UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Print capitalism and the Russo-Japanese war MacDermid, Susan Cheryl 1990

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/3NT> THE FZUSSO — J & F=> & N EI S El **A9*R By SUSAN CHERYL MACDERMID B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f H i s t o r y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1990 ® Susan C h e r y l MacDermid, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Hlfrtpry The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 5 October MO DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT The aim o f t h i s paper i s t o t r a c e t h e r o l e J a p a n ' s p r i n t media p l a y e d i n t h e c o u r s e by which t h e n a t i o n came t o be imagined i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and once c o n c e i v e d , a l t e r e d and expanded i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . By t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e Russo-Japanese War (1905) a s h i f t from a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f i d e o l o g i c a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s v i s a v i s t h e n a t i o n t o a hegemony o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , which i n c o r p o r a t e d i m p e r i a l i s m , had o c c u r e d . How Japanese newspapers became an e f f e c t i v e and p o w e r f u l i d e o l o g i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n which s e r v e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e hegemony o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m i s h e r e examined. As t h e manner i n which a c u l t u r e communicates i s a dominant i n f l u e n c e on t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a c u l t u r e ' s s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e monopoly o f p r i n t i n M e i j i Japan makes an a n a l y s i s o f i t a c r u c i a l f i r s t s t e p i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g how Japanese n a t i o n a l i s m d e v e l o p e d . l i e i j i newspapers e v o l v e d t h r o u g h f o u r d i s t i n c t p h a ses: " p r o -e s t a b l i s h m e n t , " " p o l i t i c a l , " " e a r l y c o m m e r c i a l , " and " f u l l y c o m m e r c i a l . " In each s u c c e e d i n g s t a g e o f development, news was more f i n e l y s t r a i n e d . P r i n t media's commercial coming of age had s i g n i f i c a n t c onsequences: " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m became hegemonic, n o n - " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m s were e f f e c t i v e l y m a r g i n a l i z e d , and p r i n t came t o p l a y an i n c r e a s i n g l y c e n t r a l r o l e i n t h e body p o l i t i c . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f e d i t o r i a l c o v e r a g e o f t h e war i n d i c a t e s t h e 1903-1905 p e r i o d was p i v o t a l t o t h i s development. £*MT> THE: F>USSO—J<QF*<QME:SE: CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i C o n t e n t s i i i L i s t o f C h a r t s v C h a p t e r One: THE CONSTRICTION OF JAPANESE NATIONALISM I The Case o f Yorozu chQhd 1 I I About F a c e 4 I I I The Case o f Heimin Sbiabun & IV The R o l e o f P r i n t Media i n t h e C o n s t r i c t i o n o f J a p a n e s e N a t i o n a l i s m 13 N o t e s t o Ch a p t e r One 21 Ch a p t e r Two: THE DEVELOPMENT OF JAPANESE PRINT MEDIA I An O v e r v i e w 25 I I The Tokugawa P e r i o d 28 I I I The M e i j i P e r i o d "Pr o - E s t a b 1 i s h m e n t " 29 " P o l i t i c a l " 33 " E a r l y C o m m e r c i a l " 39 " F u l l y C o m m e r c i a l " 45 IV F i r s t F i l t e r s i n P l a c e 52 Notes t o Chapter Two 55 i v C h a p ter Three: THE CONSTRAINTS ON COVERAGE I I d e o l o g i c a l 59 I I T e c h n i c a l and I n s t i t u t i o n a l 67 I I I O f f i c i a l 77 IV F i n a l F i l t e r s E n t r e n c h e d S3 N o t e s t o Ch a p t e r T h r e e 88 Cha p t e r F o u r : AN ANALYSIS OF EDITORIAL COVERAGE OF THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR I An Overview 91 I I Reasons 96 I I I N a t i o n a l Campaigns 106 IV Worthy and Unworthy V i c t i m s 117 V T r e n d s 131 N o t e s t o C h a p t e r Four 134 Chapter F i v e : IN CONCLUSION I The Medium 138 I I The A u d i e n c e 140 I I I The Impact 143 No t e s t o Chapter F i v e 151 B i b l i o g r a p h y 152 Append i x 169 V L i s t o f C h a r t s C h a r t One: The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Heimin Shimbun 86 C h a r t Two: M i l i t a r y Spending and t h e Tax Burden 87 I C H A P T E R O N E T H E C O N S T R I C T I O N O F " J A P A N E S E N A T " I O N A L I S 3 M I THE CASE OF YOROZU CH5H0 D u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War o f 1904-1905, Japanese i m p e r i a l i s m appeared t o have w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e . W h i l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h one's n a t i o n i s o f t e n h e i g h t e n e d d u r i n g a c r i s i s , f o r decades t h e n a t u r e o f Japanese n a t i o n a l i s m had been h o t l y c o n t e s t e d . The d e b a t e , c a r r i e d on i n p a r t t h r o u g h t h e pages o f t h e p r i n t e d p r e s s , c e n t e r e d on whether i m p e r i a l i s m was t h e pr o p e r f o u n d a t i o n f o r Japanese n a t i o n a l i s m . By t h e war's c o n c l u s i o n i n 1905 a s h i f t from a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f i d e o l o g i c a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s v i s a v i s t h e n a t i o n t o a hegemony o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , which i n c o r p o r a t e d i m p e r i a l i s m , had o c c u r r e d . T h i s narrowed t h e deb a t e over t h e n a t i o n and s i g n a l l e d t h e c o n s t r i c t i o n o f Japanese n a t i o n a l i s m . As t h e impending war w i t h R u s s i a loomed c l o s e r , i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1903 more and more Japanese newspapers too k a p r o -war s t a n c e f a v o r i n g i m p e r i a l i s t i c n a t i o n a l i s m . 1 T h e i r arguments r e f l e c t e d t h e common b e l i e f t h a t i f R u s s i a conquered M a n c h u r i a , Japan would be i n a v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n and her i n t e r e s t s i n Ko r e a would be t h r e a t e n e d . Japan went t o war a g a i n s t C h i n a i n 1894 o s t e n s i b l y t o p r o t e c t K o r e a ' s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War independence, but i n f a c t , an independent K o r e a was p e r c e i v e d as v u l n e r a b l e t o Japanese d o m i n a t i o n . 2 Many j o u r n a l i s t s b e l i e v e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a c o l o n y would b r i n g about r e v i s i o n i n t h e Unequal T r e a t i e s ( a c h i e v e d i n 1894!). W h i l e t h e r e was an economic c o n c e r n f o r raw m a t e r i a l s and expanded m a r k e t s , and a p e r c e i v e d R u s s i a n t h r e a t , t h e p r e v a i l i n g J a p anese view was s i m p l e : c o l o n i z e or be c o l o n i z e d . 3 Many e d i t o r s and j o u r n a l i s t s p r e s s e d f o r a h a r d - l i n e f o r e i g n p o l i c y a g a i n s t R u s s i a , and t h e more th a n two hundred j o u r n a l i s t s who had formed t h e Zenkoku DSshi K i s h a K a i ( A l l Japan W r i t e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n ) i n 1900 a l l i e d w i t h Konoe Atsumaro's Kokumin Domeikai ( P e o p l e ' s A l l i a n c e ) t o e s t a b l i s h t h e T a i r o KyOkoha ( A n t i - R u s s i a G r o u p ) . I t promoted war w i t h R u s s i a . A number of e d i t o r i a l s and a r t i c l e s urged t h e Japanese government t o d e c l a r e war a g a i n s t R u s s i a . Tokyo's t h i r d most p o p u l a r d a i l y , Asahi Sh imbun f was i n t h e f o r e f r o n t of t h i s movement, and i t s 10 May 1903 e d i t o r i a l "The C o n f i d e n c e of t h e Japanese P e o p l e " c a l l e d f o r war. fisahi a l s o p u b l i s h e d t h e seven p r o f e s s o r s o f Tokyo I m p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y ' s i n f l u e n t i a l a n t i - R u s s i a r e s o l u t i o n on 24 June. By t h e summer of 1903 t h e m a j o r i t y o f i m p o r t a n t d a i l i e s ; Tokyo Asahi Sh imbun, Osaka Asahi Shimbunf Jiji Shimpof Kokumin, Yomiuri Shimbun, Hochi Shimbun, and t h e Hihon were r e s o l u t e l y j i n g o i s t . * P o p u l a r p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e d and some h i s t o r i a n s argued t h i s a g i t a t i o n made t h e government d e c l a r e war . 3 P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 3 A l t h o u g h most viewed t h e impending c l a s h w i t h R u s s i a a s a f a t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i s i s , a few Japanese r e s i s t e d t h e coming war. Some of t h o s e i d e o l o g i c a l l y opposed t o war argued t h e i r p o s i t i o n s t h r o u g h newspapers such as Tokyo Ma in ich i Shimbun, Niroku Shimbunf and Yorozu choho. Matsuo c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h e s e d a i l i e s as " a n t i - a b s o l u t i s t , a n t i -c a p i t a l i s t i c , and a l i g n e d w i t h t h e freedom o f speech movement." 6 A l t h o u g h s t a f f e d by a m a j o r i t y o f pro-war a d v o c a t e s , t h e s e p a p e r s c o n t i n u e d t o p u b l i s h a n t i - w a r a r t i c l e s u n t i l t h e f a l l o f 1903. Even t h e u s u a l l y p r o -government Tokyo Nichi Hichi Shimbun took a s t a n c e a g a i n s t t h e war . J o u r n a l i s t s opposed t h e war from a range o f p o s i t i o n s . The s o c i a l i s t K o t S k u S h u s u i (1871-1911) w r o t e an e d i t o r i a l , "The C r a z e f o r War," p u b l i s h e d i n Yorozu on 19 June 1903, which d i r e c t l y c r i t i c i s e d t h e vi e w o f t h e seven p r o f e s s o r s , and opposed war w i t h R u s s i a not j u s t because s u c c e s s or p r o f i t was u n l i k e l y , but because "war i s a c r i m e . " The C h r i s t i a n Uchimura Kanzo (1861-1930) argued a g a i n s t t h e Russo-Japanese War and a l l war i n " A b o l i s h War," p u b l i s h e d i n Yorozu on 30 June 1903. On 7 J u l y , K o toku a g a i n a s s e r t e d t h a t t h o s e who a r e c o n s c r i p t e d a r e t h e poor and " t h o s e academics who b r a v e l y a d v o c a t e war a r e not t h o s e who go t o t h e dangerous b a t t l e f i e l d . " O t h e r s such as t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e T a n i K a n j o (1837-1911), were a n t i - w a r because t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t pro-war a d v o c a t e s were t o o o p t i m i s t i c and t h a t Japan's i n v a s i o n and c o l o n i a l i z a t i o n o f M a n c h u r i a would be P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 4 u n a c c e p t a b l e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . U n t i l t h e o u t b r e a k o f h o s t i l i t i e s became imminent, K u r o i w a R u i k o (1862-1320), t h e owner o f Japan's most p o p u l a r d a i l y , Yarozu (1892-1940), had a l l o w e d e d i t o r i a l autonomy d e s p i t e h i s own pro-war s e n t i m e n t s . 7 The s o c i a l i s t s , p a c i f i s t s , and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t s who worked a t h i s p a p e r , l i k e t h e i r c a p i t a l i s t i c , m i l i t a r i s t i c , and i m p e r i a l i s t i c c o u n t e r p a r t s , had a c c e s s t o a l a r g e and v a r i e d a u d i e n c e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i r v i e w s . * The b r e a c h t h a t o c c u r r e d between K u r o i w a and h i s e d i t o r s i n October 1903 had s i g n i f i c a n t impact on t h e development o f Japanese nat i o n a l i s m . I I ABOUT FACE Ku r o i w a and h i s e d i t o r s p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s as sbishi ( p a t r i o t s ) who a c t e d t o g u i d e t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e i r a u d i e n c e w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e . B a r s h a y d e f i n e s t h i s as "a v a s t a r e a o f s o c i a l t hought and p r a c t i c e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l l i f e , one t h a t f e d and t r a n s c e n d e d o f f i c i a l and p u r e l y p r i v a t e a c t i v i t y . " * He p r o v o c a t i v e l y a r g u e s t h a t t h e domain o f " p u b l i c n e s s " grew t o be d i v i d e d i n t o i n s i d e and o u t s i d e , w i t h j o u r n a l i s t s c l a i m i n g t h r o u g h speech t h e l e g i t i m a c y t o d i r e c t t h e development o f p u b l i c d i s c o u r s e , even as o u t s i d e r s . 1 0 As p u b l i c men, a l b e i t l e s s worthy o u t s i d e r s , K u r o i w a and h i s e d i t o r s f e l t a c o m p l u s i o n t o l e a d t h r o u g h example and speech. P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 5 On 8 October 1903, Ku r o i w a s u d d e n l y p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " S h o uld We A v o i d War?" and announced t h a t f o r t h e sa k e o f m a i n t a i n i n g c i r c u l a t i o n and t o p r o t e c t t h e u l t i m a t e v i a b i l i t y of t h e paper i t would s w i t c h t o a pro-war s t a n c e . W h i l e K u r o i w a r e c o r d e d t h a t he changed h i s mind when war became i n e v i t a b l e , f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n s u n d o u b t a b l y p l a y e d a p a r t i n h i s d e c i s i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a s Uchikawa a s s e r t e d , K u r o i w a ' s pro-war argument s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y from o t h e r such arguments. H i s p o i n t was t h a t war was u n a v o i d a b l e . 1 1 When R u s s i a f a i l e d t o o b s e r v e t h e t h i r d s t a g e o f i t s t r o o p w i t h d r a w a l from M a n c h u r i a on 8 O c t o b e r , K u r o i w a a s s e r t e d e d i t o r i a l c o n t r o l . K u b l i n n o t e d t h a t "as l o n g as th e m a t t e r o f war or peace hung p r e c a r i o u s l y i n t h e b a l a n c e , K u r o i w a was not a d v e r s e t o l e n d i n g t h e columns o f h i s paper t o t h e i n t e r e s t of p a c i f i s m . " t a On 9 October Tenzan E n j o j i ' s pro-war a r t i c l e , " F i n a l Judgment," c o n f i r m e d t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f Yorozu. Ma inichi Shimbun a l s o s w i t c h e d t o a pro-war p o s i t i o n and t h e l a s t h o l d o u t , Niroku Shimbun d i d a s w e l l . 1 3 As N i s h i d a c o n t ended "by October 1903 no major d a i l y c o u l d a v o i d s u p p o r t i n g t h e war and Japanese i m p e r i a l i s m . " 1 4 Thus, K u r o i w a ' s 1903 c o n v e r s i o n d r a s t i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t h e a b i l i t y of n o n - i m p e r i a l i s t i c n a t i o n a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s t o get i n t o p r i n t , and, narrowed t h e deb a t e over t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n . K u r o i w a ' s d r a m a t i c a b o u t - f a c e l e d t h r e e of Japan's most p r e s t i g i o u s j o u r n a l i s t s , K o t o k u , S a k a i T o s h i h i k o (1871-P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 6 1933), and Uchimura t o announce t h e i r r e s i g n a t i o n s from Yorazu. On 12 O c t o b e r , i t p u b l i s h e d t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r s p l i t . K o t oku and S a k a i w r o t e t h a t "when we l o o k at i n t e r n a t i o n a l war, i t seems t o us t o be a p r i v a t e c o n c e r n o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y and t h e m i l i t a r i s t s i n which g r e a t numbers of n a t i o n a l s a r e o f f e r e d as s a c r i f i c e s . " Uchimura c o n f i r m e d " t h a t t o agre e t o war a g a i n s t R u s s i a i s t o a g r e e t o t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f J a p a n . . . I t i s u n b e a r a b l e t o w r i t e a r t i c l e s f o r Yorazu. b e c a u s e i t t a k e s t h e o p p o s i t e p o s i t i o n . " ' 8 As p u b l i c men, K 3 t o k u , S a k a i , and Uchimura were d e d i c a t e d t o t h e communication o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s . When t h a t became i m p o s s i b l e at Yorozu, t h e y sought o t h e r venues. I l l THE CASE OF HE WIN SHIMBUN KQtoku and S a k a i ' s commitment t o p a c i f i s m and s o c i a l i s m l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e wee k l y Heimin Shimbun i n November 1903. They r e a s o n e d t h a t t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t newspapers were a r i s t o c r a t i c , c a p i t a l i s t i c , and n a t i o n a l i s t so t h e y d e c i d e d t o p u b l i s h a we e k l y t o p r o t e c t t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s . " In i t s f i r s t i s s u e on 15 November 1903, t h e y d e c l a r e d t h a t l i b e r t y , e q u a l i t y , and f r a t e r n i t y were t h e t h r e e c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f human l i f e , and t h a t w o r k e r s a t Heimin would adhere t o a peace p o l i c y and endeavor t o b r i n g about disarmament, w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e law. Through t h e p r o c l a i m e d mouthpiece o f t h e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 7 s o c i a l i s t movement t h e y a t t a c k e d Japanese i m p e r i a l i s m and att e m p t e d t o su g g e s t an a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l r o l e f o r t h e i r c o u n t r y . 1 7 As Norman p o i n t e d o u t , " t h e o n l y i n t r a n s i g e n t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e Russo-Japanese war came from t h e s m a l l S o c i a l i s t p a r t y . " , B A f t e r war was d e c l a r e d on 9 F e b r u a r y 1904, t h e government a c t i v e l y sought t o squash Heimin d e s p i t e i t s m a r g i n a l a p p e a l . B a r s h a y t h e o r i z e d a t t h e br o a d e r l e v e l t h a t t h e government i d e n t i f i e d t h e r e a l t h r e a t t o i t s c o n t r o l t o be " i n systems o f thou g h t and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t e i t h e r q u e s t i o n e d t h e s a n c t i t y of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ( t h a t i s , c a p i t a l i s m ) or c h a l l e n g e d t h e ^ i m p e r i a l r u l e ' - t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l system. An a t t a c k on e i t h e r or bo t h became h e r e s y ; t h e h e r e t i c c e ased t o be Japanese.'"• Heimin c h a l l e n g e d b o t h , and i t q u i c k l y became a t a r g e t . The government's c o e r c i v e measures were i n i t i a l l y r a t h e r i n e f f e c t i v e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , "by March 4, 1904... d i r e c t s u b s c r i b e r s were now v i s i t e d by t h e p o l i c e and a d v i s e d t o p a t r o n i z e a n other newspaper, w h i l e news d e a l e r s were i n t i m i d a t e d and c a u t i o n e d t o d i s c o n t i n u e h a n d l i n g i t . " a o When i t remained i n o p e r a t i o n , l e g a l a c t i o n was t a k e n . I t was f i r s t banned on 5 A p r i l 1904 f o r i t s March 2 7 t h s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e h i g h e r t a x e s war demanded, . on t h e b a s i s t h a t such e d i t o r i a l s " d i m i n i s h t h e p e o p l e ' s f i g h t i n g s p i r i t which e v e n t u a l l y l e a d s t o t r o u b l e i n t h e war s i t u a t i o n , harms n a t i o n a l w e l f a r e , and c a u s e s s o c i e t a l d i s o r d e r . " * 1 The e d i t o r , S a k a i , was j a i l e d f o r two months P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 8 a l t h o u g h t h e ban on p u b l i c a t i o n was l i f t e d i n a p p e a l s c o u r t . In l a t e s p r i n g , government r e p r e s s i o n i n c r e a s e d . In o r d e r t o g a i n equal f o o t i n g w i t h t h e West, t h e government had sought a f a v o r a b l e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e s s . When f o r e i g n s u p p o r t f o r Japanese s o c i a l i s t s grew "so d i d t h e Japanese government's d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o i m p r i s o n i t s d i s s i d e n t p a c i f i s t s o c i a l i s t s . " * * On 27 May 1904 t h e government c a l l e d a meeting of s e n i o r j o u r n a l i s t s and w r i t e r s t o announce t h e government was c r a c k i n g down on S o c i a l i s t s . I t asked t h e p r e s s t o p u b l i c i z e t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n , and made DenpC T s u s h i n Sha ( t h e major w i r e s e r v i c e company) b r o a d c a s t a n t i - s o c i a l i s t arguments such as (1) s o c i a l i s t s who a d v o c a t e p a c i f i s m harm t h e p e o p l e ' s p a t r i o t i s m , (2) s o c i a l i s t s a d v o c a t e t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l c l a s s e s , which e x t e n d s t o t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y , and (3) some s o c i a l i s t s a r e c o n v i c t e d c r i m i n a l s . 2 * As t h e next prime m i n i s t e r S a i o n j i Kimmochi (1849-1940) s u g g e s t e d " t h i s government p r e s s u r e f e l l o n t o r e p o r t e r s , " * 4 because new l e g i s l a t i o n had made j o u r n a l i s t s r e s p o n s i b l e not o n l y f o r c o n t e n t , but f o r p u b l i c r e a c t i o n . The government found new ways t o h a r a s s t h e w o r k e r s and r e a d e r s o f Heimin and by m i d - J u l y a d v e r t i s i n g and s a l e s r e v e n u e c o u l d no l o n g e r c o v e r c o s t s . The e d i t o r s were f o r c e d t o i s s u e a s p e c i a l p l e a f o r s u b s c r i b e r s t o c o n t r i b u t e a t o t a l of two thousand yen.* 8 By t h e end o f t h e summer, c i r c u l a t i o n had dropped from 4,500 t o 3,700, and w h i l e t h i s was a drop o f l e s s t h a n twenty p e r c e n t , i t p r e s e n t e d a c r i t i c a l economic problem. P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 9 The government's summer crackdown on Heimin echoed p o p u l a r demand. By t h e s p r i n g , o t h e r l e a d i n g p a p e r s had begun t o c r i t i c i z e Heimin's a n t i - w a r s t a n d and t h i s i n c r e a s e d and r e f l e c t e d p o p u l a r h o s t i l i t y . N i s h i d a p r o v i d e d examples of t h e p r e s s ' a t t a c k on Heimim "Punishments A g a i n s t Freedom o f Speech," i n Kokumin Shimbun, which a d v o c a t e d t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f speech i n o r d e r t o muz z l e Heioin's a n t i - w a r a g i t a t i o n , " K i l l A n t i - w a r A d v o c a t e s , " i n KatsudS no Nihon, which s u g g e s t e d t h e y would be b e t t e r o f f dead, and "Enemy o f P a c i f i s m " i n Taiyo which a c c u s e d a n t i -war a d v o c a t e s o f b e i n g s u p e r f i c i a l p a c i f i s t s . * • E d i t o r i a l t i t l e s l i k e " E x p e l P a c i f i s t s " i l l u s t r a t e d Yorozu's new s t a n d . The c r i t i c i s m from o t h e r p r i n t media was p r o l o n g e d , and magazines such as Nihonjin, Myo~gif Qaiko Jih<3 a l s o p u b l i s h e d s i m i l a r a r t i c l e s . Some Japanese s o c i a l i s t s had begun t o r e s i s t t h e war v i o l e n t l y and d e s p i t e a p u b l i c d i s a v o w a l o f such a c t i o n s , most f e l t t h a t KCtoku and S a k a i , as l e a d e r s o f t h e S o c i a l i s t A s s o c i a t i o n , were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s v i o l e n c e . The 2 November 1904 n e a r - r i o t at a s o c i a l i s t r a l l y s t r e t c h e d t h e government's t o l e r a n c e t o t h e b r e a k i n g p o i n t . A few days l a t e r , t h e 6 November i s s u e o f Heimin p u b l i s h e d two a r t i c l e s t h e government c o n s i d e r e d d e t r i m e n t a l : "The C o n f u s i o n o f So-c a l l e d P a t r i o t s " and "The A t t i t u d e o f t h e E d u c a t o r toward t h e War," and one t h e y c o n s i d e r e d s u b v e r s i v e , " A d v i c e t o P r i m a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s . " 2 7 The l a s t i s s u e o f Heimin, 15 Ja n u a r y 1905, announced t h a t as a r e s u l t o f t h e s e a r t i c l e s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 10 bot h e d i t o r s were . j a i l e d , f i n e d , and t h e newspaper was banned. * * * The 1903 e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a newspaper e x p l i c i t l y s o c i a l i s t and p a c i f i s t i n n a t u r e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e v a r i e t y o f c o n c e p t s of n a t i o n h o o d t h a t c o u l d be l e g a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n Japan a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . Yet w i t h i n a y e a r , Heimin was banned, i t s e d i t o r s i m p r i s o n e d and i t s r e a d e r s h i p d i s p e r s e d . I t was p r o h i b i t e d i n 1904 f o r a r t i c l e s no d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e e a r l i e r p u b l i s h e d i n Yorozu and Heimin. Was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Heimin w i t h o u t i m p o r t a n c e ? Was i t s t h r e a t i n s i g n i f i c a n t ? Was t h e government d i s i n c l i n e d t o i n t e r v e n e ? Or d i d t h e government's a t t i t u d e change? As B a r s h a y a s s e r t e d , i n Japan t h e s t a t e c o n t r o l l e d t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f l e g a l i t y i n p u b l i c d i s c o u r s e by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , j u d i c i a l , and l e g i s l a t i v e means. Moreover, i t sought a c t i v e l y t o d e f i n e n a t i o n a l v a l u e s and i d e n t i t y ; s p e c i f i c a l l y t o wed a p a t r i a r c h a l and c o r p o r a t e c oncept o f f a m i l y and s o c i e t y , an i n t e n s e l y c o m p e t i t i v e m e r i t o c r a c y , and an e t h i c o f n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e i n t h e pr o m o t i o n o f dom e s t i c c a p i t a l i s m and enhanced power and s t a t u s a b r oad. 2* W h i l e o t h e r p a p e r s promoted a n a t i o n a l i s m based on i m p e r i a l i s m and c a p i t a l i s m , Heimin a d v o c a t e d a n a t i o n a l i s m based on p a c i f i s m and s o c i a l i s m . A l t h o u g h v e r y few p e o p l e s u b s c r i b e d t o Heimin, i t s a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t i c , a n t i -c a p i t a l i s t i c r h e t o r i c appeared t o c a r r y t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s o c i a l u n r e s t . 2 * Moreover, d e s p i t e Heimin's e l i t i s m , i t s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 11 a ttempt t o r a i s e p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p toward mass p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t a c k e d t h e fundamental p r e m i s e o f b oth p a r t y and o l i g a r c h a l power. The a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e o f s o c i a l i s t s t o t h e war f o c u s e d government a t t e n t i o n on them, and as t h e i r a t t a c k on t h e government grew s t r i d e n t t h e y became s o c i a l p a r i a h s . As o u t s i d e r s , t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l o f f e n s e s were l e s s t o l e r a b l e "because t h e y were more dangerous: w i t h l e s s s t a t u s t o l o s e , p o l i t i c a l l y d i s s i d e n t o u t s i d e r s were f a r more prone t o o r g a n i z e . " 3 0 The s o c i a l i s t s a t t a c k on c a p i t a l i s m and t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l system was viewed as h e r e s y , and h e r e t i c s had no r o l e as p u b l i c men. O s t r a c i z e d , s o c i a l i s t s l o s t t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y a s p u b l i c men which c u r t a i l e d t h e i r p o t e n t i a l a u d i e n c e and t h u s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o s u r v i v e . F o r e i g n a t t e n t i o n , p o p u l a r h o s t i l i t y , few s u p p o r t e r s , and t h e d e t e r i o r a t i n g war s i t u a t i o n l e d t h e government t o t r y t o narrow t h e b o u n d a r i e s of d i s c o u r s e . By t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y Japanese newspaper r e v e n u e s were based on s a l e s and a d v e r t i s i n g . As most newspapers were s o l d d i r e c t l y r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h s u b s c r i p t i o n , u n p o p u l a r e d i t o r i a l l i n e s c o u l d r e d u c e d a y - t o - d a y s a l e s , and t h u s newspaper r e v e n u e . 3 1 The extreme p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e coming war w i t h R u s s i a meant t h a t a n t i - w a r a r t i c l e s l a c k e d mass a p p e a l . K u r o i w a c o r r e c t l y i n f e r r e d t h a t p a c i f i s m had l o s t i t s p o p u l a r a p p e a l and s i l e n c e d t h a t m i n o r i t y v i e w f o r b u s i n e s s r e a s o n s . 3 3 H i s d e c i s i o n p a i d o f f i n terms of s u s t a i n e d s a l e s and a d v e r t i s i n g revenue f o r Yorozu. P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 12 The i n c r e a s e d c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f p r i n t media by t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y meant newspapers had t o compete f o r a d v e r t i s e r s as w e l l as r e a d e r s . A d v e r t i s e r s commonly viewed a n t i - w a r s e n t i m e n t s as gloomy p r e d i c t i o n s which damaged consu m p t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , a d v e r t i s e r s p a t r o n i z e d d a i l i e s w hich d e l i v e r e d l a r g e , b u y i n g a u d i e n c e s . W h i l e K u r o i w a ' s r e v e r s a l l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Heimin, i t a l s o l e a d t o i t s f a i l u r e . K u r o i w a c o r r e c t l y r e a d p u b l i c o p i n i o n and r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e market f o r a n t i - w a r and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t i c v i e w s had sh r u n k . The few r e a d e r s t h a t remained c o u l d not p r o v i d e enough revenue t o s u p p o r t Heimin, much l e s s Yoroza. The s i z e o f Heimin's a u d i e n c e meant i t s a l t e r n a t i v e v e r s i o n o f t h e s t a t e was d e s t i n e d t o be e c l i p s e d , l i k e t h e p u b l i c r o l e o f i t s a d v o c a t e s . Even i f Heimin had not been banned, run by . j o u r n a l i s t s w i t h o u t t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f spe e c h , i t s economic d o w n f a l l was i n e v i t a b l e . A p a r t i c u l a r way o f e n v i s i o n i n g t h e n a t i o n became dominant d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War because o f p o p u l a r s e n t i m e n t , government r e p r e s s i o n , and market f o r c e s . " A f t e r t h e war ended, i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e t o Japanese c a p i t a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m c o n t i n u e d but i t was never a g a i n waged r e g u l a r l y from t h e pages o f a major d a i l y u n t i l t h e end o f World War Two.*4 I m p e r i a l i s t i c n a t i o n a l i s m had won t h e i d e o l o g i c a l war, and t h e ban n i n g o f Heimin i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i s s e n t from t h e " o f f i c i a l " model o f n a t i o n a l i s m would no l o n g e r be t o l e r a t e d . The n a r r o w i n g o f t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f d i s c o u r s e c o n s t r i c t e d t h e range o f n a t i o n a l i s m s a r t i c u l a t e d , P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 13 and f a c i l i t a t e d t h e hegemony o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . IV THE ROLE OF THE PRESS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF JAPANESE NATIONALISM Much has been w r i t t e n about t h e v a r i o u s p e o p l e who i n f l u e n c e d t h e economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l metamorphosis o f Japan d u r i n g t h e M e i j i P e r i o d . Monographs, c o m p i l a t i o n s , and a r t i c l e s have been p u b l i s h e d about t h e o l i g a r c h s <ge»ro) who g u i d e d t h e p o l i t i c a l t r a n s i t i o n , t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e " p o p u l a r " r i g h t s movement who opposed t h e g e n r o , t h o s e i n t e l l e c t u a l s who a d v o c a t e d " W e s t e r n i z a t i o n " o r " r e a c t i o n a r y " c a u s e s , and t h e businessmen and b u r e a u c r a t s who l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . However, t h e s m a l l but i n f l u e n t i a l group o f newspaper owners, e d i t o r s and j o u r n a l i s t s who h e l p e d d i r e c t t h a t a c t i v i t y has been somewhat n e g l e c t e d . J o u r n a l i s t s p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e i n t h e development o f Japanese n a t i o n a l i s m , o p p o s i n g , r e f l e c t i n g , and g e n e r a t i n g c o n c e p t s o f t h e body p o l i t i c . * 8 As t h e p u b l i c p r e s s i s one o f t h e most p o w e r f u l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f i d e o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n , i t i s i n e v i t a b l y d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e development o f n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . One i s h a r d p r e s s e d t o name an i n s t i t u t i o n i n Japan t o which more power i s a t t r i b u t e d and y e t i s so i n f r e q u e n t l y s t u d i e d by Western s c h o l a r s t h a n t h e mass P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 14 media."* In a s o c i e t y s a t u r a t e d w i t h media, and w i t h more newspaper r e a d e r s per c a p i t a c u r r e n t l y t h a n any o t h e r major i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r y , t h e o r i g i n and growth o f newspapers need t o be examined. The aim of t h i s paper i s t o t r a c e t h e r o l e Japan's p r i n t media p l a y e d i n t h e c o u r s e by which t h e n a t i o n came t o be imagined i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and once c o n c e i v e d , a l t e r e d and expanded i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . When c e r t a i n i d e a s dominate, t h e y p r o v i d e a t y p e of c u l t u r a l l e a d e r s h i p Gramsci i d e n t i f i e d as hegemony. " O f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m ' s r i s e t o dominance was p o s s i b l e because r e s t r a i n t s on newspapers were p r o d u c t i v e , not me r e l y r e s t r i c t i v e . Thus, an a n a l y s i s o f t h e r o l e newspapers p l a y e d i n h e l p i n g " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m g a i n sway over d i v e r s e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e body p o l i t i c b e g i n s w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e t h e o r y of p r i n t c a p i t a l i s m . B e n e d i c t Anderson, i n h i s p o l e m i c Imagined Communities! Reflections on the Origins and Spread of National ism ( 1 9 8 3 ) , argued t h a t t h e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y o f i m a g i n i n g t h e n a t i o n o n l y became p o s s i b l e when p e o p l e were f r e e d o f t h r e e p o l i t i c o - r e l i g i o u s i m p e r a t i v e s : t h a t o n l y by means o f c e r t a i n w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e s were o n t o l o g i c a l t r u t h s a c c e s s i b l e ; t h a t mankind and t h e u n i v e r s e o r i g i n a t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y from t h e same s o u r c e ; and t h a t monarchs, a s d i v i n e r u l e r s , were t h e n a t u r a l a p i c e s o f v e r t i c a l s o c i e t i e s . 3 7 T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e s e m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s had combined t o g i v e l i f e and work meaning, and t o p r o v i d e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e R u sso-Japanese War 15 f i n a l r e d e m p t i o n . However, changes i n c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n and methods o f p r o d u c t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g l y c e n t r a l i z e d means of v i o l e n c e , and g r o w i n g r e l i g i o u s h e t e r o d o x y d u r i n g t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d , a l o n g w i t h t i e i j i ' s s o c i a l and s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s and new r a p i d means of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , combined t o s l o w l y rob t h e s e b e l i e f s o f t h e i r power. The s e a r c h f o r new ways t o j o i n t o g e t h e r power and s o c i e t y grew from t h i s g r a d u a l d e c l i n e . A c c o r d i n g t o A nderson, t h i s quest was r e s o l v e d by p r i n t - c a p i t a l i s m ' s c r e a t i o n o f new c o m m u n i t i e s i n which k i n s h i p c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d i n r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t ways. He p r e s e n t e d Europe as t h e p r i m o r d i a l b r e e d i n g ground o f n a t i o n a l i s m and s u g g e s t e d t h a t p r i n t c a p i t a l i s m a l l o w e d n a t i o n a l i s m t o i n v e n t n a t i o n s where t h e y do not e x i s t . The 16th and 17th c e n t u r y i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p r i n t i n g p r e s s e s l e t b o o k s e l l e r s d r a m a t i c a l l y r e d u c e p r i c e s , which s a t u r a t e d l i t e r a t e Europe w i t h books. T h i s c r e a t e d a s h a r e d c o n c e p t u a l s p a c e w h i c h had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o c h a l l e n g e t h e " s a c r e d i magined community" o f m e d i e v a l Europe. The w r i t e r s , p r i n t e r s , p u b l i s h e r s , and r e t a i l e r s o f one o f c a p i t a l i s m ' s f i r s t e n t e r p r i s e s - p u b l i s h i n g - t h e n t r i e d t o expand t h e i r a u d i e n c e t o i n c l u d e t h e huge v e r n a c u l a r r e a d i n g a u d i e n c e c r e a t e d by t h e R e f o r m a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t h o s e l i t e r a t e i n L a t i n . In t h i s manner, t h e expanded p r i n t market c r e a t e d by p r i n t - c a p i t a l i s m was a b l e t o m o b i l i z e g r e a t e r numbers f o r p o l i t i c o - r e l i g i o u s p u r p o s e s . Reading i n v e r n a c u l a r s was o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e , as P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 16 i t l a i d t h e b a s i s f o r n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h r e e ways: i t gave r e a d e r s and s p e a k e r s of t h e same v e r n a c u l a r a s e n s e of c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y by i n c l u d i n g them and e x c l u d i n g o t h e r s , i t h e l p e d f i x language which a l l o w e d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an a n c i e n t o r i g i n p o i n t , which i s p r e r e q u i s i t e t o c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e n a t i o n , and i t a l l o w e d t h o s e d i a l e c t s c l o s e s t t o each p r i n t v e r n a c u l a r t o dominate t h e end p r o d u c t . In t h e e a r l y 1880s a c o n c e r n w i t h t h e remoteness o f w r i t t e n J a panese from t h e spoken d e v e l o p e d i n t o t h e genban'itchi movement which encouraged t h e re p l a c e m e n t o f d i f f i c u l t l i t e r a r y s t y l e s w i t h ones based on ev e r y d a y s p e e c h . U n d e r l y i n g t h i s p r o j e c t was " t h e p r a g m a t i c v i e w p o i n t o f t h e e n l i g h t e n e d t h i n k e r s o f t h e M e i j i p e r i o d who saw t h a t a s i m p l i f i e d s t y l e would f a c i l i t a t e s p r e a d i n g t h e i r t h e o r i e s t o t h e masses."" From 1884 t o 1889 t h i s movement became more v o c a l as i n t e l l e c t u a l s took t o t h e pages o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r e s s t o argue f o r o r a g a i n s t a more c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e . Meanwhile, m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e t o i n c r e a s e c i r c u l a t i o n , more and more s m a l l , e n t e r t a i n m e n t - o r i e n t a t e d p a p e r s were p r i n t e d i n t h e c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e . The expanded use o f t h e v e r n a c u l a r h e l p e d break down e a r l i e r d i v i s i o n s between an e d u c a t e d e l i t e who used a complex w r i t i n g s ystem based on C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s , and o t h e r l i t e r a t i who used a s i m p l e r J a p a n e s e s c r i p t . Moreover, t h e i n c r e a s e d use o f rubi ( r e a d i n g g l o s s which p r o v i d e s p r o n u n c i a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n ) " s e r v e d as a c o n v e n i e n t means t o i n t r o d u c e Western c o n c e p t s r e n d e r e d i n P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 17 newly c r e a t e d kanji ( C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s ) compounds," and made r e a d i n g e a s i e r f o r t h e l e s s educated.** As t h i s empowered more p e o p l e t o i n h a b i t t h e same c o n c e p t u a l s p a c e t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f p u b l i c d i s c o u r s e expanded. In a d d i t i o n , j u s t as t h e R e f o r m a t i o n d e s t r o y e d t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l u n i t y o f C h r i s t e n d o m i n Europe, i n t e l l e c t u a l d e velopments d u r i n g t h e Tokugawa P e r i o d (1600-1868) c r e a t e d new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I t i s c o n t e s t a b l e whether OgyQ S o r a i ' s (1666-1728) movement away from t h e u n i f i e d m e t a p h y s i c a l w o r l d o f Chu H s i N e o - C o n f u c i a n i s m t o a d u a l i s t i c o b j e c t i v e mode of thought made p o s s i b l e t h e d i s c o v e r y o f " c r i t i c a l p o l i t i c s " as Maruyama t h e o r i z e d . However, debate over t h e meaning o f h i s s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e of s c i e n c e from t h a t of e t h i c s r e v e a l e d t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s e x i s t e d at a l l l e v e l s of Tokugawa s o c i e t y . The c o n s t a n t and d i s r u p t i v e changes o f t h e p e r i o d o c c a s i o n e d a "moral c r i s i s , and a t t e m p t s t o r e c o n c i l e t h i s c r i s i s l e d t o a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e y were not s a c r o s a n c t , and r e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e body p o l i t i c . " 4 0 T h i s c r e a t e d t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r p o l i t i c a l change. P o l i t i c a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f European d y n a s t i c power i n t h e 18th and 19th c e n t u r i e s a l s o worked t o make p o s s i b l e t h e r i s e o f p o p u l a r n a t i o n a l i s m s . In t h e same way, t h e l i e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n (1868) a t t a c k e d t h e f e u d a l concept o f d y n a s t i c p r o g r e s s i o n by removing t h e Tokugawa Shogun from power. A l t h o u g h t h e emperor was r e t u r n e d t o a t l e a s t i l l u s i o n a r y P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 18 power, a c t u a l c o n t r o l s h i f t e d from t h e hands o f a monarch t o t h o s e o f t h e o l i g a r c h s . In o r d e r t o d e f e n d t h e i r new p o s i t i o n s o f power, t h e o l i g a r c h s soon s t y l e d t h e m s e l v e s as bona f i d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e newly imagined n a t i o n o f Japan. L a c k i n g a c a n o n i c a l s o u r c e , t h e p r e v a i l i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l norm o f n a t i o n a l i s m was a p p r o p r i a t e d as i t had t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e o l i g a r c h s ' p o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y . However, t h e c r e a t i o n o f a c o n c e p t u a l s p a c e i d e n t i f i e d a s " o u r s , " v e r s u s a d i s t a n t unknown " t h e i r s , " was not enough t o j u s t i f y t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p . The a d o p t i o n of an i m p e r i a l myth f u l f i l l e d t h i s need. At t h e same t i m e , t h e o l i g a r c h s l i q u i d a t e d t h e s a m u r a i as a p r i v i l e g e d m i l i t a r y c l a s s . T h i s q u a l i f i e d a l l men t o d e f e n d t h e i r c o u n t r y , a l l o w i n g not o n l y s a m u r a i , but m erchants, a r t i s a n s and f a r m e r s t o f i t t h e now a v a i l a b l e ' n a t i o n - o f - c i t i z e n s ' model. Shared p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Japan's new c o n s c r i p t army a g a i n s t C h i n a i n 1894-1895 encouraged t h e development o f a s ense o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , as d i d t h e media's p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f Japan's v i c t o r y . S u c c e s s i n K o r e a and t h e a n n e x a t i o n o f Taiwan i n 1895 c o n f i r m e d t h e p e r v a s i v e n o t i o n t h a t t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e o l i g a r c h y was t h e l e g i t i m a t e p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e n a t i o n o f which t h e J a p a n e s e were i m a g i n i n g t h e m s e l v e s members. P r i n t media p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s imagined r e a l i t y . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f newspapers, a c r u c i a l s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s o f i m a g i n i n g t h e n a t i o n , and e a r l i e r n a t i o n a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s , made p o s s i b l e t h e g e n r e ' s a p p r o p r i a t i o n . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 19 C a p i t a l i s m ' s s e a r c h f o r new ma r k e t s y i e l d e d newspapers, and once p e o p l e were c o n v i n c e d t h e y needed t o p u r c h a s e a new one each day, t h e y became "one day b e s t - s e l l e r s . " The i d e a t h a t t h e r e i s a "news o f t h e day" was c r e a t e d by t h e age of p r i n t and r e a f f i r m e d by t h e p r i n t i n g p r e s s . What made t h e n a t i o n i m a g i n a b l e was t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between a t e c h n o l o g y o f communi c a t i o n ( p r i n t ) and a sy s t e m of p r o d u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s ( c a p i t a l i s m ) which d i s t i n g u i s h e d some ( t h e Ja p a n e s e ) from o t h e r s ( e v e r y o n e e l s e ) and c o n n e c t e d them t h r o u g h newspapers. As Anderson p o s i t e d , c a p i t a l i s m made p r i n t r e v o l u t i o n a r y because i t c r e a t e d new ways t o apprehend t h e w o r l d . 