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Utopian design and planning James, Antoni Michael 1989

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UTOPIAN DESIGN AND PLANNING By ANTONI MICHAEL JAMES B. Arch., The University of Manitoba, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community £ Regional Planning) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1989 © Antoni Michael James, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of G radua te Studies, School o f C o m m u n i t y £ Regional P lanning The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 1989-10-13 1 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis is to provide a current overview of the subject of Utopian design in order to reaffirm its value as a component of planning methodology. From the relevant literature there is a wealth of comment on the need for such a paradigm expansion as well as a vast body of visions for alternate futures. Primarily a tool of physical planners, the Utopian process can be adapted to the broader context if appropriate methodology can be developed and integrated into the mainstream. The first chapter sets the context. It provides an overview of changing planning paradigms from the turn of the century and discusses areas of inadequacy in the current approach. The second chapter focuses on the subject of Utopian design, its approach, and fundamental elements as a preliminary foundation for methodological development. The th i rd and fourth chapters examine a series of early and recent Utopian designs respectively. Early Utopian designs are described and analysed as to their impact on succeeding planning thought, thereby establishing credibility; recent Utopian designs are studied to speculate on the kinds of issues and options which planners may be involved in for the future. The fifth chapter is a speculative exercise which synthesizes ideas from the vast menu of the Utopian oeuvre into two diametrically opposed scenarios for Canada in the 21st Century. The intention is to illustrate the potential of Utopian designs in modeling alternatives for discussion and decision-making. In the f inal chap te r , the thesis conc ludes by turn ing the d iscussion to other, non -phys ica l aspects of p lanning where a Utopian e lement can be effective. It is hoped that further research into this subject can result in a broadening and balancing of the current planning paradigm and thus advance the role and responsibility of planners in better ii ant i c ipa t ing the future and in more c r ea t i v e l y prov id ing improved opt ions fo r cons ide ra t ion . iii CONTENTS A b s t r a c t ii L i s t o f F igures vi A cknow ledgemen t v i i C h a p t e r 1: P lanning C o n t e x t 1 1.1 Introduct ion 1 1.2 Exper i en t i a l Ho l i sm (to 1935) 3 1.3 S c i en t i f i c Con junc tu re 5 1.4 Rat iona l Comprehens i ve 6 1.5 Recent Parad igms 7 1.6 New D e c e n t r a l i s m 8 1.7 A P lanning C r i t i que 9 C h a p t e r 2: U top i an Des ign Overv i ew 14 2.1 Introduct ion 14 Chap t e r 3: C a s e Studies - Ea r l y U top ian Des ign 22 3.1 Introduct ion 22 3.2 Ga rden C i t y 23 3.3 C o n t e m p o r a r y C i t y 28 3.4 B roadac re C i t y 35 3.5 D iscuss ion 40 Chap t e r 4: C a s e Studies - Recen t U top ian Des ign 42 4.1 Introduct ion 42 4.2 Plug-in C i t y 43 4.3 En top ia 50 4.4 A r c o l o g y 57 4.5 S u m m a r y 65 Chap t e r 5: A p p l i c a t i o n 72 5.1 Neo-Cen t r a l i sm 74 5.2 Superopol is 75 5.3 Ne twork ing 82 5.4 An t iopo l i s 83 Chap t e r 6: Expanding the P lanning Pa rad igm 91 6.1 A p p r o a c h 91 6.2 Fu tu re-Or i en ta t ion 96 6.3 A p p l i c a t i o n 98 6.4 Potent ia l 101 6.5 Summary 102 Conc lus ion 105 iv B ib l iography/Re fe rences 106 Append ix : Ove rv i ew , 1900 - Present 111 v LIST OF FIGURES 1: Hypothes is 2 2: P lanning Evo lu t ion 4 3: U top ian Des ign A p p r o a c h 18 4: Phys ica l P lanning Evo lu t ion 21 5: Ga rden C i t y C o n c e p t 24 6: Ga rden C i t y De ta i l 25 7: C o n t e m p o r a r y C i t y C o n c e p t 29 8: C o n t e m p o r a r y C i t y Image 30 9: B roadacre C i t y C o n c e p t 36 10: B roadac re C i t y De ta i l 37 11: Plug-in C i t y C o n c e p t 44 12: Plug-in C i t y De ta i l 45 13: En top ia C o n c e p t 51 14: En top ia Sca le F r amework 52 15: A r c o l o g y C o n c e p t 58 16: A r c o l o g y Image 59 17: Implementa t ion 93 vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to ded i ca te this thesis to my wife , Nancy , in acknowledgement o f her inva luable support throughout its p repara t ion . 1.0 P L A N N I N G C O N T E X T "First and foremost, the ideal community model serves as a device for exploring alternative objectives for urban development." - Thomas Re iner , 1967, p. 235 "For example, Picht pictures the future as a combination of prognosis, Utopia and planning. The prognosis represents the experimental-empirical aspect, it makes a scientific diagnosis of the future, formulates a number of alternative possibilities and indicates different directions on the basis of the information supplied by the existing situation. From these materials the Utopian imagination then creatively builds the optimum picture of the future. In this way social imagination creates new possibilities without running wild. The third element, planning, sees to it that the utopically created picture of the future is realized." - P icht , quoted in Ma r t i n P l a t t e l , 1972, p. 39 "...it was the Utopian process rather than the Utopian specific that should serve as present stimulus and inspiration. If we approach Utopias experimentally, tentatively, consciously seeking alternatives, we should be able to avoid the static, complacent rigidity of past social and physical Utopias, as the two traditions (art i fact and institutions) become blended into a single instrument for the planning of cities." - Ma r t i n Meye rson , 1961, p. 193 "The major purpose of an Ideal Community...is to serve as a model by means of which the possibility of various propositions can be tested." - Thomas Re iner , 1963 "Nevertheless, at the minimum such studies, even if only partially successful, contribute to interesting lectures, provocative teaching, and stimulating conversation, all of which can broaden horizons and increase creativity - by no means negligible benefits. More important, these studies can affect basic beliefs, assumptions, and emphases. Probably most important, at least for us at Hudson Institute, is that long-range studies, provide a context in which to do five- and ten-year studies that can and do influence policy choices." - He rman Kahn , 1967, p. 1 1.1 Introduction The premise o f this thesis is that the incorporation of a Utopian design element into the current planning paradigm may be a timely and welcome add i t ion in assisting the process to expand its future-oriented function as well as to counterbalance its ra t iona l/ob jec t i ve capab i l i t i es with an in tu i t i ve/crea t i ve aspect (See F igure 1). P lanning methodo logy is in a constant s tate o f deve lopment , growing as da ta , i n fo rmat ion and knowledge expand, improv ing as tools and techno logy increase, matur ing as soc i e t y and its inst i tut ions b e c o m e more soph is t i ca ted and comp lex , and advanc ing as contextua l c i r cums tances exer t new demands and prev ious ly unexper i enced phenomena . The p lanning process has undergone cont inuous change and improvement s ince its incept ion as o rgan ized profess iona l a c t i v i t y around the turn o f the cen tury . The fo l low ing summary (Weaver, 1983) ident i f ies the most s ign i f i cant highl ights where planning has taken a new turn and d i sca rded or expanded prev ious methodo log i ca l components (See F igure 2). It establ ishes precedent fo r pa rad igm shi f ts such as is proposed in this thesis. 1.2 Experiential Holism (to 1935) Phys ica l p lanning, unti l the mid-1930s, was large ly a ma t t e r o f the exper i en t i a l , re ly ing e i ther on the a r t i s t i c , c lass ica l approach o f the a r ch i t e c t , on the expedient p ro f i t-or ien ted inst incts o f the ent repreneur , or on the r ig id e f f i c i e n c y o f the engineer . Th is seat-of-the-pants methodo logy was app l ied to the cont inu ing se t t l ement pat te rn o f expans ionary urban iza t ion across the cont inent and was founded in e i ther c i v i c boos te r i sm, a t t empted soc ia l r e f o r m through the not ion o f env i ronmenta l de t e rm in i sm , or just p la in quant i ta t i ve a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f the growing urban cent res . The predominant phys ica l results were the cen t r ipe ta l aspects o f the short- l ived but semina l C i t y Beaut i fu l movement o f the 1920s, and the cen t r i fuga l aspects o f the ea r l y suburbanizat ion o f housing. The gr id layout p redomina ted , wi th the excep t ion 3 3 D 0 0 8 /SCO CAffiiSiUS— F igure 2 Planning Evolution \ (Weaver, 1983) o f more f r ee- fo rm , " na tu r a l " layouts in wea l th ier res ident ia l areas and the c lass ica l g e o m e t r y o f the c i v i c cen t res . The automobi le was just beginning to exer t an inf luence on se t t l ement pat terns , as was high-rise cons t ruc t ion techno logy and the e levator , a f f e c t i n g downtown deve lopment . Dur ing this per iod , the not ion o f synthesis o f " town and coun t r y " p l ayed a major part in the growth o f the Parks movement as well as in both the env i ronmenta l determin is t proposal o f Howard and the cent ra l i s t ideas o f L e Co rbus i e r . It was genera l ly subscr ibed to that the c i t y as p roduced by the Industrial Revo lu t ion under la issez-faire cap i t a l i sm had to be r ep l aced , or at least augmented , by a fus ion o f town and country . 1.3 Scientific Conjuncture Planning gradua l l y c a m e to b e c o m e "p ro f e s s i ona l i zed " dur ing the ear l y decades o f this century . F r o m the theore t i ca l side c a m e such thinkers and wr i ters as Ka r l Mannhe im , Lewis M u m f o r d , and Thomas A d a m s ; f r o m the p r a c t i c a l side came such designers and imp lementors as R a y m o n d Unwin , R. C . Tugwe l l , and C l a r e n c e Perry . P lanning c a m e to be r e cogn i zed as hav ing a much wider potent ia l than h i therto imag ined : it began to be seen as a means to in f luence and e f f e c t much more than the bui l t env i ronment ; it began to be grasped as a power fu l tool in expanding the e conomy , ba t t l i ng - unemployment , o ve r com ing soc ia l i l ls, and dea l ing with urban pressures o f al l k inds. A f t e r the G r ea t Depress ion o f the 1930s in Nor th A m e r i c a , phys ica l p lanning took on a major ro le in establ ish ing the new and dominant pa t te rn o f urban se t t l ement that was to last unti l well into the second ha l f o f the century : the cent r i fuga l deve lopment o f the u rban iza t ion t rend to suburb ia . In the U.S., the short-l ived sate l l i te G reenbe l t Town program o f Tugwe l l , a comb in ing o f Perry 's Ne ighborhood Unit and 5 Unwin's Ga rden Suburb, took to the fo re , w i th var ia t ions upon themes propagat ing themse lves across the cont inent throughout subsequent decades . The not ion gradua l l y appeared to evo lve o f p lanning as a sc ience ra ther than an ar t . In coopera t ion among profess ionals , government and industry, the s c i en t i f i c s ide o f p lanning ga ined a s ign i f i cant foo tho ld in the minds o f the profess ionals as wel l as in the minds o f the non-planning wor ld . Un fo r tuna te l y this hold has th rea tened to b e c o m e a s t rang leho ld on the ba lanc ing , and in many respects more forward- look ing, aspects o f p lanning that cou ld not be quan t i f i ed . These qua l i t a t i ve areas tended to b e c o m e submerged and have p re t t y well s tayed domina ted ever s ince . 1.4 Rational Comprehensive F r o m the mid-1950s to the present , the Rat iona l Comprehens i ve p lanning pa rad igm has emerged as the dominant f o r m o f ma ins t r eam planning methodo logy . F r o m the U.S. in ters ta te h ighway p rogram to urban renewal to the gobbl ing up o f the unbui lt env i ronment in the name o f " c l ean suburbs" . Ra t iona l Comprehens i ve planning b e c a m e the undisputed, quant i f i ab le , l inear, goa l-or iented approach to accomp l i sh ing more and bigger and fas te r in response to the post-war e conomi c , industr ia l , and popula t ion boom years . The automobi le and the s ing le-fami ly house domina ted the f o r m o f se t t l ement pa t te rns ; inner c i t y neighborhoods were purged because they were o ld , unsight ly , or unheal thy , and because the au tomobi le requ i red mass passage through and around the urban areas. The not ion o f a " r a t i ona l " approach to planning has pervaded the profession's ac t i v i t y : on the one hand, r ight ly so, wi th publ i c funds be ing used for publ ic f ac i l i t i e s , and by using resources ra t iona l l y as opposed to, one presumes, wh ims ica l l y , one was requ i red to ob jec t i ve l y substant iate one's ac t ions ; on the o ther hand, a hamstr ing ing aspect 6 whereby i f such intangibles as aesthet ics and spat ia l qua l i ty cou ld not be jus t i f i ed in cost-benef i t analysis they cou ld not be p e r m i t t e d . The not ion o f " comprehens i veness " was also in t r ins ica l l y t roub lesome; unarguably des i rab le in a i m , but hard ly p rac t i c ab l e in rea l i t y . Ye t these twin cha rac te r i s t i c s o f p lanning have c o m e to domina te the scene through to the present , at least as bas ic teachab le and c o m m u n i c a b l e methodo logy . In p r a c t i c e however . Ra t iona l Comprehens i v e planning meant many things, and its ambigu i t y and overb lown c l a ims to f a m e sowed the seeds o f its own growing lack o f c red ib i l i t y . 1.5 Recent Paradigms (L ibera l Po l i t i ca l S c i ence C r i t i que (1950-70); Rad ica l L ibe ra l (1960-75); Lea rn ing Theo ry (1970-80); Neo-Marx is t C r i t i que (1970-82) Dur ing the past few decades , the Rat iona l Comprehens i ve p lanning pa rad igm has c o m e under a t t ack . The L ibe ra l Po l i t i ca l Sc i ence C r i t i que r ight ly c r i t i c i z e d both the ra t iona l i t y and the comprehens iveness c l a i m e d by its adherents , and a t t emp ted to deve lop a methodo logy for the pe r ce i v ed inc rementa l rea l i t y o f p lanning ac t i v i t y ( L indb lom, 1959) as a co r r e c t c r i t i c i s m but somewhat o f a cop-out as a v iab le a l te rna t i ve approach . A more mean ingfu l breakthrough c a m e about dur ing the 1960s as a result o f immense soc ia l unrest in the U.S. The focus o f the upheaval was soc ia l l y and rac i a l l y based, but the twin planning issues revo l ved la rge ly around de te r io ra t ing inner c i t y areas, the cor responding inequity and ine f fec t i veness o f then-current urban renewal p rograms as champ ioned by Paul Dav ido f f , and the des t ruc t ion o f ex is t ing heterogenous neighborhoods and c o m m u n i t y f ab r i c ( Jacobs, 1961). 7 Add i t i ona l , r a ther short- l ived input c a m e f r o m the Lea rn ing Theor i s ts ( F r i edmann, 1966, 1973, 1974) and the Neo-Marx is ts whose respec t i ve theor ies were e i ther too eso te r i c to be o f universa l va lue or s imp ly counter-product i ve . Both however , added to or mod i f i ed to some degree , the awareness o f p lanners o f the genera l inadequacy o f the i r approach to soc ie ta l need and how to ach ieve solut ions. Up unt i l the last decade , the planners ' phys ica l response to soc ie ta l need had been caught up in the cont inued cen t r i fuga l f o rms o f suburbaniz ing the c i t i es as the major f o r m o f growth accep tab le to mass soc i e t y . What e f fo r t s were d i r e c t e d at the cen t r ipe ta l side o f u rban iza t ion were genera l l y under the cont ro l o f the p r i va te sec tor , and planning input was o f ten r e s t r i c t ed to the c o s m e t i c and supe r f i c i a l . 1.6 New Decentralism The Nor th A m e r i c a n recess ion o f the 1980s has brought a new response to p lanning, a response that is a lmost en t i re l y counter to the desires o f the pro fess ion . The New D e c e n t r a l i s m is a two-pronged approach to p lanning whereby, on the one hand, the neo-conservat ive re juvenated but perhaps unjust i f ied fa i th in the marke tp l ace reduces planners to mere servant-technic ians , and, on the other hand, the planning-suspicious and se l f-management bent o f the genera l pub l i c reduces the i r ro le to that o f support-adv isors , ' i f and when requ i red . The bui l t env i ronment no longer expands mindless ly outward , but is now ra ther more conce rned with conserva t ion , p reserva t ion , and in f i l l ing the ex is t ing in f ras t ruc ture . Th is is not the result o f a change o f heart on the part o f e i ther consumer or producer , but ra ther is s imple exped iency resul t ing f r o m lack o f resources to cont inue the prev ious t rends. 8 1.7 A Planning Critique The concept of p lanning has two d is t inc t , though comp lemen ta r y , meanings. In its technical sense, it may be thought o f as a process occu r r ing in the border land between po l i t i cs and management which a t t empts to render dec is ions conce rn ing the ends and means o f large organ iza t ions more ra t iona l . A l t e rna t i v e l y , it may be said to be that process which leads to the de f in i t ion and c l ass i f i c a t i on o f organ iza t iona l goals and their reduc t ion to spec i f i c p rograms and courses o f ac t i on . In its second and ideological sense, p lanning may be seen as a means fo r ach iev ing a measure o f se l f-d i rec t ion in the evo lu t ion o f a soc ia l s ys tem: it is a means fo r gaining a substantial measure o f mas te r y over man's dest iny . The Utopian e lement in human thought has fas tened on to planning as its pa r t i cu l a r veh ic le and me thod o f express ion . ( F r i edmann , 1966) The beauty o f F r iedmann 's desc r ip t ion is that it encompasses , in one paragraph, the comp le t e range o f ac t i v i t i es fa l l ing within the broad spec t rum o f possible p lanning ac t i v i t y . A s F r i edmann e laborates at a la ter date (1973), p lanning occurs on a t ime-sca le which ranges f r o m the past through to the distant fu ture , a l though what one convent iona l l y thinks o f as planning usual ly fa l ls into the recent past and near fu ture , where emphas is is p l aced on cur rent resea rch and speedy imp lemen ta t i on . The recent g lobal t rend toward conse rva t i sm and a re juvenated fa i th in f ree marke t pr inc ip les is tending to l imi t fu r ther the ac t i v i t y o f publ i c sec to r planners, and to rev ise the i r present sphere o f in f luence . In address ing the basis for conce rn , it is suggested that the first reason lies pa r t i a l l y in the area o f p e r f o r m a n c e : p lanners are more than wi l l ing to assume respons ib i l i ty , yet there is nothing l ike an impe r f e c t t rack r e co rd to fos ter doubt on the part o f non-planners, and a cor responding insecur i ty wi th in the profess ion . By the nature o f p lanning ac t i v i t y , occas iona l mis takes , wel l- intent ioned are highly v is ib le and o f major , long-last ing impac t . Whi le the overa l l cont r ibut ion o f p lanning is unarguably pos i t i ve , c r i t i c i s m is easi ly l ev ied at spec i f i c projects and occas iona l t rends (F ishman, 1980; K ie rnan , 1982). One 9 has only to look at the p lanning oeuvre o f this cen tu ry to see how a c red ib i l i t y gap cou ld have m a t e r i a l i z e d . Obv ious examples spr ing too read i l y to m ind : the urban renewal and s lum c l ea rance p rograms o f the 1950s and 1960s; the post-War suburban izat ion o f the Nor th A m e r i c a n c i t y ; cen t ra l c i t y decay , gen t r i f i c a t i on , t r a f f i c congest ion , urban po l lu t ion and homelessness. These are al l soc ie ta l concerns which d i r e c t l y or ind i rec t l y can be seen to fa l l wi th in the purv iew o f p lanning respons ib i l i ty . A s soc ie ty and its prob lems grow in ever- increas ing comp lex i t y , p lanners somet imes appear to the lay person to be using o ld solut ions for new prob lems . The second reason for conce rn lies in the genera l is t nature o f the p ro fess ion . P lanning has ex is ted as widespread o rgan ized profess iona l ac t i v i t y fo r a m e r e hundred years or so. As such, it is st i l l somewhat embryon i c , at least in compar i son with other t rad i t iona l profess ions such as law, eng ineer ing, med ic ine and educa t i on . Unders tandab ly , p lanners have evo l ved through vary ing contextua l s i tuat ions dur ing this cen tu ry by a f l ex ib i l i t y o f response to soc io-economic c i r cums tances . Un fo r tuna te l y , this f l ex ib i l i t y has on occas ion been ca r r i ed to excess . In rev iewing a t t empts to mode l the profess ion along the l ines o f more estab l i shed ac t i v i t i es and ca rve out a tur f , perhaps planners cannot help but pro ject , f r o m t ime to t ime , a pe rcep t ion o f sel f-doubt to both publ i c and pr i va te sec tors . Ove r the past severa l decades , planners have var ious ly assumed the ro les o f a rch i tec t s , engineers', phi losphers, soc io log is ts , po l i t i c ians , sc ient is ts , lawyers, and the mi l i t a ry . A rev iew o f C l y d e Weaver 's a r t i c l e (1984) wi l l roughly put these ca tegor ies into the h i s tor i c pe rspec t i ve o f Exper ien t i a l Ho l i sm, U top ian Soc i a l i sm , S c i en t i f i c Con junc tu re , Ra t iona l Comprehens i veness , A d v o c a c y and P lu ra l i sm and Neo-decent ra l i sm (See F igu re 1). F r i e d m a n n (1966) ear l i e r caught some o f this mood in descr ib ing the planners' ro le as ne i ther soc io log is t , nor geographer , nor a r ch i t ec t , nor t ranspor ta t ion engineer, nor economis t , nor budget exper t , but rather some sort o f team-an ima l wi th cer ta in 10 gene ra l i z ed knowledge and an ab i l i t y to d i rec t and co-ordinate the spec i a l i zed knowledge o f other exper t s . It is perhaps not surpr is ing that soc ie ty is re luc tant to c a t ego r i c a l l y g ive g rea te r endorsement to a profess ion whose n iche is so d i f f i cu l t to de f ine and to unders tand. The third reason for conce rn and the p r ima r y subject o f this thesis lies in the area o f ideology (See for examp le A l exande r , 1984: F r i e d m a n n , 1966; M u m f o r d , 1922; P l a t t e l , 1972). Re f e r r i ng again to the second e l ement o f F r iedmann 's prev ious ly-quoted de f in i t i on o f p lanning, planners somet imes seem to have ignored planning's fu l l potent ia l and, hence, the respons ib i l i ty imp l i c i t the re in . Th is has been understandable for the most par t : lack o f knowledge, a t t empts to estab l ish so l id c redent ia l s , necessary exped iency , or just p la in fear o f r i d i cu l e . It cou ld be, however , that this e l ement is a fundamenta l and s t ra teg i c m is take . The re is a wea l th o f l i te ra ture on the subject o f soc iety 's need to l i f t its head f r o m the absorpt ion o f day-to-day solv ing o f c r ises , to r e a f f i r m and reassess its cu l tura l va lues, and to search for a l te rnat i ve d i rec t ions as the con tempora r y ideology shows signs o f de te r i o ra t i on . The nature o f p lanning is such that it can and should be at the very fo re f ron t o f this sea rch . This second, ideo log ica l aspect of p lanning is c ruc i a l but has been inherent ly p rob l ema t i c ; it is, however , an aspect that may be read i l y addressed. P lanning is, by de f in i t i on , a f o r m a l i z e d fu ture-or iented ac t i v i t y . A t the level o f phys ica l p lanning, the focus is on the bui l t env i ronment and on the determinants o f f o r m for urban areas, due to the h is tor i c t rend towards u rban iza t ion . Because bui ldings, roads, and serv ices have l i fespans which are measured in decades , planning dec is ions regard ing the i r nature , loca t ion , s i ze , and con f igura t ion are necessar i l y long- as well as short-range. The fundamenta l d i f f i cu l t y inherent in phys ica l p lanning, however , l ies in a t t empt ing to es t imate the quant i ta t i ve and qua l i t a t i ve needs o f soc ie ty ten, 20, or 100 years in the fu ture . Whi le it is not wi th in the scope o f this thesis to address 11 such a large and onerous issue, this thesis does suggest that one component of planning's arsenal must include an enhanced capac i t y fo r goa l-generat ing, or , more rea l i s t i ca l l y , d i rec t ion-estab l i sh ing . Fur ther , this thesis submits that the fo rmu la t i on o f a l te rnat i ve scenar ios is mandatory in long-range dec is ion-making about how soc ie ty is to be f a c i l i t a t ed in the fu tu re . The rea l i t y o f p lanning p r a c t i c e , however , is that it is o f t en l im i t ed to shor t- te rm, conserva t i ve , and inc rementa l a c t i v i t y . L a c k i n g a necessary and mean ingfu l capab i l i t y fo r mode l ing a l te rnat i ves , p lanning,where it does have impact o f t en seems to succeed p r ima r i l y in ex t rapo la t ing the status quo. Its ro le is in danger o f becoming that o f admin is t ra to r and f a c i l i t a to r ; its fu ture-or iented ab i l i t y is severe ly cu r t a i l ed by a possible t im id i t y on the part o f the p lanning profess ion to o f f e r wi lder imag inat ion and innovat ive ideas su f f i c i en t to comba t the cur rent neo-conservat ive s t rang leho ld on most , if not a l l , aspects o f the urban fu tu re . Return ing to this sect ion 's opening quota t ion , the emphas is on the technical sense o f p lanning seems to be obfusca t ing its ideological sense. If there is one th ing to be learned f r o m the past , it is that change is the only cons tant . P lanning, however , deals with the fu ture . T o plan in te l l igent ly fo r the fu ture , one must have some sort o f v is ion o f what that fu ture cou ld or should be. T o approach planning otherwise is e i ther to ex t rapo la te the present cond i t ion or be res igned to an ever las t ing ser ies o f i nc rementa l ac t ions . Whi le in some instances ex t rapo la t ion and i nc rementa l i sm are des i rab le and even necessary , even these f a c i l i t a t i v e and expedi t ious approaches to p lanning are c a r r i ed out within a f r amework , exp l i c i t or not , o f some an t i c ipa ted future cond i t ion . Put more b lunt ly , to "not p l an " is a dec is ion to produce an unplanned fu tu re . The present p lanning profess ion requires he ightened l eg i t imacy . In this f r ame of 12 mind the predominant p lanning a t t i tude is conserva t i ve and somewhat understandably nervous o f any talk o f " v i s i on " ; it is d i f f i cu l t to s t ray f r o m the ra t iona l and the quant i f i ab le . In its zea l to b e c o m e increas ing ly ob jec t i ve in its approach , it may be in growing danger o f throwing out the baby with the ba thwater . The thrust o f this d iscuss ion, however , is toward a ba lance be tween the ob jec t i ve and ra t iona l " s c i e n c e " o f p lanning and the subject ive and intu i t ive " a r t " o f p lann ing. In the case o f phys ica l p lanning, the exper ien ta l Utopian examples o f the past have e x e m p l i f i e d v is ion, a lbe i t many o f t hem at the expense o f substance . The i r overa l l con t r ibu t ion to present bui l t f o r m , however , is surpr is ingly s ign i f i cant . It seems that the p lanning profess ion cou ld learn more f r o m the past and, now more than ever , f i nd a way o f cons t ruc t i ve l y and p roduc t i ve l y harnessing this c r ea t i ve energy . However , p lanning has too o f ten been in the pos i t ion o f co r r e c t i ng mistakes a f t e r they have happened ra ther than in the pos i t ion o f de t ec t i ng and remov ing t rouble spots be fo re they lead to major mis takes . I t he re fo re r e c o m m e n d that the p lanning agency submit a quar te r l y or other pe r iod i c report to the loca l ch i e f execu t i ve a le r t ing the c o m m u n i t y o f danger signs. . . the p lanning agency should thus perpetua l l y scan the c o m m u n i t y for ind icat ions o f ma lad jus tment . . . to be e f f e c t i v e the p lanning agency 's pulse-taking report must not on ly a lert the c o m m u n i t y to t rouble spots, but must also point to remed ia l a c t i on . - Meye r son , Ma r t i n (1956) "Bu i ld ing the M idd le-Range Br idge for Comprehens i v e P lann ing" in A Reader in P lanning Theory repr in ted f r o m JA IP 22:2, pp. 127 - 138. 