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The organizational implications of employment behavior following maternity leave Altman, Arliss Marilyn 1989

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THE ORGANIZATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING MATERNITY LEAVE By ARLISS MARILYN ALTMAN B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Business Administration) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1989 (c)Arliss Marilyn Altman, 1989 In present ing this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requ irement s for an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at the University of British C o l u m b i a , I agree that the Library shall m a k e it freely available for reference an d study. I further agree that permis s ion for extensive c o p y i n g of this thesis for scholarly p u r p o s e s may b e granted by the h e a d of m y d e p a r t m e n t o r b y his o r her representatives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r publ i ca t ion of this thesis for financial gain shall not b e a l l o w e d wi thout m y writ ten permis s ion . D e p a r t m e n t of <=> ^ g^-y f T h e Univers i ty of British C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a Date s^7~, - ^ /i ? S DE-6 (2/88) II ABSTRACT Although p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Canadian women in the labour force has s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased in the past decade, and in turn the number of maternity leave c la ims, information is l imi ted on actua l employment behavior fol lowing maternity leave and the factors which influence th i s behavior. The purpose of th i s study was to examine the employment behavior fol lowing maternity leave for 313 women of varying occupations from a large metropolitan hosp i ta l in order to: i so la te s i g n i f i c a n t var iables which influence t h i s behavior, examine return rates and employment patterns for women who return to work, ident i fy the major problems women experience upon t h e i r return to work, examine the experience of women with the current maternity leave l e g i s l a t i o n , obtain t h e i r opinions on whether f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s encourage s t a f f retent ion and f i n a l l y , to develop a set of recommendations to a s s i s t organizations in achieving s t a f f re tent ion fol lowing maternity leave. Data respect ing the pos i t ions of the women, t h e i r personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the i r employment behavior fol lowing the ir leave were co l l ec t ed from personnel records . The dependent var iables for the study were three d i s t i n c t types of employment behavior: employees who terminated fol lowing t h e i r maternity leave, employees who terminated fol lowing the i r return to work and employees who remained employed at the h o s p i t a l . There were nine independent var iab les which were tested as potent ia l employment behavior influences namely l e v e l of education, age, l i t organizat ional tenure, employment s tatus , union/management a f f i l i a t i o n , sa lary l e v e l , occupational l e v e l , number of previous maternity leaves and organizat ional d i v i s i o n . The Chi Square test of Independence was run for s i x var iables and the one Way Analys is of Variance for three v a r i a b l e s . In-depth s tructured interviews were conducted with f ive women selected randomly from the sample in order to i d e n t i f y the major problems they encountered in returning to work as well as to obtain t h e i r opinions on the current maternity leave l e g i s l a t i o n . They were a lso questioned regarding the effect iveness of f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s . Two of the var iab les tested were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t employment behavior inf luences: type of union and organizat ional tenure. It was a lso found that the least f l e x i b l e union had the highest termination ra te . Although the majority of women returned to work and remained employed at the h o s p i t a l , a high percentage transferred to part-t ime and casual employment. The interviews revealed that the major concerns women had were the need for more f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s , an increase in part-t ime opportunit ies and c h i l d - c a r e concerns inc luding the need for on-s i te day care . A l l of the women interviewed f e l t that 18 weeks was an inadequate length of time for a maternity leave and some of the women wanted maternity benefits for t h e i r ent ire leave and not just 15 weeks. It was concluded from the resu l t s of the study that f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s and organizat ional support systems encourage s t a f f i v re tent ion fol lowing maternity leave, i t was recommended that in order for organizations to achieve s t a f f retent ion fol lowing maternity leave that they must introduce f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s and a s p e c i f i c s t a f f retent ion p lan . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS X Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 Maternity Leave L e g i s l a t i o n 1 Problem & Purpose of the Study 3 II LITERATURE REVIEW 7 Employment Behavior fol lowing Maternity Leave . . 8 Canadian Women in the Workforce 15 Employment Behavior Influences and Canadian Women 18 Part-t ime Employment and Canadian Women . . . 20 Return Rates from Maternity Leave 24 Factors Influencing Employment Behavior of New Mothers 24 F l e x i b i l i t y in the Workplace 27 Organizat ional Commitment 31 Summary and Objectives of the Study 32 III METHOD 35 Set t ing 35 vl Subjects 38 Procedure 44 Data Collection 44 Dependent Variables 44 Independent Variables 45 Statement of Hypotheses 46 Methods of Analysis 49 Interviews 49 IV DISCUSSION & RESULTS . . . 50 Analysis of the Hypotheses 51 Employment Patterns Following the Maternity Leave 54 Interview Results 58 Maternity Leave Legislation 63 Limitations of the Study 64 V RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSIONS 65 Recommendations 65 Summary & Conclusions 69 Implications for Further Research . 72 BIBLIOGRAPHY 73 APPENDICES Appendix A: Maternity Leave Provision - B.C. Legislation 76 Appendix B: Hospital Organizational Chart . . . . 78 Appendix C: Maternity Leave Clauses - Union Contracts 79 v i i Appendix D: Pos i t ions at Hire and Immediately P r i o r to the Maternity Leave . . . . 82 Appendix E : Departments at Hire and Immediately P r i o r to the Maternity leave . . . . 83 Appendix F: Data Form 84 Appendix G: Interview Letter of Introduction . 88 Appendix H: Interview Questions 89 Appendix I: Case H i s t o r i e s 90 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Maternity Leave Claims for Canadian Women 1978-1987 15 2 Occupational Levels Immediately Prior to the Maternity Leave 39 3 Union Groups at Hire and Immediately Prior to the Maternity Leave 40 4 Status at Hire, One Year and Immediately Prior to Maternity Leave 41 5 Salary Groups Immediately Prior to Maternity Leave 42 6 Maternity Leave by Year 42 7 Length of Employment Immediately Prior to Maternity Leave 43 8 Educational Levels Immediately Prior to Maternity Leave 44 9 Summary of Chi Square Results 51 10 Return Rates by Union from Chi Square Results . . 52 11 Summary of Analysis of Variance Results 53 12 Termination Explanations for Groups 1 & 2 . . . . 55 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Women 15 years and over as a percentage of a l l employed in Canada 16 2 Labour force participation of a l l women and women with youngest child under 3 years, Canada, 1976 -1985 17 3 Reasons for working part-time: Men and women aged 25-54 22 4 Labour force participation for women with children by age groups of children and full-time or part-time employment in a l l provinces, 1984 and 1985 . . 23 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Dr. Cra ig Pinder and Dr. Larry Moore for the i r advice and guidance on th i s pro jec t . I would a lso l i k e to express my grat i tude to Dr. Chris Bradley for her help and patience and to the Employee Relations Department at Vancouver General Hospi ta l for providing a supportive work environment. To my wonderful husband, Morr ie , thank you for your endless encouragement and support. 1 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION Maternity Leave Legislation Paid maternity benefits have been in existence in Canada since 1971 when the Unemployment Insurance Act was amended to allow for 15 weeks insurance coverage for maternity reasons. At the same time the Fair Employment Practices Act was amended to prohibit the dismissal of any female employee on any grounds during maternity leave. Since that time, the provinces have a l l passed legislation which deals with maternity leave. The first maternity legislation in British Columbia which addressed maternity/employment issues was the Maternity  Protection Act enacted in 1921. Although this early legislation prohibited women from returning to work during the first six weeks following the birth of the baby, it offered very limited employment protection. This legislation remained unchanged until 1966 when it was amended to provide women with a 17 week unpaid leave. The current B.C. legislation is embodied in the Employment Standards Act which was passed in 1980 (see Appendix A). The maternity benefits contained in the Employment Standards  Act offer comprehensive protection in a number of areas. The employee is entitled to an 18 week leave of absence, 15 of which are paid, followed by reinstatement to either her former 2 position or a comparable one. Payment of any pension, medical or other benefits during the leave, must continue to be made. The employee may commence her leave up to 11 weeks prior to the estimated birth date. Unlike most provinces, employees in B.C. do not have to work for a minimum period (i.e., a qualification period) to be eligible for maternity benefits. If an employee experiences pregnancy related medical complications prior to the leave she is entitled to use sick leave benefits accrued to that date. The employee is also entitled to a six week extension of her leave with a medical certificate confirming medical complications related to the birth of the baby. As in a l l maternity leave provisions, B.C. employers cannot terminate an employee due to pregnancy or during her maternity leave. They also cannot change an employee's working conditions unless they have obtained her written consent. Under federal legislation, the Unemployment Insurance Regulations provide that a woman must have worked, in Insurable employment, for at least 20 weeks in the last 52 weeks or from the start of her last claim, whichever is shorter, In order to qualify for maternity leave benefits. These benefits are payable for a 15 week period, as chosen by the employee and are payable as early as eight weeks before the week of the birth and as late as 17 weeks after. These benefits commence after a two week waiting period. The amount of the benefit is 60% of the average insurable earnings up to a maximum of $339 per week and any money earned 3 by an employee while receiving maternity benefits is deducted dollar-for-dollar. A woman who chooses not to return to a protected job following her leave must notify the Unemployment Insurance Commission office of her decision three weeks prior to the end of her leave. This notification will then disentitle her from regular unemployment benefits. On the other hand, if a woman does choose to return to work but does not have a job, she may qualify for regular unemployment benefits provided she proves she has made arrangements for child-care and is actively seeking employment. The UIC regulations offer employers the opportunity to supplement the basic unemployment insurance scheme through supplemental unemployment insurance benefits (SUB). An employer can use this plan to either extend the benefit period or increase the level of benefits. With the exception of some collective agreements, these plans are rarely used (Labour Canada, 1985, p. 23). Problem and Purpose of the Study With the dramatic increase of women in the labour force in recent years maternity benefits are being utilized at a steadily increasing rate presenting organizations with new challenges in staff retention. In British Columbia (the jurisdiction with which this study deals) there are approximately 577,000 females in the labour force, who comprise 41.5% of the total workforce (Labour 4 Canada, 1985, p. 31). At any given time, approximately 1% of the female labour force In B.C. or approximately 5700 women 1 are receiving maternity benefits. The overriding objective of maternity benefits is to provide women with a paid leave so that they may enjoy a transition period with their infants without being penalized at the workplace. While a review of the recent literature on maternity leave reveals an abundance of material regarding the difficulties working mothers encounter balancing work with motherhood, there is a definite lack of information about actual employment behavior following maternity leave and the significant factors which influence this behavior. Such information is vital as it would provide a better understanding of the factors which motivate women to return and remain at work following maternity leave. Organizations could apply this information to develop appropriate strategies to encourage staff retention and maintain employee commitment following maternity leave. This information would also enable employers to take steps to reduce the high costs of turnover following maternity leave which typically include costs associated with recruitment, training, orientation and productivity losses. The actions of various companies, such as Bell Canada, who have introduced job-sharing, part-time opportunities, longer leaves and a 75% salary during the 18 week leave provide 1. This statistic Is from Al Rolllngson, economist for the Vancouver office of the Canada Employment Centre. 5 strong evidence that simply allowing a woman to return to her position may not be as important as creating flexibility in the 2 workplace. Flexibility in the workplace is achieved in many ways including organizational support systems, work scheduling alternatives such as job-sharing, flexible working hours for full-time employees, permanent part-time positions with full benefits and work-at-home and child-care options. These benefits represent a break from standard company benefit packages and the traditional forty hour work week. The rationale for introducing these benefits, according to the literature (Magid, 1986; Friedman, 1987), is that when a company addresses employees' work/family needs, productivity levels increase and absenteeism, tardiness and turnover decrease. In addition to flexibility in the workplace, the literature (e.g., Daniel, 1980) indicates that age, organizational tenure, employment status, occupation, level of earnings, number of children, education, public versus private sector employment and union affiliation may also significantly influence employment behavior following maternity leave. In order to assess fully the impact of these factors and flexibility upon employment behavior following maternity leave, an examination of actual employment behavior Is in order. This study, therefore, examined the employment behavior following maternity leave of 313 women of varying occupations who took maternity leave between May, 1983 2. From "Firms Now Try Harder To Hold Women Workers" (1987, March) Vancouver Sun, p. H6. 6 and June, 1986 from a large metropolitan hospital. The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) To isolate variables which influence employment behavior following maternity leave; 2) To examine return rates for women following maternity leave; 3) To examine employment patterns for women who return to work following their maternity leave; 4) To explore the major problems women encounter when they return to work following a maternity leave and the role of flexible work policies through in-depth interviews with five women from the sample; 5) To examine the experiences of these five women in relation to the current maternity leave legislation and; 6) To develop a set of recommendations on how organizations can best achieve staff retention following maternity leave. Data regarding the positions of the women, their personal characteristics and employment behavior following the maternity leave were collected from their personnel records. 7 CHAPTER I I : LITERATURE REVIEW Much of the l i t e r a t u r e regarding maternity leave is concerned with developments in maternity leave l e g i s l a t i o n and problems working mothers encounter in balancing domestic demands with a career . There appears to be a lack of information regarding the experience of women returning to work fol lowing c h i l d b i r t h , as noted in recent studies on th i s topic (Gaston, 1986; H a l l , 1986). The general lack of information regarding ac tua l employment behavior fol lowing maternity leave and the factors a f f ec t ing th i s behavior were confirmed not only by a manual l i b r a r y search but a lso by several computer searches by the Labour Canada l i b r a r y . This lack of information was a lso noted by s h e i l a Kamerman in her in ternat iona l review of maternity leave benefits for the Center of Soc ia l Sciences at Columbia U n i v e r s i t y : What i s not known, however, are the consequences of the many di f ferences among benefits for female labor force p a r t i c i p a t i o n and female employment and career patterns . Few countries have any data ava i lab le on the proportion of women taking the leaves who return to employment at the leave's end. Nor are there studies on the costs to employers or on the consequences for h i r i n g women where employers bear a d i sproport ionate ly high share of the cost of the benefit (Kamerman, 1980, p. 76). This l i t e r a t u r e review w i l l focus on the fol lowing areas: studies of employment behavior fol lowing maternity leave, representat ion of Canadian women in the workforce and research respect ing factors in f luenc ing employment l eve l s of new mothers 8 including flexibility in the workplace and organizational commitment. Employment Behavior following Maternity Leave The only study directly relating to employment behavior following maternity leave and factors which influence this behavior was reported in 1979 by the Policy Studies Institute in England (Daniel, 1980). The study was initiated in order to explore the utilization of the maternity rights provisions introduced in Britain between 1975 and 1977. The areas in the legislation to be specifically addressed were the maternity pay provisions, right to reinstatement to the pre-birth position and protection from unlawful dismissal, the most controversial area being the right to reinstatement. The response rate of questionnaires sent to 3,285 mothers (both employed and unemployed) of babies born in February 1979, was 74%. The responses provided extensive information regarding the experiences with the new legislation, characteristics of the women and their pre-birth positions and factors affecting the rates of return to work. This review will focus on the latter two areas as the experiences with the British legislation are not relevant to this study. The survey sample included both full-time and part-time employees and was categorized according to five job levels including: unskilled, semi-skilled, junior non-manual, Intermediate non-manual and professional. Most of the women 9 were In the junior and Intermediate non-manual c lasses with very few in the profess ional c l a s s . The part-t ime women were mostly in the unsk i l l ed and s e m i - s k i l l e d manual c lasses . It was found that the older the woman, the more l i k e l y she was to be in a higher job c l a s s . These women usua l ly had only one c h i l d . Further , women in higher job classes tended to have the i r f i r s t baby at an older age. The women were a lso categorized according to s ix types of employers: heal th/educat ion, l o c a l au thor i ty , nat ional industry , c i v i l s erv i ce , large pr ivate firms and small pr ivate f irms. Ninety percent of the women in pr ivate industry worked at l eve l s lower than the intermediate non-manual l e v e l while 77% of the women working for health and education employers were at higher l e v e l s . In t h e i r inves t iga t ion of women who q u a l i f i e d for maternity r i g h t s , the number of the women's c h i l d r e n was a source of v a r i a t i o n . S ixty- three percent of women expecting t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d q u a l i f i e d for maternity benefits as opposed to 31% of women who were expecting t h e i r second c h i l d . Most of the l a t t e r group worked part - t ime . Daniel (1980) found that the more c h i l d r e n a woman had the greater the l i k e l i h o o d that she was working part - t ime . Several observations were made by Daniel (1980) i n his ana lys i s of working hours and s e r v i c e . The shorter the length of service with the employer, the fewer hours an employee worked per week. For f u l l - t i m e women, length of serv ice increased 10 with age. Service a l so tended to Increase with increase in occupational l e v e l . F u l l - t i m e women in the profess iona l and intermediate non-manual l eve ls had the longest s e r v i c e . With regard to sa lary l e v e l s , older women had higher s a l a r i e s than younger women. The highest s a l a r i e s were with hea l th , education and c i v i c employment. Twenty-four