4 1 The s i m u l t a n e o u s , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , and anonymous r e a d i n g o f newspapers i n v o k e d i n each n a t i o n a l c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s c o m p a t r i o t s ' i d e n t i c a l a c t i o n , a c o n c e p t u a l s h i f t w hich made p o s s i b l e t h e s e c u l a r i m a g i n e d community. Thus, t h e v e r t i c a l t i e s o f a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h i e s c o u l d be r e p l a c e d by newly i m a g i n a b l e h o r i z o n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In t h e mid-19th c e n t u r y , European d y n a s t i e s sought t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e m s e l v e s by u s i n g v e r n a c u l a r s a s t h e la n g u a g e o f s t a t e , a c o n s c i o u s , s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e p o l i c y by wh i c h t o combat " v e r n a c u l a r " or p o p u l a r n a t i o n a l i s m and p r o t e c t d y n a s t i c power. The d e l i b e r a t e merger o f d y n a s t i c e m pire and n a t i o n p r o d u c e d " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , which emanated from t h e t o p and s e r v e d t h o s e i n t e r e s t s . In J a p a n , as i n Europe, " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m d e v e l o p e d i n r e s p o n s e t o " v e r n a c u l a r " n a t i o n a l i s m s and combined w i t h c a p i t a l i s m t o m a r g i n a l i z e o t h e r o p t i o n s . As Irokawa i n s i g h t f u l l y p o i n t e d P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 20 out t h e " i l l u s i o n o f t h e n a t i o n " became a c c e p t e d d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War. 4 2 How Japanese newspapers became an e f f e c t i v e and p o w e r f u l i d e o l o g i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h s e r v e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e hegemony of " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m needs t o be examined. The manner i n which a c u l t u r e communicates i s a dominant i n f l u e n c e on t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r e ' s s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s . The monopoly o f p r i n t i n M e i j i Japan makes an a n a l y s i s o f i t a c r u c i a l f i r s t s t e p i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g why Ja p a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m d e v e l o p e d as i t d i d . l i e i j i newspapers e v o l v e d t h r o u g h f o u r d i s t i n c t p h a ses: " p r o -e s t a b l i s h m e n t , " " p o l i t i c a l , " " e a r l y c o m m e r c i a l , " and " f u l l y c o m m e r c i a l . " In each s u c c e e d i n g s t a g e o f development, t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t o f Japanese newspapers - news - was more f i n e l y s t r a i n e d . P r i n t media's c o m m e r c i a l coming o f age had s i g n i f i c a n t c onsequences: " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m became hegemonic, n o n - " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m s were e f f e c t i v e l y m a r g i n a l i z e d , and p r i n t came t o p l a y an i n c r e a s i n g l y c e n t r a l r o l e i n t h e body p o l i t i c . The p e r i o d o f 1903 t o 1905 was p i v o t a l t o t h i s development, but t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r i t had been c a r e f u l l y l a i d d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s decade. P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 21 * Uchikawa Yoshiai, Shinban shiua-. seitai to kTSbS (Shakai ShisS Sha, 1967), p. 48. 3 Hilary Conroy, Ue Japanese Seizure of Korea, 1868-1910: A Study of Realist aid Idealist in International Relations (Philadephia: Pennsylvania University Press, 1960), pp. 7-8; C. I. Eugene Kim and Han-Kyo K i i , Korea and the Politics of Inperialisn, 1876-1910 (Berkeley and L .A. : University of California Press, 1967), p. 503; Kit Key-Huik, Ihe Last Pase of East Asian Horld Brier: Korea, Japan, and the Chinese Enpire, 1869-1882 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), p. 336. ' Whether Japanese imperialism was fueled by an economic need for further raw Materials and markets was analyzed by William D. Wray in Mitsubishi and the H.Y.K., 1870-1914: tasiness Strategy in the Japanese Shipping Industry (Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University Press, 1984), pp. 355-72. For O . K . , Wray found i t acted as an economic imperialist, but also viewed war as disruptive to normal business. Peter Duus agreed, asserting that private businessmen supported Japanese imperialism during the Russo-Japanese Mar, although they did not agitate for i t . "The Economic Dimensions of Heiji Imperialism: The Case of Korea, 1895-1910,' The Japanese Colonial inpire, 1895-1945, Ramon H. Hyers and Hark R. Peattie, eds. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), p. 146. 4 Haruhara Akihiko, Hihon shinban tsa-shi, 1861-1986, san tei ban (Shinsen Sha, 1987), p. 110; Hiyoshi Tffru, Ranushi no Sharoka: Yoroza chQho" nonogatari (ChDo* KOron Sha, 1977), p. 262. For the first half of Heiji and even the second half, verifiable circulation data cannot be found. The numbers below are the best estimates of the authors cited. Yamamoto Taketoshi made a strong argument that Osaka Shinban's statist ics are the most rel iable . Shinban to ninshs.: Hihon gata shinban no keisei katei (Kinokuniya Shoten, 1973), pp. 130-1. Sources: Hatsuo Takayoshi, TaishQ denokarashii no kenkji (Aoki Shoten, 1966), p. 65; Oka Hitsuo, Kindai Hihon shinban shGshi: sono tanjS kara kigyt-ka nade (Hineruva Shobo", 1969), pp. 95-96; Ono Hideo, Hihon shinban hattsa-sbi (Satsuki ShobB, 1982), pp. 199-200 and 290-92; Yamamoto Fumio, Hihon shinban-shi (Kokusai Shuppan, 1944), pp. 173-74 and 221-22. 8 For example, see Ishida Takeshi, HeUi seiji shisS-shi kenkjE (Hirai Sha, 1954), p. 334 and Kawabe Kisaburff, Ihe Press and Politics in Japan: A Study of the Relation Setueen the Hens paper and the Political Bevelopnett of Japan (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1921), p. 131-32. * Hatsuo, laishS denokarashii no ketkjS, p. 65. As these papers accounted for approximately fifty percent of Japanese newspaper circulation, the sides appeared evenly matched. 7 By 1899, Yoroza had the highest circulation in Japan. Ariyama Teruo, "Kyanpein jlnarizumu no j i da i , " Hihon no tfnarizuna: taisha no kokoro o tsakanda ka, Uchikawa Yoshimi and Arai Naoyuki, eds. (YQhikaku, 1983), p. 36. Kuroiwa was a founding member of RisHdan (The Idealist Band) in 1898, which Kosaka Hasaaki characterized as basically pacifist . Japanese Thought in the Heiji Era, trans, and adapted by David Abosch (Pan Pacific Press, 1958), p. 353 By 1903 Kuroiwa had become pro-war, but because he never edited his writers, the editorial line of the newspaper remained anti-war. See Haruhara, Hihon shinban tsa-shi, p. 110. 8 While Japanese socialists suffered general harassment and persecution, until 1903 Yoroza consistently provided a means for the dissemination of their ideas. Fred G. Notehefler suggested HAJOR TOKYO PAPERS DAILY CIRCULATION (in 000s) 1897 1904 1905 1907 1911 150 200 90 170 40 50 50 20 20 Osaka Asahi 120 144 195 P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 22 'Yoroza had played an important role in presenting socialist views on current problems." UStoku ShSsai: Portrait of a Japanese Radical (Caibridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971), p. 93. * Andrew E. Barshay, State and litellectaal ii Itperial Japan The Public Hat i> Crisis (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), p. x i i i . This paragraph draws froa Barshay'5 arguaent, pp. x i i i -33 . 1 0 Hiyoshi Hasao suggestively wrote that Japanese 'invites and seduces a l l would-be speakers and writers...Candl is in fact a powerful compulsion througout the whole society. ' Accoiplices of Silence; Ihe Hodern Japanese Hovel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974), p. xv. This tendency toward silence leant fewer ten would seek the right or responsibility of speech and they would relinquish i t tore wil l ingly. 1 1 Uchikawa, Shiiban shim, p. 164. By the autuan of 1903 the paper's editorial stand had begun to affect sales. Notehelfer, KGtoka Shlsai, p. 92. The good business sense of Kuroiwa's decision i s supported by the fact that Yoroza easily aaintained i t s nuiber one position in Tokyo. (See fn. 14) Hiyoshi suggested that despite Kuroiwa's belief in editorial independence, EnjGji Tenzan (one of Yoroza's tost faaous journalists) persuaded hit that practical business interests deaanded a change in editorial policy. Hatashi no Shunts, p. 266-69. See also Ariyaaa, who argued that ' i t is not too hard to think that Kuroiwa's choice was influenced by business considerations as well as ideology.' 'Kyanpein jSnarizuta no jidai,' p. 42. For Kuroiwa's contemporary explanation of his advocacy of war see "The Energisa in Which I Believe,* in which he declared 'now we aust f ight. ' Yoroza 6 January 1904. S ia i l a r i ly , his 17 October 1904 speech did not mention the financial aspect of his decision, but rather asserted that 'anti-war arguaents...discourage aorale and daaage the unity of the nation... Private opinion should be sacrificed for the sake of the nation.' Quoted in He in in Shinbat 23 October 1904. 1 2 Hyaan Kublin, Asian Revolutionary: Ihe Life of Set Katayaia (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964), p. 160. " Hiyoshi, Haiashi so ShEroka, p. 290. However, Hiroia continued to c r i t i c ize the Katsura governaent until i t was banned. This developaent is described in Chapter Four. 1 4 Nishida Taketoshi, Heiji jidai to shiiban to zasshi (Shibundo, 1966), p. 236. 1 8 See Uchiaura's "Heaoradua Sent to Fraternal Kuroiwa When I Resign,' Sakai's and Kttoku's joint 'Resignation Address,' and Kuroiwa's 'About Uchiaura, Kfftoku, and Sakai's Resignations,' Yoroza 12 October 1903. 1 6 Nishida Taketoshi, 'Kaisetsu,' Heitin Shiiban, dai ichi-gS-dai rokajSjon-go, Hattori Shiso and Konishi Shir5, eds. (SSgen Sha, 1964), p. 4. 1 7 Between 10 February and 28 Harch anti-war agitation was the priaary focus of Heitin's editorials. See 'The Results of Mar," 14 February; 'The Delusions of Soldiers, ' 21 February; "The Effect of War,' 28 February; "Mar and Newspapers,' 6 Harch; "What is Socialisa," 20 Harch; and "Ah woe! Rising Taxes," Heitin Shiibai 27 Harch 1904. i a E. H. Noraan, Origins of the Hodern Japanese State: Selected Hritings of I. H. Hortan, John U. Dower, ed. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1975), p. 312; and Jay Rubin, litarioos to Pablic Horals: triters aid the Heiji State (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1984), p. 55. See also Hane Hikiso for his view that both Christians and socialists opposed the war. Hodern Japan a Historical Survey (Boulder: Mestview Press, 1986), pp. 177-81. However, the evidence seeas to be on the side of Noraan and Rubin as only socialists offered a sustained resistance to war. " Barshay, State and Intellectual it Itperial Japan, p. 15. 3 0 Hyaan Kublin, "The Japanese Socialists and the Russo-Japanese Mar," Journal of Hodert History 22:4(Deceaber 1950):330. 2 1 "Ah Hoe! Rising Taxes," Heitin Shiiban 27 Harch 1904. Nishida points out that "socialistic speech was not prohibited by law...as long as i t was abstract theory." "Kaisetsu," p. 11. 2 2 Jean-Pierre Lehaann, Ihe Itage of Japan: frot Feudal Isolation to Horld Poiter, 1859-1905 (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1978), p. 158. See also Notehelfer, KStoka ShEsai, p. 99. 2 3 Nishida, 'Kaisetsu,' pp. 12-13. 2 4 Shirayanagi Shako, Saiatji Kinochi den (Nihon Hyflron Sha, 1929), p. 487. Saionji's coaaent aay reflect his own experience. He forced by an Iaperial Edict to stop publication of JJSyS Jiya Shiiban in 1881. See Chapter Two for further discussion of this legislation. P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo- J a p a n e s e War 23 33 Heitit Shiibu 24 July and 7 August 1904. *• Nishida, "Kaisetsu," pp. 10-12. Notehefler suggested "the government's hard line was no doubt influenced by the growing public reaction against KBtoku and his associates.* Kttoka Shasai, p. 105. 2 7 Particular exception was taken to this reprimand of elementary school teachers: 'you try to raise children of Japan rather than children of the world so you teach a limited ethics which destroys their broader humanity' (ikkoku to Uti o tsakarat koto o hossara nari, sekai no ko o tsakitrat koto hosseza, shinara dUoka o oshieshinete dainara hakaai dUtoka o shirizoka). These omissions remain in the 1964 edition of Heitit Shinban. M Barshay, State ati Intellectual it Itperial Japat, p. 15. 3 3 Hatsuo, Uishi denokarashii to ketkji and Nishida, 'Kaisetsu* develop this point. Although between 1903 and 1905 ffeitii published just over 20,000 papers, averaging about 3,300 per issue, peaking at a weekly circulation of just 4,500, Yoroza had an average daily circulation of 160,000. Heitit Sbitbat 27 Hay and 28 August 1904. 3 0 Barshay, State aid Intellectual it Itperial Japat, p. 15. 3 1 According to Be it it, direct sales were 1403 issues, with distributors handling twice that volume. This was almost one-third of i t s sales, which was higher than most of i t s competitors. Nonetheless, subscriptions actually increased despite increased harassment, perhaps because government pressure made buying the paper from news-sellers d i f f icul t . 10 July 1904. 3 3 Nishida was correct when he argued 'after the Sino-Japanese Uar the mainstream ideology was imperialism.' Heiji jidai to shinban to zasshi, p. 237. 3 3 While Elise K. Tipton writes 'repression also had the effect of crystallizing differences among socialists (which] hardened and evolved into a bitter schism between social democrats and anarchists,' this did not play a c r i t i ca l role in facili tating ideological hegemony. 7»e Civil Police it the Sappressiot of the Preuar iapatese left (Ph.D. diss. Indiana University, 1977), p. 31. See my Chapter Three for further information on the spl i t between a more worker-oriented socialism and the socialism of Heitit which was directed at the intelligentsia, and the linguistic implications of this schism. 3 4 Kawakami Hajime, later a renowned Marxist, wrote a series of articles entitled Shakai Sbagi Hydroi (Essays on Socialism) for Yotiari Shitbut from October - December 1905 which detailed the history of Japanese socialism and called for "the simultaneous reform of the social system and attitudes within i t ,* but Kawakami s t i l l favored a capitalistic economy at this time. Joyo" leizai Shitpo also published some signed and unsigned articles by the socialist Katayama Sen (1860-1933) after the Russo-Japanese War. However, these were exceptions rather than the rule. Shird Sugihara, 'Economists in Journalism: Liberalism, Nationalism and Their Variants," Enlightennent atd Sejond: Political Econotf Cotes to Japat, Chuhei Sugiyama and Hiroshi Nizuta, eds. (University of Tokyo Press, 1988), pp. 250 and 253. 3 3 Ariyama suggested that even before the Russo-Japanese War newspapers were not just directing events from behind, but rather were participating in the process of producing news. "Kyanpein jJnarizumu no j i d a i , " p. 38. See also Hatsuo, who wrote that Heiji pol i t ical activity continued to be urban public movements carried out from above by newspapers and assemblies. Jaisho denokarashii to ketkji, p. 65. (my emphasis) Eleanor Westney argued that 'newspapers growing recognition of their capacity for generating as well as gathering news was one of the more controversial features of 'new journalism." J be Iratsfer of Restern Orgatizatiotal Patterts to Heiji Japat (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987), p. 183. 3 6 Some of the few recent exceptions to this are James L . Huffman, Politics of the Heiji Press: Ibe Life of Fukachi 6e»'ichir5 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1980); Gregory J . Kasza, Toe State atd Hass Hedia it Japat, 1918-1945 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988); Young C. Kim, Japanese Journalists and Iheir Horld (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1981); Jung Bock Lee, He Political Character of the Japanese Press (Seoul: Seoul National University Press, 1985); Richard H. Hitchell, Censorship in Itperial Japat (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983); and Rubin, Injurious to Public Horals. 3 7 The following is a summary, and an interpretation of Benedict Anderson's Itagited Cottatities: Kef lections ot the Origin aid Spread of Rationalist (London: Verso Edition, 1983), pp. 1-65. 3 3 Nanette Twine, "The Genbunitchi Hovement: Its Origins, Development, and Conclusion,' Honuaeita P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 24 Hippoiici 33:3(1978):338. Hiyoshi found that "not only c r i t i c s and novelists, but editorial writers and even the government demanded some method whereby legal documents and commercial and personal correspondence could be brought l inguistically closer to the vernacular." ficcotplices of Silence, p. 5. While this was true, there was substantial opposition to such change. The controversy continued until the 1946 constitution was published in the colloquial style, although 781 of novels written in 1905 were in the colloquial style, and 100Z by 1910. Nanette Twine, 'Toward Simplicity: Script Reform Hovements in the Heiji Period,' Hoauaenta Hipponica 38:2(1983):116; and 'The Genbunitchi Hovement," pp. 353-54. " Ariga Chieko, 'The Playful Moss: Rubi in Japanese Literature, ' Hoaaaeata Hippoaica 44:3 (1989):317. See Appendix, especially pages 170 and 175, for examples of robs from Kokkei Shiabua and Yoroza. 4 0 Haruyama Hasao's Studies is the Intellectual History of Tokugaua Japan, Hane Hikiso, trans. (Princeton and Tokyo: Princeton University Press and Tokyo University Press, 1974) was the catalyst for this debate. See Harry D. Harootunian, Things Seen and Unseen: discourse and Ideology in Tokugaua Hativisn (Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1988); J . Victor Koschmann, The Hito Ideology, discourse, Mora, and lasarrectioa ia Late Tokugaua Japan, 1799-1864 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987); Najita Tetsuo and Irwin Scheiner, eds. Japanese Thought in the Tokugaua Period, 1690-1868: Methods and Metaphors (Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1978); and Kate Uildman Nakai, Shogunal Politics: Srai tiakuseki and the Preaises of Shoguaal Politics (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988). 4 1 Anderson, Iaagined Coaaunities, p. 46. 4 2 Irokawa Daikichi, The Culture of the Heiji Period, Harius B. Jansen, trans, and ed. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985), p. 293. See also Kffsaka who argued 'the Russo-Japanese War marks the boundary after which Japanism became like a religion, became mystical, became absolutist.* Japanese Thoaght in the Heiji Period, pp. 358-67. 25 C H A P T E R T U O T H E D E V E L O P M E N T O F J A P A N E S E P R I N T M E D I A I AN OVERVIEW The development o f t h e p r i n t e d p r e s s i n Japan a f f e c t e d t h e manner and e x t e n t t o w h i c h newspapers e x p r e s s e d c o n c e p t s o f n a t i o n a l i s m d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War. D u r i n g t h e Tokugawa P e r i o d a c c e s s t o news (which was p e r c e i v e d a s n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s , wars, s c a n d a l s , and p o l i t i c a l o c c u r r e n c e s ) was l e g a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o o n l y t h e most s e n i o r Bakufu ( m i l i t a r y government) o f f i c i a l s . In t h e M e i j i p e r i o d government p o l i c y changed and newspapers were encouraged as a means by which t o e d u c a t e and m o d e r n i z e t h e Japanese c i t i z e n r y . From an i d e a l i s t i c , o f t e n p a r t i s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n aimed at an e d u c a t e d e l i t e t h e M e i j i p r e s s e v o l v e d i n t o a c o m m e r c i a l , independent i n s t i t u t i o n d i r e c t e d a t a mass aud i e n c e . Because news media r e q u i r e s t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f i t s raw m a t e r i a l , each news c h o i c e i s t e l l i n g . In M e i j i J a pan, u n l i k e c o n t e m p o r a r y V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d or t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i d e a s about t h e body p o l i t i c r a t h e r t h a n human s e x u a l i t y were viewed a s t h r e a t e n i n g . The p r e s s l a w s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 26 of t h e p e r i o d c a r e f u l l y d e l i n e a t e d what c o u l d or c o u l d not be w r i t t e n , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on p o s s i b l e p o l i t i c a l i n f r a c t i o n s w h i l e almost o v e r l o o k i n g pornography. Thus, d i v e r s e a r t i c u l a t i o n s of t h e n a t i o n were t h e p e r p e t u a l t a r g e t o f e a r l y Japanese c e n s o r s . Government inducements and d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l and p h y s i c a l c o e r c i o n o f t h e media d i d not make i t t h e propaganda arm o f t h e government.' The government never c o n t e s t e d t h e r i g h t o f t h e p r e s s t o e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y ; i t even encouraged e n e r g e t i c d i s c u s s i o n . Debate, c r i t i c i s m , and d i s s e n t were p e r m i t t e d , but w i t h i n s t e a d i l y n a r r o w i n g b o u n d a r i e s of l e g a l i t y . As Marcuse i n c i s i v e l y a r g u e d , such t o l e r a n c e c o n t a i n e d d i s s e n t . * Or, as Herman and Chomsky argu e d , t h e government's t o l e r a n c e of s u p e r f i c i a l d i s s e n t w i t h i n t h e p r o p e r framework, and fundamental d i s s e n t o n l y i n a m a r g i n a l i z e d p r e s s f a c i l i t a t e d i t s p a t r i o t i c agenda. 3 The masses were not o f f e r e d a m e a n i n g f u l r o l e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , but were m o b i l i z e d and managed from above t o s u p p o r t t h e i d e a l s o f a v i g o r o u s e l i t e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s l e d t h e M e i j i p r e s s t o d e v e l o p a p r o - e s t a b l i s h m e n t b i a s : t h e " c a r r o t and s t i c k " n a t u r e o f government f i n a n c i n g and r e p r e s s i o n , t h e c h a r a c t e r and i d e a l s o f t h o s e who founded and worked f o r Japan's f i r s t d a i l i e s , p r i n t - c a p i t a l i s m ' s i n s t i n c t i v e s e a r c h f o r consumers, and t h e c h a n g i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s o f newspaper r e a d e r s . The p r o d u c t of p r i n t c a p i t a l i s m - t h e newspaper -f o s t e r e d Japanese n a t i o n a l i s m , and at t h e same t i m e i t P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 27 r e i n f o r c e d " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m a t t h e expense o f o t h e r v e r s i o n s of t h e s t a t e . * W i t h i n Japan's " m a r k e t p l a c e o f i d e a s , " which was f o r m u l a t e d and c o n s t r a i n e d by o f f i c i a l s , t h e d e s i r e f o r economic s u r v i v a l g e n e r a l l y encouraged i d e a s which a p p e a l e d t o t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e a u d i e n c e , which " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m was coming t o have, and m a r g i n a l i z e d l e s s p o p u l a r v i e w s . As d e s c r i b e d above, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f Heimin, Japanese newspaper e d i t o r s s u p p o r t e d t h e Russo-Japanese War u n e q u i v o c a l l y a f t e r 1903. The a c c e p t a n c e o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m at such a l e v e l was t h e r e s u l t of c h e c k s e a r l i e r put i n t o p l a c e . In t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f contemporary American media Herman and Chomsky have argued t h a t f i v e f i l t e r s combine t o e n s u r e American media s u p p o r t f o r t h e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p o w e r f u l : 1) r e l i a n c e on " r e l i a b l e s o u r c e s , " 2) s i z e and t y p e o f o w n e r s h i p , 3) ' f l a k ' as a means o f d i s c i p l i n e , 4) a d v e r t i z e r s , and 5) "anti-communism" as a n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n and c o n t r o l mechanism." When and how t h e s e f i l t e r s and o t h e r s came t o s t r a i n news i n M e i j i Japan a f f e c t e d t h e manner and e x t e n t o f n a t i o n a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s . By t h e end of Russo-Japanese War, t h e p o l i t i c a l economy o f Japanese p r i n t media was a b l e t o weed out n o n - " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m s . How an environment h o s t i l e t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i v e r s e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e body p o l i t i c was c r e a t e d i s d e s c r i b e d below. P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 28 I I THE TOKUGAWA PERIOD (1603-1868) In t h e 1850s, t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a p o w e r f u l , e n c r o a c h i n g West h e l p e d undermine an a l r e a d y f a d i n g government - t h e Tokugawa b a k u f u . The Tokugawa c l a n had t a k e n m i l i t a r y c o n t r o l o f Japan i n 1603, e n a c t e d a p o l i c y o f s e c l u s i o n , and c o n s o l i d a t e d i t s d y n a s t i c power t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . P r i n t t e c h n o l o g y was a v a i l a b l e i n t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d , but i t was f o r b i d d e n t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e government i n any form. "Communication between Tokugawa r u l e r s and t h e p e o p l e had been c o n d u c t e d by p u b l i c n o t i c e b o a r d , " but communication between o t h e r g r o u p s a l s o e x i s t e d . 8 V a r i o u s t y p e s of i l l e g a l p a m p h l e t s ikauaraban"), s t o n e i m p r e s s i o n s isek iban"), and r e a d and s e l l g a z e t t e s Cyomiuri') were p u b l i s h e d t o d e s c r i b e major or s e n s a t i o n a l e v e n t s , but t h e y u s u a l l y d i d not d i r e c t l y d i s c u s s or c r i t i c i z e t h e government. 7 N e v e r t h e l e s s , f e u d a l o f f i c i a l s f e l t t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s had a n e g a t i v e impact on p u b l i c v i r t u e , and t h e y t r i e d t o impose r e s t r i c t i o n s . " A C o n f u c i a n e t h i c which deemed i t improper t o f i n d f a u l t w i t h t h o s e i n h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s r e i n f o r c e d t h e s e a t t e m p t s and l e d t o p e r v a s i v e " s e l f - c e n s o r s h i p . " P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 29 I I I THE MEIJI PERIOD In 1868, t h e Tokugawa government was o v e r t h r o w n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power f o r m a l l y r e t u r n e d t o t h e emperor, and th e r e b e l s , t o d a y remembered as M e i j i ' s c o n s e r v a t i v e o l i g a r c h s , e s t a b l i s h e d a s t h e a c t u a l l e a d e r s o f t h e government. Once i n power t h e o l i g a r c h y took s t e p s t o e r a d i c a t e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l t h r e a t s and t o c r e a t e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f a modern s t a t e . Throughout, t h e i r o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e was c l e a r - t o a c h i e v e n a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s . The s l o g a n s " r i c h c o u n t r y and s t r o n g army" (.fukoku kyGhei) and " c i v i l i z a t i o n and e n l i g h t e n m e n t " ibanmei kaika) e x e m p l i f y t h e i r c ontemporary aims. The o l i g a r c h s viewed p r i n t media as an e s s e n t i a l means by which t o c r e a t e a s t r o n g , u n i f i e d Japan and t r i e d t o m a n i p u l a t e i t toward t h i s end. However, i t p r o v e d l e s s m a l l e a b l e t h a n e x p e c t e d . "PRO—ESTABLISHMENT M (1869-1873) I t i s g e n e r a l l y a greed t h a t no r e a l p r e c u r s o r t o t h e modern newspaper e x i s t e d i n Japan p r i o r t o 1868.* N o n e t h e l e s s , once t h e c oncept was i n t r o d u c e d , i t q u i c k l y took r o o t and became p a r t o f urban l i f e . The q u i c k a c c e p t a n c e o f newspapers was due t o t h e government's d e c i s i o n t o encourage them, 1 0 Japan's r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l s o f l i t e r a c y , P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 30 u r b a n i z a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l opment, , l and an e x p a n d i n g demand f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l r a t h e r than l o c a l c h a r a c t e r . * 2 N e v e r t h e l e s s , newspapers would not have been s u c c e s s f u l w i t h o u t t h i s o f f i c i a l b a c k i n g and a g rowing c a p i t a l i s t i c economy. In 1868, t h e new government p r o h i b i t e d newspapers, but i n 1869, i t d i d an a b o u t - f a c e and a u t h o r i z e d t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f newspapers. I t d e l i n e a t e d a r e a s t o be c o v e r e d as w e l l as t h o s e f o r b i d d e n , such as t h e " i n d i s c r i m i n a t e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e government and law, c r i t i c i s m o f i n d i v i d u a l s , p r e a c h i n g o f r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s , and f a l s e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s . " , a A number o f j o u r n a l s banned t h e p r e v i o u s year resumed p u b l i c a t i o n , but poor management, f i n a n c e s , and c i r c u l a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n many c l o s u r e s . As a consequence, from 1871 t h e government i t s e l f began t o s u p p o r t and encourage newspapers. A r e c i p r o c i t y o f i n t e r e s t s r a p i d l y drew p r i n t media and t h e government i n t o a s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . Government l e a d e r s viewed p r i n t as a means t h r o u g h which t o g a i n s u p p o r t and d i s p e r s e t h e k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n which was needed t o m o dernize t h e c o u n t r y . 1 4 To g a i n t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f j o u r n a l i s t s , t h e y r e v e a l e d t h e i r p l a n s i n o r d e r t o encourage i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h n a t i o n a l aims. However, t h e * r u l i n g c l i q u e ' s g o a l - a s u b s e r v i e n t j o u r n a l i s m - was made c l e a r t o independent newspaper p r o p r i e t o r s : t h e p r e s s was t o d i s s e m i n a t e p o l i c y , not c r i t i c i z e i t . 1 8 In t h e e a r l y y e a r s , government p a t r o n a g e c o n n o t a t e d power and t o be a b l e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 31 t o d e c l a r e o n e s e l f goyS shimbun (a government organ) was good f o r b u s i n e s s . I t was o n l y l a t e r t h a t t h e s e j o u r n a l i s t s were c h a r a c t e r i s e d as "kept e d i t o r s . " Men founded and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n newspaper companies f o r d i v e r s e r e a s o n s , y e t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r s of t h e M e i j i p e r i o d t h e y s h a r e d t h e same b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s as many o f t h e i r countrymen. J o u r n a l i s t s and b u r e a u c r a t s were o f t e n from t h e same c l a s s , hsn ( f e u d a l c l a n ) , or s c h o o l . Some e n t e r e d j o u r n a l i s m s e e k i n g p r o f i t or p o l i t i c a l advancement, a few hoped t o use s k i l l s p r e v i o u s l y a t t a i n e d , and o t h e r s endeavored t o p r o v i d e a good model and e d u c a t e t h e masses. 1 6 As o u t s i d e r s l o o k i n g i n , t h e c o n c e r n was i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o r a t h e r t h a n a l i e n a t i o n from t h e power s t r u c t u r e . 1 7 The few men who d i s s e n t e d from p r e v a i l i n g v i e w s were u s u a l l y c o -op t e d , s e n t abroad on f a c t - f i n d i n g m i s s i o n s , or o f f e r e d p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e government. A c a s e i n p o i n t was F u k u c h i G e n ' i c h i r o , who was a r r e s t e d i n 1868 f o r a n t i -government a g i t a t i o n i n KOko Shimbun. Y e t , he j o i n e d t h e government two y e a r s l a t e r , and accompanied t h e 1871 Iwakura M i s s i o n t o t h e S t a t e s . As an example o f t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h i s s t r a t e g y , upon h i s r e t u r n t o Japan he became e d i t o r o f t h e pro-government Tokyo Hichi Nichi Shimbun. A l t h o u g h t h e p r e s s was n o m i n a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t , most e a r l y news p u b l i c a t i o n s (shinbunshi) were m a i n t a i n e d t o some e x t e n t by t h e government. As Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i (1835-1901), a contemporary i n t e l l e c t u a l , n o t e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r e s s of t h e e a r l y 1870s, "almost s e v e n t y t o e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 32 p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s have some government c o n n e c t i o n . " 1 1 The government d i r e c t l y s u b s i d i z e d a few p a p e r s , bought a d v e r t i s i n g space from some, and p r o v i d e d p r i n t i n g r evenue t o o t h e r s . In 1872, a l l p r e f e c t u r a l and major c i t y o f f i c e s were p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e funds t o p l a c e t h r e e p a p e r s i n e v e r y o f f i c i a l w a i t i n g rooms. T h i s p r o v i d e d some p a p e r s w i t h r e v e n u e and made t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f o f f i c i a l p a t r o n a g e o b v i o u s t o o t h e r s . A l s o i n 1872, low p o s t a g e r a t e s were s e t f o r newspapers, and r e g i o n a l p a p e r s were g i v e n s p e c i a l i n c e n t i v e s . O f f i c i a l encouragement o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p u b l i c r e a d i n g rooms and m i l k h a l l s c a t e r i n g t o a newspaper r e a d i n g p u b l i c a l s o h e l p e d t o c r e a t e a c l i m a t e f a v o r a b l e f o r t h e growth of newspapers. The achievement o f t h e o l i g a r c h s g o a l was e x p e d i t e d by t h e s e v a r i o u s f i n a n c i a l t i e s . Most j o u r n a l i s t s and b u r e a u c r a t s saw t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h t h e same g l a s s e s and s h a r e d a p r e s s i n g d e s i r e t o have Japan's unequal t r e a t i e s r e v i s e d . That g o a l u n d e r l a i d t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e M e i j i e l i t e , and i n t h a t members o f t h e p r e s s were no d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s . As Fukuzawa n o t e d a t t h e t i m e , " r e g u l a t i o n s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n a r e not. v e r y s t r i c t , but t h e newspapers never c a r r y o p i n i o n s u n f a v o r a b l e t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . " l t In a d d i t i o n , "as a q u i d p r o quo f o r t h e i r f a v o r a b l e t r e a t m e n t . . . newspapers g e n e r a l l y s y m p a t h i z e d w i t h t h e government."* 0 U n i t e d i n t h e i r n a t i o n a l a m b i t i o n s , and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e p r o - e s t a b l i s h m e n t b i a s o f t h e e a r l y M e i j i p r e s s i s not s u r p r i s i n g . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 33 "POLITICAL" (1873-1883) Once t h e p r e s s was l e g a l l y s a n c t i o n e d , as t h e inducements o u t l i n e d above i n d i c a t e d , t h e government found i t r e l a t i v e l y e asy t o f o s t e r a pro-government s l a n t i n d a i l i e s between 1869 and 1872. However, when many newspapers a r r a n g e d p a r t y a f f i l i a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e 1870s and e a r l y 1880s, i t became n e c e s s a r y t o add n e g a t i v e s a n c t i o n s t o t h e s e p o s i t i v e inducements. Japan's f i r s t f i l t e r , ' f l a k ' ( c o m p l a i n t s , t h r e a t s , and p u n i t i v e a c t i o n a g a i n s t m e dia), e v o l v e d i n c o n c e r t w i t h , and i n r e a c t i o n t o t h e development o f Japan's " p o l i t i c a l p r e s s . " 2 1 In t h e 1870s and 1880s government r e p r e s s i o n grew i n s p u r t s and jumps, w i t h o u t a u n i f i e d p l a n or p r o p e r means o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The u l t i m a t e g o a l - t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of " i n j u r i o u s i d e a s " - was never r e a l l y a t t a i n e d , but d u r i n g t h e e r a o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r e s s f o r m i d a b l e groundwork was l a i d . In t h e 1870s, j o u r n a l i s t s were d i v i d e d i n t o two gr o u p s : t h e b a r e l y l i t e r a t e tambOsha ( i n t e r v i e w e r s ) who g a t h e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n , and l i t e r a t e kisha ( w r i t e r s / r e p o r t e r s ) who wro t e b e a u t i f u l p r o s e based on t h e c o l l e c t e d f a c t s . They worked i n two d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f newspapers; t h e Oshimbun ( t r a n s l a t e d v a r i o u s l y as g r e a t , major, b i g ) and t h e koshimbun ( t r a n s l a t e d v a r i o u s l y as i n f e r i o r , m inor, s m a l l ) . Each had i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r i c e , and r e a d e r s h i p . As Oshimbun and koshimbun c a t e r e d t o d i f f e r e n t a u d i e n c e s w i t h a P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 34 w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t t h e y d i d not i n i t i a l l y compete w i t h each o t h e r . Koshimbun, p r i n t e d on s m a l l s h e e t s of pa p e r , about e i g h t t o t w e l v e pages l o n g , were i n e x p e n s i v e (33-50 s e n ) , w r i t t e n i n more c o l l o q u i a l J a p a n e s e , and aimed at a l e s s e d u c a t e d a u d i e n c e , o f t e n women and c h i l d r e n . For example, Yomiuri Shimbun, w h i c h was f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d as a koshimbun i n 1874, had a p o l i c y o f p u t t i n g furigana ( r e a d i n g g l o s s ) f o r a l l kanji ( c h a r a c t e r s ) w h i c h i n c r e a s e d i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y . 2 * Koshimbun p u b l i s h e d l a v i s h i l l u s t r a t i o n s and s e r i a l i z e d f i c t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o r e p o r t i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l t o p i c s , e s p e c i a l l y a n y t h i n g s e n s a t i o n a l o r n o t o r i o u s . T h i s k i n d o f r e p o r t i n g was t h e major f o c u s o f th e koshimbun but t h e y d i d not r e p o r t news a s news, but i n s t e a d made i t i n t o amusing s t o r i e s . In c o n t r a s t , t h e oshimbun, p r i n t e d on l a r g e r s h e e t s of pap e r , about t h e same l e n g t h , were more e x p e n s i v e (60-85 s e n ) , aimed a t a more e d u c a t e d a u d i e n c e and c o n c e n t r a t e d on p r o v i d i n g p o l i t i c a l news and commentary. As Shimada Saburo (1852-1923), a M e i j i p o l i t i c i a n and j o u r n a l i s t w r o t e , " e d i t o r i a l s formed t h e main p a r t o f t h e p a p e r s and news was l i g h t l y t r e a t e d . " 2 ' In t h e 1870s, Sshimbun became p r i m a r y t a r g e t s o f government m a n i p u l a t i o n because o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l c o n t e n t ( a l t h o u g h t h e koshimbun were more l i b e l o u s and p o r n o g r a p h i c by n a t u r e ) . As Oshimbun began t o c r i t i c i z e t h e government t h e Japanese s t y l e o f c e n s o r s h i p e v o l v e d . P r i o r t o 1873, Japanese newspapers had v a r i e d e d i t o r i a l P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 35 l i n e s , not o n l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o each o t h e r , t h e i r a u d i e n c e , and t h e p o l i t i c a l atmosphere o f t h e t i m e , but a l s o w i t h i n each paper. The i s s u e s o f t h e day were debat e d from v a r i o u s i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s and r e a d e r s o f t h e same paper were exposed t o more t h a n one s i d e o f an argument. In 1873, however, t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether t o i n v a d e K o r e a p o l a r i z e d oshimbun and t h e y g r a d u a l l y a l i g n e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s and movements, a t r e n d t h a t would l a s t a n o t h e r decade. The d e b a t e over a n a t i o n a l a s s e m b l y f i x e d t h i s change, and newspapers g r a d u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d and s t u c k t o p a r t i c u l a r e d i t o r i a l l i n e s , a t l e a s t u n t i l i t was p o l i t i c a l l y o p p o r t u n e t o change. Economics e n c o u r a g e d t h i s development because p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s had become t h e major b a c k e r s o f oshimbun. 3 4 Heated e d i t o r i a l wars r a g e d i n Tokyo, and f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e newspapers d i r e c t e d f l a k a t each o t h e r . In 1877 t h e Satsuma r e b e l l i o n fanned t h e d e s i r e f o r news, and w i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e Freedom and P o p u l a r R i g h t s Movement, even koshimbun began t o w r i t e about p o l i t i c s . When b o t h oshimbun and koshimbun became p o l i t i c a l l y a l i g n e d w i t h p r o - or a n t i - g o v e r n m e n t p a r t i e s t h e honeymoon was o v e r . The Japanese system o f c e n s o r s h i p e v o l v e d as newspapers began t o c r i t i c i z e t h e b a s i s o f power i n M e i j i Japan and t o p r e s e n t a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w s o f t h e n a t i o n t o an e v e r - w i d e n i n g market. However, as R i c h a r d M i t c h e l l has c o n t e n d e d , "a c a r e f u l s t u d y o f t h e c o n t r o l o f newspaper p u b l i c a t i o n had been underway f o r some t i m e p r i o r P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo - J a p a n e s e War 36 to...1873."*° The 1873 l e g i s l a t i o n f o c u s e d on l i m i t i n g c o n t e n t , and i t f o r b i d t h e " o b s t r u c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l law by c r i t i c i z i n g t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y , d i s c u s s i n g d o m e s t i c law, or a d v o c a t i n g f o r e i g n law."** In s p i t e o f b e i n g e x p r e s s l y p r o h i b i t e d from c r i t i c i z i n g t h e government or a d v o c a t i n g o t h e r p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s , i n 1874 newspapers c a l l e d f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l a s s e m b l y . In r e a c t i o n t o t h i s d i r e c t a t t a c k on t h e b a s i s o f o l i g a r c h a l power, t h e government p r o m u l g a t e d t h e r e p r e s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n o f 1875. A c c o r d i n g t o N i s h i d a , t h i s was p r o o f t h a t " t h e government had d e c i d e d t o c o m p l e t e l y r e p r e s s freedom o f s p e e c h . " 2 7 1875, w r o t e R i c h a r d M i t c h e l l , "marked a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f c e n s o r s h i p i n Japan. , , a* The 1875 l e g i s l a t i o n was a s h i f t from p r e p u b l i c a t i o n t o p o s t p u b l i c a t i o n c e n s o r s h i p , which encouraged " s e l f -c e n s o r s h i p " by making p u b l i s h e r s go t o t h e expense o f p r o d u c i n g a work, w i t h o u t knowing i f i t c o u l d be s o l d . T h i s a t t a c k on p r o f i t a b l i t y went d i r e c t l y t o owners* p r o f i t m o t i v a t i o n . I t encouraged them t o t a k e g r e a t e r c a r e c h o o s i n g w r i t e r s , d e t e r m i n i n g c o n t e n t , and e d i t i n g t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t . For t h e f i r s t t i m e w r i t e r s and e d i t o r s were made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n t e n t and c l e a r - c u t p e n a l t i e s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e s t r i c t i n g p u b l i c a t i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d . Up t o t h r e e y e a r s imprisonment was t h e punishment f o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a g i t a t i o n , s u b v e r s i o n o f government, or encouragement o f s o c i a l d i s o r d e r . In a d d i t i o n , w r i t e r s would be p u n i s h e d f o r any s o c i a l u p h e a v a l t h a t o c c u r r e d as a P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 37 r e s u l t o f t h e i r a r t i c l e s . Making i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b l e a t t a c k e d r e p o r t e r s i n t h e i r p o c k e t b o o k . E d i t o r s and r e p o r t e r s u n a b l e or u n w i l l i n g t o h i r e "dummy e d i t o r s " t o s e r v e t h e i r j a i l t e r ms o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e d a l o s s i n wages. As owners became more c o n c e r n e d about f l a k from t h e government, t h e c o s t o f d i s s e n t e s c a l a t e d , and w r i t e r s were s u b j e c t e d t o g r e a t e r e d i t o r i a l c o n t r o l . Thus, t h e second f i l t e r o f t h e news i n M e i j i Japan was t h e p r o f i t m o t i v e o f owners. W h i l e t h e government was t h e major s o u r c e o f f l a k , i n t h e l a t e 1870s t h e p u b l i c a l s o began t o p r o d u c e i t . An i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e e f f e c t o f o f f i c i a l r e p r e s s i o n was an i n c r e a s e i n ' L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r . ' R e a d e r s used t h i s forum t o a i r c r i t i c i s m o f t h e government and t o show t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r newspapers and j a i l e d j o u r n a l i s t s . W r i t e r s o f ' L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r ' g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d r e a d e r s h i p : oshimbun u s u a l l y r e c e i v e d l e t t e r s from i n t e l l e c t u a l s , and koshimbun u s u a l l y r e c e i v e d l e t t e r s from c i t y m e r c h a n t s , a r t i s a n s , and p l a y w r i g h t s . " W h i l e t h i s f l a k had l i t t l e impact at t h e t i m e , i t e s t a b l i s h e d a b a s i s f o r l a t e r ag i t at i o n . When t h e 1875 r e s t r i c t i o n s f a i l e d t o s t i l l v o i c e s o f d i s s e n t , r e p e a t e d a t t e m p t s were made t o l i m i t newspaper p u b l i c a t i o n . In 1875, o n l y e l e v e n c a s e s were brou g h t f o r w a r d , * 0 and i n 1876 t h e government i n c r e a s e d r e p r e s s i o n : " t h e home m i n i s t r y and g o v e r n o r s r e c e i v e d a u t h o r i t y t o ban or suspend p u b l i c a t i o n w h i c h d i s t u r b e d t h e peace o r P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 38 c o r r u p t e d p u b l i c m o r a l s . " " P r i m a r i l y because of t h i s u n d e r s c o r e d p h r a s e from 1876 t o 1881 more t h a n 200 r e p o r t e r s were i m p r i s o n e d , and numerous j o u r n a l s s u s p e n d e d . 