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The organizational implications of employment behavior following maternity leave Altman, Arliss Marilyn 1989

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THE ORGANIZATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING MATERNITY LEAVE By ARLISS MARILYN ALTMAN B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Business Administration)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1989 (c)Arliss Marilyn Altman, 1989  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  University  available  copying  of  department publication  thesis  for  this or of  this  partial  of  British  reference  thesis by  in  for  his  and  of  Columbia,  I  study.  scholarly  or  thesis  fulfilment  her  for  The  of  University  Vancouver,  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  s^7~,  <=>  gain  of  British  g^-y  Columbia  Canada  - ^ /i  ?  S  f  requirements  agree  be  It  is  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  ^  further  purposes  permission.  Department  I  the  not  that  the  Library  an  by  understood allowed  advanced  shall  permission  granted  be  for  the that  without  for  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  II ABSTRACT Although p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Canadian women i n the labour has s i g n i f i c a n t l y  increased  number  of  actual  employment  factors  maternity  i n the past decade,  leave c l a i m s ,  behavior  which i n f l u e n c e  and i n t u r n  information is  f o r 313  f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y leave and the  this  women of  metropolitan hospital which  influence  behavior.  employment p a t t e r n s major  problems  The  purpose of  policies  obtain  upon  their  their  o p i n i o n s on  rates  the  r e t e n t i o n and f i n a l l y ,  a s s i s t organizations  in  flexible  work  to develop a achieving  set  staff  leave.  the p o s i t i o n s  of the women, t h e i r  from personnel r e c o r d s .  personal  who terminated  their  The dependent types of  employment  following their  maternity  employees who terminated f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e t u r n to work  and employees who remained employed at the h o s p i t a l . nine  and  r e t u r n to work,  whether  for the study were three d i s t i n c t  b e h a v i o r : employees leave,  variables  and t h e i r employment behavior f o l l o w i n g  leave were c o l l e c t e d variables  return  large  of women with the c u r r e n t m a t e r n i t y leave  following maternity  characteristics  a  r e t u r n to work, i d e n t i f y  experience  encourage s t a f f  Data r e s p e c t i n g  from  this  maternity  isolate significant  b e h a v i o r , examine  women  of recommendations to retention  occupations  for women who  examine the experience legislation,  varying  i n order t o :  this  the  l i m i t e d on  study was to examine the employment behavior f o l l o w i n g leave  force  independent  v a r i a b l e s which  employment behavior i n f l u e n c e s  were t e s t e d  namely l e v e l  as  There were potential  of e d u c a t i o n ,  age,  lit organizational affiliation,  tenure,  employment  salary level,  status,  occupational  union/management  level,  number  of  p r e v i o u s m a t e r n i t y leaves and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n . Square  t e s t of  Independence  was  run  for  six  The Chi  v a r i a b l e s and  the one Way A n a l y s i s of Variance for three v a r i a b l e s . structured interviews randomly  from  the  were  conducted  sample  problems they encountered  in  with  order  to  five  In-depth  women s e l e c t e d  identify  i n r e t u r n i n g to  work  the  as  well  o b t a i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s on the c u r r e n t m a t e r n i t y leave They  were a l s o  flexible  work  questioned  r e g a r d i n g the  legislation. of  behavior  influences: It  type  was a l s o  of  significant  union  found t h a t  and the  union had the h i g h e s t t e r m i n a t i o n r a t e .  least  Although the  m a j o r i t y of women r e t u r n e d to work and remained employed at hospital,  a high percentage  employment.  The i n t e r v i e w s  r e v e a l e d t h a t the major concerns  i n c l u d i n g the need for o n - s i t e day c a r e .  A l l of the  f e l t t h a t 18 weeks was an inadequate  for a m a t e r n i t y leave and some benefits  work p o l i c i e s ,  i n p a r t - t i m e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c h i l d - c a r e  interviewed  for  their  entire  of  an  concerns women  l e n g t h of  time  the women wanted m a t e r n i t y  leave and not j u s t  It was concluded from the r e s u l t s work p o l i c i e s  the  t r a n s f e r r e d to p a r t - t i m e and c a s u a l  women had were the need for more f l e x i b l e increase  to  policies.  organizational tenure. flexible  as  effectiveness  Two of the v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d were found to be employment  major  15 weeks.  of the study that  flexible  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l support systems encourage  staff  iv retention following maternity leave,  i t was recommended that  i n order for o r g a n i z a t i o n s to achieve  staff  retention  m a t e r n i t y leave that they must i n t r o d u c e f l e x i b l e and a s p e c i f i c  staff  retention  plan.  following  work p o l i c i e s  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  V  LIST OF TABLES  viii  LIST OF FIGURES  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  X  Chapter I  INTRODUCTION  1  M a t e r n i t y Leave L e g i s l a t i o n  1  Problem & Purpose of the  3  Study  II LITERATURE REVIEW  7  Employment Behavior  following  Canadian Women i n the  M a t e r n i t y Leave  Workforce  .  8 15  Employment Behavior I n f l u e n c e s and Canadian Women  18  Part-time  20  Employment and Canadian Women  Return Rates from M a t e r n i t y Leave Factors  Influencing  Employment  Flexibility  i n the Workplace  Summary and O b j e c t i v e s  Setting  24  24  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Commitment  METHOD  . . .  Behavior  of New Mothers  III  .  of the  27 31  Study  32 35 35  vl  IV  Subjects  38  Procedure  44  Data Collection  44  Dependent Variables  44  Independent Variables  45  Statement of Hypotheses  46  Methods of Analysis  49  Interviews  49  DISCUSSION & RESULTS  ...  50  Analysis of the Hypotheses  51  Employment Patterns Following the Maternity  V  Leave  54  Interview Results  58  Maternity Leave Legislation  63  Limitations of the Study  64  RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSIONS  65  Recommendations  65  Summary & Conclusions  69  Implications for Further Research  .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  72 73  APPENDICES Appendix A: Maternity Leave Provision - B.C. Legislation  76  Appendix B: Hospital Organizational Chart . . . . 78 Appendix C: Maternity Leave Clauses - Union Contracts  79  vii Appendix D: Appendix E :  P o s i t i o n s at Hire and Immediately P r i o r to the M a t e r n i t y Leave . . . .  82  Departments at Hire and Immediately P r i o r to the M a t e r n i t y leave  . . . .  83  Appendix F :  Data Form  Appendix G:  Interview L e t t e r of  Appendix H:  Interview Questions  89  Appendix I :  Case H i s t o r i e s  90  84 Introduction  .  88  viii LIST OF TABLES Table 1  Page  Maternity Leave Claims for Canadian Women 1978-1987  15  2 Occupational Levels Immediately Prior to the Maternity Leave  39  3 Union Groups at Hire and Immediately Prior to the Maternity Leave 40 4  Status at Hire, One Year and Immediately Prior to Maternity Leave  41  5  Salary Groups Immediately Prior to Maternity Leave  42  6  Maternity Leave by Year  42  7  Length of Employment Immediately Prior to Maternity Leave  43  8  Educational Levels Immediately Prior to  9  Maternity Leave  44  Summary of Chi Square Results  51  10  Return Rates by Union from Chi Square Results  11  Summary of Analysis of Variance Results  12  Termination Explanations for Groups 1 & 2  . . 52 53  . . . . 55  ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1  Women 15 years and over as a percentage of a l l employed in Canada  2  Labour force participation of a l l women and women with youngest child under 3 years, Canada, 1976 1985 17  3  Reasons for working part-time: Men and women aged 25-54  4  Labour force participation for women with children by age groups of children and full-time or parttime employment in a l l provinces, 1984 and 1985 . . 23  16  22  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank D r . C r a i g Pinder and D r . L a r r y Moore for  t h e i r a d v i c e and guidance I  would  on t h i s  a l s o l i k e to express my g r a t i t u d e  Bradley for her help and patience Department  project.  at  Vancouver  to  and to the Employee  General  Hospital  Dr.  Chris  Relations  for p r o v i d i n g a  s u p p o r t i v e work environment. To my wonderful husband, M o r r i e , encouragement  and s u p p o r t .  thank you for your endless  1  CHAPTER I:  INTRODUCTION  Maternity Leave Legislation Paid  maternity  benefits have been in existence  in Canada  since 1971 when the Unemployment Insurance Act was amended to allow for 15 weeks insurance coverage for maternity reasons. At the same time the Fair Employment Practices Act was amended to prohibit  the dismissal  of any female  grounds during maternity leave.  employee  on any  Since that time, the provinces  have a l l passed legislation which deals with maternity leave. The f i r s t maternity legislation in British Columbia which addressed  maternity/employment  Protection Act  enacted  issues  was the Maternity  in 1921. Although  this  early  legislation prohibited women from returning to work during the f i r s t six weeks following the birth of the baby, i t offered very limited employment protection. This legislation remained unchanged until 1966 when i t was amended to provide women with a 17 week unpaid leave. in the  The current B.C. legislation is embodied  Employment Standards Act which was passed in 1980  (see Appendix A). The maternity benefits contained in the Employment Standards Act  offer comprehensive protection in a number of areas. The  employee is entitled to an 18 week leave of absence, 15 of which are paid,  followed  by reinstatement  to either  her former  2 position or a comparable one.  Payment of any pension, medical  or other benefits during the leave, must continue to be made. The employee may commence her leave up to 11 weeks prior to the estimated birth date.  Unlike most provinces, employees in B.C.  do not have to work for a minimum period (i.e., a qualification period) to be eligible for maternity benefits. If an employee experiences pregnancy related medical complications prior to the leave she is entitled to use sick leave benefits accrued to that date. her  The employee is also entitled to a six week extension of leave with a  medical  certificate  complications related to the birth  confirming  of the baby.  maternity leave provisions, B.C. employers  medical As in a l l  cannot terminate an  employee due to pregnancy or during her maternity leave.  They  also cannot change an employee's working conditions unless they have obtained her written consent. Under federal legislation, the  Unemployment  Insurance  Regulations provide that a woman must have worked, in Insurable employment, for at  least 20 weeks in  the last 52 weeks or from  the start of her last claim, whichever is shorter, In order to qualify for maternity leave benefits. These benefits are payable for a 15 week period, as chosen by the employee and are payable as early as eight weeks before the week of the birth and as late as 17 weeks after.  These  benefits commence  after a two week  waiting period. The amount of the benefit is 60% of the average insurable earnings up to a maximum of $339 per week and any money earned  3 by an employee while receiving maternity benefits is deducted dollar-for-dollar. A woman who chooses not to return to a protected job following her leave must notify the Unemployment Insurance Commission office of her decision three weeks prior to the end of her leave.  This notification will then disentitle her from  regular unemployment benefits. On the other hand, i f a woman does choose to return to work but does not have a job, she may qualify  for regular unemployment benefits provided she proves  she has made arrangements for child-care and is actively seeking employment. The UIC regulations offer employers the opportunity to supplement the basic unemployment insurance scheme through supplemental unemployment insurance benefits (SUB). can  use this  plan  to either extend  the benefit  An employer period or  increase the level of benefits. With the exception of some collective  agreements,  these  plans  are rarely  used  (Labour Canada, 1985, p. 23). Problem  and Purpose of the Study  With the dramatic increase of women in the labour force in recent years maternity benefits are being utilized at a steadily increasing rate presenting organizations with new challenges in staff retention. In British Columbia (the jurisdiction with which this study deals) there are approximately 577,000 females in the labour force, who comprise  41.5% of the total workforce  (Labour  4  Canada, 1985, p. 31). the  At any given time, approximately 1% of  female labour force In B.C. or approximately 1  5700 women  are receiving maternity benefits. The overriding objective of maternity benefits is to provide women with a paid period  with  workplace.  leave so that they may enjoy  their infants without While  a review  being  of the recent  a  transition  penalized  at the  literature on  maternity leave reveals an abundance of material regarding the difficulties motherhood,  working mothers  encounter  there is a definite lack  balancing  work with  of information  actual employment behavior following maternity leave significant factors which influence this behavior.  about  and the Such  information is v i t a l as i t would provide a better understanding of the factors which motivate women to return and remain at work  following maternity  leave.  Organizations could apply  this information to develop appropriate strategies to encourage staff retention and maintain employee commitment following maternity leave.  This information would also enable employers  to take steps to reduce the high costs of turnover following maternity leave which typically include costs associated with recruitment, training, orientation and productivity losses. The actions of various companies, such as Bell Canada, who have leaves  introduced and a  job-sharing,  part-time opportunities,  75% salary during  longer  the 18 week leave provide  1. This statistic Is from Al Rolllngson, economist for the Vancouver office of the Canada Employment Centre.  5  strong evidence that simply allowing a woman to return to her position may not be as important as creating f l e x i b i l i t y in the 2 workplace.  Flexibility  in the workplace is achieved in many  ways including organizational support systems, work scheduling alternatives such as job-sharing, full-time  employees,  flexible  working hours for  permanent part-time positions with f u l l  benefits and work-at-home and child-care options. These benefits represent the  a break  traditional  from standard company benefit packages and  forty hour  work week. The rationale for  introducing these benefits, according to the literature (Magid, 1986; Friedman, 1987), i s that  when  a company  addresses  employees' work/family needs, productivity levels increase and absenteeism, tardiness and turnover decrease. In addition to f l e x i b i l i t y in the workplace, the literature (e.g., Daniel, 1980) indicates that age, organizational tenure, employment status, occupation,  level of earnings, number of  children, education, public versus private sector employment and union a f f i l i a t i o n may also  significantly  influence employment  behavior following maternity leave. In order to assess fully the impact of these factors and f l e x i b i l i t y upon employment behavior following maternity leave, an examination of actual behavior Is in order. employment varying  behavior  occupations  employment  This study, therefore, examined the following maternity leave of 313 women of who took maternity leave between May, 1983  2. From "Firms Now Try Harder To Hold Women Workers" (1987, March) Vancouver Sun, p. H6.  6 and  June,  1986 from a  large  metropolitan  hospital.  The objectives of this study were as follows: 1)  To isolate variables which influence employment behavior following maternity leave;  2)  To examine return maternity leave;  3)  To examine employment patterns for women who return to work following their maternity leave;  4)  To explore the major problems women encounter when they return to work following a maternity leave and the role of flexible work policies through in-depth interviews with five women from the sample;  5)  To examine the experiences of these five women in relation to the current maternity leave legislation and;  6)  To develop a set of recommendations on how organizations can best achieve staff retention following maternity leave.  Data  regarding  rates for  women following  the positions of the women,  their  personal characteristics and employment behavior following the maternity leave were collected from their personnel records.  7  CHAPTER I I : Much of  the  LITERATURE REVIEW  literature  concerned with developments  regarding  a  career.  regarding childbirth,  as  (Gaston, 1986;  i n b a l a n c i n g domestic  There appears to be a lack of  the experience noted Hall,  leave  is  i n m a t e r n i t y leave l e g i s l a t i o n  problems working mothers encounter with  maternity  and  demands  information  of women r e t u r n i n g to work f o l l o w i n g  in  recent  1986).  studies  The general  on  lack  this of  topic  information  r e g a r d i n g a c t u a l employment behavior f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y leave and  the  factors affecting  t h i s behavior were confirmed not  only  by a manual l i b r a r y search but a l s o by s e v e r a l computer searches by the Labour Canada l i b r a r y . noted  by  sheila  Kamerman i n  m a t e r n i t y leave b e n e f i t s  T h i s lack of her  i n f o r m a t i o n was a l s o  international  f o r the Center of S o c i a l  review  of  Sciences  at  Columbia U n i v e r s i t y : What i s not known, however, are the consequences of the many differences among benefits for female labor force p a r t i c i p a t i o n and female employment and career p a t t e r n s . Few c o u n t r i e s have any data a v a i l a b l e on the p r o p o r t i o n of women t a k i n g the leaves who r e t u r n to employment at the l e a v e ' s end. Nor are there studies on the costs to employers or on the consequences for hiring women where employers bear a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y high share of the cost of the b e n e f i t (Kamerman, 1980, p. 76). T h i s l i t e r a t u r e review w i l l focus  on the  following  s t u d i e s of employment behavior f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y representation respecting  areas:  leave,  of Canadian women i n the workforce and r e s e a r c h  factors  i n f l u e n c i n g employment l e v e l s of new mothers  8 including f l e x i b i l i t y in the workplace and organizational commitment. Employment Behavior following Maternity Leave The only  study  directly relating to employment behavior  following maternity leave and factors which influence this behavior was reported in 1979 by the Policy Studies Institute in  England  (Daniel, 1980).  The study was initiated in order  to explore the utilization of the maternity rights provisions introduced in Britain between the legislation  1975 and 1977.  to be specifically addressed  The areas in were the  maternity pay provisions, right to reinstatement to the prebirth position and protection from unlawful dismissal, the most controversial area being the right to reinstatement. The  response rate of questionnaires sent to 3,285 mothers  (both employed and unemployed) of babies born in February 1979, was  74%.  regarding  The responses the  provided  experiences  with  extensive  information  the new  legislation,  characteristics of the women and their pre-birth positions and factors affecting the rates of return to work. focus on the  latter  two areas  This review will  as the experiences with the  British legislation are not relevant to this study. The survey sample included both full-time and part-time employees and was categorized according to five job levels including:  unskilled,  semi-skilled,  junior non-manual,  Intermediate non-manual and professional.  Most  of the women  9 were In the very  j u n i o r and Intermediate  few i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l  mostly  in  the  I t was  unskilled  found  class.  and  t h a t the  non-manual  Further,  with  p a r t - t i m e women were  s e m i - s k i l l e d manual c l a s s e s .  o l d e r the woman, the  she was to be i n a higher job c l a s s . o n l y one c h i l d .  The  classes  more l i k e l y  These women u s u a l l y had  women i n higher job c l a s s e s tended  to have t h e i r f i r s t baby at an o l d e r age. The women were a l s o c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o s i x types of employers: h e a l t h / e d u c a t i o n , civil  service,  large  local authority, national industry,  p r i v a t e firms  and  small private  firms.  N i n e t y percent of the women i n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y worked at lower  than  the women higher  the  intermediate  non-manual  working for h e a l t h and  levels  l e v e l while 77%  of  e d u c a t i o n employers were  at  levels.  In t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of women who q u a l i f i e d for m a t e r n i t y rights,  the  variation. child  number of the women's  children  S i x t y - t h r e e percent of women  qualified  for m a t e r n i t y b e n e f i t s  was  a source  expecting t h e i r as  opposed  Most of the  group worked p a r t - t i m e .  that  (1980) found  c h i l d r e n a woman had the g r e a t e r the l i k e l i h o o d  first  to 31%  women who were e x p e c t i n g t h e i r second c h i l d . Daniel  of  the  that  of  latter more  she  was  working p a r t - t i m e . Several analysis  observations  were  made by  of working hours and s e r v i c e .  Daniel  (1980) i n h i s  The s h o r t e r the  length  of s e r v i c e with the employer, the fewer hours an employee worked per week.  For f u l l - t i m e women, length  of  service  increased  10 with  age.  Service  a l s o tended to  Increase with increase  occupational  level.  intermediate  non-manual l e v e l s had the  With  F u l l - t i m e women i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l  regard to  salaries  salary levels,  than younger women.  health,  education and c i v i c  Twenty-four percent pregnancies unemployed  older women had higher  The h i g h e s t s a l a r i e s  seeking  work  and  pregnancy began  the s t u d y ,  employment w i t h i n  babies.  