Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A critical guide to sources for the study of the history of the family in British Columbia, 1849-1918 Burrows, James Kenneth 1989

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1990_A3 B87.pdf [ 5.71MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097989.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097989-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097989-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097989-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097989-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097989-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097989-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097989-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097989.ris

Full Text

A C R I T I C A L GUIDE TO SOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF THE HISTORY OF THE FAMILY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA,  1849-1918.  By JAMES KENNETH BURROWS B.Sc,  The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF ' THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES in  THE  SCHOOL OF LIBRARY, ARCHIVAL AND  INFORMATION STUDIES  and THE  DEPARTMENT  We a c c e p t t h i s to  THE  OF HISTORY  thesis  the required  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  November 1989 (c)  James K e n n e t h B u r r o w s , 1989  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be granted her  for  It  is  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  J ^ Q Z y ^ W / v - - 3> „ \  ABSTRACT Access to a r c h i v a l h o l d i n g s i s one of the problems faced by a r c h i v i s t s .  The d i f f i c u l t i e s  fundamental i n providing  a c c e s s to the wide v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t s c o n t a i n e d w i t h even one archives i s  f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the changing f i e l d s  r e s e a r c h which r e q u i r e the use of a r c h i v e s . provenance based or s u b j e c t  Neither  i n d e x i n g access systems have been  able to cope w i t h these changing needs.  The c r e a t i o n of  thematic guides has been an attempt to o f f e r more subject  access t o c o l l e c t i o n s  separate  topic.  of  flexible  s i n c e each guide d e a l s w i t h a  D e s p i t e t h e i r v a l u e i n p r o v i d i n g access  to  c u r r e n t themes, the thematic guide has been s i m p l y a l i s t i n g of c o l l e c t i o n s  and does not o f f e r  any a n a l y s i s of how v a r i o u s  forms of r e c o r d s , t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y and t h e i r uses r e l a t e the  to  subject. The c r e a t i o n of such a c r i t i c a l guide forms the bulk of  the paper. guide,  To i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s  r e c o r d s which r e l a t e to the study of the h i s t o r y of  f a m i l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia were i d e n t i f i e d . subject  area was chosen because of i t s  found.  the  This p a r t i c u l a r  relative  s i n c e many of the r e c o r d s a p p l i c a b l e to i t s easily  type of  newness and  study are not  The h o l d i n g s of the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s  and Records S e r v i c e and the C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s p r o v i d e d the r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s f o r the s t u d y .  The records  chosen as u s e f u l to the study of the f a m i l y were l i s t e d and ii  many c o l l e c t i o n s holdings,  were examined c l o s e l y .  an a n a l y s i s  From t h i s review of  of r e c o r d s types and t h e i r value to  study of the f a m i l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia was  the  developed.  Standard a p p r a i s a l and d e s c r i p t i v e techniques were employed f o r the a n a l y s i s .  In a d d i t i o n , a study of p a s t r e s e a r c h uses  was done to p r o v i d e a b e t t e r understanding of how the  records  c o u l d be employed. I t was found t h a t a c r i t i c a l guide c o u l d be produced using modifications  of standard formats,  form f o r i n v e n t o r i e s Archivists.  such as the  basic  suggested by the S o c i e t y of American  In a d d i t i o n , a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a were a p p l i e d t o  the c a t e g o r i e s of documents i n order to assess t h e i r  value.  Using these s t a n d a r d i z e d techniques means t h a t an a n a l y s i s r e c o r d types w i l l be b e t t e r understood by o t h e r s . c r i t i c a l guide o f f e r s  a vehicle  of  The  f o r a r c h i v i s t s to p r o v i d e  r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h more i n f o r m a t i o n about the r e c o r d s i n a l e s s haphazard f a s h i o n .  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  1.  Introduction  1  2.  Research Trends i n t o  3.  The  Demographic Approach  42  4.  The  Sentiments Approach  56  5.  The H o u s e h o l d E c o n o m i c s  6.  The  Hegemonic/Institutional  7.  The  Usefulness  the Canadian Family  Approach  of C r i t i c a l  Bibliography  Approach Guides  17  68 80 91 101  iv  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The  major c h a l l e n g e of a r c h i v i s t s  acquiring  volume o f  Controlling  continued work.  i n f o r m a t i o n which r e s u l t s  the  flow  development of  Firstly,  ensuring  the  two  main f u n c t i o n s of  a r c h i v i s t s must c o n d u c t  acquired access  quality  these  t o the  p u r p o s e s and  materials, archivists  access  of the  describing  the  records are  shortcomings  attempting  thoughts  Secondly,  and records  having  must f i n d ways t o  permit  b r i n g a myriad  time.  From a r r a n g i n g  of  in a  the moderate s u c c e s s  of  access  their  systems.  to m i l l i o n s  reference and  the  There are  automation, to the  access  vast  and  aware o f  of  no  difficulties records  and  the  c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n them. any  substantial  size  have found  p r o v e n a n c e b a s e d system t h e most s u c c e s s f u l . to the  archivists, creator  archival  q u a n t i t y of  to answering questions  to provide  Archives of  access  the  i s a p u r s u i t which r e q u i r e s the  immediate answers, even w i t h of  the  r e s e a r c h e r s who  archivist's  room, a r c h i v i s t s obvious  rational  a  expectations.  Providing majority  limit  i s preserved.  a r c h i v e s by  from such  of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e s  documented a p p r a i s a l s which w i l l while  is  a r c h i v e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f modern s o c i e t y w h i l e  managing the task.  i n c u r r e n t times  archives with  p r e s e r v i n g any  h e l d the  t h e minimum o f  It  the provides  i n t e r f e r e n c e by  i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n t h e way  records while being 1  relatively  efficient  the in  time and l a b o u r .  However, many s t u d i e s r e q u i r e a c c e s s  i n f o r m a t i o n which i's o n l y p e r i p h e r a l to the c r e a t o r or the purpose of the a r c h i v e s . researchers,  To a s s i s t i n these endeavours, to p r o v i d e a c c e s s through s u b j e c t the a r c h i v e s .  of  the  For these  provenance may p r o v i d e l i t t l e  u s e f u l n e s s of the m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n each  life  to  c l u e as to  the  collection.  some a r c h i v e s have t r i e d  i n d e x i n g and c a t a l o g u i n g of  With the wide v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t s a v a i l a b l e  almost a l l a r c h i v e s ,  this  system r e q u i r e s  considerable  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and judgment on the p a r t of the i n d e x e r . i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and the c h o i c e of s u b j e c t s i s difficult  in  The  extremely  and can o f t e n be dated i n s h o r t o r d e r .  A second  means of p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s t o new r e s e a r c h t o p i c s  has been  the  p r o d u c t i o n of thematic guides which c o n t a i n a l i s t i n g of collections  which are thought t o be v a l u a b l e t o the  subject  area. The p r o d u c t i o n of thematic f i n d i n g a i d s i s becoming an ever i n c r e a s i n g need f o r p r e s e n t  day a r c h i v e s .  As new  r e s e a r c h areas c o n t i n u e to expand and documents are used i n more i n n o v a t i v e ways,  the s u b j e c t  i n d e x i n g systems p r e s e n t  many a r c h i v e s do not have s u f f i c i e n t these new demands.  time-consuming. study i s  f l e x i b i l i t y to d e a l w i t h  While some a c c e s s through the  based s e a r c h system i s p o s s i b l e ,  in  the p r o c e s s  is  Each r e s e a r c h e r i n v e s t i g a t i n g  provenance  extremely a new f i e l d of  r e q u i r e d to c a r r y out these i n v o l v e d and f r u s t r a t i n g  search procedures.  2  The c r e a t i o n of thematic guides has been an attempt to fill  this void.  presents  T h e i r v a l u e a r i s e s from t h e i r format which  s p e c i f i c subject information across fonds.  Yet most  guides are s i m p l y l i s t s which suggest p o s s i b i l i t i e s research.  for  There have been no attempts t o p r o v i d e guides which  i n c l u d e an a n a l y s i s of v a r i o u s forms of m a t e r i a l and t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s t o a s p e c i f i c area of s t u d y .  While t h i s form of  a s s i s t a n c e does take p l a c e i n the r e f e r e n c e room, i t  is  f r e q u e n t l y haphazard and h i g h l y dependent on e n c o u n t e r i n g the r i g h t reference a r c h i v i s t .  Much of the e x p e r t i s e of  a r c h i v i s t s l i e s i n the study of r e c o r d s and too f r e q u e n t l y t h i s knowledge i s not conveyed t o r e s e a r c h e r s i n a s y s t e m a t i c fashion.  I n c l u d i n g a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of m a t e r i a l s i n a  thematic guide would h e l p to ensure t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s are p r o v i d e d more c o n s i s t e n t  reference help.  A d i s c u s s i o n of the value and d i f f i c u l t y of producing a critical  guide forms the framework of t h i s s t u d y .  However,  the b u l k of the t h e s i s i n v o l v e s the c r e a t i o n of such a f i n d i n g aid.  The guide w i l l i n c l u d e three major s e c t i o n s .  The f i r s t ,  Chapter 2, w i l l be a study of c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h t r e n d s i n the f i e l d under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . analysis,  The next p a r t ,  the  critical  o f f e r s an examination of forms of documents  a v a i l a b l e a t the i n s t i t u t i o n s s t u d i e d . c o n t a i n the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s .  Finally,  Chapters 3 through 6 the l i s t i n g of  c o l l e c t i o n s has been p l a c e d i n an appendix.  Naturally,  this  format i s not how such a document would be p r e s e n t e d t o the 3  p u b l i c by an a r c h i v e s . allow f u l l  The purpose of t h i s arrangement i s  d i s c u s s i o n of the u s e f u l n e s s of p l a c i n g the  two elements, the study of r e s e a r c h trends and the a n a l y s i s i n a thematic  first  critical  guide.  In a d d i t i o n to examining the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s of g u i d e ,  to  form  the study w i l l a l s o c o n s i d e r the use of standard  a r c h i v a l techniques  i n the c r e a t i o n of the  analysis.  P r o d u c t i o n of an a c t u a l example shows the v i a b i l i t y of u s i n g standard a r c h i v a l t e c h n i q u e s , description,  such as a p p r a i s a l and  i n a very s p e c i f i c  area.  As w e l l ,  the  c o m p i l a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of sources w i l l h o p e f u l l y r e s u l t i n a product of p r a c t i c a l v a l u e to r e s e a r c h e r s ,  and p r o v i d e an  impetus f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The study of the h i s t o r y of the f a m i l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia was chosen as the t o p i c f o r a c r i t i c a l g u i d e . study of the f a m i l y p r e s e n t s many of the problems of f o r sources  The  searching  i n a new r e s e a r c h a r e a . For the most p a r t ,  a r c h i v e s have made l i t t l e relevant material.  c o n s i d e r e d attempt to  collect  The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of  sources  b e a r i n g on f a m i l y h i s t o r y are spread w i d e l y throughout the holdings.  Finally,  i d e n t i f y sources  little  p a s t e f f o r t has been made to  f o r the h i s t o r y of the f a m i l y i n a  systematic  manner. Further, is  an examination of the i n s t i t u t i o n of the f a m i l y  a v i t a l p a r t of the understanding of any s o c i e t y .  agency f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n ,  as an economic u n i t and as 4  As an the  fundamental b i o l o g i c a l u n i t , time o f f e r insights  historians  and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s  into society.  social historians,  the f a m i l y and i t s  evolution  significant  A r e l a t i v e l y recent i n t e r e s t  for  the f i e l d of f a m i l y h i s t o r y has been  s t u d i e d by Canadian r e s e a r c h e r s .  In f a c t ,  little  many f i n d i n g s  come l a r g e l y as b y - p r o d u c t s of s t u d i e s i n o t h e r a r e a s . difficulty  of d i s c o v e r i n g good source m a t e r i a l i s  major problems of any study i n t h i s  subject.  available,  Despite  this,  subject  for a c r i t i c a l  Both the  especially  a particularly  thematic g u i d e .  necessary.  linkages material.  active  worthwhile  S i n c e the f i e l d a thematic  has guide  In a d d i t i o n , a r e l a t i v e  r e q u i r e s t h a t a wide v a r i e t y of  types be employed.  private  Few a r c h i v i s t s have used f a m i l y and  r e l a t e d terms as a s u b j e c t h e a d i n g . p a u c i t y of sources  the  locations.  o n l y r e c e n t l y been d i s c o v e r e d by h i s t o r i a n s , is  The  r e l e v a n t r e c o r d s are  a l t h o u g h not always i n obvious  The h i s t o r y of the f a m i l y i s  have  one of  and common nature of the f a m i l y has d i s c o u r a g e d the c o l l e c t i o n of r e c o r d s .  over  Further,  difficulties,  and s h o r t time spans,  such as  record record  r e q u i r e i n n o v a t i v e use of  the  These elements make the c r e a t i o n of such a thematic  guide a v a l u a b l e  exercise.  The a b i l i t y to a c c e s s c o m p l e t e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y a r c h i v a l h o l d i n g s of an i n s t i t u t i o n i s one of the g o a l s of a r c h i v i s t s .  the  primary  Y e t the d i v e r s i t y and c o m p l e x i t y of  these m a t e r i a l s make such access d i f f i c u l t and time-consuming. Traditionally,  a r c h i v i s t s have used a system of a c c e s s based  5  on the provenance of the a r c h i v e s ,  that i s ,  u s i n g the  nature  of the c r e a t o r and the f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the to i d e n t i f y sources  for research.  To accomplish  records  this,  a r c h i v i s t s have developed i n v e n t o r i e s which p r o v i d e descriptions  of a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s  arrangement,  from the group as a whole through the  s e r i e s to i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s . documents,  at the v a r y i n g l e v e l s of functional  Based on the arrangement of  the i n v e n t o r y has p r o v i d e d a r e l a t i v e l y  method to allow some access to a c q u i s i t i o n s the b e s t a v a i l a b l e  and i s  the  rapid arguably  system.  While provenance based systems are most e f f e c t i v e  for  a r c h i v e s w i t h a l a r g e volume of r e c o r d s c o v e r i n g a long time span, they are l e s s u s e f u l f o r other fonds where i n f o r m a t i o n about the o r g a n i z a t i o n may be s p a r s e . access to these m a t e r i a l s ,  In a e f f o r t  to p r o v i d e  a r c h i v i s t s have r e s o r t e d t o  indexing, often using card catalogues.  subject  However, o n l y minimal  access i s p r o v i d e d i n t h i s way c o n s i d e r i n g the v a s t number of possible  subject  entries  i n even r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l fonds.  S i n c e no c o n s i s t e n t d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s are adhered to many a r c h i v e s ,  the r e s u l t i n g access p o i n t s have o f t e n  in  been  based on c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h trends and can be c o l o u r e d by the b i a s e s of the  indexer.  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of provenance s e a r c h i n g methods and content Lytle.  1  i n d e x i n g methods has been examined o n l y by R i c h a r d L y t l e d e f i n e d the Provenance or P method of  r e t r i e v a l as s u b j e c t  access by c o n n e c t i o n , 6  that i s ,  subject relevant  r e c o r d s are found through knowledge of the a c t i v i t i e s functions  and  of the c r e a t i n g body.  The Content Indexing or CI method i s based on the c r e a t i o n of s u b j e c t access p o i n t s found through the examination of the contents of each f i l e . method t o "back-of-book i n d e x i n g " .  2  L y t l e compares  this  L y t l e ' s study found both  the P method and the CI method v e r y s i m i l a r i n accuracy f o r the s p e c i f i c  questions  t h a t were proposed.  Further,  acknowledged t h a t the two systems are o f t e n One of L y t l e ' s important f i n d i n g s i s is  he  complementary.  3  t h a t the CI method  "at a s e r i o u s disadvantage when the c r i t i c a l concept of  subject  request i s m i s s i n g from the system v o c a b u l a r y " .  CI method i s  simply too i n f l e x i b l e  research topics.  the  The  4  to p r o v i d e access to new  The f u t u r e uses of a r c h i v e s cannot be  d i s c e r n e d i n the p r e s e n t .  So the development of access  points  to new s u b j e c t s of study must be done through provenance based systems or the a r c h i v i s t i s  f o r c e d to r e t u r n to the  themselves, an u n d e r t a k i n g a k i n to  archives  re-processing.  In a d d i t i o n to provenance based access systems and subject  i n d e x i n g , another method used to o f f e r  has been the c r e a t i o n of thematic g u i d e s , of c o l l e c t i o n s  brief  r e l a t i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t  subject  access  descriptions area.  5  These  guides can be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l because t h e i r c r e a t i o n u s u a l l y based on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a new r e s e a r c h They are an attempt to b r i n g together h o l d i n g s not  topic.  easily  a c c e s s i b l e through provenance or p r e v i o u s c a t a l o g u i n g  7  is  terms.  W h i l e , on the s u r f a c e ,  thematic guides may appear t o belong  the CI method, i n f a c t ,  to  they are c r e a t e d from provenance  s e a r c h i n g through the use of the t i t l e  of the fonds and some  knowledge of the c r e a t i n g body. The v a l u e of thematic guides has been acknowledged by many w r i t e r s i n c l u d i n g M i c h e l D u c h e i n , V i r g i n i a Purdy and David G r a c y . is  6  While the p r e s e n t form of these r e s e a r c h t o o l s  important i n a l l o w i n g more comprehensive a c c e s s t o  holdings,  they do not a n a l y z e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the  the holdings  to the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the r e s e a r c h area f o r which they intended.  Such an a n a l y s i s of thematic h o l d i n g s w i l l  enhance the u s a b i l i t y of any g u i d e .  For example,  c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge and judgment n e c e s s a r y a p p r a i s a l can be used j u s t as e f f e c t i v e l y the a r c h i v a l p r o c e s s ,  only  the  to conduct  a t the o t h e r end of  by o f f e r i n g a c r i t i c a l  a n a l y s i s of  documents and t h e i r forms i n r e l a t i o n to the f i e l d s which may f i n d uses f o r the m a t e r i a l s .  are  In f a c t ,  procedure f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r s i n f o r m a l l y d u r i n g  of  the  study  this  reference  service. The study has r e l i e d on sources h e l d by two of p r o v i n c e ' s major i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s  and Records S e r v i c e and the Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s . accession  registers  the  The  and main e n t r y c a r d s from each c a r d  c a t a l o g u e were searched f o r m a t e r i a l which appeared t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the study of the f a m i l y .  In t h i s manner,  provenance of the v a r i o u s s e r i e s of government r e c o r d s and  8  the  manuscript c o l l e c t i o n s ,  i n the form of c o l l e c t i o n t i t l e ,  used to determine p o s s i b l e  sources.  was  Neither a r c h i v a l  i n s t i t u t i o n has p r o v i d e d access to f a m i l y m a t e r i a l s through subject  indexing.  The r e s e a r c h was r e s t r i c t e d p r i m a r i l y  the two major i n s t i t u t i o n s  a l t h o u g h , on o c c a s i o n ,  made of o b v i o u s l y important r e c o r d s h e l d by other  to  mention  is  archives,  such as the v a r i o u s church a r c h i v e s . One e x t e n s i v e body of m a t e r i a l was not examined. first classification  system employed by the P r o v i n c i a l  A r c h i v e s c a l l e d f o r the c a t a l o g u i n g of s p e c i f i c r e c o r d s e r i e s w i t h no r e f e r e n c e they were t a k e n .  The  items or  to the c o l l e c t i o n from which  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s means t h a t there i s  no  way to b r i n g together the o r i g i n a l fonds except item by i t e m . T h i s group of manuscript m a t e r i a l s i s extremely v a l u a b l e but i s d i f f i c u l t to work w i t h . The survey of a c c e s s i o n  registers  for l i k e l y  collections  was time consuming and the amount of m a t e r i a l d i s c o v e r e d prevented a thorough examination of each Therefore,  i t was necessary  m a t e r i a l to be reviewed.  to make a s e l e c t i o n  T h i s process was  although g e n e r a l l y any l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n s f a i r l y random s e l e c t i o n  of  the  subjective,  were examined.  A  of s m a l l e r groups was looked a t  to  a l l o w some judgement of t h e i r v a l u e . collections  collection.  Frequently, small  d i d c o n t a i n v e r y u s e f u l m a t e r i a l and they should  not be excluded from any study.  Since the a n a l y s i s  the form of the m a t e r i a l r a t h e r than the c o n t e n t , 9  focused on  the method  of selection should not distract from the value of the analysis.  A l i s t i n g of a l l the collections identified forms  an attached appendix. The chronological period of the study was confined to records of which the earliest document i n the fonds dated prior to 1918.  In practice, the earliest material was dated  between 1815 and 1918, although these early records are not always Canadian in origin.  It was not feasible to limit the  study period to a specific time because many manuscript collections and archives which start i n the nineteenth century range even up to the present day.  Therefore, many collections  are listed which have material ranging up to the 1960s and 1970s. The format of the c r i t i c a l analysis was established with consideration to current practices.  The elements of a  c r i t i c a l guide must give an understanding of past research trends and record uses. can be used. records.  It must analyze how available records  Finally, i t should give a l i s t i n g of available  These elements are very similar to the sections of a  standard inventory.  So, to ensure ease of use, many of the  procedures for description already in place i n many archives have been followed.  Since a c r i t i c a l guide i s documenting the  same types of information about a specific subject that an archivist uses to describe a single fonds, i t was considered useful to record the same standard items of description. The techniques identified i n the Society of American Archivists'  handbook on f i n d i n g a i d s have been adapted f o r use i n c r i t i c a l analysis. represents typical  7  Each s e c t i o n of the c r i t i c a l  i n a g e n e r a l manner a d e s c r i p t i v e  the  analysis  section i n a  inventory.  Therefore,  i n p l a c e of a b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h or  administrative history,  a C r i t i q u e of the s t a t e of r e s e a r c h  the r e l e v a n t a r e a , f o r example, prepared.  a historiography,  was  In the same manner t h a t an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  or b i o g r a p h i c a l note i s  c r u c i a l to an i n v e n t o r y ,  h i s t o r i o g r a p h y or other form of c r i t i q u e of the  history  a relevant  r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s a f u l l e r understanding of  the  r e c o r d s d e s c r i b e d i n a guide and t h e i r p o s s i b l e  uses.  The  v a r i o u s approaches or methods which r e s e a r c h e r s  have used  study a s u b j e c t  can supply the framework f o r the  in  to  analysis.  T h i s s e c t i o n of the c r i t i c a l guide must p r o v i d e an understanding of how these d i f f e r e n t work, how r e s e a r c h e r s  have used the r e c o r d s and what types of  m a t e r i a l may be u s e f u l but n e g l e c t e d . particular attention is  approaches or methods  For t h a t  reason,  to the sources c u r r e n t l y b e i n g  an important f e a t u r e  of such a study.  utilized  The c r i t i q u e of  the  r e s e a r c h area i s v i t a l to the c r e a t i o n of an e f f e c t i v e analysis. The second p a r t of the c r i t i c a l g u i d e , r e c o r d forms r e l e v a n t  to the f i e l d of s t u d y ,  same f u n c t i o n as a scope and content n o t e . discussion  of the r e c o r d s and t h e i r r e s e a r c h 11  an a n a l y s i s  of  performs much the It offers values,  a  documenting t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e analysis  should allow r e s e a r c h e r s  for successful age,  and i d i o s y n c r a s i e s .  studies.  to d i s c e r n the  This possibilities  Information on volume, time span,  u n d e r s t a n d a b i l i t y and other c r i t e r i a w i l l i n d i c a t e  v a l u e of r e c o r d s f o r s p e c i f i c  approaches.  the  The comparison  between t h i s k i n d of a n a l y s i s and the a p p r a i s a l of r e c o r d s f o r informational value i s quite s t r i k i n g .  Although an a p p r a i s a l  looks a t the i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e of r e c o r d s f o r t h e i r use,  general  the same c r i t e r i a can be a p p l i e d f o r a more l i m i t e d  subject.  The c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s  also provides a r c h i v i s t s  a forum f o r d i s c u s s i n g the p e c u l i a r i t i e s  with  and l i m i t a t i o n s  the r e c o r d s i n r e l a t i o n to the f i e l d of s t u d y .  of  For example,  many approaches to f a m i l y h i s t o r y r e q u i r e the l i n k i n g of d i s p a r a t e sources life. are  to e s t a b l i s h a complete p i c t u r e of  The a n a l y s i s  family  can i d e n t i f y the areas where such  linkages  possible. Finally,  specific  the c r i t i c a l guide should o f f e r  manuscript c o l l e c t i o n s  a l i s t i n g of  and a r c h i v e s which have been  i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g v a l u a b l e to the f i e l d of s t u d y . selection possible  of fonds must be somewhat a r b i t r a r y . to examine each one i n d e t a i l and so  This  It is  not  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d cover a wide a r e a , e r r i n g on the s i d e of excess.  In t h i s way, most p o s s i b i l i t i e s  w i l l be l i s t e d .  l i s t i n g should c o n s i s t of the name of each c o l l e c t i o n ,  The its  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number, the dates c o v e r e d , the volume and the forms of the m a t e r i a l . 12  The d i s c u s s i o n of r e s e a r c h a r e a s ,  the a n a l y s i s of  m a t e r i a l s and the a c t u a l l i s t i n g of c o l l e c t i o n s elements of the c r i t i c a l g u i d e .  