Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A critical guide to sources for the study of the history of the family in British Columbia, 1849-1918 Burrows, James Kenneth 1989

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1990_A3 B87.pdf [ 5.71MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097989.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097989-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097989-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097989-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097989-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097989-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097989-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097989-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097989.ris

Full Text

A CRITICAL GUIDE TO SOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF THE HISTORY OF THE FAMILY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1849-1918. By JAMES KENNETH BURROWS B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF ' THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES i n THE SCHOOL OF LIBRARY, ARCHIVAL AND INFORMATION STUDIES and THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1989 (c) James Kenneth Burrows, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date J^QZy^W /v - - 3> „ \ DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Access to a r c h i v a l holdings i s one of the fundamental problems faced by a r c h i v i s t s . The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n prov id ing access to the wide v a r i e t y of subjects contained with even one archives i s further complicated by the changing f i e l d s of research which require the use of archives . Neither provenance based or subject indexing access systems have been able to cope with these changing needs. The crea t ion of thematic guides has been an attempt to o f f er more f l e x i b l e subject access to c o l l e c t i o n s since each guide deals with a separate t o p i c . Despite t h e i r value i n prov id ing access to current themes, the thematic guide has been simply a l i s t i n g of c o l l e c t i o n s and does not o f f er any analys i s of how various forms of records , t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y and t h e i r uses re la te to the subject . The crea t ion of such a c r i t i c a l guide forms the bulk of the paper. To inves t igate the effect iveness of t h i s type of guide, records which re la t e to the study of the h i s t o r y of the family i n B r i t i s h Columbia were i d e n t i f i e d . This p a r t i c u l a r subject area was chosen because of i t s r e l a t i v e newness and since many of the records appl icable to i t s study are not e a s i l y found. The holdings of the B r i t i s h Columbia Archives and Records Service and the C i t y of Vancouver Archives provided the relevant materia ls for the study. The records chosen as usefu l to the study of the family were l i s t e d and i i many c o l l e c t i o n s were examined c l o s e l y . From t h i s review of ho ld ings , an analys i s of records types and t h e i r value to the study of the family i n B r i t i s h Columbia was developed. Standard appra i sa l and d e s c r i p t i v e techniques were employed for the a n a l y s i s . In a d d i t i o n , a study of past research uses was done to provide a better understanding of how the records could be employed. I t was found that a c r i t i c a l guide could be produced using modif icat ions of standard formats, such as the bas ic form for inventories suggested by the Society of American A r c h i v i s t s . In a d d i t i o n , appra i sa l c r i t e r i a were appl ied to the categories of documents i n order to assess t h e i r value . Using these standardized techniques means that an analys i s of record types w i l l be better understood by others . The c r i t i c a l guide o f fers a veh ic le for a r c h i v i s t s to provide researchers with more information about the records i n a less haphazard fashion. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 2. Research Trends i n t o the Canadian F a m i l y 17 3. The Demographic Approach 42 4. The Sentiments Approach 56 5. The Household Economics Approach 68 6. The H e g e m o n i c / I n s t i t u t i o n a l Approach 80 7. The U s e f u l n e s s of C r i t i c a l Guides 91 B i b l i o g r a p h y 101 i v CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The major c h a l l e n g e of a r c h i v i s t s i n c u r r e n t times i s a c q u i r i n g a r c h i v e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of modern s o c i e t y w h i l e managing the volume of i n f o r m a t i o n which r e s u l t s from such a t a s k . C o n t r o l l i n g the flow of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e s the c o n t i n u e d development of the two main f u n c t i o n s of a r c h i v a l work. F i r s t l y , a r c h i v i s t s must conduct r a t i o n a l and documented a p p r a i s a l s which w i l l l i m i t the q u a n t i t y of r e c o r d s w h i l e e n s u r i n g q u a l i t y i s p r e s e r v e d . Secondly, h a v i n g a c q u i r e d these m a t e r i a l s , a r c h i v i s t s must f i n d ways t o permit access t o the a r c h i v e s by r e s e a r c h e r s who b r i n g a myriad of purposes and e x p e c t a t i o n s . P r o v i d i n g access i s a p u r s u i t which r e q u i r e s the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the a r c h i v i s t ' s time. From a r r a n g i n g and d e s c r i b i n g the r e c o r d s t o answering q u e s t i o n s i n a r e f e r e n c e room, a r c h i v i s t s are aware of the moderate su c c e s s and the obvious shortcomings of t h e i r a ccess systems. There are no immediate answers, even w i t h automation, t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s of a t tempting t o p r o v i d e access t o m i l l i o n s of r e c o r d s and the thoughts c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n them. A r c h i v e s of any s u b s t a n t i a l s i z e have found the provenance based system the most s u c c e s s f u l . I t p r o v i d e s a c c e s s t o the a r c h i v e s w i t h the minimum of i n t e r f e r e n c e by a r c h i v i s t s , p r e s e r v i n g any i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n the way the c r e a t o r h e l d the r e c o r d s w h i l e b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y e f f i c i e n t i n 1 time and labour . However, many studies require access to information which i's only p e r i p h e r a l to the l i f e of the creator or the purpose of the arch ives . For these researchers , provenance may provide l i t t l e c lue as to the usefulness of the mater ia l s w i th in each c o l l e c t i o n . To a s s i s t i n these endeavours, some archives have t r i e d to provide access through subject indexing and cataloguing of the arch ives . With the wide v a r i e t y of subjects a v a i l a b l e i n almost a l l arch ives , t h i s system requires cons iderable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and judgment on the part of the indexer . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and the choice of subjects i s extremely d i f f i c u l t and can often be dated i n short order . A second means of prov id ing access to new research top ic s has been the product ion of thematic guides which contain a l i s t i n g of c o l l e c t i o n s which are thought to be valuable to the subject area . The product ion of thematic f i n d i n g aids i s becoming an ever increas ing need for present day arch ives . As new research areas continue to expand and documents are used i n more innovat ive ways, the subject indexing systems present i n many archives do not have s u f f i c i e n t f l e x i b i l i t y to deal with these new demands. While some access through the provenance based search system i s p o s s i b l e , the process i s extremely time-consuming. Each researcher i n v e s t i g a t i n g a new f i e l d of study i s required to c a r r y out these involved and f r u s t r a t i n g search procedures. 2 The creat ion of thematic guides has been an attempt to f i l l t h i s v o i d . The ir value ar i ses from t h e i r format which presents s p e c i f i c subject information across fonds. Yet most guides are simply l i s t s which suggest p o s s i b i l i t i e s for research. There have been no attempts to provide guides which include an analys i s of various forms of mater ia l and t h e i r usefulness to a s p e c i f i c area of study. While t h i s form of ass istance does take place i n the reference room, i t i s frequent ly haphazard and h ighly dependent on encountering the r i g h t reference a r c h i v i s t . Much of the expert ise of a r c h i v i s t s l i e s i n the study of records and too frequent ly t h i s knowledge i s not conveyed to researchers i n a systematic fash ion . Including a c r i t i c a l analys i s of mater ia ls i n a thematic guide would help to ensure that researchers are provided more consis tent reference he lp . A d i scuss ion of the value and d i f f i c u l t y of producing a c r i t i c a l guide forms the framework of t h i s study. However, the bulk of the thes i s involves the crea t ion of such a f ind ing a i d . The guide w i l l include three major sec t ions . The f i r s t , Chapter 2, w i l l be a study of current research trends i n the f i e l d under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The next p a r t , the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , o f fers an examination of forms of documents ava i l ab l e at the i n s t i t u t i o n s s tudied . Chapters 3 through 6 contain the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . F i n a l l y , the l i s t i n g of c o l l e c t i o n s has been placed i n an appendix. N a t u r a l l y , t h i s format i s not how such a document would be presented to the 3 p u b l i c by an archives . The purpose of t h i s arrangement i s to allow f u l l d i scuss ion of the usefulness of p l a c i n g the f i r s t two elements, the study of research trends and the c r i t i c a l ana lys i s i n a thematic guide. In add i t ion to examining the effect iveness of th i s form of guide, the study w i l l a lso consider the use of standard a r c h i v a l techniques i n the crea t ion of the a n a l y s i s . Production of an ac tua l example shows the v i a b i l i t y of using standard a r c h i v a l techniques, such as a p p r a i s a l and d e s c r i p t i o n , i n a very s p e c i f i c area. As w e l l , the compilat ion and analys i s of sources w i l l hopefu l ly r e s u l t i n a product of p r a c t i c a l value to researchers , and provide an impetus for further research. The study of the h i s t o r y of the family i n B r i t i s h Columbia was chosen as the top ic for a c r i t i c a l guide. The study of the family presents many of the problems of searching for sources i n a new research area. For the most p a r t , archives have made l i t t l e considered attempt to c o l l e c t re levant m a t e r i a l . The r e l a t i v e l y small number of sources bearing on family h i s t o r y are spread widely throughout the holdings . F i n a l l y , l i t t l e past e f f o r t has been made to i d e n t i f y sources for the h i s t o r y of the family i n a systematic manner. Further , an examination of the i n s t i t u t i o n of the family i s a v i t a l part of the understanding of any soc ie ty . As an agency for s o c i a l i z a t i o n , as an economic u n i t and as the 4 fundamental b i o l o g i c a l u n i t , the fami ly and i t s evo lu t ion over time o f f er h i s t o r i a n s and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i g h t s in to s o c i e t y . A r e l a t i v e l y recent i n t e r e s t for s o c i a l h i s t o r i a n s , the f i e l d of fami ly h i s t o r y has been l i t t l e s tudied by Canadian researchers . In f a c t , many f indings have come l a r g e l y as by-products of s tudies i n other areas . The d i f f i c u l t y of d i s cover ing good source mater ia l i s one of the major problems of any study i n t h i s subject . Both the p r i v a t e and common nature of the fami ly has discouraged the ac t ive c o l l e c t i o n of records . Despite t h i s , re levant records are a v a i l a b l e , although not always i n obvious l o c a t i o n s . The h i s t o r y of the family i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y worthwhile subject for a c r i t i c a l thematic guide. Since the f i e l d has only recent ly been discovered by h i s t o r i a n s , a thematic guide i s e s p e c i a l l y necessary. Few a r c h i v i s t s have used fami ly and r e l a t e d terms as a subject heading. In a d d i t i o n , a r e l a t i v e pauc i ty of sources requires that a wide v a r i e t y of record types be employed. F u r t h e r , d i f f i c u l t i e s , such as record l inkages and short time spans, require innovat ive use of the m a t e r i a l . These elements make the c r e a t i o n of such a thematic guide a va luable exerc i se . The a b i l i t y to access completely and e f f i c i e n t l y the a r c h i v a l holdings of an i n s t i t u t i o n i s one of the primary goals of a r c h i v i s t s . Yet the d i v e r s i t y and complexity of these mater ia l s make such access d i f f i c u l t and time-consuming. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , a r c h i v i s t s have used a system of access based 5 on the provenance of the archives , that i s , using the nature of the creator and the func t iona l organizat ion of the records to i d e n t i f y sources for research. To accomplish t h i s , a r c h i v i s t s have developed inventor ies which provide descr ip t ions of a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s at the varying l eve l s of arrangement, from the group as a whole through the funct iona l s er i e s to i n d i v i d u a l items. Based on the arrangement of the documents, the inventory has provided a r e l a t i v e l y rap id method to allow some access to acqu i s i t i ons and i s arguably the best ava i l ab l e system. While provenance based systems are most e f f ec t i ve for archives with a large volume of records covering a long time span, they are less use fu l for other fonds where information about the organizat ion may be sparse. In a e f f o r t to provide access to these mater ia l s , a r c h i v i s t s have resorted to subject indexing, often using card catalogues. However, only minimal access i s provided i n t h i s way cons ider ing the vast number of poss ib le subject entr ies i n even r e l a t i v e l y small fonds. Since no consistent d e s c r i p t i v e prac t i ce s are adhered to i n many archives , the r e s u l t i n g access points have often been based on current research trends and can be coloured by the biases of the indexer. The ef fect iveness of provenance searching methods and content indexing methods has been examined only by Richard L y t l e . 1 L y t l e defined the Provenance or P method of subject r e t r i e v a l as subject access by connection, that i s , re levant 6 records are found through knowledge of the a c t i v i t i e s and functions of the creat ing body. The Content Indexing or CI method i s based on the crea t ion of subject access points found through the examination of the contents of each f i l e . L y t l e compares t h i s method to "back-of-book index ing". 2 L y t l e ' s study found both the P method and the CI method very s i m i l a r i n accuracy for the s p e c i f i c questions that were proposed. Further , he acknowledged that the two systems are often complementary. 3 One of L y t l e ' s important f indings i s that the CI method i s "at a serious disadvantage when the c r i t i c a l concept of the subject request i s missing from the system vocabulary". 4 The CI method i s simply too i n f l e x i b l e to provide access to new research t o p i c s . The future uses of archives cannot be discerned i n the present. So the development of access points to new subjects of study must be done through provenance based systems or the a r c h i v i s t i s forced to re turn to the archives themselves, an undertaking akin to re -process ing . In add i t ion to provenance based access systems and subject indexing, another method used to o f f er subject access has been the creat ion of thematic guides, b r i e f descr ipt ions of c o l l e c t i o n s r e l a t i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r subject a r e a . 5 These guides can be p a r t i c u l a r l y usefu l because t h e i r crea t ion i s u s u a l l y based on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a new research t o p i c . They are an attempt to br ing together holdings not e a s i l y access ib le through provenance or previous cataloguing terms. 7 While , on the surface , thematic guides may appear to belong to the CI method, i n f a c t , they are created from provenance searching through the use of the t i t l e of the fonds and some knowledge of the c r e a t i n g body. The value of thematic guides has been acknowledged by many wr i t er s i n c l u d i n g Michel Duchein, V i r g i n i a Purdy and David G r a c y . 6 While the present form of these research too l s i s important i n a l lowing more comprehensive access to the ho ld ings , they do not analyze the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the holdings to the current s tate of the research area for which they are intended. Such an ana lys i s of thematic holdings w i l l only enhance the u s a b i l i t y of any guide. For example, the considerable knowledge and judgment necessary to conduct a p p r a i s a l can be used jus t as e f f e c t i v e l y at the other end of the a r c h i v a l process , by o f f e r i n g a c r i t i c a l ana lys i s of the documents and t h e i r forms i n r e l a t i o n to the f i e l d s of study which may f i n d uses for the m a t e r i a l s . In f a c t , t h i s procedure frequent ly occurs in formal ly dur ing reference s e r v i c e . The study has r e l i e d on sources he ld by two of the prov ince ' s major i n s t i t u t i o n s , the B r i t i s h Columbia Archives and Records Service and the Vancouver C i t y Arch ives . The access ion r e g i s t e r s and main entry cards from each card catalogue were searched for mater ia l which appeared to be appropriate for the study of the fami ly . In t h i s manner, the provenance of the various ser ies of government records and 8 manuscript c o l l e c t i o n s , i n the form of c o l l e c t i o n t i t l e , was used to determine poss ib le sources. Neither a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n has provided access to family materia ls through subject indexing. The research was r e s t r i c t e d p r i m a r i l y to the two major i n s t i t u t i o n s although, on occasion, mention i s made of obviously important records held by other archives , such as the various church archives . One extensive body of mater ia l was not examined. The f i r s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system employed by the P r o v i n c i a l Archives c a l l e d for the cataloguing of s p e c i f i c items or record ser ies with no reference to the c o l l e c t i o n from which they were taken. Unfortunately , t h i s means that there i s no way to br ing together the o r i g i n a l fonds except item by item. This group of manuscript materials i s extremely valuable but i s d i f f i c u l t to work wi th . The survey of accession reg i s t er s for l i k e l y c o l l e c t i o n s was time consuming and the amount of mater ia l discovered prevented a thorough examination of each c o l l e c t i o n . Therefore , i t was necessary to make a s e l e c t i o n of the mater ia l to be reviewed. This process was subjec t ive , although general ly any large c o l l e c t i o n s were examined. A f a i r l y random s e l e c t i o n of smaller groups was looked at to allow some judgement of t h e i r value . Frequently , small c o l l e c t i o n s d i d contain very usefu l mater ia l and they should not be excluded from any study. Since the analys i s focused on the form of the mater ia l rather than the content, the method 9 of selection should not distract from the value of the analysis. A listing of a l l the collections identified forms an attached appendix. The chronological period of the study was confined to records of which the earliest document in the fonds dated prior to 1918. In practice, the earliest material was dated between 1815 and 1918, although these early records are not always Canadian in origin. It was not feasible to limit the study period to a specific time because many manuscript collections and archives which start in the nineteenth century range even up to the present day. Therefore, many collections are listed which have material ranging up to the 1960s and 1970s. The format of the crit i c a l analysis was established with consideration to current practices. The elements of a criti c a l guide must give an understanding of past research trends and record uses. It must analyze how available records can be used. Finally, i t should give a listing of available records. These elements are very similar to the sections of a standard inventory. So, to ensure ease of use, many of the procedures for description already in place in many archives have been followed. Since a critical guide is documenting the same types of information about a specific subject that an archivist uses to describe a single fonds, i t was considered useful to record the same standard items of description. The techniques identified in the Society of American Archivists' handbook on f ind ing aids have been adapted for use i n the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . 7 Each sect ion of the c r i t i c a l analys i s represents i n a general manner a d e s c r i p t i v e sect ion i n a t y p i c a l inventory. Therefore, i n place of a b iographica l sketch or adminis trat ive h i s t o r y , a C r i t i q u e of the state of research i n the re levant area , for example, a h i s tor iography , was prepared. In the same manner that an adminis trat ive h i s t o r y or b iograph ica l note i s c r u c i a l to an inventory, a h i s tor iography or other form of c r i t i q u e of the relevant research l i t e r a t u r e provides a f u l l e r understanding of the records described i n a guide and t h e i r poss ib le uses. The various approaches or methods which researchers have used to study a subject can supply the framework for the a n a l y s i s . This sec t ion of the c r i t i c a l guide must provide an understanding of how these d i f f e r e n t approaches or methods work, how researchers have used the records and what types of mater ia l may be use fu l but neglected. For that reason, p a r t i c u l a r a t tent ion to the sources c u r r e n t l y being u t i l i z e d i s an important feature of such a study. The c r i t i q u e of the research area i s v i t a l to the crea t ion of an e f f ec t ive a n a l y s i s . The second part of the c r i t i c a l guide, an analys i s of record forms relevant to the f i e l d of study, performs much the same funct ion as a scope and content note. I t o f fers a d i scuss ion of the records and t h e i r research values , 11 documenting t h e i r s i gn i f i cance and i d i o s y n c r a s i e s . This analys i s should allow researchers to d i scern the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for successful s tudies . Information on volume, time span, age, unders tandabi l i ty and other c r i t e r i a w i l l ind icate the value of records for s p e c i f i c approaches. The comparison between t h i s kind of analys i s and the appra i sa l of records for informat ional value i s qui te s t r i k i n g . Although an appra i sa l looks at the informat ional value of records for t h e i r general use, the same c r i t e r i a can be appl ied for a more l i m i t e d subject . The c r i t i c a l analys i s a lso provides a r c h i v i s t s with a forum for d i scuss ing the p e c u l i a r i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the records i n r e l a t i o n to the f i e l d of study. For example, many approaches to family h i s t o r y require the l i n k i n g of d isparate sources to e s t a b l i s h a complete p i c t u r e of family l i f e . The analys is can i d e n t i f y the areas where such l inkages are p o s s i b l e . F i n a l l y , the c r i t i c a l guide should o f fer a l i s t i n g of s p e c i f i c manuscript c o l l e c t i o n s and archives which have been i d e n t i f i e d as being valuable to the f i e l d of study. This s e l e c t i o n of fonds must be somewhat a r b i t r a r y . I t i s not poss ib le to examine each one i n d e t a i l and so the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n should cover a wide area, e r r i n g on the side of excess. In t h i s way, most p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i l l be l i s t e d . The l i s t i n g should cons i s t of the name of each c o l l e c t i o n , i t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number, the dates covered, the volume and the forms of the m a t e r i a l . 12 The d i scuss ion of research areas, the ana lys i s of mater ia ls and the ac tua l l i s t i n g of c o l l e c t i o n s are the three elements of the c r i t i c a l guide. The guide o f fers a more thorough understanding of the pert inent records for a f i e l d of research. A r c h i v i s t s are able to provide t h e i r expert ise i n a more consistent fashion. Too frequent ly , information about records i s kept the exc lus ive property of i n d i v i d u a l a r c h i v i s t s . I t i s shared only by happenstance. The production of more a n a l y t i c a l guides disperses more of t h i s information to the p u b l i c . The production of t h i s type of analys i s may be considered c o n t r o v e r s i a l by some. Many a r c h i v i s t s adhere s t r i c t l y to the not ion that they should never carry out any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the documents for which they care . In f a c t , t h i s idea i s contradic ted constant ly by the act ions of a r c h i v i s t s prov id ing reference s erv i ce . Answering reference questions by d i r e c t i n g researchers towards s p e c i f i c materia ls requires considerable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the researcher's needs and how the contents and context of the relevant mater ia l w i l l f u l f i l these needs. The ana lys i s of how forms of mater ia l r e l a t e to s p e c i f i c areas of research i s simply a method to record i n a systematic fashion the information gathered by a r c h i v i s t s during t h e i r d a i l y work. I t a lso t r i e s to e l iminate some of the haphazard nature of reference work where the s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge of each a r c h i v i s t i s not imparted to a l l researchers . 