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Integrating forestry and wildlife management through forest management planning in British Columbia Niezen, Albert H. 1989

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INTEGRATING FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT THROUGH FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by ALBERT H . NIEZEN  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F  T H E REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR T H E DEGREE O F O F SCIENCE  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  Community and Regional Planning  We  accept this thesis as  conforming  to the required standard  THE  UNIVERSITY  O F BRITISH  April  •  COLUMBIA  1989  Albert H . Niezen,  1989  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at The University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Community  and  Regional Planning  The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: April  1989  ABSTRACT  Since  the restructuring Forests  and enactment  Ministry  of  has  Planning  as a strategic  placed  of forestry  increased  level of planning  legislation  emphasis  to achieve  on  by  localized, various basis.  resource  tactical forest  The  attempts  managers  planning  resources  thesis  the  are not well  needs  examines  to determine  that  how  broad  they  IRM  can be linked  stated goal of  implications  understood  fields,  Management  place as a result of the  and  to be done on a more  the two  Forest  its broadly  Integrated Resource Management (IRM). This has taken recognition  in 1979, the B.C.  that  of the  planning  more  for the  comprehensive, proactive  and  strategic  to enable  planning, and  effective  planning for  forestry and wildlife resource management.  Criteria  identified  to processes Three one  as being essential for effective IRM  for forestry  management  are outlined, then applied  and wildlife integration through  units - two government  corporate managed Tree Farm  managed  a case  Timber  License - within the Nelson  study  Supply  approach. Areas and  Forest Region are  examined.  The  Ministry of Forests has made and continues to make significant advances in  facilitating Management delivery  forestry  Planning.  Yet some  of integration  integration hierarchy  integrated  mechanism  and  management  serious weaknesses  at the field across  wildlife  level.  disciplinary  Foremost  lines  through  of the process is the lack  hinder the  of an overall  and within the existing  of the Ministry of Forests. The lack of Regional plans having  ii  Forest  planning broadly  based  IRM  units, in addition to the lack of clearly defined policies and explicit  philosophy the  of land use, has meant that the integration of forestry and wildlife at  Forest  context.  Management  Another  objectives resource  at  Planning  critical  the  weakness  Forest  management  level  is the lack  Management  design.  is being  This  undertaken of clearly  Planning  factor,  level  coupled  without  the needed  defined, quantitative  to  provide  with  the  guidance to  lack  of  formal  monitoring, has meant that the Ministry's potential for adaptive management  with  regard to cause and effect relationships is seriously compromised.  The  groundwork  among  the gains  between  made  the Ministry  transcend  Overall  for effective as  IRM a  planning  result  of Forests  is an  has been  laid  increased  and Ministry  however. Prominent  level  of communication  of Environment  on  issues  that  the sectoral boundaries.  the  integration  Management Planning  of forestry  and  wildlife  management  is in a state of transition but with  significant deficiencies, the potential for effective IRM  through  Forest  the existence of some  planning  has not yet been  met.  Several recommendations to remedy existing deficiencies are offered. Most essential is and  the need  to improve  to translate these  direction  through  into regional plans  alternatives  at the Forest  Management  importance  of all criteria  for effective  address all facets of the process  clearly  policies  and objectives  that enable the evaluation of multiple  Planning IRM  level. The inter-relatedness and  planning  concurrently and  iii  defined  underscores  continuous^'.  the need to  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Abstract  ii  List of Figures  vi  Acknowledgements  vii  I. I N T E G R A T E D F O R E S T R E S O U R C E M A N A G E M E N T  IN  B.C  A. Purpose and Approach B. Background to Integrated Resource Management 1. Historical Development of IRM Concepts in North 2. The Evolution of IRM Policy in B.C C. Rationale for IRM Planning 1. Process Oriented Rationale for IRM 2. Product Oriented Rationale for IRM D. Forestry/Wildlife Interactions E. Current Approaches to IRM in B.C F. Strategic Planning as the Key Level for IRM in B.C 1. Eras in Strategic Planning G. The Link Between Strategic Planning and IRM  1  America  II. I N S T I T U T I O N A L A R R A N G E M E N T S FOR I N T E G R A T E D R E S O U R C E MANAGEMENT A. Organizations, Policies and Processes 1. Environment and Land Use Committee 2. Ministry of Forests 3. Ministry of Environment 4. Interministerial Committees 5. Strengths & Weaknesses of Institutional Arrangements B. Forest Management Planning 1. T S A s and T S A Planning 2. T F L s and T F L Planning 3. Strengths and Weaknesses of Forest Management Planning III. CRITERIA FOR  EVALUATING  IRM  2 6 .... 6 11 20 22 23 24 26 28 33 37  40 40 41 42 48 49 50 53 55 63 .. 68 73  IV. S T U D Y R E S U L T S A. Study Areas 1. Golden T S A 2. Cranbrook T S A 3. Crestbrook Forest Industries T F L B. The Interviews C. Study Results According to Criteria 1. Clear, Quantified Objectives 2. Hierarchical Planning Framework 3. Shared, Cooperative Planning 4. Meaningful Public Participation 5. Flexibility 6. Adequate Data Base iv  #14  81 83 83 84 85 86 87 87 91 94 101 107 112  7. Commitment to Planning 8. Monitoring  120 124  V. E V A L U A T I O N O F R E S E A R C H R E S U L T S A. Clear, Quantified Objectives B. Hierarchical Planning Framework C. Shared, Cooperative Planning D. Meaningful Public Participation E. Flexibility F. Adequate Data Base G. Commitment to Planning H. Monitoring VI. C O N C L U S I O N S A N D  RECOMMENDATIONS  127 127 132 137 143 148 151 156 162 165  BIBLIOGRAPHY  175  Appendix  1  185  Appendix 2  187  v  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Ministry of Forests Planning Framework  38  Figure 2: T S A  60  Planning Process  Figure 3: The Nelson  Region  82  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would  like to express a sincere appreciation to my  for providing me and very  for accepting much  Victoria  helpful guidance throughout the preparation  with  indebted  for willingly  this thesis. A who  with  patience,  the modifications  to the respondents providing  assistance  and/or  that  in the Nelson  thoughtful  final thanks go to many  contributed  supervisor, Julia  took  support  Forest  preparation.  vii  people - colleagues at  various  of this thesis  place. I am  insights and valuable other  Gardner,  stages  Region  also  and in  information for and friends of the thesis  I. I N T E G R A T E D In  British  Columbia,  FOREST RESOURCE MANAGEMENT integrated  programs have evolved through changing through  resource  management  change in political philosophy and through and  officials.  Thus  (IRM)  and  planning  a complex interaction of government agencies with  needs and priorities for resource use. IRM  agencies  IN B . C .  has taken on different forms interpretation by  the use of natural  resources  implementing  in B.C.  has been  tempered by a collectivity of government agencies, each having its own  legislative  mandates, philosophies and administrative styles. These factors have combined to give  British  Columbia  its own  distinct  approach  to  integrated  resource  has  taken  different  management and planning.  IRM,  as  a  strategy  to  attend  to  resource  issues,  on  interpretations, but can be described as:  A decision-making process whereby all resources are identified, assessed and compared before land use or resource management decisions are made. The decisions themselves may be multiple or single use within a given area... The application of integrated resource management results in a regional mosaic of land uses and resource priorities which (should) reflect the optimal allocation and scheduling of resource uses. (B.C. Ministry of Forests and Lands, 1988).  Considerations awareness  of resource  that  components  the  which  integration  environment  form  a  complex  have  is  been  comprised  web.  advanced of  through  the growing  interdependent  ecosystem  It is not possible to implement  a  strategy of single use without having an effect on other resources or use of the same  resource  coordination planning  and  for different balancing  framework  and  purposes of  (Tysdal,  natural  requires  resource  the 1  1973). uses  consideration  Thus  IRM  through of  a  numerous  involves  a  multi-tiered legitimate  2 interests.  In British Columbia, planning for the integration of forestry and has  received attention particularly because the province has  productive timber province  or  land and  territory  in  (Forestry  Canada,  coupled  with  Wildlife  Group,  the  Hence,  forestry-wildlife uses often elicits emotionally  charged  practices which complicate  planning  committees,  improved  protocol  agreements,  and  cooperation  and  communication  that  most  other  of  planning  for  of  controversies over  information  mechanisms between  have  forestry  the  integrated land  efforts to resolve conflicts. In B.C.,  methods  other  fact  any  depend to some extent on forest  1987).  decisions and  a greater expanse of  a greater diversity of wildlife species than  province's wildlife species are forest dwelling and cover  wildlife resources  sharing,  all been  and  wildlife  use joint  development  used  of  to  improve  agencies  through  Forest Management Planning.  A.  PURPOSE  This  AND  APPROACH  thesis examines  Management Planning "Is  the  carried  is "What  planning?" The strategic  level  of  forest  resource  - in the context of IRM,  integration of forestry  successfully question  one  out are  and  through the  wildlife Forest  appropriate  purpose of this study  integrated forestry-wildlife  major strengths, weaknesses and  and  resource  planning  B.C.  - Forest  poses the research question management  Management decisions to  in  Planning?"  be  made  at  in B.C. A this  being  subsidiary level  of  therefore is to evaluate the effectiveness of  resource  planning  in B.C.  and  highlight  innovations of the process. Effectiveness can  the be  defined as the degree to which a program meets the purpose(s) for which it was  3 established  (Weiss,  fisheries and  The  thesis  1972).  Wildlife  consists  of  and  six  chapters. In  strategic  planning  discussion of the concepts and management in North the  approaches  Chapter  America.  different  provides  Management  The  political  a  are  planning in B.C. Timber  These  Supply  to  mean  both  reviewed,  both  integrated  beginning  resource  with  a  brief  of  involved,  the  framework  arrangements,  specifically  or Tree  in B.C. and  is also described, what  the  current  IRM.  arrangements  Area  are  1  evolution of IRM  Institutional  reviewed  Chapter  philosophies  discussion  Planning.  implemented,  and  thesis  circumstances that gave rise to integrated resource  are in striving towards  2  in this  wildlife resources.  management  including  is interpreted  in  the  for  IRM  through  context  of  through which  forestry  Forest  IRM  and  is  wildlife  include government organizations, legislation Farm  License planning processes. The  basic  strengths and weaknesses of each are identified.  In  Chapter  framework chapter  is  3 of on  the Forest the  proposed  evaluation  Management eight  criteria  Planning  evaluation  are  criteria  areas  4  puts forth  within  the  interviews carried  the results of several  Nelson  Forest  Region  and  effective  IRM  discussed. The  selected  commentary on their importance to effective IRM  Chapter  for  by  the  within  focus author  of  a the  and  a  planning.  interviews conducted compares  out in Victoria. Results of the  these  in case with  study  results  interviews are combined  of  with  4 insights gained from the this  In  other  documentation. These results  criteria identified i n Chapter  3 and  form  presented  m a i n source  according to  of information for  study.  5 the  Chapter  within  i n t e r v i e w results  a comparative  framework.  setting the  stage for the  Chapter  discusses  6  recommendations  final  the  for  are  evaluated  The major  conclusions  drawn  i m p r o v i n g I R M and  In  these  resource  ends,  management  two can be linked resource rather  on the  thesis  and strategic  management.  than  the  to enable The  formative  Planning  for  announcement Crown thesis  Timber by  managed then,  the  effective  of  the  Minister  emphasizes  to  study  is  study  are  and  Management  for future  on  presented,  two  presents  the  some  Planning in B . C .  study.  fields  of p l a n n i n g -  practical  forestry  integrated how  and  the  wildlife  application of p l a n n i n g  although it is recognized t h a t the  evaluation  research.  study, Areas  the  was  However,  on  Forest a  Management  subsequent  indicated a potentially major  managed  initiated  focus  (TSAs).  of Forests  corporate  Crown  the  p l a n n i n g for integrated  emphasis  Supply  TSAs  eight c r i t e r i a ,  p l a n n i n g - and attempts to determine  theoretical basis,  stage  from  examines  criteria inherently d r a w on theoretical  the  findings of the  Forest  also provides recommendations  pursuing  according to the  chapter.  The chapter  At  the  are  Tree  Farm  p l a n n i n g but  important role that T F L planning m a y p l a y i n the  Licenses  recognizes  management  the  policy  shift  from  (TFLs).  This  increasingly  of the Province's  5 natural resources. Since the intent of government is to ensure that TFL closely parallels TSA  planning  planning, the recommendations arising from this study will,  for the most part, apply to both government and corporate processes.  The  research emploj's a case study approach whereby the planning processes as  applied to two  TSAs and  one  TFL  are reviewed, then evaluated  against the  eight criteria for measuring program effectiveness. In consultation with government officials in Victoria, the Nelson Forest Region of B.C.  was  selected because this  region has critical, overlapping resource values for both wildlife and forestry and is at an advanced stage in the strategic integrated resource planning process.  Several sources published and  of information, mainly unpublished  in the form of library material, other  documents, and  interviews were used in the thesis  research. While the literature provided the necessary emphasis was  background material, the  placed on interviews to provide the information required for the  evaluation of planning processes.  Information gathering consisted of two phases. In the first phase, library material and documents from the B.C. and  the  U.S.)  were  government and other jurisdictions (mainly Alberta  examined  for information  pertaining to  IRM,  strategic  planning and the evaluation criteria. These were further studied to derive indices for  estimating the  planning  process  effectiveness as  the  basis for interview  questions. In the second phase, fifteen interviews were conducted, nine of which took place in the Nelson Forest Region (Regional and District planning levels) and six of which took place in Victoria (Headquarters level).  6 B.  BACKGROUND  Integrated across  TO INTEGRATED  Resource Management  North  America,  providing  management. The following pages North  America  and, more  current approaches to IRM  1. Historical  Integrated through  has developed each  MANAGEMENT  differently in various jurisdictions  political  unit  with  resource  in the early  a  describe the development  specifically, how  distinct  of IRM  form  of  concepts in  it emerged in B.C. Policies  for and  in B.C. are also presented.  Development of I R M Concepts i n North  the concept  States  RESOURCE  management  has  evolved  over  America  the  last  several  decades  of "multiple use". This latter  concept  arose  twentieth  impetus  in the 1940s  century  and gained  in the United when  resource managers recognized the need for cooperation and coordination in national land  use planning.  multiple 1970;  use  Tysdal,  meant  However, confusion served  to hinder  and  difference of opinion  the application  1973). The precise meaning  as  to what  of its principles  of multiple use was  (Smith,  not established  either by consensus among natural resource experts or by legislative decree 1963). It was eventually clarified through  (Hall,  the passing of the U.S. Multiple Use -  Sustained Yield Act of 1960 which defined multiple use as:  the management of forest and related areas in a manner that will conserve the basic land resource itself while at the same time produce high level sustained yields of water, recreation, wildlife and forage harmoniously blended for the use and benefit of the greatest number of people (Multiple Use - Sustained Yield Act, 1960 as cited by Starr, 1961).  Multiple  use therefore attempted  to provide  an increased  yield  of products  and  7 services  from  a  chosen  area  while  also  maintaining  or  enhancing  resource  productivity.  Over  the  decades  preceding  the  1960s,  it had  become  apparent  limitations of the natural resource base were being felt primarily continued  as a result of  social consumption of resources. High expectations for the abundance of  natural resources optimized  that the  use  management  have thus  of  resulted  resources.  in scarcity, substantiating the need for the  It was  philosophy, in essence  from  this  need  that  led to  an uncoordinated  a  change  in  single use strategy to  the strategy of IRM.  The  concept  of multiple use expanded  in the late  1960s  and early  1970s to  include the integrated management of resources. This evolution indicated a change in  management  interdisciplinary, management  philosophy more  from  uncoordinated  sophisticated  single  management  strategy.  also became a more ecologically based  interrelationships  of resource  (Tysdal,  Despite  1973).  uses  with  its importance,  each  concept  other  acceptance  use  management Integrated  resource  in that it considered  and within of IRM  to an  a  total  has been  system slow in  coming due to the lack of adequate definition of the terms of multiple use which led  to the philosophy  explicit  distinctions  of IRM  between  (Smith,  1970) and due to the related  methods and practice  that created  confusion  lack of among  professional foresters and the general public (Tysdal, 1973).  It is important multiple  to note that, unlike the United  use and integrated resource  States, Canada has not legislated  management  as a requirement.  Instead the  8 procedures  for integrated  discretion governed which and  of by  senior  resource  level  planning  resource  and  managers.  the Ministry of Forests  management In  Act and  other  state that the uses of all forest resources deliberate  manner  so  that  maximum  British  are left  Columbia,  policies t  social  and  IRM  and  will be planned  to the is  procedures  in a careful  economic  benefits are  attained (Bullen, 1987a).  The  development of integrated resource management in Canada was different than  that in the United the  States for a number  fact that 9 0 % of the forest land  question  of social  constitutional lands  and  versus  economic  natural  in Canada  values  arrangements in Canada other  of reasons.  resources  a very  gave so  Prominent  among  is Crown owned, making the important  consideration. Also,  the provinces jurisdiction  that  resource agency within the provinces developed  each  these is  province  and  over  each  policies and procedures  forest natural  in varying  ways. Finally, the integration of forestry and wildlife resources - a form of IRM - has been slow to evolve in Canada due to: 1.  the perceived abundance of timber  and wildlife which had reduced  the level  of concern for scarcity; 2.  the  lack  of understanding  of complex  interactions  between  timber  and  wildlife resources; 3.  the lack of communication between forestry and wildlife professionals as well as  the  lack  of  examples  providing  demonstrated  results  of successful  integrated resource management (Innes, 1985); and  tThe Ministry of Forests has recently developed policies that provide a working definition of Integrated Resource Management and Integrated Resource Planning. A t the time of this writing, these are in draft form.  9 4.  But  the dominant importance  of timber  has  in the past suppressed  the  processes  of IRM  in the  economy  of B.C.,  a  factor that  concern for wildlife.  are  improving  as  agencies  develop  mechanisms  to  further the concept of partnership in resource planning.  Despite these  differences, the need  the U.S.  resulted  and  subject. In Regional  1970  and  the  in a  series of conferences  Subcommittee  Economic  for integration was  Expansion  on  Multiple  wrote  a  Resource Management" in preparation for a  and Use  disciplines Multiple  between should  Use,  (1971) adopted  agencies  evolve  1970).  The  into  and  integrated  a forest policy statement  that  the  the  "Towards  Integrated  forest lands. In  the need for higher levels of land  management  following year,  on  and  of Canada's Department of  national meeting on  suggested  Canada  written statements  report entitled  that report members of the subcommittee endorsed coordination  felt in both  use  teams  Canadian  teams  of  single  (Subcommittee  Institute  on  of Forestry  which stated  Generally, effective resource management requires the harvesting of crops such as timber and game to maintain a productive system and a stable environment. The deliberate and careful planning of the various resources to interfere with each other as little as possible and to complement each other as much as possible, with due regard for their order of importance in the public interest in each management unit will achieve the optimum social and economic benefit to the people of Canada.  This statement  was  essentially adopted  by  the B.C.  "Statement of Integrated Resource Management" of  To  summarize, approaches to resource  have evolved from  management  single use, to multiple use  and  Ministry  of Forests in their  1983.  supported finally  in North  to IRM.  America  Confusion  has  10 often  arisen  multiple  over  use  forester may  the use of these  and  between  multiple  view wilderness  of development  while  terms, in particular between  a  corporate  preservation as single use that excludes  any form  a wilderness  for such  use  and  advocate  IRM.  single use and  may  For example,  view  preservation as multiple  use  that allows  and  the retention of fish and wildlife habitat. In the view of the Chief Forester  of B.C. (Cuthbert, one  resource  actively  benefits as recreation, aesthetics, watershed protection  1988a), single use is directed  in a  given  area,  with  other  managed. Multiple use is a form  resources  in a particular  area  towards the utilization  potential  resources  of management  are concurrently utilized  of only  excluded  or not  whereby two or more such  that none  of the  components impose a detrimental effect on one another.  Integrated  resource  management  is more  of a  philosophy  than  a  form  of  management. It is the result of a sometimes complex interdisciplinary process in which  all resource  environmental  values  needs  in a  are considered given  area.  desired emphasis over space and time of  single,  often  resource often  sector  involve  process,  having  some  minimum  biological 1981).  interdisciplinary  articulation  specific  compromise standards  requirements,  Within  approach  this  of management  Resources  the social,  are managed  within to  an  IRM  management  area  that goals  in the integration  "decision space" space,  certain  alternatives,  economic according  (Cuthbert,  requirements  process.  In this  may  with  each  that  most  interactive  on public demand or  is delineated (Mealey  goals  to a  1988a). It is  is emphasized, and  and  can lead to a pattern  or thresholds are set, based  and a  decision  with  and therefore IRM  multiple or sequential uses  the  along  be  and Horn,  emphasized  in the  but the provision of resource  outputs  11 requires  that  all resources  process (Mealey  being  considered  are adequately  represented  in the  and Horn, 1981).  2. T h e Evolution of I R M Policy i n B.C.  Integrated  resource  precise  origin  United  States  management  emerged  is indeterminite. While for several  years  in B.C. in such  the government  to see how  developing, it was not until the late  a  had looked  multiple  1960's and early  manner  use  that its  towards the  concepts  were  1970's that the concepts  of multiple use and integrated resource management commanded close attention in B.C.  (Tysdal,  through  1973).  a change  IRM  policy  in government  finally  became  part  of the political  in the 1970's and thus  has existed  agenda for little  over a decade in British Columbia. Three phases which characterize the evolution of IRM policy can be recognized. Phase 1 (Pre 1972) The Growing Awareness of Environmental Phase 2 (1972-1975) Emergence of IRM as a Policy Phase  3  (1975-1985) Implementation  of IRM  Concerns  Goal  From  the Perspective of a  Different Political Philosophy  a. Phase 1: The Growing Awareness of Environmental Concerns  Amidst the trends that led to policies of IRM in B.C., there were a number of occurrences resource increased  that, in combination  base.  Increasing  utilization  with  each  other, had a profound  population  was  one  of resources,  contributed  factor  which,  significantly  effect on the  along  with the  to the problem  of  12 resource  depletion. Also, changing social lifestyles including increased  leisure  time  led  to  increasing  demands  for  more  carefully  affluence  derived  and  resource  decisions.  Government the  organization  1970's government  responsiblity sharp  of a  isolation  and  to  was  slowly  between  in response  organized  specific branch  specialists to focus failed  evolved  such  of a  each  government  agencies.  deal  with  pressing  issues  changes. Prior to  resource  single agency. There While  upon well defined problems with  adequately  these  sector  remained  this  with  the  relatively  approach  a clearly defined  associated  was  enabled  clientele, it  resource  scarcity  interaction (Heayn, 1977). Because management issues were viewed in terms  of the  discipline  and  clientele,  social  interests and  outside the pervue of the agency were often  The  1960's was  users the  that  to  and  form  variety of 1967  an  era characterized by  as  well  of the  conflict between industrial or commercial  environmental movement and  of environmental and  protection legislation  the Environment and  there  was  Land Use  resulted in the including the Act of  overlap  in  proclamation  referrals  to  provide  an  early  jurisdiction  most notably and  where  fisheries agencies gave rise  opportunity  for  in  of a  Pollution Control  focussed, opportunistic styles of decision-making were encountered. As 1950's conflict between forestry and  manifested  Act  1971.  between government agencies,  departmental  as interests  overlooked.  public users. This decade of ecological enlightenment was  Conflicts were also occuring where  issues  review  of  in areas narrowly  early as  to a  timber  system  the of  harvesting  13 applications.  Although  period, provincial  IRM  and  did  not  federal fisheries  evolution of mechanisms for IRM  In  become  Forest  Service  operations  might  and  be  example  designing  habitat  (C. Young,  wildlife  adjusted the  agencies  Logging  staff entered  to  meet  configuration  1977). These  establishment  in  Commmittee mitigate  Guidelines 1969  of  of  Agriculture;  Petroleum Resources; and  The  initial  years  development. For each  supported  a  of  by  result  marked  the  this  influence in the  of  a  Lands,  needs  cutblocks were  of  the  to  provide  the  over  how  wildlife  resource,  adequate  beginning  logging  of a  for  wildlife push  to  eventually led to the development of the  Also  forum  (Tysdal,  wildlife management activities,  resulting cabinet  from  the  conflicts  committee,  the  for conflict resolution and 1973).  Forests  This  and  committee  Water  was  Land  the Use  to attempt to  consisted  Resources;  LUC  were  ones of innovation  in policy  example the folio system, which consisted of a  the L U C  during  of  Mines  the and  Municipal Affairs.  of the  areas  of  the  unofficial  delineating interests of the  highlighting  As  an  disputes  a  process  into discussions  discussions  1972.  (LUC), to provide  interagency  Ministers  in  had  forestry and  implement ecologically sound logging and Coast  formalized  planning (Dorcey, 1986).  response to conflicts arising from  the  a  of conflict  various through  resources, the  folio  was  put  system  and  program  series of maps,  into practice.  was  one  The  mechanism  that facilitated the resolution of several conflicts.  LUC's  success,  established under the Environment and  the Land  Cabinet Use  Committee  Act of 1971  and  was was  formally renamed  14 the  Environment  general  and Land  authority  Environment  Use Committee  on resource  and Land  problems  (ELUC).  The Act gave  and provided  Use Technical  Committee  the E L U C  the establishment  (ELUTC)  consisting  of an of the  Deputy Ministers of the member ministries (ELUTC, 1978). This Act became the single most important Acts in  piece of resource  related to specific resource  the fact  that it became  legislation  issues (Addison,  in B.C., superceding  all other  1984). Its significance also  the pinnacle of IRM policy  lay  under the Social Credit  party.  b. Phase 2 (1972-1975) The Emergence of IRM as a Policy Goal  The  New  unlike  Democratic Party  the Social  Integrated  took office in 1972. This policy-oriented Government,  Credit Party  Resource  that  Management.  preceded  it, became  The Minister  a strong  of Lands,  supporter of  Forests  and Water  Resources was himself a proponent of the development of policies that the  mechanism  evolution having  for the equitable  of IRM was the fact  of the first  resource 1972,  Of significance to  the  departments. This  situation became the  controversy.  initiatives  management  of resources.  that the Minister was in a position of power,  control over three major resource  focus for considerable  One  allocation  provided  towards  a  more  was the development  refined  approach  of the Coast  Forest  to integrated Guidelines. In  the Chief Forester of the Ministry of Forests stated in a letter addressed  to all coastal forest companies,  if the forest industry wishes to continue its success  as the prime  user  15 of British Columbia forests, it must accept the need for maintaining an environment satisfactory and suitable to the needs of all British Columbians (W. Young as cited by C. Young, 1977).  The  letter,  which  outlined twelve  ways  in which  logging  modified to accommodate the needs of other resource Coast Logging time  and  Introduction  of other  practice  fisheries  should  uses, brought into use  be the  Guidelines which were general applications to be further refined as  progressed.!  demands  operations  of  of  forest  users  forestry  in  resources  in  mind,  the  and  served  B.C. they  guidelines brought to  into  sharp  dramatically alter  (C.  Young,  served  as  1977).  a  the  Although  catalyst  focus  philosophy  designed  around  the  which  with  various  resource agencies discussed such issues as the appropriate cutblock size to protect critical wildlife habitat.  The  concept  mandate  which  Cabinet on of land and matter  included  any  the  authorization  the  staff,  situations  to  "make  environment the  where  ELUC the  reviews  of the  and  or  land  use",  Secretariat, in  in part to its  recommendations  to  the  the development and  use  bilateral  or  the  ELUC  1973  Secretariat assisted by  instrumental  during  1974  The  have  been  finalized  to  conducting Resource  in planning for  the regional resource management administrative framework which was  tThe Coastal Forest/Fisheries Guidelines currently in use by the forest industry.  a  Secretariat,  arrangements  to E L U C .  "any  established  (ELUC  multilateral  providing recomendations  Secetariat was  due  further its capabilities in studying  were not succeeding, the E L U C  interdepartmental Unit  for the E L U C  matter relating to the environment and  support  In  a matter of concern  other natural resources." To  decision-making  Planning  was  pertaining to  permanent 1978).  of IRM  in  1988  to be part  and  are  16 of  an  ongoing  program  to  decentralize  the  integrated  resource  management  process.  While  many  resource  studies were coordinated  studies were  consultants.  The  focus  planning initiative was  conducted was  by  on  by the E L U C  Secretariat, other integrated  the Ministry of Forests  localized  that undertaken  issues  at the  for the Tsitika  or by  watershed  Watershed  independent level.  One  on Vancouver  Island. Development proposals for this watershed evolved into a complex resource issue The  and  resulted  completion  in the formation  of an  interdisciplinary  of the integrated resource management  that the Allowable  Annual Cut for a Timber  meet  of wildlife  the concerns  linking tactical planning with  Supply  planning  plan marked the first time Area  had been reduced to  habitat protection and demonstrated the broader  committee.  strategic planning  the need for  (Bunnell, pers comm,  1988).  IRM  during this period was  thus  several  mechanisms. Interagency  specific  issues; the Coast  further refined; a program maps  was  undergoing  committees  Logging  were  Guidelines  of Environmental  established; and Regional  a process struck  were  of experimentation to conduct  developed  Protection Areas t  Resource  Management  and  with  analysis on were  being  for delineation on  Committees  (RRMCs)  were a focal point for the institutional changes that took  place in  were instituted.  The  RRMCs  tEnvironmental Protection Areas, areas regarded as being sensitive to the impacts of timber harvesting, were identified and mapped onto forest cover maps by staff of the Ministry of Environment. These designations later became known as Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs).  17 the  NDP  era.  Through  these Committees, comprised  regional staff of the various IRM  of senior  resource agencies, the formalization  was established. The Committees were set in place  vehicle RRMCs  for ELUC's would  be given  sub-regions (Integrated  c. Phase  3:  conflict  resolution  objective,  Management Units) within  and diffusion of  to serve as the regional  and the intent  the responsibility for preparing  Implementation  management level  was that the  IRM plans  for various  their jurisdiction (Heayn, 1977).  of IRM  With the 1975 election, the Social Credit  Government was reinstated, leaving a  partially developed policy in place. How the policy was to be implemented by the newly elected philosophy  Government remained  of the new  Government  a question not only but also  because of the different  due to the fact that  during the  1972-1975 period no clear direction had been provided. IRM was not enshrined in written  legislation, nor was it implemented  on a consistent  basis  throughout the  Province.  The  new Social  Credit  Government, in adopting  the concept of IRM, undertook  some significant institutional changes to mold resource policy according to its own interpretation of the the  concept and reduce some of the  associated  with  existing institutional arrangements. One of the first changes it made was to  divide the Department of Lands, Forests ministries: the Ministry change was to place The  controversies  role  of Forests  the E L U C  of the Secretariat  and Water Resources into two separate  and the Ministry Secretariat  was  within  downplayed  of Environment. The second the Ministry  as the E L U T C  of Environment. (the Technical  18 Committee of Deputy matters.  In  1979  Ministers) was  the  Secretariat  resentment to the priveledged  by  the Pearse Royal Commission on of  government policy review  Forests  (R.S.B.C. Chap. 140,  disbanded  due  perhaps  to  policy  bureaucratic  position that it held (O'Riordan, pers comm, 1988).  1979,  Ministry  a  was  In  the  following  reactivated into dealing with resource  Act  recommendations  provided  Forest Policy (1976), the government enacted  (R.S.B.C. Chap.  1978). The  of the  commitment  272,  1978)  and  to integrated  the  resource  Forest  Act  management  is found in the former Act which, in Section 4(c), states that under the direction of the Minister, the Ministry is  to plan the use of the forest and range resources of the Crown so that the production of timber and forage, the harvesting of timber, the grazing of livestock and the realization of fisheries, wildlife, water, and outdoor recreation and other natural resource values are coordinated and integrated, in consultation with other ministries and agencies of the Crown and with the private sector.  Reference to the private sector was  also taken to mean public interests.  Thus the  charged  and  implementing  other  agencies.  create  a  through was  Ministry  large line  given  of Forests  was  policies  integrated  It became umbrella  agencies. a  of  apparent that  organization  The  leadership  but  with  resource the  responsibility for  management  in  rather  of Forests,  role  providing  developing  concert  government's approach  Ministry in  the  was  not  to engage in coordinated through direction  its legislative to  integrated  with to  efforts  mandate, resource  management.  In  the  1980's  further  changes  were  instituted  as  significant  forces  in  the  19 evolution the  of integrated  dismantling  resource management  policy. Prominent  among  these  was  of the the Regional Resource Management Committees. With this  action, the leadership  role of the Ministry  however a vacuum was created  of Forests  became  more pronounced;  at the regional level with respect  to coordination  of resource management programs and IRM.  