are the  The guide o f f e r s  three  a more  thorough understanding of the p e r t i n e n t r e c o r d s f o r a f i e l d of research.  A r c h i v i s t s are a b l e t o p r o v i d e t h e i r e x p e r t i s e  more c o n s i s t e n t  fashion.  Too f r e q u e n t l y , i n f o r m a t i o n about  r e c o r d s i s kept the e x c l u s i v e p r o p e r t y of archivists.  It is  individual  shared o n l y by happenstance.  The  p r o d u c t i o n of more a n a l y t i c a l guides d i s p e r s e s more of i n f o r m a t i o n t o the  in a  this  public.  The p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s type of a n a l y s i s may be c o n s i d e r e d c o n t r o v e r s i a l by some.  Many a r c h i v i s t s adhere s t r i c t l y t o  the  n o t i o n t h a t they should never c a r r y out any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the documents f o r which they c a r e .  In f a c t ,  t h i s idea  is  c o n t r a d i c t e d c o n s t a n t l y by the a c t i o n s of a r c h i v i s t s p r o v i d i n g reference s e r v i c e .  Answering r e f e r e n c e q u e s t i o n s by d i r e c t i n g  r e s e a r c h e r s towards s p e c i f i c m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s needs and how the contents and c o n t e x t of the r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l w i l l f u l f i l  these needs.  The a n a l y s i s of how forms of m a t e r i a l r e l a t e t o s p e c i f i c of r e s e a r c h i s  simply a method t o r e c o r d i n a  areas  systematic  f a s h i o n the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered by a r c h i v i s t s d u r i n g t h e i r d a i l y work.  I t a l s o t r i e s t o e l i m i n a t e some of the haphazard  nature of r e f e r e n c e work where the s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge of each a r c h i v i s t i s not imparted t o a l l r e s e a r c h e r s .  13  3  An e q u a l l y important q u e s t i o n i s whether t h i s of r e s e a r c h t o p i c s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  to v a r i o u s fonds  work t h a t should be performed by a r c h i v i s t s . t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r s  It is  should be c a r r y i n g out t h i s  r a t h e r than a r c h i v i s t s .  In f a c t ,  examination is  arguable  analysis,  t h i s a c t i v i t y f a l l s much  more w i t h i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e . Knowledge of the h o l d i n g s ,  of the r e c o r d forms, and of  access systems are a l l areas of e x p e r t i s e archivists. critical  which belong to  the  A r c h i v i s t s are w e l l prepared to c a r r y out these  analyses.  Further,  the w r i t i n g of a c r i t i c a l guide  g i v e s a r c h i v i s t s a b e t t e r understanding of how t h e i r are used and i n c r e a s e s providing reference  holdings  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a r c h i v i s t s  in  service.  A c r i t i c a l guide to sources is  the  f o r the h i s t o r y of the  r e c o r d e d i n the f o l l o w i n g f i v e c h a p t e r s .  The f i r s t  family details  the c u r r e n t s t a t e of r e s e a r c h i n t o the h i s t o r y of the Canadian family.  Since w r i t i n g s about the f a m i l y i n any one p r o v i n c e  i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h Columbia i s very l i m i t e d , i t was to examine the f i e l d a t a n a t i o n a l l e v e l . chapter f o l l o w s  the approaches s e t  Further,  necessary this  out by M i c h a e l Anderson i n  h i s h i s t o r i o g r a p h y of the Western f a m i l y .  9  The next four  chapters analyze the a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s i n r e l a t i o n to each of the f o u r approaches: demographics, sentiments, economics  and h e g e m o n y / i n s t i t u t i o n s .  collections family i s  household  A complete  l i s t i n g of  which appear to have v a l u e to the study of  i n c l u d e d as an appendix.  the  The f i n a l chapter o f f e r s  a  c r i t i q u e of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s method f o r p r o d u c t i o n of thematic g u i d e s . standard a r c h i v a l techniques c r e a t i o n of a c r i t i c a l g u i d e .  I t examines  for a s p e c i f i c  the  the use of purpose,  the  The v i r t u e s of a p p l y i n g  a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a to the a v a i l a b l e forms of m a t e r i a l are a l s o discussed.  In a d d i t i o n to a g e n e r a l e v a l u a t i o n ,  there i s  an  examination of how the a c t u a l guide a p p l i e s t o f a m i l y h i s t o r y and the d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e a of  and l i m i t a t i o n s of the r e c o r d s f o r  study.  15  this  CHAPTER 1 ENDNOTES 1. Lytle, Richard H. "Intellectual Access to Archives: I. Provenance and Content Indexing Methods of Subject Retrieval." The American Archivist 43 (Winter 1980):64-75 and "Intellectual Access to Archives: II. Report of an Experiment Comparing Provenance and Content Indexing Methods of Subject Retrieval." The American Archivist 43 (Spring 1980):191-207. 2. Lytle, "Intellectual Access to Archives," 73. 3. Lytle, "Intellectual Access to Archives: I.," 65. 4. Lytle, "Intellectual Access to Archives: II", 206. 5. There are many examples of this type of thematic guide. Frequently, they have been written by historians to give access to social history topics. Two recent guides are by Mary Kinnear and Vera Fast, Planting the Garden: An Archival Bibliography of the History of Women in Manitoba, (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1987) and by Christopher L. Hives and George Brandak, A Guide to Fishing, Forestry and Mining Records in the Special Collections Division, The University of British Columbia, (Vaneouver: University of British Columbia Library, 1987). 6. Michel Duchein, "Theoretical Principles and Practical Problems of Respect des Fonds in Archival Science," Archivaria 16 (Summer 1983):81-82, David B. Gracy II, Archives and Manuscripts: Arrangement and Description, (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1977):35, and Virginia Purdy, "Subject Guides" in A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch. (Washington, D.C: National Archives and Records Service, 1984):245. 7. Society of American Archivists Committee on Finding Aids, Inventories and Registers: A Handbook of Techniques and Examples, (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1976). 1  8. Mary Jo Pugh, "The Illusion of Omniscience: Subject Access and the Reference Archivist," In A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch, Washington, D.C: National Archives and Records Service, 1984:270-271. 9. Michael Anderson, Approaches to the History of the Western Family, 1500-1914, (London: MacMillan, 1980). 16  CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH TRENDS INTO THE CANADIAN FAMILY The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of w r i t i n g on s o c i a l h i s t o r y over  the  p a s t few decades has o c c a s i o n e d the c r e a t i o n of many subdivisions  of the study and each a r e a has had numerous  s u p p o r t e r s throughout the Western w o r l d . the c a s e , somewhat  been  Canadian h i s t o r i a n s have f o l l o w e d these t r e n d s i n a slower manner than t h e i r European and American  counterparts. of  As has o f t e n  Nevertheless,  they too have j o i n e d the p u r s u i t  knowledge about the masses and s o c i e t y a t Family h i s t o r y ,  large.  one of the most c u r r e n t t o p i c s  i n Europe  and A m e r i c a , has not been embraced w i t h the same enthusiasm Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n E n g l i s h speaking Canada. apparent r e l u c t a n c e of many r e s e a r c h e r s  Despite  to examine t h i s  in  the  area,  a number have begun t o l o o k a t the Canadian f a m i l y and t h e i r f i n d i n g s have had some impact on the f i e l d .  It  is  worthwhile  t o study the e x t e n t of these w r i t i n g s and the manner i n which they r e l a t e  t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l works.  B e f o r e commencing an examination of the s t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h which d e a l w i t h the f a m i l y i n Canada, p o i n t s need to be c l a r i f i e d .  written  several  Foremost, the study of  the  f a m i l y has a r e l a t i v e u n i f o r m i t y throughout the w o r l d , u n l i k e most o t h e r areas of h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h which are more n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l . affected  While c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s  family structures  to some d e g r e e ,  the f a m i l y has remained the same, 17  have  the b a s i c core of  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Western  world.  H i s t o r i a n s g e n e r a l l y take i t  for granted  that  b i o l o g i c a l needs form a f o u n d a t i o n f o r the f a m i l y and are therefore  essential  t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of these  similarities.  A second important r e a l i z a t i o n r e l a t e s t o the s c a r c i t y of sources. all  While the f a m i l y i s  society,  its  an i n s t i t u t i o n which pervades  v e r y commonness has meant t h a t l i t t l e  r e c o r d e d about i t s  s t r u c t u r e or i n n e r w o r k i n g s .  t h a t t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i d e a l f a m i l y i s  was  People assume the  correct  one and t h a t the s t r u c t u r e of the f a m i l y was unchanging. the l i t e r a t e  segment of s o c i e t y r a r e l y r e f l e c t e d  g e n e r a l n a t u r e of the f a m i l y .  on the  The c l o s e f a m i l i a r i t y which  v i r t u a l l y a l l people have had w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n has p a s t w r i t e r s to assume t h e r e i s warrant c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n . social history,  a common ground which does not  Further,  as w i t h most areas  of are  and h i s t o r i a n s have needed t o adopt new  methods of r e s e a r c h and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o use the sources  led  documents d e a l i n g w i t h the lower c l a s s e s  almost n o n - e x i s t e n t  Even  i n innovative  scant  ways.  The examination of the f a m i l y has taken p l a c e a l o n g a number of d i s t i n c t  lines.  M i c h a e l Anderson has suggested  t h e r e have been t h r e e major approaches used by h i s t o r i a n s .  that 1  A  u s e f u l examination of the s i t u a t i o n i n Canada can be c a r r i e d out i n the c o n t e x t of these approaches. been v e r y s c a t t e r e d  Canadian r e s e a r c h has  and g r e a t e r emphasis p l a c e d on some  methods r a t h e r than o t h e r s .  To understand the f u l l  scope of  the h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g about the f a m i l y produced by Canadian 18  writers,  i t must be f i t t e d i n t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l framework or  d i s t o r t i o n s w i l l appear. The f i r s t method of study i d e n t i f i e d by Anderson i s demographic approach.  the  Many h i s t o r i a n s have seen t h i s as  the  o n l y way to g a i n an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the r o l e of the f a m i l y among the lower c l a s s e s and i t has been s u c c e s s f u l g e n e r a t i n g a g r e a t d e a l of b a s i c d a t a .  Parish  in  registers,  census r e t u r n s and o t h e r c e n s u s - l i k e r e c o r d s such as  tax  assessment r o l l s and d i r e c t o r i e s have p r o v i d e d the b a s i c source m a t e r i a l .  The methodology employed r e l i e s h e a v i l y on  the n a t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . statistical  a n a l y s i s to attempt t o understand the mechanisms  of the f a m i l y i n s o c i e t y . specific  Researchers have used  S t u d i e s have g i v e n emphasis t o four  t o p i c s : marriage r a t e s and ages, p a t t e r n s of  childbearing,  e x t r a m a r i t a l conceptions and the s i z e and  membership of households.  The nature of the sources  has  f o r c e d the s e l e c t i o n of these areas t o some degree but each has p r o v i d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i g h t i n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f a m i l y and p e r m i t t e d the d i s c o v e r y of changes over time i n a f a i r l y p r e c i s e way. Anderson d e s i g n a t e d the study of sentiments area examined t o understand f a m i l y l i f e .  as the  second  Changes over time i n  i n t e r - f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , sexual behaviour, courtship r i t u a l s and a t t i t u d e s  to p r i v a c y have been examined. As a  r e s u l t of these s t u d i e s ,  f o r example, i t has been suggested  t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n l e d to a major upheaval i n f a m i l y 19  structure.  I n v e s t i g a t i n g these p r i v a t e a f f e c t i o n s  has meant a  g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e on w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l and c o n s e q u e n t l y an emphasis on the b e h a v i o u r of the l i t e r a t e c l a s s e s or an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of how the l i t e r a t e viewed the lower c l a s s e s . S t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a are o f t e n h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e because are l i m i t e d t o s p a r s e s o u r c e s .  Nevertheless,  they o f f e r  they the  g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r f l e s h i n g out the r a t h e r s t a r k framework of  the demographers.  The need t o c r e a t e a p i c t u r e of a c t u a l  people out of numbers i s  essential  f o r any h i s t o r i a n but  v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the and b e l i e f s  under i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the sentiments  The l a s t approach p r e s e n t e d by Anderson i s economics.  attitudes  group.  household  He contended t h a t the u n i f y i n g f o r c e among t h i s  group of h i s t o r i a n s i s  " t h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h the  p r o c e s s e s which u n d e r l i e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s successfully,  familial attitudes)."  2  social  (and, though l e s s  T h e i r focus has been the  f a m i l y as an economic u n i t and the v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s d e v i s e d by the f a m i l y t o s u r v i v e i n peasant and commercial s o c i e t i e s and then through the upheaval of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . I n h e r i t a n c e p r a c t i c e s , p a t t e r n s of employment and f a m i l y economies p l a y important r o l e s i n the development of branch of f a m i l y h i s t o r y .  Wills,  this  l a n d r e c o r d s , employment  r e c o r d s and accounts of the work p l a c e are h e a v i l y u t i l i z e d . The household economics approach d e s c r i b e s the f a c e of f a m i l y t h a t i s v i s i b l e t o s o c i e t y and t h i s p u b l i c image another c r u c i a l component of f a m i l y l i f e . 20  the is  L o u i s e T i l l y and Miriam Cohen have examined and expanded A n d e r s o n ' s premises w i t h the a d d i t i o n of a f o u r t h d i v i s i o n , the h e g e m o n i c / i n s t i t u t i o n a l a p p r o a c h . institutions  They argue  that  have d i s t i n c t i v e views of the f a m i l y which have  influenced people,  and h i s t o r i a n s have used these o p i n i o n s  a f u r t h e r way to understand the f a m i l y p r o c e s s e s .  as  The  3  p r e c e p t s upon which e d u c a t i o n was founded f u r n i s h c o n s i d e r a b l e m a t e r i a l about f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p e r c e p t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y the views of l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s about the f a m i l y .  t e l l a great  F o r example, what c o n s t i t u t e d  deal  juvenile  d e l i n q u e n c y i m p l i e s much about the b o u n d a r i e s of c h i l d h o o d and the expected r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  of  parents.  Each of these approaches p r o v i d e s a p o r t i o n of  knowledge  about f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s and t h e i r changes over t i m e . Moreover, s i n c e the d i f f e r e n t approaches r e l y more h e a v i l y on different  forms of m a t e r i a l , o f t e n from d i f f e r e n t  sources,  combining the f i n d i n g s from the v a r i o u s approaches may a l l o w c o n f i r m a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r y .  Anderson argues t h a t  of these approaches are incomplete and cannot s t a n d  alone.  all 4  A l l must be c a r e f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d to s u p p l y a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f a m i l y i n h i s t o r y . Canadian h i s t o r i a n s have e x p l o r e d a l l f o u r of d i v i s i o n s but not e x t e n s i v e l y .  these  Many s t u d i e s have used  demographic approaches e x t e n s i v e l y  w h i l e the  approach has r e c e i v e d o n l y minimal a t t e n t i o n .  sentiments Further,  methods f r e q u e n t l y have been u t i l i z e d i n a complementary  two  fashion.  Obviously no one i s constrained to work within  Anderson's guidelines.  Nevertheless the "four approaches"  thesis does provide a helpful framework for discussing family history and the historiography of the Canadian family w i l l be presented in this manner. Lastly, on occasion, research into the family i s not the prime purpose of a historian's study. Rather, insights relating to the family are almost made in passing.  S t i l l these studies can provide valuable information  about the family. The overwhelming majority of Canadian writing has been directed to the demographic approach.  The primary source  material in these investigations has been the decennial census returns, produced by the national government and started in 1851.  The release of census returns for the period 1851 to  1891 spurred a host of demographic studies.  In addition,  demographic research projects received an abundance of grant money for large scale projects in the 1970s.  Finally, the  increased accessibility of computers allowed researchers to process large bodies of data.  Two major groups received  financial support for this type of project.  The f i r s t , headed  by Michael Katz, examined social, class and familial relationships in the city of Hamilton, Canada West from 1851 to 1871.  David P. Gagan led the second group which  investigated family structure and i t s relationship to land in Peel County, Canada West between 1845 and 1875.  5  22  Important t o t h i s type of r e s e a r c h and p a r t i c u l a r l y v i t a l t o both K a t z ' s and Gagan's work i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of  l i n k a g e s between one census and another and to other r e c o r d s . Evidence of t r a n s i e n c y and permanence and changes i n f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e are found w i t h these l i n k a g e s .  The o n l y v i a b l e way  t o perform t h i s a n a l y s i s on a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n i s w i t h a computer.  T h i s technology has allowed the use of  hitherto unthinkable. have a r i s e n . methodology,  sources  While s o l v i n g some problems, new ones  For example, because of the i n f a n c y of  the  there are problems i n making these l i n k a g e s .  of the major problems i n v o l v e s the p h o n e t i c s p e l l i n g of  One  names,  so t h a t a name such as Smythe may be s p e l t Smyth or Smith i n d i f f e r e n t documents. techniques  6  Refinement of r e l a t i v e l y p r i m i t i v e  to overcome name d i f f e r e n c e s  t o the r e l i a b i l i t y of the data a n a l y s i s questions  w i l l add s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the f u t u r e but  of accuracy cannot be t o t a l l y d i s m i s s e d a t  the  present. One of the major q u e s t i o n s  asked by t h i s  f i e l d i s how the  s t r u c t u r e of the household has changed i n s i z e and membership over time.  The r e l a t i v e l y recent s e t t l e m e n t of Canada has  meant t h a t h i s t o r i a n s have focused on changes o c c u r r i n g a t time of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  P r e v i o u s l y , the  fundamental  assumption by h i s t o r i a n s and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c was t h a t Canadian f a m i l y i n the p a s t and i t s  counterparts  three generations  In  would l i v e t o g e t h e r as w e l l 23  the  throughout  much of the Western w o r l d , was extended i n s t r u c t u r e . situation,  the  this other  f a m i l y members, such as u n c l e s , s t u d i e s have c o n f i r m e d t h a t , the norm by f a r . numeric terms,  7  aunts and c o u s i n s .  in fact,  The r e s u l t i s  All  the n u c l e a r f a m i l y was  not unexpected.  In simple  the p a r e n t s of f o u r c h i l d r e n can o n l y l i v e  with  one a d u l t c h i l d a t a time so the o t h e r t h r e e c h i l d r e n w i l l have n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s .  Given lower l i f e  apparent d e s i r e of most f a m i l i e s  expectancies  t o be independent,  f i g u r e would l i k e l y be even lower.  Of c o u r s e ,  o t h e r f a m i l y members may c o - r e s i d e but t h i s  and the this  siblings  or  is unlikely in a  c o u n t r y w i t h a v a i l a b l e and a f f o r d a b l e l a n d l i k e Canada. The s t a b l e household s t r u c t u r e e v i d e n t Canadian f a m i l i e s  s t u d i e d by Gagan, Katz and o t h e r s  a r t i f a c t of the source m a t e r i a l . s i n g l e point i n time, changes  i n the m a j o r i t y of is  an  S i n c e censuses r e c o r d e d a  they d i d not account f o r temporary  i n f a m i l y membership.  H i s t o r i a n s have r e a l i z e d t h a t  f a m i l i e s undergo a c y c l e throughout t h e i r e x i s t e n c e and d u r i n g each phase f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n may v a r y .  For example, when one  p a r e n t d i e d , the o t h e r might l i v e w i t h one of t h e i r grown c h i l d r e n f o r a s h o r t time or u n t i l he or she a l s o d i e d . t h a t time the n u c l e a r f a m i l y was extended.  For  T h i s c o n c e p t i o n of  the f a m i l y as a dynamic p r o c e s s has i n f l u e n c e d a l l Canadian w r i t i n g on the s u b j e c t and may be one of the  largest  c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the demographic s c h o o l . I n a d d i t i o n to k i n e x t e n d i n g the n u c l e a r f a m i l y , h i s t o r i a n s have g a r n e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about presence  of b o a r d e r s and s e r v a n t s  i n the h o u s e h o l d .  the  Katz  found a s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n between w e a l t h and household  structure.  The f a c t  t h a t the w e a l t h i e r  servants i s  not a s u r p r i s i n g r e v e l a t i o n but they a l s o took  the m a j o r i t y of b o a r d e r s .  8  c l a s s e s had more  While u n s k i l l e d workers would have  c o n s i d e r e d the a d d i t i o n a l income a boon, p r e v e n t e d them from t a k i n g i n more I n the Hamilton s t u d y ,  in  l a c k of  space  residents.  m u l t i p l e f a m i l y households  were  r a r e but Sheva Medjuck d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i n Moncton, New Brunswick i n 1851 a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n (almost o n e - q u a r t e r ) families  r e s i d e d i n the company of another f a m i l y .  Medjuck d i d not f u l l y e x p l o r e the p o i n t , suggested a housing shortage  the  of  Although  9  evidence  caused by immigrants a t t r a c t e d  the economic boom i n Moncton's s h i p b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y .  to  The  s t u d y c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d the danger of i g n o r i n g p o l i t i c a l and economic events which may a f f e c t the  family.  Another a r e a of the demographic approach examined by Canadian h i s t o r i a n s  is  the s i z e of f a m i l i e s .  found t h a t f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e can be a f f e c t e d of w e a l t h , example,  ethnicity,  by the  r e l i g i o n and f a m i l y number.  variables For  Katz found f a m i l y s i z e i n Hamilton had no c o r r e l a t i o n  with wealth. affect  I t has been  On the o t h e r hand, r e l i g i o n and e t h n i c i t y  the number of f a m i l y members.  two P r e s c o t t  County townships  10  did  However, i n a study of  i n O n t a r i o , Chad G a f f i e l d argued  t h a t e t h n i c i t y c o n t r i b u t e d o n l y m i n i m a l l y t o F r e n c h Canadian and E n g l i s h Canadian f a m i l y s i z e .  25  He suggested t h a t  the  differences  i n f a m i l y s i z e o c c u r r e d because  m a r r i a g e age among F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s .  of an e a r l i e r  11  A study of r u r a l c h i l d b e a r i n g by R . M . M c l n n i s s u p p l i e d evidence  t h a t people i n more s e t t l e d  areas of Canada West had  fewer c h i l d r e n than i n f r o n t i e r a r e a s . difference  Mclnnis explained  the  by a r g u i n g t h a t the d e s i r e of p a r e n t s to p r o v i d e  h i g h e r standards of l i v i n g f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s was more p r e v a l e n t i n the l o n g e r s e t t l e d  areas because  a v a i l a b i l i t y and lower c o s t of goods.  of the  greater  T h i s was accomplished  most e a s i l y by h a v i n g fewer c h i l d r e n .  1 2  D a v i d Gagan found a  s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i n P e e l County i n the l a t e  1850s and 1860s but  b e l i e v e d t h a t a l a c k of a v a i l a b l e l a n d l e d t o l a t e r marriage d a t e s and t h e r e f o r e  smaller family  size.  1 3  S u b s t a n t i a l amounts of w r i t i n g have a l s o been devoted the m o b i l i t y of Canadian f a m i l i e s . keystone  to  T r a n s i e n c y formed a  of the argument of the Hamilton study group.  Katz  found t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d between permanence and w e l l b e i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n good economic t i m e s . " 1  were more s u c c e s s f u l  Whether people  when they s t a y e d or s t a y e d because  they  were d o i n g w e l l i s not c l e a r . Numerous o t h e r w r i t e r s have s t u d i e d t r a n s i e n c y among families  throughout e a s t e r n Canada.  In the Saguenay-St.  Jean  r e g i o n of Quebec, Gerard Bouchard d i s c o v e r e d a r a p i d l y d e c l i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n the l a t e l a c k of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d .  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y because  of  The p o p u l a t i o n l o s s was not due  to  e m i g r a t i o n as would be e x p e c t e d .  A fairly  substantial  e m i g r a t i o n had always o c c u r r e d but immigration had maintained the l e v e l of p o p u l a t i o n . caused the  decrease.  I t was the drop i n immigration t h a t  15  A l a n Brookes argued t h a t depressed economic  circumstances  f o r c e d an exodus of young a d u l t s from Nova S c o t i a i n the nineteenth century. them s e t t i n g  late  E m i g r a t i o n by s i b l i n g s o f t e n r e s u l t e d  up r e s i d e n c e  i n the same l o c a l e s .  1 6  These  in  results  are h i g h l y i n t e r e s t i n g but no one has e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d how f r e q u e n t l y f a m i l y members s e t t l e d t o g e t h e r i n a new r e g i o n or how much t h i s life.  transiency disrupted inter-generational  family  Some i n i t i a l study has been done by Ross McCormack i n  h i s work on B r i t i s h immigrants to W i n n i p e g .  17  McCormack found  t h a t immigrants r e l i e d h e a v i l y on the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , whether i t was n u c l e a r , extended or even s u r r o g a t e b o a r d i n g house or c h u r c h ) .  (such as a  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o the  effects  of m o b i l i t y and immigration on f a m i l y t i e s would p r o v i d e extremely important evidence relations.  about the s t r e n g t h of  family  In Canada where immigration and t r a n s i e n c y p l a y e d  such a v i t a l r o l e i n the development of the c o u n t r y , responses of the f a m i l y have g r e a t  the  significance.  