a-secondof E n g l i s h  competency  i n t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower  t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y and  not  i n Canada  Their  demonstrated  of  the  Chinese  Keogh  language c o n s i s t e n t l y  a l l have been  language s t u d e n t s . clearly  behavior  a b a c k g r o u n d where  l a n g u a g e of  i n the p r o c e s s Cordova,  Also,  and  Some p r e v i o u s  to t e s t performance  a l r e a d y mastered the who  foreign  s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s were h e a v i l y  F a m i l i a r i t y of t h e  a benefit  this  who  were i n E n g l i s h ,  As D r e i b a c h  stated,  those  d i d not  students. instruments  had  Canadian  their explanation for d i f f e r e n t test-wiseness  Since a l l the  be  and  both level  Chinese of  on  immigrants  English  test-wiseness picking  scores  was  up  skills,  c u e s from  such the  limited.  Test-wiseness  and  t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y  significantly correlated,  the  impact  of E n g l i s h  Index upon  102  Test-wiseness indirectly. wiseness, English in  the  among t h e f o r e i g n  t h e IIB4  (Stem-options  more  i n o r d e r t o d e t e c t t h e grammatic  stem t h a t  enable  t e s t - w i s e examinees t o choose  items  2,  The  foreign  subtest.  4, and  e x a m i n e e s who  On  worthy of d i s c u s s i o n .  7,  indices  9,  (Crocker largely  analyses  14,  no  15, .30  and  1986).  were m o s t l y  between  19,  20,  .60,  of the Also,  some p o i n t s  the were  ( i t e m s number  22,  23,  i t e m s was positive  range  B).  The  for  item  did properly  test-wise students.  Chinese  expected  had  the c o r r e l a t i o n s  the l e s s  2,  v a l u e s were  (see Appendix  foreign  24)  1,  necessary  the T e s t of T e s t - w i s e n e s s t h e more and  and  a satisfactory  o p t i o n s and  w h i c h would be  level.  correlations  16 of them  negative  However, t h e p - v a l u e s o f t h e much above t h a t  reveals  Algina,  i n S e c t i o n I of the T e s t of  17,  i n the c o r r e c t  showed t h a t  discriminate  the  subtest (e.g.,  ( C r o c k e r and  items,  biserial  items  revision  Algina,  found  foils  13,  between  that  and  24  items  i n most  (see Appendix E ) ,  ranged  suggesting  of t h e s e  i n d i c e s or p o i n t  11,  in this  a t t h e random g u e s s i n g  First,  Among t h e  Test-wiseness  t h e most  students performed  item c o r r e c t l y  25%,  examination  acceptable.  cues  5 ) , the p - v a l u e s or the p r o p o r t i o n of  were a p p r o x i m a t e l y  discrimination  Chinese  some i t e m s  answered the  Further  other  Link) subtest requires  skills  in this  4,  demonstrated'  language  worst  3,  c o u l d be  Compared t o o t h e r s u b t e s t s i n t h e T e s t of T e s t -  probable option.  1986)  Chinese  from  s t u d e n t s were  not  random g u e s s i n g .  103  Second,  the  stems and  particularly  l e n g t h y nor  vocabulary.  For  example,  in item  life  b)  the p o l i t i c s  c)  t h e c o u r t of K i n g Edward I I I .  d)  the  limitations  t o o demanding  First,  the  foreign  cues  might  life",  resemblance  stem and  students. that  between t h e  option than  to s u i t  not  stem t o make a two  possible  have known t h a t  so t h e y c o u l d n o t this  the E n g l i s h  them t o l o o k no  more p l a u s i b l e  because the  f o r cues  knowledge.  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s of c o n t e n t  50%  language,  option.  see  reasons. "Hard any  In t h i s  case,  needs t o  s t a n d a r d of  was  The  be  these  response very c l o s e  areas  or  skills  t o answer a q u e s t i o n second  about  e x p l a n a t i o n would  p a t t e r n throughout t o random  linguistic  still  test-  S e c o n d , t h e y m i g h t have l a c k e d t e s t - w i s e n e s s  enabled  regardless  and  s t u d e n t s were  of t h e T e s t o f T e s t - w i s e n e s s  w h i c h t h e y had  Test  the  e x p l a i n e d by  students r e a l l y  in order  student  However, fewer  Chinese  from  T i m e s " means " d i f f i c u l t  lowered  life",  12  item w r i t t e n i n o r d i n a r y academic  T h i s c o u l d be  reading l e v e l  county.  this option.  t o p i c k grammatic  guess.  ...  f o r a Grade  t h e most t e s t - w i s e g u e s s .  s u c h a s t h e above example, unable  E)  existentialism.  "Hard T i m e s " means " d i f f i c u l t  a test  or  worker.  Chateau  of European  i t i s not  s t u d e n t s chose  Given  of a f a c t o r y  of the F r e n c h  structure  (see Appendix  the d i f f i c u l t  the  the  11,  a)  know t h a t  wise  i n sentence  Hard Times d e a l s w i t h  a) w o u l d be of  complex  items a r e n e i t h e r  Charles Dicken's  Probably, to  o p t i o n s of these  the  guessing,  structure.  be  104  Compared t o t h e C a n a d i a n a n d C h i n e s e foreign  Chinese  students  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the  g r o u p o f 41 s u b j e c t s u s e d  one  student  by  extremely could  i nthis  who c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d  the c r i t e r i a  study  this  about whether e m p i r i c a l t e s t s  t o apply 5.12  level  the s k i l l s ,  British  test-wiseness the test  immigrant  t o be l e s s  students,  this  c o u l d not, and d i d not apply two g r o u p s .  that f o r e i g n Chinese  In f a c t ,  this  were f o u n d  as w e l l as the other  cannot conclude  measure s t u d e n t s '  predict  students  show t h a t t h e y  skills  wiseness s k i l l s .  Given  students.  Canadian and Chinese  could only  test-wiseness study  f o r e i g n Chinese  than  t h e r e was o n l y  as 'test-wise' as defined  to reliably  performance of the f o r e i g n Chinese  test-wise  study,  range o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s ,  h a r d l y be e x p e c t e d  students,  t e s t - n a i v e . In  o f a s c o r e o f 17 o r a b o v e .  restricted  Although  immigrant  raises  students  an i m p o r t a n t  of test-wiseness  of test-wiseness  This  lack  test-  question  actually  or just  the a b i l i t y  or t o read.  Col umbi a Provincial  Examinations  and  Test-  wi s enes s  Results wiseness was  showed t h a t t h e v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d  f o r both  the Algebra  not s i g n i f i c a n t .  provincial  and E n g l i s h examination  A relationship  examination  f o r by T e s t scores  between t e s t - w i s e n e s s a n d  s c o r e s , t h e r e f o r e c o u l d n o t be  established. However, English  test-wiseness  examination  major h y p o t h e s i s ,  scores.  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y Furthermore,  correlated  i n the test  with  of t h e  when E n g l i s h s c o r e s were u s e d a s t h e  105  criterion last  variable,  variable  the Language P r o f i c i e n c y  removed  from  the e q u a t i o n .  variance accounted  by  English  statistically  s c o r e s was  demonstrates wiseness. Examination English  of v e r b a l  t e s t - w i s e n e s s and  mathematical Students  The  This  component i n the  result  in test-  English  a l s o more c o m p e t e n t  t h e r e f o r e do  to perform  well  i n the  reason  classified the lower assumption  not  f o r the  Chinese,  symbols.  as much E n g l i s h  i n A l g e b r a a s t h e y do  not  Index  demands m a i n l y  m a n i p u l a t i o n of  require  language  i n the T e s t of  Examination. between p r o v i n c i a l  firmly  is related  in Test-wiseness foreign  t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y  relationship  t e s t - w i s e n e s s was  possible  and  in test-wiseness i s  o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between A l g e b r a  or the E n g l i s h  However, t h e  ability  Algebra examination  computation  Test-wiseness  the  role  r e v e a l e d i n the l a c k  respectively.  and  well  were more t e s t - w i s e and  important  s c o r e s and  skill  performed  the  language.  The further  who  of  Index f o r  significant.  a strong verbal  the  Also, F-test  t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y  indirectly  Students  Index was  to the  established restricted  s u b j e c t s used  o n l y one  out  o f 41  examinations  in this range  in this  study.  of v a l u e s  study.  students  Among  was  as t e s t - w i s e , w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f them l y i n g end  of  the continuum  u n d e r l y i n g simple  v a l u e s of the p r e d i c t o r s the continuum the r e s t r i c t e d  of  interest  range  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s .  linear  regression  a r e e v e n l y spaced (Pedhazur,  1982).  at  in  One  i s that intervals  the along  However, g i v e n  of v a l u e s i n t e s t - w i s e n e s s of  the  A  106  s u b j e c t s and  the  coefficients, Therefore,  inflated  this  standard  assumption  was  using test-wiseness  examination  in this  study  was  error  of r e g r e s s i o n  violated  to p r e d i c t  i n the  study.  provincial  p r o n e t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e  error. There not  i s another  account  provincial Bateson  for a significant examinations.  o f an  f o r the  t o answer t h e from  the  that test-wiseness did  amount o f v a r i a n c e on Smith  (1980) and  students  who  the  Rogers  and  l a c k e d knowledge of  item. Students  item d i r e c t l y  who  had  insufficient  knowledge  w o u l d e l i m i n a t e some and  options.  The  students'  random  guess  guessing  t h e r e f o r e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e measurement e r r o r  internal  attenuated  c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the T e s t  the c o r r e l a t i o n s  o t h e r measures As  reason  i t e m w o u l d g u e s s r a n d o m l y among a l l t h e  remaining  behavior low  As  (1990a) p o i n t e d o u t ,  the c o n t e n t options  probable  in this  demonstrated  i n the  not  sizes  between t e s t - w i s e and  study  and  Gibb's  carried  failed  between T e s t - w i s e n e s s  and  which the  study.  