percent of the women who worked during the i r pregnancies returned to work and 14% of women who were unemployed during pregnancy began seeking employment within eight months of the b i r t h of t h e i r babies. Looking at the t o t a l number of women in the study, 15% were working and 9% were seeking employment within eight months of the b i r t h of t h e i r babies. Although i t appeared as i f a very small number of women returned to work, Daniel (1980) noted that the numbers had considerably increased from a 1971 census in which only 9% of mothers were working within 12 months of g iv ing b i r t h . Daniel (1980) i d e n t i f i e d four major influences a f f ec t ing the l eve l s of return to work: hours of work; l e v e l of job; type of employer and l e v e l of pay. He did not f ind that the reinstatement r i g h t had any influence on the dec i s ion to return to work. Regarding hours of work, part-t ime employees were more l i k e l y to return to work than f u l l - t i m e employees. There was a high tendency for u n s k i l l e d women, such as c leaners , who had been working part - t ime , to return to the i r part-t ime pos i t ions . Daniel (1980) a lso found that only one- th ird of the women who 11 remained with the same employer went back to the same job and worked the identical hours. Most women returned to work on a reduced hours of work basis. Higher occupational level women were the most likely group to remain with the pre-blrth employer. Analysis of these statistics found that older women (over 25) were more likely than younger women to remain with their pre-birth employer. Women at opposite ends of the occupational scales were the most likely to return to work, suggesting that women in higher levels returned because of job rewards while unskilled women returned out of financial necessity. Health and education employees were the most likely to return and remain with their pre-birth employer. Daniel (1980) suggested that as employers, hospitals and schools offered working hours, such as evening shifts and part-time work, which accommodate mothers of young children. Women working in the private sector were less likely than women working in the public sector to both return to work and remain with their pre-birth employer. When looking at full-time employees within the private sector, i t was found that the highest tendency to return to work occurred among those who worked for small firms. Daniel (1980) attributed this result to greater opportunities at small firms for part-time work, as well as proximity to the workplace which he noted to be another key factor. In large business employment, there was a greater tendency for junior non-manual women to return to work the 12 longer had been t h e i r continuous service with that employer. Level of earnings played a s i g n i f i c a n t ro le with f u l l - t i m e women. Daniel (1980) found that these women were more l i k e l y to re turn to work the higher the i r net earnings in absolute terms and the higher t h e i r proport ion of the mar i ta l j o i n t earnings. When looking at pay leve ls for a l l women, inc luding part - t ime , women at extreme ends of the pay scale were the most l i k e l y to return to work, a f inding s i m i l a r to those in occupational l e v e l s . When Daniel (1980) looked at the status of a l l the women involved in the study eight months af ter the b i r t h of t h e i r babies , most were working part - t ime . It was a lso found that women at opposite ends of the occupational scale were well represented, older women were more l i k e l y to be working than the i r younger counterparts and that the more c h i l d r e n a women had, the less l i k e l y she was to be working. The most common infant-care arrangement was for the father to babysit i f the woman worked part - t ime . If the woman worked f u l l - t i m e , the most common arrangement was for a grandmother to babys i t , a babys i t ter or l i v e - i n help . This excluded the s e l f -employed mother. Few women used day-care. The major reasons women who wanted to return to work f a i l e d to do so was lack of c h i l d - c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , babys i t ters and convenient working hours. When the women were questioned regarding suggestions for change, the most often-noted requests were for improved c h i l d - c a r e f a c i l i t i e s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y on-s i te 13 day-cares) and f l e x i b l e working hours. Concern was a lso expressed regarding the lack of f a c i l i t i e s for infants under three , approved reg is tered day-care f a c i l i t i e s , babys i t t ing problems encountered over school hol idays and the lack of f l e x i b i l i t y in most organizations when a c h i l d becomes i l l . The need for more part-t ime jobs and opportunit ies to work at home were other suggestions for improvement. In teres t ing ly enough, most women did not see the need for rev i s ions to the maternity r ight s l e g i s l a t i o n . Of those women who d id see some need for change, the majority were concerned with the need for maternity leave extensions in the reinstatement per iod . They a lso suggested the need for re laxat ion of a continuous service requirement and an increase in maternity pay. From t h i s study, Daniel (1980) concluded that the reinstatement r i g h t had l i t t l e impact on rates of return to work: . . .we found no evidence that women who q u a l i f i e d for the r i g h t to reinstatment were general ly any more l i k e l y to re turn to the i r jobs than were counterparts who did not. The ch ie f influences upon whether women went back to work were t h e i r job l eve l s and pay, the nature of t h e i r employer and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of convenient part-t ime working opportuni t i e s . O v e r a l l , our ana lys i s led us to view that the r i g h t to reinstatement was more akin to protect ion from unfair d i smissa l than to a measure to help women to re turn to work. That is to say, the r i g h t prevented employers from stopping women who q u a l i f i e d from going back to t h e i r jobs but i t d id nothing d i r e c t l y to Increase the i n c l i n a t i o n of women to go back or to remove the main obstacles that i n h i b i t e d women who would have preferred to work (Danie l , 1981, p. 89). 14 Daniel (1981) published a second report on the experiences with maternity r igh t s of the employers involved in the prev ious ly examined sample. Although only 18% of the employers reported d i f f i c u l t i e s with the l e g i s l a t i o n since i t s in troduct ion , i t was general ly found that the degree of d i f f i c u l t y an employer encountered was dependent upon the s ize of the business. Larger businesses reported the greatest number of d i f f i c u l t i e s . Of the problems encountered by th i s 18%, f ind ing su i tab le replacements for those women on leave as well as s t a f f i n g problems r e s u l t i n g from women f a i l i n g to re turn fol lowing t h e i r leave were the main d i f f i c u l t i e s . It was a l so found that the s t a f f i n g problems were more serious with the s k i l l e d pos i t ions because they were harder to f i l l . Daniel (1981) found few di f ferences in his survey between the experiences with the l e g i s l a t i o n of pr ivate and publ ic sector employers. A di f ference that was found was that the publ ic sector had superior maternity provis ions which was a t t r ibuted to the publ ic sec tor ' s act ive trade unions. Daniel (1981) found that , in general , the employers were pos i t ive about women returning to work and that the r i g h t to reinstatement was not e s p e c i a l l y problematic: Our present study of employers shows that the r i g h t to reinstatment had, in p r a c t i c e , represented no great burden during the f i r s t three years or so of i t s operat ion. It was occas iona l ly an i r r i t a n t for some but very r a r e l y generated subs tant ia l problems (Danie l , 1981, p. 89). 15 Canadian Women In the workforce There are no Canadian studies that s p e c i f i c a l l y track employment behavior fol lowing maternity leave and attempt to i d e n t i f y factors which s i g n i f i c a n t l y influence t h i s behavior. Since 1976 however, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women in the labour force in Canada has s t e a d i l y increased (see Figure 1) . The number of maternity leave claims for Canadian women have a lso s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased (Table 1) . As indicated in Figure 2, the percentage of women with young c h i l d r e n in the labour force has increased to a point of being equal to the percentage of a l l women in the labour force . It i s , therefore , c lear that the r i s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women in the workforce with young c h i l d r e n represents a dramatic s t a t i s t i c . Table 1 Maternity Leave Claims for Canadian Women  1978-1987 Note. From S t a t i s t i c a l report on the operation of the unemployment insurance act (pp. 45-46, Catalogue No. 73-001) by S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1988, Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply & Services . Year Number of Claims 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 381,964 406,590 416,601 444,266 469,470 468,113 506,102 520,440 531,530 552,350 16 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Figure 1_. Women 15 years and over as a Percentage of A l l Employed, Canada, 1976 - 1985. Note. From Women in the.workplace-selected data (p. 29, Catalogue No. 71-534) by S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1987, Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and Services . 17 60 [ All women tv .;| Women with youngest child under 3 years ' Toutes les femmes Femmes ayant un eniant de moms de Irais ans 1 •M I i | 1 1 § i 6 1977 1978 1979 1930 1981 1932 1933 193-1 1935 F i g u r e 2. Labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of a l l women and of women wit h youngest c h i l d under 3 years, Canada, 1976 - 1985 Note. From Women i n the workplace-selected data (p. 38, Catalogue No. 71-534) by S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1987, Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and S e r v i c e s . 18 Employment Behavior Influences and Canadian Women. A Canadian study prepared for Statistics Canada which explores a a number of employment behavior influences is the Womens* Work Interruption Study (Robinson, 1987). This study utilized the data from another Statistics Canada Study, the 1984 Family History study. The purpose of the Family History study was to collect retrospective data on family and work histories. There were 14,000 participants in the study of which 7,000 were women. The sample was selected to be representative of the national population. Only 12.7% of the sample would not participate in the interviews which were conducted by telephone. These data were applied to the Work Interruption study which defined a work interruption as an interruption for a period of one year or more. Within this definition, shorter term interruptions such as maternity leaves or periods of brief unemployment did not qualify as work interruptions. Nonetheless, there were a number of findings regarding age, employment status and education related to work interruptions relevant to this study. Of the women surveyed in this study, forty percent who worked on a regular basis had never had a work interruption. Robinson (1987) felt that this demonstrated that women were showing more continuous work patterns, contrary to what is commonly perceived by the general public. It was also found that the majority of women who do have a work interruption have only one and it is usually due to family reasons. 19 Further, it was found that younger women were more likely than older women to have worked on a regular basis and to have worked prior to marriage. These findings plus evidence of shorter work Interruptions for younger women reflected the changing work patterns for women. For women in the 25 to 34 age group, 65% left the workforce for less than two years while for women aged 55 to 64, only 27% had such a short interruption. The study indicated that few women were part-time workers prior to the first work interruption. Women, however, who did experience a work interruption were more likely to return to part-time jobs following the interruption. When the sample was divided into age groups, there was no evidence of differences between older and younger women and their inclination to return to work full-time. The study also revealed that although few women leave the workforce when they get married, child-care and household duties remain the primary responsibility of the woman. It was not surprising then, that pregnancy, child -care and family considerations were the major reasons for the first work interruption. Major reasons for subsequent interruptions were family considerations. Of the continuous workers in the sample over 50% had at least one child. Seventy-six percent of the 25-34 age group of continuous workers already had their first child. Of the women who were discontinuous workers, 29% of them had their first child at the same time as their first work interruption. 20 Further, it was found that married continuous workers were more likely to be childless than married discontinuous workers. Women with a university degree were slightly more likely to work continuously than women without this educational background. Although these women were just as likely as discontinuous workers to cite family reasons for their work interruptions, their interruptions were shorter in general than for those of discontinuous women. Finally, while 60% of the women who were full-time prior to their interruption returned to work f u l l - time, for university degree women, the figure was 66%. Robinson (1987) concluded from the study that younger women have a stronger attachment to the workforce than older women, family considerations is the major factor causing work interruptions, married women experience more work interruptions than unmarried women and that there is a greater tendency than in the past for younger women to combine work with motherhood. Part-time Employment and Canadian Women. One source of employment which is a popular alternative for Canadian working mothers is part-time work. In a report for Labour Canada (1983) by a commission of inquiry into part-time work, 2.4 million Canadians were found to have held a part-time job at some period during 1981. By the end of this century part-time work is expected to increase to between 15 and 19% of the labour force (Labour Canada, 1983, p. 46). It was also reported that in the 15 to 24 age group, 72% of a l l part-time workers are 21 women while 89% of a l l married part-t ime workers are women. Women are much more l i k e l y than men to be working p a r t -time between 25 and 64 years of age. Ninety percent of those employed part-t ime in th i s age group are women. They comprise 47% of a l l people working part-t ime (Labour Canada, 1983, p. 50). Ci ted as the reasons why women in t h i s age group wanted to work part - t ime , a large group 26%, indicated personal and family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (see Figure 3). A higher percentage of part-t ime women than f u l l - t i m e had c h i l d r e n at home. When the 25 to 64 age group was further d iv ided into two groups, 25 to 44 and 45 and over, the 25 to 44 group as expected, were more l i k e l y to have young c h i l d r e n . The majority of women's groups advised the commission that since part-t ime work was the best way for women to combine a career with home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i t should be more r e a d i l y ava i l ab l e but that condit ions of part-t ime workers needed to be improved. Problem areas included: Lack of access to fr inge benefits and pensions; Concentration in female job ghettos; Lack of union representat ion; L i t t l e opportunity for t r a i n i n g or promotion; Lack of job s e c u r i t y and; Shortage of c h i l d - c a r e f a c i l i t i e s (Labour Canada, 1983, p. 107). The important ro le of part-t ime employment for women in B r i t i s h Columbia is apparent when one examines the s t a t i s t i c s for women with c h i l d r e n under three years of age as f u l l - t i m e and part-t ime employment are almost equal ly represented for th i s group (see Figure 4). 22 MEN • WOMEN 3% 1% D Gang io school rri Could only find ^ J part-lime work r Did not want 1 lull-time work Bl Oiher reasons | Personal 4 family p - i responsibilities I I Remainder Figure 3. Reasons for working part - t ime: Men and women aged 2 5 - 5 4 . Note. From Commission of inquiry into part-t ime work. (p. 50, Catalogue No. 71-001) by Labour Canada, 1983, Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and Services . 23 Nfld. P.c.I. N.S. N.B. AIu. B.C. Occupation Canada . Que. One. Man. Sasfc. T.-.V. L-P.-£ N.-E. N.-8. . Alb. C.-B. thousand - milHers 1935 Youngest child aged -Age du plus jeune enfant Under 3 years - Mains de 3 anS To u i 41! 6 13 10 107 159 17 13 42 36 Full-time - a plein temps 2S3 5' 10 7 81 112 10 11 25 20 Part-time - i temps partiel 12S 4 25 48 _ 7 7 16 17 3-5 years - ans Toul 225 6 8 S 71 115 14 14 30 29 Full-time - 1 plein temps 201 5 • S 4 51 81 8 8 19 17 Part-time - a temps partiel 94 20 34 5 S U 12 6-15 years - ans Toul 913 IS 5 29 23 199 357 41 39 95 101 Full-time - i plein temps 654 14 4 21 17 150 258 29 25 69 67 Part-time - a temps partiel 254 4 8 7 49 99 12 13 27 34 •Figure £. Labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r vomen v i t h c h i l d r e n by age groups of c h i l d r e n and f u l l - t i m e or part-time employment i n a l l p r o v i n c e s , 1984 and 1985. Note. From Women i n the w o r k p l a c e - s e l e c t e d data (p.64, Catalogue' No. 71-534) by S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1987, -Ottawa: M i n i s t r y o f Supply and S e r v i c e s . 24 Return Rates from Maternity Leave. Although there are no Canadian studies which track employment behavior over time following maternity leave, the Status of Women reports that 69% of women in Canada return to work following their maternity leave: Some people believe that women do not go back to paid employment after they have had children. But, in fact, women do go back to work after childbirth. 69% of women who request maternity leave return at the end of that leave. The reasons are straightforward. Women in Canada are employed because they have a strong attachment to their job and because the family unit needs the income (Symes & Sheppard, 1984, p. 4). Daniel's (1980) study did not find the reasons why women return to work so simplistic. He found a variey of factors affected the decision to return to work other than just financial necessity and job loyalty. The balance of this literature review will selectively cite research which deal with factors which influence a new mother's decision to return to work. These studies differ from Daniel's (1980) study in that they do not comprehensively deal with factors which Influence return rates following maternity leave. The growing role of flexibility in the workplace and the applicability of organizational commitment to employment behavior following maternity leave will also be discussed. Factors Influencing Employment Behavior of New Mothers Gaston (1986) found in a descriptive study of the effects of first pregnancy of 130 career women that most of the women returned to their pre-birth positions. The organizational context and the developmental timing of the pregnancy determined 25 the difficulty which these women encountered in their return to work. The options open to the women and the ability to negotiate various aspects of the maternity leave were determined by the woman's position on the organizational hierarchy. It was also found that a woman's age and career stage affected her plans and career consequences. The longer the woman had delayed the pregnancy, the more likely she would return to work f u l l -time. The longer the woman had been married, the more likely she was to be content with the timing of her pregnancy and its effect on her career. Some longitudinal studies have attempted to distinguish the major variables which affect employment levels of mothers with pre-school children. One of these studies conducted by Morgan and Hock (1984) traced the levels of employment of 49 new mothers (white, middle-class and married) from 1973-1981. The primary objectives of the study were to "identify variables that related to labor force participation and determine which of the variables best predicted levels of employment" (Morgan & Hock, 1984, p. 384). The authors conducted an assessment using various tests of psychosocial variables including career orientation, career salience, nurturance, response to stress, aversion to infant fussiness and concern with nonmaternal care for infants. The number of additional children was also taken into consideration. The variables were assessed after the fi r s t , third and sixth year. It was found that career orientation, which is the amount of 26 i n t e r e s t i n a j o b , was the most p r e d i c t i v e f a c t o r f o r the l e v e l of employment over the s i x year p e r i o d . C a r e e r s a l i e n c e , which r e f e r s to the p e r c e i v e d importance of a c a r e e r f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , n u r t u r a n c e and response to s t r e s s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s . Number o £ c h i l d r e n was s i g n f i c a n t o n l y , as e x p e c t e d , i n the t h i r d and s i x t h y e a r . The a u t h o r s conc luded t h a t p s y c h o s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s were s t r o n g p r e d i c t o r s of materna l employment. In another l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y by Hock, Gnezda and McBride (1984) , a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g materna l r o l e s and employment were e x p l o r e d i n a group of 317 mothers . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d both s h o r t l y a f t e r the b i r t h of the baby and t h r e e months l a t e r . The r e s u l t s I n d i c a t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h 66% i n i t i a l l y p lanned to r e t u r n to work f o l l o w i n g t h r e e months there was an i n c r e a s e d p r e f e r e n c e to remain a t home. The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t new mothers e x p e r i e n c e c o n f l i c t and a n x i e t y about r e t u r n i n g to work and t h a t i n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y i n the workplace was n e c e s s a r y to ba lance motherhood and employment. In a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y by Frank Mott (1978) f o r the Center of Human Resource Research funded by the U . S . Department of L a b o u r , 5,159 women between the ages of 14 and 24 i n 1968 were f o l l o w e d to examine a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r changes i n e d u c a t i o n , m a r r i a g e , f a m i l y , j ob and c a r e e r between 1968 to 1973. The d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t even as e a r l y as 1973 women were t e n d i n g to r e t u r n to the l a b o u r f o r c e s h o r t l y a f t e r the b i r t h of t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . The author c o n c l u d e d t h a t more e f f e c t i v e p o l i c i e s 27 and mechanisms were needed to a s s i s t women with re -entry problems as well as to monitor compliance with maternity leave prov i s i ons . He a lso found that the trend for working women was s t a r t i n g to resemble a more continuous male work pattern and that women with better job options were the f i r s t ones to return to work. F l e x i b i l i t y in the Workplace. With the increase in dual career couples , there i s a growing recogni t ion by employers that family concerns can no longer be ignored. In response to th i s phenomenon, there has emerged over the l a s t f ive years a growing body of l i t e r a t u r e regarding the ways by which responsive employers are a s s i s t i n g working parents. Demographic project ions point to an increase in these work-force problems. Forget the endless surveys r e -veal ing that q u a l i t y of work l i f e , not money motivates today's employees. Forget the b i r t h of the sens i t ive male, and his new act ive ro le in br inging up baby. (Forget the increase in daddies in the d e l i v e r y room and the i r requests for paterni ty leave) Forget the emphasis on family values current ly in vogue. Concen-trate instead on th i s a d d i t i o n a l information from the Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s : By 1990, women w i l l account for two-thirds of the labor force growth. Approximately 80 percent of working women are of ch i ldbear ing age; 90 percent of these workers w i l l have c h i l d r e n . The number of c o n f l i c t s stemming from people s t r i v i n g to combine work and family w i l l increase ( S p r u e l l , 1986, p. 30). More and more employers appear to be accepting the premise that by addressing family concerns they w i l l be more e f f ec t ive in r e t a i n i n g a productive workforce. As a r e s u l t , they are explor ing and implementing a number of family responsive personnel p o l i c i e s . As these p o l i c i e s would most l i k e l y 28 enable a woman to more easily return to work following her maternity leave, a review is in order. Magld (1986) comprehensively outlined the various avenues of support that employers can offer employees to effectively deal with work/family conflicts: 1) Flexible working hours for full-time employees; 2) Permanent part-time employment with benefits; 3) Job-sharing; 4) Work-at-home options; 5) Cafeteria-style plans that allow employees to select the benefits most helpful to their family situation; 6) Adequate maternity and paternity leaves; 7) Information and referral centres to assist employees in locating day-care; 8) Vendor programs - organization purchases slots from day-care centres for employees; 9) Vouchers - organization pays for child care costs; 10) Flexible spending accounts - the employee would arrange with the employer to have money deducted from their cheque to a child care account to accumulate child care savings; 11) Workplace child care centre - an on-site day-care centre; 12) Child-care consortium - a group of employers share the costs of developing a child-care program; 13) Before and after school program - an employer supports a school district or summer camp to accommodate the needs of employees with school age children and; 14) Care for sick children - an employer develops a program to address the needs of working parents when children are i l l (Magid, 1986). 29 Magid suggested that the incentives for companies introducing these plans are a reduction in absenteeism, tardiness and turnover. She indicated however, that there has not been s u f f i c i e n t cos t -benef i t data to motivate most organizations to provide more family responsive benefit packages. Friedman (1987) a lso noted that although a number of firms have introduced c h i l d - c a r e s erv i ce s , f l e x i b l e benefits and job-shar ing , most American firms have not been responsive in th i s area . She stated that companies want to see the return on the i r investment for family supportive p o l i c i e s and program introduct ion before they respond. This data i s l i m i t e d . Many companies need to see the connection between family issues and bottom l i n e concerns of the organizat ion . The data , however, are l i m i t e d . Three nat iona l studies found that manager's bel ieve t h e i r company's sponsorship of a day care center leads to improved p r o d u c t i v i t y , morale and l o y a l t y and reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover. But these data are based only on the center response. More convincing research conducted at several large corporate s i t e s , p r i o r to the adoption of a family p o l i c y , shows what companies lose by not reponding to the family needs rather than what they save by responding. Based on reports at Merck & C o . , Honeywell Inc. and AT&T among others , between 30 and 60 percent of employees - both men and women f ind i t d i f f i c u l t to manage t h e i r dual r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for work and family l i f e . Employees a l so report that some company support in the form of more f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s or new services would mitigate some of th i s c o n f l i c t (Friedman, 1987, p. 37). According to Friedman (1987) firms responsive to family Issues are larger corporations in high growth industr ies inc luding high technology and the service sec tor , such as banks, insurance companies and h o s p i t a l s . These firms usua l ly have a high female concentration and are non-unionized. Family owned 30 businesses where family values have been incorporated into corporate policy were also responsive. Friedman (1987) suggested that deciding upon the appropriate response can be a very complicated process involving task forces, surveys and information gathering from other companies. She noted three lessons emerging from the past decade: 1) No one solution will meet a l l employees' needs; 2) Any support from the company can be helpful; and 3) Business cannot solve the problems alone - they are too vast , diverse and complex. Government can no longer advocate "public-private partner-ships" and declare that it has "addressed" the problem (Friedman, 1987, p. 38). The nursing literature also addresses the link between turnover for nurses with young children and the lack of organizational support systems for new mothers: Regardless of their current status - full-time, part-time, or s t i l l inactive the most important reason cited by these nurses is as "common knowledge" holds, maternity. Six of every 10 currently full-time registered nurses who left did so in order to raise a family. Three out of four of those now working part-time offer the same reason. Clearly, if the profession is ever to decrease the number of "nurse years" lost to motherhood, it will have to engineer a compromise of working schedules to f i t the need of the nurse/mothers (Gulack, 1983, p. 32). In addition to inflexible working hours, lack of suitable day-care facilities is cited as a major deterrent to returning to the workforce following childbirth: When it comes to finding child-care services, nurses have more problems than most working parents. Few child-care programs are set up for parents who are frequently called upon to work evening or night shifts or who are routinely expected to be on duty at least some weekends, nights and holidays (Chabin, 1983, p. 548). 31 It is becoming more and more apparent that in the future, organizations will be faced with the challenge of implementing suitable organizational support systems to retain a committed female workforce. Retaining a committed workforce is a primary objective of most organizations since the consequences of not doing so is to increase the costs associated with turnover, absenteeism and diminished productivity. It seems clear that if a female employee felt committed to her employer she would be more likely to return to work following her maternity leave. It is therefore appropriate to review factors affecting organizational commitment. Organizational Commitment. Mowday, Porter and Steers in Employee Organization Linkages, The Psychology of Commitment,  Absenteeism and Turnover define commitment to employment as the relative strength of an individual's identification with and involvement in a particular organization. It involves three factors: The authors grouped the major influences of commitment into four categories: 1) Personal characteristics; 2) Job or role related characteristics; 3) Work experiences and; 4) Structural characteristics (Mowday, et al., 1982, p. 29). 1) A strong belief in and acceptance of organization's goals and values; A willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization and; A strong desire to maintain membership in the organization (Mowday, Porter & Steers, 1982, p. 27). the 2) 3) 32 Of these four categories, personal characteristics is the one with which Daniel (1980) was primarily concerned and is the one most relevant to the current study. Personal characteristics include age, tenure, educational level, gender and race. According to Mowday's et al. (1982) review of turnover studies related to personality characteristics, commitment was positively related to age and tenure. Therefore age and tenure are also likely to influence employment behavior in a maternity leave situation. Education was inversely related to commitment with the authors suggesting that educated employees have higher expectations which may not be met by an organization. Gender was also found to affect commitment. Since women often have more barriers to overcome than men, they have been found to be more committed employees. Summary and Objectives of the Study With the exception of Daniel's (1980) study, the literature fails to deal in a comprehensive manner with employment behavior following maternity leave and the factors influencing this behavior. There is l i t t l e information as to which factors are the most influential and as Friedman (1987) points out, limited data to support the argument that implementing family responsive personnel policies can improve staff retention. What the literature does indicate is that the following factors either influence or potentially influence employment behavior following maternity leave: 33 1) Part-time employment opportunities; 2) Flexible working hours; 3) Level of earnings; 4) Number of children; 5) Tenure with an organization; 6) Age; 7) Level of education; 8) Union affiliation; 9) Financial situation; 10) Level and type of position; 11) Organizational support systems such as day-care; 12) Psychosocial variables and; 13) Suitable child-care arrangements. Information is s t i l l lacking, however, on a number of questions regarding actual employment behavior following maternity leave: 1) Do organizational tenure, age, number of children, salary, occupational and educational level, union affiliation and employment status significantly influence a woman's decision to return to work following a maternity leave? 2) How many women do not return to work following their maternity leave and what are the major reasons given for terminating their employment? 3) What are the employment patterns of the women who return to work and do a substantial proportion of them transfer from full-time to part-time employment? 4) What are the major problems women experience when they return to work following a maternity leave? 34 5) Do f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s encourage s t a f f retent ion fol lowing maternity leaves? 6) What is the experience of women under the current maternity leave l e g i s l a t i o n ? The primary object ives of the current study were to address the f i r s t three issues by examining the employment behavior fol lowing maternity leave for 313 women of varying occupations from a large metropolitan hosp i ta l and to examine the l a t t e r three issues through in-depth interviews with f ive women from the sample. A further object ive was to develop a set of recommendations on how organizat ions can best achieve s t a f f re tent ion fol lowing maternity leave. 35 CHAPTER I I I : METHOD Sett ing A large metropolitan hosp i ta l in B r i t i s h Columbia was se lected as the s i t e for t h i s study. Since i t is a large organizat ion employing approximately 5500 people, 1800 of whom are nursing s t a f f belonging to the B r i t i s h Columbia Nurses Union (BCNU), i t provided a large female populat ion. As well as the nurses, other female s t a f f Included in t h i s study consisted of 2300 Hospi ta l Employees Union (HEU) support s t a f f who worked in a v a r i e t y of pos i t ions such as kitchen a ides , porters and c l e r i c a l s t a f f . Five hundred and t h i r t y Health Sciences Assoc iat ion (HSA) employees were a lso included in th i s study. HSA i s a profess ional union which represents pos i t ions such as phys io therapis t s , s o c i a l workers and psycholog is t s . The las t groups included in the study were the excluded groups of management and s e c r e t a r i a l s t a f f . The hosp i ta l not only provides a large female sample but i s a l so a very diverse and complex environment. Approximately 350 d i f f e r e n t pos i t ions provide an exce l lent occupational cross -s e c t i o n . These d i f f e r e n t pos i t ions f a l l within f ive d i v i s i o n s at the h o s p i t a l : Operations, Nursing, Medicine, Administrat ion and Planning and Development (see Appendix B) . 36 Compared to most pr ivate organizat ions , the hosp i ta l would be considered a r e l a t i v e l y f l e x i b l e employment environment. Part-t ime opportunit ies are ava i lab le and employees can e a s i l y transfer to o n - c a l l s ta tus . There are job-sharing arrangements and leaves of absence are common. Although a committee is c u r r e n t l y working on an on-s i te day-care proposal , at present, the h o s p i t a l does not offer any c h i l d - c a r e options or information regarding ava i lab l e c h i l d - c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . Another indicator of f l e x i b i l i t y in the hosp i ta l environment i s the maternity leave provis ions contained in the three union contrac t s . They are superior to the maternity benefits in the Employment Standards Act . The clauses for a l l three contracts are out l ined in Appendix C. The major di f ference between these clauses and the Employment Standards A c t 1 s provis ions i s the length of the leave. HEU provides 24 weeks (6 months) and HSA and BCNU provide 26 weeks. The Employment Standards Act provides only 18 weeks. The HSA contract i s less f l e x i b l e than the BCNU and HEU contracts in that the 18 week minimum leave can be extended only to a 26 week leave, subject to the operat ional requirements of the h o s p i t a l . BCNU and HEU employees do have the opt ion , however, to request the maximum leave pr ior to leave commencement regardless of operat ional cons iderat ions . With regard to benefit p lans , HEU follows the Employment  Standards Act minimum eighteen week coverage with no benefit coverage for the s ix week extension provided in the Act . HSA 37 and BCNU employees are e n t i t l e d to benefit coverage for th i s s ix week extension. A l l three contracts address the amount of notice that must be given p r i o r to returning to work. While HSA employees are required to give the greatest amount of not ice , t h i r t y days, BCNU employees need give only fourteen days and HEU, only seven days. Again, although r e l a t i v e to most employers the hosp i ta l i s a f l e x i b l e environment, variances ex i s t between the unions in degree of f l e x i b i l i t y . The BCNU is the most f l e x i b l e union. There are normally many vacant part-t ime pos i t ions and a nurse can e a s i l y transfer to casual (on-ca l l ) status i f she cannot maintain r e g u l a r l y scheduled hours. Many nurses take leaves of absence for educational reasons. F i n a l l y , s ince experienced nurses have been in demand for a number of years, i f a nurse with a good employment record does terminate, the hosp i ta l w i l l almost always r e a d i l y reh ire her. Although HEU s t a f f can transfer to casual status and bid on part-t ime p o s i t i o n s , there are far fewer part-t ime opportunit ies and o n - c a l l hours for them than there are for nurses. As part-t ime and casual opportunit ies are even more l imi t ed for HSA employees, HSA would be considered the least f l e x i b l e union. Subjects The sample of women chosen for th i s study was selected to 38 be representat ive of the population of a l l female employees in B r i t i s h Columbia who took maternity leaves between June, 1983 and May, 1986. The sampling technique that was u t i l i z e d was c lus ter sampling as the sample of women from the hosp i ta l represented one c lus ter of the many c lus ters of women from various organizations in the province who took maternity leaves during t h i s per iod . The o r i g i n a l sample of women for th i s study consisted of 337 women who took maternity leaves between June, 1983 and May, 1986. The sample was d iv ided into two groups. The f i r s t group consisted of 313 women who took one maternity leave during the period under study. The second group consisted of 24 women who took two maternity leaves during th i s per iod . Since the two groups represented considerably d i f f e r e n t s i tua t ions a dec i s ion was made to r e s t r i c t the s t a t i s t i c a l analys i s to the larger group, each of whom had taken only one maternity leave. The 24 women who took two maternity leaves were included in the interview sample. The sample s i z e , therefore , for the s t a t i s t i c a l analys i s was 313 women and with a sample of th i s s i z e , general izat ions can be made at a 95% l e v e l of confidence +. 6% p r e c i s i o n . Forty-seven d i f f e r e n t occupations were represented by the sample. The occupations ranged from manual pos i t ions such as kitchen aides to profess ional pos i t ions such as physiotherapists and nurses. At the time of h i r e , the majority of the sample consisted of general duty nurses (47.6%) with the 39 next highest category being kitchen aides (6.4%). The positions occupied immediately prior to the maternity leave differed somewhat from the positions at hire, with the three largest groups being general duty nurses (47.6%), clerks (5.4%) and practical nurses (3.2%) (see Appendix D). when the positions immediately prior to the maternity leave were categorized according to broad occupational levels, the professionals were the largest group (Table 2). Table 2 Occupational Levels Immediately Prior to the Maternity Leave Level Percent Manual 13.1 Clerical 15.7 Technical (HEU) 7.0 Professional 64.2 Table 3 indicates that the size of the employee groups differed very l i t t l e from the time of hire to immediately prior to the maternity leave. 