A s i m i l a r concern f o r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s guided H e r b e r t Mays i n h i s work on the Toronto Gore township of P e e l County. He found t h a t e a r l y s e t t l e r s who e s t a b l i s h e d remained i n the a r e a . sufficient them.  18  successful  farms  These permanent s e t t l e r s a l s o o b t a i n e d  l a n d to a l l o w t h e i r grown c h i l d r e n to s e t t l e near  The work of Mays, Brookes and McCormack, w h i l e 27  far  from complete,  i s h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e of the d e s i r e  of  immigrants to m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h a l l members of  their  families. D e s p i t e the d e t a i l e d data base i t can p r o v i d e , demographic method has s e v e r a l i n h e r e n t problems, w i t h the source m a t e r i a l . provide s u f f i c i e n t  the  primarily  One source of m a t e r i a l does not  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a n a l y s i s because a l l types  have t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s .  Census d a t a r e c o r d f a m i l y  structures  a t a p a r t i c u l a r moment and p r o v i d e o n l y g e n e r a l f e r t i l i t y and nuptial data.  Linkages between census d a t a and t h a t from  parish registers  i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h because of  the  m o b i l i t y of p a r i s h i o n e r s and the i r r e g u l a r placement of a denomination's  churches.  I t i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e of  records  b e a r i n g d a t a u s e f u l i n demographic s t u d i e s t h a t they u s u a l l y show an u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of some e t h n i c groups. d e f i c i e n c y can s e r i o u s l y skew r e s u l t s .  This  While awareness of  these data b i a s e s and employing more than one source w i l l not overcome these d i f f i c u l t i e s  completely,  t h i s knowledge does  a l l o w the r e s e a r c h e r to p r o p e r l y l i m i t the scope of the To d a t e ,  Canadian h i s t o r i a n s have almost  study.  completely  i g n o r e d the sentiments approach to f a m i l y h i s t o r y .  Despite  the e x i s t e n c e of a f a i r l y h i g h r a t e of l i t e r a c y throughout h i s t o r y of the c o u n t r y and the consequent d i a r i e s and correspondence,  the  p r o l i f e r a t i o n of  m a t e r i a l s which are the h e a r t of  such an approach, Canadian r e s e a r c h e r s have h a r d l y begun to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of the sentiments approach. 28  Two  s t u d i e s have touched on the p r i v a t e s i d e of f a m i l y  life,  although both p r i m a r i l y sought to e x p l a i n f u r t r a d e and i t s  d e a l i n g s w i t h Canada's n a t i v e p e o p l e .  examined d i f f e r e n c e s  i n attitudes  society  J e n n i f e r Brown  between the two major f u r  t r a d i n g companies and the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s which developed between n a t i v e women and European f u r t r a d e r s .  The treatment  of the c h i l d r e n which r e s u l t e d from these marriages s a i d much about f a m i l y t i e s , situations.  even i n these c r o s s - c u l t u r a l and s h o r t term  Brown a l s o argued t h a t an examination of  1 9  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the k i n s h i p t i e s present among the  wills  Scottish  t r a d e r s were the b a s i s of a h o r i z o n t a l l y s t r u c t u r e d s o c i a l system w i t h i n the North West Company.  In a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n ,  S y l v i a Van K i r k e x p l o r e d the r o l e of I n d i a n women i n the f u r trade.  2 0  Although these works p r o v i d e d i n s i g h t s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between two d i f f e r e n t these d i f f e r e n c e s  affect  into  the  c u l t u r a l groups and how  the t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s ,  d e s c r i b e an uncommon s i t u a t i o n and c a s t l i t t l e  they  l i g h t on the  g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of Canadian f a m i l y h i s t o r y . More c o n v e n t i o n a l i s investigated  the work of Peter Moogk who  the a t t i t u d e s  c h i l d r e n i n the e i g h t e e n t h  of French Canadians towards c e n t u r y New F r a n c e .  were much i n keeping w i t h changing a t t i t u d e s suggested b y P h i l l i p e A r i e s .  2 1  His findings  towards c h i l d r e n  A r i e s i s often recognized  the founder of the modern s c h o o l of the h i s t o r y of the and c h i l d h o o d .  Differences  i n behaviour of New France  c h i l d r e n noted by European observers 29  are r e l a t e d to  the  as  family  encouragement  of s e l f - r e l i a n c e  and a s s e r t i v e n e s s n e c e s s a r y  s u c c e s s i n New F r a n c e , a c c o r d i n g to Moogk.  While these  22  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be i n d i c a t i v e of s t r a t e g i e s c r e a t e d meet s i t u a t i o n s affection  found i n s e t t l i n g  new l a n d s ,  the u n d e r l y i n g  throughout the Western w o r l d from t h a t time t o the Other s t u d i e s which can be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d  nineteenth  c e n t u r y Canada.  as  illegitimacy  i n l i t e r a t u r e or commonly h e l d b e l i e f s .  families  is  no s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the event was condoned,  o f f e r e d a refuge  against  of  as  Yet the  society's "official  C o n t r a r y to Ward's f i n d i n g s , single  While some  f o r unwed mothers,  o c c u r r e n c e s of i n f a n t i c i d e and a b o r t i o n show. often  attitudes  by s o c i e t y can be seen i n the development  b o a r d i n g houses and l y i n g - i n h o s p i t a l s there  in  P e t e r Ward argued t h a t unwed  more f r e q u e n t l y than would be imagined from s o c i e t a l  acceptance  found  present.  mothers i n Upper Canada o b t a i n e d succour from t h e i r  present  to  and concern f o r c h i l d r e n was a common a t t i t u d e  f o l l o w i n g the sentiments approach d i s c u s s e d  for  family  position."  Andree Levesgue argued t h a t  mothers a t the H o p i t a l M i s e r c o r d e i n M o n t r e a l were  considered s o c i e t a l  deviants.  U s i n g h o s p i t a l r e c o r d s from  2 4  the 1930s, she d i s c o v e r e d t h a t unwed mothers were young, F r e n c h Canadian Roman C a t h o l i c s , working as domestics l i v i n g a t home.  The time spent i n the h o s p i t a l  or  frequently  i n v o l v e d penance and, even though e n t r y was v o l u n t a r y , some patients  were s e q u e s t e r e d  f o r up to a y e a r .  twenty p e r c e n t of a l l Quebec i l l e g i t i m a t e 30  2 3  Although only  b i r t h s o c c u r r e d at  this hospital,  Levesque contended t h a t s i n g l e  mothers were  r e j e c t e d by the s o c i e t y .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , she o f f e r e d no  evidence  of f a m i l i e s  of the a t t i t u d e s  p e r c e n t of i l l e g i t i m a t e  births.  It  f o r the remaining e i g h t y  is  not c l e a r i f  w i t h o u t f a m i l y s u p p o r t ended up i n t h i s  h o s p i t a l , whether  h o s p i t a l was the major i n s t i t u t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h births,  or i f  t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e  s o c i e t y and the a c t i o n s r e l i a n c e on one s e t questions  o n l y women this  illegitimate  between the views of  of the f a m i l y .  Unfortunately,  the  of r e c o r d s f o r one h o s p i t a l l e a v e s many  unanswered.  Ward has a l s o begun to study the s u b j e c t nineteenth  c e n t u r y E n g l i s h Canada.  c o u r t s h i p and s o c i a l space,  of c o u r t s h i p i n  In h i s a r t i c l e on  he argued t h a t women had  c o n s i d e r a b l y more autonomy i n the c h o i c e of p a r t n e r s than n o r m a l l y supposed,  although t h i s  " w i t h i n an e l a b o r a t e  exercised  framework of s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s . "  structure also placed s t r i c t activities  freedom was o n l y  limitations  on the  2 5  This  courtship  of youths who were r e q u i r e d to meet under  supervised conditions.  is  closely  Evidence f o r these c o n t e n t i o n s  came  from d i a r i e s and correspondence of both men and women. The r e l a t i v e p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h i n t o the p e r s o n a l n a t u r e of the Canadian f a m i l y r e f l e c t s  the r e l a t i v e  slowness of  nation's  historians  to follow i n t e r n a t i o n a l trends.  skeletal  d e s i g n c o n s t r u c t e d by the demographers i s  value unless underlying attitudes members can be d e s c r i b e d .  and b e l i e f s of  The a t t r a c t i v e n e s s 31  of  the  The of  limited  family large-scale  demographic s t u d i e s may a l s o have been a f a c t o r i n d e l a y i n g the e x p l o r a t i o n of the more p r i v a t e aspects of f a m i l y The household economics neglected  life.  approach i s another r a t h e r  area of Canadian f a m i l y h i s t o r y , but one major  proponent, B e t t i n a Bradbury, has examined the f a m i l y economy of M o n t r e a l ' s working c l a s s d u r i n g the l a s t h a l f of nineteenth century.  the  Working c l a s s f a m i l i e s had a g r e a t e r  f o r f a m i l y incomes t o be supplemented by t h e i r  need  children's  wages. These c h i l d r e n s t a r t e d work a t an e a r l y age and i n a f a r l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n than c h i l d r e n of p r o f e s s i o n a l s merchants.  26  The d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d f o r low income  or  families  o c c u r r e d when c h i l d r e n were too young to work and mothers remained a t home to c a r e f o r them. unpleasant circumstances not uncommon o c c u r r e n c e . were sought.  Moreover, p a r t i c u l a r l y  arose when one of the p a r e n t s d i e d , a During these t i m e s ,  other  strategies  Some c h i l d r e n were sent to k i n or orphanages  to  be r e c l a i m e d upon r e a c h i n g working age or when the c r i s i s had subsided.  27  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h by Bradbury has shown t h a t  families  kept l i v e s t o c k  c i t y to h e l p supplement  and c u l t i v a t e d garden p l o t s incomes.  i n the  23  T e r r y Copp's study of the Montreal working c l a s s i n the first  two decades of the t w e n t i e t h  insights  i n t o f a m i l y economic l i f e .  c e n t u r y o f f e r e d more L i k e Bradbury, Copp  s t r e s s e d the r o l e of working c h i l d r e n i n s u p p o r t i n g f a m i l y income. evident  The extreme p o v e r t y of these people was g r a p h i c a l l y i n Copp's d e s c r i p t i o n s  of h o u s i n g , h e a l t h care and 32  working c o n d i t i o n s .  2 9  It is  important to note t h a t Copp's work  was not i n t e n d e d as a study of f a m i l y l i f e b u t , as i n other c a s e s , h i s f i n d i n g s can be used e f f e c t i v e l y  t o expand an  understanding of the h i s t o r i c a l context i n which f a m i l i e s lived. S t u d i e s of household economics have examined the t r a n s m i s s i o n of p r o p e r t y and wealth from one g e n e r a t i o n t o next.  the  Researchers have used w i l l s and deeds t o d i s c o v e r  p a t t e r n s of i n h e r i t a n c e .  These p a t t e r n s p r o v i d e an  i n t e r e s t i n g means to study the concerns of the household head towards the f u t u r e of h i s c h i l d r e n and wife and a l s o  the  d i s p o s i t i o n of the e s t a t e he a c q u i r e d over h i s l i f e t i m e .  In  h i s study of the demography of P e e l County, David Gagan a l s o a n a l y z e d changes i n i n h e r i t a n c e p a t t e r n s . of s e t t l e m e n t ,  In the e a r l y years  farmers attempted to o b t a i n s u f f i c i e n t  land to  compensate t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r t h e i r years of labour f o r the family.  When l a n d became s c a r c e ,  f a t h e r s tended to  devise  w i l l s which attempted t o combine p r i m o g e n i t u r e and partibility.  U s u a l l y the l a n d was w i l l e d t o the e l d e s t son  who was p l a c e d under o b l i g a t i o n t o keep h i s mother and unmarried s i s t e r s . compensation.  Other male h e i r s r e c e i v e d cash  By e n s u r i n g t h a t the l a n d remained i n the  e l d e s t s o n ' s hands i n t h i s f a s h i o n , f a t h e r s hoped t o p r o v i d e f o r wives and daughters who would be l e s s a b l e t o fend f o r themselves.  30  33  A s i m i l a r end was the aim of a v e r y d i f f e r e n t method.  inheritance  The s e i g n e u r i a l system of New France d i c t a t e d  the  manner i n which l a n d was d i v i d e d w i t h a p o r t i o n g o i n g to c h i l d and the w i f e .  A widow would n o r m a l l y r e c e i v e  of her husband's e s t a t e and the e l d e s t son r e c e i v e d l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of the s i b l i n g s .  from h i s s i b l i n g s  one-half the  Where the p o r t i o n s of l a n d  were too s m a l l to farm e c o n o m i c a l l y , shares  each  he would o f t e n  and mother.  The farm was  and a l l members r e c e i v e d compensation.  purchase restored  Research by Cole  H a r r i s shows how v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s were used by f a m i l i e s accomplish t h i s  same p u r p o s e .  to  31  The household economics approach e x p l a i n s the means by which f a m i l i e s were a b l e to cope w i t h the r e s t of s o c i e t y p r o v i d e t h e i r b a s i c needs. the f a m i l y t o g e t h e r  Each s t r a t e g y was d e v i s e d to  i n the b e s t p o s s i b l e  and keep  f a s h i o n and a s s i s t  each member i n i m p r o v i n g t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .  Concern was  also  expressed about f r i c t i o n between f a m i l y members and ways were sought t o a v o i d such problems, f o r example, i n h e r i t a n c e arrangements. history,  The f i n a l  through  d i v i s i o n of  family  the h e g e m o n i c / i n s t i t u t i o n a l approach has l e s s d i r e c t  r e l e v a n c e t o the study of the p r e v i o u s t h r e e but i t provide valuable insights  of how s o c i e t y  viewed the f a m i l y .  E d u c a t i o n and the s o c i a l reform movements of the n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h greater interest reformers f e l t  can  late  c e n t u r i e s began t o take a  i n the s t a t e of the Canadian f a m i l y .  The  t h a t lower c l a s s or working c l a s s f a m i l i e s  were  not f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r o l e as the moral and s p i r i t u a l of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  The w e l f a r e  institutions  teachers  which they  e n v i s i o n e d were i n t e n d e d to r e p l a c e those f a m i l i e s  which  the reformers f e l t were not c a r r y i n g out t h e i r p r o p e r responsibilities. A l i s o n P r e n t i c e argued t h a t e a r l y Canadian educators  like  John S t r a c h a n and E g e r t o n Ryerson b e l i e v e d s c h o o l s s h o u l d perform the r o l e of the p a t r i a r c h .  3 2  S i n c e e d u c a t i o n had been  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the f a m i l y , the s t a t e adopted a matching philosophy for i t s  operation.  When i t s  ideals  of a more moral  s o c i e t y through e d u c a t i o n were not v i g o r o u s l y supported by parents,  reformers looked to compulsory attendance  complete  takeover of any p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  education.  G a f f i e l d demonstrates  attendance labourers.  and a  for  t h a t poor and e r r a t i c  was more commonly the case among c h i l d r e n of 3 3  The need f o r lower c l a s s e s t o supplement  the  f a m i l y economy p r o v i d e d reformers w i t h an excuse to g i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e d u c a t i o n to the s t a t e .  full  Jean Barman shows  how B r i t i s h - o r i e n t e d p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia even t r i e d to exclude  the i n f l u e n c e s  of the f a m i l y , c o n s i d e r i n g  t o be c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e to e d u c a t i o n  purposes.  it  34  The s o c i a l reform movement which promoted s t a t e  education  a l s o e n t e r e d o t h e r areas of t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y c o n t r o l . V i c t o r i a n m o r a l i t y and c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s attitudes  about j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y .  were fundamental  Susan Houston  demonstrated t h a t the middle c l a s s p e r c e p t i o n s 35  to  about the  lower  class families  i n T o r o n t o i n f l u e n c e d these c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s  o f c h i l d r e n as d e l i n q u e n t s and the attempts made towards rehabilitation.  3 5  The " i d e a l f a m i l y " concept a l s o had an e f f e c t on the make-up of the reform movement.  A g e n e r a l study by T . R .  M o r r i s o n and r e s e a r c h on the Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Movement by Wendy M i t c h i n s o n have s u p p l i e d evidence  t h a t many  women worked f o r the reform movement to r e t u r n s o c i e t y more moral f a m i l i a l o r d e r which they f e l t  had been  to a  lost.  They b e l i e v e d t h a t women, as the g u a r d i a n s of the home, m o r a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y s u p e r i o r to men, and t h e r e f o r e better  g u a r d i a n s of the f a m i l y and i t s  T h i s examination of how s o c i e t y each i n f l u e n c e d the o t h e r i s hegemonic/institutional r e a l i t y of f a m i l y l i f e  were were  ideals.  viewed the f a m i l y and how  the c e n t r a l focus  approach.  3 6  of  the  A comparison between the  shown by the o t h e r t h r e e approaches and  the p e r c e p t i o n s of s o c i e t y  a l l o w s r e s e a r c h e r s to  better  understand the b i a s e s p r e s e n t e d i n the source m a t e r i a l . Further,  the h e g e m o n i c / i n s t i t u t i o n a l  approach i s v i t a l t o an .  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d i f f e r e n c e between how s o c i e t y  perceived  the f a m i l y and how the f a m i l y a c t u a l l y f u n c t i o n e d . F a m i l y h i s t o r y i n Canada i s stages.  s t i l l in its  beginning  Few major works have been w r i t t e n and c e r t a i n l y  n o t h i n g of a s e m i n a l n a t u r e .  The themes examined have been  s c a t t e r e d throughout the p o s s i b l e  approaches.  There i s  little  c o h e s i v e n e s s to the w r i t i n g s except f o r what has been produced  by the major demographic s t u d i e s ,  and the n a t u r e of the work  i s very preliminary. Nevertheless,  some i n - r o a d s are b e i n g made.  Because of  the c o m p l e x i t y of the s u b j e c t and the l a c k of s o u r c e s , l a r g e s c a l e demographic p r o j e c t s , P e e l County s t u d i e s , for analysis  such as the H a m i l t o n and  are n e c e s s a r y  to produce b a s i c numbers  and support f o r other approaches.  need f o r such p r o j e c t s  the  There i s  to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about  the  M a r i t i m e s , Quebec, the P r a i r i e s and B r i t i s h Columbia. there i s  little  Since  chance any r e s e a r c h e r w i l l f u l l y a n a l y z e  recorded information, i t  researchers  can develop o t h e r s t u d i e s u s i n g the m a t e r i a l which was to c r e a t e .  projects  the  i s c r u c i a l t h a t the computer program  and the raw d a t a be p r o p e r l y documented so o t h e r  costly  a  Awareness of the s t r u c t u r e of  so  previous  i s v i t a l to ensure t h a t comparison w i t h new s t u d i e s  is possible.  The c o s t of p r o d u c i n g such g i g a n t i c s t u d i e s can  o n l y be j u s t i f i e d i f  the d a t a i s  r e - u s e d many t i m e s .  There are areas of f a m i l y h i s t o r y which need more attention.  The tendency towards l a r g e s c a l e d a t a banks has  encouraged wide g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s little  r e g a r d f o r the l i f e  groups w i t h i n them. o r newlyweds  about s o c i e t y  c y c l e of f a m i l i e s  For example,  are r e q u i r e d .  specific  Further,  and has shown and p a r t i c u l a r  s t u d i e s of  widows  a b l e n d i n g of the  approaches i n a s m a l l a r e a would be p e r f e c t l y f e a s i b l e . development of the methodologies far,  has a l r e a d y p r o g r e s s e d  four Since quite  i t would be s u r p r i s i n g l y simple to c r e a t e a r e l a t i v e l y 37  full  p i c t u r e of a minor theme.  One of the major f a i l i n g s  of  f a m i l y h i s t o r y r e s e a r c h e r s has been the attempt t o t r e a t f a m i l y as though i t was a s i n g l e The enormous c o m p l e x i t i e s  event,  l i k e the War of  the 1812.  of the i n s t i t u t i o n are f u r t h e r  c o m p l i c a t e d by changes over time and r e g i o n a l and c l a s s differences. eliminate  C o n c e n t r a t i n g on a s p e c i f i c  any of these problems.  institution itself, the  l o c a l i t y does not  The i n t r i c a c i e s of  the  not the s i z e of the g e n e r a l s t u d y ,  cause  difficulties. After centuries  of n e g l e c t ,  the h i s t o r y of the f a m i l y  f i n a l l y r e c e i v i n g some much deserved a t t e n t i o n .  Because  the fundamental r o l e which the f a m i l y p l a y s i n s o c i e t y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h i s of s o c i e t y . groups,  of a  full  i n s t i t u t i o n i s v i t a l t o any examination  S i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s  social classes,  religious  between e t h n i c  groups and o t h e r s  all  provide a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e .  S l o w l y Canadian h i s t o r i a n s  r e a l i z i n g the v a l u e of t h i s  study and more e f f o r t  devoted to  is  it.  38  is  are  being  CHAPTER 2 ENDNOTES 1. Michael Anderson, Approaches to the History of the Western Family, 1500-1914. (London: MacMillan, 1980). 2. Anderson, 65. 3. Louise A. T i l l y and Miriam Cohen, "Does the Family Have a History?: A Review of Theory and Practice i n Family History", Social Science History 6 (Spring 1982):157-158. 4. Anderson, 83-84. 5. Although these projects have resulted i n numerous articles, the output has been summarized i n two books by Michael Katz, The People of Hamilton, Canada West: Family and Class in a Mid-Nineteenth-Century City, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975 and with Michael J. Doucet and Mark J. Stern, The Social Organization of Early Industrial Capitalism, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982 and one book by David P. Gagan, Hopeful Travellers: Families, Land and Social Change i n Mid-Victorian Peel County,Canada West, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981. 6. Douglas Sprague and Ronald Frye, " Manitoba's Red River Settlement: Sources for Economic and Demographic History," Archivaria 9 (Winter 1979-80):190-191. 7. Anderson, 23-24. 8. Katz, The People of Hamilton, 35. 9. Sheva Medjuck, "Family and Household Composition i n the Nineteenth Century: The Case of Moncton, New Brunswick, 18511871" i n The Canadian City: Essays in Urban and Social History, revised edition edited by Gilbert A. Stetler and Alan F.J. Artibise, (Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1984):249-261. 10. Katz, The People of Hamilton, 34-35. 11. Chad Gaffield, "Canadian Families in Cultural Context: Hypotheses from the Mid-Nineteenth Century", Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1979):48-70. 12. R.M. Mclnnis, "Childbearing and Land Availability: Some Evidence from Individual Household Data" i n Population Patterns in the Past, edited by Ronald Demos Lee, (New York: Academic Press, 1977):201-227. 39  13. Gagan, Hopeful Travellers, 54-57. 14. Katz, The People of Hamilton, 127-130. 15. Gerard Bouchard, "Family Structures and Geographical Mobility at LaTerriere, 1851-1935", Journal of Family History 2 (Fall 1977):350-369. 16. Alan A. Brookes, "Family, Youth and Leaving Home in Late-Nineteenth-Century Rural Nova Scotia: Canning and the Exodus, 1868-1893" i n Childhood and Family in Canadian History, edited by Joy Parr, (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982):93108. 17. Ross A. McCormack, "Networks among British Immigrants and Accommodation to Canadian Society: Winnipeg, 1900-1914," Histoire Sociale - Social History XVII (November 1984):357-374. 18. Herbert J. Mays, "A Place to Stand: Families, Land and Permanence i n Toronto Gore Township, 1820-1890", Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1980):185-211. 19. Jennifer S.H. Brown, Strangers in Blood: Fur Trade Company Families i n Indian Country, (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1980). 20. Sylvia Van Kirk, "Many Tender Ties": Women in Fur Trade Society i n Western Canada, 1670-1870, (Winnipeg: Watson & Dwyer Publishing, 1980). 21. Phillipe Aries, Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life, (New York: Vintage Books, 1962). 22. Peter N. Moogk, "Les Petits Sauvages: The Children of Eighteenth Century New France" in Childhood and Family i n Canadian History edited by Joy Parr, (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982):17-43. 23. W. Peter Ward, "Unwed Motherhood i n Nineteenth Century English Canada", Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1981):34-56. 24. Andree Levesque, "Deviant Anonymous: Single Mothers at the Hopital de l a Misercorde in Montreal, 1929-1939," Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1984):168-184. 25. Peter Ward, "Courtship and Social Space i n Nineteenth Century English Canada," Canadian Historical Review 68 (1987):62. 26. Bettina Bradbury, "The Family Economy and Work in an Industrializing City: Montreal i n the 1870s," Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1979):71-96. 40  27. B e t t i n a Bradbury, "The Fragmented Family: Family S t r a t e g i e s i n the Face o f Death, I l l n e s s and Poverty, Montreal, 1868-1893" i n Childhood and Family i n Canadian H i s t o r y e d i t e d by Joy P a r r (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1982):109-128. 28. B e t t i n a Bradbury, " P i g s , Cows and Boarders: Non-Wage Forms o f S u r v i v a l among Montreal F a m i l i e s , 1861-1891," Labour/Le T r a v a i l 14 ( F a l l 1984):9-46. 29. T e r r y Copp, The Anatomy o f Poverty: The C o n d i t i o n o f the Working C l a s s i n Montreal, 1897-1929, (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1974). 30. Gagan, Hopeful T r a v e l l e r s , 54-57. 31. R i c h a r d Colebrook H a r r i s , The S e i g n e u r i a l System i n E a r l y Canada: A G e o g r a p h i c a l Study, (Kingston and M o n t r e a l : McGill-Queen's U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966):123-124. 32. A l i s o n P r e n t i c e , The School Promoters: E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l C l a s s i n Mid-Nineteenth Century Upper Canada (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1977):178-179. 33. Chad G a f f i e l d , " S c h o o l i n g , the Economy and R u r a l S o c i e t y i n Nineteenth-Century O n t a r i o " i n Childhood and Family i n Canadian H i s t o r y e d i t e d by J o y P a r r (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1982):69-82. 34. Jean Barman, Growing Up B r i t i s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Boys i n P r i v a t e School, (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984). 35. Susan E. Houston, " V i c t o r i a n O r i g i n s o f J u v e n i l e Delinquency: A Canadian Experience" i n E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l Change: Themes from O n t a r i o ' s Past e d i t e d by M i c h a e l B. Katz and Paul H. M a t t i n g l y (New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975):83109. 36. T.R. M o r r i s o n , " ' T h e i r Proper Sphere" Feminism, The Family and C h i l d - c e n t r e d S o c i a l Reform i n O n t a r i o : 1875-1900" P a r t s I and I I , O n t a r i o H i s t o r y 68 (March and June, 1976):45-74 and Wendy M i t c h i n s o n , " The WCTU: 'For God, Home and N a t i v e Land': A Study i n Nineteenth-Century Feminism" i n A Not Unreasonable Claim: Women and Reform i n Canada, 1880s-1920s e d i t e d by L i n d a Kealey, (Toronto: Women's P r e s s , 1979):152-167.  