3 2 O p p o s i t i o n c o n t i n u e d , however, and t h e government t r i e d t o sweet t a l k t h e owners o f l e a d i n g p a p e r s w i t h b r i b e s . 3 3 T h i s was o n l y p a r t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e . In s p i t e o f t h i s r e p r e s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n George A k i t a and G r e g o r y K a s z a have a s s e r t e d t h a t government r e s t r a i n t s were " r e l a t i v e l y l i b e r a l " i n t h e 1870s. 3 4 K a s z a argued t h a t " e a r l y M e i j i p o l i c y t h u s r e p r e s e n t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e l i b e r a l i z a t i o n of p r i o r p r a c t i c e s . " W h i l e t h e p r e s s had more freedom t h a n i n t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d , as summarized above, t h e government c r e a t e d a s ystem t h a t used a f i n a n c i a l t h r e a t t o promote t h o r o u g h " s e l f - c e n s o r s h i p , " which p e r m i t t e d i t t o appear l e s s r e p r e s s i v e t h a n i t a c t u a l l y was. 3 8 T h i s combined w i t h owners r e l i a n c e on t h e government f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t o p a r t i a l l y s t r a i n "dangerous" i d e a s from t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t . W h i l e an i n q u i s i t i v e West l o o k e d on, t h e government encouraged p r o -government p a p e r s and r e p r e s s e d t h o s e c r i t i c a l o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . The b a t t l e was over t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t a t e , and such c a l c u l a t e d s u p p r e s s i o n o f n o n — " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m s was h a r d l y l i b e r a l . To some p e o p l e , t h e l a t e 1870s and e a r l y 1880s s y m b o l i z e d t h e " g o l d e n age" o f Japanese j o u r n a l i s m , f o r i n s p i t e o f t h i s h a r s h r e p r e s s i o n some j o u r n a l i s t s s t a y e d t r u e t o t h e i r i d e a l s and went t o j a i l r a t h e r than r e c a n t . "There P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo - J a p a n e s e War 39 was a s t e a d y e s c a l a t i o n i n t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e government-p r e s s c o n f r o n t a t i o n , " a s F i g d o r a s s e r t e d , because o f t h i s s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n . * * Y e t , t o c h a r a c t e r i z e a l l j o u r n a l i s t s as i d e a l i s t s would be t o emphasize o n l y one p a r t o f a d i v e r s e group o f m u l t i - f a c e t e d , complex i n d i v i d u a l s . A l t h o u g h many w r i t e r s were i d e a l i s t i c , o t h e r s were s e l f -s e r v i n g , c h a n g i n g a l l e g i a n c e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p u b l i c ' s p r e v a i l i n g mood. In f a c t , t o many r e a d e r s t h e p o l i t i c a l p r e s s appeared s i m p l y o p p o r t u n i s t i c , and t h e i r p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f i n t e g r i t y h e l p e d l e a d t o t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e p a r t i s a n p r e s s . In t h e 1880s, p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n p r o v e d i n c r e a s i n g l y c o s t l y , owners became more b u s i n e s s l i k e , and knowledge o f t h e Western c o n c e p t o f j o u r n a l i s t i c i n t e g r i t y became b e t t e r known; hence, newspapers became more n e w s - o r i e n t a t e d and c o m m e r c i a l . Newspapers began t o a l l a y p u b l i c c y n i c i s m about e a r l i e r s e l f - s e r v i n g p o l i t i c a l r e v e r s a l s by p o s i t i n g t h e m s e l v e s as i m p a r t i a l r e c o r d e r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The i n c r e a s e d c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e media, however, f u r t h e r augmented an environment h o s t i l e t o n o n - " o f f i c i a l " nat i o n a l i s m s . "EARLY COMMERCIAL <1883-1895) The l i f e e x p e c t a n c i e s o f l e s s p o p u l a r f o r m u l a t i o n s o f Ja p a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m were d r a s t i c a l l y s h o r t e n e d by a mid-P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 40 M e i j i s h i f t i n t h e revenue base o f newspapers. U n t i l t h e 1870s and e a r l y 1880s, a d v e r t i s i n g was a minor s o u r c e o f income and newspapers were a b l e t o make a good p r o f i t from s a l e s a l o n e . " C o s t s were low because newspapers r e q u i r e d few employees and s m a l l c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e , and because c o m p e t i t i o n was weak. The steam e n g i n e , i n t r o d u c e d i n 1874, h e r a l d e d t h e use o f steam p r e s s e s which r e d u c e d p r i n t i n g t i m e and c o s t . However, i n t h e mid-1880s d r a m a t i c a l l y r i s i n g p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s c a u sed by i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n , a d e c l i n e i n c i r c u l a t i o n due t o l e s s i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s , t h e 1881 M a t s u k a t a d e f l a t i o n , and government r e p r e s s i o n c r e a t e d p r e s s i n g f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s f o r t h e p r e s s . * " A m i d - l e v e l , n o n - p a r t i s a n approach was soon v i e w e d as t h e o n l y way t o expand r e a d e r s h i p and revenue. Yomiuri Shimbun p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g example o f t h e f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e newspaper owners f e l t . Begun i n 1874 a s an e v e r y - o t h e r - d a y koshimbun, p o p u l a r demand was such t h a t i t became a d a i l y w i t h i n s i x m o n t h s . G r o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s l e d i t t o e s t a b l i s h a d a i l y e d i t o r i a l i n 1880, and t h e t r e n d t o w a r d g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l c o v e r a g e i n t e n s i f i e d s u b s e q u e n t l y . However, c o m p e t i t i o n i n Tokyo was f i e r c e and c i r c u l a t i o n d e c l i n e d . In 1887, Yomiuri i n v e s t e d more i n news p r o d u c t i o n i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e r e a d e r s h i p ; i t employed a c h i e f w r i t e r (.shah itsu), l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , and s e r i a l i s e d n o v e l s . I t s r e p u t a t i o n as a l i t e r a r y paper grew, and i n 1890 i t gave d e t a i l e d c o v e r a g e t o t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n and c a b i n e t . Yomiuri a l t e r e d i t s format t o Pr i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 41 a p p e a l t o i n t e l l e c t u a l s and t h e upper m i d d l e c l a s s and i t moved up t o f i f t h i n c i r c u l a t i o n i n Tokyo i n t h e e a r l y 1890s. F r e q u e n t b a n n i n g s c o n f i r m e d i t s metamorphosis away from t h e koshimbun format. W h i l e Yomiuri g a i n e d r e a d e r s , o"shimbun e x p e r i e n c e d reduced government f i n a n c i n g , p a r t y p a t r o n a g e , and c i r c u l a t i o n . In t h e mid-1880s, when many koshimbun such as Yomiuri were becoming more p o l i t i c a l , f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y l e d t h e p o l i t i c a l p r e s s t o s i m p l i f y i t s p r o s e , and more i m p o r t a n t l y , t o d e c l a r e i t s e l f p a t r i o t i c i n o r d e r t o app e a l t o a wi d e r m a r k e t . 4 0 To p r o v e t h e i r i m p a r t i a l i t y newspapers r e v e r t e d t o t h e i r e a r l i e r custom of v a r i e d e d i t o r i a l l i n e s . P a t r i o t i s m became t h e watchword because i t a p p e a l e d t o ever y o n e and was a l e s s dangerous approach t o t h e g e n e r a l market t h a n p a r t i s a n s h i p . As Huffman a s s e r t e d , " n e a r l y e v e r y argument i n t h e p r e s s at t h e t i m e p o s i t e d as i t s b a s i c v a l u e t h e 'good o f t h e n a t i o n . * " 4 * As Oshimbun and koshimbun became more a l i k e i n f o r m a t , c o m p e t i t i o n i n c r e a s e d and Oshimbun were f o r c e d t o lower t h e i r s a l e p r i c e s and t a r g e t new a u d i e n c e s . Reduced p r i c e s meant newspapers were i n c r e a s i n g l y a v a i l a b l e t o l a r g e r a u d i e n c e s . As Westney i n c i s i v e l y remarked, "one e f f e c t . . . w a s t o r e i n f o r c e t h e growing s e n s e o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . " 4 * The d a i l y , s i m u l t a n e o u s , and c o l l e c t i v e r e a d i n g o f newspapers formed t h e n u c l e u s f o r t h e n a t i o n a l l y imagined community o f Japan. As newspapers became more c o m m e r c i a l i z e d , t h i s c o r e group expanded. P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 42 Uchikawa s u g g e s t s Yoroza p r o v i d e d t h e f i r s t model f o r commer c i a l newspapers w i t h i t s motto, " l e t t h e av e r a g e p e o p l e have t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n e a s i l y , " i t s one sen-one paper p r i c e , and i t s s e r i a l t r a n s l a t i o n s . 4 3 Other d a i l i e s s u ch as H<3chi Shimbun a l s o t a r g e t e d w i d e r a u d i e n c e s : i n 1885 i t l o w e r e d i t s p u r c h a s e p r i c e from 75 t o 25 s e n , s i m p l i f i e d i t s w r i t i n g s t y l e , and added s e r i a l i z e d s t o r i e s t o a t t r a c t t h e m i d d l e and lower c l a s s e s . 4 4 I n c r e a s e d p r o f i t s l e d i t t o c o n t i n u e on t h i s c o u r s e and soon o t h e r newspapers f o l l o w e d s u i t . W h i l e a s o r t o f n a s c e n t p r i c e war c o n t i n u e d , p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s f o r b o t h t y p e s o f newspapers r o s e , t h e r e s u l t o f a demand f o r deeper and w i d e r news c o v e r a g e and an i n c r e a s e d r i v a l r y f o r r e c o g n i z e d w r i t e r s . Meanwhile, t h e s e n s a t i o n a l i s m o f Yorozu, Niroku, and Yomiuri kept t h e i r numbers up, and soon i t s k i n d o f " y e l l o w " . j o u r n a l i s m was i m i t a t e d . A v a r i e t y o f campaigns s u c h a s " f i n d t h e m i s s i n g t r e a s u r e " and " l o t t e r i e s " were waged t o bo o s t c i r c u l a t i o n . 4 " However, p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s c o n t i n u e d t o r i s e i n t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p e t i t i v e market and media s u b s e q u e n t l y f o c u s e d i t s a t t e n t i o n on t h e o n l y o t h e r a p p a r e n t s o u r c e o f income - t h a t d e r i v e d from a d v e r t i s i n g . 4 " T h i s c o m p e t i t i o n s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e development o f modern mass a d v e r t i s i n g i n Japan but t h e c a t a l y s t was p r o v i d e d i n 1885 when " t h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Commerce i s s u e d Japan's f i r s t s e t o f trademark r e g u l a t i o n s , f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e s w i t c h from p r o m o t i n g p r o d u c t s t o p r o m o t i n g b r a n d s . " 4 7 P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese Mar 43 Herman and Chomsky argued t h a t a d v e r t i s i n g e n c o u r a g e s t h o s e newspapers t h a t a ppeal t o a b u y i n g p u b l i c (which Japan was coming t o have) so a d v e r t i s e r s ' c h o i c e s a f f e c t newspapers' p r o f i t a b i l i t y , e x p a n s i o n , and v i a b l i t y . 4 ' Newspapers s e l l t h e i r p r o d u c t — t h e i r market — t o t h e i r consumers — t h e i r a d v e r t i s e r s . Once a d v e r t i s i n g became a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e o f r e v e nue f o r Japanese newspapers i t began t o c o n t r o l not o n l y t h e v i a b i l i t y o f p r i n t media but of l e s s p o p u l a r n a t i o n a l i s m s . W h i l e p r i n t c a p i t a l i s m h e l p e d t h e Japanese c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e m s e l v e s as e s s e n t i a l and a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t s i n t h e n a t i o n , i t a l s o m a r g i n a l i z e d t h e v i e w s o f m i n o r i t i e s . I t encouraged mainstream n a t i o n a l i s m because Japan's growing m i d d l e c l a s s , who had a b s o r b e d t h e e l i t e s ' p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h n a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s , had become t h e market o f d a i l i e s . The growing c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e media meant t h a t newspapers' r e v e n u e s would be based on a d v e r t i s e r s , Japan's t h i r d f i l t e r , and t h i s would s t r a i n c e r t a i n news from t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t . T h i s t r e n d was i n t e n s i f i e d by h e a v i e r f l a k from t h e government i n 1883, when t h e h a r s h e s t r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e e a r l y M e i j i p e r i o d were imposed t o c o u n t e r i n c r e a s e d a g i t a t i o n f o r an e l e c t e d assembly by t h e Freedom and P o p u l a r R i g h t s Movement. R e c o r d s show t h a t "from 1883 t o 1887, 174 p e r i o d i c a l s were suspended from p u b l i c a t i o n , 4 were banned a l t o g e t h e r , w h i l e 198 j o u r n a l i s t s s e r v e d t i m e i n p r i s o n . " 4 ' For t h e f i r s t t i m e , Tokyo newspapers were r e q u i r e d t o p o s t a s u b s t a n t i a l bond, 1,000 yen, when a p p l y i n g f o r a p u b l i s h i n g P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 44 p e r m i t , which was n o n - r e f u n d a b l e i f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s were bro k e n . As t h e ave r a g e s t a r t - u p c o s t o f a s m a l l newspaper was then 4,000-5,000 yen, an a d d i t i o n a l 20-25 p e r c e n t i n v e s t m e n t was r e q u i r e d . 3 0 T h i s r e s t r i c t e d new ow n e r s h i p and encouraged s e l f - c e n s o r s h i p . Moreover, " t h e p r o p r i e t o r , owner, e d i t o r , p r i n t e r , w r i t e r s , and t r a n s l a t o r s were now a l l t o s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e newspaper. Hence, i n t h e event o f a v i o l a t i o n , a l l c o u l d be p r o s e c u t e d and g i v e n p u n i s h m e n t . " 8 1 T h i s c o n s i d e r a b l y widened t h e impact of government a c t i o n . The 1S89 c o n s t i t u t i o n had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o d e c r e a s e t h e r e s t r i c t i v e n a t u r e o f Japanese c e n s o r s h i p , but i n f a c t , i t worked s i m p l y t o d i r e c t i t . The " r i g h t s " of Japanese t o freedom o f speech and assembly were g i f t s g r a n t e d by t h e Emperor, a l l o w e d w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of t h e law, and t h a t law c o u l d be changed at any t i m e by t h e government, w i t h almost no r i g h t t o a p p e a l . 8 2 The pr e - c o n s t i t u t i o n method o f p o s t -p u b l i c a t i o n c e n s o r s h i p <a f i n a n c i a l t h r e a t which encouraged " s e l f - c e n s o r s h i p " ) was c o n t i n u e d , as was t h e government's a b i l i t y t o ban t h e s a l e o f o f f e n s i v e i s s u e s . From 1890 when many j o u r n a l i s t s had been e l e c t e d t o t h e D i e t , Lower House r e f o r m p r o p o s a l s t o c u r t a i l t h e Home M i n i s t r y ' s power t o ban newspapers were f r e q u e n t , but t h e y were a l l r e j e c t e d by t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e Upper House. As a r e s u l t , from 1890 t o 1896, newspapers were s u p p r e s s e d 654 t i m e s , or once e v e r y t h r e e days. The h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f b a n n i n g s i n d i c a t e s Japan's e a r l y f i l t e r s were n o t , as y e t , o m n i p o t e n t . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 45 "FULLY COMMERCIAL" (1895-1912) A more b u s i n e s s - o r i e n t e d p r e s s was v i s i b l e i n t h e mid-1880s, but t h e r e a l s h i f t t o c o m m e r c i a l j o u r n a l i s m o c c u r r e d at t h e end o f t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War o f 1894-1895. The h o s t i l i t i e s s e t o f f an i n t e n s e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r r e a d e r s , and w r i t e r s t o c a t e r t o them. P h i l a n t h r o p i c newspapers, w h i c h aimed t o e n l i g h t e n or e d u c a t e , were no l o n g e r v i a b l e . The 1880s had w i t n e s s e d a s h i f t t o "new j o u r n a l i s m " and a c u t by a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y p e r c e n t i n t h e p u r c h a s e p r i c e of Oshimbun. Meanwhile, t h e c o s t o f w i r e and news s e r v i c e s , n e w s p r i n t , s e n d i n g r e p o r t e r s t o t h e f r o n t , and p r i n t i n g " e x t r a s " w i t h t h e most r e c e n t news from t h e b a t t l e f i e l d combined t o make p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s h i g h e r i n g e n e r a l t h a n s a l e s r evenue. W h i l e c i r c u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , i t was not enough t o o f f s e t d r a m a t i c a l l y h i g h e r p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n c o s t s . The p o l i t i c a l atmosphere o f Japan changed i n t h e 1890s and t h i s s h i f t i n v a l u e s was r e f l e c t e d by a more c o n s e r v a t i v e p r e s s . Some o f t h o s e men who had a g i t a t e d f o r Freedom and P o p u l a r R i g h t s were now p a r t o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , and w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r r e v e a l e d common i n t e r e s t s . The p r o b l e m o-f c o n t r o l l i n g l a b o r o r g a n i z e r s and a n a s c e n t s o c i a l i s t movement u n i t e d t h e p a r t i e s and t h e genrS i n a s h a r e d s t r u g g l e . Newspapers* s i m u l t a n e o u s e v o l u t i o n i n t o c o m p l e t e l y c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e s meant t h a t a l t h o u g h P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 46 t h e p r e s s c o n t i n u e d t o c r i t i c i z e t h e government, t h e y were s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h s h a r e d i n t e r e s t s . Not t h e l e a s t o f t h e s e was a d e s i r e t o s t o p l a b o r a g i t a t i o n . Government a c t i o n between 1397 and 1903 c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d i t s t a r g e t s t o be s o c i a l i s m and t h e l a b o r movement. The ma i n s t r e a m p r e s s and t h e government r e c o g n i z e d i n each o t h e r an a l l y , and v i g o r o u s mutual a t t a c k s d e c l i n e d . D u r i n g t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War newspapers r e a d e r s h i p expanded d r a m a t i c a l 1 y . ** Throughout t h e e n t i r e M e i j i p e r i o d p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s grew i n c o n c e r t w i t h i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o , i n t e r e s t i n , and a b i l i t y t o r e a d newspapers. The p u r c h a s e p r i c e o f newspapers was l o w e r e d i n t h e 1880s and 1890s which s t i m u l a t e d t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e a t lower e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s a s a normal p a r t o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . L i t e r a c y had i n c r e a s e d , and t h e 1900 d r a f t exam i n d i c a t e d a d u l t male l i t e r a c y was 45 p e r c e n t . 8 4 And f i n a l l y , newspapers o f f e r e d more o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . Newspapers had h e l p e d make p o s s i b l e an imagined community i n wh i c h n a t i o n a l s anonymously and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y became c o n c e r n e d about t h e same p r o b l e m s , and once c o n c e r n e d , worked a s c i t i z e n s t o r e s o l v e them. R e a d i n g t h e paper d a i l y r e a f f i r m e d t h e s e newly i m a g i n a b l e h o r i z o n t a l t i e s and s t i m u l a t e d f e e l i n g s o f k i n s h i p and n a t i o n a l i s m . Between 1868 and 1895 t h i s " p u b l i c " s p a c e had been p r i m a r i l y i n h a b i t e d by t h e e l i t e , but a s newspapers became more p o p u l a r t h e m i d d l e c l a s s and some s e c t i o n s o f t h e lower c l a s s were encompassed. P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 47 M e i j i newspaper owners had become more p r o f i t - o r i e n t e d and when c a p i t a l and p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s r o s e d r a m a t i c a l l y d u r i n g t h e war t h e y r e a l i z e d s a l e s revenue c o u l d no l o n g e r c o v e r o p e r a t i n g c o s t s . The revenue a d v e r t i s e r s p r o v i d e d was i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e t o owners because i t c o u l d s u b s i d i z e t h e c o s t o f d o i n g b u s i n e s s . I n c r e a s e d s t a r t - u p c o s t s and r i s i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s a s a r e s u l t o f h e i g h t e n e d c o m p e t i t i o n combined t o make media more r e l i a n t on a d v e r t i s i n g . The h i g h e r a newspaper's c i r c u l a t i o n , t h e more i t c o u l d c h a r g e a d v e r t i s e r s , and t h e g r e a t e r p r o f i t a v a i l a b l e . " " As c o m p i l e r s of t h e h i s t o r y o f Yomiuri n o t e d , " a d v e r t i s i n g r e s u l t s a r e t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f circulation...Tokyo Asahi had t h e b e s t a d v e r t i s i n g r e s u l t s i n 1894-95 because i t was number one i n Tokyo." 8* H i g h e r p r o f i t s , whether from s a l e s or a d v e r t i s i n g , meant more t o i n v e s t i n equipment, w o r k e r s , and n e w s - g a t h e r i n g . The more i n v e s t e d , t h e more c o m p e t i t i v e a newspaper became, and t h u s t h e g r e a t e r i t s c i r c u l a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War t h i s c i r c l e c l o s e d and Japan's p r e s s d e v e l o p e d i n t o a g e n u i n e commercial e n t e r p r i s e . As a consequence, t h e p r i c e o f a d v e r t i s i n g r o s e and i t began t o form a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f newspaper's income. 8 7 In 1899, Niroku made a r e v o l u t i o n a r y move. I t r e v e a l e d i t s c i r c u l a t i o n ( u n t i l t h e n a l l newspapers had kept t h e i r c i r c u l a t i o n f i g u r e s s e c r e t ) , and l e d an i n v e s t i g a t i v e campaign t o d i s c o v e r t h a t o f t h e o t h e r l e a d i n g d a i l i e s , a l l i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t more a d v e r t i s i n g . T h i s s o l i d i f i e d t h e commercial e v o l u t i o n o f Japanese newspapers. When P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 48 a d v e r t i s e r s became a major s o u r c e o f re v e n u e , t h e i r c h o i c e of newspaper, s e c t i o n , and page grew more i m p o r t a n t t o owners. A f t e r t h e war, newspapers began t o t a r g e t c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c c a u s e s armed w i t h s o c i a l r e f o r m i n g z e a l t h a t masked t h e i r fundamental g o a l - w i d e r r e a d e r s h i p i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e s a l e s and a d v e r t i s i n g r e v e n u e . The f i r s t major campaigns were mounted by Japan's two l a r g e s t d a i l i e s , Yoroza and Niroku, whose w r i t e r s f i r s t promoted c h a r i t a b l e r e f o r m . A r i y a m a c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s development as "campaign j o u r n a l i s m " and w r o t e t h a t from t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War u n t i l W orld War I i t had t h r e e i n t e r - r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s : "campaign j o u r n a l i s m " t a r g e t e d a g e n e r a l a u d i e n c e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , i t grew a s a r e s u l t o f b u s i n e s s i m p e r a t i v e s r a t h e r t h a n p o l i t i c a l ones, and i t became s c a n d a l - o r i e n t e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e lower c l a s s e s ' a p p e t i t e f o r s e n s a t i o n a l news, a s t h e y were p u r c h a s i n g more and more newspapers. 8* I n i t i a l l y , t h e s e campaigns appeared p h i l a n t h r o p i c , e n c o u r a g i n g c h a r i t y d r i v e s t o c o r r e c t s o c i a l i l l s , but a s t h e media and t h e p e o p l e became i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m m e r c i a l i z e d t h e y e v o l v e d away from t h e i r o r i g i n a l b e n e v o l e n t form. Soon t h e p r e s s t u r n e d t o p o p u l a r i t y c o n t e s t s , c o m p e t i t i o n s f o r p r i z e s , and f i n a l l y , campaigns a g a i n s t s c a n d a l o u s p r o b l e m s . T h i s l e d t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e government t o buy t h e s e p a p e r s r e g u l a r l y , a l t h o u g h whether such campaigns i n f l u e n c e d p o l i c y i s h a r d t o say . However, Yorozu and Niroku became v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . As l i t e r a c y r a t e s c l i m b e d and a s t h e economy grew, P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e War 49 newspapers became b i g b u s i n e s s . R u b i n c o r r e c t l y s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t was " t h e huge l e a p i n c a p i t a l i s t i c development t h a t t u r n e d newspapers i n t o b i g b u s i n e s s . "•* Newspaper companies i n e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y Japan were e x t r e m e l y p r o f i t a b l e , but by 1890 s t a r t - u p c o s t s f o r newspapers had s k y r o c k e t e d , t h e r e s u l t o f e x p e n s i v e new t e c h n o l g y , h e i g h t e n e d c o m p e t i t i o n , and a demanding p u b l i c . Few newcomers were a b l e t o compete w i t h t h e media g i a n t s , and t h o s e t h a t d i d u s u a l l y t a r g e t e d u n d e r s e r v i c e d p r o v i n c i a l a r e a s . * 0 In t h e e a r l y 1900s, t h e major p a p e r s m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r market s h a r e , and dominated t h e p r e s s . Newspaper owners r e l i e d more and more on o f f i c i a l s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n because of economic n e c c e s s i t y . Because t h e y needed t o s t a y i n b u s i n e s s , t h e y wanted t o lower c o s t s and i n c r e a s e r e v e n u e . A l l o w i n g t h e government t o f u l f i l l t h e i r need f o r a s t e a d y , t i m e l y , and r e l e v a n t f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e d u c e d o p e r a t i n g c o s t s . Becoming an a l l y o f t h e government and making newspapers t h e p l a c e where p o l i t i c s and t h e f u t u r e o f t h e n a t i o n were d i s c u s s e d augmented r e v e n u e . More and more p e o p l e were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r new r o l e a s n a t i o n a l s , and t h e y p r o v i d e d a r e a d y market f o r p o l i t i c a l news. As argued above, t h e b u s i n e s s c o n c e r n s o f t h e p i o n e e r newspaper owners were t h e second f i l t e r o f news i n Japan. In r e t u r n f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t o f government p o l i c y t h e p r e s s r e c e i v e d a c o n s t a n t , cheap, d e p e n d a b l e s o u r c e o f news. Herman and Chomsky t h e o r i z e d t h a t r e l i a n c e on ' c r e d i b l e * P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 50 s o u r c e s i s an i m p o r t a n t f i l t e r o f t h e raw d a t a o f news. News (as j o u r n a l i s t s were b e g i n n i n g t o d e f i n e i t ) was made at government o f f i c e s , c i t y h a l l s , and p o l i c e and f i r e d e p a r t m e n t s , and t h e y q u i c k l y became p a r t o f t h e n e w s g a t h e r s ' r e g u l a r b e a t . The government was an " a u t h o r i z e d knower" i n t h e s e p l a c e s and i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a t i m e l y manner, and f o r f r e e , q u i c k l y made i t a major s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . I t s s t a t u s and p r e s t i g e r e i n f o r c e d i t s p o s i t i o n and r e p o r t e r s soon came t o r e l y on i t . P r e s s c l u b s r e i n f o r c e d t h i s t r e n d . Honda K a t s u i c h i , a w e l l - k n o w n r e p o r t e r a t Asahi Shimba»f argued t h a t " p r e s s c l u b s were o r i g i n a l l y o r g a n i z e d t o r e s i s t t h e r e p r e s s i o n o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , but r e p o r t e r s became s o c l o s e t o o f f i c i a l s t h a t t h e y began t o v i e w i s s u e s from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h o s e i n a u t h o r i t y . " • * In a d d i t i o n , j o u r n a l i s t s s w i f t l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n depended on m a i n t a i n i n g good r e l a t i o n s w i t h o f f i c i a l s and g r a d u a l l y t h e s e t i e s p r e c l u d e d o t h e r s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e f o u r t h f i l t e r o f news i n Japan came t o be t h e government. A r e c i p r o c i t y o f i n t e r e s t s and needs made t h e p r e s s and t h e government r e l i a n t on each o t h e r . Other c o n n e c t i o n s , a d v e r t i s i n g , l i c e n s e s and f r a n c h i s e s , and i n d i r e c t o f f i c i a l s u p p o r t t h r o u g h f a v o r a b l e b u s i n e s s t a x e s , i n t e r e s t r a t e s , and l a b o r p o l i c i e s r e i n f o r c e d t h i s m u t a l l y b e n e f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . C o n s t a n t government use o f newspapers t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n made newspapers v i a b l e , and t a x and l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n made them p r o f i t a b l e . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 51 s e r v e d both j o u r n a l i s t s and t h e government. As most j o u r n a l i s t s had i n t e r n a l i z e d t h e p r e d o m i n a t e v a l u e s ' o f t h e i r s o c i e t y t h e y made few p e n e t r a t i n g a t t a c k s on t h e b a s i s o f g overnmental a u t h o r i t y and t h e r e was l i t t l e f r i c t i o n . * 2 By t h e 1890s, j o u r n a l i s t i c independence was p e r c e i v e d as coming at t h e expense of v a l u a b l e c o n n e c t i o n s and a g i t a t i o n a g a i n s t o f f i c i a l s and o f f i c i a l p o l i c y d i e d down. C o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a r i e t y , d e p t h , and t r a d i t i o n o f t h e s e t i e s , t h e p r o -e s t a b l i s h m e n t b i a s o f e a r l y and m i d - M e i j i newspapers was not s u r p r i s i n g . Once a g a i n , o v e r t governmental c o e r c i o n augmented t h e e f f e c t of t h e s e f i l t e r s . In 1897 a b i l l was passed which t r a n s f e r r e d t h e power o f c e n s o r s h i p t o t h e j u d i c i a r y . Many j o u r n a l i s t s t hought t h e 1897 amendments t o t h e Newspaper O r d i a n c e o f 1877 were q u i t e l i b e r a l . For t h e f i r s t t i m e M i n i s t e r ' s o r d e r s t o h a l t p u b l i c a t i o n c o u l d be a p p e a l e d t o t h e c o u r t and o v e r t u r n e d . •*• A l s o f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , however, t h e emperor's d i g n i t y was p r o t e c t e d by law i n a l o o s e l y worded amendment t h a t would be w i d e l y u t i l i z e d i n t h e f u t u r e . Thus t h e manner i n which t h i s s t a t u t e was i n t e r p r e t e d b a l a n c e d t h e new freedom t o a p p e a l . K a s z a argued t h a t 1897 was a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n terms of c e n s o r s h i p , f o r from t h a t year u n t i l 1908 o n l y twenty-one p a p e r s were banned.' 4 T h i s i s m i s l e a d i n g . What i s s i g n i f i c a n t about t h i s s t a t i s t i c i s t h a t t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r p r o f i t was a p o w e r f u l means by which t o encourage s e l f - c e n s o r s h i p and t h a t a l l twenty-one of t h e p a p e r s t h a t were banned were P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo - J a p a n e s e War 52 s o c i a l i s t or l a b o r i n o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s d i d not mean t h a t t h e p r e s s had more freedom, but r a t h e r t h a t t h e government had p i n - p o i n t e d i t s t a r g e t . Herman and Chomsky contended t h a t a f i f t h f i l t e r of co n t e m p o r a r y American news p r o d u c t i o n i s "anti-communism" a s a n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n . In M e i j i Japan t h e n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n became Japan ism and i t was used t o m o b i l i z e t h e p o p u l a c e t o s u p p o r t e l i t e a i m s . I t f u n c t i o n e d a s J a p a n ' s f i f t h f i l t e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and m a r g i n a l i z e d p a c i f i s t o r s o c i a l i s t n a t i o n a l i s m s . Thus, p r a g m a t i c b u s i n e s s c o n c e r n s , t y p e o f o w n e r s h i p , f l a k from t h e government, a d v e r t i s e r - b a s e d r e v e n u e , and J a p a n i s m as a n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n c o n s t r i c t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e x p r e s s a l t e r n a t i v e images o f t h e n a t i o n . T r u l y c r u c i a l , however, was t h e u n d e r l y i n g economic i m p e r a t i v e o f c a p i t a l i s m which c o m p e l l e d newspapers t o become even more r e a d e r — o r i e n t e d . IV FILTERS IN PLACE As Anderson p o s i t e d , p r i n t c a p i t a l i s m h e l p e d g i v e b i r t h t o Ja p a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m . B u i l d i n g on a Tokugawa l e g a c y , J a p a n e s e p r i n t media q u i c k l y d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h " p r o -e s t a b l i s h m e n t " and " p o l i t i c a l " s t a g e s t o become c o m p l e t e l y " c o m m e r c i a l " by t h e end o f M e i j i . T h i s q u i c k e v o l u t i o n was t h e r e s u l t o f d e l i b e r a t e encouragement from government l e a d e r s who r e c o g n i z e d t h e p o t e n t i a l l e g i t i m i z i n g power o f P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 53 p r i n t media. However, p r i n t c a p i t a l i s m d i d not d i s s e m i n a t e o n l y " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , i t a l s o s p r e a d models o f " v e r n a c u l a r " n a t i o n a l i s m such as t h o s e based on s o c i a l i s m and p a c i f i s m . In s p i t e o f t h e t e ndency of t h e e a r l y M e i j i p r e s s t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e aims o f t h e government, t h e o l i g a r c h y a t t e m p t e d t o s u p p r e s s t h e s e n o n - o f f i c i a l n a t i o n a l i s m s . C e n s o r s h i p , i t s most b l a t a n t means o f i n f l u e n c e , was a l s o i t s most p o t e n t weapon, but decades pass e d b e f o r e i t came c l o s e t o a c h i e v i n g i t s g o a l s . At t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y c a p i t a l i s m l e n t t h e government a hand. As M e i j i newspapers matured, more and more f i l t e r s were put i n t o p l a c e . D u r i n g t h e " p r o - e s t a b l i s h m e n t " e r a , o w n e r s h i p and r e l i a n c e on o f f i c i a l s o u r c e s s t a r t e d t o h e l p c e r t a i n i d e a s i n t o p r i n t . R e l i a n c e on r e l i a b l e s o u r c e s and t h e c h a r a c t e r o f owners i n c r e a s e d i n i m p o r t a n c e as t h e decades p a s s e d , and were f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d as e f f e c t i v e f i l t e r s by t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . D u r i n g t h e " p o l i t i c a l " e r a , ' f l a k * from t h e government h i n d e r e d t h e a b i l i t y o f o t h e r v i e w s t o get p u b l i s h e d . When a d v e r t i s i n g became an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f revenue i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t o f newspapers — news - was f u r t h e r f i l t e r e d . As Herman and Chomsky t h e o r i z e d , t h e c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e media meant t h a t a d v e r t i s e r s would m a r g i n a l i z e some news and newspapers. E a r l y M e i j i c o e r c i v e measures d i d not succeed i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e p u b l i c p r e s s . M i d - M e i j i ' s i n c r e a s i n g l y r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n was a l s o u n a b l e t o s i l e n c e t h e v o i c e s o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n . In t h e end, P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 54 market f o r c e s succeeded where government e f f o r t s had f a i l e d . By t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y , Japan's p r e s s was f u l l y c o m m e r c i a l , h a v i n g mass c i r c u l a t i o n s , modern p r i n t i n g t e c h n o l o g y , j o i n t a d v e r t i s i n g / s a l e s revenue b a s e s , and l i n k s t o w i r e s e r v i c e s and a d v e r t i s i n g a g e n c i e s . The c h a r a c t e r o f owners, t h e i r p r o f i t m o t i v a t i o n , t h e i r r e l i a n c e on t h e b u r e a u c r a c y as t h e main s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and on a d v e r t i s i n g as a major income s o u r c e f a c i l i t a t e d o f f i c i a l c e n s o r s h i p by m a r g i n a l i z i n g d i s s e n t . These b u s i n e s s -o r i e n t e d owners sought p r o f i t s , which meant o p e r a t i n g from w i t h i n t h e law. T h i s i s not t o i m p l y t h a t newspaper owners c o n s p i r e d w i t h t h e government t o a c h i e v e t h i s r e s u l t , but r a t h e r t h a t t h o s e who conform t o s t a n d a r d s a r e u s u a l l y a b l e t o s t a y i n b u s i n e s s . As a r e s u l t , M e i j i p r i n t media became a p o w e r f u l system which i n d u c e d c o n f o r m i t y t o t h e i d e a l s of a v i g o r o u s e l i t e . D u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War, t h e s e f i l t e r s , augmented by an " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m which was a k i n t o a r e l i g i o n , and t e c h n i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , combined t o l i m i t t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f o t h e r n a t i o n a l i s t i c a r t i c u l a t i o n s . W h i l e t h e s e f i l t e r s were put i n t o p l a c e i n t h e M e i j i p e r i o d , a s t h e n e x t c h a p t e r i l l u s t r a t e s , t h e y r e a c h e d m a t u r i t y j u s t a f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese Mar 55 1 While James L. Huffman was correct when he argued that the Japanese press i s ' o a r t of the consensus-shaping establishment," i t was not a propaganda organ of the government. "The M e i j i Roots and Contemporary P r a c t i c e s of the Japanese P r e s s , ' Japat Interpreter l l t 4 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 7 ) « 4 5 0 . (author's emphasis) 2 Herbert Harcuse. 'Repressive T o l e r a n c e , ' i Critique of fart Tolerance, Robert P. Wolf, Barrington Moore, J r . , and Herbert Harcuse (Boston: Beacon P r e s s , 1965), p. 115. (ay emphasis) ' Edward S. Heraan and Noaa Choasky, faaufacturing Coaseat: The Political Ecoaowf of tbe Hass tedia (New York: Pantheon Books, 1988), p. x i v . 4 Anderson, Iaagiaed Coaauaities, pp. 89-93. 8 Heraan and Choasky, Raaafadoring Coaseat, pp. 1-35. * Twine, 'The Genbunitchi Hoveaent, p. 338. 7 There may have been exceptions t o t h i s . P. F. K o r n i c k i i d e n t i f i e s Sato" Yoshizo, a second hand bookseller i a Kanda who " i s s a i d t o have kept a sonthly record of current events which he allowed to c i r c u l a t e for a f e e , ' froa 1845. 'The Enaein A f f a i r of 1803: The Spread of Information i a the Tokugawa P e r i o d , ' Harvard J o c r i a l of isiaa Studies 42:2(Deceeber 1982):531. * Koaatsubara Hisao, " J a p a n , " Ihe fain leaspaper's Relactaat teiolutioa, John A. Lent , e d . (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p . 68. " In 1868, Fukuchi G e n ' i c h i r o e s t a b l i s h e d ttko Sbiatoa, Japan's e a r l i e s t attempt at a aodern s t y l e newspaper. It was d i f f e r e n t as i t atteapted accuracy i n r e p o r t i n g , although not. o b j e c t i v i t y , aad wrote i n the v e r n a c u l a r . James L. Huffman, 'Managing the News: Fukuchi fJen'ichiro* Atteapts t o Balance Two Worlds," Japai i a T r i K i t i o i t J bought aad Sctioa ia the Heiji E r a , 1168-1912, H i l a r y Conroy, Sandra T. W. Davis, and Wayne P a t t e r s o n , eds. (London and Toronto: Associated U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s e s , 1984) p . 5 5 . Nishida noted that ioko's aati-government p o s i t i o n caused i t to be banned a few months a f t e r i t s establishment. Heiji j i d a i t o shiabua to zassbi, p. 20. 1 0 Albert A. Altman, 'The P r e s s , ' Japan ia Jraasitioa, Froa Jokugaaa to leiji, Narius B. Jansen aad G i l b e r t Roznan, eds. ( P r i n c e t o n : Princeton U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1986), p . 234. He a l s o suggests " a Confuciaa derived philosophy helped draw the Western s t y l e newspaper i n t o the mainstreaa of Japanese l i f e , and at the same t i n e , a l s o provided j u s t i f i c a t i o n for o p p o s i t i o n . . . f a s ) . . . t h e press was a v e h i c l e for conveying the voice of h i s subjects to the emperor,* p. 239. 1 1 Westney, The Jraasfer, p. 151. The a a j o r i t y of newspapers o r i g i n a l l y used handcarved wood b l o c k s , but movable type q u i c k l y caae i n t o use. " K o r n i c k i , 'The Enaein A f f a i r of 1803, ' pp. 532-33. 1 3 Peter F i g d o r , 'Newspapers aad t h e i r Regulation i n E a r l y Modern Japan, 1868-1883," P i p e r ; o i Japaa 6(1972):6. D e t a i l s of t h i s paragraph drawn froa t h i s a r t i c l e . 1 4 N i s h i d a , Heiji jidai »» sbiabn to zassbi, p . 38. Shiatff a l s o argues "the importance of newspapers and t h e i r strong influence was well-understood by the key aea i a government," as does Kawabe. Huffman's a s s e r t i o n that ' e a r l y i n the 1870s, most H e i j i i n t e l l e c t u a l s aad o f f i c i a l s s t i l l regarded tbe press simply as a d i v e r s i o n , a form of e a t e r t a i n i e n t hardly worthy of sustained a t t e n t i o n from men of i n f l u e n c e " seems t o s l i g h t i t s e a r l y importance. C e r t a i n l y by 1872, when Marquis Inoue and Baron Shibusawa used tbe p r e s s t o address tbe p u b l i c i t was takes s e r i o u s l y . The s t r i c t press r e g u l a t i o n s promulgated i a 1875 are a l s o evidence that the government viewed i t as more tbaa a d i v e r s i o n . Shinto* S a k i k o , " M e i j i shSki no shiabua no k o t o b a , ' Heiji boata keakji 5(1936):77 Kawabe, J he Pnss aad Politics ia Japaa, pp. 60-102} aad H u f f i a n , "Managing tbe News: Fukuchi fSen'ichirS Atteapts t o Balance Two Worlds," p. 60. 1 8 Suzuki HidesaburS, BoapS shiabua t o kigea (1959; r e p r i n t e d . , Perikansba, 1987), pp. 200-1. * • I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that entrance i n t o p o l i t i c s was soaetiaes acheivedt "when the National Assembly was opened i n 1890, aany proainent j o u r n a l i s t s were elected t o the House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . * Kawabe, Toe Press aad Politics ia Japan, p. 88. 1 7 Barshay's d e f i n i t i o n of o u t s i d e r s includes j o u r n a l i s t s , and e s p e c i a l l y during the f i r s t decade of H e i j i , they perceived theaselves i n t h i s way. State aad latellectual ia Itperial Japaa, p. 10. 1 3 Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i , Sa Eacourageaeat of Learning, David A. Dilworta and Uaeyo Hirano, t r a n s , and i n t r o . (Sophia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p. 25. 1 1 Fukuzawa, Sa Eacourageaeat of Learaiag, p. 25. 2 0 F igdor, "Newspapers and t h e i r R e g u l a t i o n , " p. 9 . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Rus s o - J a p a n e s e War 56 3 1 For a detailed analysis of Japanese censorship see Midoro Nasaichi, ed. and contributor, Heiji TaisbH Soi It Senron Hen (Asahi Shiibun Sha, 1930). 32 Yatiuri shinban hacbijinen-shi (Yoniuri Shimbun Sha, 1955), p. 105. Its circulation quickly increased and other papers soon followed suit . For the differences between koshimbun and oshimbun see also Ono Hideo, Sbiibat no rekishi (TokyodS Shuppan, 1961) and Nishida, Heiji jidai no shinban to zasshi. 2 3 Quoted in Kawabe, Ihe Press and Politics in Japan, p. 82. See also Huffman, 'Managing the News,' p. 60. 2 4 Kawabe, Ihe Press and Politics in Japan, p. 81. 2 0 Richard H. Mitchell, Thought Control in Preaar Japan (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976), p. 34. (ay emphasis) 2 3 Figdor, 'Newspapers and their Regulation,' p. 12. 3 7 Nishida, Heiji jidai no shinban to zasshi, pp. 85-86. 2 3 Mitchell , Thought Control in Preaar Japan, p. 45. Figdor noted this legislation was the first borrowed from abroad. "Newspapers and their Regulation,' p. 14. Details of this paragraph from Mitchell, pp. 45-48. 2 3 Yaaaaoto Taketoshi, lindai Hihon no shinban dokusha-sV (Hdsei Daigaku Shuppan-kyoku, 1981), p. 354. *° Nishida, Heiji jidai no shinban to zasshi, p. 92. 3 1 Tipton, The Civil Police,* p. 125. (ay eaphasis) 3 3 Koaatsubara, "Japan,* p. 70. 3 3 Nishida, Heiji jidai no shinban to zasshi, p. 105. 3 4 George Akita, The Foundations of Constitutional Soverntent in Hodern Japan, 1168-Mt (Cartridge: Harvard University Press, 1967), p. 25; and Gregory J . Kasza, The State and Hass iedia, pp. 3-7, quote p. 6. 3 3 Mitchell, 7»oao»t Control in Preaar Japan, p. 960; and Jay Rubin, Injurious to Public Horals, pp. 15-27. 