could  the  be  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s  and  out  results,  the  test  of h y p o t h e s i s  because of v e r y unbalanced test-naive students.  to support  (1964) argument  or  group  Therefore,  r e f u t e S l a k t e r e t a l . ' s (1970)  for larger  s c o r e s of t e s t - w i s e s t u d e n t s  than  variability  those  among  the  of t e s t - n a i v e  students. Another correlation  interesting  finding  i s the  significant  between t h e E n g l i s h e x a m i n a t i o n  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n .  2b  Students  who  scores  and  were more a c h i e v e m e n t  motivated performed examination.  better  on t h e E n g l i s h  A c c o r d i n g t o an E n g l i s h  Chinese  students, English  Chinese  s t u d e n t s f e a r most.  provincial  teacher of the foreign  12 i s t h e s u b j e c t t h a t  the foreign  Most o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s came t o  Canada w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y  satisfactory  Algebra,  c o u l d complete both Grades  Algebra not  so t h e y  usually  i n one o r two s e m e s t e r s .  be c o m p e t e n t  at least  Some have c o m p l e t e d but  they  still  examination. are  likely  serious, 5.13  a l l o t h e r Grade  Correlates  of  requirements,  12 p r o v i n c i a l well  i n English  students.  t h e amount o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d  by v e r b a l  Language P r o f i c i e n c y  ability  for  ( a s measured by t h e  Index), Achievement M o t i v a t i o n , Length of  i n Canada, a n d M u l t i p l e C h o i c e E x p e r i e n c e was n o t  statistically  significant.  Test-wiseness variables,  except  significant  d i d not c o r r e l a t e Length  of Residency  correlation  w i t h any o f t h e s e i n Canada.  c o r r e l a t i o n s m i g h t be r e l a t e d  the Test of Test-wiseness  Chinese  of E n g l i s h .  Test-wiseness  showed t h a t  in Test-wiseness  Residency  the E n g l i s h  until  t o be t h o s e who a r e more a c a d e m i c a l l y c o m p e t e n t ,  Results  of  12 c o u r s e  T h e r e f o r e , t h o s e who p e r f o r m e d  and hard-working  Residency  12 e x a m i n a t i o n  two o r more s e m e s t e r s  have n o t p a s s e d  11 a n d 12  However, most o f them would  t o write theEnglish  they had completed  s t a n d a r d o f knowledge i n  was f o u n d  i n Canada,  The l a c k o f  to the u n r e l i a b i l i t y  as e x p l a i n e d above.  between T e s t - w i s e n e s s implying that  four  A negative  and Length of  the longer the foreign  s t u d e n t s s t a y i n Canada, t h e l e s s  t e s t - w i s e they  are.  108 Such a f i n d i n g correlation a  i s most l i k e l y  coefficient  small foreign  such it  Chinese  a correlation  is unlikely  t e s t - w i s e as  coming t o Canada  they  coefficient  stay longer  examinations.  then  student play:  will  Further Residency findings. Residency  they  wiseness, their  become  less  T h e i r major g o a l of  more  the  provincial Therefore,  testing  provincial  s i d e of  the  ensure  Many o t h e r  argument.  that a  factors  come  into  in writing multiple choice  the  the  the  l e n g t h of  students  Residency  encounter  Choice  r e l a t i o n s h i p of Length  r e v e a l s some  coefficients  variables  were v e r y  their and  of  correlation other  at  since  considered.  variables  i m p l i e d t h a t the  the poorer  students  i s another  of e x p e r i e n c e  examination other  With  logically,  education.  Therefore, besides  type  with M u l t i p l e  coefficients  Second,  t o more and  skills  need t o be  The  (r = -.29).  t h e y were p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e  etc.  and  and  Chinese  be more t e s t - w i s e .  i n Canada, t h e also  chance.  r e s i d e n c y i n Canada d o e s not  examinations,  arrival  by  pursue t e r t i a r y  language a b i l i t y ,  the  i t i s p o s s i b l e to a r r i v e  i n Canada.  However, t h e r e  Mere p h y s i c a l  strong  First,  i s to a t t e n d h i g h s c h o o l , pass  and  while  to chance.  very  foreign  s h o u l d have been e x p o s e d  situations  one  not  sample,  t h a t the  they  examinations,  was  due  low  and  not  longer the  performance  between L e n g t h  Although  the  significant,  stayed  i n Canada,  in Algebra, English, Index; and  of  the  statistically  students  Language P r o f i c i e n c y  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n .  interesting  were a l l n e g a t i v e , e x c e p t  Experience.  of  also  However, f u r t h e r  Testthe  lower  e x p l o r a t i o n of  109 the d a t a Length  seemed t o s u g g e s t  of R e s i d e n c y  a curvilinear  and o t h e r  those  who  have s t a y e d  those  who  scored the lowest  variables.  those  those  academically Although  significant last  who  Multiple  variable  removed f r o m  writing  countries. informal  type  However, o v e r  i s related  in test-wiseness,  nor does i t q u a l i f y  taker"  (p. 204).  experience  o f them h a d  in their  home  w h i c h may  Chinese  result they  of w r i t i n g  test-  but v e r y  them.  r e p e a t e d l y use some i n a p p r o p r i a t e  skills  i n a performance t h a t does not a c c u r a t e l y know.  In t h i s  way,  mere M u l t i p l e  d o e s n o t seem t o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  Test-wiseness.  on  s t u d e n t s had  i n w r i t i n g m u l t i p l e choice examinations,  what  Experience  future success  an e x a m i n e e a s a s k i l l e d  Most o f t h e f o r e i g n  t h e y may  skills.  (1979) p o i n t e d o u t , "mere  o f them h a d l e a r n e d t h e s k i l l s  Therefore,  In  o f them d i d n o t have any  does not guarantee  tests,  reflect  12).  examinations,  Over h a l f  of examination  for a  i t was t h e  (see T a b l e  multiple choice  t o what S a r n a c k i  in testing  were  d i d not account  or formal c o n s u l t a t i o n i n e x a m i n a t i o n - w r i t i n g  experience  few  18 t o 24 m o n t h s ) .  students.  naive.  half  their  i n the other v a r i a b l e s  the equation  in writing  this  (between  Experience  s u b j e c t s were n o t t o t a l l y  experience  This  Choice  of v a r i a n c e  t e r m s of e x p e r i e n c e the  period  capable  I f they  w o u l d have c o m p l e t e d  s c o r e d lowest  least  amount  implies that  i n most o f t h e v a r i a b l e s .  within a reasonable  Therefore,  This  i n Canada f o r t h e l o n g e s t p e r i o d were  were a c a d e m i c a l l y c o m p e t e n t , t h e y courses  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  predict  Choice or e x p l a i n  110  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n a l s o accounted variance  in test-wiseness.  However, t h e  students'  mean s c o r e s  deviation  was  of  i n Achievement M o t i v a t i o n .  values  very  in this  low,  resulting  (Achievement M o t i v a t i o n ) within to  be  a restricted  seen  first  in Table  relationship previously  this  study  in  and  Evan, not  range.  violated  The and  ability The  IIB4  wiseness  and  this  least  study  of  the p r e d i c t o r  (test-wiseness)  prediction  was  of  lay  prone  simple  1974).  direct that  had  be  Nevertheless,  relationship  between  t h e mean s c o r e  linear  low  and  accurate.  of  restricted  regression  demonstrated  subtest  options.  show t h e  was  Second,  r e l a t i o n s h i p between v e r b a l  c o u l d be  Link)  was  equation,  Test-wiseness  First,  c o u l d not  Index  amount of v a r i a n c e i n  extremely  higher  to d e t e c t the  the  range  studies (Bajtelsmit,  the  simple  requires a relatively  a i d choosing  on  was  f o r the  test-wiseness  i n order  both  d i d not  and  Rowley,  c a s t doubt  assumption  evidence  standard  restricted  regression  in other  1972;  students  (Stem-options  competence that  f o r the  so p r e d i c t i o n  some i n d i r e c t  the  t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y  verbal a b i l i t y .  f o r e i g n Chinese  the  Chinese  u n d e r l y i n g assumption  been d e m o n s t r a t e d  should  but  Since  the c r i t e r i o n  between v e r b a l a b i l i t y  test-wiseness the  12,  Therefore,  Diamond and  high  little  violated.  i t accounted  test-wiseness.  foreign  in a very  v a r i a b l e removed f r o m t h e  showing t h a t  1977;  was  r a n g e of v a l u e s ,  r e g r e s s i o n was  As the  and  ambiguous b e c a u s e t h e  linear  test  for very  i n the T e s t level  grammatic  T h i s was  the  in this of  study.  Test-  of E n g l i s h cues  i n the  s u b t e s t on  stem which  Ill the  foreign  the t e s t that  Chinese  students performed  administration,  several  the worst.  students t o l d  Also,  after  the examiner  t h e y d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d most o f t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e T e s t  of T e s t - w i s e n e s s a n d t h e two t e s t s I n d e x , s o most o f t h e i r  o f t h e Language  a n s w e r s were l a r g e l y  Proficiency  b a s e d on  guessing.  5.2  Summary o f F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s This  investigation  examining of  cultural  began w i t h t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s o f  differences  t e s t - w i s e n e s s on B r i t i s h  Examinations  among f o r e i g n  i n t e s t - w i s e n e s s a n d t h e impact  Columbia Chinese  Grade  students.  g r o u p s were compared.  The impact  provincial  s c o r e s was s t u d i e d .  