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Canadian provincial and territorial archival legislation : a case study of the disjunction between theory.. Bryans, Victoria Louise 1989-12-31

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CANADIAN PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL ARCHIVAL LEGISLATION: A CASE STUDY OF THE DISJUNCTION BETWEEN THEORY AND LAW by Victoria B.A.,  Louise  The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  Bryans  of Toronto,  1985  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR  THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARCHIVAL  STUDIES  In THE FACULTY OF ARTS School  of L i b r a r y ,  We  accept to  Archival  this  and I n f o r m a t i o n  thesis  the r e q u i r e d  as  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November @  Victoria  1989  Louise  Bryans  Studies  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be granted her  representatives.  It  is  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  QStJUf^  /fatf/MC  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  M  //Of&UJ/TPOh)  Qf^/fJ'  i i ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s i s an i n q u i r y i n t o the nature of c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l I t p r o v i d e s an a n a l y s i s  archival  legislation  i n Canada.  of a r c h i v a l  legislation  as a  form of w r i t t e n communication and argues that legislation  suffers  the  from the same d e f i c i e n c i e s  inherent  other forms of communication as a r e s u l t of e x t e r n a l influences  on i t s  meaning.  the e v o l u t i o n of the  Chapter one t h e r e f o r e  legislation  emerged n e i t h e r a r c h i v a l theory, social  from o b j e c t i v e  present texts  l e g a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s nor  but as an ad hoc response  influences.  social  traces  from 1790 to the  and shows how the meaning of c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i v e  in  to a v a r i e t y of  The remaining chapters are based on a  d e t a i l e d content a n a l y s i s  of the three main components of  c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l provisions establishing definitions provisions establishing  legislation:  of key terms,  the scope and a u t h o r i t y of  administrative structures provisions establishing  archival  for a r c h i v a l programmes and  programme elements.  They e l a b o r a t e  on the argument advanced i n chapter one t h a t the  social  p r o d u c t i o n of meaning, a r i s i n g from the manner i n which c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l developed,  adversely affects  p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents  its  archival  legislation  has  a b i l i t y to promote the  i n two ways.  First,  this  process  iii of development has meant t h a t wording i n t e x t s c a r r i e s overtones  of outdated a t t i t u d e s and  assumptions about a r c h i v e s . inconsistency,  conflict,  meaning of the t e x t s . prescriptive social  Second, i t has l e d to  vagueness and ambiguity i n the  These chapters a l s o put f o r t h  ideas r e g a r d i n g how the adverse a f f e c t s  influences  territorial  legislative  of  on the meaning of c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and  archival  l e g i s l a t i o n might be overcome.  iv CONTENTS Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iv  Acknowledgements  v  Dedication  vi  Introduction  1  1.  The Development of Canadian P r o v i n c i a l and T e r r i t o r i a l Archival Legislation  13  2.  The Impact of the D i s j u n c t i o n between Theory and Law on D e f i n i t i o n s of Key Terms  46  3.  The Impact of the D i s j u n c t i o n between Theory and Law on Administrative Structures  69  4.  The Impact of the D i s j u n c t i o n Between Theory and Law on Programme Elements  85  Conclusion  113  Notes to  120  Introduction  Notes to Chapter 1  123  Notes to Chapter 2  126  Notes to Chapter 3  128  Notes to Chapter 4  130  Bibliography  133  Appendix A: L i s t of Current P r o v i n c i a l and T e r r i t o r i a l A r c h i v a l Legislation  143  Appendix B: Datasheet  149  Appendix C: C h r o n o l o g i c a l Synopsis of P r o v i n c i a l and T e r r i t o r i a l Archival Legislation  162  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s responded to my i n i t i a l w r i t t e n legislative  that  i n q u i r y about t h e i r  current  I would a l s o l i k e to thank  Bernice  Chong and Anne Maclean, f e l l o w Masters of A r c h i v a l  Studies  students,  framework.  all  for t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e  content a n a l y s i s grateful, and  i n t e s t i n g the design of  in this thesis.  as w e l l ,  the  I am p a r t i c u l a r l y  to T e r r y Eastwood, my t h e s i s  supervisor,  David Leonard, Senior Government Records A r c h i v i s t at  the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a for t h e i r suggestions and i n s i g h t f u l special  criticisms.  thanks to my husband, B r e t ,  understanding.  4  useful  F i n a l l y , I owe  for h i s help and  vl  For Mom  page 1  INTRODUCTION  Almost as long as there has been w r i t t e n communication, there has been some form of r e g u l a t i o n by p u b l i c powers concerning the p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents.*1  The f i r s t  l e g i s l a t i o n governing the management and use of a r c h i v e s arose  i n 1794,  when, d u r i n g the French R e v o l u t i o n , the  government of the new regime passed a decree r e g a r d i n g archives.*2 Most j u r i s d i c t i o n s have followed the French example and given l e g i s l a t i v e Canada, however,  l e g i t i m a c y to t h e i r p u b l i c a r c h i v e s . p u b l i c a r c h i v e s often e x i s t e d  In  historically  before t h e i r e x i s t e n c e was a c t u a l l y s a n c t i o n e d i n legislation.*3  The N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada,  emerged long before an a c t was passed l e g a l l y it,  as d i d the A r c h i v e s N a t i o n a l e s  i n Quebec.  A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia s t i l l has no a u t h o r i t y for i t s archival  existence.  f o r example  establishing The P r o v i n c i a  legislative  These cases might suggest  laws are perhaps u s e f u l but not  that  necessary.  T h i s t h e s i s s p r i n g s from a deeply held c o n v i c t i o n that archival  legislation  is essential  to any w e l l - d e v e l o p e d  a r c h i v a l programme and i s an important determinant of how  page 2 w e l l that programme can c a r r y out the p r e s e r v a t i o n o£ documents.  Many years ago,  comprehensive l e g i s l a t i o n personnel or f i n a n c e s . of these a c t i v i t i e s  few p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s had  governing the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  A gradual increase  i n the  complexity  l e d to a need for a l e g i s l a t i v e  w i t h i n which these a c t i v i t i e s  framework  could be performed.  a r c h i v e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n grows more complex.  Similarly,  As the  importance of recorded i n f o r m a t i o n to s o c i e t y increases the s o - c a l l e d legislation  i n f o r m a t i o n age,  the need f o r  comprehensive  governing the care and management of i n f o r m a t i o n  throughout i t s Archival  life  cycle w i l l  legislation,  become more e v i d e n t .  i f properly designed,  can provide  a framework for a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t y by o u t l i n i n g the or a r c h i v i s t ' s  functions.  It can p l a y a r o l e  the p u b l i c and resource a l l o c a t o r s about the of a r c h i v e s , and i n doing so,  them to see  bodies  i n educating responsibilities  legislation  p o l i t i c i a n s , and the p u b l i c and encourage  a r c h i v a l work as a normal feature  Finally,  because l e g i s l a t i o n  of  their  i s sanctioned by  that command u l t i m a t e p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y ,  stimulate  will  the p o s i t i o n of the a r c h i v e s i n the eyes of  administrators,  society.  archives'  make a r c h i v e s more a c c o u n t a b l e .  As p o l i c y sanctioned at the h i g h e s t l e v e l , legitimize  in  i t can  the p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents by e n s h r i n i n g r i g h t s  and s e t t i n g  down o b l i g a t i o n s .  Despite the n e c e s s i t y and u s e f u l n e s s of legislation,  there  is  little  archival  archival  l i t e r a t u r e touching  page 3 upon the s u b j e c t . archival  legislation  h i s t o r y of a r c h i v a l 1969,  Lewis H. Thomas wrote a pioneer a r t i c l e on i n 1962.  John A r c h e r ' s t h e s i s on the  institutions  i n Canada, completed i n  p r o v i d e s the most comprehensive overview of  legislative  the  framework of p r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c a r c h i v a l  programmes to date.*4 outdated.  Both of these sources are now o b v i o u s l y  A more recent a r t i c l e by Jerome O ' B r i e n ,  "Archives and the Law: A B r i e f  Look at the Canadian Scene",  i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y a l l too b r i e f . * 5  L i k e Brown and Archer  before him, O ' B r i e n does not d i s c u s s territories.  entitled  legislation  i n the  Other than t h i s recent g e n e r a l s u r v e y ,  there  are only a few s c a t t e r e d accounts which touch upon the s u b j e c t of p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l It  archival  legislation.*6  i s t h i s gap i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t h i s study hopes  to  fill. T h i s t h e s i s w i l l d e s c r i b e the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l its  archival  legislation,  evaluate  e f f e c t i v e n e s s and develop p r e s c r i p t i v e ideas about how  i t might be improved i n order to a s s i s t a r c h i v i s t s r e v i e w i n g and d r a f t i n g a r c h i v a l examine the archival  legislation.  in  It does not  implementation of p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  legislation.  R a t h e r , i t examines  archival  l e g i s l a t i o n on a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l as a form of w r i t t e n communication.  As one j u r i s t expresses  it:  As with human language, l e g a l d i s c o u r s e i s o n l y a t o o l to express the thought of the speaker, i n order that the l i s t e n e r may adequately comprehend the contents of h i s message. Since law i s the r e s u l t of the conscious and premeditated a c t i v i t y  page 4 of i t s a u t h o r , he w i l l be deemed not o n l y to have c a r e f u l l y formulated i n h i s own mind the exact r u l e he w i s h e s to e s t a b l i s h , but a l s o to have c h o s e n , with r e f l e c t i o n and p r e m e d i t a t i o n , the words that best serve to express h i s ideas and i n t e n t i o n . Thus i n c o n s t r u i n g an enactment we must f i r s t look at i t s wording.*7 To t h i s end, t h i s t h e s i s concentrates archival  on the a n a l y s i s of  l e g i s l a t i o n as w r i t t e n t e x t by f o c u s i n g ,  particular,  on three main components of a r c h i v a l  provisions establishing definitions  of  in legislation:  important terms,  p r o v i s i o n s e s t a b l i s h i n g the scope and a u t h o r i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s for a r c h i v a l programmes and p r o v i s i o n s e s t a b l i s h i n g the b a s i c elements of  archival  programmes. Chapter one d i s c u s s e s the development of c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l the p r e s e n t .  archival  from 1790  E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s chapter argues that  meaning of Canadian a r c h i v a l objective  legislation  legislation arises  to  the  neither  from  l e g a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s nor from a r c h i v a l t h e o r y , but  r a t h e r as a response to p o l i t i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s . chronological sysnopsis  Appendix C p r o v i d e s a  of t h i s developmental process  for  each j u r i s d i c t i o n . The  remaining c h a p t e r s ,  based on a d e t a i l e d  a n a l y s i s of the three main components of the texts,  legislative  e l a b o r a t e on the argument advanced i n chapter one that  the manner i n which the l e g i s l a t i o n has developed affects  content  its  adversely  a b i l i t y to promote the p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents  page 5 i n the present s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t .  These  chapters a l s o put f o r t h p r e s c r i p t i v e ideas r e g a r d i n g how these adverse a f f e c t s might be overcome. A few words of e x p l a n a t i o n are needed about the a n a l y s i s used i n t h i s t h e s i s .  Content a n a l y s i s  been d e f i n e d i n s e v e r a l ways.  Ole H o l s t i d e s c r i b e s  book on content a n a l y s i s  content  itself  has  it  in his  for the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and  humanities as "any technique for making i n f e r e n c e s o b j e c t i v e l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  identifying  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of messages."*8  Holsti  by  specified  presents  content  a n a l y s i s as a multipurpose r e s e a r c h method developed specifically  for i n v e s t i g a t i n g any problem i n which the  content of communication serves as the b a s i s of A d e f i n i t i o n by B e r e l s o n i n 1952 s t a t e s that analysis  i s a r e s e a r c h technique for the  systematic,  Klaus K r i p p e n d o r f f ,  defines  making r e p l i c a b l e and v a l i d context."*11  "content  objective,  and q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of the  content of communication."*10  manifest  Another w r i t e r on the  subject,  i t as "a r e s e a r c h technique inferences  The key f a c t o r s  for  from data i n t h e i r  i n a l l three of  d e f i n i t i o n s are the a b i l i t y to draw i n f e r e n c e s content  inference.*9  o£ communications i n a o b j e c t i v e ,  these from the  systematic and  r e p l i c a b l e manner. The idea for conducting a content a n a l y s i s of and t e r r i t o r i a l  archival  American s t a t e a r c h i v a l  provincial  l e g i s l a t i o n came from a study of law done by George Bain i n 1983.*12  page 6 However, while B a i n ' s study of s t a t e a r c h i v a l basic guide,  the s t r u c t u r e of t h i s a n a l y s i s d i f f e r s  c a r r i e d out by Bain i n s e v e r a l  from t h a t of B a i n . legal,  from t h a t  ways.  F i r s t of a l l , the grouping of content  groups,  law serves as a  categories  B a i n ' s groupings c o n s i s t  of three  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and s t a n d a r d .  h i s groups there are s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s  as  differs concept  Within each of  follows:  GROUP 1: LEGAL Public record P u b l i c agencies Legal custodian D e l i v e r y of records to successor L e g a l e v i d e n t i a l value Access Replevin Sanctions for v i o l a t i o n s Time/Privacy l i m i t a t i o n s State A r c h i v a l / R e c o r d s Management Agency GROUP 2: ADMINISTRATIVE Powers and d u t i e s of the State A r c h i v i s t Powers and d u t i e s of the State Records Manager Agency a s s i s t a n c e State Records s c h e d u l i n g procedures V i t a l records GROUP 3: STANDARD Standards for m a t e r i a l s Fireproof While the use of B a i n ' s c a t e g o r i e s  would have y i e l d e d  i n t e r e s t i n g comparisons between a r c h i v a l  legislation  of  the  Canadian provinces and t e r r i t o r i e s and the American s t a t e s , this  study uses d i f f e r e n t groups of c a t e g o r i e s  correspond to e x i s t i n g legislative  texts.  which  Canadian p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  For the purposes of t h i s  study,  the  page 7 various categories  of content elements were d i v i d e d  three broad groups corresponding to the three components of a r c h i v a l establishing  legislation:  definitions,  1)  into  basic  provisions  2) p r o v i s i o n s  establishing  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , and 3) p r o v i s i o n s concerned with programme  elements.  Another d i f f e r e n c e  between the s t r u c t u r e of B a i n ' s  a n a l y s i s and t h i s a n a l y s i s Bain's analysis,  categories  In t h i s a n a l y s i s ,  measurable components, necessary,  as  i n the l e v e l of d e t a i l .  each category c o n s i s t s  are used to d e f i n e measured.*9  is  In  of components, which  but are not categories  themselves were d i v i d e d  subcomponents and c h o i c e s ,  into  where  follows: A. GROUPS  I  Categories 1.  Primary components of 1.1  categories  Secondary components of 1.1.1  categories  T e r t i a r y components of  categories  1.1.1(1) Subcomponents of c a t e g o r i e s (where needed) (a) primary c h o i c e s ( i ) secondary c h o i c e s The content  of l e g i s l a t i v e  t e x t s was searched to assess  the  r a t e of appearance f o r whichever u n i t or u n i t s formed the lowest l e v e l  i n the s t r u c t u r e of each c a t e g o r y ,  for example,  a subcomponent or a c h o i c e . Coverage of each of these c a t e g o r i e s  in current  page 8 p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  archival  by s e a r c h i n g a l l r e l e v a n t  legislative  i n c l u d e d any p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s , regulations,  legislation texts.  This search  territorial  ordinances,  and o r d e r s - i n - c o u n c i l r e l a t i n g to  p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents  was assessed  i n a g e n e r a l sense.  the Legislation  which e s t a b l i s h e s an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y and bestows powers upon a p r o v i n c i a l  or t e r r i t o r i a l  be primary l e g i s l a t i o n .  a r c h i v i s t i s considered  L e g i s l a t i o n concerned with the  g e n e r a l care and management of p u b l i c records i s to be secondary l e g i s l a t i o n .  In a d d i t i o n ,  considered  statutes,  ordinances or r e g u l a t i o n s which l i m i t or otherwise affect  the a p p l i c a t i o n of a s e c t i o n  c o n s i d e r e d secondary.  territorial  In most c a s e s ,  f a c t that  directly  of a p r o v i n c e ' s or  t e r r i t o r y ' s primary or p u b l i c records l e g i s l a t i o n  i d e n t i f i e d by the  this  is  legislation  a r c h i v i s t or a r c h i v e s ,  or i s r e f e r r e d to  that  is  a l l u d e d to i n primary or p u b l i c records l e g i s l a t i o n . l i s t i n g of the t i t l e s  in a  Access to i n f o r m a t i o n laws  provide an example of a type of l e g i s l a t i o n  as Appendix A of t h i s  can be  i t r e f e r s to the p r o v i n c i a l or  j u r i s d i c t i o n ' s archives act.  complete  to  often A  of a l l r e l e v a n t t e x t s appears  thesis.  This study does not embrace l e g a l to d e a l with a s p e c i f i c  situation:  instruments  for example,  created  an o r d e r - i n -  c o u n c i l passed to permit the d i s p o s a l of a group of r e c o r d s . In a d d i t i o n , d i r e c t i v e s and p o l i c y statements are p u r p o s e l y excluded because  they are more concerned with the  implementation of programmes than with t h e i r  establishment.  page 9 A disadvantage of e x c l u d i n g d i r e c t i v e s and p o l i c y statements i s t h a t some j u r i s d i c t i o n s use them to enact p r o v i s i o n s t h a t other j u r i s d i c t i o n s enact by s t a t u t e or r e g u l a t i o n .  Laws  i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g the work of a r c h i v i s t s , such as those that s p e c i f y r e t e n t i o n p e r i o d s of p u b l i c r e c o r d s , are excluded from t h i s study.*13 statutes, outside  This study excludes  federal  such as the Copyright A c t , as w e l l , s i n c e they are  p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  and a f f e c t  legislative  p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  archival  jurisdiction activity  uni formly. The appearance of a c a t e g o r y , or c h o i c e ,  or component,  whichever was the lowest l e v e l  s t r u c t u r e of each c a t e g o r y ,  i n the  sub-component hierarchical  i n primary l e g i s l a t i o n ,  secondary  l e g i s l a t i o n or r e g u l a t i o n s was i n d i c a t e d by a "P", "S", or "R" r e s p e c t i v e l y . of  legal  The use of these symbols r e v e a l e d the  type  instrument i n which content elements appeared.  of the l e t t e r  symbols i n t h i s a n a l y s i s  of Bain i n that of a r c h i v a l  is different  instrument of measurement,  l a r g e l y depends on the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  order to i n c r e a s e the l e v e l a s s e s s i n g the l e g a l t e x t s ,  form  content.  Although the s t r u c t u r e of the content a n a l y s i s a f a i r l y precise  from that  i t p r o v i d e s q u a n t i f i a b l e data about the  l e g i s l a t i o n over and above i t s  Use  provides  i t s accuracy legislation.  In  of c o n s i s t e n c y and r e l i a b i l i t y i n t h i s study r e l i e s  on g u i d e l i n e s  for  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n l o o s e l y based on r u l e s for the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s t a t u t e s .  The same g u i d e l i n e s a p p l y to Quebec as to  other  page 10 j u r i s d i c t i o n s although,  in r e a l i t y ,  there are d i f f e r e n c e s  in  Quebec as to the methods of d r a f t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g statutory  instruments.  As a r e s u l t ,  Quebec's  legislation,  which i s not w r i t t e n i n the context of the common law l e g a l system,  does not s u i t  either  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that t h i s content  analysis  the grammatical form of  study uses or the s t r u c t u r e of  as w e l l as l e g i s l a t i o n  context of a common law l e g a l system. following guidelines  the  w r i t t e n i n the In t h i s  study,  the  apply:  1)  The a c t , ordinance or r e g u l a t i o n as a whole i s to be read i n i t s e n t i r e context meaning the law as e x p r e s s l y enacted by words and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the act and l e g i s l a t i o n i n p a r i m a t e r i a . T h e r e f o r e , before coding each i n d i v i d u a l a c t , f i r s t read through a l l a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n for a p a r t i c u l a r j u r i d i c t i o n to g a i n a sense of how the enactments r e l a t e to one a n o t h e r .  2)  Words i n the act are to be read i n t h e i r grammatical and o r d i n a r y sense i n the l i g h t of whole context unless some other d e f i n i t i o n i s provided.  3)  The same words i n an a c t c a r r y the same meaning unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d .  4)  When t e c h n i c a l words appear i n the a c t , be read i n t h e i r t e c h n i c a l sense.  5)  I f words are disharmonious w i t h i n the act or l e g i s l a t i o n i n p a r i materia then a l e s s grammatical and o r d i n a r y meaning i s to be given them.  6)  If o b s c u r i t y , ambiguity or disharmony cannot be r e s o l v e d o b j e c t i v e l y by r e f e r e n c e to the meaning of the a c t as e x p r e s s l y enacted by words or the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a c t and l e g i s l a t i o n i n p a r i m a t e r i a , then comparisons with the a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n other j u r i s d i c t i o n s may be drawn for the purpose of c l a r i f i c a t i o n . * 1 4  In a d d i t i o n to the above general  instructions,  the  they are  to  more d e t a i l e d  i n s t r u c t i o n s appear under each category where necessary  (see  page 11 Appendix B ) .  To f u r t h e r ensure the c o n s i s t e n c y and r e l i a b i l i t y of results,  coding of l e g i s l a t i o n  for the p r o v i n c e of  Columbia was compared with coding of the same done by two other  individuals.  Where necessary,  or more s p e c i f i c  provided i n order to reduce a m b i g u i t y .  instructions  A l l content data was  a l s o coded three times to assure c o n s i s t e n c y time.  Nevertheless,  where the will  legislation  There was an average 92  percent l e v e l of agreement between r e s u l t s . d e f i n i t i o n s were c l a r i f i e d  British  of r e s u l t s  over  as with a l l forms of communication,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of l e g i s l a t i o n  always remain a c e r t a i n l e v e l  is  i n v o l v e d there  of a m b i g u i t y .  T h i s a n a l y s i s a l s o adopted a system of measurement which differs  from B a i n ' s .  Bain based h i s method on ranking s t a t e  laws c o m p a r a t i v e l y from zero to three on how w e l l they scored i n each c a t e g o r y .  A zero r a t i n g s i g n i f i e d no coverage of  the  category while three s i g n i f i e d d e t a i l e d and e x p l i c i t coverage.*25  B a i n ' s system of measurement r e q u i r e d that he  make value judgements about the d e t a i l or e x p l i c i t n e s s coverage. results,  Since these judgements could i n f l u e n c e  of  the  t h i s study employs a system of measurement based  simply upon the appearance of the content elements i n the legislative  texts.  The method of enumeration r e s t s on a simple principle.  If no l e t t e r  0-1  symbols appeared next to a c a t e g o r y ,  page 12 i t scored a z e r o .  I f a "P", "S", "R" or any combination of  these symbols appeared, i t scored a one.  No attempt was made  to judge the r e l a t i v e merits of the three types of instruments by a s s i g n i n g a range of v a l u e s . symbols equal a score of one except  legal  Therefore, a l l  i n category C / I I / 3 . 3 ,  concerning the t r a n s f e r of p u b l i c r e c o r d s , and category C/III/2,  concerning the t r a n s f e r or d e p o s i t  c l a s s e s of r e c o r d s , where l e t t e r  of  symbols equal  special .5 under each  type of document i n order to a v o i d r e c o r d i n g content a t t r i b u t e s twice. showing scores Appendix B.  The data sheet for the content  by j u r i s d i c t i o n for a l l c a t e g o r i e s ,  analysis, appears as  page 13  CHAPTER ONE  THE DEVELOPMENT OF CANADIAN PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL ARCHIVAL LEGISLATION  In  l e g i s l a t i o n , as i n a l l language, there  t e n s i o n between the meaning l e g i s l a t o r s  is often a  intend the words they  choose to convey and the meaning those words a c t u a l l y convey to the r e a d e r .  This tension a r i s e s  from the f a c t t h a t  the  meaning of language, even when i t seems n a t u r a l or o b v i o u s , i s subject to c u l t u r a l von  Savigny expressed  p e c u l i a r customs."*1 t h a t the  influences. it,  As the l e g a l t h e o r i s t C .  "a p e o p l e ' s  law r e s i d e s  S a v i g n y ' s statement  p o i n t s to the  archival  fact  intended meaning of the law i s d e r i v e d from d i v e r s e  l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s , dominant s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s , political  In i t s own  circumstance.  human w i l l ,  and  The language used In Canadian  l e g i s l a t i o n conveys f a r more of these  than of a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e .  influences  T h i s t h e s i s argues t h a t  the  intended meaning of the l e g i s l a t i o n , a r i s i n g from the manner in which i t has developed, a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s  i t s a b i l i t y to  promote the p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents In two fundamental ways.  First,  t h i s process of development has meant t h a t  words of l e g i s l a t i v e  the  t e x t s often c a r r y overtones of outdated  s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and assumptions about a r c h i v e s ,  second,  It  page 14 has l e d to i n the  inconsistency,  conflict,  form of e x p r e s s i o n  legislative analysis  texts.  vagueness, and ambiguity  or use of p a r t i c u l a r words i n the  T h i s chapter e x p l o r e s  through h i s t o r i c a l  the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s which gave r i s e to the meaning  of c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l I t concludes by examining recent a r g u i n g that o n l y l e g i s l a t i o n  legislation  legislation.  i n Quebec and  developed by a methodical  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s and concepts of a r c h i v a l science,  not by p u r e l y pragmatic f o r c e s ,  problems found i n those l e g i s l a t i v e  w i l l avoid  p r o v i s i o n s with  the meanings  that are e n t i r e l y s o c i a l l y produced. The use of key t e r m i n o l o g y , r e c o r d s " and " a r c h i v e s " , c o n t r i b u t i n g to the  i s one of the primary  legislation's  p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents. of two separate thing.  such as the words " p u b l i c factors  i n a b i l i t y to promote  T h i s problem l i e s  the  i n the very use  words to d e s c r i b e what i s e s s e n t i a l l y  one  P u b l i c records i s the term g e n e r a l l y used i n Canadian  legislation  to r e f e r to the records accumulated by government  a g e n c i e s , while a r c h i v e s  i s the term a p p l i e d to  "those  r e c o r d s of any p u b l i c or p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n which are adjudged worthy of permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n for r e f e r e n c e  and  r e s e a r c h purposes and which have been d e p o s i t e d  been  s e l e c t e d for d e p o s i t  i n an a r c h i v a l  or have  Institution."*2  Essentially,  the problem a r i s e s  from the  two separate  terms denies the constant  fact  that the use of  nature of a r c h i v e s ,  p u b l i c r e c o r d s , as documents accumulated and preserved by a n a t u r a l process  i n the conduct of a f f a i r s  of any k i n d ,  or  page 15 whether p u b l i c or p r i v a t e , at any d a t e .  Thus, the two words,  as they are used i n much of the c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n , overtones archival  of outdated Ideas about the nature of a r c h i v e s and Institutions  as p u r e l y h i s t o r i c a l and u n r e l a t e d to  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of records c r e a t o r s . archival discussed  carry  The i m p l i c a t i o n s for  l e g i s l a t i o n of u s i n g separate terms w i l l  be  i n more d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s .  This  chapter w i l l now examine how the two terms as they are commonly used In Canadian p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  archival  legislation. The schism evolved out of the circumstances shaping Canadian a r c h i v a l  legislation  early-twentieth centuries.  i n the l a t e - n i n e t e e n t h and  At t h i s time, Canadian p r o v i n c i a l  and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v e s emerged as r e p o s i t o r i e s m a t e r i a l of h i s t o r y ; t h a t  is,  for the raw  both p u b l i c and a r c h i v e s  i l l u s t r a t i v e of n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l development. T h i s view of a r c h i v e s as r e p o s i t o r i e s of a broad range of m a t e r i a l s r e f l e c t i n g the growth and development of the n a t i o n was bound up with the r i s e of n a t i o n a l i s m and a heightened h i s t o r i c a l consciousness "scientific" history. call  c u l m i n a t i n g i n notions of  T h i s movement l e d many h i s t o r i a n s  for the c r e a t i o n of a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s to serve  "arsenals of h i s t o r y . "  I t was under these circumstances  to as that  there developed a p e r c e i v e d need for a separate term i n Canadian law and the term a r c h i v e s came to r e f e r to documents of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t ,  whether p u b l i c or p r i v a t e ,  deposited  page 16 i n an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y , without r e f e r e n c e nature or o r i g i n s of these documents.*3  to the  precise  Since the purpose of  e a r l y a r c h i v e s a c t s was to e s t a b l i s h a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s a legal  footing,  archival  s a n c t i o n the e x i s t i n g institutions  legislation  n a t u r a l l y strove  s i t u a t i o n with r e s p e c t  t h a t were a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d .  on  to  to those Thus,  early  a r c h i v e s a c t s concentrated on l e g i t i m i z i n g an e x i s t i n g archives,  a p p o i n t i n g an a r c h i v i s t , and empowering the  a r c h i v i s t to a c t . institutional  As a r e s u l t ,  the l e g i s l a t i o n  had a h i g h l y  focus r a t h e r than one which emphasized  the  p r i n c i p l e s of managing a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s , or what w i l l r e f e r r e d to i n chapter four as "programme The use of two separate c r e a t e d two s o l i t u d e s ,  terms i n the  elements." legislation  the one for a c t i v e and  i n a c t i v e records of h i s t o r i c a l value held by the The r e s u l t of these two s o l i t u d e s  has  semi-active  documents held by the c r e a t i n g agency and the other  institution.  be  for  archival has been the  passage of separate and l o o s e l y r e l a t e d enactments  concerning  the management and d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c records and concerning the establishment as one f i n d s  i n Nova S c o t i a and New Brunswick.  jurisdictions, archival  one f i n d s enactments  such  In other  t h a t both e s t a b l i s h an  i n s t i t u t i o n and provide for the care and management  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s . to pass because f o o t i n g has, of  of a r c h i v a l r e s p o s i t o r i e s ,  Enactments s e r v i n g t h i s d u a l purpose came  the d e s i r e  by i t s e l f ,  legislation.  to e s t a b l i s h a r c h i v e s on a l e g a l  not so f r e q u e n t l y l e d to the  More often than n o t ,  legislation  passage  o n l y came  page 17 to pass for a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons,  when the  government  p e r c e i v e d a need to r e g u l a t e the care and management of quantities  vast  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  Such enactments  i n i t i a l l y paid l i t t l e  a t t e n t i o n to  the  r o l e of the a r c h i v e s or a r c h i v i s t i n the care and management of r e c o r d s or to the broader purposes of a r c h i v e s i n s e r v i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or the p u b l i c , s i n c e a r c h i v e s were,  by  definition,  Thus,  concerned o n l y with outdated r e c o r d s .  e a r l y enactments,  the a r c h i v e s ' or a r c h i v i s t s ' s  r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s was n e g l i b i b l e . process  link  with  In l a t e r enactments  of p u b l i c records management and the  in  the  archives'  a c q u i s i t i o n mandate met awkwardly at the time of d i s p o s i t i o n . Only s i n c e  the e a r l y 1970s have events forced a c l o s e r  link  between the r o l e of the a r c h i v e s and the care and management of c u r r e n t p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  T h i s trend c l e a r l y emerges when  one examines the h i s t o r i c a l development of c e r t a i n p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l In O n t a r i o ,  legislation.  passage of an a c t l e g a l l y e s t a b l i s h i n g  a r c h i v e s was d e f e r r e d , d e s p i t e C o l o n e l Alexander F r a s e r ,  the h i s t o r i a n s '  lobby,  the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t ,  the r e a l i z a t i o n that he had very l i t t l e  c o n t r o l over  the  until  came to the  t r a n s f e r and d e s t r u c t i o n of m a t e r i a l from government departments and the c o u r t s .  Even h i s c o n t r o l over records  a l r e a d y t r a n s f e r r e d to the care of the a r c h i v e s was  tenuous;  he was once forced to r e t u r n minutes of the General  sessions  for the United Counties of Leeds and G r e n v i l l e a f t e r  they had  page 18 a l r e a d y been t r a n s f e r r e d to the A r c h i v e s . "remove any doubts of Branches . .  .  i n the minds of Deputy M i n i s t e r s and Heads  .as to t h e i r r i g h t to t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l  Archives  .  in A p r i l  of 1922.