13 2.0 UTOPIAN DESIGN OVERVIEW "(There are) marry factors which have contributed to destroying the market for Utopian thinking in America." - Dav id Re i sman , 1947, p. 178 "Strategic planning is worthless - unless there is first a strategic vision." - John Na isb i t t , 1982, p. 94 "It is Polak's contention (in his The Image of the Future) that the capacity to image the future is a core capacity in any culture that is manifested in every aspect of that culture...but Polak points out that the Utopian and eschatalogical modes are symbiotic, and either without the other goes into decline." - E l i se Bould ing, 1961, pp. 434-5 "We need more vivid Utopias." - Marga re t M e a d , 1937, p. 958 "Renewed interest in the design and more importantly in the visionary aspects of planning the physical environment should be seen in the context of a general rekindling of interest in the subjective and intuitive. Insight, personal knowledge and the accidental have all returned to the fore." - M i chae l See l ig , 1984, p. 2 "...Klages wants scientific rationality in the investigation of the future to be enlarged in the direction of the imagination and concrete Utopia." - Ma r t i n P l a t t e l , 1972, p. 39 2.1 Introduction The word " u t o p i a " has acqu i red negat ive connota t ion over the years . It is there fore fe l t necessary to set the stage for this d iscuss ion with the context so o f t en r e fe r red to in the re levant l i t e ra ture : Ka r l Mannhe im's (1936) d i s t inc t ion be tween ideology and utopia. A s ably e luc ida ted by John F r i e d m a n n (1973, pp. 1 2 0 - 2 1 ) , the fo rmer trusts in the gradual unfo ld ing o f the poss ib i l i t ies inherent in an establ ished sys tem o f order (po l i t i ca l , e c o n o m i c , soc i a l , and cu l tura l ) . It takes for g ran ted that the sys tem, however impe r f e c t , can be brought c loser to its 14 ideal form. A s a resul t , ideo log ica l th ink ing is bas i ca l l y r e fo rm is t . It does not cha l lenge the system's s t ruc tura l re la t ions , but seeks only to mod i f y some o f their e f f e c t s . U top ian th ink ing, on the other hand, seeks to over throw the ex is t ing sys tem o f order in favour o f a d i f f e r en t one . It is, however , subject to the inherent con t rad i c t i on that , once r ea l i z ed , Utopian thought becomes the new ideology, and, thus, the successfu l r evo lu t ionary becomes conse rva t i ve . Mos t ge rmane to the thrust o f this thesis are F r i edmann ' s conc lud ing remarks on the subject : U top ian th ink ing is, the re fo re , e f f e c t i v e only when it occurs within the mat r ix o f the soc ie ty it re jects , it can never b e c o m e an ac t ion o r i en ta t ion in its own r ight . The foundat ion o f p r a c t i c a l ac t ion has always been ideology, whi le Utopian th ink ing has served as leavening in the process o f pe r f e c t i ng a g iven soc ia l s y s t em. The re is a vast body o f literature on the subject o f Utopian thought which reinforces the not ion that there is not only a validity and usefulness to this ac t i v i t y , but a necess i ty as we l l . The ove rwhe lm ing consensus, however , is that to o p t i m i z e the e f f ec t i veness o f this approach requires an in tegrat ion wi th in the wider f r amework o f the ma ins t r eam planning pa rad igm. Thus, the above c o m m e n t e f f e c t i v e l y sums up the preva i l ing a t t i tude (See, fo r examp le Bould ing, 1961; Ha l l , 1983; Ho l loway , 1984; Mead , 1957; Mor r i son , 1984; Rowe, 1978; and S i m e c k a , 1984). In this ve in , the emerg ing d i r ec t i on o f this thesis is that present planning ac t i v i t y should inc lude a fo rma l capacity for Utopian des ign-model ing (Ha l l , 1984; L ynch , 1981; Meye r son , 1961; and Re iner , 1967). Mo re spec i f i c a l l y , P la t te l (1972) proposes a s t ruc ture whereby: (1) prognosis ex t rapo la tes present trends v ia pro jec t ion techniques, and proposes a l te rna t i ve d i rec t ions for cons idera t ion ; (2) Utopian design examines and i l lustrates these a l ternat ives fo r the i r potent ia l mul t i-d imens iona l impl ica t ions , and submits them for tes t ing ; and (3) development then implements , or f a c i l i t a t es 15 imp lemen ta t i on of, the opt ima l a l t e rna t i ve . The basic significance o f Utopian designs for ideal commun i t i e s occurs on three levels : c r i t i c i s m , methodo logy , and phys ica l f o r m . Criticism is useful in help ing to def ine and p r io r i ze ex is t ing prob lems o f the bui l t env i ronment , and in presenting ex t rapo la t ion o f and a l te rnat i ves to the potent ia l imp l i ca t ions o f present soc ie ta l t rends. The ac tua l process o f Utopian design is o f value in understanding the c l ea r relationship and t rans la t ion o f values into bu i l t - fo rm, and can cont r ibu te to the modern planning process by ba lanc ing a present tendency to a nar rowing o f perspec t i ve ra ther than a broadening o f i t . Spat ia l alternatives gene ra ted by Utopian designers are fasc ina t ing g l impses into fu ture se t t l ement f o r m and pat terns , and suggest a wea l th o f potent ia l phys ica l response to the growing comp lex i t i e s o f soc ie ta l issues. Sa id response can enhance or impede in d i r ec t p ropor t ion to the amount o f ser ious a t tent ion and energy devo ted to p lanning as a fu ture-or iented ra ther than mere l y r eac t i ve , f a c i l i t a t i v e , or admin i s t ra t i ve a c t i v i t y . A s previously posited, the works o f ear ly Utopian des igners such as Howard , Le Corbus ie r , and Wright have made serious impressions on the i r contemporary and subsequent built env i ronments . M u c h o f the phys ica l f o rms and e lements deve loped dur ing the f i rs t ha l f o f this cen tu ry have found the i r way into the ve rnacu la r o f the present approach to the deve lopment o f human se t t l ements , pa r t i cu l a r l y on the Nor th A m e r i c a n cont inent . Th is thesis ex t rapo la tes this not ion in hypothes iz ing that the e f f e c t s o f recent Utopian des ign thought wil l be increas ing ly fe l t to the point that the designs rev i ewed may prov ide s ign i f i cant c lues as to the nature o f our bui l t fu ture . U top ian des ign, in the context o f phys ica l p lanning, is conce rned with the genera t ing o f hypo the t i ca l , i dea l i zed commun i t i e s by indiv iduals who wish e i ther to exp lore ext rapo la t ions of soc ie ta l aspects which they pe rce i ve to be o f increas ing s ign i f i cance . 16 or to genera te a l te rna t i ve scenar ios to the i r con tempora r y contexts for reasons o f d i ssa t i s fac t ion with that con tex t . Whi le there exists s ign i f i cant h is tor ic p recedent fo r this approach, da t ing back thousands o f years , it is the intent ion here to focus on an overv iew o f Utopian design s ince the turn o f this cen tury , and to conf ine this deve lopment to its impact on phys ica l p lanning in the cu l tu ra l , geograph ic , and soc io-economic con tex t o f Nor th A m e r i c a . U top ian des ign, or the "p lanning o f ideal c o m m u n i t i e s " to use Reiner 's phrase, is t yp i ca l l y conce rned with six e l ements : phys ica l f o r m , land use, soc io-economics , nature , c i r cu l a t i on , and fu ture growth. Physical form deals wi th the spat ia l o rgan iza t ion and three-dimensiona l con f igura t ion o f the bui l t env i ronment ; land use deals wi th the degree o f separat ion o f d i f f e r en t ac t i v i t i es , their s ize , sca le , and in te rac t ion ; socio-economics deals with the issue o f equi ty and h ie ra rchy , a lbei t genera l l y at a most conceptua l l eve l ; nature deals with the si te and the use, in tegra t ion , and impac t on the natura l env i ronment ; circulation deals with the movemen t o f people , i n fo rmat ion , goods anu serv ices , and their in ter re la t ionships ; and future growth deals with expansion o f the concept as it is imp lemented , and deve lops and evolves f r o m its init ia l stages (See F igu re 3). This thesis mainta ins that Utopian des ign concepts are not merely f l ights o f pure f ancy , but, on the cont ra ry , are serious and s incere inquir ies into a l te rnat i ves and options for fu ture cons ide ra t ion ; it turns out that they are the basis fo r much o f the f o r m and e lements o f modern phys ica l p lanning and, as such, have a major respons ib i l i ty for much o f today's bui l t env i ronment . It is impor tant to r ecogn ize also that the nature o f the phys ica l design o f the env i ronment is such that it requires enormous lead-t ime for conceptua l approaches to man i fes t themse lves in everyday p r a c t i c e . Thus, the Utopian designs o f ear l i e r decades provided many impor tant c lues as to what va r i e t y o f f o rms were to evo lve in subsequent urban deve lopment , for, even given the same 17 (^^^1 (^^^ (^^^j Figure 3 - Utopian Design Approach (Re iner , 1963) 18 prob lem-contex t , it is astonishing to see the wide d i f f e r ences o f response the Utopian approach can genera te . Fo r example, though such Utopian designers as Howard , L e Corbus ie r , and Wright were each inspired by the strongest o f similar sent iments against the c i t y o f his day, each deve loped an a l te rna t i ve response in the most fundamenta l l y opposed d i rec t ions poss ib le . A t one ex t r eme , we have the " C o n t e m p o r a r y C i t y " , a c i t y o f order , c o m m e r c e , and soc io-economic h ie ra rchy , in t r ins ica l l y un i f i ed by landscaping and made possible by state-of-the-art techno logy . A t the other ex t r eme , we have the "B roadac re C i t y " , a c i t y o f indiv iduals and equi ty , founded upon the building b locks o f the f a m i l y home and the au tomob i l e , and s t ruc tu red within the grid o f decen t r a l i z ed inst i tut ions. M idway be tween , we have the " G a r d e n C i t y " , a b lending o f town and country , wi th in an improved f r amework o f soc ia l , e conomi c , and po l i t i ca l ba lance . It takes l i t t le imag inat ion to re la te these three approaches , and the i r combina t ions and permuta t ions , to the con tempora r y No r th A m e r i c a n c i t y , with its c o m p l e t e env i ronmenta l range f r om inner c i t y co re to outer suburban sprawl . A rev iew o f recent Utopian des ign, spec i f i c a l l y A r ch ig r am ' s "P lug-in C i t y " , Doxiadis ' " E n t o p i a " , and Soleri 's " A r c o l o g y " , suggests issues that may be coming under increas ing sc ru t iny in the decades ahead if the present u rban iza t ion t rend and global popula t ion g rowth cont inues . "P lug-in C i t y " i l lustrates the concept o f a techno log ica l l y-enhanced f l ex ib i l i t y o f future urban f o r m response to changing soc ie ta l demand ; " E n t o p i a " prov ides a ra t iona l l y s t ruc tu red f r amework which addresses a h ie ra rchy o f spat ia l re la t ionships for a global soc ie ty wi th in the context o f cont inued mega lopo l i t an expans ion ; and " A r c o l o g y " is a comb ined a r ch i t ec tu ra l-eco log i ca l approach to the dens i f i c a t i on o f urban areas by c o m p a c t i o n , in tegrat ion and u t i l i za t ion o f the th i rd (vert ica l ) d imens ion o f bu i l t- form at an unprecedented and a lmost unimaginable sca le . 19 It is reasonable to assume, or at least to propose some caut ious ex t rapo la t ion , that ideas be ing put fo r th now, ex t r emis t as they might present ly appear , might prov ide some d i rec t ions for exp lo ra t ion by which we may an t i c ipa te and approach the prob lems o f the des ign o f our env i ronment in the fu ture (See F igure H). 20 \ / \ __ ^ F igure 4- - Physical Planning Evolution 21 3. CASE STUDIES - Early Utopian Design "Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men's blood and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans: aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram, once recorded, will never die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with ever growing insistency." - Dan ie l Burnham, c. 1900 "Since Utopia is something perhaps by now ingrained...it cannot, and should not, be something wholly made to go away. A political absurdity, it might remain a psychological necessity. Which, translated into architectural terms, could be a statement concerning the ideal city - for the most part physically insufferable, but often valuable to the degree that it may involve some kind of dimly perceived conceptual necessity." - C o l i n Rowe, 1978, p. 125 "If the story of Utopia throws any light upon the story of mankind it is this: our Utopias have been pitifully weak and inadequate; and if they have not exercised enough practical influence upon the course of affairs, it is because, as Viola Paget says in Gospels of Anarchy, they were simply not good enough." - Lewis M u m f o r d , 1922, pp. 25-6 "These lists make only the obvious point that as a result of the long-term trends toward accumulation of scientific and technological knowledge and the institutionalization of change through research, development, innovation, and diffusion, many important new things are likely to happen in the next few decades. It is worth asking specifically what the consequences of each item - and their synergistic interactions - might be." - He rman Kahn , 1967, p. 51-57 3.1 Introduction L e Corbus ie r , Howard , and Wright shared a c o m m o n dis l ike for the urban env i ronments o f the i r t ime . E a ch was r evo l t ed by the wre t ched l iv ing condi t ions brought about by the excesses o f the Industrial Revo lu t ion ; each be l i e ved in the t r iumph o f emerg ing techno logy as support ive o f new capab i l i t i es for soc ie t y ; and each an t i c ipa ted a mass ive and cons t ruc t i ve soc ia l upheaval resu l t ing in a f r ee r age. They o f f e r ed , as response, however , three rad i ca l l y d i f f e ren t proposals fo r the p lanning o f new c i t ies , des igned 22 around themes o f c en t r a l i z a t i on , modera te decen t r a l i z a t i on , and ex t r eme decen t r a l i z a t i on respec t i ve l y ( F i shman, 1977). 3.2 Garden C ity Howard's Ga rden C i t y proposal o f 1898, subsequent ly bui l t as L e t chwo r th and Welwyn in Eng land , is man i f e s t ed in a modera te l y de cen t r a l i z ed ser ies o f e conomi ca l l y and industr ia l ly se l f-conta ined sate l l i te towns, separa ted by greenbe l ts , and in te r connec ted by road , ra i l , and cana l . E a c h town a c c o m m o d a t e s approx imate l y 32,000 inhabitants, and is rad ia l l y s t ruc tu red f r o m a cent ra l park which conta ins the c i v i c co re f ac i l i t i e s . Landscaped areas p lay an impor tant ro le in this town-country fus ion , and ac t to separate res ident ia l , industr ia l , and agr i cu l tu ra l land uses, as well as to prov ide pedest r ian access throughout . The dens i ty is low, about eight units per ac re , and the emphasis is on an enhanced sense o f ne ighborhood and overa l l c o m m u n i t y sca le (See F igures 5 and 6). Howard's cont r ibu t ion to p lanning is immeasurab le : he is genera l l y r e cogn ized as being inst rumenta l in the f o rma l i z i ng o f p lanning as a profess iona l a c t i v i t y in Western soc ie t y ; his approach to comprehens i ve land use p lanning, zon ing, and the decen t r a l i z a t i on o f urban areas has had substant ia l impac t on subsequent trends o f urban se t t l ement pat terns both in Europe and Nor th A m e r i c a . His conce rn with op t ima l s ize and sca le o f the ne ighborhood has p roven to be a p lanning focus ever s ince , as ev idenced by the work o f M u m f o r d , Perry , S te in , Osborn , A b e r c r o m b i e and Tugwe l l . "It was his unique synthesis o f f o r m e r proposals , and in par t i cu la r , the astonishing s imp l i c i t y and range o f deta i l that made in one st roke seemingly idea l i zed and imprac t i c a l schemes rea l i zab le within the con tempora r y po l i t i ca l and soc ia l con tex t . Howard's intu i t ive grasp o f his own soc ie ty was so great as to con fe r on h im the power to br ing a revo lu t ionary concept out o f the r ea lm o f idea and into the r ea lm o f mate r i a l r e a l i z a t i on . " - P. Ba tche lo r , 1969, p. 185 23 O n e s l i c e o f t h e c i r c u l a r p i e . A t y p i c a l w a r d a n d t h e c e n t e r o f t h e G a r -d e n C i t y . F r o m Garden Cities of To-morrow, ( 1 9 0 2 ) . Figure 5 Garden City Concept 24 Organic unity. Parker and Unwin's designs for working class housing in Letchworth. R. Unwin, Town Planning in Practice, (1909). Letchworth cottages for the working class, designed by Parker and Unwin to express the Garden City philosophy. From Letchworth Gar-den City in Fifty-Five Pictures, (1911). F igu re 6 Garden City Detail Howard's con t r ibu t ion to p lanning is on three levels : the f i rs t is to do with the f o rma l i z i ng o f p lanning as profess iona l a c t i v i t y ; the second is to do with p lanning as a large-scale , regional opera t ion involv ing not just phys ica l issues, but e conomi c and soc ia l ones as we l l ; and the th i rd is an approach to decen t r a l i z ed phys ica l p lanning that has f o r m e d much o f the basis o f urban se t t l ement pat terns in Nor th A m e r i c a for well over ha l f a cen tury . A s a result o f his e f fo r t s in t ry ing to establ ish his f i rs t Ga rden C i t y , Howard eventua l l y e vo l ved into the pos i t ion o f founding fa ther o f the Br i t i sh Town and C o u n t r y P lanning Assoc i a t i on . P lanning, as f o r m a l , o rgan ized ac t i v i t y , was p romu lga ted in B r i ta in by the l ikes o f F r ede r i ck Osborn who was inst rumenta l in s t ruc tur ing the New Towns A c t o f 1946. In the U.S .A. , Lew is M u m f o r d and Pat r i ck Geddes he lped shape ear l y p lanning thought and o rgan iza t ion , whi le in C a n a d a Thomas A d a m s and Thomas Hors fa l l led the count r y in s imi la r a c t i v i t y . A l l were enthus iast ic about Howard's town-and-country concep t , and all were keen to fu r ther the cause o f p lanning l eg i t imacy . P lanning as coord ina ted ac t ion on many f ronts , in addi t ion to its phys ica l component and as large-scale endeavour , seems to have f i rs t appeared in Nor th A m e r i c a in a major way dur ing the Rese t t l ement Adm in i s t r a t i on o f F rank l in Rooseve l t wi th R e x f o r d Gu y Tugwel l ' s G reenbe l t Town P rog r am . Resembl ing the th ink ing o f Howard in t e rms o f phys ica l p r inc ip les but wi th the added re f inement o f Perry 's Ne ighborhood Un i t , the Greenbe l t Towns were des igned as dependent sate l l i tes o f the major c i t i es , ra ther than autonomous but l inked sel f-susta ining commun i t i e s . In C a n a d a , the f i rs t such planning e f f o r t on a nat ional sca le was not to appear unti l the War t ime Housing P rog ram dur ing Wor ld War II; subsequent ly , Don Mi l l s was deve loped outs ide To ron to a long town-and-country l ines. Mo re recen t l y , the G rea t e r Vancouve r Regiona l D i s t r i c t ' s Reg iona l Town C e n t r e p rogram in l ike fash ion decants the cent ra l c i t y to the Lower 26 Main land and in te rconnects the d e c e n t r a l i z e d whole with rap id t rans i t . It should be noted that these programs were not just a t t empts to bu i ld the necessary new housing and re l a ted f ac i l i t i e s , but were spec i f i c a l l y t a i l o red to prov ide emp loymen t , to f o r m or reawaken the cons t ruc t ion industry, and to decen t r a l i z e se t t l ement pat terns beyond the conges ted cent ra l c i t i es to the rura l areas . The not ion o f Howard's rura l co t t age as a re t rea t f r o m the pace o f urban l i fe has been cont inua l l y and cons iderab ly wate red down beginning with R a y m o n d Unwin , who with Bar ry Parker , des igned the f i rs t Ga rden C i t y and then p roceeded to propagate its ant i thes is , the Hamps tead Ga rden Suburb which was a d i s t inc t l y se rv i ce-dormi to ry suburb adjacent to and dependent on the major urban cen t re . A t t e m p t s to re in t roduce the pur i ty o f the Ga rden C i t y idea led Br i ta in to deve lop a ser ies o f se l f-conta ined reg iona l cent res through its New Town P rog r am . In Nor th A m e r i c a the not ion o f the c e n t r a l i z e d c i t y and its out l y ing dependent suburbs de f in i t e l y b e c a m e the predominant f o r m . Now, however , that the s te r i l i t y o f homogeneous res ident ia l areas is a r e cogn ized cha rac t e r i s t i c , some o f Howard's or ig ina l premises have been re-examined . In summary , great a t ten t ion is be ing pa id to the idea o f " c o m m u n i t y " as env is ioned by Howard . A l t hough his popula t ion l imi t o f 32,000 persons was never substant ia ted, the not ion o f s ize l imi ts and cor responding sca le and scope o f in f ras t ruc ture is a p rob l ema t i c one . S ince the Ne ighborhood Unit 's somewhat formula- l ike approach , the search by planners fo r the l i tera l and f igura t i ve de f in ing o f c o m m u n i t y has been cons tant . Howard seems to have dec l a r ed "32,000 is i t " and it was bui l t , but today p lanners are st i l l exp lor ing vary ing rat ios , p ropor t ion , and exper iments in a r t i f i c i a l l y- induced soc ia l m ix . He deve loped Welwyn and Le t chwor th in the f i rs t quar te r of this century ; they are both thr iv ing cent res today . Perhaps planners cou ld 27 take another look. 3.3 . Contemporary City L e Corbus ie r ' s C o n t e m p o r a r y C i t y proposal o f 1922 is man i f e s t ed in a c en t r a l i z ed , high-density, high-rise urban co re o f c o m m e r c e and admin i s t ra t ion , surrounded by medium-dens i ty , mid-r ise res ident ia l deve lopment . Rad ia t ing ou tward is an industr ia l a rea , bu f f e r ed f r o m other land uses by greenbe l ts , wh ich is in turn surrounded by low-density, low-rise res ident ia l suburbs. The whole is to ta l l y in tegra ted by pedestr ian-use landscaped areas, and is served by a re l a t i ve l y soph is t i ca ted h ie ra rch i ca l t ranspor ta t ion network and cent ra l in terchange, inc luding a c c o m m o d a t i o n for newly-deve loping air and au tomob i l e techno logy (See F igures 7 and 8). One has only to look at any Nor th A m e r i c a n c i t y today to see the c rude genera l image o f L e Corbus ie r ' s ear ly sketches : the high-density , high-rise co re o f the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t ; the adjacent high-density, high-rise cen t ra l res ident ia l a rea ; the surrounding inner c i t y o f medium-dens i ty , med ium height housing and m ixed r e t a i l - commerc i a l uses; and the out l y ing res ident ia l suburbs. A key part o f what has essent ia l ly been lost in the t rans la t ion , however , is the present subst i tut ion o f roads and park ing lots for his or ig ina l scheme's 95% l andscaped pedest r ian se t t ing . A t a sma l le r sca le , soc ie ty has also d i sca rded his spac ious, two-storey, double-exposure garden apar tment bui ld ings wi th integral soc ia l , r e t a i l , and rec rea t iona l amen i t i es . O the r c r i t i c s , espec ia l l y c i t y p lanning theor ists such as Jane Jacobs, have fau l ted L e Co rbus i e r for tak ing an over-s impl i s t i c v iew o f the way the c i t y funct ions , d iv id ing it up with r ig id s ta t i s t i ca l ca tegor ies and pay ing no a t tent ion to comp lex , indiv idual processes . Pa r t l y this is a fa i r c r i t i c i sm but again it misses the r ichness and wea l th o f deta i l which he would deve lop when ac tua l l y execut ing a pro jec t . Jencks, 1973, p. 170 28 Figure 7 Contemporary City Concep (Le Corbusier, 1929) 29 Figure 8 Contemporary City [mage (Le Corbusier, 1929) L e Corbus ie r ' s v is ion for a new c i t y f o r m c a m e about at a t ime when the major i ty o f Par is and most indust r