examination  12 P r o v i n c i a l Two  o f T e s t - w i s e n e s s on two The r e l a t i o n  between t e s t - w i s e n e s s and f o u r v a r i a b l e s was a l s o The this  f i n d i n g s and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t  variance  immigrant  accounted  in test-wiseness.  significantly  less  c a n be drawn  for a significant Foreign Chinese  t e s t - w i s e than  from  amount o f  s t u d e n t s were  both Canadian  s t u d e n t s , who p e r f o r m e d  and Chinese  very s i m i l a r l y .  Among t h e  s u b t e s t s i n the Test of Test-wiseness, f o r e i g n  students performed options),  significantly  lower  ID2 ( D i f f e r e n t - o p t i o n s ) ,  and G u e s s i n g .  No s i g n i f i c a n t  i n ID1  IIB4  s u b t e s t s between C a n a d i a n  Chinese  (Absurd-  (Stem-options  d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d  ( S i m i l a r - o p t i o n s ) among t h e t h r e e e t h n i c five  examined.  study a r e p r e s e n t e d below. 1. E t h n i c i t y  five  ethnic  groups,  and Chinese  Link) i n ID3  and i n a l l  immigrants.  The  112  low  s c o r e s o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s among f o r e i g n  probably  in part  demonstrated  due  to inadequate E n g l i s h  in their  lowest  score in  2. T e s t - w i s e n e s s d i d n o t a c c o u n t of  variance in English  However, E n g l i s h The  provincial  examination  reason that  of v a l u e s found  students  language  was  skills  as  IIB4. for a significant  amount  or A l g e b r a examination s c o r e s .  scores d i d c o r r e l a t e  wiseness.  range  Chinese  significantly  t e s t - w i s e n e s s d i d not  s c o r e s might  be  related  with  predict  to a  i n t e s t - w i s e n e s s among t h e  test-  restricted  foreign  Chinese students. 3. A c h i e v e m e n t Index,  Length  Experience  of Residency  test-wiseness, the  test-wise chance. not  foreign  guarantee  lack  l e n g t h of Residency  Chinese  t h e y were. Also,  f o r very l i t t l e  None of them s i g n i f i c a n t l y except  This  i t implies an  variance in  correlated  result that  i s more l i k e l y  a mere p r e s e n c e  in testing  o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between M u l t i p l e for a qualitative  taking  consideration  the  assumption  of simple l i n e a r  does The and  of  mere e x p e r i e n c e i n w r i t i n g  Owing t o t h e r e s t r i c t e d M o t i v a t i o n , and  less  to  Choice Experience  c h o i c e e x a m i n a t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y  Achievement  due  skills.  multiple  in  The  i n Canada  Choice E x p e r i e n c e because  skills.  with  i n Canada.  Multiple  wise  Choice  s t u d e n t s s t a y e d i n Canada, t h e  improvement  Test-wiseness c a l l s  Proficiency  i n Canada, and M u l t i p l e  together accounted  test-wiseness.  longer  M o t i v a t i o n , t h e Language  range  enhance  of v a l u e s o b t a i n e d  t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y regression  test-  was  violated.  Index,  113 Using  t h e s e two  therefore 4.  variables  immigrant,  was  Achievement  and A c h i e v e m e n t  from e a c h o t h e r .  mean s c o r e s were no b e t t e r  than  Chinese immigrants, although s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Chinese  than  Index.  foreign  immigrant  se may  that  origin.  is diversity.  and  ability  Even  shorter  This  factor  the f a c t  within  implies  testthat  t h e same  that  ethnicity  in test-wiseness.  t h e amount o f p r i o r  the e t h n i c  language  as C a n a d i a n s i n  and  students, despite  the c r u c i a l  the q u a l i t y  c o n s i d e r e d as  5.3  there  n o t be  test-taking  English  C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were l e s s  t h e y were o f t h e same e t h n i c  lower  C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s on  With b e t t e r  With poorer v e r b a l  i n Canada,  group,  foreign  immigrants performed as w e l l  than Chinese  Instead,  of the  the worst, t h e i r  Test-wiseness.  per  not  Chinese  Language P r o f i c i e n c y  ethnic  In terms  In  and T e s t - w i s e n e s s , f o r e i g n  t h a n C a n a d i a n s , were b e t t e r  wise  Motivation.  Index  The  residency  Chinese, Chinese  s t u d e n t s on T e s t - w i s e n e s s , t h e  Index,  different  Language P r o f i c i e n c y  ability,  was  M o t i v a t i o n , a l l t h r e e g r o u p s were h i g h and  significantly  performed  made among f o r e i g n  and C a n a d i a n  Language P r o f i c i e n c y  the  Test-wiseness  unreliable.  Comparison  chance.  to predict  experience in  g r o u p s p o s s e s s needs t o be  well.  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study Like a l l research,  limitations.  The  the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n  had  c o n c l u s i o n s drawn above s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e  be  114  considered  i n the l i g h t  of the l i m i t a t i o n s  discussed in this  part. The validity threat  major  limitation  and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  study.  The f o r e i g n  from  one s c h o o l .  r e s u l t s about generalizing justified.  these  Chinese  results  might confound  students.  some o f t h e  t o other Chinese was m a i n l y  students cannot  due t o t h e s a m p l i n g  students tended  t o behave v e r y  patterns a l l l a y within a very  a e x p l o r a t o r y study t o the t h e o r e t i c a l  problem, the f o r e i g n  similarly. limited  Their  range  along the continuum of Test-wiseness  Proficiency  Chinese  response  - i n t h e lower  and t h e Language  I n d e x , and i n t h e upper e n d a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m o f  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n . susceptible  to error range  Test-wiseness,  Therefore, prediction  because the p r e d i c t o r s  o f v a l u e s and had l i t t l e  was v e r y  lay in a  v a r i a n c e among  t h e r e f o r e , d i d n o t seem t o p r e d i c t nor d i d i t c o r r e l a t e  results,  Proficiency  Index, Achievement M o t i v a t i o n , M u l t i p l e and l e n g t h of Residency  Another examinations  sampling were u s e d  provincial  related  w i t h t h e Language Choice  i n Canada.  problem  a r o s e when  as the c r i t e r i o n  examination  them.  provincial  examination  four  be  of test-wiseness.  Probably  Experience  entirely  Therefore,  was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t s  restricted  problem i n  s t u d e n t s were drawn  A school effect  foreign  The m a j o r  was t h e s a m p l i n g  Chinese  This investigation  formulation  end  s t u d y was t h e e x t e r n a l  of the r e s u l t s .  to the e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y  this  that  of t h i s  variable.  provincial Originally,  s u b j e c t a r e a s were t o be  115  investigated. P h y s i c s and Also, so  Owing t o t h e  History,  these  sample p o s e s Chinese  and  t h e c o m p a r a b i l i t y of another  limitation  Canadian  in different  January  and  1989).  g r o u p s on  5.4  the Canadian  to t h i s  Chinese  years  Therefore, direct  the p r o v i n c i a l  and  language  major  implication  played a c r u c i a l  Test-wiseness  is a skill  examinations,  skills  that  examination  a student  Chinese  basic  With  standard  that  probability  possesses  s c o r e s on  be  was  of  their  Research that  situations. to taking  t o a p p l y any  to performance  tests  test-taking on  an  s t a n d a r d of  t h e Language  necessary In f a c t ,  s c o r e s on  be made.  s t u d y was  applied  two  language  Proficiency  s t u d e n t s o b v i o u s l y d i d not a t t a i n  I f t h e y d i d not  their  indication  the a b i l i t y  Chinese  questions.  themselves. question,  low  foreign  examination  can  students in  c o u l d not  in this  students in  between t h e  part in test-taking that  Foreign  Canadian  i s c o n t i n g e n t upon a c e r t a i n  facilities. Index, the  but  drawn  Chinese  provincial  comparison  examinations  and  study.  (foreign  immigrant  fact,  accurate.  I m p l i c a t i o n s and D i r e c t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r The  and  be  s t u d e n t s wrote the  examinations 1990  w r o t e E n g l i s h were, i n  the e s t i m a t e s might not  Finally,  wrote  s u b j e c t s c o u l d not be s t u d i e d .  t h e numbers of s t u d e n t s who  small that  June  s m a l l number of s t u d e n t s who  t o comprehend they admitted  satisfactorily  the this  comprehend  the Test of Test-wiseness  test-wiseness a b i l i t y ,  s c o r e of random g u e s s i n g .  That  but  a  the  was  not  rather a  might  be  one  of  an  116 the  reasons  why  they  s c o r e d t h e h i g h e s t on  the  Guessing  subtest. Therefore, enough and  f o r s t u d e n t s who  whose E n g l i s h f a c i l i t i e s  be more i m p o r t a n t then  to coach  per  Although  the  for significant  se p r o b a b l y  test-wiseness. Chinese  t o improve  and  The  difference  cultural  a l s o demonstrated experience presence Choice  was  be  showed t h a t  more  does not  examination  may  test-wiseness The  on  how  may  skills,  ethnicity  in  i s a case of p r i o r  ethnicity  determining  between t h e  r a t h e r than  important.  foreign  in point. experience study  q u a n t i t y of  A mere  prior  physical  in writing  guarantee  Multiple  f u t u r e improvement  Nevertheless,  or  formal  to write m u l t i p l e choice  be q u i t e i m p o r t a n t  i n improving  students'  skills.  random g u e s s i n g  behavior  students  i s consistent with  proposed  by  Smith  respond  randomly  content  being  test-wise  it  in test-wiseness, this  examinations.  