3 4 Figdor, 'Newspapers and their Regulation," p. 18. 3 7 Hestney wrote that they were able to aake a profit of 3-71 in the late 1870s. The Transfer, p. 176; and Kawabe, The Press and Politics in Japan, p. 47. 3 3 Yaaaaoto, Kindai Hihon no shinban dokusha-so, p. 351. 33 Yotiuri shinban hacbijinen-shi, p. 677. Details in this paragraph drawn froa pp. 10-12. 4 0 The waning fortunes of Tokjo Hichi Bichi also illustrated the need for change. Huffaan wrote that 'even when public interest in pol i t ics waned sharply after 1883 and a new breed of journalists...began developing successful non-partisan, news-oriented papers, Fukuchi refused to change...and as a result, the papers circulation declined so drastically that in 1888 Fukuchi was forced out of the newspaper world.' 'Managing the News,' p. 62. 4 1 Huffaan, The Heiji Hoots, p. 462. 4 3 Hestney, The Transfer, p. 188. 4 3 Uchikawa, Shinban shiiia, p. 162. 4 4 Kawabe, The Press and Politics in Japan, p. 105. 4 9 Hiyoshi, Hanushi no Shir oka, p. 291-94. 4 4 Kawabe observed that "the prototypes of coaaercial advertisements were signboards, shop curtains, handbills, posters, ...and ausicians who aade announceeents in the streets, ' The Press and Politics in Japan, p. 44. 4 7 Hestney, The Transfer, p. 196. 4 3 Heraan and Choasky, Manufacturing Consent, p. 14-18. 4 3 Kasza, The State and Hass Hedia, pp. 5-6. 3 0 Mitchell, 1 bought Control in Preaar Japan, p. 78; Hestney, The Transfer, p. 169. Figdor added that those newspapers already in existance also had to comply, and within a month thirty-two papers announced they would close. 'Newspapers and their Regulation,' p. 28. 3 1 Figdor, 'Newspapers and their Regulation," p. 27. 3 3 Lawrence H. Beer categorizes these freedoms as "severely limited," in Freedom of Expression in Japan: a Studj in Coaparative Laa, Politics, and Society (Kffdan Sha International, 1984), p. 54. P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo- J a p a n e s e War 57 3 8 In 1877, 225 papers had an annual circulation of 37,683,330 issues and in 1897, 745 papers had 431,810,000. Kawabe, The Press aid Politics if Japat, pp. 106-7. 3 4 Yamamoto, Shitbat to titshE, p. 135. 3 3 Hestney showed that froi 1886-1908 the cost of advertising increased almost six tines, but the selling price only doubled. It is interesting to note that in spite of editorials being printed on the front page as a Measure of a paper's excellence, in the late 1890s and 1900s advertisements occasionally covered the entire front page. The Tratsfer, p. 197. 93 Yotiari shitbat hachijiiei-shi, p. 36. 3 7 By 1914, an average of 55 to 601 of newspaper income was dervived from advertising. Kawabe, The Press ati Politics it Japat, p. 111. 3 3 Ariyama, 'Kyanpein janarizumu no j i d a i , ' pp. 32-37. 3 3 Rubin, Itjarioas to Pablic torals, p. 39. 3 0 Haruhara's appended Chart of tbe Fortatiot of leiji-Taisht Pritcipal Heupapers revealled forty-one major papers were established between 1870 and 1895, but only six between 1896 and 1920, Hihoi shitbat tsi-shi. Regional papers became more popular after 1878, but even after the 1879 establishment of prefectural assemblies they were loath to risk their relationship with provincial offices and remained comparatively apol i t ical . They did not attempt to compete outside their region, bat faced a fierce battle for local readership from the Tokyo and Osaka papers, which had been national in character from their establishment. Neither was able to do well in the other's Market until they began to publish separate editions. Huffman, 'The Heiji Roots,* p. 455. 3 1 Honda Katsuichi, JJtarizata-rot (Suzusawa ShobS, 1975), pp. 128-31. 3 3 Soae would argue that the demand for a constitution and an elected assembly in the late 1870s and early 1880s was a profound criticism of the power structure. However, this petition did not require a fundamental re-ordering of power relations, but rather was a bid to change some conditions in order to gain a share of the existing pie. The Heiji constitution, proclaimed in 1889, insured that an independent bureaucracy and Military could legally dominate pol i t ics . In the first elected assembly only 1.141 of the population was enfranchised, but even i f the cal l for wider suffrage had succeeeded during the Heiji period, ultimate power would not have been in the hands of the parties. The constitution and the elected assembly, l ike the restoration of imperial rule, simply served to mask the shift of pol i t ical power within the same group. See 6eorge Akita, The Foatiatiots of Cotstitatiotal Soierttett it todert Japat; and Joseph S. J . Pittau, Pol i t ica l Thought it Early Hoiert Japat, 1968-1889 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967). 3 3 Beer, Freedom of Expression, p. 58. 4 4 Kasza, The State aid Hass fedia, pp. 10-20. 58 C H A P T E R T H R E E C O N S T R A I N T S O N C O V E R A G E O F " T H E R U S S O — J A P A N E S E W A R The c o n s t r a i n t s imposed on M e i j i j o u r n a l i s t s by owners, m a r k e t s , s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y , and law have been d e s c r i b e d above. A l e g a c y of s e l f - c e n s o r s h i p r e i n f o r c e d t h e p r o -e s t a b l i s h m e n t b i a s o f Japan's f i r s t j o u r n a l i s t s , and t h e i r b i d f o r g r e a t e r independence was t h w a r t e d by p a t e n t government c o e r c i o n . As newspapers became i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d and i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s e r v a t i v e , t h e h a r s h r e p r e s s i o n o f t h e e a r l y y e a r s was wel1-remembered. By t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y few businessmen w i l l i n g l y r i s k e d p o t e n t i a l p r o f i t s f o r t h e sake o f i d e a l s . A d v e r t i s e r s ' i n t e r e s t i n newspaper c i r c u l a t i o n , a u d i e n c e p r o f i l e , and c o n t e n t combined t o make newspapers r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e i r needs. Thus, t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f o r m a t i v e y e a r s o f t h e M e i j i p r e s s had s i g n i f i c a n t r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y newspapers. T h i s c h a p t e r d e t a i l s t h e i d e o l o g i c a l , t e c h n i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and o f f i c i a l f a c t o r s which f u r t h e r i n t e r a c t e d t o f i x t h e p r e m i s e s o f d i s c o u r s e f o r t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Japanese p r i n t med i a . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 59 I IDEOLOGICAL Herman and Chomsky t h e o r i z e d t h a t a f i f t h f i l t e r , a n t i -communism, f u n c t i o n e d a s a c o n t r o l mechanism on news p r o d u c t i o n i n t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y A m e r i c a . By t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y n a t i o n a l i s m had come t o p l a y a s i m i l a r r o l e i n J a p a n . To t r e a t n a t i o n a l i s m s i m p l y as an i d e o l o g y s uch as l i b e r a l i s m , communism, or f a s c i s m i s t o o b s c u r e t h e a c t u a l i t y o f i t s impact and g r o w t h . The t i m i n g o f i t s c o n c e p t i o n , f a c t o r s i n i t s development, and i t s i n f l u e n c e on c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s . N a t i o n a l i s m i s n e i t h e r an i n t e l l e c t u a l nor an h i s t o r i c a l t y p o l o g y ; i t i s a p r o c e s s by w h i c h one l e a r n s t o b e l i e v e i n an i m a g i n e d r e a l i t y , w h i c h f i l l s e m o t i o n a l l a c u n a s , draws from s p e c i f i c models, and e v o l v e s a t p a r t i c u l a r moments i n t i m e . 1 In o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d n a t i o n a l i s m ' s impact on news p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War, an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n and development o f t h e co n c e p t i n Japan i s f i r s t e s s e n t i a l . The e x t e n t o f J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n l a t e Tokugawa i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e , but i t was s t i m u l a t e d i n t h e 1850s by a m a s s i v e f o r e i g n t h r e a t , and t h e n by t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n o f 1868.* The p r e s s c o n t i n u a l l y p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s w hich demanded r e v i s i o n t o t h e Unequal T r e a t i e s ( s i g n e d f i r s t i n 1854) w h i c h deepened t h i s awareness. P o l i t i c a l and economic m o d e r n i z a t i o n became i m p e r a t i v e b e cause " t h e m o l d e r s o f Japan saw i f t h e y were t o e s c a p e t h e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e War 60 f a t e o f C h i n a or Egypt t h e y must adopt t h e p o l i t i c a l methods and economic p o l i c y o f t h e i m p e r i a l i s t West."'* The c r e a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l awareness was viewed as a n e c e s s a r y p r e -c o n d i t i o n t o m o d e r n i z a t i o n . In e a r l y M e i j i , a l t h o u g h many c o n c e p t s , t h e o r i e s , and i d e o l o g i e s competed f o r p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n , n a t i o n a l i s m r e mained a c e n t r a l c o n c e r n . A m u l t i t u d e o f models o f n a t i o n , n a t i o n h o o d , and n a t i o n a l i s m were c r e a t e d f o r p u b l i c c o n s u m p t i o n , and t h e d e b a t e over how t h e n a t i o n was t o be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d grew h e a t e d . P u b l i c men, b o t h i n s i d e r s and o u t s i d e r s , lamented t h e l a c k o f a "sense o f n a t i o n " and endeavored t o d e f i n e t h e body p o l i t i c , o f t e n i n ways t h a t c h a l l e n g e d t h e government. At one end o f t h e s p e c t r u m , t h e c i v i l i a n iminkan') n a t i o n a l i s t s grew away from s i m p l e a n t i - W e s t e r n i s m t o m a i n t a i n t h a t a p r o p e r n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y c o u l d o n l y be e s t a b l i s h e d by b l e n d i n g i n d i g e n o u s v a l u e s , t h e moral i m p e r a t i v e s o f t h e I m p e r i a l h o u s e h o l d , and Western i d e a s o f n a t i o n a l i s m . They opposed t h e government and a d v o c a t e d a "hard l i n e " f o r e i g n p o l i c y , a g i t a t i n g i n t h e 1870s and 1880s f o r t r e a t y r e v i s i o n s , i n t h e 1890s f o r war w i t h C h i n a , and i n t h e 1900s f o r war w i t h R u s s i a . In c o n t r a s t , t h e l i b e r a l s e n deavored t o e x p l a i n kokatai ( n a t i o n a l p o l i t y ) as t h e n a t u r a l bond between t h e p e o p l e and t h e emperor. By n e g a t i n g t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e government a s a c o n d u i t o f i m p e r i a l e x p r e s s i o n , t h e y t o o menaced o l i g a r c h a l power. These and o t h e r c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e i r power were not l o n g P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 61 i g n o r e d . In 1881, t h e media's p o p u l a r i s a t i o n o f t h e s e and o t h e r models of n a t i o n a l i s m , and t h e Hokkaido Land S c a n d a l , h e l p e d f o r c e t h e r u l i n g c l i q u e t o a g r e e t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c o n s t i t u t i o n and e l e c t e d assembly. The o l i g a r c h s t h e n spent t h e next n i n e y e a r s g u a r a n t e e i n g t h a t t h e y would m a i n t a i n t h e i r power d e s p i t e t h i s p r o m i s e . A f t e r t h e M e i j i C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1889 was p r o m u l g a t e d , a q u a n t i t a t i v e and s p a t i a l s h i f t i n t h e p r o l o n g e d e f f o r t t o r e c o n c e i v e t h e s t a t e o c c u r r e d . Many l e a d e r s o f s o c i e t y f e l t t h e p e o p l e s t i l l l a c k e d a s t r o n g sense o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y and t r i e d t o i n s t a l l i n them an awareness o f modern c i v i c v a l u e s . I n c r e a s i n g numbers o f p e o p l e , from a w i d e r range o f e d u c a t i o n a l , economic, and s o c i a l backgrounds e x p l o r e d what t h e n a t i o n was or c o u l d be. As 61uck has s u g g e s t e d i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t , " f o r u n c o e r c e d hegemony t o o c c u r , i t i s j u s t such a w i d e s p r e a d harmony of c o n c e r n , however d i s c o r d a n t t h e i n d i v i d u a l v o i c e s , t h a t i t i s f i r s t e s s e n t i a l . " 4 When Japanese became c o g n i z a n t o f t h e debate over t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f n a t i o n , t h i s l a i d a b a s i s f o r t h e l a t e r c o n v e r g e n c e o f v i e w s . " O f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m was c r e a t e d g r a d u a l l y , i n r e a c t i o n t o v a r i o u s c h a l l e n g e s t o o l i g a r c h a l power. I t was p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e f i n e d and adapted t o defend t h i s a u t h o r i t y from r i v a l s , and t o meet t h e c h a n g i n g needs o f Japan. I t was not imposed from t h e top down, but d e v e l o p e d as b o t h a r e f l e c t i o n o f and r e a c t i o n t o p o p u l a r c o n s c i o u s n e s s . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e War 62 Newspapers p l a y e d a c r u c i a l r o l e i n t h i s exchange, p o p u l a r i z i n g b o t h e l i t e and v e r n a c u l a r v e r s i o n s o f t h e s t a t e . Y e t , o l i g a r c h s p r o g r e s s i v e l y m o n o p o l i z e d t h i s r i g h t . The I m p e r i a l R e s c r i p t on E d u c a t i o n (1890) c l a r i f i e d how t h e government t h o u g h t t h e n a t i o n was t o be p e r c e i v e d . The o l i g a r c h s t r i e d t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e i r power by p r e s e n t i n g t h e m s e l v e s as an e s s e n t i a l c o n d u i t between t h e Emperor and t h e p e o p l e by e m p h a s i z i n g t h e u n i t y between i m p e r i a l w i l l and government a c t i o n . E n d e a v o r i n g t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r a u t h o r i t y d e s p i t e t h e coming e l e c t i o n s , t h e o l i g a r c h s t r i e d t o r e v i v e t h e t r a d i t i o n o f i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y b ecause i t had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o l e g i t i m i z e an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e emperor and i n c o r p o r a t e t h e newly p o l i t i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s i n t o t h e s t a t e . J a p a n ' s f i r s t c o n s t i t u t i o n , e f f e c t i v e 1890, l e g a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e J a p a n e s e n a t i o n . The emperor was r e g a r d e d as t h e h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t y because he was a d i v i n e descendant o f an unbroken l i n e . T h i s p r o v i d e d t h e n a t i o n w i t h an a n c i e n t p o i n t o f o r i g i n , w hich Anderson p o s i t e d a s p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e growth o f n a t i o n a l i s m . N a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y was p e r c e i v e d e t h n i c a l l y which f a c i l i t a t e d a f a m i l i a l a s p e c t and promoted c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s , l o y a l t y and o b e d i e n c e t o emperor, and t h u s t o n a t i o n . The s t a t e was l i k e n e d t o a f a m i l y w i t h t h e emperor as t h e f a t h e r , t h e p e o p l e as h i s o b e d i e n t c h i l d r e n , and c o l l e c t i v e p a t r i o t i s m (.kySdo aikokul as t h e i d e a l . The 'West' was d e s i g n a t e d as J a p a n ' s o t h e r , r e p l a c i n g C h i n a , and i t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e R u sso-Japanese War 63 t h r e a t e n i n g i n o r d e r t o encourage p a t r i o t i s m . " War w i t h C h i n a i n 1894 d r a s t i c a l l y narrowed t h e f o c u s o f t h e d e b a t e over t h e n a t i o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f i m p e r i a l i s m . The war was h u g e l y p o p u l a r i n Japan and a wave o f j i n g o i s m swept t h e n a t i o n . To d e f e n d t h e i r p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t t h e g r o w i n g i m p e r i a l i s m o f " v e r n a c u l a r " models o f J a p a n , t h e o l i g a r c h s were f o r c e d t o make " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m more i m p e r i a l i s t i c . However, t h e government's c o n t r o l o f newspaper c o v e r a g e o f t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War o f 1894-1895 s t i m u l a t e d p a t r i o t i c s e n t i m e n t and enhanced t h e i m p e r i a l i s m o f " v e r n a c u l a r " n a t i o n a l i s m s . * In s p i t e o f a c o n t e m p o r a r y Emergency I m p e r i a l O r d i n a n c e w h i c h r e q u i r e d "any p e r s o n i n t e n d i n g t o p r i n t d i p l o m a t i c o r m i l i t a r y news i n a newspaper, p e r i o d i c a l , or o t h e r form o f p u b l i c a t i o n t o p r e s e n t t h e m a n u s c r i p t t o t h e Home M i n i s t r y f o r a p p r o v a l " b a t t l e f i e l d r e p o r t s were c o n s t a n t l y i n t h e p r e s s . Newspapers o f t h e day e x a g g e r a t e d t h e J a panese hopes, g l o r i f i e d J a p a n e s e t r o o p s , demeaned C h i n e s e s o l d i e r s , a p p l a u d e d each s u c c e s s , and a n t i c i p a t e d v i c t o r y . 7 The government's c o n t r o l o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l o f news h e l p e d s p r e a d t h e i d e a t h a t s u c c e s s a g a i n s t C h i n a was not o n l y p o s s i b l e , but l i k e l y . Two o p i n i o n l e a d e r s , Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i (1835-1901) and Tokutomi SohS (1863-1957) spearheaded a movement o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s , j o u r n a l i s t s , and t h e common p e o p l e which demanded t o t a l war a g a i n s t C h i n a . However, t h e government r e c o g n i z e d i t s m i l i t a r y and f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s and r e s i s t e d t h e p r e s s u r e Print Capitalism and the Russo-Japanese War 64 of the media, the p a r t i e s , and the people. Thus, the extent to which i t was w i l l i n g to incorporate the growing imperialism of "vernacular" nationalisms in " o f f i c i a l " nationalism was limited at t h i s time. Notwithstanding the government's aim, i t s control of information during the Sino-Japanese War inadvertently strengthened the imperialism of "vernacular" nationalisms. By the end of the Sino-Japanese War a sense of national i d e n t i t y permeated Japanese s o c i e t y . 61uck remarked, "abetted by the rousing and often rabid stance of the press, the war inspired a sense of national unity ikyGkoku itchi") that the ideologues had sought but could not alone have produced."" However, a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l pressures insured t h i s unity was incomplete and t r a n s i t o r y . In the 1900s, writers and associations joined the quest to define Japan and the Japanese. Japan ism became popular as writers began to cater to a growing ethnocentrism and books such as The Horld of Japan (Sekai no NihonY and Japanism (Hihon shugi") were s e r i a l i z e d in newspapers, serving to r e f l e c t and increase popular i n t e r e s t . U l t r a -n a t i o n a l i s t i c s o c i e t i e s l i k e the SenyUsha and the Kokuryukai (established in 1881 and 1901 respectively) agitated for continental expansion and a strong foreign p o l i c y and as Norman argued, gave coherency to Japanese imperialism.* Thus a shared awareness of the nation, achieved through association or p r i n t , provided the p o l i t i c a l consciousness p r e r e q u i s i t e to a sense of national i d e n t i t y . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 65 W h i l e many Ja p a n e s e were becoming p a t r i o t i c , o t h e r s became i n v o l v e d i n W e s t e r n - s t y l e r a d i c a l i s m . O f f i c i a l s f e a r e d t h a t p o l i t i c s c o n f u s e d t h e p e o p l e and c r e a t e d t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m and s o c i a l u n r e s t . W h i l e t h e y encouraged p a t r i o t i s m , t h e y wanted t o d i s c o u r a g e a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s . G l u c k argued t h a t " t h e government's s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e p o p u l a r r i g h t s movement and t h e p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n i t r e p r e s e n t e d had r e s u l t e d i n a s e r i e s o f l e g a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l measures d e s i g n e d t o remove ' m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o p o l i t i c s ' (seiji ni kansu.ru Jiko") from t h e p o p u l a r p r o v i n c e . " 1 0 The l e a d e r s o f t h e n a t i o n i n i t i a t e d programs t o f u r t h e r d i s t a n c e p o l i t i c s from t h e p e o p l e , t o c o u n t e r r a d i c a l i s m , and t o g a r n e r p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . Thus " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m sought a p o l i t i c a l o b e d i a n c e t o i t s d i r e c t i v e s . The e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m and t h e media were used t o d i s s e m i n a t e o f f i c i a l v e r s i o n s o f t h e s t a t e , but because t h e f i l t e r s o f news p r o d u c t i o n were not f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l , newspapers c o n t i n u e d t o promote " v e r n a c u l a r " n a t i o n a l i s m s a s wel 1. The government's d i s c o u r a g e m e n t and r e p r e s s i o n o f t h e f r e e d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i t i c s had a d u a l e f f e c t . For some, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f p o l i t i c s w i t h i l l i c i t b e h a v i o u r made c i v i c a c t i v i t y u n a t t r a c t i v e . For o t h e r s , i t i n c r e a s e d i t s a l l u r e . Koschmann has s u g g e s t e d t h a t J a panese r e s i s t a n c e t o a u t h o r i t y t o o k two forms: " r e t r e a t i s m , " t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e t r e a t i n t o o n e s e l f , and " r i t u a l i s t i c c o n f o r m i t y , " t h e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 66 c o n t a i n m e n t of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n s t e a d o f i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n . " For many Japanese d u r i n g t h e M e i j i p e r i o d , t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t became a r e f u s a l t o be i n v o l v e d i n p o l i t i c s , a r e t r e a t i s m r e i n f o r c e d by r e p r e s s i o n . For o t h e r s , t h e s u p e r f i c i a l n a t u r e o f contemporary p o l i t i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t a l l o w e d f o r c o n t a i n m e n t . The v a l o r i z a t i o n o f harmony and t h e w i d e s p r e a d use o f r i t u a l p e r m i t t e d t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f form (tatemae) w i t h o u t n e c e s s i t a t i n g c o n t e n t (.bonne). Both augmented t h e a p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f " o f f i c i a l " nat i o n a l i s m . » * * By t h e t u r n o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c e n t u r y " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m was based on an emperor system (tennosei-) which i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e n a t i o n of Japan r e s e m b l e d a f a m i l y (kazoka kokka")f i n which h o u s e h o l d s were h a r m o n i o u s l y j o i n e d t o t h e l a r g e r c o u n t r y , and r u l e d by t h e government; an i n s t r u m e n t o f emperors who had descended i n an unbroken l i n e from a n t i q u i t y . By t h i s t i m e , t h e government had s u c c e s s f u l l y p o s i t e d i t s e l f as an i n t r i n s i c b r i d g e between t h e body o f t h e p e o p l e and t h e head o f t h e emperor. " O f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m f o s t e r e d p a t r i o t i c y e t a p o l i t i c a l c i t i z e n s h i p and emphasized t h a t t h e p e o p l e owed t h e emperor l i m i t l e s s s a c r i f i c e and o b e d i e n c e , and were t h e means t h r o u g h which t h e s h a r e d g o a l o f n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g was t o be a c h i e v e d . I t g a i n e d w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e because t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s h e l p e d mold and d e f i n e i t . " O f f i c i a l " P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 67 n a t i o n a l i s m had n o t , however, become hegemonic. When . j o u r n a l i s t s began t o i n t e r n a l i s e t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , news was c o n s t r a i n e d by t h o s e b e l i e f s . Chapter Four o f f e r s c o n c r e t e examples of t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h i s t r e n d . However, j o u r n a l i s t s were c o n s t r a i n e d not o n l y by t h e i r own b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , but by t h e t e c h n i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f p r i n t media. I I TECHNICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL Herman and Chomsky s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s i x t h f i l t e r , t h e t e c h n i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f media, a l s o f u n c t i o n e d t o f i l t e r t h e raw d a t a o f news. The p h y s i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e medium c r e a t e d c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t e rms of l e n g t h , s t y l e , and c o n t e x t , on t h e p a r t b o t h of t h e w r i t e r and r e a d e r . As t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s became e n g r a i n e d t h e y combined t o f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t . In t erms of t h e p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f p r i n t media, t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances were v e r y i m p o r t a n t as t h e y grew not o n l y t o d e t e r m i n e p r o f i t a b l i 1 i t y and u l t i m a t e v i a b i l i t y , but t o d e f i n e form. For example, d u r i n g t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War c o m p e t i t i o n f o r r e a d e r s was h a r s h , and t h e f a s t e s t i n t o p r i n t c o r n e r e d t h e market. In 1894 and 1895 a l a c k o f speed pushed Yamiuri down i n t o t e n t h p l a c e because Kokum in f Yorazu, Chnof Miyako, Yamato, and J i j i were a l l a b l e t o have t h e i r e d i t i o n s on t h e s t r e e t s s o o n e r . I n t e r e s t i n t h e war P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 68 demanded l o n g e r p a p e r s , more e x t r a s and f a s t e r news - i n o t h e r words - b e t t e r p r i n t i n g p r e s s e s . ' 2 The demand f o r b e t t e r and f a s t e r news d u r i n g t h e S i n o -J apanese War s t i m u l a t e d i n n o v a t i o n , and t h o s e who modernized became more c o m p e t i t i v e . The 1890s c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e media had i m p l i e d t h a t a non-commercial p r e s s would be u n a b l e t o s u r v i v e i n t h e f u t u r e . ' * In 1897 t h e r o t a r y p r e s s was i m p o r t e d , which a l l o w e d J a panese newspapers t o p r i n t l a r g e r r u n s i n c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s t i m e . Those newspapers w i t h enough c a p i t a l or c r e d i t t o t a k e advantage o f t h i s and o t h e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s , g a i n e d a f o r m i d a b l e edge over t h e i r c o m p e t i t o r s . Osaka flsahi p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g example of i n c r e a s e d c i r c u l a t i o n due t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n . In 1901 i t p e r f e c t e d a system t o add f u r i g a n a t o kan.j i s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h i s h a l v e d t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o assemble p r i n t i n g p r e s s e s . In s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t most Tokyo newspapers r e c e i v e d news at a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same t i m e , by k e e p i n g t h e development o f s i m u l t a n e o u s p r i n t i n g a s e c r e t Osaka Asahi was a b l e t o scoop t h e m a r k e t p l a c e and e x t e n d i t s r e a d e r s h i p . R e a d e r s ' d e s i r e f o r immediate news meant t h e l e n g t h , c o n t e x t , and s t y l e o f r e p o r t s would have t o be a l t e r e d . The i d e a t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n t e n t c a l l e d " the news of t h e day" was c r e a t e d by p r i n t , c a p i t a l i s m , and t h e t e l e g r a p h , which combined t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o move i n f o r m a t i o n over v a s t d i s t a n c e s q u i c k l y . E v e n t s were soon made t o s t a n d a l o n e , P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 69 s t r i p p e d o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p a s t , t h e f u t u r e , and o t h e r e v e n t s . The te m p o r a l demands o f t h e medium; and t h e need t o s p e e d i l y w r i t e i n s i g h t f u l p r o s e about i n c o m p l e t e e v e n t s r e s u l t e d i n a l a c k of c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n . The outcome of t h i s d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n was i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h o u t a f u n c t i o n , and newspapers s u p p l i e d t h e s e fragmented o r i r r e l e v a n t p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o r e a d e r s - as news - or e n t e r t a i n m e n t . Because l i g h t news was p e r c e i v e d as c r e a t i n g a b u y i n g mood, i t s o l d a d v e r t i s i n g , which i n c r e a s e d i t s p o p u l a r i t y w i t h owners. Koshimbun had p r e s e n t e d news as e n t e r t a i n m e n t and t h i s became more common as p o l i t i c a l newspapers sought t o ap p e a l t o a l a r g e r market. In Japan, fragmented, d i s c o n t i n u o u s , and amusing a r t i c l e s soon became c ommon. As a r e s u l t o f t h e d e s i r e f o r f a s t news and t h e t e c h n o l o g y t o p r o v i d e i t , a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y t h e p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t o f news w r i t i n g changed. As a u d i e n c e s expanded, and a s p r o d u c t i o n t i m e c o n t r a c t e d , a r t i c l e s and e d i t o r i a l s became s h o r t e r and s i m p l e r . F o u c a u l t argued t h a t t e x t s c r e a t e knowledge and produce a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h may be c a l l a d i s c o u r s e . C o n t a i n e d w i t h i n any d i s c o u r s e a r e s t y l i s t i c customs, t r a d i t i o n s , and v a l o r i z e d c o n c e p t s . In Japan, i t became customary t o w r i t e s h o r t , e a s i l y r e a d a b l e and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e columns, and because i t i s "hard t o e x p r e s s u n c o n v e n t i o n a l thought i n seven hundred words w i t h o u t t h e appearance o f a b s u r d i t y , " 1 4 t h i s f o r t i f i e d c o n v e n t i o n a l i d e a s . S h o r t a r t i c l e s and e d i t o r i a l s l e a v e no P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 70 sp a c e f o r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s or c o n t e x t , but t h e y a p p e a l t o r e a d e r s and a d v e r t i s e r s . Japanese j o u r n a l i s t s soon r e a l i z e d t h a t c o m p l e x i t i e s , nuances, and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , t o say n o t h i n g of u n f a m i l i a r and complex s u b j e c t s , r e q u i r e d more words t h a n was a c c e p t a b l e . As t h e contemporary o b s e r v e r R e i u n Taoka c o n c l u d e d , " n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m e c h a n i s t i c c i v i l i z a t i o n because o f i t s c o m m e r c i a l i s m had produced u n i f o r m s t a n d a r d c o m m o d i t i e s ; i t s j o u r n a l i s m was ' c o n c e i v e d by one p e r s o n and s t a n d a r d i z e d thought f o r 999 p e o p l e . ' " 1 8 S h o r t columns p r o h i b i t e d f u l l a n a l y s i s and c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n and r e i n f o r c e d s t e r e o t y p e s . C o n s e q u e n t i a l l y , by t h e end of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a l a c k o f c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n and depth was a l r e a d y apparent i n Japanese p r i n t media. The Japanese language i m m e d i a t e l y e s t a b l i s h e s t h e r e l a t i v e s o c i a l s t a n d i n g s of t h e s p e a k e r , l i s t e n e r , and r e f e r e n t . T h i s f o r c e d Japanese e d i t o r s t o choose a l e v e l f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e a d e r and t h o s e d i s c u s s e d . D u r i n g e a r l y M e i j i , w r i t e r s were u n c e r t a i n about t h e i r s o c i a l - 1 i n g u i s t i c l e v e l r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r r e a d e r s and e x p e r i m e n t e d w i d e l y . 1 * As e d u c a t e d p a t r i o t s , t h e y o f t e n c h o s e t h e r o l e o f l e a d e r or a d v i s o r and g r a d u a l l y t h i s became a t r a d i t i o n . T h e i r d e c i s i o n s were r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r p r o s e , but i n r e s p o n s e t o market demands t h e custom o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d w r i t i n g g r a d u a l l y gave way t o more v e r n a c u l a r e x p r e s s i o n . The h a b i t o f l e a d e r s h i p was h a r d e r t o shake. The c o n t e x t w i t h i n which a r t i c l e s and e d i t o r i a l s were r e a d was a l s o i m p o r t a n t . Newspapers amalgamated d i s c r e t e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 71 a r t i c l e s , w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o n t e n t , a u t h o r s h i p , aim, and e m o t i o n a l t e x t u r e t o g e t h e r on t h e same page. No m a t t e r how g r a v e t h e fragment of news p r e s e n t e d , or t h e manner of i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n , j u x t a p o s e d t o o t h e r a r t i c l e s , i n t h e midst o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , i t s message was b a n a l i z e d . 1 7 By t h e Russo-Japanese War, a d v e r t i s e m e n t s even appeared on t h e f r o n t page. 1" T e c h n o l o g i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l d evelopments a l t e r e d t r a d i t i o n , and news i n c r e a s i n g l y became a way t o f i l l t h e empty space between a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s , j o u r n a l i s t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by owners. Owner m o t i v a t i o n , c h a r a c t e r and r e s o l v e f i l t e r e d s p e c i f i c i d e a s from t h e f i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f news, as o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r Two. N a t u r a l l y , t h e d i s p a r a t e o w n e r s h i p o f Yoroza and Heimin impacted on j o u r n a l i s t s i n d i f f e r e n t ways. As argued above, K u r o i w a ' s 1303 c o n v e r s i o n was a c r u c i a l s t e p i n t h e c o n s t r i c t i o n o f t h e d e b ate over t h e p r o p e r f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e Japanese n a t i o n . A b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s background may i l l u m i n a t e not o n l y t h e r e a s o n f o r h i s s w i t c h t o pro-war advocacy, but f o r t h e t y p e o f war c o v e r a g e h i s paper s u b s e q u e n t l y p r o d u c e d . K u r o i w a was born i n Tosa p r e f e c t u r e and had good p o l i t i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s . However, he f e l t he was t o o young t o s u c c e e d i n t h e c o m p e t i t i v e f i e l d o f p o l i t i c s and d e c i d e d t o s t r i v e f o r i n f l u e n c e as a s c h o l a r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he q u i c k l y dropped out o f K e i o U n i v e r s i t y and e n t e r e d t h e newspaper b u s i n e s s , which was a l r e a d y an o v e r - r i d i n g i n t e r e s t . D u r i n g P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 72 K u r o i w a ' s employ a t Miyako, h i s " g e n i u s a t newspaper management" and t r a n s l a t i o n s o f d e t e c t i v e s t o r i e s made t h e paper v e r y p o p u l a r . 1 * D e s p i t e h i s s u c c e s s , he s u f f e r e d a ne r v o u s breakdown, and so i n s t e a d began t o ma n u f a c t u r e i n k . In 1832, Ku r o i w a made an o t h e r b i d f o r i n f l u e n c e and r e -e n t e r e d t h e newspaper i n d u s t r y w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Yoroza. The s t a r t - u p c a p i t a l o f 1,600 yen came from h i s i n k b u s i n e s s , and he borrowed t h e money f o r t h e government l i c e n s e from a n o t h e r paper.* 0 K u r o i w a s a i d t h a t he r e c e i v e d no o t h e r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , no b r i b e s o r money from b l a c k m a i l , n o t h i n g e x c e p t r e v e n u e from s a l e s and a d v e r t i s i n g . C o n s e q u e n t i a l l y , Yoroza had t o make money t o s u r v i v e . K u r o i w a drew on h i s p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e at newspapers such as Miyako and t a r g e t e d t h e m i d d l e c l a s s because he f e l t newspapers which j u s t r e p o r t e d f a c t s were not welcomed by t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e a d e r s . He t r i e d t o make Yorozu's format more i n t e r e s t i n g , and r e v e a l e d t h e s c a n d a l s o f t h e upper c l a s s , c r i t i c i z e d hanbatsu p o l i t i c s ( t h e monopoly o f p o l i t i c a l power by men from t h e Choshu and Satsuma c l a n s ) , c a l l e d f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e , t r a n s l a t e d s t o r i e s s e r i a l l y , and c o v e r e d s p o r t s t o e n l a r g e r e a d e r s h i p . He i n s i s t e d on a l l c o p i e s b e i n g p r e - p a i d , gave t h e l o w e s t d i s c o u n t t o d e a l e r s , and t r i e d t o get r e a d e r s d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h h i s own head o f f i c e r a t h e r t h a n r e l y i n g on d i s t r i b u t o r s . W h i l e Yoroza s o l d 35,000 i s s u e s on i t s f i r s t day, w i t h o u t o t h e r b a c k i n g K u r o i w a needed t o use any means t o s t a y i n b u s i n e s s . * 1 In P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 73 1893, a l a c k o f c a p i t a l caused a merger w i t h Eirijiy£.22 The nickname f o r Yoroza at t h a t t i m e was "Edokko Sh imbun" ( t h e newspaper o f T o k y o i t e s ) because o f i t s c r i t i c i s m of t h e e l i t e . 2 2 One o f K u r o i w a ' s a d a p t i o n s of t h e Tokugawa t r a d i t i o n o f r e p o r t i n g i m p o r t a n t or s e n s a t i o n a l e v e n t s had been t o p l a c e s o c i a l a r t i c l e s on t h e t h i r d page ( c a l l e d sanmen k i j i ) , which was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s c a n d a l r e p o r t i n g . 2 4 K u r o i w a b e l i e v e d t o o v e r l o o k bad p e o p l e , even t h e upper c l a s s , would b r i n g m i s f o r t u n e t o t h e n a t i o n . However, o t h e r newspapers a c c u s e d K u r o i w a o f b l a c k m a i l i n g t h e r i c h , and Kokkei Shimbun even c h a r a c t e r i z e d him as a v i p e r (.mamushi) because o f t h i s . A c c o r d i n g t o i t , t h e s u c c e s s o f Yorozu depended on t h i s b l a c k m a i l , and t h e growth i n numbers o f " b l a c k m a i l i n g r e p o r t e r s " was t h e f a u l t o f K u r o i w a . 2 8 W h i l e K u r o i w a r e m a i n s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l f i g u r e t o t h i s day, h i s e d i t o r i a l p o l i c i e s q u i c k l y made Yorozu t h e most p o p u l a r newspaper i n Tokyo. T h i s f a c t was not i g n o r e d by t h e owners o f o t h e r p a p e r s . Niroku, e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1896, had s t o p p e d p u b l i s h i n g f o r a p e r i o d because o f f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t resumed b u s i n e s s i n 1900 w i t h a new f e a t u r e , sanmen k i j i , and d i d w e l l . HOchi Shimbun was a l s o r e v i v e d by e m p h a s i z i n g t h i s f e a t u r e . 2 6 Thus by 1904, t h e Tokyo d a i l i e s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t c i r c u l a t i o n had a l l adopted K u r o i w a ' s i n n o v a t i o n . When Yorozu became even more s u c c e s s f u l a f t e r t h e S i n o -Japanese War, K u r o i w a h i r e d b e t t e r r e p o r t e r s and w r i t e r s which made t h e newspaper more r e s p e c t a b l e . U n t i l h i s 1903 P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 74 i n t e r v e n t i o n , he gave few g u i d e l i n e s t o w r i t e r s and never e d i t e d what t h e y w r o t e . Thus t h e j o u r n a l i s t s at Yoroza had c o n s i d e r a b l e freedom, and a t t a c k s on c a p i t a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m , and s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l i s m h e l p e d make Yoroza number one. However, when war became e n e v i t a b l e i n t h e f a l l o f 1903, t h e market f o r t h e s e v i e w s was d r a m a t i c a l l y r e d u c e d , r e v e a l l i n g a change i n p o p u l a r c o n s c i o u s n e s s and a gro w i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f i m p e r i a l i s m . Without s p o n s o r s or p e r s o n a l w e a l t h , p l e a s i n g t h e market was v i t a l . As an owner who d e s i r e d commercial s u c c e s s and p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , K u r o i w a o b s e r v e d t h e s e t r e n d s , and c u r b e d t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f p a c i f i s m , s o c i a l i s m , and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s m . Heimin was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1903 because t h e r e v e r s a l o f Ku r o i w a meant s o c i a l i s t s needed a n o t h e r paper t o d i s s e m i n a t e t h e i r v i e w s . KOtoku and S a k a i w r e s t l e d t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e s o c i a l i s t movement from Katayama Sen and s h i f t e d t h e f o c u s o f t h e movement from " w o r k e r - o r i e n t a t e d t o e l i t i s t . " S t a r t - u p funds and l i c e n s e f e e s were p r o v i d e d by K o j i m a T a t s u t a r O , a s u p p o r t e r o f t h e l e f t wing o f t h e J i y Q t o , and KatC T o k i j i r S , a p h y s i c i a n s y m p a t h e t i c t o s o c i a l i s m . 2 7 The acknowledged mouthpiece o f t h e s o c i a l i s t movement, s t a f f e d and s u p p o r t e d by s o c i a l i s t s , t h e news a t Heimin was f i l t e r e d by d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s t h a n t h o s e a t at work at Yoroza. The r i s e t o l e a d e r s h i p a l l o w e d Kotoku and S a k a i t o t a r g e t a s e l e c t p o r t i o n o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s a u d i e n c e . S i n c e Japanese w o r k e r s were not y e t c o n s c i o u s o f c l a s s , 2 * t h e y P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 75 were u n a b l e t o t a p t h a t p o t e n t i a l market and f o c u s e d i n s t e a d on t h e young, d i s a f f e c t e d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . As a r e s u l t , Heimin was w r i t t e n i n e l e g a n t p r o s e t h a t was d i f f i c u l t t o r e a d . As N i s h i d a s u g g e s t e d , t h i s r e s t r i c t e d t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s o c i a l i s t s t o expand t h e i r a p p e a l t o i n c l u d e w o r k e r s . 2 ' However, i f any o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s had been i n t e r e s t e d i n or a b l e t o r e a d Heiminf t h e y would not have been a b l e t o a f f o r d i t ( e x c e p t when i t was d i s t r i b u t e d f o r f r e e a t r a l l i e s ) . " 0 An example o f d i r e c t s u b s c r i b e r s i n Hakodate i l l u s t r a t e s t y p i c a l r e a d e r s h i p : a t a x c o l l e c t o r , e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r , marine p o l i c e o f f i c e r , army major, m i s s i o n a r y , p r i n t e r , and a numbers of s m a l l shop owners. 1' Thus, Heimin9s r e a d e r s were p r i m a r i l y t h e i n t e l 1 e g e n t s i a . Heimin q u i c k l y became r e c o g n i z e d as t h e l e a d i n g r a d i c a l paper i n Tokyo, and as i t s revenue i n c r e a s e d o t h e r w r i t e r s were h i r e d . I t s d i v e r s e c o n t r i b u t o r s a t t r a c t e d s t u d e n t s and young i n t e l l e c t u a l s as r e a d e r s . * 2 As one o f t h e s e men, t h e a u t h o r K i n o s h i t a Naoe (1869-1337) w r o t e i n 1907, "though t h e He i m i n - s h a was, o f c o u r s e , a p r o d u c t o f s o c i a l i s m , i t can be s a i d t o have been e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e b a s i s o f p a c i f i s m . " " * The p a c i f i s t b a s i s o f Heimin had a c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on i t s c o v e r a g e o f t h e Russo-Japanese War. I t s r e l a t i v e l a c k of a d v e r t i s e r s e n s u r e d t h a t t h e y would not a l t e r i t s t h r u s t and t h e d e f e a t o f Katayama i n s u r e d i t s a p p e a l would rem a i n p r i m a r i l y l i m i t e d t o i n t e l l e c t u a l s . Crump argued t h a t " f a r from mounting a t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u a l t on c a p i t a l i s m , t h e s o c i a l i s t s i n Japan were m e r e l y a d v o c a t i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 76 method of c o n s t r u c t i n g c a p i t a l i s m i n t h a t c o u n t r y . " * 4 They were not a g a i n s t p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p , c o m p e t i t i o n , or wage l a b o r . I n s t e a d t h e y p r e f e r r e d a t y p e o f s t a t e c a p i t a l i s m which l i m i t e d c o m p e t i t i o n and p r o t e c t e d w o r k e r s . W h i l e t h e y were f a r from s o c i a l i s t s , t h e y p e r c e i v e d o f t h e m s e l v e s a s s u c h , and t h e i r c o v e r a g e o f t h e Russo-Japanese War r e f l e c t e d t h o s e v i e w s . * » * By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Russo-Japanese War t h e p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t e c h n o l o g y had formed a p o t e n t l e g a c y i n terms of customary l e n g t h , s t y l e , and c o n t e x t . T h i s combined w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l f i l t e r s such as o w n e r s h i p and revenue base t o become t h e s i x t h f i l t e r of t h e media. As Herman and Chomsky s u g g e s t e d , t h o s e who adapt t o t h e s e and o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s " w i l l t h e n be f r e e t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s w i t h l i t t l e m a n a g e r i a l c o n t r o l , and t h e y w i l l be a b l e t o a s s e r t , a c c u r a t e l y , t h a t t h e y p e r c e i v e no p r e s s u r e t o conform."