3 13 An equal ly important question i s whether t h i s examination of research topics and t h e i r re la t ionsh ips to various fonds i s work that should be performed by a r c h i v i s t s . I t i s arguable that the researchers should be carry ing out t h i s a n a l y s i s , rather than a r c h i v i s t s . In f a c t , t h i s a c t i v i t y f a l l s much more wi th in the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e . Knowledge of the holdings , of the record forms, and of the access systems are a l l areas of expert ise which belong to the a r c h i v i s t s . A r c h i v i s t s are we l l prepared to carry out these c r i t i c a l analyses. Further , the w r i t i n g of a c r i t i c a l guide gives a r c h i v i s t s a bet ter understanding of how t h e i r holdings are used and increases the ef fect iveness of a r c h i v i s t s i n prov id ing reference s erv i ce . A c r i t i c a l guide to sources for the h i s t o r y of the family i s recorded i n the fo l lowing f i ve chapters . The f i r s t d e t a i l s the current s tate of research in to the h i s t o r y of the Canadian fami ly . Since wr i t ings about the family i n any one province i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h Columbia i s very l i m i t e d , i t was necessary to examine the f i e l d at a nat iona l l e v e l . Fur ther , t h i s chapter follows the approaches set out by Michael Anderson i n h i s h i s tor iography of the Western f a m i l y . 9 The next four chapters analyze the ava i l ab l e records i n r e l a t i o n to each of the four approaches: demographics, sentiments, household economics and hegemony/inst i tut ions. A complete l i s t i n g of c o l l e c t i o n s which appear to have value to the study of the family i s included as an appendix. The f i n a l chapter of fers a c r i t i q u e of the ef fect iveness of t h i s method for the production of thematic guides. I t examines the use of standard a r c h i v a l techniques for a s p e c i f i c purpose, the crea t ion of a c r i t i c a l guide. The v i r tues of applying a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a to the ava i lab le forms of mater ia l are a lso discussed. In addi t ion to a general eva luat ion , there i s an examination of how the ac tua l guide appl ies to family h i s t o r y and the d i f f i c u l t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the records for t h i s area of study. 15 CHAPTER 1 ENDNOTES 1. Lytle, Richard H. "Intellectual Access to Archives: I. Provenance and Content Indexing Methods of Subject Retrieval." The American Archivist 43 (Winter 1980):64-75 and "Intellectual Access to Archives: II. Report of an Experiment Comparing Provenance and Content Indexing Methods of Subject Retrieval." The American Archivist 43 (Spring 1980):191-207. 2. Lytle, "Intellectual Access to Archives," 73. 3. Lytle, "Intellectual Access to Archives: I.," 65. 4. Lytle, "Intellectual Access to Archives: II", 206. 5. There are many examples of this type of thematic guide. Frequently, they have been written by historians to give access to social history topics. Two recent guides are by Mary Kinnear and Vera Fast, Planting the Garden: An  Archival Bibliography of the History of Women in Manitoba, (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1987) and by Christopher L. Hives and George Brandak, A Guide to Fishing,  Forestry and Mining Records in the Special Collections  Division, The University of British Columbia, (Vaneouver: University of British Columbia Library, 1987). 6. Michel Duchein, "Theoretical Principles and Practical Problems of Respect des Fonds in Archival Science," Archivaria 16 (Summer 1983):81-82, David B. Gracy II, Archives and  Manuscripts: Arrangement and Description, (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1977):35, and Virginia Purdy, "Subject Guides" in A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on  Archival Theory and Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch. (Washington, D.C: National Archives and Records Service, 1984):245. 7. Society of American Archivists 1 Committee on Finding Aids, Inventories and Registers: A Handbook of Techniques and  Examples, (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1976). 8. Mary Jo Pugh, "The Illusion of Omniscience: Subject Access and the Reference Archivist," In A Modern Archives  Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch, Washington, D.C: National Archives and Records Service, 1984:270-271. 9. Michael Anderson, Approaches to the History of the  Western Family, 1500-1914, (London: MacMillan, 1980). 16 CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH TRENDS INTO THE CANADIAN FAMILY The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of w r i t i n g on s o c i a l h i s t o r y over the past few decades has occasioned the c r e a t i o n of many subdiv i s ions of the study and each area has had numerous supporters throughout the Western world . As has often been the case, Canadian h i s t o r i a n s have fol lowed these trends i n a somewhat slower manner than t h e i r European and American counterparts . Nevertheless , they too have jo ined the p u r s u i t of knowledge about the masses and soc ie ty at l a r g e . Family h i s t o r y , one of the most current top ics i n Europe and America, has not been embraced with the same enthusiasm i n Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n E n g l i s h speaking Canada. Despite the apparent re luctance of many researchers to examine t h i s area , a number have begun to look at the Canadian fami ly and t h e i r f ind ings have had some impact on the f i e l d . I t i s worthwhile to study the extent of these wr i t ings and the manner i n which they r e l a t e to i n t e r n a t i o n a l works. Before commencing an examination of the s tudies wr i t t en i n E n g l i s h which dea l with the fami ly i n Canada, severa l po ints need to be c l a r i f i e d . Foremost, the study of the fami ly has a r e l a t i v e uni formity throughout the wor ld , un l ike most other areas of h i s t o r i c a l research which are more n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l . While c u l t u r a l d i f f erences have a f fec ted family s tructures to some degree, the bas ic core of the fami ly has remained the same, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Western 17 world . H i s t o r i a n s genera l ly take i t for granted that b i o l o g i c a l needs form a foundation for the fami ly and are therefore e s s e n t i a l to an understanding of these s i m i l a r i t i e s . A second important r e a l i z a t i o n r e l a t e s to the s c a r c i t y of sources. While the fami ly i s an i n s t i t u t i o n which pervades a l l s o c i e t y , i t s very commonness has meant that l i t t l e was recorded about i t s s t ruc ture or inner workings. People assume that t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i d e a l fami ly i s the correc t one and that the s t ruc ture of the fami ly was unchanging. Even the l i t e r a t e segment of soc ie ty r a r e l y r e f l e c t e d on the general nature of the fami ly . The c lose f a m i l i a r i t y which v i r t u a l l y a l l people have had with the i n s t i t u t i o n has l ed past wr i t er s to assume there i s a common ground which does not warrant c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n . F u r t h e r , as with most areas of s o c i a l h i s t o r y , documents dea l ing with the lower c lasses are almost non-existent and h i s t o r i a n s have needed to adopt new methods of research and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to use the scant sources i n innovat ive ways. The examination of the fami ly has taken place along a number of d i s t i n c t l i n e s . Michael Anderson has suggested that there have been three major approaches used by h i s t o r i a n s . 1 A u s e f u l examination of the s i t u a t i o n i n Canada can be c a r r i e d out i n the context of these approaches. Canadian research has been very scat tered and greater emphasis p laced on some methods rather than others . To understand the f u l l scope of the h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g about the fami ly produced by Canadian 18 w r i t e r s , i t must be f i t t e d in to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l framework or d i s t o r t i o n s w i l l appear. The f i r s t method of study i d e n t i f i e d by Anderson i s the demographic approach. Many h i s t o r i a n s have seen t h i s as the only way to gain an apprec iat ion of the ro l e of the family among the lower c lasses and i t has been success ful i n generating a great deal of basic data . Par i sh r e g i s t e r s , census returns and other census- l ike records such as tax assessment r o l l s and d i r e c t o r i e s have provided the bas ic source m a t e r i a l . The methodology employed r e l i e s heav i ly on the natura l and s o c i a l sc iences . Researchers have used s t a t i s t i c a l analys i s to attempt to understand the mechanisms of the family i n soc ie ty . Studies have given emphasis to four s p e c i f i c top ic s : marriage rates and ages, patterns of c h i l d b e a r i n g , ex tramari ta l conceptions and the s i ze and membership of households. The nature of the sources has forced the s e l e c t i o n of these areas to some degree but each has provided a s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i g h t into the organizat ion of the family and permitted the discovery of changes over time i n a f a i r l y prec ise way. Anderson designated the study of sentiments as the second area examined to understand family l i f e . Changes over time i n i n t e r - f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , sexual behaviour, courtship r i t u a l s and at t i tudes to pr ivacy have been examined. As a r e s u l t of these s tudies , for example, i t has been suggested that i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n led to a major upheaval i n family 19 s t r u c t u r e . Inves t iga t ing these p r i v a t e a f f ec t ions has meant a greater r e l i a n c e on w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l and consequently an emphasis on the behaviour of the l i t e r a t e c lasses or an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of how the l i t e r a t e viewed the lower c la s se s . Studies i n t h i s area are often h i g h l y speculat ive because they are l i m i t e d to sparse sources. Nevertheless , they o f f er the greatest p o t e n t i a l for f l e s h i n g out the rather s tark framework of the demographers. The need to create a p i c t u r e of ac tua l people out of numbers i s e s s e n t i a l for any h i s t o r i a n but v i r t u a l l y impossible without an understanding of the a t t i tudes and b e l i e f s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the sentiments group. The l a s t approach presented by Anderson i s household economics. He contended that the u n i f y i n g force among t h i s group of h i s t o r i a n s i s " the ir concern with the s o c i a l processes which under l i e family s tructures (and, though less s u c c e s s f u l l y , f a m i l i a l a t t i t u d e s ) . " 2 The ir focus has been the fami ly as an economic u n i t and the var ious s t ra teg i e s devised by the fami ly to survive i n peasant and commercial s o c i e t i e s and then through the upheaval of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Inheritance p r a c t i c e s , patterns of employment and fami ly economies p lay important ro l e s i n the development of t h i s branch of fami ly h i s t o r y . W i l l s , land records , employment records and accounts of the work place are h e a v i l y u t i l i z e d . The household economics approach describes the face of the fami ly that i s v i s i b l e to soc ie ty and t h i s p u b l i c image i s another c r u c i a l component of fami ly l i f e . 20 Louise T i l l y and Miriam Cohen have examined and expanded Anderson's premises with the a d d i t i o n of a four th d i v i s i o n , the hegemonic / in s t i tu t iona l approach. They argue that i n s t i t u t i o n s have d i s t i n c t i v e views of the fami ly which have inf luenced people, and h i s t o r i a n s have used these opinions as a fur ther way to understand the fami ly processes . 3 The precepts upon which education was founded f u r n i s h considerable m a t e r i a l about f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and percept ions . S i m i l a r l y the views of l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t e l l a great dea l about the fami ly . For example, what cons t i tu ted juven i l e delinquency impl ies much about the boundaries of chi ldhood and the expected r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of parents . Each of these approaches provides a p o r t i o n of knowledge about fami ly s tructures and t h e i r changes over t ime. Moreover, s ince the d i f f e r e n t approaches r e l y more h e a v i l y on d i f f e r e n t forms of m a t e r i a l , often from d i f f e r e n t sources, combining the f ind ings from the various approaches may allow conf irmat ion of a p a r t i c u l a r theory. Anderson argues that a l l of these approaches are incomplete and cannot stand a l o n e . 4 A l l must be c a r e f u l l y in tegrated to supply a f u l l e r understanding of the fami ly i n h i s t o r y . Canadian h i s t o r i a n s have explored a l l four of these d i v i s i o n s but not ex tens ive ly . Many s tudies have used demographic approaches extens ive ly while the sentiments approach has rece ived only minimal a t t e n t i o n . F u r t h e r , two methods frequent ly have been u t i l i z e d i n a complementary fashion. Obviously no one is constrained to work within Anderson's guidelines. Nevertheless the "four approaches" thesis does provide a helpful framework for discussing family history and the historiography of the Canadian family will be presented in this manner. Lastly, on occasion, research into the family is not the prime purpose of a historian's study. Rather, insights relating to the family are almost made in passing. S t i l l these studies can provide valuable information about the family. The overwhelming majority of Canadian writing has been directed to the demographic approach. The primary source material in these investigations has been the decennial census returns, produced by the national government and started in 1851. The release of census returns for the period 1851 to 1891 spurred a host of demographic studies. In addition, demographic research projects received an abundance of grant money for large scale projects in the 1970s. Finally, the increased accessibility of computers allowed researchers to process large bodies of data. Two major groups received financial support for this type of project. The fi r s t , headed by Michael Katz, examined social, class and familial relationships in the city of Hamilton, Canada West from 1851 to 1871. David P. Gagan led the second group which investigated family structure and its relationship to land in Peel County, Canada West between 1845 and 1875.5 22 Important to t h i s type of research and p a r t i c u l a r l y v i t a l to both Katz ' s and Gagan's work i s the establishment of l inkages between one census and another and to other records . Evidence of transiency and permanence and changes i n family s tructure are found with these l inkages . The only v iab le way to perform t h i s analys i s on a large populat ion i s with a computer. This technology has allowed the use of sources h i ther to unthinkable . While so lv ing some problems, new ones have a r i s e n . For example, because of the infancy of the methodology, there are problems i n making these l inkages . One of the major problems involves the phonetic s p e l l i n g of names, so that a name such as Smythe may be spe l t Smyth or Smith i n d i f f e r e n t documents. 6 Refinement of r e l a t i v e l y p r i m i t i v e techniques to overcome name di f ferences w i l l add s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the r e l i a b i l i t y of the data analys i s i n the future but questions of accuracy cannot be t o t a l l y dismissed at the present . One of the major questions asked by t h i s f i e l d i s how the s tructure of the household has changed i n s ize and membership over time. The r e l a t i v e l y recent settlement of Canada has meant that h i s t o r i a n s have focused on changes occurr ing at the time of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Prev ious ly , the fundamental assumption by h i s t o r i a n s and the general p u b l i c was that the Canadian family i n the past and i t s counterparts throughout much of the Western world, was extended i n s t ruc ture . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , three generations would l i v e together as wel l other 23 fami ly members, such as unc les , aunts and cous ins . A l l s tudies have confirmed tha t , i n f a c t , the nuclear fami ly was the norm by f a r . 7 The r e s u l t i s not unexpected. In simple numeric terms, the parents of four c h i l d r e n can only l i v e with one adul t c h i l d at a time so the other three c h i l d r e n w i l l have nuclear f a m i l i e s . Given lower l i f e expectancies and the apparent des i re of most f a m i l i e s to be independent, t h i s f i gure would l i k e l y be even lower. Of course , s i b l i n g s or other fami ly members may co -res ide but t h i s i s u n l i k e l y i n a country with a v a i l a b l e and af fordable land l i k e Canada. The s table household s t ruc ture evident i n the major i ty of Canadian f a m i l i e s s tudied by Gagan, Katz and others i s an a r t i f a c t of the source m a t e r i a l . Since censuses recorded a s i n g l e po int i n t ime, they d i d not account for temporary changes i n fami ly membership. H i s t o r i a n s have r e a l i z e d that f a m i l i e s undergo a cyc l e throughout t h e i r existence and during each phase fami ly composition may vary . For example, when one parent d i e d , the other might l i v e with one of t h e i r grown c h i l d r e n for a short time or u n t i l he or she a l so d i e d . For that time the nuclear fami ly was extended. This conception of the fami ly as a dynamic process has inf luenced a l l Canadian w r i t i n g on the subject and may be one of the larges t contr ibut ions of the demographic schoo l . In a d d i t i o n to k i n extending the nuclear fami ly , h i s t o r i a n s have garnered considerable information about the presence of boarders and servants i n the household. Katz found a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between wealth and household s t r u c t u r e . The fac t that the weal thier c lasses had more servants i s not a s u r p r i s i n g r e v e l a t i o n but they a l so took i n the major i ty of boarders . 8 While u n s k i l l e d workers would have considered the a d d i t i o n a l income a boon, lack of space prevented them from taking i n more r e s i d e n t s . In the Hamilton study, m u l t i p l e fami ly households were rare but Sheva Medjuck discovered that i n Moncton, New Brunswick i n 1851 a high proport ion (almost one-quarter) of f a m i l i e s res ided i n the company of another f a m i l y . 9 Although Medjuck d i d not f u l l y explore the p o i n t , the evidence suggested a housing shortage caused by immigrants a t t r a c t e d to the economic boom i n Moncton's s h i p b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y . The study c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d the danger of i gnor ing p o l i t i c a l and economic events which may a f f e c t the fami ly . Another area of the demographic approach examined by Canadian h i s t o r i a n s i s the s i ze of f a m i l i e s . I t has been found that fami ly s t ruc ture can be a f fec ted by the v a r i a b l e s of wealth, e t h n i c i t y , r e l i g i o n and fami ly number. For example, Katz found fami ly s i ze i n Hamilton had no c o r r e l a t i o n with wealth. On the other hand, r e l i g i o n and e t h n i c i t y d i d a f f e c t the number of fami ly members. 1 0 However, i n a study of two Prescot t County townships i n O n t a r i o , Chad G a f f i e l d argued that e t h n i c i t y contr ibuted only minimal ly to French Canadian and E n g l i s h Canadian family s i z e . He suggested that the 25 di f f erences i n fami ly s i z e occurred because of an e a r l i e r marriage age among French Canadians . 1 1 A study of r u r a l c h i l d b e a r i n g by R.M. Mclnnis suppl ied evidence that people i n more s e t t l e d areas of Canada West had fewer c h i l d r e n than i n f r o n t i e r areas . Mclnnis explained the d i f f erence by arguing that the d e s i r e of parents to provide higher standards of l i v i n g for t h e i r f a m i l i e s was more prevalent i n the longer s e t t l e d areas because of the greater a v a i l a b i l i t y and lower cost of goods. This was accomplished most e a s i l y by having fewer c h i l d r e n . 1 2 David Gagan found a s i m i l a r pat tern i n Peel County i n the l a t e 1850s and 1860s but be l i eved that a lack of a v a i l a b l e land l e d to l a t e r marriage dates and therefore smaller fami ly s i z e . 1 3 S u b s t a n t i a l amounts of w r i t i n g have a l so been devoted to the m o b i l i t y of Canadian f a m i l i e s . Transiency formed a keystone of the argument of the Hamilton study group. Katz found that a c o r r e l a t i o n ex i s ted between permanence and w e l l -be ing , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n good economic times. 1 " Whether people were more success fu l when they stayed or stayed because they were doing w e l l i s not c l e a r . Numerous other wr i t er s have s tudied trans iency among f a m i l i e s throughout eastern Canada. In the Saguenay-St. Jean reg ion of Quebec, Gerard Bouchard discovered a r a p i d l y d e c l i n i n g populat ion i n the l a t e nineteenth century because of lack of a g r i c u l t u r a l l and . The populat ion loss was not due to emigrat ion as would be expected. A f a i r l y s u b s t a n t i a l emigration had always occurred but immigration had maintained the l e v e l of populat ion . I t was the drop i n immigration that caused the decrease . 1 5 Alan Brookes argued that depressed economic circumstances forced an exodus of young adults from Nova Scot ia i n the la te nineteenth century. Emigration by s i b l i n g s often resu l ted i n them se t t ing up residence i n the same l o c a l e s . 1 6 These re su l t s are h igh ly i n t e r e s t i n g but no one has extens ive ly studied how frequent ly family members s e t t l e d together i n a new region or how much t h i s transiency disrupted in ter -genera t iona l family l i f e . Some i n i t i a l study has been done by Ross McCormack i n h i s work on B r i t i s h immigrants to Winnipeg. 1 7 McCormack found that immigrants r e l i e d heav i ly on the family s t r u c t u r e , whether i t was nuc lear , extended or even surrogate (such as a boarding house or church) . Further research in to the e f fects of mob i l i t y and immigration on family t i e s would provide extremely important evidence about the strength of family r e l a t i o n s . In Canada where immigration and transiency played such a v i t a l ro l e i n the development of the country, the responses of the family have great s i g n i f i c a n c e . A s i m i l a r concern for family re la t ionsh ips guided Herbert Mays i n h i s work on the Toronto Gore township of Peel County. He found that e a r l y s e t t l e r s who es tabl i shed successful farms remained i n the area. These permanent s e t t l e r s a lso obtained s u f f i c i e n t land to allow t h e i r grown c h i l d r e n to s e t t l e near them. 1 8 The work of Mays, Brookes and McCormack, while far 27 from complete, i s h igh ly suggestive of the des ire of immigrants to maintain contact with a l l members of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Despite the d e t a i l e d data base i t can provide , the demographic method has several inherent problems, p r i m a r i l y with the source m a t e r i a l . One source of mater ia l does not provide s u f f i c i e n t information for analys i s because a l l types have t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s . Census data record family s tructures at a p a r t i c u l a r moment and provide only general f e r t i l i t y and n u p t i a l data . Linkages between census data and that from p a r i s h reg i s t er s i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h because of the m o b i l i t y of par i sh ioners and the i r r e g u l a r placement of a denomination's churches. I t i s genera l ly true of records bearing data usefu l i n demographic studies that they usua l ly show an under-representat ion of some ethnic groups. This de f i c i ency can ser ious ly skew r e s u l t s . While awareness of these data biases and employing more than one source w i l l not overcome these d i f f i c u l t i e s completely, t h i s knowledge does allow the researcher to proper ly l i m i t the scope of the study. To date, Canadian h i s t o r i a n s have almost completely ignored the sentiments approach to family h i s t o r y . Despite the existence of a f a i r l y high rate of l i t e r a c y throughout the h i s t o r y of the country and the consequent p r o l i f e r a t i o n of d i a r i e s and correspondence, materia ls which are the heart of such an approach, Canadian researchers have hardly begun to inves t igate the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the sentiments approach. Two 28 studies have touched on the pr iva te side of family l i f e , although both p r i m a r i l y sought to expla in fur trade society and i t s deal ings with Canada's nat ive people. Jenni fer Brown examined di f ferences i n a t t i tudes between the two major fur t rad ing companies and the s o c i a l in terac t ions which developed between native women and European fur t raders . The treatment of the c h i l d r e n which resu l ted from these marriages sa id much about family t i e s , even i n these c r o s s - c u l t u r a l and short term s i t u a t i o n s . 