15%  eight  Although i t appeared as  returned  to work, D a n i e l (1980)  c o n s i d e r a b l y increased  were with  employment. during their  14% of  women  seeking  employment  e i g h t months of the b i r t h of t h e i r b a b i e s . number of women i n  were  who  working and  months of the  the  l e v e l s of r e t u r n to work:  of  employer  reinstatement  and  level  of  noted t h a t census  four major  total  9%  b i r t h of  the  were their  in  numbers which  He  influences  r i g h t had any i n f l u e n c e  d i d not  had  only  9%  birth.  hours of work; l e v e l pay.  within  i f a v e r y s m a l l number of women  from a 1971  (1980) i d e n t i f i e d  were  Looking at the  of mothers were working w i t h i n 12 months of g i v i n g Daniel  and  service.  of the women who worked  r e t u r n e d to during  longest  in  affecting of j o b ;  find that  on the d e c i s i o n  type the  to r e t u r n  to work. Regarding  hours of  work, p a r t - t i m e  l i k e l y to r e t u r n to work than f u l l - t i m e a high tendency  employees.  for u n s k i l l e d women, such  been working p a r t - t i m e , Daniel  employees  to r e t u r n to t h e i r  (1980) a l s o found t h a t  were  more  There  was  as c l e a n e r s , part-time  only o n e - t h i r d of the  who had positions.  women who  11 remained with the same employer went back to the same job and worked the identical hours.  Most  women returned to work on a  reduced hours of work basis. Higher occupational level women were the most likely group to  remain  with  the pre-blrth  employer.  statistics found that older women than  Analysis  (over 25) were  younger women to remain with  their  of these  more  pre-birth  likely  employer.  Women at opposite ends of the occupational scales were the most likely to return to work, suggesting that women in higher levels returned because of job rewards while unskilled  women returned  out of financial necessity. Health and education employees were  the most likely to  return and remain with their pre-birth employer. suggested  that as employers,  Daniel (1980)  hospitals and schools  offered  working hours, such as evening shifts and part-time work, which accommodate mothers of young children. Women working in the private sector were less likely than women working in the public sector to both return to work and remain with their pre-birth employer. employees  within  When looking at full-time  the private sector, i t was found  highest tendency to return to work occurred worked for small firms.  among  that the those who  Daniel (1980) attributed this result to  greater opportunities at small firms for part-time work, as well as proximity to the workplace which he noted to be another key factor.  In large business  tendency  for junior  employment,  non-manual  women  there  was a  to return  greater  to work the  12  longer had Level  been t h e i r continuous  service  with t h a t  of earnings played a s i g n i f i c a n t  r o l e with  women. D a n i e l (1980) found t h a t these women to r e t u r n to  work the higher  higher  terms and  the  earnings.  When l o o k i n g at  their  their  employer.  were  more  likely  in  absolute  net earnings  proportion  of  full-time  the m a r i t a l j o i n t  pay l e v e l s for a l l women,  including  p a r t - t i m e , women at extreme ends of the pay s c a l e were the likely  to  r e t u r n to  occupational  work,  a  finding similar  babies,  in most  the  study e i g h t months  were  women a t opposite represented,  those  in  levels.  When D a n i e l (1980) looked a t the s t a t u s of involved  to  most  working p a r t - t i m e .  after  all  t h e i r younger c o u n t e r p a r t s  women  the b i r t h of  I t was  also  ends of the o c c u p a t i o n a l s c a l e  o l d e r women were more  the  l i k e l y to be  and t h a t the more  their  found t h a t  were  well  working than  children a  women  had, the l e s s l i k e l y she was to be working. The most common i n f a n t - c a r e arrangement was for the to b a b y s i t  i f the woman worked p a r t - t i m e .  full-time,  the most common arrangement  babysit,  a babysitter  employed mother.  or l i v e - i n h e l p .  If the woman worked  was for a grandmother to T h i s excluded the  self-  Few women used d a y - c a r e .  The major reasons  women who wanted to r e t u r n to work f a i l e d  to do so was lack of c h i l d - c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , convenient  father  working  hours.  babysitters  When the women were  r e g a r d i n g suggestions for change,  questioned  the most o f t e n - n o t e d  were f o r improved c h i l d - c a r e f a c i l i t i e s  and  requests  (particularly on-site  13 day-cares)  and f l e x i b l e  expressed  r e g a r d i n g the  three,  approved  problems  lack  of  over  Concern  facilities  registered day-care  encountered  flexibility  working h o u r s .  for i n f a n t s  facilities,  school holidays  i n most o r g a n i z a t i o n s  was a l s o  were other  suggestions  Interestingly revisions  need  reinstatement relaxation  for  for  legislation.  period.  of a  the  maternity They  to work at  improvement.  most women d i d not see  some need for change,  the  lack of  when a c h i l d becomes i l l .  to the m a t e r n i t y r i g h t s  who d i d see with  enough,  babysitting  and the  The need for more p a r t - t i m e jobs and o p p o r t u n i t i e s home  under  continuous s e r v i c e  concerned  extensions  suggested  for  Of those women  m a j o r i t y were  leave  also  the need  the  in  the  need  for  requirement and an  increase  i n m a t e r n i t y pay. From  this  reinstatement  study, right  D a n i e l (1980)  had l i t t l e  concluded  impact on  that  r a t e s of  the r e t u r n to  work: ...we found no evidence that women who q u a l i f i e d f o r the r i g h t to reinstatment were g e n e r a l l y any more l i k e l y to r e t u r n to t h e i r jobs than were c o u n t e r p a r t s who d i d n o t . The c h i e f i n f l u e n c e s upon whether women went back to work were t h e i r job l e v e l s and pay, the nature of t h e i r employer and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of convenient p a r t - t i m e working opportunities. O v e r a l l , our a n a l y s i s l e d us to view t h a t the r i g h t to reinstatement was more a k i n to p r o t e c t i o n from u n f a i r d i s m i s s a l than to a measure to help women to r e t u r n to work. That i s to say, the r i g h t prevented employers from s t o p p i n g women who q u a l i f i e d from going back to t h e i r jobs but i t d i d nothing d i r e c t l y to Increase the i n c l i n a t i o n of women to go back or to remove the main o b s t a c l e s that i n h i b i t e d women who would have p r e f e r r e d to work ( D a n i e l , 1981, p. 89).  14  Daniel with  (1981) p u b l i s h e d a second r e p o r t on the  maternity  rights  of  the  p r e v i o u s l y examined sample. reported  difficulties  introduction,  it  was  employers  involved  of  the b u s i n e s s .  with  the  generally  legislation  found  that  the  employers  since  the  its  degree  upon the  of  size  Larger businesses r e p o r t e d the g r e a t e s t number  difficulties. Of the problems encountered by t h i s  replacements  for those women on leave  18%, f i n d i n g as  problems r e s u l t i n g from women f a i l i n g to leave were the main d i f f i c u l t i e s . staffing  Daniel  with  sector  employers.  public  sector  A  had  positive  (1981)  the  positions  legislation  difference  superior  i n h i s survey between  that  of p r i v a t e was  maternity  trade  in general,  was not e s p e c i a l l y  and p u b l i c  found was  provisions  about women r e t u r n i n g to work and  reinstatement  their  fill.  the  found t h a t ,  staffing  return following  a t t r i b u t e d to the p u b l i c s e c t o r ' s a c t i v e Daniel  as  with the s k i l l e d  (1981) found few d i f f e r e n c e s  experiences  well  suitable  It was a l s o found that  problems were more s e r i o u s  because they were harder to  the  in  Although o n l y 18% of the  d i f f i c u l t y an employer encountered was dependent of  experiences  the  that which  the was  unions. employers  t h a t the  were  right  to  problematic:  Our present study of employers shows t h a t the r i g h t to r e i n s t a t m e n t had, i n p r a c t i c e , represented no great burden d u r i n g the f i r s t three years or so of i t s o p e r a t i o n . It was o c c a s i o n a l l y an i r r i t a n t for some but v e r y r a r e l y generated s u b s t a n t i a l problems ( D a n i e l , 1981, p. 89).  15  Canadian Women In the There employment identify  are  no  workforce Canadian s t u d i e s  behavior  factors  following maternity  which s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Since 1976 however,  leave  significantly  has  increased  claims  increased  the percentage  specifically  leave and attempt  influence  this  rising  the  for  (see  Figure 1).  Canadian  (Table 1 ) .  labour f o r c e .  participation  of  It  is,  women  have  of  also  As i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 2,  therefore,  women i n the  a dramatic  force  The number  of women with young c h i l d r e n i n the  c h i l d r e n represents  to  behavior.  labour  i n c r e a s e d to a p o i n t of being equal to the percentage  women i n  track  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the labour  i n Canada has s t e a d i l y maternity  that  c l e a r that  workforce  with  force of  all the  young  statistic.  Table 1 M a t e r n i t y Leave Claims for Canadian Women 1978-1987  Year 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987  Number of Claims 381,964 406,590 416,601 444,266 469,470 468,113 506,102 520,440 531,530 552,350  Note. From S t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t on the o p e r a t i o n of the unemployment insurance a c t (pp. 45-46, Catalogue No. 73-001) by S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1988, Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply & S e r v i c e s .  16  1976  1977  1978  1979  1980  1981  1982  1983  1984  1985  F i g u r e 1_. Women 15 years and over as a Percentage of A l l Employed, Canada, 1976 - 1985. Note. From Women i n t h e . w o r k p l a c e - s e l e c t e d data (p. 29, Catalogue No. 71-534) by S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1987, Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and S e r v i c e s .  17  [ All women ' Toutes les  60  femmes  t v .;| Women with youngest child under 3 years Femmes ayant un eniant de moms de Irais ans  1  •M  I  |  i  6  1977  1978  1979  1930  1981  1932  1933  193-1  1 1  §i 1935  F i g u r e 2. L a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f a l l women and o f women w i t h y o u n g e s t c h i l d u n d e r 3 y e a r s , C a n a d a , 1976 - 1985 Note. From Women i n t h e w o r k p l a c e - s e l e c t e d d a t a ( p . 38, C a t a l o g u e No. 71-534) by S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1987, O t t a w a : M i n i s t r y o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s .  18 Employment Behavior Influences and Canadian Women. A Canadian study prepared for Statistics Canada which explores a a number of employment behavior influences is the Womens* Work Interruption Study (Robinson, 1987). data  from  This study utilized the  another Statistics Canada Study,  History study.  the 1984 Family  The purpose of the Family History study was to  collect retrospective data on family and work histories. There were 14,000 participants in the study of which 7,000 were women. The sample was selected to be representative of the national  population.  Only  12.7%  of the sample  would not  participate in the interviews which were conducted by telephone. These which  data  defined  period  were applied to the Work  Interruption  a work interruption as an interruption  of one year or more.  Within this  definition,  study for a shorter  term interruptions such as maternity leaves or periods of brief unemployment  did  Nonetheless,  there  employment status  not  qualify  work  interruptions.  were a number of findings  regarding age,  and education  as  related to work interruptions  relevant to this study. Of the women surveyed  in this  worked on a regular basis had never Robinson (1987) felt that this showing more continuous work  study, forty had a work  demonstrated  patterns,  percent  who  interruption.  that  contrary  women were to what is  commonly  perceived by the general public.  It was also  that the  majority of women who do have a work interruption have  only one and i t is usually due to family reasons.  found  19 Further, i t was found that younger women were more likely than older women to have worked  prior  worked on a regular basis and to have  to marriage.  shorter work Interruptions  These  findings plus  for younger  evidence of  women reflected the  changing work patterns for women. For women in the 25 to 34 age group, 65% left the workforce for less than two years while for women aged The  55 to 64, only 27% had such  study  indicated that  a short interruption.  few women were part-time workers  prior to the f i r s t work interruption. Women, however, who did experience  a work interruption were  more likely to return to  part-time jobs following the interruption. When the sample was divided into age groups, there was no evidence of differences between older and younger women and their inclination to return to work full-time. The  study also revealed that although few women leave the  workforce when they get married, child-care and household duties remain  the primary responsibility of the woman. It was not  surprising  then,  that  pregnancy,  child -care and family  considerations  were the major reasons  interruption.  Major reasons  for the f i r s t  for subsequent  work  interruptions  were family considerations. Of the continuous workers in the sample over 50% had at least one child. Seventy-six percent of the 25-34 age group of continuous workers already had their f i r s t child. who were child  discontinuous  at the same  workers,  time  29% of them  Of the women  had their f i r s t  as their f i r s t work interruption.  20 Further, i t was found that married continuous workers were more likely to be childless than married discontinuous workers. Women with a university degree were slightly more likely to work  continuously  background.  than  Although  these  women without women were  discontinuous workers to cite family interruptions, their interruptions than the  this just  reasons  were  educational as likely as  for their  shorter  work  in general  for those of discontinuous women. Finally, while 60% of women who were  full-time  prior  to their  interruption  returned to work f u l l - time, for university degree women, the figure was 66%. Robinson (1987) concluded from the study that younger women have a stronger attachment to the workforce than older women, family  considerations  is the major  factor  causing  work  interruptions, married women experience more work interruptions than unmarried women and that there is a greater tendency than in the past for younger women to combine work with motherhood. Part-time Employment and Canadian Women.  One source of  employment which is a popular alternative for Canadian mothers is part-time work.  In a report for Labour Canada (1983)  by a commission of inquiry into part-time Canadians  were  found to have  period during 1981. is expected  working  work,  held a part-time  2.4 million job at some  By the end of this century part-time work  to increase to between 15 and 19% of the labour  force (Labour Canada, 1983, p. 46).  It was also reported that  in the 15 to 24 age group, 72% of a l l part-time  workers are  21 women while  89% of a l l married p a r t - t i m e workers are women.  Women are much more l i k e l y than men to be time between 25 and 64 years of age. employed p a r t - t i m e i n t h i s  C i t e d as the reasons part-time,  (see  Figure  A higher percentage c h i l d r e n at home. divided group  26%,  of  those  1983,  p.  group wanted to work p e r s o n a l and  family  3).  i n t o two groups,  the  25 to 64  age  group was  25 to 44 and 45 and o v e r ,  the  further 25 to  part-time  work was  career with home  the best  responsibilities,  a v a i l a b l e but that c o n d i t i o n s improved.  44  were more l i k e l y to have young c h i l d r e n .  The m a j o r i t y of women's groups advised the commission since  50).  of p a r t - t i m e women than f u l l - t i m e had  When  as expected,  indicated  part-  They comprise  (Labour Canada,  why women i n t h i s age  a l a r g e group  responsibilities  N i n e t y percent  age group are women.  47% of a l l people working p a r t - t i m e  working  Problem areas  that  way f o r women to combine a it  should be more r e a d i l y  of p a r t - t i m e workers needed to be  included:  Lack of access to f r i n g e b e n e f i t s and pensions; C o n c e n t r a t i o n i n female job g h e t t o s ; Lack of union r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; L i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y for t r a i n i n g or promotion; Lack of job s e c u r i t y and; Shortage of c h i l d - c a r e f a c i l i t i e s (Labour Canada, p. 107).  1983,  The important r o l e of p a r t - t i m e employment for women i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s apparent when one examines for  the  women with c h i l d r e n under three years of age as  statistics full-time  and p a r t - t i m e employment are almost e q u a l l y represented group (see  Figure  4).  for  this  22  MEN • WOMEN 3% 1%  D  Gang io school  r Did not want lull-time work 1  rri Could only find ^ part-lime work J  B l Oiher reasons | Personal 4 family p - i responsibilities I I Remainder  F i g u r e 3. Reasons for working p a r t - t i m e : aged 2 5 - 5 4 .  Men and women  Note. From Commission of i n q u i r y i n t o p a r t - t i m e work. (p. 50, Catalogue No. 71-001) by Labour Canada, 1983, Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and S e r v i c e s .  23  Occupation  Canada  Nfld. . T.-.V.  P.c.I.  N.S.  N.B.  L-P.-£  N.-E.  N.-8.  Que.  One.  Man. .  AIu.  B.C.  Alb.  C.-B.  Sasfc.  thousand - milHers 1935 Youngest child aged Age du plus jeune enfant Under 3 years - Mains de 3 anS To u i Full-time - a plein temps Part-time - i temps partiel  41!  6  13  10  107  159  17  13  42  36  2S3 12S  5'  10 4  7  81 25  112 48  10 _ 7  11 7  25 16  20 17  225  6  8  S  71  115  14  14  30  29  201 94  5  • S  4  51 20  81 34  8 5  8 S  19 U  17 12  913  IS  29  23  199  357  41  39  95  101  258 99  29 12  25 13  69 27  67 34  3-5 years - ans Toul Full-time - 1 plein temps Part-time - a temps partiel 6-15 years - ans Toul Full-time - i plein temps Part-time - a temps partiel  654 254  14 4  5 4  21 8  17 7  150 49  • F i g u r e £ . L a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r vomen v i t h c h i l d r e n b y age g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n a n d f u l l - t i m e o r p a r t - t i m e employment i n a l l p r o v i n c e s , 1984 a n d 1985. Note. From Women i n t h e w o r k p l a c e - s e l e c t e d d a t a (p.64, C a t a l o g u e ' No. 71-534) b y S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1987, -Ottawa: M i n i s t r y o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s .  24 Return Rates from Maternity Leave.  Although there are  no Canadian studies which track employment behavior over  time  following maternity leave, the Status of Women reports that 69% of women in Canada return to work following their maternity  leave:  Some people believe that women do not go back to paid employment after they have had children. But, in fact, women do go back to work after childbirth. 69% of women who request maternity leave return at the end of that leave. The reasons are straightforward. Women in Canada are employed because they have a strong attachment to their job and because the family unit needs the income (Symes & Sheppard, 1984, p. 4). Daniel's (1980) study did not find the reasons why women return to work so simplistic. affected  the decision  He found a variey of factors  to return to work  other  than  just  financial necessity and job loyalty. The balance of this literature review will selectively cite research which deal with factors which influence mother's decision to return to work.  a new  These studies differ from  Daniel's (1980) study in that they do not comprehensively deal with factors which Influence return rates following maternity leave.  The growing role of f l e x i b i l i t y in the workplace and the  applicability  of organizational  commitment  to  employment  behavior following maternity leave will also be discussed. Factors Influencing Employment Behavior of New Mothers Gaston (1986) found in a descriptive study of the effects of first  pregnancy  of 130 career women that most  returned to their pre-birth positions.  of the women  The organizational  context and the developmental timing of the pregnancy determined  25  the d i f f i c u l t y which these women encountered in their return to work.  The options  open to the women and the a b i l i t y to  negotiate various aspects of the maternity leave were determined by the woman's position on the organizational hierarchy.  It was  also found that a woman's age and career stage affected her plans and career consequences.  The longer the woman had delayed  the pregnancy, the more likely she time.  would return to work f u l l -  The longer the woman had been married, the more likely  she was to be content with the timing of her pregnancy and its effect on her career. Some longitudinal studies have attempted to distinguish the major variables  which  pre-school children. and Hock (1984)  affect employment levels of mothers with One of these studies conducted by Morgan  traced  the levels  of employment of 49 new  mothers (white, middle-class and married) from 1973-1981. The primary objectives of the study were to "identify variables that related to labor force participation and determine which of the variables best predicted levels of employment" (Morgan & Hock, 1984,  p. 384).  various  tests  The authors  conducted  of psychosocial  an assessment  variables  including  orientation, career salience, nurturance, response  using career  to stress,  aversion to infant fussiness and concern with nonmaternal care for infants.  The number  of additional  children  taken into consideration.  The variables  were  was also  assessed after  the f i r s t , third and sixth year. It was found that career orientation, which is the amount of  26 interest of  in a job,  employment  refers  to  was  the  most  predictive  the  six  year  period.  over  the  perceived  factor  Career  importance  of  response  to  a  for  the  level  salience,  which  career  the  individual,  nurturance  and  significant  predictors.  Number o £ c h i l d r e n was s i g n f i c a n t  as  expected,  that  i n the  psychosocial  third  and s i x t h  variables  stress  for  year.  were s t r o n g  were  The a u t h o r s  predictors  also only,  concluded  of  maternal  employment. In  another  (1984),  attitudes  explored  planned to increased that to  return  to  preference  work and to  5,159  followed marriage, data  to  the  child.  that  motherhood and study  that  e v e n as  labour  force  The a u t h o r  the  although months  in  were  there  was  an  concluded  about  the  three  66% i n i t i a l l y  authors  (1978) U.S.  returning  workplace  1973 after  concluded that  for  the  was  Center  Department  14 and 24 changes  between 1968  shortly  were  employment.  