Of  great  significance to IRM  Branch in the Ministry had  of Forests  the the creation  of the Integrated  in 1986. The lack of an integrated  been noted by two government reviews as being a serious  intent  of the  management activities  of  Integrated  Resource  all non-timber  for timber,  integrated  In  was  range,  Management  resources  recreation,  with  wildlife,  program a  fisheries,  and  the evolution  of IRM  in B.C. has involved  mechanisms and agency programs. For example the MoF  Public  Involvement  involvement - from  and  the  function  so  water  would  experimentation  various  planning  combine  The  that be  (MoFL, 1987).  summary  review  approach  deficiency, t  is to  planning  Resources  (Nixon,  Program,  experimented  with  various  direct participation at the planning  1989).$  Through  several  adjustments  with  has, through its  forms  of  public  table to consultation and  in the decision-making and  processes, the B.C. Government has tailored IRM  to serve its purposes  circumstances.  t These were the MoF's Ministry Mission Review (1986) and the Resource Management Review (1987). $The role of the public in IRM remains to be a significant issue in B.C.  20 C. R A T I O N A L E  The  opening pages of the thesis described the social forces that made integration  especially to  FOR IRM PLANNING  relevant  in today's management  increasing resource scarcity  healthy  environment.  philosophy. Continued  consumption led  and subsequently to concerns about  Concepts  such  as  "conservation" and  maintaining a  "sustained  yield"  evolved and became entrenched in the field of resource management. Yet the side effects of resource development non-timber  resources  harvesting in some compartmentalized  such  were given little  as  fish  and  wildlife  attention, with incurred  the result  losses  through  that forest  areas. Organization within resource management agencies was  to the extent' that it inhibited  the solving  of inter-disciplinary  problems, as these agencies pursued single, narrowly focussed-objectives.  Related to this institutional compartmentalization is the specialization in the fields of knowledge which of  tends to run counter to the integration of diverse components  natural resource management. Clawson (1986) suggests that the move  integration has been and continues to be constrained by adherence  towards  to specialized  methodologies. The forces that push professionals to fields of specialization are the proliferation  of knowledge  and  knowledge. People generally familiarizing attempting  themselves to make  that "one may  the impossible task  for one  feel comfortable by limiting  with  significant  a contribution  be uninformed  literature  to existing  on  their the  to grasp range chosen  all this  of interests, field  and  knowledge. But the drawback is  about developments  in some other field which  render much of one's results redundant, obsolete or unimportant" (Clawson,  may 1986).  21 The  antithesis  likely,  a  studies  or  of specialization is integration  planning  team  the  which  factors  integrative strength  on  a  broader  the  problem  professional  such  as  or,  land  involves  does not  the  enable  application even the  involved  or  to  understand  approach  is  applicable  most  the  to  of a  real  diverse  body  talented  linkages life  situations  to  political  comprehend all  variables.  and  (Clawson, 1986). Because natural resources are linked by  of ecological relationships, institutions must use  and  of knowledge - a  team  between  more  use  at least considers its physical, biological, social, economic and  aspects. Integration breadth  takes  whereby  But  therein  lies  a complex  the its web  integrative approaches to take into  account at least the broader relationships of the whole.  Although there are benefits associated  with specialization,  someone, somewhere, in our society must look at natural resources as a whole, must balance up the use of one kind of resource against the use of others, and must synthesize the partial truths of various specialists into a larger, broader, more inclusive truth. If one looks to the improvement of human welfare, now and in the future, one must consider all the possible avenues to that improvement. This almost certainly includes physical, biological, and social factors, together with political considerations and analyses and the interactions of many concerned groups within the larger body politic. Obviously, integration is complex and difficult, and high precision fine-tuning may be unattainable. But...it is also necessary, indeeed indispensable. The big question is how, not whether (Clawson, 1986).  Today  it has  become  managed  through  rationale  for integrated  oriented  and  more  coordinated  widely and  accepted  integrated  that  initiatives  resource management has  product oriented  factors.  resources (Lang,  its basis  need  to  1986).  be The  in both process  22  1. Process Oriented Rationale for  Cooperation resource  and  coordination  sectors  arises  cooperative problem experience  and  of  legitimate  through  planning  solving. People  analytical  incorporates  multiagency  participation  by  the  IRM  relevant  and  associated  with  management;  it  different encourages  working together contribute diverse knowledge,  capabilities.  interests  interests  With  in a  publics,  a  shared  truly  integrated  planning  it becomes  process  environment  easier  for  a  and  wide  that allows  range  of  interests to have a bearing on plan direction.  Planners  attempt to recognize and  overcome problems such  resource that results in pressures on a  more  and  proactive stance,  circumvent  Integrated  As  cooperation  by  different  enables  management  Radford giving  rise  fosters cooperation  (1980) to  states,  the  disciplines come to view  and  Finally, an  need  anticipate  "the for  as  a  mechanism  existence  it." With  of IRM,  management problems from  shared  goals  are  pursued, participants  problems  are  plan itself provides guidance  and  the  perspective of 1986). Because  motivated  to contribute.  encouraging  the standardization of  indicates to resource developers what is expected  promotes  representatives of  (Lang,  for managers in their day  for conflict  conflict  integrated approach to planning assists institutions by  efficient allocation of planning resources The  the planner to take  providing opportunities to  other disciplines; thus it encourages increased understanding common  of a  them.  resource  resolution.  thereby  the land. IRM  as intensive use  to day  the  methodologies. activities  and  from them in managing publicly  23 owned resources.  2. Product  Oriented  Rationale for I R M  Integrated resource management is necessary scarce  resources;  greater  A  coordinated  arrangement  net benefits to society than  1984). A n and  a  integrated approach  if each  values.  goals  process is an IRM  to help  monitoring  of the plan; provides  resource  managers  understand  IRM  visually  portrays  how  mosaic  accommodated. Through flexibility  so that  the an  options  adaptive remain  direction  intent; of  result in  between development  determine to ensure  and, provides resources  enable  that the public and a  will  in the face  developed,  trade-offs and  planning be  approach, integrated resource  available  will  plan which, if properly  decision-makers clear  uses  benefits from  for independently (Fox,  the protection and maintenance of environmental  clear  and  is planned  balance  enunciates  In  for resource  seeks an acceptable  key product of the IRM  and  for deriving maximum  map  that  managed  and  plans  of changing  provide  perceptions  socio-economic conditions.  summary,  integrated resource  management  is fundamental  to good  planning  is in fact inseparable from it because all elements considered in the planning  process foster  are interdependent. cooperation  involved.  The  and to enable  planning rigorous  process  itself  evaluation  must  be  integrated to  of the disparate variables  24 D.  FORESTRY/WILDLIFE  INTERACTIONS  This section summarizes some of the interactions that take place between forestry and  wildlife  resources,  affects "the  thus  providing  product" - animals and  should  not  be  completely  many  of  the  changes  management  practices  separated that  are  background  trees. A from  take  not  a  effectively  how  IRM  ultimately  discussion of these tangible entities  the  place  on  planning to  process however, because  wildlife  understood  habitat or  through  administered  forest  (Forestry  Wildlife Group, 1987).  Timber management exerts resource of the can a  an  enormous influence on  the  welfare  of the  because it is the foresters that manage or give control to the forest cover  destroy  Wildlife Group,  1987). "In  one  character  decision, a forester  or create more wildlife habitat than most wildlife biologists can  lifetime"  foresters  (Forestry  wildlife  (W.  to  Young,  work  in  1984).  Thus  there  harmony  with  each  is  a  need  other,  for  with  wildlife  the  staff  wildlife  be  to  has  been recognized and  as  "conservation".  conservation recognized "the  wildlife a  management  efforts. This  early as  philosophy  altered  1873,  U.S.  forests  and  either works for both" (cited by  President  government  the need for melding forest and of  for coordination  fundamental component of such concepts as  As  preservation  need  game  go  Gilbert and  policy  in  made long  "sustainability"  Theodore Roosevelt, whose towards  wildlife resources hand  and  biologist  providing guidance to foresters so that forest management activities can complement  do in  hand.  Dodds, 1987).  natural when he He  who  resources, stated that works  for  25 Forest management can affect wildlife habitat and wildlife in three general ways: 1.  Increased  access  provided  mortality through 2.  Logging  may  by logging roads  may  lead to increased  wildlife  legal and illegal hunting.  result  in the permanent  or  temporary  change  to critical  habitat types. 3.  Logging  and subsequent  silvicultural  wildlife  habitat diversity, thus  support  wildlife  that rely  activities  changing  have  the potential  the capability  on forest diversity  to change  of a given  (Hamilton,  area to  1988; Bunnell and  Eastman, 1976).  Many  wildlife  species  thermoregulation, forests  forests  on  and for reduced  are relatively  maintain  depend  stable, with  an uneven aged stand to  managed  forests  old growth  forests  snow  to enable  depth  during  winter  for forage,  movement. Old growth  frequent but low magnitude  disturbances that  structure. Timber harvesting converts old growth  that  are  characterized  by  infrequent  but  high  magnitude disturbance events affecting entire stands of trees.  The  shift  composition productive  in overstory  structure and dynamics  and biomass of understory habitats and forage  such  has major  implications for the  vegetative species. Clearcuts provide  as grasses, forbs and shrubs,  some  especially in  coastal areas of B.C. where winters tend to be mild and snow accumulations are unusual (age  (Harestad,  1982). But as the canopy of young, even-aged  25-35 years), understory  vascular  they cannot tolerate the competition.  plants  are virtually  stands closes  eliminated  because  26 The  changes  implications growth timber  in forest  structure, dynamics  for wildlife  forests  habitat  to second  quality,  growth  harvesting decreases  forests  and competition  although  also have  the effects  are not completely  habitat diversity, wildlife  important  of converting old understood.  species diversity  Where  also  tends  to decline.  E.  CURRENT  Integrated (MoF) lack  APPROACHES  resource  which  management  is explicitly  of detail  T O I R M IN B . C .  as  is a primary  enshrined  to how  goal  of the Ministry of Forests  in the Ministry of Forests Act (1978).  integration  is to take  place  within  a  The  cooperative  framework has been the cause of some debate. The Resource Planning Manual of the B.C. MoF  (1984d) recognizes the variable application of planning  noting that because planning is in a sense problem must be adapted  to particular identified  circumstances.  A  has,  however, been  their  actions in an orderly fashion. The seven  are: 1.  Preliminary Organization  2.  Information  3.  Analysis  4.  Evaluation of Options  5.  Selection of an Option  6.  Implementation  7.  Monitoring  Assembly  solving, planning  systematic  by the Ministry to enable  procedures, approaches  approach to planning planners  to carry out  steps included in the framework  27 The  participation  framework are  of other  resource  agencies  as required. Development  referred  interagency  to these  agencies  participation  is brought  proposals for timber,  for comment  prior  complexity  are dictated by the nature  involved  while  and therefore can be dealt non-routine  issues  with  the MoF  range  planning  and recreation  to approval. The  levels of  of the issues which can be  viewed as being either routine or non-routine. Routine little  into  issues are those involving  expeditiously  are characterized  as  by the agencies  complex  and therefore  requiring considerable negotiation between agencies.  In  seeking  objectives  an  optimum  knowing  that  blend timber  of resources, resource  agencies  harvesting has retained  a  articulate  dominant  their  position in  nearly all management situations. The B.C. government stresses timber production as  the  primary  output  of  forest  lands  when  competing  uses, while other uses are restricted  on  productivity. Timber  timber  vital  importance  considering  tradeoffs  so as to minimize  any  among impacts  harvesting not only provides economic benefits of  to the Province but also determines  the capacity of the forest  land to support other uses. For example, forestry practices have a high potential to  dramatically restructure  vegetative cover  over  a  wide  area,  thus  affecting  wildlife habitat. The success of resource integration therefore hinges on how various Ministry  natural  resource  of Forests  agencies  (Apsey,  can adapt  1978) and how  to the policies closely  put forth  communication  well  by the  takes  place  between professionals at all levels of planning.  In  addition  to the dominant  position  of timber  harvesting, the M o F  takes the  lead role in facilitating interagency coordination and is responsible for deciding if,  28 when and how are  the impacts  to be ameliorated  cases, created negative  of forest management on resources other than  (MoF, 1984). The stigma views among  of lead  other resource  agency  agencies  timber  has, in some  over  the legitimacy  of the planning process (Bryant, 1984).  F.  STRATEGIC PLANNING  AS T H E K E Y L E V E L  F O R I R M IN B . C .  In the literature dealing with hiearchical planning, there is a three level typology of management: strategic, tactical and operational.  Strategic planning is a form of mutually objectives  reinforcing  (Crowe,  of planning whereby  an agency utilizes a sequence  actions in pursuit of an interrelated  1983;  Lang,  1986).  This  form  of  set of well defined  planning  involves the  formulation of goals, objectives, and strategies which are centred on program lines rather than setting.  on the organizational lines of the agency. The emphasis is on goal  The  decision-making progress forced and a  plan  itself  and for maintaining  provides  a comprehensive  in a  continuous  of planning  structured  fashion  whereby  through  agencies are  future activities (Crowe, 1983). Tactical planning emphasizes procedures  with  ensuring  that  effectively  programs  (Lang,  and  of their  for  past  to achieving well defined  view  mechanism  actions, evaluating both  through  taking  a  operations  evaluation. It is a sophisticated form  into  view  into  strategic  ends. Operational  procedures  are  planning  conducted  is concerned  both  efficiently  with and  1986). It converts the agency's program objectives into projects  implementation  at the field level. In theory, these  an overall dynamic, integrated management  system  levels of planning fit  that involves  continuous  29 evaluation of program objectives and monitoring  of progress.  Some authors combine tactical and operational planning  into a single category of  tactical planning. For simplicity's sake, this thesis will use this categorization and discuss  the attributes which  differentiate  strategic planning  tactical planning. Firstly, strategy deals with  from  the lower  level  the longest relevant time horizon of  concern to the agency (Irland, 1985). For society as a whole, decisions are based on  one  or  two  centuries  objectives  are established  problems,  arrive  strategic  plans  non-spatial that  there  resource versus  in terms  for the organization  at the preferred  are prepared  in context, is a  managers benefits  with  high  strategy  for relatively strata-based  organization  utilize  of land  of projected  average  large land  which  land  to define  various the  having  resources  localized  spatial  being  nature  identification  that  units. This  planning  that  explicitly  allows  means  costs  1988). Managers are involved.  tactical plans enables  managed. Costs and benefits may of  Secondly,  weighing general  (Sessions,  In contrast to this characterization of strategic planning, plans  the  is planning is  forced into using average costs because of the broad level of planning  range  term  is non-site-specific. Finally  per strata when decisions  Long  performance.  units; that  classes within  costs  supply.  in its attempt  and monitor  of data  use allocation  timber  linkage  be derived  identification  are short with the because of  of the  resources  (Sessions, 1988).  Government  agencies  have  increasingly  repertoire of management processes  adopted  strategic  planning  because this form of planning  in  their  can help  them  30 in  dealing  years  with  (Bryson  the and  many  significant changes  Einswieller, 1987).  that  These  have  changes  taken  have  place  in  forced  recent  government  organizations to think strategically about what the role of government should what  actions  ought  to  be  allocated: strategic planning overall  future  disciplined  direction.  effort  to  undertaken can  and  help planners  Strategic planning  produce  how and  limited  should  public  decisions  sector  shaping  is therefore the  nature  direction of governmental activities within constitutional bounds" (Olsen 1982  It  as cited by  is the  dynamics  characteristics strategic  Bryson and  of  planning  environment  strategic  planning  within  in  which  strategies  conditions, public sector strategic planning  and  and  Eadie,  that  public  are  give  rise  agencies.  formulated  in  to  the  special  Unlike  corporate  response  involves the formulation  to  market  of strategies in  response to complex interactions between plans, the actions of decision-makers forces in the for  government's external environment. With regard  example,  resource  managers  have  been  required  consideration to multiple stakeholders  with varied and  be  strategies  affected  by  the  organization's  more  complex  and  considerations (Nutt and  The  above  characteristic  attributes of - the  inter-related set Backoff,  more  careful  and  political,  Mitroff,  1981).  may The  market dependence to  soio-economic  and  legal  1987).  strategic planning  highly  of  give  changing interests who  (Mason  and  to external factors,  to  strategic emphasis, therefore, shifts from a relatively simple the  "a  Einswieller, 1987).  of the  planning  be  decision-makers determine their  in the  fundamental  resources  be,  uncertain  give  planning  rise and  to  yet  another  decision-making  important  environment  31 (Irland, 1985; Marshall, 1987). Resource planners many  critical variables that affect a plan and when the potential outcome of a  plan based on more than be  face uncertainty when there are  one alternative is not known. These  related to the models used in planning or to such  nature  of the problem,  political  constraints and  uncertainties can  variables as the changing  policy  specifications  (Marshall,  1987).  Strategic planning has received endorsement by resource agencies for a number of reasons. more  Primary  holistic  among  approach  these  is the fact  to land  use  that this  than  the more  form  of planning  localized  plans.  offers a Strategic  planning enables the planner,  to appreciate the particular environmental pressures in a given region, and to appraise the consequences of a particular development in terms of a broader context (Selman, 1976).  In  the absence  of a  strategic  plan, planners  may  fail  to recognize  implications of localized actions are in terms of the cumulative  Strategic  planning  enables  that brought about through fact  comprehensive  planning  agencies  to have  a  more  conventional long-range is not really  what the  impacts.  comprehensive  vision  than  or comprehensive planning. In  'comprehensive' at all but is tied to  programs having functional plans that often are not integrated with one another and typically ignore what government ought to be doing as contrasted with what it already does (Bryson and Einswieller, 1987).  Other  reasons  contention  that  for the  increased  it is more  emphasis  analytically  on  rigorous  strategic and  planning  broadens  include the  the participatory  32 basis in planning, although  as Kaufman  and  Jacobs  (1987) have found, there is  some divergence of opinion on these contentions.  While  strategic  form  planning  offers  several  advantages,  of planning have meant that it may  not be  practitioners. Various authors  (e.g. Dick, 1981;  out  costly, time  that  it can  be  a  very  some  received with  Kaufman  consuming  weaknesses  and  undertaking who  agenda. Some  serious weaknesses  in the  implementation  within government agencies. While  also  appear  to exist  this  enthusiasm  Jacobs,  difficult to maintain the interest level of decision-makers  with  by  1987) point  and  that  it is  have a short term goal setting  and  planners or managers within a  corporation can assume a profit goal, the goals of government agencies are often ambiguous and (Nutt and are  not  implicit, making it difficult to evaluate or modify  Backoff, 1987). In strategic planning, goals are variable and shared  by  or  even  understood  by  policy-makers  (Irland, 1985). Moreover, there exists a problem in  the  decentralized,  (Kaufman broad  and  remainder  pluralistic  Jacobs,  strategic  implementation  The  decision-making  1987). Weak  policy-making  and  the  system  levels  of  tended and  the  explicit  planning  public  more  sector"  between site  the  specific,  oriented levels.  of this  Timber Supply  made  priority actions  to exist  the  sometimes  general public  of "implementing  linkages have planning  or  thesis  examines  strategic  planning of B.C.'s forest lands  which is directed by Forest Management Planning for Tree F a r m and  current practices  by  Areas the  framework,  (TSAs). The  Ministry stated  importance  of this planning level has been  of Forests which, in a  that  Forest  Licenses (TFLs)  Management  discussion  Planning  paper  provides  on its a  link  33 between the broad specific  policies on a provincial and regional level and the more  development  levels  development  on  Management  Planning, headquarters  into  broad  agencies plans over  a  (MoF,  controlled  resource  targets  are addressed.  basis.  where  Provincial  the long term levels  and  (Percy,  resource  forest  takes  through  use  the  towards  1986). These  policies  the availability  of lead  of  of the various  which  guide  of timber  the current  stock  agency' and, through  these  supplies  policies influence the allowable to which  Forest  are translated  and the habitat for wildlife manipulated.  the role  it channels  process  requirements  management  therefore the extent  resources will be depleted Forests  Thus  1988b). In so doing  policies and regional priorities  are in large measure geared  harvest  of  1983; MoF,  area  annual  of timber  The Ministry  inter-agency  liaison,  identifies a range of strategies relative to the various resource values.  1. E r a s i n Strategic  The  Planning  history of Forest Management Planning in B.C. can be designated  eras:  the  unregulated  management  era, the  yield  control  era, and  the  into three  timber  supply  era (Percy, 1986). These are briefly outlined as follows:  a. The Unregulated Era During  the period from  consisted  of allocating  the colonial times timber  rights  to 1945, the government's major role  to forest  companies  for the purpose  of  harvesting timber. There was little regulation of the timing and levels of harvest; these  were  determined  economic growth.  largely  by  market  forces. Policies  centred  on  promoting  34 b. The Yield Control Era Prior  to  1945, the unbalanced  pattern  apprehension over the long term  supply  impacts  Thus  from  on community  stability.  of timber  of raw wood material in the yield  1945 to 1978, the B.C. Government  regulating  timber  Commission resource  supplies.  of Inquiry  under  Based  (1945)  sustained  yield  on  took  the  management  a  had  control era which much  more  brought  led to  and the negative  recommendations  the government  subsequently renamed Tree Farm  harvesting  extended  active of  role in  the  the province's  units. Forest  Management  Sloan forest  Licenses,  Licenses (TFLs), were introduced  to promote the orderly development and careful management of Crown and private land holdings, and to encourage industrial development and community stability by providing long-term supplies of timber for existing or proposed utilization plants (Pearse, 1976).  While  the licensees  policies, plans  were  the B.C. Forest  (called  Service  T F L Management  provisions. The second (PSYUs), were needs  to manage  Crown  of smaller  type  would  of management managed  unintegrated  area-based licenses were inappropriate, f  forest lands  be responsible  and Working  forest lands  and  these  under  sustained  for approving  Plans) and enforcing unit, Public  Sustained  by the Forest  enterprises  Service  or to provide  yield  strategic  the necessary Yield  Units  to meet the timber  where  These units eventually came to be known  as Timber Supply Areas.  The  TFLs  granted  in this era carried with  them  either a single, perpetual  or 21-year renewable terms. This tenure then, enabled  term  large forestry enterprises  t i n the interior of B.C, Fire and pest managment concerns, in particular, make area-based tenures less efficient to the MoF and less tenable to licensees due to the risks involved.  35 to attain  an  assured  wood  supply  required to promote  investment  in processing  plants.  Forest  management had,  because  of  geographical system.  But  management  the  for the  proprietary  area  and  there units  interest  that  several  incentives  the  were  most part, reached  several  which,  as  by  provided  increased provided serious planning Forest  recovery to  of  wood  government  deficiency but  in this  in management Service  to  the  close  was  units (PSYUs Pearse  developing long term plans. As  through  the  licensing of  (1976),  became  the  source  of  increases in the allowable  practices.  based  exacerbated  stated in the  defined  types  rates  Commission  a  TFLs  both  utilization  and  in  with  Pearse  harvest  problem  within  even more so in some TFLs,  through setting  standard  associated  considerable public debate. Firstly, there were dramatic annual harvest levels in P S Y U s and  high  licensees developed  weaknesses  noted  a  TFLs).  on  by A  a  The  poor  the  discretion  data  virtual  submission  acknowledged  attributable to  by  was  a  absense  of  the  deficiency  submission,  Although a general understanding exists of what data (are) required and a major effort is being made to coordinate the gathering of resource data and define the nature of options open to management unit plans are not being adequately formulated for either Public Sustained Yield Units or Tree Farm Licenses at the present time. This disturbing situation exists primarily because of the lack of planning staff in resource departments, undefined or poorly defined resource management objectives, lack of data and the absence of a uniform resource management planning system (B.C. Forest Service, as cited by Pearse, 1976).  B.C. in  36  c. The Current Era  The current era of timber supply management commenced in the late 1970s with the enactment of the Ministry of Forests Act and the Forest Act. The former act,  with its  emphasis  on resource  management  in the  broader context,  was  passed in 1978 to "affirm the provincial interest in all resources" (Apsey, 1978). Periodic reviews through the Ten Year Forest and Range Resource Analysis and the Five Year Forest and Range Resource Program are required under the Act. Thus  the  Act entrenched  management  approach  by  the  Ministry's intent  giving  greater  to  undertake  recognition  to  a  more  strategic  holistic  supply  and  demand analysis. It became apparent that resource allocation and IRM were to be fundamental concepts of program development.  The TSA planning process began in earnest during the early 1980s as part of the  Ministry's policy  to  manage  the  province's  forests  under  the  concept  of  sustained yield and link this policy with that of IRM such that TSAs would be viewed as resource management units. However the focus during the initial years remained on the technical  determination of Allowable Annual Cuts (AACs) facilitated by  analyses  for  deriving  various  timber  management  scenarios  and  an  assessment of each for long term timber supplies. There was little flexibility in adjusting the AAC to accommodate the need for critical wildlife habitat, with the result  that  lines  of  communication  between  wildlife  and  forestry  staff  were  the  MoF's  strained.  The  mid  1980s to  strengthened  the  present  have  been  philosophy on IRM and its  years  characterized by  link to strategic  planning. Unlike the  37 previous  years, the Ministry has indicated  its willingness to accommodate other  resource values even if it means the downward revision of the AAC.  G.  The  T H E LINK  BETWEEN  STRATEGIC  MoF's planning framework  hierarchical  and  lateral  decisions to flow  (inter-agency)  in a two way  planning  occurs  when  Integrated  resource  Management approximately Ministry  Plans  This  state  planning  the  design  subsequent  Within  its own  sectoral  place within Forest Management  Planning  processes.  this  of problems  The  preparation  and Working  use of resources.  framework, each  management  processes and  enables  levels in the hierarchy; policy  Plan  the same level of detail as the Subregional  to  framework  both  transcends  and T F L Management  Multidisciplinary  integrated  takes  planning  of Environment.  opportunity  planning.  the resolution  management  established to facilitate  from the top while information flows upwards.  of the agencies involved.  multidisciplinary  IRM  fashion between  boundaries  through  A N D IRM  (Figure 1) has been  decisions and direction come down Lateral  PLANNING  facilitate  description The  of  objective  terms of the direction provided to the timber, range  is carried  resource for the  management  Resource out at  Strategic Plans of the  the identification  evaluation of these  of T S A  agency TSA  or T F L .  of objectives, and  options  options  has the  provides for  is carried  out in  and recreation programs of  the Ministry of Forests. The general public also has the opportunity to influence the  contents  Management  of new and  or  Working  revised Plans  TSA  Resource  through  the  Management Ministry's  Plans  Public  or  TFL  Involvement  Planning Levels  Provincial Policies  Within the context of government priorities, provincial policies give overall direction to the Ministry of Forests. The ministry's Executive formulates ministry policy and sets forest and range resource use goals.  Regional Priorities  Within the context of provincial policies, Regional priorities coordinate ministry activities with those of other ministries and set tentative production targets for timber, range and recreation for the TSAs and TFLs within Regions.  Forest Management Planning  Within the context of Regional priorities, forest management planning lays out broad, long-range management strategies for timber, range and recreation for each TSA and TFL. Program options are examined and, for timber, AACs are set and 20-year supply areas are identified.  Local Resource Use Planning  Within the context of management strategies for a TSA or TFL, local resource use planning establishes integrated resource management guidelines for areas where resource use development is proposed. Local planning can range from extensive appraisal to intensive study and is carried out to enable development planning to proceed.  Within the context of area-specific management guidelines, resource development planning details the logistics for developResource ment. Methods, schedules and responDevelopment sibilities for accessing, harvesting, renewing Planning and protecting the resource are specified to enable site-specific operations to proceed.  Figure 1.  The M i n i s t r y of Forests Planning Framework (Source: MoF 1984d)  38  39 Program. Thus the intent is, through to and  prepare  a plan  that achieves  multilateral communication  an optimal  balance  betwen  and negotiation,  resource  allocation  resource production levels among the various user groups (MoF, 1984a).  Although  strategic planning through  coordinated planning  management  is relatively  new  TSAs  and T F L s  objectives of various to resource  provides the opportunity for  resource  agencies,  agencies; therefore planning  continuously being refined to better address  interagency concerns  this  level  of  processes are  through  IRM. In  addition, there exists an inconsistent application of planning processes between the different Forest Regions of the Province. Each Region has its own  style, in part  developed  to suit the unique needs of that region, when  it comes to developing  processes  and procedures  in variable degrees of  for strategic  planning program effectiveness.  planning, resulting  II.  INSTITUTIONAL A R R A N G E M E N T S  FOR  INTEGRATED  RESOURCE  MANAGEMENT The  institutional  arrangements  policies for resource several  decades.  increasingly  and  This  complex  land use  evolution  resource  to  primary  to  framework rather as  than  the  improve through through  Alberta  resource  government  A.  of  planning  the  policies and  of  and  ministries  as  agencies  planning  by  line  IRM  provincial  and  the  mechanisms  agencies  and  planning  confronted  government  by  facilitating  Government the  resource  and  focusses on  mechanisms  they  This  are  such  chapter  what forms have  put in  goals.  charged  PROCESSES  changes discussed in the opening  with  the  responsibilities  chapter, there are  for developing  and  implementing  programs for the integration of natural resources in British  the  sectors  department  Resources.  has  institutional  of natural resource  Natural  in B.C.  in  the last  changes in the  approaches  large umbrella  Energy  implementing  have  about, in part, by  1970s that the  arrangements for IRM  Ministry of Forests, the  Lands  place  through  creation of a  the recent institutional  four ministries  and  have changed markedly over  taken  ORGANIZATIONS, POLICIES AND  With  the  joint  administering  inter-agency communication. The  coordination  organizations take  place to achieve IRM  has  problems  Department  discusses institutional  in B.C.  only in the  higher levels of coordination and chosen  developing,  issues brought  external environment. It was attended  for  Ministry consulted  of or  Ministry of Environment, Energy, become  Mines active  40  and  the  Ministry of  Crown  Resources.  Other  Petroleum  participants  Columbia:  when  the  impacts  of  41 resource  development  contentious  nature  Environment  and  require may  be  Land  Use  their  input.  propelled  Furthermore,  into  Committee  the  and  resource  political  other  issues  arena  cabinet  of  where  committees  a the  may  adjudicate the process.  Numerous forums planning  levels  arrangements at  the  for resource planning and in  British  Columbia.  that are predominant  Forest  Management  level  management have  This  thesis  in the  at various  on  institutional  focuses  in promoting integrated of planning  arisen  resource management  context  of forestry  and  wildlife resources.  1.  Environment and  The  ultimate  highest level Land  Use  L a n d Use  forum  Committee  for conflict  of resource  Committee  program  resolution  on  coordination  environmental matters in B.C.  and  the  is the Environment  and  (ELUC) of Cabinet. This committee,  which  is comprised of  members of the executive council having portfolios related to environmental policy and  decision-making, is empowered  under  the Environment  and  Land  Use  Act  (R.S.B.C., Chap. 10, 1979) to ensure the consideration of the environment in land use. E L U C  serves as the vehicle for ensuring the coordination of decision-making  in policies and  issues of environmental matters which  single department balancing  of  land  (ELUC use  Secretariat, 1978). The with  responsibility to ensure a proper  environmental protection  tradeoffs affecting user groups and economics.  surpass the interests of a  therefore  translates  into  42 In  the  institutional  hierarchy,  the  Environment  and  Land  Use  Technical  Committee (ELUTC) is the bureaucracy directly accountable to E L U C . This is the highest  level within  resolved  politically  those that  of E L U C  service for conflict resolution; otherwise  by E L U C . The Deputy  serve  Committee  regard  Ministers  resource  issues are  in the portfolios parallelling  as technical policy advisors  and evaluate  agencies. With ELUTC  the civil  to the member  use alternatives  generated  Ministers of by  the line  to resource integration policy, the demands placed  are considerable,  for it must  ensure  that  all land  on the  and resource use  programs of the provincial government and local governments are coordinated that advice  socio-economic to E L U C  to interagency  The  environmental  objectives  are achieved,  provide  sound  and act on the directives of that Committee, and give direction  task  2. Ministry of  and  so  groups (MoF, 1984a).  Forests  Ministry  of Forests  headquarters,  regions  administrative  functions  is structured  and districts.  