** Those few j o u r n a l i s t s who c o n t i n u e d t o f e e l t e n s i o n were u s u a l l y employed i n m a r g i n a l p a p e r s . As a r e s u l t o f t h e i r r e f u s a l t o a d a p t , t h e w r i t e r s a t Heimin became s u b j e c t t o an o t h e r t y p e o f c o n s t r a i n t . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 77 I I I OFFICIAL The Emergency I m p e r i a l O r d i n a n c e passed d u r i n g t h e S i n o -Japanese War gave o f f i c i a l s f u l l c o n t r o l o f w a r - r e l a t e d news and s e t an i m p o r t a n t p r e c e d e n t . D u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War t h e government used t h i s as a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e and made a c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t t o f u r t h e r dominate news p r o d u c t i o n . A number o f newspapers had e x p e r i e n c e d a l o s s i n r evenue due t o t h e i r s u s p e n s i o n f o r c r i t i c i s m o f t h e government's r e a c t i o n t o t h e T r i p l e I n t e r v e n t i o n (1895) and t h a t memory a l s o encouraged c o o p e r a t i o n . 3 * Japan's l e a d e r s w o r r i e d about t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e n a t i o n t o win a war a g a i n s t R u s s i a and t h e y t r i e d t o m o b i l i z e p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r a s u s t a i n e d war. Government l e a d e r s knew t h a t Japan's c a p a c i t y f o r war was s t r a i n e d t o t h e l i m i t and t h a t R u s s i a was a b l e t o commit more r e s o u r c e s t o t h e s t r u g g l e . The Russo-Japanese War r e q u i r e d two b i l l i o n yen i n Japanese m i l i t a r y e xpenses, o f which one b i l l i o n yen was borrowed i n f o r e i g n c u r r e n c i e s . 3 7 (See C h a r t Two, page 87) Soon a f t e r t h e o u t b r e a k o f h o s t i l i t i e s t h e p r e s s r e p o r t e d t h a t J a panese e c o n o m i s t s thought v i c t o r y was i m p o s s i b l e . 3 3 O f f i c i a l s t o o k s t e p s t o e n s u r e t h a t such news was kept from t h e p u b l i c f o r f e a r o f i t s e f f e c t on n a t i o n a l m o r a l e . F i r s t , t h e K a t s u r a c a b i n e t e n l i s t e d t h e a d v i c e o f Tokutomi SohS, o f Kokumin Shimbun. He a d v i s e d t h e government on how t o get f a v o r a b l e p u b l i c i t y f o r P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 78 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s and g o a l s and how t o keep t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n from t h e p u b l i c . He made c e r t a i n news a v a i l a b l e t o h i s c o l l e a g u e s : examples o f Japanese h e r o i c a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s , s a c r i f i c e s by i n d i v i d u a l s o l d i e r s , s u c c e s s e s i n s t r a t e g y , and R u s s i a n weaknesses. He r e p r e s s e d o t h e r news: Japanese weaknesses, l o s s e s , and economic pr o b l e m s , o v e r a l l a s s e s s m e n t s o f t h e war s i t u a t i o n , and R u s s i a n s t r e n g t h s and s u c c e s s e s . Thus, as P i e r s o n argued "SohO was a p r i m a r y agent i n t h i s p r o c e s s o f p u b l i c d e c e p t i o n . " * * In consquence, j o u r n a l i s t s and t h e masses were c o n v i n c e d t h a t v i c t o r y was c e r t a i n . Next, t h e government adopted a p r e s s p o l i c y which l i m i t e d t h e number and a c t i v i t y of c o r r e s p o n d e n t s , and s t r i c t l y c e n s o r e d war news. W h i l e each newspaper was r e s t r i c t e d t o two f r o n t - l i n e c o r r e s p o n d e n t s , Yoroza, flsahi. Ma inichi, and o t h e r s borrowed t h e names o f r e g i o n a l p a p e r s i n o r d e r t o each send more t h a n t e n j o u r n a l i s t s t o t h e f r o n t . 4 0 However, t h e s e j o u r n a l i s t s were t r e a t e d so b a d l y by t h e government t h a t t h e y formed t h e Z a i k o P r e s s C l u b i n t h e summer t o demand b e t t e r t r e a t m e n t . 4 1 They d i d not demand g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o news, but r a t h e r , an e a s i e r t i m e g e t t i n g t o t h e f r o n t and b e t t e r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s once t h e y a r r i v e d t h e r e . The media a c c e p t e d government propaganda i n p a r t because o f a p r e - d i s p o s i t i o n t o view Japan i n t h e most f a v o r a b l e l i g h t , and as a means t o m a i n t a i n good r e l a t i o n s w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f i n f o m a t i o n . The p u b l i c ' s i n q u i r i e s i n t o t h e l a c k o f news were met P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 79 w i t h r e p l i e s such as " t h e l a c k o f news i s because t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o r e p o r t . " 4 * No mention was made o f o f f i c i a l r e s t r a i n t s on news p r o d u c t i o n . L a t e r a n a l y s e s o f m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y a g a i n f a i l e d t o me n t i o n , much l e s s c r i t i c i z e , t h e Japanese news p r o c e s s . 4 ' Many . j o u r n a l i s t s r e i n f o r c e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t newspaper r e p o r t s o f t h e war were c o r r e c t . 4 4 Herman and Chomsky r e c o r d t h a t " i t was s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e I n d o c h i n a war f o r j o u r n a l i s t s t o r e p o r t Washington pronouncements as f a c t , even i n t h e extreme c a s e when o f f i c i a l s t a t e m e n t s were known t o be f a l s e . " 4 8 T h i s was a l s o t r u e i n Japan d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War. Q u e s t i o n s o f v a l i d i t y were r a r e l y r a i s e d by Japanese j o u r n a l i s t s . N e g a t i v e r e p o r t s were o f t e n d i s m i s s e d as unfounded because c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t Japanese s o l d i e r s was i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h mainstream j o u r n a l i s t s ' d e f i n i t i o n o f l o y a l t y . However, i n t h e summer q u e s t i o n s were asked about t h e o f f i c i a l a c count o f t h e Japanese w i t h d r a w a l from P o r t A r t h u r , 4 8 and a f a l l e d i t o r i a l s u g g e s t e d t h a t o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s o f G e n e r a l K u r o p a t k i n ' s d e f e a t s s h o u l d not be a c c e p t e d a t f a c e v a l u e because " t h e r e a r e some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t some f a c t s a r e u n t r u e . " 4 7 T e n t a t i v e q u e s t i o n s were o c c a s i o n a l l y r a i s e d by mainstream r e p o r t e r s , but p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e remained h i g h , s u p p o r t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y by t h e me d i a . 4 8 Y e t , r e p o r t e r s ' c o e v a l a s s e r t i o n was t h a t t h e y d e a l t i n t r u t h . For example, t h e e d i t o r i a l e n t i t l e d " E i t h e r Rash or I m p o s s i b l e " c h a l l e n g e d t h o s e who found f a u l t w i t h L t . G u n j i ' s t r o o p s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 80 unplanned a c t i o n i n M a n c h u r i a on t h e ground t h a t because d e t a i l s were u n c e r t a i n i t i s t o o soon t o comment. One a r t i c l e r e p o r t e d twenty men were i n v o l v e d , and an o t h e r m a i n t a i n e d 150. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s w r i t e r , w i t h o u t t h e f a c t s no c r i t i c i s m s h o u l d be made.4* T r u t h - v a l u e s a i d t o be i m p o r t a n t , but was o f t e n s l i g h t e d . Because Heimin and i t s s t a f f were t h e f r e q u e n t p r e y o f government c e n s o r s h i p , t h e y r o u t i n e l y c r i t i c i z e d t h e government's c o n t r o l o f t h e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Heimin was t a r g e t e d by t h e government not j u s t because i t o f f e r e d an a l t e r n a t i v e t o " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , but because i t s model d i r e c t l y a t t a c k e d t h e b a s i s o f o l i g a r c h a l power and because s o c i a l i s t s encouraged l a b o r a g i t a t i o n . I t was r e p r e s s e d as p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l e f f o r t t o s u p p r e s s p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n . 0 0 The f o l l o w i n g i s a t y p i c a l sample o f He irnin* s c r i t i c i s m o f t h e government's c o n t r o l o f news: "good r e p o r t s a l w a y s come t h r o u g h t h e c e n s o r s s o t h e m a j o r i t y o f Japanese do not know how t h e war i s g o i n g e x c e p t from s e n s a t i o n a l i s t i c newspapers. For example, t h e London Daily Telegraph r e p o r t s some s e t b a c k s f o r Japan, but t h e j o u r n a l i s t s who a r e p r o -government t r y t o c o u n t e r s uch r e p o r t s . " m i E v i d e n c e t h a t d i s a g r e e d w i t h o f f i c i a l s o u r c e s was o f t e n i g n o r e d or d i s m i s s e d by t h e mainstream p r e s s . On 22 May 1904 Heimin a c c u s e d newspapers o f i r r e s p o n s i b l i t y i n t h e i r i n c i t e m e n t o f t h e v i c t o r y c e l e b r a t i o n on 8 May i n which twenty p e o p l e were k i l l e d and P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 81 c a u t i o n e d " l e t us hope t h a t t h e p a p e r s , more th a n t h e p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l , have t a k e n t h i s m a tter t o h e a r t and have l e a r n e d not t o commit t h e same m i s t a k e a g a i n by i n c i t i n g t h e p e o p l e t o f a n a t i c a l a c t i o n s . " a a Heimin a c c u s e d Japanese j o u r n a l i s t s o f f o r g e t t i n g t h e i r d u t y i n t h e i r f e v e r f o r war. I t c r i t i c i z e d o t h e r newspapers " e x a g g e r a t i o n o f t h e war's s u c c e s s e s : Asano, which was drunk w i t h s u c c e s s , Miyako w h i c h . . . f o r g o t i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s h o u t e d " B a n z a i ! " e x c i t e d l y , and danced f o r s u c c e s s . So we t h i n k we can s a y t h e s e k i n d o f r e p o r t e r s do not t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as j o u r n a l i s t s . . . S i n c e t h e war began what e l s e do o t h e r newspapers do t h a n s i n g pro-war songs, i t e r a t e t h e i r contempt f o r R u s s i a , f l a t t e r o f f i c i a l s , and a g i t a t e f o r money f o r t h e government? They have almost f o r g o t t e n t h e i r fundamental work, t o r e p o r t on t h e war... They do not r e p o r t t h e war c o r r e c t l y or c r i t i c i z e i t , but j u s t e x a l t i t as i f t h e y a r e a f r a i d i t w i l l not l a s t l o n g enough. " w Heimin o f t e n d i r e c t e d t h i s t y p e o f c e n s u r e a t o t h e r p a p e r s . Heimin a l s o r e p r i m a n d e d t h e government f o r i t s t r e a t m e n t of f o r e i g n r e p o r t e r s : "more t h a n t e n j o u r n a l i s t s came t o Tokyo from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Europe i n o r d e r t o get i n f o r m a t i o n and r e p o r t on war and d i p l o m a c y . They went t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s e v e r y d a y , but t h e y a r e r e f u s e d t h e f a c t s . . . So t h e j o u r n a l i s t s g a t h e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n by o t h e r means, and t r i e d t o t e l e g r a p h home. However, most of t h e s e t e l e g r a m s were c e n s o r e d by t h e Post O f f i c e w i t h o u t t h e i r knowledge... They l a t e r t r i e d l e t t e r s , but t h e s e t o o P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 82 were c e n s o r e d . For o f f i c i a l s o f a u t o c r a t i c c o u n t r i e s t o v i o l a t e t h e s e c r e c y o f c o r r e s p o n d e n t s i s n o t h i n g h e r e , but i n t h e c i v i l i s e d w o r l d i t i s a s i n . . . The f o r e i g n j o u r n a l i s t s w r o t e a r t i c l e s about t h i s and went t o Yokohama t o ask s a i l o r s t o m a i l t h e s e from a n o t h e r c o u n t r y . . . but no Tokyo newspaper r e p o r t e d t h i s i n c i d e n t . " 5 * The Japanese system o f c e n s o r s h i p and t h e mainstream p r e s s ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t i e s were o f t e n t h e t a r g e t o f Heimin e d i t o r i a l s . « * * C l e a r l y , t h e government sought c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o f wartime r e p o r t i n g . A c c e s s t o news was r e s t r i c t e d a t t h e f r o n t and at home, and g r e a t e f f o r t s were made t o p r e s e n t developments i n t h e most f a v o r a b l e l i g h t . The p r e m i s e t h a t " t h e mass media not o n l y s h o u l d s u p p o r t any n a t i o n a l v e n t u r e a b r o a d , but s h o u l d do so w i t h e n t h u s i a s m , " 9 " g a i n e d w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e . J o u r n a l i s t s ' p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t i n g t h e m s e l v e s a s k n o w l e d g a b l e c o n v e y o r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n meant t h e y had l i t t l e t i m e t o q u e s t i o n t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y had. B e l i e f i n " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m removed any r e m a i n i n g i n c l i n a t i o n . The government's t o l e r a n c e o f s u p e r f i c i a l d i s s e n t w i t h i n t h e p r o p e r framework, and fundamental d i s s e n t o n l y i n a m a r g i n a l i z e d p r e s s f a c i l i t a t e d i t s p a t r i o t i c a g e n d a . " When Heimin became t o o t r o u b l e s o m e , t h e government r e s o r t e d t o i t s most p o t e n t weapon, t h e law. The banning o f Heimin P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 83 i l l u s t r a t e s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e government's c o n s t r a i n t o f newspapers. IV FINAL FILTERS ENTRENCHED T h i s paper a r g u e s t h a t t h e v a r i o u s f i l t e r s put i n t o p l a c e d u r i n g e a r l y M e i j i combined t o m a r g i n a l i z e some v i e w s and n u r t u r e o t h e r s . Owners were c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n f o r p r o f i t , t h e law, and t h e i r b e l i e f s . J o u r n a l i s t s were l i m i t e d by t e c h n i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , by t r a d i t i o n , by t h e i r c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n t o o f f i c i a l s o u r c e s , by t h e government's c o n t r o l o f t h e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n ( e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War), and by t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r and i d e a l s . As c o n v e n t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d w r i t e r s a d a p t e d t o t h e s e p r e s s u r e s and t h e i r s e l f - c e n s o r s h i p r e d u c e d t h e need f o r o v e r t c o e r c i o n . As a r e s u l t o f t e c h n i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , o f f i c i a l , and i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e war was c o v e r e d from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f Jap a n e s e i n t e r e s t s , w i t h o f f i c a l p r e m i s e s t a k e n as g i v e n . A l l w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e s a r e h i g h l y encoded, o r g a n i z e d s y s t e m s which cannot convey unmediated i n f o r m a t i o n . The d e l i v e r y o f i n f o r m a t i o n or o p i n i o n d u r i n g t h e M e i j i p e r i o d was not s p o n t a n e o u s . Newspapers d i d not c i r c u l a t e t r u t h , t h e y d i s s e m i n a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The framework o f a s s u m p t i o n s i n wh i c h i n f o r m a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d and t h e t y p e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n chosen i l l u m i n a t e how j o u r n a l i s t s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 84 u n d e r s t o o d not o n l y t h e i r c r a f t , but t h e i r r o l e a s c i t i z e n s d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War. The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s does not s e a r c h f o r t h e i m p r i n t o f i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r s , i n s t e a d i t f o c u s e s on t h e s t r u c t u r e which c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n . These u n d e r p i n n i n g s r e v e a l a s p e c t s o f t h e sy s t e m o f c u l t u r a l d o m i n a t i o n c a l l e d " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . F o u c a u l t a r g u e d t h a t a l l d i s c o u r s e c o n t a i n s v a l o r i z e d c o n c e p t s , and t h e d i s c o u r s e o f o f f i c i a l n a t i o n a l i s m was no d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s . S e l f - s a c r i f i c e , r e s p e c t f o r emperor, l o y a l t y t o n a t i o n , and h a r d work were e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s o f i t s exchange. The r i g h t e o u s n e s s o f t h e s t r u g g l e , J a p a n ' s b e n i g n i n t e n t , and t h e e v i l o f t h e enemy were p o i n t s o f d e p a r t u r e f o r many Japanese j o u r n a l i s t s . Campaigns were mounted t o m o b i l i z e i n t e r e s t i n worth y v i c t i m s and t h e i r v i r t u e s d e l i n e a t e d " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . The mainstream p r e s s , as e x e m p l i f i e d by Yoroza, r e p o r t e d and a n a l y z e d t h e Russo-Japanese War w i t h i n t h e bounds s e t by o f f i c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Herman and Chomsky, news produce d from w i t h i n t h i s framework would e x h i b i t an " e l e m e n t a l p a t r i o t i s m " 8 7 and a s e x e m p l i f i e d below, t h i s was t h e p r i m a r y c o n t e n t o f newspaper e d i t o r i a l s . The way t h e war was c o v e r e d ; t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t o p i c s , t h e f r a m i n g o f i s s u e s , emphasis and t o n e , and t h e f i l t e r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , c l a r i f i e d what was e x p r e s s i b l e o p i n i o n . The a c c e p t e d b o u n d a r i e s o f d i s c o u r s e were made c l e a r by t h e punishment o f t r a n s g r e s s i o n s . The i n f r a c t i o n s o f Heimin, t h e q u i n t e s s e n t i a l m a r g i n a l P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 85 p r e s s of t h e p e r i o d , i d e n t i f i e d c o r e v a l u e s . As V i c t o r Turner has t h e o r i z e d , t h o s e remembered a s l o s e r s and m a r g i n a l f i g u r e s were f r e q u e n t l y t h e "most a r t i c u l a t e c o n s c i o u s v o i c e s o f v a l u e s . " 8 * O f t e n t h o s e on t h e edge o f s o c i e t y d e f i n e t h e l i m i t o f what might be a r t i c u l a t e d , a c c e n t u a t i n g t h e p r i m a r y v a l u e s o f t h e s o c i e t y as a whole. Thus, t h e c o n s c i o u s a r t i c u l a t i o n s o f b o t h t h e 'winners" -t h e s t a f f o f Yoroza, and t h e ' l o s e r s ' - t h e s o c i a l i s t s o f t h e Heimin, s h o u l d t h r o u g h t h e i r mutual and c o m p e t i n g judgements o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y i l l u m i n a t e t h e i d e o l o g i c a l t o p o l o g y o f m i d - M e i j i Japan. As L i n d e n f e l d a s s e r t e d , i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f e x p l a i n i n g "how v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i d e a s and b e l i e f s h e l d by d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l g r o u p s r e l a t e t o one a n o t h e r - or f a i l t o do s o . The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a l l Japanese r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d an i m p e r i a l i s t n a t i o n a l i s m i g n o r e s t h e r e a l i t y o f f l a g r a n t g o v e r n m e n t a l c o e r c i o n and t h e impact o f c a p i t a l i s m . Those t h a t d i s s e n t e d d i d s o v o c i f e r o u s l y , u n t i l t h e y were f o r c i b l y s i l e n c e d . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 86 Chart One THE DISTRIBUTION OF HEIMIN SHIMBUN*0 NATIONAL Tokyo Ho k k a i d o Gunma Aomor i Nagano N i g a t a K o c h i HyOgo, S h i z u o k a , C h i b a I b a r a k i Fukuoka Kanagawa A k i t a Nagasak i Osaka Fukushima & G i f u Okayama Wakayama S a i t a m a OVERSEAS Europe and t h e U.S.A. 40 S e o u l 25 K o r e a 5 Taiwan 14 C h i n a 4 Ove r s e a s m i l i t a r y 3 TOTAL 1403 453 99 55 55 44 35 37 34 29 28 27 26 26 14 22 21 20 18 P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 87 C h a r t Two MILITARY SPENDING AND THE TAX BURDEN*1 G e n e r a l M i l i t a r y GNE account ?< s p e n d i n g 2< g r o s s t e m p o r a r y temporary n a t i o n a l m i l i t a r y m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e expenses expenses <A> <B> <C> ( i n m i l l i o n s o f yen) 1888-92 80.7 23.6 1,028 1893-97 217.3 137.4 1,542 98-1902 264.6 109.6 2,389 1903-07 927.8 620.7 3,171 1908-12 583.5 196.2 4,142 TAXES C i n m i l l i o n s o f yen) C e n t r a l government T o t a l t a x t a x r e c e i p t s r e c e i p t * <D> (E) 1888-92 66.8 97.1 1893-97 77.5 119.0 98-1902 129.7 217.7 1903-07 218.3 334.9 1908-12 330.7 503.1 Tax B u r d e n ( i n p e r c e n t ) D E C C 1888-92 6.5 9. 4 1893-97 5.0 7. 7 98-1902 5.4 9. 1 1903-07 7.5 10. 9 1908-12 8.0 12. 2 P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 88 1 Harry D. Harootunian, 'Coaaentary on Nationalist as Intellectual History, ' Journal of Asian Studies 31:1(1971):58. Carol 61uck suggested that a l l ideology is process; and nationalise is l ike ideology in that respect. Japan's Hodern Hjths; Ideoloqj in the Late Heiji Period (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985), p. 6. 2 Fukuzawa is quoted as saying "in 1853 an awareness of the nation, did not yet exist." Albert II. Craig, "Fukuzawa Yukichi: The Philosophical Foundations of Heiji Nationalise," Political Oevelopient in Hodern Japan, Robert E. Hard, ed. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968), p. 100. Nonetheless, recent research indicates the st irr ing of national consciousness during the Tokugawa Period. See Chapter One, fn. t 40. * E. H. Noraan, Japan's Enerqence as a Hodern State; Political and Econoiic Problets of the Heiji Period (New York: International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1940), p. 305. 4 Gluck, Japan's Hodern Hjths, p. 29. 8 This is not to bel i t t le the extent of the real threat, but to point out that these fears were eaphasized for pol i t ical reasons. For discussion of the concept of the 'other' in relation to the •East' and 'Nest' see Edward U. Said, Orientalisn (Hew York: Vintage Books, 1978). * Beer, Freedoi of Expression, p. 57. 7 For exaaple see "Rynko" no kazu kazu," ro«j"5 Asahi Shinban, 7 October 1894, also 28 Septeaber-30 October 1894; San'in Shiiban, 12 August 1894, also 3 August-24 Septeaber 1894; Hiyato Shiiban 28 April-2 Hay 1894; Fataoka Hichi Hichi Shiiban, 29 August 1894, quoted in Gluck, Japan's Hodern Hjths, p. 135. * duck, Japan's Hodern Hjths, p. 136. * E. H. Noraan, "The Genyosha: A Study in the Origins of Japanese Iaperialisa," Pacific Sffairs 17:l(Harch 1944):261-284. 1 0 Gluck, Japan's Hodern Hjths, p. 50. Irokawa also felt that governaent oppression worked to "denature" poli t ics and quoted a Natsuae Soseki character who stated that the 'power of authority extends to every nook and cranny of society. For this reason, young intellectuals discreetly avoided the problea of powerful authority." Tne Culture of the Heiji Period, p. 239. 1 1 J . Victor Koschaann, 'Introduction: Soft Rule and Expressive Protest,' Authority and the Individual in Japan Citizen Protest in Historical Perspective, J . Victor Koschaann, ed. (University of Tokyo Press, 1978), pp. 20-26. 12 Yoiiuri shiiban hachijunen-shi, p. 156. 1 9 Proof of this was Tokutoai Soh5, owner of (.okanin Shiibun, who recognized he could increase revenues by engaging in 'coaaercial' journalise, but declared, ' i t i s not ay intention to write for the purpose of aaking aoney.' A strong supporter of Japanese iaperialisa, his paper soon sustained substantial losses in circulation. Its recovery is described in Chapter Five. John 0. Pierson, foiatoii SOBO", 1863-1957: A Journalist for Hoderi Japan (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980), p. 274. 1 4 Heraan and Choasky, Hanafactaritq Consent.p. 305. 1 8 Kosaka, Japanese Ihoaqht in the Heiji Period, p. 359. 1 4 Extrapolated froa Hiyoshi, Accomplices of 5iieace, p. 10. 1 7 Neil Postaan aade this observation in the context of television, Unusinq Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in tbe Sqe of Sbou Business (New York: Penguin Books, 1985), p. 104. *• During the war, the space Yorozu alloted to advertising significantly expanded, and by the fa l l of 1904 front page advertising had tripled in eany issues. '* Hihon shiiban bjakunen-shi (Nihon Shiibun Hyakunen-shi Kankokai, 1961), p. 277. For Kuroiwa's involveaent in popularizing detective stories see Ito Hideo, Karaina HaikS: tantei sho~setsu no qaasd (San'ichi Shobft, 1988). 3 0 Details of this section are drawn froa Hiyoshi, Hanashi no ShEroka, pp. 9-15. 2 1 Kawai Isaau, Shinban no iia nakashi: gekidv suru shiibun senqoka-shi (Shin-Ninon Shiibun Sha, 1972), p. 53. 2 2 Ono, Hihon shiibai battatsa-shi, p. 226. 2 3 Uchikawa, Shinban shins, p. 164. 2 4 Ono, Hihon shiiban hattatsa-shi, p. 228. This feature reaains today. 2 9 Akasegawa Genpei and Yoshino Takao, eds., 'akkei shiiban (Chikuaa Shobo", 1985), 1 January 1905, p. P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 89 342. See Appendix, p. 170, for i ts cartoon depiction of Kuroiwa. 26 Hihon shitbat hyakunen-sbi, pp. 280-81. 2 7 Notehefler, KBtoku ShUsai, p. 93. 2 a Hatsuo argued 'the worker class was inature in quality and quantity because of laws Unit ing union organization.' TaishS Denokarashii, p. 66. See Chapter Two for a description of the iipact of suppression of speech on the labor movement. 2 3 Nishida, "Kaisetsu," pp. 14-15. 3 0 Heinin's first issue announced it prices: single copies 3.5 sen, advertisients 30 sen per l ine, 15 November 1903. Yoroza was s t i l l one sen per copy. 91 Heitit Shitbat 4 September 1904. See Chart One for the nuiber of subscribers in each prefecture. It is interesting to note the nuiber of off icial or semi-official subscribers, but because newspapers had been required to submit a copy of every paper published to the proper authorities since 1869, i f the government wanted to examine Heitit, i t had other opportunity. 2 2 Notehefler, KHoku SbSsai, p. 94. Nishikawa KojirO and Ishikawa Sanshird" were hired full-time, and others such as Kinoshita Naoe, Abe Isoo, Katayama Sen, I to Ginsuke, Taoka Reiun, Hurai Tomoyoshi, Koizumi Sanshin, Uchimura KanzO, and Saito" Ryoku-u became contributors. 3 3 Kosaka, Japanese Ihoaqht it the Heiji Period, p. 353. 3 4 Details in this paragraph are drawn from John Crump, Ihe Origins of Socialist Thoaght it Japat (New York: St. Hartin's Press, 1983), pp. 144-47. 3 3 Herman and Chomsky, Hanafactaritg Consent, p. 304. M Kawabe, Ihe Press and Politics in Japan, p. 101. 2 7 Nakamura Takafusa, Econonie Srouth in Preaar Japan, Robert A. Feldman, trans. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983), p. 34. 3 3 Hiyoshi, Hanashi no Sh&roka, p. 291. 3 3 Pierson, Tokatoni SohV, pp. 278-79. 4 0 Haruhara, Hihon shinban tsa-sbi, p. 113. Financial difficult ies kept Yon sari and other smaller papers from sending more than one reporter to the front, Yoniari shinban hachijthen-shi, pp. 179-80. 4 1 See the series entitled "Correspondence from the Front,' yoroza begun 10 August 1904, for the difficult ies these journalists encounter enroute to the battlefield. 4 2 'The Reason Why News of the Army Has Not Arrived, ' yoroza 24 April 1904. 4 3 See for example, 'The Way of War and the Way of Reports,' Yoroza 9 Nay 1904. 4 4 "The Religion of the Japanese People: the Poetic Aspect of War," yoroza 19 Hay 1904. 4 3 Herman and Chomsky, Hanafactaritg Consent, pp. 176-77. 4 3 'The Navy's 6ood Report,' Yoroza 26 June 1904. 4 7 "Reading the War News of the Enemy's Captain," Yoroza 19 September 1904. (my emphasis). 4 3 "The Change in the Attitude of Citizens in the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars," 11 February and "The People's Concern is Completely 6one: the Realization of the Great Purpose of the Russo-Japanese War," Yoroza 7 June 1904. 4 3 "Either Rash or Impossible," yoroza 22 September 1904. 3 0 For the history of socialism in Japan see Akamatsu Katsumaro, Hihon shakai andH-shi (TsQshin KyOiku Shinkokai, 1949); Asukai Hasaiichi, Kindai banka to shakaishagi (ShObunshO, 1970); John Crump, Ihe Origins of Socialist Thoaght in Japan; and George 0. Totten, The Social tenocratic Hovenent in Preuar Japan (New Haven: Yale university Press, 1966). 3 1 "How the War Continues," 8eiii» Shinban 18 September 1904. 3 2 "The Lantern Procession and the Sad Diaster," He in in Shinban, English section. 3 3 'The War and Newspapers," He in is Shinban 6 Harch 1904. 3 4 "The Japanese Government," Heinin Shinban 28 February 1904. 3 3 Herman and Chomsky, Hanafactaritg Consent, p. 28. 3 3 Herman and Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent, p. xiv. 3 7 Herman and Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent, p. 305. 3 3 Victor Turner, dranas, Fields, and Hetaphors: Sjnbolic Action in flaiai Society (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974), pp. 17-28. 3 * David F. Lindenfeld, 'On Systems and Embodiments as Categories for Intellectual History,' History and Theory 27:1(1988):32. P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e War 90 4 0 Source: Seitii Sbitbtt 10 July 1904. Note that every prefecture had at l e a s t one s u b s c r i b e r , that Heiiit could not cotpete against the Osaka papers. Source: Nakanura, E c o s o t i c Broutb it Prewar Japat. 91 C H A R T E R F O U R A N A N A U Y S I S O F E O I T O R I A L C O V E R A G E O F T H E R U S S O - J A P A N E S E W A R I AN OVERVIEW Irokawa i n s i g h t f u l l y p o s i t e d t h a t , " t h e war a g a i n s t R u s s i a i n 1304-5 b r o u g h t t h e p e o p l e of t h e M e i j i p e r i o d d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s t a t e a s a s h a r e d n a t i o n a l f a t e , and t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n t u r n f i r s t a s s i m i l a t e d them i n t o t h e n a t i o n . " 1 W h i l e t h e manner i n which t h i s was a c h e i v e d has r e c e i v e d some a t t e n t i o n , as Okamoto arg u e d , newspapers were an a c t i v e and u n d e r s t u d i e d agent i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n . * E x p l o r e d below i s t h e r o l e newspapers p l a y e d i n h e l p i n g shape n a t i o n a l awareness d u r i n g Russo-Japanese War, and how t h i s war, u n l i k e t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War, r e s u l t e d i n a hegemony o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . In 1903, i n a moment o f n a t i o n a l c r i s i s , t h e i n c i p i e n t war w i t h R u s s i a c a used g r e a t e r numbers o f Japanese t o examine t h e i d e o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e i r n a t i o n . Moments of c r i s i s o f t e n i l l u m i n a t e p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s , and t h e s o l u t i o n s sought expose t h e c h o i c e s i n d i v i d u a l s a r e a b l e t o v i s u a l i z e and t h e manner i n which t h e y hope t o v a l i d a t e t h o s e o b s e r v a t i o n s . 3 The c o n f l i c t t h a t grew out o f t h e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 92 s t r u g g l e f o r t h e r i g h t t o d e f i n e t h e n a t i o n and i t s r e s o l u t i o n shed l i g h t on how e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y J a p anese c o n s t i t u t e d t h e i r w o r l d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r o l e newspapers p l a y e d i n h e l p i n g t o r e p r o d u c e Japanese s o c i a l o r d e r d u r i n g t h i s moment o f c r i s i s , and t h e v o i c e s o f t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who r e c o r d e d and pe r s u a d e d o t h e r s o f t h e i r v i e w s , a r e s u i t a b l e o b j e c t s o f s t u d y . M a i n s t r e a m c o v e r a g e h e l p e d d e f i n e " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m at t h e same t i m e as i t exposed r e a d e r s t o i t s d i c t u m s . I f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o u t l i n e d above f u n c t i o n e d as t h e o r i z e d , e d i t o r i a l c o v e r a g e o f t h e Russo-Japanese War s h o u l d have t a u g h t t h e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f good c i t i z e n s h i p ; l o y a l t y t o r a c e , Emperor, and n a t i o n , h a r d work, o b e d i e n c e , and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . The n a t i o n o f Japan s h o u l d have been p r e s e n t e d a s an u n i q u e f a m i l y , and t h u s a r i g h t f u l l e a d e r i n A s i a and t h e w o r l d . T e c h n i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and o f f i c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s s h o u l d have f o r t i f i e d t h e s e i d e a s because q u i c k l y w r i t t e n , s h o r t , amusing a r t i c l e s r e s t r i c t e d o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s . R e p e t i t i o n s h o u l d have i n c u l c a t e d p e o p l e w i t h t h e d i c t u m s o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m and m a r g i n a l i z e d o t h e r v e r s i o n s o f t h e s t a t e . And f i n a l l y , o f f i c i a l c e n s o r s h i p s h o u l d have d i s c o u r a g e d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t o t h i s model, and p u n i s h e d t h o s e who t r a n s g r e s s e d . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e d i t o r i a l s of Yoroza, t h e most p o p u l a r paper d u r i n g t h e war, exp o s e s t h e u s u a l manner i n which t h e s t a t e came t o be r e p r e s e n t e d . In a d d i t i o n t o P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 93 g e n e r a l war c o v e r a g e , Yoroza's e d i t o r i a l s and a r t i c l e s e n j o i n e d t h e government t o d e c l a r e war, promoted n a t i o n a l u n i t y , demanded s a c r i f i c e f o r t h e sake o f t h e n a t i o n , g l o r i f i e d J apanese s o l d i e r s , degraded R u s s i a n s and K o r e a n s , e x a g g e r a t e d J a p a n ' s s t r e n g t h and i t s m i l i t a r y prowess, and a n t i c i p a t e d t h e s p o i l s o f war. Media i n v o l v e d p e o p l e i n t h e war t h r o u g h t h e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , an o u t g r o w t h o f s c a n d a l r e p o r t i n g , n a t i o n a l campaigns t o s u p p o r t t h e t r o o p s abroad and t h e i r f a m i l i e s at home, an e x t e n s i o n o f "campaign j o u r n a l i s m , " and r e l a t e d p i c t u r e s , e d i t o r i a l c a r t o o n s , and l a t e r , p h o t o g r a p h s , a r e s u l t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances and a p r i o r t r a d i t i o n o f l i g h t e n t e r t a i n m e n t . Thus, Yoroza's e d i t o r i a l c o v e r a g e o f t h e war s e r v e s t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e p r o c e s s by which " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m came t o be f u l l y e l u c i d a t e d , and once d e f i n e d , how i t g a i n e d hegemony. The r e a s o n s f o r t h e war, n a t i o n a l campaigns, and t h e c r e a t i o n o f worthy and unworthy v i c t i m s a l l r e v e a l how t h e n a t i o n was p e r c e i v e d by t h e m a j o r i t y o f j o u r n a l i s t s o f t h e t i m e . As t h e war p r o g r e s s e d , t h e l a c k o f d e b a t e over c e r t a i n i s s u e s o f t e n meant t h e y had been r e s o l v e d . War w i t h R u s s i a narrowed t h e c o n t r o v e r s y o v er t h e pr o p e r f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n , but t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Heimin p r o l o n g e d t h e d e b a t e . Heimin's c o v e r a g e o f t h e war d i f f e r e d from mainstream c o v e r a g e on t h r e e e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s : t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e war, t h e impact o f n a t i o n a l campaigns, and t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f worthy and unworthy v i c t i m s . An P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 94 a n a l y s i s o f i t s e d i t o r i a l s shows t h a t t h e y c o n s i s t e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e o f f i c i a l model o f t h e s t a t e on t h e s e i s s u e s . However, t h e f i l t e r s e a r l i e r e n t r e n c h e d i n s u r e d t h a t such u n p o p u l a r v i e w s would g r a d u a l l y be e l i m i n a t e d . D e s p i t e p l a y i n g t o a wide a u d i e n c e u n t i l t h e f a l l o f 1903, s e p a r a t e d from Yoroza a f t e r O c t o b e r , t h e same i d e a s were u n a b l e t o g a i n much o f a market on t h e i r own. I t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o which " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m permeated t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f Japanese s o c i e t y . To t r a c e t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l n a t i o n a l i s m i n v o l v e s not o n l y a s t u d y o f i t s p r o p a g a t i o n but a l s o o f i t s r e c e p t i o n . 4 T h i s i s beyond t h e aim of t h i s p a per. To r e c r e a t e some n o t i o n o f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l v iew o f s o c i e t y at l a r g e one may i n s t e a d f o c u s on t h e p r o d u c e r s and r e c o r d e r s of i d e a s . Newspaper e d i t o r i a l s p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e o f how v a l u e s were c r e a t e d and perh a p s a b s o r b e d . They d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p l a c e o f n a t i o n a l i s m w i t h i n a segment o f Japanese s o c i e t y and c o n s t i t u t e an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e from which t o t r a c e t h e ascendancy o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f Yoroza9 s e d i t o r i a l c o v e r a g e compared t o He in in"s o f f e r s a means t h r o u g h which t o t r a c e t h e f u r t h e r d e l i n e a t i o n and r i s e o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . E d i t o r s o c c u p i e d f r o n t l i n e p o s i t i o n s i n m a t t e r s o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War. Once i n t r o d u c e d at t h e end o f 1874, t h e d a i l y e d i t o r i a l q u i c k l y became t h e p l a c e where debate about t h e f u t u r e o f Japan was c a r r i e d o u t . Heated e d i t o r i a l wars i n t h e 1870s and 1880s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 95 s t i m u l a t e d b o t h c o m p e t i t i o n and p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The e l i t e d a i l i e s p r i d e d t h e m s e l v e s on t h e i r e d i t o r i a l s and d i s c u r s i v e a r t i c l e s , and t h e y became t h e c r i t e r i a of a newspaper's e x c e l l e n c e . As a r e s u l t , t h e p o p u l a r p r e s s g r a d u a l l y adopted t h i s f e a t u r e . W r i t t e n by h i g h p r o f i l e employees about h i g h p r o f i l e i s s u e s , e d i t o r i a l s became a major s e l l i n g f e a t u r e of newspapers. P r i n t e d at t h e t o p o f t h e f r o n t page, e d i t o r i a l s s e r v e d t o r e f l e c t and d i r e c t t h e masses by 1900. Thus, t h e e d i t o r i a l s p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e R u s so-Japanese War i l l u s t r a t e how one i n f l u e n t i a l segment o f J a p anese s o c i e t y p e r c e i v e d t h e i r n a t i o n . War w i t h R u s s i a p r o v o k e d a s u s t a i n e d and s t r i d e n t r e s p o n s e from e d i t o r s , which s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i r c o n c e r n s were not e a s i l y r e s o l v e d . N o n e t h e l e s s , by t h e end o f t h e war " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m had become hegemonic, and p r i n t media no l o n g e r o f f e r e d t h e p u b l i c a l t e r n a t i v e models of t h e n a t i o n . From t h e cacophony of c ompeting v o i c e s a p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n emerged. P r i n t h e l p e d b r i n g about a g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s on t h e n a t u r e of t h e n a t i o n , and t h o s e who were pe r s u a d e d of v a l i d i t y of " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m may have been swayed by t h e a p p a r e n t c o n s e n s u s . " Examined below i s t h e manner i n which some i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s used n a t i o n a l i s m t o d e f i n e , t o shape, and t o g i v e meaning t o t h e i r p e r c e i v e d r e a l i t i e s . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 96 I I REASONS I d e o l o g i c a l , t e c h n i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and o f f i c i a l f a c t o r s combined t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e w r i t e r s a t Yorazu would s u p p o r t n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . Because " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m d e f i n e d government a c t i o n as t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f i m p e r i a l w i l l , i f any j o u r n a l i s t s d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e government's d e c i s i o n t o d e c l a r e war t h e y were d i s c o u r a g e d from v o i c i n g t h e i r o p i n i o n . P e r c e i v e d a s e t h n i c a l l y homogeneous, t h e n a t i o n was viewed as a f a m i l y and t h e government i t s p r o t e c t o r . The l e g i t i m a c y o f Japan's a c t i o n s were not q u e s t i o n e d , and i n s t e a d t h e war was r e p r e s e n t e d a s one f o r n a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l . A b e l i e f t h a t t h e West, e s p e c i a l l y R u s s i a , menanced Japan's u n i q u e e t h n i c i t y was a c o n v e n i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r Japanese i m p e r i a l i s m . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o n s t r a i n t o f news by i d e o l o g y , e s t a b l i s h e d c o n v e n t i o n s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . In war t i m e , t h e d e s i r e f o r immediate news i s o f t e n h e i g h t e n e d . A d e s i r e t o s u p p l y t h i s need r e i n f o r c e d t h e h a b i t o f w r i t i n g s h o r t , s i m p l e columns framed w i t h i n e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e a s s u m p t i o n s . Time was s h o r t and space was l i m i t e d , s o complex and u n c o n v e n t i o n a l v i e w s r a r e l y appeared i n t h e e d i t o r i a l s o f Yorazu. With K u r o i w a v i s i b l y pro-war and i n t o l e r a n t o f c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w s , t h e w r i t e r s at Yorazu had few o p t i o n s open. Y e t , K u r o i w a ' s s t a n d was not u n r e a s o n a b l e . To m a i n t a i n t h e v i a b i l i t y o f h i s paper he had P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 97 t o r e t a i n r e a d e r s and o p e r a t e w i t h i n t h e law. T h i s meant he had t o appear t o back t h e war w h o l e h e a r t e d l y . O f f i c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e t e n d e n c y t o a c c e p t t h e government's r e p o r t s at f a c e v a l u e . The appointment of Tokutomi as a s e m i - o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e government h e l p e d h i d e Japan's woes and t h e e x t e n t o f i t s f o r e i g n l o a n s . I t a l s o i n s u r e d t h a t R u s s i a ' s i n t e r n a l weaknesses and g e n e r a l i n a d e q u a c i e s would be h i g h l i g h t e d . O p p o s i t i o n t o government r e a c t i o n t o t h e 1895 T r i p l e I n t e r v e n t i o n had r e s u l t e d i n s u p p r e s s i o n , and t h i s was w e l l -remembered. For t h o s e w i t h s h o r t memories, t h e government's t r e a t m e n t of Heimin o f f e r e d a s a l u t a r y example. S i x weeks a f t e r f i g h t i n g b r o k e o u t , Heimin was s u p p r e s s e d because o f i t s c r i t i c i s m o f t h e h i g h e r t a x e s t h e war o c c a s i o n e d . In May, t h e government's demand t h a t a major w i r e s e r v i c e p u b l i c i s e i t s crackdown on s o c i a l i s t s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d w hich s u b j e c t s t o a v o i d . F u r t h e r harassment i n t h e summer and f a l l ended i n J a n u a r y 1905 when Heimin was c l o s e d . Thus, d i s s e n t from t h e government's p a t r i o t i c agenda was shown t o come a t a h i g h c o s t . As s u g g e s t e d above, j o u r n a l i s t s a t Yorozu a c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l l y when t h e y a c t i v e l y campaigned f o r t h e government t o b e g i n war a f t e r 8 October 1903. They were c o g n i z a n t o f t h e i r power as an 'end o f war' Yorozu e d i t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t e d : " i t was t h e power o f t h e p e o p l e (kokumin no ohikara) t h a t l e d t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o open f i r e a g a i n s t R u s s i a . " 6 Another e d i t o r went f u r t h e r and d e c l a r e d " t h e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 98 r i g h t o f t h e government r e s t s i n t h e p a r l i a m e n t and t h e r i g h t o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t r e s t s on newspapers. D u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War we can see t h a t newspapers c a r r i e d out t h e f u n c t i o n o f a u t o c r a t i c government." 