ages of  e a r l y as  McBride  baby and  and a n x i e t y  and b e h a v i o r  j o b and c a r e e r  of  The  by F r a n k M o t t  attitude  and  and employment  three  flexibility  women between t h e  family,  birth  home.  conflict  Gnezda  Questionnaires  R e s e a r c h f u n d e d by t h e  examine  indicated  return first  to  remain at  increased  balance  the  following  experience  that  Human R e s o u r c e  Labour,  mothers.  Indicated  work to  In a l o n g i t u d i n a l of  317  The r e s u l t s  new m o t h e r s  necessary  of  both s h o r t l y a f t e r  later.  by H o c k ,  regarding maternal roles  i n a group  administered months  l o n g i t u d i n a l study  to  i n 1968 in  of were  education,  1973.  The  women were t e n d i n g the  birth  of  more e f f e c t i v e  to  their policies  27 and  mechanisms  were  needed  to  assist  women with r e - e n t r y  problems as w e l l as to monitor compliance with m a t e r n i t y leave provisions. starting  He a l s o found that the trend for working women was  to  resemble a  that women with b e t t e r  more continuous male work p a t t e r n and  job options  were the  first  ones to r e t u r n  With the  increase  to work. F l e x i b i l i t y i n the Workplace. career c o u p l e s ,  there  i s a growing r e c o g n i t i o n by employers  f a m i l y concerns can no longer be i g n o r e d .  In response  phenomenon, there has emerged over the l a s t f i v e body  of  literature  in dual  regarding  employers are a s s i s t i n g  the ways by  to  that this  years a growing  which  responsive  working p a r e n t s .  Demographic p r o j e c t i o n s p o i n t to an increase i n these work-force problems. Forget the endless surveys r e v e a l i n g that q u a l i t y of work l i f e , not money motivates t o d a y ' s employees. Forget the b i r t h of the s e n s i t i v e male, and h i s new a c t i v e r o l e i n b r i n g i n g up baby. (Forget the i n c r e a s e i n daddies i n the d e l i v e r y room and t h e i r requests for p a t e r n i t y leave) Forget the emphasis on f a m i l y values c u r r e n t l y i n vogue. Concent r a t e instead on t h i s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n from the Bureau of Labor Statistics: By 1990, women w i l l account for t w o - t h i r d s of the labor force growth. Approximately 80 percent of working women are of c h i l d b e a r i n g age; 90 percent of these workers w i l l have c h i l d r e n . The number of c o n f l i c t s stemming from people s t r i v i n g to combine work and f a m i l y w i l l i n c r e a s e ( S p r u e l l , 1986, p. 30). More and more employers appear to be a c c e p t i n g the t h a t by a d d r e s s i n g f a m i l y concerns they w i l l be more in r e t a i n i n g a productive exploring  and  workforce.  As  implementing a number of  personnel p o l i c i e s .  As  these  policies  a result, family would  premise  effective they  are  responsive most  likely  28 enable a woman to more easily return to maternity  leave, a  review  is  in  work  following her  order.  Magld (1986) comprehensively outlined the various avenues of support that employers deal  with  can  offer  employees  to  effectively  work/family conflicts:  1)  Flexible working hours for full-time employees;  2)  Permanent part-time employment with benefits;  3)  Job-sharing;  4)  Work-at-home options;  5)  Cafeteria-style plans that allow employees to select the benefits most helpful to their family situation;  6)  Adequate maternity and paternity leaves;  7)  Information and referral centres to assist employees in locating day-care;  8)  Vendor programs - organization purchases slots from day-care centres for employees;  9)  Vouchers - organization pays for child care costs;  10)  Flexible spending accounts - the employee would arrange with the employer to have money deducted from their cheque to a child care account to accumulate child care savings;  11)  Workplace child care centre - an on-site day-care centre;  12)  Child-care consortium - a group of employers share the costs of developing a child-care program;  13)  Before and after school program - an employer supports a school d i s t r i c t or summer camp to accommodate the needs of employees with school age children and;  14)  Care for sick children - an employer develops a program to address the needs of working parents when children are i l l (Magid, 1986).  29 Magid  suggested  introducing tardiness not  these  plans  and t u r n o v e r .  been  sufficient  organizations  that  the are  incentives a  for  reduction  in  She i n d i c a t e d however, cost-benefit  data  to  to provide more f a m i l y responsive  Friedman (1987) a l s o noted that although a firms have i n t r o d u c e d c h i l d - c a r e s e r v i c e s , job-sharing, this area. their  most  American firms  absenteeism, t h a t there  motivate  for f a m i l y  i n t r o d u c t i o n before  they respond.  most packages.  number  of  flexible  b e n e f i t s and  have not been  supportive  has  benefit  She s t a t e d t h a t companies want to see  investment  companies  responsive  the r e t u r n on  policies  T h i s data i s  in  and  program  limited.  Many companies need to see the c o n n e c t i o n between f a m i l y i s s u e s and bottom l i n e concerns of the organization. The d a t a , however, are l i m i t e d . Three n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s found t h a t manager's b e l i e v e t h e i r company's sponsorship of a day care center leads to improved p r o d u c t i v i t y , morale and l o y a l t y and reduced absenteeism, t a r d i n e s s and t u r n o v e r . But these data are based o n l y on the center response. More c o n v i n c i n g r e s e a r c h conducted a t s e v e r a l l a r g e c o r p o r a t e s i t e s , p r i o r to the adoption of a f a m i l y p o l i c y , shows what companies lose by not reponding to the f a m i l y needs r a t h e r than what they save by r e s p o n d i n g . Based on r e p o r t s at Merck & C o . , Honeywell I n c . and AT&T among o t h e r s , between 30 and 60 percent of employees - both men and women f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to manage t h e i r d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r work and f a m i l y l i f e . Employees a l s o r e p o r t t h a t some company support i n the form of more f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s or new s e r v i c e s would m i t i g a t e some of t h i s c o n f l i c t (Friedman, 1987, p. 37). A c c o r d i n g to Friedman (1987) Issues are  larger  corporations  firms in  high  i n c l u d i n g high technology and the s e r v i c e insurance companies and h o s p i t a l s .  responsive growth sector,  to  family  industries such as banks,  These firms u s u a l l y have  high female c o n c e n t r a t i o n and are n o n - u n i o n i z e d .  Family  a  owned  30 businesses where  family values have  been  incorporated  into  corporate policy were also responsive. Friedman (1987) suggested that deciding upon the appropriate response can be a very complicated process  involving  task  forces, surveys and information gathering from other companies. She noted three lessons 1) 2) 3)  emerging from the past decade:  No one solution will meet a l l employees' needs; Any support from the company can be helpful; and Business cannot solve the problems alone - they are too vast , diverse and complex. Government can no longer advocate "public-private partnerships" and declare that i t has "addressed" the problem (Friedman, 1987, p. 38).  The nursing literature also addresses the link between turnover for nurses with  young  children  and the lack  of  organizational support systems for new mothers: Regardless of their current status - full-time, part-time, or s t i l l inactive the most important reason cited by these nurses is as "common knowledge" holds, maternity. Six of every 10 currently full-time registered nurses who left did so in order to raise a family. Three out of four of those now working part-time offer the same reason. Clearly, i f the profession is ever to decrease the number of "nurse years" lost to motherhood, i t will have to engineer a compromise of working schedules to f i t the need of the nurse/mothers (Gulack, 1983, p. 32). In  addition to inflexible working hours, lack  day-care f a c i l i t i e s is cited  as a major  of suitable  deterrent to returning  to the workforce following childbirth: When i t comes to finding child-care services, nurses have more problems than most working parents. Few child-care programs are set up for parents who are frequently called upon to work evening or night shifts or who are routinely expected to be on duty at least some weekends, nights and holidays (Chabin, 1983, p. 548).  31 It is becoming more and more apparent that in the future, organizations will be faced with the challenge of implementing suitable organizational support systems to retain a committed female workforce.  Retaining a committed workforce is a primary  objective of most organizations since the consequences of not doing so is to increase the costs associated absenteeism and diminished productivity.  with  turnover,  It seems clear that  if a female employee felt committed to her employer she would be more likely to return to work It  is therefore  following  appropriate  to review  her maternity  leave.  factors affecting  organizational commitment. Organizational Commitment.  Mowday, Porter and  Steers  in Employee Organization Linkages, The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism  and  Turnover  define commitment to employment as  the relative strength of an individual's identification with and involvement in a particular organization.  It involves  three  factors: 1) 2) 3)  A strong belief in and acceptance of the organization's goals and values; A willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization and; A strong desire to maintain membership in the organization (Mowday, Porter & Steers, 1982, p. 27).  The authors grouped the major influences of commitment into four categories: 1) 2) 3) 4)  Personal characteristics; Job or role related characteristics; Work experiences and; Structural characteristics (Mowday, et a l . , 1982, p. 29).  32 Of these four categories, personal  characteristics is the  one with which Daniel (1980) was primarily concerned and is the one  most  relevant  to  the  current  study.  Personal  characteristics include age, tenure, educational level, gender and race.  According  turnover  studies  to  Mowday's et a l . (1982)  related  to  review  of  personality characteristics,  commitment was positively related to  age and tenure.  Therefore  age and tenure are also likely to influence employment behavior in a maternity leave situation. to  commitment  with  the  Education was inversely related  authors  suggesting  employees have higher expectations which may organization.  Gender  was  also  found  to  that  educated  not be met by an affect commitment.  Since women often have more barriers to overcome than men,  they  have been found to be more committed employees. Summary and Objectives of the Study With the exception of Daniel's (1980) study, the literature f a i l s to deal in a comprehensive manner with employment behavior following maternity leave and behavior.  the  factors  influencing this  There is l i t t l e information as to which factors are  the most influential and as Friedman (1987) points out, limited data to support the argument that implementing family responsive personnel  policies  can  improve  staff  retention. What  literature does indicate is that the following  factors  the  either  influence or potentially influence employment behavior following maternity leave:  33 1)  Part-time employment opportunities;  2) Flexible working hours; 3)  Level of earnings;  4) Number of children; 5)  Tenure with an organization;  6) Age; 7)  Level of education;  8) Union a f f i l i a t i o n ; 9)  Financial situation;  10)  Level and type of position;  11)  Organizational support systems such as day-care;  12)  Psychosocial variables and;  13)  Suitable child-care arrangements.  Information questions maternity  is s t i l l  regarding  actual  lacking, however, on a number of employment  behavior  following  leave:  1)  Do organizational tenure, age, number of children, salary, occupational and educational level, union a f f i l i a t i o n and employment status significantly influence a woman's decision to return to work following a maternity leave?  2)  How many women do not return to work following their maternity leave and what are the major reasons given for terminating their employment?  3)  What are the employment patterns of the women who return to work and do a substantial proportion of them transfer from full-time to part-time employment?  4)  What are the major problems women experience when they return to work following a maternity leave?  34  The address  5)  Do f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s encourage s t a f f f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y leaves?  6)  What i s the experience of women under the c u r r e n t m a t e r n i t y leave l e g i s l a t i o n ?  primary the  objectives  first  three  of the c u r r e n t issues  behavior f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y leave  by  study were  for 313  women  i s s u e s through i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s  women from  sample.  further  of  varying  and to examine  the l a t t e r three  A  to  examining the employment  occupations from a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n h o s p i t a l  the  retention  objective  with was  five  to  develop a s e t  of recommendations on how o r g a n i z a t i o n s can best  achieve s t a f f  retention following maternity leave.  35  CHAPTER I I I : METHOD  Setting A large  metropolitan  s e l e c t e d as the  site  for  hospital  in  British  t h i s study.  Since  o r g a n i z a t i o n employing approximately 5500 are n u r s i n g s t a f f (BCNU), nurses,  Columbia  it  is  people,  i t provided a l a r g e female p o p u l a t i o n . other female s t a f f  variety  clerical  of  positions  staff.  Association  Included i n  Five  such  hundred  (HSA) employees  groups  included in  as k i t c h e n and  thirty  were a l s o  the study  350 d i f f e r e n t  diverse  and  positions  These  of  who worked i n  aides,  p o r t e r s and  Health  Sciences  included  were the  the  consisted  in this  positions  excluded  study. such as  The  last  groups  of  staff.  h o s p i t a l not o n l y p r o v i d e s a l a r g e female sample but  also a very  section.  of whom  As w e l l as  s o c i a l workers and p s y c h o l o g i s t s .  management and s e c r e t a r i a l The  1800  t h i s study  HSA i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l union which r e p r e s e n t s physiotherapists,  large  belonging to the B r i t i s h Columbia Nurses Union  2300 H o s p i t a l Employees Union (HEU) support s t a f f a  a  was  complex  environment.  p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t  different  at  the h o s p i t a l :  and  P l a n n i n g and Development  positions  fall  is  Approximately  occupational within five  cross-  divisions  Operations, Nursing, Medicine, Administration (see  Appendix B ) .  36 Compared to most p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , be c o n s i d e r e d a r e l a t i v e l y f l e x i b l e Part-time opportunities  are  leaves of absence are  employment  environment.  a v a i l a b l e and employees can  t r a n s f e r to o n - c a l l s t a t u s . and  the h o s p i t a l would  There  are j o b - s h a r i n g arrangements  common.  Although  a  committee  c u r r e n t l y working on an o n - s i t e d a y - c a r e p r o p o s a l , a t the  hospital  does  not  offer  any  child-care  information regarding a v a i l a b l e c h i l d - c a r e Another i n d i c a t o r of f l e x i b i l i t y  contracts The  major  provide 26 weeks.  HEU  i n the h o s p i t a l  environment  for  all  union in  the  three  1  and  i s the l e n g t h of  weeks (6 months) and  in  that  is  the  less flexible 18  week  o n l y to a 26 week l e a v e ,  to request  commencement r e g a r d l e s s  HSA  minimum  the the  and BCNU only  than the BCNU  minimum  subject  to the  leave  can be  do have  the maximum leave p r i o r to  plans,  leave  considerations.  HEU follows  the Employment  e i g h t e e n week coverage  f o r the s i x week e x t e n s i o n  and  operational  BCNU and HEU employees  of o p e r a t i o n a l  With regard to b e n e f i t Act  clauses  The Employment Standards Act provides  the o p t i o n , however,  coverage  or  i n the three  these  Act s provisions  requirements of the h o s p i t a l .  Standards  clauses  between  The HSA c o n t r a c t  contracts  extended  The  difference  HEU p r o v i d e s 24  18 weeks.  options  are o u t l i n e d i n Appendix C .  Employment Standards leave.  present,  They are s u p e r i o r to the m a t e r n i t y b e n e f i t s  Employment Standards A c t .  is  facilities.  i s the m a t e r n i t y leave p r o v i s i o n s contained contracts.  easily  provided i n  with no  benefit  the A c t .  HSA  37 and  BCNU employees are e n t i t l e d to b e n e f i t  week  coverage  for t h i s  six  extension. All  three c o n t r a c t s address the amount of n o t i c e that must  be g i v e n p r i o r to r e t u r n i n g to work. r e q u i r e d to give the g r e a t e s t BCNU employees  While HSA employees  amount of n o t i c e ,  thirty  are  days,  need give o n l y fourteen days and HEU, o n l y seven  days. A g a i n , although r e l a t i v e to most employers the h o s p i t a l a flexible degree  environment, v a r i a n c e s  of f l e x i b i l i t y .  e x i s t between  the unions i n  The BCNU i s the most f l e x i b l e u n i o n .  There are n o r m a l l y many vacant p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s can  e a s i l y t r a n s f e r to  is  casual  (on-call)  and  s t a t u s i f she  a nurse cannot  m a i n t a i n r e g u l a r l y scheduled h o u r s . Many nurses take leaves of absence  for e d u c a t i o n a l r e a s o n s .  nurses have  been i n demand  Finally,  for a  number  since  experienced  of y e a r s ,  i f a nurse  with a good employment r e c o r d does t e r m i n a t e , the h o s p i t a l  will  almost always r e a d i l y r e h i r e h e r . Although bid  HEU s t a f f  on p a r t - t i m e  opportunities nurses.  and  can t r a n s f e r to c a s u a l  positions,  there  are  far  status fewer  and part-time  o n - c a l l hours for them than there  As p a r t - t i m e  are  for  and c a s u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s are even more  l i m i t e d for HSA employees,  HSA would be c o n s i d e r e d the  least  f l e x i b l e union. Subjects The  sample of women chosen for t h i s study was s e l e c t e d  to  38 be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of the p o p u l a t i o n of a l l female employees  B r i t i s h Columbia who took m a t e r n i t y leaves between June, and May, 1986.  in  1983  The sampling technique t h a t was u t i l i z e d was  c l u s t e r sampling as the sample of women from the r e p r e s e n t e d one c l u s t e r of the many c l u s t e r s  hospital  of women from  v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the province who took m a t e r n i t y leaves during t h i s  period.  The o r i g i n a l sample of women for t h i s study c o n s i s t e d  of  337 women who took m a t e r n i t y leaves between June, 1983 and May, 1986.  The sample  group c o n s i s t e d the p e r i o d  divided  into  two  groups.  The f i r s t  of 313 women who took one m a t e r n i t y leave  under  women who took  was  study.  The second  group c o n s i s t e d  two m a t e r n i t y leaves d u r i n g t h i s  the two groups represented  considerably  of  period.  different  a d e c i s i o n was made to r e s t r i c t the s t a t i s t i c a l  during 24 Since  situations  a n a l y s i s to  the  l a r g e r group, each of whom had taken o n l y one m a t e r n i t y l e a v e . The 24 women who took two m a t e r n i t y leaves were i n c l u d e d i n the interview  sample.  statistical size,  The  sample  size,  therefore,  for  a n a l y s i s was 313 women and with a sample of  generalizations  can be made at a 95% l e v e l of  the this  confidence  +. 6% p r e c i s i o n . F o r t y - s e v e n d i f f e r e n t occupations sample. kitchen  The  were represented by the  occupations ranged from manual p o s i t i o n s  aides  to  professional  p h y s i o t h e r a p i s t s and n u r s e s . of the sample c o n s i s t e d  positions  such  At the time of h i r e ,  of g e n e r a l duty nurses  such as as  the m a j o r i t y  (47.6%) with the  39 next highest category being kitchen aides (6.4%). occupied  immediately prior  The positions  to the maternity leave differed  somewhat from the positions at hire, with  the three  largest  groups being general duty nurses (47.6%), clerks (5.4%) and practical nurses (3.2%) (see Appendix D). immediately  prior  when the positions  to the maternity leave  according to broad occupational levels,  were categorized  the professionals were  the largest group (Table 2).  Table 2 Occupational Levels Immediately Prior to the Maternity Leave Level  Percent  Manual  13.1  Clerical  15.7  Technical (HEU) Professional  7.0 64.2  Table 3 indicates that the size of the employee groups differed very l i t t l e from the time of hire to immediately to the maternity leave.  prior  40  Table 3 Union Groups & Management at Hire and Immediately P r i o r to M a t e r n i t y Leave  Union  Percent  Hire  HEU HSA BCNU MGMT  to the m a t e r n i t y l e a v e ,  both at h i r e and immediately  Other departments  at h i r e i n c l u d e d Food S e r v i c e s  (7.7%) and P h y s i c a l Medicine (3.5%).  The  fell  differ  percent  prior  within  which were w e l l  (8.3%),  Pathology  departmental  immediately p r i o r to the m a t e r n i t y leave  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y Sixty-five  35.2 10.2 52.7 1.9  the m a j o r i t y of the sample  the Nursing D i v i s i o n (63.5%).  representation  Prior  40.2 10.9 48.9  Looking at the departments  represented  the  from the time of h i r e  (see  did  Appendix E ) .  of the sample was from the Nursing  D i v i s i o n and 30.4% were from the Operations D i v i s i o n .  Only  4.4%  at  the  of the sample was from Medicine and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . There hospital: casual  are  three  regular  employment  (permanent)  status  full-time,  categories  r e g u l a r p a r t - t i m e and  (which i s an o n - c a l l or temporary s i t u a t i o n ) .  At the  41 time of hire, 59.7% of the sample was full-time, 8.3% was parttime  and  32%  were  casual.  relatively large at the  time  The of  casual hire  status  because  group  was  most regular  positions are awarded to employees already on staff. One year prior to the maternity leave, the employment status groups had substantially changed.  Seventy-six percent of the  sample was full-time, 22.3% was part-time and 2% was casual. Immediately  prior  to  the  maternity  leave,  the  part-time  category had slightly increased (Table 4). Table 4 Status at Hire, One Year and Immediately Prior to Maternity Leave  Status  Reg full-time Reg part-time Casual  Percent  Hire  One  Prior  59.7 8.3 32.0  75.7 22.3 2.0  73.4 25.6 1.0  Note.. There were 12 missing cases one year prior to the maternity leave. The  salary  categories in Table 5  reflect  the  large  number of full-time nursing staff, 42.5% earned between $25,000 to 29,999.  