1 9 Brown also argued that an examination of w i l l s ind ica ted that the k insh ip t i e s present among the Sco t t i sh traders were the basis of a h o r i z o n t a l l y s tructured s o c i a l system wi th in the North West Company. In a s i m i l a r fash ion , S y l v i a Van K i r k explored the ro le of Indian women i n the fur t r a d e . 2 0 Although these works provided ins ights in to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between two d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups and how these d i f ferences a f fec t the t r a d i t i o n a l s t ruc tures , they describe an uncommon s i t u a t i o n and cast l i t t l e l i g h t on the general pattern of Canadian family h i s t o r y . More conventional i s the work of Peter Moogk who inves t igated the a t t i tudes of French Canadians towards c h i l d r e n i n the eighteenth century New France. His f indings were much i n keeping with changing a t t i tudes towards c h i l d r e n suggested by P h i l l i p e A r i e s . 2 1 Ar i e s i s often recognized as the founder of the modern school of the h i s t o r y of the family and chi ldhood. Differences i n behaviour of New France c h i l d r e n noted by European observers are r e l a t e d to the 29 encouragement of s e l f - r e l i a n c e and assert iveness necessary for success i n New France, according to Moogk. 2 2 While these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be i n d i c a t i v e of s t ra teg i e s created to meet s i t u a t i o n s found i n s e t t l i n g new lands , the underly ing a f f e c t i o n and concern for c h i l d r e n was a common a t t i tude found throughout the Western world from that time to the present . Other s tudies which can be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d as fo l lowing the sentiments approach discussed i l l e g i t i m a c y i n nineteenth century Canada. Peter Ward argued that unwed mothers i n Upper Canada obtained succour from t h e i r f a m i l i e s more frequent ly than would be imagined from s o c i e t a l a t t i tudes present i n l i t e r a t u r e or commonly he ld b e l i e f s . While some acceptance by soc ie ty can be seen i n the development of boarding houses and l y i n g - i n h o s p i t a l s for unwed mothers, there i s no suggestion that the event was condoned, as occurrences of i n f a n t i c i d e and abort ion show. Yet the fami ly often o f fered a refuge against s o c i e t y ' s " o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n . " 2 3 Contrary to Ward's f i n d i n g s , Andree Levesgue argued that s i n g l e mothers at the H o p i t a l Misercorde i n Montreal were considered s o c i e t a l d e v i a n t s . 2 4 Using h o s p i t a l records from the 1930s, she d iscovered that unwed mothers were young, French Canadian Roman C a t h o l i c s , working as domestics or l i v i n g at home. The time spent i n the h o s p i t a l frequent ly invo lved penance and, even though entry was vo luntary , some pat i en t s were sequestered for up to a year . Although only twenty percent of a l l Quebec i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s occurred at 30 t h i s h o s p i t a l , Levesque contended that s ing l e mothers were re j ec t ed by the s o c i e t y . Unfortunate ly , she o f fered no evidence of the a t t i tudes of f a m i l i e s for the remaining e ighty percent of i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s . I t i s not c l e a r i f only women without fami ly support ended up i n t h i s h o s p i t a l , whether t h i s h o s p i t a l was the major i n s t i t u t i o n dea l ing with i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s , or i f there was a d i f f erence between the views of soc i e ty and the act ions of the fami ly . Unfortunate ly , the r e l i a n c e on one set of records for one h o s p i t a l leaves many questions unanswered. Ward has a l so begun to study the subject of courtsh ip i n nineteenth century E n g l i s h Canada. In h i s a r t i c l e on courtsh ip and s o c i a l space, he argued that women had cons iderably more autonomy i n the choice of partners than i s normally supposed, although t h i s freedom was only exerc ised "within an e laborate framework of s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s . " 2 5 Thi s s t ruc ture a l so placed s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n s on the courtsh ip a c t i v i t i e s of youths who were requ ired to meet under c l o s e l y supervised c o n d i t i o n s . Evidence for these contentions came from d i a r i e s and correspondence of both men and women. The r e l a t i v e pauc i ty of research i n t o the personal nature of the Canadian fami ly r e f l e c t s the r e l a t i v e slowness of the na t ion ' s h i s t o r i a n s to fo l low i n t e r n a t i o n a l trends . The s k e l e t a l design constructed by the demographers i s of l i m i t e d value unless under ly ing a t t i tudes and b e l i e f s of fami ly members can be descr ibed . The a t t rac t iveness of l arge - sca l e 31 demographic studies may also have been a fac tor i n delaying the explorat ion of the more pr iva te aspects of family l i f e . The household economics approach i s another rather neglected area of Canadian family h i s t o r y , but one major proponent, Be t t ina Bradbury, has examined the family economy of Montreal 's working c lass during the l a s t h a l f of the nineteenth century. Working c lass fami l i e s had a greater need for family incomes to be supplemented by t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s wages. These c h i l d r e n s tar ted work at an e a r l y age and i n a far larger proport ion than c h i l d r e n of profess ionals or merchants. 2 6 The d i f f i c u l t per iod for low income fami l i e s occurred when c h i l d r e n were too young to work and mothers remained at home to care for them. Moreover, p a r t i c u l a r l y unpleasant circumstances arose when one of the parents d i e d , a not uncommon occurrence. During these times, other s trateg ies were sought. Some c h i l d r e n were sent to k i n or orphanages to be reclaimed upon reaching working age or when the c r i s i s had subs ided . 2 7 Further research by Bradbury has shown that fami l i e s kept l i ve s tock and c u l t i v a t e d garden p lo t s i n the c i t y to help supplement incomes. 2 3 Terry Copp's study of the Montreal working c las s i n the f i r s t two decades of the twentieth century of fered more i n s i g h t s in to family economic l i f e . Like Bradbury, Copp s tressed the ro l e of working c h i l d r e n i n supporting family income. The extreme poverty of these people was g r a p h i c a l l y evident i n Copp's descr ipt ions of housing, heal th care and 32 working c o n d i t i o n s . 2 9 I t i s important to note that Copp's work was not intended as a study of family l i f e but , as i n other cases, h i s f indings can be used e f f e c t i v e l y to expand an understanding of the h i s t o r i c a l context i n which fami l i e s l i v e d . Studies of household economics have examined the transmiss ion of property and wealth from one generation to the next. Researchers have used w i l l s and deeds to discover patterns of inher i tance . These patterns provide an i n t e r e s t i n g means to study the concerns of the household head towards the future of h i s c h i l d r e n and wife and a lso the d i s p o s i t i o n of the estate he acquired over h i s l i f e t i m e . In h i s study of the demography of Peel County, David Gagan also analyzed changes i n inheri tance patterns . In the ear ly years of settlement, farmers attempted to obtain s u f f i c i e n t land to compensate t h e i r c h i l d r e n for t h e i r years of labour for the fami ly . When land became scarce , fathers tended to devise w i l l s which attempted to combine primogeniture and p a r t i b i l i t y . Usual ly the land was w i l l e d to the e ldest son who was placed under o b l i g a t i o n to keep h i s mother and unmarried s i s t e r s . Other male he ir s received cash compensation. By ensuring that the land remained i n the e ldes t son's hands i n t h i s fashion , fathers hoped to provide for wives and daughters who would be less able to fend for themselves. 3 0 33 A s i m i l a r end was the aim of a very d i f f e r e n t inher i tance method. The s e i g n e u r i a l system of New France d i c t a t e d the manner i n which land was d i v i d e d with a p o r t i o n going to each c h i l d and the wi fe . A widow would normally rece ive one-half of her husband's estate and the e ldes t son rece ived the l arges t p o r t i o n of the s i b l i n g s . Where the port ions of land were too small to farm economical ly , he would often purchase shares from h i s s i b l i n g s and mother. The farm was res tored and a l l members rece ived compensation. Research by Cole H a r r i s shows how various s t ra teg ie s were used by f a m i l i e s to accomplish t h i s same purpose . 3 1 The household economics approach expla ins the means by which fami l i e s were able to cope with the r e s t of soc i e ty and provide t h e i r bas ic needs. Each s trategy was devised to keep the fami ly together i n the best poss ib le fashion and a s s i s t each member i n improving t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . Concern was a lso expressed about f r i c t i o n between family members and ways were sought to avoid such problems, for example, through inher i tance arrangements. The f i n a l d i v i s i o n of fami ly h i s t o r y , the hegemonic / in s t i tu t iona l approach has less d i r e c t relevance to the study of the previous three but i t can provide valuable i n s i g h t s of how soc ie ty viewed the fami ly . Education and the s o c i a l reform movements of the l a t e nineteenth and e a r l y twentieth centur ies began to take a greater i n t e r e s t i n the s tate of the Canadian fami ly . The reformers f e l t that lower c las s or working c l a s s fami l i e s were not f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r o l e as the moral and s p i r i t u a l teachers of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The welfare i n s t i t u t i o n s which they envis ioned were intended to replace those f a m i l i e s which the reformers f e l t were not c a r r y i n g out t h e i r proper r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A l i s o n Prent ice argued that e a r l y Canadian educators l i k e John Strachan and Egerton Ryerson be l i eved schools should perform the r o l e of the p a t r i a r c h . 3 2 Since education had been the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the fami ly , the s tate adopted a matching phi losophy for i t s operat ion . When i t s i d e a l s of a more moral soc i e ty through education were not v igorous ly supported by parents , reformers looked to compulsory attendance and a complete takeover of any parenta l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for educat ion. G a f f i e l d demonstrates that poor and e r r a t i c attendance was more commonly the case among c h i l d r e n of l a b o u r e r s . 3 3 The need for lower c lasses to supplement the fami ly economy provided reformers with an excuse to give f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of education to the s ta te . Jean Barman shows how B r i t i s h - o r i e n t e d p r i v a t e schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia even t r i e d to exclude the inf luences of the fami ly , cons ider ing i t to be counter-product ive to education purposes . 3 4 The s o c i a l reform movement which promoted s tate education a l so entered other areas of t r a d i t i o n a l fami ly c o n t r o l . V i c t o r i a n mora l i ty and c la s s d i f ferences were fundamental to a t t i t u d e s about juven i l e del inquency. Susan Houston demonstrated that the middle c la s s perceptions about the lower 35 c l a s s f a m i l i e s i n Toronto inf luenced these c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n as del inquents and the attempts made towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 3 5 The " idea l family" concept a l so had an e f f e c t on the make-up of the reform movement. A general study by T . R . Morrison and research on the Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Movement by Wendy Mitchinson have suppl ied evidence that many women worked for the reform movement to r e t u r n soc ie ty to a more moral f a m i l i a l order which they f e l t had been l o s t . 3 6 They be l i eved that women, as the guardians of the home, were moral ly and s p i r i t u a l l y super ior to men, and therefore were be t ter guardians of the fami ly and i t s i d e a l s . Th i s examination of how soc ie ty viewed the fami ly and how each inf luenced the other i s the c e n t r a l focus of the h e g e m o n i c / i n s t i t u t i o n a l approach. A comparison between the r e a l i t y of fami ly l i f e shown by the other three approaches and the perceptions of soc i e ty allows researchers to bet ter understand the biases presented i n the source m a t e r i a l . F u r t h e r , the hegemonic / in s t i tu t iona l approach i s v i t a l to an . understanding of the d i f f erence between how soc i e ty perce ived the fami ly and how the fami ly a c t u a l l y funct ioned. Family h i s t o r y i n Canada i s s t i l l i n i t s beginning stages. Few major works have been w r i t t e n and c e r t a i n l y nothing of a seminal nature. The themes examined have been sca t tered throughout the poss ib le approaches. There i s l i t t l e cohesiveness to the wr i t ings except for what has been produced by the major demographic s tud ies , and the nature of the work i s very p r e l i m i n a r y . Nevertheless , some in-roads are being made. Because of the complexity of the subject and the lack of sources , the large scale demographic p r o j e c t s , such as the Hamilton and Peel County s tud ie s , are necessary to produce bas ic numbers for ana lys i s and support for other approaches. There i s a need for such projec t s to provide information about the Mari t imes , Quebec, the P r a i r i e s and B r i t i s h Columbia. Since there i s l i t t l e chance any researcher w i l l f u l l y analyze the recorded in format ion , i t i s c r u c i a l that the computer program and the raw data be proper ly documented so other researchers can develop other s tudies using the mater ia l which was so c o s t l y to create . Awareness of the s t ruc ture of previous projec t s i s v i t a l to ensure that comparison with new studies i s p o s s i b l e . The cost of producing such g igant i c s tudies can only be j u s t i f i e d i f the data i s re-used many times. There are areas of family h i s t o r y which need more a t t e n t i o n . The tendency towards large sca le data banks has encouraged wide genera l i za t ions about soc ie ty and has shown l i t t l e regard for the l i f e cyc l e of f a m i l i e s and p a r t i c u l a r groups w i th in them. For example, s p e c i f i c s tudies of widows or newlyweds are r e q u i r e d . F u r t h e r , a blending of the four approaches i n a smal l area would be p e r f e c t l y f e a s i b l e . Since development of the methodologies has already progressed qui te f a r , i t would be s u r p r i s i n g l y simple to create a r e l a t i v e l y 37 f u l l p i c t u r e of a minor theme. One of the major f a i l i n g s of fami ly h i s t o r y researchers has been the attempt to t r e a t the fami ly as though i t was a s ing l e event, l i k e the War of 1812. The enormous complexit ies of the i n s t i t u t i o n are further complicated by changes over time and r e g i o n a l and c las s d i f f e r e n c e s . Concentrat ing on a s p e c i f i c l o c a l i t y does not e l iminate any of these problems. The i n t r i c a c i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f , not the s i ze of the general study, cause the d i f f i c u l t i e s . A f t e r centur ies of neg lect , the h i s t o r y of the fami ly i s f i n a l l y r e c e i v i n g some much deserved a t t e n t i o n . Because of the fundamental r o l e which the fami ly plays i n s o c i e t y , a f u l l understanding of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i s v i t a l to any examination of s o c i e t y . S i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f erences between ethnic groups, s o c i a l c l a s s e s , r e l i g i o u s groups and others a l l provide a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e . Slowly Canadian h i s t o r i a n s are r e a l i z i n g the value of t h i s study and more e f f o r t i s being devoted to i t . 38 CHAPTER 2 ENDNOTES 1. Michael Anderson, Approaches to the History of the  Western Family, 1500-1914. (London: MacMillan, 1980). 2. Anderson, 65. 3. Louise A. Ti l l y and Miriam Cohen, "Does the Family Have a History?: A Review of Theory and Practice in Family History", Social Science History 6 (Spring 1982):157-158. 4. Anderson, 83-84. 5. Although these projects have resulted in numerous articles, the output has been summarized in two books by Michael Katz, The People of Hamilton, Canada West: Family and Class in a  Mid-Nineteenth-Century City, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975 and with Michael J. Doucet and Mark J. Stern, The  Social Organization of Early Industrial Capitalism, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982 and one book by David P. Gagan, Hopeful Travellers: Families, Land and Social Change in  Mid-Victorian Peel County,Canada West, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981. 6. Douglas Sprague and Ronald Frye, " Manitoba's Red River Settlement: Sources for Economic and Demographic History," Archivaria 9 (Winter 1979-80):190-191. 7. Anderson, 23-24. 8. Katz, The People of Hamilton, 35. 9. Sheva Medjuck, "Family and Household Composition in the Nineteenth Century: The Case of Moncton, New Brunswick, 1851-1871" in The Canadian City: Essays in Urban and Social History, revised edition edited by Gilbert A. Stetler and Alan F.J. Artibise, (Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1984):249-261. 10. Katz, The People of Hamilton, 34-35. 11. Chad Gaffield, "Canadian Families in Cultural Context: Hypotheses from the Mid-Nineteenth Century", Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1979):48-70. 12. R.M. Mclnnis, "Childbearing and Land Availability: Some Evidence from Individual Household Data" in Population Patterns  in the Past, edited by Ronald Demos Lee, (New York: Academic Press, 1977):201-227. 39 13. Gagan, Hopeful Travellers, 54-57. 14. Katz, The People of Hamilton, 127-130. 15. Gerard Bouchard, "Family Structures and Geographical Mobility at LaTerriere, 1851-1935", Journal of Family History 2 (Fall 1977):350-369. 16. Alan A. Brookes, "Family, Youth and Leaving Home in Late-Nineteenth-Century Rural Nova Scotia: Canning and the Exodus, 1868-1893" in Childhood and Family in Canadian History, edited by Joy Parr, (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982):93-108. 17. Ross A. McCormack, "Networks among British Immigrants and Accommodation to Canadian Society: Winnipeg, 1900-1914," Histoire Sociale - Social History XVII (November 1984):357-374. 18. Herbert J. Mays, "A Place to Stand: Families, Land and Permanence in Toronto Gore Township, 1820-1890", Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1980):185-211. 19. Jennifer S.H. Brown, Strangers in Blood: Fur Trade  Company Families in Indian Country, (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1980). 20. Sylvia Van Kirk, "Many Tender Ties": Women in Fur Trade  Society in Western Canada, 1670-1870, (Winnipeg: Watson & Dwyer Publishing, 1980). 21. Phillipe Aries, Centuries of Childhood: A Social History  of Family Life, (New York: Vintage Books, 1962). 22. Peter N. Moogk, "Les Petits Sauvages: The Children of Eighteenth Century New France" in Childhood and Family in  Canadian History edited by Joy Parr, (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982):17-43. 23. W. Peter Ward, "Unwed Motherhood in Nineteenth Century English Canada", Canadian Historical Association Historical  Papers (1981):34-56. 24. Andree Levesque, "Deviant Anonymous: Single Mothers at the Hopital de la Misercorde in Montreal, 1929-1939," Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1984):168-184. 25. Peter Ward, "Courtship and Social Space in Nineteenth Century English Canada," Canadian Historical Review 68 (1987):62. 26. Bettina Bradbury, "The Family Economy and Work in an Industrializing City: Montreal in the 1870s," Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1979):71-96. 40 27. Bettina Bradbury, "The Fragmented Family: Family Strategies i n the Face of Death, I l l n e s s and Poverty, Montreal, 1868-1893" i n Childhood and Family i n Canadian History edited by Joy Parr (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982):109-128. 28. Bettina Bradbury, "Pigs, Cows and Boarders: Non-Wage Forms of Survival among Montreal Families, 1861-1891," Labour/Le  T r a v a i l 14 ( F a l l 1984):9-46. 29. Terry Copp, The Anatomy of Poverty: The Condition of the  Working Class i n Montreal, 1897-1929, (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974). 30. Gagan, Hopeful T r a v e l l e r s , 54-57. 31. Richard Colebrook Harris, The Seigneurial System i n Early Canada: A Geographical Study, (Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1966):123-124. 32. A l i s o n Prentice, The School Promoters: Education and  Soci a l Class i n Mid-Nineteenth Century Upper Canada (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977):178-179. 33. Chad G a f f i e l d , "Schooling, the Economy and Rural Society i n Nineteenth-Century Ontario" i n Childhood and Family i n Canadian History edited by Joy Parr (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982):69-82. 34. Jean Barman, Growing Up B r i t i s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia:  Boys i n Private School, (Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984). 35. Susan E. Houston, "Victorian Origins of Juvenile Delinquency: A Canadian Experience" i n Education and So c i a l  Change: Themes from Ontario's Past edited by Michael B. Katz and Paul H. Mattingly (New York: New York University Press, 1975):83-109. 36. T.R. Morrison, "'Their Proper Sphere" Feminism, The Family and Child-centred S o c i a l Reform i n Ontario: 1875-1900" Parts I and I I , Ontario History 68 (March and June, 1976):45-74 and Wendy Mitchinson, " The WCTU: 'For God, Home and Native Land': A Study i n Nineteenth-Century Feminism" i n A Not Unreasonable Claim: Women and Reform i n Canada, 1880s-1920s edited by Linda Kealey, (Toronto: Women's Press, 1979):152-167. 41 CHAPTER 3 THE DEMOGRAPHIC APPROACH The f o l l o w i n g f o u r chapters- d e s c r i b e the a v a i l a b i l i t y and the u s e f u l n e s s of v a r i o u s r e c o r d forms a c c o r d i n g t o the f o u r approaches o u t l i n e d by M i c h a e l Anderson. Each c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s an a n a l y s i s of the forms which have been most w i d e l y used by r e s e a r c h e r s as w e l l as ones which show p o t e n t i a l f o r study. The source m a t e r i a l f o r the study of the f a m i l y which i s p r e s e n t l y h e l d by the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s and Records S e r v i c e and the C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s i s used as examples and t o p r o v i d e r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h some knowledge of the types and e x t e n t of m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e . The a c t u a l c o l l e c t i o n s and a r c h i v e s h e l d by these i n s t i t u t i o n s and r e l e v a n t f o r f a m i l y h i s t o r y r e s e a r c h are l i s t e d i n the appendix. The f i r s t of Anderson's f o u r approaches r e l i e s on the methodology of demography. The r e s u l t s of n u m e r i c a l a n a l y s i s are i n t e r p r e t e d t o o f f e r t h e o r i e s about the changes i n the f a m i l y over time. Demographic s t u d i e s have dominated the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o f a m i l y h i s t o r y throughout the world. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of c o n s i d e r a b l e source m a t e r i a l , such as censuses and church r e g i s t e r s , and the a b i l i t y of automation t o q u i c k l y p e rform complex a n a l y s i s have g i v e n demography widespread a p p e a l . The s u r v i v a l of f a i r l y unbroken runs of these r e c o r d s r e f l e c t s t h e i r importance t o governments and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r the purposes of t a x a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l over t h e i r p e o p l e . So the presence of l o n g and 42 frequent ly complete ser ies of these types of records are one fac tor i n t h e i r common use. An equal ly important contr ibutor to the increase i n demographic research has been the growth of computer technology. The increased a v a i l a b i l i t y and novelty of t h i s new method of data processing has a t trac ted funding for projects using the technology. Further , the a b i l i t y of computers to perform complex analys i s for extremely involved and numerous data sets has given h i s t o r i a n s a t o o l to analyze sources, prev ious ly unmanageable using manual techniques. As we l l as the a v a i l a b i l i t y of records and technology, the ac tua l contents of the documents have contr ibuted to the preference for demographic s tud ies . The information c o l l e c t e d i s most frequent ly done using a standardized format. Therefore , wi th in each s e r i e s , the same data elements are present. Even between record s e r i e s , the recorded information often cons is t s of some bas ic elements, for example, names, ages, res idences , m a r i t a l s tatus , and l inkages to r e l a t i v e s . Common elements allow comparison of informat ion, both during contemporary time periods or between d i f f e r e n t ones. Equal ly important to these studies are the opportuni t ies to use mater ia l from d i f f e r e n t ser ies to augment and complement each other . For example, the emphasis of par i sh r e g i s t e r s on the exact date of the event can be connected to census data which deal with dates i n a much more general fash ion . 