ia l i zed c i t i es su f f e r ed f r o m acute fa l lout - l i te ra l l y and f igura t i ve l y - o f cap i ta l i s t excess . His p lan , t e r m e d " P l an V o i s i n " a f t e r its sponsor was a r e f inement and proposed test case for the pr inc ip les o f his ear l i e r hypothet i ca l C o n t e m p o r a r y C i t y . It was intended to purge the worst o f the s lum housing, and rep lace it w i th c l ean , modern , spacious dwel l ings, set in landscaped green space , and se r v i c ed by integra l schools , dayca re , and rec rea t iona l and soc ia l amen i t i es , the l ikes o f which s imple d id not exist in the ra t- in fes ted , d isease-r idden, c r ime- laden , o ve r c rowded ghet toes o f con tempora r y Par is . L e Co rbus i e r is m u c h c r i t i c i z e d today for this c a r t e b lanche " s lum c l e a r a n c e " approach when seen in the l ight o f the damage o f the U.S. urban renewal e f fo r t s o f the 1950s and 60s. In a s im i l a r ve in , much o f Hausmann's work in Par is in the mid-nineteenth cen tu ry has been s im i l a r l y c r i t i c i z e d , yet it is d i f f i cu l t to v is i t this c i t y and not be impressed by its grand avenues, its monuments , and propor t ioned facades , and f ind in contras t the cha rm ing sca le and texture o f the now-quaint and c lean a l leyways and s idest reets . L e Corbus ie r ' s v is ion c a m e about at a t ime when both cons t ruc t ion techno logy and design methodo logy were s imul taneous ly embark ing on the Mach ine A g e which p roved to be a ha l f-century o f new ideas, breakthroughs, d i scover ies , innovat ion: high-rise towers , e levators , r e i n fo r ced conc re t e and s tee l , and the glass cur ta in-wal l ; a i r t rave l and the au tomob i l e ; the Bauhaus movemen t , the Internat ional S ty le , C I A M , Town Planning Assoc ia t ions and modern ar t . L e Co rbus i e r des igned, f i rs t o f a l l , not just a hypothet i ca l c i t y , but an ent i re urban reg ion . His ideas encompassed the tota l spec t rum o f home-work-play, as well as a c o m p l e t e range o f phys ica l components and in f ras t ruc ture necessary to a c c o m m o d a t e t hem, f r o m cent ra l co re to rural areas. In ve ry s imp l i f i ed f o r m , his des ign inc luded a cent ra l business area o f o f f i c e towers whose s ize , height and spac ing 31 p e r m i t t e d 9596 o f the ground to be landscaped. The modern downtown cores conta in lower bui ldings in much c loser p rox im i t y , and g ive over most o f the ground to automobi les in the f o r m o f roads and park ing lots. In the cen t re o f the core , L e Co rbus i e r pos i t ioned, log ica l l y enough, the ma in t ranspor ta t ion in terchange for air , r a i l , and road t r a f f i c . Though his cen t ra l a i rpor t has been much r id i cu led , many c i t i es today have in-town c o m m u t e r a i rports inc luding Edmonton , New York , Washington, and Vancouve r harbour. Qu i t e co inc identa l ly, the d imens ions o f L e Corbus ie r ' s a i rport are o f appropr ia te s ize to n i ce ly a c c o m m o d a t e today's de Hav i l l and Dash 8 S T O L planes which are present ly be ing a c c o m m o d a t e d in cen t ra l London's Dock lands Redeve lopment . L e Co rbus i e r ' s phys ica l designs pre-dated the present " C o r p o r a t e C i t y " , a c i t y o f power , business, f inance , management , and admin i s t ra t ion . The grouping o f skyscrapers in the heart o f the modern c i t y have come to represent the image o f a prosperous downtown co re . These con tempora r y ca thedra ls are the e c o n o m i c heart o f modern Nor th A m e r i c a n soc ie ty , a soc ie ty where money, g rowth , and power too o f ten so le ly f o r m the bo t tom l ine. H igh ly v is ib le , this f o rma l express ion o f the va lues o f those who dr ive soc ie ty were ear l i e r expressed qui te l i te ra l l y by L e Co rbus i e r back in the 1920s. Where he f a i l ed , perhaps, was in lack ing the ab i l i t y to imagine that we would have to bu i ld our towers so c lose together , and g ive over his landscaped park se t t ing to the au tomob i l e . L e Co rbus i e r des igned a pedest r ian downtown core , a landscaped park for his o f f i c e towers , wi th shops, restaurants , boulevards , seat ing, and founta ins meander ing through the grass and t rees . The presence o f the great towers was fe l t eve ry several hundred fee t or so only when their "p i lo t i s " , ent rances , and e leva tor cores met the ground. T o get a fee l ing for this, one must t r y to imagine a modern downtown with one 32 50-storey bui ld ing in the cen t re o f each b lock , the ba lance devo ted to the pedest r ian . Fo r today's downtown pedest r ian , many c i t i es a t t empt to so f ten their densi t ies , the i r t r a f f i c , and the i r lack o f l ight and air by in t roduc ing pedest r ian mal ls , indoor mul t i- leve l shopping concourses , or ove rhead "plus f i f t e e n " l inkages. Many o f these are not t ru ly success fu l , l ikeable or sa fe . L e Co rbus i e r des igned a cen t ra l t ranspor ta t ion in terchange, where air , road, and rai l t r a f f i c i n te rsec ted . Mos t modern c i t i es have cent ra l ra i l t e rmina ls and road networks . Some, l ike New York , Washington, and Edmonton , have cent ra l urban a i rpor ts ; some, l ike V i c t o r i a and Vancouver , have cent ra l f e r r y and seaplane f ac i l i t i e s ; some, l ike To ron to , have cent ra l h ighways; some, l ike Newark-E l i zabe th , in the Eas te rn Seaboard mega lopo l i s , have co-termina l a i rpor t , seaport , and highway; London , Eng land, in its Dock lands Redeve lopment P rog ram, has plans fo r an S T O L str ip on the Thames in the heart o f the c i t y . It would be interest ing to d iscover if there is any c i t y in the wor ld which has a t t emp t ed a successfu l in tegrat ion o f mul t i-mode t ranspor ta t ion in its co re as or ig ina l l y env is ioned by L e Co rbus i e r . L e Corbus ie r des igned the cen t ra l c i t y res ident ia l a rea , where c i v i c leaders, business execut i ves , o f f i c e s ta f f , and the i r f ami l i e s would l ive wi th in walk ing d is tance o f the o f f i c e co re . He i l lus t ra ted large, two-storey, double-exposure, spac ious-ba lconied apar tments in low-rise, medium-dens i ty con f igu ra t ion . Set again in his ever-present landscaped pedest r ian park and separa ted f r o m the o f f i c e s by green bel ts , each bui ld ing c lus te r would be communa l l y owned and would f o r m a se l f-conta ined ne ighbourhood in te rms o f in tegra ted conven ience shopping, dayca re , schoo l , and soc ia l and rec rea t iona l f a c i l i t i e s . Today 's inner c i t y areas, by cont ras t , o f t en range instead f r o m weal thy renovated older areas o f low dens i ty to high-rise, high-density towers , to s lum dwel l ings and cheap apar tment-hote ls ; c o m m u n i t y f ac i l i t i e s can be few and fa r be tween, and the au tomob i l e pervades a l l . Vancouver ' s West End 33 is a good examp le o f high-rise, high-density l i v ing ; Ca lga ry ' s is not . Regard less , it is unquest ionable that L e Corbus ie r ' s inner c i t y res ident ia l areas, as well as the apa r tment unit design i tse l f , cou ld be a great improvement over many ex is t ing such areas. L e Co rbus i e r not only zoned the d i f f e r en t land uses o f his hypothet i ca l c i t y , he went to great pains to separate major uses by s ign i f i cant green be l t s . G reenbe l t s were used to separate o f f i c e f r o m res ident ia l areas f r o m industr ia l ones. Some modern c i t i es have deve loped green be l ts , it is t rue, but these are o f t en an a t t empt to de f ine l im i t s o f the c i t y as a whole; fu tu re growth genera l l y leapfrogs over them, or they are s imply used up as requ i red . Few c i t i es prov ide green bel ts to separate industr ia l areas f r o m res ident ia l ones, re ly ing instead on road width and marke t dynamics to prov ide " e c o n o m i c bu f f e r s " . L e Co rbus i e r e m b r a c e d techno logy . He env is ioned a new and golden mach ine age where mass-produced p r e f a b r i c a t e d housing made decent a c c o m m o d a t i o n a f fo rdab le to a l l ; he env is ioned a comp lex t ranspor ta t ion network, inc luding the automobi le , where universa l access was p rov ided without s a c r i f i c i ng the pedest r ian expe r i ence ; he env is ioned an order l y , c l ean , e f f i c i en t c i t y where bui ldings s imul taneous ly c o m p l e m e n t e d and con t ras ted with nature ; he env is ioned poss ib i l i t ies and cho ices o f bui l t f o r m that cou ld range f r o m a soph is t i ca ted cent ra l co re to a rust ic rural se t t ing ; in short , a tota l urban reg ion . His in f luence on his con tempora r i e s and on subsequent generat ions o f dec is ion-makers , deve lopers , p lanners and a r ch i t e c t s is s ign i f i can t . Through the seminal Congres Internat ionaux d 'A r ch i t e c tu r e Moderne (C IAM) L e Corbus ie r in f luenced vast numbers o f p lanners, urbanists and a r ch i t e c t s . C l A M ' s A thens C h a r t e r o f 1933 set the stage for the cont inuat ion o f Bauhaus thought into the newly-emerg ing Internat ional S ty le 34 o f th ink ing on urban p lanning, a r ch i t e c tu re and the arts which was to b e c o m e the dominant pa rad igm for a quar te r o f a cen tury . L e Corbus ie r ' s in f luence can be found in the work o f Cand i l i s ' S t em A p p r o a c h and Tange's T o k y o Bay C i t y . Homage is pa id to Le Co rbus i e r in A r ch i g r am ' s Plug-In C i t y and in Soler i 's A r c o l o g y . Examp les o f ind i rect in f luence can be found in the then-new cap i ta l o f B r az i l , B ras i l i a , as well as in many o f the ear l y London C o u n t y C o u n c i l Es ta tes in Eng land such as Roehampton . Though his ideas were somet imes r ig id and his approach to phys ica l p lanning ex t r eme , it must be r e m e m b e r e d that, l ike Howard's d i s c l a imer " D i a g r a m On l y " , his C o n t e m p o r a r y C i t y was to be an organ iza t iona l f r amework with in which individual e l ements would be sens i t i ve ly and appropr ia te l y des igned for the i r spec i f i c purpose and to comp l emen t the whole . 3.4 Broadacre City Wright 's B roadac re C i t y proposal o f 1932 is a low-density, m a x i m u m of one unit per ac re , agro-suburban, to ta l l y decen t r a l i z ed proposal based on the f am i l y unit , the s ing le-fami ly house, and the au tomob i l e . L i nked by a super-gr id o f highways, the cen t ra l c i t y no longer exists , but is r ep l a ced by per iod i c h ighway- intersect ion groupings o f industry, c o m m e r c e , and communi ty-suppor t f a c i l i t i e s (See F igures 9 and 10). It would not be d i f f i cu l t to re la te Wright 's v is ion o f a to ta l l y de cen t r a l i z ed soc ie ty dependent upon pr i va te au tomobi le t ranspor ta t ion to today's suburban expans ion o f the modern No r th A m e r i c a n c i t y . What is unfor tunate , however , is that in the " L e v i t t o w n " process o f suburban izat ion , Wright 's or ig ina l ideas have b e c o m e d i lu ted to the extent o f mass-produced t rac t houses on t iny plots o f land, served by the v isual b l ight o f str ip re ta i l cent res , and pena l i zed by inc reased t rave l t ime and the assoc ia ted 35 F igu re 9 Broadacre City Concept 36 Quadruple housing, exterior plan. F i gu re 10 Broadacre City Detail 37 r is ing costs o f endless support ive t ranspor ta t ion and se rv i c ing in f ras t ruc tu re . The resul tant out-migra t ion f r o m inner c i t y to suburb s ince Wor ld War II has brought with it not Wright 's d r eam o f independence and se l f-su f f i c i ency in ha rmony with nature , but ra ther a to ta l and u t te r d is regard for e f f i c i en t land use, and a cor responding c o m m i t m e n t to c o m m u t e r i s m . " N o cu rb was ever set on the v is ion and powers o f the A m e r i c a n genius; his ach ievements , d is turb ing as are those o f eve ry or ig ina l a r t i s t , may be e x p e c t e d to seem more amaz ing and more reward ing as generat ions learn to understand them by l iv ing with t h e m . " - F rank L l o y d Wright, 1961, p. 283 F rank L l o yd Wright 's Utopian v is ion was made possible by the pr i va te au tomob i l e . W i t h the independence, mob i l i t y , and f r e edom it o f f e r e d , one no longer needed the c i t y in its t rad i t iona l sense. It would be in terest ing to see how he would respond to the great decen t r a l i ze r o f today - the personal compute r . Wright 's B roadac re C i t y was a design that was quintessent ia l A m e r i c a . It makes v is ib le the J e f fe rson ian pr inc ip les o f ind iv idua l i ty and autonomy in an ex t r eme approach to decen t r a l i z a t i on which nu l l i f ies the very ex is tence o f the c i t y . Wr ight , a p recursor o f Buckmins te r Fu l ler ' s sent iments o f urban obso lescence , gave f o r m to the A m e r i c a n d r e a m , a d r e a m mani fes t in subsequent decades o f cont inuous suburbanizat ion throughout the cont inent . In al l fa i rness, one must bear in mind that, at the t ime o f B roadac re C i t y ' s concep t ion , the ent i re popula t ion o f the U.S. cou ld have been housed in an area approx imate l y the s ize o f the S tate o f Texas . The res ident ia l c l i che o f today has become the f am i l y in its suburban bungalow on its t iny lot on its feature less s t reet wi th its ca r : L e v i t t own . So-ca l led " c o m m u n i t y " and "ne ighborhood" aspects are sporad ica l l y d ispersed in the f o r m o f schools , r e c rea t i on cent res , s t r ip conven ience shops, and the reg iona l m a l l . The re is every th ing wrong with this s te reotype f r o m a p lanning, a r ch i t e c tu ra l , landscaping, e conomic , and soc ia l 38 point o f view except for one th ing : it seems to make many people happy. The hours spent c o m m u t i n g , the anonymi ty , the enormous cost o f house ownership in t ime and money are al l s ac r i f i c es wi l l ingly made , it seems, so that the f a m i l y unit can enjoy its intangible sense o f ownership, its delusions o f independence, and its i l lusion o f l iv ing in the count rys ide . In short , al l the perceived phys ica l e l ements o f Wright 's d r e a m . Wright , however , was devas ta ted at the var ia t ions and permuta t ions o f his or ig ina l v is ion. Where he had des igned organ ic houses, in tegra ted with nature , b r i m m i n g with l ight, a i r , and space , yet cos i l y secure about the cen t ra l hear th , we have bui l t boxes with holes in t h e m . Where he des igned subdivis ions based on a one-acre f a r m per f am i l y , we have chopped up the land into min iscu le lots where the major fresh-air ac t i v i t i es r evo l ve around mowing lawns, barbecu ing , and washing cars . Where he des igned mote ls , shops, marke ts , industr ia l parks, c i v i c cent res , schools , and o f f i c e bui ldings as ind iv idua l , g race fu l p ieces o f a r ch i t e c tu re set into landscaped parks, we have deve loped b i l lboards, str ip cent res , park ing lots, signs, and cha in link f enc ing . Wright r e j e c ted the c i t y o f his day, as do so many people today . His c i t y was rea l l y the phys ica l man i f es ta t ion o f the t yp i ca l immigrant ' s des i re for a f resh s ta r t . Ye t , ra ther than fo l low Wright 's approach to the fa rm-home-car concep t , where agr i cu l tura l land would, by de f in i t i on , coex is t with the s ing le-fami ly house, we have, s ince World War II, s y s t emat i ca l l y j a m m e d houses together and ma r ched them ever ou tward f r om the cent ra l c i t y , des t roy ing f a rm land and the natura l count rys ide in the process , thereby miss ing the whole point o f the idea o f so-ca l led " coun t r y l i v ing " . If, then , count ry l iv ing is not in f a c t the object o f the exe rc i se , but mere l y an i l lusion, or an a l t e rna t i ve env i ronment to denser apar tment or townhouse a c c o m m o d a t i o n c loser to the heart o f the c i t y , then one must wonder why, once one is in a car and on the h ighway, whether one cou ld not have used the land more wisely and bui l t the housing 39 on land less su i table for ag r i cu l tu re ; perhaps leapf rogg ing ex is t ing f a rm land , or bui ld ing on h i l l i e r or dryer or wet ter t e r r a in . The suburbs that have been deve loped over the past 30 years or so are the g r im rea l i t y o f a bas ta rd i zed B roadac re C i t y ; the pervers ion o f a pure idea l . However , whi le the houses are not pa r t i cu l a r l y wel l-designed, the lots are ce r t a in l y less than an ac re in s ize , and the au tomob i l e re l i ance has esca l a t ed beyond Wright 's wi ldest imag ina t ion , the essence st i l l ex is ts . Fo r most , it is a c lose to a r ea l i z ed popul ist Utopia . Wright 's in f luence on his con tempora r i es and successors is s ign i f i can t . A l though his body o f work as an a r ch i t e c t has in f luenced Japan, Europe and Nor th A m e r i c a through his p ro l i f i c bui ld ings, t r ave l , wr i t ings, lec tures and exhib i t ions , his major impact has unquest ionably been the legacy o f the s ing le-fami ly house and its inherent prerequ is i te fo r suburban iza t ion . His ideas on r ecogn iz ing and r e in fo r c ing the cen t r i fuga l e f f e c t o f the au tomobi le led h im to advanced designs fo r highway layouts and c l o ve r l e a f in terchanges . He was at the fo re f ron t on concepts such as s t r ip re ta i l deve lopment , mote ls and decen t r a l i z ed author i t y in the f o r m o f smal l-sca le c i v i c cent res , churches and schools . On the sur face , it is i ron ic that So le r i , o f mega-megas t ruc tura l bent , a f o r m e r student o f Wr ight , acknowledges his debt to the mas te r . However the acknowledgement is ra ther in a shar ing o f Wright 's respec t fo r the natura l env i ronment . But where Wright p r e f e r r ed a bui ld ing in tegra ted with the landscape, Soler i p re fers an unspoi led env i ronment wi th wide ly d ispersed densely c o m p a c t mega-c i t i es . 3.5 Discussion The point o f this sec t ion o f the thesis is not to imply that Howard , , L e Corbus ie r , no and Wright exp l i c t l y invented our present bui l t env i ronment . Rather , what is being suggested is that the i r work has had cons iderab le impac t on the th ink ing and approach o f subsequent leaders o f soc ie ty , deve lopers , p lanners, a r ch i t e c t s and the genera l pub l i c in f o r m i n g and shaping European and Nor th A m e r i c a n urban se t t l ement pat terns . The fac t is that these three Utopian v is ionar ies are wide ly r e cogn i zed as being among the fo re f ron t in address ing ce r t a in issues and trends o f u rban iza t ion in this century , and in a r t i cu la t ing the i r vast ly d isparate ideas in power fu l g raph ic and wr i t ten f o r m . Fo r tuna te l y , the i r most author i ta r ian and res t r i c t i ve notions have been so f tened in subsequent deve lopment and planning imp lemen ta t i on ; unfor tunate ly , much has been lost in the process . 41 4. CASE STUDIES - Recent Utopian Design "Neve r the less , at the m i n i m u m such studies, even i f only pa r t i a l l y success fu l , cont r ibute to in terest ing lectures , p rovoca t i ve teach ing , and s t imu la t ing conversa t ion , al l o f which can broaden hor izons and increase c r ea t i v i t y -by no means negl ig ib le benef i t s . Mo re impor tant , these studies can a f f e c t bas ic be l i e fs , assumpt ions, and emphases . P robab ly most impor tant , at least fo r us at Hudson Institute, is that long-range studies, p rov ide a context in which to do f ive- and ten-year studies that can and do in f luence po l i cy cho i ces . " - He rman Kahn , 1967, p. 1 "The Utopian imagination is born from man's desire to bring about his own happiness by his own creative endeavours. Utopian thought is essentially humanistic insofar as it implies an act of faith in man and doesn't start from the premise that man's life is immutably fixed." - Ma r t i n P l a t t e l , 1972, p. 26 "As Polak says (in his The Image of the Future), most features of social design in contemporary western society were first figments of a Utopia-writer's imagination." - E l i se Bould ing, 1961, p. 434 "City planning, in portraying a future state of affairs, tries to link economic and social policy with physical design...the two separate traditions of Utopia, that of artifact and that of institutions, can simultaneously be drawn upon for this objective. By developing alternative Utopias of the community...city planning would not remove the element of caricature...it would give the element meaning." - Ma r t i n Meye rson , 1961, p. 183 4.1 Introduction A r c h i g r a m , Dox iad is , and Soler i share the i r predecessors ' d isappointment in soc iety 's squander ing o f resources , and with the ine f f i c i enc i es and inequit ies o f modern urban l i fe - an env i ronment which has been in f luenced only by the mod i f i ed super f i c i a l i t i es o f ea r l i e r v is ions, var ia t ions and permuta t ions o f the Utopian ideas which were genera ted in the f i rs t th i rd o f this cen tury . The i r work is o f recent v intage - the 1960s and 70s - wi th Soler i and indiv idual members o f the A r c h i g r a m group st i l l a c t i ve . These three have been chosen as representa t i ve o f the per iod , in addi t ion to the fac t that al l three are wide ly known in the f i e ld o f phys ica l p lanning. The ana ly t i ca l fo rmat used fo l lows 42 that deve loped by Re iner (1963). 4.2 Plug-in City Arch ig r am ' s Plug-in C i t y proposal o f 1964 is a h i-tech s t ruc tura l and serv i ce f r amework where var ious funct iona l-spat ia l modules are added or sub t rac ted , depending on changes in demand , f l ex ib i l i t y o f l i fe-sty le , or response to deve lop ing and changing "pressure zones " o f se t t l ement pat te rns . The scheme is adaptab le , in whole or in par t , to numerous contex tua l s i tuat ions - in f i l l , on land or water , f i x e d or mov ing , loca l or cont inenta l - and is h ighly and consc ious ly v isua l ly express ive o f both its f o r m and its e l ements (See F igures 11 and 12). The imagery o f A r c h i g r a m as f l ippant " t echno- f reaks " is unfor tunate , and de t rac t s f r o m their message, wh ich is essent ia l ly to use techno logy as soc ie ty-support ive ra ther than soc ie ty-de te rmin ing , harkening back exp l i c i t l y to ear l i e r not ions o f Le Corbus ie r ' s a t t i tude and hopes. Ra ther than cont inu ing the t rend o f deve lop ing new products mere l y to increase marke ts , it might be re f resh ing to see more meaningfu l soc ie ta l needs be ing responded to . "Wi th r e f e r ence to the master (Le Corbus ier ) , a house is an app l iance for ca r r y ing with you , the c i t y is a mach ine for plugging in to . " - A r c h i g r a m , 1972 4.2.1 Context of Proposal The p r ima r y members o f the A r c h i g r a m C r o u p are Peter C o o k , Warren Cha lk , Dennis C r o m p t o n , Dav i d G reene , Ron Her ron , and M ike Webb. A r c h i g r a m appeared in Eng land in the m id 1960s and f lour i shed as a group for about ten years dur ing which t ime they cha l l enged the p lanning and design Es tab l i shment as comp lacen t and i r re levant in its pe r ce i v ed pursuit o f the status quo, ra ther than embrac ing state-of-the-art a.? Living Pod project: 1965 David Green* above Living Pod elevation below Living Pod plan it leve! of capsules Figure 12 Plug-in City Detail (Cook, 1972) 45 t echno logy to serve the more serious changing needs o f soc i e t y . Inspired by the con tempora r y U.S. space p rogram and in response to the mass pop-youth-cul ture phenomena rampant in Europe and Nor th A m e r i c a at the t ime , A r c h i g r a m exp lored a theme o f mass-product ion , d isposabi l i ty , mob i l i t y , and p lanned obso lescence . 4.2.2 Summary of Proposal Representa t i ve o f A r ch i g r am ' s work is the concep t o f the Plug-in C i t y , with numerous var ia t ions on the f o r m and indiv idual components thereof . Th is is essent ia l ly a h i-tech s t ruc ture and se rv i ce f r amework into which are in t roduced a va r i e t y o f funct iona l modu le . The whole or parts o f the whole are responsive to changes in demand , loca t ion , and t ime- f r ame . Adap tab l e to a va r i e t y o f contextua l c i r cums tances - inf i l l or o r ig ina l , land- or water-based, f i xed or mov ing , personal sca le or cont inenta l - the approach is s t rong in image as well as in substance. 4.2.3 Content Analysis - Assumptions A product o f the cu l tura l wave o f the m i d to late 1960s and the cor responding emphasis on youth and mob i l i t y in Europe and Nor th A m e r i c a , A r ch ig r am ' s work r e f l e c t s not ions o f se l f-de te rmina t ion and increased f l ex ib i l i t y in its approach . The Plug-in concept is p r ed i c a t ed on the somewhat na ive but re f resh ing be l i e f that the changes in the soc ie ta l pa rad igm were s t ruc tu ra l , and that the a t t i tude toward the bui l t env i ronment should be l ikewise re thought . Pe rverse ly , however , the i r megas t ruc tu ra l approach re l ies heav i l y on overa l l au thor i ta r ian cont ro l fo r imp lementa t ion and revo lu t ion in the cons t ruc t ion industry . 46 4.2.4 Content Analysis - Form The e lements o f Plug-in C i t y are that o f megas t ruc tu re and inf i l l components : an in tegra ted s t ruc tu ra l , se rv i ce , and c i r cu l a t i on sys tem which a c commoda t e s var ious funct iona l-spat ia l modules fo r housing, shops, o f f i c e s , schools and f a c to r i e s . The whole is adaptab le , open-ended, and depends upon loca t ion-spec i f i c p r o g r a m m e d requ i rements fo r its overa l l f o r m . Gene ra l l y l inear and connec t i ve , the sys tem responds to a range o f s i te-spec i f i c needs or to deve lopmenta l "pressure zones " on a regional or even cont inenta l basis. V isual f o r m is also cons idered an integra l e l ement in that the mach ine-aes thet i c pe rmea tes and is r e i n fo r ced by the presence o f permanent c ranes which loca te and r e loca te capsules , and which const ruc t and d i smant le the whole or par ts as requ i red . 