40 Table 3 Union Groups & Management at Hire and Immediately P r i o r to the  Maternity Leave Union Percent Hire P r i o r HEU 40.2 35.2 HSA 10.9 10.2 BCNU 48.9 52.7 MGMT 1.9 Looking at the departments both at h ire and immediately p r i o r to the maternity leave, the majority of the sample f e l l within the Nursing D i v i s i o n (63.5%). Other departments which were well represented at h ire included Food Services (8.3%), Pathology (7.7%) and Phys ica l Medicine (3.5%). The departmental representat ion immediately p r i o r to the maternity leave d id not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r from the time of h ire (see Appendix E ) . S i x t y - f i v e percent of the sample was from the Nursing D i v i s i o n and 30.4% were from the Operations D i v i s i o n . Only 4.4% of the sample was from Medicine and Admini s tra t ion . There are three employment status categories at the h o s p i t a l : regular (permanent) f u l l - t i m e , regular part-t ime and casual (which is an o n - c a l l or temporary s i t u a t i o n ) . At the 41 time of hire, 59.7% of the sample was full-time, 8.3% was part-time and 32% were casual. The casual status group was relatively large at the time of hire because most regular positions are awarded to employees already on staff. One year prior to the maternity leave, the employment status groups had substantially changed. Seventy-six percent of the sample was full-time, 22.3% was part-time and 2% was casual. Immediately prior to the maternity leave, the part-time category had slightly increased (Table 4). Table 4 Status at Hire, One Year and Immediately Prior to Maternity  Leave Status Percent Hire One Prior Reg full-time 59.7 75.7 73.4 Reg part-time 8.3 22.3 25.6 Casual 32.0 2.0 1.0 Note.. There were 12 missing cases one year prior to the maternity leave. The salary categories in Table 5 reflect the large number of full-time nursing staff, 42.5% earned between $25,000 to 29,999. The next largest group (16.3%) earned between $15,000 to $19,999. 42 Table 5 Salary Groups Immediately P r l o r To Maternity Leave Annual Salary Percent Up to 9,999 10,000-14,999 15,000-19,999 20,000-24,999 25,000-29,999 Over 30,000 7.3 14.7 16.3 13.4 42.5 5.8 The maternity leaves examined in the study occurred between June, 1983 and May 1986, with the majority occurring from 1984 to 1985 (Table 6). The date used to define the maternity leave was the date the employee commenced her maternity leave. As many employees d id not return from t h e i r maternity leaves, the return date could not be used. With data co l l ec t ed during the summer of 1987, at least one and a hal f years had elapsed since the beginning of the maternity leave for 91.4% of the sample. Table 6 Maternity Leave by Year Year Percent Cumulat ive Percent 1983 1984 1985 1986 17.3 36.1 38.0 8.6 17.3 53.4 91.4 100.0 43 F i f t y percent of the sample had been employed at the h o s p i t a l at least f ive years p r i o r to t h e i r maternity leave. Nine percent of the employees had been employed in excess of ten years with the longest period of employment being 18 years (Table 7). Table 7 Length of Employment Immediately P r i o r to Maternity Leave Cumulative Months Percent Percent Up to 24 (2 years) 15.3 15.3 25 - 60 (5 years) 34.5 49.8 61 - 84 (7 years) 20.2 70.0 85 - 120 (10 years) 21.1 91.1 Over 10 years 8.9 100.0 The ages of the sample p r i o r to the maternity leave ranged from 20 to 41 with the mean being 30 years of age. Seventy-three percent of the sample were taking the ir f i r s t maternity leave. Twenty-three percent had already taken at least one maternity leave and 3.5% had taken two leaves. One employee in the sample had taken three previous maternity leaves. Table 8 out l ines the highest l e v e l of completed education. The nursing diploma graduates (44%) were the largest group. Twenty percent of the sample had a Bachelors degree and 17.9% 44 were high school graduates. Table 8 Educat ional Levels Immediately P r i o r to the Maternity Leave Education Percent Did not complete High School 2.9 High School Graduate 17.9 College Diploma 2.9 Technical School 12.1 Nursing Diploma 44.4 Bachelor/Post 19.8 Graduate Procedure Data C o l l e c t i o n . The data were co l l ec t ed from personnel records between June and September, 1987 and were coded using the form in Appendix F . As the form ind ica te s , data regarding employment information p r i o r to and fol lowing the maternity leave were c o l l e c t e d . Dependent V a r i a b l e s . The dependent var iab les for th i s study were three d i s t i n c t types of employment behavior: 45 GROUP 1: Employees who terminated immediately fol lowing the i r maternity leave. GROUP 2: Employees who returned to work but d id not remain employed. GROUP 3: Employees who returned to work and remained employed. Independent V a r i a b l e s . One of the major issues to be addressed by th i s study was the r e l a t i o n s h i p of several factors i d e n t i f i e d by the l i t e r a t u r e as p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t employment behavior inf luences . These factors were selected as the independent var iab les for th i s study with the addi t ion of another v a r i a b l e , organizat ional d i v i s i o n . This a d d i t i o n a l var iab le was included to determine i f there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ferences between return rates within the h o s p i t a l . The independent v a r i a b l e s , therefore , were as fol lows: 1) Level of education; 2) Age immediately p r i o r to the maternity leave; 3) Length of employment immediately p r i o r to the maternity leave; 4) Employment status immediately pr ior to the maternity leave; 5) Union/Management a f f i l i a t i o n immediately p r i o r to the maternity leave; 6) Salary l e v e l immediately p r i o r to the maternity leave; 7) Occupational l e v e l immediately p r i o r to the maternity leave; 46 8) Number of p r e v i o u s m a t e r n i t y l eaves immedia te ly p r i o r to the m a t e r n i t y l eave and; 9) O r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n immediate ly p r i o r to the m a t e r n i t y l e a v e . Statement of Hypotheses . The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were generated f o r each of these v a r i a b l e s . H y p o t h e s i s I_: Women who have a h i g h e r l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n w i l l be more l i k e l y to r e t u r n to work than women w i t h l e s s e d u c a t i o n . As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , a l t h o u g h Mowday et a l . (1982) found t h a t employees w i t h more e d u c a t i o n d i d not demonstrate g r e a t e r commitment, Robinson (1987) found t h a t more educated women were more l i k e l y to work c o n t i n u o u s l y than l e s s educated women. In a d d i t i o n , D a n i e l (1980) , found t h a t women at h i g h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s such as nurses and t e a c h e r s were the most l i k e l y group to remain w i t h t h e i r p r e - b i r t h e m p l o y e r s . H y p o t h e s i s I I : O l d e r women (over 30 years of age) w i l l be more l i k e l y to r e t u r n to work than younger women. There i s some ev idence from the l i t e r a t u r e to s u p p o r t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . Mowday et a l . (1982) found o l d e r employees to be more committed than younger employees w h i l e D a n i e l (1980) found t h a t o l d e r women were more l i k e l y than younger women to remain w i t h t h e i r p r e - b i r t h employer . H y p o t h e s i s I I I : Women who are l o n g tenure employees (over f i v e y e a r s ) w i l l be more l i k e l y to r e t u r n to work than women wi th s h o r t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e n u r e . A c c o r d i n g to Mowday et a l . (1982) , l onger t enure employees have been found to be more committed employees which p r o v i d e s s u p p o r t f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . D a n i e l (1980) a l s o found f u l l -47 time women in higher occupational l eve l s to have the longest s e r v i c e . These women were the most l i k e l y group to remain with t h e i r p r e - b i r t h employers. Hypothesis IV: Part-t ime women w i l l be more l i k e l y to return to work than f u l l - t i m e women. Daniel (1980) found that part-t ime women were more l i k e l y to re turn to work than f u l l - t i m e women. It was a lso previous ly noted that part-t ime employment plays an important ro le for women with small c h i l d r e n in the B . C . workforce. As i t appears to be a des irable work a l t e r n a t i v e for women with small c h i l d r e n , i t i s l i k e l y that part-t ime women would f ind i t easier to return to work than f u l l - t i m e women. Hypothesis V: Women who belong to BCNU and HEU which provide the most f l e x i b l e employment condit ions w i l l be more l i k e l y to return to work than women in HSA, the union with the least f l e x i b l e working condi t ions . As there were only s ix excluded employees in th i s study, i t was not poss ible to compare return rates between union and excluded employees. The three union groups however, provided a comparison of the degree to which f l e x i b l e working condit ions influence return rates from maternity leaves. As HSA represented the least f l e x i b l e union i t was hypothesized that employees belonging to th i s union, would be the least l i k e l y to re turn to work fol lowing t h e i r maternity leaves. Hypothesis VI: Women within higher s a l a r y categories w i l l be more l i k e l y to return to work than women in lower s a l a r y categories . Although Daniel (1980) found that women at extreme ends of the sa lary scale were the most l i k e l y groups to return 48 to work, he a lso found that women In higher l eve l occupations were the most l i k e l y group to re turn to work and remain with the ir p r e - b i r t h employer. As these women are normally at higher sa lary l e v e l s , i t was hypothesized that they would be the most l i k e l y to return to work. Hypothesis VII : Women at higher occupational l eve l s are more l i k e l y to return to work than women at lower occupational l e v e l s . As prev ious ly ind ica ted , Daniel (1980) found that women in higher occupational l eve l s were the most l i k e l y group to remain with t h e i r p r e - b i r t h employer. Mott (1978) a lso found that women with better job options were the most l i k e l y to return to work fol lowing c h i l d b i r t h . Hypothesis VIII : Women who have taken previous maternity leaves w i l l be less l i k e l y to re turn to work than women who have not taken any previous maternity leaves. The number of previous maternity leaves provided an i n d i c a t i o n of the number of c h i l d r e n per employee. Daniel (1980) found that when he looked at a l l the women in his study the more c h i l d r e n a woman had the less l i k e l y she was to be working. C h i l d - c a r e arrangements a l so general ly become more complicated with a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n which often prevents women from working. Hypothesis IX: The nursing d i v i s i o n w i l l have the highest return ra tes . The basis for th i s hypothesis i s s i m i l a r to Hypothesis V. The nursing d i v i s i o n offers the most f l e x i b l e employment condit ions and most of the employees within t h i s d i v i s i o n are nurses belonging to BCNU, the most f l e x i b l e union. 49 Methods of A n a l y s i s . Two tests were used to test the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s . The Chi Square test of Independence was used for the nominal and ord ina l data and the One Way Analys is of Variance for the r a t i o data . A value of .05 was the s ign i f i cance l e v e l used for both types of t e s t s . Interviews. In-depth interviews were conducted with f ive women randomly se lected from the sample. The purpose of these interviews was to obtain information in the fol lowing areas: problems encountered in re turning to work, f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s and s t a f f r e t en t ion , c h i l d - c a r e arrangements, the e f fect of c h i l d b i r t h on a career and the f e a s i b i l i t y of the current maternity leave l e g i s l a t i o n . A "*» copy of the l e t t e r which was sent to each p a r t i c i p a n t can be found in Appendix G. A s tructured interview was used as out l ined in Appendix H. 50 CHAPTER IV: DISCUSSION & RESULTS This study examined the employment behavior fol lowing maternity leave of a large sample of women of varying occupations in order to address the fol lowing issues: 1) Do organizat ional tenure, age, number of c h i l d r e n , s a l a r y , occupational and educational l e v e l , union a f f i l i a t i o n and employment status s i g n i f i c a n t l y influence a woman's dec i s ion to return to work fol lowing a maternity leave? 2) What proport ion of women do not re turn to work fol lowing t h e i r maternity leave and what are the major reasons given for terminating t h e i r employment? 3) What are the employment patterns of the women who return to work and do a subs tant ia l proport ion transfer from f u l l - t i m e to part-t ime employment? 4) What are the major problems women experience when they return to work fol lowing a maternity leave? 5) Do f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s encourage s ta f f re tent ion fol lowing maternity leave? 6) What i s the experience of women with the current maternity leave l e g i s l a t i o n ? This chapter w i l l address these questions by reviewing the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l ana lys i s and the interviews. 51 Analys is of the Hypotheses Do organizat ional tenure, age, number of c h i l d r e n , s a l a r y , occupational and educational l e v e l , union a f f i l i a t i o n and employment status s i g n i f i c a n t l y influence a woman's dec i s ion to return to work fol lowing a maternity leave? These fac tors , with the addi t ion of organizat ional d i v i s i o n const i tuted the independent var iab les chosen to be tested as predic tors of post-maternity leave employment behavior. Two tests were u t i l i z e d , the Chi Square test of Independence and the One Way Analys i s of Variance. The Chi Square test was run for s ix var iab les inc lud ing: education, s ta tus , organizat ional d i v i s i o n , l e v e l of p o s i t i o n , union and s a l a r y . As s i g n i f i c a n t re la t ionsh ips were not found between the employment behavior groups and education, s tatus , organizat ional d i v i s i o n , l e v e l of pos i t ion and s a l a r y , the hypotheses r e l a t i n g to these var iables were rejected (Table 9) . Table 9 Summary of c h i Square Results Var iable Chi-Square S t a t i s t i c Degrees of Freedom Education 7.76 10 Status 2.86 4 Union 13.63* 4 Salary 13.38 10 Occupation 12.21 6 D i v i s i o n 6.51 4 p_ >.05 *p_< .05 52 A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between the employment 2 behavior groups and the union groups, X (4)=13.63 p_=.008. HSA, the union with the least f l e x i b l e employment condit ions had the highest termination rate (31.3%) as out l ined in Table 10. This re su l t supports the hypothesis that f l e x i b l e employment condit ions encourage s t a f f retent ion fol lowing maternity leaves (Hypothesis V ) . Table 10 Return Rates by Union from Chi Square Analys is Group Union HEU HSA BCNU N % N % N % Terminated fol lowing maternity leave (1) 10 9.1 10 31.3 34 20.6 Terminated fol lowing return to work (2) 11 10.0 3 9.4 25 15.2 Remained employed (3) 89 80.9 110 19 32 59.4 106 165 64.2 One Way Analys is of Variance was run for the three v a r i a b l e s , length of employment, previous maternity leaves and age (see Table 11). Length of employment was the only one of these var iab les which s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the three employment behavior groups F( 2, 310 ) =4 . 89 p_=.008. 53 Table 11 Summary of Analys is of Variance Results Terminated Following Terminated Fol lowing Remained the Maternity Leave Return to Work Employed (Group 1) (Group 2) (Group 3) Tenure M 4.83 4.50 5.90 SD 3.14 2.37 3.30 F 4.88* Age M 29.70 28.56 30.22 SD 4.42 3.41 3.91 F 3.01 Previous Leaves M .26 .21 .34 SD .48 .47 .58 F 1.25 p_ > .05 *p_ .05 Of the employees who remained on s t a f f , the mean length of employment was 5.9 years, while i t was less than 5 years for the other two groups. This r e s u l t supported Hypothesis I I I , as 54 longer tenure employees were more likely to return to work than shorter tenure employees. Employment Patterns Following the Maternity Leave What proportion of women do not return to work following their maternity leave and what are the major reasons given for terminating their employment? The return rates for the three employment behavior groups indicated that 217 employees (69.3%) remained on-staff. Fifty-seven employees (18.2%) terminated following their maternity leave and 39 employees (12.5%) following their return to work. The majority of women in the sample returned to work following their maternity leave and remained employed. It was Interesting that the percentage of women who returned and remained at work (69.3%) is similar to the statistic cited by the Status of Women (69%) for the return rate from maternity leaves for Canadian women. It was also of interest that a higher proportion of women (18.2%) terminated their employment immediately after their maternity leave rather than following their return to work (12.5%). This finding suggests that for many women the decision to terminate is made during their leave rather than following their return. As outlined in Table 12, most of the women terminated for domestic reasons (25.3%) and following their maternity leave (25.3%). The next largest category was "Other position" (13.7%). 55 Table 12 Termination Explanations for Groups 1 & 2 Termination Explanation Percent Other Pos i t i on 13.7 Temporary Employment 1.1 Health 3.2 Further Education 1.1 Domestic R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 25.3 Fol lowing Maternity Leave 25.3 Moving to another C i t y 10.5 P o s i t i o n Closer to Home 4.2 Personal 6.3 Following 2nd Maternity Leave 1.1 Not ava i lab le for casual employment 2.1 Moving 4.2 Other 2.1 What are the employment patterns of the women who returned to work and do a subs tant ia l proport ion transfer from f u l l - t i m e to part-t ime employment? The employment patterns of the second group of employees (those who terminated fol lowing the i r return to work) indicated that 79.5% returned from t h e i r maternity leave to t h e i r former pos i t ions and s tatus . Of a l l the employees in Group 2, ( inc luding th i s 79.5%), approximately 29% changed employment status fol lowing the i r return to work with 36.4% t r a n s f e r r i n g to p a r t - time and 63.6% to casua l . Of th i s group who changed s ta tus , 63.6% made the necessary arrangements pr ior to the i r re turn to work. None of t h i s group transferred t h e i r status 56 a second time. Also, very few employees in this group transferred their position or department following their maternity leave. At least 50% of Group 2 terminated within twelve months following their return to work and 80% within two years. Seventeen percent of Groups 1 and 2 were rehired. The majority of the rehires were general duty nurses (62.5%) returning as casual employees. Eighty-one percent of this group was rehired within one year of their termination from the hospital. For Group 3, the employees who remained on-staff at the hospital, 80.9% returned to their former position and status from their maternity leave. Of a l l the employees in group 3 (including this 80.9%) 43.5% changed employment status following their return to work with 57.6% transferring to part-time and 39.8% to casual. Only 3.2% transferred to full-time status. As with Group 2, a high percentage of Group 3 (43.5%) had made arrangements to transfer their employment status prior to their return to work with 89% transferring within twelve months of the maternity leave and return to work. Of the group that changed status, 18.5% did so a second time with most of the employees going part-time or casual. This means that of the group that remained employed, 39.6% were full-time, 42.9% were part-time and 17.5% were casual. Only 5.7% of Group 3 transferred positions and 12.2% transferred departments. Finally, data were collected pertaining to whether at the 57 time of the data collection/ the employees who were in Group 3 or rehired were actively employed or on maternity leave. It was found that 9.5% of this group was on maternity leave. The work patterns of the women in this study support Robinson's (1987) finding that women are exhibiting continuous rather than discontinuous work patterns. Of the women who did terminate their employment, a relatively high percentage were rehired or left for alternative employment, further increasing the percentage of women who remained employed. Another indicator of this trend, as previously discussed, was the high percentage of women (23%) who had already taken one maternity leave and returned to work. The Importance of part-time employment opportunities was another major finding. Although it was not found that women who were part-time prior to their maternity leave were more likely to return to work than full-time women, a large proportion of women transferred to part-time employment during their maternity leave and within a relatively short period of time following their return to work. This result was similar t Robinson's (1987) finding that a high number of women return to work following a work interruption in a part-time capacity Daniel (1980) also found that women were more likely to return t work on a reduced hours basis. 