or g u i d a n c e  factor  type  i n Canada or mere e x p e r i e n c e  coaching  limited,  long  to write m u l t i p l e choice  observed  b e i n g one  that q u a l i t y  in similar  i n Canada  E n g l i s h language  students  differences  examinations  success  were v e r y  the primary  immigrant  probably  been  variance in test-wiseness,  not  Chinese  not  used  study  may  With v e r b a l a b i l i t y •affecting  their  them i n t e c h n i q u e s  examinations. accounted  had  (1980).  As  t h e model of  strategies  foreign  no  exhausted  of t h e  behavior  a test-taker  knowledge of t h e  h e / s h e had  i n making use  Chinese  test-taking  Smith c l a i m e d ,  i f h e / s h e had  t e s t e d , and  of t h e  item  would  perceived  a l l his/her flaws to  arrive  117  at  an answer.  Therefore, this  et a l . ' s c l a i m  that  study  r a i s e s doubt  test-wiseness i s " l o g i c a l l y  t h e e x a m i n e e ' s knowledge o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r items a r e supposedly  measure"  (p. 707).  (1990a) a l s o came up w i t h a s i m i l a r students possessed  t o guess  as h a v i n g  important  randomly. In t h i s independent being  t h e y c a n improve  their  they almost  Chinese  i n s c h o o l , and t h a t However, that  knew.  a c a d e m i c a l l y , they  their  skills  skills,  That  t h e y may  improve is,  if  perform  (see Appendix D), over h a l f of tried  hard to get the r i g h t  studied  grades  hard  f o r the t e s t s  were a l m o s t  i n q u e s t i o n 16, o v e r h a l f grades  to  I n q u e s t i o n s 13 t o 15 on t h e  always  answers i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n ,  t o them.  motivated  test-taking  i n the examination.  them s a i d  tests  c a n be drawn  The r e a s o n c o u l d be t h a t  during examinations.  Achievement M o t i v a t i o n t e s t  they  tested.  the a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t - t a k i n g  academic performance  believed  of the examinee's  m o t i v a t i o n among t h e f o r e i g n  with Test-wiseness.  may n o t p o s s e s s  take  they  way, t e s t - w i s e n e s s  educational implication  although the students are highly  better  t h e knowledge,  However, A c h i e v e m e n t M o t i v a t i o n d o e s n o t seem t o  correlate  their  Rogers and Bateson  tested,  the h i g h achievement  students.  f o r which the  no knowledge o f t h e c o n t e n t b e i n g  knowledge o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r  from  of  i f the  s t r a t e g i e s may n o t be totally  Another  independent  observation that  or d i d not p e r c e i v e themselves were v e r y l i k e l y  on M i l l m a n  almost  always  A p p a r e n t l y , t h e y have t r i e d  but they d i d not r e a l i z e  that  always  important  of the s u b j e c t s  really hard  they  showed what  t o study  t h e r e might  f o r the  be o t h e r  118  extraneous  factors,  affect  their  taking  skills  test  test  first by  test  To  of c o a c h i n g t e s t e d on  of  them t o a p p l y  external larger  the  the  sample  sampling  behavior  to  and  interview  and  f u r t h e r study  nature  from t h o s e also  reading  affect level  their  be  students' the  test  testing  l e v e l a p p r o p r i a t e to the  examine  hence  case  a  postto  enabling  the  drawing  This  their  a  would More  test-taking  examination  study,  and  beneficial.  individual  T h i s would  a p p r o a c h and use  be  followed  then  abilities. of  the  could  threat to  deficiency in  students  extent  the  performance.  schools.  the Canadians or Chinese  of  test  i f t h e methods t h e y  the  whether  i m p r o v e d by  student  follow-up  Chinese  f i n d out  and  skills,  understanding  of  of  T h i s would h e l p  of  o b s e r v a t i o n s would be  help to assess  skills  a  of  can  types  r a n g e of  a careful  h e l p t o e x p l a i n how p r o b l e m , and  skills,  problem poses a major  i n c r e a s e the  skills,  their  Students  improve t h e i r  from d i f f e r e n t  the  improving  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s ,  test-wiseness.  ensure a wider  important,  level  test-wiseness  to  test-  should  skills.  would  the  performance of  further research  initial  skills  them on  help  a w a r e n e s s of t e s t - t a k i n g  validity,  probably  writing  their  that  understanding  test  test-taking  l e v e l of  their  Since  of  l e s s o n s on  their  increase  i n c r e a s e the  students,  skills,  Educating  would b e n e f i t t h e  Chinese  coaching  test-taking  t h e r e f o r e would p r o b a b l y  test-wiseness  effect  as  performance.  performance.  foreign  such  solve a  really  immigrants.  differ This  would  to which E n g l i s h language  performance. instruments  In a d d i t i o n , t h e should  f o r e i g n Chinese  be  students  lowered who  are  to in  119 the p r o c e s s results  of l e a r n i n g  In  r a t h e r than choosing  qualitative  the p r e d i c t o r s of test-wiseness,  experience  as e x p e r i e n c e  of R e s i d e n c y  the e x p e r i e n c e speaking  i n Canada, a more v a l i d  have engaged s i n c e t h e y  to  range of v a l u e s  be o b t a i n e d among  distributed wiseness  Finally, scores,  to find  the Chinese  obtaining  areas  A more  in verbal a b i l i t y  a more r e l i a b l e  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample  the c o o p e r a t i o n of p r i n c i p a l s  students  Index  need  evenly  and t e s t -  prediction.  out i f t e s t - w i s e n e s s a f f e c t s  i s necessary.  may be  and t e s t - w i s e n e s s ,  students.  t h e use of a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y  examination  i n which  i n t h e Language P r o f i c i e n c y  range of v a l u e s  would e n a b l e  In terms of  To o b t a i n a more  r e l a t i o n s h i p between v e r b a l a b i l i t y  a wider  may  with E n g l i s h  of a c t i v i t i e s  came t o C a n a d a .  classes,  indicator  of i n t e r a c t i o n  and the type  examinations,  coaching  of t e s t - w i s e n e s s .  and frequency  people  measure o f t h e  with multiple choice  predictor  both  components need t o be  i n taking examination  a more r e l i a b l e  direct  test  ability.  F o r example, a q u a l i t a t i v e  students' p r i o r  Length  E n g l i s h language  as w e l l as q u a n t i t a t i v e  considered.  be  The  would t h e n more a c c u r a t e l y measure t h e c o n s t r u c t o f  interest  such  the E n g l i s h language.  o f sample  examination  in various  However, f e a s i b i l i t y i s largely  and t e a c h e r s .  of  contingent  upon  120  REFERENCES A l k e r , H.A., C a r l s o n , J.A., & Hermann, M.G. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . M u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s a n d s t u d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Journal of Educational Psychology, 60(3), 231-243. A n a s t a s i , A. & C o r d o v a , F . ( 1 9 5 3 ) . Some e f f e c t s o f b i l i n g u a l i s m upon t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f P u e r t o R i c a n c h i l d r e n i n New Y o r k C i t y . Journal of Educational Psychology, 44, 1-19. A n d e r s o n , J.O., M u i r , W., B a t e s o n , D.T., B l a c k m o r e , R o g e r s , W.T. ( 1 9 9 0 ) . The impact of pr ovi net al examinations on education in British Columbia: Report. V i c t o r i a : B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n .  D., & General  A r d i f f , M.B. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . The relation of three aspects testwiseness to intelligence and reading ability in grades three and six. U n p u b l i s h e d master t h e s i s , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , New Y o r k . B a j t e l s m i t , J.W. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . T e s t - w i s e n e s s a n d s y s t e m a t i c d e n s i t i z a t i o n programs f o r i n c r e a s i n g a d u l t t e s t - t a k i n g s k i l l s . Journal of Educational Measurement, 7 4 ( 4 ) , 335341 . B a n g e r t - D r o w n s , R.L., K u l i k , J.A., & K u l i k , C C . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . H i g h l i g h t s from r e s e a r c h on t h e e f f e c t s o f c o a c h i n g f o r t e s t s . Educational Leadership, 4 7 ( 4 ) , 82. Benson, J . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . The psychometric and cognitive aspects test-wiseness: A review of literature. Manuscript submitted f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland.  of  Benson, J . Urman, H., & H o c e v a r , D. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . E f f e c t s o f t e s t w i s e n e s s t r a i n i n g a n d e t h n i c i t y on a c h i e v e m e n t a n d t h i r d and f i f t h - g r a d e s t u d e n t s . Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Devel opment , 7 5 ( 4 ) , 154-162. B o r r e l l o , G.M. & Thompson, test-wiseness s k i l l s . 53(3), 124-128.  B. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . C o r r e l a t e s Journal of Experimental  B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n (1989). handbook. V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r s .  of s e l e c t e d Education, Administrative  Calam, J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . C u l t u r e a n d c r e d e n t i a l s : A n o t e on l a t e nineteenth century teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B.C. Historical News, 7 4 ( 1 ) , 12-15. C a r b o l , B.C. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v i n c i a l a n d s c h o l a r s h i p e x a m i n a t i o n s : An o v e r v i e w o f i s s u e s , 25(3), 17-20.  Horizon,  121  Carbol, of  B.C. ( 1 9 8 9 ) . P r o v i n c i a l t h e q u e s t i o n s . Research  e x a m i n a t i o n s : A n s w e r i n g some Forum, 4 ( W i n t e r ) , 20-23.  