43 Demographic r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s the fundamenta l s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a f o r the s t u d y o f the f a m i l y . I t o f f e r s the s t r u c t u r a l framework o f the i n s t i t u t i o n t h r o u g h p l a c e and t i m e . A v e r y comple te s e t o f r e c o r d s can p r o v i d e a f u l l p i c t u r e o f the l i f e c y c l e o f the f a m i l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no s i n g l e group of such documents e x i s t and any demographic s t u d y r e q u i r e s the use o f s e v e r a l s e r i e s o f r e c o r d s . C e n s u s e s , p a r i s h and c h u r c h r e g i s t e r s , assessment r o l l s , v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s , d i r e c t o r i e s , newspapers , w i l l s and deeds a l l have been used t o c r e a t e a p a t t e r n t o i l l u m i n a t e the e v o l u t i o n o f the f a m i l y . Governments and o t h e r l a r g e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s g e n e r a t e the b u l k o f documents used f o r demographic r e s e a r c h . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f any s u b s t a n t i a l l y p o p u l a t e d community r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e p l a n n i n g t o manage t h e i r s o c i a l and economic needs . The a b i l i t y t o make sound p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s by any government r e q u i r e s an e x t e n s i v e knowledge o f the s o c i e t y t h e y s e r v e . As communit ies have grown i n p o p u l a t i o n and l o c a l i t y , r u l e r s have been f o r c e d t o s e t up more and more e l a b o r a t e systems to a c q u i r e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . The c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f s t a t i s t i c s p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r these d e c i s i o n s . George Emery contends t h a t t h i s need f o r s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n c u l m i n a t e d i n a s t a t i s t i c a l movement i n the l a t t e r h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . S u p p o r t e r s o f the movement saw s t a t i s t i c s as a way o f d e t e r m i n i n g v a r i o u s n a t u r a l laws and p a t t e r n s . 1 44 Various types of documents were needed, such as assessment r o l l s and censuses. Adminis trat ion of the law and c o n t r o l of the people also caused records to be produced, for example, v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s , deeds and w i l l s . Hi s tor ians of the family have extens ive ly used these documents because they are the ones which spec i fy i n d i v i d u a l s and, jus t as important, make them i d e n t i f i a b l e so other records can be l inked to them. More modern record s e r i e s , such as personnel records , w i l l a l so provide considerable amounts of information for researchers . Censuses have often formed the foundation of family h i s t o r y research. The studies by Gagan and Katz exemplif ied t h i s method but the shorter works of D a r r y l N o r r i s and Sheva Medjuck a lso u t i l i z e d these sources . 2 Census data o f fer the most complete information ava i lab l e about the s tructure of e a r l y Canadian f a m i l i e s . Family members l i v i n g at the same residence are l i s t e d together and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the head of household are noted. This information provides researchers with the invaluable knowledge of f a m i l i a l l inkages and so enables them to r e l a t e other forms of documentation to the fami ly . Census records were not c o l l e c t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia on a regular bas is u n t i l 1871 and then the a c q u i s i t i o n of information was c a r r i e d out by the f edera l government. So there i s no e x i s t i n g census mater ia l at the p r o v i n c i a l or c i v i c l e v e l . However, the importance of these documents as 45 the core of data for demographic studies makes a discussion of them necessary. They are easily available on microfilm at several institutions or through the National Archives of Canada. In Canada, most governments commenced the routine practice of decennial census-taking in 1851. Prior to this time, irregular censuses were carried out, primarily in the Maritimes and Quebec but, frequently, these were restricted to a specific area of the colonies, for example, the city of Montreal. Further, the enumeration was often limited to the head of the household and so provided considerably less information to the researcher than the 1851 and succeeding censuses. The union of British Columbia with the rest of Canada in 1871 initiated the area's fi r s t major census. Despite the obvious usefulness of census data to researchers, there are considerable difficulties with using these documents. The reliability and completeness of the data suffers from the way in which the early census enumerators were selected, trained and controlled. 3 The position of enumerator was frequently a patronage appointment. Unskilled enumerators omitted certain areas, failed to record certain data, and often had virtually illegible hand writing which makes use of their data impossible. Variant phonetic spelling of names also creates significant problems when researchers are trying to establish linkages. 46 Two o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s o c c u r i n e a r l y censuses, one a r i s i n g from the m o b i l i t y of people and the o t h e r from r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o A l a n Brookes, the l e n g t h of enumeration averaged about t h i r t y days i n New Brunswick. 4 T h i s d u r a t i o n of time would e a s i l y a l l o w many i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s t o be missed. Secondly, i t i s w i d e l y accepted t h a t some e t h n i c and r a c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s were u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c e n s u s - t a k i n g . T h i s would p o s s i b l y c r e a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t skew i n an a n a l y s i s . The next s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a of documentation f o r demographic s t u d i e s i s the r e g i s t r a t i o n of v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s . The p r i m a r y sources f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n are p a r i s h and church r e g i s t e r s . The c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the r i t e s of passage has l o n g been the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . Dates of b i r t h , baptism, marriage and death are r e c o r d e d f o r each denomination by church or d i s t r i c t . In the B r i t i s h I s l e s , the p r a c t i c e of r e c o r d i n g deaths i n each p a r i s h began i n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y as a means of e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l w i l l s were p r o p e r l y probated and the church r e c e i v e d any share of the e s t a t e which was bequeathed t o i t . 5 Although the keeping of p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s was s p o r a d i c f o r the next two c e n t u r i e s , the ch u r c h r e a l i z e d t h a t the r e c o r d i n g of v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s was a method of c o n t r o l l i n g i t s p a r i s h i o n e r s . As governments and t h e i r p r a c t i c e s became more f o r m a l i z e d , the need f o r c i t i z e n s t o prove the p l a c e and date of a b i r t h , a marriage, or a death became more important. E v e n t u a l l y , 47 d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y many governments began t h e i r own systems of r e g i s t r a t i o n . In Canada, c i v i l r e g i s t r a t i o n developed as a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the time of implementation v a r i e d from r e g i o n t o r e g i o n . Most systems developed i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century. Even when implemented, a c c u r a t e r e c o r d - k e e p i n g was not always the norm. 6 Although the s t a t e a c q u i r e d o f f i c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the keeping of these r e c o r d s , churches have c o n t i n u e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r own r e g i s t e r s . R e g i s t e r s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the a c t u a l events i n the l i v e s of f a m i l y members. Names of the a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , such as newborns and t h e i r p a r e n t s , and b r i d e s and grooms, permit l i n k a g e s between d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s and, u l t i m a t e l y , the development of e l a b o r a t e f a m i l y g e n e a l o g i e s . These r e c o r d s o f f e r a u s e f u l adjunct t o censuses. Together they p r o v i d e data f o r a f a i r l y good understanding of the demography of the f a m i l y . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s i s q u i t e good. For the most p a r t , these r e c o r d s have remained i n the c o n t r o l of the churches. Some c o l l e c t i o n of p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s has been undertaken by both the p r o v i n c i a l and c i t y a r c h i v e s . In re c e n t y e a r s , the es t a b l i s h m e n t of church a r c h i v e s on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s has allowed the two i n s t i t u t i o n s t o g i v e up t h i s type of a c q u i s i t i o n . However, even w i t h the a v a i l a b i l i t y of church a r c h i v e s , such as those f o r the A n g l i c a n Church and the U n i t e d Church, some church d i s t r i c t s have been r e l u c t a n t 48 to release t h e i r r e g i s t e r s and so a compromise has been struck through the use of microf i lming . While a less than s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n given the inherent problems of using micro f i lm , nevertheless the records are now a v a i l a b l e and some s e c u r i t y for the information i s i n p lace . Therefore both o r i g i n a l r eg i s t er s and microf i lm copies are a v a i l a b l e at the P r o v i n c i a l Archives and the C i t y of Vancouver Archives . For example, the c i t y archives holds copies of v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s reg i s t er s for S t . Paul ' s Angl ican Church (Ci ty of Vancouver Arch ives , hereafter CVA, A d d i t i o n a l Manuscript, hereafter Add. Mss . , 11), the F i r s t Presbyter ian Church (CVA, Add. Mss. 29), and St . James Angl ican Church (CVA, Add. Mss. 403) among others . Par i sh reg i s t er s have some of the same inherent problems that are present i n censuses. I l l e g i b i l i t y of handwriting and phonetic s p e l l i n g can frequently prevent the establishment of the required l inkages . M o b i l i t y of par i sh ioners also means that the family h i s t o r i e s are incomplete. An equal ly d i f f i c u l t problem ar i ses from the manner i n which many churches moved in to a newly s e t t l e d area. I f a church or a denomination of an i n d i v i d u a l was slow i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a presence i n a p a r t i c u l a r area, i t s t r a d i t i o n a l supporters would be forced to attend a church of a d i f f e r e n t denomination. Because entr ie s for censuses and par i sh reg i s t er s are organized i n date order , i t i s extremely time-consuming to search for s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s . More convenient access i s a v a i l a b l e through c i t y and town d i r e c t o r i e s which often are arranged to permit searching by name and by s t r e e t l o c a t i o n . D i r e c t o r i e s do not have the problem of l e g i b i l i t y because they are published items. Of course, s p e l l i n g inaccuracies do occur. The major flaw of these documents arises from the l i m i t e d l i s t i n g s . Only heads of households or property owners were l i s t e d and these were often r e s t r i c t e d to white property owners or d i r e c t o r y subscribers. D i r e c t o r i e s are easy to obtain because numerous copies were published and many have remained extant. Most importantly, long continuous runs of d i r e c t o r i e s are a v a i l a b l e i n several places. 7 Newspapers also o f f e r valuable information f o r demographic researchers. Their format makes them more cumbersome to use because the information i s scattered throughout the paper and not always placed i n the same area. Most other demographic sources were constructed for the same general purpose that researchers are using them today, that i s , to i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l s . The p r i n t i n g of v i t a l s t a t i s t i c notices i s only a very minor one of the multiple purposes for which newspapers are published. However, t h i s format makes i t extremely time-consuming f o r researchers to gather the necessary data. In s p i t e of t h i s , the extra work can be rewarding, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r newspapers from le s s populated communities. Obituaries can be lengthy and contain extremely important information about c h i l d r e n , s i b l i n g s and other 50 r e l a t i v e s . They may a lso provide data about immigration, employment, r e l i g i o n and other bas ic facts which can allow researchers to move to other sources, such as church r e g i s t e r s . One serious flaw of newspaper a r t i c l e s i s t h e i r inaccuracy. Information i n ob i tuar ies has been obtained from r e l a t i v e s , u sua l ly younger ones who may be r e l y i n g on family myths, incomplete facts or personal assumptions. These p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s require that corroborat ive evidence be sought. F inding t h i s confirmation can be f a i r l y simple i f the information i n the newspaper i s accurate . Problems of inaccurate report ing can also occur with government c e r t i f i c a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e g i s t e r i n g deaths. Again, i n these circumstances, the reporter of the information may not have f i r s t hand knowledge of a l l of the requested data . A f i n a l comment about newspaper not ices i s that they do not provide information about a l l members of the community. Most commonly, newspaper space must be purchased by the informant. So, for the most p a r t , only people able and w i l l i n g to a f ford t h i s expenditure are recorded i n the paper. This skews any s t a t i s t i c a l information towards the upper c las ses . P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for lands and estates has ensured the c o l l e c t i o n of deeds and w i l l s as further sources for demographic research. Both types of mater ia ls can be used to supplement census data and w i l l s o f fer the further advantage of supplying family linkage information, most frequently a listing of children and spouse. Tax assessment rolls can also be used although they record only the head of the household and not family members. They do identify the residence of families which can be used to assist in evaluating class distinctions. Unfortunately, the assessment rolls for Vancouver are very limited for the pre-1918 period. Only rolls for 1889 and 1892 are extant and this short time span makes them virtually useless for demographic research. Provincial assessment rolls are more readily available and far more complete but they do not cover the most populated areas. An additional series of government records which is valuable to demographers is the cemetery registers. Local governments are required to maintain a l i s t of burials in those cemetery grounds within their boundaries. These registers often contain information about the age, religion, place of birth and cause of death of the deceased as well as the name, date of death and location of the burial plot. For example, the City Archives holds microfilms of the Mountain View Cemetery Registers (CVA, Department of Health, Series 3). The registers cover the period of 1886 to 1975. The last group of records which can be used for examining the demography of the family are those of private agencies. This is not a particularly fruitful type of source because the form of record valuable to demographers, ones with 52 a repetitious format and which gather discrete units of information, were not prevalent prior to the end of World War I. Businesses were generally small enough to preclude the need for extensive personnel records. A more serious difficulty has been the relatively meagre collection of business records collected by most institutions. Hospital records have been acquired by the Vancouver City Archives which hold early material from both the Royal Columbian Hospital (CVA, Add. Mss. 284) in New Westminster and the Vancouver General Hospital (CVA, Add. Mss. 320). The types of source material used for demographic research are not available in great abundance in these archives. The only area of such research is in a few patient registers in the Royal Columbian Hospital records. There are also restrictions on use of both of these collections, requiring permission of the hospital boards. Finally, a group of records which are not available for research should be discussed. The Provincial Ministry of Health is responsible for the collection of vita l statistics through its Division of Vital Statistics. Unfortunately, at the present time, these records are available only for internal use or legal requirements, such as proof of birth, marriage or death. Further, these documents will only be furnished to the parties involved. These restrictions mean that an extremely valuable body of records cannot be used for research. 53 C o l l e c t i o n s of m a t e r i a l which are v a l u a b l e t o demographic r e s e a r c h are f a i r l y abundant i n the two major a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e . The need f o r governments t o i d e n t i f y and c o n t r o l t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s have ensured t h a t t h i s m a t e r i a l be r e t a i n e d f o r the most p a r t . The v a l u e which has been p l a c e d on these r e c o r d s f o r tax c o l l e c t i n g and f u t u r e p l a n n i n g has meant t h a t they have c o n t i n u e d t o be seen as some of the most important documents t h a t a government produces. Those p a s t a t t i t u d e s now permit h i s t o r i a n s t o c a r r y out much of the r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n s o c i a l h i s t o r y . I n combination w i t h the r e l e v a n t r e c o r d s of the n a t i o n a l government, these documents are even more v a l u a b l e because they g i v e the h i s t o r i a n s and o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s more c o n t r o l over t h e i r a r e a of r e s e a r c h and make them l e s s s u b j e c t t o the whims of the r e c o r d c r e a t o r s and the d e c i s i o n s of p a s t a r c h i v i s t s as t o what was kept and what was d e s t r o y e d . The major d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h i s methodology are the expense and time r e q u i r e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a l a r g e d a t a base and c o n f i r m i n g l i n k a g e s between the v a r i o u s sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . 54 CHAPTER 3 ENDNOTES 1. George Emery, "Ontario's Civil Registration of Vital Statistics, 1869-1926: The Evolution of an Administrative System," Canadian Historical Review 64 (December 1983):469-470. 2. Gagan, Hopeful Travellers, Katz, The People of Hamilton,  Canada West, Norris, "Household and Transiency in a Loyalist Township" and Medjuck, "Family and Household Composition in the Nineteenth Century". 3. David Gagan, "Enumerator's Instructions for the Census of Canada, 1852 and 1861", Histoire Sociale - Social History VII (November 1974):355. 4. Alan Brookes, " 1 Doing the Best I Can": the Taking of the 1861 New Brunswick Census", Histoire Sociale - Social History IX:17 (May 1976):85-86. 5. Gerald Hamilton-Edwards, In Search of Scottish Ancestry, (Baltimore, MD.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1980):46. 6. George Emery, "Ontario's Civil Registration of Vital Statistics":481-483 and "A Model Case Study of English Canadian Historical Mortality: A Description and Evaluation of the Data for Ingersoll, Ontario, 1837-1982", Presentation to the Canadian Historical Association Annual Meeting in Winnipeg, Manitoba, June 9, 1986:1-2. 7. A listing of British Columbia directories which were published and their locations is available in The Researcher's  Guide to British Columbia Nineteenth Century Directories: A  Bibliography and Index edited by John Lutz and published by the Public History Group, University of Victoria in 1988. 55 CHAPTER 4 THE SENTIMENTS APPROACH Moving from an a n a l y s i s of numbers t o a study o f the emotions may seem a major s h i f t but both areas o f r e s e a r c h a re based on the needs of humans to m a i n t a i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They can a l s o h e l p t o e x p l a i n the r o l e t h a t the f a m i l y p l a y s i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h a t end. Anderson's second approach t o f a m i l y h i s t o r y , the study of sentiments,- i s one which has r e c e i v e d much l e s s i n t e r e s t both i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y as w e l l as i n Canada. N e v e r t h e l e s s , s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l e x i s t s i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s and the Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s t o a l l o w some i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the a t t i t u d e s of r e s i d e n t s of B r i t i s h Columbia t o i s s u e s such as c o u r t s h i p , c h i l d - r e a r i n g and i n t r a -f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Although m a t e r i a l s c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s a r e a by a r c h i v e s have been l i m i t e d and o f t e n r e s t r i c t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s who have been prominent i n the community, t h e r e i s s t i l l a v a i l a b l e a s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y of documentation t o pe r m i t u s e f u l s t u d i e s . I t may be argued t h a t the r e c o r d s of the s o c i a l e l i t e s a re not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and t h i s b i a s must be understood when i n t e r p r e t i n g the d a t a . N e v e r t h e l e s s , because of the tendency t o i n t e r m a r r y w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l c l a s s , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o observe both s i d e s of a c o u r t s h i p o r o t h e r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n c e r e c o r d s f o r both groups have been saved. The people of V i c t o r i a are a p a r t i c u l a r l y good example of t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y . Some c o l l e c t i o n s of material of the c i t y ' s e l i t e s have been kept, for example, the O'Reilly and Trutch f a m i l i e s who were i n t e r - r e l a t e d by the marriage of Peter O'Reilly and Caroline Trutch. The greatest d i f f i c u l t y with the study of sentiments, one inherent for a l l types of materials used for t h i s type of research, i s a comparison between documents. Each event i n the l i f e cycle of a family i s unique to the circumstances of that p a r t i c u l a r group. Finding common ground between these seemingly d i s t i n c t happenings to understand the family un i t generally or i t s place i n society can be a formidable task. Yet a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are governed by s o c i e t a l rules which provide the basis f o r human i n t e r a c t i o n s . The study of these i n t e r a c t i o n s , such as courtship, can be examined through a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t sources. There i s a need for the researcher to e s t a b l i s h a set of common events or actions which can be used as bench marks. Against these c r i t e r i a , information from other s i m i l a r sources can be compared and an objective analysis can be undertaken. This objective form of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does not supplant the value of a simpler subjective approach. A d e t a i l e d presentation of attitudes and actions, although based on a l i m i t e d number of sources, i s also extremely important. However, an understanding of the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s being considered can be s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhanced by l i n k i n g these subjective analyses to a more objective study. For example, t h i s form of objective research was used by Linda A. Pollock i n her study 57 about the treatment of c h i l d r e n i n England and the United States from 1500 to 1900.1 She used 416 d i a r i e s which were analyzed as to content r e l a t i n g to p a r e n t a l - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The sentiments approach looks to explain and i n t e r p r e t the l i f e cycle of the family and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , the various r i t e s of passage. Courtship, marriage, b i r t h and death are the focus points for the int e r a c t i o n s among the various l e v e l s of the family. One of the most usefu l forms of documentation has been d i a r i e s . By t h e i r very nature, they are cre d i b l e sources since they are intended p r i m a r i l y f o r the writer. Their time span i s consecutive and often of a considerable length. The s t o r i e s that the writers r e l a t e can be d e t a i l e d and o f f e r a great amount of i n s i g h t into the author. Researchers are given the opportunity to understand the biases of the writers and so better appreciate the value of the information. Not a l l d i a r i e s o f f e r such c l e a r l y presented information. The d i a r i s t may write intensely f o r a short period of time and then s p o r a d i c a l l y . Despite the personal nature of the book, many people may s t i l l not commit t h e i r complete f e e l i n g s to the written word. Further, the purposes f o r which a diary i s created can be many. I t may serve as a ledger, an appointment book, a reminder of past events as well as a place to record personal f e e l i n g s . Often d i a r i e s contain only the most commonplace information, such as about the weather, or are 58 used simply to note s o c i a l events with r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l . The r e l a t i v e l y smal l number of d i a r i e s i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives and the C i t y Archives a l so reduces t h e i r usefulness to researchers . There i s c e r t a i n l y not a s u f f i c i e n t quant i ty of personal journals to al low many types of ana lys i s to be contemplated. Even more r e s t r i c t i v e i s the d i sparate top ics and events which the d i a r i e s cover. For example, the d i a r y of Jennie Musgrave ( B r i t i s h Columbia Archives and Records S e r v i c e , hereafter BCARS, A d d i t i o n a l Manuscript , hereafter Add. Mss. 803) p r i m a r i l y describes the weather and the s o c i a l events for the year 1870. In f a c t , the d i a r y has greater s i g n i f i c a n c e than most because t h i s was the year of her marriage to Anthony Musgrave and o f f er s a good account of that event. Another i n t e r e s t i n g group of d i a r i e s (BCARS, Add. Mss. 1650) were w r i t t e n by George Lovat from 1900 to 1924. Lovat , a sawmill operator i n Sandon, wrote extens ive ly about h i s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . The most i n t e r e s t i n g parts are i n the e a r l y journa l s which descr ibe h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s granddaughter, E l l e n Anderson. A s i m i l a r type of d i a r y was w r i t t e n by W i l l i a m Henderson (BCARS, Add. Mss. 547). Henderson's accounts genera l ly descr ibe weather and s o c i a l events but, as a widower and grandfather, he pays considerable a t t e n t i o n to h i s involvement i n the l i v e s of h i s c h i l d r e n . 