41  CHAPTER 3 THE DEMOGRAPHIC The the  following four  usefulness  chapters- d e s c r i b e  of various  record  approaches o u t l i n e d by M i c h a e l contains  is  as w e l l  and  extent  archives history The  researchers  chapter  Columbia A r c h i v e s  of material  with  first  are l i s t e d  f a m i l y over  time.  investigations availability  f o r family  approaches r e l i e s  The r e s u l t s o f n u m e r i c a l  theories  on t h e analysis  about the changes i n the  Demographic s t u d i e s have dominated t h e  i n t o family h i s t o r y throughout the world.  of considerable  source m a t e r i a l ,  p e r f o r m complex a n a l y s i s have g i v e n appeal.  The s u r v i v a l o f f a i r l y  reflects  their  over  i s used as examples  and r e l e v a n t  c h u r c h r e g i s t e r s , and t h e a b i l i t y  organizations  and Records  i n the appendix.  o f Anderson's four  interpreted to offer  which  The a c t u a l c o l l e c t i o n s and  h e l d by these i n s t i t u t i o n s research  widely  some k n o w l e d g e o f t h e t y p e s  available.  m e t h o d o l o g y o f demography.  control  Each  f o r the study of the family  and t h e C i t y o f Vancouver A r c h i v e s  to provide  and  Anderson.  to the four  a s o n e s w h i c h show p o t e n t i a l f o r  The s o u r c e m a t e r i a l  and  are  forms a c c o r d i n g  p r e s e n t l y h e l d by t h e B r i t i s h  Service  t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y and  an a n a l y s i s o f t h e forms w h i c h have been most  used by r e s e a r c h e r s study.  APPROACH  importance  such as censuses  of automation t o q u i c k l y  demography w i d e s p r e a d  unbroken runs o f these  t o governments and  people.  and  So t h e p r e s e n c e o f l o n g a n d  42  records  other  f o r the purposes o f t a x a t i o n , planning their  The  f r e q u e n t l y complete  s e r i e s of these types of r e c o r d s are one  f a c t o r i n t h e i r common use. An e q u a l l y important c o n t r i b u t o r to the i n c r e a s e  in  demographic r e s e a r c h has been the growth of computer technology.  The i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y and n o v e l t y of  this  new method of d a t a p r o c e s s i n g has a t t r a c t e d funding f o r p r o j e c t s u s i n g the technology.  Further,  computers to perform complex a n a l y s i s  the a b i l i t y of  f o r extremely  involved  and numerous data s e t s has g i v e n h i s t o r i a n s a t o o l to sources,  p r e v i o u s l y unmanageable u s i n g manual  analyze  techniques.  As w e l l as the a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e c o r d s and t e c h n o l o g y , the a c t u a l c o n t e n t s of the documents have c o n t r i b u t e d to preference  f o r demographic s t u d i e s .  The i n f o r m a t i o n  the  collected  i s most f r e q u e n t l y done u s i n g a s t a n d a r d i z e d format. T h e r e f o r e , w i t h i n each s e r i e s , present.  the same d a t a elements are  Even between r e c o r d s e r i e s ,  the r e c o r d e d i n f o r m a t i o n  o f t e n c o n s i s t s of some b a s i c elements, f o r example, ages, r e s i d e n c e s ,  marital status,  and l i n k a g e s to  names, relatives.  Common elements a l l o w comparison of i n f o r m a t i o n , both d u r i n g contemporary time p e r i o d s or between d i f f e r e n t ones. important to these s t u d i e s are the o p p o r t u n i t i e s to m a t e r i a l from d i f f e r e n t other.  For example,  Equally use  s e r i e s to augment and complement each  the emphasis of p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s  on the  e x a c t date of the event can be connected to census d a t a which d e a l w i t h dates i n a much more g e n e r a l  43  fashion.  data  Demographic r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s  the  for  It  the  study of  framework o f  the  complete  set  of  cycle  the  family.  of  documents several  registers,  family.  institution records  exist  series  the  pattern to  of  records.  Censuses,  illuminate  the  documents  considerable  economic  needs.  elaborate  used  of  requires  the  the  to  systems to  populated  statistics  have  forced to  acquire this  create  their  grown i n set  the  The for  the  movement  natural  of  the  nineteenth  saw s t a t i s t i c s  laws and  patterns.  as  1  44  need  century.  a way o f  and decisions the  collection  these  information culminated i n a s t a t i s t i c a l half  The  up more a n d more  basis this  a  population  statistical  latter  that  of  G e o r g e Emery c o n t e n d s  the  of  generate  social  decisions.  in  use  community  information.  provides  such  family.  an e x t e n s i v e knowledge  As c o m m u n i t i e s  life  directories,  institutions  p l a n n i n g t o manage  r u l e r s have been  of  group of  f o r demographic r e s e a r c h .  requires  serve.  and a n a l y s i s  the  T h e a b i l i t y t o make s o u n d p o l i t i c a l  b y any g o v e r n m e n t  and l o c a l i t y ,  p i c t u r e of  p a r i s h and c h u r c h  social  any s u b s t a n t i a l l y  requires  they  large  structural A very  statistics,  evolution  statistical  and t i m e .  and deeds a l l have been u s e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  society  vital  the  no s i n g l e  and a n y d e m o g r a p h i c s t u d y  wills  bulk of  through place  Unfortunately,  Governments and o t h e r the  offers  can provide a f u l l  assessment r o l l s ,  newspapers,  fundamental  for movement  Supporters  determining  of  various  V a r i o u s types of documents were needed, assessment r o l l s and censuses.  such as  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the law and  c o n t r o l of the people a l s o caused r e c o r d s to be produced, f o r example,  vital statistics,  deeds and w i l l s .  H i s t o r i a n s of  the  f a m i l y have e x t e n s i v e l y used these documents because they are the ones which s p e c i f y  i n d i v i d u a l s and, j u s t as i m p o r t a n t ,  make them i d e n t i f i a b l e  so other r e c o r d s can be l i n k e d to them.  More modern r e c o r d s e r i e s ,  such as p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s , w i l l  a l s o p r o v i d e c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r researchers. Censuses have o f t e n history research.  formed the f o u n d a t i o n of  The s t u d i e s by Gagan and Katz  family exemplified  t h i s method but the s h o r t e r works of D a r r y l N o r r i s and Sheva Medjuck a l s o u t i l i z e d these s o u r c e s .  2  Census d a t a o f f e r  the  most complete i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e about the s t r u c t u r e of e a r l y Canadian f a m i l i e s . residence  Family members l i v i n g a t the same  are l i s t e d t o g e t h e r and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  head of household are noted.  to  the  This information provides  r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h the i n v a l u a b l e knowledge of f a m i l i a l  linkages  and so enables them to r e l a t e other forms of documentation the  to  family. Census r e c o r d s were not c o l l e c t e d  i n B r i t i s h Columbia on  a r e g u l a r b a s i s u n t i l 1871 and then the a c q u i s i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n was c a r r i e d out by the f e d e r a l government. t h e r e i s no e x i s t i n g civic  level.  So  census m a t e r i a l a t the p r o v i n c i a l or  However, the importance of these documents 45  as  the core of data for demographic studies makes a discussion of them necessary.  They are easily available on microfilm at  several institutions or through the National Archives of Canada. In Canada, most governments commenced the routine practice of decennial census-taking in 1851.  Prior to this  time, irregular censuses were carried out, primarily in the Maritimes and Quebec but, frequently, these were restricted to a specific area of the colonies, for example, the city of Montreal.  Further, the enumeration was often limited to the  head of the household and so provided considerably less information to the researcher than the 1851 and succeeding censuses.  The union of British Columbia with the rest of  Canada i n 1871 initiated the area's f i r s t major census. Despite the obvious usefulness of census data to researchers, there are considerable d i f f i c u l t i e s with using these documents.  The r e l i a b i l i t y and completeness of the data  suffers from the way in which the early census enumerators were selected, trained and controlled.  3  The position of  enumerator was frequently a patronage appointment.  Unskilled  enumerators omitted certain areas, failed to record certain data, and often had virtually i l l e g i b l e hand writing which makes use of their data impossible.  Variant phonetic spelling  of names also creates significant problems when researchers are trying to establish linkages.  46  Two o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s arising  from  the m o b i l i t y of people  prejudices. enumeration  occur i n e a r l y censuses,  about  thirty  t o be m i s s e d .  some e t h n i c  and r a c i a l  the census-taking. skew i n a n The  Secondly,  significant  i t i s widely accepted  sources f o r t h i s  primary  create a  i s the r e g i s t r a t i o n  The c o l l e c t i o n  of v i t a l  Dates  f o r each Isles,  o f i n f o r m a t i o n about  of b i r t h ,  denomination  the p r a c t i c e  statistics.  baptism,  and c h u r c h  the r i t e s of  of the r e l i g i o u s marriage  and d e a t h a r e  by church or d i s t r i c t .  of r e c o r d i n g deaths  In the  i n each  b e g a n i n t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a s a means o f e n s u r i n g wills  were p r o p e r l y p r o b a t e d  and t h e c h u r c h  s h a r e o f t h e e s t a t e w h i c h was b e q u e a t h e d keeping of p a r i s h  the church r e a l i z e d  statistics  was a m e t h o d o f c o n t r o l l i n g  governments and t h e i r need f o r c i t i z e n s  to i t .  that  parish that  r e c e i v e d any 5  Although the  r e g i s t e r s was s p o r a d i c f o r t h e n e x t  centuries,  marriage,  that  significant  information are parish  has l o n g been t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  institutions.  all  and  area of documentation f o r  The  British  a l l o w many i n d i v i d u a l s  T h i s would p o s s i b l y  studies  recorded  4  p o p u l a t i o n s were u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n  demographic  passage  Brunswick.  analysis.  next  registers.  racial  the length of  d a y s i n New  T h i s d u r a t i o n o f time would e a s i l y families  and t h e o t h e r from  A c c o r d i n g t o Alan Brookes, averaged  one  the recording of  two vital  i t s parishioners.  As  p r a c t i c e s became more f o r m a l i z e d , t h e  t o prove  t h e p l a c e and d a t e  o r a d e a t h became more i m p o r t a n t .  47  of a b i r t h , Eventually,  a  d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y many g o v e r n m e n t s b e g a n t h e i r systems o f r e g i s t r a t i o n .  I n Canada, c i v i l  developed  responsibility  as a p r o v i n c i a l  implementation developed  varied  i n the late  from  own  registration  and t h e time o f  region to region.  nineteenth century.  Most  systems  E v e n when  i m p l e m e n t e d , a c c u r a t e r e c o r d - k e e p i n g was n o t a l w a y s t h e norm. Although keeping their  the state of these  own  acquired o f f i c i a l  records, churches  responsibility  6  f o r the  have c o n t i n u e d t o m a i n t a i n  registers.  R e g i s t e r s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e a c t u a l events i n the  lives  o f f a m i l y members.  participants, and  such  a s newborns a n d t h e i r p a r e n t s , a n d b r i d e s  grooms, p e r m i t  ultimately,  Names o f t h e a c t u a l  l i n k a g e s between d i f f e r e n t  f a m i l i e s and,  t h e development o f e l a b o r a t e f a m i l y g e n e a l o g i e s .  These r e c o r d s o f f e r they provide data  a useful  adjunct t o censuses.  fora fairly  good u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Together of the  demography o f t h e f a m i l y . The  availability  t h e most p a r t , t h e s e the churches. undertaken  of parish  Some c o l l e c t i o n o f p a r i s h  by both  the provincial  p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s has allowed  of  type  church  i s q u i t e good.  For  r e c o r d s have remained i n t h e c o n t r o l o f  recent years, the establishment  this  registers  of acquisition. a r c h i v e s , such  r e g i s t e r s has been  and c i t y  of church  archives.  In  a r c h i v e s on a  t h e two i n s t i t u t i o n s  t o g i v e up  However, e v e n w i t h t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y as t h o s e  f o r t h e A n g l i c a n Church and  t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h , some c h u r c h d i s t r i c t s  48  have been  reluctant  to r e l e a s e t h e i r r e g i s t e r s  and so a compromise has been s t r u c k  through the use of m i c r o f i l m i n g . satisfactory microfilm,  While a l e s s than  s o l u t i o n g i v e n the i n h e r e n t problems of u s i n g  nevertheless  the r e c o r d s are now a v a i l a b l e and some  s e c u r i t y f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n i s original registers  i n p l a c e . T h e r e f o r e both  and m i c r o f i l m c o p i e s  are a v a i l a b l e a t  P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s and the C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s . example,  the c i t y a r c h i v e s holds c o p i e s of v i t a l  registers  For  statistics  f o r S t . P a u l ' s A n g l i c a n Church ( C i t y of Vancouver  Archives, hereafter Mss.,  the  11),  CVA, A d d i t i o n a l M a n u s c r i p t , h e r e a f t e r Add.  the F i r s t P r e s b y t e r i a n Church (CVA, Add. Mss.  and S t . James A n g l i c a n Church (CVA, Add. Mss. 403)  29),  among  others. Parish registers  have some of the same i n h e r e n t problems  t h a t are p r e s e n t i n censuses.  I l l e g i b i l i t y of h a n d w r i t i n g and  p h o n e t i c s p e l l i n g can f r e q u e n t l y prevent the establishment the r e q u i r e d l i n k a g e s .  M o b i l i t y of p a r i s h i o n e r s a l s o means  t h a t the f a m i l y h i s t o r i e s difficult  problem a r i s e s  are i n c o m p l e t e .  An e q u a l l y  from the manner i n which many  churches moved i n t o a newly s e t t l e d  area.  I f a church or a  denomination of an i n d i v i d u a l was slow i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a presence  i n a p a r t i c u l a r area, i t s  t r a d i t i o n a l supporters  would be f o r c e d to a t t e n d a church of a d i f f e r e n t denomination. Because e n t r i e s  f o r censuses and p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s  o r g a n i z e d i n date o r d e r , i t  are  i s extremely time-consuming to  of  search f o r s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s .  More c o n v e n i e n t  access i s  a v a i l a b l e through c i t y and town d i r e c t o r i e s which o f t e n are arranged  to permit  s e a r c h i n g by name and by s t r e e t  location.  D i r e c t o r i e s do not have the problem of l e g i b i l i t y because are p u b l i s h e d items. Of c o u r s e , occur.  they  s p e l l i n g i n a c c u r a c i e s do  The major f l a w of these documents a r i s e s from the  limited listings.  Only heads of households or p r o p e r t y owners  were l i s t e d and these were o f t e n r e s t r i c t e d t o white p r o p e r t y owners or d i r e c t o r y s u b s c r i b e r s .  D i r e c t o r i e s are easy t o  o b t a i n because numerous c o p i e s were p u b l i s h e d and many have remained e x t a n t .  Most i m p o r t a n t l y , l o n g continuous  d i r e c t o r i e s are a v a i l a b l e i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s .  runs of  7  Newspapers a l s o o f f e r v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r demographic r e s e a r c h e r s .  T h e i r format makes them more  cumbersome t o use because the i n f o r m a t i o n i s s c a t t e r e d throughout the paper and not always p l a c e d i n the same a r e a . Most other demographic sources were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the same g e n e r a l purpose t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s are u s i n g them today, t h a t is,  to i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l s .  The  p r i n t i n g of v i t a l  statistic  n o t i c e s i s o n l y a v e r y minor one  of the m u l t i p l e purposes f o r  which newspapers are p u b l i s h e d .  However, t h i s format makes i t  extremely  time-consuming f o r r e s e a r c h e r s t o gather  necessary  data.  rewarding,  important  In s p i t e of t h i s , the e x t r a work can  p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r newspapers from l e s s  communities.  the  O b i t u a r i e s can be  populated  l e n g t h y and c o n t a i n  i n f o r m a t i o n about c h i l d r e n , s i b l i n g s and 50  be  extremely other  relatives.  They may a l s o p r o v i d e data about i m m i g r a t i o n ,  employment, r e l i g i o n and other b a s i c f a c t s which can allow r e s e a r c h e r s to move to other s o u r c e s ,  such as church  registers. One s e r i o u s inaccuracy. relatives,  flaw of newspaper a r t i c l e s  their  I n f o r m a t i o n i n o b i t u a r i e s has been o b t a i n e d from u s u a l l y younger ones who may be r e l y i n g on f a m i l y  myths, incomplete f a c t s potential difficulties sought.  is  or p e r s o n a l assumptions.  These  r e q u i r e t h a t c o r r o b o r a t i v e evidence  F i n d i n g t h i s c o n f i r m a t i o n can be f a i r l y simple i f  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the newspaper i s a c c u r a t e .  be the  Problems of  i n a c c u r a t e r e p o r t i n g can a l s o occur w i t h government certificates,  p a r t i c u l a r l y r e g i s t e r i n g deaths.  these c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  Again,  in  the r e p o r t e r of the i n f o r m a t i o n may not  have f i r s t hand knowledge of a l l of the requested d a t a . A f i n a l comment about newspaper n o t i c e s i s  t h a t they do  not p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about a l l members of the community. Most commonly, newspaper space must be purchased by the informant.  So, f o r the most p a r t , o n l y people a b l e and  w i l l i n g to a f f o r d t h i s expenditure are r e c o r d e d i n the paper. T h i s skews any s t a t i s t i c a l  i n f o r m a t i o n towards the upper  classes. P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r lands and e s t a t e s has ensured the c o l l e c t i o n of deeds and w i l l s as f u r t h e r f o r demographic r e s e a r c h .  sources  Both types of m a t e r i a l s can be used  t o supplement census d a t a and w i l l s o f f e r the f u r t h e r  advantage of supplying family linkage information, most frequently a l i s t i n g of children and spouse. Tax assessment r o l l s can also be used although they record only the head of the household and not family members. They do identify the residence of families which can be used to assist i n evaluating class distinctions.  Unfortunately,  the assessment r o l l s for Vancouver are very limited for the pre-1918 period.  Only r o l l s for 1889 and 1892 are extant and  this short time span makes them virtually useless for demographic research.  Provincial assessment r o l l s are more  readily available and far more complete but they do not cover the most populated areas. An additional series of government records which i s valuable to demographers i s the cemetery registers.  Local  governments are required to maintain a l i s t of burials i n those cemetery grounds within their boundaries.  These  registers often contain information about the age, religion, place of birth and cause of death of the deceased as well as the name, date of death and location of the burial plot.  For  example, the City Archives holds microfilms of the Mountain View Cemetery Registers (CVA, Department of Health, Series 3). The registers cover the period of 1886 to 1975. The last group of records which can be used for examining the demography of the family are those of private agencies.  This i s not a particularly f r u i t f u l type of source  because the form of record valuable to demographers, ones with 52  a repetitious format and which gather discrete units of information, were not prevalent prior to the end of World War I.  Businesses were generally small enough to preclude the  need for extensive personnel records.  A more serious  d i f f i c u l t y has been the relatively meagre collection of business records collected by most institutions. Hospital records have been acquired by the Vancouver City Archives which hold early material from both the Royal Columbian Hospital (CVA, Add. Mss. 284) i n New Westminster and the Vancouver General Hospital (CVA, Add. Mss. 320).  The  types of source material used for demographic research are not available i n great abundance in these archives.  The only area  of such research i s i n a few patient registers i n the Royal Columbian Hospital records.  There are also restrictions on  use of both of these collections, requiring permission of the hospital boards. Finally, a group of records which are not available for research should be discussed.  The Provincial Ministry of  Health i s responsible for the collection of v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s through i t s Division of V i t a l Statistics.  Unfortunately, at  the present time, these records are available only for internal use or legal requirements, marriage or death.  such as proof of birth,  Further, these documents w i l l only be  furnished to the parties involved.  These restrictions mean  that an extremely valuable body of records cannot be used for research. 53  Collections research  of material  are f a i r l y  institutions  abundant  and c o n t r o l t h e i r  material  be r e t a i n e d  planning of  Those past of  relevant  documents  kept  the  various  and  this has  future  s e e n a s some  a government  produces.  p e r m i t h i s t o r i a n s t o c a r r y o u t much  i n social  researchers  and t h e d e c i s i o n s  a n d what was  history.  In combination  the  more c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r  area  t o t h e whims o f t h e  of past  destroyed.  with  these  because they g i v e  a r c h i v i s t s as t o  The m a j o r  difficulties  a r e t h e expense and time r e q u i r e d i n  a l a r g e d a t a base and c o n f i r m i n g sources of  which  t o be  o f t h e n a t i o n a l government,  t h i s methodology  establishing  The v a l u e  continued  a n d make them l e s s s u b j e c t  creators  what was with  records  and o t h e r  research  record  research  to  have e n s u r e d t h a t  part.  that  a r e e v e n more v a l u a b l e  historians of  t h e y have  a t t i t u d e s now  archival  f o r tax c o l l e c t i n g  i m p o r t a n t documents  the recent  the  f o r t h e most  h a s meant t h a t  t o demographic  The n e e d f o r g o v e r n m e n t s  constituents  on t h e s e r e c o r d s  t h e most  i n t h e two m a j o r  i n the province.  identify  been p l a c e d  which are valuable  information.  54  linkages  between  CHAPTER 3 ENDNOTES 1. George Emery, "Ontario's C i v i l Registration of V i t a l Statistics, 1869-1926: The Evolution of an Administrative System," Canadian Historical Review 64 (December 1983):469-470. 2. Gagan, Hopeful Travellers, Katz, The People of Hamilton, Canada West, Norris, "Household and Transiency in a Loyalist Township" and Medjuck, "Family and Household Composition in the Nineteenth Century". 3. David Gagan, "Enumerator's Instructions for the Census of Canada, 1852 and 1861", Histoire Sociale - Social History VII (November 1974):355. 4. Alan Brookes, " Doing the Best I Can": the Taking of the 1861 New Brunswick Census", Histoire Sociale - Social History IX:17 (May 1976):85-86. 1  5. Gerald Hamilton-Edwards, In Search of Scottish Ancestry, (Baltimore, MD.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1980):46. 6. George Emery, "Ontario's C i v i l Registration of V i t a l Statistics":481-483 and "A Model Case Study of English Canadian Historical Mortality: A Description and Evaluation of the Data for Ingersoll, Ontario, 1837-1982", Presentation to the Canadian Historical Association Annual Meeting in Winnipeg, Manitoba, June 9, 1986:1-2. 7. A l i s t i n g of British Columbia directories which were published and their locations i s available in The Researcher's Guide to British Columbia Nineteenth Century Directories: A Bibliography and Index edited by John Lutz and published by the Public History Group, University of Victoria in 1988.  55  CHAPTER 4 THE  SENTIMENTS  Moving from an a n a l y s i s  APPROACH  o f numbers t o a s t u d y o f t h e  e m o t i o n s may seem a m a j o r s h i f t  but both areas of research are  b a s e d o n t h e n e e d s o f humans t o m a i n t a i n They can a l s o in  help to explain  accomplishing  family  history,  that  much l e s s  Canada.  Nevertheless,  i n t e r e s t both i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y s u f f i c i e n t material  Columbia  such as c o u r t s h i p ,  to issues  have been l i m i t e d  the attitudes  collected  and o f t e n  sufficient  quantity  of residents  to allow of B r i t i s h  child-rearing  and i n t r a -  representative  i n t h i s a r e a by  there  the records  of family  relations  u n d e r s t o o d when i n t e r p r e t i n g  i t may be p o s s i b l e  have been saved.  is still  who  available  and t h i s b i a s  the data.  since  a  studies.  must be  Nevertheless,  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  t o observe both sides  relationship  have  of the s o c i a l e l i t e s are not  the tendency t o intermarry w i t h i n  family  archives  of documentation t o permit u s e f u l  I t may b e a r g u e d t h a t  other  i n the  restricted to individuals  b e e n p r o m i n e n t i n t h e community,  or  exists  as i n  relationships.  Although materials  class,  plays  as w e l l  A r c h i v e s and t h e Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s into  of  the family  Anderson's second approach t o  some i n v e s t i g a t i o n  familial  that  relationships.  t h e s t u d y o f s e n t i m e n t s , - i s one w h i c h h a s  received  Provincial  end.  the role  social  records  of a  f o r both  because social courtship  groups  The p e o p l e o f V i c t o r i a a r e a p a r t i c u l a r l y  g o o d example o f t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y .  Some c o l l e c t i o n s o f  m a t e r i a l of the c i t y ' s e l i t e s have been kept, f o r example, t h e O ' R e i l l y and T r u t c h f a m i l i e s who were i n t e r - r e l a t e d by the marriage o f P e t e r O ' R e i l l y and C a r o l i n e T r u t c h . The g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e study o f s e n t i m e n t s , one i n h e r e n t f o r a l l types o f m a t e r i a l s used f o r t h i s type o f r e s e a r c h , i s a comparison  between documents.  Each event i n  the l i f e c y c l e o f a f a m i l y i s unique t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r group.  F i n d i n g common ground between these  seemingly d i s t i n c t happenings  t o understand t h e f a m i l y u n i t  g e n e r a l l y o r i t s p l a c e i n s o c i e t y can be a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k . Yet a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e governed by s o c i e t a l r u l e s which p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r human i n t e r a c t i o n s . The study o f these i n t e r a c t i o n s , such as c o u r t s h i p , can be examined through a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s .  There i s  a need f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o e s t a b l i s h a s e t of common events or a c t i o n s which can be used as bench marks. criteria,  A g a i n s t these  i n f o r m a t i o n from o t h e r s i m i l a r sources can be  compared and an o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s can be undertaken.  This  o b j e c t i v e form o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does not s u p p l a n t t h e v a l u e of a s i m p l e r s u b j e c t i v e approach.  A detailed presentation of  a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s , a l t h o u g h based on a l i m i t e d number of s o u r c e s , i s a l s o extremely important.  However, an  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d can be s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhanced by l i n k i n g these s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s e s t o a more o b j e c t i v e study.  