58 Interview Results What are the major problems women experience when they return to work from a maternity leave? Five randomly se lected women from the sample were interviewed regarding t h e i r maternity leave experience: a head nurse, two general duty nurses, a d i e t i t i a n and an excluded supervisor . The actua l case h i s t o r i e s are contained in Appendix I . This sect ion w i l l summarize the major f indings of these interviews and also address the above issue: major problems women experience upon t h e i r return to work. A l l of the women interviewed planned to return to work f u l l - t i m e fol lowing t h e i r f i r s t maternity leave, t h e i r primary reason being f i n a n c i a l necess i ty . When these women returned to work however, they wanted to do so in a part-t ime capac i ty . They found combining a f u l l - t i m e pos i t ion with care of a new baby was extremely s t r e s s f u l and f e l t that part-t ime hours would a l l e v i a t e some of th i s s tress while s t i l l enabling them to maintain t h e i r s k i l l s and employee benef i t s . Of these women, only two are s t i l l f u l l - t i m e and they indicated that the i r preference would be to work part - t ime . Only one woman terminated her employment with the h o s p i t a l , her reason for doing so being that there were no part-t ime opportunit ies at the time of her second maternity leave. She d id not fee l that she could cope with f u l l - t i m e employment and two young c h i l d r e n . She was, however, subsequently rehired (one year l a t e r ) as a part-t ime employee. 59 When I had my second c h i l d , there were maybe fourteen women who also took maternity leaves, but only a few returned to work. I fee l that most of these women would have returned i f there had been part-t ime opportuni t i e s . I would have d e f i n i t e l y returned to the OR i f I could have had a part-t ime p o s i t i o n . In addi t ion to the f r u s t r a t i o n over lack of su i tab le p a r t -time p o s i t i o n s , these women also encountered d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g from on-going c h i l d - c a r e problems, lack of free time and fat igue . As to be expected, these problems increased with each a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d . Women who transferred to part-t ime sa id that doing so grea t ly diminished these problems. During my maternity leave I r e a l i z e d that i t was not going to be as easy to leave th i s c h i l d as I thought i t would be. It was f a i r l y traumatic to return to work as I experienced g u i l t f ee l ings . It was a hard t r a n s i t i o n . Once back at work, i t was s t r e s s f u l but I did not r e a l i z e how s t r e s s f u l i t was u n t i l I stopped working f u l l - t i m e and transferred to part - t ime . With regard to c h i l d - c a r e arrangements, three of the women r e l i e d heavi ly on spouses, family and close fr iends with one woman r e l y i n g on both family and l i v e out babys i t t er s . The remaining woman r e l i e d e x c l u s i v e l y on l i v e - o u t babys i t t er s . They a l l sa id that c h i l d - c a r e arrangements were an ongoing source of concern and that the hosp i ta l had a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to provide on-s i te day care . They stressed that th i s would have grea t ly ass i s ted them in the i r return to work, e s p e c i a l l y with returning f u l l - t i m e . 60 On-si te day-care would be a d e f i n i t e asset as i t removes your concerns. You could check in on your c h i l d at coffee and lunch. It would be as i f they were with you during the day. I would fee l very comfortable with th i s arrangement. It would be great and would c e r t a i n l y take a lo t of the worry away. Some of the women acknowledged that having c h i l d r e n had forced them to put the i r careers "on ho ld ." They sa id that the i r p r i o r i t i e s had simply changed. Another obvious problem was that they d id not have the extra time to devote to the ir jobs, making i t d i f f i c u l t to advance in t h e i r careers . I plan to continue working part-t ime at the hosp i ta l and w i l l eventual ly switch to day s h i f t . I would l i k e to remain at the hosp i ta l as i t is a comfortable environment. At t h i s po int , my family l i f e i s more important than my work l i f e . I was unable to put in as much overtime as I d id p r i o r to my pregnancy. Although my a t t i tude did not change, I was not as w i l l i n g to give as much to my job as before the b i r t h of my c h i l d . My p r i o r i t i e s had changed, I was not w i l l i n g to stay at work u n t i l 6:00 or 7:00 at night anymore. A l l of the women f e l t that the hosp i ta l had been reasonably supportive but that there was d e f i n i t e l y room for improvement. One woman had requested and been granted (although the hosp i ta l was hes i tant) a job-sharing arrangement. This woman also appreciated that the hosp i ta l had provided a breast pump and pr ivate room which she used when she f i r s t returned to work. The hosp i ta l a lso did not pressure another woman concerning numerous absences when her c h i l d had a lengthy ear i n f e c t i o n . The h o s p i t a l accommodated another woman by al lowing her to change her s h i f t to a s s i s t her with c h i l d - c a r e arrangements. 61 Despite th i s support, a l l of the women f e l t that the hosp i ta l could become even more f l e x i b l e and by doing so improve s t a f f re t en t ion . They f e l t that in add i t ion to on-s i te day-care , there should be more part-t ime opportuni t i e s , job-sharing arrangements and f l e x i b l e schedul ing. One of the women said that she was nervous about approaching adminis trat ion for a more f l e x i b l e s i t u a t i o n when she heard that other employees had been turned down. The interviews provided powerful ins ight into the d i f f i c u l t i e s of returning to work fol lowing a maternity leave. The problems these women encountered in re turning to work included c h i l d - c a r e concerns ( e spec ia l ly the need for on-s i te day-care) , fa t igue , lack of scheduling a l t erna t ive s and job-sharing arrangements and problems encountered when a c h i l d becomes i l l . The major problem, however, was the need for more part-t ime opportuni t i e s . Part-t ime opportunit ies appeared to be the idea l compromise for these women as i t allowed them both to continue working and to spend time with t h e i r c h i l d r e n . These responses were almost i d e n t i c a l to Danie l ' s (1980) f indings on the major problems the women in his study encountered fol lowing t h e i r return to work. The l i t e r a t u r e on f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s and organizat ional support systems (Magid, 1986; Friedman, 1987) a lso indicates that these are the major problems that women in general , are current ly encountering in the workplace. Do f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s encourage s t a f f retent ion fol lowing maternity leave? 62 The importance of f l e x i b l e p o l i c i e s by the h o s p i t a l i n order to r e t a i n s t a f f f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y leaves was d e f i n i t e l y confirmed In these i n t e r v i e w s . One woman would most l i k e l y have l e f t the h o s p i t a l I f her j o b - s h a r i n g arrangement had not been approved and another woman s a i d t h a t i f the h o s p i t a l had pressured her over work missed because of her c h i l d ' s i l l n e s s , she would have r e s i g n e d . As both of these women were lo n g -term employees In r e l a t i v e l y s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s there would have been c o n s i d e r a b l e c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d with r e c r u i t m e n t and o r i e n t a t i o n had t h i s o c c u r r e d . One woman a c t u a l l y d i d r e s i g n because she c o u l d not secure part-time employment. I t i s c l e a r t h a t although women are e x h i b i t i n g continuous work p a t t e r n s , the task of combining work with motherhood i s a v e r y s t r e s s f u l one, r e q u i r i n g , as e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e d by both Friedman (1987) and the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e . Although the h o s p i t a l i s a r e l a t i v e l y f l e x i b l e working environment, the employees' needs f o r o n - s i t e day-care and f l e x i b l e s c h e d u l i n g were s t i l l not being f u l l y addressed. Despite the seemingly high number of part-time p o s i t i o n s a t the h o s p i t a l , the women i n d i c a t e d t h a t there were s t i l l not enough such o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The high percentage of women i n the sample who t r a n s f e r r e d to part-time employment, the high turnover i n HSA, the l e a s t f l e x i b l e union and the experiences of the women who were in t e r v i e w e d a l l s t r o n g l y support the need f o r f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s i n order to achieve s t a f f r e t e n t i o n f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y l e a v e s . 63 Maternity Leave L e g i s l a t i o n What i s the experience of women under the current maternity leave l e g i s l a t i o n ? The women who were interviewed indent i f i ed two problem areas with the current maternity leave l e g i s l a t i o n : the eighteen week maternity leave prov i s ion and the f i f t een weeks of UIC benef i t s . A l l of the women f e l t that an eighteen week leave of absence was inadequate and that a more appropriate length of time for a leave would be s ix months. It i s quite l i k e l y therefore that longer maternity leaves may Influence maternity leave return ra tes . Women who are e n t i t l e d only to an 18 week leave may not fee l that they have had enough time with t h e i r babies and as a r e s u l t , may be less l i k e l y to return to work than women who have had a s ix month leave. A l s o , women who are e n t i t l e d only to these minimum leaves may return to work only because t h e i r pos i t ions are protected for 18 weeks. This may cause f r u s t r a t i o n which in turn may p r e c i p i t a t e termination of the i r employment. The other area i d e n t i f i e d as being inadequate was the f i f t een weeks of UIC benef i t s . Two of the women indicated that although s ix month leaves were a v a i l a b l e , the only reason they d id not take th i s long a leave was because benefits were payable only for f i f t een weeks. These problems were s i m i l a r to those i d e n t i f i e d in Danie l ' s (1980) study, in which women wanted longer leaves and more maternity pay and provide some evidence that the 64 l e g i s l a t i o n may be d e f i c i e n t in these two areas . L imi ta t ions of the Study The present study had three l i m i t a t i o n s . The primary l i m i t a t i o n was that although the sample was large and representat ive of a v a r i e t y of occupations, i t was drawn from the publ i c sec tor . The l i t e r a t u r e indicates (Danie l , 1980) that return rates for publ ic sector employees are s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than those for the pr ivate sec tor . Therefore, the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s , may be l imi ted to the publ ic sec tor . As the data was r e s t r i c t e d to information contained in personnel records, i t was not possible to test a d d i t i o n a l var iables such as f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n and exact number of c h i l d r e n which have been i d e n t i f i e d as employment behavior inf luences . F i n a l l y , as the period under study was June, 1983 to May, 1986, and the data were co l l ec ted during the summer of 1987, there were varying periods of time which passed since the maternity leaves, the shortest being the period since the leaves taken in May, 1986. Since there was no contro l for the time dependency factor more women who took maternity leaves in 1986 may have terminated fol lowing the i r return to work had more time elapsed pr ior to c o l l e c t i n g follow-up data , thereby reducing the o v e r a l l number of women remaining employed at the h o s p i t a l . 65 CHAPTER V: RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSIONS Recommendations The f i n a l object ive of th i s study was to develop recommendations that would a s s i s t organizations to best achieve s t a f f re tent ion fol lowing maternity leave. As previous ly d iscussed, i t is evident that in order to achieve s ta f f re tent ion fol lowing maternity leave, organizations must f i r s t provide supportive environments for working parents. Since the family responsive personnel p o l i c i e s such as job-sharing and f l e x i b l e scheduling are well documented and have been e a r l i e r o u t l i n e d , i t would serve no purpose to review these options at th i s po in t . This sect ion w i l l deal with recommendations re la ted to the implementation and a p p l i c a t i o n of these p o l i c i e s . 1. Organizations should conduct a needs analys i s to determine appropriate family supportive p o l i c i e s . As prev ious ly noted by Friedman (1987) dec iding the appropriate f l e x i b l e responses can be a very complicated process that involves task forces , surveys and information gathering from other companies. As with most successful programs, however, an attempt must be made to analyze the needs of the users . The implementation of family responsive p o l i c i e s is no exception. In a d d i t i o n , as most companies would be unable to introduce a l l of the ava i lab le f l e x i b l e options and support systems a needs analys i s would determine the employees' 66 p r i o r i t i e s . 2. Organizations should develop s p e c i f i c plans to achieve s t a f f re tent ion fol lowing maternity leave. Once the organizat ion has Implemented f l e x i b l e options, a s p e c i f i c plan should be developed to achieve s t a f f retent ion fol lowing each maternity leave. The plan should out l ine those steps required to r e a l i s t i c a l l y assess the p a r t i c u l a r needs of each employee taking a maternity leave and should then introduce the employee to the ava i lab le options and support systems. 3. The s t a f f re tent ion plan should include organizat ional intervent ion p r i o r to , during and fol lowing the maternity leave. The re su l t s of th i s study indicated that there are three stages at which organizations should intervene to accomplish s t a f f re tent ion: p r i o r to , during and fol lowing the maternity leave. Some of the women who were interviewed sa id that they did not have a r e a l i s t i c idea of what i t was going to be l i k e to return to work. These women a l l intended to return to work f u l l - time but upon doing so qu ick ly f e l t the need to transfer to part-t ime employment. Ch i ld -care arrangements a lso became a major source of concern for these women. Some organizations (Magid, 1986) have attempted to deal with these issues by providing working parent seminars and in-house r e f e r r a l programs for l oca t ing q u a l i t y c h i l d - c a r e . The purpose of an information and r e f e r r a l centre i s to provide employees with information regarding day-care resources. Employees could then begin 6 7 explor ing c h i l d - c a r e arrangements pr ior to t h e i r maternity leave. Working parent seminars provide an opportunity for working parents to discuss common concerns. It would no doubt be advantageous for employees who were expecting t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d to have the benefit of both these services as the i r awareness of the problems that they would be deal ing with fol lowing t h e i r return to work would be improved. This would, in t u r n , enable them to f ee l more in contro l of the i r return to work. The other area that should be addressed during th i s period is the f l e x i b l e working options ava i lab le to the employee upon her return to work. According to the interviews, i t i s important that organizations c l e a r l y communicate at an ear ly stage the ava i lab le f l e x i b l e working options. One woman who was interviewed was confused as to whether or not job-sharing was an a l t e r n a t i v e work option at the h o s p i t a l . She reported that the implementation of her job-sharing arrangement had been a very f r u s t r a t i n g experience as the hosp i ta l provided l imi ted support during th i s process. An appropriate time to provide th i s information would be pr ior to the employee's taking her maternity leave as she would then be aware of her employment options and be better able to make appropriate decis ions regarding her employment during her leave. The employee would also become aware at t h i s time that the organizat ion was supportive and committed to f l e x i b l e options. 68 The resu l t s of th i s study also suggested that most women a r r i v e at the dec i s ion to terminate t h e i r employment during the i r maternity leave rather than fol lowing the i r return to work. Women should therefore be advised p r i o r to taking t h e i r maternity leave that , i f necessary, counse l l ing would be provided during t h e i r leaves. The organizat ion would then at l east have the opportunity to offer poss ible so lut ions i f a woman was considering terminating her employment due to work/family c o n f l i c t s . Women should a lso be advised at th i s stage that they would be allowed to extend t h e i r leaves for a reasonable period of time i f i t is opera t iona l ly f e a s i b l e . This i s e s p e c i a l l y appl icable to organizations which provide only the 18 week minimum leave. This study also confirmed that a high percentage of women transferred to part-t ime employment during t h e i r maternity leave, which further emphasizes the importance of organizat ions ' maintaining communication with the employee during such leaves. Although most of the women in the study who returned to work remained employed, for an employer to maintain t h i s retent ion i t is important that the employee, upon her r e t u r n , continues to perceive the organizat ion as having a s incere commitment to f l e x i b i l i t y . Employees must fee l that the organizat ion w i l l be recept ive to reso lv ing the i r unique work/family problems on an ongoing bas i s . Employers must be prepared to be open-minded and creat ive in seeking so lut ions to each employee's unique 69 s i t u a t i o n and circumstances. 4. The organizat ion should assess at regular in terva l s the re su l t s of the i r s t a f f re tent ion p lan . A necessary step in a l l successful plans i s the incorporat ion of a mechanism for ongoing eva luat ion . A s t a f f re tent ion plan for maternity leaves should be assessed and revised as necessary at regular i n t e r v a l s . This object ive could be achieved through the maintenance of s t a t i s t i c s regarding employment behavior fol lowing maternity leaves and the adminis trat ion of questionnaires to employees who have taken maternity leaves. Summary & Conclusions This study explored s ix s p e c i f i c issues regarding post-maternity leave employment behavior. Of the nine var iables which were tested for t h e i r influence on return ra tes , two were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t , organizat ional tenure and f l e x i b l e employment. It was also found that although the majority of women continued working fol lowing the i r maternity leave, a high proport ion of them resumed work on the basis of reduced hours. The interviews revealed that the major problems women experience upon t h e i r return to work included c h i l d - c a r e concerns, the need for on-s i te day-care, lack of f l e x i b l e scheduling and l imi ted job-sharing and part-t ime opportuni t i es . It was further confirmed in these interviews that f l e x i b l e employment s i tua t ions encouraged s ta f f re tent ion fol lowing 70 maternity leave. A l l of the women stated that an 18 week leave of absence would have been inadequate. Some of the women f e l t that maternity benefits should be payable for the ent ire maternity leave. It was recommended that organizat ions attempting to achieve s t a f f re tent ion fol lowing maternity leave must become supportive work environments and implement a re tent ion plan which involves communication with the employee p r i o r to , during and fol lowing the leave. The purpose of th i s plan i s to provide the employee with information regarding f l e x i b l e working options and explore su i tab le so lut ions to any work/family problems. It i s evident that women have become an important component in the workforce. As the incidence of women taking maternity leaves s t e a d i l y increases , organizations w i l l require comprehensive information on how to e f f e c t i v e l y deal with a l l aspects of maternity leave and at present, information on th i s subject is l i m i t e d . Although i t is evident that a great deal of research s t i l l needs to be conducted in t h i s area , th i s study, as a f i r s t step, confirmed two very important aspects of employment behavior fol lowing maternity leave. F i r s t l y , the majori ty of women are c l e a r l y returning to work fol lowing the ir maternity leave and remaining employed. Secondly, i t would be naive for organizations to assume that a l l women are w i l l i n g to resume work in the i r p r e - b i r t h pos i t i ons . As concluded by 71 Daniel (1980) the r i g h t to reinstatement i s no insurance that women w i l l resume working. Rather, f l e x i b l e employment options appear to be the overr id ing influence on employment behavior fol lowing maternity leave. This conclusion has d e f i n i t e impl icat ions for human resource p o l i c i e s of organizat ions . It is evident that , in future , organizations w i l l e i ther have to implement f l e x i b l e working p o l i c i e s and organizat ional support systems or , f a i l i n g th i s a c t i o n , be prepared to deal with turnover due to work/family c o n f l i c t s not only fol lowing maternity leaves but on an ongoing bas i s . Organizations that are sens i t ive to work/family issues w i l l not only be better able to r e t a i n employees but may also be more successful in r e c r u i t i n g new employees. As the majority of women are c l e a r l y planning to work continuously , they w i l l most l i k e l y be a t tracted to working within an organizat ion that has demonstrated through the ir p o l i c i e s and support systems that they are interested in a s s i s t i n g working parents. F i n a l l y , th i s study provided evidence that although the b i r t h of a c h i l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r s a woman's p r i o r i t i e s , when given greater f l e x i b i l i t y , women remain very much committed to t h e i r employment. Organizat ions , therefore , w i l l i n g to be responsive to the work/family needs of the ir employees need not experience the high costs associated with turnover fol lowing maternity leave. 