*4  to  . " , F r a s e r began to campaign for an a r c h i v e s  While the desire  In order to  act  impetus for an a r c h i v e s a c t came from the  to c o n t r o l the d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s , many  diverse  i n t e r e s t s supported the a d o p t i o n of  W.C. C a i n , Forests,  Deputy M i n i s t e r for the Department of Lands and  felt  establish  legislation.  its  t h a t the a r c h i v e s r e q u i r e d l e g i s l a t i o n permanency beyond "paradventure."  to  F . V . Johns  of the A s s i s t a n t P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s O f f i c e b e l i e v e d an a r c h i v e s a c t would s t i m u l a t e l e a d to a c q u i s i t i o n s  public trust  i n the A r c h i v e s and  of v a l u a b l e p r i v a t e p a p e r s .  G.M Wrong,  founder of the Department of H i s t o r y at the U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , argued t h a t  legislation,  the study of O n t a r i o h i s t o r y ,  by p r o v i d i n g sources  for  would prevent the exodus of  students to the U n i t e d States for s t u d y . * 5  It  is  possible  that the United Farmers of O n t a r i o P a r t y saw i n the A r c h i v e s Act an o p p o r t u n i t y to  introduce u n c o n t r o v e r s i a l and  r e l a t i v e l y popular l e g i s l a t i o n  at a time when confidence  t h e i r government was f a l t e r i n g . * 6 diverse  interests resulted  27 March,  in  The marriage of these  in a b i l l  which passed  i n t o law on  1923.  In a d d i t i o n to e s t a b l i s h i n g  the a r c h i v e s '  role  in  c o l l e c t i n g h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s and p r e s c r i b i n g the powers of  page 19 the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t ,  who was made a Deputy M i n i s t e r as  i n the 1912 P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada A c t , the a c t that  " a l l o r i g i n a l documents,  papers,  r e c o r d s and other matters  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments d e l i v e r e d to the  i n the e x e c u t i v e and  of the Government .  . . s h a l l be  and custody  from the date on which such matters  to be i n c u r r e n t use."*7  r e c o r d s or documents.  i n the a c t  for such terms  but,  implicitly,  to  as  The meaning of the word a r c h i v e s  i n the a c t ;  t r a d i t i o n a l meaning.  cease  T h i s p r o v i s i o n was vague owing  lack of any d e f i n i t i o n  was not d e f i n e d  manuscripts,  [ a r c h i v e s ] for safekeeping  w i t h i n twenty years  the  parchments,  specified  also  i t c a r r i e d the  Determination of when the c u r r e n t value  of r e c o r d s e x p i r e d r e s i d e d with government departments,  for  the a r c h i v e s was seen only as a storehouse for documentary sources about the past that had long s i n c e ceased to be of value to the c r e a t o r of the r e c o r d s . departments their  made no l o g i c a l connection  offices  transfers  in  Consequently,  to the A r c h i v e s under t h i s system remained  intervene  departments  to preserve  it  i m p l i c i t l y allowed the A r c h i v i s t  p u b l i c records by s p e c i f y i n g  that  p o s s e s s i n g p u b l i c records which they wished  removed or disposed his approval. closer  government  between the r e c o r d s  and those i n the a r c h i v e s .  sporadic. Nevertheless, to  As a r e s u l t ,  of must inform the A r c h i v i s t and o b t a i n  The O n t a r i o A r c h i v e s Act of 1923 e s t a b l i s h e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p between government departments  and the  A r c h i v e s than had p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t e d i n the p r o v i n c e . r e l a t i o n s h i p was far from p e r f e c t ,  however,  as the A c t ,  The like  a  page 20 all  p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  e a r l y 1970s, focussed  until  the  on the a r c h i v e s * r o l e as a r e p o s i t o r y  for outdated h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , but d i d not provide for a formal means of e n s u r i n g t h a t these r e c o r d s would be r e g u l a r l y t r a n s f e r r e d from government departments archives.  Nor d i d i t promote an a c t i v e  i n managing the systematic  to  r o l e f o r the  the archives  d i s p o s i t i o n and r e g u l a r  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of permanently v a l u a b l e  records.  In Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a i n i t i a l a c t s governing public records, established  i n 1920 and 1925  respectively,  d i d not b r i n g a r c h i v e s and government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  closer  together for the simple reason that n e i t h e r p r o v i n c e had an a r c h i v a l programme.  As i n O n t a r i o ,  A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan  demonstrated no s t r o n g p u b l i c support for l e g i s l a t i o n would serve as a means of a s s i s t i n g r e c o r d s of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t . legislation  were developed  the a r c h i v e s to a c q u i r e  Consequently, both p i e c e s of  from the p o i n t of view of  government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , which was more i n t e r e s t e d purging o f f i c e s  in  of accumulations of documents than i n  facilitating archival acquisitions.  Both of these a c t s  provided t h a t documents c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d to nonexistent  which  the  a r c h i v e s or destroyed ten years a f t e r  their  c r e a t i o n by order of the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l . one way i t might appear t h a t t h i s  In  p r o v i s i o n improved upon  O n t a r i o ' s A r c h i v e s Act i n t h a t a l l records were  "scheduled"  for d e s t r u c t i o n or p r e s e r v a t i o n i n ten years r a t h e r than  page 21 twenty years a f t e r c u r r e n t use.*8  an undetermined date o£ e x p i r a t i o n of  However, without an a r c h i v e s and a process  which h i s t o r i c a l l y important m a t e r i a l might be  by  identified,  the time l i m i t proved to be a r b i t r a r y and encouraged Irresponsible destruction. Implemented government  its  From the time t h a t  Act In 1920 to Its  issued  Saskatchewan  r e p e a l In 1948,  the  78 orders for d e s t r u c t i o n as a g a i n s t  for t r a n s f e r to the A r c h i v e s , which was e s t a b l i s h e d  two  in  1937.*9 The B r i t i s h Columbia Document D i s p o s a l Act of which c l o s e l y Alberta,  resembled l e g i s l a t i o n  a l s o d i d not e s t a b l i s h  i n Saskatchewan and  a formal r e l a t i o n s h i p i n law  between government agencies and the A r c h i v e s . p r o v i n c e had had a nascent appointed an a r c h i v i s t established Again,  the  Yet,  the  a r c h i v a l programme i n the  i n 1908,  1890s,  and had by 1919 a w e l l  a r c h i v e s department i n the L e g i s l a t i v e legislation  1936,  Library.  was d r a f t e d to meet a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  needs with no apparent c o n t r i b u t i o n from the A r c h i v e s . meeting of the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ' s  At a  Archives  Committee, W.K. Lamb, P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n and A r c h i v i s t , remarked t h a t ,  as a r e s u l t  of the  legislation:  I t [the A r c h i v e s ] . . . c a n n o t be regarded a t present as a f u l l - f l e d g e d P u b l i c Records O f f i c e , as there are no r e g u l a t i o n s i n e f f e c t r e q u i r i n g the government departments to forward t h e i r n o n - c u r r e n t f i l e s to the archives. Some departments have t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r r e c o r d s with some r e g u l a r i t y , others have n o t . One department has destroyed almost e v e r y t h i n g . At p r e s e n t , d e s t r u c t i o n of P u b l i c Records i s permitted o n l y with the approval of the P r i n t i n g Committee of the  page 22 L e g i s l a t u r e , the meetings of which the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n i s p r i v i l e g e d to a t t e n d . T h i s checks wholesale d e s t r u c t i o n . * 1 0  Thus, the P r o v i n c i a l Librarian and A r c h i v i s t was l e f t compensate  for d e f i c i e n c i e s  facilitating  the s e l e c t i o n  to  i n the l e g i s l a t i o n by and t r a n s f e r of p u b l i c r e c o r d s to  the a r c h i v e s through i n f o r m a l means. In 1938 the Chairman of B r i t i s h Columbia's S e l e c t Standing Committee on P r i n t i n g proposed r e g u l a t i o n s f o r m a l i z e the A r c h i v e s '  to  r o l e i n the d e s t r u c t i o n and s e l e c t i o n  for p r e s e r v a t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  He suggested t h a t no  document be destroyed without the w r i t t e n a u t h o r i t y of  the  a r c h i v i s t and t h a t the a r c h i v i s t have a u t h o r i t y to c l a i m and preserve any documents. The S o l i c i t o r for the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Department, however,  felt  t h a t t h i s might "unduly  hamper" the d e s t r u c t i o n of documents.*11 changes  As a r e s u l t ,  i n the law d i d not t r a n s p i r e u n t i l much l a t e r ,  in  1953. Although the circumstances s u r r o u n d i n g the emergence of e a r l y enactments  concerning the care and management of p u b l i c  r e c o r d s meant t h a t l i t t l e  a t t e n t i o n was paid to  specifying  the a r c h i v e s ' or a r c h i v i s t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s the post-World War Two i n c r e a s e  process,  i n the amount of r e c o r d s  being produced by government agencies led to the need for change.  Older a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n which scheduled a l l  documents for r e t e n t i o n i n government agencies for set p e r i o d s was too i n f l e x i b l e to meet the needs of  time  page 23 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s whose storage a r c h i v i s t ' s perspective,  rooms were f i l l e d .  From the  i t was i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t  to  separate v a l u a b l e r e c o r d s f o r t r a n s f e r to the a r c h i v e s  from  those that c o u l d be d e s t r o y e d .  were  needed i n the  legislative  Consequently, changes  framework governing the  disposition  Saskatchewan was the f i r s t province to adopt  legislation  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  that responded to the post-war s i t u a t i o n .  T h i s landmark  enactment of 1949 was a c t u a l l y the p r o v i n c e ' s second act,  succeeding one passed  i n 1945.  archives  The enactment r e a d :  (a)  t h a t any p u b l i c document or any c l a s s or s e r i e s of p u b l i c documents. . . be t r a n s f e r r e d . . . f o r t h w i t h or upon the e x p i r a t i o n of such p e r i o d s a f t e r the dates at which they were c r e a t e d as are s p e c i f i e d i n the o r d e r ;  (b)  t h a t any p u b l i c document or any c l a s s or s e r i e s of p u b l i c documents. . . be destroyed f o r t h w i t h or upon the e x p i r a t i o n of such p e r i o d s a f t e r the dates a t which they were c r e a t e d as are s p e c i f i e d i n the o r d e r ; and  (c)  t h a t any p u b l i c document or any c l a s s or s e r i e s of p u b l i c documents. . . be destroyed or t r a n s f e r r e d f o r t h w i t h or upon the e x p i r a t i o n of such p e r i o d s a f t e r the dates at which they were c r e a t e d as are s p e c i f i e d i n the o r d e r . * 1 2  With these p r o v i s i o n s there was no longer a r i g i d time frame for the d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  The L i e u t e n a n t  Governor i n C o u n c i l c o u l d order that d i f f e r e n t  records be  disposed or t r a n s f e r r e d to the A r c h i v e s at d i f f e r e n t however, a separate disposal.  order was s t i l l  times;  r e q u i r e d for each  These p r o v i s i o n s , being the most  flexible  mechanism for h a n d l i n g the d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c records at  page 24 the t i m e ,  were widely copied by other j u r i s d i c t i o n s , such as  B r i t i s h Columbia and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a r c h i v i s t i n the a p p r a i s a l o£ p u b l i c r e c o r d s came to be f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by t h i s date well.  as  In the 1945 Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s A c t , there was a  p r o v i s i o n s t a t i n g t h a t no document c o u l d be destroyed  without  the recommendation of the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t and the Legislative Librarian.  However, the 1949 A c t , by c a l l i n g f o r  the a d d i t i o n a l recommendations of an o f f i c i a l of the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Department, r e f l e c t e d  the f a c t t h a t d e c i s i o n s  about  the d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c records were being made much sooner after  the c r e a t i o n of the r e c o r d s .  a r c h i v a l values fiscal  in question,  and l e g a l v a l u e s .  Thus, not only were  their  but a l s o t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,  A subsequent  amendment to  Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Act i n 1951 f o r m a l i z e d the  the  1949  arrangement by e s t a b l i s h i n g a P u b l i c Documents Committee.*13 Other j u r i s d i c t i o n s soon borrowed t h i s  idea  from  Saskatchewan. P u b l i c r e c o r d s continued to increase both i n number and i n complexity i n the 1960s and 1970s.  A r c h i v i s t s , who wanted  to s e l e c t r e c o r d s of value from masses of  available  documentation i n an a r r a y of media, and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , who wanted e f f i c i e n t  and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e means of d i s p o s i n g of  i n a c t i v e r e c o r d s , soon r e a l i z e d that the method of seeking a one-time a p p r o v a l to dispose  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s as the  arose was no longer p r a c t i c a l .  They r e q u i r e d planned  need  page 25  d i s p o s i t i o n o£ public records on a continuing b a s i s . Planned d i s p o s i t i o n s as a g o a l by the criticisms  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s c l e a r l y  l a t e 1960s.  levelled  against  its  the  the A l b e r t a A r c h i v e s Act of  l e a d i n g up to the enactment wording of c e r t a i n of  For I n s t a n c e , one of  emerged  of new l e g i s l a t i o n ,  1966,  was that  p r o v i s i o n s c a s t doubt on the P u b l i c  Document Committee's a u t h o r i t y to formulate c o n t i n u i n g , opposed to one-time, public records.  the  authorities  for the d i s p o s i t i o n  as  of  A new P u b l i c Documents A c t , which gave  P u b l i c Documents Committee the a d d i t i o n a l powers  it  the  felt  it  lacked under the e a r l i e r A c t , was passed i n 1970.*14 The development  of A l b e r t a ' s a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  provides an example of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the separate  and management  a r i s i n g from the  terms a r c h i v e s and p u b l i c r e c o r d s ,  c a r r y i n t h e i r meaning the  use  which  l i n g e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n t h a t the  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s and a r c h i v e s were  and f u n c t i o n a l l y u n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . reorganizations  also  distinct  Departmental  f r e q u e n t l y n e c e s s i t a t e d an a l t e r a t i o n  content and form of a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n . A r c h i v e s Act was r e p l a c e d i n 1970,  care  When the  i n the  1966  because the government  phasing out the Department of the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ,  was  a new  A l b e r t a Heritage Act provided the  l e g i s l a t i v e foundation  for  the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s ;  i t d i d not provide for  the  however,  p r e s e r v a t i o n and d i s p o s i t i o n  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s which was  dealt  with i n a separate  enactment.  place  i n the  i n 1973,  legislation  Yet another change  when p r o v i s i o n s  took  page 26 establishing  the a r c h i v e s were once again u n i t e d with  provisions regulating public records.  T h i s union d i d not  l a s t long as another departmental s h u f f l e  took p l a c e  r e s u l t i n g i n a d i v i s i o n of a r c h i v a l and records functions.  in  1975,  management  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y for r e c o r d s management went to  Department of Government S e r v i c e s , concerning the f u n c t i o n s  provisions  of the A r c h i v e s remained under the  A l b e r t a Heritage A c t . * 1 5 the establishment  while  Hence, the  legislation  authorizing  of A l b e r t a ' s p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s ,  i t deals e x c l u s i v e l y  the  with the c u l t u r a l r o l e of the  because archives,  b u i l d s a b a r r i e r between the care and management of  records  i n the a r c h i v e s and the care and management of records i n government  departments.  In the e a r l y 1970s a new goal emerged.  Records  management had by t h i s date become a we11-developed with i t s active  own methodologies  and s e m i - a c t i v e  for the s y s t e m a t i c  public records.  meant that t h e i r d i s p o s i t i o n c o u l d be more planned.  c o n t r o l of  Systematic  p u b l i c r e c o r d s i n the e a r l i e r stages of t h e i r  c o n t r o l of  life  cycle  effectively  Thus, the A l b e r t a Heritage Act of 1973,  r e u n i t e d a r c h i v e s and records management  field  which  functions,  contained  p r o v i s i o n s t h a t broadened the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the P u b l i c Records Committee from overseeing r e c o r d s to overseeing active  public  the d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c  the management of a c t i v e  and s e m i -  records.*16  The methodologies  which r e c o r d s managers had developed  page 27 for managing a c t i v e and s e m i - a c t i v e t e c h n i c a l and s u b j e c t  to change.  r e c o r d s were i n c r e a s i n g l y  T h i s led  legislative  draftsmen to place p r o v i s i o n s concerning the o p e r a t i o n of records management programmes i n r e g u l a t i o n s  r a t h e r than  s t a t u t e s i n order to permit frequent amendments. result,  As a  s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g r e g u l a t o r y power had  to be expanded.  Such was the case i n the 1973  Alberta  Heritage Act where a p r o v i s i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e g u l a t o r y powers allowed the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l to make r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the documents to be considered p u b l i c records,  the p r e s e r v a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s ,  the d e s i g n a t i o n of p u b l i c bodies r e q u i r e d to preserve  their  r e c o r d s , and access to p u b l i c r e c o r d s . * 1 7 Over the course of s e v e r a l decades, amended l e g i s l a t i o n increase  r e c e n t l y enacted or  has e x h i b i t e d a t r e n d towards a g r a d u a l  i n the a r c h i v e s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  for the care and  management of p u b l i c r e c o r d s , d e s p i t e the l i n g e r i n g a f f e c t s of the use of the separate words a r c h i v e s and p u b l i c records on the meaning of the l e g i s l a t i o n .  In Newfoundland, for  example,  even c o n t r o l l i n g agent,  the a r c h i v e s  i s an a c t i v e ,  i n the care and management of p u b l i c r e c o r d s . j u r i s d i c t i o n s with o l d e r enactments, focus remains on the a r c h i v a l  The t r e n d towards c l o s e r the c r e a t o r s of records i s  such as O n t a r i o ,  i n s t i t u t i o n as  r e c i p i e n t of r e c o r d s of h i s t o r i c a l  In the  passive  interest.  l i n k s between the a r c h i v e s and  l i k e l y to continue  i n t o the  future  page 28 because of the changes brought on by the particular, life  cycle  the r i s e  of e l e c t r o n i c  of the document.  i n f o r m a t i o n age.  In  r e c o r d s has compressed  the  Whereas b e f o r e ,  proceeded through t h e i r c r e a t i o n , use, in  an o r d e r l y ,  step-by-step fashion,  documents  storage and d i s p o s a l  documents now are  c r e a t e d and r e c r e a t e d almost s i m u l t a n e o u s l y Information p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s .  through  T h i s has lead a r c h i v i s t  J a y A t h e r t o n to suggest t h a t a r c h i v i s t s do away w i t h the c y c l e concept a l t o g e t h e r a paradigm.*18 will of  and adopt the  idea of a continuum as  A t h e r t o n ' s approach suggests t h a t  be expected  archivists  to r e l i n q u i s h the r o l e of passive  r e c o r d s and adopt a more a c t i v e  recipient  stance i n t h e i r  a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g i e s l e s t v a l u a b l e records be l o s t . will  bring a r c h i v i s t s  into d i r e c t contact,  with systems a n a l y s t s ,  processing c a p a b i l i t i e s the need for c l o s e r sponsoring agencies,  the p a s t .  It  i s not o n l y the  fact  Minute p a r t i c l e s of dust can render  such as o p t i c a l d i s k s .  in electronic  life  span of  The problem of the  entire  technology  i n s t a b i l i t y of  the  technological  Even i f an o p t i c a l d i s k s u r v i v e s ,  t h a t twenty years  with  form i r r e t r i e v a b l e i n  medium i s compounded by the r a p i d r a t e of  guarantee  to  that the new medium of  compared to what has been d e a l t  No one i s c e r t a i n of the  obsolescence.  and  information  of computers t h a t has given r i s e  but the  a r c h i v e s of data s t o r e d moments.  conflict,  l i n k s between a r c h i v e s and t h e i r  storage i s so unstable in  perhaps  This  the new i n f o r m a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s  with r e c o r d s managers.  life  there  from now the data w i l l  be  is  no  page 29 accessible  g i v e n t h a t new v e r s i o n s of software  unable to read f i l e s  are  often  c r e a t e d u s i n g e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s and g i v e n  the lack of standards for hardware. Computers have a l s o lead to an i n c r e a s e to c o l l e c t and process past,  I n t r u s i v e Information which, i n the  was regarded as p r i v a t e and t o t a l l y  Managing the e n t i r e l i f e objective  of a r c h i v a l  i n the a b i l i t y  inaccessible.  c y c l e of p u b l i c r e c o r d s as a key  legislation  i n the l a s t decade has been  l i n k e d to the a s s e r t i o n of p u b l i c r i g h t s of access  to  i n f o r m a t i o n and the p r o t e c t i o n of p e r s o n a l p r i v a c y and to passage of l e g i s l a t i o n e n s h r i n i n g these r i g h t s .  The a r c h i v e s  has become the agency charged with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r care and c o n t r o l of p u b l i c r e c o r d s throughout t h e i r cycle  the  the  life  i n order t h a t access to i n f o r m a t i o n and p r i v a c y  l e g i s l a t i o n can be implemented. Territory,  For example,  i n the Yukon  the Access to Information Act came i n t o f o r c e on 3  November 1983.  Implementation of the access law,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the p r e p a r a t i o n of an access r e g i s t e r , that the j u r i s d i c t i o n have adequate c o n t r o l over i t s semi-active  required active,  and i n a c t i v e p u b l i c r e c o r d s ; t h u s , the Yukon  T e r r i t o r i a l government passed a new r e c o r d s management r e g u l a t i o n i n 1985.*19 These developments, l i n k s between a r c h i v a l agencies,  p o i n t i n g to the need for  closer  i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r sponsoring  o n l y serve to i l l u s t r a t e the weakness of  l e g i s l a t i o n which by the use of the two separate terms p u b l i c  page 30 records and archives inherently distances archival institutions from the creators of the records they hold. Even on its own, the term public records adversely affects the legislation owing to the vagueness and ambiguity surrounding i t s meaning.  This is a direct result of the  manner in which i t has evolved over time in response to changing social Influences, as an examination of the history of i t s development reveals. The desire to establish and protect public rights has traditionally been a strong impetus for preservation of the records of government.  This impetus lay behind the  establishment of Canada's f i r s t enactment concerning the preservation of documents.  The enactment, passed in 1790,  was entitled an Act or Ordinance for the Better Preservation and Due Distribution of the Ancient French Records.*20 Its passage came on the heels of a war between France and Britain that ended in the British conquest of New France.  These  events saw elements of old French law replaced with English law pursuant to the Proclamation Act of 1763.*21  English  law did not entirely replace French law, however, as the Governors of the new British colony feared alienating the French population i f they insisted on i t s adoption.  They  even restored old French law with the passage of the Quebec Act in 1774.  The English population in the colony was  against this reinstatement, having been promised the adoption of the common law, and, from 1774 to 1791, continually  page 31 pressured the government It  to once again Impose E n g l i s h law.  i s a measure of both t h e i r  success i n l o b b y i n g  the  government and the extent to which the E n g l i s h dominated colony's ancient  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t the  1790 act concerning  the  French records bore the marks of E n g l i s h law In  use of the terms " p u b l i c " and The a c t s p e c i f i e d  Its  "records."*22  that the Governor or Commander-in-  C h i e f c o u l d make orders "touching the arrangement, digesting,  the  removal,  p r i n t i n g , p u b l i s h i n g , d i s t r i b u t i n g , p r e s e r v i n g and  disposing  of papers,  the word r e c o r d s  manuscripts and records."*23  i n one of  its  d e f i n i n g the word f u n c t i o n a l l y  earliest  c u s t o m a r i l y entered true r e c o r d s .  on a r o l l  used  common law forms by  i n terms of the act  r e c o r d i n g or "memorializing" an e v e n t .  It  of  Such memorials were  or a r e g i s t e r  Conversely, unregistered  thus making them  papers or manuscripts  were not c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e c o r d s . At t h i s time, accessible",  the word " p u b l i c " u s u a l l y meant  an e a r l y common law usage.  "there are s e v e r a l  .  .  to such of the  . which ought to be disposed  cheap and easy access to them."*24 enactment  inhabitants  that  of  this  of as to g i v e a  F u r t h e r on i n the  t h i s same m a t e r i a l was r e f e r r e d to as  papers, manuscripts and r e c o r d s . " * 2 5 that the  The a c t s t a t e d  hundred volumes of papers, manuscripts and  r e c o r d s , very i n t e r e s t i n g Province  "publicly  Thus,  "public  one may assume  i n t e n t i o n of the a c t was to make r e c o r d s ,  manuscripts p u b l i c l y a c c e s s i b l e for the purpose of  papers and  page 32 establishing  the r i g h t s of the French p o p u l a t i o n .  The o r i g i n a l E n g l i s h common law concept  of p u b l i c  r e c o r d s as p u b l i c l y a c c e s s i b l e o f f i c i a l memorials of transactions citizens  documenting r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s  has not been s t a t i c .  By 1861,  of  when the P u b l i c  Records Act of Nova S c o t i a came i n t o e x i s t e n c e , of the term had been a l t e r e d . first  evidence  the  the meaning  In t h i s a c t one f i n d s  of the slow e v o l u t i o n of the n o t i o n of  p u b l i c r e c o r d s as a c c e s s i b l e memorials documenting and p r i v i l e g e s  the  rights  i n t o the n o t i o n that p u b l i c records are  documents owned by the crown and c r e a t e d public administration.  S e c t i o n one of Nova S c o t i a ' s  r e f e r r e d to r e c o r d s "kept by or p r o v i n c i a l or m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e r as such o f f i c e r  .  .  her successors."*26  i n the course of act  i n the custody of any i n pursuance of h i s  duties  . vested i n Her Majesty the Queen and This d e f i n i t i o n reflected  the  s i t u a t i o n where e x e c u t i v e power r e s t e d with the and where a c c e s s i b i l i t y  to the records of  colonial  sovereign  executive  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a r o y a l p r e r o g a t i v e e x e r c i s e d  by the  governor. By the 1920s, the meaning of p u b l i c r e c o r d s had undergone f u r t h e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n response societal dispose  circumstances.  By t h i s d a t e ,  to changing  there was a need  to  of or preserve a growing volume of records by some  r e g u l a t e d means.  The term p u b l i c r e c o r d s , t h e r e f o r e ,  to r e f e r to a l l manner of documentary m a t e r i a l c r e a t e d  came in  page 33 the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o £ p u b l i c a f f a i r s  in order that a broad  range of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s might be disposed Saskatchewan's disposal  is  1920 a c t concerning p u b l i c  illustrative  documents  of t h i s development.  the term p u b l i c documents as " c e r t i f i c a t e s Seal of the p r o v i n c e ,  l e g a l documents,  It  defined  under the Great  securities  the p r o v i n c e under any Saskatchewan Loans A c t , cheques and accounting r e c o r d s and a l l other created  of.  issued  vouchers,  documents  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the p u b l i c a f f a i r s  Saskatchewan."*27 this definition  of  Rather than r e f e r r i n g to crown custody,  rested  those r e c o r d s c r e a t e d  on the n o t i o n of p u b l i c records i n the course  of government  The r i s i n g volume of documentation War Two p e r i o d l e d to the  final shift  of c r e a t i o n  i n the course  With the establishment  as  business.  i n the post-World  i n the meaning of  term p u b l i c r e c o r d s from the n o t i o n of a c c e s s i b i l i t y that  by  the  to  of p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  of modern records  management  programmes to c o n t r o l the mass of r e c o r d s held by government a g e n c i e s , transfer  the s e l e c t i o n of v a l u a b l e r e c o r d s  to the a r c h i v e s began e a r l i e r  those documents.  i n the  As the age of the records  t r a n s f e r r e d to the a r c h i v e s decreased,  life  for  cycle  being  concern about p u b l i c  access to them i n c r e a s e d .  Consequently,  legislation  l i m i t s on the general r i g h t of  began to place  archival  access to p u b l i c records held i n a r c h i v a l The 1959 Newfoundland H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s , Act,  for i n s t a n c e ,  was the  first  of  institutions.  S i t e s and Records  piece of  legislation  to  page 34 a l l o w for the  l i m i t a t i o n of access to p u b l i c records i n the  provincial archives,  i n a p r o v i s i o n which s a i d :  documents and c o u r t records restrictions  respecting  Lieutenant-Governor  .  .  . are s u b j e c t  t h e i r subsequent  in Council,  "Public  to such  use as  the  upon the recommendation of  the M i n i s t e r having j u r i s d i c t i o n over the  department  concerned, may by order p r e s c r i b e . " * 2 8  Archival  legislation  of  inherent laws,  had abandoned o l d e r n o t i o n s  i n the word p u b l i c .  the term p u b l i c r e f e r s  the r e c o r d s as being c r e a t e d business,  not  As i t  accessibility  i s now used i n a r c h i v e s  s t r i c t l y to the provenance of i n the course of  government  accessibility.  In c o n j u n c t i o n with c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s , the q u e s t i o n of the a c c e s s i b i l i t y r e c o r d s has been transformed to encompass a l l c r e a t e d by government,  not j u s t a s e l e c t  t r a n s f e r r e d to the a r c h i v e s . as a r e s u l t  of p u b l i c  records  few documents  T h i s change has taken  of the need to p r o t e c t  place  individuals' rights  to  p e r s o n a l p r i v a c y and s o c i e t y ' s demand for the r i g h t to access to p u b l i c documents more a c c o u n t a b l e . in s o c i e t y , skills  i n order to make  governments  The growth of the p u b l i c s e c t o r ' s  the growth of an educated c i t i z e n r y with  to e x e r c i s e t h e i r r i g h t s ,  role the  and the growth of  c o m p u t e r i z a t i o n to compile p e r s o n a l  i n f o r m a t i o n about  citizens,  of n o t i o n s  have l e d to the emergence  to p r i v a c y and access.*29  have  of the  right  page 35 The term p u b l i c r e c o r d as  it  territorial archival legislation  i s used i n p r o v i n c i a l and has,  therefore,  gradually  been broadened to encompass a l l manner of documentary forms c r e a t e d and accumulated i n the course of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c b u s i n e s s . this  broad d e f i n i t i o n  government's  The a c t u a l statement of  in l e g i s l a t i o n  often p r o v i d e s  insight  i n t o the purpose of p u b l i c records and i s  vague.  Moreover, although the l e g i s l a t i v e  the term does not imply a c c e s s i b i l i t y , definitions  of the term s t i l l  little  therefore  d e f i n i t i o n of  common law  e x i s t which do imply t h i s .  The l a y e r s of meaning of the term p u b l i c records found i n both l e g i s l a t i o n inconsistency,  and common law can p o t e n t i a l l y  misconceptions  lead  to  and m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  the  legislation. There i s an a d d i t i o n a l problem with the d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c records as territorial  it  archival legislation,  become a catalogue definitions addition,  i s used i n most c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and and t h i s  of types of m a t e r i a l .  i s that  it  has  Such c a t c h a l l  have a tendency to become q u i c k l y outdated.  In  i n a r c h i v a l d o c t r i n e and for the p r a c t i c a l  purposes of d e a l i n g with r e c o r d s i n the the  form of the r e c o r d i s  its  nature as a documentary source of  i n f o r m a t i o n age,  increasingly immaterial.  It  is  information created  by an agency or person as a n a t u r a l course of c a r r y i n g out business t h a t legislation.  is  fundamental to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  the  page 36 Again the o r i g i n s of t h i s problem l i e which the term evolved cultural  influences.  i n response The s h i f t  i n the manner i n  to v a r i o u s broad  from a f u n c t i o n a l  d e f i n i t i o n of the term r e c o r d as o f f i c i a l memorials of t r a n s a c t i o n s documenting r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s to a d e s c r i p t i v e catalogue  of  citizens  of types of documents c r e a t e d  in  the course of c a r r y i n g out p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n began i n the 1920s with the need to dispose records c r e a t e d by government. therefore,  of accumulations of  The term r e c o r d s ,  was broadened to permit the d i s p o s a l of  types of documents.  One may assume that  i t was to  t h a t government bureaucrats knew which documents s u b j e c t to the  legislation  that  specific  legislators  ensure  were  listed  the  v a r i o u s types i n the o r i g i n a l p u b l i c d i s p o s i t i o n laws of Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a of the  1920s.  Such d e s c r i p t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s document were i n constant  of the term r e c o r d or  need of r e v i s i o n .  when p r o v i n c i a l governments  For example,  found they needed  legislation  to d e a l with the d i s p o s i t i o n of masses of records t h a t had emerged as a r e s u l t of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y d u r i n g Second World War and the p e r i o d immediately  the  thereafter,  they broadened the term r e c o r d to i n c l u d e maps and photographs.*30  By t h i s d a t e ,  the meaning of the term  r e c o r d s had become so i n c l u s i v e and the documents  in  government agencies so voluminous, c h i e f l y because modern r e p r o g r a p h i c t e c h n o l o g y ,  t h a t many provinces  of needed  page 37 to exclude c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of m a t e r i a l from the formal d i s p o s i t i o n process. narrowed.  