administratively  Each  relating to three  level  into  is responsible  program  three  levels  for carrying out  areas of the Ministry: timber,  range and recreation. A t the headquarters level, the government establishes policy direction determine  and funds their  programs.  program  The  objectives  Ministry and  how  consults  with  these  interact  other with  ministries to Ministry  of  Forests programs (MoF, 1983).  The  Regions'  regional  functions  context  include  the interpretation  and the establishment  of regional  of provincial guidelines  policies  in a  and priorities to  43 meet  the  set  program  performance in the  goals  various  ensure the consistent and from  headquarters.  responsible role  A  1983).  Districts. One  They  of the  TSA  Planning  being  and  then  of policies and  Coordinator  monitoring T S A  decentralized  to  the  monitor  and  and  a  planning  districts.  plans originating  Planning  Officer  are  functions, although  this  It is uncertain  future role of regional planners will be once this decentralization has  Districts  are  designed  to  guidelines  subdivisions implement  and  responsible  of  district  regions  programs procedures  for approving and liaison  properly  integrated  into timber  and  Resource  Officer, Timber  Manager, responsible to T F L the  Chief  (Local  Forester  Resource  other  and  (MoF,  MoF.  to  Plans  and  in  taken place.  organizational  accordance  structure  with  and  under  The  the  natural  Resource  supervision  well as reviewing  detailed  are  district  regional  forest industry development plans that  the  the  are  plans.  operational  what  level  ensure  TSAs as  The  an  1984a). Staff at  harvesting are,  of  policies  Working Plans which  of the  Use  and  ministries  for planning  Management  consist  administering  providing  the  with  and  evaluate  Regions' primary functions is to  effective administration  for coordinating  is presently  (MoF,  resources  are  Officer, Planning of an  and  Operations  giving direction  both ultimately approved  tactical  plans) are  integrated linked  to  resource these  by  plans broader  strategic plans.  Of  major  at  the  significance is the headquarters  level.  Resources  Branch:  the  Recreation  Section.  Also  recent  creation of the  Three  main  Resource included  components  Planning  Section,  on  is the  staff  Integrated  the  Resources  constitute  the  Range  Section  Provincial Public  Branch  Integrated and  the  Involvement  44 Coordinator.  The  Integrated Resource  the  Crown's  Management  non-timber  resources with  forest  resources  "protects, conserves  and  integrates  and  activities  develops for  the activities for timber production" (Bullen, 1987b). The  Planning Section's purposes 1.  Program  to provide  the  these  Resource  are:  direction  for the  development  of integrated plans  of action  for Ministry managers; 2.  to  develop  mechanisms  resource users and 3.  to  prepare  that  help  client groups,  procedures  that  ministry  staff  address  the  concerns  of  and;  optimize  the  use  of  provincial  forest  lands  through a.  minimizing resource conflicts  b.  providing a  spectrum  of benefits from  wilderness preservation through  to industrial development, and c.  maintaining environmental  Thus the IRB IRM  quality (Bullen, 1987b).  strives to provide provincial guidelines and  of forest lands and  standards  for effective  facilitates liaison with other agencies, industry and  the  public.  The  Timber  effective  Harvesting  management  Branch  of the  is responsible for developing  Province's T F L  system  and  other  found  within TSAs. Part of this function entails the review  and  Working  Plans  prepared  by  licensees.  The  to  ensure  forms of tenure  of T F L  Branch  responsibility for coordinating the government review of T F L  policies  also  Management holds  applications.  the  45 The  Inventory  inventory  Branch  program  Forest  Resource  timber  supply  is responsible for maintaining  for the Analysis  of  management  Section  forest  assumptions.  determining  and  The  long term  planning  documenting  the  land  an  coodinating  base. Within  important  future  (two  models  Staff  forest  plays  analysis of TSAs.  term (twenty years) and application  Province's  and  supply  role of  an  the in  Branch,  conducting  timber  over  which  incorporate  within  the  section  timber  supply  specific  are  impacts  responsible  for  also  of T F L  applications as  There  are  three  major  acts  under  the  Ministry  which  deal  with  forest  and  range  planning  Chap.  140,  1978)  jurisdiction  (R.S.B.C, Chap. 272,  and  the  Range  Ministry's mandate for resource  Act  important  periodic  submissions  requirement submission every public  aspect  for of  of the  integration  a  resource  of  management.  1978), the  (R.S.B.C,  and  reports  Section  analysis  to  4(c) the  TFL  Act  355,  licensing and  that  are  to  "significantly  are  in Section  the  (R.S.B.C, The  4(c) of the  Act  is the  to  the  Legislature. Linked  is  Section  Lieutenant  influence  management of the forest and  Forests  1978).  7  requirement for the  which  to  the  requires  the  Governor-in-Council  ten years. This is to include a summary of developments and policy  of  These  Forest  Chap.  planning.  18.  Ministry of Forests  of analyses  the  integration is spelled out  Ministry of Forests Act as stated on page  An  and  of  the and  and  Act  short  information  the various documents associated with T S A  of Forests  the  the the  hundred years) is projected through  well as reviewing  Ministry  updated  or  affect  range resources."  the  use,  once  questions of ownership,  46 The  A c t also  Resource  Program  sector  to  These  sections  attain  accountability accountable Forests  desired of the  the  extent  regarding  important for  that  that  the  can  be  increased  for  actions  Five-year  Ministry  of  taken  by  and  comprehensive The  piece  the  p l a n n i n g and  no  other  forestry  Forests  is  for  by  the  is  Ministry  are  of  forest  the  Ministry  and  C r o w n lands  range  out  of Forests  resources  the  held of  conditions  with  complete  within  Provincial  that  provide the greatest contribution to the social and economic welfare the province i f the land is maintained for integrated management renewable n a t u r a l resources ( M o F , 1979).  A c t states  that  a  Provincial  Forest  s h a l l be  managed  and  of of  used  for 1.  timber production, utilization and related  2.  forage  production and g r a z i n g b y livestock and  3.  forest  and wilderness oriented recreation;  4.  water,  5.  preservation  6.  energy,  7.  other  fisheries, and wildlife  purposes; wildlife;  and  purposes;  of wilderness;  m i n e r a l and petroleum development;  purposes  land.  ensuring  ministrj'  of legislation setting  A c t provides  management  Forests. P r o v i n c i a l Forests  The Forest  Range  productivity of forest  strategic  taken;  Forest  1987).  management. for  submission of a  alternatives  objectives  A c t are  A c t is a  responsibility  annual  managers  A c t (Toovey,  forest  the  discussing the  of to  The Forest for  requires  compatible w i t h the  and  above or permitted  by  regulations.  only  47 Another  important  Section  7  in  which  Forester. The can  be  reasonably  an  the  Act  Allowable  on be  on  a  the  amount  expected  production." An  given  by  the  area of use  these  the  taking  timber  context  Cut  consider  to a  of  strategic  determined  account,  area  the  the  other  area  for purposes other economic  and  for a  that  factors,  that than  can  timber  social objectives of  for the Province." It is important  determination  Chief  production  among  from  planning is  by  rate of timber  into  additional consideration is "the  considerations lead  is  produced  of the  the Crown...for the general region and that  in the  Annual  Chief Forester must  sustained  "constraints  section of  to note  rate of harvest rather  than a calculation of sustained yield (Toovey, 1987).  Section One  28  sets out  of the  the  general  requirements  approval  of  the  prepared  by  a  Chief  terms  and  the  holder  is that Forester  Registered  a  Five-Year  conditions of Tree of a  TFL  must  Management  Professional Forester. The  plan  Farm submit  and must  Sections  areas and other  53  to  56  specify  the  reduction of allowable annual  forms  requirements.  of  tenure.  This  may  purposes  and  policy  document  for the  cuts (AACs) for Tree F a r m be  in  response  to  wildlife  for the  Working  measures taken to protect forest resources including wildlife in the T F L  Finally,  Licenses.  Plan the  area.  deletion of  Licenses  and  management  48 3. Ministry of  The  Environment  Ministry of Environment  located in Victoria  is structured administratively with  and six regional offices located throughout  a  headquarters  the province. The  responsibility for program direction and policy making lies with headquarters  while  the various regions are responsible for implementing these  programs and policies.  Two  efforts  Branches  are  influential  in  shaping  coordinated  forestry-wildlife planning. The Wildlife Branch conducts  for integrated  wildlife habitat and wildlife  capability mapping. The Branch is also involved in setting provincial policies and procedures  in producing  wildlife  level, in coordinating wildlife government  agencies.  The  plans  at the provincial  and regional (strategic)  and habitat research, and in consulting with Planning  and  Assessment  Branch  coordinates  other the  production of various regional strategic plans (Harcombe, 1984).  The  Ministry of Environment  two  Acts having  is responsible for administering  the provisions of  implications for wildlife management. Through its  of the Wildlife Act (S.B.C., Chap. 57, 1982) the Ministry is given to manage as  and protect wildlife  "raptors, threatened  the mandate  populations and their habitat. Wildlife  species, endangered  wildlife prescribed as wildlife" and may air, soil, water, food and cover  administration  species, game  and other  is defined species of  include fish. Wildlife habitat means "the  components of the environment on which wildlife  depend directly or indirectly to carry out their life processes."  Under the Wildlife Act, the Ministry is provided with the opportunity to develop integrated resource use plans involving wildlife. The Minister, with the consent of  49 Cabinet,  may  Sections  4  Wildlife  Areas  Wildlife  Sanctuaries.  resource  designate  and 5  Crown  land  as Wildlife  of the Act, may  for the protection The  management  and  designate  of threatened  designation  plans  further  Management  and under  areas  as Critical  or endangered  of Wildlife  agreement  such  Areas  by  species,  Management the affected  or as  Areas  requires  resource  agencies  (Harcombe, 1984) since they may be situated within Provincial Forests.  The  other  statute  Management  affecting  Act (S.B.C.,  the management Chap. 14,  of wildlife  1981) which  is the Environment  empowers  the Minister  of  Environment to participate in matters relating to the management, protection and enhancement  of  the  environment  including  preparation  of  environmental  management plans.  4. Interministerial  In addition to E L U C there  Committees  and the two line agencies  are several informal  representatives  from  and formal  various  described in the preceding  interministerial  resource  agencies,  committees,  which  provide  comprised of a  forum for  coordinating specific agency policies and programs in an attempt to achieve The  committees operate  pages,  at various levels of planning, each performing  IRM.  a specific  function relating to policy development, program development, project approval and implementation.  In  Forests/Environment  terms Planning  of  Forest  Coordinating  Management  Commitee and working  been formed at the headquarters level. The Coordinating for  program  and  policy  development  Planning,  for TSAs.  At  a  joint  committee has  Committee is responsible the  senior  TSA  level  50  (headquarters), resource are being and  mangement goals  articulated, while  priorities  interministry Committee  are  team and  to  priorities  for each  at the local level (regions and  be  which  and  implemented.  has  ensuring  The  the primary  that  action  working  committee  arising  sector  districts) these  function of assisting points  resource  is  goals  also  an  the Coordinating  from  meetings  are  implemented.  Within which  the various forest districts of the province have  Forest  been  Service  comprised  in  established to act as dealing  with  almost exclusively  a  an  wide  advisory range  of  type  process  now  Steering Committees.  Institutional arrangements  meet the changing socio-economic circumstances follows t  that surround  highlights  some  for TSAs.  Institutional  in B.C.  have  These  committees,  company  foresters,  in turn, are responsible  Representation  by  the MoE  has  Arrangements  evolved  and  are continuing to evolve to  needs of British Columbians and adjust to other  management of natural resources. The  of the  to the  planning, for analyzing specific issues  for coordinating the planning  5. Strengths & Weaknesses of  Committees  of committee  topics.  providing technical advice to Ministry planners who,  occurred on several T S A  Steering  of Ministry of Forests staff and  are very important, in the context of T S A and  are T S A  documented  strengths  and  discussion that  weaknesses  of the  above institutions in the context of integrated forestry and wildlife planning. tThis discussion is intended to provide information on institutional arrangement rather than on the evaluation of the planning process, the central component of this thesis. Criteria for evaluation are not applied to these institutional arrangements.  A  primary  is an  consideration  appropriate  in attempts to achieve integrated  organization  B.C.  within  chapter,  the  resource  integration is achieved  than within  a  Government  to the  a  the  single ministry  but  initiatives toward  of adminstrative between  civil service. As  adopted  through  foresters  and  have  between  taken  reorganization  this. There are On  wildlife  has,  place  at  be  whereby  agencies the  Cabinet decision would associated  with  planning  and  difficulty  in  a  not  single  be  the  possibility  elevated  forestry  decision-making convincing  the  is  public  and  time  levels of  greatly  being,  required, that  part of institutional  arrangements, an  cornerstone upon which integration can be over  the  last  management resources  of  is the  need to plan cooperation  decade, public  for the  and  that  with  appropriate  some  resources.  Of  significance Act  of forestry and  coordination. The  resolved  by  problem  neutrality in  managers not  will  face  automatically  legislative  framework is the  made to work. Legislation in B.C.  in  use  forest  negative  further  where  the  1984).  resulted  Ministry of Forests  ministry,  forestry interests will  take precedence over wildlife interests (Fox,  As  is  slowed  communication  enhanced,  political level. A  wildlife  civil  wildlife agencies within  that some issues best  to the  rather  senior  result that fewer issues would require resolution at the political level. A consequence however, would be  first  disadvantages to this type  positive side, the  biologists would  approach  line  for the  advantages and  the  mentioned in the  organizational  integration of forestry and  latest  organization.  an  negotiation  single ministry. Discussions  service level in regard  any  has  the  management objectives  major  advances to  towards  integrated  use  has,  improved of  natural  which gives explicit recognition for wildlife  resources  major weakness is the  through  the  methods of  lack of definition  as to  52 what the words "integration" and "coordination" are and how  integration is to be  achieved  in a  definition  concepts  in  cooperative  existing  framework.  legislation  and  The  lack  program  of clear  goals  leads  to  interpretation and poor understanding  of intent (Harcombe, 1984).  The  strengthened  Wildlife  wildlife For  Act (1982) has been  within  the framework  example  through  cover  non-game  more  specific  include  improvement  a change  animals,  definition  Section  3  and  "wildlife  allows  in its approach  "wildlife"  the  given  "acquisition, purposes,  manage  a  broadened to broader  1). New  and  initiatives  administration  and  in  for the Province.  has been  of the Act (Section  for  ambiguity  protect and  development  habitat" has been  for habitat management  agreements with other agencies consistent  resource  in definitions,  for the terms  which  of land  of overall  to better  of basic  and  for entering  into  and individuals to achieve this". Also the Act is  with  the established processes  of the Environment  Mangement Act (1981) for the overall management of the Province's environment.  A the  weakness of both lack  of  the Wildlife  direction  management. Neither planning  with  the  However  the need  "Proposed  Wildlife  with  regard  act specifies planning  Act and the Environment  Management  cooperative  a directive  of other  to undertake  to  Plan  resource  for integration  resource  inter-agency  Management  ministries  cooperation  for British  document that enunciates several key policy statements  planning  of wildlife  is expressed (MoE,  and  resource  (Sturmanis,  Columbia"  Act is  1986). in the  1979),  on wildlife management.  a  53 B.  FOREST MANAGEMENT  PLANNING  Closely associated with institutions, and the  planning  and  the  political  influences  values  found  imposed  by  decision-making  in  process.  surrounding  government  in a sense indistinguishable from them, is It is through  policy  ideology;  issues;  and  the  the  studies norms,  of process  that  assumptions  and  opportunities  and  constraints  institutions, lead to a better understanding of organizations  (Simeon,  1979).  Governments objectives are  face  a  into an  integral  ameliorate  difficult  task  integrated  form  components resource  of  in  unifying  where  integrated  problems to planning  as  a  cooperation  planning.  including  involved, they  look  that arise and  their associated costs. But  diverse  shifts  perspectives,  and  When in  common  values  understanding  organizations  power  means of reducing  among the  and  attempt  the  to  interests  many uncertainties  as Lang (1986) appropriately states,  this presents both an opportunity and a dilemma since the uncertainty that generated the need for more planning also makes planning evermore difficult.  Not  only  required years  is to  and  planning  realize the  the  process  (Dick, 1981). Despite to  planning  activities. and  For  a  in  difficult,  time  full  benefits  may  not  accrued  receive  full  to  order  to  provide  a  within  a  framework  foundation  of  undertaking,  the  support  these obstacles, organizations  these organizations planning  evaluation  consuming  provides  are for "a  quantifed  process from  may senior  but  take  time  several  administrators  giving increased organizing  the  and  emphasis controlling  system for decision-making objectives"  (Crowe,  1983).  54 Planning is part of a management system that, if properly conducted, integrates the  activities of an  organization  including the  development of  program objectives, strategies for implementation, and and  monitoring.  agency  goals,  mechanisms for evaluation  It is a dynamic, integrated system that can  be  conceptualized  through four questions that relate to a particular phase of an agency's planning system (Crowe, 1983). These questions are: 1.  Where are we?  This question centres on  the inventories and  leads to a  determination of what the desired program outputs are. 2.  Where do  we  want to be?  The  agency formulates  goals, objectives  and  strategies and combines these in the development of strategic plans. 3.  How  will we  objectives towards  get there?  simultaneously, operational  Because an priorities  planning  agency cannot attain all program  are  which  established.  translates  These  program  are  directed  objectives  into  projects. 4.  Did we  make it? The  agency uses monitoring to obtain feedback from plan  implementation. Evaluation measures provide the basis for "fine-tuning" the system. An  institutionalized planning process that effectively addresses these questions is  likely to provide a proactive rather than reactive approach to dealing with issues, reduce the  degree of uncertainty  and  complexity  that  surround  issues,  and  address public demands for demonstrated agency accomplishments.  Forest Management Planning is an important level of planning for two management  units  - TSAs  and  TFLs  - that  management strategies for timber, range and  lays  out  types of  broad, long  range  recreation within the context  of  55 Regional priorities. It is used to address the question posed want  to  be?"  established  Program  and twenty  Management  options  are  year  supply  is  strategic  planning  examined  and  for timber,  areas for the forest in  that  it  above "Where do we AACs  are  industry are identified.  links  the  broad,  largely  non-quantitative provincial and regional policies and programs to the more detailed operational plans.  The  planning processes for each  different  objectives  and  conveyed  to the holders  type  are designed  of unit  are different  to reflect  of various licenses.  tenure  Moreover,  because  they  arrangements planning  serve  that are  processes  will  necessarily differ across the province due to geographic variation.  This section of the thesis examines the two broadly based British  Columbia  - units  that  have  been  the vehicle  management units in  through  which  government  implements forest policy.  1. TSAs and TSA Planning  A for  Timber Supply the analysis  boundaries  were  Area  is a geographic  of the supply originally  defined  land unit that represents a logical area  and on  demand  for the timber  the basis of locations  resource.  of  TSA  manufacturing  centres and transportation routes and on the available timber supply but for ease of administration are now There  are now  of TFLs,  more  closely  aligned  with  forest  district  boundaries.  35 TSAs in the province. All forms of tenure, with the exception  are scattered  throughout  Timber  Supply  Areas  and form  a mosaic of  56 timber  tenures.  The  distribution  of  these  tenures  and  available to different sectors of the industry is based prepared  by  the  government.  Thus  TSAs  are  the  on  amount  an  TSA range  in opening up  volume-based,  plans and  resources  are  the  TSA  basis for establishing  such  as  fish  and  wildlife.  They  objectives for timber, range, and  management  strategies  preparation of District Local Resource 3.  feature  that  to existing licence  licences.  AAC  and  for managing  timber,  resource  are  comprehensive  documents  that  TSA:  as quantitative, long-term 2.  the  a  plan  recreation resources on provincial forest land, taking into account other  establish for each 1.  additional areas for new  timber  apportionment  provides the government with flexibility in making adjustments areas and  of  use  Use  whenever possible  supply forecasts; for  annual  Plans and  assumptions  recreation expressed  timber,  range  Five Year  and  recreation;  Proposals and  the  used  in  the  coordination of  Development Plans;  underlying stated  TSA  objectives; documented  on  planning maps; and 4.  licensee supply ("chart") areas for timber harvesting over the next 20 (MoF,  The A the  TSA  1984d).  planning process has  "first round" major  objectives, difficulties  years  of T S A  emphasis particularly  continued to evolve since the Forest Act in  planning commenced in 1981 directed the  towards  the  determination  in adjusting to the newly  and  attainment of  AACs.  developed  policies  1979.  lasted until 1985, of  timber  Forest and  with  management  planners  procedures  faced  with  the  57 result that only  10  plans were completed for the  33  TSAs  that existed at the  time.  TSA  planning  is  now  going  through  Resource Management Plans  are  The  during  TSA  planning  process  the  to be  "second  completed  this  round  round"  during  for all T S A s  is concerned  specific goals for T S A  TSA  in the province.  with  greater emphasis to integrating non-timber resources with the timber  The  which  giving  much  resource.  planning are:  1.  To  determine the land base available for timber harvesting;  2.  To  regulate the rate of timber  harvest in conjunction with  other  uses  and  the regional woodflow picture; 3.  To  ensure efficient and  4.  To establish priorities and  Thus T S A and  orderly timber  harvesting, and;  directions for Local Resource Use  planning is intended, in part, to identify how  mandates influence the  manner in which  Resource Management Plans  the  other  wildlife and  plans  plans  wildlife  of the resources  of  resource  agencies,  assessed  in terms  are  for  Ministry of Environment. The are  of how  to be  harvesting and  emphasized  by  the  affect wildlife habitat requirements.  Ministry  of  between  supply  subsequent silvicultural treatments  Forests  that  TSA  planning  Ministry a certain leverage to make decisions regarding an  with  sub-regional  habitat needs  impacts  they may  the  interactions  "net down" or constrain the available timber  in terms of how  coordinated  example  "constraints" may of timber  agency objectives  the Forest Service carries out its  responsibilities. All T S A strategic  other  Planning.  timber  and  other  while  the  are evaluated  It has should  often been give  the  Allowable Annual  Cut  58 (AAC)  within an  and  non  An  AAC  and  timber  IRM  environment. Thus the  resources such  is approved by  relationship between timber  as wildlife is an important consideration.  the Chief Forester for each T S A  for a five year period  is based on:  1.  analysis documents  2.  the Regional Manager's recommendations  3.  judgement  4.  Section 7 of the Forest Act  5.  the Ministry's present level of funding  Especially which  relevant to the  states  that  the  wildlife  Chief  produced  resource  Forester  from  the  is Section  must  amount  of timber  the use  of the area for purposes other than  area  7.1(d) of the  consider  that can  "the  Forest  Act  constraints on  the  reasonably  be  and  determination,  demonstrates  management. However,  the  opportunity  in reality,  there  timber interests to maintain or increase the  The  TSA  planning procedures  Manual (MoF, persons  not well acquainted  in general and this  1984d).f The  a  exists  overview  the basis for  in T S A  considerable  planning  pressure  from  3 of the Resource Planning  in the manual are somewhat complex for  with the T S A  general  by  AAC.  planning process or forest management  their complete description and  thesis. Instead  for flexibility  are set out in Chapter procedures  expected  timber production." His discretionary  power, coupled with the fact that a number of considerations form AAC  supply  evaluation are beyond the scope of  of the  process, following the  tPrior to 1984, TSA planning guidelines were outlined addressed to all Regional Managers (May 28, 1982).  in  a  systematic  memorandum  59 approach  outlined on  page  26,  is provided. The  planning  steps  are indicated in  Figure 2.  The  description  should  be  revision  that follows is based  noted  so  that  that  the  at  the  time  resource  on  the  of this  Resource writing,  requirements  of  Planning  the  other  Manual  manual  agencies  is  but it  undergoing  can  be  better  incorporated into the planning process.  In  the  setting  identified These  by  Terms  of  Reference  (Preliminary  Ministry staff in consultation with  issues  considered  of  have  and  a  how  major  planning  bearing  in  determining  activities will  issues currently being addressed  the  Organization), public and what  issues  other  agencies.  options  neea  Some  of the  further proceed.  are  to  be  main  at the T S A  level, in the context of forestry  and  shape of cut block openings,  the number of harvesting passes  and  wildlife planning include: 1.  size and  the time interval ("green-up") between harvesting passes; 2.  composition are  on  of forest vegetation over time. Since most wildlife habitat needs  the  extreme  ends of forest succession (early  climax stages), the requirements  serait  The be  the allocation of the range resource between wildlife and final T S A addressed  courses  of  action  so  t A sere is a stage (plant succession).  20  year  that in the  horizon. Issues  options  represent  development  of a  are  cattle.  synthesized  practical  and  and  Resource Management Plan must document how in the  or late  for both old growth or mature timber,  early serai communities for forage over time are critical; 3.  stages  these issues will into  management  vegetative community  alternative alternatives over  time  F i g u r e 2. TSA PLANNING PROCESS TERMS OF REFERENCE • Organization • Scheduling • I n i t i a l Issue Identification • I n i t i a l options  Step 1  PUBLIC REVIEW OF 'fERMS OF REFERENCE  INFORMATION ASSEMBLY  DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF INTEGRATED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS Timber A n a l y s i s • Range A n a l y s i s • Recreation Analysis • Other Resource A n a l y s i s  PUBLIC REVIEW OF OPTIONS REPORT  EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF AN OPTION  DRAFT PLAN BASED ON PREFERRED OPTION  PUBLIC REVIEW OF DRAFT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN  REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PLAN  IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING (Source: MoF, 1988a)  61 designed  in an  integrated use  Following  this,  identified.  These  Scenarios  and  signify  selection  are  Procedures with  and  of procedures  sub-steps  acceptance  context  the  documented  approved  direction  within  for carrying out  finally  and  achievable  by  given  the  in  subsequent a  limitations. activities is  Statement  Regional  to T S A  budget  Forests  Resource  of  Issues,  Manager  Management  to  Plan  development.  The in  Terms of Reference give direction to the second step, Information which  planning  forestry  data  process. A  is updated,  number  reworked  and  of information reports are  best available information that conforms to MoF  Analysis of Options options  through  providing  sustainable  resource use and  3  supply  levels  entails the  generated,  use  in  the  based  on  the  policy.  assessment of a number  modelling. Forest planning  and  for  schedules  of timber  models  harvest  of proposed  are  centred  Analyses  alternative supply use  for  non-timber  are  also  targets for the respective resource  options  on  these  values  are  undertaken  values. The  assessed  and  on  for the integrated  options previously documented in the Statement of Issues,  Procedures.  integrated  in step  timber  synthesized  Assembly,  Scenarios  to  establish  impacts of the  documented  in  the  various analysis reports.  The  fourth step is the  Evaluation and  discussion, consultation and The  TSA  evaluated  Options by  MoF  Option  which consists of  comparative evaluation of the various analysis reports.  Report, staff,  Selection of an  which  other  describes  agencies,  the  a  range  public  and  of  feasible  industry  options, prior  to  is the  62 Chief Forester's determination The  Selection of an  Option  is a  the Chief Forester, the MoF the The  development AAC  and  is determined  and  decision regarding  consultative process  Executive and  by  whereby  staff (but not MoE)  the  Chief  Forester  a  apportionment. review  who  determination  for  a  five  preliminary A A C  and  between  took part in of an  year  AAC.  period  year perspective in addition to a long term  supply objective. The  in a Draft T S A  AAC  analysis of options, leads to a  represents a strategic 20 timber  of an  (200  and year)  other decisions are documented  Resource Management Plan which is reviewed  by  the public and  agency staff prior to final approval.  The  final step is the Implementation  of the T S A use Five  and  Monitoring of the Plan. Implementation  Resource Management Plan is the responsibility of District staff  who  the plan to establish forest management program proposals for the Ministry's Year  Program. In  give direction by  theory  providing an  the AAC  TSA  Resource  specification  and  Management serving as  Plan a  serves  norm  to  in the  less specific operational decision-making.  Monitoring used  involves all levels of staff. District  staff assess  resource  in previous options to determine their validity; Regional  implementation; undertaking  and  research  Headquarters and  staff  development  audit in  Regional  planning  staff audit District  activities  methodology.  monitoring that takes place varies according to programs within the  The  procedures  Regional  and  summarized  assumptions  in  addition to  The  the planning process has  had  of  MoF.  above have been subject to interpretation by  District staff; thus  level  various  different forms of  63  application  that are  dependant upon  personal  perspectives and  the  circumstances  surrounding management activities.  2.  T F L s and  Tree  Farm  Provincial  Planning  TFL  Licenses  are  government  relatively  and  major  for forest management within a fulfill  two  major  of  timber  provide  a  forest  first  while  secure  of timber  investments  in the  tenure  products  agreements  firms,  is to  place  of  the  is to grow values.  for established licensees and  TSAs, Tree  Farm  planning  second thereby  the MoF.  in  once every the  Licenses  are  area-based  tenures  approved periodically by  attract  for the  stability  that grant  rights to Working  the Chief Forester of  a term of twenty five years with the opportunity for  ten years. This enables  license  is to  areas.  the licensee and  Each license has  replacement included  by  and  1984c). These objectives therefore have  the licensee to manage forest resources according to a Management and Plan prepared  to  successive crops  The  long term implications for the management of Crown lands and  Unlike  the  providing responsibilities  most  considering non-timber  forest industry (MoF,  of communities in surrounding  between  area. This arrangement is designed  the license holder who  in perpetuity supply  term  specified  objectives. The  management responsibility on  long  document  to  be  the  changed  terms by  and  conditions to  government  be  if deemed  necessary.  Management  planning  for  TFLs  is undertaken  through  a  three-tiered  planning  64 process.  At  prepared  which  objectives  the upper  five  set the approved  for  timber  values,  proposed strategies to manage is the foundation  represented  five  year  (which  prescriptions  and provide  harvesting  areas  harvest timber  respects  ensure decision.  and  specific and  of the T F L  integrated  harvest  (Kennedy,  1986).  resource  an inventory  levels,  and the  The  second  careful Thus  in  permits  The  TSAs) that  timber  areas  third is  are  and  regarding  are updated  annually to  of forest  management  level  the  preparation  approved  topographic providing  by  the  information  authority  according to specific  of  preharvest  MoF. from  These  proposed  to the licensee to  requirements.  for T F L s through Forest Management Planning is similar in  to that for T S A s preparation the planning  and  in that participants follow the same evaluation  process  of options  is similar  for the Chief  to that  indicated  to Terms of Reference) and Review of the Draft Management three steps in the T S A  Planning  steps to Forester's  in Figure  except that the public is involved during the Preliminary Organization  as compared with  level,  construction) in the license area in  development plans  are the vehicle  in designated  are  and outline broad  document that contains annual  Plans  and protect the various resources. In essence this  applies  cutting  planning process  many  protection  the proposed  in information.  also  documents  The  forest  period. These  for changes  planning  Working  for each license area,  and forestry projects (e.g. bridge  ensuing  account  and  by five year development plans, provides specific information  harvesting the  AAC  Management  is a comprehensive  analysis of resource  document  year  harvesting,  management. The plan and  level,  2  (equivalent  and Working plan  procss. Also, the onus is on  the license holder to initiate and carry out the majority  of planning  activities in  65 the preparation of the Management and  Working Plan  consult  with  agencies,  process  for T F L s  having  Forest  Service, other  options, the  Year  funding  Forest  the by  according to corporate by  the  public. The  the  Regions.  needs and  company, the  Analysis,  Year  Program Even  process  must  planning  Ministry staff  reflect the  operate and  within  TFL  be  carried  levels  resource  planning  a Registered  Ministry's  the  incorporate  though  undertaken by  must  function.  management must  Resource  Five  the  approval  for T F L  Range  by  established  employed  options  and  identified  priorities  and  in so doing, he  involves fewer participants than for TSAs, with  largely a coordination, review and  Like T S A Five  the  and  is  of use  initiated  Professional Forester  out  in accordance  with  Ministry of Forests policy.  Preliminary  Organization  recreation  issues  responsible  for obtaining  for  establishing  and  public  responsible for choosing  involves the  an  identification  of  tentative  management  objectives.  public input involvement  as  part  of the  procedures.  the timber supply  of data  used, the procedures for synthesizing and models to be  Of  importance  primary  integrated option  resource  use  The  the  range licensee  of issues  TFL  holder  and is and is  analysis procedures in consultation with  Branch of the MoF.  the planning  timber,  identification  Moreover  the Inventory to be  the  These procedures include the kind aggregating  and  format  the data  and  used (Robb, 1985).  is the  Evaluation  options  are  and  evaluated  Selection of by  is selected for further consideration. Based  the on  an  licensee the  Option and  preceding  a  whereby preferred  data, results  66 and  decisions, the licensee prepares a Draft T F L Management and Working  that summarizes the decisions, proposals  and recommendations. This  reviewed by staff of the MoF  agencies to determine how  preferred place  management  during  period  which  by  consultation  place  Service staff who  objectives. Public  agencies  by  are evaluated.  