72 Implications for Further Research The primary l i m i t a t i o n of th i s study was that i t was r e s t r i c t e d to the publ ic sector . A recommendation for further research would be to compare return rates between private and publ ic sector employers. Another comparison which may be revea l ing would be an examination of the d i f ference in return rates between f l e x i b l e and i n f l e x i b l e organizat ions . A comparison of absenteeism, s ick leave and turnover rates experienced by these two types of organizations would a lso provide some much needed "bottom l ine" information for organizations contemplating the introduct ion of f l e x i b l e working condi t ions . As the var iab les which were examined in th i s study were r e s t r i c t e d to information ava i lab le in personnel records , further var iab les such as number of c h i l d r e n , mar i ta l status and f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n should be tested to provide a more comprehensive model of the factors which s i g n i f i c a n t l y influence employment behavior fol lowing maternity leave. 73 BIBLIOGRAPHY Akroyd, C. (1980). Maternity leave and job p r o t e c t i o n . Labour  Research B u l l e t i n , 12, 18-35. Chabin, M. (1983). Hospi ta l supported c h i l d care . American  Journal of Nursing, 83, 548-552. Danie l , W.W. (1980). Maternity r i g h t s : The experience of women. London: P o l i c y Studies I n s t i t u t e . Dan ie l , W.W. (1981). Maternity r i g h t s : The experience of employers. London: P o l i c y Studies I n s t i t u t e . Friedman, D. (1987). Work vs family: War of the worlds. Personnel  Adminis trator , 3_2(8), 36-40. Gaston, C. (1987). Maternity and work l i f e : Career women's f i r s t pregnancies (Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y , 1986). D i s ser ta t ion Abstracts In ternat iona l , 47 06-B. Gulack, R. (1984). Why nurses leave nurs ing. RN, 46., 32-37. H a l l , W. (1986). The experience of women returning to work af ter  the b i r t h of the i r f i r s t c h i l d . Unpublished master's the s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, Winnipeg. Hock, E . , Gnezda, J . T . & McBride, S . L . (1984). Att i tudes toward employment and motherhood fol lowing the b i r t h of the f i r s t c h i l d . Journal of Marriage and the Family , 46, 425-429. Kamerman, S .B. (1980). Maternity and parental benefits and leaves,  an in t erna t iona l review. New York: Columbia Un ivers i ty Press . 74 Labour Canada. (1983). Commission of Inquiry Into part-t ime  work (Catalogue No. L24-0978/83E). Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and Serv ices . Labour Canada. (1985). Maternity and child care leave (Catalogue No. L24-1208/84E). Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services. Magid, R. (1986). When mothers and fathers work: How employers can help . Personnel , 63.(12), 50-56. Morgan, C . K . & Hock, E . (1984). A long i tud ina l study of psychosocial var iab les a f f ec t ing the career patterns of women with young c h i l d r e n . Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46., 340-383. Mott, F . L . (1978). Women work and family: Dimensions of change  in American soc ie ty . Toronto: Lexington Books. Mowday, R . , Porter , L . & Steers , R. (1982). Employee Organization  Linkages, The Psychology of Commitment, Absentee ism and  Turnover. New York: Academic Press . Robinson, P. (1987). Women's work Interruptions re su l t s of the 1984 family h i s t o r y study ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada Catalogue No. 99-962). Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and Services . S p r u e l l , G. (1986). Business planning for parenthood. Tra in ing  and Development Journa l , 40.(8), 30-35. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. (1987). Women in the workplace-selected data (Catalogue No. 71-534). Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and Serv ices . 75 S t a t i s t i c s Canada. (1988). S t a t i s t i c a l report on the operation  of the unemployment insurance act (Catalogue No. 73-001). Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and Services . Symes, B. & Sheppard, L . (1984). Juggl ing a family and a job. Ottawa: Labour Canada, Womens1 Bureau. 76 Appendix A Maternity Leave Prov i s ion - B . C . L e g i s l a t i o n 29,402 Br i t i sh Colombia—The L a w 765—12-83 PART 7 MATERNITY LEAVE [^ [ 39,331] Maternity leave Sec. 51. (1) A n employee, on her written request supported by a certificate of a medical practitioner stating that the employee is pregnant and estimating the probable date of birth of the child, is entitled to a leave of absence from work, without pay, for a period of 18 consecutive weeks or a shorter period the employee requests, commencing 11 weeks immediately before the estimated date of birth or a later time the employee requests. (2) Regardless of the date of commencement of the leave of absence taken under subsection (1), the leave shall not end before the expiration of 6 weeks following the actual date of birth of the child unless the employee requests a shorter period. (3) A request for a shorter period under subsection (2) must be given in writ ing to the employer at least one week before the date that the employee indicates she intends to return to work and the employee must furnish the employer with a certificate of a medical practitioner stating that the employee is able to resume work. (4) Where an employee gives birth or the pregnancy is terminated before a request far leave is made under subsection (1), the-employer shall, on the employee's request and on receipt of a certificate of a medical practitioner stating that the employee has given birth or the pregnancy was terminated on a specified date, grant the employee leave of absence from work, without pay, for a period of 6 consecutive weeks, or a shorter period the employee requests, commencing on the specified date. (5) Where an employee who has been granted leave of absence under this section is, for reasons related to the birth or the termination of the pregnancy as certified by a medical practitioner, unable to work or return to work after the expiration of the leave, the employer shall grant to the employee further leaves or absence from work, without pay, for a period specified in one or more certificates but not exceeding a total of 6 con-secutive weeks. • [jf 39,332] Employer may require employee to take leave Sec. 52. A n employer may require an employee to commence a leave of absence under section 51 where the duties of the employee cannot reasonably be performed because of the pregnancy and to continue the leave of absence until the employee provides a certificate from a medical practitioner stating that .she is able to perform her duties. [J] 39,333] Employment deemed continuous Sec. 53. The services of an employee who is absent from work in accordance with this Part shall be considered continuous for the purpose of sections 36, 37 and Part 5 and any pension, medical or other plan .beneficial to the employee, and the employer shall continue to make payment to the plan in the same manner as if the employee were not absent where (a)- the employer pays the total cost of the plan, or (6) the employee elects to continue to pay her share of the cost of a plan that is paid for jointly by the employer and the employee. [fl 39,334] Reinstatement S e c 54. (1) A n employee who resumes employment'on the expiration of the leave of absence granted in accordance with this Part shall be reinstated in all respects by the employer in the position previously occupied by the employee, or in a comparable posi-tion, and with all increments to wages and'benefits to which the employee would have been entitled had the leave not been taken. • 77 765—12-83 Employment Standards A c t 29,403 (2) Where the employer has suspended or discontinued operations during the leave of absence granted under this Part and has not resumed operations on the expiry of the leave of absence, the employer shall, on resumption of operations and subject to seniority provisions in a collective agreement, comply with subsection (1). [fl 39,335] P r o h i b i t i o n Sec 55. (1) A n employer shall not (a) terminate an employee, or (6) change a condition of employment of an employee without the employee's written consent because of an absence authorized by this Part or because of the employee's pregnancy, unless the employee has been absent for a period exceeding that permitted under this Part. (2) The burden of proving that (a) the termination of an employee, or (6) a change in a condition of employment of the employee without the employee's written consent is not because of an absence authorized by this Part or because of an employee's preg-nancy, is on the employer [fl 39,336] B o a r d ' s p o w e r Sec 56. Where an officer is satisfied that an employer has contravened this Part, the officer may make one or more orders requiring the employer to do one or more of the following: (1983, c. 16. s. 27(a) & (&).) (a) comply with this Par t ; (b) remedy or cease doing an act; (f) hire or reinstate a person and pay her any wages lost by reason of the contra-vention; (1983, c. 16, s. 27(c).) (d) pay a person compensation instead of reinstating her; (1983, c. 16, s. 27(d).) .(<r) Repealed. (1983, c. 16, s. 27(0-) (1983, c. 16, s. 27.) P A R T 8 EMPLOYEE PROTECTION [fl 39,337] F a l s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s Sec 57. A n employer shall not, by means of deceptive or false representations, advertising or pretences respecting (a) the availability of a position, (6) the nature of the work to be done, (c) the wages to be paid for the work, or (d) the conditions of employment induce, influence or persuade a person to become his employee or to undertake work or to make himself available for work. [fl 39,338] I m p r o p e r t r e a t m e n t of e m p l o y e e S e c 58. A n employer shall not Canadian Labour L a w Reports 139,338 DOARD OF TRUSTEES C O r-4J M ro J3 U rH m c o X +J —( ro T J N - C *H <u c a ro a tr> M o rH • ro - P o Fundraismg Patient Inloimation-lelephones VICE-PRESIDENT P L A N N I N G b D E V E L O P M E N T C A P I T A L P L A N N I N G [l|iupnicnl New CnniKucliOil Renovations P R O G R A M P L A N N I N G P H Y S I C A L P L A N T Maintenance % . Power PUii l Salely ServKtl telecommunications " •. RESIDENCE P U D L I C DELAT IONS V I C E - P R E S I D E N T O P E R A T I O N S DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES Cii i i i ic Services (yi C m Cinlie laboratory Neuropil jliology Radiology Vascular laboratory P A T I E N T CATIE SEIWICES Anaesthesia Audio Vi inbul ir Services Occupational Iherapy Pharmacy Physiotherapy Psychology Renal 1 ethnology Social Services Speech/language Pathology s u p p o n T SEnvicES Biomedical Engineermg Ouilding Services Dtsinbutioii Services Food Services laundry b linen Services Printing Purchasing Slruei and Area Supply PRESIDENT / BDAFID SECRETARY VICE-PnESIOENT N U n s i N G NUnSING A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Adminisnaiive Services Inclination Systems Hulling Research Quality Assurance Stall Development N U R S I N G SERVICES Ernergency/Otifpaliciil/Diagnojlic Gcriatric/fan^y rractice/Palliative Care Medical/CCU/Neuioscicnces/Renal O.R.s/P.AR.s/llypaibanc Onhopaedir.j/Psychiatry/Ophihalninlogy Surgical/I.C.U./Cardiac Suijeiy/Duin N U R S I N G E D U C A T I O N School ol Nursing OTHEn S E R V I C E S Pastnial C m Sletila Supply VICE-PnESIOENT MEDICINE M E D I C A L A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Accreditation-Coordinator House Stall Medical Stall Appointments Medical Stall liaison Medico legal Oualily ol C m Coordination M E D I C A L D I R E C T O R S ' L IA ISON Own Unit Cardiac Care Unit Cardiac Surgery I.C.U./P.A.n. Cell Separator Unit Intensive Can Uuu(i| Gastruenteiulogy Clinic * Renal Unit M E D I C A L R E C O R D S S E R V I C E S Admitting Clinical Appraisal Medical Recoids Services EFF IC IENCY E N H A N C E M E N T Value Ininiqvemenl Program C H A I R M A N , M E D I C A L A O V I S 0 R Y C O M M I T T E E / C H I E F OF S T A F F V I C E - P R E S I D E N T A D M I N I S T R A T I S AUDIT ' Citeinal b Internal E M P L O Y E E RELAT IONS Compensation & dentins Employee Health Unit labour Relations Occupational Health b Salety • Stalling 4 Planning _ F I N A N C E Accounts Payable Budget b Statistics Capital Arcimiiimg Gvneral Accounting Insurance Patients' Receivables Payiol I N F O R M A T I O N S Y S T E M S Operations Systems Developmenl technical Support 37.05 Unpaid Leave —Public Office Employees shall be granted unpaid leave of absence to enable them to run for elected public office and if elected, to serve their term(s) of office subject to the following provisions: (a) Employees seeking election in a Municipal, Provincial or Federal election shall be granted unpaid leave of absence for a period up to ninety (90) calendar days. (b) Employees elected to public office shall be granted unpaid leave of absence for a period up to five (5) years. Article 38 ' M A T E R N I T Y L E A V E 38.01 Pregnancy shall.not constitute cause for dis-missal. Medical complications of pregnancy, including complications during an unpaid leave of absence for maternity reasons preceding the period stated by the Unemployment Insurance Act, shall be covered by sick leave credits providing the employee is not in receipt of maternity benefits under the Unemployment Insurance Act or any wage loss replacement plan. Employees shall be granted maternity leave of absence without pay. The duration of the mater-nity leave of absence before confinement and subsequent to confinement shall be at the option of the employee. Employees shall make every effort to give at least seven (7) days' notice prior to the com-mencement of maternity leave of absence with-out pay, and employees shall give at least seven (7) days' notice of their intention to return to 58 work prior to the termination of the leave of absence. If an employee is unable or incapable of per-forming her duties prior to the commencement of the maternity leave of absence without pay, the employee may be required to take unpaid leave of absence. . . . The Employer may require the employee to provide a doctor's certificate indicating the employee's general condition during pregnancy along with the expected date of confinement. Upon return to work, the employee shall con-tinue in her former position without loss of per-quisites accumulated up to the date of com-mencement of the maternity leave of absence without pay and subject to the provisions of Arti-cle 37.03. Effective January 20, 1983, leave of absence for maternity may be taken for a period not to exceed six (6) months. For the first twenty (20\ days of such leave, the employee shall be entitled to the benefits applicable to other- leaves of absence. For the balance of an.'eighteen (18) week period, i.e. eighteen (18) weeks less twenty (20) days, the employee shall be entitled to the maternity leave benefits set forth in the Employ-ment Standards Act. The balance of a maternity leave shall be without pay or benefits Article 39 • ADOPTION L E A V E 39.01 Upon request, and having completed his/her initial probationary period, an employee-shall be granted leave of absence without pay for up to six (6) months following the adoption of a child. 59 IISA Arliclc 17 L E A V E — E D U C A T I O N 17.01 Education leave granted by llie Employer to regular employees requesting such leave shall be in accordance with (lie following provisions: (a) The Employer shall grant one (I) day's education leave of absence with pay, subject to approval, for each normally scheduled work day',- as posted, that an individual regular employee gives of his own time. Such educational leave of absence with pay is not to exceed four (4) days of Employer contribution per Agreement year. (b) Such leave and reasonable expenses associated with the leave will be subject to the approval of the Employer, and further, subject to the budgetary and operational restraints. Reasonable expenses for all such leaves will not exceed $300.00 per employee, per Agreement year. (c) Education leave will be utilized for courses that relate to the employee's profession, and may also be utilized to sit examinations for relevant professional courses.. (d) Additional unpaid leave for education purposes may be requested by employees. The Employer shall not be responsible for any expenses related to such unpaid leave. (e) Education leave is not accumulated from Agreement year to Agree-ment year. 17.02 Application for education leave shall be submitted to the Employer with as much lead lime as practical, with due consideration for the staffing requirements of the Employer. The employee shall be informed of the Employer's decision within a reasonable period of lime from the dale of submission. 17.03 An employee shall be granted leave with pay to lake courses at the request of the Employer. The Employer shall bear the full cost of (he course, including tuition fees, laboratory fees, and course required books, necessary travelling and subsislancc expenses. Arliclc 18 L E A V E — M A T E R N I T Y A N D A D O P T I O N 18.01 Maternity Leave Regular employees will be granted eighteen (18) weeks leave of absence without pay for maternity leave purposes: and, subject to the operational requirements of the hospital. additional leave beyond eighteen (18) weeks to a maximum of twenty-six (26) weeks will be granted upon request. Such leave may commence eleven (II) weeks prior to the week in which her predicted date of confinement will occur or at any time there-after at the request of the employee. In no case will an employee be required to return to work sooner than six (6) weeks following the birth of her child. 76 When an employee is incapable of performing her duties as evidenced by a medical certificate, cither before or after such eighteen (18) week period, then an additional leave of absence without pay shall be granted by the Employer. 18.02 Siclt Leave Provisions Medical complications of pregnancy shall be covered by sick leave provisions including complications occurring during the unpaid leave of absence for maternity reasons preceding the period slated by the Unem-ployment Insurance Act. 18.03 Incapable of Performing Duties Pregnancy will not constitute cause for dismissal. If an employee is incapable of performing her duties prior lo the commencement of her maternity leave, she may be required by the Employer to take unpaid leave of absence. 18.0'l Doctor's Certificate The Employer may require an employee to provide a Doctor's certificate indicating the employee's general condition during pregnancy and the expected date of confinement. 18.05 Rcluni lo Work , ' -Upon return to work the employee will return lo her former previously occupied position, or in a comparable position, and without loss of benefits as required by the Employment Standards Act. 18.06 Adoption Leave Upon request, and having completed his/her initial probationary period, an employee shall be granted leave of absence without pay for up to twenty-six (26) weeks following (he adoption of a child. The employee shall furnish proof of adoption. Where both parents are employees of the Employer, the employees will decide which of them will apply for leave. 18.07 Notice Required Employees shall be required to give as much written notice as possible prior lo commcnccmcnl of maternity and/or adoption leave of absence without pay and at least thirty (30) day written notice of Ihe anticipated dale of their return. Article 19 L E A V E — S I C K 19.01 Accumulation Employees shall receive'1.5 working days (or portion (hereof) sick leave credit for each month (or portion thereof) of service and such sick leave credits, if not utilized, shall be cumulative lo a maximum of 156 working days. 27 BCNU 3 7 . 0 2 N o t i c e A n e m p l o y e e m a y request unpa id leave o f absence for any pu rpose . Reques ts for s u c h leave o f absence sha l l be made in w r i t i n g to (he D i r e c t o r o f N u r s i n g (or des ignated representa t ive) , and may be granted at the e m p l o y e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n . Reasonab le not ice o f at least eight (8) days sha l l be g i v e n to "m in im ize d i s l oca t i on o f staff. T h e e m p l o y e r sha l l i nd ica te to (he e m p l o y e e , in w r i t i n g , (he acceptance or re fusa l o f s u c h request w i t h i n a reasonab le pe r i od o f t ime . 3 7 . 0 3 I n c r e m e n t s L e a v e o f absence sha l l not affect annual i nc rements , w h e n granted fo r educa t i ona l pu rposes and matern i ty l eave . (Reference A r t i c l e 12: A n n i v e r s a r y Da te and Inc rements . ) A r t i c l e 38 L E A V E — M A T E R N I T Y , A D O P T I O N 3 8 . 