59 In a d d i t i o n to the descr ip t ions of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f a m i l i e s , d i a r i e s are extremely important i n p r o v i d i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o the mechanisms of courtsh ip and a t t i tudes towards the process . Although there are occurrences where personal f ee l ings are revealed i n d i a r i e s , more frequent ly these records act as appointment books showing the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and the i n d i v i d u a l s invo lved i n the events. While l e ss dramatic than an outpouring of emotion, a survey of s o c i a l events and the manner i n which young men and women p a r t i c i p a t e expla ins much about the s o c i a l mores and the r e g u l a t i o n of c o u r t s h i p . As w e l l as prov id ing information about c o u r t s h i p , d i a r i e s which record s o c i a l events i n some d e t a i l a l so give i n s i g h t s i n t o the r e l a t i v e importance of fami ly and f r i ends i n shaping courtsh ip r e l a t i o n s h i p s . D i a r i e s which cover the per iod of courtsh ip are rare i n the c o l l e c t i o n s of the P r o v i n c i a l Archives and the Vancouver C i t y Arch ives . One example deals with the s o c i a l l i f e of J . M . Robinson, a school p r i n c i p a l i n Ontario and Manitoba (BCARS, Add. Mss. 2010). Another i s the d i a r y of Mrs. A. Ash (BCARS, E/C/As31A) d e s c r i b i n g her t r a v e l s from England to V i c t o r i a and her subsequent stay there . This journa l only covers a per iod of seven months. The problems for researchers which occur from the s c a r c i t y of d i a r i e s dea l ing with fami ly i ssues i s somewhat compensated by the f a i r l y strong c o l l e c t i o n s of fami ly correspondence. Correspondence has many advantages over 60 d i a r i e s i n def i n i n g the re l a t i o n s h i p s within f a m i l i e s and showing t h e i r operation. Most importantly, l e t t e r s are written between d i f f e r e n t members of the family. In most cases, family correspondence does not involve only two people. The correspondence of d i f f e r e n t family members w i l l frequently appear within the manuscript c o l l e c t i o n of one person. Several d i f f e r e n t viewpoints can be the r e s u l t . They often o f f e r more background about the manner i n which the family l i v e s . Since correspondence i s frequently written to discuss s p e c i f i c issues, the importance of events requires less i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the researcher. Another strength of correspondence l i e s simply i n i t s abundance. In a province of many immigrants, i t i s l i k e l y that communication with the family l e f t behind was of greater importance than the keeping of a personal d i a r y . Descriptions of d a i l y l i f e and discussions of family events found t h e i r way in t o l e t t e r s rather than journals. This p a r t i a l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of correspondence over d i a r i e s i n the major archives. As with d i a r i e s , correspondence has considerable flaws as a means of examining family l i f e . Letters are highly s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of events. They do not provide complete p i c t u r e s . The time periods which they cover are frequently broken and scattered. Moreover, the information can be one sided with only the l e t t e r s of one of the two correspondents a v a i l a b l e . For example, the correspondence which comprises the Fisher Family records (BCARS, Add. Mss. 657) includes a letter from 1864. The other correspondence is for the 1880s and early 1890s. The letters are also from the mother and so would only contain the opinions of Mrs. Fisher. Two further handicaps result from the physical format of the material. Because each letter, or even each page, is an unique item, letters and pieces of letters have been lost over time in a way which would not occur as readily with diaries. So gaps which appear are probably as frequently related to loss as selectivity. Equally frustrating for researchers is the difficulty in deciphering handwriting. Similar problems can occur with other documents but i t is often compounded with correspondence because i t may be necessary to interpret several types of handwriting rather than one. The predilection for cross-hatching, that is writing from side to side and top to bottom, is an additional difficulty. Cross-hatching allowed four sides to each page and cut postage costs in half but legibility suffered in the process. One additional physical problem with correspondence is the greater fragility of the material caused by folding and dirt which is not as serious in bound volumes. Among the correspondence series available in the province is the most significant body of material for the study of the sentiments approach. The O'Reilly Family collection is composed of four accession units (BCARS, A/E/Or3, Add. Mss. 248, Add. Mss. 412 and Add. Mss. 2086). Primarily 62 correspondence, the c o l l e c t i o n contains many fami ly l e t t e r s which o u t l i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the O ' R e i l l y fami ly as w e l l as with the Trutch fami ly , Mrs. Caro l ine O ' R e i l l y ' s fami ly of o r i g i n . There are a l so severa l d i a r i e s which dea l with both business and personal matters . A smal l c o l l e c t i o n of rec ipes and household accounts of Caro l ine O ' R e i l l y complete the m a t e r i a l he ld at the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . Complementary to t h i s c o l l e c t i o n i s one he ld .by the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , A XIII 6/3) . This u n i t , t i t l e d T r u t c h , S i r Joseph, i s composed of l e t t e r s between the parents and s i b l i n g s of the fami ly of W i l l i a m and Char lo t te T r u t c h . A s i s t e r to Joseph T r u t c h , Caro l ine O ' R e i l l y f igures prominently i n these l e t t e r s . While members of the Joseph Trutch and the Peter O ' R e i l l y f a m i l i e s were o f f i c i a l s i n the p r o v i n c i a l government as w e l l as V i c t o r i a soc i e ty , the r e a l value of the m a t e r i a l comes from i t s d e s c r i p t i o n of fami ly r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The eminence of the f a m i l i e s a l so means that correspondence to other notable V i c t o r i a f a m i l i e s may have been re ta ined i n the P r o v i n c i a l Arch ives . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s large body of m a t e r i a l , many smaller c o l l e c t i o n s e x i s t which are based p r i m a r i l y on correspondence between family members. The Crease Family records (BCARS, Add. Mss. 55, Add. Mss. 56 and Add. Mss. 573) has a considerable amount of correspondence, some d i a r i e s and 63 g e n e a l o g i c a l d a t a s c a t t e r e d throughout a volume of t h r e e metres. I n f o r m a t i o n about the s e t t l e m e n t of an E n g l i s h immigrant f a m i l y i s found i n the Oxley F a m i l y c o l l e c t i o n (BCARS, Add. Mss. 385 and Add. Mss. 719). The f a m i l y came t o Wilmer, B.C. i n 1912 and t h e i r o n l y c h i l d , E l i z a b e t h , was born t h e r e i n 1913. They r e t u r n e d t o England i n 1914. U n f o r t u n a t e l y a l e t t e r from the donor, E l i z a b e t h P h i l l i p s , the Oxleys' daughter, notes t h a t she d e s t r o y e d a number of l e t t e r s d e s c r i b i n g her p a r e n t s ' c a r e of her because of t h e i r p e r s o n a l n a t u r e . The e x t a n t m a t e r i a l s have been brought t o g e t h e r i n a p u b l i c a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s . 2 Numerous o t h e r s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n s can be found a t both the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s and the C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s which can p r o v i d e u s e f u l d a t a f o r a n a l y s i s . The d e s t r u c t i o n of some correspondence from the Oxley f a m i l y fonds by t h e i r daughter does h i g h l i g h t a c o n s i d e r a b l e problem f o r t h i s approach. The p e r c e i v e d s e n s i t i v i t y of some d i a r i e s and correspondence undoubtedly has r e s u l t e d i n the d i s c a r d i n g of many documents which would be i n v a l u a b l e t o r e s e a r c h e r s . However, i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t f a m i l y members would be concerned about the p r i v a c y of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s . Correspondence and d i a r i e s are the most obvious components of the sentiments approach. They are a l l the more v a l u a b l e because they were c r e a t e d f o r a purpose o t h e r than r e c o r d i n g h i s t o r y . The next two forms of m a t e r i a l do not have t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n but d e s p i t e t h e i r l a c k of i m p a r t i a l i t y , memoirs and reminiscences are another u s e f u l source for family h i s t o r y . The forms of records are based on long term memories and so the f a c t s they contain should not be accepted without questioning t h e i r accuracy. Nevertheless, a l l workings of family r e l a t i o n s h i p s and behaviours are coloured by a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s and memories. Much of a family's behaviour i s governed by emotion and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Memoirs, l i k e d i a r i e s , are places where people may reveal t h e i r understanding of how t h e i r family functioned. I t i s important to understand the writer's biases and personal values before accepting the words. Memoirs perhaps serve best as supplementary evidence to other sources because corroboration would be a v a i l a b l e . One p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g memoir was written by Walter E. Bodington (BCARS, Add. Mss. 1263) i n which he describes the harsh c h i l d rearing he received at the hands of h i s father i n England. Many other examples of t h i s form of material are a v a i l a b l e at the P r o v i n c i a l Archives, ranging from a d e s c r i p t i o n of childhood i n Nelson, B.C. i n the Freeda B.H. Bolton papers (BCARS, Add. Mss. 2084) to r e c o l l e c t i o n s of l i f e on a ranch i n the records of Helen F. Sheringham (BCARS, Add. Mss. 942).' Curiously, i t has not been the more personal forms of material which have received the most use by researchers examining the emotional structure of the family. Censuses, par i s h r e g i s t e r s and other s t a t i s t i c a l information have been the basis of the studies of Edward Shorter and others. 3 The tendency has been to attempt to avoid emphasizing the workings of the upper l i t e r a t e classes and so researchers have been forced to r e l y on s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . A less r i g i d l y structured c l a s s system and a higher rate of l i t e r a c y i n Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia makes t h i s r e l i a n c e l e s s necessary fo r Canadian researchers. S t a t i s t i c a l information can s t i l l provide valuable adjuncts to the data c o l l e c t e d from more intimate sources. Censuses reveal the make up of the family u n i t and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the members. D i r e c t o r i e s indicate the residence and occupations of the family which can provide information about economic and cl a s s status. These sources can help to e s t a b l i s h a f u l l e r p i c t u r e of the people who are being researched and prevent misinterpretations. O v e r a l l , the records ava i l a b l e for the study of the sentiments approach are somewhat l i m i t e d . There appear to be only a few sources which would provide s u f f i c i e n t material f o r a f u l l study. Nevertheless, the c o l l e c t i o n s should not be discounted as they w i l l supplement material from other j u r i s d i c t i o n s or can be used i n combination with other approaches. 66 CHAPTER 4 ENDNOTES 1. L i n d a A. P o l l o c k , F o r g o t t e n C h i l d r e n : P a r e n t - c h i l d  r e l a t i o n s from 1500 t o 1900, Cambridge, England: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1983. 2. R. Cole H a r r i s and E l i z a b e t h P h i l l i p s , ed., L e t t e r s from  Windermere, 1912-1914, Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1984. 3. Edward S h o r t e r , The Making of the Modern Family, (New York: B a s i c Books, I n c . , 1975). 67 CHAPTER 5 THE HOUSEHOLD ECONOMICS APPROACH The f a m i l y s e r v e s i t s members as a prime i n s t i t u t i o n of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and the source of e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y as w e l l as a f r e q u e n t g e n e r a t o r of mental anguish. These f e a t u r e s are obvious t o any o b s e r v e r . However, a t many times, these r o l e s of the f a m i l y are of secondary importance t o i t s f u n c t i o n as an economic u n i t . The household economics approach seeks t o examine the f a m i l y i n terms of i t s a b i l i t y t o s u r v i v e and p r o s p e r . Much of the work i n t h i s a r e a has r e l i e d on d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r demographic s t u d i e s and o f t e n the demographic approach and the household economics approach have been l i n k e d t o g e t h e r , such as i n the works of M i c h a e l Katz and David Gagan. 1 The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the l a r g e d a t a base r e q u i r e d f o r demographic r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s the b a s i c s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r economic s t u d i e s . By u s i n g complementary s o u r c e s , such as w i l l s and deeds, the examination of l a n d ownership and t r a n s m i s s i o n i s p o s s i b l e . A l s o v a l u a b l e f o r t h i s approach and l e s s f u l l y e x p l o r e d i s the manner i n which the f a m i l y u n i t a c q u i r e s s u f f i c i e n t income t o e x i s t and how l a b o u r i s d i v i d e d among f a m i l y members. Perhaps the most r e s e a r c h done on t h i s s u b j e c t has been c a r r i e d out by the p r a c t i t i o n e r s of women's h i s t o r y who have looked a t women's r o l e i n the work p l a c e . Less r e s e a r c h has been conducted on 68 women's work at home and how i t generally f i t s i n t o the larger p i c t u r e of family s u r v i v a l and prosperity. The most important sources for the study of family economies are w i l l s and deeds. Ownership of land and movable property i s an us e f u l measure of the prosperity of the family and the well-being of i t s i n d i v i d u a l members. Studies of the transmission of land have been made as to whether primogeniture i s the chief f a c t o r i n land transmission or whether property i s s p l i t evenly among surv i v i n g family members. Because deeds are l e g a l documents which r e t a i n some of t h e i r l e g a l value even a f t e r the property has been disposed of by an owner, they have been retained by the p r o v i n c i a l government. These documents remain an excellent source f o r understanding t h i s aspect of family economics. The use of deeds requires a thorough examination of other sources. Each deed contains only the most basic information and d i r e c t o r i e s , assessment r o l l s and censuses are a l l necessary to acquire the background information to f u l l y understand the document. Access to s p e c i f i c deeds i s f a i r l y straightforward. Some form of indexing, such as owner's name or l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n , has always been v i t a l to maintaining the land r e g i s t r y system and so i t remains possible to f i n d s p e c i f i c information. Land ownership f a l l s within the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the province so t h i s material would be designated f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Archives. In p r a c t i c e , these records have remained with the P r o v i n c i a l Land T i t l e O f f i c e s . 69 The data which can be obtained from w i l l s i s more elaborate and can be used independently from other source material. The status of w i l l s as l e g a l documents has also ensured t h e i r f u l l retention among government records. The long time span of these records along with t h e i r uniqueness and c r e d i b i l i t y make them extremely valuable. At times, the information contained i n w i l l s can give a f u l l p i c ture of the family members and t h e i r status i n the family. Because the information i s r e l a t i v e l y uniform and l i m i t e d to geographic areas to some degree, w i l l s can be used e f f e c t i v e l y f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Although w i l l s were more commonly f i l e d by men, some information about women can be discovered. For example, i s the wife l e f t the property, i s the i n h e r i t i n g son or daughter placed under an o b l i g a t i o n to care f o r the mother or i s the mother l e f t to depend on the generosity of her children? Are a l l the c h i l d r e n provided for or does the primary i n h e r i t o r receive everything? The value of w i l l s i s lowered by the exclusiveness of t h e i r use. Not everyone wrote w i l l s . Unless there was s u b s t a n t i a l property, eit h e r land or moveable, a w i l l was not necessary. In f a c t , i t would have been simply an extra expense. Therefore w i l l s only document a c e r t a i n segment of the population i n the same fashion as d i a r i e s and correspondence r e l a t e to the more l i t e r a t e segment of society. As with the other two approaches, census records provide some of the most e s s e n t i a l data about f a m i l i e s for the 70 household economics approach. They l i s t the number i n the f a m i l y , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e i r ages, t h e i r occupat ions , and descr ibe the res idence . A l l these elements are c r u c i a l i n comprehending the s t ruc ture and funct ions of the household. Against t h i s background can be l a i d many other documents such as w i l l s , deeds, assessment r o l l s and even personal papers. While censuses only o f f e r a c o l l e c t i o n of data from a moment i n t ime, they can be used to construct the most complete data base a v a i l a b l e . One p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable aspect of the work with censuses has been to e s t a b l i s h the tak ing i n of boarders as sources of a d d i t i o n a l income. This area has been explored to some degree by both Bradbury and Medjuck. 2 An equa l ly i n t e r e s t i n g use for census data would be examining f a m i l i e s for the presence of c h i l d r e n of the parents ' s i b l i n g s . I t was not uncommon p r a c t i c e for nieces and nephews to be sent to t h e i r r e l a t i v e s for t r a i n i n g and care . T h e i r presence could have a profound e f f e c t on the household economies of both f a m i l i e s , by r e l i e v i n g the burden of t h e i r upkeep, by p r o v i d i n g v i r t u a l l y free labour or by a c q u i r i n g t r a i n i n g i n a l o c a t i o n which would not be poss ib le i n t h e i r own res idence . Th i s k ind of study does depend on f a i r l y i n depth background of s p e c i f i c f a m i l i e s r e q u i r i n g ana lys i s of p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s and other sources to create s u f f i c i e n t l inkages between family members. 