F o r example, t h i s form o f  o b j e c t i v e r e s e a r c h was used by L i n d a A. P o l l o c k i n h e r study 57  about the treatment o f c h i l d r e n i n England and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s from 1500 t o 1900. analyzed  as t o c o n t e n t  1  She used 416 d i a r i e s which were  relating to parental-child  relationships. The  sentiments approach l o o k s t o e x p l a i n and i n t e r p r e t  the l i f e c y c l e o f t h e f a m i l y and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , r i t e s of passage.  the various  C o u r t s h i p , marriage, b i r t h and death a r e  the f o c u s p o i n t s f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s among t h e v a r i o u s of t h e f a m i l y .  One o f t h e most u s e f u l forms o f documentation  has been d i a r i e s . sources  By t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e ,  they a r e c r e d i b l e  s i n c e they a r e i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e w r i t e r .  T h e i r time span i s c o n s e c u t i v e length.  levels  and o f t e n o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e  The s t o r i e s t h a t t h e w r i t e r s r e l a t e can be d e t a i l e d  and o f f e r a g r e a t amount of i n s i g h t i n t o t h e author. Researchers a r e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o understand t h e b i a s e s of t h e w r i t e r s and so b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e t h e v a l u e o f the information. Not The  a l l d i a r i e s o f f e r such c l e a r l y p r e s e n t e d  information.  d i a r i s t may w r i t e i n t e n s e l y f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f time and  then s p o r a d i c a l l y .  Despite  many people may s t i l l the w r i t t e n word.  t h e p e r s o n a l nature  o f t h e book,  n o t commit t h e i r complete f e e l i n g s t o  F u r t h e r , t h e purposes f o r which a d i a r y i s  c r e a t e d can be many.  I t may serve as a l e d g e r , an appointment  book, a reminder o f p a s t events as w e l l as a p l a c e t o r e c o r d personal feelings.  O f t e n d i a r i e s c o n t a i n o n l y t h e most  commonplace i n f o r m a t i o n , such as about t h e weather, o r a r e 58  used s i m p l y t o note s o c i a l events w i t h r e l a t i v e l y additional  little  detail.  The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of d i a r i e s i n the A r c h i v e s and the C i t y A r c h i v e s a l s o reduces t h e i r to researchers.  There i s  Provincial usefulness  c e r t a i n l y not a s u f f i c i e n t  of p e r s o n a l j o u r n a l s to a l l o w many types of a n a l y s i s contemplated.  Even more r e s t r i c t i v e  and events which the d i a r i e s c o v e r .  is  quantity to be  the d i s p a r a t e  For example,  topics  the d i a r y of  J e n n i e Musgrave ( B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s and Records S e r v i c e , h e r e a f t e r BCARS, A d d i t i o n a l M a n u s c r i p t , Add. Mss. 803)  primarily describes  events f o r the year 1870. significance  In f a c t ,  than most because  hereafter  the weather and the the d i a r y has  social  greater  t h i s was the y e a r of her  marriage to Anthony Musgrave and o f f e r s  a good account of  that  event. Another i n t e r e s t i n g group of d i a r i e s 1650)  (BCARS, Add. Mss.  were w r i t t e n by George Lovat from 1900 to 1924.  a s a w m i l l o p e r a t o r i n Sandon, wrote e x t e n s i v e l y daily activities.  about  Lovat, his  The most i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t s are i n the  early  j o u r n a l s which d e s c r i b e h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s granddaughter, E l l e n Anderson.  A s i m i l a r type of d i a r y was  w r i t t e n by W i l l i a m Henderson (BCARS, Add. Mss.  547).  Henderson's accounts g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e weather and s o c i a l events but,  as a widower and g r a n d f a t h e r , he pays  a t t e n t i o n to h i s involvement i n the l i v e s  59  considerable  of h i s c h i l d r e n .  In a d d i t i o n to the d e s c r i p t i o n s families,  diaries  are extremely  i n s i g h t s i n t o the mechanisms towards the p r o c e s s .  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s  important i n p r o v i d i n g  of c o u r t s h i p and a t t i t u d e s  A l t h o u g h t h e r e are o c c u r r e n c e s  p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s are r e v e a l e d i n d i a r i e s ,  more  where  frequently  t h e s e r e c o r d s a c t as appointment books showing the activities  in  social  and the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n the e v e n t s .  l e s s d r a m a t i c than an o u t p o u r i n g of emotion,  While  a survey of  s o c i a l events and the manner i n which young men and women p a r t i c i p a t e explains  much about the s o c i a l mores and the  r e g u l a t i o n of c o u r t s h i p .  As w e l l as p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  about c o u r t s h i p , d i a r i e s which r e c o r d s o c i a l events i n some d e t a i l a l s o g i v e i n s i g h t s i n t o the r e l a t i v e f a m i l y and f r i e n d s  i n shaping c o u r t s h i p  importance of  relationships.  D i a r i e s which cover the p e r i o d of c o u r t s h i p are r a r e i n the c o l l e c t i o n s  of the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s and the Vancouver  City Archives.  One example d e a l s w i t h the s o c i a l  life  of J . M .  R o b i n s o n , a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l i n O n t a r i o and Manitoba (BCARS, Add. Mss. 2010).  Another i s  the d i a r y of M r s . A . Ash (BCARS,  E/C/As31A) d e s c r i b i n g her t r a v e l s her subsequent s t a y t h e r e .  from England t o V i c t o r i a and  T h i s j o u r n a l o n l y covers  a period  o f seven months. The problems f o r r e s e a r c h e r s  which o c c u r from the  s c a r c i t y of d i a r i e s d e a l i n g w i t h f a m i l y i s s u e s i s compensated by the f a i r l y s t r o n g c o l l e c t i o n s correspondence.  of  somewhat  family  Correspondence has many advantages over 60  d i a r i e s i n d e f i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n f a m i l i e s and showing t h e i r o p e r a t i o n .  Most i m p o r t a n t l y ,  l e t t e r s are  w r i t t e n between d i f f e r e n t members o f t h e f a m i l y . cases, The  I n most  f a m i l y correspondence does n o t i n v o l v e o n l y two p e o p l e .  correspondence o f d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y members w i l l  frequently  appear w i t h i n the manuscript c o l l e c t i o n o f one p e r s o n . S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t s can be the r e s u l t .  They o f t e n  o f f e r more background about the manner i n which the f a m i l y lives.  S i n c e correspondence i s f r e q u e n t l y w r i t t e n t o d i s c u s s  s p e c i f i c i s s u e s , the importance o f events r e q u i r e s  less  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the r e s e a r c h e r . Another s t r e n g t h of correspondence l i e s simply abundance.  In a p r o v i n c e  inits  o f many immigrants, i t i s l i k e l y  t h a t communication w i t h the f a m i l y l e f t b e h i n d was o f g r e a t e r importance than the keeping o f a p e r s o n a l of d a i l y l i f e  diary.  Descriptions  and d i s c u s s i o n s of f a m i l y events found t h e i r way  i n t o l e t t e r s r a t h e r than j o u r n a l s .  This p a r t i a l i t y i s  r e f l e c t e d i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f correspondence over d i a r i e s in  t h e major  archives.  As w i t h d i a r i e s , correspondence has c o n s i d e r a b l e a means o f examining f a m i l y l i f e .  L e t t e r s are h i g h l y  s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of events. complete p i c t u r e s .  flaws as  They do not p r o v i d e  The time p e r i o d s which they cover a r e  f r e q u e n t l y broken and s c a t t e r e d .  Moreover, the i n f o r m a t i o n  can be one s i d e d w i t h o n l y the l e t t e r s o f one o f the two correspondents a v a i l a b l e .  For example, the correspondence  which comprises the Fisher Family records (BCARS, Add. Mss. 657) includes a letter from 1864. for the 1880s and early 1890s.  The other correspondence i s  The letters are also from the  mother and so would only contain the opinions of Mrs. Fisher. Two further handicaps result from the physical format of the material.  Because each letter, or even each page, i s an  unique item, letters and pieces of letters have been lost over time in a way which would not occur as readily with diaries. So gaps which appear are probably as frequently related to loss as selectivity.  Equally frustrating for researchers i s  the d i f f i c u l t y i n deciphering handwriting.  Similar problems  can occur with other documents but i t i s often compounded with correspondence because i t may be necessary to interpret several types of handwriting rather than one.  The  predilection for cross-hatching, that i s writing from side to side and top to bottom, i s an additional d i f f i c u l t y .  Cross-  hatching allowed four sides to each page and cut postage costs in half but l e g i b i l i t y suffered i n the process.  One  additional physical problem with correspondence i s the greater f r a g i l i t y of the material caused by folding and d i r t which i s not as serious i n bound volumes. Among the correspondence series available i n the province i s the most significant body of material for the study of the sentiments approach.  The O'Reilly Family collection i s  composed of four accession units (BCARS, A/E/Or3, Add. Mss. 248, Add. Mss. 412 and Add. Mss. 2086). 62  Primarily  correspondence,  the c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n s many f a m i l y  letters  which o u t l i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the O ' R e i l l y f a m i l y as w e l l as w i t h the T r u t c h f a m i l y , M r s . C a r o l i n e O ' R e i l l y ' s f a m i l y of o r i g i n .  There are a l s o s e v e r a l d i a r i e s which d e a l  w i t h both b u s i n e s s  and p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s .  of  recipes  A small  and household accounts of C a r o l i n e  collection  O'Reilly  complete the m a t e r i a l h e l d a t the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . Complementary t o t h i s c o l l e c t i o n i s  one h e l d .by the  S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of  British  Columbia ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , A XIII 6/3). composed of  This u n i t ,  t i t l e d Trutch,  S i r Joseph,  is  l e t t e r s between the p a r e n t s and s i b l i n g s  f a m i l y of W i l l i a m and C h a r l o t t e T r u t c h .  A sister  of  t o Joseph  Trutch,  C a r o l i n e O ' R e i l l y f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y i n these  letters.  While members of the Joseph T r u t c h and the  O ' R e i l l y f a m i l i e s were o f f i c i a l s as w e l l as V i c t o r i a s o c i e t y , comes from i t s  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  Peter  government  the r e a l v a l u e of the m a t e r i a l  d e s c r i p t i o n of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  eminence of the f a m i l i e s  the  The  a l s o means t h a t correspondence  to  o t h e r n o t a b l e V i c t o r i a f a m i l i e s may have been r e t a i n e d i n the Provincial Archives. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s collections  l a r g e body of m a t e r i a l , many s m a l l e r  e x i s t which are based p r i m a r i l y on correspondence  between f a m i l y members. Add. Mss. 55,  The Crease F a m i l y r e c o r d s  Add. Mss. 56 and Add. Mss. 573)  c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of correspondence, 63  (BCARS,  has a  some d i a r i e s and  genealogical data scattered metres.  I n f o r m a t i o n about  immigrant  family  i s found  (BCARS, Add.  Mss.  W i l m e r , B.C.  i n 1912  there  i n 1913.  Unfortunately Oxleys'  385  nature.  t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f an i n the Oxley Family  and Add. and  a volume o f t h r e e  Mss.  their  719).  a letter  from  the donor,  notes that  publication  f a m i l y came t o  E l i z a b e t h , was  in  Elizabeth  of B r i t i s h  letters  together i n a  Columbia  Numerous o t h e r s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n s  c a n be  Provincial  of Vancouver  the C i t y  the  of t h e i r personal  e x t a n t m a t e r i a l s have been b r o u g h t  A r c h i v e s and  Phillips,  s h e d e s t r o y e d a number o f  of the U n i v e r s i t y  born  1914.  her p a r e n t s ' c a r e of her because  The  English  collection  The  only c h i l d ,  They r e t u r n e d t o England  daughter,  describing  throughout  Press.  found at both  2  the  Archives  which  can p r o v i d e u s e f u l data f o r a n a l y s i s . The family  destruction  f o n d s by  problem  for this  diaries  and  discarding  their  daughter  approach.  correspondence  The  Correspondence  about and  undoubtedly  that  distinction  The  Oxley  a considerable  resulted  i n the  invaluable  that  family  o f some  to  members  the p r i v a c y of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s . diaries  a r e t h e most  t h e y were c r e a t e d  recording history.  has  w o u l d be  components o f t h e s e n t i m e n t s a p p r o a c h . v a l u a b l e because  the  perceived sensitivity  However, i t i s i n e v i t a b l e  concerned  from  does h i g h l i g h t  o f many d o c u m e n t s w h i c h  researchers. w o u l d be  o f some c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  next  but d e s p i t e  two  T h e y a r e a l l t h e more  f o r a purpose  forms  their  obvious  other  o f m a t e r i a l do  lack of  than not  impartiality,  have  memoirs and history. and  reminiscences  The  are another u s e f u l source  for family  forms of r e c o r d s are based on l o n g term memories  so the f a c t s they c o n t a i n s h o u l d not be accepted  questioning t h e i r accuracy.  Nevertheless,  f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and behaviours  without  a l l workings of  are c o l o u r e d by a t t i t u d e s ,  f e e l i n g s and memories.  Much of a f a m i l y ' s b e h a v i o u r i s  governed by emotion and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Memoirs,  d i a r i e s , are p l a c e s where people may understanding  of how  like  reveal their  t h e i r family functioned.  It is  important  t o understand the w r i t e r ' s b i a s e s and p e r s o n a l v a l u e s a c c e p t i n g the words.  Memoirs perhaps serve b e s t  supplementary evidence  t o o t h e r sources  before  as  because c o r r o b o r a t i o n  would be a v a i l a b l e . One  p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g memoir was  Bodington (BCARS, Add.  Mss.  1263)  w r i t t e n by Walter  i n which he d e s c r i b e s  E.  the  h a r s h c h i l d r e a r i n g he r e c e i v e d a t the hands of h i s f a t h e r i n England.  Many o t h e r examples of t h i s form of m a t e r i a l are  a v a i l a b l e a t the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , r a n g i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of c h i l d h o o d i n Nelson, B.C. B o l t o n papers (BCARS, Add. on a ranch Mss.  Mss.  from a  i n the Freeda  B.H.  2084) t o r e c o l l e c t i o n s of  i n the r e c o r d s of Helen F. Sheringham  (BCARS,  life Add.  942).' C u r i o u s l y , i t has  not been the more p e r s o n a l forms of  m a t e r i a l which have r e c e i v e d the most use by examining the emotional p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s and  researchers  s t r u c t u r e of the f a m i l y .  Censuses,  other s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n have been  the b a s i s o f the s t u d i e s of Edward S h o r t e r and o t h e r s . tendency has been t o attempt t o a v o i d emphasizing  3  The  t h e workings  o f the upper l i t e r a t e c l a s s e s and so r e s e a r c h e r s have been f o r c e d t o r e l y on s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s .  A less  rigidly  s t r u c t u r e d c l a s s system and a h i g h e r r a t e o f l i t e r a c y i n Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia makes t h i s r e l i a n c e l e s s f o r Canadian r e s e a r c h e r s .  necessary  S t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n can s t i l l  p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e a d j u n c t s t o the d a t a c o l l e c t e d from more intimate sources.  Censuses r e v e a l t h e make up o f the f a m i l y  u n i t and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e members. i n d i c a t e the r e s i d e n c e and o c c u p a t i o n s  Directories  o f t h e f a m i l y which can  p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about economic and c l a s s s t a t u s .  These  sources can h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h a f u l l e r p i c t u r e o f t h e people who a r e b e i n g r e s e a r c h e d and p r e v e n t m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . O v e r a l l , the r e c o r d s a v a i l a b l e f o r the study o f the sentiments  approach a r e somewhat l i m i t e d .  There appear t o be  o n l y a few sources which would p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l f o r a full  study.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c o l l e c t i o n s s h o u l d not be  d i s c o u n t e d as they w i l l supplement m a t e r i a l from o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s or can be used i n combination approaches.  66  with  other  CHAPTER 4 ENDNOTES  1. L i n d a A. P o l l o c k , F o r g o t t e n C h i l d r e n : P a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s f r o m 1500 t o 1900, C a m b r i d g e , E n g l a n d : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1983. 2. R. C o l e H a r r i s a n d E l i z a b e t h P h i l l i p s , e d . , L e t t e r s from W i n d e r m e r e , 1912-1914, V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Press, 1984. 3. Edward S h o r t e r , The M a k i n g o f t h e M o d e r n York: B a s i c Books, I n c . , 1975).  67  Family,  (New  5  CHAPTER THE The  family serves  socialization a  HOUSEHOLD ECONOMICS APPROACH  frequent  and  the  generator  o b v i o u s t o any  source  the  f a m i l y are  an  economic u n i t .  of  The  Gagan.  to  t h e work i n t h i s a r e a  sources,  of  the  provides  f o r economic  s u c h as w i l l s  o w n e r s h i p and  on  data  demographic  K a t z and  and  less  the  basic By  deeds, the  David  base r e q u i r e d  explored  sufficient  using  practitioners  this  s u b j e c t has  68  for  i s t h e manner i n w h i c h  out  have l o o k e d has  and  Perhaps the  been c a r r i e d  Less research  land  Also valuable  income t o e x i s t  o f women's h i s t o r y who  i n t h e work p l a c e .  complementary  examination of  i s d i v i d e d among f a m i l y members. done on  for  statistical  i s possible.  fully  family unit acquires  large data  studies.  transmission  a p p r o a c h and  research  role  relied  o f t e n the  i n the works o f M i c h a e l  establishment  information  labour  has  and  h o u s e h o l d economics approach have been l i n k e d  demographic r e s e a r c h  the  s t u d i e s and  to survive  1  The  this  roles  household economics approach seeks  f o r demographic  s u c h as  these  as  its ability  as  are  i t s function  collected  to  of  as w e l l  These f e a t u r e s  secondary importance  Much o f  the  stability  However, a t many t i m e s ,  prosper.  together,  of emotional  f a m i l y i n terms of  a p p r o a c h and  a prime i n s t i t u t i o n  of mental anguish.  observer.  of  examine the  i t s members a s  by  how  most the  a t women's  been conducted  on  women's work a t home and how i t g e n e r a l l y f i t s  i n t o the l a r g e r  p i c t u r e o f f a m i l y s u r v i v a l and p r o s p e r i t y . The  most important  sources  economies a r e w i l l s and deeds. property and  f o r t h e study o f f a m i l y Ownership o f l a n d and movable  i s an u s e f u l measure o f t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e f a m i l y  t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l members.  S t u d i e s of t h e  t r a n s m i s s i o n o f l a n d have been made as t o whether primogeniture  i s the c h i e f f a c t o r i n land transmission or  whether p r o p e r t y i s s p l i t e v e n l y among s u r v i v i n g f a m i l y members.  Because deeds a r e l e g a l documents which r e t a i n some  of t h e i r l e g a l v a l u e even a f t e r t h e p r o p e r t y has been  disposed  of by an owner, they have been r e t a i n e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government.  These documents remain an e x c e l l e n t source f o r  understanding  t h i s a s p e c t of f a m i l y economics.  The use o f  deeds r e q u i r e s a thorough examination o f o t h e r s o u r c e s .  Each  deed c o n t a i n s o n l y t h e most b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n and d i r e c t o r i e s , assessment r o l l s  and censuses a r e a l l n e c e s s a r y  t o acquire the  background i n f o r m a t i o n t o f u l l y understand t h e document. Access t o s p e c i f i c deeds i s f a i r l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d .  Some form  of i n d e x i n g , such as owner's name o r l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n , has always been v i t a l t o m a i n t a i n i n g  t h e l a n d r e g i s t r y system and  so i t remains p o s s i b l e t o f i n d s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n .  Land  ownership f a l l s w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e p r o v i n c e so t h i s m a t e r i a l would be d e s i g n a t e d In p r a c t i c e , these Land T i t l e  f o r the P r o v i n c i a l  Archives.  r e c o r d s have remained w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l  Offices. 69  The d a t a which can be o b t a i n e d from w i l l s i s more e l a b o r a t e and can be used i n d e p e n d e n t l y from o t h e r material. ensured  The  source  s t a t u s of w i l l s as l e g a l documents has  also  t h e i r f u l l r e t e n t i o n among government r e c o r d s .  l o n g time span of these r e c o r d s a l o n g w i t h t h e i r and c r e d i b i l i t y make them extremely v a l u a b l e .  The  uniqueness  At times,  the  i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n w i l l s can g i v e a f u l l p i c t u r e of the f a m i l y members and t h e i r s t a t u s i n the f a m i l y .  Because the  i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m and l i m i t e d t o areas t o some degree, s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. by men,  geographic  w i l l s can be used e f f e c t i v e l y f o r Although w i l l s were more commonly  some i n f o r m a t i o n about women can be d i s c o v e r e d .  filed For  example, i s the w i f e l e f t the p r o p e r t y , i s the i n h e r i t i n g or  daughter  or  i s the mother l e f t t o depend on the g e n e r o s i t y of her  children?  son  p l a c e d under an o b l i g a t i o n t o c a r e f o r the mother  Are a l l the c h i l d r e n p r o v i d e d f o r or does the  primary i n h e r i t o r r e c e i v e everything? The v a l u e of w i l l s i s lowered by the e x c l u s i v e n e s s of t h e i r use.  Not everyone wrote w i l l s .  Unless there  was  s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p e r t y , e i t h e r l a n d or moveable, a w i l l was necessary. expense.  not  In f a c t , i t would have been s i m p l y an e x t r a T h e r e f o r e w i l l s o n l y document a c e r t a i n segment of  the p o p u l a t i o n i n the same f a s h i o n as d i a r i e s correspondence  and  r e l a t e t o the more l i t e r a t e segment of s o c i e t y .  As w i t h the o t h e r two  approaches,  census r e c o r d s p r o v i d e  some of the most e s s e n t i a l d a t a about f a m i l i e s f o r the  70  household economics family,  approach.  their relationships,  and d e s c r i b e  They l i s t  the number i n  t h e i r ages, t h e i r  the r e s i d e n c e .  the  occupations,  A l l these elements are c r u c i a l  comprehending the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s  of the  household.  A g a i n s t t h i s background can be l a i d many o t h e r documents as w i l l s ,  deeds,  base  such  assessment r o l l s and even p e r s o n a l p a p e r s .  While censuses o n l y o f f e r i n time,  in  a c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a from a moment  they can be used to c o n s t r u c t the most complete  data  available. One p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e a s p e c t of the work w i t h  censuses has been t o e s t a b l i s h  the t a k i n g i n of boarders  sources  T h i s a r e a has been e x p l o r e d  of a d d i t i o n a l income.  some degree by both Bradbury and M e d j u c k . interesting  2  of c h i l d r e n of the p a r e n t s '  families  siblings.  not uncommon p r a c t i c e f o r n i e c e s and nephews to be sent their relatives  f o r t r a i n i n g and c a r e .  T h e i r presence  have a profound e f f e c t on the household economies of families,  to  An e q u a l l y  use f o r census d a t a would be examining  f o r the presence  as  It  was  to could  both  by r e l i e v i n g the burden of t h e i r upkeep, by  providing v i r t u a l l y free  l a b o u r or by a c q u i r i n g t r a i n i n g i n a  l o c a t i o n which would not be p o s s i b l e  i n t h e i r own  residence.  T h i s k i n d of study does depend on f a i r l y i n depth background of  specific  families  and o t h e r sources  requiring analysis  to c r e a t e  sufficient  members.  71  of p a r i s h linkages  registers  between f a m i l y  Another key source f o r t h e study o f t h e household i s t h e tax assessment r o l l s which have been produced by a l l governments.  Assessment r o l l s a l l o w  governments t o conduct  t a x a t i o n based on t h e v a l u e o f l a n d and b u i l d i n g s . property land,  The  assessments must take i n t o account t h e amount o f  i t s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s , t h e market  value,  and the e l a b o r a t e n e s s and number of t h e b u i l d i n g s .  Assessments were u s u a l l y c a r r i e d o u t on a y e a r l y b a s i s so they can be used t o make r e g u l a r checks on t h e m o b i l i t y o f f a m i l i e s i n a manner n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h censuses and p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s . M o b i l i t y i s o f t e n r e l a t e d t o the s e a r c h f o r work and l a n d and so can p l a y a major r o l e i n how the f i n a n c e s functions.  of the household  O b v i o u s l y , t h i s w i l l a l s o have an impact on t h e  household f u n c t i o n s been e x p l o r e d  generally.  T h i s a r e a o f study has not  b u t may be o f p a r t i c u l a r importance i n a  resource province  l i k e B r i t i s h Columbia where t r a n s i e n t  workers were extremely common. Assessments o f f e r i n f o r m a t i o n f a m i l i e s who l i v e t h e r e .  Class p o s i t i o n i s often r e l a t e d t o  the areas i n which people l i v e . properties  about the s t a t u s o f t h e  D i f f e r e n t values f o r s i m i l a r  i n d i f f e r e n t areas may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e  d e s i r a b i l i t y o f one l o c a t i o n over another.  The v a l u e s of t h e  l a n d and b u i l d i n g s a l s o r e f l e c t s the p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e f a m i l i e s and s h o u l d g i v e i n d i c a t i o n s about t h e need f o r a d d i t i o n a l f a m i l y income.  These v a l u e s can be m i s l e a d i n g  degree because t h e monetary worth of p r o p e r t y  does n o t  to a  necessarily translate into actual income.  Land rich  agricultural families may suffer equally with less prosperous families during a drought although the excess land can provide a greater buffer against hard times. The major d i f f i c u l t y with assessment r o l l s i s the f a i r l y sparse amount of information for each entry.  The legal  description of the land i s linked to the owner of the land, usually the male head of the household. about the family i s l i s t e d .  No other information  Although a long unbroken run of  assessment r o l l s exists for the provincial government (BCARS, Surveyor of Tax, B400-B543), such an extensive collection i s not available at the Vancouver City Archives where a gap between 1892 and 1929 i s found.  