and  Headquarters,  between  the  public  Regional  the Chief  Forester,  the licensee's  review  reviews in  and  document is  also  Following  comments, the Chief Forester  various  given  takes  affects their  the licensee's proposals  the  recommendations  The  strategy  for receipt of written  provided  and  and other  a  takes  30 day  all feedback  addition  District  Plan  to  staff.  the Executive  the  Further  and  Forest  participated in the development and review of the Management  Working Plan.  Chief  Forester  plan, based  exercises  on funding  a good  deal  of discretion in the approval  levels and long term objectives. He  for specifying in the approval  of the  retains the authority  letter any obligations that the licensee must adhere  to for the term of the plan. These reflect periodic changes encountered in forest management.  Forest may 1987  Management gain  planning  increasing importance  policy announcement  announced  that,  companies  for  processing  through  by  over  the three-tiered process coming  the Minister  in return  for increased  assuming  greater  of wood  products,  This  of Forest requirements  management  "security  increasing the number of Tree Farm  years.  will  Licences  be  as outlined  above  is due in part  to a  and Lands. The Minister on  the part  responsibility available  from  and  of forest increased  to the industry  by  the current level of 2 9 % to  67 a  maximum  of  67%  of  the  provincial  applications for tenure are to be judged the  It  allowable  in terms  annual  cut."t  of company  Individual  performance  and  public interest.  is important to note  forest  industry  management other  carries  plans  organized  that with  the transfer  it the requirement  and for actively  interests  and  of management  responsibilities  for producing  seeking the input  the general public  to the  integrated  of government  in the development  forest  agencies, of these  plans. As noted by the Chief Forester,  Industry developed Management and Working Plans and Five Year Development Plans will be integrated resource plans. Management and Working Plans will be expected to mirror T S A Resource Management Plans in their comprehensiveness with respect to other uses... If these plans do not adequately address other values and uses, or if adequate consultation has not taken place, these plans will not be approved (Cuthbert, 1988b).  Also is  significant to the increased  the  concept  Understanding")$ the  agreement  planning  and  of partnership between  management. A  reduction  responsibilities by forest companies  agreements  (otherwise  the licensees  are to reduce to increase  management  as  "Letters  and the B.C. government. The  the involvement  the licensee's in the size  known  of the MoF  accountability  of the MoF  agreement. The licensee must apply to the MoF  of  goals of  in field-level forest  to the public  has further  for forest  encouraged  this  to enter into this agreement and  t A t the time of this writing a series of hearings have been held to allow the opportunity for public input. The policy is subject to change based on the input received. JThis partnership concept was previously known as the Subsidiary Agreement. There are currently 2 Subsidiary Agreements and 6 Letters of Understanding in place. Eight Letters of Understanding are pending at the time of this writing. This agreement may be extended to include volume-based tenures.  68 the  application will  only  be  accepted  if the licensee  has a  performance in forestry, range and recreation management mention is made of management for resources at least one Registered responsible the  RPF  Professional Forester  for undertaking is qualified  the best  management of both timber and non timber  The  partnership  agreement  involves  than timber, each T F L has  planning.  decisions  record of  activities. Although no  (RPF) who, as mentioned  forest management  to make  other  proven  above, is  The assumption  for the tenure  is that  regarding the  resources.  an auditing procedure  at the field level is periodically reviewed.! Moreover  whereby  management  the licensee is expected to  hold regular public meetings at which time the licensee's annual report is made available to interested parties.  3. Strengths and Weaknesses of Forest Management Planning  The  following subsection  weaknesses context. criteria  The  of Forest research  discusses  some of the general  Management  Plannning  results of this  in an  thesis, which  documented integrated  are evaluated  strengths and forestry/wildlife against  eight  (Chapter 3), will discuss these more fully and will validate or invalidate  some of the findings in the literature.  A and  basic strength of the T S A resolution  of  problems  Planning at  a  process stage  is the ability for the identification where  planning  flexibility  exists.  Incorporation of wildlife habitat requirements into plans as a result of T S A issue tAuditing is similar to monitoring is more formal in its approach.  but involves less contact with  the licensees and  69 identification can result in less interagency and  In  review  stages (Price, 1987).  the past, a lack  somewhat  conflict at the more localized planning  of inventory  rudimentary  nature.  data  However  on wildlife with  had  recent  resulted in plans  improvements  of a  to the data  base, the Wildlife Branch has undertaken extensive planning to exert an influence in  the strategic  planning  process  of the MoF.  The  products  of the initiative  include: 1.  A  Provincial Wildlife Strategy which emphasizes policy and strategic issues,  2.  Provincial  Species  detailing important  Statements which aspects  of wildlife  are comprehensive, technical documents species and providing prescriptions to  manage the species and its habitat. 3.  Regional Wildlife Plans which identify regional issues for wildlife species and wildlife habitat, provide  a supply/demand  analysis and contain an integrated  list of species and habitat priorities.  These  products  have clarified  the basis for recommendations provided  staff and will undoubtedly raise the level of credibility, making and  habitat staff  more  effective  negotiators  in integrated  by wildlife  wildlife biologists  resource  management  (Prouse, 1987).  A has  weakness in the planning process is the fact that the Ministry of Environment no legislative control over the land base; thus  managed  wildlife and their habitat are  primarily through policy, inter-ministry liaison, discussion and persuasion  (Harcombe,  1984). This  process  is characterized by  advocacy  planning  in which  70 each interest group with  the result that  results not  strives to the best  in strained  favor  tradeoffs  of its ability  are made. This  relationships between  to achieve  concilliatory  participants and a  its own  goals,  approach inevitably situation that  does  interests whose objectives are difficult to define. As noted by Thomas  (cited by Robb, 1987)  the best defined and driving mechanism for the overall process is timber harvesting followed by stand regeneration. Wildlife targets are much more difficult to define and quantify and as a result, objectives for wildlife have usually been thought of as constraints.  A  fundamental  weakness  integrated resource yet  been  is the lack  use" (Strang,  into  the political  n.d.). As arena  by  others"  the  a clearly  a result, many an  participants, be they wilderness or  guidelines for  management. "No overall land use policy for the province has  articulated, nor is there  land  of provincial or regional  excessive  defined  and explicit  resource  use issues  level  of uncertainty  defined  of  "are propelled  that  affects all  advocates, fishery and wildlife managers, foresters  (Association of B.C. Professional Foresters,  lack of clearly  philosophy  1987). Related  concepts in legislation and program  goals  to this is (Harcombe,  1984).  Another weakness pointed process little  effort  wildlife rather  for wildlife  plan than  directed  out by Harcombe (1984) is the fact that the planning  has tended  to focus  to managing  objectives  have  been  on featured  for species  species  diversity  articulated in terms  areas of quality habitat required. While  or  management, with richness.  of population  wildlife  Moreover parameters  habitat needs have  been qualitative!} defined, forestry related objectives such as the A A C s have been 7  71 quantitatively  defined  through  Forest  Management  Planning.  Thus  basic difficulty in incorporating wildlife needs into timber supply  The  MoF's Timber  management supplies. Forests  Supply  options  Through  and identify  these  Act (Section  resources  in order  Analysis System  mechanisms  4c), the intent  that  and  in the context  is to manage  socio-economic  of each  values  staff to derive  for future  timber  of the Ministry of  the resource  are fully  exists a  analyses.  has enabled planning  the consequences  there  base  for  all  realized. But as Percy  (1986) states,  despite the increasing sophistication of the Forest Service in terms of projecting future timber supplies and evaluating the consequences for various timber management policies, the criteria by which the forest resource base is managed are largely ...physical criteria.  Other authors (e.g. Irland, 1985) similarly state that strategic forest planning has been excessively technically oriented and that managers have been unsuccessful in identifying issues in such a manner as to obtain public  Since the early 1980's there has been a growing support  support.  for an overall land use  strategy to guide forest managment. This has been supported Advisory  Committee  by the Wilderness  (1986), the Association of B.C. Professional Foresters  (1987),  the forest industry and a number of environmental and outdoor recreation groups. The  common  obtain  bond  in this  for a comprehensive  a more mutual vision of the future with  to sustain commercial base  desire  and  resource  other  forest harvesting,  resource  needs.  land  is  to  respect to the "working forest"  the environmental  In order  use strategy  to achieve  a  and recreational land common  future, all  sectors will have to enter into negotiations in a spirit of give and take.  72 The  very  fact  particularly by in  MoF  that  this growing  organizations  strategic  call  for  a  land  use  strategy  has  developed,  like the forest industry which are intimately involved  planning  for  IRM,  underlines  a  major  weakness  in  current  approaches.  Another weakness that exists in the process is the fact that the of  the  MoF,  which  is designed  projections through the use IRM  issues.  currently  As  noted  in use  can  that  arise  from  by  Williams  integrated  issues  retention  proportionally reducing  the  sustained  al  (1988),  rate  at  which  model the  through of  net  an  "The  timber  patterns the  area-specific harvest are  base for the  harvesting  supply  individual analysis  harvesting  habitat  timber  been unable to capture  management." Because  wildlife land  yield  models, has  et  resource  constraints  as  the  adequately  cannot model the such  generate  of forest planning  constrain  harvested. It does not  to  analysis system  and  model  units  constraints  analysis  system  schedule, the  roughly  are  IRM  approximated  purpose of projecting the  by long  term timber supply.  These  then  Management  are  the  more  Planning.  commonly  Planners  of  cited strengths both  the  MoF  and and  weaknesses MoE  improve upon the weaknesses that currently exist but at the that some are institutional planning.  most difficult  arrangements  to rectify because they  and  the  relative  priority  are and  are  of  striving  same time  the  Forest to  recognize  product of complex  importance  given  to  III.  This chapter  CRITERIA  puts forth  and  FOR  discusses  EVALUATING  criteria  IRM  for evaluating  the  integrated forestry/wildlife planning through Forest Management  Evaluation  of program effectiveness requires clear and  (Weiss, 1972). Several Management  Planning  in  the  literature on  planning  Eight criteria  books, journals, and officials. The  conference  context  have  been  proceedings  specific criteria for  success  IRM  were  derived  through  an  management, institutions  and  selected based and  on  documentation in  in consultation with  government  evaluation criteria are:  clear, quantitative objectives  2.  a hierarchical planning  3.  shared (interagency), cooperative  4.  meaningful participation by  5.  flexibility in plans and  6.  an  7.  commitment to planning  8.  a monitoring  provided  of  integrated resource  1.  Below,  Planning.  normative criteria for assessing the effectiveness of Forest  examination of the processes.  effectiveness of  framework planning  the relevant publics  planning  processes  adequate data base  each  program  criterion  for  effective  planning  is presented  and  its rationale is  in a brief commentary.  Criterion 1 Written objectives established for the w h i c h are clear, quantified and consistent with and environmental policy. 73  resource agency provincial forest  74 Commentary analyzed  An  and  objective is a "statement  expressed  with  accomplished  within the time  1983).  definition  This  sufficient  of intention specificity  and resources  suggests  that  to indicate  available  explicit  that has been how  identified, it can be  to the agency"  (Branch,  objectives are purposive;  for this  reason they are to be found  in all plans and programs having implementation  an  Thus  intent  (Branch,  1983).  objectives  are highly  because they provide direction for intended program  Explicit,  quantitatively  recognize  the needs  groundwork  defined objectives enable of each.  for resource  Thus  particularly  accomplishment.  the various agencies  the provision  tradeoffs, ultimately  significant,  as  of such  involved to  objectives lays the  exerting influence over  the manner  in which the planning process is administered and the resources integrated in the field.  This  criterion  elements  is closely  in  the  linked  planning  with  flexibility  environment  because  change,  when  resources  objectives  accordingly. It is also associated with monitoring since changing in  feedback  mechanisms  interact with  must  be  or other revised  realities reflected  objectives as "dependent variables" in the  analytical loop.  Criterion 2 Planning undertaken within a comprehensive framework of hierarchical levels, from the enunciation of provincial policy by government to plan implementation vis-a-vis operational planning.  Commentary  Resource  framework because such  planning  should  be  undertaken  a framework is needed  within  a  comprehensive  to facilitate the development of  75 plans  at levels  such the  of detail  as public demand "appropriate  often difficult  and emphasis  and complexity  level of emphasis  for planners  appropriate  for particular  of information. The problem  and detail" is an important  to "scope"  circumstances  the planning  process  of defining  one, for it  is  appropriately (Petch,  1985).  Effective planning involves progressive refinement of management decisions through a  hierarchical  that  framework  "planning  of levels. This is noted  at one level of detail can be undertaken  plans and objectives for a broader  In  British Columbia, strategic  broad  (1976) who stated  only  in the context of  area."  plans  at the Forest Management  level refine the  goals and objectives as stated in overall policies. These plans in turn must  provide guidance by  by Pearse  the Ministry  for planners undertaking of Forests  (1985)  tactical plans: a requirement highlighted  in an  evaluation  of the T S A  planning  program. As the evaluation stated, "TSA Plans must reflect government priorities and  give direction to lower  level Local Plans and Resource Development Plans."  Criterion 3 Incorporation of multi-agency interests i n a shared planning environment, with each participant h a v i n g a stake in the outcome viewed as an equal partner.  Commentary capture many  The criterion of joint planning  the essense  of integrated resources  of the terms  interactive  and resource  associated  with  or shared management  the concept  optimization. The dominant  "consensus decision-making":  decision-making  an attempt to reach  seems to  since it is reflected in  such concept  as  interdisciplinary,  of joint planning is  a general accord in effecting a  76 purpose rather than reaching unanimity  A  key  reason  (Petch, 1985).  for accommodating several interests in a planning endeavor is the  innovation which entails seeking solutions leading to better decisions and costs (Innes, 1984). Integrated resource management, while regarded as  being  a  complexity, "equal in  superior approach  to planning, involves negative  uncertainty, value-conflict,  partnership" approach  reducing  the  undesired  has  a  to  decisions,  capture and  the  effects  will  full  likely  of  these  of  phenomena  as  through  an  than  conventional Any  results  planning  agency  single  situations  biased, narrow  such  planning  phenomena.  most  managers  Joint  or forecasting to a  breadth  produce  instability.  greater potential  programs that confines its analyses unable  and  by  reduced  planning  discipline  requiring (Ascher  will  high  and  be  level  Overholt,  1983).  Criterion 4 Meaningful formalized process.  Commentary  The  participation  by  involvement  definition the  offers  participation by  of democracy,  individuals  many  who  advantages  relevant publics  "government  will  which  the  be  by  affected  the by  ultimately result  people"  the Province resource public  in more  and  in order  we  as to  1980). Public involvement,  implies  acceptable  the public and  a former Deputy Minister of Forests, "Citizens of  need to know what the implications are of choosing  options  wants  stated by  a  decisions. Public  forms of planning for resource use. These benefits accrue to both the government. As  in  forest  present  managers technical  need  options  to know that  are  among various  what  an  workable"  informed (Apsey,  with its sharing of information, assists planners in the  77 development of options and mechanism  in IRM  decision-makers  in making choices. It is an  for mitigating resource  conflicts  and  determining  resource tradeoffs, in turn resulting in greater acceptance  by  the  important appropriate  public of land  use proposals.  Accountability involvement. the  of  decision-makers  Integrating the  accountability  of  is  another  important  relevant publics into  decision-makers  and  the  the  aspect  planning  legitimacy  of  process  of  public  enhances  decision-making  procedures.  Criterion 5 Plans and planning processes should be flexible accommodate changing needs, circumstances and information.  Commentary circumstances planning  Flexibility and  built into IRM  plans  to accommodate  changing  the introduction of better information (Petch, 1985). Plans  processes  decision-making.  should be  to  that  retain  Planning  thus  flexibility becomes  a  will  continue  to  recursive, often  serve  as  repetitive  and  aids  in  process  of  decision-making, characterized as having a dynamic "looping" of planning steps.  Amendments  to plans  should  not  be  undertaken  so  frequently and  be  of  such  great extent that the management direction becomes totally obsolete; otherwise plan will be of little value. On so  infrequently that  issues.  Flexibility  structures  should  the  must not  the other hand, amendments should not be  stated direction  within  also  planning  be  apply  totally  to  abandoned  plans  is dealing with  processes  if it means  mechanism for dealing with future problems (Petch, 1985).  but that  again, there  the  made  outdated proven is  no  78 The a  move towards greater  consideration of how  flexibility  existing  in the planning process  institutional  should  also involve  and professional frameworks  impede  such a progression (Armson, 1984).  Criterion 6 A n adequate data base which provides relevant physical and measureable data on the natural systems of a given area. Data should be integrated such that they enable ease of comparison between the resource values involved. Moreover, at the management unit level the data base should enable recognition of broad land-use interactions and highlight known areas of conflict.  Commentary  Resource  management  decisions  should  be  based  on  the best  available factual information. "The more complete the information, the better the management" (Munro, 1987). This means that an integrated resource information base  should  be developed  (Livingstone n.d.). A input  needed  follows  carefully designed  to help  therefore that  manner  that  by, and accessible to, the relevant resource  issues  meet  agency  coordinated and  inventories can be conducted  data  resource information base will provide the goals,  data needs  objectives, issues  systems can  should  be  and problems. It  be designed  addressed  and  in logical and critical areas. Because reflect this interrelationship. Only  can  of the resource  be ease  of comparison  failure to integrate resource IRM  programs,  but also  ineffective, and uncoordinated  values  information not only hampers gives  the public  an  being  in such  that  interrelated, the data base should there  agencies  resource  resources are by doing so  considered. The  the implementation  impression  a  of a  of  disorganized,  resource effort (Glascock, 1978).  Criterion 7 Commitment i n terms of adequate levels of funding w h i c h is required to carry out strategic p l a n n i n g and i n terms of official adoption and implementation of plans a n d policies.  79 These provide an indication of and the resultant product.  Commentary at  a political level, there will be  level as  If lack of commitment  where  reflected  (1984)  implementation in budget  states  that  takes  attitude toward p l a n n i n g processes  to policy  place (Innes,  is  more  technology in resource coordination... The to  manage  forests  for wildlife  impediment  for management  little chance of plan success at the operational  levels, is very much "attitude  is an  and  1984).  a  Commitment  reflection  important  than  to planning,  of attitudes. laws,  Salwasser  procedures  or  bottom line is that people have to want  timber  in the  first  place." The  philosopher  Goethe stated that Until one is committed, there is hesitancy, the chance to draw back, always ineffectiveness concerning all acts of initiative (and creation). There is one elementary truth, the ignorance of which kills countless ideas and splendid plans: that the moment one definitely commits oneself, then providence moves too.  Commitment  is difficult to guage but can  measures such as budgetary be for  made available plans  and  be  ascertained  by  surrogate  levels as well as plan implementation. Funding  at sufficient levels to enable  policies  indirectly  to be  implemented.  without funding are like cars without  As  planning to be noted  wheels - they  by may  carried  Innes appear  out  must and  (1984) "policies attractive  but  they don't go anywhere."  The  importance  of plan implementation  implement the plan and  cannot be overstated. Without  enforce its requirements  becomes nothing more than a meaningless gesture.  in a  the will to  sensible manner, planning  80 Criterion 8 A mechanism for monitoring the p l a n implementation to determine the extent to which agency objectives have been achieved and to enable the agency to evaluate the effects of alternative actions.  Commentary agency's  Monitoring  question  is an important  "Did we  meet  objectives becomes meaningful degree  to which  they  achieved,  mechanism  our objectives?" In fact  for answering the  the establishment of  only when there is a mechanism for evaluating the  have  been  management must be the process results  feedback  and modifying  attained.  "A  part  of integrated  resource  of establishing a reference point, defining the procedures  in the light  of experience"  (Innes,  1984).  A  planning  program  without  monitoring  will  be  doomed  to failure  because  "managers will soon come to regard objectives as just an exercise in writing and the  system  effort  with  will no  quickly  be viewed  results"  achievements through  (Crowe,  as something  that took  1983).  failure  The  to  a lot of time and evaluate  program  concrete, explicitly defined evaluation measures has resulted  in many planning documents "collecting dust", a phenomenon often noted  in  literature dealing with  enables  planning implementation  the agency to not only determine  and evaluation. Monitoring  the  progress towards stated objectives, but also to  identify and address problem areas and to ascertain whether or not the objectives are realistic (Crowe, 1983).  IV.  This chapter the  case  STUDY  discusses the results obtained  study  areas  (Nelson  Forest  (Victoria). It also introduces the study  The in  results provided Chapter  aspects.  5  The  qualitative  in this chapter  emphasize  analysis  more  than  Also,  of experts,  the evaluation of these  aspects  of IRM  quantitative and  rather  chapters  used  there  be  headquarters  results  than  analysis. It  was  that  would be  relatively  small  a  tradeoff between  outcome to be  felt  a  provided  the  is intended  policy oriented study  study  requiring that  in government  the interview approach.  following two  a  the  Region) and  and  in the  from the interviews that took place in  area and  process  from this process  numerically.  consisting  the  documentation  results obtained capture  RESULTS  a the  difficult to  sample  size  meaning  and  numerical precision.  Preceding  the discussion of results is a brief description of the specific case  study  areas within the Nelson Forest Region (Figure 3). The  management units selected  are  Forest Industries TFL#14.  the  Golden  TSA,  Cranbrook  TSA  and  Crestbrook  Nine professionals involved in Forest Management Planning and  affiliated  interviewed. were  with  In  provided  the  addition, six  interviewed  Management  either  to  level.  in Appendix  provide  A  list  MoE,  professionals a  of  MoF,  provincial the  people  1.  81  at  or the  the  in the Nelson Region forest  Headquarters  perspective interviewed  on and  IRM  industry, level at  their  were  (Victoria)  the  Forest  affiliation  is  FIGURE 3  83 A.  STUDY  As  stated  Region  AREAS  in the  were  opening  selected  forestry  resource  process  is at  because  this form  on  values  an  chapter, the the  and  advanced  basis  study  of their  because  the  areas  the  Nelson  Forest  important, overlapping wildlife  strategic  stage. TSAs  within  have  integrated  been  and  resource planning  emphasized  in the  study  of management unit comprises all but approximately six million  hectares of provincial forest land in B.C.  1.  Golden  The  TSA  Golden  Region  Timber Supply Area is the most northerly T S A  (Figure  approximately The  TSA  3) and one  encompasses  third  boundaries  approximately  is currently  classified  as  in the Nelson Forest  899,000 ha  of land  productive Crown  coincide with those of the Golden  of which  forest land.  Forest District and  have  been established to take into account the existing transportation infrastructure the location of manufacturing  facilities. The  steep topography  and  difficult  and  access  have combined to constrain forestry development in many parts of the TSA.  The  TSA  and  provides important habitat for such wildlife species as deer, elk, black  grizzly bear, caribou, sheep and goats.  a.  Forestry/Wildlife Issues  Forest  Service  management  and  activities  Wildlife and  staff  their  recognize  impacts  on  several wildlife.  issues The  relating  major  to  forest  strategic  issues  84 are as follows:  1.  old growth  forests  - While  growth forests to provide  wildlife  experts  call  for the  retention of old  for the maintenance of habitat diversity, forestry  staff state the need for converting these stands to managed forests, thereby increasing the annual 2.  riparian  volume  increment.  zones - These zones, which are associated with  very  productive  the  drier  areas  that form  surrounding  manipulation  and  as such  well defined  area. may  They take  wildlife  are  habitat types  highly  several years  surface water, are  sensitive  to  within habitat  beyond initial harvesting  to recover. 3.  cover  requirements  soon,  shelter  cover-to-forage capacity  2.  Cranbrook  The  a  classified range and  total as  ratios  for  will  be  distorted,  land. Timber  winter  wildlife  will  not  resulting  harvesting  can  be  in  be  met  a  reduced  especially  and  the  carrying  detrimental if  ranges.  TSA  Cranbrook  covers  requirements  of the  carried out on  - If second pass harvesting follows initial harvesting too  TSA  is situated  area  of  in the  extreme  1,412,700 hectares.  the net forest land base. The  Of TSA  southeast this  supports  wildlife resources including critical winter  deer,  elk  and  sheep. Populations  TSA.  The  Rocky Mountain Trench  tThe  Rocky  Mountain  Trench  of grizzly  total,  bear  corner 386,162  occurrs  in  hectares is  range for ungulates are  other  and  high values of timber, such  scattered throughout  area within the Cranbrook T S A t  also  of B.C.  TSAs  contains  within  the  as the such  Nelson  85 high  wildlife  habitat  capability,  that  the Canada  Land  Inventory  developed  a  special classification for this area.  a. Forestry/Wildlife Issues  There is a need  to distribute timber harvesting to ensure an adequate  diversity  of wildlife habitat in both space and time. Also, the large number of roads that are used for ongoing forest management wildlife  habitat  and recreation has a potential impact on  utilization. Therefore road  access must be  carefully  managed to  minimize pressure on certain wildlife species.  A  significant area of range land used by both wildlife and livestock exists in the  area. Continuous update of Coordinated Resource Management Plans t  within the  scope of the T S A  harmonious  Resource Management Plan is required to attain a  blend of timber, range, wildlife and recreation resources within the TSA.  3. Crestbrook Forest Industries T F L #14  Tree Farm of which forest  License #14, situated within the Invermere 46,000 ha  types  management  is productive  produces are highly  a  wide  forest  range  important within  land.  A  of resource  TSA,$  diversity uses.  totals of land  Timber  139,500 ha, forms and  and  wildlife  this T F L . Six ungulate species inhabit  t(cont'd) Forest Region and in other Forest Regions of B.C.'s interior but is particularly valuable for wildlife in the Cranbrook TSA. tCRMPs are a form of Local Resource Use Plans (i.e. tactical plans) that have been developed for overlapping forest and range areas of B.C.'s interior. ^Although it is situated within the boundaries of the TSA, it is not managed as part of the TSA.  86 the  area.  In  addition, most  Canada, are found  of the carnivore  species  indigenous  to western  within the T F L .  a. Forestry/Wildlife Issues  The  licensee has not identified in the T F L Management and Working Plan any  issues  that occur  Sumanik  (1984)  as a result  of timber  has  in  stated  the  harvesting and its impact company's  that  forest  harvesting will alter wildlife habitat, inducing either a positive or negative  impact  on wildlife "depending on the habitat requirements  IRM  on wildlife.  document  of each species".  B. T H E I N T E R V I E W S  Several was  sources  of information  were  used  in this  study;  however  an emphasis  placed on interviews to provide the information required for the evaluation  of planning effectiveness. Prior was prepared, experts  were  sources  and  government select  based  on their involvement  listed  in workshop  additional officials  questions  balance  were  were  added  mailed  between  documents,  at the suggestion An  attempt  the M o E  to all respondents  respondents  planning. Many  government  1 for a listing).  of persons  then  in TSA/TFL  proceedings,  interviewees  (see Appendix  an appropriate  interview  to the interviews, a list of potential  was  of these  and other of various made to  and the MoF. The  prior  to the interview  stage.  Each interviewee was asked  a series of questions  - some open ended and some  87 specific the  - relating  nature  to the  of the  work  criteria. These the  interviewee  worded to both avoid ambiguity for  each  criterion  confidentiality reprisal. were  in the  Most  open  (see  and  and  responses  2).  involved with. The  Each  in  had  no  respondent  expressing  concerns  their  views  questions  that was  about  assured  prevent  being  on  were  most pertinent  was  in order to promote openess and  however,  forthright  was  varied, however, according to  to elicit a response  Appendix  respondents,  questions  IRM  of  fear of  quoted: all and  Forest  Management Planning processes.  C.  STUDY  The  RESULTS  results are presented  the strengths and combined  with  evaluation on two  TO  CRITERIA  below, according to each criterion with an  weaknesses of the planning process. Case  headquarters  responses  but  some important findings,  a  in order  to  distinction has  study  facilitate  emphasis responses  a  on are  comparative  been made between  the  levels.  1. Clear, Quantified  All these  respondents  were  Objectives  asked  objectives provided  Planning. MoF the  ACCORDING  context  accounting  guidance  respondents  of IRM for or  what  is to  managing  their to  indicated  agency's  resource that the  maintain for other  a  given resource  Section 4(c) of the Ministry of Forests Act.  objectives were  planners primary level  of  values.  in  Forest  and  Management  objective of the timber This  whether  MoF  production falls  in line  in  while with  88 It was felt that this objective alone did not provide in  Forest  Management  however, is being being TSA  assigned  Planning  refined at the T S A  objectives in the T S A  is one of the few T S A s  resources  except  in a level  guidance to resource  very such  broad that  that has developed  strategies  to  be  the objectives of the MoF  used  to  respondents noted  stating  objectives  competitive  achieve  that  because,  on  the MoF the  resources  in  an  Plans;  little meaning in terms  unspecified  targets.  Respondents  and undocumented.  is placed  one  hand,  integrated  in a  in particular it has  given  difficult  it is to  manner  consultation. This duality of objectives has created process;  than those under the  Resource Management  industry, and, on the other hand, it is to plan  range  planning  targets for various  are often treated as constraints. Moreover,  are largely unwritten  Several  other  stated so that they provide  acknowledged that non-timber resources  and  are  Plan. The Cranbrook  production  are not interpreted for T S A  essence they are broadly the  objective  such as recreation, range and wildlife.  jurisdiction of the MoF  of  The  individual resources  Resource Management  Respondents acknowledged that objectives for resources  in  sense.  planners  ensure  a  when  vigorous,  the use of the forest  through  a number  the MoF  position  cooperation  and  of problems in the  the appearance  of a  non-neutral body.  Wildlife representatives  stated that the objective of the MoE  to maintain the diversity by  the MoE  of wildlife species  that this objective is general  is, in general  and habitats. While  terms,  it is recognized  for the province, the Ministry attempts  89 to  promote  Act  by  broad  integration by  refining  objectives  objective  does  Regional Wildlife the  MoE  are  acting under  provide  Plans to  through  be  Section  forestry  direction to  which  the  as  wetlands  Management  Planning  requirements are habitats pointed  should  be  their  respondent  forests  decisions  have  distributed and is no  asked  agency's  respondents  Management  but  growth  Forests  that  this  combined  with  management  objectives of  populations  and  the  adequate; however, quantification  felt to be are not  for  what  lacking. Irreplaceable habitats  currently tended  an  to  Planning stated  what the  relative  objectives,  as  (6/9)  that  in is  the  critical  plans  reasons.  issue  focus  Another  policy that states that the  objectives with other agencies and  Respondents were attaining  old  stated  when  wildlife  of  on  in  Forest  what  the  to maintain diversity in wildlife species, where these specialized  out that there  activities and  Most  and  Ministry  also  planners  of  felt to be  of habitat management requirements was  They  wildlife  Quantification  strategies used to maintain them was  such  plans.  resource  specify how  attained, t  4(c) of the  are  for  importance  Forest  attaining  driven  by  respondent  will co-ordinate its  practice integration.  compared  Nelson  MoE  MoE  with  of T S A other  Region their  timber  Planning levels of  stressed  agency's supply  was  in  planning.  that  Forest  objectives.  One  considerations  and  tThe MoE's ability to formulate objectives varies considerably from region to region and from resource to resource. For example, a greater understanding of featured species has led to more clearly defined objectives than for non-game species. The direction given to the preparation of guidelines for wildlife protection such as the optimal distribution of remnant forests or size of clear cuts, is therefore largely a function of the species information or geography. For a wide range of non game species the best that can be done to maintain approximately present numbers is to maintain a forest mosaic that includes habitat currently being used. The intent is to provide the MoF with qualitative information which will then be incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine the effects on the AAC.  90 currently  do  not  meet  the  expressed  a concern that  needs  of  other  resources.  although TSA Planning has  Wildlife become  representatives a high priority  within both ministries, it is a time consuming process; other projects within the MoE  are  being  set  aside  in order that  expressed  uncertainty  TSA Planning can be  Another  respondent  as  to  whether  effective  for achieving lower level planning objectives  carried  out.  TSA Planning  was  and suggested that  most  gains would be made with effort equally divided between TSA Planning and field level management.  