71 Another key source for the study of the household i s the tax assessment r o l l s which have been produced by a l l governments. Assessment r o l l s allow governments to conduct taxation based on the value of land and bui l d i n g s . The property assessments must take i n t o account the amount of land, i t s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to other properties, the market value, and the elaborateness and number of the bui l d i n g s . Assessments were usually c a r r i e d out on a yearly basis so they can be used to make regular checks on the mobi l i t y of f a m i l i e s i n a manner not possible with censuses and parish r e g i s t e r s . M o b i l i t y i s often r e l a t e d to the search f o r work and land and so can play a major r o l e i n how the finances of the household functions. Obviously, t h i s w i l l also have an impact on the household functions generally. This area of study has not been explored but may be of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n a resource province l i k e B r i t i s h Columbia where transient workers were extremely common. Assessments o f f e r information about the status of the fa m i l i e s who l i v e there. Class p o s i t i o n i s often r e l a t e d to the areas i n which people l i v e . D i f f e r e n t values for s i m i l a r properties i n d i f f e r e n t areas may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the d e s i r a b i l i t y of one l o c a t i o n over another. The values of the land and buildings also r e f l e c t s the prosperity of the fa m i l i e s and should give i n d i c a t i o n s about the need for ad d i t i o n a l family income. These values can be misleading to a degree because the monetary worth of property does not necessarily translate into actual income. Land rich agricultural families may suffer equally with less prosperous families during a drought although the excess land can provide a greater buffer against hard times. The major difficulty with assessment rolls is the fairly sparse amount of information for each entry. The legal description of the land is linked to the owner of the land, usually the male head of the household. No other information about the family is listed. Although a long unbroken run of assessment rolls exists for the provincial government (BCARS, Surveyor of Tax, B400-B543), such an extensive collection is not available at the Vancouver City Archives where a gap between 1892 and 1929 is found. The loss of the city rolls reduces the overall usefulness of the assessment rolls. Since the household economics approach focuses on the structure of the family and its relationships to the working world, the standard demographic records are not the only valuable records to a researcher. While these statistical records can create the framework of the economy of a family, the actual relationships and functions can be better understood or even discovered from personal papers. Records which describe the operations of a family's finances have frequently found their way into the family's collection of papers. Correspondence, diaries, reminiscences, or legal documents may contain references to the manner in which the family manages to run the household. Diaries or daybooks often contain household ledgers which describe the items purchased and their cost. A detailed analysis of these costs would provide a excellent perspective on how money is spent and a comparison of costs against income would allow a fuller understanding of the subject. However the opportunity to perform this type of analysis is restricted by a shortage of useful documents and a relatively small span of time being covered. For example, the repair book for the steamship "Alpha" (CVA, Add. Mss. 701) also contains a section of family accounts for 1906 and 1907. The listing gives the income, the purchases and their costs. The extremely short period which is covered makes the uses for this information very limited. Correspondence can also be employed in a study of household economies. Families of immigrants often wrote about their daily lives describing the limitations and deficiencies of a frontier community. The correspondents at home are often asked to supply various items which could not be found in the newly settled region. Of even greater significance is the correspondence which is used to obtain job placements and introductions. These letters may have come from friends and parents' friends as well as from relatives but i t is possible that the family network was s t i l l involved in setting up the connection. The interrelated nature between families and work can also be seen in the correspondence of immigrants where 74 f a m i l y members l e f t a t home are asked t o f o l l o w the immigrants t o the new c o u n t r y . Many examples of immigration correspondence between f a m i l y members e x i s t s i n both the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s and the C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s . Correspondence from Edward L l o y d t o h i s mother i n England between 1871 and 1921 (CVA, Add. Mss. 875, M i c r o f i l m M-104) d e s c r i b e s h i s t r a v e l s , b u s i n e s s s i t u a t i o n s and domestic l i f e i n North America. S i m i l a r l y , l e t t e r s from Joseph T r u t c h t o h i s p a r e n t s d e s c r i b i n g h i s l i f e i n N orth America r e s u l t e d i n the immigration of many f a m i l y members t o V i c t o r i a ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , T r u t c h , Joseph W., A X I I I 6/3). The involvement of v a r i o u s f a m i l y members i n j o i n t b u s i n e s s d e a l i n g s i s o f t e n the fo c u s of d i s c u s s i o n i n l e t t e r s . Correspondence s u p p l i e s a g r e a t d e a l of d a t a about the f a m i l y and the ways t h a t the f a m i l y a s s i s t s i t s members i n e n t e r i n g the work f o r c e . The use of patronage and nepotism as means of advancing f a m i l y members i s an are a where the documents of the upper c l a s s e s may be p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e . A l l these elements, even though some of them may r e p r e s e n t responses which were a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o c e r t a i n c l a s s e s , d e s c r i b e how the f a m i l y ensures the s u r v i v a l of i t s members by the t r a n s m i s s i o n of w e a l t h o r i n f l u e n c e . Another c a t e g o r y of r e c o r d types which would be extremely v a l u a b l e f o r the study of f a m i l y economics are b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s . The importance of these r e c o r d s cannot be underestimated. They may provide income amounts, length of work, types of work, and information about f a m i l i e s i f personnel records are a v a i l a b l e . However, the use of business records i s complicated by severa l f a c t o r s . The c o l l e c t i o n of business records has not always been a high p r i o r i t y for arch ive s . Moreover, the forms of records c o l l e c t e d have u s u a l l y been the more formal types , such as minutes, f i n a n c i a l records and reports and the admin i s tra t ive m a t e r i a l which would inc lude personnel informat ion . Often d e t a i l e d personnel records would not have been created although income and job information may be a v a i l a b l e . Also businesses have been r e l u c t a n t to part with t h e i r records or they have f a i l e d to see value i n t h e i r o l d documents. These a t t i tudes are not r e s t r i c t e d to businesses but , combined with the other f a c t o r s , they have made business records a f a i r l y rare commodity i n arch ive s . The s c a r c i t y of business records makes the l inkages between them and other forms extremely d i f f i c u l t . I t would be necessary to s t a r t from the records of a p a r t i c u l a r business and work out to other sources , such as d i r e c t o r i e s and censuses. Unfortunate ly , no c o l l e c t i o n of p r i v a t e business records which would warrant t h i s treatment was i d e n t i f i e d at e i t h e r the P r o v i n c i a l Archives or C i t y of Vancouver Arch ives . Government records might o f f er m a t e r i a l for a more success fu l study but the information i s extremely scat tered throughout minutes, correspondence and other records and would require considerable e f f o r t ju s t to place i n order the income and type of work informat ion . Some government correspondence does conta in use fu l data . For example, requests for employment were often qui te d e t a i l e d with references to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n and the p o s i t i o n of h i s fami ly . This type of correspondence can be found i n the correspondence ser i e s of the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t records (CVA, Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t , Ser ies B - l , Correspondence). L ike a l l approaches to the study of the fami ly , the household economics method requires a blend of d i f f e r e n t record types to f u l l y understand the s t ra teg i e s which f a m i l i e s employ to survive and to ensure the betterment of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The manner and time i n which B r i t i s h Columbia developed s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f fec ted the way that a fami ly supported i t s e l f . The r e l a t i v e l y recent settlement of B r i t i s h Columbia by people of European and Asian descent has meant that records which focus on immigration and the development of new techniques for fami ly s u r v i v a l are more abundant. The short time s ince settlement precludes long runs of papers documenting the passage of land and property among fami ly members which would be a v a i l a b l e i n Quebec, Ontario and the Mari t imes . Another cons iderat ion for the study of the fami ly economy i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s the e f f e c t of resource based i n d u s t r y . The lack of a manufacturing base would have a 77 d e f i n i t e e f f ec t on work opportuni t i e s for wives i n working c l a s s f a m i l i e s and, i n t u r n , t h i s would have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the s t ra teg i e s for a c q u i r i n g fami ly income. These cons iderat ions are more important to the study of the household economics than other approaches. Regional development has much more impact on economics and therefore can a f f ec t the form and volume of documentation which i s produced. While there i s a s u f f i c i e n t quant i ty of records a v a i l a b l e to study the e f f e c t of immigration on the fami ly , more t r a d i t i o n a l research on household economics would be less f r u i t f u l . 78 CHAPTER 5 ENDNOTES 1. Katz, "The People of a Canadian C i t y , 1851-1852" and The  People of Hamilton, Katz, Doucet and Stern, The S o c i a l  Organization of Early I n d u s t r i a l Capitalism, and Gagan, Hopeful  T r a v e l l e r s . 2. Bradbury, "Pigs, Cows and Boarders", and Medjuck, "Family and Household Composition". 79 CHAPTER 6 THE HEGEMONIC/INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH The hegemonic or i n s t i t u t i o n a l approach t o the study of the f a m i l y i s c o n s i d e r a b l y removed from the o t h e r t h r e e methods. I t was not o r i g i n a l l y suggested by M i c h a e l Anderson but was developed i n a l a t e r a r t i c l e by Miriam Cohen and L o u i s e T i l l y . 1 I n s t e a d of an examination of the a c t u a l f a m i l y , i t s s t r u c t u r e or i t s f u n c t i o n s , the hegemonic approach l o o k s a t the a t t i t u d e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s towards the f a m i l y . The concept of f a m i l y i s s t u d i e d r a t h e r than the r e a l i t y . T h i s form of r e s e a r c h i s much more c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l work and so i t r e l i e s on c o n v e n t i o n a l s o u r c e s , such as minute books, r e p o r t s and o t h e r p o l i c y documents of the i n s t i t u t i o n s . The approach i s not as u n i v e r s a l i n time or p l a c e as the o t h e r t h r e e . The b a s i c elements s t u d i e d by the demographic, the sentiments and the household economics approaches have always e x i s t e d . The d i f f i c u l t y has been a c q u i r i n g s u f f i c i e n t documentation t o study a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d or r e g i o n . The hegemonic approach i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o a f a i r l y r e c e n t time p e r i o d when i n s t i t u t i o n s began t o p l a y r o l e s s i m i l a r t o those t r a d i t i o n a l l y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e of the f a m i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of e d u c a t i o n and w e l f a r e . Other i n s t i t u t i o n s have adopted analogous p o s i t i o n s on o c c a s i o n when the f a m i l y network has f a i l e d . For example, p r o v i s i o n may have been made by the s t a t e or church f o r c a r i n g 80 of an orphan i f no other fami ly were a v a i l a b l e but t h i s was except ional behaviour and not cons i s t ent . The f a m i l y , both nuclear and extended, were expected to f u l f i l these funct ions . Over the past century, governments, churches and other organizat ions and i n d i v i d u a l s began to see a r o l e for i n s t i t u t i o n s other than the fami ly i n performing these s e r v i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y for the lower c lasses which were not considered able to proper ly c a r r y out the requ ired tasks . These cons iderat ions of time and place make the study of the fami ly through t h i s approach more d i f f i c u l t . While the settlement of B r i t i s h Columbia occurred during many of these changes i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s , most of the s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n a t t i tudes toward s o c i a l welfare had taken place p r i o r to the f u l l development of the education and welfare systems i n the prov ince . Moreover, the p r o v i n c i a l government q u i c k l y became the c e n t r a l c o n t r o l for these major s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . So dec i s ions concerning the s o c i a l welfare system were developed i n other parts of the country and the world and these p o l i c i e s were simply passed to the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the province to implement. A further time problem a r i s e s w i th in t h i s study i t s e l f . The examination of the inf luence of some organizat ions over the fami ly requires the use of records over a long time span. The establishment of some of these i n s t i t u t i o n s d i d not occur immediately a f t er sett lement. So the time per iod of t h i s 8 1 study does not permit a s u f f i c i e n t span of time to look at the development of these i n s t i t u t i o n s . Despite these problems, an understanding of the ro l e of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the development of the present family s tructure can be achieved to some degree. I n s t i t u t i o n a l records , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of greater adminis trat ive value, such as minutes and correspondence of the senior adminis trat ive o f f i c e r , have been reta ined e i t h e r at an archives or the o f f i ce s of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Both i n the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c sec tors , education and welfare records have been kept. Despite the good l e v e l of r e t e n t i o n , a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the documents i s not always easy to accomplish. Because of t h e i r high adminis trat ive value and the occas ional presence of c o n f i d e n t i a l information, administrators often f e e l t h i s type of record should not be open to the p u b l i c . I t i s not an inso lvable problem. Frequently , the use of t h i s mater ia l for academic research i s considered acceptable by the various boards provided there are su i tab le guarantees for preserving conf i d e n t i a l i t y . This possessive a t t i tude by administrators has been a worrisome one for a r c h i v i s t s s ince i t i s often contrasted by one of neglect for the care and storage of the records . This d i sregard for the preservat ion of the mater ia l may occur even when the value of records i s understood. Hopeful ly more ac t ive a c q u i s i t i o n programs by some archives w i l l r e s u l t i n the trans fer of these i rrep laceab le documents to more secure 8 2 f a c i l i t i e s . Even more notable would be the c r e a t i o n of an archives w i th in the i n s t i t u t i o n . While obvious ly not f e a s i b l e for a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s , some l a r g e r ones, such as the Vancouver School Board, are capable of sus ta in ing t h i s type of program. Moreover, t h i s has been the route taken by some churches, for example, the United Church B r i t i s h Columbia Conference Archives and Angl ican Church P r o v i n c i a l Synod A r c h i v e s , both housed at the Vancouver School of Theology at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. One f i n a l comment about the usefulness of the records r e l a t e s to the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the subject matter. The s tate of the fami ly group was r a r e l y an expressed top ic among the adminis trators of these i n s t i t u t i o n s . Even i f indexing to minutes was conducted, the chosen subjects are not l i k e l y to be the ones required by a researcher . Adminis trators were concerned with budgets, p o l i c y and procedures and so any re levant m a t e r i a l would be i m p l i c i t i n the p o l i c i e s and r e p o r t s . Th i s makes research f a i r l y time-consuming. Church records are bas ic to understanding the a t t i t u d e of soc i e ty to the fami ly . Organized churches, p a r t i c u l a r l y the C h r i s t i a n , have operated both as an adjunct and a competitor to the fami ly . Many features of the C h r i s t i a n church are modelled on the fami ly . However, despi te i t s s t rength , the church remained r e l a t i v e l y separate from the operat ion of the f a m i l y . I t s e f f ec t was s t i l l f e l t by i t s inf luence on the 83 mores and manners of soc ie ty but i t d i d not seek to undermine the f a m i l i e s of any segment of the popula t ion . The s o c i a l reform movement which began during the eighteenth century i n Europe began to move towards a b e l i e f that the other i n s t i t u t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those c o n t r o l l e d by the s ta te , were be t ter places to r a i s e and educate the c h i l d r e n of the subjugated nat ives and the underpr iv i l eged than wi th in t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . Th i s was a s i g n i f i c a n t departure for these i n s t i t u t i o n s and had a profound e f f e c t on the fami ly genera l l y . Although these events i n Europe and North America had an eventual e f f e c t on B r i t i s h Columbia, the records of the province are not e s p e c i a l l y valuable for s tudies i n t h i s area . Most of the major a t t i t u d i n a l changes had a lready occurred before large sca le sett lement. Many p o l i c i e s of the church and the s o c i a l reform movement were simply incorporated in to the prov ince ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s . B r i t i s h Columbia's p o s i t i o n as a f a r outpost of the B r i t i s h Empire precluded any major innovat ions . Since major p o l i c i e s of the Canadian churches were e s tab l i shed by the highest l e v e l s s i tua ted i n Eastern Canada, there are no records i n B r i t i s h Columbia to document the development of these changes. Records may r e f l e c t the l o c a l debate but the movement of the church in to s o c i a l reform was i n e v i t a b l e once the senior churchmen had agreed to the p o l i c y s h i f t . Therefore , i t i s quest ionable how valuable the records 84 of the B r i t i s h Columbia churches are l i k e l y to be. I t would be poss ib le to study the react ion of l o c a l groups and the manner i n which they complied with the d i r e c t i o n s of the churches. Church records have general ly remained i n the custody of the l o c a l e c c l e s i a s t i c a l bodies or they have been trans ferred to a p r o v i n c i a l church repos i tory , as i n the case of the United Church Archives or the Angl ican P r o v i n c i a l Synod Archives . The B r i t i s h Columbia Archives and Records Service and the C i t y of Vancouver Archives have genera l ly acquired only the reg i s t er s of l o c a l parishes and l o c a l church h i s t o r i e s but not the ac tua l adminis trat ive records . The s o c i a l reform movement not only af fected the functions of the fami ly . Over time, i t a lso lessened the ro l e of the church i n the welfare system. Secular organizat ions were es tabl i shed which played an ever - increas ing part i n o f f e r i n g ass istance to the needy. Although many were amalgamations of church groups, they q u i c k l y moved outside the c o n t r o l of the church. Ch i ldren ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , homes for young women, and the Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union are a few examples of these groups which of fered succour i n place of the fami ly . Records of many of these organizat ions are a v a i l a b l e at the P r o v i n c i a l Archives and the Vancouver C i t y Arch ives . Adminis trat ive records of the F r i e n d l y Help and F r i e n d l y A id Soc ie t i e s (CVA, S o c i a l Services Department, Ser ies 1) , the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society of V i c t o r i a (BCARS, Add. 85 Mss. 431) and Queen Mary Coronation Hoste l (CVA, Add. Mss. 55) are only a few of those a v a i l a b l e . As with the development of welfare programs by the church and s tate which competed with the f a m i l y ' s t r a d i t i o n a l methods of support, the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e school systems slowly usurped the r o l e of the f a m i l y . 2 Programs were developed not only i n the area of voca t iona l t r a i n i n g but , u l t i m a t e l y , i n the development of household and s o c i a l educat ion, namely, guidance counse l l ing and home economics. Education a l so played a r o l e i n the development of the hea l th care system. In concert with l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l hea l th o f f i c e r s , the schools e s tab l i shed programs for immunization and hygiene educat ion. The records r e l a t e d to p u b l i c hea l th issues are a v a i l a b l e i n the M i n i s t r y of Education and the M i n i s t r y of Health as w e l l as l o c a l school boards and l o c a l hea l th boards. Educat ional i n s t i t u t i o n s have r a r e l y e s tab l i shed t h e i r own arch ives . P u b l i c schools have r e l i e d on l o c a l government archives to r e t a i n t h e i r records or even more frequent ly s tored them i n t h e i r own f a c i l i t i e s . L o c a l school board records have been acquired by the C i t y Archives for the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of Point Grey and South Vancouver as w e l l as the c i t y of Vancouver. A f a i r l y complete set of minute books and correspondence from the ch i e f admin i s tra t ive o f f i c e r of the school boards are a v a i l a b l e . These records can be used with records of the Medical Health O f f i c e r i n Vancouver. Both 86 types of mater ia l s t a r t from an ear ly per iod i n the h i s t o r y of the c i t y . As we l l as the heal th care records of l o c a l government, the archives of a few major hosp i ta l s are a l so a v a i l a b l e . Hosp i ta l boards have been instrumental i n developing and r e f l e c t i n g the a t t i tudes towards many heal th care i s sues . Maternity care , care of c h i l d r e n , and care of the e l d e r l y are issues which require family involvement and decis ion-making. Medical profess ionals have become equal partners i n th i s system and so h o s p i t a l records contain information which furthers the study of t h i s area. The C i t y Archives holds some adminis trat ive records , such as minutes of the Board and correspondence of the d i r e c t o r , of the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l (CVA, Add. Mss. 320) and the Royal Columbian Hosp i ta l (CVA, Add. Mss. 284) at New Westminster. M a t e r i a l from the Royal Jubi l ee Hosp i ta l (BCARS, Add. Mss. 313) i n V i c t o r i a i s re ta ined i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives . There i s an obvious gap i n heal th care mater ia l because the records of doctors have r a r e l y been preserved. Since doctors have occupied the fundamental p o s i t i o n i n the heal th care system, the pauci ty of these archives i s of serious consequence. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between physic ians and fami l i e s has been extremely important. Doctors often give s o c i a l counse l l ing as we l l as medical . The f i l e s of the family doctor would provide subs tant ia l information about the ro le of heal th care i n the fami ly . Undoubtedly, the issue of 87 c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y has been a major reason for the s c a r c i t y of such c o l l e c t i o n s . Again , a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s appear to have simply avoided t h i s complex quest ion by not c o l l e c t i n g i n t h i s area or promoting preserva t ion . Newspapers would be one f i n a l area of study which would provide use fu l i n s i g h t s in to the changing r o l e of the fami ly . Most newspapers have had sect ions dea l ing with women, t h e i r r o l e i n soc ie ty and the fami ly . The a r t i c l e s s t rong ly r e f l e c t a t t i tudes of soc ie ty towards many fami ly i s sues . Newspapers can o f f er a d i s t i n c t i v e view of soc i e ty from the more conservat ive and s t ruc tured p o s i t i o n of p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s boards. F u r t h e r , the a v a i l a b i l i t y and time span of these publ i shed sources are e x c e l l e n t , whether at archives or l i b r a r i e s . The study of fami ly and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g dilemma. While the time per iod which the records cover i s f a i r l y shor t , there i s a considerable volume of m a t e r i a l . The records from a v a r i e t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s : medica l , educat iona l , s ecu lar , and e c c l e s i a s t i c , can be used to analyze the replacement of the fami ly by a l l these groups. The v a r i e t y and volume suggests considerable p o t e n t i a l for t h i s area of research . F u r t h e r , many i n s t i t u t i o n s which have not donated t h e i r records to an archives s t i l l r e t a i n the important admin i s tra t ive records and some access can often be negot iated. The easy a v a i l a b i l i t y of many of these records makes the hegemonic approach a f a i r l y 88 productive area of study, p a r t i c u l a r l y for l o c a l i s sues . 89 CHAPTER 6 ENDNOTES 1. T i l l y and Cohen, "Does the Family Have a History?". 2. Alison L. Prentice and Susan F. Houston, ed., Family,  School & Society in Nineteenth-Century Canada, (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1975):55. 90 CHAPTER 7 THE USEFULNESS OF CRITICAL GUIDES The value of thematic guides has been recognized by many a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and many prominent a r c h i v i s t s . The need to respond to changing research top ics as w e l l as increase access to current holdings requires a r c h i v i s t s to continue to develop more d e t a i l e d and a n a l y t i c a l access t o o l s . The c r i t i c a l guide serves a much needed purpose by p r o v i d i n g a r c h i v i s t s with a v e h i c l e to record information about types of documents and research uses i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of study. The p a r t i c u l a r area which was chosen to be the bas is of t h i s study of fered both advantages and d i f f i c u l t i e s . Family h i s t o r y i s a r e l a t i v e l y new area of research , developing as par t of the new s o c i a l h i s t o r y movement i n the 1960s. Yet i t i s a subject which has not rece ived as much a t t e n t i o n as o thers , such as labour and women's h i s t o r y . For the most p a r t , Canadian h i s t o r i a n s have done l i t t l e study i n t h i s subjec t . So, not only d i d a r c h i v i s t s not catalogue t h i s m a t e r i a l i n the past but many have continued to exclude the subject area from t h e i r index ing . The amount of m a t e r i a l which i s c u r r e n t l y housed i n the prov ince ' s two major archives i s qu i te s i g n i f i c a n t , although the degree of quant i ty and q u a l i t y of the documents are v a r i e d . Many of the c o l l e c t i o n s are smal l . A l s o , for the most p a r t , fami ly archives are often not a v a i l a b l e i n t o t a l . Rather, a s ing l e d i a r y or a few l e t t e r s are a l l that comprise the c o l l e c t i o n . Unfortunately , i t does not provide a complete p i c t u r e of the fami ly . I f d i a r i e s are being acquired , i t would be extremely valuable to have correspondence, accounts or other re levant documents. The major problem with the area of research re la tes d i r e c t l y to the age of the province i t s e l f . Much of the h i s tor iography of the family has used comparative methods. Records must cover a long time span to allow t h i s form of research. The r e l a t i v e l y short per iod s ince the European settlement of B r i t i s h Columbia, and therefore , the creat ion of wr i t ten documents, s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduces the value of studying t h i s area during the time per iod examined by the f ind ing a i d . The number and v a r i e t y of sources are probably quite r i c h cons ider ing the time per iod but i t would not be accurate to describe these c o l l e c t i o n s as an important body of m a t e r i a l . Conducting research i n t h i s area i s not po int l e s s by any means. The ava i lab l e records held i n B r i t i s h Columbia may be used to describe the workings of a family during the e a r l y settlement process . The inf luences of immigration on the family un i t are profound. Family t i e s may be strengthened despite the p h y s i c a l separat ion. The records of s e t t l e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia provide information about t h i s process. Moreover, the ava i l ab l e mater ia l can provide supplementary information to a study conducted on a larger body of records , such as those ava i lab l e i n Eastern Canada. 