C h a n t , S.N.F., L i e r s c h , J . E . , & W a l r o d , the Royal Commission on Education. Queen's P r i n t e r .  R.R. ( 1 9 6 0 ) . Report V i c t o r i a , B.C.:  of  C r e h a n , K.D., K o e h l e r , R.A., & S l a k t e r , M.J. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s . Journal of Educational Measurement, 11(2), 209-212. C r o c k e r , L . & A l g i n a , J . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Introduction to classical modern test theory. New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , a n d Winston. Diamond, J . J . , A y r e s , J . , F i s h m a n , R., & G r e e n , i n n e r c i t y c h i l d r e n t e s t - w i s e ? Journal of Measurement, 14('\), 39~45.  and  P. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . A r e Educational  Diamond, J . J . & E v a n s , W.J. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c o g n i t i v e c o r r e l a t e s o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s . Journal of Educational Measurement, 9(2), 145-150. D o l l y , J . P . & V i c k , D.S. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . An a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y p r e d i c t o r s o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s . Psychological Reports, 663-672.  58,  D o l l y , J . P . & W i l l i a m s , K.S. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Teaching testwiseness. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e Rocky Mountain E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Jackson, Wyoming. D o l l y , J . P . & W i l l i a m s , K.S. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . U s i n g t e s t - t a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o maximize m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t s c o r e s . Educational and Psychological Measurement, 46, 619-625. D r e i s b a c h , M. & Keogh, B.K. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T e s t w i s e n e s s a s a f a c t o r i n r e a d i n e s s t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f young M e x i c a n - A m e r i c a n C h i l d r e n . Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(2), 224229. D u b o i s , P.H. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . A t e s t - d o m i n a t e d s o c i e t y : C h i n a 1115 B.C. - 1905 A.D.. In A. A n a s t a s i ( E d ) , Testing problems in perspective ( p p . 2 9 ~ 3 6 ) . W a s h i n g t o n : A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on Education. Dunn, T . F . & G o l d s t e i n , L.G. ( 1 9 5 9 ) . T e s t d i f f i c u l t y v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y a s f u n c t i o n s o f s e l e c t e d m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e i t e m c o n s t r u c t i o n p r i n c i p l e s . Educational and Psychological Measurement, 19(2), 171-179. Ebel,  R.L. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . Measuring educational achievement. Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l .  122  E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement R e s e a r c h Preparing  to  write  the  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Committee. Eels,  G r o u p (EMRG)  language  Proficiency  Columbia,  Faculty  (1989). Index.  o f E d u c a t i o n , LPI  K., D a v i d , H., H a v i g h u r s t , R., H e r r i c k , U., & T y l e r , R. (1951).  Intelligence  University  and  of Chicago  cultural  differences.  Chicago:  Press.  F e r r e l l , G.M. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s c o r e s on a measure o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s t o p e r f o r m a n c e on t e a c h e r - m a d e o b j e c t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d on s t a n d a r d i z e d a b i l i t y a n d achievement t e s t s t o g r a d e - p o i n t average, and t o sex f o r e a c h o f f i v e h i g h s c h o o l s a m p l e s . Doctoral Abstracts International, 33, 1510A. F i s h e r , D. & E c h o l s , F. ( 1 9 8 9 ) . Evaluation Vancouver  School  Vancouver:  Board's  University  race  report  relations  of B r i t i s h  on  the  policy.  Columbia.  F r i e r s o n , H. T. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . E v a l u a t i o n o f an i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o g r a m ' s impact on m i n o r i t y m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s ' s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e , Report ED 246097, 1-10. F u e y o , V. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . T r a i n i n g analysis. Gibb,  B.G.  Psychol  ogy  E., Epstein,  standardized  Russell  The  Test-wiseness  (1964).  Unpublished doctoral Goslin,  test-taking In  as  in  elementary  A critical  14(2),  a secondary  dissertation,  R.R., & H a l l o c h ,  tests  skills:  Schools,  180-185. cue  response.  Stanford University.  A. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . The use schools.  New  of  York:  Sage F o u n d a t i o n .  G r o s s , L . J . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The e f f e c t s o f t h r e e s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s on t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f e i g h t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s . Dissertation Abstracts International, 36, 6551A. Heinrich,  J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Why p r o v i n c i a l  Teacher, Howell,  D.  63(2), (1982).  examinations?  B.C.  59-60. Statistical  e d . ) . Boston: Durxbury  methods  for  psychology  (2nd  Press.  K a l e c h s t e i n , P., K a l e c h s t e i n , M., & D o c t e r , R. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The e f f e c t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n on t e s t - t a k i n g s k i l l s i n s e c o n d g r a d e b l a c k c h i l d r e n . Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 7 3 ( 4 ) , 198-202. K r e i t , L.H. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . The e f f e c t s o f t e s t - t a k i n g s k i l l s i n s e c o n d - g r a d e b l a c k c h i l d r e n . Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 7 3 ( 4 ) , 198-202.  123  L o , M. & S l a k t e r , M . J . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . R i s k - t a k i n g a n d t e s t w i s e n e s s o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s . The Journal of Experimental Education, 42(2), 56-59. M c P h a i l , I.P. (1978). A p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c approach of t r a i n i n g urban h i g h s c h o o l s s t u d e n t s i n t e s t - t a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s . The Journal of Negro Education, 47(2), 168-176. M e t f e s s a l , N.S. & Sax, G. ( 1 9 5 8 ) . S y s t e m i c b i a s i n t h e k e y i n g of c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s . Educational and Psychological Measurement , 18(4), 787790. M i l l m a n , J . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . Test-wi seness in taking objective achievement and aptitude examinations: Its nature and importance. Unpublished manuscript, C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y . M i l l m a n , J . , B i s h o p , C.H., & E b e l , R. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . An a n a l y s i s o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s . Educational and Psychological Measurement, 25(3), 707-726. M i l l m a n , J . & S e t i j a d i (1966). A comparison of t h e performance of A m e r i c a n and I n d o n e s i a n s t u d e n t s on t h r e e t y p e s o f t e s t i t e m s . Journal of Educational Research, 59(6), 273275. N u n n a l l y , J . C . ( 1 9 6 7 ) . Psychometric Hill.  theory.  New Y o r k : McGraw  O a k l a n d , T. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . The e f f e c t s o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s m a t e r i a l on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t performance of p r e s c h o o l disadvantaged c h i l d r e n . Journal of School Psychology, 10(4), 355-360. P e d h a z u r , E . J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Multiple regression research (2nd e d . ) . New Y o r k : H o l t , Winston.  in behavioral R i n e h a r t , and  Putnam, J . H . & W e i r , G.M. ( 1 9 2 5 ) . Survey V i c t o r i a , B.C.: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r .  of  the  school  system.  P r e l l , J . M. & P r e l l , P.A. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . I m p r o v i n g t e s t s c o r e s t e a c h i n g t e s t - w i s e n e s s - A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Phi Delta Kappa, 5, 2-5. R o g e r s , W.T. & B a t e s o n , D . J . ( 1 9 9 0 a ) . The impact of testwiseness upon year-end school leaving examinations. Manuscript submitted f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . R o g e r s , W.T. & B a t e s o n , D . J . ( 1 9 9 0 b ) . Verification of of test-taking behavior of high school seniors. Manuscript submitted f o r p u b l i c a t i o n .  a model  124  Rowley, G.L. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Which e x a m i n e e s a r e most use o f m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t ? Journal of Measurement, 7 7 ( 1 ) , 15-23.  f a v o u r e d by t h e Educational  R u s s e l l , I . L . (1969). M o t i v a t i o n of s c h o o l achievement measurement a n d v a l i d a t i o n . The Journal of Educational Research, 62(6), 263-266. Samson, G.E. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . E f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g i n t e s t t a k i n g s k i l l s on a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e : A q u a n t i t a t i v e s y n t h e s i s . Journal of Educational Research, 78(5), 261266. Samuda, R . J . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Psychological testing minorities - Issues and consequences. Mead & Co.  of American New Y o r k : Dodd,  S a r n a c k i , R.E. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s i n t h e c o g n i t i v e domain. Review of Educational Research, 49(2), 252-279. S c r u g g s , T . E . & L i f s o n , S.A. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . C u r r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s o f t e s t - w i s e n e s s : Myths a n d r e a l i t i e s . School Psychology Review, 14(3), 339-350. S l a k t e r , M.J. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . G e n e r a l i t y o f r i s k t a k i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s . Educational and Psychological 2 9 ( 1 ) , 115-128.  on o b j e c t i v e Measurement,  S l a k t e r , M.J., K o e h l e r , R.A., & Hampton, S.H. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . L e a r n i n g t e s t - w i s e n e s s by programmed t e x t s . Journal of Educational Measurement, 7, 247-254. S m i t h , J.K. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The convergence strategy of test-wiseness. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , B o s t o n , M.A. S m i t h , J.K. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . C o n v e r g i n g on c o r r e c t a n s w e r s : p e c u l i a r i t y o f m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i t e m s . Journal Educational Measurement, 19(3), 211-220.  A of  S t a n l e y , J . C . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . R e l i a b i l i t y . I n R.L. T h o r n d i k e ( E d . ) Educational measurement ( p p . 3 6 3 - 3 6 5 ) . W a s h i n g t o n D.C.: A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n ( 1 8 9 8 ) . Annual report of the public schools of the Province of British Columbia. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r . T h o r n d i k e , R.L. ( 1 9 5 1 ) . R e l i a b i l i t y . I n E . F . L i n d q u i s t ( E d . ) , Educational measurement ( p p . 5 6 0 - 6 2 0 ) . W a s h i n g t o n D.C.: A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n .  125 T h o r n d i k e , R.L. & Hagen, E . ( 1 9 6 9 ) . Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education. New Y o r k : John W i l e y a n d Sons I n c . V e r n o n , P.E. ( 1 9 6 2 ) . The d e t e r m i n a n t s o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . Educational and Psychological 22(2), 269-286.  Measurement,  W e i t e n , W. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . V i o l a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d i t e m c o n s t r u c t i o n p r i n c i p l e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l measurement. Journal of Experimental Education, 52(3), 174-178. Wu, T.H. & S l a k t e r , M.J. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . . R i s k - t a k i n g a n d t e s t - w i s e n e s s of C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s by g r a d e l e v e l a n d r e s i d e n c e a r e a . Journal of Educational Research, 71(3), 167-170.  Appendix A S t a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n W e i g h t s and A d j u s t e d D e l e t i o n of the Major Hypothesis Steps  R  Adj R  2  2  2  Standardized Regression Weights MCE  Dependent  R — i n Each Step of  V a r i a b l e = ALG  AM  TW  Variables Removed  LPI  RES  .08  .51  (N = 35)  0  .099  -.55  .13  -.21  .63  1  .095  -.36  .13  -.15  -.57  -.46  LPI  2  .08  -.22  -.10  -.48  -.42  MCE  3  .078  -.11  -.41  -.32  AM  4  .031  -.06  -.18  5  .00  Dependent  TW  V a r i a b l e = ENG  .66  .42  -.28  1  .66*  .49  -.27  2  .62*  .50  -.34  3  .52*  .43  4  .46**  .41  p<.05  RES  .00  0  *  ( A l l in)  (N = 16) .05  -.28  .35  -.86  ( A l l in)  -.32  .37  -.90  AM  .34  -.70  TW  .26  -.60  MCE  -.68  LPI  ** /7<.01  A L G = A l g e b r a exam s c o r e s E N G = E n g l i s h exam s c o r e s TW = T e s t - w i s e n e s s LPI=Language P r o f i c i e n c y Index RES=Residency i n Canada AM =Achievement M o t i v a t i o n MCE=Multiple Choice Experience  127 Appendix B R e s u l t s o f Item A n a l y s i s o f S u b t e s t s ID1. ID2, ID3 and I I B 4 i n the T e s t of T e s t - w i s e n e s s of F o r e i g n Chinese Students Subtests  I tern  IDi (Absurd Options)  3  7  9  13  17  22  ID2 (Similar Options)  4  6  12  Options  P-values  PBST  PBTT  1 2 *3 4 1 *2 3 4 Others 1 *2 3 4 Others 1 2 *3 4 Others 1 2 *3 4 Others 1 *2 3 4 Others  4.9 29.3 53.7 12.2 12.2 58.5 22.0 2.4 4.9 12.2 34. 1 19.5 26.8 7.3 22.0 26.8 29.3 17.1 4.9 17.131.7 29.3 19.5 2.4 22.0 26.8 24.4 24.4 2.4  .21 -.42 .39 -.15 -.21 .57 -.37 -.17 -.15 -.03 .43 -.32 -.11 -.07 .01 .07 .31 -.37 -.15 .09 -.38 .56 -.17 -.29 -.09 .42 -.14 -.10 -.29  .28 -.22 .19 -.16 -.00 .31 -.10 -.29 -.30 -.06 .47 -.12 -.15 -.36 .12 .19 .05 -.18 -.42 .09 -.32 .49 -.12 -.40 -. 12 .08 .01 .17 -.40  1 2 *3 *4 Others *1 2 *3 4 Others 1 *2 3 *4 Others  22.0 26.8 12.2 36.6 2.4 12.2 31.7 29.3 19.5 7.3 19.5 22.0 26.8 24.4 7.3  -.23 .24 .44 -.23 -.26 -.05 -.03 .28 -.09 -.22 -.04 .25 -.26 .20 -.22  -.02 -.07 .33 -.08 -.19 -.10 .04 .20 -.12 -.36 -.22 .12 -.17 .48 -.36  Subtests ID2 (Similar Options)  Item 15  18  21  ID3 (Different Options)  1  5  10  16  20  23  Options  F-values  PBST  PBTT  1 *2 *3 4 Others 1 *2 3 *4 Others *1 2 3 *4 Others  17.1 31.7 24.4 22.0 4.9 14.6 29.3 17.1 36.6 2.4 22.0 24.4 24.4 26.8 2.4  -.10 .36 .34 -.57 -.18 -.05 .23 -.47 .26 -.26 .1 1 .01 -.22 .19 -.26  .04 .18 .21 -.30 -.30 -.10 -.15 -.11 .28 -.40 -.04 .32 -.10 -.03 -.40  *1 *2 3 4 1 2 *3 *4 Others *1 *2 3 4 Others *1 *2 3 4 Others 1 *2 3 *4 Others 1 *2 3 *4 Others  39.0 31 .7 29.3 0.0 26.8 22.0 17.1 26.8 7.3 26.8 36.6 12.2 17.1 7.3 7.3 31 .7 36.6 22.0 2.4 12.2 36.6 31 .7 17.1 2.4 17.1 51 .2 7.3 22.0 2.4  .22 .32 -.57 .00 -.03 -.26 .24 .21 -.23 .12 .21 -.14 -.04 -.29 .12 .21 -.14 -.04 -.29 -.23 .39 -.42 .33 -.29 -.44 .39 .05 .00 -.29  -.12 .26 -.13 .00 -.07 -.12 .31 .13 -.36 .21 .04 .1 1 -.16 -.40 .21 .04 .1 1 -.16 -.40 -.08 .13 -.26 .40 -.40 -.33 .48 -.04 -.10 -.40  Subtests  Item  Options 1 *2 3 4 Others 1 *2 3 4 Others *1 2 3 4 Others 1 2 *3 4 Others *1 2 3 4 Others *1 2 3 4 Others  IIB4 2 (Stem-option Link) 8  11  14  19  24  Subtests  M  SD  ID1 ID2 ID3 IIB4  2.32 2.98 3.44 1 .76  1 .27 1 .23 1 .36 1 .09  P-values  PBST  PBTT  9.8 36.6 24.4 26.8 2.4 22.0 22.0 24.4 24.4 7.3 41 .5 17.1 29.3 9.8 2.4 22.0 17.1 31.7 24.4 4.9 22.0 22.0 41 .5 12.2 2.4 22.0 7.3 43.9 24.4 2.4  -.23 .45 -.24 -.02 -.26 .07 .12 -.03 -.08 -.11 .33 -.14 -.25 .07 -.11 -.26 -.14 .54 -.19 -.05 .50 -.21 -.04 -.26 -.11 .45 .20 -.26 .02 -.11  -.19 .02 .01 .15 -.19 .10 .12 -.01 .01 -.36 .18 -.27 .03 .20 -.40 -.10 -.00 .13 .1 1 -.30 .58 -.06 -.18 -.21 -.40 .32 -.07 -.10 -.01 -.40  Hoyt R e l . C o e f f .  * = correct option(s) PBST = P o i n t - b i s e r i a l C o r r e l a t i o n PBTT = P o i n t - b i s e r i a l C o r r e l a t i o n  .19 .03 .29 .00  (Subtest) (Total test)  SEM 1 .04 1.11 1 .05 1 .02  130 Appendix  C  Items Used  for Validation  of  t h e T e s t of  Test-wiseness  1. The compromise between D e m o c r a t s and R e p u b l i c a n s a f t e r p o s t - c i v i l war e l e c t i o n o f 1876 r e s u l t s i n ...  the  A. B. C. D.  f e d e r a l a i d to southern r a i l r o a d s . the e n t r a n c e of Texas i n t o the Union a t r e a t y with Joseph S t a l i n . t h e f u g i t i v e S l a v e Law.  2.  I f r i b u l o s e b i p h o s p h a t e were removed from a c h l o r o p l a s t , of t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s w o u l d BEST d e s c r i b e t h e immediate r e s u l t ?  A. B. C. D.  CO2 ATP  c o u l d not e n t e r the C a l v i n c y c l e . c o u l d n o t be p r o d u c e d i n t h e t h y l a k o i d . c o u l d not e n t e r the C a l v i n c y c l e . L i g h t e n e r g y c o u l d n o t be t r a p p e d i n t h e g r a n a .  3.  In  A. B. C. D.  enacted the A s q u i t h p r i c e - c o n t r o l b i vetoed a b i l l to extend the s u f f r a g e f o r c e t h e House o f L o r d s t o a c c e p t a were d e f e a t e d i n an a t t e m p t t o e n a c t Act.  4.  The sigma e f f e c t o f t h e F a h r a e u s - L i n d q v i s t phenomenon i s r e l a t e d t o ...  A. B. C. D.  the flow of l i q u i d t h r o u g h the k i d n e y . the muscular c o n t r a c t i o n s of the k i d n e y . the kidney's t r a n s m i s s i o n of f l u i d s . the d i a m e t e r of the r e d c e l l s f l o w i n g t h r o u g h blood v e s s e l s .  1911 their  as a s l a v e  state.  which  t h e T o r i e s i n c o n t r o l o f t h e House o f Commons showed p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e and d e m o c r a t i c s p i r i t when t h e y  5. Which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g the r i g h t ?  would cause  ll. privilege. r e d u c t i o n i n i t s power. the N a t i o n a l Insurance  an  the  oat s e e d l i n g  kidney's  t o bend  A. A u x i n s p l a c e on t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e s h o o t t i p . B. G i b e r e l l i n s p l a c e on t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e s h o o t t i p . C. C y t o k i n i n s p l a c e d on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e s h o o t t i p . D. A u x i n s p l a c e on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e s h o o t t i p .  to  131 6.  Why  A. B.  I t shows t h a t t h e s u r f a c e a r e a o f a s q u a r e of s i d e s i s s . I t p r o v i d e s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f E u c l i d and Gauss. I t i s u s e d t o p r o v e t h a t two p o l y g o n s a r e c o n g r u e n t . I t p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r f i n d i n g t h e volume f o r m u l a e f o r many solids.  C. D.  i s C a v a l i e r i ' s P r i n c i p l e important  in Solid  2  7.  A major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of are ...  A. B. C. D.  s o u r c e s of e n e r g y . non-recyclable. non-renewable. unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d .  8.  The emperor of t h e a n c i e n t H s i n D y n a s t y who u n d e r t a k e r a d i c a l r e f o r m was ...  A. B. C. D.  