All  respondents  (6/6) at  the  headquarters  level  weakneses, Forest Management Planning is essential objectivest  stated  that  despite  some  for attaining their agency's  and is also important for identifying issues. The resolution of issues  such as the amount of habitat that must remain intact, the rate of harvest, the number of harvesting passes, the size of cuts, and the guidelines that impact on how  this  is  to be  carried  out  must  be  strategically  addressed  through TSA  planning. Once these issues are resolved at the TSA level, an opportunity exists at the lower planning levels to develop more detailed guidelines.  Headquarters respondents, like their regional counterparts, felt that although the objectives  of the  MoF, as  enshrined in the  Ministry  of Forests  Act, provide  general direction at the provincial level, direction has been somewhat lacking at the TSA Planning level. Despite the increased importance of IRM, objectives for achieving IRM within the context  of a given harvest level were stated to be  vague. Wildlife objectives were felt be to be insufficiently incorporated into Forest ITwo respondents government.  answered  in the  context  of their previous employment with  91 Management Plans.  2.  Hierarchical Planning  Since  the  early  Framework  1980s, the  MoF  has  placed  an  increased  emphasis  on  Forest  Management Planning to provide the context for the more localized plans, thereby reducing  uncertainties and  helping to scope development. Some  criticism  remains  however, over the lack of direction given to Forest Management Planning broader  policy planning.  Interviewees for  were asked  lower  levels  of  operations timber  if Forest Management Plans  planning  historically there was  and  management.  little direction provided  were  compatible  harvesting  tended  with to  wildlife  take  presently provided direction  Some  except  needs;  respondents  where  precedence.  In  noted  that  in situations where forestry  There  incompatibilities is  commitment to providing a context for Local Resource Use lower  through  now  an  Plans and  arose,  increased as a result  level plans are increasingly reflective of what is stated in TSA/TFL Plans.  the  Golden  TSA,  respondents  stated that T S A  Resource  Management  provide the guidance  needed to carry out lower  level planning and  satisfied  guidance.  of  with  this  identification  and  efforts  increased  have  issues and confident operational  A  great  deal  in delineating riparian zones and the  likelihood  that the  time  was  ungulate  AAC  will  Plans  that they  spent  on  are  issue  winter ranges. These  be  indicative  of  these  reflected in Five Year Development plans. Regional wildlife staff were that  the  planning  issues  relating  through  the  to  fish  and  incorporation  wildlife of  these  were  being  issues  into  linked  to  the  cut  92 determination.  Another  respondent  in  the  Golden  TSA  acknowledged  that  TSA  Resource  Management Plans provide direction but the degree to which the plan is used by forestry  staff is sometimes  importance  that lower  Resource Management  questionable. This  person  felt  that it is of greater  level plans give direction to and be reflected in the T S A Plan; hence  information  to the higher  back down  to the lower  level  "bottom-up" planning has to filter  which  level. A  in turn  failure  feeds  to do this  information in the past  issues and  and decisions resulted  in a  lack of recognition on the part of foresters in the TSA, of the value of riparian zones for fish and wildlife resources aftd ultimately led to difficulties in resolving issues in these zones.  One the  respondent needed  attention broadly  stated that T S A  direction  because  they  to priorization. It was worded  and  consist  Resource lacked  Management specificity  his feeling  Plans  to provide  and did not pay  that statements  of unmeasureables,  failed  with  have  sufficient  tended  the emphasis  to be  being  on  timber values.  Crestbrook TFL  Forest Industry maintains  14 provides good direction for all staff; and is, in essence, the driving force  of Five-Year other  that the Management and Working Plan for  Development  resources.!  One  Plans  respondent  and  the vehicle for recognizing the needs of  noted  that  through  careful  planning,  the  tUnder its Subsidiary Agreement with the MoF, the company is charged with the responsibility for considering all resources and is audited for performance on this basis.  93 company  has  been  able to live  with  the  plan  over  a  long term  - a  situation  that does not occur with all licensees.  Respondents at the provided  through  particularly  the T S A  through  repeatedly cited  and  planning  rank  the  as  providing direction unit  headquarters  a  of  where  planning  process but  clarification  of IRM  planners  in terms  also provides  noted  the and  could  of ease  opportunity  Provincial  objectives at the  provincial  document  areas  the  what  the  that  province.  purpose  Issue  identification  was  Resource Management Planing in  assess  all issues in the  of resolution  for resource  and  management  importance.  staff to identify  TSA/TFL data  gaps,  that there were a number of deficiencies at the higher levels  of refined  direction  for improvement,  inventory needs.  and  strategy for designating areas  improved  is currently being  there is room  strategies.  Regional  goals  direction to Forest Management Planning. A  of  that direction  positive function of T S A  them  Interviewees  Planning  whereby  research requirements  level indicated  from  with  common  provincial  level. For the  thread  in  the  Headquarters  in terms is and  the  there  value  Golden  was  to  priorities and  example  higher  Respondents  Planning  objectives are  differing resource use  acknowledges  of T S A  and  of  TSA  cited  for specifying  lack of a the lack  is presently  wildlife  of providing a  provide  the  in certain need  statement  provincially  no  for  as  to  endorsed  wildlife population goals or targets.  There is currently a move towards decentralizing the T S A the  MoF  Regions  to the  Planning function from  Districts. This means that District  planners  will  have  94 the  responsibility  planning.  When  asked  implementation favorable and  of  views,  the  MoE  issues, they dealing  will  directly  Resource that the  negative of the  that  be  able  with would  meets  planning  will  determined  of  to work  the  ensure  a  "the  their  all  respondents  quality  of the  positive  short term  function from  a  District Planner  likely to be  to  provide  further joint planning Region  interdisciplinary  level  that they  where  IRM  Plans  interest in producing  seeing  it implemented.  Regional  whose  Planner  are  occurs.  Forest Management  as being  in T S A  product,  of District  nature, were identified TSA  held  span  the  Some  transition  sole job is  several functions  Planning. Another  negative  effect  TSA and was of  Planning  on  how  interagency  what recent initiatives had  efforts between  various  a  moves down the planning hierarchy.  insights  interviewees were asked  Forest  in  the  the possible misinterpretation or lack of clear understanding  Shared, Cooperative  order  and  on  benefits. Because  knowing  line"  whose responsibilities  require training  have  better understanding  better linkages between  requirements  tactical  Plans,  were  front  and  would  delivery, the plan  strategic  this  in greater harmony  on  the direction being taken as one  In  effective  people  felt  Management  industry staff have  effects, of a  Planning, to a  3.  they  to both  operational plans because staff would have a vested  document  who  TSA  effect  implementation  and  Decentralization  functions related  what  stating  actual  District,  and  for undertaking  mechanisms  planning. The  Regional  forestry had  and  been  Manager  planning  had  evolved,  been recently undertaken to wildlife put  of the  staff. In  into MoF  the  Nelson  place  to  improve  and  the  Regional  95 Director of the Ministry TSA  MoE  roles  have signed  and  Planning  develop  partnership  meetings will now  greater oppportunity  MoE  a  a joint Protocol Agreement, designed to clarify  be  in Forest  referred to MoE  Planning.  staff thereby  providing  respondents were particularly positive about recent initiatives that had that  not  in either the  involved  now  involved  in  during  both.  the  first  issue  For  round  of T S A  identification  example  in  little involvement in the  was  participant  an  indicating had  to  active the  Steering  for managing  Committee  meetings  issues that had  A  Forest  on  the  Service  operational there has  Committee  the  resources, helped  Committee for the  in the  level."  a  the  analysis  Golden  TSA  legislative  clarify  some  they  regional  of T S A  Steering  staff were  stages;  the  first round  TSA  ministry  a  that  But  the  are  wildlife  planning  Committee.!  mandate  taken  and by  ministry  participant in Steering  important  forestry and  wildlife  unnoticed.  acknowledged  has TSA  wildlife  Planning,  this person became  to  field, with  With  the  that  potential  the of  participation of the providing  Resource Management Plan the  ultimate  benefit being  participation on  the  TSA  some  will  MoE  immediate  actually reflect  less conflict Steering  at  the  Committee,  also been more serious discussion about improving the assumptions that  are used in planning the  the  representative  Steering  goes on  and  on  previously gone  benefits. "Scenarios what  other  or  the  habitat specialist had not  All  for their participation.  place, noting  on  Management  Steering  models. Although wildlife staff are  not  formally  Committees for many TSAs, their participation has  t T S A Steering Committees typically consist of the main T S A and appropriate MoF Regional and District staff.  represented  already  forest licensees in  been the  96 identified  by  both  ministries and  at both  levels  as  a  positive means  of bridge  building.  Throughout  the  Region,  various  committee  structures  have  been  struck  or  expanded upon to include wildlife representatives. In the Kootenay Lake T S A  for  example, a  MoE  staff, has  A  TSA  Wildlife  Working  Group, consisting of MoF  been formed as part of the T S A  tangible  between  Analysis  development  Crestbrook  Subsidiary  that  Forest  Agreement.! In  has  analysis procedures.  recently  Industries  and  September,  and  fostered  various  1986,  the  cooperative  agencies company  joint  is the and  planning  signing  the  MoF  of  a  signed  the first formal Agreement to be executed in British Columbia.  The Tree and TFL  agreement facilitates, integrated resource management practices on F a r m License No. 14 lands and clearly sets out the resonsibility accountability of each party involved in the management of the resources (CFI, 1988).  Under the Subsidiary Agreement, the licensee is responsible for resolving problems with  other  the  MoF.  agencies before  considerations  Thus  a  are  proactive worked  representatives interviewed, the  company  is  a draft Management and  the  out low  "front-and-centre"  approach  has  beforehand. turnover in  Working plan is referred to evolved  According  of planning  discussing  whereby  issues  to  staff and with  the the  wildlife  operational company fact that staff  are  factors that have enabled the development of this trust in performance.  tThe MoE, however, remains very concerned about the effectiveness and efficiency of the Subsidiary Agreements, now termed "Letters of Understanding", which extends more operational responsibilities to forest licensees, including direct referral of harvesting and other intended activities to other agencies such as the MoE.  97 At the Provincial level, one group that arose in 1986 was the Planning Phases Committee which was established to study how timber planning should take place at  the operational (tactical)  determine  level  while  avoiding  duplication  of effort  and to  how the silviculture Pre-Harvest Prescription should fit into the overall  planning  framework.  The MoE  has been  involved in this  work  which  is still  ongoing.  Another  group that was formed a year later was the T S A Planning Coordinating  Committee The  comprised  of MoE  and M o F  representatives at the Headquartes level.  main thrust of the committee is to determine  respective  ministries  and accommodate  these  what needs to be done by the  needs  through  the T S A  Resource  Management Plan.  One  respondent  not  be  noted  quite correctly that recently  as important  individual,  as what  cooperation  involved; "People  they  is predicated  are made on  implemented  mechanisms  out to be. According  the personal  traits  to this  of the individuals  who want to get along can work with just about  system. If they have a mind-set  may  or pre-set bias, it doesn't matter  any planning how good the  planning process is."  Notwithstanding improvements planning  this  they  initiatives.  last  statement,  felt should be made The  majority  planning processes and organizations.  all respondents  were  asked  what  to policies or processes to further joint  of responses  pertained  to improvements in  98 The  most  the  planning  planning to  need  process,  was  to improve  the link  that  the understanding  attaches  of participants to  operational planning  and the benefits to the various participants. Moreover  ensure  enable  important  that  the planning  the identification  levels  of various  of the linkages, veto  ministries powers  to strategic  there is a need  coincide in order to  and  authorities  between  ministry planning levels.  Despite the need for improvements to policies and processes, many planning  have  been  made  over  the last  five  to six years.  gains in joint  Respondents  were  confident that time would lead to further progress in this field.  The of  third question on this criterion required the interviewees to state their level satisfaction  with  TSA/TFL  planning  in terms  of dealing with  wildlife interactions. In providing their answers, some respondents working  relationships  companies  while  with  others  their  referred  counterparts  in other  to the approaches  used  forestry and  referred to the  ministries  or  and the final  forest product  resulting from strategic planning processes.!  In  the Nelson  satisfied only  with  Forest shared,  two of these  Region, cooperative  indicated  most  planning  that they  were not satisfied. Of the satisfied stating  that  the  satisfaction  respondents  they  (6/9) stated  that  they  were  at the Forest Management level but  were very  respondents, obtained  satisfied. The remaining two qualified  varied  their  between  three  answers by  Districts.  The  t All interviewees in the Nelson Region responded while two thirds of the interviewees at the Headquarters level responded because some felt that they were not close enough to the issues to accurately answer.  99 receptiveness integration, three  of  individuals  the  of the  personal traits  variables  although they  in  cited  recognizing  the  of individuals  as  making  a  need  and  the  whether the T S A  wildlife  levels  and  forestry  of education  difference. Another  were satisfied, further decision-making  would determine  for  two  at the MoF  were  stated that  Executive level  planning process is worth the time and  effort  put into it.t  Respondents in the Golden T S A had high  been developed staff turnover  endeavors.  One  One  dissatisfied  TSA  Planning and  adjunct  to  mechanism  rather to  hindered  the  continuity  at the Regional level referred taken  respondent  and  MoF  the Wildlife representative noted of joint  that a planning  to the increased levels  place between participants as compared  to the  Planning.  on  based  than  a  and  Working  Plan  was  efficient  in terms  dealing with  part  incorporate other  respondent  on  the individuals involved in This person  expressed  Planning process is driven strictly by timber and  that analyses  The  his answer both  the unwritten policies of the MoF.  that the T S A  considerations  years but  rate in the  that had  of T S A  the concern  the  respondent  of communication first round  over  were satisfied with the working relationships that  of  the  values  provided the comment preparation was  other  plan.  into  the  In  resource his  AAC  values  opinion,  of providing an  more  AAC,  satisfactory  determination  is lacking.  problematic it failed  an  a  that the framework for T F L  even  become  AAC  because  Management although it  to deal adequately  with  t A t the time of this writing, no decision had been rendered on any TSA Resource Management Plans in the Nelson Forest Region. Hence this question was regarded by some to be somewhat premature to fully comment on.  100 other resource values.  When asked to  how  satisfied they  Forest Management  interactions, 2/4 2/4  One  were with current shared, cooperative approaches  Planning  headquarters  in terms  respondents  stated that they  forestry were  and  wildlife  satisfied, while  were dissatisfied.  area of dissatisfaction lay with  Chief Forester makes a  staff had  which expressed  concern  based  that the  on consultation  have been completely counter to what wildlife  been arguing arduously for with Regional forestry staff.  Criticisms  indicated  attention  conveyed timber.  the MoE  decision in a brief period of time  with his staff, a decision that may  little  of dealing with  to  the A  that T S A wildlife  perception  weakness  Resource  other that  though  Management  than  through  foresters  lack  motherhood concern  is that wildlife  Plans  staff  tended  statements.  for  have  have  resources failed  to  to  pay  This  has  other  than  provide  clear  objectives.  One  respondent  others'  stated  problems  detriment  of  characterize  and  IRM. much  that that  "Rather of  the  in this an  province  excess  than  of  gamesmanship  encouraging  interaction  players feel  that  win/lose takes  postures  place  that obliges the individual to own  One  dissatisfation  expressed  with  responsibility for  occurs,  negotiation should be used  respondent  no  in  much that  B.C.,  to  the  currently principled  the problem."  current appoaches to joint planning,  101 stating that there remains time  he  indicated  fact that the increased and  4.  a great deal of potential to develop, but at the same  satisfaction  MoF  attention  was to  with recent progress that has  been made and  the  doing its job to the best of its capability, resulting in non-timber  resources. It was  his perception that  policies  procedures were effectively communicated to planners.  Meaningful Public  Participation  Interviewees were asked Plans were brought  how  the publics having  a stake in Forest Management  into the process, if at all, and  which of these publics have  tended to participate effectively. They were then asked why  participation was  The  respondents  which  either effective or ineffective.!  began by  include guide  to offer suggestions as to  noting that the "publics" in the Nelson  outfitters, rod  and  gun  clubs, trappers and  Forest Region naturalists, are  very active but more so in some Districts than others, depending of the issues. Some respondents involvement  on  the nature  felt that wildlife groups have not had  in the process because the MoE  significant  adequately represents their interests;  that is there is no perceived need to bring them in as a separate entity.  Wildlife  groups  in the  Cranbrook  and  active than other areas of the Region  Golden due  TSAs  have  tended  to  be  more  to the higher wildlife values found in  !Respondents at the headquaters level were knowledgeable about public involvement in general; but some respondents did not feel qualified to answer the extent to which the MoF takes into account public views.  102  these  two  units, t  remain informed two  TSAs  Recognizing  on  wildlife  these  and  values,  forestry  issues. Staff of both  as  information meetings,  key  public interest groups where identified.  The  one  interest having  course, the timber a  Some  much  stronger  characterized by  interest  that  imbalance  participation  having  the  have  ministries  to  in the  providing forums  Resource Management Plans  contractual arrangements with  in the  outcome  public  of the  involvement  process  whereas  public  is  is, of  the  planning  because it gives favor to the timber throughout  sought  open houses, or direct contact with  stake in all T S A  vested  noted  an  their  a  licensee who,  respondents  enabling  interests  have generally been responsive to these requests by  for discussion such  has  wildlife  MoF,  process. presently  licensees by  participants  or  other  licensed users (e.g. trappers, guide outfitters) are involved only periodically.  Despite the fact that public input is sought participation by  through  various interests has been constrained by  Forest Management Planning. According to one the  Golden  initially  TSA  has  attended  amount and  encourage  disintegrated  meetings  depth  their attendance  various mechanisms, effective  on  a  over  the  regular  interviewee, public involvement in  years  basis  of infomation required for TSA  dropped off sharply. The  involvement  only  insofar  as  the  the sheer magnitude of  because  became  affects  interests  overwhelmed  Planning  approach now plan  public  used the  who  with  the  to the point where in this T S A  is to  public's "sphere  of  tThe Columbia River Valley wetlands for example, provide habitat for waterfowl and large mammals of such abundance and diversity that the area has met the criteria for international importance developed at the International Conference on the Conservation of Wetlands and Waterfowl, in 1971 (Pedology Consultants et al, 1983).  103 influence"; that is people do  not  do  on  not have a direct bearing  Staff of both the  on  Golden  disparity between corporate  because they had  public  marginal stakes  had.  and  implications  had  have of  and  Cranbrook  because  in  TSA  forestry  their view, timber  much  stronger  respondents of  their  Planning.  operations,  Industries  is limited to comments on little  involvement  public review  of the  part  auditing  of  the  maintained an may  that  reference  to  interests in terms  licencees participated effectively  vested  interest in planning  than  that  other  have  failure  to  noted  possible Also,  they  (CFI)  may  even fail  in  the  plan  Draft  draft T F L  to  the  cognizant  TSA/TFL  of  the  understand  understand  Management and  preparation.  required  In  addition  meetings are by  the  to held  Subsidiary  "open door " policy to enable the  have regarding  be  often  many  the  of  the  Planning.  gone to great  lengths  process although staff have stated that input  plan, annual  process  groups  if citizens  Woodlands Division has  to involve the public in its planning  is  made  wildlife  technical terms associated with forest management and  Crestbrook Forest  TSAs  forestry interests and  a  Headquarters  involvement  they  in issues  a better understanding of the process, were more knowledgeable  forestry matters  the  involved  their interests.  ministries in the  of participant effectiveness. In  necessarily want to be  management of resources  Working Plan; periodic by  the  on  TFL  #14,  has  led to a better public understanding of forestry operations.  The  licensee has  expressed concern about the poor turnouts  meetings company  Agreement.  public to voice any a  there  CFI  for as has  concerns it policy which  experienced at annual  104 meetings and indicated noted  has  that  attributed this to public apathy. The  TFL  #14  was  a  non-contentious  licensee, at a later time,  area. However  MoF  respondents  that in some strategic planning units, the public failed to become involved  because they were satisfied with the status quo. As  one  headquarters  put  the  opportunity  it, "If  people  do  not  take  advantage  of  respondent for  public  involvement, it points out that they aren't always fully prepared to exercise their rights." In implied forest  cases  mandate  where non-participation occurs, the Forest Service is given to carry  on  with  resource. Therefore, the  depends largely  on  the  extent  whether timber  status quo to  which  in the  public  management  involvement  harvesting is compatible  an  of the  takes  place  or incompatible with  the affected resources.  All  respondents  were  development of T S A  asked and  what  TFL  plans and the  plans.  Respondents  noted  that  giving  direction  plans  at  to  effect  the  public  public  review  and  input  has  has  tended  operational level  to  such  be as  more  involved in  Coordinated  Five-Year Development Plans. However it was  would  the  level  including  affect  the  that in the Golden critical  wildlife  information was  development  priorization TSA  areas  the  the recommendations provided in those  Management Plans and ultimately  on  of management  for resource  strategies  development. One  Access  noted this  at the  respondent  TSA noted  wildlife interests have been very beneficial in identifying  that  the  MoE  was  not  aware  of, with  the  result  that  subsequently built into the data base.  Respondents indicated that the effect which the public has  depends largely on the  extent to which interests have been involved in planning and  at what points in  105 the  process.  If these interests have been  asked  to respond  to a prepared  plan  without having prior input, they will likely be confrontative. Respondents at the headquarters level similarly  stated that public review  Management and Working Plan public  does  not have  and input during  the T F L  process tends to be "after the fact" and that the  a lot of ground  effects were indicated to occur  for input  at the latter  stages.  Positive  where integration of the public into the process  took place at an early stage.  In  the view  little  effect  assumption  of one government because  that  these  draft  plans  plans  representative, are  released  are already  public involvement for public  "reasonable"  has has had  review  and when  under the  the occasional  comment is received it is usually brushed off or ignored. It was also pointed out that  when  involvement  the will  planning obviously  framework  has  a  status  not be effective in resolving  quo  orientation,  strategic issues  public at the  TSA/TFL level.  Another on the  person  similarly  held  the view  that  public involvement has little effect  the development of T S A and T F L plans. He felt that from the standpoint of MoF  and the forest industry, public involvement should  "who, what and where". Professionals feel that questions  address questions of  of "how  and why" are  their sole preserve and are not in the public domain.  Respondents at the headquarters level stated that the effect which public review and  input has on the development of T S A and T F L plans  region  and is dependent upon  the stage during  varies from region to  which input  is solicited. It was  106 also noted jargon  that the length of meetings,  that  disillusioned  is exchanged with  the  between  process  with  amount of information and  participants the  result  often  causes  that interest  the technical  people tends  to to  become drop  off  upon  the  markedly over time.  A  MoF  respondent  viewed  the  effects  amount of "homework" that the MoF  of involvement  had  as  dependent  done at the outset of the process. As  he stated,  If we (the MoF) have done our job at the early stages of issue identification, then public review should have virtually no impact because if we are truly in touch with the resources and the people of the area, we should have addressed the concerns even before going to the public.  This respondent  also felt that participation by  changes to draft plans due  citizens did not result in significant  to public acceptance  the lack of public understanding  of the process  of the status quo and  in addition to  the technical aspects of the  plans.  The of  last question that dealt with public involvement the public  monitoring  in plan monitoring. It was  was  essential and  that the  centred on  acknowledged  public  should  by  have  the an  play in this function, but there remained questions as to how incorporated  into  the  process. Because  of the  complexity  the present role respondents important  that  role to  the public could be  of the  Plan  and  the  planning process, the public would face a difficulty in determining whether or not the plan was  breached.  For  this reason, respondents  public will continue to take place at the local level.  felt that monitoring by  the  107 5. Flexibility  The  "Planning Framework"  discusses  the  adjustments  to  recursive plans  to  of  the  Resource  Planning Manual  nature  of  planning;  that  ensure  that  new  is  the  information is  (MoF, 1984d)  need  for periodic  incorporated as  it  becomes available. For TSA Planning, the recognized time frame for revision of plans is once every five years; however even when plans are in place, analysis is ongoing in the attempt to resolve issues identified in the plan.  All interviewees were asked how often TSA/TFL Plans were revised and if the revisions were of a major or minor nature. Respondents expressed concern over the amount of time that it took to re-analyze and prepare plans. Staff found that because TSA Planning was a learning experience, analysis had taken longer than hoped, to the point where it would be done approximately once every eight years. This time frame was deemed unacceptable by some respondents since the plan would eventually be dealing with outdated or invalid issues; instead it was felt that the plan should reflect new issues that arise and should tie in with industry Five Year Development Plans.  In  the  Cranbrook  TSA, a similar inability to meet the  five  year target for  revision had been experienced. Planning staff noted that the process for analysis was  cumbersome,  requiring  specialized  expertise  and computer equipment that  were not readily available. Yet it was felt that as time progressed, plans could be revised once every five to seven years.  108 Headquarters  respondents  expressed  due,  to  people  in  often an  part,  failed  to  adequate  While  headquarters  Resource 5-10  respondents in  too  is  much  they  have  a  five  to  variable  time  frame  recognized  recognized a  Districts Plans  when  respondent  should  have  a  where  changes  taking  detail.  not  too  long  People  have  been provided  plan  will  bear  eight  year  for  no  annual  resemblance  time  plan  were constantly  should be updated on an  the  felt  blanket an  contentious  that  established the  the  fashion  issues  by  this  person,  a  plan  that  revising  that  in  process  with  frame,  revision.  One  taking place,  TSA  basis to  rather  the  than  original  a  plan  re-analysis.  in  stated  that  basis  applied  how  indicating  respondents  Management  following  the  becoming mired  themselves,  area  felt  year  Another  limit  that  definition of scope.  study  respondent  resource  concern  across  the  of  are  and  how  agency  provides  setting  province  'management  "No  still  concept  is  period' much  should  guidance  a  time  unrealistic.  that  would  certainty be  that  Rather be  exists, t  wasting  and  frame  does  to  be  each  TSA  dependent  upon  As  valuable  therefore  is  appropriately resources  not  have  on  to  be  to  be  rewritten."  Resource of  a  people  major  throughout  nature  the  depending  Region on  the  felt  that  option  revisions  that  was  had  chosen  the in  potential the  final  plan.  fFor example in T S A s experiencing a slow rate of change or h a v i n g the required information and a lack of contentious issues, 10-15 years m a y elapse before the plan needs to be revised. Also minor adjustments can be made at the operational level but when the sum of these minor adjustments becomes numerous, the plan m u s t be revised.  109 Respondents changing the  felt  conflicts.  were  Plan  update  Act  to take  Resource  their  driving  that  set  had  in  force  a  of wildlife  for  marked  motion  One M o E respondent  on the basis  frame  the  circumstances  revisions  made  that  by  stated  that  place  years,  is most  every  five  Plans, t  a l w a y s met  management  targets  strong proprietary  interest.  major  to  on  plans  the  directive  was  felt  to  timber  resource.  or  major  by  revisions would  be  Often  resource  n o r m a l l y not  be  needs.  and  Management  effect  ministry  for T F L M a n a g e m e n t once  changes  Working  According  because of the within  an  area  Plans  a time to  is  required  horizon s i m i l a r  one  respondent,  by  T F L p l a n n i n g and  tenure  over  Forest  to that of T S A  the  incentive that licensees based  the  five  year  have  in  which  they  time setting  have  a  analysis is, i n essence,  more  ouput  TSA  Resource  Plans  have  issues  whereas  oriented.!  Interviewees tended other  to  be  to  rethink the  the  view  that  driven by  I R M issues.  implicated  In  noted  revisions timber  The  view  a  negative  have  to  related  was  expressed  effect  on  that  wildlife,  in  Management they  should be  situations  revisions  where  should  driven  by  timber  is  place  to  of  the  take  original decision.  of one  respondent,  flexibility  currently  diminishes  the  value  t Strategic T F L plans are also revised once every five years but the Chief Forester has the legal power to request the licensee to s u b m i t a new M & W P w i t h i n the five y e a r period i f significant changes take place. Such factors as fire or reinventories that prove the A A C no longer reliable or indicated changes i n management direction can prompt requests for revision prior to the end of the term. $ A s of this w r i t i n g , the s i x t h M a n a g e m e n t and W o r k i n g P l a n for T F L 14 has j u s t been completed.  110 planning agreed  process upon  because  plans.  it is  This  has  used  often  to  rationalize  happened  with  significant outbreaks logging. To  the  into  staff  everything  who  put  "goes out the  a  great  deal  is currently no  Despite  the  constraints  that  constraints  on  base and  for  may  to these  flexibility impede  flexibility  analysis. One  of  window", often without much notification given generated in the planning  contingency option to fall back  need  in  planners  revision. When  were, respondents  process,  there  on.  planning,  timely  the  the detriment  process,  be  effort  pine  planning  people. Although several options may  of  from  of mountain  beetle which prompt the need for accelerated salvage MoE  deviations  centred  often  asked their  face  what  answers  numerous  some on  of  the  the data  respondent stated  There are real constraints in terms of the models we use and sometimes the mere fact that we use a model is a constraint in terms of what the model is, what it is sensitive to and what it is capable of handling. Also if one is going to get locked into a certain level of public involvement, flexibility may be compromised because it takes time to involve the people.  A  respondent  pointed of  out  special  who  centred  his  answer  that the  polarization and  interest  groups  on  the  policy  aspects  mistrust that results from  (licensees,  public  groups)  has  of  the  process  political  lobbying  proven  to  be  an  impediment to flexibility.  A  respondent in the  Golden T S A  stated that time schedules for analysis are  constraint. Input from the Fish and  Wildlife Branch was  this initial analysis because of various manpower.  commitments  a  received too late during  in combination  with  lack of  Ill The  interviews  come  to face  hinder  carried out at the headquarters level indicated that agencies have significant  the ability  financial  and  to participate fully  manpower  constraints  in all facets  which  of planning  ultimately  including  plan  revision. As one respondent stated,  I have a suspicion that if we (the MoE) get this round of T S A Planning done, we may not have the resources to revise some of these plans again for another 10 years. That is why I think this round of planning is highly important.  Constraints  in T F L planning  are imposed  which have a major influence on how  by  the objectives  a particular area  of the corporation  is developed, how  much  reforestation takes place within a given period of time and what the standard of log  utilization  is. Companies  must  also  consider  such  constraints  as union and  community stability problems.  A  third question  asked of respondents was whether there were some issues over  which  their  agency  stated  that  planning  AAC  could  be more flexible  than  was more flexible over  others.  issues  Forestry  that  had no impact  or that involved no significant costs to the licensee. Wildlife  stated  that  flexibility  was  recommendations provided requirements  of  something  that  they  representatives  attempted  on the  representatives  to maintain;  however  by the Fish and Wildlife Branch are based on the life  wildlife  species  and  on  how  flexible  the  species  under  consideration is. If the species is adaptable to different habitat conditions imposed through  forest management  staff are also flexible.  practices, the recommendations  provided  by  wildlife  112 Difficulties  in  the  planning  process  requirements resulted in a the  forest industry  results  in  stated by  wildlife one  to  being  potential impact  keep  needs  reductions  being  to  encountered  on  the  AAC.  the  AAC  as  compromised,  if not  when  management  Political pressure small  as  eliminated  from  possible  often  altogether.  As  respondent,  The strong message that the resist any deletions to the result in an A A C reduction. talking about ungulate winter for example, to remain in emphasis).  6.  were  MoE is getting, is that the industry will forest land base or anything that will With timber harvesting deferrals, one is range. But in order for the spotted owl, B.C. we must have deletions, (author's  Adequate Data Base  Respondents  felt  criterion,  reflected in the  as  that  the  existence  of  an  adequate  data  base  was  criteria. Respondents were asked how  sophisticated they felt the  was,  how  and  comparison, resources  data  and  what  noted  sophisticated  data  Forest Canada  bases the  for  forestry  critical  gaps  in  Region, the Land  on  seasonal  of  biophysical  that base  continual for  wildlife  Inventory  to  habitat base a  has  Other  areas  for  between  made  an  example  As  been  refined from  ease the  of two  in  obtaining  in the  the  a  Nelson  broad  scale  of habitat capability based  been made by of  were  being  more detailed mapping strides had  allowed  data base  preparation.  