4.2.5 Content Analysis - Circulation The c i r cu l a t i on sys tem for people , i n fo rmat ion , goods and serv ices is to ta l l y i n te r connec ted throughout , which is appropr ia te to A r ch ig r am ' s premise o f instant f l ex ib i l i t y and enhanced mob i l i t y . A t a conceptua l l eve l , the i l lus t ra t ive graphics ind icate a p ro l i f e r a t i on o f tubes, pipes, and c i r cu i t s , v isual r e i n fo r cemen t o f the c i r cu l a t i on sys tem and its substant ive and pe r ce i v ed impor t ance . 4.2.6 Content Analysis - Population Arch ig r am ' s approach is en t i re l y concep tua l ; it embodies an a t t i tude toward the deve lopment o f the bui l t env i ronment ra ther than a spec i f i c p ro jec t . A s such, popula t ion f igures are unspec i f i ed , va ry ing with the proposed app l i ca t ion . Cont inuous change in popula t ion and demograph ics , however , are assumed. 47 4.2.7 Content Analysis - Density Dens i t y , l ike popu la t ion , is le f t to fu ture cons iderat ions o f spec i f i c app l i ca t ion . Judging f r o m the a c company ing graph ics , however , it is apparent that a l though a range o f densi t ies may be a c c o m m o d a t e d , a genera l l y h igh, t yp i ca l l y centra l-urban densi ty is an t i c ipa ted . 4.2.8 Content Analysis - Consideration of Future Growth Gene ra l l y open-ended and f l ex ib le o f response, the Plug-In concep t does r e cogn ize a need for fu ture change in t e rms o f p lanned obso lescence o f the s y s t em. T y p i c a l " pe rmanence ra t ings " are suggested as fo l lows : -ba throom, k i t chen , l i v ing room f loor : 3 years -l iv ing rooms, bedrooms: 5-8 years - loca t ion o f house unit : 15 years dura t ion - immediate-use sales space in shop: 6 months -shopping loca t ion : 3-6 years -workplaces , compute rs , e t c . : 4 years -car s i tes and pads: 20 years -main megas t ruc tu re : 40 years 4.2.9 Evaluation The major cont r ibu t ion o f A r ch ig r am ' s Plug-In C i t y is one o f a t t i tude and approach , and a f resh enthus iasm for the deve lopment o f the bui l t env i ronment . Substant ive ly r e l a t ed to L e Corbus ier ' s respect for t echno logy as adaptable and responsive to changing soc ie ta l needs, A r c h i g r a m genera l l y ignores t rad i t iona l concerns fo r fundamenta l 48 human concerns and deve lops instead a mechan i ca l kit o f parts to serve a somewhat i so la ted and ident i f i ab le f r inge aspect o f cu l tura l aber ra t ion : mob i l i t y , f l ex ib i l i t y , impe rmanence , and se l f-de te rmined f r e e d o m . Va lues and object ives are s ta ted in these t e rms , and the i r d i r ec t t rans la t ion into phys ica l r ea l i t y is A r ch ig ram ' s exe rc i se . The group eschews all es tab l i shed cons iderat ions o f f o r m , h i e ra rchy and respect fo r ex is t ing bui l t f o r m and inst i tut ions, and c rea tes a new, para l le l " s y s t e m " for the c i t y . If one looks beyond the graphics o f A r ch ig r am ' s work, they rea l l y o f f e r but two new not ions: the ra te at which change can take p lace wi th in a c i t y , as r e f l e c t e d in the bas ic concept o f "p lug- in" , and the in t roduct ion o f the mul t i- t i e red ground plane as the phys ica l support fo r spat ia l uni ts . Whi le both notions are ex t r emis t re la t i ve to our present context , both exist to va ry ing degrees . Fu r the r , it requires l i t t le advancement o f ce r t a in present trends to approach A r ch ig ram ' s concepts more c lose ly . Essent ia l l y , any c i t y phys ica l l y consists o f land, bui l t f o r m and in f ras t ruc tu re ; A r c h i g r a m goes one fur ther by in t roduc ing , as with any megas t ruc tu ra l approach , more levels o f land, por tab le bui l t f o r m , and more f l ex ib le in f ras t ruc tu re . They d i f f e r r ad i ca l l y f r o m Soler i 's A r c o l o g y in the i r not ion o f fas te r change and open-endedness. A c loser modern para l le l is found in the mobi le-rec rea t iona l f i e l d where t ra i le rs and moto rhomes cont inuous ly cr iss-cross the cont inent by the hundreds o f thousands, o f t en in vast convoys . A r r i v i n g at an RV campground , these otherwise se l f-conta ined, o f t en a i r-condi t ioned luxury l iv ing " capsu les " s imp ly plug in to sewer, water , power, cab le T V , and te lephone jacks . Whi le this is hard ly a new phenomenon, the units and the i r host f a c i l i t i e s are cont inua l l y reach ing new levels o f soph is t i ca t ion , s ize , and number . Fo r an a lmost l i tera l adapta t ion o f A r ch ig r am ' s approach , however , one need look no fur ther than the Un ive rs i t y o f Winnipeg. L o c a t e d in the downtown core , a major expansion took p lace in the late 1960s whereby a megast ruc tura l f o r m was in t roduced between and over ex is t ing o lder bui ld ings, an overa l l result which requ i red 49 no fu r ther land acqu is i t ion , ye t approx imate l y doub led the univers i ty 's s i ze . If one expands one's th ink ing to the growing va r i e t y in l i fes ty les and l iv ing a c c o m m o d a t i o n p rac t i ces in Nor th A m e r i c a , one can even reconc i l e A r ch ig r am ' s ex t r em e c i ty-sca le approach with cur rent trends o f add-on " C r a n n y f l a ts " , t ime-share resort condomin iums , and the business commute r /conven i ence o r ien ta t ion o f many hotel chains and t rave l se rv i ces . 4.3 Entopia Doxiad is ' En top ia proposal o f 1966 is a socio-spat ia l h ie ra rchy concomi tan t wi th an u l t ima te and cont inuous g lobal se t t l ement o f some 32 b i l l ion people . It is to ta l l y i n t e r connec ted phys i ca l l y as wel l as by means o f coord ina ted , co te rm ina l mu l t i-mode t ranspor ta t ion networks . En top ia represents the m a x i m u m capac i t y o f this p lanet , wi th equal thirds o f its habi tab le su r face devo ted to se t t l ement , agr i cu l tu re , and na ture-recrea t ion respec t i ve l y . Inherent in this s cheme is his discussion o f open-ended urban co re areas "Dynapo l i s " , wh ich would al low for fu ture change and expansion (See F igures 13 and 14). C e n t r a l to Doxiad is ' approach is a t ten t ion to the three present trends o f un l im i ted mega lopo l i t an g rowth , the de te r io ra t i on and decay o f the cent ra l c i t y , and th i rd wor ld popula t ion expans ion and deve lopment . His response, unl ike that o f many Utopians, is less r ig id ly phys ica l or au thor i ta r i an , but ra ther is f r a m e d in genera l pr inc ip les o f such spat ia l and soc ie ta l cons iderat ions as equi tab le and e f f i c i en t red is t r ibut ion o f resources , and the s ize , sca le , and interre la t ionships be tween individuals, neighborhoods, and c i t i es . 50 UW/MA7S. &LO&A/- > g & A ^ O ^ • ecumenopolis in 2100 A.D. F igure 13 Entopia Concept (Doxiad is , 1966) 51 F igu re 14 Entopia Scale Framework (Doxiadis , 1966) 52 "I don't p i ty the poet lef t without a pub l i c , but any publ i c lef t without a poe t . " -Odysseas E l y t i s , a G reek poet , quoted in Dox iad is (1966). 4.3.1 Context of Proposal Doxiad is is conce rned with g lobal d ispar i ty and inequity , as wel l as the waste and over-consumpt ion o f post-industr ia l nat ions at the expense o f newly-developing areas. He and his assoc iates have evo l ved a g lobal o rgan iza t ion which is focussed on " E k i s t i c s " - the study o f human se t t l ements - which breaks down into f i ve bas ic e l ements : An thropos (human beings). Na ture , Shel ls (the bui l t e n v i r o n m e n t ) , Soc ie ty , and Networks ( t ransportat ion, c o m m u n i c a t i o n , movement ) . The p remise is that soc ie t ies tend to deve lop ek i s t i c units in iso lat ion f r o m and at the expense o f one another , r a ther than in overa l l mutua l ly-support ive ba lance . 4.3.2 Summary of Proposal Entop ia is proposed as an ach ievab le comprom i se be tween the rea l i sm o f present decay ing fo rms (Dystopia) and the idea l i zed , unat ta inable (Utopia) . It is essent ia l l y a to ta l l y in te r-connected global super-megalopol is of 32 b i l l ion people . In En top ia Dox iad is envis ions an evo l ved , g lobal soc ie ty where al l f i ve ek i s t i c e l ements are ba l anced by a h i e ra r ch i ca l a r rangement which contex tua l i zes the individual through all sca les o f soc ie ta l in te r rac t ion , f r o m f a m i l y to neighbourhood to regional c i t y to the u l t ima te wor ld-c i ty o f " E c u m e n o p o l i s " . 4.3.3 Content Analysis - Assumptions The under ly ing p remise is cont inued populat ion growth at a f i xed con tempora r y ra te to an u l t ima te leve l l ing o f f o f 32 b i l l ion by the year 2100. None o f this is supported. 53 but appears to be s imple ex t rapo la t i on ; how the popula t ion g rowth s tab i l i zes is s im i l a r l y not addressed. Soc i e t y wi l l evo lve to the point where va ry ing cu l tu res and nat ional ident i ty are e l im ina t ed and a un i f i ed global soc ie ty is in p l a c e . An thropos is no longer a consumer-producer , but ra ther a conservat ion is t . Te chno logy has deve loped a decen t r a l i z ed p roduc t ion capab i l i t y , and universal connec t i veness d is t r ibutes resources ra t iona l ly , e f f i c i en t l y , and equ i tab ly . 4.3.4 Content Analysis - Form The earth's sur face is de t e rm ined as having approx imate l y 12 b i l l ion acres o f hab i tab le land o f which a th i rd e a ch is devo ted to se t t l ement , cu l t i v a t i on and natura l open space . Even at this, Dox iad is admits to a cu l t i va t ion p roduc t i v i t y fa r in excess o f present rates s imply to f e ed the popu la t ion . To ta l connec tedness o f bui l t f o r m is f a c i l i t a t ed by in tegra ted networks o f air , sea, and ground te rmina l s and co- loca ted road and rai l l ines. The g lobal c i t y i tse l f is a l inear, mega lopo l i t an deve lopment with open-ended cores for response to future change . The ba l ance is d i v ided into a h ie ra rch i ca l range o f spat ia l ca tegor ies dependent on ideal s izes o f soc ie ta l groupings. 4.3.5 Content Analysis - Circulation The proposal is dependent on a decen t r a l i z ed c i r cu l a t i on s y s t e m . A t one end o f the spec t rum, Dox iad is envis ions a t rad i t iona l pedest r ian-veh icu lar separat ion at the neighbourhood sca le , thus e l im ina t ing dependence on the au tomob i l e . A t the other ex t r eme of the i n te r connec ted global c i ty , he re l ies on advanced techno logy to p roduce , assess demand , mon i tor f low and d is t r ibute al l goods and serv i ces v ia e f f i c i e n t , in tegrated, and co-ord ina ted movement systems. 4.3.6 Content Analysis - Population The global c i t y o f 32 b i l l i on people breaks down as fo l lows : C lass I Dwe l l i ng C roups o f 40 peop le ; C l ass II Sma l l Ne ighborhood o f 250; C lass III Ne ighborhood o f 15,000; C lass IV Smal l Town o f 7,000; C lass V Town o f 50,000; C lass VI L a rge C ity o f 300,000; C lass VII Me t ropo l i s o f 2 m i l l i on ; C lass VIII Conurba t i on o f 14 m i l l i on ; C lass IX Mega lopo l i s o f 100 mi l l i on ; C lass X Urban Reg ion o f 700 mi l l i on ; C lass XI U r b a n i z e d Cont inen t o f 5 b i l l ion ; C l a ss XII E cumenopo l i s o f 32 b i l l i on . This roughly t rans la tes into six to seven C lass XI c ommun i t i e s , two l oca ted in No r th A m e r i c a , one in A f r i c a , one in Europe , and about three in A s i a . 4.3.7 Content Analysis - Density Doxiadis ' assumpt ion o f an u l t ima te se t t l ement a rea o f 4 b i l l i on ac res y ie lds an average gross density in the o rder o f 8 persons per ac re . De ta i l beyond this is not c l ea r , but it appears that dens i ty per se is o f secondary impor tance to the h i e ra r ch i ca l spat ia l s t ruc tur ing o f soc ie ty . 4.3.8 Content Analysis - Consideration of Future Growth Populat ion expansion beyond the u l t ima te 32 b i l l ion mark is not d i scussed . However , cont inued emphas is is p l a ced on internal f l ex ib i l i t y and change , respons ive to soc ie ta l deve lopment . He is pa r t i cu l a r l y conce rned with the dynamics o f cen t ra l urban deve lopment and emphas izes a need for open-ended urban cores to o f f s e t present tendenc ies to decay and de te r i o ra t i on . 55 4.3.9 Evaluation A l though the an t i c i pa t ed ra te o f populat ion growth and its u l t ima te leve l l ing o f f is unsubstant ia ted, Dox iad is ' approach is a h ighly r ea l i s t i c response to the establ ished phys ica l pa t te rn o f urban se t t l ement and its g rowth . However , in r ecogn iz ing the t rend o f l inear mega lopo l i t an expansion, Doxiad is a t t empt s to prov ide order and s t ruc ture ra ther than s imp le ex t rapo la t ion . This aspect o f his approach is highly p r agmat i c and rea l i s t i c , as d is t inc t f r om his pa ra-Utop ian an t i c ipa t i on o f rat ional human and soc ie ta l behav iour at a global s ca l e . Entopia 's ek i s t i c unit ba lance theory prov ides a s t ra teg i c soc io-spat ia l f r amework ra ther than a f in i te phys ica l so lut ion . Specu la t ion as to the globe's u l t ima te popula t ion capac i t y is not rea l l y at issue here . Su f f i c e it to say that the pa t te rn o f rural to urban mig ra t ion has been pers is tent and, fu r ther , that l inear mega lopo l i t an f o r m is well es tab l i shed (for examp l e . Fu l l e r , 1969). What is also a pa t te rn wi th urban izat ion trends is that many t rad i t iona l d is t inc t ions of c lass, wea l th , mob i l i t y , le isure, work and soc ia l s t ruc tures are b lu r r ing . Many soc io-economic labels have been co ined in the f i e ld o f res ident ia l deve lopment , for instance, to desc r ibe newly emerg ing groupings o f household types : e m p t y nesters , yuppies , dinks (double i ncome - no kids) and swingles (two or more unre la ted single persons), to say noth ing o f s ingle parent fami l i es , gay couples wi th ch i ld ren . A s wel l , there are renters , fee s imple owners, condomin ium owners , rent-to-owners, co-operat ives , shareholders , bare-land strata-t i t le owners, t ime-sharers , the mobi le home dwel lers , apar tment-hote l renters , the hand icapped and the homeless . The impl i ca t ions o f such compl i ca t ions on phys ica l p lanning for commun i t i e s in the t rad i t iona l sense is ove rwhe lm ing . The Ne ighborhood Un i t approach o f days past is woeful ly inadequate and s imply will not do. The dense, high-rise co re apar tment approach is equal ly obso le te . R ig id adherence to t yp i ca l land-use zoning is losing 56 ground in deny ing a r i che r urban f ab r i c to c i t y-dwel le rs . Today 's c l eaner industry no longer requires t ight de f in i t ion and con f i nemen t . Doxiad is ' Ek i s t i cs approach to o rgan iz ing his ideal c i t y , En top ia , ve r y s imply proposes at one ex t r eme ex t rapo la t ing our present v is ion o f se t t l ements in order to deve lop a methodo logy for p lanning at a mega-c i ty sca le : f r o m conurba t ion to mega lopo l i s , f r o m urban reg ion to u rban ized cont inent , and u l t ima te l y to an ecumenopo l i s . A t the other ex t r eme , he suggests f o rma l recogn i t ion o f sma l l e r than convent iona l l y c a t ego r i z ed groupings - down to his "Dwe l l i ng G roups " o f 40 people - an e f f o r t to cast o f f the lack o f a t ten t ion to deta i l and to take into cons ide ra t i on today's seeming ly growing mu l t i p l i c i t y o f emerg ing new household types and ac t i v i t i e s . 4.4 Arcology Soler i 's A r c o l o g y proposal o f 1969 is a fus ion o f Wright 's con t empt fo r the excesses and ine f f i c i enc ies o f the modern c i t y and L e Corbus ie r ' s t e chno log i ca l , o rgan iza t iona l approach to its sa l va t ion . Soler i 's solut ion is a comb ina t i on o f a r ch i t e c tu r e and eco logy which rep laces present sprawl ing, " two-d imens iona l " urban areas wi th highly concen t r a t ed super-megast ructures o f a lmost un imaginab le s ize wi th densi t ies severa l t imes that o f present-day c i t i es . In this env i ronment , he be l ieves that not only will this e f f i c i enc y and " m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n " combat cur rent l y-devas ta t ing urban sprawl , but the compac tness and he ightened in te rac t ion wil l enable humans to advance to another level o f evo lut ionary progress (See F igures 15 and 16). L i ke A r c h i g r a m , Soler i 's g raph ic imagery d is t rac ts f r o m the thesis he is advanc ing , name ly that o f deve lopmenta l in tens i f i ca t ion in response to the d e t r i m e n t a l , cont inuous latera l expansion o f automobi le-dependent urban areas. Put ve ry s imply , his major cont r ibut ion may be in the opening o f our eyes to the a lmost l imi t less a l t e rna te resource 57 (Soler i , 1969) 58 of three-dimensional spat ia l deve lopment . " The p e r f o r m a n c e o f the profess ionals , engineers , a r ch i t e c t s , and planners are doodles on the back of a cosm i c phenomenon and wil l not d o . " - Paolo So le r i , 1969 4.4.1 Context of Proposal Soler i was a student o f F rank L l o y d Wright and shares his mentor ' s c r i t i c i s m for the con tempora r y c i t y o f waste , po l lu t ion , and excess . The A r c o l o g i c a l approach to so lv ing these prob lems, however , is to ta l l y in opposi t ion to Wright 's ind iv idua l i zed B roadac re C i t y , and leans more toward L e Corbus ier ' s idea o f deve lopment through order and techno logy . So le r i , in f ac t , re fers to L e Corbus ie r as "god-prophet " . In tune with the he ightened awareness of the 1960s toward env i ronmenta l issues, Soler i mainta ins that the hor izonta l spreading o f present c i t i es is inherent ly wastefu l o f resources and land, and is increas ingly de t r imen ta l to mankind's potent ia l ach ievement both ind iv idua l ly and co l l e c t i v e l y . Fu r the r , he mainta ins , in de fence o f his " m e g a s t r u c t u r a l " approach , that we in f a c t are present l y ac tua l l y l i v ing in megas t ruc tu res ; we s imply do not r ecogn ize ex is t ing c i t i es in these t e rms . A c i t y is a megas t ruc tu re in the sense that there is a gr id o f s t reets the spaces be tween which are des ignated for bui l t f o r m ; subserv ient to this g r id is a network o f se rv i ce in f ras t ruc ture for d is t r ibut ion o f power, water , sewer and commun i ca t i ons . So ler i and others s imp ly go one step fur ther and apply these s t ruc tu ra l and serv i ce e l ements into three d imens ions . 4.4.2 Summary of Proposal Soler i 's A r c o l o g y is a comb ina t i on of a r ch i t ec tu re and eco logy whereby an " o r g a n i c " 60 concen t ra t i on rep laces the ex is t ing built env i ronment . The A r c o l o g y is essent ia l l y a c en t r a l i z ed , super-dense c i t y o f hero ic propor t ion with emphas is on m a x i m i z i n g the l iv ing-working-playing interre la t ionship , and cont ras t ing sharply with the " e x t e r n a l " natura l env i ronment . D i spersed throughout the reg ion , Soler i 's A r co l og i e s propose to phys ica l l y occupy a m i n i m u m amount o f the earth 's su r f a ce and to deve lop as s p e c i f i c and appropr ia te bui l t response to vary ing natura l contexts , bo th phys ica l and c l i m a c t i c . 4.4.3 Content Analysis - Assumptions Soler i mainta ins that the present t rend o f urban g rowth is inherent ly wastefu l of land and natura l resources , as well as coun te rp roduc t i ve to the in te r rac t ion opportuni t ies o f urban dwel le rs . With ever- increas ing hor izon ta l d i s tances in the growing c i t y , indiv iduals and soc ie ty must spend ever- increas ing t i m e and resources in t rave l and the extens ion of in f ras t ruc ture . Soler i sees an increas ing i ne f f i c i ency in this syndrome and descr ibes the ex is t ing bui l t env i ronment as two-dimensional and "ear th-bound" . He be l ieves that by deve lop ing three-dimens iona l c i t i es of enormous ly concen t r a t ed populat ions opportuni t ies fo r i n t e r r ac t i on , a c t i v i t y , and genera l r ichness o f exper i ence wil l be m a x i m i z e d - a concep t he te rms " m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n " . He asserts that mankind's approach to nature should be one o f absolute ly m in ima l impac t . 4.4.4 Content Analysis - Form The A r c o l o g y is a three-dimens iona l megas t ruc tu re des igned in r ig id g e o m e t r i c f o r m in such shapes as spheres, py ramids , cy l inders , and cubes . It is s y m m e t r i c a l , h ighly o rdered , and h i e r a r ch i ca l l y o rgan ized in t e rms o f f unc t i on . Populat ions range f r om the tens o f thousands to the mul t i-mi l l ions , and overa l l d imens ions are f i xed to produce m a x i m u m concen t r a t i on with m in ima l impact on land. He has des ign pro to types for 61 loca t ing in a range o f te r ra in and c l i m a c t i c condi t ions , as wel l as be ing adaptab le for underground, water , and orb i ta l space contex ts . Ma jor internal funct ions are separa ted p r ima r i l y into industr ia l uses, cu l tura l areas, and l iv ing-working neighborhoods. 4.4.5 Content Analysis - Circulation Inter-arcology connec t ions are made through in tegra ted h ighway, r a i l , water , and air networks . Genera l internal movement is not spec i f i ed , but one presumes some mechan i zed sys tem for people , in fo rmat ion , goods and se rv i ces . S im i l a r l y , the loca l level o f ne ighbourhood is p resumed to depend p r ima r i l y on pedest r ian-or iented c i r cu l a t i on g iven Soler i 's d is l ike for automobi le-dependence . 4.4.6 Content Analysis - Population Arco log i e s range in s ize comparab l e to ex is t ing c i t i es . O the r than assigning seeming ly a rb i t ra ry populat ions to his design prototypes which are s ca l ed a lways in p ropor t ion to New York C i t y ' s E m p i r e S tate Bui ld ing for compar i son , So ler i does not p l ace impor tance on this f ea tu re , other than to e l im ina te hab i ta t ion o f the vast areas of the earth 's sur face outs ide the A r c o l o g y . 4.4.7 Content Analysis - Density Dens i t y is Soler i 's key ingredient in his desire to ach ieve mankind 's potent ia l through m a x i m i z i n g in te r rac t ion to the ex t r eme . He mainta ins that this is essent ia l fo r soc iety 's natura l and predes t ined evo lut ion beyond its present s ta te . A r c o l o g y densi t ies t yp i ca l l y range in the order of 531 persons per hec ta re , w i th phys ica l heights up to 1,000 met res , and m in ima l sur face coverage . This compares to densi t ies in London 62 of 27 persons per hec ta re (PPH), New York o f 82 P P H , T o k y o o f 124 P P H , and M e x i c o C i t y o f 22 P P H . Thus , by present standards, Soler i 's A r c o l o g i e s are re l a t i ve l y d i f f i cu l t to grasp and are , hence , exper ien t i a l l y incomprehens ib le . 4.4.8 Content Analysis - Consideration of Future Growth G r o w t h o f the A r c o l o g y is not possible beyond its c losed g e o m e t r i c f o rms . So le r i , however , concen t ra tes on evo lu t ion rather than growth pe r se, and proposes change tak ing p lace to the in f ras t ruc tu re and internal components as generat ions of soc ie ty deve lop beyond the present s ta te . He out l ines a process whereby an A r c o l o g y is deve loped in stages, and proposes u l t imate d isassembly or demo l i t i on if necessary to respond to changing locat iona l needs or in response to new " c y b e r n e t i c " r equ i rements at some inde te rmina te fu ture da te . 4.4.9 Evaluation A l though Soler i exhorts the reader not to take his graph ic i l lust rat ions l i t e ra l l y , this is akin to asking a jury to d is regard just-uttered tes t imony . His graph ics are copious, power fu l , and ove rwhe lm ing ; this d i s t rac ts f r o m his wr i t t en message which has much to o f f e r as a c r i t i c i s m of the wastefulness of ex is t ing sprawl . A l t hough most o f Soler i 's o rgan ic and natura l p r inc ip les are without apparent foundat ion , his a rguments fo r three-dimens iona l i ty hold serious impl i ca t ions in the f a c e o f present t ime-d is tance concerns and the con f l i c t o f urban mega lopo l i tan expansion c o n f l i c t i n g with agr i cu l tu ra l and env i ronmenta l issues. So ler i , however , is to ta l l y non-commi t t a l on the future ro le o f undeve loped areas in his A r c o l o g i c a l fu tu re . 63 "Cons tan t ine Dox iad is presents a f r ighten ing wor ld map . The A m e r i c a n cont inent is cove red with a k ind of dark f a b r i c . . e c u m e n o l o g y , the universa l c i t y . " - Paolo So ler i , 1969, p.2 Whi le a super f i c i a l g l ance at Soler i 's profuse graph ic i l lust rat ions usual ly fos te rs a bemused skep t i c i sm at such outrageous concepts , one does not have to look fa r to see compara t i v e examp les in eve ryday Nor th A m e r i c a n l i f e ; So ler i has me re l y taken an ex t r eme approach . Fo r examp le , many regional shopping mal ls have been expanded in scope to prov ide , in add i t ion to re ta i l , res taurant f a c i l i t i e s and park ing , such ameni t ies as c inemas , bars , mal l en te r ta inment , arts and c r a f t s fa i rs , c o m m u n i t y ac t i v i t i es , secur i t y se rv i ces , and drop-in day-care cen t res . Severa l inc lude integral o f f i c e bui ldings, res ident ia l units, and mult i- leve l parkades . If one looks fa r ther , many resort deve lopments fo l low some o f the bas ic l ines desc r ibed by Soleri 's drawings. Mos t notably , the two ex is t ing D i sney pro jec ts in C a l i f o r n i a and F l o r i da are v i r tua l l y se l f-conta ined comprehens i ve comp lexes o f l i v ing, work ing and p lay ing . C l o se r to home , the West Edmonton Ma l l inc ludes profess iona l level sports f ac i l i t i e s , an indoor lake and beach , hotel and fu tu re res ident ia l deve lopment . Such p laces usual ly prohib i t p r i va te automobi le t r a f f i c , and are e i ther fu l l y pedes t r i an ized or re ly on b i c y c l e or e l e c t r i c car t for t r anspor ta t ion . Wi th the excep t i on o f the large propor t ion o f commuter-users , most un ivers i t ies would s im i l a r l y qua l i f y as se l f-conta ined pedest r ian-or iented centres ex is t ing in genera l phys ica l i so lat ion f r o m their surroundings. Perhaps a more d r a m a t i c examp le exists in of f-shore oil r igs; essent ia l ly seabed-anchored, l ive-in f ac to r i es capab le o f p r e f a b r i c a t e d assembly , d isassembly and re loca t i on on demand as their l oca t ion-d i c ta ted l i fe span reaches obso lescence . Soleri 's ideas are not founded in to ta l l y fo re ign and un fami l i a r g round; he car r ies to an ex t r eme many o f the present tendenc ies toward mult i-use, c e n t r a l i z e d 64 mega-projects which in rea l i t y are qui te c o m m o n . 