7 J o u r n a l i s t s h e l p e d l e a d p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n t h i s , and o t h e r c r u s u a d e s . W h i l e w r i t e r s at Yoroza argued t h a t t h e power o f t h e p e o p l e s t a r t e d t h e war, a c c o r d i n g t o KGtoku at Heimin "wars were caused by and b e n e f i t e d c a p i t a l i s t s . " On 7 F e b r u a r y , he wrote " t h e c o n f l i c t between R u s s i a and Japan i s a r e s u l t o f g r e e d y c a p i t a l i s t s who want m a r k e t s f o r t h e i r c o l o n i e s . " More s p e c i f i c a l l y , "war b e n e f i t e d t h e w e a l t h y who seek t o expand m a r k e t s and a c q u i r e c o l o n i e s . . . Those who d e c i d e on t h e f a t e o f t h e n a t i o n must be t h o s e i n f i n a n c i a l power."* T h i s p o i n t was r e i t e r a t e d i n t h e f a l l : " i t i s p l a i n t h a t modern wars a r e caused by economic c o m p e t i t i o n between n a t i o n s . " * The r e a s o n s enumerated f o r war were o n l y one o f t h e many p o i n t s of d i f f e r e n c e between t h e w r i t e r s a t Yoroza and Heimin. As t h e l i n k between e t h n i c i t y and n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y was s t r e s s e d by " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o n o t e t h a t once h o s t i l i t i e s began, one o f t h e most common . j u s t i f i c a t i o n s g i v e n by Yoroza w r i t e r s f o r Japan ' s a g g r e s s i o n was e t h n i c . One e d i t o r d e c l a r e d "now each r a c e r e a l i z e s i t s i d e n t i t y and competes w i t h o t h e r s f o r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . T h i s i s t h e law o f n a t u r e . I f one does not p r o g e s s (.sasuma), one w i t h d r a w s (.shirizoku). I f one r a c e wants t o p r e s e r v e i t s e t h n i c i d e n t i t y (jison) i t must t r y t o P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 99 expand (fcoofro") . . . In t h i s e r a of r a c i a l r e a l i z a t i o n and c o m p e t i t i o n i t i s t h e r i g h t of s e l f - d e f e n s e which p e r m i t s one r a c e t o f i g h t and k i l l o t h e r s . " 1 0 Japanese i m p e r i a l i s m was o f t e n l e g i t i m i z e d as a s t r u g g l e f o r e t h n i c s u r v i v a l . J a panese e t h n i c homogenity and s u p e r i o r i t y had become c o r n e r s t o n e s o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m and by t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y seemed t o mandate t h e c o l o n i z a t i o n o f K o r e a . The r a t i o n a l was (1) making K o r e a a p r o t e c t o r a t e o f Japan was f o r e o r d a i n e d by t h e w i l l o f J a p a n e s e a n c e s t o r s , (2) Japanese c o l o n i a l i z a t i o n o f weak K o r e a would d e f e n d i t , and (.3) Koreans were r a c i a l l y i n f e r i o r . 1 1 T h i s t h i r d p o i n t was a m p l i f i e d : "Korea had been i n v a d e d by o t h e r r a c e s h i s t o r i c a l l y . . . T h e i r b l o o d was mixed and t h u s t h e y had l o s t t h e i r own independent s p i r i t . " E t h n i c a l l y 'homogenous,' t h e Japanese c o u l d come t o t h e ' r e s c u e ' o f t h e t a i n t e d K o r e a n s . C o n c u r r e n t l y , J a p a n ' s f u t u r e i m p e r i a l v e n t u r e s i n A s i a were s u p p o r t e d by a p e r c e i v e d e t h n i c s i m i l a r i t y t o o t h e r A s i a n s . Japan's v i c t o r y a g a i n s t R u s s i a was a n t i c i p a t e d and i t s r o l e i n A s i a s k e t c h e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p i e c e : " A s i a w i l l at l a s t be t h e A s i a o f A s i a n s . J a p a n ' s v i c t o r y w i l l c o n f i r m t h a t t h e f u t u r e o f A s i a w i l l be c o n t r o l l e d by A s i a n s . " 1 2 "The W o r l d ' s Unique N a t i o n a l i t y , " a t w o - p a r t e d i t o r i a l which compared t h e Japanese t o o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s , a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e Japanese were u n i q u e i n t h e w o r l d (.seikai murui no kokumin). T h i s was because " t h e y have a l l t h e c h a r a c t i s t i c s o f a l l t h e p e o p l e o f t h e w o r l d and because of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Japanese p e o p l e and t h e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 100 Ro y a l F a m i l y . " 1 3 Here t h e Japanese a r e not o n l y s e p a r a t e d from o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s , t h e y a r e e l e v a t e d above them. T h i s e d i t o r a l s o a l l u d e d t o a n o t h e r c o r n e r s t o n e o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m - emperor w o r s h i p . W i t h i n " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m t h e emperor was s a c r o s a n c t . As Irokawa m a i n t a i n e d , " d u r i n g t h e war t h e government v i g o r o u s l y s t i m u l a t e d p o p u l a r l o y a l t y t o t h e emperor f o r t h e s a k e o f n a t i o n a l m o b i l i z a t i o n . " 1 4 A g a i n and a g a i n , t h e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y and t h e government, and t h e masses d u t y t o b o t h was emphasized by Yoroza i n o r d e r t o u n i f y t h e c o u n t r y . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , Heimin's v i e w o f t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y was r a t h e r n e g a t i v e . D e s p i t e c e n s o r s h i p , i t argued t h a t " s c h o o l s have t o hang p i c t u r e s o f t h e Emperor and Empress on t h e i r w a l l s , and many of them have been d e f a c e d . S i n c e t h e p i c t u r e s a r e a l o t o f t r o u b l e , t h e y s h o u l d be removed. " 1 8 T h i s was an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e l e v e l o f t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r t h e emperor system. In c o n t r a s t , K u r o i w a d e f i n e d t h e Japanese k o k u t a i as s p e c i a l because o f t h e r o y a l f a m i l y and b e l i e v e d t h a t p a t r i o t i s m i n Japan was a r e l i g i o n . He wr o t e t h a t J a p anese k o k u t a i was not c r e a t e d w i t h o u t r e a s o n , and t h a t i t must be God's work. He a s s e r t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t "Japan had t h e a b i l i t y t o become t h e most c i v i l i z e d n a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d , c o m b i n i n g t h e b e s t o f E a s t and West."* 3 Other e d i t o r i a l s s u p p o r t e d h i s c l a i m t h a t t h e r e l i g i o n o f Japan was not an o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n l i k e Buddism or C h r i s t i a n i t y , but was P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 101 more l i k e a s t a t e r e l i g i o n <.kokkyd~) . 17 To t h e mainstream p r e s s , t h e u n i q u e n e s s of Japanese n a t i o n a l i s m based on t h e emperor system l e g i t i m i z e d J a panese i m p e r i a l i s m a b r o a d , m o b i l i z a t i o n at home, and r e i n f o r c e d " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . " O f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m i n s t i l l e d i n t h e minds o f many t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e Japanese were a u n i q u e and s u p e r i o r r a c e , and t h u s t h e d e s e r v i n g r e c i p i e n t s o f c o l o n i e s . Near t h e end o f t h e war, a Yoroza e d i t o r d e t a i l e d why t h e Japanese were so s t r o n g m i l i t a r i l y : <1) because t h e Japanese p e o p l e have an a l m o s t s u p e r n a t u r a l f e e l i n g and r e s p e c t f o r Japan's R o y a l F a m i l y , <2) because d u r i n g J a p a n ' s l o n g h i s t o r y o f war many s o l d i e r s d i e d b u t . . . t h e i r s p i r i t was a l i v e i n t h e Japanese p e o p l e , (.3) t h e P a c i f i c Ocean s e r v e d t o b u f f e r o u t s i d e t h r e a t s , and (4) t h e Yamato r a c e p r o s p e r s i n Japan because o f t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f b e l i e f i n t h e R o y a l F a m i l y , a s p i r i t u a l l e g a c y and an i s o l a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n . * " W h i l e J a p a n ' s s u c c e s s e s were found t o be based on t h e s t r e n g t h o f i t s s o l d i e r s , t h e i r s t r e n g t h was i n t u r n viewed a s r e s t i n g on a p r o f o u n d r e s p e c t f o r t h e emperor. E d i t o r s r e p e a t e d l y argued t h a t t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y was t h e c e n t e r o f t h e n a t i o n and t h e s o u r c e o f i t s u n i q u e n e s s . The emperor system was used t o g a r n e r r e s p e c t , u n i f y t h e p e o p l e , i n c i t e h e r o i s m , and r a t i o n a l i z e i m p e r i a l i s m . By t h e end o f t h e war, i t was an u n q u e s t i o n e d p a r t of t h e n a t i o n a l i s m e x p r e s s e d by mainstream j o u r n a l i s t s and i t had s u c c e s s f u l l y f i l t e r e d out n o n - i m p e r i a l i s t i c nat i o n a l i s m s . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 102 On t h e o t h e r hand, Heimin"s e d i t o r s began and ended w i t h t h e argument t h a t a g g r e s s i o n was f u n d a m e n t a l l y wrong and n o t h i n g c o u l d l e g i t i m i z e i t . From t h e s t a r t , t h e y d e c l a r e d " i t i s wrong f o r p e o p l e t o f i g h t so i t i s wrong f o r n a t i o n s . . . The l o g i c o f pro-war a d v o c a t e s i s v e r y s t r a n g e because t h e c r i m e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n v e r t e d i n t o t h e v i r t u e of n a t i o n s . " 1 ' The C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h e r B o k u s h i was quoteds " i f you k i l l t e n p e o p l e your g u i l t w i l l be t e n t i m e s as l a r g e and you w i l l be s e n t e n c e d t o d i e t e n t i m e s . " They a s s e r t e d t h a t " i t i s wrong f o r one n a t i o n t o w r o n g f u l l y a t t a c k a n o t h e r and p e o p l e who p r a i s e t h i s as l o y a l t y <gi) do not know t h e d i f f e r e n c e between l o y a l t y and d i s l o y a l t y . " ' 0 In t h e f i r s t i s s u e o f Heimin p u b l i s h e d a f t e r t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f war, KStoku w r o t e "we commoners w i l l never a c c e p t war...so l o n g as we have mouths, so l o n g as we have b r u s h e s and paper, we w i l l c o n t i n u e t o c r y out a g a i n s t war." 2 1 Throughout t h e war, Heimin c o n t i n u e d t o r e p o r t on t h e ups and downs o f t h e ant i-war movement, 2 2 l a b o r a g i t a t i o n , 2 2 o t h e r s o c i a l i s s u e s , w h i l e c o n s t a n t l y a s s e r t i n g t h a t not a l l Japanese were j i n g o i s t s . 2 4 The j o u r n a l i s t s a t Heimin . r e c o g n i z e d t h a t Japan a t t a c k e d R u s s i a , and was not j u s t d e f e n d i n g J a p a n ' s s a f e t y and K o r e a ' s b e s t i n t e r e s t s . Heimin9s a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t i c s t a n c e was d i s p l a y e d on 27 March 1904 i n an E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e e s s a y e n t i t l e d "What i s Japan F i g h t i n g F o r ? " To summarize, " i t has been r e p e a t e d l y s t a t e d by t h e government t h a t Japan was c o m p e l l e d t o p l u n g e i n t o war w i t h R u s s i a i n o r d e r t o P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo - J a p a n e s e War 103 p r e s e r v e t h e independence o f C h i n a and Korea as w e l l as her own...but i t i s e x t r e m e l y d o u b t f u l whether s o l d i e r s or pseudo s t a t e s m e n would be s a t i s f i e d w i t h a v i c t o r y w hich b r i n g s no s p o i l s . . . I t i s an u n f a i t h f u l and shameful a c t on our p a r t t o t r y t o add p a r t of t h e C h i n e s e d o m i n i o n s t o our own." 2 0 On t h e same day, Heimin a c c u s e d t h e Japanese o f b e i n g s u p e r f i c i a l p a t r i o t s i n a n o t h e r column: " t h e p e o p l e a r e becoming more a r r o g a n t . . . T h e i r contempt f o r R u s s i a grows. "2* In t h e summer, t h e d e b a t e over Japanese i m p e r i a l i s m i n t e n s i f i e d . On 17 J u l y , S h u s u i c r i t i c i z e d Kokumin's Tokutomi and Shinjin's E b i n a f o r t h e i r p r o - K o r e a n a n n e x a t i o n v i e w s . The f l a k was r e t u r n e d by o t h e r j o u r n a l i s t s and S h u s u i responded on 24 J u l y , a r g u i n g "whatever we do, we s h o u l d do i t f o r t h e sake o f t h e Korean p e o p l e , not f o r t h e n o b i l i t y or a u t h o r i t i e s . " 2 7 A g a i n on t h e 3 1 s t Heimin d e c l a r e d t h a t i t " d e e p l y s y m p a t h i z e d w i t h t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e Korean p e o p l e and was ashamed and upset about t h e a t t e m p t t o a p p r o p r i a t e Korean l a n d . " 2 0 D u r i n g August t h e d e b a t e grew h o t t e r and Heimin w r i t e r s m a i n t a i n e d "Japan s h o u l d g i v e a d v i c e and e s t a b l i s h an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m i n Korea...and not attempt t o m o n o p o l i z e t h e Korean economy." They s t r o n g l y a d v i s e d a g a i n s t an e x p l o i t i v e p o l i c y which sought p r o f i t s and i g n o r e d t h e Korean s i t u a t i o n . 2 ' The n a t i o n a l i s m o f Yoroza's e d i t o r s p r o h i b i t e d them from r e c o g n i z i n g Japan as an a g g r e s s o r i n K o r e a or C h i n a . On t h e same day t h a t Heimin p o r t r a y e d Japan as an P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e R u sso-Japanese War 104 i m p e r i a l i s t , a Yoroza e d i t o r i a l r e c o r d e d t h a t t h e r e a s o n Japan's v i c t o r y a t P o r t A r t h u r would have g r e a t meaning was t h a t i t meant t h e d e f e a t o f t h e R u s s i a n p r i n c i p l e o f i n v a s i o n by f o r c e . I t a l s o admonished t h e Great Powers: " t h e s e i g e o f P o r t A r t h u r does not have any meaning f o r t h e war s i t u a t i o n , but i t g i v e s t h e West a g r e a t l e s s o n , t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f m i l i t a r y power has l o s t i t s power and t h e p r i n c i p l e of i n v a s i o n can no l o n g e r s u r v i v e . " " 0 The f i r s t p o r t i o n o f t h i s a r t i c l e i n d i r e c t l y argued t h a t Japan was not i n v a d i n g P o r t A r t h u r , but l i b e r a t i n g i t from a p r i o r R u s s i a n i n t r u s i o n . The second h a l f was an e x p l i c i t a t t a c k on Western i m p e r i a l i s m . The a u t h o r acknowledged t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f t h e s t r u g g l e between Japan and R u s s i a , but r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e war a s a c o m p e t i t i o n between n a t i o n s f o r s u p p o r t , m a r k e t s , and c o l o n i e s . 3 1 I n s t e a d he l e g i t i m i z e d Japanese i m p e r i a l i s m w h i l e r e f u s i n g t o r e c o g n i z e i t as a g g r e s s i o n . A d e s i r e t o t h i n k w e l l o f o n e s e l f and one's n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s l e d t h e e d i t o r s a t Yoroza t o d e v o t e s p a c e t o f a v o r a b l e r e p o r t s from abroad and r e p r e s s or r e j e c t n e g a t i v e ones. "The True V a l u e of Our Army and Navy" r e j o i c e d t h a t t h e a c t u a l r e s u l t s of t h e army and navy l e d t o Japan becoming w e l 1 - r e s p e c t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . 3 2 Note was made o f c h a n g i n g B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e s : " b e f o r e t h e R u sso-Japanese War t h e B r i t i s h t h o u g h t A s i a n s were i n f e r i o r p e o p l e (rettoshazoka) who had t o be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e B r i t i s h . Repeated B r i t i s h t h r e a t s l e a d t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t A s i a n s were P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo - J a p a n e s e War 105 n o t h i n g but t h e i r v i c t i m s . . . One month a f t e r t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e Russo-Japanese War t h e B r i t i s h found t h a t Japan was more p o w e r f u l t h a n t h e y had t h o u g h t . " ^ ^ The t e n d e n c y t o f o c u s on good news meant a r t i c l e s w hich f e a t u r e d t h e p o s i t i v e c onsequences of t h e war were s t r e s s e d . W h i l e bad p r e s s was u s u a l l y i g n o r e d , when i t was c o v e r e d i t was u s u a l l y r e f u t e d . On 28 A p r i l 1904 Yoroza responded t o a r e p o r t i n t h e London Times which argued t h a t "Japan s h o u l d be s a t i s f i e d w i t h P o r t A r t h u r , K o r e a , and V l a d i v o s t o k . . . J a p a n ' s t r o o p s have headed toward H a r b i n , but many Europeans have m i s g i v i n g s about t h i s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e war i s f o r Japan t o push R u s s i a out o f M a n c h u r i a and r e t u r n i t t o C h i n a . . . Japan s h o u l d not m i s t a k e i t s p u r p o s e . " The r e p l y from Yoroza was t h a t t h e Times argument was i n c o m p l e t e because t h r o u g h t h i s advance Japan p l a n n e d t o d e s t r o y R u s s i a ' s t a c t i c s . 8 4 N o t i c e was g i v e n t h a t t h i s t i m e Japan would brook no i n t e r f e r e n c e . Note was a l s o made of a B r i t i s h a r t i c l e which r e c o r d e d t h a t A s i a n s c o n t r o l l e d Europe i n t h e p a s t , t h a t s c i e n c e , a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , and r e l i g i o n o r i g i n a l l y came from A s i a , and t h a t A s i a n s were f a r ahead o f Europeans i n t h i s s e n s e . Moreover, A s i a ' s l a n d mass and p o p u l a t i o n were much g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e European c o n t i n e n t . T h i s was d i s m i s s e d "as a s o r t of masked Y e l l o w P e r i l <kSka) a t t a c k . " 8 8 U n l i k e most i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m , t h e s e k i n d s o f a r t i c l e s were w i d e l y r e p o r t e d i n Japan, a l t h o u g h accompanied by r e b u t t a l s . * * * P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e R u sso-Japanese War 106 As might be e x p e c t e d from t h e f i l t e r s e a r l i e r put i n t o p l a c e , t h e need f o r war a g a i n s t R u s s i a was not q u e s t i o n e d i n t h e mainstream p r e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o Yoroza's j o u r n a l i s t s , t h e war was j u s t i f i a b l e on t h e grounds t h a t Japan was e t h n i c a l l y homogeneous and s u p e r i o r t o t h e mixed and i n f e r i o r K o r e a n s . Y e t , at t h e same t i m e , J a p a n ' s e t h n i c s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e p e o p l e s o f A s i a , combined w i t h i t s m i l i t a r y m i g h t , l e g i t i m i z e d i m p e r i a l i s m i n t h e r e g i o n . The emperor was an i m p o r t a n t r a l l y i n g p o i n t , and h i s f r e q u e n t i n v o c a t i o n was e v i d e n c e o f b o t h h i s i n c r e a s e d s y m b o l i c power and a s u s t a i n e d need f o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n . The amount of e d i t o r i a l t i m e and e n e rgy spent r a t i o n a l i z i n g J a p a n e s e i m p e r i a l i s m , b r i e f l y e x e m p l i f i e d above, s i g n a l s i t was not f u l l y a c c e p t e d i n i t i a l l y . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r t h e war r e i n f o r c e d " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , and were a p r o d u c t of i t . Meanwhile, Heimin c r i t i c i z e d t h e war a s t h e work o f c a p i t a l i s t s , and v iewed Japan as an a g g r e s s o r a g a i n s t R u s s i a and K o r e a . As t h e war advanced, " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m g a i n e d a f i r m e r g r i p on t h e minds o f j o u r n a l i s t s . N a t i o n a l campaigns a c c e l e r a t e d t h i s t r e n d . I l l NATIONAL CAMPAIGNS N a t i o n a l campaigns d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War mustered s u p p o r t f o r o f f i c i a l p o l i c y . The c o n s t r a i n t s o f i d e o l o g y and t h e law were t h e most p o t e n t , and t h e y combined w i t h P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 107 t e c h n o l o g i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s t o f i l t e r out u n p a t r i o t i c i d e a s and n o u r i s h t h e v i r t u e s o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . " O f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m equated i n d i v i d u a l good w i t h n a t i o n a l b e n e f i t , and i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e as l e a d e r s of p o p u l a r o p i n i o n j o u r n a l i s t s e x h o r t e d t h e i r r e a d e r s t o become model c i t i z e n s . When t h e custom o f j o u r n a l i s t i c i n t e p r e t a t i o n and commentary was put t o o f f i c a l l y approved u s e s , newspapers g a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n and r e a d e r s h i p . ** N a t i o n a l u n i t y was t h e f o c u s o f t h e f i r s t campaign, and s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t d i s s e n t came q u i c k l y . From mid-March 1904, Akiyama T e i s u k e , t h e founder o f Niroku, c r i t i c i z e d t h e government's war bond p o l i c y . He d i d not do so on t h e grounds t h a t he was a n t i - w a r , or t h a t i t was bad f o r t h e p e o p l e , but because i t was poor economic p o l i c y . The u n d e r l y i n g r e a s o n f o r Akiyama's h o s t i l i t y t o bonds was h i s s u p p o r t o f t h e RQddsha (Labor O r g a n i z e r s ) and t h e government's p r o h i b i t i o n o f a second l a b o r m e e t i n g . S u b s e q u e n t l y , Akiyama was a c c u s e d o f b e i n g a R u s s i a n s p y, f o r c e d t o r e s i g n from t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and on 22 March 1904 Niroku was banned.* 7 L i k e Niroku, Heimin c h a r g e d t h e government w i t h o v e r - r e a c t i o n and argued h i s newspaper was banned because i t " c r i t i c i z e d t h e government's method o f r a i s i n g war bonds as b e i n g c o m p l u s o r y , "'• an argument t h e y t h e m s e l v e s had o f t e n made. Heimin a l s o a t t a c k e d t h e government's campaign t o r a i s e money t h r o u g h bonds, c r i t i c i z e d o t h e r newspapers s u p p o r t o f such e n d e a v o r s , and met w i t h c e n s o r s h i p . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 108 D u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War . j o u r n a l i s t s b u i l t on a t r a d i t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p and campaigned f o r g e n e r a l g o a l s — n a t i o n a l u n i t y , s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , h a r d work, and s p e c i f i c t a r g e t s — b l a n k e t s , r e l i e f f u n d s , bonds, and so on. P e o p l e were persuaded t o s u p p o r t t h e s e g e n e r a l aims f o r t h e s a k e of t h e n a t i o n , and more s p e c i f i c t a r g e t s t o r e l i e v e t h e f i g h t i n g men o f w o r r y . " These campaigns f u n c t i o n e d t o d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e p e o p l e i n t h e war e f f o r t , d i s s e m i n a t e t h e v i r t u e s o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , and i d e n t i f y d i s s e n t e r s . When t h e war began e d i t o r s a t Yoroza d e c l a r e d n a t i o n a l u n i t y (kokamin no itchi) t o be t h e utmost p r i o r i t y . A 9 F e b r u a r y 1904 e d i t o r i a l a s s e r t e d " t h e u n i t y o f t h e p e o p l e i s most i m p o r t a n t . " 4 0 However, w h i l e p e o p l e were a d v i s e d t o go a l o n g w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e y were c a u t i o n e d t o bear i n mind t h a t n a t i o n a l u n i t y was m a i n t a i n e d not o n l y t h r o u g h p a t r i o t i c o b e d i e n c e , but t h r o u g h c o o l - h e a d e d r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e government. Thus, i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e war t h e p e o p l e had a d u t y t o more t h a n p a t r i o t i c o b e d i e n c e . "The Way t o Show t h e T r u t h o f a U n i t e d N a t i o n , " r e i n f o r c e d t h i s message by recommending t h a t a smooth o p e n i n g s e s s i o n o f p a r l i a m e n t would r e f l e c t n a t i o n a l u n i t y t o t h e w o r l d , and t h a t harmony would improve t h e m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n . 4 1 Here, p o l i t i c a n s were r e q u e s t e d t o r e s t r a i n t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e s a k e of t h e n a t i o n , but not t o g i v e up t h e i r r e s p o n s i b l i t i e s . As t h e war p r o g r e s s e d , such s u g g e s t i o n s became l e s s f r e q u e n t . The c h a r a c t e r o f J a panese c i t i z e n s was t h o u g h t t o have P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 109 improved s i n c e t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War, and a r t i c l e s d e l i n e a t e d which v i r t u e s t o s t r i v e f o r . A c c o r d i n g t o one a u t h o r , d u r i n g t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e War t h e Japanese took t h e war l i g h t l y and l o o k e d a t i t as i f i t were a f a r c e (.chaban kyogen). They appeared s t u p i d and v u l g a r , t h e men debauched and t h e women l e t h a r g i c l i k e p r o s t i t u t e s , e n t e r t a i n e r s , and bar h o s t e s s e s . However, because t h e Japanese f e a r e d R u s s i a , d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War t h e y became more s e r i o u s , and appeared more r e f l e c t i v e , c a r e f u l , r e s o l u t e , and c l e a r - m i n d e d . They were c a l m , composed and u n i t e d as t h e y a w a i t e d t h e b i g b a t t l e . 4 2 A model o f v i r t u o u s c i t i z e n s h i p was t h u s o f f e r e d , p e r h a p s i n r e s p o n s e t o a p e r c e i v e d need. The f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s e t y p e s o f e d i t o r i a l s d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s of t h e war i n d i c a t e s n a t i o n a l u n i t y was not e a s i l y a c h i e v e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Heimin's e d i t o r s , t h e i r commitment t o p a c i f i s m was more i m p o r t a n t t h a n n a t i o n a l u n i t y . They d i s a g r e e d w i t h K u r o i w a , who e a r l i e r d e c l a r e d " b e f o r e t h e war i t i s okay t o argue pro-war v e r s u s ant i-war but once war began as Japanese c i t i z e n s e v e r y o n e s h o u l d be f o r war. But t h e r e a r e s t i l l some who remain a n t i - w a r and p o i n t out t h e war's s h o r t — c o m i n g s , d i s c o u r a g e our f i g h t i n g s p i r i t , and d e m o r a l i z e t h e n a t i o n , and t h e y s h o u l d be ashamed."4"* On 10 A p r i l 1904 Heimin responed t o t h e f l a k from o t h e r d a i l i e s as f o l l o w s : "many p e o p l e t h i n k t o t a k e an a n t i - w a r p o s i t i o n b e f o r e t h e war was okay, but a f t e r t h e war s t a r t e d i t i s n o t . We a p p r e c i a t e t h e a d v i c e , but do not a g r e e . We a r e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 110 not s u p p o r t e d by many, so t h a t i s why we a r e c r i t i c i z e d and r e p r e s s e d . . . We know our a n t i - w a r a g i t a t i o n w i l l not s t o p t h e Russo-Japanese War, but even i f we cannot p r o h i b i t t h e war how can we not p o i n t out t h e s u f f e r i n g and t r a g e d y of war f o r p e o p l e . . . Many o t h e r p a p e r s c r i t i c i z e our argument as u s e l e s s , but we b e l i e v e t h a t t o t a k e away t h e freedom o f speech under t h e name o f war harms t h e n a t i o n . " 4 4 W h i l e n a t i o n a l u n i t y was an a d m i r a b l e end, Heimin's e d i t o r s i n s i s t e d o t h e r v a l u e s , such as p a c i f i s m , s o c i a l i s m , and freedom o f s p e e c h , were a l s o i m p o r t a n t . F l a k from o t h e r p a p e r s and t h e i r r e a d e r s seemed t o harden t h e r e s o l v e o f t h e w r i t e r s a t Heimin. A 5 June e d i t o r i a l responded n e g a t i v e l y t o t h e government's w a r n i n g t h a t i t would s u b s e q u e n t l y keep a s t r i c t watch over t h e p a p e r ' s a n t i - w a r a c t i v i t i e s and s t a t e m e n t s about t h e I m p e r i a l Household. The government's a t t a c k was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g because Heimin had almost c o m p l e t e l y a v o i d e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y i n i t s e d i t o r i a l s . However, as n o t e d above, s o c i a l i s m ' s a t t a c k on c l a s s was p e r c e i v e d as p o s s i b l y encompassing t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y . The w o r k e r s at Heimin c o n t i n u e d t o campaign f o r p a c i f i s m and s o c i a l i s m , and i n t h e f a l l t h e y c e l e b r a t e d t h e i r s u c c e s s , such as i t was, by d e c l a r i n g " a l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y of p e o p l e a r e p r o - w a r . . . t h e y cannot i g n o r e our a n t i - w a r movement." 4 9 As c l o s u r e became c e r t a i n , t h e y s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d "we w i l l not s t o p our a n t i - w a r a g i t a t i o n . Some P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 111 p e o p l e h a t e Heimin and ask us t o s t o p t h i s a g i t a t i o n , but we r e p l y t h a t we w i l l not s t o p i t , d e s p i t e r e c e i v i n g s o much contempt, h a t r e d , a t t a c k s , and p e r s e c u t i o n . Yet we w i l l never s t o p . I f you t h i n k of t h e t r a g e d y o f t h e s o l d i e r s i n M a n c h u r i a and o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s we do not f e e l so bad i n c o m p a r i s o n . " 4 * When t h e c o n s t r a i n t o f t e c h n o l o g y , market, and i d e o l o g y were u n a b l e t o f u l l y f i l t e r s o c i a l i s m and p a c i f i s m , t h e government s t e p p e d i n . By t h e f a l l o f 1904 n a t i o n a l u n i t y was no l o n g e r a paramount c o n c e r n o f Yorozu's e d i t o r s and t h e y i n s t e a d began t o c a l l f o r a n o t h e r element o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m -s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . T h i s s h i f t i n f o c u s was made e x p l i c i t i n a 28 November column. I t s a i d , w h i l e i n Japan t h e n a t i o n i s s o l i d l y u n i t e d and e v e r y a b l e - b o d i e d man i s eager t o go t o t h e f r o n t , as may be seen from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e number of a p p l i c a n t s f o r c o m m i s s i o n s i n t h e army and v o l u n t e e r s has v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d i n r e c e n t days, i n R u s s i a t h e v e r y o p p o s i t e a p p e a r s t o t h e t h e c a s e . Everywhere i n t h e M o s c o v i t e E m pire t h e r e a r e s i g n s o f d i s c o n t e n t and i n some p l a c e s r e s e r v i s t s have m u t i n i e d , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s had t o use f o r c e and c a u s e b l o o d s h e d among them. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e o f s e n t i m e n t between t h e two b e l l i g e r e n t n a t i o n s i s s u r e l y one of t h e c h i e f c a u s e s which account f o r Japan' s c o n t i n u a l s u c c e s s and R u s s i a ' s i n v a r i a b l e d e f e a t . 4 7 A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s , n a t i o n a l u n i t y was no l o n g e r an i s s u e . E d i t o r s a g i t a t e d f o r v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . A t r a d i t i o n o f . j o u r n a l i s t i c l e a d e r s h i p m o t i v a t e d K u r o i w a t o p e r s o n a l l y a d v i s e p e o p l e how t o s u p p o r t t h e war: " i f you a r e r i c h , c o n t r i b u t e money, i f you a r e p o w e r f u l , c o n t r i b u t e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 112 power, and i f you a r e poor, do not waste your money." He s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e masses "work one hour or even t h i r t y m i n u t e s more a d a y . . . i f you ba t h e e v e r y t h r e e d a y s , b a t h e e v e r y four days...women s e t your own hair...men shave your s e l f . . . and women t a k e p a r t - t i m e .jobs." K u r o i w a a d m i t t e d t h e s e were s m a l l , t r i v i a l economic t h i n g s , but argued t h a t "money i s i m p o r t a n t because war depends on f i n a n c e s and t h e s e days t h e y t a k e a l o t o f money." He a l s o t o l d h i s r e a d e r s "not t o ask why we have t o endure h a r d s h i p s because t h i s war w i l l d e c i d e t h e f a t e o f J a p a n . " He warned t h a t money would be o f no use i f t h e n a t i o n were d e s t r o y e d and d e c l a r e d t h a t "we have t o f i g h t t o t h e d e a t h f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e n a t i o n . " 4 8 Deemed a war f o r n a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l , c o m p l e t e s a c r i f i c e seemed w a r r a n t e d . More g e n e r a l l y , a s t r o n g work e t h i c was a d v o c a t e d . War was found t o be good, because "war t r a i n s p e o p l e t o be h a r d w o r k e r s . I f t h e r e a r e no l a z y p e o p l e i n a f a m i l y i t s u r e l y p r o s p e r s . I f t h e r e a r e no l a z y p e o p l e i n a c o u n t r y i t s u r e l y p r o s p e r s . " 4 * The p e o p l e were not i n s p i r e d t o s t r i v e f o r p e r s o n a l g a i n , but f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e n a t i o n . In t h e f a l l , a l o n g e d i t o r i a l d e s c r i b e d what t h e common p e o p l e c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e i n a d d i t i o n t o b l a n k e t s . They were asked t o send c o t t o n c l o t h , which t h e s o l d i e r s c o u l d use under t h e i r u n i f o r m s and s o c k s t o keep warm, or hand t o w e l s (.tenugui) , or o l d newspapers t o e n t e r t a i n t h e t r o o p s . The r e a s o n f o r d o i n g s o ? T h e i r o b l i g a t i o n t o p a t r i o t i c a l l y s e r v e t h e i r c o u n t r y <.ho~koku no giaa") . 8 0 S e t t i n g an example P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 113 f o r t h e masses t o f o l l o w , on 21 October Yoroza p u b l i s h e d i t s 40,000th i s s u e , but i t gave n o t i c e t h a t i t would not c e l e b r a t e because o f t h e war. I n s t e a d i t donated t h e p r o f i t from i t s i n c r e a s e d r u n t o t h e s o l d i e r ' s r e l i e f f u n d . " The e d i t o r s o f Heimin o b j e c t e d t o t h e s e campaigns and lamented t h a t some p e o p l e were c o e r c e d t o d o n a t e . For example, w o r k e r s who c o u l d not a f f o r d t o buy b l a n k e t s were made t o work an e x t r a t e n h o u r s . " Heimin's w r i t e r a r g u e d : " f o r t h e r i c h , p a t r i o t i s m i s n ' t a burden, i t may even be a p r o f i t . For poor p e o p l e , however, p a t r i o t i s m i s a burden... V a r i o u s newspapers r e p o r t p e o p l e donate money f o r t h e war, but t h e y a r e f o r c e d or t h r e a t e n e d u n l e s s t h e y wanted t o be c a l l e d u n p a t r i o t i c . . . The poor s u f f e r under t h e name o f p a t r i o t i s m . " " * Heimin's s t a f f r e p r o a c h e d v a r i o u s newspapers f o r s o l i c i t a t i n g d o n a t i o n s f o r t h e poor and e s p e c i a l l y Osaka Asahi which encouraged c h i l d r e n t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e war fund out o f t h e i r own s a v i n g s because such e f f o r t s t a u g h t them t h e wrong v a l u e s . Heimin's e d i t o r s u s u a l l y found f a u l t w i t h n a t i o n a l campaigns on t h e b a s i s t h a t common p e o p l e were a l r e a d y s u f f e r i n g enough. In c o n t r a s t , when t h e w r i t e r s a t Yoroza t o o k a s t a n d a g a i n s t h i g h e r t a x e s t h e i r r a t i o n a l e was t h a t " p e o p l e spend l e s s on c l o t h e s and m e a l s . . . t o supplement t h e war e f f o r t by t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s . . . They a r e not f o r c e d t o do s o , but i f t h e government f o r c e s p e o p l e t o pay h i g h e r t a x e s , i t i n s u l t s t h o s e who w i l l i n g l y do w i t h o u t . " 8 4 I n c r e a s e d t a x e s were not r e s i s t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e burden t h e y p l a c e d on p e o p l e , P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 114 but because t h e y might hamper t h e war e f f o r t . S e l f - s a c r i f i c e was t o go beyond p r o v i s i o n o f b l a n k e t s and t o w e l s , t h e p u r c h a s e o f bonds, h a r d work, and o b e d i e n c e . The Japanese were a l s o asked t o s u r r e n d e r t h e l i v e s o f t h e i r s o n s , b r o t h e r s , husbands, and f a t h e r s . The e d i t o r i a l e n t i t l e d " L i f e and Death" quoted a London Standard c o r r e s p o n d e n t based i n Japan who i n t e r v i e w e d a mother "who was sad because she d i d not have many son s t o go and f i g h t f o r t h e Emperor." A m i d d l e - a g e d f a t h e r of t h r e e s o n s , a l l s o l d i e r s , was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as ups e t because h i s i n j u r e d son was t o be s e n t home. The f a t h e r f e l t t h a t s o l d i e r s s h o u l d d i e i n war and h i s son's r e t u r n would s t a i n t h e f a m i l y ' s reputation.™ The t o n e o f t h i s a r t i c l e was a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e good Japanese who g l a d l y gave up t h e l i v e s o f t h e i r l o v e d ones. The s o l d i e r s chosen t o become h e r o e s were o f t e n found t o have been i n d o c t r i n a t e d w i t h such v a l u e s by t h e i r p a r e n t s . A gue s t e d i t o r at Yoroza, E n g i n e e r M i y a z a k i , t o l d t h e s t o r y o f a s o l d i e r who v o l u n t e e r e d f o r a s u i c i d e m i s s i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o M i y a z a k i , t h i s s o l d i e r had hea r d t h e r e were many v o l u n t e e r s f o r t h e m i s s i o n , but he f e l t he c o u l d not f a c e h i s p a r e n t s i f he was not chosen , s o begged " P l e a s e chose me." He had made up h i s mind t o do t h i s "because of t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f h i s p a r e n t s which had t a u g h t him t o s a c r i f i c e h i m s e l f whenever p o s s i b l e . " He f e l t he " c o u l d not go a g a i n s t t h e t e a c h i n g o f h i s p a r e n t s , and t h u s he v o l u n t e e r e d . " 3 4 E d i t o r i a l s such as t h e s e gave p a r e n t s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 115 a d v i c e on how t o r a i s e good J a p a n e s e c i t i z e n s . The s e r i e s "The F l o w e r s o f a M i l i t a n t N a t i o n " g l o r i f i e d t h e f i g h t i n g s p i r i t o f t h e Japanese and d e s c r i b e d t h e honor h e r o e s r e c e i v e d . 8 7 The a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s o f two s o l d i e r s were d e s c r i b e d i n an e a r l y October segment: an a r t i l l e r y s o l d i e r was p r a i s e d f o r u s i n g h i s own sword and d i s p a t c h i n g t e n of t h e enemy a t one b a t t l e and t h r e e at a n o t h e r . He was rewarded w i t h a d e c o r a t i o n and t h r e e hundred yen. A f i r s t l i e u t e n a n t i n t h e a r t i l l e r y c o r p s was v i s i t e d i n h o s p i t a l by P r i n c e Y o s h i h i t o where he was encouraged t o d i s p l a y t h e b u l l e t mark on h i s sword and t e l l h i s s t o r y . The l a t e r T a i s h o Emperor was s a i d t o be i m p r e s s e d by t h e s o l d i e r ' s c o u r a g e . 8 8 Another e d i t o r i a l p r e s e n t e d t h e example o f Capt. Naya S e t a r o who committed s u i c i d e (.hara kiri") when d e f e a t was c e r t a i n and encouraged h i s r e m a i n i n g comrades t o do t h e same. The " b e a u t i f u l s a d n e s s " o f t h i s was compared t o a s i m i l a r t a l e i n Kosenki monogatari. Most t e l l i n g o f a l l , a Yoroza e d i t o r i a l t i t l e d " N a t i o n a l i s m " posed and answered t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : What w i l l men d i e f o r ? For t h e Emperor. Why do t h e y d i e f o r him? For t h e s a k e o f t h e n a t i o n . Why do t h e y d i e f o r t h e n a t i o n ? . . . B e c a u s e n a t i o n a l i s m Cminzokashugi) g i v e s p e o p l e t h e r i g h t Ckenri') t o k i l l o t h e r s and t h e o b l i g a t i o n Cgimu) t o be k i l l e d by them. What c o u l d one d i e f o r o t h e r t h a n h i s r a c e , h i s Emperor and h i s n a t i o n ? " 8 ' P r o s e such a s t h i s i n c u l c a t e d r e a d e r s i n t h e s a c r i f i c i a l m o r a l i t y o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 116 * # * A t r a d i t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p and e a r l i e r p h i l a n t h r o p i c campaigns made t h e s e c r u s a d e s p o s s i b l e . A g i t a t i o n t o promote n a t i o n a l u n i t y was r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e end, but t h e f r e q u e n c y and d u r a t i o n o f e a r l y a p p e a l s i m p l i e d i t was i n i t i a l l y h a r d t o a c h i e v e . The d e s i r e f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y was soon preempted by t h e need t o promote s e l f -s a c r i f i c e . The p e o p l e were u r g e d t o s u p p o r t t h e war e f f o r t however p o s s i b l e , and t h i s e c l i p s e d o t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n t o s o l i c t i n g f i n a n c i a l and moral s u p p o r t , . j o u r n a l i s t s asked p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g s , w i v e s , and c h i l d r e n t o g i v e up t h e l i v e s o f t h e i r men. The men, t o o , were s p u r r e d t o s u r r e n d e r t h e i r l i v e s f o r t h e sake of t h e n a t i o n . Y e t , not e v e r y o n e was w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e t o t h e e x t e n t demanded by Yorazu's w r i t e r s . W h i l e n a t i o n a l u n i t y , a c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e of " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , was a t t a i n e d t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y d e g r e e , r e p e a t e d a t t e m p t s t o encourage g r e a t e r s e l f - s a c r i f i c e s u g g e s t s i t remained i l l u s i v e . Throughout t h e war, t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e n d o r s e d by t h e s e campaigns were t h e v i r t u e s o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . A c c e p t a n c e o f i t f u n c t i o n e d t o d e - l e g i t i m i z e o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s and t h o s e who p r e s e n t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s became v i c t i m s o f government c e n s o r s h i p . N o n e t h e l e s s , u n t i l i t s c l o s u r e , t h e j o u r n a l i s t s at Heimin c o n t i n u e d t o i n s i s t t h a t p a c i f i s m , s o c i a l i s m , and freedom o f speech took p r e c e d e n c e over t h e p r i n c i p l e s of n a t i o n a l u n i t y and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . They even gave examples o f men who wounded t h e m s e l v e s t o P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 117 a v o i d s e r v i c e t o emphasize t h e i r v i e w s . to B u t , t h e i r v o i c e grew hushed, and t h e p r i m a c y of " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m seemed unchal1enged. The c r e a t i o n o f worthy and unworthy v i c t i m s e x e m p l i f i e d not o n l y t h e impact o f i d e o l o g y on j o u r n a l i s t s , but t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and o f f i c i a l r e s t r a i n t s t h e y worked w i t h i n . " O f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m encouraged t h e n e g a t i v e p o r t r a y a l o f Ko r e a n s , C h i n e s e , and R u s s i a n s s o l d i e r s , and t h e p o s i t i v e p o r t r a y a l o f Japanese ones. The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f R u s s i a n , K o r e a n , and t h e Japanese s o l d i e r s by Yoroza h e l p e d p e r s o n a l i z e t h e war, de-humanize t h e enemy, and d e f i n e what i t was t o be a Japanese. The n a t i o n a l i s m o f i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r s j o i n e d w i t h t h e t e m p o r a l demands o f t h e medium t o c r e a t e some weak, a l b e i t i n t e r e s t i n g arguments. F r o n t - l i n e r e p o r t s , e x c e r p t s from s o l d i e r s d i a r i e s , and human i n t e r e s t s t o r i e s combined t o h e i g h t e n n a t i o n a l empathy. E x t e n s i v e v i s u a l c o v e r a g e ; d r a w i n g s , e d i t o r i a l c a r t o o n s , and l a t e r p h o t o g r a p h s , made t h e war e a s i e r t o imagine and more i n t e r e s t i n g . - 1 Worthy and unworthy v i c t i m s were t h u s c r e a t e d . Japanese s o l d i e r s were p r e s e n t e d as h e r o e s , t h e i r v i r t u e s ennumerated t o promote n a t i o n a l u n i t y , and t h e i r d e a t h s g l o r i f i e d t o encourage s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . The huma n i z i n g and de-humanizing o f combatants was a l s o good f o r IV WORTHY AND UNWORTHY VICTIMS P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 118 b u s i n e s s . I n t e r e s t i n g , a c c e s s i b l e , and o f t e n amusing, s t o r i e s about h e r o e s were a good way t o f i l l t h e space between a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . Government a c t i o n s augmented t h i s t r e n d . W h i l e s u p p l y i n g a generous h e l p i n g o f Japanese h e r o e s and R u s s i a n v i l l i a n s , Tokutomi and h i s c o l l e a g u e s c l o s e d t h e door t o news o f c o w a r d l y Japanese and h e r o i c R u s s i a n s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n on good news was p e r c e i v e d t o e x p e d i a t e t h e achievement o f Japan's p a t r i o t i c agenda. J o u r n a l i s t s promoted Japan's s u c c e s s e s and d i m i n i s h e d i t s d e f e a t s as good news encouraged s e l f - s a c r i f i c e and consumerism. L o s s e s were downplayed, and as t h e war p r o g r e s s e d t h e b r a v e r y o f Japan's f i g h t i n g men was c i t e d more and more o f t e n a s t h e r e a s o n f o r Japan' s v i c t o r i e s . T h i s was i n p a r t a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o p e r a t i n g on Japanese p r i n t media and i n p a r t a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e need t o encourage such s p i r i t . N a t i o n a l i s m r e q u i r e s t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f "us" from "them," and t h i s combined w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l p a i r i n g o f e t h n i c and n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y t o produce s t e r e o t y p i c a l images. R e s t r i c t i o n s o f t i m e and space n o u r i s h e d t h i s t e n d e n c y . For example, t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Japanese was found t o be moderate (.chttyo") because t h e y f o l l o w e d r e l i g i o n s which o r i g i n a t e d i n I n d i a and C h i n a and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n B u s h i d o . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e v o l a t i l e c h a r a c t e r o f R u s s i a n s was found t o be t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i r c l i m a t e . The c o n c l u s i o n : because t h e s e a s o n s i n R u s s i a ranged from extreme t o extreme, s o d i d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p e o p l e . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 119 Thus "the Russo-Japanese War was between moderate and immoderate c o u n t r i e s , or between c o u n t r i e s w i t h common se n s e and t h o s e w i t h o u t i t . " * * W h i l e t h e l o g i c o f t h i s argument i s l e s s t h a n i m p r e s s i v e , i t was not a t y p i c a l . Another e d i t o r i a l a s s e r t e d t h a t Japan would win t h e war because "we have a w e l 1 - t r a i n e d , b r a v e , p a t r i o t i c army and navy, and t h e R u s s i a n army and navy a r e no c o m p e t i t i o n f o r us. "•' The r e l a t i v e s i z e and s t r e n g t h o f each n a t i o n was i g n o r e d . The o n l y a r e a where R u s s i a seemed t o be more advanced was i n t h e f i e l d o f l i t e r a t u r e . * 4 With t h i s e x c e p t i o n , R u s s i a n s were c o n s i s t e n t l y p r e s e n t e d as i n f e r i o r t o t h e Japanese. R i g h t from t h e s t a r t , Yoroza's e d i t o r s made t h e p o i n t t h a t R u s s i a n s s o l d i e r s were i n f e r i o r t o Japanese s o l d i e r s . They i d e n t i f i e d J apan's s e c r e t weapon as t h e b r a v e r y o f i t s s o l d i e r s : " b r a v e r y i s more i m p o r t a n t than numbers and equipment, and because t h e R u s s i a n s l a c k b r a v e r y i t i s our s e c r e t weapon."" "The World's Back A l l e y C o u n t r i e s " s t r e s s e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p a s s i v e b r a v e r y o f t h e R u s s i a n s and t h e more p o s i t i v e b r a v e r y o f t h e Japanese. R u s s i a n s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s p a s s i v e because o f t h e i r l o n g h i s t o r y o f o p p r e s s i o n . Indeed, t h e y endured, but " w i t h o u t s e n s e or f e e l i n g . " * * In terms o f s t r a t e g y , an e d i t o r a n a l y z e d R u s s i a ' s d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g y a t RyOyC, Saka, and P o r t A r t h u r , and at t h e end o f each assessment made t h e comment " t h e R u s s i a n s a r e not on t h e same l e v e l as us. "*7 Much was made o f s m a l l e r numbers o f Japanese f i g h t i n g g r e a t e r numbers o f R u s s i a n s w i t h n e l i g i b l e l o s s e s . For P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 120 example, at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s 20,000 or 30,000, and 50,000 or 60,000 Japanese fought 200,000 R u s s i a n s and were v i c t o r i o u s . ' " Viewed as i n f e r i o r , R u s s i a n l o s s e s were e a s i l y i g n o r e d . For example, Japan's v i c t o r y at T o k u r i j i was c e l e b r a t e d i n a 26 June 1904 e d i t o r i a l w hich q u i c k l y d i s m i s s e d t h e 3,000 R u s s i a n d e a d . " The p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s e w r i t e r s was t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e Japanese m i l i t a r y was not i t s s t r a t e g y or equipment, but t h e c h a r a c t e r o f i t s s o l d i e r s . I t was good b u s i n e s s not o n l y t o g l o r i f y J a p anese s o l d i e r s , but t o p r e s e n t t h e r e a s o n s f o r R u s s i a ' s f a i l u r e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Yoroza, t h e r e a s o n why R u s s i a was l o s i n g t h e war was because o f i t s system o f a b s o l u t i s m made i t s m i l i t a r y weak. 7 0 O t h e r s i d e n t i f i e d t h e problem as " t h e c o r r u p t i o n and d i s h o n e s t y o f t h e R u s s i a n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . " 7 1 Another e d i t o r i a l a greed t h a t R u s s i a ' s d e f e a t i n t h e war would be t h e r e s u l t o f i t s c o r r u p t p o l i t i c s and even s u g g e s t e d R u s s i a n s viewed Japan as a m o d e l . 7 3 W h i l e t h i s a p p e a r s u n l i k e l y , R u s s i a ' s p o l i t i c a l s y stem was o f t e n g i v e n a s t h e r e a s o n f o r i t s m i l i t a r y f a i l u r e s . R u s s i a ' s weaknesses were a c o n t i n u a l f o c u s o f t h e m ainstream p r e s s . The u s u a l p a t t e r n was t o d e s c r i b e R u s s i a ' s weak p o i n t s b e f o r e p r e d i c t i n g Japan's u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y . The l o g i s t i c , economic, and m i l i t a r y d i f f e r e n c e s between Japan and R u s s i a were o u t l i n e d i n "No A n x i e t y about t h e War S i t u a t i o n . " A t o t a l o f t w e l v e p o i n t s were c o v e r e d , and t h e y ranged from a c o m p a r i s o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 121 l o g i s t i c s t o t h e n a v i e s o f Japan and R u s s i a . In a l l a r e a s , R u s s i a was found t o be o p e r a t i n g at an i n f e r i o r l e v e l . 7 3 R u s s i a n s were not o n l y d e p i c t e d as i n f e r i o r , t h e y were a l s o seen as inhumane. T h e i r s t y l e of f i g h t i n g was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as "savage, r u d e , c r u e l , and d e c e i t f u l - l i k e t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . " 7 4 The e d i t o r o f "The C r u e l t y o f t h e R u s s i a n s and t h e Humanity o f t h e Jap a n e s e " c o n t e n d e d t h a t " t h e C h r i s t i a n n a t i o n o f R u s s i a has done many inhumane t h i n g s . The i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n human e t h i c s by t h e army o f t h e n o n - C h r i s t i a n n a t i o n o f Japan i s well-known i n t e r n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . Our t r e a t m e n t o f R u s s i a n s a t t h e F a l l o f P o r t A r t h u r makes t h i s a p p a r e n t . . . Humanity i s not t h e monopoly o f C h r i s t i a n c o u n t r i e s . C r u e l a c t i o n has been t a k e n by a C h r i s t i a n c o u n t r y , but not by a n o n - C h r i s t i a n one. A f t e r t o d a y , i f t h e r e i s a p e r i l w hich p e o p l e s h o u l d be aware o f , i t w i l l be t h a t o f R u s s i a , not a Y e l l o w P e r i l . " 7 3 D e t a i l s o f R u s s i a n a t r o c i t i e s were c i t e d . The R u s s i a n s were a c c u s e d o f u s i n g c h e m i c a l weapons (.damudamu dangan), d e s e c r a t i n g Japanese c a s u a l t i e s , and a t t a c k i n g t h e i r m e d i c a l c o r p s . R u s s i a n s were r e p o r t e d t o have c u t o f f t h e arms, l e g s , and noses o f t h e dead, s k i n n e d them, c u t out t h e i r e y e s , and t h r e a d e d t h e b o d i e s on p o l e s l i k e skewered meat. 7* In c o n t r a s t , J a panese s o l d i e r s were p o r t r a y e d as h o n o r a b l e w a r r i o r s . G e n e r a l N o g i ' s a d v i c e t o s o l d i e r s was: "the war i s between c o u n t r i e s and not between i n d i v i d u a l s , so even i f you have a t e r r i b l e h a t e toward R u s s i a n s o l d i e r s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 122 you s h o u l d not p l a n a massacre based on revenge. That would c o n t r a d i c t t h e Japanese p r i n c i p l e o f h u m a n i t y . " 7 7 W h i l e t h e R u s s i a n f o r c e s were v i l l i f i e d , t h e Japanese were g l o r i f i e d . A r a r e e x c e p t i o n was t h e c o v e r a g e g i v e n t h e de a t h o f V i c e - A d m i r a l M a k a r o f f . He was p o r t r a y e d as a worthy v i c t i m b e cause " h i s d e a t h worsened t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y R u s s i a n s i t u a t i o n . " The a u t h o r w r o t e t h a t h i s d e a t h would a f f e c t t h e R u s s i a n navy p r o f o u n d l y a s he was t h e o n l y one who c o u l d l e a d t h e R u s s i a n army. He t h e o r i z e d t h a t " i t would not be an e x a g g e r a t i o n t o say h i s l o s s c o u l d mean s p i r i t u a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e R u s s i a n navy, and c o u l d a f f e c t t h e R u s s i a n army t o o . " 7 * However, t h i s k i n d e u l o g y was an e x c e p t i o n t o customary c o v e r a g e . Heroes made good copy. A v a r i e t y o f e d i t o r i a l s d e s c r i b e d t h e h e r o e s o f t h e Ja p a n e s e p e o p l e . In t h e summer, an e d i t o r l i s t e d Japan's c o n t e m p o r a r y h e r o e s , and t h e r e a s o n s why t h e y were a d m i r a b l e . S a i g o T a k a m o r i , Okubo T o s h i m i c h i , and K i d S T a k a y o s h i , were t h e f i r s t t h r e e mentioned and t h e y were h e r o e s because t h e y made names f o r t h e m s e l v e s . They were f o l l o w e d by I t o H i r o b u m i , t h e founder o f new Japan, and Yamagata A r i t o m o , t h e f a t h e r o f Japan ' s army. Next, seven m i l i t a r y men were chosen as h e r o e s because o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r as l e a d e r s : Supreme Commander Oyama Iwao - t r u e , C h i e f of t h e Manchur i a n F o r c e s Kodama G e n t a r 5 - i n t e l l i g e n t , Commander o f t h e F l e e t Togo H e i h a c h i r o - famous, Commander o f t h e I m p e r i a l Guard i n t h e f i g h t t o t a k e P o r t A r t h u r Nogi Maresuke - b r a v e , Kamimura -P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 123 good, and Shimamura - t a c t i c a l . 7 " * These h e r o e s were a l l l e a d e r s o f some k i n d and appear t o have been p r e s e n t e d a s models. And n a t u r a l l y , l e a d e r s r e q u i r e d o b e d i e n t f o l l o w e r s . Media c o v e r a g e of t h e Russo-Japanese War c r e a t e d many h e r o e s , but Navy L t . C o l . H i r o s e , p r a i s e d as a "war h e r o " (gun J in) , w was t h e most p o p u l a r . As commander o f t h e second s u i c i d e m i s s i o n which t r i e d t o t a k e P o r t A r t h u r , when one s a i l o r f a i l e d t o e x i t t h e Fukui Maru, H i r o s e r e t u r n e d t o f i n d him and was t h u s k i l l e d . H i s de a t h f o c u s e d n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n on t h e s u f f e r i n g and l o s s o f Japanese s o l d i e r s , and t h u s t a u g h t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f Japanese c i t i z e n s h i p and pr o p e r m a r t i a l c o n d u c t . P r e s e n t e d as t h e q u i n t e s s e n t i a l w o r t h y v i c t i m , t h e d e t a i l s r e c o r d e d from H i r o s e ' s l i f e h i s t o r y i n d i c a t e which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s had v a l u e . He was d e s c r i b e d as c l e v e r and i n t e l l i g e n t , c a l m and c a r e f u l ; a f a s t l e a r n e r who had no s h o r t - c o m i n g s . A n a t u r a l l e a d e r , he was a good f r i e n d and r e s p e c t e d by h i s f e l l o w s . " He was compared t o t h e r a t h e r odd twosome o f N e l s o n and Morimoto Y o s h i t s u n e <12th c e n t u r y ) . L i k e N e l s o n , H i r o s e was seen a s u n a f r a i d o f d e a t h , and l i k e Y o s h i t s u n e he was p e r c e i v e d as b r a v e even when unarmed. F u r t h e r m o r e , he was found t o have a se n s e o f humanity and n o b i l i t y l i k e Y o s h i t s u n e . •* H i r o s e was found t o be s u p e r i o r t o C e a s a r , N a p o l e a n , and A l e x a n d e r , " t h e b e s t k n i g h t o f a l l k n i g h t s . "•* By comparing him t o o t h e r m i l i t a r y h e r o e s , H i r o s e was o f f e r e d as a model f o r o t h e r s o l d i e r s and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . At t h e same t i m e , h i s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e R u sso-Japanese War 124 a c c r e d i t e d a t t r i b u t e s r e i n f o r c e d t h e v a l u e s o f " o f f i c i a l " nat i o n a l i s m . Moreover, h i s d e a t h was s p e c i a l . A w r i t e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t " a l l humans s h o u l d be l i k e H i r o s e and once born t h e y s h o u l d d i e l i k e him." To d i e b r a v e l y f o r one's n a t i o n was s u p p o s e d l y t h e u l t i m a t e d e a t h . H i r o s e ' s f u n e r a l was g i v e n g r a p h i c f r o n t page c o v e r a g e : t h e mourners, t h e i r a t t i r e , t h e s e t t i n g , t h e event i t s e l f were a l l f u l l y d e s c r i b e d and a c a r e f u l d r a w i n g of t h e f u n e r a l i t s e l f was r e p r o d u c e d . A common v i e w p o i n t was t h a t t h e h e r o i c d e a t h of H i r o s e g a i n e d him e t e r n a l l i f e because "a l i f e w h ich f u l f i l l e d i t s p u r p o s e became immortal . 1 , 4 " O f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m t a u g h t t h a t a l i f e g i v e n i n s e r v i c e t o t h e n a t i o n was a l i f e w e l l - s p e n t . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n and t h e d e s i r e t o be p o s i t i v e meant t y p i c a l w a r t i m e c o v e r a g e downplayed Japanese l o s s e s . A 20 May 1904 e d i t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t e d t h e t e n d e n c y t o downplay l o s s e s . I t d e s c r i b e d t h e g r e a t d e v a s t a t i o n o f t h e i m p e r i a l navy, "t h e Yoshino Kan sank on t h e 15th a f t e r i t was a c c i d e n t l y rammed by a n o t h e r member of t h e f l e e t . . . The Hatsase Kan was sunk by a R u s s i a n mine on t h e same day." I n s t e a d o f r e p o r t i n g c a s u a l t i e s , i t r e c o r d e d t h a t n i n e t y men were res c u e d . * " Two days l a t e r , an a u t h o r a s s e r t e d t h a t he had "no r e g r e t f o r t h e l o s s o f t h e f l e e t , but f o r t h e l o s s o f s o l d i e r s who were c l e v e r and w e l l - t r a i n e d . S h i p s can be r e b u i l t but men cannot be brought back t o l i f e . " " * Note t h e r e g r e t was f o r t h e l o s s o f s o l d i e r s r a t h e r t h a n t h e l o s s o f l i f e . From t h e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e War 125 f o u r s h i p s t h a t went down, seven hundred men d i e d . Heimin o b j e c t e d t o t h i s t y p e o f c o v e r a g e : "when t h e b a t t l e s h i p Hatsuse and t h e c r u i s e r Vosbino were sunk, a g r e a t e r s o r r o w seemed t o be e x p r e s s e d f o r t h e l o s s o f t h e s h i p s t h a n f o r t h e drowning o f t h e men. I t was t h e same when our t r a n s p o r t s h i p s were sunk by t h e R u s s i a n f l e e t r e c e n t l y . "91 Heimin lamented t h e d e v a l u a t i o n o f human l i f e war b r o u g h t . As K u b l i n a r g u e d , i t " r e p e a t e d l y reminded t h e p e o p l e o f t h e s t a g g e r i n g numbers o f t h e i n n o c e n t p r o l e t a r i a t who would be s a c r i f i c e d i n t h e war." 1* Y e t , even t h e i r e d i t o r i a l s d i d not r e v e a l t h e t r u e s i t u a t i o n . L i k e o t h e r newspapers, Yorozu p r e s s u r e d t h e m i l i t a r y f o r a c l e a r v i c t o r y a t P o r t A r t h u r i n t h e f a l l . As a c o n t e m p o r a r y o b s e r v e r a r g u e d , t h e second a s s a u l t on P o r t A r t h u r , l i k e i t s p r e d e c e s s o r , w a s . . . p a r t o f t h e consuming s e n t i m e n t t o t a k e P o r t A r t h u r by d i r e c t a s s a u l t . The Japanese m a n - i n - t h e - s t r e e t was f o r ever c l a m o u r i n g t h a t P o r t A r t h u r was t o be made t o " f a l l " . . . At no t i m e d u r i n g t h e s e i g e was t h i s newspaper a d v i c e more f r e e l y t e n d e r e d t h a n j u s t b e f o r e t h e Emperor's b i r t h d a y (November 3 ) . M The d e s i r e f o r a c l e a r v i c t o r y l e a d t o t e r r i b l e l o s s e s . But, t h e y were s l i g h t e d , r e f l e c t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f government c e n s o r s h i p , or Yorozu's t e n d e n c y t o c o n c e n t r a t e on good news and i g n o r e t h e bad. James a l s o r e c o r d e d : f o r t h r e e days and n i g h t s t h e g r e a t s e i g e park m a i n t a i n e d a c o n t i n u o u s cannonade... Death was rampant on t h e h i l l s i d e . . . The brown s l o p e s were t h i c k l y s t r e w n w i t h b l a c k forms t h a t l a y s t i l l and P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 126 m o t i o n l e s s b e s i d e u n s u l l i e d b a y o n e t s . . . They were shot i n t h e i r b a c k s . . . Some t r i e d t o r u s h N o r t h f o r t from t h e r e a r and were k i l l e d t o a man... I c o u l d hear i n t h e m i l e s and m i l e s of t r e n c h e s around me t h e i n d i s t i n c t murmuring o f t h e s t r e t c h e r - b e a r e r s g a r n e r i n g t h e h a r v e s t o f wounded... The s i g h t s were enough t o make b r a v e men weep. *° Between 26 t o 30 O c t o b e r , t h e wounded at t h e second a s s u a l t o f P o r t A r t h u r were almost 2,500, and more t h a n 4,000 d i e d . " The same f i l t e r s f u n t i o n e d t o make j o u r n a l i s t s want t o s o f t e n bad news. For example, "we must p r e p a r e o u r s e l v e s f o r l o s s e s and remember t h e p u r p o s e o f war i s u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y . . . To a c h i e v e o v e r a l l s u c c e s s we must be p r e p a r e d t o l o s e a t c e r t a i n t i m e s . We w i l l be compensated i n t h e end w i t h v i c t o r y . " * * When o n l y f i f t y o r two hundred c a s u a l t i e s were p i c k e d up at a b a t t l e , t h e s e l o s s e s were e a s i l y d i s m i s s e d . * 8 Japanese l o s s e s at t h e b a t t l e o f Saka were r e p o r t e d t o be 14 t o 15,000, but t h e y were o n l y compared t o R u s s i a ' s 60 t o 70,000 t o 100,000 c a s u a l t i e s . * * C e n s o r s h i p j o i n e d w i t h n a t i o n a l i s m t o f i l t e r out bad news, or p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l e a s t damaging f o r m a t . One e d i t o r f e l t " c a s u a l t i e s were t h e p r i c e o f peace i n t h e p a s t " and d i r e c t e d a w a r n i n g at p a c i f i s t i c dreamers: "Japanese p e o p l e need m i l i t a r y power f o r t h e i r f u t u r e g o a l s and b r a v e minds t o m a i n t a i n t h e m i l i t a r y s t r e n g t h p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r peace."* 8 The p r o m i s e of v i c t o r y was made a g a i n and a g a i n , and l e d t h e p e o p l e o f Japan t o b e l i e v e i t would b r i n g w i t h i t a more s u b s t a n t i a l award th a n i t f i n a l l y d i d . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 127 F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e speed at which news had t o be p r o d u c e d r e s u l t e d i n m i s t a k e s . For example, on 2 December, t h e a u t h o r of "The G r e a t S u c c e s s of t h e S e i z u r e o f P o r t A r t h u r " c e l e b r a t e d Japan's o c c u p a t i o n o f 203 M e t r e H i l l . * " * In r e a l i t y , however, Japan d i d not have u n d i s p u t e d c o n t r o l o f t h e h i l l . On 27 November Japanese t r o o p s won t h e c r e s t , but t h e R u s s i a n s won i t back on t h e 2 8 t h . That e v e n i n g t h e J a p anese t r i e d a g a i n and s u c c e e d e d at 3:00 a.m., but l o s t i t a g a i n by 7:00 a.m. T h i s p a t t e r n was r e p e a t e d on t h e 2 9 t h , t h e 3 0 t h , and a g a i n on and t h e 1 s t . A l l was q u i e t f o r t h r e e d a y s , and Japan began t h e f i n a l s u c c e s s f u l a s s u a l t on t h e 5 t h . In t h o s e few days o f f i g h t i n g , 8,000 Japanese were k i l l e d or wounded, and over 4,500 R u s s i a n s . * 7 U n l i k e t h e e d i t o r s a t Yorozaf who were p r o h i b i t e d from knowing or i g n o r e d t h i s d e v a s t a t i n g seesaw, James w r o t e , t h u s f o r a s i n g l e h i l l 12,500 c a s u a l t i e s were r e c o r d e d , and i n no s o l i t a r y i n s t a n c e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e w o r l d was so much h o r r o r c o n t r a c t e d i n t o s o s m a l l a s p a c e , f o r t h e r e v o l t i n g d e s t r u c t i o n wrought by d ynamite bombs and h i g h e x p l o s i v e s h e l l s was never more h i d e o u s l y e x e m p l i f i e d t h a n t h e b a t t l e o f 203 M e t r e H i l l . The c o r p s e s o f t h e b e l l i g e r e n t s - and t h e r e were over 2,000 o f t h e s e on t h e h i l l s i d e t h e day I v i s i t e d t h e h i l l - were m o s t l y denuded o f t h e i r c l o t h i n g , s c o r c h e d , deformed, and d e f a c e d beyond r e c o g n i t i o n , and i n t h e t r e n c h e s t h e i r was a p u l p o f m u t i l a t e d humanity. The s i g h t o f t h o s e t r e n c h e s heaped up w i t h t h e arms and l e g s and dismembered b o d i e s a l l mixed t o g e t h e r and t h e n f r o z e n i n t o compact masses, t h e e x p r e s s i o n s on t h e f a c e s o f t h e s c a t t e r e d heads of d e c a p i t a t e d b o d i e s , t h e s tupendous magnitude of t h e c o n c e n t r a t e d h o r r o r , i m p r e s s e d i t s e l f i n d e l i b l y i n t o t h e utmost r e c e s s e s o f my unaccustomed b r a i n . " P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 128 The h o r r o r o f war was absent from t h e columns o f Yoroza. I n s t e a d , R u s s i a ' s f i g h t i n g s t y l e was c r i t i c i z e d , i t s d i s t a i n o f f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n e x p l a i n e d , and i t s sy s t e m o f b a t t l e f i e l d p r o m o t i o n s put down." The d e s i r e t o r e p o r t p o s i t i v e news e f f e c t i v e l y f i l t e r e d t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s . Japan's e x t e n s i v e l o s s e s i n i t s f r e q u e n t b a t t l e s t o t a k e P o r t A r t h u r r a t h e r t h a n t o w a i t f o r R u s s i a t o s u r r e n d e r were g e n e r a l l y d i s m i s s e d when v i c t o r y was a c h i e v e d . Y e t , t h e s t a t i s t i c s were a p p a l l i n g . In t h e S e i g e o f P o r t A r t h u r 57,780 J a p a n e s e were k i l l e d o r wounded, and 28,200 R u s s i a n s . 1 0 0 The b a t t l e o f 203 Meter H i l l , one of t h e b l o o d i e s t campaigns, was remembered as " c r u c i a l t o Japan's u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s a t P o r t A r t h u r . " 1 0 1 The r a t i o n a l was t h a t "we know t h a t many s o l d i e r s were k i l l e d i n b a t t l e but s i n c e t h e s u r r e n d e r o f P o r t A r t h u r has g r e a t meaning t h e s e c a s u a l i t i e s s h o u l d be c o n s o l e d (.nagasamaru) f o r t h e sake of t h e p e o p l e , t h e n a t i o n , A s i a , and t h e w o r l d . 1 0 * A g a i n , r e f e r e n c e was made t o an e v e n t u a l r e w a r d . The f a l l o f P o r t A r t h u r meant e v e n t u a l v i c t o r y , and f o r most J a p a n e s e t h e c o s t was a c c e p t a b l e . In c o n t r a s t , J a panese and R u s s i a n w o r k i n g men and women, and t h e f a m i l i e s o f t h e war dead r a t h e r t h a n t h e s o l d i e r s t h e m s e l v e s , were w o r t h i e r v i c t i m s t o t h e j o u r n a l i s t s a t Heimin. Even b e f o r e war was d e c l a r e d , i t s impact was condemned: m u n i t i o n w o r k e r s were f o r c e d t o work t e n days i n a row and o n l y s l e e p an hour or two a day i n c o r n e r s o f f a c t o r i e s , postmen were f o r c e d t o work from 29 P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 129 December t o 12 J a n u a r y , from 5 a.m. t o 2 a.m. t h e next morning, and some s t r e e t c a r w o r k e r s had t o work f o u r t e e n h o u r s a day. 1 0* Heimin emphasized t h a t w o r k e r s were b e i n g o ver-worked because o f t h e war, and c i t e d a l e t t e r from a worker who d e c l a r e d " i t i s not a r a r e t h i n g f o r me t o be f o r c e d t o work t h r e e days i n s u c c e s s i o n . " 1 0 ' * The burden on w o r k e r s was a r e g u l a r f e a t u r e , and t h e number o f unemployed bemoaned. Note was made o f t h e 5,000 t e a c h e r s who l o s t t h e i r .jobs i n November.* 0 8 In t e r m s o f t h e h a r d s h i p s p e o p l e g e n e r a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d , Heimin n o t e d t h a t " a f t e r t h e war began, wages f o r w o r k e r s i n c r e a s e d , but so d i d p r i c e s . . . s o m e w o r k e r s r e a l l y s u f f e r e d . " * 0 4 E d i t o r s w r o t e t h a t t h e y t r i e d t o r e p o r t t h e s o c i a l t r a d e g y c a used by war r e a l i s t i c a l l y but not s e n s a t i o n a l l y t o p r o v e t h e a c t u a l burden p l a c e d on p e o p l e by t h e w a r . 1 0 7 The f a m i l i e s o f s o l d i e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e k i l l e d i n b a t t l e , were a c o n s t a n t c o n c e r n . J u s t b e f o r e t h e o u t b r e a k of war Heimin d e t a i l e d t h e p e n s i o n war widows would r e c e i v e , and bemoaned t h a t t h e s e p e n s i o n s were l i m i t e d t o t h e l i f e o f t h e widow, d i s c o n t i n u e d i f she r e m a r r i e d , and not enough t o l i v e on.' 0 8 Throughout t h e war, Heimin a g i t a t e d f o r b e t t e r p e n s i o n s f o r s o l d i e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . ' 0 8 In t h e s p r i n g o f 1904, Heimin took a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t e p and e x t e n d e d i t s a n t i - w a r a p p e a l t o R u s s i a n and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s t s . I t s p a c i f i s m was r e - e m p h a s i z e d i n an open l e t t e r t o t h e R u s s i a n s : "we o b j e c t a b s o l u t e l y t o u s i n g arms i n our f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e war. We have t o f i g h t P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 130 by p e a c e f u l means, by r e a s o n and spee c h . 1 , 1 1 0 Heimin's p l e a was w e l 1 - r e c e i v e d and became a symbol o f peace. On 24 J u l y 1904 t h e r e p l y from R u s s i a was p u b l i s h e d and on 7 August T o l s t o i ' s d e n u n c i a t i o n of t h e war, " B e t h i n k Y o u r s e l v e s , " was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o J a p anese and o f f e r e d i n l i e u o f an e d i t o r i a l . I t was so p o p u l a r t h a t r e p r i n t s were r e q u i r e d . Between 17 A p r i l and 4 September K o t o k u ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h y o f t h e R u s s i a n Lev D e i c h (Leo D e u t s c h ) Sixteen Years in Siberia, was e x c e r p t e d t o convey t h e h a r d s h i p s o f Japa n ' s comrades i n R u s s i a . 1 " R u s s i a n s o c i a l i s t s were p o r t r a y e d as a l l i e s a g a i n s t a common f o e r a t h e r t h a n an inhumane enemy. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e government, which had t r i e d t o m a i n t a i n a f a v o r a b l e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e s s , was d i s p l e a s e d by a l l t h i s f o r e i g n a t t e n t i o n . In t h e summer, Heimin c o m p l a i n e d "our countrymen go c r a z y t o c e l e b r a t e t h e f a l l o f P o r t A r t h u r , but do t h e y r e a l i z e what i t means?... I t means 10,000s o f w o r k e r s i n Japan and R u s s i a a r e dead, t h e i r w i v e s widows, t h e i r c h i l d r e n o r p h a n s , and m i l l i o n s o f yen and r u b l e s worth o f p r o p e r t y d e s t r o y e d . " " a They d e t a i l e d t h e many dead and wounded i n t h e s e i g e o f P o r t A r t h u r , and q u e s t i o n e d Yomiuri's r e p o r t t h a t c o n t e m p o r a r y v i c t o r y c e l e b r a t i o n s were t o thank w o r k e r s . Heimin i n s t e a d i d e n t i f i e d t h o s e p a r t i c i p a n t s as b e a s t s , not humans. 1" In t h e f a l l , t h e same p e r s p e c t i v e was a p p a r e n t : "we a s s e r t t h a t war i s e x t r e m e l y m i s e r a b l e and h a r m f u l , and i s not a b e a u t i f u l s t o r y or good t h i n g . " 1 1 4 W h i l e t h e r e s t o f Tokyo went w i l d w i t h h a p p i n e s s P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 131 because of t h e f a l l o f P o r t A r t h u r i n J a n u a r y , Heimin reminded i t s r e a d e r s t h a t i t was not t h e end o f t h e war, but t h a t i t meant t h a t hundreds o f t h o u s a n d s o f our s o l d i e r s were b e i n g exposed t o t e r r i b l e weather and t h e enemy's b a y o n e t s . " ' R i g h t u n t i l i t s demise on 29 J a n u a r y 1905, t h e w r i t e r s at Heimin c o n t i n u e d t h e i r a n t i - w a r a g i t a t i o n . V TRENDS T h i s a n a l y s i s o f Yorozu* <s newspaper e d i t o r i a l s i n d i c a t e s i t s j o u r n a l i s t s were i n c r e a s i n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e d i c t u m s o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . The aim o f e d i t o r s seemed t o be t o muster s u p p o r t f o r a v i t a l n a t i o n a l u n d e r t a k i n g , r a t h e r t h a n t o q u e s t i o n t h e v e n t u r e i t s e l f . J o u r n a l i s t s ' s e l f - a s s i g n e d r o l e had become t h e d e f e n s e and p r o p a g a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s w hich t h e y h e l d d e a r , and as most o f them had become s u p p o r t e r s o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , i t s v a l u e s were u s u a l l y t h o s e o f f e r e d . " O f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m f u n c t i o n e d a s a c o n t r o l mechanism which e n s u r e d c o v e r a g e o f t h e Russo-Japanese War g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t e d o f f i c i a l aims. The j u s t n e s s o f t h e war was a c c e p t e d a t f a c e v a l u e , Japanese a g g r e s s i o n was u n r e c o g n i z e d or i n a d m i s s a b l e , and r e p o r t i n g and a n a l y s i s remained w i t h i n p r e - s e t b o u n d a r i e s . In o r d e r t o p r e s e n t t h e Russo-Japanese War as a h o l y war f o r n a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l , t h e p r e s s was p o s i t i v e and e n t h u s i a t i c . I t mounted P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e R u sso-Japanese War 132 campaigns t o c r e a t e p o p u l a r sympathy and s u p p o r t f o r t h e f i g h t i n g man. Worthy v i c t i m s were i d e n t i f i e d p r o m i n e n t l y and d r a m a t i c a l l y , g e n e r a t i n g i n t e r e s t and s a l e s . The c o n t e x t of t h e s e p o r t r a y a l s e x c i t e d or enraged t h e r e a d e r ' s n a t i o n a l s y m p a t h i e s or p r i d e . Unworthy v i c t i m s were de-humanized, and g i v e n l i t t l e sympathy or a d m i r a t i o n . M i l i t a r y campaigns were r e p o r t e d from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , and c r i t i c a l judgement, i n v e s t i g a t i v e z e a l , and c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n appeared a b s e n t . D u r i n g t h e R usso-Japanese War, t e c h n i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s combined t o make e d i t o r i a l s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t , s i m p l e , somewhat fragme n t e d , and t o p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n a u n d e r s t o o d s y s t e m o f norms. Packaged w i t h i n an amusing or l i g h t f o r m a t , conveyed by a u t h o r i z e d knowers, e d i t o r s e x h o r t e d and a d v i s e d r e a d e r s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m were emphasized and t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f a l t e r n a t i v e s r e p r e s s e d . Demands f o r l o y a l t y t o t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y , a p o l i t i c a l o b e d i e n c e , s a c r i f i c e f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e n a t i o n , and a s t r o n g work e t h i c appeared o f t e n , but a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s m , p a c i f i s m , and c r i t i c i s m o f t h e I m p e r i a l f a m i l y r a r e l y . The a t t r i b u t e s s t r e s s e d by e d i t o r s had become t h e d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i a of " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m and t h u s f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y d u r i n g t h e R usso-Japanese War. " O f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m f i l t e r e d out " u n p a t r i o t i c " v i e w s , and a s c o n s e n s u s r e i n f o r c e d i t , o t h e r ways t o e x p r e s s n a t i o n a l i s m l o s t l e g i t i m a c y . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 133 The e v o l u t i o n o f p r i n t media d u r i n g t h e M e i j i P e r i o d s e t t r e n d s t h a t remain v i s i b l e t o d a y . As i l l u s t r a t e d , media's c r i t i c i s m o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t was not p e n e t r a t i n g , and i t a c t u a l l y worked t o s u p p o r t o f f i c i a l i n t e r e s t s by c r e a t i n g an atmosphere o f c o n f l i c t w i t h o u t t r a n s g r e s s i n g p r e - s e t b o u n d a r i e s . At t h e s t a r t of t h e Russo-Japanese War, t h e e a r l i e r t r a d i t i o n o f p r e s e n t i n g a v a r i e t y o f v i e w p o i n t s w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l newspaper gave way t o t h e o l d custom o f p r e s e n t i n g a u n i f i e d d o c t r i n a i r e p o s i t i o n . As a r e s u l t , i n d i v i d u a l j o u r n a l i s t s were no l o n g e r a b l e t o d e v i a t e from t h e p a r t y - l i n e . The h a b i t o f l e a d e r s h i p was c o n f i r m e d d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War, and t o d a y Japanese r e p o r t e r s s t i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on m o l d i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n r a t h e r t h a n p r e s e n t i n g u n b i a s e d news. Thus, a f t e r t h e e a r l y M e i j i a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e Western concept o f newspapers, a c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s took p l a c e which r e s u l t e d i n a d i s t i n c t i v e her i t a g e . E d i t o r i a l c o v e r a g e o f t h e Russo-Japanese War e s t a b l i s h e d a p r e c e d e n t f o r l a t e r a n a l y s i s o f n a t i o n a l i s s u e s . For example, t h e r e s e m b l a n c e between World War Two e d i t o r i a l s and t h o s e o f t h i s c o n f l i c t was not i n c i d e n t a l . Dower's i n s i g h t f u l account o f t h e impact o f r a c i s t s t e r e o t y p e s on t h e conduct o f t h e P a c i f i c War c o n f i r m e d t h a t d e h u m a n i z i n g t h e enemy, g l o r i f y i n g one's own t r o o p s , and e x a g g e r a t i n g t r i u m p h s advanced Japan's p a t r i o t i c a g e nda. 1 , 4 Thus, t h e m a t u r a t i o n o f p r i n t media d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War produced a p o t e n t l e g a c y . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 134 1 Irokawa, The Culture of the Heiji Period, p. 293. See Hiraoka Toshio, Hichiro Set go bungaku to ketkfS, jti (Yuseido, 19S5); and Ian H. Nish, Ihe Qrigits of the Russo-Japanese Her (New York: Longhaa, 1985). 2 Okaeoto Shuepei, Ihe Japanese Oligarchy and the Russo-Japanese Har (Hew York and London: Columbia University Press, 1970). 2 Najita Tetsuo, 'Introduction: A Synchronous Approach to the Study of Conflict in Hodern Japanese History,' Conflict in Hodern Japanese History, p. 9. * Stephen U. Littlejohn, Theories of Hunan Conunication, 2nd Edition (Belaont: Uadsworth Publishing Coipany, 1983). 9 Andrew 6ordon, 'The Crowd and Poli t ics in Imperial Japan: Tokyo 1905-1918," Past and Present 21 (1988):149. 4 'Rise, the People of our Land!' Yorozu 31 August 1905. Ian H. Nish asserted that "there was a broad-based enthusian for war which only the genro seened anxious to danpen.' Japanese Foreign Policy, 1869-1942'. Hasaiigaseki to Hiyakezaka. (London: Rout ledge and Kegan Paul, 1977), p. 70. See also Nishida, Heiji jidai no shit bat to zassbi, p. 236. 7 'Autocratic Governnent,' Yoroza 21 Hay 1905. * 'Those Nho Decide on Peace and Har,' Heitit Shiiban 7 February 1904. See also 'Bokushi's Anti-war Principles, ' Heiiin Shiiban 29 November 1903. * "The Reaction Against Tolstoy's Anti-war Stance," Heinin Shiibat 11 Septenber 1904. 1 4 "Nationalise," yoroza 10 Hay 1905. " "nationalise," Xorozu 10 Hay 1905. » 2 "The Future of As ia , ' Xoroza 29 July 1904. 1 9 'The World's Unique Nationality, Parts One and Two," Yoroza 9, 11 April 1905. 1 4 Okatoto Shuapei, "The Eaperor and the Crowd: The Historical Significance of the Hibiya Riot , ' Conflict it Hodern Japanese History: Ihe Heglected Tradition, Najita Testuo and J . Victor Koschaann, eds. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982), p. 274. 1 9 "Trouble Again with Iaperial Pictures," Heiiin Shiiban 10 January 1903. 1 4 "The Logic of National Unity," tfeiiis Sniifrai 23 October 1904. 1 7 "The Religion of the Japanese People: the Poetic Aspect of Har," Yoroza 19 Hay 1904. 1 4 'The Religion of the Japanese People: the Poetic Aspect of War," Yorozu 19 Hay 1904. " 'A Strange Logic, ' Heiiin Shiibat 29 Noveaber 1903. 2 0 'Bokushi's Anti-var Principles, ' Heitit Shiibun 29 Noveaber 1903. 2 1 'Mar Has Coae,' Heiiin Shiibun 14 February 1904. 2 2 For exaaple "Report on the Socialist Hoveaent," 22 Noveaber; "A Profile of our Comrades," 29 Noveaber, 13, 20, 27 Decsaber 1903; 'The Hoveaent of our Comrades," 6, 27 Harch, 3, 10 Apr i l , 24, 31 July, 7, 21, 28 August, 4, 18, 25 Septeaber, 2, 16 October 1904, and then every issue until 29 January 1905; and 'The Key Points which wi l l Decide the Destiny of Socialise, ' Heiiin Shiibun 3 January 1904. 2 2 "The Future of the Labor Hoveaent,' 22 Noveaber; "1,000 Unemployed,' and "A Profile of our Coarades," 29 Noveaber; "Too Huch Overtime,' 13 Deceaber 1903; 'war and Workers," 6 Harch and 8 Nay; 'A Wage Hike for Bricklayers," 10 Apr i l ; "The Bad Condition of Workers in the Kimono Industry," 17 Apri l ; "650,000 Unemployed in the States," 14 August; 'The Song of Workers," 9 October; "Fish Market Workers," 26 June; "Take Care," 25 September; "The Increase in Boy Miners in the U . S . , ' 6 November; 'Songs of Factory Woaen," 25 Deceaber 1904, and 'The Occupations of Japanese Woaen," H e i i i i Shiibat 22 January 1905. 2 4 For exaaple even when reporting on the dissolution of the Diet, Heiiin Shiibut 20 Deceaber 1903. 2 9 "What is Japan Fighting For?" Heiiin Shiibun 27 Harch 1904. 2 4 "The War and People's Hinds," Hen it Shinbun 27 Harch 1904. 2 7 "Reply to the Reporters of yoroza,' Heiiin Shiibat 24 July 1904. 2 9 'The Problea of the Plunder of Korean Land,' Heiiis Shiiban 31 July 1904. 2 » 'Our Policy Toward Korea," Heiiin Sfciibai 28 August 1904. 2 0 "Port Arthur and the Russian Principle of Hili tary Power," Yoroza 28 August 1904. 2 1 Other authors did, however. See for exaaple "Russia or Japan?" yoroza 15 Nay 1905. 2 2 'The True Value of the Aray and Navy,' yoroza 6 September 1904. 2 9 "The Future of Asia," yoroza 29 July 1904. A few months later, another Yoroza editor took P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 135 pleasure in Japan's improved international stature: 'since the victory of Ryoyo", Japan, which had been recognized as a candidate to become a 6reat Nation, is now recognized as a powerful 6reat Nation.' This statement was qualified: "Japan's reputation as a Great Nation is not really established as a fact unless Japan proves her superiority by peaceful as well as military means.' 'The So-Called Great Nation,' Yoroza 13 September 1904. 3 4 'How Should We End the War?' Yoroza 28 April 1904. 8 8 "The future of As ia , ' Yoroza 29 July 1904. 3 4 For example, Kokutit's circulation dramatically increased because of SohS's close ties to the government. Its daily circulation grew from 6,000-7,000 in 1900, to 20,000 in 1902, to 80,000 during the var. Readers wanted the full story, and those papers which appeared to have i t gained readership. Pierson, Tokutoti Softs, pp. 274-81. 3 7 Although i t was later re-issued on IS April as Tokyo Hiroka, i t had suffered a big set-back. Ariyama, 'Kyanpein janarizumu no j ida i ,* pp. 40-4S; Haruhara, Hihot shitbat tsi-shi, p. 114. 3 3 "House of Representatives," Heitit Shitbat, English section. 3 3 'The Group to Support Soldier's Families,' Yoroza 27 September 1904. 4 0 "Composed Patriots Are Needed,' Yoroza 9 February 1904. See also 10 and 18 Hay 1904. At this time the nation was not unified in i t s support of the war. N.Y.K., for example, was striving to get i ts fleet under the British flag in order to avoid losing routes due because of an off icial demand for more than half a million in tonnage. While this was a well-kept secret, i t does reflect a dsunity of opinion. Wray, Mitsubishi asd the H.Y.I., pp. 374. 4 1 "The Way to Show the Truth of a United Nation," Yoroza 8 February 1904. 4 3 "The Changed Appearance of the Japanese during the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars,' Yoroza 11 February 1904. 4 9 'The Logic of National Unity," Heitit Shitbat 23 October 1904. 4 4 'Wartime and Anti-war Arguments,' Heitifl Shitbat 10 April 1904. 4 8 'The Confusion of So-called Patriots, ' Heitit Shitbat 6 November 1904. 4 4 'We Do Not Stop Anti-war Arguments,' Heitit Shitbat 18 December 1904. 4 7 'Why Russia Loses,' Yoroza 28 November 1904, English column. 4 4 "People's Preparation Against the War," Yoroza 20 February 1904. 4 0 "A 6olden Opportunity to Excite the People's Hinds: The War and National Expansion," Yoroza 18 Hay 1904. 8 0 'One Aspect of Soldiers' Relief , ' Yoroza 27 October 1904. 8 » 'Notice, ' Yoroza 21 October 1904. 8 3 "Workers at Munitions Factories and Blankets,' Heitit Shitbat 23 October 1904. Other examples were also offered. 9 8 'The Heavy Burden of Patriotism," Heitit Shitbat 6 Harch 1904. Furthermore, "the rich readily accept interest on the war bonds they purchase, and i f they subscribe to the war fund, they expect something in exchange." 'The Confusion of So-Called Patriots, ' Heitit Shitbat 6 November 1904. 9 4 "Reduce the Cost of Living," Yoroza 24 November 1904. The agitation against higher taxes was continued on 29 November 1904. Again, the argument was that higher taxes discouraged people from buying bonds, 'We Must Not Harm the People's Will to Buy Bonds." 9 9 'L i fe and Death," yoroza 3 August 1904, 8 4 "The Closure of Port Arthur: Scenes from the Departure of Our Heroes," Yoroza 14 April 1904. 8 7 The series was begun in the summer and featured examples of patriotic soldiers. See for example, 22 July; 29 September; and 2 October 1904. 8 8 "The Flowers of a Militant Nation Which are More Beautiful Than Novels: The Spirit of Soldiers, ' Yoroza 2 October 1904. 8 3 "Nationalism," Yoroza 10 Hay 1905. 4 0 "Those Who Hurt Themselves to Avoid Conscription," Heitit Shitbat 9 October 1904. See Appendix, p. v i i i , for an editorial drawing which depicted the poor being forced to enlist. 4 1 In terms of visual coverage of the war, until 1904 Yoroza carried very few illustrations on the front page. However, from the outbreak of host i l i t ies , portraits of military off icials were often printed on page one. In Harch 1904, scenes from the war were added, in Apr i l , examples of calligraphy, and during the summer, maps of actual battles. On 25 January the first photograph was P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 136 published in Yoroza, of a SUM chaapion. By February, photos of Military casualties had becote frequent. At the end of the nonth the first battlefield photos were reproduced, but drawings regained •ore cotton than photos until after the war. Editorial cartoons beeate tore popular as the war progressed, but i t is interesting to note that they were usually reprints of those published by foreign newspapers rather than those domestically produced. As for He it is, i t published few graphics, just the occassional drawing of fatous socialists, or editorial cartoons latpooning capitalists and sympathizing with workers. See Appendix for exatples of both. 6 2 "The Contrast Between the Japanese and Russians," Yoroza 24 April 1905. * J "The People's Concern is Completely Gone," Yoroza 7 June 1904. 4 4 "The Religion of the Japanese People: the Poetic Aspect of War," Yoroza 19 Hay 1904. 4 4 "The Mar's Secret Weapon,' Yoroza 22 Harch 1904. And, Japan's victory against the Russian fleet at anchor in the harbor of Port Arthur during the opening days of the war was found to be the result of 'the effort, bravery, and loyalty of the Japanese troops led by Adtiral T0g5. "The Anniliation of the Fleet At Port Arthur," Yoroza 25 December 1904. Drawings of battle scenes reinforced this belief. See Appendix, p. 175. 44 Yoroza 17 April 1905. 4 7 "A Defensive Uar, An Attacking War, A Fortress War," Yoroza 21 October 1904. See Appendix, p. 172 and 174, for cartoon portrayals of the relative strength of Japan and Russia. Heitit's view is represented on p. 177. 4 4 "The True Value of the Army and Navy," Yoroza 6 September 1904. " "Understand the Great Victory at Tokuriji," Yoroza 21 June 1904. 7 0 "Why Weak?" yoroza 21 February 1904. 7 1 'The Destruction of Absolutism," yoroza 9 December 1904. A variety of editorial cartoons borrowed from the international press and reprinted in Yoroza i l lustrate this point. See Appendix, p. 176. 7 2 "The One Big Effect of the Victory," Yoroza 28 January 1905. See Appendix for editorial cartoons regarding this contention. 7 2 "No Anxiety about the Uar Situation," 24, 25 October 1904. 7 4 "The Russian Fighting Style," yoroza 30 October 1904. See Appendix, p. 171, for a characterization of i t as a cannabalistic nation. 7 B yoroza 12 January 1905. 7 4 "The Cruelty of the Russians and the Humanity of the Japanese,' yoroza 12 January 1905. See also 'The Atrocities of the Russian Army and the Bombing of the Red Cross,' "The Outrageous Actions of the Russians," and 'The Unlawful, Cowardly Russia.' These editorials manifest the prevailing attitude toward Russians, yoroza 10 and 20 January, 29 July 1905, and various. 7 7 "The Cruelty of the Russians and the Humanity of the Japanese," yoroza 12 January 1905. 7 4 'Ah! Vice-Admiral Hakaroff," yoroza 15 April 1904. 7 4 "The Hero of the Japanese People," yoroza 24 August 1904. 4 0 'The Funeral of Naval Lt. Col. Hirose,' yoroza 14 April 1904. Also transcribed as 'god of warfare.' 