The  next largest  $15,000 to $19,999.  group  (16.3%)  earned  between  42 Table 5 S a l a r y Groups Immediately P r l o r To M a t e r n i t y Leave  Annual S a l a r y  Percent  Up to 9,999 10,000-14,999 15,000-19,999 20,000-24,999 25,000-29,999 Over 30,000  7.3 14.7 16.3 13.4 42.5 5.8  The m a t e r n i t y leaves examined i n the study occurred between June,  1983 and May 1986,  to 1985  (Table 6 ) .  with the m a j o r i t y o c c u r r i n g from 1984  The date used to d e f i n e  was the date the employee  the m a t e r n i t y leave  commenced her m a t e r n i t y l e a v e .  employees d i d not r e t u r n from t h e i r m a t e r n i t y l e a v e s , date c o u l d not be used. of 1987,  at l e a s t  one  With data c o l l e c t e d and  a  half  years  had elapsed  Table 6 M a t e r n i t y Leave by Year  1983 1984 1985 1986  Percent  17.3 36.1 38.0 8.6  Cumulat ive Percent  17.3 53.4 91.4 100.0  the r e t u r n  d u r i n g the summer  the beginning of the m a t e r n i t y leave for 91.4% of the  Year  As many  since  sample.  43 Fifty  percent of the  sample  h o s p i t a l at l e a s t f i v e years employees  ten years with  longest  years  been  p r i o r to  Nine percent of the the  had  employed at  their  the  maternity leave.  had been employed i n excess period  of  employment  being  of 18  (Table 7 ) .  Table 7 Length of Employment Immediately P r i o r to M a t e r n i t y Leave  Months  Up to 25 61 85 Over  Cumulative Percent  Percent  24 (2 years) 60 (5 years) 84 (7 years) 120 (10 years) 10 years  15.3 34.5 20.2 21.1 8.9  15.3 49.8 70.0 91.1 100.0  The ages of the sample p r i o r to the m a t e r n i t y leave ranged from 20 to 41 with the mean being 30 years of  age.  Seventy-three percent of the sample were t a k i n g t h e i r maternity least  leave.  first  Twenty-three percent had a l r e a d y taken a t  one m a t e r n i t y leave and 3.5% had taken two l e a v e s .  employee  in  the  sample had taken  three  previous  One  maternity  leaves. Table 8 o u t l i n e s the h i g h e s t The n u r s i n g diploma graduates  l e v e l of completed e d u c a t i o n .  (44%) were the l a r g e s t  group.  Twenty percent of the sample had a Bachelors degree and 17.9%  44 were high s c h o o l  graduates.  Table 8 E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s Immediately P r i o r to the M a t e r n i t y Leave  Education  Did not  Percent  complete  High School  2.9  High School Graduate  17.9  C o l l e g e Diploma  2.9  T e c h n i c a l School  12.1  Nursing Diploma Bachelor/Post Graduate  44.4 19.8  Procedure Data C o l l e c t i o n .  The data were c o l l e c t e d  r e c o r d s between June and September, the  form i n Appendix F .  employment leave were  information  1987  from personnel  and were coded  As the  form i n d i c a t e s ,  prior  to and  using  data r e g a r d i n g  following  the  maternity  collected.  Dependent V a r i a b l e s .  The  t h i s study were three d i s t i n c t  dependent  variables  types of employment  for behavior:  45 GROUP 1: Employees who terminated immediately f o l l o w i n g maternity leave.  their  GROUP 2: Employees who r e t u r n e d to work but d i d not remain employed. GROUP 3 : Employees who r e t u r n e d to work and remained employed.  Independent V a r i a b l e s . addressed by t h i s identified  by  One of the major i s s u e s to be  study was the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s e v e r a l  the  literature  employment behavior i n f l u e n c e s . the  independent  another  as  These f a c t o r s  v a r i a b l e s for t h i s  variable,  organizational  v a r i a b l e was i n c l u d e d to determine differences The  potentially  significant were s e l e c t e d  study with the a d d i t i o n division.  This  i f there were  between r e t u r n r a t e s w i t h i n the  independent v a r i a b l e s ,  factors  therefore,  of  additional  significant  hospital.  were as  as  follows:  1)  L e v e l of e d u c a t i o n ;  2)  Age immediately p r i o r to the m a t e r n i t y  3)  Length of employment immediately p r i o r to maternity leave;  4)  Employment s t a t u s immediately p r i o r to the m a t e r n i t y leave;  5)  Union/Management a f f i l i a t i o n immediately p r i o r to the m a t e r n i t y l e a v e ;  6)  Salary level leave;  7)  Occupational l e v e l leave;  leave; the  immediately p r i o r to the m a t e r n i t y immediately p r i o r to the m a t e r n i t y  46 8)  Number of p r e v i o u s m a t e r n i t y l e a v e s p r i o r to the m a t e r n i t y l e a v e and;  immediately  9)  Organizational division maternity leave.  prior  Statement generated  of  for  Hypotheses.  each  of  immediately  The f o l l o w i n g  these  to  the  hypotheses  were  variables.  H y p o t h e s i s I_: Women who have a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n w i l l be more l i k e l y t o r e t u r n t o work t h a n women w i t h l e s s education. As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , found  that  greater  employees  commitment,  Robinson  In a d d i t i o n ,  occupational likely  levels  group to  Mowday e t  w i t h more e d u c a t i o n  women were more l i k e l y women.  although  to  found  work c o n t i n u o u s l y  Daniel s u c h as  remain  (1987)  (1980), nurses  with t h e i r  al.  d i d not  (1982)  demonstrate  that  more  educated  than  less  educated  found t h a t  women a t  and t e a c h e r s pre-birth  were  higher  the  most  employers.  Hypothesis II: O l d e r women ( o v e r 30 y e a r s o f a g e ) w i l l be more l i k e l y t o r e t u r n t o work t h a n y o u n g e r women. There  is  hypothesis. more c o m m i t t e d  some e v i d e n c e  from t h e  Mowday e t  (1982)  al.  than younger  literature  to  found o l d e r  employees w h i l e  support  employees to  Daniel  that  older  women were more l i k e l y t h a n y o u n g e r  with  their  p r e - b i r t h employer.  this  (1980)  women t o  be  found  remain  Hypothesis I I I : Women who a r e l o n g t e n u r e e m p l o y e e s (over f i v e y e a r s ) w i l l be more l i k e l y t o r e t u r n t o work t h a n women w i t h s h o r t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e n u r e . According to have  been  support  Mowday e t  found to  for  this  al.  (1982),  longer  tenure  be more c o m m i t t e d e m p l o y e e s w h i c h  hypothesis.  Daniel  (1980)  also  employees provides  found  full-  47 time women i n higher o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s to have the service.  longest  These women were the most l i k e l y group to remain  with t h e i r p r e - b i r t h employers. Hypothesis IV: P a r t - t i m e women w i l l be more l i k e l y r e t u r n to work than f u l l - t i m e women. Daniel  to  (1980) found that p a r t - t i m e women were more l i k e l y  to r e t u r n to work than f u l l - t i m e women.  I t was a l s o  previously  noted t h a t p a r t - t i m e employment plays an important r o l e  for  women with s m a l l c h i l d r e n i n the B . C . workforce.  appears  to  be  a  children, easier  desirable it  is  work a l t e r n a t i v e  for  As i t  women  with  l i k e l y t h a t p a r t - t i m e women would f i n d  small  it  to r e t u r n to work than f u l l - t i m e women.  Hypothesis V: Women who belong to BCNU and HEU which p r o v i d e the most f l e x i b l e employment c o n d i t i o n s w i l l be more l i k e l y to r e t u r n to work than women i n HSA, the union with the l e a s t f l e x i b l e working c o n d i t i o n s . As there were only s i x excluded employees i n t h i s i t was not p o s s i b l e excluded employees.  to compare r e t u r n r a t e s between union and The three  union groups however,  a comparison of the degree to which f l e x i b l e influence  return  represented  the  study,  rates  from  least flexible  employees belonging to t h i s  maternity  provided  working c o n d i t i o n s leaves.  As  union i t was hypothesized  u n i o n , would be the  r e t u r n to work f o l l o w i n g t h e i r m a t e r n i t y  HSA that  least l i k e l y  leaves.  Hypothesis V I : Women w i t h i n higher s a l a r y c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be more l i k e l y to r e t u r n to work than women i n lower s a l a r y c a t e g o r i e s . Although D a n i e l (1980) found that women at extreme of the s a l a r y s c a l e were the most  likely  groups to  ends  return  to  48 to  work, he  occupations  also  found  that  women  In  higher  level  were the most l i k e l y group to r e t u r n to work and  remain with t h e i r p r e - b i r t h employer. n o r m a l l y at higher s a l a r y l e v e l s ,  As these women are  i t was hypothesized  that  they would be the most l i k e l y to r e t u r n to work. Hypothesis V I I : Women at higher o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s are more l i k e l y to r e t u r n to work than women at lower occupational l e v e l s . As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , D a n i e l (1980) found t h a t women i n higher o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s were the most l i k e l y group to remain with t h e i r p r e - b i r t h employer. that women with b e t t e r  job options  r e t u r n to work f o l l o w i n g  Mott (1978)  a l s o found  were the most l i k e l y  to  childbirth.  Hypothesis V I I I : Women who have taken previous m a t e r n i t y leaves w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y to r e t u r n to work than women who have not taken any previous m a t e r n i t y l e a v e s . The  number  indication  of  of  previous  maternity  the number of c h i l d r e n  leaves  per  provided  employee.  (1980) found t h a t when he looked at a l l the women i n h i s the  more  be working.  children  a  woman  had the  an  Daniel study  l e s s l i k e l y she was  to  C h i l d - c a r e arrangements a l s o g e n e r a l l y become more  c o m p l i c a t e d with a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n which o f t e n  prevents  women from working. Hypothesis IX: The n u r s i n g d i v i s i o n w i l l have highest return r a t e s . The b a s i s f o r t h i s  hypothesis  The n u r s i n g d i v i s i o n o f f e r s  the  i s s i m i l a r to Hypothesis V.  the most f l e x i b l e  employment  c o n d i t i o n s and most of the employees w i t h i n t h i s d i v i s i o n are nurses belonging to BCNU, the most f l e x i b l e  union.  49 Methods of A n a l y s i s . r e l a t i o n s h i p between the The C h i Square t e s t of  Two t e s t s were used to t e s t independent and dependent  Independence  the  variables.  was used for the nominal  and o r d i n a l data and the One Way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e for ratio data.  A value of  both types of  In-depth i n t e r v i e w s  were  interviews  following flexible  areas: work  arrangements, feasibility "*» copy of the  was to  obtain  problems  policies the  for  and  staff  The purpose of  information  encountered  effect  in  in  letter  which  i n Appendix H.  the  r e t u r n i n g to work,  retention,  child-care  of c h i l d b i r t h on a c a r e e r and  of the c u r r e n t m a t e r n i t y leave l e g i s l a t i o n .  be found i n Appendix G. outlined  used  conducted with  women randomly s e l e c t e d from the sample.  these  level  tests.  Interviews. five  .05 was the s i g n i f i c a n c e  the  was  sent to  A structured  each  interview  the A  p a r t i c i p a n t can was  used  as  50  CHAPTER IV:  T h i s study maternity occupations  leave  DISCUSSION & RESULTS  examined of  a  the large  employment sample  i n order to address the  of  behavior women  following  following of  varying  issues:  1)  Do o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e n u r e , age, number of c h i l d r e n , s a l a r y , o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , union a f f i l i a t i o n and employment s t a t u s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e a woman's d e c i s i o n to r e t u r n to work f o l l o w i n g a m a t e r n i t y leave?  2)  What p r o p o r t i o n of women do not r e t u r n to work f o l l o w i n g their m a t e r n i t y leave and what are the major reasons g i v e n for t e r m i n a t i n g t h e i r employment?  3)  What are the employment p a t t e r n s of the women who r e t u r n to work and do a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n t r a n s f e r from f u l l - t i m e to p a r t - t i m e employment?  4)  What are the major problems women experience when they r e t u r n to work f o l l o w i n g a m a t e r n i t y leave?  5)  Do f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y leave?  6)  What i s the experience of m a t e r n i t y leave l e g i s l a t i o n ?  T h i s chapter w i l l results  encourage women  with  address these questions  of the s t a t i s t i c a l  a n a l y s i s and the  staff the  retention current  by r e v i e w i n g the  interviews.  51 A n a l y s i s of the  Hypotheses  Do o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e n u r e , age, number of c h i l d r e n , s a l a r y , o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , union a f f i l i a t i o n and employment s t a t u s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e a woman's d e c i s i o n to r e t u r n to work f o l l o w i n g a m a t e r n i t y leave? These f a c t o r s , constituted  the  p r e d i c t o r s of  with the a d d i t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  independent  v a r i a b l e s chosen to be t e s t e d  post-maternity  t e s t s were u t i l i z e d ,  division  leave employment b e h a v i o r .  the Chi Square t e s t of Independence  as Two and the  One Way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e . The Chi Square t e s t was run for s i x education,  status,  union and s a l a r y .  variables  organizational d i v i s i o n , As  significant  level  relationships  including: of  position,  were not  between the employment behavior groups and e d u c a t i o n , organizational d i v i s i o n ,  level  Table 9 Summary of c h i  Variable  Education Status Union Salary Occupation Division p_ >.05 *p_< .05  Square  status,  of p o s i t i o n and s a l a r y ,  hypotheses r e l a t i n g to these v a r i a b l e s were r e j e c t e d  found  the  (Table  Results  Chi-Square  7.76 2.86 13.63* 13.38 12.21 6.51  Statistic  Degrees of Freedom  10 4 4 10 6 4  9).  52 A significant behavior p_=.008.  r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between the employment 2  groups  and  the  union  groups,  X (4)=13.63  HSA, the union with the l e a s t f l e x i b l e  conditions  had  the  highest  o u t l i n e d i n Table 10. flexible  employment  termination  employment  rate  (31.3%)  T h i s r e s u l t supports the hypothesis conditions  f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y leaves  encourage  staff  as that  retention  (Hypothesis V ) .  Table 10 Return Rates by Union from Chi Square A n a l y s i s  Group  Union  HEU N  HSA N %  %  BCNU N %  Terminated f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y leave (1)  10  9.1  10  31.3  34  20.6  Terminated f o l l o w i n g r e t u r n to work (2)  11  10.0  3  9.4  25  15.2  89 110  80.9  19 32  59.4  106 165  64.2  Variance  was  Remained employed (3)  One  Way  variables, age  (see  these  Analysis  of  length of employment,  Table 11).  variables  run  for  the  previous m a t e r n i t y leaves and  Length of employment was the only  which  significantly  three employment behavior groups  three  differentiated  F( 2, 310 ) =4 . 89 p_=.008.  one  of the  53 Table 11 Summary of A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s  Terminated F o l l o w i n g the M a t e r n i t y Leave (Group 1)  Terminated F o l l o w i n g Return to Work (Group 2)  Remained Employed (Group 3)  Tenure M  4.83  4.50  5.90  SD  3.14  2.37  3.30  F  4.88*  29.70  28.56  30.22  4.42  3.41  3.91  Age M SD F  3.01  Previous Leaves M  .26  .21  .34  SD  .48  .47  .58  F  1.25  p_ *p_  >  .05 .05 Of the employees who remained on  employment was 5.9  years,  while  other two groups.  This r e s u l t  staff,  the mean length of  i t was l e s s than 5 years supported Hypothesis I I I ,  for as  the  54 longer tenure employees were more likely to return to work than shorter tenure employees. Employment Patterns Following the Maternity Leave What proportion of women do not return to work following their maternity leave and what are the major reasons given for terminating their employment? The  return rates for the three employment behavior groups  indicated  that  Fifty-seven  217 employees  employees  (18.2%)  (69.3%)  remained on-staff.  terminated  following  their  maternity leave and 39 employees (12.5%) following their return to work. The majority of women in the sample returned  to work  following their maternity leave and remained employed. Interesting  that  the percentage  remained at work (69.3%)  of women  is similar  It was  who returned and  to the s t a t i s t i c cited by  the Status of Women (69%) for the return  rate from  leaves  of interest that a  for Canadian women. It was also  higher proportion of women (18.2%) terminated their immediately after their maternity leave their  return  to work (12.5%).  rather  than  maternity  employment following  This finding suggests that for  many women the decision to terminate is made during their  leave  rather than following their return. As outlined in Table 12, most of the women terminated for domestic reasons (25.3%) and following (25.3%).  their maternity  leave  The next largest category was "Other position" (13.7%).  55 Table 12 T e r m i n a t i o n E x p l a n a t i o n s for Groups 1 & 2  Termination E x p l a n a t i o n  Percent  Other P o s i t i o n Temporary Employment Health Further Education Domestic R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s F o l l o w i n g M a t e r n i t y Leave Moving to another C i t y P o s i t i o n C l o s e r to Home Personal F o l l o w i n g 2nd M a t e r n i t y Leave Not a v a i l a b l e for c a s u a l employment Moving Other  13.7 1.1 3.2 1.1 25.3 25.3 10.5 4.2 6.3 1.1 2.1 4.2 2.1  What are the employment p a t t e r n s of the women who r e t u r n e d to work and do a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n t r a n s f e r from f u l l - t i m e to p a r t - t i m e employment? The employment p a t t e r n s  of the second group of employees  (those who terminated f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e t u r n to work) that  79.5% r e t u r n e d  positions  and  (including this status  from t h e i r m a t e r n i t y leave to t h e i r  status.  Of  all  the  79.5%), approximately  employees 29%  in  changed  former  Group 2, employment  f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e t u r n to work with 36.4% t r a n s f e r r i n g  to p a r t - time and 63.6% to status,  indicated  63.6% made  r e t u r n to work.  the None  casual.  necessary  Of t h i s  group  who changed  arrangements p r i o r to  of t h i s group t r a n s f e r r e d  their  their status  56 a  second  time.  transferred  Also,  their  very  few  position or  employees  department  in  this  group  following  their  maternity leave. At least 50% of Group 2  terminated  within  twelve  following their return to work and 80% within two  years.  Seventeen percent of Groups 1 and 2 were rehired. majority  of the  rehires  returning as casual  were  general  employees.  duty  months  The  nurses  Eighty-one percent  (62.5%) of  this  group was rehired within one year of their termination from the hospital. For Group 3, the employees who remained on-staff at hospital, from  their  80.9%  returned to their former position  maternity  leave.  the  and  status  Of a l l the employees in  group 3  (including this 80.9%) 43.5% changed employment status following their return to work with 57.6% 39.8%  to casual.  transferring to  part-time  and  Only 3.2% transferred to full-time status.  As with Group 2, a high percentage of Group 3 (43.5%) made arrangements to transfer their  had  employment status prior to  their return to work with 89% transferring within twelve months of the maternity leave and return to work. Of the group that changed status, 18.5% did so a second time with most of the employees going part-time or casual. This means that of the group that remained employed, 39.6% 42.9%  were part-time and 17.5%  3 transferred  positions and  Finally, data  were casual. 12.2%  were collected  were full-time,  Only 5.7% of Group  transferred departments. pertaining to  whether at the  57 time of the data collection/ the employees who were in Group 3 or rehired were actively employed or on maternity leave. found that 9.5% of this group was on maternity The work  patterns  of the women  It was  leave.  in this study support  Robinson's (1987) finding that women are exhibiting continuous rather than discontinuous work patterns.  Of the women who did  terminate their employment, a relatively high rehired or left the  for alternative  percentage  of women  percentage were  employment, further increasing  who remained  employed.  Another  indicator of this trend, as previously discussed, was the percentage of women (23%) who had already  taken  high  one maternity  leave and returned to work. The Importance of part-time employment opportunities was another who were likely  major finding.  Although i t was not found that women  part-time prior to their to return  to work  than  maternity leave were more full-time women, a  proportion of women transferred to part-time employment  large during  their maternity leave and within a relatively short period of time following their return  to work.  This result was similar t  Robinson's (1987) finding that a high number of women return to work  following  a work  interruption  in a part-time  capacity  Daniel (1980) also found that women were more likely to return t work on a reduced hours basis.  58  Interview  Results  What are the major problems women experience they r e t u r n to work from a m a t e r n i t y leave? F i v e randomly s e l e c t e d women  from the sample  when  were  interviewed  r e g a r d i n g t h e i r m a t e r n i t y leave e x p e r i e n c e :  head n u r s e ,  two  general  duty  nurses,  a  dietitian  excluded s u p e r v i s o r . The a c t u a l case h i s t o r i e s Appendix I . these  This  section  interviews  and  All  of  full-time  the  address  They found baby  was  the  first  maternity leave,  combining a f u l l - t i m e extremely  stressful  some of t h i s  preference  still  i s s u e : major  a  part-time  and f e l t  reason  primary  capacity.  benefits.  they  e n a b l i n g them Of these women,  indicated  that  their  would be to work p a r t - t i m e .  f o r doing so  hospital,  being that there were no p a r t - t i m e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s at the time of her second m a t e r n i t y l e a v e . not f e e l  work  that p a r t - t i m e hours  s t r e s s while s t i l l  f u l l - t i m e and  their  Only one woman terminated her employment with the her  of  p o s i t i o n with care of a new  to m a i n t a i n t h e i r s k i l l s and employee o n l y two are  in  When these women r e t u r n e d to  they wanted to do so i n  would a l l e v i a t e  above  women interviewed planned to r e t u r n to  following their  however,  are contained  upon t h e i r r e t u r n to work.  reason being f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y . work  and an  w i l l summarize the major f i n d i n g s  also  problems women experience  a  She d i d  that she c o u l d cope with f u l l - t i m e employment and two  young c h i l d r e n . year l a t e r )  She  was,  however,  as a p a r t - t i m e  employee.  