The loss of the city r o l l s  reduces the overall usefulness of the assessment r o l l s . Since the household economics approach focuses on the structure of the family and i t s relationships to the working world, the standard demographic records are not the only valuable records to a researcher.  While these s t a t i s t i c a l  records can create the framework of the economy of a family, the actual relationships and functions can be better understood or even discovered from personal papers.  Records  which describe the operations of a family's finances have frequently found their way into the family's collection of papers.  Correspondence, diaries, reminiscences, or legal  documents may contain references to the manner i n which the family manages to run the household.  Diaries or daybooks often contain household ledgers which describe the items purchased and their cost.  A detailed  analysis of these costs would provide a excellent perspective on how money i s spent and a comparison of costs against income would allow a f u l l e r understanding of the subject.  However  the opportunity to perform this type of analysis i s restricted by a shortage of useful documents and a relatively small span of time being covered.  For example, the repair book for the  steamship "Alpha" (CVA, Add. Mss. 701) also contains a section of family accounts for 1906 and 1907. income, the purchases and their costs.  The l i s t i n g gives the The extremely short  period which i s covered makes the uses for this information very limited. Correspondence can also be employed i n a study of household economies.  Families of immigrants often wrote about  their daily lives describing the limitations and deficiencies of a frontier community.  The correspondents at home are often  asked to supply various items which could not be found i n the newly settled region.  Of even greater significance i s the  correspondence which i s used to obtain job placements and introductions.  These letters may have come from friends and  parents' friends as well as from relatives but i t i s possible that the family network was s t i l l involved i n setting up the connection.  The interrelated nature between families and work  can also be seen in the correspondence of immigrants where  74  f a m i l y members l e f t t o t h e new  a t home a r e a s k e d t o f o l l o w  the immigrants  country.  Many e x a m p l e s o f i m m i g r a t i o n  correspondence  between  f a m i l y members e x i s t s i n b o t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s City  of Vancouver A r c h i v e s .  Correspondence  and t h e  from Edward  Lloyd  t o h i s m o t h e r i n E n g l a n d b e t w e e n 1871 a n d 1921 (CVA, Add. Mss. 875,  M i c r o f i l m M-104) d e s c r i b e s  situations letters in  and domestic  life  from Joseph T r u t c h  North America  The  Trutch,  (University of B r i t i s h J o s e p h W.,  i s often  Correspondence s u p p l i e s and  t h e ways t h a t  the  work f o r c e .  the family  family Special  A X I I I 6/3). f a m i l y members i n j o i n t  the focus  a great  o f many  Columbia,  deal  of discussion  i n letters.  o f data about t h e f a m i l y  a s s i s t s i t s members i n e n t e r i n g  The u s e o f p a t r o n a g e a n d n e p o t i s m a s means o f  f a m i l y members i s a n a r e a  where t h e d o c u m e n t s o f t h e  u p p e r c l a s s e s may be p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e . elements,  Similarly,  t o h i s parents describing h i s l i f e  involvement of various  business dealings  advancing  i n North America.  r e s u l t e d i n the immigration  members t o V i c t o r i a Collections,  h i s t r a v e l s , business  A l l these  e v e n t h o u g h some o f them may r e p r e s e n t  w h i c h were a v a i l a b l e o n l y  responses  to certain classes, describe  f a m i l y e n s u r e s t h e s u r v i v a l o f i t s members b y t h e  how t h e  transmission  of wealth o r i n f l u e n c e . Another category of record valuable records.  f o r the study of family The importance  t y p e s w h i c h w o u l d be e x t r e m e l y economics a r e b u s i n e s s  of these records  c a n n o t be  underestimated.  They may p r o v i d e income amounts,  l e n g t h of  work, types of work, and i n f o r m a t i o n about f a m i l i e s p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s are a v a i l a b l e . records i s  if  However, the use of  c o m p l i c a t e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s .  business  The c o l l e c t i o n  of  b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s has not always been a h i g h p r i o r i t y f o r archives.  Moreover, the forms of r e c o r d s c o l l e c t e d  u s u a l l y been the more f o r m a l t y p e s ,  have  such as m i n u t e s ,  financial  r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l which would i n c l u d e p e r s o n n e l i n f o r m a t i o n .  Often d e t a i l e d  personnel  r e c o r d s would not have been c r e a t e d a l t h o u g h income and job i n f o r m a t i o n may be a v a i l a b l e .  A l s o b u s i n e s s e s have  been  r e l u c t a n t to p a r t w i t h t h e i r r e c o r d s or they have f a i l e d see  v a l u e i n t h e i r o l d documents.  These a t t i t u d e s  to  are not  r e s t r i c t e d to b u s i n e s s e s b u t , combined w i t h the o t h e r  factors,  they have made b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s a f a i r l y r a r e commodity i n archives. The s c a r c i t y of b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s makes the  linkages  between them and o t h e r forms extremely d i f f i c u l t . necessary  to s t a r t  from the r e c o r d s of a p a r t i c u l a r b u s i n e s s  and work out to o t h e r s o u r c e s , censuses.  such as d i r e c t o r i e s  and  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no c o l l e c t i o n of p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s  r e c o r d s which would warrant t h i s either  I t would be  treatment was i d e n t i f i e d  at  the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s or C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s .  Government r e c o r d s might o f f e r m a t e r i a l f o r a more successful  study but the i n f o r m a t i o n i s  throughout m i n u t e s ,  correspondence  extremely  scattered  and o t h e r r e c o r d s and would  require considerable effort  j u s t to p l a c e i n o r d e r the  and type of work i n f o r m a t i o n . does c o n t a i n u s e f u l d a t a .  Some government  For example,  income  correspondence  requests  for  employment were o f t e n q u i t e d e t a i l e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e s  to  i n d i v i d u a l ' s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n and the p o s i t i o n of  his  family.  T h i s type of correspondence  correspondence  can be found i n the  s e r i e s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Sewerage and  Drainage D i s t r i c t r e c o r d s District,  the  (CVA, G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l  G r e a t e r Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t ,  Series B - l , Correspondence). L i k e a l l approaches to the study of the f a m i l y , household economics method r e q u i r e s a b l e n d of  the  different  r e c o r d types to f u l l y understand the s t r a t e g i e s which employ t o s u r v i v e and to ensure the betterment children.  The manner and time i n which B r i t i s h  developed s u b s t a n t i a l l y supported i t s e l f .  affected  of  families  their  Columbia  the way t h a t a f a m i l y  The r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t  s e t t l e m e n t of  British  Columbia by people of European and A s i a n descent has meant t h a t r e c o r d s which focus new t e c h n i q u e s  on i m m i g r a t i o n and the development  f o r f a m i l y s u r v i v a l are more abundant.  s h o r t time s i n c e  settlement precludes  l o n g runs of  of  The  papers  documenting the passage of l a n d and p r o p e r t y among f a m i l y members which would be a v a i l a b l e i n Quebec, O n t a r i o and the Maritimes.  Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the study of the  economy i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s industry.  the e f f e c t of r e s o u r c e  family based  The l a c k of a manufacturing base would have a  77  definite  e f f e c t on work o p p o r t u n i t i e s  class families  and, i n t u r n ,  f o r wives i n working  t h i s would have a  significant  impact on the s t r a t e g i e s f o r a c q u i r i n g f a m i l y income. These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the household economics development  are more important t o the study of  than other approaches.  has much more impact on economics  Regional and t h e r e f o r e  can a f f e c t  the form and volume of documentation which  produced.  While t h e r e i s  a sufficient  q u a n t i t y of  a v a i l a b l e t o study the e f f e c t of i m m i g r a t i o n on the  is  records family,  more t r a d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h on household economics would be fruitful.  78  less  CHAPTER 5 ENDNOTES 1. K a t z , "The People o f a Canadian C i t y , 1851-1852" and The People o f Hamilton, K a t z , Doucet and S t e r n , The S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f E a r l y I n d u s t r i a l C a p i t a l i s m , and Gagan, H o p e f u l Travellers. 2. Bradbury, " P i g s , Cows and B o a r d e r s " , and Medjuck, " F a m i l y and Household Composition".  79  CHAPTER 6 THE HEGEMONIC/INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH The the  hegemonic o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l  family  methods. but  i s considerably  Louise  Tilly.  family, looks The  i n a later  Instead  1  i t s structure  article  by Miriam  traditional sources,  Anderson  Cohen and  o f an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l  at the attitudes of i n s t i t u t i o n s i s studied  form o f r e s e a r c h  three  suggested by M i c h a e l  or i t s functions,  concept of family  This  removed from t h e o t h e r  I t was n o t o r i g i n a l l y  was d e v e l o p e d  approach t o the study of  t h e hegemonic  towards t h e f a m i l y .  rather  than the r e a l i t y .  i s much more c l o s e l y a l l i e d  historical  work a n d s o i t r e l i e s  s u c h as minute books, r e p o r t s  approach  on  and o t h e r  with conventional policy  documents o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s . The other the  approach i s n o t as u n i v e r s a l i n time o r p l a c e  three.  The b a s i c  elements s t u d i e d  by t h e demographic,  s e n t i m e n t s and t h e h o u s e h o l d economics approaches  always e x i s t e d .  The d i f f i c u l t y  has been a c q u i r i n g  documentation t o study a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d  traditionally within in  began t o p l a y  the province  the areas of education Other  occasion  institutions  when t h e f a m i l y  and  have  sufficient  or region.  hegemonic approach i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o a f a i r l y p e r i o d when i n s t i t u t i o n s  as the  recent  The time  r o l e s s i m i l a r t o those  of the family,  particularly  welfare.  h a v e a d o p t e d a n a l o g o u s p o s i t i o n s on network has f a i l e d .  F o r example,  p r o v i s i o n may h a v e b e e n made b y t h e s t a t e o r c h u r c h f o r c a r i n g 80  of an orphan i f no o t h e r f a m i l y were a v a i l a b l e but t h i s e x c e p t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r and not c o n s i s t e n t . n u c l e a r and extended,  services,  these  functions.  churches and o t h e r  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s began t o see institutions  The f a m i l y , both  were expected t o f u l f i l  Over the p a s t c e n t u r y , governments,  was  a role for  o t h e r than the f a m i l y i n p e r f o r m i n g these  p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the lower c l a s s e s which were not  c o n s i d e r e d a b l e t o p r o p e r l y c a r r y out the r e q u i r e d  tasks.  These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of time and p l a c e make the study of the f a m i l y through t h i s settlement  approach more d i f f i c u l t .  While  of B r i t i s h Columbia o c c u r r e d d u r i n g many of  changes i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s , s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n a t t i t u d e s taken p l a c e p r i o r t o the f u l l  the these  most of  the  toward s o c i a l w e l f a r e had  development of the e d u c a t i o n and  w e l f a r e systems i n the p r o v i n c e .  Moreover, the  provincial  government q u i c k l y became the c e n t r a l c o n t r o l f o r these major social institutions.  So d e c i s i o n s  c o n c e r n i n g the  social  w e l f a r e system were developed i n o t h e r p a r t s of the c o u n t r y and the w o r l d and these p o l i c i e s were s i m p l y passed t o institutions  the  of the p r o v i n c e t o implement.  A f u r t h e r time problem a r i s e s w i t h i n t h i s  study  itself.  The e x a m i n a t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of some o r g a n i z a t i o n s over the f a m i l y r e q u i r e s the use of r e c o r d s over a l o n g time span. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of some of these i n s t i t u t i o n s  immediately a f t e r  settlement.  d i d not occur  So the time p e r i o d of  81  this  study does not permit a s u f f i c i e n t development of these  span of time to look a t  the  institutions.  D e s p i t e these problems, an understanding of the r o l e of institutions  i n the development of the p r e s e n t  s t r u c t u r e can be a c h i e v e d to some degree.  family  Institutional  r e c o r d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of g r e a t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e such as minutes and correspondence of the  value,  senior  administrative o f f i c e r ,  have been r e t a i n e d e i t h e r a t an  a r c h i v e s or the o f f i c e s  of the i n s t i t u t i o n .  p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s , been k e p t .  Both i n the  e d u c a t i o n and w e l f a r e r e c o r d s have  D e s p i t e the good l e v e l of r e t e n t i o n ,  accessibility  to the documents i s not always easy to a c c o m p l i s h .  Because of  t h e i r h i g h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a l u e and the o c c a s i o n a l presence c o n f i d e n t i a l information, administrators often f e e l of r e c o r d should not be open to the p u b l i c . i n s o l v a b l e problem.  this  of  type  I t i s not an  F r e q u e n t l y , the use of t h i s m a t e r i a l f o r  academic r e s e a r c h i s c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e by the boards p r o v i d e d t h e r e are s u i t a b l e  guarantees  various  for preserving  conf i d e n t i a l i t y . T h i s p o s s e s s i v e a t t i t u d e by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s has been a worrisome one f o r a r c h i v i s t s s i n c e  it  i s o f t e n c o n t r a s t e d by  one of n e g l e c t f o r the care and storage of the r e c o r d s .  This  d i s r e g a r d f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l may occur even when the v a l u e of r e c o r d s i s understood.  H o p e f u l l y more  a c t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n programs by some a r c h i v e s w i l l r e s u l t  in  the t r a n s f e r of these i r r e p l a c e a b l e documents to more secure 82  facilities.  Even more n o t a b l e would be the c r e a t i o n of an  a r c h i v e s w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . for a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s , School Board,  While o b v i o u s l y not  some l a r g e r ones,  feasible  such as the Vancouver  are capable of s u s t a i n i n g t h i s  type of program.  Moreover, t h i s has been the r o u t e taken by some c h u r c h e s , example,  for  the U n i t e d Church B r i t i s h Columbia Conference  A r c h i v e s and A n g l i c a n Church P r o v i n c i a l Synod A r c h i v e s , both housed a t the Vancouver School of Theology a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  One f i n a l comment about the u s e f u l n e s s of the r e l a t e s to the a c c e s s i b i l i t y  of the s u b j e c t m a t t e r .  of the f a m i l y group was r a r e l y an expressed a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of these i n s t i t u t i o n s . minutes was c o n d u c t e d ,  t o p i c among the  Even i f  indexing  to to  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s were  p o l i c y and p r o c e d u r e s and so any  r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l would be i m p l i c i t i n the p o l i c i e s reports.  The s t a t e  the chosen s u b j e c t s are not l i k e l y  be the ones r e q u i r e d by a r e s e a r c h e r . concerned w i t h budgets,  records  and  T h i s makes r e s e a r c h f a i r l y time-consuming.  Church r e c o r d s are b a s i c to u n d e r s t a n d i n g the a t t i t u d e s o c i e t y t o the f a m i l y . Christian,  Organized churches,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the  have o p e r a t e d both as an a d j u n c t and a c o m p e t i t o r  t o the f a m i l y .  Many f e a t u r e s  m o d e l l e d on the f a m i l y .  of the C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h are  However, d e s p i t e i t s  c h u r c h remained r e l a t i v e l y s e p a r a t e family.  of  Its  e f f e c t was s t i l l  the  from the o p e r a t i o n of  f e l t by i t s  83  strength,  influence  on the  the  mores and manners of s o c i e t y but i t d i d not seek t o undermine the f a m i l i e s of any segment of the p o p u l a t i o n . The s o c i a l reform movement which began d u r i n g  the  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n Europe began t o move towards a b e l i e f t h a t the o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , the s t a t e ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y those c o n t r o l l e d by  were b e t t e r p l a c e s  to r a i s e and educate  c h i l d r e n of the subjugated n a t i v e s  the  and the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d  than w i t h i n t h e i r own f a m i l i e s .  T h i s was a s i g n i f i c a n t  d e p a r t u r e f o r these i n s t i t u t i o n s  and had a profound e f f e c t on  the f a m i l y g e n e r a l l y . A l t h o u g h these events i n Europe and North America had an e v e n t u a l e f f e c t on B r i t i s h Columbia, the r e c o r d s of p r o v i n c e are not e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e f o r s t u d i e s  the  in this  area.  Most of the major a t t i t u d i n a l changes had a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d before large scale  settlement.  Many p o l i c i e s of the  church  and the s o c i a l reform movement were s i m p l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the p r o v i n c e ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s .  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s p o s i t i o n as a  f a r o u t p o s t of the B r i t i s h Empire p r e c l u d e d any major innovations. S i n c e major p o l i c i e s of the Canadian churches were e s t a b l i s h e d by the h i g h e s t  l e v e l s s i t u a t e d i n E a s t e r n Canada,  t h e r e are no r e c o r d s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o document the development of these changes.  Records may r e f l e c t  the  local  debate but the movement of the c h u r c h i n t o s o c i a l reform was i n e v i t a b l e once the s e n i o r churchmen had agreed t o the p o l i c y shift.  Therefore, i t  i s q u e s t i o n a b l e how v a l u a b l e the r e c o r d s 84  of the B r i t i s h Columbia churches are l i k e l y to be. be p o s s i b l e  to study the r e a c t i o n of l o c a l groups and the  manner i n which they complied w i t h the d i r e c t i o n s churches.  I t would  of  the  Church r e c o r d s have g e n e r a l l y remained i n  the  custody of the l o c a l e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  bodies or they have been  t r a n s f e r r e d to a p r o v i n c i a l church r e p o s i t o r y ,  as i n the  case  of the U n i t e d Church A r c h i v e s or the A n g l i c a n P r o v i n c i a l Synod Archives.  The B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s and Records  and the C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s have g e n e r a l l y  Service  acquired  o n l y the r e g i s t e r s of l o c a l p a r i s h e s and l o c a l church histories  but not the a c t u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  records.  The s o c i a l reform movement not o n l y a f f e c t e d functions  of the f a m i l y .  Over t i m e ,  of the church i n the w e l f a r e were e s t a b l i s h e d  system.  a l s o l e s s e n e d the  Secular  role  organizations  which p l a y e d an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i n  o f f e r i n g a s s i s t a n c e t o the needy. amalgamations  it  the  of church groups,  c o n t r o l of the c h u r c h .  Although many were  they q u i c k l y moved o u t s i d e  the  C h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , homes f o r  young women, and the Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Union are a few examples of these groups which o f f e r e d succour i n p l a c e of the f a m i l y .  Records of many of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s  are  a v a i l a b l e a t the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s and the Vancouver C i t y Archives.  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s of the F r i e n d l y Help and  Friendly Aid Societies Series  1),  (CVA, S o c i a l S e r v i c e s  Department,  the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of V i c t o r i a  85  (BCARS, Add.  Mss.  431)  and Queen Mary C o r o n a t i o n H o s t e l  are o n l y a few of those  (CVA, Add. Mss.  55)  available.  As w i t h the development  of w e l f a r e programs by the c h u r c h  and s t a t e which competed w i t h the f a m i l y ' s t r a d i t i o n a l methods of  support,  the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s c h o o l systems  usurped the r o l e of the f a m i l y .  2  slowly  Programs were developed  o n l y i n the a r e a of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g b u t , u l t i m a t e l y , the development  of household and s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n ,  guidance c o u n s e l l i n g and home economics. p l a y e d a r o l e i n the development  education.  in  namely,  Education also  of the h e a l t h c a r e  system.  I n c o n c e r t w i t h l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l h e a l t h o f f i c e r s , schools established  not  the  programs f o r immunization and hygiene  The r e c o r d s r e l a t e d t o p u b l i c h e a l t h i s s u e s are  a v a i l a b l e i n the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n and the M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h as w e l l as l o c a l s c h o o l boards and l o c a l h e a l t h b o a r d s . Educational i n s t i t u t i o n s own a r c h i v e s .  have r a r e l y e s t a b l i s h e d  P u b l i c s c h o o l s have r e l i e d on l o c a l  a r c h i v e s t o r e t a i n t h e i r r e c o r d s or even more s t o r e d them i n t h e i r own f a c i l i t i e s .  their  government  frequently  L o c a l s c h o o l board  r e c o r d s have been a c q u i r e d by the C i t y A r c h i v e s f o r  the  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of P o i n t Grey and South Vancouver as w e l l the c i t y of Vancouver. and correspondence  A f a i r l y complete  from the c h i e f  the s c h o o l boards are a v a i l a b l e .  set  of minute books  administrative officer  of  These r e c o r d s can be used  w i t h r e c o r d s of the M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r i n Vancouver.  86  as  Both  types of m a t e r i a l s t a r t from an e a r l y p e r i o d i n the h i s t o r y of the  city. As w e l l as the h e a l t h care r e c o r d s of l o c a l  the a r c h i v e s of a few major h o s p i t a l s  government,  are a l s o a v a i l a b l e .  H o s p i t a l boards have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g and r e f l e c t i n g the a t t i t u d e s  towards many h e a l t h c a r e  issues.  M a t e r n i t y c a r e , care of c h i l d r e n , and care of the e l d e r l y are i s s u e s which r e q u i r e f a m i l y involvement and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Medical professionals  have become equal p a r t n e r s i n  this  system and so h o s p i t a l r e c o r d s c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n which f u r t h e r s the study of t h i s  area.  The C i t y A r c h i v e s h o l d s some  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s , such as minutes of the Board and correspondence of the d i r e c t o r , of the Vancouver General Hospital  (CVA, Add. Mss. 320)  (CVA, Add. Mss. 284)  and the Royal Columbian H o s p i t a l  a t New Westminster.  M a t e r i a l from the  Royal J u b i l e e H o s p i t a l (BCARS, Add. Mss. 313)  in Victoria  is  r e t a i n e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . There i s an obvious gap i n h e a l t h care m a t e r i a l because the r e c o r d s of d o c t o r s have r a r e l y been p r e s e r v e d .  Since  d o c t o r s have o c c u p i e d the fundamental p o s i t i o n i n the care system, consequence.  the p a u c i t y of these a r c h i v e s i s of  health  serious  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c i a n s and f a m i l i e s  has been extremely i m p o r t a n t .  Doctors o f t e n g i v e  social  The f i l e s of the  family  c o u n s e l l i n g as w e l l as m e d i c a l .  d o c t o r would p r o v i d e s u b s t a n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the r o l e of h e a l t h care i n the f a m i l y .  Undoubtedly, the i s s u e of 87  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y has been a major reason f o r the s c a r c i t y of such c o l l e c t i o n s .  Again,  simply avoided t h i s  acquisition policies  appear to  complex q u e s t i o n by not c o l l e c t i n g  have  in  this  a r e a or promoting p r e s e r v a t i o n . Newspapers would be one f i n a l a r e a of study which would provide useful  insights  Most newspapers  i n t o the changing r o l e of the  have had s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h women,  r o l e i n s o c i e t y and the f a m i l y .  The a r t i c l e s  their  strongly  attitudes  of s o c i e t y towards many f a m i l y i s s u e s .  can o f f e r  a distinctive  conservative  family.  reflect  Newspapers  view of s o c i e t y from the more  and s t r u c t u r e d p o s i t i o n of p o l i t i c a l and  r e l i g i o u s boards.  Further,  these p u b l i s h e d sources  the a v a i l a b i l i t y and time span of  are e x c e l l e n t , whether a t a r c h i v e s or  libraries. The study of f a m i l y and i n s t i t u t i o n s offers  an i n t e r e s t i n g dilemma.  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  While the time p e r i o d which  the r e c o r d s cover i s  f a i r l y short,  volume of m a t e r i a l .  The r e c o r d s from a v a r i e t y of  institutions:  there i s  medical, educational,  secular,  a considerable  and  ecclesiastic,  can be used t o a n a l y z e the replacement of the f a m i l y by a l l these g r o u p s .  The v a r i e t y and volume suggests  potential for this institutions  a r e a of r e s e a r c h .  considerable  F u r t h e r , many  which have not donated t h e i r r e c o r d s to an  a r c h i v e s s t i l l r e t a i n the important a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s and some access can o f t e n be n e g o t i a t e d .  The easy a v a i l a b i l i t y of  many of these r e c o r d s makes the hegemonic  88  approach a f a i r l y  p r o d u c t i v e area of s t u d y ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y for l o c a l  89  issues.  CHAPTER 6 ENDNOTES 1. T i l l y and Cohen, "Does the Family Have a History?". 2. Alison L. Prentice and Susan F. Houston, ed., Family, School & Society i n Nineteenth-Century Canada, (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1975):55.  90  CHAPTER 7 THE USEFULNESS OF CRITICAL GUIDES The  v a l u e of thematic guides has been r e c o g n i z e d by many  archival institutions  and many prominent a r c h i v i s t s .  