The term r e c o r d was  Saskatchewan,  for example,  therefore  excluded m a t e r i a l  such as s u r p l u s c o p i e s of mimeographed, m u l t l l i t h e d , p r i n t e d or processed Alternatively,  c i r c u l a r s and memoranda.*31  new forms of r e c o r d m a t e r i a l continued  emerge throughout the 1960s and 1970s. encompassing d e f i n i t i o n s  Once a l l -  r e q u i r e d the a d d i t i o n of  such as "machine readable r e c o r d s " or "computer The pragmatic p r a c t i c e of definitions  to  cards."*32  of the term r e c o r d or document to inform  can be m i s l e a d i n g ,  to p u b l i c records  even when the  l i s t s are used  i l l u s t r a t e a broader statement that r e c o r d s i n c l u d e a l l  documents c r e a t e d now t h a t  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c a f f a i r s ,  i n f o r m a t i o n and the medium upon which i t  recorded are not i n s e p a r a t e l y ever, the  phrases  l i s t i n g types of m a t e r i a l i n  bureaucrats of which m a t e r i a l i s s u b j e c t legislation  to  the  form of the  information  linked.  is  Today, more so than  i n f o r m a t i o n i s not as  important as  itself.  The conceptual problems i n a l l areas of c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  arising  from the s o c i a l l y produced meaning of c e r t a i n key terms adversely affects  the  legislation  of most  jurisdictions.  In a d d i t i o n to these general problems, an examination of the s p e c i f i c territorial  p r o v i s i o n s of c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and archival legislation  peculiarities  of e x p r e s s i o n  reveals p a r t i c u l a r  illustrative  of how these  page 38 enactments arose as p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s  to l o c a l problems  r a t h e r than as statements of a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e . Individual w i l l ,  administrative p r a c t i c a l i t y ,  c o n d i t i o n s and past p r a c t i c e s  concerning the  local preservation  of documents of enduring value helped shape the  various  p r o v i s i o n s of the l e g i s l a t i o n .  these  Today, however,  p r o v i s i o n s are often anachronisms which, at b e s t , i r r e l e v a n t and, at worst, of examples  of t h i s  are  lead to m i s c o n c e p t i o n s .  A number  phenomenon can be found.  In the O n t a r i o A r c h i v e s Act of 1923,  provisions  o u t l i n i n g the a r c h i v e s ' mandate r e f l e c t e d the f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t ,  the  i n t e r e s t s of  C o l o n e l Alexander F r a s e r .  As Donald Macleod observes i n an a r t i c l e on e a r l y priorities  in collecting  the O n t a r i o a r c h i v a l r e c o r d :  far more i n d i c a t i v e of F r a s e r ' s i n t e r e s t s than acquisitions movements  relating,  [slcl  for i n s t a n c e ,  to contemporary s o c i a l  were m i l i t i a l i s t s d a t i n g from 1812,  p a t r i o t i c h i s t o r y of Fenian R a i d s , p r i n t s and photos l e a d i n g Six Nations  Niagara-on-the-Lake containing  'detailed  and a town p l a n for outlines'  of  Consequently, the O n t a r i o Act empowered  the A r c h i v e s to c o l l e c t  and preserve  c h a r t s , m a n u s c r i p t s , papers, other matters  of  I n d i a n s , a pamphlet for m i l i t i a m e n  employed i n s u p p r e s s i n g the r e b e l l i o n s ,  fortifications.*33  a  "pamphlets,  maps,  regimental muster r o l l s and  of g e n e r a l or l o c a l i n t e r e s t  h i s t o r i c a l l y in  O n t a r i o " and conduct r e s e a r c h "with a view to  preserving  page 39 the memory of pioneer e x p l o i t s  and the p a r t taken by them  i n opening up and d e v e l o p i n g the Province."*34 F r a s e r ' S own i n t e r e s t s to the  Thus,  seem to have l e a n t a p a r t i c u l a r c a s t  law.  S e v e r a l decades  later,  i n 1971,  when the Yukon  T e r r i t o r y enacted an a r c h i v e s o r d i n a n c e , the  law resembled  the O n t a r i o A r c h i v e s Act almost word for word, except p r o v i s i o n s o u t l i n i n g the Archives* mandate were modified to r e f l e c t resource community.  the A r c h i v e s ' s e t t i n g For example,  that  slightly  in a northern  subsection  (g)  of  section  6 of the Yukon A r c h i v e s Ordinance i n c l u d e d mining i n the list  of s u b j e c t s  about which i n f o r m a t i o n on the  s e t t l e r s c o u l d be c o l l e c t e d . stated  Similarly,  early  subsection  that one of the A r c h i v e s ' f u n c t i o n s was  (i)  "the  conducting of r e s e a r c h with a view to p r e s e r v i n g the memory of the  indigenous peoples  of l i v i n g and  i n the T e r r i t o r y and t h e i r mode  customs."*35  The s p e c i f i c  circumstances under which Nova S c o t i a ' s  A r c h i v e s Act came i n t o e x i s t e n c e a l s o a f f e c t e d  its  Premier E . N . Rhodes persuaded a wealthy b e n e f a c t o r ,  content. one W.  H. Chase of W o l f v i l l e , to present the province with an archives b u i l d i n g .  Once Chase had agreed to c o n s t r u c t what  would become the f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s b u i l d i n g i n Canada, the government then i n t r o d u c e d l e g i s l a t i o n to Nova S c o t i a ' s  place  p u b l i c a r c h i v a l programme, and the proposed  a r c h i v e s b u i l d i n g , on f i r m l e g a l ground.*36  As the  page 40 government r e q u i r e d a s i t e on which to c o n s t r u c t the new archives building, i t  i n c l u d e d a p r o v i s i o n i n the  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s Act which s t a t e d that  "the Board  1929 [of  T r u s t e e s of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Nova S o c t i a l may a c q u i r e a site  i n the c i t y of H a l i f a x and e r e c t thereon a P u b l i c  A r c h i v e s b u i l d i n g or b u i l d i n g s U n i v e r s i t y l a t e r donated the was c o n s t r u c t e d .  . .  ."*37  Dalhousie  land upon which the b u i l d i n g  The d e s i r e to p r o t e c t the  a r c h i v e s from the v i s s l t u d e s motivated the establishment  province's  of p a r t y p o l i t i c s may have of a Board of T r u s t e e s f o r  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Nova S c o t i a .  In an e f f o r t  the  to s t r i k e a  balance i n the composition of the Board between important public o f f i c i a l s  and those most I n t e r e s t e d  i n the  history  of the p r o v i n c e , the a c t as amended i n 1930 and 1931 made the C h i e f J u s t i c e ,  the P r e s i d e n t of Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y ,  the Premier and Leader of the O p p o s i t i o n , and the of the Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y a l l ex  President  officio  members of the Board.*38 L o c a l r i v a l r i e s played a p a r t i n shaping Saskatchewan's  legislation,  A r c h i v e s Act set  enacted on March 30 1945.  up two r e p o s i t o r i e s  under the s u p e r v i s i o n of  its  for a r c h i v a l  A r c h i v e s Board.  u n d e r l y i n g reason for e s t a b l i s h i n g  records  The  two r e p o s i t o r i e s  George Simpson, former P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t of  The  was,  as  Saskatchewan  explained: In Saskatchewan the s i t u a t i o n was somewhat t s i c l unique. The c a p i t a l of the Province Regina. The p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y i s i n  is  page  41  Saskatoon about two hundred m i l e s to the north-west. The c h i e f source of p u b l i c r e c o r d s i s a t the seat of government, the c h i e f i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n and study was at the seat of l e a r n i n g . I t was decided t h e r e f o r e i n 1945 when a comprehensive A r c h i v e s Act was passed to set up an A r c h i v e s Board which would be composed of r e s p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Government and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the u n i v e r s i t y . The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t was to be appointed by the U n i v e r s i t y with the a p p r o v a l of the A r c h i v e s Board.*39 During second r e a d i n g , some members of the  legislature  charged t h a t the government was seeking t o  centralize  the programme i n Regina and demanded the programme be c e n t r e d i n Saskatoon. final  bill  consist  specified  A compromise was r e a c h e d .  The  t h a t the A r c h i v e s Board would  of two members appointed by the L i e u t e n a n t  Governor i n C o u n c i l ,  two members appointed by the Board  of Governors of the U n i v e r s i t y of Sasktachewan, and the Legislative Librarian.  Later,  offices  P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s were e s t a b l i s h e d  of the Board or i n Regina and  Saskatoon.*40 As the above examples show, c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l archival  legislation  Is frought with  problems a r i s i n g from the pragmatic manner i n which i t has d e v e l o p e d .  The r e s u l t has been that key terms  convey outdated and i n a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e s nature of a r c h i v e s and a r c h i v a l  institutions  meaning and t h a t many of the l e g i s l a t i v e irrelevant,  about the in their  p r o v i s i o n s are  ambiguous, vague or i n c o n s i s t e n t  making i t  impossible f o r the l e g i s l a t i o n to promote a g l o b a l  page 4 2 approach to the care and management o £ p u b l i c r e c o r d s and a r c h i v e s , even when t h i s may have been legislative  its  intent.  In c o n t r a s t to the other j u r i s d i c t i o n s , Quebec stands out as a p r o v i n c e with l e g i s l a t i o n that does not suffer  from the problems i d e n t i f i e d above.  Its  l e g i s l a t i o n does promote a g l o b a l approach to the care and management of p u b l i c r e c o r d s or a r c h i v e s . The broad c u l t u r a l  influences  l e a d i n g up to  the  a d o p t i o n of new l e g i s l a t i o n are not what s e t s Quebec a p a r t from the other j u r i s d i c t i o n s . the Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  in  passage of access to i n f o r m a t i o n  and p r i v a c y l e g i s l a t i o n archival  In Quebec, as  i n 1983 had a profound a f f e c t  l e g i s l a t i o n when i t became apparent to  on  the  p r o v i n c i a l government that the r i g h t to access was meaningless  without the t o o l s to manage government  documents throughout t h e i r l i f e c y c l e . Quebec d r a f t e d new a r c h i v a l intended to be a t o o l  faclliter  l ' a c e s s et  l e g i s l a t i o n which i t  for the e f f e c t i v e  "les a r c h i v e s quebecoise  Consequently,  actuelle  management of  et a v e n i r , et a en  1'utilization."*41  This  enactment  became law on 21 December 1983. What set legislation criticisms  Quebec's l e g i s l a t i o n a p a r t from  i n other j u r i s d i c t i o n s was the s e a r c h i n g it  r e c e i v e d i n the e a r l y stages of  its  page 43 drafting  from the a r c h i v a l community i n Quebec.  c r i t i c i s m s e v e n t u a l l y l e d to the  These  legislation's  r e f o r m u l a t i o n on the b a s i s of European a r c h i v a l It was the f a c t t h a t l e g i s l a t o r s ,  l i s t e n i n g to  theory. the  a r c h i v a l community, d i d not s i m p l y r e - e n a c t the outdated concepts  inherent i n the p r o v i s i o n s of past laws but  developed c o m p l e t e l y new p r o v i s i o n s based on the p r i n c i p l e s of modern a r c h i v a l s c i e n c e t h a t has l e d the such a s t r o n g p i e c e of a r c h i v a l Initially,  the b i l l  to  legislation.  i n c l u d e d a d e f i n i t i o n of  a r c h i v e s based e s s e n t i a l l y  on the n o t i o n of p u b l i c  r e c o r d s as i t appeared i n l e g i s l a t i o n elsewhere i n Canada.  However, s e v e r a l Quebec a r c h i v i s t s c r i t i c i z e d  the b i l l ' s l i m i t e d v i s i o n of a r c h i v e s . * 4 2 of t h e i r c r i t i c i s m ,  As a r e s u l t  the government r e v i s e d the b i l l  t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c a r c h i v e s i n c l u d e d not i n a c t i v e documents of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t , a c t i v e and s e m i - a c t i v e documents.  so just  but a l s o  The Act d e f i n e s  p u b l i c a r c h i v e s f u n c t i o n a l l y as a "body of documents of all  k i n d s , r e g a r d l e s s of d a t e ,  c r e a t e d or r e c e i v e d by a  person or body i n meeting requirements or c a r r y i n g on activities.  .  .  ."*43  Quebec's use of the term p u b l i c  a r c h i v e s , as opposed to p u b l i c r e c o r d s , makes no d i s t i n c t i o n between the government documents i n the a r c h i v e s and those i n p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , legislative  and l i n k s  p r o v i s i o n s concerning the care and  management of r e c o r d s i n the a r c h i v e s with those  page 44 concerning the care and management of records held by public agencies.  Moreover, the Act d e f i n e s  the term  document as  "any medium of  data on i t ,  l e g i b l e d i r e c t l y or by machine."*14  definition differs  i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the  from other d e f i n i t i o n s  found in  c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l in that  it  This  legislation  i s c o n s t r u c t e d i r r e s p e c t i v e of the form or  medium of r e c o r d and t h e r e f o r e does not r e q u i r e constant updating when new forms of m a t e r i a l emerge. The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t can be reached from the Quebec example i s t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s and concepts science  of  archival  need to be c l e a r l y enshrined i n l e g i s l a t i o n  overcome the adverse a f f e c t s influences  that e x t e r n a l  to  social  have had on the meaning i n c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l  and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n . h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t new l e g i s l a t i v e  However, i t  is  provisions w i l l  be  based on a r c h i v a l theory unless the a r c h i v a l community understands the l i m i t a t i o n s of c u r r e n t  legislation,  develops a t h e o r e t i c a l base from which to draw upon, and initiates  change by t a k i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i n the  legislative  process.  It  i s to p r o v i d i n g a greater  understanding of the adverse a f f e c t s of the  social  p r o d u c t i o n of meaning on p r o v i s i o n s d e f i n i n g key terms, p r o v i s i o n s e s t a b l i s h i n g the scope and a u t h o r i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s for a r c h i v a l programmes, and p r o v i s i o n s o u t l i n i n g the b a s i c elements of  archival  page 45 programmes t h a t t h i s t h e s i s now t u r n s .  page 46  CHAPTER TWO THE IMPACT OF THE DISJUNCTION BETWEEN THEORY AND LAW ON DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS  Some of the most important p r o v i s i o n s found i n a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n are those which d e f i n e  key t e r m i n o l o g y , such as  p u b l i c r e c o r d s or a r c h i v e s .  from these  that a r c h i v a l  of  its  its  their  found i n c u r r e n t a r c h i v a l  have the p o t e n t i a l to s e v e r e l y  l i m i t the  the a r c h i v e s to r e a l i z e the main o b j e c t i v e  legislation,  definitions  other p r o v i s i o n s d e r i v e  Yet, d e f i n i t i o n s  legislation  is  l e g i s l a t i o n d e r i v e s the boundaries of  a p p l i c a t i o n and that meaning.  It  the p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents.  of  ability  the  T h i s chapter  examines how and why these l i m i t a t i o n s o c c u r . Given the legislation of  importance of the term r e c o r d or document  which has as  b a s i c goal the care and management  p u b l i c r e c o r d s , one would expect a l l c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l  and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l of  its  one or the other term.  legislation  to i n c l u d e a d e f i n i t i o n  T h i s i s not the c a s e .  A r c h i v e s Act l a c k s a d e f i n i t i o n of e i t h e r  failure  to d e f i n e  p r o v i s i o n s of i t s its  Ontario's  term, although the  word document i s used s e v e r a l times throughout.  in  to  Ontario's  a term so b a s i c to i n t e r p r e t i n g the A r c h i v e s Act causes an i n h e r e n t ambiguity  legislation.  Such an omission must be seen as a  page 47 serious  flaw i n any a r c h i v a l  All  legislation.  other j u r i s d i c t i o n s have a d e f i n i t i o n of e i t h e r  term r e c o r d or the term document.  the  Most i n c l u d e such a  d e f i n i t i o n as p a r t of a broader d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c records.  On the other hand, B r i t i s h Columbia, Quebec, and  Newfoundland provide d e f i n i t i o n s which are independent of the broader term.  Independent d e f i n i t i o n s  of r e c o r d s or  documents have an advantage over those t h a t are subsumed i n the term p u b l i c r e c o r d s , s i n c e they may be used to provisions in archival  interpret  l e g i s l a t i o n r e s p e c t i n g both p u b l i c  records and records of p r i v a t e  origin.  The content a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s great v a r i e t y i n the of enactment  i n which d e f i n i t i o n s  document appear. definition  of the term r e c o r d or  B r i t i s h Columbia's l e g i s l a t i o n  i n secondary l e g i s l a t i o n ,  Interpretation Act.  the  In New Brunswick's l e g i s l a t i o n ,  p a r t of  the A r c h i v e s  and p a r t appears i n secondary l e g i s l a t i o n ,  Records A c t .  includes a  province's  the d e f i n i t i o n appears i n primary l e g i s l a t i o n , Act,  type  the  Public  Only i n A l b e r t a does the d e f i n i t i o n of  this  important term appear i n a r e g u l a t i o n ; a l t h o u g h , a p o r t i o n of the o p e r a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n i n Quebec appears i n a regulation. define  The m a j o r i t y of j u r i s d i c t i o n s ,  the term r e c o r d or document i n primary  Given t h a t the terms are e s s e n t i a l all  therefore,  statutes,  for the  r e g u l a t i o n s and other l e g a l  legislation.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Instruments  concerned with the care and management of p u b l i c r e c o r d s ,  page 48 primary l e g i s l a t i o n  i s a more s u i t a b l e  d e f i n i t i o n than any other  legal  instrument.  which are intended to give e f f e c t statutory provisions, d e f i n i n g such b a s i c  for such a Regulations,  to the broad brush  are a much l e s s s u i t a b l e  place  strokes for  terminology.  Chapter one d i s c u s s e d  the development  r e c o r d m a t e r i a l and the consequent r e c o r d and document. electronic  locus  of new forms of  a d a p t a t i o n of the  terms  The newest media are those upon which  data are s t o r e d .  The content  analysis  shows t h a t  B r i t i s h Columbia, P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , A l b e r t a , New Brunswick, the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , Quebec and Newfoundland have attempted  to adapt t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s  the new media by the a d d i t i o n of the phrase readable r e c o r d s " .  Nevertheless,  to  "machine  the m a j o r i t y have  u l t i m a t e l y f a i l e d to come to g r i p s with the r e a l nature of the changes brought on by c o m p u t e r i z a t i o n . The c u r r e n t d e s c r i p t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s long as  i n f o r m a t i o n , which i s what the  r e a l l y seek to p r o t e c t ,  be switched  information,  not the  Now, however,  lists  as  must is  information  from one medium to another.  with media-based d e s c r i p t i v e c l e a r l y inadequate,  legislation  and the medium upon which i t  recorded are i n s e p a r a b l y l i n k e d . can e a s i l y  are adequate  for d e f i n i t i o n s  Laws are  as they r e f e r only to the medium of information  P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d ' s  itself.  d e f i n i t i o n of a r e c o r d , which  page 49 was  i n 1975, serves as an example- o£ the  enacted  inadequacies  o£ media-based d e f i n i t i o n s .  i n c l u d e s magnetic t a p e s , d i s c s ,  The d e f i n i t i o n  microforms and a l l  documents and machine-readable r e c o r d s . * 1 Island's  definition,  t h a t are s i m i l a r to agency to schedule  P r i n c e Edward  and a l l those i n other it,  its  other  jurisdictions  could c o n c e i v a b l y a l l o w a government tapes and d i s c s  s c h e d u l i n g the data s t o r e d  without  actually  thereon.  Even the d e f i n i t i o n of a r e c o r d i n the new N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s Act does not o f f e r  a model.  r e c o r d as any correspondence,  This act defines a  memorandum, book, p l a n , map,  drawing, diagram, p i c t o r i a l or g r a p h i c work, photograph, film,  microform, sound r e c o r d i n g , v i d e o t a p e ,  machine-  readable r e c o r d and any other documentary m a t e r i a l regardless  of p h y s i c a l form or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and any copy  thereof."*2 E l e c t r o n i c r e c o r d s demand that o l d approaches d e f i n i n g records and documents be rethought. legislation  requires definitions  to  Archival  capable of a l l o w i n g for  the  s c h e d u l i n g of both t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l media. Such a d e f i n i t i o n must pay equal a t t e n t i o n the  i n f o r m a t i o n and the  information i t s e l f .  to the medium of It must go  beyond mere d e s c r i p t i o n to e x p l a i n the purpose for which a record  exists.  The  d e f i n i t i o n of a document i n Quebec's A r c h i v e s Act  s e r v e s as an example of what i s r e q u i r e d under the  present  page 50 circumstances. information,  I t d e f i n e s a document as "any medium of  i n c l u d i n g the data on i t ,  legible  d i r e c t l y or  i  by machine."*3  Thus, computer tapes and d i s c s ,  the  i n f o r m a t i o n recorded t h e r e o n ,  the  law.  fall  as w e l l  as  w i t h i n the purview of  A d e f i n i t i o n of a r e c o r d or document such as  Quebec's, which e x p l a i n s ,  r a t h e r than d e s c r i b e s ,  outlast  a descriptive  list  emerge,  the e s s e n t i a l  characteristics  will  because while new media may of a r e c o r d or  document w i l l remain c o n s t a n t . As d i s c u s s e d  i n chapter one,  term r e c o r d and document to material led,  the gradual widening of  include d i f f e r e n t  limitations  legislation  For i n s t a n c e ,  forms of  i r o n i c a l l y , to the need to exclude  types of m a t e r i a l from the d e f i n i t i o n .  certain  Without these  can become d i f f i c u l t to  implement.  i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Document D i s p o s a l A c t , a  document i s d e f i n e d as i n c l u d i n g "books, documents, drawings, photographs,  letters,  vouchers,  maps,  papers and any  other t h i n g on which i n f o r m a t i o n i s recorded or s t o r e d by any means whether g r a p h i c , e l e c t r o n i c , otherwise."*4  Thus, the d e f i n i t i o n  d u p l i c a t e photocopies  mechanic, or  includes  to every document they would e i t h e r  themselves i n d u p l i c a t e c o p i e s or cause the d i s p o s i t i o n process  worthless  and computer p r i n t o u t s .  p r o v i n c e ' s m i n i s t r i e s abided by the l e t t e r respect  the  If  of the  the law with  submerge province's  to g r i n d to a h a l t .  Most j u r i s d i c t i o n ' s have l i m i t e d t h e i r  definitions,  page  51  although t h e i r approaches have d i f f e r e d . analysis  The content  shows that Saskatchewan, P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , New  Brunswick, Quebec and Newfoundland e x p l i c i t l y s p e c i f y their  legislation  t h a t c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of m a t e r i a l are not  c o n s i d e r e d to be records or documents, subject  in  and t h e r e f o r e are not  to p r o v i s i o n s concerning the d i s p o s i t i o n of records  or documents.  There are drawbacks to t h i s approach to  l i m i t i n g the scope of the term. i n t e r p r e t the exemptions  Government agencies can  too b r o a d l y and use them as a  j u s t i f i c a t i o n to a v o i d s c h e d u l i n g r e c o r d s . difficult clauses,  to r e c t i f y the for  I t can be  improper use of such exemption  i t must be done by an amendment to  the  legislation. A s l i g h t l y more f l e x i b l e  approach to l i m i t i n g the scope  of the term r e c o r d or document i s used i n A l b e r t a ,  which  exempts c e r t a i n types of r e c o r d m a t e r i a l , such as d u p l i c a t e copies  of u n a l t e r e d documents,  completed documents,  c a l c u l a t i o n s or d r a f t s of  p r i n t e r ' s proofs of p r i n t e d documents,  and l e t t e r s or memos of an ephemeral n a t u r e , standard d i s p o s i t i o n process regulation.  in its  T h i s approach, t o o ,  p u b l i c records  has i t s  changes to r e g u l a t i o n s are s t i l l s u b j e c t and time consuming a p p r o v a l A more f l e x i b l e  drawbacks,  since  to a f a i r l y  complex  process.*5  approach to q u a l i f y i n g the  o£ records or documents authorizing,  from the  i s to pass a g e n e r a l  on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s ,  definition  schedule  the d e s t r u c t i o n of  page 52 c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of records a f t e r or o b s o l e t e .  they have become  superceded  B r i t i s h Columbia has adopted t h i s approach and  now has a general schedule  for both " t r a n s i t o r y " hardcopy  and e l e c t r o n i c  The advantage  schedule  records.*6  is that  regulation.  it  of the  general  i s more e a s i l y amended than a s t a t u t e or  T h i s kind of  flexibility  is desirable  now that  computers are changing t r a d i t i o n a l concepts of what c o n s t i t u t e s r e c o r d and non-record m a t e r i a l . advantage  of the general schedule  is that  An a d d i t i o n a l  i t may be a p p l i e d  s e l e c t i v e l y to those agencies t h a t are not l i k e l y to use  it  improperly. There i s  one f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n concerning the  d e f i n i t i o n of a r e c o r d or document. information  was d i r e c t l y a c c e s s i b l e ;  i n f o r m a t i o n must often software  In the p a s t , now,  recorded  however,  be made a c c e s s i b l e by computer  and hardware.  Future d e f i n i t i o n s  r e c o r d or document w i l l have to take  of the  terms  into consideration  that  random bytes of data are of no use without the means of making them i n t e l l i g i b l e .  The d e f i n i t i o n of a r e c o r d used  i n the Manitoba Freedom of i n f o r m a t i o n Act addresses issue.  this  It s t a t e s t h a t a r e c o r d i n c l u d e s a t r a n s c r i p t of  the  e x p l a n a t i o n of a r e c o r d where the r e c o r d cannot be understood on i t s might encompass intelligible, indices.  own.*7  Thus, d e f i n i t i o n s  of the  future  both the r e c o r d and a means of making i t  such as software  documentation and computer  Computer hardware should not be i n c l u d e d ,  however,  page 53 as t h i s would t u r n a r c h i v e s  i n t o museums,  instead,  p r o v i s i o n s should r e q u i r e that the data be i n a "transferable"  form.  The d e f i n i t i o n of the term a r c h i v e s  i s a l s o of c e n t r a l  importance to understanding and implementing a r c h i v a l legislation.  Y e t , the r e s u l t s  which r e v e a l that o n l y f i v e  of the content  of twelve j u r i s d i c t i o n s have any  kind of d e f i n i t i o n of the term, leave the impression.  analysis,  Why do so few j u r i s d i c t i o n s  opposite include a  d e f i n i t i o n of what should be the most important term i n archival  legislation?  The answer to t h i s first  archives acts  archives the  question l i e s  As d i s c u s s e d  f i r s t a r c h i v e s a c t s were enacted  of evidence  o r i g i n of  i n chapter  of the p a s t .  Definitions  were not e s s e n t i a l  one,  to e s t a b l i s h a r c h i v a l  which would house records v a l u a b l e as  institutions,  the  i n Canada and i n the e n t r y of the word  i n t o Canadian law.  institutions  i n the  of a r c h i v e s ,  because such  sources meaning  institutions  were u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d i n the course of o u t l i n i n g t h e i r mandate to c o l l e c t of a r c h i v e s ,  h i s t o r i c a l records.  meaning r e c o r d s , n e c e s s a r y ,  Nor were since  it  definitions was  understood t h a t they were s i m p l y the records found i n archival  institutions  or under the care of the a r c h i v i s t .  A  p r o v i s i o n i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ' A r c h i v e s Ordinance, however,  states this  r e a d s : the  i m p l i e d meaning more e x p l i c i t l y ;  "Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s A r c h i v e s .  .  . shall  it consist  page 5 4 of a l l p u b l i c r e c o r d s and other documentary m a t e r i a l under the c a r e , custody,  and c o n t r o l of the  archivist."*8  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s has become Definitions  of a r c h i v e s  i n most c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and  t e r r i t o r i a l archival legislation, implicit,  conflict  inadequate.  with the  whether e x p l i c i t  i n t e n t i o n of  or  legislative  p r o v i s i o n s concerning the care and management of p u b l i c records i n t h a t the meaning of the term suggests a view of archival  institutions  as concerned s o l e l y with the  a c q u i s i t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l records and not i n any way l i n k e d to the c r e a t o r of the r e c o r d s i t  preserves  through i t s  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the management of a c t i v e and  semi-active  records.  and are no l o n g e r , this definition  A r c h i v e s can no longer a f f o r d to  passive  implies.  provisions establish  recipients  of  be,  i n a c t i v e records as  In many j u r i s d i c t i o n s ,  legislative  the a r c h i v e s as an a c t i v e agent i n the  care and management of p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  In three  j u r i s d i c t i o n s the a r c h i v e s has d i r e c t l e g i s l a t i v e  authority  over the management of a c t i v e and semi-active r e c o r d s , the e f f e c t s of c o m p u t e r i z a t i o n on a r c h i v a l  activity,  a r c h i v e s w i l l continue to become more a c t i v e l y  involved in  the care and management of records throughout t h e i r cycle.  However, the  if  legislation  c o n v e n t i o n a l sense,  life  implementation of a c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c y  for managing records throughout t h e i r l i f e difficult  with  c y c l e becomes  uses the word a r c h i v e s  in focussing  on a r c h i v a l  in  its  institutions  r a t h e r than on a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s , the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n  page 55 of a r c h i v e s c r e a t e s an a r t i f i c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n between records of enduring value s t o r e d  in a r c h i v a l  repositories  and those same r e c o r d s at an e a r l i e r stage of t h e i r  life  c y c l e as records c r e a t e d and maintained by an agency  to  fulfill  the  its  own a d m i n i s t r a t i v e requirements.  l i n k between a r c h i v a l records and t h e i r origins  is severed,  archival  as  institutions  Hence,  administrative  i s the v i t a l connection between and t h e i r sponsoring a g e n c i e s .  Not o n l y does such a d e f i n i t i o n m a r g i n a l i z e the r o l e of archives,  i t a l s o m a r g i n a l i z e s the  e s t a b l i s h e s them.  legislation  Consequently, a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  seen as u n r e l a t e d to the care and management of throughout t h e i r  life  c y c l e d e s p i t e the  is  records  fact that  a c t s now provide for both the establishment institutions  which  archives  of a r c h i v a l  and for the care and management of p u b l i c  r e c o r d s i n seven out of twelve p r o v i n c e s and t e r r i t o r i e s . A 1986 legislation  j u d i c i a l decision demonstrates  i n v o l v i n g Manitoba's a r c h i v a l  how the t r a d i t i o n a l meaning of  a r c h i v e s can m a r g i n a l i z e and render i n e f f e c t i v e a r c h i v e s and a r c h i v a l enactments.  In t h i s  both  c a s e , a Manitoba  Court of Appeal Judge r u l e d t h a t the L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y Act was "nothing more than an A r c h i v i s t ' s A c t " , and denied i t had any a p p l i c a t i o n to c u r r e n t r e c o r d s d e s p i t e the  that fact  t h a t P a r t II of the a c t a p p l i e s to the care and management of p u b l i c records s t i l l case i n v o l v e d an attempt  held by government departments. by Canadian Newspapers Company  The  page 56 Limited,  the owner of the Winnipeg Free P r e s s  c o p i e s of o f f e r s  to  obtain  of compensation to landowners whose land  was being a p p r o p r i a t e d for redevelopment government.  r  by the p r o v i n c i a l  The lawyer for Canadian Newspapers Company  L i m i t e d argued t h a t the o f f e r s  of compensation should be  made p u b l i c l y a c c e s s i b l e because the Manitoba L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y Act d e f i n e s them as p u b l i c records and p u b l i c records a r e , by l e g a l custom, Initially,  a Manitoba Queen's Bench Judge decided i n favour  of g r a n t i n g a c c e s s ; however, reversed t h i s d e c i s i o n . Monnin,  open to the p u b l i c .  "the o f f e r s  the Court of appeal  In the o p i n i o n of C h i e f  were c u r r e n t records  later Justice  tand t h e r e f o r e ]  Manitoba L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y Act had no a p p l i c a t i o n . " * 9 Chief  Justice  reasoned t h a t ,  a r c h i v e s given i n the a c t ,  the The  owing to the d e f i n i t i o n of  the d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c records  a p p l i e d o n l y to r e c o r d s t r a n s f e r r e d to the A r c h i v e s and P u b l i c Records Branch, even though s e v e r a l  of the  act's  p r o v i s i o n s d e a l with the care and management of c u r r e n t records.  In the words of one a r c h i v i s t ,  apparent from h i s a t t i t u d e concluded our b a t t l e  .  . that we a r c h i v i s t s have  with the p e r c e p t i o n of a r c h i v e s  the dump at the end of the Quebec's d e f i n i t i o n , that  .  " i t was c l e a r l y  i s unique i n Canada i n  i t encompasses documents at a l l stages of t h e i r  cycle.  being  line."*10 however,  The province d e f i n e s a r c h i v e s  documents of a l l k i n d s , r e g a r d l e s s  life  "as the body of  of d a t e ,  not  c r e a t e d or  page 57 r e c e i v e d by a person or body i n meeting requirements or c a r r y i n g on a c t i v i t i e s ,  preserved for t h e i r  i n f o r m a t i o n a l value."*11  Ironically, this  comes from European a r c h i v a l s c i e n c e , used by North American a r c h i v i s t s it  i s not a d e f i n i t i o n  lies  i n the  c r e a t e d or r e c e i v e d  to d e s c r i b e  found i n the  which widely  "fonds";  legislation  this  f a c t that as long as documents  informational value,  yet,  which forms  The value of  i n meeting a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and preserved for t h e i r archives,  definition,  is a d e f i n i t i o n  the s t r u c t u r a l b a s i s of a r c h i v a l work. definition  general  are  requirements they are  whether they are p h y s i c a l l y held by the  creating  agency or have been t r a n s f e r r e d to an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y . This d e f i n i t i o n records origins, and  its  focuses on the f u n c t i o n a l l i n k between the  i n an a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n and t h e i r  administrative  as w e l l as t h a t between the a r c h i v a l sponsoring agency.  