subsequently  rehired  (one  59 When I had my second c h i l d , there were maybe fourteen women who a l s o took m a t e r n i t y l e a v e s , but o n l y a few r e t u r n e d to work. I f e e l t h a t most of these women would have returned i f there had been p a r t - t i m e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I would have d e f i n i t e l y r e t u r n e d to the OR i f I c o u l d have had a p a r t - t i m e position. In a d d i t i o n to the time p o s i t i o n s ,  these  f r u s t r a t i o n over lack of s u i t a b l e women  also  encountered  a r i s i n g from on-going c h i l d - c a r e problems, fatigue.  As to be expected,  additional child.  part-  difficulties  lack of f r e e time and  these problems i n c r e a s e d with  each  Women who t r a n s f e r r e d to p a r t - t i m e s a i d  that  doing so g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d these problems. During my m a t e r n i t y leave I r e a l i z e d t h a t i t was not going to be as easy to leave t h i s c h i l d as I thought i t would be. I t was f a i r l y t r a u m a t i c to r e t u r n to work as I experienced g u i l t f e e l i n g s . I t was a hard t r a n s i t i o n . Once back at work, i t was s t r e s s f u l but I d i d not r e a l i z e how s t r e s s f u l i t was u n t i l I stopped working f u l l - t i m e and t r a n s f e r r e d to p a r t - t i m e . With regard to  c h i l d - c a r e arrangements,  r e l i e d h e a v i l y on spouses, woman  relying  remaining  on both  woman  They a l l s a i d that  f a m i l y and c l o s e f r i e n d s  family  relied  and l i v e  exclusively  child-care  o n - s i t e day c a r e .  They  with  out b a b y s i t t e r s .  on l i v e - o u t  arrangements  source of concern and t h a t the h o s p i t a l provide  three of the women  were  full-time.  The  babysitters. an  ongoing  had a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  stressed  that t h i s  to  would have  g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d them i n t h e i r r e t u r n to work, e s p e c i a l l y returning  one  with  60 On-site day-care would be a d e f i n i t e asset as it removes your c o n c e r n s . You c o u l d check i n on your c h i l d at c o f f e e and l u n c h . I t would be as i f they were with you d u r i n g the day. I would feel very comfortable with t h i s arrangement. I t would be great and would c e r t a i n l y take a l o t of the worry away. Some of the women acknowledged t h a t having c h i l d r e n had forced them to put t h e i r c a r e e r s their was  p r i o r i t i e s had simply changed. that  jobs,  "on h o l d . "  They s a i d  that  Another obvious problem  they d i d not have the e x t r a time to devote to  making i t d i f f i c u l t  to advance i n t h e i r  their  careers.  I p l a n to continue working p a r t - t i m e a t the h o s p i t a l and w i l l e v e n t u a l l y switch to day s h i f t . I would l i k e to remain at the h o s p i t a l as i t i s a comfortable environment. At t h i s p o i n t , my f a m i l y l i f e i s more important than my work l i f e . I was unable to put i n as much overtime as I d i d p r i o r to my pregnancy. Although my a t t i t u d e d i d not change, I was not as w i l l i n g to g i v e as much to my job as before the b i r t h of my c h i l d . My p r i o r i t i e s had changed, I was not w i l l i n g to s t a y at work u n t i l 6:00 or 7:00 at n i g h t anymore. All  of the women f e l t  that the h o s p i t a l had been  reasonably  s u p p o r t i v e but that there was d e f i n i t e l y  room for  One woman had requested and been granted  (although the  was h e s i t a n t )  a  job-sharing  arrangement.  This  improvement. hospital  woman  a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t the h o s p i t a l had provided a breast pump p r i v a t e room which she used when she The h o s p i t a l a l s o d i d not pressure  first  accommodated  change her s h i f t  another  and  r e t u r n e d to work.  another  woman  numerous absences when her c h i l d had a lengthy ear The h o s p i t a l  also  woman by  to a s s i s t her with c h i l d - c a r e  concerning infection.  a l l o w i n g her arrangements.  to  61 Despite t h i s s u p p o r t , hospital  could  improve s t a f f day-care,  a l l of the  become even more  retention.  women  flexible  They f e l t  that  and  that  by  so  on-site  opportunities,  scheduling.  the  doing  i n a d d i t i o n to  there should be more p a r t - t i m e  s h a r i n g arrangements and f l e x i b l e  felt  job-  One of the  women  s a i d t h a t she was nervous about approaching a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r a more f l e x i b l e  s i t u a t i o n when she heard that other  employees had  been turned down. The  interviews  difficulties The  provided  problems these women encountered  day-care),  fatigue,  s h a r i n g arrangements becomes i l l .  insight  into  lack and  in  (especially  returning the  of s c h e d u l i n g problems  need for  to  work on-site  a l t e r n a t i v e s and  encountered  job-  when a c h i l d  The major problem, however, was the need for more  part-time opportunities.  P a r t - t i m e o p p o r t u n i t i e s appeared to be  i d e a l compromise for these women as i t allowed them both to  continue working and to spend time  with  their children.  responses were almost i d e n t i c a l to D a n i e l ' s  t h e i r r e t u r n to work.  The l i t e r a t u r e on f l e x i b l e  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l support systems (Magid,  These  (1980) f i n d i n g s on  the major problems the women i n h i s study encountered  also  the  of r e t u r n i n g to work f o l l o w i n g a m a t e r n i t y l e a v e .  i n c l u d e d c h i l d - c a r e concerns  the  powerful  1986;  following  work p o l i c i e s Friedman,  1987)  i n d i c a t e s that these are the major problems t h a t women i n  g e n e r a l , are c u r r e n t l y encountering i n the workplace. Do f l e x i b l e work p o l i c i e s encourage s t a f f f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y leave?  retention  62 The order  importance  to retain  confirmed left  staff  In these  the hospital  flexible  and  pressured  her over  interviews.  In r e l a t i v e l y costs  had t h i s  i s clear  Friedman  Although  flexible  Despite  hospital, such sample  who  turnover of  i n HSA, t h e l e a s t who  forflexible  retention  were work  motherhood i s  indicated  i sa relatively needs  interviewed policies  following maternity  in  flexible  foron-site  not being  part-time  by b o t h  study, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  percentage  flexible  and  continuous  fully  addressed.  of  not  high  the  experiences  a l l strongly  support the  order  leaves.  and  enough  women i n t h e  employment, t h e  union  day-care  p o s i t i o n s a t the  t h a t t h e r e were s t i l l  high  transferred to  t h e women  need  The  have  actually did resign  number o f p a r t - t i m e  t h e women i n d i c a t e d  would  long-  employment.  of t h i s  s c h e d u l i n g were s t i l l  opportunities.  woman  as e a r l i e r  the employees'  high  were  women a r e e x h i b i t i n g  hospital  illness,  recruitment  o f c o m b i n i n g work w i t h  the  the seemingly  women  with  part-time  one, r e q u i r i n g ,  working environment, and  One  (1987) and t h e r e s u l t s  assistance.  have  i f t h e h o s p i t a l had  of these  associated  occurred.  work p a t t e r n s , t h e t a s k  that  senior p o s i t i o n s there  that although  a very s t r e s s f u l  likely  because o f her c h i l d ' s  As b o t h  because she c o u l d not secure It  said  work m i s s e d  considerable  orientation  l e a v e s was d e f i n i t e l y  One woman would most  woman  w o u l d have r e s i g n e d .  been  by t h e h o s p i t a l i n  following maternity  another  term employees  policies  I f h e r j o b - s h a r i n g a r r a n g e m e n t had n o t been  approved  she  of  to  achieve  staff  63 M a t e r n i t y Leave L e g i s l a t i o n What i s the experience of women under the c u r r e n t m a t e r n i t y leave l e g i s l a t i o n ? The women who were i n t e r v i e w e d i n d e n t i f i e d two problem areas with the c u r r e n t m a t e r n i t y leave  l e g i s l a t i o n : the  week m a t e r n i t y leave p r o v i s i o n and benefits.  A l l of the  absence was time  for  women f e l t  a leave  would be  leave r e t u r n r a t e s . leave may not f e e l and  fifteen  more a p p r o p r i a t e length  s i x months.  It  is  quite  of  likely  m a t e r n i t y leaves may Influence m a t e r n i t y Women who are e n t i t l e d o n l y to an 18  that  they have had  as a r e s u l t , may  enough  week  time with  their  be l e s s l i k e l y to r e t u r n to work  than women who have had a s i x month l e a v e .  Also,  e n t i t l e d o n l y to these minimum leaves may r e t u r n because t h e i r p o s i t i o n s are p r o t e c t e d cause  weeks of UIC  that an e i g h t e e n week leave of  inadequate and that a  t h e r e f o r e t h a t longer  babies  the  eighteen  women who are to  f o r 18 weeks.  work o n l y This  may  f r u s t r a t i o n which i n t u r n may p r e c i p i t a t e t e r m i n a t i o n  of  t h e i r employment. The other area i d e n t i f i e d as being inadequate was the fifteen  weeks of UIC b e n e f i t s .  although  s i x month leaves were a v a i l a b l e , the o n l y reason they  d i d not take t h i s only f o r f i f t e e n These Daniel's and more  Two of the women i n d i c a t e d t h a t  long a leave was because b e n e f i t s  were payable  weeks.  problems  were  (1980) s t u d y , maternity  in  similar which  to those i d e n t i f i e d women  pay and p r o v i d e  some  wanted  longer  evidence that  in leaves the  64 legislation  may  be d e f i c i e n t  L i m i t a t i o n s of the The  present  limitation  representative  that  had  three  although  limitations.  the  sample  of a v a r i e t y of o c c u p a t i o n s ,  the p u b l i c s e c t o r .  The l i t e r a t u r e  higher than those  for of  the  primary  large  and  i t was drawn from (Daniel,  employees are  private  the r e s u l t s ,  The  was  indicates  that r e t u r n r a t e s for p u b l i c s e c t o r  generalizability  areas.  Study study  was  i n these two  sector.  1980)  significantly  Therefore,  the  may be l i m i t e d to the p u b l i c  sector. As the  data was r e s t r i c t e d to  personnel  records,  i t was  variables  such  financial  children  which  as have  been  not  information possible  to  contained  in  test additional  s i t u a t i o n and exact number of  i d e n t i f i e d as employment  behavior  influences. Finally, 1986, there  as the p e r i o d under study was June, 1983 to May,  and the data were c o l l e c t e d were  maternity  varying leaves,  p e r i o d s of time which passed the s h o r t e s t being the  leaves taken i n May, 1986. time dependency  d u r i n g the summer of  period  1987,  since  the  since  the  Since there was no c o n t r o l for  f a c t o r more women who took m a t e r n i t y leaves  the in  1986 may have terminated f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e t u r n to work had more time  elapsed  prior  to  collecting  follow-up  data,  thereby  r e d u c i n g the o v e r a l l number of women remaining employed at hospital.  the  65  CHAPTER V:  RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSIONS  Recommendations The  final  objective  of  this  study  was  to  develop  recommendations t h a t would a s s i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s to best staff  retention  discussed,  it  is  following evident  maternity that  in  retention following maternity leave,  leave.  order  As  previously  to achieve  staff  o r g a n i z a t i o n s must  provide s u p p o r t i v e environments for working p a r e n t s . f a m i l y responsive flexible outlined, this  i t would serve  point.  This  will  deal  with  noted  that  programs, however, the u s e r s .  task  can  be  forces,  companies.  As  a  with  deciding  very  surveys most  the  complicated  and i n f o r m a t i o n successful  an attempt must be made to analyze the needs policies  In a d d i t i o n , as most companies would be unable  to i n t r o d u c e a l l of the needs  policies.  to determine  The implementation of f a m i l y r e s p o n s i v e  i s no e x c e p t i o n .  a  Friedman (1987)  responses  involves  g a t h e r i n g from other  by  at  recommendations  implementation and a p p l i c a t i o n of these  appropriate f l e x i b l e  systems  the  such as j o b - s h a r i n g and  O r g a n i z a t i o n s should conduct a needs a n a l y s i s appropriate family supportive p o l i c i e s .  process  Since  no purpose to review these options  section  As p r e v i o u s l y  of  policies  first  s c h e d u l i n g are w e l l documented and have been e a r l i e r  r e l a t e d to the 1.  personnel  achieve  available flexible  analysis  would  options and support  determine  the  employees'  66  priorities. 2.  O r g a n i z a t i o n s should develop s p e c i f i c plans to s t a f f retention following maternity leave. Once the o r g a n i z a t i o n has Implemented f l e x i b l e  specific  p l a n should be developed to achieve s t a f f  f o l l o w i n g each m a t e r n i t y l e a v e .  achieve options, a retention  The p l a n should o u t l i n e  those  s t e p s r e q u i r e d to r e a l i s t i c a l l y assess the p a r t i c u l a r needs of each  employee  introduce the  taking employee  a  maternity to  leave  and  should  then  the a v a i l a b l e o p t i o n s and support  systems. 3.  The s t a f f r e t e n t i o n p l a n should i n c l u d e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n p r i o r t o , d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g the m a t e r n i t y leave. The r e s u l t s  of t h i s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t there are three  stages at which o r g a n i z a t i o n s should intervene to accomplish staff  retention: prior to,  d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g the m a t e r n i t y  leave. Some of the women who were interviewed s a i d t h a t they d i d not have a r e a l i s t i c r e t u r n to work. full-  idea of what i t was going to be l i k e  These  women  all  intended to r e t u r n to work  time but upon doing so q u i c k l y f e l t  to p a r t - t i m e employment.  to  the need to  transfer  C h i l d - c a r e arrangements a l s o became a  major source of concern for these women.  Some  (Magid,  with these i s s u e s  1986)  have  attempted  to  deal  organizations by  p r o v i d i n g working parent seminars and in-house r e f e r r a l programs for  locating quality child-care.  and r e f e r r a l  centre  i s to provide  regarding day-care resources.  The purpose of an i n f o r m a t i o n employees  Employees  with  could  information  then  begin  67  exploring leave.  child-care  Working  arrangements  parent  seminars  prior  to  to d i s c u s s common concerns.  be advantageous  for employees  awareness following in t u r n ,  of  the  of both  these  that  them to f e e l  doubt  their  services  first  as  their  they would be d e a l i n g  t h e i r r e t u r n to work would be improved. enable  for  I t would no  who were e x p e c t i n g  problems  maternity  provide an o p p o r t u n i t y  working parents  c h i l d to have the b e n e f i t  their  This  with would,  more i n c o n t r o l of t h e i r r e t u r n to  work. The other area that should be addressed d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d is  the  flexible  working options  her r e t u r n to work. important that  According  organizations  stage the a v a i l a b l e  flexible  available to  the  interviews,  working o p t i o n s .  was confused  alternative  work o p t i o n at the h o s p i t a l .  is  as to whether  or not  One woman who was j o b - s h a r i n g was an  She r e p o r t e d that  the  of her j o b - s h a r i n g arrangement had been a very  f r u s t r a t i n g experience during t h i s  it  c l e a r l y communicate at an e a r l y  interviewed  implementation  to the employee upon  as the h o s p i t a l  provided l i m i t e d  support  process.  An a p p r o p r i a t e time to provide t h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n would be  p r i o r to the employee's t a k i n g her m a t e r n i t y leave as she then be aware of her employment options  and be b e t t e r able  would to  make a p p r o p r i a t e d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g her employment d u r i n g her leave. The employee would a l s o become aware at t h i s time that o r g a n i z a t i o n was s u p p o r t i v e and committed to f l e x i b l e  the  options.  68  The r e s u l t s arrive  at  of t h i s  the  study a l s o suggested t h a t most women  decision  to terminate  t h e i r employment d u r i n g  t h e i r m a t e r n i t y leave r a t h e r than f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e t u r n to work. Women  should  therefore  be  advised  m a t e r n i t y leave t h a t ,  if  provided during t h e i r  leaves.  prior  necessary, The  was  considering  organization  terminating  work/family c o n f l i c t s . stage t h a t they would reasonable  This is e s p e c i a l l y  possible her  Women should  if  it  is  their  would would  be then  solutions  employment  a l s o be  be allowed to extend  p e r i o d of time  taking  counselling  at l e a s t have the o p p o r t u n i t y to o f f e r woman  to  due  advised  their  at  to this  leaves for  operationally  a p p l i c a b l e to o r g a n i z a t i o n s  if a  a  feasible.  which  provide  o n l y the 18 week minimum l e a v e . T h i s study a l s o confirmed that a high percentage transferred leave,  to  part-time  which  organizations' d u r i n g such  further  employment emphasizes  maintaining  of women  during their the  communication  maternity  importance with  the  of employee  leaves.  Although most of the women i n the study who r e t u r n e d to work remained employed, is  important  perceive  the  flexibility. be r e c e p t i v e  for an employer to m a i n t a i n t h i s  t h a t the employee, organization Employees  as  must  retention  upon her r e t u r n , continues having  feel  a sincere  t h a t the  commitment  it to to  organization w i l l  to r e s o l v i n g t h e i r unique w o r k / f a m i l y problems  on  an ongoing b a s i s .  Employers must be prepared to be open-minded  and  seeking  creative  in  solutions  to each employee's unique  69 situation 4.  and c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  The o r g a n i z a t i o n should assess at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s r e s u l t s of t h e i r s t a f f r e t e n t i o n p l a n . A  necessary  step  in  all  successful  plans  is  i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a mechanism for ongoing e v a l u a t i o n . r e t e n t i o n plan  for  m a t e r n i t y leaves  should  be  the the  A staff  assessed  and  r e v i s e d as necessary at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s .  This objective  be achieved  s t a t i s t i c s regarding  employment  through  the  behavior  maintenance  following  maternity  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s maternity  of  leaves and  to employees  who  could  the  have  taken  leaves.  Summary & C o n c l u s i o n s This  study  m a t e r n i t y leave  explored  six  employment  specific  behavior.  issues regarding postOf  which were t e s t e d for t h e i r  influence  found to  organizational  be  significant,  employment.  It  was  also  the  nine  variables  on r e t u r n r a t e s , tenure  two were  and  flexible  found that although the m a j o r i t y  women continued working f o l l o w i n g t h e i r m a t e r n i t y l e a v e , p r o p o r t i o n of them resumed work on the b a s i s The i n t e r v i e w s experience concerns,  high  of reduced h o u r s .  r e v e a l e d t h a t the major problems women  upon t h e i r the  a  of  need  r e t u r n to  for o n - s i t e  work  day-care,  s c h e d u l i n g and l i m i t e d j o b - s h a r i n g and It was f u r t h e r confirmed employment s i t u a t i o n s  i n these  encouraged  included lack  of  flexible  part-time opportunities.  interviews staff  child-care  that  retention  flexible following  70 maternity All  leave.  of the women s t a t e d  that an 18 week leave  would have been inadequate. maternity benefits  of  Some of the women f e l t  absence that  should be payable for the e n t i r e  maternity  leave. I t was recommended t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s attempting to staff  retention  following  maternity  leave  must  achieve  become  s u p p o r t i v e work environments and implement a r e t e n t i o n p l a n which  involves  communication  d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g  the  with  leave.  the employee  prior  The purpose of t h i s  to,  plan is  to  provide the employee with i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g f l e x i b l e working options and explore s u i t a b l e  solutions  to any w o r k / f a m i l y  problems. It  is  evident  that  women  component i n the workforce. m a t e r n i t y leaves s t e a d i l y comprehensive  have  As the  increases,  become  is  organizations w i l l  i n f o r m a t i o n on how to e f f e c t i v e l y  limited.  research s t i l l as  a  first  Although i t  important  i n c i d e n c e of women t a k i n g  aspects of m a t e r n i t y leave and at p r e s e n t , subject  an  d e a l with a l l  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s  i s evident  t h a t a great d e a l of  needs to be conducted i n t h i s a r e a , t h i s step,  confirmed  two  very  require  important  employment behavior f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y l e a v e .  study,  aspects of  Firstly,  m a j o r i t y of women are c l e a r l y r e t u r n i n g to work f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y leave and remaining employed. naive  for o r g a n i z a t i o n s  to  Secondly,  assume that a l l  to resume work i n t h e i r p r e - b i r t h p o s i t i o n s .  it  the their  would be  women are w i l l i n g As  concluded  by  71 Daniel  (1980) the r i g h t to reinstatement  women w i l l resume working. appear to be the following This  conclusion  resource p o l i c i e s future,  Rather, f l e x i b l e  overriding  maternity  i s no insurance  influence  employment  on employment  behavior  has d e f i n i t e  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r human  of o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  It  is evident  that,  have to implement  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l support systems o r ,  this  prepared to  work/family c o n f l i c t s on an ongoing  with  not o n l y f o l l o w i n g  turnover  that  not o n l y be b e t t e r  be more s u c c e s s f u l  likely  are  sensitive  to w o r k / f a m i l y i s s u e s  able to r e t a i n employees but may a l s o  i n r e c r u i t i n g new employees.  