was  strategic planning.  types. Also great mapping.  progress  wildlife  knowledge  in conducting analysis as part of plan  Respondents  key  degree to which it appeared in answers related to  other  the  a  improvement  the MoE include  in its program the  increased  113 accessibility, the level of detail, the geographic  reference  and the application of  the  a  of recent  data  forest  to resources  other  reinventories,  representatives through models  were  a  than  new  confident  use of computers  timber.  data that  As  base  is  result coming  into  effect.  Wildlife  be  further  improved  the data  base  would  but at the same  time  expressed  for simulating the effects  of habitat manipulation  and ongoing  the concern  on wildlife,  that  especially  non-game species would not be available for a considerable period of time.  Timber information is still the key data; however other information pertaining to such resources most  useful  recognized  as non-game  information  wildlife species is gaining increasing prominence. The  was  cited  as  being  that Resource Emphasis Areas,!  planning  cells!  but it was  also  once established, would become highly  valuable in the planning process.  Three respondents pointed to the disparity in levels of information that had been derived  by  the MoE  and  MoF.  Also  accurate inventory, given the vastness livestock  and wildlife  the MoF  has  developed  a  reasonably  of the resource, but a forage inventory for  is lacking. In the Cranbrook  TSA  where extensive  range  areas exist, a lack of forage inventory made it next to impossible to set targets for the range resource.  One  respondent  felt  that  the data  base  for Forest  Management  Planning  and  !Planning cells are homogeneous planning units usually defined on the basis of topography, access and other similar characteristics that can be assigned site-specific management prescriptions. !REAs are geographic units that give broad management direction to the use potentials of areas and provide a framework for more site specific resource use decisions. They are comprised of a number of planning cells.  114 lower  levels  of  planning  was  relatively  rudimentary  and  that  considerable  refinement was needed for effective planning. Identified weaknesses were: the lack of sampling  to refine  data  and the aggregation  base,t  growth  and yield  curves  of forest  as part of the forest inventory  type  groups  which  compromised the  level of data resolution.  One  headquarters  back  up  respondent  his contention  who  that  held  a  the data  similar  base  view, provided  is relatively  a  formula to  unsophisticated. The  formula is:  NV  =  IP - C where  1.  NV  2.  IP is the value of improved performance, and  3.  C is the cost of obtaining the information.  The  key words  has  not been  appears go  is the net value of the information,  are "improved adequately  to be "How  about  provincial  doing  addressed  do we  those  government  performance"  which, according  in B.C. The posture  to this  taken  by  maintain the status quo?" rather than  things  that  currently  will  does  enable  not have  us to do clear  a  individual, government  "How  do we  better job?" The  standards  for assessing  performance which would form  the basis for determining information requirements.  The  sophistication  information in B.C. varies  and  from  for  some  of resource  from  region to region  resource to resource. For example, in some areas of the province and resources  the MoE  is able to provide  measureable  tNew yield curves that have come into effect have difference in the forest land base since 1979-1981 when was carried out.  estimates  of how  revealed a significant the last yield analysis  115 much of a given resource what  the  forestry  impacts  of  practices can  resources  is needed in order to meet stated objectives, determine  forest be  management  modified  will  in order  be  on  to meet  that  MoE  resource  and  how  objectives. For  other  in other areas the lack of information seriously constrains the ability to  come to terms with strategic analysis.  At  the  other  end  of the  spectrum, one  base for the wildlife resource need  not  capability  depend  on  respondent  stated  that the  information  in the context of strategic planning is excellent and  regional  disparities.  maps, landsat imagery  and  There  other  exist  forms  biophysical maps, wildlife  of strategic  individual felt that people involved in strategic planning  should  information. take  This  a step back  from their current approach of using detailed information and  attempt to think in  terms of generalities. Moreover  done with  information  that  is currently  strategic on  hand,  planning with  should  the  be  plan  periodically  the  updated  best as  information becomes available.  The  fact that some data are marginally relevant to the management issues being  addressed  was  to  functionally about  think  collection has  The  also raised during  various  for information  resources  with  the  result  gathering  and  analysis  on  the  that  part  become increasingly stringent over recent years. Under  to the Forest Act during and  interviews. Resource managers have failed data  been neither effective nor efficient.  requirements  licensees has  the  the  addressing  IRM  1987,  issues  license holders are now  within  their  management  of  TFL  amendments  responsible for identifying unit.  Crestbrook  Forest  116 Industries  has  recently completed  Working with MoE and  management units by  harvesting-wildlife the  staff, CFI  report  an  inventory  developed  an  above  MoF  standards.  extensive inventory of wildlife species  biogeoclimatic zone in addition to identifying the  habitat relationships in each  "Integrated  that was  Resource  zone. These  Management  on  Tree  were  timber  documented in  Farm  Licence  #14"  (Sumanik, 1984).  A  highly  important  Management wildlife  Planning  allow  resources.  In  question is the  for ease the  of  Nelson  for  degree  determining to which  comparison Forest  and/or  Region,  the  the  effectiveness  data  bases  interaction  there  was  of  for forestry  in planning  virtual  respondents in stating that the data bases for forestry and  for  unanimity  the information base enabled  and those  among  wildlife are divergent,  in many respects, a fact that greatly hinders the planning process. On hand most respondents (4/6) at the headquarters  Forest  the other  level stated that some facets of  relatively good comparison that allowed  development  of realistic options; but three of these people were critical of aspects of data.  One  respondent in the study  scales  and  units and the  boundaries  between  the  inventory bases proved  Golden  TSA.  Whereas  scale of 1:50,000 and Because  area noted  wildlife  habitat types  MoF  to be  and a  had  biophysical mapping  were to be  MoE.  difficulty  1:250,000, forestry data  populations  units within the T S A  the  that there is a real discrepancy The in the  a  process for  is based  on  a  scale of 1:20,000.  management  units, several  dissected. Moreover information such as  which are not identified on  map  management  planning  for wildlife  is based on  located in different  different  in  forest cover maps had  to be  riparian identified  117 and  delineated  area  and  then  volume  transposed of timber  onto  forest  affected.  cover  Only  maps  then  for interpolation  could  various  of the  scenarios be  developed.  Other respondents felt that the divergence of the data bases stems from of  ecologically  indication  based  inventory within  of the capability  the MoF. Forest cover  of the land  to support  standing  crop of trees. The MoE's ungulate  provide  information  However  another  system  rather  on  soil,  respondent  than  slope,  aspect  indicated  its mapping  capability  that  system  and  resources maps  other  the MoE  maps  provide no  other  ecological  result  than the  on the other hand  emphasized  and as a  the lack  components.  its  information  had not translated  provincial fish and wildlife goals into a graphic format. Thus it was felt by this person  that  compatibility  between  data  bases  was  at the District  level  stated  that  less  of a  problem  than  availability.  A  resource person  the Geographic  Information  Systems between the two ministries have been developed in virtual isolation from each other and as a. result, "an incredible amount of money has been lost". This person  agreed  that  ecologically  based  planning units  would  go a long way to  reconciling some of the current incompatibilities between data bases.  Along  with  analysis.  comparability, the manner in which information is used  For example  area-specific information  data  at a  wildlife scale  to the broader  staff  in some  areas  of 1:20,000 instead  scale  used  by  may  of B.C. attempt of aggregating  the MoF.  On  hinder  to derive  the required  the other  hand, one  118 respondent indicated that the  1:500,000 scale often used by  the MoE  in strategic  planning is too broad.  The  inability  analysis having  to incorporate wildlife and  was fixed  another  identified  requirements,  other  weakness.  whereas  timber  resource  Wildlife  one  information  harvesting  strata based units that change over time according As  information  into the  TSA  is area-specific,  projections  are  based  on  to predetermined parameters.  respondent stated, the area specific requirements "fall through the cracks"  during the analysis.  Most  respondents  relating research sufficient forestry,  to  (7/9)  in  the  forestry-wildlife  would  there  on  remains  area  narrow  the  featured a  gap  (game)  in  terms  Another  models  manipulation  and  felt  wildlife  that  For  species of  their habitat.  specific  there  were  the  example, and  such  as  selective  logging  affects  wildlife  that  there  the  is  with  interaction  between  biogeoclimatic  gaps  ongoing  interaction  of  interaction  to each  critical  although  their  lacking. Currently there is a lack of information as to how methods  were  confident  understanding  simulating  populations,  that  some  gaps.  between non-game species and  respondent  felt  interactions but  adequately  information  study  habitat  zone, were  alternative harvesting  populations  such  that  assumptions have to be made.  The the  representatives of Crestbrook deficiency in the  Forest  Forest  Service  and  Industries felt TFL  that a  licensee data  critical  base  gap  was  in recognizing  119 wildlife  values.  capability  According  maps  and  one  riparian  planning.  Without having  likelihood  that  field  to  the  level  representative,  habitat  maps  information  staff  will  not  in  identified be  these  agencies  order  to  on  cognizant  need  wildlife  undertake  maps, there of the  effective  is a  values  greater  in certain  areas of the management unit.  Headquarters respondents took a broader view, generally stating that few gaps  hampered  the  Forest  Management  Planning  general information is required for planning TSA  Resource  Management  (inventory), just information they  are  setting  as  gaps  have not  it provides  exist  but  not critical. The  resource  Plan  set resource  have "gone out on  would  direction  in terms reasoning  management  and  a  for research.  of their  One  felt  that  focus  for  Another  application to  data person  strategic  The  gathering felt  that  planning,  is that managers have not been prudent in the  face  of uncertainties, managers  levels that are intuitively conservative, but  a limb" by  only  in this context, is sufficient.  provide  strategies. In  harvest  process.  if any  being liberal.  In this regard, information  rather  has  not  such  as  been a constraint.  Other respondents indicated that the winter  range,  critical  gap.  how  and  One  adjustments  how person  could be  this  habitat requirements for ungulates,  interfaced  stated made  that  with  timber  forestry, presently management  to accommodate  wildlife  constitutes  currently focussed resources.  According  this person,  Forest managers need to obtain equivalent information from wildlife staff as to how active wildlife habitat management can take place as opposed to passive management that relies on what we do through  a on to  120 timber  It was  also noted that more detailed information on  required enabled  7.  management to achieve wildlife goals.  in order  that  higher  degree  of  wildlife resources is  resolution  would  be  provided  determine  objectively,  that  comparison with forestry information.  Commitment to  While  a  fish and  levels  measured  of commitment  through  implementation. agency's  Planning  difficult  considerations such  With  budget  are  regards  was  to the  considered  to  as  the  former,  sufficient  provision of  all respondents to  meet  its  they  resources were stated  can  and  asked  be plan  if their  objectives for  integrated resource management or if lack of funding has been a constraint.  Most 4/4  of the  government  in headquarters)  resource  staff interviewed  (6/7  in the  study  area  indicated that budget levels were not sufficient to carry out  integrated resource planning in addition to their other functions although these same people  and  acknowledged that the budget was  allocated just for T S A  perhaps sufficient if it was  Planning. Wildlife staff especially appeared  under highly constrained conditions. As  noted by  one  some of  to be  working  wildlife habitat specialist  We haven't had a budget increase since 1974. At this point in time we have less staff and the government is planning to reduce that even further. Much of the work is being contracted out to short term consultants. We could possibly meet our resource planning needs with the existing budget but we would certainly not be doing anything else. Because of our involvement in T S A Planning, we've had to give up other areas.  Other wildlife staff provided  similar responses,  noting that they  were  addressing  121 TSA  Planning  at the expense of other  activities because of the perceived  benefits  of strategic planning. The agency does not differentiate between planning  levels in  the budget allocation process and hence additional manpower or funding  for T S A  Planning  will not be forthcoming even though  on  wagonload." From  their  personnel  to shoulder  the perspective  TSA  Planning  of MoE  is an extra  staff, the lack  the responsibility for long-term  stewardship  "brick  of ministry is a  serious  problem, one that is resulting in increasingly reactive and ad hoc planning than proactive planning  rather  that is characteristic of IRM.  Forestry staff too, have experienced recent cutbacks with respect to planning that  according  to one respondent, the budget  has been  what can be carried out through  IRM. With  regard  example,  have  limiting  manpower  and budgets  been  a  severe  such  constraint on  to the Cranbrook  T S A for  factors; it has not been  possible for forestry staff in the District to upgrade the data base or to conduct effective public liaison in anticipating problems and determining what the needs of the  constituency  areas; be  are. It was  felt  that  of all forestry  program  timber, range and recreation in addition to inventories for wildlife had to  improved  in the one TSA. In contrast, a MoF  felt that  the budget for his agency  planning.  He  implement for  the inventories  TSA  IRM  felt  that  through  the key harvest  was  sufficient  to operating planning  respondent in another District  which  for staff to carry  within  a  limited  out IRM  budget  is to  reflects the analysis undertaken  Planning.  One respondent acknowledged that the budget for conducting strategic planning is insufficient; however because  of its importance, this  should  not be used  as an  122 excuse for failing  to plan. Although  wildlife agencies, there is still an This same statement on  the  there exists a  serious budget problem  obligation for remaining  staff to do a good job.  also applies to licensees; that is there remains an  part of T F L  licensees to  show  a  commitment  to  wildlife  more effort and  commitment  obligation  management  regardless of funding. Some companies however, have stated that they much  with  into planning for wildlife if they  would  put  were given  greater control of the resource.  The  second  question  asked  implemented as agreed aware of the that  TSA  upon, and  changes at the  Resource  of  the  was  whether  plans  were  if changes were made, were all agencies made  time  Management  interviewees  they Plans  were proposed.! One are  probably  respondent  "implemented"  as  stated agreed  upon because they are vague; that is there are not many task-specific items that one  can  provide  attach a  to  the  strategic  direction  indication  of  determine.  If the T S A  implementation  the  with tasks  general  may  priorities set out  against for timber  constraints  in the  from  which  to  measure  in terms but  plan  of an  implementation. AAC  implementation  Resource Management Plan is truly a  be measured by  the Plan, then deviate  plan  the T S A the  plan can  priorities,  and  provide  an  is  difficult  to  strategic document,  the tasks performed in combination  strategic document. If the  the  be TSA  Plans  with the  tasks were done consistently  considered to be Resource  followed, but if the  Management  Plan  is not  followed.  t A problem with the wording of this question was encountered because as one respondent correctly pointed out, strategic plans are not really implemented per se but rather are followed. Implementation is more oriented to project planning than strategic planning.  123  Respondents noted resource  that  that it was usually the strategies associated  were  implemented  Reasons for failure of resource the  lack  of funding,  contingencies  When MoF  because  staff to follow the plan  political  imperatives  or  of this  resource.  were cited and included  directives  and  the unexpected  that require adjustments.  asked whether or not agencies were made aware of proposed changes, one respondent  indicated  that  agencies  through the public involvement program are  of the measureability  with the timber  only  provides  are made  aware  aware, due to the vague  the MoF  a  great  changes  while another indicated that all agencies  sometimes made with  of proposed  deal  of leeway  nature  of the plan  in interpretation  which of the  significance of such changes. In the Cranbrook TSA, agencies are made aware of changes  at the more  detailed planning  levels through  "round  table"  discussions  with the MoF.  A  source of frustration among planners is not so much the changes themselves  but  the lack  direction.  When  operational resulting  of communication changes  realities  occur,  deviate  in changes  between such  from  as  agencies a  the plan.  prior  to an altered strategic  result of bark Assumptions  to the AAC, do not always  beetle infestations, of a  get referred  major from  nature  the T S A  Steering Commitees to staff of the MoE.  The  final  greater This  question  pertaining  to this  criterion  was whether  IRM  would  or lesser emphasis under the proposed arrangements for increased  is a  question  of conjecture  but is relevant  to the study  because  receive TFLs. it  is  124 intended  to provide  as a baseline. As  The  indication  of  expressed  the  managing  was  effectiveness of strategic  TSA  interest  in  timber  wildlife  individuals.  management.  that companies would generally not put  for  Planning  that there would be less emphasis given to  licensees' main  concern  of the  expected, a variety of answers were provided by  most common response  because  into  an  resources  unless  they  could  IRM  Respondents  a great deal of effort derive  some  economic  benefits from doing so. Those values that are not part of the transfer of rights, such  as  wildlife  compatible  Two  resources,  will  likely  devalued  and  "if they  are  not  with logging, their demise is inevitable."  respondents  felt  that IRM  because the area based tenure  would  licensee is held accountable  be  improved  provides an  resource management objectives for a  prepared  become  a  TFL  arrangement  incentive to the licensee to articulate  full range of resources. Moreover the  to agencies and  in the Management and  under  TFL  the public for what the company  has  Working plan.  8. Monitoring  All  respondents  ensure  that the  determine  were  asked  if their  recommendations  whether  stated  agency  in the  objectives  conducted  process  were  a  monitoring  were being  being  attained.  carried  program  to  out  to  and  Respondents  emphatic about the importance of monitoring  as part of the planning process  all  distinct  government  through  respondents  pointed  out  which this function is carried out.  a  lack  of formal  were but  mechanisms  125 Wildlife staff were especially critical of their own their agency was  noting that  more associated with the development aspects of planning that  placed staff in a reactive mode. One was  efforts to monitor,  respondent  felt that the lack of monitoring  perhaps the biggest downfall of the Wildlife program. As  he  noted,  We're making recommendations every day and we're not going back to review to see how they were implemented or how they worked. It's a tremendous weakness; one that will come back to haunt us.  This failure to monitor keep  up  with  though, has to be tempered by  existing  workloads  sometimes placed on the MoF  Forestry other TSA  was  analysis  that monitoring  weak. Measurement  when  it is for  this  to act as "the eyes and  staff too acknowledged  levels  and  usually  evaluation of the  AAC  the fact that staff cannot reason  ears" of the  at the  TSA  takes  reliance is MoE.  Planning level  comes in the levels  that  form  place  and  of subsequent  to  determine  if  there should be an increase or decrease in harvest levels.  In  the  Golden  TSA,  monitoring  is carried  out  via the  Five-Year  Development  Plan where it becomes possible to see the planning direction that is outlined the rationale used. Forestry staff attempt to  provide them with an  implications. The adjustments  In  the various user groups  awareness of the direction being taken  public, in turn, gives feedback  to forestry  and  the planning  staff in order that  can be made.  the Cranbrook TSA,  intended  to meet with  and  direction  in the  there is no  monitoring  plan is being  carried  mechanism out but  to determine  feedback  whether  is provided at  126 the  local level through public input. Based  are taken into account and  Monitoring  of  periodically  undertaken  M&WP field  Forest  by  the  have been adhered and  Industries'  MoF  to  operations  determine  if stated  with  company  internal mechanism was  staff.  occasionally  travelled  management philosophy  Forestry  respondents  prepared  by  to  had  different  been  the  TFL  is  in  the  objectives  reviewed, followed  Representatives  of  by the  in place to measure performance  against the documented objectives in the Management and staff  within  to. All relevent documents are  discussions  company noted that no  public reaction, major adjustments  built into the next analysis.  Crestbrook  inspections  on  areas  to  Working Plan. However  determine  if the  company's  met.  to  be  intended  in  three to five years. Some Regions such as the Vancouver Forest Region have  an  the  mentioned  MoF  and  that  annual reporting program on no  ongoing  monitoring  replanning. operations that Also, many  For  example  is not  being  is actually being the  to  monitoring  cases  that  chapter  some clearly  a TSA  provide  close  a  by the  TSA  on  an  undertaken  by  the  MoE  for ends  that  objectives of the  TSA  of the plan was  stated to be ineffective.  guidelines  are  link  other  between  of inventory  harvested  out  is  basis but  effected to determine the  it is carried  monitoring  defined  needed  monitoring  on  annual  soon  than this, there is implementation  information  and  and  company  percentage of accessible timber basis  tends may  within to  not  be be  Resource Management Plan. Monitoring  a  given  drainage.  fragmented consistent within  and with  the  in the  context  V.  In  this  chapter,  interviews Region  are  are  EVALUATION  the  results  evaluated.  compared  criteria. As  pointed  results is intended  out  in the  to be  RESEARCH  from  various  combined  both  RESULTS  the  Regional  and  Headquarters  points of view between Headquarters  with  previous  sources  of literature  chapter,  on  the  and  evaluation  the evaluation of the interview  a qualitative analysis more than a quantitative analysis.  Conclusions  are  to  interpretation in  enable  obtained  The  and  OF  embodied in the  text to link with  the  context  in  the results of Chapter 4  which  they  were  and  reached.  The  evaluation that follows is categorized according to criteria.  A.  CLEAR,  This  QUANTIFIED  thesis has  quantified  stated  objectives  accomplishments appropriate Planning,  for  the  in  need  order  through a  OBJECTIVES  given  for each  to  provide  subsequent planning  this translates to a  agency guidance  planning  horizon;  short term  to  towards  steps.  in of 20  the  articulate  These  case  years  Forest a  defined,  intended objectives  of  and  clearly  program must  be  Management  long term  of  200  years.  TSA  and  TFL  constantly refined resource  be  to  a  planning follow generalized processes, requiring that objectives must refined level  management  for  of  area-specific application. Once  detail  appropriate  prescriptions can  the objectives of the MoF  and  MoE  be  for  each  management  generated. Respondents  were couched in very  127  objectives  have  unit,  been  various  affirmed  that  broad terms either in  128 legislation  or  in  mission  "motherhood statements". TFL  Management  wildlife  and  resources  are  management  Working broadly  in  of substance"  between  actions and  explicit response  and  Plans,  stated  by  without  desired results.  The  MoF,  in a  recent Draft Policy  for  clear  objectives is  at  respondents  as  Resource Management Plans  and  integrating  (1986) arrived  forestry  at  such  An  the  and that  audit of conclusion  of principle that conveyed "absolutely  to provide Similarly  measures; it is therefore not  This  the  quantitative expression  Baskerville  that failed  evaluate progress and  consultation.  by  objectives for  as statements  adequately  need  to  to planners vis-a-vis plan implementation.  Ontario  that objectives were phrased nothing  referred  Moreover, in both T S A  they provide little guidance forest  statements  a  cause  in B.C.  and  plans  effect fail  possible for resource  connection  to  put  forth  managers to  determine when objectives have been attained.  Statement (MoF,  that  have  least  a  been  first  1988b), has  "defined  step  in  and  recognized  harmonized"  enunciating  clear,  the  through quantified  objectives that enable measurement of management progress.  The  research results indicate that the specificity  the  MoE  tended has  between  the  two  agencies.  Forest  to place a disproportionate emphasis on  often  timber  failed  to  meet  the  needs  of  timber  wildlife  Management supply  interests.  production  have  requirements  been have  goals  for some  articulated, put  wildlife  the  wildlife lack  managers  the MoF  and  Planning  has  considerations, and  Production  on forest lands have been set as A A C s derived through  Although units  differs  of targets set by  goals for  resource analysis.  populations  in the  MoE's  guidelines  stating  desired  of at  a  decided  disadvantage  strategic habitat against  129 forestry interests. Moreover, while advances have been made in the the  wildlife resource,  making  because  emphasis has  its production  been given  goals  economic terms. Finally, objectives harvesting  impacts  inventory,  is  difficult  subject  to  to  MoF  forestry  wildlife  on  determine  greater  more  because  (Tefler and  and  readily  and  is  being  a  as  to what the  distribution  primary  be  advised  classical  more  less  well  and  difficult  to  understood  habitat  hampers  the  the  impacts of  setting  been cited by  clear  the  MoE  capability is of forest land to support the diversity, density  and  prepared by  the  this  gap  is currently  remains a  of  gap  However  there  on  research  of wildlife.  as  in  Dauphine, 1981).  objective of that agency, yet  time of this writing, goals and are being  is  scarcity of information  their  in decision  difficult to define  wildlife  objectives. Also, the need for wildlife species diversity has as  definable  have been  fluctuation  have stated that a species  to the timber resource  for wildlife  scientifically than forest vegetation  Staff of the  are  valuation of  being  addressed. At  objectives for each species and  MoE  and  are  nearing  their habitat needs  completion. The  to what type of habitat is required  the  to meet the  MoF  will then  MoE  goals  and  objectives.  As  stated  by  Dinkel  strategic level may This  may  important local  level  lead that  and  Erickson  (1978), generalized  be translated into very  to conflicting objectives  planning.  Based  different objectives by  internalized objectives  provide on  the the  agencies to articulate objectives and  program  needed interview  within  direction to  a TSA  field  at  staff  in carrying  ability by  TSA  the  level staff.  programs. Thus  results, the  follow these on  objectives  of  the  it is out two  basis varies  130 widely  throughout  the  province  depending  on  the  availability of information on  these resources and  implement  an  activities  within  interagency  nature  of the  resources,  the  the willingness of field staff to  planning  environment,  taking  into  account objectives of each agency.  Objectives may be  at odds  which has and  on  manner who  be  conflicting not only within an  between  programs. This  is no  dual objectives of ensuring a  the  other  through  spoke  hand, ensuring  cooperation  of this  and  issue at  a  the  agency  more  apparent  vigorous  and  integration  meeting,  than  competitive  of resources  consultation. As recent  program  reiterated "(the  by  MoF)  A  of timber, range and  majority  paramount  of  respondents  importance  also  may  with  the  MoF  forest industry  in a  coordinated  one  respondent  is in a  interest role if it tries to resolve a land use issue with the MoE advocate  but  conflict of  when it is an  recreation resources (MoF/MoE, 1987).  indicated  that  for considering both  Forest resource  meeting their agency's objectives. Regional and  Management supply  and  Planning demand  is of and  District staff in the Nelson  in  Forest  Region recognized the importance of Forest Management Planning but some were less convinced objectives,  than  noting  headquarters  that  it was  staff about a  time  its importance  consuming  task  in achieving stated  that  compromised  their  ability to carry out other duties.  A  review  confirmed  of documented that  documentation  sources  insufficient  of IRM  effort  issues and  on  the  has  objectives of T S A often  gone  objectives in the  into  and the  TFL  plans  identification  preliminary stages  has and  of Forest  131 Management Planning. Some of the Statements of Management Objectives, Options and  Procedures  to identify TFL  for T F L s  and  14  did  quantify issues. The acknowledge  objectives  were  couched  particular  TFL  was  TFL The  for example are highly generalized documents that fail  held by  the  the  need  in general  submitted  no  sweeping  to  statement  form  and  wildlife  regarding  including  TSA  rather  than  "constraints"  manage In  for  one  to  be  case,  that was  or the  habitat possible  plans, valid  Procedures  resources  the  nearly  but  Statement  identical  its  for  to  a  another  for the Cranbrook T S A  needs  considered  by  referred  to  as  the of  to  MoE the  other  requirements  planners  of  alienation  incorporated into the planning process. In essence tended  other  Forest Industries'  same company, even though the issues were in fact different.  reference  Documents,  to  terms.  in a  Statement of Issues, Options  made  Statement for Crestbrook  other  forest  resource  be  (1984b) than  land  base.  concerns  optimized  a  and  'as fully  then, non-timber resources have  an  adjunct  to  timber  management  objectives rather than as part of a combined objective function. Constraints enter the determination as peripheral bounds, that is they are not maximized, minimized, nor optimized, they are merely set in the sense that the solution (for timber management) stays within the bounds set by them (Baskerville, 1986).  The  weakness  in  identifying  and  quantifying  non-timber  translating these into objectives is being improved Firstly, as  previously noted,  plans and  other levels of MoE  wildlife improved  the  habitat requirements, direction  to resource  Provincial  upon by  Species  the  planners.  designations (discussed more fully  two  under the next  the  and  recent initiatives. wildlife  needed information on  basis for refined Secondly,  values  Statements, Regional  plans which contain much provide  resource  objectives that  Resource  Emphasis  criterion) at both  the  give Area  Regional  132 and  Forest Management  Planning  levels  should  assist  ministry staff in refining  its objectives for area specific application.  B.  HIERARCHICAL PLANNING  FRAMEWORK  At the outset of this study, it was pointed out that the MoF  and the MoE  have a hierarchical planning framework that theoretically addresses sustained that  yield  was  production  asked  through  in order  different geographic  to evaluate  this  criterion  Management Plans currently provided the necessary This  study  planning  has revealed  framework  some  basic  of the MoF.  strengths  Firstly,  the issues of  levels. The major question was  whether or not Forest  direction to planners in IRM.  and weaknesses  planners  each  of the currrent  at all levels  recognize the  importance of Forest Management Planning in enabling the identification of issues which  in turn  are incorporated  into  analyses  and linked  to operational plans.  Through this level of planning, areas requiring Local Resource Use Plans such as high value watershed areas, have been jointly priorized by the MoF essense  The  Forest Management Plans provide a context for LRUPs.  respondents  recognized  decisions must flow As  and MoE; in  through  stated by the MoF  that in order a linked  for planning  to be effective, planning  hierarchy in a dynamic, two-way fashion.  in a recent draft policy statement  (1988c)  Planning involves progressively refining decisions from general to specific levels. Refinements also occur as a result of feedback from specific levels to the more general.  As  a result of this linkage, Forest Management Planning has facilitated land use  allocation  through  the use  of such  tools  as  planning  cells  and  through  the  133 derivation  and  application  of guidelines. It has provided  information needs and research requirements  An  evaluation  of the linkages  between  direction  for further  on a T S A by T S A basis.  levels  of planning  has  revealed  a  fundamental weakness. There is a missing link between the Provincial policy level and  Forest Management Planning; that is Regional planning exists in name only  whereas  it should  constitute a  significant  priorities. This is verified by Pearse  level  that  specifies  regional resource  (1976) who states  The government must recognize that effective resource planning and development are predicated on the design of coherent regional plans and the lack of them, therefore, demands attention.  This  lack  means  that  forest  management  decisions are made  independently of  policy design at the provincial level. Provincial policies themselves have failed to provide the necessary exists ' at the senior hampered  attempts  guidance policy  to resource planners. A decision-making  to articulate  clearly  level  defined  serious government inertia  (Sturmanis,  land  1986) which has  use policies  and  prepare  plans that are consistent with such policy.  In essence,  Forest Management Planning  exacerbated  by the previously discussed vague statements  Management Plans. Unless  there exists  linked  planning levels, each having  levels  may  not represent  what  is done in a vacuum. The problem is  a complete  and consistent framework of  clear objectives, decisions made at the higher  is logistically  level, i.e. in the forest. Conversely  of objectives in Forest  feasible  at the more  site  specific  decisions made at the operational level  not be reflective of what is socially desireable.  may  134 T S A / T F L plans themselves need to provide direction through "top down" planning in which planners  focus on a strategic twenty year  perspective but also need to  realistically reflect issues and information that are incorporated into the data base and  ultimately  Identified  issues  management The  into  Forest  within  scenarios  Management  a  given  which  implications of these  Plans  through  management  are modelled  scenarios  over  unit  "bottom are  up"  planning.  assessed  through  the short, mid  are assessed  and  a  and long  planning  direction is  selected with a specific AAC. The strategic plan should then be prepared a  manner  so as to link  the top (AAC) with  the bottom  up  term.  in such  planning  which  resulted as a consequence of the land base issues.  Some  planners  expressed  sufficient  direction  contained  within  vague. T S A to  but  the  view  others  TSA/TFL  that  stated  plans  Forest  that  rendered  the  intended  Management often  Plans  generalized  actions  provided statements  incomprehensible  or  Resource Management Plans have tended to pay insufficient attention  priorization and have lacked specification as to wildlife populations and habitat  that will be affected by alternative forest management regimes.  In order  for Forest Management Plans  development plans, long term timber short-term largely are  assessed  regard;  supply  allocation decisions. The quality  dependent  (Hermansen  to give direction to and be reflective of  in  upon terms  the accuracy of  the  and  long  term  of the integration process  of forecasts and how  effects  1989). Forest Management  short  projections need to be reconciled with  analyses  of  short  Planning have  term  long  is therefore  term forecasts  management  policies  in B.C. has been weak in this  not been  linked  (Williams  et al,  135 1988)  to  ensure  the  sustainability  of  resources  emanating  from  short-term  decisions.  