4.5 Summary The essent ia l r e l evance of Utopian designs lies in the ab i l i t y o f the i r c r ea to r s to se ize upon aspects o f con t empora r y urban soc ie ty which they pe r ce i ve as extant or potent ia l prob lems, and to a r t i cu l a te the i r solut ions as warnings or as a l t e rna t i ve models for our fu ture cons ide ra t ion . A s prev ious ly d iscussed, the impac ts of ear ly Utopian des igners such as Howard , L e Corbus ie r , and Wright have made serious impress ions on the i r c o n t e m p o r a r y and subsequent bui l t env i ronments . M u c h o f the phys ica l f o rms and e l emen t s deve loped dur ing the f i rs t ha l f o f this cen tu ry have found their way into the ve rnacu la r o f the present approach to the deve lopment o f human se t t l ements , pa r t i cu l a r y on the Nor th A m e r i c a n cont inent . Th is thesis has ex t rapo la ted these impac t s fu r ther in hypothes iz ing that the e f f e c t s o f recent Utopian design thought wil l be increas ing ly fe l t to the point that the designs rev iewed may prov ide s ign i f i cant c lues as to the nature o f our bui l t fu ture . Without a t t empt ing to ove r l y c a t ego r i ze and pigeon-hole the work o f the recent Utopian designers, it is fairly sa fe to ex t rac t three major themes that are both exp l i c i t l y and imp l i c i t l y ev ident in the i r widely vary ing solut ions to the issues they have chosen to address. These themes have been condensed into the fo l low ing s ta tements : - state-of-the art technology should be cont inuous ly exp lo red and deve loped to see how it can best be u t i l i z ed to solve soc ie ta l p rob lems and sat is fy its needs, ra ther than soc ie ty being subserv ient and subsequent to techno logy . - Fu ture growth and change should be examined with in an exp l i c i t fit; organ iza t iona l framework which is spec i f i c a l l y conduc i ve and responsive to cont inuous change . - The phys ica l env i ronment ' s " th i rd spat ia l d imens i on " is imp l i c i t l y u t i l i z ed by soc ie ty , but exp l i c i t l y ignored in the deve lopment o f bui l t f o r m ; the third dimension can be exp lo red as a potent ia l p lanning and des ign resource . 4.5.1 Technology His tory has shown that the techno log ica l b reakthrough plays a major ro le in the deve lopment o f our phys ica l env i ronment (See for examp le Fu l l e r , 1969; Heppenhe imer , 1983; O 'Ne i l l , 1981; C l a r k e , 1986). In this century , the a c c e p t e d widespread use o f automobi le and air t rave l have f i rs t enhanced mob i l i t y t rends and se t t l ement pat terns , and subsequent ly de f ined , for many , the very s t ruc tu re o f da i l y ex i s t ence . C r o w i n g compu te r use and increas ing ly soph is t i ca ted commun i ca t i ons ne twork ing wi l l con t r ibu te more to the de te rm ina t i on o f how and where we l i ve . H i t he r to e t r enched decen t r a l i za t i on pat terns have r eached a point in many areas where they are in danger o f becoming se l f-de fea t ing , and counter-product i ve in so lv ing the very p rob lems that gave them their in i t ia l impetus . It is surpr is ing that , upon c lose scrut iny , the work of most Utopian des igners is remarkab le techno logy- f ree . The i r designs are deve loped on cu l tu ra l-soc io-economic values, as they pe rce i ve t hem, and they s imply assume, in al l cases , that techno logy wil l be read i ly ava i lab le to assist in ach iev ing their s t a t ed ob jec t i ves . These are not techno-freaks who se ize on every latest gadget and a t t empt to recons t ruc t a soc i e t y around it. E x a c t l y the reverse is t rue: goals a re de f i ned , p rob lems ident i f i ed , s t ra teg ies exp lo red , and options proposed on the basis o f p r e sumed read i ly-adaptab le support techno logy for imp lemen ta t i on and deve lopment . The obvious benef i t o f this a t t i tude toward techno logy is that t echno logy is seen 66 as a means to an end ra ther than having a purpose o f i tse l f . A s opposed to the seeming ly ove rwhe lm ing l im i ta t ions o f present cons t ruc t i on techn iques , Soleri 's mind , fo r examp le , is f r ee to roam the l imi ts o f his imag ina t ion ; he is thus boundless in be ing able to exp lore a l te rna t i ve urban fo rms based on his p r inc ip les , ra ther than on, say, the known bear ing c a p a c i t y for c o n c r e t e . A r c h i g r a m ' s c rea t i ve ab i l i t i es can be s imi la r l y uncon f ined in the i r p lanning and design o f c i t i es that grow and shrink, walk, sw im, and f l y wi thout be ing r e s t r i c t ed by rea l i s t i c cons idera t ions o f mechan i c s . They can thereby o f f e r fo r cons idera t ion options fo r the fu tu re o therwise un imaginab le to the minds o f those who are be t te r su i ted to and capab le o f imp lementa t i on and logist ics . Without such an approach , without the reve rs ing o f present "p r io r i t i e s " , the uncrea t i ve would be res igned to generat ions o f r epe t i t i on and con f ined to cont inued re l i ance on techno log i ca l advancement for its own sake; they would then have to l ive with the consequences o f l ives de te rm ined by the i r t echno logy ra ther than the other way round. In a cap i ta l i s t soc ie ty , essent ia l l y , technology is capab le o f do ing v i r tua l l y anyth ing man des i res . T h e v is ib le modern-day impac ts o f advances in the home or o f f i c e or shops are ostens ib ly des igned for improved conven ience o f work, the saving o f t ime , the f a c i l i t a t i on o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , o f just p la in en t e r t a i nmen t . In rea l i t y , l i t t le meaningfu l soc ie ta l improvement takes p l ace . Soc ie t y is not necessar i l y ass is ted, nor is the qua l i ty o f l i fe measurab le improved in s ign i f i can t areas . Increased produc t i v i t y can s imp ly increase expecta t ions , labour-saving dev i ces in the home can be o f f se t by a g rea te r demand for super f i c ia l luxury, and advancement in gadget ry too o f t en results in t r i v ia l e s cap i sm. Meanwhi le , ser ious soc ie ta l issues o f de te r io ra t ing educa t ion , s t ruc tura l unemp loyment , widespread homelessness and po l lu t ion are usual ly left to the a t ten t ion o f those whose access to techno logy is least se rved . 67 4.5.2 Framework The built f o r m and components of human se t t l ements p rov ide a phys ica l con tex t for soc ie ty . Tha t soc i e t y is f o r m e d o f such e lements as cu l tu re , soc ia l s t ruc tu re , po l i t i co- lega l inst i tut ions, and e c o n o m i c f ab r i c , as wel l as the int r ins ic human qual i t ies o f its indiv idual m e m b e r s . Doxiad is ' approach is less a phys i ca l one o f u l t ima te mega lopo l i tan ex t rapo la t ion as it is a soc io-economic o rgan iza t iona l f r amework for a c c o m m o d a t i n g the range o f combinat ions o f soc ie ta l e l ements and their in ter re la t ionships . It is read i ly demons t rab le that ne i ther ex t r eme o f cen t ra l au thor i t a r i an i sm nor anarch ic decen t r a l i z a t i on is e i ther workable or des i rab le . Soc ie t y operates , fo r va ry ing ac t i v i t i es and purpose, on a b road range o f sca les . The appeal o f the Dox iad is ' " e k i s t i c " approach is that this range o f sca les is a fundamenta l s ta r t ing p remise which underl ies the subsequent deve lopment o f the phys ica l con f igura t ion des igned to a c c o m m o d a t e it. A l so fundamenta l to this concept is the not ion o f a ba lance be tween ek i s t i c e l ements out l ined ear l i e r . Where Dox iad is fa i ls is that his proposal ignores m u c h o f the less tangib le soc ia l- inst i tut iona l aspects in favour o f a more s imp l i s t i c spat ia l h ie ra rchy . Regardless , it is re f resh ing to cons ider the imp l i ca t ions o f a soc ie ta l f r amework prov id ing a basis for p lanning which deals wi th sca le ra ther than c rude l ines on a zoning map. It is also b e c o m i n g read i l y apparent that the s tewardship o f resources , espec ia l l y that o f land, is an increas ing ly c r i t i c a l issue, and that , whi le not necessar i l y approach ing Soler i 's ex t remes o f concen t r a t i on , a greater degree o f sens i t i v i t y and awareness in planning and design a c t i v i t y is requ i red in reso lv ing con f l i c t be tween urban sprawl and agr i cu l tu ra l-env i ronmenta l demands . Both A r c h i g r a m and So ler i f a ce this issue and a t t empt to deal wi th it in d i f f e r ing ways: the f o r m e r in a f l ex ib i l i t y o f response. 68 the la t ter in a m in ima l- impac t way. Doxiadis ' more p r a g m a t i c a c c e p t a n c e o f land-bound l inear expansion o f urban areas is, however , an approach o f ca re fu l contro l and management wh ich d i rec t s and s t ruc tures g rowth in ba l ance wi th natura l and cu l t i v a t ed areas . The consequences o f mindless expansion have b e c o m e increas ing ly ev ident , and a l te rnat i ves are cont inuous ly be ing exp lored . Un fo r tuna te l y , however the predominant parad igm o f p lanning and design is inext r i cab ly caught be tween the lack o f knowledge in the v i r tua l l y embryon i c soc ia l sc iences and the day-to-day po l i t i co-economic jockey ing o f the status-quo. In this cond i t ion , p lanning and design a c t i v i t y is understandably , and increas ing ly , r e s t r i c t ed to a p i e c e m e a l , r e a c t i v e approach to coping with the deve lopment o f soc iety 's phys ica l env i ronment ; an ho l i s t i c approach is d i scouraged ; g rea te r cont ro l is pe r ce i ved as s t i f l i ng , and lesser cont ro l seen as dangerous. The not ion o f a genera l f r amework o f guid ing pr inc ip les , however , combines the necessary ba lanc ing o f these two ex t remes in that it de f ines a genera l d i r ec t ion and support ive in f ras t ruc tu re - as in the case o f A r c h i g r a m ' s phys ica l des ign, or Doxiadis ' c a t ego r i z i ng o f soc ia l groupings - whereby var ious soc ie ta l needs can v i r tua l l y a c c o m m o d a t e themse lves . Thus, p lanning and des ign ac t i v i t y must b e c o m e more inex t r i cab ly in tegra ted with a wider, more gene ra l i z ed approach to soc iety 's opportuni t ies and const ra in ts . The bui l t env i ronment , l ike techno logy , must be p l aced in a pe rspec t i ve o f serv ing rather than d i c t a t i ng the fu tu re . A r c h i g r a m and Dox iad is have exp lo red such poss ib i l i t ies ; So ler i less so. 4.5.3 The Third Dimension In addressing the bui l t env i ronment , however soc ie ty co l l e c t i v e l y d i r ec t s its ongoing 69 mani fes ta t ion , the work o f the l ikes o f A r c h i g r a m and, pa r t i cu l a r l y , So ler i i l lust rates the pr inc ip le o f g rea te r phys ica l scope than that t r ad i t iona l l y p e r c e i v e d . The not ion o f three-dimens iona l i ty is not new: air-rights agreements , +15 walkways and e l e va t ed movement systems, w idespread subway and air t r ave l , and the high-rise e l eva to r are al l c ommonp l a ce aspects o f modern l i fe which increase the oppor tun i ty fo r phys ica l deve lopment beyond that o f the ground p lane. A r c h i g r a m and So ler i s imply go one step fur ther : they r e cogn ize this aspect exp l i c i t l y . When land values are upward ly man ipu la ted and mu l t ip l i ed , when prec ious agr i cu l tu ra l land is threatened, when t rave l t ime becomes o f g rowing conce rn , and when the cont inuat ion o f cos t l y in f ras t ruc ture becomes no longer feas ib le , dens i ty and height increases . Whi le t rad i t iona l l y the r e a lm of the cent ra l c i t y co re , fu tu re urban g rowth wi l l , o f necess i ty , have to come to the r ea l i za t i on that inc reased dens i ty and height are growingly reasonable a l te rna t i ves . This is not to say that l i fe will b e c o m e into lerab le ; ce r ta in l y , those used to the idea o f the house-on-the-lot as the only acceptab le f o r m o f hab i ta t ion will require more t r a u m a t i c adapta t ion , but increased densi t ies and height, as po in ted out as ear ly as L e Corbus ie r ' s 1922 C o n t e m p o r a r y C i t y s cheme , and as r e cen t l y as Soleri 's A r c o l o g y , can in f a c t p rov ide ce r t a i n improvements over much o f today's lower intensity o f deve lopmen t . Le Corbus ie r ' s c o n c e n t r a t e d approach features , for examp le , a ground cove rage of 596, the ba lance ava i lab le for landscaping and amen i t i e s . So le r i , on the other hand, proposes fu r ther benef i t s in te rms o f enhanced in te r rac t ion , e f f i c i e n c y o f m o v e m e n t , and in tens i f ied en r i chment o f the general urban expe r i ence . A r c h i g r a m explores c i t i es which are more f l ex ib le to the changing needs o f its occupants , where ranges o f exper ience can be a c c o m m o d a t e d with grea te r ease and f r equency . The obvious leap f r o m higher densit ies and increased bui ld ing heights to the 70 three-dimensiona l opportun i t ies as proposed by Soler i is not i r ra t iona l : the p r ima r y l im i ta t ion at present is that o f imaginat ion and c r ea t i v i t y . The secondary l im i ta t ions are to do with such legal issues as proper ty l ines, veh i cu la r and serv i ce movemen t sys tems, and design pr inc ip les o f space , l ight, and p r i v a cy . G i v e n the exp l i c i t pursuit o f this resource and the po l i t i ca l wil l to exper iment in app l i ca t i on , the logist ics and technology cannot be far beh ind . 71 5. APPLICATION "...it has usually been lack of imagination, rather than excess of it, that caused unfortunate decisions and missed opportunities." - He rman Kahn , 1967, p. 400 "There is always a market for lesser-evil thinking which poses immediate alternatives; the need for thinking which confronts us with great hopes and great plans is not so evident." - Dav id Re i sman , 1947, p. 173 "Indeed scientific knowledge has not merely heightened the possibilities of life in the modern world: it has lowered the depths. When science is not touched by a sense of values it works - as it fairly consistently has during the past century - towards a complete dehumanization of the social order." - Lewis M u m f o r d , 1922, p. 276 "...in an era that badly needs designers with a synthetic grasp of the organization of the physical world, the real work has to be done by less gifted engineers, because the designers hide their gift in irresponsible pretension to genius." - Chr i s topher A l exande r , 1967, p. 11 "Even today, town-planning technique invariably lags behind the events it is supposedly controlling, and it retains a strictly remedial character." - Leonardo Benevo lo , 1971, pp. 78-9 "Science and Utopian fantasy should complement each other. Science without Utopian imagination clings to the present and leads to petrifaction. Such a science can only extrapolate the present and calculate the future in terms of this present...the utopia without scientific sense, on the other hand, runs wild and degenerates into pure fancy...it is only when science and Utopia collaborate that man approaches the future in a prospective way...the utopia presents possibilities and asks science to test the feasibility of their realization." - Ma r t i n P l a t t e l , 1972, pp. 78-9 The bas ic s ign i f i cance o f Utopian designs occurs on three leve ls : criticism, methodology, and physical form. C r i t i c i s m is useful in help ing to de f ine and p r i o r i ze ex is t ing prob lems o f the bui l t env i ronment : Utopian design methodo logy is of va lue in understanding the c lea r re la t ionship between and t rans la t ion o f va lues into bu i l t - fo rm, and can cont r ibu te to the planning process adding a sense o f ba l ance and a broaden ing of pe rspec t i ve ; and spat ia l a l te rnat i ves genera ted by recent Utopian designers are g l impses into possible fu ture se t t l ement f o r m and pat te rns , and suggest a wealth of potent ia l phys ica l response to the growing comp lex i t y o f soc ie ta l issues. Th is sec t ion of the thesis is a specu la t i ve exe rc i se which synthes izes ideas f r o m the vast array o f ex is t ing Utopian designs into two d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed scenar ios for C a n a d a in the 21st C e n t u r y . The intent ion is two fo ld : f i r s t , to i l lust ra te the potent ia l o f Utopian designs in mode l ing a l ternat ives fo r d iscuss ion, tes t ing and dec i s ion-mak ing ; and second, to suggest that such an approach is adaptable to a wider spec t rum than the phys ica l p lanning to which it is t rad i t iona l l y r e l ega ted . The fo rmer intent ion is somewhat of an updat ing of the " C o m m u n i t a s " approach of the Goodman brothers where three scenar ios were pos tu la ted fo r the study of a l te rnat i ve phys ica l urban f o r m . Widely a c c l a i m e d at the t ime , " C o m m u n i t a s " was cons idered a break f r o m the s te reotyp ica l Utopian approach in the sense that the Goodmans p r e f a c e d the i r exerc i se with the s ta tement that theirs was an a t t empt at mode l ing ra ther than spec i f i c proposals . Perhaps the not ion was not more widely a c cep t ed due to the f a c t that it was l im i ted to phys ica l p lanning and thus pe r ce i v ed as just another subject ive and sel f- indulgent e c c e n t r i c i t y . The scenar ios proposed here are intended to re la te to the broader p lanning f i e l d . F r o m the support ive l i t e ra ture , it is c l ea r that the many vo i ces speak ing to the subject ca l l fo r Utopian thought in addi t ion to design. The f i r s t scenar io is a proposal where a new C e n t r a l i s m is spread ing across the g lobe, and suggests a d i r e c t i on C a n a d a cou ld cons ider tak ing in response to this t r end . The second is a proposal wh ich suggests that se iz ing the deve lop ing phenomenon of compu te r i z a t i on and commun i ca t i ons technology cou ld lead C a n a d a onto a wave of 73 d r a m a t i c de cen t r a l i z a t i on . A s a kind o f verbal g raph ic , the te rms "Superopo l i s " and " A n t i o p o l i s " have been chosen for the respec t i ve scenar ios . 5.1 Neo-Centralism It is suggested here that Neo-Conse rva t i sm, emerg ing f r o m the global e c o n o m i c recess ion o f the last decade , has evo lved into " n e o - C e n t r a l i s m " . This is e v idenced by the general d i r ec t i on of the government and co rpora te sec tors toward conso l ida t ion ra ther than the decen t ra l i s t t rend o f the 1960-1970 pe r i od . T h e pa rad igm sh i f t is the result o f two p r ima r y f a c to r s : f i rs t , the rea l i t y o f cut-backs which f l owed f r o m the recess ion and resu l ted in the c los ing o f sub-operat ions in favour o f the cen t ra l p lant ; and second, the e c o n o m i c advantage to be ga ined f r o m secur ing larger shares o f a potent ia l l y d imin ish ing pie by reduc ing compe t i t i on to near monopo ly propor t ions . Examples abound. One o f the most outstanding is the f o r m i n g o f g lobal t rad ing blocs such as Japan and the P a c i f i c R i m nations, the C a n a d a and the U.S. F r e e T r a d e A g r e e m e n t , and Western Europe which even seeks s t anda rd iza t i on o f its var ious mone ta ry sys tems. Fu r the r ev idence exists in other areas: co rpo ra t e mergers f lour i sh ; loca l e conomi c advantages are m a x i m i z e d ; advances through cont inued in-migrat ion and immig ra t i on ; mega-pro jects abound; in te rdependence and cross-di rec torsh ips increase . Canada ' s spec i f i c s i tua t ion is l ike that o f a mere pawn in this g loba l chess game . As a precar ious , resource-based economy evo lv ing into a se rv i ce e conomy , C a n a d a st i l l is hampered by her inherent p rob lem of phys ica l geography : few people s ca t t e r ed over vast d i s tance . A s such, the e conomi c heal th walks a t ight rope between boom 74 and bust. Ra the r than urban regions which have d i s t inc t l y m i x e d economies and va r i ed industr ia l bases, Canada 's c i t i es fo r the most part cont inue to be s ingle-interest p laces . Heavy re l iance on Fede ra l p rograms to ba lance regional d i spar i t y and the growing burden of soc ia l support in f ras t ruc ture may have weakened this count r y ra ther than s t rengthening it. The symptoms o f this weakening are c lear : the F r ee T r a d e issue was a d iv i s i ve one, Eng l i sh-French tensions are high; Western Prov inces g rumble about the lack o f Fede ra l a t ten t ion ; the M a r i t i m e s cont inue to exist on ever- increas ing handouts ; nat ive peoples, women and v is ib le minor i t i es comp la in about en t rench ing inequi ty into the M e e c h Lake A c c o r d ; and a newly-awakened env i ronmenta l i sm threatens to impede ex is t ing and new deve lopment and industry . In a sense, O t t a w a f idd les whi le C a n a d a burns. It is proposed, in the Superopol is Utopian scenar io , that a new nat iona l pa rad igm be exp lo red : one which recogn izes the Windsor-Toronto-Quebec co r r ido r as the l i tera l cen t re of power, f i nance , industry and populat ion and cap i t a l i z e s on this rea l i t y ra ther than cont inue past d i lu t i ve a t t empts to "ba l ance " the count ry . Th is proposal suggests C a n a d a cal l a spade a spade. 5.2 Superopolis A n expanding c i t y evo lves into a met ropo l i s , a met ropo l i s into a mega lopo l i s and a mega lopo l i s into an urban reg ion . Th is thesis suggests that an urban region expands into a "Superopo l i s " . Examp les o f urban regions in the U.S. inc lude the Eas te rn Seaboard , the nor th-centra l industr ia l area and the southwestern coas t . Buckmins te r Fu l l e r (1969) ident i f i ed these conurbat ions as "Bos-Wash" , " C h i - P i t t s " and "San-San" respec t i ve l y . The Canad i an equiva lent is c en t r ed in To ron to and extends southwest to include Hami l t on , London and Windsor, and northeast to inc lude Oshawa, K ings ton , 75 Ottawa-Hul l and M o n t r e a l . Potent ia l l y , it extends beyond Quebec C i t y to the mouth o f the St. L awrence . This dense urban reg ion dr ives the count ry . The Superopol is scenar io recogn izes this exp l i c i t l y and seeks to intens i fy this s i tuat ion whereby C a n a d a m a y not on ly stay in compe t i t i on with its g lobal neighbours, but in f a c t surpass t h e m . The essence o f the scheme is t h ree fo ld : f i r s t , des ignate the Superopol is as the focus for al l g rowth in populat ion and new inves tment ; second, assign status to G r e a t e r Vancouve r as a sub-Superopolis for fu tu re Pac i f i c R i m ac t i on ; and th i rd , r e l ega te the rest o f the c i t i es throughout the count ry to Regional Se rv i ce C e n t r e status, responsib le only to produce and d is t r ibute resources to the cent ra l co re . On the assumpt ion that the fo rego ing sweeping and s imp l i s t i c dec is ions have been taken, the Superopol is scenar io now focuses on the new phys ica l r am i f i c a t i ons and poss ib i l i t ies wh ich can o c cu r . 5.2.1 Physical Form - Macro-Scale The f o r m , by de f in i t i on , is l inear and u l t ima te l y extends cont inuous ly f r o m Windsor to Quebec C i t y . Whi le the dens i ty var ies a long it, the genera l intent is a concen t r a t i on s l ight ly higher overa l l than present inner c i t y areas. A s inf i l l deve lopment occurs roughly a long the coas t l ine o f the Grea t Lakes it a lso pe r iod i ca l l y extends inland as wel l as ou tward into the lakes themse lves . Such extens ions take p l ace at pe r iod i c new cores , and the whole is i n te r connec ted and r e i n fo r ced by an e f f i c i e n t ra i l t rans i t network . The foregoing overv iew makes r e fe rence to a number o f ava i lab le Utopian design ideas and e l ements . The fundamenta l not ion is Soleri 's wh ich is p r em i sed on the not ion 76 o f concen t ra t i on to minimize impac t on nature . A l t hough Superopol is need not approach his e x t r e m e m in i a tu r i za t i on , it is opposed to cont inu ing suburban deve lopment . The l inear i ty concep t is a fea ture o f numerous Utopian des igners but is t empe red here with the necessary c o m p r o m i s e of sub-centres in order to in t roduce both sca le , focus and f l ex ib i l i t y to the whole. This not ion evo lves f r o m Howard and the host o f town-country decent ra l i s t s , but Superopol is is s imply a s t ronger- l inked va r i a t i on . F r o m Tange and others comes the idea o f bui ld ing into the G rea t Lakes which is of twofo ld benef i t : new " l a n d " and the oppor tun i ty o f in t roduc ing water as a major integra l urban amen i t y . The necess i ty of rai l t ransi t is an obvious and long-overdue ant i-automobi le e l ement and would act as deve lopmenta l s t imulus as it t rad i t iona l l y does in all c i t i es so endowed . 