be  As the m a j o r i t y  a t t r a c t e d to working w i t h i n an  that has demonstrated through t h e i r p o l i c i e s that they are i n t e r e s t e d Finally,  to  m a t e r n i t y leaves but  of women are c l e a r l y p l a n n i n g to work c o n t i n u o u s l y , most  due  failing  basis.  Organizations will  deal  in  flexible  working p o l i c i e s be  options  leave.  organizations w i l l either  action,  that  this  study  in assisting provided  flexibility,  to t h e i r employment.  organization  and support systems  working p a r e n t s .  evidence  the b i r t h of a c h i l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r s when given g r e a t e r  they w i l l  that  although  a woman's  priorities,  women remain v e r y much committed  Organizations, therefore,  w i l l i n g to be  responsive  to the w o r k / f a m i l y needs of t h e i r employees need not  experience  the high c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d  maternity  leave.  with turnover  following  72 Implications The  for F u r t h e r Research  primary l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s  r e s t r i c t e d to the p u b l i c s e c t o r .  study  was  that  it  A recommendation f o r  was  further  r e s e a r c h would be to compare r e t u r n r a t e s between p r i v a t e and public  sector  Another  employers.  comparison which may be r e v e a l i n g  examination of the d i f f e r e n c e and i n f l e x i b l e sick  i n r e t u r n r a t e s between  organizations.  A  comparison  leave and turnover r a t e s experienced  organizations  As  of  be  an  flexible  absenteeism,  by these two types of  would a l s o provide some much needed  i n f o r m a t i o n for o r g a n i z a t i o n s flexible  would  contemplating the  "bottom l i n e "  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  working c o n d i t i o n s . the v a r i a b l e s which were examined i n t h i s  restricted  to  information  further variables  such  and f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n comprehensive  as  available  personnel  were records,  number of c h i l d r e n , m a r i t a l  should  model of the  in  study  be  factors  tested  to  provide  which s i g n i f i c a n t l y  employment behavior f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n i t y  leave.  status a more  influence  73 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Akroyd, C . (1980). M a t e r n i t y leave and job p r o t e c t i o n . Research B u l l e t i n , 12, 18-35.  Labour  C h a b i n , M. (1983). H o s p i t a l supported c h i l d c a r e . American J o u r n a l of N u r s i n g , 83, 548-552. D a n i e l , W.W. (1980). M a t e r n i t y r i g h t s : London: P o l i c y Studies I n s t i t u t e . Daniel, W.W. employers.  The experience  of women.  (1981). Maternity r i g h t s : The experience London: P o l i c y Studies I n s t i t u t e .  Friedman, D. (1987). Work vs f a m i l y : War of the w o r l d s . A d m i n i s t r a t o r , 3_2(8), 36-40.  of  Personnel  Gaston, C . (1987). M a t e r n i t y and work l i f e : Career women's f i r s t pregnancies ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y , 1986). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 47 06-B. Gulack, R. (1984). Why nurses  leave n u r s i n g . RN, 46.,  32-37.  H a l l , W. (1986). The experience of women r e t u r n i n g to work a f t e r the b i r t h of t h e i r f i r s t c h i l d . Unpublished master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, Winnipeg. Hock, E . , Gnezda, J . T . & McBride, S . L . (1984). A t t i t u d e s toward employment and motherhood f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h of the f i r s t c h i l d . J o u r n a l of Marriage and the F a m i l y , 46, 425-429. Kamerman, S . B . (1980). M a t e r n i t y and p a r e n t a l b e n e f i t s and l e a v e s , an international review. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press.  74  Labour Canada. (1983). Commission of I n q u i r y Into p a r t - t i m e work (Catalogue No. L24-0978/83E). Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and S e r v i c e s .  Labour Canada. (1985). Maternity and child care leave (Catalogue No. L24-1208/84E). Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services. Magid, R. (1986). When mothers and f a t h e r s can h e l p . P e r s o n n e l , 63.(12), 50-56.  work: How employers  Morgan, C . K . & Hock, E . (1984). A l o n g i t u d i n a l study of p s y c h o s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g the c a r e e r p a t t e r n s of women with young c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l of Marriage and the F a m i l y , 46., 340-383. Mott, F . L . (1978). Women work and f a m i l y : Dimensions of i n American s o c i e t y . T o r o n t o : Lexington Books.  change  Mowday, R . , P o r t e r , L . & S t e e r s , R. (1982). Employee O r g a n i z a t i o n L i n k a g e s , The Psychology of Commitment, Absentee ism and Turnover. New York: Academic P r e s s . Robinson, P. (1987). Women's work I n t e r r u p t i o n s r e s u l t s of the 1984 f a m i l y h i s t o r y study ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada Catalogue No. 99-962). Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and S e r v i c e s . S p r u e l l , G. (1986). Business and Development J o u r n a l ,  p l a n n i n g for parenthood. 40.(8), 30-35.  Training  S t a t i s t i c s Canada. (1987). Women i n the w o r k p l a c e - s e l e c t e d data (Catalogue No. 71-534). Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and Services.  75  S t a t i s t i c s Canada. (1988). S t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t on the o p e r a t i o n of the unemployment insurance a c t (Catalogue No. 73-001). Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and S e r v i c e s . Symes, B. & Sheppard, L . (1984). J u g g l i n g a f a m i l y and a j o b . Ottawa: Labour Canada, Womens Bureau. 1  76 Appendix A M a t e r n i t y Leave P r o v i s i o n  29,402  British  -  B.C.  Legislation  Colombia—The L a w  765—12-83  PART 7 MATERNITY LEAVE [^[ 39,331]  Maternity leave  Sec. 51. (1) A n employee, on her written request supported by a certificate of a medical practitioner stating that the employee is pregnant and estimating the probable date of birth of the child, is entitled to a leave of absence from work, without pay, for a period of 18 consecutive weeks or a shorter period the employee requests, commencing 11 weeks immediately before the estimated date of birth or a later time the employee requests. (2) Regardless of the date of commencement of the leave of absence taken under subsection (1), the leave shall not end before the expiration of 6 weeks following the actual date of birth of the child unless the employee requests a shorter period. (3) A request for a shorter period under subsection (2) must be given in writing to the employer at least one week before the date that the employee indicates she intends to return to work and the employee must furnish the employer with a certificate of a medical practitioner stating that the employee is able to resume work. (4) W h e r e an employee gives birth or the pregnancy is terminated before a request far leave is made under subsection (1), the-employer shall, on the employee's request and on receipt of a certificate of a medical practitioner stating that the employee has given birth or the pregnancy was terminated on a specified date, grant the employee leave of absence from work, without pay, for a period of 6 consecutive weeks, or a shorter period the employee requests, commencing on the specified date. (5) Where an employee who has been granted leave of absence under this section is, for reasons related to the birth or the termination of the pregnancy as certified by a medical practitioner, unable to work or return to w o r k after the expiration of the leave, the employer shall grant to the employee further leaves or absence from work, without pay, for a period specified in one or more certificates but not exceeding a total of 6 consecutive weeks. • [jf 39,332]  Employer may require employee to take leave  Sec. 52. A n employer may require an employee to under section 51 where the duties of the employee cannot of the pregnancy and to continue the leave of absence certificate from a medical practitioner stating that .she is  [J] 39,333]  commence a leave of absence reasonably be performed because until the employee provides a able to perform her duties.  Employment deemed continuous  Sec. 53. T h e services of an employee who is absent from work in accordance with this Part shall be considered continuous for the purpose of sections 36, 37 and Part 5 and any pension, medical or other plan .beneficial to the employee, and the employer shall continue to make payment to the plan in the same manner as if the employee were not absent where (a)- the employer pays the total cost of the plan, or (6) the employee elects to continue to pay her share of the cost of a plan that is paid for jointly by the employer and the employee. [fl 39,334]  Reinstatement  S e c 54. (1) A n employee who resumes employment'on the expiration of the leave of absence granted i n accordance with this Part shall be reinstated in all respects by the employer in the position previously occupied by the employee, or in a comparable position, and with all increments to wages and'benefits to which the employee would have been entitled had the leave not been taken. •  77  765—12-83  E m p l o y m e n t Standards A c t  29,403  (2) W h e r e the employer has suspended or discontinued operations during the leave of absence granted under this Part and has not resumed operations on the expiry of the leave of absence, the employer shall, on resumption of operations and subject to seniority provisions in a collective agreement, comply with subsection (1). [fl 39,335]  Prohibition  S e c 55. (1) A n employer shall not (a) terminate an employee, or (6) change a condition of employment of an employee without the employee's written consent because of an absence authorized by this Part or because of the employee's pregnancy, unless the employee has been absent for a period exceeding that permitted under this Part. (2) T h e burden of proving that (a) the termination of an employee, or (6) a change in a condition of employment of the employee without the employee's written consent is not because of an absence authorized by this Part or because of an employee's pregnancy, is on the employer [fl 39,336]  Board's power  S e c 56. Where an officer is satisfied that an employer has contravened this Part, the officer may make one or more orders requiring the employer to do one or more of the following: (1983, c. 16. s. 27(a) & (&).) (a) comply with this P a r t ; (b) remedy or cease doing an act; (f) hire or reinstate a person and pay her any wages lost by reason of the contravention; (1983, c. 16, s. 27(c).) (d) pay a person compensation instead of reinstating her; (1983, c. 16, s.  27(d).)  .(<r) Repealed. (1983, c. 16, s. 2 7 ( 0 - ) (1983, c. 16, s. 27.) PART  8  EMPLOYEE PROTECTION [fl 39,337]  False  representations  S e c 57. A n employer shall not, by means of deceptive or false advertising or pretences respecting  representations,  (a) the availability of a position, (6) the nature of the work to be done, (c) the wages to be paid for the work, or (d) the conditions of employment induce, influence or persuade a person to become his employee or to undertake work or to make himself available for work. [fl 39,338]  I m p r o p e r treatment of employee  S e c 58. A n employer shall not Canadian L a b o u r L a w Reports  139,338  DOARD OF TRUSTEES  PRESIDENT / BDAFID SECRETARY Fundraismg  CHAIRMAN, MEDICAL AOVIS0RY  PUDLIC DELATIONS  Patient Inloimation-  C O M M I T T E E / C H I E F OF S T A F F  lelephones  4J M ro  VICE-PRESIDENT  J3  PLANNING b DEVELOPMENT  U  VICE-PRESIDENT OPERATIONS  VICE-PnESIOENT NUnsiNG  VICE-PnESIOENT MEDICINE  VICE-PRESIDENT ADMINISTRATIS  rH  m c o  X  +J  TJ  ro N  —( CO  r-  - C  <u a a  *H  c ro  tr> M  o  rH • ro -P  CAPITAL PLANNING  DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES  NUnSING A D M I N I S T R A T I O N  [l|iupnicnl  Ciiiiiic Services  Adminisnaiive Services  New CnniKucliOil  (yi C m Cinlie  Inclination Systems  Accreditation-Coordinator  Renovations  laboratory  Hulling Research  House Stall  Neuropil jliology  Quality Assurance  Medical Stall Appointments  Compensation & dentins  Radiology  Stall Development  Medical Stall liaison  Employee Health Unit  Medico legal  labour Relations  PROGRAM PLANNING  Vascular laboratory N U R S I N G SERVICES  PHYSICAL PLANT  Oualily ol C m Coordination  Power PUiil  Anaesthesia  Gcriatric/fan^y rractice/Palliative Care  Salely ServKtl  Audio Viinbulir Services  Medical/CCU/Neuioscicnces/Renal  Own Unit  telecommunications  Occupational Iherapy  O.R.s/P.AR.s/llypaibanc  Cardiac Care Unit  Onhopaedir.j/Psychiatry/Ophihalninlogy  Cardiac Surgery I.C.U./P.A.n.  Surgical/I.C.U./Cardiac Suijeiy/Duin  Cell Separator Unit  .  "  •. RESIDENCE  Physiotherapy Renal 1 ethnology Social Services Speech/language Pathology  s u p p o n T SEnvicES Biomedical Engineermg Ouilding Services  NURSING EDUCATION School ol Nursing  Gastruenteiulogy Clinic * Renal Unit  laundry b linen Services Printing Purchasing Slruei and Area Supply  FINANCE Accounts Payable Budget b Statistics Capital Arcimiiimg Gvneral Accounting Insurance Patients' Receivables Payiol  OTHEn S E R V I C E S Pastnial C m Sletila Supply  MEDICAL RECORDS SERVICES Admitting Clinical Appraisal Medical Recoids Services  Dtsinbutioii Services Food Services  Occupational Health b Salety  MEDICAL DIRECTORS' LIAISON  Intensive Can Uuu(i|  Psychology  EMPLOYEE RELATIONS  • Stalling 4 Planning _  Ernergency/Otifpaliciil/Diagnojlic  %  AUDIT ' Citeinal b Internal  P A T I E N T CATIE SEIWICES  Maintenance  Pharmacy  o  MEDICAL ADMINISTRATION  INFORMATION SYSTEMS Operations Systems Developmenl technical Support  EFFICIENCY E N H A N C E M E N T Value Ininiqvemenl Program  37.05 Unpaid Leave —Public Office Employees shall be granted unpaid leave of absence to enable them to run for elected public office and if elected, to serve their term(s) of office subject to the following provisions: (a) Employees seeking election in a Municipal, Provincial or Federal election shall be granted unpaid leave of absence for a period up to ninety (90) calendar days. (b) Employees elected to public office shall be granted unpaid leave of absence for a period up to five (5) years. Article 38 ' MATERNITY L E A V E 38.01 Pregnancy shall.not constitute cause for dismissal. Medical complications of pregnancy, including complications during an unpaid leave of absence for maternity reasons preceding the period stated by the Unemployment Insurance Act, shall be covered by sick leave credits providing the employee is not in receipt of maternity benefits under the Unemployment Insurance Act or any wage loss replacement plan. Employees shall be granted maternity leave of absence without pay. The duration of the maternity leave of absence before confinement and subsequent to confinement shall be at the option of the employee. Employees shall make every effort to give at least seven (7) days' notice prior to the commencement of maternity leave of absence without pay, and employees shall give at least seven (7) days' notice of their intention to return to 58  work prior to the termination of the leave of absence. If an employee is unable or incapable of performing her duties prior to the commencement of the maternity leave of absence without pay, the employee may be required to take unpaid leave of absence. . . . The Employer may require the employee to provide a doctor's certificate indicating the employee's general condition during pregnancy along with the expected date of confinement. Upon return to work, the employee shall continue in her former position without loss of perquisites accumulated up to the date of commencement of the maternity leave of absence without pay and subject to the provisions of Article 37.03. Effective January 20, 1983, leave of absence for maternity may be taken for a period not to exceed six (6) months. For the first twenty (20\ days of such leave, the employee shall be entitled to the benefits applicable to other- leaves of absence. For the balance of an.'eighteen (18) week period, i.e. eighteen (18) weeks less twenty (20) days, the employee shall be entitled to the maternity leave benefits set forth in the Employment Standards Act. The balance of a maternity leave shall be without pay or benefits Article 39 • ADOPTION L E A V E 39.01 Upon request, and having completed his/her initial probationary period, an employee-shall be granted leave of absence without pay for up to six (6) months following the adoption of a child. 59  IISA Arliclc 17 LEAVE —EDUCATION 17.01 Education leave granted by llie Employer to regular employees requesting such leave shall be in accordance with (lie following provisions: (a) The Employer shall grant one (I) day's education leave of absence with pay, subject to approval, for each normally scheduled work day', as posted, that an individual regular employee gives of his own time. Such educational leave of absence with pay is not to exceed four (4) days of Employer contribution per Agreement year. (b) Such leave and reasonable expenses associated with the leave will be subject to the approval of the Employer, and further, subject to the budgetary and operational restraints. Reasonable expenses for all such leaves will not exceed $300.00 per employee, per Agreement year. (c) Education leave will be utilized for courses that relate to the employee's profession, and may also be utilized to sit examinations for relevant professional courses.. (d) Additional unpaid leave for education purposes may be requested by employees. The Employer shall not be responsible for any expenses related to such unpaid leave. (e) Education leave is not accumulated from Agreement year to Agreement year. 17.02 Application for education leave shall be submitted to the Employer with as much lead lime as practical, with due consideration for the staffing requirements of the Employer. The employee shall be informed of the Employer's decision within a reasonable period of lime from the dale of submission. 17.03 A n employee shall be granted leave with pay to lake courses at the request of the Employer. The Employer shall bear the full cost of (he course, including tuition fees, laboratory fees, and course required books, necessary travelling and subsislancc expenses. -  Arliclc 18 L E A V E — M A T E R N I T Y AND ADOPTION  When an employee is incapable of performing her duties as evidenced by a medical certificate, cither before or after such eighteen (18) week period, then an additional leave of absence without pay shall be granted by the Employer. 18.02 Siclt Leave Provisions Medical complications of pregnancy shall be covered b y sick leave provisions including complications occurring during the unpaid leave of absence for maternity reasons preceding the period slated by the Unemployment Insurance Act. 18.03 Incapable of Performing Duties Pregnancy will not constitute cause for dismissal. If an employee is incapable of performing her duties prior lo the commencement of her maternity leave, she may be required by the Employer to take unpaid leave of absence. 18.0'l Doctor's Certificate The Employer may require an employee to provide a Doctor's certificate indicating the employee's general condition during pregnancy and the expected date of confinement. 18.05 R c l u n i lo Work , 'Upon return to work the employee will return lo her former previously occupied position, or in a comparable position, and without loss of benefits as required by the Employment Standards Act. 18.06 Adoption Leave Upon request, and having completed his/her initial probationary period, an employee shall be granted leave of absence without pay for up to twenty-six (26) weeks following (he adoption of a child. The employee shall furnish proof of adoption. Where both parents are employees of the Employer, the employees will decide which of them will apply for leave. 18.07 Notice Required Employees shall be required to give as much written notice as possible prior lo commcnccmcnl of maternity and/or adoption leave of absence without pay and at least thirty (30) day written notice of Ihe anticipated dale of their return.  18.01 Maternity Leave Regular employees will be granted eighteen (18) weeks leave of absence without pay for maternity leave purposes: and, subject to the operational requirements of the hospital. additional leave beyond eighteen (18) weeks to a maximum of twenty-six (26) weeks will be granted upon request. Such leave may commence eleven (II) weeks prior to the week in which her predicted date of confinement will occur or at any time thereafter at the request of the employee. In no case will an employee be required to return to work sooner than six (6) weeks following the birth of her child.  19.01 Accumulation Employees shall receive'1.5 working days (or portion (hereof) sick leave credit for each month (or portion thereof) of service and such sick leave credits, if not utilized, shall be cumulative lo a maximum of 156 working days.  76  27  Article 19 LEAVE —SICK  BCNU 37.02  (iii)  Notice  A n e m p l o y e e m a y request u n p a i d leave o f a b s e n c e for a n y p u r p o s e . R e q u e s t s f o r s u c h l e a v e o f a b s e n c e s h a l l be m a d e in w r i t i n g to (he D i r e c t o r o f N u r s i n g ( o r d e s i g n a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) , and m a y be g r a n t e d at the e m p l o y e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n . R e a s o n a b l e n o t i c e o f at least eight (8) d a y s s h a l l be g i v e n to " m i n i m i z e d i s l o c a t i o n o f staff. T h e e m p l o y e r s h a l l i n d i c a t e to (he e m p l o y e e , in w r i t i n g , (he a c c e p t a n c e o r r e f u s a l o f s u c h request w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e . 37.03  Increments  L e a v e o f a b s e n c e s h a l l not affect a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t s , w h e n g r a n t e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s a n d m a t e r n i t y l e a v e . ( R e f e r e n c e A r t i c l e 12: A n n i v e r s a r y Date and Increments.) A r t i c l e 38 LEAVE —MATERNITY, 38.01  (iv) ADOPTION  Maternity Leave  (a)  M e d i c a l complications of pregnancy, including complications d u r i n g an u n p a i d l e a v e , o f a b s e n c e f o r m a t e r n i t y r e a s o n s , p r e c e d i n g the p e r i o d stated b y the U n e m p l o y m e n t I n s u r a n c e A c t , s h a l l be c o v e r e d b y s i c k l e a v e c r e d i t s p r o v i d i n g (he e m p l o y e e is not i n r e c e i p t o f m a t e r n i t y benefits u n d e r the U n e m p l o y m e n t Insurance A c t or any wage loss replacement p l a n .  (b)  A r e g u l a r e m p l o y e e s h a l l be granted t w e n t y - s i x (26) w e e k s ' maternity leave o f absence without pay. S u c h leave m a y c o m m e n c e e l e v e n (II) w e e k s p r i o r to the w e e k in w h i c h her p r e d i c t e d w e e k o f c o n f i n e m e n t o c c u r s o r a n y time (hereafter at the' r e q u e s t o f the e m p l o y e e . In no case s h a l l an e m p l o y e e be r e q u i r e d to r e t u r n to w o r k s o o n e r than s i x (6) w e e k s f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h o r the t e r m i n a t i o n o f her p r e g n a n c y u n l e s s a s h o r t e r l i m e is r e q u e s t e d b y the e m p l o y e e and g r a n t e d b y the employer.  (c)  (i)  (ii)  /  F o r (he  first  t w e n t y (20)  w o r k days o f s u c h l e a v e  F a i l u r e to p r o v i d e a m e d i c a l c e r t i f i c a t e d e s c r i b e d h e r e i n s h a l l not h a v e the e f f e c t o f r e d u c i n g the l e a v e o f a b s e n c e p r o v i d e d f o r in A r t i c l e 3 8 . 0 1 (b) but s h a l l d i s e n t i t l e h e r to a f u r t h e r c o n t i n u a t i o n o f benefits d e s c r i b e d in (ii) a b o v e . T h e r e m a i n i n g t w o (2) w e e k s o f m a t e r n i t y arc s u b j e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s o f A r t i c l e 3 7 : L e a v e — G e n e r a l .  (d)  A n e m p l o y e e w h o r e s u m e s e m p l o y m e n t o n the e x p i r a t i o n o f her m a t e r n i t y l e a v e o f a b s e n c e s h a l l b e r e i n s t a t e d i n a l l r e s p e c t s i n the p o s i t i o n p r e v i o u s l y o c c u p i e d b y the e m p l o y e e , o r i n a c o m p a r a b l e p o s i t i o n a n d w i t h a l l i n c r e m e n t s to w a g e s a n d b e n e f i t s to w h i c h she w o u l d h a v e b e e n e n t i t l e d d u r i n g the first t w e n t y - f o u r (24) w e e k s o f the l e a v e . F o r the b a l a n c e o f a n e m p l o y e e ' s m a t e r n i t y l e a v e the p r o v i s i o n s o f A r t i c l e 3 7 : L e a v e — General apply.  (c)  A n e m p l o y e e - s h a l l m a k e e v e r y e f f o r t to g i v e f o u r t e e n (14) d a y s ' n o t i c e p r i o r to Ihc c o m m e n c e m e n t o f m a t e r n i t y l e a v e o f a b s e n c e , a n d al least f o u r t e e n (14) d a y s ' n o t i c e o f h e r i n t e n t i o n l o r e t u r n to w o r k p r i o r to the t e r m i n a t i o n o f the l e a v e o f absence.  .  (0  If f o r r e a s o n s o t h e r t h a n a n e m p l o y e e is i n c a p a b l e by a medical certificate, l e a v e , then an a d d i t i o n a l g r a n t e d b y the e m p l o y e r .  (g)  T h e e m p l o y e r m a y r e q u i r e the e m p l o y e e l o p r o v i d e a d o c t o r ' s c e r t i f i c a t e i n d i c a t i n g the e m p l o y e e ' s g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n d u r i n g . p r e g n a n c y a n d the e x p e c t e d date o f c o n f i n e m e n t .  (h)  The employer  the  e m p l o y e e s h a l l be e n t i t l e d to (he benefits u n d e r A r t i c l e 3 7 : Leave — General, F o r the b a l a n c e o f an e i g h t e e n (18) w e e k p e r i o d , i . e . e i g h t e e n (18) w e e k s less t w e n t y (20) w o r k d a y s , the s e r v i c e o f an e m p l o y e e w h o is o n m a t e r n i t y l e a v e s h a l l be c o n s i d e r e d c o n t i n u o u s f o r the p u r p o s e o f a n y p e n s i o n , m e d i c a l o r o t h e r p l a n b e n e f i c i a l to the e m p l o y e e , and the e m p l o y e r s h a l l c o n t i n u e to m a k e p a y m e n t to the p l a n s in the s a m e m a n n e r as i f the e m p l o y e e w a s not a b s e n t .  W h e r e an e m p l o y e e w h o has b e e n p a n t e d l e a v e o f a b s e n c e u n d e r this A r t i c l e i s , f o r r e a s o n s r e l a t e d to the b i r t h o r the t e r m i n a t i o n o f the p r e g n a n c y as c e r t i f i e d b y u m e d i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r , u n a b l e to w o r k o r r e t u r n to w o r k after the e x p i r a t i o n o f the l e a v e , as s t a l e d in (ii) a b o v e , the e m p l o y e r s h a l l grant to the e m p l o y e e f u r t h e r l e a v e s o f absence f r o m w o r k , without p a y , for a period specified in o n e o r m o r e c e r t i f i c a t e s but not e x c e e d i n g a total o f s i x (6) c o n s e c u t i v e w e e k s . T h e terms a n d c o n d i t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n (he a b o v e p a r a g r a p h s h a l l a p p l y .  s h a l l not  medical complications of pregnancy, o f p e r f o r m i n g h e r duties as e v i d e n c e d c i t h e r b e f o r e o r after h e r m a t e r n i t y l e a v e o f a b s e n c e w i t h o u t p a y s h a l l be  terminate  an e m p l o y e e or change a  c o n d i t i o n o f her e m p l o y m e n t b e c a u s e o f the e m p l o y e e ' s p r e g nancy or her absence for maternity reasons.  82 Appendix D P o s i t i o n s at Hire and Immediately P r i o r to the Position 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13 . 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19 . 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39 . 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47 .  General Duty Nurse A s s i s t a n t Head Nurse Head Nurse Instructor CIinician K i t c h e n Aide Clerk Cleaner P r a c t i c a l Nurse Medical Stenographer Clerk-Typist Nurses Aide Junior Clerk OR A s s t . SSD T e c h n i c i a n EEG T e c h n i c i a n Messenger Secretary/HEU Laundry Worker Nursing Unit C l e r k Medical Records T e c h n i c i a n Keypunch Operator Area Supply T e c h n i c i a n Food S e r v i c e Supervisor A c t i v i t y Aide Lab A s s t . T e c h n i c i a n Cardiology Technician Pharmacy T e c h n i c i a n Porter Admitting Clerk Timekeeeper S o c i a l Worker/HEU Medical T e c h n o l o g i s t 1 Medical T e c h n o l o g i s t 2 Medical T e c h n o l o g i s t 3 Medical T e c h n o l o g i s t 4 Medical T e c h n o l o g i s t 6 Radiology T e c h n i c i a n Occupational Therapist Dietitian S o c i a l Worker/ HSA Diagnostic Vascular Technician Health Records A d m i n i s t r a t o r Physiotherapist Supervisor/Excluded S e c r e t a r y / Excluded A s s i s t a n t Manager  M a t e r n i t y Leave  Percent Hire Prior 47 .6 47.6 1.3 .3 1.9 .3 .6 .6 .6 6.4 2.6 3.5 5.4 1.6 1.0 5.4 3.2 1.0 1.3 2.2 2.6 5.8 2.9 3.2 1.9 .6 .6 1.6 .6 .3 1.0 .6 1.0 1.6 1.0 1.3 2.2 .6 .6 .3 .3 .6 1.3 1.3 1.3 .6 .6 1.0 1.3 .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 5.8 2.9 .6 .3 1.9 .3 .6 .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 .6 .6 .3 .3 .3 .3 .3 2.6 2.6 .6 .6 .6  83 Appendix E Departments a t Hire and  Immediately P r i o r to the M a t e r n i t y Leave  Department 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17 . 18. 19 . 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27 . 28. 29 . 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.  Pathology Radiology Cardiac Services Nuclear Medicine P h y s i c a l Medicine Pharmacy Social Services Biomedical E n g i n e e r i n g Building Services Distribution Food S e r v i c e s Laundry Purchasing Printing Stores Area Supply S t e r i l e Supply Nursing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Nursing Development School of Nursing G e r i a t r i c Nursing C r i t i c a l Care Nursing Medical Surgical OR Nursing Resource Centre Medical A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Medical Records Accounting/Payroll Information Systems Executive O f f i c e s Admitting Psychiatry EEG Diagnostic Vascular Services  Percent Hire Prior 7.7 8.6 2.6 3.2 1.3 1.3 .3 .3 3.5 3.5 .3 .3 .6 1.0 .3 1.0 1.6 1.0 1.3 8.3 6.4 1.6 1.0 .3 .3 .3 .6 1.6 .6 1.9 1.3 .6 .6 .3 .6 5.1 5.4 5.8 9.9 13.1 13.4 18.5 18.5 7.3 11.8 11.5 1.3 .6 .3 2.6 2.2 .3 .3 .3 .6 .3 .3 .3 .6 1.0 .3 .3 .3 .3  84  Appendix F  DATA FORM DATA  COL NO.  1.  MATERNITY LEAVE #:  1-3  2.  AGE:  4-5  3.  EDUCATION:  4.  POSITION AT HIRE:  7-8  5.  STATUS AT HIRE:  9  6.  DEPARTMENT AT HIRE:  10-11  7.  STATUS ONE YEAR PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE:  12  8.  STATUS IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE:  13  9.  DEPARTMENT IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE:  14-15  10.  POSITION IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE:  16-17  11.  UNION/MANAGEMENT IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE:  18  12.  SALARY IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE:  19  (current and in years)  (highest level)  6  85  DATA 13.  MATERNITY LEAVE YEAR:  COL.NO. 20-21  14.. MATERNITY LEAVE PAY PERIOD:  22-23  15.  LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT PRIOR TO MATERNITY LEAVE: (years)  24-27  16.  AGE AT MATERNITY LEAVE:  28-29  17.  PREVIOUS MATERNITY LEAVE:  30  18.  EMPLOYMENT BEHAVIOUR FOLLOWING MATERNITY LEAVE:  31  19  TERMINATION EXPLANATION ON FILE FOR GROUP 1 AND 2:  32-33  20.  FOR GROUP 2, LENGTH OF TIME AT WORK PRIOR TO TERMINATION: (months)  34-37  21.  FOR GROUP 2, RETURNED TO FORMER POSITIONS:  38  1.  Yes  2.  No.  22.  STATUS TRANSFER:  23.  IF YES: 1. 2. 3.  1.' Yes  Regular f u l l - t i m e (RFT) Regular part-time (RPT) Casual  2.  No  39  40  86 - 3 -  '  DATA 25.  SECOND STATUS TRANSFER:  26.  IF YES: 1. 2. 3.  1.  Yes  2.  No  COL.NO. 45  46  Regular full-time (RFT) Regular part-time (RPT) Casual  27.  TRANSFER TO ANOTHER POSITION:  1.  Yes  28.  TRANSFER TO ANOTHER AREA:  1.  29.  FOR GROUP 1 AND 2 REHIRED:  .1.  30.  POSITION:  50-51  31.  Status:  52  32.  LENGTH OF TIME FOLLOWING TERMINATION:  53-56  33.  FOR GROUP 3, RETURNED TO FORMER POSITION:  57  1.  Yes  2.  2.  NO.  47  Yes  2.  No.  48  Yes  2.  No  49  No  34.  STATUS TRANSFER:  35.  IF YES: 1. 2. 3.  '  1. . Yes  Regular f u l l - t i m e (RFT) Regular part-time (RPT) Casual  2.  No  58  59  87  -4  -  DATA  COL.NO.  36.  FOR STATUS TRANSFER LENGTH OF TIME IN WEEKS FOLLOWING RETURN TO WORK: •  60-63  37.  SECOND STATUS TRANSFER:  64  38.  IF YES: 1. 2. 3.  1.  Regular f u l l - t i m e (RFT) Regular part-time (RPT) Casual  TRANSFER TO ANOTHER POSITION:  40.  TRANSFER TO ANOTHER AREA:  41.  CURRENT STATUS:  42.  2. No  65  39.  1. 2.  Yes  1.  1.  Yes  Yes  2. No  2. No  66  67  68  Active Maternity Leave  MATERNITY LEAVE:  1.  First  2. Second  69  88 Appendix G Interview L e t t e r of  Introduction  Dear My name i s Arliss Altman and I am a Senior S t a f f i n g and P l a n n i n g O f f i c e r i n Employee R e l a t i o n s . I am c u r r e n t l y working on my t h e s i s f o r a degree i n Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n at UBC and the t o p i c i s "Employment Behavior f o l l o w i n g M a t e r n i t y L e a v e . " I have c o l l e c t e d f o l l o w - u p data on 313 m a t e r n i t y leaves at the hospital taken between June, 1983 and May, 1986 and have randomly chosen f i v e women to i n t e r v i e w from t h i s sample. Your name was s e l e c t e d for t h i s group. The i n t e r v i e w should not take longer than one hour and the areas I w i l l be c o v e r i n g i n c l u d e reasons for e i t h e r t e r m i n a t i n g or remaining employed, c h i l d care arrangements, difficulties encountered i n r e t u r n i n g to work, the r o l e of p a r t - t i m e employment and ways i n which the h o s p i t a l c o u l d become a more s u p p o r t i v e working environment for new mothers. I would l i k e to s t r e s s that your name would be kept s t r i c t l y confidential. I w i l l be c o n t a c t i n g you w i t h i n the next week to d i s c u s s the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e t t i n g up an i n t e r v i e w . Your input would be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d and w i l l h o p e f u l l y r e s u l t i n some p o s i t i v e changes at the h o s p i t a l . I look forward to meeting with you. Yours t r u l y , A r l i s s Altman Senior S t a f f i n g O f f i c e r  89 Appendix H Interview  Questions  1)  What were your plans p r i o r to pregnancy r e g a r d i n g r a i s i n g a f a m i l y and employment?  2)  What were your plans r e g a r d i n g employment p r i o r to t a k i n g your m a t e r n i t y leave and what f a c t o r s d i d you take i n t o consideration?  3)  What were your major reasons for r e t u r n i n g to work or t e r m i n a t i n g your employment?  4)  If employed, what c h i l d - c a r e arrangements have you made and do they i n c l u d e your spouse? Are they s a t i s f a c t o r y ?  5)  What problems d i d you encounter i n r e t u r n i n g to work and what ongoing problems do you experience?  6)  What c o u l d the h o s p i t a l do to b e t t e r a s s i s t women with t h e i r r e t u r n to work? Should daycare be provided?  7)  Do you f e e l environment?  8)  How d i d you f i n d the m a t e r n i t y leave  that  the  hospital  has  been  a  legislation?  supportive  90 Appendix I Case H i s t o r i e s a)Susan Susan, a f u l l - t i m e head nurse of 41 years of age, employed at the h o s p i t a l degree i n n u r s i n g . has one c h i l d .  for eleven years and  has been  has a Bachelors  Susan has been married for twelve years and  Her husband i s a systems a n a l y s t and she  is  the  primary wage e a r n e r . Susan graduated i n 1970 and then worked i n a v a r i e t y hospitals  in different  c i t i e s as she wanted to t r a v e l .  of  She then  moved to Vancouver where she was p l a n n i n g to work for two years before going to A u s t r a l i a . time,  She met her future husband at  this  married and remained i n Vancouver.  Susan became a head nurse f o l l o w i n g her marriage and has remained i n t h i s  p o s i t i o n for ten y e a r s .  husband knew whether marriage,  N e i t h e r she nor her  they wanted c h i l d r e n .  After  they decided to have a c h i l d .  Susan's  plans at that p o i n t for combining a c a r e e r and  f a m i l y were to continue working f u l l - t i m e s i n c e her p o s i t i o n as a head n u r s e . general  nine years of  duty  nurse,  working p a r t - t i m e . purchased a  new  she  home  enjoyed  If she had been working as a  probably  The f a c t  she  would  have  continued  that she and her husband had j u s t  was a l s o  added  incentive  to  continue  working f u l l - t i m e but she s t r e s s e d that her primary motivator was that she enjoyed her  position.  91 Once Susan became pregnant,  her plans d i d not  r e g a r d i n g r e t u r n i n g to work f u l l - t i m e . pregnancy and had no d i f f i c u l t i e s t h i s p o i n t was the the b i r t h of her  inevitable  change  She enjoyed a  working.  healthy  Her o n l y concern at  lack of s l e e p which would  child.  During her m a t e r n i t y l e a v e ,  Susan's  i n t e n t i o n to r e t u r n to  work d i d not change because her c o l i c k y baby, which as stated  "was c r y i n g twenty hours a day and s l e e p i n g  caused her to be exhausted work. During the started  and look  forward  to  Susan  four",  r e t u r n i n g to  l a s t two weeks of her m a t e r n i t y leave the  to s l e e p a l i t t l e  once d u r i n g the  follow  e a r l i e r and began  waking up o n l y  night.  Before the baby was b o r n ,  Susan had planned to take only a  four and a h a l f month leave due to f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n s . concerned, the  full  regret  at t h a t p o i n t ,  s i x months.  She  t h a t she would l a t e r did  not  however,  regret  She was not  taking  experience  because the baby was c o l i c k y but d i d acknowledge  this  t h a t had  t h i s not been the case she would have enjoyed more time at Once  Susan r e t u r n e d to work, lack of s l e e p  problem.  The baby a l s o began to have ear  had to miss a l o t  of work.  neither  illnesses.  who  looks  days per y e a r ,  parents  c h i l d - c a r e arrangements after  infections  her  home. main  and Susan she  has  mainly due to her  She e x p l a i n e d t h a t she had no back-up because  her nor her husband's  Susan's  was  Since her r e t u r n to work,  missed approximately f i f t e e n baby's  baby  one other  child.  live  in Vancouver.  are a l i v e Susan  out  only  babysitter uses  this  92 babysitter  to take  pre-school.  She  continue  using  S a l l y may  now  that  feels  and  she  Sally  i s unsure a t this  i n any did  say  very  that  to  members and involved  her some  feels The  she  felt  that  her  of  very  environment.  t o have a t  return  t o work.  had  this  55%  being  Ideally, home one  extra  d o e s not  because more  the  say  secure  split  do up  have her  some  how  he  appreciation  often  Sally  feel She  difficulties  indication of  he  staff  of  her  had  how  work.  always  cooks d i n n e r  Susan goes t o a c o n f e r e n c e leaving  not  work among t h r e e  gave them a good a better  absence.  relayed  and  once a y e a r  a l o n e w i t h her housework  and  husband.  i s 55V45%  portion.  day.  prefer She  week-end  feel  that  of a l l t h e  other  flexible  did  her  She  S u s a n would  much i n d u r i n g She  her  She  did  h u s b a n d , Susan s a i d t h a t  comfortable  that  She  her  Sally.  to  should  l e a s t found  or d i r e c t o r r e s e n t e d  p o s i t i o n i s and  helpful.  three,  i s concerned  o v e r a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c h i l d - c a r e and  with  be  as  head n u r s e s She  When d i s c u s s i n g  takes care  w h e t h e r she  point  i s now  arrangements.  staff  work.  her  been v e r y  this  fortunate  good a b o u t  that  returning  who  need a more s t i m u l a t i n g  felt  way  toddler),  babysitter  adequate c h i l d - c a r e Susan  (her  t o work f o u r  finds herself  ten-hour days t r y i n g t o cram  including catching  two  days  with S a l l y  d o m e s t i c demands and  arrangement  until  Sally  at  up  on  her  i s enough  too  sleep. time  would p r e f e r least  to  goes  a to  kindergarten. S u s a n had  not  considered  approaching  the  h o s p i t a l about  this  93 flexible  arrangement.  had requested  more  Her reason flexible  scheduling  Hospital administration f e l t that they  would  arrangements.  have  a  Susan f e l t  was t h a t another head nurse  that  was  rejected.  i f they granted t h i s  flood  of  requests  for  t h a t the h o s p i t a l has been  with s c h e d u l i n g as compared to other however,  and  facilities.  request  special inflexible  She  stressed,  t h a t her d i r e c t o r s had been s u p p o r t i v e when she had  been away for S a l l y ' s  i l l n e s s e s and added t h a t  i f they had not  been she probably would have looked for another When we d i s c u s s e d  job.  how the h o s p i t a l c o u l d be more s u p p o r t i v e ,  Susan f e l t  that there should be more p a r t - t i m e  especially  for women with young c h i l d r e n .  opportunities it  is  very f r u s t r a t i n g not to have enough time with them and t h a t  it  i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t when they become  ill.  She s a i d that  She knows a number of  head nurses who would p r e f e r a shortened work week and f e e l s the h o s p i t a l should review t h i s hospital other  has  lost  staff  situation.  due to t h e i r  She knows that  i n a b i l i t y to cope  the with  than the t r a d i t i o n a l f u l l - t i m e work week and r e l a y e d how  one head nurse more f l e x i b l e As f a r  had  left  after  her second  c h i l d to  find a  situation.  as o n - s i t e d a y c a r e ,  should provide t h i s  service.  i t were p r o v i d e d .  She added  Susan f e e l s that the  She that  would use such a s e r v i c e " i t would be  lunch with her c h i l d and at  l e a s t see  s a i d that  receive  i t was awful  to  t e l l i n g you that your c h i l d  is  hospital  n i c e to  her d u r i n g the day."  a call  from your  if have She  babysitter  i l l because you are t o r n whether  94 or not to go home.  If the c h i l d was o n - s i t e ,  assess the s i t u a t i o n .  She f e e l s  that the h o s p i t a l would b e t t e r the absenteeism she noted,  rate  day-care  is  retain staff  situation,  long  i f one were p r o v i d e d .  i t can take up to two of s t a f f  t h i s arrangement.  One s e r i o u s problem, to use the  months to get  on t i g h t  budgets  reimbursed.  s i m p l y cannot a f f o r d  Susan found them to be  very f a i r s a y i n g t h a t s i x months was an adequate it  future p l a n s .  provides a s u f f i c i e n t  but  had  changed  m a t e r n i t y leave d e c i d i n g to s t a y home. to the U . S . , where people  l e n g t h of  leave.  p e r i o d of time to assess  She r e c a l l e d how one of her s t a f f  r e t u r n to work p a r t - t i m e  Susan's  She  leave.  As f a r as the m a t e r n i t y p r o v i s i o n s ,  we are v e r y  special  Her husband works for the government and gets  reimbursed immediately for s p e c i a l  feels  overdue and  i n the c o n t r a c t to care for a c h i l d i n an emergency  s a i d that a l o t  She  least  as w e l l as decrease  was that when an employee a p p l i e s  leave clause  you c o u l d at  had intended  to  her mind d u r i n g her  She added t h a t  r e t u r n to work a f t e r  compared  a s i x week  leave,  fortunate. future plans are to continue working but her  would be to switch a t some p o i n t to p a r t - t i m e . she does not have d e a l with t h i s  enough time for h e r s e l f  She f i n d s  ideal that  and i n an attempt  problem now takes two weeks o f f  to  a year to be on  her own. As f a r as the e f f e c t Susan  would  the e x c e p t i o n  not  go  on her career of working p a r t - t i m e ,  back  to  general  duty  of Emergency as a p o s s i b i l i t y )  nursing  (with  but would p r e f e r  to  95 teach or be a s u p e r v i s o r . s u f f e r e d as a r e s u l t  She does not f e e l  t h a t her career  of having a c h i l d but acknowledges  has  that  she  has no immediate plans to go f u r t h e r as i t would mean r e t u r n i n g to u n i v e r s i t y to take a Masters Overall,  Susan  feels  degree.  she was r e a l i s t i c about what i t  going to be l i k e to r e t u r n to work with the e x c e p t i o n lack of s l e e p which continues  to be a problem.  i t may not have been as s e r i o u s As Susan i s experiences  her s i n c e  She f e e l s  that  had she been a younger mother.  in a supervisory r o l e ,  we d i s c u s s e d  her  i s always somewhat  She s a i d  of a problem and e s p e c i a l l y  for  her general duty nurses r e q u i r e up to two months  orientation.  Most  of her s t a f f  have  m a t e r n i t y leaves and Susan o f f e r s c r e a t e s two p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s that  of c h r o n i c  as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r with m a t e r n i t y l e a v e s .  that s t a f f i n g  was  i t has  worked  very  One h o s p i t a l  t h e i r absenteeism  from  their  job s h a r i n g arrangements  out of one f u l l - t i m e ) .  well  and  arrangements are the o n l y way to absenteeism.  returned  stressed  retain  staff  that and  In Texas, she r e c a l l e d ,  by 50% by o f f e r i n g over  sixty  (she  She says flexible reduce  had reduced different  rotations. In c o n c l u d i n g the  interview,  that she had her c h i l d a f t e r  Susan s a i d t h a t she was glad  travelling, trying different  and being married f o r a long time. c h i l d before  she had reached t h i s  probably would have r e g r e t t e d  it.  jobs  She f e e l s had she had a point  i n her l i f e ,  she  96 b) Mary Mary i s a 32 year o l d p a r t - t i m e d i e t i t i a n employed at the h o s p i t a l originally senior  hired  level  Married  as  a  years,  and has been  for approximately nine y e a r s . dietitian  dietitian  for f i v e  1,  but  she  Mary  employed as an e n g i n e e r .  