4 1 "Lt. Col. Hirose's Hissing Story, 1 froi a column entitled 'Other Perspectives: a Story About Soldiers," yoroza 6 April 1904. This editorial was about twice the usual length, and included a 8 Harch sample of Hiroes's calligraphy and a drawing of the funeral procession at Shimbashi Station. Commemorative funerals were held a l l over Japan for Hirose. 4 2 "Navy Lt. Col. Hirose, Nelson, and Yoshitsune," yoroza 11 April 1904. This editorial also contained a sample of Hirose's brother's calligraphy. 4 2 "The Greatness of Lt. Col. Hirose," yoroza 16 April 1904. It is interesting to note he was only compared to Europeans in this article. * 4 4 "Life and Death," yoroza 3 August 1904. See Appendix, pp. 172 and 174 , for drawings and sayings which emphasized this point. 4 4 "The Great Hisfortune of the Empire's Navy," Yoroza 20 Hay 1904. 4 4 "Our Navy's Hisfortune," yoroza 22 Hay 1904. 4 7 'Pensions for Soldiers," Heitit Shitbat 3 July 1904, English section. 4 4 Kublin, Hsiat Revolatiotarj, p. 163. 4 4 David H. James, Ihe Seige of Port Srthar: Records of at Eje-Hittess. (London: T. Fisher Unwin, P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 137 1905), p. 148-56. •* Jaaes, The Seige of Port Arthur, p. 148-56. n Jates, The Seige of Port Arthur, p. 161. *» 'Don't Be Sad!' Yoroza 20 June 1904. See also 'A Tear!' Yorozu 13 June 1904. " 'The True Value of the Arty and Navy,' Yoroza 6 Septetber 1904. •» 'No Anxiety about the Har Situation, ' 24 October 1904. *» "The Price of Progress," Yoroza 14 Decetber 1904. ** Japan's terrible losses were disaissed with this rationale: "great losses are necessary for great successes." yoroza 2 Deceaber 1904. , r Jaaes, The Seige of Port Arthur, p. 206. *• Jaaes, The Seige of Port Arthur, pp. 194-95. ** Respectively, "Russian Fighting Style," 30 October; "Does Russia Want Foreign Intervention," 31 October; and 'The Marvel of Russia,' Yorozu 4 Noveaber 1904. 1 0 0 Hane, Hodern Japan, p. 176. 1 0 1 'The Surrender of the Eneay's Soldiers at Port Arthur," yoroza 3 January 1905. 1 0 2 "The Fall of Port Arthur," yoroza 4 January 1905. toa 'Overtiae Work," Heiiin Shiiban 10 January 1903. 1 0 4 H e i i i i Shiioan 13 Narch 1904, 'Long Hoar Labor,' English section. 1 0 0 "The Influence of War on Education," 27 Noveaber 1904. 1 0 9 "War and Workers," Heiiin Shinban 6 Harch. See also 29 Hay 1904. 1 0 7 Nishida, "Kaisetsu," p. 11. See Appendix, pp. 177-180, for editorial cartoons which exeaplify these points, to* PENSIONS FOR THE FAMILIES OF CASUALTIES To the faailv of Yen annually a private soldier 36 to 57 a non-coaaissioned officer 60 to 150 a Second Lt. 180 a First Lt. 225 a Captain 300 a Hajor 450 a Lt . Colonel 600 a Colonel 750 Source: 'War and Faailies of Soldiers, ' Heiiin Sbiibui 17 January 1904, English section. , 0 * For exaaple, 'Help for Soldier's Children," 21 August 1904; "Soae Activities of the Association of Bereaved Faailies of Soldiers," 2 October; and "Doing Something to Help Soldiers' Faai l ies , ' 23 October 1904; "Pensions for Soldiers," 3 July 1904; "The Japanese Victory at Liaoyang and National Festivity at Hoae," 18 Septetber 1904; "The Fund for Helping Soldiers' Families," H e i i i i Shinban 9 October, English section. M O "To the Socialists in Russia," Heiiin Shiiban 13 Harch 1904. Even before the war broke out, cartoons stressed the ties between Russian and Japanese socialists. See Appendix, pp. 177 and 179. 1 1 1 "Gods Latent and Spirits Weep: the Adventurous Story of the Russian Revolution," Heiiin Shiiban. 1 1 2 'The Fall of Port Arthur,' Heiiin Shinban 28 August 1904. " 3 'The Terrible Conditions of Port Arthur,' Heiiin Shiiban 28 August 1904. 1 1 4 'The Purpose of Antiwar,' Heiiin Shiifrai 18 Decetber 1904. 1 1 9 'The Fall of Port Arthur,' Heiiin Shinban, 8 January 1905. 1 1 6 John D. Dover, Har Hitbout Mercy (New York: Pantheon Books, 1986). 138 C H A P T E R F ~ I I | s | C O N C L U S I O M THE MEDIUM As Anderson p o s i t e d , p r i n t c a p i t a l i s m was t h e f o r c e which gave b i r t h t o Japanese n a t i o n a l i s m . B u i l d i n g on t h e l e g a c y o f t h e Tokugawa e r a , Japanese p r i n t media q u i c k l y d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h e " p r o - e s t a b l i s h m e n t " and " p o l i t i c a l " e r a s t o become c o m p l e t e l y c ommercial by t h e l a t e M e i j i p e r i o d . The c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e media meant t h a t some news and newspapers would be m a r g i n a l i z e d w h i l e o t h e r s became dominant. As Herman and Chomsky t h e o r i z e d , t h e v i a b i l i t y o f the medium grew t o be d e t e r m i n e d by a d v e r t i s e r s . T h i s q u i c k e v o l u t i o n was a l s o t h e r e s u l t of d e l i b e r a t e government encouragement. O f f i c i a l s r e c o g n i z e d t h e p o t e n t i a l l e g i t i m i z i n g power o f p r i n t , but were dismayed when t h e p r e s s d i s s e m i n a t e d " v e r n a c u l a r " n a t i o n a l i s m s as w e l l as " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . By t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , news was s t r a i n e d by i d e o l o g i c a l , t e c h n i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and o f f i c i a l f i l t e r s . A b e l i e f i n " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m r e i n f o r c e d c e r t a i n i d e a s and s l i g h t e d o t h e r s . T e c h n i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s combined t o rob a r t i c l e s and e d i t o r i a l s o f l e n g t h , d e p t h , and c o n t e x t . As a r e s u l t , s t e r e o t y p e s became commonplace. The f i n a l c o n s t r a i n t of news - t h e government - had r e f i n e d P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 139 i t s a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e news p r o d u c t i o n . When i t l e a r n e d how t o b e t t e r m a i n p u l a t e t h e p r e s s , i t r a r e l y had t o r e s o r t t o d i r e c t c o e r c i o n . One can view M e i j i p r i n t media as an i n s t r u m e n t which b o t h r e d u c e d and s t r a i n e d t h e raw m a t e r i a l of news. D u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War a f i n a l , d r a m a t i c r e d u c t i o n i n p a r a m e t e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n s t r a i n e d t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t . T h i s c o n t r a c t i o n s i g n a l l e d an i d e o l o g i c a l s h i f t from d i v e r s i t y t o s i m i l a r i t y . The r e l a t i v e u n i f o r m i t y o f v i e w s p r e s e n t e d i n conte m p o r a r y Japanese p r i n t media can be t r a c e d t o t h e s e r o o t s . The impact o f each of t h e s e v a r i o u s f i l t e r s was e x e m p l i f i e d i n Yoroza and Heimin's e d i t o r i a l c o v e r a g e of t h e Russo-Japanese War. The e d i t o r i a l s of Yoroza s p r e a d t h e go s p e l of " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m w h i l e h e l p i n g t o d e f i n e i t . I t s v i r t u e s were p r o c l a i m e d : l o y a l t y , o b e d i e n c e , h a r d work, and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , f o r t h e sake o f emperor and n a t i o n . The r e a s o n s o f f e r e d f o r Japan's d e c i s i o n t o go t o war, t h e pr o m o t i o n of n a t i o n a l campaigns, and t h e c r e a t i o n of worthy and unworthy v i c t i m s a l l r e f l e c t t h e gr o w i n g ascendency o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e common b e l i e f i n " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s t o mainstream newspapers and f o r c e d a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w s i n t o a m a r g i n a l i z e d p r e s s . Heimin kept o t h e r v e r s i o n s of t h e n a t i o n b e f o r e t h e p e o p l e f o r over a y e a r . I t was doomed t o f a i l u r e t h o u g h , because t h e r e a l t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r p a c i f i s m and s o c i a l i s m had been K u r o i w a ' s p u b l i c c o n v e r s i o n . When t h e c i r c u l a t i o n P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 140 of Yoroza began t o d e c l i n e i n 1903, t h e p e o p l e had v o t e d . The p a c i f i c i s t i c , n o n - i m p e r i a l i s t i c n a t i o n a l i s m o f K o t o k u and S a k a i no l o n g e r a p p e a l e d t o a wide a u d i e n c e . Once t h e y were i s o l a t e d from mainstream r e a d e r s , i t c o u l d not compete. Heimin's p r o l o n g e d , v i r u l e n t a t t a c k on t h e u n d e r l y i n g power s t r u c t u r e o f t h e M e i j i government d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War was i n i t i a l l y t o l e r a b l e , but as t h e war wore on t h e a l t e r n a t i v e w o r l d v i e w i t r e p r e s e n t e d appeared more t h r e a t e n i n g . W h i l e t h e c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f p r i n t media was t h e t r u e c o n s t r a i n t o f news, Heimin was f o r c e d by o f f i c i a l p r e s s u r e t o c e a s e p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1905. A f t e r i t c l o s e d , t h e need t o j u s t i f y J a p anese i m p e r i a l i s m ' s e e m e d t o be r e d u c e d . The o c c u r a n c e o f e d i t o r i a l s i n Yoroza which l e g i t i m i z e d J a p a n ' s quest f o r empire grew l e s s f r e q u e n t , and r a r e l y appeared by t h e summer. The l a c k o f debate over t h e i s s u e meant t h e problem had been r e s o l v e d f o r j o u r n a l i s t s . By t h e end o f t h e war, an almo s t u n i f i e d v i e w o f t h e n a t i o n had become apparent and t h e manner i n which t h e n a t i o n c o u l d be imagined was t h u s c o n s t r a i n e d . THE AUDIENCE In o r d e r t o a n a l y z e t h e impact o f Yoroza and HeiminTs e d i t o r i a l c o v e r a g e o f t h e Russo-Japanese War on t h e Japanese p e o p l e , t h e q u e s t i o n s o f whether p e o p l e wanted or were a b l e t o r e a d newspapers s h o u l d be r a i s e d . However, s t a t i s t i c s on l i t e r a c y and on t y p e or q u a l i t y o f r e a d e r s h i p a r e s c a n t y . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 141 One f a i r l y r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e o f a d u l t male l i t e r a c y was t h e d r a f t exam (.chohsi kenka) which i n 1900 y i e l d e d a l i t e r a c y r a t e of f o r t y - f i v e per c e n t . 1 As s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t c l i m b e d so d i d l i t e r a c y r a t e s and 1912 e s t i m a t e s o f male l i t e r a c y a r e s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t . 2 I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t female l i t e r a c y l a g g e d b e h i n d t h e s e r a t e s , a l t h o u g h l i t t l e c o n c r e t e d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e t o s u p p o r t t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . N o n e t h e l e s s , more p e o p l e , from a wider range o f back g r o u n d s , were a b l e t o r e a d newspapers by t h e s t a r t o f t h e Russo-Japanese War. However, whether p e o p l e were l i t e r a t e or not was made l e s s i m p o r t a n t by newspapers* i n c r e a s i n g use o f g l o s s e s iyomikata) , c o l l o q u i a l l anguage (.genbun* itch i > , and e d i t o r i a l c a r t o o n s and p i c t u r e s . R e l i a b l e c i r c u l a t i o n d a t a i s s c a r c e , but r e a d e r s h i p d e f i n i t e l y i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War. The c i r c u l a t i o n f i g u r e s c i t e d i n Chapter One showed t h a t Tokyo Asahi and Hochi made t h e g r e a t e s t g a i n s between 1904 and 1907, of 115 and 122 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . W h i l e t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be no p a r t i c u l a r r e a s o n f o r Asahi's g a i n , Hochi's growth was t h e r e s u l t of two s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s . 2 With t h i s e x c e p t i o n , however, growth i n c i r c u l a t i o n seems t o have been caused by an i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o r e a d and p u r c h a s e newspapers, and h e i g h t e n e d r e a d e r i n t e r e s t . 4 O v e r a l l r a t e s of r e a d e r s h i p can be e s t i m a t e d . In 1905, Japan's p o p u l a t i o n was 47,678,000 and t o t a l newspaper c i r c u l a t i o n was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,654,500 d a i l y i s s u e s . 8 T h i s means t h a t 3.5 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a c e d i r e c t l y p u r c h a s e d P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 142 d a i l y newspapers. In t h e same y e a r , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f Tokyo was 2,500,000, and t h e d a i l y c i r c u l a t i o n o f newspapers 760,000. 6 i f a l l Tokyo p a p e r s were p u r c h a s e d by i t s c i t i z e n s , t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f t h o s e who l i v e d i n t h e c a p i t a l would have p u r c h a s e d t h e i r own paper. In c o n t r a s t , i n 1898, e i g h t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f Japanese ( J a p a n ' s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was 40,453,000 i n 1900) l i v e d i n towns o f l e s s t h a n 10,000 p e o p l e , but t h e r u r a l c i r c u l a t i o n o f a l l f o r t y - t w o p r e f e c t u r a l p a p e r s was .just 450,000 i n 1904. 7 I f t h o s e who l i v e d i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e bought o n l y t h e i r p r e f e c t u a l p a p e r , t h e r a t e would have been one p e r c e n t . As d a t a f o r t h e number of urban p a p e r s marketed i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e and f o r p r e f e c t u r a l p a p e r s s o l d i n Tokyo and Osaka i s m i n i m a l , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e t h e d i s t o r t i o n i n t h e s e f i g u r e s . One p o s s i b l e way t o r e s o l v e t h i s dilemma i s t o e x t r a p o l a t e from a wel1-documented example. Heimin, a l r e a d y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a s h o r t - l i v e d , d i s t i n c t l y m a r g i n a l newspaper which a p p e a l e d p r i m a r i l y t o t h e w e l l - e d u c a t e d , was a b l e t o market o n e - t h i r d of i t s s a l e s t o t h e p r e f e c t u r e s . • I f t h e major Tokyo and Osaka p a p e r s were a b l e t o do t h e same (or c o n c e i v a b l y more) t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between r u r a l r a t e s o f d i r e c t p u r c h a s e (one p e r c e n t ) and t h e urban r a t e s ( t h i r t y p e r c e n t ) would be r e d u c e d . However, i t i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l e t h a t urban Japanese were t h e major a u d i e n c e f o r newspapers. D u r i n g t h e Russo-Japanese War c i r c u l a t i o n r o s e because more and more p e o p l e c a r e d about news. Irokawa has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e number of p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e war P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 143 u n d o u b t e d l y made them more aware of t h e n a t i o n and t h e p roblems i t f a c e d . 850,000 men from v i l l a g e s a l l over Japan became comrades i n arms. In a d d i t i o n , n e a r l y one f i f t h o f a l l a d u l t male w o r k e r s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n m i l l i o n , were employed i n w a r - r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s . T h i s t o o s e r v e d t o h e i g h t e n i n t e r e s t i n t h e war. Vast numbers of J a panese a l s o f e l t t h e impact o f t h e war i n d i r e c t l y . Taxes r o s e , as d i d t h e c o s t o f f o o d , and many s e r v i c e s were c u r t a i l e d . These changes a f f e c t e d p e o p l e d a i l y , and Japanese l o s s e s ( o f t h o s e m o b i l i z e d more t h a n 80,000 d i e d and a n o t h e r 40,000 were wounded) made news of t h e war a l l t h e more r e l e v a n t t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v e r s i f i e d c l a s s o f r e a d e r s . THE IMPACT " O f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m was not born f u l l - g r o w n , but was d e f i n e d i n s p u r t s and jumps, i n r e a c t i o n t o p o p u l a r demands and o l i g a r c h a l needs. The government a t t e m p t e d t o promote i t s model and r e p r e s s o t h e r s , but a l t h o u g h "honey had caught more bees t h a n v i n e g a r , " government i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t e n back-f i r e d . Newspapers c o n t i n u e d t o d i s s e m i n a t e b o t h " o f f i c i a l " and " v e r n a c u l a r " v e r s i o n s of t h e s t a t e and d u r i n g b o t h t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e and Russo-Japanese Wars t h e government's c o n t r o l of t h e raw d a t a o f news and i t s subsequent d i s s e m i n a t i o n a c t u a l l y enhanced p o p u l a r j i n g o i s m . The government's i n c o r p o r a t i o n of i m p e r i a l i s m i n t o " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s t a t e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 144 s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s a r m e d " v e r n a c u l a r " n a t i o n a l i s m s . However, because t h e p e o p l e remained more . j i n g o i s t i c t h a n t h e government, t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o a g i t a t e f o r a s t r o n g e r f o r e i g n p o l i c y . A c c o r d i n g t o Oka, t h e government "planned t o t a k e t h e energy o f t h e p e o p l e , which up t o t h a t p o i n t had been c o n s o l i d a t e d and m o b i l i z e d f o r t h e cause o f n a t i o n a l independence, and r e c h a n n e l i t toward t h e g o a l of n a t i o n a l e x p a n s i o n . " * However, e d i t o r i a l c o v e r a g e o f t h e Russo-Japanese War p r o v e d t h a t t h e p e o p l e were c o n s i s t e n t l y more i m p e r i a l i s t i c t h a n t h e government. As Beer a s s e r t e d , " t h e n , as l a t e r , t h e n a t i o n a l i s m o f t h e p r e s s , a l o n g w i t h some i n t e l l e c t u a l s and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , c a t a l y z e d t h e a c t i v i s t n a t i o n a l i s m o f t h e Japanese p o p u l a c e . " 1 0 The n a t i o n a l i s m o f t h e masses and t h e r o l e o f j o u r n a l i s t s as l e a d e r s o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n was e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o peace n e g o t i a t i o n s at t h e end of t h e Russo-Japanese War. B e g i n n i n g as e a r l y as 16 June 1905 Yoroza c a l l e d f o r t h e masses t o t a k e a f i r m s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e proposed t r e a t y , because i t o f f e r e d d r a s t i c a l l y l e s s t h a n t h e y had been l e d t o e x p e c t . When t h e peace t a l k s drew t o a c l o s e a t t h e end of t h e summer, i t s p r o t e s t s grew more f r e q u e n t and v o c i f e r o u s . Ariyama argued t h a t " t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e p r e s s f e d t h e p u b l i c had i n c r e a s e d t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s by e x a c e r b a t i n g t h e i r a n g e r . " 1 1 The c r e a t i o n of worthy and unworthy v i c t i m s , t h e p r o m o t i o n of n a t i o n a l campaigns and t h e e x a g g e r a t i o n o f Japan's s t r e n g t h s and R u s s i a ' s weaknesses had d i s t o r t e d p o p u l a r p e r c e p t i o n s . The P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 145 e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i d e o l o g i c a l , t e c h n i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and o f f i c i a l f i l t e r s o f t h e news " l e f t t h e p u b l i c unaware of t h e p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n of t h e Japanese a r m i e s i n t h e summer o f 1905. 1 1 1 2 In o r d e r t o u n i t e t h e p e o p l e , j o u r n a l i s t s had g i v e n good news much g r e a t e r p l a y t h a n bad. The n a t i o n a l i s m of j o u r n a l i s t s encouraged them t o w r i t e from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s - i n o t h e r words, t o be p o s i t i v e and e n t h u s i a t i c . The f a c t t h a t good news was good b u s i n e s s was un d o u b t e d l y a f a c t o r . Media c o v e r a g e l e d t h e p u b l i c t o g r o s s l y o v e r e s t i m a t e t h e re w a r d s peace would b r i n g . The H i b i y a I n c e n d i a r y I n c i d e n t (.Hibiya yakiuchi Jiken') was a c i t y - w i d e r i o t t h a t o c c u r r e d on 5 September 1905 t o p r o t e s t t h e T r e a t y of P o r t s m o u t h which ended t h e Russo-Japanese War. When F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r Komura l e f t f o r t h e peace t a b l e i n J u l y , a c o a l i t i o n o f e i g h t n a t i o n a l i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s formed t h e J o i n t C o u n c i l o f F e l l o w A c t i v i s t s on t h e Peace Q u e s t i o n (Koua mondai doshi rengokai). I t s l e a d e r s were d e t e r m i n e d t o c r e a t e s uch a s t r o n g p r o t e s t t h a t t h e emperor would r e f u s e t o s i g n t h e peace t r e a t y . A mass m e e t i n g was p l a n n e d f o r H i b i y a Park on 5 September 1905, but at t h e l a s t m inute o f f i c i a l s d e n i e d t h e use o f t h e park t o t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s . The p r e s s had a l r e a d y announced t h e meeting and t h a t day 30,000 p r o t e s t o r s b r o k e down t h e b a r r i c a d e s t o e n t e r t h e p a r k . By 1:30 p.m. v a r i o u s r e s o l u t i o n s d e n o u n c i n g t h e peace agreement had been p a s s e d , and i n a change of s c h e d u l e , about two thousand p e o p l e headed toward t h e I m p e r i a l P a l a c e . The p o l i c e f e a r e d t h e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 146 crowd might t r y t o p e t i t i o n t h e emperor d i r e c t l y and t r i e d t o h o l d them back. By t h e t i m e t h e f i g h t i n g had s u b s i d e d b o th s i d e s had s u s t a i n e d numerous c a s u a l t i e s . Meanwhile, a t v a r i o u s venues, o f f i c i a l a t t e m p t s break up o t h e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s l e d t o f u r t h e r f i g h t i n g . S k i r m i s h e s c o n t i n u e d t o break out t h a t day and n i g h t , and r e s u l t e d i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y two tho u s a n d i n j u r e d , s e v e n t e e n dead, and two thousand a r r e s t e d . Of t h o s e a r r e s t e d , o n l y 187 men were c o n v i c t e d . P r o p e r t y damage was e x t e n s i v e , and more th a n 350 b u i l d i n g s were v a n d a l i z e d , i n c l u d i n g t h e p r e m i s e o f t h e p r o -government Kokumin Shimban ( t h e o n l y d a i l y t h a t r e f u s e d t o condemn t h e t r e a t y ) , t h e r e s i d e n c e of t h e M i n i s t e r o f Home A f f a i r s , and 219 p o l i c e boxes. 1* I n t h e days a f t e r t h e H i b i y a R i o t , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s were s t a g e d t h r o u g h o u t Japan. The government d e c l a r e d m a r t i a l law and suspended a number of p a p e r s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e H i b i y a R i o t i s a w e l 1 - c o n t e s t e d i s s u e . The c o n t r o v e r s y stems from two i n t e r - r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s . Why d i d t h e r i o t t a k e p l a c e ? Were t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s p o l i t i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s ? Yoroza gave a contem p o r a r y answer: " i f t h e p o i s o n o u s hand (.dokushu") o f th e a u t h o r i t i e s had not i n t e r f e r r e d t h e assembly would have f i n i s h e d p e a c e f u l l y . " 1 4 W i l s o n took t h e o p p o s i t e p o s i t i o n when he wr o t e t h a t "one may s p e c u l a t e t h a t p u b l i c h o s t i l i t y t o t h e g r e a t e r a u t h o r i t y of t h e p o l i c e p l a y e d some p a r t i n p r o v o k i n g t h e v i o l e n c e . " 1 3 W h i l e b o t h arguments c o n t a i n e l e m e n t s o f t h e t r u t h , P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 147 Matsuo i n c i s i v e l y p i n - p o i n t e d t h e cause o f t h e r i o t : " t h e p e o p l e f u l f i l l e d t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s so t h e y f e l t t h e y s h o u l d r e c e i v e p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s i n r e t u r n . T h e p e o p l e were c o n v i n c e d t h e war was t h e i r war, and t h e y wanted repayment f o r a l l t h e y had s a c r i f i c e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Yorazu "because p e o p l e s a c r i f i c e d t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e war...the u n f a v o r a b l e peace t r e a t y s h o u l d not be r e c o g n i z e d . " 1 7 Throughout t h e war, i n o r d e r t o s u s t a i n t h e p e o p l e ' s w i l l , t h e p r e s s had a l l u d e d t o t h e economic and p o l i t i c a l r e w a r d s peace would b r i n g . The developments o f September appeared t o o f f e r n e i t h e r . Matsuo's p o s i t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t h e masses were p o l i t i c a l l y aware, a view which has been c o n t e s t e d . Okamoto d i s a g r e e d w i t h h i s s t a n d , and a s s e r t e d "one cannot a c c e p t t h e view t h a t t h e H i b i y a r i o t was a mass s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e r u l i n g power. 1"" In c o n t r a s t , Ariyama w r o t e t h a t t h e H i b i y a R i o t was " t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e o f t h e p e o p l e a p p e a r i n g on t h e p o l i t i c a l s c e n e . G o r d o n a l s o argued t h a t t h e Japanese were a c t i n g i n a p o l i t i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s manner, as d i d Oka, who s u g g e s t e d t h a t " t h e p e o p l e were b e g i n n i n g t o see government as t h e i r own b u s i n e s s . "*° When t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s of p e o p l e g a t h e r t o e f f e c t p o l i t i c a l change, t h e y a r e p o l i t i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a l l t h e p e o p l e who d e m o n s t r a t e d were aware o f t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n t e n t of t h e i r a c t i o n . T h e i r i g n o r a n c e , l i k e t h e i r l a c k o f s u c c e s s , does not change t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f what o c c u r r e d . I n c r e a s e d p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s was t h e t r u e P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 148 l e g a c y of media c o v e r a g e of t h e d e b a t e over i m p e r i a l i s m . By t h e end o f t h e Russo-Japanese War, t h e p e o p l e had a c c e p t e d t h e emperor as t h e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as d i s a p p o i n t e d as t h e y were by t h e terms o f t h e peace t r e a t y , t h e y d i d not ask him t o t a k e on t h e r o l e o f t h e government or award i t t o them. When t h e M e i j i masses d e m o n s t r a t e d a g a i n s t t h e peace t r e a t y , t h e y d i d so from w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . They a p p e a l e d t o t h e emperor t o u r g e t h e government t o change i t s d e c i s i o n . T h e i r p e t i t i o n was not an attempt t o remove t h e government from t h e scene: i n s t e a d , t h e y t r i e d t o have t h e emperor f o r c e t h e government t o r e j e c t t h e t r e a t y or r e p l a c e i t . The government had s u c e s s f u l l y p o s i t e d i t s e l f as an e s s e n t i a l element i n t h e p o l i t i c a l s y stem. The d e m o n s t r a t i o n d i d not q u e s t i o n t h e need f o r government: t h e c o n c e r n was f o r i t s c h a r a c t e r . The p e o p l e were not t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h an a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l s ystem. R a t h e r , t h e i r a c t i o n s were a n o t h e r attempt t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . O f f i c i a l s had o n l y g r a d u a l l y g a i n e d a monopoly on t h e r i g h t t o d e f i n e J a p anese n a t i o n a l i s m , and d e s p i t e a d d i n g i m p e r i a l i s m t o t h e i r model, as t h e H i b i y a R i o t showed, t h e masses s t i l l b e l i e v e d t h e y had r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h a t p r o c e s s . N i s h i d a i n s i g h t f u l l y argued t h a t " t h e meaning o f t h e p r o t e s t i s t h a t i t was t h e appearance o f t h e p e o p l e ' s s t a n d f o r a v i g o r o u s f o r e i g n p o l i c y . " 2 1 T h i s i s c o r r e c t , f o r J apanese " v e r n a c u l a r " n a t i o n a l i s m s had c o n s i s t e n t l y been P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and the Russo-Japanese War 149 more i m p e r i a l i s t than " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . Throughout the M e i j i p e r i o d , " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m had responded to popular p r e s s u r e , i n c o r p o r a t i n g c e r t a i n demands i n t o i t s v e r s i o n of the s t a t e . The ideas that the o l i g a r c h s r e s i s t e d were those that c h a l l e n g e d the b a s i s of t h e i r power. A d i r e c t l i n k between the emperor and the masses was one such t h r e a t . When the p e o p l e demonstrated a g a i n s t the peace t r e a t y , they d i d not t r y t o a s s e r t another system of p o l i t i c s . T h e i r p r o t e s t was an attempt t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , not r e p l a c e i t . O f f i c i a l s r e f u s e d to add t h i s demand t o " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m , and the crowd's attempt t o make c o n t a c t with the emperor was doomed for t h i s reason. Moroever, the hegemony of " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m meant i t dominated other i d e a s . Hegemony does not mean doxy. Other v e r s i o n s of the s t a t e e x i s t e d , and v i e d for f o l l o w e r s . The meaning of hegemony was t h a t t h e i r attempts to g a i n mastery would be u n s u c c e s s f u l . * * * H i s t o r i a n s u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 as an event t h a t brought Japan great power and w o r l d -wide a c c l a i m . 2 2 It stood at the t u r n of the c e n t u r y , which in both domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l terms was one of the most c r u c i a l p e r i o d s for Japan. I n t e r n a l l y , i t was a p e r i o d of great change, marked by i n c r e a s e d p o l i t i c a l awareness, the P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 150 d e c l i n e o f o l i g a r c i c power, t h e growth o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , h i g h e r l i t e r a c y , u r b a n i z a t i o n and s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g , and an e x p a n d i n g w o r k i n g c l a s s . E x t e r n a l l y , t h i s p e r i o d saw Japan, once t h r e a t e n e d by Western t e r r i t o r i a l and economic i m p e r i a l i s m , a c h i e v e p a r i t y w i t h t h e West and embark on her own c o l o n i a l a d v e n t u r e . Anderson s u g g e s t e d t h e r e a s o n Japanese n a t i o n a l i s m became i m p e r i a l i s t i c i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was because t h e model u n d e r s t o o d from Europe was i m p e r i a l i s t i c . He added t h a t Japan's l o n g i s o l a t i o n from t h e West meant t h a t an awareness of t h e e q u a l i t y o f n a t i o n s , which had a p p a r e n t l y r i s e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h European n a t i o n a l i s m s , was c o n s p i c o u s l y absent i n J a p a n . M W h i l e European models o f n a t i o n a l i s m were i n f l u e n t i a l , t h e t i m i n g and c o n t e x t o f t h e development o f Japanese n a t i o n a l i s m were a l s o c r u c i a l . The r e a l winner o f t h e Russo-Japanese War was " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . The n a t i o n was r e - c o n c e i v e d i n t o an emperor system t h a t u n i t e d t h e p e o p l e , t h e government, and t h e emperor i n t o an i m p e r i a l f a m i l y s t a t e . N o n - i m p e r i a l models of n a t i o n a l i s m were no l o n g e r v i a b l e . P r i n t made i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e Japanese t o i m a g i n e t h e i r n a t i o n , and c a p i t a l i s m i n s u r e d t h e hegemony of " o f f i c i a l " n a t i o n a l i s m . P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 151 I Nishida, Reiji jidai no shinban to zasshi, p. 13S. Soae tests of literacy were based on whether a person could sign their naae, which hardly qualified thea to read newspapers. 3 Yaaaaoto, Shinban to ninshU, p. 135. 3 In 1901, it set up a network of exclusive distributors at the agent level and in 1903 it expanded this network to exclusive distributors at the retai l level. This systea of distribution was able to out-perfora other papers. Secondly, in 1906, fidcni began to distribute an evening edition which utilized this systea, and i t becaae Japan's first successful evening paper. Because Tokfo Asahi and Osaka Rainichi did not follow suit until 1915, HSchi was able to aonopolize this aarket. * The extreae popularity of extras offers proof of this. Osaka Rainichi is said to have published an average of 22 extras a aonth during the war, Haruhara, Winoi shinban tsH-shi, p. 113. 8 Population statistics froa Hihon teikoka tvkei nenkan, 1882-1941; circulation figures froa Oka, Sendai Niftos shinban sbQshi, pp. 95-96; and Yaaaaoto, Hihon shinban-shi, pp. 221-224. * Gary D. Allinson, Suburban Tokyo: a Conparative Study in Politics and Social Change (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), p. 19. Population figure for Tokyo includes Santaaa, other figures froa the sources cited in fn. i 6. 7 Hane, Hod em Japan, p. 139; other figures froa the sources cited in fn. t 6. 8 Heinin Shinbun 10 July 1904. * Oka, "Generational Conflict," p. 203. 1 0 Beer, Freedon of Expression, p. 57. I I Ariyaaa, "Kyanpein janarizuau no j i d a i , " p. 46. 1 3 Nish, Japanese Foreign Policy, p. 76. 1 3 Data froa Okaaoto, The Japanese Oligarchy and the Russo-Japanese Har. When the public turned against the governaent in Septeaber 1905, in the next aonth, Kokunin experienced a decline in sales of fifty percent and in advertising of twenty percent. The situation becaae cr i t ica l by the new year, and Soho" was forced to change the paper's tone froa a pro-governient poli t ical paper to a "•ass-oriented" publication. Pierson wrote he did this in recognition of the "power of the lasses." This strategy was successful, and Kokunin recouped i ts lost circulation within a few years. Tokutoai SohO, pp. 284-87. 1 4 Xoroza 7 Septeaber 1905. 1 3 George H. Wilson, Radical nationalist in Japan: Kita Ikki, 1882-1937 (Caabridge: Harvard University Press, 1969), p. 17. 1 3 Hatsuo, Taisho Denokarashii, p. 74. » 7 "Rise, People of Our Land!" Yoroza 31 August 1905. 1 3 Okaaoto, 'The Eaperor and the Crowd," p. 264-267. 1 9 Ariyaaa, "Kyanpein janarizuau no j i da i , " p. 47. 3 0 6ordon, 'The Crowd and Poli t ics in Iaperial Japan,' p. 146; Oka Yoshitake, 'Generational Conflict after the Russo-Japanese Uar,* Conflict in Hodern Japanese History, p. 224. 3 1 Nishida, Heiji jidai no shinbun zasshi, p. 272. 3 3 John U. Dower, Enpire and Afternath: Yoshida Shigeru and the Japanese Experience, 1878-1954 (Caabridge: Harvard University Press, 1988), p. 13; Peter Duus, 'Nagai NyQtaro and the 'White P e r i l , ' 1904-1944,' Joaraal of Asian Studies 31:l(Noveaber 1971):42; Irokawa, The Culture of the Heiji Period, p. 215; Harius 8. Jansen, "Changing Japanese Attitudes Toward Modernization," Changing Japanese Attitudes Toward Hodernization, Harius B. Jansen, ed. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965), pp. 76-77; E. H. 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L ^ ft 5 * S Lf © Hi" is: mi It L* S i ft o o * «*-c © -c- % * t sr • x © r *$; i r r i K f , e » r « 5 < * » : A S « f «• « 2>5 © S It" «/> o j n i t t ; « J § * A?& IBS 1 r'-c-TJS 7. It i • C . 5 -o v» •C fiF* * © fit*. £4* 6 tfj •c S* kf -c-**t «*> « ©: ft' 1 ft; it; t it A A * * , © at tt « 5 % i t w o it * i m * « s * l te:-e 8*Z ft L b t *» •C S f i \ Pfli *. *tv * * u e x ; ta: * i m r o z n n * 7 b o s s : r % o T? SKI * •gr-€ tt 5 It € I ' n K It rf»i A ' ft * 5 * * <»A? fto JT3* 53i r »• * ft tr5 € It ^ \ » ft' tt; EL* Bk tt i t ' £ Sr* b A It £ * m s i c ft a»?a; a ^ i * t % ft o '•e &* \ * tt w ra; tj. ic O 9 « A 5 4 S6f R u i k o V l i to I t * ^ 4* L *>- H S f t ^ 3tS ?a V tt t win x ft It* E T A S MS •e a w «: ft b t ft A r o a t BUS v» » * i ^; n{ mi 0 filial 5»- It* L )i ft * r tSJ o ir 01 72' 9Z m • us; tt to KM** mi b € « * * v » v» *» •C » ft m 71 E ° QO H° i Jt %t o l *>• 31' &s &i t b — tt tti t -JL, « « t ^: S ' - A ; J. A | M i Ml- tkl "C I** & tt -c-» ft JffcS b •c-P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 171 " C s L n L n . ± t>si 1. ± s t ± o R u s s i a " (Kokkei Shimbun 2 February 1904) P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 172 (Kokkei Shimbun 10 March 1904) A £ # H J a p a n e s e S o l d i e r s » ^ A «* « • « . « • . 1 . . (Kokkei Shimbun a) Loyalty i s heavier than mountains. b) Death i s l i g h t e r than a feather. 8 A p r i l 1904) P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 173 a) I f you want to be famous, throw your l i f e away. b) I f Russians are r i d i c u l e d , Japanese f e e l s a t i s f i e d . c) If the value of Japanese bonds increase, those of Russia decrease. d) If Japanese gain t e r r i t o r y , Russia w i l l surrender. e) I f you succeed i n b a t t l e , you receive a decoration. (Kokkei Shimbun 5 J u l y 1904) P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 174 (Kokkei Shimbun 5 J u l y 1904) " T h e S o l d i e r s o» i f R u s s ± ex <=*.jr& O o m i p J- & 1 y C o w a r d l y " ( K o k k e i Shimbun 10 March 1904) P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 175 " T h e B a t t l S a k a . " 30 October 1904 (» • Ii * I » • V F •) P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russ o - J a p a n e s e War 176 F o r e i g n R e ; p > r e s e n t a t i o n . o f 7 R u s s i a. ' s I n t e r n a l P r o b l e m ( r e p r i n t e d i n Y o r o z u chdho) 0) Wi-tt'' R ; -tr p rpKTi a) Free of muzzle and f e t t e r s , the Russian people attack. (U.S. Eagle Magazine) 7 March 1905 b) The Russo-Japanese War i s more and more and more a burden on the Russian farmer (Pittsburgh Post) 24 March 1905 c) The Tsar's b u l l e t s are a l l gone and he w i l l be eaten any moment. ( B e r l i n Kurasuderu dashu) 30 March 1905 J a j p a n e s e a n d R x a s s i a n s The Difference Between Japanese and Russians (Judge) 7 May 1905 P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 177 H e i m i n S h i m b u n ' s V i e w o:fr t h e Wsi2T "The poor are Dragged to Conscr ip t" - A lever of patriotism i s used to push the poor onto the soldiers' path. CHelmin Shimbun 17 January 1904) "An E x p l a n a t i o n of the Drawing" - The person s i t t i n g on the edge of the board shouts at the w o r k e r . . . " W o r k e r s i n the lower c l a s s be q u i e t when you speak, the foundat ion o f s o c i e t y are shaken and i t d i s t u r b s the peace and p leasure of the upper c l a s s . You should endure your burden and work hard. We w i l l never a l l ow you to speak." (Heimin Shimbun 28 February 1904) •T B & X < * S « H <**-, rf « A if**? ' W * H © * S S © 5 L 4 S © t f t * J H < & S I S ' P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 173 I-i e i m x n * s C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o off J a p a n e s e a n d R u s s i a n s A. / " ^ ~ _ L ^ -*WT'!> •/;_• / Japan's upper c l a s s toasts the Russian upper c l a s s , while the blood of the people i s s p i l l e d i n Chosen. (Heimin Shimbun 20 March 1904) <— above - workers r- below - the Japanese and v Russian c a p i t a l i s t s p u l l t h e i r s t r i n g s . (Heimin Shimbun 3 A p r i l 1904) "Human K i l l Each Other and Apes Love Each Other" Humans w i l l never be l i k e apes. (Heimin Shimbun 10 J u l y 1904) P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 179 H e i m i n * s A n t i - C a p i t a l i s m "The Economic System of the Time." "Workers give Money to C a p i t a l i s t s to put i n t h e i r Safes." "Workers give Money to C a p i t a l i s t s . " (Heimin Shimbun 15 May 1904) t s o P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo - J a p a n e s e War 3 Look! S o l d i e r s are Targets of B u l l e t s . b Afterwards, they are taken care of so they can be tar g e t s again. (Heimin Shimbun 17 J u l y 1904) (reported i n an American Magazine) He i s Eating Every Delicacy By Himself. Thousands of Poor Work f o r the Sake of One. fHftimin Shimbun 23 October 1904) P r i n t Capitalism and the Russo-Japanese War 1 ® 1 A P i c t o r i a l C a l e n d a r <o •£ t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e W a r i n 1 9 O 4 (Yorozu choho 1 January 1905) 01 oc V « . » 4 t a ft" -* r* ti.«fiJBimJa"s2«-;-.«2; am, «,SK,s°fi<;s*= b a s e s t nfnrf w*$ss.«i? sicklies ****** ni*UsiiK='»-:8i£si; i# 4*« »J r« « x « • t M P SH«W i«sc^-s*;tf BUS tea E« 513SSS KBSSS. A M * ( 1 M 4* f t * - * *N* ear e«4Ejvw*«»« JH* UJE «>*••* ta »t * • *• r* •» * « • f i t »M*t * • « i5ee*s' lisasc* *»««*aa «ri«4«5 "n&Sa* Sv*f-a*'» i !=fn;=l;ti5SH2»acsgasai vm *7 kZ-K*** #* •"If"*-* ft* « - » * 4 r w A t ; * * • > « • • * • * " I i=<a* Bi*5-«feA*-CtiJKX Sc'.s 25 c <-i3->e2CfS=<-Si!: j 4aaB^*>«»el!4«w#*s l tel lf<o* fiSSW* »Be«VSIU a*J*»««>*jBJ'a 65IICW w +1[MM ^r*S*JEiil-o5ti'pj<i*SVic»».,»|!2ft 5jSr^2a|**«^«i5c-Ss** '*<'t? i ^ T « s ^ s s V i i i a i S ' « i * k 7JF S I M JS^ *•<« SW^Sj ^jj*KH«n^is*^^sa ^jw vssg^ *»s5*i'<'i«io{i«v»*i itk'a-vic i:=rf=* e^s iKf i l s j i a r 2*-,' tM* ITS f*« •> * « * r B3J3S1 KA&»*Qti»*$<t' 8 OHI«: * t » 44>4* *f „.J^««*^**w, L  K»iNS=£Stf Cr,5*S*S|-8«B OS CP frssf-'iic" eysnsa* t V H T J S ;i:=i if:!;=* pasareas.m-i.'r*: P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo- J a p a n e s e War 182 7\ P i c t o r i a l C a l e n d a r o r f f t r i e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e W a r i n 1 9 0 4 I X ( Y o r o z u choho 1 J a n u a r y 190b) was selves I bswsH-* c^L'S-assijr i';is*¥e i sue -ppk^ii" fckVsHc' B J C " I V » £ »SvS-:S KS Ell a t SI WE3SC8SXSU*«fc — B-a It •4 C« «-4a4 •> saw**' sr.'.:*»S-Jv£2-i»iSa i = r-.-H^ K5-? 5r^V£ SliiSESr&ji «a E» «2 oyaa.Ttasiiassa-iawso* t r r i vra r* -r » S i 1 ^ ? • I ^ V J r-rr» *«>t «st4 *4 o P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 183 A P i c t o r i a l G a l e n d a : R v a s s o — a p a n e s e W a r I I I (Yorozu choho ~ o f t i m e i n 1 9 0 4 1 January 1905) *^l«e3B*a**uS4' «>m OK*: assassins K3 KB :csvca l i t s^se as* i aac s aazaais* i saaaK-jsiaa If - 9 «'.«» «4 * 4 M « » » * h i « *"4. « 4 i s v* itn»4»«**>kc(-ir tiSWraKESSMrtSEaSlil'SJV' ---.•< T 3 I r t»4 14-4 «.*: *-SS53KBCSSJM! «S'4S*93fJ y3«f=2SSacSKa*»' £5333 4 assia "*-«= sa ai sis' -i^fi«*«a-i i<sse£*n >• ^.--r- •> • M A T ! •» i I T : »«TV| «*4 J - * » C M U • • 41 t r*4 « I . H 4 4 ••• s j*t*H n t * 4 « * t »«« « 4 « - i t V" v* * r+ tt • - *» -/« 5- 4 0 *: » I t * . ! ' . • t • i"t»* : . ( • ••» »4 . ** J4»*4 _ l ' 3 * - -» ^ ; . « « » j •< * * - » » 4 « - * | S *Q1 — • t 4 % _ 255U55Sa^ . Si« SS Bsrt-syRja-' £ .<• ; • t*«v*4> =tai;ss3**«as :g — • . » 4 > ^aaywHi; 3b!^C Sh!^aSi*£S23ati)S is^ S?as5aia-£te«u**->9S* sx^e^a B9 . ^ ftss ca-.iass sssas ass; s<t-S5CS-:S3£3ii20-«' *= P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War A P i c t o r i a l C a l e n d a r o f - t i n ' s R u s s o - J a p a n e s e W a r i n 1 * 9 0 4 CYorozu choho 1 January 1905) »Sf t w&:.:h*sf r =s5£*3s W]fSEWi;SCK*S4(5gs; £ cssasJvsBRijK' Via:SSR t * —< -lev*.--* •** *i MX .«• Eft. «••• CSBlM-SSSSSB li:./-S'e»~.-K'»--nM-2t»« >«r *a< m Se-lJ.* fl1xU3««S8.IC*«-*i( t fc". -,4J«ft> * »-«T---^».» .aiiztf»»*sts**-"*».»»vrss; 1 t * ' ft • • # t * 4 £ ' W C t 1 •a*5Sf=§»»*iC6toi«««8; fnG3Sli3<w"«tsi5M<»3l' i 5.2*3 ss gj^>?~-5! r*Citf-«iii|=>S BEST'S €3sfS •-i23:ii£;>-;;s§*^3fV' sax: 04-1 ^"4-1 \K « M < a * i i a s f t * t n « & « « s a 3 a-KJ '« * - * - - t t i i i f n j fc'KiJSK V-'BO-Kt I »31' «r«v«aaa'aM»a-'fas* -KSH »»««»-a»-+lc-)-ll«:*«-.rm«;l»-<uc5i» «a»-+-n«;ii'm'3-.T' »<swu«'M'iia3^aKu«a>-P r i n t C a p i t a l i s m and t h e Russo-Japanese War 185 P i c L o r i a l C a l e n d a r o : f 5 1 9 0 4 C n o t e s t o j-p ± o t i - i r e s } a) the b a t t l e a t P o r t A r t h u r . b) two R u s s i a s h i p s a t J i n s e n . c) Japanese f l e e t " A s a g i r i " a t t a c k e d i n s p i t e o f s torms. d) 77 s o l d i e r s b r a v e l y a t t a c k the R u s s i a f l e e t a t P o r t A r t h u r . e) the b a t t l e a t Pyongyang. f) 3 Japanese s o l d i e r s s k i r m i s h wi th 30 Russ ians a t T e i s h u . g) a Russ ian a d m i r a l i s a t t a c h e d whi l e Russ ians t r y i n g to f l e e . h) an o f f i c e r i n T e i s h u j o . i ) . the Russ ian f l e e t sank and A d m i r a l Makarof f was k i l l e d , j ) the se ige o f Kurenjo . k) the l a n t e r n p r o c e s s i o n o f Yorozu a f t e r the news o f the s e i g e a t 1) the l a n d i n g o f the Japanese army at Ryoto P e n i n s u l a . ^Kurenjo. m) the o c c u p a t i o n o f Hoo C a s t l e a t Ryoyo. n) the sudden a t t a c k o f Russ ian c a v a l r y a t Anshu. o) the s i n k i n g o f Yoshino and Hatsuse . p) a f t e r the g r e a t f i g h t the s e i g e o f K i n s h u . q) a great b a t t l e a t Nanzan. r ) the occupat ion o f A i y o henmon. s) the d i s c o v e r y o f the deser ted Russ ian f l e e t at: Minami-Sansan-to. t ) our grea t v i c t o r y a t T o k u r i j i and R u s s i a ' s Large c a s u a l t i e s . u) the shipwreck o f H i t a c h i - m a r u and o ther s h i p s . v) the depar ture o f the R u s s i a n f l e e t from P o r t A r t h u r . w) the o c c u p a t i o n o f Kenzan and Shohe i to enroute to P o r t A r t h u r . x) the occupat ion o f Mantenre i and Rt i s s ia ' s c o u n t e r - a t t a c k . y) Commander Oyama's sendof f from Tokyo. z) the second a t t a c k i n defense of P o r t A r t h u r . aa) the p e a c e f u l occupat ion o f D a i s e k i - k y o . bb) the death o f a Russ ian commander a t M a t e n r e i . cc) R u s s i a ' s v a i n attempt to f l e e P o r t A r t h u r . dd) the a t t a c k o f the Russ ian f l e e t . ee) a f t e r one b i g f i g h t a f t e r another , the o c c u p a t i o n o f Ryoyo. f f ) the b a t t l e o f H i g a s h i Keikanzan a t P o r t A r t h u r . gg) the depar ture of the B a l t i c f l e e t . hh) Russ ian c a s u a l t i e s a t the g r e a t B a t t l e of Saka. i i ) L t . Genera l Ichinohe d u r i n g the second a t t a c k on P o r t A r t h u r . 

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