5.2.2 Physical Form - Micro-Scale Superopol is would be deve loped with a range o f sca les : f r o m the indiv idual and f am i l y unit to the loca l ne ighbourhood, f r o m the c o m m u n i t y to the sub-core, and f r o m the metropo l i s to the whole . Whi le it is r e cogn ized that work ing-soc ia l-blood re la t ionships f o r m an inherent non-physical network ing in any urban cen t r e and wil l be enhanced by p rox im i t y of concen t r a t i on and ease of mobi l i t y , it is st i l l a human requ i rement to re la te pos i t i ve ly to and ident i fy wi th the phys ica l surroundings. Thus Superopol is will be s t ruc tu red in a h i e ra r ch i ca l fashion focused , for examp le , at the ne ighbourhood sca le on conven ience shopping, en te r ta inment and amen i t y , the school and c o m m u n i t y cen t r e . A t the c o m m u n i t y sca le , ident i ty wil l be estab l i shed around publ i c open space, c l ean industry and business o f f i c e s , larger reta i l f a c i l i t i e s and rec rea t iona l amen i t i e s . The current issue of zon ing wil l be r e vamped with the emphas is on mixed use ra ther than the present use-segregat ion approach . L ight industry , housing, c o m m e r c i a l . 77 educat iona l , inst i tut ional and rec rea t iona l f ac i l i t i e s wil l v i t a l l y co-exist and together prov ide a r i cher urban expe r i ence . Bui l t f o rm wil l cont inue to have vary ing height and dens i ty as it does now, but wi th grea te r heights ach ievab le through improved cons t ruc t ion techno logy . The preva lent f o r m , however , wil l be mid-height high-density bui ld ings where amen i t i e s and serv ices might occupy the lower levels , housing the upper, and work space in be tween . The age-old l ive-work-play ideal cou ld be r e i n fo r ced and would ce r t a in l y be supported by advances in compu te r and commun ica t i ons techno logy . Present inst i tut ional f a c i l i t i e s would be d ispersed throughout ra ther than c e n t r a l i z e d . Fo r examp le , a school or un ivers i ty would be l inear and in tegra ted a long a pedest r ian mixed-ac t i v i t y route in order to make educa t ion a b roader issue, more a part of everyday l i fe than the cur rent semi-c lo i s te red and expedi t ious app roach . Ideas proposed in this sec t ion are der i va t i ve o f Dox iad is ' not ion o f h i e ra r ch i ca l sca le a c c o m m o d a t i o n , where a t tent ion must be pa id to re la t ionships o f d i f f e ren t soc ia l groupings and how they f i t into the urban whole and its componen t s . Th is suggest ion also bears foundat ion in work o f the likes o f Howard , S te in and Per ry . The proposal to e l im ina te most o f the present zoning approach is r e l a t ed to a more f l ex ib le a t t i tude toward urban mix . Whi le it does not go as far as the more ana rch i ca l suggest ions o f such "p lug- in" concepts as A r ch ig ram ' s or Kemble ' s , it does r e cogn i ze that a r i cher exper ience can be bene f i c i a l and h i ther to incompat ib le uses can , in many cases, be sens i t i ve ly b lended ; such an examp le is found in Vancouver ' s G r anv i l l e Island and Fa i r v i ew S lopes. Bui lt f o rm ideas owe a great deal to Safdie 's ground-breaking Hab i t a t '67 in Mon t r ea l . Superopol is would borrow the design pr inc ip les o f sca le and indiv idual open spaces. 78 but would propose a more mega-st ructura l/serv ice f r amework as a more p r a c t i c a l solut ion than his p rob l ema t i c s t ruc tura l unit approach . F ina l l y , the l ive-work-play aspect is a favour i te concep t o f both Utopian designers and planners in genera l ; r e fe rences can be found throughout p lanning l i t e ra ture as to its des i rab i l i ty , f r o m P icht to Jacobs . 5.2.3 Transportation and Circulation Publ ic t ranspor ta t ion wil l be a key st ructura l e l ement in Superopol is , w i th the pr i va te veh i c l e r es t r i c t ed to per iphera l areas o f the local c o m m u n i t i e s . Ex te rna l connec t i on f r o m and to Superopol is wil l be by air and water supercar r i e rs fo r both passengers and goods, and by p ipe l ine for raw mater i a l s . Ove ra l l t r anspor ta t ion wi th in Superopol is will be by overhead passenger monora i l and by subway fo r goods and serv i ces . The main monora i l /serv i ce route will be cons t ruc ted of f-shore running roughly para l le l to the coast l ine wi th interchanges to sub-routes at sub-cores. The purpose o f this loca t ion is twofo ld : m i n i m u m disrupt ion to ex is t ing in f ras t ruc tu re and the c rea t i on o f a new zone for bui ld ing sites and water-re la ted amen i t i e s . It is fe l t that growth into the Lakes is less d is rupt ive overa l l to land-based growth . Branch ing o f f f r o m monora i l interchanges at each sub-centre wil l be s lower speed, above ground ra i l s e r v i ce wh ich wi l l in turn connec t to local bus routes . E a c h mode would in turn be more f l ex ib le in inverse propor t ion to its sca le o f ope ra t ion . A t the sca le o f the indiv idual urban swel ler , emphasis would be on the pedest r ian mode with g rea te r use o f b i c yc l e s and other such non-powered c i r c u l a t i o n . The ideas proposed in this sec t ion are to be found throughout Utopian design proposals a long with genera l p lanning pr inc ip les c o m m o n s ince the turn of the cen tu ry . The 79 emphasis in Superopol is would s imply be a more soph i s t i ca ted and h ie ra rch i ca l t ransi t network and a somewhat less empha t i c separat ion o f au tomob i l e and pedes t r i an . 5.2.4 Open Space The major open spaces o f Superopol is wil l be land-based and water-based. Whi le pa r t l y u t i l i zed as c o m m u n i t y ident i ty f o c i , it wil l be used fo r r e c r ea t i on and genera l amen i ty . Publ ic space within and about Superopol is wi l l be pedest r ian-or iented and wil l genera l l y consist o f a mu l t i tude o f in te rconnec ted smal l-sca le s t reet- f ront spaces which occas iona l l y open onto large p lazas . The tone o f the p lazas and larger open areas with be d i s t inc t l y man-made in contrast to the " n a t u r a l " env i ronment beyond Superopol is . Con t r as t i ng s t rongly with L e Corbus ier ' s towers-in-the-park f o r m , Superopol is recogn izes his ca l l for a pedes t r i an ized urban se t t ing . The sma l l e r sca le type o f c i r cu l a t i on is de r i ved , however , more f r om Jacobs ' ideas fo r a v ibrant ne ighbourhood and less o f the f e r ven t l y pedest r ian-automobi le separators such as S te in and Per ry . Good examples o f such spaces can be found throughout o lder par ts o f Eu ropean c i t i es but local examples exist in o ld Quebec C i t y and V ic tor ia ' s O l d T o w n . 5.2.5 Future Change Fu tu re change would p r ima r i l y involve new deve lopment and cor respond ing inf i l l for many decades to c o m e . It is an t i c ipa ted that the t ranspor ta t ion in f ras t ruc tu re comb ined with the "new l and " c r ea t ed along the lake f ront wi l l p rov ide a c a p a c i t y for absorpt ion o f popu la t ion , c o m m e r c e and industry wel l into the next cen tury . Pe r iod ic rev is ion and renewal to deve lopment within the overa l l o rgan iza t ion is expec ted , and hence phys ica l guidel ines are not r ig id as in the case o f heavy re l i ance 80 on mega-structures and dens i ty res t r i c t ions . Instead, Superopol is prov ides more a f ramework which a t t empts to comprehens i ve l y and synerg i s t i ca l l y bu i ld in many o f the gener i c phys ica l p lanning pr inc ip les that have s tood the test o f t i m e : human sca le , ne ighbourhood/communi ty , publ ic t rans i t , pedes t r i an-automobi le harmony , mixed-use coex i s t ence , and f l ex ib i l i t y to respond to fu ture change . The guiding concep t behind the Superopol is approach to fu tu re change d i f f e r s s ign i f i can t l y f r o m the major i ty o f past Utopian designs. Wi th the excep t i on o f a ce r t a i n amount o f support ive in f ras t ructure-t rans i t , serv ices and added land f o r m , it is d is t inc t l y non-author i tar ian and does not re ly to any great ex tent on over r id ing phys ica l f o r m . 5.2.6 Summary Summing up Superopol is can be done on two levels . F i r s t it is a Utopian concept at a nat ional po l i cy l eve l : to c o m m i t the fu ture o f C a n a d a to a s ingle , mighty urban concen t ra t ion which fo rms a global-scale power base to mee t the cha l l eng ing needs in the next cen tury . Secondly , it is a Utopian design in the t rad i t iona l sense which proposes ce r t a in phys ica l o rgan iza t iona l e l ements , genera l phys ica l f o r m and guid ing pr inc ip les of phys ica l p lanning. Whi le r ecogn izab l y rad i ca l f r o m some perspect i ves , the bas ic idea is not rea l l y m u c h more than an ex t rapo la t ion o f the ex is t ing Canad i an rea l i t y . Superopol is is Utopian in the Cen t ra l i s t spir i t o f L e Corbus ie r , Doxiad is and So l e r i . Ye t , in its awesome concent ra t ion , it is capab le o f re ta in ing the human sca le and neighbourhood qua l i t ies o f Howard and his buco l i c Ga rden C i t y . 81 5.3 Networking S ince the advance o f " c o m p u t e r i z a t i o n " , which extends in this context to mass ava i lab i l i t y , the not ion o f in forma l l inkages is heading in the d i r e c t i on whereby Fu l le r ' s pred ic t ions o f obso lescence o f the present c i t y f o r m may be a ch i e ved . A s i d e f r o m computers themse lves , there is a cor responding in tegra t ion into domes t i c and c o m m e r c i a l l i fe advanced document reproduc t ion , pho tocopy ing , and f a c s im i l e t ransmiss ion ; there is growing re l i ance on sa te l l i t e- feed t e l e con f e r enc ing , ce l lu l a r te lephones and rap id op in ion po l l ing ; there is widespread en joyment o f compu te r games , te lev is ions wi th enhanced p i c tu re and stereo, and laser c o m p a c t disks. The t rend is toward speed, m in i a tu r i za t i on , e conomy , conven ience and por tab i l i t y . Loca t ion-dependence , it would seem, cou ld be a thing o f the past . C a n a d a is ideal ly su i ted to m a x i m i z e the potent ia l o f this t e chno log i ca l advancement . Its' inherent d isadvantage to date has been that o f a smal l popu la t ion s ca t t e r ed over a huge area ; f i xed link c o m m u n i c a t i o n and t ranspor ta t ion do not best serve such a s i tuat ion as witness the ine f f i c i enc ies o f t ranscont inenta l passenger r a i l , p ipe l ines , highways and mai l de l i ve ry . Add i t i ona l l y , improvements to land-based t ranspor ta t ion systems are p roh ib i t i ve l y cap i ta l intensive, requi re heavy ma in tenance and are invar iably env i ronmenta l l y des t ruc t i ve . What be t te r nat ional s t ra tegy the re fo re than one which re l ies more and more on air waves fo r enhanced p roduc t i v i t y and l i fes ty le than one which is land-dependent? A t a m i c ro-economic leve l , it is genera l l y understood that sma l l business dr i ves Canada ' s e conomy . The new network ing approach encourages and enhances the idea of r emote , smal l-sca le f i rms and consul tant teams in te rdependent ly l inked by commun i ca t i on techno logy . Major industr ial and manu fac tu r i ng plants wil l st i l l exist , but manual labour wil l be more e f f e c t i v e l y handled by robot i c s . Dec i s ion-mak ing 82 at a governmenta l leve l is be ing de te rm ined to an increas ing extent by issue-pol l ing, lobbying and pet i t ion-gather ing ra ther than by c e n t r a l i z e d , in-house leg is la t ive bodies , which themse lves are pa r t i a l l y te lev i sed . 5.4 Antiopolis A s its name suggests " A n t i o p o l i s " would be more a way o f l i f e than a t rad i t iona l f i xed c i t y . Wi th increas ing re l i ance on and widespread use o f a g rowing number and degree of sophis t i ca t ion of ne twork ing possib i l i t ies , the not ion of herd ing together in permanent , ever-growing, ever-crowded urban se t t l ements , the popula t ion o f C a n a d a would be able to be t t e r choose more indiv idual ly c u s t o m i z e d loca t ion and l i f es ty l e . Whi le Ant iopo l i s would not negate c i t ies per se, it cou ld t r ans fo rm them into more spec i a l i zed , l im i ted- func t ion cent res focus ing on loca t ion-spec i f i c s t rengths and par t i cu la r advantage . Examp les cou ld range f r om r ec r ea t i on (Vancouver) , hea l th care (Saskatoon), tour i sm (Ca lgary , Banff , Jasper), mu l t i-cu l tu ra l ism (Montreal ) , f inance (Toronto) to A r c t i c research (Inuvik). A i r t rave l wi l l be fas te r , more f requent and f l ex ib le , u t i l i z ing more ver t ica l-take-of f-and-landing c r a f t to downtown and remote locat ions . Rec r ea t i on and the le isure industry wil l grow as the t rad i t iona l c en t r a l i z ed work p lace becomes more d ispersed, d i v e r s i f i ed and ta i l o red to the indiv idual or smal l group. Mob i l i t y and f l ex ib i l i t y wil l comb ine with a r i cher , wider range o f cho ices , s t imul i and opportuni t ies than h i ther to imag ined . Present government would gradual ly evo lve into a r e f e r endum based dec is ion-making sys tem with grea te r pa r t i c i pa t i on and equi ty v i a network invo lvement and d i r ec t issue vo t ing . The co rpora te sector would t r ans fo rm into a more comp lex ser ies o f Boards o f D i r e c to r s , whi le management would be r e d i r e c t e d to r ec ru i t i ng teams o f expert consul tants f r o m across the country for pa r t i cu l a r tasks on a re ta iner or as-required basis. Thus the present level o f personnel-based ove rhead would d im in i sh . 83 With the educa t ion sys tem t r ans fo rmed to a network basis, the need for schoo l- focused commun i t i e s would vanish, and f ami l i e s would be f r e ed to t rave l or r e loca te without fea r of uproot ing ch i ld ren f r o m cont inuous educa t ion . Conven t i on cent res , educat iona l- rec rea t iona l f ac i l i t i e s , and resort and ta rget-market hotels will f lour ish , c a t e r i ng to an increas ing number o f vaca t ione rs , semi-permanent " t r ave l l e r s " and "bus iness-fami l ies " . Fo r those seek ing less urban spec ia l i t i es and a t t rac t ions , luxury campgrounds , t heme parks, wi lderness cen t res and r emo te , ful l-hookup out lets wi l l expand . Whi le for those who des i re stays o f longer dura t ion , a p ro l i f e ra t ion o f home swap/share or t ime-share condomin iums wil l f lour i sh . Thus, it wil l be possible in addi t ion to those who wish a pe rmanent " home base " , for indiv iduals , f am i l i e s and o ther groups to t rave l to a g rea te r ex tent than h i ther to d reamt o f by e i ther Wright in his B roadac re C i t y or by the more recent A r c h i g r a m Croup 's Plug-In C ity. 5.4.1 Physical Form - Macro-Scale Suburban izat ion s ince Wor ld War II had a d i s t inc t l y d i lu t ing e f f e c t on the cen t ra l c i t y . The recent decade has seen extens ive a t t empts to r e v i t a l i z e downtown areas . These e f fo r t s have, w i th the excep t ion o f expense-d isc r iminat ing c o m m e r c i a l and res ident ia l condomin ium deve lopment , been large ly o f a super f i c i a l a t tent ion-get t ing , amusement-or ien ted dev i ce which are geared to en te r ta in ing and nove l ty packag ing to a t t r ac t re ta i l do l la rs ; they do not address fundamenta l issues and p rob lems of de te r io ra t ing educa t ion , homelessness, the hand icapped or the lower- income and single-parent f am i l y . The new age o f i n fo rmat ion will cause a back lash r eac t i on which cou ld make 84 suburban izat ion seem m i l d in compar i son . People who l ive in the suburbs wil l no longer c o m m u t e for hours on conges ted ar te r ies ; they now wil l s imply stay home. The downtown wil l de te r io ra te , a f te r a rash o f last gasp a t t empts to en t i ce popula t ion , but wi l l inev i tably wi ther and d ie . Ant iopo l i s proposes however that , in comb ina t ion wi th s t ronger decen t r a l i z a t i on , the c i t ies act in advance to s t rengthen their natura l advantages and t r ans fo rm themselves into l imi ted-purpose cent res o f spec ia l t y : r e sea rch and deve lopment , marke t ing , concen t r a t ed a c t i v i t y and the re l a ted support ive in f ras t ruc tu re and se rv i ces . Vancouver , for examp le , may choose to cap i t a l i ze on its natura l advantage o f set t ing and become the world's f o remos t cen t re fo r r e c r ea t i on and le isure . In add i t ion to its s ign i f i cance as a port f a c i l i t y , which would move of f-shore l ike the F e r r y and Coa l Te rm ina l s , the c i t y cou ld deve lop the ent i re Bur ra rd Inlet as a con t ro l l ed water resource for underwater and su r face research , sport , le isure and genera l amen i t y . It cou ld stage the "Wate r O l y m p i c s " , perhaps as a permanent f a c i l i t y . Vancouver cou ld cap i t a l i ze on its ski ing a t t rac t ions by cons t ruc t i ng a sk i-monorai l f r o m downtown to Whis t le r ; it cou ld even dome over a mounta in va l ley to c rea te a year-round ski resor t . In add i t ion , Vancouver cou ld a t t r a c t the fu l l gamut o f Nor th A m e r i c a n and wor ld major league sports f ranch ises ; it cou ld have a G r and Pr ix c i r cu i t or Wor ld C u p sa i l ing . It cou ld be a research and deve lopment cent re for sport , le isure, f a c i l i t y des ign, hea l th and pe r f o rmance , undersea exp lora t ion , mar ine b io logy , or env i ronmenta l l y-sens i t i ve water ac t i v i t y o f all k inds. In a s imi la r ve in , the C i t y o f Winnipeg cou ld intensi fy and expand its present level 85 of art f ac i l i t i es , such as the Roya l Winnipeg Ba l le t , the Winn ipeg Symphony , and the Man i toba Thea t r e C e n t r e . It cou ld broaden its educa t iona l base in A r c h i t e c t u r e , F ine A r t , U rban and Interior Des ign . Winnipeg cou ld b e c o m e a wor ld leader in V isua l , P e r f o r m i n g and A p p l i e d A r t s . It cou ld extend this concept by c los ing in the downtown por t ion o f Por tage A v e n u e to c rea te a permanent f a c i l i t y fo r educa t ion , en te r t a inment , d isp lay , purchase and al l-round en l igh tenment to the wor ld ; a f ac i l i t y many t imes g rea te r than Los Ange les ' "B lue Wha le " or Toronto 's "Des igner ' s Walk" . The C i t y o f C a l g a r y cou ld b e c o m e the focus fo r w i ld l i f e , conserva t ion , and resea rch and deve lopment o f the natura l env i ronment . S i tua ted near B an f f and Jasper in the Rocky Mounta ins , its natura l geography extends through footh i l l s to p ra i r i e , and cou ld lead the wor ld in educa t ion , tour i sm and re la ted land-based env i ronmenta l i sm. Inuvik cou ld b e c o m e a major cen t re for northern and A r c t i c issues; Mon t rea l cou ld focus on mu l t i cu l t u r a l i sm ; Ot tawa-Hul l on space and c o m m u n i c a t i o n techno logy ; and Ha l i f ax on h is tor i c or m a r i t i m e issues. The c i t i es o f C a n a d a , at this macro- leve l , would be t r ans fo rmed into p r imary and secondary g lobal " C e n t r e s fo r E x c e l l e n c e " and would br ing new purpose to urban f o r m as well as to the count ry as a whole. Th is not ion has its roots in Fu l ler ' s s ta tements that the new techno logy wil l make the t rad i t iona l c i t y obso le te and that new purpose and s ign i f i c ance must be found if it is to prevent tota l co l l apse . Whi le Decen t ra l i s t s such as Howard and Wright , and Mega lopo l i tans such as A r c h i g r a m and Moho ly-Nagy do not exhib i t s t rong fee l ings for the cent ra l c i t y , An t iopo l i s recogn izes that the new c i t y that can emerge f r o m 86 technology-dr iven urban dispersal can be re juvenated to a more substant ive and substant ia l level than present cosme t i c e f f o r t . 5.4.2 Physical Form - Micro-Scale A t the level o f the ind iv idua l , the f am i l y unit , the smal l purpose- fo rmed group, the potent ia l for va r i ed l i f es ty le and phys ica l loca t ion is un l im i t ed . W i th highly deve loped sate l l i te c o m m u n i c a t i o n networks and soph is t i ca ted se rv i ce in f ras t ruc tu re , one can l i te ra l l y l ive on the top o f a mounta in , at the polar ice-cap or under the ocean . A l though there are some who may opt for some t ime to exp lore such poss ib i l i t ies , the human rea l i t y is that there is an inherent soc ia l cha r a c t e r i s t i c that wil l a lways requi re a t t en t ion . Th is , however , will advance to a less author i ta r i an s t ruc tu r ing than h i ther to poss ib le . Whi le the present bu i l t- fo rm options will cont inue to exist , o ther present ly f r inge-l ike f ac i l i t i e s wi l l expand . A good example is the resort co t t age wh ich will f o r many b e c o m e the permanent home ra ther than the suburban house which is t rad i t iona l l y gea red more to school investment and work-re la ted c o m p r o m i s e than ideal l i f es ty le f a c i l i t y . A broader examp le re la tes more to the workp lace o f An t i opo l i s . Individual spec ia l i s ts or consul tant t eams , in add i t ion to l inked work at the i r homes , wi l l gather pe r iod i ca l l y for con t rac t ass ignments . H i the r to , the t rad i t iona l pa t t e rn would be fo r the husband-father to undergo exhaust ive c o m m u t i n g in con junc t ion wi th so l i tary hote l l i v ing where spare t ime is spent apart f r om regular f am i l y l i f e . The Ant iopo l i s scenar io enables the ent i re f am i l y to r e loca te t empora r i l y wi th no d is rupt ion to educa t ion and no in ter rupt ion of soc ia l commun i ca t i on to the ass ignment l oca t ion . Fu l l f a c i l i t y hotel-resorts wi l l compe te with one another to c a t e r to c o m p l e t e f am i l y requ i rements 87 at expanded levels beyond even that of A lbe r ta ' s West Edmon ton M a l l . The f am i l y unit would r ema in in tac t throughout the ass ignment . Whi le Utopian designers have out l ined decen t r a l i z ed schemes to vary ing degrees in the past, the u l t ima te technology-based concept is that o f A r ch ig r am ' s "Plug-In" approach . Beyond the i r Plug-In C i t y , they have deve loped ideas fo r r emo te fu l l-serv ice hook-ups d isguised as t ree t runks; they have env isaged whole commun i t i e s that walk and f l y ; they have g raph i ca l l y exp lo red huge in f la tab le and expanding tent s t ructures that one can ca r r y on one's back to prov ide a c o m p l e t e luxury env i ronment at the push of a but ton . E x t r e m e as these notions are , they do i l lust rate what is techno log i ca l l y poss ib le . In Ant iopo l i s , however , the proposals are more conse rva t i ve in r ecogn iz ing that soc ia l inst i tut ions and the i r i n f ras t ruc tu re are o f s ign i f i c ance . The a t t empt is to ba lance these rea l i t ies with techno logy and imag ina t ion in order to enhance ra ther than des t roy soc i e t y . 5.4.3 Transportation and C irculation The Ant iopo l i s proposal would be se rv i ced by two ma in sys tems : air to t ransport v is i tors and workers to and f r o m the urban a t t rac t ion-cent res , and commun i ca t i ons in f ras t ruc ture for universa l hookup throughout the count ry . Wi th in the urban cen t re , a bas ic publ ic rap id transi t s y s t em would rad ia te ou tward f r o m the co re wi th f l ex ib le bus routes as the secondary s y s t em. In genera l , the populat ion would be inc l ined to t rave l less on a da i ly basis than at present , u t i l i z ing other fo rms o f in te r connec t ion more than phys ica l mob i l i t y . The ra t iona le for the forego ing is less Utopian than it is an extens ion o f the ex is t ing s i tuat ion where e l e c t r on i c means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n are b e c o m i n g so c o m m o n p l a c e 88 that the home without a compute r , an au tomobi le wi thout a ce l l u l a r te lephone or an o f f i c e without a f a c s im i l e t r ansmi t t e r will soon be the e x c e p t i o n . 5.4.4 Open Space Open space in the An t iopo l i s concept re fers mo re to "w ide open spaces " . In other words, more and more present ly r emote areas wil l be made ava i lab le and access ib le to a g rea te r extent than ever be fo re . The log cab in in the woods, present ly a ho l iday re t reat , cou ld b e c o m e the permanent home; the sai lboat weekend escape may b e c o m e extended to fu l l- t ime weekday l i f e . The word " v a c a t i o n " wil l soon be dropped f r o m one's vocabu la ry as the l iv ing-working-playing synthesis b e c o m e s a r ea l i t y . 5.4.5 Future Change The future o f An t iopo l i s is v i r tua l l y un l im i ted . The Canad i an c i t i es , f o r m e r l y the focus of urban l i fe and wea l th , wil l take on new mean ing : educa t ion , r esea rch and deve lopment , en te r t a inment , cu l tura l resources , h is tor ic t reasures . A n open-ended potent i a l , subject to cont inuous advancement in the r espec t i ve f ie lds d i s t inc t l y d i f f e ren t f r o m one another in eve ry respect , changing and improv ing to en r i ch the exper ience and e conomy o f the popu la t ion . B lessed with vast land and water resources, mounta ins , footh i l l s , tundra , p ra i r i e and the A r c t i c , lakes, r i vers , de l tas , hot springs and sea shore, Canada ' s advantages over smal l countr ies are obv ious . With cont inuous deve lopment o f t echno logy , exp lor ing and deve lop ing C a n a d a cou ld very well o ccupy the l i f e t imes o f many generat ions to c o m e . The fu ture o f An t iopo l i s is assured for the 21st C e n t u r y and beyond . 