definition,  Since a r c h i v e s ,  are not n e c e s s a r i l y  i n an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y ,  its  inactive  by Quebec's  r e c o r d s or  A r c h i v e s Act i s  to be narrowly i n t e r p r e t e d as l e g i s l a t i o n  institution  situated  less  likely  concerned  solely  with the care and management of n o n - c u r r e n t r e c o r d s , as was the Manitoba L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y A c t . The Manitoba L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y case not demonstrates its  how a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  own d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s ,  only  can be m a r g i n a l i z e d by  but a l s o r e v e a l s  confusion  surrounding the meaning of the term p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  The  lawyer for Canadian Newspapers company L i m i t e d based  his  argument on a meaning of the term, d e r i v e d from the common  page 58 law, as any records which are p u b l i c l y a c c e s s i b l e . l e g i s l a t i o n d e f i n e s the term with r e f e r e n c e ownership or custody. legislation  their  The content a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s  that  which are vested i n Her Majesty.  the term as records  Quite o f t e n ,  legislation  p u b l i c r e c o r d s as records c r e a t e d i n , or  r e c e i v e d by, a p u b l i c o f f i c e r his o f f i c i a l duties,  i n the course of c a r r y i n g out  as i n the case of the  legislation  Nova S c o t i a , Saskatchewan, Manitoba, A l b e r t a , T e r r i t o r i e s and Newfoundland.  the  As chapter one has shown,  should a l s o be noted t h a t although these d e f i n i t i o n s g r a d u a l l y drawn c l o s e r  of  Northwest  l a y e r s of meaning have been b u i l t up over the decades.  expressed  the  of New Brunswick, P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d ,  Newfoundland and Nova S c o t i a define  w i l l define  to  Current  to the European idea of  It  have  archives  i n Quebec's l e g i s l a t i o n as n a t u r a l accumulations  of r e c o r d s , they s t i l l d i f f e r  in conception  from  Quebec's d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s i n t h a t they do not  include  the a d d i t i o n a l n o t i o n of the p r e s e r v a t i o n of records of any age for g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e . r e c o r d continues  Thus, the term p u b l i c  to be used i n r e f e r e n c e  to a c t i v e  or semi-  a c t i v e documents and the term a r c h i v e s to r e f e r to  inactive  documents preserved i n an a r c h i v e s . Given the c o n f u s i o n surrounding the meaning of the term p u b l i c r e c o r d s , one must q u e s t i o n the u s e f u l n e s s of u s i n g in archival  legislation  jurisdictions  at a l l .  Why do ten out of twelve  i n c l u d e a d e f i n i t i o n of the term i n t h e i r  it  page 59 legislation?  In most cases they do so because  rights  i n p u b l i c records which a s s i s t  inhere  p r e s e r v a t i o n of these r e c o r d s ; that and i m p r e s c r i b i l i t y .  Inalienability  p u b l i c r e c o r d s d e r i v e d from t h e i r sovereignty  is, is  i n the  their  inalienability  the q u a l i t y of  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  the  of the government and e s t a b l i s h e s that they may  not be removed, abandoned or a l i e n a t e d government. their  special  I m p r e s c r i b i l i t y i s the  inalienability,  government  i n any way from  idea t h a t ,  owing  has the r i g h t to  p u b l i c records that have gone a s t r a y ,  to  recover  a process known as  replevin.*12 It records  is  not always  necessary to use the term p u b l i c  in l e g i s l a t i o n  imprescribility.  to e s t a b l i s h  legislation  for example,  includes  d e s t r u c t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n analysis  i n a l i e n a b i l i t y and  The same r i g h t s may be e s t a b l i s h e d  provision in a statute; archival  their  i n some  jurisdictions  p r o v i s i o n s to p r o h i b i t  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  r e v e a l s t h a t Nova S c o t i a ,  by a  the  The content  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  Brunswick, Quebec and Newfoundland a l l have p r o v i s i o n s their  legislation  exception  to a u t h o r i z e r e p l e v i n and, with  of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  r e c o v e r y of r e c o r d s . the  legislation,  set  New in  the  out procedures  for  I f these types of p r o v i s i o n s e x i s t  then there  i s no c o m p e l l i n g need to use  the in the  term p u b l i c r e c o r d s . Given the  fact  t h a t there  the term p u b l i c r e c o r d s ,  i s no c o m p e l l i n g need to  use  i t might be d i s c a r d e d In favour of  page 60 an encompassing d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s , i n Quebec.  such as that  Such a d e f i n i t i o n would e l i m i n a t e  vagueness of some of the l e g i s l a t i o n  i n the common law and l e g i s l a t i o n ,  establish  a desirable  inherent  caused by the term  p u b l i c r e c o r d s , o v e r l a i d as i t i s with s e v e r a l rooted  the  found  meanings  and would  f u n c t i o n a l l i n k between records held  by c r e a t i n g agencies and records preserved i n a r c h i v a l institutions.  U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s d e f i n i t i o n would lead to  l e s s s p l i n t e r i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l and records management  functions,  which would become the s i n g l e  of a r c h i v e s management, legislation repositories  function  and l e s s s p l i n t e r i n g of a r c h i v a l  i n t o enactments which e s t a b l i s h a r c h i v a l f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l records and  those which concern the care and management of p u b l i c records.  The use of Quebec's  f u n c t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of  a r c h i v e s would a l s o b r i n g Canada i n t o l i n e with most  other  western c o u n t r i e s ,  the  i n c l u d i n g Belgium, F r a n c e , I t a l y ,  Netherlands and Spain.*13 legislation  I t would a l s o b r i n g a r c h i v a l  i n t o l i n e with accepted a r c h i v a l t h e o r y .  Adopting a d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c a r c h i v e s such as Quebec's would be a dramatic departure from t r a d i t i o n for most j u r i s d i c t i o n s .  Thus, other means of e l i m i n a t i n g the  c o n f u s i o n surrounding the meaning of p u b l i c records should be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . p u b l i c records i n t h e i r  Most j u r i s d i c t i o n s use the term  legislation  held by government a g e n c i e s .  to r e f e r to the records  The same meaning could be  conveyed with the combined use of the terms " r e c o r d " ,  page 61 "government agency",  and "held".  T h i s approach has  been  adopted at the F e d e r a l l e v e l where the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s Act avoids the often  problematic term p u b l i c records i n favour  of the phrase "records of government legislation  institutions."  The  d e f i n e s both the term r e c o r d and government  institutions.*14 The only ambiguity that remains i n the f e d e r a l approach i s that  it  i s not a b s o l u t e l y c l e a r what the word "of" means  i n the phrase "the r e c o r d s of government  institutions."  c o u l d mean a l l records c r e a t e d by government but c o u l d p o s s i b l y  It  institutions,  i n c l u d e those r e c e i v e d by them as  well.  A d e f i n i t i o n of the word "of" or some other s u i t a b l e  term,  such as "held", would reduce the l e v e l example,  of a m b i g u i t y .  For  B r i t i s h Columbia's Document D i s p o s a l Act p r o v i d e s a  d e f i n i t i o n of  "deposit" which "includes  recorded and kept."*15  filed,  registered,  The 1984 E n g l i s h Data P r o t e c t i o n Act  takes a s i m i l a r approach, where,  in section  1(5),  "data  user" i s d e f i n e d as a person who holds d a t a , and a person "holds" data  if:  (a)  the data form p a r t of a c o l l e c t i o n of data processed or intended to be processed by or on behalf of t h a t p e r s o n . . .  (b)  that person ( e i t h e r alone or j o i n t l y or i n common with other persons) c o n t r o l s the contents and use of the data comprised i n the c o l l e c t i o n ; and  (c)  the data are i n the form i n which they have been or are intended to be processed as mentioned i n paragraph (a) above or (though not for the time being i n t h a t form) i n a form i n t o which they have been converted  page 62 a f t e r being f u r t h e r so processed subsequent o c c a s s i o n . * 1 6 The approach taken i n t h i s a c t  on a  i s s i m i l a r to that taken i n  B r i t i s h Colubmia's Document D i s p o s a l A c t ; however, language  used  records,  particularly electronic  Thus,  the  Is more i n keeping with the manner i n which  three simple components:  r e c o r d s , are now handled.  a d e f i n i t i o n of a r e c o r d , a  d e f i n i t i o n of government a g e n c i e s , and a d e f i n i t i o n of term h e l d , would help e l i m i n a t e  the  the ambiguity i n a r c h i v a l  enactments r e s u l t i n g from use of the term p u b l i c r e c o r d s . Archival  legislation  must provide a d e f i n i t i o n of  government agencies to give the term p u b l i c records meaning, since  current d e f i n i t i o n s  of p u b l i c records i n Canadian  p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n provenance,  or the o r i g i n s of the r e c o r d s .  analysis  indicates  that,  archival  legislation,  The content  i n p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  these d e f i n i t i o n s  c a t e g o r i e s of government a g e n c i e s . that a l l j u r i s d i c t i o n s  are based on  tend to be l i s t s  The a n a l y s i s  of  indicates  i n c l u d e the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e branch of  p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l government, Also common i n these l i s t s  such as  departments.  of agencies are boards and  commissions  t h a t are not p a r t of a department and which are  established  either  in c o u n c i l . neither  by an act of the  L e g i s l a t i o n in several  of the t e r r i t o r i e s ,  government legislative  includes  legislature  or by order  of the p r o v i n c e s , the  but  j u d i c i a l branch of  i n l i s t s of agencies whose r e c o r d s are s u b j e c t provisions.  O n t a r i o (access to  to  i n f o r m a t i o n and  page 63 privacy l e g i s l a t i o n Alberta,  the Yukon Territory,  o n l y ) , Manitoba,  New Brunswick, Quebec and Newfoundland i n c l u d e  crown c o r p o r a t i o n s i n the l i s t . government i s Ontario,  l e s s often  Nova S c o t i a  legislation  The l e g i s l a t i v e  included; i t  (access to  is  branch of  listed  i n only  i n f o r m a t i o n and p r i v a c y  o n l y ) , New Brunswick, the Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and Quebec.  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  several  j u r i s d i c t i o n s mention p r o v i n c i a l government agencies not found i n the  legislation  associations  or persons appointed by an a c t of  legislature,  by order i n c o u n c i l , or who are d i r e c t l y  responsible  of other j u r i s d i c t i o n s , such as the  to the crown.  Beyond the r e c o r d s c r e a t e d by p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l government a g e n c i e s , d e f i n i t i o n s  of p u b l i c agencies i n  Canadian p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  archival  sometimes i n c l u d e the r e c o r d s of other  legislation  l e v e l s of  government.  T h i s i s the case i n Nova S c o t i a , the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , New Brunswick and Quebec where d e f i n i t i o n s government r e c o r d s . scope, as  encompass m u n i c i p a l  Quebec's l e g i s l a t i o n  has the  broadest  i t a l s o i n c l u d e s s c h o o l boards, u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  h e a l t h care f a c i l i t i e s .  In a l l other j u r i s d i c t i o n s  and  the  s t a t u s of these records i s u n c l e a r , although they might be subject  to s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e  p r o v i s i o n s concerning t h e i r  care and management. The content a n a l y s i s  shows a d i v e r s i t y of  definitions  of p u b l i c agencies In c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  page 64 archival  legislation.  a model.  Its  Quebec's d e f i n i t i o n , however,  offers  breadth p r o v i d e s f o r the care and management  of r e c o r d s from many a g e n c i e s ;  a l t h o u g h , c r i t i c s may argue  t h a t such a broad d e f i n i t i o n p l a c e s a s t r a i n on the resources of a r c h i v e s .  Nevertheless,  surmounting t h i s d i f f i c u l t y .  there are means of  One of the ways i n which t h i s  d i f f i c u l t y may be overcome i s by enumerating, i n r e g u l a t i o n , those p u b l i c agencies which f a l l law.  w i t h i n the compass of  the  T h i s i s an improvement over d e f i n i n g p u b l i c agencies  in a statute,  s i n c e r e g u l a t i o n s are more e a s i l y amended.  Another means of a l l e v i a t i n g the demands on an a r c h i v a l institution's repositories  resources  in l e g i s l a t i o n ,  P u b l i c Record A c t .  if  it  as,  designated  for example,  i n the  the P u b l i c Records O f f i c e as a place  "affords s u i t a b l e  facilities  for the  safekeeping and p r e s e r v a t i o n of records and t h e i r by the p u b l i c . " * 1 7 official  r e p o s i t o r y , England has s e v e r a l  a n o t h e r , very I n n o v a t i v e ,  difficulties  inspection  Thus, r a t h e r than having o n l y one  conforming to o f f i c i a l s t a n d a r d s . offers  English  In t h i s A c t , the Lord C h a n c e l l o r may  appoint a place o u t s i d e of d e p o s i t  i s by a l l o w i n g for  posed by d e f i n i t i o n s  repositories  The Quebec A r c h i v e s Act s o l u t i o n to  the  of p u b l i c a g e n c i e s .  v a r i o u s p u b l i c bodies are grouped i n t o seven c l a s s e s i n a schedule to the a c t .  The listed  The p u b l i c a r c h i v e s of each  class  of bodies are s u b j e c t to v a r y i n g degrees of c o n t r o l over t h e i r care and management.  For example, the M i n i s t e r of  C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s must adopt a management p o l i c y for the  page 65 active  and s e m i - a c t i v e  the C o n s e i l du t r e s o r , bodies  documents of the C o n s e l l  executlf  f  and the government departments and  to which the government appoints a m a j o r i t y of  members.  On the other hand, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , school boards,  and h e a l t h and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s  c o u n c i l s must take  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the management of t h e i r own a c t i v e and semi-active  documents,  although the Keeper of the A r c h i v e s  N a t i o n a l e s may a d v i s e them on p o l i c y . * 1 8  Quebec's use of  what may be r e f e r r e d to as a t i e r e d approach i s a  flexible,  yet p r a c t i c a l , means of accommodating a broad range of agencies w i t h i n i t s recognizes  d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c b o d i e s .  the need of some p u b l i c bodies  for  It  also  integrated  a r c h i v e s management programmes of t h e i r own while promoting the development of such programmes w i t h i n a province-wide framework for the care and management of records throughout their  life  cycle.  The r e s u l t s  of the content a n a l y s i s r e v e a l that  in  O n t a r i o and Nova S c o t i a l i s t s of p u b l i c agencies i n access to i n f o r m a t i o n and p r i v a c y l e g i s l a t i o n do not correspond to those i n primary a r c h i v a l argue t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n s  legislation.  To  i n these a c t s must match word f o r  word would be to deny the d i f f e r e n t are c r e a t e d .  always  Nevertheless,  implementation of the o t h e r .  purposes  for which they  each of the a c t s a f f e c t s Thus, the e f f e c t  the  of a  d e f i n i t i o n used i n one enactment upon the p r o v i s i o n s of other r e l a t e d enactments Ideally,  definitions  must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  i n access to i n f o r m a t i o n and p r i v a c y  page 66 a c t s and other a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n one another and should agree that are encompassed  should not c o n f l i c t  i n scope; that  i n the d e f i n i t i o n s  a r c h i v e s a c t s should a l s o be encompassed found i n access l e g i s l a t i o n .  is,  with  agencies  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s i n the  in  definitions  F r e q u e n t l y , however,  these  a c t s are d r a f t e d without regard for how they w i l l  function  together. I f the d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , the a r c h i v e s a c t ,  or the scope of  i s narrower than that of the access  i n f o r m a t i o n and p r i v a c y a c t s ,  to  i t can become d i f f i c u l t  to  implement the p r o v i s i o n s of the access and p r i v a c y law, since  adequate  c o n t r o l cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d  records of agencies not mentioned  over  i n the a r c h i v e s  Access to i n f o r m a t i o n and p r i v a c y l e g i s l a t i o n f u n c t i o n i n g of p r o v i s i o n s legislation  the act.  affects  i n a r c h i v e s a c t s as w e l l .  the This  can have i m p l i c a t i o n s for the a c c e s s i b i l i t y  m a t e r i a l held i n a p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v e s archives f a l l s p u b l i c agency.  w i t h i n the  legislation's  For example,  of  if  the  d e f i n i t i o n of a  the d e f i n i t i o n used i n the  province of New Brunswick's Access to Information Act i n c l u d e s the records of the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s , encompass  which would  both the r e c o r d s the a r c h i v e s c r e a t e s to meet  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o p e r a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l t i e s ,  and those  r e c e i v e s from both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o u r c e s .  There was  some u n c e r t a i n t y about the s t a t u s of the  archives'  h o l d i n g s p r i o r to the passage of an amendment to  the  it  page 67 A r c h i v e s Act which s t a t e s t h a t  " a l l p u b l i c records  t r a n s f e r r e d to the A r c h i v e s and i n the p o s s e s s i o n ,  care,  custody and c o n t r o l of the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t are a v a i l a b l e for p u b l i c i n s p e c t i o n " , T h i s p r o v i s i o n had the e f f e c t  with c e r t a i n  exceptions.  of e x c l u d i n g p r i v a t e m a t e r i a l  held by the a r c h i v e s from the p r o v i s i o n s of the access and privacy legislation.*19  In Manitoba, r a t h e r than passing an  amendment to the p r o v i n c e ' s a r c h i v e s a c t , included a provision in i t s  the  government  Access to Information Act which  s p e c i f i c a l l y exempts m a t e r i a l of p r i v a t e o r i g i n owned by the government.*20 The a n a l y s i s  of p r o v i s i o n s e s t a b l i s h i n g d e f i n i t i o n s  such key terms as r e c o r d or document, a r c h i v e s ,  public  r e c o r d s and p u b l i c agencies upholds the c l a i m t h a t p r o v i s i o n s place  is,  definitions that,  of a r c h i v a l  the p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents.  these d e f i n i t i o n s  is twofold.  reflect  unrealistic  The problem with  an i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e  i n t o Canadian a r c h i v a l  legislation;  One the one hand, the  although a c c u r a t e at the time these  entered  these  l i m i t a t i o n s and even thwart the a b i l i t y of  a r c h i v e s to achieve the o b j e c t i v e s that  for  law,  on a r c h i v e s  definitions  i s now outdated and  i n the present s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  On the other hand, the  inexactness of the d e f i n i t i o n s ,  some cases the lack of a d e f i n i t i o n , causes vagueness and i n c o n s i s t e n c y  i n the  These inherent flaws c a n , i n t u r n , inherent d e f i c i e n c i e s  context. or i n  inflexibility,  legislative  provisions.  be a t t r i b u t e d to  the  of a l l language a r i s i n g from the  page effect  of e x t e r n a l s o c i a l  archival legislation.  68  influences  T h i s s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n of meaning  c r e a t e s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the legislation, legislation  on the meaning of  i n t e n t i o n of  or what i t means to say,  and what the  i s a c t u a l l y capable of a c h i e v i n g ,  a c t u a l l y says.  the  or what  With an understanding of the adverse  it affects  that the s o c i a l l y produced meaning of these key terms can have upon the a b i l i t y of p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l legislation better  to operate e f f e c t i v e l y ,  a r c h i v i s t s are i n a much  p o s i t i o n to c o r r e c t these d e f i c i e n c i e s  actively  i n v o l v e d i n the l e g i s l a t i v e  t h a t new l e g i s l a t i o n  includes d e f i n i t i o n s  d e r i v e d from the  which i n c r e a s i n g l y  the g l o b a l approach to the management of r e c o r d s  throughout t h e i r l i f e  cycle.  master the l e g i s l a t i o n influences  by becoming  process and e n s u r i n g  p r i n c i p l e s of modern a r c h i v a l t h e o r y , emphasizes  archival  it  Unless a r c h i v i s t s  by understanding the  l e a r n to  subtler  has upon t h e i r a b i l i t y to c a r r y out  p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents  i n the present  the  information  environment, the conceptual problems c r e a t e d by present definitions  of key terms w i l l continue to  the other major components of a r c h i v a l all  adversely  legislation,  other p r o v i s i o n s draw upon the b a s i c concepts  i n these d e f i n i t i o n s Unfortunately, consequences  of  for t h e i r  affect since  expressed  interpretation.  as the next chapter w i l l show, inadequate d e f i n i t i o n s  the  negative  can be f a r - r e a c h i n g .  page 69  CHAPTER THREE THE IMPACT OF THE DISJUNCTION BETWEEN THEORY AND LAW ON ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES  Provisions setting establishment  f o r t h the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y f o r  the  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s to c a r r y out  a r c h i v a l work have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a major component of c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  archival  legislation.  T h i s chapter w i l l examine these p r o v i s i o n s and assess how they a f f e c t  the a b i l i t y of a r c h i v e s to a t t a i n  overall objectives The  of a r c h i v a l  legislation.  body or person r e s p o n s i b l e  for the  management of the p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l the a c t e s t a b l i s h i n g  the  the a r c h i v e s ,  general archives,  or of  i s an important  determinant of the a r c h i v e s ' a b i l i t y  to f u l f i l l  mandate.  j u r i s d i c t i o n s except  Archival  legislation  in a l l  its  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , the body or person r e s p o n s i b l e establishing  the a r c h i v e s ' ,  for the a r c h i v e s ' ,  g e n e r a l management.  content a t t r i b u t e appears i n primary l e g i s l a t i o n out of ten j u r i s d i c t i o n s .  specify or a c t  This i n seven  In Saskatchewan and Nova S c o t i a ,  g e n e r a l management of the p r o v i n c e ' s a r c h i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of an a r c h i v e s board.  In a l l  p r o v i n c e s , g e n e r a l management of the a r c h i v e s  is  the  other falls  to a  page 70 m i n i s t e r who may be r e s p o n s i b l e services,  for c u l t u r e ,  government  t o u r i s m , education or some other p o r t f o l i o -  Over the y e a r s ,  debates have occurred r e g a r d i n g the  r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of c o n f e r r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r archives'  the  g e n e r a l management upon an a r c h i v e s board as  opposed to a m i n i s t e r of a government department or ministry.  Advocates of the board s t r u c t u r e argue  boards, being at arms l e n g t h from government, p o l i t i c i z e d and, t h e r e f o r e ,  in a better  that  are  less  p o s i t i o n to a c q u i r e  a broad range of p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e r e c o r d s .  Archives  boards a l s o a l l o w the a r c h i v e s to a t t r a c t g r e a t e r p u b l i c support from non-government s o u r c e s . greater  flexibility  archives;  Moreover, they permit  i n the day to day o p e r a t i o n s of  for example,  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s can e s t a b l i s h  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s c a l l i n g for an a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l e d u c a t i o n and  the job  of  experience.*1  On the other hand, the content  a n a l y s i s c l e a r l y shows  that o n l y two j u r i s d i c t i o n s maintain a board s t r u c t u r e governing the a r c h i v e s and none have moved i n that d i r e c t i o n since  the establishment  A r c h i v e s Board i n 1944. anachronism because,  Saskatchewan  A r c h i v e s boards have become an  while they are w e l l s u i t e d  r e a l i z i n g the o b j e c t i v e s focussed  of the  of e a r l y a r c h i v e s a c t s ,  on the c u l t u r a l mandate of a r c h i v a l  to which  institutions,  they are not w e l l s u i t e d to the present s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l environment.  T h i s environment demands  that  page 71 administratIve legislation  structures established  In a r c h i v a l  promote a c l o s e l i n k between a r c h i v e s and t h e i r  sponsoring agencies i n order to ensure the  effective  management and p r e s e r v a t i o n of p u b l i c records by p l a c i n g a r c h i v e s w i t h i n the executive  h i e r a r c h y of  government,  p r e f e r a b l y w i t h i n a c e n t r a l department or m i n i s t r y which can d e a l independently with a l l branches of government c a r r y i n g out i t s  functions.  Any advantages  a t t r i b u t e d to  a r c h i v e s boards are l a r g e l y f i c t i o n a l given the f a c t  that  boards r e l y on government funding and are accountable government for how those funds are Traditionally,  l e g i s l a t i o n has been the establishment a u t h o r i t y f o r the e x i s t e n c e of a r c h i v a l  of the  of  archival  archival  legal  institutions.  l e g a l a u t h o r i t y help to  t h a t the l e g i s l a t i o n can be p r o p e r l y implemented. would, t h e r e f o r e ,  to  spent.  one of the main o b j e c t i v e s  Provisions establishing this  in  ensure  One  expect a l l p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  l e g i s l a t i o n to i n c l u d e a p r o v i s i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g  the a r c h i v e s , legislation,  or i n the case of second  generation  c o n t i n u i n g the e x i s t e n c e of the  archives.  B r i t i s h Columbia, the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and New Brunswick, however,  do not have such a p r o v i s i o n i n t h e i r  although a r c h i v a l jurisdictions.  institutions  exist  Lack of l e g i s l a t i v e  in a l l  legislation,  three  a u t h o r i t y for  the  e x i s t e n c e of these three a r c h i v e s can have at l e a s t two  page 72 possible First,  negative consequences for the a r c h i v a l programme.  because such p r o v i s i o n s l e g i t i m i z e  activities  of a r c h i v e s ,  j u r i s d i c t i o n s without  i t more d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y  increased  continued e x i s t e n c e of the a r c h i v e s . provision establishing  the e x i s t e n c e and them may f i n d  f u n d i n g , or even the Second, because a  the a r c h i v e s u s u a l l y guarantees  e x i s t e n c e of the a r c h i v e s as a separate p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t another agency,  entity,  there  the is a  such as a museum, c o u l d be  made to serve as an a r c h i v e s or that the a r c h i v e s c o u l d be made subordinate to another c u l t u r a l agency. Another important p r o v i s i o n i s that which e s t a b l i s h e s the a r c h i v e s as the  j u r i s d i c t i o n ' s o f f i c i a l r e p o s i t o r y for  public records; yet,  o n l y Saskatchewan,  P r i n c e Edward  I s l a n d , and Newfoundland i n c l u d e such a p r o v i s i o n i n t h e i r archival there  legislation.  Without t h i s  provision,  i s a danger t h a t government departments  establish  t h e i r own records r e p o s i t o r i e s  however, could  and that  the  p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v e s would not have a u t h o r i t y to  intervene  i n cases where the r e c o r d s were not p r o p e r l y  preserved or made  accessible.  If c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l legislation  e s t a b l i s h e s the  e x i s t e n c e of a r c h i v e s , legislation  it  is  l e g a l a u t h o r i t y for  the  l o g i c a l to expect that  the  w i l l a l s o provide for the appointment of an  i n d i v i d u a l to a c t as head of the a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n . appointment of such an i n d i v i d u a l i s a l s o a requirement  The if,  page 7 3 i n any of i t s  provisions,  the  legislation  powers upon the head of the a r c h i v e s . reveals  confers  The content  t h a t nine out of the twelve j u r i s d i c t i o n s  such a p r o v i s i o n i n t h e i r  special  legislation.  analysis include  Only B r i t i s h  Columbia and A l b e r t a do not s p e c i f i c a l l y mention appointment of a p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t , although  the the  p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t i s mentioned i n the  legislation  has s p e c i f i c  laws of both  powers and d u t i e s  jurisdictions.  under the  In a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g for  appointment of a p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t , seven out of the nine g i v e t h i s  i n d i v i d u a l ' s manner of Some a u t h o r i t i e s legislation  jurisdictions  and e i g h t s p e c i f y  title,  the  appointment. on the s u b j e c t  of a r c h i v a l  a l s o suggest t h a t a r c h i v a l laws should c o n t a i n  some p r o v i s i o n for the t r a i n i n g or qualifications  of the  p r o v i s i o n of t h i s of the  the  i n d i v i d u a l a proper l e g a l  such as " P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t " ,  and  "chief a r c h i v i s t . " * 2  type,  legislation,  professional  however,  To i n c l u d e a  decreases the  flexibility  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Canadian context  where standards for a r c h i v a l education and t r a i n i n g continue to be debated. given s p e c i a l  powers,  not be unreasonable qualifications  this  duties  if archivists  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  to expect that t h e i r  and the  i n law; however,  Nevertheless,  level  are  i t may  professional  of t h e i r t r a i n i n g be set  forth  i n the p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l c o n t e x t ,  i s u s u a l l y d e a l t with i n r e g u l a t i o n s  and p o l i c y  statements c o n c e r n i n g the r e c r u i t m e n t , appointment, and  page 7 4 qualifications established  it  is  that a r c h i v i s t s could follow  in setting  out q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  s t a t u t e governing the p r o f e s s i o n . regulation,  As more a r c h i v e s  by p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  inconceivable professions  of p u b l i c s e r v a n t s .  i f passed,  will  not other  in a  Quebec, where a proposed  provide i n f o r m a t i o n about the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  another  separate  r e q u i r e that p r i v a t e  a r c h i v i s t s as a p r e r e q u i s i t e  are  of  for a c c r e d i t a t i o n ,  archives their presents  possibility.*3  A t h r e a t of  i n f l e x i b i l i t y e x i s t s where the  law  p r o v i d e s for the appointment of other a r c h i v e s '  employees.  In t h e i r d r a f t model law, however,  European  Carbone and Gueze i n c l u d e d e t a i l e d  p r o v i s i o n s on the  subject  of p e r s o n n e l ,  such as q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,  procedures, e d u c a t i o n and promotion.*4 d e t a i l concerning a r c h i v e s personnel present  archivists  Canadian c o n t e x t .  Again,  hiring  This l e v e l  is unsuitable  i n the  i t assumes a more  f o r m a l i z e d method of t r a i n i n g than e x i s t s i n t h i s It c o u l d a l s o lock the a r c h i v e s  of  i n t o an  country.  inflexible  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e which i t might l a t e r outgrow. the time b e i n g , such matters are best l e f t p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l There a r e , beneficial  however,  to s p e c i f y  up to  For  the  archivist. circumstances  i n which i t  is  the appointment of an i n d i v i d u a l who  i s not the p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l I n d i v i d u a l s who are e s s e n t i a l  archivist.  to the proper  implementation  page 7 5 of the p r o v i s i o n s i n a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  but who  do not work d i r e c t l y under the p r o v i n c i a l or  territorial  a r c h i v i s t are i d e a l l y i n c l u d e d i n l e g i s l a t i o n ,  as  the  s t a t u t e can l a t e r be used to ensure that such i n d i v i d u a l s are a c t u a l l y a p p o i n t e d .  A l b e r t a ' s P u b l i c Records  R e g u l a t i o n which provides for the appointment of " p u b l i c records o f f i c e r s " provision.*5 individual's  i s an example of t h i s type of  It might a l s o be prudent to s p e c i f y level  the  of education and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  to  ensure t h a t standards are met concerning these subjects. As mentioned i n the previous c h a p t e r , p r o v i s i o n s which set  f o r t h the mandate of the a r c h i v e s , or the d u t i e s  archivist, archives  often take the place of d e f i n i t i o n s  i n c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  legislation.  the  of the term archival  Consequently, the content a n a l y s i s shows t h a t  most j u r i s d i c t i o n s Include such p r o v i s i o n s . Scotia,  of  Only Nova  B r i t i s h Columbia and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s do  not o u t l i n e the f u n c t i o n s the a r c h i v i s t .  of the a r c h i v e s or the d u t i e s  of  While some j u r i s d i c t i o n s may have both a  d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s and p r o v i s i o n s o u t l i n i n g the a r c h i v e s ' mandate or the a r c h i v i s t ' s d u t i e s legislation, included.  it  in their  i s r a r e for n e i t h e r p r o v i s i o n to be  In f a c t ,  B r i t i s h Columbia i s the  only  j u r i s d i c t i o n without e i t h e r p r o v i s i o n , which can be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t the j u r i s d i c t i o n has no primary  page 76 legislation  to e s t a b l i s h  e x i s t e n c e of  its  the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y f o r  archives.  In O n t a r i o , P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , Manitoba, and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , archival objects  Alberta  g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n s concerning  f u n c t i o n s are formulated as an enumeration of  the  of the a r c h i v e s or the a c t l e g a l l y e s t a b l i s h i n g  archives.  the  When one i s reminded of the o r i g i n a l purpose of  archives acts,  which was to e s t a b l i s h a r c h i v a l  to preserve a l l manner of documentary sources it  the  i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t o l d e r enactments  repositories of the  past,  use a form of  e x p r e s s i o n which enumerates the o b j e c t s  of the a r c h i v e s or  the o b j e c t s  archives.  