Saigon. Wang Mang. Mao T'se T u n g . Alexander I.  9.  The  A. B. C. D. E.  records l i g h t sensation. develops during g a s t r u l a t i o n . has two m o v e a b l e j o i n t s . i s s t r u c t u r e d i n p a r t by t h e t u r b i n a l s . i s an o r g a n of b a l a n c e .  10.  Geometry?  nose  natural  resources  i s that  resigned  they  to  ...  S t r i d u l a t i o n at  times  facilitates  ...  A. c o o r d i n a t i o n . B. d i s p e r s a l . C. n u t r i t i o n . D. reproduction. E. e x c r e t i o n . 11.  A. B.  A f t e r t h e t r e a t y of R a s t a t t and Baden i n March-September 1714, A u s t r i a t o o k p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e S p a n i s h N e t h e r l a n d s . True False.  132  12. A. B. C. D. 13. A. B. 14. A. B. C. D. E.  The  Zmstvo-Law p r o c l a i m e d  by A l e x a n d e r  I I of R u s s i a  in  1864  f r e e d m i l l i o n s of Russian s e r f s . a b o l i s h e d t h e o l d s y s t e m of c l a s s c o u r t s . a l l o w e d j u s t i c e s of t h e p e a c e t o d e a l w i t h m i n o r c i v i l s u i t s . i n t r o d u c e d t h e p r i n c i p l e of u n i v e r s a l m i l i t a r y l i a b i l i t y . Every  bounded  infinite  s e t has  at  least  one  cluster  point.  True False " I f t h e g r o u p G has o r d e r n, t h e o r d e r of e v e r y s u b g r o u p H G i s d i v i s o r of n." T h i s i s t h e t h e o r e m of ...  of  Napoleon. Bach. Cauchy. Homer. Legrange.  Note:  Items were p r i n t e d one on a page and s t u d e n t s one a t a t i m e .  were p r e s e n t e d  to  the  133  Appendix D - Student  Survey  NAME:  SCHOOL:  BIRTH DATE:  / Yr  SEX: M / F  / /Mon /Day  STUDENT SURVEY INSTRUCTIONS : 1. Print your NAME and the NAME OF YOUR SCHOOL at the top of this Test Booklet. 2. Fill in your BIRTH DATE. 3. Circle the appropriate place marked SEX (M or F).  SECTION  I: BACKGROUND  INFORMATION  INSTRUCTIONS: Please read each question and circle the appropriate number below each item or write down your response on the space provided. ******************************************************  1. To which ethnic or cultural root do you belong? 0 English 1 French 2 Native Indian 3 East Indian 4 Chinese 5 German 6 Italian 7 Japanese 8 Vietnamese 9 Others 2. Were you born in Canada? 0 No (continue on to question #3) 1 Yes (skip to question #6. Do not answer questions 3, 4 & 5) 3. What is your place of origin?  (City)  4. How long have you been in Canada? (Years)  (Country) (Months)  5. Have you ever practised writing any multiple choice examinations in your home country? 0 No, never 1 Yes, once or twice 2 Yes, three or more times  134  6. Have you ever had any formal coaching or specific lessons on how to take a test? 0 No, never 1 Yes, once or twice 2 Yes, three or more times If yes, where did you receive the coaching or lessons? (Check all that apply) 0 in Canada 1 in my home country other than Canada 2 somewhere else 7. Have you ever received any informal consultation on how to write multiple choice examinations (e.g. from teachers, parents, friends etc)? 0 No, never 1 Yes, once or twice 2 Yes, three or more times If yes, where did you have the consultation? (check all that apply) 0 in Canada 1 in my home country other than Canada 2 somewhere else 8. Have you practised writing provincial examinations using previous examinations or questions from these examinations? 0 No, never 1 Yes, once or twice 2 Yes, three or more times 9. Have you written or are you going to write any provincial scholarship examinations? 0 No 1 Yes  SECTION  II - ACHIEVEMENT  MOTIVATION  INSTRUCTIONS: Please read each statement or question and decide whether it Almost Never applies to YOU, Sometimes applies to YOU, Often applies to YOU, or Almost Always applies to YOU, and circle the appropriate response below each item. You are asked to state YOUR A C T U A L FEELINGS OR HABITS with regard to these items, not in accordance with what you think you should or should not do, or what you see others do. Please answer in accordance with what you yourself feel or are in the habit of doing. No one will ever know what you have personally said on this survey, so please be as honest as possible. The Scale of Agreement is: Almost Never, Sometimes, Often, Almost Always  *********************************************  1. Does it bother you if another student makes better grades than you do? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 2. Does failure discourage you from trying as hard the next time? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always  135 The Scale of Agreement is: Almost Never, Sometimes, Often, Almost Always *********************************************  3. Do you often compare your work with the work of others? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 4. Are you usually on time with school assignments? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 5. Do you try to make better grades than the other students in your class? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 6. Would you, or do you enjoy being one of the class leaders? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 7. Do you stick to an assignment until it is completed even though it is dull and boring to you? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 8. If you lost several times consecutively, would you quit trying? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 9. Would you prefer to enroll in a course in which no grades were to be given? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 10. If you had to choose between taking part in a contest or being one of the judges, would you choose to be a judge? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 11. Would you prefer to sit in the back of the classroom? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 12. Your friend stopped running when it was evident that he was losing the race. Would you have stopped running in this situation? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 13. Do you always try hard to get the right answer? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 14. Do you study hard for the tests you take in school? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 15. Are your grades important to you? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always 16. Do your test grades in school really show what your know? Almost Never Sometimes Often Almost Always **************  * pigQQg  Turn Pase ****** ******** * * * * * * *  136  GENERAL  INSTRUCTIONS  FOR SECTIONS III AND  IV:  Read each sentence completely. Circle the number (1,2,3, or 4) following the underlined portion of the sentence that you think contains an error. If you think the sentence is C O R R E C T as it appears, circle number 5 following the ' C at the end of the item. For example: Maria, Louisa, and (1) Clara wasn't (2) able to be (3) at (4) the party. C (5) Since the portion "wasn't" contains an error, you should circle "(2)" as your answer.  SECTION  III : SENTENCE  STRUCTURE  Some, though not all, of the ten items found below contain an error related to sentence structure, such as a misplaced modifier, a run-on sentence, a lack of subject-verb agreement, faulty parallelism, and so on. No item contains more than one underlined error. Now proceed with the following sentences.  C=Correct Sentence  1. There were(l> several letters that he knew(2) he had to write, he toldP) himself that he would write them(4) on Wednesday afternoon. C (5) 2. Whenever I go(l) to a fashion show, I like to get an insight mto(2) the latest in(3) women's clothes. Perhaps even buy something^). C (5) 3. I really enjoy(1) sitting in front of(2) a fire blazing away with a special friendffl) on a cold winter's day(4). C (5) 4. The ability to pl&y(l) tennis well demands(2) a strong arm, running and(3j really excellentf4j co-ordination. C (5) 5. Despite the factflj that it was a holiday w e e k e n d ^ , the line-ups at the ferry t e r m i n a l ^ were not all that long (4). C (5) 6. There i s f l ) a real problem concerning(2) the amount of(3) garbage we produce which is increasing^). C (5) 7. Drivingd) in the downtown traffic during(2> the evening rush hour can sometimes(3j be very hard on one's(4) nerves. C (5)  137 C=Correct Sentence 8. The increasedfl) cost of food and clothing v?ere(2) primarily responsible for last month's rise/3) in the cost of living (4). C (5) 9. The noise made b y ( l ) the large jet planes flying over our part of the city(2) often becomes quite upsettingf3). Especially in the early morning(4). C (5) 10. Whenfl) a famous athlete retiresf.2), the number they(3) had worn as a player is often retired withf4) him or her.C (5)  SECTION  IV : ENGLISH  USAGE  INSTRUCTIONS:  Some, though not all, of the ten items found below contain errors in standard usage, such as the wrong form of a verb, the wrong form of a noun, an incorrectly used preposition, and so on. Circle the number (1, 2, 3, or 4) following the underlined portion of the sentence that you think contains an error. If you think the sentence is C O R R E C T as it appears, circle number 5 following the ' C at the end of the item. No item contains more than one underlined error. **************************************************  C=Correct sentence 1. In recentfi) years, windsurfing has becomefi?) one of the most (3) popular summer sportf4) in Canada. C(5) 2. Capital punishments are notfl) justified whenfl?) the accused has not been(3) proven guilty by means of(4) absolute evidence. C(5) 3. The tornado sweeped over(l) the village withfi?) terrible force and/3,) left much destruction behind it(4). C(5) 4. Sonia still has not beenfl) able to get use to(2) the fact that in Canada(3) we drive on the right-hand side(4) of the road. C (5) 5. I believe thatfi) the very best way for/2) an individual to serve the humanityf3) is by becoming^) a teacher, a scientist or a farmer. C(5) 6. Incidents(1) that embarrass us when they happen(2) can sometimes be amused over(3) several years later/4). C (5)  138 C=Correct Sentence 7. Possibly(1) you will think quite different^) about your job after(3) you come back from your annual v a c a t i o n ^ . C (5) 8. Increased(l) crime in many suburban areas has causedft?) hundreds of families^) to install burglar alarm systems(4j. C (5) 9. Her optimistic attitudefl.) is the trait(2) that have always endearedffl her to her many friends^). C (5) 10. He complained to(1) the manager on the factfj?) that the saleperson at the ticket counter(3) had been unnecessarilyf4) rude. C (5)  ******************** jg^d ********************  139 Appendix  E  - Test  of  Test-wiseness  Test Booklet  School:  TEST OF TEST-WISENESS This is a test of test-wiseness which measures some of the abilities needed to do well on tests. Many of the questions are about things you may not have studied. However, there are test-taking strategies which can be usedto figure out what to do when faced with such questions. For example: T h e a r e a test advantage of u s i n g slent In the manufacture of steel Is that slent m a k e s steel a. transparent. b. stainless. c. heavy. d. rubbery. Using test-wiseness strategies, options 'a' and'd' can be eliminated since they are clearly not correct (steel is not transparent, nor is it rubbery). Therefore, either 'b' or 'c' is the correct answer. Now we stand a better chance of guessing the correct answer for we have narrowed the number of possible options down to two from four.  