The  Forest  proposed  Resource  an  Analysis  analysis  Section  framework  (MoF,  for IRM  Inventory  that  Branch)  is intended  has  to  recently  address  the  reconciliation of long term and short term forecasts and the need to consider the spacial  relationships between  resources.  The  area-based  the current strata based approach to resource be linked with operational plans  As  hundred  year  strata-based  analysis, permits strategic plans to  (Dellert, 1989).  part of the reconcilliation process,  area-based harvest  approach, as opposed to  the short term  analysis will consist of an  schedule that is applied for the first twenty years of the two  planning  horizon.  but will  have  an  The long  term  area-based  (200 years) analysis will  resolution  over  the short  term  years). The spacial definition that an area-based analysis system allows to  ensure  that  short  term  supplies and that the A A C Will therefore  require  harvests  will  plans  direction  will  an iterative refinement of land  once  more  effectively  Resource  affect long  arose  Foresters,  through  the Land  1987) is based  will help  term  timber  Areas  on  Use  scenarios  that  communication.  articulate the  Emphasis  management  are  needed  Strategy  the establishment  resource  established.  identified in this study as being essential for effective IRM which  (20  is operationally feasible (Dellert, 1989). Reconcilliation  are ultimately derived through inter-agency  TSA  not adversely  remain  (Association of broad  REAs  management have  been  planning. This concept of B.C. Professional social,  economic and  136 environmental the  Forest  resource  objectives at the Provincial and  Management  Planning  potentials, management  1988a). But  its success  level  Regional level. R E A s t  are  to  requirements  hinges  on  be  and  meaningful  how  resource development and  will  also  require "cooperation of all government  land"  respective  (Zak,  1988)  ministries  at  at  similar features,  input in identifying  (MoF, where  management should take place (Zak, 1988). It  in ensuring  while  of  operational constraints"  public  and  Crown  "areas  developed  the  that  the  agencies REAs  same  time  remain  process  is a  highly  having  meet  an  the  interest in  needs  consistent  of the  between  the  valuable mechanism  for  different planning levels.  The  Forest Management  identifying  data  gaps,  respondents  indicated  that  Planning research these  requirements heeds  tend  to  and  inventory  arise  as  a  needs.  natural  Some  course  of  action through  the analysis process especially in TSAs facing shortages or deficits  in the timber  supply harvest forecasts or where there are high resource values  that  come  into  conflict. Priorization  determination of an they  arise  concerned the  at  a  AAC later  the requirement  determination  of an  and  follow-up  of these  needs  prior  to the  will provide a more realistic strategic direction than if time.  An  important  for priorization AAC.  and  Unfortunately  point  that  arose  follow-up of these however, not  in  this  needs prior to  enough  attention is  currently being paid to including these needs explicitly within plans.  tThe MoF  has  study  also termed these as Integrated Resource Management Units.  137 C.  SHARED,  Central  to  COOPERATIVE  the  coordination  effective  of values  PLANNING  management  and  inputs  of natural resources  in a joint  planning  communication between all participants must be  is the  sharing  and  environment. Furthermore  consistent and  continuous  if it is  to lead to equitable decisions.  The  most significant development in the Forest Management Planning process in  B.C.  in recent years has  a  partner in T S A  in  the  planning and  has  process. In this context the  Agreement,  Timber  recognizes  this  Counteracting  "fully  committing  Supply  positive  move  sets  planning  to fully participate in the T S A  participate".  Staff  within  development. While  they  the  also  recognize  that the MoE  the  MoE  have signed (May  now  their  a "Protocol 1987)  of  have  as those  which  the  MoE.  lack of regional habitat staff  been  participating in the T S A  that  is  planning process, the key  MoE  the respondents  29,  responsibilities  however, is the  themselves because by  mining  the  Process"  out  would have to drop other projects such and  and  Planning  and  the MoF  the opportunity to become a full participant MoF  Area  partnership  this  within the MoE being  been the recognition by  very  careful  words about  planning process, they  relating to operational planning  recognize the importance of  full  participation  may  not  TSA  always  be  possible.  A  fundamental  inter-agency basis  for  weakness  of  representation needed informed  Forest  Management  to formulate  decision-making.  Despite  resource  the  fact  Planning  is  the  weak as  use  options  used  that  wildlife  staff  a  have  138 gained  status as full participants in the T S A  planning  mechanisms  Committee  retains  structure, which  an  Planning  overwhelming  is comprised  process, the structure of  timber  almost  emphasis.  soley  The  of MoF  Steering  and industry  representatives, has been established to provide technical advice to T S A yet in  Planners;  there is no similar mechanism for non-timber interests. Cooperative the Golden  MoF  TSA  staff have  Association  and  was  determined  to be  recently extended an invitation Ministry of Environment  Committee. But in general, the team whereby fully  agency  progressive  in this  to Parks  on  approach  and public representatives are provided  regard;  District  Canada, the Trappers'  to participate  planning  planning  the T S A  Steering  at the strategic with  level,  the opportunity to  participate irf the design of options, has not been embraced  in B.C. As a  result, the innovation that is channelled towards management design is somewhat narrow. Steering Committees component  of a broader  in their  present  form  inter-agency framework  ought  to comprise  that truly  represents  but one the array  of values obtained from the forest land base.  Since and  conflicting objectives of competing equitable  positions party on  of relative  (Pearse,  both  which  greater  dictates  and  participants  requires tradeoffs, a fair  are  little  to  negotiate by  from  a neutral  process in B.C. is weak  there exists a major imbalance between wildlife interests  in the way  timber  able  is coordinated  1987). The Forest Management Planning  number  pressed  that  users  equality and that the process  counts. Firstly  have  disposal  hard  system  resource  interests  of financial which  are provided  of professional staff. to attend  meetings,  and  This  fully  means analyze  manpower  resources  with  larger  that  wildlife  data  and  at their  budgets staff  and  a  are often  undertaking  other  139 activities that are required in a joint planning environment.  Secondly,  Forest Service personnel  hold perceptions  and values  that are strongly  influenced by their educational background. Having been given lead agency status, they  are in a  perceptions  strong  position  and values.  to influence decisions  In essence  Protocol Agreement as being  staff  of the MoE  that  accords  with  are recognized  these in the  "full participants" but are not equal participants as  outlined in the criterion (Chapter 4).  The  only form  of planning  truest sense, takes t  process  coordinated that  in B.C. that can be considered joint planning  place through the Coordinated  in which  all participants hold  by a neutral person.  of CRMPs  was  addressed  an  The concept by some  Resource Management equal  Planning  and  which is  of a strategic approach  similar to  respondents.  position  in the  Two  options  to consider  therefore, would be: 1.  T S A Planning remains a Forest Service tool, and  2.  the planning process is neutral, involving all agencies.  With  an  interagency  approach  would be a strategic  MoF/MoE  similar plan  to the second,  that would  the resulting  document  set the tone for other  resource  uses.  The  major advantage  not  have  more  time  of the C R M P  approach is that the Wildlife Branch  to do its own  planning  independently  and energy  to planning  than  of the M o F  if it were  and would  to be a  single  would devote  agency's  tCRMPs are a form of Local Resource Use Plans (i.e. tactical plans) that have been developed for overlapping forest and range areas of B.C.'s interior.  140  process. It would also give all participants the feeling of equality and that their input is valid. The negative aspect of this approach would be the lack of power on the part of the Forest Service in administering timber as the dominant resource in B.C. The approach would require joint decisions by both ministries and all agencies would be able to affect the AAC.  Past planning between foresters and wildlife biologists has been characterized by a communication gap most notably at the field level where a lack of funding and manpower has forced wildlife and forestry staff to spend less time on the ground than is needed. But the gap in communication is closing due, in part, to joint  research  enhanced  efforts  and an improved  information  the understanding of the resources  base  administered  which  has vastly  by the respective  disciplines.  In the study area, joint planning was perceived to be improving between agencies largely  attributable  to improved  communication,  a  factor  acknowledged  by  Demarchi (1984) who states that Direct communication and an appreciation of each other's resource mandates are essential to achieving forestry and wildlife management and in this regard I think we are making excellent progress in southeastern British Columbia.  Still the lack of willingness on the part of both interests to view problems in a wide perspective remains an impediment to an effective negotiation process. As one respondent stated, Problems need to be viewed in their broader context, they can never be solved with a narrow focus on the problems themselves. Unless issues are mutually exclusive, there is usually a broader array of  141 options available than the process.  In  order  to  improve  what appears to be  cooperative  planning  the case  at the outset of  therefore, people  need  to dispel  their  narrow perceptions in the search for a solution.  Inevitably  conflicts  between  the  biologists  will  continue to occur especially where high resource values overlap or where the  two  resources are over-committed problems do  not occur  mandates  on  economic imperatives  production usually take precedence over  Through  the  thereby  resolved  Protocol Agreement, the  Assistant  at  the  Deputy  District  Ministers  resolved  at this  efficient  and  majority  of conflicts  effective  In the  manifested points  be  will  likely  MoF  will be  and  MoE  have  conflicts between  two  level,  to the  for conflict resolved  referred  they  ministries.  referred  be  and  wood fibre  the more subtle, less well defined values  Regional the  of timber  the  two  will  be  If the  Deputy  resolution; at  arrived  the  interests.  at a  process  agencies  cannot  referred  conflict  to  cannot  the be  Ministers. This is an  as  it stands,  regional and  to the Deputy  two  the  vast  district  levels  Ministers for resolution  pers. comm., 1988).  Golden  educated  of  mechanism  while a small percentage (O'Riordan,  or  level, it will  wildlife  creating friction between the  for conflict resolution. Where resource be  and  the same land base. Even in cases where these  "the hard  of wildlife" (Demarchi, 1984)  of forester  on  TSA, each  participants in the other's  itself through  of the joint  the  planning  resource  planning process  requirements,  desire to jointly efforts  in this  but  were initially mutual  plan for IRM. TSA  is the  One  not well  education of the  has  strong  willingness of planners  142 and  other specialists to share information.  Joint  planning  manner.  in  the  of  the  Much  Management Planning most  important  and  Cranbrook success  TSA  has  which has intensively  has  been  been used  also  improved  attributable  applied on  a  lands. There  but  to  in  a  Coordinated  more  localized  remains  a  different Resource  scale to the  reluctance on  the  part of the forest industry to fully participate in joint planning endeavors at the strategic level.  MoF  staff  wildlife MoE  have  been  staff of the  has  Thus one  played  frustrated  MoE,  and  in the  although  continues  past  at the  to play  by  the  same  an  time  important  government representative stated "We  sporadic  are  they  participation  recognize  meant  them to  throughout same  time  that the  role  in identifying issues.  willing  to incorporate other  agencies on the planning team but, before doing so, there must be from  by  a commitment  to participate through  the whole planning process." This statement is  reduce  of  the  possibility  conflict  by  ensuring  the process are in line with the requirements runs  counter  to the  previous  statement  that  decisions  of the MoE  made  but at the  that habitat staff will  not  always be able to fully participate. Thus a dilemma is posed.  The  interviews  with  Crestbrook  documented material provided by model  for  industry  research projects on bear, caribou and  efforts how  Forest  representatives  and  the  these people demonstrate that the company is a  in joint  forestry  Industries'  planning.  CFI  has  activities affect such  participated  in several  wildlife species as grizzly  Rocky Mountain Elk. According to Sumanik (1984)  143 This joint involvement in research and management has fostered a mutual understanding of resource problems and an approach to either solving or avoiding them altogether. CFI has developed specific policies which deal with other user groups sharing a common land base.  The  efforts undertaken by  CFI  given favorable comment by  A  key  policy  implications is the  for the  taken  IRM  the  fact that they were also  respondents.  the  effectiveness of IRM tenures  MoF  that  generally within  has  and  TSAs  exceedingly  important  joint planning  specifically  to area  based  TFLs  upon licensees in managing these tenures.  assuming more responsibility for forest management and  assuming more of an  stated  underscored by  by  responsibility placed  forest industry  MoF  MoE  transfer of volume based  the increased the  direction  are  objectives  and  auditing and strategies  monitoring function, the  in  forest  management  plans  has  and  direction that  to the  industry  is taking  the  become  need for closer communication between the  ministries as  With  need for clearly  essential, t It also highlights the other  and  in the  MOF  various  management units.  D.  MEANINGFUL  Opportunities  PUBLIC  PARTICIPATION  for public involvement in B.C.  of decades through briefs submitted papers  on  major  mechanisms. But  policies,  it has  only  review  have been in existence for a number  to royal commissions of  been in the  management  on  unit  forestry, discussion plans,  last decade that the  MoF  and has  other taken  tThis will be facilitated by recently enacted legislation which requires licensees to include in the planning process, inventories of all non-timber resources where available.  144 significant process,  steps  largely  co-ordinated  In  1981  who  was  Ministry  was  which  levels  hired  into planning  perceived  its first  for setting  formalized was  the public. The  under the his  public input  in response to the  responsible  Involvement  various  incorporate  need  adopted  the  in  to undertake  the  of  Policy  and  concerns, and  is a  Management and  the  although  citizens may or T F L  range  Planning  The  licensee  not  day  including  guide  fact it could be  have  more  involved  at  impacts are more readily perceived; but this type  the  of  to  provide  proper to  those  Manager.  a  outfitters, argued  example  must ensure compliance  stake  in  the  Forest  trappers, recreationists  that all British the  Columbians  case study  revealed,  to become involved in  to learn about forest management issues or provide to become  agencies  For  time frame, respond  avail themselves of the opportunity  tend  Public  mechanisms used to  required  in the outcome of strategic planning. As  Planning  them. Publics  30  is  of public interests that  process  The  for public review  the  refer copies of the exchanges to the Regional  wide  on  various  Planning.  licensee is required to provide  Procedures.  Program.  Policy  from  Management  Working Plan, and  forest industry. In  have a stake  a  Coordinator  the importance of public involvement at the  notification, seek public response within a  There  formalized  more proactive,  Public Involvement  solicit public input are left to the licensee's discretion, he the  a  Involvement  following input  including Forest  policy, each T F L  Public  preparation  1983  policy recognized  of planning  Provincial  in place  through  draft Management and  with  through  planning.  the  program  and  to  local  level  TSA  input into  where tangible  of involvement is unfortunately  145 more reactive in nature.  In  most management units of the  Nelson Forest Region, public involvement  taken place over a long period of time and individuals have remained informed  of  the  understanding public  good  Another  very  issues,  of  the  forestry issues. As  one  information, they  stated  management  that  people  virtually  become  can  be  who  virtue of the  fact  that  they  have  notion  an  However  are  three  involvement been  in Forest  solicited  Management  the  process  when the  developed. While  planning,  planners  this  have  and  issues and  Procedures  chapter  of  the  their  although Resource  " i f you  give  the  up  with  good decisions."  in  wildlife  industry  or  fisheries  representatives  with  the  hampered Firstly  MoF  the  and  has  their  often  Terms of Reference and  mechanisms  been given to the  in the  Manual  and  effectiveness of public  public input  consultative  weakness has  Planning  of forestry, the  is critical for giving direction  bypassed  Planning  stated,  process.  Organization  documentation  this  an  technical aspects  internal communication. Insufficient emphasis has of social  lack  Statement of Issues, Scenarios  step  often  have  Planning.  Preliminary  publics  forest  arrangements  factors which  during the  of the planning is being  major  to become well  publics in Forest Management  have on  contractual  time  and  all  interest  comprehensive involvement throughout the planning  There  that  respondent  hold  biologists.  knowledge they  have taken the  trusted to come  have a definite advantage over all other by  remains well entrenched. Groups  active and  dispelling  has  Statement  been  addressed  (MoF,  1988a).  The  stage  Procedures  to subsequent in  favor  of  determination  of Issues, in the  not  Scenarios  recent  same  draft  weakness  146 applies  to  the  prepared by increase planners  TFL  the  Statement  of  Management  Options  and  Procedures  licensees. Early involvement of citizens would serve to not only  correctness of assumptions  are  Objectives,  truly  in touch  with  reprisal at the more advanced  the  built  into  plans  resource, but  thereby  also  ensuring that  would  reduce  planning stages when concepts may  public  be contrary to  public needs.  The  second  that  is required  used  to derive  simply was  and  has  public  them; or, conversely, the to the  public  on  of the  the planning process  of planners issues  Golden  TSA  planning process diminished as  either quite broad  being the forest industry TSA  that  to  communicate  affect  where  them. This  public  the depth  interests'  of knowledge TSA  or T F L  and but  or technical in their content, their primary target  and  the Ministry  of Forests. No  summary  reports  on  plans are prepared for the benefit of the public.  third factor limiting the effectiveness of public involvement in forest resource  decision-making is non-participation by many  groups  in the Region  remain  public apathy. Non-participation  their  inability  knowledge  planning documents are available for public review in their draft form  tend to be  who  is the vast  both plans and  fundamental  evidenced in the case  in the T S A  involvement  length of time required for full participation became apparent. The  TFL  The  hampered  to adequately comprehend  clearly  strongly  enthusiasm and  factor that  has  citizens, although as  previously  active. Some respondents been studied by  attributed  Sewell and  Coppock  note that people are more apt to respond to actual or proposed immediate  environment.  At  the  broader  planning  levels  mentioned,  such  this to (1977)  changes in as  Forest  147 Management Planning,  people find it difficult to relate to strategic issues nor  they understand the  plan  of  to  the  opportunity  cannot be include  soley  itself and  become  therefore they often do  involved.  attributed to comprehension  perceived  probability of succeeding  differences in access to resources  and  using  goals.  resources  to  achieve  wildlife groups may  being carried out and  One  important  consideration  level  the  case study  at  the  Forest  although there  in the  citizen participation  of issues; other  in an  attempt  Respondents in the  also  factors to  to  influence  realm  suggested  manner with  satisfaction with the status quo  area  consider decisions,  that  which  the  these process  management.  of public involvement is the  provision  alternatives, processes and  level  of  overall framework for public involvement  planning  is presently  not  a lack of graphical representation  comprehension  and;  b)  the  of  public  information, nor  the has  available not  been  what the relevance  the public in Forest Management Planning. Golden  Forest  District  aware  and of  that to  study:  charts) to  management the  available  of the various documents is.  For  acknowledged  the  (i.e. maps and  information made  and  know how  indications of this inadequacy became apparent during  Some respondents in the Nelson Forest Region perceived  staff in the  inadequate  is public concern over broader plans, people do  a) there is presently public  noted that the  Management  participate. Two  for  of  adequate framework for participation to effectively occur. Some respondents  in  enable  other  the  avail themselves  differences in alternative opportunities for  have full confidence  was  of an  But  not  do  a somewhat limited role  example forestry and  that members of the  not necessarily wish to become involved in all stages of the process and  wildlife  public  do  that the  148 public  need  biologists  at  involvement interests essence  not  be  the  Regional  process  for  in  they  not be  beyond  level did  stating that  wildlife  therefore,  that may  involved  their  have  appropriate  their not  their  own  place  a  agency  transactions  have  taken  given  the  "sphere strong  of  emphasis  adequately  with  an  the  advocacy  influence".  Wildlife  on  the  public  represented  the  public  MoF  representatives.  role for wildlife,  a  fact that public wildlife interests are  In role not  a clearly defined clientele holding static values.  E.  FLEXIBILITY  Forest Management Planning plans. It is an  TSA and  with the  ongoing cycle in which plans  information, priorities and  This study has  does not end  revealed  plan revision, MoF re-analyzing  Chief Forester's  circumstances.  that, despite the recognized  time frame of five years for  planners encountered tremendous difficulties in  plans, difficulties that resulted in an  the  intended  planning  gaining  knowledge  respondents  time frame are  process and on  expressed  the  initial  8  the  for  specific  nuances  confidence  issues  are  public involvement, the  to  10  that This  of the  planning time  is due,  quantified,  this  and frame  year time  issues that circumvent  analysis. between  in part, to the information  preparing  lead to deviations  learning process that planners must go  reduced to five to seven years. data  of  are revised to account for changing  frame. Some of the factors that planners encounter which may from the  approval  will  future analysis. Time constraints will therefore be less onerous.  through in  Many plans  of  would  the be  fact that once the be  available  for  149 Unlike have  TSA most  There 28)  Resource always  Management  been  are two basic  prepared  Plans,  T F L Management  and revised  reasons for this  within  a  situation. Firstly  and Working  five  year  time  the Forest  whereas  Plans.  The  within  a  requires  there  second  well less  operating  defined  The  to  maintain  such  is that  area,  in the way  requirement the T F L  is in a  of revisions  profit  motive  present,  for T S A  position  for shifting provides  bureaucratic  Resource  licensee, being  better  a  efficiency  at an early stage of the planning  change harvesting  At  reason  areas.  corporation operations  is no  the only  operations  by  a  and  incentive  clearly  every five  Management  to prepare  strong  frame.  Act (Section  requires the submission of a T F L Management and Working Plan  years  Plans  operator plan  that  deletions of within  identifying  the  needed  process. There is less inclination to  areas, for example.  are driven largely by timber  supply  considerations; respondents could not point to any instances in which plans  or the  AAC  changes to T S A  had been revised on the basis of wildlife needs. Thus plans  flexible  over  issues  that  counter  have  constraint  runs  attempted  to develop means  some management may  A  and T F L plans  little  or no  to the needs  of wildlife  of maintaining  units, deletions from  impact  on the AAC. staff  who  are much more This  stated  form of that  they  flexibility; but for certain species in  the existing land base are required. This  translate into a reduction of the AAC.  major  isolation  problem  with  the process of change is that revisions are approved in  of the program  communication  requirements  of other  has the potential to negate  years  agencies.  The  of effort  by  lack MoE  of prior staff and  150 instill a feeling of animosity between participants. For example, MoF forestry operations resulting from to  wildlife  habitat  than  therefore to develop an  the  a major fire in a T S A  fire  agreed  itself  without  upon way  MoE  may  changes to  be more damaging  input.  There  is a  need  of conducting interagency liaison in the  course of dealing with change.  The of  degree issues  and  frequency of plan revision is closely linked with the identification  in the  early  stages  of the  planning process. If planners  careful attention to issue identification and revision  would  not  be  as  pressing  as  have  paid  the setting of priorities, the need for  it might  otherwise  be;  flexibility  is, in  essence, built into the plan.  A  comparison  offer  less  between  flexibility  the  two  for IRM  forms than  Minister deletes Crown land from b)  any  other  purpose  except  reduction of greater than 5 %  of management  TSAs.  a TFL  timber  Legislation  production, and  (Forest Act, 1978). Hence  5%  by  opposition  to the  if changing  government. It is this proposed  within T S A s to area-based  TFLs  where  the  of a) rights-of-way or  the  deletion  leads  to  a  for the balance of the deletion  needs and  lack  of flexibility  government policy TFLs.  circumstances dictate a  for example, compensation  of cash or alternate timber would be required, an  favorably  that  that  during a deletion period (25 years), compensation is  deletion to the land base for wildlife purposes form  reveals  requires  for the purposes  payable to the licensee for the amount over period  units  in the  avenue not looked upon that  has  sparked  of converting volume-based  public tenures  151 F.  ADEQUATE  DATA  BASE  Effective forest resource management in B.C.  is predicated on  an  adequate data  base that is pertinent to the issues central to each  management unit. The  base  vastly  1987)  for Forest Management over  the  Wildlife-Intensive and  the use  encountered  last  decade  Planning with  ongoing  Forestry Research  program  of satelite imagery. that  render  be. Firstly, data may  strategic  in B.C.  However  has  research (IWIFR),t  it appears  improved  such  as  that  (MoF/MoE,  the  sophistication  Integrated in modeling  several problems are  planning less effective than  it might otherwise  not necessarily serve the analysis of identified issues.  finding of this study, that issues have often been identified hastily and research or communication  between foresters and  of the more acute timber and  inventories  conducted  singularly  of by  The  with little  wildlife biologists, indicates that  the basic resource information that is gathered may  Secondly,  data  not adequately address some  wildlife issues.  forestry  and  wildlife  each  the  respective disciplines.  of  resources  have  tended  With  a  to  be  lack  of  knowledge regarding some of the resources' functional attributes, no clear direction is provided for future research and  Thirdly,  the  geographic  data collection.  information  systems  of  the  two  ministries  have  been  tThe IWIFR program, supported by the MoF and MoE, consists of two phases. During Phase 1 (1980-1986), research data on the impacts of forestry on habitats for deer and elk were accumulated. Phase 2 (1987-1991) will combine ongoing research with a program of information transfer to the field level. While the program commenced (and is continuing to take place) on B.C.'s south coast, it has shifted to the interior of the province where studies on forestry-caribou interactions are being undertaken.  152 developed  divergently;  comparison  or  coordination  as  a  result  the  interaction between  of  data  bases  on  the a  with  is in fact a one  strong  another. But  monolithic  data  base  mandates. It should duplication  of  developed by in such a way  There  is also  the MoF.  As  does  resources. system  not  sufficiently  The has  lack  as  weakness is recognized  noted  and  as  a  that  greatly  Surveys and  concern a  by  enhance  in  government  is  a and  transfer data  other  which  comparability,  Mapping Branch of the  systematic  about developing  about treading on  provincial standard,!  enable  resulted  desire among departments to share and  well  be  of  also  at the same time there is a hesitancy  effort the  two  base  common  tremendous cost to government. This there  data  a  department  will  eliminate  currently  being  Ministry of Crown Lands  as to avoid the above concerns.  a  weakness of information  stated by  linkages  between  data  systems  within  Pelchat (1985)  Individual systems in many cases have been developed to meet individual objectives and have not considered potential users of the data by other systems. A Ministry-wide commitment to coordination of systems and the data produced by those systems is required to alleviate future data non-compatibility.  Fourthly, detailed This  planners information  study  has  have at  retained  the  revealed  local  that  the level  practice and  professionals  of  applying at  the  attempting this  District  cases the  Regional  staff who  are constantly transferring wildlife information  a  scale of  to  to the  derive  highly  strategic level.  level  and  in  some  level fail to think in terms of generalities, especially wildlife  1:20,000. The  process  on  forest cover maps at  of detailed mapping appeared  tThere is currently a committee to oversee standards in the committee includes representatives of the MoF and MoE.  to work well in data  base.  This  153 the case of the Golden T S A  because of its relatively small size but could not be  expected  large  to  work  approach may  in  be  other  necessary  TSAs  in  the  Province.  While  this  detailed  in some instances, staff have not been as selective  in their approach to information gathering as they ought to be. In contrast, staff at  the  headquarters  resource  base,  level  have  recognizing that  tended  to  strategic  take  a  planning  more must  holistic  view  of  the  incorporate generalized  information only.  A  significant  data  weakness  regarding the  have not been geo-referenced  systematic  analysis  could  be  not  which  consists  The  of aggregating  base  is that in the  or integrated between agencies  of all resources  undertaken.  data  that flow  currently similar  used  forest  from  a  specified  strata based  resource  such  that the  geographic  strata-based approach cover  types, has  resource values that require a high level of geographic cracks" in the analysis. The  past,  area  to analysis,  meant  that other  fidelity, "fall through  approach has  also failed to  the  adequately  permit the linking of strategic plans with development plans.  While  the  data  requirements in  such  mind. For  the  recently relies  interactions  through  a  sufficiently  Forest. Inventory  which  digitized by  the  geo-referenced and  not  addressed  area  specific  resource  as wildlife habitat, it is continuing to evolve with these needs  Branch  presented  on  has  example  Inventory  transposed  base  to  enables  a  Planning series  overlays. Also, Forest Resource  data  reconcile  to  more  short  term  the  file  of  has  been developed  resource  analysis  attributes  framework  for  Analysis Section (Inventory  accurately versus  model  long  site  term  specific  harvest  to  by be IRM,  Branch), resource  projections.  154 Using of  Geographic  the spacial  integrative and  Information Systems, the framework will better enable relationships  system  between  resources  that incorporates data  from  of the forest a spectrum  land  analysis  base.  of resource  An  agencies  applies modeled management regimes to geo-based data will ultimately  reduce  some of the interagency conflicts that currently exist.  Some  participants  in the  study  planning is quite rudimentary  to wildlife  habitat  managers have encountered objectives.  However  that  some  information  for strategic  and that there exists several critical data gaps in  the joint management of forestry respect  stated  and wildlife resources. For example  is not well  developed  and  as  a  data  result  with  resource  difficulties in translating wildlife populations to habitat  it is very  difficult,  if not impossible, to obtain  strategic information that stands up over time. As noted by Salwasser  accurate, (1984),  Regardless of the elegance of inventories and planning models, our predictions of the results of planned treatments will always be less accurate than desired. In many cases they may be way off.  Moreover, strategic  because level,  there  is a  it is difficult  distinct  lack  to determine  of monitoring the degree  (Section H)  to which  at the  information is  sophisticated.  In answer to the question as to whether there are critical data gaps in Forest Management Planning, headquarters from the  respondents  regional and district respondents. context of present management  again differed in their perceptions  Headquarters  levels  staff have indicated that in  at the strategic  level, data  gaps are  not restrictive to the process. Regional and District staff on the other hand have taken  a  different  perspective, indicating  that there  are significant  critical  data  155 gaps on  the  interaction  of forestry  and  wildlife  resources  that  does  affect  the  planning process.  While  information pertaining  some  shortfalls,  with  which  to  there  appears  conduct  strategic planning can be can be used  integration to be  strategic used  at  the  sufficient  local  data, on  level a  planning. Acknowledging  has  will  experienced  province-wide  that  there  basis,  are  gaps,  to identify where critical data gaps lie just as it  to guide where resource inventories need to be updated.  changes in information and planning  to  technology  eventually filter  up  to  appropriate hierarchical linkage and  Alternately,  that affect planning at the local levels of the  strategic  level  of planning. With  the necessary flexibility, plans can be  an  altered  to take these changes into account.  This  thesis has  outlined  in  emphasized  the  the data base that pertains to 'natural systems'  commentary  in  reference to the 'socio-economic IRM  context.  Thus  there  is  Chapter  respondents  made  systems' which are also of vital importance  in an  a  need  3.  to  considerations, as has been evidenced through of a provincial task force on environment  The  research has  concerned  of  link  some  environmental  with  economic  such initiatives as the establishment economy.  that Forest Management Planning has  largely been  with the physical data required for forestry management as opposed to  socio-economic merits  determined  and  However,  as  data  various  that is required for informed land  management  alternatives.  decision-making on This  situation  the relative  persists  even  156  though  accepted methods for evaluating costs versus benefits are in place, t  finding  that  strategic  planning  for  IRM  has  retained  a  strongly  The  technical  orientation without the required level of socio-economic evaluation is supported by a  number  of authors  that the MoF been  (e.g. Dorcey,  would likely  enunciated  and  1987;  Irland,  1985).  Respondents  indicated  attend to this shortcoming once clear objectives have  other  pressing  needs  with  regard  to  improved  planning  direction have been attended to.  G.  COMMITMENT  TO  PLANNING  Commitment in this thesis is evaluated in terms reflected plan  in budgetary  allocation  implementation. Both  and  of both political commitment as  bureaucratic  commitment  are of vital importance  as  for the mutual  indicated  by  attainment of  forestry and wildlife objectives.  While politicians have approved  some positive policy endeavors  the need for long term resource planning in B.C., generally allotted resource  not to  the  strong. This wildlife  management  statements made by  is reflected  management program  of  to  a  program the  MoF.  and  have  espoused  political commitment to IRM  large of  degree  in  annual  MoE  and  the  the  Recent  annual  is  budgets  integrated  reports  confirm  the respondents that expenditures for wildlife programs have  decreased relative to revenues obtained from the wildlife resource.  tGuidelines for Benefit/Cost the E L U C Secretariat.  