of the a c t e s t a b l i s h i n g  Provisions setting enactments,  out the a r c h i v e s '  l i k e the enactments  a r c h i v e s as c u l t u r a l  For example,  functions  themselves,  institutions  management of p u b l i c r e c o r d s ,  the  than on the care and  including archival  functions  i n these  include t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s the case of O n t a r i o , Island,  focus more on  the content a n a l y s i s shows t h a t  o u t l i n i n g the a r c h i v e s '  i n such  records.  provisions  jurisdictions  and may even,  as  in  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and P r i n c e Edward  mention e x t r a - a r c h i v a l f u n c t i o n s ,  and a r c h e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , c u l t u r a l purpose of the  such as r e s e a r c h  associated  with the broad  legislation.  In New Brunswick, Quebec and Newfoundland, on the other hand, such p r o v i s i o n s are formulated as an enumeration of the d u t i e s  or powers of the a r c h i v i s t , or  page 77 the a r c h i v i s t ' s a p p o i n t e e ,  in this  been enacted more r e c e n t l y ,  the  legislation,  focus  is  which has  l e s s on the  i n s t i t u t i o n and more on g i v i n g the a r c h i v i s t a u t h o r i t y over the care and management of p u b l i c r e c o r d s throughout life  cycle.  T h e r e f o r e , the  functions  listed  their  In these  p r o v i s i o n s go beyond t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s  to  include a c t i v i t i e s  active  and s e m i - a c t i v e  associated  with the management of  p u b l i c r e c o r d s , such as r e c o r d s s c h e d u l i n g  and the p r o v i s i o n of s e m i - a c t i v e  storage  space.  The i n t e n t i o n of p r o v i s i o n s o u t l i n i n g the d u t i e s the a r c h i v i s t i s  the same as for p r o v i s i o n s s e t t i n g  the mandate of the a r c h i v e s ; m i s s i o n of the a r c h i v e s . arises  as to whether  it  that  is,  m i s s i o n statement of the a r c h i v e s  i n terms of  a r c h i v i s t ' s duty.  question,  to examine the use of  language  to express  the  the  i s a p p r o p r i a t e to express  To answer t h i s  forth  to e s t a b l i s h  T h i s being the c a s e ,  of  question the  the  it  is  necessary  legal  relationships. In h i s a n a l y s i s  of  fundamental l e g a l  relationships,  Wesley Newcomb Hofeld c r e a t e d a scheme for the  lowest  common denominators of a c t u a l l e g a l r e l a t i o n s . * 6 to h i s scheme,  r i g h t s and d u t i e s ,  privileges  powers and l i a b i l i t i e s ,  and immunities and  comprise the most b a s i c  legal  Rights,  duties,  relationships  powers and l i a b i l i t i e s  that most o f t e n appear i n a r c h i v a l  According  and n o - r i g h t s ,  disabilities of the law.*7  are the  legislation.  ones  page 78 What i s a r i g h t ? Austin,  According to the  quoted by H o f e l d , a r i g h t i s  c o n f e r r e d or p r o t e c t e d by law."*8 each l e g a l concept l e g a l advantage matter  legal  philosopher  "any advantage  Hofeld maintains  has a j u r a l c o r r e l a t i v e so that  or burden concerning a p a r t i c u l a r  i s observed to inhere i n one p e r s o n , the  may be observed to  inhere  i n some other p e r s o n .  c o r r e l a t i v e to a r i g h t i s a d u t y . c r e d i t o r has a r i g h t to be p a i d , pay him.  it  if a subject-  correlative The if a  i s the d e b t o r s '  duty to  The l e g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s an imperative one which  t e l l s others language  For example,  that  what they a b s o l u t e l y must do.  the word " s h a l l " denotes t h i s  In  statutory  type of  legal-  relationship. For example, Brunswick,  i n the a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  of New  the p r o v i s i o n o u t l i n i n g the a r c h i v i s t ' s  concerning the c a r e ,  custody and c o n t r o l of a r c h i v e s ,  p r e p a r a t i o n of records s c h e d u l e s ,  the p r o v i s i o n of  facilities  and the p r o v i s i o n of other r e c o r d s  functions,  e s t a b l i s h e s an imperative l e g a l  through the use of the term d u t i e s .  management  legal  the l e g i s l a t i o n  concerned with the care and management of v a l u a b l e i t may be argued, s o c i e t y has a r i g h t to On the other hand, t h i s  be i n f l e x i b l e  storage  A case can be made for  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n such a p r o v i s i o n , s i n c e  protected.  the  relationship  the use of a term which denotes an imperative  which,  role  is  records  see  form of e x p r e s s i o n  and i n a d v e r t e n t l y p l a c e a burden on the  can  page 79 archives resources because i t functions Thus,  i m p l i e s that a l l of  the  enumerated must be c a r r i e d out a l l of the  time.  i t might be concluded t h a t p r o v i s i o n s which are  intended to s t a t e the purpose or m i s s i o n of the  archives,  such as to a c q u i r e p u b l i c or p r i v a t e r e c o r d s , are best expressed  i n terms of the  the d u t i e s  of the a r c h i v i s t .  couched i n g e n e r a l terms of new f u n c t i o n s The other archival  functions  of the a r c h i v e s ,  not  Such p r o v i s i o n s are a l s o best  i n order to a l l o w for the  and to prevent l i m i t i n g  addition  interpretations.  l e g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p commonly found i n  legislation  and a l i a b i l i t y .  i s that which e x i s t s between a power  A power, a c c o r d i n g to H o f e l d ,  i s "an  a b i l i t y c o n f e r r e d upon a person by the law to determine, h i s own w i l l d i r e c t e d to that end, the r i g h t s , liabilities  and other l e g a l r e l a t i o n s  of other persons."*9 liability,  duties,  of h i m s e l f  by a n o t h e r .  i n one i n d i v i d u a l  is  this  "may".  T h i s i s the  legal relationship established  30 of Quebec's A r c h i v e s A c t , which o u t l i n e s archivist's  until  Since the e x e r c i s e of power  i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y , the s t a t u t o r y verb t h a t denotes relationship  or  The j u r a l c o r r e l a t i v e to a power i s a  which does not e x i s t  power i s e x e r c i s e d  either  by  powers.  the  in  section  provincial  Use of words t h a t denote t h i s  legal  r e l a t i o n s h i p are more a p p r o p r i a t e i n p r o v i s i o n s  involving  the a c t i v i t i e s  archivist,  since  this  of the p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e s that the a r c h i v i s t  is  page 80 expected to perform c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s , c o p i e s as t r u e ,  from time to time without  f a i l i n g to perform any one f u n c t i o n . legal  relationship  as  operates on a d i s c r e t i o n a r y  it  i s more f l e x i b l e  In some j u r i s d i c t i o n s , establishing  such as  the  the  certifying  penalty  Clearly,  for  t h i s type  than an imperative  legislation  goes beyond  l e g a l a u t h o r i t y for the e x i s t e n c e of  It  is  to e s t a b l i s h  significant  enacted  its  one,  basis.  p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v e s and s e t t i n g f o r t h mission,  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p to other  the its  agencies.  t h a t only those j u r i s d i c t i o n s which have  legislation  more r e c e n t l y c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n s  d e a l with a wider community of  interests.  which  Quebec's  A r c h i v e s Act scored the h i g h e s t i n t h i s c a t e g o r y ,  as  it  a l l o w s the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t to n e g o t i a t e agreements with p u b l i c and p r i v a t e bodies r e g a r d i n g the d e p o s i t  of  archives,  and to  to a c c r e d i t p r i v a t e a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s ,  provide f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to private archival institutions. countries  accredited  Unlike centralized  such as F r a n c e , I t a l y ,  Spain, Finland,  Sweden and  the German Democratic R e p u b l i c , Canada, being a more state, federal  cannot e s t a b l i s h legislation;  a N a t i o n a l a r c h i v a l system i n  however,  federal,  t e r r i t o r i a l archival legislation such as the  p r o v i n c i a l and  can i n c l u d e  provisions,  ones i n Quebec's A r c h i v e s A c t , which  and promote an a r c h i v a l  federal  recognize  system.  In a d d i t i o n to a u t h o r i z i n g the establishment  of  page 81 p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v e s , authorize All  the establishment  of p u b l i c records committees.  of the committees e s t a b l i s h e d  under c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l  and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n either  most enactments  are r e s p o n s i b l e  reviewing and approving r e c o r d s  schedules,  recommending or a u t h o r i z i n g one-time d i s p o s i t i o n s records,  or b o t h .  In s e v e r a l  for  jurisdictions  of  these  committees a l s o take on a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . instance,  i n Nova S c o t i a and Manitoba the committees are  responsible while  for overseeing  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i n A l b e r t a and the Northwest  on i s s u e s of access to r e c o r d s .  of  i n t e r e s t s of government  I n i t i a l l y conceived  through a c o n s i d e r a t i o n  decide of  as  the of  the  f i n a n c i a l and other values of records ready for  disposition, varies  records,  T e r r i t o r i e s , they  bodies which would provide a means of p r o t e c t i n g  legal,  For  the purpose of p u b l i c records committees now  from one j u r i s d i c t i o n to  another.  I  The composition of p u b l i c r e c o r d s committees a l s o varies  from one j u r i s d i c t i o n to another.  legislation archivist,  refers  In a l l c a s e s ,  the  to the p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l  but only i n Manitoba, P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , and  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i s the a r c h i v i s t the chairman of the committee.  The Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  the  Northwest  T e r r i t o r i e s and Newfoundland Include a p r o v i n c i a l or territorial  r e c o r d s manager.  Nova S c o t i a and the Yukon  T e r r i t o r y include a representative r e c o r d s are under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  of the p u b l i c body whose Several  jurisdictions  page 82 i n c l u d e a member with f i n a n c i a l or a u d i t e x p e r t i s e . the  jurisdictions,  offers  the Yukon P u b l i c Records Committee  the broadest  Archivist,  Justice,  range of o p i n i o n s ,  it  includes  the Department of F i n a n c e , and the Department of and other p u b l i c s e r v a n t s from time to  representation  would do w e l l to  time.*38  i n c l u d e systems  on t h e i r committees given the  highly  nature of contemporary r e c o r d s .  Only O n t a r i o and Quebec do not e s t a b l i s h  public  r e c o r d s committees i n t h e i r a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n . does not e s t a b l i s h legislation, the  first  a p u b l i c r e c o r d s committee  enacted  i n 1923,  predates  p u b l i c r e c o r d s committee  Archives Act. establish  the  from each of systems and computing  Other j u r i s d i c t i o n s  technical  as  the Records Manager, the S e c r e t a r y to C a b i n e t ,  one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e services,  Of a l l  of  Saskatchewan  Quebec, on the other hand, does not  p r o v i d e s necessary o v e r s i g h t  which enacted  legislation  In c o n t r a s t  legislation  committees provided the only source r e g a r d i n g a request  as i t s  and s c r u t i n y of the  process i n other ways.  jurisdictions  its  the establishment  i n the 1951  a p u b l i c r e c o r d s committee  disposition  as  Ontario  records to  when p u b l i c records  of expert  for a one-time d i s p o s a l Quebec has a  of  opinion records,  u s u a l l y long s i n c e  inactive,  progressive  r e c o r d s management  programme which a l l o w s those i n v o l v e d  the d r a f t i n g of r e c o r d s schedules to seek out expert  in  advice  page 83 c o n c e r n i n g r e c o r d s at the time o£ t h e i r s c h e d u l i n g ,  l £ the  p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l expert a d v i c e , may o b t a i n the culturels.  o p i n i o n of the Commission des  The Commission, as l a i d out  he  biens  i n the  Cultural  P r o p e r t y A c t , c o n s i s t s of twelve members appointed by the government  for up to three years to provide advice  matter r e l a t i n g to the c o n s e r v a t i o n property.*10  on any  of c u l t u r a l  As i n the case of the A r c h i v e s A d v i s o r y  C o u n c i l of the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada,  Quebec's  commission c o n s i s t of both c r e a t o r s and users of archives.*11  By e s t a b l i s h i n g  an a r c h i v e s a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l ,  Quebec has managed to e l i m i n a t e records The archival  the need for a p u b l i c  commmittee. establishment legislation  number of c o u n t r i e s ,  of an a r c h i v e s a d v i s o r y body i n  has become popular as  i s witnessed by the  such as A u s t r a l i a , Belgium,  C z e c h o s l o v a k i a and F r a n c e , that have e s t a b l i s h e d As w e l l ,  authorities  legislation,  of a r c h i v a l  namely Carbone and Gueze and R - H . B a u t i e r ,  recommend them.*13 established  on the s u b j e c t  them.*12  An a d v i s o r y body, such as the  i n Quebec law,  one  has two main advantages over  p u b l i c r e c o r d s committees.  First,  the m i n i s t e r  is  not  o b l i g e d to seek the o p i n i o n of t h i s body i n cases of routine records d i s p o s i t i o n , the records d i s p o s a l comprised of government,  process.  thus c o n s i d e r a b l y  expediting  Second, as t h i s body  is  i n d i v i d u a l s both from w i t h i n and o u t s i d e o£ it  i s c o n c e i v a b l y l e s s I s o l a t e d and inward-  page 84 l o o k i n g than a committee which i s comprised s o l e l y government o f f i c i a l s .  of  J u r i s d i c t i o n s with l e g i s l a t i o n  that  p r o v i d e s for s c h e d u l i n g need not r e t a i n t h e i r p u b l i c r e c o r d s committees, disposals,  as they are a throw-back to  but c o u l d i n s t e a d e s t a b l i s h a d v i s o r y  As i n the case of d e f i n i t i o n s  p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l  archival  in current  legislation  l i m i t , even  which i s  The p h i l o s o p h i c a l grounding of itself  records committees  the  anachronistic, establishes ,  anachronistic administrative structures, or a r c h i v e s boards.  such as p u b l i c The form of  e x p r e s s i o n used i n p r o v i s i o n s concerning the mandate or the a r c h i v i s t ' s d u t i e s attitudes  provisions  the r e a l i z a t i o n of the u l t i m a t e goal of  legislation.  legislation,  committees.  of key terms,  establishing administrative structures  work a g a i n s t ,  one-time  archives'  conveys more about  which u n d e r l i e the l e g i s l a t i o n  the  than of the a c t u a l  l e g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s such p r o v i s i o n s are intended  to  e s t a b l i s h and leads to i n f l e x i b i l i t y and vagueness i n the legislation. the e f f e c t the  These inherent problems, which a r i s e out of  of e x t e r n a l s o c i a l  legislation,  influences  on the meaning of  lead to the same t e n s i o n as e x i s t s  in  provisions establishing definitions  of key terminology  between the  i n t e n t e d meaning of the  l e g i s l a t i o n and the  meaning i t s  p r o v i s i o n s i m p l i c i t l y convey.  page  85  CHAPTER FOUR THE IMPACT OF THE DISJUNCTION BETWEEN THEORY AND LAW ON PROGRAMME ELEMENTS  There can be no q u e s t i o n that p r o v i s i o n s  establishing  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s are an important p a r t of legislation.  P r o v i s i o n s bestowing the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y for  the establishment  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s are needed  implement other l e g i s l a t i v e are n o n - e x i s t e n t  provisions.  or inadequate,  p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents. establishing  archival  I f the  structures  they prevent the  Nevertheless,  it  is  effective provisions  b a s i c elements of a r c h i v a l and records  management programmes for the p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents should be the  to  focus of a r c h i v a l  that  legislation.  In O n t a r i o , P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , Manitoba, A l b e r t a and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  one f i n d s that  legislation  focuses more  on e s t a b l i s h i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s than on establishing  the programme elements that the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s t r u c t u r e s are designed to implement. focus  i s the  fact that,  archival  appear a t ,  legislation  this  i n most of these j u r i s d i c t i o n s ,  provisions establishing archival r e c o r d s committees  I n d i c a t i v e of  institutions  or p u b l i c  or near, the beginning of  as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t average  in the content a n a l y s i s  under Group B, A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  scores were  page 86 higher as a percentage  o£ the t o t a l score  (42.6%) than they  were i n Group C, Programme Elements (33%). L e g i s l a t i o n that focuses on the establishment  of  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s d e r i v e s from an outdated p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e which sees a r c h i v e s as p u r e l y cultural  institutions.  perspective  is  As a l r e a d y mentioned,  this  l i n k e d to the emergence of e a r l y a r c h i v e s  a c t s out of the d e s i r e to e s t a b l i s h r e p o s i t o r i e s records,  of both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c o r i g i n s ,  the p a s t .  Although the s o c i a l context  enactments  s t i l l reflect  despite  to modernize them by i n c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n s t h a t legislative  a r c h i v e s i n these enactments, remain  documenting  has changed,  this perspective,  r e c o r d s management, because  for  recent efforts  establish  definitions  of  e i t h e r e x p l i c i t or i m p l i e d ,  institution-based.  Quebec's a r c h i v a l focus e x c e s s i v e l y  l e g i s l a t i o n does not  on the establishment  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s t r u c t u r e s at the expense of programme elements.  Although,  Administration,  its  score under Group B,  i s among the highest at 61%, i t s  score under  Group C , Programme Elements i s a l s o among the h i g h e s t .  A  p r o v i s i o n for the appointment of a p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t appears c l o s e to the end of the enactment, setting  after  provisions  f o r t h p o l i c i e s concerning the management of  semi-active  and i n a c t i v e a r c h i v e s . * 1  Quebec's  active,  legislation  p r o p e r l y takes the focus away from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  page 87 structures, facilitate and,  which should only be e s t a b l i s h e d the  to  implementation of programme elements,  i n combination with the use of a f u n c t i o n a l  d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s ,  places  i t on programme elements  for the p r o t e c t i o n and management of throughout t h e i r  life  As d i s c u s s e d focus  documents  cycle.  i n chapter two,  the  institutional  of the d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s m i l i t a t e s  the kind of  i n t e g r a t e d approach to the care and  management of records throughout t h e i r e n t i r e in that  against  i t c r e a t e s an a r t i f i c i a l  of enduring value preserved  life  cycle  b a r r i e r between r e c o r d s  i n an a r c h i v a l  repository  and those same r e c o r d s at an e a r l i e r stage of t h e i r cycle.  It  i s not s u r p r i s i n g , then,  enactments based e i t h e r  that many e a r l y  e x p l i c i t l y or i m p l i c i t l y on the  t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s do not r e c o r d s management p r o v i s i o n s , precludes the  legislation  management of a c t i v e  since  the  from f o c u s s i n g  and s e m i - a c t i v e  include definition on the care and  p u b l i c records  have not been t r a n s f e r r e d to an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y . chapter one has shown, the  fact  p r o v i s i o n s appear i n a r c h i v a l l i n k e d to a change public records. closer  that r e c o r d s  legislation  that As  management  at a l l can be  i n the volume and complexity of  T h i s change g r a d u a l l y n e c e s s i t a t e d  t i e s between a r c h i v e s and t h e i r  agencies and l e d to an Increased archives  life  sponsoring  involvement of  i n programmes to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  the  c o n t r o l records  page 88 throughout t h e i r legislation  life  cycle.  Thus,  archival  i n some j u r i s d i c t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e s the  a u t h o r i t y for the e x i s t e n c e of a records programme, w h i l e ,  i n other  programme i s e s t a b l i s h e d reveals  that  it  provisions.  their  as i t s  establishment  includes  of the  twelve  legislation  expressly  the  of a records management programme, d e f i n e s outlines  the r o l e of the  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of records  provincial  management, the  of the p r o v i n c i a l records manager, and provides  for the c r e a t i o n of s e m i - a c t i v e comprehensiveness  storage f a c i l i t i e s .  of Newfoundland's  of the p r a i s e  for a t l e a s t some  i t c u r r e n t l y r e c e i v e s from a r c h i v i s t s .  A l b e r t a and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y scored second overall,  A l b e r t a having passed  r e c o r d s management  legislation  Most of the  highest  relating  to  i n 1983 and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y i n  New Brunswick and Quebec scored t h i r d  provisions  The  provisions  concerning r e c o r d s management accounts  1985.  in  the  p r o v i d e s for  appoints a p r o v i n c i a l r e c o r d s manager, o u t l i n e s duties  such  Of t h e s e , Newfoundland scored  r e c o r d s management, archivist  been  i n c l u d e records management p r o v i s i o n s  legislation.  highest,  analysis  which has  l a s t ten years t h a t  Therefore, only five  jurisdictions  no such  The content  is only l e g i s l a t i o n  enacted w i t h i n the  management  jurisdictions,  by law.  legal  j u r i s d i c t i o n s with r e c o r d s  highest. management  i n c l u d e them i n primary l e g i s l a t i o n ,  except for  page 89 A l b e r t a and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , appear i n r e g u l a t i o n s . regulation is  where these  In A l b e r t a ,  provisions  the r e c o r d s  management  provided for pursuant to the P u b l i c Works,  Supply and S e r v i c e s Act while the a r c h i v e s  is  established  pursuant to the H i s t o r i c a l Resources A c t .  The f a c t  that  A l b e r t a e s t a b l i s h e s these two i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d programmes under separate  acts reveals  the prevalence  of a l i m i t e d  c u l t u r a l view of a r c h i v e s and does nothing to promote efficient  implementation of the p r o v i n c e ' s  management programme or the f u l f i l l m e n t mandate.  the  records  of the  archives'  Records management p r o v i s i o n s are most  placed i n the same enactment  as p r o v i s i o n s which  logically establish  l e g a l a u t h o r i t y for the e x i s t e n c e of a r c h i v e s ,  activities  are f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d .  to understand the  between these  it  is d i f f i c u l t  functional  r e c o r d s management v a r i e s  for  relationship  by the a r c h i v e s  from one j u r i s d i c t i o n to  An a r c h i v i s t has s t a t u t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the management programme i n three of  five  j u r i s d i c t i o n s , the a r c h i v i s t ' s  records management over,  these  activities.  The degree of c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d  other  as  However, without an  encompassing d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s , legislators  the  is  l i m i t e d to  the d i s p o s i t i o n p r o c e s s .  i s a member of a committee r e c o r d s management.  records  responsibility  responsible  In for  i n , or c o n t r o l  In these cases the  In Quebec, the  another.  jurisdictions.  involvement  over  archivist  for c o o r d i n a t i n g  archivist's  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for records management depends  on the p u b l i c  page 90 body; for example,  the a r c h i v i s t c o o r d i n a t e s  and  supervises  the r e c o r d s management programmes of the E x e c u t i v e C o u n s e l , Treasury Board and government departments, municipalities,  but only a d v i s e s  s c h o o l boards or p u b l i c h e a l t h and s o c i a l  s e r v i c e s agencies on t h e i r records management programmes. Where the a r c h i v e s and records management programmes do not fall  under the same general management,  t h a t the two programmes w i l l financial  i s a danger  lack c o o r d i n a t i o n of both  and human r e s o u r c e s .  The emphasis sources  there  on the a r c h i v e s as an i n s t i t u t i o n  of the past  territorial  i n much e x i s t i n g  archival  legislation  housing  p r o v i n c i a l and  has a l s o l e d to  the  underdevelopment of p r o v i s i o n s concerning t r a d i t i o n a l archival  functions,  acquisition, since  the  once the into  such as a p p r a i s a l ,  conservation,  selection,  and arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n ,  inherent assumption i n such l e g i s l a t i o n institution  is established  is  that  everthing else w i l l  fall  place. Archival  appraisal,  legislation  d e a l s with the mechanics  the methods by which a p p r a i s a l d e c i s i o n s  c a r r i e d out,  will  be  but not the d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n of which records  should be k e p t .  The r e s u l t s  of the content  analysis  a statement made by Jerome O ' B r i e n i n 1984 t h a t legislation  of  "fails  to s p e c i f y ,  uphold  archival  except i n a general  way,  which c l a s s e s of r e c o r d s must be kept permanently."*2  It  page 91 also f a i l s kept.  to s p e c i f y  the reasons  As O ' B r i e n n o t e s ,  " a r c h i v i s t s are l e f t  whatever a p p r a i s a l and s e l e c t i o n appropriate."*3  to a p p l y  c r i t e r i a they deem  O ' B r i e n goes on to say that  become more accountable their a f f a i r s ,  f o r which m a t e r i a l must be  "as  to the p u b l i c for the conduct of  p a r t i c u l a r l y when supported with tax d o l l a r s ,  i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e methods and procedures subject  archivists  to o u t s i d e  scrutiny."*4  become  His statement has proved to  be p r o p h e t i c i n the wake of a Royal Commission of I n q u i r y i n t o the d e s t r u c t i o n of  immigration f i l e s  p e r t a i n i n g to Nazi  war c r i m i n a l s , d u r i n g which the a p p r a i s a l and criteria  of the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s came under a t t a c k .  O ' B r i e n warns, requirements  "well-intentioned  before a judge legislation  informal,  i s q u i t e another."*5  needs to address t h i s  that there  issue.  c r i t e r i a in d e t a i l .  outlining Most a r c h i v i s t s  i s a s t r o n g element of  "fingerspitzegefuhl", the a p p r a i s a l p r o c e s s ,  or s c h o l a r l y i n t u i t i o n , too e l u s i v e  the answer may l i e  that a r c h i v i s t s must set selection  standards  Clearly, archival  L e g i s l a t i o n need not i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s  Instead,  inadequate,  a r c h i v a l procedures or s e l e c t i o n  a p p r a i s a l and s e l e c t i o n  As  l a x i t y concerning  i s one t h i n g ; defending  or n o n - e x i s t e n t  agree  selection  to set  involved in  down in law.  i n having p r o v i s i o n s  stating  down i n w r i t i n g the a p p r a i s a l and  c r i t e r i a they use  in specific  cases and t h a t  these  c r i t e r i a must meet with the approval of a higher a u t h o r i t y , such as the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there  is  page 9 2 no legal precedent  In the t e x t s examined for t h i s study upon  which the wording of such p r o v i s i o n s might be based, is  in i t s e l f  legislation Archival  a commentary upon the d e f i c i e n c i e s  which  of a r c h i v a l  in this area. legislation  makes e x t e n s i v e p r o v i s i o n for  the  a c q u i s i t i o n of p u b l i c records through p r o v i s i o n s which  set  f o r t h methods for c a r r y i n g out a p p r a i s a l d e c i s i o n s , disposition  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  territorial  archival legislation  disposition  of p u b l i c records by s e t t i n g f o r t h  a p p r o v a l process for e i t h e r  or the  Current p r o v i n c i a l and provides  for  the the  r e c o r d s s c h e d u l e s , which provide  ongoing a u t h o r i t y for d i s p o s a l ,  or for one-time r e q u e s t s .  Scheduling of p u b l i c r e c o r d s i s provided for i n the legislation Ontario, although,  of a l l  jurisdictions,  with the e x c e p t i o n  of  Saskatchewan and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ; provisions  i n Saskatchewan  T e r r i t o r i e s can be i n t e r p r e t e d scheduling possible.  and the  i n such a way as to make  The q u a n t i t a t i v e  c o r r e l a t i o n between l e g i s l a t i o n  Northwest  analysis  which has been  reveals a recently  amended or enacted and the appearance of p r o v i s i o n s for the s c h e d u l i n g of p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  Scheduling i s  p r e f e r r e d method of a c q u i r i n g p u b l i c records because allows a r c h i v i s t s  allowing now the it  to become i n v o l v e d i n the a p p r a i s a l and  s e l e c t i o n of p u b l i c records much e a r l i e r than they f o r m a l l y d i d .  i n the  life  cycle  page 93 The a p p r o v a l process for schedules v a r i e s j u r i s d i c t i o n to j u r i s d i c t i o n . have some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y schedules i n Nova S c o t i a , Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  from  P u b l i c r e c o r d s committees  for recommending or approving B r i t i s h Columbia, Manitoba, the  P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d ,  Brunswick, and Newfoundland.  A l b e r t a , New  In Nova S c o t i a ,  Columbia, Manitoba and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  British  authority  to  review and approve schedules i s a l s o vested i n the agency that c r e a t e d the r e c o r d s . come from the L e g i s l a t i v e  F i n a l a p p r o v a l of schedules must Assembly i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Quebec, the M i n i s t e r of C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s has f i n a l to approve s c h e d u l e s .  In most j u r i s d i c t i o n s ,  consent.  as the content a n a l y s i s  the a p p r o v a l process for records schedules remains perhaps much more so than i t  development,  needs to be.  there  is  little  B r i t i s h Columbia's c a s e ,  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h a b i t .  involved,  schedules their  the r e c o r d s are ready  in addition to,  the L e g i s l a t i v e  the schedule  shows,  need to have them reviewed and  approved by a p u b l i c r e c o r d s committee  jurisdictions,  Since  with experts at the time of  which takes place before  for d i s p o s a l ,  authority  In the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and New  Brunswick, the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t g i v e s f i n a l  a l l o w for c o n s u l t a t i o n  In  Assembly.  In most  a p p r o v a l process i s no more than  Under most c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  a p p r o v a l of the p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v i s t , m i n i s t e r charged with the g e n e r a l management archives, should s u f f i c e .  in  of  the or the  the  Review by another body, such as  an a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l , should o n l y be r e q u i r e d i n the case of  page 94 a dispute  or u n c e r t a i n t y on the part o£ the a r c h i v i s t or  minister. The r o l e of the p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v i s t the s c h e d u l i n g process a l s o v a r i e s  from j u r i s d i c t i o n  to  jurisdiction.  In Nova S c o t i a ,  Edward I s l a n d ,  Manitoba, A l b e r t a and Quebec, the p r o v i n c i a l  archivists of the  B r i t i s h Columbia,  in  Prince  are i n d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the process by v i r t u e  fact  t h a t they s i t  on a p u b l i c records  which i s charged with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s c h e d u l i n g of p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  for overseeing  the  In the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and  New Brunswick, the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t i n overseeing  committee  is d i r e c t l y  the s c h e d u l i n g of p u b l i c r e c o r d s , although  s o l e l y responsible  s c h e d u l i n g of p u b l i c r e c o r d s v a r i e s ;  involvement for example,  i n the the  a r c h i v i s t oversees the s c h e d u l i n g of p u b l i c records government departments,  but may o n l y advise  on the s c h e d u l i n g of t h e i r  as  it  involvement  records.  O v e r s i g h t of,  in a p o s i t i o n to use the  as an a c q u i s i t i o n  in  municipalities  i n , the s c h e d u l i n g process i s  puts the a r c h i v i s t  more e f f e c t i v e l y  not  for reviewing and approving s c h e d u l e s .  In Quebec, the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t ' s  direct  involved  if  not  desirable, schedule  tool.  Records schedules are only l i k e l y to be an e f f e c t i v e means of a c q u i s i t i o n dispositions  they set  i f the r e t e n t i o n  p e r i o d s and f i n a l  out are abided by; however,  not  all  j u r i s d i c t i o n s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e t h a t approved schedules are binding.  Such a p r o v i s i o n e x i s t s o n l y i n the a r c h i v a l  page 95 legislation  of B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a ,  Manitoba, Quebec and Newfoundland.  New Brunswick,  Nova S c o t i a ' s  Public  Records D i s p o s a l Act serves as an example of a p r o v i s i o n concerning records s c h e d u l i n g that does not use imperative to make the t r a n s f e r with approved r e c o r d s s c h e d u l e s , states that  of r e c o r d s ,  the  i n accordance  obligatory.  Section  "the m i n i s t e r a p p o i n t i n g the documents  5(3)  committee  may a u t h o r i z e the p u b l i c r e c o r d s to which the schedule the r e p o r t or memorandum, i f any, r e f e r s In the manner set  out  to be disposed  i n the schedule."*6  of the a r c h i v e s  or r e c o r d s  programme veto power over records s c h e d u l e s , ministers  veto power might j e o p a r d i z e the  a government-wide  of  While i t may be  a p p r o p r i a t e to give the m i n i s t e r with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y g e n e r a l management  and  for  the  management to g i v e  other  implementation  of  p o l i c y concerning the care and management  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s . concerning r e t e n t i o n  O c c a s i o n a l l y , however,  disputes  p e r i o d s or f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s  arise.  New Brunswick and Newfoundland d e a l with these s i t u a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g procedures  for the r e s o l u t i o n  by  of d i s p u t e s i n t h e i r  legislation.*7 Although a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  in Ontario,  Sasktachewan  and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s makes no p r o v i s i o n for scheduling,  i t does s p e c i f y  the approvals r e q u i r e d to  d i s p o s e of r e c o r d s on a one-time b a s i s .  