Please be sure to follow the specific Instructions for each of the following sections.  Section 1:  Suggested Time: 20 minutes  I N S T R U C T I O N S : For each question, select the B E S T answer and record your choice on the answer sheet provided. Each question is worth one mark. There will be no correction for guessing.  1. C o m p a r e d to normal cells, bileuvial cells * a . divide more rapidly. * b . divide more slowly. c. have more cytoplasm. d. have more mitochondria. 2.  T h e Flying S p i d e r Is known for Its ability to a. blend in with its surroundings. * b . glide through the air. c. kill its prey with poison. d. make very large webs.  3. T h e square root of 1.1 c a n be best approximated by a. the cube root of 11056. b. the solution of x - 1 6 = 0. * c . using the binomial series. d. factoring the expression 9 x - 1 8 . 2  2  4. Mr. A d a m s , In Henry Fledllng's J o s e p h A n d r e w s . a. learns his parents were of the nobility. * b . takes sick after fishing through the ice. * c . falls into the mud while reading. d. discovers he is of noble birth.  140  5. In 404 B . C . , the Athenian oligarchs, supported b y L y s a n d e r a n d T h e r a m e n e s , a. approved a plan to rebuild sections of the city. b. encouraged a military expedition against the Spartans. * c. rejected the constitution created by the committee of ten. * d. set up a commission of thirty to write a new constitution. 6. W h i c h of the following would help to determine if D is the fourth harmonic of C with respect to A a n d B ? * a. The relative size of angle A C B to angle A D B b. T h e length of line segment A B * c. The fact that A , B, C , and D lie on one straight line d. The straight line distance from A to B 7. A normal percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes f o u n d In the h u m a n peripheral b l o o d is a. 53/260. * b. 70%. c. 115%. d. 035. 8. T h e mercantilists believed in a. freedom from all governmental interference in trade. * b. merchant control of colonies. c. an income tax. d. organized trade unions. 9. W o r d s w o r t h ' s " T h e Prelude" (1805) a. tells of a descent into Hell in a Model-T Ford. * b. makes use of a distinction between "the sublime" and "the beautiful". c. is concerned with the emerging African nations. d. was influenced by Hemmingway's T h e S u n A l s o R i s e s . 10. T h e literature of the early eighteenth century Is * a. public in nature, relating to society's outlooks and values. * b. private in nature, relating to an individual's emotions and feelings. c. rough and irregular compared to the literature of the later eighteenth century. d. filled with despair over the apparent collapse of traditional values. 11. Charles D i c k e n s ' Hard Times deals with * a. the difficult life of a factory worker. b. the politics of the French chateau country. c. the court of King Edward III. d. the limitations of European existentialism. 12. O r g a n i s m s of the Pavo genus a. change from masculine to feminine gender. * b. display their plumage for the female. c. become female after existing for a period of time as male. * d. possess an excess quantity of masculine hormone. 13. W h i c h of the following most likely c a u s e d the War of 1693? a. Spain was building roads to connect her cities. b. France was going through great agricultural change. * c. France believed that Spain was increasing her troops. d. Spain had a series of earthquakes. Fount Coyrngh l»»9 EMKO UBC - L » M . , 01:3(11.,...)  141  14. A spherical triangle Is the triangle on the surface of a s p h e r e . What name Is given to the number of degrees in a spherical triangle minus 180? a. The arc of the triangle. b. The size of the triangle. * c. T h e spherical excess of the triangle. d. The polar measurement of the triangle. 15. In Horace W a l p o l e ' s T h e Castle of Otranto a. Manfred is the father of Hippolita. * b. Hippolita is the wife of Manfred. * c. Manfred is the uncle of Hippolita. d. Hippolita is the daughter of Manfred. 16. T h e * a. * b. c. d.  ring sfx) s(xj F[x] any  F[x] / s(x) Is a field If and only If is a prime polynomial over F. is a rational polynomial over F. is a multiple of s(x). element of F[x] contains an inverse.  17. T h e career of Marlus (155-86 B.C.), the o p p o n e n t of S u l l a , is significant in R o m a n history b e c a u s e a. he gave many outstanding dinners and entertainments for royalty. b. he succeeded in arming the gladiators. * c. he showed that the civil authority could be thrust aside by the military. d. he made it possible for the popular party to conduct party rallies outside the city of Rome. 18. A s u b s t a n c e that, in Its pure form, is the best c o n d u c t o r of electricity is a. water. * b. deuterium. c. H O . * d. silver. 19. T h e august character of the work of Pericles In A t h e n s frequently c a u s e s his work to be likened to that In R o m e of * a. Augustus. b. Sulla. c. Pompey. d. Claudius. 20.  "Lucifer In Starlight" Is a. a modem psychological story of World War II. * b. a Shakespearean sonnet by Gerard Manley Hopkins, c. a controversial French novel written by Resnais. * d. the title of a Petrarchan sonnet by George Meredith.  21. T h e * a. b. c. * d.  treaty of Brest Lltovsk was ratified by M o s c o w b e c a u s e Tsar Alexander I wanted to prevent Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Russia was unable to keep up with the armament manufacture of Austria. Russia could not keep pace with the military production of Austria. Nicolai Lenin wanted to get the Soviet Union out of World War I.  IWa  Carrot"  H M » 0 UBC - L » : M « r 0 M : ( * » f t T . )  142  22. How many Iambic feet (one Iambic foot - o n e u n s t r e s s e d syllable followed by o n e s t r e s s e d syllable, a s In " p e r F O R M " ) are in e a c h line of Robert P a c k ' s p o e m "The Compact"? a. 1 *b. 5 . c. 16 d. 22 23. What Is the probability that a needle of length L < D, when d r o p p e d on a table ruled with equidistant parallel lines at distance D apart, will c r o s s o n e of the lines? a  - S  (  LD)  3 *b.  2L_ icD  c. L + .001D *d.  24. T h e *a. b. c. d.  2D id. Feulgen Nucleal Reaction demonstrates the p r e s e n c e of desoxyribonucleoprotein. lysosomes. mitochondria. endoplasmic reticulum.  Please Turn Page  Note:  * Correct  Option  —  .  Section 2:  —  Suggested Time: 10 minutes  I N S T R U C T I O N S : For each question in this part of the test, select the B E S T answer and record your choice on the answer sheet provided. Each question answered correctly is worth 5 points. Zero points will be given for each omitted question. Two points will be deducted for each question answered incorrectly. 25. T h e a. b. c. d. e.  transmitter Vagustoff was Identified after studies on choline and its esters. by streptococcal infusion of monkey tissue. with the aid of the electron microscope. by using the Fuchsin reaction. after careful dissection of the papillary duct.  26. T h e S e c o n d Servile War In Sicily, which lasted for the four year period 103-99 B . C . , was s u p p r e s s e d by the Roman c o n s u l a. Douglas MacArthur. b. Julius Britannicus. c. Dwight Eisenhower. d. M. Acquillius. e. Napoleon. 27. If every n e i g h b o u r h o o d of p contains Infinitely many points of S , p is called a (an) a. ratio. b. cluster point. c. accumulation point. d. trapezoid. e. subtraction. 28. J o h n D u n n e ' s Pseudo-Martyr first appeared In a. 1606. b. 1607. c. 1608. d. 1609. e. 1610. 29. T h e labryrlnthlne righting reaction Is static. a. True b. False 30. T h e a. b. c. d. e.  human s k i n possesses a Malpiglian layer. is always brown. cannot regenerate. is uncoloured. is composed of cuboidal epithelium.  31. By uniting most of Northern India, which Indian d y n a s t y e x c l u d e d the M o s l e m s until the e n d of the tenth century? a. The Maitrakas dynasty. b. The Gurjara-Prathihara dynasty. c. The Kumarapala dynasty. d. The Tughluk dynasty. e. The Khaljii dynasty.  144  32. What Is the value of In sin 8 ° 1 5 ' to five decimal p l a c e s ? a. .14321 b. .14332 c. .14349 d. .14352 e. .14361 33. F l r d a u s l ' s tenth-century Persian epic, S h a h Nameh translated Into F r e n c h by a. William Shakespeare. b. Jules Mohl. c. Pope John XXIII. d. Louis Bonnerot. e. Ludwig van Beethoven.  or (Book of Kings), was  34. A n n e Rldler wrote "The S o n g of the G o o d Samaritan". a. True b. False  END of TEST  P r a i a C<VJ*I*  IVf* 0 4 X 0 UBC - L » M . 01 7 <*.r".| T  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0098029/manifest

Comment

Related Items