0 1 M a t e r n i t y L e a v e (a) M e d i c a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s o f p regnancy , i n c l u d i n g c o m p l i c a t i o n s d u r i n g an unpa id leave, o f absence fo r matern i ty reasons , p re -c e d i n g the pe r i od stated by the U n e m p l o y m e n t Insurance A c t , sha l l be c o v e r e d by s ick leave credi ts p r o v i d i n g (he e m p l o y e e is not in rece ip t o f matern i ty benefi ts under the U n e m p l o y m e n t Insurance A c t o r any wage loss rep lacement p l a n . (b) A regu la r e m p l o y e e sha l l be granted twen ty -s ix (26) w e e k s ' mate rn i t y l eave o f absence wi thout pay . S u c h leave m a y c o m -m e n c e e l even (I I) weeks p r i o r to the week in w h i c h her pre-d i c t e d w e e k o f con f inement occurs or any t ime (hereafter at the' request o f the e m p l o y e e . In no case sha l l an e m p l o y e e be requ i red to return to w o r k sooner than s ix (6) weeks f o l l o w i n g the b i r th o r the te rmina t ion o f her p regnancy un less a shor ter l i m e is requested by the e m p l o y e e and granted by the e m p l o y e r . (c) (i) F o r (he first twenty (20) w o r k days o f such leave the e m p l o y e e sha l l be ent i t led to (he benefits under A r t i c l e 3 7 : L e a v e — G e n e r a l , ( i i ) F o r the ba lance o f an e ighteen (18) week p e r i o d , i .e . e igh teen (18) weeks less twenty (20) wo rk d a y s , the ser -v i c e o f an e m p l o y e e w h o is on matern i ty leave sha l l be / cons i de red con t inuous for the purpose o f any p e n s i o n , m e d i c a l o r other p lan bene f i c ia l to the e m p l o y e e , and the e m p l o y e r sha l l con t inue to m a k e payment to the p lans in the same m a n n e r as i f the e m p l o y e e was not absent . ( i i i ) W h e r e an e m p l o y e e w h o has been p a n t e d leave o f absence under this A r t i c l e i s , fo r reasons re lated to the b i r th o r the t e rm ina t i on o f the p r e g n a n c y as cer t i f ied by u m e d i c a l p rac t i t i one r , unab le to w o r k o r return to w o r k after the e x p i r a t i o n o f the l e a v e , as s ta led in ( i i ) a b o v e , the e m p l o y e r sha l l grant to the e m p l o y e e fur ther leaves o f absence f r o m w o r k , w i thou t p a y , fo r a pe r i od spec i f i ed i n one o r m o r e cer t i f i ca tes but not e x c e e d i n g a total o f s ix (6) c o n s e c u t i v e w e e k s . T h e terms and c o n d i t i o n s ou t l i ned in (he above paragraph sha l l a p p l y . F a i l u r e to p r o v i d e a m e d i c a l cer t i f ica te d e s c r i b e d he re in sha l l not have the ef fect o f r e d u c i n g the leave o f absence p r o v i d e d for in A r t i c l e 38.01 (b) but sha l l d isent i t le her to a fur ther c o n t i n u a t i o n o f benef i ts desc r i bed in ( i i ) a b o v e . ( iv ) T h e r e m a i n i n g two (2) weeks o f matern i ty arc subject to the p r o v i s i o n s o f A r t i c l e 3 7 : L e a v e — G e n e r a l . (d) A n e m p l o y e e w h o r e s u m e s e m p l o y m e n t o n the exp i ra t i on o f -her ma te rn i t y leave o f absence sha l l be re instated in a l l respects in the p o s i t i o n p r e v i o u s l y o c c u p i e d by the e m p l o y e e , o r in a c o m p a r a b l e pos i t i on and w i t h a l l i nc remen ts to wages and benef i ts to w h i c h she w o u l d have been ent i t led d u r i n g the first t w e n t y - f o u r (24) w e e k s o f the l e a v e . F o r the ba lance o f an e m p l o y e e ' s mate rn i t y l eave the p r o v i s i o n s o f A r t i c l e 3 7 : L e a v e — G e n e r a l a p p l y . (c) A n e m p l o y e e - s h a l l m a k e every ef for t to g i ve four teen (14) d a y s ' no t i ce p r i o r to Ihc c o m m e n c e m e n t o f matern i ty leave o f . a b s e n c e , and al least four teen (14) d a y s ' no t ice o f he r i n ten t ion lo return to w o r k p r i o r to the te rm ina t i on o f the leave o f a b s e n c e . (0 If fo r reasons o ther than m e d i c a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s o f p r e g n a n c y , an e m p l o y e e is i n c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g her dut ies as e v i d e n c e d by a m e d i c a l ce r t i f i ca te , c i ther be fo re or after her matern i ty l e a v e , then an a d d i t i o n a l leave o f absence w i thou t pay sha l l be granted by the e m p l o y e r . (g) T h e e m p l o y e r m a y requ i re the e m p l o y e e lo p r o v i d e a d o c t o r ' s cer t i f i ca te i n d i c a t i n g the e m p l o y e e ' s genera l c o n d i t i o n d u r i n g . p r e g n a n c y and the e x p e c t e d date o f c o n f i n e m e n t . (h) T h e e m p l o y e r sha l l not terminate an e m p l o y e e o r change a c o n d i t i o n o f her e m p l o y m e n t because o f the e m p l o y e e ' s p r e g -n a n c y or her absence for matern i ty reasons . 82 Appendix D Pos i t ions at Hire and Immediately P r i o r to the Maternity Leave Pos i t i on Percent Hire P r i o r 1. General Duty Nurse 47 .6 47.6 2. Ass i s tant Head Nurse 1.3 3. Head Nurse .3 1.9 4. Instructor .3 .6 5. C I i n i c i a n .6 .6 6. Kitchen Aide 6.4 2.6 7 . Clerk 3.5 5.4 8. Cleaner 1.6 1.0 9. P r a c t i c a l Nurse 5.4 3.2 10. Medical Stenographer 1.0 1.3 11. C l e r k - T y p i s t 2.2 2.6 12. Nurses Aide 5.8 2.9 13 . Junior Clerk 3.2 1.9 14. OR Asst . .6 15. SSD Technician .6 1.6 16. EEG Technician .6 .3 17. Messenger 1.0 .6 18. Secretary/HEU 1.0 19 . Laundry Worker 1.6 1.0 20. Nursing Unit Clerk 1.3 2.2 21. Medical Records Technician .6 .6 22. Keypunch Operator .3 .3 23. Area Supply Technician .6 1.3 24. Food Service Supervisor 1.3 1.3 25. A c t i v i t y Aide .6 .6 26. Lab Ass t . Technician 1.0 1.3 27. Cardiology Technician .3 28. Pharmacy Technician .3 .3 29. Porter .3 .3 30. Admitting Clerk .3 31. Timekeeeper .3 32. Soc ia l Worker/HEU .3 .3 33. Medical Technologist 1 5.8 2.9 34. Medical Technologist 2 .6 35. Medical Technologist 3 .3 1.9 36. Medical Technologist 4 .3 .6 37. Medical Technologist 6 . 3 38. Radiology Technician .3 .3 39 . Occupational Therapist .3 . 3 40. D i e t i t i a n .6 .6 41. Soc ia l Worker/ HSA .3 . 3 42. Diagnostic Vascular Technician .3 .3 43. Health Records Administrator . 3 44. Physiotherapist 2.6 2.6 45. Supervisor/Excluded .6 46. Secretary/ Excluded .6 47 . Ass i s tant Manager .6 83 Appendix E Departments at Hire and Immediately Prior to the Maternity Leave Department Percent Hire Prior 1. Pathology 7.7 8.6 2. Radiology 2.6 3.2 3 . Cardiac Services 1.3 1.3 4. Nuclear Medicine .3 .3 5. Physical Medicine 3.5 3.5 6. Pharmacy .3 .3 7. Social Services .6 1.0 8. Biomedical Engineering .3 9. Building Services 1.6 1.0 10. D i s t r i b u t i o n 1.3 1.0 11. Food Services 8.3 6.4 12. Laundry 1.6 1.0 13. Purchasing . 3 14. P r i n t i n g .3 15. Stores .3 16. Area Supply .6 1.6 17 . S t e r i l e Supply .6 1.9 18. Nursing Administration 1.3 .6 19 . Nursing Development .6 20. School of Nursing .3 .6 21. G e r i a t r i c Nursing 5.1 5.4 22. C r i t i c a l Care Nursing 5.8 9.9 23. Medical 13.1 13.4 24. Surgical 18.5 18.5 25. OR 7.3 11.8 26. Nursing Resource Centre 11.5 1.3 27 . Medical Administration .3 .6 28. Medical Records 2.6 2.2 29 . Accounting/Payroll .3 .3 30. Information Systems .3 .6 31. Executive Offices .3 32. Admitting .3 .3 33. Psychiatry .6 1.0 34. EEG .3 .3 35. Diagnostic Vascular Services .3 . 3 84 Appendix F DATA FORM 1. MATERNITY LEAVE #: DATA COL NO. 1-3 2. AGE: (current and in years) 4-5 3. EDUCATION: (highest level) 6 4. POSITION AT HIRE: 7-8 5. STATUS AT HIRE: 9 6. DEPARTMENT AT HIRE: 10-11 7. STATUS ONE YEAR PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE: 12 8. STATUS IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE: 13 9. DEPARTMENT IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE: 14-15 10. POSITION IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE: 16-17 11. UNION/MANAGEMENT IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE: 18 12. SALARY IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE: 19 85 13. MATERNITY LEAVE YEAR: DATA COL.NO. 20-21 14.. MATERNITY LEAVE PAY PERIOD: 22-23 15. LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE: (years) 24-27 16. AGE AT MATERNITY LEAVE: 28-29 17. PREVIOUS MATERNITY LEAVE: 30 18. EMPLOYMENT BEHAVIOUR FOLLOWING MATERNITY LEAVE: 31 19 TERMINATION EXPLANATION ON FILE FOR GROUP 1 AND 2: 32-33 20. FOR GROUP 2, LENGTH OF TIME AT WORK PRIOR TO TERMINATION: (months) 34-37 21. FOR GROUP 2, RETURNED TO FORMER POSITIONS: 1. Yes 2. No. 38 22. STATUS TRANSFER: 1.' Yes 2. No 39 23. IF YES: 1. Regular full-time (RFT) 2. Regular part-time (RPT) 3. Casual 40 86 - 3 - ' 25. SECOND STATUS TRANSFER: 1. Yes 2. No DATA COL.NO. 45 26. IF YES: 1. Regular full-time (RFT) 2. Regular part-time (RPT) 3. Casual 46 27. TRANSFER TO ANOTHER POSITION: 1. Yes ' 2. NO. 47 28. TRANSFER TO ANOTHER AREA: 1. Yes 2. No. 48 29. FOR GROUP 1 AND 2 REHIRED: .1. Yes 2. No 49 30. POSITION: 50-51 31. Status: 52 32. LENGTH OF TIME FOLLOWING TERMINATION: 53-56 33. FOR GROUP 3, RETURNED TO FORMER POSITION: 1. Yes 2. No 57 34. STATUS TRANSFER: 1. . Yes 2. No 58 35. IF YES: 1. Regular full-t ime (RFT) 2. Regular part-time (RPT) 3. Casual 59 87 - 4 -36. FOR STATUS TRANSFER LENGTH OF TIME IN WEEKS FOLLOWING RETURN TO WORK: • DATA COL.NO. 60-63 37. SECOND STATUS TRANSFER: 1. Yes 2. No 64 38. IF YES: 1. Regular full-time (RFT) 2. Regular part-time (RPT) 3. Casual 65 39. TRANSFER TO ANOTHER POSITION: 1. Yes 2. No 66 40. TRANSFER TO ANOTHER AREA: 1. Yes 2. No 67 41. CURRENT STATUS: 1. Active 2. Maternity Leave 68 42. MATERNITY LEAVE: 1. F i r s t 2. Second 69 88 Appendix G Interview Let ter of Introduction Dear My name is A r l i s s Altman and I am a Senior S ta f f ing and Planning Of f i cer in Employee Relat ions . I am c u r r e n t l y working on my thes is for a degree in Business Adminis trat ion at UBC and the topic is "Employment Behavior fol lowing Maternity Leave." I have co l l ec t ed follow-up data on 313 maternity leaves at the hosp i ta l taken between June, 1983 and May, 1986 and have randomly chosen f ive women to interview from t h i s sample. Your name was se lected for th i s group. The interview should not take longer than one hour and the areas I w i l l be covering include reasons for e i ther terminating or remaining employed, c h i l d -care arrangements, d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered in returning to work, the ro le of part-t ime employment and ways in which the hosp i ta l could become a more supportive working environment for new mothers. I would l i k e to s tress that your name would be kept s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . I w i l l be contact ing you within the next week to discuss the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e t t ing up an interview. Your input would be grea t ly appreciated and w i l l hopeful ly r e s u l t in some pos i t ive changes at the h o s p i t a l . I look forward to meeting with you. Yours t r u l y , A r l i s s Altman Senior S ta f f ing Of f i cer 89 Appendix H Interview Questions 1) What were your plans pr ior to pregnancy regarding r a i s i n g a family and employment? 2) What were your plans regarding employment p r i o r to taking your maternity leave and what factors d id you take into considerat ion? 3) What were your major reasons for returning to work or terminating your employment? 4) If employed, what c h i l d - c a r e arrangements have you made and do they include your spouse? Are they s a t i s f a c t o r y ? 5) What problems did you encounter in returning to work and what ongoing problems do you experience? 6) What could the hosp i ta l do to better a s s i s t women with the i r return to work? Should daycare be provided? 7) Do you fee l that the hosp i ta l has been a supportive environment? 8) How did you f ind the maternity leave l e g i s l a t i o n ? 90 Appendix I Case Hi s tor i e s a)Susan Susan, a f u l l - t i m e head nurse of 41 years of age, has been employed at the hosp i ta l for eleven years and has a Bachelors degree in nurs ing . Susan has been married for twelve years and has one c h i l d . Her husband is a systems analyst and she is the primary wage earner. Susan graduated in 1970 and then worked in a v a r i e t y of hospi ta l s in d i f f eren t c i t i e s as she wanted to t r a v e l . She then moved to Vancouver where she was planning to work for two years before going to A u s t r a l i a . She met her future husband at th i s time, married and remained in Vancouver. Susan became a head nurse fol lowing her marriage and has remained in th i s pos i t i on for ten years. Neither she nor her husband knew whether they wanted c h i l d r e n . After nine years of marriage, they decided to have a c h i l d . Susan's plans at that point for combining a career and family were to continue working f u l l - t i m e since she enjoyed her pos i t i on as a head nurse. If she had been working as a general duty nurse, she probably would have continued working part - t ime . The fact that she and her husband had just purchased a new home was a lso added incentive to continue working f u l l - t i m e but she stressed that her primary motivator was that she enjoyed her p o s i t i o n . 91 Once Susan became pregnant, her plans d id not change regarding returning to work f u l l - t i m e . She enjoyed a healthy pregnancy and had no d i f f i c u l t i e s working. Her only concern at th i s point was the inev i tab le lack of sleep which would follow the b i r t h of her c h i l d . During her maternity leave, Susan's in tent ion to return to work d id not change because her c o l i c k y baby, which as Susan stated "was cry ing twenty hours a day and s leeping four", caused her to be exhausted and look forward to returning to work. During the l a s t two weeks of her maternity leave the baby s tarted to sleep a l i t t l e e a r l i e r and began waking up only once during the n ight . Before the baby was born, Susan had planned to take only a four and a hal f month leave due to f i n a n c i a l concerns. She was concerned, at that po int , that she would la ter regret not taking the f u l l s ix months. She d id not however, experience th i s regret because the baby was c o l i c k y but d id acknowledge that had th i s not been the case she would have enjoyed more time at home. Once Susan returned to work, lack of sleep was her main problem. The baby also began to have ear infect ions and Susan had to miss a l o t of work. Since her return to work, she has missed approximately f i f t een days per year, mainly due to her baby's i l l n e s s e s . She explained that she had no back-up because neither her nor her husband's parents l i v e in Vancouver. Susan's c h i l d - c a r e arrangements are a l i v e out babysi t ter who looks af ter one other c h i l d . Susan only uses th i s 92 b a b y s i t t e r to take S a l l y (her t o d d l e r ) , who i s now t h r e e , to p r e - s c h o o l . She i s unsure at t h i s p o i n t whether she should continue u s i n g t h i s b a b y s i t t e r as she i s concerned that S a l l y may now need a more s t i m u l a t i n g environment. She d i d say t h a t she f e e l s very f o r t u n a t e to have at l e a s t found secure and adequate c h i l d - c a r e arrangements. Susan f e l t good about her r e t u r n to work. She d i d not f e e l i n any way t h a t her s t a f f or d i r e c t o r resented her absence. She d i d say t h a t some head nurses do have some d i f f i c u l t i e s r e t u r n i n g to work. She had s p l i t up her work among three s t a f f members and f e l t t h a t t h i s gave them a good i n d i c a t i o n of how i n v o l v e d her p o s i t i o n i s and a b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of her work. When d i s c u s s i n g her husband, Susan s a i d t h a t he had always been v e r y h e l p f u l . She r e l a y e d how he o f t e n cooks dinner and takes care of S a l l y . Susan goes to a conference once a year and f e e l s v e r y comfortable l e a v i n g S a l l y alone with her husband. The o v e r a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h i l d - c a r e and housework i s 55V45% with 55% being her p o r t i o n . I d e a l l y , Susan would p r e f e r to work four ten-hour days to be home one e x t r a day. She f i n d s h e r s e l f t r y i n g to cram too much i n d u r i n g the week-end i n c l u d i n g c a t c h i n g up on her s l e e p . She does not f e e l t h a t two days with S a l l y i s enough time because of a l l the other domestic demands and would p r e f e r a more f l e x i b l e arrangement u n t i l S a l l y at l e a s t goes to k i n d e r g a r t e n . Susan had not c o n s i d e r e d approaching the h o s p i t a l about t h i s 93 f l e x i b l e arrangement. Her reason was that another head nurse had requested more f l e x i b l e scheduling and was re jec ted . Hospi ta l adminis trat ion f e l t that i f they granted th i s request that they would have a flood of requests for spec ia l arrangements. Susan f e l t that the hosp i ta l has been i n f l e x i b l e with scheduling as compared to other f a c i l i t i e s . She s tressed, however, that her d i r e c t o r s had been supportive when she had been away for S a l l y ' s i l l n e s s e s and added that i f they had not been she probably would have looked for another job. When we discussed how the hosp i ta l could be more support ive , Susan f e l t that there should be more part-t ime opportunit ies e s p e c i a l l y for women with young c h i l d r e n . She sa id that i t is very f r u s t r a t i n g not to have enough time with them and that i t is very d i f f i c u l t when they become i l l . She knows a number of head nurses who would prefer a shortened work week and feels the hosp i ta l should review th i s s i t u a t i o n . She knows that the hosp i ta l has los t s t a f f due to t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to cope with other than the t r a d i t i o n a l f u l l - t i m e work week and relayed how one head nurse had l e f t af ter her second c h i l d to f ind a more f l e x i b l e s i t u a t i o n . As far as on-s i te daycare, Susan feels that the hosp i ta l should provide th i s s e r v i c e . She would use such a service i f i t were provided. She added that "i t would be nice to have lunch with her c h i l d and at least see her during the day." She said that i t was awful to receive a c a l l from your babysi t ter t e l l i n g you that your c h i l d i s i l l because you are torn whether 94 or not to go home. If the c h i l d was on - s i t e , you could at least assess the s i t u a t i o n . She feels day-care i s long overdue and that the hosp i ta l would better r e t a i n s t a f f as wel l as decrease the absenteeism rate i f one were provided. One serious problem, she noted, was that when an employee appl ies to use the spec ia l leave clause in the contract to care for a c h i l d in an emergency s i t u a t i o n , i t can take up to two months to get reimbursed. She said that a l o t of s t a f f on t i gh t budgets simply cannot af ford th i s arrangement. Her husband works for the government and gets reimbursed immediately for spec ia l leave. As far as the maternity prov i s ions , Susan found them to be very f a i r saying that s ix months was an adequate length of leave. She feels i t provides a s u f f i c i e n t period of time to assess future plans . She r e c a l l e d how one of her s t a f f had intended to return to work part-t ime but had changed her mind during her maternity leave deciding to stay home. She added that compared to the U . S . , where people return to work af ter a s ix week leave, we are very fortunate . Susan's future plans are to continue working but her idea l would be to switch at some point to part - t ime . She finds that she does not have enough time for herse l f and in an attempt to deal with th i s problem now takes two weeks off a year to be on her own. As far as the e f fect on her career of working part - t ime, Susan would not go back to general duty nursing (with the exception of Emergency as a p o s s i b i l i t y ) but would prefer to 95 teach or be a supervisor . She does not fee l that her career has suffered as a r e s u l t of having a c h i l d but acknowledges that she has no immediate plans to go further as i t would mean returning to u n i v e r s i t y to take a Masters degree. O v e r a l l , Susan feels she was r e a l i s t i c about what i t was going to be l i k e to return to work with the exception of chronic lack of sleep which continues to be a problem. She feels that i t may not have been as serious had she been a younger mother. As Susan is in a supervisory r o l e , we discussed her experiences as an administrator with maternity leaves. She sa id that s t a f f i n g is always somewhat of a problem and e s p e c i a l l y for her since her general duty nurses require up to two months o r i e n t a t i o n . Most of her s t a f f have returned from t h e i r maternity leaves and Susan offers job sharing arrangements (she creates two part-t ime pos i t ions out of one f u l l - t i m e ) . She says that i t has worked very well and stressed that f l e x i b l e arrangements are the only way to r e t a i n s t a f f and reduce absenteeism. One hosp i ta l In Texas, she r e c a l l e d , had reduced t h e i r absenteeism by 50% by o f f er ing over s i x t y d i f f e r e n t r o t a t i o n s . In concluding the interview, Susan sa id that she was glad that she had her c h i l d af ter t r a v e l l i n g , t r y i n g d i f f e r e n t jobs and being married for a long time. She feels had she had a c h i l d before she had reached th i s point in her l i f e , she probably would have regretted i t . 