89 5.4.6 Summary Ant iopo l i s is a technology- and marketing-based Utopian concep t . Techno logy opens the doors to such a scenar io more so than Fu l l e r or even A r c h i g r a m ever d reamt of . Ma rke t i ng is the dr i v ing f o r c e o f the Nor th A m e r i c a n e c o n o m y . C o m b i n i n g these two e lements can produce the wondrous new c i t i es that wi l l b e c o m e wor ld centres in the i r respec t i ve f ie lds o f spec ia l t y . C o m b i n i n g these e l ements can open up a whole new l i fes ty le for the popu la t ion ; a l i fes ty le which is ind iv idua l-or iented ra ther than soc ie ty-d ic ta ted , one which restores f r eedom and prov ides the luxury o f expanded cho i ce , one which asserts human d ign i ty without au thor i ta r i an demand . Ant iopo l i s is Utopian in the spir i t o f Howard , Wright and A r c h i g r a m ; it is Utopian even in the sense that Soler i d reams of: t r ans fo rma t ion o f mank ind into a new evo lut ionary be ing, a h igher plane o f c i v i l i z a t i on . on 6. EXPANDING THE PLANNING PARADIGM "To the urban-planning student, the best of the Ideal Communities are examples of how broadly an unfettered mind can think and dream and how far the undimmed eye can see. Exposure to Ideal Communities is perhaps a part of the most vital element of a planner's education. For these are case studies, examples, which inculcate a spirit of healthy criticism towards the existing environment and society." - Thomas Re iner , 1963, p. 157 "Thus we have cited Disney World and the images of Superstudio, not for their intrinsic values and vices, but rather as the logical extensions of two points of view which, in themselves, may both be valuable; but the presumption here inferred that only the middle ground of an argument is of use, that its extremities are likely always to be absurd, is now positively introduced, not from any passion for compromise, but as an intuition which might assist some kind of alert and workable detente. - C o l i n Rowe, 1978, p. 48 "The concept of cities as they now exist developed entirely before the existence or the thought of electricity or automobiles, or before any of the millions of inventions registered in the United States Patent office had occurred...Cities, as we now know them, are obsolete in respect to all of yesterday's functions." - R. Buckmins te r Fu l l e r , 1969, p. 346 The planning profess ion needs to re-examine and address the present p redominant approach to p lann ing. Ser ious weak spots in this approach l ie in the areas o f how to deal with intangible and qua l i t a t i ve soc ie ta l issues, as well as how to re turn the planning sphere o f in f luence to a d is t inc t , exp l i c i t , and s t ronger f a c i l i t y for fu ture-or iented a c t i v i t y . Th is sec t ion o f the thesis suggests some ten ta t i ve d i rec t ions that address both these aspects , leading, it is hoped, to g rea te r d iscuss ion and the exchange of knowledge that may deve lop and en t r ench an improved methodo logy into the present pa r ad igm. 6.1 Approach This sec t ion of the thesis examines , in conceptua l and p re l im ina r y fash ion, p rec i se l y 91 how the Utopian approach , and more spec i f i ca l l y , the Utopian design mode l ing aspect , can be taught, learned, in tegra ted , and c o m m u n i c a t e d wi th in the planning pro fess ion (See F igure 17). C e r t a i n of the th ink ing here r e f l e c t s that of H e r m a n Kahn and An thony Wiener of the Hudson Institute Inc. and their approach to the study of the fu ture (Kahn, 1967). A n o t h e r source used is that of Paul D i c k s o n (1971) and his work on think tanks (1971), as wel l as re fe rences to T o f f l e r (1971) and Na isb i t t (1982). The steps toward an expanded planning parad igm - one which blends art wi th sc i ence , one which recogn izes planning's responsib i l i ty to pa r t i c i pa t i on in the fu ture as well as reac t ing to the present - are as fo l lows: understanding, tes t ing , f o r m a l i z a t i o n and l eg i t im iza t i on , and, u l t ima te l y , integrat ion into p r a c t i c e . 6.1.1 Understanding and Commitment Unders tand ing must take p lace on many levels . It has been demons t r a t ed that the planning of today leaves someth ing to be des i red . It would be easy and somewhat just i f iab le to protest that externa l i t i es are the cause of planning's ine f fec t i veness : fo r example , publ ic host i l i t y , po l i t i ca l intr igue, marke t impa t i ence , and e c o n o m i c rea l i t y . It would also be a cop-out . The thrust of this thesis is that p lanners are somet imes too read i l y ma l l eab le to such exte rna l i t i es , and, by a snowbal l ing e f f e c t , cont inue to fuel the very f i res that can weaken c red ib i l i t y . T o understand and deve lop a c o m m i t m e n t to all that is planning's vast po ten t i a l is the f i rs t s tep. T o understand and develop a c o m m i t m e n t to p lanning as a b lend of art and sc ience is the second . T o understand and deve lop a me thod of approach which recogn izes and embraces the ta lents and c rea t i ve energ ies of the Utopian des igner , the d reamer , the intu i t i ve m ind is the th i rd . T o f a ce the intangib le and unquant i f iab le head-on and deal with it is the last s tep. 92 Cont inu ing in the present ve in , that is to r id icu le the aberrant f r inge e lement o f utopianism as embar rass ing , to ignore the qua l i ta t i ve because it cannot be quant i f i ed , to re ly more and more heav i l y on compute r mode l ing and " i f - then " pro ject ions , and to pay overdue homage to a short-term or ien ted es tab l i shment is to res ign planning's fu ture to an unplanned fu tu re . 6.1.2 Education and Testing Once the p lanning pro fess ion accep ts the not ion that u top ian i sm is a worthwhi le and potent ia l l y usefu l , i f not downr ight necessary , aspect of its work, it then fa l ls large ly within the purv iew o f a c a d e m i a and that o f the i n t e r commun i ca t i v e a c a d e m i c journal and s imi la r c o m m u n i c a t i o n veh ic les to examine how best the subject can be s tud ied , deve loped , and taught to fu ture generat ions o f p lanners as well as by members o f the present genera t ion who have a desire for cont inued learn ing and profess iona l deve lopment . Init ial ly, at least, a g rea te r emphas is and more t ime cou ld be p l a ced on those seminar and workshop courses that inspire and encourage c r ea t i v e thought and d iscuss ion at the expense o f the more lec ture-or iented f o rma t . Integral wi th these thrusts would be spec ia l a t ten t ion pa id to the methodo logy o f the a r t i s t i c , in tu i t i ve , non-l inear approach in f ie lds such as F ine A r t and Des ign , at least in the in i t ia l stages o f the genera l exerc i se suggested here . C o m m u n i c a t i o n would , o f course , have to be cont inuous. Th is cou ld be handled qui te read i ly v ia the norma l channels o f profess iona l exchange - bul le t ins , seminars , confe rences , per iod ica ls , and pub l i ca t ions - but cou ld also be extended gradua l l y into the r ea lm of publ ic a t ten t ion through newspapers, magaz ines , and other mass med ia including popular l i t e ra ture (eg. T o f f l e r (1971), Na isb i t t (1982), et al). Introductory forays into the p r a c t i c i n g wor ld o f profess ional p lanners cou ld also take p l ace , in i t ia l ly as s tudent/of f i ce exerc i ses , and later as 94 exper iments wi th in the f i e ld i tse l f . Gradua l l y , the not ion o f Utopian methodo logy cou ld be in t roduced at all levels o f the profess ion , as well as ins inuated into the everyday wor ld o f pub l i c expe r i ence . 6.1.3 Legitimization and Formalization Once it was fe l t that a su f f i c i en t body o f thought and ac t i on on Utopian methodo logy had been estab l i shed, the next important step would be the fo rma l r ecogn i t i on o f this e lement by the planning profess ion at large through its organ iza t ions and assoc ia t ions . A n inva luable by-product here would be the re-examina t ion , r es t ruc tu r ing , and reconc i l i ng o f present p lanning methodo logy ; one cannot incorpora te a new e lement into a process without a c r i t i c a l and thorough understanding o f that process in order to best de te rmine f i t and p ropor t ion . A g a i n , cont inued and, at this point stepped-up, intens i ty o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n would be necessary , a imed now more intensely at the genera l pub l i c as well as at the dec is ion-making levels o f publ ic and pr i va te bodies . 6.1.4 Integration and Practice Hav ing passed all prerequ is i te tests, as it were, the not ion o f u top ian ism as an integral and essent ia l part o f p lanning the last bast ion o f eve ryday rea l i t y is r eached : profess iona l p r a c t i c e . The prac t i s ing profess ional can o f t en be re luc tan t fo r var ious apparent ly sound reasons to e m b r a c e changing methodo logy . It is, however , abso lute ly v i ta l that this hurdle be jumped . Once incorpora ted into the da i l y habit o f regular p rac t i c e , the mer i t s o f Utopian inclusion wil l p resumab ly prove se l f-ev ident , and planning will ach ieve a more meaningfu l p lace in soc ie ty , not only as a profess ion 95 with he ightened l eg i t imacy , but, more impor tant l y , as a f o r c e capab le o f mak ing a more serious and growing ly s ign i f i cant cont r ibut ion to the fu tu re . 6.2 Future-Orientation Whatever else p lanning is about, it is about the fu tu re . Throughout the l i t e ra ture , f r o m M u m f o r d in the 1920s to Na isb i t t in the 1980s, there are constant and unceas ing reminders o f this f a c t . What is not usual ly made exp l i c i t , however , is p rec i se l y which fu ture . Is the p lanning-re levant fu ture the next year , the next decade , the next century? Qu i te obviously , the answer is all o f the above. It is d i f f i c u l t , however , to be serious about even con temp la t i ng 100 years f r om now; moreove r , it is even more d i f f i cu l t to conv ince the publ ic and the dec is ion-makers o f this. F r i edmann (1973, C h a p t e r 5, F i g . 6, p. 141) deals ve ry ra t iona l l y wi th this issue in his graph ic and wr i t ten s u m m a r y o f what he te rms " T i m e Re la t ions in Soc ia l Gu idance " , where he points out that our ce r t a in t y o f understanding dec reases in both d i rec t ions f r o m recent to distant past and f r o m near to far fu ture , whi le wisely avo id ing assigning spec i f i c year-dimensions to his graph. It is qui te obvious that the most c o m m o n t ime- f rame of convent iona l p lanning ac t i v i t y is focused on the near past , present , and very near fu tu re . However , this does not g ive l i cense to ignore the more distant fu ture ent i re ly . What does make sense is to r e cogn ize that dec is ions taken today regard ing such things as roads, underground serv ices , bui ld ings, and zoned land use a f f e c t future decades , and somet imes centur ies . It makes sense to spend some e f fo r t examin ing potent ia l issues as they are ident i f i ed . It makes sense, cons ider ing the impac t o f known trends such as au tomobi le usage, a ir t rave l and c o m p u t e r i z a t i o n , to also specu la te on possible fu tu re r ami f i c a t i ons o f o ther pe r ce i v ed t rends, and to ex t rapo la te scenario-studies o f their potent ia l impacts . 96 Fu tu r i sm , Utopian th ink ing, and ideal commun i t y design in p lanning is present ly a f r inge ac t i v i t y . Its adherents are not ma ins t ream and, wi th the excep t i on o f the occas iona l best-sel ler , the subject o f the fu ture is v i ewed by the pub l i c w i th suspic ion, by dec is ion-makers with skep t i c i sm , and by the p lanning pro fess ion at- large with a degree o f der i s ion . A f t e r a l l , i f present fo recas t ing e f fo r t s can only specu la te in the short-term with such inaccu racy , it is d i f f i cu l t to persuade the planners ' c l i en ts to t ack l e the longer t e r m . This s i tuat ion has c o m e about largely as over-reac t ion to the fa i lu re o f comprehens i ve Mas te r P lanning and the B ig C o m p u t e r Mode l c r a z e o f the 1960s (Weaver, 1983). This fa i lu re was p red i c tab le and deserved ly so. These approaches essent ia l l y sought to cast in stone long-term plans based on as much da ta as cou ld conce i vab l y be p rocessed . However , change is not p red i c tab le and cou ld not be p r o g r a m m e d . Notw i ths tand ing , this thesis suggests one smal l e l ement that can be i nco rpora ted wi th in the p lanning process which wil l enable a f o rma l specu la t i ve veh ic le to ident i fy and ex t r ac t ce r ta in aspects of soc ie ta l behav iour , and to deve lop and examine t hem on a con t ingency basis in an t i c ipa t ion o f cho ices for genera l d i r e c t i on . It can also be used for cons idera t ion of deve lop ing futures which can be avo ided . Recent l y , trends have been pe rce i ved and ident i f i ed (see, fo r examp le , K a h n , 1967; Na isb i t t , 1982; T o f f l e r , 1971) int roduc ing to pub l i c awareness ex t rapo la t ions and impl ica t ions o f past and present soc ie ta l a c t i v i t y which ce r t a in l y deserve , and perhaps demand , to be examined more ser iously by the p lanning p ro fess ion . Whi le the impact on phys ica l p lanning o f To f f l e r ' s " shock " may be o f l i t t l e d i r e c t conce rn to planners, ce r t a in l y the trends noted by Na isb i t t o f decen t r a l i z a t i on , con t inued educa t ion , and urban-urban mig ra t ion pat terns have s ign i f i cant mean ing . S im i l a r l y , Kahn and Wiener's thoughts on le isure, improved heal th and l i fe-span, and mega lopo l i t an expansion can be of enormous impact on the phys ica l env i ronment o f the fu tu re . If one throws in 97 Ful ler 's suggest ion (1969) that the c i t y i tse l f is in f ac t obso le te , an even more d r a m a t i c case can be made . This does not even begin to touch on the impac t o f natura l phenomena and disasters , inc luding the potent ia l planet-wide Greenhouse E f f e c t ; r econs t ruc t ion a f t e r ear thquakes, f loods and famines ; or the se t t l ement o f ou te r space , undersea, desert , or a r c t i c regions - al l o f which are present ly t e chn i ca l l y feas ib le . 6.3 Application Kahn and Wiener 's ob jec t i ves for fu ture-or iented po l i cy r esea rch inc lude the fo l low ing : 1. s t imu la t ing and s t re tch ing the imag inat ion and improv ing the pe r spec t i v e ; 2. des igning and s tudy ing a l te rnat i ve po l i cy packages and con tex t s ; 3. c rea t ing educa t iona l exposi t ions, methodo log ies , pa rad igms , and f r ameworks ; 4. improv ing in te l l ec tua l commun i ca t i on and coope ra t i on pa r t i cu l a r l y by the use o f h i s tor i ca l analogies, scenar ios, metaphors , ana l y t i c models , p rec i se concepts , and sui table language; 5. increas ing the ab i l i t y to ident i fy new pat terns and c r i ses and understanding their cha r a c t e r and s ign i f i cance ; and 6. improv ing the admin i s t ra t i ve ab i l i t y o f the dec i s ion-makers and the i r s ta f fs to reac t appropr i a te l y to the new and un fami l i a r . P lanning for the d is tant fu ture - that is somewhere in the v i c i n i t y o f a 10-year or beyond t ime- f rame - is not p lanning in the convent iona l sense. Ra the r it is s imu l a t ed exerc i se in th inking and d iscuss ion which def ines possible genera l d i rec t ions as f r ameworks fo r shor ter-term scenar ios . Probably most impor tan t , at least for us at Hudson Institude, is that long-range studies prov ide a context in which to do f i ve- to ten-year studies that can and do in f luence po l i cy cho ices . (Kahn, 1967, p. 1) As an " u m b r e l l a " c a t ego ry of possible appl ica t ions of Utopian des ign , the idea of long-range planning is la id out more spec i f i ca l l y in the fo l low ing sec t ions . However , emerg ing technolog ies fo r the habi ta t ion o f outer space and under-ocean, fo r the deve lopment o f a r c t i c , desert and other present ly unoccup ied areas would ve ry de f in i t e l y 98 expand this c a t ego ry into perhaps a phys ica l p lanning sub-sect ion devoted en t i re l y to potent ia l app l i ca t ion of techno log ica l advancement . Too o f ten exped ienc ies shaped by t ime , budget, manpower , ava i l ab le da ta or externa l i t i es l imi t project p lanning to a narrow range o f possible s t ra teg ies , o f t en s imply var ia t ions on one theme . In many cases, opt ions and a l te rnat i ves are not even cons idered at a l l , espec ia l l y if one is f r o m the school o f thought wh ich be l ieves that the l inear approach f r o m the genera l to the spec i f i c is o f fau l t less log ic and immutab l y co r r e c t . The obvious app l i ca t ion o f the Utopian design approach to spec i f i c pro jects , regardless o f s ize or spec i f i c nature is that more opt ions, cho ices and a l te rna t i ves can be genera ted and exp lo red . This approach would have the obvious bene f i c i a l s ide e f f e c t that the var ious non-planner ac tors may pa r t i c ipa te more fu l ly in the process ra ther than be ing l im i ted to a fa i t a c c o m p l i genera ted " in-house" , and too o f t en v i ewed subsequent ly with suspic ion and unease by those who are p lanned fo r . Whether or not one subscr ibes fu l l y to the Megat rends o f Na isb i t t (1982), or the 33-year overv iew o f Kahn and Wiener (1967), it is reasonable to at least pro jec t ext rapo la t ions of ce r ta in soc ie ta l phenomena which can be iso lated and exp lo red as hypotheses ra ther than s imply wai t ing to r eac t to events . This is an essent ia l ingredient of planning's " ra ison d 'etre" : to an t i c ipa te and prov ide courses o f ac t ion in advance o f need. One can ce r t a in l y d i s ce rn , by even a cursory study o f h is tory in this century , the major impac t of increased au tomob i l e ownership, air t rave l and c o m p u t e r i z a t i o n . Lea rn ing f r o m history is an inescapable requ i rement . Wi l l inc reased computer-use and t e l e commun i ca t i ons , fo r examp le , exacerba te the decen t r a l i z a t i on o f urban areas fur ther? Or , as less human con tac t is requ i red in the workp lace , wil l people need to compensate by enhanced soc ia l con tac t e lsewhere? What are the potent ia l impl i ca t ions to physical p lanning in each case? 99 By isolat ing such techno log i ca l deve lopments , impac ts can be hypothes ized , models bui l t , r ami f i ca t i ons exp lo red , and opt ions genera ted pr ior to the en t r enchment o f such t rends. Thus planning has a f igh t ing chance o f a l lowing soc i e t y to be p repared ra ther than caught short in an in te rminab le series o f r eac t iona ry c r i ses . Naisbi t t ' s 10 Mega t rends for the U.S. inc lude the fo l low ing : 1. F r o m an industr ia l to an in fo rmat ion e conomy ; 2. F r o m a t echno log i ca l to a high-tech/high touch soc i e t y ; 3. F r o m a nat ional to a g lobal e conomy ; 4. F r o m short- to long-term t ime- f rames ; 5. F r o m c e n t r a l i z e d to decen t r a l i z ed dec is ion-mak ing ; 6. F r o m inst i tut ional help to se l f help; 7. F r o m representa t i ve d e m o c r a c y to pa r t i c ipa to ry d e m o c r a c y ; 8. F r o m h ie ra rch i ca l s t ruc tures to in formal networks; 9. F r o m northeast urban areas to south and west; and 10. F r o m ei ther/or cho i ces to mul t ip le-cho ice opt ions. Kahn S Weiner 's Trends (to the yea r 2000)include the fo l l ow ing : Some o f the e l ements o f the t rend - espec ia l l y increas ing ly sensate (empi r i ca l , th is-worldly , secular , humanis t i c , p r agma t i c , u t i l i t a r i an , con t r ac tua l , ep i cu r i an , or hedonist ic and the l ike) cu l tu res ; a c cumu l a t i on of s c i en t i f i c and techno log ica l knowledge; ins t i tu t iona l i za t ion o f change, espec ia l l y r esea rch , deve lopment , innovat ion, and d i f fus ion ; increas ing a f f luence and (recent ly ) le isure; u rban iza t ion and (soon) the g rowth o f mega lopol i ses ; dec reas ing impor tance o f p r ima r y (and recent l y ) secondary occupat ions ; and l i t e racy and educat ion - should b e c o m e espec ia l l y p rominent in the "V i s ib l y Pos t indus t r i a l " countr ies . . . p. 185 The app l i ca t ion of the Utopian design approach to phenomeno log i ca l p lanning deals p r imar i l y wi th natura l changes o f long-term and po ten t i a l l y g lobal e f f e c t s , and is understandably more vaguer than other f ace ts o f phys ica l p lann ing . Nonethe less , there is cons iderab le mer i t for cons idera t ion o f such issues as the p r e d i c t e d "Greenhouse e f f e c t " whereby the t empera tu re o f our planet 's a tmosphere is measurab ly increas ing due to cont inu ing dep le t ion of the ozone layer o f our a tmosphe re . When, what, and how s ign i f i cant wil l this e f f e c t be on future se t t l ement pat te rns , the i r nature and locat ions? What opt ions cou ld be cons idered in the lead-t ime ava i lab le? What are 100 the impl i ca t ions o f advanc ing deserts on the A f r i c a n cont inent? What are the impl ica t ions o f genera l c l ima to log i ca l change, o f con t inued soil eros ion, o f deforesta t ion? Whi le seeming ly f a r- fe t ched as planning respons ib i l i t ies , these types o f natura l phenomena can and should be studied to prov ide in advance the necessary solut ions to adapt to or deal wi th t h e m . Recons t ruc t ion a f t e r such natura l disasters as f loods, f amines , drought or ear thquake is a s ign i f i cant and ser ious business. M a n has ce r t a in l y expe r i enced enough case-studies that some f o r m o f f o r m a l i z e d cont ingency and improved rebu i ld ing s t ra teg ies can be deve loped . Man-made disasters as a result o f war, increas ing acc iden ts assoc ia ted with the genera t ing o f nuc lear power, or the dumping o f hazardous wastes are also areas where advanced th ink ing can , if not prevent the i r o c c u r r e n c e , at least propose phys ica l opt ions for the i r ame l i o ra t i on . 6.4 Potential The obvious mind-st re tch ing benef i t s o f an Utopian approach to phys ica l p lanning will be o f s ign i f i cance in genera l , not mere l y to members o f the planning profess ion, but also to the dec is ion-makers and the publ ic at large. Individual , pr iva te " d r e a m i n g " and escapis t fantasy are part o f the human exper i ence to va ry ing degrees ; the potent ia l exc i t emen t genera ted by a fo rma l profess ional and soc ie ta l c a p a c i t y for cons t ruc t i ve , respec tab le Utopian thought cou ld be o f major pos i t i ve e f f e c t . Impact on the planning profess ion cou ld be enormous and, if success fu l l y deve loped , cou ld g ive planners enhanced status and s ign i f i cance in soc ie ty . By f o r m a l i z i n g an Utopian aspect within the present phys ica l p lanning parad igm, the profess ion sets the stage for the generat ion and sys t ema t i c examina t i on of a new and cont inuously-developing body o f ideas, cho ices , opt ions, a l t e rna t i ves ; choices present ly 101 not being genera ted , or subject to r id i cu le . Bas ic and appl ied resea rch , it has been found, o f ten generates surpr is ing s ide-benef i ts which are not necessar i l y d i r e c t l y r e l a ted to the ma in purpose. It is also a f a c t that by examin ing seeming ly imprac t i c ab l e or even negat ive scenar ios , impor tant re l a ted issues may be ra i sed which might otherwise not be cons idered . Indeed, many o f our advances c o m e out o f bas ic r e sea r ch , wh ich , by de f in i t i on , tends to produce serendip i tous resul ts fo r app l i ca t ions , s ince the research is d i r e c t e d not toward spec i f i c p r a c t i c a l ends, but toward obta in ing i n fo rmat ion and understanding about some impor tan t a rea . Bas ic research turns out to y i e ld many impor tant app l i ca t ions , but o f ten in most unexpec ted ways. . .Serendip i ty o f ten results f r o m app l ied resea rch as we l l : an app l i ca t ion is found in a d i f f e ren t f i e l d than the one in tended. (Kahn, 1967, p. 68) With dec is ion-making becom ing more decen t r a l i z ed , and with representa t i ve d e m o c r a c y g iv ing way to pa r t i c i pa to r y d e m o c r a c y , espec ia l l y at a ne ighborhood leve l , it is probable that by opening up the planning process to inc lude an Utopian e l ement , not only do the publ ic have grea te r access to opt ions and a l te rna t i ve d i rec t ions in p lanning issues, they may pa r t i c ipa te d i r e c t l y in the generat ing o f Utopian scenar ios themse lves ; a f t e r a l l , nowhere does it say that good ideas are the sole doma in o f t r a ined profess iona ls . F ina l l y , the in t roduc t ion o f an Utopian design aspect to p lanning can do nothing but adver t i se and make exp l i c i t the fac t that there is a longer-range fu ture than that t rad i t iona l l y cons ide red . If fu ture generat ions o f soc i e t y , its natura l resources , and the impl i ca t ions o f m u c h short-s ighted behav iour are b e c o m i n g o f g rea te r conce rn , a longer-range p lanning c apac i t y wil l b e c o m e an increas ing ly c r i t i c a l e l emen t in in fo rmed and en l igh tened discuss ion and dec i s ion-mak ing . 6.5 Summary The planning process cou ld benef i t f r om the inc lus ion o f a Utopian e l ement in four 1 0 5 spec i f i c ways: (1) idea genera t ion in genera l ; (2) expanded p ro jec t-spec i f i c cho i ce o f opt ions; (3) an t i c ipa to ry des ign-model ing c apac i t y ; and, most s ign i f i can t l y , (4) a tes ted and v is ib le methodo logy of approach . The first, and most obvious, is that it would unleash a f l ood o f new ideas, and, more impor tant ly , it would encourage and ensure a cont inuous outpour ing o f such ideas. Regre t tab l y it is genera l l y much safer , in today's neo-conservat i ve wor ld , to suppress one's dreams and f l ights o f f ancy rather than appear e c c e n t r i c and a possible career-r isk (Meyerson, 1961). Secondly, the planning process , in its zest fo r pe r ce i v ed ob jec t i ve progress f r o m the genera l to the spec i f i c on any g iven issue or pro jec t can tend to zero in too qu ick ly on one course o f ac t ion . Whi le r e cogn i z i ng the need for exped iency and e f f i c i ency , it is a f a c t that many a l te rnat i ve courses o f ac t i on are o f ten subject to mere l y super f i c i a l cons idera t ion . Thirdly, it is v i ta l to r ea l i z e that many fo rms and e lements o f the Utopian designs of 50 years ago have con t r i bu ted s ign i f i can t l y to the rea l i t y o f today's bui l t env i ronment ; and fur ther , that the Utopian designs of recent years may in f luence the built env i ronment of t omor row . Des ign pr inc ip les and a l te rnat i ves do not ma te r i a l i z e out o f thin a ir to suit the oc cas i on ; design is an evo lu t ionary process which matures and ref ines i tse l f over a pe r i od o f decades . To leave the fu ture bui l t env i ronment in the hands o f the re l a t i ve l y meag re des ign cho ices present ly ava i lab le is s imp ly to short-change soc ie ty . A t a most pedest r ian leve l , the incorpora t ion of a con t ro l l ed Utopian approach to p lanning in a new and d isc ip l ined manner wil l do noth ing but broaden the arsenal o f p lanning techn iques present ly ava i lab le . Finally, the wea l th o f Utopian case studies that is ava i lab le prov ides a vast s torehouse of ideas and methodo logy which i l lustrate c l ea r l y this unique approach . The p rac t i c e of this art exempl i f i e s , i f nothing else, the re la t ionship be tween thought and ac t ion ; between idea l i sm and rea l i t y ; between goal and ach i e vemen t ; and between values and 103 bui l t form. The Utopian approach categorically makes explicit its contextual rationale, its initial premises, its terms o f reference, and its objectives. It shows precisely the product designed to respond to these issues. It is, par excellence, a pure example o f process. 