1 and then  is  now a  She was  progressed  dietitian  to a  1 again.  has one c h i l d and her husband  Mary's e d u c a t i o n a l  is  background i s a  Bachelors degree i n Home Economics. When Mary contemplated to continue full-time  having a f a m i l y , her i n t e n t i o n s  working f u l l - t i m e .  At that time,  she  were  needed  the  income and was a l s o very i n v o l v e d i n her c a r e e r .  Mary became pregnant,  her i n t e n t i o n s  to continue working  time d i d not change due to f i n a n c i a l  When full-  necessity.  Looking back, Mary r e a l i z e d that she d i d not have a v e r y realistic  idea  motherhood. after  She  about  the  d i d not  the baby was b o r n .  although she  could not  b a s i c a l l y experienced  realities  of combining  t h i n k much  would change  She enjoyed a h e a l t h y  was  not  it,  life  pregnancy and she  no problems coping with work. she r e a l i z e d t h a t  returning  going to be as easy as she had thought.  found her r e t u r n to work q u i t e traumatic and about  i n her  " move q u i t e as q u i c k l y at work"  During Mary's m a t e r n i t y l e a v e , to work  work with  l e a v i n g the baby.  "I had not other  experienced  She guilt  She managed to cope because as she  option."  put  97 Mary was  still  and  used  the  hospital.  Having to,  She  a private  with  found  found  "express  herself  t h e baby.  work  Mary's  found  increasingly no t i m e off  the  child,  realized were  wanted  to  however, same  Her  f o l l o w i n g Mary was  suffered  was  at  more  found  herself  full-time  time  she  dietitian  complete  with  who  She  did of her  t o p u t a s much  effort  changed. was  becoming there  with  assisting  was  dropping with the  constantly fatigued.  f o r another  s i x months and  her  had s u b s i d e d child.  opportunities. had a  child  Her  There  were,  At the s i x months  o f r e t u r n i n g t o work.  Initiated  main  and she  began d i s c u s s i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y They  her  t o the b i r t h  helpful  and  pressures  i n the process  j o b - s h a r i n g arrangement.  to  up a t n i g h t  to switch to part-time.  part-time  the other d i e t i t i a n  being  as time  very  night  t h a t her f i n a n c i a l  another  That,  t h e baby and housework,  t h a t she wanted  spend  relaxing.  a t the b a b y s i t t e r .  had d e f i n i t e l y  also  up  working  no a v a i l a b l e  time,  frantic  a s she had p r i o r  husband  b u t she s t i l l  reasons  herself  Between  getting  Mary c o n t i n u e d then  home  scarce.  to relax.  housework,  a t work f r o m  i n time  Her p r i o r i t i e s at  and  washroom."  g e n e r a l l y not a b l e or w i l l i n g  work  s u p p l i e d by  h e r a s she d i d n o t have  In a d i r t y  very t i r e d  She a l s o  her j o b .  work  her a g r e a t d e a l of a n x i e t y .  p u t i n a s much o v e r t i m e  into  to  w h i c h was  t o be v e r y u s e f u l  milk  t o p i c k up h e r c h i l d  baby and was  and  this  room  room g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d  would have c a u s e d  Mary  not  t h e b r e a s t pump and p r i v a t e  a s she s a i d ,  said,  b r e a s t - f e e d i n g when she r e t u r n e d  Mary of a  d i s c u s s i o n s with  their  98 manager but i t was a long time final  approval.  time p o s i t i o n  Mary  i f this  (six  months)  before  they  would have looked elsewhere  obtained  for a p a r t -  arrangement had not been approved.  Casual  employment was not an o p t i o n for her as she wanted to maintain a steady income and b e n e f i t s as her husband i s  self-employed.  Mary uses a b a b y s i t t e r who l i v e s s i x b l o c k s from her home. The b a b y s i t t e r who i s  i s a grandmother who looks a f t e r  only ten months o l d .  one other c h i l d  Her c h i l d i s now 22 months o l d and  Mary i s concerned that a ten month o l d c h i l d i s not the stimulating  companion  because the b a b y s i t t e r great d e a l and one i n t e r a c t i o n .  her c h i l d .  She  is  also  concerned  cannot take her c h i l d out of the house a  t h a t her c h i l d may not be g e t t i n g She does, however,  person and acknowledges the arrangement.  for  most  l i k e the  enough one  to  b a b y s i t t e r as a  t h a t her c h i l d seems to be happy with  Mary had p r e v i o u s l y used another woman who  had two of her own young c h i l d r e n and took the c h i l d r e n on many outings.  There was problems with j e a l o u s y  Mary added t h a t ,  with b a b y s i t t i n g ,  in this  situation.  one has to be f l e x i b l e  as you  can never assume the s i t u a t i o n w i l l be permanent. Mary would have continued working even i f an i s s u e .  She  feels  finances  that she needs the outside  that she would be bored with  s t a y i n g at  plans to work p a r t - t i m e for another have another c h i l d i n the next few  home  four to f i v e years.  were not  interest  and  full-time.  She  years and  may  99 Mary's ongoing worry i s the b a b y s i t t i n g arrangement but she said that  i t was not  full-time. will  as s e r i o u s  She r e c o g n i z e s  as  i t had been  when she  however that c h i l d - c a r e  arrangements  become much more complicated and expensive when she has her  second  c h i l d since  she w i l l be l o o k i n g at two l e v e l s of  When we d i s c u s s e d environment, Mary  whether  said  that  her  department  when i t came to implementation she and s k e p t i c a l .  She found h e r s e l f  felt  was  initially  She f e e l s that there are a l o t  they were v e r y  h o s p i t a l but  that  hesitant  was not a v e r y p o s i t i v e  the one.  of mixed messages coming from the  She was t o l d by some people that  a t the  but  having to r e a l l y push for  arrangement and s a i d the experience  hospital.  care.  the h o s p i t a l was a s u p p o r t i v e  s u p p o r t i v e of her j o b - s h a r i n g arrangement as a concept  done  was  j o b - s h a r i n g was not  then proceeded to  f i n d examples  v a r i o u s departments which she brought to the a t t e n t i o n  of  in her  manager. The department i s now s u p p o r t i v e of the arrangement which Mary f e e l s  i s working out very w e l l .  week and three days the a  f o l l o w i n g week.  communications book and They f e e l  efficient.  The main problem i s  that  some  this  have  each o t h e r .  they c u r r e n t l y  She  has  works two days  The two d i e t i t i a n s  developed forced  new forms to  them  is  spent  to  become  use  assist more  f i n d i n g the time to o v e r l a p and  meet only one day per month.  e x t r a time  one  keeping  communicate to one another a l l that  is  Mary acknowledged  records  happening.  i n order to  100 Mary f e e l s that the h o s p i t a l should d e f i n i t e l y s i t e day care and she would have found feeding.  i s a member of the d a y - c a r e committee.  o n - s i t e day-care  i d e a l when  O n - s i t e d a y - c a r e would not,  d e c i s i o n to t r a n s f e r to p a r t - t i m e . hospital  should  provide on-  provide  more  however,  She a l s o part-time  o p p o r t u n i t i e s as w e l l as f l e x i b l e  she was  found her  definitely  six  breast-  have a l t e r e d her feels  and  that  scheduling.  month leave  to  be  satisfactory  adequate.  She  have found e i g h t e e n weeks to be i n s u f f i c i e n t .  amount of UIC was a l s o adequate  the  job-sharing  Mary found the m a t e r n i t y leave p r o v i s i o n s to be and  She  would The  p r i m a r i l y due to the savings  she  and her husband had accumulated, c)  Carol Carol  nursing a half  is  32 years of age,  diploma years.  and  She  a  general duty nurse with a  has worked at the h o s p i t a l  has  been  married f o r nine y e a r s ,  c h i l d and i s c u r r e n t l y pregnant with her second. the primary wage earner and i s  for e i g h t and  Her husband  try  different  areas  commitments a l t e r e d her p l a n s .  of  nursing  but  peace  her  additional  stress.  family  She had c o n s i d e r e d a head nurse  p o s i t i o n p r i o r to her m a t e r n i t y leave but changed her mind the b i r t h of her baby.  is  self-employed.  F o l l o w i n g g r a d u a t i o n , C a r o l wanted to work i n the corps and  has one  She decided that she d i d not want  after the  101 Prior  to t a k i n g her m a t e r n i t y l e a v e ,  C a r o l had decided  that  she wanted to work p a r t - t i m e f o l l o w i n g her r e t u r n to work.  She  wanted to spend  and  working  c a s u a l was not an  maintain decided  as much time as p o s s i b l e  her at  alternative  s e n i o r i t y and b e n e f i t s , the time that  they  time,  she  she  did  and  not  work f u l l - t i m e .  Her  when her husband resumed working f u l l - t i m e ,  for  wanted  to  her husband had  want  a  full-time  one of them would have  She continued working f u l l - t i m e  part-time.  baby  As there were no p a r t - t i m e o p p o r t u n i t i e s at  r e t u r n e d to  part-time.  the  because she  b a b y s i t t e r and, i n order to a v o i d t h i s , work p a r t - t i m e .  with  husband  the  worked  f o r a year and t h e n , she t r a n s f e r r e d  to  She s t a t e d f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y was her major reason  r e t u r n i n g to  work, e s p e c i a l l y  when her husband  was  only  working p a r t - t i m e . As f a r as c h i l d - c a r e arrangements,  C a r o l ' s husband babysat  when he was p a r t - t i m e but she now r e l i e s  on her mother.  used to use her neighbor but has d i s c o n t i n u e d t h i s  felt  very uncomfortable at f i r s t  to be d i f f i c u l t  with v e r y l i t t l e activities.  free  i n that  leave,  about l e a v i n g her baby but  s a i d t h a t these f e e l i n g s q u i c k l y s u b s i d e d . full-time  She  arrangement.  When C a r o l returned to work f o l l o w i n g her s i x month she  She found working  i t was t i r i n g l e a v i n g her  time for housework,  the baby and  leisure  She s a i d that having her husband at home p a r t - t i m e  was a tremendous help to her d u r i n g t h i s  to  period.  C a r o l a l s o f e l t very d i s o r i e n t e d when she r e t u r n e d to work as the o p e r a t i n g rooms (where she worked) had moved and she  102 had switched  to a g e n e r a l duty nurse p o s i t i o n  from an in-charge  position. C a r o l ' s ongoing has t o g e t h e r .  problem  i s the  lack  of time her f a m i l y  She works on her husband's days o f f .  The baby  seems happy with the b a b y s i t t i n g arrangement and she i s p r o b a b l y for the best t h a t she time. is  She does, however,  find  p a r t of working p a r t - t i m e  feels  i s not with the baby  it  full-  i t d i f f i c u l t to be o n - c a l l which i n the o p e r a t i n g room.  C a r o l f e e l s t h a t the h o s p i t a l has been s u p p o r t i v e and her s u p e r v i s o r has been accomodating with her s h i f t s . permanent  afternoons  as i t allows  b a b y s i t t i n g arrangements. still  some  She does f e e l  consistency  with  that the h o s p i t a l c o u l d  provide more p a r t - t i m e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and has heard from a  l o t of s t a f f position. positions still  her  She now works  that  it  is d i f f i c u l t  She acknowledges  to get a  t h a t the  i s turnover  part-time  s i t u a t i o n with p a r t - t i m e  has improved s l i g h t l y s i n c e  f e e l s that there  suitable  her m a t e r n i t y leave  because  of  but  t h i s problem.  She a l s o f e e l s t h a t an o n - s i t e d a y - c a r e would be very h e l p f u l especially  if  i t was a twenty-four  have found a d a y - c a r e v e r y u s e f u l  hour s e r v i c e .  She would  i f she had continued working  full-time. C a r o l ' s future plans are to continue working p a r t - t i m e f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h of her next baby. are i n s c h o o l , definitely  she  may  return  continue working.  to  Once her c h i l d r e n day  shift  but  She plans to remain at  will the  103 h o s p i t a l as  it  i s a f a m i l i a r working environment.  She would not  want the upheaval of a work change as her f a m i l y l i f e  is  c u r r e n t l y her main p r i o r i t y . Carol fair.  found the m a t e r n i t y  She found the  her s a t i s f a c t o r y UIC b e n e f i t s  leave  legislation  to be long enough  c h i l d - c a r e arrangements.  for the  In c o n c l u d i n g the  full  to be  six  extremely  p r i m a r i l y due  to  She would have l i k e d  months.  interview,  C a r o l s a i d t h a t her t r a n s i t i o n  back to work was r e l a t i v e l y smooth mainly due to f a m i l y s u p p o r t . She a l s o f e e l s that n u r s i n g i s an e s p e c i a l l y combining  good p r o f e s s i o n  for  work with motherhood as compromises can u s u a l l y be  achieved at the workplace. d)  Sheila Sheila,  a t h i r t y - f o u r year o l d , excluded s u p e r v i s o r ,  been an employee at the h o s p i t a l been married f o r f i v e wage e a r n e r .  years,  for twelve y e a r s .  She has  has two c h i l d r e n and i s the  Her husband a l s o works at the  commencing employment at the h o s p i t a l .  j u s t seemed to  She decided to submit an a p p l i c a t i o n when  the p o s i t i o n became a v a i l a b l e  and was the s u c c e s s f u l  She had planned to take an ambulance d r i v e r s ' course  for  on the c o m p e t i t i o n .  seven y e a r s .  since  She d i d not o r i g i n a l l y  p l a n to become a s u p e r v i s o r and as she s a i d , " i t  not s u c c e s s f u l  primary  hospital.  S h e i l a has been working i n the same department  work out t h a t way."  has  applicant. i f she  She has been i n the  was  position  104 When S h e i l a f i r s t  got m a r r i e d , she and her husband knew that  they wanted c h i l d r e n but they d i d they  were  going  responsibilities. feel  to  combine  When S h e i l a became pregnant,  with  necessity,  other  following a maternity  take a f i v e  carefully  working  Due to f i n a n c i a l  that she had any options  full-time  not  Sheila  d i d not  than to continue  working  leave. she decided that she would  month m a t e r n i t y leave and arranged to leave  she could not have l e f t  how  child-care  baby with her mother when she returned to work. if  consider  the  She s a i d  that  her c h i l d with her f a m i l y or c l o s e  f r i e n d s she would have c o n s i d e r e d q u i t t i n g her job and l o o k i n g after with  other c h i l d r e n at her home r a t h e r than l e a v i n g her c h i l d "strangers."  Sheila's complicated  c h i l d - c a r e arrangements following  became much more  the b i r t h of her second c h i l d .  She now  leaves her four year o l d son with her s i s t e r and leaves her eleven month o l d baby with her s i s t e r - i n - l a w few b l o c k s  from her  sister.  When S h e i l a returned to work f o l l o w i n g she  found o r g a n i z i n g  She i s s t i l l at  who l i v e s a  her m a t e r n i t y  the c h i l d r e n in the morning very  constantly  t i r e d but f e e l s f o r t u n a t e  l e a s t leave her c h i l d r e n with  t h a t she  ideal.  She f e e l s  from t h i s s e r v i c e  If the h o s p i t a l  can  provided t h i s  that  and that a  number of employees would c o n s i d e r working f u l l - t i m e to p a r t - t i m e  difficult.  family.  S h e i l a would f i n d o n - s i t e daycare many employees would b e n e f i t  leaves,  service.  as  opposed  105 Sheila's  husband i s very s u p p o r t i v e and helps with c a r i n g  for the c h i l d r e n and p r e p a r i n g meals. off  They have d i f f e r e n t  days  which means that she o n l y r e q u i r e s c h i l d - c a r e three days per  week.  Her main f r u s t r a t i o n i s t h a t  they have very l i t t l e  time  together as a f a m i l y . S h e i l a enjoys  her p o s i t i o n but sometimes f e e l s t h a t  would l i k e more t i m e w i t h her c h i l d r e n , t h a t the  quality  she feels,  of the time t h a t she spends  s u p e r i o r when working than i f she stayed home S h e i l a would f i n d would  enjoy  however,  with them may be full-time.  i t d i f f i c u l t to be at home f u l l - t i m e  working  part-time.  She  d i s c u s s i n g t h i s with her s u p e r v i s o r . supervisor  she  has  never  considered  She added t h a t the  other  i n the department w i l l be r e t i r i n g i n the near  and she  i s unsure  whether  this  supervisor  whether  S h e i l a w i l l remain the s o l e  but  future  w i l l be r e p l a c e d or  supervisor.  With regard to the h o s p i t a l being a s u p p o r t i v e  environment,  S h e i l a f e e l s that they have been reasonably s u p p o r t i v e with both her m a t e r n i t y l e a v e s . resentment  She  did  not  when she r e t u r n e d to work.  feel  t h a t there was any  S h e i l a f e e l s the  should provide more p a r t - t i m e o p p o r t u n i t i e s  and  job-sharing  arrangements and added that the h o s p i t a l would b e n e f i t t r a i n e d people would be Sheila  hospital  as more  retained.  found the m a t e r n i t y leave l e g i s l a t i o n  adequate  would have l i k e d a longer p a i d leave as she took  shorter  because of  financial  considerations.  but leaves  106 All work  of the s t a f f  following  staffing quite  in S h e i l a ' s  their  department have r e t u r n e d to  maternity leaves.  than  minor  problems, S h e i l a f e e l s that the department has coped  well.  As f a r as future career p l a n s , to take some computer courses in  Other  her  present  children it for her i t  S h e i l a f e e l s t h a t she needs  but would f i n d t h i s  circumstances.  i s very d i f f i c u l t  She  feels  to progress  c h i l d r e n become  long-term  plans  that  with  young  i n a c a r e e r and that  i s simply not a p r i o r i t y at t h i s  has not c o n s i d e r e d  very d i f f i c u l t  for  point her  i n time.  She  c a r e e r when her  older.  In c o n c l u d i n g the  interview,  S h e i l a s a i d that she  t h a t her c h i l d r e n are growing up q u i c k l y and t h a t she c o n t i n u a l l y s t r u g g l i n g with her conscience  about the  finds is little  time she has to spend with them, e)  Irene Irene,  thirty-four  a g e n e r a l duty nurse with a n u r s i n g d i p l o m a , years of age and had been employed at the  three and a h a l f years p r i o r to her f i r s t m a t e r n i t y  is  hospital leave.  She d i d not r e t u r n to work f o l l o w i n g her second m a t e r n i t y leave but was r e h i r e d one year a f t e r  t e r m i n a t i n g her employment  a permanent p a r t - t i m e general duty nurse. for seven years and has three c h i l d r e n .  as  She has been married Her husband i s  the  primary wage e a r n e r . When Irene got m a r r i e d ,  her plans were to continue working  f o l l o w i n g the b i r t h of her f i r s t c h i l d but to q u i t a f t e r  she  107 had her second. children  She had always  thought that once she had  she would l i k e to s t a y home and be a f u l l - t i m e  As she s a i d ,  mother.  "I guess I am not a modern woman."  P r i o r to I r e n e ' s f i r s t  pregnancy, she was p l a n n i n g to  r e t u r n to work f u l l - t i m e due to f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y .  However,  f o l l o w i n g her r e t u r n to work, she decided that she wanted transfer She  said  to  p a r t - t i m e but  that  if  she  employment at that time her second Irene  maternity feels  there were no  had she  positions  to  available.  been  able  to  secure  part-time  would  not  have  quit  following  leave.  t h a t she was r e a l i s t i c about what i t was  going  to be l i k e to combine working with motherhood but added that was f o r t u n a t e  because her mother took care of her c h i l d .  found working f u l l - t i m e time she had l e f t  difficult  because of the  with her husband.  She f e l t  time would be l e s s h e c t i c and decided that  very  she  She little  that working p a r t -  i t was  financially  feasible. I r e n e ' s main reason for q u i t t i n g work f o l l o w i n g her  second  m a t e r n i t y leave was to spend more time with her c h i l d r e n . felt  that  the  routine  children  and  full-time  positions  available  would work  She  become too d i f f i c u l t with two and  there  were no p a r t - t i m e  i n the o p e r a t i n g room at that t i m e .  She  added that when she took her second m a t e r n i t y leave there were f o u r t e e n nurses t h a t  went on leave as w e l l  r e t u r n e d because of the  and o n l y a  lack of p a r t - t i m e o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  few She  s a i d t h a t the OR i s a high pressure area which i s a f u r t h e r  108 d e t e r r a n t to r e t u r n i n g to work.  The o p e r a t i n g room, she  said,  has f i n a l l y acknowledged the demand for p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s the s i t u a t i o n has Irene  changed.  decided one year f o l l o w i n g her t e r m i n a t i o n t h a t  wanted to r e t u r n to work for f i n a n c i a l reasons a week-end p o s i t i o n .  she  i f she c o u l d  She had been l o o k i n g a f t e r  her home and had found i t extremely t i r e s o m e . secure  and  find  children in  She was able  to  a p a r t - t i m e week-end p o s i t i o n as a general duty nurse  Admitting and i t l e s s pressure  i s working out extremely w e l l  than with a f u l l - t i m e  taken a t h i r d m a t e r n i t y l e a v e .  as there  position.  She  For her c h i l d - c a r e  is  has  in far  since  arrangements,  Irene uses her mother or a f r i e n d i f her husband i s working. Irene  f e e l s t h a t the h o s p i t a l has been f a i r l y  She was v e r y i l l d u r i n g two of her pregnancies was v e r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  She  disappointed, employment Irene  though,  and the  was a l s o able to  d u r i n g her second pregnancy which when she  was could  hospital  change  helpful. not  supportive.  She  secure  shifts was part-time  i n the o p e r a t i n g room. f e e l s that the primary way i n which the  hospital  c o u l d be more s u p p o r t i v e would be to provide o n - s i t e d a y - c a r e . She s a i d that t h i s working f u l l - t i m e .  would have been very h e l p f u l when she  She i s c o n t i n u a l l y amazed t h a t such a l a r g e  f a c i l i t y does not provide t h i s Irene especially  service.  found the m a t e r n i t y leave l e g i s l a t i o n the  was  extended  to be  sufficient  leave provided by the c o n t r a c t .  She  109 took a four month leave with her f i r s t  child,  a s i x month leave  with her second and a four month leave with her I r e n e ' s future plans are to work p a r t - t i m e she  i s c u r r e n t l y working night s h i f t ,  to afternoons  at some p o i n t  i n the  third. indefinitely.  she would l i k e to  future.  transfer  She would l i k e  continue at the h o s p i t a l as she enjoys working i n a f a m i l i a r work environment.  As  to  

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