96 b) Mary Mary i s a 32 year old part-t ime d i e t i t i a n 1, and has been employed at the hosp i ta l for approximately nine years . She was o r i g i n a l l y h ired as a d i e t i t i a n 1 and then progressed to a senior l e v e l d i e t i t i a n but she is now a d i e t i t i a n 1 again. Married for f ive years , Mary has one c h i l d and her husband is employed as an engineer. Mary's educational background is a Bachelors degree in Home Economics. When Mary contemplated having a family , her intentions were to continue working f u l l - t i m e . At that time, she needed the f u l l - t i m e income and was a lso very involved in her career . When Mary became pregnant, her intent ions to continue working f u l l -time d id not change due to f i n a n c i a l necess i ty . Looking back, Mary r e a l i z e d that she did not have a very r e a l i s t i c idea about the r e a l i t i e s of combining work with motherhood. She did not think much would change in her l i f e af ter the baby was born. She enjoyed a healthy pregnancy and although she could not " move quite as qu ick ly at work" she b a s i c a l l y experienced no problems coping with work. During Mary's maternity leave, she r e a l i z e d that returning to work was not going to be as easy as she had thought. She found her return to work quite traumatic and experienced g u i l t about leaving the baby. She managed to cope because as she put i t , "I had not other opt ion ." 97 Mary was s t i l l b r e a s t - f e e d i n g when she r e t u r n e d to work and used the br e a s t pump and p r i v a t e room which was s u p p l i e d by the h o s p i t a l . She found t h i s to be v e r y u s e f u l and r e l a x i n g . Having a p r i v a t e room g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d her as she d i d not have to , as she s a i d , "express milk In a d i r t y washroom." That, she s a i d , would have caused her a great d e a l of a n x i e t y . Mary found h e r s e l f v e r y t i r e d at work from being up a t n i g h t with the baby. She a l s o found h e r s e l f f r a n t i c to complete her work to p i c k up her c h i l d i n time a t the b a b y s i t t e r . She d i d not put i n as much overtime as she had p r i o r to the b i r t h of her baby and was g e n e r a l l y not a b l e or w i l l i n g to put as much e f f o r t i n t o her job. Her p r i o r i t i e s had d e f i n i t e l y changed. Mary's work a t home a l s o s u f f e r e d as time was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y s c a r c e . Between the baby and housework, there was no time to r e l a x . Her husband was v e r y h e l p f u l with dropping o f f the c h i l d , g e t t i n g up a t n i g h t and a s s i s t i n g with the housework, but she s t i l l found h e r s e l f c o n s t a n t l y f a t i g u e d . Mary continued working f u l l - t i m e f o r another s i x months and then r e a l i z e d t h a t she wanted to switch to p a r t - t i m e . Her main reasons were t h a t her f i n a n c i a l p ressures had subsided and she wanted to spend more time with her c h i l d . There were, however, no a v a i l a b l e p a rt-time o p p o r t u n i t i e s . At the same time, another d i e t i t i a n who had a c h i l d s i x months f o l l o w i n g Mary was i n the process of r e t u r n i n g to work. Mary and the other d i e t i t i a n began d i s c u s s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of a j o b - s h a r i n g arrangement. They I n i t i a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s with t h e i r 98 manager but i t was a long time (six months) before they obtained f i n a l approval . Mary would have looked elsewhere for a par t -time p o s i t i o n i f th i s arrangement had not been approved. Casual employment was not an option for her as she wanted to maintain a steady income and benefits as her husband is self-employed. Mary uses a babysi t ter who l i v e s s ix blocks from her home. The babysi t ter is a grandmother who looks af ter one other c h i l d who is only ten months o l d . Her c h i l d i s now 22 months old and Mary is concerned that a ten month old c h i l d i s not the most s t imulat ing companion for her c h i l d . She is a lso concerned because the babysi t ter cannot take her c h i l d out of the house a great deal and that her c h i l d may not be get t ing enough one to one i n t e r a c t i o n . She does, however, l ike the babys i t ter as a person and acknowledges that her c h i l d seems to be happy with the arrangement. Mary had previous ly used another woman who had two of her own young ch i ldren and took the c h i l d r e n on many outings. There was problems with jealousy in th i s s i t u a t i o n . Mary added that , with b a b y s i t t i n g , one has to be f l e x i b l e as you can never assume the s i t u a t i o n w i l l be permanent. Mary would have continued working even i f finances were not an i ssue. She feels that she needs the outside interes t and that she would be bored with s taying at home f u l l - t i m e . She plans to work part-t ime for another four to f ive years and may have another c h i l d in the next few years. 99 Mary's ongoing worry is the babys i t t ing arrangement but she sa id that i t was not as serious as i t had been when she was f u l l - t i m e . She recognizes however that c h i l d - c a r e arrangements w i l l become much more complicated and expensive when she has her second c h i l d since she w i l l be looking at two l eve l s of care . When we discussed whether the hosp i ta l was a supportive environment, Mary sa id that her department was i n i t i a l l y supportive of her job-sharing arrangement as a concept but that when i t came to implementation she f e l t they were very hesitant and s k e p t i c a l . She found herse l f having to r e a l l y push for the arrangement and said the experience was not a very pos i t ive one. She feels that there are a lo t of mixed messages coming from the h o s p i t a l . She was t o l d by some people that job-sharing was not done at the hosp i ta l but then proceeded to f ind examples in various departments which she brought to the a t tent ion of her manager. The department i s now supportive of the arrangement which Mary feels is working out very w e l l . She works two days one week and three days the fol lowing week. The two d i e t i t i a n s use a communications book and have developed new forms to a s s i s t each other. They fee l th i s has forced them to become more e f f i c i e n t . The main problem is f inding the time to overlap and they c u r r e n t l y meet only one day per month. Mary acknowledged that some extra time is spent keeping records in order to communicate to one another a l l that i s happening. 100 Mary feels that the hosp i ta l should d e f i n i t e l y provide on-s i t e day care and she is a member of the day-care committee. She would have found on-s i te day-care idea l when she was breast-feeding. On-si te day-care would not, however, have a l tered her dec i s ion to transfer to part - t ime. She a lso feels that the hosp i ta l should provide more part-t ime and job-sharing opportunit ies as well as f l e x i b l e schedul ing. Mary found the maternity leave provis ions to be s a t i s f a c t o r y and found her s ix month leave to be adequate. She would d e f i n i t e l y have found eighteen weeks to be i n s u f f i c i e n t . The amount of UIC was also adequate p r i m a r i l y due to the savings she and her husband had accumulated, c) Carol Carol i s 32 years of age, a general duty nurse with a nursing diploma and has worked at the hosp i ta l for eight and a hal f years . She has been married for nine years , has one c h i l d and is current ly pregnant with her second. Her husband is the primary wage earner and is self-employed. Following graduation, Carol wanted to work in the peace corps and t r y d i f f e r e n t areas of nursing but her family commitments a l t ered her plans . She had considered a head nurse pos i t i on p r i o r to her maternity leave but changed her mind after the b i r t h of her baby. She decided that she d id not want the a d d i t i o n a l s t re s s . 101 P r i o r to taking her maternity leave, Carol had decided that she wanted to work part-t ime fol lowing her re turn to work. She wanted to spend as much time as possible with the baby and working casual was not an a l t ernat ive because she wanted to maintain her s e n i o r i t y and benef i t s , she and her husband had decided at the time that they did not want a f u l l - t i m e babysi t ter and, in order to avoid t h i s , one of them would have to work part - t ime . As there were no part-t ime opportunit ies at the time, she returned to work f u l l - t i m e . Her husband worked part - t ime . She continued working f u l l - t i m e for a year and then, when her husband resumed working f u l l - t i m e , she transferred to part - t ime . She stated f i n a n c i a l necess i ty was her major reason for returning to work, e s p e c i a l l y when her husband was only working part - t ime . As far as c h i l d - c a r e arrangements, C a r o l ' s husband babysat when he was part-t ime but she now r e l i e s on her mother. She used to use her neighbor but has discontinued th i s arrangement. When Carol returned to work fol lowing her s ix month leave, she f e l t very uncomfortable at f i r s t about leaving her baby but sa id that these fee l ings qu ick ly subsided. She found working f u l l - t i m e to be d i f f i c u l t in that i t was t i r i n g leaving her with very l i t t l e free time for housework, the baby and l e i sure a c t i v i t i e s . She sa id that having her husband at home part-t ime was a tremendous help to her during th i s per iod . Carol a lso f e l t very d i sor iented when she returned to work as the operating rooms (where she worked) had moved and she 102 had switched to a general duty nurse pos i t ion from an in-charge p o s i t i o n . C a r o l ' s ongoing problem is the lack of time her family has together. She works on her husband's days o f f . The baby seems happy with the babys i t t ing arrangement and she feels i t is probably for the best that she is not with the baby f u l l -time. She does, however, f ind i t d i f f i c u l t to be o n - c a l l which is part of working part-t ime in the operating room. Carol feels that the hosp i ta l has been supportive and her supervisor has been accomodating with her s h i f t s . She now works permanent afternoons as i t allows her some consistency with babys i t t ing arrangements. She does fee l that the hosp i ta l could s t i l l provide more part-t ime opportunit ies and has heard from a lo t of s t a f f that i t is d i f f i c u l t to get a su i tab le part-t ime p o s i t i o n . She acknowledges that the s i t u a t i o n with part-t ime pos i t ions has improved s l i g h t l y since her maternity leave but s t i l l fee ls that there i s turnover because of th i s problem. She a lso feels that an on-s i te day-care would be very he lpfu l e s p e c i a l l y i f i t was a twenty-four hour s e r v i c e . She would have found a day-care very useful i f she had continued working f u l l - t i m e . C a r o l ' s future plans are to continue working part-t ime fol lowing the b i r t h of her next baby. Once her c h i l d r e n are in school , she may return to day s h i f t but w i l l d e f i n i t e l y continue working. She plans to remain at the 103 h o s p i t a l as i t is a fami l iar working environment. She would not want the upheaval of a work change as her family l i f e i s c u r r e n t l y her main p r i o r i t y . Carol found the maternity l e g i s l a t i o n to be extremely f a i r . She found the leave to be long enough p r i m a r i l y due to her s a t i s f a c t o r y c h i l d - c a r e arrangements. She would have l i k e d UIC benefi ts for the f u l l s ix months. In concluding the interview, Carol said that her t r a n s i t i o n back to work was r e l a t i v e l y smooth mainly due to family support. She a lso feels that nursing is an e s p e c i a l l y good profess ion for combining work with motherhood as compromises can usual ly be achieved at the workplace. d) Shei la S h e i l a , a t h i r t y - f o u r year o l d , excluded supervisor , has been an employee at the hosp i ta l for twelve years . She has been married for f ive years , has two c h i l d r e n and is the primary wage earner. Her husband also works at the h o s p i t a l . Shei la has been working in the same department since commencing employment at the h o s p i t a l . She d id not o r i g i n a l l y plan to become a supervisor and as she s a i d , " i t just seemed to work out that way." She decided to submit an a p p l i c a t i o n when the p o s i t i o n became ava i lab le and was the successful app l i cant . She had planned to take an ambulance d r i v e r s ' course i f she was not successful on the competit ion. She has been in the pos i t i on for seven years. 104 When Shei la f i r s t got married, she and her husband knew that they wanted c h i l d r e n but they did not c a r e f u l l y consider how they were going to combine working with c h i l d - c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Due to f i n a n c i a l necess i ty , Shei la d id not fee l that she had any options other than to continue working f u l l - t i m e fol lowing a maternity leave. When Shei la became pregnant, she decided that she would take a f ive month maternity leave and arranged to leave the baby with her mother when she returned to work. She said that i f she could not have l e f t her c h i l d with her family or close fr iends she would have considered q u i t t i n g her job and looking af ter other c h i l d r e n at her home rather than leaving her c h i l d with "strangers." She i la ' s c h i l d - c a r e arrangements became much more complicated fol lowing the b i r t h of her second c h i l d . She now leaves her four year old son with her s i s t e r and leaves her eleven month old baby with her s i s t e r - i n - l a w who l i ve s a few blocks from her s i s t e r . When Shei la returned to work fol lowing her maternity leaves, she found organizing the c h i l d r e n in the morning very d i f f i c u l t . She i s s t i l l constant ly t i r e d but feels fortunate that she can at least leave her c h i l d r e n with family . She i la would f ind on-s i te daycare i d e a l . She feels that many employees would benefit from th i s service and that a number of employees would consider working f u l l - t i m e as opposed to part-t ime If the hosp i ta l provided th i s s e r v i c e . 105 She i la ' s husband is very supportive and helps with car ing for the c h i l d r e n and preparing meals. They have d i f f e r e n t days off which means that she only requires c h i l d - c a r e three days per week. Her main f r u s t r a t i o n is that they have very l i t t l e time together as a family . She i la enjoys her p o s i t i o n but sometimes fee ls that she would l i k e more time w i t h her c h i l d r e n , she f ee l s , however, that the q u a l i t y of the time that she spends with them may be superior when working than i f she stayed home f u l l - t i m e . Shei la would f ind i t d i f f i c u l t to be at home f u l l - t i m e but would enjoy working part - t ime . She has never considered d iscuss ing t h i s with her supervisor . She added that the other supervisor in the department w i l l be r e t i r i n g in the near future and she is unsure whether t h i s supervisor w i l l be replaced or whether She i la w i l l remain the sole supervisor . With regard to the hosp i ta l being a supportive environment, She i la feels that they have been reasonably supportive with both her maternity leaves. She did not fee l that there was any resentment when she returned to work. Shei la feels the hosp i ta l should provide more part-t ime opportunit ies and job-sharing arrangements and added that the hosp i ta l would benefit as more tra ined people would be re ta ined . She i la found the maternity leave l e g i s l a t i o n adequate but would have l i k e d a longer paid leave as she took shorter leaves because of f i n a n c i a l cons iderat ions . 106 A l l of the s t a f f in She i la ' s department have returned to work fol lowing the i r maternity leaves. Other than minor s t a f f i n g problems, Shei la feels that the department has coped quite w e l l . As far as future career plans , Shei la feels that she needs to take some computer courses but would f ind t h i s very d i f f i c u l t in her present circumstances. She feels that with young c h i l d r e n i t is very d i f f i c u l t to progress in a career and that for her i t i s simply not a p r i o r i t y at th i s point in time. She has not considered long-term plans for her career when her c h i l d r e n become o lder . In concluding the interview, Shei la sa id that she finds that her c h i l d r e n are growing up qu ick ly and that she is cont inua l ly s trugg l ing with her conscience about the l i t t l e time she has to spend with them, e) Irene Irene, a general duty nurse with a nursing diploma, is t h i r t y - f o u r years of age and had been employed at the hosp i ta l three and a hal f years p r i o r to her f i r s t maternity leave. She d id not return to work fol lowing her second maternity leave but was rehired one year after terminating her employment as a permanent part-t ime general duty nurse. She has been married for seven years and has three c h i l d r e n . Her husband i s the primary wage earner. When Irene got married, her plans were to continue working fol lowing the b i r t h of her f i r s t c h i l d but to qui t af ter she 107 had her second. She had always thought that once she had c h i l d r e n she would l i k e to stay home and be a f u l l - t i m e mother. As she s a i d , "I guess I am not a modern woman." P r i o r to Irene's f i r s t pregnancy, she was planning to return to work f u l l - t i m e due to f i n a n c i a l necess i ty . However, fol lowing her return to work, she decided that she wanted to transfer to part-t ime but there were no pos i t ions a v a i l a b l e . She sa id that i f she had been able to secure part-t ime employment at that time she would not have qui t fol lowing her second maternity leave. Irene feels that she was r e a l i s t i c about what i t was going to be l i k e to combine working with motherhood but added that she was fortunate because her mother took care of her c h i l d . She found working f u l l - t i m e d i f f i c u l t because of the very l i t t l e time she had l e f t with her husband. She f e l t that working p a r t -time would be less hect ic and decided that i t was f i n a n c i a l l y f e a s i b l e . Irene's main reason for q u i t t i n g work fol lowing her second maternity leave was to spend more time with her c h i l d r e n . She f e l t that the routine would become too d i f f i c u l t with two c h i l d r e n and f u l l - t i m e work and there were no part-t ime pos i t ions ava i lab le in the operating room at that time. She added that when she took her second maternity leave there were fourteen nurses that went on leave as well and only a few returned because of the lack of part-t ime opportuni t i e s . She sa id that the OR is a high pressure area which is a further 108 deterrant to returning to work. The operating room, she s a i d , has f i n a l l y acknowledged the demand for part-t ime pos i t ions and the s i t u a t i o n has changed. Irene decided one year fol lowing her termination that she wanted to return to work for f i n a n c i a l reasons i f she could f ind a week-end p o s i t i o n . She had been looking af ter c h i l d r e n in her home and had found i t extremely tiresome. She was able to secure a part-t ime week-end pos i t ion as a general duty nurse in Admitting and i t is working out extremely well as there is far less pressure than with a f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n . She has since taken a t h i r d maternity leave. For her c h i l d - c a r e arrangements, Irene uses her mother or a fr iend i f her husband i s working. Irene feels that the hosp i ta l has been f a i r l y support ive . She was very i l l during two of her pregnancies and the hosp i ta l was very understanding. She was a lso able to change s h i f t s during her second pregnancy which was h e l p f u l . She was disappointed, though, when she could not secure part-t ime employment in the operating room. Irene feels that the primary way in which the hosp i ta l could be more supportive would be to provide on-s i te day-care. She sa id that th i s would have been very he lp fu l when she was working f u l l - t i m e . She is c o n t i n u a l l y amazed that such a large f a c i l i t y does not provide th i s s erv i ce . Irene found the maternity leave l e g i s l a t i o n to be s u f f i c i e n t e s p e c i a l l y the extended leave provided by the contract . She 109 took a four month leave with her f i r s t c h i l d , a s ix month leave with her second and a four month leave with her t h i r d . Irene's future plans are to work part-t ime i n d e f i n i t e l y . As she i s c u r r e n t l y working night s h i f t , she would l i k e to transfer to afternoons at some point in the future . She would l i k e to continue at the hosp i ta l as she enjoys working in a f a m i l i a r work environment. 

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