In O n t a r i o ,  p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t must approve the d i s p o s a l i n Saskatchewan,  records  the P u b l i c Records committee  of  the  records,  and the  page creators  of  Lieutenant  the  records  this  authority  Committee and t h e Archival Island,  the  separate  legislation  Act,  legislation  records must  for  lead  of  be r e v i e w e d  In a d d i t i o n  approved,  Public  the  of  i n 1953,  laying  complex  either  exist  1965,  of  of  disposal  both  creator  requests  of  age  and  age  and  older  Public  Documents  Governor.*8  out  methods  f o r m of  for  1964,  records  review  seven years  in a schedule  procedures  evolution Document  method the  for  archival legislation the  and  B r i t i s h Columbia's  and a p p r o v e d by the  to  Edward  schedules  piecemeal  than seven years  Lieutenant  Prince  B r i t i s h Columbia's  an o v e r l y  less  Records  outline  records  was amended  Records  respecting  records  Northwest  both  A s s e m b l y must a l l  decisions,  Detailed public  to  records  schedules.  provisions  the  P u b l i c Document C o m m i t t e e s ,  Committee and t h e  the  for  demonstrating  example,  Legislative  appraisal  with  the  Northwest  in B r i t i s h Columbia,  The d e v e l o p m e n t  has  i n which the  dispose  In the  and  Yukon T e r r i t o r y and N e w f o u n d l a n d  and 1983.  and t h e  requests,  Commissioner.  many a r c h i v a l e n a c t m e n t s .  1977  to  rests  approval processes  Disposal  all  them.  Territorial  one-time a u t h o r i t i e s , of  review  Governor approves  Territories,  96  implementing may a l s o  disposition  or a o n e - t i m e  the  controlled  that  A r c h i v e s O r d i n a n c e and c a l l s  the for  been  destruction  procedure the  has  authority.  primarily in regulations.  T e r r i t o r i e s , however,  contain  In is  of  the  outlined  announcement  of  in  page 97 pending d e s t r u c t i o n s Gazette.*9  Territories'  T h i s p r a c t i c e , which i s unique to the  Territories, decisions. archival  i n the Northwest  aims at p e r m i t t i n g p u b l i c response  Northwest  to a p p r a i s a l  Although c o n s i s t e n t with the o r i g i n s of c u r r e n t  legislation  i n those enactments which sought  to  p r o t e c t r e c o r d s concerning i n d i v i d u a l and p u b l i c r i g h t s , this  procedure lengthens the d e s t r u c t i o n process and  therefore  u n l i k e l y to be copied by other  is  jurisdictions.  As w e l l as p r o v i d i n g f o r c o n t r o l l e d d e s t r u c t i o n of public records, archival  legislation  i n Nova S c o t i a ,  Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i d e s p h o t o r e p r o d u c t i o n or m i c r o f i l m i n g as a form of  British for  disposition.  The purpose of these p r o v i s i o n s i s to ensure the q u a l i t y of m i c r o f i l m c o p i e s as e v i d e n c e . legislation  In Manitoba and Quebec,  the  g i v e s d e t a i l e d procedures for d i s p o s i n g of  records after  the p r o d u c t i o n of m i c r o f i l m e d c o p i e s .  Manitoba, these procedures appear i n r e g u l a t i o n s pursuant to the L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y A c t , while they appear i n secondary l e g i s l a t i o n ,  In  passed  i n Quebec  the Photographic Proof  of Documents A c t . T r a n s f e r of r e c o r d s to p r o v i n c i a l or  territorial  archives  i s a l s o d e a l t with i n l e g i s l a t i o n .  There i s a  definite  connection between p r o v i s i o n s concerning the  t r a n s f e r of p u b l i c records to a r c h i v e s and the nonappearance of s c h e d u l i n g p r o v i s i o n s i n the Where the  legislation.  l e g i s l a t i o n allows s c h e d u l i n g to take place and  page 98 s t a t e s that schedules must be f o l l o w e d , are no longer necessary final  transfer  because the schedule  provisions  s e t s out  d i s p o s i t i o n of the records and ensures t h e i r  to a r c h i v e s .  Two e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s  because the primary l e g i s l a t i o n  before  r e g u l a t i o n on s c h e d u l i n g was passed,  because of  its  transfer  p a t t e r n are the Yukon  Territory, its  the  came i n t o  force  and Quebec,  t i e r e d approach to the management of p u b l i c  archives. In O n t a r i o ,  Saskatchewan and the Northwest  where l e g i s l a t i o n  does not e x p l i c i t l y provide for  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s , transfer  legislative  the a t t i t u d e s  T h i s type of  when a r c h i v i s t s c o u l d a f f o r d to take a l e s s  increasingly feel  the need to accept  Now,  archivists  transfers  immediately  c u r r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e needs have been met to  the p r e s e r v a t i o n of In O n t a r i o , Territory,  information stored  i n unstable  ensure formats.  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and the Yukon  the t r a n s f e r c l a u s e s are not p e r m i s s i v e .  bodies must t r a n s f e r Saskatchewan,  after  towards a r c h i v e s of an  p r o a c t i v e approach to a c q u i s i t i o n .  after  that  than seven years  the records cease to be i n c u r r e n t use. provision reflects  scheduling  provisions specify  i s to take place no sooner  e a r l i e r age,  Territories,  their records.  Conversely,  in  the p r o v i s i o n i s permissive and p u b l i c  are not o b l i g e d to t r a n s f e r  records.  As noted  Quebec uses both p e r m i s s i v e and non-permissive depending on the p u b l i c body.  Public  bodies  earlier, provisions,  Under most c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  the  page 99 imperative shall  legal  relationship  is preferable.  i n p r o v i s i o n s where the t r a n s f e r  contingent  Use of the  of r e c o r d s  verb  is  upon the elapse of a c e r t a i n time p e r i o d causes  Inflexibility  i n the  legislation  because i t  v a l u e l e s s r e c o r d s cannot be destroyed  implies  that  nor can v a l u a b l e  r e c o r d s be t r a n s f e r r e d a f t e r ,  or even b e f o r e ,  number of years has e l a p s e d .  T h i s l i m i t a t i o n occurs  legislation  of both O n t a r i o and  archival legislation  specified i n the  Saskatchewan.  Evidence of the ad hoc f a s h i o n territorial  the  i n which p r o v i n c i a l and  developed  exists  in  p r o v i s i o n s d e a l i n g with the a p p r a i s a l , s e l e c t i o n and a c q u i s i t i o n of s p e c i a l  c l a s s e s of r e c o r d s ,  records, municipal records, election  records.  records f a l l  itself  The very f a c t  while  court  school board records and that these c l a s s e s of  o u t s i d e the d e f i n i t i o n  some j u r i s d i c t i o n s ,  such as  of p u b l i c records  i n others they f a l l  evidence of the pragmatic e v o l u t i o n  within,  territorial  laws.  fall  p r o v i n c i a l and  a r c h i v e s do not have the same a u t h o r i t y and  responsibility case,  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s ,  is  of a r c h i v a l  In j u r i s d i c t i o n s where these c l a s s e s of records o u t s i d e the d e f i n i t i o n  in  to preserve  to make the c r e a t o r s  as they do i n j u r i s d i c t i o n s  these records o r ,  of these r e c o r d s preserve  have f e l t  it  them,  where these records are  c o n s i d e r e d to be p u b l i c r e c o r d s . jurisdictions  i n Quebec's  Consequently,  necessary to  several  establish  l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s to ensure the p r e s e r v a t i o n of  such  page  100  records. The c r e a t o r s of the r e c o r d s are most often authority,  i n secondary l e g i s l a t i o n ,  such r e c o r d s .  For example,  given  over the d i s p o s i t i o n of  Saskatchewan's  legislation  s t a t e s that o n l y m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s may recommend the d i s p o s a l of m u n i c i p a l r e c o r d s . * 1 0 board can determine the In Manitoba, disposals  In O n t a r i o ,  f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n of  the C h i e f E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r  of e l e c t i o n  only a s c h o o l  its  records.*11  must a u t h o r i z e a l l  r e c o r d s , although the  Provincial  A r c h i v i s t and the L e g i s l a t u r e L i b r a r i a n must a l s o be consulted.*12 S e v e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s a l s o have d e p o s i t for s p e c i a l c l a s s e s of r e c o r d s .  provisions  In Saskatchewan and  P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , c o u r t records may not be t r a n s f e r r e d to the a r c h i v e s sooner than t w e n t y - f i v e fifteen  years r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  record is  filed.  from the date the c o u r t  L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d p r o v i s i o n s a l l o w i n g for the d e p o s i t in provincial archives. B r i t i s h Columbia,  includes  of m u n i c i p a l records  In the a r c h i v a l  laws of  Ontario,  Saskatchewan, and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d ,  s c h o o l board r e c o r d s may be d e p o s i t e d with the consent  and  i n the  archives  of the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t .  In  Manitoba, A l b e r t a and New Brunswick, laws r e l a t i n g to e l e c t i o n s s t a t e t h a t c e r t a i n types o£ e l e c t i o n  page 101 records,  such as e l e c t i o n  w r i t s and r e t u r n s , must be  t r a n s f e r r e d to the a r c h i v e s . deposit  provisions  (Alberta),  (Ontario).  (Newfoundland)  of primary l e g i s l a t i o n ,  to the  the s u b j e c t  and S h e r i f f ' s drafted after  appear i n e i t h e r  records the  enactment  secondary  matter of which r e l a t e s  provisions  or  The d i f f i c u l t y with these  i s that they are u s u a l l y not d r a f t e d with the  o v e r a l l a r c h i v a l programme i n mind and t h e r e f o r e its  primarily  f u n c t i o n for which the records were c r e a t e d ,  related regulations.*13  files  (New B r u n s w i c k ) , E x e c u t i v e  These p r o v i s i o n s ,  legislation,  or  i n c l u d e Ombudsman's i n v e s t i g a t i o n  r e g i s t r y records  C o u n c i l records  Other such t r a n s f e r  development.  It  i s p r e f e r a b l e to  may impede  i n c l u d e these  c a t e g o r i e s of r e c o r d s i n a d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c records that they may be given equal p r o t e c t i o n , them d e a l t with i n l e g i s l a t i v e  r a t h e r than have  loose ends.  If some  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between these and other records necessary,  so  is  the Quebec t i e r e d approach p r o v i d e s a model  which may be used. Since Canadian p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v e s "total" archives,  meaning that they a c q u i r e m a t e r i a l from  p r i v a t e as w e l l as p u b l i c s o u r c e s , measures  are  the content  analysis  also  the appearance of p r o v i s i o n s concerning the  appraisal,  selection  and a c q u i s i t i o n of p r i v a t e r e c o r d s .  Eleven out of twelve j u r i s d i c t i o n s have p r o v i s i o n s  covering  the a c q u i s i t i o n of p r i v a t e r e c o r d s , B r i t i s h Columbia being  page 102 the o n l y j u r i s d i c t i o n t h a t does n o t . outline  E i g h t out of twelve  the methods by which p r i v a t e m a t e r i a l might be  acquired,  such as by g i f t ,  bequest or l o a n , and s p e c i f y  the a r c h i v e s may n e g o t i a t e the terms and c o n d i t i o n s d e p o s i t s with donors. Saskatchewan,  In O n t a r i o ,  of  Nova S c o t i a ,  Manitoba, P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , A l b e r t a and  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , the types,  that  by p h y s i c a l form,  a r c h i v e s may a c q u i r e . Nova S c o t i a s p e c i f y  legislation  also outlines  of p r i v a t e m a t e r i a l that  Only O n t a r i o ,  the  the  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and  i n d e t a i l the s u b j e c t s to which the  p r i v a t e m a t e r i a l t h a t the a r c h i v e s a c q u i r e s may r e l a t e . Most other  j u r i s d i c t i o n s leave a c q u i s i t i o n s  mandates  for  p r i v a t e m a t e r i a l q u i t e b r o a d l y d e f i n e d w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l or territorial  geographic boundaries,  S c o t i a , where the a r c h i v e s '  the exception  acquisitions  extends beyond the p r o v i n c e ' s boundary. results  of the content  in a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n private material,  analysis  being Nova  mandate  actually  Overall,  r e v e a l that most  the provisions  r e l a t i n g to the a c q u i s i t i o n of  i n keeping with p r o v i s i o n s concerning  a c q u i s i t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s , e x i s t to f a c i l i t a t e transfer  of ownership and p h y s i c a l custody of the  r a t h e r than o u t l i n e criteria  collections  policies  the records,  or a p p r a i s a l  in d e t a i l .  Due to the f a c t t e r r i t o r i a l archives  t h a t p u b l i c l y funded p r o v i n c i a l and face  fiscal  r e s t r a i n t and  the  increased  pressure to care for the records of t h e i r own sponsoring  page 103 agencies,  one might q u e s t i o n whether c u r r e n t a r c h i v a l  legislation  should encourage  the a c q u i s i t i o n of  private  m a t e r i a l by p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v e s . approach, given the present  A better  environment, might be t h a t  by Quebec, where a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  g i v e s the  taken  archives  a u t h o r i t y to a c q u i r e m a t e r i a l of p r i v a t e o r i g i n , but a l s o encourages perhaps,  the development  in a better  records.*14 territorial  of l o c a l r e p o s i t o r i e s  p o s i t i o n to care for l o c a l l y  L e g i s l a t i o n t h a t allows a r c h i v i s t to r e g u l a t e  i s an a l t e r n a t i v e  that  are,  created  the p r o v i n c i a l or  p r i v a t e a r c h i v a l agencies  method of ensuring the p r e s e r v a t i o n of  documents t h a t do not f a l l  w i t h i n the meaning of the term  p u b l i c r e c o r d s , and makes p r o v i s i o n s r e q u i r i n g the of p r i v a t e records l e s s necessary.  deposit  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s of  local  a r c h i v e s can help to ensure the p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents by providing a legal  foundation for the a c q u i s i t i o n of  r e c o r d s of t h e i r own sponsoring agency.  P r i v a t e agencies  t h a t have no a r c h i v a l program or no p r i v a t e r e p o s i t o r y i n their  l o c a l i t y should s t i l l  have the o p t i o n of using  p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v e s as a r e p o s i t o r y  the  for  t h e i r r e c o r d s , provided the records have p r o v i n c i a l or territorial  significance.  One drawback to encouraging the development repositories  i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of decreased  of  local  c o n t r o l over  such matters b e a r i n g on the p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents environmental c o n t r o l s and d e s c r i p t i v e  standards;  p h y s i c a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n does not have to imply  as  however,  page 104 decentralized control.  For example,  Quebec's p r o v i s i o n s  the a c c r e d i t a t i o n of p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s ,  under s e c t i o n  the A r c h i v e s A c t , ensures the p r e s e r v a t i o n , to standards,  deposited  i n the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s .  Quebec may soon pass  regulations  section  which r e q u i r e  p r i v a t e a r c h i v e s meet a c e r t a i n minimum l e v e l  22 of  acceptable  of those p r i v a t e records t h a t are not  pursuant to t h i s  for  that  of  standards.*15 Turning to c o n s e r v a t i o n ,  c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and  territorial archival legislation or the p r e v e n t a t i v e  provides for  aspects of c o n s e r v a t i o n ,  provisions,  r a t h e r than the treatment  aspect.*16  For example,  Alberta,  or  Saskatchewan,  preservation, in general  restoration  P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d ,  and New Brunswick s t a t e that p u b l i c records must be  preserved u n t i l t h e i r t r a n s f e r to the a r c h i v e s . legislation  does not c o n t a i n a g e n e r a l c l a u s e  preservation,  records. Ontario,  concerning  i t u s u a l l y p r o h i b i t s such harmful  as unauthorized d e s t r u c t i o n ,  Where the  activities  removal, or m u t i l a t i o n of  Such p r o v i s i o n s appear i n primary l e g i s l a t i o n Manitoba, the Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  New Brunswick, the  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , Quebec and Newfoundland. addition,  sanctions  are often  l a i d out i n the  for the v i o l a t i o n of these legislation,  in  In provisions  as f o r example,  in  New Brunswick, the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , Quebec and Newfoundland.*17 While these p r o v i s i o n s prevent  intentional  destruction  page 105 of documents,  they do not prevent n e g l e c t of records or  provide g e n e r a l standards and g u i d e l i n e s conservation. documents  lie  concerning  Thus, many permanently v a l u a b l e p u b l i c i n basements,  a t t i c s or p a r k i n g l o t s of  government b u i l d i n g s because government agencies r e f u s e , have not b o t h e r e d ,  to provide for t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n or  t h e i r t r a n s f e r to a r c h i v e s . p r o v i s i o n s which set do e x i s t .  or  Examples of  legislative  out standards concerning p r e s e r v a t i o n  In the 1940s, the S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s  p u b l i s h e d a s e r i e s of model laws i n which they r e f e r r e d to standards f o r paper, recently,  ink and f i r e p r o o f i n g . * 1 8  More  the new Brunswick R e g i s t r y Act provided t h a t :  15(1)  When i n any r e g i s t r y o f f i c e any book, r e c o r d s , p l a n or instrument, from age or use, i s becoming o b l i t e r a t e d , u n f i t for f u r t h e r use or i s i n need of r e p a i r , the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e . . . m a y order such book, r e c o r d , p l a n , or instrument to be r e c o p i e d or r e p a i r e d . . .  15(2)  Every o r i g i n a l s h a l l be c a r e f u l l y p r e s e r v e d , notwithstanding that a copy thereof has been made, e i t h e r by keeping such an o r i g i n a l i n a place of safe custody i n the R e g i s t r y O f f i c e or by p l a c i n g the o r i g i n a l i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives.*19  New Brunswick's R e g i s t r y Act o b l i g a t e s the r e g i s t r y maintain i t s  to  permanently v a l u a b l e records i n good r e p a i r and  in safekeeping,  or t r a n s f e r them to the a r c h i v e s .  a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s  The  type of p r o v i s i o n c o u l d w e l l be  to a l l government agencies t h a t c r e a t e value and invoked whenever  necessary  p r e s e r v a t i o n of such m a t e r i a l .  r e c o r d s of  to ensure  the  extended  permanent  page 106 New Brunswick's R e g i s t r y Act addresses the n e g l e c t of records held by government a g e n c i e s ,  but not the n e g l e c t of  r e c o r d s held i n a r c h i v e s themselves.  This is  because government cutbacks have a f f e c t e d  of concern  the a b i l i t y of  many a r c h i v e s to preserve t h e i r records under proper conditions  or to c a r r y out treatments,  deacidification, the s i t u a t i o n , legislation  archives  reprography and r e s t o r a t i o n .  in d e t a i l ,  for c o n s e r v a t i o n .  of  the  Most s t a t u t e s o n l y c a l l on the  l a y i n g out e x a c t l y what s t a n d a r d s ,  emphatic,  by i n c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n s  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  a r c h i v i s t or the a r c h i v e s to preserve  language  To improve  p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l  needs to be strengthened  which s p e c i f y ,  such as  records,  without  i f any, must be met.  The  used i n the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s Act i s somewhat more stating  as are necessary  t h a t the A r c h i v i s t may "take such to  .  .  . preserve and r e s t o r e  measures  r e c o r d s . "*20  However, the a d d i t i o n of a phrase such as "under  conditions  t h a t meet accepted a r c h i v a l standards" i s a l l the more emphatic. further.  The Swedish General A r c h i v e s Ordinance goes even It prescribes  handled with c a r e .  that  "Archives s h a l l be kept and  S p e c i a l care s h a l l be taken to  that they are p r o t e c t e d  ensure  from moisture and f i r e . " * 2 1  p r o v i s i o n would, perhaps,  oblige  resource a l l o c a t o r s  Such a to  provide funds for the proper care of records w i t h i n the archives. Unfortunately,  the content  analysis  of c u r r e n t Canadian  p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  upholds,  page 107 without q u e s t i o n ,  the statement made i n the  on a r c h i v a l and r e c o r d s management attention  legislation  that  paid by c u r r e n t a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  preservation is this  1985 RAMP study-  i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the  basic a r c h i v a l  "the  to importance of  function."*22  As with p r o v i s i o n s concerning c o n s e r v a t i o n , r e g a r d i n g arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n bear Current a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n  provisions  strengthening.  touches upon the  arrangement  and d e s c r i p t i o n of records only b r i e f l y i n mentioning duties  the  of the a r c h i v i s t or the o b j e c t s of the a r c h i v e s .  The  N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s A c t , which s t a t e s that the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v i s t may take any steps necessary describe  to arrange and  r e c o r d s , again provides an example to be  followed.*23  In t h i s  probably s u f f i c i e n t  case the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s Act  because,  unlike  is  preservation,  arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n i s more or l e s s s u b j e c t  to  the  c o n t r o l of p r o v i n c i a l or t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v i s t s who w i l l ensure that the professional  f u n c t i o n i s c a r r i e d out i n accordance with  standards.  However, more d e t a i l e d  provisions  concerning arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n c o u l d be d e a l t in a r e g u l a t i o n ;  for example,  i n the  legislation  of  with  the  Dominican R e p u b l i c and Greece.*24 While a r c h i v i s t s abide by the two c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s of arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n , provenance and r e s p e c t original  for  o r d e r , government agencies often d i v i d e "fond" and  disturb o r i g i n a l order.  To prevent the d i s t u r b a n c e of  fond  page 108 and o r i g i n a l  order,  future a r c h i v a l  l e g i s l a t i o n could  i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s s i m i l a r to those found i n Quebec's A r c h i v e s A c t , which s t a t e t h a t the documents of a p u b l i c body that ceases i t s  o p e r a t i o n must be t r a n s f e r r e d to  provincial archivist if  its  the  r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s are not  assumed by another body and that a r c h i v e s must not be d i s p e r s e d f o r commercial purposes. r e i n f o r c e d by p e n a l t i e s  This l a s t p r o v i s i o n i s  of up to $25,000.*25  P u b l i c access to r e c o r d s i n a r c h i v e s has been a b a s i c tenet of a r c h i v a l  l e g i s l a t i o n s i n c e the French R e v o l u t i o n .  Current p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l d e a l s with both the access i s s u e .  records.  legislation  i n t e l l e c t u a l and p h y s i c a l aspects of  Seven out of twelve  which e s t a b l i s h e s  archival  j u r i s d i c t i o n s have  the  legislation  a g e n e r a l r i g h t of access to p u b l i c  In O n t a r i o ,  Nova S c o t i a , the Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and Quebec, t h i s statement  is  found i n  access l e g i s l a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e a p p l i e s t o a l l p u b l i c records,  whether or not they have been t r a n s f e r r e d to  Provincial Archives. Quebec, the deposited  Nevertheless,  the  i n O n t a r i o , Manitoba and  l e g i s l a t i o n s t a t e s that p r i v a t e records  i n the a r c h i v e s are not s u b j e c t to access and  privacy provisions. Territories,  In New Brunswick and the Northwest  i t appears i n primary l e g i s l a t i o n and a p p l i e s  o n l y to r e c o r d s t r a n s f e r r e d to the a r c h i v e s .  Provisions  e s t a b l i s h i n g a g e n e r a l r i g h t of access appear i n both  page 109 primary and secondary  legislation  i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and  Newfoundland. The g e n e r a l limitations  r i g h t of access i s accompanied by some  in a l l cases.  and p r i v a c y l e g i s l a t i o n , outlining specific  If the it will  j u r i s d i c t i o n has access include  c l a s s e s of r e s t r i c t e d  provisions material,  usually  for reasons of p e r s o n a l p r i v a c y or n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y . New Brunswick, o n l y ,  do d e t a i l e d  provisions  i n primary  In  concerning  limitations  on access appear  Legislation  i n O n t a r i o , Manitoba, New Brunswick, Quebec and  Newfoundland p r o v i d e s t h a t s p e c i f i c having reached a c e r t a i n age,  legislation.  c l a s s e s of  may be made a c c e s s i b l e ,  although the r e l e a s e date v a r i e s  between  c a t e g o r i e s of records and d i f f e r e n t J u r i s d i c t i o n s with p r o v i s i o n s  different  jurisdictions. r e s t r i c t i n g access  c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of records a l s o s p e c i f y  the  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t must be  provided i n requests for access to r e s t r i c t e d i n the  Yukon T e r r i t o r y ,  i n Nova  New Brunswick and Quebec, p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t s  e v a l u a t e r e q u e s t s to view r e c o r d s Ontario,  c a t e g o r i e s of  the T e r r i t o r i a l A r c h i v i s t  e v a l u a t e s a l l such requests for a c c e s s , while Scotia,  outlined.  i n the case of O n t a r i o , Manitoba  and New Brunswick, o u t l i n e  records,  restrictions.  for o b t a i n i n g access are a l s o often  L e g i s l a t i o n may even, as  to  whose a p p r o v a l  must be sought i n order to t e m p o r a r i l y l i f t Procedures  records,  i n the a r c h i v e s .  Manitoba and the Northwest  Territories,  In the  only  page 110 archivist's responsibilities  are not  specified.  As o r i g i n a l documents cannot be removed from the archives,  legislation  c o p i e s of documents.  provides for the r i g h t to  request  Ten j u r i s d i c t i o n s s t a t e that  the  a r c h i v i s t may c e r t i f y c o p i e s of records i n the a r c h i v e s being t r u e .  In every case but B r i t i s h Columbia  p r o v i s i o n appears i n primary l e g i s l a t i o n .  as  this  In Saskatchewan,  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and New Brunswick, there are a l s o regulations  which set  out terms and c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g  p h y s i c a l access to a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . Many p r o v i s i o n s concerning b a s i c a r c h i v a l and records management programme elements are inadequate;  however,  r e g u l a t i o n s can serve as a mechanism to a l l o w  inadequate  s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s to respond to the needs of changing s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  For example,  the  Yukon A r c h i v e s Ordinance does not p r o v i d e f o r modern methods of records d i s p o s i t i o n , as scheduling.  i t makes no mention of  The T e r r i t o r i a l Commissioner does,  however,  have the a u t h o r i t y , pursuant to the o r d i n a n c e , to pass r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the manner i n which p u b l i c r e c o r d s should be d i s p o s e d .  Consequently, the Yukon T e r r i t o r y was  able to pass r e g u l a t i o n s scheduling.  Since i t  i n 1985 p e r m i t t i n g records  i s becoming more d i f f i c u l t to  outdated a r c h i v a l s t a t u t e s ,  r e g u l a t i o n s may be  r e l i e d upon to update outmoded l e g i s l a t i v e  replace  increasingly  provisions.  page It  111  i s most common to f i n d  promulgation of r e g u l a t i o n s structures,  legislation  r e l a t i n g to  the  administrative  the d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s , the p u b l i c  records disposal process,  the t r a n s f e r and d e p o s i t  records and access to r e c o r d s .  Less common are  p e r m i t t i n g the passage of r e g u l a t i o n s management,  a l l o w i n g for  the d e s i g n a t i o n  which are s u b j e c t  to the  of p u b l i c  provisions  concerning r e c o r d s  of p u b l i c bodies  legislation,  the records of  scheduling,  disposal  procedures and p r e s e r v a t i o n . Quebec and Newfoundland have the widest powers.  Of the two,  owing to  its  as  Newfoundland has the widest  powers  g r e a t e r number of r e g u l a t o r y p r o v i s i o n s  d e f i n i n g the s u b j e c t passed.  regulatory  upon which a r e g u l a t i o n might be  These p r o v i s i o n s normally begin with phrases,  "in r e l a t i o n to" or "in respect  to".  Quebec, on the  other hand, uses more p r e s c r i p t i v e language, words " p r e s c r i b i n g " and " s e t t i n g " . not as broad as the  language  be used q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y a p p l i c a t i o n of the  p r o v i s i o n which allows  such as  Such language,  f o r example,  of such phrases as  for r e g u l a t i o n s  form of e x p r e s s i o n "for the purposes  The o n l y l i m i t a t i o n on t h i s  although can  the  i n the case of a  prescribing classes  of p u b l i c r e c o r d s or government agencies s u b j e c t The broadest  the  used i n Newfoundland's a c t ,  to expand or c o n t r a c t  law, a s ,  such  to the  i s denoted by the  act. use  of" or "in order to".  type of p r o v i s i o n i s that  r e g u l a t i o n must e x i s t for the p r e s c r i b e d purpose.*26  the It  is  page 112 Important to note,  however,  the d i f f e r e n c e  between the  of these phrases and the power to make r e g u l a t i o n s purpose of the A c t " , as the l a t t e r  use  "for the  has a much more l i m i t e d  meaning and g i v e s the power to pass r e g u l a t i o n s  of o n l y an  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or p r o c e d u r a l c h a r a c t e r . * 2 7 Current p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l legislation, that  archival  owing to the outdated a t t i t u d e s  and assumptions  l i n g e r on i n the d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s upon which the  legislation  i s based,  establishment  focuses too narrowly on the  of a r c h i v a l  institutions.  p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l institutions  The focus  i n many  laws on a r c h i v e s  as  r a t h e r than on the records themselves as  documents of any age accumulated as a n a t u r a l course of c a r r y i n g out business and preserved for t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n a l value leads to inadequacies basic archival acquisition, Moreover,  i n p r o v i s i o n s concerning such  f u n c t i o n s as a p p r a i s a l ,  selection,  c o n s e r v a t i o n , and arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n .  it militates  a g a i n s t an i n t e g r a t e d programme for  the care and management of records throughout t h e i r cycle.  life  The lack of adequate p r o v i s i o n s d e a l i n g with b a s i c  programme elements concerning the care and management of r e c o r d s throughout t h e i r l i f e as a s e r i o u s  c y c l e can o n l y be p e r c e i v e d  flaw i n l e g i s l a t i o n which i s  intended t o  set  f o r t h p o l i c y to encourage the care and p r e s e r v a t i o n of a l l documents.  page  113  CONCLUSION  Current p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l suffers  from the same d e f i c i e n c i e s  communication.  These d e f i c i e n c i e s  external s o c i a l  influences  legislation  inherent i n other forms of a r i s e from the e f f e c t  have on the meaning of  that  archival  l e g i s l a t i o n o r , put another way, the ad hoc manner i n which the meaning of l e g i s l a t i o n has evolved i n response  to  r e g i o n a l circumstances and broader i s s u e s concerning government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or  society.  T h i s process of development has meant t h a t the words which comprise c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  archival  l e g i s l a t i o n d e r i v e t h e i r meaning, even when t h a t meaning seems n a t u r a l or i n h e r e n t , context  from the s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  of the p e r i o d when these words f i r s t entered i n t o  corpus of a r c h i v a l of past a t t i t u d e s  law.  Consequently, they c a r r y  overtones  and assumptions about a r c h i v e s which can  have a p r o f o u n d l y negative r e a l i z e the  impact upon a r c h i v e s ' a b i l i t y to  i n t e n t i o n of the l e g i s l a t i o n ,  the care and  p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents. For example, as t h i s t h e s i s has shown, c u r r e n t definitions response  the  of the term r e c o r d or document grew up i n  to the need to p h y s i c a l l y manage the  vast  page 114 accumulations of r e c o r d s i n government o f f i c e s . time,  At the  i n f o r m a t i o n and the medium upon which i t was recorded  were c l o s e l y  linked.  Thus, d e f i n i t i o n s  document became d e s c r i p t i v e however,  information is  medium upon which i t  lists  of the term r e c o r d or  of v a r i o u s media.  less closely  is recorded.  associated  Now,  with  The media-based  the  definition  of the term r e c o r d or document can c o n c e i v a b l y render archivists  powerless to preserve  i n f o r m a t i o n because i t  based on an outdated assumption about the nature of The c o n v e n t i o n a l  use of the word a r c h i v e s  is  records.  i n most  c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n c o n j u n c t i o n with the use of the separate to d e s c r i b e what i s e s s e n t i a l l y the best example of the attitudes language  of l e g i s l a t i v e  of the o b j e c t i v e commonly r e f e r s  one u n i f i e d t h i n g i s  about a r c h i v e s ,  texts,  can have upon the  to a r c h i v e s as  institutions  establish functional  c e n t u r y i n response "arsenals  i n the  realization  The word a r c h i v e s concerned  solely  i n a c t i v e records documenting  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s ,  nineteenth  perhaps  past  inherent  of a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n .  with the p r e s e r v a t i o n of past.  term p u b l i c records  f a r - r e a c h i n g impact that  and assumptions  which arose  to h i s t o r i a n s '  of h i s t o r y " ,  fails  in  the  i n the  desire  to recognize  late-  to the  l i n k between the care and management of r e c o r d s  in  a r c h i v e s and the care and management of these same records at an e a r l i e r stage of t h e i r  life  c y c l e due to t h e i r nature as  documents n a t u r a l l y accumulated as a r e s u l t business.  Consequently, the d e f i n i t i o n  of doing  i m p l i c i t l y denies  page 11.5 t h a t a r c h i v e s have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care and management of a c t i v e  and s e m i - a c t i v e  jurisdictions,  the l e g i s l a t i o n  a u t h o r i t y over t h i s between the  public records.  function.  