t o respond to changing r e s e a r c h t o p i c s  as w e l l as  The need  increase  a c c e s s to c u r r e n t h o l d i n g s r e q u i r e s a r c h i v i s t s t o c o n t i n u e develop more d e t a i l e d and a n a l y t i c a l a c c e s s t o o l s .  to  The  c r i t i c a l guide s e r v e s a much needed purpose by p r o v i d i n g a r c h i v i s t s with a vehicle  t o r e c o r d i n f o r m a t i o n about types of  documents and r e s e a r c h uses i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of The this  study.  p a r t i c u l a r a r e a which was chosen t o be the b a s i s of  study o f f e r e d both advantages  history is  and d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Family  a r e l a t i v e l y new a r e a of r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p i n g  p a r t of the new s o c i a l h i s t o r y movement i n the 1960s. is  Yet  a s u b j e c t which has not r e c e i v e d as much a t t e n t i o n  others, part,  such as l a b o u r and women's h i s t o r y .  Canadian h i s t o r i a n s have done l i t t l e  subject.  For the  most  study i n  this  So, not o n l y d i d a r c h i v i s t s not c a t a l o g u e  this  The  area from t h e i r  amount of m a t e r i a l which i s  c u r r e n t l y housed i n  quite s i g n i f i c a n t ,  Many of the c o l l e c t i o n s  are s m a l l .  Also,  are for  most p a r t , f a m i l y a r c h i v e s are o f t e n not a v a i l a b l e i n a single  the  although  the degree of q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of the documents  Rather,  the  indexing.  p r o v i n c e ' s two major a r c h i v e s i s  varied.  it  as  m a t e r i a l i n the p a s t but many have c o n t i n u e d to exclude subject  as  d i a r y or a few l e t t e r s are a l l t h a t  the total.  comprise  the c o l l e c t i o n .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t does not p r o v i d e a complete  p i c t u r e of the f a m i l y .  I f d i a r i e s are b e i n g a c q u i r e d ,  would be extremely v a l u a b l e to have correspondence, or o t h e r r e l e v a n t  it  accounts  documents.  The major problem w i t h the area of r e s e a r c h r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to the age of the p r o v i n c e i t s e l f .  Much of  the  h i s t o r i o g r a p h y of the f a m i l y has used comparative methods. Records must cover a long time span to a l l o w t h i s research.  The r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d s i n c e  the European  s e t t l e m e n t of B r i t i s h Columbia, and t h e r e f o r e , w r i t t e n documents, this  form of  the c r e a t i o n of  s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduces the v a l u e of  studying  area d u r i n g the time p e r i o d examined by the f i n d i n g a i d .  The number and v a r i e t y of sources are p r o b a b l y q u i t e  rich  c o n s i d e r i n g the time p e r i o d but i t would not be accurate d e s c r i b e these c o l l e c t i o n s  as an important body of m a t e r i a l .  Conducting r e s e a r c h i n t h i s means.  to  area i s not p o i n t l e s s  by any  The a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s h e l d i n B r i t i s h Columbia may be  used to d e s c r i b e the workings of a f a m i l y d u r i n g the settlement process.  The i n f l u e n c e s  f a m i l y u n i t are p r o f o u n d .  of immigration on the  Family t i e s may be  d e s p i t e the p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n .  early  strengthened  The r e c o r d s of s e t t l e r s  B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h i s  in  process.  Moreover, the a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l can p r o v i d e supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n to a study conducted on a l a r g e r body of such as those a v a i l a b l e i n E a s t e r n Canada.  92  records,  A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s may a l s o f i n d i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the c o l l e c t i o n s  h e l d i n the P r o v i n c i a l  A r c h i v e s and the C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s . the p r o c e s s e s of f a m i l y l i f e , effectively  valuable  When s t u d y i n g  the a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s can be  used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other North American  m a t e r i a l of the same time p e r i o d .  Large bodies of  which d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h the r i t e s  records  of passage have not been  saved but mention of these r i t u a l s can be found throughout  the  collections. Family papers are a l s o important to the study of localities.  Very f r e q u e n t l y ,  founding f a m i l i e s  various  documents are saved from  or important c i t i z e n s .  Local historians  f i n d a wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n these r e c o r d s .  can  Similarly,  p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i a n s can use f a m i l y r e c o r d s to understand the e a r l y development of p o l i t i c a l systems and patronage.  The  P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s has a p a r t i c u l a r l y l a r g e body of m a t e r i a l which was c r e a t e d by i n f l u e n t i a l p o l i t i c i a n s and other citizens,  both p r o v i n c i a l and from the c i t y of  D e s p i t e the i n t e r e s t limited,  Victoria.  i n s o c i a l h i s t o r y and, although more  i n the h i s t o r y of the f a m i l y , the c o l l e c t i o n of  f a m i l y papers has remained a f a i r l y low p r i o r i t y .  Neither  the  P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s nor the C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s have developed any c o l l e c t i o n s t r a t e g y It  for this  form of m a t e r i a l .  i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a r c h i v e s have not g e n e r a l l y made a  concerted e f f o r t  to c o l l e c t  family records.  Promoting t h i s  type of a c q u i s i t i o n would be extremely time-consuming and  would r e q u i r e a d e l i c a t e  touch to guarantee t h a t  donors are not offended i f r e f u s e d . awareness  prospective  Nevertheless,  a greater  of the importance of these records c o u l d be promoted  by a r c h i v e s . A s i d e from the q u e s t i o n s  about the chosen area of  study,  the p r o d u c t i o n of the c r i t i c a l guide r e l i e d on the a p p r a i s a l techniques which are used i n a s s e s s i n g any a c q u i s i t i o n s . Naturally,  the l e g a l ,  f i s c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a l u e s of  these r e c o r d s are not f a c t o r s i n e v a l u a t i n g the m a t e r i a l but the i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e s are fundamental to any a n a l y s i s . e f f e c t i v e n e s s of u s i n g these c r i t e r i a to determine importance of r e c o r d s i s d i f f i c u l t to q u e s t i o n .  the  Since  are a p p l i e d by a r c h i v i s t s to a p p r a i s e i n d i v i d u a l  The  they  accessions,  t h e i r employment f o r the a n a l y s i s of v a l u e s i n any r e c o r d s , even i f  f o r more s p e c i f i c purposes, must a l s o be v a l i d .  Any  a p p r a i s a l takes i n t o account the f u t u r e uses of the r e c o r d s . So, f o r a guide which examines the a v a i l a b i l i t y and u s e f u l n e s s of a r c h i v a l h o l d i n g s f o r a s p e c i f i c  f i e l d of s t u d y ,  the  a p p l i c a t i o n of a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g f o u n d a t i o n f o r the a n a l y s i s .  T h i s method a l s o i n c r e a s e s  u n d e r s t a n d a b i l i t y of the guide s i n c e  i t relies  the on f a i r l y  universal archival principles. Using the broad c a t e g o r i e s  of Theodore S c h e l l e n b e r g  the more d e f i n e d ones suggested by Maynard B r i c h f o r d , possible  2  1  it  or is  to p r o v i d e r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h much p e r t i n e n t  i n f o r m a t i o n about the r e c o r d s .  Many of the seven 94  categories  i d e n t i f i e d by B r i c h f o r d :  accessibility,  time span, c r e d i b i l i t y , uniqueness, and q u a l i t y of use, analysis.  understandability,  frequency of use and type  had some s i g n i f i c a n c e  for this  critical  The degree of importance of these elements w i l l  v a r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y w i t h the t o p i c being  investigated.  Perhaps most u s e f u l f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study was v a l u e of time span of the r e c o r d s . and i t s  The nature of the  the family  slow e v o l u t i o n and change r e q u i r e s most s t u d i e s  d e a l w i t h the s u b j e c t  on a comparative b a s i s .  cover a long time span o f f e r  to  Records which  the r e s e a r c h e r more scope f o r  study and any changes which have o c c u r r e d become more apparent.  Although u s e f u l c o n c l u s i o n s  can s t i l l be drawn from  comparative s t u d i e s between d i f f e r e n t documents c r e a t e d separate  times,  r e c o r d s c r e a t e d f o r the same purposes  f o r more f r u i t f u l dissimilarities  I f there are  allow  fewer  between the c o n t e x t of i n d i v i d u a l  then r e s e a r c h e r s documents.  research.  at  are l e s s l i k e l y to m i s i n t e r p r e t  records, the  So r e c o r d s which were c r e a t e d w i t h i n the same  r e c o r d s e r i e s p r o v i d e a l e s s e r chance f o r m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n when being compared  together.  The concept of u n d e r s t a n d a b i l i t y can be used v e r y effectively records.  f o r a s c e r t a i n i n g the r e s e a r c h v a l u e s  of  certain  There can be extreme problems d i s c e r n i n g the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n a f a m i l y group. were c r e a t e d f o r a s e l e c t audience, creator alone,  Since these documents perhaps even f o r  much was assumed to be understood. 95  the  There was  o f t e n no need t o e x p l a i n or d e f i n e much of what was r e c o r d e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many documents which do not c o n t a i n  full  p e r s o n a l names or which leave the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between people i l l - d e f i n e d may have l i t t l e  value.  T h i s type of document  r e q u i r e s l i n k i n g the r e c o r d s w i t h other m a t e r i a l , such as censuses or d i r e c t o r i e s .  Since these other m a t e r i a l s may not  be a v a i l a b l e or i t may be i m p r a c t i c a l to conduct the work t o e s t a b l i s h  these l i n k a g e s ,  may be s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced.  the v a l u e of many documents  Furthermore, r e c o r d s f o r  demography a l s o have problems of u n d e r s t a n d a b i l i t y , example,  extensive  for  illegibility.  A c c e s s i b i l i t y may a l s o impose s e r i o u s worth of some m a t e r i a l s . documents,  l i m i t a t i o n s on the  The p e r c e i v e d s e n s i t i v i t y  a t l e a s t to f a m i l y members, and the  of many  subsequent  r e s t r i c t i o n s which may be requested when r e c o r d s are donated to an a r c h i v e s can d i m i n i s h the importance of the documents researchers.  Concerns f o r c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y may u l t i m a t e l y  to  lead  to the d e s t r u c t i o n of v a l u a b l e p a p e r s . Similarly,  uniqueness  and c r e d i b i l i t y are somewhat  important f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r type of study. of the f a m i l y c o n c e n t r a t e s special,  on the g e n e r a l ,  S i n c e the  less study  r a t h e r than the  uniqueness may be a q u a l i t y which i s  undesirable.  The more common the contents of the document a r e , the more t h a t may be a v a i l a b l e f o r comparative purposes, theoretically. significance  C r e d i b i l i t y of the m a t e r i a l i s  at  least  a l s o of minor  because of the nature of the m a t e r i a l s .  Family  papers are w r i t t e n f o r a p r i v a t e audience of  the r e c o r d s are u n l i k e l y .  and so  The purposes of  distortions  statistical  r e c o r d s p r e p a r e d by the government r a r e l y suggest reasons preparing f i c t i t i o u s useful  results.  Elements of c r e d i b i l i t y are  i n l o o k i n g at memoirs which are w r i t t e n a f t e r  and are s p e c i f i c a l l y  i n t e n d e d to r e c o r d the e v e n t .  these c r i t e r i a , B r i c h f o r d i d e n t i f i e d and q u a l i t y of u s e .  relate  relevant  fact  As w e l l  as  frequency of use and type  guide.  to administrative functions  to t h i s form of  Both of  these  which are  not  analysis.  B r i c h f o r d a l s o d i s c u s s e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as important a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a . study,  the  These two elements p l a y v i r t u a l l y no r o l e  i n a n a l y z i n g m a t e r i a l f o r a thematic factors  for  3  of  In the c o n t e x t of  records this  u s i n g the age of the r e c o r d s as an a p p r a i s a l element  may be of prime importance t o a r e s e a r c h e r a specific  time p e r i o d .  Even s o ,  investigating  far less significance  a t t r i b u t e d to age than the former c a t e g o r i e s .  only is  The continuous  changes i n the framework of the f a m i l y makes e x a c t moments time l e s s c r u c i a l than f o r o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l  studies.  The manner i n which a p p r a i s a l elements i n t e r a c t  is  v a l u a b l e f o r a n a l y z i n g r e c o r d s as the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a independently.  in  For example,  as each  the  u n d e r s t a n d a b i l i t y of a group of documents may be v e r y low because of the audience  f o r which they were w r i t t e n .  v a l u e can be i n c r e a s e d by l i n k i n g the c r e a t o r s w i t h r e c o r d s which w i l l i d e n t i f y  This other  the i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r 97  low  relationships.  The age of the documents then becomes c r u c i a l  because the i d e n t i f y i n g r e c o r d s , censuses,  such as p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s  and  are not a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l p e r i o d s .  The methodology of u s i n g s t a n d a r d a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a f o r a n a l y z i n g the r e c o r d s i n a c r i t i c a l guide has proven to be most e f f e c t i v e .  As g e n e r a l a p p r a i s a l methods have moved from  the realm of f i n g e r s p i t z e n g e f i i h l , subtle  intuition,  4  perhaps b e s t t r a n s l a t e d  t o the a n a l y t i c a l examination of  as  records  w i t h a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a , so the thematic guide b e n e f i t s from the a p p l i c a t i o n of these c r i t e r i a . the a n a l y s i s  T h e i r use g i v e s focus  and can a l s o be used as a framework f o r  each document t y p e .  to  studying  The study becomes more understandable  to  o t h e r a r c h i v i s t s who w i l l immediately a p p r e c i a t e the b a s i s of the a n a l y s i s .  Further,  it  increases  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of  information a s s i s t i n g  r e s e a r c h e r s who are not r e q u i r e d to  l e a r n the assumptions  b e h i n d each i n d i v i d u a l g u i d e .  The p r e s e n t a t i o n established  and format of the guide a l s o r e l i e s  archival practice.  As i t was p o s s i b l e  a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a t o conduct the a n a l y s i s so i t was e q u a l l y f e a s i b l e practices  to follow standard d e s c r i p t i o n  f o r t h e , f o r m a t of the g u i d e .  notes,  and d e s c r i p t i o n s  The c o n t e n t s of  of the r e c o r d s .  the a p p l i c a b l e r e s e a r c h a r e a r e p l a c e s history.  use  of document forms,  guide use the p a t t e r n of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i s t o r y , content  to  on  The scope and content  the  scope and  A survey of  administrative  notes become an a n a l y s i s  the forms of m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e and t h e i r p o s s i b l e 98  the  uses.  of  Finally,  the t i t l e s of c o l l e c t i o n s  information,  and other  related  such as dates and e x t e n t a c t as the  descriptions  of the r e c o r d s would i n an orthodox s t y l e i n v e n t o r y . These elements of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and the development of an accepted format c r e a t e more v a l u a b l e f i n d i n g a i d s .  The  expanded a n a l y s i s of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s o f f e r a r c h i v i s t s an o p p o r t u n i t y to r e c o r d t h e i r c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge about the a v a i l a b l e documents and t h e i r forms.  N a t u r a l l y , not a l l  guides w i l l r e q u i r e e l a b o r a t e analyses  of the r e s e a r c h t o p i c  or theme or even of a l l document forms. subject matter,  Much depends on the  the volume of the r e c o r d s , or the a v a i l a b i l i t y  of p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s . from completed s t u d i e s .  I t may be p o s s i b l e Nevertheless,  to use i n f o r m a t i o n  the c r e a t i o n of  thematic guides w i t h c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s are a v a l u a b l e method of p r o v i d i n g r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h knowledge about new and inaccessible  research  subjects.  99  CHAPTER 7 ENDNOTES 1. T . R . S c h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s : P r i n c i p l e s and T e c h n i q u e s , C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1956:148-160. 2. Maynard B r i c h f o r d , A r c h i v e s & M a n u s c r i p t s : A p p r a i s a l & A c c e s s i o n i n g , B a s i c Manual S e r i e s , C h i c a g o : S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1977:7-10. 3.  Brichford,  2-4.  4. Hans Booms, " S o c i e t y and the Formation o f a Documentary H e r i t a g e : I s s u e s i n the A p p r a i s a l o f A r c h i v a l S o u r c e s , " A r c h i v a r i a 24 (Summer, 1987):85.  100  BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, Michael. Approaches to the History of the Western Family, 1500-1914. London: MacMillan, 1980. Aries, Phillipe. Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life. New York: Vintage Books, 1962. Barman, Jean. Growing Up British in British Columbia: Boys i n Private School. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1984. Bearman, David A. and Lytle, Richard. "The Power of the Principle of Provenance." Archivaria 21 (Winter 1985-86: 14-27. Bouchard, Gerard. "Family Structures and Geographical Mobility at LaTerriere, 1851-1935." Journal of Family History 2 (Fall 1977):350-369. Bradbury, Bettina. "The Family Economy and Work in an Industrializing City: Montreal in the 1870s." Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1979):71-96. . "Pigs, Cows and Boarders: Non-Wage Forms of Survival among Montreal Families, 1861-1891." Labour/Le Travail 14 (Fall 1984):9-46. . "The Fragmented Family: Family Strategies in the Face of Death, Illness and Poverty, Montreal, 18681893." In Childhood and Family in Canadian History edited by Joy Parr. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982:109-128. Brichford, Maynard. Archives & Manuscripts: Appraisal & Accessioning. Basic Manual Series. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1977. Brookes, Alan. "'Doing the Best I Can": the Taking of the 1861 New Brunswick Census." Histoire Sociale - Social History IX:17 (May 1976):70-92. . "Family, Youth and Leaving Home i n LateNineteenth-Century Rural Nova Scotia: Canning and the Exodus, 1868-1893." In Childhood and Family in Canadian History, edited by Joy Parr. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982:93-108. Brown, Jennifer S.H. Strangers in Blood: Fur Trade Company Families in Indian Country. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1980. 101  Bureau of Canadian Archivists. Toward Descriptive Standards: Report and Recommendations of the Canadian Working Group on Archival Descriptive Standards. Bureau of Canadian Archivists: Ottawa, 1985. Cook, Michael. Archives Administration: A Manual for Intermediate and Smaller Organizations and for Local Government. Folkestone, Kent, England: Wm Dawson & Sons Ltd.,1977. . The Management of Information from Archives. Hants, England: Gower Publishing Company Limited, 1986. Copp, Terry. The Anatomy of Poverty: The Condition of the Working Class in Montreal, 1897-1929. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974. Cross, D. Suzanne. "The Neglected Majority: The Changing Role of Women in 19th Century Montreal." In The Neglected Majority: Essays i n Canadian Women's History edited by Susan Mann Trofimenkoff and Alison Prentice. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977:66-86. Duchein, Michel. "Theoretical Principles and Practical Problems of Respect des fonds i n Archival Science." Archivaria 16 (Summer 1983):64-82. Emery, George. "Ontario's C i v i l Registration of V i t a l Statistics, 1869-1926: The Evolution of an Administrative System." Canadian Historical Review 64 (December 1983): 468-493. . "A Model Case Study of English Canadian Historical Mortality: A Description and Evaluation of the Data for Ingersoll, Ontario, 1837-1982". Presentation to the Canadian Historical Association Annual Meeting in Winnipeg, Manitoba. June 9, 1986. Gaffield, Chad. "Canadian Families i n Cultural Context: Hypotheses from the Mid-Nineteenth Century." Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1979):48-70. . "Schooling, the Economy and Rural Society in Nineteenth-Century Ontario." In Childhood and Family in Canadian History edited by Joy Parr. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982:69-82. . "Theory and Method in Canadian Historical Demography." Archivaria 14 (Summer 1982):123-136.  102  Gagan, David. "Enumerator's Instructions for the Census of Canada, 1852 and 1861." Histoire Sociale - Social History VII (November 1974):353-365. . Hopeful Travellers: Families, Land and Social Change in Mid-Victorian Peel County,Canada West. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981. Gagan, David and Turner, H.E. "Social History i n Canada: A Report on the State of the Art." Archivaria 14 (Summer 1982):27-52. Gordon, Michael, ed. The American Family i n Social-Historical Perspective. Third edition. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983. Gracy, David B. II. Archives & Manuscripts: Arrangement & Description. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1977. Hamilton-Edwards, Gerald. In Search of Scottish Ancestry. Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 1980. Harris, Richard Colebrook. The Seigneurial System i n Early Canada: A Geographical Study. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1966. Harris, R. Cole and Phillips, Elizabeth, ed. Letters from Windermere, 1912-1914. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1984. Henripin, Jacques and Peron, Yves. "The Demographic Transition of the Province of Quebec." In Population and Change edited by D.V. Glass and Roger Revelle. London: Edward Arnold, 1972:213-231. H i l l , Edward E. "The Preparation of Inventories at the National Archives." In A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, 1984:211-235. Houston, Susan E. "Victorian Origins of Juvenile Delinquency: A Canadian Experience." In Education and Social Change: Themes from Ontario's Past edited by Michael B. Katz and Paul H. Mattingly. New York: New York University Press, 1975:83-109. Katz, Michael B. "The People of a Canadian City, 1851-1852." Canadian Historical Review 53 (December 1972):402-426.  103  . The People of Hamilton, Canada West: Family and Class i n a Mid-Nineteenth-Century City. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975. Katz, Michael, Doucet, Michael J., and Stern, Mark J. The Social Organization of Early Industrial Capitalism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. Levesque, Andree. "Deviant Anonymous: Single Mothers at the Hopital de l a Misercorde in Montreal, 1929-1939." Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1984):168-184. Lucas, Lydia. "Efficient Finding Aids: Developing a System for Control of Archives and Manuscripts." In A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch. Washington, D.C: National Archives and Records Service, 1984:203-210. Lutz, John, ed. The Researcher's Guide to British Columbia Nineteenth Century Directories: A Bibliography and Index. Victoria, British Columbia: Public History Group, University of Victoria, 1988. Lytle, Richard H. "Intellectual Access to Archives: I. Provenance and Content Indexing Methods of Subject Retrieval." The American Archivist 43 (Winter 1980):6475. . "Intellectual Access to Archives: II. Report of an Experiment Comparing Provenance and Content Indexing Methods of Subject Retrieval." The American Archivist 43 (Spring 1980):191-207. Mayer, Dale. "The New Social History: Implications for Archivists." The American Archivist 48 (Fall 1985):388399. Mays, Herbert J. "A Place to Stand: Families, Land and Permanence in Toronto Gore Township, 1820-1890." Canadian Historical Association Historical Papers (1980):185-211. McCormack, Ross A. "Networks among British Immigrants and Accommodation to Canadian Society: Winnipeg, 1900-1914." Histoire Sociale - Social History XVII (November 1984):357-374.  104  Mclnnis, R.M. "Childbearing and Land Availability: Some Evidence from Individual Household Data." In Population Patterns in the Past, edited by Ronald Demos Lee. New York: Academic Press, 1977:201-227. Medjuck, Sheva. "Family and Household Composition in the Nineteenth Century: The Case of Moncton, New Brunswick, 1851-1871." In The Canadian City: Essays in Urban and Social History, revised edition edited by Gilbert A. Stetler and Alan F.J. Artibise. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1984:249-261. Mitchinson, Wendy. "The WCTU: 'For God, Home and Native Land': A Study in Nineteenth-Century Feminism." In A Not Unreasonable Claim: Women and Reform i n Canada, 1880s1920s edited by Linda Kealey. Toronto: Women's Press, 1979:152-167. Moogk, Peter N. "Les Petits Sauvages: The Children of Eighteenth Century New France." In Childhood and Family in Canadian History edited by Joy Parr. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982:17-43. Morrison, T.R. "'Their Proper Sphere', Feminism, The Family and Child-centred Social Reform in Ontario: 1875-1900., Parts I and II". Ontario History 68 (March and June, 1976):45-74. Norris, Darrell A. "Household and Transiency in a Loyalist Township: The People of Adolphustown, 1784-1822." Histoire Sociale - Social History 13 (November 1980):399415. Parr, Joy, ed. Childhood and Family in Canadian History. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982. Pollock, Linda A. Forgotten Children: Parent-child relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Prentice, Alison. "Education and the Metaphor of the Family: The Upper Canadian Example." History of Education Quarterly 12 (Fall 1982):281-303. . The School Promoters: Education and Social Class in Mid-Nineteenth Century Upper Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977. Prentice, Alison L. and Houston, Susan F., ed. Family, School & Society i n Nineteenth-Century Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1975. 105  Pugh, Mary Jo. "The Illusion of Omniscience: Subject Access and the Reference Archivist." In A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, 1984:264-277. Purdy, Virginia. "Subject Guides." In A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice edited by Maygene E. Daniels and Timothy Walch. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, 1984:245-254. Rooke, Patricia T. and Schnell, R.L., eds. Studies in Childhood History: A Canadian Perspective. Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited, 1982. Schellenberg, T.R. Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956. Shorter, Edward. The Making of the Modern Family. Basic Books, Inc., 1975.  New York:  Snell, James A. and Abeele, Cynthia Comacchio. "Regulating Nuptiality: Restricting Access to Marriage i n Early Twentieth-Century English-Speaking Canada." Canadian Historical Review 69(4) (December 1988):466-489. Society of American Archivists' Committee on Finding Aids. Inventories and Registers: A Handbook of Techniques and Examples. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1976. Sprague, Douglas and Frye, Ronald. "Manitoba's Red River Settlement: Sources for Economic and Demographic History." Archivaria 9 (Winter 1979-80):179-193. Stone, Lawrence. The Family, Sex and Marriage, 1500-1800. Abridged edition. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1979. Sutherland, Neil. Children in English-Canadian Society: Framing the Twentieth-Century Consensus. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976. Synge, Jane. "The Transition from School to Work: Growing Up Working Class in Early 20th Century Hamilton, Ontario." In Childhood and Adolescence in Canada edited by K. Ishwaran. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1979:240-269.  106  T i l l y , L o u i s e A., and Miriam Cohen. "Does the Family Have a H i s t o r y ? : A Review o f Theory and P r a c t i c e i n Family History." S o c i a l Science H i s t o r y 6 ( S p r i n g 1982):157158. Van K i r k , S y l v i a . "Many Tender T i e s " : Women i n Fur Trade S o c i e t y i n Western Canada, 1670-1870. Winnipeg: Watson & Dwyer P u b l i s h i n g , 1980. Ward, W. P e t e r . "Unwed Motherhood i n N i n e t e e n t h Century E n g l i s h Canada." Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l Papers (1981):34-56. . "Family Papers and the New S o c i a l H i s t o r y . " A r c h i v a r i a 14 (Summer 1982):63-73. . " C o u r t s h i p and S o c i a l Space i n N i n e t e e n t h Century E n g l i s h Canada." Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review 68 (March 1987):35-62.  107  APPENDIX Title  a n d Number  Vancouver  Dates  Extent  Forms a n d Comments  City Archives  Bell-Irving Add.Mss. 1  Family  1861-1935 33 i n . d i a r i e s , a d d r e s s l e t t e r books. parish  r e c o r d s , minutes,  St. Paul's A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , Add.Mss.11  1889-1915 7 i n .  Schwesinger, Add.Mss.14  1913-1960 3 i n . a u t o b i o g r a p h y  Gladys  books,  typescript  L a n g i s , H e n r i E. Add.Mss.16  1885-1904 5 i n . m e d i c a l d o c t o r , accounts.  Sweeny, C a m p b e l l Add.Mss.22  1841-1938 281 p p . d i a r y ,  Bryant, Cornelius Add.Mss.24  1885-1886, 2 i n .m i n i s t e r , d i a r i e s , misc. l i s t s of l e t t e r s , 1878-1882  McRoberts F a m i l y Add.Mss.26  1860-1914  F i r s t Presbyterian C h u r c h , Add.Mss.29  1885-1918 2 v o l .b a p t i s m a l  Moberly, Walter Add.Mss.33  1898-1924  Wade F a m i l y Add.Mss.44  1885-1960 76 i n . some  L e c k i e , John Add.Mss.45  2 i n .d i a r y ,  daybooks,  correspondence.  few l e t t e r s . register.  correspondence, mostly interest i n history. correspondence  Edwards 1869-1955 36 i n . d i a r i e s t o 1916, correspondence.  MacNeill, William Add.Mss.46  1900-1918 20 i n . some p e r s o n a l p a p e r s , b i l l s and r e c e i p t s . many p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s including topical f i l e s e r i e s and o b i t u a r i e s .  M a t t h e w s , James Add.Mss.54 Queen M a r y ' s Coronation Hostel Add.Mss.55  1903  Cates Family Add.Mss.61  1877-1958  19 i n . c o r r e s p o n d e n c e .  7 i n . l e t t e r b o o k and autobiography 108  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Extent  Forms and Comments  Homer Family Add.Mss.72  1868-1964 143 p. family correspondence.  McFarlane Family Add.Mss.79  1884, 1 vol. university notes, private 1904-1912 correspondence.  Firkins, Yvonne Add.Mss.93  1918-1962  8 i n . personal correspondence.  Hall, Jessie Columbia 1904-1935 4 in. some personal (Greer), Add.Mss.97 correspondence. Brighouse, Samuel Add.Mss.Ill  1911-1926  7 i n . w i l l and correspondence re: dispute over estate.  Southcott Family Add.Mss.113  1863-1931  2 i n . family photos, some correspondence.  McCleery Family Add.Mss.114  1852-1959 32 i n . personal correspondence, daily diaries.  Hodgson, Catherine C.1905-1962 12 i n . photos, personal Add.Mss.115 correspondence. Vancouver City Creche 1912-1932 7 vol.record books, daybooks, Add.Mss.124 day care ledgers. Mowat, Henry Add.Mss.136  1839-1940 40 i n . personal papers.  Graveley Family Add.Mss.140  1883-1939  6 i n . personal correspondence.  Bentley Family Add.Mss.151  1884-1898  56 p. largely correspondence, access restricted.  Clarke Family Add.Mss.157  1867-1914  5 i n . diaries.  Pollay Family Add.Mss.160  1911-1936  17 p. letters and photograph.  Godfrey, Alexander Add.Mss.169  1876-1909  2 i n . letters, misc. family documents.  Henry Hudson Parent- 1919-1931 Teacher Association Add.Mss.185  1 i n . minute book, 1919-1924.  109  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Clinton, Father Henry Add.Mss.192  1886  Wesleyan Methodist 1863-1923 Church, Add.Mss.194 Adams, Emily Add.Mss.203  1857  Twigge Family Add.Mss.217  1853-1891  Randall Family Add.Mss.218  1883-1884  Quine Family Add.Mss.245  1861-1885  Extent 6 p.  Forms and Comments letter to sister-in-law.  87 p. Nanaimo sunday school r o l l books. 7 p. letter from brother i n Ontario. 16 p. letter. 4 p. letter from children i n Oregon. 44 p. family correspondence, photocopies.  Archibald, Harry P. 1898-1965 38 f t . primarily engineering Add.Mss.246 records, some personal. Royal Columbian 1862-1970 18 f t . minutes, annual reports, Hospital, Add.Mss.284 some registers. Black, Alex Add.Mss.288  1825,1862  -  p/copies, McGibbon family correspondence i n N.B.  H i l l Family Add.Mss.292  1821-1972  5 f t . family correspondence, diaries.  Emery, Bertram Add.Mss.303  1897-1971  6 f t . personal papers, photographs.  Whittaker, Henry Add.Mss.315  1886-1971  2 in. some personal records, medical records.  Green, Rev. A.E. Add.Mss.330  1912  15 p. letters regarding Indian schools.  Vancouver Maritime 1908-1966 12 in. personal papers, diaries Museum, Add.Mss.335 of Capt. S. Robinson. Volume 1 Lett, Sherwood Add.Mss.361  1908-1966 1.3 m. diaries, personal papers.  Wilson Family Add.Mss.362  1900-1974 7.2 m. correspondence, sermons.  110  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Extent  Forms and Comments  Small, George Add.Mss.373  1906-1936 42 cm. photographs.  Turnbull, Netta Add.Mss.380  1908-1955 10 cm. school papers.  Roberts, John Hugh Add.Mss.387  1887-1890  1 cm. p/copy diary of personal and business affairs.  St. James Anglican 1881-1938 1 reel m/film church register Church, Add.Mss.403 and St.Luke's Home hospital records. Alexandra 1892-1972 5.2 m WCTU orphanage minutes. Neighbourhood House Add.Mss.420 Banfield, W. Orson Add.Mss.427  1834-1977 1.6m. mostly business, some personal records.  St. John the Divine 1859-1903 Add.Mss.447 McQueen Family Add.Mss.465  -  parish register, Anglican.  1782-1796 38 cm. correspondence, 1884-1978 photographs et a l .  Mitchell-Dwelly Family 1883-1960 Add.Mss.504  13 cm. correspondence.  Woodward Family Add.Mss.564  1912-1966 34 cm. correspondence, memoirs.  Sam Kee Company Add.Mss.571  1888-1935 4.2 m. Chinese, no translaition, correspondence.  Bell-Irving Family Add.Mss.592  1863-1909 34 cm. family accounts.  Holy Trinity Cathedral 1860-1949 3 reels m/film, parish Add.Mss.603 registers. B.C. Dept. of Finance 1880-1913 22 reels m/film, Surveyor of Taxes assessment records. Add.Mss.619 Ladner,Leon Johnson 1852-1977 Add.Mss.641  8 m. personal papers and correspondence.  Ill  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Malkin Family Add.Mss.674  1840-1979  Extent  Forms and Comments  6 cm. correspondence, legal documents, genealogy.  Robertson Presbyterian 1908-1935 5 cm. minutes. Church, Add.Mss.721 St. Mary the Virgin 1862-1974 3 reels m/film, parish register. Add.Mss.744 Sapperton. St. John the Evangelist, Add.Mss.745  1899-1972 6 reels m/film, parish register, North Vancouver.  St. Barnabas Church Add.Mss.746  1894-1975 4 reels m/film, parish register, New Westminister.  First Lutheran Church 1892-1952 1 reel m/film, parish register. Add.Mss.749 Honeyman, D.R. Add.Mss.814  1900-1944 39 cm. diaries, correspondence, World War I.  Morton Family Add.Mss.860  1890-1926  Lloyd Family Add.Mss.875  1871-1921 1 reel m/film, correspondence.  Ritchie, Reginald Add.Mss.876  1907-1953 25 cm. correspondence.  McCleery Family Add.Mss.878  1883-1914  6 cm. genealogical material, see also Add.Mss.114.  Woods Family Add.Mss.898  1907-1941  2 cm. genealogical charts, adoption material.  Markson, Murdo Add.Mss.905  1898-1950  4 cm. correspondence.  McGuigan Family Add.Mss.920  1886-1960 1.7 m. small amount of family material, scrapbook.  McGeer Family Add.Mss.958  1916-1948  McRae Family Add.Mss.974  1891-1982 15 cm. correspondence, scrapbook, photos.  1 cm. p/copies, several letters.  6 cm. correspondence,some family.  112  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Price Family Add.Mss.987  1887-1907  Extent  Forms and Comments  6 cm. correspondence, genealogical material.  Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District, Series B-l  correspondence.  Social Services 1895-1907 Department, Series 1  Friendly Aid/ Friendly Help Societies.  Social Services 1907-1971 Department, Series 6  Old People's Home.  Finance Department Assessment Division  1888-1889  assessment r o l l s .  Vancouver School Board  1892-1963  Municipality of Point Grey, School Board  1912-1929 50 cm. minutes.  Municipality of South Vancouver, School Board  1906-1928  6 m.  1 m.  minutes, (restricted).  minutes.  Health Department, 1888-1974 6.5 cm correspondence, public Medical Health Officer, health i n schools. Series 1 British Columbia Archives and Records Service Pattulo, T. Duff Add.Mss.3  1892-1956 11 m.  Ellison, Price Add.Mss.7  1884-1966 12 cm. correspondence to Mrs. Ellison (see also 249 and 478).  McClung, Nellie L. Add.Mss.10  1894-1950  7 m.  private correspondence. (see also 1188).  correspondence.  Hodson, Frederick W. 1913-1968 50 cm. diaries, correspondence. Add.Mss.22 Lampman, Peter Secord 1889-1934 1 cm. correspondence. Add.Mss.24  113  Burr Family Add.Mss.25  1901-1914  Boyd, John F. Add.Mss. 43  1867-1949 63 cm. correspondence regarding family and roadhouses.  Wilkinson, John B, Add.Mss.48  1860-1865 .5 cm. ten letters to family.  Crease Family Add.Mss.55  1753-1965 2.8 m. private and o f f i c i a l correspondence (see also 56 and 573).  Crease Family Add.Mss. 56  1836-1924 6 cm.  6 cm. p/copies, letterbook, diaries.  correspondence (see also 55 and 573).  Moody, Mary Susanna 1854-1863 1 cm. Add.Mss.60  correspondence to mother and sister.  Birch, Sir Arthur N. 1836-1946 8 cm. Add.Mss.61  correspondence with other family members.  Glassford, Deborah F.1914-19193 cm. Add.Mss.89  letters from men overseas.  Clearihue Family Add.Mss.121  1868-1914  correspondence, school register (see also 698).  Hume Family Add.Mss.141  1872-1933 6 cm.  certificates, school inspector's reports, photos.  Christie, John Add.Mss.142  1859-1876 1 cm.  diary.  Langley, Alfred D. Add.Mss.180  1859-1910 18 cm. family correspondence.  Dunn Family Add.Mss.191  1899-1900 1 cm.  family matters, photos.  Elwyn, Thomas Add.Mss.218  1870-1917 6 cm.  personal and business correspondence.  Bilow Family Add.Mss.219  1910-1922 6 cm.  letterbook and family correspondence.  Groth, Charles Add.Mss.243  1881-1895 2 cm.  journal describing l i f e on Galiano Island.  Stuart, Charles G. Add.Mss.244  1902-1918 2 cm.  letters inward relating to family.  9 m.  114  T i t l e and Number  Dates  O'Reilly Family Add.Mss.248  1889-1973 18 cm. courtship correspondence, (see also 412 and 2086)  Ellison Family Add.Mss.249  1868-1973 18 cm. correspondence (see also 7 and 478).  Ker Family Add.Mss.255  1840-1945 12 cm. Colonial Auditor, correspondence.  Jenns, Eustace A. Add.Mss.258  1878-1928 50 cm. personal and family correspondence.  Hulbert Family Add.Mss.285  1858-1928 60 cm. letterbooks and family farm accounts.  Tate Family Add.Mss.303  1870-1933 25 cm. diaries of missionaries.  Extent  Forms and Comments  Royal Jubilee 1858-1967 13 m. Hospital, Add.Mss.313  patient registers, operational records.  Cridge, Edward Add.Mss.320  1837-1918 1 m.  personal correspondence, diaries, clergyman (see also 420 and 1975).  Irvine Family Add.Mss.322  1851-1942 4 cm.  correspondence, certificates, histories.  Rhodes, Gertrude A. 1813-1894 51 cm. Red River Settlement, correspondence,marriage (collector) registrations. Add.Mss.345 DeBeck, Edwin K. Add.Mss.346  1906-1973 11 cm. personal correspondence.  Corless, Richard F. 1916-1931 Add.Mss.348  6 cm. funeral home records and ledger, Prince George.  Edwards, Thomas M. Add.Mss.349  1906-1965  2 m.  Dingle Family Add.Mss.360  1887-1960 12 cm. 1887 diary, family correspondence.  Butcher, Margaret Add.Mss.362  1916-1919  diaries,  6 cm. journal of nurse among Kitimat Indians.  115  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Mclllree Family Add.Mss.366  1846-1970  Extent  Forms and Comments  30 p. family correspondence, genealogies (see also 1434).  Pringle, Alexander D. 1828-1908 1 cm. family correspondence to Add.Mss.369 England. Oxley Family Add.Mss.385  1912-1914  Sherman, Marian N. Add.Mss.409  1901-1975 69 cm. family correspondence of humanist doctor, photos.  O'Reilly Family Add.Mss.412  1795-1963 80 cm. correspondence, notebooks  6 cm. family correspondence, Wilmer, B.C. (see also 719).  Jones, Elsie Add.Mss.414  1909-1913  Cridge, Edward Add.Mss.420  1904-1913 .5 cm. family correspondence (see also 320 and 1975).  Children's Aid 1895-1973 Society of Victoria Add.Mss.431  1 cm.  (see also 248 and 2086).  2 m.  postcards from friends.  accounts, annual reports,  Hawking, Alben Add.Mss.441  1871-1880 1 cm.  diary, letter.  Wille Family Add.Mss.469  1874-1958  Mallandaim, Edward Add.Mss.470  1864-1897 65 cm. diaries, notebooks, reminiscences.  Ellison Family Add.Mss.478  1884-1969  Wilson, Violet H. Add.Mss.487  1776-1969  Flavelle, Aird D. Add.Mss.495  1903-1964 42 cm. diary, correspondence to parents (see also 585 and 875).  Suter Family Add.Mss.496  1864-1936 21 cm. correspondence, notes (see also 360).  6 cm. legal records, photos.  7 p. four letters (see also 7 and 249) 1 cm. reminiscences.  116  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Hayward Family Add.Mss.503  1862- 1963  Rithet Family Add.Mss.504  1863- 1944 58 cm. correspondence, letterbooks.  Helmcken, John S. Add.Mss.505  1848-1920 1.4 m. family papers, medical notebooks. (see also 658 and 663).  Extent  Forms and Comments  12 m. personal papers, Victoria undertakers.  Borradaille Family Add.Mss.506  3 cm. three photo albums and historical narratives.  McWatters, Thomas T. 1864-1881 Add.Mss.511  19 p. Camerontown miner, letters to family, photo.  Schofield, Charles D.1882-1941 64 cm. family correspondence, Add.Mss.519 sermons. Christ Church Cathedral Add.Mss.520  1836-1938 23 cm. church register.  Barnard Family Add.Mss.527  1863-1936 30 era.diary, correspondence, dinner party record.  Mason, A. Add.Mss.533  1913-1916  1 cm. p/copies, letters from son.  Henderson, William Add.Mss.547  1916-1919  6 cm. diaries, weather, church and family affairs.  Crease Family Add.Mss.573  1867-1882  4 era.diaries, birthday books (see also 55 and 56).  Flavelle Family Add.Mss.585  1903-1973  4 cm. diary, correspondence (see also 495 and 875).  Barclay, Forbes Add.Mss.586  1835-1879  3 cm. family correspondence, Oregon.  Grainger, Martin A. 1876-1931 15 cm. family correspondence, Chief Forester. Add.Mss.588 Campbe11, John Add.Mss.593 Blinkhorn, Ann Add.Mss.595  1849  4 p. p/copy, family letter from P.E.I, to Mass.  1840-1846 .5 cm. letter from friend i n England. 117  T i t l e and Number Campbell, Marey Add.Mss.601  Dates 1824  Extent  Forms and Comments  3 p. letter from father.  Grey Family Add.Mss.604  1826-1946  7 cm. diaries, family papers,  Reese, Theodore Add.Mss.607  1910-1924  5 cm. diaries, Princeton farmer.  Carr, Richard Add.Mss.610  1836-1881  6 cm. diaries, correspondence, merchant.  Martin, Archer E.S. 1865-1941 Add.Mss.632  4 m.  some correspondence on domestic maters, jurist.  Ross, Donald Add.Mss.635  1816-1877 88 cm. private correspondence.  Cook Family Add.Mss.653  1915-1936  Gowans, John Add.Mss.654  1879-1881  3 p. two letters, miner.  Fisher Family Add.Mss.657  1864-1892  4 p. Metchosin, letters from family i n Britain.  Helmcken Family Add.Mss.658  1839-1871  5 p. death certificate (see also 505 and 663).  Helmcken, John S. Add.Mss.663  1845-1869  Flavelle Family Add.Mss.666  ca. 1900 6 cm. correspondence (see also 495).  LeBourdas, Louis Add.Mss.676  1917-1945 1.3 m. personal papers, Quesnel journalist.  Longstaff, Frederick 1848-1961 Add.Mss.677  23 p. correspondence, Galiano.  1 cm. certificate, letters. (see also 505 and 658.)  12 m. diaries, correspondence, household accounts.  Douglas, James Add.Mss.678  1835-1873 18 cm. m/film, diary, family bible.  Perry, Martha E. Add.Mss.697  1898-1958 1.4 m. correspondence, diaries.  118  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Extent  Forms and Comments  Clearihue, Joseph B. 1872-1967 6.4 m. Victoria judge, family Add.Mss.698 / correspondence (see also 121). McArthur, James Add.Mss.713  1861-1897  27 p. correspondence to wife, Victoria marine engineer,  Evans, Mary Add.Mss.718  1882-1904  10 p. p/copy, reminiscences of in-laws.  Oxley Family Add.Mss.719  1912-1914  21 p. letter to family (see also 385).  Allcock, Ernest H. Add.Mss.723  1909-1953  26 p. p/copy, reminiscences,  Pidcock Family Add.Mss.728  1862-1955 72 cm. diaries and reminiscences.  Pack, George Add.Mss.729  1890-1952 88 cm. diaries, house decorator.  Walkem Family Add.Mss.734  1897-1949  1 cm. p/copy, letters.  Pender Island Recreation Society Add.Mss.739  1909-1966  4 cm. minutes, account books.  Forin Family Add.Mss.741  1875-1942  Pender Island School 1910-1942 Board, Add.Mss.743 Miles, Frank B. Add.Mss.746  2 m. diaries. 2 cm. minutes, accounts.  1896-1955 78 cm. diaries, dentist (restricted).  McMillan, Christina 1904-1905 Add.Mss.755  2 cm. diary and reminiscences,  Cornwall, Henry P. Add.Mss.758  6 cm. diary, Ashcroft Manor (see also 1631).  1864-1865  Cornwall, Clement F. 1862-1873 6 cm. diaries, Ashcroft Manor (see also 1631). Add.Mss.759 Cox, Dorothy Gordon 1905-1951 Add.Mss.762  6 cm. correspondence inward.  119  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Extent  Forms and Comments  MacMillan, Alexander 1891-1911 12 cm. personal diaries, Add.Mss.763 Victoria. Angus, Henry Forbes 1891-1966 441 p. typescript, Add.Mss.775 reminiscences (restricted). Maitland Family Add.Mss.781  1911-1972  Coburn, John Wood Add.Mss.783  1886-1938 24 cm. diaries, volume 3 family.  Phillips, William W. ca.1916 Add.Mss.790  4 m. family correspondence.  .5 cm. reminiscences of travel and family.  Ker, Robert H.B. Add.Mss.793  1836-1976 2.4 m. correspondence and diaries (restricted).  Brown, Robert Add.Mss.794  1850-1895 33 cm. private correspondence.  Musgrave, Jeanie L. Add.Mss.803  1870  2 cm. m/film, diary including account of marriage.  Manson's Store Add.Mss.806  1885-1956  2 m. Nanaimo general store, ledgers.  Garrard Family Add.Mss.830  1868-1940 14 cm. family correspondence.  McQueen, Mrs. D. Add.Mss.839  1887-1893  6 cm. p/copy, family correspondence (see also 860).  Nelles, James W.G. Add.Mss.843  1862-1863  5 cm. diary of journey and two letters.  1890  50 p. p/copy, diary. Saltspring Island.  Beddis, Samuel John Add.Mss.847 McQueen Family Add.Mss.860  1887-1925  1 cm. family correspondence (see also 839).  Flavelle, Aird D. Add.Mss.875  1896-1945 12 cm. correspondence, diary (see also 495 and 585).  Norbury Family Add.Ms.877  1886-1912 18 cm. p/copy, letters and diary of emigration. 120  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Hilton, Arthur M. Add.Mss.912  1908-1930  4 cm. p/copy, personal diaries.  Sheringham, Helen Add.Mss.942  1905-1912  5 p. p/copy, reminiscences of ranch.  McMillan, James S. Add.Mss.956  1868-1871  4 cm. death bed letter to family.  McDonald, James E. Add.Mss.958  1901-1946  4 cm. diary of l i f e i n England, photos.  Bullock-Webster, L. 1912-1950 Add.Mss.964 Gimse, Marjorie Add.Mss.992  pre 1915  Crummy Family Add.Mss.1014  1911-1972  Scattergood, Thomas Add.Mss.1021 Barnard Family Add.Mss.1064 Humphreys, Leonard Add.Mss.1068  Extent  Forms and Comments  4 m. actor, correspondence, diaries, photos. 246 p. biography of father i n Pemberton. 2 cm. letters to family, photos (see also 1084).  1900  32 p. letters to son while family travelling.  1874-1897  1 cm. private letterbook.  1913  3 p. letter to mother.  Behnsen, Shaw George 1916-1976 Add.Mss.1070  1 cm. correspondence, certificates.  Goldrick, Dorothy D. Add.Mss.1072 (restricted).  32 p. typescript, 1910-1911 reminiscences  Newcombe Family Add.Mss.1077  n.d.  photos,  1870-1955 7.3 m. family papers, Maynard family diaries. 6 p. two letters, to wife and to brother.  Yow, Lee R. Add.Mss.1078  1867  Crummy Family Add.Mss.1084  1913-1972  3 cm. letters to wife and daughter, papers (see also 1014).  Prevost, Harold F. Add.Mss.1088  1901-1904  3 cm. letters to mother and sister. 121  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Moody, M. Susanna Add.Mss.1101  1858-1863  McMicking, Margaret Add.Mss.1133  1862-1938 1.6 m. scrapbooks, recipes, school notebooks, letters (see also 1171 and 1203).  Schofield Family Add.Mss.1144  1829-1950 38 cm. private correspondence, personal finances.  Johnson, Winslow Add.Mss.1156 Mackie Family Add.Mss.1164  Extent  Forms and Comments  .5 cm letters to mother and sister.  4 p. letter to uncle.  1878  1871-1974 1.3 m. correspondence, personal and Vernon school.  Children's Aid Society 1901-1928 (restricted). of Vancouver Add.Mss.1166  42 cm. admissions  McMicking, Robert B. 1862-1910 21 cm. personal correspondence, Add.Mss.1171 diaries (see also 1133 and 1203). Pattulo, George P. Add.Mss.1188  1856-1919 11 cm. correspondence from sons (see also 3).  Brown, Alexander G. Add.Mss.1191  1 p. letter.  1908  McMicking, Robert B. 1869-1915 Add.Mss.1203 Kerr, Bryce C. Add.Mss.1204  1914-1916  family bible, genealogical material (see also 1133 and 1171) 1 cm. diary of work on homestead.  Milne, George L. Add.Mss.1206  1881  2 cm. doctor's daybook.  Barnes, Mary Add.Mss.1210  1980  19 p. reminisceneces about grandmother.  Bodington, Walter E. ca. 1935 Add.Mss.1263  1 cm. p/copy, reminiscences.  Burkitt, William A.E. Add.Mss.1264  2 cm.  1979  122  p/copy, reminiscences.  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Extent  Watt, Belle Delia Add.Mss.1266  ca. 1980  .5 cm. reminiscences.  Neufeld, Peter Add.Mss.1279  1917-1918  2 cm. p/copy, diary, Vandernoof.  Norris Family Add.Mss.1284  1819-1924 32 cm. family papers, photos.  Williams, Albert Add.Mss.1287  ca. 1979  4 cm. p/copy, reminiscences.  Pemberton Family Add.Mss.1295  1858-1914  7 cm. diary 1885, scriptures with annotations.  Scott, Robert C. Add.Mss.1299  1872-1935 20 cm. baptismal register, missionary work i n B.C.  Laing, David H.M. Add.Mss.1309  1900-1982  Martley Family Add.Mss.1340  1873-1938  Bland, James W. Add.Mss.1422  1889-1909  80 p. m/film, enquiries about family background.  Mclllree, John H. Add.Mss.1434  1874-1910  3 r,m/film, diaries, police (see also 366).  Church Family Add.Mss.1471  1890-1969  2 r,m/film, diaries, Big Creek rancher (restricted).  Moffatt, Henry Add.Mss.1481  1889-1951  2 r.m/film, diaries and farm accounts (restricted).  Forms and Comments  3 cm. personal correspondence, photos. 1 r.m/film, diaries, notebooks, Lillooet.  Shawnigan Lake School 1916-1981 26 r m/film, school records (restricted). Add.Mss.1485 Smith, Marcus Add.Mss.1496  1815-1903  3 r.m/film, family register and diary extracts.  1836-1913 Christ Church Cathedral (Anglican) Add.Mss.1500  8 m. m/film, church registers (restricted).  1897-1936  2 r.m/film, diaries, photos, Sayward farmer.  Henry, Arthur Add.Mss. 1502  123  T i t l e and Number  Dates  St.Andrew's Presbyterian Add.Mss.1507  1866-1952  7 r. m/film, church registers (restricted).  H i l l s , George Add.Mss.1526  1838-1895  3 r. m/film, diaries, Anglican bishop of B.C. (restricted).  Smith, James Black Add.Mss.1554  1903-1935  3 r. m/film, merchant, correspondence.  Slocan Hospital Add.Mss.1556  1898-1905  4 m. m/film, hospital patients records.  Pooley Family Add.Mss.1584  1904-1915  1 r. m/film, business and personal papers.  Moses, Wellington D. 1865-1887 Add.Mss.1599  Extent  Forms and Comments  2 r. m/film, diaries and cash books, Barkerville barber (see also 1691).  Dobson, Hugh Wesley 1912-1951 137 r. m/film, correspondence. United Church social Add.Mss.1605 welfare. Capes, Geoffrey B. Add.Mss.1618  1911-1961  Cornwall Family Add.Mss.1631  1896-1912 2.5 m. m/film, diary, cashbooks (see also 758 and 759).  Kenworthy, John G. Add.Mss.1633  1913-1914 8.8 m. m/film, diaries  Anderson, Ellen M. Add.Mss.1650  1900-1924  Richter Family Add.Mss.1690  1890-1962 76 cm. family and business correspondence, photos, Ke r emo s r anche r.  Moses, Wellington M. Add.Mss.1691 Bayliff Family Add.Mss.1692  1871 1894-1965  5 r. m/film, daily diaries (restricted).  1 r. m/film, diaries of grandfather, photos,  4 m. m/film, diary (see also 1599). 5 r. m/film, personal papers, photos, Redstone rancher (restricted).  124  T i t l e and Number  Dates  O'Keefe Family Add.Mss.1890  1866-1951  McMillan, Jock H. Add.Mss.1906  1919-1920  1 r. m/film, diary, Vanderhoof farmer.  City of Victoria Add.Mss.1908  1891  1 r. m/film, head of household and singles.  1824-1927  2 m. diaries, correspondence, accountant.  Anderson, James R. Add.Mss.1912  Extent  Forms and Comments m/film, some personal, mostly business records, Vernon rancher.  B.C.Anti-Tuberculosis 1906-1947 44 cm.correspondence, Add.Mss.1916 admissions.  Society,  St. Margaret's School 1908-1983 50 cm.memorabilia and records, g i r l s ' private school. Add.Mss.1924 Genn, Kenneth R. Add.Mss. 1950  1865-1970  28 m. Victoria accountants, family estates, private hospital.  Dorsey, Hannah C. Add.Mss.1955  ca. 1980  1 cm. p/copy, reminiscences, Chilcotin.  Fawcett Family Add.Mss.1962  1864-1916 25 cm. diary, school notebooks (see also 1963).  Fawcett, Jane Add.Mss.1963  1849-1864  1 r. m/film, family correspondence, photos (see also 1962).  Bullock-Webster, Julia 1894-1896 son's Add.Mss.1965  10 cm. diary of v i s i t of ranch.  Cridge Family Add.Mss.1975  1855,1944  8 p.  p/copy, two letters (see also 320 and 420).  Wright, Amos Add.Mss.1976  1863-1866  24 p. p/copy, letters from brother.  Becker, Nicoline D. 1869-1908 Add.Mss.1979  2 cm. cookbook of collected recipes.  Smith, Selina Frances 1895-1932 11 cm.correspondence, Add.Mss.1992 teacher. Robinson Family Add.Mss.2010  music  1860-1960 1.8 m. mostly business, some personal and schooling.  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Extent  Forms and Comments  James Ellard and 1878-1887 Company, Add.Mss.2024  1 cm. dry goods business and family accounts.  Marriner, Edward Add.Mss.2037  1862- 1884  5 cm. diaries of farm l i f e .  Muskett, Aubrey D. Add.Mss.2038  1892-1936  7 cm. Collegiate School for Boys records.  Porter, Thomas Add.Mss.2056  1859  2 p. letter to sister-in-law.  Bissett, James Add.Mss.2056  1854-1914  1 r. m/film, travel diaries, HBC chief factor.  Mainguy, Daniel W. Add.Mss.2057  1863- 1884  7 cm. journals, farm l i f e and travel, Chemainus farmer,  Beeman, Samuel O. Add.Mss.2073  1864- 1869  5 m. m/film, letters to brother, HBC clerk.  Menagerie and Museum 1857-1882 Add.Mss.2082  5 cm. business and household account book.  Bolton, Freeda B.H. Add.Mss.2084  5 cm. p/copy, reminiscences, photos, pre-WWI, Nelson.  1983  O'Reilly, Caroline A.1872-1885 .5 cm. recipe notebook and Add.Mss.2086 household information (see also 248 and 412). St.Mary's Anglican 1860-1915 Church, Add.Mss.2089  1 cm. p/copy, church registers.  Brett, Robert A. Add.Mss.2091  6 cm. letterbook, personal finances.  1897  Evans Family Add.Mss.2112  1872-1879  8 p. family correspondence.  Douglas Family Add.Mss.2164  1877,1899  3 p. letter, calling card, invoice.  Canadian Colleries Add.Mss.2175  1901-1925  Claxton Family Add.Mss.2183  1890-1972 88 cm. family correspondence.  11 m. m/film, employee records,  126  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Women's Christian Temperance Union Add.Mss.2227  1883-1986  Extent  Forms and Comments  3 cm. minute book.  Provincial Secretary 1895-1958 Tranquille Sanatorium GR 3  medical superintendent files.  Provincial Secretary 1914-1933 96 cm. correspondence of deputy re: fund Indigent Fund administration GR 289 (restricted). Provincial Secretary 1913-1945 Superintendent of Neglected Children GR 296  register of adoptions, admissions re: Children's Aid Society (restricted).  Provincial Secretary 1911-1946 Hospital Programs Administration GR 1549  6 m.  f i l e s re: community hospitals.  Provincial Secretary 1910-1925 Indigents Files GR 150  2 m.  f i l e s re: care of destitute.  Provincial Secretary 1895-1917 75 cm. applications and related Provincial Home of correspondence. Aged and Infirm GR 624 Attorney General Estate Records various GR numbers  1859 -  Surveyor of Taxes Assessment Rolls B-400 to B-543  1876-1948 144 r. microfilm, assessment rolls.  Education, Superintendent of Education, GR 449  1881-1915 2.5 m. correspondence GR 1445.  -  records of wills and other estate records.  indexes to  1872-1897 14 r. microfilm, correspondence Education, Superintendent of inward. Education, GR 1445 B-2017 to B-2030  127  T i t l e and Number  Dates  Extent  Education, Superintendent of Education, GR 450  1872-1919 14 m.  Forms and Comments outward correspondence and indexes.  Victoria School Board 1869-1887 3 cm. minutes. GR 1465 Vancouver Island Board of Education GR 1467  1865-1869 7 cm. minutes,  Canada, Census Returns for B.C. B-389 to B-390  1881  2 r. microfilm,  Canada, Census Returns for B.C. B-7040 to B-7042  1891  3 r. microfilm,  128  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097989/manifest

Comment

Related Items