92 Anthropologists and s o c i o l o g i s t s may a lso f i n d valuable information wi th in the c o l l e c t i o n s held i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives and the C i t y of Vancouver Archives . When studying the processes of family l i f e , the ava i lab le records can be e f f e c t i v e l y used i n conjunction with other North American mater ia l of the same time p e r i o d . Large bodies of records which deal p r i m a r i l y with the r i t e s of passage have not been saved but mention of these r i t u a l s can be found throughout the c o l l e c t i o n s . Family papers are also important to the study of various l o c a l i t i e s . Very frequent ly , documents are saved from founding fami l i e s or important c i t i z e n s . L o c a l h i s t o r i a n s can f i n d a wealth of information with in these records . S i m i l a r l y , p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i a n s can use family records to understand the e a r l y development of p o l i t i c a l systems and patronage. The P r o v i n c i a l Archives has a p a r t i c u l a r l y large body of mater ia l which was created by i n f l u e n t i a l p o l i t i c i a n s and other c i t i z e n s , both p r o v i n c i a l and from the c i t y of V i c t o r i a . Despite the i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l h i s t o r y and, although more l i m i t e d , i n the h i s t o r y of the fami ly , the c o l l e c t i o n of family papers has remained a f a i r l y low p r i o r i t y . Neither the P r o v i n c i a l Archives nor the C i t y of Vancouver Archives have developed any c o l l e c t i o n strategy for t h i s form of m a t e r i a l . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that archives have not general ly made a concerted e f f o r t to c o l l e c t family records . Promoting th i s type of a c q u i s i t i o n would be extremely time-consuming and would require a de l i ca t e touch to guarantee that prospective donors are not offended i f refused. Nevertheless , a greater awareness of the importance of these records could be promoted by arch ives . Aside from the questions about the chosen area of study, the production of the c r i t i c a l guide r e l i e d on the appra i sa l techniques which are used i n assessing any a c q u i s i t i o n s . N a t u r a l l y , the l e g a l , f i s c a l and adminis trat ive values of these records are not fac tors i n evaluat ing the mater ia l but the informat ional values are fundamental to any a n a l y s i s . The ef fect iveness of using these c r i t e r i a to determine the importance of records i s d i f f i c u l t to quest ion. Since they are appl ied by a r c h i v i s t s to appraise i n d i v i d u a l accessions, t h e i r employment for the analys i s of values i n any records , even i f for more s p e c i f i c purposes, must a l so be v a l i d . Any a p p r a i s a l takes in to account the future uses of the records. So, for a guide which examines the a v a i l a b i l i t y and usefulness of a r c h i v a l holdings for a s p e c i f i c f i e l d of study, the a p p l i c a t i o n of appra i sa l c r i t e r i a provides a strong foundation for the a n a l y s i s . This method also increases the unders tandabi l i ty of the guide since i t r e l i e s on f a i r l y u n i v e r s a l a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s . Using the broad categories of Theodore Schel lenberg 1 or the more defined ones suggested by Maynard B r i c h f o r d , 2 i t i s poss ib le to provide researchers with much pert inent information about the records . Many of the seven categories 94 i d e n t i f i e d by B r i c h f o r d : a c c e s s i b i l i t y , unders tandabi l i ty , time span, c r e d i b i l i t y , uniqueness, frequency of use and type and q u a l i t y of use, had some s ign i f i cance for t h i s c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The degree of importance of these elements w i l l vary s u b s t a n t i a l l y with the top ic being inves t iga ted . Perhaps most use fu l for t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study was the value of time span of the records . The nature of the family and i t s slow evolut ion and change requires most studies to deal with the subject on a comparative b a s i s . Records which cover a long time span o f fer the researcher more scope for study and any changes which have occurred become more apparent. Although usefu l conclusions can s t i l l be drawn from comparative studies between d i f f e r e n t documents created at separate times, records created for the same purposes allow for more f r u i t f u l research. I f there are fewer d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between the context of i n d i v i d u a l records, then researchers are less l i k e l y to mis interpret the documents. So records which were created wi th in the same record ser ies provide a lesser chance for mis in terpre ta t ion when being compared together. The concept of unders tandabi l i ty can be used very e f f e c t i v e l y for ascer ta in ing the research values of c e r t a i n records . There can be extreme problems d i scern ing the r e l a t i o n s h i p s wi th in a family group. Since these documents were created for a se l ec t audience, perhaps even for the creator alone, much was assumed to be understood. There was 95 often no need to expla in or define much of what was recorded. Unfortunately , many documents which do not contain f u l l personal names or which leave the re la t ionsh ips between people i l l - d e f i n e d may have l i t t l e value . This type of document requires l i n k i n g the records with other m a t e r i a l , such as censuses or d i r e c t o r i e s . Since these other mater ia ls may not be ava i l ab l e or i t may be i m p r a c t i c a l to conduct the extensive work to e s t a b l i s h these l inkages , the value of many documents may be s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced. Furthermore, records for demography also have problems of unders tandabi l i ty , for example, i l l e g i b i l i t y . A c c e s s i b i l i t y may also impose serious l i m i t a t i o n s on the worth of some mater ia l s . The perceived s e n s i t i v i t y of many documents, at l east to family members, and the subsequent r e s t r i c t i o n s which may be requested when records are donated to an archives can diminish the importance of the documents to researchers . Concerns for c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y may u l t imate ly lead to the des truct ion of valuable papers. S i m i l a r l y , uniqueness and c r e d i b i l i t y are somewhat less important for t h i s p a r t i c u l a r type of study. Since the study of the family concentrates on the general , rather than the s p e c i a l , uniqueness may be a q u a l i t y which i s undes irable . The more common the contents of the document are , the more that may be ava i l ab l e for comparative purposes, at l eas t t h e o r e t i c a l l y . C r e d i b i l i t y of the mater ia l i s a lso of minor s i g n i f i c a n c e because of the nature of the mater ia l s . Family papers are w r i t t e n for a p r i v a t e audience and so d i s t o r t i o n s of the records are u n l i k e l y . The purposes of s t a t i s t i c a l records prepared by the government r a r e l y suggest reasons for prepar ing f i c t i t i o u s r e s u l t s . Elements of c r e d i b i l i t y are use fu l i n looking at memoirs which are wr i t t en a f t er the fac t and are s p e c i f i c a l l y intended to record the event. As w e l l as these c r i t e r i a , B r i c h f o r d i d e n t i f i e d frequency of use and type and q u a l i t y of use. These two elements p lay v i r t u a l l y no r o l e i n ana lyz ing m a t e r i a l for a thematic guide. Both of these fac tors r e l a t e to admin i s tra t ive funct ions which are not re levant to t h i s form of a n a l y s i s . B r i c h f o r d a lso discusses the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of records as important a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a . 3 In the context of t h i s study, us ing the age of the records as an a p p r a i s a l element may be of prime importance to a researcher i n v e s t i g a t i n g only a s p e c i f i c time p e r i o d . Even so, far less s i g n i f i c a n c e i s a t t r i b u t e d to age than the former ca tegor ie s . The continuous changes i n the framework of the fami ly makes exact moments i n time less c r u c i a l than for other h i s t o r i c a l s tud ie s . The manner i n which a p p r a i s a l elements i n t e r a c t i s as va luable for analyz ing records as the cons iderat ion of each a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a independently. For example, the u n d e r s t a n d a b i l i t y of a group of documents may be very low because of the audience for which they were w r i t t e n . This low value can be increased by l i n k i n g the creators with other records which w i l l i d e n t i f y the i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r 97 r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The age of the documents then becomes c r u c i a l because the i d e n t i f y i n g records , such as p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s and censuses, are not a v a i l a b l e for a l l per iods . The methodology of us ing standard a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a for analyz ing the records i n a c r i t i c a l guide has proven to be most e f f e c t i v e . As general a p p r a i s a l methods have moved from the realm of f inger s p i t zengefiihl , perhaps best t r a n s l a t e d as subt le i n t u i t i o n , 4 to the a n a l y t i c a l examination of records with a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a , so the thematic guide benef i t s from the a p p l i c a t i o n of these c r i t e r i a . T h e i r use gives focus to the ana lys i s and can a l so be used as a framework for studying each document type. The study becomes more understandable to other a r c h i v i s t s who w i l l immediately appreciate the bas i s of the a n a l y s i s . F u r t h e r , i t increases s tandard iza t ion of information a s s i s t i n g researchers who are not requ ired to l e a r n the assumptions behind each i n d i v i d u a l guide. The presentat ion and format of the guide a l so r e l i e s on e s tab l i shed a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e . As i t was poss ib le to use a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a to conduct the ana lys i s of document forms, so i t was equal ly f e a s i b l e to fo l low standard d e s c r i p t i o n p r a c t i c e s for the,format of the guide. The contents of the guide use the pat tern of an admin i s tra t ive h i s t o r y , scope and content notes, and descr ip t ions of the records . A survey of the app l i cab le research area replaces the admin i s tra t ive h i s t o r y . The scope and content notes become an ana lys i s of the forms of m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e and t h e i r pos s ib l e uses. 98 F i n a l l y , the t i t l e s of c o l l e c t i o n s and other r e l a t e d informat ion, such as dates and extent act as the descr ipt ions of the records would i n an orthodox s t y l e inventory. These elements of s tandardizat ion and the development of an accepted format create more valuable f ind ing a i d s . The expanded analys i s of a r c h i v a l materials o f fer a r c h i v i s t s an opportunity to record t h e i r considerable knowledge about the ava i l ab l e documents and t h e i r forms. N a t u r a l l y , not a l l guides w i l l require elaborate analyses of the research top ic or theme or even of a l l document forms. Much depends on the subject matter, the volume of the records , or the a v a i l a b i l i t y of previous a n a l y s i s . I t may be poss ib le to use information from completed s tudies . Nevertheless, the crea t ion of thematic guides with c r i t i c a l analys i s are a valuable method of prov id ing researchers with knowledge about new and inaccess ib le research subjects . 99 CHAPTER 7 ENDNOTES 1. T . R . Schel lenberg , Modern Archives : P r i n c i p l e s and  Techniques, Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press , 1956:148-160. 2. Maynard B r i c h f o r d , Archives & Manuscripts: A p p r a i s a l &  Access ion ing , Bas ic Manual S e r i e s , Chicago: Soc ie ty of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1977:7-10. 3. B r i c h f o r d , 2-4. 4. Hans Booms, "Society and the Formation of a Documentary Her i tage: Issues i n the A p p r a i s a l of A r c h i v a l Sources," A r c h i v a r i a 24 (Summer, 1987):85. 100 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, Michael. Approaches to the History of the Western  Family, 1500-1914. London: MacMillan, 1980. Aries, Phillipe. Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of  Family Life. New York: Vintage Books, 1962. Barman, Jean. Growing Up British in British Columbia: Boys in  Private School. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1984. Bearman, David A. and Lytle, Richard. "The Power of the Principle of Provenance." Archivaria 21 (Winter 1985-86: 14-27. Bouchard, Gerard. "Family Structures and Geographical Mobility at LaTerriere, 1851-1935." Journal of Family  History 2 (Fall 1977):350-369. Bradbury, Bettina. "The Family Economy and Work in an Industrializing City: Montreal in the 1870s." Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1979):71-96. . "Pigs, Cows and Boarders: Non-Wage Forms of Survival among Montreal Families, 1861-1891." Labour/Le  Travail 14 (Fall 1984):9-46. . "The Fragmented Family: Family Strategies in the Face of Death, Illness and Poverty, Montreal, 1868-1893." In Childhood and Family in Canadian History edited by Joy Parr. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982:109-128. Brichford, Maynard. Archives & Manuscripts: Appraisal & Accessioning. Basic Manual Series. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1977. Brookes, Alan. "'Doing the Best I Can": the Taking of the 1861 New Brunswick Census." Histoire Sociale - Social  History IX:17 (May 1976):70-92. . "Family, Youth and Leaving Home in Late-Nineteenth-Century Rural Nova Scotia: Canning and the Exodus, 1868-1893." In Childhood and Family in Canadian  History, edited by Joy Parr. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982:93-108. Brown, Jennifer S.H. Strangers in Blood: Fur Trade Company  Families in Indian Country. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1980. 101 Bureau of Canadian Archivists. Toward Descriptive Standards:  Report and Recommendations of the Canadian Working Group  on Archival Descriptive Standards. Bureau of Canadian Archivists: Ottawa, 1985. Cook, Michael. Archives Administration: A Manual for Intermediate and Smaller Organizations and for Local  Government. Folkestone, Kent, England: Wm Dawson & Sons Ltd.,1977. . The Management of Information from Archives. Hants, England: Gower Publishing Company Limited, 1986. Copp, Terry. The Anatomy of Poverty: The Condition of the  Working Class in Montreal, 1897-1929. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974. Cross, D. Suzanne. "The Neglected Majority: The Changing Role of Women in 19th Century Montreal." In The Neglected  Majority: Essays in Canadian Women's History edited by Susan Mann Trofimenkoff and Alison Prentice. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977:66-86. Duchein, Michel. "Theoretical Principles and Practical Problems of Respect des fonds in Archival Science." Archivaria 16 (Summer 1983):64-82. Emery, George. "Ontario's Civil Registration of Vital Statistics, 1869-1926: The Evolution of an Administrative System." Canadian Historical Review 64 (December 1983): 468-493. . "A Model Case Study of English Canadian Historical Mortality: A Description and Evaluation of the Data for Ingersoll, Ontario, 1837-1982". Presentation to the Canadian Historical Association Annual Meeting in Winnipeg, Manitoba. June 9, 1986. Gaffield, Chad. "Canadian Families in Cultural Context: Hypotheses from the Mid-Nineteenth Century." Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1979):48-70. . "Schooling, the Economy and Rural Society in Nineteenth-Century Ontario." In Childhood and Family in Canadian History edited by Joy Parr. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982:69-82. . "Theory and Method in Canadian Historical Demography." Archivaria 14 (Summer 1982):123-136. 102 Gagan, David. "Enumerator's Instructions for the Census of Canada, 1852 and 1861." Histoire Sociale - Social  History VII (November 1974):353-365. . Hopeful Travellers: Families, Land and Social Change in Mid-Victorian Peel County,Canada West. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981. Gagan, David and Turner, H.E. "Social History in Canada: A Report on the State of the Art." Archivaria 14 (Summer 1982):27-52. Gordon, Michael, ed. The American Family in Social-Historical  Perspective. Third edition. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983. Gracy, David B. II. Archives & Manuscripts: Arrangement &  Description. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1977. Hamilton-Edwards, Gerald. In Search of Scottish Ancestry. Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 1980. Harris, Richard Colebrook. The Seigneurial System in Early  Canada: A Geographical Study. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1966. Harris, R. Cole and Phillips, Elizabeth, ed. Letters from Windermere, 1912-1914. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1984. Henripin, Jacques and Peron, Yves. "The Demographic Transition of the Province of Quebec." In Population and  Change edited by D.V. Glass and Roger Revelle. London: Edward Arnold, 1972:213-231. H i l l , Edward E. "The Preparation of Inventories at the National Archives." In A Modern Archives Reader: Basic  Readings on Archival Theory and Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, 1984:211-235. Houston, Susan E. "Victorian Origins of Juvenile Delinquency: A Canadian Experience." In Education and Social Change:  Themes from Ontario's Past edited by Michael B. Katz and Paul H. Mattingly. New York: New York University Press, 1975:83-109. Katz, Michael B. "The People of a Canadian City, 1851-1852." Canadian Historical Review 53 (December 1972):402-426. 103 . The People of Hamilton, Canada West: Family and Class in a Mid-Nineteenth-Century City. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975. Katz, Michael, Doucet, Michael J., and Stern, Mark J. The  Social Organization of Early Industrial Capitalism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. Levesque, Andree. "Deviant Anonymous: Single Mothers at the Hopital de la Misercorde in Montreal, 1929-1939." Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1984):168-184. Lucas, Lydia. "Efficient Finding Aids: Developing a System for Control of Archives and Manuscripts." In A Modern  Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and  Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch. Washington, D.C: National Archives and Records Service, 1984:203-210. Lutz, John, ed. The Researcher's Guide to British Columbia Nineteenth Century Directories: A Bibliography and Index. Victoria, British Columbia: Public History Group, University of Victoria, 1988. Lytle, Richard H. "Intellectual Access to Archives: I. Provenance and Content Indexing Methods of Subject Retrieval." The American Archivist 43 (Winter 1980):64-75. . "Intellectual Access to Archives: II. Report of an Experiment Comparing Provenance and Content Indexing Methods of Subject Retrieval." The American Archivist 43 (Spring 1980):191-207. Mayer, Dale. "The New Social History: Implications for Archivists." The American Archivist 48 (Fall 1985):388-399. Mays, Herbert J. "A Place to Stand: Families, Land and Permanence in Toronto Gore Township, 1820-1890." Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1980):185-211. McCormack, Ross A. "Networks among British Immigrants and Accommodation to Canadian Society: Winnipeg, 1900-1914." Histoire Sociale - Social History XVII (November 1984):357-374. 104 Mclnnis, R.M. "Childbearing and Land Availability: Some Evidence from Individual Household Data." In Population  Patterns in the Past, edited by Ronald Demos Lee. New York: Academic Press, 1977:201-227. Medjuck, Sheva. "Family and Household Composition in the Nineteenth Century: The Case of Moncton, New Brunswick, 1851-1871." In The Canadian City: Essays in Urban and  Social History, revised edition edited by Gilbert A. Stetler and Alan F.J. Artibise. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1984:249-261. Mitchinson, Wendy. "The WCTU: 'For God, Home and Native Land': A Study in Nineteenth-Century Feminism." In A Not  Unreasonable Claim: Women and Reform in Canada, 1880s- 1920s edited by Linda Kealey. Toronto: Women's Press, 1979:152-167. Moogk, Peter N. "Les Petits Sauvages: The Children of Eighteenth Century New France." In Childhood and Family  in Canadian History edited by Joy Parr. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982:17-43. Morrison, T.R. "'Their Proper Sphere', Feminism, The Family and Child-centred Social Reform in Ontario: 1875-1900., Parts I and II". Ontario History 68 (March and June, 1976):45-74. Norris, Darrell A. "Household and Transiency in a Loyalist Township: The People of Adolphustown, 1784-1822." Histoire Sociale - Social History 13 (November 1980):399-415. Parr, Joy, ed. Childhood and Family in Canadian History. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982. Pollock, Linda A. Forgotten Children: Parent-child relations  from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Prentice, Alison. "Education and the Metaphor of the Family: The Upper Canadian Example." History of Education  Quarterly 12 (Fall 1982):281-303. . The School Promoters: Education and Social Class in Mid-Nineteenth Century Upper Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977. Prentice, Alison L. and Houston, Susan F., ed. Family, School  & Society in Nineteenth-Century Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1975. 105 Pugh, Mary Jo. "The Illusion of Omniscience: Subject Access and the Reference Archivist." In A Modern Archives  Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, 1984:264-277. Purdy, Virginia. "Subject Guides." In A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, 1984:245-254. Rooke, Patricia T. and Schnell, R.L., eds. Studies in Childhood History: A Canadian Perspective. Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited, 1982. Schellenberg, T.R. Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956. Shorter, Edward. The Making of the Modern Family. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1975. Snell, James A. and Abeele, Cynthia Comacchio. "Regulating Nuptiality: Restricting Access to Marriage in Early Twentieth-Century English-Speaking Canada." Canadian  Historical Review 69(4) (December 1988):466-489. Society of American Archivists' Committee on Finding Aids. Inventories and Registers: A Handbook of Techniques and  Examples. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1976. Sprague, Douglas and Frye, Ronald. "Manitoba's Red River Settlement: Sources for Economic and Demographic History." Archivaria 9 (Winter 1979-80):179-193. Stone, Lawrence. The Family, Sex and Marriage, 1500-1800. Abridged edition. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1979. Sutherland, Neil. Children in English-Canadian Society:  Framing the Twentieth-Century Consensus. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976. Synge, Jane. "The Transition from School to Work: Growing Up Working Class in Early 20th Century Hamilton, Ontario." In Childhood and Adolescence in Canada edited by K. Ishwaran. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1979:240-269. 106 T i l l y , Louise A., and Miriam Cohen. "Does the Family Have a History?: A Review of Theory and Practice i n Family History." S o c i a l Science History 6 (Spring 1982):157-158. Van Kirk, S y l v i a . "Many Tender Ties": Women i n Fur Trade Society i n Western Canada, 1670-1870. Winnipeg: Watson & Dwyer Publishing, 1980. Ward, W. Peter. "Unwed Motherhood i n Nineteenth Century English Canada." Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association H i s t o r i c a l Papers (1981):34-56. . "Family Papers and the New S o c i a l History." Archivaria 14 (Summer 1982):63-73. . "Courtship and S o c i a l Space i n Nineteenth Century English Canada." Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review 68 (March 1987):35-62. 107 APPENDIX T i t l e and Number Dates Extent Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s B e l l - I r v i n g Family 1861-1935 33 i n . Add.Mss. 1 St. Paul's A n g l i c a n 1889-1915 7 i n . Church, Add.Mss.11 Schwesinger, Gladys 1913-1960 3 i n . Add.Mss.14 Forms and Comments d i a r i e s , address books, l e t t e r books. p a r i s h r e c o r d s , minutes, autobiography t y p e s c r i p t L a n g i s , H e n r i E. Add.Mss.16 Sweeny, Campbell Add.Mss.22 medic a l d o c t o r , daybooks, accounts. 