However,  e x p l i c i t l y g i v e s the  i n many archives  Thus, a c o n t r a d i c t i o n  intended meaning of the  legislation,  arises  that  the  a r c h i v e s has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the care and management of p u b l i c r e c o r d s both i n the a r c h i v e s and i n p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , and the s o c i a l l y produced meaning of the word, which i m p l i e s t h a t a r c h i v e s are r e s p o n s i b l e  only f o r  the  p r e s e r v a t i o n of r e c o r d s t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o t h e i r c u s t o d y . addition,  the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s g i v e s  legislation  an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  of emphasis  in i t s  In the  focus which has lead to a lack  p r o v i s i o n s on such b a s i c elements of an  a r c h i v a l programme as a p p r a i s a l , c o n s e r v a t i o n ,  and  arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n . The ad hoc f a s h i o n  i n which c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and  territorial  archival  legislation  a l s o l e d to  inconsistency,  i n the corpus of a r c h i v a l for example,  which entered  has developed  conflict, law.  The phrase p u b l i c r e c o r d s ,  into a r c h i v a l  now emerged with s e v e r a l meanings,  present  legislative  law meaning p u b l i c l y transactions,  has  rooted i n both the common  t h a t c r e a t e an inherent ambiguity i n texts,  as the Manitoba L e g i s l a t i v e  L i b r a r y case very c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s . access to  has  vagueness and ambiguity  a c c e s s i b l e w r i t t e n memorials of o f f i c i a l  law and l e g i s l a t i o n ,  over time  The i n t r o d u c t i o n of  i n f o r m a t i o n and p r i v a c y l e g i s l a t i o n  in several  page 116 j u r i s d i c t i o n s has o n l y served to f u r t h e r complicate meaning of the term. as  it  the  The meaning of the word p u b l i c records  i s now used i n c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  archival  legislation  of the r e c o r d s .  i s based upon provenance,  Definitions  r e c o r d s of which are s u b j e c t  or the  creator  of those p u b l i c a g e n c i e s ,  the  to p r o v i s i o n s concerning p u b l i c  r e c o r d s , v a r i e s widely from one j u r i s d i c t i o n to a n o t h e r . fact  The  t h a t many p u b l i c agencies and t h e i r records were  excluded from the p r o t e c t i o n given to p u b l i c records under the  law, has r e s u l t e d  i n the piecemeal  establishment  enactments to provide for the p r o t e c t i o n of s p e c i a l of r e c o r d s . for r e l a t e d  These enactments, legislation,  of classes  often d r a f t e d with no regard  have undermined the development  c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c y for the p r e s e r v a t i o n of documents. c u r r e n t d i s p o s i t i o n a p p r o v a l process legislation  of s e v e r a l  B r i t i s h Columbia,  outlined  of a  The  i n the  j u r i s d i c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y that  of  i s yet another example of how the ad hoc  e v o l u t i o n of c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l legislation  has given r i s e  to ambiguity and  inconsistency.  Of the c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l t e x t s examined i n t h i s  thesis,  legislative  Quebec's A r c h i v e s Act comes  the c l o s e s t to p r o v i d i n g a model a r c h i v a l enactment. adopting a f u n c t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s , theory of European a r c h i v a l s c i e n c e ,  drawn from the  as those documents of  any age c r e a t e d and r e c e i v e d by a body i n meeting a d m i n i s t r a t i v e requirements, the  limitations  Through  its  Quebec has been able to  imposed by the c o n v e n t i o n a l ,  own overcome  institution-  page 117 based d e f i n i t i o n document, which i t  of a r c h i v e s .  definition  of a  which encompasses both data and the medium upon is  r e c o r d e d , abandons the past assumption  i n f o r m a t i o n and i t s terms.  Moreover, Its  medium are i n s e p a r a b l e  The d e f i n i t i o n s  of these two terms  upon which Quebec i s able to e s t a b l i s h  that  i n conceptual form the  basis  an e f f i c i e n t  and  f u n c t i o n a l l y u n i f i e d programme for the care and management active,  semi-active  legislation  and i n a c t i v e  through the use of  its  flexible  over-burdening the t i e r e d approach.  over-burdening the a r c h i v e s  development  The  ensures the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the records of a wide  range of p u b l i c agencies without  avoids  public archives.  of p r i v a t e a r c h i v e s .  archives  It  by encouraging  also  the  The Quebec A r c h i v e s Act  p l a c e s the establishment  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s  t h e i r proper p e r s p e c t i v e  as a means of  r e c o r d s committees.  such as p u b l i c  The o n l y major d e f e c t of the  legislation  i n abandoning the t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l  p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l  archival  not gone f a r enough towards concerning b a s i c a r c h i v a l  legislation,  including detailed  functions.  Quebec's a r c h i v a l difficulties jurisdictions  inherent  legislation i n the  provisions  Nevertheless,  other  legislation  legislation.  overcomes  legislation  because a r c h i v i s t s  focus of  Quebec has  j u r i s d i c t i o n s would do w e l l to c o n s i d e r Quebec's when r e v i s i n g or r e d r a f t i n g t h e i r own  in  implementing programme  elements and a b o l i s h e s o b s o l e t e s t r u c t u r e s ,  is that  of  of  some of  the  other  proposed the adoption of  page 118 legislation  based on a c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d  conceptual  framework d e r i v e d from a r c h i v a l s c i e n c e r a t h e r than o p t i n g for v a r i a t i o n s on t r a d i t i o n a l concepts found i n past enactments. attitudes  Quebec was thus able to free  and assumptions  conventional d e f i n i t i o n s structures content  about a r c h i v e s  itself  of  found i n  of key terms and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and of the p e c u l i a r i t i e s  of  legislative  that had i n e v i t a b l y emerged over time to  inconsistency  outdated  and ambiguity i n the  form and create  legislation.  As the problems of c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l archival  legislation  originate  w r i t t e n communication, i t understand i t s  intended purpose. influences  imperative t h a t  to f u l f i l l  the r e g u l a r process  it  can  its external  w i l l continue to a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t  the  i n ways unintended by  A r c h i v i s t s need to b r i n g both t h i s  understanding  theory about a r c h i v e s and a r c h i v a l work to of reviewing and r e d r a f t i n g c u r r e n t  legislation.  If a r c h i v i s t s  take a more p r o a c t i v e  approach to d e v e l o p i n g a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n jurisdictions,  that  Without such an u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  and a w e l l - d e f i n e d  archival  archivists  influences  legislation  meaning of a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n archivists.  nature as a form of  nature and the s u b t l e r  have on the a b i l i t y of the  social  is  in its  as d i d the a r c h i v i s t s  begin to take c o n t r o l of the e f f e c t s  in their  i n Quebec, they can then of the  legislation  t h e i r work by i n t r o d u c i n g contemporary conceptual  upon  ideas  f i r m l y grounded i n a r c h i v a l theory i n t o Canadian p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n .  Only then w i l l  page 119 a r c h i v i s t s t r u l y r e a l i z e how necessary and u s e f u l l e g i s l a t i o n can be.  archival  page 120  NOTES C o l l e c t i o n s of p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s and t e r r i t o r i a l ordinances f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d i n the notes have been i d e n t i f i e d by the following abbreviations: c. ONT OYT RSBC RSC RSNS RSO S.  SA SBC SM SN SNB SNS SO SPEI SQ SS  chapter Ordinances of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Ordinances of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia Revised S t a t u t e s of Canada Revised S t a t u t e s of Nova S c o t i a Revised S t a t u t e s of O n t a r i o section S t a t u t e s of A l b e r t a S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia S t a t u t e s of Manitoba S t a t u t e s of Newfoundland and Labrador S t a t u t e s of New Brunswick S t a t u t e s of Nova S c o t i a S t a t u t e s of O n t a r i o S t a t u t e s of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d S t a t u t e s of Quebec S t a t u t e s of Saskatchewan  NOTES TO INTRODUCTION 1.  See E r n s t Posner, A r c h i v e s i n the A n c i e n t World (Cambridge, M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972),  14.  2.  E r n s t Posner, "Some Aspects of A r c h i v a l Development s i n c e the French R e v o l u t i o n , " i n Maygene F . D a n i e l s and Timothy Walch, eds. A Modern A r c h i v e s Reader (Washington, D . C . : N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s and Records A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1984),3-14.  3.  See the volume " A r c h i v a l L e g i s l a t i o n Archivum 28 (1982).  4.  Lewis H. Thomas, " A r c h i v a l L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Report 1962:101-115 and John A r c h e r , "A Study of A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada," (PhD T h e s i s , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1969).  5.  Jerome O ' B r i e n ,  1970-1980,"  "Archives and the Law: A B r i e f  Look at  page  121  the Canadian Scene," A r c h i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984):38-46. 6.  See John A r c h e r , "The P u b l i c Records of Saskatchewan," J o u r n a l of the S o c i e t y of A r c h i v i s t s 2 (1960-64):16-22; Marc-Andree L e c l e r c , "L* i m p l a n t a t i o n de l a l o i sur l e s a r c h i v e s : b i l a n d'une experience r e u s s i e , " A r c h i v e s 18,2 (Septembre 1986):15-40; Marion Beyea, "Records Management: the New Brunswick Case," A r c h i v a r l a 8 (Summer 1979):61-77; C. Bruce Fergusson, "The P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Nova S c o t i a , " A c a d l e n s l s 2 l (Autumn 1971):71-79; John P. Greene, " P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i n Newfoundland," A c a d l e n s i s 3,1 ( F a l l 1973):72-77; W. B r i a n S p e i r s , "Yukon A r c h i v e s - A Regional Experiment," Canadian A r c h i v i s t s 2(4) (1973):26-37; David W. Leonard, " E s t a b l i s h i n g the A r c h i v e s of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s : A Regional C a s e l study i n L e g a l i t y , " A r c h i v a r l a 18 (Summer 1984):70-83. r  7.  F . Geny, Methode d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n et sources en d r o i t p r l v e p o s l t i f , Volume I ( P a r i s : L . G . D . J . , 1954) quoted i n P i e r r e A. Cote, The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada ( C o w a n s v i l l e , Quebec: Les E d i t i o n s Yvon B l a i s I n c . , 1984), 194.  8.  Ole H o l s t i , Content A n a l y s i s for the S o c i a l Sciences and Humanities (Massacheusetts: Addison Wesley P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1969),14.  9.  Ibid,  10.  B. B e r e l s o n , Content A n a l y s i s i n Communications Research (Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : Free P r e s s , 1952) quoted i n H o s t i , Content A n a l y s i s for the S o c i a l Sciences and Humanities, 15.  11.  Klaus K r i p p e n d o r f , Content A n a l y s i s ( B e v e r l y C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1980), 21.  12.  George W. B a i n , "State A r c h i v a l Law: A Content A n a l y s i s , " American A r c h i v i s t 46(2) (Spring 1983):158174.  13.  There are numerous p i e c e s of p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l l e g i s l a t i o n which set out requirements whereby p u b l i c agencies or p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s must keep s p e c i f i c types of records and/or i n f o r m a t i o n . One example of t h i s type of l e g i s l a t i o n i s A l b e r t a ' s F i n a n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of A l b e r t a , 1980, c . F - 9 , s. 12(3), 2 2 ( l ) ( d ) , 23(1) and 23(3) i n which the P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r e r of A l b e r t a i s given the a u t h o r i t y to p r e s c r i b e the form and content of a l l f i n a n c i a l records and the a c c o u n t i n g systems which are to be maintained by a l l crown and p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s , to make r e g u l a t i o n s or issue d i r e c t i v e s  1  2.  Hills,  page 122 r e g a r d i n g the records which must be maintained by i n d i v i d u a l s with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p u b l i c funds, to i n s p e c t those records which must be maintained by revenue o f f i c e r s and to s i e z e or make c o p i e s of a l l records concerning f i n a n c i a l matters w i t h i n the government. E . A. D r i e d g e r , The C o n s t r u c t i o n of s t a t u t e s , Butterworths and C o . , 1974), 81-82.  (Toronto  page 123  NOTES TO CHAPTER ONE 1.  Quoted i n J . W . H a r r i s , L e g a l P h i l o s o p h i e s B u t t e r w o r t h s , 1980),219.  (London:  2.  T . R . S c h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1956), 16.  3.  E r n s t Posner, "Some Aspects of A r c h i v a l Development s i n c e the French R e v o l u t i o n , " i n Maygene F . D a n i e l s and Timothy Walch, eds. A Modern A r c h i v e s Reader (Washington, D . C . : N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s and Records S e r v i c e s , 1984), 3-14; C a r l Berger, Uae_ W r i t i n g Of Canadian H i s t o r y : Aspects of E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l W K l t l n g ; 190Q-1970 (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976), 1-32.  4.  Macleod, "'Quaint Specimens of the E a r l y D a y s , ' : P r i o r i t i e s in C o l l e c t i n g the O n t a r i o A r c h i v a l Record, 1872-1938," A r c h i v a r i a 22 (Summer 1986): 29.  5.  Ibid,  6.  Joseph S c h u l l , O n t a r i o Since 1867 and Stewart L t d . , 1978): 250-256.  7.  O n t a r i o , A r c h i v e s A c t , RSO 1980,  8.  Saskatchewan, P r e s e r v a t i o n of P u b l i c Documents A c t , SS 1920, c. 17, s. r ; A l b e r t a , P r e s e r v a t i o n of P u b l i c Documents A c t , SA 1925, c . 31, s. 4.  9.  A r c h e r , "The P u b l i c Records i n Saskatchewan," the S o c i e t y of A r c h i v i s t s 2 (1960-64): 19.  10.  Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n A r c h i v e s Committee, "The D i s c u s s i o n of the Problem of P u b l i c and H i s t o r i c a l Records i n Canada." (Report of the Annual Meeting, June 1-2, 1944):41.  11.  P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n and A r c h i v i s t , W. Kaye Lamb, to the Departmental S o l i c i t o r , Department of the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , 29 November 1983, f i l e number 4966, L e g i s l a t i o n F i l e s , Department of the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia.  12.  Saskatchewan, An Act to Amend the A r c h i v e s A c t , SS c . 119, s. 9.  13.  Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan,  30. (Toronto: c.  28,  s.  McClelland 3.  J o u r n a l of  1949,  A r c h i v e s A c t , SS 1945, c . 113, s. 9-10; An Act to amend the A r c h i v e s A c t , SS 1949,  page 124 c . 119; Saskatchewan, SS 1951, c . 101.  An Act to Amend the A r c h i v e s A c t ,  14.  See f i l e e n t i t l e d "1969 P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a " , Box 1, A c c e s s i o n 8 1 . 5 , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e F i l e s of the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, A l b e r t a ; A l b e r t a , P u b l i c Documents A c t , SA 1970, c . 90.  15.  A l b e r t a Heritage A c t , SA 1970, c . 7; A l b e r t a , Heritage A c t , SA 1973, c . 5; A l b e r t a , Department of Government S e r v i c e s A c t , SA 1975, c . 11. The 1973 A l b e r t a Heritage Act was renamed due to a name c o n f l i c t with the A l b e r t a Heritage Savings T r u s t Fund and the Department of Government S e r v i c e s A c t , because of another departmental r e o r g a n i z a t i o n which took place i n 1983.  16.  A l b e r t a , Heritage A c t , SA 1973, c .  17.  Ibid.  18.  Jay A t h e r t o n , "From L i f e Cycle to Continuum: Some Thoughts on the Records Management-Archives R e l a t i o n s h i p , " A r c h i v a r i a 21 (Winter 1985-86): 43-52.  19.  Yukon, Access to Information A c t , OYT 1983, c . 13, 5(3); Yukon, A r c h i v e s Ordinance, O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 1985/17, Yukon T e r r i t o r y G a z e t t e , Part I I .  20.  Quebec, and Due Revised I I I , c.  21.  Edgar M c l n n l s , Canada: A P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l H i s t o r y , Fourth E d i t i o n (Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston of Canada, 1982), 145.  22.  Ibid,  23.  Quebec, and Due Revised III, c.  24.  Ibid.  25.  Nova S c o t i a ,  P u b l i c Records A c t , SNS 1861,  26.  Nova S c o t i a ,  P u b l i c Record A c t , SNS 1861, c .  27.  Saskatchewan, P r e s e r v a t i o n of P u b l i c Documents A c t , SS 1920, c . 1 7 , s . l .  5.  s.  An a c t or Ordinance for the Better P r e s e r v a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Ancient French Records, Acts and Ordinances of Lower Canada 30 George 8.  154-160. An a c t or Ordinance for the B e t t e r P r e s e r v a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Ancient French Records, Acts and Ordinances of Lower Canada 30 George 8.  c.23. 23, s.  1.  page 125 28.  Newfoundland, H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s , SN 1959, c . 76, s. 28(7).  S i t e s and Records A c t ,  29.  M.D. K i r b y , "Access to Information and P r i v a c y : The Ten Information Commandments," A r c h i v a r i a 23 (Winter 198687) : 5 - 6 .  30.  Saskatchewan,  31.  Ibid.  32.  See f o r example, Manitoba, L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y Amendment A c t , SM 1966, c . 31; Nova S c o t i a , P u b l i c Records A c t , RSNS 1967, c . 253; Newfoundland, A r c h i v e s A c t , c . 33; Yukon, A r c h i v e s Ordinance, OYT 1971 ( 1 s t ) , c . 2.  33.  Newfoundland,  34.  O n t a r i o , A r c h i v e s A c t , RSO 1980, c .  35.  Yukon, A r c h i v e s Ordinance, OYT 1971 ( 1 s t ) , and ( i ) .  36.  Fergusson, Acadiensis  37.  Nova S c o t i a ,  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s A c t , SNS 1929, c .  38.  Nova S c o t i a , SNS 1930, s.  An Act to Amend the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s A c t , 56 and SNS 1931, c . 63.  39.  George Simpson, "Archives i n Canada," American A r c h i v i s t 1,14 (October 1948): 264.  40.  A r c h e r , "A Study of A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada," (PhD T h e s i s , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1969), 240; Saskatchewan, A r c h i v e s A c t , SS 1945, c . 113, s. 6 ( 2 ) .  41.  Quebec, An Act Respecting Access to Documents Held by P u b l i c Bodies and the P r o t e c t i o n of Personal P r i v a c y , SQ 1982, c . 30; " A l l o c u t i o n Du M i n i s t r e Des A f f a i r e s C u l t u r e l l e s , " A r c h i v e s 15,1 ( J u i n 1983): 7-13.  42.  Denys Chouinard, C a r o l Couture and Jean-Yves Rousseau, "Memoire r e l a t i f au p r o j e c t de l o i nluraero] 3 i n t i t u l e loi sur l e s a r c h i v e s , " A r c h i v e s ( J u i n 1983):26.  43.  Quebec, A r c h i v e s A c t , SQ 1983, c .  A r c h i v e s A c t , SS 1955,  c.  84,  s.3.  P u b l i c Records A c t , SN 1951, c . 28, s.  68.  5(q) and ( i ) . c.  2, s.  6(g)  "The P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Nova S c o t i a , " 2,1 (Autumn 1971): 75.  38.  1, s.  7.  page 126  NOTES TO CHAPTER TWO 1.  P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , 1.  A r c h i v e s A c t , SPEI 1975,  2.  Canada, N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada A c t , 1987, of Canada, 36 E l i z a b e t h 2, c. 1, s. 2.  3.  Quebec, A r c h i v e s A c t , SQ 1983, added.  4.  B r i t i s h Columbia, Document D i s p o s a l A c t , RSBC 1979, c. 95, s. 1; B r i t i s h Columbia, I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A c t , RSBC 1979, c . 206, s. 29.  5.  A l b e r t a , P u b l i c Works, Supply and S e r v i c e s A c t . Public Records R e g u l a t i o n , A l b e r t a R e g u l a t i o n 373/83, A l b e r t a Gazette P a r t I I , s. 5(2).  6.  The general schedule for " t r a n s i t o r y " EDP records i n c l u d e s such i n f o r m a t i o n as t r a n s i t o r y input r e c o r d s , p r o c e s s i n g r e c o r d s and output records as well as user views of master f i l e s and convenience c o p i e s of COM or tapes. T h i s m a t e r i a l i s scheduled for r e t e n t i o n by the m i n i s t r y u n t i l superseded or o b s o l e t e ; the f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n is d e s t r u c t i o n .  7.  Manitoba, Freedom of Information A c t , SM 1985,  8.  Northwest (3rd ), c.  9.  Bob T a p s c o t t , "Access and A r c h i v e s : The Manitoba Experience," paper presented at the A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t ' s Conference, Hamilton, June, 1987; Canadian Newspapers Company L t d . v Government of Manitoba Queen's Bench," Western Weekly Review 2 (1986):393; "Canadian Newspapers Company L t d . v Government of Manitoba Court of A p p e a l , " Western Weekly Review 2 (1986):673.  10.  Tapscott,  11.  Quebec, A r c h i v e s A c t , SQ 1983,  12.  E r i c K e t e l a a r , A r c h i v a l and Records Management L e g i s l a t i o n and R e g u l a t i o n s : A RAMP Study with G u i d e l i n e s ( P a r i s : UNESCO, 1985), 16.  13.  I b i d , 6-10. For d e t a i l s about the use of the term a r c h i v e s i n French or " a r c h i v i o " i n I t a l i a n see Ronald  c.  38.,  s.  2.  C. 64,  s.  Statutes Emphasis  c.  6.  T e r r i t o r i e s , A r c h i v e s Ordinance, ONT 1981 2, s . 4 .  "Access and A r c h i v e s , " c.  6-18. 38,  s.  2.  page 127 J . Planchan, e d . , "The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Scene: News and A b s t r a c t s , " American A r c h i v i s t 43(3) (Summer 1980): 3924 and E r n s t Posner, A r c h i v e s i n the Ancient World (Cambridge, M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972) :4. 14.  Canada, N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada A c t , 1987, of Canada, 36 E l i z a b e t h 2, c. 1, s. 2 and 4.  15.  B r i t i s h Columbia, Document 95.  16.  England, Data P r o t e c t i o n A c t , 1984, 33 E l i z a b e t h 2, c . 35, s. 1(5).  17.  E n g l a n d , P u b l i c Records A c t , 1958, 6&7 E l i z a b e t h 2, c . 51, s. 4.  18.  Quebec,  19.  New Brunswick, Right to Information A c t , SNB 1978, c . R10.3; New Brunswick, An Act to Amend the A r c h i v e s A c t , SNB 1986, c . 11, s. 10.  20.  Manitoba, Freedom of 61(c) .  Disposal  A r c h i v e s A c t , SQ 1983,  c.  Information  Statutes  A c t , RSBC 1979,  c.  S t a t u t e s of E n g l a n d , S t a t u t e s of England, 38.  A c t , SM 1985,  c.  6.  s.  page  128  NOTES TO CHAPTER THREE 1.  On the pros and cons of the board s t r u c t u r e see John A r c h e r , "A Study of A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s in Canada," (PhD T h e s i s , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1969): 554 and "The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a : A P r e l i m i n a r y Reprt on the Nature of the Programme and a P l a n for Development," November 25, 1965, Box 1, A c c e s s i o n 88.239, P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, A l b e r t a .  2.  See S a l v a t o r e Carbone and Raoul Gueze, Draft Model Law on A r c h i v e s : D e s c r i p t i o n and Text ( P a r i s : UNESCO, 1962), 35-39; R-H B a u t i e r , " P r i n c i p l e s of A r c h i v a l L e g i s l a t i o n , " i n A Manual on T r o p i c a l A r c h i v o l o g y , e d i t e d by Yve P e r o t i n ( P a r i s : Mouton and C o . , 1966), 39.  3.  Quebec, A r c h i v e s A c t , SQ 1983, c . 38, P r o j e t de reglement sur l'agrement d'un s e r v i c e d ' a r c h i v e s p r i v e e s , Gazette O f f l c i e l du Quebec, Le 16 Aout, s. 2(12).  4.  Carbone and Gueze,  5.  A l b e r t a , P u l b i c Works, Supply and S e r v i c e s A c t . P u b l i c Records R e g u l a t i o n 373/83, A l b e r t a Gazette P a r t I I .  6.  Wesley Newcomb Hofeld was a p r o f e s s o r of law at Stanford U n i v e r s i t y and the Southmayd P r o f e s s o r at Yale University. On the H o f e l d i a n Scheme see R. Stone, The Province and F u n c t i o n of the Law ( B u f f a l o : W i l l i a m S. Hein and Co. Inc, 1968): 115-139.  7.  Hofeld's follows:  scheme i s  Draft Model Law on A r c h i v e s ,  1989,  set  out by Stone,  Right No-Right  Jural Privilege Duty  Right Duty  Jural Privilege No-Right  Ibid,  Opposites Power Disability  17,  35-39.  as  Immunity Liability  Correlatives Power Liability  Immunity Disability  8.  Op C i t ,  115.  9.  R. Stone, The Province and F u n c t i o n of the Law,  10.  Quebec,  11.  Canada, N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada A c t , 1987, of Canada, 36 E l i z a b e t h 2, c . 1, s. 9(1).  A r c h i v e s A c t , SQ 1983,  c.  38,  s.  116.  2. Statutes  page 129 E r i c K e t e l a a r , A r c h i v a l and Records Management L e g i s l a t i o n and R e g u l a t i o n s : A RAMP Study with G u i d e l i n e s ( P a r i s : UNESCO, 1985), 39-44. Carbone and G u £ z e , Draft Model Law on A r c h i v e s , B a u t i e r , " P r i n c i p l e s of A r c h i v a l L e g i s l a t i o n , "  page 130  NOTES TO CHAPTER FOUR 1.  Quebec, A r c h i v e s A c t , SQ 1983,  c.  2,  s.  29.  2.  Jerome O ' B r i e n , "Archives and the Law: A B r i e f Look at the Canadian Scene," A r c h i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984):43.  3.  Ibid.  4.  Op C i t .  5.  O'Brien,  6.  Nova S c o t i a , P u b l i c Records D i s p o s a l A c t , RSNS 1967, 254, s. 5 ( 3 ) . Emphasis added.  7.  New Brunswick, A r c h i v e s A c t , RSNB 1977, c . 7(2); Newfoundland, A r c h i v e s A c t , SN 1983,  8.  The Document D i s p o s a l Act reads:  "Archives and the Law," 44. c.  A - l l . l , s. c . 33, s. 7.  3(1) No document s h a l l be destroyed except on the w r i t t e n recommendation of a committee to be known as P u b l i c Documents C o m m i t t e e . . .  the  3(2) No document s h a l l be destroyed before the e x p i r a t i o n of 7 years from the date on which i t was c r e a t e d unless (a)2 years have e x p i r e d from the date on which i t was c r e a t e d and there i s a v a i l a b l e to the o f f i c e r who would, but for the d e s t r u c t i o n have charge or custody of the document a m i c r o f i l m copy of i t , (b)a recommendation under s u b s e c t i o n (1) has been approved by the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly on the recommendation of the S e l e c t Standing Committee of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly on P u b l i c Accounts and Economic A f f a i r s ; or (c) i t is ( l ) l l s t e d in a records schedule approved by the S e l e c t Standing Committee of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly on P u b l i c Accounts and Economic A f f a i r s , and ( i i ) destroyed i n accordance with the i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the records s c h e d u l e . 3(3)  Subject to s u b s e c t i o n s (1) and (2), the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l , may on the recommendation of the m i n i s t e r having j u r i s d i c t i o n over the m i n i s t r y concerned, (order the d e s t r u c t i o n or t r a n s f e r of r e c o r d s ) .  3(4)  No document d e s p o s i t e d i n a r e c o r d o f f i c e destroyed without the a p p r o v a l of the  shall  be  page  131  A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , and, i n the case of an o f f i c e of the Court of A p p e a l , without the f u r t h e r a p p r o v a l of the C h i e f J u s t i c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, and, i n the case of an o f f i c e of the supreme C o u r t , without the f u r t h e r a p p r o v a l of the C h i e f J u s t i c e of the Supreme c o u r t . * 4 6 ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 95, s. 3)  Document D i s p o s a l A c t , RSBC 1979,  c.  9.  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , A r c h i v e s Ordinance, ONT 1981 ( 3 r d ) , c . 2, s. 5(6).  10.  Saskatchewan, The Rural M u n i c i p a l i t i e s A c t , RSS 1978, c . R-26, s. 78; Saskatchewan, The Urban M u n i c i p a l i t i e s A c t , RSS 1978, c. U-10, s. 23; Saskatchewan, The J a c k f i s h Murray Lake Resort M u n i c i p a l i t y A c t , RSS 19878, c . J - l , s. 69.  11.  O n t a r i o , The E d u c a t i o n A c t , RSO 1980, 150(34).  c.  129,  12.  Manitoba, The E l e c t i o n A c t , RSM 1970,  c.  E30, s.  13.  A l b e r t a , Ombudsman A c t , RSA 1980, c . 0-7, s. 29(3); New Brunswick, R e g i s t r y A c t , RNB 1973, c . R - 6 ; Newfoundland, the A r c h i v e s A c t . The A r c h i v e s (Executive C o u n c i l Records) R e g u l a t i o n , Newfoundland R e g u l a t i o n 1/85, The Newfoundland Gazette Part I I ; O n t a r i o , The S h e r i f f ' s A c t , RSO 1982, c . 6, s. 5(1) and s c h e d u l e .  14.  Quebec, A r c h i v e s A c t , SQ 1983,  15.  I b i d ; Quebec, A r c h i v e s A c t . P r o j e t de reglement sur l'agrement d'un s e r v i c e d ' a r c h i v e s p r i v e e s , Gazette O f f i c i e l du Quebec, Le 16 Aout, 1989.  16.  Mary Lynn R i t z e n t h a l e r d e s c r i b e s c o n s e r v a t i o n as a three phase f u n c t i o n : 1) examination, 2) p r e s e r v a t i o n ; that i s r e t a r d i n g or p r e v e n t i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n and 3) r e s t o r a t i o n ; t h a t i s , r e t u r n i n g the document to as c l o s e to i t s o r i g i n a l s t a t e as p o s s i b l e (Mary Lynn R i t z e n t h a l e r , A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s : Conservator! [Chicago: S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , 19831).  17.  The Quebec A r c h i v e s A c t , for example, s t a t e s t h a t persons who u n l a w f u l l y a l i e n a t e or d e s t r o y p u b l i c documents are l i a b l e to f i n e s of up to $3,000 and persons who d e s t r o y fonds c r e a t e d or r e c e i v e d by a person i n the course of c a r r y i n g out h i s or her d u t i e s are l i a b l e to a f i n e of up to $25,000, p r o v i d i n g a s t r o n g r a t i o n a l e for adhering to the a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e of r e s e c t des fond (Quebec, A r c h i v e s A c t , SQ 1983, c . 38, s s . 12, 13, 15, 28, 31).  ss.  s. 119(3).  21-28.  page 132 18.  SAA Committee on Uniform L e g i s l a t i o n , "The Proposed Uniform State P u b l i c Records A c t , " American A r c h i v i s t 3(2) ( A p r i l 1940):107-115; Saa Committee on Uniform L e g i s l a t i o n , "A Proposed Model Act to Create a State Department of A r c h i v e s and H i s t o r y , " American A r c h i v i s t 7(2) (January 1944 ):130-134; Saa Committee on A r c h i v a l L e g i s l a t i o n , "Model B i l l for a s t a t e A r c h i v e s Department," American A r c h i v i s t 10(1) (January 19 47): 47-49.  19.  New Brunswick, R e g i s t r y A c t , SNB 1978, c . and 15 ( 2 ) .  20.  Canada, N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada A c t , 1987, of Canada, 36 E l i z a b e t h 2, c . 1, s. 2 ( b ) .  21.  E r i c K e t e l a a r , A r c h i v a l and Records Management L e g i s l a t i o n and R e g u l a t i o n s : A RAMP Study with G u i d e l i n e s ( P a r i s : UNESCO, 1985), 75.  22.  Ibid,  23.  Canada, N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada A c t , 1987, of Canada, 36 E l i z a b e t h 2, c . 1, s. 2 ( b ) .  24.  Ketelaar, 80.  25.  Quebec,  26.  E . A . D r i e d g e r , The C o n s t r u c t i o n of S t a t u t e s Butterworths and C o . , 1974), 199-201.  27.  Ibid,  48, s s .  15(1)  Statutes  77.  A r c h i v a l and Records Management  A r c h i v e s A c t , SQ 1983, c .  199.  38, s s .  Statutes  Legislation. 17 and 38. (Toronto:  page  133  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Legislation For p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n see Appendix I I . For F o r e i g n a r c h i v a l l e g i s l a t i o n see the volume of Archivum c i t e d below. Alberta, 1980, c .  Interpretation 1-7  A c t , Revised  B r i t i s h Columbia, Offense A c t , Columbia, 1979, c. 305.  S t a t u t e s of A l b e r t a ,  Revised  S t a t u t e s of  Canada, Copyright A c t , S t a t u t e s of Canada, 1956, 2, c. 34. 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"Some Aspects of A r c h i v a l Development s i n c e French R e v o l u t i o n . " In A Modern A r c h i v e s Reader. Maygene F . D a n i e l s and Timothy Walch, e d i t o r s . Washington, D . C . : N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1984. P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . 1985/85. Prasad, S.N. 52-61.  "Archives  Department  the  of E d u c a t i o n . Annual Report,  i n I n d i a . " A r c h i v a r i a 7 (Winter  P r o v i n c i a l ASrchives of A l b e r t a .  to  A Guide for  Records  1978):  page  141  Managers. Edmonton: H i s t o r i c a l Resources D i v i s i o n , A l b e r t a C u l t u r e , 1986. Rhoads, J . B . The A p p l i c a b i l i t y of UNISIST G u i d e l i n e s and ISO International Standards to Archives Administration and Records Management P a r i s : UNESCO, 1981. R i g g s , F.W. L e g i s l a t i v e i o n a l Paper N o . 7 .  Origins.  International  Studies Occas-  R i t z e n t h a l e r , M . L . Archives & Manuscripts: Conservation. Chicago: S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1983. Roy,  P . G . "Les A r c h i v e s de l a Province de Quebec." Le B u l l e t i n Des Recherches H i s t o r i q u e s 32 ( A v r i l 1926): 193208.  S . A . A . Committee on A r c h i v a l L e g i s l a t i o n , "Model B i l l for a State A r c h i v e s Department." American A r c h i v i s t 10,1 (January 1947): 47-49. S.A.A. Committee on Uniform L e g i s l a t i o n , "The Proposed Uniform State P u b l i c Records A c t . " American A r c h i v i s t 3(2) ( A p r i l 1940): 107-115. S.A.A. Committee on Uniform L e g i s l a t i o n , "A Proposed Model Act to Create a State Department of A r c h i v e s and H i s t o r y . " American a r c h i v i s t 7(2) (January 1944): 130134 . Saskatchewan. Report of the Honourable E . M . C u l l i t o n , Former C h i e f J u s t i c e of S a s k a t c h e w a n On the Matter of Freedom of information and Protection of Privacy. Regina, Saskatchewan, Queens P r i n t e r s , 1983. r  Saskatchewan.  A r c h i v e s Board Report,  Seton,R.E. The P r e s e r v a t i o n A r c h i v e s : A RAMP Study.  1974-1976.  and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P a r i s : UNESCO, 1984.  Private  Simpson, G. "Archives in Canada." American A r c h i v i s t . (October 1948): 358-366.  11,4  S p i e r s , W.B. "Yukon A r c h i v e s - A Regional Experiment." Canadian A r c h i v i s t 2(4) (1973): 26-37. Stone, R. The Province and F u n c t i o n of the Law. W i l l i a m S. Hein and Co. I n c . , 1968.  Buffalo:  Student L e g a l S e r v i c e s Edmonton. The Layman's Lawbook, Second E d i t i o n . Edmonton: u n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1981. Swift,  M.D.  "The Canadian A r c h i v a l Scene i n the  1970s:  page  142  Current Developments and T r e n d s . " Arch 1varia 15 1982-83):47-57.  (Winter  Sykes, J . B . The Pocket Oxford D i c t i o n a r y of Current E n g l i s h , Sixth E d i t i o n . Oxford: The Clarendon P r e s s , 1978. Tapscott,B. "Access and A r c h i v e s : The Manitoba E x p e r i e n c e . " Paper presented at the A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s Conference, Hamilton, June, 1987. T a y l o r , H . A . "The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of New Brunswick." A c a d i e n s i s 1,1 ( F a l l 1971): 71-83. T a y l o r , H . A . "Canadian A r c h i v e s : P a t t e r n s From a F e d e r a l P e r s p e c t i v e . " A r c h i v a r i a 1(2) (Summer 1976): 3-19. T a y l o r , H . A . "Transformation i n the A r c h i v e s : T e c h n o l o g i c a l Adjustment or Paradigm S h i f t ? " A r c h i v a r i a 25 (Winter 1987-88):12-28. Thomas, L . H . " A r c h i v a l L e g i s l a t i o n 1962: 101-115.  i n Canada." CHA Report  Thomas, L . H . " P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i n Canada." American A r c h i v i s t 18 (October 1955): 343-347. Wade, H.W.R. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law. Oxford: The Clarendon P r e s s , 1961. Wade, E . S . C . and P h i l l i p s , G . G . C o n s t i t u t i o n a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law, Ninth e d i t i o n , London: Longman Group L i m i t e d , 1977. Walichnowski, T . " P o l i s h State A r c h i v e s . " A r c h i v a r i a 7 (Winter 1978): 42-51. Weilbrenner, B. "Les A r c h i v e s Du Quebec." Revue D ' H l s t o i r e de L'Amerique F r a n c a i s e 18,1 ( J u i n 1964): 3-13. Weilbrenner, B. "Les A r c h i v e s et le Regionalisme." i n Regionalism in the Canadian Community 1867-1967. Mason Wade ed. Toronto U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1969: 264272 . W i l s o n , I . E . Report of the A d v i s o r y Committee on A r c h i v e s . Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s , 1985. Wood, W. "The New P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of Quebec." Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review 2,2 (September 1921): 126-154. Yukon A r c h i v e s . Department 1986.  Access to Information Index. Yukon: of E d u c a t i o n , L i b r a r i e s and A r c h i v e s , May  page 143 APPENDIX A LIST OF CURRENT PROVINCIAL AND TERRITORIAL LEGISLATION*  A l be r t a Acts 1. 2.  H i s t o r i c a l Resources A c t , 1980, c. H-8 Department of P u b l i c Works, Supply and A c t , 1983, c. D-25.5 3. E l e c t i o n A c t , 1980, c. E - 2 , s. 149.1 4. Ombudsman A c t , 1980, c. 0-7, s. 29(3)  Services  Regulations 1. Department of P u b l i c Works, Supply and S e r v i c e s A c t , R e g u l a t i o n 373/83, A l b e r t a Gazette P a r t I I . B r i t i s h Columbia Acts 1.  Document D i s p o s a l A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia,, 1979, c . 95. Amendments Revised S t a t u t e s C o r r e c t i o n A c t ( N o . 2 ) , 1980, c. 50, s. 34. M i s c e l l a n e o u s S t a t u t e s Amendment A c t , 1983, 32 E l i z a b e t h 2, c. 20, s. 8-11. 2. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979, c . 206, s. 29. 3. M i n i s t r y of P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and Government S e r v i c e s A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979, c. 279, s. 2,3 and 7.  Regulations none Manitoba Acts  1.  The L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Manitoba, 1970, c. L120. Amendments  * Current as of August, 1989. S t a t u t e s c i t e d are from the most recent provincial consolidation of statutes or, i n the case of s t a t u t e s which came into force a f t e r the l a t e s t consolidation, from the sessional volume for the year t h a t the statute came into force.  page  2. 3. 4. 5.  144  An Act to Amend the L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y A c t , 1972, c. 2. The S t a t u t e s Amendment A c t , 1975, c. 42, s. 34(1). The E l e c t i o n s A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Manitoba, 1970, c . E30, s. 119(3). The M u n i c i p a l A c t , 1970, c. 100, s. 98. The C i t y of Winnipeg A c t , 1971, c . 105, s. 658 Freedom of Information A c t , 1985, c. 6.  Regulations 1. The L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y A c t . A R e g u l a t i o n Respecting the P r e s e r v a t i o n of P u b l i c Records, Manitoba R e g u l a t i o n L120 - R l , Manitoba Gazette Part I I . New Brunswick Acts  The A r c h i v e s A c t , 1977, c. A - l l . l Amendments: An Act to Provide for the Merger of the Supreme and County Courts of New Brunswick, 1979, c. 41, s. 5. S t a t u t e Law Amendment A c t , 1982, c . 3 , s.3 An Act to Amend the E x e c u t i v e Council A c t , 1983, c . 30, s. 3. An Act to Amend the A r c h i v e s A c t , 19 86, c. 11, An Act to Amend the F i n a n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A c t , 1984, c. 44, s. 11 Elections Act, Revised Statutes of New Brunswick, 1973, c. E - 3 , s. 98 The R e g i s t r y Act, Revised S t a t u t e s of New Brunswick, 1973, c. R - 6 . An Act to Amend the R e g i s t r y A c t , 1980, c. 47, s. 1 An Act to Amend the R e g i s t r y A c t , 1978, c . 46, s. 1 The P u b l i c Records A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of New Brunswick, 1973, c. P-24 The F i n a n c i a l Administration Act, Revised S t a t u t e s of New Brunswick. 1973, c . F - l l . An Act to Amend the F i n i n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A c t , 1975, c. 22, s. 1  Regulations 1. Archives Act. General R e g u l a t i o n 86-121, New Brunswick Gazette Part I I . 2. The F i n i n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A c t . General R e g u l a t i o n 83-227, New Brunswick Gazette Part I I . 3. The F i n a n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A c t . General R e g u l a t i o n 85-27, New Brunswick Gazette P a r t I I .  page 145  Newfoundland and Labrador Acts  1. 2.  The A r c h i v e s A c t , 1983, c.33. An Act Respecting Labour R e l a t i o n s in the P r o v i n c e , 1977, c. 64, s. 114(3). 3. The P r i v a c y A c t , 1981, c . 6. 4. An Act Respecting Freedom of I n f o r m a t i o n , 1981, c. 5. 5. Department of C u l t u r e , R e c r e a t i o n and Youth A c t , 1973, c . 18  Regulations 1. The A r c h i v e s A c t . The A r c h i v e s (Executive C o u n c i l Records) R e g u l a t i o n s , Newfoundland R e g u l a t i o n 1/85, The Newfoundland Gazette Part I I . Northwest  Territories  Acts 1. A r c h i v e s Ordinance ( A c t ) , 1981(3rd), c. 2. 2. H i s t o r i c a l Resources Ordinance, 1970(2nd), s. 8 ( d ) . *  c.9,  Regulations none Nova Acts  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Scotia  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Nova S c o t i a , 19 67, c. 246. P u b l i c Records A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Nova S c o t i a , 1967, c . 253, s. 6. P u b l i c Records D i s p o s a l A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Nova S c o t i a , 1967, c. 254. Freedom of Information A c t , 26 E l i z I I , 1977, c . 10. The C u l t u r e , R e c r e a t i o n and F i t n e s s Act, S t a t u t e s of Nova S c o t i a , Revised Statutes of Nova S c o t i a . 1967, c. 14, s. 7 ( k ) .  Regulations none * s i n c e s e c t i o n 8(d) of t h i s Act has fallen into disuse it will not be i n c l u d e d for the purposes of the content a n a l y s i s .  page 146 Ontari o Acts  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  The A r c h i v e s A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of O n t a r i o , 1980, c. 28. The E d u c a t i o n A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of O n t a r i o . 1980, c . 129, s. 150(34). The S h e r i f f ' s A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of O n t a r i o . 1980, c. 470, s. 24. An Act to E s t a b l i s h the M i n i s t r y of C i t i z e n s h i p and C u l t u r e , 1982, c. 6, s. 5(1) and s c h e d u l e . Freedom of Information and P r o t e c t i o n of P r i v a c y A c t , S t a t u t e s of O n t a r i o 1987, c. 25.  Regulations 1. The E x e c u t i v e Council Act. Assignment of Powers and Duties - M i n i s t e r of C i t i z e n s h i p and C u l t u r e , O n t a r i o R e g u l a t i o n 134/82, O n t a r i o Gazette P a r t I I . P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d Acts  1. 2.  A r c h i v e s A c t , 1975, c. 64. A r c h e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s A c t , 1970,  c.3  Regulations none Quebec Acts  1.  The A r c h i v e s A c t , 1983, c.38 (ss. 58, 63-67, 6973, 78-82 not yet p r o c l a i m e d ) . 2. An Act Respecting the B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e du Quebec, Revised S t a t u t e s of Quebec. 1977, c. B-2 (limits the d e f i n i t i o n of a 'document' i n the A r c h i v e s Act) 3. The C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t y A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Quebec, 1977, c . B-4 and amendments assented to J u l y 8, 1972, c. 19* 4. An Act Respecting Access to documents held by p u b l i c bodies and the P r o t e c t i o n of p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , Revised S t a t u t e s of Quebec, 1977, c. A - 2 . 1 . * An Act to Amend V a r i o u s L e g i s l a t i o n , 1984, c. 27, s. 1-8 An Act to Amend V a r i o u s L e g i s l a t i o n , 1985, c. 30, s. 1-16 * Only those general amendments a f f e c t i n g the provisions of these statutes have been included.  page 147 5. Photographic Proof of Documents S t a t u t e s of Quebec, c. P - 2 2 . *  Act,  Revised  Regulations 1. The A r c h i v e s A c t , R e g u l a t i o n r e s p e c t i n g r e t e n t i o n s c h e d u l e s , t r a n s f e r , d e p o s i t and d i s p o s a l of p u b l i c a r c h i v e s , O . C . 1894-85, 18 September, 1985, Gazette O f f i c i e l l e du Quebec, October 22, 1985, V o l . 117, No. 44.  Saskatchewan Acts  The A r c h i v e s A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Saskatchwan, 1978, c. A-26. Amendments Queen's Bench Consequential Amendment A c t , 1979-80, c. 92, s. 7. Government R e o r g a n i z a t i o n Consequential Amendment A c t , 1983, c . 11, s. 7. The R u r a l M u n i c i p a l i t i e s A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Saskatchewan, 1978, c. R-26, s. 78. The Urban M u n i c i p a l i t y A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Saskatchewan, 1978, c. U-10, s. 23. The J a c k f i s h - M u r r a y Lake Resort M u n i c i p a l i t y A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Saskatewan, 1978, c. J - l , s. G9. The L i q u o r A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Saskatchewan, 1978, c. L - 1 8 , s. 199. The E d u c a t i o n A c t , Revised S t a t u t e s of Saskatchewan. 1978, c. E - 0 . 1 , s. 371.  Regulations 1. The A r c h i v e s A c t . R e g u l a t i o n s Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board  of  the  Yukon Ordinances 1. A r c h i v e s Ordinance, 1 9 7 1 ( l s t ) , c . 2 . 2. Access to Information A c t , 1983, c .  12.  Regulations 1. A r c h i v e s Ordinance. Commissioner's Order 1979/84, Government of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y R e g u l a t i o n s , Volume 6.  page 148 2. A r c h i v e s Ordinance. O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l 1985/17 (which e s t a b l i s h e s Records Managment R e g u l a t i o n s ) , Government of the Yukon T e r r i t o r i e s Regulations Volume 6. 3. Access to Information A c t . Schedule of Fees Respecting Access to Information A c t . O r d e r - i n C o u n c i l 1984/60, Government of the Yukon T e r r i t o r i e s , Volume 6. r  page 143  APPENDIX B: DATASHEET  DNT  NS  BC  SASK MAN  YUK  PEI  AB  NB  NUT  QUE  NFLD  P  P  P  P  P/S  P p/R  P  P  P  S  P  P  P  P  ?  DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS I. DEFINITIONS OF ARCHIVESCtotal s c o r e d )  p.  i . e . what the a r c h i v e s of the p r o v i n c e / t e r r i t o r y i n c l u d e I I . TYPES OF MATERIAL(total score=3) 1. D e f i n i t i o n of record/document (a) part of public records  F  (b) s e p a r a t e l y  P  P  F  P  R  S  2. EDF' mentioned  S  3. Types of non-records  P P  R  P  F  P  P  I I I . PUBLIC RECORDS/ARCH IVES(t ot a 1 score=2) 1. D e f i n i t i o n  P/S  P  P  2. O f f i c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n  S  P  P  P  P  P  P  R  P  P/S  P  P  IV. PUBLIC AGENCIES(total score=9) The l e g i s l a t i o n provides a d e f i n i t i o n of departments and/or other p u b l i c agencies, or i n d i c a t e s those public agencies the records of which are subject to the p r o v i s i o n s of the Act 1. Branches 1.1 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  P/S  S  1.2 L e g i s l a t i v e  P  5/  1.4 Board/commission  P/3  S  1.5 Crown corporation  S  1.6 Appointed bodies  S  1.3 J u d i c i a l  2. P o l i t i c a l  S/  S S  P/S  P P  P P  P  S  S/  S  S  S  P/S  S S  P S  P/S ' P  P/S  P  ;P  P/S  P  '  P S  P  P  S  P  P/S P  P/S  P/S  P/S  P  P/S  F73  P/S  P  levels  2.1 F r o v / T e r r i t o r i a !  P/S  S  ?.?  Mlini.-inal  S  S  L. J  Other  S  P  P  P/S p  P  S  P/S S  P  P/S  P/S  page 150  APPENDIX B: DATASHEET  ONT  NS  V. ARCHIVES RECORDS CROWN PROPERTY(tot al 5 core=l) T0TAL=16 PERCENT AV6=9.75  BC  SASK MAN  YUK  P 7  n  ^  o 8  4 3 Z  m  3 1 1  5 0 X  • -v 9 5 6 X  PEI AB  NB  P  S  NWT  UE HFLD  , 7  4 3 X  1 0 6 2  9 1 4 3 15 13 * 56Z 877. 50X 937. 812  P  page 151  APPENDIX 8:DATASHEET  B.  ONT  NS  BC  SASK MAN  YUK . PE1  AB  NB  P  NWT  QUE  NFLD  P  S  P  P  ADMINISTRATION  I GENERAL MANA6MENT(total scored) The legislation specifies  the person(s)  or body lies) responsible tor the general management of the Provincial/Territorial archives, or for the administration. . of an Act establishing a Provincial/Territorial  archival programme.  (a) Minister  S  S P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  (b) Board II ESTABLISHMENT OF ARCHIVES (tot al scored) P  1. Establishment/Continuation 2. Official repository  P  P  P  P  for public records III ARCHIVISTUotal score=3) 1. Appointment of o f f i c i a l  P  2. Legal t i t l e of o f f i c i a l  P  3. Manner of appointment  P  S.  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  S  P  This provisions may refer to a public service act IV OTHER EMPLOYEES(total score=l) V DUTIES/OBJECTS SPECIFIED(total score=8) The legislation outlines the duties of the person(s) responsible for the provincial/ t e r r i t o r i a l archives or outlines the objects of the provincial/territorial  archives  1. Archival functions  4  page 152  APPENDIX B;DATASHEET  ONT  NS  BC  SASK MAN  YUK  PE1  AB  QUE  NFLD  P  P  1.2  P  P  P  P  P  Arrangement/description  1.4 A c q u i s i t i o n 1.5  (private)  P  exhibition/display  2. E x t r a - a r c h i v a l 2.1  • P  P  P  F  functions  Research  2.2 A r c h e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s VI RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER AGENCIESttotal  score=4)  1. Negotiate agreements Accreditation  3. Provide a s s i s t a n c e i.e. technical,  financial  4. Cooperation VII RECORDS/DOCUMENTS COMMITTEEUotal score=15) 1. Establishment (a) Permanent  R  (b) Ad hoc 2. Membership 2.1  Archivist  2.2 Records manager 2.3 P u b l i c body 2.4 Legal  P  2.5  P  Financial  2.6 Other S  P  S  P  3, Manner of appointment Duties/purpose 5.1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 5.2 E s t a b l i s h  schedules  5.3 Review of schedules 5.4 D i s p o s i t i o n recommendations  P  P  P  P  P  1.6 P r i n t i n g / p u b l i c a t i o n  5.  NWT  1.1 Care/custody/preservation 1.3 Dissemination of i n f o  2.  NB  P  R  P  page 153  APPENDIX B;DATASHEET  ONI  NS  BC  SASK HAN  YUK  PEI  5.5 Access  NB  R  5.6 Records management p o l i c y  R  7. A r c h i v i s t i s Chairman TGTAL-34  3  PERCENT  267. 357. 267. 447. 537. 5&X  AVS=14.5  AB  12  6  15  20  13  p  R  16  17  NHT p  R  16  12  11  21  477. 507. 477. 357. 327. 617.  QUE  NFLD  page 154  APPENDIX B: DATASHEET  •NT  NS  BC  SASK HAN  YUK  f'EI AB  NB  NUT  QUE  NFLD  P  P  P  P  P  P  C. PROGRAMME ELEMENTS I. RECORDS MANAGEMENT(total s c o r e d ) 1. Establishment of program  R  2. D e f i n i t i o n of program  R  P  3. Role of a r c h i v i s t i n program (a) Administered by a r c h i v i s t (b) Supervision of committee ( i ) A r c h i v i s t i s chairman ( i i ) Archivist i s secretary ( i i i ) A r c h i v i s t i s a member 4. Appointment of records manager 5. Appointment of records o f f i c e r s 6. Records Manager's d u t i e s o u t l i n e d  R  7. Records centre I I . APPRAISAL, SELECTION, ACQUISITION OF PUBLIC RECORDSUotal score-22) 1. Schedules 1.1 Approval  process  The l e g i s l a t i o n s p e c i f i e s the person(s) with a u t h o r i t y to recommend and approve of schedules. 1.1.1  Archivist  1.1.2 M i n i s t e r / b o a r d 1.1.3 L i e u t . 6ov.  S  1.1.4 L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly 1.1.5 P u b l i c records committee  S  P  R  1.1.6 Records c r e a t o r  S  P  R  P  R  P  R  P  P  P  R  P'  P  P  1.2 Role of A r c h i v i s t in scheduling P  (a) D i r e c t c o n t r o l (b) I n d i r e c t c o n t r o l 1.3 Schedules binding  S  page 155  APPENDIX B: DATASHEET  ONT  The l e g i s l a t i o n s t a t e s that  NS  BC  SASK HAN  YUK  PEI  AB  NB  NWT  QUE  P  P  records  s h a l l be dealt with i n accordance with schedules 1.4 Schedules defined 1.5 Content and  S  form  The l e g i s l a t i o n s p e c i f i e s the information that s h a l l be included i n schedules and/or provides a sample form 1.6 Amendment p r o v i s i o n  S  1.7 Dispute p r o v i s i o n The l e g i s l a t i o n includes procedures for r e s o l v i n g disputes regarding schedules One-time d i s p o s a l approval 2.1  Archivist  2.2  Minister/board  process  2.3 Lieut.Gov./Commissner. 2.4 P u b l i c records committee 2.5 Records Creator 3. Methods of D i s p o s i t i o n of P u b l i c Records 3.1  Destruction 3.1.1  Procedures o u t l i n e d  3.1.2  F u b l i c body may  dispose  of no permanent value 3.2  3.3  Photoreproduction 3.2.1  Means of disposal  3.2.2  Procedures o u t l i n e d  Transfer 3.3.1  Future Data  (a) not  specified  (b) l e s s than 7 y r s (c) more than 7 yrs 3.3.2  P  Authority  (a)  permissive  (b) not permissive  P  III. OF SPECIAL CLASSES OF RECORDSitotal score=l&) The l e g i s l a t i o n i n c l u d e s p r o v i s i o n s concerning  the care and management  of s p e c i a l c a t e g o r i e s of  records  not included i n the d e f i n i t i o n . o f  NFLD  page 156  APPENDIX B: DATASHEET"  QNT  NS  BC  SASK MAN  YUK  FEI  p u b l i c records. 1. D i s p o s i t i o n approval  process  1.1 Court records 1.1.1 A r c h i v i s t  P  P  1.1.2 Lieut.Gov,  p  p  P  P  1.1.3 P u b l i c records committee  S  1.1.4 Legal  S  1.1.5 Records creator 1.2 Municipal records 1.2.1 Records creator 1.3 School  S  records  1.3.1 Records creator  S  1.4 E l e c t i o n records 1.4.1 A r c h i v i s t / L e g L i b r  S  1.4.2 Records creator  S  2. Transfer and deposit 2.1 Court records i.  i . i  i UlU(  t UeHt'  (a) not s p e c i f i e d (b) l e s s than 7 y r s (c) more than 7 y r s  P  p  P  P  2.1.2 A u t h o r i t y (a) permissive (b) not permissive 2.2 Municipal records 2.2.1 Future date (a) not s p e c i f i e d  S  P  S  P  P/S  P  P/S  P  (b) l e s s than 7 y r s (c) more than 7 y r s 2.2.2 A u t h o r i t y (a) permissive (b) not permissive  S  2.3 School board records 2.3.1 Future date (a) not s p e c i f i e d  S  S  P/S  P  S  S  P/S  P  (b) l e s s than 7 yrs ( t ) more than 7 y r s 2.3.2 A u t h o r i t y (a) permissive (b) not permissive 2.4 E l e c t i o n records  AB  NB  NUT • QUE  NFLD  page 157  APPENDIX B: DATASHEET  •NT  NS  BC  SASK  YUK  PEI  AB  P  R  2.4.1 Future date (a) not s p e c i f i e d (b) l e s s than 7 y r s (c) more than 7 yrs 2.4.2 A u t h o r i t y (a) permissive (b) not permissive 2.5 Other records 2.5.1 Future date (a) not s p e c i f i e d (b) l e s s than 7 yrs (c) more than 7 y r s 2.5.2 Authority (a) permissive (b) not permissive IV. APPRAISAL, SELECTION AND AQUISITION OF PRIVATE RECORDSitotal  scored)  1. Methods of a q u i s i t i o n 2. Terms and c o n d i t i o n s 3. Types of records 4. Subject areas s p e c i f i e d V PRESERVATION OF PUBLIC RECORDS (total 5core-4J 1. Preservation by public bodies 2. P r o h i b i t i o n 2.1 Destruction 2.2 A l i e n a t i o n 2.3 M u t i l a t i o n  VI REPLEVINUotal score=3i The l e g i s l a t i o n includes a procedure for the recovery of u n l a w f u l l y a l i e n a t e d records  NB  NUT  QUE  NFLD  page 158  APPENDIX B: DATASHEET  GNT  NS  BC  SASK NAN  YUK P  PE1  AB  MB  QUE  NFLD  p/S  P  P  P  P  1. Replevin authorized  3  2. Recovery/restoration procedures  S  P/S  S  S  NHT  3. Replevin a u t h o r i t y (a) M i n i s t e r  P  (b) Attorney General  P  VI1. ACCESSUotal score=lb) 1. Statement of general  S  S  S  S  P  P  S  P/S  2. L i m i t a t i o n s on access  S  S  S  P  P  P  5  P/S  3. R e s t r i c t e d records o u t l i n e d  S  S  P  4. Time l i m i t a t i o n s o u t l i n e d  S  S  P  P  R  5. Access approvals  S  S  P  S  S  6. Access procedures  S  P  S  S  7. Content of request/appeal  S  S  S  3  R  S  S  S  S  r i g h t of access  S  S  S  S  S  S/R  R  forms 8. Appeal procedures  S  9. Acess r e g i s t e r / i n d e x / g u i d e  S  10. D e f i n i t i o n of personal i n f o  S  11. D e f i n i t i o n of i n f o  S  S  S  P  S S  S  S  12. P r i v a t e material not  P S  S  P  subject to access p r o v i s i o n s 13. Role of a r c h i v i s t i n reviewing requests for access (a) r e c e i v e s a l l requests  S  (b) r e c e i v e s requests for records  S  P  3  in archives only (c) r e c e i v e s no requests/  S  S  P  page 159  APPENDIX B: DATASHEET  OUT  NS  BC  SASK HAN  YUK  PE!  AB  NB  NUT  QUE  NFLD  S  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  P  not s p e c i f i e d 14. C e r t i f i e d copies as evidence  P  15. Fees for s e r v i c e s  p  p •  (e.g. photocopying) 16. Terms/conditions for use of archives  R  R  R  page 160  APPENDIX B: DATASHEET  ONT  NS  BC  SASK NAN  YUK  PEI  AB  NB  NWT  QUE  NFLD  V I I I . RESULATlDNSitotal s c o r e d ) Regulations nay be established to the Act.  pursuant  The f o l l o w i n g components  i n c l u d e any a c t i v i t i e s mentioned i n the f u n c t i o n a l groups or i n i n d i v i d u a l  categories.  Choice (a) i n d i c a t e s broad regulatory choice (b) respresents f a i r l y wide  powers;  regulatory  a u t h o r i t y ; and chocie (c) s i g n i f i e s more l i m i t e d powers 1.  Administration (a) Purposes (b) Subject  p P  P  (c) P r e s c r i p t i v e  P P  p  P  2. Records management (a) Purposes (b) Subject  P  (c) P r e s c r i p t i v e 3. P u b l i c  S  P  records  (a) Purposes (b) Subject (c) P r e s c r i p t i v e  S P  P S  P  S  P  P  P  P  4. P u b l i c agencies (a) Purposes (b) Subject (c) P r e s c r i p t i v e  S  5. Scheduling (a) Purposes fb) Subject  S  (c) P r e s c r i p t i v e  P  P  S  •P 1  6. Disposal (a) Purposes  p  (b) Subject (c) P r e s c r i p t i v e  P ,  S P  S  S  P  P  P  7. Transfer and deposit (a) Purposes (b) Subject (c) P r e s c r i p t i v e 8.  S P  S  P  P S  P  P  Preservation (a) Purposes (b) Subject  F  P  page 161  APPENDIX B: DATASHEET  ONT  N3  BC  SASK HAN  YUK  PEI AB  (c) P r e s c r i p t i v e  NB  NUT  S  QUE  NFLD  P  9. Use and access (a) Purposes  P  P  (b) Subject  p  (c) P r e s c r i p t i v e  S  P  T0TAL=8i  25  24  PERCENT  307.  237. 26A  AVG=26.8  21  23  P 36  23  18  20  287. 447. 367. 227. 24X  P  P  38  38  36  14  44X  177. 477. 477.  page 162 APPENDIX C C h r o n o l o g i c a l Synopsis of P r o v i n c i a l and T e r r r i t o r l a l Archival Legislation* I Alberta 1925  S . A . , c . 3 1 : The P r e s e r v a t i o n of P u b l i c Documents Act scheduled a l l p u b l i c documents for a p e r i o d of ten years.  1944  S . A . , c . 1 7 : The R e g i s t e r e d Documents D e s t r u c t i o n Act allowed for the d e s t r u c t i o n of non-current r e g i s t e r e d documents of more than twenty y e a r s .  1961  S . A . , c . 6 0 : An Act to Amend the P r e s e r v a t i o n of P u b l i c Documents Act reduced the time l i m i t before which d e s t r u c t i o n of p u b l i c documents could take place from ten years to f i v e years.  1966  S . A . , c . 7 3 : The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s Act r e p l a c e d The P r e s e r v a t i o n of P u b l i c Documents Act and The R e g i s t e r e d Documents D e s t r u c t i o n A c t .  1970  S . A . , c . 7 : The A l b e r t a Heritage Act r e p l a c e d The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s Act and e s t a b l i s h e d the P r o v i n c i a l Museum and A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a . S . A . , c . 9 0 : The P u b l i c Documents Act which provided for p u b l i c r e c o r d s management.  1973  S . A . , c . 5 : The A l b e r t a Heritage Act r e p l a c e d The A l b e r t a Heritage A c t , 1970 and The P u b l i c Documents Act. O r d e r s - i n - c o u n c i l no longer r e q u i r e d for d e s t r u c t i o n of r e c o r d s .  the  1974  S . A . , c. 63: The A l b e r t a Heritage Amendment Act provided that p u b l i c records would include records "owned by and i n the p o s s e s s i o n of a department".  1975  S . A . , c . l l : The Department of Government S e r v i c e s Act t r a n s f e r r e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for records management to the Department of Government S e r v i c e s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a remained under the Heritage A c t .  * T h i s synopsis includes o n l y those statutes that made s u b s u b s t a n t i a l changes to the n a t u r e , the o r g a n i z a t i o n or the services of p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l p u b l i c archival programmes.  page 163 1977  S . A . , c . 3 : The A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Resources Amendment Act o u t l i n e d the mandate of the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a .  1978  S . A . , c . 4 : The A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Resources Amendment Act added p u b l i c a t i o n and p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n to the mandate of the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a . S . A . , c . 2 9 , s . l l : The Ombudsman Act Amendment Act provided for the t r a n s f e r of Ombudsman's records to the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of A l b e r t a .  1983  S . A . , c . D - 2 5 . 5 : The Department of P u b l i c Works, Supply and S e r v i c e s Act which r e p l a c e d The Department of Government S e r v i c e s A c t . S . A . , c . 7 5 , s. 18: The E l e c t i o n Act Amendment Act which e s t a b l i s h e d that the c h i e f e l e c t o r a l o f f i c e r s h a l l provide c o p i e s of e l e c t i o n w r i t s and o f f i c i a l r e s u l t s to P r o v i n i c i a l A r c h i v e s .  II B r i t i s h Columbia 1899  S.B.C.,  c.  59: P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s  Act.  1936  S.B.C.,  c.43:  1953  S . B . C . , c . 2 7 : The P u b l i c Documents D i s p o s a l Act Amendment Act e s t a b l i s h e d the P u b l i c Documents Committee and strengthened the a u t h o r i t y of the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t over the d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c documents.  1964  S . B . C . , c . 4 6 : The P u b l i c Documents D i s p o s a l Act Amendment Act provided for the d e s t r u c t i o n of microfilmed records over two years o l d .  1965  S . B . C . , c . 4 0 : The P u b l i c Documents D i s p o s a l Act Amendment Act made the C o m p t r o l l e r General a permanent member of the P u b l i c Documents Committee.  1977  S . B . C . , c . 7 5 , s.74: M i n i s t e r i a l T i t l e s Amendment Act which r e p l a c e d the d e f i n i t i o n of a "departmental o f f i c e " i n the Document D i s p o s a l Act with a new d e f i n i t i o n of a " m i n i s t e r i a l o f f i c e " .  1983  S . B . C . , c. 20, s. 8-11: M i s c e l l a n e o u s S t a t u t e s Amendment Act defined records schedules and e s t a b l i s h e d a process for t h e i r a p p r o v a l .  The P u b l i c Documents D i s p o s a l A c t .  page 16 4 III Manitoba 1939  S . M . , c.38: The L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y A c t . P a r t II of the Act e n t i t l e d "Public Records and A r c h i v e s " was never p r o c l a i m e d .  1955  S . M . , c.57:  1966  S . M . , c . 3 1 : The L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y Amendment Act which r e p l a c e d The P u b l i c Records Act and enacted P a r t II of the 1939 A c t .  1972  S . M . , c . 2 : An Act to Amend the L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y Act expanded the scope of the Act to i n c l u d e c o u r t records.  1985  S.M, c.  The P u b l i c Records A c t .  6: The Freedom of  Information A c t .  IV New Brunswick 1929  S.N.B.,  c.54:  The P u b l i c Records A c t .  S.N.B.,  c.53:  The New Brunswick Museum Act  1930  S . N . B . , c . 4 7 : amended The New Brunswick Museum Act by changing the Museum's l e g a l name from the " P r o v i n c i a l Museum" to the "New Brunswick Museum".  1942  S . N . B . , c . 39: amended The New Brunswick Museum A c t . T h i s amendment changed the membership of the Museum Board, the Board's r e g u l a t o r y powers, and gave the Board a u t h o r i t y to a c q u i r e p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  1943  S . N . B . , c. 28: amended The New Brunswick Museum Act to provide for the t r a n s f e r of p u b l i c r e c o r d s to the custody of the Museum Board.  1963  S . N . B . , c . 9 : The P u b l i c Documents D i s p o s a l Act was modelled on the Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Act of 1955 and provided for a Documents Committee and approvals for the d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c documents.  1967  S . N . B . , c . 9 : The E l e c t i o n s Act provided for the t r a n s f e r of E l e c t i o n records to the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of New Brunswick.  1968  S . N . B . , c . 2 : The A r c h i v e s Act which r e p l a c e d The P u b l i c Documents D i s p o s a l A c t .  1975  S . N . B . , c. 22: An Act to Amend the F i n a n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Act which provides for the d e f i n i t i o n of "department" under The A r c h i v e s A c t .  page 165 1977  S . N . B . , c. A - l i . i : The A r c h i v e s Act which r e p l a c e d The A r c h i v e s A c t , 1968.  1978  S . N . B . , c . 4 6 : An Act to Amend the R e g i s t r y Act provided for the p r e s e r v a t i o n of o r i g i n a l r e g i s t r y books through t r a n s f e r r i n g them to the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of New Brunswick.  1986  S.N.B.,  c.  R - 1 0 . 3 : The Right to Information A c t .  S.N.B.,  c.  11: An Act to Amend the A r c h i v e s A c t .  S . N . B . , c . 44: An Act to Amend the F i n a n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Act which provides for the d e f i n i t i o n of "department" under The A r c h i v e s A c t . V Newfoundland and Labrador 1951  S . N . , c. 68: The P u b l i c Records Act e s t a b l i s h e d Board of Trustees of P u b l i c Records.  1959  S . N . , c. 76: The H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s , S i t e s and Records Act was modelled on the Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Act of 1955 and r e p l a c e d The P u b l i c Records A c t . T h i s Act e s t a b l i s h e d a precedent by l i m i t i n g access to p u b l i c records i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s and renamed the Board of T r u s t e e s .  1973  S . N . , c. 85: The H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s , S i t e s and Records Act r e p l a c e d the H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s , S i t e s and Records A c t , 1959 gave r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a r c h i v e s to the M i n i s t e r of Tourism and broadened the scope of the Act to i n c l u d e a c t i v e and s e m i - a c t i v e p u b l i c records.  1981  S . N . , c.  6: The P r i v a c y A c t .  S.N.,  5: The Freedom of Information A c t .  1983  c.  S . N . , c.  a  33: The A r c h i v e s A c t .  VI Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s 1970  O . N . T . , 2nd s e s s i o n , c. 9: H i s t o r i c a l Resources Ordinance gave the Commissioner the power to c r e a t e a T e r r i t o r i a l Archives.  1981  O.N.T.,  3rd s e s s i o n ,  c.  2: A r c h i v e s Ordinance.  page 166 VII Nova S c o t i a 1861  S . N . S . , c. a l l county of quarter pleas were  23: The P u b l i c Records Act s t a t e d t h a t and m u n i c i p a l records as w e l l as records s e s s i o n s and the i n f e r i o r court of common provincial public records.  1914  S . N . S . , c. 6: An Act i n Respect of Court Records.  1929  S . N . S . , c.  1930  S . N . S . , c. 56: changes membership composition Board of T r u s t e e s .  of  1931  S . N . S . , c. 63: changes membership composition Board of T r u s t e e s .  of  1944  S . N . S . , c. 44: e s t a b l i s h e s allowance for sums a p p r o p r i a t e d by the L e g i s l a t u r e to d e f r a y the expenses of Board members and s t a t e s that Board members are employed i n the P u b l i c S e r v i c e .  1958  S . N . S . , c. 12: The P u b l i c Records D i s p o s a l Act e s t a b l i s h e d a Document Committee and a p p r o v a l process for the d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  1973  S . N . S . , c . 1 4 : C u l t u r e , R e c r e a t i o n and F i t n e s s Act r e f e r s to the r o l e of the department i n a d v i s i n g the Archives.  1977  S . N . S . , c.  to the  Preservation  1: The P u b l i c A r c h i v e s A c t .  10: Freedom of Information A c t .  VIII O n t a r i o 1923  S . O . , c.  20: The A r c h i v e s A c t .  1968  S . O . , c. 118, s. 1: An Act to Amend the S h e r i f f ' s Act provided for the t r a n s f e r of S h e r i f f ' s records to the a r c h i v e s .  1972  S . O . , c . 77, s. 18(5): The E d u c a t i o n Act provided for the s c h e d u l i n g of school board records and for t h e i r t r a n s f e r to the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of Ontario.  IX P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 1947  S . P . E . I . , c. 40, s. 35: The T r e a s u r y Act allowed the d e s t r u c t i o n of f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s .  for  page 167 1964  S . F . E . I . , c . 2 6 ; The A r c h i v e s Act was m o d e l l e d on the Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Act o£ 1955.  1965  S . P . E . I . , c. 20: An Act to Amend an Act to E s t a b l i s h the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d allowed the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t to l i m i t access to p u b l i c records i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s .  1970  S . P . E . I . , c. 4, s. 7: The A r c h e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Act which amends The A r c h i v e s Act g i v e s the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a d m i n i s t e r i n g a r c h e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s conducted i n the p r o v i n c e .  1975  S . P . E . I . , c. 64: The A r c h i v e s Act which r e p l a c e d The A r c h i v e s A c t , 1964 a b o l i s h e d the A r c h i v e s Board and created the P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d A r c h i v e s and Record Office.  X Quebec 179 0  Revised Acts and Ordinances of Lower Canada, 30 George I I I , c . 8: An Act or Ordinance for the b e t t e r p r e s e r v a t i o n and due d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Ancient French Records.  1867  S . Q . , c. 11: The P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s r e a f f i r m e d the 1790 A c t .  1969  S . Q . , c . 26, s. 19: An Act to Repeal the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s Department Act and to amend other legislative provisions.  1977  S . Q . , c. 5 2 . , a r t i c l e 10: The C i t i e s and Towns Act The M u n i c i p a l Code, a r t i c l e 161a as enacted by 1977, c. 53, s. 16 provided for the d i s p o s i t i o n of municipal records.  1982  S . Q . , c. 30: An Act r e s p e c t i n g access to documents held by p u b l i c bodies and the P r o t e c t i o n of p e r s o n a l information.  1983  S . Q . , c. 38: The A r c h i v e s Act which r e p l a c e d An Act Respecting the M i n i s t e r e Des A f f a i r e s C u l t u r e l l e s .  XI  Act  Saskatchewan  1920  S . S . , c. 17: The P r e s e r v a t i o n of P u b l i c Documents Act schedules a l l p u b l i c documents for a p e r i o d of ten y e a r s .  1945  S.S.,  c.  113:  The A r c h i v e s A c t .  page 168  S . S . , c. 95: The R e g i s t e r e d Documents D e s t r u c t i o n Act scheduled a l l r e g i s t e r e d documents for a p e r i o d of twenty y e a r s . S.S.,  c.  112:  An Act to Amend the A r c h i v e s A c t .  S.S.,  c.  119:  An Act to Amend the A r c h i v e s A c t .  S . S . , c. 108, s. 200a: an amendment to the Liquor Act provides for the d i s p o s i t i o n of e l e c t i o n records. s . s . , c. 101: An Act t o Amend the A r c h i v e s A c t . S . S . , c. 84: The A r c h i v e s Act r e p l a c e d The A r c h i v e s A c t , 1945. S . S . , c. 23, s. 408: An amendment to the R u r a l of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act which contained a s e c t i o n d e a l i n g with the p r e s e r v a t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s . S . S . , c. 78, s. 231: The Urban M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act which contained a s e c t i o n d e a l i n g with the p r e s e r v a t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s . S . S . , c. 52, s. 69: The J a c k f i s h - M u r r a y Lake Resort M u n i c i p a l i t y Act contained a s e c t i o n d e a l i n g with the p r e s e r v a t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s . S . S . , c. 17, s. 37: An Act Respecting Elementary and Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n Saskatchewan contained a s e c t i o n d e a l i n g with the p r e s e r v a t i o n of s c h o o l board r e c o r d s . r e p e a l of The R e g i s t e r e d 1946 .  S.Y.T.,  2nd s e s s i o n ,  S.Y.T.,  c.  c.  Documents D e s t r u c t i o n A c t ,  A - 3 : A r c h i v e s Ordinance.  12: Access to Information A c t .  

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