Analysis  in B.C.  were  developed  in the  1970's  by  157 In the study budgetary  area, effective strategic planning is highly constrained by  allocations; wildlife staff cannot even meet the demands for day-to-day  operational  management.  programs  Each  person  employed  is generally responsible for planning  forest  Districts,  stated  that present  However, one  some of which  for the  levels of funding  were  insufficient, given  Agreement  (FRDA) programt  wildlife  and  of  a  $350  which  benefits  far  million  values. A l l  Forest  if strategically in  excess  of  the  in  two  respondents  existing  workloads.  of  Resource  planned  Wildlife  resource  the potential of lessening the impact  existence  provide  Fish  wildlife  high  is  could  the  very  factor that has the  by  have  constraints  mind,  a lack of  budgetary  Development  for with  approximately  wildlife in $1  million  Habitat Conservation Fund allocated for wildlife enhancement projects.  Problems  in  characteristic recognition and  political  support  of other jurisdictions  for its advanced  wildlife is only one  resource and  gaining  (Neave  and  as  planning  Goulden,  Similarly  represents less than (Neave and in  many,  resource  Alberta, where  process, the  1983). Despite  provincial  in  the  protection  IRM  has  expenditure  sophisticated IRM  planners, "elected and  in Alberta have demonstrated a low 1985).  well. In  wildlife  gained on  fish  regard for public land and  Manitoba  the  provincial  framework  senior appointed  officials  wildlife resources"  Wildlife  Branch's  budget  2 percent of the value of wildlife to the provincial economy  Goulden, 1983). Thus the lack of funding appears to be if not  is  thirteenth the value of the net economic benefit of the  the best efforts of resource  (Horejsi,  for  all, jurisdictions  across  Canada  which  has  a  a  problem  system  of  I F R D A is a joint federal and provincial agreement which is centred on the need to enhance the productivity of the forest land base through sivicultural endeavors. With the initial term (1985-1990) due to expire, both governments are discussing the possibility of a second five year term.  158 separating  revenue  and expenditures. The inability  designated  for wildlife  motivation  for multiple use of these  back  to the resource lands  to apply  has "reduced  revenue from  lands  the opportunity and  and, therefore, dedication of further  wildlife areas" (Neave and Goulden, 1983).  The  political  level  in B.C.,  resource  planning  greater  commitment  Integrated "establish and  Resources policies  rangelands  (Bullen,  were  recognizing  resulting  to IRM. Branch  that  in exceedingly  This  commitment  of the  and procedures  the fact  MoF  ad  complex  resulted  which  hoc  approaches to  issues,  promised  a  in the creation of the  was  given  for achieving a balanced  a  mandate to  use of Crown forest  and to optimize the total benefits accruing to the people of B.C."  1987b). However this positive move has been offset by the decrease in  the number of staff responsible for Forest Management Planning.  A  strong commitment to IRM  has been stated in various government memoranda,  speeches and the MoF's revised chapter on T S A Forest Service is committed The  former  Director  planning which states that "the  to the principle of integrated resource  of the IRB  made  specific  reference  to the commitment  required for the integration of wildlife and forestry management in a memorandum addressed  management."  when  he stated  to all levels of government in the MoF, "there is a  significant wildlife interest to be incorporated...making  this a key topic within the  overall theme of integrated resource management" (Bullen, 1987b).  In addition to the establishment of the Integrated Resources Branch, the opening up  of District resource planning positions over the last four years has paved the  159 way  for increased  revealed funding TSA  that  implementation of IRM  plans  may  and political  plans  not be implemented  imperatives  is altered  at the local level. But this study has  due  as prepared  or directives.  to unexpected  Often  the intended  contingencies  infestation in the interior of B.C.t While this is accepted full commitment no  to IRM  or little attempt  have  spent  by the Forest  such  as  of lack of direction of bark  beetle  as reality, the lack of  Service becomes manifest  to bring the problem  a great  because  when  there is  to the attention of wildlife staff  deal of time assisting in plan  preparation  only  who  to find out  that the plan is no longer valid.  An  additional problem  by  senior MoE  Management  identified  is the need  to have  staff (in addition to his own  Planning  decisions. Otherwise  the Chief Forester briefed  staff) prior  pertinent  to making  information  key Forest  that  has been  previously discussed between wildlife and forestry staff could be "lost" during the briefing stage that precedes the Chief Forester's determination  The  degree to which MoF  varies across some Districts other  planners  at the District level are committed  the province. According  to MoE  are not receptive to planning  Districts forestry staff are very  process.  It has not been  commitment to IRM  of an AAC.  much  to IRM  staff interviewed, forestry staff in for the needs of wildlife  while in  receptive and are committed  possible for the MoE  to evaluate  the overall  to the MoF  in the context of the T S A planning process because no T S A  tBark beetle infestation, requiring accelerated salvage logging to decrease the spread or to salvage beetle-killed trees while they are still useable, is common in the Nelson Forest Region.  160  Resource and  Management  Cranbrook  Plans  TSA  Plans  have  been  TSA  planning  committees  and  process,  the  effort  the put  It  into  Golden T S A s to make IRM  is difficult  to  implementation  evaluate  study  approval;! the interim plans  Golden  TSA  only. Based  on  area to accomodate wildlife interests in  involvement  there is a strong commitment on and  final  currently in place are  the willingness of planners in the the  given  of planners  devising initiatives  on  various  to facilitate  interagency the  process,  the part of resource planners in the Cranbrook within the T S A  commitment  planning framework  of foresters  because the generalized statements  to  IRM  succeed.  in terms  of  plan  that are characteristic of most  plans provide a great deal of latitude for foresters when interpreting the intended direction merely  of  the  gave  TSA  Resource  "recognition" or  implementable  strategies  the  and  enormity  possible  to  implemented  should  plans be  Plan.  "consideration"  that were  complexity  implement  Management  of as  to  Plans wildlife  targeted towards clear  Forest  Management  stated; but  documented  in  reviewed  rather  than  objectives. Because of  statements  that  were  values  Planning,  specific  order  that  it may on  the  cause  IRM  in the  not  what and  be was  effect  relationships of the planning strategies can be examined.  The  degree  Forest study in  the  to  which  Management  TFL  Planning  licensees are  also varies across  area there were variations. MoE Nelson  committed the  staff expressed  Forest Region, licensees had  tFinal approval by the Chief Forester planners in the Nelson Forest Region.  to  province;  even  context within  not  the  dismay over the fact that  applied for cutting permits  would  of  necessarily reflect  in areas  on  MoF  161 that  had previously  been identified  Industries on the other  as critical caribou  hand, has demonstrated a strong  factor which led to the signing of the first form  of agreement is supposed  management Resource  performance  Management  habitat. Crestbrook  on on  to require  the part Tree  "Crestbrook is firmly committed  Subsidiary  commitment to IRM, a Agreement  in B.C. This  the demonstration of a high  of licensees.  In the report  Licence  the  Farm  #14"  to effective integrated resource  level of  "Integrated  company planning  to protect the productivity of the forest land base while maintaining other forest land values  Forest  states designed  or enhancing  such as wildlife, recreation, grazing and water."  Commitment on the part of licensees has become of utmost importance with the impending industry.  transition of management Through  the Letters  responsibilities from  of Understanding  Agreements) jointly signed by the MoF  1. 2. 3. 4.  the MoF  (which  replaces  and the industry, the MoF  to the forest the Subsidiary will ensure  that clear direction is given to the forest industry regarding new responsibilities, that the industry is required to produce integrated forest management plans, that industry plans fit within the existing hierarchy established by the Ministry, and that the elements are put in place which ensure that planning and operations are documented and audited, and that the objectives laid out in plans are indeed being delivered on the ground (Cuthbert, 1988a).  There exists a significant concern among respondents that T F L licensees will not live  up  concern  to their is  obligations  compounded  by  in managing the  all forest  possibility  that  resources  the  shift  prudently. of  The  management  responsibility from the Forest Service to the licensee will result in a doubling of  162 the workload  This  study  of the MoE  stafft in ensuring protection of the wildlife resource.  has revealed that the traditional focus of foresters on timber-related  objectives, while gradually giving way  to a more balanced  appreciation of other resource concerns, still prevails among  perspective and fuller many  foresters. The  emphasis given to timber over other resources may  not necessarily be detrimental  but  if the process  a  more  independent  perspective  is required  credible. This is acknowledged by Pearse  is to remain  (1987) who states  Many foresters are not neutral in (resource use) conflicts but are party to them...Unless (foresters) develop a more empirical approach to assess the feasibility patterns of development, decisions about what forests will be managed for will continue to be made on the basis of relative power and prejudices of conflicting interests and more often by expedience.  H.  The  MONITORING  capacity  resources,  to measure  plans  and  the status  processes  in the  objectives is a fundamental requirement that  monitoring  as part  MoF  Forest  does undertake  Management  context  some  Plans,  and  to variables  of the forest  of predetermined  management  of planning. Yet the research has shown  of the Forest Management  notably regarding IRM, has tended  The  of changes  Planning  process  in B.C.,  to be very weak.  monitoring b)  in two general ways: it monitors  the inventory.  Decisions  made  a)  for Local  t M o E staff have expressed the concern that if an impasse is reached when discussing IRM issues with T F L licensees, they will then have to rework the problem with the MoF.  163 Resource  Use  Plans  are  Resource  Management  Plan.  management priorities TSA  Plan. Finally  fire,  pests,  analyses  and  are  the  logging  out  to  inventory  for  55  in  staff  that  District  stated  in the  to the  activities  and  ensure  intent as  built  into  of  more  the  or  addition the harvest  but  must develop a  is measured  the  TSA  subsequent  to TSA  Forest  emphasis is given  Act  each T F L  no  is in  to timber  place  which  within  50%  of the  10%  of the  carries  harvesting  requires  license is measured against  less than  MoF  a  activities  cut control policy pursuant  provisions of this policy, the  must be  "yardstick" such as  (Holling, 1984). The  Ministry's cut control policy. A  that tenure. Under the no  assumptions  base is updated to account for changes due  performance  of the  conducted by  harvest  Planning  according  assess something, one  which  context  harvest  use  plans.  against  Section  resource  Regional  silvicultural  performance evaluation  in the  Also  to  implemented  and  In order to properly policy  compared  AAC  the  that  the  actual  AAC  established  licensee is obligated to  during  any  cumulative A A C  one by  year. In  the  end  of  each five year cut control period.  There  is very  level  in  B.C.  little even  monitoring though  carried out the  at the  mechanisms  are  Management  'implementation' is not  the  actual  Management  monitor  management objectives for IRM Plans,  not  to  Forest  do  exist.  Planning Because  stated in measureable manner in Forest testable. The  generalized  nature of stated objectives ensures that a desired outcome is always 'attained'.  Staff  in  the  Golden  TSA  have  acquired  a  good  understanding  of  the  process  164 required the  for effective  feedback  objectives  monitoring  mechanism  have  been  objectives as an  and  enabling  have staff  achieved. Work  developed  to  has  determine  been  responses indicated that monitoring for IRM  be;  that  that  feedback  framework whether  continuing  that  or  outlines  not  in further  stated  quantifying  necessary component of the monitoring function.  The  is to  a  enable  comparison  between  for the  assessment  of dynamic  falls far short of what it should  projected  and  actual  performance  can  performance be  provided.  so As  Baskerville (1984) states learning can only proceed by the identification of error. If error is allowed to slip by for lack of measurement or if there is no rigorous comparison of forecast to actual performance, then there is very little learning.  The  reasons  for  the  lack  of  monitoring  at  the  strategic  level  are  not  understood by  the author. This highlights the need for further study. But  reasons may  include  the  shortage of staff as  lack of common measures against addressing the end"  error because of the  fact that  planners,  of the planning  by  was  resistance to  explicit negative feedback that it may to  place  possible  apparent in this study, the  which to assess performance, the  nature, tend  well  more  emphasis  on  cycle where progress is more easily identifiable.  elicit the  and  "front  VI.  This chapter  CONCLUSIONS AND  briefly summarizes the current state of Forest Management  in B.C. and provides  conclusions  of forestry and wildlife out  RECOMMENDATIONS  through  Forest  resource  Management  Planning  in response to the question  "Is the integration  management  successfully carried  Planning?"  in B.C. being Specific  recommendations  that  may  lead to improvements in current approaches to this strategic level of planning are offered.  Overall,  this  thesis  finds  that  Forest  Management  significantly since the first round commenced  Planning  has  advanced  in 1980 but still faces a number of  shortcomings on each of the criteria examined. This finding is also reflected in a summary  of the recent Future  "Although  there  functioning enable  is a form  effectively  integration  disciplinary  lines  or adequately." through  remains  a an  The  well  absence  defined  impediment  they  planners,  are the product  of IRM  hierarchy  successful falls  mechanism to  Forest  short  and  across  Management  (Shebbeare, 1989). As has been pointed out previously, despite the best and MoE  "the reality  of an overall  planning to  in B.C. ... it is not  achieved"  because  result  land-use planning  and  of MoF  a  of strategic  Planning  efforts  as  Forest Conference (ESSA, 1988) which states that  of what  the weaknesses are often difficult  of political  philosophy  and  complex  can be  to rectify institutional  arrangements.  This  thesis has identified  Planning  for IRM  both  strengths  at the forestry-wildlife  165  and weaknesses of Forest interface. The major  Management  strengths  of the  166 planning process according to the criteria used in this study are as follows: 1.  Clarity  and quantification of objectives i n strategic  improve  with  a  much  improved  development of Provincial  Species  information Statements  has enhanced the opportunity of the MoE  plans  base.  is continuing to  For  and Regional  and MoF  example Wildlife  the Plans  to provide more clearly  defined objectives in T S A Plans. 2.  The  hierarchical  planning  framework  of the MoF  has, at the  Management level, facilitated issue identification and provided  Forest  a context for  Local Resource Use Planning and Development Planning while at the same time assisting planning and decision making at higher levels. It provides the opportunity and 3.  for resource  staff to identify data  requirements  inventory needs.  MoE  involvement  as a full  participant on TSA  improved the level of trust and understanding and  gaps, research  has increased the accuracy  that  are incorporated  structures  that  have  into been  Steering  Committees has  between the MoE  and  MoF  of assumptions and identification of issues  analyses. put  into  In addition, the various place  have  helped  to  committee coordinate  interagency planning efforts. 4.  The public has been given the opportunity to review Forest  Management  Plans: an opportunity  and provide input into  that exists for all management  units regardless of the nature of the issues. The forums of discussion allow for consultation with key public interest groups and the general public at various stages of the planning process. 5.  Flexibility exists in Forest Management Plans; plans are periodically revised on the basis of changing information and circumstances  surrounding  resource  167 management issues. 6.  The  data  base for Forest Management  to determine  broad  Planning currently  enables  interrelationships between potential resource uses as well  as capability of land to support these various resource uses. A is  being  put  planners  into  continually  refining  information  to  major effort  provide  greater  resolution. 7.  There  is indirect  evidence  Active involvement  of an  of planners on  the integration of forestry and "get  the  job  done"  under  overall  increase in commitment  to  IRM.  various committees established to improve  wildlife management as well as motivation to constrained  conditions  are  indicators  of  this  increased commitment.  In  this  study,  the  major weaknesses of the  planning process  according to each  criterion were found to be as follows: 1.  Objectives as currently stated in T S A such  that  non-timber  they  provide  resources  are  little to  and  guidance be  TFL for  integrated  plans are broadly construed planning with  in  terms  forestry.  of  The  how  lack  of  quantitative rigour, combined with the lack of monitoring, has meant that it is not  possible for resource  managers to effectively  guage  achievements in  IRM. 2.  Because  of the  lack of provincial  policies  governing  land  use  and  lack of  Regional plans, decisions made at the Forest Management Planning level are often  made in a  vacuum. Moreover  at the  Forest Management  level,  failure of resource staff to priorize issues in terms of their importance ease of resolution has  left planners without  guidance  as to how  and  the and  when  these issues should be 3.  There  is often a  process  which  Substantive 4.  The  lack of communication  has  led  to  of  public  consideration  by  resource  great  deal  involvement  of  has  management  points  uncertainty  rather  identification  than  is critical.  during  the  Also, the  often  staff.  incorporating public review and  preparation  how  a  at critical  in the in  not  been  Emphasis  has  process. staff.  given  careful  tended  input at the later stages  early  problem  stages that  of  the  planning  issue  public does not  know  graphical representation for ease of  TSA  an  newly  is taking  revised  plans  may  inordinate  be  dealing  amount with  of  be  of plan  to participate at strategic levels of planning is compounded by  Planning  to  when  of summarized plans and  MoE  planning  the  changes have been made to plans in isolation of MoE  timing  placed on  5.  addressed.  time  outdated  the lack  understanding.  and  as  a  result,  issues. Moreover  is not routinely notified when revisions are made which may  the  have  a  major impact on the wildlife resource. 6.  Planning  is hindered  MoE  well as  as  by  the  capture  focus  information  biological  aspects,  of data bases between the MoF  failure of models currently used  adequately for  the divergence  for T S A  and  analysis to  area-specific wildlife habitat information. Furthermore gathering  with  only  has  limited  tended  to  be  information  on on  the broad  technical  the and  socio-economic  aspects. 7.  Budgetary  allocations to  there  a  is  underfunding District  lack and  levels  of  wildlife political  understaffing, cannot  devote  and  forestry planning  commitment staff  at  adequate  the  to  IRM.  staff As  Headquarters,  time  and  indicate that a  result  Regional  energy  to  of and  Forest  169 Management Planning. There is a distinct lack of formal monitoring of TSA Resource Management  8.  Plans. The failure to monitor, combined with the fact that objectives have been broadly articulated, means that it has not been possible for planners to determine the extent to which objectives have been met; nor has the planning process been a learning experience for the agencies involved.  The evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of Forest Management Planning for IRM has proven to be a difficult task considering that TSAs and TFLs differ in the complexity of issues and the planning approaches used to address those issues.  Yet  some  of  the  identified  strengths  and weaknesses  of the  process  became more apparent than others.  Although  the  team  planning  approach  to  IRM through  Forest  Management  Planning has not yet evolved in B.C., the progress made in shared, cooperative planning appears to be the major strength of the process. Within the study area, increased  communication  on  the  part  of  professionals  has  led  to  greater  understanding of each agency's requirements. In general, the MoF is seeking to fulfill  its  legislated  have  recently  mandate  been  made  for cooperation through  the  and consultation  signing  of  protocol  and many  gains  agreements,  joint  research efforts, establishment and expansion of inter-agency committees and other initiatives. These improvements to joint planning efforts have taken place despite the lack of a clearly defined land use policy at the senior government level.  In  terms  of  overall  strengths  of  the  planning  process,  the  research  has  170 determined  that the  that the MoF to  the  has  groundwork  made and  weaknesses  for effective  IRM  planning  has  been  laid  and  continues to make significant headway in attending  previously  discussed.  The  recently  conceptualized  Framework for Integrated Resource Management is but one  Analysis  example that deserves  mention.  The  primary  weaknesses of the  decision-making  planning  indicated  the  mechanismwithin  lack of an to  overall  and  coordinate  broadly based IRM land  use,  needed  Forest  context.  adopted  to  organized in such  issues  opening the  Because  existing  there  decisions continue  with  this,  the  that  transcend  Planning  level  resource to know  in  complex  ambiguous has  management when  no  to  sectoral  hierarchy to give  Regional  be  IRM  situations,  plans  having  explicit philosophy of  made  without  structure that boundaries  i.e. when  has  a. much has  been  not  been  these  design  to  hierarchical  and  and  lateral  however,that recently established  have begun to improve upon this.  nature  proven  of  chapter, is  a manner as to facilitate the effective flow of information  committees at the headquarters  the  are  committee  (interagency) structures merge. It is recognized  Secondly,  planning  flow  in the setting of  paragraphs of this  no clearly defined policies and  Management Associated  in the  IRM.  units and  resolve  decision-making  appear to lay in the  within the hierarchical planning framework and  objectives. Foremost, as  direction  process  of stated objectives at the be  and  a has  objectives have  serious  obstacle  in  made it impossible been  attained. A  Forest Management  providing guidance for resource  failure  managers  to provide  quantified objectives will continue to hinder the evaluation of options.  to  clear,  171 While  the strengths  weaknesses  have  in the planning  proven  to be  process are cause  an impediment  to effective IRM  process is still in a young, transitory and exploratory much  resource  management  Management Planning  focus  on  Management respondents  aspects  is not  Planning also  and  for IRM  made  of having  yet being  evaluation  has been  stage where there remains  main  minimize  organization  that  out  reference  to  the planning  organizational  through  Forest  one ministry,  such  of having  advocacy follows  legislative backing  an  "integrated"  which  tends  to  lead  that  the holistic  facilitator or  Department  planning  organization  sectoral boundaries can lead  to ensure  as a  to  Forest  but some  are positive and  as the Alberta resource  of  process  structure  a framework. In particular there  advantage sectoral  carried  of the effectiveness  on  Lands and Wildlife, for conducting integrated  the  The  in B.C. as effectively as it could.  the discussion  impediment to such  The  planning.  potential to develop. In essence, therefore, the integration of forestry and  wildlife  The  for optimism, the major  negative  of Forests,  for all resources. is that  conflict.  it would  Institutional  to effective IRM; however  approach to IRM  planning is  effected needs to be strengthened.  This  study  has  effectiveness personal  accomplish  revealed  of forestry  traits  professional  also  that  and wildlife  of staff involved.  relationship the tasks  where  in addition integration  The willingness  trust, mutual  set out before  them  to  the planning  process, the  is largely contingent of staff  respect  and  upon the  to cultivate a a  truly  desire to jointly  predominate, is an attribute that has  enormous implications for both the process and the product of IRM.  172 The  effectiveness  of forestry  and wildlife  integration  terms of the "on the ground" results of plan evaluation  would  necessarily  involve  the  can also  be  evaluated  in  implementation. This more localized application  of  ecosystem  response  indicators such as those developed by Thomas (1982) and Holling (1984).  These  organizational,  preceding paragraphs effectiveness pertaining  personality could  of IRM;  and  ecological  also be applied  however,  to the planning  this  study  process. Future  considerations  as criteria has  outlined  in the evaluation  focussed  research  as  on  on  normative  the evaluation  in  of the criteria of IRM  could be undertaken in these subject areas.  In  retrospect,  research application study  and  eight  criteria  communication  against  supported  pertaining on  the  with  the Forest  the theory  developed  government  Management  discussed  planning  policies and objectives  which  states  at the broad  study  officials  through  were  literature  appropriate  for  Planning process. The results of the  in the literature. In particular the findings  to the hierarchical planning  strategic  for this  framework  that  agencies  lend  credence to the literature  face  difficulties  in translating  strategic levels into implementable  strategies  at the more decentralized, lower levels of the hierarchy.  The of  MoF  has made considerable  the integrated  resource  progress in addressing  planning  framework.  Here,  some  of the deficiencies  remedial  measures are  suggested in further adding to or supplementing the gains made, recognizing  that  some will be more easily addressed than others. It is recommended: 1.  that  the MoF  develop  clearly  specified policies and measureable  objectives  173 for strategic IRM  2.  4.  agencies and  the public;  that  the  between  linkage  participatory framework that  and  land-use  planning  be  includes  strengthened  implementation of the Resource Emphasis Area  program  done  that  and  that  this  be  through  linkage  through  the  resource  projection  between  strategic  reconciliation as  IRM;  that the  a  MoF  apply  of  well  plans) strategies for  as  and  tactical  short-term through  framework  planning  stages and  that the  defined  approach by  public should  array  be  decision-making  clearly  more proactive  that  be  strengthened  and  and  long-term  documented (in  involving the  public at  process in addition to  ensured of an  understanding of  process;  that the current committee structure be of interests and  that  expanded upon to include a broader  participants be  encouraged  to  identify  realistic  options;  that greater a  consultative  initial stages of the Forest Management Planning  the strategic planning  IRM  a  meaningful public input; the  other  6.  policy  a  through the development and  the  5.  through  other  allows 3.  planning  commitment be  timeframe  that  enables  made by  MoF  staff to completing plans  current,  rather  than  outdated  issues  within to  be  addressed; 7.  that increased towards and  8.  that a the  emphasis be  on  obtaining information  that is directed  facilitates socio-economic evaluation;  protocol be  procedures  are proposed;  placed  developed between the  for interagency  notification  MoF when  and  MoE  changes  which establishes to  existing  plans  174 9.  that  a  greater  commitment  appropriated to the MoF  of  funding  and  (Integrated Resources Branch) and  manner as to facilitate planning for forestry and 10.  that  rigorous  monitoring  of  established  and  manpower  monitoring  of  Forest  the  be  instituted.  Plan  agreed  MoE  in such  be a  wildlife integration; and  Management This  resources  Planning  must  upon guidelines undertaken  be  with  based  follow-up on  clearly  in the context of stated  objectives. The  most  pressing need  and  objectives and  is to improve  direction  through  clearly  defined policies  to translate these into regional plans that enable  the rational  evaluation of multiple alternatives at the Forest Management Planning level.  The  inter-relatedness between  study.  Moreover  important to  for  importance  research  for effective IRM  adequately  factor  the  address  the  a  overall  of the  many  criteria became  demonstrated  that  apparent  all criteria  planning at the strategic level such  single  criterion  success  criteria  of the  of  may  the  very  well prove  process.  therefore suggest  The  that a  during  examined that the  to be  a  approach  are  failure limiting  inter-connectedness  holistic  the  should  and be  used when remedial measures to be taken are assessed.  Forest Management Planning is a  dynamic  process that also requires continuous  assessment. Over time, the definition of societal goals and as  does the  nature  of the  forest  process that is consistent with towards improving  land  this ever  base. A changing  public interests change  responsiveness situation can  in the planning go  a  long  the integrated management of B.C.'s natural resources.  way  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Addison, R. 1984. 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Wilderness Advisory  Committee. 1986.  The  Program Effectiveness,  Wilderness Mosaic, Victoria,  B.C.  184 Williams, D. 1989. The Analysis Framework for Management (AFIFRM): Basic Concepts. (Draft)  Forest  Resource  Williams, D., L. Dellert, and P. Bunnell. 1988. Proposed Forest Analysis System (FRAS): Problem Analysis and System Concepts.  Resource  Young, C. Vol.1  1977. No. 4.  Integrated  "Cut Along the Dotted Line" in Forestalk: Resource  Magazine,  Young, W. 1984. "Forestry-Wildlife Interactions: Comments by Forester", Canadian Forestry and Wildlife Management Symposium, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Zak, B. 1988. "Land: The Provincial Forest Potential", Symposium on The Future Forest: A Vision for Tomorrow, A Conference Hosted by the Environmental Studies Students Association, University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C.  APPENDIX Persons  Interviewed  Crover, J., Ministry of Forests, Integrated 20, 1988.  Davis, R., Ministry of Forests, Kootenay 6, 1988.  Darychuck,  Dick,  1  Resources Branch, Victoria, B.C., July  Lake Forest District, Nelson, B.C., June  G., Ministry of Forests, Nelson Forest Region, Nelson B.C., June 6, 1988.  J., Ministry of Environment, B.C., August 2, 1988.  Planning  and Assessment  Branch,  Victoria,  Fox, G., Ministry of Environment, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Nelson, B.C., June 6, 1988.  Hamilton,  Hanson,  D., Ministry of Environment, B.C., June, 8, 1988.  Fish  and Wildlife  Branch,  Invermere,  B, Unaffiliated (Formerly with Ministry of Forests, Planning and Inventory Branch in Victoria), Vancouver, B.C., August 20, 1988.  MacPherson, S., T.M. Thompson and Associates, Victoria, B.C., August 26,  1988.  Melenka, D., Woodlands Div., Crestbrook Forest Industries Ltd., Cranbrook, B.C., June 7, 1988.  Price,  L., Ministry 1988.  of Forests,  Golden  Forest  District,  Rounsville, D., Woodlands Div., Crestbrook Forest June, 8, 1988.  Soobotin, A., Ministry of Environment, Fish June 6, 1988. 185  Golden,  Industries  and Wildlife  B.C., June  8,  Ltd., Parson, B.C.,  Branch, Nelson, B.C.,  186 Travers,  R., Ministry of Environment, B.C., July 5, 1988.  Void, T., Ministry of Forests, Integrated 30, 1988.  Recreational  Fisheries  Branch,  Victoria,  Resources Branch, Victoria, B.C.,  June  Volkers, T., Ministry of Forests, Cranbrook Forest District, Cranbrook, B.C., 7, 1988.  June  APPENDIX Interview  I am  currently undertaking research  "PLANNING  FOR  RESOURCES The  AT  questions  THE  I  INTEGRATION  am  putting  questions  important  will  cover  for measuring  several  Master's thesis which is entitled  OF  FORESTRY  UNIT L E V E L  to you  effectiveness of T S A and T F L planning These  Questions  towards my  THE MANAGEMENT  that  2  will  AND  WILDLIFE  IN BRITISH  enable  me  COLUMBIA".  to evaluate  in B.C.- the main focus of my  criteria  the effectiveness  that  I have  of integrated  determined resource  the  research. as  being  planning  and  management.  Objectives 1.  Do the agency objectives provide  useful guidance (direction) for you in your  work? 2.  Do  you  feel  that  it is important  that  objectives  have  a  quantified  expression? If so is this the nature of the objectives that you work with? 3.  Joint 1.  In what docmentation are these objectives expressed?  Planning What efforts;  impact  do  you  for example,  feel  organizational  the  single  structure  departmental  has on joint  structure  of  planning  Alberta  as  compared to the multiple departmental structure of British Columbia? 2.  What are some of the institutional arrangements that your agency has that influence how joint planning  3.  What  will take place?  initiatives have been undertaken 187  to facilitate the working relationship  188 between Forestry/Wildlife agencies and the forest industry? 4.  What  arrangements  exist  between  agencies  planning? Are joint committee/planning person? 5.  a rotating chairmanship  team  between  to  promote  neutrality  in  meetings chaired by a neutral  Forests/Environment?  What is the usual frequency of communications with forestry/wildlife staff to discuss or investigate in the field, issues pertaining  to TFL/TSA  planning?  (given the complexity of issues in your Region/District).  Public  Involvement  1.  A t what stage in the planning process is public input solicited?  2.  How  frequently are public representatives contacted on an informal basis to  inform them of TSA/TFL plans, recommendations and decisions? 3.  What  mechanisms  are used  in your  Region  to enable  public  interests to  provide input on plans? 4.  What has been the usual level of response  of the public to invitations to  review plans? To what do you attribute this?  Commitment 1.  Has funding from  the upper echelons of government enabled the (agency) to  meet its objectives with  regards  to integrated  resource planning? Has lack  of funding been a constraint? 2.  Have  resource planners been able to meet deadlines under normal  working  conditions? Do extenuating circumstances prevent planners from doing so? 3.  Are plans implemented as agreed agencies  made  aware  upon? If changes are to be made, are all  of proposed  changes;  do  mechanisms  enable  these  189 agencies  to respond with  sufficient lead time?  Comprehensive Framework 1.  In  your  estimation  operational planning? 2.  Do  is the  link  How  should that link be made?  T S A / T F L plans presently provide  planning and 3.  what  between  strategic  TSA  to  the needed direction at lower levels of  management?  There is currently a move towards decentralizing the T S A from  the Forest Regions to the Districts. What effect do  have  on  that  goes  the  planning  implementation  into  the  of T S A  planning  plans?  process?  On  On the  the  planning function you  feel this will  quality of information  commitments  of  time  and  money?  Data Base 1.  Is information objectives and  2.  Does  the  gathering  and  analysis structured such that agency  program  priorities are properly addressed?  inventory  process  provide  a  basis for conflict  resolution; that is  does preplanning pinpoint specific information requirements? 3.  Is the  information  organized  such  that it provides  for identifying the range of choices and what  their  consequences  will  be?  the  best  for making informed  does  the  possible basis decisions as to  information  facilitate  the  derivation of options? 4.  Are  5.  How  there gaps in knowledge and  if so how  is wildlife habitat information  (such  critical are  these?  as that documented in the MoE's  subregional wildlife plans) incorporated into the forestry data base  (modelling  190 techniques)? 6.  In your view how  does the concept  strategy)  TSA  planning?  TSA/TFL  plans  fit into  of forest zoning (such as the land Should  this  be  a  formal  part  of  use the  process?  Flexibility 1.  How  often are  in your  Region  revised? Are  the  revisions  usually of a major or minor nature? 2.  What  are  some of the  constraints governing  the  flexibility  of planning  at  the T S A / T F L level? 3.  How the  does your resource  in  agency the  deal with face  of  uncertainty when  changing  technology,  monitoring  program  it comes to managing markets  and  social  demands?  Monitoring 1.  Does  your  agency  recommendations  in  have  a  TSA/TFL  planning  are  being  to  ensure  carried  that  the  and  are  out  effective? 2.  Are  there  other  ways  program effectiveness?  that  you  obtain  feedback  to  determine  overall  


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