104 C O N C L U S I O N It is the thrust o f this thesis that the Utopian approach to p lanning and des ign has much to o f f e r in t e rms o f a way o f looking at issues and propos ing graph ic and wr i t ten responses to those issues. The planning and design profess ion can ga in from a fo rma l recogn i t ion and incorpora t ion o f this imaginat i ve and c r ea t i v e e l emen t into its pa rad igm of opera t ion . The spec i f i c designs rev i ewed i l lustrate conce rn wi th fundamenta l soc ie ta l aspects which are ident i f i ed , iso lated, and deal t wi th in ways which may have s ign i f i cant impact on future bu i l t - fo rm, as they have in the past . P lann ing has a soc ia l respons ib i l i ty to an t i c ipa te fu ture possib i l i t ies and exp lo re and prov ide a l t e rna t i ve opt ions for cons ide ra t ion by the dec is ion-makers o f soc i e t y . U top i an designs can act in a des ign-model ing c apac i t y in this regard . The bui l t env i ronment , and its subsequent techno logy , is a tool o f soc ie ty and, as such, should respond to its needs ra ther than l im i t ing them. It is only through the co r rec t ba lance o f s c i en t i f i c ra t iona le and ar t i s t i c c r ea t i v i t y , that the bui l t env i ronment can op t ima l l y fu l f i l l this ob jec t i ve . 105 BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES A lexande r , Ch r i s tophe r (1967) " In t roduct ion" , Notes on the Synthesis o f F o r m . Cambr i dge , Mass . : H a r v a r d Un ive rs i t y Press. A l exander , Pe te r and Roger G i l l (eds.) (1984) U top ias . London : G e r a l d Duckwor th & C o . L t d . Ba tche lor , P. (1969) " T h e Or ig in o f the Ga rden C i t y C o n c e p t o f U rban F o r m " . Soc ie t y  o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l H is tor ians Journa l . V o l . 28, No . 3, Oc tobe r , pp . 184 - 200. Be l l , Barry (1986) " O n U t o p i a Today " . The F i f t h C o l u m n . V o l . 5, N o . 3 £ 4. Benevolo , Leona rdo (1982) The Or ig ins o f Modern Town P lann ing. C a m b r i d g e , Mass. : MIT Press. 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Hu-Moore , Shou-Fang (1984) " Fu tu r e Vis ions o f A r c h i t e c t s : U top ias by Frank L l o y d Wright and L e Co rbus i e r " , student paper . A r c h . 459, U.B .C. (unpubl ished) Jacobs, Jane (1961) The Dea th and L i f e o f G rea t A m e r i c a n Cities,. N .Y . : V in tage . Jacobs, Jane (1969) The E c o n o m y o f C i t i e s . N.Y. : V in tage . J e l l i coe , G . A . (1961) M o t o p i a : A Study in the Evo lu t ion o f U rban Landscape . London : S tudio Books. Jencks, Cha r l e s (1973) L e Corbus ie r and the T r a g i c V iew o f A r c h i t e c t u r e f Massachuset ts : Ha r va rd Press. Kahn , He rman & A n t h o n y J . Wiener (1967) The Yea r 2000 - A F r amework for  Specu la t ion on the Next Th i r t y-Three Years . N.Y. : M a c M i l l a n . 107 K ie rnan , Ma t thew (1982) " Ideology and the P recar ious Fu tu re o f the Canad i an P lanning P ro fess ion " P lan C a n a d a 22:1. 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V o l . 126, pp. 957-961. Meye rson , Ma r t i n (1956) "Bu i ld ing the Middle-range Br idge for Comprehens i v e P l ann ing " in A Reader in P lanning Theo ry JA IP . 22:2. Meye rson , M a r t i n (1961) " U t o p i a n Trad i t ions and the P lanning o f C i t i e s " , Daeda lus . Winter , pp. 180-193. Mor r i son , A l a s t a i r (1984) "Uses o f U top ias " Utop ias . A l e x a n d e r , Pe te r and Roger G i l l (eds.), London : G e r a l d Duckwor th £ C o . L t d . , pp. 139 - 151. M u m f o r d , Lew is (1922) The S tory o f Utop ias . N.Y. : Boni and L i v e r i gh t . Myh ra , Dav i d (1974) "R . G . Tugwe l l : Init iator o f A m e r i c a ' s G reenbe l t New Towns, 1935 to 1936", A IP Journa l 40, pp. 176 - 188. Na isb i t t , John (1982) Megat rends . N.Y. : Warner . O 'Ne i l l , G e r a r d K. (1981) 2081: A Hopefu l V iew of the H u m a n Fu tu re . N.Y. : S imon £ Schuster . Per ry , C l a r e n c e (1939) Hous ing for the Mach ine A g e . 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To ron to : New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y o f C a n a d a . 109 Wright , F rank L l o y d (1960) F rank L l o yd Wr ight : Wr i t ings and Bui ld ings. C l e ve l and , Oh io : Me r i d i an . 110 APPENDIX: OVERVIEW. 1900 - Present CITY OF THE FUTURE; F r i t s c h , Theodor ; 1896. P rob lem: Excesses o f the Industrial Revo lu t ion ; whi le c i t i e s and techno logy incubate new l i fe , they also c r ea t e d ispropor t ionate chaos and mise ry ; ra t iona l dec is ion-making should contro l c i t y g rowth ra ther than chance and c o m m e r c i a l oppor tun i sm; c i t ies should serve higher end than e conomi c progress. So lut ion: R ing and radia l road sys tem emanat ing f r o m ex is t ing cen t ra l co re ; u l t ima te spiral f o rm al lows un l im i t ed o rder l y fu ture g rowth ; roads de f ine and separate land uses; no through t r a f f i c in res ident ia l areas; heavy r e l i ance on pedest r ian t r a f f i c ; penet ra t ion o f green space into bui lt-up areas; va ry ing res ident ia l dens i t ies . (Reiner, 1963) GARDEN CITY; Howard , Ebeneze r ; 1898. Rev iewed in C a s e Study 3.2. (Howard, 1898; Re iner , 1963; Ba tche lor , 1969; F i shman , 1977; Ga l l i on , 1975; Ha l l , 1983; Jacobs, 1961) INDUSTRIAL CITY; G a m i e r , Tony ; 1904. P rob lem: C l a ss i c a l geome t r i c a l pr inc ip les o f urban f o r m deve lopment were inappropr iate to the age o f techno logy ; insuf f i c ient a t t en t ion was be ing pa id to the opportuni t ies o f indust r i a l i za t ion , espec ia l l y in areas o f hyg iene and c lean l iness . So lut ion: C o m p l e t e mode l town des ign; separat ion o f land uses by greenbe l t s ; e longated f o r m to a c c o m m o d a t e fu ture g rowth ; gr id-pat tern o f res ident ia l areas wi th c o m m o n cent ra l green-space uni t ing pe r ime te r housing units ; s t ree t h i e ra r chy ; c e n t r a l i z e d major publ ic amen i t i es , d ispersed minor ones. (Wiebenson, 1969) GARDEN SUBURB; Unwin , Raymond and Parker , Bar ry ; 1907. P rob lem: T o decant res ident ia l use f r om indust r ia l ized c i t i e s . So lut ion: Ga rden c i t y decen t r a l i z a t i on pr inc ip le except a lmost exc lus i ve l y res ident ia l in use; extens ive a t ten t ion to landscaping and human sca le (See " G a r d e n C i t y " ) . C o m m e n t : F i r s t notab le success in Hampstead Ga rden Suburb as d o r m i t o r y c o m m u n i t y to neighbor ing c i t y ; s t rong in f luence on success ive res ident ia l de cen t r a l i z a t i on without educa t ion-commun i t y f o c i i . (Creese , 1967) ROADTOWN; Chamb ie s s , Edgar ; 1910. P rob lem: La rge c i t y f r agments man's abi l i ty to ha rmon ize work ing , l i v ing, and p lay ing ; appropr ia te and ava i lab le techno logy is not being taken advantage o f to improve l iv ing condi t ions . So lut ion : Urban-rura l synthes is ; l inear deve lopment connec t i ng ex is t ing urban cent res se r v i ced by underground mass-transi t s ys tem; str ip deve lopment o f housing, interspersed with other uses; low dens i ty ; c lose access to count rys ide ; in tegra t ion o f l ive-work-play. (Reiner , 1963) 111 CONTEMPORARY CITY; L e Corbus i e r ; 1922. Rev iewed in C a s e Study 3.3. (Le Corbus ie r , 1929; 1933; 1947; F i shman , 1977; Re iner , 1963; Hu-Moore , 1984; Jencks , 1973) REGIONAL PLANNING THEORY; A . C o n v e y ; 1923. P rob lem: C i t y p lanning should not l imi t expans ion; growth is the hea l th o f the c i t y . So lut ion: L inear-rad ia l network o f t ranspor ta t ion routes wi th r ibbon deve lopment and core concent ra t ions at in tersect ions ; low-density res ident ia l be tween served by descending h ie ra rchy o f s t reets ; indef in i te expansion capab i l i t y . (Re iner , 1963) THE INFLATION OF THE LARGE CITY; E. G l oeden ; 1923. Prob lem: Present c i t y harbours t rave l i ne f f i c i ency , impe rmanence and instab i l i ty . So lut ion: Spec i a l i z ed , se l f-conta ined l iv ing-working ce l l s o f f i x e d popula t ion and o f pedest r ian sca le are l inked together by mass t ransi t to f o r m c i t y ; greenbe l ts and agr i cu l tu ra l space be tween ce l l s and c i t i es . (Reiner , 1963) RADBURN; C . S te in £ H. Wr ight ; 1928. P rob lem: Deve lopmen t of de cen t r a l i z ed res ident ia l areas wi th sense o f c o m m u n i t y , appropr ia te s ize , use; conce rn wi th pedest r ian-vehicu lar i n t e r f a ce . So lut ion: F o r m u l a r i z e d approach to res ident ia l c o m m u n i t y layout focussed on educa t ion-communa l f a c i l i t i e s and cont inuous in te r lock ing pedest r ian landscaped areas ; separat ion o f pedest r ian and veh icu la r c i r cu l a t i on . C o m m e n t : Success fu l p ro to type execu ted which has in f luenced success ive deve lopments to the present , wi th the p r imary excep t i on o f pedest r ian-veh icu lar separat ion . (Reiner , 1963; S te in , 1966) METROPOLIS OF TOMORROW; H. Fer r i ss ; 1929. P rob lem: C i t y requires order for comprehens ion , ease o f c i r cu l a t i on , aes the t i c apprec ia t ion , and the ra t iona l channe l ing o f g rowth . So lut ion: C o n c e n t r a t e d high-rise cent ra l co re o f zoned business, s c i ence , and art a c t i v i t y rad ia t ing outward a long t ranspor ta t ion routes wi th r ibbon deve lopment a long and res ident ia l deve lopment be tween . (Reiner, 1963) NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT; C . Per ry ; 1929. P rob l em: G row ing veh icu la r congest ion , s lum dwel l ings, and breakdown o f the soc ia l o rder . So lut ion: Res ident ia l commun i t i e s focussed about educa t ion and shopping f ac i l i t i e s with internal pedest r ian c i r cu l a t i on and pe r ime te r veh i cu l a r t r a f f i c ; pe rcen tage o f tota l land ded i ca t ed to c o m m u n i t y use. C o m m e n t : Semina l but ove rs imp l i s t i c formula- l ike approach which , easy to comprehend and apply, has f o r m e d m u c h o f the basis for suburban res ident ia l c o m m u n i t y p lanning to da te . (Perry, 1929; Re iner , 1963) 112 BROADACRE CITY; F. L. Wr ight ; 1932. Rev iewed in C a s e Study 3.4. (Wright, 1958; 1960; F i shman , 1977; Hu-Moore , 1984; Re iner , 1963) RUSH CITY REFORMED; R. Neu t r a ; 1934. P rob lem: C i t i e s are too heterogeneous and do not enhance sense o f c o m m u n i t y . So lut ion: G r i d sys tem o f superhighways links large homogeneous ne ighborhood units, re ly ing heav i l y on pr i va te au tomob i l e c i r cu l a t i on . (Re iner , 1963) RESIDENTIAL SECTOR; T . A d a m s ; 1934. P rob lem: Ex i s t ing c i t i es are too heterogeneous in land use, and not ra t iona l l y p lanned for ideal res ident ia l env i ronments . So lut ion: C o m p a c t urban co re wi th r ad ia l -c i r cumfe ren t i a l c i r cu l a t i on in f i l l ed with low-density s ing le- fami ly housing; res ident ia l areas pa t t e rned a f t e r "Ne ighborhood U n i t " theory . C o m m e n t : A s one o f the f i rs t proponents o f c i ty-p lann ing in C a n a d a , Adams ' modera t ing in f luence has been o f cons iderab le impac t in in i t ia t ing zoning and decen t r a l i z a t i on p rac t i c e s throughout the count ry . (Re iner , 1963) GREENBELT TOWNS; R. G . Tugwe l l ; 1935. P rob lem: Post-depress ion Nor th A m e r i c a needs to address mass rura l-urban mig ra t ion , unemployment , and ensuing pover t y . So lut ion: Ser ies of d o r m i t o r y res ident ia l commun i t i e s l inked with and l oca ted adjacent to ex is t ing urban cent res , which would prov ide not only housing but mass emp loymen t dur ing cons t ruc t ion ; f o r m based large ly on Ne ighborhood Un i t p r inc ip les . C o m m e n t : Whi le only par t i a l l y successfu l in imp lement ing his post-Depress ion cons t ruc t ion p rogram for thousands o f Greenbe l t Towns across the U.S.A. , Tugwel l ' s in f luence , through his minor rea l iza t ions , has been o f major in f luence throughout Nor th A m e r i c a . In con junct ion with Howard's Ga rden C i t y pr inc ip les , Tugwel l ' s approach is r e f l e c t e d in such ach ievements as Don M i l l s , On ta r i o , the post-War Canad i an housing p r o g r a m , and the Regional Town C e n t r e p lan for the G r e a t e r Vancouve r Regiona l D i s t r i c t . (Myhra , 1974) A PROGRAM FOR CITY RECONSTRUCTION; Wa l te r Grop ius & Ma r t i n Wagern ; 1943. P rob l em: Post W.W.I European e conomi c co l lapse , unemp loymen t , urban popula t ion growth , and t r a f f i c conges t ion . So lut ion: Urban-rura l synthesis ach ieved by pedest r ian-sca led l iv ing-working commun i t i e s o f l im i t ed s ize in te rconnec ted by t ranspor ta t ion networks . (Re iner , 1963) 113 THEORY OF CITY PLANNING; H. Her rey , C . Po r t zo f f , E. M . He r rey ; 1944. P rob lem: Post VV.W.II fu ture urban growth and recons t ruc t i on , and t r a f f i c conges t ion ; lack o f c o m m u n i t y sense. So lut ion : Ser ies o f pedes t r i an neighborhoods wi th p e r i m e t e r veh i cu la r t r a f f i c and cent ra l concent ra t ions o f green space and c o m m u n i t y f a c i l i t i e s . (Re iner , 1963) HUMAN SCALE IN CITY PLANNING; J . L. Ser t ; 1944. P rob lem: Post VV.W.II Europe , unorgan ized c i t i es , lack o f adequate soc ia l s t ruc tu re . So lut ion: Segrega ted land-use, high-density apar tment concen t ra t i ons wi th in open space are l inked in h i e ra r ch i ca l fash ion to l inear co re deve lopmen t . (Re iner , 1963) LINEAR CITY; L e Co rbus i e r ; 1945. P rob lem: Post W.W.II Europe recons t ruc t ion , d i so rgan ized t ranspor ta t ion , suburban sprawl . So lut ion : L i v ing-work ing spec i a l i z ed ac t i v i t y pedes t r i an ized towns o rgan ized about l inear manu fac tu r ing f a c i l i t i e s ; urban cores oc cu r at network in te rsec t ions . (Le Corbus ie r , 1929; 1933-1947; Re iner , 1963; F i shman , 1977; Hu-Moore , 1984; Jencks , 1973) THE REILLY PLAN; L. Wo l fe ; 1945. P rob l em: Post W.W.II Eng land recons t ruc t ion , weak standards o f p lanning and housing author i t ies . So lut ion : Ve ry sma l l res ident ia l neighborhoods set in open space wi th c o m m u n i t y f ac i l i t i es about a cent ra l g reen . (Reiner , 1963) NEW CITIES FOR OLD; L. Jus tement ; 1946. P rob lem: A d hoc deve lopment resul ts in wasted natura l resources , and t ranspor ta t ion ine f f i c i enc i es . So lut ion: Urban co re rad ia l l y connec ted to ser ies o f r ing-road deve lopment in f i l l ed with h ie ra rch i ca l res ident ia l dens i t ies . (Reiner , 1963) NEW CITY PATTERNS; S. Sanders & A . Rabuck ; 1946. P rob l em: Post Depress ion , W.W.II growth and recons t ruc t i on o f No r th A m e r i c a n high-density s lums. So lut ion: Radia l-r ing road p lan f r o m urban co re , composed o f de f i ned , var ied-densi ty res ident ia l sectors separa ted by green space . (Sanders, 1946; Re iner , 1963) COMMUNITAS; Paul G o o d m a n & Perc i va l G o o d m a n ; 1947. P rob lem: L a ck o f p lanning imag inat ion in Post W.W.II No r th A m e r i c a . So lut ion: Th ree r ad i ca l l y d i f f e ren t s chema t i c proposals are deve loped as model ing approach to r econc i l i ng va lues wi th plans. 114 C o m m e n t : A potent ia l b reakthrough in planning whereby Utopian design is harnessed within the overa l l c i ty-p lanning process as a mode l ing too l , the Goodmans ' pub l i ca t ion r ece i ved enormous recogn i t ion in its t ime , but seems to have been a lmost to ta l l y ignored ever s ince . Pe r iod i ca l l y , the i r approach is c o m m e n t e d upon, but to da te no fo rma l work has been done to pursue their proposed add i t ion to p lanning methodo logy . (Goodman, 1947; Re iner , 1963; Meye rson , 1961; Re i sman , 1947) MAN AND TOWN; A. K l e i n ; 1947. P rob l em: He te rogene i t y o f land use coup led wi th t r a f f i c impos i t ion on c o m m u n i t y l i fe . So lut ion: H i e r a r ch i ca l zones o f land use in g r id f o r m a t ; m in ima l intrus ion o f au tomob i l e into res ident ia l ne ighborhoods; f i xed u l t ima te s ize to each town l im i t ed by c i r cumfe r en t i a l industr ia l deve lopment . (Reiner, 1963) METRO-LINEAR; R. M a l c o l m s o n , 1956. P rob lem: Post Wor ld War II expansion requ i rements coup l ed wi th increas ing use of p r i va te au tomob i l e . So lut ion : G e o m e t r i c approach d i c t a t ed by dominant t ranspor ta t ion network ; large ly agr i cu l tura l focus fo r s ing le-fami ly housing. (Perry, 1964) SPATIAL TOWN; Y . F r i e d m a n ; 1957. P rob lem: Post Wor ld War II expansion requ i rements ; lack o f res ident input into evo lv ing c i t y f o r m . So lut ion: Ske leta l s t ruc tu ra l /se rv i ce f ramework with oppor tun i t y fo r habi tants to design and inf i l l indiv idual dwel l ing units, as wel l as hav ing a vo i ce in fu tu re d i r ec t i on o f c i t y growth and change . (Perry, 1964) DYNAPOLIS; C . Dox iad i s ; 1960. P rob lem: C o n c e r n over e f f e c t o f decen t ra l i za t i on and suburban iza t ion on cent ra l c i t y decay ; present p lanning does not exp l i c i t l y r ecogn ize or ra t iona l l y address core expansion and change . So lut ion: Open-ended c i t y p lanning a l lowing for l inear fu tu re deve lopment o f c i t y cent res to a point where u l t ima te merg ing can f o r m a more d ynam i c con t inuum than present ly ach ievab le . (Doxiadis , 1960; 1966; 1967; 1976) ARCOLOGY; P. So le r i ; 1960. Rev iewed in C a s e Study 4.4. (Soler i , 1969; 1971) TOKYO BAY CITY; K. Tange ; 1960. P rob lem: D i s c r epancy o f sens i t iv i ty between man and techno logy , and d i s c repancy o f l i fe-spans o f phys ica l components o f c i t y . So lut ion: L inea r megas t ruc tu ra l approach over water or r e c l a i m e d land for s t ruc ture , f i xed serv ices , and mass t ranspor ta t ion ; ind iv idua l ized , changeab le housing units and other funct ions wi th in megas t ruc tu re . (Perry, 1964) 115 URBATECTURE; J . L u b i c z - N y c z ; 1960. P rob lem: Cont inuous desec ra t ion o f natural env i ronment s ince Industrial Revo lu t ion by expansion, po l lu t ion , and genera l lack of p lanning. So lut ion: O rgan i c o rgan iza t ion o f c i t y a long natura l l ines o f f o r m , order , in tegra t ion , l i fe-cyc les . (Perry, 1964) CROUP FORM; F. M a k i ; 1960. P rob lem: Compos i t i ona l or Megas t ruc tu ra l approaches to c i t y f o r m are l im i t i ng , imprac t i c a l , and do not r e conc i l e technology wi th human va lues . So lut ion: G roup ing o f l ike func t ion/ forms about b road themes such as "ga the r ing " , " v i s t a " , or " m i l l i n g " to ensure compa t ib i l i t y o f use, sca le , and cha rac t e r . (Perry, 1964) MARINE CITY; K. K i ku t ake ; 1960. P rob lem: S ince the Industrial Revo lu t ion , man has advanced to the point o f independence f r o m the land. So lut ion: Independent mega- fo rm l iv ing s t ruc tures which conta in integral manufac tu r ing and p re f ab r i c a t i on plants to cont inua l l y bu i ld and reassemble c i t y as requ i red . (Perry, 1964) WALL CITY/HELIX CITY; N. Ku rokawa ; 1960. P rob lem: C i t i e s do not have su f f i c i en t p lanning f l ex ib i l i t y to adapt to changes in l i fe-sty le and access ib i l i t y . So lut ion: Megas t ruc tu ra l s ys tem for serv ices , t ranspor ta t ion , and o ther f i xed long-l i fe e lements , within which changeab le l iv ing-working units are a c c o m m o d a t e d . (Perry, 1964) MOTOPIA; G . J e l l i coe ; 1961. P rob l em: Misuse o f land through suburban sprawl and domina t i on o f veh icu la r t r a f f i c requ i rements . So lut ion: R ig id gr id o f mul t i-s torey mult i-purpose l i v ing/work ing bui ldings whose roof fo rms road and t r a f f i c - c i r c l e network; large t rac ts o f open landscaped space between network is devo ted to ac t i ve and passive rec rea t iona l /cu l tu ra l use. ( Je l l icoe, 1961) SPATIAL CITY; E. S c h u l z e - F i e l i t z ; 1961. P rob lem: C i t y p lanning is ne i ther des irable nor possible due to inab i l i ty to an t i c ipa te a fu ture cond i t ion . So lut ion: C o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f d iverse and f l ex ib le spat ia l s t ruc tures which can adapt themselves gradua l ly to fu ture needs, inc luding growth and c o n t r a c t i o n . (Perry, 1964) 116 STEM APPROACH; S. Woods S C . Cand i l i s ; 1961. P rob l em: The ex is t ing c i t y is unable to adapt appropr i a te l y to changing fo rms and intensit ies o f human need . So lut ion: Open-ended non-dimensional h i e ra rch i ca l s ys tem o f deve lopment which a c com moda t e s a va r i e t y o f sca les o f f o r m , s ize , and t ime-span. (Perry , 1964) PLUG-IN CITY; A r c h i g r a m ; 1964. Rev i ewed in C a s e Study 3.3.2. (Cook, 1972) INTRAHAUS; W. Jonas; 1965. P rob lem: Ex i s t ing c i t i es are incapable o f r econc i l i ng e f f i c i en t use o f land, a sense o f commun i t y , and a need for l ight, a ir , and green space . So lut ion: S ize l im i ta t ions fo r c en t r a l i z ed neighborhoods comp le t e wi th h igh ly-ar t i cu la ted boundar ies ; spec i f i ed combinat ions o f ne ighborhoods f o r m c i t i es . (Perry, 1964) HABITAT; M . Sa fd ie ; 1967. P rob l em: Low-dens i ty suburban deve lopment o f c i t i es is wastefu l and soc ia l l y inappropr ia te . So lut ion: H igh densi ty urban concen t ra t ion in low-rise con f i gu ra t i on which reconc i l es suburban pr i vacy , open space , and ident i ty wi th he ightened e f f i c i e n c y , conven iences , and soc ia l con tac t s . C o m m e n t s : Huge ly a c c r e d i t e d in i t ia l ly as a demons t ra t i on pro jec t fo r Expo 67 in Mont rea l , the bui ld ing has r e ce i v ed nothing but c r i t i c i s m s ince due to cons t ruc t ion costs which were out rageous ly high for convent iona l housing, a l though to ta l l y just i f iab le as a p ro to typ i ca l / resea rch pro jec t . It is conce i vab le that in the fu tu re , this approach to higher dens i ty but low height housing may prove growing ly more a ccep tab l e to the marke tp l a ce , pa r t i cu l a r l y in urban core/ inf i l l s i tuat ions . (Spring, 1967) SWING CITY; R. K e m b l e ; 1968. P rob l em: Present c i t i es are soc ia l fa i lures whereby e l i t i s t power groups comb ine with and fuel mass conse rva t i ve bana l i ty in urban deve lopment . So lut ion: A utop ian-model approach to s t imu la te d iscuss ion, this proposal suggests an organ ic , ever-changing dynamic o f a lmost anarch i c propor t ions wi th in a hypothet i ca l s t ruc tura l/serv i ce f r amework ; an approach which r ecogn izes old-new co-ex is tence and considers decay and d i smant l ing as posi t ive fo r ces . CIVILIA; I. de Wof l e ; 1971. Prob lem: Re jec t ion o f wastefu l suburban sprawl as well as condemna t i on o f a r t i f i c i a l i t y and coldness o f Br i t i sh New Towns . So lut ion: Re-concen t ra t ion o f new deve lopment into c i t i es wi th a m in imum concen t r a t ed popu la t ion requ i rement o f k m i l l i on , where high dens i t ies o f l ike use wil l ensure m a x i m u m oppor tun i ty for good c i t y l i f e , (de Wof le , 1971) 117 OVERSTREET; H. M e y e r o v i t c h ; 1973. P rob lem: Inherent waste of land through adjacent/para l le l deve lopment o f s t reets and bui ld ings. So lut ion: Essent ia l l y a s imp l i f i ed low-scale megas t ruc tu ra l proposal for bu i ld ing over s t reet r ights-of-way, both as new cons t ruc t ion and as in f i l l ing exist ing deve loped urban and suburban. (Meye rov i t ch , 1973) COMPACT CITY; G . D a n t z i g & T . Saaty ; 1973. P rob lem: Ex i s t ing c i t i es p romu lga te po l lu t ion and ine f f i c i en t use o f land resources . So lut ion: Enc losed , c l ima te-con t ro l l ed c i t y which incorpora tes mass transi t , e l e c t r i c automobi les , b i c y c l e and pedest r ian c i r cu l a t i on and tota l r e-cyc l i ng . (Dantz ig , 1973) ENTOPIA; C . Dox iad i s ; 1974. Rev iewed in C a s e Study 4.3. (Doxiadis , 1960; 1966; 1967; 1976) A PLACE UTOPIA; K. L y n c h ; 1981. P rob lem: Utop ias do not take into account both spat ia l and soc ie ta l issues together ; they invar iable address one or the other . So lut ion: Se t t l ements are var ied-purpose lower-scale r e c y c l e d urban cent res convent iona l l y i n t e r connec ted throughout, wi th d e c e n t r a l i z e d commun i t a r i an deve lopment a long and be tween networks . C o m m e n t : It is in terest ing to note that L y n c h , whose publ ished works more o f ten than not a t t e m p t e d to deal quant i f i ab ly with urban qua l i t y , sought, in his last book, to int roduce the not ion o f Utopian design a lmost pure ly as a methodo log i ca l tool fo r advanc ing the qua l i t a t i ve aspects o f urban p lanning. ( Lynch , 1981) 118 

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