1885-1904 5 i n . 1841-1938 281 p p . d i a r y , correspondence. Bryant, C o r n e l i u s 1885-1886, 2 i n . Add.Mss.24 McRoberts Family Add.Mss.26 1878-1882 1860-1914 2 i n . F i r s t P r e s b y t e r i a n 1885-1918 2 v o l . Church, Add.Mss.29 m i n i s t e r , d i a r i e s , misc. l i s t s of l e t t e r s , d i a r y , few l e t t e r s . b a p t i s m a l r e g i s t e r . Moberly, Walter Add.Mss.33 Wade Family Add.Mss.44 correspondence, mostly i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y . 1898-1924 1885-1960 76 i n . some correspondence L e c k i e , John Edwards 1869-1955 36 i n . Add.Mss.45 M a c N e i l l , W i l l i a m 1900-1918 20 i n . Add.Mss.46 Matthews, James Add.Mss.54 Queen Mary's Coro n a t i o n H o s t e l Add.Mss.55 Cates Family Add.Mss.61 1903 d i a r i e s t o 1916, correspondence. some p e r s o n a l papers, b i l l s and r e c e i p t s . many p o s s i b l e sources i n c l u d i n g t o p i c a l f i l e s e r i e s and o b i t u a r i e s . 19 i n . correspondence. 1877-1958 7 i n . 108 l e t t e r b o o k and autobiography Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments Homer Family 1868-1964 143 p. family correspondence. Add.Mss.72 McFarlane Family 1884, 1 vol. university notes, private Add.Mss.79 1904-1912 correspondence. Firkins, Yvonne 1918-1962 8 in. personal correspondence. Add.Mss.93 Hall, Jessie Columbia 1904-1935 4 in. some personal (Greer), Add.Mss.97 correspondence. Brighouse, Samuel 1911-1926 7 in. will and correspondence Add.Mss.Ill re: dispute over estate. Southcott Family 1863-1931 2 in. family photos, some Add.Mss.113 correspondence. McCleery Family 1852-1959 32 in. personal correspondence, Add.Mss.114 daily diaries. Hodgson, Catherine C.1905-1962 12 in. photos, personal Add.Mss.115 correspondence. Vancouver City Creche 1912-1932 7 vol.record books, daybooks, Add.Mss.124 day care ledgers. Mowat, Henry 1839-1940 40 in. personal papers. Add.Mss.136 Graveley Family 1883-1939 6 in. personal correspondence. Add.Mss.140 Bentley Family 1884-1898 56 p. largely correspondence, Add.Mss.151 access restricted. Clarke Family 1867-1914 5 in. diaries. Add.Mss.157 Pollay Family 1911-1936 17 p. letters and photograph. Add.Mss.160 Godfrey, Alexander 1876-1909 2 in. letters, misc. family Add.Mss.169 documents. Henry Hudson Parent- 1919-1931 1 in. minute book, 1919-1924. Teacher Association Add.Mss.185 109 Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments Clinton, Father Henry 1886 6 p. letter to sister-in-law. Add.Mss.192 Wesleyan Methodist 1863-1923 87 p. Nanaimo sunday school Church, Add.Mss.194 r o l l books. Adams, Emily 1857 7 p. letter from brother in Add.Mss.203 Ontario. Twigge Family 1853-1891 16 p. letter. Add.Mss.217 Randall Family 1883-1884 4 p. letter from children in Add.Mss.218 Oregon. Quine Family 1861-1885 44 p. family correspondence, Add.Mss.245 photocopies. Archibald, Harry P. 1898-1965 38 f t . primarily engineering Add.Mss.246 records, some personal. Royal Columbian 1862-1970 18 f t . minutes, annual reports, Hospital, Add.Mss.284 some registers. Black, Alex 1825,1862 - p/copies, McGibbon family Add.Mss.288 correspondence in N.B. Hi l l Family 1821-1972 5 f t . family correspondence, Add.Mss.292 diaries. Emery, Bertram 1897-1971 6 ft. personal papers, Add.Mss.303 photographs. Whittaker, Henry 1886-1971 2 in. some personal records, Add.Mss.315 medical records. Green, Rev. A.E. 1912 15 p. letters regarding Indian Add.Mss.330 schools. Vancouver Maritime 1908-1966 12 in. personal papers, diaries Museum, Add.Mss.335 of Capt. S. Robinson. Volume 1 Lett, Sherwood 1908-1966 1.3 m. diaries, personal papers. Add.Mss.361 Wilson Family 1900-1974 7.2 m. correspondence, sermons. Add.Mss.362 110 Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments Small, George 1906-1936 42 cm. photographs. Add.Mss.373 Turnbull, Netta 1908-1955 10 cm. school papers. Add.Mss.380 Roberts, John Hugh 1887-1890 1 cm. p/copy diary of personal Add.Mss.387 and business affairs. St. James Anglican 1881-1938 1 reel m/film church register Church, Add.Mss.403 and St.Luke's Home hospital records. Alexandra 1892-1972 5.2 m WCTU orphanage minutes. Neighbourhood House Add.Mss.420 Banfield, W. Orson 1834-1977 1.6m. mostly business, some Add.Mss.427 personal records. St. John the Divine 1859-1903 - parish register, Add.Mss.447 Anglican. McQueen Family 1782-1796 38 cm. correspondence, Add.Mss.465 1884-1978 photographs et al. Mitchell-Dwelly Family 1883-1960 13 cm. correspondence. Add.Mss.504 Woodward Family 1912-1966 34 cm. correspondence, memoirs. Add.Mss.564 Sam Kee Company 1888-1935 4.2 m. Chinese, no translaition, Add.Mss.571 correspondence. Bell-Irving Family 1863-1909 34 cm. family accounts. Add.Mss.592 Holy Trinity Cathedral 1860-1949 3 reels m/film, parish Add.Mss.603 registers. B.C. Dept. of Finance 1880-1913 22 reels m/film, Surveyor of Taxes assessment records. Add.Mss.619 Ladner,Leon Johnson 1852-1977 8 m. personal papers and Add.Mss.641 correspondence. I l l Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments Malkin Family Add.Mss.674 1840-1979 6 cm. correspondence, legal documents, genealogy. Robertson Presbyterian 1908-1935 5 cm. minutes. Church, Add.Mss.721 St. Mary the Virgin 1862-1974 3 reels m/film, parish register. Add.Mss.744 Sapperton. St. John the Evangelist, Add.Mss.745 1899-1972 6 reels m/film, parish register, North Vancouver. St. Barnabas Church 1894-1975 4 reels m/film, parish register, Add.Mss.746 New Westminister. First Lutheran Church 1892-1952 1 reel m/film, parish Add.Mss.749 Honeyman, D.R. Add.Mss.814 Morton Family Add.Mss.860 Lloyd Family Add.Mss.875 Ritchie, Reginald Add.Mss.876 McCleery Family Add.Mss.878 Woods Family Add.Mss.898 Markson, Murdo Add.Mss.905 McGuigan Family Add.Mss.920 McGeer Family Add.Mss.958 McRae Family Add.Mss.974 register. 1900-1944 39 cm. diaries, correspondence, World War I. 1890-1926 1 cm. p/copies, several letters. 1871-1921 1 reel m/film, correspondence. 1907-1953 25 cm. correspondence. 1883-1914 6 cm. genealogical material, see also Add.Mss.114. 1907-1941 2 cm. genealogical charts, adoption material. 1898-1950 4 cm. correspondence. 1886-1960 1.7 m. small amount of family material, scrapbook. 1916-1948 6 cm. correspondence,some family. 1891-1982 15 cm. correspondence, scrapbook, photos. 112 Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments Price Family 1887-1907 6 cm. correspondence, Add.Mss.987 genealogical material. Greater Vancouver correspondence. Sewerage and Drainage District, Series B-l Social Services 1895-1907 Friendly Aid/ Friendly Department, Series 1 Help Societies. Social Services 1907-1971 Old People's Home. Department, Series 6 Finance Department 1888-1889 assessment rolls. Assessment Division Vancouver School 1892-1963 6 m. minutes, (restricted). Board Municipality of 1912-1929 50 cm. minutes. Point Grey, School Board Municipality of 1906-1928 1 m. minutes. South Vancouver, School Board Health Department, 1888-1974 6.5 cm correspondence, public Medical Health Officer, health in schools. Series 1 British Columbia Archives and Records Service Pattulo, T. Duff 1892-1956 11 m. private correspondence. Add.Mss.3 (see also 1188). Ellison, Price 1884-1966 12 cm. correspondence to Mrs. Add.Mss.7 Ellison (see also 249 and 478). McClung, Nellie L. 1894-1950 7 m. correspondence. Add.Mss.10 Hodson, Frederick W. 1913-1968 50 cm. diaries, correspondence. Add.Mss.22 Lampman, Peter Secord 1889-1934 1 cm. correspondence. Add.Mss.24 113 Burr Family Add.Mss.25 Boyd, John F. Add.Mss. 43 Wilkinson, John B, Add.Mss.48 Crease Family Add.Mss.55 Crease Family Add.Mss. 56 1901-1914 6 cm. 1867-1949 63 cm. p/copies, letterbook, diaries. correspondence regarding family and roadhouses. 1860-1865 .5 cm. ten letters to family. 1753-1965 2.8 m. 1836-1924 6 cm. Moody, Mary Susanna 1854-1863 1 cm. Add.Mss.60 Birch, Sir Arthur N. 1836-1946 8 cm. Add.Mss.61 Glassford, Deborah F.1914-19193 cm. Add.Mss.89 Clearihue Family 1868-1914 9 m. Add.Mss.121 Hume Family Add.Mss.141 Christie, John Add.Mss.142 Langley, Alfred D. Add.Mss.180 Dunn Family Add.Mss.191 Elwyn, Thomas Add.Mss.218 Bilow Family Add.Mss.219 Groth, Charles Add.Mss.243 Stuart, Charles G. Add.Mss.244 1872-1933 6 cm. private and official correspondence (see also 56 and 573). correspondence (see also 55 and 573). correspondence to mother and sister. correspondence with other family members. letters from men overseas. correspondence, school register (see also 698). certificates, school inspector's reports, photos. 1859-1876 1 cm. diary. 1859-1910 18 cm. family correspondence. 1899-1900 1 cm. family matters, photos. 1870-1917 6 cm. 1910-1922 6 cm. 1881-1895 2 cm. 1902-1918 2 cm. 114 personal and business correspondence. letterbook and family correspondence. journal describing l i f e on Galiano Island. letters inward relating to family. Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments O'Reilly Family Add.Mss.248 Ellison Family Add.Mss.249 Ker Family Add.Mss.255 1889-1973 18 cm. 1868-1973 18 cm. 1840-1945 12 cm. Jenns, Eustace A. 1878-1928 50 cm. Add.Mss.258 courtship correspondence, (see also 412 and 2086) correspondence (see also 7 and 478). Colonial Auditor, correspondence. personal and family correspondence. Hulbert Family Add.Mss.285 Tate Family Add.Mss.303 Royal Jubilee letterbooks and family farm accounts. 1858-1928 60 cm. 1870-1933 25 cm. diaries of missionaries. 1858-1967 13 m. Hospital, Add.Mss.313 Cridge, Edward Add.Mss.320 Irvine Family Add.Mss.322 Rhodes, Gertrude A. (collector) Add.Mss.345 DeBeck, Edwin K. Add.Mss.346 Corless, Richard F. Add.Mss.348 Edwards, Thomas M. Add.Mss.349 Dingle Family Add.Mss.360 Butcher, Margaret Add.Mss.362 1837-1918 1 m. 1851-1942 4 cm. 1813-1894 51 cm. patient registers, operational records. personal correspondence, diaries, clergyman (see also 420 and 1975). correspondence, certificates, histories. Red River Settlement, correspondence,marriage registrations. 1906-1973 11 cm. personal correspondence. 1916-1931 6 cm. funeral home records and ledger, Prince George. 1906-1965 2 m. diaries, 1887-1960 12 cm. 1916-1919 6 cm. 1887 diary, family correspondence. journal of nurse among Kitimat Indians. 115 Title and Number Dates Extent Mclllree Family 1846-1970 30 p. Add.Mss.366 Pringle, Alexander D. 1828-1908 1 cm. Add.Mss.369 Oxley Family Add.Mss.385 1912-1914 6 cm. Sherman, Marian N. 1901-1975 69 cm. Add.Mss.409 O'Reilly Family Add.Mss.412 Jones, Elsie Add.Mss.414 Cridge, Edward Add.Mss.420 Children's Aid Society of Victoria Add.Mss.431 Hawking, Alben Add.Mss.441 Wille Family Add.Mss.469 1795-1963 80 cm. 1909-1913 1 cm. 1904-1913 .5 cm. 1895-1973 2 m. Forms and Comments family correspondence, genealogies (see also 1434). family correspondence to England. family correspondence, Wilmer, B.C. (see also 719). family correspondence of humanist doctor, photos. correspondence, notebooks (see also 248 and 2086). postcards from friends. family correspondence (see also 320 and 1975). accounts, annual reports, 1871-1880 1 cm. diary, letter. 1874-1958 6 cm. legal records, photos. Mallandaim, Edward 1864-1897 65 cm. Add.Mss.470 Ellison Family Add.Mss.478 1884-1969 7 p. Wilson, Violet H. 1776-1969 1 cm. Add.Mss.487 Flavelle, Aird D. 1903-1964 42 cm. Add.Mss.495 Suter Family Add.Mss.496 1864-1936 21 cm. diaries, notebooks, reminiscences. four letters (see also 7 and 249) reminiscences. diary, correspondence to parents (see also 585 and 875). correspondence, notes (see also 360). 116 Title and Number Hayward Family Add.Mss.503 Rithet Family Add.Mss.504 Helmcken, John S. Add.Mss.505 Borradaille Family Add.Mss.506 Dates Extent 1862- 1963 12 m. 1863- 1944 58 cm. 1848-1920 1.4 m. 3 cm. McWatters, Thomas T. 1864-1881 19 p. Add.Mss.511 Schofield, Charles D.1882-1941 64 cm. Add.Mss.519 Forms and Comments personal papers, Victoria undertakers. correspondence, letterbooks. family papers, medical notebooks. (see also 658 and 663). three photo albums and historical narratives. Camerontown miner, letters to family, photo. family correspondence, sermons. Christ Church Cathedral Add.Mss.520 Barnard Family Add.Mss.527 Mason, A. Add.Mss.533 1836-1938 23 cm. church register. 1863-1936 30 era. 1913-1916 1 cm. Henderson, William 1916-1919 6 cm. Add.Mss.547 Crease Family Add.Mss.573 Flavelle Family Add.Mss.585 Barclay, Forbes Add.Mss.586 1867-1882 4 era. 1903-1973 4 cm. 1835-1879 3 cm. Grainger, Martin A. 1876-1931 15 cm. Add.Mss.588 Campbe11, John Add.Mss.593 Blinkhorn, Ann Add.Mss.595 1849 4 p. 1840-1846 .5 cm. diary, correspondence, dinner party record. p/copies, letters from son. diaries, weather, church and family affairs. diaries, birthday books (see also 55 and 56). diary, correspondence (see also 495 and 875). family correspondence, Oregon. family correspondence, Chief Forester. p/copy, family letter from P.E.I, to Mass. letter from friend in England. 117 Title and Number Dates Campbell, Marey 1824 Add.Mss.601 Extent Forms and Comments 3 p. letter from father. Grey Family Add.Mss.604 1826-1946 7 cm. diaries, family papers, Reese, Theodore 1910-1924 Add.Mss.607 Carr, Richard Add.Mss.610 1836-1881 Martin, Archer E.S. 1865-1941 Add.Mss.632 5 cm. diaries, Princeton farmer. 6 cm. diaries, correspondence, merchant. 4 m. some correspondence on domestic maters, jurist. Ross, Donald Add.Mss.635 Cook Family Add.Mss.653 Gowans, John Add.Mss.654 Fisher Family Add.Mss.657 1816-1877 88 cm. private correspondence. 1915-1936 23 p. correspondence, Galiano. 1879-1881 1864-1892 Helmcken Family 1839-1871 Add.Mss.658 Helmcken, John S. 1845-1869 Add.Mss.663 Flavelle Family ca. 1900 Add.Mss.666 LeBourdas, Louis 1917-1945 Add.Mss.676 Longstaff, Frederick 1848-1961 Add.Mss.677 Douglas, James Add.Mss.678 1835-1873 Perry, Martha E. 1898-1958 Add.Mss.697 3 p. two letters, miner. 4 p. Metchosin, letters from family in Britain. 5 p. death certificate (see also 505 and 663). 1 cm. certificate, letters. (see also 505 and 658.) 6 cm. correspondence (see also 495). 1.3 m. personal papers, Quesnel journalist. 12 m. diaries, correspondence, household accounts. 18 cm. m/film, diary, family bible. 1.4 m. correspondence, diaries. 118 Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments Clearihue, Joseph B. 1872-1967 Add.Mss.698 6.4 m. Victoria judge, family / correspondence (see also 121). McArthur, James 1861-1897 Add.Mss.713 Evans, Mary Add.Mss.718 1882-1904 27 p. correspondence to wife, Victoria marine engineer, 10 p. p/copy, reminiscences of in-laws. Oxley Family 1912-1914 Add.Mss.719 21 p. letter to family (see also 385). Allcock, Ernest H. 1909-1953 Add.Mss.723 26 p. p/copy, reminiscences, Pidcock Family 1862-1955 Add.Mss.728 72 cm. diaries and reminiscences. Pack, George 1890-1952 Add.Mss.729 88 cm. diaries, house decorator. Walkem Family 1897-1949 Add.Mss.734 1 cm. p/copy, letters. Pender Island 1909-1966 Recreation Society Add.Mss.739 4 cm. minutes, account books. Forin Family 1875-1942 Add.Mss.741 2 m. diaries. Pender Island School 1910-1942 Board, Add.Mss.743 Miles, Frank B. 1896-1955 Add.Mss.746 2 cm. minutes, accounts. 78 cm. diaries, dentist (restricted). McMillan, Christina 1904-1905 Add.Mss.755 2 cm. diary and reminiscences, Cornwall, Henry P. 1864-1865 Add.Mss.758 6 cm. diary, Ashcroft Manor (see also 1631). Cornwall, Clement F. 1862-1873 Add.Mss.759 6 cm. diaries, Ashcroft Manor (see also 1631). Cox, Dorothy Gordon 1905-1951 Add.Mss.762 6 cm. correspondence inward. 119 Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments MacMillan, Alexander 1891-1911 12 cm. personal diaries, Add.Mss.763 Victoria. Angus, Henry Forbes 1891-1966 441 p. typescript, Add.Mss.775 reminiscences (restricted). Maitland Family 1911-1972 4 m. family correspondence. Add.Mss.781 Coburn, John Wood 1886-1938 24 cm. diaries, volume 3 -Add.Mss.783 family. Phillips, William W. ca.1916 .5 cm. reminiscences of travel Add.Mss.790 and family. Ker, Robert H.B. 1836-1976 2.4 m. correspondence and Add.Mss.793 diaries (restricted). Brown, Robert 1850-1895 33 cm. private correspondence. Add.Mss.794 Musgrave, Jeanie L. 1870 2 cm. m/film, diary including Add.Mss.803 account of marriage. Manson's Store 1885-1956 2 m. Nanaimo general store, Add.Mss.806 ledgers. Garrard Family 1868-1940 14 cm. family correspondence. Add.Mss.830 McQueen, Mrs. D. 1887-1893 6 cm. p/copy, family Add.Mss.839 correspondence (see also 860). Nelles, James W.G. 1862-1863 5 cm. diary of journey and two Add.Mss.843 letters. Beddis, Samuel John 1890 50 p. p/copy, diary. Saltspring Add.Mss.847 Island. McQueen Family 1887-1925 1 cm. family correspondence Add.Mss.860 (see also 839). Flavelle, Aird D. 1896-1945 12 cm. correspondence, diary Add.Mss.875 (see also 495 and 585). Norbury Family 1886-1912 18 cm. p/copy, letters and Add.Ms.877 diary of emigration. 120 Title and Number Hilton, Arthur M. Add.Mss.912 Dates Extent Forms and Comments 1908-1930 4 cm. p/copy, personal diaries. Sheringham, Helen 1905-1912 Add.Mss.942 McMillan, James S. 1868-1871 Add.Mss.956 McDonald, James E. 1901-1946 Add.Mss.958 Bullock-Webster, L. 1912-1950 Add.Mss.964 Gimse, Marjorie pre 1915 Add.Mss.992 Crummy Family 1911-1972 Add.Mss.1014 Scattergood, Thomas 1900 Add.Mss.1021 Barnard Family 1874-1897 Add.Mss.1064 Humphreys, Leonard 1913 Add.Mss.1068 Behnsen, Shaw George 1916-1976 Add.Mss.1070 Goldrick, Dorothy D. n.d. Add.Mss.1072 (restricted). Newcombe Family 1870-1955 Add.Mss.1077 Yow, Lee R. 1867 Add.Mss.1078 Crummy Family 1913-1972 Add.Mss.1084 Prevost, Harold F. 1901-1904 Add.Mss.1088 5 p. p/copy, reminiscences of ranch. 4 cm. death bed letter to family. 4 cm. diary of l i f e in England, photos. 4 m. actor, correspondence, diaries, photos. 246 p. biography of father in Pemberton. 2 cm. letters to family, photos (see also 1084). 32 p. letters to son while family travelling. 1 cm. private letterbook. 3 p. letter to mother. 1 cm. correspondence, photos, certificates. 32 p. typescript, 1910-1911 reminiscences 7.3 m. family papers, Maynard family diaries. 6 p. two letters, to wife and to brother. 3 cm. letters to wife and daughter, papers (see also 1014). 3 cm. letters to mother and sister. 121 Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments Moody, M. Susanna 1858-1863 .5 cm Add.Mss.1101 McMicking, Margaret 1862-1938 1.6 m. Add.Mss.1133 Schofield Family Add.Mss.1144 Johnson, Winslow Add.Mss.1156 Mackie Family Add.Mss.1164 1829-1950 38 cm. 1878 4 p. 1871-1974 1.3 m. Children's Aid Society 1901-1928 (restricted). of Vancouver Add.Mss.1166 McMicking, Robert B. 1862-1910 21 cm. Add.Mss.1171 Pattulo, George P. 1856-1919 11 cm. Add.Mss.1188 letters to mother and sister. scrapbooks, recipes, school notebooks, letters (see also 1171 and 1203). private correspondence, personal finances. letter to uncle. correspondence, personal and Vernon school. 42 cm. admissions personal correspondence, diaries (see also 1133 and 1203). correspondence from sons (see also 3). Brown, Alexander G. Add.Mss.1191 1908 1 p. letter. McMicking, Robert B. 1869-1915 Add.Mss.1203 family bible, genealogical material (see also 1133 and 1171) Kerr, Bryce C. Add.Mss.1204 Milne, George L. Add.Mss.1206 Barnes, Mary Add.Mss.1210 diary of work on homestead. 1914-1916 1 cm. 1881 2 cm. doctor's daybook. 1980 19 p. Bodington, Walter E. ca. 1935 1 cm. Add.Mss.1263 Burkitt, William A.E. 1979 2 cm. Add.Mss.1264 reminisceneces about grandmother. p/copy, reminiscences. p/copy, reminiscences. 122 Title and Number Watt, Belle Delia Add.Mss.1266 Neufeld, Peter Add.Mss.1279 Norris Family Add.Mss.1284 Williams, Albert Add.Mss.1287 Pemberton Family Add.Mss.1295 Scott, Robert C. Add.Mss.1299 Laing, David H.M. Add.Mss.1309 Martley Family Add.Mss.1340 Bland, James W. Add.Mss.1422 Mclllree, John H. Add.Mss.1434 Church Family Add.Mss.1471 Moffatt, Henry Add.Mss.1481 Dates Extent ca. 1980 .5 cm. 1917-1918 2 cm. Forms and Comments reminiscences. p/copy, diary, Vandernoof. 1819-1924 32 cm. family papers, photos. ca. 1979 4 cm. p/copy, reminiscences. 1858-1914 7 cm. 1872-1935 20 cm. 1900-1982 3 cm. 1873-1938 1 r. 1889-1909 80 p. 1874-1910 3 r, 1890-1969 2 r, 1889-1951 2 r. Shawnigan Lake School 1916-1981 26 r Add.Mss.1485 Smith, Marcus Add.Mss.1496 Christ Church Cathedral (Anglican) Add.Mss.1500 Henry, Arthur Add.Mss. 1502 1815-1903 3 r. 1836-1913 8 m. 1897-1936 2 r. diary 1885, scriptures with annotations. baptismal register, missionary work in B.C. personal correspondence, photos. m/film, diaries, notebooks, Lillooet. m/film, enquiries about family background. m/film, diaries, police (see also 366). m/film, diaries, Big Creek rancher (restricted). m/film, diaries and farm accounts (restricted). m/film, school records (restricted). m/film, family register and diary extracts. m/film, church registers (restricted). m/film, diaries, photos, Sayward farmer. 123 Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments St.Andrew's 1866-1952 Presbyterian Add.Mss.1507 Hills, George 1838-1895 Add.Mss.1526 Smith, James Black 1903-1935 Add.Mss.1554 Slocan Hospital 1898-1905 Add.Mss.1556 Pooley Family 1904-1915 Add.Mss.1584 Moses, Wellington D. 1865-1887 Add.Mss.1599 Dobson, Hugh Wesley 1912-1951 Add.Mss.1605 7 r. m/film, church registers (restricted). 3 r. m/film, diaries, Anglican bishop of B.C. (restricted). 3 r. m/film, merchant, correspondence. 4 m. m/film, hospital patients records. 1 r. m/film, business and personal papers. 2 r. m/film, diaries and cash books, Barkerville barber (see also 1691). 137 r. m/film, correspondence. United Church social welfare. Capes, Geoffrey B. Add.Mss.1618 Cornwall Family Add.Mss.1631 Kenworthy, John G. Add.Mss.1633 5 r. m/film, daily diaries (restricted). 2.5 m. m/film, diary, cashbooks (see also 758 and 759). 1911-1961 1896-1912 1913-1914 8.8 m. m/film, diaries Anderson, Ellen M. 1900-1924 Add.Mss.1650 1 r. m/film, diaries of grandfather, photos, Richter Family Add.Mss.1690 1890-1962 76 cm. family and business correspondence, photos, Ke r emo s r anche r. Moses, Wellington M. 1871 Add.Mss.1691 Bayliff Family 1894-1965 Add.Mss.1692 4 m. m/film, diary (see also 1599). 5 r. m/film, personal papers, photos, Redstone rancher (restricted). 124 Title and Number O'Keefe Family Add.Mss.1890 Dates Extent 1866-1951 Forms and Comments m/film, some personal, mostly business records, Vernon rancher. McMillan, Jock H. Add.Mss.1906 City of Victoria Add.Mss.1908 Anderson, James R. Add.Mss.1912 1919-1920 1 r. m/film, diary, Vanderhoof farmer. 1891 1 r. m/film, head of household and singles. 1824-1927 2 m. diaries, correspondence, accountant. B.C.Anti-Tuberculosis 1906-1947 44 cm.correspondence, Society, Add.Mss.1916 admissions. St. Margaret's School 1908-1983 50 cm.memorabilia and records, Add.Mss.1924 Genn, Kenneth R. Add.Mss. 1950 Dorsey, Hannah C. Add.Mss.1955 Fawcett Family Add.Mss.1962 Fawcett, Jane Add.Mss.1963 girls' private school. 1865-1970 28 m. Victoria accountants, family estates, private hospital. ca. 1980 1 cm. p/copy, reminiscences, Chilcotin. 1864-1916 25 cm. diary, school notebooks (see also 1963). 1849-1864 1 r. m/film, family correspondence, photos (see also 1962). Bullock-Webster, Julia 1894-1896 son's Add.Mss.1965 Cridge Family Add.Mss.1975 Wright, Amos Add.Mss.1976 1855,1944 8 p. 10 cm. diary of visit of ranch. p/copy, two letters (see also 320 and 420). 1863-1866 24 p. p/copy, letters from brother. Becker, Nicoline D. 1869-1908 2 cm. cookbook of collected Add.Mss.1979 recipes. Smith, Selina Frances 1895-1932 11 cm.correspondence, music Add.Mss.1992 teacher. Robinson Family Add.Mss.2010 1860-1960 1.8 m. mostly business, some personal and schooling. Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments James Ellard and 1878-1887 1 cm. Company, Add.Mss.2024 Marriner, Edward Add.Mss.2037 Muskett, Aubrey D. Add.Mss.2038 Porter, Thomas Add.Mss.2056 Bissett, James Add.Mss.2056 Mainguy, Daniel W. Add.Mss.2057 Beeman, Samuel O. Add.Mss.2073 1862- 1884 5 cm. 1892-1936 7 cm. 1859 2 p. 1854-1914 1 r. 1863- 1884 7 cm. 1864- 1869 5 m. Menagerie and Museum 1857-1882 5 cm. Add.Mss.2082 Bolton, Freeda B.H. Add.Mss.2084 1983 5 cm. O'Reilly, Caroline A.1872-1885 .5 cm. Add.Mss.2086 St.Mary's Anglican 1860-1915 1 cm. Church, Add.Mss.2089 dry goods business and family accounts. diaries of farm l i f e . Collegiate School for Boys records. letter to sister-in-law. m/film, travel diaries, HBC chief factor. journals, farm l i f e and travel, Chemainus farmer, m/film, letters to brother, HBC clerk. business and household account book. p/copy, reminiscences, photos, pre-WWI, Nelson. recipe notebook and household information (see also 248 and 412). p/copy, church registers. Brett, Robert A. Add.Mss.2091 Evans Family Add.Mss.2112 Douglas Family Add.Mss.2164 letterbook, personal finances. 1897 6 cm. 1872-1879 8 p. family correspondence. 1877,1899 3 p. Canadian Colleries 1901-1925 11 m. Add.Mss.2175 letter, calling card, invoice. m/film, employee records, Claxton Family Add.Mss.2183 1890-1972 88 cm. family correspondence. 126 Title and Number Women's Christian 1883-1986 Temperance Union Add.Mss.2227 Provincial Secretary 1895-1958 Tranquille Sanatorium GR 3 Provincial Secretary 1914-1933 Indigent Fund GR 289 Provincial Secretary 1913-1945 Superintendent of Neglected Children GR 296 Provincial Secretary 1911-1946 Hospital Programs Administration GR 1549 Provincial Secretary 1910-1925 Indigents Files GR 150 Provincial Secretary 1895-1917 Provincial Home of Aged and Infirm GR 624 Dates Extent Forms and Comments 3 cm. minute book. medical superintendent files. 96 cm. correspondence of deputy re: fund administration (restricted). register of adoptions, admissions re: Children's Aid Society (restricted). 6 m. files re: community hospitals. 2 m. files re: care of destitute. 75 cm. applications and related correspondence. Attorney General Estate Records various GR numbers Surveyor of Taxes Assessment Rolls B-400 to B-543 Education, Superintendent of Education, GR 449 Education, Superintendent of Education, GR 1445 B-2017 to B-2030 1859 - - records of wills and other estate records. 1876-1948 144 r. microfilm, assessment rolls. 1881-1915 2.5 m. correspondence indexes to GR 1445. 1872-1897 14 r. microfilm, correspondence inward. 127 Title and Number Dates Extent Forms and Comments Education, 1872-1919 14 m. outward correspondence Superintendent of and indexes. Education, GR 450 Victoria School Board 1869-1887 3 cm. minutes. GR 1465 Vancouver Island 1865-1869 7 cm. minutes, Board of Education GR 1467 Canada, Census Returns 1881 2 r. microfilm, for B.C. B-389 to B-390 Canada, Census Returns 1891 3 r. microfilm, for B.C. B-7040 to B-7042 128 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097989/manifest

Comment

Related Items